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Full text of "Every-day soldier life, or A history of the One hundred and thirteenth Ohio volunteer infantry"

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From the Library 

ot 

Jodcrl) Sulllvaal 

Presented by his daughters 
Elizabeth and Jane 



1^iU.i^ ^.r^i' 1h5 



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Lv)ie /Staurlin -f ySalUvciY|t- 
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Ma^jor 113- T^egl. O.Y.I. 
Enlisted a^tLiKjCDh^'s f\rsi caII 

ur\til*tHe erid. of "tl^e waLT. 

He took p'a.rt fv^ tt|e battles of 

Orclia-TcL, Mission 711 cLe-e^A-tl^ri-teu, 

ant^ otl^ers^ serving" ^L^T^i>ig '^^^ 
Atle^v^tsL ca-vvipMgY]. with t^e 
FouTteev|tf\ Arnq:y Covps* 




^ 7?^. c^'fe^^-^'^s 



EvERY-DAY Soldier Liee, 



OK 



A HISTORY 



One Hundred and Thirteenth Ohio 
Volunteer Infantry. 



F. M. McAdams, RicHwooD, Ohio, 
\ 

SEKGEANT OF CO. E. . 




COI.UMIUS. O.; 

CHAS. M. CllIT k CU., HOOK IKINTEKS 



(884. 

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TIL1>;,.; Fv. ND.Vi'iwNS 
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Ai ilic Eiglitli Annual Rt-uiiion of the iljlh O. \. 1. huld at (Joliiinlju>, 0., 
August ilth, l88l, tlie plan of a legiuiental hisluiy was discussed. It \\;i^ 
determined to have a history written and published, and ilie autlior was assigned 
to that duty. The labor lias been one of no small magnitude, and I now present 
it to my comrades and the public with the hope that when its defects and merits 
are duly estimated, there will be a balance in my favor. 



IHANKS. 

The data from which this work is compiled C(jnsists niaiui)- of the author's 
record of every-day affairs taken on the spot. l>ut tcj my messmate, Isaac (iKEKN, 
Company E; P. II. Whitehkad, Company 15; I.ovai, H Ci.ousk, Company F. 
and Captain (jeor(;e McCrka, for notes and records of value, I desire to make 
public acknowledgment. 

John P. Slemmons, Clerk in the otilice of the Adjutant General of Ohio, 
deserves our thanks for many courtesies extended to Miss Ma.mie A. Whiik. « im 
so ably performed her duties in co|n'ing the original Muster-Out Rolls and other 
papers. 

RicHwooD, Ohio, 1884. 



K. M. .\k ADAMS. 



PREFACE. 



'I'hcre are yet lising hvindrcds of brave men who served in the 
(_)ne Hundred and I'hirteenlh Ohio Volunteer Infantry, who share 
with the writer a desire to have their names and deeds preserved in 
history. This humble effort has Ijeen undertaken more as a labor of 
love than of jjecuniary prolit. and if these pages shall rescue from 
the oblivion that usualb attends the rank and file of armies, their 
names and their heroism, and be the means of per})etuating to future 
generations that proud place in lh<.- annals of the army to which m\- 
comrades are entitled, I shall feel am|)l\- rewarded for my labor;.. 

This is not a history uf ihe war; not a re\iew' of camitaigns and 
siege.-^, but a record of duties, deetls and trials of the man who bore 
the musket and made victory for the country and fame for his com- 
mander. And, if it is found to be a work in which the commoii 
.-,(jldier is the hero, the ai^ology offered is merely an explanation that 
the material on hand was of that kind which dealt princii)all) with 
the enlisted men. 

I have found it a source of c(Mistantly increasing regret, that in the 
beginning of mv career as a soldier, 1 did not foresee the demand for 
these pages, and that 1 would be chosen to com|)ile the same for 
l)ublication. In that case 1 might ha\e made greater and more 
diligent efforts to collect and preserve facts and make a record of 
incidents which are now forever lost. It need not seem strange to 
m\ comrade readers, if in this reccud of three long years of service in 
camp and field, there should oi cur many omissions of imi)ortant and 
interesting events. It would have retiuired more than human skill 
to have kept a faithful, faidtless account of all incidents, accidents 
and adventures occurring in all [Kirts of a i:oi\imand in which more 



4 J'ti/itic. 

than a thousand men were llie actors. .M\ aun lias been to present 
such general incidents of every -day sijJdier life as have escaped the 
pen of the more competent hi>torian, and such as will |)rove of most 
interest to men uilli whom 1 shared the life of a common soldier, 
leaving to others the weightier matters of the great < ivil war. 

From (.!amp C'hase, 1862, to I'od Itarracks, 1S65, l»v way of liie 
mountains, the rivers and the sea, there lies a multitude of daring 
tieeds by tlaring men worthy of a i)la( e in history. 

It is hoped that this record will be a source of gratification to man\ 
a ])arent, sister, brother or child of those of our number who went 
forth with us but wlio returned not to tell the story of their services ; 
while to those of us who >hared in it and >till live, it will ser\ e 
to keep in memory the duties, names and services of ourselves and 
our comrades till we shall be commanded to "fall in " to cross the 
great pontoon which spans the dark river, separating us from the 
land of rest and eternal peace ; and at the la>l grand roll call nui\ 
we all answer — "here." !• . M. M. 



EVERY-DAY SOLDIER LIFE, 



OK 



A HIS'I'ORV OF THE ONE HUNDRED AND ITiH^TEENTH 
OHIO VOLUNTEER INFANTRY. 



A U ( X U S T , 1862. 

/J. Enlisted at Urbana, Ohio, for three years, or during the war. 
Joseph Swisher and Harrison Walburn enlisted at the same time. 
We returned to our homes, and began to i)ut our affairs in condition 
to be off for Camp Chase in a few days. 

28. Boarded a train at Urbana, bound for Columbus. On the 
train 1 met for the first time those who are to share with me the 
uncertain life that lies before us. They are from the farms and work- 
shops of the western part of Champaign county. A few are men of 
mature age, many are youthful, and all seem in good spirits and 
anxious for adventure. 1 can see on the cheeks of more than one of 
them the effects of their first battle, that of tearing themselves from 
home and its endearments to choose the life of a soldier. 

In two hours our train lands us at Columbus. Disembarking, we 
made a half successful effort to form in two ranks. It was not done 
gracefully. Some of the men, recognizing no authority in those who 
were attempting to form us into column, took up a line of march of 
their own ; the more tractable ones under conmiand of John !•'. Riker, 
then moved up High street to the Capitol grounds, where we rested 
for a time. At 5 P. M. we started for Camp Chase, a distance of 
four miles, which place we reached without incident. 

Several companies of recruits intended for the regiment are already 
here ; on inquiry I learn that they came from Madison, Licking and 
Franklin counties. 

Our arrival at dark made it difficult to procure comfortable quarters. 
Without tents, and with only a blanket and heaven's cano^jy for 



Kvny-ihxy SoUici Lijc : [t'ami) C hnsc 



a covering, and a split stick of wood for a pillow, I spent one \vear\ 
hour after another in an unsuccessful effort to sleep. Would have 
had l)etter success had it not heen (or a nuniber of our men \vh(j 
devoted the greater part of the night to noisy revelry. 

Krom " Reminiscences of the Camp and Field,'" written bs me 
several years later, I (juote: 

" Night was spreading her dark mantle over earth when we reached 
camp, weary, hungry, dusty, thirsty, footsore and not a little out of 
tune besides. The experiences of the first day and night in the 
service I recall with peculiar feelings. We had changed the life of a 
civilian for that of a soldier ; had given up the domestic endearments 
of hon)e life, and had already marked a day in a new era. * * * 
.\ j)roper regard for the truth compels me to say that this was not 
a shady, secluded grove, with fountains of living waters and falling 
cataracts ; on the contrary, it is a farm of several hundred acres, flat, 
unshaded and nearly destitute of grass. Here and there are numer- 
ous buildings in which are the several offices of the camp, besides 
others which are used as store houses for clothinn, conimissary sup- 
plies, ordnance, &c." 

2g. Morning came, and we spend the da\ looking about, strolling 
over the camp, killing time and making accpiaintances in our own 
and other companies. When night came, we gathered into little 
groups and discussed the various events of the day. With new 
blankets and better accommodations we sjjent the night comfortably. 

The Ohio State Journal speaks of the arrival of our company as 
follows : 

"Captain Riker, of Champaign county, arrived here last evening 
with ninety men. This is the oldest looking company we have seen. 
We noticed several gray-haired men. This is all right, and there is 
more of deliberate valor and bravery to be expected from men of 
riper years. The company joins the i 131). regiment." 

JO. We made the actjuaintance of Dr. J. R. Black, who, I learn, is 
to be our surgeon. He is from Newark. We were critically exam- 
ined by him, and all accepted but one lad, Joseph I.ondenback, who 
takes it philosophically, and starts for home. 

This evening, when all was hushed in the stillness that succeeds 
"taps," the voice of song accompanied b\ a guitar, broke the silence. 
The matchless sweetness of the singer's voice, the deftness with 
which he touched his instrument, together with the strange surround- 
inus, made tlie effect irresistible, as he sang — 



August. '62.] History of the iijth O. V. I. 



" Don't stop a moment to think, John, 
Our country calls, then go ; 
Don't fear for me nor the children, John, 
I'll care for them, you know. 
Leave the corn upon the stalk, John, 
The fruit upon the tree. 
And all our little cares, John, 
Ves, leave them all to me. 

Chori s — "Then take your gun and go, 
Ves, take your gun and go, 
For Ruth can drive the oxen, John, 
Ami I can use the hoe. 

" r\e iieaid my grandsire tell, John, 
He fought at Bunker Hill, 
He counted all his life and wealth 
His country's off' ring still; 
Wo.uld I shame that lirave old hlood, |ohn, 
That (lowed on Monmouth Plain ? 
Xo ; take your gun and go, John, 
Though 1 ne'er see you again. 

"The army's short of blankets, John. 
Then take this heavy pair — 
1 spun and wove them when a girl 
And worked them with much care ; 
.\ rose in every corner, John, 
And here's my name, you see ; 
On the cold ground they'll warmer feel. 
Because they're made by me. 

" And now, good-bye to you, John, 
I can not ^ay fare'ivell : 
We'll hope and pray for tlie best, John, 
His goodness none can tell — 
May lii> arm he lounil abmit you, John, 
To guard \nu night and dav. 
lie our beloved country's sJiielH 
rill war shall jjass a\\a\-.'' 

One of our men, named Baldwin, sickened of his bargain and 
chopped off his fingers. This was an act of shameful cowardice, 
and if he lives to liave grandchildren, they will share in his shame 
for this act. 

The affair was made a source of amusement, for J. L. Edmiston, 
the wag of the company, mounted a stump and delivered a sermon 
from the text, Matt, v, 30, "And if thy right hand offend thee, cut it 
off, and cast it from thee." 



ETfi\-tia\ Soltiiii Jj/r : iCaiiiii (li.isi- 



si;i'ri:Mi;KK. isf.j 

/-T. \\\' lia\c been l^jkiiii; lessons in si|na(l cliillin_Li. |)iilling our 
iinarleis in liettcr condition, and in other ways oc<:iij)\ in;;, tlie weary 
hours. 

6. One of our lent^ < auglit fire hist nij^ht and liurned uj). The 
man with soda water and ginger bread had a brisk trade witli us 
across the guard line. 'I'hink he came out loser. Soldiers are full 
of tricks. 

■V. Have been taking a lesson in doing guard duty — two hours on 
and four off. 'IMiere is some novelt\ in it, which 1 sui)pose will wear 
off. Loss of sleep goes hard with me. Pacing back and forth on a 
beat lor two liours is a monotonous duty, and gives opportunitN for 
retlection. 

g. Nearly one-third of the men are absent on short furlough. 
Others are absent without leave; but they return after a time, and all 
goes well, (ireen and I go beyond the lines and spend part of the 
(lav in the shady wood. In the evening we have our first battalion 
drill. It was not mut.h of a success, but we can do better ne.xt time. 

A i^iw of our men have seen service in the three month's regiments, 
and have had valuable experience. 

//. Harry Walburn and I missed roll call this morning, and were 
threatened with punishment. The 95th is camped to the west of us. 
They have been to the front, received their initiatior.. and are now 
full of experience. .\ heavy rain fell, accompanied by wind, pros- 
trating man)- of our tents. .\ newsman came into camp to-day and 
sold some papers dated several days ago. I lis next visit will be one 
of interest. He will do his family a service b\ taking a policy on 
his life. 

12. A scjuad of good-looking prisoners are brought in and placed 
in the i)rison east of our camp, giving us our first sight of rebels. 

14. This is the Sabbath. Sergeant McC'rea took a number of us 
to the Scioto river, and as cleanliness is akin to godliness, we did the 
next best thing to worshiping by washing. Captain H. Z. Adams 
jtreached in camp this evening. I make the accjuaintance of Avery 
and Rose, of (\)m]xxny 1 ). The Licking county men are men of 
intelligence. Drill exercises occupy most of our time. We expect 
our clothing soon. Many of the boys are writing to their friends. 

rj. \\'e are having a drill before breakfast, and are looking for one 
at midnight, soon. When we get better acquainted with our duties 
we shall probably perform thein more cheert"ull\ . 



October, '62.] History of the iijth O. F. I. 



18. ( )ur clothing was issued to us to-day: (Jiie pair pants, one 
l)aii' l)OOtees, two pair drawers, two pair socks, one ])louse, two shirts. 
Clothing and feediiig a great arniv must be a heavv expense to our 
government. 

2f. This is the Sabbath, tlos s of ("ompany 1 ), accompanied by 
some ladies of Licking county, make vis a call, and spend an hour 
pleasantly. A lady in camp is like a shade in the desert. If we had 
more shade of this kind it would seem more pleasant. 

22. The washerwornan presents her bill of five cents. 'I'hese ex- 
travagances must be stopped — I must do m\ own housework. 

2J. Drew one hundred and twenty-two pounds of bread this 
morning for our company. Overcoats were issued to us. With these 
cool iiights an overcoat will not be a bad thing to sleep with. 

2j. Captain David Taylor's company receive a number of visitors 
to-day. A good dinner, a flag presentation, speeches and music, and 
some lady visitors, all in that company, make us a little envious. 

When will our good time come? Dress parade in the evening; 
these w^w clothes do look well. 

28. Sunday has come again. A fevs- of us take to the woods. 
Some write to friends. Others manage to go to the city, and on their 
return are nois\- and (]uarrelsome. 

2g. We received to-day our arms — the Enfield rifle. They are 
rusty and \\\ bad order. Would like to trade mine for a milk cow or 
a hand organ. Swisher returned from home, bringing some delicacies 
for our palates. Nothing tastes better than the good things which 
mother sends us. 

Cartridge boxes and waist belts were issued to us to-day. We 
begin to look like soldiers. 1 can shoulder arms as well as a full 
grown man. 



OCTOBER, 1862. 

/. We have grown weary of the monotonous duties of camp and 
are anxious for adventure. We would be better pleased if we were 
in Dixie. 

J. I have been ill for a day or two. The nights are cool. Many 
visitors come into camp, bringing some delicacy for friends. These 
are always shared by all in the mess until they are gone. .A friend 
with feed is a friend indeed, according to a new version. 

7. This has been a day for clearing up and putting things to riglUs. 
Brooms, shovels and other implements are in demand. 



Eviiy-ihiy Si>/i/iri -/.i/r : ](';iinit /ancsvillc 



/j. I'he (lull duties of ciimi* continue from d;iy to flay, but we are 
becoming more soldierly every day. ()ur desire to leave (amp (base 
grows stronger every tla\. Men who have gone home on a sell- 
made furlough ha\e retur.ied and are faring sumiJluously in the 
guard house. I'he following is our regimental organization : 

Colonel, Jame> A. Wilcox; Lieutenant Colonel, John (1. Miuhcll; 
Major, Darius l>. Warner; Adj;itant, (has. ('. (!ox. 

Jj. ()ur sta\ at Camp Chase ends to-fiay, and we are marching to 
Columbus. \\ 4 I*. M. we board a train of cars and are soon run- 
ning toward /anes\ille. where we arrive late in the night. We 
remain in the cars till morning, and at daylight march to our neu 
camp some distance from the city. It had been snowing through the 
night, and snow lay on the ground the depth of three inches. \N'e 
had prepared a day's rations before striking tents yesterday morning, 
but that was gone hours before we left the train. .\rriving in camp 
without breakfast is a serious joke. Some swine, which had strayed 
into camp, fell victims to the hungry appetites of the boys. Don't 
know who is to pay for the hogs, but the butchers went to the guard 
house with heroic stoicism. 

Camp Zanesville is on Licking Creek and we are camped two hun- 
dred yards from the bank. The situation is a pleasant one; the 
scenery is delightful; the grand old hills lift their summits skyward 
and the silvery Licking winds through the valley like a thread of 
silver. Think I will like it here; hope the pie-women will sell better 
pies than those we have been eating at our former camp. 

A much better feeling exists among the enlisted men than formerly; 
the transition from citizen to soldier progresses satisfactorily, and the 
men who chafed and rebelled at the rigorous duties and careful dis- 
cipline of a month ago, submit to the same now with a cheerfulness 
which augurs future good. Colonel \\'ilco.\ has been untiring in his 
efforts to fit us for service, and in some cases his motives have been 
misunderstood and much ill feeling, bordering on insubordination, 
has, at time^, shown itself. Now that it is apparent that the com- 
manding officer has been doing all that could be done to prepare us 
to enter the field, clothed, equipped, and properly disciplined, those 
who busied themselves in keeping alive a feeling oi disobedience, 
have grown less and less sour, and cheerful obedience on the part of 
the greater numbers gives much encouragement. (^ur quarters here 
are wooden buildings, large, comfortable and well ventilated. The 
water is plentiful and of good quality. 



November, '62. | Hi story of t/ir iijth O. t'. /. 



NOVEMBER, 1862. 

/. We are much pleased with our new camp, and ha\e madu 
many agreeable accjuaintances in city and country. Nearly every 
day small squads of men are passed out for a trip into the country, 
and on their return they give favorable accounts of the manner in 
which they have been treated by the citizens. 'I'o-day I made a trip 
of a few miles out among the hills, accompanied by Captain Bower- 
sock. \Vc found plenty of chestnuts, and at the house of a Mr. 
Burlingame we had a good dinner. We shall not soon forget the 
kindness of the people in the vicinity of camp. 

J. A party who went to the city last night on a trip for pleasure 
failed to respond to the roll-call this morning, and it is believed they 
fell into the hands of the patrol force and are now in the city jail. 
A strong guard is stationed in the city day and night, with orders to 
arrest and imprison all enlisted men found on the street after nine 
o'clock in the evening. The order is vigorously enforced. 

4. Five men were placed in the dungeon to-day for refusing to 
muster; they say they will rot there before they will muster. 

5. The men who went to prison to rot yesterday were mustered 
to-day and say they feel better. The guard house is an uncomforta- 
ble place to sta) . 

6. 1 spent to-day as provost guard in the city, making our head- 
quarters at the city jail. At night after my first two hours' duty 1 
retired to one of the cells in the jail and lay down to rest. Some 
one, coming into the jail soon after, shut the cell door and made me 
a prisoner for the remainder of the night. 1 am not used to being 
jailed. 

7. I was liberated at eight o'clock, and our party, lieing relieved 
by another, returned to camp. 

^. Sunday. The Sabbath bring> its duties as do other days. 
General inspection took place in the morning, and our arms and 
accoutrements had to be put in order. Captain Riker took command 
of a squad of men and marched to the country for recreation. Some 
of us got a good supper with a countryman, north of camp. 

/O. M ten o'clock this morning a fire broke out in one of the 
wooden buildings occupied as quarters. The regiment was drilling 
at the west end of camj), and before we could reach the scene of the 
fire it was beyond control. The main part of camp was destroyed, 
including guns, accoutrements, and the personal effects of many of 
the men. The cause of the fire cannot be ascertained, but the 



/\:t'r\-iiay Soldifi /.ij< . |( ami* /.ancsvillc 



drafted men, who on iipy a part of the canii), are cliarjicd with it. 

ij. We lia\e been rebuildin-^ dur ipiarters and are again |irett\ 
well re-established. The losses sustained by the enlisted men ol 
>everal of the c()nii)anies prove to l)e great. Many a pack of cards, 
several violins and some other outfits of amusement will have to be 
re|)la( eil. At s(|uad drill this afternoon Lieutenant C'olonel Mit<hell. 
in giving me some instructions in warding off a blow aimed at the 
head, lold me to strike- at liim. 1 obeyed literally, bringing my Kn- 
lield down with force, while he placed his rifle in position \.o arrest the 
blow. Instead of the gun barrel, his finger received the blow, and he 
retired to ([uarters for repairs. 1 regretted this very much, as 1 ought 
to have wrV/Vwr^/ instead of s/riki/ig. Mrs. Mitchell, being in camp, 
gave the damaged linger of her husband proper attention. .A woman 
is a handy piece of furniture, even in camp. 

//. The weather is cool and bracing. We have completed our 
new (juarters, and, as the tools we have been using will be needed 
when we go elsewhere, they were carefull) stowed away where the 
most diligent search will not bring them to light. This theft is 
charged to Company A. but they aver thai no member of that com- 
pan\- was ever caught stealing The tools will turn up in due time. 

2j. One day has succeeded another and the monotony of camp 
life begins to be somewhat op[)ressive, but we have at length become 
so soldierh that the restraints and discipline of this kind of a life do 
not vex us as formerly. Have made the accpiaintance of Captain 
Munson ; the Captain is more social than militar\ in his make-upi 
and is a matchless stor\- teller. His yarns are always pointed and 
wittv. We came here with only seven com[)anies; the eighth com- 
l)any is being recruited and will be commanded b\' Ca])tain Sidlivant, 
who is a very young man. 

2J. This is Thanksgiving Day. Nearly the entire command went 
to Zanesville. A few worshijjped at the churches, others feasted 
with acquaintances, others filled up with litpiid hilarity. The con- 
duct of the average soldier on the march returning to camp in the 
evening, was decidedly untactical, but then he was patriotic and 
seemed to wish that the Governor wf)nld make a thanksgiving day of 
ever\ Thursday. Colonel Wilcox is much ])leased at our good 
behavior and says he feels ])roud of us. 



l)c( LMubcr, '62.J History oj llic I JJlli O. /'. /. 13 

DECEMBER, 1862. 

- /. The measles prevail in camp, and a dozen ur more have been 
sent to the hospital with that disease. Of these one or two are 
having the disease in a dangerous form, but are being well cared tor 
by the surgeon, assisted by an efficient corps of nurses. Doctors 
Black and Harlow are men of acknowledged medical skill. 

13. Have been enjoying a ten-day furlough at home, and returning 
to camp this evening I find all in good shape. Those who had the 
measles have nearly all recovered. 

14. While on duty as guard to-day 1 made the acquaintance of 
Corporal Mason, Captain Nichols and Captain Wells. These are 
men of intelligence and good social ([ualities. 

/J. We saw the last of Camp Zanesville this morning. We have 
spent fifty days here, some of them ver\ pleasant ones. We 
marched to Zanesville early in the forenoon, and after some time 
spent in loading aw immense amount of baggage, we took the cars tor 
Camj) Dennison, i^assing through Newark, Columbus. West Jefferson, 
London, South Charleston, Xenia, and Loveland, reaching our des- 
tination late in the evening. We are (puirtered in building No. 27. 

While at Camp Zanes\il!e Comjjan) H was recruited and addetl 
to the seven companies composing the command. Our object in com- 
ing to Camp Dennison is to add another company, (1) making nine 
companies in all. 

The regiment remained at ("amp Dennison thirteen da\ s, tluring 
which time no important event occurred. The time was spent in 
perfecting the men in a knowledge of compiany w\\(\ battalion driiU 
and such other duties as pertain to camp life. This camp seemetl to 
be much less attrai:ti\e than either of our former ones, and when the 
order to lea\e was recei\ ed there was general rejoiiing. 'I'he ninth 
companv, which was added to us during our >tay at this camp. wa> 
recruited for another regiment, the 109th perhaps, but a> that organi- 
zaticju was ne\er completed, the men were consolidatetl with the 
1 13th. 

Com[)an\ I i^ c(;ini)osed pi'iMci|).ill\ of ( lcrman>, and was recruited 
in the vicinit) of Dayton. 

28. Sunda)'. Early this morning orders were recei\etl to mo\e. 
We were plac;ed on a train and a brief run of little o\er an hour 
found u> in Cincinnati, destined for l-ouisville, Ky. 'l"he people ot 
C'incinnali greeted (jur arri\al with some demonstrations of patriot- 
ism, for, though it was Sunda\, there was some shouting, throwing t)f 
hats and waving of haiulkerchiefs. 



Evi-ry-ttax Solifii-r Li/c : [Camp Laura. Ky 



1 Jiscmbarkiui; from tlic <ar> uc man lied to tlie ri\cr, boarded tlu' 
steamer "Superior," and were >oon moving d(ju n stream. We siil- 
fered not a little disconitbrt h) our crowdeil condition on the boat, 
and the coniin(jn soldier noticed that the commissioned officers fared 
better than himself. 'I'he sixty staterooms of the boat were occupied 
principally by the otiicers, and 1 i)resume the\ paid e.\tra for them. 
Night came on but quite a number of the soldiers kept awake nearh 
all night, compelling those who would ha\ e slept to share their wake- 
fulness. I tried to sleep on the upper deck, but I found it like sleep- 
ing on the back of a huge turtle, and at ten o'clock 1 went below and 
tried it with somewhat belter success. .\t _' .\. .\1. C"a[jtain Taylor 
woke me and told me of a good plac:e in the engine room, io which I 
went and for the remainder of the night slept well. 

2<y). We reached Louisville at daylight. At 8 .\. M. we left the 
boat, and marching through the city to the Nve>tern suburbs, the regi- 
ment stacked arms on a vacant lot to the right of the pike, but being 
without tents we suffered coiisiderabl) from the piercing wind. 
Tents were furnished late in the day. .\ irio of strolling musicians, 
father and two daughters, visited our camp, birnisheri some good 
music, took up a fat collection and deoarted. 

J/. Lieutenant IJowersock, Sergeant McCrea, i)rivate>. Gardner, 
Kock, Fudge and Hallan. arrive in camj) from home, bringing for 
several of us man\ a token of good-will from mother, sister and 7vi/t . 



I .\ X I .\R\ . I S63. 

/. At ten o'clock la^l nighl the camp was alarmed by a hurried 
( ummaiid to fall in line and slancl read) to march. Nhich confusion 
ensued, but coolness at length followed, and we were standing to arms 
when the city clock struck the midnight h(nir, announcing the death 
of the old year and the birth of the new . We were at length sent to 
quarters with instructions to hold ourselves in readiness to move at 
short notice. I think the affair was created to train us to put on our 
breeches and other harness in the night. It was a success. 

This is a line day. We had general inspection at 10 A. M. 

7. This camp is called "Camp Laura" in comi)liment to the wife of 
our Lieutenant Colonel. Don't know that Mrs. Mitchell will be 
pleased or displeased at this intended civility. Wornen are so curious. 

An order was received this afternoon to get ready to march imme- 
diatelv. We obeved, but the order was countermanded, and after 



January, '63.1 History of tin- 1 ijtii O. I'. /. 15 

the rec[uisite amount of raw profanity was indulged in, the men 
returned to quarters. Soldiers "as they run" are not excessively 
pious. The arrival ot a mail from Ohio adds to make the sunshine 
of the day more genial and brigiit. 

5. This is Monday. 1 know this In- knowing that yesterday was a 
busy day. We blacked our bootees, washed, scrubbed, cleaned 
house, and if the weather had been fine we would have gone visiting 
We bade farewell to "Camp Laura" at 8.15 this morning, and at 9.40 
our train moved out of the city toward Nashville, a southerly direc- 
tion. Our destination is "Big Run Trestle" or Muldraugh's Hill. 
Crossed Salt River at Shepherdsville, and halting at Colesburg the 
horses of the regiment were unloaded, after which the train movetl 
on two miles further to our destination. During the unloading of 
the animals I found a chance to get a good meal at a house near the 
track, and while eating it the train moved on without me. I am 
fond of my feed. Coming up to the command 1 found the >ite of 
our future cam]) had been chosen, and camping preparations were 
going on. James L. Edmiston had cared for my effects during my 
absence, but he was a little disappointed that I had not brought him 
something to eat. The rest of the day was spent in completing our 
cam]) and in assisting Quartermaster Scarritt to unload supplies of 
various kinds. While a number of soldiers were thus engaged one of 
them lost his hold on a barrel of sugar and it rolled down a steep 
hill, bursting as it went. Scarritt indulged in a few expletives; the 
rest of us indulged in the sugar. 

6. Previous to our coming here the place was held by a regiment 
of Illinois troo])s. These were caj^tured a i'<i\y days ago by John 
Morgan's command, who, after burning luu large trestles of the rail- 
road track, moved on and left the place unoccupied. .\ force of 
mechanics will be put to work at once repairing the road, and our 
business is to see that they are i.ot molested. 'I'his road i^ an im- 
portant link in the great chain of supplies that must sustain our 
armies further south. 

The country hereabouts is wild, rocky, and rough to a degree that 
is indescribable, and suggests the idea that the (ireat .\rchite« t 
finished his work here by the consolidation of scraps and fragments. 
The people seem to be the |)oorest of the poor, rude and illiterate. 
We have a better idea now of the meaning of the term, " i>oor while 
trash, ' than ever before. 

p. A part of the regiment was sent to-da\ to the upi)er trestle. 



\G I'r.Yiy-ihiy S«l,/i,r l.i/r : | M iildrMUgli's Hill 



where they will (amp and remain. Last evening we had dress 
l)arade, — the first sinee leaving C'amii I )ennison. We call this 
"Canii) I,U(\." It mav be that Colonel Wilcox has a grudge against 
soiiK- lUickcxe l.ui \ and wants to avenge himself in this way. This 
is in llartlin ( "ounty, thirty-six miles southwest of Louisville. 

/(). Major \Varner returned from I .ouisville. bringing a mail, the 
first we have had for se\eral days. 

//. It has been raining for se\eral da\s and the gorges of these 
hills are on a high. 

T2. Captain Tavlor with IwenlN-fne men was sent out to 
strengthen our pickets, there being runiofN of an attack by the enem\ . 

/J. Snow began to fall last night and has continued all day and 
now is about thirtv inches deep. .\s the soldiers wade about doing 
picket and other oul-of-camp dniies the snow runs into the pockets of 
the shortest of them. Sexeral hcjgs, whicii took ret"u^e in a log house 
in the valley, met a fate somewhat similar though more fatal than 
befell the man who journeyed between Jerusalem and Jericho. 
Swine cannot be too cautious in coming into a cam|) like this. This 
deep snow ma\ possibl\- h:i\e provoked thi^ deed of blood and 
tenderloins. 

I.ast night I stood picket in a dark glnoni) section of country a 
mile from camp. James S. I'orts of Com[)an\- D was one of ni\ 
partners. Before night came on we cut aii old dry stub of a tree, set 
tire to it and burned it to co;ds; this melted the snow and dried the 
ground. Sjireading our bedding on the warm.dr)' ground, we slept 
comtbrtablv, otherwise we must have suffered. N'ears ago while 
camping in northern ( )liio. 1 had learned this of my father, who is a 
practical hunter. .\ s([uad was sent out some distance to-day tor a 
load of straw. They report that the\' saw a — school lioiisc. Now, 
what use woukl a school-house l)e in this hind, 1 would like to know? 

iS. A member of Company 1 trc.v.e to death last night. 

20. Continued exposure in this ini.lement weather has resulted in 
much sickness, and during the jjast few days two deaths have occur- 
red in (!ompany .\. namely, James S. Harvev and Ceorge T. Reno. 
Their homes are at I-ondon, Ohio. 

22. \ scpiad of half a dozen men \isited Colesburg last night, 
l)ent on ad\enture. Finding the door of a freight car ajar, one of 
them entered to e.xplore, while the others awaited orders on the out- 
side. The car contained sutler's supplies, destined for Nashville and 
the front. A barrel of luscious apples and a monster cheese escaped 
from the car, and were carried by the hungry outsiders to a safe dis- 



January, '63. j History oj tlif i ijlli O. W J. 17 

tance from the track, and in the direction of camp. Here a halt was 
ordered, the head of the barrel was knocked in and the cheese was 
cut into pieces suitable to be handled. Each of the party then took 
off his drawers, and b)- tying the ankles in a knot prepared them to 
receive the booty. The ajiples and cheese were then distributed and 
the jjarty, groaning under their load, trudged toward camp. The 
supplies were secreted among the rocks in the vicinity of camp, 
and — well, there are tales that must not be told out of school. 

We were first camped in the valley and near the creek, but some 
days ago we climbed to the summit of the ridge on the north and 
pitched our tents overlooking the valley. Some earth-works of a 
simple character constructed of dirt and gum logs have been built 
under the management of Colonel Wilcox, but the disposition of the 
men to shirk duty under \arious pretenses makes the working force 
very weak. A soldier will dare, do and suffer, but will not work. Nearly 
every able-bodied man in camp, including some of the officers, has 
been ac(|uiring a geographical knowledge of the country by scouting 
by day and planning new adventures by night, but if there is a sus- 
picion that he is to be on duty to-morrow, he answers the sick call, 
and by some strategy gets excused. 

Now and then the missionary spirit shows itself. Corporal S., who 
is m\ messnuite, and somewhat accustomed to deeds of piety at 
home, lias an api>ointment to preach at a cxibin in the country next 
Sabbath. If we move before then there will be a mutual disappoint- 
ment ; the natives will miss hearing a good sermon, and the Corporal 
will miss a good country dinner. 

Captain Taylor's company (1>) went out to Rolling Fork to du duty 
for a few days. They relie\ecl part of the 50th (). \'. I. 

24. Milt. Doak and Rdmiston conspired to rob a woman oi her 
last rooster, to-da\, and proceeded in this manner: Milt, entered 
the cabin in feignetl agony over a pair of frozen ears; the heart of 
the old lady was touched, and her sympathy went out toward the 
suffering bo) . Kdmiston, finding her attention taken up, as he de- 
sired it should be, scouted on the premises, and finding a solitar)- 
rooster on the (orner of the house, tarried it off triumphantly. Doak 
thawed out proenti) and started ui pursuit, followed by the irate 
woman, who had now seen the trirk. 'I"he l)oys were not overtaken. 
The fowl made a savory mess, for 1 shared in eating it, on the 
promise that an account of the affair should never go into print. I 
have kept mv i)romise. 



i8 Evcry-Uay SuUicr Life : [Down ihc Ohio 

26. Work on our defenses progresses slowly, partly because of bad 
weather, anil partl\ because of loo weak a force. Some of our men 
have spent the day rabl)it lumiing. but found no game. They brought 
in a fine lot of " Kciitu* k\ iwisi." Tobaico will be tobacco before 
the war ends. 

27. Orders were rc<eivetl liiis forenoon to prepare to move, an 
order that all seemed willing to obex, antl the work of preparation 
began at once. Wc had an immense aniounl of baggage of various 
kinds, and its preparation for shijiment occu[)ied several hours, so 
that dark was upon us before we left Colesburg, bound for Louisville. 
Our train was overloaded and made little progress, so that the entire 
night was consumed in the trip of thirty-six miles. 

28. We disembarked at daybreak, and by noon had our tent> 
pitched and awaiting orders. At 3 F. M. we marched to Portland, 
three miles below the city, where we boarded the steamer St. Patrick, 
occupying all her capacity and crowding us tpiite uncomfortabh . 

First Lieutenant Samuel A. Hughes resigned, as has also Captain 
H. Z. Adams, Company Ci. 

JO. We continue to remain anchoretl at the wharf. Several men 
deserted to-dav. Hardly a company but lost some men in this way. 
Here we received pay to December 31st, 1862. Most of the men 
needed their pay badly. Lying at this wharf is a large fleet of 
steamers loaded with soldiers. 



FEBRUARY, 1863. 

/. This is Sunday. At 4:20 I'. M. our boat left the wharf and pro- 
ceeded down the Ohio. Being a fast boat we make good time, and 
before night set in we had passed a number of other boats going 
down, all crowded with men in blue, all going we knew not where. 

2. About noon we reached Evansville, Indiana, where we remained 
an hour, then pursuing our downward way arrived at Smithland, the 
mouth of the Cumbedand river. Here we took on a cpiantity of coal. 
Black hats were issued to us. A lottery was one of the incidents of 
the trip, and it came near resulting in some vacancies among the 
commissioned officers. 

J. We left Smithland at 1 1 A. M., and steered ui) the Cumljerland, 
having Nashville for our destination. The weather being agreeably 
fine, the men sought the sunshine, and resting on the guards of the 
boat, admired the scenery of the country through which ue traveled. 



February, '63. j History 0/ the i ijtii O. V. I. I9 

The St. Patrick passed a number of boats on the way, and the ban- 
tering and cheering of the men from one boat to the other was very 
exciting. 

After night set in, comrades Avery, Rose and Cressey, of Com- 
pany 1), and Asa Kite and myself, made the banks of the Cumberland 
echo with the \oice of song. 'I'hose 1) boys run to music Uke ducks 
to water. At eight o'clock a light in the river ahead of us created a 
sensation. It drifted nearer and nearer to our boat, and at length 
floated past, proving to be a burning barge which had been loaded 
with hay and other army supplies, and which had been tired and set 
afloat to destroy our fleet of boats. 

4. We find our boat anchored on the north bank at a place called 
Donelsonville, which is on the opposite shore. A Ijattle occurred 
here yesterday, the Confederates being defeated and driven from the 
field, leaving their dead and wounded. A number of boats besides 
our own are anchored here, all loaded with troops. The names of 
these boats are: James Thomi)son, Crescent City, St. Patrick, 
Lady Franklin, Victress, Victor No. 2, Horizon, Wild Cat, St. Cloud, 
Liberty No. 2, Jacob Strader, Thomas PatUn, Allen Collier, Silver 
Lake, Clara Poe, Champion, James Johnston, Bostonia, Nashville, 
Robert R. Hamilton, Duke, Express, Leslie Combs, B. C. Levi, Dia- 
mond, Odd Fellow, Venango, John H. (iroesbeck. Cottage, Charley 
.Miller ar.d Hornet, besides six gunboats. Squads of our men have 
rowed over to the battlefield to satisfy their desire to see how it looks. 
Fifteen of us in a yawl made the attempt to cross, but a passing 
steamer came near running over our little craft, and to save ourselves 
we drifted toward the north shore and against a loaded barge, upon 
which we jumped and were saved from what seemed to me a watery 
grave. 

During the afternoon the regiment left the steamer and spent two 
hours on land, drilling, during which time the boat was scrubbed and 
cleaned up, after which we again went on board. At five o'clock 
this evening a brisk snow fell. 

During the past day or two we made the acciuaintance of Mr. Gray- 
back. He is a lively, ticklish creature, and as a multii)lier has no 
equal. 

5. Conqjanies E and Care on duty to-day, occupying the upper 
deck. The snow is several inches deep, and continues falling. Dover 
and Donaldson ville are on opposite sides of the river, where our 
fleet is at anchor. 'I"he St. Patrick is at the Dover side. Now the 
Odd Fellow is being lashed to us on the right side, 11:15 A. M. We 



20 F.rri v-J,iy S(i/,/i< / f.i/, .- [ T ]. tin.- ( 'iiiiil)crl.iii(l 

arc now steaming up the C'linibcrland ; the l)oats are moving two 
abreast, and the sight is one of the grandest the eye ever lielield. 
'I'he i)ih)ts of the Ncveral l)oats are jjnjtected l)y a shield made of 
heavy boiler iron. The following commands are rei>resented in this 
fleet: Seventy-eighth 111. V. I., One Hundred and Twenty-fifth O. 
V. I., Ninety-second (). \'. 1., 'I'hirty-sixth (). \'. I., < )ne Hundred 
and Twenty-fourth O. \'. I., Kighty-ninth (). \'. !., I'ileventh O. \'. 
1., Ninety-eighth ( ). \ . 1.. One Hundred and 'I'wcnty-tirst (J. \'. I.. 
Ninth 111. Batter)', Seventh O \'. I., Kighty-second O. V. I., I'hird 
Ky. Battery, and the One Hundred and Thirteenth ( ). \'. 1. 

Asa Kite and I found and occupied a nook behind the wheel-house 
of the boat when we first went aboard. We have traveled with com- 
fort with plenty of room and fresh air. The men in other parts of 
the boat have suffered on account of their crowded condition. 

7. We have been moving steadily uj) stream without accident or 
notable incident. We passed Clarksville in the night, besides towns 
and villages, the names of which I could not learn. At five o'clock 
this afternoon the city of Nashville appeared in view, and our jour- 
ney down the Ohio and u[) the Cumberland is at an end. 

8. B\- a little figuring we ascertain that this is Sunday, but wc are 
not to go ashore until to-movrow. This is a disappointment. We 
have been huddled together without conveniences for cooking, eating 
or sleeping since the twenty-eighth of la>t month, and much sickness 
and suffering has ensued. 1 i)redict that when our term of service 
ends it can be said that our stay at Muldraugh's Hill and our trip on 
the St. Patrick resulted in more deaths than our severest battle. If 
I had had my own wav we would have marched across the State ot 
Kentucky from Muldrough, and it would have been a trip of pleasure 
compared to what our imprisonment on the St. Patrick has been. 
But then we would have missed getting these black hats. A mem- 
ber of Comi)any I-', figuring for a discharge, shot off a finger. He 
ought to be yoked with Baldwin of Company K. 

g. Leaving the boat at nine o'clock this morning the regiment 
marched through tlie cil) (^f Nashville and camped four miles to the 
south, on the right hand of the pike. The location is a good one 
and the surrounding country presents a good api)earanc:e, but shows 
many signs of the ravages of hostile armies. 

fO. It rained during last night and rendered us very uncomforta- 
ble. K. Cardner and (leorge Conard, of Mess 3, are sick. I found 
a sutler of another regiment and bought a mutton ham for a dollar, 
a pound o^i cheese for fit'ty cents, and a pound of butter for forty 



Kebriuu-) , '63,J History of the i rjt/i O. I'. J. 21 

cents. Corporal (lillispie, of (Company I), died at Nashville to-day. 
The 78th 111. \\ I. camped east of vis. 

//. This is washda)' with us. It has not l)een washday till now 
since we left Portland. Washday is a melancholy day for — ii;ray- 
haclcs ; they are apt to get soap in their eyes. 

12. Struck tents at sunrise and moved in a soutlierly direction, 
reaching Franklin, distance fourteen miles, late in the afternoon. 
Passed fine houses and well-improved farms on the way. Many of 
our men fell out of the march in the first five miles. Many articles 
of clothing and other heavy baggage were abandoned by the weary 
ones who lacked the muscle to carry all they had packed. Being in 
fine bodily health I stood the march well, and was with a few of my 
company who halted and stacked arms at the end of the march. Our 
forces vacated this post early this morning. A scouting party of rebel 
cavalry had dashed in during the day but fled at our approach. 
General Gilbert, who has command of our forces, directed a few shots 
after them upon our arrival, and I presume he scared them some. 
Our force consists of the 113th, 121st, 98th, 125th Ohio, and the 78th 
Illinois regiments of infantry, besides a battery. Franklin is on the 
railroad leading from Nashville to Decatur, Alabama. Our exhausted 
comrades kept arriving till after dark, and I think they all came in 
safely at last. 

/J. Our regiment, taking ten teams, went to the northwest of 
camp for forage. We took five loads of corn from each of two 
planters, three miles out. Saw numbers of slaves; this is nearly the 
first we have seen of the i)eculiar institution. There is nothing 
attractive in it for me. 

14. Rain. Moved cam]) half a mile eastward. Have a bad eye, 
but many a man in camp is worse off. Asa Kite and I went to a 
farm house near camjj and procured some clover hay for our bed. 
Took Edmiston to the hospital after dark. Last night the crowing of 
a cock was heard some distance from camp, and to-night an expedi- 
tion has gone out to reconnoiter and bring in the offender. Have 
not tasted chicken since we left Muldraugh's Hill. S. E. Bailey 
scouted into the country recently for something to eat. He came to 
the house of a Tennesseean and asked him what he could sell a sol- 
dier. The man brought out a sack of dried apples and offered to 
sell them. Bailey showed a silver watch and told the citizen that he 
would trade him that for the apples, but that he must have some 
money to boot. The citizen offered Bailey $50 and the apples for his 
watch. The offer was at length accepted, the \outh expecting to 



/'.';v7 r-,/(M' Sdliiiii l.i/t : \ l''r;inkliii, TL-nn. 



receive ".-.crc-.h moiic\ in llic trade. VV liat was Ins surpriM- u lien 
the old fellow counted out the greenbacks and handed tlieni to 
iJailey, lelliiig him that i,in<()ln nione\ was ol' no \,due to him Tlu- 
old watch was worth about eight dollars. 

/J. The Sabbath has come again, and with it a knapsac k drill 
before daylight. It will take considerable i)iety for the rest of the 
day to make a good average, on account of the spontaneous profanity 
of the morning drill. After breakfast we have inspection, then the 
camp is to be swe)Jt and our ipiarters properly arnmged. \'isited 
Kdmiston in the camp hospital. 

i6. From 5:30 to 6:30 A. M. is occupied iii drilling. 'I'his compels 
early rising and gives an appetite for breakfast. We have i)lenty to 
eat and enough to do to keep our l)lood in good circulation. 

//. Company K went on duty as outside pii;kets. The day was 
rather agreeable, but it rained almost uninterruptedly during the 
night. Stationed on the post next to me was Doak. In the silent 
midnight hour he fancied he heard the measured step of some one 
approaching him. 1 heard the click of the hammer of his musket 
and his command to halt. The command was repeated, and then 
the report of his musket sounded through the woods. In the silence 
which followed the same measured step was again heard. His fancy 
had pictured an approaching foe, but it was only the large drops of 
rain falling from the tree above his head to the leaves on the ground 
near his feet. 

20. John A. Wygant, Comjiany C, died last night. The regiment 
prepared another camping ground a short distance west, and occu- 
pied it in the afternoon. Albert Hodge died at Nashville. 1'his is 
the first death in Company B. 

22. Had comjiany inspection, and judging by the amount of e.\tra 
work going on it must be Sunday. It is Washington's birthday. 
Lieutenant Colonel Mitchell read an order of Ceneral Rosecrans 
touching the anniversary. A salute was fired at sunset. Washing- 
ton was a greater man than General (lilbert. 

23. Weather is cool and the ground freezes some of nights. 'I'he 
regiment went foraging north of camp, and at the farm of one Carter 
procured more than forty loads of corn. Carter is an officer in the 
C. S. A. On our way to cam]) I scouted under a hint from Lieuten- 
ant Bovversock, and brought in three hams and some onions. Have 
enjoyed the trip very much. 

25. The Pioneer Brigade was organized to-day. Two men were 
detailed from each company (eighteen in all) and reported for that 



March, '63,] tlistoiy 0/ ihc iijtii O. I'. J. 23 

purpose. A destructive raid was made on the sutler. A sutler is a 
necessary nuisance. 

28. We were called to arms between one and two o'clock this morn- 
ing, and stood to arms nearly an hour, it having been reported that 
our |)ickets had been fired ujjon. 'I'he bugle at last sounded us to 
cjuarters. 



MARCH, I 8 6 3. 

2. The regiment went foraging again to-day. We loaded some of 
our wagons with corn belonging to a man whose son is in the rebel 
army. 1 took advantage of being a guard at the house, and possessed 
myself of a quantity of onions and turnips. 1 am opposed to van- 
dalism, but I am fond of vegetables. Further on we relieved Blake 
Crothers of a large lot of corn, and most of the other provisions 
with which his ample buildings were stocked. We got ninety-six 
wagon loads in all. Dever Kauffman, of Company F, died this 
morning. 

3. The Pioneers went to the country and worked at making/ii-jv/V/ry. 
Bought a Tennessee turkey to-day for a two-dollar bill, Michigan 
money. 

4. A brisk snow fell this morning. A skirmish with the enemv 
took place south of Franklin. The re|)ort of artiller\- could be heard 
in camp. 

5. The noise of a battle in the direction of S])ringhill was heard 
during the forenoon. At 2 P. M. we marched in that direction. 
Crossing the Harpeth, we marched through the village of Franklin 
and two miles beyond, where we halted for two hours. The trooi)s 
who had been engaged during the day, having been overpowered by 
Van Dorn's army, came back in full retreat, having suffered a heavy 
loss. Colonel Coburii, 1 think, had command of the defeated forces, 
(xreat indignation is expressed bee a use our force was not sent to his 
assistance. 

A large number of troo[)s are now camped here. Corporals H. H. 
Walburn and Win. H. Protsman, both of Company K. died to-dav 
at Nashville. 

7. Breakfasted on beef soup, crackers and coffee. Rain fell nearlv 
all last night. 

g. We marched in the direction of Springhill. Camped for the 
night in a pasture a mile south of town. ()ur advance skirmisheil 



24 F.ii I y-iia\' Soldii-r l.iji : | !• r;iMkliii, 'I'cnn. 



with the eiuMin dtirinjr the rinv with iincertnin restills. Slept with- 
out tents. 

lO. At three o'clock tliis morninji ;i he;i\ v i;iin tVll. We j^ot up 
and sliirked as l)est we could till after davhreak, when it partially 
cleared up. We marched at ii .\. M., leaving our dinners cooking 
in the pot. After going five miles we ( amped in the woods on the 
left. Rain fell nearly all the afternoon, and at interxals through the 
night. 

//. We remained in camp. Our troops took what they wanted 
and more than we needed from citizens in the \icinity. I went to 
the house of Washington Miller and bought a bushel of flried apple> 
I'or $1.50, confederate money. 

This man has two sons in the rebel arm\ . The soldiers broke open 
his meat house and carried off his meat, valued at $500. While 1 
was looking on, 1 heard him tell his colored chattels to gt) and help 
themselves to what meat the\ could get, or they would starve. We 
stayed where we had speiU ihc previous night. 

12. We returned to Franklin, eighteen miles, by 4 V. M. Some 
of the men gave out and many suffered with sore feel. 

14. Some of the men received by exjjress boxes of delicacies and 
articles of comfort and convenience from home. Home is a better 
place than this. 

15. The Sal)bath. Visited some friends in the hospital and wrote 
for some who are too ill to write. 

//. Captain William C". Peck, of Conipan\- C, and ("aptain Nathan 
Strauss, Company I, have resigned. 

18. A prayer meeting is held of an evening near the spring; the 
exercises are full of interest. It takes one's thoughts home, and recalls 
the peaceful scenes of long ago. 

20. This place, is being strongly fortified, and for that purpose 
hea\y details for fatigue duty are being dail\- made. The pioneers 
are busy making and hauling yi^iV/V/^i' and ;^(ib/oii\ which are placed 
in the walls of the works in course of construction. 

22. Saw a prominent field officer in the seclusion of the brush of 
a fallen tree, busy on a /ii/nt this forenoon, (iraybacks are no 
respecter of persons, and are ecpially disrespectful to officer and 
soldier. In this they differ from the (Government we are serving. 

2§. A rebel force raided our rear near Brentwood, in the direction 
of Nashville, to-day, and destroyed the railroad for some distance. 
This will check our supjjlv of mail and bread. We were calK-tl into 



April, '63. J History oj the irjllt O. I . J. 



line late in ihc c\ciiiiig, expecting to nianh toward Nasluillc, hut 
did not. 

28 Am not well. The train arrived from Nashville at 4 V. M., 
bringing the first mail for nearly a week. Its arrival was greeted 
with deafening cheers. John Southard and I scouted south of camp, 
found and dug some potatoes, hut the\- had been too badlv frozen to 
be good. 

JO. The ii3lh went on ))icket beyond the town and across the 
Hari)eth. 



A V R I L, 1863. 

/. Companies F and E were inspected by Captain Stacy. The 
l)ioneers have been permanently detached from their respective com- 
panies and regiments, and to-day took up ([uarters west of the rail- 
road at an old building. 

5. The regiment received two month's pay to-day. Twenty-six 
dollars is quite a pile if one can keep beyond the reach of the sutler. 

10. The monotony of cam|) life was broken to-day by a daring 
attack of the enemy's cavalry and a battery of artillery. He dashed 
into town on the gallop, shouting and firing on a small force of our men 
on that side of the river. These stood their ground and unhorsed a fair 
share of all who came within range. It was all over, and the attack- 
ing party had fled in a few minutes, leaving evidences of his defeat 
behind him in the shape of his dead and wounded, and several fine 
horses. My friend Hanawalt, of Com])any CI, is sick in the field 
hospital. 

11. Arthur Wharton, Comj)any B, died in the regimental hospital 
to-day. His body was sent to the home of his family at Hebron, 
Licking county, Ohio. 

I J. The following s])ecial order has been issued by Ceneral Rose- 
era ns : 

HeADOI ARTKRS DeI'ARTMF.NT OF THE CUMIiKRI.AMi, ) 
MIRKRKKSIIORCJ, Tf.NN., April lO, 1S63. | 

Spkciai. Field Ordf.rs ) 
No. 97 / 

IX. The following named enlisted men of the 113th Ohio \*olunteers, are 
hereby detailed to proceed to Cohimbus, Ohio, and report to the Adjutant Cien- 
eral of the State for authority to recruit a tentii company for their regiment. 

They will report semi-weekly by letter to these I Iead(|uarters ilieir wherea- 
bouts, ;in(l the- nunibfr of lut-u ihcy liave recruited. The (Juarti-rma^It'r 



26 Kiury-i/tiy Sohtin -JJj, : [iTanklin. Ti-nn. 

Department will furnish the detail necessary tiansponatiuii lo ( UliinilMi- in.i 
I'd urn. with such recruits as they may obtain. 

.Serjeant Georci-; McCrka, ComiJany " E." 
Serjjeant .M. D. L. Park, Company •' F." 
Corporal Wii.i.iam .Vkmsi k<jng, Com|)any "A." 
Hy command of 

M.\J()R GENERAL ROSKCKANS 
II. TiiKAi.i., Captain ami Assistant Adjutant General. 

74. Jaincs L. Edmiston and J. F. Barger, having been dischaiged, 
start liomc. Jim has a soul as big as all outdoors, but he lacked the 
body to make a soldier. He has been a warm and faithful fricml of 
mine from our first a((iuaintan(e. 

75. Have been made wagon master of the Pioneer Brigade, and 
will enter at once u])on my duties. 1 learn that there will be plenty 
of work in it. This will keep me separated from my command to 
some extent. 

20. It is now eight months since the regiment entered Camp' 
Chase. In that time each soldier has made many accpiaintances in 
his regiment. We have discovered that the character and standing of 
a man as a citizen at home is no certain criterion by which to measure 
him as a soldier. The man who, as a citizen, was the recognized bully 
of his neighborhood, and who was always ripe and ready for a fight 
with his neighbors, is the first to falter and shrink from duty, and to 
show the white feather when danger threatens ; while the modest, 
timid, bashful man, becomes the trusty, fearless soldier, who would 
suffer rather than desert his post or disobey an order. The reckless 
darc-cle\il im])roves in his morals, while the conduct of his more 
professing comrade becomes greatlx modified. In some instances 
the man of giant proportions and strength becomes a prey to disease, 
grows weak and helpless, and finally finds his way to the hospital, or 
is a constant attendant at the surgeon's call, while the spindling boy 
of si.xteen has rounded into hardy manhood, and seems to thrive on 
duty, danger and exposure. Thus it seems that no human foresight 
could determine who would or who would not render valuable service 
to the countrx . 

Up to this time nine officers have resigned their commissions and 
retired from the service. I would follow their example, but the 
(jovernor of Ohio would probaljly decline to accept it, knowing that 
he could not fill my place as readily as that of a cajjtain or a lieu- 
tenant. 

I learn that in Ohio the sui)ply of would-be commissioned officers 



May, '63. j Ubloiy oj the ujt/i O. I'. J. 



exceeds the demaiHl, while a likel)- soldier, suitable for the front rank, 
is valued at the price of a good horse. 

25. The work of fortifying goes on ; besides a fort on the north 
bank of the Harpeth, defenses are being constructed on Roper's 
Knob, an eminence a mile to the northeast. 

2g. Went beyond the lines in company with si.x muleteers ; 
ca])tured and brought in four mules; paid twenty-five cents for a 
dozen eggs for Lieutenant Charles Sinnet. 

JO. This day was set apart as a day of fasting and -prayer, but 1 
am compelled to say it was not much observed. Colonel Wilcox has 
resigned and returned home. He has few equals as an officer, and 
his retirement at this time in our history will be seriously felt by our 
regiment. We had been a long while learning to understand him, 
but now that we have learned to know him better, we value him 
more. No one c[uestions his motives in leaving the service, and 
our best wishes follow him in his retirement. 



MAY, 186 3. 

/. Our cavalry engaged the enemy at daylight some distance to 
the south. Cieneral Gilbert went out at two o'clock in the morning 
with a number of regiments, but returned before noon, ha\ing killed 
seven of the enemy and captured forty-three prisoners. 

2. Sunday. Went out with a company of teamsters toward Nash- 
ville to hunt mules and recreate. We captured two mules and had 
a quarrel amongst ourselves about the ownership of a chicken. Cot a 
good dinner. 

5. Have had a number of teams at work hauling lumber for the 
construction of ([uarters. We procured the lumber from a seminary 
in the southern suburbs of town. 

Captain Avery, of (General (iilbert's staff, caused the arrest of our 
party for taking the lumber without his permission. After giving us 
some advice, which we failed to appreciate, he dismissed us. 

6. The 113th crossed the Harpeth, and camped south of town. 
The contrabands at our camp had an old-fashioned dance, and we 
acted the part of admiring spectators. \\'hile in Franklin to-day, I 
plucked a full-blown rose, and will send it home to my wife. 

8. Sergeant M. Hays, John Scureman and Fred Steirs, Company 
B, having been left at the h(jspital at Nashville, joined their company 
to-day. 



2« Kvny-</ay Sol,/iii /.//,•: [ !■ raiikliii, IV-nn. 

Q. The rominand recrossed the Ilnipetb. and occ iii»ied tlie ( ani)) 
from \vhi(-h thcv luovcd on the 6th. 

10. Attcniled |ireacliin;j; at I'lanklin, and listened to the first sermon 
for five months, and was st) m\uli interested that I forgot tlie text and 
the name of the jtreacher. 

// The ,:;j;d huliana has an excellent band, and they discourse 
splendid music of an evening. One of the few thinj^s I would 
rather hear than a brass band is a dinner bell. 'I'hat reminds me 
that we get plenty to eat here, but forage for the animals is scarce. 

17. Went beyond the pickets in ( ompany with James A. Baker ; 
dined with a farmer east of camp. John !•". Kiker, Captain of Com- 
pany E, has resiiiued, and started home to-day. Dr. Harlow has 
also resigned. 

20. Lieutenant W. R. Hanawalt has been assigned to duty in the 
Pioneer Brigade. He is a fast friend of mine. 

27. The regiment received one month's pay. Thirteen dollars 
would not start a respectable faro bank. 

2^. M.C Doak and I dined with Mrs. McGavock east of camp. We 
were treated very hospitably. Buttermilk is a good thing for a stomach 
that has been regaled with army feed for so long. 

29. The Paymaster is here again and disbursed the promises of 
the United States to the extent of %26 to each enlisted man. The 
officers get more, but then they have to work for theirs. Having 
plenty of cash, I went to Franklin and bought two pounds of dried 
apples for forty cents, preparatory to a swell. Have now been paid 
S'57-5o ^ince enlistment. 

JO. Went to the Widow McGavock's, and got some pie jjlant, 
sweet milk and strawberries. I am favorably impressed with her 
and shall be her friend while these supplies last. 

There are indications of a movement of Rosecrans' army, and we 
are expecting an order to move at any time. This will be good news, 
for we have grown weary of our stay here. The troops have done 
an immense amount of fortifying here, and those who come after us 
will have little to do l)Ut enjoy the benefits of our labor. 

Ji. Rode into the country with Doak and Brigham, of the ir3th, 
and Millet, of the 78th Illinois. Millet and I captured a fine young 
mare, and jjroposed making her a present to one of our officers. As 
we drew near to camp the cavalry outposts put us under arrest, and 
escorted us before Captain Avery, A. A. G. on the staff of General 
Gilbert. The Ca])tain was much incensed at us, but listened to our 



History of l/ic i Ijl/i O. ]'. /. 



l^lea, and finally sent us to our command, and that was the end of it. 
We will let the officers steal their own horses. 



JUNE, 1863. 

/. Orders have been received to be ready to move to-morrow. 

2. We marched at 8:30 A. M. Traveled seven miles, and our route 
struck the Wilson pike in the direction of Triune, which ]jlace we 
reached late in the afternoon. Camped on a high ridge on the right 
of the pike. The roads are soft and part of the train failed to get 
into camp to-night. 

One of our wagons upset in the creek, creating some sulphuric 
profanity and wetting the equipage badly. We are fourteen miles 
from Franklin. 

J". Took charge of the train of the regiment. Triune is twenty- 
three miles from Nashville. 

10. Have just returned from a trip to Nashville for supiilies. We 
brought an immense quantity of grain, pork, flour, clothing, and other 
army supplies. Quartermaster .Swisher issued clothing this evening. 
Assistant Surgeon T. C. Tii)ton has resigned and goes home, ("aji- 
tain David Taylor, Jr., has also resigned. 

//. Our camp was aitai;ked by the enemy at 10 .\. M., and fur two 
hours things went lively. The enemy then withdrew, leaving a num- 
ber of prisoners in our hands. 

/J. Things move quietly in cam]), but there are indications tiiat 
our stay here will be brief 'J'he teamsters of tlie regimental train 
hired a colored cook to-day. His name is " Dad." He claims to be 
a preacher, but if he can preach no better than he can cook the cause 
will certainly suffer. We shall hold Dad as a ])rol)ationer for a while 
and see what outcome there is in him. 

t6. 'i'he regiment shifted its position tc) one lurlher soutii and 
more in the shade. The country is overgrown with plenty of rich 
clover, but I have not seen a single stack of hay in Tennessee. The 
times are not faxorable to ha\ making. Lieutenant Hamilton has 
arrived from Ohio and is on duty as regimental adjutant. 

22. Five of our teams joined a large supi)ly train and went lo 
Nashville for flour and other supplies. 1 a<conq)anietl tiiem. AN'e 
reached Nashville at 1 T. M. it is \er\ dusty. 1 visited some of 
our sick at Hospital No. 9. 



30 Every-iiay Soldier Lijc : [On lo Shclbyvillc 

2j;. Our forces moved in the direction of Miirfreesboro. 

-'J. ()iir train readied Miirfreesboro this afternoon. N\'e have had 

a luul road and a serious time. I lind Lieutenant Swfsher, .\. (^. .M.. 
I )oak, and a number of convalescents stopping here. The regiment, 
witli the main army, has gone on toward Shell)\ ville. Still it rains. 

26. The train which brought Hour b-om Nashville was uidcjaded 
here, and, after reloading with commissar) sujjplies, again moved, 
going to the front. Quartermaster Swisher and I went to Murfrees- 
boro and got a good dinner at a hotel. Such meals as we ate would 
soon bring a hotel to bankruptcy. 

28. Sunda\. Colonel Mitchell is in Murfreesboro and is suffering 
with something like varioloid. Some prisoners were brought in from 
the front to-day. 

2<^. We are prei)aring to join the reginicnl. The regimental wagon 
and the portable bakers, both having Ijccii abandonetl between here 
and 'i'riune, were brought in to-da)'. it rains. 

JO. Left Murfreesboro at 7 A. M., joining the regiment at Shel- 
b\ N'ille at sundown. 

On my way, and when within si.\ miles of Shelby ville, 1 stopped 
at a house for dinner. The lad\ told me that I was now in the house 
where Vallandigham fust stopped after being ])ut through the lines 
of our army, the house at that time being (leneral Bragg 's Headipiar- 
ters. The great V'al. tarried here until a carriage could be sent from 
Shelbyville to convey him thither. As he a[)proached the town, the 
road was thronged 1)\ rebel troops, who called on him for a speech. 
One of General Bragg 's staff officers, who had been a fellow con- 
gressman with Val., spoke to the soldiers, excusing the martyr (.') 
from speaking, and saying that the peculiar circumstances under 
which their distinguished visitor was placed made silence the better 
|>olicy. The soldiers then asked that they might get sight of him, 
and Mr. \'allandigham, to gratify them, stood on the carriage steps. 
It has rained every day for a week, and the men have suffered much 
discomfort in conse(pience. 

Lor a record of events since the regiment left Triune, 1 make the 
following extracts from the diary of Comrade Isaac Creen : 

'"'' June 25. We received marching orders on the morning of the 
23d, and since then we have been marching through dust, rain and 
mud in unlimited ipiantities. Our march was in a southeasterly 
direction for a distance of twelve miles. Camped in a cornfield, 
where we find plenty of company, the forces at Triune having marched 
by different routes and centered here. Yesterday the bugle call to 



June, '63. J History oj the J I Jill O. / . /. 31 

fall in sounded directly after dinner, and in the midst of a heavy rain 
and plenty of mud, we moved in the direction of Shelbyville. 

" The 1 13th was on duty as train guards, and as a conseijuence, we 
made progress slowly; but it was fully as tiresome as steady march- 
ing, for the roads had been so used up by the forces which had 
passed that our animals could move their loads with difficulty. Night 
came on, and still we trudged on through rain, darkness and mud, 
five miles further, where we came to our camp. The closing act of 
the trip was to wade into a mud hole and assist in lifting an ambu- 
lance in which Colonel Mitchell was riding. It was now past mid- 
night, and it was next to impossible, under the circumstances, to find 
comfortable shelter for the rest of the night. I spread my blanket 
on the ground and stretched my weary limbs thereon; but a torrent 
of rain soon roused me, and, seeking a friendly tree, 1 propped my- 
self against it in a half comfortable way, and, throwing my blanket 
over my head, 1 half slept the wear)- time away. At four o'clock 
this morning we were roused up and again trudged on in a soakijig 
raip. We at length reached the pike, where we halted and con- 
structed shelters of rails. It ceased raining about noon. 

"The sun is sinking in the west; we are in line anticipating an 
attack. A large cavalry force and some artillery are feeling for the 
enemy in our front. Every few seconds I can hear the. boom of can- 
non in our front at no great distance. 

'"'' June 26. We have not moved ahead to-day, as many e.xpected. 
We have been sheltering ourselves from the rainy torrent by putting 
rails and blankets up in shape to turn the water. Last night a 
mounted soldier rode into camp at one o'clock, and shouted, ' Fall 
out, fall out.' We were soon out, but the regimental commander 
soon sent us to our bunks again. At three o'clock we were again 
called out, but after standing to arms a short time we again lay down 
to rest. 

'"''June JO. We are now at Shelbyville. On the 27th, last Saturday, 
we received marching orders to move toward this place, a dis- 
tance of seven miles. Our force of cavalry drove the enemy in our 
front the whole distance, and at such a rate as to prevent our infantr\- 
from getting a shot at them. 

" It is said that the cavalry and artillery drove them out of the 
town before seven o'clock. They brought back three cannons and 
more than five hundred prisoners. 

"On the 28th, Sunday, a force was sent back to where we had our 
camp the day before, reaching there before sundown. The next day 
we thought we would certainly go back to Murfreesboro, but instead 
of doing so, we marched toward Shelbyville again ; we marched about 
eleven miles through a hard rain, and then camped. This morning 
we moved on four miles further, and are now in sight of the town. 

" From here to Murfreesboro is twenty-seven miles, and from here 
to our camp of yesterday morning is eighteen miles. Can any one 
wonder that I and others have sore feet ? 



32 li7'try-i/ay So/t/iif Li/r : [ Slicll)y villc, Tciin. 

" NN'e have been eight days on the way from I'liiine; it lias rained 
c\ ery day and every night hut two. 

"(ieneral (Iranger has issued an order again^>l piUaging ironi citi- 
zens in this vicinity, as the people of this part of the State are regarded 
as loyal to the Federal ( W)\ ernnient. We are now in the Reserve 
Corps. 

"On the second morning from 'I'riune we were ordered to lay aside 
all our baggage, antl to carry nothing but a blanket, haversack, gun 
and e(|uipments. Tents and knapsacks were left at Murfreesboro, 
and we are spoiling to see them coming up, for we are much in need 
of our little alt which our knapsacks contain. 1 need a clean shirt 
badly ; the one I have on has been on duty for these many days. 

"'July 2. Our knapsacks and tents came to hand to-day. 1 find 
mine in good condition, and am agreeably surprised. \S c occupy 
quarters in the town. 

"The citizens greeted our coming with unmistakable signs u\ real 
joy. The stars and stripes wave from many dwellings and other 
[)laces. ( )ne lad\, who iietd in her hand a small flag, said that she 
had carried it in her pocket for months to kee}) the rel)els from find- 
ing it. 

"As the rebels left town upon our approach, they were compelled 
to cross the Duck on a bridge above town.y^ It is reported that many 
were crowded off the bridge and drowned. Four bodies were found 
this forenoon lodged against a sand-bar some distance below the 
bridge. Yesterday the l)od\ of a rebel lieutenant was found near 
the bridge below town. .\ navy revolver, some letters, and thirty 
cents in silver were in the pockets of his clothing. 

"That the bridge above town was not burned is evidence that the 
rebels were driven out in a hurry, and lacked time to ai)ply the torch. 

" No rain for two days. What are we coming to.' " 



j V 1. V, I 80 3. 

/. Shell)) ville is the county seat of Bedford count)'. It has been 
a place of some wealth and beauty. It is on the right bank of Duck 
River. The people claim to be lo)al, and they may be ; some un- 
doubtedly are. 

4. This is the Nation's birlhda), and 1 supjjose that in our nati\e 
State of Ohio the people are making noisy demonstrations of their 
patriotism, which is all well. Just now 1 would feel better, and have 
more respect for the eagle of America, if the skippers in our meal 
were not so numerous. 

The day was observed lo some e.xtent, and a .Mr. Cooper, a citizen 
of this l(nvn, who has suffered much for the cause of the Dnioii, 
made an address of ability. 



July, '63,] History 0/ l/ic 11J//1 O. I'. /. 33 

When our troops advanced on this town hist Saturday, the force of 
rebels, commanded by Colonel l-eadbetter, made a hasty retreat, 
going southward, and crossing the Duck on the bridge near town. In 
their haste many were crowded off the bridge, and some drowned. 
The body of one of these was found to-day in the river below a dam 
opposite the town. It had been constantly in an eddy and under the 
fall of the water from the dam for several days, and was a shocking 
sight. A grave was made on the bank for its reception. Some men then 
approached it on a raft, and, tying a string of bark to one limb, towed 
it ashore. Placing a broad l^oard in the water under the body, it was 
lifted out and carried to the grave. The board was then turned so 
that it rolled in. Hardly a more shocking sight can be thought of. 
The men, in their haste to finish their task, neglected to remove the 
bark from its fastening on the leg. 1 mentioned this to one of the 
soldiers, and he reminded me that this was as it should be, and that 
the devil could use that as a means of securing his own. Soldiers 
are apt to make very heartless remarks. 

Many of the fathers and sons of the families of Shelbyville were 
compelled to fly from therr homes several months ago when the rebels 
occupied tlie town and countrw 'I'hese are now returning, and the 
greetings of friends, long sei)arated by the cruel fate of war, are fre- 
quent and joyous. 

J. Captain Levi T. Nichols is acting Provost Marshal. To-day 
he sent me willi a cotirtn three miles into the country towards Mur- 
freesboro to bury a citi/en. 'l"he hearse was a heavy army wagon? 
drawn by four large mules, and driven b)- Henry Leaf, of Company 
H. AA'hen we arrived in the neighborhood where the man had died, 
we learned that he was alread) buried. We returned to camj), and 
now have a coffin on our hands. 

6. Some contrabands revealetl the whereabouts of a secreted box 
to one of our i)ickets to-day. Tiie box belonged to a rebel captain, 
and was secreted in a stable not far from the post. Carpenter and 
Cireen fished it out of its hiding |)lat;e. It contained knives and forks, 
a pan, canteen, coffee pot, wooden bucket, fifty pounds sugar and 
several photographs. 

7. Doak, Brigham and 1 went l)lackberr)ing. This is a great 
country for berries, but cream is sc.irce. 

S. A detachment of soldiers and a train of seventeen wagons went 
into the country for grain and forage. We went seven miles to the 
southeast, and loaded our wagons with corn, ))roriiring it of Mrs. 



34 /•'..ri y-,/iiy So/,//,/- /,//< ; | S1k-I|i\ \ illc, Triiii. 

Campbell and Mr. Dean. I'ocjk suiipcr with Min. Ki/cr, and hailed 
for the nij^ht elose to a villatfe. 

(^. ( )ur party returned to camp, hriiiuin^ in nuun tVuils of the trip. 
It is reported in camp that (leiieral (Irani (elel)raled the I'oiirtli in 
the capture of Vicksburg. 

/-'. AVent blackberrying again to day, and got a ipiantity of berries. 
We think of bringing in a cow next ; berries are much better wilh 
cream. The Chaphiin of the 121st ( ). \'. I., preached at the Pres- 
byterian Church. 

/J. Lieutenants Swisher and 'I'oland gave a supper in their tpiar- 
ters this evening. Captain Howersock, Captain Messmore and Lieu- 
tenant Bostwick were among the guests. I never remember of seeing 
stewed berries make men feel their oats as these men did. Leaf has 
been sleeping in that cotfin since our trip mentioned, on the 5th. 

14. We moved from town to day, and went into camp on the bank 
of Duck River, nearly a mile from the village. We have a nice 
location. 

16. The weather is fine, with an occasional shower. The men 
swim every day in the river. 'I'he contraba'nds of our camp had a 
iiuge dance this evening. 1 have nolical that a darke) never gets too 
old, nor too badly crippled to dance. Dad, our cook, has an engage- 
ment to i;)reach in the wagon yard ne.xt Sunday. The companies 
drill an hour and a half each day. 

ry. Wrote to Mrs. McAdams to day, reminding her that this is her 
birthday, and that she is growing old. A year ago to-day I was at 
home; where I will be a year hence, who can tell ? Went with two 
teams to the country and got two loads of grass. 

/p. Went foraging to-day to the premises of Mr. Davis, three miles 
west of town. Rol. Reed and I got a good dinner at a farm house. 
Loaded our teams with grass and oats. 

22. A detachment of troops under Lieutenant (.'oU^nel l*ierce, 98th 
O. V. L, with thirty-nine wagons, went on a foraging ex|)edition to 
the farm of one Dwiggins, five miles south of camp. We found a 
field of oats, and securing two reaping machines and a number of 
cradles, we proceeded to cut, bind and load the crop. Dwiggins 
raises good oats, but I presume he wiH not thank us for our gratuitous 
lal)or, nor for leaving his reaper in the field where we finished. Re- 
turned to cam]) after dark. 

Green complains that some one has stolen his plate and that lie 
will have to take his meals from a, wooden Ijucket. 

2j. l''orlv-three teaniM and a delachuicnl of the i^ist ( )hio, in 



August, '63. J History oj tlif 113th O. \\ I. 35 



command of Lieutenant Colonel H. B. Banning, made a trip to the 
Dwiggins farm to-day. Sergeant Blotter and I dined with Mrs. 
Nease. 

2j. The 113th, commanded by Lieutenant C'olonel Warner, went 
to Dwiggins' farm with thirty teams, and loaded them with feed for 
the animals. Adjutant Hamilton, A. J. Powell and I took dinner 
with Mrs. Rollins, wife of Dwiggins' overseer. 

26. Sunday. The brigade was reviewed by (leneral Whittaker. 
Reed and 1 swam the river and went blackberrving. .\. foraging party 
took twenty-one wagons live miles south of camp and secured 
eighteen loads of oats, corn and hay, the property of a rebel who had 
gone off with Bragg 

Companies are being enlisted and organized for service in the Union 
arm\ A corporal of the 98th (). V. L was punished with the buck 
and gag for lack of diligence while on picket. 

2g. A large part\- of foragers with forty-five teams visited \h-. 
Dwiggins' farm to-day and completed the work of taking all he had. 
There is a bright sitle to this for Dwiggins, but 1 fear he will not be 
able to see it. 



AUC; UST, I 863. 

/. The weather is e.Kcessivelv warm, and the several companv com- 
manders are erecting shady arbors in front of their (juarters, using for 
that purpose the cedar that grows abundantly here. A prayer meet- 
ing was held last night in the grove ; these meetiiigs are of recent 
origin, and at first were attended onl\- b\ a very few; now the atten- 
dance is greatly increased, and the interest has also increased. 

4. The troop> were reviewed i)v Ceneral l\.(jsecrans. The l'a\- 
master paid us twn months wages, and now we are puzzled to know 
what to do with the money. Mail from the North arrives as promplls 
as if nothing of a hostile character was disturbing the land. 

J. Took my old white horse to the river and gave him a lesson in 
swimming; he swims like a du( k, and appears pleased with the exer- 
cise. Ceneral Rosecrans told us \esterday that we got too much 
fried meat, and said he thought he would have to take us over the 
mountains to fatten us up. 

0. To-da) is 'i'lianksgivirig day, and was a[)pointed by the Presi- 
dent. \o particular attention was given to it, which was not as it 
should l)e. Perhaps Ceneral Rosecrans does not believe in praxing 
as much as in fii;luing. lie is said to be an ardent catholic. 



36 Evcry-Jay SolJin /.ij, : [Shclliyv illc, Tcnn. 

7. Leaf went foraging, leaving Recti and Dunlai) to do camj) work. 
Lieutenant Swisher and I rode to tt)wn and spent some time pleas- 
antly. Sergeant J. W. Ingrini, who has been absent at hospital, 
joined the regiment to-day. He is greatly improved in health. 

<p. (ieneral W'hittaker reviewed the troops to-day, and there was 
pt)mp and jjarade in j^rofusion. 1 attended on horse back, and was 
very weary before it was over. There would be fewer reviews if the 
generals and other subordinate officefs had to foot it as the enlisted 
men do. Eight men have been taken from each infantry regiment 
to serve in a battery. The evening prayer meetings increase in in- 
terest. General Baird has been succeeded by (ieneral W'hittaker as 
brigade commander. 

T2. The 113th and 98th Ohio, marched from Shelby ville to Wart- 
race, arriving at Wartrace at one o'clock in the afternoon. This is 
in Bedford county on the Nashville and Chattanooga R. R., and fifty- 
five miles from Nashville. It is a small village or station, and the 
:)bject in our coming here will appear in the future. 

14. It is the season for ripe peaches in this climate, and the neigh- 
boring citizens are bringing in the luscious fruit and exchanging for 
other necessaries, such as coffee, salt and soap. A blooming lass 
comes in now^ and then, mounted on a mule, carrying a sack of string 
bekns, a jug of buttermilk and some other tempting edibles. I am 
almost astonished at the supijly of, and tlie demand for buttermilk. A 
number of regiments which had been occupying this post, moved 
towards the front as we came in. 

IJ. The weather is excessively dry and warm. A i)art of the regi- 
ment is on duty several miles from Itamp, guarding some convales- 
cent animals. There is said to be several hundred of these broken 
down brutes. The troops performing this duty are having a protracted 
picnic, and are enjoying it immensely. Several sheep which at- 
tempted to hook the boys, have been made to take the oath of alle- 
giance to the camp kettle and the frying pan. 

20. John Creath and I rode some distance into the country to the 
southeast, looking up some forage for our stock. We stopped at the 
house of a citizen and ingratiated ourselves into his favor sufficiently 
to induce him to ask us to stay to dinner. Being weak at our 
stomachs, we could not decline. This was near the village of Fairfield. 
We returned to camp early in the afternoon. Company E has re- 
turned from guarding the camp of convalescent animals. 

21. Started in company with Ceorge A. Graves of Com[)any I), to 
Shelby ville on a train. After proceeding a few miles our engine gave 



August, '63. J History 0/ the 113th O. ]'.I. 37 

out so as to be unal)le to ])roceed with the whole train, and the two 
rear cars were left on tlie track ; (Graves and I remained with these 
cars, ex|)ecring the engine would return from Shelbyville and take 
this part of the train also. We remained here till night came on and 
then went to the house of a Mr. Phillips, where we stayed all night. A 
careful inspection of arms and accoutrements took place. Company 
I left early this morning to guard a bridge in the direction of TuUa- 
homa. 

22. Returning to the train, we were run back to Wartrace by an en- 
gine from that direction. We again started for Shelbyville where we 
arrived in due time. Stopped at Fowler's boarding house for the 
night. 

23. Our object in coming here is to repair a wheel of the portable 
bakery belonging to Colonel Mitchell and Lieutenant Colonel War- 
ner, and though it is Sunday, we are at work in a sho]) which some 
man has vacated. 

24. Have been sick for a day or two, unable to work, and so I left 
Graves to complete the work, and I returned to Wartrace on the noon 
train. The railroad connecting these places is only a branch, twelve 
miles long, and is badly out of repair and poorly equipped. Slept with 
Brigham in the commissary department. The nights are very cool, 
and a woolen blanket is essential to comfort. 

28. I returned to Wartrace to-day from a trip with a sujjply train 
to Murfreesboro, via Shell)yville. On my way between this and S., 
having four teams and empty wagons with me, I loaded the wagons 
with green corn in the field of J. H. Roane, giving Mr. R. a receipt 
for the same. 

2g. Several days ago a train jumped the track two miles from this 
station toward Nashville, and a vast (juantity of sacked corii was un- 
loaded and abandoned. To-day I hauled one thousand and twenty- 
nine sacks of it to our camp. Lieutenant Swisher will go to Shelby- 
ville to-morrow for cattle. That means that we are to have beef. 
Our rations are generally good and plentiful, but we do not hesitate 
to visit corn fields, orchards, vegetable patches and the like, for 
variety. We have not lost our appetites for honey and other delicacies. 

30. Lieutenant Swisher has returned with his drove. It consists 
of six head of cattle and three sheep. The cattle are assorted sizes, 
and their condition is such that we will kill them at once to keep them 
from dying a natural death. The sheep are a rare variety, but as the 
wool has peeled off of them, we shall not be troubled to shear them. 
The cars which arc in use on this road are made at Dayton, Ohio. 



^S Kvii \-. in V Soldi,! I.ij, : |(),\ lo ( "hallanooga 

s 1 I' T I, \! i; )-: R, I sr.;, 

/. 1 'o.ik .md I Riolv llic ii.iiii ilus inornini^, and wi-iii xiiilli a-, lar as 
Anderson, tlislancc forlv-cinht miles, to \ i>,ii sonic rriciids ol the :;d ( ). \ . 
1. We reached our destination late in the evening, and wen- cordially 
received by the boys of the Se<.ond. 

2. The Second man he<l early this morning, terminatinj^ our pleas- 
ant visit. 

Our return to W'artrace was without incident ol note lioth of u-. 
coin))lain ot beinu; ill. 

\Vm. j. Minton, ("o. I ), died in camp this morninij,. 1 was sent to 
Shelbvville for a coffin, but failini; to find one, I returned late at nijiht. 

4. The Chaplain of the 9Xth ( ). \'. 1. held services over the re- 
mains of Comrade Minton; the discourse was (jne f)f rare ability. 

5. Charles Svvazey, of the ycSth ( ). \'. I., went with me to the 
country, taking four teams for forage. We were not successful, and 
returned to camp empty. Chatlield and I j)lanned to make a trip of 
the same kind in the direction of Flat Creek, but the plan was cut 
short Ijy an order to prepare to march. .\ good part of the night was 
si)ent in preparations for moving. 

6. We marched from Wartrace at nine o"cloi;k in the direction of 
Tullahoma, which |)lace we reached in the evening, distant seventeen 
miles. A wagon of the regimental train gave down within four miles 
of 'I'uUahoma, and we i)ro<;eeded without it. .\fler night came on I 
returned for the wagon, and with proiter assistance brought it to 
camp. This took me nearl) all night, and I was fatigued beyond 
description. Company H, which has been on guard duty at Nor- 
mandy for five days past, joined the regiment this evening. 

7. The column resumed the march at eight o'clock, reaching 
Decherd at sundown. Before the train moved, C'olonel Warner 
ordered the baggage with which it was loaded to be overhauled, and 
all cumbrous and useless stuff to be abandoned, it turned out that 
the Colonel's baggage needed overhauling worse than any other, but 
all shared a similar fate. The order was im))artially enforced, and 
the plunder left on the ground was surprising in <piantity and variety. 

From Tullahoma to Decherd is si.\teen miles. The march was 
without unusual incident. A wheel of Leaf's wagon gave out after 
proceeding four miles, delaying the train several hours. Crossed FJk 
River six miles from Decherd. The weather is very drv and the 
road dusty. 

8. The regiment inarched early, jjassing through Cowan, a small 



Se|)leml)er. '63.] History 0/ tlic J ijtli O. I'.J. 39 

town at the foot of the mountain. Here Colonel Mitchell joined the 
regiment, having been al)sent sici< at hospital since the latter part of 
June. The ascent of the mountain began at eight o'clock, and, after 
a hard day's march, the regiment having reached the summit, de- 
scended to the valley i)elow and camped. The train made the ascent 
with great difficulty and with many mishaps. The near hind wheel 
of Leaf's wagon broke down half a mile uj) the mountain side. 1 
returned to the valley, procured two wheels of a j)ontoon train, and 
after much vexatious delay reached the disabled wagon. The train 
failed to reach camp, but halted on the mountain's summit and spent 
the night. The duties of the day had l)een very laborious to me, and 
I realized that the position of Wagon Master was one of great re- 
sponsibility and labor. During the afternoon the front wheel of Sam 
Hoover's wagon gave out, and this caused some delay. It was a 
lucky thing for us that I got two front wheels in the valley yesterday 
instead of one. 

The portable bakery, which was in charge of a poor horse and two 
colored servants. Dad and Henry, was abandoned on the mountain. 

g. The regiment moved southward at 7 A. M.; reached and 
crossed the line into Alabama at noon. Marched fifteen miles and 
went into camp. Dry and dusty. The whole army seems to be 
moving in the direction of Chattanooga. The train descended the 
mountain and reached the valley during the forenoon. Two of our 
wagons became disabled in the valley, causing delay and annoyance. 
We passed the little town of Anderson during the evening. Henry 
Leaf's near hind wheel gave way, and Henry used some profane ex- 
pletives. 

10. At daylight we again marched southward, reached Stevenson, 
Alabama, al)out eight o'clock, and, after a march of fifteen miles, 
went into camp at Bridgeport, on the right bank of the Tennessee 
River. The men complain of the dust and sore feet. 'I'hey have 
plenty to eat and are in good spirits. 'I'he regimental train <;ame up 
to the regiment late in the evening. 

//. Remained camped, and the troops enjoyed and appreciated the 
needed rest. Some are repairing the wagons, some are shoeing the 
mules, swimming in the river, writing letters, or sleeping in their 
shelter tents. One lad is torturing music from a violin. This is 
more an exhibition of muscle than of skill. 

12. The brigade crossed the Tennessee at 5 P. M.,and camped on 
the left bank. The river is spanned by pontoon boats, the rebels 



40 Kvtiy-i/aySoli/iir LiJ( : |()n lo ( liallanoojfa 

having burned the hridges some time aj^o. We are thirtv-one miles 
from Chattanooga. 

Swisher's horse died last night. The Uain < rossed the river long 
after dark, and it re(iiiired great (are to keep tlie animals from crowd- 
ing off into the water. The men belonging with the train were up 
nearly all night. Some of tiie baggage was. unloaded, and four of 
the wagons were sent back to ilridgeport for forage. 

Tj. Sunday. We marched at dayliglu, passed through the corner 
of tlie State of (ieorgia, (we are told) and, after a march of fourteen 
miles, went into camj) in the mountain (Raccoon?) During the ilay 
wc passed a long wagon train, with whii li were five hundred i)risoners 
from Bragg 's army. Our train moved with great difficulty, and did 
not come up with tlie command. A barrel of mean whisky had been 
loaded too hand} to the end gate of the wagon, and several of the 
train men, including Dad, the cook, got shot. 

^4- The column moved about midnight, halting at sunrise to take 
breakfast. Crossed Lookout Mountain, with Chattanooga in sight 
on our left, and camped in the valley five miles nearly south of Chat- 
tanooga, and in Walker county, Georgia. Company \\ is put on 
picket. The men are short of food, and everything like meat is being 
sacrificed. The country is almost destitute of anything eatable, and 
destitution is the fate of the people. 

The route from Cowan to this phu e has led us over mountains, 
valleys, gorges, ravines, rocks and jungles. No description can do 
justice to the scenery we have seen, esi)eciall\- as we rounded the side 
of old Lookout and beheld the valley, the city and the river at our 
feet. What an imposing sight it would have been to view our column 
of blue-coated heroes, the long line of artillery, the miles of wagon 
train, the detachments of cavalry, and all the attendants of a great 
army, as it wound around the mountain, above the clouds, and then 
descended into the valley beyond. . 

15. Colonel John CL Mitchell takes command of the brigade. 
Quartermaster Swisher went to Chattanooga and stored some desks, 
boxes and other plunder. Hrigham and 1 rode out toward the foot 
of JyOokout, and procured some apples. 

//. The brigade and two additional regiments moved out early, 
and marched in a southerly direction. A detachment of cavalry and 
six pieces of artillery accompanied us. About four o'clock in the 
afternoon three of the advance regiments deployed as skirmishers^ 
and, advancing, w^ere met by a force of the enemy, who showed some 
resistance, and then fell back beyond the little town of Ringgold. 



September, '63.] Bis tor v of the iijt/i O. V. /. 41 

The other reguiicnts were put in line on and under cover of a hill, 
those on top of the hill moving in the direction of town, and at the 
same time two pieces of our artillery opened fire upon the enemy for a 
time. After a time the enemy threw a few shots, but made no other 
show of fight. The object of a reconnoissance having l)een accom- 
plished, we retired in the direction of our former camp, near Ross- 
ville. After marching six miles we halted for the night. We were 
weary, and lying down, we were soon in dreamland. About ten 
o'clock we were awakened by a shower of shot and shell, the enemy 
reminding us that we had neglected to put out our fires. Hiere was 
a scramble for traps of all kinds, and the fires were soon extinguished. 
We shifted to a new position, and spent the rest of the night resting 
on our arms. 

t8. The command returned to the camp from which we moved 
yestierday morning. A quantity of whisky was issued to the men. 
In the evening we were ordered to march to guard a position a few 
miles south. We reached our post of duty at ten o'clock, made the 
necessary disposition of the force, (two brigades) and slept without 
fires, though it was disagreeably cold. A strong force of the enemy 
was within a mile of us, but we were unmolested. We are near 
Reed's Bridge. 

ig. We breakfasted without water, and then returned to our former 
camp by one o'clock in the afternoon. We found the wagons loaded, 
and all things packed as if some movement of importance was on the 
program. We drew rations, and while the beef boiled we made other 
plans looking towards active work. At five o'clock, the 2d and 3d 
brigades moved out three miles to a position near a church (McAfee). 
Heavy fighting has been going on at times during the day, l)ut we do 
not know the results. We rested in our position during the nighl, 
suffering much from cold. 



C: H I C K A M A U G A . 

The following account of the battle of September 20th, 1863, is not 
a history of that bloody event, but only the record of a man who 
stood in the ranks and bore his share of the trials of the day. The 
account may be defective, and in some respects erroneous, but it is 
preferred to any other for the reason that it treats of tlic minor details 
which have been oxcvlookcd by tlie more pretending historian. 



42 Km y-iiiiy Soli/ill J.i/r : | ( liii kaiii;iuj^;i 



"^ September 20. This morning our brigade advam cd halt a mile in 

line of battle We are hurried off in the direction of 

heavy cannonading. Upon reaching the I.afayette Road we formed 
in line, and one of our batteries fired several rounds at some rebels 
in the distance. We advanced in line on the left of the road nearly 
a mile. VVe then turned by the right flank and filed left into the road, 
and hurried on in the direction of heavy firing in front. Another 
brigade was to the right of the road, and in a few minutes we were 
all together, covering a considerable space, and in full view of the 
enemy, who, seeing our position, began shelling us. The first shot 
struck near my feet, the next burst over our heads. One of our bat- 
teries then engaged thai of the enemy, enabling us to move out, 
dodging shells as we went. In this movement we came very nearly 
running into a strong force of the enemy, and were going further to 
the left than we designed to go. 

" Our column then turned to the right, double-quicked into a field, 
part of which was in corn, and there rested for a short time. 

"Company F had been on picket, and now joined their place in the 
line. They brought two prisoners and report that they had killed four 
others. All remained quiet for half an hour. To our right was a 
thick woods, where the musketry firing began at one o'clock. We 
moved into the edge of the timber and halted. The firing increased 
to a tremendous roar and lasted several minutes. Just at this time a 
number of our regiments charged the enemy with a terrible yell, driv- 
ing them back some distance, and then the order was reversed to some 
extent, and the roar of musketry increased. Our brigade moved in 
that direction in quick time. Now General Whittaker came down the 
hill and told us to go in on the double-([uick, which we did. When 
we reached the crest of the hill, we were four or five deep, and for a 
brief time the utmost confusion reigned, resulting from the falling 
back of the 86th Illinois, through our ranks. There was a shower of 
bullets flying in our midst all the while, a small tree keeping one from 
s|)oilingmy hide. Presently the right of our line seemed to give way, 
and an order was given to fall back slowly, keeping up the fire as we 
went. William Carpenter of my company was shot through the lungs 
but walked part of the way down the hill. At the foot of the hill we 
rallied and re-formed, determined to have the hill top in our posses- 
sion. In this we succeeded, and for nearly half an hour it was com- 
paratively (juiet in our front. For a time we lay on our faces under 
cover of the hill. Then the contest was resumed with increased 
vigor. We advanced and fell back by turns until sundown, when our 
ammunition becoming exhausted, we were com[)elled to ([uit the field 
and leave many of our dead and wounded in the hands of our enemy. 
I confess my inability to describe a battle, and I feel that no pen can 
do it justice. 

" 1 cannot say that I was much excited or frightened, although my 
comrades fell dead and wounded on either hand. The air was thick 
with smoke, and the trees seemed to bend and reel befijre the stf)rm 
of lead and iron. 



Septeml)er, '63,] History oj the i ijth O. /'. /. 43 



"The enemy had plenty of artillery, and he trained his guns uix)n 
us with fatal accuracy. Under all this we stood as sheep before the 
slaughter, only yielding when ammunition was out. Our regiment's 
loss is; killed, 27 ; wounded, 98; missing, 66. We fell back to our 
camp in the morning, pretty well fagged out. When we left the field 
our Company, (E) nLUiibered only eight men." 

2J. Our forces have fallen back, and are fortifying on Mission 
Ridge to impede the march of the enemy, aiid check him so that the 
shattered army can be rallied and placed in a position of defense. 
It is not possible to state the extent of yesterday's disaster. Our 
trains were sent during the afternoon of yesterday and last night 
towards Chattanooga. Our regimeiiUil tniin reached the city at four 
o'clock, having been four hours in driving .is many miles. The road 
is crowded with trains and troops, all disputing for the right of way. 
The regiment is on the Ridge doing its part to hold the enemy at bay. 
Fighting continues to some extent, but no general engagement has 
taken place to-day. It is probable that the enemy paid so dearly for 
his victory of yesterday, as to be unable to foilow uj) his advantage. 
We hope so. 

Last night Companies E and F held the skirmish picket line for 
some time after the main force retired, then they fell back too, and in 
the afterpart of the night stacked arms with the other companies in a 
grove in the northern part of the city. 

The wounded are being sent to Stevenson and other points in our 
rear. 

22. The regiment is lying still to-day. We can hear the roar of 
cannon in the direction of Rossville. Many reports of the enemy's 
movements are afloat. Moved our train across the river and jnirked 
on the bottom, half a mile from the river. 

2j. We are lying in double column at half distance. Last night 
at ten o'clock a l)risk fire occurred at the front, and we were out in 
line ready for action. Quiet ensued and we again slept. Late this 
afternoon our brigade and others crossed the river and camped on a 
high woody hill, called Stringer's Ridge, overlooking the river and the 
besieged city. We are a rusty looking army of men, having had no 
leisure to put ourselves and our eciuipments in order since we left 
Wartrace. No rain has fallen this month, and the dust is deep and 
stifling. Several who were reckoned amoifg the killed or missing of 
the battle on the 20th, have come in, and now our loss falls below our 
first estimate. One of the curiosities of the engagement is CiliatrieUl's 
blanket, containing forty-nine bullet holes. 



44 Kvcr\-iiay Soldier Li/c : [Stringer's Ridge 

24. We begin to be on short rations for the men. Our animals are 
being fed by our own efforts in gathering grass and fodder along the 
river. 'I'lie men get a limited supply of hard bread, meat, coffee and 
sugar, 'i'licrc is no real suffering, but the outlook for jjlenty to eat is 
not good. 

26. Very little seems to be transpiring between the two armies, each 
seems to be watching the movements of the other. 

W'ent down the river on a foraging trip, securing some fodder and 
a few ears of corn. Returned to camp with a good appetite. 

27. Sunday. Quartermaster Swisher went foraging with several 
teams, and did not return. I spent the day liesurely. Brigham, 
Rannebarger and I sang a good deal in the evening. Rol. Reed and 
I suffered the loss of our knapsacks by having them stolen from our 
tent. 

28. Swisher returned to-day from his foraging trip. He had been 
out northeast fifteen miles, and found some corn, an article we are 
math in need of. * 

2g. Took a number of teams, including two of our regimental 
train, and went up the river twenty miles for corn. We found a large 
field of good corn near the bank of the river. We began loading, 
but night came on, and we stopped work and slept under the wagons 
till morning. 

30. Finished our loads and then set out on our return to camp. 
We came in late and it was raining briskly. After a big sapper I 
slept well, except that the tent blew down in the night and disturbed 
our rest for a time. 



OCTOBER, 1863. 

2. We have had a big rain, converting the dust into soft mud, but 
it is a change which gives variety. Dr. Wilson, of the ist Ohio In- 
fantry, has been transferred to our regiment as Surgeon, To-day 1 
crossed the river to the camp of that regiment and hauled the Sur- 
geon's effects over to our camp. The new Surgeon is a sturdy 
bachelor. 

The regiment left camp at seven this morning for Sequatchie Val- 
ley, a train of three hundred wagons having been destroyed by the 
enemy. Of this trip Comrade Green writes as follows : 

" Marched until after midnight, and camped on the top of a high 
mountain, commanding a view of many miles, and above other moun- 



October, '63.] History oj the iijlli O. /'. /. 45 

tains surrounding it. The fog below us at sunrise looked like a vast 
lake. It was the grandest sight I ever witnessed. 

"The rebels have possession of the road by which we inarched to 
Chattanooga last month. This makes it necessary to haul our sup- 
plies by a wagon route on the right bank of the river, which makes 
the trip fifteen miles further. 

"The train which was destroyed yesterday was insufliciently 
guarded, and the rebels, finding this out in some way, crossed the 
river at Cotton Ford, fell upon the train, shot the mules, burned the 
wagons, and then recrossed to the south side of the river in safety. 
The train was loaded with commissary supplies on the way to our 
hungry army. This stroke at our stomachs will be felt many days 
hence. I have had but two-thirds of a cracker since five o'clock 
yesterday, and we must return to Chattanooga before we get more. 
An ear of corn in my haversack must do for my supper. I certainly 
think that if old Job had been a soldier he would have used cuss 
words. 

" 4. Sunday. The reveille sounded at two o'clock. We breakfasted 
on parched corn, ascended to the top of the mountain, and moved 
toward Chattanooga. At 10 A. M. we countermarched, and, re- 
turning to the valley, camped on the same site where we spent last 
night. Just before "descending the mountain, two daring fellows of 
th« 3d Ohio, being in an orchard at some distance from their com- 
mand, were dashed down upon 1)\ two rebels, who ordered them to 
surrender, (rrabbing a stone apiece, they told the " Jonnies " that 
they were not used to surrendering, and that they must ground their 
weapons and surrender. Strange as it may seem, the rebels com- 
plied, and were marched into cam[) by their unarmed captors." 

5. The troops who were sent to Seijuatchie Valley came in this 
evening. Though they had a hard trip of it and had very little to eat, 
they speak of the experience of the scout in glowing terms of praise. 

At the front (_[uiet reigns in a great measure. The pickets of the 
two armies are growing (]uite intimate, sitting about on logs and dis- 
cussing the events of the great battle. Sometimes they exchange 
tobacco for coffee and make other little trades of mutual benefit. They 
are anxious about the result of the approaching election in Ohio. l<"rom 
our position, by the aid of a field-glass, a signal flag can be seen waiving 
to and fro on Lookout. It is m the hands of a rebel who is signaling to 
the Confederate Connnander, what he sees in the valley below him. 
Looking down into our camp from his perch above the clouds, he can 
see every movement, and almost count the guns in our fortifications. 
At II A. M. the enemy opened on us from their batteries on the point 
of Lookout, and during the day, till sunset, they ])aid us their cast- 
iron com[)limenls in a very unneighborly way. ■ .A shell entered the 
door of a dog tent near which two soldiers of the iSth Ohio 



4^ Ere ly -I /ay SoliUcr-LiJc; [Kcluni lu Siriiiger 

were standing;, and hiiried itself in the ground. One of them said 
L^rufily, " 'I'here, see what nou get hv leaving \oiir dot)r open." Lieii- 

lenanl S\vi><her left Nesteiilax for Stevenson, liaving in charge eleven 
thousand horses. 

7. I started with a train of twenl\ -one teams to .Stevenson, Alahama, 
tor supplie-^. Taking the down river road, we crossed the mountain, 
descended into the valley, camping sixteen miles fn^n Chattanooga 
and twenty-eight miles from Stevenson. The train is in charge of 
Lieutenant John j. Mercer, jSth Illinois. 

^. Passed through Jasper, a small town luehe miles fn)m Bridge- 
port, reaching Stevenson at dusk. 

//. .\.m still at Stevenson. Lieutenant (leorge .McCrea passed 
through here to-da\ on his wa\ to the regiment. He has been on 
recruiting service in ( )hio since the regiment was at Franklin. I am 
glad to see him aiid he is glad to be on the wa\ to join his comrades. 

I J. Our train left Ste\ens()ii yesterday morning and drove twentv 
miles on its return to the froiit. We are loaded with supplies lor man, 
and beast. 1 write in a sutler lent at the ba^eof the mountain while 
the train drags its slow length along up the ascent. A large supyU 
train is in our front and the steejj and slippery mountain road make.-> 
our progress tedious. This is election day in Ohio. How I would 
love to be in cami) that 1 might \()te for John Brough for (iovernor. 
It is raining copiously. This is my birthdax . 1 was added to the 
population of ( )hio twenty-five years ago. The \'ote in ('ompan\ B 
was : for Brough, 27 ; Vallandigham, 7. 

/J. Moved on. One of our loads u[)set on the side ot a declivity 
near a stream, which is now on a high from recent rain. We cannot 
cross. Hunted chestnuts, butchered a bullock, dried our clothes and 
wailed for the water to subside. 

r6. The stream having fallen sufticiently, we crossed and pro- 
ceeded on our way. Began descending the mountain in the after- 
noon. One wagon upset, another came uncoupled, but all ended in 
our reaching the valley, where we parked four miles from camp I 
rode on in, for 1 was homesick and wanted a letter fmm my wife. 
McC'reagot in in time to Note on the thirteenth. I can give but little 
of the election news in camp. Polls were o[jen by companies, and 
the \i)ting lasted from 10 A. M. to 5 P. M. In Company K, R. 
H. Seely, 1). H. Chatfield and J. H. Oirard were chosen judges; .\. 
M. Orafton and Isaac (Ireen, clerks. Owing to the absence of many 
of the men on various duties beyond camp, only twenty-three votes 
were cast : iirough, 16; Vallandigham, 7. No other company of the 



OclobL-r, Vjj.J IJisloiy oJ III, I ijlh O. / '. /. 47 

regiment cast as heavy a vote for the i)eace-on-any-terms candidate. 

Some of the men are down near the river, west of cam]), procuring 
brick to make a chimney for C\)U)nel Mitchell. 

The enemy built rafts of logs up the river a day or two ag(j, and 
floated them down to break our pontoons. The trick was discovered 
in time to tow the rafts to shore before thev accomplished the de- 
sign. 

//. The impression prevails that we may stay on Stringer s(jme 
time yet, and the men are busy building huts and dug-outs in which 
to live. Axes, wedges and froes are in demand to make these chest- 
nut trees into logs, puncheons and clapboards for building purposes.' 
With rude tools and ruder materials we are putting up houses that 
will be very comfortable, but not very ornamental. 

18. Sunday. Some are giving the day a proper observance by 
ceasing to work on their houses, but many others are falling trees, 
carrying logs, making boards, etc. A soldier sees very little of (iod's 
day of rest. 

From our camp we get a fine view of the river, the city, and of our 
main army in their camps south of Chattanooga. We can see the 
glimmer of their camp lires at night, and during the day the untiring 
motion of the rebel signal post on Lookout's side goes on. Our bat- 
teries sometimes toss shell and solid shot at the feet and over the 
head of the brave " Jonnv " who handles the signal flag, but he stands 
at his post with a daring devotion ei^ual to the boy who stood on the 
burning deck. Grit is a thing to be admired, even in a rebel. 

Of a clear day we can see the camp of Bragg's army on Mission 
Ridge and stretching westward to the l)aseof Lookout. Such a thing 
as two great armies lying side by side in plain sight of each other, 
each unable to attack the other, is a strange feature of the war. 

2T. Several men of the company iiave been out on an independent 
scout for something to eat. The)' found a \oung cow lied near the 
house of her owner, and in trying to take possession of her the\ were 
set upon by two fierce dogs, which disputed their right to the cow. 
P)Ut the cow was led to the picket line b\ a ro[)e. She was then 
knocked in the head with a hatchet, and her carcass was soon boiling 
in the kettles. The boys must have beef. 

22. Lieutenant Swisher and 1 start with an empl\ train to i'.riilge- 
port, going the river road. Ascended the mountain with great difii- 
culty by doubling teams in i)laces. Camped five miles from tlie 
mountain summit. 



48 Jivciy-ilii\ Soliiici /.ij< : | Allcr Supplies 

2j. Moved ahead in a heavy rain. Just before wc began the de- 
scent wc iiicl Cicnciiil ('iianland his attendants on their way to Chat- 
tanooga. lUiilt a lire in a stable, anil, wliilc waiting to descend to 
the valle) , we dried our clothes. Reached the valley and halted for 
the night. \\'ent to a house and paid fifty cents for some corn bread. 

24. After driving a few miles several of our teams became e.\- 
hausted, and we halted in conseciuence. Kol. Keed and I proceeded 
ahead w-ith his team several miles, halting close to the Soldiers' 
Home, and near the house of Mr. Kell\-. Lieutenant Swisher and 
A. I. Powell, who had been in advance looking for corn, returned, and 
I accompanied them back to the e.xhausted train. Here we drew two 
barrels of flour, a bo.x of meat and a bag of coffee of Lieutenant 
Drake, who was on his way to Chattanooga with a train loaded with 
supplies. 

Returned with Swisher to where we had left Reed. Then, acce|Jt- 
ing Kelly's hos])itality, we spent the night in his house, sleeping on a 
feather bed ! 

25. Sunday. Reed and I drove ahead with his team. Gathered 
some corn in a field by the roadsitle, and while feeding some to my 
hor^ic he bit off the end of my linger on m\ left hand. Tied up the 
finger with the bat k of Reed's \esl, crossed Seipiatcliie Creek on a 
pontoon, took a hast\ dinner at jasper, drove on beyond Battle C'reek, 
and spent the night before a lire in the oi)en air. 

26. At Rridgeport. .Vrrived here at io.\. .M . Drew corn for the 
mules on the reipiisition of Captain I'oIUk k. Half rations is the 
order for the animals now, but by doubling the number of mules in 
my train 1 drew plenty of corn. This is the first si|uare feed they 
have had in a long time. 

28. At Stevenson. Came here on a railroad train from Bridgeport 
this morning. Troops of the Twelfth Corps are coming in and pass- 
ing on to the front. Hooker's men wear better clothes than we do. 
Saw General Hooker yesterday for the first time. He was in the act 
of emptying the contents of a long bottle down his throat. Spent 
the night with J. S. McAfee, of the Second ( )hio. |oe was a pupil 
of my first school. 

2g. Returned to Hridgepin-t on a train with the 66lh ( )iiio. 



\() \' !•: M r. K K, 1863. 

J. Started at _' P. M. yesterday on our return to Chattanooga. We 
are camped at jasper for the night. Several of the 113th, who have 



Nuvcmber, '63,] Jlislory oj the iijlh O. V. I. 49 

been sick at hospitals at Nashville and other points, are of our party, 
on their way to the regiment. Sergeant Horton read Alice Seymour 
to us during the evening before we slept. 

4. Being overloaded, we unloaded several tents and chests by the 
roadside, erected a tent, and left the whole in charge of James Hur- 
rigan, Company F, and Sergeant C'loud, Company A. Moved on and 
met Lieutenant Scarritt on his wa\ to Nashville. 'I'ook the obscure 
road leading lo Kelley's Ferry, and halted some distance from the 
ferry. Spent the night in a sweet potato patch. 

5. Drove on to the ferry, but found no means of crossing. Pro- 
ceeded up the river, and, late in the afternoon, one of our wagons 
upset over a fence into a garden close to the river bank. Pitched a 
wall tent and stayed here all night. 

6. Resumed our trip, following an almost extinct road along the 
river bank. Our weary train reached a point four miles from camp 
at dark, and there halted for the night. Being mounted, I rode into 
cain[), finding nine of iii\ wife's letters awaiting my arrival. 

W'e now have a Chaplain. Rev. Joseph Morris has been trans- 
fened lo the iJ3th from some other field of labor. His first sermon, 
preached last Sunday, is favorabl) spoken of. He has made a good 
impression on the men thus far. We have had a sutler at times, but 
at this time there seems to be a vacancy in that department. 

7. Our brigade has been reorganized. Colonel Mitchell is again 
in command of the 113th, and (ieneni.l John Beatty succeeds him in 
command of the brigade. 

The new organization is as follows : 1 13th (). V. I., Colonel John 
(;. Mitchell; i2tst (). \'. I., Colonel H. B. Banning; io8th O. V. I., 
Lieutenant Colonel Carlo I'iepho; 98th O. V. 1., Major James M. 
Shane; 3d C. V. L, Captain Leroy S. Bell; 78th Ills. \ . L, Colonel 
Van Vleck; 34th Ills. V. L, Colonel Van Tassell. 

Short rations prevail to an extent that is very distressing. 'I'he men 
gather up and eat the scattered corn where the mules eat their scanty 
fare. 'I'hey hover around the commissary department and pick up 
every cnumb that falls from the bread boxes. They scout to the 
country and appropriate to their own use all they can find that is eat- 
able. The animals fare much worse than the men. Hundreds of 
these have starved to death, and their carcasses can now be counted 
by scores on the river bottom and elsewhere. 

But a better day seems at hand ; two steamers are now pl> ing 
between here and Bridgeport, and our wagon trains are daily bringing 
in food for the hungry. The men appear to bear their hardships with 
4 



5© livcry-i/iiy Soldiir JJj, : [ ' 'ip l<> liridgcporl 



cheerfulness, and their faith in the good time coming, seems unshaken. 

Now that Rosecrans has been displaced, and his command placed 
in other hands, the soldiers are iiKpiiring into the causes that brought 
it about. They conclude that the old hero has been doing too well, 
and that tlxe Administration does not want a man in command who 
does all that can be done to end the war. The adoring soldier points 
to the time when Rosecrans took Command of his army, and to the 
long list of successful actions and campaigns which drove the defiant 
enemy from his stronghold in K.entucky, to his late position beyond 
the line of Tennessee. Having shared in the crimson glory of his 
lirilliant record, they are now willing to share in his unjust humilia- 
tion. 

g. Started with two teams for Bridgeport, and am now halted for 
the night at South Side Coal Mines. The recent engagements on 
Lookout Mountain have opened a new and better way to Bridgeport. 
VV^e now cross the river near camp, and travel the road by which we 
first marched to Chattanooga. One of my teams, driven by Ben. 
Anderson, gave out early in the day, and I sent him back to 
camp. The remaining one is driven l)y J. E. Buzzard. Slept on a 
feed trough before a fire, suffering with cold. One of the mules, 
Bogus by name, made his final kick ; that is, he died, during the night. 

lo. Reached Bridgeport at 2 P. M. 

13. At Stevenson. Came here from Bridgeport this morning on 
business for Lieutenant L. S. Windle of the 113th. Expect to return 
to-night. 

14. At Stevenson. Came here from Bridgeport on the cars last 
night. Quartermaster Scarritt is here, and thinks I had best not 
start for the front till to-morrow. Bought a $7.00 hal and made plans 
for starting early. 

15. Sunday. Pulled out early, going towards Battle Creek, but 
learning that a pontoon crossing the creek had been taken up, we re- 
turned to Bridgeport, crossed the Tennessee and reached Shellmound 
before dark, giving me an opportunity to explore the celebrated Nick- 
iejack Cave. This is eight miles from Bridgeport. 

17. Our train reached Whiteside yesterday evening, and to-day we 
landed in camp with better loads and with much less difficulty than 
by the former route. Several letters await me. 

"Lookout Mountain resembles a straw rick in appearance, a'huge 
straw rick, mind you, beginning about nine miles southwest of Chat- 
tanooga, running up by a gradual slope to within two miles of the 
city, where it assumes nearly a perpendicular stop, overhanging the 



November, "63. J Ilisioiy oj //!<■ JJJih O.I.J. 51 

town, almost, at the height of thirty-four hundred feet. On the 
highest point an immense rock hangs out as if to threaten destruc- 
tion to everything in the valley below. On this overhanging rock 
the enemy have siege guns planted. These guns are daily belching 
their disi)leasure at our camps south of the city, or at the troops of 
Hooker, westward. 

"Brown's Ferry is the name of a crossing of the river three miles 
below the city, where we have a pontoon, and where we have been 
for some time co.istructing a landing for our boats which ply between 
here and Bridgeport. On account of the rebels holding Lookout 
Mountain, our boats cannot yet run up lo the city, and are compelled 
to discharge their loads at Brown's Ferry. The river is so low now 
that no boats have been up since Sunday, but they are said to be 
running up as far as 'Kelley's Ferry,' six miles below here." [G.] 

" Rations were issued to-day at the following rate : two-thirds 
bread, whole rations of coffee, half of sugar. If we could get beans 
or hominy now and then, neither would be thrown away as we used 
to do when full rations of various articles. were issued." [G.] 

18. "To-day wt had issued to us some articles furnished by the 
Christian Commission. These consisted of needles, pins, thread, 
pens, handkerchiefs, snatch bags, combs, &c., &c. We have often 
needed such things, but this is the first time we have ever received 
them, which is a strange fact. -Some of these articles are accom- 
panied by patriotic letters addressed to the soldier by the donor. 
Being almost entirely out of money, and having no means of procur- 
ing supplies of this kind, the soldiers' expressions of appreciation of 
these kind tokens are abundant and genuine. After dinner Spotty 
and I took some coffee and went to the country to barter for some 
corn bread. Two miles from camp we found a house inhabited by a 
number of women. They were lean, lank and shabbily clad and 
exhibited little signs of intelligence. We bolted into the house, the 
inmates telling us to take seats. There were only two unoccupied 
seats; Spotty made for the better one, leaving one for me which had 
very little bottom, and which kept going down, down, down, as 1 put 
my weight upon it. Modesty, coupled with the forbidding appear- 
ance of things in the house, kept us from making known the object 
of our visit. The women were addicted to tobacco and a number of 
children shared in the general stpialor of the household. It is now 
after night and my bunk mates are abed. The pen in which we live 
deserves a description. It is built of logs which cost us no little 
labor, for we cut them at the foot of the hill and carried them to 
the summit of the ridge. It is six logs high, the gable being 
'boarded' with pine branches woven together so as to turn the rain to 
some extent. The roof consists of our shelter tents stretched 
tightly in the shape of a roof. The door and chimney are in the 
northeast end, the latter being constructed of sticks and mud, and is 
a success. The furniture consists of a stool, bench, table, cupboard 
and bedstead. The bench is built on four legs driven into the 
ground, and is immovable. Our cupboard is a cracker box sus- 



t'lvi-iv-ihxx Soliiifi Ia/c : \ I'lciKirins^ to Movf 



pended by a. rope from n nail in the wall. 'I'hc bedstead is built on 
four forks, supportinjj; a i)latf()rni of small jioles, u|)on which i> 
s|)read our bedding materials. 'I'hese consist of leaves, brush and 
blankets. We have two plates, two spoons, two knives and a long- 
necked bottle. 

"We were insjjected to-day by (leneral bcalty, <nir new brigade 
commander. The General makes a good impression on the rank and 
file of his command. Ours is now the 2d Brigade, 2d Division, 14th 
A. C." \i\.\ 

22. Sunday. This afternocju wo received four months' pay. I 
have now been paid Ijy the (iovernment, as follows : .\t Zanesville, $47; 
Portland, $58.50; Franklin, $52 ; Shelbyville,!!|;26; Chattanooga, $5 2.05; 
total, $265.55. '^^'^ includes $77 bounty. We are allowed $42 worth 
of clothing a year. We are on the eve of some important movement, 
and our brigade has been ordered to be ready to move at any time. 
Howard's command, the Eleventh Corps, has crossed llie pontoon 
next to the city, and is taking position to the south. A number of 
ofhcers and enlisted men crossed the river to Chattanooga for the 
purpose of sending money to their homes. . by some means not yet 
e.\])lained. Sergeant Lafayette Parr, ('omi)aii\ 1'", was drowned. His 
bodv was not recovered. 

2j. We were up at three o'clock making preparations for the day's 
work. The noise of rebel trains can be heard beyond the Ridge, and 
the rebels seem to have an intimation of an attack. An artillery and 
infantry engagement took i)lace during the afternoon, and lasted till 
dusk. As night came on, Mission Ridge was lighted up with the 
flash of the guns of the enemy, and their ]irolonged roar echoed 
through the valleys. We expect to take ;i hand in the game to- 
morrow. We are still on Stringer's Ridge. 

24. Our division moved at 4 A. M., going up tlie ri\LM- to Claldwell's, 
near the mouth of Chickamauga Creek. Here a pontooii spanned 
the Tennessee, but there were many troops in our front, and we did 
not cross till neady 2 P. M. The division took a position nearly 
half way from the river to Mission Ridge, stacked arms, and listened 
to the preliminary music of an approaching great conflict. 

25. Much more has transpired to-day than, 1 can hope to write. 
We took u]) a position half a mile closer to the Ridge, where we lay 
all day, while; the terrible conflict, which had been pending for days, 
went on. At four o'clock in the aftern(X)n the noise of the conflict 
indicated to us that the enemy had been driven froin his stronghold 
on Mission Ridge, and that the day had been a Chickamauga to our 
enemies. \\'e rested on our ;irms awaiting ortlers. Night came on. 



November, '63. J History 0/ the 113th O. V. I. 53 

Late in the afternoon I went with Brigham with a load of rations, 
nnd issued to the men as they lay at the base of the Ridge. From 
my position on Stringer I viewed the events of the day; saw the 
blue-coated lines as they marched in solid phalanx to meet the 
enemy; saw the smoke of the guns of Bragg's veterans, as they sent 
a deadly welcome to their advancing foe ; saw the invincible columns 
of the Union as they ascended the side of the Ridge, and heard ihc 
shouts of victory as the Confederates fell back in full retreat. Oh 
for a pen or tongue that could depict it. 

26. The Division moved at one o'clock this morning, crossed the 
Chickamauga and gave pursuit to the retreating army. The First 
Brigade of the Division was in the advance, the second next. At 
Chickamauga station, at day light, we came in sight of the rear of 
their army, and our brigades formed in line to attack them, but they 
retreated and we halted for lireakfast. Vast quantities of stores were 
burning at the depot, including a pile of corn meal the size of a hay 
stack. During the afternoon the order of pursuit was changed and 
the second brigade took the head of the column, driving the enemy's 
rear guard until night came on, when, as we neared Graysville, a 
brigade of the enemy, under command of General Manny, made ;i 
stand and for some time disputed our advance. The contest lasted 
about an hour, after which the enemy withdrew. During the forenoon 
I loaded some rations for the officers of the regiment, and in the com- 
l)any of George W. Brigham, started to reach the command, and not 
finding them where we had left them yesterday, we started on after 
them, passed Chickamauga station, and at night camped in a deserted 
rebel camp. Brigham returned to our camp on Stringer. 

