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fflaterialien w 

des alteren Englisehen Dramas 


J. Q.Adams, Jr. -ITHACA, F. S. Boas-Loxoox, A. Brandl-BiCRLix, R. Brotanek- 
PRAG, F. I. Carpenter-CiiiCAOO, Ch. Crawford-LoNDON, G. B. Churchill- 
AMHERST, W. Creizejiach-KRAKAU, H. de Vocht-LouvAiN, E. Eckhardt-pREi- 
BURG I. B., A. Feuillerat-RENNES, R. Fischer-IxxsBRUCK, W. W. Greg-LoNDON, 

F. Holthausen-KiEL, J. Hoops-HniDELBERG, W. Keller-MuNSTER, R. B. Me 
Kerrow-LoxDON, G. L. Kittredge-CAMBRiDGE, MASS., E. Koeppel-StRASSBURG, 
J. Le Gay Brereton-SiDXEY, H. Logeman-GENT, J. M. Manly-CniCAGO, 

G. Sarrazin-BRESLAU, t ^- Proescholdt-FRiEDRiciiSDORF, A. Schroer-CoLX, 
G. C. Moore Smith-SHEFFIELD, G. Gregory Smith-BELFAST, A. E. H. Swaen- 
AMSTERDAM, A. H. Thorndike-NEW-YoRK, t A. Wagner-HALLE A. S. 



o. o. Professor der Englisehen Philologie an dor Universitat Louvain 

BAND XXVIII : Everyman, reprinted by W. W. Greg- from the frag 
ments of two editions by Fynson, preserved in the Bodleian Library 
and the British Museum together with critical apparatus. 








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Materialien zur Kunde 

alteren Englischen Dramas 

7 flaterialien zur Kunde 

des alteren Englisehen Dramas 


F. S. Boas-LosDON, A. Brandl-BF.RUX, R. Brotanek-PRAG, F. I. Carpenter- 
CIIICAGO. Ch. Crawford-LoxnoN. G. B. Churchill-AMHERST. W. Creizenach, 
KRAK.VU, E. Eckhardt-FRniBURG I. B., A. Feuillerat-RtNNKS, R. Fischer- 
Innsbruck, W.W. Greg-LoxDON, F. Holthausen-KiEL, J. Hoops-HfiDELBERG- 
W. Keller-MiiNSTER, R. B. Me Kerrow- LONDON, G. L. Kittredge-CAMBRiDGE, 
MASS., E. Koeppel-SlRASSBURG, J. Le Gay Brereton-SlDNEY, H. Logeman- 
GENT, J. M. Manly-CniCAOO, G. Sarrazin-IiRESLAU, t L. Proescholdt-FRiED- 
RICHSPORF, A. Schroer-CoLN, G. C. Moore Smith-SiiKFKiEi-D, G. Gregory 
Smith-BELFAST, A. E. H. Swaen-GROMNGEN, A. H. Thorndike-NE\v-YoRK, 
{A. Wagner-HALLE A. S. 





o. 6. Professor der Englischen Philologie an der Universitat Louvain 







W. W. Ureg 











The work on the text of Everyman undertaken in 1904 
is now complete. Reprints of the two Skot editions form 
volumes four and twenty four of the Materialien. The 
present issue includes reprints of the two fragmentary 
Pynson editions, together w r ith critical apparatus. 


Among the Douce fragments at the Bodleian Library 
are four leaves forming sheet C of an edition of Everyman 
from the press of Richard Pynson. They have apparently 
been rescued from a binding and are much stained and 
torn, the top six lines of each page, moreover, have been 
bodily cut away. The type is the same in respect to size 
and character as that used in Skot's editions. There is one 
signature (G 1) but no catchwords, nor does any signature- 
title appear in the portion preserved. There are normally 
31 lines to a full page, against 32 in Skot's editions, the 
result being that the text, instead of ending on the recto 
of the last leaf, fills most of the verso as well, only leaving 
room for a three-line colophon at the foot. In the reprint 
an attempt has been made to indicate as exactly as possible 
the present state of the original. The mutilations are.shown 
by brackets, and no letter has been printed outside the 
brackets of which sufficient trace does not remain to 
render its identity certain apart from the context. Of the 
letters printed within the brackets, some trace is to be 


seen in the original, but not sufficient for identification 
without reference to the sense or to another edition. 
Where no trace remains a blank has been left in the 
reprint. The original has been mended with rather yellow 
tracing paper, with the result that the photographic fac 
simile of the last page here given is in parts less legible 
than the original. 


An imperfect copy of an other edition from Pynson's 
press is preserved among the Garrick plays at the British 
Museum It evidently once had the collation A 6 B C G 4 , but 
the last two gatherings are alone extant. It is printed in 
the same type as the Bodleian fragment, with which it 
agrees page for page, but it differs alike from that and all 
other known editions in having the speakers' names in 
smaller type than the text. In the presence of signatures 
and signature-titles, and the absence of catch-words, 
running-titles and pagination, it agrees with Skot's edi 
tions. The type-page (including signatures and speakers' 
names) measures 147 x 109 mm. The fragment has been 
interleaved and collated with the copy now at Britwell. 
In this edition the Latin phrases are printed in roman 
type to distinguish them from the English text, which is, 
of course, in black letter. In the reprint they have been 
rendered in italic, but the original arrangement can be 
seen in the facsimile. 