27. 'i'he second brigade moved in the advance, reached Igou's Val- 
ley, near Ringgold, Creorgia, and camped. The team which 1 had 
loaded with rations for the officers made such slow progress behind so 
many trains and batteries, that I had the driver turn it to one side 
and halt. We then unhitched the mules, and packing the load upon 
the mules we pressed on, leaving the road and taking to the woods 
and fields on either side. In this manner we reached the regiment 
and issued our load to the hungry officers, many of whom will never 
kno.w at what sacrifice it was accomplished. Started to return to 
Stringer, but meeting Ikigham on his way to the regiment with rations, 
1 turned back with him, and after driving ahead till long after dark, 
we halted and slept in a meeting house, called " Hurricane C^iurch." 

28. At 2 A. M. Ikigham and I movefl ahead with our supplies, 



54 Rvery-day SoUict JJfc : [On to Knoxville 

icachinii; the <aniii of ihc i i.:5th before duyliglit, and l)ef()re they had 
risen from sleeu. Issued to tlie men and started to return to Strinj^er. 



MAR< il TO KN'OWILLK. 

The author, being assigned to duty which ])ertained to the bringing 
of supplies from Bridgeport and Stevenson, did not accompany the 
regiment on the Knoxville campaign. The following account of it is 
furnished by Comrade Isaac Green : 

28. The division remained camped in Igou's Valley during the fore- 
noon, a heavy rain falling. At noon we marched in an easterly direc- 
tion, going four miles, then halted for orders. 

2g. Sunday. We marched in the direction of Knoxville, made a 
distance of twenty-four miles and camped near Cleveland, Tennessee. 

30. Marched fifteen miles and camjjed a mile from Charlestown. 



DECEMB?:R, 1863. 

/. Wailed pari of the day for supplies, and when ihey arrived they 
consisted of middlings, of which we made batter and baked into cakes. 
Passed through Charlestown, marched twelve miles and camped. 

2. We continue to move in the direction of Knoxville. Passed 
through Mount Verb during the afternoon. l')istance traveled, twenty 
miles. 

J. Marched fifteen miles and camped at Sweetwater River, four 
miles from Loudon. 

4. Marched at daylight, passing tlirough Loudon at 7 A. M., and 
hurried forward u]) the river seven miles to a place where we are plan- 
ning to cross. 

5. We remain at a halt to-day. W'e have been marching through 
a well imjjroved country, and the inhabitants give evidence of loyalty 
to the Union by many expressions of joy upon our approach. Now 
and then the flag of our country is to be seen floating from a staff in 
a door yard, and the people crowd to the road and watch our column 
with open-mouthed wonder. Several of the men stopped at a house 
recently and asked the proprietor for something to eat. He stoutly 
averred that he had nothing, but the Yankees opened the cupboard, 
and appropriated milk, potatoes and molasses in abundance. 

6. Sunday. Crossed the river and passed through Morgantown on 
the opposite side. Here we were met by a courier bearing the news 
that Longstreet had been repulsed at Knoxville, and that further effort 
to reach and assist our forces there would be unnecessary. Our camp 
is in Monroe county, bordering on the line of North Carolina. A citizen 



December, '63,] History 0/ the iijth O. V. I. 55 

joined himself to Company H yesterday, and asserts his iiitention of 
becoming a member of the 113th. [Kimbro ?] 

7. Started at 9 A. M., and marched seventeen miles m the direction 
of Chattanooga. Passed through Madisonville at 2 P. M. This is a 
neat little village of sixty or seventy houses. Our custom has been 
to rest five minutes every hour during the day, and half an hour at 
dinner; but to-day we have been cut short of rest almost entirely. 
We have a pot of mush boiling for supper, and 1 am too hungry to 
wait for it to get well done. Who wouldn't be a soldier? 

8. Marched at daylight, made twenty miles, and Ciimped a mile 
and a half from Columbus, Polk county. During the day a family 
passed us on their way to the North. The lady divided a churn full 
of salt among us soldiers, an act of real kindne.-.s on her part. A 
Ray, Company E, then stole a piece of meat from her wagon, and 
made off with his booty. This coming to the knowledge of the Pro- 
vost Marshal, Ray was tied to a tree till the brigade passed. He was 
afterwards tied to an artillery carriage and labeled with the word 
"Thief," and marched six miles in that condition. Served him 
right. 

g. \\'e remained camped while a bridge is being put across the 
Hiawasse at this point. A bridge was burned by the rebels last week 
here, and must be replaced. Company E went on picket. 

15. The several days of our stay in this one place have made us 
anxious to be on the move. We started at an early hour, and, 
marching a northeasterly course, crossed the Chestna River, instead 
of the Hiawasse, as we had expected. Then, taking a southwest- 
erly course, we crossed the Hessefon about noon, marched eight 
miles further, and camped, having made twenty-two miles in all. 

16. Have marched twenty-one miles to-day, and are now iii camj) 
at McDonald's Gap, a miserable place in a mountain range. Reached 
here long after dark in a heavy rain. It was no trifle to build a fire 
and prepare our suppers in such a rain as this. And now. at a late 
hour, I make this record. How.' Well, I throw my gum blanket 
over my head, making a shelter for my writing materials, leaving a 
space for the camp fire to shine in on my pai^er. Often I write in 
this manner the events of the day. 

/"/. We have marched thirteen miles to-day, and are now camped 
on the Chickamauga, six miles from Chattanooga, and on a hill. It 
is distressingly cold. 1 shudder to think how we are to spend the 
night, for we are shivering with cold and aching with pain. 

18. Marched at noon, and reached Chattanooga at 4 P. M. The 
pontoon is broken, and we cannot cross to-night to our camp. I 
spent the night with my only brother at the camp of the 94th ().\M. 

/p. The troops crossed at daylight, and occupied the old camp on 
Stringer's Ridge, from which they moved on the twenty-fourth of last 
month. The men are ragged and jaded, many of them being without 
shoes. It is like getting home to be again in our sliantics, and to 
know that we are to have a rest. [G.] 



g6 Evciv-(hi\ Si)l,/i(i Liji- : |Siriii^cr".s l\idj;i- 

20. Three months apj to-thiy the great conflict took place at 
(hickamauga. Many of our wounded have returned to duty, and a 
great i hange has taken phue in affairs hereabouts. 'I'he myriads (jf 
rebel tents that dotteil the ( ountry south of here are pitched many 
miles further south; Bragg no longer makes his morning salutes from 
Lookout. 

" While on the Knoxville march 1 saw but two country churches, 
one a log and the (jther a frame. Saw one school house and heard of 
another. bulging bv wliat 1 saw of the citizens they know very 
little concerning the uses to which school houses are put. Many of 
the women use tobacco, and few of ihcm are handsome, according to 
mv ideas of beauty. 

" One da)' I stop[)ed at a house with a view of getting something 
to eat. One of the women began talking to nie of hard living, bush- 
whacking, &c. She held in her arms a small child, which she kissed 
freiiuentl)', while the juice of tobacco ran down over her chin in a 
manner which destroyed my apj)etite. Fearing she might grow 
familiar, and want to kiss me, I left the house. 1 next stopped at a 
house occupied by an old lady who was so ignorant she could not tell 
nic whi( It was east or west, nor how far it was a mile ahead." lO.j 

Sergeant HaUichu lias been appointed to the position of (Juarier- 
master Sergeant. 

2^. We spent our Ohristnias a year ago in Camp Dennison. 'I'hat 
was a^ dull as llii>. ()ur thougiits take a retrospect of years giJne 
by, when this anniversary brought together our friends, and when 
feasting and festivity were on the program. We iuive no turkeys antl 
pot-pies; no claret and champagne to cheer us on the occasion. 
But we must be content with hart! liread and fat meat. After this 
cruel war is over we will make up for the deliciencies of to-da\ . 
Who can tell what the coming year has in store for us, or where we 
will be this date next year.' 

'W\() of our regimental team> ha\ e been turned o\ er to the brigade 
train, and we are now on the eve of vacating this camp. 

26. '['he brigade moved across the river into Chattanooga, thence 
in a sinitheasterly direction, beyond Mission Ridge, and camped near 
a church sometimes called McAfee's Chapel. This is in Catusa 
County, Oa. It has rained much during the day, and the surround- 
ings do not impress us favoral)l\ with the new camp. We are to go 
into [jermanent <|uarters here for the winter. On our way hither we 
saw many things to remind us of tiie Confederate army — villages of 
log luits, graves of the fallen, clothing, redoubts and miles of riHe- 
jjits. 



JaniKiry, '64.J History oj the ujlliO. /'. /. 57 

27. Sunday. As soon as it was light the men began active prepa- 
rations to construct quarters. A.xes and hatchets were kept busy in 
cutting trees and preparing l)uilding materials. Though the rain fell 
in uncomfortable profusion, the work went on uninterrupted. I 
returned to Stringer's Ridge with the teams to bring forward some 
materials which we could not haul yesterday. Spent the night in 
Brighani's quarters with A. Kanneberger, RoUin Keed and Isaac 
Slocum. 

28. Lett the Ridge witli Ranneberger's two-horse wagon, crossed 
the Tennessee in a swing boat, and returned to the regiment. The 
work of building quarters progresses rapidly. Slept with Lieutenant 
Scarritt and F. M. Riegel in the iiuarterma^ter's tent. 

2g. Spent part of the da)- at the house of Mrs. ALtchell, out in the 
country. Returning to camp, I found an order relieving me from duty 
as wagon master, and instructing me to report to my company for duty. 
I have been detached since June 5th, and have seen enough hard 
work in that time to make this a welcome order. 

31. The 113th marched and relieved tlie 75th Indiana Infantry, at 
a bridge crossing Chickamauga ("reek, live miles in an easterly course 
from our cam]). Companies K and ( '■ went on duty at once. 'I'he 
other companies put up tenq)orar\- cpiarters It turned ver\' cold 
during the afternoon and evening. 

Isaac Green, M. Huddleston, Wm. C. Hriniiun, John \\ ilson, James 
(). Kite and I were posted near the house of Mrs. Simpson, and at a 
vacant blacksmith shop, in which we have a big fire. The old struc- 
ture is well ventilated, and if cool air and plenty of it, is a good 
thing, we are fortunate. 



J A N U A R \' , I 8 6 4 . 

/. This is the coldest day we have ever felt in liie service. It is 
with difficulty that we keep from suffering, i occupied a place in 
Mrs. Simpson's house while writing a letter to Mrs. McAdams. Mrs. 
Simpson's family consists of the mother, three unmarried daughters, 
a married daughter, a c(,)lore(l woman an<l several children. They 
are open reljels, but their treatment of us has been rather courteous 
than otherwise. The male head of tlie family is supi)()sed to be with 
Bragg's army. 

A year ago to-day we were at Louisville, Kenluck), and hail seen 
very little of hard service. We think now we are pretty well broken 
5 



58 Eviiy-Uay SoUiii Liji : [Sluilluw l-'ord 

in, for the year 1863 has given us a taste of about all that pertains to 
the life of a soldier. 

The retrospect of the past year shows that steady progress has 
been made toward putting down the rebellion, and it can safely be 
predicted that another year will close its eyes in death. 

2. The cold is not so intense. We still hold our position at the 
bridge, and our post of duty at the blacksmith shop is not an un- 
pleasant one. The single men at the post have joined pleasure with 
duty, and guarding and sparking goes on, first at the shop, then at 
the house. 

(ireen procured an oven of Mrs. S., and has been baking our flour 
into buscuits during the day. He is a good baker as well as a good 
soldier. The mail came out this evening. The Simpsons all ate 
with one knife to-day, for some of our thieving soldiers stole their 
knives and forks. This was reijorted to our regimental commander, 
and a guard was placed at the house to protect the inmates from loss 
and insult. These women deserve better treatment than they have 
received. 

3. Sunday. The weather moderates. 

" I was on guard from 9 to 1 1 A. M., and had more fun than at a 
goose ])icking. Our ambulance driver has no feed for his horses, and 
Major SuUivant ordered that some bran in the cellar of Mrs. Simpson's 
house be appropriated for the animals. The driver, instead of pro- 
ceeding to take the bran, went into the smoke house for salt. One 
of the girls, seeing this, fastened him in as a prisoner of her powerful 
strategy. She then released him, advising him to ask for what he 
wanted in the future. He then expressed his intention of taking the 
bran, but the girl intercepted him at the cellar door, braced herself 
against it, and defied him to go in. 'I'he driver called to me for 
assistance. This placed me in an awkward predicament, but, after ex- 
hausting my art of persuasion on her, I took hold of her pouting form 
and boosted her away by main strength. It was something of a hug- 
scuffle, and a source of mutual enjoyment. We thought our victory 
complete, but judge of our surprise when Miss S. stepped into the 
cellar, fastened the door from the inside, leaving the driver and me 
on the outside. To hoist the door off its hinges was the next thing 
to do. This we did, and the girl bounded out of the cellar into the 
house, denouncing us as thieves of the lower type. We got the 
bran." [G.] 

6. Shallow Ford is the name of the point where we have been on 
duty for several days past. We were relieved this morning by the 
85th Illinois Infantry, and returned to our camp near Rossville. It 
has been raining* for several days. Although Mrs. Simpson and her 



January, '64,] History 0/ the ujth O. V. J. 59 



daughters are out-and-out rebels, we evidently made a good impres- 
sion upon them, for they admitted that the men of the 113th treated 
them better than the soldiers who were on duty there before us. 
(ireen thinks that he and the girl he imprisoned in the cellar parted 
on good terms. 

From "The Citizer. Soldier," by General Jolm Beatty, I make the 
following extracts : 

" My quarters are in the State of Tennessee, those of my troops in 
Georgia. Just a moment ago I asked Wilson the day of the week, 
and he astonished me by saying it was Sunday. It is the first time 
I ever passed a Sabbath from daylight to dark without knowing it. . . 

" 1 am ijuartered in a log hut. A blanket over the doorway ex- 
cludes the damp air and the cold blasts. There are no windows, but 
this is fortunate, for if there were, they, like the door, would need cov- 
ering, and blankets are scarce. The fireplace, however, is grand, and 
would be creditable to a castle. 

" The forest in which we are camped was, in former times, a ren- 
dezvous for the blacklegs, thieves, murderers, and outlaws generally, 
of the two states, Tennessee and Georgia. An old inhabitant informs 
me he has seen hundreds of these persecuted and proscribed gentry 
encamped about this spring. When an officer of Tennessee came 
with a writ to arrest them, they would step a few yards into the State 
of Georgia and laugh at him. So, when Georgia sought to lay its 
official clutches on an off"ending Georgian, the latter would walk over 
into Tennessee and argue the case across the line. It was a very 
convenient spot for law-breakers. To reach across this imaginary 
line and draw a man from Tennessee, would be kidnapping, an insult 
to a sovereign state; and in a states rights country such a procedure 
could not be tolerated. Requisitions from the governors of Georgia 
and Tennessee might, of course, be procured, but this would 'take 
time, and in this time the offender could walk leisurely into Alabama 
or North Carolina, neither of which states is very far away. In fact, 
the presence of a large number of these desperadoes, in this locality, 
at all seasons of the year, has prevented its settlement by good men, 
and, in consequence, there are thousands ot acres on which there 
has scarcely been a field cleared or a tree cut 

" VVHiat a country for the romancer! Here is the dense wilderness, 
the Tennessee and Chickamauga, the precipitous Lookout with his 
foothills, spurs, coves and waterfalls. Here are cozy little valleys 
from which the world, with its noise, bustle, confusions and cares, is 
excluded. Here have congregated the bloody villians and sneaking 
thieves; the jjlumed knights, dashing horsemen, and stubborn infan- 
try. Here are the two great battlefields of Ghickamauga and 
Mission Ridge. Here neighbors have divided and families separated 
to fight on questions of national i)olicy. Here, in short, everything 
is supplied to the poet but the invention to construct the plot of his 
tale, and the genius to breathe life into his characters 



f>o F.vtrv-iiay Soli/itr Life: | Kun>.\ ille, Ga. 



"Some l)enevolcnt gentleman slioiild suggest a sanitary fair lor the 
henelit t)f the disabled horses and mules of tlic I'ederal ariii\. 
There is no suffering so intense as theirs. Tlu-y are driven witli 
whij) and spur on half and quarter food, until they drop from ex- 
haustion, and then abandoned to die in the mud hole where they fall. 
At l\irker's Ciap, on our return from 'i'ennessee, I saw a poor, white 
horse, that had been rolled down the hill to get it out of the road. 
It had lodged against a tree, feet uppermost; to get \ip the hill was 
impossible, and to roll down certain destruction, ."^o the poor brute 
lay there, looking jjitiful enough, his big frame trembling with fright, 
his great eyes looking an.xiously, imploringly for help. A man can 
give vent to his sufferings, he can ask for assistance, he can find 
some relief in crying, praying, or cursing; but for the poor exhausted 
and abandoned beast there is no help, no relief, no hojje. 

"To-day we picked up on the battlefield of C'hickamauga the 
skull of a man who had been shot in the liead. It was smooth, 
white, and glossy. A little over three months ago this skull was full 
of life, hope, and ambition. He who carried it into battle had, 
doubtless, mother, sisters, friends, whose happiness was, to some ex- 
tent, dependent upon him. They mourn for him now, unless, possi- 
bly, they hope still to hear that he is safe and well. Vain hope. 
Sun, rain, and crows have united in the work of striiJjMng the flesh 
from his bones, and while the greater part of these lay whitening 
where they fell, the skull has been rolling al)0ut the field, the sport 
of the winds. This is war, and amid such scenes we are supi)Osed 
to think of the amount of our salary, and of what the newspapers 
may say of us." 

7. Lieutenant Swisher started home on ;i furlough. 

8. Half an inch of snow fell last night. Flour has been issued 
to us of late insteatl of bread. We can make batter cakes and bis- 
cuits that will pass inspection, and delight the inner man, but baking 
light bread is one of the lost arts. 

g. Our quarters are now com])leted, and a description of the one 
in which I am cpiartered ought to be recorded : 

It is ten by fourteen in its dimensions, seven feet high, and covered 
with our own make of clapboards. The door end stands to the west 
and the door oi)ens outward. The chimney is also in the west end. 
The east gable has a six-light window, filled with glass eight by ten. 
Our bunks extend from the window toward the fire, leaving a space 
to the right for the table, which is a homely affair. Four three-legged 
stools fill the place of chairs, and are real handy things to have 
around. \Ve have christened our house "Metropolitan Hall," the 
name being in large letters over the door outside. The dedication 
look place in due form, several iinited guests being present, all of 



January, '64.] History of the iijth O. V. I. 61 

whom, togetlier with the proprietors, took the oath several times. All 
we lacked in the ceremonies was a brass band and something more 
to eat. 

Notvvithstandi.ng our comfortable quarters we do not sleej) warm of 
nights. We get up in the night and warm l)y the fire, and then re- 
turn to our bunks to sleej). 

Stratton and I went to the country, and [)rocured two haversacks 
full of unbolted flour and two candles, for which we paid seventy- 
five cents. After our return to camp we baked some biscuits, and 
ate breakfast, dinner and supper all in one meal. We have struck 
upon a plan of keeping a feed store on a small scale. Some of our 
comrades wanted to buy some bread, and we sold them all we could 
spare, and the money thus realized will be invested in supplies 
again. 

10. Sunday. Chaplain Morris distributed some reading matter 
among the men, our mess receiving "The Religious Telescope." 

//. The loth Illinois Infantry, camped near us, started home on 
veteran furlough. Stratton and I went to their cam]) and bought 
some culinary outfit. We then went into the country, and paid a 
Miss Conner $3 for six dozen biscuits. Paid Mrs. Lomineck %i for 
ten candles. Returned to camp and ate three suppers. Sergeants 
Souder and Flowers made us an evening visit, and the Hall rang 
with the voice of song. A rumor has been in circulation to the effect 
that our feed store business had failed, and to deny the statement we 
posted on the outside of the shanty door the following: 

N T 1 c E. 
" T/iis firm, ivhich was recently reported as haviiii^ failed, lias recov- 
ered from its embarrassment, and is mm' doim^ a cash luisiness. All 

claims ai^ainst ns luill nxm.! he promptly cashed. 

METROPOUTAX HAL/.:' 

14. Procured a pass for (Ire en and myself. Went out to a mill on 
Chickamauga Creek, where we tried to buy breadstuff for our feed 
store. Failing in this, we retraced our steps till we came to Mrs. 
Mitchell's, where we bought one hundred and twenty-four biscuits for 
$5. Returning to camp, we sold oift in a few minutes, making a 
l)rofit of $9.60. The cars run to Chattanooga to-day, the first time 
since our army has been in i)ossession of the city. 

15. Went on picket one and a half miles south of camj), taking the 
jjlace of Sergeant H. C. Scott. Lieutenant McCrea had charge of 



62 Evcry-iiay Si>lJicr-Li/e : [Rossvillc, Ga. 

llic post. \Vc li;i(l ;i ;j,()()(l lire al tlic reserve post, and our stay of 
twenty-four hours was rather pleasant than otlierwise. Dress parade 
has again been introduced. 'F'hink we had dress parade at W'artracc 
last, before this. 

U'e now have company drill from lo to 11:30 A. M.; battalion drill 
from 2:30 to 4 V. M. A regimental guard has been jnit on, antl alto- 
gether we have time to cut a little wood and cook our rations between 
duties. 

When 1 get conmuind of this department things will be different. 
1 will see that everv enlisted man has a brigadier general to cook and 
wash for him. 

18. The pickets were on the alert last night more than usual, and 
an extra com|)any was sent out to strengthen the line, but nothing 
was seen of the looked for enemy. 

Seely has been out in the country for supplies. He brings twenty- 
four dozen biscuits, for which he paid .il;! 2. The Metrojxjlitan mess 
has now a cash basis of $30. 

One hundred and seventy rebel deserters reported to General Beatty 
to-day at his headtpiarters in camp. They are tired and want to go 
home. I wish they would all do that, don't you.-' 

Took Seely 's place on picket to-day, the post being under command 
of Captain A. L. Messmore. Captain M. is from Fayette county, O. 
and is a fine looking and good officer. 1 slept with him, and listened 
to his experience in Kansas. 

20. (ireen is on picket again. Seems to me he does more duty 
than any man in the camp. Seely and I went out to Mrs. Mitchell's 
to rei)lenish our stock of provisions. Paid $4 for sixty-six biscuits, 
and $6 for a ream of paper. 

21. The unarmed men of the 113th were marched to Chattanooga, 
six miles, and received their arms and equipments. 1 accompanied 
the party and drew a Springfield rifle for myself. Bought $4.20 worth 
of ink. 

22. The 113th has only nine companies in the service. For some 
months jjast a number of men have been recruiting for the tenth 
company, and to-day a number of the new men arrived in camp, and 
were (juartered temporarily with the other companies. Of these, 
Booker R. Durnell and John W. Walker, were made welcome at the 
" Hall." 

25. Came off of picket at 9:30 A. M. Found an express box in 
cam]) from home. It contained a great coat, an army blanket, a pair 
of boots, a lot of stationery, dried peaches, dried ap])les, green apples. 



February, '64. J His lory oj Ihc 1 ijtli O. I'. J. 63 

canned peaches, two pair socks, apple butter and fifteen postage 
stamps. Now we will live like brigadiers while these supplies last. 

2J. Camp life has grown monotonous, but drill duties give it s(Mne 
variety. We are expecting to march soon, and are holding ourselves 
in readiness. We gave a sui)per at the Hall this evening. Our 
guests were Captain John Bowersock, LieutenaiU (ieorge McCrea, 
Milton G. Doak, John Snyder, John H. Walker, Booker R. Durnell, 
R. H. Seely, Milton L. Stratton, Isaac (ireen and myself Didn't 
we have a lively time .' Distributed the me.-i> fund, each receiving 

;fii5-82. 

28. The Brigade marched early this morning in the direction of 
Ringgold. Took dinner near Chickamauga C'reek, one and a half 
miles from Ringgold. Rested forty-five minutes, marched a mile 
down stream, crossed a bridge, passed through the town, and halted 
for the night half a mile south of town. (Ireen, Stratton and I sle[)t 
on a brush heap. 

2q. Breakfasted early, and at daybreak we about-faced, and re- 
turned to our Rossville camp at 2 P. M. The object of our trip was 
to ascertain the position and strength of the enemy >uulh o'i Ring- 
gold. 

J/. Lieutenant Swisher, who has been home on furlough, joined 
the regiment to-da\'. Deserters from the rebel army are coming in 
daily, in scjuads and singly. The)' give a doleful account of the sit- 
uation in rel)eldoni. 



I- !•; IJR L'AR V. 1 8O4. 

J. Started to Jasper, Tenn., iu company with John Cloud, Com- 
pany A, to bring forward to the regiment some goods which I leU 
thefe several months ag(j. These were four mess chests, a wall leiu 
and a hospital tent fly. Procuring a pass of Ceneral Beatty, wc 
reached Chattanooga the same evening, spending the night with 
friends in the camp of the Second Ohio. 

4. Crossing the Tennessee on the swing ferr\ , we ju-occetled down 
right bank to Kelley's Landing, and spent the night at liie house of 
one David 'McNab. The boys of the Third Ohio camped near the 
landing were having a dance at this house the same evening. .\nd 
such a dance ! 

J. Cloud remained at the house of McNab, while the son, Alex., 
accompanied me with a team to Jasper. Reaching our destination. 



64 Eviry-tlay SoUiti /aJi ■ [I'yncr, I'cnn. 



uc loadcil iIk- baggage and started on our return. Reaching the 
house of a Mr. .Starling, a l)rt>tlier-in-hi\v of McXah, we spent the 
night. 

6. Readied Kelle) 's l,anding at ;> l'. M-.and placed our goods in a 
house on ihe hank of the Tennessee. Spent the night with McN'ah. 
He is a clever Union man, ami has suffered much at rebel hands. 

~. Ferried our baggage lo the ojjposite side, pitched our tent on 
the sand near ib.e river, and, procuring transportation papers of C'ap- 
taip. 1.. S. IJell, of the Third ( )hi(j, we waited for a boat. 

8 At 9 V. M. last night the steamer Chattanooga touched at the 
landing, on her wa\ up, antl, hurrying our goods on board, we were 
soon moving on. 

1 )avlight found us but a short distance above the landing, and during 
the day we passed two places in the river which were difficult to nav- 
i'^ate. At one of these a rope was thrown ashore, one end ot which 
was carried up stream and fastened to a tree; the other end was fast- 
ened to a caijsail on the bow of the boat. Then by means of lever 
power, the boat is wouiid up the stream. .\t tlie otlier, the UKjre diffi- 
cult of the two, there are constructed on shore above the si/c/^, two 
windlasses or crabs, b\- means of which the boat was pulled through. 
She ran so near the bank on one side that 1 c:()uld have stepped ofl 
very easily. 

Reaching Chattanooga at j; I'. M. we stored our goods and pro- 
ceeded to camp to fmd that the i i 5th had moxcd yesterda\ to !') ner, 
a distance of ten miles in an easterly direction. We hnd in the old 
camp a few men of the regiment who were left behind in charge of some 
things which coukl not be taken along with the troops when they 
marched. 

10. All the men set out to join the command at T\ ner. Riegel 
and 1 rode ahead and halted at the house of Mrs. Simpson, at Shal- 
low Ford. They seemed pleased to see us. Reached our regiment 
at 3 1'. 'M. Tvner is nine miles trom Chattanooga, and is a small 
station on the Fast Tennessee and (Georgia railroad. 

I find C.reen at work putting the finishing touches on a rail pen 
which is to be our quarters. Feter baker, who was wounded at (^hick- 
amauga, and who returned to duty siiu e I left on the third, is in the 
pen with the minTii)s. The situation is not inviting by any means, 
but is a little belter than nothing. Tyner is in Hamilton county. 

//. The men are busy at their cpiarters. We raised ours higher 
and finished the chimney, but it is not as comfortable as iSietropolitan 



February, '64. | Jlislory 0/ llif njlli O. V. I. 65 

Hall. \W. have to stand to arms of a morning one hour before day- 
light. This is a plan of discipline, but not a means of grace. 

Captain Nichols, Sergeant Grafton, E ; William Brunk, H ; H. B. 
Briley, G; and P. H. Whitehead, B ; started to Ohio on special duty. 

15. Somebody raided the sutler last night, and Sergeant Barber, of 
Company K and I, made an unsuccessful search for a clue to the thief. 
Have been in the service eighteen months, and to-day 1 start on the 
second half of my three years. 

16. Picketed northeast of camp, the post being in charge of Lieu- 
tenant McCrea, of the 113th, and a lieutenant of the 78th Illinois. 
We suffered from cold, notwithstanding we burned all the rails within 
our reach. Troops are marching in great numbers in the direction 
of Knoxville. John H. Johnson, Henry McAlexander and James O. 
Kite were on duty with me. 

General John Beatty has resigned his commission, and will return 
to civil life. His farewell address is as follows : 

" IIeadijuarters 2d Bkigadk, 2(1 Division, 14th Army Corps, )^ 

February 9, 1863. ) 

" I desire to announce to you that nearly one month ago I tendered the resig- 
nation of my position in the army, and to-day have received ofiicial notice of its 
acceptance. I am, therefore, no longer your commander. In separating from 
the brigade with which I have been connected for the past four months, I desire 
to oft'er my sincere than.vs to the officers and men for the numerous manifesta- 
tions of kindness to myself, and for that soldierly conduct which has rendered 
my associations with them must agreeable. It is hardly necessary to refer to the 
reasons that have induced me to return to civil life. It may be proper, however, 
to say that I entered the army in April, 1861, have been through the working 
j)art of three years, and, in resigning my position, entertain, undiminished, that 
faith and confidence in the final triumph of the Union cause with which I first 
entered the army. 

"Lieutenant Colonel Carter Van Vlcck, 78th Illinois X'olunteers, assumes 
command. My acquaintance with his character as a soldier and a man satisfies 
me that I shall leave the management of the brigade in competent and faithful 
hands, and that you will have no cause to regret the change. Trusting the time 
will soon come when you can be permitted to return to your homes, and enjoy 
in peace the rewards to which your great sacrifices and your gallant conduct 
entitle you. I bid you farewell. JOHN Beattv, 

Brigadier General." 

This announcement creates universal regret throughout the entire 
brigade. The General is held in great esteem by officers and men, 
and no one (piestions the motives that pronijjt him to retire to civil 
life. 
6 



66 Jiviiy-day Soldier Life : [Tyner, Tenn. 

IJ. Rockwell H. Sccl\. ni\ messmate, received his discharge from 
the service to-day, and will soon be homeward hound. The grounds 
for his discharge are general ilebility and the total loss of his voi< e. 
'Ihe regiment received new shelter tents. The weather is disagree- 
ably cold and a high wind prevails. 

2J. The division marched from 'I'yner at 5:15 I'. M. going 
southerly. \Wi i)a(ked all our effects and have an understand- 
ing that we are not to return. My load consisted of two woolen 
blankets, one rubber blanket, one great coat, one rubber coat, one 
pair trousers, one shirt, one ])air drawers, tw-o pairs socks, one piece 
of tent, haversack full of rations, gun and eiiuipments. I was over- 
loaded and will march lighter another time. Reached Ringgold, 
fourteen miles distant, at midnight. Halted in the suburbs of town 
and rested till morning. Company K, being unaniied, remained in 
camp. 

24. Reveille sounded long before daylight, and preparing and eat- 
ing a hasty breakfast, we awaited orders. Moved at 8 A. M. and 
took up a position in Thoroughfare Gap, a mile south of Ringgold. 
Here we formed in line near a bridge which crosses the Chickamauga. 
Some fighting can be heard in the direction of Tunnel Hill, eight 
miles further south. 

Lieutenant Colonel 1). B. Warner, who has been absent for some 
time, joined the regiment. 

25. Our brigade marched back to Ringgold and halted in the sub- 
urbs. The men demolished fences and outbuildings to procure lum- 
ber for temporary quarters. When the war is over the owners of the 
property thus desjxjiled will have plenty of leisure to rebuild it again. 
We leave a black mark wherever we go nowadays. Colonel Mitchell, 
who has been home on leave of absence, joined the regiment to-day. 
James O. Kite and I visited a widow in town, and bought a %\o bill 
C. S. money for %\ in Lincoln money. The husband of this woman 
was killed at Fort Donelson. Our forces engaged the enemy near 
Dalton, fifteen miles from here. Some of our wounded are being 
sent back this far. Company E went on picket north of town. 

26. Major Sullivant surprised our picket post by riding up to us, 
unannounced, finding some of us asleep and without equipments on. 
He seemed displeased at it. Company B, Lieutenant John W. Kile, 
relieved us, and our company joined the regiment. Lieutenant 
Chas. Sinnet, 4th Battalion, Pioneer Brigade, is here. This is 
Catoosa County. 



February, '64.] History 0/ the iljtii O. V. I. 67 

27. The command remained quiet at Ringgold. Our troops who 
have been to the front at Dalton, are now returning. Lieutenant 
Colonel Warner takes command of the regiment. 

28. Sunday. At 9:30 A. M. we took up our line of march toward 
Chattanooga. Halted three miles from Ringgold and spent the night 
in the woods. A fire broke out in the dry leaves in camp and a 
lively time ensued. 

2g. Marched at 2:10 P. M., reaching our old camp at Rossville 
late in the afternoon. Our quarters here, from which we moved on 
the 7th inst., are still standing. Men of the regiment, who did not 
march with us from Tyner, came here two days ago and had some 
things prepared for us upon our arrival. Corporal Baker, who is to 
take Seely's place in the mess, having recovered of the mumps, has 
the hall warm and cozy. He had a warm welcome and a good 
supper for us. It rains. 



TENTING ON THE OLD CAMP GROUND. 

We're tenting to-night on the old camp ground, 

Give us a song to cheer 
Our weary hearts, a song of home 

And friends we love so dear ! 

Chorus. 
Many are the hearts that are weary to-night, 

Wishing for the war to cease; 
Many are the hearts looking for the right, 

To see the dawn of peace ; 
Tenting to-night, tenting to-night, 

Tenting on the old camp ground. 

We've been tenting, to-night, on the old camp ground, 

Thinking of the days gone by ; 
Of the loved ones at home, that gave us the hand, 

And the tear that said, Good-bye ! — Chorus. 

We are tired of war on the old camp ground ; 

Many are dead and gone, 
Of the brave and true, who've left their homes; 

Others have been wounded long. — Chorus. 

We've been fighting to-day on the old camp ground ; 

Many are lying near — 
Some are dead, and some are dying — 

Many are in tears I — 

Chorus. 
Many are the hearts that are weary to-night, 

Wishing for the war to cease , 
Many are the hearts looking for the right, 

To see the dawn of peace : 
Dying to-night, dying to-night. 

Dying on the old c.imp ground. 



68 Every-day Soldirr Life : | kossville, (in. 

M A KC H, I S64. 

/. The Paymaster ])aicl us %2(i each lo-day. What to do with such 
a pile of money is a grave question. Recruits are coming in for the 
different companies. They have good clothes, large knapsacks and 
unsatiable appetites. This is a bad i)lace for a man who has too 
much appetite. 

5. A rumor prevails in camp that a force of the enemy is at Lee 
& Ciordon's Mills, south of here. We have prepared two day's rations, 
and expect to go out to see them to-morrow, (ireen has been sick, 
but is at his meals again. 

6. Sunday. We were in line Ijefore day; then stacked arms 
and ate breakfast. Instead of marching we had general inspection, 
occupying two hours or more. Later in the day a copy of " The 
Christian I'.anner fell into \\\\ hands. In it I find the following: 



LEAVE ME AND SAVE TIIK FL.^G. 

"Captain J. M. Wells was slain in the battle of the 20th of Septeiul)er, in 
North Georgia. He was a Christian gentleman and a noble patriot, as well as a 
brave soldier. His funeral was preached in Wesley (M. E.) Church, Columbus, 
Ohio, by his pastor, Rev. Joseph M. Trimble. 

" In the sermon reference was made to his company bearing the flag of the 
regiment. When Captain Wells was shot. Sergeant W. P. louder led him out 
of the ranks and seated him at the foot of a tree, giving him water once or twice. 
The Captain urged the Sergeant to leave him and protect the flag. On returning 
to look after his wounded captain, he found him looking at a daguerreotype pic- 
ture of his wife and babes. This picture, with his watch and sword, he deliv- 
ered to his friend, requesting him to send them with his body to his family, 
telling them he died as a Christian and a soldier. Tiie narration prompted from 
an officer present the following lines: 

' Leave me and save the glorious flag I 

We'll conquer or we'll die, 
And in our God we'll put our trust, — 

The God who rules on high ; 
And he'll jirotect the good old flag 

That's floating to the weather. 
The glorious flag — the stars and stripes — 

Shall wave and wave forever. 

' Leave me to die, ye noble boys ; 

Defend your country's cause ; 
Maintain the Union of the States, 

The Constitution. Laws. 



March, '64.] History of the Jijth O. /'. /. 69 

Protect the flag, our country's flag ; 

Still float it to the weather. 
The glorious flag — the stars and stripes — 

Shall wave and wave forever. 

'Farewell, my wife and prattling babes; 

It's hard with you to part ; 
I feel my life-blood flowing fast ; 

Death's chill is on my heart. 
But leave me, boys, and raise the flag. 

Still floating to the weather. 
The glorious flag — the stars and stripes— 

Oh I may it float forever,' " L. V. B. 

Columbtn, O., Nov. I, 1863. 

8. Captain John Bowersock started home on a twenty-day fur- 
lough. The picket was re-enforced last night in anticipation of an 
attack. Peach trees are in bloom. Sam Bishop will start home to- 
morrow. 

ij. Sunday. Major Sullivant inspected the regiment to-day. An 
agent of the Christian Commission preached a good sermon for us. 
Now and then we get a taste of Sunday. We now have five hundred 
and sixty-three enlisted men. 

/J. Bought fifty candles of a member of a Michigan battery, pay- 
ing $3.25 for them. Had general inspection by Captain David E. 
Roatch, 98th O. V. 1. 

The arrival of our regimental band this evening created a sensa- 
tion in camp. The band is organized as follows : 

Leader, Edward Schellhorn ; Second Leader, Clark W. Cottrell ; 
First B Flat, Henry Pfoutch ; Second B Flat, Thomas E. Shepherd ; 
First E Flat -Alto, Nicholas Shimmel ; Second E Flat Alto, Jeremiah 
Bair; Third E Flat Alto, Raper Ellsworth; First Baritone, John 
Wolf; Second Baritone, Henry Sillbach; B Bass, John M. Hemphill; 
First Contra Bass, Daniel R. Taylor; Second Contra Bass, Martin 
Leonard; Bass Drum, Joseph H. Newcomb; Snare Drum, Joseph 
Low; Cymbals, Richard Schellhorn. 

j6. Captain A. L. Shepherd, First Lieutenant William H. Baxter, 
and Sergeant Monroe Elliott, Company K, arrived in camp and re- 
ported for duty. Ivich of these men has seen service in the 66th 
O. V. L 

Sanitary supplies were distributed to us to-day by lot. Creen held 
a winning ticket, and drew the articles named below : 

A gilt-edged Testament, two tracts, four sheets of paper, five 



^0 Evcry-iiay SoUiicr Life : \ Rossvillc, (ia. 

envelopes, one pencil, skein of thread, paper of tea, piece of court- 
plasier, piece of soap, pai)er of pei)i)er, paj^er of cloves, package of 
loaf sugar, ball of yarn, fine comb, pin cushion, a dozen pins, four 
needles and a postage stamp. 'I'hese were accom[)anied by a letter, 

which is here appended : 

East Hampton, October z'i, 1863. 

Dear Soldier. — AUhough you are a stranger to me, I thought I would write 
you a short letter to send with the comfort bag I have been making for you. I 
hope these things 1 have put in it will add a little to your comfort. If they do, 
I shall he very glad I made it. A gentleman who belongs to the Christian Com- 
mission came and spoke to us about the soldiers, and wanted our Sabbath School 
to make some comfort bags and send to them. So our class of eight little girls 
have made over thirty. We hope they will do some good. 

I have some dear friends in the army, and feel an interest in all the soldiers, 
and I often pray for them. Do you love Jesus, and do you love to pray to him ? 
I hope you do, for / love him, and he is the best friend I have. I hope you 
love to read about his life, and that you will read my Testament which I .send 
you, and that you will try to live as he wants you to. I hope God will spare 
your life and bring you to your home again ; but if he sees best to have you die, 
far away from home and friends, I hope Jesus will be with you then, and hope 
we may meet in heaven. 1 wish you would answer my little letter, if you can 
find time to do so, and tell me something about yourself. I send an envelope, 
directed right. And now a kind good-bye. From your little friend, 

Anna. 

22. Snow has been falling during the night and is now ten inches 
deep. The following shows how it is done on picket : 

Headquarters 2d Brigade, 2d Division, 14th Army Corps. "(^ 
Camp near Rossville, Ga., March 8, 1863. j 
Circular — 

All guards will fall in at the approach of officers. Grand guards will pre- 
sent arms to general officers, to colonels commanding brigades, to the officer of 
the day and to their regimental commander, once a day, should he visit the 
jiickets. 

Outposts will stand to arms and salute no person. At the approach of officers, 
sentinels will face to the front and stand at attention without saluting. They 
will not sit down, but will walk their beats constantly during their two hours of 
duty. Outposts will not sleep, but will be on the alert during their four hours 
oft' duty. Sergeants will examine passes at roads ; passes recognized only at 
roads. 

This circular will be read to the men by the commanding officers of the grand 
guard every morning before posting the pickets. All disobedience of orders 
will be reported at once, and the offender promptly punished. 

The commanding officer of the grand guard, on being relieved, will transmit 
this circular to his successor. In case of a march, or pickets being permanently 
relieved, it will be handed to the inspector. By order of 

Colonel John G. Mitchell. 



April, '64.] History 0/ the II jth O. V. I. 71 

23. To-day a spirited battle took place in camp; not a bloody 
affray with the roar of cannon and the clash of muslcetiy as an 
accompaniment; not a struggle in mortal combat in which the shouts 
of the victor and the groans of the vanquished added interest to the 
scene; but one in which friend vied with friend in strategy and skill. 
The snow being in good packing condition probably suggested the 
idea to some of the men that a snowball battle would be a source of 
grand fun. The preliminaries were spon arranged. The 98th O. V. 
I. and 78th Illinois arrayed on one side, and on the other the 121st O. 
V. I. and the 113th O. V. I. Positions were taken, the strength of the 
opposing forces was carefully ascertained by reconnoitering parties, 
which played their several parts with tactical precision. At length 
the main body became engaged and the charging and retreating by 
turns went on at an interesting rate. The war was carried to Ger- 
many, for the io8th O. V. I. finally shared in the contest, and in the 
end each party proclaimed his side victorious. All ended well and 
the occasion will long be remembered because of the solid fun it fur- 
nished. If nations could only settle their difficulties by snowballing 
battles, or by pounding one another over the head with pillows, war 
would be stripped of most of its horrors. 

2J. The men make occasional trips to Lookout Mountain, climb its 
rugged sides to its summit, view the splendid scenery, talk poetry, 
drink from the gushing fountains on its sides, and then return to 
camp with an appetite which destroys the peace of the mess. These 
romantic rambles ought to be made when we are drawing full rations. 

31. The Second Division, commanded by General Jeff. C. Davis, 
was reviewed by General Geo H. Thomas, accompanied by (General 
Palmer. Each of the several commanders was accompanied by his 
respective staff officers, and there was parade and pomp in profusion. 
Those who were mounted enjoyed the review very much, but the 
footmen indulged in some profane expletives, which led me to think 
they would enjoy full rations much better than a review which kept 
them on the jump for four hours. Schellhorn's band came in for its 
share of the glory of the occasion. What a grand thing is music 
when you are short of milk ! The bass drum is minus one head. 



APRIL, 186 4. 

/. The recruits are being initiated into the delights of picket duty. 
A number of deserters, belonging to our own command, are kept 



"J 2 I'.i 1 1 \-,uiy Suliiiii J.ijc : | Rossvillc, (ia. 

under guard near l)ivision licadiiuarlers. ( )nc of them g(jl away l)y 
some trick last night, but was retaken in trying to crawl through the 
picket line. 'I'ruly the way of the transgressor is hard, even in 
Cieorgia. 

2. Major SuUivant made to Adjutant (leneral Cowen the following 
historic report of the 1 13th : 

IIeaiji.ilartkks 113th (X V. I., I 
Caml' nkak Rossvii.i.e, Ga., April 2, 1864. (' 

AdJI I'ANT Gl-.MvKAI. CoWKN: 

Sir — Accompanying you will find ihc complete muster r<jll!) of this regiment, 
in compliance with Gov. Hrough's order of February 19th. 

The organization of this regiment was commenced in August, 1862, at Camj) 
Chase. It proceeded slowly, however, for some time, and in October we were 
ordered to Camp Zanesville to till up our ranks. We remained there until De- 
cember 14th, when we were ordered to Camp Denni-son, numbering at that time 
thirty-two commissioned officers and seven hundred and twenty-one enlisted 
men. The 109th O. \'. I. \\as then consolidated with the 113th, giving us an 
additional company. On the 28th of December we were transferred to Louis- 
ville, Ky., numbering thirty-five commissioned officers and eight hundred and 
fifty-seven enlisted men. On the 5th of January, 1863, we removed by rail to 
Muldraugh Hill, Ky., where we remained guarding the railroad bridge until the 
27th of January, when we moved back to Louisville and embarked on the steamer 
St. Patrick, for Nashville Owing to the crowded condition of the boat, the 
voyage was very unpleasant, and tlie health of the regiment suli'ered to such an 
e.\tent that it has c\en now scarcely recovered from its effects. Nashville was 
reached February 8th, whence we soon proceeded to F'ranklin, 'I'enn., and on 
the I3lh of February went into camp. We remained there several months, 
occasionally exclianging the quiet of cam]) life for a scout or a long march in 
anticipation of meeting the enemy. 

When Earl \"an Dorn made so determined an attack upon our forces at that 
place, the regiment was ordered to Triune, on the 2d of June, 1863, and on the 
24lh of that month, in company with the entire .^rmy of the Cumberland, we 
took up our line of march toward Rebeldom, and parlicijiated in tlie trying 
scenes of the successful "TuUahoma Camjiaign." Our brigade formed a por- 
tion of the right wing of the army, and, although it was not our fortune to be- 
come actively engaged, we endured with all necessary fortitude the exposures 
and severities of the march, and entered Shelbyville on the 1st of July, and 
viewed the waving of Union banners and shouts of welcome from the noble 
population of that celebrated Union town. We encamped at that place, and 
remained until August nth, when we were ordered to Wartrace to guard the 
Nashville & Chattanooga railroad. Thence we commenced marching on the 
5th of September toward Chattanooga, and participated in the severe hardships 
of the Chickamauga Campaign, marching day and night lor three weeks over 
rough mountain roads and across numerous streams, and making frequent recon- 
noissances to\\ ard the enemy's position. Finally, on the afternoon of Sunday, 
Septemlter 20th, in company witii two lirigades of our corps (the reserve corps). 



April, '64. J Hblory 0/ l/ic iljlh O. V. /. 73 

we were precipitated upon the hosts of the enemj, who were advancing in a 
vast army to overwhelm our left and destroy the army. Public opinion, as well 
as official reports, give to the force of which we formed a part, the credit of 
having that day saved the army from a terrible disaster 

We took into action an aggregate of four hundred and ten officers and men. 
Our loss was: Killed — officers, 4; men, 19: wounded officers, 2 ; men, 103 ; 
missing men, 19 

After the Ijatlle the regiment retirctl willi tlie armv to Chattanooga, and there 
remained during tlie siege by Hragg's army. What the Army of the Cumber- 
land sufi'ered during that time for want uf food and clothing is now a matter of 
hist^r), and unnecessary lor the annalist of a single regiment to dilate upon. 
In the l)attle of Mission Kidge, November 23d, our division, (we having been 
transferred to the 2d Hrigade, 2d Division, 14th Army Corps,) was held in reserve 
under (leneral Sherman, and after the battle led in pursuit of the enemy, with 
wliose rear guard we had a sharp contest, on the afternoon of the 26th, near 
Chickamaujia Station. 

After the rebels \\ere driven below Dalton, Slierman's column w as ordered bv 
General Crant to marcli to the relief of Burnside, whom the latest reports rep- 
resented as besieged by Longstreet, with only a small supply of provisions on 
liand. Burnside reported that he could only hold out until the 3d of Decemlier. 
I'his gave our forces about four days to reach him, but the necessity was urgent, 
and the troops w illingly undertook the forced marches necessary to succor the 
ainiy at Knuwille, although in clothing tliey were entirely unprepared for such 
a journey, and had started from Chattanooga w ith only two d.ty's rations. The 
weatlier was extremely cold, and large numbers of the men were barefooted, 
and, as we were forced to depend upon the country through which we marched 
fur provisions, the privations and sufferings of the men were probably unex- 
nm])led in the history of this war. Upon our arrival at the little Tennessee, 
within twenty miles of Knoxville, news was received that Longstreet had re- 
treateil. We were therefore directed to retrace our steps, and finally reached 
our old camps at Chattanooga on the 20th of December, ha"ving been constantly 
on the move for f'ur weeks On the 2d of January, 1864, we were transferred 
to the cam]) we now occujjy, where we liave since remained, with the exception 
of an occasional f<ninight's ai)sence guarding some railroad station in the vicin- 
ity, or taking part in a reconnoissance toward the enemy's position at Dalton. 

The tenth com])any { K), having been recruited under authority of the (jov- 
ernor, was completeii about the 1st of March, and at that time the regiment 
nund)ered : Commissioneil officers, twenty-six ; enlisted men, seven hundred and 
live. Tlie regiment is in excellent health and condition, and ready to do good 
service to the country in the approaching campaigns. 

\'ery respectfully, your obedient servant, 

L. St.vri.i.nc Sui.i.n ant. 
Mil j or Coiiiniatuiing II3M Ohio I'oluntccrs. 



74 tivci y-iiay Sohiui IaJc : [Kossvillc, ti;i. 

4. (irccn was on jjickct in ihf rain last niglit. He says: " it was 
so dark I could not keep my beat, and the rain fell in torrents. I 
leaned against a tree and took it like an ox. ( )h I didn't 1 love my 
countr) about then .'" 

Cai)tain Howersock returned from his furlough yesterday. C'aplain 
Renjamin, Comi)any li, came in also. The latter was wounded at 
("hickamauga, and this is tlie first we have seen of him since that 
day. We are glad to see them both. 

J. Have been on regimental guard, Lieutenant iJaxter being 
officer of the guard. Two men of C"omi)any C were drunk and 
noisy. Lieutenant H. and 1 lied them both to trees, with a bayonet 
in the mouth of each. They remained tied till the effects of the 
whisky al)ated and they became quiet. This created not a little 
tt.xcitement in cam]), and resistance was threatened, but none offered. 

6. One of the men who created the trouble yesterday was again tied 
up. This time he was placed on his liack with his feet tied on either 
side of a big stump, where he remained till the spirits left him. 
These men are recruits and ha\'c not yet had their i)rcaking-in. 

7. John Craig and John G. (ianson reached the regiment to-day 
and will l)e assigned to Company R. Lieutenant Colonel NVarner, 
who has been for some time past in command of the Third Ohio, has 
returned to the regiment and will be in command. M. L. Stratton 
and Isaac Green visited the battlefield of Chickamauga to-day, and 
this evening have much to say of wlial ihey saw. The t|uarters of 
Company K were partially destroyed by fire. 

g. Henry Dewitt and 1 went to Chattanooga on some business. 
Sent %2,o to Mrs. A. Cleveland for Lieutenant Geo. H. Lipjiinccnt. 

//. 1). H. Chatfield, who has been on recruiting service in Ohio 
since October, joined his company to-day. He left a corporal, but 
returns a second lieutenant. The duties of the day closed with 
dress parade, prayer meeting and a dance. 

75. The chaplain, assisted by a number of the soldiers, has erected 
a bower church b\ planting a lot of pine bushes in a square, about 
25 by 25 feet. .V brush roof is constructed over the whole, which 
gives it a verdant, cozy appearance. Meetings of considerable inter- 
est are being held here of evenings. Half a mile southeast of us 
stands McAfee's Chapel, a former place of worship. This building 
is now full of army stores, consisting of l)read, meat, coffee, salt, 
candles, kraut, vinegar, and whisky. Captain ( )rr has charge of 
these supplies. 

16. C'aptain ("has. V. (rarman and !,ieutenants C'rouse and Dun- 



April, '64. J History of the njtli O. l. J. 75 

can returned to duty to-day, having been at home on furlough for 
some time. 

rj. Robert Doak of the Sixty-sixth, Bennett and Hunter of the 
Second — all Champaign county boys — visited friends in our regi- 
ment. The Second is at Graysville. 

26. The time drags heavily. Daring the past ten days the 
monotony of duties has been abiiost distressing. However, we are 
that much nearer the end of the war, and that much nearer our 
respective destinies. (ieneral Davis, our division commander, has 
issued an order prohibiting enlisted men from wearing boots in our 
future movements. Fortunately for me 1 sold to Lieutenant Kile 
my $8 boots some days ago, but Green jias an expensive pair on 
hands (feet), which he says will not be thrown away to comply with 
the order of anybody. Many of the men have boots that have cost 
high prices, and to be compelled to abandon them and wear shoes 
will be next to an outrage. I notice that General Davis wears boots. 
The weather for some time past has been warm and spring-like, and 
the men insist on drilling without their blouses. Of course this was 
not granted. Lieutenant Colonel Warner has ordered that all lights 
be extinguished in our (juarters immediately after taps, and that no 
men be allowed to roam through camp at late hours. All persons 
using profane and obscene language, or who are found creating dis- 
turbance in camp, are to be reported to their company commanders. 
This is as it should be, but some of the men complain loudly of it. 

Springtime is upon us, but there has been no jjlowing done in all 
this country, nor will there be. The farmers are nearly all from 
home; those who are at home have no teams nor seed. The citizens 
have been getting their living of our government for months. When 
the army goes forward from here their case will be i)itiable. 

The evening meetings at the bower church continue and the inter- 
est increases. Chaplain Morris is untiring in his zeal to fit the men 
for a better life. Twenty-two men rose to their feel, in one of the 
meetings, expressing a desire to lead new lives. 

30. The end of our stay at Rossville approaches. We are 
instructed to send home or abandon all surplus baggage, and a large 
number of boxes and packages are now at headquarters to be shipped to 
the North. Officers are allowed only a change of clothing, and the 
men will not be permitted to carry heavy knapsacks. 

This afternoon I went to Chattanooga to express some goods 
belonging to men of Company K. \Ve were mustered for pay. 



^6 Evcry-Uay SolUiei Lijc : [Al Ringgold. 

M A \\ 1864. 

/. Sunday. Everv preparation is Ijcing completed for moving, and 
it is understood that this is our last day in cami) at Rossville. We 
canie here the dav after ( 'hri>lnias, and thougli our slay in this camp 
has been mainly comfortable, it has, of late, been very monotonous, 
and the troops have become restless and want to be doing ;iome- 
thing. 'I'he prospect of entering upon a campaign against the 
enemy, and of penetrating further and further into his country, has 
a fascination in it for the soldiers, and they are in fine spirits to-day. 
Chaplain Morris preached morning and evening, and the exercises 
were well attended and full of interest. 

2. The Second Division filed out of camp at half i)ast eight this 
morning, heading southeasterly. I confess to a feeling of regret in 
leaving "Metropolitan Hall." I may never again sleep under its 
rude but friendly roof, nor hear the echo of music within its walls. 
1 must e.xchange its comforts for the rude life that awaits us on the 
tented field. The 113th had two hundred and fifty-eight files of 
men this morning, and her total strength is six hundred and seven 
men. The day has been cool and pleasant, with a shower in the 
forenoon. We reached Ringgold at 3 P. M. and pitched tents near 
the Chickamauga, nearly a mile from the town. During the evening 
many of us visited and explored a cave in the vicinit) of camp. 
We learn that our entire corjjs is here. 

J. Yesterdav and the da\ liefore was spent (piietly resting in our 
camp, where we halted on the 2d. The men cut down large chest- 
nut trees, and peeling the bark from the logs in great strips, si)read it 
on a ])latform of poles for a bed, leaving the raw or flesh side of the 
bark uj). The owner of this forest wilt not need to cut down any rail 
timber for some time. 

The Division moved at 6 o'clock A. M., passing through Ringgold 
and beyond Thoroughfare (iap, filed into line, stacked arms and 
rested. Here, seated on my knapsack, I \\ fote a letter to my wife. 
The circumstances were so peculiar that the dimness that seemed to 
obscure the lines on m\ pai)er could not be attributed to age, for I 
am not yet twenty-six. During the day we received mail, and my 
share was a letter containing the picture of my wife and our boy. 
These must go with me to the end. I'he Fourth, Fourteenth, 
Twentieth, and 'J'weniy-third corps are now here. Our advance has 
confronted the enemy during the day. and the booming cannon has 
echoed over hill, ridge and vaHe) . 



May, '64.] Jlistory of the Jjjth O. I'. J. . 77 



6. Major L S. Sullivant joined us to-day. All were glad to see 
him. He has been absent for some time on furlougli. No leaves of 
absence are being granted now; men are needed in their places in 
the ranks or elsewhere. We do not move till to-morrow. 

7. The whole column move toward Tunnell Hill. Our advance 
and the enem\- keep up a lively contest in which musketry and 
artillery rattle and roar by turns. 'I'iie enemy gave way and fell 
back in order. Our brigade took a position within a mile of the 
town, our line running east and west. Later in the day we passed 
to the right of town and camped one and a half miles to the east, 
where we spent a (luiet niglit. 

S. Sunday. Remained camped during the forenoon, during which 
time Chaplain Morris preached a short discourse. We are watching 
the contest between the two lines of skirmishers at the entrance to 
the gap, which is called Buzzard's Roost. 

At 2 P. M. the Brigade formed and took a position at the entrance 
of the gap. Our line is parallel with the railroad and facing east. 
Our purpose is to drive a force of the enemy from the ridge in our 
front. A line of skirmishers, Com[)anies I and H (commanded by 
Captain Durant and Captain Watson), of the 113th, was deployed in 
our front. The skirmish line commanded by Colonel H. B. Banning, 
i2ist O. V. 1., moved promptly, and the Brigade, commanded by 
Colonel John G. Mitchell, followed in line of battle at a proper dis- 
tance. For several hundred yards our way lay through a tangled 
mass of underbrush, through which we moved with great difficulty. 
Crossing a creek near the base of the ridge we began the ascent. 
U)), up, up we go, each moment e.xi)ecting to receive the fire of the 
foe. But the crest of the ridge is reached without a shot, for the 
eneiiiy had fled at our approach and taken a position on a ridge run- 
ning i)arallel with this one, and from which they began firing at us, 
the shots whistling aljout our heads in a manner not to be relished. 
As we moved along the top of the ridge, one of our men, William 
McMannus, Company I, was shot and fell down dead within a few 
feet of me. This is our first loss in the campaign. Our chai)lain 
took charge of the body, and the column descended to the valley 
and halted an hour in an open field. We then countermarched, 
crossed the point of the ridge before mentioned, and, ascending a 
ridge to the east, stacked arms and halted for the night. Half the 
men of each company returned to the cam]) from which we moved 
early in the afternoon, to bring forward the knapsacks and baggage 
whicli had been left behind. 1 went on this tlul)', i)ringing baggage 



78 Ei'fry-Jiiy SoUiti -Li/t- : [lUi/.zard Rcx)sl 

belonging to Cireen and niysclf. \Vc were all very tired, and tlu' 
rebels were kind enough to let us rest well during the night. 

g. Two guns of Hattery (', ist Illinois Artillery, were dragged up 
and placed in ])osition on the ridge. These kept up a heavy fire on 
the enemy's ])osition south of the railroad, on the side of a huge hill. 
At dusk the skirmish firing in uur front became very earnest, and an 
additional company (K) was sent forward to strengthen our line. 
The men took their position and for an hour lay on their faces, while 
the l)Lillets spattered on the gravel and among the rocks of the ridge. 
Later in the night rations were issued to us, and by the time this was 
attended to it was past midnight. 

10. Three additional guns were put in position during last night 
on this ridge, and to-day they have been jjounding away at the rebels 
in front, right and left, 'i'he infantry withdrew from the crest of the 
hill and sheltered themselves behind it. Here they dug little exca- 
vations in the hillside so that they might rest secure, without the 
risk of rolling down the hill. Company (} are on the skirmish line. 

//. The incidents of to-day have been much the same as yester- 
day. A battery of the enemy got the range of our guns late in the 
afternoon, and for a time their fire grazed the hill, passed over our 
heads and exploded in the valley below. In the evening our brigade 
withdrew into the valley, where we spent the night comfortably. 

12. Marched in the direction of Tunnel Hill at sunrise. After 
going two and a half miles in this direction, we took a road leading 
in a more southerly course, and through a country very little im- 
proved. At dark we halted and took supper in a cornfield, then 
resuming the march, we continued till after midnight. Our way 
during the night lay through a narrow pass or gap, with high and 
precipitous rocks and cliffs on either hand. 1 am told that this 
defile is called Snake Creek Cai). This is a flank movement on the 
enemy. I like it better than fighting their front. John Ganson was 
sick to-day, and has been in an ambulance part of the time. Have 
marched twenty-two miles. 

/J. Marched soon after daylight, going nearly east. Halted at 
8 A. M., stacked arms in a valley. Knapsacks were unslung, piled, 
and left in charge of a guard. Tents and blankets were packed and 
slung, and then the command rested. We are now on the enemy's 
right flank. He holds a strong position at Resaca, near this, and on 
the Western & Atlantic railway, fifty-two miles from Chattanooga, in 
(iordon county, Georgia. Every preparation being made indicates a 
liattle. 



May, "64.1 I lis lory oj I he 1 13 th O. V. /. 



79 



At 3 P. M. we marched toward Resaca. We can hear the contest 
as we approach. Our brigade shifted from one position to another 
during the evening, but our regiment did not become engaged. Parts 
of the brigade sustained some loss. ^Ve spent the night in a woods 
on the right of a road that appears to run north and south. 

14. Our position was changed fretiuently during the forenoon. A 
brisk engagement took place east of us at i P. M., and we moved in 
that direction, formed a line in the edge of a cornfield, moved across 
the field in line of battle, and rested in a ravine at the cast edge 
of the field. Then moving by the left flank, we formed a new line 
three hundred yards to the north, in a thick wood, immediatel) west 
(?) of the enemy's fortifications. We again shifted position nearly a 
quarter of a mile, and again lay down. Chaplain Morris ])assed 
along the line exhorting the men to trust in God, do their dat\ . and 
all would be well. The Chaplain has the grit. Then, moving by 
the left flank, we lay down at the base of a ridge, which protected us 
from a terrific fire oi the enemy. 'I'he 108th Ohio, and 34th Illinois, 
were more exposed, and suffered some loss. The 45th O. V. 1. took 
a position near us. They had lost heaviU during the dav. Night 
coming on, we retired to the edge of the cornfield, where we had 
formed in line first in the afternoon. 

75. Sunday. Before breakfast our regiment took a new p().-,ition. 
one and a half miles to the southeast, on a ridge, o\ erlooking a valley, 
and in sight of the enemy's position at Resaca. We occupied works 
which had been constructed last night. The main l)od\' of the 
regiment sheltered itself behind the crest of the hill, occupving the 
pits by comininies, in relief, three hours at a time, .\fter dark, when 
all was quiet, a spirited colloqu)' took place between the blue and 
the gray. The reb.el shouted: "Say, N'ank, where is Hooker.'^ " and 
the reply was: "You will hear from joe soon enough." " Sav» 
Johnnie, ha\e you any corn bread.'' Want to trade for coffee.^"' 
The rebels boasted how thev intended to whip us to-morrow. Their 
many taunts met as many cutting replies, '["hen both sides would 
loose tenqier, and exchange shots. 

At midnight a very heavy firing opened to our left, aiul the regi- 
ment crowded into the rifie-pits, ready for an attack. 

/6. The iiromised whi[)ping is indefinitely post])oned. hthnnie is 
gone from our front this morning, and we are glad. Karly in the 
forenoon we returned to the valley where we left our knajjsacks on 
Friday last. Taking these again, we were soon moving rapidU 
southward. Passed fine farms, good houses and other evidences t)f 



8o Evtry-iiity Soliiicr Ltjf : | Kuini;, (■<!. 

ini])r(n cmcut. 'I'lic ladio on our way arc tastily dressed and aitpcar 
to lie ( ultivatcd. ()iir man h lasted till alter ilark, and we have 
ino\ ed rapidly nearly all ilay. 

Some are inijuirinj^ to know it deneral l)avis" lu^rse has given out, 
and if we are halted on that ac<:ount. Have niarc;hed about twentv 
miles. We are eighteen miles from Rome, which is our destination. 

ij. Marthed early, and at noon halted for dinner, four miles from 
Rome. Rested an hour, and moved ahead. Within two miles of 
the tow n our advance began to exchange >lK>ts with the enemy's out- 
l)osts, anil the musketry grew tierce and fiercer as we neared the 
town. ( )ur forces took position in line on either side of the Soiner- 
\ ille road. Ihe 34th Illinois Volunteers (X'eterans) was sent forward 
with instructions to bring on an engagement, and then retire so as to 
bring the rebels within reach of our line. The order was e.xecuted, 
but the wiU toe did not t'ollow when the .i4lh tell back. The 22d 
Indiana Infantry shared in the attack, and both regiments suffered 
losses. The enemy fell back, crossed the river into Rome, and 
burned the britlge behind them. ()ur troo|)s remained in line and 
threw u|) a hne of ritle pits the entire length of the line, before 
morning. 

18. It i> thought thai the enemy has left Rome, and that we will 
soon cross and occupy the town. The brigade went into camp near 
a number of fine residences near where the tight occurred yesterday. 
A fatigue parl\ buried some of the rebel dead left on the field, and 
citizens re|)ort that the\ carried off a great many as they tell back. 

Roses are in bloom ; I sent one in a letter to my wife to-day. 

.\ line of ririe pits run through the dcjor \ ard of one of these line 
mansions, and the tence has disapjKared. We are teaching these 
pe(.)ple to take a joke. Rome had a population of about three 
thousand, but at present many of the able-bodied men are absent 
in the Confederate arni\ . 

ig. Part of the division crossed the river and occupied the town. 
the enemy having left the town for good. A great quantity of to- 
bacco, captured in Rome, was distributed among the men to-day. 
Thank vou, 1 don'l use the weed. Companies K, C, C and K went 
on picket at dark 

23. Our stay here has lengthened out beyond our expectations, 
and we have had a very jjleasant \isit among the Romans. Sorry we 
have to move before their garden stuff gets tit for use. This evening 
the second brigade crossed the Oostalauna into Rome, filed right, 
crossed the Ktowah on a pontoon below the site of the bridge des- 



May, '64. J History 0/ the 113 t/i O. V. I. 81 

troyed by the retreating rebels, and went into camp a mile further on. 
The Oostalauna and Etowah rivers unite here, forming the Coosa. 
Rome is the county seat of Floyd county, and has been a good busi- 
ness place. 

Isaac L. Gray, Jacob Fudge and Daniel R. Baker, Company E, 
deserted to-day. They will be able to steal their way to Ohio. 

24. Our division moved in the direction of Van Wert, and after 
a brisk march of eighteen miles, formed a junction with the troops of 
the fifteenth and sixteenth corps. Our route shows little of the 
ravages of war. Camped in a peach orchard. 

25. Moved ahead, leaving Van Wert to our right. Took dinner 
in a cornfield and again moved in a southerly course. At 3 P. M. a 
heavy firing was heard several miles ahead of our column, and in 
consequence we quickened our pace, some times going at double 
quick. A heavy rain set in at dark, but we pressed forward in the 
darkness. Went into camp late in the night, wet, hungry and tired. 
We now learn that Hooker had an engagement with the enemy, 
causing the firing mentioned. 

26. Dried clothes and tents. Marched three miles to the east, 
and rested two hours. We then left-faced, and with left in front, 
went back two miles, took a road bearing left and passed through 
Dallas, the county seat of Paulding county, Ga. We received a large 
mail and drew three day's rations, late at night. 

27. We seem to be near the main line of the enemy. At 8 A.M. 
our brigade marched a mile northeast, halted and stacked arms. 
Ate an early dinner and then shifted position to a hill half a mile to 
the southeast. We are hid by the trees and thick underbrush. 
Heavy firing goes on at all points of the line. Company C went on 
the skirmish line during the night. 

28. We held our position till evening; then moving northwardly 
one and a half miles, we formed a line in the edge of the woods, with 
an open field in our front Our line runs north and south. During 
the night we made our position secure by constructing works of rails 
and dirt. Heavy cannonading goes on, day and night, but we are 
becoming accustomed to it, and sleep well. 

2g. Sunday. The 113th picketed on the left of the 14th A. C.j 
two and a half miles from our works. Company E rested in the 
shade, in reserve during the day, but went on the front line at night. 
We divided to four posts, with a corporal and six men to each. 
Anthony Shimel, John \\ . Taylor, John Wilson. John Wank, Daniel 



82 Kvcry-iiay Soliiicr Li/c : [Jolmny iU Hay 

Walker, Joseph Warner and myself were on a post tot^ether, and we 
tried to enjoy the situation. 

Several times during the ni<,'ht the pickets of the enemy opened up 
on us with heavy firin;^ and deafening yells, but neither of them had 
any fatal effect. WHien all was cpiiet they seemed to want informa- 
tion, and would shout at us such questions as these : " Say, Yank, 
do you want some tobacco?" "Yank, don't you wish you was a 
union?" " ^^'here's Hooker?" We answered as courteously as the 
case required. 

JO. The i2ist O. V. I. relieved us at 8 A. M., and we returned to 
our former position and spent the day resting, washing, sleeping, etc. 
I have been reading "Beyond the Lines, or a Yankee Prisoner Loose 
in Dixie." The weather is very warm. 

ji. The 34th Illinois is skirmishing in our front to-day. The 
enemy have been annoying our part of the line by an almost con- 
tinual fire from a battery on the summit of a very high hill in our 
front. We took shelter in trenches, then took to the woods in the 
rear and each man sought a place of safety. After an hour we re- 
turned to the trenches and remained unmolested till evening. One 
of our musicians had his horn broken by a fragment of shell. 



JUNE, 1864. 

/. At midnight, last night, the 113th vacated her works, and mov- 
ing two miles to the left, stopped in an old field grown u]) with small 
pines. Remained till past noon to-day. Then moving to the left, 
we passed a part of the line occupied by the 20th A. C, and took 
supper in a hollow. At dusk we occupied a part of the line a mile 
further to the left, relieving the looth O. V. L, and the 112th Illinois 
Regiments, of the Twenty-third Corps. Slept in line with arms and 
accoutrements on. Company H took the skirmish line. Our line 
and that of the enemy are within rifle range of each other, and that 
brings the skirmishers almost face to face. There is no harmony 
between the two sets of skirmishers, and they are kept hid from each 
other continually. Some of our skirmish pits fill with water, and 
the occupants must keep the water tossed out or stay out themselves, 
exposed to the shots of the enraged foe. 

J. Still holding our position in the rain and mud. The balls of 
the enemy whiz over our heads too closely for safety and comfort. 



June, '64.] History of the 113th 0. V. I. S3 

Last night and the night before we fell in and stood in line in our 
works, expecting the enemy was moving upon us, but they came not. 
It rains. 

4. Our brigade was relieved soon after daylight. Moved to the 
rear in a heavy rain, prepare'd and ate breakfast, then moved to the 
left four miles. Took dinner, drew rations, put up our shelter tents, 
and stayed for the night. It rains. 

5. Drew fresh beef, put it on the fire to cook, but moved before it 
was half done. Marched a mile to the northeast. Here the right 
wing of the regiment went into position, and the five left Companies, 
H, E, K, G and B, went on the skirmish line, relieving troops of the 
145th New York Infantry. All is quiet in our front, and we are told 
that the rebels have vacated this part of the line. 

6. The pickets were called from post and formed on Company K, 
near a frame house. Here are seven rebel deserters who had come 
in and surrendered to Captain Shepherd's company. They are dirty, 
poorly clad, ignorant and forbidding in their appearance. After an 
hour waiting, the five right Companies, A, F, D, I and C, with 
the brigade, came along, and we moved, all together, several miles 
to the right, went into line in the edge of a woods near a cornfield. 
Here we constructed the customary rail barricade, got supper, took a 
wash, and then slept for the night quietly away. 

7. We are resting where we halted yesterday. This is two miles 
from Ackworth, and thirty-five miles from Atlanta. The country 
hereabouts is very little improved, a large per cent, of the whole 
country being a dense forest. 

10. Yesterday and the day before we rested quietly in the shade. 
At 8 A. M. to-day we moved eastward, and after a march of six 
miles or less, halted in a peach orchard. Here we spent an hour 
waiting for the wagon trains of the 15th A. C. to pass. During the 
afternoon we traveled seven miles, a tremendous rain pouring upon 
us. 1 am ill, and have marched with great difficulty. Was very 
glad when the order was given to stack arms. 

//. We are now confronting the rebel army, and the usual roar of 
musketry goes on. Countermarched some distance during the fore- 
noon, put up tents, let it rain and took dinner. In the evening we 
moved on a mile and closed by divisions, en masse, within half a 
mile of the railroad, near Big Shanty, a station about twenty-seven 
miles from Atlanta. 

12. Sunday. There seemed to be a little respect paid to the day. 



84 Evoy-i/ay SoUicr Li/f : 1 1 )cath of J,l. I'lalt 

The skirmishers were not as noisy as yesterday. Another torrent of 
rain fell. A high, ugly hill a mile or more in our front is the strong- 
hold of the enemy. A somewhat flat and open scope of country lies 
between us and the rel)el lines. 

/J. Rain again to-day. Si.x prison(!rs were taken by the i)i(:kets 
of our brigade. 

14. About noon we took arms, and, preceded by a heavy skirmish 
line, the brigade moved in line of battle in tlie direction of the line 
of the enemy, about a mile, the enemy falling back as we pressed 
forward. We halted on the north edge of a large, open field, where 
we put up works. 

75". At ten o'clock A. M. I went with other men to get beef. 
During our absence a fierce artillery fight took place on McPherson's 
right and to our left, east of the railroad. Our lines advanced and 
held the ground. Our pickets gained the further side of the field 
and put up the necessary protection. When we advanced during 
the engagement many of the rebel pickets ran toward our lines with 
white flags floating from their arms in token of surrender. It was a 
clear case of desertion. Our men cheered them heartily. While 
this was going on the excitement caused our men to place themselves 
in conspicuous positions to witness what went on, thus making them- 
selves targets for the rebel sharpshooters. A shot, which must have 
been fired from a distance of half a mile, struck James Steward, Com- 
any E, 34th Illinois, and Cyrus G. Piatt, commanding Company G, 
113th O. V. I., wounding both fatally. The ball passed through 
Steward's head and lodged in Piatt's. He lived till four o'clock this 
afternoon. Few men hold such a ])lace in my esteem as this man 
who has just laid down his life for his country. I became ac(piainted 
with him early in our term of service, and that acquaintance has grown 
riper and sweeter as trials and dangers thickened. A few minutes 
before he fell he passed and addressed me pleasantly, and as he 
passed on, Sergeant Stratton remarked that Lieutenant Piatt was 
among the worthy men of our regiment. His death casts a gloom over 
the whole regiment. Late at night we stood to arms in expectation 
of an assault by the enemy, "but he failed to come. 

16. My health improves. We have had a day or two without 
rain. Heavy skirmishing goes on right and left. In our front it is 
more quiet. I have drawn a pair of new shoes. Have been trying to 
patch a gap in my pants but gave it up. I was not intended for a tailor. 
Rebel deserters report the death of Lieutenant General Polk, of the 



June, '64.] History of the iJjth 0. V. I. 85 

C. S. A. We improved our works to some extent, and now, if Johnnie 
wants to come, we are ready. 

77. I learn to-day that the mountain to the southeast is called 
Kenesaw. We have held ourselves in readiness to move all day. A 
brisk fight took place on our left and in the front of the i6th A. C. 
Rain. A rebel signal on the mountain is kept in motion almost con- 
tinually, day and night. The enemy made a feint in our front at 
ten o'clock last night, causing us the trouble of getting ready to wel- 
come him, but he halted too far away to suit us. James Anderson, 
Company C, was wounded in the neck to-day. 

18. Rained nearly all day. This evening our line was advanced 
nearly five hundred yards, and established on the further edge of the 
cornfield. The enemy seemed not to observe us and offered no re- 
sistance. 

ig. Sunday. During the day our line was advanced closer to the 
mountain, the rebels having given way. But he holds a strong posi- 
tion yet on the mountain. Company E went on the skirmish line at 
the base of the mountain. We were not to fire unless the enemy ad- 
vanced, consequently we had rather an agreeable time. Late in the 
afternoon our artillery engaged the enemy and they exchanged com- 
pliments over the heads of us skirmishers in a very discourteous 
manner, many of our own shells falling nearer our skirmish line than 
the enemy. 

20. Part of the line of skirmishers was relieved at 3 A. M., leav- 
ing sixteen of Company E still on duty. I was among this number, 
and I preferred this duty rather than to return to the main line. 
There is something fascinating about this thing of crouching behind 
a pile of rocks and being fired at by the foe ; it is a game at which 
two can play, with equal chances of winning. 

The artillery practice was resumed early in the forenoon, and 
continued at intervals during the day, both sides firing over our 
heads. Many of our shells fell short, and endangered our own 
skirmishers. In one case rather a strange thing hap|)ened : Two 
skirmishers of the 108th Ohio, on ovir left, were lying on their faces, 
side by side, with their feet toward our battery. A shell from one of 
our guns struck between them, burying itself in the earth. Neither 
of the men were injured, but one of them had his pants leg torn 
open from the foot to the waist. 

At night Captain Shepherd's company came to our relief, and we 
joined the line, half a mile in the rear. 



86 FAvry-day Sohiicr Life : \ I'rontiiTg Kcncsaw 

21. Considerable rain fell. We are in line, half a mile west of 
Kenesaw's base. Comparative (|uiet reigns. 1 procured the consent 
of Lieutenant Colonel Warren to use a log stable which stood on our 
right, to construct better defences in our front. We soon had the 
logs in position, and by ten o'clock at night we had a complete work 
constructed. 

22. Early in the day the enemy began shelling us from the sum- 
mit of Kenesaw, and he made a full day's work of it. Our batteries 
and sharj) shooters put in their work diligently, but there was no let 
up to him. We can see the gunner as he rams the charge home, 
then comes a puff of smoke, and in two or three seconds the shots 
come shrieking through the air, sometimes striking in the timber 
in our rear, sometimes plowing up the dirt in our front, and bound- 
ing over our heads and landing a thousand feet behind us. About 
dinner time we were driven into our pits, leaving our dinners on the 
fire. We remained sheltered till our dinners were over-cooked. The 
boys were so mad at this, that they omitted to return thanks at their 
meals. 

Near midnight, while Dr. Wilson was dressing the wounds of one 
of the men, the light of the candle he was using attracted the 
attention of the rebel gunner on the mountain, and a shot was fired 
which was well aimed. It carried off a leg apiece for Esau Rice 
and Albert Fields, of our regiment, who were assisting the surgeon 
in his duties. How shall I ever forget the shrieks of these men ? 
The day and night have been full of terror to us all. During the 
night we packed up, and for a time expected to move out. 

2j. Our batteries and skirmishers made it lively for the enemy all 
day, with little reply from that side till late in the evening. Some 
of the left companies strengthened their works during the night. 
We rested unusually well. 

24. This has been rather a (piiet day. Some of us have not had 
our clothes off to sleep for many days. A little cpiiet and rest just 
now would be appreciated. The rebel guns on the mountain seem 
to have dissappeared. 

25. We learn that yesterday was a day of fasting and prayer with 
the rebels. If we had known it sooner we would not have disturbed 
them in their devotions as we did. This statement explains their 
silence during the day. They have my permission to fast and pray 
continually. But the prayer of the wicked is an abomination. 

They have been shelling us furiously again to-day. There are ten 



June, '64.] History of the iijth O. V. I. 87 

or twelve guns on a side and they fire by volleys. A man may dodge 
one shot, but when they come by the dozen it confuses him. The 
weather is warm and clear. At dusk we are under orders to move. 

26. Sunday. At 1:30 A.M. we retired to the rear (juitely, marched 
first in the direction of Big Shanty, then filing left, we moved toward 
the right of our line about four miles. Halted and spent the day. I 
visited the 66th O. V. I. and took dinner with Coffee, Hendrix, Par- 
ker and Doak. I am needing sleep ; have been rising too early and 
too often of late. 

27. The day dawned bright and pleasant. There is an air of 
sober business on the faces of our officers; coming events are casting 
their shadows before. Early in the morning we piled our knapsacks 
and surplus baggage, and made other necessary plans for an attack. 
Knots of staff, field and company officers can be seen in earnest 
consultation, and I can overhear the officers and men telling each 
other what they wish to have done in case the worst happens. The 
enemy is strongly intrenched in our front, and it gradually dawns 
upon us in the ranks, that we are to carry his works by assault. The 
troops of Thomas and McPherson are to charge at two different 
points — McPherson at Little Kenesaw, and Thomas a mile further 
south. We learn, also, that the charge is to be led by the two 
brigades of McCook and Mitchell. 

KENESAW. 

The brigade formed in line of battle on an elevation, with a ravine 
in our front at a distance of two hundred yards. After a halt of 
twenty minutes, during which time the 34th Illinois V. V. Infantry 
were deployed as skirmishers, we fixed bayonets and moved briskly 
down the slope, passed over our reserve lines, which lay in trenches 
near the ravine, clambered through the little rivulet at the bottom of 
the ravine, and began the ascent of a gentle slope, at the top 
of which the enemy lay waiting our approach. As we left the ravine, 
our line, which thus far had been moving in splendid order, began to 
falter by reason of the obstructions which impeded our advance. 
Saplings and underbrush had been cut and cross-lapped in a manner 
that made it impossible to keep in line, or to advance singly, with 
any rapidity. Those who managed to struggle through and move on, 
received a welcome of death from the foe, for they had now opened 
ui)on our ragged line a murderous fire. Parts of our line reached 
within a few feet of their works; many of our men crowded up to 



88 Evcry-(/ay Soliikr Life : | JJluudy Kcncsaw 

the works only to be shot down ; a few climbed iiiKjn their works and 
were made prisoners. Hut the greater number, sheltered behind 
trees and rocks, began firing at the enemy. This continued some 
minutes — minutes that seemed ages. It now seemed plain that the 
plan of attack had failed, and that further effort to take the works 
would be madness. 

An order was given to fall back, and one by one, each man caring 
for himself, the men retreated to the rear, leaving the dead and 
wounded where the) fell. I fell l)ack from one tree to another, at 
each of which I tried to find safety. Reaching a ditch, which had 
been used as a picket station, 1 crouched into it, and rested for 
a time, the bullets and shells of the enemy flying thick and noisy 
over my head. At length, John E. Davis, Company K, came along, 
wounded, and 1 took him toward the rear. Then coming across 
Cyrus Parmer, Company E, who was wounded in the leg, I gave 
Davis in charge of H. L. Hobart, Company D, and with Parmer on 
my back, I carried him some distance, then with the help of three 
of the others, we placed him on a blanket, and carried him to a place 
in the rear, where our wounded were being collected. Then return- 
ing toward the line, 1 assisted others to carry off William Jenkins. 
Later in the day a fragment of the several companies rallied into 
line and began the erection of works fronting the enemy, and fifty 
yards from the ravine I have mentioned. 

Night came on, and we began to ])lan to bring off our wounded. 
Many had remained on the field till nightfall, and iiow returned 
unharmed. These had taken shelter behind logs and rocks, from 
which they could not escape except at the risk of being killed or 
wounded. Others lay uncared for and e.xposed to a continual fire all 
the afternoon. Late in the night, when we thought it possible to go 
onto the field with any degree of safety, a party of four, Wm. Cisco, 
George Carroll, Leonard Keitzleinan and myself, took a blanket and 
proceeded cautiously forward in the direction of a point where 
several of our men had fallen. We halted and listened. The 
groans of a wounded man were heard in a left oblique direction. 
We spoke cautiously, and an answer came promptly. We groped 
our way to the sufferer, and found him to be Sergeant Henry C. 
Scott, of my own company. Placing him on our blanket with great 
difficulty, we carried him back to our works in safety. He was 
mortally wounded, and expressed his thankfulness for our effort to 
bring him off. Still later, I went again on the field with Isaac Green, 



June, '64.] History oj the 113th O. /'. /. 89 

Jonathan Merica, Andrew Heller and John Wilson. We found and 
brought off Corporal Peter Baker. His wounds were serious, but we 
hoped they would not prove fatal. Similar efforts were made by the 
men in other companies, and in this manner nearly all our wounded 
were rescued. The following list of the killed or mortally wounded 
is very nearly accurate : 

A — Everett W. Jackson, Louis H. Kennedy. 

F — Lieutenant E. Crouse, Sergeant Lyman Lincoln. 

C. — Titus Chamberlain, John Martin, Hiram Wilcox. 

H. — John W. Charter, Freeman Dulen, Michael O'Connell, Andrew 
J. Rhoades, Eugene H. Palin, Elisha Stetler. 

E. — Captain John Bowersock, Sergeant H. C. Scott, Jacob Hees. 

K. — Corporal Ezra Allen, Stephen V. Barr, William Coppin, Hiram 
Hancock, Levi Romine, Joseph Wilkinson, Lemuel P. Jones, Booker 
R. Durnell. 

C. — Sergeant Joseph Parker, Levi Griffin. 

B. — Amos D. Leady. 

Several who are reported missing are doubtless among the killed. 

Our total loss in killed, wounded and missing is one hundred and 
fifty-three. We are not humiliated in our failure to carry the works of 
the enemy ; all was done that brave men could do. But for the obstruc- 
tions which impeded our advance we must have succeeded. Hun- 
dreds, yea thousands of incidents occurred that could add interest to 
this account. Otho W. Loofborrow of Company G, fell into the 
hands of the enemy, but after dark he gave them the slip and came 
bounding into our lines. Lieutenant Colonel Warner was shot in the 
right arm ; it will retiuire amputation. Lieutenant McCrea was 
overcome with heat, and for a while was in a dangerous condition. 
George Nichols got cornered on the field, and did not get away 
till night came on. W. P. Souder, Company C, was wounded in the 
left leg and remained on the field till late in the afternoon, when he 
was carried off by his comrades. 

M. Quad in the Cincinnati Enquirer speaks of this from a rebel 
standj)oint, and says : 

H < )W A Rd's attack . 

" From where Howard's men formed in columns of assault to the 
first Confederate works is not more than six hundred yards. The 
Federal troops could not be seen on account of the thickets, but they 
could be plainy heard, and the men behind the breast works were 
ready and waiting. 'I'here was a sharp artillery fire along this front 
for twenty minutes l)efore the Confederate pickets were driven in, 
9 



go Ki't'iy-thiy Soltiicr Lijc : [IJloudy Kcnesaw 

but it did not result in the loss of a single life. I talked with several 
Confederates who were at the front, and each one told the same 
story. Tons upon tons of solid shot and shell were hurled at the 
mountain side, but struck the trees and rocks, and resulted in nothing 
further than demoralizing some of the men who had not l)een under 
fire before. One who traverses the sides of Kenesaw to-day will find 
where the pines were split and the rocks shattered by this artillery 
fire, but the men down behind the works were as safe as the women 
of Marietta in their homes. 

STRIKING THK ABATIS. 

All along the front against which Howard was to advance the Con- 
federate works were protected by abatis. An abatis is a death-trap 
to add to the horrors of war. In some cases it is a slashing. Trees 
are fallen criss-cross, the smaller branches trimmed out, and he who 
approaches must have the activity of a panther to wriggle through 
and climb over. An abatis of this sort can not be passed by a hun- 
ter left free to make his way, without a detention of from ten to 
fifteen minutes. What, then, must such an obstruction be to a 
column of assault, the men loaded down with accoutrements, and a 
murderous fire being poured into their faces at a range of a hundred 
feet? In other cases the abatis is formed of sharpened sticks and 
rails and limbs, one end made fast in the earth just in front of the 
works, the other sharpened and pointed to such an angle as would 
strike a man's breast. To reach the works behind, the assaulters 
must pass this obstruction or tear it away, and they must work under 
the deadly aim of the men defending the works. It was only in rare 
instances during the war that an abatis was carried. 

Howard's column advanced with great enthusiasm, driving in the 
Confederate skirmishers and picket all along the front, but when they 
dashed at the real Confederate line they found an abatis in their 
front. Then, for ten minutes, war became slaughter. The blue- 
coats would not retreat — they could not advance. 

We knew they were coming and we were ready. I had sixty rounds 
of cartridges, and I had them in a heap on the ground beside me. 
On my part of the line we had a log on the crest of the breastworks. 
This was raised about four inches, and our guns were thrust between 
the log and the earth. This not only protected our heads, but gave 
us a dead rest and a sure aim. One of the -heads of an assaulting 
column struck the abatis just opposite me. Some of the men threw 
down their guns and began to tear at the limbs, while others opened 
fire. You can judge what sort of a place it was when I tell you that 
I fired seventeen shots as cooly as a hunter would fire at a squirrel, 
and I hit a man every time. There was a boy fifteen years old along- 
side of me with a shot gun, and I believe he killed and wounded 
twenty men. I was glad to see the column retreat. It looked too 
much like cold blooded murder to kneel there and take dead aim on 
a man so near that you could see the color of his eyes and hair. 



June, '64.] History of the 113th O. V. I. 91 



BEATEN HACK. 

Howard's troops were beaten back, but they only retreated to 
break into groups and keep up the fight from behind trees. It would 
have been better to have fallen back to the lines. Their fire inflicted 
no damage, and the Confederates were given a chance to pick off 
many gallant officers. 

The bravest man would not have lost prestige by a speedy retreat, 
but the Federals stayed there. Along the Confederate breastwork 
is a fringe of trees. It was there that day. The Federals did not 
get between this fringe and the works except in a few instances. 
Their fire, therefore, must have been shooting at random in the 
direction of the Confederates. In nine cases out of ten the Confed- 
erates could not see their target, but fired into the woods. On a 
front of eighty rods, by about the same depth, I saw tens of 
thousands of scars of that conflict. Trees were so riddled by 
musket balls that, where still living, they present the strangest and 
most grotesque appearance. One tree, about the size of a man's 
body, was girdled excepting a space three inches in width. Others, 
struck by shot or shell at a point six feet above the ground, were 
split open to the first limb, perhaps twenty feet above the ground. 
There is one standing there and growing thriftily, through which a 
solid shot passed and left a hole in which a man may thrust his arm 
until his hand appears on the other side of the tree. Logan might 
have deemed it bravery to hold men in position when they were 
losing ten to one, but it was not. No man is so reckless that he does 
not demand a fair show for his life. The Federals loaded and fired 
and held their lines, but to advance further was impossible. When 
seven out of every ten officers in the various commands had fallen, 
and some of the regiments had lost a third of their number, the 
order was given to fall back out of range of the musketry, and to 
take advantage of the lay of the ground to hold much of the ground 
gained. 

palmer's attack. 

Palmer was further down the line opposite Hardee's C'orps. Under 
cover of the woods he quietly massed for the assault, and when the 
signal came his men made a gallant rush. Hardee, too, had a strong 
skirmish line in his front, and before this was driven in, the men 
behind the breastworks were prepared for the storm. The abatis 
was not so strong in front of Hardee, but it was strong enough to 
stop the advance. A winrow of small trees not larger than a man's 
leg, cut so that the tops fall outward, will check and hold a column 
of assault until it is decimated. The trees on this front were 
smaller, and in some places the Federals crei)t through them and 
were killed within fifty feet of the Confederate muskets. 

In front of two Companies of Wright's Brigade, of Chetham's 
Division, and not over two hundred feet away, was a knoll perhaps a 
hundred feet wide on the crest. This knoll was mostly clear of trees, 
and the Federals, in surging from right to left and back, were in plain 



92 Evt'iy-Uay Soldier Li/e : [After the liattle 

view as they crossed it. 'Die slaughter right there was something 
awful. Seventy or eigluy muskets and a piece of artillery using 
grape had a dead fire on the knoll, and after the repulse, some of the 
Confederates crept forward and were horrified at the sight. The 
dead were so thick that they lay piled upon each other, and streams 
of blood could be traced for ten feet. Men had been hit by three 
or four bullets, and there was hardly a body which did not present 
a ghastly sight. In 1869 a Confederate ex-soldier from Kentucky 
found imbedded in the bark of a tree two hundred feet behind this 
knoll a Federal soldier's belt plate. The explosion of a shell must 
have torn him to fragments and sent that plate to the si>ot where it 
was found. 

repui.se. 
The longer Palmer remained, the hotter grew the fire, and, like 
Logan and Howard, he at length sounded the retreat. He had done 
all that a commander could do, and soldiers never stood up to their 
work with more pluck, but it was asking them to accomplish the 
impossible. Bullets and shot and shell followed the retreating lines 
far into the woods, and scores of men were killed after having passed 
through the dangers of the actual assault without a scratch." 

28. We are busy at work on our defences. The enemy continue 
to shell us, and the fight between the pickets rages furiously. 
John H. Johnson and I went to Brigade Headtjuarters and got some 
krout for Chatfield, and some whisky for the company. Late this 
evening a truce was agreed upon, and our dead were properly buried. 
The stench of the battlefield begins to be very offensive. 

The body of Captain Bowersock was brought off and buried in the 
rear of his company. Two solid shot were placed in the grave. 
Sergeant Scott died to-day, and was buried in a coffin at Big Shanty, 
by Lieutenant Swisher. 

2p. Another truce prevailed to-day from 9 A. M. to i P. M., and 
our men finished burying our dead comrades. Soon as the truce 
ended, the combatants resumed the work of death. Went back to 
the place from which we moved on Monday, and assisted I,ieutenant 
McCrea prepare a " Muster Roll " for his company. Made an 
inventory of the personal effects of Captain Bowersock. 

JO. A brisk fight took plack before daylight in our front and to our 
left. It lasted about fifteen minutes, resulting in the killing of one 
man of the 98th (). V. I. The woods in the vicinity of our line was 
illuminated by the light of exploding shells. Heavy skirmish firing 
goes on continually between the opposing lines. Trees in our front 
have been chipped by bullets in a manner that is astonishing. 



July, '64. J History of the iljth O. V. I. 9^ 

JULY, 1864. 

/. We still confront the rebels at Kenesaw, and the rebels still 
confront us. We had another attack at midnight last night, resulting 
in a heavy loss of ammunition and some swearing. A soldier hates 
to have his rest broken. 

3. Sunday. We find no enemy in our front this morning. Ken- 
esaw is no longer his, but ours. He" slid out last night, and we will 
soon be in pursuit. After breakfast we went forward and spent 
some time on the battle field of the 27th inst. It presented evi- 
dences of a great struggle. At 8 A. M. we started in pursuit of John- 
son's army, in the direction of Marietta, reaching that place in two 
hours, having moved at a very slow rate. Remained nearthe town 
till noon, and then proceeding four miles further, we seem to be near- 
ing the rebel rear. Many rebel deserters have come into our lines 
to-day. Our troops are in good spirits. Camped in a thick woods. 
Marietta is the county seat of Cobb county, and is twenty miles 
from Atlanta. 

4. We are celebrating the birthday of the Nation by firing an 
occasional salute on the works of the foe in our front. Company E 
was on the skirmish line all day, and it was very interesting. A year 
ago we were at Shelbyville, Tenn., and on that day Vicksburg was 
taken by General Grant. Where will we be July 4th, 1865. 

J". The enemy vacated his position last night and we were in 
full pursuit before seven o'clock. We pressed his rear all day and 
the rattle of musketry and roar of artillery was continuous. Many 
prisoners and deserters fell into our hands. The 113th occupied a 
line of incomplete works which the 121st had vacated. John Bricker, 
Company K, was killed this evening. We are nearing the Chatta- 
hoochee river and our camp is a short distance from Vining, eleven 
miles from Atlanta. 

10. Sunday. We have been in front of the rebels since the 5th, 
but nothing of especial moment has taken place. Johnson's army 
fell back across the Chattahoochee last night, destroying the bridge 
after he crossed. We seem to be in undisputed possession of this 
side of the river. In company with Bailey, Company K, Low, Com- 
l^any B, and [. O. Kite, C'ompany E, I made a tour of inspection of 
the works just vacated by the rebels. It is very strange that they 
l)uild such strong works and then vacate them without an efibrt 
to resist our approach. 

12. Company E relieved the pickets of the 34th Illinois \'(j1- 



f>4 Rvery-tiay Soldicr-J.i/e : [On to Atlanta 

unteers, east of the C. cV' A. railroad, and in the evening the 94th O. 
V. 1. took our places. We get a mail. 

77. Sunday. A pontoon bridge is being completed across the 
Chattahoochee this morning. The river is one hundred and fifty 
yards wide at this point. About noon we crossed to the south side, 
advanced some distance from the river, driving the rebel skirmishers 
before us. Later in the evening we advanced a mile, by the right of 
companies to the front. NVt; threw \\\) a line of works. This is my 
wife's birthday; we have l)een married three years, and she is 
twenty-one. 

18. Part of the brigade went to the front, but at noon returned 
without any particular adventure. During the afternoon we again 
went to the front, threw up some works and spent the night. 

/(?. We held our position till evening, and moved out to Nancy's 
Creek, (Peachtree.) About sunset the Third Brigade became en- 
gaged, and for a time we were exposed to the enemy's fire. Levi 
Thomas, Company G, and John Weber, Company A, were killed, and 
two other men of the 113th were wounded. Companies I, E and K 
carried the logs of an old house, standing near the stream, and con- 
structed a bridge, finishing it at midnight. While we were thus 
engaged, my attention was attracted to a body floatmg in the stream. 
I dragged it out, and beheld the body of a beardless youth, who had 
been shot through the body, and had fallen into the creek unobserved 
by his comrades. No one will ever tell that boy's mother the story 
of her son's death. 

20. At three o'clock this morning we crossed the stream and threw 
up a line of rifle pits in a cornfield, where we remained all day and 
all night. 

21. The rebels left our front last night, and before breakfast the 
113th moved to the front to reconnoiter. At the distance of a mile 
we began to erect works, but left them unfinished, and returned to 
our rifle pits in the cornfield. After dinner, the regiment again went 
out and picketed to the southeast. Companies D, I, K, G and B, 
went on the outposts, the other five companies were in reserve. 
There has been hard fighting on our left, but we know little of the 
particulars. 

22. At 10 A. M. the regiment returned to its former position in the 
cornfield, and at noon the whole brigade moved with the divisionMn 
the direction of Atlanta, the rebels having again fallen back. The 
division halted on several hills within four miles of Atlanta. Here 



August, '64.] History 0/ the 113th O. V. I. 95 

we fortified and sent out a skirmish line. We are confronting the 
enemy again. 

23. Spent the day fortifying. Our batteries are shelling the city 
of Atlanta. 

2^. Sunday. Am not well. 1 am in good spirits, however, and if 
I had swallowed Dr. Wilson's prescrii:)tion instead of putting it in 
my vest pocket, I might be in better health. 

26. Was on picket to-day, the line being commanded by Captain 
Otway Watson. We had an agreeable time, and were exposed to 
very little danger. 

28. The brigade made a reconnoisance to the southwest, returning 
late at night. Spent the night a mile from our works. The men are 
much scattered, and l)ut few are with their companies at the halt. 
There has been some hard fighting to-day, of which we learn no par- 
ticulars. 

2g. Instead of returning to our own works, we occupied a partially 
completed line which had been constructed by other troops. This is 
near the place where the battle raged yesterday, and a number of us 
visited the field during the day. The dead of both sides remain 
unburied, and the scene presents some jMctures that are shocking, 
even to a soldier. 

30. At noon our brigade moved to the right -and threw u[)a line of 
works a mile from our position of last night. The weather is op- 
pressively warm. 

31. Our brigade scouted sevenil miles in the direction of the left 
of the enemy, and then returned to our position of the morning in a 
tremendous rain. We had left our baggage in our line, and as 
a consequence we got very wet, and we remained wet all night. 



A U(i U ST, 1864. 

/. Quiet reigns to-day. The rebel lines at this point are not as 
close to ours as usual. This may explain why it is so quiet. My 
wife's letter of June 27lh is at hand, containing ;$5. It has been 
a long time coming. 

2. Companies H, E, K, (i, and B, went on the skirmish line in 
front of our brigade, and with the troops of the 15th A. C. in front of 
us. This is a strange position indeed. The woods are a dense mass 
of brush. 



96 Evcry-tiuy SolUiir Lijc : [In tronl of AlhmUi 

4. Yesterday was a (|uiel day with no incident or movement worth 
recording. Tliis morning, long before day, orders were given to be 
reatly to move, hut we spent the forenoon resting in line. 

After dinner the whole division moved to the right three miles, 
leaving knapsacks and baggage behind. Here we fortified in a thick 
wockIs. This day was set apart by the President as a day of fasting 
and prayer, but things hereabouts went on after the usual i)lan, eat- 
ing all we had and praying for more. 

5. During the foren(x)n wc advanced a mile furtiier south, halted 
and constructed ;i line (jf works under a heav\ artillery fire. Half 
the men returned and brought up our knapsacks. 'I'wo men were 
wounded this evening. Remained in our works during the night. 

6. The command constructed and occupied another line of defense 
two hundred yards in advance. The enemy's artillery have range of 
us and his shelling has annoyed us sorely. Johnson, Company 1, 
had a leg shot off by a shell, and a man in Company B was wounded. 
It has t)een a day of great peril. 

7. Sundav. Quiet remained at the front till three in. the afternoon, 
when it was ;iscertained that the enemy in our front had given way. 
We moved our line to the front at once, driving in or capturing the 
pickets who made a strong effort to hold us in check. Our line halted 
at their vacated ])icket line, and while the foe raked us with shot and 
shell we threw \\\) ritle-|)its and sheltered ourselves behind them. 
While we advanced across a clear field to take up a j)Osition here, 
the enemv had plain view of our line and from a battery to our left 
front he sent in the solid shot in a manner that made my hair stand 
on end. Captain Jones, who commanded tiie 113th at the time, 
shouted: "steady, men, guide right — steady, men, guide right," and 
the men kept their places like grains of corn on the cob While we 
were busy at our defenses, Sergeant Cyrus T. Ward, Company E, was 
wounded in the hip. A few minutes later a shell carred off the head 
of Anthony Shimmel of the same company. By desperately hard 
work we had our defenses in good shape when night came on. The 
enemy seems to know that he has a good range of our works, and he 
keeps reminding us of it every few minutes. After dark, P. T. Bow- 
man and I carried the body of Shimmel to the rear, dug a grave and 
gave it burial. On a tree near the grave we cut his name, company, 
and regiment. Shimmel was a German and a brave soldier. 

8. .\n occasional shot is given and received from either side by 
the artillery. 'Hie skirmishers seem to be earning their $13 a month, 
judging l)y their continuous firing. 



August, '64. J Iliilory oj Ihc ujlh O. V. I. 97 



Late in the evening the regimental bugler, Uriah A. McComb was 
shot and killed while putting up a tent for regimental headcpiarters. 
Judson Swisher caught him as he fell and ministered to him in his 
dying moments. 

g. The smell from a dead horse in front of us is almost as unbearable 
as the enemy's artillery. Henry S. Gingery, Company B, was badly 
wounded this afternoon. Major Sullivant is now sick and in the 
rear, leaving the regiment under command of Captain Jones. 

10. It has been raining for several days past. ^Ve work wet, eat 
wet, and sleep wet. Found time to-day to write a letter or two. 
The enemy's guns annoy us as usual, and the thing is getting a 
little old. 

//. The day is warm and clear. Several men were wounded on 
the skirmish line to-day, among them Jacob Huben, Company K, 
who gets a bad shot in the leg. 

12. Before day we moved back to the line of works from which we 
moved Sunday. Remained here till sunup, when we moved a mile 
to the right, relieving troops of the 23d A. C. \s ^ are now behind 
strong works and in a good shade. The men complain of short 
rations. 

14. Sunday. This is called V\'illis' Mills, but why it is so named 
I cannot tell. The Chaplain of the gSth O. Y. I. preached to the 
brigade to-day. An occasional bullet whizzed over the audience, 
suggesting that carnal and j,piritual things occupy disputed ground. 
Companies A, K and C are in front of the brigade, skirmishing. 
Andrew Heller, Company E, died in Division hospital yesterday. 

15. The line in our front is very cpiiet. The 78th Illinois Vol- 
unteers hold the skirmish line. They are first-class soldiers. We 
have known them a long while. Two deserters came into our lines. 
Two years ago to-day I enlisted. .Am glad of it now. 1 might have 
waited and joined a regiment composed of ordinary men. The 
officers and men of the [13th are composed of superior material. 

18. Our line is very i[uiet, if I e.vcept the iiring by the pickets of 
both lines. We can hear hea\y figluing toward Atlanta, but learn 
no particulars. 

ig. Companies C, 1), K ami 11 occupy the skirmish line. The 
First and Third Brigades moved out of the line, leaving the Second 
to occui)y the space which lias been held by the entire division. 

One of Company 15 was wounded. In the evening we can hear 
the music of the enemy's bands very plainh'. 



98 livcry-iiay SohUii l.iji : 1 1- lonling AtUinla 

21. Mike Huddleston and I went to the rear to-day and gathered 
elderberries. On our return we saw six rebel deserters c<jniin[f in 
under guard. NN e have no mail lor a da\ or two, and we learn of a 
raid in our rear near Dallon. John Craig foraged some corn to-day. 
My messmate, John (ianson, has the (olic. That is a bad thing Kj 
sleep with. 

2 J. Lieutenant .M( C!rea is not well, and has been back at the tent 
of Quartermaster Swisher. To-da) 1 went to see him, and assisted 
him with some accouiits pertaining to the coniijany. W'e made a 
Clothing Receipt Roll for July and August. Letters from Ohio 
reach us in five days from their date. 

26. For a day or two nothing has happened on this part of the 
line out of the usual course of daily duty. A strong picket line i> 
maintained close to the enemy's jjickets. The two lines often agree 
not to fire on each other during the day and night ; but the next day 
a new detail comes on, and hostilities again open. An order to 
move has been issued, and we are harnessed and ready. 

27. At 3:30 A. M. we retired from the line at Willis' Mills, and, 
moving out two miles, halted in an orchard near a farm house and 
cotton mill. -Several good looking women, and a negro with six toes 
attracted our attention. Late in the evening a light defense was 
thrown up in our front. The rebels exchanged a few shots with our 
rear. 

28. Sunday. The division moved at the dawn of da\ , and for 
several miles we marched briskly. Halted at 7 \. M., stacked arms 
and rested. At 9 A. M. we moved southward, passed the 4th A. C, 
and again halted. The 121st was deployed and drove the rel)els 
from a wood\- hill on our left Hank. .\t 2:30 I^. M. we reached the 
railroad leading westerly from .Atlanta. Companies K. (1, H and K 
stood picket in front of the brigade. We had no dinner. 

2g. The division did not move. We understand this movement 
to be to flank the enemy out of .\tlarita. We know nothing of the 
details of the plan, but are doing our share in the movement with 
the utmost confidence of its success, What transpires within a day 
or two from this will make good reading for our descendants. The 
companies of the 1 13th which went on picket yesterday were relieved 
at 5:30 P. M. We have hud plenty of meat and sweet potatoes, but 
it came near getting us into trouble. We ate two big suppers and 
enjoyed a splendid spell of nightmare. 

jO. Reveille sounded early. At seven we marched, gcjing south by 



August, '64. J History 0/ the 113th O. I'. J. 99 

southeast. At ri A. M. we halted for dinner. Company E was 
placed on the left of the moving column as flankers. The line 
moved on four miles further, where it halted for the night. We 
traveled fourteen miles to-day, mostly southeasterly. Many of the 
men fell out during the afternoon, and reached the regiment long 
after we stacked arms. A mail was distributed. 

ji. Before daylight orders came to be ready to move at once. 
We did not march, but remained halted till noon, during which time 
our artillery shelled a wagon train of the enemy in the distance. 
Our men are living high on the products of the land. Chickens, 
hogs, cattle, sheep, geese, turkeys, corn, flour, meal, potatoes and 
everything eatable is brought in by the quantity. Soldiers have 
consciences, but they make very little use of them. 

At 11:30 A. M. our brigade left faced ^ and moving left in front, 
reached a sorghum field at the distance of a mile. Rested an hour. 
Moved again in an easterly direction, and after going three miles, we 
halted near a house, at which General Baird had his headquarters. 
A guard was on duty vainly trying to prevent the soldiers from 
pillaging the premises. It was no use. They had everything their 
own way. A lady was exchanging greenbacks for Confederate 
money, giving six dollars in greenbacks for fifteen dollars of the 
worthless promises of the waning Confederacy. 1 felt sorry for her 
and for myself. 1 wished that I had my knapsack full of cheap 
money, and that she had an inexhaustible supply of greenbacks. I 
would have stayed with her. 

Half a mile beyond this our brigade filed left, and formed a line 
running nearly north and south. 

Bolt, Cisco and Craig, who were after beef when the regiment 
moved at noon, now came up, bringing no beef, but plenty sweet 
potatoes which they foraged on the way. They reported that they 
had received the beef but had abandoned it. Then a majority of 
the company resolved itself into a cursing committee, and the sulphur 
was ignited. Cisco stood to the front, while Bolt and Craig were 
held in reserve. The attacking party was repulsed. 

At 8 P. M. Cajjtain Jones, the regimental commander, came along 
the line and told us we would remain here and- throw up works. A 
big fire was built in our rear, and by its light we cut trees and put 
the logs in position for our protection. We slept at eleven at night. 
Our column is nearing the Macon «S: Western railroad, and we are 
now more than twent)^ miles from Athinla. We have been in close 



r>i3SGi{ 



1 oo Every -day Soldier Lijc : 1 1- 1 a n k i n g A 1 1 a n t n 

proximity to the enemy at times during this afternoon, hut we have 
exchanged only an occasional shot with him. 



MATTLK OV jONKSIJOKO, C.KORCWA. 

s !•: PI' )•: M i; !■: k, i S64. 

/. At I 1 A. M. our forces moved out from the works we had occu- 
pied last night, and heading southward, moved slowly in the direction 
of Jonesboro. At 2:30 P. M. our column passed that of the 17th 
A. C, and having crossed a small creek, we filed left from the road 
on which we had been marching, and were moving easterly, when a 
shot from a battery a thousand yards southeast of us, revealed to us 
the position of the enemy's line. The battery was in the edge of 
the woods, concealed from our view. The first shot was succeeded 
by others in quick succession, and our column, being in an open 
field, and in plain view, made an attractive mark. Their' first shots 
passed above our heads, but others that followed struck the earth in 
front of us, or bursted dangerously near. 

The 113th formed in line facing the battery, and then left faced 
and moved to the northeast in an effort to get beyond the range of 
their tire. We were still in plain view of the rebels' guns, and he 
was dropping his shells along our line in a fatal manner. One 
struck in Company I, killing George Kelsey and wounding others. 
Some of our men sought shelter in a brushy swamp on our left, and 
those who remained obeyed an order of Captain Jones, to lie down 
in a gully, which had been washed out by high waters. By this 
time our artillery was in position, and a few well directed shots from 
them silenced the rebel guns, and permitted us to rally and move on. 

We ascended a hill to a position near a hewed log house, where 
we halted and stacked arms. Here the l)rigade was sheltered by a 
woods in our front. The staffs of the division and brigade com- ' 
manders reconnoitered the ground in our front, and laid plans for the 
immediate future. After more than an hour, we took arms and 
marched left in front into a cornfield, in the direction of the lines of 
the enemy. Here the command, " by company into line," brought 
us into line of battle, and descending the slo])e we reached a ravine 
running from right to left, and situated more than three hundred 
yards fn)m the enemy's line. 1 lere a halt was ordered. ( )iir position 



September, '64.] History of the 113th O. V. 1. 10 1 

was a good one, being hidden from our foes by an intervening hill, 
covered with corn. 

Three companies of the 98th (). V. I., commanded by Captain 
Roatch, went forward to skirmish, and the other companies of that 
regiment constructed rifle pits in front of us, near the crest of the 
hill. The rear ranks of the 121st Ohio, and 34th Illinois, con- 
structed rifle pits in our rear, on the slope we had descended. While 
this work went on, the ri3th rested in line at the bottom of the 
ravine. When these pits were completed, an attacking column was 
formed. 

All being in readiness, the signal was given, and the attacking 
column dashed forward, crowding the road to victory as to a feast 
of fat things; at the same time the second line moved from the 
ravine and dropped into the line of rifle-pits before mentioned. In 
a moment more a deafening shout at the rebel line told the story of 
triumph, and the second line moved at a double quick to the support 
of the first. As the second line moved up it was met by a body of 
rebel prisoners who were being double quicked to our rear for safe 
keeping. We were now at the rebel works. Here lay the cast off 
equipments and the arms of many prisoners, and here stood the guns 
of Govan's Battery which had 7^7 recently changed owners. It was 
the same one that had terrorized us early in the afternoon, but now, 
that the muzzles were pointed the opposite directon, it looked harm- 
less. Here lay the dead and the dying, the one having crossed the ' 
great pontoon, the other calling for mercy from that unfailing source 
opened on Mount Calvary. To say that he was not heard would be 
to limit God's power to save. 

As the 113th struck the works of the enemy a rebel field officer 
confronted Captain Jones and said : "Where shall I go?" Seizing 
him by the collar of his coat, and giving him a vigorous jerk. Captain 

[ones said, " go to the rear, and that quick." 

It was now five o'clock; the enemy had either fallen back or had 
surrendered when the assault was made. The works of the foe 
were strong and i)roperly constructed, but no a/>atis or other materials 
impeded our approach, consetiuently our men dashed into their very 
pits before halting to fire a shot. 

Quickly re-forming our line, we occupied a jjosition nearly a 
quarter of a mile to the rear of the works we had taken. We again 
shifted to the southeast a short distance, and finally, crossing a hollow, 
ascended lo the crest of a hill, and relieved the i2isl Ohio, which 



K'ltiy-Uiiy Soil/ill Liji : | |itiicsl)oru, (ia 



was confronting a fragment of a brigade of rebels in a cornfield. 
Having no defenses for our prcjteclion, we kept partly iiid i)ehind llie 
crest of liie hill for a lime We would assume a crouching iKjsition 
while loading our guns, then rising to our feet we would fire, and 
then drop to tlie ground again. Having procured tools, we began 
digging |)ils in tiie usual manner for pn^tection, a part of the line 
keeping up the fire. ll was \ crs ilark, long before we began our 
works, and our aim was guided by the llasli of the guns of the enemy, 
and his aim was guided by ours in Hke manner. 

The firing grew less and less active as the nigiil lengthened, and 
fniall) ()id\ an occ asional tlash could be seen in our front. 'I'oward 
midnight a call was made for a man from each comiiany to stand as 
vitifts at some distance in front of the line, the object being to watch 
the movements of the rebels and prevent a surjjrise. 1 volunteered, 
and took my i)osition at a large tree nearly a hundred feet in front of 
our line. .V naughty rebel found out my hiding place, and wasted 
several shots at me. He grew tired, and finally departed without 
saying good night. 

My attention was attracted by the groans of a wcninded man some 
distance from me. 1 groped ni) way toward where he lay, listened, 
and again moved cautiously forward. In this way, 1 at length found 
the unfortunate sufferer. His name was Albert Fonnest, of Company 
C, 78th Illinois. He was wounded through the body below the ribs, 
and his life blood was fast flowing away. I went back to our line, 
reported the fact to Captain Shei)herd, of the 113th, and he sent a 
messenger to the 78th, to inform the man's comrades of his dying 
condition. I returned to my post at the tree. Half an hour later, 
four men of the 78th Illinois came out near me, looking for their 
wounded comrade. I led them forward to the place where he lay, 
spoke to him, shook him, felt his pulse, and found that he was dead. 
They carried him off the field, and I returned to my company, having 
been relieved by James O. Kite. I lay down and slept the sweet 
sleep which is the fruit of hours of toil and e.xposure. It seemed that 
more had transpired since noon tlian 1 would ever be able to tell. 

2. Early this morning we ascertained that no enemy confronted 
us, and the e.xtent of our victory of yesterday began to be made 
known. We find that we have possession of the Atlanta & Macon 
railroad, and our enemies are in full retreat. 

The camjjaign began on the second of May, and is now ended. 
l-'our months of marching, toiling and fighting. Hardly a day in all 



Sci)tcml)er, '64. j History oj llir 1 1 jtli O. / '. /. 103 

that time that our ears have not heard the cannon's roar or the crack 
of musketry. 

The town of Jonesboro is only a short distance — half a mile from 
our line, and in company with Ganson and Kite, 1 made a trip 
of inspection to the village. Upon our return we found the com- 
mand ready to move. The Second Division marched to the suburbs 
of town and halted. While we rested, General Jeff. C. Davis and 
staff rode up. The General was cheered by his men. He spoke a 
few words, expressing his admiration of our conduct yesterday. At 
noon we crossed the railroad and took dinner. Later in the da> wc 
erected a line of works near the town and running north and south. 
Our troops are at work destroying the railroad, and after dark the 
course of the track can be traced by the fires burning the ties and 
heating the rails. 

J. A tremendous rain washed us out at daylight, making reveille 
unnecessary. At 10 A. M. the brigade began to tear up and destroy 
the railroad. At noon we returned to our works. Late in the 
evening we resumed the work of destruction, but after a few minutes 
we were ordered to quit. 1 was much pleased at this, for destroying 
railroad track is too much like work to suit me. We can hear heavy 
fighting in the direction of Lovejoy Station. 

In the evening Captain Watson read to the 113th the following 
orders : 

Headquarters Military Division ok the Mississippi, | 
In the Field near Lovejoy Station, Ga., September 3, 1864. j 

Special Field Orders, | 
No. 2. ) 

The General commanding announces with great pleasure tliat he lias ofticial 
information that our troops under Major General Slocum, occupied Atlanta 
yesterday at eleven o'clock A. M., the enemy having evacuated the night 
before, destroying vast magazines and stores, and blowing up, among other 
things, eighty car loads of ammunition, which accounts for the sound heard 1)\ us 
on the night of the first instant. Our present task is, therefore, well done, antl 
all work of destruction on the railroad will cease. 

By order of 

Major General W. T. SHERMAN, 

[official.] L. M. Dayton, Aide-de-Cainp. 

T. Wiseman, Captain and A. A. G. 



IIkAIXJUAR riRS 2(1 1)1\ ISION, 14tll Au\IV COKTS, I 

Jonesboro, (Ja., Septemlio j, 1864. i 
The General commanding takes great satisfaction in transmitting the above 



I04 Eviry-,hi\ Soil/ill Liji : | 1 lalliiij; and Rcsliii} 



order lo his command, and avails himself of the opjiortunily of expressing his 
admiralion of the conduct of his Division on the Isl instant, in the glorious anl 
successful charge on the enemy's works. The (leneral is proud of his command, 
and congratulates officers, non-commissioned officers and |)rivates upon ihc near 
ending of a long, ar(iuc)Us and gloriously successful campaign. 
By order of 

l5ki(;AijiKK Gknkrai. JAS. I). MOI<(JA\. 
[oli-lCiAl..] r. WisKMAN, Captain and A. A. G. 

J.\s. S. Wii.son, Captain and A. A. G. 

'riK->>c c)i"dcrs with their facts and cungratiilatioHM fall pleasantly 
v\.\MW the ears of all the inx^i^s, and I predict that the stories of the 
canijjaign will be told, and these orders will be read i)y the men of 
this army to their descendants for generations. 

4. Sunday. W'c are holding ourselves in readiness to move. John 
Cianson and 1 went lo jonesboro and witnessed the unloading of 
several hundred wounded rebels of Stevenson's Division. These 
men had been wounded in a ( harge on the 15th A. C. on the 31st 
ull. Manv of tliem had lost an arm or a leg, and 1 saw one who had 
both legs off close to the bodw Nearly all of them suffered without 
complaint, and were e\ ideiul\ a different class of soldiers from those 
we have been picking u)! as deserters, of late. We talked with one 
of them, ("ajjtain Rogers, 34lh (leorgia. He was wounded in the 
bowels, but said he hoped to recover and be al)le to again enter the 
service. He said that they w//i7 succeed, it could not be otherwise. 
He had entered the service with a com[)an\ of one hundred and 
twenty-five men, and since then a number of recruits had been added, 
but now C'aptain Rogers and three others are all that are left. His 
home was at Trenton, eiglueen miles from Chattanooga. 

6. \\e remained cam[)ed during the day yesterday. 'I'he men 
improved the occasion to wash their clothing, and w rite letters to 
their friends in ( )hio, telling ot the fall of Atlanta, anil of the noble 
part eacli man had taken in bringing it about. 

We expected to move at daylight, but at 7 .\. .M. we tell in, 
changed front to rear, and re-pitched our camp on the same site. 

At noon the call of " strike tents " sounded, and the whole division 
was soon moving toward .Atlanta. .\t the end of two hours, march- 
ing in a zigzag manner, we halted and stacked arms near the hewed 
log house where we formed in line to charge on the ist instant. 
Here 1 made a map of the countr), and the position of the lines of 
the opposing forces. Near this house are the graves (jf a number of 
the 98th O. V. 1. who were killed on Thursday last. Among these 



September, '64. J History oj the iijtii O. V. I. 105 

is the grave of Adjutant John H. Reeves, with whom I had some 
acquaintance*. The 98th lost aboiit forty in killed and wounded. 
Their men built a rude fence around the graves of their dead com- 
rades in the evening. A heavy rain fell this afternoon. The 
rebels dashed into Jonesboro after we retired, and I learn that 
several hundred of them were made prisoners. 

7. At 7 A. M. we resumed the march toward Atlanta. Reaching 
the Jonesboro & Atlanta road, we halted while other parts of the 
column took the advance. After a march of ten miles we camped at 
Rough and Ready, a small village on the railroad, eleven miles from 
Atlanta. Had a mail distributed to us, the second mail since we 
lay at Willis' Mills. Spent the night quietly. 

8. We had an early breakfast, but did not move till eleven o'clock. 
Moved out to the road, halted two hours, and then moved in the di- 
rection of Atlanta, leaving the East Point railroad to our left. When 
within three miles of /Vtlanta a halt was ordered, and the brigade 
formed in close column, fronting toward the railroad. Cleneral James 
1). Morgan, our division commander, then mounted a stump in our 
midst, secured our attention, and read special congratulatory orders 
from Oeneral Grant and President Lincoln, touching the taking 
of Atlanta. As the General concluded reading, he remarked that 
we should never cheer ourselves, and that he was opposed to noise 
except when it was made in order. He then proposed three cheers 
for our cause, three for Cieneral Sherman, and three for "the old war- 
horse. General George H. Thomas." 

\Vhen General Morgan had finished and left the stump, Colonel 
John G. Mitchell, commanding the Second Brigade, proposed three 
cheers for our old and our new division commanders, meaning Gen- 
erals Davis and Morgan. 

We again took arms, marched three-fourths of a mile, filed left, and 
went into camp near the Macon & Western railroad, and near a 
suburb of the city of Atlanta, called Whitehall. 

Many of our men who have been wounded during the campaign 
just ended, joined us this evening in camp. Lieutenant George H. 
Lippincott, Company K, and Sergeant Stratton, Comi)any E, are of 
this number. They are looking smooth and glossy, and have evi- 
dently enjoyed their vacation. The Sergeant Major reports the cas- 
ualties of the campaign, from May 2d to September 2d, 1864, as 
follows: Commissioned officers killed, 4; commissioned officers 
wounded,;: enlisted men killed, j;i; enlisted men wounded, 132; 



io6 7Crti\-i/<iv So/i/iii Lijc : [Kcsiing at Allanla 

enlisted men missing, 7; total, rSi. This is more than twenty-nine 
pir cent, of the wliolc number who started with the regiment from 
Rossville. The f>ir cnit. of killed of the ofticers is greater than 
among the men, while \.\\k: per cciil. of wounded is much less tlian of 
the men. All the missing are enlisted men. 

The distances on the railroad tVoni ("hallanooga. along which we 
ha\e campaigned for four months, are as follows: 

Chattanooga, o; Chickamauga, <S miles; Ringgold. 21; Tunnel 
Hill. 29 ; Dalton, 36; Tilton, 45 ; Koaca. 52; Calhoun, 5X ; Adairs- 
ville, 67; Kingston, 77; Cass, <S4 ; ('arlersville, Sq ; Allatoona, 96; 
Acworth, loi ; Marietta, 116; X'ining, u;; .\tlaiUa, 136. 

/(). 'i'he I 1 3th went on picket duly a mile to the stnith of camp, 
leaving enough men in (amp to take care of it. and some of the offi- 
cers and men to work on compaiu papers. .\ow that we are at the 
end of a long campaign, there are many papers to make out and 
many statements to be forwarded to the various departments of the 
Ciovernment. This retjuires much careful work. I began on a mus- 
ter roll for May and June, remaining in camp. for that i)ur[)ose. Our 
supply of mail is very meagre, for it is rejiorted that (leneral Wheeler's 
cavalry is back in Tennessee raiding on our line of transportation. 
This is very unkind, and we may have to go up and see him about it- 

//. Sunday. The 1 13th came in from their picket duty. The men 
complain (jf the red-lapeism of the i)icket line. We have been so long 
unused to falling in at the approach of a general officer and other reg_ 
ulation reijuirements, that we take them uj) again reluctantly, and 
sometimes swear al)Out it. 

Passes are being issued to a limited number of the men to visit the 
city. I am too busy just now to take my turn. Business before 
pleasure. .\ mail was received. 

12. Those who visit the city find many interesting things about 
which to talk and write, (ireen and Stratton have been in the city 
to-day. Crreen says : 

" W'e stojjped at a house of two mulatto families named Badger. 
\A'c 'find them cultivated and polite in their manners, and wc 
received marked courtesies at their hands. The men are dentists, 
and stand high in their profession, use good language, and seem to be 
in good circumstances. We visited the site of the rolling mill which 
the rebels burned before leaving the city. Near this we saw five 
wrecked locomotives and many cars, which had been loaded with 
ammunition, and which had been destroyed by the enemy. Before 
reaching camp we stopped at the house of a Methodist preacher, 
where we fed on corn l)read, wheat bread, sweet potatoes, and other 



September, '64. J History 0/ thci 13 tli O. V. 1 . 107 

substantial delicacies. The reverend sinner spoke his Southern sym- 
pathies freely, and was packing up to leave the city and share in the 
expulsion in conformity with the order of (General Sherman. 

"A great many citizens are leaving Atlanta, some going north, but 
the great majority going southward. They are furnished transporta- 
tion by our army as far south as Rough and Ready. 1 noticed one 
tine looking young woman in an ambulance headed south, cr)ing pite- 
ously, and I thought she did look enchanting in her tears. I con- 
cluded that there was one handsome lady in Dixie." [G.] 

13. Hats, drawtrs and socks were issued to the regiment to-day. 
Trains of cars have passed loaded with citizens and household goods, 
destined for Rough and Ready. The men are preparing for company 
inspection, which comes to-morrow. A pugilistic affair took place 
between two men of Company K. The smaller man came out second 
best. 

13. The nights begin to be quite cool, and a blanket is more a 
thing of comfort and value than heretofore. Another long train loaded 
with citizens and their goods left the city to-day, passing our camp, for 
Rough and Ready. Solomon Bradford, a one year recruit, joined 
Company E to-day. He is a native of Alabama, and looks to be as 
stout as an ox. Fred Pence, who deserted at Camp Chase two years 
ago, joined Company E to-day. 

23. The past ten days have been remarkable for their dullness and 
lack of interest. Each day has had its little duties of roll calling, 
guard mounting, policing, scrubbing, washing, writing and eating. 
Company officers have been busy with rolls, statements and reports — 
the accumulation of months on the front line. The 113th is on picket 
a mile south of camp. We come on duty of this kind about once in 
fifteen days, which is rather light duty. 

Yesterday our mess completed a new shanty. Sergeant Flowers 
came to see us in the evening, and we made the occasion memorable 
by a vocal concert. John (r. (ranson, John H. Johnson and Joseph 
(iirard have been made corporals. This may seem only a trifling 
thing to some, but when a man gets an ai)pointnient like this at the 
end of two years of service, and at the close of a long and eventful 
campaign, it means more than a commission in the organization of a 
regiment. A trifling soldier may get such a place when he enters 
the service, but not afterwards. The nights grow colder, and we 
hope to get more blankets soon. 

Lieutenant Chatfield and I took. a walk in the direction of Atlanta 
after a busy day on his papers. 



loH livcry-iiay Soltiier Lijf : [ Resting al AllaiUa 

2^. Inspection, which was to take place yesterday, came off to-day. 
1 had planned to go to the city, l)iit did not go. Made discharge yw- 
pers for William HulTman, Company K. (ireen lias turned (ari)en- 
ter, and is working at Brigadier 1 lead(|uarters. 

28. Stratton and I spent the day in the city, visiting many places 
of interest and dining with friends of ("i)iiii)any 1, ()6th ( ). \'. \. 1. 
Returning to cam];, we hnd the regiment with tents struck and the 
whole division ready to move Finally all returned to tpiarters and 
spent the night. We have been here twenty days, and wuidd prefer 
going away to staying longer. .\ (la\ or two ago Captain Jone^ issued 
to me a warrant, as follows : 







^4 



To .\1,1. WHO SHAl.l. SKK IHESK PkF.SKN TS, ( i RKK riX( 1 : 

P^rjOM? je. That n'posin\; special trust and lOiifii/nur in the patriotism^ 
valor, fidelity and abilities of Corporal Francis M. AfcAdams, I do 
hereby appoint him Serjeant in Company E, of the iijth Regiment of 
Ohio Infantry Volunteers, in the serT'ice of the United States, to rank as 
such from the first day of September, one thousand eight hundred and 
sixty-four. He is, therefore, carefully and diligently to discharge the duty 
of Sergeant by doing and performing all manner of things thereunto 
belonging. 

And / do strictly charge and retjuire all non-commissioned officers and 
soldiers under his conunand to be obedient to his orders as Sergeant. And 
he is to observe andfolhnc such orders and directions from tivw to time as 
he shall receive frofn me, or the future commanding ofiicer of the regnnent, 
or other superior officers and non-comniis'iioned officers set over him, 
according to flie rules and discipline op uai . 

T/iis Warrant to continue in force during the pleasure of the command- 
ing ofiicer of the regiment for the time being. 

Given under my hand at the headquarters of the regiment at IVhitefiall, 
Ga., this twenty-sixth day of September, in the year of our Lord one 
thousand eight hundred and sixty-four. 

TOL.iXD fONES, 
By the Cornmandwsi Officer, Captain Coinmandivg th>' Regimetit. 

J.4MES R. LADD, 
A. Ci. O., No. 103. .hijutant of tlie Regiment. 



October, '64.] History of the iijth O. V. J. 109 

2g. We remain in camp, with all packed and ready for orders. At 
5 P. M. a tran of box cars ran down to our camp from Atlanta. Into 
and upon this we climbed, and at dusk, with bands playing and colors 
llying, we ran back to Atlanta. An hour later we were moving north- 
ward in the direction of Chattanooga. Many of us had not been on 
a train for nearly two years, and the novelty of riding and sleeping 
on top of a box car did not wear off immediately. By the time the 
majority had fallen asleep a brisk rain set in, and comfortable rest 
was at an end. Our train had a heavy load and moved slowly Day- 
light found us halted at Allatoona, forty miles from Atlanta and 
ninety-six miles from Chattanooga. 

JO. We moved on at a slow rate, and at 5 P. M. reached Chatta- 
nooga. In half an hour our train was on its way north, on the Nash- 
ville and Chattanootia railroatl. 



O C T O B E R, 186 4. 

/. During last night we ran from Chattanooga northward, and this 
morning we awoke to find our train halted at Stevenson, Alabama, a 
distance of thirty-eight miles from Chattanooga. 

At II A. M. our train switched on to the Memphis and Charleston 
railroad, and moved toward Huntsville, which we understand is our 
destination at present. W^e passed through a splendid country, and 
enjoyed the ride very much. During the day we passed Bellefonte, 
Larkinsville, Woodville, Paint Rock and Brownsboro, and, reaching 
Huntsville at 8:30 P. M., the brigade took shelter in a car house. 

Huntsville, the county seat of Madison county, is a fine place and 
situated in a splendid country. It is distant from Stevenson fifty- 
eight miles, and two hundred and twelve miles from Memphis. 

A rebel force under Forest appeared before the town two days ago, 
and demanded its surrender. (General R. S. Granger, being in com- 
mand, refused, and a fight ensued, resulting in the defeat of Forest. 
The approach of our division gave him a plea to withdraw. .So, now, 
we are here, with no rebels to make it interesting. 

2. Sunday. The division went into camp south of the city, near a 
large spring. At 3 P. M. we again boarded the train, and moved 
toward Decatur. After a run of four miles, the train stopped and 
remained till morning, a heavy rain falling during the night. I spent 
the night on an open car, on which was a piece of artillery and some 
corn in the husk. There was neither comfort nor sleep for me. 



no Eviiy-i/ay So/i/iii Lt/t : [Campaigning in Ala. 

?. This morning our train moved ahead, and at i i A. M. reached 
a |)oiiit where tlie track was destroyed, three miles from Athens. 
Here tlie Iroojis (hseiiib. irked and marched forward to Athens, reach- 
ing that i)lace early in the alternt)on, and going into temporary camp. 
.\thens is the counlv seat of Limestone county, .Mabama, and a fine 
l)lace, though it lui> suffered much by ixjlh armies. 

It has rained lo-da\, and the air is chilly and disagreeable. 1 
spent the night in the upper story of a frame stable, and fared well. 
We find seven hundred and fifty cavalry doing duty here. 

4. '['he division marched from Athens early in the morning. 'I'ook 
dinner in a lornfield on the left of the road, ten miles from Athens. 
.\t 4 V. M. we reached Elk River, at Henford's Ferry, two and a half 
miles from the Tennessee River. The troops stripped off their 
clothes, tied them in bundles, and, placing the bundles on the muz- 
zles of their guns, waded the river, which at this ford was about three 
and a half feet deep. It was rare sport and a grand sight, but, in the 
absence of a special artist, a sketch was not preserved. Four miles 
further on the division went into camp near a small village called 
Rogersville. .\ tremendous rain fell as we were camping, and we 
slept wet. Received a mail. We have marched eighteen miles. 

5. We moved ahead, passing through the dirty little town of 
Rogersville. The roads are deep with mud, sand and water, and 
the men are suffering with sore feet. It is reported that several men 
died yesterday from over-exertion. This is hardly probable. We 
hear of these things, but seldom see them. Took dinner thirteen 
miles from Florence, and, marching six miles further, went into tem- 
porary camp near the niouth of Shoal Creek and on the right bank of 
the Tennessee River. I h;i\ea pair of sore feet. Built a rail bed 
and slept well. 

6. Eight companies of the 98th O. V. I. went forward on a recon- 
noissance toward P'lorence. The First and Third Brigades are be- 
yond Shoal Creek; the Second remains on the left bank. Companies 
E and K of the 113th, and two companies of the 98th, went on a 
foraging trip, taking two teams. They found great quantities of 
meat, potatoes, peaches, apples and chickens. This is a fine country, 
and there is plenty for man and beast. 

7. Kite, Girard, Snyder and I went down to the bank of the Ten- 
nessee, at the mouth of Shoal Creek, where I wrote to my wife. Re- 
turning to camp at noon, we found the command ready to move. We 
reached Florence, and camped a mile east of town. We find this to 



October, '64. J History 0/ the i ijth O. / '. /. in 

be a neat place, the county seat of Lauderdale county, Alabama. 
The country is well improved, and everything is more inviting than 
any place we have seen since we were in Middle 'I'ennessee. 

8. To-day our l)rigade marched through the princi[)al streets ()\ 
Florence, with music sounding and banners flying. Of course we 
attracted the attention of the citizens, consisting of women and ne- 
groes. Some of the women are good looking, but the greater number 
are of the razor-blade or elm-))eeler pattern, long as rails and sour 
looking. 1 went with Captains Orr and Swisher to Foundry Mills, 
four miles north of Florence, taking five wagons with us loaded with 
corn to be ground into meal. Took supper with a Mr. Sport, an em- 
ploye of the Mills. Swisher and 1 spent the night with the famih 
named (rresham. 

g. Sunday. Captain vSwisher and I arose ver\ early, and, leaving 
the house without disturbing the family, we rode back to camp, leav- 
ing the teams and a scpiad of men at the Mills to finish grinding the 
corn. After our return to camp, we took thirteen teams into the 
country and brought in a full supply of corn. Late in the evening I 
returned to Foundry Mills, and l)rought in the men and teams we had 
left there, reaching camp late in the night. There was a frost this 
morning, the first of the season. 

lO. The division moved early toward .\thens, on the -^ame road by 
which we reached Florence last week. Took dinner fourteen miles 
from Florence. The roads are good and the marching very agreeable. 
Reached Cox's Creek, camped and drew rations. Marched about 
twenty miles. Surgeon T. B. Williams has my thanks for the use of 
his mare to-dav. Riding is preferable to walking with sore feet. 

//. Started earlv. .\t 8 A. M., while the command halted, the 
I 13th laid plans for holding an election in the evening if opportunity 
offered. Captains Watson, Hamilton and Shepherd were elected 
as judges, and the reipiisite clerks were appointed. Our plans mis- 
carried, as our division commander seemed not to be in sympathy 
with the soldier suffrage idea. One of these days James I). Morgan 
will want an Ohio soldier to dip his bayonet in melted lava and cool 
his parched tongue. Then the Buckeye saint will refer him to the 
act of this date, and walk off with a canteen full of ice water. 

Taking our dinner on the right bank of l-'.lk River, we again waded 
the stream, and, marching on, reached a point within six miles of 
.\thens, where we camped. C'ompanies K and F went on picket. .A 
hog, which was known to be disloyal, was made to take the oath, and 
fresh pork was a part of our suppers. 



Evci y-i/a\ SoL/ii) JAji : \ liiooinlovN n \' alley 



12. Reached Athens and camped cast of the town at noon. Re- 
ceived a mail. We are waiting for a train by which we are to move 
on toward Stevenson. 

/?. Trains ran up from llie east to-day, and, embarking, we moved 
towards Huntsville, reaching that place after dark. One car (jf our 
train ran o IT the track, causing some delay, 'i'his is my twenty-sixth 
birthda) . 

14. We came into Stevenson at i:.^o.\. .M., reached Hridge|>ort and 
crossed the lennessee at daylight, and at noon arrived at Chatta- 
nooga, l-ast night was cold, and our position on top of a car was 
ver\ uncomfortable. 

.Mitchell's Brigade camped east of town. .Assisted ("ai)iain Swislier 
to issue wood and forage. 

ij. Shifted camp to a site near l-'ort Wood. .\ supply of clothing 
was issued to the men. 'I'hese are much needed. 

16. Sunday. .\t .\. M. the brigade marc.hed to the depot, ex- 
pe<;ting to go st)uth, but, after an hour waiting for transixjrtation, it 
returned to its ])osition near Fort Wood. At 11 P. M. the regiment 
drew rations for two days, and we e.xpect to be off to-morrow. 

//. We remain camped. New recruits, with shiny watch chains, 
glistening boots, huge knapsacks, paper collars, and with plenty of 
bounty money, are in and about Chattanooga in great numbers. .\ 
change will soon come over the spirit of their dreams. This is an 
unfavorable climate for pai)er collars and fantastic display. 

18. The division left Chattanooga at 7 A. M., and, reaching Lee iV 
Cordon's Mills, twelve miles south of Chattanooga, on Chickamauga 
Creek, camped for the night. 

ri^. ( )ur column moved early, marched titteeii nules southward, and 
halted for the night at La Fayette, Walker county, Ceorgia, where we 
camped. We have levied tribute on some country produce during 
the day. Hyatt, one of the men of the train, had captured a rebel- 
lious rooster, and we spent a good part of the night in getting him 
ready for supper. Mess No. i had sweet potatoes and a rabbit for 
sui)i)er. We are in the dark as to the object of this trip. This doe» 
not cause us to lose sleep. 

20. Marched in a southeasterly course till noon; then, leaving the 
Summerville road on which we had been moving, we took a more west- 
erly course, entered Hroomtown Valley, crossed Chatooga Creek, and 
camped. We have traveled sixteen miles. 

21. Our column reached Alpine at noon, crossed the State line into 



Novtmljcr, '64. 1 UisloiyoJlhciijlhO. V.I. 113 

Cherokee county, Alabama, and camped at a small creek, having 
marched twenty miles. We are living well and see no armed rebels. 
The surface of the country is rough. 

22. Moved ahead till noon, when we halted at (raylesville, finding 
one or more corps of our army in camp. Our brigade established 
head'iuarters at the house of a Mrs. Bowling, who is sick. 

2j. Sunday. Remained camped. Organized foraging parties are 
scouring in all directions for supplies. The unorganized man is at 
the same business, and seems to be the most successful. A couple of 
lads, who had captured a yoke of oxen and a buggy, were riding 
through camp with their fantastic outfit. The weather is clear and 
cool. 

25. Wrote a letter to Lieutenant Colonel VVarner. Meal was issued 
to us to-day, and, i)rocuring an oven of the people at the house near 
which we are camped, we baked some bread. If the rebels can live 
and fight on corn dodger all the time, we ought to do so some of the 
time, just for variety. 

27. The feed tpiestion becomes one of importance. Our foragers 
have had but very little success of late, and we are altogether short 
of supplies. An independent gang has gone out, assuring us they 
would have something to eat or stay out a week. They will get it. 

28. Marched at 2 P. M., passing through Gaylesville, and at the 
end of seven miles went into camp. 

2g. Moved at daylight, marching eighteen miles, reaching Rome at 
3 P. M. Here we get a mail, the first since the lyth inst. We are 
to rest here a dav or two. 



NOVEMBER, 1864. 

/. Left Rome early this morning, and at 2 P. M. reached Kingston, 
having marched fifteen miles. We are expecting to be paid off soon. 
So be it. 

The brigade headtpiarters are at the house of Mrs. Hall, who has 
two attractive daughters. 

2. The weather is wet, wintly and cool. Two trains pass south, 
loaded with arliller\. We are fiU\-ninc miles from Atlanta and 
seventy-seven bom Chattanooga. 

3. Major Harris, l'a\inaster, paid off some (jf the troops of our 
division. VVe received pay for eight months, amounting in my case- 
to $124. This makes $338.50 1 have received since 1 enlisted. 

12 



114 Kvtiy-Jay Soli/it I Lift: [(lathering al Athinla 

4. All day the men are going about adjusting accounts and paying 
off old debts. A soldier is proverbially honest, and always pays his 
debts when he has the money ; when he has no funds he pays in 
promises or gi\es his note. He is noted for his /wroioina proclivi- 
ties, but he seldom steals. 1 ha\ e known him to borrow the spoons 
of a steamboat on which he was taking a free ride, and sometimes he 
borrows the knives and forks when he dines with a citizen. He is 
very forgetful; he a/ways forgets to return what he borrows. There 
are now in the 113th a number of coffee mills and coffee pots, Dutch 
ovens, iron wedges, looking glasses, hand saws, tin buckets, and other 
articles of every day use, that have been borrowed of the natives, 
and which the borrowers have forgotten to return. When we were 
packed ready to march from Tyner last March, my mess felt sad to 
be compelled to leave a Dutch oven and an iron wedge, which we 
could not carry. But before we moved out a rusty old citizen who 
came into camp paid us ;5ii for the two articles, and we marched off 
with light hearts. If the old chap had been cautious, and waited a 
few minutes, he could have had them a dollar cheaper, but he failed 
to see it. 

Our men are sending their money home to their families and 
friends — some by the State Agent, others by draft. A very little 
money can be made to go a great ways with a soldier, but I notice 
that in the matters of saving and squandering their wages the)' are 
about like other men. 

5. A number of chuck-a-luck banks are in operation in several 
parts of camp, and the men are risking and losing their money at a 
fearful rate. Some have lost all they had, while others are ahead of 
the game, but in the end the dealer scoops the pile. One of the rules 
of my life is never to bet; another is never to say " I'll bet." 

Cass, a small village a short distance from Kingston, was burned 
to-day. 

7. Yesterday was Sunday and a day of quiet in camp. The gamb- 
lers continue to ply their profession in various ways. The unwary 
lad, wlio always sees a thing " as plain as day," has l)een fleeced of 
his wages, and is making complaints which will result in checking 
the gaming business. It ought to have begun sooner. To-morrow 
is the day of the Presidential election. We intend to vote. 

(?. The division left Kingston at 6 A. M., reaching Cartersville at 
2 P. M. and going into camp. During a halt on the way, the 1 1 3th 
appointed Captains j. K. Hamilton, Otway, Watson and (ieorge Mc- 



November, '64. J History of the 113th O. V. J. ii5 

Crea judges of election, and Lieutenant C. P. Garman and J. C. 
Doty clerks, and determined to have the vote of the regiment cast at 
any risk. After reaching Cass the vote was cast. Total vote cast, 
241. For Lincoln and Johnson, 165 ; for McClellan and Pendleton, 
76. There were twenty-five counties represented in the regiment, 
and the work of making out the returns was no trifling one. It is 
said that the 113th cast a larger vote for McClellan than any other 
Ohio regiment in the division. That will make us the pets of the 
division commander. The Champaign county soldiers numbered 
thirty-eight — Republicans 31, Democrats 7. The 98th (). V. L gave 
McClellan seventeen votes. 

10. In the evening I started to Atlanta on a train to do some 
business for Captain Swisher. I arrived at my destination at mid- 
night, and remained in the car till morning. 

12. Lieutenant Ladd returned from Atlanta, bringing the retain 
papers. All baggage is being sent rearward. A train which left for 
the North at noon is said to be the last that will leave. We are under 
orders, and will move southward. Many stores and army supplies 
at this place are being burned. 

13. Our division moved from Cartersville at 6 A. M., and, crossing 
the river on a high bridge, marched half a mile and stacked arms. 
We then began work destroying the railroad, making a full day's work 
of it, and reaching from the place of beginning to Allatoona, a dis- 
tance of nearly six miles. We then marched forward to Acworth, 
five miles further, and camped. 

14. Leaving Acworth, we moved southward, passing Big Shanty 
during the forenoon. Captains McCrea and Swisher and Lieutenant 
Lippincott visited the grave of Sergeant Scott and others, who are of 
our command buried at Big Shanty. Peculiarly painful feelings took 
possession of our hearts as we marched past the graves of our com- 
rades and as we passed the many lines of defenses which played so 
important a part in the summer's campaign. We marched twenty- 
one miles to-day. 

13. The column moved at six o'clock, crossing the Chattahoochee 
at 8 A. M. At 3 P. M. we camped nearly two miles in an easterly 
direction from Atlanta. We left this vicinity forty-five days ago, have 
traveled several hundred miles without seeing an armed foe, and now 
we are on the verge of some great strategic movement — we know not 
what. A supply of clothing was issued this evening. 1 drew only a 
gum blanket. Sold my great coat to Captain McCrea for ^8.50, and 
a woolen shirt to Lieutenant Chatfield for %e^. 



ii6 Ei'K/y-i/ay SoUi<> Li/i : |<)n lo Savannah 

The cil) of Atljnla is bcin^, Imrncil, and il i> iin(lcr.-.lu(Hl ihal all 
conininniciition willi iIk- rear, norlhwaal, is al an end. ("olonel 
Mitchell is in Oliio now, and wilt not share in our exploits in the 
inmiediale future. 

ON TO S.WA.NNAII. 

'I'he army, now ready lu move southward, has hei-n di\ i(h-d into 
two great wings : 

The right wing consists of the Fifteenth and the Seventeenth t'ori)s. 
This wing is in command of Major (ieneral O. O. Howard. 

The left wing consists of the Fourteenth and the Twentieth Corps, 
commanded by Major (Ieneral H. W. Slocum. 

The Fifteenth Corps consists of the divisions of (lenerals Charles 
R. Wood, ^Vm. B. Ha/.en, John K. Smith and John M. Corse. 

The Seventeenth Corps has three divisions, under command of 
Major (General John A. Mower and Brigadier (ienerals Miles 1). Leg- 
gett and Giles A. Smith. 

The Fourteenth Corps has three divisions, led by Pirigadier Gener- 
als William Carlin, James 1). Morgan and Absalom Haird. 

The Twentieth Corps includes the divisions of Brigadier Generals 
Nomian J. Jackson, John W. Geary and William T. Ward. 

Kilpatrick's division of cavalry consists of two brigades, com- 
manded by Colonels Eli H. Murray and Smith I). Atkins. 

'I'he several corps are commanded as follows : 

F'ifteenth Corps, Major (ieneral P. J. Osterhaus. 

Seventeenth Corps, Major General Frank B. Blair, Jr. 

F'ourteenth Corps, Brevet Major General Jefferson C. Davis. 

Twentieth Corps, Brigadier General A. S. W illiams. 

i6'. At 1 1 A. M.our column moved from our camp east of Atlanta, 
and, taking a southerly course, marched parallel with the (ieorgia 
railroad, passiiig through Decatur, and camping twelve miles from 
Atlanta. Stratton had found (.'') a note book during the day, and our 
shelter tent was the scene of an evening concert. We thought it 
better to sing than weep. Our cam]) is in the neighborhood of Stone 
Mountain. 

77. Starting at seven, we marched briskly till noon, when we halted 
and took dinner. Moved till 5 P. M., when we began destroying the 
railroad. Worked till dark, then marched forward three miles and 
camped at Conyers, thirty miles from Atlanta. Have marched eighteen 
miles. We made our sui)])ers on parched corn and meat, and felt 



N(wemlier, *64. 1 History of the J ijlh O. V. /. 117 



less like singing than we did last night. Captain Jones has command 
of the regiment. 

18. Left Conyers before daylight, reaching Covington and Oxford 
at noon. These towns are close together, forty-one miles from 
Atlanta. Crossed Yellow River at 10 A. M. on a pontoon. At one 
o'clock we began to destroy the railroad, but at the end of two hours 
we again. moved on. Marched three miles further and camped, hav- 
ing traveled sixteen miles. 

/<?. After a hasty breakfast the division moved ahead in a heavy 
rain, the troops straggling much on account of a bad road. Passed 
through Sandtown at ro A. M., carrying off a number of negroes. 
Stratton pressed in a likely looking contraband and loaded him with 
a heavy knapsack. It was a case of misplaced confidence, for the 
darkey gave him the slip, taking knapsack and all with him. 
Marched twenty-one miles aid camped near Shady Dale, and in a 
thicket. Late in the evening a detail of two men from each com- 
pany, one commissioned officer and one non-commissioned officer 
from the regiment was made. These were organized into a foraging 
band. Their duties consisted in procuring supplies for the command. 
I was detailed as the non-commissioned officer of this force. We are 
camped near the plantation of Matthew Whitefield, one of the 
wealthy planters of Georgia. 

20. The 1 13th O, V. L and 78th Illinois V. I. were on duty as train 
guards. The trains moved slowly and the men improved the irime in 
appropriating whatever had escaped the vigilance of the troops in the 
advance. One fellow, lacking a jug for the purpose, filled a plug hat 
with molasses at Whitefield's store and carried it to his company. 
Everything in this store worth carrying, and some things that wei'e 
not, was taken. The command camped near Eatonton Factories, 
having marched fifteen miles. The foragers brought in horses, 
mules, oxen and sheep, with plenty meal, meat, sweet potatoes and 
other delicacies. 1 shot and killed two ganders, and then remember- 
ing that time was too precious to waste in boiling them a day and 
night, I concluded to abandon them. Green says he went into a 
building to fill his canteen with molasses, and found the floor covered 
two inches deep with it. 

21. The command deflected to the right and moved toward 
Milledgeville in a heavy rain and very bad roads. Camjjed fourteen 
miles from Milledgeville on Williams' farm, near Murder Creek. We 
have marclied tweUe miles. CajHain McCrea's means of transpor- 



ii8 Krftv-i/av Sohiifr-Li/i- : [Through (ieorgia 

tation consists of three horses and a mule. Jolin (ranson killed a 
sheep, and plenty reigns. 

-'_'. Sunday. The Second i'ivision remained halted during the 
(lav; the ihird l)ivision passed. The weather is clear and cold, 
and rails are growing scarcer ever\ hour. Sokliers are not great 
eaters, but a mess of eight consumed nearly two hogs to-day, and 
they are not very hoggish, either. It snowed some in the night. 

2J. Manlicd at 5:3c A. .M. and in the evening <;ain])ed within two 
miles of" Milledgeville, having marched eleven miles. i have been 
sick to-day and by the kindness of Dr. Williams 1 rode in an ambu- 
lance this aftern(jon. Our brigade halted for dinner on the planta- 
tion of Howell Cobb. General Sherman has been making his head- 
(juarters with the Fourteenth Corps. 

24. Marching at 10 A. M. we passed through Mdledgeville at 
noon, crossed the Oconee river and camped about seven miles from 
the capital. Every hour has its incidents. As we passed a house 
to-day a soldier asked a woman if supper was ready. She burst into 
tears and replied that she had not a morsel of food in the house. 
One day's rations of bread was issued to-night. Our way led us by 
Black Spring, Fair Play and Long's Bridge. 

25. Started at 6 A. M., passed the cami) of the third division, and 
at ten o'clock our advance met some resistance from a small force of 
rebels. At noon we halted two hours while a stream was being 
bridge'd so we might cross. Crossed and camped two miles beyond 
the crossing, and six miles from Sandersville. This is in Washing- 
ton county. 

26. Moved at si.x o'clock, and for two hours we were not molested. 
As we neared Sandersville our skirmishers and foragers met a force of 
the enemy which disputed our advance. Our men deployed and 
drove them to the suburbs of the town. Then the 113th, being in 
the advance of the column, were deployed in line and moved on 
them. Our men drove the rebels through and out of town, and then 
halted and stacked arms. Companies B, (1, K and E go on the 
skirmish line, and while on this duty they captured a Sergeant of the 
1 2th Georgia Infantry, and a fine horse. Our loss was one killed 
and two wounded. The one killed belonged to the io8th Ohio; Jno. 
A. Wood, Sergeant of Company 1, 121st O. V. 1. was badly wounded 
through the lungs. The division went into camp and the 20th Corps 
camped near us. S. E. Bailey, Company B, is the fortunate possessor 
of a blind mule, which he pressed into service recently. He comes in 
now and then with a full supply of poultry and other choice feed. 



November, '64. J History oj the iijl/i O. V. /. 119 

27. Sunday. The division moved with the second brigade in the 
rear. We had no particular incident to record. The foragers now 
comprise about ninety men out of a hundred. It is not possible to 
describe the nature and extent of this band of food gatherers. They 
do not always exercise mercy toward the citizens with whom they 
come in contact, but I have witnessed no acts of violence. The first 
soldier divides with the unfortunate citizen, taking the larger share ; 
the next, and the next do likewise, and by the time the whole line has 
passed, nothing remains worth dividing. 

We crossed the Ogeechee river at 3 P. M. and camped three miles 
further on. We have been moving southeasterly, and have marched 
fifteen miles. 

28. We were on our way at an early hour, reaching a point within 
two miles of Louisville, Jefferson county, Ga., at noon. At this 
point we were detained while a bridge was thrown across Rocky 
Comfort creek. We then marched forward, passed through Louis- 
ville, and camped a mile east of town. The foragers found a great 
quantity of provisions and household goods in a swamp on our left 
to-day. They brought in many articles not necessary to the comfort 
of a soldier. We have marched fifteen miles to-day. 

2g. Adjutant Ladd took a party out on a foraging expedition and 
procured pork, poultry and meal. 

Richard Cox, teamster, was out with a foraging party. They were 
attacked by rebels, and Cox was shot, stripped of his clothing, and 
left for dead. He was brought into camp and cared for. He may 
recover. Stratton is suffering an attack of colic, ^\'e remained 
camped to-day. 

jO. Companies C', H, E, K, (i and B went out a mile from cam[) 
as a guard to a forage train consisting of six wagons. 

" When within a few hundred yards of the house at which a i^art} 
of rebels had been seen yesterday, we halted and prepared to throw 
out skirmishers. Before this was accomplished some foragers further 
out began to exchange shots with the foe, and sooner than it can be 
told a detachment of rebel cavalry came upon us, front, right and 
left. Their appearance was so sudden and unexpected that our 
party was taken at a great disadvantage. 

" The enemy dashed, fired and shouted at us at a terrible rate. A 
ball passed through a sapling and then spent its wasted force in my 
stomach, but upon examination I found I was not much hurt. W'c 
were being pressed on our front, right and left, but we kept up a 
brisk fire and fell back gradually toward our pickets and camp. 

"At the picket nost we received some support, and soon the 17th 



KiYiy-iAiy Si>/,/i<i IaJi : | 'lliiou^fli (icorgia 



N. Y. cunic to our aid, giving us the opjKjrlunity of regaining what 
ground had been lost. Other regiments from camp came out on 
double-(iuick upon learning of our being attacked. These, and a 
force of our cavalry scoured the county, and soon returned to camp 
without getting a shot at the enemy. 'I"he affair lasted an hour and 
had some features about it that were worth laughing at after it was 
over. We lost eight men, and I \)resunie these were all taken prison- 
ers. One or two of our wounded were carried off by the enemy. 
Earnest Snyder, of Company E, was captured. Tom Hallan was in 
their hands for a time, but got away." [(i.] 

'I'he foraging detail under command of Lieutenant C. P. (iarman, 
made a trip into the country but found very little produce. At the 
residence of a wealthy lady we were entertained by her daughters with 
some piano music. These girls do not use tobacco. The vandal 
hand was very busy all day, but no outrages were committed. 



1 ) E C EMBER, r 8 6 4. 

/. The column again moved on ; Morgan's division is marching 
as a train guard for the 14th Corps. The roads run through swamps 
and are sandy and heavy. The country is flat and only [)artly im- 
proved. 

Captain McCrea commanded the organized company of foragers to- 
day. We can find plenty of hogs, cattle and sheep, but bread stuff, 
that which we need most, can not be found so easily. Marched ten 
miles and camped on the left. We are leaving Millen to our right 
and Wainsboro to the left. Our course since leaving Milledgeville 
has been nearly east, but now we bear toward the south. 

2. ()ur division is again with tlie corps train. It has been a hard 
day on man and beast. The road is almost a continuous swamp and 
the heavy trains require tVequent assistance. The rear of our train 
came in at midnight and the 1 r3th went to bed supperless. 

It is reported that six of our foragers were killed to-day. Some 
say their throats were cut and a card pinned to each, read, " Death 
to all foragers." 

The foraging detail was commanded by Captain J. K. Hamilton, and 
the party took dinner near a large, vacant house, the property of a 
prominent and wealthy rebel named Byrne. Before the column had 
passed the house was in flames, having been set on fire by accident 
or design ; probably the latter. 



December, '64. J His lory 0/ the 113 lli O. V.l. 121 

Near here Captain Hamilton's party found a large pile of sweet 
potatoes, guarded by a single Michigan soldier. Captain H. told us 
to take them ; the Michigander fixed his bayonet and objected He 
was at length dispossessed. Captain H. said to him, "Tell your 
officers that Captain Hamilton, of the 113th Ohio, took your potatoes ; 
we must have them." We have marched ten miles, and our camp is 
at the crossing of the Birdsville and Wainsboro roads, and near Buck- 
head creek. 

3. The troops moved ahead, crossing Buckhead creek during the 
forenoon. The column changed direction, and, after a hard day's 
work on account of the character of the roads, the divisions of Carlin 
and Morgan camped at Lumpkin's station, at the crossing of the 
Jacksonboro road and the Augusta and Savannah railway. 

While crossing the pontoon at Buckhead, a mule loaded with sweet 
potatoes lost his equilibrium and fell into the stream. He was 
fished out by the boys, more on account of the load he carried than 
for their lo*.'e of the animal. 

Lieutenant George H. Lippincott commanded the organized regi- 
mental foragers. Crossing the creek at an early hour the party flanked 
to the right and then returned to the road and took dinner in a farm 
yard at a plantation, whose owner had gone off, leaving his family and 
his worldly effects at our mercy. 

Later in the day we halted at the palatial residence of Mrs. 
Churchill, whose daughters entertained us with music. One of them 
sang a rebel song in our very faces, with a defiant devotion worthy of 
a better cause. The choi'us ran thus. 

" I'd ratlier be a soldier's wife 

And smile upon him all his life; 

I'll wait for some brave volunteer. 

Who shall my youth and beauty share." 

We find but few houses. These indicate by their character that 
the country is inhabited by two classes, the very rich and the very 
poor. We have marched eleven miles. 

4. Sunday. Our two divisions moved in the direction of Jackson- 
l)oro. A part of the command destroyed three miles of the railroad 
at Lumpkin's Station, and moving ahead the whole force made an 
agreeable march of thirteen miles, camping on the right of the road 
in a grove of pine. The character of the route differs from that we 
have been marching over. Only an occasional plantation can be 
seen, the country is covered with pine timber and a tall wiry grass 

13 



122 Evcry-iltiy Sohlitr Liji : |'I"hii)Uj^li Cicoi^ia 

grows everywhere. We saw patches of rice to-day growing in low 
phices. This is the first many of us have ever seen. 

'I'he regimental foragers marched in command of Lieutenant W. 
.\. M. Davis. Crossing the railroad in the direction of Wainsboro 
they captured some meal a mile further (jn. The i)arty worked on 
the right flank during the forenoon and dined near a church at a 
sjjring, six miles from the railroad. (^ani])ed with their comrades at 
night. 

5. The I 13th moved with the rear jjart of the corps train, leaving 
camp after 10 A. M. The route lay through a sandy country giving 
evidences of poverty. After a hard day's march of fifteen miles the 
whole corps cam[)ed in the vicinity of Jacksonboro, and close to 
lirier creek. 

Lieutenant John S. Skeels commanded our foraging party to-day. 
We reached Lawton's Mills early in the day. Our mounted foragers 
had already taken possession of the mill and were grinding briskly. 
Here we procured a light wagon, and putting upon it a lond of meal 
proceeded forward. Flanked to the right and went into cam[) near 
the brigade at night. 

6. Our regiment is marching again willi tlic train. The sand is 
deep and loose and often fills our shoes. We have marched nearly 
parallel with the Savannah river and not far from it. Crossed 
Beaver-dam creek earl\ this morning on a pontoon which had been 
built during last night. We have made twenty miles to-day, and 
our cam]) is in the vicinity of Hudson's Ferry, on the Savannah 
river. The enemy has obstructed the road in our advance by falling 
trees across it. These are being removed. Captain Shepherd, Com- 
pany K, commanded the foragers. Soon after leaving camp we 
entered a house on the left. Here we found some clothing buried in 
a garden. Going to a room in the second story I found a double 
barreled shot gun which 1 broke round a sapling in the yard. Further 
on we butchered some hogs and left the meat at the roadside in 
charge of two men who were instructed to point it out to the 113th 
when they came along. At a house on the right, further on, was a 
young Miss from the other side of the river. She begged us to deal 
gently with her fellow, even her lover, if he should fall into our hands. 
Took dinner near a burning gin house, and again struck the road at 
the Middle Ground Church (liaptist). Chas. Sj)rague had cajitured 
a fine shell during the day, for which I paid him ^5. 

7. After some delay in clearing the road we again moved forward. 



December, '64.] History of the iJJth O. l\ I. 123 

Our division with a pontoon train in charge of Colonel Buell, reached 
Ebenezer creek late in the evening and began to prepare to lay a 
bridge across the stream. The 113th took a position near the creek, 
and within a supporting distance of Colonel Buell's pontooneers. We 
have marched fifteen miles, and have passed several dreary swamps 
on either hand. 

The foragers marched again in command of Captain Shepherd. We 
killed seventeen hogs on the left of the road, and after dressing and 
cutting up the meat into small pieces (leaving the hair on), we piled 
it at the road side on some rails, in ten equal quantities, for the ten 
companies of the regiment. Leaving three men in charge of the meat 
we moved on. When the 1 13th came along in the line of march the 
meat was pointed out to them, and each company, securing the pile 
to which it was entitled, carried it to idie end of the day's march, 
when the pieces were skinned and prepared for cooking. 

Late in the evening we found a large lot of sweet potatoes, and 
piling them into a cart, we prevailed on a cavalry man of Kilpatrick's 
command to haul them into camp for us. Harness ? Well, the har- 
ness, cart and potatoes belonged at the same place. 

8. Our column did not move till late in the forenoon, though 
Colonel Buell and his force worked all night to complete the bridge. 
When the bridge was completed the work of crossing Ebenezer began, 
but progressed slowly. After crossing, our brigade halted for dinner' 
near the bridge; several shots were fired at our column from a gunboat 
in the river on our left. We were not harmed, but the first shot made 
us a little nervous. Captain Jones remarked that in all probability 
there was flour on board that boat, but we had better delay going for 
it till after dark. We can hear artillery a distance in our front. We 
moved ahead six miles and prepared to camp, but an order to coun- 
ter march was given, and the division returned and camped near 
where we had taken dinner. Have marched twelve miles. 

The foragers under Captain Shej^herd moved off to the right, pro- 
cured sweet potatoes and mutton, and then returning to the main road, 
had a vexatious time finding the regimental camp. The Ebenezer has 
two streams here ; one is smaller than the other. The smaller one is 
spanned by a pontoon, 

g. Our column moved from Ebenezer, and passing southward 
through a low, swampy country, reached Cuyler's plantation, where we 
found the enemy occupying a small fort planted in our pathway. He 
opened upon us in a lively manner, and for a time we were at a 



124 Every-ilay Soit/irr Li/c : \\\ Savannah 

standstill. Two field pieces were put into i)osition by our forces and 
for a while there was an artillery duel, night coining on in the mean- 
time. In tliisailion Lieutenant Coe, Battery 1, -^d Illinois .\rtillery, 
was killed. During the afternoon a flat-boat was cai)tured on the 
Savannah rivei on our left, it contained provisions and some wine. 
Some of our men came up from the boat in a condition which re- 
called the adage that " the way to keep the spirits up is to pour the 
spirits down." The regiment camped in a swamp fifteen miles from 
Savannah. 

To-day the foragers were again under the command of (Japtain 
Shepherd. In a garden near the road we found buried a ipiantity of 
s'weet potatoes, honey, meal, meat, dishes, butter and lard. This 
discovery was made by thrusting the ramrod of a gun into the earth 
in various places in the garden. inally, thu rod struck the lid of a 
box in which the goods were stored, and the whole was unearthed. 
Though we have been marching j^arallel with the river, and some- 
times within a half mile of it for two days, we had but one glimpse 
of the stream, its banks being so densely covered with cypress and 
other trees as to hide the river entirely. We marched only eight 
miles. 

10. The fort in our front was evacuated last night, and we moved 
ahead unmolested early this morning. The 113th went on a scout 
in the direction of the river. Returning to the main road, the 1 13th 
joined the rest of the division at Ten Mile House. Camped near the 
Charleston and Savannah railroad, having marched only five miles. 

The foragers have been under my orders to-day. We scouted on 
the right of the main road, captured a jjortable corn mill, and carried 
it with us till noon, when we put it w\) and ground some meal. In 
the afternoon we crossed the road, and, after considerable effort, 
we reached the river, and then, returning to the road, cam[jed with 
the regiment. 

//. Sunday. At 8 A. M. our brigade moved toward Savannah, 
passed the 20th A. C, filed right, and, striking the line of the rail- 
road, took a position on the front line, relieving troops of the 17th A. 
C. These go to the right. The rebels, under Hardee, are in our 
front. 

Our protracted picnic is now at an end ; we are here to stay, and 
sooner or later we ^hall hold dress parade in the streets of this his- 
toric old city. I took the foragers several miles south to the river's 
bank, where we procured meat, rice and potatoes. We then joined 
our command in the line. The rebels are shelling part of our line. 



December, '64.] History of the iTjth O. V. I. 125 

12. Our brigade was relieved this morning by troops of the Twen- 
tieth Corps. Marching some distance southward, we crossed the 
Savannah &: Augusta railroad, and relieved the troops of the First 
Division, 14th A. C. Companies I, C, H and E went on the skirmish 
line on the bank of an old dry canal, which is said to have been made 
by General Jackson during the Florida War. 

The foraging party repaired to the river, and, procuring a boat, 
crossed over a branch of the Savannah on to a large island called 
Argile, seven miles above the city. Then, by means of a skiff, rowed 
by some negroes belonging to Taylor's plantation, we crossed the 
eastern arm of the river which separates the island from South Caro- 
lina. We are now on the hated soil of the chief of rebel states. We 
began an indiscriminate slaughter of Mr. Taylor's stock. All at 
once the cry was heard: "The rebels are coming! the rebels are 
coming! " Not a few of our party turned their backs on South Car- 
olina and made for the skiff at the bank of the river. Others of us, 
who were too heavily loaded to run, stood our ground, and began in- 
quiring into the cause of the alarm. At the distance of half a mile 
could be seen a body of cavalrymen drawn up in line, carefully 
watching our movements. I assisted Lieutenant Henry Urban, io8th 
Ohio, to rally the men into line, and we took a position behind a dike 
near Taylor's rice mill. The enemy contented themselves by watch- 
ing us a few minutes longer, and then rode slowly away. We then 
recrossed the river to the Georgia side, and made our way to camp, 
finding the regiment with difficulty. During the night, a cannon 
shot, passing through a tree above our heads, cut off a limb, which 
fell on our bed, but did us no harm. 

IJ. The bread question is becoming an important one. One pound 
of bread for three days is our allowance. The rebels in our front 
are busy building forts and other offensive and defensive works. 
Something will be done soon that will astonish the natives. 

The different corps of our army are in position as follows : 
The Twentieth Corps occupies the left of our line; its left rests on 
the Savannah river, near Williams' plantation. The Fourteenth 
joins the right of the Twentieth, and extends from the Augusta rail- 
road to Lawton's plantation, beyond the canal. The Seventeenth 
Corps joins the right of the Fourteenth, and the Fifteenth Corps oc- 
cupies the extreme right, resting on the Gulf railway. 

Late this evening we received the news that General Hazen's 
trooi)s have taken l''ort McAllister, and such cheering as was heard 



126 Ezwry-i/iiy SoLiii-r Lijc : [At Savaniuili 

along the line is seldom heard by mortal ears. 'I'his means bread 
and mail. The foragers remained in camp. 

/^. One of our guns on the line of the First Division has been 
throwing solid shot into the city, a distance of three miles. This is 
calculated to disturb their devotions to some extent. 

Captain John W. Kile went with a foraging party for su|jplies. We 
proceeded to the river, and crossed over into Argyle island. Had a 
little skirmish with a party of rebels, who fired at us from the Caro- 
lina shore, but at such a distance as to do us no harm. \Ve procured 
rice, beans and meat, and, returning to the west bank, spent the night 
at a rice mill near the river. 

jj. Rode into camp on a mule barefooted. Some miscreant stole 
my shoes while 1 slept, and 1 paid two dollars for a pair to rejilace 
the stolen ones. There is seldom a loss that does not have a corres- 
ponding good. I will watch this case and see where the good comes 
in. Ned, our cook, decamped early this morning, carrying with him 
considerable goods belonging to McLane, Cisco and Ray. Their 
curses and maledictions followed him in the direction of Shady Dale. 

i6. The foragers went to the river bank to-day to thresh and clean 
rice. They are in the charge of Corporal J. E. Sidner. There is a 
great quantity of rice in some of those mills, but it is in the sheaf and 
hull, and we Yankees are ignorant of the process of threshing and 
hulling it. Matters in camp are monotonous, and nearly devoid of 
interest. We understand that steamers and other vessels now run up 
the Ogeechee within six miles of our camp. 

I/'. A large mail arrived to-day. My share is forty-seven papers 
and seven letters. Perhaps some got away. Nearly everybody got 
a letter. No mail has reached us till now since November 21st, and 
we have been in blissful ignorance of what has been going on in 
other places. 

18. Sunday. The foraging party has been disbanded and the men 
have joined their respective companies. They have had a rare ex- 
perience in the past thirty days. The weather continues warm and 
clear. The men are engaged in writing letters to their friends, giving 
a descrii)tion of the grand march and of the present situation. The 
folks will be glad to hear from us. Lieutenant Chatfield who has 
been out foraging for three days, returned loaded with supplies. 

20. Things are oppressively dull on our line, and have been for days 
past. It is feared that General Sherman contemplates an assault on 
these works of the enemy soon. That means death to many of us. 



December, '64. J History of the njth O. V. I. 127 

and we dread to hear of it. General Sherman demanded a surrender 
of the city three days ago, but General Hardee refused. Hope he 
may change his mind soon. 

SAVANNAH IS OURS. 

21. At daylight the news sped along our line that there was no 
enemy in our front, and in a few minutes some of our men were in- 
specting the rebel works and scouting far beyond the lines held by 
them yesterday. An hour later we learned more of the particulars, 
and began to rejoice. By noon it was generally known that Hardee 
had evacuated the city by crossing the Savannah on a pontoon bridge 
during the night, and that his forces had marched toward Charleston 
by the Causeway road. It is a great victory ; doubly great because 
it is bloodless. 

We packed our knapsacks and held ourselves ready to move, but 
the day passed and night came on, and yet we did not move. The 
rebels left most of their heavy artillery (fifty guns it is said), for, 
having to cross a pontoon, it was hardly possible to move their siege 
pieces. They left several thousand bales of cotton. 

22. We fell in at eight o'clock, and, after a tedious and provoking 
march, reached the site on which we camped at 3 P. M. We are 
camped south of the canal, one and a half miles from Savannah. We 
began preparations for building quarters. 

24.. AVe have been full of business in erecting quarters to live in. 
The nights are cool, and we do not sleep very comfortable. Some of 
our officers — Kile, Chatfield, McCrea, Shej^herd and Lippincott — 
have come into possession of a rebel hospital tent, and will put it up 
and mess together. Our men who have visited the city are much 
pleased with its appearance. 

25. Sunday. Christmas has come again. Last year we were on 
Stringer's Ridge, in Tennessee. Who dare predict where we shall be 
when Christmas shall come again .'' This is our third Christmas in 
the service. 

Last night someone in cam)) began to celebrate Christmas by firing 
a salute. Another followed the e.xample, and the fun spread like a 
contagion. Finally Companies D and E were ordered out and in- 
structed to arrest the noisy offenders. This increased the fun, for. as 
the guards passed up and down the streets of camp, they were saluted 
with: " Lie down ; " " Grab a root; " " Hide your haversacks, they 
are after your rice." The ii3tli had company inspection at 9 A. M. 



128 Evcry-iiiiy Soliiid- JJj, . | riiii)iij;h ( icurj^ia 

Lieutenant Chatfield, J. O. Kite, John G. Cianson, John Wauk, 
Jackson C. Doughty and I went l(j the city on a pass. Some of us took 
dinner with nieml)ers of the 66lh O. \'. \'. 1. 

26. The company officers are busy witli their accounts and pauers 
of various kinds. I have been assisting Lieutenant McCrea to make 
" //'//f?/ .S'A?/c7//c// A " f(jr deceased soldiers. Mike Huddleston, John 
Wilson and Captain Swisher started home on furlough. This may be 
very fine for eaih of them, Init 1 have no special desire to go home, 
and therefore do not envy them in the least. 

2J. The Fourteenth Corjjs was reviewed by (ieneral Sherman in 
the city to-day. Our division left at ro A. M., and returned at 3 V. 
M. All passed off well, and the men are in a good humor, an un- 
common thing on review day. I remained in camp and began work 
on Muster Rolls for September and October. 

31. This day closes the eventful year of 1864. As we sit in our 
little cotton homes and let our minds run back to that bleak New 
Year's Eve one year ago, whL-ii we watched for the foe at Shallow 
Ford in northern Georgia, and then follow our record month after 
month down to the present hour, it seems like an age, so thickly have 
events crowded one after another upon us. The young and joyous 
spring, the busy eventful summer, the solemn autumn, have each 
come and gone; and now the chilly winter is upon us. A\'e are on 
the threshold of another year, whose dangers and trials are kindly 
hidden from us by a providential hand Luckily for us the long and 
weary marches, the battles, sieges and campaigns, the hungerings and 
thirstings, the sickness and sufferings of the future, all are unknown 
to us. We have a brave and sagacious leader, a noble and confident 
army, a righteous cause, and a God who rules the destinies of nations 
and individuals. In these we will put our trust and go forward in 
belief that the right will triumph. 

MARCIUNG THROUGH GEORGIA. 

liring the good old bugle, boys! we'll sing another .song — 
Sing it with a spirit that will start the world along — 
Sing it ns we used losing it, fifty thousand strong, 
While we were marching through Georgia. 

CH(JRUS. 

Hurrah! hurrah! we bring the Jubilee ! 
Hurrah ! hurrah ! the flag that makes you free ! 
So we sang the chorus from Atlanta to the sea, 

While we were marching through Georgia. 



January, '65. 1 History of the rrj/Zi O. V. /. 129 

How the darkeys shouted when they heard the joyful sound ! 
How the turkeys gobbled which our commissary found ! 
How the sweet potatoes even started from the ground, 

While we were marching through Georgia. — Chorus. 

Yes, and there were Union men who wept with joyful tears, 
When they saw the honored flag they had not seen for years! 
Hardly could they be restrained from breaking forth in cheers. 
While we were marching through Georgia. — Chorus. 

Sherman's dashing Yankee boys will never reach the coast ! 
So the saucy Rebels said : and 'twas a handsome boast — 
Had they not forgot, alas ! to reckon with the host, 

While we were marching through Georgia. — Chorus. 

So we made the thoroughfare for Freedom and her train, 
Sixty miles in latitude — three hundred to the main ; 
Treason fled before us — for, resistance was in vain. 

While we were marching through Georgia. — Chorus. 



JANUARY, 1865. 

/. Sunday. The day dawns full of hope to the American people. 
The war cloud which has been darkening our National sky seems to be 
lifting, and the sun of hope and enduring peace begins to shine. During 
the past few months x\tlanta and Savannah have both fallen before our 
victorious columns, and Hood has been sorely defeated at Nashville 
by Thomas and his veterans. Peace to the ashes of those who have 
fallen, and let the living take fresh courage and stop at nothing 
short of an abundant and lasting peace. 

2. Our work continues on rolls, papers and statements. But for 
this our time would be heavier than it is. A soldier longs for the 
excitement of the march, and thrives on campaigns and duties of an 
onerous character. Sometimes he enjoys a rest in camp for a short 
time, and then the restless spirit takes possession of him, and he 
chafes under the monotony of camp life, and wants to hear the assem- 
bly sounding. 

Green made a visit to the city yesterday and attended worship at 
one of the churches. He says the preacher neglected to mention the 
soldier in his sermon, and in his prayer he failed to thank God that 
the city was again in the hands of the Federal government. Green 
was so disgusted at this that he calls the minister an old sinner, and 
will not again visit his church. 
14 



130 Eiriy-iiay Soli/in I.iji : | At Savannah 

Stratton and Bradford built a chimney to our (luartcrs. The thing 
draws well, but it is no beaut) . 

J. The 113th went out on a special duty this afternoon. Passing 
through the southern part of the city the regiment took the King's 
Bridge road and marched to Marshall's plantation, six miles west of 
the city. Here they camped to the left of the shell road, and in a 
grove of live oaks. Nature and art have joined hands in making 
the situation attractive, and we shall try to enjoy our stay here. We 
are guarding a large lot of mules which are feeding on the dead grass 
which abounds in this section. 

The company otificers established themselves in a long brick build- 
ing which has been used as negro quarters in times past. 'I'his 
building is nearly 200 feet in length, and is sub-divided into small 
apartments. 

6. The weather is warm and wet. I can hardly believe that at 
home our friends are riding over the frozen snow, with bells jingling 
and ears tingling with cold. Captain Jones, Lieutenant McCrea 
and Lieutenant Lippincott went bathing this afternoon. 

8. Sunday. The 98th O. V. L relieved the 113th at ii A. M. and 
we returned to our former camp near the city. Our trip of five 
days out among the green trees and singing birds has been an en- 
joyable one, yet all are glad to be back. 

g. The 113th, with six commissioned officers, performed duty on 
the fortifications near the city. There was fun in this to those of us 
who viewed the work from a distance. I have been verj' busy with 
my writing work for several days, and have been excused from other 
duties. Lieutenant McCrea visited Richard Cox at the hospital to- 
day. He is getting along well and will recover. Some of the men 
killed an aligator near camp a day or two ago. It had been tempted 
too far from the river by the offal of our slaughter pen. Some of the 
boys said it wanted to enlist. 

//. Yesterday was a rainy, disagreeable day, and we kept insi^^ 
our quarters to keep dry. Richard Sullivan, Company E, died in the 
hospital to-day. The frogs are having a vocal concert near camp. 
Clothing was issued to the men to-day. A colored dance was one of 
the attractions last night. We get an occasional mess of oysters in 
the shell. 

72. We have been listening for some time for an order to change 
our camp to some other site. The order came this forenoon, and 
after some little oaths on account of the impossibility of moving our 



January, '65.] History of the\i 13th 0. V. t. i^t 

chimneys and the probability of getting our camp in a worse place, 
we packed, marched a short distance and built our cotton city at the 
southern suburbs of the city on West Broad street. Kilpatrick's cav- 
alry division is being reviewed by General Sherman. 

I J. We have been busy to-day with our quarters. Some of the 
materials of our former camp were carried up on our shoulders and 
used again here. We are on a dry site, somewhat better than the 
one we have just left. John O'Leary had his arm broken last night. 
A number of our officers went to theater to hear Doesticks. 

14. The 113th went on the picket line about four miles west of the 
city and near the old line of works of the rebels. We relieved the 
14th Michigan, Major Fitzgibbon commanding. A high wind pre- 
vailed all day, and our post of duty being in the open country, we 
suffered some discomfort. I had charge of a post and twenty-one 
men. 

15. Sunday. We were relieved from picket at 9 A. M. by the 
i6th Illinois. Arriving at camp we received a large mail. We 
had light bread and rice for dinner. Our camp has been visited to- 
day by a number of ladies from the city. The sight of a Yankee 
soldier does not seem to throw them into fits ; on the contrary they 
seem to enjoy the situation reasonably well. A soldier was buried 
in the cemetery to-day with military honors. 

16. Captain Geo. A. Race, Division Inspector, condemned some 
camp and garrison equipage for the 1 13th. Company E borrowed some 
articles of Company H for this occasion, and had them condemned ; 
by the time the officer reached that company they had borrowed the 
necessary things of us, and they were again inspected and condemned. 
It is so seldom that we get to play a trick on an officer, that when 
such a thing happens, it ought to be recorded. 

77. These rebel shop-keepers have a steep list of prices. While in 
the city to-day I paid seventy-five cents for a crystal for my watch, 
and the same for a shave and cutting my hair. A day or two ago I 
paid thirty cents for a pound of nails, to be used in fixing our quarters. 
Lieutenant G. H. Lippincott will leave the regiment to-morrow to 
take charge of a section in a general supply train. 

ig. It is raining briskly. We are under orders to move, and the 
men stay close to camp. Some of our company officers returned to 
camp from the city feeling very rich ; it required some effort to keep 
them from returning to buy the city. 

Silas Mahlone, a descendant of Ham, and a cook of some reputa- 



\^i ttvery-tlay Solt/icr Li/c : | Leaving Savannah 



tion, got into a melee with a citizen of color down town, and Captains 
Shepherd, Kile, McCrea and ihc wrilcr " fell in " and went to his 
rescue. 

This being the last night in this camp, there was a removal of re- 
strictions at company headcpiarters, and some unusual exercises were 
indulged in. Captain S. took the floor and indulged in some flights 
of oratory ; Lieutenant M. danced a jig, and others api)lauded vocifer- 
ously. Nothing like it will ever occur again. 

It has been more than a month since we neared the outer works 
surrounding Savannah, and we are not displeased in having to start 
out on another campaign. 

20. The Fourteenth Corps left Savannah early this morning, 
marched ten miles northward on the Augusta road, and cami)ed in a 
heavy ram. Most all the men left Savannah cheerfully. We have had 
enough of masterly inactivity, and want to be going. 

24. ^VVe are mud-bound and water-bound, and still it rains. We 
are halted at the camp, ten miles out from Savannah. Some 
fears are entertained that we may be compelled to return to Savan- 
nah and wait till the weather is more favorable. 

Sergeant Ward, Green and Mahlone have been sent back to 
Savannah to find and bring to the regiment, Samuel L Beck and 
William Cisco, who remained there without leave when the troops 
moved. 

25. The command moved ahead at sunrise, taking the Louisville 
road for several miles, then filing right we moved northward, crossing 
field and forest, regardless of roads. Marched fifteen miles and 
camped in a pine woods. Mutton and beef were issued to us in the 
evening. 

26. Our progress to-day has been exceedingly slow. The second 
brigade was train guard, and we had plenty of work to do in hel|)ing 
the wagons out of the deep holes and (juicksand. The country is flat 
and much water stands on the surface. We built small fires of pine 
knots in the woods during the day, and while the weary mules dragged 
their heavy loads along at almost a snail's pace, we stood around our 
smoking fires until our faces were dusky to an extent that was amus- 
ing. Captain Jones met me during the day, and after gazing in my 
face for a minute, studying who I was, at length said, " Ah, I know 
who you are now; think you had better wash your face." 

We halted at the end of a seven miles drive, camping in the vicinity 
of Springfield. 



February, '65.] • History 0/ the tijth O. V. I. 133 

27. After a march of two miles we reached Ebenezer creek, 
finding it swollen by recent rains, and difficult to cross. But we 
waded in and pushed for the opposite shore. The water was very 
cold and small sheets of ice adhered to the chunks and logs. Soon 
as we had crossed our clothes began freezing and were soon stiff and 
uncomfortable; but building a number of big fires in the woods we 
danced around them, joking and cheering until we were somewhat 
comfortable, then moving on three miles from the creek, we camped 
near the house of Mr. Dasher. The grass caught fire near our tent 
in the night, and our bedding was partially destroyed by the fire. 

28. Moved forward, and bearing to the right we reached the road 
on which our corps marched to Savannah last month. At noon we 
reached the vicinity of Sisters Ferry, which is for the present our 
destination. A good supply of provisions was brought in. We have 
marched only seven miles. 

2g. Sunday. The weather has moderated. We get a gliippse of 
the river at the ferry. It is high and out of its banks, and we shall 
not be able to cross for several days. The gunboat Pontiac and two 
transports are lying here. John Wilson and Mike Huddleston joined 
us, having been absent on a furlough of twenty days. 

ji. The 113th is on picket a half mile from camp. The jolly 
Lieutenant Garman entertained the men on the reserve by a number 
of songs, which he sang in a matchless manner. Perhaps the poet 
had Garman in his mind when he wrote : 

" There are those who touch the magic string, 
And noisy fame is proud to win them ; 
But some, alas, refuse to sing, 

And die with all their music in them." 

Our post of duty is near the Augusta road. 



FEBRUARY, 1865. 

I. The 17th New York Vol^. took the place of the 113th on the 
picket line, and we returned to camp. Captain Swisher arrived iu 
camp from home, bringing me a pair of good socks from home. 
These are from my mother, way up north in Ohio. I will put them 
on at once, for she intends 1 shall wear them out tramping through 
rebeldom. Sergeant Ward was again sent back yesterday to find and 
bring up those skulkers, Beck and Cisco. 



I ^4 Bvery-tlay ^ohHer Li/c : [llirough S. C. 

2. Small-pox has broken out in the brigade, but I learn it is under 
control. A large mail came to-day. I get fifty papers and several 
letters. 

^. It rained yesterday and was a dull day. We had company inspec- 
tion this afternoon i)y Captain Otway Watson. I had charge of Com- 
|)any E on inspection, Lieutenant McCrea being on fatigue duty, 
working the roads on the South Carolina side of the river. Ward 
came in with Beck and Cisco under arrest. 

J. Sunday. John O'Leary starts home on a furlough. Parts of 
the army have been passing over the river on the pontoon here for 
two days. At noon we fell in, and marched to the bank near the 
bridge and stacked arms. At 8 P. M. we took arms, crossed the 
Savannah into hated South Caroliana, and went into camp in a 
sandy bottom, two miles from the river at lo P. M. 

The troops crossing at this ferry consist of the three divisions of 
the Fourteenth Corps, Geary's Division of the Twentieth, and Corse's 
Division of the Fifteenth. Each body has an immense train, and ihe 
work of crossing a large river during high water is attended with 
much labor and risk. In a day or two from now all will be across in 
safety and then we go forward. 

y. We remained motionless yesterday, had a supply of clothing 
issued to us, and received a mail. It was a rainy, disagreeable day. 

Our late Colonel, John G. Mitchell, who has been absent since 
October last, joined the command to-day, and is now a Brigadier 
General. His commission as such is dated January 12th, 1865, and 
awaited his arrival. Every man of the 113th feels gratified at this 
promotion to a higher position in rank. General Mitchell brings with 
him a new flag for the 113th, on which is inscribed the names of the 
several engagements in which the regiment has participated, viz.: 
Chickamauga, Chattanooga, Mill Creek Gap, Rome, Kenesaw 
Mountain, Atlanta, Jonesboro, Savannah. 

The Second Brigade has been commanded by Lieutenant Colonel 
John S. Pearce, 98th O. V. I. during Colonel Mitchell's absence. 

Cassiday, of Company B, issued recently the following facetious 
order, parodizing one issued by General Sherman : 

Headquarters Military Division of the Mississippi, "(^ 
In the Field, Sisters Ferry, S. C, Feb. 5, 1865. j 
General Order \ 
No. 10. J 

The army during the ensuing campaign will subsist chiefly by foraging off the 
country through which it passes, and foraging parties will be governed bv the 
following rules : 



February, '65.] History of the iijth O. V. I. 135 

I. Each regimental commander will detail a foraging party eacii day while upon 
the march. 

II. No detail shall be made to exceed the whole eftective force, including 
negroes. 

III. Not more than one thousand pack-mules will be allowed to a regiment. 

IV. No soldier will be allowed to take any horses or mules that cannot walk. 

V. No soldier will be allowed to take anything, from a plantation which he 
cannot carry, unless provided with a wagon or pack-mule. 

VI. No person shall carry more than two hundred pounds unless he is a negro 
impressed for the purpose. 

VII No soldier shall carry off a grindstone weighing more than Hve hundred 
pounds, as a greater weight would injure the knapsacks. 

VIII. No soldier will be allowed more than three negroes as private servants ; 
the surplus, if any, will be sent to these headquarters, if females. 

IX. Burning of property is strictly prohibited, unless accidental ; and any 
soldier caught attempting to fire any incombustible material will \>c arrested 

X. Foraging will be conducted with as little shooting as possible, and no 
soldier will be allowed to shoot anything already dead. Division and brigade 
commanders will see that these orders are strictly enforced. Any soldier violat- 
ing the above orders will be deprived of the privilege of participating in any en- 
gagement during the present campaign, and will be summarily dismissed from 
the service immediately upon the expiration of his enlistment 

By order of Ma.ior General VV T. Sherman. 

OFFICIAI,, 

(Signed) No— T. Wiseman, official, 

(Signed) L. M. Daytun, 

A A. A. G. 



8. Our division marched at 7 A. M., going in a northwesterly 
course. Our way lay through a swampy and uninhabited region of 
country. Went into camp near Brighton, having marched seven 
miles. 

g. The column moved in the direction of the Augusta railroad, 
marched eighteen miles, and camped. The weather is chilly, and a 
high wind prevails. The road is good, and we have "moved with 
ease. 

10. Marched twenty miles, and camped in the vicinity of Black- 
ville, Barnwell county. South Carolina. Geary's Division of the 
Twentieth Corps is camped near us. Our foragers brought in plenty 
potatoes and cattle. The work of destruction by fire has been car- 
ried on extensively to-day. 

//. I Hiring the first mile this morning we passed a cross roads. The 
guide boards pointed north to Barnwell C. H., south to Burton's 
Ferry, east to Fiddle Pond, and west to Augusta, Ga. Halted at 



136 Every 'ilay Soldier Lijc : [Thruvigh S. C. 

9:30 A. M. to let the First Division of tlit Fourteenth Corps take the 
advance. Moved ahead at i P. M., crossed the Salkehatchie, and 
passed through Barnwell C H., the county seat of Barnwell county. 
This town was mainly in ashes by the time our division entered. It 
is situated on the left bank of the Combahee River, which at this 
point is only an insignificant, sluggish stream. Camped on the right 
of the road, three miles northeast of town, having marched twelve 
miles. Foragers brought in meat and sweet potatoes in abundance, 
a part of which will be abandoned. 

12. Sunday. Marched at daylight, going at a rapid pace. At 
10:30 A. M. we reached the Charleston iv: Augusta railroad at Willis- 
ton, thirty-eight miles from Augusta, Georgia, and ninety-nine miles 
from Charleston. Taking the Columbia road, we halted for dinner 
near a drained pond on the left. At half past three we went into 
camp on the right bank of the South Edisto River, having marched 
seventeen miles. The 113th went to work preparing a bridge on 
which the column will cross to-morrow. 

13. The troo|)s have a difficult time crossing the stream before 
mentioned. Mitchell's Brigade, being in the rear, did not cross till 
about noon. Continued our march in the direction of Columbia, and, 
having marched nine miles, we camped at Sally's Mills. A great 
quantity of supplies was brought in by the foragers, and we have 
more now than we can care for. Green's party came in with a yoke 
of oxen hauling a cart loaded with flour, meal, meat and sorghum. 

The torch of destruction has been freely applied to-day, and we 
have at no time been out of sight of fire and smoke from burning 
buildings. It looks hard, and is hard, but then war means death and 
suftering, and the innocent often suffer with, as well as for, the 
guilty. 

The Twentieth Corps has been on our right, and Kilpatrick's cav- 
alry divi^on on our left, for several days past. 

14. Marched at 6 A. M. and reached the North Edisto at ii A. M. 
Crossed at Horsey 's Bridge, and halted on the left bank for dinner. 
Marched on toward Columbia, and camped in the evening eighteen 
miles from the city on the right of the road. Rain and sleet fell 
during the afternoon, and our march was more disagreeable on that 
account. Captain Swisher hauled my knapsack during the afternoon, 
for which he has the thanks of my weary body. Whole distance 
marched, eighteen miles. 

/J. Our column countermarched a mile, then started westerly on a 



February, '65. | History 0/ the 113th O. V. 1. 137 

road leading to Wateree Ferry. Some of our men straggled from their 
command, and several were captured, among them John Vandever, 
78th Illinois. Camped on the left, four miles from Lexington, having 
marched eighteen miles. The 113th moved in the advance to-day, 
and during the afternoon we were deployed as skirmishers, and ex- 
changed shots occasionally with the rebel cavalr^^ 

t6. Moved toward Columbia at six o'clock, and halted for dinner 
within three miles of the city. Rested two hours, and then about- 
faced and moved toward Lexington, and went into camp at sundown, 
having marched fifteen miles. We learn that Columbia is ours. I 
am sick, and have marched with difficulty. 

77. Marched early. The head of our column reached the 
Saluda River late yesterday evening, and this morning we are cross- 
ing at Hart's Ferrv on a pontoon one hundred and thirty yards long, 
which had been laid during the night. 

We are marching a northerly course and in the direction of Winns- 
borough. Marched sixteen miles, and halted on the right bank of 
Broad River, near Alston. The day has been chilly, and a high wind 
prevails. A great deal of property has been burned to-day, including 
two mills, numerous dwellings, and a large quantity of cotton. 

18. Our brigade began crossing Broad River on a flatboat soon 
after midnight. The 78th Illinois had already crossed, and at 3 A. M. 
the 113th began crossing, sixty men going at each trip. A pontoon 
is now being put across, Init it will not be done for several hours. As 
the men are landed on the left bank they stack arms and prepare 
breakfast. The Spartanburg & Alston railroad runs parallel with the 
river and only a short distance from it. This is Freshley's Ferry, 
taking its name from Joseph Freshley, who owns a mill below the 
point where we crossed, and who lives (or did live) on the left bank, 
half a mile or more from the crossing. 

This man is not only a prominent citizen but a prominent rebel. 
One of our men took from the Freshley residence an account book, 
which showed that Mr. Freshley was the receiver of supplies which 
had been levied ui^on the inhabitants in this section of country for 
the sustenance of the rebel army. I presume that to live in this part 
of South Carolina and not be a rebel would be an up-hill business 
and a dangerous experiment. 

Tlic river at this point is two hundred yards wide, and the ponto- 
niers seem to have more difficulty in putting a bridge across than at 
any other place, cxcejit at Sisters Ferry, on the Savannah. 

'5 



I ^S Every-Uay SoUiii Li/f : [Thnjugh S. C. 



The foragers have added a three mule team to their means of 
lr;^nsiK)rtation. With this and the ux team they manage to keep a 
good supply of the best the country affords. The mule team nioves 
rapidly with the advance, but the oxen arc held in reserve for emer- 
gencies. 

Our entire brigade was ferried over by ten o'clock. Companies K, 
K and ('■ were j)osted as pickets. W -j took a position on a high i)luff, 
from wiiii h a line view of the country could be had. The entire day 
has been occupied in crossing the river, and the whole force will not 
be over before to-morrow morning. 

/c;>. Sunday. Marched at 7 A. M. in a northwesterly direction. 
After a march of five miles, we took a left oblique course and marched 
three miles to the Spartanburg railroad, which we destroyed for some 
distance. Then, returning to the main road, we camped for the 
night. 

20. The march was resumed in nearly a directly north course. The 
Second Brigade was assigned to the wagon train of the corps. The 
column reached Little River and camped. Our brigade marched 
four miles, then, turning east at a church, we marched a mile fur- 
ther and camped for the night. A hundred mules and horses were 
killed this morning, they having become used up and worthless. 

21. At 8 A. M. we moved, crossing Little River at Kincaid's 
bridge. We marched on the Winnsborough road till withm four miles 
of that place; then we about-faced, and, countermarching one mile, 
we took the Chester C. H. road, and moved three miles in that direc- 
tion ; then, again filing to the right, we camped, having marched 
twelve miles. 

22. We marched at early dawn, Schellhorn in the lead discoursing 
plenty of good music. We struck the Charlotte «.\: South Carolina 
railroad at Adger's Station, five miles from Winnsborough and seventy- 
two miles from Charlotte. Halted two hours and again marched 
north to Whiteoak; then, turning east, we went six miles further on 
the Camden roiid, and went into camp, having marched twelve miles. 
About noon we passed an extensive plantation, with the mansion on 
the left. This was on fire as we passed out of sight. Ed Campbell, 
who fell into the hands of the rebels when we withdrew from Willis" 
Mills last August, came to us to-day. Our camp is near a church 
and a box spring. This is Fairfield District (County.) 

As we passed a chaise which stood on a hillside, I hinted to a 
comrade that it would look well rolling down hill. Each of us seized 



February, '65.] History 0/ the 113th O. V. I. 139 

a hub on the upper side and away it went to the bottom of the hill. 
Just then Captain Watson rode up to my side and said reprovingly, 
"Sergeant McAdams, I did not think that of you." There was re- 
proof enough in his tone and manner to last me a week. 

23. Morgan's Division marched in the rear of the two other divi- 
sions. Mitchell's Brigade marched with the train, and the 113th en- 
tirely in the rear. It was nearly or quite noon when we pulled out, 
and when night came on we had moved but five miles. A heavy 
rain was falling, and the roads were next to impassable. Hour after 
hour we plodded on — moving and halting, cursing, sulking, singing, 
moving and halting. Thus the whole night passed, and as morning 
dawned we moped into camp, wet, hungry and disheartened. 

The bugle was sounding the reveille before the last wagon halted. 
Eighteen hours of toil and exposure had given us an appetite for 
breakfast. We had marched twelve miles. 

24. Remained camped till nearly noon, and many of us were about 
to lie down to rest when the "general " sounded, and we packed our 
wet duds and again moved forward. It rains. 

A march of two miles brought us to the Wateree or Catawba River, 
which we crossed on a pontoon of thirty-three boats. The stream is 
narrow, deep and swift; the banks are high, and the recent rains had 
softened the roads leading to and from the bridge so that it looked to 
be impossible to cross with teams. How glad I felt that I happened 
not to be a mule or a teamster. This is Rocky Mount Ferry, and 
this pontoon was laid on the night of the 2 2d. The division camped 
two miles further on, being unable to go further on account of the 
condition of the roads. Have marched nearly four miles. This 
evening an insane soldier shot and killed George Workman, of Com- 
pany B. Several of the 113th made preparations to hang the man 
for this deed, but Captain Kile appearing on the scene, ended the 
scheme. The soldier was piit under a strong guard. 

25. We do not move to-day. Fatigue parties are at work building 
corduroy roads ahead so that we may move on, but it looks very 
doubtful. The waters in the Catawba are on the rise, and the pon- 
toon breaks and washes away several times a day. It is stated that 
Cornwallis crossed the Wateree at this ferry during the Revolution. 

28. The column moved ahead to-day, and, having with great diffi- 
culty marched four miles, camped. We are in Kershaw district, and 
our route to-day left Liberty Hill to our right. We have corduroyed 
the road with rails and poles nearly the entire distance. 



14© Every-i/ay Soldier Life : [Cri)ssing llic I'ccdcc 



M ARCH, 1865. 

/. Marched twenty miles to-day. At noon we took dinner near 
Hanging Rock, and on the spot where (ienerals Gates and Carleton 
fought during the Revolution. We have crossed two streams — Lick 
Creek and Hanging Rock. The country is rough and the soil ex< es- 
sively poor. 

2. A box of shoes was issued to each regnnent before day. .Marched 
early. Company K was assigned to guard and assist the wagons of 
the brigade headquarters. Passed through Taxahaw in Lancaster 
district, and camped at Lynch Creek. Distance traveled, twelve 
miles. 

J. Marched twenty-one miles and camped at Tompson's Creek. 
The bridge over this creek was burned yesterday, and the Second 
Brigade proceeded to build a bridge and repair the roads so that we 
can proceed. 

4. Crossed Tompson's Creek and entered North Carolina. Our 
brigade is in advance, with the 113th in front. As soon as we en- 
tered North Carolina, Provost Marshal Lewis placed a guard at many 
of the houses, and the devastating hand was stayed for a time. Be- 
fore night we again entered South Carolina. Camped on the right 
bank of the Great Peedee River. We began at once to corduroy the 
road close to the river, and a pontoon will be pushed across during 
the night. Have marched thirteen miles. To-day President Lincoln 
will be reinaugurated at Washington. 

5. Sunday. Lying at a halt on the bank of the (ireat Peedee. 
The construction of the pontoon goes on slowly. The day is fine. 
The capture of Charleston and Wilmington is reported in camjj. 

7. Yesterday and the day before we remained on the right bank of 
the Great Peedee waiting and expecting to cross. Some ice froze 
last night. At noon the bugle call sounded, and, packing up, we 
held ourselves ready to cross. One hour after another wore slowly 
away. Our brigade is in the rear, and the right companies of the 
113th, A, F, D, I and C, held the rear, and were the last to cross. A 
squad under the command of Sergeant J. R. Topping were the last 
of the regiment. The pontoon was then lifted and loaded, ready for 
use at the next crossing, wherever that may be. Having crossed in 
safety, the 113th went into camp within a mile of the crossing, and 
near the line of Sourh Carolina and North Carolina. 

This crossing is near and below the town of Sneedsboro, and sev- 
eral miles above Cheraw, in Fairfield district. South Carolina. The 



March, '65.] History of the 113th O. V. I. 141 

pontoon on which this wing crossed consisted of forty-two canvas 
boats, and was three hundred and twenty paces long. 

8. The column moved ahead at an early hour, but Mitchell's Bri- 
gade, being in the rear, did not move till 8 A. M. The irsth was 
rear guard to the entire column. We marched on the Rockingham 
road till noon, entering the State of North Carolina during the fore- 
noon. It rained nearly all day, and the men suffered much from 
fatigue. At noon we filed right, taking the Fayetteville road, and, 
moving in a northeasterly direction, made a hard day's march of 
twenty-three miles. 

g. The column crossed Love's Bridge over the Lumber River 
about midday. A resin factory was burning on the stream above the 
bridge, and, as our column passed over, the surface of the water un- 
der cJur feet was ablaze with burning resin and turpentine, presenting 
a sight not easily forgotten. As we halted and made preparations 
for supper it was raining so hard that it was next to impossible to 
make a fire in the ordinary way. Some of the men struck on the 
plan of holding a blanket over the wood while a fire was being 
started The project worked well. Just before noon we reached the 
plank road running from Cheraw to Fayetteville, and for the rest of 
the day we marched on this road, the first one of the kind many of 
us had ever seen. Marched twenty-three miles. 

10. We marched very early. A heavy cannonading can be heard 
on our left since daylight, and at 7 A. M. General Mitchell's Brigade 
filed left and moved at quick time in the direction of the firing. We 
reached the scene of the fighting at the distance of nearly five miles 
from the plank road, and learned that three divisions of Hampton's 
cavalry had attacked the camp of Kilpatrick at daylight. 

Our arrival was too late to render any assistance, for though Kil- 
patrick had been surprised and driven from his camp with the loss of 
his headquarters, and several of his staff officers were taken prisoner, 
yet he rallied his men, charged the enemy in the act of harnessing 
the battery horses and plundering the camp, retook the artillery he 
had lost, and finally forced them out of camp with great slaughter. 
He then established his line, and held his position for an hour against 
the frenzied efforts of the foe to retake it. 

The Union losses were four officers and fifteen men killed, sixty 
men wounded, and one hundred and three of all ranks taken pris- 
oners. 

We remained here three hours, viewing the bloody scene and talk- 



14^ tivcty-iiay Soldier Life : [At Fayetteville 

ing with the daring men who had achieved a victory out of the jaws 
of a defeat. 

Our brigade then returned to the plank road from which we had 
moved in the morning, and, following in the line of march, camped 
with the division fourteen miles from Fayetteville. The brigade has 
marched sixteen miles. 

//. The brigade moved in the rear as train guard. Halted and 
look dinner eight miles from Fayetteville. Our dinner consisted of 
mush, meat and coffee. Bradford and Stratton, my messmates, dis- 
agreed about some culinary matter (perhaps the thickness or thinness 
of the mush) and a war of words ensued, but when the word reached 
us that Fayetteville was in our hands harmony was restored, and the 
two men, who an hour before had hurled at each other their pointed 
javelins of anger, now scooped mush from the same pot, peacefully. 

We moved ahead and camped in the suburbs of Fayetteville, our 
cavalry having taken the place early in the day with but little oppo- 
sition. 

Fayetteville is on the right bank of Cape "^ear River, at the head 
of navigation. It is ninety-five miles above Wilmington and one 
hundred and thirty miles from the ocean. We have marched twelve 
miles. 

12. Sunday. it is intimated that we may remain here some 
length of time. Procuring permission, John Ganson and I went 
down into town and visited places of interest. The gunboat, J. Mc 
B. Davidson, arrived from Wilmington to-day, and now lies in the 
river. While in town I wrote a letter to my wife, and placed it in 
the hands of a member of the 13th Indiana Volunteers of the 24th 
A. C. Returning to camp, we find the 113th ready to move. We 
fell in, marched through town, crossed Cape Fear River on a {xjntoon 
one hundred and thirty steps in length, situated just below the abut- 
ments of the bridge destroyed by the rebels yesterday. Marching up 
the river a mile, the division camped for the night. It was now long 
after dark. We have marched three miles. 

13. Early this morning the regiment struck tents, and, moving up 
the Cape Fear River three miles, went into camp in order. The 
troops rested and washed their clothing. 

14. James O. Kite and I went back into town and spent part of 
the day, stopping for a while with the family of a Mrs. Clark. A 
mail was sent off. I procured several copies of Kelly's History of 
North CaroHna. Presented a copy to Captain Jones, Captain Watson 
and Lieutenant R. E. Robinson. 



March, '65.] History 0/ the iijt/i O. V. I. 143 

i^. The command moved at 9 A. M., taking the plank road \x\ the 
direction of Raleigh. A heavy rain fell during the afternoon. We 
marched twelve miles and camped near a creek. Our advance has 
had continual skirmishing with the enemy during the afternoon. 
Heavy cannonading can be heard on our right. 

16. We moved forward at daylight. The roads are very soft and 
next to impassable. The Twentieth Corps is in our front. About 
noon the troops of the Twentieth Corps in our front met and engaged 
a force of the enemy posted behind works with well posted artillery 
enfilading the approach across a cleared field. Our division was 
hurried forward, and was soon in position on the left of the road, 
well towards Cape Fear River. Companies H and E were put on 
the skirmish line in front of the 113th. The whole line advanced 
late in the afternoon, driving the enemy's skinnishers back, back, 
back, till their works were in sight of our skirmishers. The skir- 
mishers of our regiment grew short of ammunition, and a supply of 
cartridges was brought up. Lieutenant McCrea gave them to me, 
and instructed me to distribute them to the rest of the line. This I 
did by running from tree to tree and handing them to the men as 
they stood concealed in the woods. 

When night came on Companies K and B took the skirmish line, 
relieving H and. E, and these returned to the main line. I took a 
thin supper on corn coffee, eating the grounds for dessert. During 
the night the enemy withdrew. This will be known as the battle of 
Averysboro. Our entire loss in this action was twelve officers and 
sixty-five men killed and four hundred and seventy-seven wounded. 
The losses were mainly of the Twentieth Corps. We have marched 
twelve miles. 

17. Our brigade being a train guard to-day, did not move till after 
twelve o'clock. We then pulled out and dragged our slow length 
along, wading swamps and floundering through mud of unmeasure- 
able depth. Crossed Black River by wading and walking logs. We 
crossed other streams not deserving a name. I cannot understand 
what such a country was made for. We reached our camping place 
late in the night, having marched ten miles. We are on the Golds- 
boro road. 

t8. Morgan's Division is in the advance of the column. We started 
early and moved without oi)position till noon, when a force of the 
enemy disputed our right of way. A skirmish line was deployed, 
and behind it was formed a line of battle, the whole moving forward 



144 Evii y-itiiy Solilici Lijc : [Huttlc of BciUunvillc 



grandly. The line of the 113th encountered a tall paling fence, 
which, as we struck it, fell llat to the ground, aiid the line moved 
ahead as steadily as if on drill. The enemy gave way, and our col- 
umn halted to burn a few rails and stay over night. We are twenty- 
eight miles from Goldshoro, and have marched ten miles. 

/(p. The column moved with Carlin's Division of the Kourteenth 
Corps in the advance. At the end of a few miles he met and began 
to exchange shots with the enemy. The enemy struck his advance 
guard at an advantage, and it soon became api)arent that he had met 
the foe in force. 

I'.ATTLE OF HKNTONVILl.E 

The firing of the skirmishers grew fiercer and more earnest. Now 
the roar of the cannon sounds through the woods, and the roar of 
musketry begins to tell a story of force confronting force. Our col- 
umn was steadily marching in the direction of the conflict. Presently 
a courier is seen galloj^ing toward and meeting our column. Halting 
a moment with each regimental commander, he delivers his message: 
"(ieneral Davis instructs that you come forward as rapidly as jx)s- 
sible without fatiguing the men." 

The men were soon on a doul)le-([uick, and after twenty minutes 
rapid marching we |)assed (ieneral Davis and staft' on the side of the 
road, on iheir horses, looking anxious and peering in the direction of 
the contending forces. Presently we filed right into the woods, and, 
going some distance ahead, fronted in line. A skirmish line was 
formed, and we were soon pressing the skirmishers of the enemy 
backward toward his main line. On the left, in Carlin's front, the 
contest was thickening e\ ery moment, but in Morgan's front the work 
had not yet begun. Finally, when the enemy's skirmishers would 
drive no further, our men began building works. Camp hatchets and 
a few axes were all the implements at hand, but these flew as if life 
and death depended on the diligence with which they were used. 
Providentially, or luckily, the enemy seemed to wait on our move- 
ments, as if unwilling to meet us until we were ready to meet him. 
At the end of forty minutes we were nearly ready. We would have 
been nearer ready if we had had twenty minutes more time. Logs, 
stumps, limbs, aud everything that could be found, had been piled 
in our front to protect us from the enemy's attack. All at once our 
skirmish line came bounding over our works, telling us to be ready, 
for they were coming close in their rear. 



March, '65.! History oj t/u iijth O. 1. I. 145 

Every man of us dropped to our knees in two ranks, and made 
ready for the contest. The woods in our immediate front were thick 
with brush, and the advancing foe came within short range of our 
guns l)efore we could see his line. Then we opened upon him such 
a fire as carried destruction and death with it, and before which a 
man might not hope to advance and live. This was kept up for a 
long while, the men in the rear rank loading the guns and those in 
the front rank firing. Mike Huddleston, my rear rank man, shouted 
in m\ ear after we had been engaged for some time : " My God, 
Mack, these guns of ours are getting too hot; we had better rest." 
But the work went on until it became known that the rebel line had 
retired. .\s we ceased firing we listened to ascertain the situation 
elsewhere. The roar of cannon on our left told the story too plainly 
that Carhns Division was being driven l)ack and badly pun- 
ished. But we had all we could do to care for our part of the 
line. During a lull in the firing Captain Watson came along, telling 
me to go to the front with two men and gather ammunition off the 
rebel dead. Taking Isaac Cireen and John Ganson, I proceeded into 
the woods. Icoming upon some of the dead and wounded within a few- 
rods of our works. We performed the duty assigned to us in a rapid 
manner and with some success. 1 came upon a wounded rebel who 
was fatailv wounded. He cried out : "' Is there no help for the 
widows son ? " 1 told him he was beyond help, and that I had no 
time to give to his wants, but that, as he had no further use for the 
cartridges in his box nor for the Yankee knapsack on his back, I 
would relieve him of both, which 1 did. We were then driven back 
into our works by the enemy's skirmishers, and the conflict was again 
renewed by the foe. Again we welcomed tliem by a fire more fatal, 
if possible, than the first. Hardly had this attack terminated in the- 
repulse of our assailants when a force of the enemy broke through 
our line beyond the left of Mitchell's Brigade, and, swinging round, 
appeared in our rear. Kor a moment we were confused, not knowing 
whether they were friends or foes, and the enemy seemed equally 
l)uzzled at the situation. Then, (limbing over our works and chang- 
ing front to rear, we delivered into their ranks a raking fire, which 
drove tliem back within range of Vandeveer's Brigade, where they 
were made jn'isoners. Recrossing our works, we again met the foe 
in our original front. Thus the day passed away, every moment 
fraught with incidents which can neither be recounted nor numbered. 

Night came on and active operations ceased. Many of the 

16 



14^) Every-iiiiy Si>li/tti Li/r : [ Hattlc (if licntoiivillc 



wounded of the foe lay near our works, and all night their cries and 
ajjpeals for help rang in our ears, robbing us of sleep. About ten 
o'clock Cai)tain Jones was approached by a soldier from our rear, who 
inipiired of him if he was in command of this regiment. He was 
answered affirmatively. He then delivered a message to Captain 
Jones, instructing him to join up in a certain movement, whicli 
created some suspicion in the Captain's mind, and, scrutinizing him 
closely, the Captain saw in his man a rebel. Turning to me, the 
Captain said: "Sergeant McAdams. take charge of this man; he is 
in the wrong place." 1 took the man's eijuipment, and placed him 
under guard. This convinced us that that part of the enemy's line 
which had l)roken through ours at an early hour in the forenoon wj-, 
completely cut off from the main body. 

Late in the night I made an effort, at the request of Captain Jones, 
to bring in and care for a wounded rebel in our front. He was 
making piteous appeals for assistance, and his cries had awakened 
sympathy, even in the hearts of his enemies. 1 made my way to the 
line of pickets, told them the object of my visit, but could not \)xc- 
vail on them to let me pass out. 

Thus every feeling of enmity gives way to pity, and the liand 
which was uplifted to slay an hour ago, is now ready to do deeds of 
mercy to the fallen foe. Near midnight, when all seemed hushed 
and no enemy seemed to threaten our line, we sought out the knolls 
and high places in the swamp through which our line ran. and. 
spreading our beds thereon, lay down to rest, keeping our equipments 
on and our arms within reach, leady for a renewal of the conflict. 

We were ignorant of the situation, and knew not whether the left 
had been overwhelmed and destroyed or had rallied and held its 
own ; but we knew that in our front the enemy had fallen by the 
hundreds, and that our men were rii)e and read) for more of the 
same sort. We had had no dinner and no sujji^er, Init no man gave 
that matter a moment's thought. 

20. This morning there is no renewal of the hgiit. (Jur two divis- 
ions which were guarding the wagon train yesterday, and which were 
not engaged, are now up, and our position is impregnable. 

At noon we advanced and occupied the works of the enemy in our 
front, changing them so as to serve our purpose in case of an attack. 

Johnson's army, which was on the offensive yesterday, is now on 
the defensive, with Mill Creek in his rear. 

The losses in our armv vesterdav is nine officers and one hundred 



March, '65. J History of the 113th O. V. 1. 147 

and forty-five men killed, fifty-one officers and eight hundred and 
sixteen men wounded, and three officers and two hundred and 
twenty-three men taken prisoners ; total, twelve hundred and forty- 
seven. We took sixteen hundred and twenty-five prisoners, and 
buried two hundred and sixty-seven of the Confederate dead. 

21. Skirmishing has been brisk all along the line to-day. Toward 
evening fighting began in the direction of the enemy's rear, and we 
are led to think that General Howard is feeling them in the right 
place to suit us. 

22. The enemy fell back last night in the direction of Smithfield, 
leaving his pickets, his dead and wounded, and his hospitals in our 
hands. This morning the road to Goldsboro is open, and we go for- 
ward. Advancing to the opposite side of the Goldsboro road, our 
brigade stacked arms and remained several hours. 

At 1 P. M. we moved toward Goldsboro, and late in the evening 
went into camp, with brigade headquarters near the Neuse River, 
having marched eight miles. A strong wind is driving the sand into 
our eyes and making things disagreeable, generally. 

23. The First Division of the Fourteenth Corps took the advance. 
Morgan's Division followed at 10 A. M., crossing the Neuse River at 
Cox's Bridge. 

Reaching Goldsboro at sundown, we entered and passed through 
the town with banners floating proudly, and with Schellhorn in ad- 
vance playing the music of the Union. Went into camp a mile 
north of town, far from wood and — rails. We have marched twelve 
miles. 

24. Our camp is pleasantly situated, and if General Sherman wills 
it we are willing to stay for some time. The day is fine, and so is 
the sand that blows into our mess kettles and fills our eyes. 

Goldsboro has been a town of some business, with a population of 
two thousand five hundred. It is fifty miles from Raleigh and sixty- 
five from Newbern. The camp was staked off, and our tents were 
arranged in proper order. This may mean that we are to remain 
here some considerable time. Many of the men are writing letters, 
telling the folks at home the story of our adventures, battles, marches 
and successes. The half will never be told. 

25. There is not much restraint in Camp to-day, and many of our 
men are scouting about town increasing the list of adventures which 
they may live to relate to their grandchildren. 

26. Sunday. 

" (Ioo(i ne\v> from home; good news foi- mc 
Has come across the dark, blue sea." 



14'^ FA'ery-i/ti\ Soil/ill Li/f : | Al CloldNboro, N. ( ". 



A large mail was liislribiiled to us to-day at noon. Thank you, 
Postmaster Hostwick ; tliank you, Uncle Sam. We sliall sjiend the 
remainder ot the daN reading letters and papers We can endure 
short rations of bread, meat and coffee, but when the mail fails us 
we are desix)ndent and unhapi)y. Wish the i)eople at home could 
understand this. 

28. Have suffered some with rheumatism to-day, the first time I 
have ever made the acquaintance of that disease. Vesterday and 
to-day have been dull da\ s in camp. We have begun work on papers 
and reports. 

JO. Yesterday I made application for a furlough for twenty days. 
The idea strujk me that 1 ought to go home and rusticate a few days, 
drink fresh buttermilk, and fatten up a little. My modest request 
was based on long and faithful service, with a sprinkling of rheuma- 
tism. 

Captain R. I). Stinson, A. I. Ci., Second Division, 14th A. C, con- 
demned some camp and garrison ecjuipage for the 113th to-day. 1 
noticed one thing that escaped the attention of the officer. The same 
articles did duty in several companies, and were repeatedly con- 
demned by the vigilant Inspector. Such stupidity is pardonable in 
an officer, but an enlisted man who would do the like ought to be 
punished. 

31. A member of the Twelfth New York Cavalry was executed 
near our camp to-day by shooting. He had been found guilty of an 
outrageous crime on the person of an old woman somewhere of late. 
Many of our men went to witness the e.xecution, but I jireferred not 
to go; 1 have seen more shooting than I en re about. Am working 
on the company pay rolls. 

Green, who witnessed the execution to-day, describes it as follows: 

"A large field was selected for the purpose. A brigade of armed 
men, with fixed bayonets, formed three sides of a scjuare, with an 
open grave near the center. I'he prisoner approached following his 
coffin, which was carried by four men. The ranks were opened to a 
distance of fifteen paces, the front rank coming to an about face. 
Between these ranks the doomed man was marched under a strong 
guard. He was conducted to the grave, and the two chai)lains who 
accompanied him knelt, and one of them offered prayer, after which 
the prisoner's hands were tied behind him and his eyes bandaged. 
Then he knelt beside his coffin, and twelve of the guard fired at him 
at a distance of twelve paces. He fell forward on his face, dead. I 
do not desire to witness another scene like this." 



April, '65. J History 0/ the 113th O. V\ j. 149 



APRIL, 1865. 

r. Captain Jones, commanding the regiment, approved my appli- 
cation for furlough ; it passed on, and received the approval of Gen- 
eral Mitchell. 

This is a fine day, and spring is upon us in all its verdure and 
beauty. Look backward, and see what has transpired with us since 
we lay at Rossville. The retrospect is so full of achievements, bat- 
tles, deeds and distances, that it seems alniost like a visit to dream- 
land. It is estimated that since the taking of Atlanta we have trav- 
eled thirteen hundred and thirty miles, and every mile has been a 
page of history. We hear it rumored that Richmond has been evac- 
uated by the Confederates. 

2. Sunday. We have regimental inspection. Captain Jones 
started home on furlough. Though it is the Sabbath, we have 
worked diligently on our company papers all day. 

6. A dispatch has been received by General Sherman announcing 
the fall of Richmond. It is a fact this time. Our brigade was 
massed while General Mitchell read the dispatch, and then followed 
such cheering as seldom vib'-ates on mortal ears. The men are in a 
state of excitement bordering on insanity. 

The dullest kind of monotony has prevailed in camp for days past, 
but this grand news breaks in on us as a light in a dark place. 

g. Sunday. The wildest excitement still prevails over the news 
from the Potomac, and we are expecting to move on Johnson in con- 
sequence of what has occurred in and about Richmond. Companies 
H and E and part of K went on picket yesterday, and returned to 
camp this morning. My application for a furlough has returned dis- 
approved by division and corps commanders. I have concluded to 
stay a while, but when I get a command I intend that every enlisted 
man shall have a perpetual furlough. 

Sergeant Ward and 1 visited Goldsboro. Jenkins and Reeder, who 
have been absent at hospital, joined Company E to-day. Some re- 
cruits for the other companies came in. 

An organized raid was made on our sutler, Nick White, in which 
he suffered the loss of his principal stock of goods. We are under 
orders to move to-mornjw. We have been at this place seventeen 
days. 

10. Before it was fairly light we svere moving toward Smithfield. 
The Second Brigade headed the column, with io8th O. V. I. in ad- 
vance. At the distance of three miles from camp we were met by 



t^o Kvfry-Uay Sohiift Lijc : [Leaving (iuldsboro 

the enemy, and skirmish firing began in real earnest. The io8lh 
Ohio de|jloyed and drove tlie rebels for two miles. Here he showed 
some determination to stand, and artillery was used on both sides. 
.A spirited fire ensued, resulting in killing John Bensell, (Company .\, 
of the I 13th. 

The enemy finally gave way, and we again moved ahead by the 
right of companies to the front. The enemy continues his skirmish- 
ing, and Captain Frantz Fleischman, Company H, io8th Ohio, was 
killed. At noon Companies A, F, D and I of the 113th took the 
front line of march, and the remaining six companies were in reserve. 
Moving on a mile further, he again brought us to a halt, using artil- 
lery freely. The advance companies pressed the foe sharply, and 
the reserve lay on their faces awaiting the development of events. 
At length he gave way, and left us in possession of his position. 
This occurred at Holt's Mill, near Boonhill, Johnston county, and 
thirteen miles from Goldsboro. Camped for the night. 

//. Our column resumed the march in the direction of Smithfield, 
the Third Division being in advance. The enemy showed less re- 
sistance than yesterday, but he was constantly in our front. We 
arrived at Smithfield at 4 P. M., where we encamped, having marched 
twelve miles. Smithfield is the county seat of Johnston county, and is 
twenty-six miles southeast of Raleigh. Our advance drove a force of the 
enemy's cavalry out of town this forenoon. They burned the l)ridge 
that crossed the Neuse River as they retreated. 

12. .Early this morning we received the news of Lee's surrender to 
General Grant at Appomattox, Virginia, on the ninth instant. This 
news was received by the soldiers with great joy, which was vented 
in deafening and prolonged cheers, The end certainly approaches. 
Marching in the rear, we did not move till after noon ; crossed the 
Neuse River on a pontoon, and, marching twelve miles, camped close 
to Clayton, a station fourteen miles from Raleigh. Here Governor 
Vance, Ex-Ciovernor Graham, and other worthies, met General Sher- 
man and surrendered the city to him. The conqueror guaranteed 
protection to private property. 

/J. Marched at 6 A. M., passing through Clayton, and pursued 
our way in the direction of Raleigh. At noon we took dinner within 
four miles of the city, and, moving ahead, we passed through the 
capital on review, marched beyond the city limits, and camped for 
the night, having marched sixteen miles. We are favorably impressed 
with the beauty of Raleigh, and agree that it is a place of more 
beauty than we have seen elsewhere in the Confederacy. 



April, '65. J History oj the 1 1 jth O. V. I. 151 

14. A foraging party was organized this morning, consisting of 
twenty men and a commissioned officer. Lieutenant McCrea has 
command. 

The column moved westward in pursuit of Johnston's army. For 
eight miles our way lay along a railroad running west from Raleigh. 
Then, filing left at a new depot, we traversed an obscure road run- 
ning a snaky course through a woody district. Marched eighteen 
miles, and at 4 P. M. camped near the railroad in the woods. The 
foragers brought in plenty of bacon and meal. 

15. Marched at 5 A. M. A tremendous rain fell during the fore- 
noon, making the marching very disagreeable. We are aiming for the 
Cape Fear River, and on the Lockville road. At noon we found our- 
selves on the wrong road ; then, countermarching a mile, we took a 
south-southeast direction, marched till 3 P. M., when we halted and 
camped at Avon's Ferry, on Cape Fear River. We have marched 
eighteen miles. Foragers brought flour, meal, meat and poultry. 

16. Sunday. We continue at Avon's Feny, waiting the arrival and 
the laying of a pontoon across the river. Morgan's Division is the 
only force at this place. The genial s[)ring-time has clothed every 
tree and shrub in a robe of green. 

Something is being said in camp about Johnston's surrender to Gen- 
eral Sherman, but we cannot get the straight of it. Sergeant Flowers 
made our mess an evening call, and we had the usual evening con- 
cert. The foragers captured two more horses to-day, and now the 
majority of them are mounted. 

ij . Still lying at Avon's Ferry. It is now reported as a fact that, 
on the fourteenth instant, (general Johnston communicated by flag of 
truce with General Sherman, requesting an armistice and a statement 
of the best terms under which Sherman would allow him to surrender 
his command. This is about all we can learn of the matter, except 
that active operations are suspended in both armies. We hope this 
is the beginning of the end. 

The morning we left Raleigh, Cisco and Ray organized an inde- 
pendent party of two, and went on a raid. Cisco has returned, but 
Ray got taken in out of the wet. 

Some days ago S. E. Bailey, Company B, came in after an absence 
of two days and nights, clad in North Carolina jeans and a white 
shirt. He had lost his bearings while foraging, liul came in with a 
full load of supplies for himself and comrades 

r8. We still remain at Avon's Ferry. We learn that the com- 



152 Evti y-ihi\ SolJui Liji . \\\ A son's Kerry 



inandcrs of the two armies had a personal interview at noon yester- 
day at Durham's Station, and that they meet again t(j-day to arrange 
terms of surrender. With this glorious news we can afford to endure 
the monotony of camp. Orders have been issued prohibiting for- 
aging except for feed for the animals. 

The news came to-day that President Lincoln had been assassi- 
nated, and thi- s.id affair was made |nii)li(: l)y the following order: 

•• Hi:.\i)<,iiJ.\K iKKs .VIii.riAKV Division <ik thk iMississiPpi. ( 
In thk KiK.i.D, Rai.kigh, Ahrii. 17, 1865. 1 

•• I'hi- (iciuial (.uniinandiiij.; ami(iiiiKx-,s, with pain and sorrow, that, im the even- 
ing of the 14th iiKstaiit, at tlic tlieater in Washington City, his Excellency, the 
President of the I'nitcd Slates, Mr. Lincoln, was assassinated by one who uttered 
the State motto of Virginia. At the same time the Secretary of Stale, Mr. Sew- 
ard, whilst suflerin}^ from a bro.^en arm, was also stabbed by another murderer 
in his own house, but still survives, and his son was wounded, su])|)osed fatally. 

"It is believed, by persons capable of judging, that other high officers were 
designed to share the same fate. ihus it seems that our enemy, despairing of 
meeting us in manly warfare, begin to resort to the assassin's tools. Your Gen- 
eral does not wish you to infer that this is universal, for he knows that the great 
mass of the ' onfederate army would scorn to sanction such acts, but he believes 
it the legitimate conse(|uences of rebellion against rightful authority. Wc have 
met every phase which this war has a.ssumed, and must now be prepared for it in 
its last and worst shape — that of assassins and guerrillas : but woe unto the peo- 
]ile who seek to e.xpciid their wild passions in sucii a manner, for there is but 
one dread result. Ky order of 

.Ma.IOK (iKNIiRAl. W r. SHKKMAN. 

1.. M. Dayton, 

Major aihi Assistant Adjutant General.^' 

I 

This sad announcement creates a feeling of indescribable gloom 
in all our hearts, and the feeling is entertained that, if we again move 
against the enemy, the \vorst deeds of the past will be humane in 
comparison with what will follow. Every heart is sad, all heads are 
bowed in mourning, and every mind is filled with thoughts of the 
awful crime. 

20. The dullness of camp life, and the anxiety to learn the result 
of the conference now pending bet\veen the commanders of the two 
armies, bear heavily on our minds, and we think and talk of little 
else than the prospect of a speedy return to peace and our homes. 

Sergeant Horton, Company F, Ports, Company I), and Flowers, 
Company C, visited our tent this evejiing, and we made it mutually 
pleasant. We expect to move from here to-morrow. 



April, '65-1 History oj the 113th O. V. I. 153 

21. We broke camp at Avon's Ferr)^ at five o'clock this morning, 
and are now camped at Holly Spring in Wake county, fourteen miles 
from our former camp. This is a small village of two stores and a 
ver}^ few houses. No news from the conference. 

24. We have been occupied for a day or two with ordinary camp 
duties. The men are excessively restless under the suspense of the 
past few days. We want to know the best or the worst, soon. 
Earnest Snyder, who was captured by the enemy at Saunderville, 
Ga.,01-1 the 30th of last November, joined Company E to-day. Chas. 
Stewart, a recruit, came to the company, also. 

25. We have orders to be ready to move to-morrow. It is now- 
understood that the terms of surrender agreed upon between Gener- 
als Sherman and Johnston have been disapproved by the authorities 
at Washington, and that Sherman will assume the offensive at noon 
to-morrow. 

Later : The order to move has been countermanded. 

26. The company officers are at work on rolls, papers and reports, 
and I have been occupied in this way for a day or two past. Late 
this evening a rumor prevailed that Johnston had surrendered. We 
shall hear more about it to-morrow, perhaps. 

2-j. All remains quiet. Late in the evening a dispatch was re- 
ceived confirming the rumor that Johnston had surrendered on the 
terms accorded to General Lee by General (rrant. Good enough. 
Our suspense is at an end and the war is closed. 

2c?. Last night heavy firing was heard to the northwest, and we 
were unable to account for it, and therefore felt some' uneasiness. 
This morning we learn that it was a jubilee in one of our camps, the 
soldiers giving vent to their joy by firing off a few hundred dollars' 
worth of ammunition. In the language of old Casper: 
"Things like this, you know, must be, 
After a famous victory." 

All necessary plans are l)eing perfected looking to the sending of our 
army to Washington, from whence the commands will be distributed 
to their respective states. 

No. 66 Special Field Order was read to the different conmiands, 
giving the plan and order of march. 

IIOMKW.ARl) HOUND. 
2g. Our division marched from Holly Springs at five o'clock A.M., 
going in the direction of Raleigh, but bearing to the left we camped 
at Morrisville, after a march of twelve miles. The weather is fine 
17 



r54 Evti y-JiiyStil,/ii I I.iji : |()n lo Ric liiiioiui 



and we have marched rapidly. Stratton, Huddlcston and I went to 
a creek near camp and washed. We are fifteen miles nearly west of 
Raleigh. 

JO. Sunda). We do not move. The companies were mustered 
for pay at one 1'. M. Brigade drill was had in the afternoon, it is 
a busy day — and Sunday at that. 



MAN', I S65. 

/. The connnand left Morris\ille at five o'clock this morning, 
marching in the direction of Richmond, Va. Crossed the Neuse 
river at 2:30 F. M., and marching twenty-two miles camped on the 
right of the road. 

2. Marched early. Passed through Oxford, the county-seat of 
Clranville county, N. C. This is a fine looking place and the ladies 
who appeared at the doors and balconies to witness our marching, 
were well-dressed and had an intelligent look, but they made no 
demonstrations of joy on account of our i)resence, a circumstance 
which did not destroy our a|)i)L'tites. Went into camp at Fishing 
Creek, having marched twenty-one miles. Kile and I scouted in the 
evening and procured biscuits and onions. 

j>. Marched at 5 A. M..in the direction of Richmond. Crossed 
Tar river, and crossing the state line into Virginia, went into 
camp near the Roanoke river, having marched twenty-two miles. 
The Fourteenth and Twentieth Corps hindered each other's progress 
during the day by marching on the same road. 

Crossed the Roanoke at. day-break at Taylor's !• err) on a pon- 
toon 240 steps in length, passed through Boydton, the shire town 
of Mecklenburg county, Va. The country shows little signs of the 
effects of the war. Wheat is in head. Went into camj) at Meherrin 
river, near a mill. It begins to rain. 

5. Marched at 5 A. M. in a brisk rain, accompanied with thunder. 
The rain laid the dust and made the marching easier. Passed 
through Weston, the county seat of Lewis county. Crossed the 
Little Nottoway river at "the falls" and encamped four miles from 
Nottoway C. H., having marched twents-four miles. A fine spring 
near camp supplied us with good water. 

6. Resuming the march at an early hour we reached Nottoway C. 
H. at 8 A. M. Here the sick and disabled were put on board the 



May, '65.] History of the iijt/i O. t'\ 1. 155 

cars and sent on to Petersburg. Halted at the end of seventeen 
miles and took dinner near a small stream on our right. Pursued 
our march till l^te in the evening, and having marched thirty-two 
miles, went into camp at Good's Bridge, on the Appomattox. The 
day has been warm and hundreds of the men, unable to keep up with 
the column, fell out, and taking their own time came into camp late in 
the night. Many are cursing the officers, some are cursing their sore 
feet, while a very few grin and bear it good-humoredly. I have 
been fortunate in having a pair of good legs, and 1 make it a rule to 
stack arms with the few who hold out to the end. But there is room 
for complaint, there being no necessity for marching us more than 
twenty miles a day. The order of march says: " These columns 
will be conducted slowly and in the best of order, and aim to be at 
Richmond, ready to resume the march, by the middle of May." 

7. Sunday. If 1 could have had my wishes gratified we would 
have made this a day of rest; but marching at an early hour we 
crossed the Appomattox and moved on toward Richmond. Crossing 
Swift creek about noon we took dinner on the left upon a hill near a 
clear stream. Stratton had captured some green onions and our 
mess had sumptuous fare. Pursuing our way we camped for the 
night within five miles of Richmond, having marched twenty-five 
miles. Nearly half the men are exhausted and lie scattered along 
the road for miles in the rear. It takes muscle and pluck to march 
twenty-five miles on a day like this, carrying a heavy knapsack and 
other accoutrements. Rations were issued this evening. 

II. We have been resting three days in camp five miles from 
Richmond. They have been three dull days, barren of incident or 
accident. 

At 7 A. M. we marched toward Richmond ; passed through Man- 
chester, crossed the James river and then entered the city, the late 
Confederate capital. We left Castle Thunder and Libby Prison on 
our right; passed up Seventeenth street to Main; up Main to Thir- 
teenth; up Thirteenth to Capitol street; through Capitol to Grace; 
up Grace to Adams, and thence to Brooke avenue. Large crowds of 
citizens crowded the sidewalks to witness the movements of our 
column. We passed out of the city northward tovvard Hanover C. 
H., and after a tiresome march crossed the Chickahominy river and 
camped in the vicinity of Fair Oaks battle ground. The weather 
has been warm, and I am suffering from a pain in my head. Dis- 
tance marched, twenty miles. 



156 Every-day SoUier Life : [On to Washington 

12. Rcsled till noon; ihcii moving ahead \vc hailed tor a lime near 
Hanover, C. H. 'I'his is the i)lace where Patrick Henry made his 
innnortal addresses during tiie infancy of our Republic. 1 am led to 
remark that great orators are seldom great fighters, f(jr although tlie 
great statesman above-named uttered sentiments that i|uickeneil the 
life of the nation, he neglected to go to the field and share in the 
fighting. Now when the nrxf war comes I want to enlist as a sutler 
or chaplain ; failing in this 1 shall imitate Patrick Henry by staying 
at home and making speeches. 

Passing on northward our column crossed the Pamunky river on a 
pontoon, and then abandoning the road, we marched across the 
country for some distance, camping in an open field. A board fence 
near our camp disappeared and set our coffee pots to boiling nicely. 
We have become so accustomed to building fires of rails and boards 
that we don't think of looking for other fuel. Drew rations for three 
days; then leveling off the furrows we spread thereon our virtuous 
couches and slept the sleep of innocence. Marched ten miles. 

ij. Marched early, passing into Caroline county. Camped on the 
right of road after a march of eighteen miles. During the afternoon 
we passed the headcpiarters of the army of Georgia and got another 
sight of our great leader, W. T. Sherman. We passed Chesterfield 
Station, and our camp is on the road to Spotsylvania, C. H. road. 
Chaplain Morris preached in a church near camp in the evening. 

14. Sunday. We are on our way at 7 A. M., making 
ten miles before dinner. In the afternoon we passed New Hope 
church and entering Spotsylvania county camped in a pine forest 
with an undergrowth of cedar. Distance marched, twenty miles. 

75. Resumed the march; passing through a fine country we 
passed the Rapidan at Raccoon Ford. This stream is about a hun- 
dred yards wide here and nearly three feet deep. We crossed by 
wading, and then moving ahead we went into camp in a pasture of 
tame grass. Here we received three days' rations, and Company H 
had a small pugilistic encounter between two of its members. This 
section has been the center of many scenes of the war, and little 
remains but naked fields where once was thrift and domestic comfort. 
Here and there a solitary family remains, as if to defy the ravages of 
grim-visaged war to drive them from the sacred soil. Marched 
eighteen miles. 

16. We marched as usual. We are now about sixty miles from 
Ale.xandria. At noon we crossed the Rappahannock, taking dinner 



May, '65.] History of the Tijth O. V. I. 157 

on the left bank. Moved ahead for eight miles, and camped at a 
small stream called Elk Creek or Devil's Run. Have been marching 
through a splendid country, with only an occasional inhabitant. 
Think we are in Stafford county, and about sixteen miles from War- 
renton. We are twenty miles closer to Alexander than we were this 
morning. 

I'J. At 5 A. M. our column was moving ahead, and by noon had 
marched eighteen miles. We struck the Orange & .Alexandria rail- 
road at Cattlett's Station, and waded Cedar Run and Broad Run. 
Took dinner near a small creek, where the brigade rested more than 
an hour. During the afternoon we passed Manasses Junction, and 
viewed the works erected here early in the history of the war by 
our armies and our enemies. #These are already Aist crumbling to 
decay, and will soon be lost to sight. 