680 [ 

I desyre] no more to my besynes 

C And I strength wyll by you stande in distres [st]ren[ 

GS5 Though Ihou wold in batayll fyght on [y] groude 

] And though it were thorowe the world rounde v. wy[ 

111 not departe for swete ne for soure 
] more wyll I vnto dethes houre Bea[ 

hat] so euer therof befall 
G90 C Euery man aduyse you firste of all discr[ 

Go with a good aduysernent and lyberacion 

We all gyue you vertuous monyssion 

That all shall be well 

C My frendes harke what I wyll tell euery[ 

695 I praye god rewarde you in this heuenly spere 

Nowe herken all that be here 

For I wyll make my testament 

Here before you all present 

In almes half my good I wyll gyue w* my hodes 
700 In y way of charite w* gode intent (twayne 

And the other halfe sty 11 shall remayne 

I it be quethe to be returned there it ought to be 

This I do in desspyte of the fende of hell 

To go quyte oute of his perell 
705 Eeuer after and this daye 

C Euery man herken what I saye knowt 

Go to preesthode I you aduyse 



710 [ 


That of god hath comyssyon 
715 As hath the lest preest in the worlde heynge 

For of [th ] hlessyd sacramentes pure and benygne 
He bereth the keyes and therof hath cure 
For manes redempcion it is euer sure 
Whiche god for our soules medesyne 
720 Gaue vs out of his herte with grete payne 
Here in this transytorye lyfe for the and me 
The blyssed sacramentes .vij. there be 
Baptyrne confirmation with preesthode good 
And y sacrament of godes precious flesshe & blood 
725 Maryage the holy extreme vnccyon and penauce 
These .vij. be good to haue in remembraunce 
Gracious sacramentes of hye deuynyte 

]y ma C Fayne wolde I receyue that holy body 
And mekely to my gostely fader I wyll go 

]yttes C Euery man that is the best that ye can do 
God wyll you to saluacion brynge 
For preesthode excedeth all other thynge 
To vs holy scriptue they do teche 
And conuerteth man fro synne heuen to reche 
735 God hath to them more power g[y]uen 
Than to ony aungell that is in heuen 
With .v. wordes he may concecrate 
Goddes body in flesshe and blode to take 


740 [ 

745 No remedy may we fynde vnder god 

Bat alone on preesth^de 

Euery man god gaue preest that dygriy[ 
Jd letteth them in his stede amonge vs be 

e] they aboue aungels in degree 

750 prjeestes be good it is so suerly kno[ 

Jut wha Ihesu henge on y crosse w* grete smart[e 

There gaue he vs out of his blessyd herte 

The same sacrament in grete torment 

He helde them not to that lorde omnypotent 
755 Therfore saynt peter the apostyll do say 

That Ihesus curse hath all they 

Whiche god theyr sauyoure do bye or sell 

Or they for ony money do take or tell 

Synfull preestes geueth the synners example bad 
760 Their children sitteth by othermens fyres I haue 

And some haunteth womens company. (herde 

With vnelene lyfe as lustes of lechery 

These be with synne made blynde 

C I truste to god no suche maye we fynde v. w[y 

765 Therfore lette vs preesthode honoure 

And folowe th[e]yr doctryne for ours soules socker 

We be theyr she[e]pe and they shepherdes be 

By whom we all be kepte in suerte 

Passe for yonder I se euery man come 

770 [ 

775 [B 

And nowe fredes let vs go without lenger respy[te 
I thanke god that ye haue taryed so longe 
Nowe [s jeche of you on this rodde his honde 
And shortly folowe me 

rt I go before there I wolde be 
780 , u 

God be our guyde 

]gth. C Euery man we wyll not fro you go 

Tyll ye haue gone this vyage longe 
lecon C I discrecion wyll byde by you also 
w]leg C And though this pilgrimage be neuer so stroge 
785 I wyll neuer parte you fro 

Euery man I wyll be as sure by the 

As euer I dyde by ludas maohabee 
]y ma C Alas I am so faynt I may not stonde 

My lymmes vnder me do folde 
790 Frerides let vs not turne agayne to this londe 

Not for all the worldes golde 

For in to this caue muste I crepe 
Jutye And torne to the erthe and there to slepe 
]y ma IE What in to this graue alas 
]utye C ye there shall ye consume more and lesse 
]y ma C And what sholde I smoder her 

C ye by my fay and neuer more appere 

In this worlde lyue no more we shall 

But in heuen before the hyest lorde o 

800 [ 

805 [ [euer| 

Beaute gothe faste awaye and hye 

She promysed with me to Jyue and dye 

C] Euery man I wyll the also forsake an[ dlenye stren[ 

y] game lyketh me not at all 

810 ]y than ye wyll forsake me all euery[ 

] strength tary a lytell space 

C Nay syr by the rode of grace [stjre[n 

I wyll hye me fro the faste 

Though thou wepe tyll thy herte to braste 
815 C ye wolde euer byde by me ye sayd euery[ 

C ye I haue you ferre ynough conueyd streng[ 

ye be olde ynough I vnderstonde 

your pylgrymage to take on honde 

I repente me that I hether came 
820 C Strength you to displease I am to blame euery[ 

Wyll ye breke promyse that is dette 

C In faythe I care not streng[ 

Thou arte but a foole to complayne 

you sp[en]de your speche and waste your brayne 
825 Go thirste the in to the grounde 

C I had went surer I sholde you haue founde eu[ ]ry[ 

He that trustet[h] in his strength 

She hym deceyueth at the length 

Both strength and beaute forsaketh me 
830 yet they promysed me fayre and louyngly 


835 [ 

[I folowe a 
] ma C yet I praye the for the loue of the trinyte 

Loke in my graue ones petyously 
Jecon C Nay [s ]nye I wyll not come 

840 Forwell euerychone 
]y ma CO all thynge fayleth saue god alone 
Beaute strength and discrecion 
For whan deth bloweth bis blaste 
They all ronne fro me faste 
jyttes C Euery man of the nowe my leue I take 

I wyll folowe the other for here I the forsake 
]y ma C Alas than may I wayle and wepe 
For I take you for my beste frende 
lyttes C I wyll no lenger the kepe 

850 Nowe forwell and there an ende 
r]y ma C Ihesu helpe all hath forsaken me 
Jededf C Nay euery man I wyll byde with the 
I wyll not forsake the in dede 
Thou shalte fynde me a good frende at nede 
]y ma C Gramercy good dedf now may I true [frejdes se 
They haue forsake me euerychone 
I loued them better than my good dedes alone 
Knowlege wyll ye forsake me also 
o]wleg C ye euery man whan you to deth do go 

860 But not yet for no maner of daunger 
]ry ma C Gramercy knowlege with all my herte 


865 [ 

Howe they that I loued best do forsake me 

Excepte my good dedes that bydeth truely 
870 C All erthly thynges is but vanyte go[d 

Beaute strength and discrecion do man forsake 

Folysshe frendes and kynnes men that fayre spake 

All fleeth saue good dedes and that am I 

C Haue mercy on me god moste myghty [eue 

875 And stande by me thou moder & mayde holy mary 

C Fere not I wyll speke for the god[ 

C Here I crye god mercy eue[r 

C Shorte oure ende and mynysshe our payne god[ 

Lete vs go and neuer come agayne 
880 C In to thy handes lordes my soule I comende eue[r 

Receyue it lorde that it be not loste 

As thou me broughtest so me defende 

And saue me fro the fendes boste 

That I may appere with that blessyd hoste 
885 That shall be saued at the dome 

In m[a]nus tuas of myghtes moste 

For euer comendo spiritum meum 

C Nowe hath he suffered that we shall endure kno[ 

The good de[de]s shall make all sure 
890 Nowe hath he made endynge 

Me thynke that I here aungels synge 

And maketh grete ioye and melodye 

Where euery mannes soule shall receyued be 



895 [ 

900 Vnto the whiche all ye shall come 

That lyueth well after the daye of dome 

Jure C This[ mjemoryall men maye haue in mynde 
ye herers take it aworthe olde and yonge 
And forsake pryde for he deceyues you in the ende 

905 And remebre beaute .v. wyttf strength & discrecion 
They all at last do euery man forsake 
Saue his good dedes there do he take 
But beware for and they be small 
Before god he hathe no helpe at all 

910 None excuse rmiy be there for euery man 
Alas howe shall he do than 
For after deth amendes may no man make 
For than mercy and pyte dothe hym forsake 
If his rekenynge be not clere whan he do come 

915 God wyll say ite maledicti in ignem eternum. 
And he that hath his accounte hole and sounde 
Hye in heuen he shall be crounde 
Vnto whiche please god brynge vs all thether 
That we may lyue body and soule togyder 

920 Therto helpe the trinyte 

Amen saye ye for saynt charyte. 

C Finis. 

C Imprynted at London in Fletestrete at the 
Sygne of the George by Rycharde Pynson / 
prynter vnto the Kyngf noble grace. 




305 Lo felowshyp forsaketh me in my moost nede 

For helpe in this worlde / whither shall I resorte 

Felowshyp here before with me / wolde mery make 

And nowe lytell sorowe for me doth he take 

It is sayd / in prosperite men frendes may fynde 
310 Whiche in aduersite be full vnkynde 

Nowe whither for socour shall I flye 

Syth that felowshyp hath forsake me 

To my kynnes men I wyll trewely 

Prayeng them to helpe in my necessite 
315 I beleue that they will do so 

For kynde wyll crepe where it may nat go 

I will go say / for yonder I se them go 

Where be you nowe my frendes & kynnes men. 

C Here we be nowe / at your comaundement Kynrede. 

320 Gosyn I pray you shewe vs your entent 

In anywise and nat spare. 

C ye Euery man and to vs declare Cosyn. 

If ye be disposed to go any whether 

For wete you well / we will lyue and dye togider. 
325 C In welthe and wo / we will with you holde Kynrede. 

For ouer his kyn a man may be to bolde. 

C Gramercy my frendes & kinnes men kynde euery man. 

Nowe shall I shewe you the grefe of my mynde 

I was commaunded by a messangere 
330 That is a hye kynges officere 

He bad me go on pilgrymage to my payne 

And I knowe well I shall neuer come agayne 

Also I must gyue rekening stray te 

For I haue a great enemy / that hath me in wayte 
335 whiche entendeth me for to hynder. 