At 5 P. M. we reached the vicinity of the historic field of Bull 
Run, and waded the stream, which at this place is forty yards wide 
and nearly three feet deep. VVe camped on the left of the stream 
and on the right of the road. Have marched twenty-five miles. 

18. Left our camp on the bank of Bull Run at 5 A. M. At the 
distance of four miles we reached Centerville, where we struck the 
Alexandria and Warrenton turnpike, (the first pike we had seen in 
marching nearly two thousand miles) passed through Fairfax C. H., 
and at noon halted and camped near a creek, nine miles from Alex- 
andria. Drew rations. Distance marched, fourteen miles. 

ig. At eight o'clock we fell in line, and marched on the Fairfax 
pike as far as Hunting Creek. Waded the creek, and, abandoning all 
roads, we crossed the fields in a left oblique direction and went into 
camp near Fort Ward, two miles from Alexandria. Have marched 
seven miles, and, for the present, our tramp is ended. It is seven- 
teen days since we left Holly Spring. 

2j. For several days past we have been quietly camped near Fort 
Ward, with nothing transpiring of moment. New clothing has been 
issued, and we are preparing for the Grand Review, which takes 
place to-morrow in Washington. Many of us have never seen the 
Capital of the United States, and we anticipate having an enjoyable 
time. 

TIIK (IRAND REVIEW. 

24. Made preparations to march to Washington to join in the review 
of the armies of Tennessee and Georgia. Our division, the Second, 
marched in rear of the Third Division. Reaching the Potomac at 



158 Bvery-day Soliiic) Li/c : [At W'ashiiiglon 

noon, we crossed the I-ong Bridge into the city and i)articii)ated in 
the j:;reat event. Being a stranger in the city, and occupying a place 
in llie ranks, is the hest apolog} which can l)e made for my inability 
to describe the grand jjageant. 

For miles there was a surging, admiring multitude filling the side- 
walks, windows, balconies, and every conceivable spot from which a 
view of our column could be had. There was waving of handker- 
chiefs by fair hands and cheers from husky voices, together with flags, 
mottoes, emblems and decorations, whicli no one can dest;ribe with 
tongue or pen. 

Ciarlands, wreaths, festoons and evergreens added beauty and bril- 
liancy to the scene. There was little or no effort on our part to make 
a display. Commanding officers seemed to take pride in having the 
men appear in their every-day attitude of marching or fighting. The 
forager was on hand, with his pack mule loaded down with bacon, 
forage and poultry; the pioneers carried spades, hatchets and shovels, 
and the artillery men trundled their heavy guns, that had done duty 
in swamp and morass, mountain and valley. The tattered banners 
told of conflicts on distant battle fields, and the decimated ranks of 
the infantry companies told how nobly some had fought and how 
bravely they had fallen. This sad thought was tempered with the 
reflection that the toils of the living were at an end ; and though 
many had died of disease, or on the field of battle, their death and 
sacrifices had brought peace to the land from one end to the other. 

Passing through Pennsylvania Avenue, we marched to Georgetown, 
recrossed the Potomac, and occupied the camp from which we moved 
in the forenoon. Every man has his story to tell of how the review 
went off, but all admit that the half can not be told. I find it as 
much of a task to describe a grand review as a great battle. I have 
attempted both and failed. 

25. Remained camped till noon, when we struck tents, marched to 
the Potomac, crossed on the Long Bridge, passed through Washing- 
ton, and encamped two and one-half miles north of the city, near 
Fort Slemmer and the Soldiers' Home. This is about eight miles 
from our former camp. 

26. A rainy, disagreeable day. Lieutenant A. M. Grafton, who 
has been on detached duty and absent from the regiment, joined us 
to-day. The rain keeps us in our tents and creates a spirit of unrest. 

27. A pair of chickens roosting in the neighborhood were brought 
in and cared for by Craig and Snyder. Though the war is at an end. 



June, '65. J History 0/ llic itjlh O. F. I. 159 

it does not destroy our weakness for chicken pot-pie. We have been 
for so long accustomed to appropriating what comes within our reach 
that is fit to eat that we find it difficult to (luit our old tricks. Then, 
chickens ought to know better tlian to roost near the camp of an 
Ohio regiment. 

2p. With better weather we are enjoying ourselves better than 
heretofore. 

Captain Kile, Lieutenant McCrea, myself and others visited the 
city, and spent the day in viewing the pulilic buildings and places of 
interest. Every place is crowded with soldiers, all busy seeing the 
sights. ^Ve soldiers seem to feel an increased interest in the Capital 
of the Nation. 

A short distance from our camp is a National cemetery, in which 
are interred several thousand of our gallant dead. The inclosure is 
divided into sections by streets and avenues. The grave of each 
soldier is marked by his name, command, and date of death. It is a 
beautiful place and kept in the very best condition. In the western 
part of the grounds stands a beautiful little chapel, over the door of 
which is this inscription : 

"On fame's eternal camping gixmnd 
Their silent lents are spread; 
And glory guards with solemn round 
The bivouac of the ilead." 

3 T. Since we occupied this camp there has been less elTort to con- 
struct ([uarters than in our previous camps. The men are led to be- 
lieve that our stay here will be brief, and they are content with simply 
pitching llieir shelter tents, as has been our custom when halted for 
the night. 

The ustuil busy lime of preparing reports, rolls, statements and 
accounts, lias begun at the several company heiidijuarters, and this 
work will go on from day to day until everything is brought tip to 
date. 



JUNK, 1865. 

/. Tile day has been partially observed as a day of fasting 
and prayer. Religious services were held in some parts of camp, 
but the men })ay very little attention to those matters. They are too 
anxious about getting home to think of anything besides. At the 



l6o Evcry-ihty Solilin J.ijt : [At W a^hinglon 

fort east of our camp a soldier of the garrison was heinj;; punished by 
beinj^ made to carry a log of wood back and forth before an officer's 
tent. Some of our regiment went over in a l)ody, and rebeved the 
man from duty by bringing the log into camp with tliem, cautioning 
the officers not to attempt to inflict such a ])unishment on a man 
while we remain near them. .Major Sulli\ ant is with us, but resigned 
a day or two ago. Lieutenant C"olonel Warner is here also, and is 
looking reasonably well. 'I'his is the lirst we have seen of him since 
he lost his arm at Kenesaw. When we met to-day, he exclaimed : 
" M)- (lod, Sergeant, are you yet alive .' I saw you last where I suj)- 
l)osed no man could stay and live, and, as I had never heard of you 
since, 1 supposed you were slaughtered at Kenesaw." He then told 
me that while the fight was going on at Kenesaw he saw me exposed 
to the fire of the enemy, and, fearing that I would be killed, he 
motioned to me to lie down, and while doing so his right arm was 
struck and shattered. 

Many civilians from the city of Washington visit our camp daily. 
They seem to look upon the men of Sherman's army as being of a 
peculiar species, and they watch us in our camp customs with as 
much interest as tliough they had never seen a soldier. They know 
something of our rough-and-tumble record, especially that of the 
past twelve months, and this accounts for their interest in us. The 
women who come into camp to peddle pies and other delicacies, bring 
whisky in small bottles and sell to the men on the sly. They secrete 
the whisky l)ottles under their skirts near the waist, and, when a sol- 
dier wants to purchase a flask of the " ardent," the peddler takes 
momentary refuge in the tent of the l)uyer, and then, fishing out the 
bottle, the trade is consummated in a moment, and the enterprising 
seller moves on. 

J. The 98th (). V. 1. started home yesterday. We have been 
brigaded with them so long that they seemed like brothers to us. 'IMie 
I 13th occupied their camp after they had departed. 

I si)ent part of the day in Washington, but saw more than an\ one 
can tell, (leneral (ieorge H. Thomas reviewed his old corps, the 
Fourteenth, late this evening. We had not seen the old hero since 
the fatal day of Kenesaw. A short time after dark a meeting was 
called to nominate a delegate to attend the approaching State Repub- 
lican Convention, at Columbus. Lieutenant Colonel Warner was 
chosen by acclamation, after which speeches were made by [. ('. 
Doty, Company K, and John F. Chapman, Company A. 



June, '65.1 History of the iijth O. V. I. 161 

The Sanitary- Commission issued pickles, onions, canned tomatoes 
and lemons to us to-day. I stepped into General Mitchell's tent to- 
day, and lying on the desk was the photograph of an infant. On the 
bottom margin was written : " Half is mine and half is thine." This 
is the portrait of the General's first baby, a girl, and he is very proud 
of it. Who wouldn't be ? \ 

4. Sunday. An order has been issued allowing furloughs to five 
per cent, of each regiment. I prepared an application for furlough 
for twenty days, having learned of the dangerous illness of my 
youngest sister. Religious services were held in camp in the fore- 
noon, afternoon and evening. Secretary Seward passed through camp 
this afternoon, but did not stay for supper. He rolled past in a grand 
carnage, and did nor attract the attention that a Major General would 
have done. Fame is an empty bubble, anyhow. 

5. In company with John O'Leary, Jeremiah Bair, D. R. Taylor, 
Michael Huddleston, John Wilson and others, I made a visit to 
Washington. We spent some time in the Post Office, Patent Office, 
Smithsonian Institute, and other places of interest. Captain Joseph 
Swisher has tendered his resignation. 

6. My application for a furlough returned to-day disapproved. 
It passed up approved till it reached General H. W. Slocum at corps 
headquarters, where it was disapproved. This explanatory statement 
is endorsed upon it : 

"This man having been mustered into service August 15th, 1862, will be dis- 
charged in a few days." 

8. The men of the 1 13th chafe and fret because they see other 
regiments" of the troops of 1862 starting for the states where they 
belong, preparatory to being mustered out and discharged. It requires 
a great exercise of patience not to feel that we are being overlooked 
and neglected. Our company officers now have all their back papers 
completed, and are ready to begin the final rolls. Several Ohio reg- 
iments started west to-day. The old reliable 78th Illinois left for 
their homes to-day. (iod bless their brave souls; they have done 
honor to their State on many well fought fields. Two posts of the 
Sanitary Commission are located near our camp, and to-day we re- 
ceived from them a good supply of pickles and lemons ; also a few 
shirts. 

The Sixth Corps was reviewed in the city to-day. Many of our 
officers were present, and reported an enjoyable time. 

10. The resignation of Captain Swisher gives opportunity for the 

promotion of Lieutenant McCrea to Captain. Few officers have such 
18 



|62 Kvcry-ilay Soliiiti LiJ< : [( )ii lo 1 ,(juiN\ illc 



a record for faithfulness as he. He has won the esteem of all willi 
whom he has associated, and now that he is promoted we all seem to 
share in his good fortune. Captain Watson is promoted to Major. 
He has never been found wanting, though he has been often tried. 
1 will be sorry to separate from many of these brave and good men. 

//. Sunday. The io8th O. V. I. and the 121st O. V. I. started 
for Ohio this morning. The\ have both done good service for their 
country. It is like parting wiiii u..e's family to see the regiments of 
the old St'coHii Brigade pallmg out. The 34th Illinois is still with 
us, but we shall soon part from them also. 

General Mitchell left for home yesterday. Our brigade now con- 
sists of the 35th Indiana Volunteers, 22d Indiana Volunteers, 34th 
Illinois Volunteers, and the 113th O. V. 1. 

The brigade is commanded by Colonel Burton. We have some 
hopes of leaving Washington to-morrow. Chaplam Morris preached 
to us at three this afternoon. 

HOMEWARD BOUND. 

12. The 113th remained in camp during the forenoon, waiting 
orders and expecting every minute to march. The order came at \ i 
A. M.. The men cheered a cheery cheer, down came the tents, and 
all was soon packed and ready. At 12:30 we marched toward the 
city, and halted near the gas works preparatory to embarking on the 
cars. Here we remained waiting, waiting, waiting, until our patience 
was well nigh exhausted. The sun beamed down upon us with an 
almost blistering heal, rendering our halt on the avenue very uncom- 
fortable. Finally we boarded a train and began moving but of the 
city. Before the train got out of Washington a coupling broke, and 
the front part of the train went on, leaving several cars and their 
loads in the city. The men piled out and spent the time in the city 
till near midnight, when the engine returned, and, coupling on to the 
remaining part of the train, pulled ahead and joined the other part. 
Thirty-five men to a car gave plenty of room. Of course restless 
soldiers would prefer riding on the outside rather than the inside. 
We left Washington with pleasure; there is no place on earth but 
home where we would be satisfied to stay now. 

13. Our train reached the Relay House, nine miles from Baltimore, 
some time in the night. Here we took the Baltimore and Ohio road 
for Harper's Ferry, which place we reached about 11 A. M. to-day. 
At four this afternoon we reached Cumberland, Maryland, where we 
are to remain till midnight. We have passed through cities, villages 



June, '65.] History of the 113th O. V. I. 163 

and stations; climbed mountains, crossed gorges, ravines, rivers and 
valleys, each possessing some item of interest ; but the thought 
which most absorbed our minds is the thought of being soon at home, 
freed from military restraints and permitted to go out and come in at 
will. 

During last night a member of Company B fell from the train, and 
was probably killed 

Note. — The following letter, found in the office of the Adjutant 
General of Ohio, gives farther information in this case : 

Headquarters Third Maryland Battalion, Vet. Vols , ") 
Laural Station, Maryland, /«w 14//^, 1865. ( 

To His Excellency, the Governor of Ohio : 

Your Excellency : — I have the honor respectfully to report to you the fol- 
lowing : 

About 12 M., on the 13th instant, a train passed the station above this, called 
White Oak Bottom, when a soldier fell from one of the cars, who died at .six 
o'clock and thirty minutes the same morning. He was buried with proper cere 
monies by me near the Station His name seems to be Alexander Henry, Com 
pany B, 113th Ohio Volunteers, residing in Mechanicsburg. Ohio. From the loss 
of blood he was very weak whin he gave us his name, and it remains doubtful 
if this is his full name and address. From a letter found on his person, signed 
by a lady who calls herself "Teets''and his sister, he lost two brothers in 
the war 

I take the liberty to communicate this sad news to your Excellency, in order 
that his family may obtain the information. His regiment was probably on the 
same train and on its way home 

Your Excellency will greatly oblige me by a few lines informing me of his 
correct name, when I will see that a proper head-board is placed on his grave, 
I am, very respectfully, 

Your Excellency's obedient servant, 

Arthur O. Brickman, 
Chaplain 3^/ Md. Vet. Vol. Infantry, 30' Brigade, 1st Division, <)th A. C. 

14. Our train left Cumberland near midnight, and this morning 
found us at Piedmont, thirty-eight miles from Cumberland. Here 
we began to ascend the Alleghanies, reaching the top at two o'clock 
in the afternoon. Then for nearly twenty miles we ran on a level 
country, reaching Cranberry Summit, where our train was divided 
into four sections, with a locomotive to each. For four hours we 
descended a heavy grade, the scenery being of the wildest and most 
romantic character we have ever beheld. Reaching Crafton at six 
o'clock we took supper and were again moving on. 



164 Every-i/ay Soil/if) Li/c : [On lo I-ouisville 

/J. We ran through Clarksburg at dusk last evening and this morn- 
ing at sun up \vc arrived at Parkersburg. Disembarking from the 
train, on which we had spent three nights and two days, we boarded 
the steamer KUa Faber. During last night we traveled one hundred 
and four miles, the distance from (irafton to I'arkersburg. The 
whole distance from Washington is very nearly five hundred miles. 
We are done with our weary car ride and will now have a change for 
something better, an Ohio river steamer. 

About the middle of the afternoon our bark backed out from the 
landing, and heading down stream moved for Louisville, our destina- 
tion. As we pass Blannerhassett Island we recall the days of child- 
hood, the school house, the old reader from which we first read of 
Aaron Burr and Harman Blannerhassett. How unreined ambition 
sometimes supplants every nobler feeling of our nature, turns our 
heaven to hell and leaves us full of disappointment and sorrow. 

On our right are the grand, green hills of our native Ohio. The 
trees sway to and fro and seem to offer us a welcome to the land we 
love the best. How the sight ejuickens our pulses and how we long 
to stand on her shores and with the poet sing the language of our 

hap[)y hearts : 

" I m with you once again, my friends, 

No more my footsteps roam ; 
Where it began my journey ends, 

Amid the scenes of home 
No other clime has sl<ies so blue, 

Nor streams so broad and clear, 
And where are hearts so warm and true 

As those that meet me here?" 

"Since last, with spirits wild and free, 

I pressed my native strand, 
I've wandered many miles at sea, 

And many miles on land ; 
I've seen fair regions of the earth. 

With rude commotion torn, 
Which taught me how to prize the worth 

Of that where I was born." 

" My native land! I turn to you, 

With blessing and with prayer, 
Where man is brave and woman true, 

And free as mountain air. 
Long may our flag in triumph wave 

Against the world combined, 
And friends a welcome — foes a grave 

Within her l)nrdfrs find." 



June, '65.] History of the 113th O. V. J. 165 

16. Our boat ran cautiously during the night, and this morning we 
halted at Gallipolis on the Ohio shore to let some one off. Reached 
Cincinnati at one o'clock in the night and after a halt of thirty min- 
utes we again moved on. The day has been pleasant and the people 
of the towns and cities through which we have passed have greeted 
us with shouts of welcome, waving of hats and handkerchiefs and 
with other demonstrations of joy. At Portsmouth, Gallipolis, Ripley 
and Maysville salutes were fired as we passed. Many of our men 
are hoarse from continued shouting in answer to the greetings from 
the shore. 

ly. At Louisville, Ky. Our trip down the Ohio ended at four 
o'clock this evening. It has been a very pleasant one to most of us, 
for we felt that every revolution of the wheels of the boat brought 
us that much nearer the end. Schellhorn's band enlivened the trip 
with good music, and the constantly changing scenery on either hand 
combined to make the time pass pleasantly. The distance from 
Washington to Louisville is 850 miles. 

Disembarking from the Ella Faber the 113th marched through 
Louisville and went into cam]:, late in the evening on the "Owl 
Creek Farm," in the vicinity of the fair grounds, and four miles from 
the city. Our passage through Louisville did not elicit a bit of 
enthusiasm from the citizens. This was in cool contrast with the 
joyous greetings we have been receiving since we left Washington. 
But, then, Louisville is in Kentucky. 

18. Sunday. The weather is hot, but a shower to-day gave some 
relief. The 113th re-pitched its tents, going to a more desirable spot 
half a mile distant. The three other regiments of our brigade are 
camped near us. 

ig. Camp is very quiet. The men begin to talk about getting paid 
and are planning what they will do with their wages. Wages are 
due us for ten months, and when we are paid it will pile up amaz- 
ingly. Many soldiers fare as well without money as with it, some 
do much better; but for myself, I like to have a little on hand for 
emergencies. 

20. We have struck and pitched tents only twice to-day, and the 
site we now occupy is in dispute. This is a big country and there is 
certainly room for each of us to spread our dog tent where it will not 
interfere with some one else. The officers who were recently pro- 
moted were mustered to-day. 

21. The troops of other commands have been paid off and the 
men are buying new clothes of the civilian pattern. 



1 66 Every-day SoliHcr Life : [At Louisville 

Government brogans are being laid aside, the slouch hat has been 
abandoned, and a new watch and chain adorns each lad you meet. 
The faro-banker is doing a live business and the chuckalucker is full 
of business in many places. Some of these discharged men will have 
only the clothes on their backs to show for their wages 'when they 
get home. 

22. Ten per cent, of the men are being furloughed for ten days. 
Work on the final papers and muster rolls has begun, and the 
company officers are too busy to go to the theater at night. How 
unlucky. Getting paid and getting home are the leading topics now. 

23. 'i'o-day the one-year men were mustered out by special order. 
They numbered about forty in the regiment. These and our fur- 
loughed men started homeward in a body. We have no duty to 
perform and the monotony of camp is becoming oppressive. 

25. Sunday. We are now getting a better supply of rations than 
at any time in the past two years. We get hard bread, soft bread, 
soap, candles, beans, pickles, sugar, coffee, salt and pepper. We are 
told that the paymaster began paying the men of the first brigade of 
our division to-day. At five o'clock this evening we had dress-parade 
— the first since we were at Goldsboro, N. C. A roll-call this morning 
and inspection to day. Getting back to first principles. Several of 
the commissioned officers visited a certain German garden, two miles 
from camp. I suspect that the Teuton keeps something in his garden 
besides vegetables. 

27. A year ago to-day we fought, bled and fled at Kenesaw. Who 
can ever forget that 27 th day of June, 1864 ? What a record we have 
made since that day. Now all is over and friend and foe go home to 
fight no more. 

28. Eighty men have been furloughed in the proper way, and 
nearly as many have frenched on their own account. 

The authorities in the city use every effort to prevent our men 
from getting liquor, but it is not successful. They will get it and 
many disgraceful riots and melees ensue. The women peddlers of 
pies and cakes are closely watched and often searched on account of 
the fact that they bring whisky into camp and sell it to the men. 

An old Dutch lady and her two daughters came into camp and 
gave us a serenade with several instruments. After playing a few 
pieces they take a collection of the crowd around them. One of the 
girls made an unsuccessful effort to cross the creek to collect some- 
thing of a number of officers who stood on the opposite side. An 



July, '65. J History 0/ the iijt/i O. V. I. 167 

over-gallant soldier took the girl in his arms and attempted to ferry 
her across in that way ; but when part way over he lost his balance 
and both went down. They both floundered through amid the shouts 
of the delighted crowd. 

JO. Major Carpenter, one of the army paymasters, paid us eight 
months pay to-day. I received $161. This brings us up to the first 
of May. When we are discharged we will be paid all that is then 
due us. The men are busy settling debts of all kinds. We were 
mustered this afternoon for May and June. 

A strong force is now engaged on the muster-out rolls. These are 
to be made in seven rolls, all alike. It requires a vast amount of 
careful work. 



JULY, 1865. 

1. Now that the men of the 113th have plenty of money they are 
in the city to-day spending it freely. I can not blame them for 
wanting to doff the blue and don citizen's dress. It seems so natural, 
now that peace has come, to return to our former lives and customs. 
I feel like I would never again like to hear the roar of cannon and 
the command to shoulder arms. 1 have taken delight in it in 
times past, but I am sick of martial music and of the gory glory of 
war. 

Our men are exchanging photographs with each other in token of 
friendship. We realize now that in a few days we are to separate, 
never to meet again. The thoughts of peace and home are thus 
tinged with a feeling of sadness. I have been very busy for some 
time on the company rolls. 

2. Sunday. "Don't you want to buy a rabbit.'" queried the pie 
woman. "A what?" asked I. "A rabbit, don't you understand.-'" 
Yes, I understood it in a moment, but I suggested she had better try 
some one who was thirstier than I. She found a buyer for the " rab- 
bit," and it was soon uncorked and emptied. The weather continues 
very hot, day and night. The churches in the city were crowded 
with soldiers to-day. They are laying in a stock of piety for the 
home visit. I have been eating too much and am on the sick list. 

J. Our men are mostly in the city, and the camp looks nearly de- 
serted. Night will bring them all in and then each will have a story 
of his exploits to recite, for no soldier of. the 113th would think of 



1 68 Evcry-i/iiy Solt/iii Liji : [Al Louisville 

spending a day in Louisville and not having an adventure worth 
telling. 

4. At an early hour we received notice that the second division 
would he reviewed hy General Sherman. A numi)er of the men 
skipped for the city to avoid this exercise. The 113th took its posi- 
tion in the parade and bore a creditable share in the movements. At 
the close of the review the division was massed and (General Sherman 
addressed the troojjs at some length. He referred to the long and 
noble service which the troops of this division had seen, to the situa- 
tion one year ago to-day and to the happy circumstances by which 
we are now surrounded. He said that the whole division, officers 
and men, had no superiors as soldiers, and that the country will 
never be able to pay the debt of gratitude which it owes to the men 
who have done and suffered so much. He said he would see us no 
more as soldiers, but he hoped to see and know us hereafter as citi- 
zens of a great and happy country. He bade us farewell in tones 
full of emotion and meaning. 

This is the third national anniversary which we have spent in the 
South, each of which has been attended with peculiar surroundings. 
When the next one comes we will be far from scenes like this, and 
surrounded by that domestic peace which years of toil and danger 
have taught us to prize at its true value. 

This is a very hot day and we have suffered in consequence. We 
are nearly done with the rolls. When these are completed and 
approved we will be mustered out. 

5. We have completed our muster-out rolls and our muster pay- 
rolls, and the mustering officer need wait on us no longer. We are 
ready. Made an ordinance return for second ipiarter, 1865. Late 
in the evening a jubilee occurred in camp, and one unaccustomed to 
such scenes would have concluded that the men had been to a beer 
garden. 

6. The mustering officer for whom we have waited so long ap- 
peared at regimental headquarters at noon, and began his work by 
mustering out the field and staff ; then came the non-commissioned 
staff, and finally the companies in their order. A, F, D, L C, H, E, 
K, G, B. The work was finished at 2:30 P. M. We have been busy 
in the necessary work of packing up and preparing to start for Co- 
lumbus, Ohio. 

7. Early this morning we pulled down our tents, and together with 
our camp and garrison equipage, turned them over to the ([uarter- 



July, '65. J History 0/ the 113th O. V. I. 169 

master of the brigade. At nine o'clock we formed in line and started 
in the direction of Louisville. We were escorted a short distance by 
the 14th Michigan Infantrj', who bade us farewell. We reached the 
wharf at the Ohio river and there remained several hours before our 
boat was ready. In this time many of the men fired up with liquid 
lx>ison, and a disgraceful riot occurred. The drunken men deter- 
mined to prevent the colored men belonging to the regiment from 
taking passage with us to Ohio. They resorted to violence and some 
of the colored men were badly hurt, but I think none of them were 
entirely driven off. At noon we went on board the Prima Donna, 
and after an hours' delay in loading some baggage, we began to move 
up the river. Our boat was a stern-wheel craft of the second class, 
having a barge in tow, and our progress was too slow to be agreeable. 
During the afternoon William H. Whitney, of Company E, was rob- 
bed of more than $200 by Chas. Alden, of Company C. The prin- 
cipal part of the money was recovered and the thief put under guard. 

8. Our progress during the night was provokingly slow. We 
reached Lawrenceburg, Ind., shortly after daylight, and at 10:30 A. M. 
landed at the wharf at Cincinnati. A guard at the gang i)lank pre- 
vented the men from disembarking and scattering through the city. 

At half-past twelve we went ashore, formed in line and marched 
to the Little Miama depot. Here we* were loaded into a train of 
eleven box cars, with seats. We moved out at 1:30 P. M. As we 
left the city the siding 01^ our cars yielded to the persuasive knocks 
of our guns, and the delighted urchins of the city gathered a good 
supply of kindling wood. We ran at a rapid rate, halting at Xenia 
and other points. At l^ndon we halted ten minutes. Here the 
friends of companies A. and G. gave their sons and brothers in 
. those companies a joyous greeting, like that which awaits the rest of 
us, further on. As we neared Columbus, Alden, the thief, jumped 
from the cars and made for the woods, unpursued. 

We reached Columbus at 7 P. M., and marching to Tod's Barracks 
on High street we stacked arms and made some inquiry for supper. 
The officer in command conducted us into the feed department of 
the barracks and showed us the bill of fare. It was not inviting, nor 
did it come up to our standard of a supper, such as returning soldiers 
deserved. Some emphatic criticisms were indulged in and many of 
the men left the hall in disgust. Others remained and worried down 
their suppers, then took to the streets for a ratification. They ratified 
and jubilated till a late hour, and then returning to the barracks 

19 



lyo E^'cr y -day Soldier Life : [Discharged 

sliared for a time with the gray-backs which held i)ossession. At 
midnight our boys declared themselves repulsed i)y the vermin, and 
retiring to the street spent the rest of the night wandering about 
over the city. 

g. Sunday. Many of our men attended worshij) at the various 
churches, others sle])t the day away. Earnest Snyder, John Ganson, 
John Craig, Oliver Craig and I went to the Whetstone river and 
bathed. Captain McCrea and I invoiced ordinance belonging to 
Co. E. Considerable work is to be done before we can be 
discharged, but we will be ready to-morrow. This is certainly our 
last Sabbath with Uncle Sam. The pay rolls were signed to-day. 

lO. At noon we turned over the guns which had done our fighting 
for us. They were good ones and have made their mark on Rebeldom. 
Early in the afternoon we received our pay and final discharges, and 
once more we are citizens. 

The majority of the men boarded the first trains leaving in the 
direction of their homes, but many remained over night. 

Late in the afternoon, those who remained, attended a reception 
or welcome, given tlie i 13th at (roodale Park, by the ladies and 
citizens of Columbus. It was an enjoyable occasion and reflected 
the feelings of the good citizens of the city toward the men who had 
done gallant service for the State. S])eeches were made by (ieneral 
J. 1). Co.x, (ieneral John G. Mitchell, Colonel Wilcox, Colonel 
Warner, Colonel Jones and Honorable Henry C. Noble. A bounteous 
supper followed and then a tremendous rain put an end to all, and 
before we could find shelter we were all thoroughly wet. 

The e.xercises of the afternoon are spoken of by the Ohio State 
Journal, of the i ith, as follows : 

"rECEPTIDN ok IHK 1 1 Vl'H, i >. V. 1." 

" The shower yesterday afternoon was no doubt needed, as the 
atmosphere cooler was needed by everyone, but we are sorry to say 
that it came in a very bad time, and almost spoiled one of the best 
arranged and most complete receptions of the season. 

"The 113th O. V. I., noted for prompt action throughout its term 
of service, arrived in the city on Saturday evening, one day sooner 
than expected, and somewhat disarranged the programme of those 
preparing for the members thereof, a formal reception. 

"This disarrangement was but shortlived, and busied preparations 
yesterday culminated in the evening in the production of a fine 
collation spread upon the tables of the Park. Our citizens seemed 
to make amends for former neglect and were out in full force. 

"This was especially true in reference to the ladies, more of them 



July, '65.] ^ History of the iijth O. V. J. 171 



j^ 



being present yesterday evening than at any other five receptions 
tendered our returning soldiers. 

"The 1 13th, escorted by the band of the i8th Regulars, marched 
from the barracks at about five o'clock, carrying with them as trophies 
their two tattered flags, literally torn to pieces in service. These 
attracted much attention, and the boys seemed as proud of them 
:is the ))eople were an.xious to see them. 

" The tables were surrounded with an easy, orderly kind of a move- 
ment, and the veterans proceeded to enjoy the substantials and 
delicacies. With so much that was good before them, and with so 
many pleasant and pretty faces around them, to have not enjoyed 
the feast would have been impossible. 

" After the disposition of the eatables to the satisfaction of all 
concerned, the boys concentrated in front of the speaker's stand 
and were addressed by General Mitchell, Henry C. Noble, Colonel 
Wilcox, Major General J. D. Cox and Lieutenant Colonel Warner. 
The addresses were all in good taste, brief, pomted and were most 
enthusiastically received. Each speaker was greeted with cheers, 
and after each speech came rounds of applause. 

" In the midst of Colonel Warner's speech came the afore-mentioned 
shower and the crowd dispersed on the 'double quick ' order. 

" The scene was most peculiar and irresistibly funny, in spite of 
the dampening qualities of the rain. 

" 'Ye local' was among the unfortunates, and begs to be excused 
from talking about the weather in this connection. 

"The 113th was organized at Camp Chase, October loth, 1862. 
The men composing this regiment were recruited principally in 
Franklin, Licking, Madison and Pickaway counties, and on the 25th 
of October the regiment, with six hundred men, was on its way to 
active service. That it saw a goodly amount of this, the following 
names of battles in which it was engaged bear witness : Commencing 
at Chickamauga, then follow Wilson's Creek, Mill Creek Gap, Rome, 
Resaca, Kenesaw Mountain, Peachtree Creek, Atlanta, Jonesboro, 
Savannah, Averysboro, Bentonville, etc. 

"The regiment was first commanded by Colonel James A. Wilcox, 
afterwards by Colonel (now General) Mitchell, and returns to its 
starting point in charge of Lieutenant Colonel Toland Jones." 



172 



Every-iiay Soldier Life , 



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Muster-Out Roll. 



FIELD AND STAFF. 
Mustered uut at Louisville, Kentucky, July 6th, 1865. 

Colonel James A. Wilcox — Commissioned at Columbus, (Jhio, 
September 2, 1862 ; resigned April 29, 1863. 

Colonel John G. Mitchell — Commissioned at Franklin, Tennessee, 
May 6, 1863; promoted from Lieutenant Colonel May 6, 
1863; appointed Brigadier General U. S. V. January 12, 1865. 

Lieutenant Colonel Darius B. Warner — Commissioned at Frank- 
lin, Tennessee, May 6, 1863; promoted from Major May 6, 
1863; resigned June 6, 1865, on account of wounds received 
June 27, 1864; Resignation accepted by General Slocum. 

Lieutenant Colonel Toland Jones — Commissioned at Washing- 
ton, D. C; promoted from Captain of Company A to date, June 
7, 1865 ; mustered out with regiment. 

Major L. Starling Sullivant — Commissioned at Franklin, Ten- 
nessee, May 6, 1863; promoted from Captain of Company H 
May 6, 1863; resigned May 30, 1865; resignation accepted by 
General Slocum. 

Major Otway Watson — Commissioned at Louisville, Kentucky, 
June [2, 1865; promoted from Captain of Company H; mus- 
tered in as ALijor to date from June 12, 1865 ; mustered out with 
regiment. 

Surgeon James R. Black — Commissioned at Columbus, Ohio, 
August 19, 1862; resigned July 21, 1863; resignation accepted 
by (jeneral Rosecrans. 

Surgeon Albert Wilson — Commissioned at Chattanooga, Ten- 
nessee, September 30, 1863; mustered out at Louisville, Ken- 
tucky, July 5, 1865. 

Assistant Surgeon Alonzo Harlow — Commissioned at Columbus, 
Ohio, September i, 1862; resigned May 11, 1863; resigna- 
tion accepted by General Rosecrans. 



176 Every-t/ay SoliHci Liji . [Muslci-oiil Roll. 

Assistant Sur(;k()n Thomas C. Tipion — Commissioned at Colum- 
1ms, Ohio, September 3, 1862; resigned June 8, 1863; resig- 
nation accepted by General Rosecrans. 

Assistant Surokon Gf.orc.k W. Kkmi' — Commissioned at Shelby- 
ville, Tennessee, July 20, 1863; resigned ()ctol)er 13, 1863; 
resignation accepted by General Rosecrans. 

Assistant Surgeon Hiram M. Bassktt — Commissioned at Shelby- 
ville, Tennessee, July 20, 1863; mustered out to date, April 
23, 1865, to accept commission as Surgeon of the 121st Ohio 
Volunteer Infantry. 

Ch AiM.AiN JosKi'H MoRRis — Commissioned at Chattanooga, Tennes- 
see, October 27, 1863; mustered out with regiment. 

Adjutant Charles C. Cox — Commissioned at Columbus, Ohio, 
.September 8, 1862; resigned May 28, 1863; resignation ac- 
cepted by General Rosecrans. 

.Vdjutant James K. Hamilton — Commissioned at Shelby ville, Ten- 
nessee, June 22, 1863; mustered out to date, August 17, 
[864, to accept commission as Captain of Company I). 

.\i)jUTANT Iamks R. Ladi) — Commissioned at Vining's Station, 
Georgia; mustered out to date, June 11, 1864, to accept com- 
mission as Captain of Company H. 

Adjutant Isaac X. Hobiij. — Commissioned at Louisville, Ken- 
tucky, June 12, 1865 ; promoted from Sergeant Major, date June 
12, [865 ; mustered out with regiment. 

R. Q. M. Erasmus Scakritt — Commissioned at Columbus, Ohio, 
September 3, 1862; resigned January 30. 1864; resignation 
accepted by (ieneral Thomas. 

R. Q. M. Joseph Swisher — Commissioned at Triune, Tennessee^ 
June 8, 1863; mustered out August 21, 1864, to accept, commis- 
sion as Captain of Company E. 
R. Q. M. George W. Brigham — Commissioned at Atlanta, Georgia, 
September 17, 1864; mustered out with regiment. 

non-commissioned staff. 

Sergeant Major Joel L. Reed — Commissioned at London, Ohio, 
August II, 1862; appointed Sergeant Major from Sergeant to 
date, June 12, 1865; mustered out at Louisville, Kentucky, 
July 6, 1865. 

Q. M. Sergeant Wm. H. Hallidav — Commissioned at Columbus, 
Ohio, August 18, 1862; enlisted August 13, 1862, as a pri- 



Company A.] Hisluiy of Ihc iijth O. V. I. 177 

vate of Company B ; Mustered out at Louisville, Kentucky, July 

6, 1865. 
Commissary Sergeant F. M. Reigel — Commissioned at Camp 

Dennison, Ohio, September 22, 1862; mustered out at Louis- 
ville, Kentucky, July 6, 1865. 
HosPiTAF. Steward Wm. N. Yost — Commissioned at Hebron, Ohio, 

August 22, 1862 ; mustered out at Louisville, Kentucky, July 

6, 1865. 
First Musician Cortland C. Runyan — Commissioned at Dayton, 

Ohio, October 8, 1862; mustered out at Louisville, Kentucky, 

July 6, 1865. 
Second Musician Loyal H. Clouse — Commissioned at Granville, 

Ohio, August 14, 1862; mustered out at Louisville, Kentucky, 

July 6, 1865. 

DISCHARGED. 

Sergeant Major Jesse W. Dungan — Commissioned at London, 
Ohio, August II, 1862; discharged to accept promotion as 2d 
Lieutenant in Company A, November 5, 1863. 

(2- M. Sergeant Wm. R. Hanawalt — Commissioned at Mt. Ster- 
ling, Ohio; discharged to accept promotion as 2d Lieutenant in 
Company G, March 25, 1863. 

Q. M. Sergeant J. W. Ingrim — Commissioned at Mt. Sterling, 
Ohio, August 13, 1862; discharged on account of physical dis- 
ability November 14, 1863, by order of General R. S. Granger. 

Commissary Sergeant George W. Brigham — Commissioned at 
Hartford, Ohio, August 14, 1862; discharged to accept promo- 
tion as I St Lieutenant and R. Q. M. September 16, 1864. 

Sergeant Major Isaac N. Hobill — Commissioned at Jackson, 
Ohio, August 14, 1862; discharged to accept promotion as ist 
Lieut. Adjt. June ir, 1865. 



COMPANY A, 

Muslered out at Louisville, Ky., July 6, 1865. 
COMMISSIONED OFFICERS. 

Captain Toland Jones — Commissioned Captain August 11, 1862, 
at Columbus, O.; piromoted to Lieutenant Colonel 113th Regi- 
ment O. V. L, June 7, 1865 ; commanded regiment from August 
28, 1864, to day of discharge. 



17S I'lvci y-ifiiy Soliiiii Liji : [Muslcr-oul RdII 

Cai'IAIn Chas. p. (iOKMAX — Commissioned ('aptain June 8, 1S65; 
transferred from Company 1 ; mustered out at Louisville, Ky., 
July 6. 1S65. 

FiKsr Lii:i: lENAN J N. C". \ kkkks — Commissioned First Lieutenant 
August II, 1862; resigned January 13, 1863. 

First Lieutenan r () r\v an \\'a rsox — Promoted to First Lieutenant 
February 6, 18C3; jjronioted to Captain Comi)any H, ri3th (). 
V. L, Ahiy 6, 1863. (See H Roll.) 

First Lieutenam' Aijuh.i.a Toi.wd — Promoted to First Lieutenant 
June 6, 1863; resigned January 21, 1864. 

FiRsr Lieutenant J. R. Cross — Promoted to First Lieutenant June 
12, 1865; assigned to Company A, June 12, 1865; mustered 
out at Louisville, Ky., July 6, 1865. 

Second Likutknant Jesse W. Dungan — Promoted to Second Lieu- 
tenant November 5, 1863; wounded June 27; died July 4, 
1864. 

Second Lieutenant James Coui/ris — Promoted to Second Lieuten- 
ant July 5, 1864; promoted to I'irst Lieutenant, Compan\ C>, 
August 31, 1865. (See C Roll.) 

Second Lieutenant Wm. A. NL Davis — Promoted to Second Lieu- 
tenant September 24, 1864; promoted to First Lieutenant 
Company H, October 21, [864. (See B Roll.) 

.NON-COMMISSIONED OKKICERS 

John C. Cohi.kntz, First Sergeant — Enrolled at London, ()., August 

II, 1862; mustered out July 6, 1865. 
RoiiERT KNiciHT, Second Sergeant — Enrolled at lyOndon, C)., August 

II, 1862; mustered out with the regiment July 6, 1865. 
Edwin Si.acm.k, Third Sergeant — Enrolled at London, ()., August 

II, 1862; mustered out with the regiment. ^ 

George Ei.i.ars, Fourth Sergeant — F^nrolled at London, (,)., August 

II, 1862 ; mastered out with the regiment. 
Chas. J. GoulT), Fifth Sergeant — Enrolled at London, ()., August 

ir, 1862; [)romoted from Corporal to Sergeant June 12, 1865 ; 

mustered out with the regiment. 
Geo. C. Phi.eeger, F'irst Corporal — Enrolled at London, O., Septem- 
ber 2, 1862; mustered out at Louisville, Ky., July 6, 1865. 
Richard B. Corson, Second Corporal — Enrolled at London, ()., 

August II, 1862; mustered out at Louisville, Ky., July 6, 1865. 
Joseph E. Sidner, Third Corporal — Enrolled at London, ()., August 

II, 1862 ; mustered out at Louisville, Ky., July 6, 1865. 



Company A.] History of the 113th O. V. 1. 179 

Smithfield Jackson, Fourth Corporal — Enrolled at London, O., 

August II, 1862 ; mustered out at Louisville, Ky., July 6, 1865. 
Joseph Sanders, Fifth Corporal — Enrolled at London, O., August 

II, 1862-; mustered out July 6, 1865, while absent on furlough. 
Jacob March, Sixth Corporal — Enrolled at London, O., August ir, 

1862 ; mustered out with the regiment. 
Benjamin Norris, Seventh Corporal — Enrolled at London, O., 

August II, 1862; promoted to Corporal May 26, J865 ; mustered 

out with the regiment. 
Austin Slagle, Eighth Corporal — Enrolled at London, O., August 

II, 1862; promoted to Corporal June 12, 1865; mustered out 

July 6, 1865, while absent on furlough. 

privates. 

John W. Adams — (Recruit) Enrolled at London, O., January 2, 
1864 ; mustered out with the regiment. 

Wm. Armstrong — Enrolled at London, O., August 11, 1862; mus- 
tered out with the regiment. 

John Boesinger — Enrolled at Camp Chase September 2, 1862 ; 
mustered out with the regiment. 

Joseph E. Buzzard — Enrolled at London, O., August 11, 1862 ; mus- 
tered out with the regiment. 

Chas. Bates — Enrolled at London, O., August 11, 1862; mustered 
out with the regiment. 

Thos. H. Bell — Enrolled at London, O., August 11, 1862; mus- 
tered out with the regiment. 

Harvey Bradley — Enrolled at London, O., January 4, 1864; mus- 
tered out with the regiment. 

RiLY Carter — Enrolled at London, O., August 11, 1862; mus- 
tered out with the regiment. 

John F. Chapman — (Veteran) Enrolled at London, ()., December 
21, 1863; mustered out with the regiment. 

John L. DALLAS-^Enrolled at London, O., August 11, 1862; mus- 
tered out with the regiment. 

Philip Fix — Enrolled at London, ()., August 11, 1862; mustered 
out July 6, 1865, while absent on furlough. 

Alfred E. Garret — (Veteran) Enrolled at London, ()., December 
9, 1863 , mustered out with the regiment. 

Daniel Hilderbran — Enrolled at London, O., August 11, 1862; 
mustered out with the regiment. 

John N. Howsman — Enrolled at London, ()., August ri, 1862; 
mustered out with the regiment. 



l8o Evcry-day Soldier Life : [Muster-oul Roll 

J(^HN N. JoNKS — Enrolled at London, ()., Au<^ust ii, 1S62; mus- 
tered out with the regiment. 

Lkvi March — l-nroUctl ai I .ondoii, ()., August 11, 1S62; mustered 

out with the regiment. 
W.M. Marks — Enrolled at London, ()., September 9, 1862; mus- 
tered out with the regiment. 

Wm. Mkhkc.an — (Recruit) Enrolled at London, ()., January 23, 
1864; mustered out with the regiment. 

J<iHN Miller — (Veteran) Enrolled at London, ()., January 13, 
1864; mustered out with the regiment. 

(rEf)RGE Miles — Enrolled at London, C)., August 11, 1862; mus- 
tered out July 6, 1865, while absent on furlough. 

JOHN McSavanv — Enrolled at London, ()., August 1 r, 1862; 
mustered out July 6, 1865, while absent on furlough. 

Alexander McCombs — (Recruit) Enrolled at London, ()., January 
22, 1864; mustered out with the regiment. 

Isaac J. Norris — Enrolled at London, ()., .\ugust 22, 1862 ; mus- 
tered out with the regiment. 

William Orput — (Recruit) Enrolled at London, O., January 4, 
1864; mustered out with the regiment. 

Thomas O'Neil — (Recruit) Enrolled at London, O., March 26, 
1864 ; mustered out with the regiment. 

John H. Peters — Enrolled at London, O., August 11, 1862; 
mustered out July 6, 1865, while absent on furlough. 

John H. Pemiierton — (Veteran) Enrolled at London, C)., March 30, 
1864; mustered out with the regiment. 

Albert T. Phiker — Enrolled at London, O., August 11, 1862; 
mustered out with the regiment. 

Michael Powers — Enrolled at London, O., August 11, 1862; 
mustered out July 6, 1865, while absent on furlough. 

John G. Polinc; — (Recruit) Enrolled at London, O., January 23, 
1864 ; mustered out July 6, 1865, while absent on furlough. 

Samuel Powell — (Recruit) Enrolled at London, f)., March 18, 
1864; mustered out with the regiment. 

James Rayburn — Enrolled at London, O., August 11, 1862; mus- 
tered out July 6, 1865, while absent sick. 

Joseph D. Ritcharoson — Enrolled at London, ()., August 11, 
1862 ; mustered out July 6, 1865, while absent on furlough. 

Simeon W. Rodgers — Enrolled at London, O., August 11, 1862; 
mustered out with the regiment. 



(Company A. j History of the tijth O. V. /. i8i 

Daniel Riordan — Enrolled at London, O., August ii, 1862; 

mustered out with the regiment. 
John Rightsell — Enrolled at London, O., August 11, 1862; 

mustered out with the regiment. 
Balzer Speacemaker — (Recruit) Enrolled at London, O., Deceml/Cr 

31, 1864; mustered out with the regiment. 
Alexander Schafer — Enrolled at London, O., August 11, 1862; 

mustered out with the regiment. 
Nicholas Schimmel — (Veteran) Enrolled at London, O., February 

4, 1864; mustered out with the regiment. (Musician.) 
Aurelius Simpson — (Recruit) Enrolled at London, O., March i, 

1864 ; mustered out with the regiment. 
John H. Tallman — Enrolled at London, O., August 11, 1862; 

mustered out with the regiment. 
William Wait — Enrolled at London, O., August 11, 1862; mus- 
tered out with the regiment. 
Alfred Willet — Enrolled at London, O., August 11, 1862; mus- 
tered out with the regiment. 
William C. Ward — Enrolled at London, O., August ri, 1862; 

mustered out July 6, 1865, while absent on furlough. 
Mark Wallace — Enrolled at Camp Chase, September 19, 1862; 

mustered out with the regiment. 
George W. Watson — (Recruit) Enrolled at London, O., November 

8, 1863; mustered out with the regiment. 
Walter M. Watson — (Recruit) Enrolled at London, ()., February 

19, 1864; mustered out with the regiment. 
Joseph P. Wagerman — (Recruit) Enrolled at London, O., December 
25, 1863; mustered out July .6, 1865, while absent on fur- 
lough. 
Charles Yeatts — (Recruit) Enrolled at London, ()., March i, 

1864; mustered out with the regiment. 
Daniel Young — (Recruit) Enrolled at London, O., LT-'iuary 2, 

1864; mustered out July 6, 1865, while absent sick. 
George W, Parmer — (Recruit) Enrolled as under cook, at Shelby- 
ville, Tenn., August 6, 1863; mustered out with the regiment. 
Colored. 
George W. Valeni-ine — Enrolled as under cook, at Chattanooga, 
Tenn., October 31, 1863; mustered out with the regiment. 
Colored. 



l82 Eve ry-iiay Soldier Life : [Muslcr-oiil Roll 

DISCHARdKU. 

Hknja'min F. Ai.i.isoN — Enrolled at London, ()., August ii, 1S62 ; 
discharged August S, 1SC3, Camp Dennison, on account of 
physical disability, by order of Military Commission. 

John Bki.i. — Enrolled at London, O., August 11, 1862; discharged 
April 30, 1S63, at Nashville, Tenn., on account of physical 
disability, by order of Major (ieneral Ro^ecrans. 

Pun. IP E. Bi.ESH — Enrolled at London, ()., August 11, i<S62; dis- 
charged April 26, 1864. Camp Uennison, on account of physical 
disability, by order of Military Commission. 

James Bkmis — Enrolled at London, O., August ri, 1862; arrested 
October 25, 1862, Camp Chase, by civil authority, by order of 
(Governor of Iowa. (Discharged.) 

Chesterfield Carter — Enrolled at London, ()., August 11, 1862; 
discharged February 9, 1865, Cleveland, O., on account of 
physical disability, by order of Major General Hooker. 

Thomas Dvvver — Enrolled at London, ()., August 11, 1862; dis- 
charged May 27, 1863, Nashville, Tenn., on account of physical 
disability, by order of Major General Rosecrans. 

William P. Echard — Enrolled at Columbus, ()., September 8, 
1864; mustered out June 22, 1865, Louisville, Ky., per order 
War Department. 

Herbert Fay — Enrolled at London, ()., August 11, 1862; dis- 
charged November 9, 1863, Nashville, Tenn., on account of 
physical disability, by order of Major General Thomas. (Drum- 
mer.) 

John S. Harvev — Enrolled at London, ()., February 22, 1864 5 
mustered out May 29, 1865, Camp Dennison, O., per order 
War Department. 

Robert Howlett — Enrolled at London, O., August 11, 1862 ; 
Discharged April 27, 1865, Columbus, O., on account of in- 
sanity, by order of Major General Hooker. 

Michael Q. Kelly — Enrolled at London, ()., August ri, 1862; 
discharged July 17, 1864, Bridgeport, Ala., on account of 
physical disability, by order of Major (jeneral Thomas. 

John P. Low — Enrolled at London, ()., August 22, 1862 ; mustered 
out June 2, 1865, Camp Dennison, O., per order War Depart- 
ment. 

Robert Moore — Enrolled at London,©., August 11, 1862; mus- 
tered out May 22, 1865, Nashville, Tenn., per order War 
Department. 



Company A.] History of the iijth O. V. I. 183 

James McDermott — Enrolled at Dayton, O., October i, 1864; 
mustered out June 22, 1865, Louisville, Ky., per order War 
Department. 

Henry Nussbaum — Enrolled at London, O., August ir, 1862; 
discharged January 12, 1864, Nashville, Tenn., on account of 
physical disability, by order Major General (rrant. 

John H. PEMBERTox^Enrolled at London, ()., August 11, 1862; 
discharged June 8, 1863, Nashville, Tenn., on account of physi- 
cal disability, by order Major (General Rosecrans. 

Ezra Paugh — Enrolled at London, O., August 1 1, 1862 ; discharged 
April 8, 1865, Columbus, O., of wound received June 27, 1864. 

John Reese — Enrolled at London, ()., August 22, 1862 ; discharged 
July 9, 1863, Nashville, Tenn., on account of physical disa 
bility, by order Major General Rosecrans. 

George H. Roland — Enrolled at London, O., August 11, 1862; 
discharged April 13, 1863, Nashville, Tenn., on account of 
physical disability, by order'Major General Rosecrans. 

John C. Southron — Enrolled at London, ()., August ri, 1862; 
discharged February 11, 1863, Columbus, C)., on account of 
physical disability, by order J. R. Black, Regimental Surgeon. 

John Simpson — Enrolled at London, O., August 11, 1862; mus- 
tered out May 26, 1865, Camp Dennison, ()., per order War 
Department. 

William Woodman — Enrolled at London, ()., August 22, 1862; 
discharged April 19, 1865, Columbus, O., of wound received 
June 27, 1864, at Kenesaw Mountain, by Major General Hooker. 

transferred. 

John H. Axders(jn — Enrolled at London, O., August 11, 1862; 
transferred to V. R. C. April 30, 1864, per order War Depart- 
ment. 

Abner D. Cari er — Enrolled at London, ( )., August 11, 1862; 
transferred to V. R. C. November 21, 1864, per order War 
Department. 

William Ford — Enrolled at London, O., August 11, 1862; trans- 
ferred to V. R. C. January 15, 1864, per order War Department. 

Timothy Haley — Enrolled at London, ()., August 11, 1862; 
transferred to Co. F March 25, 1865, promoted to First Lieu- 
tenant. 

Henry McCann — Enrolled at London, O., August .11, 1862; 



184 liviiy-day Soil/ill- J. ij( : | M uslci-oiil KolF 



transferred to U. S. Engineer Corps, Chattanooga, Tenn.. l)y order 
Major (ieneral 'riiomas, August 15, 1S65. 

I>\Ai Ci. NkI'I- — Knrolled at l^ondon, ( )., August 21, i<S62; trans- 
ferred to \'. K. C'. February 17, 1864, per order War Department. 

JoKi. L. Kkai) — Knrolled at London, ()., August 11, 1862; trans- 
ferred to Kegt. Staff June 12, 1865. as Sergeant Major, by 
order Lieutenant Cdlonel Jones. 

Hk.m»m Kan — Enrolled at London, ()., .August 11, 1862; trans- 
ferred to \'. K. ('. .\pril _^o, 1864, per order War Department. 

KII.IKI). 

Jf^HN C'. Bp:ntzki. — Enrolled at London, O., August 11. 1862 ; 

killed April 10, 1865, Holt's Mills, N. C. 
EviiRii \\". Jackscjx — Enrolled at London, O., August 22, 18O2; 

killed June 27, 1864, Kenesaw Mountain, (reorgia. 
Louis H. Kennedy — Enrolled at London, ()., February 2t^, 1864; 

killed June 27, 1864, Ivenesaw Mountain, (ieorgia. 
John Weuek — Enrolled at London, ()., September 2, 1862; killed 

in action JiUy 19, 1864, Feachtree Creek, (Georgia. 



Henkv J. Hecrman — Enrolled at London, (>., August 22, 1862; 

died March 5, 1863, Franklin, Tenn., of disease. 
William Beak — Enrolled at London, (J., August 11, 1862; died 

March 18, 1863, Franklin, I'enn., of disease. 
Peter Brown — F^nrolled at London, ()., October 11, 1862; died 

June 6, 1863, at Nashville, Tenn., of disease. 
Alexander Bradley — Enrolled at London, O., October 11, 1862; 

died July 29, 1864, Chattanooga, Tenn., of wounds received 

at Kenesaw Mountain, Ca., June 27, 1864. 
RoBT. R. Bai.enger — Fvnrolled at London, O., August 11, 1862; 

died August 12, 1864, at Nashville, Tenn., of wounds received 

at Kenesaw Mountain, Ga., June 27, 1864. 
Wm. T. CoHRAN — Enrolled at London, O., August 11, 1862; died 

March 14, 1863, at Nashville, Tenn., of disease. 
LvMAN Carter — Enrolled at l^ondon, (X, August 11, 1862; died 

March 21, 1863, Franklin, Tenn., of disease. 
James W. Carr — Enrolled at London, O., August 22, 1862; died 

March 22, 1863, at Nashville, Tenn., of disease. 
Francis M. Crabb — Enrolled at London, O., August 6, r862; died 

September 2, 1863, at Nashville, Tenn., of disease. 



Company A.J History af the iijt/i O. V. I. 185 

Jesse N. Cannon — Enrolled at London, O., August 11, 1862; died 

September 20, 1863, at Chickamauga, Ga., of wound. 
John J.Cloud — Enrolled at London, O., August 11, 1862; died 

October 15, 1864, at Kingston, Ga., of wounds received at 

Kenesaw Mountain, Ga. 
Thomas Cowling — Enrolled at Camp Chase August 11, 1862; 

died April 13, 1865, at Newbern, N. C, of wounds received 

in action March 19, 1865. 
James S. Harvey — Enrolled at London, O., October 11, 1862; 

died January 20, 1863, at Muldrough Hill, Ky., of disease. 
Wm. E. Hughes — Enrolled at London, O., December 22, 1863; 

died July 29, 1864, at Chattanooga, Tenn., of wounds received 

at Kenesaw Mountain, Ga. 
Archibald Morse — Enrolled at London, O., August 22, 1862; 

died September i, 1864, at Chattanooga, Tenn., of chronic 

diarrhoea. 
Geo. T. Reno — Enrolled at London, O., August 22, 1862; died 

January 26, 1863, at Muldrough Hill, Ky., of disease. 
Eugene Smith — Enrolled at London, O., August 11, 1862; died 

March 11, 1863, at Louisville, Ky., of disease. 
John B. Sulsor — Enrolled at London, O., August 11, 1862; died 

July 14, 1864, at Nashville, Tenn., of wounds received at 

Kenesaw Mountain, Ga., June 27, 1864. 
Fred. Weber — Enrolled at London, O., January 4, 1862; died 

January 14, 1865, at Savannah. Ga., of acute dysentery. 
Wm. R. Ward — ^Enrolled at London, O., August 11, 1862; died 

September 20, 1863, at Savannah, Ga., of acute dysentery. 

DESERTED. 

Chas. J. Fritz — Enrolled at London, O., August 11, 1862; de- 
serted January 27, 1863, at Louisville, Ky. 

Aaron W. Hibber — Enrolled at London, O., August 11, 1862; 
deserted January 27, 1863, at Louisville, Ky. 

Louis Meade — Enrolled at London, O., August — , 1862; de- 
serted January 27, 1863, at Louisville, Ky. 



i86 Evcry-ilay SoUier Life : |Muslcr-oiit Roll 

COMPANY F. 

Mustered out at Louisville. Ky., July 6, 18O5. 
COMMISSIOXKI) OKHCKRS. 

Captain L. T. Nichols — C'Dininissioned at Columbus, ()., August 
17, 1862; absent on detached services in Ohio since February 
12, 1864; mustered out at I>ouisville, Ky., July 6, 1865. 

First Lieutenant Nelson Durant — Commissioned at Columbus, 
()., August 13, 1862; promoted from First Lieutenant to Cap' 
tain and assigned to Company 1, April 21, 1863; mustered out. 

First Lieutenant L. S. Windle — Commissioned at Franklin, 
Tenn., April 21, 1863; promoted from First Lieutenant to 
Captain and assigned to Company C, July 14, 1864; mustered 
out with company. 

First Lieutenant J. R. Ladd — Commissioned at Vining's Sta- 
tion, Ga., June 25, 1864; transferred to Field and Staff Roll 
September 20, [864; mustered out with Company. (See 
Field and Staff Roll.) 

First Lieutenant T. Halev — Commissioned at Goldsboro, N. C, 
March 25, 1865; mustered out with Company; transferred 
from A. 

Second Lieutenant J. L. Wheeluck — Commissioned at Franklin, 
Tenn., April 21, 1863; killed in battle at Chickamauga Sep- 
tember 20, 1863. 

Second Lieutenant Edw. Crouse — Commissioned at Columbus, 
O., November 5, 1863; killed in battle at Kenesaw Mountain 
June 27, 1864. 

NON-CO.MMISSIONED OFFICERS. 

P. L HoRTON, First Sergeant — Enrolled at McKean, ()., August 

22, 1862; absent on furlough in Ohio; mustered out with 

Company. 
E. J. Carlii.e, Sergeant — Enrolled at Newark, O., August 19 

1862; mustered out with Company. 
Wm. H. Thrall, Sergeant — Enrolled at Hartford, O., August 14, 

1862 ; mustered out with Company. 
C. A. CoFFROTH, Sergeant — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 21, 

1862 ; mustered out with Company. 
T. E. OsBURN, Sergeant — Enrolled at Franklin, O., August 22, 

1862; mustered out with Company. 



Company F.] History of the iijth O. V. 1. 187 

E. N. Thrall, Corporal — Enrolled at Hartford, O., August 14, 

1862 ; absent on furlough in Ohio ; mustered out with Company. 
John Denune, Corporal — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 19, 

1862 ; mustered out with Company. 
R. B. Stadden, Corporal — Enrolled at Madison, ()., August 22, 

1862; mustered out with Company. 
Leander Pancoast, Corporal — Enrolled at Camp Zanesville, O., 

October 13, 1862; absent on furlough in Ohio; mustered out 

with company. 

privates. 

Levi Agler — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 22, 1862 ; mustered 
out with company. 

Geo. W. Brooks — Enrolled at McKean, O., August 22, 1862 ; mus- 
tered out with company. 

Robert Ballenger— Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 22, 1862; 
mustered out with company. 

Alonzo N. Brown — Enrolled at Camp Chase, O., September 27, 
1862; mustered out with company. 

Albert C. Cady — Enrolled at Johnstown, O., August 22, 1862; 
mustered out with company ; wounded at Chickamauga, Ga., 
by a shell, from the effects of which he died at Johnstown, O., 
April 14, 1872, aged 27 years. He had a good record as a soldier. 

Jacob S. Clouse — Enrolled at Johnstown, O., August 22, 1862; 
mustered out with company. 

Oliver Green — Enrolled at Johnstown, O., August 22, 1862 ; absent 
on furlough ; mustered out with company. 

John Q. Howard — Enrolled at Monroe, O., August 22, 1862; mus- 
tered out with company. 

Henry S. Howell — Enrolled at McKean, O., August 22, 1862; 
mustered out with company. 

James Hourigan — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 22, 1862 ; 
mustered out with company. (Irish.) 

John W. Layman — Enrolled at Newark, O., August 22, 1862; mus- 
tered out with company. 

Chas. G. Larrahke — Enrolled at Camp Chase, O., August 22, 1862 ; 
mustered out with company. 

John Perrin — Enrolled at McKean, O., August 22, 1862; mustered 
out with company. 

T. M. Steadman — Enrolled at Franklin, O., August 22, 1862; mus- 
tered out with company. 



iS8 Every-day Soldier Life : | M uslcr-oul koU 

John A. Smally — Enrolled at Newark, O., August 22, 1862; absent 
without leave from the 14th of Novemi)er, 1862, to December 2d 
1864 ; sentenced by General Court Martial to forfeit all pay and 
allowances for time absent; mustered out with company. 

TuLLER Williams — Enrolled at Johnstown, O., August 22, 1862 ; 
mustered out with com[)any. 

Jackson Stevenson — Enrolled at Franklin, Tenn., March 3, 1863 ; 
mustered out with company. (Cook.) 

William Pointer — Enrolled at F'ranklin, Tenn., March 3, 1863; 
mustered out with com])any. (Cook.) 

KILLKD. 

Thos. Disi'KNNKt, Corporal — Enrolled at Franklin, ()., August 22, 

1862 ; killed September 20, 1863, at battle of Chickamauga, Ga. 
Ibbotson Henry — Enrolled at Newark, O., September 20, 1862; 

killed September 20, 1863, at battle of Chickamauga, Ga. 
Wesley Murphy — Enrolled at Madison, O., August 22, 1862; killed 

September 20, 1863, at battle of Chickamauga, Ga. 
Lyman Lincoln, Sergeant — Enrolled at Hartford, O., August 20, 

1862 ; killed June 27, 1864, at battle of Kenesaw Mt. Ga. 
Uriah A. McComb — Enrolled at Hartford, O., August 14, 1862 ; 

killed August 8, 1864, at Atlanta, Ga. (Musician.) 
S. J. Ogilvie, Corporal — Enrolled at Hartfo'-d, O., August, 14, 1862 ; 

missing since battle of Chickamauga, Ga., September 20, 1863. 

DIED. 

Dever Coffman — Enrolled at McKean, ()., August 20, 1862; died 
March 2, 1863, Franklin, Tenu.; dropsy of tlie heart. 

Amos Rich — Enrolled at Columl)us, O., August 22, 1862 ; died 
March 23, 1863, Franklin, Tenn.; typhoid fever. 

John Gray — Enrolled at Mary Ann, O., August 22, 1862; died 
April 14, 1863, Franklin, Tenn.; congestive fever. 

J. D. D. Stevens — Enrolled at Hartford, O., August 14, 1864; died 
June I, 1865, Franklin, Tenn.; chronic diarrhea. 

Wm. H. Larrabee — Enrolled at Newark, O., August 22, 1862; died 
August 15, 1863, Louisville, Ky.; disease unknown. 

M. D. L. Parr, First Sergeant — Enrolled at Newark, O., August 22* 
1862 ; died November 23, 1863, in the Tennessee river by drown- 
ing. (See reference to this in Knapsack.) 

Wm. H. Lane, Corporal — Enrolled at Hartford, O., August 15, 1862; 
died December 31, 1863, at Annapolis, Md., Variola. (See 
prison sketch in Knapsack.) 



Company F. ] History of the iijth O. V. I. 189 

Henry Blade — Enrolled at Franklin, ()., August 20,1862; died 

July 12, 1864, Chattanooga, Tenn.; wounds received in action 

at Kenesaw Mt., Ga., June 27, 1864. 
Andrew J. Shaw — Enrolled at Madison, O., August 22, 1862 ; died 

July 20, 1864, Chattanooga, Tenn.; wounds received in action at 

Kennesaw Mt., Ga., June 27, 1864. 
J. G. KiRKPATRiCK — Enrolled at Columbus, O., January 18, 1864; 

died October 6, 1864, Nashville, Tenn.; chronic diarrhea. 
George Smart — Enrolled at Johnstown, O., August 14, 1862 ; died 

of chronic diarrhea, November 27, 1864, on board the hospital 

steamer D. A. Januaiy. 
Vincent _ Lake — Enrolled at Washington, August 22, 1862; died 

December 10, 1864, Camp Dennison, O.; typhoid fever. 
Isaac Baily — Enrolled at Hartford, O., August 22, 1862; died April 

28, 1865, Washington, D. C; softening of the brain. 

DISCHARGED. 

John Scally — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 20,1862; dis- 
charged December 20, 1863, Millitary Commander at Columbus, 
O., by reason disability. 

Geo. W. Allison — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 20, 1862; 
discharged March 18, 1863, by General Rosecrans, Nashville, 
Tenn.; disability. 

M. H. Porter, Corporal — Enrolled at Newark, O., August 20, 1862; 
discharged April 9, 1863, by General Rosecrans, Franklin, Tenn.; 
disability. 

Henry L. Thrall — Enrolled at Hartford, O., August 15,1862; 
discharged May 18, 1863, by Surgeon certificate, Louisville, Ky.; 
disability. 

Benjamin Shaffer — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 22, 1862 ; 
discharged June 2, 1863, Surgeon certificate, Nashville, Tenn.^ 
disability. 

John E. Rice — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 22, 1862; dis- 
charged July 3, 1863, Surgeon certificate, Louisville, Ky.; 
disability. 

John Rench — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 22, 1862; dis- 
charged July 28, 1863, by Military Commander, Camp Dennison, 
O.; disability. 

Thos. J. Parr, Corporal — Enrolled at Franklin, O., August 18, 1862; 
discharged August 18, 1863, by General Rosecrans, Nashville, 
Tenn.; physical disability. 



tgo Rvcry-iiay Sohiiei Life : [Mustcr-oiU Roll 

Hknry S. W. Butt — Enrolled at Johnstown, O., August 22, 1862; 
discharged June 5, 1865, at Camp Chase, O., by order War De- 
partment. 

Philo Housk — Enrolled at Newark, O., August 22, 1862; discharged 
by Colonel M. Mundy, I.ouisville, Ky., September 7, F863; j^hys- 
ical disability. 

Joseph Jackson — Enrolled at Johnstown, (X, August 22, 1862 ; dis- 
charged December 31, 1863, by Colonel Wm. Wallace, Columbus, 
O.; permanent disability from wounds received September 20, 
1863, at Chickamauga, Ga. 

Edgar D. Horton, Corporal — Enrolled at McKean, C)., August 20, 
1862: discharged February 24, 1864, at Columbus, O., of disa- 
bility from wounds received in right hand, September 20, 1863, 
at Chickamauga, Ga. 

Thomas Davis — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 14, 1862; dis- 
charged July 31, 1864. 

Thompson P. Freeman — Enrolled at Johnstown, O., August 15, 
1862; discharged April, 1864, C^amj) Dennison. Wound in hand 
at Chickamauga. 

John C. Bali, — Enrolled at Johnstown, O., August 22, 1862 ; dis- 
charged June 30, 1864, by Maj. Gen. Heintzleman, at Colum- 
bus, O., of wounds received September 20, 1863, at Chicka- 
mauga, Ga. 

Jasper Evans — Enrolled at Jonhstown, O., August 19, 1862; dis- 
charged August 3, 1864. 

Geo. W. Clark — Enrolled at Camp Chase, O., October 4, 1862 ; 
discharged August 30, 1864, by Maj. Gen. Heintzleman at 
Columbus, O. ; physical dissability. 

John J. Ogilvie, Sergeant — Enrolled at Hartford, August 14, 1862; 
discharged December 14, 1864, by Maj. Gen. Hooker at Colum- 
bus, O., of wounds received at Kenesaw Mt., June 27, 1864. 

John Lillii',ridge — Enrolled at Granville, O., August, 20, 1862 ; 
discharged June 2, 1865, Camp Dennison, O., Maj. Gen. 
Hooker. 

Esau Rice — Enrolled at Camp Chase, O., September 16, 1862 ; dis- 
charged June 7, 1865, at Columbus, O., by Maj. Gen. Hooker. 
Lost a leg. 

John R. Ellis — Enrolled at Madison, O., August 22, 1862 ; date of 
discharge not given. 



Company F.] History of the 113th O. V. I.' 191 

DESERTED. 

Amos Bartholomew — Enrolled at McKean, O., August 22, 1862 ; 

deserted February i. 1863, at Portland, Ky. 
Samuel M. Davidson — Enrolled at Newark, C)., August 20, 1862, 

deserted February i, 1863, at Portland, Ky. 
M. Dellaplance — Enrolled at Franklin, O., August 22, 1862; 

deserted November 10, 1862, at Camp Zanesville, O. 
James Love — Enrolled at Newark, O., August 21, 1862; deserted 

February i, 1863, at Portland, Ky. 
Joel Ellis — Enrolled at Newark, O., August 22, 1862 ; deserted 

November 6, 1862, at Camp Zanesville, O. 
Thomas .W. Larrabee — Enrolled at Newark, O., August 22, 1862; 

deserted November 29, 1862, at Camp Zanesville, 0. 
Wm. T. Reed — Enrolled at Madison, O., August 22, 1862; deserted 

December 14, 1862, at Camp Zanesville, O. 
Bentlv Echelbarger — Enrolled at Newark, O., August 22, 1862 ; 

deserted December 14, 1862, at Camp Zanesville, O. 
Robert McGeasy — Enrolled at Newark, O., September 11, 1862; 

deserted November 18, 1862, at Camp Zanesville, O. 

transferred. 

Geo. H. Winslow — Enrolled at Hartford, O., August 22, 1862; 
transferred September 20, 1863, to V. R. C. by general order 
of War Department. 

Ezra L. Whitehead — Enrolled at Johnstown, O., August 22, 1862 ; 
transferred December 29, 1863, to V. R. C. by general order of 
War Department. 

Jonas Williams — Enrolled at Franklin, (J., August 18, 1862 ; trans- 
ferred April 10, 1864, to V. R. C. by general order of War 
Department. 

Sylvester Frye — Enrolled at Franklin, O., August 18, 1862; trans- 
ferred July 27, 1864, to Vet. Eng. Corps by general order of 
War Department 

Jacob Lown — Enrolled at McKean, O., August 22, 1862 ; transferred 
July 27, 1864, to Vet. Eng. Corps by general order of War De- 
partment. 

Isaac Evans — Enrolled at Johnstown, O., August 12, 1862; trans- 
ferred February 15, 1864, to V. R. C. by general order of War 
Department. 



192 Evcry-day Soliiier-Li/c : [MuslcrHMil Roll 

John R. Cross, Sergeant — Enrolled at Johnstown, O., August 22, 
1862 ; promoted from First Sergeant to "irst Lieutenant, June 
12, 1865, assigned to Company A, 1 i,^th Regiment. 

CiKo. \\'. Bki(;ham, Corporal — Enrolled at Martford, O., August 14, 
1S62; promoted from Corporal to Commissary Sergeant Septem- 
ber 25, 1862, and transferred to Field and Staff roll. Discharged 
as Regt. Q. M. 

COMPANY D. 

Mustered out xy. l>uuisvillc, Ky., July 6, 1865. 
COMMISSION KD OFFICERS. 

Cafiain Marvin M. Munson — Commissioned at (iianville, O., 
August 12, 1862; resigned January 21, 1863. 

Captain Thos. J. Downkv — Commissioned at Franklin, Tenn., 
February 7, 1863; resigned August 10, 1864; resignation ac- 
cepted by General Thomas. Served as Col. U. S. C. T. 

Captain J. K. Hamilton — Commissioned at Atlanta, Ga., August 
18, 1864; mustered out at Louisville, Ky., July 6, 1865. 

FiRsr Lieutenant F. A. End — Commissioned at Granville, O., 
August 12, 1862; resigned January 31, 1863; resignation ac- 
cepted by Major General Rosecrans. 

First Lieutenant Chas. Sinnet — Commissioned at Franklin, Tenn., 
February 7, 1863; transferred November 7, 1864, to fiirst regi- 
ment \ . V. U. S. Engineers. 

First Lieutenant B. W. Mason — Conmiissioned at Washington, 
D. C, June 8, 1865; mustered out at Louisville, Ky., July 6, 
1865; wounded at Chickamauga, (ia., September 20, 1863; 
wounded June 27, 1864, at Kenesaw Mt., Ga. 

Second Lieutenant Chas. C. Havs — Commissioned at Franklin, 
Tenn., February 7, 1 S63 ; resigned August 8, 1863; resignation 
accei)ted by Major General Rosecrans. 

non-co.mmissioned officers. 
James S. I'orts, First Sergeant — Enrolled at Granville, ()., August 

20, 1862; mustered out with company. 
Moses Goodrich, Sergeant — Enrolled at Granville, ()., August 20, 

1862; absent on furlough since June 26, 1865; mustered out 

with company. 
James Partridge, Sergeant — Enrolled at Granville, O., August 20, 

1862 ; absent on furlough as exchanged prisoner of war since 

March 18, 1865 ; mustered out with company. 



Company I).] History oj the ujt/i O. V. I. 193 

Alfred Jones, Sergeant — Enrolled at Liberty, O., August 20, 1862 ; 

mustered out with company. 
Burton Huson, First Corporal — Enrolled at Granville, O., August 

20, 1862 ; mustered out with company. 
Henrv Jewell, Corporal — Enrolled at St. Albans, O., August 20, 

1862; absent on furlough since June 30, 1865; mustered out 

with company. 
Warren C. Rose, Corporal — Enrolled at Granville, O., August 12, 

1862; mustered out with company; taken prisoner at Chicka- 

mauga. 
Eli AS THO^L4s, Corporal — Enrolled at Granville, O., August 20, 1862 ; 

mustered out with the company. 
RuFUS Merrill, Corporal — Enrolled at St. Albana, O., August 20, 

1862; mustered* out with company. 
Andrew J. Chambers, Corporal — Enrolled at Granville, O., August 

20, 1862; mustered out with company. 
Wm. H. Harman, Cor[)oral — Enrolled at St. Albans, O., February r, 

1864; absent on furlough since June, 26, 1865; mustered out 

with company. 
Chas. D. Parker, Corporal — Enrolled at Granville, 0., August 20, 

1862; absent on furlough since June 26, 1865; mustered out 

with company. 

privates. 

John Brown — Enrolled at St. Albans, O., January 26, 1864; mus- 
tered out with company. 

Leroy S. Bancroft— Enrolled at Granville, O., August 20, 1862; 
mustered out with company. 

Henry C. Case — Enrolled at Granville, O., August 20, 1862; mus- 
tered ^ut with company. 

Charles M. Carrier — Enrolled at Granville, O., August 20, 1862 ; 
absent on furlough since June 27, 1865 ; mustered out with 
company. 

David N. Conrad — Enrolled at Liberty, ()., August 20, 1862 ; mus- 
tered out with company. 

John J. Chrvstlar — Enrolled at St. Albans, O., January 27, 1864; 
absent sick at Louisville, Ky., since June, 17, 1865 ; mustered 
out with company. 

MiLLioAN Dunn — Enrolled at P'allsburg, O., August 22, 1862; 
mustered out with c()mi)any. 



194 Every-day SoUiei Liji : | Musicr-oiii Roll 

John F. Densor — Kiirulled at Lihertv, ()., Aui^ust 22, 1862; mus- 
tered out with company. 

Thomas J. Evans — P2nrolled at (iiau\ illc, ()., August 20, 1.S62; 
mustered out with company. 

Shepaki) R. Fii.roN — l'>nrolled at (iranville, O., August 20, 1S62; 
mustered out with company. 

George W. Fi.aharda — Enrolled at Harrison, ()., .August 2^;, 1S62; 
mustered out with c,omi)any. Died near IMain City, ()., July 
17, 1883. 

Rodney Flaharda — Enrolled at Harrison, ()., August 27, 1862; 
mustered out with company. 

George A. Graves — Enrolled at Granville, O., August 20, 1862; 
mustered out with company. 

Heman L. Hopart — Enrolled at Granville, O., August 20, 1862; 
mustered out with company. 

Ezra D. Hum.mei.l — Enrolled at St. Albans, O., .August 20, 1862; 
mustered out with company. 

Thomas A. Jones — Enrolled at Granville, O., August 20, 1862 ; 
mustered out with company. 

James Merrill — Enrolled at Granville, ()., August 20, 1862 ; absent 
on furlough since June 26, 1865 ; mustered out with company. 

John Norton — Enrolled at St. .\lbans, ()., January 22, 1864; mus- 
tered out with company. 

Thomas Norton — Enrolled at St. Albans, ()., February 20, 1864; 
mustered out with company. 

\\'-s\. R. Newberry — Enrolled at (iranville, ()., August 20, 1862; 
mustered out with company. 

Henry C. Paige — Enrolled at Granville, O., August 20 1862 ; mus- 
tered out with company. 

Jacob Pitts — Enrolled at St. .\lbans, (X, August 20, 1862 ; mustered 
out with the comi)any. 

William Ports — Enrolled at Granville, ()., August 20, 1862; absent 
on furlough since June 26, 1865 ; mustered out with company. 

GiLMAN Rose — Enrolled at Granville, (')., August 20, 1862; mus- 
tered out with company. 

Theodore G. Warden — Enrolled at Granville, ()., August 20, 1862 ; 
mustered out with company. 

Wm. F. Williams — Enrolled at Granville, CJ., August 20, 1862 ; 
mustered out with company. 

Hiram Williams — Enrolled at St. Albans, ()., August 22, 1862 ; 
mustered out with company. 



Company D.] History of the iijtii O. V. 1. 195 

Lewis Williams — Enrolled at St. Albans, O., August 20, 1862 ; 

mustered out with company. 
George A. Wilson — Enrolled at Granville, ()., August 20, 1862 ; 

mustered out with company. 

killed. 

Joseph W. Gooding, Sergeant — Enrolled at Granville, O., August 

20, 1862; killed in the battle of Chickamauga, Ga., September 

20, 1863. 
Lyman B. Pratt, Corporal — Enrolled at Granville, O., August 20, 

1862 ; killed in battle of Chickamauga, Ga., September 20, 1863. 
Guilford D. Haslip — Enrolled at Granville, O., August 11, 1862; 

killed in battle of Chickamauga, Ga., September 20, 1863. 
Daniel Rose, Corporal — Enrolled at Granville, O., August 12, 1862. 

killed in battle of Chickamauga Ga., September 20, 1863. 
Jesse H. Tucker — Enrolled at St. Albans, O., August 20, 1862 ; 

killed in battle of Chickamauga, Ga., September 20, 1863. 
Hiram Paige — Enrolled at Granville, O., August 20, 1862 ; killed 

in battle of Chickamauga, Ga., September 20, 1863. 
David R. Dunn — Enrolled at Fallsburg, O., August 22, 1862 ; killed 

in the battle at Chickamauga. Ga., September 20, 1863. 
Isaac S. Minton — Enrolled at Granville, O., August 22, 1862; killed 

in battle at Chickamauga, Ga., September 20, 1863. 
Macy Mann — Enrolled at St. Albans, O., February i, 1864; killed 

in battle at Jonesboro, Ga., September i, 1864. 

DIED. 

Jasper Gillespie, Corporal — Enrolled at Bennington, O., August 20) 

1862 ; died February 10, 1863, at Nashville, Tenn., of brain fever. 
Arthur P. Wright — Enrolled at St. Albans, O., August 20, 1862; 

died February 20, 1863, at Nashville, Tenn., of brain fever. 
Henry A. Wells — Enrolled at Liberty, O., August 20, 1862 ; died 

February 27, 1863, Nashville, Tenn., of typhoid fever. 
Albert Rose — Enrolled at Granville, O., August 24, 1862 ; died 

March 3, 1863, at Nashville, Tenn., of rheumatism. 
Wm. C. Mason, Corporal — Enrolled at St. Albans, O., August 22, 

1862; died March 14, 1863, at Franklin, Tenn., of brain fever. 
John Morehead — Enrolled at McKean, O., August 22, 1862; died 

April 18, 1863, at Nashville, Tenn., dysentery. 
Wm. J. Minton — Enrolled at Granville, O., August 22, 1862; died 

September 2, 1863, at Wartrace, Tenn., flux. 



196 Every-day Soldier Li/i- : [Muster-out Roll 

Solomon Prikst — Enrolled at Jersey, O., August 20, 1862 ; died 

October 10, 1863, at Chattanooga, Tenn., ot' wounds received in 

battle. 
Samuki. L. RosK, Sergeant — Enrolled at (Iraiiviile, ()., August 20, 

1862; died October 21, 1863, at Chattanooga, Tenn., of wounds 

received in battle of Chickamauga. 
John T. Cheek — Enrolled at St. Albans, ()., August 20, 1862; died 

October 17, 1863, at Nashville, Tenn., of wounds received in 

battle. 
Madison C. Messenger, Sergeant — Enrolled at Harrison, ()., Au- 
gust 22. 1862; died November 16, 1863, at Chattanooga, Tenn., 

of wounds received in battle. 
Samuel Richards — Enrolled at Granville, ()., August 22, 1862 ; died 

June 2, 1864, at Jefferson ville, Ind, of rheumatism, 
Lorenzo Barrick — Enrolled at St. Albans, O., August 20,1862; 

died July 26, 1864, at Nashville, Tenn., of typhoid fever. 
Edward Williams — Enrolled at St. Albans, O., January 28, 1864; 

died November 20, 1864, at Nashville, Tenn., of chronic diarrhea. 
Richard Brown — Enrolled at Columbus, O., September 23, 1864 ; 

died April 23, 1865, at Alexandria, Va., of spinal affection. 

DISCHARGED. 

John Wamsley — Enrolled at Cranvillc, ()., August 20, 1862; dis- 
charged June 2, 1863, at Louisville, Ky., by order of Amsthel, 
discharge officer. 

Abraham Barklev — Enrolled at St. Albans, O., August 22, 1862; 
discharged December 14, 1863, at Murfreesboro. Tenn., by order 
of A. E. Ottis. 

Henry C. Carlock — Enrolled at St. Albans, O., August 22, 1862 ; 
discharged May 17, 1864, at Camp Dennison, O., by order of 
Major General Heintzleman. 

W. H. H. Avery — Enrolled at Granville, O., August 12, 1862 ; dis- 
charged November i, 1863, at Chattanooga, Tenn., by order of 
Major General Thomas. 

James R. Ladd, ist Sergeant — Enrolled at St. Albans, O., August 
25, 1862; discharged June 24, 1864, at Vinings' Station, Ga., by 
order of Maj. Gen'l. Palmer. 

Elias W. Showman, — Enrolled at Granville, O., August 21, 1862; 
discharged April 6, 1864, at Nashville, Tenn., by order of Maj. 
Gen'l Thomas. 



Company D.] History of the 113th O. V. I. 197 

Andrew J. Powell — Enrolled at (rranville, O., August 20, 1862 ; 

discharged January 9, 1864, at Nashville, Tenn., by order of 

Maj. Gen'l. Thomas. 
George F. Nelson — Enrolled at Granville, O., August 20; 1862 ; 

discharged September 27, 1863, Nashville, Tenn., by order of 

Maj. Gen'l Thomas. 
Alvin Drake — Enrolled at Columbus, O., September 23, 1864 ; 

discharged June 22, 1865, at Louisville, Ky., by order of Sec. 

War. 
Richard Chidister — Enrolled at St. Albans, O., January 28, 1864; 

discharged September 8, 1864 at Camp Dennison, O., by order of 

Maj. Genl. Hientzleman. 
John Eggleston — Enrolled at St. Albans, O., January 28, 1864; 

discharged May 25, 1865, at Columbus, O., by order of Sec. 

War. 
Enos. Jewell — Enrolled at St. Albans, O., August 20, 1862 ; dis- 
charged October 19, 1865, at New Albany, Ind., by order of 

Maj. Gen'l. Rosecrans. 
Horatio H. Kneeland — Enrolled at Granville, O., August 29, 

1862 ; discharged September 30, 1863, at Nashville, Tenn., by 

order of Maj. Gen'l. Rosecrans. 
Wm. H. Starr — Enrolled at Granville, O., August 18, 1862 ; dis- 
charged October 28, 1864, at Nashville, Tenn., by order of Maj. 

Genl. Thomas. 
F. J. Cressey, Sergeant — Enrolled at Granville, O., August 20, 1862 ; 

discharged December 14, 1863, at Chattanooga, Tenn., by order 

of Maj. Gen'l Thomas. 

deserted. 

Jerry Owen — Enrolled at Zanesville, O., October i, 1862; deserted 

December 11, 1862, at Camp Zanesville, O. 
George W. Bowie — Enrolled at St. Albans, O., August 22, 1862 ; 

deserted February i, 1863, at Portland, Ky. 
George L. Devilbliss — Enrolled at St. Albans, O., August 22, 

1862; deserted February i, 1863, at Portland, Ky. 
John E. Evans — Enrolled at Granville, O., August 20, 1862; 

deserted February 2, 1863, at Salt Creek, Ky. 
Chas. M. Marshell — Enrolled at Zanesville, O., December 13, 

1862 ; deserted March, 31, 1865, on the campaign through S. C. 



19^"^ Every-iiay Soltiifi Lift- : [Muster-out Roll 



TRANSKKRRKn. 

(1k()K(;k Cakdnkk — iMiroUcd at Ciianville, ( )., August 20, 1S62; 

transferred to V. R. C. Noveml)er, 14, i<S63, C'ani]) Dennison, 

()., l)y order of Secretary of War. 
LoVAi. H. Clousk — Enrolled at (iranville, ()., August 19, 1862; 

transferred lo Regt. Non-Commissioned Staff, March 12, 1864, 

by order of Colonel Mitchell. (Bugler.) 
Srii.i.MAN Clark — Enrolled at St. Albans, ()., .August 20. 1862; 

transferred to V^ R. C. October 26, 186,3, at Cincinnati, O., by 

order of Secretary of War. 
Isaac T. Evans, Corporal — Enrolled at (iranville, ()., August 22, 

1862; transferred to V. R. C. December 12, 1863, at Nashville, 

Tenn., by order of Secretary of War. 
Thds. H. McBride — Enrolled at Bennington, ()., August 20, 1862; 

transferred to V. R. C. June 26, 1864, at Nashville, Tenn., l)y 

order of Secretary of War. 
Samuki. H. Wilcox — Enrolled at (rranville, ()., August 18, 1862; 

transferred to V. R. C. June 27, 1864, ^it Murfreesboro, Tenn., 

by order of Secretary of War. 
Alhkrt Knkeland — Enrolled at Granville, O., August 20, 1862 ; 

transferred to V. R. C. December 14, 1863, at Murfreesboro, 

Tenn, by order of Secretary of War. 



COMPANY I. 

Mustered out at Louisville, Ky., July 6, 1865. 
COMMISSIONED OFFICERS. 

Captain Nathan Straus — Commissioned at Columbus, ()., Septem- 
ber 6, 1862; resigned March 17, 1863; resignation accepted by 
order of Major ( General Rosecrans. 

Captain Nelson Durant — Commissioned at Franklin, Tenn., April 
2 I, 1863; honorably discharged from the service of the U. S. on 
account of physical disability, by special order No. 416 War 
Department November 25, 1864. 

Captain John S. Skeels — Commissioned at Goldsboro, N. C, April i, 
1865 ; transferred from company C ; mustered out at Louisville, 
Ky., July 6, 1865. (See Roll C.) 



Company I.] History of the iijt/i O. V. I. 199 

First Lieutenant Miles C. Nolan — Commissioned at Columbus, 
O., September 6, 1862; resigned February 2, 1863; resignation 
accepted February 2, 1863, by order of General Wright, Com- 
manding Department of the Ohio. 

First Lieutenant Ed. T. Haynes — Commissioned at Franklin, 
Tenn., May 2, 1863; dishonorably discharged from the service 
March 15, 1864, by order Major General Thomas, Commanding 
Department of the Cumberland. 

First Lieutenant Wm. Grove — Commissioned at Avon's Ferry, N. 
C, April 10, 1865 ; mustered out at Louisville, Ky., July 6, 1865. 

Second Lieutenant Chas. P. Garman — Commissioned at P'ranklin, 
Tenn., May 2, 1863; appointed First Lieutenant and transferred 
to company A, by order of Regimental comma'nder, March i, 1864. 

Second Lieutenant T.- D. Bently — Commissioned at Columbus, 
O., November 5, 1863; honorably discharged from the service 
of the U. S. on account of physical disability (caused by wounds 
received in battle) by special order No. 338, War Dei)artmeni, 

November 25, 1864. 

non-commissioned officers. 

Arthur C. Nash, First Sergeant — Enrolled at Dayton, O., October 

4, 1862 ; mustered out vvith company. 
A. Straus, Sergeant — Enrolled at Mansfield, O., September 6, 1862 ; 

absent on furlough; mustered out with company. 
Caleb Gray, Sergeant — Enrolled at Columbus, O., September 29, 

1862 ; absent on furlough ; mustered out with company. 
Preston Goad, Sergeant — Enrolled at Dayton, O., December 25, 

1863 ; mustered out with company. 

Chas. V. McCalla, Sergeant — Enrolled at Cincinnati, O., October 

17, 1862 ; mustered out with company. 
Wesley Straus, Corporal — Enrolled at Dayton, O., January 7, 1864 ; 

mustered out with company. 
J. C. Ambrose, Corporal — Enrolled at Cincinnati, O., October 30, 

1862; absent on furlough; mustered out with company. 
Alfred Blake, Corporal — Enrolled at Dayton, O., January 28, 1864; 

mustered out with company. 

privates. 

John Armatrout — Enrolled at Harrisburg, O., Sei)teinbcr 17, 1862; 
mustered out with company. 



Every-tiay SoUicr-LiJc : [Muslcr-oul RuU 



Oscar K. Hassiit — Enrolled ;il Davton, ( )., l-'cbniary ii, 1X64; 
absent sick in hospital. 

Hknkv C'arr — Enrolled at Columbus, ()., Icbruary 10, 1X64; mus- 
tered out with company. 

K Ai.i'H (rah; — Enrolled at I )a} ton, ()., March iS, 1864; mustered 
out with company. 

John Doran — Enrolled at Columbus, ()., November 14, I.S62; ab- 
sent sick in hospital ; mustered out with company. 

S(M.o.\i()N H. Davis — iMirolled at Dayton, ( )., October 2, 1862; 
mustered out with compan)-. 

Francis Duffy — Enrolled at Cincinnati, O., October 11, 1862; mus- 
tered out with company. 

Jefferson Dodso?>^ — Enrolled at Harrisburg, O., October 9, 1862; 
absent sick in hospital. 

Andrew J. England — Enrolled at Harrisburg, O., vSeptember 15, 
1862; absent sick in hospital. 

Preston B. Fisher — Enrolled at Dayton, ()., October 20, 1862 ; ab- 
sent sick in hospital. 

Peter Fairi. — Enrolled at Camp Dennison, ()., November 22, 1862; 
mustered out with company. 

David Cittincs — Enrolled at C'olumbus, O., November i 1, 1862 ; 
mustered out with company. 

Henry Greenachel — Enrolled at Cincinnati, O., November 17, 
1862; mustered out with company. 

Hexrv HoreK. — Enrolled at Cincinnati, ()., October 15, 1862; mus- 
tered out with company. 

Wiemam Huc.hes — Enrolled at Harrisburg, O., September 15, 1862; 
mustered out with company. 

William Hunter — Enrolled at Cincinnati, O., October 1, 1862; 
absent sick in hospital. 

John I. Hahn — Enrolled at Dayton, ()., January 23, 1864; mustered 
out with company. 

Andrew KROMER — Enrolled at Columbus, ()., September 15, 1862 ; 
mustered out with company. 

Peter Mittlestetter — Enrolled at Dayton, O., September 22, 
1862; absent on furlough; mustered out with company. 

William McCain — Enrolled at Dayton, O., October 8, 1862; mus- 
tered out with company. (Muleteer.) 

Hugh McCarnev — Enrolled at Sandusky, O., December 17, 1863; 
absent sick in hospital. 



Company I.] History of the iijl/i O. V. J. 201 

John J. Myers— Enrolled at Dayton, O., January 11, 1864; mus- 
tered out with company. 

John Mchu — Enrolled at Dayton, ()., January 13, 1864; absent sick 
in hospital. 

Patrick Morris— Enrolled at Sandusky, O., December 17, 1863; 
mustered out with company. 

Elwood T. Nickols— Enrolled at Harrisburg, O., September 15, 
1862 ; absent sick in hospital. 

H. Ramsbotham— Enrolled at Dayton, O., September 26, 1862 ; 
mustered out with company. 

Wm. H. Taylor — Enrolled at Cincinnati, O., October 1 1, 1862 ; mus- 
tered out with company. 

James L. Turner — Enrolled at Harrisburg, ()., September 14, 1862 ; 
mustered out with company. 

Jefferson Wales — Enrolled at Columbus, O., October 3, 1862 ; 
mustered out with company. 

Chas. Wilson — Enrolled at Cincinnati, O., October i, 1862; mus- 
tered out witlr company. 

Louts Wharton — Enrolled at Dayton, O., January 21, 1864; absent 
sick in hospital. 

Hiram Heath — Enrolled at Zanesville, O., November 4, 1862 ; 
mustered out ; erroneously dropped from rolls as prisoner of war 
since August 28, 1864. 

Evans Columbus (Colored under-cook) — Enrolled at Shelbyville, 
Tenn., July 7, 1863 ; mustered out with the company. 

killed. 

Wm. McManus — Enrolled at Urbana, O., January 27, 1864; killed 

in action May 9, 1864, at Buzzard Roost, Ga. 
Ceorge Kelsey — Enrolled at Cincinnati, O., October 15, 1862; 

killed in action September 1, [864, at Jonesboro, Ga. 
William Koltman — Enrolled at Cincinnati, O., October i, 1862 ; 

killed in action March 16, 1S65, at Averysboro, N. C. 



Nicholas Martin — Enrolled at Cincinnati, O., October 23, 1862 ; 

died February 18, 1863, at Muldrough's Hill, Ky., froze to death. 
Jacob Kelsing — Enrolled at Columbus, O., September 15, 1862 ; 

died April 27, 1863, at Franklin, Tenn.; congestion of the brain. 



23 



livcry-iiay Sohiici Life: IMusler-oiil Roll 



Anthony Drkhk.r — Enrolled at Columbus, ()., September i8, 1862; 

died April :!S, 1.S63, at Louisville. Ky., of inflammatory rheu. 

niatism. 
Jamks England — Enrolled al Harrisburg, ()., October 17, 1862; 

died July 28, 1863, at New Albany, Ind., of typhoid fever. 
Rudolph Webbkr — Enrolled at Columbus, O., September 19, 1862; 

died August 13, 1863, at Camp Dennison, O., of general debility. 
Charles West — Enrolled at Columbus, O., September 12, 1862; 

died March 19, 1864, at Rossville, Ga., of general debility. 
Erancis Leehev — Enrolled at Cincinnati, ()., October 13, 1862 ; 

died June 28, 1864, at Field Hospital, Marietta, Ca., of wounds 

received in action on the day before. 
Thomas Sweeney — Enrolled at Dayton, O., January 24, 1864; died 

June 30, 1864, at Big Shanty, fenn., of disease. 
John Rooks — Enrolled at Dayton, O., February 13. 1864; died July 

8, 1865, at Chattanooga, Tenn., of wounds. 
Franklin Elliott — Enrolled at Cincinnati, O., October 30, 1862; 

died July 6, 1864, at Kingston, Ga., of wourfds. 
Wm. H. Coblentz, Corporal — Enrolled at Dayton, O., October 4. 

1862 ; died August 19, 1864, at Chattanooga, Tenn., of wounds. 
Wm. McKnight — Enrolled at Cincinnati, O., October 21, 1862; died 

August 23, 1864, at Nashville, Tenn., of wounds. 
Michael Kehoe, Corporal — Enrolled at Dayton, O., October 25, 

1862 ; died August 21, 1864, at Nashville, Tenn., of wounds. 
Henry Bracke, Sergeant — Enrolled at Cincinnati, O., October 2, 

1862; died September 5, 1864, at Atlanta, Ga., of wounds re- 
ceived at the battle of Jonesboro. Ga. 
William Collins — Enrolled at Dayton, O., January 18, 1864; died 

September 11, 1864, at Atlanta, Ga., of disease. 
John H. Duncan — Enrolled at Dayton, O., October 6, 1862; died 

October 15, 1864, at Chattanooga, Tenn., of disease. 
Jesse Curtis — Enrolled at Dayton, O., January 4, 1864, died Octo- 
ber 31, 1864, at Atlanta, Ga., of disease. 
Wm. H. Barlett — Enrolled at Dayton, O., February 10, 1864; died 

July 22, 1864, at Hospital No. i, Nashville, Tenn., of wounds 

received in action. 
Jacob Meyers, Corporal — Enrolled at Camp Dennison, O., Septem- 
ber 13, 1862; died July 6, 1864, at Chattanooga, Tenn., of 

wou-nds received in action. 



Company I.] History of the iijt/i O. V. I. 203 

Charles Storms — Enrolled at Sandusky, O., December 15, 1863 ; 

died July 25, 1864, Second Brigade Hospital, Second Division 

14th, A C, of disease. 
John D. Snyder — Enrolled at Columbus, O., September 20, 1862 ; 

died September i, 1864, in Ambulance Hospital, of disease. 

discharged. 

Wm. H. Hoklitt — Enrolled at Dayton, O., October 9, 1862 ; dis- 
charged June 13, 1863, ^t Cincinnati, O., by order of Colonel 
Burbank, commanding post. 

Geo. W; Johnson — Enrolled at Columbus, O., September 18, 1862 ; 
discharged February 21, 1863, at Camp Dennison, O., by order 
of Colonel Burbank, commanding post. 

Samuel Gester — Enrolled at Columbus, O., October 30, 1862 ; dis- 
charged March 13, 1863, at Nashville, Tenn., by order of General 
Rosecrans. 

William LoBiG — Enrolled at Dayton, O., October 29, 1862; dis- 
charged March 12, 1863, at Nashville, Tenn., by order of General 
Rosecrans. 

Anthony Huber — Enrolled at Dayton, O., October 27, 1862 ; dis- 
charged April 10, 1863, at Nashville, Tenn., by order of General 
Rosecrans. 

Geo. W. Jewell — Enrolled at Dayton, O., October 9,1862; dis- 
charged April 10, 1863, at Nashville, Tenn., by order of General 
Rosecrans. 

Christian Eichner — Enrolled at Dayton, O., October 24, 1862 ; 
discharged April 20, 1863, Nashville, Tenn., by order General 
Rosecrans. 

Henry Carroll — Enrolled at Camp Dennison, O., November 20, 
1862; discharged May ti, 1863, Nashville, Tenn,, by order 
General Rosecrans. 

Wm. Armatrout — Enrolled at Harrisburg, O., September 15, 1862; 
discharged August 3, 1863, at Camp Dennison, O., by order of 
military commander. 

John Barry — Enrolled at Cincinnati, ()., September 20, 1862; dis- 
charged April 3, 1865, at Quincy, 111., by order of S. F. Cooper, 
V. R. Corps Military assistant. 

Louis Diehl — Enrolled at Camp Dennison, O., October 10, 1862; 
discharged September 17, 1864, at Camp Dennison, ()., by order 
of Major General Heintzelman. 



204 Every-day Soldier Life: [Mustcr-oiU Roll 

Francis F. Hendy — Enrolled at Cincinnali, ( )., ( )( tober ii, 1862; 
discharged February 18, 1865, at Cincinnati, O., by order of 
Major (ieneral Hooker, for wounds received in battle at Kenesaw 
Mountain, Cla. (Sergeant.) 

Jamks Kells, Sergeant — Enrolled at Dayton, CJ., October 21. 1S62; 
discharged March 21, 1865, at Camj) Dennison, ().. by order of 
Major Cieneral Hooker. 

John F. Rockafiei.d, Corporal — Enrolled at Dayton, ( )., October 4, 
1862; discharged March 21, 1865. at C'anip Dennison, ()., by 
order of Major (ieneral Hooker. 

Patrick Omei.ia — Enrolled at Cincinnati, O., October 16, 1862; 
discharged April 17, 1865, at ("amp Dennison, O., by order of 
Major (ieneral Hooker. 

Peter BvE — Enrolled at Columbus, ()., September 18, 1862; dis- 
charged May 30, 1865, at Camp Dennison, O., by order of the 
Surgeon in charge. 

William T. Johnson — Enrolled at Cincinnati, ()., October i, 1862; 
discharged May 23, 1865, at (,'amp Dennison, O., byorderof the 
Surgeon in charge. 

Jdhn B. Miller — Enrolled at Dayton, O., January 2, 1864; dis- 
charged May 23, 1865, at ("amp Dennison, O., by order of the 
Surgeon in charge. 

David Farcells — Enrolled at Harrisburg. ( )., September 15, 1862; 
discharged May 6, 1865, at (.'olumbus, O., by order of Major 
General Hooker. 

Joseph Sherman — Enrolled at Dayton, ()., September 10, 1862 ; dis- 
charged at Franklin, Tenn.; no record of time of discharge given. 

William Sells — Enrolled at Harrisburg, O., September 15, 1862; 
mustered out of service of the U. S. June 9, 1865, pursuance to 
general order No. 77, Par. 6, Adjutant (ieneral's office, dated 
April 28, 1865, at Washington, D. C. 

DKSKRTKl). 

John Armatroui' — Enrolled at Harrisburg, O., September 15, 1862; 

deserted December 2, 1862, at Camp Dennison, O. 
John Donahoe — Enrolled at Camp Dennison, O., October 19, 1862 ; 

deserted December 2, 1862, at Camp Dennison, O. 
R. H. Bromage — Enrolled at Dayton, O., October 7, 1862; deserted 

December 29, 1862, at Camp Dennison, O. 
Rudolph Bolen — Enrolled at Camjj Dennison, O., September, 15 

1862; deserted December 15, 1862, at Camp Dennison, O. 



Company 1.] History of the iijth O. V. I. 205 

Chas. H. Bascomb — Enrolled at Cincinnati, O., November i, 1862 ; 
deserted December 28, 1862, at Camp Dennison O. 

T. BuRGHOORST — Enrolled at Camp Dennison, O., November 22, 
1862; deserted January 23, 1863, at Camp Laura, Ky. 

Elias O. Bracke — Enrolled at Columbus, O., November 4, 1862, 
deserted February 10, 1863, at Nashville, Tenn. 

Joseph Campbell — Enrolled at Cincinnati, O., October 21,1862; 
deserted December 4, 1862, at Camp Dennison, O. 

Lewis Collins — Enrolled at Cincinnati, O., October 31, 1862; de- 
serted December 5, 1862, at Camp Dennison, O. 

William Finley — Enrolled at Cincinnati, O., October 23, 1862 ; 
deserted December 15, 1862, at Camp Dennison, O. 

James HowiTT— Enrolled at Cincinnati, O., October 15, 1862 ; de- 
serted December 23, 1862, at Camp Dennison, O. 

Jasper Hauser — Enrolled at Camp Dennison, O., November, 17, 
1862 ; deserted December 13, 1862, at Camp Dennison, O. 

Henry King — Enrolled at Cincinnati, O., October 30, 1862 ; deserted 
December 14, 1862, at Camp Dennison, O. 

Michael Kays — Enrolled at Cincinnati, O., October 5, 1862; de- 
serted February i, 1863, at Louisville, Ky. 

James Leas — Enrolled at Columbus, O., September 19, 1862; de- 
serted February 5, 1863, ^^ Dover, Tenn. 

J(jHN I^ANER— Enrolled at Camp Dennison, O., September 15, 1862; 
deserted December 13, 1862, at Camp Dennison, O.' 

Louis Mantle — Enrolled at Harrisburg, O., September 20, 1862; 
deserted December 14, 1862, at Camp Dennison, O. 

Henry Massman — Enrolled at Cincinnati, O., November 17, 1862; 
deserted December 2-^, 1862, at Camp Dennison, O. 

Richard McCohev — Enrolled at Cincinnati, O., November 22, 1862 ; 
deserted December 23, 1862, at Camp Dennison, O. 

John S. Rhoads — Enrolled at Dayton, O., September 11, 1862 ; de- 
serted February i, 1863, at Louisville, Ky. 

Bernard D. Shute — Enrolled at Cincinnati, O., October 21, 1862 ; 
deserted December 2, 1862, at Camjj Dennison, O. 

Henry Stone — Enrolled at Cincinnati, O., October 21, 1862; de- 
serted December 9, 1862, at C'amp Dennison, O. 

Peter Skelly — Enrolled at Cincinnati, O., September 28, 1862; 
deserted December 24, 1862, at Camp Dennison, O. 

Nathan T. Vaughan — Enrolled at Cincinnati, O., August 1862; 
deserted December 28, 1862, at Camp Dennison, O. 



2o6 Evciy-iiay Soldier Life : [Mustor-oul Roll 

Thomas Wiii.iams — Enrolled at Cincinnati, ()., Octohcr 20, 1862; 
deserted December 2, iS62,at Canii) Dennison, (). 

Hknrv Wilrurn — Knrolled at Cincinnati, ()., October 2^, 1.S62; 
deserted I)eceml)er r, 1862, at Cianip Dennison, (). 

J<iHx Young — Enrolled at Cincinnati, ()., November 17, 1862; de- 
serted December r, 1862, at Camp Dennison, O. 

Samup:l H. RowE — Enrolled at Dayton, O., January 18,1864; de- 
serted November 17, 1864, at or near Atlanta, (Ja. 

Russell Charles — Enrolled at Harrisburg, O., November 14, 1862; 
deserted November 17, 1864, '^'^ or near Atlanta, (ia. 

Frank Allkn — Enrolled at Dayton, O., January 15, 1864; deserted 
January 16, 1864, at Dayton, O. 

W^iLLiAM Hac.artv — Enrolled at Dayton, ()., January 26, 1864; de- 
serted January 26, 1864, at Dayton, (). 

I. H. Hamilton — Enrolled at Dayton, ()., January i r, T864 ; deserted 
January n, 1864, at Dayton, O. 

1(^HN Marshall — Enrolled at Dayton, O., Fel)ruary 15, 1864; de- 
serted February 15, 1864, at Dayton, O. 

John McGrath — Enrolled at Dayton, O., January 28, 1864 ; deserted 
January 28, 1864, at Dayton, O. 

Frank Nolan — Enrolled at Dayton, ()., December 4, 1863; deserted 
December 4, 1863, at Dayton, O. 

Thomas WnriE — Enrolled at Hamilton, O., Septeml)er 10, 1862; 
deserted January 27, 1863, at Colesburg, Ky. 

Thaddeus Sprague — Enrolled at Cincinnati, O., October 20, 1862 ; 
arrested as a deserter from the Twenty-First Kentucky Volunteer 
Infantry, October 24, 1864. 

transferred. 

C. C. RuNVAN, Musician — Enrolled at Dayton, O., October 6, 1862 ; 
transferred September 4, 1863, to Non-Commissioned Staff of 
113th O. V. I., by order of Colonel Mitchell commanding. 

Louis Mangus — Enrolled at Columbus, O., October i, 1862 ; trans- 
ferred to the Invalid Corps, March 22, 1864, by order of 
Secretary of War. 

Rudolph Ankeny — Enrolled at Columbus, O., Sei^tember 15, 1862 ; 
transferred to First U. S. Engineer Regt. by order of Secretary 
of War, August 13, 1864. 

John Clark — Enrolled at Dayton, O., October 4, 1862; transferred 
to First U. S. Engineer Regt., August 13, 1864, by order of Sec- 
retary War. 



Company C] History of the iijth O. V. J. 207 

John N. Price, Sergeant — Enrolled at Dayton, O., September 23, 
1862; transferred to First U. S. Engineer Regt., August 13, 
1864, by order of Secretary War. 

F. M. RiEGEL, Corporal — Enrolled at Dayton, O., September 22, 
1862; transferred to Non-Commissioned Staff, September 15, 
1864, as Commissary Sergeant, by order of Regimental Com- 
mander at Atlanta, Ga. 

William QuiNN — Enrolled at Harrisburg, ()., September 15, 1862; 
transferred to Vet. Reserve Corps, January 15, 1865, by order 
of Secretary of War. 

Wm. W. Davis — Enrolled at Columbus, O., September 12, 1862; ab- 
sent since February 12, 1865, prisoner of war. 



COMPANY C. 

Mu.-iteied out al Louisville, K)'., July 6, 11565. 

COiNIiMISSIONED OFFICERS. 

Captain Wm. C. Peck — Commissioned at Columbus, O., August 12, 
1862; resigned March 17, 1863. 

Captain Joshua M. Wells — Commissioned at Franklin, Tenn., 
April 19, 1863; killed at the battle of Chickamauga, Tenn., 
September 20, 1863. 

Captain Lucus S. AVlndlf. — Commissioned near Marietta, (ra., 
June 25, 1864; mustered out at Louisville, Ky., July 6, 1865. 

First Lieutenant Samuel A. Hughes — Commissioned at Colum- 
bus, O., August 12, 1862 ; resigned January 28, 1863. 

First Lieutenant George W. Holmes — Commissioned at Frank- 
lin, Tenn., April 19, 1863; died of wounds received in battle, 
September 20, 1863. 

First Lieutenant John S. Skeels — Commissioned at Chattanooga, 
Tenn., February i, 1864; promoted to Captain; transferred to 
Company I, April 1, 1865. 

First Lieutenant A. M. Grafton — Commissioned at Washington, 
D. C"., May 26, 1865 ; promoted from First Sergeant Company 
F". ; transferred May 26, 1865; mustered out at Louisville, Ky., 
July 5, 1865. 



2o8 Every-tiay Soldier -Lije : LMiister-oul KoU 

NON-COM MISSION'KU OKKICKKS. 

Jdiin 1,. I'l.owKKs, First Sergeant — Knrolled at Colunihus, ()., August 

i^^, 1S62: i)roni()tecl First Sergeant fniin Second Sergeant May 

17, 1S65; absent on furlough. 
Jamks R. 'l'oi'riN(;, Sergeant — Enrolled at \\ Orthinglun, ()., August 

12, 1862; mustered out witli Companx. 
C'rKo. A. I'iNdRKK, Sergeant — Enrolled at W'orthinglon, ()., August 

12, 1862; absent on furlough; mustered out with Company. 
M. V. B. LiTTi.K, Sergeant — Enrolled at Clinton, ()., August 19, 

1862; promoted from Corporal May 17, 1865; mustered out 

with Company. 
Nelson Foos, Sergeant — iMirolled at Columbus, ( )., August 13, 1862; 

promoted from Corporal May 17, 1865 ; niustercd out with Com- 
pany. 
.Xi.i'.KRr FiKi.i), Corporal — iMirolled at ('linton, ()., .August 20, 1862; 

absent in hospital since June 22, 1864. 
Elias J. Beers, Corporal — Enrolled at Clinton, ()., August 18, 1862 ; 

absent in hospital since June 27, 1864. 
Chas. C. Clements, Corporal — Enrolled at Orange, ()., August 21, 

1862; absent on furlough; mustered out with Company. 
loNAs Orders, Corporal — Enrolled at Jackson, ()., August 12, 1862 ; 

absent on furlough ; mustered out with Company. 
Thos. Goldsmith, Corjjoral — Enrolled at Jackson, O., .Vugust 21, 

1862; mustered out with Company. 
James 'X . Bakkr, C^orporal — Enrolled at ("linton, O., August 20, 

1862; promoted from the ranks to date, April 17, 1865 ; absent 

on furlough; mustered out with Company. 
Wnl Simmons, Corporal — Enrolled at Blendon, ()., August 21, 1862 ; 

promoted from the ranks to date May 17, 1865 ; mustered out 

with Company. 
Geo. B. LoMERSON, Corporal — Enrolled at Jackson, O., August 12, 

1862 ; promoted from the ranks to date May 17, 1865 ; mustered 

out with Company. 

PRIVATES. 

Charles Alden — Enrolled at Columbus, O., November 16, 1863; 

returned prisoner of war; mustered out with C'ompany. 
James M. Anderson — Enrolled at Jackson, O., August 12, 1862; 

absent in hospital since June 22, 1864; absent on furlough; 

mustered out with Company. 



Company C] History 0/ the 113th O. V. I. 209 



John W. Baker— Enrolled at Clinton, O., August 22, 1862; mus- 
tered out with Company. 

Wm. E. Bacon — Enrolled at Dublin, O., August 12, 1862; absent on 
furlough ; mustered out with Company. 

John Brennan — Enrolled at Columbus, O., January 4, 1864; mus- 
tered out with Company. 

Minor Crippin — Enrolled at Sharon, ()., August 13, 1862; absent in 
hospital since February 12, 1863. 

Wm. E. Fearing — Enrolled at Jackson, O., August 12, 1862; mus- 
tered out with Company. 

Uavid J. Green— Enrolled at Clinton, O., August 21, 1862; mus- 
tered out with Company. 

Theodore G. Gantz — Enrolled at Jackson, O., August 12, 1862; 
as nurse at general field hospital, August 2, 1864. 

Henry Git.es — Enrolled at Dayton, ()., September 10, 1864; mus- 
tered out with Company. 

Hiram Harter — Enrolled at Sharon, O., August 20, 1862; mustered 
out with Company. 

Patrick Hallaran — Enrolled at Springfield, O., December 3, 1863 ; 
mustered out with Company. 

John E. Lafler — Enrolled at Sharon, O., August 13, 1862; mus- 
tered out with Company. 

William Lukp: — Enrolled at Columbus, O., November r6, 1863; 
mustered out with Company. 

Hiram V. Malott — Enrolled at Jackson, ()., August 13, 1862; 
mustered out with Company. 

Micheal Murphy — Enrolled at Green County, O., February 3, 1864; 
mustered out with Company. 

Christian Ortman — Enrolled at Zanesville, O., October 24, 1862; 
mustered out with Company. 

Joshua Priest — Enrolled at Jackson, ()., August 12, 1862; mus- 
tered out with Company. 

Isaac Peck — Enrolled at Sharon, ()., August 21, 1862; mustered 
out with Company. 

Robert Peoples — Enrolled at Jackson, O., August 22, 1862; mus- 
tered out with Company. 

James Parks — Enrolled at Osborne, O., February 8, 1864; absent 
in hospital since June 27, 1864. 

Joseph Ridgwav — Enrolled at Jackson, O., August 13, 1862; mus- 
tered out with Company. 

24 



210 Every-day Soldier Life : [Muster-out Roll 

AiiAM M. Rannkhkrger — Enrolled at I'erry, O., August 13, 1H62; 
mustered out with ("01111)^111). 

Stephen Smith— Enrolled at Jackson, ()., August 12, 1862; mus- 
tered out with C'onii)any. 

(rEO. SuNDKRLANi) — Enrolled at Clinton, ()., August 20, 1862; mus- 
tered out with Company. 

>"ernand() Swic.KR — Enrolled at Jackson, ()., August 15, 1862; mus- 
tered out with Company. 

Martin Scanti.in — Enrolled at Urbana, ()., February 5, 1864; 
mustered out with Company. 

Michaei, Sharkey — Enrolled at Green County, ()., February 8, 
1864; absent in hospital since June 27, 1864. 

Daniel Weygandt — Enrolled at Jackson, ()., August 12, 1862: 
mustered out with Company. 

Charles Wright — Enrolled at Perry County, ()., August 21, 1862; 
sick in hospital. 

Henry Wilson — Enrolled at Sandusky, O., December 10, 1863; ab- 
sent in hospital since June 27, 1862. 

William Zinn — Enrolled at (linton, O., August 21, 1862; mustered 
out with Company. 

DIED. 

John G. Perkins — Enrolled at Columbus, U., August 22, 1862; 

died at Nashville, Tenn., February 15, 1863, of disease of the 

brain. 
John A. Weygandt — Enrolled at Jackson, ()., September 13, 1862; 

died at Franklin, Tenn., February 20, 1863, disease of the 

brain. 
Wm. Anderson — FLnroUed at Sharon, ()., August 16, [862; died at 

F^ranklin, Tenn., March 9, 1863, of consumption. 
John Royal — Enrolled at Jackson, ()., August 15, 1862; died at 

Nashville, Tenn., March 9, 1863, of measles. 
Wm. Mellon— Enrolled at Jackson, O., August 13, 1862; died at 

Franklin, Tenn., March 27, 1863, of typhoid fever. 
John H. Price — Enrolled at Jackson, O., August 18, 1862; died at 

Franklin, Tenn., April i, 1863, of brain fever. 
Geo. Harter — Enrolled at Sharon, O., August 20, 1862; died at 

Franklin, Tenn., April 8, 1863, of congestion of the lungs. 
[ames M. Clements — Enrolled at Orange, ()., August 20, 1862 

died at Franklin, Tenn., April 11, 1863, of camp fever. 



Company C] History of the iijth O. V. 1. 2il 

John E. Williams — Enrolled at Perry, O., August 15, 1862; died at 

Franklin, Tenn., April 16, 1863, of disease of the heart. 
Thos. Spillman — Enrolled at Jackson, O., August 13, 1862; died 

at Nashville, Tenn., June 4, 1863, of diarrhoea. 
VVm. H. H. Goldsmith — Enrolled at Jackson, O., August 13, 1862; 

died at Nashville, Tenn., June 22, 1863, of typhoid fever. 
John Bover — Enrolled at Jackson, O., August 12, 1862; died at 

Stevenson, Ala., October is i, 1863, from wounds received in battle. 
Samuel H. Burwell — Enrolled at Camp Zanesville, O., August 15, 

1862; died at Covington, Ky., January 3, 1864, of small-pox. 

killed. 

Wm. J. Kaaran, Corporal — Enrolled at Sharon, O., August 15, 1862 ; 

killed at Chickamauga, Ga., September 20, 1863. 
MoROLOUS Wilcox — Enrolled at Liberty, O., August 21, 1862 ; killed 

at Chickamauga, Tenn., September 20, 1863. 
Lewis C. Baker — Enrolled at Camp Zanesville, O., November 15, 

1862 ; killed at Chickamauga, Ga., September 20, 1863. 
Titus Chamberlin — Enrolled at Perry, O., August 22, 1862 ; killed 

near Marietta, Ga., June 27, 1864. 
John Martin — Enrolled at Green County, O., Febi"uary 8, 1864; 

killed near Marietta, Ga., June 27, 1864. 
Hiram Wilcox — Enrolled at Clinton, O., August 18, 1862 ; killed 

near Marietta, Ga., June 27, 1864. 
James Hiser, Corporal — Enrolled at Perry, O., August 21, 1862; 

died at Louisville, Ky., February 26, 1864, of a gun-shot wound 

received in battle. 
Andrew Connolley — Enrolled at Osborne, O., February 10, 1864; 

died at Nashville, Tenn., July 15, 1864, of wounds received in 

action. 
Anson W. Benedict — Enrolled at Columbus, O., November i6, 

1863; died at Kingston, Ga., August 28, 1864, of dysentery. 
Robert Brittin — Enrolled at Clark County, O., January 19, 1864; 

died at Lookout Mountain, Tenn., October 11, 1864, of chronic 

diarrhoea. 
Wm. Cunningham — Enrolled at Dayton, O., January 14, 1864; died 

near Savannah, Ga., December 14, 1864, of diarrhoea. 
David Neal — Enrolled at Jackson, O., September 18, 1862; died at 

Nashville, Tenn., August 30, 1864, from wounds received in 

action. 