Euery man. B 


Kjnrede. C What a counte is that whiche ye must rendre 

That wolde I knowe. 
euerj man. E Of all my werkes I must shewe 

Howe I haue lyued / and my dayes spent 
340 Also of yll dedes that I haue vsed 

In my tyme syth lyfe was me lent 

And of all vertues that I haue refused 

Therfore I pray you go thether with me 

To helpe to make myne accoute for saynt charite 
Cosyn. C What to go thether / is that the mater 

Nay Euery man / 1 had leuer fast brede & water 

All this fyue yere and more 
euery man. C Alas that euer I was bore 

For nowe shall I neuer be mery 
350 If that you forsake me. 
Kynrede. C Ah syr / what ye be a mery man 

Take good hert to you / and make no mone 

But one thynge I warne you by saynt Anne 

As for me ye shall go alone 
euery man. C My cosyn will nat with me go. 
Cosyn. E No by our lady / 1 haue the crampe in my too 

Trust nat to me / for so god me spede 

I will disceyue you in your moost nede. 
Kynrede. C It auayleth you nat vs to tyse 

360 ye shall haue my mayde withall my herte 

She loueth to go to feestes there to be nyse 

For to daunce and abrode to sterte 

I wyll gyue her leaue to helpe you in that iournay 

If that you and she may agre. 
euery man. C Nowe shewe me the very effecte of your mynde 

Will you go with me / or byde behynde 



C Byde behinde. ye that will I and I may Kjnrede. 

Therfore farewell tyll another day. 

C Howe shulde'I be mery or gladde euery man. 

370 For feare promesse men to me make 

But whan I haue moost nede / they me forsake 

I am disceyued / that maketh me sadde. 

E Gosyn Euery man / farewell as nowe Cosyn. 

For verely I will nat go with you 
375 Also of myne owne lyfe an vnredy rekeninge 

I haue to counte / therfore I make taryeng 

Nowe god kepe the for nowe I go. 

C Ah lesu is all come hereto euery man. 

Lo fayre wordes make foles fayne 
380 They promes moche / & nothing will do certayne 

My kynnes men promised me faythfully 

For to abyde with me stedfastly 

And nowe fast away do they flye 

Euen so Felowshyp promised rne 
385 What frende were best me of to prouide 

I lese my tyme here lenger to byde 

yet in my mynde a thinge there is 

All my lyfe I haue loued richesse 

If that my good nowe helpe me might 
390 It wolde make my herte full lyght 

I will speke to him in this distresse 

Where arte thou my goodes and richesse. 

C Who calleth me Euery ma / what hast thou haste goodes. 

I lye here in corners trusshed and pyled nye 
395 And in chestes I am locked full fast 

Also sacked in bagges / thou maist se with thine iye 

I can nat stere / in packes lowe where I lye 
Euery man. B.ii. 


What wolde ye haue / lyghtly me say. 
euery man. C Come hyther good / in all the hast thou may 

400 For of counsayle I must desyre the 
good dedes. C Syr & ye in the wolrd haue sorowe or aduersite 

That can I helpe you to remedy shortly, 
euery man. C It is another disease that greueth me 

In this worlde it is nat / I tell the so 
405 I am sent for / another way to go 

To gyue a strayte counte generall 

Before the hyest lupyter of all 

And all my lyfe I haue had my pleasure in the 

Therfore I pray the nowe go with me 
410 For parauenture thou mayst before god almighty 

My rekenyng helpe / to clene and purifye 

For it is sayd euer amonge 

That money maketh all ryght that is wronge 
good dedes. C Nay nay / Euery man I synge another song 
415 I folowe no man in suche vyages 

For and I went with the 

Thou shuldest fare moche the worse for me 

For bycause on me / thou dyddest set thy mynde 

Thy rekenyng I haue made blotted and blynde 
420 That thyne accounte / thou can nat make trewely 

And that hast thou for my loue trewely. 
euery man. C That wolde greue me full sore 

Whan I shulde come to that ferefull answere 

Vp and let vs go thyther togyther. 
good dedes. C Nay nat so / 1 am to brotell I may nat endure 

I wyll folowe no man / one fote be ye sure, 
euery man. C Alas I haue the loued / and had great pleasure 

All my lyue dayes / on my good and treason re 


euery man. 

euery man. 

C That is to thy dampnation without leasing Goodes. 

430 For my loue is contrary / to y loue of euerlasting 

But if thou had me loued moderatly during 

As to the poore gyue parte for the loue of me 

Than shuldest thou nat in this dolour haue be 

Nor in this great sorowe and care. 
435 C Lowe nowe was I disceyued or I was ware 

And all I may wete myspending of tyme 

C What wenest thou that I am thyne. 

C I had went so. 

IE Nay Euery man I say no 
440 As for a while I was lent the 

A season thou hast had me in prosperite 

My condicion is mannes soule to kyll 

If I saue one. a thousande I do spyll 

Wenest thou that I will folowe the 
445 Nay nat fro this worlde verely. 

C I had went otherwise 

C Therfore to thy soule / good is a thefe 

For whan thou art deed this is my gyse 

Another to desceyue in the same wyse 
450 As I haue do the / and all to his soules reprefe. 

C false good / cursed may thou be euery man. 

Thou traytour to god / that hast disceyued me 

And caught me in thy snare 

C Mary thou brought thy selfe in care goodes. 

455 Wherof I am right gladde 

I must nedes laughe I can nat be sadde 

C Ah good / thou hast had long my hertely loue euerj man. 

I gaue the that / whiche shulde be the lordes aboue 

But wylt thou nat go with me in dede 
Euery man. Bail. 

euery man. 


460 I pray the trouth to say. 
Good. C No so god me spede 

Therfore farewell / and haue good day. 
euerj man. C / to whom shall I make my mone 

For to go with me that heuy iournay 
465 First Felowshyp said / he wolde with me gone 

His wordes were very plesaunt and gay 

But after warde he lelfe me alone 

Than spake I to my kinnes men all in dispayre 

And also they gaue me wordes fay re 
470 They lacked no feare speking 

But all forsoke me in the endinge 

Than went I to my goodes that I loued best 

In hope to haue foude cofort / but there had I lest 

For goodes sharply dyd me tell 
475 That he bringeth many into hell 

Than of my selfe I was a shamed 

And so I am worthy to be blamed 

Thus may I well my selfe hate 

Of whome shall I nowe counsayle take 
480 I thinke that, I shall neuer spede 

Tyll that I go to my good dede 

But alas she is so weke 

That she can nother go ne speke 

yet will I venture on her nowe 
485 My good dedes where be you. 
good dedes. C Here I lye colde on the grounde 

Thy sinnes hath me sore bounde 

That I can nat stere. 

euery man. C good dedes I stande in great feare 
490 I must you pray of counsayle 


For nowe helpe and well. 

C Euery man / 1 haue vnderstanding good dedes. 

That ye be somoned a count to make 

Before Messyas of Jerusalem kyng 
495 And you do by me y iournay with you will I take 

C Therfore I come to you my mone to make euery man. 

I pray you that ye will go with me. 

C I wolde full fayne / but I can nat stande verely. good dedes. 

C Why is there any thinge on you fall. euery man. 

500 C ye syr I may thanke you of all good dedes, 

If ye had parfitely chered me 

your boke of a count nowe full redy had be 

Loke the bokes of your workes and dedes eke 

Ase howe they lye here vnder fete 
505 To your soules heuinesse. 

C Our lorde lesus helpe me euery man. 

For one letter here I can nat se. 

C Here is a blinde rekenyng in tyme of distresse. good dedes. 

C Good dedes I pray you helpe me in this nede euery man. 

510 Or els I am for ouer dampned in dede 

Therfore. helpe me to make my rekening 

Before the redemer of all thinge 

That king is and was / and euer shall. 

C Euery man I am sory of your fall good dedes. 

515 And fayne wolde I helpe you and I were able. 

C Good dedes your cousayle I pray you gyue me euery man. 

C That shall I do verely. good dedes. 

Though that on my fete I may nat go 

I haue a syster that shall with you also 
520 Galled knowlege / whiche shall with you abyde 

To helpe you to make / that dredefull rekening 

knowlege. C Euery man / 1 will go with the & be thy guyde 
In thy moost nede to go by thy syde. 

euery C In good condicion I am nowe in euery thinge 
525 And am holy content with this good thinge 
Thanked by god my creature. 

good dedes. C And whan he hath brought you there 
Where thou shalt heale the of thy smarte 
Than go you with your rekening / & your good de 
530 For to make you ioyfull at herte (des toguyder 
Before the blessed Trinite 

euerj man. C My good dedes gramercy 
I am well content certaynly 
With your wordes swete. 

knowlege. C Nowe go we together louingly 
To confession that clensing ryuere. 

euery man. C For ioy I wepe / 1 wolde we there were 

But I pray you gyue me cognisyon 
539 Where dwelleth that holy man Confession. 

knowlege. C In the howse of saluacion 

We shall fynde him in that place 

That shall vs comfort by goddes grace 

Lo this is Confession / knele downe & aske mercy 

For he is in good conceyte with god almighty. 

euerj man. C glorious foutaine y all vnclenes doth clarify 
Wasshe fro me the spottes and vices clene 
That on me no synrie may be sene 
I come with knowlege / for my redempcion 
Repent with hert and full contricion 
550 For I am comaunded a pilgrimage to take 
And a great countes before god to make 
Nowe I pray you shryfte mother of saluacion 

Helpe hyder my good dedf / for my pitous exclama- 

C I knowe your sorowe well euery man 

555 Bycause with knowlege ye come to me 
I wyll you comfort / aswell as I can 
And a precious iewell I wyll gyue the 
Galled penaunce / voyder of aduersyte 
There with shall your body chastysed be 

560 With abstinence & perseuerauce / in goddes seruice 
Here shall ye receyue that scourge of me 
Whiche is penaunce stronge / that ye must endure 
Remembre thy sauyour was scourged for the 
With sharpe scourges / and suffred it paciently 

565 So must thou / or thou passe thy pilgrimage 
Knowlege kepe hyrn in this vyage 
And by that tyme / good dedes wyll be with the 
But in any wyse be seker of mercy 
For your tyme draweth fast / and ye wyll saued be 

570 Aske god mercy / and he wyll graunt it the 

Whan w y scourge of penauce / ma doth him bynde 
The oyle of forgyuenesse / than shall he fynde. 
C Thanked be god / for this gracious werke 
For nowe I wyll my penaunce begynne 

575 This hath me reioysed / and lyghted my herte 
Though y knottes be paynfull / & harde within. 
C Euery man / loke your penauce that ye fulfyll 
What payne that euer it to you be 
And I shall gyue you counsayle at wyll 

580 Howe your account / ye shall make clerely 
C eternall god / heuynly fygure 
way of rightwysenesse / goodly visyon 
Whiche discended downe in a virgyn pure 

(cion. Cofession. 

euery man. 


euery man. 