212 Every-day Soldier Life : [Muster-oiU Roll 

James Auhott — Enrolled ;it (oiuinbus, ()., November i6, 1863; 
died at Savannah, (la.. Doc i-niher 30, 1864, of chronic diarrhoea. 

\I1SSIN(; IN ACTION. 

Pktkr Gerba — Enrolled at Camp Zanesvillc, ()., November 10, 1862 ; 
missing in action September 21, 1863. 

DISCHARGED. 

Levi Tucker — Enrolled at Clinton, O., August 22, 1862 ; discharged 
at Columbus, O., for disability, by Captain Dod, February 20, 
1863. 

Morris Percell — Enrolled at Hamilton, O., August 21, 1862; dis- 
charged at Nashville, Tenn., March 13, 1863; rui)ture; order of 
Major General Rosecrans. 

John L. B. Wiswell — Enrolled at Perry, ()., August 14, 1862; dis- 
charged at Nashville, Tenn., March 14, 1863, by order of Major 
General Rosecrans. 

Benton Hiser — Enrolled at Perry, O., August 21, 1862; discharged 
at Columbus, O., March 28, 1863, by order of Captain Dod. 

WiLBER (1 Booth, Corporal — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 13, 
1862; discharged at Nashville, Tenn., May i, 1863, by order of 
Major General Rosecrans. 

Edward W. Bishop — Enrolled at Sharon, ()., August 12, 1862 ; dis- 
charged at Nashville, Tenn., June 4, 1863, by order of Major 
General Rosecrans. 

Thos. Spillman — Enrolled at Jackson, O., August 13, 1862; dis- 
charged at Nashville, Tenn., June 4, 1863, of chronic diarrhoea. 

Wm. H. Langstaff — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 21, 1862; 
discharged at Camp Dennison, O., June 23, 1863; order of 
military commander. 

George Lemon — Enrolled at Jackson, O., August 22, 1862; dis- 
charged at Nashville, Tenn., July 13, 1863, by order of Major 
General Rosecrans. 

Wm. Hickman — Enrolled at Sharon, O., August 20, 1862; discharged 
at Camp Dennison, O., June 23, 1863, by order of military com- 
mander. 

John Casey — Enrolled at Franklin, Tenn., May i, 1863; dis- 
charged at Chattanooga, Tenn., December 22, 1863, special 
order War Department No. 529. 



Company C] History of the iijth O. V. J. 213 

George Muzzy — Enrolled at Sharon, O., August 20, 1862; dis- 
charged at Louisville, Ky., J"ly 23, 1863 ; disability, by order of 
Major General Rosecrans. 

John W. White — Enrolled at Sharon, O., August 16, 1862 ; dis- 
charged at New Albany, Ind., February 22, 1865 ; disability, by 
order of Major General Rosecrans. 

John A. Glenn, Sergeant — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 21, 
1862; discharged at Columbus, O., May 17, 1865, from wounds 
received in action, by order of Major General Hooker. 

John W. Brink, Corporal — Enrolled at Jackson, O., August 12, 1862; 
discharged at Camp Dennison, O., May 20, 1865, ^om wounds 
received in action, by order of Major General Hooker. 

Wm. p. Souder, Sergeant — Enrolled at Worthington, O., August 21, 
1862; wounded June 27, 1864; discharged at Camp Dennison, 
O., May 26, 1865 ; mustered out by order of War Department; 
disability, by order of Adjutant General, May 18, 1865. 

James Sullivan — Enrolled at Sandusky, O., December 10, 1863 ; 
discharged at Camp Dennison, O., May 29, 1865 ! disability, by 
order of Adjutant General of Ohio, May 18, 1865. 

Isaac N. Strohm — Enrolled at Clinton, O., August 18, 1862; dis- 
charged at Louisville, Ky., June 15, 1865, by order of Adjutant 
General of Ohio, May 18, 1865. 

transferred. 

John W. Rocky — Enrolled at Clinton, O., August 21, 1862; trans- 
ferred at Zanesville, O., December 6, 1862, by order of Colonel 
James A. Wilcox. 

Barnett Tolliver — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 20, 1862; 
transferred at Bridgeport, Ala., November i, 1863, by order of 
Secretary of War. 

Elijah Thrailkill — Enrolled at Jackson, O., August 15, 1862; 
transferred at Nashville, Tenn., September i, 1863, to invalid 
corps. Adjutant General order 302. 

Samuel Lippert — Enrolled at Jackson, O., August 12, 1862 ; trans- 
ferred at Nashville, Tenn., September i, 1863, to invalid corps, 
Adjutant General order 301. 

William H. Smith — Enrolled at Clinton, O., August 19, 1862 ; trans- 
ferred at Nashville, Tenn., September 3, 1863, to invalid corps. 
Adjutant General order 321. 



2 14 ^very-day SoUier Lijt- : f M uster-oiit Roll 

(."has. Mokc.xn — l*',ni(>llc(l ;il Terry, ()., Auj^usl 15, 1S62; trans- 
ferred at Nashville, Tcnn., January 2<S, 1S64, to invalid (orjts, 
Adjutant (leneral order 24. 

I AMKs Writ. HI" — KnroUed at (layborn, ()., August 22, 1862; trans- 
ferred at Nashville, Tenn., November i, 1S63, to invalid corjjs, 
Adjutant (General order 352. 

C"i AKK W. C'oi iKELi. — Enrolled at Urbana, O., February 12, 1864; 
transferred at Rossville, (ia., Ajiril 6, 1864, by order of Major I,. 
S. Sullivani. 

Koirr. S. Smith — Enrolled at Clinton, ()., August 16, 1862; trans- 
ferred at Nashville, Tenn., July 27, 1864, to Engineer Corps, by 
order of Major (ieneral Thomas. 

CriiiiKRT W. Brink — Enrolled at Jackson, ()., August 12, 1862; 
transferred at Nashville, Tenn., May 1, 1864,10 Invalid Corjis, 
Adjutant General order 188. 

Francis Kihbv — Enrolled at Worthington, ()., August 15, 1862 ; 
transferred at Nashville, Tenn., May 1, 1864,10 Invalid Cori)s, 
Adjutant General order 188. 

Eemuki, Spill.man — Enrolled at Jackson, O., August 13, 1862; trans- 
ferred at Nashville, Tenn., May i, 1864, to Invalid Corps, .Adju- 
tant General order 188. 

Samuel Spillman — Enrolled at Jackson, O., August 13, 1862; trans- 
ferred at Nashville, Tenn., March 15, 1864, to Invalid Corps, 
Adjutant General order 93. 

Isaac N. Hobii.l — P^nrolled at Jackson, O., August 14, 1862; trans- 
ferred at Rossville, Ga., April 25, 1864, by order of Lieutenant 
Colonel Warner. 

\\M. A. M. Davis, Sergeant — Enrolled at Worthington, ()., August 
21, 1862; transferred at Atlanta, Ga., September 23, 1864, by 
order of Captain Jones. 

George Wep.er — Enrolled at Clinton, O., August 18, 1862; trans- 
ferred at Nashville, Tenn., April 10, 1864, to Invalid Corps Pay- 
master, General Circular 150. 

John Murphy — Enrolled at Osborne, ()., February 10, 1864; trans- 
ferred at Columbus, O., January 24, 1865, to Invalid Corps Pay- 
master, General Circular 183. 

DESERTED. 

Augusta Maiks — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 18, 1862 ; de- 
serted at Camp Chase, O., October 28, 1862. 



Company H.] History of the 113th O. V. I. 215 

Washington O'Neil — Enrolled at Jackson, O., August 22, 1862; 
deserted at Portland, Ky., February i, 1863. 

James Smiley — Enrolled at Clinton, O., August 18, 1862; deserted 
at Nashville, Tenn., February 9, 1863. 

John C. Waitlz — Enrolled at Jackson, O., August 13, 1862 ; de- 
serted at Camp Chase, O., April 25, 1863. 

Geo. F. Shaply — Enrolled at Columbus, O., November 24, 1863; 
deserted while being transferred to regiment. 

Cromwell W. Porter — Enrolled at Erie County, O., December 21, 
1863; deserted while being transferred to regiment. 

James Coady — Enrolled at Clark County, O., January 19, 1864; de- 
serted near Atlanta, Ga., August 14, 1864. 

Thos. Brennan — Enrolled at Sandusky, O., December 10, 1863; 
deserted near Atlanta, Ga., August 14, 1864. 

John Franklin (colored under cook) — Enrolled at Chattanooga, 
Tenn., October 1, 1863; deserted at Kenesaw Mountain, June 
22, 1864. 

Robert Valentine (colored under cook)- — -Enrolled at Chattanooga, 
Tenn., October i, 1863; deserted at Savannah, Ga., January 20, 
1865. 



COMPANY H. 

Mustered out at Louisville, Ky., July 6, 1865. 
COMMISSIONED OEFICERS. 

Captain L. S. Sullivant — Commissioned at Zanesville, O., Novem- 
ber 13, 1862; promoted to Major May 6, 1863, vice Major D. B. 
Warner, promoted. 

Captain Otway Watson — Commissioned at Triune, Tennessee, May 
16, 1863; promoted to Major June 12, 1865, vice Major L. 
S. Sullivant, resigned. 

Captain James R. Ladd — Commissioned at Washington, D. C, lune 
II, 1865 ; promoted to Major June 12, 1865, vice Otway Watson, 
promoted; absent on leave since July 2, 1865; mustered out at 
Louisville, Ky., July 6, 1865. 

First Lieutenant George Sinclair — Commissioned at Zanesville, 
O., September 16, 1S62; resigned February 6, 1S64; resignation 
accepted by Major General Thomas. 

First Lieutenant Cyrus G. Platt — Commissioned at Chattanooga, 
Tennessee, February 24, 1864; killed June 15, 1864, near Ken- 
nesaw Mountain. 



2i6 Eve ly -day Soldier- Life : [Muster-out Roll 

First Lieutenant D. H. Chatfiei.d — Commissioned at (loldsboro. 
North Carolina, March 15, 1865; mustered out at Louisville, 
Kentucky, July 6, 1865; transferred from Company E ; died at 
lionie, near Woodstock, O., August 19, 1869, aged 36 years. 

Second Lieutenant (iEORCE W. Hoi.ms — Commissioned at Zanes- 
ville, D., August 30, 1862; mustered out to accept a commission 
as First Lieutenant of Company C, April 19, 1863. 

NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS. 

W'lLi.iAM RoMosiER, First Sergeant — Enrolled at Franklinton, Ohio, 
August 23, 1862; absent on furlough since June 27, 1865 ; mus- 
tered out with Company. 

WiLLiA.M H. Brunk, Second Sergeant — Enrolled at Duljlin, O., 
August 12, 1862; absent on detached service since February 12, 
1864; mustered out with Company. 

David O. Mull, Sergeant — Enrolled at Franklinton, O., August 22, 

1862; absent wounded since June 27, 1864; lost right arm at 

Kenesaw ; left arm wounded same time. 
•» 

Robert E. Lennox, Sergeant — Enrolled at Zanesville, ()., (October 

11, 1862; mustered out with Company. 

(iEORGK Ashton, Sergeant — Enrolled at Columbus, ()., Sejjtember 

12, 1862; mustered out with Company. 

GEORf:E W. Pritchard, Corporal — Enrolled at Dublin, ()., August 

21, 1862; mustered out with Comjjany. 'i'aken prisoner at 
Chickamauga. 

J. Carrier, Corporal — Enrolled at Dublin, ()., August 11, 1862; ab- 
sent wounded since September 20, 1863. 
William H. Holmes, Corporal — Enrolled at Franklinton, ()., August 

22, 1862; mustered out with Company. 

|. R. Brunk, Corporal — Enrolled at Dublin, ()., August 3, 1862; 

mustered out with Company. 
Henry Dewitt, Corporal — Enrolled at Camp Chase, O., August 22, 

1862; absent sick since June 27, 1864. Captured at Kenesaw. 
Chas. H. Sprague, Corporal — Enrolled at Dublin, ()., August 12, 

1862; absent on furlough since June 25, 1865; mustered out 

with Company. 
James McManees, Corporal — Enrolled at Franklinton, ()., August 

12, 1862; mustered out with Company. 
Hugh H. Mitchell, Corporal — Enrolled at Dublin, C)., August 8, 

1862; mustered out with Company. 



Company H.] History 0/ the 113th O. V. I. 217 

PRIVATES. 

Lewis Andrews — Enrolled at Dublin, O., August 6, 1862; mustered 
out with Company. 

Noah C. Bretton — Enrolled at Dublin, O., August 11, 1862 ; absent 
sick in Columbus, O., since December 1, 1864. 

Frank Buttles — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 12, 1862 ; mus- 
tered out with Company. 

John Elfert — Enrolled at Zanesville, O., October 11, 1862; mus- 
tered out with Company. 

Henry B. Planner — Enrolled at Columbus, O., October 11, 1862; 
absent sick since January r, 1863. 

Peter S. Frances — Enrolled at Columbus, O., February 11, 1864; 
absent on furlough since June 27, 1865. 

Wm. S. Grace — Enrolled at Dublin, O., August 14, 1862 ; absent 
sick since September 29, 1864; mustered out by General Order 
No. .77 of War Department. 

James Gooden — Enrolled at Zanesville, O., December 9, 1862 ; mus- 
tered out with Company. 

David Hudson — Enrolled at Dublin, O., August 14, 1862; mustered 
out with Company. 

.Samuel Holt — Enrolled at Urbana, O., March 4, 1865; mustered 
out with Company. 

Chas. H. Jenkins — Enrolled at Franklinton, O., August 23, 1862 ; 
mustered out with Company. 

Peter L. Jones — Enrolled at Zanesville, O., I^ecember 9, 1862 ; mus- 
tered out with Company. 

James A. Keller — Enrolled at Columbus, C)., June 14, 1863; mus- 
tered out with Company. 

William Keller — Enrolled at Franklinton, O., August 17, 1862; 
absent on furlough since June 25, 1865. 

Lorenzo Kates — Enrolled at Worthington, O., August 21, 1862; 
absent wounded since June 27, 1864. 

Augustus Leshite — Enrolled at Franklinton, O., August 14, 1862; 
mustered out with Company. 

Jesse Lumijard — Enrolled at Franklinton, O., November 14, 1862 ; 
mustered out with Company. 

Garland McKiensey — Enrolled at Columbus, O., July 20, 1863; 
mustered out with Company. 

William Mock — Enrolled at Dublin, O., August 20, 1862; absent 
sick since September 13, 1863. 

25 



»i8 Every-day SoliHci L\/( : [Muster-oul Roll 

MicHAKi. MooNKV — Enrolled at Columbus, O., September lo, 1862 ; 
absent on furlough since June 27, 1865 ; mustered out with Com- 
pany. 

Enoch E. Mulkord — Enrolled ai Zane^ville, O., October 10, 1862; 
mustered out with Company. 

Jesse Mussleman — Enrolled at Columbus, C)., September 13, 1862; 
absent on furlough since June 30, [865 ; mustered out with 
Company. 

Henry Pfoutch — Enrolled at Columbus, ()., February 14, 18O4; 
absent on furlough since June 9, 1865. (Musician.) 

Daniel Robiuns — Enrolled at Zanesville, C)., November j2, 1862; 
mustered out with Company. 

John Romosier — Enrolled at Franklinton, O., August 20, 1862; ab- 
sent on furlough since June 25, 1865. 

Manuel Stults — Enrolled at Dublin, O., August 13, 1862; mus- 
tered out with Company. 

Thomas VanSise — Enrolled at Camp Chase, O., September 12, 1862; 
mustered out with Company. 

Joseph Twigg — Enrolled at Dublin, O., August 21, 1862 ; mustered 
out with Company. 

Cicero Williamson — Enrolled at Camp Chase, O., August 2, 1862 ; 
mustered out with Company. 

Gerard A. Wing — Enrolled at Dublin, O., August 6, 1862; mus- 
tered out with Company. 

Nathaniel B. Yeazle — Enrolled at Columbus, O., July 20, 1863; 
mustered out with Company. 

David Pointer (under-cook) — Enrolled at Franklin, Tenn., March 
2, 1863; mustered out with Company. 

PoMPEY Pointer (under-cook)-^Enrolled at Chattanooga, Tenn., 
October 31, 1863 ; mustered out with Company. 

KILLED. 

Calvin D. Chellis, Corporal — Enrolled at Dublin, O., August 12, 

1862; killed September 20, 1863, at Chickamauga, Ga. 
John W. Carter, Corporal — Enrolled at Camp Chase, O., August 

22, 1862; killed in action June 27, 1864, at Kenesaw Mountain, 

Georgia. 
James Ellis — Enrolled at Columbus, O., October 20, 1862 ; killed 

in action September 20, 1863, at Chickamauga, Ga. 
Freeman Dulen — Enrolled at Dublin, O., August 15, 1862; killed 

in action June 27, 1864, at Kenesaw Mountain, (ra. 



Company H.] History of the 113th O. V.J. 219 

MiCHAEi, O'CoNNELL — Enrolled at Camp Chase, O., August 22, 

1862; killed in action June 27, 1864, at Kenesaw Mountain, Ga. 
Andrew J. Rhodes — Enrolled at Franklinton, O., August 11, 1862 ; 

killed in action June 27, 1864, at Kenesaw Mountain, Ga. 
Eugene H. Palin — Enrolled at Camp Chase, 0., August 12, 1862 ; 

killed in action June 27, 1864, at Kenesaw Mountain, Ga. 
John McCauly — Enrolled at Zanesville, O., November 11,1862; 

killed in action September 20, 1863, at Chickamauga, Ga. 
Elisha Stetler — Enrolled at Camp Chase, O., August 19, 1862; 

killed in action June 27, 1864, at Kenesaw Mountain, Ga. 

DIED. 

William Sinsel — Enrolled at Dublin, O., August 12, 1862; died 

February 9, 1863, in hospital at Louisville, Ky., of brain fever. 
Godfrey Snyder — Enrolled at Camp Chase, O., August 21, 1862; 

died March 30, 1863, in hospital at Nashville, Tenn., of camp 

lever. 
Thomas Perry — Enrolled at Dublin, O., August 21, 1862; died 

January 12, 1863, in hospital at Franklin, Tenn., of chronic 

diarrhea. 
Benj. F. Townsend — Enrolled at Camp Chase, O., October 11, 1862 ; 

died August 8, 1863, in hospital at Murfreesboro, Tenn., of 

chronic diarrhea. 
Joseph Bell — Enrolled at Columbus, O., October 18, 1862; died 

July 12, 1864, in hospital at Dalton, Ga., of pneumonia. 
Francis M. Cloud — Enrolled at Camp Chase, O., August 23, 1862; 

died June 30, 1864, in hospital at Big Shanty, (ra., of wounds 

received at Kenesaw. 
Volney Holycross — Enrolled at Zanesville, O., November 14, 1862 ; 

died November i, 1863, in hospital at Bridgeport, Ala., of 

chronic diarrhea. 
E. C. KiMBROUGH — Enrolled at Morgantown, Tenn., December 6, 

1863; died March 9, 1865, in hospital at Wilmington, N. C, of 

disability. 
George Wilson — Enrolled at Dublin, O., September 10, 1862; died 

September 6, 1864, in hospital at Columbus, O., of wounds. 

DISCHARGED. 

John McNamara, Corporal — Enrolled at Zanesville, O., October ri, 
1862; discharged January 30, 1864, at Columbus, O., by order 
of Major General Hientzleman. 



220 Eveiy-day Soldier Life : [Muster-out Roll 

Morris Ha key, Musician — Enrolled at Columbus, O., September 9, 
1862; discharged November 22, 1863, at Chattanooga. Tenn., l)y 
order of Major Ceneral Halleck. 

Robert Cramer — Enrolled at Dublin, ( )., August 15, 1862; dis- 
charged April 27, 1863, at Cohiinbus, ()., by order of Medical 
Director. 

Bazii. Green — Enrolled at Camp Chase, O., August 21, 1862; dis- 
charged December 30, 1862, at C'olumbus, ()., by writ of Habeas 
Corpus. 

Thomas Hatkiei.u — Enrolled at Columbus, ()., September 29, 1862 ; 
discharged December 30, 1862, at Zanesville, O., by certificate of 
Surgeon. 

Joseph Hague — Enrolled at Dublin, ()., August 11, 1862; dis- 
charged April 20, 1863, at Quincy, Illinois, by Medical Director 
U. S. A. 

Jesse Kent — Enrolled at Zanesville, O., November 11, 1862; dis- 
charged May 26, 1865, at Camp Dennison, O., by order of War 
Department. 

Henry Leeshite — Enrolled at Camp Chase, ()., August 18, 1862; 
discharged December 30, 1862, at Columbus, O., by writ of 
Habeas Corpus. 

William Keehn — Enrolled at Camp Chase, O., August 16, 1862; 
Discharged January 7, 1865, at Columbus, ()., by order of Major 
General Hooker. 

Jonathan Looker — Enrolled at Camp Chase, O., October 16, 1862; 
discharged December 26, 1863, at Madison, Ind., by order of 
Medical Director U. ^. A. 

Jonathan Moats — Enrolled at Camp Chase, O., August 19, 1862 ; 
discharged May 15, 1864, at Madison, Ind., by order of Surgeon's 
certificate. 
Daniel Hiler — Enrolled at Dublin, O., August 8, 1862; discharged 
July 8, 1863, at Shelby ville, Tenn., by order of General Rosecrans. 
John Ulry — Enrolled at Zanesville, ()., November 1, 1862; dis- 
charged May 21, 1863, at Nashville, Tenn., by order of Major 
General Rosecrans. 
Russell Rhodes — Enrolled at Franklinton, O., August 2, 1862; 
discharged May 7, 1865, at C^olumbus, O., by order of Major 
General Hooker. 
Samuel Rhinehart — Enrolled at Columbus, O., September 30, 
1864, discharged; mustered out June 22, 1865, Louisville, Ky., 
by General Order of War Department, May 18, 1865. 



Company H.] History of the iijth O. V. I. 221 

Thomas Watson — Enrolled at Dayton, O., August 9, 1864 ; mus- 
tered out June 22, 1865, Louisville, Ky., by General Order of 
War Department, May 18, 1865. 

Cyrus H.Turner — Enrolled at Dublin, O., August 22, 1862; dis- 
charged April 22, 1863, Franklin, Tenn., by order of Major 
General Rosecrans. 

deserted. 

Lorenzo Dulen — Enrolled at Dublin, O., August 12, 1862; de- 
serted January 28, T863, at Louisville, Ky. 

Frederick. Duvall — Enrolled at Dublin, O., August 15, 1862; de- 
serted December 13, 1862, Zanesville, O. 

Henry Fike — Enrolled at Camp Chase, O., August 22, 1862; de- 
serted December 14, 1864, Zanesville, O. 

Jacob Gardner — Enrolled at Zanesville, O., December 10,1862; 
deserted December 15, 1862, Camp Dennison, O. 

William Johnson — Enrolled at Zanesville, O., November 20, 1862; 
deserted December 21, 1862, Camp Dennison, O. 

William K. Johnson — Enrolled at Zanesville, O., November 21, 
1862; deserted December 21, 1862, Camp Dennison, O. 

Robert Miller — Enrolled at Zanesville, O., November 22, 1862; 
deserted December 16, 1862, Camp Dennison, O. 

John W. Rocky — Enrolled at Camp Chase, O., August 21, 1862; 
deserted December 14, 1862, Camp Zanesville, O. 

John Ross — Enrolled at Zanesville, O., November 25,1862; de- 
serted December 14, 1862, Zanesville, O. 

James Valentine — Enrolled at Zanesville, O., November 10, 1862 ; 
deserted December 20, 1862, Camp Dennison, O. 

John Wetherby — Enrolled at Camp Chase, O., August 21, 1862; 
deserted June 28, 1863, Louisville, Ky. 

Thomas Wood — Enrolled at Zanesville, O., December 10, 1862 ; de- 
serted December 15, 1862, Camp Dennison, O. 

J. M. Morrison — Enrolled at Dublin, O., August 15, 1862; deserted 
July 25, 1864, near Atlanta, Ga. ; supposed deserted to the 
enemy ; received notice of his exchange. 

Leonard Keetzleman — Enrolled at Dublin, O., August 11, 1862; 
deserted July 25, 1864, near Atlanta, Ga.; supposed deserted to 
the enemy ; received notice of his exchange ; serving life sen- 
tence in Ohio Penitentiarv since November, 1882. 



222 Every-day Soldier Life : [Muster-out Roll 

TRANSKERKKl). 

\\\i. C'lROVE, First Sergeant — Enrolled at Columbus, O. .September 12, 
1862; transferred April 10, 1865, at Goldsboro, N. C, to Com- 
pany I, 113th (). \. I., and promoted to First Lieutenant. 

James L. Bi.akely — Enrolled |at Columbus, O., August 15, 1862; 
transferred December 18, 1862, at Zanesville, O., to Comi)any 
B, by order of Colonel James A. Wilcox. 

A. J. McClelland — Enrolled at Dublin, O., August 12, 1862; trans- 
ferred February 15, 1864, at Louisville, Ky., by order of Secre- 
tary of War, to Invalid Corps. 

Jerome L. Robv — Enrolled at Zanesville, O., December 5, 1862 : 
transferred December 18, 1862, at Zanesville, O., to Company 
B, by order of Colonel James A. Wilcox. 

Daniel McEowen — Enrolled at Camp Chase, O., August 21, 1862 ! 
transferred February 15, 1864, at Madison, Ind., by order of 
Secretary of War, to Invalid Corps. 

Leander Pancost — Enrolled at Zanesville, O., October 31, 1862; 
transferred December 18, 1862, at Zanesville, O., to Company 
F, by order of Colonel James A. Wilcox. 

Harrison Keller — Enrolled at Camp Chase, ()., August 13, 1862; 
transferred July 25, 1864, at Chattanooga, Tenn., to Engineer 
Corps, by order of Secretary of War. 

James Hunter — Enrolled at Dublin, O., August 14, 1862; trans- 
ferred February 18, 1864, at Madison, Ind., to Invalid Corps, by 
order of Secretary of War. 



COMPANY E. 

Mustered out at Louisville, Ky., July 6, 1865. 
COMMISSIONED OFFICERS. 

Captain John F. Riker — Commissioned at St. Paris, ()., August 

14, 1862 ; resigned May 15, 1863. 
Captain John Bowersock — Commissioned at Franklin, Tenn., June 

I, 1863; killed in action near Marietta, Ga., June 27, 1864; 

buried at St. Paris, Ohio. Original First Lieutenant. 
Captain Joseph Swisher — Commissioned near Atlanta, Ga., August 

3, 1864; resigned June 5, 1865; promoted to the rank of 

Major. Original First Sergeant. 



Company E.] History of the 113th O. V. I. 223 

Captain Geo. McCrea — Commissioned at Louisville, Ky., June 12, 
1865; promoted from First Lieutenant June 12, 1865; com- 
manding company mustered out at Louisville, Ky., July 6, 1865 ; 
was made Second Sergeant at the original company organiza- 
tion. 

First Lieutenant Alexander Carpenter — Commissioned at 
Louisville, Ky., June 12, 1865 ; promoted from First Sergeant 
June 12, 1865 ; mustered out with Company. (See B roll.) 

Second Lieutenant H. N. Benjamin — Commissioned at Columbus, 
O., August 14, 1862 ; promoted from Second Lieutenant to First 
Lieutenant ; transferred to Company B, 1 13th O. V. L, January 
13? '863; wounded at Chickamauga, Ga., September 20, 1863. 
(See B roll.) 

NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS. 

|. N. Hall, First Sere;eant — Enrolled at St. Paris, O., August 16, 
1862; original Fourth Sergeant; prisoner of war, captured at 
Chickamauga, Ga., September 20, 1863; remained a prisoner 
of war nineteen months and eight days. (See Hall's Prison 
Life.) 

M. L. Stratton, Sergeant — Enrolled at St. Paris, O., August 16, 
1862; mustered out with Company; original Second Corporal. 

F. McAdams, Sergeant — Enrolled at Urbana, O., August 15, 1862; 
mustered out with Company ; promoted to Sergeant at White- 
hall, Ga., September 26, 1864. 

Wm. M. Grafton, Sergeant — Enrolled at St. Paris, August 22, 1862; 
promoted from Corporal to date May 27, 1865 ; mustered out 
with Company. 

J. G. Kite, Sergeant — Enrolled at Westville, O., August 21,1862; 
promoted from First Corporal July i, 1865 ; absent on furlough ; 
mustered out with Company. 

Ernest Snyder, Corporal — Enrolled at Zanesville, O., November 
13, 1862; mustered out with Company. (German.) Taken 
prisoner at Sandersville, Ga. 

J. H. Girard, Corporal — Enrolled at Camp Chase, O., October 17, 
1862 ; absent on furlough ; mustered out with Company. 

J. H. Johnson, Corporal — Enrolled at Urbana, O., AugUst 22, 1862; 
mustered out with Company. 

John G. Ganson, Corporal — Enrolled at Urbana, ()., March 28, 1864 ; 
mustered out with Company. (Recruit.) 

J. Merica, Corporal — Enrolled at St. Paris, O., August 17, 1862; 
promoted from private May 27, 1865 ; mustered out with Com- 
pany. 



2 24 Evcry-tlay Holiiiet-Li/e : [Musler-oul Roll 

PRIVATES. 

Jessk Aubott — Knrolled at Zanesvillc, C)., November 20, 1862; ab- 
sent sick since September 20, 1863, at Camp Dennison, O.; 
wounded at Chickamauga, and left in the hands of the enemy. 

Harrison H. Ai.sTAor — Knrolled at Urbana, ()., March 8, 1865; 
mustered out with Company. (Recruit.) 

Prue T. Bowman — Knrolled at St. Paris, ()., .August 22, 1862 ; 
mustered out with Company. 

Sa.mi;ei. liisnoi* — Knrolled at St. Paris, ()., .\ugust 20, 1SO2; absent 
on furlough; mustered out with Company. 

Anthony Bishop — Knrolled at St. Paris, O., August 22, 1862; mus- 
tered out with Comj^any. 

Leonard Bishop — Knrolled at Camp Chase, (>., October 16, 1862 ; 
mustered out with Company. 

Samuel 1. Beck — Knrolled at St. Paris, (J., .\ugust 22, 1862; mus- 
tered out with Company. 

Wm. C. Brinnon — Knrolled at Mechanicsburg, ()., August 18, 1862; 
mustered out with Company. (Deceased.) 

Sullivan W. Buck. — Knrolled at Zanesville, O., November 11, 1862; 
absent sick since November 10, 1864. 

Jesse Brown — Knrolled at Urbana, O., February 10, 1864; absent 

on furlough; mustered out with Comj)any. (Recruit.) 
Ieremiah Bair — Knrolled at Columbus, O., February 17, 1864; 
mustered out with Company. Recruit and veteran. (Musician.) 

William Cisco — Knrolled at St. Paris, ()., August 17, 1862; mus- 
tered out with Company. 

|oHN H. Craig — Knrolled at Urbana, C)., March 28, 1864; mus- 
tered out with Company. (Recruit.) 

Milton C. Doak — Enrolled at Mechanicsburg, O., August 16, 1862 ; 
absent on furlough ; mustered out with Company ; died near 
Mechanicsburg, O., February 21, 1873, aged 30 years. 

Isaac Green — F^nrolled at Urbana, C)., August 17, 1862 ; mustered 
out with Company ; shared in all the engagements, campaigns 
and marches of the regiment. 

Elijah Gaiiriel — F^lnroUed at St. Paris, O., August 20, 1862; absent 
sick since September 20, 1863, at Cam]) Dennison, ().; wounded 
at Chickamauga. 

Thos. Hallan — Enrolled at St. Paris, O., August 16, 1862 ; absent 
on furlough ; mustered out with Company. 

Michael Huddleston — Enrolled at St. Paris, ()., August 16, 1862 : 
mustered out with Company. 



Company E.J History oj the uj/h O. V. I. 225 

William Hoor— Enrolled at Urbana, O., August 15, 1862; absent 
sick since November 10, 1864, Chattanooga, Tenn. 

Wm. Hoffman — Enrolled at Zanesville, O., November 15, 1862; 
absent sick since November 10, 1864, Chattanooga, Tenn. 

Richard Howell — Enrolled at Urbana, O., February 16, 1864; 
mustered out with Company. (Recruit.) 

John M.Hemphill — Enrolled at Urbana, O , February 27, 1864; 
mustered out with Company. (Recruit and musician.) 

William Jenkins — Enrolled at St. Paris, O., August 19, 1862 ; mus- 
tered out with Company. 

John O'Leary — Enrolled at St. Paris, O., August 22, 1862 ; mus- 
tered out with Company. (Blacksmith.) 

Paul Leh.man — Enrolled at Zanesville, O., November 13, 1862 ; 
absent on furlough ; mustered out with Company. (German.) 

Henry McAlexander — Enrolled at St. Paris, O., August 22, 1862 ; 
mustered out with Company. 

James Miranda — Enrolled at St. Paris, O., August 18, 1862; mus- 
tered out with Company. 

Wm. S. Mott — Enrolled at St. Paris, O., August 16, 1862; absent 
on furlough at Columbus, O.; mustered out pursuant to General 
Order No. 17 War Department; captured at Chickamauga, Ga., 
September 20, 1863 ; died years later from the effects of his 
imprisonment. Original Fifth Sergeant. 

John A. McLane — Enrolled at Urbana, O., February 16, 1864; was 
a prisoner of war; exchanged January i, 1865; mustered out 
with Company. (Recruit.) 

George Nickols — Enrolled at Zanesville, O., October 20, 1862 ; 
mustered out with Company. 

Cyrus Parmer — Enrolled at Zanesville, O., November 13, 1862 ; 
mustered out with Company ; wounded at Kenesaw. 

Fredrick Pence — Enrolled at St. Paris, O., August 22, 1862 ; mus- 
tered out with Company. 

Anthony Ray — F_^nrolled at Zanesville, O., November 15, 1862; 
mustered out with Company. 

Jacoh Reeuer — Enrolled at St. Paris, ()., August 19, 1862 ; mus- 
tered out with Company. 

Tho-MAs J. Scott — Enrolled at St. Paris, ()., August 14, 1862 ; sen- 
tenced by General Court Martial to forfeit all pay and allowances 
from August 24, 1864, to June 2, 1865 ; mustered out with 
Company. 

26 



226 Eve ry -day SoUier Life : [Muster-out Roll 

DuTTON SwicKR — F^nrolled at St. Paris, ()., August 17, 1862; mus- 
tered out with Company. 

Richard Shellhorn — Enrolled at Columbus, ()., February 24, 1864 ; 
mustered out with Company. (Musician and recruit.) 

Hknry SiLLiiACH — F^nrolled at Columbus, O., February 29, 1864 ; 
mustered out with Company. (Recruit and musician.) 

John W. Taylor — Enrolled at Urbana, O., August 20, 1862 ; mus- 
tered out with Company. 

Daniel R. Taylor — Enrolled at Columbus, O., February 27, 1864; 
mustered out with Company. (Musician.) 

William Vincent — Enrolled at Urbana, O., February 5, 1864; 
mustered out with Company. (Recruit.) 

John Wilson — Enrolled at St. Paris, O., August 16, 1862 ; mustered 
out with Company. 

Daniel Walker — Enrolled at St. Paris, O., August 16, 1862; absent 
on furlough ; mustered out with Company. 

John Wank — Enrolled at Camp Chase, O., October 15, 1862; absent 
on furlough ; mustered out with Company. 

John Wolk — Enrolled at Columbus, ()., February 4, 1864; mustered 
out with Company. (Recruit and musician.) 

Wm. H. Whitney — Enrolled at Urbana, O., November 28, 1863; 
mustered out with Company. (Recruit.) 

Henry Gill — Enrolled at Shelbyville, Tenn., July 25, 1863; mus- 
tered out with Company. (Colored Cook.) 

KILLED. 

Henry C. Scott, Sergeant — Enrolled at St. Paris, O., August 16, 

1862 ; killed in action near Marietta, Ga., June 27, 1864. 

Original First Corporal. 
William G. Carpenter — Enrolled at St. Paris, O., August 19, 1862 ; 

killed in action at Chickamauga, Ga., September 20, 1863. 

Original Fifth Corporal. 
RoLViN Huddleston — Enrolled at St. Paris, O., August 18, 1862 ; 

killed in action at Chickamauga, Ga., September 20, 1863. 
Franklin Russell — Enrolled at Camp Chase,0., September 25,1862 ; 

killed at Chickamauga, Ga., September 20, 1863. 
Anthony Schimmel — Enrolled at Westville, O., August 22, 1862 ; 

killed in front of Atlanta, Ga., August 7, 1864. 
Jacob Hess— Enrolled at Urbana, O., November 28, 1863; killed at 

Kenesaw, Ga., June 27, 1864. 



Company E.] History of the iijth O. V. 1. 227 

DIED. 

Peter Baker, Corporal — Enrolled at St. Paris, O., August 19, 1862 ; 

'died at Nashville, Tenn., August 15, 1864, of wounds received 
near Marietta, Ga., June 27, 1864; wounded at Chickamauga, 
Georgia. 
H. H. Wallburn, Corporal — Enrolled at Urbana, O., August 15, 
1862; died at Nashville, Tenn., March 5, 1863; aged twenty- 
four years. Buried at Treacle's creek, four miles north of 
Mechanicsburg. Original Sixth Corporal. 
Wm. H. Portsman, Corporal — Enrolled at Urbana, O., August 19, 
1862 ; died at Nashville, Tenn., March 5, 1863. Buried at Union 

Chapel, sixth miles east of Urbana. Original Eighth Corporal. 
Andrew J- Ward — Enrolled at Zanesville, O., November 11, 1862; 

died at Nashville, Tenn., July 18, 1863. 
Peter Miller — Enrolled at St. Paris, O., August 22, 1862; died at 

Murfreesboro, Tenn., December 9, 1863, chronic diarrhea. 
Andrew Heller — Enrolled at Urbana, O., August 20, 1862; died. 

in the field hospital, Ga., August 13, 1864. 
George Conrad — Enrolled at Westville, O., August 22, 1862; 

died at Nashville, Tenn., May 10, 1863. 
Reason B. Parker — Enrolled at Zanesville, O., November 15, 1862 ; 

died at Nashville, Tenn., February 21, 1863, of inflammation of 

brain. 
Geo. W. Slonaker — Enrolled at St. Paris, O., August 22, 1862; 

died at Nashville, Tenn., March 20, 1863. 
Geo. a. Baker — Enrolled at St. Paris, O., August 20, 1862; died at 

Nashville, Tenn., March 20, 1863. 
Joseph Warner — Enrolled at Urbana, O., February 16, 1864; died 

at Jeffersonville, Ind., September 24, 1864, of typhoid fever. 
Richard Sullivan — Enrolled at Urbana, O., August 15, 1862; died 

at Savannah, Ga., January 11, 1865, acute disentary. 
U. S. McRoBERTS — No record of his enlistment given ; died at his 

home in Ohio, September, 1862. Buried at Moorefield, Clark 

county. 
JosiAH McDowell — Enrolled at Zanesville, O., November 4, 1862 ; 

died in prison hospital at Danville, Va., April 16, 1864, scorbutis. 

Taken prisoner at Chickamauga. 
Peter McDowell — Enrolled at Jackson, O., February 18, 1864; 

died on the way to his regiment, March 13, 1864, Nashville, 

Tennessee. 



i28 Eve ry -day Soldier Lijf : [M usici-oul Roll 

DISCHARGED. 

Israel O. Powkm., Corporal — Enrolled at Urhana. ()., August iS, 
1862; discharged from hospital at Nashville, Tenn., April 7, 

1863, by order of (lencral Rosecrans. Disability. Original 
Seventh Corporal. 

Rockwell H. Seelv, Corporal — Enrolled at St. j'aiis, ()., August 
17, 1S62; discharged at Tyner's Station, Tcim., February 17, 

1864, by order of Ceiieral 'I'homas. Disability. Original Fourth 
Corporal. 

David Beatv, Corporal — Enrolled at St. Paris, O., August 19, 1862 ; 
discharged at CamiJ Chase, O., July 30, 1864, by order of Gen- 
eral Heintzelman. Cause — from wounds received in action 
September 20, 1863. 

John F. Barger — Enrolled at St. Paris, O., August 18, 1862; dis- 
charged from hospital at Franklin, Tenn., April 13, 1863, by 
order Gen'l Rosecrans ; physical disability. 

James L. F^umiston — Enrolled at St. Paris, O., August 22, 1862; 
discharged from hospital at Franklin, Tenn., April 15, 1863, by 
order of Gen'l Rosecrans. 

James FJuling — Enrolled at St. Paris, O., August 17, 1862; dis- 
charged from hospital at Nashville, Tenn., April 18, 1863, by 
order Gen'l Rosecrans. 

Fleming H. Kyser — Enrolled at St. Paris, O., August 17, 1862; dis- 
charged from hospital at Nashville, Tenn., April 18, 1863, by 
order Gen'l Rosecrans. 

Abraham G. Smith — Enrolled at Adams township, O., August 22 
1862; discharged from Muldrough's Hill, Ky., January 21, 
1863, by order of Col. Wilcox, commanding 1 13th Regt. 

Henry D. Shanlev — Enrolled at Urbana, O., August 22, 1862 ; dis- 
charged from Chattanooga, Tenn., May 26, 1865, by Tel. Order 
War Department May 3, 1865. 

Herbert N. Norman — Enrolled at Urbana, O., February 12, 1864; 
discharged from Chattanooga, Tenn., May 26, 1865, by Tel. Or- 
der War Department. 

Solomon Bradford — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 15, 1864; 
discharged at Louisville, Ky., June 26, 1865, by order War De- 
partment May 18, 1865. (One year man.) 

Richard Cox — F^nrolled at St. Paris, O., August 22, 1862; dis- 
charged at Camp Dennison, O., June 21, 1865, by Tel. Order 
War Department May 18, 1865. Wounded at Louisville, Ga. 



Company E.] History of the iijth O. V. I. 229 



Wm. G. Mc Alexander — Enrolled at Camp Chase, O., October 15, 
1862; discharged at Camp Dennison, O., June 17, 1863, by or- 
der of Lient. Col. Neff, Commanding Post. 

Reuben Gardner — Enrolled at Urbana, O., August 15, 1862; dis- 
charged at Nashville, Tenn., June 18, 1863, by order of Gen'l 
Rosecrans. Died at his home in Mutual, O., July 9, 1863, aged 
24 years. Native of New York. 

Felix L. Rock— Enrolled at Urbana, O., August 22, 1862 ; discharged 
at Nashville, Tenn., June 11, 1863, by order of Gen'l Rosecrans. 

Samuel Scott — Enrolled at St. Paris, O., August 19, 1862; dis- 
charged at Nashville, Tenn., May 11, 1863, by order of Gen'l 
Rosecrans. 

John Looker — Enrolled at St. Paris, O., August 22, 1862 ; dis- 
charged at Nashville, Tenn,, May 11, 1863, by order Gen'l 
Rosecrans. 

Warren Keyes — Enrolled at Mechanicsburg, O., August 16, 1862 ; 
discharged at Columbus, O., April 29, 1863, by order War De- 
partment. 

Joseph H. Riley — Enrolled at St. Paris, O., August 22, 1862 ; dis- 
charged at Nashville, Tenn., April 23, 1863, by order Gen'l 
Rosecrans. 

Cyrus T. Ward, Sergeant — Enrolled at Urbana, O., August 22, 
1862; discharged at Washington, D. C, June 17, 1865, by Tel. 
Orderof War Department May 3, 1865. Original Third Corporal. 

deserted. 

Ferdinand Stickler — Enrolled at Union township, O., August 22, 
1862 ; deserted at Camp Dennison, O., November 24, 1862. 

Frederick W. Fasset — Enrolled at Zanesville, O., November 18, 
1862 ; deserted at Camp Zanesville, O., November 25, 1862. 

William Miller — Enrolled at Zanesville, O., November 20, 1862; 
deserted at Camp Zanesville, O., November 25, 1862. 

John Riley — Enrolled at Zanesville, O., November 15, 1862; de- 
serted at Camp Zanesville, O., December 11, 1862. 

George Smith — Enrolled at Zanesville, O., November 25, 1862 ; de- 
serted at Camp Zanesville, O., December 19, 1862. 

L. S. Parish — Enrolled at Canaan, O., January 30, 1864; deserted 
on the way to his regiment ; date unknown. 

Jacob Fudge — Enrolled at St. Paris, O., August 22, 1862; deserted 
at Rome, Ga., May 23, 1864. 



i^b Kvcry-day Soldier Life : [Muster-oul Rull 

Daniel R. Makkr — Enrolled at Columbus, O., February 27, [864; 

deserted at R()me, (ia., May 23. 1864. 
Isaac L. CIrkn — Enrolled at Urbana, ()., February 16, 1864; de- 
serted at Rome, (ia., May 23, 1864. 
C!i.AKK VV. CoTTRKi.L — Flnrolled at Urbana, ()., l-ebruary 12, 1864; 

deserted April, 1865. 
SpKPHKN Carrkk; — Enlisted, l)ut never mustered; deserted at 

Camp Chase, ()., 1862. 
TosEPH Sweeny — Enlisted, but never mustered ; deserted at Camp 

Chase, O., 1862. 
'1'homas Scudijer — Enlisted, but never mustered; deserted at Camjj 

Chase, O., 1862. • 
Michael Cane — Enlisted, but never mustered; deserted at Camp 

Chase, O., 1862. 
Joseph Fisher — Enlisted, but never mustered; deserted at Camp 

Chase, O., 1862. 
James Hurlv — Enlisted, but never mustered; deserted at Camp 

Chase, O., 1862. 

transferred. 

D. H. Chatfield, Corporal — Enrolled at Urbana, O., August 22, 
1862 ; promoted from 4th Corporal to 2d Lieutenant, and trans- 
ferred to Co. H, 113th O. V. I., by order Col. I). B. Warner, 
November 5, 1863. Original private. 

Asa Kite, Corporal — Enrolled at St. Paris, O., August 22, 1862 ; 
transferred to V. R. C. March 24, 1864, by order War Depart- 
ment. 

A. M. Grafton, First Sergeant — Enrolled at St. Paris, O., August 16, 
1862; promoted from ist Sergeant to ist Lieutenant May 26, 
1865, and transferred to Co. C, 113th O. V. L, by order Lieut. 
Col. Jones. Original Third Sergeant. 

Wm. Fromme — Enrolled at St. Paris, O., August 22, 1862; trans- 
ferred to 1st U. S. Volunteer Engineers, July 27, 1864, by order 
of Col. Wm. E. Merrill. A native of Germany and had seen 
service in his own country. Discharged Sept. 26, 1865. Born 
June, 1823. Died Feb. 13, 1873. 

Willis HuDDLESTON — Enrolled at St. Paris, O., August 22, 1862; 
transferred to V. R. C. April 30, 1863, by order War Depart- 
ment. 

S. E. Smith— Enrolled at St. Paris, O., August 22, 1862; trans- 
ferred to ist U. S. Volunteer Engineer, July 29, 1864, by order of 
Col. Wm. E. Merrill. 



Company K.] History of the 113th O. V. 1. 231 

John Bolt — Enlistment and muster unknown ; received from depot 
by error; transferred to the 82d O. V. I., September 13, 1864, 
by order of Capt. Jones, Commanding 113th Regiment; 
descriptive list was never received. 

George Carroll — Enlistment and muster unknown ; received from 
depot by error; transferred to the 82d O. V. I.. September 13, 
1864, by order Capt. Jones, Commanding 113th Regiment; 
descriptive list was never received. 

Samuel Halterman — Enrolled at St. Paris, O., August 22, 1862; 
transferred to V. R. C, April, i, 1865, by order War Depart- 
ment. 

Perry D. Vincent — Enrolled at Zanesville, O., November 19, 
1862 : transferred to Invalid Corps, September 30, 1863, by order 
War Department. 

David Walker — Enrolled at St. Paris O., August 16, 1862 ; trans- 
ferred to V. R. C, March 15, 1865, by order War Department; 
transfer No. 4 A. G. O., March 13, 1865. 



COMPANY K. 

Musleiecl out al Louisville, Ky., July 6, 1865. 
COMMISSIONED OEFICERS. 

Captain A. L. Shepherd — Commissioned at Columbus, ()., Decem- 
ber 8, 1863; on leave of absence. Mustered out. 

First Lieutenant Wm. H. Baxter — Commissioned at Rossville, 
Ga., March 14, 1864; discharged November 25, 1864, by order 
of War Department, special order 416. Wounded at Kenesaw, 
Ga., June 27, 1864. 

First Lieutenant Geo. H. Lippincott — Commissioned at Holly 
Springs, N. C, December i, 1864; promoted from Second Lieu- 
tenant December i, 1864; mustered out at Louisville, Ky., July 
6, 1865. Wounded at Kenesaw Mountain, Ga., June 27, 1864. 

non-commissioned officers. 

O. H. Barber, '^""irst Sergeant — Enrolled at Urbana, O., December 
28, 1863; mustered out with Company. Lijured by a shell at 
Kenesaw Mountain, June 27, 1864. 

C. T. Baxter, Sergeant — Enrolled at Urbana, O., February 17, '864; 
mustered out with Cdmpany. 



232 Evety-Uay SoUiet-LiJi- : [Music r-uul Roll 

Okorgk 1.. TiKSiKR, Sergeant — ?"nrolled :U Urbana, C)., December 

2S, 1863; mustered out \vitli Coiiipauy. 
W'm. Uarnes, Sergeant — l-'jiioUcd at L'rbaiia, < )., December 22, 1863; 

mustered out with Company. 
Cyrus (luv, Sergeant — Knrolled at Urbana, ()., December 16, 1863; 

mustered out with C'ompany. 
W'm. H. CiRovKS, Corporal — Enrolled at Urbana, ()., December 23, 

1863; mustered out with Company. 
|. ^\'. Ci.ABAUGH, Corporal — Enrolled at Urbana, O., December 27, 

1863; mustered out with Company. Wounded at Kenesaw. 
j. R. RoGKKS, Corporal — Enrolled at Urbana, O., December 16, 

1863; mustered out with Company. 
Alexander Micheals, Corporal — Knrolled at Mechanicsburg, O., 

December 20, 1863 ; mustered out with Company, 
(j. W. Hupp, Corporal — Enrolled at Columbus, O., February 29, 

1864; mustered out with Company. 
Geo. Gabriel, Corporal — Enrolled at Urbana, O., December 8, 1863; 

mustered out with Comjjany. 

privates. 

MicHAKi, Agnew — Enrolled at Urbana, O., January 14, 1864; mus- 
tered out with Company. 

Chas. M. Boon — Enrolled at Urbana, O., December 28, 1863; mus- 
tered out with Company. 

?'rancis Blondin — Enrolled at Urbana, O., December 26, 1863; 
mustered out with Comi)any. 

James A. Blake — Enrolled at Urbana, ()., December 28, 1863; mus- 
tered out with ('ompany. 

Frederick Boher — Enrolled at Madison county, O., January 29, 
1864; absent wounded since June 27, 1864. 

John Bailey — Enrolled at Urbana, O., December 23, 1863; mus- 
tered out with Company. 

Thomas Conway — Enrolled at Urbana, O., January 14, 1864; mus- 
tered out with Company. 

Edward Camphei,l — Enrolled at Delaware, O., January 6, 1864; 
mustered out with Company. 

William Craig — Enrolled at Urbana, O., January 4, 1864; mus- 
tered out with Company. 

Oliver Craig — Enrolled at Mechanicsburg. ()., December 24, 1863; 
mustered out; had served in the Sixty-Sixth O. V. I. formerly; 
wounded. 



Company Iv.] History of the iijth O. V.I. 233 

R. M. J. Coleman — Enrolled at Urbana, ()., January z^, 1865 ; mus- 
tered out with Company. 

Lewis Davis — Enrolled at Columbus, ()., January 12, 1864; absent 
sick at Rome, Ga., since June 2, 1864. 

John E. Davis — Enrolled at Mechanicsburg, O., December 23, 1863; 
absent wounded at Camp Dennison, O., since June 27, 1864. 

Chas. N. Davis — Enrolled at Urbana, ()., December r6, 1863; mus- 
tered out with Company. 

J. C. DouGHTV — Enrolled at Urbana, ()., December 22, 1863; ab- 
sent in Ohio on furlough; mustered out with Company. 

Raper Ellsworth — Enrolled at Urbana, O., January 23, 1863; ab- 
sent in Ohio on furlough; mustered out with Company. (Musi- 
cian.) 

Henry E. Fay — Enrolled at Urbana, O., December 26, 1863; ab- 
sent sick in hospital at Louisville, Ky., since June 18, 1865. 

Olverd B. Fay — Enrolled at Urbana, ()., January 16, 1864; absent 
sick in hospital at Louisville, Ky., since June 18, 1865. 

Levi Fay — Enrolled at Urbana. ()., March 28, 1864; mustered out 
with Company. 

Sylvester Fov — Enrolled at Columbus, O., January i 1, 1864; mus- 
tered out with Company. 

John Farley — Enrolled at Urbana, O., January i, 1864; absent 
sick at Nashville, Tenn., since July 14, 1864. 

Simon Gabriel — Enrolled at Urbana, O., December 8, 1863; mus- 
tered out with Company. 

VV. S. Gearheart — Enrolled at Columbus, O., February 10, 1864; 
mustered out with Company. 

Philip A. Huff — Enrolled at Urbana, O., December 23, 1863; mus- 
tered out with Company. 

Abner C. Hupp — Enrolled at Columbus, ()., December, 16, 1863 ; 
mustered out with Company. 

Jacob Huben — Enrolled at Urbana, O., December 23, •1863s mus- 
tered out with C'ompany. 

Perry C. Howard — Enrolled at Urbana, O., December, 28, 1863; 
absent without leave since June i, 1865 ; wounded in the arm at 
Kenesaw, June 27, 1864. 

Benjamin F. Irwin — Enrolled at Urbana, O., December 16, 1863 • 
mustered out with Company. 

James Kelly — Enrolled at Columbus, O., January 22, 1864; absent 
on detached service since June 3, 1864; mustered out with Com- 
pany. 
27 



234 Eve ry-day SoUier Life : [Musler-oul Roll 

John W. Lkssknoer — Enrolled at Mechanicsburg, () , December 24, 
1863; absent in Ohio on fiirlouf,h ; mustered out with Company. 

John C. Mii.i.kr — HI n rolled at Urbana, ()., December 22, 1863; mus- 
tered out with Company. 

Patrick Mai.onk — Enrolled at L'rbana, ()., January 16, 1864; mus- 
tered out with Company. 

Thomas MooDV — Enrolled at I'rbana, ()., December 28, 1863; ab- 
sent at Cincinnati, (^., since June 27, 1864; mustered out with 
Company. Wounded at Kencsaw. 

CiEO. W. Neolkv — Enrolled at St. I'aris, ( )., December 17, 1863; 
mustered out with Company. 

WiM.iA.M A. Xekr — Enrolled at Mechapicsburg, ()., December 15. 
1863 ; mustered out with Company. 

Charles Odeli, — Enrolled at Mechanicsburg, ()., December 22, 
1863; absent sick since May 12, 1865. 

Daniel Routt — Enrolled at Urbana, C)., January 18, 1864; mus- 
tered out with Company. 

John Randall — Enrolled at Urbana, ().. January 23, 1864; mustered 
out with Company. 

Joseph Rider — Enrolled at Urbana. O., January 15, 1864; mustered 
out with Company. 

John W. Snyder — Enrolled at Urbana, ()., December 28, 1863; 
mustered out with Company. 

Jasper C. Shepherd — Enrolled at Mechanicsburg, O., Decemi)er 23, 
1863; mustered out with Company. 

Thos. E. Shepherd — Enrolled at Urbana, ()., December 16, 1863; 
absent sick at Louisville, Ky., since June 27, 1864. (Musician.) 

John Spangerberger — Enrolled at Springfield, O., December 31, 
1863 ; mustered out with Company. 

Charles Smi'I'h — Enrolled at Urbana, O., December 21, 1863; mus- 
tered out with Com pan)-. 

Edward Smellhorn — Enrolled at Urbana, ()., January 27, 1864; 
mustered out with Company. (Musician.) 

Harman Silhaugh — Enrolled at Columbus, O., February 29, 1864; 
mustered out with Company. (Musician.) 

Geo. W. Swarts — Enrolled at Url)ana, O., December 16, 1863; 
mustered out with Company. 

Charles Stewart — Enrolled at Urbana, ().. January 23, 1865; 
mustered out with Company. (Recruit.) 



Company K.] History of the tJJth O. V. I. 235 

John W. Tway — Enrolled at Mechanicsburg, O., December 15, 1863 ; 
mustered out with Company. 

James H. Tarbutton — Enrolled at Urbana, O., February 29, 1864; 
mustered out with Company. 

John Walker — Enrolled at St. Paris, O., December 23, 1863; mus- 
tered out with Company. 

William Walker — Enrolled at Urbana, O., December 8, 1863; 
mustered out with Company. 

James Walker — Enrolled at Urbana, O., December 30, 1863; ab- 
sent wounded since June 27, 1864; mustered out with Company. 

John H. Walker — Enrolled at Urbana, O., December 19, 1863; 
mustered out with Company. 



EvRA Allen, Corporal — Enrolled at Urbana, O., December 2[, 1863 ; 

killed June 27, 1864, at battle of Kenesaw Mountain, Ga. 
Stephen V. Barr — Enrolled at Urbana, O., February 27, 1864; 

killed June 27, 1864, at battle of Kenesaw Mountain, Ga. 
William Coppin — Enrolled at Salem ,0., December 24, 1863; killed 

June 27, 1864, at battle of Kenesaw Mountain, Ga. 
Hiram Hancock — Enrolled at Urbana, O., January 21, 1862 ; killed 

June 27, 1864, at battle of Kenesaw Mountain, Ga. 
Levi Romine — Enrolled at Urbana, O., January 16, 1864; killed 

June 27, 1864, at battle of Kenesaw Mountain, Ga. 
Joseph Wilkinson — Enrolled at Springfield, O., December 31, 1863; 

killed June 27, 1864, at battle of Kenesaw Mountain, Ga. 
Lemuel P. Jones — Enrolled at Salem, O., December 22, 1863 ; killed 

June 27, 1864, at battle of Kenesaw Mountain, Ga. 
John H. Bricker — Enrolled at Urbana, O., January 26, [864; 

killed July 4, 1864, near the Chattahoochee River, Ga. 
Booker R. Durnell — Enrolled at Urbana, O., December 24, 1863 ; 

missing at battle of Kenesaw Mountain, Ga., Jun<e 27, 1864. 

Nothing definite can be stated, but he was either killed and 

buried as unknown, or was taken prisoner and died in prison. 

DIED. 

Hecter Morrin — Enrolled at Urbana, O., December 24, 1863; died 
June 30, 1864, at Big Shanty, Ga., of wounds received at battle 
of Kenesaw Mountain, Ga., June 27, 1864. 



236 Every-ihy Sotitict Lije : [Muster-out Roll 

Hknrv C. Britton — F^nrolled at Mechanicsl)urg, O., December 15, 
1863; died July 6, 1864, at Chattanooga, Tcnn., of diNcasc. 

JiiSKPH H. Newcomh — Enrolled at Urbana, ()., DecxMiiber i(), 1863; 
died July 24, 1864, at Nashville, Tenn., of wounds received in 
battle of Kenesaw iVIountain, Cla., June 27, 1864. (Musician.) 

Lkvi Heminger — Enrolled at Urbana, ()., December 30, 1863; died 
August I, 1864, at Chattanooga, Tenn., of wounds received in 
battle of Kenesaw Mountain, Ca., June 27, 1864. 

Levi P^i.i.ioir — Enrolled at Urbana, O., December 28, 1863; died 
August 12, 1864, at Nashville, Tenn., of disease. 

Patrick Fields — Enrolled at Urbana, ()., January 12, 1864; died 
August 19, 1864, at Nashville, Tenn., of wounds received at bat- 
tle of Kenesaw Mountain, Ga., June 27, 1864. 

Robert R. Osborne — Enrolled at Urbana, O., December 16, 1863; 
died August 22, 1864, at Chattanooga, Tenn., of wounds received 
in battle of Kenesaw Mountain, Ga., June 27, 1864. 

Azr(j Mann, Sergeant — Enrolled at Urbana, ()., December 16. 1863; 
died October 31, 1864, at Nashville, Tenn., of disease. 

James McMahan — Enrolled at Woodstock, ()., December 26, 1863; 
died November 30, 1864, at Jeffersonvillc, Ind., of disease. 

Monroe Elliott, First Sergeant — Enrolled at Urbana, O., Decem- 
ber 29, 1863; died February 4, 1865, at Savannah, Ga., of acute 
diarrhea. 

George Peobles — Enrolled at Urbana, O., December 26, 1863 ; died 
April 18, 1865, at Baltimore, Md., of chronic diarrhea. 

discharged. 

Oscar C. Morrow — Enrolled at Urbana, ()., Deceml)er 28, 1863; 

discharged February 17, 1865, at Camp Dennison, C)., by order 

of War Department. 
Martin Moonev — Enrolled at Columbus, O., January 26, 1864; 

discharged March 2, 1865, at Camp Dennison, ()., by order of 

War Department. 
Alfred Kilborn — Enrolled at Urbana, ()., December 16, 1863; 

discharged April 14, 1865, at Columbus, O., by order of War 

Department. 
Ebenezer Williams — Enrolled at Mechanicsburg, O., December 16, 

1863 ; discharged May 29, 1865, at Columbus, O., by order of 

War Department. 



Company G.] History of the 113th O. V. I. 237 

William M. Smith — Enrolled at St. Paris, O., January 4, 1864; 

discharged May 26, 1865, at Camy) Dennison, O., by order of 

War Department. 
Stephen W. Riddle — Enrolled at Mechanicsburg, O., December 

15, 1863; discharged May 29, 1865, at CoUmibus, O., by Order 

of War Department. 
Harvey F. Sullivan — Eni-olled at Mechanicsburg, O., December 

23, 1863 ; discharged June 3, 1865, at Camp Dennison, O., by 

Order of War Department. 
James V. Roberts — Enrolled at Mechanicsburg, O., December 16, 

1863; discharged June 9, 1865, at Camp Dennison, 0.,by Order 

of War Department. 
Artemus L. Nash — Enrolled at Mechanicsburg, O., December 19, 

1863 ; discharged June 9, 1865, at Fortress Monroe, Va., by Order 

of War Department. 

deserted. 

Martin Mayer — Enrolled at Urbana, O., December 23, 1863; de- 
serted March 29, 1864, enroute to the regiment. 

Alexander McGiloery — Enrolled at Urbana, O., January 25, 1864; 
deserted March 29, 1864, enroute to the regiment. 

Thos. Manning — Enrolled at Urbana, O., December 23, 1863; de- 
serted March 29, 1864, enroute to the regiment. 

Patrick O. Rilev — Enrolled at Urbana, O., January 26, 1864; de- 
serted March 29, 1864, enroute to the regiment. 

Peter Trossel — Enrolled at Urbana, O., December 31, 1863; de- 
serted August 31, 1864, near Atlanta, Ga. 



COMPANY G. 

Mustered out at Louisville, Ky., July 6, 1865. 

commissioned officers. 

Captain Harrison Z. Adams — Commissioned at Mt. Sterling, (^., 
August 22, 1862; resigned January 25, 1863. (Minister.) 

Captain A. L. Messmore — Commissioned at Franklin, Tenn., Feb- 
ruary 7, 1863; mustered out at Louisville, Ky., July 6, 1865. 

First Lieutenant J. C. Bostwick — Commissioned at Franklin, 
Tenn., February 7, 1863; promoted to First Lieutenant from 
Second, February 7, 1863; died March 15, 1864, at Columbus, ()• 



>3<^ /ivfty-i/ay Soit/ifi -Li/f: [Miistci-oul RdU 

I'iKsr LiEUTKNAN I JAMKS Coui.TAS — Commissioned at Whitehall, 
(la., August _^i, 1864; mustered out at Louisville, Ky., July 6, 
1865. 

Skcond LiKi iKNANT H. (". Tii'KJN — Commissioned at Franklin, 
Tenn., January 28, 1863; promoted from Second to First I,ieu- 
lenant January 28, 1863; resigned March 25, 1863. 

SK.roNi) J>iKUTKNANT \Vm. R. Hanewai.t — Commissioned at Frank- 
lin, Tenn., May I, 1863; promoted from C^. M. Sergeant to 
Second Lieutenant, May 1, 1863; killed in action at Chicka- 
mauga, Ca., September 20, 1863. 

NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS. 

A. W. Davis, First Sergeant — Enrolled at Mt. Sterling, O., August 
I ^, 1862; absent on furlough since June 27, 1865; mustered 
out with Company. 

[. L RiGGiN, Sergeant — Enrolled at Mt. Sterling, O., August 13, 
1862; absent on furlough since June 25, 1865; mustered out 
with Company. 

John A. Smith, Sergeant — Enrolled at Mt. Sterling, O., August 13^ 
1862 ; mustered out with Company. 

O. W. LooFHOuRROW, Sergeant — Enrolled at Mt. Sterling, ( )., August 
13, 1862 ; mustered out with Company. 

F. A. WicKELL, Sergeant — Enrolled at Mt. Sterling, O., August 13) 
1862; promoted from Corporal to Sergeant, Ai)ril 1, 1865; mus- 
tered out with Company. 

John A. Lake, First Corporal — F^nrolled at Mt. Sterling, O., August 

12, 1862; mustered out with Company. 

H. B. Brilev, Corporal — Enrolled at Mt. Sterling, O., August 13, 
1862 ; on detached service at Columbus, ()., since February 12, 
1864; mustered out with Company. 

J. W. Dennison, Corporal — Enrolled at Mt. Sterling, ()., August 13, 
1862 ; mustered out with Company. 

W. S. Tammadge, Corporal — Enrolled at Mt. Sterling, O., August 

13, 1862; mustered out with Company. 

John W. Beale, Corporal — Enrolled at Mt. Sterling, O., August 13, 

1862 ; mustered out with Company. 
Harrv Hagans, Corporal — Enrolled at Columbus, O., March 30, 

1864 ; mustered out with Company. 
Geo. M. Neff, Corporal — Enrolled at Mt. Sterling, O., August 13, 

1862; absent on furlough since June 27, 1865; mustered out 

with Company. 



Company G.] History of the iijtii O. V. I. 239 

W. S. Davis, Corporal — Enrolled at Mt. Sterling, O., August i.^, 1862 ; 
promoted from private to Corporal April i, 1865 ; mustered out 
with Company 

PRIVATES. 

John W. Alkire — Enrolled at Mt. Sterling, (J., August 13, 1862; 
mustered out with Company. 

Daniel W. Anderson — Enrolled at Harrisburg, O., February 2, 1 864 , 
mustered out with Company. 

RuFUS Barcus — Enrolled at Columbus, O., March 2^,^ 1864; mus- 
tered out with Company. 

Augustus BoYLER — Enrolled at Mt. Sterling, C)., August 13, 1862; 
mustered out with Company. 

Benjamin Bostwick — Enrolled at Harrisburg, O., December 30, 
1863; on detached duty at Brigade Head([uarters ; absent sick 
since April 22, 1864. 

William C. Bostwick. — Enrolled at Mt. Sterling, O., August J3, 1862 ; 
mustei"ed out with Company. Served as regimental postmaster. 

Andrew Burget — Enrolled at Camp Chase, O., September 25, 
1862 ; mustered out with Company. 

Samuel Busick — Enrolled at Mt. Sterling, O., August 13, 1862 ; 
absent sick at Camp Chase, O., since November 30, 1864. 

Edward Blain — Enrolled at Circleville, O., July 23, 1864 ; mustered 
out with Company. 

J. C. Chaffin — Enrolled at Cam]) Chase, O., September 20, 1862 ; 
mustered out with Company. 

John I. Cook — Enrolled at Mt. Sterling, O.. August 13, 1862; mus- 
tered out with Company. 

John N. Crabb — Enrolled at Columbus, O., January 13, 1864; mus- 
tered out with Company. 

W. S. Delenger — Enrolled at Camp Chase, O., September 20, 1862 ; 
mustered out with Company. 

William Defabaugh — Enrolled at Mt. Sterling, O., August 13, 
1862 ; absent on furlough since June 26, 1865 ; mustered out 
with Company. 

Titus England — Enrolled at Harrisburg, O., Fel^ruary 3, 1864; 
mustered out with Company. 

Robert Foster — Enrolled at Camp Chase, O., September 20, 1862 ; 
mustered out with Company. 

Joseph Ford — Enrolled at Mt. Sterling, O., August 13, 1862 ; mus- 
tered out with Company. 



24© Evet y -day Soldier Lijc : [iMustcr-oul Roll 

jwiKs (Gardner — Enrolled at Harrisburg. O., February 20, 1864; 

absent on furlough since June 25, 1865; mustered out with 

Com pan) . 
(iEORGE Hartingkr — Enrolled at Harrisburg, ( )., February 21, 1864; 

mustered out with Company. 
Samuet- Hoover — Enrolled at Mt. Sterling, ()., August 13, 1862; 

mustered out with Company. 
Chas. H. Kankastkr — Enrolled at Harrisburg, ()., February 9, 1864; 

mustered out with Company. 
Makiix Leonard — Enrolled at Columbus, ()., February 10, 1864; 

mustered out with Company. 
Jesse Low — Enrolled at Harrisburg, O., March 9, 1864; absent sick 

at Annopolis, Md., since April 20, 1865. 
Andrew Mitchell — Enrolled at Mt. Sterling, U., .August 13, 1862; 

absent sick at Annapolis, Md., since April 25, 1865 ; taken 

prisoner at Chickamauga, Se|)tember 20, 1863. 
David Madden — Enrolled at Mt. Sterling, O., August 13, 1862; 

absent sick at Camp Dcnnison, O., since May 10, 1863. 
JosEi'H McArtv — Enrolled at Cleveland, O., February 10, 1864; 

mustered out with Company. 
Zero McIntire — Enrolled at Camp Chase, C)., September 20, 1862 ; 

absent on furlough since June 30, 1865 ; mustered out with 

Company. 
Anthony S. Mori; an — Enrolled at Mt. Sterling, O., August 13, 

1862 ; on detached services as hospital nurse since January 23, 

1864; mustered out with Company. 
John O'Dan — Enrolled at Mt. Sterling, O., August 13, 1862; absent 

on furlough since June 28, 1865 ; mustered out with Company. 
Harrison Riggin — Enrolled at Mt. Sterling, O., August 13, 1862; 

mustered out with Company. (Wounded.) 
Jer(xme L. Rohv — Enrolled at Zanesville, O., December 5, 1862; 

mustered out with Company. 
Jacob Seigle — Enrolled at Harrisburg, O., November 24, 1863; 

mustered out w'ith Company. 
James J. Sheeders — Enrolled at Mt. Sterling, O., August 13, 1862; 

mustered out with Comi>any. 
Thornton S.mith — Enrolled at Mt. Sterling, O., August 13, 1862; 

absent on furlough since June 30, 1865 ; mustered out with 

Company. 
Thomas Smith — Enrolled at Mt. Sterling, O., August 13, 1862; 

absent sick at Camp Dennison, O., since December 25, 1863. 



Company G.] History of the 113th O. V.J. 241 

VVm. H. Smith — Enrolled at iMt. Sterling, O., August 13, 1863; 

absent on furlough since June 25, 1865 ; mustered out with 

Company. 
John Southard— Enrolled at Mt. Sterling, O., August 13, 1862; 

mustered out with Company. 
Elias Streets — Enrolled at Columbus, O', January 22, 1864 ; absent 

sick at Chattanooga, Tenn., since June 15, 1864. 
Jas. a. Tammadge — Enrolled at Mt. Sterling, O., August 13, 1862 j 

mustered out with Company. 
Alexander Tainer— Enrolled at Mt. Sterling, O., August 13, 1862 ; 

mustered out with Company. 
JosiAH TiMMONS — Enrolled at Mt. Sterling, O., August 13, 1862; 

mustered out with Company. 
Wm. H. Timmons — Enrolled at Columbus, O., February i, 1864; 

mustered out with Company. 
Abraham Trimbee — Enrolled at Urbana, O., December 2, 1862; 

mustered out with Company. 
Samuel Walker — Enrolled at Mt. Sterling, O., August 13, 1862; 

mustered out with Company. 
Abram Wright — Enrolled at Harrisburg, O., February 20, 1864; 

mustered out with Company. 
Fredrick. Young — Enrolled at Mt. Sterling, O., August 13, 1862; 

absent sick at Nashville, Tenn., since June 21, 1864. 

KILLED. 

Abraham Uennison — Enrolled at Mt. Sterling, O., August 13, 1862 ; 

killed September 20, 1863, at Chickamauga, Ga. 
Joseph Parker, Sergeant — Enrolled at Mt. Sterling O., August 13, 

1862; killed June 27, 1864, at Kenesaw Mountain, Ga. 
Eevi Griffin — Enrolled at Mt. Sterling, O., August 13, 1862; killed 

June 27, 1864, at Kenesaw Mountain, Ga. 
Levi Thomas — Enrolled at Mt. Sterling, August 13, 1862; killed 

July 19, 1864, at Peachtree Creek, Ga. 
J. W. Hallaway — Enrolled at Columbus, O., March 15, 1S64; 

missing November 30, 1864, Louisville, Ga. 



David Mitchell, Sergeant — Enrolled at Mt. Sterling, O., August 
13, 1862; died September 22, 1863, at Chickamauga, Ga., of 
wounds. 

28 



242 Evt'iy-iiay SoUiei Liji- : [Muslcr-uul Roll 

Thos. Fktkrson, Corporal — Knrolled at Canij) Chase, ()., September 

22. 1862 ; (lied August 20, 1S64, at Andersonville, Oa., ol 

wounds. 
A. A. 'rAi.iJor, C^oiporal — Knrolled at Mt. Sterling, ()., August 13, 

[862; died December 24, 1864, at Savannah, (la., of wounds. 
JOHN VV. R()(;kks — Knrolled at Mt. Sterling, ()., August 13, 1862; 

died December 5, 1862, Camp Zanesville, ()., of measles. 
RiuM. H. McClkan — Knrolled at Mt. Sterling, ().. August 13, 1862; 

died February 3, 1863, at I ,ouis\ille, Ky., of diarrhea. 
Hi-.Nkv (iii.i.iNWAiKKs — KuroUed at Mt. Sterling, ()., August 13, 

1862; died I'ebruary 17, 1863, Nashville, Tenn., of pneumonia. 
Isaac Timmons — Enrolled at Mt. Sterling, ().. August 13, 1862; died 

April 13, 1863, at Nashville, Tenn., no cause given. 
CkiiiiN Dknnison — Enrolled at Mt. Sterling. ()., August 13, 1862; 

died March 18, 1863, Nashville, Tenn., of icterus. 
John \V. Miller — Enrolled at Mt. Sterling, ()., August 13, 18C2 ; 

died April 18, 1863, at Franklin, Tenn., of diarrhea. 
Pkkk\ (iERRari) — F'.nrolled at Mt. Sterling, ()., .August 13, 1862; 

died April i^, 1863, at Nashville, 'ienn., of t:hronic diarrhea. 
Ale.xandkr F".. Bkacig — Fjirolled at Mt. Sterling, O., .August 13, 

1862 ; died May 28, 1863 ; Madison Co., ()., of chronic diarrhea. 
JA.MEs L. Ri(;(;iN — F^nrolled at Mt. Sterling, f)., August 13, 1862; 

died June 27, 1863, Nashville Tenn., of pneumonia. 
Merril Smith — F2n rolled at Mt. Sterling, ()., .August 13, 1862; died 

October 10, 1863, Chattanooga, Tenn., of wounds. 
Samuel Thorion — Enrolled at Mt. Sterling, C., .August 13, 1862; 

died November 14, 1863, Chattanooga, 'I'enn., chronic diarrhea. 
Andrew Miller — Enrolled at Mt. Sterling, O., August 13, 1862; 

died November 15, 1863, Chattanooga, Tenn., of wounds. 
Otho W. Nigh — Enrolled at Mt. Sterling, O., August 13, 1862; 

died February 7, 1864, Murfreesboro, Tenn., chronic diarrhea. 
Jacob F'oster — Enrolled at Camp Chase, O., September 23, 1862; 

died at Nashville, Tenn., chronic diarrhea. Date not given. 
Chas. Rosendale — Enrolled at Columbus, ()., February ii, 1864; 

died June i, 1864, Big Shanty, Ga., diarrhea. 
James Cookey — Enrolled at Harrisburg, ()., February 3, 1864 ; died 

September 27, 1864, Jeffersonville, Ind., diarrhea. 
Hezekiah Suver — F^nrolled at Harrisburg, ()., F'ebruary 12, 1864; 

died June 24, 1864, Rome, Ca., chronic diarrhea. 
\Vm. H. Brasket — Enrolled at Harrisburg, O., December 7, 1863; 

died April 1, 1864, Chattanooga, Tenn., pneumonia. 



Company G.] History of the iijih O. V. I. 243 



\Vm. H. Hunt— Enrolled at Mt. Sterling, Q., August 13, 1862; died 

July 16, 1864, Andersonville, Ga., dysentery. 
Daniel D. Miller — Enrolled at Mt. Stearling, O., August 13, 1862; 

died March 25, 1863, Nashville, Tenn., diarrhea. 

DISCHARGED. 

John W. Ingrim, Sergeant — Enrolled at Mt. Sterling, O., August 
13, 1862 ; discharged November 14, 1863, Nashville, Tenn., by 
order of Major General Thomas. 

Clark. S. White, Sergeant — Enrolled at Mt. Sterling, O., August 
13, 1862; discharged March 29, 1864, Camp Chase, O., by or- 
der of Major General Heintzleman ; died March 7, 1876, from 
effects of a wound received at Chickamauga. 

Edwin Deyo, Corporal — Enrolled at Mt. Sterling, O., August 13, 
1862; discharged June 24, 1864, Camp Dennison, O., by order 
of War Department. 

James S. Abernathy — Enrolled at Mt. Sterling, O., August 13, 
1862; discharged January 9, 1863, Columbus, O., by order of 
War Department. 

John J. Bishop — Enrolled at Mt. Sterling, O., August 13, 1862; 
discharged February 16, 1863, Columbus, O., by order of War 
Department. 

John W. Harness — Enrolled at Mt. Sterling, O., August 13, 1862 ; 
discharged March 5, 1863, Nashville, Tenn., by order of Major 
General Rosecrans. 

Samson M. Stone — Enrolled at Mt. Sterling, O., August 13, 1862; 
discharged March 11, 1863, Columbus, O., by order of War 
Department. 

Benjamin O. Kelt,er — Enrolled at Mt. Sterling, O., August 13, 1862 ; 
discharged March 15, 1863, Nashville, Tenn., by order of Major 
General Resecrans. 

Robert FoRO-Enrolled at Mt. Sterling, O., August 13, 1862 ; dis- 
charged April 18, 1863, Franklin, Tenn., by orderof Major Gen. 
Rosecrans. 

Alfred Ivy — Enrolled at Mt. Sterling, O., August 13, 1862; dis- 
charged May 16, 1863, Franklin, Tenn., by order of Major 
General Rosecrans. 

Henry Strawbridge — Enrolled at Mt. Sterling, O., August 13, 
1862 ; discharged May 14, 1863, Columbus, O., by order of 
Brigadier General Mason. 



244 Every-tiay SoliUer Life : [Musler-oiil Roll 

Thomas Havs — P^nroUed at Mt. Sterling, ()., August i.^, 1862; dis- 
charged June 16, i<S6^, Louisville, Ky., by order of NN'ar De- 
partment. 
IIakvkv Strain — Enrolled at Mt. Sterling, C)., August 13, 1862; 
discharged June 24, 1863, Louisville, Ky., by order of Colonel 
McMondy. 
Wiley Creath — Enrolled at Mt. Sterling, ()., August 13, 1862; 
discharged June 24, 1863, Louisville, Ky., by order of Colonel 
McMondy. 
Crek;hton Thomas — Enrolled at Mt. Sterling, ()., August 13, 1862; 
discharged July 31, 1863, Nashville, Tenn., by order of Medical 
Board. 

Ephrim Parker — Enrolled at Mt. Sterling, ()., August 13, 1862; 
discharged September 9, 1863, Louisville, Ky., by ordei of War 
Department. 

|oHN W. RiGGiN — Enrolled at Mt. Sterling, ()., August 13, 1862; 
discharged September 24, 1863, Camp Dennison, ()., by order 
of Military Post Commandant. 

David Hisson — Enrolled at Columbus, ()., March 21, 1862; mus- 
tered out May 6, 1865, at Columbus, 0.,in pursuance of Ceneral 
order No. 77, War Department. 

John M. Creath — Enrolled at Mt. Sterling, O., August 13, 1862; 
mustered out May 26, 1865, at Camp Dennison, 0.,in pursuance 
of General order No. 77, War Department. 

James Gray — Enrolled at Harrisburg, C)., February 10, 1864; mus- 
tered out May 13, 1865, at Nashville, Tenn., in pursuance of 
General order No. 77, War Department. 

Thomas Clifton — Enrolled at Camp Chase, O., September 20, 1862 ; 
mustered out May 13, 1865, at Nashville, Tenn., in pursuance 
of General order No. 77, War Department. 

Elijah Roby — Enrolled at Mt. Sterling, O., August 13, 1862; mus- 
tered out June 9, 1865, at Cincinnati, ().. in pursuance of (ien- 
eral Order No. 77, War Department. 

Chas. Williamson — Enrolled at Harrisburg, O., December 5, 1863; 
discharged February 3, 1865, at Columbus, O., by order of Ma- 
jor General Hooker. 

OESERTEI). 

GiHSON Sawtell — Enrolled at Camp Chase, ()., October 14, 1862; 
deserted January 16, 1863, at Camp Summit, Ky. 



Company G.] History of the 113th O. V. I. 245 

James Belt — Enrolled at Madison County, O., February i, 1864; 
deserted October ii, 1864, near Athens, Ala. 

Elnathan Belt — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 30, 1864; de- 
serted October 1 1, 1864, near Athens, Ala. 

Andrew McArty — Descriptive list never received ; deserted August 
29, 1864, near Atlanta, Ga. 

August Ephart — Enrolled at Harrisburg, O., February 14, 1864; 
deserted January 14, 1865, at Camp Dennison, O. 

Thomas Noland — Enrolled at Columbus, O., March 25, 1864; de- 
serted March 28, 1864, at Columbus, O. 

Richard Miller — Enrolled at Madison County, O., January 1^, 
1864; deserted February i, 1864, at Columbus, O. 

John Irving — Enrolled at Columbus, O., March 25, 1864; deserted 
March 28, 1864, at Columbus, O. 

James Hays — Enrolled at Columbus, O., February 27, 1864; de- 
serted March 12, 1864, at Columbus, O. 

transferred. 

Edward Crouse — Enrolled at Camp Chase, O., August 13, 1862; 

transferred to Company "<\ April 18, 1864, at Rossville, Ga., by 

order of Lieutenant Colonel D. B. Warner. 
Nehemiah Matlock — Enrolled at Mt. Sterling, O., August 13, 

1862; transferred to V. R. C. October 29, 1864, at Louisville, 

Ky., by order of Secretary of War. 
Jonas Deyo — Enrolled at Mt. Sterling, O., August 13, 1862; trans- 
ferred to V. R. C. January 15, 1864, at Louisville, Ky., by order 

of Secretary of War. 
Henry Shumlefel — F^nrolled at Mt. Sterling, O., August 13, 1862; 

transferred to V. R. C. January 15, 1864, at Louisville, Ky., by 

order of Secretary of War. 
James A.Baker — Enrolled at Mt. Sterling, O., August 13, 1862; 

transferred to V. E. Corps July 29, 1864, at Nashville, Tenn., by 

order of Secretary of War. 
Wnl M. Morgan — Enrolled at Camp Chase, O., September 8, 1862 ; 

transferred to V. R. C. April 1, 1865, at Camj) Dennison, ()., by 

order of Secretary of War. 



246 Evcry-(hiy Soliiici -Life : [Muster-out Roll 

COMPANY B. 

Mn-^li-ri-d (inl ai I .uuisv illc. I\\.. July C), 1X65. 
(OMMISSIONKI) OI'KICF.RS. 

Cap IAIN David Tavi.or, Jr. — Coniinissioncd at Columbus, ()., Au- 
gust 12, 1862; resigned June lo, 1863. 

Cai'iain Hora I'M) N. Benjamin — Commissioned at Shelbyville, 
I'enn., July 13, 1863; ])romoted from First Lieutenant July 13, 
1863; resigned August 26, 1864. Original Second \X. Co. E. 

Caitain John \S . Kii.K — Commissioned at Alpine, Cra., October 21, 
1864; promoted from First Lieutenant October 21, 1864; mus- 
tered out at Louisville, Ky., July 6, 1865. 

FiRsr Lieutenant Thos. Downey — Commissioned at Columbus, 
O., August 12, 1862; promoted to Captain of Company D, 113th 
Regiment, O. V. L, January 13, 1863. 

First Lieutenant Wm. A. M. Davis — Commissioned at Alpine, 
Ga., October 21, 1864; mustered out at Louisville, Ky., July 6, 
1865. 

Second Lieutenant John Dickkv — Commissioned at Columbus, 
O., August 12, 1862; resigned November 17, 1862. 

Second Lieutenant Francis O. Scarth — Commissioned at Zanes- 
ville, O., November 17, 1862; promoted from First Sergeant No- 
vember 17, 1862; resigned May 4, 1863. 

Second Lieutenant Jonathan Watson — Commissioned at Colum- 
bus, O., November 15, 1863; promoted from First Sergeant No- 
vember 15, 1863; discharged October 26, 1864, by Special Order 
No. 336, War Department. Declined promotion. 

non-commissioned officers. 

Mii.LEN Hays, First Sergeant — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 
14, 1862; promoted from Second Sergeant June 12, 1865; mus- 
tered out with Company. 

John Warner, Sergeant — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 22, 
1862; mustered out with Company. 

Wii.LiAM DuRANT, Sergeant — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 22, 
1862; absent on furlough, mustered out. 

Geo. F. Wheeler, Sergeant — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 22, 
1862; absent on furlough; mustered out. 

Nathaniel N. Mason, Sergeant — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 
22, 1862; promoted from First Corporal June 12, 1863; mustered 
out with Company. 



Company B.] History of the iijtii O. V. I. 247 

Isaac Collins, Corporal — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 15, 

1862 ; mustered out with Company. 
Peter H. Whitehead, Corporal — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 

15, 1862; on detached service in Ohio since February 12, 1864; 

mustered out. 
Sylvester Bailv, Corporal — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 12, 

1862 ; mustered out with Company. 
Chas. R. Herrick, Corporal — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 22, 

1862; sick in hospital at Columbus, O., since October i, 1864; 

wounded in front of Resaca. 
John Byrne, Corporal — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 22, J862 ; 

sick in hospital at Columbus, O., since January 8, 1865 ; wounded 

at Kenesaw June 27, 1864, in right fore-arm. 
Isaac Slocumb, Corporal — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 22, 

1862 ; sick in hospital at Columbus, O., since January 4, 1864. 

"" PRIVATES. 

Benjamin Anderson — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 21, 1862; 
mustered out with Company. 

JosiAH W. Berger — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 22, 1862; 
absent on furlough ; mustered out. 

Wm. Burchin — Enrolled at Columbus, ()., August 21, 1862; mus- 
tered out with Company. 

Benjamin Burd — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 22, i86_^; absent 
on furlough ; mustered out. 

Ja.mes F. Beard — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 22, 1862 ; mus- 
tered out with Company. 

James A. Blakely — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 16, 1862; 
hospital nurse at Chattanoo"ga, Tenn., June 26, 1864. 

Thomas Barresford — Enrolled at Urbana, O., December 8, 1863 ; 
sick in hospital at Lookout Mt., (ia.. May 22, 1864. 

Fredrick Boriuck — Enrolled at Columbus, O., February zt^^ 1864 ; 
mustered out with Company. 

VVm. H. Cassiday — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 22, 1862; ab- 
sent on furlough at Columbus, O.; mustered out. 

Bazil Conway — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 22, 18O2; mus- 
tered out with Company. 

Henry M. Capeli, — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 10, 1862; 
mustered out with Company. 

John V. Chapin — Enrolled at Columbus, ()., August 22. 1862 ; sick 
in hospital at Jeffersonville, Ind., May 22, 1864. 



^4'"^ Evciy-day SoUici Lijc : IMuslcr-uul Roll 

JosEPHUS CoNANT — Kiirolled at Columbus, O., August 15, 1862 ; ab- 
sent on furlough at Columbus, ().; mustered out. 

\Vm. C. Crwik.r — Enrolled at Columbus, ()., August 22, 1862; mus- 
tered out with Company. 

Ci.o. W. Crank — Enrolled at Columbus, ()., August 15, 18C2; mus- 
tered out with Company. 

Ja.mks Conwav — Enrolled at Columbus, ()., February 23, 18C4; 
mustered out with Company. 

Isaac Carv — Enrolled at Columbus, ( )., I'ebruary 18, 1864; mus- 
tered out with Comi)any. 

Chas. Dkhou — Enrolled at C'olunibus, ()., August 22, 1862; absent 
on furlough at Columbus, O.; mustered out. 

Ai.vA J. Darnki.i. — Enrolled at Columbus, August 22, 1862; absent 
on furlough at Columbus, ().; mustered out; died December 11, 
1868. 

James VV. Dunlap — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 22, r862; 
mustered out with Company. 

John FR^■ — Enrolled at Columbus, U., August 22, 1862; absent on 
furlough at Columbus, C).; mustered out. 

Hknry Kellkr — Enrolled at Madison, O., January 20, 1864; absent 
on furlough at Columbus, O.; mustered out. 

Ei,isHA HiMROD — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 22, 1862; mus- 
tered out \Vith Company. 

Sa.muel Hoover — Enrolled at Columl)us, U., August 22, 1862 ; 
mustered out with Company. 

\Vm. 1). HicKv — Enrolled at Urbana, ()., December 3, 1865 ; sick in 
hospital at Goldsboro, N. C, since April 9, 1865. 

James Hamilton — Enrolled at Urbana, O., December 8, 1863; 
mustered out with Company. 

Stephen H. Howei.i, — Enrolled at Clark County, (J., January 19, 
1864; mustered out with Company. 

William Hesser — Enrolled at Columbus, O., Fel)ruary 11, 1864; 
mustered out with Company. 

Patrick Jones — Enrolled at Urbana, ()., November 24, 1863; mus- 
tered out with Company. 

William Jacobs — Enrolled at Urbana, ()., November 8, 1863; 
mustered out with Company. 

Samuel Looker — Enrolled at Columbus, U., August 22, 1862 ; mus- 
tered out with Company. 

Chas. C. Latham — Enrolled at Urbana, O., December 3, 1863; 
sick in hospital No. 2 at Nashville, Tenn., October 8, 1864. 



Company B.J History of the ujth O. V. I. 249 

Charles Lowk — Enrolled at Urbana, ()., December 29, 1863; mus- 
tered out with Company. 

Joseph Lowe — Enrolled at Urbana, U., December 29, 1863; mus- 
tered out with Company. (Musician.) 

William Lowe — Enrolled at Urbana, O., January 4, 1864; mus- 
tered out with Company. 

Joseph Miller — Enrolled at Columbus, ()., August 22, 1862 ; mus- 
tered out with Company. 

Lyman W. Marsh — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 22, 1862; 
absent on furlough at Columbus, O.; mustered out. 

Robert L.Moore — Enrolled at Columbus, O., February 1,1864; 
mustered out with Company. 

WiltOxN Osborn — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 22, 1862; mus- 
tered out with Company. 

John Patterson — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 15, 1862; 
mustered out with Company. 

Peter Reeves — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 22, 1862; mu.-5- 
tered out with Compan)-. 

George Rei — Enrolled at Columbus, U., August 22, 1862 ; mus- 
tered out with Company. 

Roi.Lix Reed — Enrolled at Columbus, U., August 22, 1862; mus- 
tered out with Company. 

Elias Remalv — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 22, 1862; mus- 
tered out with Company. 

William Rejester — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 22, 1862 ; 
mustered out with Company. 

John Scureman — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 22, 1862; ab- 
sent on furlough at Columbus, O.; mustered out. 

JUDSON Swisher — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 22, 1862; mus- 
tered out with Company. 

Russel B. Stewart — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 22, 1862 ; 
mustered out with Company. 

Adam Snider — Enrolled at Columbus, O., January 16, 1864; mus- 
tered out with Company. 

Thebolt Snider — Enrolled at Madison, ()., January i, 1864; mus- 
tered out. 

jAt:or, Snider — Enrolled at Columbus. O., February 24, 1864; mus- 
tered out with Company. 

Tames Savely — Enrolled at Columbus, C)., February 24, 1864; 
mustered out with Company. 

29 



250 Evciy-diiy SoUici Lift : [Miislcr-uul Kull 

Andrew Vanhoutkn — Enrolled al Columbus, ()., August 21, 1862 ; 
mustered out with ('ompany. 

Solomon Vanhokn — Enrolled at Cohunhus, (). Kcl)iuary iS, 1.S64; 
mustered out with Company. 

I AMKS VVhitk — Enrolled at l^rbaua, ().. November 25, i<S63; mus- 
tered out with Company. 

John Wilson — Enrolled at Irbana. O., November 2S, 1S63; mus- 
tered out with Company. 

David Vosi — Enrolled at Columbus, ()., August 22, 1862; mustered 
out with Company. 

Chas. F. Yost — Enrolled ul Culuinbu^, ( )., August 22, 1862; mus- 
tered out with Company. 

John A. Zellhkari' — Enrolled al Columbus, ()., August 22, 1862 ; 
absent on furlough at C'olumbus, (J.; mustered out. 



\V>L IvA.Mi'.EKT — Enrolled at Columbus, ()., August 22, 1862; killed 
at the battle of Chickamauga, (la., Se])tember 20, 1863. 

John J. S\n'iH — Enrolled at Columbus, ()., August 22, 1862 ; killed at 
the battle of Chickamauga,CTa., Sei)tember 20,1863. (See sketch.) 

Amos D. Lkady — Enrolled at Columbus, ()., August 22, 1862; killed 
at the battle of Kenesaw Mountain, Ga., June 27, 1864. 

Geo. Workman — Enrolled at Urbana, O., Nov. 23, 1863; killed 
near Rocky Mountain, South Carolina, b\ an insane soldier, 
February 24, r865. (See sketch in Knapsack.) 

Alexander Henry — Enrolled at Urbana, O., November 25, 1863; 
killed near White Oak Bottom, Maryland, by falling from the 
cars, June 12, 1865. (See record in the body of this work under 
June 13, 1865.) 

MISSINO L\ AC riON. 

Samuel E. Crank — Enrolled at Columbus, (J., August 15, 1862; 

missing September 20, 1863, at the battle of ("hickamauga, Gu. 
Wm. Tho.nlas — Enrolled at Urbana, O., 'November 24, 1863; missing 

June 27, 1864, at the battle of Kenesaw Mountain, Ga. 



Albert A. Hodge — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 22, 1864; 
died February 2j, 1863, of disease, in Hospital No. 21, Nashville, 
Tenn. 



Company B.] History of the iJJth O. V. I. 251 



Alf-red Parker, Corporal — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 22, 

1862; died March 5, 1863, of disease, in Hospital No. 9, Nash- 
ville, Tenn. 
Austin E. Capel — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 22, 1862; 

died March 7, 1863, of disease, in Hospital No. 2 1, Nashville, 

Tenn. 
John E. Dovil — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 22, 1862; died 

March 8, 1863, of disease, at Louisville, Ky. 
Lucius Ritchie — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 22, 1862; died 

March 13, 1863, of disease, in Hospital No. 9, Nashville, Tenn. 
Arthur Wharton — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 22, 1862; 

died April 18, 1863, of disease, at Regimental Hospital, Frank- 
lin, Tenn. 
Jacof. Williamson — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 15, 1862 ; 

died April 21, 1863, of smallpox, in Hospital No. 11, Nashville, 

Tenn. 
John Rager — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 22, 1862 ; died 

May I, 1863, of disease, in Hospital No. 16, Nashville, Tenn. 
John M. Whitehead — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 15, 1862 ; 

died June 11, 1863, of chronic diarrhea, at Franklin, Tenn., aged 

19 years. 
Geo. Rush — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 22, 1862; died July 

23, 1863, of congestive chills, in Regimental Hospital, Shelby- 

ville, Tenn. 
Christopher Sowers — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 15, 1862 ; 

died August 25, 1863, of chronic diarrhea, at Hospital No. i, 

Nashville, Tenn. 
Lewis H. Bell, Sergeant — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 13, 

1862; died October 10, 1863, at Chattanooga,. Tenn., of wounds 

received at the battle of Chickamauga, Ga., September 20, 1863. 
Henry H. Kramer — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 22, 1862; 

died October 12, 1863, at field hospital, Chattanooga, Tenn., of 

wounds received at th^ battle of Chickamauga, Ga., September 

20, 1863. 
John A. Sinnett — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 15, 1862 ; died 

January 14, 1864, of chronic diarrhea at Division Hospital No. 

10, Chattanooga, Tenn. 
Elijah Cramer — Enrolled at Columbus, O., February i, 1864; 

died August 27, 1864, of congestive chills, in Field Hospital near 

Atlanta, Ga. 



2^2 Every-itay Soldier Li/c : [Miisler-oul Roll 

i'mi.ow Williams — Knrolled ;it Columl)us, O., February 6, 1S64; 
died Sei)leml)er 10, 1864, of aciitf bronchitis, in Hospital No. 1, 

Nasln illc, Tcnn. 
Hknkn RoiUiiNs — Knrolled at Columbus, O., August 15, 1S62; died 

July I, 1.S64, at Mig Shanty, (la., of wounds received at the 

l)allle of Kencsau .Mi., (ia., June 27, 1864. 
N.v'iH.w H. Smith — Knrolled at Columbus, ( )., August 13, 1862; 

died September 29, 1864, of disease of the heart, at Camp Den- 

nison, O. 
Hknry S. Gin(;r\ — Knrolled at Urbana, O., December 22, 1863; died 

September 2, 1864, at Chattanooga, Tenn., of wounds received 

while on duty near Atlanta, Ga., August 9, 1864. 
IIknrv H. Lkkk — Knrolled at Columbus, O., August 18, 1862 ; died 

October 30, 1864, of disease, at Atlanta, (ia. 
JOHN C. Ber(;er — Knrolled at Columbus, O., February 27. 1864; 

ilied October 22, 1864, of chronic diarrhea, at Chattanooga, 

'i'enn., aged 28 years; was in action at Kenesaw, Ca., June 27, 

1864, and Jonesboro, Ga., September i, 1864. 
W.\LL.\CE Hogarth — Knrolled at Urbana, O., November 20, 1863; 

died March 20, 1865, at field hospital near Bentonville, N. C, of 

wounds received at the battle of Bentonville, N. C. 
David L. (Ireen — Knrolled at Columbus, O., August 12, 1862; died 

December 30, 1864, of chronic diarrhea, at Hospital No. 2, 

Nashville, Tenn. 

DISCHARGED. 

FLdward Frisiok — Knrolled at Columbus, ()., August 22, 1862; dis- 
charged January 31, 1863, at Columbus, O., for physical disa- 
bility, by order of Captain A. B. Dodd. 

Ahram Swartz — Knrolled at Columbus, O., August 22, 1862; dis- 
charged March 22, 1863, at Nashville, Tenn., for physical disa- 
bility, by order of General Rosecrans. 

Samuel S. Wells, Hospital Steward — F^nrolled at Columbus, ()., 
August 22, 1862; discharged April 28, 1863, at Franklin, Tenn., 
for physical disability, by order of General Rosecrans. 

John C. Green, Corporal — Knrolled at Columbus, O., August 21, 
1862; discharged April 14, 1863, at Columbus, O., for physical 
disability, by order of C'aptain A. B. Dodd. 

Adam M. Rarev, Corporal — Knrolled at Columbus, O., August 22, 
1862; discharged April 15, 1863, at Nashville, Tenn., for physi- 
cal disability, by order of (General Rosecrans. 



Company B.] History of the 113th O. V. J. 253 

Enos W. Robb — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 15, 1862; dis- 
charged April 25, 1863, at Franklin, Tenn., for i)hysical disabil- 
ity, by order of General Rosecran^. 
Oliver W. Crow — Enrolled at Columbus, ()., August 22, 1862; dis- 
charged August 27, 1863, at Nashville, Tenn., for physical disa- 
bility, by order of General Rosecrans. 
John W. Williams — ELnrolled at Columbus, O., August 22, 1862; 
discharged June 14, 1864, at Camp Dennison, O., for physical 
.disability, by order of General Heintzleman. 
Wesley Moore — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 22, 1862; dis- 
charged April 30, 1864, at Bridgeport, Ala., by order of General 
Thomas. 
Samuel B. Street — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 14, 1862 ; 
discharged February 4, 1865, at Tripler Hospital, Columbus, O., 
on account of wounds received at the battle of Kenesaw Moun- 
tain, Ga., June 27, 1864, by order of General Hooker. 
1'ktkr Ealy — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 14, 1862; dis- 
charged May II, 1865, at Columbus, ()., for auchylosis of right 
ankle, by order of General Hooker. 
Joseph Lampit — Enrolled at Urbana, O., December 3, 1863; dis- 
charged May 26, 1865, at Camp Dennison, O., by order of 
Adjutant General of Ohio, dated May 3, 1865. 
Richard B. Harrison — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 22, 1862; 
discharged May 26, 1865, at Camp Dennison, O., by order Adju- 
tant General of Ohio, dated May 3, 1865. 
Edward I. Hill — Enrolled at Urbana, O., December 3, 1863; dis- 
charged May 9, 1865, at Camp Dennison, O., by order Adjutant 
General of Ohio, dated May 3, 1865. 
Edward B. Whitehead, Corporal — Enrolled at Columbus, ()., Au- 
gust 21, 1862; discharged May 9, 186*5, ^t Columbus, O., on 
account of wounds received at the battle of Kenesaw Mountain 
June 27, 1864, by order of General Hooker. 
\\\\. DiTMAS — Enrolled at Dayton, O., September 22, 1864; dis- 
charged June 23, 1865, at Louisville, Ky., by War Department 
order. May 18, 1865. 
Henry Patterson — Enrolled at Dayton, O., September 21, 1864, 
discharged June 23, 1865, at Louisville, Ky., liy War Depart- 
ment order. May 18, 1865. 
Alexander Carpenter, First Sergeant — Enrolled at Columbus, O., 
August 14, 1862; discharged June 11, 1865, at Louisville, Ky., 
to accept ])romotion as First Lieutenant of Company E, 1 t3th 
O. V. L 



2:^4 Every-iiay SoUifi-LiJe : [ Musler-out Roll 



DKSKK I Kli. 

(li-.oRtiK I'KiKRS — Knrolled at Colmnbiis, ()., Aii^uist 22. iS6_'; dc- 
sertetl Auj^ust 29, 1862, at Camp Chase, ( ). 

.\^\ l)i.()VKi.r — Knrolled at Columbus, ()., August 22, 1.S62; deserted 
September 20. 1862, at Camp Chase, O. 

CvRUs MiM.KK — Knrolled at Columbus, ()., August 21, 1S62; de- 
serted November 16, 1862, at Zanesville, ( ). 

I.\r(tii Ai.MiRK — Knrolled at Columbus, O., August 22, 1S62; de- 
serted September 15, 1862, at Camp Chase, O. 

JosKPH CiKRMAN — KuroUed at Urbana, ()., l)e(einl)cr 5, 1863; de- 
serted August 29, 1864, near Atlanta, Ca. 

IRANSKERRF.D. 

W'm. N. Yost, Hospital Steward — Knrolled at Columbus, O., August 
2Z^ 1862; transferred to non-commissioned staff September 30, 
1863, bv order of Lieutenant Colonel 1 ). 15. Warner, command- 
ing 1 13th O. \'. I. 

\\M. H. Hai.mdav, Sergeant — Knrolled at Columbus, ()., August 15, 
1862; transferred to non-commissioned staff as (Quartermaster 
Sergeant, December 13, 1863. 

Knoch a. Nkf.dles — Knrolled at Columbus, ()., August 13, 1863; 
transferred to \'. R. C. April 10, 1864, by order of Secretary of 
War. 

Israel Gavman — Knrolled at Columbus, O., August 13, 1862; 
transferred to ist U. S. \^ V. Kngineers, July 27, 1864, by order 
of Colonel W. K. Merril. 

John Farlev — Knrolled at Urbana, O., January i, 1864; transferred 
Ai)ril 6, 1864, to Company K, 113th Regiment, or by order (/ 
Major L. S. Sullivant, commanding 113th O. V. I. 

l(tHN Boi/i — Muster and descriptive rolls not received ; transferred 
April 10, 1864, to Company K, 113th O. V. I., by order of 
Major L. S. Sullivant, commanding 113th O. V. 1. 

Ceo. Carroll — Muster and descriptive rolls not received; trans- 
ferred April 10, 1864, to Company K, 113th O. V. 1., by order of 
Major L. S. Sullivant, commanding 113th (). V. I. 

Jacob F. Hees — Knrolled at Urbana, O., November 28, 1863 ; trans- 
ferred April 28, 1864, to Company K, 113th C). V. I., by order 
of Major L. S. Sullivant, commanding 1 13th O. V. I. Killed at 
Kenesaw. 



Company B.] History of the iijth O. V. I. 255 

\V.M. H. Whitney — Enrolled at Urbana, O., November 28, 1S63; 
transferred April 28, 1864, to Company E, 113th O. V. 1., by 
order of Major L. S. Sullivant, commanding 113th O. V. 1. 

AuRAHA.M Trimbee — Enrolled at Urbana, O., December 2, 1863; 
transferred April 28, 1864, to Company C, 113th O. V. I., by 
order of Major L. S. ♦Sullivant, commanding 113th (). V. I. 

Herbert Norman — Enrolled at Urbana, O., February 12, 1864; 
transferred April 28, 1864, to Company E, i r3th (). V. I., by 
order of Major L. S. Sullivant, commanding i 13th O. V. 1. 

David Evans — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 22, 1862; trans- 
ferred January 1, 1865, to V. R. C, Washington, D. C., by order 
of the Secretary of War. 

Frederick L. Stires — Enrolled at Cglumbus, O., August 22, 1862 ; 
transferred January i, 1865, to V. R. C, Washington, D. C, l)y 
order of the Secretary of War. 

Henry S. Binkley — Enrolled at Columbus, (J., August 22, 1862 ; 
transferred to 5th U. S. Cavalry, November 16, 1862. 

W.M. H. Brown — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 22, 1862 ; trans- 
ferred to 5th U. S. Cavalry, November 16, 1862. 

\Vm. Dellinger — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 22, 1862; trans- 
ferred to 5th U. S. Cavalry, November 16, 1862. 

Lincoln Stephenson — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 22, 1S62; 
transferred to 5th U. S. Cavalry, November 16, 1862. 

^V^I. Stewart — Enrolled at Columbus, O., August 22, 1862 ; trans- 
ferred to 5th U. S. Cavalry, November 16, 1862. 



ROLL OF HONOR. 



NaMKS i)K Sol.DIKRs Ol' IHK I I ,VI H K 1 l i 1 M I N I. < ). \' . I., WHO \ K I . 

l>ukiKi> IN National C'kme ikkiks. 



NuiK. — Sonit; of tlioc were removed and re-iiuerred at tlicir foriiicr Iidiiics, 

I'kikk IJkown. Private — C"on1[)an\ A; died June 6, 1863; buried in 

Section C, grave No. 284, in National Cemetery, at Nashville, 

Tenn. 
I'lios. Cowi.iNi;, Corporal — Company .\ ; died .\i)ril 13, 1865; l)uried 

in Section 17, ^rave .No. 1 1 1, in .National Cemetery, at Newbern. 

North Carolina. 
|. W. Cakk, I'rivate — Company A; died .March 22, 1863; buried in 

Section K, grave No. 487, in National Cemetery, Nashville. 

Tenn. 
W. r. Cochrax, Private — Company A; died March 14, 1863; buried 

in Section K, grave No. 256, in National Cemetery, Nasliville, 

Tenn. 
1''. M. Ckaiu;, Private — Company A; died Sei)tcml)er 3, 1863; buried 

in Set;tion I), grave No. 511, in National Cemetery, Nashville, 

'I'enn. 
Lvman Carter, Private — Comjjany A; died March 20, 1863; buried 

in Section -u, grave .No. 376. in National Cemetery, CHiattanooga, 

Tenn. 
I). Ci. l)oN,_ Private — Company .\ ; died May 16, 1865; section and 

grave number not given; buried in New Cemetery, Newbern, 

N. C. 
|()H\ BKRi;iiR, Private — Company P> ; died October 21, 1864; buried 

in Section G., grave No. 13, in National Cemetery, Chattanooga, 

Tenn. 
loHN Bre(;gs — Company B; died at Columbus, ()., Fel)ruary 21, 

1864; sent home for burial. 
H. H. Cas.mer, Private — Company B ; date of death not given: 

buried in Section I), grave No. 954, in National Cemetery, Chat- 
tanooga. Tenn. 



Kull of Honor.] History of the iijlh O. V. I. ^57 



Wm. Anderson, Corporal — Company C ; died March 7, 1863; buried 
in Section -f, grave No. 381, in National Cemetery, at Murfrees- 
boro, Tenn. 

Robert Eritton, Private — Company C; died November 11, 1864; 
buried in Section F, grave No. 627, in National Cemetery, Chat- 
tanooga, Tenn. 

John Bover, Private — Company C; died October 21, 1863; buried 
in Section H, grave No. 695, in National Cemetery, Chattanooga, 
Tenn. 

Andrew ('onnolev. Private — Company C; died July 15, 1864; bur- 
ied in Section J, grave No. 62, in National Cemetery, Nashville, 
Tenn. 

J. F, Cheek, Private — Company L) ; died October 17, 1863; buried in 
Section E, grave No. 1,145, in National Cemetery, Nashville, 
Tenn. 

VV.M Braskette, Private — Company E; died March 1, 1864; buried 
in Section C, grave No. 425, in National Cemetery, Chattanooga, 
Tenn. 

George Conard, Private — Company E; died May ii, 1863; buried 
in Section E, grave No. 864, in National Cemetery, Nashville, 
Tenn. 

George A. Baker, Private — Company E ; died March 20, 1863; 
buried in Section D, grave No. 598, in National Cemetery, Nash- 
ville, Tenn. 

Harry Blade, Private — Company F ; died July 12, 1864; buried in 
Section E, grave No. 674, in National Cemetery, Chattanooga, 
Tenn. 

Ed. Crouse, Second Lieutenant — Company F ; died June 27, 1864; 
buried in Section C, grave No. bbb, in National Cemeteiy, 
Marietta, (ra. 

James CooKSEV, Private — Company G; died September ■^■], 1864; 
buried in Section B, grave No. 92, in National Cemetery, New 
Albany, Ind. 

A. l)ENNis(JN, Sergeant — Company G; date of death not given; 
buried in Section 1), grave No. 962, in National Cemetery at 
Chattanooga, Tenn. 

G. Uennison, Private — Company (i ; died March 17, 1863; buried 
in Section E, grave No. 674, in National Cemetery, Nashville. 
Tenn. 

J. Bell, Private — Com[Kiny H ; died July 12. 1864; buried in Sec- 
tion K, grave No. 134, in National ('emetery, Chattanooga, Tenn. 



25 'S Evcry-day Soldier Lijc : [Koll ul Honor. 

J. H. UuRWKi.L, Private — Company H ; died January 3, JH64; buried 
in Section B, grave No. 36, in Linden (Irove Cemetery, Coving- 
ion, Ky. 
C. Chilles, Corporal — Company H ; date of death not given ; 
buried in Section D, grave No. 960, in National Cemetery, Chat- 
tanooga, Tenn. 
F. M. Cloud, Private — Company H; died June 30, 1X64; buried in 

Section J, grave No. 96, in National Cemetery, Marietta, (la. 
W. H. H. CoBLENTZ, Private — Company 1; died August 1, 1864; 
buried in Section F, grave No. 258, in National Cemetery, Chat- 
tanooga, Tenn. 
Wm. Collins, Private — Company 1; died September 11, 1864: 
buried in Section J, grave No. 38, in National Cemetery, 
Marietta, Ga. 
Jesse Curtis, Private — Company 1; died October 31, 1864; buried 
in Section G, grave No. 1180, m National Cemetery, at Marietta, 
Ga. 
E. \\. Jackson, Private — Company A; died June 27, 1864; buried 
in Section 1, grave No. 262, in National Cemetery, Marietta, Ga. 
L. H. Kennedy, Private — Company A; died June 27, 1864; buried 
in Section I, grave No. 263, in National Cemetery, Marietta, Ga. 
Henry Gingery, Private — -Company B; died September 2, 1864; 
buried in Section F, grave No. 525, in National Cemetery, 
Chattanooga, Tenn. 
David L. Green, Private — Company B; died December 30, 1864; 
buried in Section G, grave No. 508, in National Cemetery, Nash- 
ville, Tenn. 
A. A. Hodge, Private — Company B; died February 21, 1863; buried 
in Section E, grave No. 499, in National Cemetery, Nashville, 
Tenn. 
W.\L Kauson, Corporal — Company C; dale of death not given; 
buried in Section D, grave No. 961, in National Cemetery, Chat- 
tanooga, Tenn. • 
\\. H. H. Goldsmith, Private — Company C" ; died June 22, 1863; 
Section and grave No. not given; buried in National Cemetery, 
Nashville, Tenn. 
J. S. (iiLLESPiE, Private — Company D; died Febriiarv 10, 1863; 
buried in Section B, grave No. 7 18, in National Cemetery, Nash- 
ville, Tenn. 
W . H. HuNH, Private — Company D; died July 16, 1864; grave No. 
3,420, in National Cemetery, Anderson ville, Ga. 



Roll of Hon^r.] History of the 113th O. V. I. 259 



Andrew Heller, Private — Company E; died August 13, 1864; 
buried in Section 1, grave No. 37, in National Cemetery, 
Marietta, Ga. 

J. G. KiRKPATRicK, Private — Company F; died October 6, 1864; 
buried in Section E, grave No. 2,805, i" National Cemetery, 
Nashville, Tenn. 

John Gray, Private — Company F ; died April 14, 1863; buried in 
Section +, grave No. 9, in Stone River National Cemetery, 
Murfreesboro, Tenn. 

Jacob Foster, Private — Company G ; died April 30, 1864; buried 
in Section J, grave No. 99, in National Cemetery, Nashville, 
Tenn. 

P. GoFFY, Private — Company G; died August i, 1864; grave No. 
4,445, in National Cemetery, Andersonville, Ga. 

Perry Gerard, Private — Company G ; died April 22, 1863; buried 
in Section C, grave No. 347, in National Cemetery, Nashville, 
Tenn. 

H. Gillenwater, Private — Company G ; died February 25, 1863 ; 
buried in Section E, grave No. 386, in National Cemetery, Nash- 
ville, Tenn. 

Lewis Green, Sergeant — Company G ; died June 27, 1864; buried 
in Section I, grave No. 27, in National Cemetery, Marietta, Ga. 

W. R. Hanawalt, Lieutenant — Company G ; date of death not 
given; buried in Section I), grave No. 964, in National Ceme- 
tery, Chattanooga, Tenn. 

VoLNEY Holvcross, Corporal — Company H ; died October 12, 1863 ; 
buried in Section L, grave No. 334, in National Cemetery, Chat- 
tanooga, Tenn. 

Elisha Kimball, Private — Company I ; date of death not given ; 
grave No. 1,851, in National Cemetery, Wilmington, N. C. 

Michael Kehal, Corporal — Company I; died August 21, 1864; 
buried in Section F, grave No. 470, in National Cemetery, Chat- 
tanooga, Tenn. 

Jacob Kelsing, Private — Company I ; died April 28, 1863 ; buried 
in Section K, grave No. 274, in Stone River National 
Cemetery, Murfreesboro, Tenn. 

Levi Hemminger Private — Company K; died August i, 18C4; 
buried in Section F, grave No. 126, in National 'Cemetery, Chat- 
tanooga, Tenn. 

E. T. Jones, Private — Company K; died June 27, 1864; buried in 
Section I, grave No. 24, in National Cemetery, Marietta, (ta. 



26o Every-iiay SoliUer Life : [Roll ot lldnor. 

Wm. I.amhkrt, Private — Company li ; date of dealli not given; 
hiiried in Section 1), grave No. 959, in National Cemetery, ("hat- 
tanooga, Tenn. 

A. I' A kKKK, Corporal — C'ompany H ; died March 5, 1863; buried in 
Section K, grave No. 752, in National Cemetery, Nashville, 'I'enn. 

John Racer, Private — Company 15; died May 1, 1863; Section and 
grave No. unknown ; buried in National Cemetery, Nashville, 
'I'enn. 

I. Ri)\Ai., Private — Company C ; died Mart:h 9, 1S63; buried in 
Section K, grave No. 1,084, in National Cemetery, Nashville, 
Tenn. 

David Nkal, Private — Company C ; died August 30, 1864; buried 
in Section K, grave No. 2,920, in National Cemelerv, Naslnille, 
Tenn. 

J. G. Perkins, Private — Company C ; died Fel)ruary 14, 1863; 
grave and Section No. unknown ; buried in National ("emetery, 
Nashville, Tenn. 

M. C. Messinger, Corporal — Company D; date of death not given; 
buried in Section A, grave No. 67, in National Cemetery, Chat- 
tanooga, Tenn. 

T. Pratt, Private — Company 1); date of death not given; buried 
in Section D, grave No. 958, in National Cemetery, Chatta- 
nooga, Tenn. 

A. Rose, Private — Comi)any I); died March 3, 1863; Section and 
grave No. unknown ; buried in National Cemetery, Nashville, 
Tenn. 

Peter Miller, Private — Company R; died December 9, 1863; Sec- 
tion and grave No. unknown ; buried in Stone River National 
Cemetery, Murfreesboro. 

J. McDowell, Private — Company E; died April 16, 1864; Section 
and grave No. unknown; buried in Danville, Va., a prisoner of 
war. 

Peter McDowell, Private — Company E ; died March 13, 1864; 
buried in Section E, grave No. 1,093, in National Cemetery, 
Nashville, Tenn. 

R. P>. Parker, Private — Company E; died February 22, 1863; 
buried in Section E, grave No. 382, in National Cemetery, Nash- 
ville, Tenn. 

Franklin Russel, Private — Company E; date of death not given ; 
buried in Section D, grave No. 956, in National Cenieter\', Chat- 
tanooga, Tenn. 



Roll of Honor.] History of the iijih O. V. I. 261 



VV. H. Lane, Private — Company F ; died December 31, 1863, in U. 
S. Cieneral Hosi)ital, Division No. i ; l)uried at Annapolis, Md.; 
had been a prisoner. 

U. A. McCoMH, Private — Company F ; died August 8, 1864; buried 
in Section E, grave No. 758, in National Cemetery, Marietta, Ga. 

D.-vviD Mitchell, Private — Company G; date of death not given; 
buried in Section D, grave No. 963, in National Cemetery, Chat- 
tanooga, Tenn. 

Oi'Ho W. Nigh, Private — Company G ; died February 7, 1864; Sec- 
tion and grave No. unknown ; buried in Stone River National 
Cemetery, Murfreesboro, Tenn. 

1). I). Miller, Private — Company G ; died March 25, 1863; Section 
and grave No. unknown ; buried in National Cemetery, Nash- 
ville, Tenn. 

F. Peterson, Corporal — Company G ; died x\ugust 30, 1864; grave 
No. 7,329, in National Cemetery, Andersonville, Ga. 

Joseph P.-vrker, Lieutenant — Company G; died June 27, 1864; 
buried in Section C, grave No. ccc, in National Cemetery, 
Marietta, Ga. 

J. L. RiGGiN, Private — Company G ; died June 27, 1863; Section 
and grave No. unknown ; buried in National Cemetery, Nash- 
ville, Tenn. 

Charles Rosendale, Private — Company G; died June i, 1864; 
buried in Section H, grave No. 409, in National Cemetery, 
Marietta, Ga. 

R. H. McLean, Private — Company G; died February 3, 1863; 
buried in Section B, range 9, grave No 22, in Cave Hill Nation- 
al Cemetery, Louisville, Ky. 

J. Price, Private — Company H; date of death not given ; buried in 
Section D, grave No. 957, in National Cemetery, Chattanooga, 
Tenn. 

Jacob Meyer, Corporal — Company I; died July 7, 1864; buried in 
Section E, grave No. 535, in National Cemetery, Chattanooga, 
Tenn. 

\V^\L McManas, Private — Company 1; died May 3, 1864; buried in 
Section K, grave No. 423, in National Cemetery, Chattanooga, 
Tenn. 

W'm. McKnight, Private — Company I; died August 4, 1864; buried 
in Section H, grave No. 605, in National Cemetery, Nashville, 
'I'eniL 



262 Hvi'iy-ilay Soli/iii -l.i/c : [Rull of Honor. 

j(iHN Rooks, Private — Clomiiany I; died July 8, 1864; l)uried in 
Section K. t^rave No. 566, in National Cx-metery, C'hatlanoo^a, 
'I'enn. 

|ami:s McMahan, Private — Company K. ; died November 30, 18^)4; 
buried in Section 1, j^rave No. 71, in soldiers' lot, Jeffersonvilk-, 
Ind. 

AzRO Mann, Private — Company K; died October 31, 1864; buried 
in Section E, grave No. 2,860, in National Cemetery, Nashville, 
Tenn. 

Hector Morrin, Private — Company K; died June 30, 1864; buried 
in Section J, grave No. ioi,in National Cemetery, Marietta, Cia. 

J. H. Newcomb, Private — Company K; died July 24, 1864; grave 
and Section No. unknown ; buried in National Cemetery, 
Nashville, Tenn. 

R. R. OsBORN, Private — Company K; died August 22, 1864; buried 
in Section F, grave No. 359, in National Cemetery, Chatta- 
nooga, Tenn. 

Levi Ro.mine, Private — Company K; died June 27, 1864; buried in 
Section 1, grave No. 261, in National Cemetery, Marietta, (ia. 

John Weber, Private — Company A; died July 19, 1864, buried in 
Section G, grave No. 1,35 i, in National Cemetery, Marietta, Ca. 

M. F. BusHFiELD, Private — Company A; date of death not given ; 
original burial, Franklin Tenn. ; removed to National Cemetery, 
Columbia, in Section K, grave No. 49. 

LvMAX Carter, Private — Company A; died March 20, 1863; origi- 
nal burial, Franklin, Tenn. ; removed to National Cemetery, 
Columbia, in Section N, grave No. 21. 

Nathan H. Smith, Private — Company B; died October i, 1864; 
Section and grave number unknown ; buried in National Ceme- 
tery, Dennison. 

Philo WiLLiA.MS, Private — Company B; died September 10, 1864: 
buried in Section F, grave No. 166, in National Cemetery, Nash- 
ville, Tenn. 

Simon Warner, Private — Company C ; died August 29, 1864; buried 
in Section C, grave No. 140, in National Cemetery, Marietta, Ga. 

Hiram Wilcox, Private — Company C ; died June 27, 1864; buried 
in Section I, grave No. 2, in National Cemetery, Marietta, Ga. 

I. E. Williams, Private — Company C; died A])ril 15, 1863; buried 
in Section +, grave No. 367, in Stone River National Cemetery, 
Murfreesboro, Tenn. 



Roll of Honor.] History of the iijtii O. V.I. 263 

VVm. Anderson, Corporal — Company C; died March 17, 1863; origi- 
nal burial, Franklin, Tenn. ; removed to National Cemetery 
Columbia, in Section N, grave No. 26. 

John Williams, Private — Company C; died April 15, 1863; original 
burial, Franklin, Tenn. ; removed to National Cemetery, Colum- 
bia, in Section N, grave No. 12. 

Wm. Mellen, Private — Company C; died March 26, 1863; original 
burial, Franklin, Tenn. ; removed to National Cemetery, Colum- 
bia, in Section K, grave No. t^-X)- 

John H. Price, Private — Company C; died April 4, 1864; oiiginal 
burial, Franklin, Tenn. ; removed to Columbia, in Section K, 
grave No. 39. 

\S . C. Mason, Private — Company D; died March 24, 1863; original 
burial, Franklin, Tenn.; removed to National Cemetery, Colum- 
bia, in Section N, grave No. 29. 

Edward Williams, Private — Company D; died November 20, 1864; 
buried in Section E, grave No. 2,869, in National (Cemetery, 
Nashville, Tenn. 

A. P. Wright, Private — Company D; died February 16, 1863; bur- 
ied in Section E, grave No. 1,231, in National Cemetery, Nash- 
ville, Tenn. 

H. A. Wells, Private — Company D; died February 20, 1863; Sec- 
tion and grave unknown ; buried in National Cemetery, Nash- 
ville, Tenn. 

Anthony Schimmel, Private — Company E; died August 7, 1864; 
buried in Section E, grave No. 759, in National Cemetery, Mari- 
etta, Ga. 

Henry C. Scorr, Sergeant — Company E ; died June 27, 1863; bur- 
ied in Section J, grave N'o. 79, in National Cemetery, Marietta, 
Ceorgia. 

A. I. W^ard, Private — Company IC ; died July 18, 1863; buried in 
Section C, grave No. 342, in National Cemetery, Nashville, Tenn. 
John Cray, Private — Company F; died April 14, 1863; original 
burial, Franklin, Tenn. ; removed to National Cemetery, Colum- 
bia, in Section K, grave No. 9. 

Amos Rich, Pri\ate — Company F; died March 25, 1863; original 
burial, Franklin, Tenn.; removed to National Cemetery, Colum- 
bia, in Section K, grave No. 36. , 

M. S.mith, Private — Company Ci ; died October 19, 1863; buried in 
Section I), grave No. 953, in National Cemetery, Chattanooga, 
Tenn. 



264 liiti y-iiiiy Soldier I.ijc : ] Koll ol lltnu)!". 

Hkzkkiah Suvek, Private — Company (1; died March 26, 1864; 
buried in Section K, grave No. 130, in National Cemetery, C'liat- 

lanooga, Tciin. 
WM. SiNSKi., Private— Company H ; died February 9, 1863; buried 

in Section B, range 12, grave No. 62, in Cave Hill National 

C'emetery, Louisville, Ky. 
Ci. Snyder, Private — Company 11: died .March 17, 1S63; Section 

and grave No. unknown ; luiricd m National Cemetery, Nash- 

\illc, Tenn. 
r>. 1'". TowNSEM), Private — Company Pi; died August 19, 18O3; 

buried in Section E, grave No. 355, in Stone River National 

Cemetery, near Murfreesboro, Tenn. 
Geo. H. Wilson, Private — Company H; died at Columbus, ().,vScp- 

tcmber 5, 1864; Section and grave No. unknown; buried in 

Kees' graveyard, east of Columbus. 
Thos. Perry, Private — Company H ; died June 2, 1863; buried in 

Section 1, grave No. 94, in National Cemetery, Columbia. 
S. Thompson — Company 1 ; date of death not given ; buried in Sec- 
tion A, grave No. 84, in National Cemetery, Chattanooga, Tenn. 
Randolph Weher, Private — Company 1; died August 13, 1863; 

Section and grave No. unknown ; buried in National Cemetery, 

Camp P>ennison, O. 
C'has.West, Private — Company I; died March 19, 1864; buried in 

Section A, grave No. 41, in National Cemetery, Chattanooga. 

Tenn. 
Jacou Kelsing, Private — Company 1; died April 28, 1863; buried 

in Section I, grave No. 84, in National Cemetery, Columbia. 
H. Wilburn, Corporal — Company 1; died March 5, 1863; Section 

and grave No. unknown ; buried in National ("cmetery, Nash- 
ville, Tenn. 
J. Wilkinson, Private — Company K ; died June 27. 1864; buried in 

Section I, grave No. 8, in National Cemetery, Marietta, (ia. 



OUR KNAPSACK 



31 



OUR KNAPSACK. 



[Under this head have been arranged anecdotes, sketches, incidents, and 
other matter pertaining to camp, held and bivouac, which have been mainly 
contributed by members of the command. That this department will prove to 
be full of interest to the members of the regiment and to their descendants to 
remote generations, there can l)e no doubt.] 



PRISON LIFE 



A STORY OF CAPTURE, IMPRISONMENT AND SUFFERING IX REl:EL 
PRISONS OF THE SOUTH. 



H\ J. N. Hall, One Hundred and Thirteenth O. V. I. 

In writing the following narrative of prison life, I shall begin at 
the battle at which I was captured, the bloody field of Chickaniauga, 
which was fought on the 19th and 20th of September, 1863. 

We had been following the rebel army under Bragg all the way 
from Shelbyville to Chattanooga, and had about given up the hope 
of his giving us battle. Our corps, under General Gordon Granger, 
had pitched our tents near Rossville, an insignificant village, near 
five miles south of Chattanooga, and were now resting from the 
tiresome marches of the several days previous. On the third day 
after our halt, the division (Steedman's) to which we were attached, 
started on a reconnoisance in the direction of Ringgold and Tunnel 
Hill, a distance of nearly twenty miles from our camp. The Con- 
federates were reported to be in that direction with a strong force, 
and the object of our movement was to ascertain his position and 
strength. 

Late in the afternoon, and within three miles of Ringgold, we 
encountered the outposts of the enemy, driving them in, and appro- 
priating their half-cooked supper of yams and sweet potatoes, which 
we found cooking in iron kettles. 

Halting about a mile from town, we placed six pieces of artillery 
in a commanding position, and, for a time, paid our compliments to 
our enemies after the cast iron fashion. I was sent with a sc[uad of 
men to the top of a hill on our left to ascertain and report any 
aggressive demonstration of the foe, but nothing occurred of import- 
ance. Our division, having accomplished the object of the trip, began 
to fall back toward Rossville late in the evening, and I was ordered 



2()ii Our A'//(r/>i(i(/y'. 

U) move in tlic rear with my siiiuid. The Confederates, ascertaininii 
tliat we were falling back, pressed our rear, and for several miles, 
and until darkness came on, a brisk skirmish fight was kept up, ir. 
which our loss was three killed and eight or ten wountled. We had 
now real hed a scope of heavy timber, and were permitted to move 
on unmolested. Coming at length to a level piece of bottom land, 
through which runs the stream Chickamauga, we forded the stream 
and went into camp on the edge of the jjrairie near a strip of timber. 
It was now nearly ten o'clock at night, and our cam]) fires were soon 
blazing in the necessary preparations for supper and rest. During 
the afternoon 1 had had the misfortune to lose my darkey who carried 
my haversack and blankets, but Cai)tain Bowersock generously 
shared with me his rations, and, sujiper being over, we stretched 
ourselves on the ground with our feet to the fire, congratulating our- 
selves that we might rest for the remainder of the night. Our enemies 
had calculated otherwise, for, just as Morpheus was escorting* us into 
the dim land of dreams, we were startled by the report of a cannon 
shot, and the whiz of a shell filled the air above our heads. This 
was followed by others in rapid succession, until the air seemed alive 
with screaming, screeching, exploding, deadly missiles. To s])ring to 
our feet, seize our arms and extinguish our fires, was but the work of 
a few seconds. All was confusion for a time, but, changing our posi- 
tion for another that seemed to promise security, we again lay down 
and rested unmolested till dawn. 

Returning to the vicinity of Rossville, our former camp, we re- 
mained the greater part of the day, and being within a few miles of 
the battle, which opened early in the morning, we could hear the 
roar of cannon and the din of battle as it progressed. This was 
Saturday, September 19th, the first day of the conflict. None of us 
comprehended the extent of the engagement now pending, nor did 
we realize that the day and the morrow would l)e fraught with the 
mighty events that have since passed into history. 

About dusk we received orders to march immediately, and, leaving 
our tents and personal effects in charge of a light guard, we were 
soon moving at a t[uick pace in the direction of Chickamauga Creek 
and the fatal field. At the distance of six miles we halted, and 
si)ent the night without fires, though the night was frosty and cold. 

The sun had scarcely risen the next (Sunday) morning, when the 
opening roar of cannon to the southeast of us told that the bloody 
work of the day had begun. After a hurried breakfast we fell in line 
and advanced about two miles to the east, where we halted and threw 
out a line of pickets. As the day advanced the roar of cannon be- 
came incessant, and the noise of musketry was a deafening accom- 
paniment. We could see the sulphur smoke of battle, and its local- 
ity indicated to us the position of the deadly combatants. We were 
all on the tip-toe of excitement; some seemed anxious to go forward 
and share in the struggle with the foe ; others shrank and grew pale ; 
but truth compels me to say that in the hours that followed, the timid 
and the bold fought with ecpial bravery. 



Our Knapsack. 269 

About half past nine o'clock the bugle called us to arms, and we 
were hurried at double quick toward the scene of battle. Presently 
we came to where the dead and wounded lay scattered over the field, 
the surgeons busy attending to the latter. This was' a trying moment, 
for, as we were hurried along, we crossed a level, open piece of 
ground, and the enemy appearing in the woods on our left, opened a 
deadly artillery fire upon us, and, strange as it may appear, our line 
crossed that space of several hundred yards and not a man was in- 
jured. Striking the timber again, we came very nearly entering the 
enemy's lines. General Steedman rode up, his horse covered with a 
heavy lather of sweat, and gave orders to file to the right. We hur- 
ried through a corn field and took our position in the timber. vStray 
balls were flying around with a continual spatter. In five minutes 
after coming to a halt we were ordered to charge up the rising ground 
in our front.' Obeying, we met the flying remnant of a regiment of 
our troops, who were being swept by the enemy from the position to 
which we were advancing; but on we went, and, reaching the sum- 
mit, we met the enemy in overwhelming numbers. Now came the 
tug of war. Grape, canister, shot, shell, and other death-dealing 
projectiles, made of our ranks a harvest of death, and in five minutes 
nearly one-fourth of our regiment was either killed or wounded. 
Utter destruction awaited us. We wavered, gave way, and fled down 
the hill in disorder. Reaching a somewhat sheltered position we 
halted, and, re-forming, lay down in line of battle. Shells and cannon- 
balls were doing their deadly work, cutting trees and large branches 
which, in their fall, sent consternation and sometimes death into our 
ranks. One limb in its fall killed two men. 

Our division was now occupying the brow of a hill, with orders to 
hold it to the very last moment. The men hugged the ground, load- 
ing and firing continually, each man as fast as he could. The deaf- 
ening roar of musketry and the boom of cannon drowned, in a great 
measure, the shrieks of the wounded and dying. Every moment was 
heitrd the dull thud which told that another had been killed or 
wounded. A {q^^ yards to my right stood a man behind a tree a foot 
in diameter. He was loading and firing at will, intent on killing all 
he could. But the brave fellow's earthly career was cut short by a 
cannon ball which struck the tree four feet from the ground, cutting 
the tree off, and killing the man so suddenly that he never knew 
how he was struck. 

We held our position till nearly sundown. Nearly half the men 
in our company and the regiment were killed, wounded or missing, 
and at each successive moment our ranks were melting under the 
terrific fire of death which continued to assail us. We had done all 
that brave men could do to hold our position, and further stay here 
seemed death to the remainder. At length an order was received to 
fall back, and the field with our gallant dead and wounded was left 
to the foe. After proceeding a short distance I turned aside in com- 
pany with comrade Clark, of Company B, and, as we again turned to 
run and rejoin our retreating column, Clark was struck by a ball and 



270 On I K/iapsiii'k. 

instantly killed. I caught him in my arms and laid him on the 
ground, and, beini; unable to render him any assistance in his last 
moments, except at the risk of my life, 1 again ran forward. As 1 
ran down the hill I came near to a poor fellow wh(^se leg had just 
been shot away midway between the knee and foot. He begged me 
for C'lod's sake to stop, and though the balls were flying thick and 
fast, I could not refuse him. I tied up his leg as well as 1 could, 
and, as I rose to run again, my canteen dropped to the ground. 
Stooping to pick it up, I noticed that the strap was cut asunder by a 
ball, and this made me decide to let the canteen take care of itself, 
and hurried forward as fast as 1 coulti run. 

Reaching the gulch at the foot of the hill, 1 discovered that our 
forces had been re-enforced, or had been able to re-form, and were 
now in position on the opposite side of the gulch, on the high 
ground, and were oj^ening fire on the advancing rebels. 'This placed 
me under the fire of friend and foe, and doubled my danger. 

Two others, left by their commands, were trying to find shelter be- 
hind a double tree which grew in the gulch. While 1 argued with 
them that there was room for a third, one of them was shot through 
the hips. 1 then concluded that I did not want the place, and at 
once started down the gulch, hoping to reach a place of safety by 
flanking friend and foe. 

I plunged into the thick undergrowth, feeling that 1 had hopes of 
escape, but I ran right into a regiment of Confederates lying con- 
cealed in the thick undergrowth. A half dozen muskets were pointed 
at me, and I was ordered to surrender. I had no alternative to do 
otherwise, and accepted the situation. 

I saw that the regiment or brigade into whose midst 1 had run was 
bent on some particular object, for they were creeping along cautiously, 
and lying close to the ground. I asked my captors if I might stand 
behind a tree, which would shelter me from the fire of our own troops, 
being a prisoner, I did not wish to be killed by my friends. To this 
they consented, and for a brief time a friendly oak protected me. 
The balls from our troops were flying dangerously near, and the 
dead and wounded of both armies were to be seen all around me. 
At length there came a momentary lull in the firing, but this was 
followed by a storm of shot, shell and musketry poured into the ranks 
of the rebels by the Union troops, almost annihilating them. They 
fell back, leaving large numbers of their dead and wounded, and 
also leaving me behind the tree to care for myself. I hesitated how 
to proceed, but concluded to pursue my flight down the gulch in the 
bare hope of finding an open space through which 1 might escape 
the foe and rejoin my retreating friends. I had proceeded but a short 
distance when I ran into a second line of the enemy, and was again 
a prisoner. It was now sundown, and the work of that bloody Sab- 
bath was drawing to a close ; the fighting ceased to be general, and 
the enemy at once took the best means of securing the hard-earned 
fruits of the day's conflict. I was hurried to the rear and joined to 
a sc^uad of near two hundred other prisoners, and as night came on. 



Our Knapsack. 271 

we remained on the field under a strong guard. I dare not recall the 
feelings that robbed me of slumber during that long night. I would 
not recall them if I could. One of the most painful recollections of 
one who has gone through a battle, is that of the friends lying 
wounded and dying, and who need that help which he is utterly 
unable to give. I suffered this and much more, for, as the weary 
hours wore away, the pangs of defeat and the consciousness that we 
had fallen into the hands of a merciless enemy, added to the terror of 
our situation. 

The next morning most of the Union prisoners who were not 
wounded, were set to the work of caring for the wounded Union 
troops, who, being unable to leave the field, had fallen into the hands 
of the rebels. Nearly all the wounded of both armies were yet on 
the field, and in general, uncared for. There was a vast number of 
each class, and the work of collecting them together and giving the 
necessary attention to each man, was a task a hundred fold greater 
than could be performed. This was Monday morning, and the battle 
had raged for the two days before, over an area of field and woods of 
several miles in extent. We prisoners were permitted to care for our 
wounded as best we could, but -the most we could do for them was 
to bring them water and give them such acts of attention as our 
limited means afforded. Hundreds died, who, with proper medical 
attention in time, might have lived and recovered. It is probably 
due to our foes to say that their time was fully employed in the care 
of their own wounded, and that the inattention given to ours, was a 
necessity, and beyond their control. We collected fifty or more of 
our comrades together, and placed them in an old house and shed 
adjoining. This house, and its surroundings, showed many evidences 
of the conflict, as several holes were to be seen in it which had been 
made by cannon balls. It stood in what had been a cornfield, but 
the fences and the crop and nearly everything but the naked house 
and the ground on which it stood, had been swept away by the battle. 

Besides this house, there were numbers of other places on various 
parts of the field of battle where our wounded were collected and 
cared for by the well prisoners, if such attention as we were able to 
give them, might be called care and attention. By Tuesday, after 
Sunday's battle, we had many more wounded on our hands than we 
could possibly attend to, yet many perished for lack of attention. 
The rebels were still busy attending their wounded and burying their 
dead ; our dead being as yet ^mburied, the work of decay had set in 
and the stench produced thereby was insufferable. This state of 
affairs made the condition of our unfortunate comrades the more 
deplorable, for to be compelled to inhale the tainted atmosphere was, 
of itself, horrible. 

The family wh(j owned the house we were occupying, and who had 
been driven from it by the battle, returned on Tuesday following the 
battle. Everything of a personal character, except the house, had 
been destroyed or swept away by the contending armies, and the situ- 
ation upon the return of the family was anything but inviting and 



272 Our K/nipSiuk. 

;i;4ret';il)lc. The old lady, a tall, angular woman, with a Roman nose 
and dark penetrating eye, was fired with malicious rage towards the 
\'ankees. Coming into the house and finding tlie tloor covered with 
the suffering wounded, siie gave vent to her feelings in a tirade which 
1 shall never wish to hear repeated, and whicii 1 can never forget. 
" Oh, you wretclies," said she, " I am glad to hear you groan, if ] 
durst, I would set fire to the house and burn it over your heads.*" 
And I think she would have done so, l)ut for fear of the guards, who, 
I must say, treated us kindly. A brave soldier, let him fight on 
whatever side he may, is always magnanimous and merciful to his 
captive. It is the dastard and coward who uses this opportunity to 
inflict ujjon his heli)less captive a humiliation or insult. 

On Wednesday, September 23d, 1 got permission to go over that 
part of the battlefield on which the i 13th had fought on Sunday 
afternoon, thinking I might find some of my comrades of the regiment 
who were yet alive, and to whom I might be of some service. 1 found 
every bush and tree bearing the marks of the conflict: every object 
was marked with grape, cannon and rifle balls ; even the small twigs 
had been cut down, and the forest appeared as though a mighty 
whirlwind had swe|)t through it. I counted on one tree the marks 
of forty shots, and the wonder is that any man could stand in such 
a place and live for a moment. 

I found our dead here and there, lying where they fell — sometimes 
singly, sometimes in groups, all unburied. I recognized the faces of 
a number of the 1 13th, among the dead ; many of the wounded were 
yet alive, but all 1 could do for the i)Oor fellows was to give them a 
drink of water. Captain Joshua M. Wells, Company C, 113th O. V. 
I., was still alive, having been shot through the left lung. He was 
fully conscious, and expressed hopes of recovery. Giving what atten- 
tion I could, I returned to our hospital at the old house, and giving 
an old man two dollars, I had the Captain brought in and placed 
where I could give him attention. Here I gave him all possible care, 
but under the circumstances very little extra care could be bestowed 
upon a single one. 

Captain Wells lived till the following Sunday, September 27th, and 
met death like a heroic Christian soldier. While 1 attended him, he 
expressed a great desire that his body should be sent home to his 
family at Columbus, O., in case of his death. I assured him it should 
be done if possible, but I felt utterly powerless to do so. The Cap- 
tain's body was laid in a grave prepared by my hands ; I also marked 
his grave by a headboard, cutting thereon his name, company and 
regiment. I afterwards wrote to his widow, giving her an account of 
the incidents of his closing hours, and of the sad rites I had per- 
formed. Some months later, when the Federal troops obtained 
jX)ssession of the battlefield, the body was exhumed and sent home 
in a good state of preservation. 

For a week following the Captain's death we remained in this place, 
continually burdened with the care of the wounded and the burial of 
the dead. Up to this time, fourteen days after the conflict, the dead 




/. A'. HALL. 



Our Knapsack. 273 

were not all buried, and the stench arising from the decaying bodies, 
surpassed all description, and I am inclined to think caused the 
speedy death of many of our wounded. 

An exchange of wounded prisoners on both sides, was now effected 
by, and between Oeneral Rosecrans and General Bragg. We prisoners 
who had remained thus in care of the sick, had allowed ourselves to 
hope that we would be included in the exchange ; but we were 
doomed to disappointment, for, on the day following, we were mus- 
tered into line, our name, company and regiment listed, and we were 
marched to a station on the railroad between Chattanooga and Ring- 
gold, where we were loaded in box cars, a hundred men to each car, 
and sent south to Atlanta. Remaining two days at Atlanta, we were 
again loaded on a train and sent to Richmond, Va., arriving at our 
destination about the loth or 12th of October, 1863. 

None of us had believed that our imprisonment would last but a 
few days, and had expected nearly every day before leaving northern 
Georgia, to be exchanged and returned to our commands. Upon 
arriving at Richmond, we were marched across two long bridges, 
which span the James river, below the falls, and thence down a street 
running parallel with the river, and thence into the famous building 
known as Libby. 

Libby stood on the bank of the James. It was a long, brick build- 
ing, with basement and two stories, and had probably been used as a 
wholesale tobacco house. The long way of the building was up and 
down the river, or, in other words, the building stood with its side to 
the river. On its end front was the sign "Libby & Son." Nearly 
four hundred of us were quartered on the lower floor of this building 
on our arrival, and the same evening we had issued to us, a small 
piece of brown bread and a half pint of thin soup to each maYi — not 
half enough to satisfy our appetites. Piling ourselves uj^on the hard 
floor, we rested well for the night, for the journey of several hundred 
miles had been one of fatigue and unrest. 

Next morning the prison was visited by two Confederate officials, 
accompanied by half a dozen guards, and the work of robbing the 
prisoners of their money in a business-like manner began. We were 
told to surrender our money to the officers for safe keeping; that an 
account of it would be kept for us and the amount returned to us 
whenever we left the prison. We were also told that those who 
refused to surrender their money voluntarily, would be searched, and 
all money thus found would not be returned. Having thirty-three 
dollars, I thought I would divide with them ; so pulling off my boot, 1 
sec;reted twenty dollars therein. When my turn came to " stand and 
deliver," I handed over thirteen dollars, and all was satisfactory. One 
ol my fellow prisoners had four hundred dollars in gold, all of which 
lie handed over to these robbers. Nearly every one of us had more 
or less money, and by the time they were through taking care of it 
for us, they had a consideral)le pile of greenbacks, and they seemed 
thoroughly satisfied with the amount realized, for not a man was 
searched, and the few who had the good sense to keep their money, 

32 



274 ^'"' ^n^psiuk. 

saved it all. Not a cent of this money was ever returned, nor was 
there any intention of returning it when it was taken. It was a 
cowardly, heartless theft. The second day we received our rations 
in kind and (juantity like the first, but as before, the ([uantity was far 
short of our necessities, and after eating the whole (luantity, wc were 
almost as hungry as before. 

The next day we were marched out of Libby and put into anoilier 
prison known as " Femberton's Building." This prison stood further 
east than Libby, and on the opposite side of the street. It was 
a large three story brick, with a cellar the full size of the foundation ; 
a brick partition divided it into two nearly ecjual ai)artments. Before 
we were put into this prison, it was already full of prisoners, but we 
were crowded in among the rest, and now it was with great difficulty 
that we could find room to lie down. 1, with others of my comrades, 
found a place on the third floor. The men on each floor drew their 
rations separately, and according to the number of men on each. 
One of our number was appointed to receive the rations for all the 
men on one floor, after whicli a sub-division was made to stjuads of 
twenty-five men, and then these twenty-five would sub-divide, giving 
to each man his portion with exactness, for even a crumb is a matter 
of contention among starving men. Our rations were cooked and pre- 
pared for us in the basement of Libby prison, and each day a certain 
number of men were detailed from each floor to go after them. Our 
rations now consisted of a very small piece of old bacon, boiled, a 
half pint of thin soup made of the water in which the bacon was 
boiled, a small piece of bread. This was not sufficient for one good 
meal a day, and our hunger was never satisfied. As soon as our food, 
which was intended for three meals, was issued to us, we ate it all in 
one, a'nd then hungered till the same hour the next day. I have 
been so hungry that when I got my soup, thickened with skippers 
which came out of the meat in boiling, that I never i)retended to 
sei)arate the skippers from the soup, but greedily swallowed skii)pcrs 
and soup together, and thought it excellent. We all did the same in 
this respect. Every atom of food was precious in our eyes, and l)eing 
continually hungry, our minds and conversation dwelt upon things 
we wished to eat. It appeared to us that if we could only have had 
enough to eat, that notwithstanding our loathsome confinement, we 
would have been the happiest creatures alive. 

Nearly every day flying reports of an exchange were circulating 
among the prisoners, and our hopes were alternately buoyed and de- 
pressed by these groundless rej^orts, originating — nobody knew 
where ; and yet for all this, they served to keep us hopeful. But as 
day after day passed and no exchange came, I began to despair of 
being speedily exchanged, and began to look about and devise means 
and mature plans of escape. These thoughts I kept to myself, but 
it was several days before 1 struck a plan that was at all practical. 
There was ([uite a trade, in a small way, kept up between the 
prisoners on the inside and the guards on the outside of the building, 
'i'his was in violation of orders, and whatever was done in this line 



Oui- Knapsack. 275 



must be done with the utmost caution. I had already made several 
little trades with one of the guards, resulting in quite an intimate 
acquaintance, and the thought suggested itself that if I could induce 
this guard to sell me a Confederate uniform, I might by this means 
effect my escape. 1 approached the guard very cautiously at first, 
telling him that my clothes were about gone, and that I did not know 
what I would do for more, and finally ventured to ask him how much 
he would charge me for a pair of gray pants and a roundabout. At 
first he was disinclined to sell this kind of goods, fearing that by some 
means it might be found out, and he made to suffer. He made many 
excuses, saying he did not know where he could get them for me. I 
assured him that there would be no danger, and promised him eternal 
secrecy. At last he agreed that for ten dollars in greenbacks he 
would bring me the required articles when he came on guard again 
that night at one o'clock. I returned to my place on the floor and 
waited with impatience for the intervening hours to wear away. I 
feared to lie down, knowing that if I fell asleep I might miss my 
appointment with the guard. 

At last I heard the guards sing out their accustomed cry. " Twelve 
o'clock and all's well." One more hour to wait and then I should 
know of my success or failure. That hour seemed almost an age, 
but at length came the cry, "One o'clock and all's well." I waited 
a few minutes and then crept cautiously down stairs to the window 
near which the guard was stationed. I found him all right, and told 
him in a low whisper to pass the clothes to me through the iron bars 
of the window, and I would pass the money to him in the same man- 
ner. The exchange was quickly made, and I hurried back up stairs 
to my sleeping companions. After roll call next morning, I put on 
my suit of gray and began -to plan for the future. I have before 
stated that we procured our rations ready cooked in the basement of 
Libby prison across the street, and at some distance westward. When 
the time came to draw our rations, I contrived to be detailed for that 
purpose, and picking up a wooden bucket, I fell in line with the rest. 
A guard was always on duty to prevent any attempt to escape, and 
therefore my chances were desperate, but it could be no worse if I 
failed. Generally when the cook house was reached, we had to wait 
sometime before receiving our rations, and at these times the guards 
and prisoners were apt to be engaged in little trades of various kinds, 
and the guards were likely, on such occasions, to relax their vvatchful- 
ness. It was at such a time as this, that I hoped to find a chance to 
escape. Watching my opportunity while the attention of the guard 
was drawn on some little trade, and at the same time watching for 
the Confederate officers, I handed my bucket to a companion with a 
sly nudge and look which meant silence, 1 slipped out of the ranks. 
I did not attempt to leave immediately, but stood around with some 
Confederate soldiers who were off of duty, and who were watching 
the prisoners out of curiosity. I asked one of the bystanders how 
long since these fellows had l)een captured, and made some further 
remark about threshing the Yankees. When the squad began draw- 



276 Our Kihipsadi. 

ing their rations, 1 sauntered slowly and carelessly uj) the street, 
])assing " Castle Tluinder " on my way. 'I'his building stood t>n the 
same side of the street as Lil)l)y, antl tvyo hundred yards or more 
further west, and not far from the river. It was a three story brick 
building, and was now Hilled with Confederate soldiers, probabl) 
deserters and those who refused to enter the rebel ranks. Being 
dressed in all respects as a rebel soldier, 1 did not attract any par- 
ticular attention. As I passed on 1 met numbers of officers and 
soldiers, greeting ihcni with the true military salute. 1 wandered 
towards the ui)per part of the city, intending to get out of town in 
the dusk of the evening. I was fearful of pursuit, for 1 did not kn<jw 
how soon 1 would be missed from the prison. I was risking all on 
one desperate chance of escape, and was, therefore, in no frame of 
mind to enjoy the sights of that part of Richmond through which 1 
was passing. I stopped at a small provision store kept by an Irish 
woman in the suburbs of the city. I bought two dollars worth (jf 
cheese and crackers, paying for the same in Confederate money, and 
got about enough for a full meal. I would have eaten it all on the 
spot, but was fearful of exciting the curiosity of the old woman by 
eating too greedily. 

As the sun began to sink behind the western hills, 1 walked out of 
the city, but it was dusk before I had passed beyond the last houses 
of the outskirts; indeed it seemed to me that the houses of the city 
reached a great way into the country, and every moment I feared 1 
might meet some one who would inquire where 1 was from and where 
I was going. These were two questions which 1 prefered not to 
answer. Fortunately I saw no one who was inclined to be inipiisitive. 
As soon as darkness set in 1 left the gravel turnpike and struck 
out into the fields on my right. I was entirely ignorant of the country, 
but I knew I could not remain in or near the city long undiscovered, 
and 1 must go somewhere. The night being cold and chilly, I had 
to keep continually on the move to keep from suffering with cold. M 
I had desired to start a fire, I had no means to do so, therefore 
exercise was a necessity. 1 stumbled into ditches, scratched my face 
and hands with brambles, crossed fences and kept floundering along 
without any definite knowledge as to where I was going, but my iilan 
was to pursue a northwesterly course from Richmond. 1 somehow 
thought this route would be clearest of enemies, and that 1 might be 
fortunate enough to slip through the lines of the enemy and get into 
our own lines and be safe. 

A short time before da) light 1 entered a heavy forest, and as day 
began to break, I sat down, for, by this time, I was well nigh ex- 
hausted. I now ate what little food 1 had and waited for the sun to 
rise, that by that means 1 might be able to shape my course. I was 
now far out of sight of the city, and sincerely hoped I might always 
remain so. 

As the sun came \x\y 1 shaped my course and moved ahead through 
the woods, moving slowly and cautiously ; in fact 1 could not have 
hurried if 1 had desired to do so. About ten o'clock I emerged from 



Otir Knapsack. ^11 

the woods onto a plantation. I could see the maHsion of the planter 
about a mile to the right, and a little to the left of the mansion and 
several hundred yards distant, were the quarters of the slaves. The 
day was pleasant, it being the time of year when the nights are cold 
and the days pleasant. 

Lying down behind a log, 1 was soon sound asleep. As near as 1 
could judge, I slept till about two o'clock in the afternoon, when 1 
was awakened by the barking of a dog. 1 aroused myself in some 
alarm, and looking n round I saw a fierce looking canine within a few 
yards of me, barking savagely as thongh he had found something. 
Rubbing my eyes, 1 peered about that 1 might be able to see the 
dog's master, and saw an old gray haired negro with an ax on his 
shoulder, and a heavy piece of a dogwood sapling under his arm. 
He spoke to the dog to be still, and eyed me with a half-frightened 
look. In a moment I saw that concealment was out of the question, 
and the best thing I could do would be to make friends with my sable 
visitor. The old man seemed very shy, but I spoke kindly to him, 
called him uncle, and told him that being exceedingly tired, 1 had 
lain down to rest and had fallen asleep. He told me he was the 
slave of Major Brown, and that his master was in the army, as was 
also a younger son of his master, but that there was one of the sons 
at home. He asked me if I was not a soldier, too. 1 admitted that 
1 was. He said he had heard that the Yankees were a very bad 
kind of men, and that they would coax the poor black man from home 
and then roast and eat him. I told him that I had no doubt but that 
many of them were very bad people.- He told me the distance to 
Richmond was eleven miles, and that there was a camp of troops 
some seven or eight miles west of us. I told him 1 wanted to go 
home to see my mother, and that if these soldiers or any one else 
knew I was here, they would not let me go, and that he must tell no 
one of having seen me. I told him then that he had better go home 
and that I would lie down and rest a while longer. As soon as he 
was out of sight, I thought it unsafe to remain here longer, so I 
hurried away, keeping in the skirts of the woods next to the planta- 
tion on my left. 

Further on I reached a road running westward, and followed it for 
half a mile or more, but becoming fearful of meeting Confederate 
soldiers, or of being seen by them, I struck off into the woods on my 
right, as the safest plan to escape observation. Traveling till near 
sundown, I came out into the open country again. The country 
through which I had traveled during the day was rough, hilly and 
broken, but now I found myself on the edge of what appeared to be 
a highly cultivated valley, with mansions and negro quarters stretch- 
ing out before me as far as the eye could reach. I was now nearly 
exhausted from hunger and fatigue, and lying down, I rested till after 
dark, determined on procuring something to eat, by some means, at 
any risk. Before night came on, I had observed some negro huts in 
the distance, and to these I made my way, urged on by a gnawing 
hunger which grew keener with each inissino; moment. 



278 Our Knapsack. 

I went first to « shanty wlicrc 1 could sec glinimerinj^s of light 
through the cracks and crevices in the wall, hut upon ajjproach- 
ing nearer, the noise of laughter and confusion from within made 
me hesitate to enter, and I determined to call at one or more of the 
other shanties near by ; but at these there was no response to my 
knock, and 1 was compelled to return to the first. The hungry voice 
within wt)uld not be hushed, and prudence having surrendered \m 
necessity, 1 could only make known my desperate condition and take 
the consetpiences. 1 knocked boldly at the door. The n(jise within 
at once ceased, and the door was ojjened by a burly darkey, who, 
upon seeing me, started back in some trepidation. At a glance I saw 
within a number of negro women, young girls and children, besides 
four negro men, but last and worst, there were four rebel soldiers in 
the party. Retreat was not to be thought of. 1 therefore walked 
boldly in without showing the fear that I felt. The soldiers were 
considerably startled at the situation, and I think they took me to be 
one of their men bent on the arrest of their ])arty. Comprehending 
what might be passing through their minds, 1 concluded the best 
thing to do was to play a bold hand, so 1 remarked to them that we 
had caught each other this time, but it would never do for one sol- 
dier to blow on another. 

It was but a short time till things were again moving on as usual, 
yet 1 could see that 1 was the object of suspicion, and the soldiers 
kept an eye on me, which showed a lack of confidence. Before my 
arrival one of the negroes had been playing the fiddle and the sol- 
diers and wenches had been dancing, but my coming had dampened 
the enjoyment of the hour. 

1 asked one of the women for something to eat, and showed her a 
bone ring which 1 had made while in prison, promising it to her if 
she \vould get me what 1 wanted to eat. She set before me a good, 
sized piece of corn bread and a small piece of bacon, which 1 ate 
with great relish, thinking it as palatable a mess as I had ever eaten. 

I intended as soon as I finished eating to step quietly out of the 
house and make my escape; but fate had decided otherwise, for, just 
as I swallowed the last mouthful, there came a loud knock at the 
door, and, before anyone from within could 0])en the door, it was 
flung open from without, and in stepped a Confederate sergeant, fol- 
lowed Ijy eight soldiers with fixed bayonets. There was no chance 
of escape, for the only door to the room was guarded by two of the 
soldiers. The scpiad proceeded to arrest the four rebel soldiers and 
myself. 

The negroes were kicked and cuffed shamefully, while we were 
threatened with severe punishment when we reached camp. The 
four Confederates arrested with me were known to the sergeant and 
his party, and I soon learned from their conversation that they had 
evaded duty and absented themselves from camp early in the morn- 
ing. 1 was the extra man unaccounted for. The sergeant asked me 
what regiment 1 belonged to, and, knowing that it would be useless 
to tell anything but the truth, I told him I was a member of Com- 



Our Knapsack. 279 

pany E, 113th O. V. 1. He did not at once comprehend, and said 
that he knew of no such regiment about there. I did not feel in- 
clined to enlighten him further just then, knowing that all I could 
say would do no good. The five of us were securely bound together, 
while the negroes were ordered to their respective quarters, a com- 
mand they obeyed with alacrity. We were now marched off in single 
file in the direction of the rebel camp, which I think was about three 
miles distant from the place of our capture. We reached camp 
about one o'clock A. M., and spent the remainder of the night in a 
guard house, closely guarded. 

When daylight appeared 1 had an opportunity of looking about 
me and of becoming acquainted with my surroundings. The camp 
was situated in a grove of small timber, and the troops numbered, 
perhaps, three regiments. I learned from my fellow prisoners that 
these troops were stationed here for the purpose of caring for and 
feeding up a lot of cavalry horses. 

About seven o'clock we were furnished with a light breakfast, con- 
sisting of corn bread and beef, after which we were ordered out under 
a guard to perform fatigue duty. I told the sergeant who had charge 
of the guards over us that, as 1 did not belong to that command, it 
was unjust to compel me to do such duty. 1 was fearful that if I 
waited to be found out by force of circumstances 1 might be taken 
for a spy, in which case my punishment would be death. I told the 
sergeant to request his captain to come and see me, as I had some- 
thing of importance about which I wished to speak. The captain, a 
tall, well made man, with black whiskers, made his appearance, and 
desired to know why 1 wanted to see him. 1 told the story of my 
escape and recapture, withholding nothing. He seemed much sur- 
prised, and, promising to report my case to the colonel in command, 
went away. After a time two guards came and conducted me before 
the colonel. 

There were several ofhcers present when 1 was taken into the 
l)resence of the colonel, all of whom looked upon me with doubt and 
suspicion. The colonel c[uestioned me very closely as to how I made 
my escape, where I had at first been taken, and many other ques- 
tions which 1 do iiot recall, all of which I answered truthfully. After 
this I was returned to the guard house. I felt ill at ease, for, though 
1 had told a straight and truthful story, I could see that I was not 
more than half believed. About two o'clock that afternoon a lieu- 
tenant came to the guard house and told me that they had concluded 
to send me to Richmond, and if 1 had not told the truth I would 
have a quick passage to the other world. This gave me relief, for at 
Richmond I felt confident I could establish the truthfulness of my 
story and my innocence in being a spy. The lieutenant and two 
guards then started with me to Richmond. We were all mounted on 
mules, I riding beside the lieutenant and the two guards in our rear. 
We soon became somewhat acquainted, and tell into a lively conver- 
sation on the topics of the war. North and South. 1 told him of my 
services as a soldier, and of being captured, and many t)thcr incidents. 



28o Our Knapsack. 

\\\ all of which he seemed interested. He, in turn, recounted some 
of his experience in the C. S. A , and our talk became animated and 
pleasant, both of us wishing the war at an end, so we could be at 
our respective homes — he in North Carolina and 1 in Ohio. 

It began to grow dark before we reached the city; I was taken be- 
fore the military officer in command of the city, and from there was 
taken to the city jail, into whi( h I was thrust. 'I'he cell was dark, 
damp and loathsome. Here 1 spent the night, supperless. Ne.xt 
morning I was given a light breakfast of corn bread and sou];, after 
which 1 was taken out and conducted under guard to the office of the 
commanding general. Here 1 was closely tpiestioned in the presence 
of several officers in regard to the plan and means of escape, and 
here, as before, I told a plain and truthful tale, knowing that the 
truth would serve me better than a lie". The general asked me if 1 
could name anyone in the prison l)y whom 1 could establish my iden- 
tity. 1 mentioned the names of Ed. Wright and Thomas Hinton. 
They were sent for and confronted me. They were much surprised 
at seeing me, as well as being thus called from the i)rison in this 
manner, for what purpose they knew not. 

These two men were cpiestioned separately and very closely, and 
their statements regarding me coincided so completely that all pres- 
ent were fully convinced that 1 had told a true story. The general 
lectured me soundly for my ingratitude in trying to escape from such 
kind friends, and said that, as a punishment, 1 should be sent to the 
dungeon for twenty-four hours. 

1 was accordingly taken to the city prison, and thrust into an un- 
derground cell with an iron door. The cell was musty and without 
ventilation ; the air was damp and stifling. In a corner was an old 
straw mattress, falling to pieces with age and filth. As soon as the 
guard had closed and locked the massive iron door,the intense darkness 
of the cell became oppressive beyond description. Not the faintest 
gleam of light could find its way into this abode of inky darkness. 
The darkest night was as brilliant sunshine compared with this dun- 
geon. The thought of remaining here twenty-four hours was tor- 
menting, and the fear that 1 might be forgotten entirely, and left to 
die a dreadful death of hunger and thirst, filled my mind with fright- 
ful fancies. None but those who have passed through a similar ex- 
perience can have the least idea of. the tormenting doubts which 
assail a person in the position 1 then was. Hour after hour dragged 
slowly away. I became feverish and desperately thirsty ; my only 
thought now was water. If I only could have one good drink of 
water I thought I could endure my situation in comfort. 

At length, worn out with my own thoughts, I cast myself u[)on 
that couch of filth, and thought to wear away a part of my sentence 
in sleep. A restless sleep at length came over me, in which I 
dreamed of running streams of limpid water, at which I was drink- 
ing but could not slake my thirst. I awoke from my fevcjrish sleep 
with a dull, heavy jjain in my head, and with my thirst more tor- 
menting than before. I was now really sick. I could not tell how 



Our Knapsack. 281 

long I had been in this horrible place, but short as the time really 
was it seemed to me almost an age. At length I heard the rattle of 
keys in the door. It was flung open, and there stood the guard and 
the turnkey of the prison to conduct me beyond these hated walls. 
Staggering to my feet, I was soon in the upper daylight, and was 
breathing the pure, invigorating air of heaven. It was some time 
before I could accustom my eyes to the glare of the sun. There was 
plenty of water in the prison yard, of which I drank and bathed my 
face, feeling much refreshed. I was then conducted by two guards 
to my old prison, and was again locked within its walls. Those who 
knew me in the prison crowded around me, asking a thousand ques- 
tions ; I promised to tell them all at a future time, but for the present 
I needed rest. I went up stairs to my old place and lay down. 
Some of the prisoners gave me something to eat, and I fell asleep 
and slept till next morning. I awoke feeling much refreshed, and 
though my trip to the country had not resulted as I desired, I felt 
that I had had some valuable experience. 

Time now moved on without incident for some days. Our rations 
were barely sufficient to sustain life, but never enough to appease 
our hunger. Such of us as had money, or some other means of 
traffic, could sometimes effect a trade with the guards, and thereby 
procure a little extra to eat. At length, as if by accident, we found 
in one part of the prison, securely locked from our reach, a quantity 
of wheat bran, which could be reached by tying a tin cup to a long 
stick and fishing it to within our reach. By stealing this bran we 
were able to make mush by boiling the bran in our little tin buckets, 
but, lacking salt, our mush was very unpalatable. I have heretofore 
stated that the building had a brick wall passing up through the 
center. There were prisoners on both sides, but they were kept sep- 
arate and not allowed to communicate with one another; but by 
drilling holes through the brick walls this restriction was avoided and 
friendly relations established. 

We now ascertained that those in the other department had plenty 
of salt, an article of which we on our side were sadly in need, and 
by increasing the size of the holes in the wall to admit a spoon we 
were able to transport a spoonful of salt at a time, a circumstance 
that added much to our comfort, and traffic in salt grew active. 
Finally it leaked out that the salt we were buying from our fellow 
prisoners was found in ([uantity in a room of the basement on their 
part of the building. This induced us to prospect under our part of 
the building. Back next the water closet was a small passage or 
entry. With the aid of a hatchet which had been smuggled into the 
prison, we tore up the floor of this entry and sent a man below to 
explore. He soon returned with the news that the cellar under our 
part of the building was a big strike — a regular bonanza. A door- 
keeper was appointed, secrecy was enjoined on all, and the utmost 
caution was used to prevent our good news from spreading to the 
authorities. Only a few were permitted to go down for sugar at a 
time. The men would take off their worn and dirty drawers, tie the 

33 



2.S2 Our Knapsack. 

ankles in a knt)t, and watch i)aticntly for a turn to descend into the 
cellar for sugar. Then, filling these lousy, filthy garments with 
sugar, would return to their places. Every available article that 
would hold sugar was l)rought into use. Needles and thread were 
found and sacks made out of everything possible, and these filled 
till every man on our side of the house was plentifully sujiplied and 
had sugar to sell. On the other side they had plenty of salt, but no 
sugar; on our side there was a glut of sugar and a demand for salt. 
.\ brisk trade ensued in these two commodities and was carried on 
by way of the holes in the wall before mentioned. 

'i'he sugar and salt added much to our comfort; the sugar served 
to deaden our appetites and also to sweeten our bran mush ; while 
the salt added made it quite i)alatable. The routine of prison duties 
were somewhat ofter the following order : The first thing after get- 
ting up of a morning was lousing, that is, we would pull off our 
clothing, give them a careful inspection and kill all the lice we could 
find. These were not a few; I think that on the average each man 
would kill from three hundred to four hundred of these parasites 
each day, and by the next morning there would be as many more to 
share the same fate. After "lousing" came roll-call and after roll- 
call we could steal sugar and trade with our friends for salt, or 
occupy our time in some other way. From one till two in the after- 
noon was our time to draw rations, l)ut no more of our number were 
allowed to go out in a Confederate uniform as I had done. We ate 
our dinner about three o'clock in the afternoon ; then we would sit 
around and talk of home, or of an exchange, or of what grand din- 
ners we would have when we get out of prison. We usually lay 
down in our sleeping j)laces as soon as dark came on, for, being with- 
out fire or lights, we kept early hours. A rule had been established 
among us that no one should go down for sugar except in the night, 
for there was danger of being discovered in the day-time. 

The prison was so crowded that when the men all lay 
down the floor space was entirely occupied, and this led to more or 
less trouble between the occupants of the lower floor and those of 
the second and third floors. Those of the first or lower floor claimed 
a sort of monopoly in the sugar trade, and finally became so arro- 
gant as to say that we from the second and third floors had no right 
to come down during the night to get sugar, and they would suffer it 
no longer. 

The feeling increased from day to day and many personal en- 
counters ensued between the monopolists on the lower floor and the 
occupants of the other two floors. Open rupture threatened, and 
my partner and I, seeing the storm coming in the distance, managed 
to accumulate a stock of sugar ahead, for under the heated animos- 
ity existing among the men, our sugar plot would soon be made 
known to our captors. 

About the end of the third week following the discovery of our 
sugar mine, the crisis was reached. The men of the two upper 
floors said, with emphatic profanity, that they would go down in the 



Ow Knapsack. 283 

night and get what sugar they wanted ; and those of the first floor 
declared with equal emphasis that they would not suffer their domin- 
ions to be invaded and their dreams disturbed by intruders. So 
when night came on the occupants from above went below as they 
had promised to do, and during the whole night there was nothing 
but fighting and ([uarreling. Those from above filled their haver- 
sacks, drawers, and the like with sugar, and in attempting to return 
to their places they were set upon by the others, who attempted to 
rob them of their sugar, or, failing in this, they would rip open the 
sacks and other things used in carrying the sugar, and the contents 
were scattered on the floor. 

This state of things lasted all night, and resulted in the unneces- 
sary destruction of hundreds of pounds of sugar, so that in the 
morning the floor where the scene had occurred was covered with a 
coat of sticky taffy, the heat of the room having reduced the sugar 
to a half-melted st:V.e, so that in walking over the floor one's feet 
would stick at every step. P\irther concealment was now out of the 
question, and from the condition of affairs we felt satisfied we would 
have to face the music. We had now killed the goose that laid the 
sweet egg. It is unaccountably strange to see how very foolish men 
act at times, but it has been so and will so remain. 

When the Confederate officers came in next forenoon to call the 
roll, as was their custom, they at once discovered that something 
unusual had occurred; their feet would stick to the floor, and they 
soon made the discovery that we had been stealing their sugar. A 
rumor ran through the prison that all of us were now to be searched, 
and such as were found with sugar in their possession would be tied 
up by the thumbs as a punishment, but these reports proved to have 
no foundation in fact. No one was searched nor punished, and those 
who had sugar were permitted to keep it. The Confederates esti- 
mated that they lost ;|2o,ooo worth of sugar and salt, but I am in- 
clined to think that the real loss would not reach over $6,000. 

The basement of our prison was emptied of these articles the 
same day of this discovery, and the immediate result to us was that 
both rose rapidly in value, the demand exceeding the supply. Sugar 
which could be had for nothing yesterday, is to-day worth $2.50 per 
pint; salt rose proportionately. 

Our rations were now cut down for a week as a punishment, and 
as a consequence we suffered much. Day succeeded day and one 
week wore into another without much note until about the first of 
December, when we were taken out of this prison and transferred 
to Danville, Va., about one hundred and fifty miles southwest of 
Richmond and about four miles from the North Carolina line. Dan- 
ville is a place of 3,000 or 4,000 inhabitants, situated on the Dan 
River. The Dan River Canal and the railroad leading to Richmond 
run through the city. Several thousand of the prisoners at Rich- 
mond were at this time, December, 1863, moved to Danville. We 
were quartered in large brick buildings which before the war had 
probably been used as tobacco warehouses. These buildings were 



284 Ou> K/uipuic/':. 

numbered from one to six, and situated in various sections of the 

1 was put in No. 4, a large l>rick l)uilding covered with a tin rool. 
Most of these prisons were covered in the same manner, i occupied, 
with many others, tiie lower floor. On the south side of our prison 
was a tier of small rooms which may have been used as oftices in 
times of peace. In one of these little rooms I and four comrades 
were cjuartered, there being two floors above us, and each filled to its 
utmost capacity. 

At the west end of this building was a stockade inclosing the end 
of the prison, and here was the privy and a well of water. A strong 
guard was placed on the outside of the prison, but there were no 
guards on the inside, therefore we had the freedom of the space 
where the well of water was. Our rations at Danville were more 
than they had betn at Richmond, and we all felt benefited by the 
change, but withal we drew only enough for an ordinary meal, and 
this was insufficient to satisfy the cravings of our appetites. The 
guards here were less vigilant than those who had guarded us at 
Richmond. 

Prisoners confined as we were are ever restless arid uneasy, plan- 
ning some scheme to deceive their guards or plotting at some means 
to escape. Every day there were rumors of an exchange of prison- 
ers, and we were always making calculations on being exchanged 
within a month's time. Many of the boys spent much of the time 
in making trinkets which they sold to the guards. These consisted 
of finger rings, tooth-picks, and breast pins, made of bone or gutta 
percha. By this means something to eat was purchased. 

After we had been at Danville a week the occupants of our room 
tore up the floor and found that it was about four feet above the level 
ground. Here we found pieces of plank, scraps of iron and tin and 
a tew nails, which had been used in the construction of the building. 
We determined to keep this matter to ourselves, and the five of us 
at once began to plan to escape by tunneling out. The foundation 
of our prison was of stone, and was sunk eighteen inches below the 
surface. Along the south side of the prison ran a wide street, and on 
the opposite side was a dwelling house, with garden attached. We 
calculated that the street was sixty feet wide, and that the whole dis- 
tance we would have to tunnel would be seventy-five feet. We pos- 
sessed ourselves of an old hatchet and with what we had we at once 
began operations. Besides the hatchet we had two or three case 
knives and some scraps of iron. Nine o'clock in the morning was 
the time for roll call, at which time we would be in our places, and 
the planks down. We made our bed over the loose planks, and our 
blankets were so spread as to conceal any defects in the floor. 
While two of us went below to work a strict watch was kept above to 
l)revent surprise and discovery. 

With the utmost diligence very little progress could l)e made. We 
were comi)elled to dig down under and below the foundation before 
we could make a start at tunneling, but by the end of a week we 



Our Knapsack. 2S5 

had made a fair beginning. We concluded to lighten the labor by 
taking others into the secret ; and accordingly four others, in whom 
we had the utmost confidence, were initiated into the plot and made 
acquainted with our plans and purposes. We toiled day after day 
nearing the accomplishment of a project, which, if successful, would 
be life and liberty. We never went below to work till after roll call 
in the morning. This we considered the safer plan, for we knew not 
what minute they might come in upon us. By the end of the second 
week our numbers had grown to fifteen, as each of our original num- 
ber had his particular friend whom he wished to favor, and every day 
an additional man was let into the secret. As soon as roll call was 
over in the morning two of our number would go down and work for 
an hour, while one, pretending to be sick, would spread his blankets 
on that part of the floor through which we went down, thus guard- 
ing against interruption and discovery. When the hour was up two 
others would go below and take the places of the first two, and thus 
the work went on till dark, when it was suspended till the next day. 
We managed to make our exchanges so as not to attract the atten- 
tion of the other prisoners, for to have made known our aim and 
object to all the prisoners, would have insured its failure. In mak- 
ing the tunnel one of our number would creep into the excavation, 
dig the dirt and fill it into a flour sack, which had come into our 
possession. This sack had attached to it two ropes, by means of 
which it was worked to and fro. When the sack was full it was 
pulled backward and its contents emptied out under the prison floor. 
It was then pulled back and refilled. In this way we worked till 
days grew into weeks, and six weeks had elapsed since we started 
our tunnel. We had made our way under the very feet of our 
guards, and passed under one of the busy streets of the city. 
Wagons and carts and throngs of people passed over our heads, but 
heeding not their din we bent every effort to one coveted end. 

We were rapidly approaching a completion of our work, and all 
were in the best of spirits. A few more days and we would be able 
to go out whenever we considered the opportunity favorable. The 
number interested in the tunnel had now increased to near sixty. 
Just how so many came to be let into the scheme I never could well 
tell. By a careful measurement the tunnel was one hundred and 
twelve feet long, and we felt confident that we were far enough into 
the garden to insure our escape if the nights were dark, but un- 
luckily for us the moon just at this time was full, and we were com- 
pelled to delay our final effort to escape until the dark of the moon. 
We, however, made all the necessary preparations so as to be fully 
ready when the time should arrive. Each day some of our number 
would go down into the tunnel to work a little and see that all was 
right. All our plans were discussed and to-morrow night was fixed 
upon as the time for our escape. We had barely finished laying our 
plans when a squad of soldiers led by a lieutenant came into the 
building and ordered us to pack our effects and move to the upper 
floors. This was as a clap of thunder in a clear sky to all who were 



286 Our KnapsuiJ:. 

interested in tile tiunul. Il dawned \\\)un iis in a moment that we 
had been betrayed, but by whom we couhl not tell. We were all 
crowded up on the second and third lloors, and then our captors 
bei^an walking around on the first lloor in order to discover any loose 
])lanks. When they reached the little room we had occupied they 
found what they very probably already knew to be there, namely, 
the loose plank which we had used as a doorway to our work. Then 
followed some bitter and loud profanity. They then procured a light, 
and, going below, explored our work from end to end to their entire 
satisfaction. A sipiad of negroes were then i)rought, and put to 
work fdling up the tunnel. From a window in the ujjper story we 
watched them, as they followed our subterranean channel across the 
street and into the garden where it terminated. We could see that 
we had gone a sufficient distance into the garden to have made our 
escape, and would certainly have done so but for the base treachery 
of some one. The tunnel was now filled with stone, and then cov- 
ered with dirt. A guard was now placed on the first floor, and the 
prisoners were all kept on the second and third floors. This made us 
so crowded that it was with great difficulty we found space to lie 
down. No more of us were allowed to remain on the first floor, but 
ten were allowed to go down at a time, under guard, to get water and 
for other necessary purposes, and when these ten returned another 
ten were allowed to go in the same manner, and this going by tens 
was kept up day and night, the prisoners being required to fall in 
line and await their turns. In addition to the guard kept on the first 
floor, there was also one stationed in the little back yard where the 
well of water was situated ; and, besides these, there was a strong 
guard at regular intervals around the i)rison building. Escai)e 
seemed next to, if not absolutely impossible, but prisoners confined 
as we were are ever restless, and ready at all times to resort to des- 
perate means to gain their freedom. 

About three weeks after the discovery of our tunnel, ten prisoners 
went below at night in the usual manner to procure water. WHien 
they reached the back yard, which I have before described, one of 
them approached the guard and asked him if he wanted to trade for 
a gutta percha finger ring. (The guards were always on the trade 
when they had the opportunity.) The guard replied that he did not 
know, and wanted to see the ring. While the guard was looking at 
the ring and dickering about the price, a prisoner approached him 
from bedind and dealt him a heavy blow on the head, felling him to 
the ground. Another prisoner had stationed himself near a small 
gateway, which had formerly been used as a passage way in and out, 
but which of late had been securely barred by heavy oak planks 
nailed cross-wise. As soon as the guard was knocked down, the 
prisoner at the gate began to knock off these plank, using for the 
purpose an old a.K with which he had provided himself before coming 
down stairs. 

The result was that ten made their escape through the guards no 
the outside of the prison. The guard who was knocked down began 



Our Knapsack. 287 

screaming as if suffering from a horrible night-mare, and the guard 
on the lower floor of the prison was so shocked with fear that more 
than fifty of us prisoners, rushing down stairs, passed by him with- 
out opposition. We surmised that a break for liberty was being 
made, and we all rushed for the place of exit. But the alarm had 
been sounded to guards on the outside, and on our reaching the gate 
we were met by a company of Confederate soldiers with fixed bayo- 
nets, who made us hurry back up stairs about as fast as we had come 
down. Nine of the ten men who made their escape were captured 
and returned to prison ; of the tenth I never learned of his recapture 
or successful escape. 

Soon after this last occurrence 1 was taken sick with typhoid fever, 
and for nearly a week I lay in my place on the floor suffering in- 
tensely. The hum of conversation and other necessary noises of 
the prison greatly aggravated my suffering, and as I was without 
medical attention my condition became alarming. I was at length 
moved out of prison and placed in a hospital nearly a mile from 
the town. Here I enjoyed the comforts of a clean bed and pure air, 
and besides was given some attention by the doctors. I remained 
very low for about three weeks — so low that a part of the time 1 was 
unconscious of what was passing around me. Finally, my strong 
constitution enabled me to weather the storm, and I was in a fair way 
of recovering my accustomed good health ; my appetite returned and 
I was able to be up a part of each day and walk about the ward. 

I began to congratulate myself on a rapid recovery, but one even- 
ing about a week after I commenced moving about, I felt so ill of a 
sudden that I was scarcely able to reach my bed, and my fever 
seemed to have returned with all its original malignity. I thought 
that by some means I had taken a relapse, and I began to think that 
I would soon be paroled into the next world. After taking my bed 
I became violently delirious, and I have a vivid recollection of that 
terrible night of scorching fever. I imagined myself in a hundred 
different fearful positions. At one time I seemed to be cut up into 
numerous pieces, placed in a wheel and whirled round with lightning 
velocity ; then I would suffer from some other hallucination. The 
next morning my fever abated somewhat, and I felt better. When 
the doctor made his customary morning round he looked at me a 
moment and then directed the nurses to carry me out of the ward, 
and telling me at the same time that I had the small-pox, and that 
it would not do for me to stay there. A little while before this the 
small-pox had broken out among the prisoners at Danville, and I 
had in some manner been exposed to it. The nurses carried me to 
an old out-building which had the siding partly knocked off of it, 
and which was situated at some distance from the rest of the build- 
ings. Here were already a dozen or more prisoners with the same 
disease, furnishing the company which misery is said to love. I 
now realized that my situation was a desperate one, and I nerved 
myself to endure and suffer much. On the following day several 
other small-i)ox patients were brought in, and at the end of the 



2 88 i)io Kna/^stick. 

third dav our miiiibcr had increased to forty, thus ( rowding the old 
ImiUling to its utmost capacity, and creating a pic lure of sit:kness 
and suffering that would appall the stoutest heart. We were crowded 
and piled together in a manner that wt)uld have been very iincom- 
torlahle to men in health. Some of our number had the disease in 
its most malignant form; most of these died. Others were afflicted 
in a milder form and a majority of these soon recovered. All night 
long was heard the moaning of the sick and the ravings of the 
delirious. Much less attention was paid us than our suffering con- 
dition demanded ; we were left to get well or die, as the case might 
be, and those who recovered did not owe their recovery to careful 
nursing. Sometimes a patient would become delirious, gel out of 
bed and walk out into the cold and snow barefoot, and would have 
to be brought back. Such cases as this invariably died. Those who 
died during the night were suffered to remain with us till morning 
and then carried out for burial. Our dead numbered three, some- 
times four each night. It was indeed a charnel-house of death and 
misery ; life and death struggled for the mastery, and death usually 
won. Those who escaped death and recovered did so by passing 
through the most trying scenes and by being blessed with constitu- 
tional vigor that defied the ravages of disease. Fortunately for my- 
self I had the disease in its mildest form, and on that account 
weathered through The small-pox at length spread to the main 
[prisons in the town, and the pest houses being already full to over- 
flowing, many suffered and died of the disease without being re- 
moved from the prison, and the cases of small-pox became so general 
as to excite very little attention. 

After about four weeks I had so far recovered as to be able to go 
about, and my appetite was so improved that 1 could have eaten 
much more than I did if I could have had it ; and sometimes I was 
fortunate enough to have given me the rations of some other unfor- 
tunate comrade who was too sick to eat, and in this manner I some- 
times met the demands of my appetite. I have no means of know- 
ing the number of deaths from this disease, but there were a great 
many. Having no means of guarding against the contagion, and 
being crowded closely together in unventilated rooms, teeming with 
stench, dirt and filth, our condition invited the disease, and in the 
majority of cases it could not be otherwise than fatal. After a time 
I was returned to the hospital from which 1 was taken when attacked 
with the small-pox ; here I was allowed two light meals a day, con- 
sisting of bread and soup, but in no case was this sufficient to satisfy 
my hunger. Some days later I was placed in another hospital nearer 
town and was appointed ward-master in the same. This hospital 
had two wards below and two above, and all were filled with sick. 
The worst cases were in the ward to which I was assigned, and my 
duties were such that I had four assistants under me. The number 
of patients under my charge was usually sixty, and the deaths were 
often six in a day. As soon as one died and was carried away this 
place was supplied with another patient. 



Our Knapsack. 289 



Over our hospital, as a sort of general superintendent, was a Con- 
federate officer named Daffan. This Daffan passed through the 
wards each day, gathering up the property of the dead men, saying 
that he had to account to our government for all the property of the 
dead. A short time previous to this, the federal government had 
supplied the prisoners with many articles of clothing, besides blankets 
and many articles of comfort, and many of us had good pants, shoes, 
blouses and shirts. Whenever one of the men died, Daffan would 
come around inquiring for the " effects " of the deceased, as he called 
them, and everything of value was gathered together and handed 
over to old Daffan. He was particular to impress on our minds that 
he had to account to our government for all these things. We knew 
all the time that he was lying to us in this matter, but it would not 
help the matter to tell him of it. Several times we put the good 
clothing on the bodies of the dead and they were buried with these 
on. This displeased Daffan very much, who said it was all a need- 
less waste, and threatened me that if I allowed the like to occur 
again he would have me returned to prison. The old fiend said that 
a man was just as well off by being buried in his old clothes, and no 
better off for being buried in his best, and that our federal authorities 
would be greatly displeased when they learned of this waste. I 
regarded this as a piece of cool impudence on the part of Daffan, to 
think that I would believe a story so full of deceit and falsehood, but 
I kept from expressing what I thought, for I knew that anything I 
might say would do no good, and would only aggravate him to inflict 
some indignity upon me. 

I had now recovered my accustomed health, and by a Ijetter supply 
of food was improving daily, having the opportunity of keeping my- 
self more cleanly than I could do in the prison. Daffan made his 
usual rounds, demanding of the attendants the effects of the dead. 
Of the number of dangerously sick was a Dutchman who occupied 
a cot in one of the tiers near the center. Across the aisle from him 
lay a patient who had on a pair of good shoes, an article of which 
the Dutchman was entirely destitute. When this man died the 
Dutchman insisted so hard that I should let him have the shoes, that 
I told him that I was liable to get into trouble if I let him have them, 
but if he would get up and get them himself I would pretend that I 
knew nothing of it, and I would offer no objections. This he did, 
and the coveted shoes were placed under his own bunk. When 
Daffan came in to take possession of this man's effects he overlooked 
the shoes, and the Dutchman remained in peaceable possession of 
them. 

It was reported and generally believed in the hospital, that this 
Dutchman had four or five hundred dollars in greenbacks stowed 
away somewhere about his person, and Daffan had said to one of the 
nurses that the old man had better give that money over to him for 
safe keeping till he got well. On the night of the third day after the 
shoes bad changed owners, while one of the nurses and I were seated 
(juietty by the stove, we heard the labored breathing of the Dutch- 

34 



290 Our Knapsack. 

man, and taking a light we went to his bed and found that he was 
indeed dying. He survived but a few minutes after we first heard 
his heavy l)reathing. Our custom was that when a patient died the 
body was placed in a suitable position, and if at night, the remains 
were left on the cot till morning. It was a singular fact that nearly 
three-fourths of the deaths occurred in the night, but why this was so 
1 could never determine. 

At the time of the death of this Dutchman only myself and one 
attendant were up, and we i)erformed the necessary work of preparing 
the body for burial on the following morning. The nurse and I 
talked over the matter of the wealth of the deceased, and both 
expressed a desire to know the truth of the report of his keeping a 
large amount of money about him We concluded that if we found 
it that we could use it to as good advantage as Daffan could, and we 
made dilligent search in the bed and clothing of the dead man, 
hoping to gain possession of the reputed wealth, and disappoint 
Daffan by keeping it ourselves. Our search was rewarded by finding 
only a few dollars of Confederate money and some trinkets of very 
little value. We were now satisfied that the report about his having 
a great quantity of greenbacks was a hoax, and we confessed ourselves 
disappointed. The next morning the body was removed in the 
customary manner by placing it in the dead-house. Daffan came 
into the hospital the next morning, and learning of the death of the 
Dutchman, made inquiry for his effects. I gave him all that had 
been found, and noticed that Daffan appeared much disapi)ointed. 
He asked if we did not find a quantity of greenbacks, and we 
assured him that nothing of the kind had rewarded our search. He 
remarked that it was very strange indeed, and we read in his looks 
that he suspicioned me of having the dead man's money, but he went 
out of the ward and did not return immediately. In a short time, 
however, he came back accompanied by four soldiers with fixed 
bayonets, and, after telling me that I was suspected of having the 
dead man's cash, he ordered them to search me thoroughly. They 
proceeded to a careful inspection of every possible and impossible 
place about my person where money could or could not be concealed; 
they ripped open the collar of my overcoat, but the imaginary lost 
treasure was nowhere to be found. Then they turned their attention 
to my straw mattress and pillow, and straw after straw of both these 
articles was made to undergo careful scrutiny. Then other parts of 
the ward were carefully searched, but nothing was found, for the 
reason that there was nothing to find. Notwithstanding the fact that 
I had been vindicated by the result of this search, I was from this 
time on a marked man, and under the ban of suspicion. I was 
immediately deprived of my position as ward master, and was made 
to perform duties of the most menial kind, and every effort was put 
forth to inflict upon me some humiliation and insult. After a few 
days I was sent back to my old prison in town. I had been at the 
hospital over three months, and in that time had suffered both from 
typhoid fever and small-pox, but had recovered from both, so that 



Our Knapsack. 291 

now I was much improved in my general health, and was looking and 
feeling better than at any time since the beginning of my imprison- 
ment. Spring was now close at hand, for as near as I can remember 
it was about the middle of March, or perhaps a little later. 

Maiiy changes had taken place in the prison during my absence : 
many had sickened and died. Some of my special friends had 
been carried out to the hospital, and of the many, but a few had 
returned. From the hospital they had been carried to the dead- 
house, and from thence to the dwelling place of the martyred dead, 
to join the unreturning throng. 

The small-pox continued to prevail in the prison, but it had become 
much milder in its character, and was now much less dreaded than 
formerly. Our captors still maintained a strong guard on the lower 
floor and in the back yard, and but three persons were permitted to 
go down stairs and out to the well at a time. So many had died in 
the three months of my absence that the prison was much less 
crowded than when I left. The chances for escape by the back gate 
or by tunneling, were now hopeless, and I soon settled down in my 
old place, made some new acquaintances in place of many of the old 
ones who had died, and resigned myself to whatever awaited me. 

Our rations had become extremely light — barely enough to keep us 
ravenously hungry all the time, and to keep our minds and conver- 
sation dwelling on imaginary feasts, which we were to enjoy in the 
future. In the beginning of our imprisonment, and for months 
following our capture, we had allowed ourselves to hope for a speedy 
exchange ; but now that months were lengthened into years, hope 
was succeeded by dispair, and we no longer allowed ourselves to 
encourage a hope of release in this way. The only thing left for us 
to do to obtain freedom from our prison life, was to plan and perfect 
an escape. Being carefully guarded day and night, this was no easy 
task, and required strategy and daring of a superior kind. Adjoining 
our prison was another building, the roof of which covered about one- 
third of the window on the north side of our prison, and this 
seemed to offer a possible chance of escape. If we could manage 
to saw the bars off which covered this window, remove the glass and 
crawl out upon the roof of this addition, there was a chance of jumping 
to the ground, a distance of ten or fifteen feet from the eaves. By 
choosing a dark night, and making the effort so suddenly as to sur- 
prise the guards, it was thought to be barely practicable, but our 
situation was so gloomy that our desperation nerved us for the trial. 
Consulting among ourselves, we concluded that if a number should 
undertake it at a time, crawl out on this roof, jump off, and attempt 
to escape by running, there was a possibility of some of our number 
escaping. The work of sawing off the bars must be done on the 
same night of our attempted escai)e, for to remove the bars and let 
the work remain to be completed at a future time, would have been 
fatal to the plot. The undertaking rec[uired the strictest secrecy. 
The first steps were taken by making a number of case knives into 
saws. 



29- ^"'' Kiiiipsac/K. 

The loader in this inatler was a shrewd Irishman named John Foy. 
Kd. Mitchell, another Irishman, Tom Hintun, my partner, and myself, 
were the originators and prime movers in the work. One jjart of our 
plan was to keep our scheme to ourselves until the arrival of the night 
when it was to be carried out, and then make it generally known, and 
induce as many to join us as dared to do so, thus increasing our indi- 
vidual chances of escape. We determined to wait for a dark, rainy night, 
for on such a time our guards were less vigilant than on other occa- 
sions. It was not long till a favorable night arrived, and we set to 
work with a will to execute what we had been so long and hopefully 
planning. Soon as we began sawing at the window-bars it became 
known in the i)rison that an attempt to escape was to be made that 
night, and al)out fifty or si.xty of the prisoners expressed their inten- 
tion of making the effort along with us. We sawed away at the bars 
by turns until about half past eleven o'clock at night, when we 
succeedid in removing one bar, making an opening sufficiently large 
for a man to crawl through, and nothing was now left but to determine 
who should follow. By this time more than one-half the number 
who had been so ready to escape with us, had experienced a change 
of purpose, and had gone off and laid down, preferring to bear their 
present terrible misfortunes, rather than to attem[)l what seemed a 
barely possible chance of bettering their condition. To us who had 
originated the plan, this determination on the part of our comrades, 
had no effect tending to change our purpose, for we had reckoned 
the cost and weighed the risks before we began. The rain which 
had been falling during the early part of the night now ceased, and 
glimpses of bright sky could be seen here and there through the 
clouds. It appeared to us that it was a remarkably light night, being 
cloudy and no moon at all. Now that the night began to grow 
lighter, thus decreasing our chances of escaping unobserved by the 
guards, we began to debate whether to go on with our half executed 
project or to abandon it altogether. To us prisoners, situated in a 
dark room, and full of fears and anxiety, every outside object seemed 
magnified; indeed I sometimes seemed -to think that the light itself 
was magnified. Our numbers, too, were fast decreasing, and out of 
the many who were so ready to go at the beginning, scarcely a dozen 
remained firm to their original intention. Counseling over the matter 
we tarried till half past twelve or one o'clock. If we failed to go 
now, our work would be discoved in the morning, and we would, in 
all probability be made to suffer for what we had already done. At 
last Foy, who was standing nearest the window, turned to the rest of 
us and said in a whisper, that if any of us would follow, he would 
creep out. We told him to go on and we would be with him. 

He crept out, Mitchell followed, then Hinton, and then myself. 
Our plan was to reach the roof and all remain ipiietly on the same 
until all who made the attempt were ready, then to drop to the 
ground, and each for himself, escape as best he could. I handed my 
haversack to the one who was to follow me ; it contained a piece of 
corn bread, which was to be my subsistence until fortune supplied 



Our Knapsack. 293 

something more. In creeping out I fancied I made much more noise 
than any of those who preceded me, and on reaching the roof I could 
see the dim. outlines of my three adventurous companions who had 
crept out in advance of me, each crouching closely to the roof to 
avoid being observed by the guards who were pacing to and fro in 
the darkness, but a few feet below. I turned round in a half- 
straightened position to reach my haversack, and in doing so I made 
a cracking noise on the roof, which alarmed my comrades, and they 
commenced jumping from the building to the ground below. In a 
moment the guards began firing and shouting the alarm at the top of 
their voices, and the utmost excitement prevailed both inside and 
outside of the prison. The shouts of the guards and the reports of 
their guns were anything but music to our ears. I had not yet 
jumped, and if it had been possible I should have returned to the 
prison in the same manner I had escaped, but in doing so I would 
be compelled to crawl back slowly, and the guards, being now fully 
aware of our place of escape, would have riddled me with musket 
shots. 

A train of thought ran through my mind with lightning rapidity, 
and I saw that my safest plan of action was to jump to the ground, 
imitating the example of my comrades and share their fate. I 
accordingly leaped off the building into the darkness below, striking 
on my feet and falling heavily forward unto my knees and hands. I 
jumped right over the heads of three of the guards, and so close to 
them that they could have touched me with their guns. Each of 
the three fired at me, but strange to say, neither shot took effect, the 
darkness of the night and the confusion of the moment rendered 
their aim unsteady, the balls overshooting me. The flash of their 
pieces blinded me, and I was somewhat shocked by striking the 
ground, but before they could lay hold of me, I sprang forward and 
made my escape. They were probably of the opinion that their 
shots had killed me, and they being in no haste to secure a dead 
man, 1 had the better chance of getting away. In my haste and 
fright I ran across the street and came in collision with a plank 
fence, for though I knew the fence to be there, I was too much ex- 
cited to remember it at that moment. The force with which I struck 
the fence knocked me down, and I was for some minutes too much 
stunned to proceed. All was excitement and confusion in and about 
the prison. I was now on the opposite side of the street from the 
prison and knew nothing of the fate of my comrades. As soon as I 
was somewhat recovered I commenced crawling along the fence in 
order to get away from the immediate vicinity of the prison. I con- 
tinued to crawl until I came to a corner of the fence opposite prison 
No. 3, when I was able to turn to the left and to move on, still crawl- 
ing and hugging the ground with the utmost caution, to prevent the 
guards from No. 3 seeing me. Having passed No. 3, I raised to a 
half-standing position, and by so doing attracted the attention of the 
guards of No. 4. These called out, " Here goes one of them," and 
began firing at me. I sprang into the street and ran as fast as I 



294 ^"' Knapsack. 

could. The alarm brouglit nearly twenty guards in ])ursuit of me, 
and with yelling, shooting and running, the chase soon became more 
iiilcresling than agreeable to me. 

1 would trip and fall on my knees, then gathering myself up again 
and hurry on, realizing each moment that my pursuers were gaining 
on me, and the shots from their guns whistled uncomfortably close 
to me. Just as I was on the jjoint of giving up, I came to a ditch, 
over which was a short bridge, under which I took refuge, sinking 
myself as far as possible into the mud and water with which it was 
filled. My pursuers, owing to the darkness, failed to notice my 
jumping into the ditch, and so proceeded further on, crossing the 
bridge under which lay their victim, or jumping the ditch above and 
below. After they had passed I sunk myself deeper into the mud 
and there rested for some time; meanwhile the guards, having lost 
track of their game, returned, cursing and swearing and wondering 
at what had become of me. After all was quiet 1 commenced crawl- 
ing down the ditch, fearing all the time that if I left the ditch I 
would be discovered and retaken. I i)roceeded in this way till I 
reached the mouth of the ditch where it emptied into the canal. 
The canal and river being on one side and the town on the other, 
made my progress somewhat uncertain. I could not cross the river, 
and to pass through the city, even at night, would be attended with 
great danger. 1 at length moved on, creeping as I went, with the 
canal and river on my right and the town on my left; finally, I came 
to a house, back of which was a high plank fence inclosing a garden. 
This fence ran so near the canal that I could not go back of it, and 
if I went in front I would strike the street and be in danger of being 
seen. The fence was too high for me to climb, and under the cir- 
cumstances I hesitated what to do. I halted for a time, debating 
with myself how to proceed. While thus considering, I saw at a 
short distance a creeping form approaching me, which at first I 
feared might be one of the pursuing guards, but my second thought 
led me to hope it might be one of my comrades, and acting upon this 
conclusion I crept toward it. It proved to be my dear friend Hinton, 
and though we met under the darkest circumstances, the meeting 
was a joyous one to both. 

We congratulated each other on our fortunate meeting and for a 
time consulted as to future plans. Hinton could tell very little of 
the fate of Foy and Mitchell, but .said that when the first shots were 
fired at the prison he heard some one say he was shot, but could not 
tell which it was. Hinton 's wrist was badly sprained and swollen, 
and was paining him very much; this was the result of his jumj) 
from the prison. We determined to cross the street in our front and 
pass up another one leading to the suburbs in a western direction, 
and finally out of town. 

The canal and river shut off our escape in that direction, and we 
felt certain that to remain here till daylight would result in our re- 
capture. We therefore walked out across the street in our front and 
passed up another one to the outer edge of the town, without meet- 



Our Knapsack. 295 

ing or seeing a single person, and without being seen. Once or twice 
we were bayed at by some dogs that ought to have been asleep at 
this untimely hour. Reaching a pike entering town from the west, 
we struck out in a brisk walk and soon left the town with its hated 
prisons far behind us. We congratulated ourselves anew, and began 
to think ourselves real heroes. 

We soon concluded that it was very risky to travel on the pike 
and we took to the fields on our left, leaving the river and canal on 
the right. The rain of the past few days had saturated the earth, 
and the fields through which we made our way were mirey in the ex- 
treme, making our progress slow and difficult. The fields were in- 
closed with high picket fences, similar to those bound around gardens 
in the North, and we were often compelled to creep through holes in 
the fence, and sometimes we tore off the pickets in order to proceed 
in a direct course. Being very much exhausted with the labors and 
excitement of the early part of the night, and having but little vigor 
and strength in the beginning, we found ourselves almost completely 
worn out, and though we desired to go as far before day as possible, 
we were at length forced to halt and rest. 

The great difficulty of traveling through the fields and the greater 
ease of traveling on the pike, induced us at length to return to the 
pike, intending, when daylight came, to abandon the pike, return to 
the fields and conceal ourselves. We had reached the pike and were 
moving along finely, when all at once several gruff voices ordered us 
to halt, at the same time the clicking- noise which: accompanies the 
cocking of muskets gave emphasis to the command. Our strength 
was so near exhausted that we could barely walk ; therefore, escape 
by flight was not to be thought. 

Blinded by the darknes^s, we had run into a squad of the enemy's 
pickets who were guarding a ferry on the river, and had approached 
to within a few feet of them before we were halted. We had no 
knowledge of a ferry at this place, and were not suspecting the pre- 
sence of the enemy's pickets. I think the guards were placed here 
more to intercept rebel deserters than to recapture escaping prisoners. 
These guards had already been notified of the escape of prisoners 
from the town and were on the lookout for us. Our captors taunted 
us on the failure of our effort to escape, and said, " You-ens might 
have known you could not get away from we-uns." We bore their 
taunts with meek submission, not deigning a reply. A sergeant and 
four men were detailed to take us back to town. Ou the way I 
suffered much from thirst, and asked the guards to allow me to lie 
down at a pool and drink. This they refused to do, fearing perhaps 
that in some way I might effect my escape again. It was broad day 
light when we reached town. I was covered with mud from head to 
foot, my hair was matted with mud and dirt, and I had lost my hat, 
and altogether I presented a sorrowful plight. One Moffitt, a major 
in rank, commanded at Danville at this time, and to his head(piarters 
we were taken. The major had not got out of l)ed, but presently he 
made his appearance, looking sour and cross. He was a small man, 



296 Our Knapsack. 

having dark, penetrating eyes, and an ugly Roman nose, and was al- 
together such a man as a prisoner would prefer not to meet before 
breakfast. He eyed us with a look that threatened annihilation, and 
then said viciously, " I will make you fellows pay for causing us all 
this trouble." The sergeant was then ordered to lake us up to the 
prison and leave us on the lower floor till further orders. The ser- 
geant obeyed, placing us on one side of the building and under the 
care of a lank, long-haired son of chivalry as guard, telling the guard 
that we were a desperate couple and to shoot us upon the slightest 
effort to escape. The guard placed himself in a valiant attitude, and 
pointing his long, dirty finger at us said : " Now, Yank, you attempt 
to move and 1 will put a ball through you in a moment." We 
assured him that we knew escape was impossible, and therefore we 
should not attempt it. As soon as the sergeant had gone out our 
guard told us to lie down and rest if we wished; that he was just 
doing that bully talking in the sergeant's presence for effect, and 
that he had no desire or intention to harm us. 

The other prisoners were coming down stairs and returning con- 
tinually on their trips for water, and all availed themselves of 
getting to see us, as we were objects of curiosity. The guard was 
instructed to allow no conversation between us and the other prison- 
ers, though we prevailed on him to let our friends from up stairs 
bring us something to eat. They brought us some corn bread and 
sassafras tea, which was a real treat to us. Upon intiuiry we learned 
that our comrade Mitchell, who had attempted to escape with us the 
preceding night, had been shot through the left breast, and was now 
lying up stairs alive, but not expected to recover; and in an hour 
after we were placed under guard in the prison, Foy was brought in. 
He had a badly sprained ankle, the result of jumping from the build- 
ing. He had succeeded in getting out of town, but found himself 
unable to travel. After daylight a negro came across him and Foy 
offered the negro $10 if he would feed and care for him until he. 
would be able to travel. This the negro, through fear, refused to do, 
but went away and informed the Confederates where he was to be 
found. He was accordingly captured and brought in. They now 
had us all four, and we were in a sorry plight. Hinton had a sprained 
wrist, Foy a sprained ankle and Mitchell was fatally shot. I had 
escaped serious injury, but was very stiff and bruised in jumping 
from the roof to the ground. Soon after Foy was brought in the 
three of us were taken into the middle of the street and bucked. This 
punishment was inflicted upon us in plain view of the men in both 
prisons. We were placed about midway between the two buildings, 
the object being to make the lesson an impressive one to the other 
prisoners and to humiliate us at the same time. Old soldiers know 
what bucking means, but the ordinary reader needs some explanation. 
The hands nre tied together in front, then the body is bent down and 
the knees bent up, while the arms pass down the outside of the 
knees. Then a stick is thrust under the knees and over the arms, 
and the work is done. When a man is bucked he is utterly helpless, 



Our Knapsack. 297 



and the position of the body is so cramped that the situation becomes 
unendurably painful. In this case the cords were tied very tight on 
our wrists, which greatly increased our suffering, and our hands and 
arms were soon very much swollen. I began to study up a plan of 
relief from my painful position, and thought of a hundred different 
ways but all seemed useless. After suffering for two hours my limbs 
became numb with the pain I was enduring. All at once a thought 
struck me which seemed to be the thing, and I concluded to try it. 
Whirling myself on to my back I commenced struggling with a fit. 
I had seen many persons in fits and I hoped to accomplish some- 
thing by a close imitation of the genuine. I rolled up my eyes with 
a stony, vacant stare, grated my teeth, worked the spittle into a froth 
and forced it into the corners of my mouth, and so contorted my 
limbs and body as to closely resemble the symptoms of fits. This 
attracted the attention of the guards at once, and one of them in- 
quired of the others what it meant. The reply was that he did not 
know, but he believed the fellow was in a fit. Another suggested 
that they ought to untie me, for in that condition he feared I would 
soon die. The result was as I had planned it should be ; they came 
to me, cut the cords that bound me and then left me to "come to" at 
my leisure. I found it more difficult to recover from than to simu- 
late the fit, but I managed to do so with fair success. After rolling 
upon the ground for a short time in apparent unconsciousness, I 
raised myself to a sitting posture and looked around me in a half 
idiotic manner, pretending not to understand what had happened. 
At length I sat up and seemed to be recovering consciousness. My 
companions and the guards were completely taken in by my acting, and 
as I began to recover they approached me and plied me with numer- 
ous questions, all of which I answered in a foolish manner. The 
guard asked me if I was subject to these spells. I answered that I 
guessed I was, but that I did not know. Finally the lieutenant 
turned to.Foy and asked him if I was subject to fits. Foy answered 
promptly that I was. This settled the matter for the time, and the 
lieutenant walked away. I now felt that I had accomplished a point 
and made a good thing of it by my little acting, and began to con- 
gratulate myself on its success. I now by signs communicated to 
Foy that it was all " put on," and that it was done for a purpose. I 
must have been detected in this, for the lieutenant, who had been 
watching me closely, approached me and said : " Young man, I guess 
you have l)een playing ' possum' on us." He then ordered the guards 
to tie me v\\> again. To this 1 did not protest, for, having been untied 
for more than an hour, 1 felt that it was quite an item in my favor. 
We were kept tied till late in the afternoon, and then cut loose and 
left for a time to ourselves till we were sufficiently recovered to walk, 
when we were taken back to our former places in the prison. We 
were cautioned not to repeat our effort to escape, and were threatened 
with worse punishment in case we did. Our hands and wrists were 
swollen, and our legs and bodies sore from the effects of our long and 
painful punishment, and it required all our efforts to walk, 



2<)S Our Knapsack. 

Our diirinj; ((jiiiradc, Mitchell, died from the effects of his wound 
ow the thirtl day after being brought in. 

Viewing this effort to escape, after all the circumstances are made 
plain, I am of the opinion that our guards were made actpiainted 
with our plans, and that these were communicated to them by spies 
in the ])rison, who were sharing imprisonment for the only pur|)Ose of 
keeping watch over our conduct and of rejwrting to the rebels any 
attem])t on our part to escape. These rei)resented themselves to us 
as captives from the Union army. If our cai)tors had not been 
api)rised of our intentions to escape, there would not have been so 
many at that particular point where we hoped to find the fewest, and 
these would not have l)een prepared to shoot with such promptness 
as they did when we commenced jumping from the building. But 
for this es])ionage on the part of our enemies, we would have cer- 
tainly taken them by surprise and rendered our escape possible. I 
am now fully convinced, that after our first effort to escape, that spies 
w^ere kept in our prison day and night, and that our sayings and 
doings were reoorted to the authorities. 

From this tune until our removal there there was not the slightest 
chance to escape; every avenue leading to liberty was carefully 
w;itched and str'^ngly guarded. 

Our rations all this time were hardly enough to sustain us from 
one day till the next, and but for the hopes of liberation and return 
to home, friends and plenty, our desperate circumstances would have 
driven us mad. 

All the endearments of home — the comi)anionship of friends — the 
social and family ties and the many blessings from which we seemed 
forever separated, were the topics of our conversation by day and the 
subject of our dreams at night. 

About the first of April, 1864, rumors circulated through the prison 
to the effect that we were soon to be sent to some other point. We 
regarded this as good news, for it seemed to us that a change might 
result in improving our condition, while it seemed impossible that it 
could make it worse. 

We grew to hate the name of Danville, and longed for the day 
when we could forever shake its dust from our feet and start for 
some other place, we cared not where. That long-looked-for day 
came at last. 

About the first of May the first load of ])risoners was taken from 
Danville, and those left l)ehind were ignorant of their destination, 
but learned after a short time that ihey had been sent to a [)rison 
somewhere in Cieorgia. A week later the occupants of our prison 
received orders to leave. We were permitted to take all our little 
personal effects, but as none of us were possessed of a great ([uantity 
of goods this favor was not of much value to us. 

Some of us had blankets and overcoats ; some had neither. Many 
had parted with their clothing from time to time for something to eat, 
and many of this class had barely clothing to hide their nakedness, 
and not enough for their comfort, even in that mild climate. We 



Our Knapsack. 299 

were loaded into box cars, about a hundred in a car, and this neces- 
sitated considerable crowding. We passed a number of towns and 
villages on the route, the names of which I cannot recall. We trav- 
eled all night after leaving Danville, only stopping now and then to 
let other trains pass, and to procure water. Our crowded condition 
made the trip tiresome and disagreeable, but we endured it patiently, 
hoping that a change*to a new prison would bring us relief in some 
way. 

The second day our train collided with another train loaded with 
negroes ; the engines were badly crushed, but no one on board was 
injured. We were delayed several hours while procuring another 
engine, and again we moved on. During the second night we halted 
near a village of considerable size ; here we got off the train and 
spent the night in camp near the track. I was so worn out with 
travel that I did not care to make an attempt to escape, but slept 
soundly all night. Next morning we again moved on our way, and 
late in the day passed through Macon, in the state of Georgia, and 
the same night reached Anderson ville, a station about sixty miles 
south of Macon. We remained in the cars till daylight, and were 
then unloaded and had a small supply of food issued to us. This 
consisted of corn bread and meat, but miserable in quality and 
meager in quantity. Following the advice of an inspired writer, we 
ate what was set before us and asked no questions. Andersonville 
consisted of a few railroad buildings and about a half a dozen dwell- 
ing houses. 

After we had eaten what had been furnished us we were ordered 
into line that a count might be made to ascertain if any had escaped. 
The commandant of this prison at this time was Captain Wirtz, who 
for his inhuman brutality in the treatment of prisoners, was after- 
ward hung at Washington. Wirtz was a devil in the shape of a 
man ; a libel on the human race, and the date of his death ought to 
be celebrated all over the land with bonfires and illuminations. He 
came out of his quarters near by, passed down our line with his 
hands clasped behind his back, eyeing us closely, but said not a 
word. He looked to be fifty-five years old, had a vicious, restless 
eye, sunk far into his head. He was tall and spare made, with a 
slight stoop in his shoulders. He was not an American, but his 
looks gave him the appearance of a native of one of the German 
states. His look was cross, sour and forbidding, and he was alto- 
gether the fiend in appearance that he proved to be in fact. 

Before we were marched to the prison enclosure our names, com- 
panies and commands were carefully registered. The prison grounds 
at this time contained about twelve thousand men and was situated 
nearly half a mile from the station. The prison was encircled by a 
stockade built by first digging a ditch four or five feet deep round 
the enclosure. Into this ditch were planted heavy hewn timbers, 
reaching above the surface twenty feet, and firmly set in the ditch 
and the dirt [)acked in closely to hold them in their place, firm and 
solid. On the top of this stockade, at a distance of twenty yards 



300 Our Knapsai/c. 

from each otlier, was a number of platforms, or sentry |)osts, where 
the guards were stationed when on duty, and on the outside at each 
l)hitf()rni was a rude stairway which led from the ground to tiie plat- 
form, and which was for the purpose of assisting the guard to reach 
his i)ost of duty. On the inside of this stockade at a <lislance of 
ten feet from and i)arallel with it, ran the "dead line." 

This dead line was a row of ))Osts set in th« ground at intervals of 
ten or twelve feet apart, on the tops of which a narrow plank was 
nailed. The guards were instructed to shoot any jjrisoner who 
should approach nearer to the stockade than this dead line. A small 
stream of water ran through the stockade near the center. I-rom 
this stream the jn-isoners procured all the water they used. This 
was warm and disagreeable to the taste and was unfit for use. A 
few trees grew in the inclosure, and the stumps of many more were 
to be seen here and there. When we entered tiie stockade the men 
already there flocked around us and asked us a multitude of ques- 
tions concerning our capture and imjirisonment, and many other 
questions concerning the progress of the war, which we could not 
answer. We were not supplied with tents nor any other means of 
protection after coming here, and the supjily of these things which 
we brought with us was totally insufficient for our actual needs ; we 
were, therefore, left to shift for ourselves in this matter, each man 
taking care of himself, as a rule, in the construction of his habita- 
tion. 

Sometimes a number would associate together in a club, and by 
each contributing a piece of tent, a bit of blanket or cloth, they 
managed to provide better means of shelter than could have been 
done singly. But there were many who had nothing of any kind out 
of which to construct what might shelter them from the scorching 
sun by day or the chilly air by night. To this class the burning sun 
and heavy dews added much to their other hardships. Four other 
prisoners joined me in the construction of quarters, and we chose a 
location in the eastern part of the stockade, but a few feet from the 
dead line, and on the south side of the creek. We dug down into 
the sand nearly two feet, and with our blankets and some pieces of 
canvas, which one of our number was fortunate enough to have in 
his possession, we managed to construct a very respectable looking 
tent compared with the others about us. There was a guard-post 
opposite to where we had located our tent. This spot had been 
selected by us on account of its commercial advantages, for being 
thus situated we could trade with the guards when any trading was 
to be done. 

Before leaving Danville I had taken the precaution to lay in a 
stock of tobacco, and in fi.xing up our tent I placed the tobacco near 
by where it attracted the attention of a prisoner passing by. He in- 
(piired to know if I would sell it, and at what price. 1 told him I 
would take a dollar a plug for it, and he said that he would take it 
all at that price. 1 declined to sell it all at that tin.ie, but allowed 
him to take three plugs, for which he paid me three dollars in green- 



Our Knapsack. 301 



backs. Another prisoner standing by said to me that I could have 
got three dollars a plug for it as well as one dollar. I thought this 
very strange, for this same tobacco could be bought at Danville for 
twenty-five cents a plug. 1 now began to realize that prices ranged 
much higher here than at Danville. Soon after this first sale a guard 
came on duty at the post nearest our tent with a bunch of onions 
for sale. These I bought and placed them in small piles for sale 
again. In a short time I had sold seven dollars worth of onions and 
had some left for our own use, which made us a light mess. Our 
prison experience had taught us valuable lessons of economy, and 
every atom of food was made to answer to its fullest extent. 

Our arrival at Andersonville was about the middle of May, 1864, 
and the weather was already oppressively warm. Being unaccus- 
tomed to the climate of this latitude we suffered more from heat than 
we would otherwise have done. Our rations at first consisted of 
about two-thirds of a pint of unsifted corn meal, a half pint of raw 
beans and a small piece of meat ; the latter, however, we did not 
receive but two days out of the three. We drew our rations at ten 
or eleven in the forenoon ; then having to cook them, we could not 
get our dinner sooner than about one o'clock. Though the rations 
we drew were designed by our captors to make us three meals, we 
invariably ate the whole quantity for one, and if this one meal had 
been sufficient to satisfy our appetites we would have thought our- 
selves fortunate. Wood for cooking purposes was a scarce article, 
and to procure enough for our needs we dug the roots from the 
ground, hacked up the stumps, and it was not long until every 
stump, root, chip and splinter within the stockade had been gathered 
and consumed. In cooking we usually boiled our beans first till 
they were soft ; then our meat was sliced thin and put in ; afterwards 
our meal was added and stirred, making what we called "loblolly." 
When a number messed and cooked together the food was carefully 
divided, giving to each man his exact share of the mess. 

My first trade with the guards having resulted so favorably, 1 
determined to continue to traffic with the guards who came on duty 
at the post nearest our tent, and besides furnishing our mess with 
something extra, I soon began to accumulate money ahead. 

Additional prisoners were being brought in nearly every day; these 
had more or less money, and while their money lasted they bought 
whatever they could find to eat, regardless of the price. Anything 
fit to eat sold at a fabulous price, and tobacco was not an exception. 
The following prices were obtained : three flour biscuits, $r.oo ; three 
eggs, $1.00; a pint of flour, $1.00; onions ranged from 75 cts. to 
$1.25 each; fresh pork, $2.00 a pound ; potatoes were bought of the 
guards at ^35 a bushel, and afterwards retailed singly ; coffee brought 
$5 per pound. These prices were on a Cireenback basis. Confederate 
money being at ten cents on the dollar. The daily additions being 
made to our numbers soon brought on a crowded condition of the 
jjrison, resulting in much discomfort and additional suffering. In a 
vast crowd like this there are always a variety of characters, and it 



302 Our Knapsack. 

nuiv not seem slr;ingc lh;it vice in ils worst forms should luive re|)re- 
seiitatives, and that the depraved and baser elements in such a 
multitude should assert itself. 

Here was the sneak thief, the gauiMer, the highwayman, the 
murderer, experts in every vice in the catalogue, and these made it 
necessary to keej) a careful watch on everything of value, night and 
day. Theft, robl)j.'ry and other heinous crimes were committed in 
open day, and were alarmingly frwpient. 

There were two main streets running through the prison grounds — 
one on the north side and one on the south, the creek running be- 
tween the two. These streets on either side were lined with the 
tradesmen who bought from the guards in large (piantities, and after- 
wards retailed in smaller (piantities to their fellow prisoners. These 
dealers occupied sniall stands at various places all over the ground. 
At one place could be seen a dealer selling flour at a dollar a pint; 
near him could be seen the dealer in onions and potatoes. Another 
one could be seen at another place with eggs, biscuits and the like. 
Our lowest class of merchants dealt in soup bones. These bones, 
after being first carefully picked, were sawed or cut into small pieces, 
so as to show the marrow to advantage. Then some wretched sol- 
dier, hatless, his pants worn ofif to the knees and his shirt sleeves 
worn off to the elbows, would take these bones, and standing in a 
commanding |)osition would yell out at the top of his voice : " Here 
is your nice, fine, rich soup bones for sale. Walk right up and buy 
the best." 

My numerous trades with the guards resulted in my becoming per- 
sonally known to many of them, and this was a great advantage to 
us in our provision traffic. By careful buying and selling I not only 
ke|)t the mess constantly supplied with many extras, but had accumu- 
lated over two hundred dollars; I had been singularly prosperous 
in all I had undertaken. The grounds were becoming more and 
more crowded every day, for hardly a day passed that did not add to 
our numbers, and as the season advanced the weather became ex- 
cessively hot and much sickness was the result. The water which 
we were compelled to drink and make general use of was warm and 
dirty. There was ahvays a large number of men at the creek wash- 
ing and getting water, and the consetiuence was that the water was 
made unfit for use except for washing. This led to the digging of 
wells in various parts of the grounds. The surface being sandy for 
fifteen or twenty feet made digging quite easy, and better water was 
reached at a depth of twenty-two feet than could be had at the creek. 
Many of these wells soon became useless by caving in. Our supply 
of fuel had become exhausted ; every tree, stump and root had been 
used, and now and then small squads were allowed to go out under 
guard to bring in a supply of wood. Going out for wood was con- 
sidered quite a favor, and he who happened to be so fortunate as to 
be detailed for that purpose was to be congratulated, for in so doing 
he found many an opportunity of getting some nice bit to eat in some 
manner or other; or, if he failed in this, he could breathe the pure air 



Our Knapsack. 303 

and rest his wearied eyes on green fields, and listen to the song of 
the free, happy birds. On such occasions he was wont to wish that 
he had the wings of the wind that he might fly away to a land of 
beauty, wealth and ha])piness, leaving behind the horrid scenes of 
that worse than horrid prison pen. 

The prevailing diseases among the sick were scurvy and chronic 
diarrhea, and to such an extent had these and other complaints grown 
that the hospitals on the outside were sufficient for the accommoda- 
tion of less than one-fourth of those who needed such accommodation, 
and conseciuently hundreds, for lack of needed attention and medical 
treatment, were left to die inside of the stockade. Each morning the 
bodies of such that had died during the preceding night, were carried 
out to the dead-house. Here they were piled in wagons like so many 
logs of wood, and hauled to the place of burial, where they were 
placed, side by side, in long, deep trenches, and covered with dirt. 
No such thing as a coffin or box was used to^nclose these bodies, and 
their funeral rites were things only to be thought of, but not to be ob- 
served. The Union prisoners were employed in the work of digging 
these trenches and in covering up their dead comrades. Even the 
duty of carrying a dead comrade outside of the stockade was 
esteemed a favor, and I have known men to pay !|5 for the privilege 
of carrying a corpse to the dead-house. The reason of this was that 
in returning from such duty each man was permitted to bring in a 
load of wood for his own benefit. Notwithstaiiding the prevailing 
death-rate, our prison continued to become more and more crowded, 
and the whole available space inside the dead-line was taken up, 
and the whole area was a moving mass of struggling, suffering human- 
ity ; we were so densely packed that in attempting to move around 
we had to pick our way with caution through the throng. The 
grounds were at length enlarged by the addition of eight acres to the 
inclosure, making the total area near twenty acres, and yet this ad- 
dition, though it gave us some relief, left us very much crowded. 

By July I St, 1864, it was estimated that our numbers reached 
twenty-five thousand, a figure rather below than above the real num- 
ber, I have no doubt. With increasing numbers the morals of the 
prison seemed to become more and more corrupt. Person and 
property was safe nowhere; robberies and petty theiving occurred day 
and night ; no one was safe from the attacks of the human vultures 
who preyed upon their weaker and more unfortunate brethren. 
About the first of July our captors began cooking our rations on the 
outside of the prison, thus avoiding the necessity of sending us out 
for wood under guard. Instead of corn meal, as before, we received 
corn bread, made from unsifted meal, and without salt. Our beans 
were also cooked for us, and about every other day we were furnished 
with a very small bit of meat to each man. It is truly astonishing 
what a small quantity of food it takes to sustain- human life, and how 
tenacious we cling to life, even when it seems to offer nothing but 
suffering. Our circumstances illustrated this point to an extent we 
never before dreamed of We had among us men of all grades and 



^o4 Our Kiiapsdi/c. 

ilispusilions ; all the walks -uf life had rcprcsciUalivcs, and misery 
and wrcU hcdncss paid no respect to the one more than to the oilier. 
Stpialid misery stalked abroad at midday, nor stayed its hand in the 
darkness of the night. Men who had been brought up in affluence 
and elegance, shared the wretchedness of the lowest born of his 
comrades. The poorer and most destitute — those wjthout tent, 
blanket or other means of comfort, wandered about the pen seeking 
for stray cumbs of food that might fall in their way. Old |)otato 
l)arings, stray beans, or any other morsel were eagerly sought for and 
devoured. Their shari)ened visages and haggard looks told a tale of 
starvation and want that can not be told by tongue or pen. To alle- 
viate the sufferings of those around us seemed ne.xt to impossible ; 
we were all in the same desperate condition, and if there were those 
who seemed to fare better than the rest, they were such as resorted 
to trade and made special efforts to improve their condition. An 
effort to relieve one would cause a thousand others, as destitute as 
the one, to ask for relief on as good grounds. On the south side of 
the creek the grounds had become very mirey. The filth from the 
higiier grounds had accumulated in this quarter, and it became a 
(juagmire, and millions of maggots s(piirmed and worked in this 
filthy offal, presenting a sight, which when seen, can never be 
recalled except with a shudder of disgust. 

Constant association with sickness, suffering and death had made 
us somewhat callous in our feelings toward our fellow sufferers, and 
many had allowed this feeling of indifference to get full possession 
of them, leaving no room for sympathy or pity. With each of us it 
was such a struggle for existence, that self-preservation ruled our 
every act and dictated our very thoughts. The weaker and more 
destitute were the first victims ot disease and death. It seemed in 
many cases, that when hunger and disease had done their work, the 
starving victim would wander off to to the creek, and there he would 
fall, or sinking into the swampy soil, would there lay until death 
ended a life of misery. No helping hand was reached out to aid 
him. Every finer and nobler feeling seemed paralyzed, and the one 
thought of self-preservation checked every feeling of humanity. 
Death was doing his work on the right and on the left, and it was a 
common thing to i>ass by a dying man in our walks around the 
different parts of the prison. Lying in the hot sun, unattended, and 
usually unknown, the sufferer would struggle with the grim monster 
until struggling ended in surrender. Hundreds were passing by but 
no one cared to waste his time or his pity on a dying man. Inspec- 
tors passed through our prison every day, making search for any 
attempt at tunneling out that we might make, and if a tunnel was 
begun it was usually detected before progressing far. 

One tunnel, however, escaped detection, and this was projected 
about twenty yards* from the stockade. A party of prisoners were 
pretending to be engaged in digging a well, and after reaching a 
depth of fifteen feet a tunnel was begun and pushed vigorously 
toward the outer side of the stockade. When the insi)ectors made 



Our Knapsack. 305 

their daily rounds the diggers would be found in the bottom of their 
well hard at work, and the inspectors looked in approvingly, or 
passed on without a suspicion of the scheme on hands. The work 
progressed, undiscovered by the rebels, until the workmen had passed 
under the stockade, and preparations were being made for a grand 
exit in a short time. Unluckily for the enterprise the two men who 
were working in it, one morning about sun up, struck too near the 
surface and the crust caved in on them. Being on the outside they 
s[)rang out and ran for life and liberty. They were seen by the 
guards, who fired many times at them, but so far as we could see 
they were unhurt, and I never learned of their recapture. 

Now and then some poor, unfortunate prisoner would wander 
unthoughtedly over the dead line and suffer the consequences, for 
the established rule was to shoot the offender without warning — a 
rule that was enforced with fiendish delight by our guards. How 
many met death in this way I know not, but the number was not a 
few. 

Some of the guards would fire on a prisoner whenever they could 
find any kind of a plea for so doing, but others were more humane 
and only enforced the rigorous rules of the prison because it was 
their duty. 

Before the middle of July the number of prisoners at Anderson- 
ville reached twenty-five thousand, and with increasing numbers the 
want, destitution, sickness and death grew more and more dreadful. 
Mention has been previously made of the moral depravity and con- 
set^uent crimes resulting from time to time. Robberies were occur- 
ring daily and it was apparent that measures must be taken to bring 
the offenders to justice ; but how to proceed to reach that end was a 
question not easily answered, and for a time longer we endured what 
we could not remedy. Money grew scarcer and scarcer, for the 
reason that it was being continually sent outside the prison and none 
of it was being returned. This state of affairs was aggravated by 
the fact that it was almost impossible to trade with the guards. The 
prison authorities finally established a trading-post inside the prison, 
and here we were compelled to do whatever trading we did do, but 
as very few of the prisoners had any money, our patronage to the 
established store was exceedingly light. Up to the time at which 
our trading with the guards was prohibited, I had, from a small be- 
ginning, increased my capital to two hundred and forty dollars, be- 
sides expending a large amount for such extras as money would 
buy. But now my money began to decrease, for every day I was put 
to some expense without any income, and under this state of things 
my money was rapidly disappearing. 

Among the prisoners in the stockade there were about thirty 
negroes ; these were taken out daily to perform labor on the outside, 
and were brought in at night. With a view to replenishing my 
wasted finances I gave one of these colored men forty-five dollars, 
telling him to buy with it anything that could be eaten, and bring it 
into the prison with him, and that I would pay him for all his trouble. 

36 



3o6 Our Kiiii/^sack. 

'I'his he agreed to do. That night when tlie colored s(|uad was 
brought in 1 went to their (luarters and found the man with whom I 
had intrusted my money, and made in(|uiry of his success. He re- 
ported that he had i)urchased several articles of food with the 
money, but that the Confederate guards at the gate had forced him 
to give it all to them. Here was forty-five dollars gone at one fell 
swoop, and my spirits fell to a low state. I waited several days, and 
seeing no other means of renewing my trade, 1 gave fifteen dollars 
to another man of the colored squad, instructing him to buy and 
bring in something to eat. But he came in with a report similar to 
the first, bringing neither money nor food. Not caring to invest 
further in this line of speculation, I gave up further effort and 
wailed for something to turn up, contenting myself by economizing, 
as well as 1 could, the money I had remaining. The adage, " mis- 
fortunes come in pairs," now verified itself, for following the loss of 
my money I was attacked with scurvy, a disease that had already 
carried to the grave hundreds of my fellow prisoners. Very few who 
were victims of the scurvy ever recovered, and I naturally supposed 
I would go with the majority. Our situation was such that it was 
nearly impossible to procure the necessary remedies for the disease ; 
therefore, when a man was taken down with the scurvy he usually 
remained in his tent or lay out in the open air unattended till he 
died. Captain Wirtz, who had charge of the prison, usually rode 
through the stockade twice a day, but none of the prisoners were 
allowed to speak to him during these visits, and we were even denied 
the right to represent our grievances in a petition to our friends or 
our enemies. Misery and suffering that can not be told was our 
common lot, and though it be retold a thousand times there remains 
that which is too shocking to tell and too inhuman to be believed. 
Death was making rapid inroads in our ranks every day, for at least 
fifty were carried to the graveyard every day. It was a common 
sight to see men lying in the hot sand, forsaken and alone, unable to 
help themselves, sweltering in the burning sun, and slowly but sure- 
ly dying. 

We were forsaken, even by those who should have been our 
friends, for our government at Washington, by the advice and policy 
of Secretary Stanton, refused to exchange us, or to give an ecpial 
number of rebel prisoners for us in return; for they said: "We will 
not give healthy, robust Confederates in our hands, who are fit for 
the front, for a like number of half-starved and half-dead men who 
will never be fit for service ; it is policy to let them stay where they 
are, even if they should all die." This might have been "policy," 
but to say the least, it was very heartless policy. 

Crime of various kinds continued to grow more and more fre([uent; 
indeed it became known that an organized band existed in the 
prison, the known object of which was plunder. This band num- 
bered several hundred, and they were pledged to support and pro- 
tect each other from any punishment resulting from their misde- 
meanors. Now and then one of the band would be caught in some 



Our Knapsack. 307 



offense, and would be punished by shaving one side of his head; 
sometimes bucking was added to this punishment. But it appeared 
that the principals were never caught in this way. If they were de- 
tected in their deeds they seemed to be strong enough to defy punish- 
ment. It was the little, one-horse starvling who was caught and 
made to suffer. The arrival of fresh prisoners was generally followed 
by a series of robberies, for this class of men brought into the prison 
more or less money, and the thieves usually fell upon them and ren- 
dered them penniless, sometimes beating them besides. On one 
occasion a newly arrived prisoner shcfwed desperate resistance when 
attacked by members of the gang, and the result was he was very 
dangerously stabbed by the free-booters. 

This brutal act created a feeling of indignation on the part of the 
order-loving prisoners. But being weak, half-starved and unorgan- 
ized, and each man being compelled to make a desperate effort to 
support life, he had little thought of redressing the wrongs of others 
so long as he, himself, remained unmolested ; and thus three hun- 
dred or four hundred desperadoes, well organized, were able to hold 
in awe the other thousands who loved peace and good order. 

Following the stabbing above mentioned it was resolved that 
further forbearance would only result in greater outrages, and there- 
fore a few of us determined to draw up and sign a petition to Wirtz, 
setting forth the state of affairs of outlawry as they existed in the 
stockade. We prevailed on a Confederate lieutenant to bear our 
petition to Captain Wirtz, asking that immediate attention be given 
the same. Next day Captain Wirtz and several other Confederate 
officers came into the stockade and held several conferences with the 
prisoners in various parts of the grounds, making diligent inquiry 
into the nature of the offenses, and, as far as possible, tried to ascer- 
tain the number and names of the offenders. Such information was 
furnished them as fully satisfied them that the complaints in our peti- 
tion were properly founded. On the following day a Confederate 
captain and lieutenant came into the enclosure with a detachment of 
soldiers, armed and equipped. A police force of near four hundred 
of the honest prisoners was then detailed and organized. Then a 
call was made to all who were in any way acquainted with the facts 
concerning the commission of crimes, to come forward and make it 
known. 

Now that they were to be protected, there were plenty of witnesses, 
and no lack of testimony touching the outrages. These proceed- 
ings came upon the thieves unexpectedly, and caused them great 
consternation. They had not expected this righteous outburst of 
long-delayed retribution, and knew not what to do. The worst of 
them were hunted in every part of the prison. The robber element 
had suddenly come to grief. More than forty of the ring-leaders 
and principals were arrested and taken outside the prison under a 
strong guard. 

Here the trial was held. Captain \Virtz said to us : " Now, you 
can try these men in your own way, and if they be found guilty of 



3o8 Our Knapsack. 

llic crimes of wliich they stand charged, tlicy sliall suffer just pun- 
ishment, and you shall be protected in your decision." 

A jury of twelve was then impaneled from among the prisoners, 
and a judge having the proper legal cpialifications to decide the 
jHiints of law which might arise, was also chosen. The accused 
were provided with good counsel and the prosecution was conducted 
by legal taleivt of no ordinary kind. 

'i'he trial then proceeded, l)eing on the outside of the ])rison and 
under a strong Confederate guard. It lasted nine days and was 
characterized l)y great fairness *and impartiality. The accused had 
an array of testimony to prove their innocence, but with every effort 
that could be brought forth in their behalf there was much damag- 
ing testimony given against ihem. At the close of the trial the jury 
retired twenty-four hours, and upon being called for a verdict tiiey 
decided that thirty-five of the accused should run the gauntlet on 
the inside of the stockade, and that six of the number, whom they 
found by the evidence to be the principals, should be publicly 
hanged. 

The punishment by running the gauntlet should take place 
immediately, and those who were to suffer in this manner were 
divided into two parties, and one jiarty was taken to each of the two 
main entrances to the stockade. Here were ranged long lines of 
prisoners on either side of a space a few feet in width and extending 
far into the prison grounds. As the culi)rits ran between these lines 
they were pelted, kicked and otherwise assaulted by such of the 
prisoners as were ([uick enough to reach them. Many of the offenders 
were badly beaten, and it was reported that two of them died from 
the effect of their injuries. Those who were condemed to suffer 
death by hanging were allowed ten days of preparation to meet their 
fate, but they were kept under a strong guard outside the prison during 
this time. Thieves from this time forward fared roughly, for the 
prisoners were now \Vell organized, having a police force of four 
hundred men, who diligently sought out and arrested any prisoner 
reported guilty of crime. When it became known that sure and 
severe punishment would follow the commission of a crime, the 
offenses from which the inoffensive and helpless ones had suffered, 
grew very rare. 

The scurvy from which I had been suffering grew worse, and 1 was 
now barely able to walk about, l)ut I tried to keep my spirits up and 
made strong efforts to continue on my feet, for 1 felt that if I once 
gave up I should certainly die. The scurvy affected us in two differ- 
ent forms : in one class of cases the limbs of the patient would swell 
and become of a dark crimson color, and if the swollen flesh were 
l)ressed with the finger the impress would remain sometime. In the 
other cases the flesh hardened and shrank up, turning to a dark 
brown color. The sense of feeling was lost in some cases. In the 
last named cases the flesh would feel like hard, dry wood, and the 
joints would be more or less swelled. In both cases the gums 



Our Knapsack. 309 

swelled and the teeth became loose. My case was the last described 
kind, which was called the bone scurvy. 

On the day set apart for the execution of the six robbers I was 
barely able to move about with the aid of a cane, but the excitement 
of the occasion helped me to gre,ater activity than for several days 
previous. 

The scaffold on which the execution was to to take place was 
erected on the inside of the prison and near the southern gate. . 
When the hour arrived I hobbled out to that part of the grounds and 
took a position about fifteen yards from the scaffold. Nearly twenty- 
five thousand prisoners were looking on in solemn silence, and the 
scene was too impressive ever to be forgotten. The doomed men 
were brought in under a strong guard of Confederate soldiers, and 
were then delivered to the prisoners to be executed. The guards 
now retired to the outside, leaving the condemned men in the hands 
of the organized force of prisoners. Not a Confederate remained to 
witness the execution. It was indeed a painfully solemn thing to 
see these six men, in the prime of life, surrounded by such misery 
and wretchedness, thus to suffer the penalty which their dark deeds 
had Ifrouglit upon them. They were brought in with their hands tied 
behind tliem, attended by two Catholic priests, who offered them the 
consolation of their religion in their last hours. When the time came 
and they were commanded to mount the scaffold, one of them, a 
large and powerful man, a member of a New York regiment, 
exclaimed to the others : " I can never stand this," and with a sudden 
and powerful effort burst the cords that bound him and made a 
desperate effort for his life. 

In a moment all was confusion and excitement. Only those in the 
immediate vicinity of the scaffold comprehended what was going on ; 
even where I stood I could not at first understand the cause of the 
consternation. The impression prevailed with many of the j^risoners 
that the rebels were about to fire upon us from their batteries situated 
on the higher grounds commanding the prison, and which were kept 
ready for use in case of an attempted outbreak on the part of the 
prisoners. 