Bycause he wolde eucry man redeme 
585 Whiche Adam forfayted by his disobedience 
blessed godheed electe / and hye deuyne 
Forgyue me my greuous offence 
Here I crye the mercy in this presence 
goostly treasour / mercyfull redemer 
590 Of all the worlde / hope and conduiter 
Myrrour of ioy / foundacion of mercy 
Whiche illumyneth heuen and erthe therby 
Here my clamorous complaynt though it late be 
Receyue my prayers vn worthy in this heuy lyfe 
595 Though I be a synner / moost abhominable 
yet let my name be written / in Moyses table 

Mary / pray to the maker of all thinge 
Me for to helpe / at my endinge 

And saue me fro the power of my enemy 
600 For deth assayleth me strongly 

And lady / that I may by meane of thy prayer 
Of your sonnes glorie / to be partinere 
By the meane of his passion / 1 it craue 

1 beseke you helpe me my soule to saue 

G05 Knowlege / gyue me the scourge of penaunce 
My flesshe theirwith shall haue acquaintaunce 
I will nowe begynne / if god gyue me grace, 
knowlege. C Euery man / god gyue you tyme and space 

Thus I bequeth you / in y handes of our sauiour 
G10 Nowe may you make your rekening sure, 
man. C In the name of all the hole Trinite 
My body punisshed sore shalbe 
Take this body / for the synne of the flesshe 
Also thou delyted to go gay and fresshe 


G15 And in the way of dapnacion thou dyd me brynge 

Therfore suffre nowe strokes of punisshing 

No we of penaunce I wyll wade the water clere 

To saue me fro purgatory that sharpe fyre 

C I thanke god nowe / 1 can walke and go good dedes. 

620 And am deliuered of my sickenesse and wo. 

Therfore with Euery man will I go & nat spare 

His good werkes I will helpe him to declare. 

C Nowe Euery man be mery and glad knowlege. 

your good dedes cometh nowe / ye may nat be sad 
625 Nowe is your good dedes hole and sounde 

Goyng vp right on the grounde. 

C My hert is light / and shalbe euer more euery man. 

Nowe will I smyte faster than I dyd before 

C Euery man pilgrimage my speciall frende good dedes. 

630 Blessed be thou without ende 

For the is preparate the eternall glorye 

ye haue me made hole and sounde 

Therfore I will byde by the euery stounde. 

C Welcome my good dedes now / 1 here thy voice euery man. 
635 I wepe for very swetnesse of loue. 

C Be no more sad but euer reioyce knowlege. 

God seeth thy liuyng in his trone aboue 

Put on thy garment to thy behoue 

Whiche is wette with your teares 
640 Or els before god ye may it misse 

Whan ye to your iournayes ende come shall. 

C Gentill Knowlege / what do you it call euery man. 

C It is called the garment of sorowe knowlege. 

Fro paine it will you borowe 
645 Gontricion it is 


That getteth forgyuenesse 

He pleaseth god passyng well. 

good dedes. C Euery man / will ye weare it for your heale. 
euery man. C Nowe blessed be lesu Maryes sonne 
050 For nowe haue I one trewe contricio'n 

And let vs go nowe without taryeng 

Good dedes / haue we clere our rekenyng. 
good dedes. C ye in dede / 1 haue them here, 
euery man. C Than I trust we nede nat to feare 

655 Nowe fryndes / let vs nat departe atwayne. 
Kynrede. C Nay euery man / that wyll we nat certayne 
good ded*s. C yet must thou leade with the 

Thre persones of great myght 
euery man. C Who shulde they be. 
good dedes. C Discrecion and strength they hyght 

661 And thy beauty may nat byde behynde. 
knowiege. C Also ye must call to mynde 

your fyue wyttes / as for your counsaylours. 
good dedes. C you must haue them redy / at all houres. 
euery man. C Howe shall I geate them them hyder. 
Kynrede. C you must call them all togyder 

667 And they wyll here you in contynent. 
euery man. C My frendes come hyder and be present 

Discrecion / strength / my fyue wyttes and beautie 
Beautye. C Here at your wyll we be redy 

What wolde ye that we shulde do. 
good dedes. C That ye wolde with Euery man go. 

And helpe hym in his pilgrymage 
674 Aduise you / will ye w him go or nat in 'his vyage. 
Strength. C We wyll brynge hym all thyther 

To helpe and comfort him / ye may beleue me. 


C So will we go with him all together Discrecion 

C Almighty god loued may thou be euery man. 

I gyue the laude that I haue hyder brought 
680 Strength / Discrecio / Beaute & .v. wettes lacke I 

And my good dedes w knowlege clere (nought 

All be in company at my will here 

I desyre no more to my businesse. 

C And I strength will by you stande in distresse strength. 
685 Though y wolde in batayle fight on the grounde. 

C And though it were thorowe y worlde rounde v. wjttes. 

We will nat departe for swete ne for soure. 

C No more will I vnto Dethes houre Beautye. 

What so euer therof befall. 
690 C Euery man aduise you first of all Discrecion 

Go with a good aduisement and deliberacion 

We all gyue you vertuous monycion. 

That all shalbe well. 

C My frendes harke what I will you tell euery man. 

695 I pray god rewarde you in his heuenly spere 

Nowe herken all that be here 

For I will make my testament 

Here b?fore you all present 

In almesse halfe my good I gyue with my handes 
700 In y way of charite with good intent (twayne 

And the other halfe styll shall remayne 

I it bequethe to be retourned there it ought to be 

This I do in dispite of the fende of hell 

To go quyte out of his perell 
705 Euer after this day. 

C Euery man barken what I wyll say knowlege. 

Go to preesthode I you aduyse 

Euery man. C 


And receyue of him in any wyse 
The holy sacrament and oyntement toguyder 
710 Than shortly se ye tourne agayne hyder 
We will all abyde you here 

v. wyttes. C ye Euery man / hye you that ye redy were 
There is no emperour / kyng / duke ne baron 
That of god hath commissyon 
715 As hath the leest preest in the worlde beynge 
For of the blessed sacramentes pure and benigne 
He bereth the kayes / and therof hath cure 
For mannes redempcion it is euer sure 
Whiche god for our soules medicyne 
720 Gaue vs out of his herte with great payne 
Here in this transitorye lyfe for the and me 
The blessed sacramentes .vii. there be 
Baptyme / confirmation / with preesthode good 
And y sacramet of goddes precious flesshe & blode 
725 Maryage / the holy extreme vnction / & penaunce 
These .vii. be good to haue in remembraunce 
Gracious sacramentes of hye deuinyte 

euery man. C Fayne wolde I receyue that holy body 
And mekely to my goostly father I will go 

v. wyttes. C Euery man / that is the best that ye can do 
God will you to saluacion brynge 
For preesthode excedeth all other thynge 
To vs holy scripture they do teche 
And conuerteth man fro synne heuen to reche 
735 God hath to them more power gyuen 
Than to any aungell that is in heuen 
With .v. wordes he may consecrate 
Goddes body in flesshe and blode to take 


And handeleth his maker bytwene his handes 
740 The preest byndeth / and vnbyndeth all bandes 

Bothe in erthe and in heuen 

Thou minysters all the sacramentes seuen 

Though we kyst thy fete thou were worthy 

Thou arte the surgyan that cureth synne deedly 
745 No remedy may we fynde vnder god 

But alone on preesthode 

Euery man god gaue preest that dignite 

And letteth them in his stede amonge vs be 

Thus be they aboue aungels in degre. 
750 C If preestes be good it is so suerly knowlege. 

But whan lesu henge on y crosse w great smarte 

There gaue he vs out of his blessed herte 

The same sacrament in great tourment 

He helde them nat to that lorde omnipotent 
755 Therfore saynt Peter the apostell do the saye 

That lesus curse haue all they 

Whiche god their sauyour do bye or sell 

Or they for any money do take or tell 

Sinfull preestes / gyueth the sinners example bad 
760 Their children sytteth by other mens fyres I haue 

And some haunteth womens company (harde 

With vnclene lyfe / as lustes of Lechery 

These be without synne made blynde. 

C I trust to god no suche may we fynde v . wjttes. 

765 Therfore let vs preesthode honoure 

And folowe their doctrine for our soules socour 

We be their shepe / and they shephardes be 

By whom we all be kept in suerte 

Peace / for yonder I se Euery man come 
Euery man. G.ii. 


770 Whiche hath made trcwe satisfaction. 
good dedes. C Me thinke it is he in dede. 
cuerj man. C Nowe lesu he our alder spede 

I haue receyued the sacrament for my redempcion 
And myne extreme vnccion 

775 Blessed he all they that counsayled me to take it 
And nowe frendes / let vs go without leger respite 
I thanke god that ye haue taryed so longe 
Nowe set eche of you on this rodde his hande 
And shortly folowe me 
1 1 go before there I wolde be 
(God be our guyde. 
strength. C Euery man / we will nat fro you go 

Tyll ye haue gone this vyage longe. 
Discrecion C I Discrecion will byde by you also 
knowlege. C And though this pilgrimage be neuer so strong 

785 I will neuer part you fro. 
Strength. C Euery man I will be as sure by the 

As euer I was by ludas Machabe. 
euerj man. C Alas / 1 am faynt I may nat stande 

My lymmes vnder me do folde 
790 Frendes / let vs nat turne agayne to this lande 
Nat for all the woiides golde 
For in to this caue must I crepe 
And torne to the erthe and there slepe. 
Beautyp. C What in to this graue / alas 
euery man. C ye / there shall we consume more and lesse 
Beautye. C And what shulde I smoder here 
euery man. C ye be my fay / and neuer more appere 

In this worlde lyue no more we shall 
799 But in heuen before the hyest lorde of all 


C I crosse out all this / adieu by saynt Ihori Beautye. 