The excitement reached a high pitch ; two men standing near me 
jumped down a well eighteen feet deep to escape the destruction 
which they imagined awaited us all ; but as soon as we ascertained 
that the confusion arose from the effort of one man to escape, quiet 
was somewhat restored. This man, whose name was Curtis, parted 
the crowd in front of him, flinging the men right and left in his mad- 
ness and desperation. He was followed by the organized police and 
a large crowd of the prisoners besides. He ran to the eastern part 
of the stockade, and in attempting to cross the creek he sank up to 
his waist in the filthy offal. He was now captured and brought l)ack. 
He must have known the impo.ssibility of escaping under such 
circumstances, and it is a wonder tliat any man of ordinary judgment 
would have attempted such a thing. 



310 Ou) Knapsack. 

Soon after he was broiiiilit hack tlic six were marched to their 
places on the fatal platform from which they were to be launched 
into eternity. They were still attended by the priests who continued 
to counsel with and pray for them. ' 

1 remember well the remark made by Curtis just before the droji 
fell. He said, " It was my old grandmother who said I would die 
witli my boots on, and 1 guess it is coming to pass." Finally, when 
all was ready, the priests retired from the scaffold, and meal sacks 
were drawn over the heads of the condemned men, as black caps are 
on such occasions under other circumstances. 'I'he trap sprung and 
five of the six were soon lifeless. The sixth man in his fall broke 
the rope and fell to the ground. He begged ])iteously for his life, 
telling his executioners that the breaking of the rope was jjroof of his 
innocence. Hut his begging was all in vain and availed nothing; he 
was again made to mount the scaffold and in brief time was sent 
to bear his guilty companions company. Their bodies were taken 
down inside of an hour and received proper burial. 

This execution took place July 1 1, 1864. The men executed were 
John Sarsfield, 144th N. Y. Infantry, Wm. Collins, 88th Pa. Infantry, 
Pat Delaney, 83d Pa. Vols., Chas. Curtis, 5th R. I. Vols., A.'Mun, 
U. S. Navy, W. R. Rickson, U. S. Navy. 

This execution had its desired effect ; it not only disposed of the 
principal criminals who had terrorized the prison, but it restrained 
others from the commission of crime. From this time forward there 
was little theft or outlawry compared with the times preceding this 
execution. Captain Wirtz should have credit for the part he took in 
bringing about this reform. 

My health grew worse from day to day, the scurvy gaining con- 
tinually and my vitality and strength weakening ' proportionately. 
New prisoners had ceased to be brought in, and a general impres- 
sion prevailed that we were soon to he moved away. Money had 
become very scarce with all the men. My funds had dwindled from 
day to day, and the future looked darker than at any time since 
coming here. It is worthy of particular mention, that of all the 
religious , creeds of the land, the Catholics were the only ones who 
visited us in our misery or seemed touched at our condition. The 
priests of this church came into our prison every day, rain or shine, 
and ministered as best they could to the wants of the most destitute, 
but where there where so many in need it was next to impossible to 
do much. The worst cases were helped to a few delicacies and 
comforted in various ways. 

The Masons of Albany, a place fifty miles south of Andersonville, 
brought much relief to those of their order among us. Many a 
member of that mystic tie was helped to a clean shirt, a i)air of shoes 
or something to eat by the Masonic brethren. 

About the first of September, 1864, the Confederates began moving 
some of our number away; everybody was anxious to go first, for we 
had seen and suffered so much here that it seemed to us that any 
place on earth besides this would be better. I was too sick at this 



Our Knapsack. 311 

time to care for myself, and was therefore a burden to my compan- 
ions, several of whom made many sacrifices for my comfort and relief. 
The fact that my money was nearly all gone added to my misery, 
for even in prison money is not to be despised. I suffered much pain 
in my limbs at night, and as a consequence I slept but little. I was 
continually tormented by a thousand doubts and uncertainties which 
kept me in a constant state of restlessnessDfrom which I had no 
relief. It was estimated that during the months of July and August 
the deaths averaged one hundred and fifty daily. Our numbers 
•were being reduced daily, both by deaths and removals, so that this 
was some relief, even to those who remained, for it gave us more 
room and better and purer air to breathe. About the loth of Sep- 
tember the prisoners constituting our division were called on to leave. 
This occasioned much shouting and other demonstrations of joy, but 
being entirely unable to move from my tent, it brought grief to me 
instead of joy, for, knowing that my companions would have to go, 
I realized that I would be left unattended and would surely suffer 
for care which none would be willing and few able to give. It was 
of no use to depend on strangers for care unless I could pay them, 
and I lacked the money to do that, having now only sixty-five cents 
in postal currency. My fortunate comrades, before leaving me, 
brought me a quantity of fresh water and arranged my blankets on 
sticks in such a manner as to protect me from the sun. Having done 
all in their power to leave me comfortable, they bade me an affection- 
ate farewell, and I could see by their manner that they expected I 
would not recover, and that a few days at most would end all with 
me. Following their departure I felt very lonely and my spirits 
were much depressed. I now had no helping hands to minister to 
me, for, though I was surrounded by the multitude, I was almost as 
much alone as if I had been on the desert of Sahara. I had seen 
hundreds lying alone and slowly dying, friendless and uncared for; 
and I now felt that I was surely in the same desolate condition. 
That evening I prevailed on a prisoner to bring me some fresh water, 
and as darkness came on I pulled my blanket from the stick and 
wrapping it about me as best I could and tried to sleep, but being 
full of pain and direful apprehensions, I slept but little. I had no 
appetite, and what rations I drew were nauseating to my taste, and 
the sight of them was unpleasant in the extreme. I grew careless 
concerning my rations, and cared little whether I received my scanty 
portion or not. 

The next morning after my comrades left me, as the sun rose and 
its rays began to scorch me, I tried several times to get some passing 
prisoners to fix up my blanket in the form of a shelter as on the pre- 
vious day, but all were too busy or too heartless to give any atten- 
tion to a dying man. 1 at length prevailed on one man to bring me 
some fresh water and fix up my tent by giving him my 'rations for 
the day. During the day I was visited by a Catholic priest who 
gave me half a lemon, which greatly refreshed me for a short time. 
I now thought my days were numbered, and concluded that 1 could 
t 



3 1 2 Oui Knapsack. 

live hill a few days al farthest, but the outkiok, gloomy as it was, had 
some relief in it, for I felt that death would he preferable to such a 
life as I had been living for weeks in the past. The day wore away 
and night — a dreadful night, came on. A terrible storm of rain, 
thunder and wind raged for hours, and being compelled to lie on the 
wet ground, unprotected, I was thoroughly drenched and slept but 
little, and that little was full of frightful dreams and brought me 
little rest. I wished I might fall asleep and never waken. ^Iorning 
came at last and the burning sun drove his scorching heat int(j my 
weak and emaciated flesh. I became delirious as the day advanced 
and continued so till toward evening, and when I recovered con- 
sciousness I found that I had been carried during the day to the 
northern part of the stockade and placed in a long shed, which had 
recently been erected for the reception of the worst cases. The 
Catholic j)riest had visited me and given me some lemon juice and 
wine. The sick and dying lay about me in great numbers; many 
were on the outer side of the shed, waiting to take the places of those 
who were being carried to the dead-house from within. I well re- 
member my feelings, when, on regaining consciousness, I looked 
round me and beheld the terrible scene by which I was surrounded. 
I determined to make a desperate effort to live and therefore set my 
will in an attitude of defiance toward the grim monster. Ne.xt to me on 
my right lay a tall and large framed man, having on a red shirt. This 
man was delirious and was talking wildly and without meaning. I re- 
member how I shuddered when I beheld the vast number of lice 
with which his body was covered; it ajjpeared to me that there were 
thousands of them of all sizes, from the huge old plump ones down 
to the tiny midget of an hour old. The poor man soon surrendered 
and the battle of life was at an end, for on the next morning I found 
him stiff and silent. I had slept but little during the night, for the 
continued moaning of the sick made sleep ne.xt to impossii^le. \Vith 
the return of light came renewed hopes and a still greater desire to 
live. I was now furnished with some corn meal and beans, but be- 
ing hel[)less it was not possible for me to cook them, and besides I 
had no appetite, notwithstanding I had eaten nothing for several 
days. But I was convinced that I must eat something to sustain 
life, for I must soon die of starvation unless I did. So I gave my 
meal and beans to a well prisoner to cook on the halves, and when 
it was cooked I ate a part of it, which was very little. Yet I still 
believe that in thus forcing myself to eat what I could, proved to be 
the means by which the brittle thread of life was saved from break- 
ing. I desired to be taken out of the prison and placed in the hos- 
pital on the outside. I spent the day in planning to this end, for it 
was my only hope of life. Numbers of the sick were being taken to 
the hospital each day for treatment, and it appeared to me that if I 
could only get out of the stockade and into the hospital I should 
recover. The next morning I told the prisoner who had cooked and 
shared my rations on the previous day, that if he would carry me 
down to the gate, where the negroes came with wagons daily for the 

f 



Our Knapsack. ^i^Z 



sick, that he might have all iny rations for that day. This he 
promised to do if he could get his partner to assist him, He then 
went in search of his partner; presently they both came and carried 
me to the gate. At the gate were a great many sick, all waiting for 
their turn to be taken to the hospital. The two men who carried me 
to the gate laid me in the shade of a canvas tent occupied by some 
of the under-officials of the prison. They then went their way. 
When the wagons came I yelled with all my strength and asked to 
be loaded in ; but no one paid attention to me. So the wagons were 
driven away with their load, leaving me and others behind. I learned 
that in two hours the wagons would return for another load, so I 
comforted myself \\tith the hope that I might yet get to go. 

When the wagons again returned I begged to be put into one of 
them, but the result was the same as before, and again the wagons 
were driven away, leaving me dejected and almost hopeless, for, let 
me try ever so hard, some one was always ready to step in and take 
my place. I was told that my wagons would return for one more 
load that day, and I again began planning to try and make the trip. 
I had a ring of rare value, one I had taken from home when I en- 
listed, and for various reasons I prized it very dearly, and I had 
always intended to keep it in remembrance of its donor. But now I 
was on the verge of death, as I thought, and I felt justified in sacri- 
ficing the ring for my own benefit. I therefore bargained with an 
Irishman, promising him the ring if he would put me in one of the 
wagons when they came. 

It was near sun-down when the wagons came for their last load, 
and faithful to his agreement the Irishman picked me up and put 
me in one of the wagons, and we were driven away. Many were 
left behind, who, like myself, were desirous of getting to the hospital, 
but as there were accommodations for only so many, some must be 
left for another day, when as many could be taken from the stockade 
as would fill the places of those who had died on the previous day. 
It was not every day that the wagons came for the sick, but only at 
times when the deaths in the hospital made it possible to accommo- 
date more ; so if we missed getting out on the day the sick were 
hauled out we must wait until another favorable day. This might 
be the next day, or it might be several days. In this interval many 
would die. The hospital was located about a mile from the stock- 
ade, and we reached it between sundown and dark. We were un- 
loaded and a list of our names, regiments and companies taken. We 
were then put on wheelbarrows and wheeled to places to which we 
had been assigned. I was taken to a small wedge tent, suitable for 
the accommodation of three persons ; it was already occupied by 
one man, and he was sick nigh unto death. 

We were furnished with no special comforts ; there were no beds 
nor mattresses given us — nothing but the bare, sandy soil. Blankets 
were furnished to such prisoners as had none. 

The hospital grounds contained six acres, and was enclosed by a 
close board fence eight feet high. A line of sentries was stationed 

37 



^M Our Knapsack. 

on three sides of the enclosure on the outside of the fence; on the 
south side the guards were on tlie inside. This was on account of 
the swampy condition of the hind on this side. The grounds were 
carefully laid off, divided by streets and wards. The wards numbered 
from one to twenty. A force of well ])risoners were assigned to duty 
in this hospital, and they were required to keep the streets carefully 
swept and the whole grounds clear of offal. The tents used were of 
two kinds — the small wedge-shaped tent, large enough for three per- 
sons, and the wall tent, which was large enough for twelve. The 
grounds were well shaded by trees, and altogether, the hospital was 
a place of comfort and beauty compared to the stockade. Kach ward 
had its ward-master and attendants to wait on tlK' sick, but about all 
these did was to bring our rations to us. 

Only one of many of our worst cases of sick recovered. The poor 
fellow who was in my tent when I first arrived soon died ; others 
were brought in from time to time and died, until nine had died by 
my side. 

During all this time 1 could not perceive that I was improving at 
all, nor did 1 seem to get worse ; I bravely held my own from one 
day to another. 

One or two days I was the only occupant of the tent ; all my fel- 
low sufferers died within a few days after being brought in from the 
stockade. Let it be remembered that though nine died in my tent, 
there was never more than three occupants at a time — myself and 
two others. This statement is difticult to believe, yet it is literally 
true. Of these cases one or two should have particular mention. 
One was that of a large and well framed man who was brought in 
late one evening. It had been raining hard and he was very wet. 
He was laid beside me, and, offered some food, which he refused, 
saying he did not feel like eating that evening and that he would 
save his rations till ne.xt morning. This man and myself were the 
only occupants of the tent that night. In the after part of the night 
he became very restless, and annoyed me exceedingly by his rolling 
about, and by throwing himself against me so as to keep me from 
sleep. I became somewhat petulent and insisted upon his keeping 
his own side of the bed, and to cease from annoying me as he had 
been doing. To this he gave no heed, so getting hold of an old 
crutch which hai)pened to be in the tent, I placed it next to and 
under him so that it served as a prop to keep him on his part of the 
tent. After a time he became perfectly quiet and I supposed he had 
fallen asleep, and I was soon in dreamland myself. Upon awaken- 
ing next morning I found that his was the sleei) of death, and that 
his tossings which had annoyed me were the final struggles of the 
conflict between life and death. 

Another case was that of a man who had been in the tent for a 
number of days, and who did not appear to be much sick, so far as I 
could judge. He was al)le to get about much better than I could, 
and had succeeded in crawling out of the tent to an oak tree which 
stood near. He took ofi" his shirt and proceeded to hunt the lice off 



Ow Knapsack. 315 

of it, a task of no small magnitude. He then began talking of 
his home and family, saying that if he could know that they were all 
comfortable and well provided for he could feel reconciled to his 
hard fate. 

He continued to talk of his wife and children until I finally told 
him he was foolish to thus worry himself so about his family, and 
that their worst, possible condition could hardly be a tenth as bad as 
his own, and that his best and wisest course would be to attend to 
his own wants as best lT,e could, and that doubtless his family were 
being properly cared for by friends at home. The poor man paid 
very little attention to my advice, but continued to worry and fret as 
before, until of a sudden, and apparently without a pain or struggle, 
he expired. It was a great surprise to me ; I had no idea that death 
was so near. I saw many — very many die in a similar manner. It 
seemed that men died without realizing the approach of the grim 
monster, and also appeared that long continued suffering in mind 
and body had made them callous to pain, and that when the final 
moment came they ceased to live, much as a lighted candle is ex- 
tinguished by a gust of wind. Hope had fed the flickering flame from 
day to day, and more dead than alive, they moved about, vainly 
chasing a phantom of release or exchange, a hope which lured from 
afar yet fled as they followed ; finally, when hope no longer cheered 
and when despair took the ascendency, the victim surrendered and 
the wearied spirit forsook its prison-house of suffering and launched 
into the unknown sea of eternity. 

Our daily rations in the hospital were a biscuit, a half pint of boiled 
rice and a bit of beef; and small and insufficient as this was, it was 
vastly better than we had been accustomed to receive in the stockade. 
For a time after first entering the hospital I could hardly eat all my 
rations ; but I forced myself to eat all they gave me, believing it 
really necessary to sustain life. After the nine deaths had occurred 
in my tent, of which previous mention has been made, two patients 
were brought in from the stockade and assigned to my tent. These, 
contrary to the rule, did not die, but began to improve, and this was 
an encouragement to me. I had seen so many die that I had come 
to look on death as a certain result of being assigned to my tent. 

Seeing these companions improving day after day I seemed to 
take on new life and at once began to improve, also, and it was but 
a few days till we three were rapidly convalescing. My companions 
were both Dutchmen ; their names were Edwards and Schrader. 
The former was a member of a Pennsylvania regiment, and his home 
was at the town of Broadtop, Pa. Schrader was a native of Germany 
and a member of an Illinois regiment. 

The two men differed widely in their habits, characters and dis- 
positions. Edwards was almost continually talking of his home, 
father, mother and two sisters ; Schrader had little or nothing to say 
of his home or relatives. Edwards seldom washed his face or 
combed his hair, and I have known him to go for weeks with his face 
dirty and his hair matted. Schrader was tasty and careful in his 



31 6 Our Knapsack. 

personal habits, but was selfish and disagreeable. Edwards was 
tender-hearted and liberal ; with all his slovenly i)ersonal habits 
he was much the better man of the two, but he had one weakness, 
that, under the circumstances, was a great disadvantage. He 
was a great glutton ; it appeared that he had the ca))acity of half 
a dozen men — for stowing away supplies — nothing eatable ever went 
to waste where he was, and he never learned division as applied to 
anything fit to eat. His ajipetite may have been capable of being 
satisfied, but 1 do not remember that it eviy was. We were all good 
eaters now, and could have eaten much more than we received. 
We were all improving and I began to hobble about on a crutch, and 
the idea of dying in a rebel prison and of being buried in the sand of 
Cieorgia, began to lose its grip on me. Our chief trouble was now, 
as it had been, to get enough to eat. Edwards was an expert beggar 
and was continually on the lookout for something to supply the mess 
with more than our drawn rations ; hardly a day passed that he did 
not beg from the attendants at the cook house, something to eat, and 
after filling himself I came in for the remainder. Schrader was 
crabbed and surly ; he seldom had anything to do with Edwards or 
me, except that he slept in the same tent with us. Edwards and 1 
fre(piently messed together; Schrader ate alone. Each morning the 
bodies of those who had died during the previous night were deposited 
in the street, preparatory to burial. From here they were wheeled 
to the dead-house and from thence they were taken in wagons to the 
l)lace of burial. The dead averaged about thirty each morning. My 
condition improved from day to day so that 1 was able, by the aid of 
a crutch, to move about the hospital grounds. 1 managed by a little 
trading, to pick up something extra to eat. There were hundreds of 
sick and suffering fellows lying in their tents unable to help them- 
selves, but who would get me to buy peanuts, yams and the like for 
them. I would take their money or other articles of value which 
they desired to exchange, and, when opportunity offered, would sell 
them to the guards or exchange them for food, and would be allowed 
a trifling commission for my trouble. Notwithstanding the existence 
of an order against trading with our guards, we found many adroit 
ways and means of steering round the difficulties, and that necessity, 
which is said to be the mother of invention, was found to be the 
parent of many a shrewd scheme which brought relief to our urgent 
needs. During the early period of our imprisonment at Andersonville, 
there was a considerable amount of greenbacks among the prisoners ; 
but now this money had disappeared almost entirely. Some of the 
men had small sums of postal currency. Confederate mo,ney was 
plenty enough but it took a hundred dollars to buy a beef-head. 
Having little or no money to exchange with the guards for what we 
needed, we bartered articles of clothing, rings, trinckets, jjocket-knives, 
&:c., receiving beef-heads, pieces of beef, peanuts and yams. Our 
plans and bargains were made with the guards during the day, but 
the exchange of commodities had to be done at night, and with the 
utmost caution, to avoid being seen by the officers. 



Our Knapsack. 317 



I had so far improved in my general health that I was on my feet 
and moving about during the entire day planning with the guards 
for such articles of food as could be smuggled through their hands 
and into ours during their hours of duty at night. In thus moving 
about I not only gained strength but my spirits improved, and I was 
also able to provide myself with about all I needed to eat. 

In one of my night trades with the guard, I came very nearly 
losing my life. I had procured from a sick prisoner a nice gutta- 
percha pocket comb which opened and closed like a knife ; this I 
offered to trade to a guard for peanuts. He prevailed on me, much 
against my better judgment, to allow him to take the comb to camp 
to show it to his lieutenant, promising faithfully to bring the pay for 
it that night at eleven o'clock when he again came on duty. When 
the hour arrived and the relief to which the guard i)roi)erly belonged 
had been placed on their posts, I went down to that beat of the 
guard line where I expected to find the man who had taken the comb. 
1 approached the sentry and when within a few yards of him I spoke 
to him and inquired about our trade of the comb and peanuts. 
Instead of receiving a courteous answer, the guard said to me gruffly, 
" Now, you get away from here or I will put a ball through you," and 
as he ceased speaking he fired his piece at me with the evident 
purpose of furnishing the subject for a funeral on the following day. 
Though he failed in his plan I had no reason to censure him for his 
lack of skill as a marksman, and taking his advice I retired to my 
tent to ponder on the inhumanity of man to man and of the rascality 
of the rebel who had taken my comb with fraudulent intent, and who 
by trading off with another guard had not only cheated me out of my 
comb but had caused me to imperil my life, which in my improved 
stale of health was becoming more and more valuable. The lesson was 
a useful one to me, for thereafter I planned so that no article passed 
out of my hands for inspection by a third party. 

Shortly after this an affair occured which more than set me even 
with my dishonest patrogs. One of the guards wished to buy a pair 
of shoes, an article of which many of the soldiers of the C. S. A. 
stood much in need. He wanted a pair of pants also, and I promised 
to procure them for him, though at the time I did not know certainly 
that I could get them. 

He promised to give a shoulder of meat and five large yams for 
the shoes and pants, and the trade was to be consummated that night 
at eleven o'clock, when he again came on guard at that post I 
hunted about during the afternoon among the sick, endeavoring to 
find the shoes, and only partly succeeded. I found two good shoes, 
both for the left foot, one a No. 8 and the other No. 10. Y.\cw this 
assortment of stock caused me much effort, for I had to look through 
the camp before I found any one willing to sell, for those who had 
good shoes and mates needed them too badly to part with them at any 
price which I could pay I put the shoes in as merchantable a shape 
as 1 could, and felt that with a reasonably dark night to aid in the 
trade I might hope to succeed in convincing" Johnnie" tlial "shoes 



3i«S Our Knapsack. 

would be shoes" before the war was over. I found a pair of pants more 
readily than the shoes, and though they were not strictly No. I in 
(|uality, they were good enough to trade on by a little brushing up. 
When the hour arrived 1 repaired to the vicinity of the post we had 
agreed upon. At this place in the guard line the sentinels were 
stationed on the op|)osite side of a plank fence about eight feet high. 
The niglU was somewhat dark and on that account more favorable 
for carrying out our inir|)ose. We carried on a whisi)ered conversa- 
tion by means of a knot hole in a plank of the fence. There was a 
mutual suspicion and a mutual lack of confidence on each side* of 
the fence; the guard insisted that 1 should jnit the pants and shoes 
over the fence to him first ; while I as stoutly insisted on his putting 
the meat and yams over to me first. 1 finally suggested to him that 
we put our articles over, one to the other, at the same time. This he 
declined to do saying that he feared the articles were not as repre- 
sented. We would talk and parley awhile and then the guard would 
|)ace his beat, keeping up a show of duty, then he would return to 
the knot hole and the wrangle about the trade would be resumed. 
Suddenly, while we were hotly engaged in our bantering and badger- 
ing, the " grand rounds " for the night, accompanied by the officers 
of the guard came upon us. The guard, to escape detection, had 
but one thing to do. He threw the meat and yams over the fence to 
me and resumed his walk to halt the " grand rounds " party as he was 
recpiired to do. I did not feel that I had any further business at 
that knot hole, but seizing the coveted prize 1 hied to my tent, not 
forgetting to take with me the shoes and pants, and congratulating 
myself on the success of my night's work. 

1 found Edwards at our tent patiently awaiting my return, and in 
a good condition of appetite, as usual, to enjoy a feast. So we 
gathered together some splinters and proceeded to build a small fire, 
by means of which we soon fried a portion of the meat. The fire 
was insufficient to cook it thoroughly, and we were at last compelled 
to eat it in a half cooked condition, a circuyistance which enabled us 
to bear valuable testimony on the superiority of rare pork over that 
which is well fried. We gorged ourselves comi)letely and then slept 
peacefully, undisturbed by either stomach or conscience. 

Whenever I had success in my undertakings, as in the above 
mentioned case, I generally sought out my two comrades and shared 
with them the good results, though Shrader was so surly and selfish 
that he never deserved it, and Edwards very rarely succeeded in 
bringing in anything in this way, though once in a great while he 
made a good haul. Though Edwards seemed to have no faculty for 
trading, he one day made a raise in the line of substance which 
deserves mention. 

1 was sitting in my tent one day engaged in putting a half-sole on 
the seat of my pants, when Edwards came in with a well filled haver- 
suck under his arm, and looking as sneaking and guilty as though he 
had been caught robbing a savings bank. 

1 inijuired the cause of his singular conduct, but he said nothing 



Our Knapsack. 319 



very particular had occurred, and then he hid the haversack and its 
contents under his blanket. I knew something was wrong, and after 
pressing him for an explanation he told me that the haversack con- 
tained a beef liver, that he had got it of one of the guards whose 
post of duty was on the south side of the hospital grounds, where 
the guard line was situated on the inside of the fence. I intpiired 
of him how much he had paid for it, and his answer was that he 
\\?Ld. promised 10 pay the guard five dollars for it, and that though he 
had no money nor any chances of paying for it, he was so hungry 
that he determined to take the liver anyhow, and pay for it in 
promises. Edwards was an honest man, but his stomach had no 
regard for principle, and sometimes led him into predicaments out of 
which it was difficult to rescue him. He was very ill at ease, now 
that he had on hands a case of liver complaint, for which the ordinary 
remedies were inefficient. 

Knowing that I would share in the liver, I engaged to share in my 
comrade's trouble concerning it; so telling him to remain in the tent 
I made my way down to the guard line, planning on my way how I 
might cancel the amount due the guard for the liver. I stood around 
near the guard for some time and then asked him if he had anything 
to trade or sell. He replied that he had not, that he had just dis- 
posed of a beef liver to one of the prisoners, and was now waiting 
for him to return the haversack and bring the money for the liver. 
I then told the guard that a short time before I came down the 
doctors had arrested a fellow having a striped haversack which 
contained a liver, and that they had taken him to headquarters to tie 
him up by the thumbs until he would tell where and of whom he 
procured it. This statement, though not remarkable for its truthful- 
ness, frightened the guard considerably; he said it must be the same 
one to whom he had sold the liver, and that he feared the fellow would 
divulge the whole affair to the authorities, and thereby bring upon 
him some severe punishment. The guard then told me that if I 
would interest myself in his behalf, by prevailing on the prisoner not 
to tell where he had got the liver, that he would not exact pay for it, 
and that for my services in the case he would bring me four cjuarts 
of peanuts when he again came on guard. This I agreed to do, and, 
followed by the best wishes of the troubled sentry, I returned to the 
tent to share in a huge mess of boiled liver which Edwards had 
prepared during my absence, — a mess, the enjoyment of which was 
heightened rather than lessened by the wear and tear of conscience 
in procuring it. 

Time dragged its slow length along ; the dullest day had its sunset, 
and the dreariest night was succeeded by the dawn of another day; 
monotony was sometimes relieved by variety, and once in a while a 
gleam of hope's sunshine broke through the overhanging clouds of 
despair. 

I still kept up my trades with our guards, and by this means we 
had our seasons of plenty now and then, though generally our supply 
of food was greatly below our needs and of a very inferior ([uality. 



^2o Oui Knapsack. 

1 had bought an extra blanket, and willi the one I aheaily had I was 
well provided in this particular. Many of the sick in our ward began 
to improve, but this was after more than fifty |)er cent, of the whole 
number had died ; the prisoners had been removed from the stockade 
and distributed over different [)arts of the Confederacy, we knew not 
where. No more, sick were being brought into the hospital, as in 
former times, and many of the present occupants of the various 
wards were going about in improving health, performing light duties 
and giving to the h()S|iital an air of life which was in hapi)y contrast 
with the days gone by. By the middle of December, 1864, the only 
prisoners remaining at Andersonville were occupants of the hospital. 
No reliable news from the outside world, touching the progress of the 
war reached us; our captors seemed determined to withold from us 
any news of the situation, as if our ignorance of passing events 
would increase the sufferings of our imprisonment. But our principal 
concern was to prolong our existence and to economize our scanty 
supplies so as to cheat the monster, grim-visaged death of his prey. 

Many deaths were still occuring among us, but they were much 
less frecjuent than before; we had looked on death and suffering so 
long and so frequently that our feelings had grown callous and could 
witness scenes of horror with very little concern. When a patient 
died his effects were immediately taken possession of l)y his living 
comrades. In the possession of these effects many strange discover- 
ies were made; one man, while tearing up a pair of pants which had 
been the property of a prisoner who had died, found four hundred 
dollars in greenbacks carefully stitched in the w\aist of the pants. 
Of course this was regarded as a large haul — ec^ual to ;$ 16,000 of 
(Confederate promises, for every dollar of Uncle Sam's money would 
buy forty of the money of the waning Confederacy. 

One day I got myself into a serious difficulty by buying a blanket 
belonging to a fellow-prisoner in our ward of the hospital. He came 
to me and insisted on my buying his blanket, and continued to press 
me so persistently that I at last bought it to accommodate him, and 
not that I needed it particularly. Knowing that orders existed pro- 
hibiting the sale and purchase of such articles, I feared I would get 
into trouble in so doing, but he promised me faithfully that he would 
never divulge the name of the purchaser under any circumstances. 
I bought it and paid him his price for it. About three days la.ter 
some of the convalescents of our ward, the sixteenth, were being 
transferred to the eighteenth, and among them was the man who had 
sold me the blanket. The officials went around gathering the 
blankets of the patients who were being moved; in this I foresaw 
trouble, so rolling my three blankets u[) I went with them down to 
the eighteenth ward and left them there with a friend with whom I 
had been interested in trading. Then returning to my tent I awaited 
events. I had not long to wait, for having gone for the man who 
had sold me the blanket, they had frightened him into telling to 
whom he had sold the blanket, and bringing him into my tent he 
pointed me out as the man who had violated the rules. I was 



Our Knapsack. 321 

soundly abused in language more forcible than elo(|uent, and was 
then told that if 1 did not produce the blanket and restore it to the 
owner that I would be tied up by the thumbs. Edwards, who was 
interested in my safety, advised me to confess, but as I had come 
into possession of the blanket honestly, I concluded to hold out for 
awhile, at least. Failing to accomplish their purpose by threats, I 
was taken under guard to headquarters for punishment. The major 
commanding was not in, but a lieutenant who was temporarily in 
charge said. he had no doubts but that it would be in accordance with 
the orders of the major to tie me up, and it was done accordingly. A 
half-inch rope was procured and fastened to each wrist. Then I 
was stretched up against an oak tree which stood in front of the 
major's tent, leaving my feet dangling about a foot from the ground. 
1 had been hanging in this manner five or ten minutes — long fnin- 
utes, and was about concluding to loosen my grip on the blanket, the 
possession of which was the cause of my present painful suspension. 
The major returned and at once inquired into the facts of the case. 
He was informed that I had bought a blanket from a sick comrade 
and refused to return it when ordered. The major asked me what I 
had done with the blanket, and I told him that being hungry I had 
sold it for something to eat. » This statement was not as truthful as 
it might have been, but it served such a good purpose that I never 
afterward apologized to the officer for telling it, nor have I ever done 
penance for it. He ordered me taken down and untied, reprimand- 
ing the lieutenant severely for his hasty action in the matter, and 
saying that tying me up so would not return the blanket, and that 
almost anyone would do the same thing under such circumstances. 
The major's conduct in this matter impressed me favorably. I was 
returned to my i[uarters and liberated. I afterwards took possession 
of the blanket on account of which I had narrowly escaped severe 
punishment, and both Edwards and I joined in a season of congratu- 
lation over the favorable termination of the affair. 

Two or three weeks after this occurrence the man with whom I 
had left the blankets for safe keeping, mention of which has been 
previously made, came to me and said that he saw a chance of 
escape, and desired I should join him in the effort. I told him that 
if his plan was a feasible one I would share in the adventure, though 
my experience in that line of exploits had not been full of reward. 
I have before stated that on the south side of the hospital grounds 
was an extended shallow swami); on this side the guards walked on 
the inside of the fence, and on tlie other three sides they walked on 
the outside. On this side I noticed that the sentinels were less vigi- 
lant at times than the nature of their duties required, and that they 
would build little fires on the guard-line at night, around which they 
would stand or sit in couples or singly when they knew that they were 
not watched by the officers, and at such times the prisoners would 
approach the guards and traffic with them. In the southeast corner 
of the grounds a tree which grew on the inside had fallen across the 

38 



32 2 Our Knapsack. 

fence and partially knocked it down, the top of liie tree fallinj; in 
the swamp on the outside. 

It seemed an easy thing after dark, when the guards were not 
watching, for a person to crawl over llie body of the tree, let himself 
down into the swamp and escape ; and this was the plan by which 
we hoped to gain our liberty. We hardly hoped to succeed entirely, 
but we argued that if we could but succeed in scaling the i)rison 
fence at this tree, and gain a temporary freedom of a few days, the 
effort was worth making, and we determined to try it.. We knew 
that four savage bloodhounds were kept for the purpose of pursuing 
escaped prisoners, but this fact did not check our determination to 
see how it looked out in the country. We thought it might be 
several days before we would be missed, and by that time it would 
be imix)ssible to track us by the scent. We made everything ready 
to carry out our plan on a certain night. I said nothing to Edwards 
of our plan, for I well l^nevv that he would refuse to go, and would do 
all he could to prevent my going. 

On two different nights we approached the place intending to 
make the effort, but both times we found the guards unusually 
watchful, and we waited for a more favorable time. On the third 
night circumstances seemed more favorable, and about ten o'clock 
we crept cautiously down toward the jjlace through which we in- 
tended escaping. The guards were standing round a small fire 
engaged in trading with a number of prisoners. It was cloudy and 
rain was falling in a gentle shower. The guards seemed to have no 
fear of anyone trying to make an escape on such a night as this. 
We saw that no more favorable a time than this could be expected, 
and that if we ever intended making the effort, now was our time. 
My partner, whose name was Williams, crept over the log in advance 
of me and told me to follow. We used the utmost caution, for even 
the breaking of a twig might arouse the guards. We crept along the 
trunk of the tree, Williams four feet in advance. Our position at 
this moment was critical in the extreme, for if discovered we were 
almost sure to be shot down. But at last we got on the outside. 
Williams let himself down into the shallow water without making 
any noise, but when I attempted to do the same thing I slipped and 
fell into the water with a noisy splash. This raised an alarm. The 
guards shouted "halt" and opened a brisk fire. But there was very 
little danger in their firing, as the fence was now l)etween us and 
them, and if it had beeii open day they could not have fired on us 
with anything like fatal effect. 

I sprang to my feet and got away as fast as possible, never think- 
ing ot Williams nor of making an effort to keep with him. The 
swamp abounded with underbrush and old, decaying logs, and was 
altogether a place through which one could move with very little 
speed, especially in the darkness. In my haste to escape I scratched 
my face and hands and bruised myself in a fearful manner. I 
stumbled over old logs, and many times fell headlong into the mud 
and water, until I was so fatigued I could make no further progress. 



Our Knapsack. 323 



Halting to rest, I thought of Williams and listened attentively that I 
might hear him making his way through the swamp. I would have 
hallooed, but was fearful of being heard by the guards who might 
possibly be pursuing. 

Nothing could be heard of my adventurous comrade, nor did I 
ever afterwards learn of his fate. He was a man of nerve and had 
a heart as big as all out-doors, and I deeply regretted parting with 
him, especially at a time like this. I rested for a long time and con- 
tinued to hope to hear something from Williams, but in vain. All 
was quiet except that the frogs and other occupants of the swamp 
made noisy complaints at being disturbed at this hour of the night. 
I was now filled with fearful apprehensions ; I imagined fearful alli- 
gators lying in wait to devour me, and my situation was such that I 
began to wish myself back in the prison. Failing to hear from 
Williams, I moved on with great difficulty, hardly knowing whither 
I went I had no knowledge of the extent of the swamp, and very 
little knowledge of the direction I was going. 

I kept on with great difficulty, thinking that J would come out 
somewhere. About three o'clock in the morning, I struck higher 
ground and realized that I had emerged from the swamp. Here 1 
lay down to rest, and being completely tired out, I fell asleep and 
slept till after daylight. A dense forest surrounded me ; behind me 
was the swamp and in front and on either hand was an unbroken 
wilderness of woods. I had lost all hopes of hearing from Williams. 
1 ate a scanty breakfast from the little store of provisions with which 
1 had provided myself before starting ; then resuming my journey I 
traveled in a southwestern direction, through a level and heavily 
timbered country. I felt all the time that I must emerge into some 
cultivated and inhabited region, though how I would proceed or 
what plan I would adopt to carry out my purpose and secure my 
escape, had not entered my mind. 

The injuries 1 had sustained in floundering through the swamp 
made me stiff" and sore, and hindered my progress very much. 
Finally, about three o'clock in the afternoon, I came in sight of a cul- 
tivated plantation, the view of which gave me great joy. I seated 
myself on a log to rest, and after a short time I thought I heard the 
baying of a hound behind me. I listened with breathless attention, 
and again I heard the same sound with more distinctness. I was 
now convinced that I was being pursued, and that the hounds were 
on my trail. What was to be done .'' I looked about me and began 
to plan for the best and to escape the jaws of the hounds, which 
would soon be upon me. The fork of a tree which stood near in- 
vited me and I climbed the trunk and was soon in the fork awaiting 
the arrival of my pursuers. The dogs, four in number, soon came 
up and began barking with savage vigor. Being fifteen feet from the 
ground, I was beyond their reach, and from my perch of safety I 
contemplated their noisy rage with no little interest. In a short 
time three Confederates appeared on horseback. One of them 
accosted me with, "Ah, Yank, we've got you this time." Another 



324 Our Knapsack. 

called on me to come down at once. I told them to get off their 
horses and keep the dogs from injuring me and I wcnild come down. 
One of them dismounted, and driving the dogs hack, stood at the 
tree while I descended. Tlie hounds did not seem inclined to injure 
me after this. 1 was ordered to mount behind one of the men, and 
the chase being ended, we rode in the direction of the prison. As 
we proceeded they intpiired how many had made their escape, and 
also the manner in which it was effe( ted. I told them a straight 
story and made in([uiry concerning Williams, to which they replied 
that he had not been retaken, and they cared very little 
whether he was or not. These men seemed to be jovial and good- 
hearted ; they chatted socially and treated me in the kindest man- 
ner. They expressed themselves as being heartily tired of the war 
and their general conduct was in marked contrast with that of the 
guards who had retaken me when I escaped at Danville. We 
reached the prison about sundown, and I ascertained that I had not 
reached a point more than seven miles from our place of escape, but 
1 must have traveled in a zigzag course. Upon our arrival I was 
taken to headipiarters and reported to the major commanding This 
officer asked me how many escaped with me and l)y what means we 
got away. I told him the whole truth, and he believed it. He said 
that owing to my bruised and battered condition and the rough time 
I had had in the swamp that he would let me off for this time, but 
he advised me not to repeat the attempt, as it would be impossible to 
gain my liberty, even if I was successful in escajiing from the 
grounds. My jiitiable condition, hair matted with mud, clothes torn 
and my face scratched and bruised presented a plea to clemency 
stronger than could have been made by the tongue of elo(|uence. 
The major in dismissing me and sending me to my c|uarters, advised 
me to tak'i better care of myself, a bit of advice which I acce[jted 
thankfully. Shortly after this incident the major was assigned to 
dutv elsewhere, and left us, a circumstance which we had cause to 
regret. He was a man of many excellent (pialities and inflicted no 
unnecessary pain upon the prisoners under him. His whole soul 
seemed overflowing with the milk of human kindness, and it was a 
common remark that so good a man was unfortunate in esix)using so 
bad a cause. 

I never heard of Williams after our separation in the swamp. He 
was not captured and returned to prison nor hospital at Anderson- 
ville, and his fate remained a mystery to me. The swamp was many 
miles in extent in one direction, and he may have penetrated deeper 
and deeper into it and then perished of hunger; or he may have 
been killed in being retaken. It is barely possible that by good for- 
tune he succeeded in reaching the lines of our army, and was safe. 
If living 1 hope that fate may place this account before him, and 
acquaint him of my whereabouts. 1 have, somehow, a hope that he 
still lives. 

Events of no very exciting moment occupied our time from this 
till about the middle of the following January, 1S65. I had con- 



Our Knapsack. 325 

tinned my traffic in various ways, and by so doing managed to scrape 
together a tolerably good living. The stockade had now been unoc- 
cupied lor nearly three months, but at the above named time three 
or four thousand prisoners were brought in and placed in the stock- 
ade, and many, including myself, were sent to the stockade from the 
hospital. Here we began to retaste some of the horrors of our im- 
prisonment of the preceding summer, but we were not so crowded as 
before, for instead of 25,000, as formerly, we only numbered a little 
less than 4,000; therefore we had plenty of room. But our rations 
were scant, and it was as much as we could do to live on what we 
got. Some time in the latter part of February five hundred of our 
number were ordered to move. Edwards and I were of that num- 
ber, and we indulged strongly in a hope of an exchange and release. 
A short time previous to this the Confederates had l)een making 
efforts to enlist the prisoners in the stockade to serve in the Southern 
army. A Colonel O'Neil, an Irishman, of the C. S. A., came into the 
stockade daily, and succeeded in enlisting many of the stoutest and 
hardiest of the prisoners. Of the three hundred thus enlisted the 
larger portion were foreigners. None but the very stoutest were 
taken. I learned afterwards that all these deserted in a body and 
joined the Union army, but this may not be true. None of those 
who enlisted should be blamed or censured for using any and every 
means to obtain their freedom, and I think that each of those who 
enlisted had strong reasons for doing so, for "all that a man hath will 
he give for his life." 

Many persons who stayed at home, viewing the battle from afar, 
and knowing nothing of the dreadful carnage of battle, and experi- 
encing nothing of the horrors of starvation in prison, are the first 
and loudest to proclaim that they would have died before they would 
have enlisted thus. Such folks seldom die in this manner. 

The order to move, before mentioned, was not carried out imme- 
diately, and it was not till the early days of March that we began to 
pack our scanty effects preparatory to moving out. This was a task 
to which we applied ourselves with promptness; shout after shout 
went up from the men whose hearts had been bowed down with un- 
utterable woe for many weary months ; the news seemed almost too 
good to be true, and we found ourselves inquiring of each other 
whether it were a fact that we had received such orders ; or was it a 
trick of our captors to add one more woe to the long roll of miseries 
that had embittered our lives. But after some further wailing five 
hundred of us were marched out of the stockade and to the dei)ot. 
Our star of hope began to rise, and the prospect of release from our 
charnel-house of horrors began to grow bright. Now that we were 
out of the hated pen and waiting for a train to go hence, seemed 
almost like heaven begun below. We waited at the depot from 11 a. 
m, till 4 p. m., and no train coming for us, we were again returned to 
the stockade. What a mighty reverse this was to our feelings, and 
how it blasted the cherished ho[)es of a few hours before. Our 
hearts sank within us, and dark desj)air took the i)lace where hope 



^26 Our Knapsack. 

had triumphed hut an hour a^o. Many gave up and sank under this 
blow ot disappointment. Tears were shed, and maledictions and 
curses were lieard on every hand. It was like snatching the cooling 
water from the victim of a consuming thirst. Many said that we 
may as well make up our minds to die in prison and no longer cher- 
ish hopes which budded but to perish ; and in this state of hopeless- 
ness many did die. We resumed our places in the stockade and 
knew not what the future promised. 

About two weeks after this, orders were again received, and again 
the fires of hope were kindled within us. This order was greeted 
with an outburst of joy which baffles description. Our labor of 
packing up and preparing to move was siieedily and cheerfully per- 
formed. This being completed we marched with light hearts to the 
depot, finding a train of bo.\ cars in waiting. We were soon aboard 
and were much crowded, but we were so much over joyed at the 
prospect of leaving that we cared little for the discomfort we e.\- 
perienced. 

Our train moved in a southerly direction, running as far as Albany, 
in the southern part of (Georgia. Here this line of railroad terminated. 
We were now fifty miles from Andersonville. It was after dark when 
we reached Albany. We were taken from the cars and laid by till 
next morning. 

Rations were issued to us next morning and w-e were told that we 
were now on the way to the Union lines, and that this supply of 
food must last ils till we reached our friends. We were so over- 
joyed at the prospect of gaining our liberty that we now cared very 
little about what was given us to eat. 

From this place we took up a line of march, and for three days we 
traveled in an easterly direction, through a level country, and over 
what I considered very poor soil. We marched about twenty 
miles a day, and at the close of the third day we reached Thomas- 
ville, the county seat of Thomas county, one of the border counties 
of Georgia on the Florida line. Our sick where hauled across the 
country from Albany in wagons ; many gave out on the march, and 
they, too, were hauled. It became necessary to press into the service 
the teams and wagons of planters living along the line of march, and 
by so doing our transportation was made equal to our needs. At 
Thomasville we received some kind attentions which I mention with 
pleasure, and which shows that even in an enemy's land we were 
treated as if we were human in character, at least. On the day after 
our arrival many ladies visited us, bringing baskets full of provisions, 
daintily prepared, and distributed them to the sick and most destitute 
of our number. They brought many articles of clothing and gave to 
those in need ; many a sick and dying prisoner invoked God's 
blessing on the head of these angels of mercy as they ministered to 
the sick and destitute. This incident was like the gleam of sunshine 
on a dark day ; like a spring of water in a thirsty land. 

On the next day we were told that owing to a lack of cars we 
could not leave till the following day ; and on the next day and for 



Our Knapsack. 327 

several successive days we were told the same comfortless story. 
These delays seemed ominous of evil. Rumors of various kinds 
floated through the camp, and our star of hope began to lose its 
brilliancy. Many of us prophesied that evil was near at hand, and 
the most hopeful began to doubt ; even our guards seemed confused 
and hardly knew what to do with us or themselves. Thus time wore 
on till the fifth day, when we were ordered to be ready to move ; but 
instead of marching us to the depot and the train as we had hoped, 
we were turned back and marched in the direction of Albany, on the 
same road over which we had marched with such buoyant hearts and 
bright hopes but a few days before. At this unhappy turn in our 
affairs, who can describe the despair which weighed down our every 
heart, for we seemed to see and understand in this movement that 
our cup of sorrow was not yet drained of all its galling bitterness. 
We would a hundred fold sooner have marched in any other direction 
than towards Andersonville. How we hated, loathed and de-tested 
the very name of the spot where we had seen and suffered so much. 
And now after having our hopes raised to such a point that we could 
almost see the stars and strips of the dear old flag, and hear the 
anthems of liberty, and taste the joys of freedom, and now tliat we 
were made to turn our backs on all this and march toward our hated 
prison-pen, the thought was crushing, and was ne.xt to death itself. 
Heavy hearts make heavy feet ; we were four days reaching Albany. 
We were sick, weary, disheartened, and the last ray of hojjc was 
almost e.vtinguished. At Albany we were put on the cars and in a 
brief time were again within the walls of dreary Andersonville. If we 
had been sad and disheartened in counter-marching toward our old 
place of torment, how much more forlorn and dejected did we now 
feel in realizing that ho])e had fled and despair held a heartless 
mastery. Nothing could be learned concerning the progress of the 
war, and our knowledge of the outside world was almost a blank. 

Many of us bore our misfortunes as stoically as possible, and 
determined to keep our spirits up to the end ; but how we succeeded 
in doing so seems almost marvel. The actions of our captors seemed 
to indicate that they considered their cause a hopeless one, and in 
this we drew a little comfort, At the end of ten days after our 
return from Thomasville we again received orders to move, and again 
we gathered together our scanty effects, hoping in this, our third 
moving, to see the last of x-Vndersonville. We marched to the depot 
and got aboard a train of cars a little after dark. We noticed that our 
guards were much excited over some news which we construed to be 
in our favor, and they seemed to care very little whether we escaped 
or not, and they made little effort to prevent our escape. I saw more 
than one opportunitv of escaping, but I began to see that we were a 
■l)urden on their hands and that they were becoming every hour more 
and more anxious of getting rid of us. Our train moved out at ten 
o'clock P. M., but instead of going south, as before, we moved in the 
direction of Macon. This was as we wished, for we felt more hopes 
of getting into our lines in this direction than by going south. We 



328 ( hn K/iii/^S(uk. 

were all iiinlit and lill eight o'clock the nex day niiining to Macon, a 
distance of sixty miles. Captain Wirt/, accompanied the train, and 
he seemed considerably excited over something which he kept to 
himself. When the train halted at Macon the Captain passed from 
one car to another, assuring the men that this time they would 
certainly he sent through to the I'nion lines, and he seemed more 
like a man and less like the fiend that he was than on any former 
occasion. We regarded this as an item in our favor. 

We remained at Macon nearly two hours, during which time we 
remained in the cars, and then we were again run back toward 
Andersonville. Who can imagine our feelings as our train sjied in 
the direction of the place we most detested on earth. We asked 
each other, "Shall we never be free from the horrid place?" We 
reached Andersonville at three o'clock in the afternoon, but contrary 
to our expectations, and to our agreeable surprise, we were not 
allowed to leave the train, and were assured that after a short halt 
we would be sent on. This announcement was cheered lustily ; the 
poor sufferers shook hands, shed tears and made many demonstra- 
tions of the joy which filled their hearts. The scene was one which 
can neither be imagined nor described. After a halt of half an hour 
our train again moved, going south. We reached Albany at nine 
o'clock that night, and, disembarking, spent the remainder of the 
night. In the morning we had issued to us six hard tack, which 
were to feed us for three days. We then set out to march to Thomas- 
ville, which place we reached at the end of three days' marching. 
Such of our numbers as could not be transported in wagons were 
left at Albany, and were afterwards sent forward. On the day fol- 
lowing our arrival at Thomas ville we were again put on board a 
train, and again doubts filled our minds, and serious apprehensions 
harassed us; for we were yet ignorant of our destination. But we 
zuerc going aicuiy fioin AntiersonviUe ; there was a world of comfort in 
that. Our course for sixteen or twenty hours seemed to be a zigzag 
one, but at the end of that time we reached Lake City, in Florida. 
Here we went into camp at a distance of four miles from the city. 
Our camp was beside the railroad, and near a pond of stagnant 
water, from which we supplied ourselves with water to use and drink. 
We at length found plenty of better water Ijy digging four or five feet. 

Some of the men were wading in the pond a short distance from 
the bank, when they came across a young alligator, six feet in length. 
They set about trying to kill it with clubs. The guards, attracted 
by the confusion, came to their assistance and the alligator was shot, 
after which the carcass was cut uj) and divided among us. We had 
l)een so long without meat that we thought v/e could eat anything like 
flesh ; besides, we were on the verge of starvation ; all the rations we 
had received since leaving .\ll)any was a small cpiantity of meal.- 
In the distribution of the alligator the mess to which I belonged got 
the tail. This we skinned and cut into thin slices, after which it 
was boiled and eaten. Under the circumstance we agreed that it 
was as good meat as we had ever tasted. We remained in camp 



Our Knapsack. 329 

near Lake City four days, then boarding a train, we were sent to 
Baldwin, a small place about forty miles in an easterly direction. 
This was the outpost of the C. A. at this time, i«n the direction of 
Jacksonville, where a part of our army was stationed. The railroad 
to Jacksonville had been destroyed by one or both armies, and this 
station was as far as the cars were running in the direction of the 
Union lines. 

From Baldwin to Jacksonville was sixteen miles, and we were told 
that we were to reach it on foot. We had been guarded from Ander- 
sonville to this place by a regiment of Mississippi infantry, com- 
mandt^d by Colonel Cibbs. We left Baldwin at ten o'clock in the 
morning and marched in the direction of Jacksonville. Our guards 
accom[)anied us a few miles, when the Colonel called a halt. He 
told us that his command would go no further, that we were now at 
liberty, and by pursuing our way along the railroad we would soon 
reach our forces at Jacksonville in safety. He advised us to assist 
each other on the march and keep together as well as we could. He 
assured us that we would find our friends ready to receive us at 
Jacksonville. He and his command then bade us good-bye and 
turned l)ack. I do not remember that any tears of regret were shed 
on the occasion. And now such joyous shouts and such prolonged 
cheers as went up from this haggard crowd of famished men seldom 
is heard by mortal ears. The fact that we were within a few miles 
of the tlag which we had so long a desire to see seemed to be a joy 
almost purer than we could bear. 

As soon as our guards left us all order of march was at an end, 
and each man set out and moved ahead to suit himself, regardless of 
his stronger or weaker companion, and in a short time the line was 
lengthened out to a distance of more than two miles. I marched as 
well as I could, but soon fell behind the majority, and yet as far 
backward as I could see there were many stragglers, all trying their 
best to make the desired end. 

I was barefooted and hatless; my breeches were worn off to the 
knees and my shirt had lost its sleeves. All the baggage I had was 
half of an old blanket which I threw over my shoulders when it 
rained. Many marched until they became exhausted and then sank 
beside the way. My feet were blistered, swollen and full of prickles 
from sand burs. I kept on, doing my best till three o'clock in the 
afternoon, when 1 sank beside the road, feeling that 1 must rest, for 
though liberty beckoned and freedom glittered ahead of me, the flesh 
was weaker than the will. 1 rested for#more than an hour, and dar- 
ing that time many of the stragglers came up and passed on ; yet 
there were many more who were still in the rear. As I again moved 
ow an old man came hobbling along and seeming to be exerting his 
utmost to get aliead. As he walked by my side I noticed his labored 
breathing and his desperate efforts to move on. Suddenly he fell 
forward on his face. 1 stopped and gave him .some attention. One 
or two other soldiers came up, and while we were discussing what 
was best to do with him he ceased to breathe. He lived not more 



33© Our h'liiipsiiik. 

lluiii six mimilcs aflcr he fell. W'c ihcn moved on, IcMviiij; the life- 
less body where it had fr.llen. I was inftJiiued that many in the rear 
were lying unal)le to get further. About sundown we came to a 
picket post of our army in the vicinity of Jacksonville. I had not 
felt free until 1 was well inside the lines of our army, for I did not 
know but the wheel of fate would yet make an unfortunate turn and 
we should again fall into the hands of the enemy. I entered Jack- 
sonville in the dusk of the evening, and as I passed along a street I 
saw a colored woman carrying half of a large fish. I begged a por- 
tion of it of her and carried it into camp for my supper. It was 
fully dark when I found my comrades in cam[); wagon loads of light 
bread were issued to us after our arrival, and barrels of good coffee 
as an accompaniment. This and the fish furnished me such a sup- 
per as I had not had in an age. 

Next day a force was sent out to bring in those of the prisoners 
who had l)ecome exhausted on the march. I was told that five poor 
fellows had died on the march, and I know of many others, nearly 
forty, who died soon after reaching Jacksonville. The excitement of 
being again free had caused many to over-exert their strength, and 
the frail tenement gave way. It was now April 28th, 1865 ; I had 
been taken at Chickamauga September 20th, 1863, making my 
imprisonment nineteen months and eight days. 1 am safe in saying 
that there are not now living, of all the thousands who suffered as 
prisoners of war, fifty men who served for the length of time I did, 
and if there is any horror in all the long list of sickness, starvation 
and untold misery which fell to the lot of any of my fellow prisoners, 
and which I did dot suffer, it must be too dreadful to be told. 

At Jacksonville we learned that the war was about ended, that 
President Lincoln had been killed, and many other matters of public 
interest had transpired of which we had been ignorant. We remained 
a month longer a Jacksonville, and during that time many more of 
our number died. Many who were unable to control themselves ate 
too greedily, and not a few caused their own death in this manner. 

From Jacksonville we were taken by hospital boat to Annapolis, 
Maryland. Here we learned of the capture of Jeff. Davis, and that 
the war was ended. Here we had issued to us new clothing and 
received the money due us for rations during our imprisonment. 
This was twenty-five cents a day for each day of our imprisonment. 
From Annapolis we were sent to Camj) Chase, near Columbus. Re- 
maining here one night, I next day took the train for my home at 
St. Paris, Ohio, where I ^-rived about noon. I had long been 
regarded by my friends as dead, and my a[)pearance among them 
was as one from the grave. 

This is my story of prison life. I have made no effort to overdraw 
the facts in any part of it, but have told the truth. I may have 
stated inaccuracies regarding dates, distances, names and other minor 
matters, but my discription of the suffering and starvation in the 
prisons where I suffered, is short of the truth, in that the worst cannot 
be told. If the living could 'not speak, there are the graves of an 



Our Knapsack. %%\ 

army of martyrs at Andersonville which tell the story better than my 
feeble pen has done it. In thus giving to the public this simple 
narrative, I am actuated l)y no desire to stir up strife or to engender 
bitter feelings toward any section of our now happy country, for I 
believe that all feelings of bitterness should be buried in the.graveof 
forgetfulness. Let us cherish a love for our dear country and its 
institutions, the preservation and perpetuation of which has cost so 
much blood and sacrafice ; and in the language of our country's great 
founder, let us " frown indignantly upon the first dawning of any 
attempt to alienate any portion of our country from the rest, or to 
enfeeble the sacred ties that now link together the various parts." 

It is a source of regret to me that the fortunes of war placed me 
where I did not share in the crimson glory which the 113th O. V. I. 
won on so many well fought fields, and that the associations I had 
formed among the membership of the dear old command should 
terminate as they did, never to be renewed again until the final reveille 
that shall awake the heroic. Yours, 

J. N. Hall. 

SKETCHES AND RECOLLECTIONS. 

Bv Major J. Swisher. 



North Lewisburg, O., April sth, 1884. 
Sergt. F. M. McAdams, Richwood, Ohio, 

Dear Sir : — Allow me to congratulate you on the near approach to 
completion of the History of the 113th Regiment, O. V. I. This 
work cannot fail to be of interest to every member of the Regiment. 
It is complete in detail — having dealt largely in facts connected 
with the every-day life of the common soldier, facts which have usually 
been overlooked by the historian. You ask that I write something 
for the Knapsack in the form of personal recollections of the war. 
With a full knowledge that I may write of many facts already treated 
of in the body of the work, I shall undertake the work in as brief a 
manner as possible. 

It was expected early in the Summer of 1862, that a draft would 
have to be resorted to in order to fill the ranks of the depleted 
regiments in the field. All able bodied men were enrolled, and 
officers had been appointed by the Government, before whom any one 
could go and be examined, preparatory to exemption from military 
duty. And here my recollection is very vivid. Men who had been 
known to be regular rounders, and boasted of their prowess, and were 
noted for raising a row whenever they could, were the ones who filled 
the exemption offices; and it was learned for the first time, that 
almost every other man was ruptured, or in some way was totally 
unfit to perform the duties of a soldier. Others had a front tooth out 
which was made much of to show that they were not able to eat hard 
tack or bite a cartridge. Some again made it known that they never 
had been able to stand the report of a gun, hence unfit, and claimed 
exemption. No doubt many of these same individuals would have 



332 Oin Knapsack. 

g'^ne to the dominions of Queen Victoria, l)ut an order was issued 
that no man should leave the I'nited States without a passport; hut 
lo the credit of these men, many of tliem went into I lie war afterwards 
and were valiant soldiers. August 15, 1862, V . M. McAdams, Harrison 
AValburn and I went to I'rbana and enlisted under John S. Leedijni, 
who failed to go himself. On the 2<Sth of .Xugust, 1862, I bid fare- 
well to my family and friends and boarded the train at Urbana. 
Here we met a number of men from St. Paris, whose accpiaintance 
we made for the first time, an ac(iuainlance, which through the trying 
ordeal of war ripened into friendship, which will, we ho|)e, last 
through all time. We were now to give up our personal liberty, and 
yield ourselves to the command of those appointed over us. We 
arrived at Columbus the same evening and were marched at once to 
the State House, and from thence to Camp Chase. W'e were about 
ninety in number under Captain Riker. Dur first night was i)assed 
without tents or blankets, but being warm weather we suffered no 
inconvenience. During our stay at Camp Chase, which lasted about 
two months, we were almost constantly on the drill grounds, pre])ar- 
ing for the duties which awaited us in the field. Shortly after our 
arrival in camp, an election was held for the (office of First Lieutenant 
which resulted in the election of John Bowersock. Here I received 
a warrant as First Sergeant of Company E. My recollections of the 
duties of an orderly sergeant of a company of nien fresh from citi- 
• zen life are, that it was a very trying one. To restrain men from a 
liberty they had enjoyed, and mould them to military discii)line was 
not an enviable task. We had been promised a local bounty as soon 
as mustered in. The men taking enlistment for muster expected to 
be paid at once. The local authorities of Champaign County, from 
which county 1 was enlisted, understood it was to be paid at muster 
in to the U. S. service. This caused discontent, and men refused to 
be restrained under a contract which they conceived had been vio- 
lated by the authorities. Many took French leave, whilst dlhevs 
were at home on furlough, when 1 distinctly recollect being the only 
enlisted man of Company E in camp. All, however, came back in a 
few days, when we soon moved to Camp Zanesville. "I'he night 
before starting, Fred Baldwin, of Company E, got up about 2 o'clock 
a. m., as he claimed, to split kindling, he was so anxious to be ready 
to go, and in doing so he cut one of his fingers off. I recollect the 
complimentary remark of Dr. Black on the occasion ; lialdwin was 
never mustered into the service, but was sent home to split kindling. 
On the day following James Edmonson preached the funeral sermon 
over his finger from the text, "If thy right hand offend thee, cut it off." 
The congregation was large but the mourners few. Arriving at 
Camp Zanesville we were mustered into the U. S. service by Captain 
Howard and received our local bounty. This 1 recollect was taken 
from me afterwards on being promoted. We staid here but a short 
time; but while here some of the boys kicked over a stove and set 
fire to the quarters, when the whole camp was burned. From here 
we went to Camp Dennison. Here we drew our first mules and 
wagons, and were sent to Louisville, Ky., and from thence to Mul- 



Our Knapsack. 333 

drough Hill to guard a bridge just rebuilt, after having been burned 
by Morgan. While here I went with M. G. Doak to Dr. Harlow to 
have a tooth pulled, and the Doctor by the light of a candle pulled 
two before he got the right one. From here I was sent back to Ohio 
in company with W. O. Carpenter to look after men absent without 
leave. Starting from Columbus with a number of men and arriving 
at Cincinnati we placed them in the barracks, and during the night 
in a drunken row among the men. Reason B. Parker, of Company E, 
(enlisted as musician) had his. skull broken, from which he died 
shortly afterward at Louisville. On our arrival at Louisville we met 
the regiment with a large number of other troops ready to take boat 
for Nashville. Our regiment went aboard the steamer St. Patrick, 
the flagship of the squadron, numbering about forty vessels and 
three gunboats. On this trip I remember a lottery scheme was got- 
ten up on the steamer St. Patrick in which some of the commis- 
sioned officers were leaders, and almost every man invested in some 
of the tickets ; but news of the scheme coming to Colonel Wilcox 
the money was refunded, the officers placed under arrest for a few 
days, when it all died out. On our arrival at Fort Donalson we 
found the 83d Illinois Volunteers at that place engaged in a desper- 
ate battle with the Rebel General Forest, who was intent on captur- 
ing the fort and turning the guns on the fleet and prevent it 
ascending the river to re-enforce Rosecrans at Murfreesboro; but 
our gunboats arriving in time threw a few shells among the rebels, 
killing many of them, when they raised the siege and retreated, leav- 
ing the S3d Illinois the victors of the contest. Here the fleet halted 
and many of us were permitted to go on shore and view the battle- 
field, where we, for the first time, beheld the victims of warfare, 
strewn dead and dying over the field. We soon arrived at Nash- 
ville with banners flying and bands playing. Before leaving the 
boat Colonel Wilcox presented me with a Second Lieutenant commis- 
sion, which was to me a very agreeable surprise. We marched out 
about three miles and went into camp for the night. Here Colonel 
Wilcox took his final leave of us, and Colonel Mitchell at once 
assumed command. We remained here but one day, when we took 
up our line of march for Franklin, Tenn., distant eighteen miles. 
We remained here near two months, in the meantime drilling and 
doing picket duty. I was here detailed as Quartermaster of the 
I r3th Regiment. I learned here of the death of Harrison Walborn, 
who had been left at Nashville sick. I have no doubt but this was 
a case of death from home-sickness. 

1 have many pleasant recollections of this place, Franklin being 
a very beautiful village, situated in one of the most beautiful coun- 
tries I ever beheld. The citizens were intensely rebel, and took no 
pains to conceal it. While here we had several brushes with the 
rebels, but nothing serious or verging on what would be called a 
battle. Eleven rebel cavalry .here made a dash through our out- 
posts and through town, and down to the Harpeth river, and 
attempted to cross, when three of them were shot. No more reckless 



334 ^^"' ^'Kipsack. 

charge was made during the war. (."aptain Riker resigned here, and 
1 received my commission as First Lieutenant, and Sergeant McCrea 
was commissioned as Second Lieutenant and sent home on recruiting 
service, and remained away till October. We movetl from here to 
Triune, Tennessee, about the middle of May, and remained but a 
short time, (ieneral Rosecrans having advanced on Tullehoma, we 
moved to Murfreesboro, Tennessee, where Rosecrans had defeated 
the rebel army, under (Ieneral Bragg, six months before. This was 
a fine country and a beautiful village. Here (Ieneral Mitchell was 
sent to hospital with small-pox. We moved from here to Shelbyville, 
Te\inessee, passing on our way the church where Vallandigham had 
been passed througli the lines, that he might join with his rebel 
friends in talking treason, of which a court martial had found him 
guilty a short time before. We lay at Shelbyville for some time, but 
were compelled to leave town, where we first took up our quarters, 
on account of the fleas. They drove us out of town. We camped 
south of town on an old rebel camp, where we encountered nothing 
worse than graybacks. In driving the rebels out of town and across 
Duck river, many of them were killed and sunk in the river. I 
remember the body of one having washed down the river and over 
a dam, and the returning eddy drew it back, when it would be again 
thrown out, only to be drawn back again. This was continued for 
several days, when it was finally taken out and buried on the bank 
of the river. Here several of our men came near being taken under 
by this returning eddy while bathing in the river, among them Cap- 
tain Bowersock and David Walker. While here I was sent out by 
General Whittaker with a large train, on Sunday, with the 98th O. 
V. L, as a guard, to cut a field of oats and bring it in. We found 
four McCormick reapers and five cradles, impressing the owners of 
the machines, with their teams, to run them. At three o'clock we 
started back to camp with forty acres of oats on our wagons. Rose- 
crans having moved from Tullahoma, we moved to Wartrace, Ten- 
nessee, where we remained but a short time. This being the season 
of roasting ears, peaches and blackberries, we fared well. The grand 
advance was now made on Chattanooga. Up to this time we had 
had no regular supply trains. Each regiment was allowed thirteen 
wagons, and every one insisted on taking and having hauled for him 
all the baggage he wanted — enough, such as it was, to supply any 
family in starting in housekeeping. On our first day out it was found 
that our wagons were overloaded, and (ieneral Steadman, having 
assumed command of our division, ordered a general inspection. 
Colonel W^arner, who was in command of the 113th O. V. I. at that 
time, accompanied by the insjjecting officer, ordered the wagons 
unloaded for inspection. It was rather amusing, as the Inspector 
])assed along the line, to notice the vvoeful countenances of the men 
as their household goods were ordered to l)e left, and the inspecting 
officer indulged in various epithets not complimentary to that kind of 
soldiering; but when he came to the last wagon, commonly called 
headquarters wagon, in which the household goods of Colonel Warner 



Our Knapsack. 335 

were to be inspected, he found the fly to a wall tent had been fastened 
to two large rails about three feet ai)art, which formed the foundation 
to Colonel Warner's bed. I have no doubt but that the insi)ecting 
officer felt like the man who was going up hill with a cart load of 
potatoes, when the end-gate came out and sj)illed them all — that he 
could not do the subject justice — and rode silently away. Colonel 
Warner did not have these loaded in the wagon again. Our march 
from this on was without any particular incident till we reached 
Chattanooga. The rebels had evacuated that place, and fallen back 
to Lafayette, Georgia, having been reinforced by Longstreet. When 
near Rossville Gap,the battle of Chickamauga was fought. The Reserve 
Corps (commanded by General Gordon Granger), of which our brigade 
formed a part, was hurriedly sent through Rossville Gap, and, after two 
days' marching and counter-marching, was, on Sunday, September 20, 
1863, thrown into the conflict. As the result has already been 
written, I will only relate a few instances which came under my per- 
sonal observation. When the conflict was raging the hottest, three 
men of Company E, all red headed — namely: Thomas Scott, David 
Chatfield and Frank Russel — were charging on the rebel hosts, when 
I heard Scott make the remark that " us read headed fellows could 
stand it as well as any," when, at the same instant, Russel was 
killed, Scott was wounded, and Chatfield had his blanket riddled 
with bullets. Another instance 1 will give to show the nice part 
rank played in the army. Our lines were being hard pressed. Col- 
onel Mitchell sent me to tell Captain Burton to remove his battery 
from the field. I delivered the order direct, and Captain Burton 
paid no attention to it. I then said : "Colonel Mitchell directs that 
you move your battery off the field at once." He obeyed the order 
immediately. He out-ranked me. After the battle we moved to 
Chattanooga, and remained there till the 25th of November, when 
the rebels were hurled in dismay from Mission Ridge. While lying 
in Chattanooga, I received an order from General Garfield to report 
at General Rosecrans' quarters immediately. This was at twelve 
o'clock at night. Arriving there, I was told that there were 1,100 
broken down artillery and cavalry horses that must be taken back to 
Stevenson, Alabama, and that I must take charge of them, and col- 
lect forage from the country and have them fed till further orders. 
This I successfully accomplishetl, but, not liking the job, I sought 
the first opportunity to be relieved. Major Sullivant, Lieutenant 
McC'rea and Sergeant Parr, coming from Ohio on their way to join 
the regiment, I turned my charge over to Captain F>stap, of the 8th 
Indiana Battery, and started with them for Chattanooga. At Jasper, 
Tennessee, we fell in company with a man going, he said, to Chat- 
tanooga, and who wanted to accompany us. He insisted on going 
the river road instead of taking the circuitous route over the Sequatchie 
Mountain. We suspicioned he was seeking to lead us into a trap. 
A consultation was held among us, in which it was agreed that the 
most dire vengeance should be inflicted on him at the first sign of 



^^6 ()ur Kiiiipsiuk. 

treachery. He, seeing i)ur suspicions, luillcd a puss iVoni under the 
lining of his hut, which read as follows: 

*' I'a^s (.)"( umiel day or iiij^'lu. rciuliariiy, linj^iT oil the ri^'lit liaiiil. 

( ii-.<ii<i.i, II. I'niiMAs, 

Mai. l/'i//. L'omiiuiiidinj;.''^ 

He pr()\ed tu i)e a nuinber one man, and had been through the 
rebel army as a sjjy and was ou his way back to report to Cieneral 
'I'honias. 'I'he river road, however, proved a very dangerous one. 
'I'he rebels, armed with long ranged guns, held the south side of the 
Tennessee river, and were able to shoot across and make it dangerous 
to travel the river road, which ran along the river bank; hence we 
were forced to travel all day on the side of the mountain, the 
whole time being subjected to a continuous fire, which came 
uiuomforlai)ly close. I had a horse to lead which stumbled in 
between some rocks, a.nd being unable to get out. Sergeant Parr shot it. 
I carried the saddle till night, when camjnng with some soldiers we 
had come up with, it was stolen. Arriving at Chattanooga, I was sent 
back immediately to Stevenson, Alabama with a sui)[)ly train. We 
had to make a circuitous route of si.xty-eight miles to get a distance of 
twenty-eight. While on the Seciuatchie mountain we met (General 
(•rant and staff on their way to Chattanooga to assume conuiiand of 
the army at that |)lace. On the trip to Stevenson, the roads being 
bad and the mules in a bad condition, we were comi)elled to abandon 
some of the wagons, and the mules were shot, being unable to travel, 
and we did not wish to leave them to fall into the hands of the citi- 
zens. On our way back we stopped at Jasper, Tennessee. While 
sleeping by the side of a peach tree to which I had tied my horse, 
Colonel Ray's East Tennessee Cavalry, stationed at that place, moved 
and stole my horse. It was on this trip, and while at Stevenson, 
Alabama, that I hailed with delight many of my old neighbors whom 
1 had not seen for two years. 'I'hey were a |>art of General Hooker's 
forces, on their way from the Army of the Patomac to reinforce the 
Army of the Cumberland. The army now reinforced by the 
Fifteenth Corps and Hooker's troops and (ieneral Crant in command 
moved on November 26th against Bragg's army on Mission Ridge and 
Lookout Mountain, gaining a complete victory and sending the reljels 
in complete dismay, closely pursued by our forces, to Ringgold. 
Sherman was now sent to Kno.wiMe to relieve General Durnsides. 
On this trip I served on the staff of (ieneral Heatty as Commissary. 
1 gathered meat, molasses, tlour, meal, (^c, from the country to feed 
the brigade. Of course the reader will understand when I say I did 
it, that I only supervised or assissted, as I had all the help I wanted 
and every man a hero. To do this it was sometimes necessary to 
gather the grain and grind it. At one time 1 had four mills impressed 
into the service and running; others were doing the same. We 
entered smoke houses, meal chests and granaries ; this seemed hard 
to take the last bite from these ftimilies, but we were marching to 
relieve a starving fortress and we must eat. Necessity knows no 
law. Our orders were to leave each family four days rations; I 



Our Knapsack. 337 

doubt whether this was always done. As an incident of this cam- 
l)aign, I recollect being in a smoke house, contending with a man about 
the division of a barrel of Sorghum molasses ; talking, this matter 
over after the war with James Madden, I found it was he with whom 
I had contended about the molasses. 1 knew him not at the time, 
though we had been raised boys together. Nearing Knoxville, 
Oeneral Longstreet raised the siege and moved off toward Virginia, 
closely followed by the Fourth Corps under General Granger; the 
remainder of the troops moved leisurely back toward Chattanoogo. 
On the march back, while out with a supply train, we stopped at the 
house of a good-natured Tennessean to feed our teams and load our 
wagons with corn. He asked me to take a walk with him ; going some 
distance in the woods he went to a brush heap from which he took a 
jug of applejack and treated me in princely style. While this was 
taking place the teamsters had learned from the negroes that there 
was a barrel of applejack under the floor. They were not long in 
getting this in the wagon. We started to camp, and I was surprised 
when one of the teamsters called me to the wagon and offered to 
treat me from the same jug I had been treated from an hour before. 
They had watched us and profited by it. 

As is generally the case with spirits this came very near getting 
me into trouble. Having a warm friendship for the 1 13th, I divided 
the applejack among the members of the 113th, and if one can judge 
by the songs sung and stories told around the camp fires that night 
it had a good effect. This coming to the ears of General Jeff. C. 
Davis, he sent for me and reprimanded me pretty sharply for not 
turning the spirits over to division headquarters for the use of the 
Medical Director; but it was too late, the 113th had been ,sick and 
cured. We arrived in Chattanooga, on the south side of Tennessee 
river, to find the bridge swept away, and we were compelled to camp 
on the bank of the river. The weather had turned very cold. 
Many of the men were barefooted, having worn their shoes out on 
the campaign. Rations were issued at ten o'clock at night, and we 
had to go at least two miles to get wood to cook our supper with. I 
will relate another incident here which took place on the night before 
the battle of Mission Ridge. Lieutenant McCrea, Sergeant Parr, 
and I started to cross the Tennessee river to Chattanooga. For 
some cause Lieutenant McCrea and I returned to camp and crossed 
on the bridge afterward. Sergeant Parr going over on a swinging 
ferry. When the boat was within a few rods of the southern shore 
it was capsized and he with others, was drowned. We now went into 
our old ([uarters, but were [)ermitted to remain but a few days, when 
we moved south of the Tennessee and put up winter quarters near 
Crawfish Springs. While here we were daily receiving new recruits. 
One instance 1 recollect of one of these recruits asking an old sol- 
dier where he could get sonie washing done. The old veteran, see- 
ing an opportunity for some fun, told him Jim Morgan did the 
washing for the division. The old veteran pointed out Morgan's 
quarters and told the recruit that he would find a guard in front of his 

40 



3.^*^ ( ^"' Kiiitpnick. 

lent, thai he was always kc])l iiiulcr ^uaid so tlial lie would be ready 
to do any washing when called on. Arriving at (ieiieral Morgan's head- 
([iiarters he was accosted by that stern -old hero as to what he 
wanted. The soldier replied that he had come to get him to do some 
washing, deneral Morgan assured him that he was mistaken, that 
he was commander of the division. The soldier retorted that it was 
no use for him to play that on him, that he was told he would try to 
get out of it, and insisted on his doing the washing. (General 
Morgan, seeing that the recruit was the victim of a practical joke by 
some old soldier, and told him he was being victimized and asked 
him if he could [)oint out the soldier who had sent him there. He 
said he could. The (leneral sent a guard with him, with direc;tions 
to bring the culprit to headquarters. The guard soon brought him, 
when (ieneral Morgan reprimanded him pretty severely, and ordered 
the guard to have the clothes of the headcpuirter guard hunted up 
(about twenty in number), and take the man to Crawfish springs and 
see that he washed them all. As this was a cold day in March, and 
he was compelled to do the washing, it is safe to say that he never 
played any more jokes of that kind. During our stay at Crawfish 
Springs 1 went several times over the battlefields of Chickamauga 
and Mission Ridge. I found soldiers that had never been buried, 
others who had been buried so slightly that their bodies were ex- 
posed. I found the grave of Captain Wells, of the 113th O. V. I., 
who was wounded at the battle of Chickamauga and fell into tlie 
rebels' hands and died, and was buried and the grave marked by 
Sergeant Hall, who was also a prisoner in their hands. 1 acxom- 
panied a party from the North the next spring to the grave of Captain 
Wells. . They took his body North and buried it among his friends. 
The army was now reorganized and we became a part of the Four- 
teenth Corps. Colonel Mitchell returning from the North, assumed 
command of the brigade. I was mustered as Quartermaster of the 
113th O. V. 1., and detailed as Quartermaster of the brigade, which 
position 1 held till the close of the war, and I cannot express in 
terms too strong my appreciation of the uniform kindness with which 
he treated me. The summer cam[)aign of 1864 opened with an ad- 
vance on Atlanta, distance 138 miles through a mountainous country 
consisting of almost continuous fighting on some part of the line, 
and in many places there were [>itched Inittles fought. At Kenesaw 
Mountain the 1 13th suffered heavy loss. Captain Howersock 
and Sergeant Clay Scott were killed here; I had the latter buried 
at Big Shanty in a coffin constructed by myself. 1 had also made a 
coffin for Lieutenant Piatt a iiiw days before, and had him buried 
near where he fell. 1 mention these facts as being perhaps the only 
men of the i 13th who fell in battle that the op[)orlunity was afforded 
to accord that kind of burial. For the consolation of those who had 
friends die in the army I can assure them the best was always done 
that could be under the circumstances. After the battle of Kenne- 
saw Mountain the rebel army fell back through Marietta. Just 



Our Knapsack. 339 

before arriving at Marietta I was captured and released in the fol- 
lowing manner : 

As the rebel army passed south, about iorty of their number fell 
out of ranks, and remained hidden in the woods till our troops passed, 
when they came out just as I was riding along some distance ahead 
of the train, which had not yet arrived. They ordered me to sur- 
render, but, before I had been ordered to dismount. Captain Benja- 
min, in charge of a heavy train guard, came around a turn in the 
road in full sight and took the rebels prisoners. Of the many inci- 
dents which took place from this to the capture I might speak, but. I 
will pass them by and notice the transfer of our division to Chatta- 
nooga, and from thence to Florence, Alabama, after General Forrest. 
While at Chattanooga we drew clothing. Here I acted as Division and 
Brigade Quartermaster, ably assisted by F. M. McAdams. I will relate 
an incident to show how little the average citizen knew of the duties of 
soldier life or how we did business. James O. Sampson, from Urbana, 
Ohio, was trying to join the 66th at Atlanta, where he had an ap- 
pointment as clerk in the Quartermaster's Department. Unable to 
get through to the front, he asked me for a situation, which I gave 
him. He wanted to know where his office would be. I told him his 
office would be under the canopy of Heaven ; his office chair, the 
saddle; a lead pencil and memorandum book his office fixtures; 
the ground his bed, and his chances for delicacies in the culinary 
department were such as would not be an aid to dyspepsia. He did 
not accept the situation. We started down Broomtown Valley towards 
Lafayette, Georgia ; on our road to Florence, Alabama. Colonel 
Mitchell went home on leave of absence. Colonel Pearce, 98th O. V. 
I., assuming command of the brigade. This, to the staff of General 
Mitchell was not agreeable, as we were never able to get along with 
Colonel 'Pearce. He, no doubt, would have dismissed every one of 
us, but he knew his term of service as brigade commander was of 
short duration. The campaign to Florence was without incident 
worthy of note, except the building of a bridge across the river at 
Athens after night. This was accomplished and the cars passed 
over it next morning. Captain Banker, 121st O. V. I., supervised 
the building When we marched into Florence the citizens closed 
their windows, and refused to look at the troops march through the town. 
The bands played and banners waved all the same. Forrest hav- 
ing left Tennessee, we retraced our steps, and met Sherman at 
Gaylesville, Alabama, with the main army. While here the soldiers, 
as was their custom, commenced tearing down buildings and putting 
up shanties, as if they were to stay always. I heard Genernl Davis 
remark to General Sherman that the soldiers were committing depre- 
dations, tearing down houses, etc. Sherman remarked that it was all 
right — that those houses now only held one family, but they would soon 
make habitations for a dozen. It was this spirit that made Sherman 
a favorite with the soldiers. He looked on war as cruel — as a thing 
that could not be refined, and meant destruction. From this place 
the Fourth and Twenty-third Corps were sent to Nashville U^ look 



340 Our Knapsack. 

aftL'r Hood's army, and tlic Fourteenth, Kifteentli, Seventeenth and 
'Twentieth CtJrps, under Shernum. started to Atlanta. At Kingston, 
deorgia, the railroad and telegraph were t ut and connection severed 
with the outside world, and we started on what appeared to the out- 
side world a hazardous undertaking, hut whii h, ni fac I, jiroveil the 
holiday campaign of the war. 

IJefore starting south from Atlanta I received a commission as 
captain and was assigned to Company E, but still continued in the 
Quartermaster Department. Atlanta was a grand sheet of flame 
as we left it. The camjjaign to Savannah of two hundred and 
ninety-one miles was made by easy marches and little fighting. We 
lived principally Ijy foraging off the country through which we passed 
until on the twenty-first of December we entered Savannah, and 
(ieneral Sherman presented the city as a Christmas gift to the Presi- 
dent. 1 now obtained a leave of absence for twenty days and started 
home by the way of New Vork. On board the steamer was a soldier 
from Minnesota who gave me the following incident. ,He said a 
northern copperhead had made some light remarks to his wife 
impugning his motives in going into the service ; that his objects 
were purely mercenary. He said he wrote to him offering him one 
hundred dollars to enlist as he had done, five hundred dollars to 
stand for one hour where he had stood all day, and he said he wrote 
to him that he would give him a d — d licking any way if he ever 
got home, and now he said I am now on my way home to perform 
the last part of the promise. Judging from his make up, he did it no 
doubt. Returning after twenty days I found the army on its march 
through South Carolina. 1 overtook the army at Sisters Ferry on the 
Savannah river. Here Cieneral Mitchell returned a full brigadier, and 
took command of the brigade to the no small satisfaction of the staff. 
While lying here W. R. Cassady wrote his parody on Sherman's 
famous order, which is published in the body of this work. Our 
march through South. Carolina was amid fire and smoke on every side. 
But little restraint was exercised over the whole army concentrated 
at Columbia, and that part of the army under Slocum, to which we 
l)elonged, was not permitted to pass through the city. I recollect 
distinctly that Columbia was burning while our troops were south of 
the river shelling the city, and before the Seventeenth Corps crossed 
over. From here our march was rapid, taking the same route that 
General (ireen retreated on in the war of the Revolution. When we 
arrived in North Carolina a different sj^rit seemed to j^ossess the men. 
There always had appeared to be a strong Union sentiment smothered 
in this State. At Averysboro' and Bentonville we had two sharp 
engagements with the rebels, which, however, were our last. 1 was 
here for some days in company with Colonel Barnwell Rhett of South 
(Carolina, who had fallen into our hands as a prisoner; he remained 
with me for a number of days without the restriction of a guard, and 
was a very agreeable gentleman. We were overjoyed in a few days 
at the news of the surrender of Lee and Johnson. We knew the 
war was over and that we would soon be ])ermitted to return home 



Our Knapsack. 341 

and join our families from which a cruel war had separated us. 
Universal rejoicing took possession of the troops, marred only by the 
news of the assassination of the President. We marched rapidly north 
to Manchester, south of Richmond, when we halted a day or two, and 
while here two men of the 113th Regiment, whose names I withhold, 
were arrested and afterward court-marshaled for saying they would 
like to dance on Lincoln's coffin. We visited Richmond and the 
house lately deserted by Jeff Davis ; we also visited the capital where 
the Rebel Congress had done so much of evil. On our way to 
Washington I recollect standing in a school house where the citizens 
claimed Patrick Henry made his maiden speech. This was the story 
but I always thought the house had, in the hundred years intervening, 
been rebuilt several times. We passed over many of the battle fields 
where the Army of the Patomac had won renown. We arrived in 
Washington and passed in review before the President of the United 
States, his cabinet and foreign ministers. Here I received a commis- 
sion as Brevet Major in United States staff department. The work 
for which I enlisted being now finished, I tendered my resignation, 
which was accepted June 14, 1865, and I was once more a citizen, 
feeling that 1 had done my whole duty while in the service. I now 
recollected that many had predicted evils to result from turning so 
many loose, fresh from the field of fame and glory, as citizens. But 
time has fully developed the fact that the great mass of men were 
better for having been in the war, and are doing what comes in their 
way to make and maintain this as the grandest government in the 
world. Having written entirely from memory there may be some 
inaccuracies as to dates, but I feel confident that the greater part 
will be found correct. 



THE CHARGE AT KENESAW, AND OTHER ITEMS. 



I'.v LiEi TKN.'VNi W. H. Baxter. 



In making the following remarks, the reader must not suppose that 
I e.xjject to state something that no one else has seen or ex{>erienced, — 
such is not the case. I merely wish to preserve for ourselves and 
other readers the experiences common to so many, and relate matters 
that others took part in. Each writer expresses himself as no other 
does, and thus of an affair of numerous actors, each may be 
interesting in his way. This by way of preface. 

At one o'clock A. M., Sunday, June 26, 1864, the 113th Regiment 
left the works immediately before Little Kenesaw Mountain, where 
for six days it had been occupying one i)osition, subject to frecpient 
shelling and incurring some loss. 

Withdrawing from its works the regiment marched to the right 
about three miles, to the vicinity of what is now called Cheatham's 



34 i Our Knapsack. 

Hill. Tlic ivj;inicnt lialtcd aiul went into encampment about five 
oVlock A. M., near sonte l)reasl works a considerable distaiue in rear 
of tlie front line and out of range of hullels and shells. 

We felt relieved to be once nnjre out of range. All day Sunday 
was a day of rest. The men were free to enjoy it, and many 
improved it by visiting other regiments near where they had friends. 
Several came over from the 66th Ohio, which belonged to the 'I'wen- 
tieth Corps, and some of our men went over to that regiment. Many 
took a bath in a small creek not far off, many also writing to friends 
at home. The day was a bright, pleasant one, and all spent the day 
ipiite comfortably, considering the circumstances. 

Thus Sunday |)assed. The sun went down, night came, and the 
hundreds lay down to sleep, the last sleep, alas, for many. All 
unconst:ious and unknowing of the dreadful scenes whicli the morrow 
would bring forth. 

'IMie sun rose on Monday the 27th of June, 1864, bright and clear. 
The men went about the duties of the morning untroubl<;d by the 
knowledge that a dreadful enterprise had been planned for them, had 
been ordered, and that in three or four hours many of them would 
be still in death or suffering with shocking wounds. 

The writer had no knowledge of what was before us until M. N. 
Benjamin, captain on (General Mitchell's staff, rode up to me and 
told me that a charge had been ordered, and that when the bugle 
shall sound it will be to fall in, in order to march to the front line, 
whence the charge will start. 

When the bugle notes did ring clear and loud through the* regi- 
ment and brigade the signal of " fall in," I knew what ordeal lay 
before us. Company K fell into line at conipany (piarters and were 
counted off. According to my recollection, when the company first 
fell into line, we had si.xty-three men, including the two commissioned 
officers in charge of the company — the First and Second Lieutenants. 
On the way from where we camped to the front line, where the 
charge started, the regiment halted several times. The actions of 
many discovered that serious thoughts were in men's minds. We 
all knew that some, perhaps very many, would fall. But who.' 1 or 
my neighbor.' 

On our way to the front a non-commissioned officer of Company K., 
under plea of necessity, retired to the brush near by and failed to 
return. He thus escaped the fight but was reduced to the ranks. I 
think Company K., when it went into the charge, had sixty men, in- 
cluding the two commissioned officers mentioned. The captain was 
excused from duty that morning by the surgeon of the regiment. 

In due time we arrived at our front line of breast works, and, halt- 
ing, sat or lay down behind them. Before us were the woods; 
within that woods were the rebel skirmishers, and somewhere behind 
those skirmishers were their strong works and their troops. 

W^e sat there some time, I should think twenty minutes at least, 
perhaps longer. Writing now but a few months less than twenty 
years after the affair, part of the scene seems (piite vivid in iny mind. 



Our Knapsack. 343 

Skirmishing was going on in the woods in our front. Several men 
were brought hack wounded. All felt serious. There was but little 
laughing or joking while waiting there. While all knew the desperate 
work before them, and while the question in every mind was, who 
will escape safe and who not, each hoping the best, yet courage and 
resolution was on the faces of the men. The situation of waiting and 
reflecting under those circumstances, is much more trying on men 
than an immediate advance. 

Finally, " forward " was commanded. Over the breast-work we 
jumped, and onward into the woods, and toward the rebel works we 
took our course. The morning was hot, our march hurried, and some 
of the men began to feel exhausted after a time. Occasionally a 
man vvould stumble over some obstruction, and several times the 
writer found it necessary to encourage and urge such on. Men be- 
gan to fall. I remember well seeing Stephen Barr. He fell full 
length and lay with his head to the foe, his lace turned partly \\\)- 
ward, his rifle by his side. He had been shot dead through the head 
near the eye. He died a christian soldier; for while in camp and 
during the campaign he daily, almost, made his Testament his study 
and led a consistent life. It was not the rule for our men to devote 
much time to religious matters. The majority .sought to be respecta- 
ble men, but did not trouble themselves much about religion, at least 
outwardly. 

A few paces from Barr, Hiram Hancock lay dead, also shot 
through the head, in the forehead. But we did not stop for these, or 
others, but pressed on. 

Although twenty years ago, I remember the thoughts [)assing 
through my mind at the time I was wounded. In all dangerous 
places it had been my strong desire to live long enough to know that 
victory was ours. My thoughts in this instance were similar. They 
ran : This is a pretty hot place ; I don't know whether I will get out 
or not ; if I am killed 1 will not know anything about the result and 
it will make no difference, but if I am wounded 1 will know the result, 
so there is no use thinking about the consequences, but take what 
comes. Suddenly occurred a great shock like the terrific jar of a 
peal of thunder close at hand. I took a step forward and found my 
foot give way under me and I fell to the ground. At once I knew I 
had been wounded. Immediately examining the wound, i found 
both bones of my leg smashed into pieces a few inches above the 
ankle. Fearing that 1 might bleed to death, I rolled up my trowscr 
leg above my knee, took a silk handkerchief from my pocket, tied it 
tightly about my leg just below the knee, and, breaking off a stem of 
a bush, used it as a lever to twist the bandage so tight that all How 
of blood was stopj^ed. 

Immediately after 1 was wounded th'_- charge f;iiled,and, men scat- 
tering, sought safety as best they could. While bandaging my. leg, 
a member of my company, John Tway, came up, and waiting a mo- 
ment until I had finished,- helped me back some distance until he 
gave out. The day was hot and he was not strong. Then Sergeant 



344 ^^'^' J^tidpiiii/c. 

HarltLT assislcd nic ;i sliort clist;in«x" until, on his sayinj; lie was ex- 
luuisU'd, 1 told him to leave nie antl save himself, that I would 
chance it to get back some way. Soon after, I received aid fnjin two 
men of the 121st Ohio and Perry Howard of my own company. 

Hefore reaching our own works, while but a short distance from 
them, Howard, who had hold of my right shoulder, was shot through 
the arm and side and fell flat as if killed. The other men did not 
slop to intjuire whether he was killed or not but hurried with me to 
the works. Howard got home, and fourteen years after, I saw his 
arm which was then badly sore. 

.\fter we got over our works the rebels continued a dangerous 
shelling. There was considerable delay in getting the amljulances 
brought uj» near enough to receive the wounded. Back of our works 
a few rods, behind a gentle rise of ground, «piite a number of wounded, 
including the writer, were collected. Here the surgeons were binding 
up bad wounds temporarily, so they could be taken back to the rear. 
Rebel shells were flying in the air and bursting overhead, which tried 
the courage of the physicians and caused them occasionally to forget 
their patients and "duck " their bodies, causing pain to the wounded. 
They were but men, and to remain steel nerved amid bursting shell 
was not their business, and they had not particularly tried to cultivate 
it. (That little spot where we lay under those bursting shells, and 
where one colonel died while waiting for the ambulances, wa:> recog- 
nized by the writer when on the spot again in April, 11^83.) 

Finally, after some storming by (ieneral Mitchell, the ambulances 
wjre brought up and 1 was taken some distance back to a field hos- 
pital and laid on the ground with scores of others, waiting to have 
my leg am])utated, foe from the first 1 knew it would have to be done. 
It began to feel painful and I was anxious to have it done In a 
reasonable time my right leg was amputated about four and a half 
inches below the knee, after which I was laid on a blanket on the 
ground in a tent. Two of my boys gathered some leaves, which they 
tied in a bundle and placed under my knee for support to keep the 
raw stump off the ground. I was not alone. There was plenty of 
company around me. Among others was James Clabaugh of my 
company, who was shot through the breast, the ball going clear 
through, inflicting a very bad wound, and no one thought it worth 
while to spend much time on him. as he could not get well ; and 
Josei)li Newcomb, also of Comijany K., who was wounded in ihe 
wrist. He was walking about holding his hand and complaining of 
the pain, but no one thought his wound serious, and ex|)ected him 
soon to recover. Clabaugh got well and was mustered out in June, 
1865, while Newcomb died of his wound at Nashville, fuly 24. 

I lay that day and night on the ground in the clothes I had worn 
during the battle, and in the morning found my clothes fly-blown 
where blood had got upon them. As may be supi)osed, when morn- 
ing came I felt ipiite feeble. In the morning Harry Shepherd, my 
brother-in-law, of the 66th Ohio, 20th Corps, came over. He and 
my brother, Chas. T. Baxter, sergeant in my own company, bathed me 



Our Knapsack. 345 

and put on me some clean underclothes, after which I was put in an 
ambulance and started for Big Shanty, a railroad station about nine 
miles back. 

My work was done. Others would go on, but! must go back. I 
had suffered a great misfortune without any compensation. We were 
shot down by hundreds, while the rebels behind their strong works 
escaped with scarcely any loss. The whole affair was useless and a 
mistake, and Sherman's reason given is not creditable to him or any 
good general. Could we have felt that our enemies had also lost a 
reasonable number, there would have been some compensation, but 
for them to have lost almost nothing and to be damaged in nothing, 
made us feel that we had been a useless sacrifice, that we were cut 
off unprofitably when we might have been continued with the army 
and been of some service. If any just reason had been given for 
the charge we would have felt better, or even if Sherman had said 
it was a mistake and should not have been made, but the reason 
given was not such as to justify him in the loss of a single life in 
that charge. 

Having entered the army when nineteen years of age, in August, 
1862, months, while adding to my age, were also adding to my ex- 
perience and worth to the service. I would have liked to continue 
to the end, but that was not to be, and when the ambulance train 
started back on Tuesday morning, June 28, my work was finished. 

What a wearisome and trying ride that was, over those nine miles 
of rough dirt and corduroy road, extending from early in the day till 
near sundown, in the blazing sun of that Georgia, June day, only 
those similarly situated know. It became so unbearable that when 
we arrived at Big Shanty and the ambulance stood in the street, I 
thought it could not be endured longer and ordered two of my boys, 
who were with me, to take me out and lay me on the ground in the 
shade of a tree — the shade and ground looked so inviting — but at 
that moment the teams moved on and I was soon on a cot in a tent. 

On the morning of the 29th we were loaded on a hospital train 
and started back for Chattanooga. As we arrived near Dalton, it 
was found that rebel cavalry had destroyed some track ahead, and we 
had to lie on the cars at Dalton all night. Next morning, June 30, we 
came into Chattanooga. I felt too exhausted to be taken onto Look- 
out Mountain, and was taken to hospital No. i,Ward i. Section 4, in 
the city, one of a long row of long one story wooden buildings, built 
for hospitals, mostly, but not entirely. 

There are many trying scenes at the " front," when men are seen 
dead and Wounded upon the field of conflict. But in a short time 
the wounded are removed, the dead buried, the ranks of the unhurt 
are c]o.-,ed up, and evidences of suffering are out of sight. In the 
" rear " the terrible ravages of war are always seen. There sympa- 
thies are keenly aroused, there scenes of prolonged suffering and of 
death are always at hand. 

No words of mine can faithfully portray those hospital scenes. At 
one time in the ward where I was in there were twenty-one wounded 

41 



346 Out Knapsack. 

men — every bed l)eing full — and of those twenty-one, eighteen had 
amputated limbs, either arm or leg. Men died to my right and men 
died to my left and before me. Beds generally were not long vacant 
that summer, but as some died or were sent north, others, fresh cases, 
came from the front, so that most of the time all were occupied. 

Daily, in the morning, the dead wagon drove past us, and often 
the tap of the drum and the shrill note of the fife, told us that the 
sufferings of some poor fellows were ended, and they were borne to a 
soldier's grave. We became callous in a considerable degree to the 
scenes around us. Men had to, or they would have died. Their 
emotions could not always be tuned to a high pitch, else their 
weakened bodies would have given way under the strain of their 
sensibilities. In the rear often, as at the front, men had to be stoical, 
not taking too much thought of what might befall them. So in those 
hospitals, men died, were carried to their long homes, the living felt 
sorry for them and their friends, and turned to other things. There 
was too much to be fully realized as it happened with the jjassing 
days. 

Across the room at my foot a cot was once occupied by a very 
large man suffering with a thigh amputation. He had been in the 
ward but a very short time. |)erhaps not more than two days. The 
nurse told him to be careful, as he was liable to bleed. One morn- 
ing about daylight I was awakened from a doze by a sound like water 
pattering upon the floor. At once I knew the man was bleeding — 
the blood pattering upon the floor. The nurse ran to him and 
stopped the flow of blood with his thumb, until a tourni([uet was 
brought. Efforts to save his life were of no avail. That morning 
he died. Occupying the same cot once, was a young man with thigh 
amputation. The flesh had drawn away, and shrunk back from the 
end of the bone, leaving it protruding cpiite a distance. He delighted 
in singing Methodist hymns. He occupied the cot for some time, 
but finally died. 

At my left, on a cot ne.xt me, was a young man whose life the 
doctors tried to save one night, but without avail. The slough- 
ing away of the artery of an am[)utated leg caused his death. He 
had been frequently warned that he must keep more ciuiet, but would 
not. The gangrene ward, to which I was taken for a couple of weeks, 
was a scene of hopeless misery. Very frecpiently some one was 
taken to his final resting place. 

The nurses were men, although there were some ladies in attend- 
ance. One lady devoted considerable time to our ward, cheering the 
despondent, writing letters for the feeble, helping prei)are food and 
adding in that way to the comfort of the wounded. The nurses, as 
far as 1 saw, were kind, waiting on the disabled, and doing for them 
as well as they could. Food at times was ipiite scanty, sometimes 
receiving barely enough to satisfy, and that of the plainest kind, but 
most of the time by what the government and the sanitary commis- 
sion furnished, the \)atients were comfortably supplied. 



Our Knapsack. 347 



Enlisted men paid nothing, but all commissioned officere were 
charged one dollar a day for their board. 

The days of July, August and September were long, wearisome 
and many of them hot. How often, overcome by weariness and 
drowsiness from a sleepless night, we desired to sleep during the 
day, but could not. With the head uncovered, flies prevented, with 
the head covered, the heat was intolerable, for we had no fly nets, 
only a sheet or paper. 

Beneath my cotton mattress were dozens of sow bugs, while, when 
the shades of night fell upon us, whole platoons of bed bugs appeared 
upon the sheets, and drilled at their leisure. 

It was a long time before I felt able to undertake a journey home. 
The flap of my amputated leg came down, or partly so. The tibia 
protruded through the flesh, and remained thus for two months, until 
nature completed an amputation of the exposed and deadened por- 
tion, when a piece of bone from the top of the tibia, in triangular 
shape, two inches long and one wide, was lifted off" by the nurse — 
which I now have — after which the flesh rapidly grew over. Twice 
gangrene set in. I will not prolong these hospital scenes. One has 
hut to imagine hundreds of men wounded in every shape — all badly, 
for the slighter ones were at once taken to the rear — the days and 
weeks of suffering, the daily deaths, the hopes of the living, which 
so often went out in disappointment. 

On October 5, I left the hospital at Chattanooga for my home, 
Mechanicsburg, Ohio, arriving there about the middle of October, 
having stopped over at Nashville. On October 5th, on the hospital 
train from Chattanooga to Nashville, a vote was taken to see how 
the Presidential candidates stood among the wounded soldiers. The 
vote cast was — for Lincoln, 161 ; for McClellan, 8. 

It will be remembered that Company K was a company added to 
the 1 13th Regiment in the beginning of 1864. The majority of the 
company were seeing their first service, while some of them had seen 
much service elsewhere.' While the company had been under fire 
with the regiment all along in the campaign, yet, until June 27, the 
regiment "in that campaign had been in no place where there had 
been any serious loss. This was, then, the first desperate place for 
most of the company. They did their duty well. As brave men, 
they obeyed orders. The loss of the company was heavy. Seven 
were killed; five more died of their wounds, making twelve deaths. 
One, Booker Durnell, was captured, and died in a rebel prison. 
Ten or twelve more were wounded, some of them very seriously, so 
that of the men who went in one-third died or became valueless to 
the service. 



348 



Our Knapsack. 



Men of Co. K Killed in Action June 27, 1864. 



Ezra Allen 

Stephen V. Barr. . 
vViJliam Copping. . 
I(ir;iin Hancock. . . 

Levi Komine 

Joseph Wilkinson 
Lemuel P. Jones. . 



A(iB AT MfiTKK. 


WHRN Ml'STRRKU. 


a6 


January 9, 
Alarch a, 18 


1864. 


36 


«'4. 


22 


January 5, 


1864. 


40 


January 21, 


.864 


3> 


January 27 


i8(>4 


18 


January 5, 


.864 


28 


January 18 


1864 



Died of Wounds Received June 27, 1864. 



AGE AT 
MUSTER. 



riATEOF MCSTBR. 



Hector Morren 

Joseph H, Ncwcoml) 
Levi Heniminger. . . . 

Patrick Fields 

Robert R. (Jsborne.. 



DATE OF DEATH. 



January 5,1864.. June 30, 1864 1 Big Shanty, (la. 

January 16, 1864. July 24, 1864 Nashville, Tenn. 

January 5, 1864.. August i, <864... Chattanooga, I'enn. 
January 14, 1864.1 August 19, 1864.. Nasliville, Tenn. 
January 9, 1 864.. I August 22, 1864.. Chattanooga, Tenn. 



Capturf.d and Died in Prison. 



Booker Durnell. 



AGE AT 
MUSTER. 



DATE OF MUSTER. 



January 5, 1864. 



DATE OF DEATH. 



Other Deaths in Co. K. 



AGE AT 
MII.STER. 



DATE OF DEATH. 



John H. Bricker 25 

Henry C. Britten 1 19 

Levi Elliott ' 42 

Azro Mann 28 

James McMahan 24 

Monroe Elliott I 22 

(ieorge Peobles 27 



July 4, 1864 Chattahoochie River, da.. Killed. 

July 6, 1864 \ Chattanooga, Tenn Disease. 

August 12, 1864. . Nashville, Tenn Disease. 

October 31, 1864 . Nashville, Tenn Disease. 

Nov. 30, 1864 Jeffersonvillc, Md Disease. 

February 4, 1864 . | Savannah, Ga Disease. 

April 18, 1865 .... I Baltimore, Md ; Disease. 



Again last A})ril, 1883, I stood upon the ground so disastrous to 
us. The same woods were there, excepting a small portion cleared 
up near the rebel works, the same works, only the action of water 
and the tooth of time upon the logs had partly filled ujjthe trenches, 
most of the logs helping form the works having rotted ; thus, they 
are not now as formidable looking as they were twenty years ago. 
But there are many large logs left, in the same position as when 
placed there for defense. Many of the logs are apparently as sound 
as when cut, only the bark and outer sap have rotted away, leaving 
the balance sound. There are logs there yet having a diameter from 
two to three feet, while those of less size are numerous. The point 
of attack is now named Cheatham's Hill. Though the subject is full 
of interest to me, 1 will not detain my readers longer. 



Our Knapsack. 349 

CAMP ITEMS AND RECOLLECTIONS OF THE BATTLES 
OF CHICKAMAUGA AND KENESAW. 



Bv D. B. Waknek 



St. John, N. B. Februaf^ 2, 1883. 

I remember an incident which took place in Camp Zanesville, 
showing one of the many difficulties in transforming a large body of 
men into disciplined soldiers — men who never before had known 
what it was to obey orders : 

The men of the 1 13th felt rather blue, when, soon after the appoint- 
ment of the field and staff officers, the command was ordered to 
Camp Zanesville to guard conscripts. But the Colonel consoled 
himself with the thought that it would be a good school for guard 
duty as well as ordinary drill. Strict orders were issued, and a regi- 
mental guard was established, which, for strictness, was grumbled at 
and wondered at by both officers and enlisted men. 

One of these orders was that there should be no loud noise or 
talking on guard. This order was frequently broken, and the Col- 
onel's peaceful slumbers rudely disturbed thereby. On a certain 
night, this was unusually so, or else the Colonel was in an unusually 
sour mood. The first thing on the following morning the officer of 
the guard was sent for, and the Colonel said to him that he wished 
to have the soldier who made the disturbance on guard last night 
placed under arrest in the guard house. The officer soon returned 
and reported that he could not ascertain the name of the man who 
had offended. Colonel W. retorted, " If his name is not given put the 
whole guard in." The officer again reported, saying he thought the 
other part of the order could not be carried out. Then the Colonel 
sent for the Major, and said to him : " Major, I want you to put 
that whole guard of last night into the guard house, and keep them 
there till they will promise to do better, or give the name of the 
soldier who made the noise." 

The Major went out feeling very much that it would be more agreea- 
ble to his feelings had the Colonel, to establish his personal authority, 
gone himself. Finding the guard drawn up, standing at order arms, he 
gave the orders, " Attention ! " "Shoulder — arms." "Stack — arms." 
" Right — face." "Forward — march," and into the guard house they 
all went, before they knew where they were. 

The Major was complimented by the Colonel, but remarked that 
he would in future prefer not being assigned to such duty, and do 
without the compliment. 



An incident of some importance occurred at Wartrace soon after 
the arrival of the xi3th at that place. Our pickets gave an alarm, 
and the troops were at once called to arms. In the distance was a 



35 o Our Knapsack. 

great cloud of dust, and it seemed that an army ai)|»r<)ached. It 
turned out not to he an army with guns and banners, but an army 
of Blacks. Here was a grave matter. What were we to do with 
them? While considering this ijuestion, its solution was suggested 
by one of the masters of some of the Blacks, who presented himself 
at the tent of the Lieutenant Colonel, and recjuested that he be 
allowed to take his " niggers " back to his plantation. Here in this 
almost wilderness — in this camp of the i 13th (). V. I., was presented 
the (juestion which was disturbing the statesmen at Washington — 
what will be done with the slaves .' This was before the ipiestion 
had been settled by the proper and higher authorities, but the Lieu- 
tenant Colonel found himself face to face with the ipiestion, and it 
must be settled then and there, so far as he was concerned. 

The officer said to the owner of black chattels, " Have you seen any 
of your negroes since coming into our lines .' " The reply was, " Yes; 
some of them are scattered among the companies of your regiment." 
" Go, then, and bring one of them here," said the officer. Soon the 
planter returned bringing with him a big black fellow. " Is this your 
master, boy," asked the officer. " Ves sah," answered the black man. 
" Why did you run away from him ? Was he a good master? Did he 
give you enough to eat and did he treat you well, give you good 
clothing and proper attention when you were sick; all this? " The 
darkey replied, " Yes sah; no niggah had a better master; no fault 
to find." "Well, then, do you want to go back to him?" No 
answer. " Come, now," said the officer, " if your master is all that 
you say, why did you run away, and why do you not wish to return 
to him ? " "'' 1 wants to be frcL\ sah^" said the darkey. He was per- 
mitted to return to his place in the company. Then turning to the 
planter the Lieutenant Colonel said, "Now, sir, if you can find in 
this regiment any of your slaves who will come to these headipiarters 
and say to me, without fear or compulsion, that they want to return 
to their master, 1 will /i?/-///// them to go, and no one shall interfere 
with their going, and you may also inform any one interested in the 
matter, that while 1 am in command of this regiment, no slaves will 
be returned to their masters against their will." The answer of that 
darkey, " /w««/.f /^/^^'y''^^," made the Lieutenant Colonel an aboli- 
tionist, and this answer of his to the planter was one of the first 
l)roclamations of emancipation. 



At Chickamauga, an incident of very grave moment occurred. The 
113th went into the fight in the second line. The charge was led 
by a regiment of Illinois troops I think. They were met at the top of 
the hill with a regular hail-storm of grape, shot and shell. They were 
thrown into confusion and their commanding officer was shot and fell 
from his horse just in front of our line. This regiment fell back 
through our line, shouting to our men not to go in there, and the 
result was that the i 13th was thrown into momentary confusion, and 



\ 



Our Knapsack. 35 i 



were pressed down the hill to the rear some distance. 1 gave up at 
one time and thought the old command was done for, but this was 
but for a moment. In the midst of this the officer in command 
called out the number of the regiment and the single word " halt,'" 
and the regiment obeyed the command. It was at once re-formed and 
marched back to the crest of the hill, and there remained vcn.\}A another 
unfortunate circumstance occurred. Lieutenant Piatt of the ri3th, 
who was then detached and acting Aide-de-Camp on General 
Steedman's staff, rode up and said to me that the regiment was to fall 
back to the ridge next in our rear. I remember as if yesterday my 
surprise at the order, and I then said that there must be some mis- 
take, but he repeated the order, and not liking to lake any responsi- 
bility I gave the order to fall back. When we reached the point to 
which the order had referred and while re-forming the regiment, 
Steedman and Mitchell, and 1 think General Beatty, came up, and 
explanations being made, and learning that the order was a mistake, 
the regiment was a second time marched back to its original position 
in the line and their remained till nearly dark, when the entire line 
was retired and we moved off the field in good order, and bivouaced 
that night with but few stragglers, but with the loss of over half of 
our regiment left dead or wounded. But few commands in that army 
went off the field that day' in as good order as did the 1 13th O. V. I. 
The number of their killed and wounded on that day is all the testi- 
mony necessary as to their valor. 



The battle of Kenesaw was of very different character, in that we 
knew where the enemy were, that we were to attack them in their works, 
and were to capture them without firing a shot. Iwell remember 
the council of officers I called that morning, a very short time before 
the attack. There the plan of the assault was given, and the officers 
were informed that our claim to the advance was granted, that we 
would lead the charge. The meeting was very solemn, but 1 did not 
detect among all their faces one which suggested anything other than 
a determination to do his duty. At that council I handed three 
sergeants their commissions. Grouse, a tall, fine looking man, a 
member of the Mt. Sterling Company, was one of them. Dungan 
at the same time was handed his commission as First Lieutenant, but 
did not live to be mustered. He lay in a tent with me the night of 
the 27th; the next day he was taken to (Chattanooga and died; I 
never saw him after the 28th. 

Kenesaw, to me, was a dreadful battle, because unnecessary, and 
brought on against the advice of the best Generals of the army. In 
the fight I saw so many shot down and frightfully mangled thai tlic 
recollection to me is sim[)ly horrible. 

One incident at Kenesaw made an impression on my mind more 
than all the rest. Certain circumstances in the history of the regi- 
ment had made me acquaintance with a particular sergeant of one of 



35 2 Qnr Knapitick. 

the <oiu|i;inics very inlcrcstinj^ and lavoraltle, and he became with 
nie a great favorite. 

At Kenesaw, when the assaidt had l)een made, and we had almost 
reached the works of the enemy, it became evident that we could 
not capture them, and I sent word along the line for the men to cover 
themselves and commence firing. After I thought we were doing 
well, and the men were well hidden under rocks and behind logs and 
trees, I discovered this favorite .Sergeant standing out in full view of 
the eneniy, loading and firing as though he were at target practice. 
1 was sure he would be killed, for the rebels seemed to be literally 
skinning the hill. I turned toward him, (he being toward the right 
of the regiment, and a little to the rear of the line upon which I 
stood) and l)egan to motion to him with my right hand to lie down, 
and while in this ])osition 1 was shot, and this was the last shake of 
my right hand. If the rebel who fired that shot had not been nervous, 
that favorite would have been the cause of his C^olonels' being shot 
in the back. Did I ever tell you this before? That Sergeant's name 
was F. M. Mc Adams. 

But returning to the order which was delivered to us, and which 
we obeyed with doubt and reluctance at Chickamauga. I am sure 
Flatt got the order from some one, and that he delivered it as he 
understood it. My impression now is, that when (juestioned in regard 
to the order, he said he received it from Captain Russell, A. A. G., 
on the staff of (General Granger. Russell was killed in the battle, 
earlier, it seems to mc, than I received the order. Some one made a 
mistake which might have cost us great loss, but it cannot now be 
settled who it was. I am certain, however, that Flatt received the 
order from some one who he considered in a position to give it. I 
recall this matter because at the time, one Chaplain Van Horn, wrote 
a letter to the press on the battle, which reflected upon the courage 
of the regiment. The 113th was perfectly in hand during the entire 
day, with the exception of the time the other regiment broke and run 
through us, and, as I have written, the confusion in our ranks result- 
ing from that cause, lasted but a short time, when at the command 
we re-formed and took up our position in the line of battle. 



LEAVES FROM THE I)IAR^■ oK .\SSISTANT SURGEON 

A. HARLOW. 

DETROir, Mich., February, i88j. 

Having kept a diary during my entire stay with the regiment, I am 
able to give day and date, and a clear statement of facts herein 
mentioned. 

On the 1 6th day of September, 1862, I reported myself to Colonel 
James A. Wilco.x, commanding the 113th O. V. L, stationed at Camp 



Out- Knapsack. 353 

Chase, Ohio. Was duly introduced to Surgeon J- K.- Black and T. 
C. Tipton, and found them to be affable and intelligent gentlemen of 
their profession. I entered immediately upon the duties of my office, 
and was not long in making the acquaintance of the officers and 
many of the enlisted men in the regiment, and was favorably im- 
pressed with their intelligence and soldierly bearing. 

The day following my arrival in camp, no little excitement was 
occasioned in consecpience of an attempt to impose a somewhat ludi- 
crous punishment upon a soldier for refusing to do duty. The 
delinquent was put in a barrel and rolled around the camp; his com- 
rades and friends rescued him. All the officers were called out, and 
finally, the order being revoked, peace and good feeling was restored. 

On the night of September i8th, twenty rebel prisoners made their 
escape from prison No. i, in the following manner: 

They took a large dry. goods box containing carpenter tools and 
placed it against the boarded wall where the egress was to be made. 
A party of four occupied the top of the box and played cards, while 
a fifth, secreted in the box, began the work of boring and sawing a 
hole in the wall. Meanwhile, those on top kept up a din and noise 
calculated to prevent the boring and sawing from being heard. 

The work being nearly completed, they* waited for the darkness 
and stillness of the night, and then by a sudden push, the opening 
was made in the wall, and twenty-two who had been made acquainted 
with the plot, deliberately walked out without thanking the govern- 
ment for the very kind treatment which they had been receiving. 

On the third day after their escape, eight of these were re-captured 
and returned to their former quarters. 

On the 29th of October, we camped at Zanesville. Some ten days 
after our arrival here the measles broke out among the men, and 
spread rapidly, until more than two hundred cases of the disease 
were in camp. The regimental hospital becoming overcrowded with 
patients, many of the sick were treated in their barracks and tents. 
When this epidemic was at its height (November 10) a fire broke out 
in camp, which, on account of the strong wind and the great amount 
of straw and other combustible material, and despite the greatest 
efforts of the men to check it, continued to burn till the main part of 
camp was laid in ashes. No loss of life nor personal injury resulted 
from tlie lire, but many of the officers and men lost valuable personal 
effects. 

A regiment without shelter, and many of them sick and exposed 
to the inclement weather, is fearful to contemplate. Prompt measures 
were taken to j^rovide shelter and comfort for the sick, new plank 
barracks were soon constructed, and but a few. days elapsed until all 
were snugly (piartered on a sloping hillside, inclining toward Licking 
creek. During the first three months of our service but one death 
occurred in camp, a fact that speaks well for the surgical and medical 
department, when we consider the epidemic and exposures to which 
the men were subjected. This death was that of John Rogers, 

42 



354 Our Knapsack. 

C'oinpany (1. He died December 5, 1862. His body was sent liDiiie 
for 1)11 rial. 

On the 15th of 1 )eceniber, the regiment left camp for the South, 
halting a few days at Camp Dennison. I assisted Surgeon Hlack 
with such of the convalescents as were able to accomjjany the regi- 
ment, going as far as Zanesville to see them safely off. Others 
remained under my charge for a time, and then followed on. On 
January 4, 1863, I rejoined the regiment two miles out of Louisville, 
Kentucky, happy, indeed, in once more being able to mingle with the 
officers and men so greatly endeareti to me by many a fond recollec- 
tion. At this time great efforts were being made to forward needed 
supplies to the " Boys in Blue " who comi)rised the army at the front, 
and as an incident pertaining to this matter, I state that one hundred 
and nine six-mule teams, with suitable escort, passed our camp in 
one day, each loaded with army supplies, destined for Nashville. 

The day after my arrival, January 5th, the 113th left Louisville for 
parts unknown, except to Colonel Wilcox and a few of the other com- 
missioned officers. Our destination proved to be Muldrough's Hill, a 
wild, rough country, on the Louisville and Nashville Railroad, near a 
little place called Colesburg. At the little burg the 113th disem- 
barked and marched a couple of miles, when we came in sight of the 
smoking ruins of " Big Run Trestle," which had been recently 
destroyed by the notorious raider, John Morgan. 

This camp was called " Camp Lucy," or more appropriately "clap- 
trap," on account of the risk of our being " gobbled up " by Morgan 
or Forrest or some other marauding band some dark night. The 
monotony of camp life was broken on the third day of our .stay here 
by the visit of the Surgeon General of Ohio, Dr. S. M. Smith, with 
his corps of nurses eti route for Nashville to attend the sick and 
wounded of the late engagement at St6ne River. The fact that our 
camp was situated near this long bridge, and that all passengers 
going to or coming from Nashville by this route were compelled to walk 
over the broken place in the road, gave us daily opportunity of seeing 
many strangers, as they were unavoidably compelled to pass within 
speaking distance of our camp. One dark night soon after our arrival 
here the regiment was awakened from its dreamy reveries by the 
ominous sound of the long roll, while the officers passed from tent to 
tent, commanding the men to fall out and form into line. This was 
promptly obeyed, and then the regiment marched out over a rough and 
stony path, made doubly difficult by the inky darknes of the night. The 
supposed enemy could not be found ; in fact he was miles away and 
sound asleep. A return to (quarters was ordered and very cheerfully 
obeyed. After we had been here a few days the regiment was 
divided into two i)arts, and four or five companies commanded by 
Lieutenant Colonel Mitchell were sent further south to a similar 
trestle, where they remained protecting a force of mechanics who 
were constructing a bridge spanning a chasm some two or three miles 
further in the direction of Nashville. Surgeon Black accomm]mnied 
this part of the command, while your humble correspondent remained 
attending to the medical and surgical wants of the men at camp 



Our Knapsack. 355 

Lucy. About the time of this separation, that part of the command 
remaining at the first trestle vacated the camp first occupied and 
took position on the hill on the opposite side of the railroad, in a 
position overlooking the valley and the surrounding country. This 
we called Camp "Summit." This was Muldrough's Hill, one of the 
prettiest camping grounds it was ever my fortune to take part in 
occupying. Long shall I remember with the liveliest interest and the 
fondest recollection, as well as many old comrades associated with 
me there who may chance to read this sketch, the experience of camp 
life enjoyed by us on the rugged brow of this old Kentucky hill, 
during a portion of January, 1863. Our camp commanded a splendid 
view of the surrounding country, and if we could not, like the ancient 
war horse, smell the smoke of battle from afar, we could certainly see 
our enemies approaching in time to make all necessary preparations 
to meet him. Unusual for this climate, snow fell on the 15th of 
January to the depth of three feet, and this was followed by very 
cold weather, reminding us of the frost and cold of northern Ohio. 

In the midst of this storm and low temperature our hospital tent 
took fire and burned so rapidly that it required the efforts of all the 
attendants and nurses to rescue the sick. I doubt not many of the 
hospital patients yet remember the daily visits of Widow Gardner to 
our camp. She would come well laden with eggs, chickens, squirrels, 
Indian bread and other toothsome delicacies, for the particular bene- 
fit of convalescents in hospital. During our stay at Muldrough's 
Hill, James Harvey and Geo. F. Reno, both of Company A, died. 
The body of the former was sent home ; the latter was buried on 
Muldrough's Hill. 

The regiment, in obedience to orders, returned to Louisville on 
the 27th of January. Our trip was tiresome and uncomfortable, our 
train occupying all night in the trip. We entered the depot on the 
morning of the 28th, and, disembarking, we spent a few hours with arms 
stacked awaiting further orders. Up to this time the regiment knew 
little pertaining to our destination, nor did they care, so that it led 
them to get a crack at the rebs. 

During the day the regiment moved to the landing about three 
miles below Louisville, and at the foot of the falls of the Ohio. Here 
lay a number of steamers receiving freight and taking on board 
thousands of troops as well as army supplies of all kinds. Many 
regiments, like our own, were at the wharf waiting to go on board of 
some one of the many steamers lying anchored in the river. The 
92d, 36th and 89th Ohio regiments had just arrived from West Vir- 
ginia, and also the 26th Ohio, from the Kanawha, all of which gave 
the place and its surroundings a warlike appearance, and gave evi- 
dence of big things to come. 

On Thursday, January 29, the 113th went aboard the splendid 
steamer Saint Patrick. Here we lay awaiting the movement of the 
twenty or more steamers forming a fleet of great magnitude, and in- 
tended for some decisive part in the great drama of the future. We 
had now been in the service nearly six months, during which time 
we had not made the actjuaintance of the paymaster, but on the 30th 



35^ Our Knapsack. 

that official made his appearance, and i)aid our dues for the jjeriod 
ending December 31, 1862, making no inc onsideral)le roll of green- 
backs, and enabling the members of the regiment to send home 
considerable money after retaining sufficient for their personal wants. 
While here, Captain H. Z. Adams, of Company (r, tendered his 
resignation, and instead of leading his brave comj^any to victory and 
renown, returned to the bosom of his family and friends to spend his 
days at his advanced age in the more (juiet occupation and peaceful 
pursuits of a preacher of the Cospel. No one ([uestions his judgment 
or doubts his patriotism in thus retiring to private life. 

Sunday, February i. The Jacob Strader has just ])assed down 
loaded to the water's edge with blue patriots ; now our own vessel 
swings out into the stream, and is in hot pursuit. Others follow, one 
after another, until twenty or more burdened, puffing steamers, carry- 
ing 18,000 or 20,000 trooj^s, are in line, forming a spectacle seldom 
seen in war or peace. Many a brave heart beat doubtfully as our 
formidable fleet descended the Ohio. Our passage down the majestic 
Ohio was a pleasant one in some resjjects. The Saint Patrick was a 
fast boat, and in going down she passed a number of other steamers, 
creating on board of each the wildest enthusiasm. On the way, Cap- 
tain Peck was taken suddenly and dangerously sick with spasms and 
other violent symptoms, which continued with severity lor twenty-four 
hours. It was deemed best that in his weak condition he be given 
more quiet and rest than he could get on the boat, preparatory to his 
returning home, and he was accordingly put ashore at Evansville, 
and provided with such nursing and care as his condition demanded. 
On the morning of January 3d, we arrived at the mouth of the 
Cumberland, and were soon in line with other steamers, barges and 
gunboats ready for the asceht of that beautiful stream. 

The sun rose clear and beautiful ; not a cloud obscured her l)right- 
ness. Seldom does the eye behold a sight more im])osing and 
beautiful ; nor does the ear often in a lifetime drink in such rich 
music than it was my pleasure to enjoy on that January morning. 
All hearts seemed enlivened with the exhilarating scene. The curl- 
ing smoke as it rose in fleecy columns high in air, flags waving and 
banners floating, all conspired to enhance the beauty of the scene, 
and to impress it upon the mind and heart in a manner never to be 
forgotten. 

Moving on our joyous way up the Cumberland, nothing took place 
to mar the pleasure of the trip till late in the afternoon of our first 
day, when the sound of booming cannon broke in on the stillness of 
the scene. At a signal from our flagshii) the gunboats belonging to 
our fleet ascended rapidly, leaving the long line of steamers in the 
rear, and hurr)'ing on they reached the scene of conflict in time to 
do effective work in turning the tide of battle in our favor at the last 
hard fought battle of Fort Donelson. As our fleet a]jproached the 
scene of conflict late in the dusk of the evening it was with difficulty 
we escaped the designed destruction from numerous barges, flats and 
other combustible matter sent blazing down the river to intercept our 
fleet 



Otir Knapsack. 357 



Early next morning, in company with a number of Union men, I 
went over the field and counted more than a hundred rebel dead, 
scattered here and there as they fell under the well-directed fire of 
the boys in blue. I visited the hospital and prescribed for many of 
the rebel wounded, among whom I found a Dr. Mulkie, Surgeon of 
the 3d Georgia Cavalry, badly, if not fatally, wounded, to whose 
temporary relief I ministered to the best of my ability, tempered 
with such kind words and sympathy as the poor man, dying far from 
home and friends, was, though an enemy, entitled to. Besides the 
killed and wounded a goodly number of rebels were taken prisoners. 
Among the more noted dead found upon the field was a Brigadier 
General McNary, Colonel Coffin, of Missouri, and Colonel Hendrick, 
of the 4th Alabama. The rebel dead left on the field numbered 
over two hundred. Our loss was about thirty, among whom was the 
gallant Captain Reed, of the 83d Illinois, who was shot through the 
neck and instantly killed, just as he was leading a desperate charge 
on the enemy. His body was sent home. Surgeon Black, of the 
1 13th, exerted his acknowledged skill in rendering efficient aid by 
prompt attendance upon the wounded of both friend and foe. 

The gunboat Lexington, one of the six gunboats of our fleet, 
reached the scene of action in time to take a part. She was no ordi- 
nary boat but had already made herself famous. Going on board 
of her I was courteously treated by her officers, one of whom 
pointed out her points of interest. He informed me that her 64 
pound gun killed 170 men at one shot at Pittsburg Landing, and on 
her arrival here on this occasion one of her shots killed 12 rebels 
and 8 horses. 

The most dangerous part of our trip was yet to be passed over. 
Our fleet waited for the arrival of Major General Granger, who, upon 
his arrival, took charge of steamers and their convoy of gunboats. 
On the morning of the 6th we again started upward. It was a most 
imposing sight. Soon after getting under way an American eagle, 
that noble bird of liberty, soared high in the air above us. This 
was regarded as an omen of good. We were expecting trouble at 
several points ahead before reaching Nashville, especially at " Harp- 
er's Shoals," where the rebels had recently burned the gunboat 
Pinchback, and several of our steamboats, taking many prisoners. 
These Shoals are fifty or sixty miles above Fort Donelson, and are 
nearly five miles in length ; they are rapid ajid so dangerous to navi- 
gation as to make it desirable to pass them in daylight. Whistle 
signals had been adopted by our fleet which all boats in line were 
required to observe. One whistle meant, go slow ; two, keep a prop- 
er distance apart ; three, close up; four, stop; one short and one 
long, back ; one short and two long,' we are attacked ; two short and 
one long, assistance wanted ; one long and three short, get under 
way ; one long, two short and one long, stop, tie up and await orders. 

On the evening of February 7th we reached the noted city of 
Nashville, having passed Clarksville, the Shoals, and other dangerous 
l)laces unmolested by the enemy. Our long and venturesome trip 



358 Our Kfiapsack. 

ft 

from l.Duisvillc to Naslivillc, down the ( )hio and u|) the C!iunl)crland, 
bcin^ now ended, we had only to disembark and uujve out to the 
front. Before leaving the city for more stirring and warlike scenes, 
1 found time to visit parts of the city. I also visited a number of 
hospitals, and witnessed an amputation at the shoulder joint and 
other interesting operations. I made a visit to the State House, of 
which Nashville may well l)e proud, and stopped reverently at the 
tomb of K.\-Presidenl I'olk, situated in the front yard of the elegant 
mansi'^n occupied by his widow. 

Notwithstanding, the eye could see much to admire in this once 
beautiful city, yet the finger marks of war's desolating hand were 
seen everywhere, and many parts of the city were in a dilapidated 
condition. 

We marched out of tiie city, and, going four or five miles south- 
ward, camped in a beautiful grove. From the fatigue and exposure 
attending our long trip, and consequent close confinement on the 
steamer, many of the men, in spite of the best efforts of Surgeon Black 
and myself, were taken sick in such numbers that four hospital tents 
were filled with those unfit for duty. 

February 12. Orders having been received to march to the front, 
Surgeon Black thought it best to send most of our sick then on hand 
to the general hosi)ital at Nashville. Many of these, sad to relate, 
never again left this city of pestilence and death. 

The 113th, under command of Colonel Wilcox, acconij^anied by 
the field and staff officers, in company with a number of other regi- 
ments, forming a brigade, under the command of (xeneral Gilbert, 
left early the same morning for Franklin. Surgeon Black acconi- 
])anied the H3th in its forward movement, while I was directed to 
remain with and attend to those who were i)hysically unable to move 
on to the front. Captain Taylor, Company B, and a sufficient guard, 
were left with us until a proper disposition was made with the sick, 
after which they also moved on to Franklin. 

.An additional large number of our sick was sent to general hospi- 
tal at Nashville, many of whom, for lack of proper treatment or other 
causes, met the fate of their comrades {previously placed there. 
'Fhese had desired and expected to be able soon to stand in their 
places in the ranks with their comrades, shaiing with them the glory 
and destiny of the command. But, alas, how uncertain was human 
life in our overcrowded l\ospitals at Nashville during the winter and 
spring of 1863. Our sick being thus disposed of, we joined our 
forces in camp at Franklin. The remainder of February was without 
any incident of note, but March was ushered in with more active 
oi)erations of a military character, for the great concentration of 
troops and the other war-like preparations going on in and around 
Franklin plainly indicated an advance further south. 

Surgeon Black having been assigned to duty in the general hospital 
at Franklin, left me for a time alone in attending the surgical and 
medical wants of the 1 13th, which labors proving too great for my 
health and strength, Dr. Black was returned to the regiment. 



Our Knapsack. 359 

On the 5th of March loud cannonading was heard in the direction 
of Spring Hill, a town of some size ten miles or more to the south. 
At 12 o'clock, noon, the long roll sounded in our camp, and the 1 13th 
and 125th Ohio Regiments were soon marching rapidly toward the 
noise of battle. The cannonading grew more and more distinct as we 
neared the field, and the roar of musketry indicated that hot work 
was at hand, and that those who had been so long spoiling for a 
fight would now be gratified. Our brigade was posted at a turn in 
the road and behind a stone wall, waiting for the pursuit of the 
enemy on the expected falling back of our troops engaged in the 
fight. 

I was seated on my horse, near my ambulances, with everything 
in readiness to give attention to the wounded, and to convey them to 
a place of safety. Every moment was big with exciting interest. 
While thus waiting, one of the ambulance drivers, pale and trembling, 
asked to be permitted to drive, down a little under the' hill. The 
presence of my revolver and the threat that I would blow his head 
off in case he moved, kept him in his place. The driver of the other 
ambulance, equally exposed, seemed totally indifferent, and whistled 
and sung " Yankee Doodle " alternately. 

This hotly contested battle, which lasted for hours, with about 
equal forces opposing, finally was a drawn one. The enemy, under 
Van Dorn, Forest and Jackson, numbering close to twenty thousand 
men, fell back to Spring Hill, carrying with them fifty or sixty of our 
wounded. Our troops fell back to Franklin, and rested on their arms 
during the night, expecting a renewal of the conflict on the follow- 
ing day. 

An incident of the day, unusual on the battle field, deserves men- 
tion : A young man was visiting his brother, a member of an Indiana 
regiment, and concluded to go out and see a battle for the first time 
in his life. He was shot and instantly killed. 

Following the engagement, and for several days in succession, 
great numbers of Union troops were concentrated at Franklin. 
These troops were commanded by Oenerals Granger, Baird, Gilbert 
and Sheridan, and the enemy under Van Dorn, in the vicinity of 
Spring Hill was menaced, but fled to a place of safety. Van Dorn 
was nicely ensconsed at the splendid mansion of one of the wealthiest 
rebels in Spring Hill, fascinated and feasting upon charms not found 
in the every-day life of a Major General, and in the line of duly, and 
which proved his overthrow, as will appear further on. 

On the afternoon of March 9th he gathered together liis Brigadiers 
and their several hosts and retired, taking with them their wounded 
and some of ours, leaving eleven of the latter in an old church near 
by to fall into the hand.s of their friends. Our forces occupied the 
town the same evening and I happened to secure (luarters at the 
identical house which had been the headquarters of Van Dorn. 1 
found the room strewn with papers and documents jjcrtaining to the 
office of the rebel chief. Soon after occupying my quarters, an order 
came forme to go and dress the wounds of the eleven Union soldiers 



360 Out Ktiiipsiiik. 

in llic old church before mentioned. Hastily ])artakiiig of ;i suinptu- 
ous meal prepared by order of my host, whose safety and protection 
lie wished to purchase by his affability and kindness, 1 rejjaired to 
the prison house of the wounded, with all needed bandages and 
dressing, accompanied by my assistant, ready for the duty assigned 
me. Finding the door barricaded and all within still and dark, I 
feared I had missed the object of my search, but after rattling at the 
door for a while and making known the object of my visit, 1 was 
admitted into the dark prison house of my wounded comrades. 
They were much pleased at my visit. Having no light nor materials 
for [iroducing it, I sent my assistant into a brick mansion near by to 
procure one. He soon returned and reported that they said they had 
none for us. I had him return and tell them that unless they 
furnished all the light needed for the occasion, a ten pounder would 
be leveled at their house and fired off for their especial benefit. The 
assistant obeyed and soon returned with the needed light, bringing 
also the apologies of the household for their non-compliance with 
my first request, and a humble re(iuest to do them no harm. The 
following are the names and regiments of the wounded : William H. 
Brotherton, Sergeant Company G, 85th Indiana; John (j. Rawley, 
private, C'ompany (1, 22d Wisconsin; John Baker, private. Company 
1, 33d Indiana; James Burgal, private. Company I), 33d Indiana ; 
jas. A. Comstock, private, 33d Indiana; Wells (lallexson, ("ompany 
(r, 22d Indiana ; W. C. McNett, private. Company C, 19th Michigan ; 
Aaron I. Buckan, Company C, 19th Michigan ; Edward Cromer, 
private, 19th Michigan; Benjamin (ireen, private Company I, 19th 
Michigan; David Dollinger, private. Company D, r9th Michigan. 

These wounded men had been paroled by the enemy before being 
left. 1 found them in the dark, without fire or blankets to protect them 
from the cold, and with no hand of mercy to minister to their wants. 
They told me that as soon as they were taken by the rebels, their 
coats and most of their other clothing were taken by their unfeeling 
captors, and not satisfied with this booty, the rebels rifled the 
pockets of the prisoners, taking everything of value and appropriat- 
ing the same to their own use. They mentioned other heartless acts 
perpetrated upon them. 

While engaged in dressing the wounds of these men, I noticed a 
gentleman, dressed as a citizen, who apjjcared ipiite interested, and 
who gave close attention to all my professional acts, but as he asked 
no (juestions nor made any remarks his presence gave me no concern. 

Finally, when I was about leaving the house he said, " Well, 
Doctor, you have done very well to-night. 1 am much pleased with 
the skill and ability which you have e.xhibited in the work i)erformed." 
I said, " Sir, will you please inform me whom I have the honor of 
addressing.'" Judge of my surprise when he informed me that my 
visitor was Dr. Varian, a Medical Director of the C. S. A. Before 
we parted he remarked to me that as a great battle was expected to 
come off to-morrow he wished to detail me lor a particular service. 
This was my first interview and acquaintance, but not my last inter- 



Our Knapsack. 361 

view and happy experience with the " Medical Director of the Army 
of Kentucky." 

My eleven patients were next morning placed in ambulances and 
taken to the general hospital at Franklin. 

After a refreshing night of rest in the bed last tuml)led by the 
rebel chief. \'an Dorn, and having attended to my eleven patients 
previous to their leaving for the hospital, as before stated, I sought to 
learn what I could of the family of my lo(piacious and genial host. 
He had two sons and one son-in-law in the rebel armies ; that General 
Van Dorn had for weeks past made Spring Hill his headcpiarters, 
stopping all the while in the house and partaking of the hospitality 
of this gentleman. He expressed himself as being pleased to extend 
to me and others the courtesy and welcome of his house, and 
expressed a desire tliat we would exert ourselves in protecting his 
person and property from violence, on account of his house having 
been the headipiarters of the Confederate general and his staff. I 
assured him that no harm should come to him for what he had done 
in the past, but ni)- earnest advice to him would be to espouse the 
Union cause, which in the end was sure to triumph. How far I 
succeeded in turning him from the error of his way I dare not say, 
but judging from what I saw in the person of his daughter to whom 
1 was introduced, and whose husband was a surgeon in the rebel 
army, I fear my advice was not taken according to the prescription. 

Stepping aside from the narration of warlike events, 1 need not ask 
the reader's pardon for a passing notice of this lady. She was char 
acterized by very striking southern proclivities, and in attempting a 
pen picture of her I shall not indulge in any extravagant hyperbole. 
She was a brunette of some twenty or more years of age, possessing 
form and features that might be considered beautiful. Her general 
appearance and conversation indicated refinement and culture. She 
was an adept in vocal and instrumental music, of which she gave 
ample demonstration. She espoused the cause of the South with 
unusual spirit, telling what she would do if she were a man, and 
exhibited such zeal and pathos that I almost began to think that it 
was a happy thing for the Union cause that she chanced to be a 
woman, while at the same time, as the sequel shows, it was a misfor- 
tune to the Confederacy that she had not been a man. 

The much injured husband of this spirited woman, on a recent 
visit home, learned facts concerning his wife and General Van Dorn 
that so fired his brain and crazed his mind that he rushed back to 
cam]), e:itered the (ieneral's tent, on retributive justice bent, and 
drawing a revolver shot him dead on the spot. Then flying quickly 
to the Union lines, he sought i)rotection and safety under the flag he 
had so long abused and insulted. 

.\lt hough this loth of March was big with excitement and expecta- 
tion of blood and carnage, there was but little fighting done. Had 
the enemy given us fight instead of retreating, our gallant 113th 
would have found the opportunity they had long waited for to 
distinguish themselves and extinguish the enemy. 

43 



^(^2 Our Knapidck. 

How unlike arc the rights and privileges in the army as shown by 
what fell under my observatin to-day. As our brigade was resting a 
short time about the middle of the day, near a farm house, a soldier 
noticed a well grown chicken straying too far from the barnyard, and 
immediately gave chase with fixed bayonet, endeavoring at each 
iiuccessive turn to transfix his game. Unlucky fellow! While so 
intent on pursuit that he could see naught but the receding and 
terrified biddie, an officer, whose buttons denoted rank, with sword 
lifted high brought uj) the rear with a blow, and a threat that if that 
thing occurred again the offender would be made to suffer. Just as 
this scene closed General Haird's Chief of Staff, mounted on an ele- 
gant horse and leading its mate, rode up to the mansion door and 
informed the owner of the horses that as (General Haird wanted the 
horses he would appropriate them to the use and benefit of the 
government, and so doing he rode of with them, notwithstanding the 
cries of the family. 

The army failing to meet tlie foe, could only return to Franklin. 
It was, indeed, an imposing sight to witness such a formidable dis- 
play of military pomp as was seen that day by terrified hundreds of 
inhabitants along the Columbia jjike, as our long dark columns moved 
northward in a continuous line, which occupied two hours in passing 
a given point. 

Stopping to recuperate and rest a little at the house of my old 
rebel host while the somewhat scattered forces of our column were 
passing through the town, I chanced, from great fatigue, to fall 
asleep, and no one of the family deigning to awaken me, I slept on 
until the entire army had passed and the rear guard was out of sight. 
Suddenly awakened by the cessation of noises or other causes, I 
sprang to my feet, and, looking out of the window, saw my perilous 
situation. Hastening from the house without saying "good bye" to 
my entertainers, I mounted my horse, and was soon dashing toward 
Franklin, just as a squad of mounted rebels rode into town a few 
rods in the rear of me. Their command to halt was disregarded, 
and a number of shots fired at me went wide of thie mark. A ride 
of a few miles brought me to my place in the line of march, and the 
lesson I had learned by loitering on the way was not soon forgotten. 
Reaching Franklin, we occupied our former camj^s, and were soon 
again performing the routine duties of the every -day life of a soldier. 

April I. I wrote to (ieneral (iarfield for a pass from General 
Rosecrans for my wife and a lady nurse to visit the camp hospital. 
Steward Wells, after long and faithful service, left to-day for home, 
on account of physical disability. Also Lieutenant Toland, being 
unable for duty, goes home on a leave of absence. Foor John Price 
died to-day. He belonged to Company C; his disease was conges- 
tion of the brain. On the 3d we were honored- by a visit from two 
officers of General Rosecrans' staff. They complimented us highly 
on the neat api)earance and sanitary condition of our hospital. 

Cieorge Horton, Company C, died on the 8th in the regimental 
hospital. His death was occasioned by congestion of the lungs. 



Our Knapsack. 363 

Captain David Taylor, Jr., Company B, on account of failing health, 
left to-day for the North. 1 accompanied him as far as Nashville, 
and, with feelings of fond regret, waved the hand of farewell to 
him as he passed out of the depot homeward bound. 

April 18. Arthur Wharton, Company B, died to-day of typhoid 
fever. He leaves a wife and four little children. 

May was ushered in with a little more incidents than usual, 
for, before the day dawned, the 113th went out in the stillness of the' 
morning, going several miles in the direction of Spring Hill, routing 
two rebel camps, killing several, and taking a number of prisoners. 
The only loss on our part was Billie, our favorite ambulance driver, 
who was mentioned before as singing and whistling on a former occa- 
sion near the same place. Poor fellow ; he was shot dead on his 
seat in the ambulance. His body was brought to camp and buried 
beside a large elm tree, on which I engraved his name and fate, after 
breaking the sad news in a letter to his mother. 

My own health and strength, which began to fail in early spring, 
brought on by increased duties imposed by the absence of Surgeon 
Black from the regiment attending to the duties of Medical Director, 
and other responsibilities to which he was called, now rapidly grew 
worse, after experiencing a shock assimilating sun-stroke on the 24th 
day of April past, while attending duties assigned me at Nashville, 
that Assistant Surgeon Tipton had to be recalled from other duties 
and assigned to duty in the regiment. This change took place on 
the 3d of May. I remained on duty in the regiment, notwithstand- 
ing my feeble health, and gave assistance to Surgeon Tipton as best 
1 could during the pendency of my resignation, which was tendered 
on account of physical disability, at the suggestion and by the advice 
of Colonel Mitchell and other officers of the command. My honor- 
able discharge was received from Headquarters on the 13th and 
dated the nth, making me once more a free man. 

On Monday, May 18, 1863, I bade farewell to many warm friends 
in camp, and, in company with my wife and hospital nurse, Lang- 
staff, who went home on sick leave, I started for Nashville, where 1 
arrived the same evening,^;/ route for Northern Ohio, where 1 arrived 
in safety on the 26th day of May, 1863. 

In closing this hurriedly written sketch of my nine months' service 
with the 113th O. V. 1., I tender many grateful and heartfelt thanks 
to all the officers and enlisted men of that regiment for the respect 
and kindness universally shown me, and 1 shall ever cherish their 
friendship and acquaintance, which now, after a lapse of twenty 
years, seems sweeter, purer and dearer. Could my health and 
strength have held out, how happy I would have been to have gone 
on to the end and shared in greater honors so bravely won, but I 
must content myself in appropriating only a limited share of the 
honor and glory encircling the brow of the many brave boys of one 
of Ohio's favorite regiments, who fought so bravely to the end of 
the war. A. Harlow, 

First Asst. Surgeon, 113th O. V. I. 



.^<>4 Our Knapsack. 

AN AkMN ri:mi.\isci-:nck.--- 



A M irKK WKIl li:\ l!\ AN I-.X-INKIN 1M<ISI»X1.K. 



Annai'oi.is, Mil, J)i;;//i/>ri J. jS6j. 
Ml. Williai/i \\'iiisl{rn< iiiii/ otiiii s : 

Vou already know tliat 1 have been a prisoner and ani now free. 
Yes, it is all over again, and 1 would lose my right arm, yea, rather 
would 1 lose life itself llian trust myself to the tentler mercies of the 
rebel government. 

1 will give you a brief, unvarnished account of my captivity, and 
while 1 would not appeal to your sympathy on my own behalf, for 
with me it is all over, but there are yet more than 12,000 loyal Union 
soldiers still enduring the horrors and indignities I here describe. 

Soon after our regiment became engaged at C'hickamauga, Sejitem- 
ber 20, 1863, 1 was struck by a minnie ball which passed entirely 
through my left breast, and just under the bone of my left arm 
where it joins to the shoulder. I was taken to the rear, and in the 
retreat later in the day I was left at a citizen's house about seven 
miles from Chattanooga, and four or five miles from the field of 
battle. Here I remained all night. There were 150 of our 
wounded at and near this place, and only enough ambulances coidd 
be had to carry away fifty at a time. Two trips had already been 
made and we were waiting for their return, when a scpiad of rebel 
cavalry rode up and we were prisoners. Lieutenant Wheelock was 
of the original number, but he was taken away early in the morning 
by our ambulances. He was very badly wounded and could scarcely 
speak when he left 

The number who fell in the enemy's hands was fifty-three 
wounded and thirty-four well men who were left to attend the 
wounded. Besides these there were four Confederates. 

The first thing our captors did was to march twenty-eight of our 
well men to the rear of their army, leaving si.\ to care for us, the 
wounded. Being inside the rebel line we were left to shift for our- 
selves. The lady at whose house we were, gave us what we did get 
to eat, but she could do but little to supply the wants of fifty men. 
Here 1 remained a whole week. The rebels gave us nothing to eat, 
and even refused us an ear of corn to parch. Quite a number of 
the wounded died for the lack of i)roper medical attention. 

Having no pros|)ect l)efore me but death by starvation and lack of 
care, 1 struck off into the woods, ho[)ing by the utmost caution J 
might avoid the troops of the enemy and find a house where I might 
get something to satisfy my appetite. 1 was so weak as to be 
hardly able to walk, but at the close of the first day I found myself 
in the rear of the rebel infantry pickets. I stopped at a house, got 



* I'he writer of this sketch died fnmi the effects of his imprisonment, Deeemher 31, 1863. 



Our Knapsack. 365 



a good supper, and stayed all night. The family treated me kindly, 
and so did all wherever I stopped, with one exception. 

I got along finely and received much aid from the people among 
the mountains. Many of them said that their hearts were for the 
Union, and they would be glad to help me but feared the rebels. 
But i found one old man by the name of Sullivant, in I,ookout Val- 
ley, whose heart beat differently. He thought the Lord would curse 
him if he gave a Yankee anything to eat. He said to me : "Youens 
all got a mighty whipping over here, but it was good for you ; and 
yesterday General Wheeler got 144 of your wagons up in the Valley, 
and what do you suppose was in them.'' Nothing at all but silk 
dresses, bureaus and band-boxes and such things as you villains had 
stolen from us." This old sinner threatened to arrest me and take 
me to General Bragg 's headciuarters, but I managed to get away from 
him. 1 continued moving on day after day, and at length found 
myself across Lookout Mountain and within six miles of Trenton. 
So much aid had I received from citizens thus far that I began to 
entertain hopes of getting to Bridgeport, which was only sixteen 
miles further. But the rebels had possession of the left bank of the 
river and their cavalry scoured the whole country, far and wide, 
taking all the stragglers they could find and executing summary ven- 
geance upon all citizens susj^ected of aiding our boys through the 
mountains. 

By one of these scouting parties I was at. length taken, and by them 
was carried before General Longstreet, then stationed near Rossville. 
I was finally turned over to the provost guard, placed in the guard- 
house with a number of deserters, conscripts, negroes and five 
federals. 

The first day we got nothing to eat, and the second day only a 
little corn meal and fresh beef; and so it went. 

One night nearly all the guards got drunk. The sergeant of the 
guard-house, who was also drunk, gave orders that if one of the 
damned Yankees moved or got up during the night, to shoot him. 
At last on the i ith of October we were sent to Atlanta. On arriv- 
ing here we found 300 more of the wounded of Chickamauga, and 
two days later we were all started by rail toward Richmond. The 
journey was a very hard one, as we were crowded into filthy cattle 
cars, thirty-five of us to each car. 

The journey to Richmond occupied eight days. We went by the 
way of Columbia, Charlotte, Raleigh and Petersburg. Our rations 
during all this trip consisted of twelve crackers and a pound and a 
half of pork. Written instructions were furnished the lieutenant 
having us in charge that we should neither be allowed to buy nor to 
trade for anything on the road, nor should citizens be permitted to 
speak to us nor to furnish us a piece of bread. 

Upon arriving at Richmond we were taken at once to Libby 
prison, all put in one room and left to our own meditations. Here 
we remained three days, during which time we received but two 
meals. We were then removed and quartered in a brick Ijuildiu"- 



joo Our Knaf^sark. 

w hicli in limes of pcare was Vardbroiigli's tobacco factory, but was 
now known as the Franklin Street Hospital. It now contained 
tlircc hundred sick and woundrd. Some of these had rude bunks, 
but the greater numl)cr were s( atleretl promiscuously over the lloor. 
As fast as the sick (;r wounded became able to walk they were re- 
moved to the main prison and others were brought in to fill their 
places, so that in a short time only such remained as were very sick 
or dangerously wountled. These died at the rate of from five to 
twelve per day. 1 remember one morning that five men were placed 
side by side and in two days" time they died and their places were 
filled bv others. On one occasion it was decided to parole a number 
of the prisoners, and the officer in command advised the surgeon tt) 
selet I only tliose who were nearest dead, for then he would save the 
expense of buying coffins for them. One of the sick men asked the 
doctor if he thought he, the prisoner, would recover soon, and was 
told that he did not want him to get well, and if he died that wouKl 
keep him from fighting them again. 

Captain Ross struck a prisoner in the face one morning at roll-call 
for daring to ask a <pieslion, accompanying the blow with the vilest 
language and a threat that if he opened his mouth again it would be 
at the risk of having his throat cut, and at other times this same 
officer beat prisoners in a brutal manner, and it is reported that more 
than one was shot and killed. Such is chivalry! 

On the loth of November I was taken from the hospital and 
placed in one of the main prisons. This was a tobacco factory, as 
were all the prisons in Richmond, 1 think. The floor was very 
filthy, many of the windows were destitute of glass. There were no 
stoves, no candles, nor any means of heat or light ; and in this pen, 
dejirived of the commonest comforts of life, eleven hundred Union 
soldiers were crowded like so many dumb animals. Our l)lankets 
had been taken from us when we were first captured or soon after ; 
many of us had neither hats, shoes nor blouses. Here we received 
one meal a day, and this consisted of six or eight ounces of corn 
bread; sometimes this was sour and only half cooked, sometimes a 
small ipiantity of boiled rice and a few sweet potatoes. 

These men were the heroes of the war — had faced the cannon's 
nioulh at Fort Donelson, Stone River, Chickamauga and other bloody 
fields. It was horrible beyond e.xpression of tongue or pen, to see 
these brave men, gaunt with hunger and worn out by fatigue and ex- 
jHJSure, groping in the darkness like so many specters. 

If you would see hunger, woe and wretchedness in all their 
deformity, you have but to see the inmates of the prisons at the 
capital of the C. S. A. 

I will relate one or two instances of the maiiy which came under 
my observation, and which, though too horrible for belief, are the 
whole truth. 

One day a dog came into the " Royster Prison," and the boys 
managed to coax him away from the owner. They then killed the 
animal and cooked the carcass in small bits in their tin-cups b}- hold- 



Our Knapsack. 367 



ing them over the gas jets in the night, this prison being differently 
lighted than the others. When cooked the mess was greedily de- 
voured. Next day they related the exploit to the surgeon and to 
convince him of its truthfulness exhibited the pelt of the unfortun- 
ate canine. 

One of the guards saiiuggled and sold to one of the prisoners, who 
had the greenbacks to pay for them, a number of sweet potato pies. 
Of these he ate so many as to make him sick, and he vomited them 
off his stomach. Two of his comrades, with their wooden spoons, 
gathered up and ate the rejected, half-digested mess. It sometimes 
happened that pieces of bread from the cook-house found their way 
into the swill-barrel, and in such cases they were fished out and 
greedily devoured by the starving men. Old beef bones which had 
been cast aside were gathered up, pounded to fragments and made 
into soup. A notice in a Richmond paper read like this : " Farmers 
and others who may have cattle of any kind to die on their places, 
can get the same taken away and be liberally compensated besides 
by making application at this office. Commissary of Prisons." 

Shall such a, conspiracy be upheld and supported by such men 
and by such means, and hope to succeed? God forbid. Is any 
sacrifice too great if by making it this southern oligarchy can be 
crushed to the earth ? The feelings 1 now entertain for this misera- 
ble Confederacy are such that when my three years of service are 
ended, if the war be not ended and my services are still needed, I 
shall deem it a privilege to again enlist that I may do further service. 
I am not yet exchanged, but have improved greatly in my general 
health since coming here, the particulars of which may have reached 
you by other means. Hope to visit Hartford soon. Meanwhile 
thanking you for your kind assistance and wishing you continued 
happiness and prosperity, I am respectfully yours, 



W.M. H. Lane. 



PRISON SKETCH OF WARREN C. ROSE. 

I was born at Granville, Ohio, June 30, 1836, and at the age of 
twenty-one I went West, and spent three years teaching in Iowa and 
Missouri. Returning to Ohio, I attended college at Marietta, and 
was a member of the Freshman Class of 1861. The war began, and 
finally, when the call for 300,000 men was issued by the lamented 
Lincoln, 1 thought the call included me, and, bidding farewell to 
college life, I returned to (iranville. Soon after, at a larg» and 
enthusiastic meeting held at the town hall, I enlisted for three years 
or during the war. My name was first on the list of what afterward 
constituted ComiKiny I) of the brave and invincible 113th Ohio Vol- 
unteer Infantry. 1 have it to say that I stood at ni) post and did 
my duty with my company up to the hour when 1 fell into the hands 



368 Our Knapsack, 

of tlic merciless enemy at C'hickamauga. For a few clays previous 
lo the battle I had been siifTering with a slight illness, sometimes 
having a high fever. On the day before the battle of Chickamauga 
1 gave out completely, and on the day of the battle I had not enough 
strength to keep in my place either in advancing or retreating. When 
our column fell ba( k at dusk, leaving the dead and many wounded, 
1 fell intcj the hands (jf the foe. In the morning we found ourselves 
prisoners. I was left on the field fourteen days with the wounded. 
.\t the end of this lime an e.vchange was effec:ted, and our worst 
wounded were sent into our lines at Chattanooga, while the slightly 
wounded, and those of us who had been attending them as nurses, 
were sent by railroad to Richmond, X'irginia. We were (piartered in 
Libby I'rison two months, and were then sent lo Danville, Virginia. 
We remained at Danville six months, and were then sent to the 
world-renowned Andersonville, (leorgia. Remaining at Anderson- 
ville three months, we were again moved to another ]^rison in 
Charleston, South Carolina, where we remained one month. We were 
then sent to Florence, South Carolina, where we remained three 
months. At this time an arrangement had been agreed upon to 
exchange 10,000 men on each side. Rebel officers came into the 
prison at Florence, and selected from the whole number those who 
were nearest dead, and who, when exchanged, would be likely to be 
of the least service to the Union cause. I was included in this 
nuinl)er. A rebel otiticer told me on the day we were paroled at 
Florence that only 800 of the 10,000 men ca|)tuied at Chickamauga 
were left alive. At Charleston, where we took passage for Cod's 
country, we saw the 10,000 rebels for whom we were being exchanged. 
These were strong and healthy men, ready for the front. These men 
had been fed, sheltered and cared for by the Federal (iovernment, 
while we had been starved, insulted and neglected to an extent that 
is absolutely indescribable. We were mere shadowy wrecks, unfit 
for duty of any kind whatever. Only those who endured the horrors 
of our prison life can understand how terribly we suffered. 

1 was paroled December 10, 1864, making my imprisonment four- 
teen months and twenty days. 1 was sent home, where I remained 
till .\pril 3, 1865, when, being exchanged, 1 joined the 113th near 
Raleigh, .North Carolina. Then followed the surrender of the rebel 
army, commanded by Ceneral Johnson, the long march lo the 
National Capital, the grand review, the homeward bound trip, and 
the greetings of friends at the fireside at home. 

C'omrades, let those of us who, braving so man) hardships and 
perils, have lived to see the flag of our beloved country wave over a 
free people, stand ready to maintain all we have won and give (iod 
the giury. And let us also remember that if Jesus is our leader we 
shall always be led to victory. Cod bless our country and its brave 
defenders. Wakkkn C. Rose, 

Valley Falls. Kansas. 



Our Knapsack. 369 



From the London Democrat. 

THE WAR HORSE, ''OLD JOE. 



THK JDH.NNN RKB. DlSCt )V KRKlJ !• RUM WHO.M HE WAS CAPTURKD. 



In the issue of the Deinocrat of about the first of January, we 
published an account of the death of "Old Joe," an aged white 
gelding, owned by Judge H. F. C'lark, and brought from Georgia 
during the war by Colonel Toland Jones of the 113th O. V. I. The 
notice was copied into the Herald and Georgian, published at 
Sandersville, Georgia, with a few remarks, and the issue of that paper 
of the following week, February 7 th. contains the following, which 
we doubt not will be found of interest to many of our readers : 

The account published in the Herald and Georgian of the death of 
" Old Joe," a gray horse captured in the battle near Sandersville, that 
was carried to London, Ohio, by Colonel Jones, and the inquiry as to 
the ownership of the horse has, we think, satisfactorily discovered 
the owner and rider. 

Walter G. Knight, who proved himself a true Confederate, was 
the rider, and Mr. Joe Vinson, who died a few years ago, was the 
owner. Mr. Knight had just returned from prison, had been at home 
only five days, when Mr. Vinsen proffered the use of his horse, a 
fleet and spirited animal, to Mr. Knight to ride out to Sandersville 
and ascertain the whereabouts of the Yankees, then supposed to be 
about Oconee. Mr. Knight, taking his own new saddle and bridle, 
mounted Bob, as the gray was called, and coming near town, heard 
some talking up an old road to the right. Thinking they were Con- 
federates he started up the old road, but soon saw blue coats ; he 
wheeled around and started diagonally accross the woods and the 
public road into a pine thicket, where now is a field, between the 
VVarthen road and the road to Fenn's Bridge, followed by a shower of 
bullets from the Yankees he had found. He was a fleet rider, and 
spurred his horse rapidly forward on the route we have just indicated, 
when he found himself just running right into the line of battle. 

The line halted and with muskets pointed at Mr. Knight, the 
Yankees sang out " Come in, Johnny, come in." Johnnie saw it was 
best to come in, and dashed forward to the line. Some ordered him 
l)retty rouglily to dismount, but he remained seated till an officer 
came up and asked him who he was, to what command he belonged, 
clc. At first Walter was thought a bushwhacker, but soon by his 
answers assured them of his true character. The officer ordering, he 
dismounted and was taken to the rear. As he went back one of the 
guards said, " this will make a good horse for Colonel Jones," and 
assures him the more of the identity of the horse. He also remem- 
bers the scar on the horse's nose, as does also that man of wonderful 

44 



37 o Our Knapsack. 

iiicMiiory, Mr. John K. W ickcrs, ihougli botli s;iy it was not a sabre cut, 
as the animal was not then an army horse. Mr. Wickers says he 
was a capital horse for hunters, and was, as he phrases it. the best 
woods horse he ever saw, but not a sober harness horse. 

Mr. Knight was afterwards carried to the residence of Hon. W. (i. 
Brown, where his widow now resides, headcpiarters of (ieneral 
Sherman, who asked him a few (juestions, and then sent him back to 
be kept under guard. He remained from .Saturday until Sunday 
night, when he made his escape. 

From memoranda handed us we learn that Waller (1. Knight was 
( )rderly Sergeant of Company B, 12th Battalion (ieorgia Volunteers, 
Kvan's Brigade, (Gordon's Division, Erly's Corps, the old Stonewall 
Jackson's Command. He was captured July 10, 1864, at Frederick 
City, Maryland; was paroled at Point Lookout the latter part of 
October, 1864. He has twenty-three scars on his body, and has a 
bullet that passed through his l)ody. He was in nine different 
prisons, and escaped from three; he was once lost in the mountains, 
and was five days without anything to eat. 

These are facts that can be proved, says Mr. Knight, and by 
common consent he made a good soldier. 

The saddle and bridle that was captured was new, and was kept 
with great care; and now Mr. Knight says, as old Bob, this horse's 
rebel name, is now dead, he wishes Colonel Jones would send his 
saddle and bridle home. Yes, send it along; or a good new one 
would do, as he is not hard to satisfy. 



E VERY-DAY SOLDIER LIKE. 

The following sketch of every-day soldier life was furnished by 
Thompson P. Freeman, of Company F : 

While at Camp Chase, 1 procured a pas.s to go out south of camp 
lo the house of a farmer, where I had a pleasant time chatting with 
the old man and his attractive daughters. He invited me to stay 
for dinner, and, lacking the courage to decline, I accepted. Dinner 
being over, I accompanied the old man to his sorghum works, and 
spent part of the day in i)leasant conversation and in watching the 
process of making molasses. I then returned to camp. 

The same night some of that molasses broke guard, and actually 
took refuge in our tent. For days following we lacked nothing in the 
way of sweetening for our rations, nor did 1 ever return to the farm 
house to thank the old man for sweetening the mess. 

Soon after our arrival at Camp Zanesville an incident occurred 
which ought to be recorded. A load of straw had arrived, and was 
being carried by the members of the regiment to their (quarters for 
bedding. One of the drafted men came also, and took up an armful of 
straw, and was making off with it, when Colonel Wilcox ordered him to 



Our Knapsack. 37 1 



lay it down. The man retorted by telling the Colonel to go to the place 
the way to which is said to be paved with good intentions, and where 
straw is presumed to be a perishable article; and was making off with 
his bundle of straw. Just at that moment the Colonel's foot flew up 
and took the drafted man where it would do the most good, and 
established the reputation of the Colonel as a kicker. The man 
went his way, and it is not probable that he afterwards enlisted in 
the I [3th and slept on straw. 

While a squad of us were picketing at Franklin, an incident oc- 
curred about milking time in the morning. Seeing a cow near a 
house, one of the men went and asked for milk. Failing in procuring 
it at the house, he determined to milk the cow. He said the first 
thing he ever did was to milk, and that he knew all about milking a 
cow. He found the cow unused to being milked after the Yankee 
idea, and, in his efforts to anchor her for the purpose, he caught her 
tail and called on me to assist. I stepped in front of her; she gave 
a quick turn by the left flank, and, the milk-hungry soldier at her tail 
losing the line of march, went whirling down the hill at a rate that 
threatened his destruction. The cow returned to her fodder, and the 
pickets at that post drank black coffee for breakfast. 

During that little affair at Triune I remember how gracefully we all 
bowed whenever a cannon shot came screeching over us, but when 
we reached our trenches at the top of the hill, we could see the 
smoke of the enemy's guns, and trace the course of the shots as they 
came whistling toward us. As General Gordon Granger sat on his 
horse watching the progress of the action, a shot from the guns of 
the enemy cut off the limb of a tree, which fell close to his feet. He 
never took his eye off the enemy, but, jumping from his horse, he 
requested one of the gunners to let him try a shot, and, permission 
l)eing granted, he emptied a number of saddles of their rel)el riders 
in a manner that showed him to be a practical gunner. 

At Chickamauga, September 20, 1863, Company F, of which 1 was 
a member, was on the picket line. Captain Levi T. Nichols was in 
command, and we were advancing through a cornfield, when " zip, 
zip," came the bullets from the left, striking the cornstalks on every 
hand. We were nearing some timber, and by the time we reached 
it the cannon shots of the enemy were coming from our front, striking 
the ground sometimes and bounding high in air, or go crashing 
through the timber at a dangerous rate. While we lay for a brief 
time crouched behind trees to cover us from the enemy, more than 
one incident took place among the men of the company. One of 
them, whose reputation for bravery had been below par, shook as 
with a chill, and whimpered : " 1 never thought I would come to this ; 
how I wish I was at home." In subsecpient actions he distinguished 
himself for bravery and soldierly bearing. 

The cannonading ceased, and our company' resumed its place in 
the regiment, capturing two prisoners who had hid in a hollow. 
After we returned, and had taken our place, the troops in front of us 
were ordered to charge the enemy in our front, while our line was 



372 Our Knapsack. 

Drdered to lie down at the foot of the liill. Ahiiosl iiuniediately we 
were ordered to charge over the same ground, and, as we advanced 
on double quick, we met the first line faUing hack, having heen over 
powered by the enemy. Many of these were tailing as thev < anic, 
and it seemed to me they were being killed by our fire. 

1 determined not to fire until 1 got a fair view of a Johnnie. I 
waited but a moment, for off to the left ol)lii|ue I saw a rebel 
step from behind a tree, at the distance of twenty-five or thirty yards, 
and point his gun in the direction where I stood. I drew u|t my gun, 
aiming at his whole body, intending to hit him somewhere, but my 
gun snapped and refused to fire. I tried a second <:ap, and it snapjied. 
Seeing that my left-hand comrade was shot, 1 took u)) his gun and 
discharged it at the rebel at the tree. Presently I observed that 
there was no one at my immediate left, and was on the jjoint of turn- 
ing l)ack, thinking I was alone, when I heard Lieutenant Wheelock 
give the command: "Stand up to them, boys; don't give an inch.'" 
Turning to my right, 1 found the rest of the company com|)letely in 
line and doing desperate work. 1 now began to reload my gun, and 
in doing so 1 received a musket shot through my right wrist, com- 
pletely disabling me from further duty. Lieutenant Wheelock was 
sliot through the lungs about the same time, from the effects of which 
he died the next day. 1 now attem|)ted to leave the field, dragging 
my gun with me with my left hand. I at length abandoned my gun, 
and went to the rear to find a surgeon. 1 soon found one, and was 
about speaking to him, when a shell of the enemy exploded uncom- 
I'ortably near us. He suggested that we had better get beyond the 
range of those guns, and 1 agreed with him. We hurried off, crossing 
a ravine, and halting behind a tree. Having two handkerchiefs, 1 
jjound one tightly around my wrist and made the other into a sling to 
support my wounded arm. 1 made an effort to go on and find an 
ambulance, but, in doing so, 1 fainted and fell. The fall, together 
with the voice of a comrade near by, revived me so that 1 got up, 
and, standing against a tree, soon recovered so as to be able to go on 
in search of an ambulance. I was advised to go to the field hospital, 
but, after a fruitless effort to find it, 1 set out to return to our former 
camp, which I reached about sundown. I had walked seven miles, 
and was exhausted from fatigue and loss of blood. 

Cloing to a spring near by, I sat down with the intention of bathing 
and dressing niy wound, when a cou|)le of Indiana soldiers came 
along, and, learning that 1 was wounded, one of them bathed and 
dressed my wound iiuite skillfully, and I then learned for the first 
time the dangerous character of my injury. The hand was almost 
severed from the arm by a minnie ball. At the regiment to which 
these two men belonged I drank some coffee, and felt much refreshed. 
Then I went in search of the 1 13th, for, having learned that the 
whole army had fallen back, I presumed they would be in the valley 
somewhere. I failed to find the regiment, but, finding two wounded 
comrades of the 113th, one being wounded in the head and the other 
in the siioulder, 1 jJrojKjsed to them that we iiave some supjier. We 



Our Knapsack. 373 

prepared and drank some coffee, and then, gathering together some 
corn stalks where the mules had been fed, we made our bed, with 
one army blanket under us and an oil cloth over us. (I had lost both 
my blankets in the charge early in the afternoon.) Next morning, 
being unable to find our regiment, and knowing that our wounded 
were being sent to Chattanooga, we prepared to go in that direction, 
Ijut, finding a surgeon of an Illinois regiment, we had our wounds 
dressed by him. 1 procured some water for the purpose, and, admit- 
ting that the wounds of the other two men were more serious than 
mine, I waited till the last. He told me that mine was a terrible 
wound, and that I must not be surprised if it required amputation. 
He then ordered an ambulance, into which we were loaded, and, 
after, a dusty ride of a few miles, we reached the hospital at Chatta- 
nooga. This building was already full, so we were taken to a brick 
building which had been prepared for us. We were among the first 
to occupy it, but in less than two hours it was full of wounded and 
dying. I never again wish to witness a scene of such distress and 
suffering as that hospital presented. 

The same afternoon an order was issued requiring all who could 
walk to cross the river and be prepared to take a train for Bridgeport. 
We remained two nights and a day awaiting the arrival of a train, 
and, when it came, it was not a train of cars with comfortable coaches 
and easy, cushioned seats. It was a train of army wagons, such as 
we had seen used to transport supplies. 1 filled mv canteen 
with water, and nerved myself to walk, thinking I could ride when- 
ever 1 chose to do so. I found out that walking was the most agree- 
able, for the roads were mountainous and dusty beyond description. 

The second day at noon we reached a small village, where 1 
learned that a resident physician would dress my wound. I went to 
him and showed him my wound. He told me it was very dangerous 
and it would probably never heal, and that the hand would have to 
come off sooner or later. He dressed it very carefully and put new 
bandages on it, and when I offered to pay him declined taking any 
compensation, saying he took great pleasure in doing what he could 
for the Union soldiers. We moved on and reached Bridgeport that 
evening. During the day I lost a large tin cup which I prized very 
highly, having carried it all the way from Camp Chase. 

.\t Bridgeport I applied to a surgeon to have my arm dressed, but 
after learning that it had been dressed that day and that I had kept 
it dampened continually with cold water, he said that as so many 
needed surgical attention worse than 1 did, that 1 must try and wait 
till we arrived at Nashville. At ii o'clock that night a train arrived 
to take us to Nashville. It was a train of box cars, but it was better 
than army wagons. We piled in like so many hogs and were soon 
moving northward, arriving at Nashville on the afternoon of the next 
day, feur days after the battle. I entered Cumberland Hosjiital 
September 24, 1863. The next morning all who could walk were 
ordered to go to the dining hall to eat, but 1 remained in my quar- 
ters, where I received extra diet of eggs and otlier delicacies. I 



374 ^'"' Knapsack. 

remained here sixty days, my wound liealing well in that time. On 
the 23d of November, 1H63, 1 received a furlough for thirty days, 
arriving at home on Thanksgiving Day, November 25. On the 9th 
of December I was examined by Dr. Sinnett, of Ciranville, and re- 
ceived a certificate of disability for forty days, and on the i4ih of 
lani'.ary, 1864, 1 received another certificate for thirty days. On the 
16th of KebriKirv i went to Columbus, and finding Colonel James A. 
Wilcox, the first colonel of our regiment, who was at the time pro- 
vost marshal, I told him my situation and asked his advice. He 
gave me a note lo the officer at Camp Tod. This officer proposed to 
send me to Nashville, but advised me first to see the examining sur- 
geon. 'I'his officer jnoposed sending me lo Nashville, also ; but 1 
protested and urged him to send for my papers which were at Nash- 
ville, and allow me to remain in Ohio. He then wrote me an order 
of admission to the Seminary Hospital, Columbus. On the 2 2d of 
February 1 wrote to the officer in charge of Cumberland Hospital, 
Nashville, asking for my papers. These came in due time. 1 re- 
mained in the Seminary Hospital till March 2d, 1864, when 1 was 
transferred to Camp Dennison. A few days after my arrival at 
Camp Dennison I was examined by the post surgeon, who said that 
gangrene had set in on my wound, but he hoped to be able to scatter 
it. Hy carefully following his instructions my wound was soon much 
improved, and by the 28th of March it had become so much better 
that I was recommended for a discharge, but it was not till the 25th 
of April, 1864, that 1 received it. 

1 am now a citizen of a great and free country, and I am proud of 
the humble part 1 have taken to restore the Union and establish a 
lasting and j)ermanent peace. 

'I'. P. Frekman, 

Marys ville, O. 



i'KKSF^N'riMENT OF APPROACHING DEATH. 

There belonged to ("ompany B, 113th O. V. 1., — a regiment raised 
in the neighborhood of Columbus in 1862 — two young men, both of 
whom enlisted from the little suburban village of Reynoldsburg. 
Both were good soldiers, attending to such duty as was imposed \\\ydw 
them without any more than the usual amount of complaint, and in 
battle behaved as well as the average. Time rolled on, and every- 
thing went as merry as such uncertain times would jjermit. One 
day both of these young men were sitting in company c[uarters, try- 
ing to fit a pair of government brogans to their delicate little feet, 
when the following conversation passed l)etween them: 

*' Well, John, I think these brogans will be the last Uncle Sam will 
have to furnish us, as before thev are worn out, this 'cruel war' will 



Our Knapsack. 375 



no dovibt be uver, and we can return to the Burg, and sIio\v tlieni 
what kind of shoes we had to tramp in." 

" I don't know about that, Will," said John, looking solemn ; " l)ul 
one thing is certain, this will be the last pair of shoes 1 will draw, 
for in the very next engagement our regiment is in, that amounts to 
anything, I ivill be killed^ and will, therefore, not need any more fool 
gear." 

"Oh, pshaw, what are you talking that way for? We'll both live 
to see the war ended, and the way we'll drive through Reynoldsburg 
one of these days behind a spanking team, will make the natives 
wonder. Won't it be fun, though, to see them open their eyes, when 
we go through that town like the wind.''" 

" But I tell you I wdl never get back. I feel it in my very soul. 
and have for a long time, that I would soon be numbered among the 
dead," said John, more serious than ever, not even cracking a smile 
at the thought of storming his old town behind a good team of 
horses. 

His friend tried everv way to free his mind of this thought, by 
telling jokes on his old home companions, and of the fiascos they 
used to indulge in, carrying it so far as to laugh at the ridiculousness 
of his presentiment of coming evil. But to no avail. 

These soldiers were " partners," — slejjt together, ate together, and 
what one did, the other knew of. 

The regiment, in about two weeks after the above conversation, 
received marching orders, and all was in readiness to move. These 
two young soldiers had curled up under their blanket for the night, 
and John, putting his arm around Will, said: '"This is the last 
night you and 1 will ever spoon together, for before to-morrow's sun 
goes down I will be a corpse, and 1 know it." 

The next morning (Sunday) was bright and clear, and John in- 
sisted on his companion taking his watch, money and other valua- 
bles, still asserting that before the day was done he would be r.o 
more. His friend declined, telling him that their chances were 
etiually good, still laughing at his fear of being shot. About ten 
o'clock the boom of artillery and the rattle of musketry could be 
distinctly heard, and the 113th was moving to the front. The, con- 
tending forces met, but the crash was only of short duration, each 
side retiring for a breathing spell and to prepare for more effective 
effort. John was still all right, and was reminded of the fact that 
he still lived. 

"The thing is not over yet, Will; as sure as fate, I will not see 
the setting of the sun. The next engagement will end me for this 
earth." 

In a short time C'ompany B was ordered out on the skirmish line. 
John and Will kept close together, and both stood behind the same 
tree. There was scarcely room enough for both, and John concludeti 
to dodge across to the next tree only a few yards distant. He had 
gone but a short distance, when crash went a minnie ball through 



^^76 Our Knapsack. 

the upper ixjiliun of his l)ody, and in falling turned conii)lelely 
around and fell stone dead at the feet of his conijjanion. 

Anil his presentiment was fulfilled. 'I'lie rebels soon came f«)r- 
ward in force and drove the skirmishers back to the main line, and 
the body of John J. Smith, of Reynoldsburg, was never recovered, 
having l)een thrown in a trench wiih hundreds of others, recogniti«;n 
being imjKjssible by their friends, who endeavored in a short time to 
recover the bodies of members of the regiment who were killed in 
this engagement — C'hi( kamauga, Sundav, the 20th of September, 

is there anything in [)iesentimenl t The reader can answer. 



OIK REUNIONS. 



At ihc annual meeting of the Arin\ of the C'uml)erland, held at 
Columbus, ( )hio, in the summer of 1H74, a number of the men of the 
M^th O. V. I. met at the Neil House and effected a temporary 
organization for tlie pur[)ose of holding annual reunions of the 
regiment. 

On the 22d of December, 1874, the regiment held its tirst reunion 
at the Board of 'Trade rooms. City Hall, Columbus. .\ permanent 
organization was made, as follows: President, John (i. Mitchell; 
Vice President, Toland Jones; Treasurer, W. H. Halliday; Secretary, 
F. M. McAdams ; Assistant Secretary, T. 1). Bently. The exercises 
consisted of an address by General Mitchell and a free-and-easy lot 
of speeches by various members present. A ban(piet was held at 
the American Hotel in the evening, and fun and frolic reigned till a 
late hour. This reunion was a success. 

The second reunion was held at London, O., on the last Friday of 
October, 1875. ''^^ annual address was delivered by Otway Watson. 
The people in and about London did a noble part in providing an 
abundant entertainment and generous welcome. 

The third reunion was held at Mechanicsburg, O., Octol)er 27, 
1876, and was presided over by Joseph Swisher. An address of 
welcome was delivered by W. H. Baxter. Some rotine business was 
transacted, and a banquet was held at the Darby House in the 
evening. This reunion was regarded as a failure, the citizens of the 
village failed to take an interest with us. Officers for the ensuing 
year were elected as follows : President, Charles P. Garman ; Vice 
President, John W. Kile ; Treasurer, James Coultas ; Secretary, F'. 
NL McAdams. 

The fourth reunion was held at Columbus, O., August 24, 1877, 
and was presided over by John G. Mitchell. An able address was 
delivered by J. K. Hamilton, and some imjjortant matters of business 
disposed of. A bamjuet in the evening at the American House, an 
able address by Judge West, and other speaking exercises closed the 



Our Knapsack. 377 

day. Officers for the ensuing year : President, Jolin G. Mitchell; 
Vice President, George McCrea ; Treasurer, (i. A. Cofforth ; Secre- 
tary, F. M. McAdams. 

The fifth reunion was held at Columbus, October, 1878. The 
address was by Toland Jones. The occasion was one of rare inter- 
est, the attendance large and all passed off well. Officers elected 
for the ensuing year were as follows: President, John G. Mitchell ; 
Vice President, Toland Jones; Treasurer, C. A. Cofforth ; Secretary, 
F. M. McAdams; Orator, David Taylor, Jr. The usual banquet at 
the American House closed the ceremonies. 

The sixth reunion was held at Columbus, August 29, 1879, ^^^^ 
was presided over by John (i. Mitchell. The officers for the ensuing 
year were as follows : President, David I'aylor, Jr.; Vice President, 
Charles Sinnet; Secretary, F. M. McAdams; Treasurer, Charles A. 
Cofforth ; Executive Committee. James Coultas, W. P. Souder, Moses 
Goodrich. Speakers for next reunion, Otway Watson, Joseph 
Swisher. James A. Wilcox was the principal speaker. The usual 
committees were appointed and much other business disposed of. 
Brief addresses were made by McAdams, McCrea, Haley, Abbot, 
Sinnet, and others. Many letters from the absent ones were read 
by the Secretary. Proper plans were made for the next reunion. 

August II, 1880, was the date of the seventh reunion, held at the 
usual place at the State Capital. This meeting was presided over 
by David Taylor, Jr. The usual committees were assigned to duty 
at the morning session. The committee on nominations presented 
the following report : President, Wm. H. Halliday ; Vice President, 
Moses Goodrich; Treasurer, Chas. A. Cofforth; Secretary, F. M. 
McAdams ; Executive Committee, J. L. Flowers, Wm. Romosier, C. 
R. Herrick. The early part of the afternoon session was occupied 
in brief speeches, in which McAdams, Swisher, Watson and Hon. J. 
F. Ogelvee (ySth O. V. 1.) participated. There being present Chas. 
Kulencamp, io8th Ohio, Comrade Fribley, 98th Ohio, Captain 
Banker, 121st Ohio, and others of old Second Brigade, the meeting 
took on brigade proportions, and some plans were spoken- of looking 
to a reunion of the regiments of the brigade at a future time. 

The evening session was held in the office of the Auditor of State, 
and, though not well attended, was full of interest. Garman, Taylor, 
Watson, McAdams, Edmiston and Evans made short addresses. 

The eighth reunion convened at Columbus, August 11, 1881, and, 
in the absence of President Halliday, was presided over by John 
Ogelvee. Committees on business, finance, nominations, etc., were 
a|)poi ited at the morning session, as follows: Business — Taylor, 
Southard and Flowers. Nominations — Simpson, Souder and C>rafton. 
Finance — Cofforth, Osborn and 'I'aylor. Future Reunion — Thrall, 
Sullivant and \'an Houten. Officers for the ensuing year were 
chosen, as follows: President, Geo. G. McCiea; Vice President, 
F. S. Sullivant: Treasurer, A. M.Grafton; Secretary, F. M. Mc- 
Adams. A project of writing a regimental history was discussed, 
and F. M. McAdams was made historian, with the assurance that 

45 



37 S Our Knapsack. 

the mciiil)crsliip would meet the necessary expense. St. Paris was 
agreed on as the place of meeting for next reunion. The session of 
the afternoon was occupied in short speeches, hand-shaking and 
exchange of good will and good feeling. No evening session was held. 

The ninth reunion assembled at St. Paris, O., on the ist day of 
September, 1882. This was regarded by the pecjple as the largest 
gathering of any kind ever held in the town. No pains had been 
spared in jilanning on a large scale; money and labor had been 
bestowed with liberal hands. Bravery and beauty vied to outdo each 
other in making the occasion successful, and never was labor and 
devotion more tully rewarded. No brief sketch can do the descrip- 
tion justice. The principal exercises were held in Furrows' grove, 
near town. Addresses were made by J. Warren Kiefer, VV. R. War- 
nock, S. T. McMorran and others. A huge dinner was served in 
princely style, and the capacity of the old soldiers was, for once, 
reached. At Bowersock's Hall, in the evening, an entertainment 
was held, consisting of music, toasts, addresses, etc. In this exer- 
cise John G. Mitchell, Chas. F. McAdams, L. S. Sullivant, S. T. 
McMorran, Toland Jones, W. C. Rose, Iza (iales and J. Swisher 
participated. This reunion is regarded as one of the largest ever 
held in this part of the State. The people of St. Paris did themselves 
great credit. 

The tenth reunion was held at Granville, Licking county, Septem- 
ber 20, 1883. Like the preceding one at St. Paris, it was immense. 
The citizens had for weeks been talking, planning and laboring to 
make the occasion a success. All the necessary ])lans for decoration, 
music, entertainment, etc., had been carefully laid and intrusted to 
competent hands. The meetings were held in the Opera House, 
which was filled to its utmost limit. L. S. Sullivant was chosen 
chairman. The following committees were appointed : Resolutions — 
M. M. Munson, J. K. Hamilton, J. Swisher; Finance — John W. Kile, 
C. R. Herrick, M. Goodrich; Nominations — J. S. Ports, W. C. Bost- 
wick, Toland Jones; Programme — B. Huson, Thomas A. Jones, John 
Ogelvee. R. E. Rogers, Mayorof Granville, delivered a greeting of wel- 
come. Rev. T. J. Sheppard responded on behalf of the resident 
members of the regiment, and J. K. Hamilton spoke in response to 
the welcome. Toland Jones and Joseph Swisher made some fitting 
remarks in the morning session. Dinner was then in order. Such a 
dinner! One could believe that the whole commonwealth had 
united in furnishing supplies. The attack was made in good order, 
and the line was maintained without a straggler. Some dinners can 
be described ; this one can not. It was all that a rich country, loyal 
hearts and fair hands could make it. That is saying enough. 

The exercises of the evening session consisted of toasts, music, 
speeches and anecdote, and will long be remembered on account of 
the enjoyment it furnished. The toasting and responses were as follows: 

"The American Soldier" — Josepli Swisher. 
"The Press in the War" — Mikon Scott. 
"The Unreturned Volunteer" — F. M. McAdams. 
"Our Reunions" — L. S. .Sullivant. 
"Our Invited Guests" — M. M. Munson. 



Our Knapsack. 379 



The Granville Cornet Band furnished good music of the instru- 
mental kind, and a select choir of vocalists rendered some excellent 
pieces of music during the day and evening. 

The eleventh reunion was ai)pointed for Mt. Sterling, September 
10, 1884. The following officers were chosen for the next year: 
President, Toland Jones; Vice President, Moses Goodrich; Secretary 
and Treasurer, F. M. Mcx\dams ; Orator, Joseph Swisher. 

Our reunions are growing in interest year after year. May they 
continue as long as there are two of the old command left to greet 
each other and shake hands. 



ADDRESS OF MAJOR JOSEPH SWISHER, 



SEVENTH REUNION OF THE II3TH O. V. I., AT CITY HALL, COLUMBUS, 
OHIO, AUGUST II, 1880. 



Comrades of the 113TH O. V. I.: 

I received official notice a few days ago of my selection, in con- 
nection with Major Watson, to deliver an address at the 7th annual 
reunion of the regiment. I have collected a few thoughts together 
for the occasion, which I hope may not be entirely void of interest. 
While engaged in the quiet pursuits of life, amidst peace and plenty, 
we can scarcely realize the fact that within less than twenty years 
past our country has been engaged in a great civil war which threat- 
ened its very existence. While recounting the heroism of those who 
went forth to battle for their country, you will pardon me if I go back 
and briefly recount the causes which brought on the conflict. Going 
back to the time when the Colonies separated themselves from the 
mother country, and set up an independent government for them- 
selves, we find that in the Constitution which they adopted they left 
the very germ of dissolution. Our forefathers had declared that all 
men were endowed by their Greater with certain inalienable rights, 
among which were life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. Yet, 
when the Constitution was adopted human slavery was allowed to 
exist. While poets have sung of this as the land of the free and the 
home of the brave, it remained for nearly one hundred years as the land 
of the free and the home of the slave. Thomas Jefferson first com- 
pared the institution of slavery to a wolf held by the ears, which you 
could not hold onto nor dared to let go. 

The slave power, ever aggressive, first showed its real spirit 
in 1820, when Missouri was admitted as a State into the Union. 
By a compromise measure, the impending crisis which threatened 
a speedy dissolution of the Union at that time was averted. 



3^0 Ou, Knapsack. 

All parties then thought the l)()unds of human slavery were 
forever restricted. Peace was restored to the country. Une.\ani- 
pled prt)si)erity followed. Our ccnintry increased in wealth and pop- 
ulation, until it si)eedily took rank among the first nations «>f the 
earth. Twelve years later we find a new element of disturbance in 
our l)ody jiolitic. John C. Calhoun, of South Carolina, first pro- 
claimed the doctrine of Stales' rights — that the State governments 
were superior to the (ieneral (lovernment — and South Carolina, in 
1832, passed an ordinance denying the right of the Ceneral (Govern- 
ment to e.xecute her own laws within the sovereign limits ol that 
State. But that stern old patriot and hero, Andrew Jackson, was at 
the head of the government, and forever immortalized his name and 
administration by the declaration that, "By the eternal, the Union 
must and shall be preserved," and that he would hang those in 
resistance to the execution of the laws higher than Haman if they 
persisted in their course. Knowing well the stern character of the 
old hero of New Orleans, the peo[)le of South Carolina speedily 
accjuiesced, and allowed the laws to be executed within her limits. 
However, the doctrine proclaimed by Calhoun was not destroyed — 
only quelled, to lie dormant, ready to break out at the first favorable 
opportunity. The actiuisition of Texas as a slave State gave new 
impetus to the slave [wwer, and, by the aid of the Supreme Court in the 
passage of the Dred Scott decision, every foot of territory heretofore free 
was virtually made slave territory, and every free man a blood hound 
for the capture of fugitives from human bondage. This measure natu- 
rally alarmed the freedom loving people of the North. Intense ex- 
citement prevailed throughout the country, when again the antidote 
of compromise was ai)plied by a bill introduced by that venerable 
sage and i)atriot, Henry Clay, of Kentucky, and the country again 
reposed in cjuiet until the overcrowded pojjulation of the New 
England States and F^astern cities, and the Northern Central States, 
began to turn their eyes westward to the plains of Kansas, where 
they might build up homes for themselves and their children. The 
South, becoming alarmed at the growth and political power of the 
great Northwest, sought to overthrow the time honored Missouri 
Compromise, and did, by the aid of Northern dough-faces then in 
Congress, repeal it, and attempted to curse the land of Kansas with 
slavery through the doctrine of Stpiatter Sovereignty. The territory 
filled up rapidly. The people of the North were anxious to make 
free homes for their children in that beautiful country; the people of 
the South determined, through the doctrine of Stjuatter Sovereignty, 
aided by the Dred Scott decision, to make Kansas a slave State. 
They poured their population into the territory. Political excitement 
ran high. Strife and bitterness existed between the people from the 
different sections of the country. Two constitutions were framed 
and presented to Congress preparatory to its admission as a State into 
the Union. Under the leadership of such j)atriots as Sumner, Wade, 
Ciddings, and old Thaddeus Stephens, the free State constitution was 
adopted. The strife and bitter feeling at this time was intense. All 



Our Knapsack. 381 

felt that the peace of the country was in danger. The South were 
chagrined. Their representatives in Congress presented the ap- 
pearance of caged wild beasts. Representatives of the freedom 
loving North were stricken down in the halls of legislation for daring 
to assert their principles. The South claimed that the election of 
l^incoln to the Presidency on a platform opposed to the extension of 
slavery was sufficient cause for them to sever their connection with 
the Union, and build up for themselves a government whose chief 
corner stone should be human slavery. Early in December, i860. 
South Carolina passed an ordinance of secession, which was speedily 
followed by other States, which together formed a new government, 
styled the Confederate States of America, into which the people, un- 
der the doctrine of States' Rights, were taken as into a whirlpool. 
Our small army had been sent to the Western frontier, under the 
pretext of suppressing Mormonism. Our navy was scattered in for- 
eign seas. Our forts were being captured, our arms were shipped 
South, and treason was plotted under the very nose of James Bu- 
chanan, who had — I will not say the audacity, but the imbecility to 
declare that there was no power under the Constitution to coei'ce a 
sovereign State. Had the old hero of New Orleans been in the 
Presidential chair, he would have nipped treason in the bud. The 
halls of Congress resounded with the language of treason. Yet the 
people of the North were slow to believe that any portion of the peo- 
ple were willing to throw off their allegiance to the best government 
the world ever saw. The President constitutionally elected had, in 
order to escape assassination when on his way to Washington to be 
inaugurated, to pass secretly through Baltimore. Soon after his inau- 
guration Fort Sumpter was fired upon. The Northern heart was at 
once fired up. The spirit of patriotism, always strong in the North, 
was fully aroused, party lines were for the time apparently forgotten, 
and every energy seemed bent to the one purpose — that of preserv- 
ing the Union. The farmer left his plow; the mechanic his work- 
shop ; the merchant his counter ; the clerk his office, and the gentleman 
his leisure ; and all buckled on their armor, and hastened to defend 
the capital of the nation from the rebels, already armed and march- 
ing in solid phalanx against it. The rebel army was commanded by 
able generals, who had been educated by the same Government they 
now sought to destroy. The first conflict of arms proved disastrous 
to the United States troops, but served to fully arouse the people of 
the North to a true sense of the situation. They realized that to 
preserve the life of the nation would cost blood and treasure, but 
the bright hopes of the future would richly compensate for both. 
The war went on with varied success ; sometimes victory crowned 
our efforts ; again, we would meet with disaster. Meantime a jjarty 
grew up in the North hostile to the war for the preservation of the 
Union. The lower House of Congress had fallen into the hands of 
those opposed to the war. Great leaders stood up in the halls of 
Congress and declared that not another man nor dollar should be 
given to fill the ranks or feed the soldiers already in the field. The 



382 Ouf Knapsack. 

Lcj;islatiire <jf liuliaiui liad so crippled the executive of that State 
that lie was obliged to go to New York and i)ledge his own credit for 
nn)ney to eipiip the soldiers from that State ready for the field. A 
nuijority of the members of Congress elected from Ohio were opjxjsed 
to the war. Secret organizations sprang up throughout the North, 
whose purpose was to discourage enlistments and give aid and com- 
fort to the enemy. In 1862 a convention met in Columbus, ()., and 
openly jiassed a resolution declaring that 200,000 men of Ohio sent 
greeting to their brethren in the South. Amid these stirring scenes 
the I 13th Regiment, O. \'. 1., was organized. It was organized un- 
der the second call for 300,000 men, in 1862. It was not made up 
of that class of men who from excitement went into the army, but of 
men who in their calm reflection felt that their services were needed 
to fill the depleted ranks of their brethren already in the field. It 
assembled at Camp Chase on the 28th day of August, 1862, and at 
once went into the school of the soldier to receive that discipline so 
necessary to the efficiency of a soldier in the field. After remaining 
here nearly two months, under instruction of Colonels Wilcox and 
Mitchell, it was transferred to Camp Zanesville, and from there to 
Camp Dennison. Remaining but a short time here, it was trans- 
ferred to Kentucky, and became a part of the reserve forces of Gen- 
eral Rosecrans in his pending battle with Cieneral Bragg in Tennessee. 
To attempt to write anything of the 113th Regiment after this is to 
write a history of the war. The regiment remained in Kentucky but 
a short time, when it took a steamer, in company with a large num- 
ber of troops, for Nashville, to more immediately re-enforce General 
Rosecrans' army, which had been dejjleted after a desperate but suc- 
cessful battle of three days with the rebel army, under General Bragg, 
at Murfreesboro, or Stone River. The regiment arrived at Fort 
Uonelson just in time to witness the close of the second battle of that 
place. Arriving at Nashville, the regiment here parted with Colonel 
\vilcox, to whom the men had become much endeared, and Colonel 
Mitchell at once assumed command, and, though not always in im- 
mediate command of the regiment, yet remained with it through all 
the trying ordeals to which it was subjected. The regiment now 
pushed on to Franklin, Tennessee, where it was organized into and 
became a jmrt of the Reserve Corps, Army of the Cumberland, under 
Major General Gordon Granger. Here it rested for some time, being 
occasionally called out to meet the enemy, who was hovering around 
the right flank of Rosecrans' army. While lying here the ravages of 
disease made sad havoc in our heroic band, for which I always 
thought the would-be General C. C. Gill)ert was very largely respon- 
sible, by calling up the men who were not endued to camp life at 
unseasonable hours, for no other purpose, as any one could tell, but 
to gratify an inordinate ambition he had to show off. But, after the 
United States Senate clipped his brigadier wings, he drooped his tail 
like a peacock, and disappeared from the theater of war, only to be 
remembered as one of the things of the past for which there was no 
further need. 



Our Knapsack. 383 

After spending the greater part of the summer of 1863 in jNIiddle 
Tennessee, the regiment was pushed rapidly forward across the 
Cumberland Mountains and the Tennessee River into Georgia, to 
engage with the main army under Rosecrans at the battle of Chick- 
amauga, who was not only to meet the army of Northern Virginia, 
but the paroled prisoners from Vicksburg. 

After two days of marching and countermarching, in which the 
greater part of the army had been engaged in deadly conflict, the 
reserve corps, of which the 113th formed a part, was on the 20th 
day of September, 1863, thrown into the deadly breach. Like the 
legions of honor under the great Napoleon, they were only thrown in 
after the conflict had become desperate. Here the regiment re- 
ceived its first baptism in blood, having lost in killed and wounded 
one hundred and sixty-three men. What thrilling emotions pass 
through the breast when memory calls back the time when amid the 
roaring of artillery, the shrieking and bursting of shell, the rattling 
of musketry, the whizzing of bullets, the groans of the wounded and 
dying, the 113th charged and recharged upon the rebel hosts. The 
charge of the immortal 600 of which jjoets have sung was not more 
heroic than that of the 113th on that dreadful day. Retiring after 
the conflict within the fortifications surrounding Chattanooga, the 
army assumed the position of a stag at bay on which Bragg con- 
sidered it unsafe to move. Here the regiment suffered the privations 
of hunger without a murmur till on the 25th of November, the army 
having been reorganized with General Grant in command, aided by 
those able Lieutenants, Sherman, Thomas and Hooker, and being 
largely reinforced, moved upon the enemy's works and hurled the 
rebel hosts in dismay from Mission Ridge, following them as far as 
Ringgold, Georgia, when the regiment was suddenly started on a 
forced march into East Tennessee to relieve Burnside, who was 
closely besieged by the troops of Longstreet. Unprepared to stand 
the rigors of a winter's campaign ; poorly clad, without rations, sub- 
sisting off the country, they made forced marches without a murmur. 
Nearing Kno.xville and the siege having been raised, they hastily 
retraced their steps towards Chattanooga, expecting to soon occupy 
their comfortable quarters which they had left a few weeks before. 
Arriving on the bank of the Tennessee river in the night, chilled by 
the cold blasts of a December wind, many of them barefooted and 
their feet bleeding, only to find the bridge across the Tennessee unfit 
to cross, and the men were only permitted, like Moses when leading 
the children of Israel to the promised land, to view it from afar, they 
likewise were only permitted to view their ([uarters from afar, and 
take up their cpiarters on the frozen banks of the Tennessee without 
tents or fire, which they did with a resignation not surpassed I)y that 
of the soldiers of the Revolution at Valley Forge. The regiment 
crossed the river next day and entered their quarters, where they ex- 
pected to remain for the winter, but were doomed to disappointment. 
They were barely settled down when the word, "fall in," passed 
along the line, and they took up their line of march south across the 



384 (^1" Kttapsiiik. 

'rcnnesscc river. Moving out from Chattanooga ahoiil eight iiiilcs, 
halted and i)iit up new t[uarlers where they remained till May, 1864, 
excejU for short intervals when they were ordered out on some duty 
for a few days at a time. 

The first of May found the army animated with new life; all was 
bustle and activity. The army had been reorganized, with \V. T. 
Sherman, one of the world's ablest generals, in command, with 
(ieneral (ieorge H Thomas, that true type of a Roman soldier, in 
command of the Army of the Cumberland, of which the 113th, (). 
V. I., formed a i)art. Now commenced one of the most remarkaljle 
campaigns history gives any account of. To write a history of this 
campaign is to write a history of the 113th regiment. At Buzzard 
Roost, at Resaca, at Rome, at Dalles the regiment bore a conspicu- 
ous and honorable i)art, until brought uj) in front of the Kenesaw 
Mountain it found everywhere the guns of the enemy bristling in its 
front. Called upon to charge on the enemy's works the men buckled 
on their armor without a murmur and charged into the very jaws of 
death. Here again the regiment suffered severely, losing one hun- 
dred and sixty-five in killed and wounded. Unable to capture the 
enemy's works, they wavered, fell back a short distance and in- 
trenched themselves in close proximity to the enemy's guns and 
maintained their position until the enemy fell back, when the word, 
"fall in," again passed along the lines. The march was at once re- 
sumed, and continued without much serious opposition till the Chat- 
tahoocha river was reached, where the rebels had to be brushed out 
of the way; following up again to Peach Tree Creek, the enemy 
made another stand, and where the fighting ipialities of the 113th 
Regiment were again tried and not found wanting. The enemy now 
fell back within their intrenchments around Atlanta, closely followed 
by the Union army, when a furious bombardment commenced against 
the Gate City of the South. Unable to capture it by direct ap- 
proaches in front, the regiment, with the main part of the army, was 
moved to the right, confronted the rebel army at Jonesl)oro' and 
defeated it, in which action the 1 13th again covered itself with glory. 
Atlanta was immediately evacuated and taken i)Ossession of by our 
troops. The regiment was not long to repose here. News having come 
that (ieneral Forest with a large cavalry force was in our rear, the di- 
vision to which the f 13th belonged was sent back to capture Forest 
or drive him out of Tennessee. This selection, no doubt, was made 
on account of its marching (pialities. Over mountains, through 
dense forests, across deep rivers, for six hundred miles they followed 
him, till, considering discretion the better part of valor, he made good 
his escape by crossing the Tennessee river into Alabama. Has- 
tily retracing their stejjs, they rejoined the main part of the army at 
(iailsville, Alabama, from which point commenced the grand holiday 
campaign of the war. Returning to .Mlanta, tearing up the railroad 
as they went, cutting loose from all communications with the outside 
world, burning Atlanta, they started -South under an order to forage 
liberally off the country. Never was an order obeyed with more 



Our Knapsack. 385 

alacrity. Each tried to vie with the other to see who could come 
the nearest fulfilling it literally. This march was through a land of 
milk and honey. Dishes dainty enough to tickle the palate of an 
epicure or satisfy the appetite of a gormandizer. Yet, amid all this 
plenty, our soldiers were allowed to rot in rebel prisons. Arriving at 
the city of Savannah, they remained only long enough to be refitted, 
when they took up their line of march through the hot-bed of seces- 
sion — South Carolina — where they had been warned that thus far 
can you come and no further. But it was soon found that those who 
had snuffed the battle from afar off were, when the war was brought 
to their doors, the most abject cowards and poltroons the regiment 
had yet met. Here all restraint seemed thrown off; every soldier 
felt that to this State, more than any other, was to be traced the 
cause of the war, and each one seemed determined to reek vengeance 
on the people, forgetting that passage of Scripture, " Vengeance is 
mine saith the Lord." Fire and sword was on every side; from hill- 
top and valley went up the smoke of burning buildings, till the heart 
sickened at the sight. Wading rivers, traversing swamps and climb- 
ing mountains, occasionally stopping to brush the rebels out of the 
way, the regiment entered the State of North Carolina, soon to be 
confronted by the combined forces of Johnson, Hardee and Beaure- 
gard, who had united to make one last desperate effort. Here, at 
Bentonville, one of the sharpest conflicts of the war took place. In 
this battle the 113th bore a conspicuous part. This was the last 
battle in which the regiment engaged ; her battles henceforth were to 
be of a peaceful character. Passing rapidly forward to Goldsbor- 
ough. North Carolina, we were joined by Schofield and Terry, who 
brought large re-enforcements. All felt the end was now drawing 
nigh. We soon received the news of the surrender of Lee's army to 
General Grant. This was quickly followed by the surrender of 
Johnson's army to General Sherman ; the surrender of the remaining 
armies of the Confederate States immediately followed, and the last 
vestage of rebel authority was captured in central Georgia, in petti- 
coats, booted and spurred. 

The assassination of Lincoln cast a deep glo'>m over the army, 
and woe would have been to the people of the South if Sherman's 
army had again been turned against the enemy. But the war was 
over, and with it passed away the institution of slavery, and the germ 
of dissolution which our forefathers admitted into the Constitution as 
a local institution perished in the attempt to make it national. The 
regiment now started on its march homeward ; it passed rapidly 
through Richmond, the capital of the now defunct government, and 
passing ra|)idly northward, it passed over many of the battlefields 
where the Army of the Potomac had met the rebel hosts in deadly 
conflict — grounds rendered forever historic. Arriving at Washing- 
ton, the regiment particijjated in one of the grandest pageants the 
world ever saw, that of a victorious volunteer army after four years 
i»f figliting and cami)aigning to i)reserve the Nation, marching and 
])assing in review before the rej^resentatives of the crowned heads of 

46 



.^86 Our Kna/'sack. 

iMiropc, and dissolving when no longer needed, and taking up the 
peac eful avocations of life. Those who had been the ardent friends 
of the government through the war now felt that those who had 
sought to destroy the government should be modest, and not seek to 
take any active part in the affairs of the Nation. Yet we soon find 
them claiming to be the only fit persons to conduct the government 
they had fought to destroy. We find them openly declaring that 
they would gain through the l)allot box what they had failed to 
achieve on the battlefield. We find rebel brigadiers standing up in 
the halls of Congress and declaring they had at last cai)tured Wash- 
ington, and that they now intended to repeal the last vestage of war 
legislation from the statute books of the Nation. Being gently re- 
buked for the spirit of bravado, they are now trying to gain posses- 
sion of the government in a manner which certainly j^resents a very 
strange phenomena — that of the same jjarty who sought to overthrow 
the government by force of arms, and fought the regular army to do 
it, now trying to creep into power under a blue coat and brass but- 
tons with a Major (General of the U. S. Army as its leader. Be not 
deceived, this is the same old power, in disguise, you met in rebel 
gray on the plains of the South. Members of the 113th C). V. I., 
stand firm by the principles for which you fought. This is a duty 
you owe to yourselves, to your posterity, and more than all to the 
noble band of patriots who, less fortunate than yourself, gave up 
their lives in defense of their country by which you are enabled to 
enjoy the blessings of the best government in the world. The gov- 
ernment which they gave their lives to save is now truly the land of 
the free and the home of the brave. It is fast increasing in wealth 
and population. Free schools and free churches all over the land; 
it has all the elements of true greatness within it. Rich mineral 
wealth, a fertile soil bounded by r 1,000 miles of sea coast indented 
with numerous bays upon which large commercial and manufactur- 
ing cities are growing up, giving employment to tens of thousands of 
the down-trodden of other nations. One of the mightiest rivers of 
the world passes through its center, upon which the commerce of the 
great Northwest passes out to feed the crowded population of Europe. 
Her commerce is upon every sea, and finds a market in every city of 
the world. Her bonds which were at one time only worth thirty-five 
cents on the dollar, are now above i)ar. The same money which the 
enemies of the government declared during and after the war to be 
wortliless, to be rags, they are now anxious to have at a ]jremiuni of 
fourteen cents on the dollar, and to-day the government, if she chose, 
could issue three and a half per cent, bonds at i)ar which would 
eagerly be taken for the outstanding indebtedness of the government 
now coming due. 

You, by your valor, have restored a Nation's credit, and now live 
to enjoy its blessings. Those who fell in defense of their country 
need no econium at our hands; they have written their names high 
upon the scroll of fame which will last through all time, and their 
sacrifice and heroism will be a theme upon which in future ages the 



Our Knapsack. 387 



poet will tune his lyre to sing their praises. But to their widows and 
orphans we owe a sacred duty, to see that no O'Connors* legislate 
against their interest or rights. 

Now, Comrades of the 1 13th, having extended these remarks much 
heyond my original intention, wishing you long life, hai)piness and 
prosperity, 1 can only add, may (lod bless you in your declining 
years. 



A TRAGEDY IN A DREAM. 

Taking my comrade, Ed. Blain, into my office a few days ago, I 
read to him a previously prepared sketch of the killing of George 
Workman, Company B, 113th O. V. I., on the 24th day of February, 
1865, by an insane soldier, on the left bank of the Catawba or VVa- 
teree River, in South Carolina. The tragedy made a deep impression 
on my mind at the time, but I did not know that Blain had any 
recollection of it more than of one of the many incidents of his army 
life. 

After hearing my account of it, he admitted its correctness, and 
said he saw the whole affair when it took place, and not only that, 
but that he had had a dream, months before, while in Ohio, in which 
he saw the same tragedy with all its attendant details. Blain also 
said that when the column halted at the place above named, he recog- 
nized it as the spot he had seen in his dream, and that he remarked 
to one of his comrades that he had seen that place before. Leaving 
his company where it had stacked arms in the rain, he ascended to 
the top of a hill to a house, where he witnessed the shooting of one 
soldier by another as I had described it. I give this incident as one 
of the unexplained and unexplainable mysteries that once in a life- 
tinte come to the surface, the solution of which puzzles the wisest of 
the wise. F. M. M. 



A MOTHER'S TRIBUTE TO HER SON. 

Henry A. Wells, of Johnstown, Licking county, Ohio, was born 
November 27, 1836. He was enrolled as a member of Company I), 
ir3th, (). V. I., August 20, 1862. He served faithfully with his 
c0mi)any in the duties of camp and bivouac during the fall of 1862, 
entering Kentucky and enduring the rigors of that eventful winter 
at Muldrough's Hill, south of Louisville. The duties and exposures 
of the campaign were too arduous, and sickness ensued. He was 
assigned to hospital No. 3, at Nashville, where he died February 



-O'Connor was a member (if ihe Oliio I.egisliUiirc, who inuoduccil ;i bill in abrid.ye lb 
rights of soldiers' children in the Ohio Soldiers' and Sailors' Orphans' Home, at Xenia, < ). 



3^8 Our Knapsack. 

20, 1863. A short lime previous to his death, his uncle, Ca|)tain 
Joshua M. Wells, in passing through the hospitals, found his nephew 
and realized that death was near its victim. Henry told his uncle 
that he knew that he must soon die, hut that Jesus was very precious 
all the lime, and though he was far from his home and widowed 
mother, he fell reconciled, and, said he, " 1 can die here as well as 
anywhere." 

Captain Wells remained with him to the end and administered to 
his comfort. He gave many evidences of his comi)lete |)rei)aration 
for death, and of his trust in the Savior. Henry had been a faithfid 
member of the M. E. Church since he was sixteen years old, and 
was always faithful in defending the right and opposing the wrong. 

The body was sent home for burial, and the large concourse of 
friends, who shed tears of sorrow at his funeral, attested the. high 
esteem in which he was held. And now, as the years roll by, his 
sorrowing mother decks the resting place of her son with fragrant 
flowers, and dampens with her tears the sod that conceals all that is 
mortal of him she most loved. 

Ki.i/A B. Wki.ls. 

N'oiK : — Fiecjueiu meiuioii is- iikkIc elsewlicie in tlii> work of Captain Joshua 
M. Wells, Company C, detailing the facts of his being wounded at Chickamauga, 
his death, burial, etc. (See Hall's Prison Life.) His widow died November 
22, 1S75. His two surviving sons, Emory and Willis A., are residents of Cla- 
rinda, Paige county, Iowa. A Post of the G. A. R., located at Columbus, was 
named after tliis brave man. 



W. RO.SS HANAWALT 

Was born in Ross county, Ohio, August 8, 1837. His education, 
which was of more than the ordinary character, was the result of 
careful, assiduous study more than of superior advantages. In 
1856-7, he attended school at South Salem, and during the few years 
that preceded his enlistment he had given his time to teaching, in 
which profession he gained prominence. 

He enlisted in the 113th (). \^ I. at its organization, being at the 
lime principal of the Union Schools, of Ml. Sterling, (). 

He served as Quartermaster Sergeant from the organization of the 
regiment in September, 1862, till March 25, 1863, when he was 
promoted to Second Lieutenant of Company (1, and at the battle of 
Chickamauga, Ca., September 20, 1863, he fell at his i^ost of duty, 
sealing his devotion to his country with his blood. 

The acquaintance 1 had formed with Lieutenant Hanawall had 
ripened into a strong friendship, and when I learned that he was one 
of the sacrifices of that fatal day, I felt that a brave and noble man 
had fallen. He was my ideal soldier, for he was all that a patriot 
and gentleman could be, and now, after a lapse of more than a score 



Our Knapsack. 389 



of years, during which period, time has healed many wounds of the 
heart, I recall the name and record these lines with peculiar feelings 
of sadness : 

'■Soldier rest, thy warfare o'er. 

Sleep the sleep that knows not breakini; ; 

Ureani of hattlehekls no more, 

Morn of tnil, nor night of waking." M. 



A HOSPITAL SKETCH. 

The Chaplain of the 113th O. V. I. contributes the following: 

I herewith furnish you some items connected with my duties as 
chaplain of the Fourteenth Army Corps, at Savannah, (Georgia : 

I was detailed by General Jefferson C. Davis to act in the cai^acity 
of corps chaplain, and entered upon my duties in January, 1865, 
while the army lay at Savannah. The surgeon in charge was Lewis 
Slusser, 68th Ohio Volunteers. 

1 was required to superintend the interment of the dead. Up to 
about January 20, 1865, there were division hospitals, but, by s|)ecial 
order of General Sherman, these were consolidated into corps hospi- 
tals. When the army moved from Savannah, crossed the river, and 
entered South Carolina, there was left in the hospital of the Four- 
teenth Corps nearly eight hundred sick and wounded men. My work 
for two months was to aid, comfort and instruct the living, and bury 
the dead. My custom was to visit the several wards every day, and 
spend more or less time with each sufferer, singing, talking, reading 
and praying. 

I determined to bury the dead in the most substantial manner pos- 
sible under the circumstances. One of the first things to be done 
was to select the ground in which to deposit our dead heroes. We 
chose the Laural Grove Cemetery, situated one mile from the city, 
near the Augusta road. It was a place of rare beauty. 'I'he dead 
of the Fourteenth Corps occupy four lots in this lonely spot, namely, 
lots number 1,620, 1,621, 1,622 and 1,623. 

On a post eight feet high, near the center of these lots, we placed 
a large acorn, the corps emblem. We buried our dead in rows, num- 
bering the rows and graves. The corps hospital occupied the In- 
firmary and the public school building, on Barnard street. Having 
arranged with the post quartermaster for a sugjjly of coffins, the next 
thing was to procure bottles and corks. The bottles used were such 
as had been used for wine and porter, and we procured them in the 
city with no other compliments than to say we had use for them. 

These bottles being perfectly dry, we would deposit in each a 
memorandum of a deceased soldier, giving name, rank, disease, date 
of death, and the command to which he belonged. This was written 
plainly in ink. 



39° ^^' Knapsack. 

'I'hc body of the deceased was gently lowered to its last resting 
|»Uu:e; brief religious exercises followed, and the grave was then 
filled within eighteen inches of the top; the bottle was then placed, 
with neck downward, in the dirt at the foot of the grave. To ascer- 
tain to a certainty the name of a buried soldier, it was only necessary 
to dig at the foot of the grave, find the bottle containing the memo- 
randum, and read the record. After about two months duty of this 
kind, many of the sick having died or recovered, I was relieved, and 
again joined the regiment near Raleigh, North Carolina. 

|(»SKPH MokKlS. 



■ HUMOK A'l' KKNKSAW. 

After tile battle of Kenesaw Mountain, I went to the field hos- 
pital to see if any of the 113th were in need of assistance which 1 
could render. As you know, I was then Quartermaster Sergeant of 
the regiment, and was with the wagon train, and not in the engage- 
ment which resulted so disastrously to our forces. 

Upon arriving at the hospital, as it was called, (a shady spot upon 
which had been erected a number of tents) I beheld a sad sight. 
The numerous tents were filled to overflowing with the wounded, the 
dying and the dead. Among the hundreds who lay on the ground I 
recognized Ed. Whitehead, a member of my own Company. Ed. 
was a great big, good-natured fellow, with a heart as big as his body, 
(figuratively speaking) and stood six feet four inches in his stocking 
feet. 1 asked Ed. where and how seriously he was hurt. He replied 
that he was shot through the fleshy part of both thighs, and upon 
e.xamination I saw that it was a very "painful and dangerous wound. 

Presently a number of ambulances were brought up, and an order 
was given to load the wounded and send them to Big Shanty as fast 
as possible. With the assistance of others, we picked Ed. ui> and 
l)laced him in the vehicle nearest to where he lay, pushing him 
gently to the front, until his head reached the seat of the driver. 
For a moment he lay with closed eyes and motionless. Then open- 
ing his eyes, and rising partly up, he looked soberly at his feet as 
they hung out of the rear of the ambulance. Then he asked in his 
dry manner: "Bill, how much of me is there out yet? " Then he 
lay down and the ambulances were driven off. The surroundings 
were simply horrible, but the humor of that inquiry jjrovoked a good 
laugh from all who heard it. 1 have thought of this a thousand 
times, and have as often laughed over it. lul. still lives, and n(^bodv 
enjoys the storv better than he. 

W. H. Hallhjav. 



Our Knapsack. 391 



POST-OFFICE Al )I )R KSSKS. 

The following is a list of the addresses of the survivors (jf the 1 1 }^\\\ 
( ). \'. 1. so far as can be ascertained. The list is incomplete, l)ut 
mainly accurate, and will serve a valual)le purpose: 

OHIO. 

COLUMBUS. 

James A. Wilco.x, John (). Mitchell, L. S. SuUivant, ( )tway Watson, 

A. C. Van Houten, George H. Rowland, John Dickey, H. H. Knee- 
land, Wm. P. Souder, John Beasinger, John Wolf, Wm. Regester (.'^), 
Henry Silbach (?), Herman Silbach (.'), Henry Pfautch, Nicholas 
Shimmel, M. V. B. L.ittle, James Coultas, Chas. A. Cofforth, John 
Byrne, C. R. Herrick, J- 1- Flowers, Wm. H. Halliday, W. S. Durant, 
John B. Miller, D. T. "Green, David O. Mull (W. C), J. L. B. Wis- 
well (?), Wm. Romosier, John Romosier, x^lbert Field, R. Knight. 
Wm. Keller, Geo. Sinclair, J. R. Topping, Agustus Leshey. 

URB.VNA. 

(). H. Barber, Geo. L. Teister, Web. S. Gearhart, Ed. Schelllior]i, 
Philip A. Huff, William Oaig, John W. Snyder, G. W. Grain, Joseph 
Low, Gyrus T. Ward, Felix E. Rock. 

SAINT PARIS. 

(ieo. (i. McCrea, Elijah Gabriel, John F. Riker, George Gabriel, 
Simon Gabriel, A. M. Grafton, Michael Huddleston, John Wilson, 
George N'egley, Willis Huddleston, Wm. Jenkins, David Beaty, S. E. 
Smith, Wm. M. Grafton, John Wank, Samuel Bishop, Anthonv 
Bishop, Leonard Bishop. 

CRA.Wll.l.K. 

Moses Croodrich, B. W. Mason (.'), Wm. Ports, Thomas A Jones. 
Lewis Williams, M. M. Munson, Hiram Williams, Burton Huson. 
Thomas J. Evans (?), Henry G. Case, J. A. Scureman, F. k. Eno. 

Mr. STERLl.N'c;. 

J. W. Dennison, F. 15. Briley, W. H. Riggin, J. \\ . Ingrim, Jo^iah 
Tinnnons. (). W. Loofbourrow, J. N. Crabb, J. i\L ( )'! )ay, Fred. 
\'oung, W. C. Bostwick, James A. Baker, .Abe Taylor, J. \V. H;nne>s, 
J. W. Beale, J. I. Cook, J. W. .Southard, Samuel Busi"( k, J. S. .\ber- 
nalhy, Alfred Ivy, Wm. Defabaugh, John .A. Alkire, Jose|)h Richard- 
son (.'), Benjamin Brjley, .Mex. Tayners, Cyrus 'I'immons, .Andrew 
Mitchell, E. Parker, John N. Jones, F. H. Wickel. Wm. 'I'almadge, 

B. O. Keller, Andrew Burget, Wm. Defabaugh. 



'i'oland Jones, W. C. Ward, Timothy Haley, John 1''. Chairman, 
Jacob March, R. Knight, Lem. Walker, Jerome Robey, Robert Moore, 



y)2 Oia A'n<i/>S(iii'. 

|,mu^ l\;i\liurn, Jolin ki^lilsell, |()SL'|)h K. liuzzard, John McSavany, 
I.ihn I,. Dallas, lohn W. Adams, l?als. Spcccciiuikcr, j. S. Kobcy, 
jt.cl Read, A. 'r.'l'hifor, j. W. Harness, Win. Ariuslroiig (?). 

MKCHANICSHURC. 

Charles 'I". Baxter, Stephen W. Riddle, Lynis I'aniier (?), James 
C. Roberts. Benjamin Norris, Charles Odell, John K. Davis. Cyrus 
Ciuy, lohn \V. Tway, Kbene/.er Williams, Thomas K. Shei)herd, W. 
C. Hrinnon, J<jhn Craig. 

(.!<< )\ KI'DKl . 

lohn W. Kile, [ackson Blakely, Peter Reeves, San\uel Hoover. 
Albert Hodge, I'hi'lo Williams, C. '1 . Wheeler. 

Sl'KINUFItl,!). 

lames S. Ports, H. K. Allison, Jacob Huben, Oscar C. Morrow, 
John Spangenberger, Harvey Strain (?). 

l..\-KAVKTTK. 

Alt. Willet, Mark \Vallace, John Simj)son, Isaac Norris, Daniel 
Hildcbran (?), John Tallman {?), Wm. Tallman, Ed. C.arrett. 

HKIiKON. 

S. I>. Street, Isaac. Slocum, S. R. Well>, William \osl, .\lnaliam 
Swarl/., 1 A. Zellhart (?), Knos Jewell. 



Charles Debtee, Wilton Osborn, R. Ji. Stewart, Ale.\. Carpenter, 
Daniel Robbins, Esau Rice. 

KINGSCREEK. 

lohn Miller, James VV'alker, Wm. Walker, Charles Stewart, Charles 
M. Boone. 

Z.ANESVILLE. 

Alva J. Darnell, J. Conanl, George Miles. 

•M.KXANDRIA. 

lohn A. Scurenian, Enos Jewell, Henry Carlock, James R. Ladd, 
Henry Jewell, Henry Thrall, David W. Conrad, l-ewis ^^'illiam^., 
Oilman Rose. 

NEWARK. 

Benjamin Bird, Loyal H. C'louse, Thomas J. I'arr. E. J. Carlile, 
Sylvester Krye, Jonas Williams, A. J. Powell, R. B. Stadden (.'), E. S. 
Bancroft, T. J. Evans, J. R. Black. 

CANAI- WINCHESTER. 

Wm. Hesser, (has. Yost, Israel Gehman, Elisha Moore, Elisha 
Himrod, David Yost, Sylvester E. Bailey, Samuel Looker, Jackson 
Blakelv. 



Our Knapsack. 393 

LILLEY CHAPEL. 

James Tallmadge, Albert Ivy. 

MUTUAL. 

O. B. Fay, Levi Fay. 

JERSEY. 

H. M. Capell, Enos W. Robl), George Crane, R. B. Harrison, J- 
VV. Berger, Wilton Osborn. 

RICHWOOD. 

E. D. Horton, Edward Blain, F. M. McAdams. 

GROVE CITY. 

H. V, Malott, Daniel Weygandt, Clark S. White. 

NORTH LEWISBURG. 

Joseph Swisher, Creorge H. Lippincott. 

WEST LIBERTY. 

James Blake, Perry C. Howard, Thomas J. Scott, Clark W. Cottrell. 

MIDWAY. 

William Harness, J. W. Lessenger. 

WEST JEFFERSON. 

J. E. Sidner, J. N. Beach, John Creath. 

1MARYSVILLE. 

Chas. M. Carrier, Lewis Andrews, T. P. Freeman, B. VV^ Keyes. 

MT. VERNON. 

Lyman VV. Marsh, Levi T. Nichols. 

PICK.ERINGTON. 

W. C. Moore, William VV. Regester. 

CINCINNATI. 

Abner C". Hu[)|), F. M. Riegel, Edward P. Haines. 

PANCOASTHURG. 

N. W. Critfin, Leander Pancoast, Jeremiah J. Riggin. 

UK; PLAIN. 

John Creath, John P. Low, Wiley Creath. 

JOHNSTOWN. 

John R. Cross, Tuller Williams, H. S. W. Butt. 
47 



394 ^'^' KiKi/^idik. 

KKl'.DOMA. 

I'asciil 1. Ilurlun, Jacob Linvn. 

MARTKOKl). 

Nelson Diirant, John ()};il\X'c, Win. H. Thrall. 

hotkin's station. 
John :\. IMcLanc, Richard HowoU. 

HARRISliURG. 

Jerry Chaftin, John Sheeters, J. J. Sheedcrs, Kdsun Dcyo, Jonas 
Deyo. 

NEW DOVER. 

Elias Thomas, George Pritchard, Leroy Nash. 

CLARKSVILLE. 

Nathaniel B. Yeazel, (larland McKinsey. 

HOMER. 

R. S. Fulton, Shepherd Fulton. 

WALNUT RUN. 

George Watson, Wilbur Watson, Joseph Waggernian, Chas. Yates. 

DAYTON. 

Chas. P. Garnian, Arthur Nash, Wm. McCain, M. Kelly (N. S. H.) 

CIRCLEVILLE, 

John Alkire, Frederick Young. 

CARE\ SVll.I.K. 

Samuel Halterman, John O'Leary, James Hewling. 

WORTHINGTON. 

John S. Skeels, George A. Pingree. 

SIDNES . 

Dr. A. Wilson, Charles Boone, Asa Kite. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Nelson I )urant, Ccnterburg; (i. W. Kemp, iMarsailles; 1\ B. Fisher, 
Tadmor; Wm. H. Harman, Forest; Judson Swisher, Nelsonville ; 
Wesley Moore, Rawson ; C. Himrod, Royalton ; N. N. Mason, Rey- 
noldsburg; J. Q- Smith, Palestine, B. F. Irwin, Catawba; John 
Reese, Bellefontaine ; George Gardner, Bradford Junction; William 
Newberry, Appleton ; Henry Dewitt, Black Creek; J. K. Hamilton, 
Toledo; Patrick Mahlone, Springhills; W. H. Grove, Lagonda ; John 



Our Knapsack. 395 

Chapin, Westerville ; James H. Tarbutton, Horrs ; B. Anderson, 
Pataskala; Levi Hemminger, Woodstock ; J. M. Abbot, Millerstown ; 
James L. Edmiston, Dialton ; Joseph Richardson, Danville; T. E. 
Osborn, Vanatta ; Joseph Twigg, Carroll ; R. H. Seeley, Tremont 
City ; Francis Kibby, Powell ; l3. R. Taylor, Northampton ; C. C. 
Hayes, Hanover; John Brown, Beech; John H. Johnson, LaCarne ; 
John Tallman, Irwin; Cieorge Rye, Lancaster; John L Cook, New- 
jiort ; Joseph Ford, Palestine; Joseph Morris, Washington C. H. ; 
^Vm. N. Yost, Mt. Blanchard ; B. W. Mason, Rio Grande; George 
Flaharda, Plain City; J. W. Stranse, Cedarville ; Lyman Means, 
Wapakonetta. 

IOWA. 

John F. Rockafield, Shenandoah ; Frank O. Scarth, Newton ; Geo. 
VV. Brigham, Perry ; John F. Denser, Bedford ; Geo. A. Graves, F. J. 
Cressey, DesMoines ; Dr. H. M. Bassett, Mt. Pleasant. 

MISSOURI. 

A. L. Messmore, St. Louis; Jasper C. Shepherd, Atlanta; Heman 
L. Hobart, Austin; A. L. Shepherd, Kirkvville ; John W. Corp, 
Chambersburg; H. C. Paige, Lathrop ; James T. Beard, West End. 

MINNESOTA. 

Wm. H. Baxter, Minneapolis; Dr. Alonzo Harlow, St. Paul. 

KANSAS. 

John G. Ganson, Neodocia ; Joseph Miller, Shell Rock ; Warren 
C. Rose, Valley Falls; Harvey F. Sullivan, Salem; Isaac Green, 
Girard ; Chas. Sinnet, Olathe ; David Taylor, Emporia. 

ILLINOIS. 

Albert Kneeland, Elgin ; James Merril, Warren ; Thomas H. Bell, 
Fisher; Oliver Craig, Hamilton; J. D. Merrill, Warren; John C. 
Coblentz, Bloomington ; David Yost, Shelby ville; John Rogers, 
Harris ; James Partridge, Bement ; Theo. D. Warden, Charles D. 
Parker, Chicago. 

INDIANA. 

Millen Hays, Terre Haute ; Ezra D. Hummel, Huntington ; Jere- 
miah Bair, Winnemac ; Richard M. J. Coleman, Indianaixjlis ; James 
M. Anderson, Garret City. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Colonel D. B. Warner, St. John, N. B. ; M. Kelley, National Sol- 
diers' Home, Dayton; Henry Strawbridge, Washington, 1). C. ; Chas. 
N. Davis, Santa Rosa, California ; T. G. Warden, Leadville, Colo- 
rado ; Lewis Wharton, New Troy, Michigan ; T. D. Bentley, Phila- 
delphia, Pennsylvania; Erasmus Scarritt, North Creek, New York; 
Stephen Howell, Franklin, Tennessee ; Jasper N. Hall, Jacksonville, 
Oregon. 



396 Our Knapsack. 

No Mii.riARY history is complete that does not make mention of the 
women of the war. The history of the work of love and devotion of 
the mothers, wives, sisters and sweethearts never can be written I 
We can only get a glimpse of it; for who can tell of their anxiety or 
of the many weary and wakeful nights as they watched and i)rayed 
for their loved ones, many of whom were never to return. The ten- 
der, sad memories of the war, speak to all more elo(|uentlv than can 
be written on the page of history, as they sweetly and pathetically 
remind us how the mothers and women of the land, touched by the 
fires of patriotism, bade their sons gird on the armor of their country ; 
how, through the long and bitter years of the war, their faith was 
unbroken and their loyalty was firm; and how, when the dear ones 
were borne home cold and lifeless, they, like the .Spartan mothers, 
" thanked (Jod that their boys had died that their country might live." 

•' The wife who girds her husl)aiKl\ sword, 

'.Mitl Utile ones who weep and wonder. 
And l)ravely s]ieaks the cheering word — 

What though her heart be rent asunder ! 
Doomed nightly in her dreams to liear 

'I'he bolls of death around him rattle, 
Hath shed as sacred blood as e'er 

Was jioured upon a field of battle! 

"The mother who conceals her grief 

Wliiie to her breast her son she presses, 
Then breathes a few ]>rave words and brief. 

Kissing the patriot brow she blesses, 
With no one but her secret Ood 

To know the pain that weighs upon her, 
Sheds holy blood as e'er the sod / 

Received on Freedom's field of honor!" 

The record of the war is not complete without the history is written 
of the part borne by our loyal women. How much we owe to their 
love, care and encouragement for all we have achieved ; and how we 
strive in all the laudable ambitions of life to win their smiles of 
approval. 



MARCHES AND BATTLES. 

Believing that not only soldiers, but the general reader, after hav- 
ing |)erused this brief history, would be interested in the "maxims of 
war " which govern the movements of an army in the field, I have 
carefully compiled, from the Army Regulations and the best military 
authorities, this short chapter on marches and battles. 

MARCHES. 

The object of the movement and the nature of the ground deter- 
mine the order of march, the kind of troops in each column, and the 
number of columns. 



Our Knapsack. 397 



The "general," sounded one hour before the time of marching, is 
the signal to strike tents, to load the wagons and pack-horses, and 
send them to the place of assembling. The fires are then put out, 
and care taken to avoid burning straw, etc., or giving to the enemy 
any other indication of the movement. 

The " march " will be beat in the infantry, and the " advance " 
sounded in the cavalry, in succession, as each is to take its place in 
the column. 

When the army should form suddenly to meet the enemy, the 
"long roll " is beat and "to horse " sounded. The troops form rap- 
idly in front of their camp. 

Batteries of artillery and their caissons move with the corps to 
which they are attached ; the field train and ambulances march at 
the rear of the column, and the baggage with the rear guard. 

In cavalry marches, when distant from the enemy, each regiment, 
and, if possible, each squadron, forms a separate column, in order 
to keep up the same gait from front to rear, and to trot, when 
desirable, on good ground. In such cases, the cavalry may leave 
camp later, and can give more rest to the horses and more attention 
to the shoeing and harness. Horses are not bridled until time to 
start. 

The execution of marching orders must not be delayed. If the 
commander is not at the head of his troops when they are to march, 
the next in rank puts the column in motion. 

In night marches, the Sergeant Major of each regiment remains at 
the rear with a drummer, to give notice when darkness or difficulty 
stops the march. In cavalry, a trumpeter is placed in rear of each 
squadron, and the signal repeated to the head of the regiment. 

In approaching a defile, the Colonels are warned ; they close their 
regiments as they come up (each regiment passes separately, at an 
accelerated pace, and in as close order as possible). The leading 
regiment, having passed and left room for the whole column in close 
order, then halts, and moves again as soon as the last regiment is 
through. In the cavalry, each squadron, before ^luickening the pace 
to rejoin the column, takes its original order of march. 

If two corps meet on the same road, they pass to the right, and 
both continue their march if the road is wide enough ; if it is not, 
the first in the order of battle takes the road ; the other halts. 

A column that halts to let another column pass resumes the march 
in advance of the train of this column. If a column has to pass a 
train, the train must halt, if necessary, till the column passes. The 
column which has precedence must yield if the commander, on seeing 
the order of the other, finds it for the interest of the service. 

On a road, marching by the flank, it would be considered " good 
order" to have 5,000 men to a mile, so that a full corps of 30,000 
men would extend six miles ; but with the average trains and batteries 
of artillery the probabilities are that it would draw out to ten miles. 
On a long and regular march the divisions and brigades should alter- 
nate in the lead ; the leading divisions should be on the road by the 



39^^ Our Knapsack. 

earliest dawn, aiul inan;li at the rati; of two miles, or, at most, two 
and a half miles, an hour, so as to reach tramp hy ikxju. Even then 
the rear division and trains will hardly reach camp much before 
night. Theoretically, a marching column should preserve such order 
that by simply halting and facing to the right or left it would be in 
line of battle; but this is rarely the case, and generally dejiloyments 
are made " forward," l)y conducting each brigade by the flank 
oblii|uely to the right or left to its ajjproximate position in line of 
battle, and there deployed. In such a line of battle a brigade of 
3,000 infantry woidd occujiy a mile of " front; " but, for a strong line 
of battle, 5,000 men, with two batteries, should be allowed to each 
mile, or a division would habitually constitute a double line with 
skirmishers and a reserve on a mile of "front." 



Dispositions for battle depend on the number, kind and tpiality of 
the troops o[)|)Osed, on the ground, and on the objects of the war; 
but the following rules are to be observed generally : 

In attacking, the advance guard endeavors to capture the enemy's 
outposts, or cut them off from the main body. Having done so, or 
driven them in, it occupies, in advancing, all the points that can 
cover or facilitate the march of the army or secure its retreat, such 
as bridges, defiles, woods and heights ; it then makes attack, to 
occupy the enemy without risking too much, and to deceive them as 
to the march and projects of the army. 

When the enemy is hidden by a curtain of advanced troops, the 
commandant of the advanced guard sends scouts, under intelligent 
officers, to the right and left, to ascertain his position and movements. 
If he does not succeed in this way, he tries to unmask the enemy by 
demonstrations; threatens to cut the advance from the main body; 
makes false attacks ; partial and impetuous charges in echelon ; and, 
if all fail, he makes a real attack to accomplish the object. 

Detachments left by the advance guard to hold points in the rear 
rejoin it when other troops come up. If the army takes a position, 
and the advanced guard is separated from it by defiles or heights, the 
communication is secured by troops drawn from the main body. 

At proper distance from the enemy the troops are formed for the 
attack in several lines: if only two can be formed, some battalions 
in columns are placed behind the wings of the second line. The 
lines may be formed by troops in column or in order of battle, ac- 
cording to the ground and plan of attack. 

The advanced guard may be put in the line or on the wings, or 
other positions, to aid the pursuit or cover the retreat. 

The reserve is formed of the best troops of foot and horse, to com- 
plete a victory or make good a retreat. It is placed in the rear of 
the central or chief point of attack or defense. 

The cavalry should be distributed in echelon on tlie wings and at 
the center, on favorable ground. 

It should be instructed not to take the gallop until within charging 



Our Knapsack. 399 

distance ; never to receive a charge at a halt, but to meet it, or, if 
not strong enough, to retire maneuvering; and, in order to be ready 
for the pursuit, and prepared against a reverse or the attacks of the 
reserve, not to engage all its squadrons at once, but to reserve one- 
third, in column or in echelon, abreast of or in the rear of one of the 
wings; this arrangement is better than a second line with intervals. 

In the attack, the artillery is employed to silence the batteries that 
protect the position. In the defense, it is better to direct its fire on 
the advancing troops. In either case, as many pieces are united as 
possible, the fire of the artillery being formidable in proportion to 
concentration. 

In battles and military operations it is better to assume the offen- 
sive, and put the enemy on the defensive; but to be safe in doing so 
requires a larger force than the enemy, or better troops and favorable 
ground. When obliged to act on the defensive, the advantage of 
position and of making the attack may sometimes be secured by 
forming in rear of the ground on which we are to fight, and advancing 
at the moment of action. In mountain warfare the assailant has 
always the disadvantage ; and even in offensive warfare in the open 
field it may frequently be very important, when the artillery is well 
posted, and any advantage of ground may be secured, to await the 
enemy and compel him to attack. 

The attack should be made with a superior force on the decisive 
point of the enemy's position by masking this by false attacks and 
demonstrations on other points, and by concealing the troops intended 
for it by the ground, or by other troops in their front. 



Hkadi^iuauteks FiirRTp:ENTH Army (Oki's, ■> 

W.VSHI.NGTON, D. C.,Jll/lc' 1 5, 1865. i 
Gk.nkkai. OKnEK.S, I 
Nu. 17. I 

Soiclicrs of the Fourteenth Army Corps : 

Since he assumed command of the C<J|■])^, your General has hceii many occa- 
sions when lie was proud of your endurance, your courage and your achieve- 
ments. 

If he ditl not praise you then it was because your labors and triumphs were 
incomplete. Whilst the enemies of your country still dehed you, whilst hard- 
ships and dangers were yet to be encountered and overcome, it seemed to him 
premature to indulge in unnecessary praise of deeds being enacted, or to rest 
u]ion laurals already won. Hut now, when the battle and the march are ended 
and the victory yours; when many of you are about to return to your homes, 
where the sounds of the hostile cann<jn — now silenced, let us trust, forever in 
our land — will soon be forgotten amidst the welcoming plaudits of friends; 
when the heavy armor of the soldier is being exchanged for the civic \\ reaths of 



400 Our Knapsack. 

peace, lie ileems ii a liappy occasion lo congralulatc yoil u|ion ihc pari which 
you have borne in common with yovir comrades of the armies of the Union in 
llie mi};lity Ntruyyle for tlic maintenance of the unity and integrity of your 
country. N ou will join heartily in the general rejoicing over tlie grand result 
anil the termination of the Nation's iieril. While the country is welcoming her 
defenders home, and their noble deeds arc being commemorated, you will ever 
remember with proud satisfaction that ai < hickamauga yours were the invincible 
battalions with which the unyielding Thomas hurled back the overwhelming foe 
and saved the day; that at Mission Kidge you helped, with your brothers of the 
Armies of the Cumberland and of the Tennessee, to plant the banners of your 
C(nintry once more on the cloud clad heights of Chattanooga; that at Jonesboro, 
your resistless charge decreed the (inal fate of proud Atlanta; that at Benton- 
ville you for hours defied the frenzied and determined efforts of the rebel hosts 
to crush serialim the columns of the victorious Sherman, ^'ears hence, in the 
happy enjoyment of the peace and prosperity of your country, whose preserva- 
tion your valor on many hard fought fields secured, it will be among your proudest 
boasts that you fought with Thomas and marched with Sherman from the moun- 
tains to the sea ; that you toiled and skirmished in mid-winter through the swamps 
of Georgia and the Carolinas ; that after years of bloody contest you witnessed 
the surrender of one of the enemy's proudest armies, no longer able to withstand 
your irresistible pursuit. 

Now the danger is jiasi ami llie victory won, many of you turn homeward. 
Let the same generous spirit, the same pure patriotism, that prompted your entry 
into your country's service be cherished by you, never forgetting t