I take my tappe in my lappe and am gone 

C What Beaute / whether will ye. euery man. 

C Peas I am defe / 1 loke nat behinde me Beautye. 

Nat & thou wolde gyue me all y golde in thy chest 

C Alas / where to may I nowe trust euery man. 

Beaute dothe fast away hye 

He promised with me to lyue and dye. 

C Euery man I will the also forsake and denye strength. 

809 Thy game lyketh me nat at all. 

C why than ye will forsake me all euery man. 

Strength tary I pray you a lytell space 

C Nay syr by the rode of grace Strength. 

I will hye me fro the fast 

Though thou wepe tyll thy hert brast. 

C ye wolde euer haue bydde by me ye sayd euery man. 

C ye / 1 haue you ferre ynough conueyed strength. 

ye be olde ynoughe I vnderstande 

your pilgrimage to take on hande 
819 I repent me that I hether came. 

C Strength / you to displease I am to blame euery man. 

yet promise is dette / this ye well wot 

C In faythe as for that I care not. Strength. 

Thou arte but a foole to complayne 

Thou spendeth thy speche and wastest thy brayne 
825 Go trusse the into the grounde. 

L I had went surer I shulde you haue founde euery man. 

But I se well / he that trusteth in his strength 

Is greatly disceyued at the length 

For Strength and Beaute / hath forsaken me 
830 yet they promised me stedfast to be. 

Euery man. G.iii. 


Discrecion C Euery man I will after Strength begone 

As for me I will leaue you alone, 
euery man. C Why Discretion / will ye forsake me. 
Discrecion C ye in good fayth I will go fro the 
835 For whan strength is gone before 

Than I folowe after euer more, 
euery man. C yet I pray the for loue of the Trinite 

Loke in my graue and thou shalt se. 
Discrecion C Nay so nye I will nat come 

840 Nowe farewell felowes euerychone. 
euery man. C all thinge fayleth saue god alone 
Beaute / Strength / and Discrecion 
For whan Deth bloweth his blaste 
They all ronne away fro me fast, 
v. wyttes. C Euery man / of the nowe my leue I take 

I will folowe the other / for here I the forsake 
euery man. C Alas than may I bothe wayle and wepe 

For I toke you for my best frende. 
v. wyttes. C I will no lenger the kepe 

850 Nowe farewell and here an ende. 
euery man. C Nowe lesu helpe / all hath forsaken me. 
good dedes. C Nay Euery man I will a byde with the 
I will nat forsake the in dede 
Thou shalt fynde me a good frende at nede. 
euery man. C Gramercy good dedf / now may I true fredes se 
They haue forsake me euerychone 
I loued them better than my good dedes alone 
Knowlege will ye forsake me also, 
knowlege. C ye Euery man / whan you to Deth shall go 

8GO But nat yet for no maner of daungere. 
euery man. E Gramercy knowlege with all my hert 


C Nay yet I will nat fro hens departe knowlege. 

Tyll I se where ye shall become. 

C Me thinketh alas that I must begone euery man. 

865 To make my rekening / and my dettes paye 

For I se my tyme is nye spent away 

Take ensample all ye that this do here or se 

Howe they that I loued best / nowe forsake me 

Except my good dedes that bydeth trewly. 

C All erthely thinges is but vanite good dedes. 

Beaute / Strength / & Discrecion / do man forsake 

Folysshe frendes and kynnes men that fayre spake 

All flyeth saue good dedes / and that am I 

C Haue mercy on me god moost mighty euery man. 

875 And stande by me thou moder & mayde Mary. 

C Fere nat / 1 will speke for the. good dedes. 

C Here I crye god mercy. euery man. 

C Short our ende and minysshe our payne good dedes. 

Let vs go and neuer come agayne. 

C Into thy handes lordes my soule I comende euery man. 

Receyue it lorde that it be nat loste 

As thou me boughtest so me defende 

And saue me fro the fendes boste 

That I may appere with that blessed hoste 
885 That shall be saued at the day of dome 

In manus luas of mightes moost 

For euer commendo spiritum meuum. 

C Nowe hath he suffred ihat we shall endure knowlege. 

Thy good dedes shall make all sure 
890 Nowe hath he made ending 

Me thinke that I here aungels synge 

And inaketh great ioy and melody 

Where euery mannes soule shall receyued be 


the augell. C Gome excellent electo spouse to lesu 
895 Here aboue thou shalt go 

Bycause of thy singuler vertue 

Nowe thy soule is taken thy body fro 

Thy rekening is christall clere 

Nowe shalt thou into the heuynly spere 
900 Vnto the whiche all ye shall come 

That lyueth well / after the day of dome. 
Doctour. C This memoryall / men may haue in mynde 

ye herers / take it a worthe olde and yonge 

And forsake pryde / for he disceyueth you in thende 
905 And remebre beaute . v. wyttf / strength & discrecion 

They all at last do Euery man forsake 

Saue his good dedes there dothe take 

But beware / for and they be small 

Before god he hath no helpe at all 
910 None excuse may be there for Euery man 

Alas howe shall he do than 

For after deth / amendes may no man make 

For than mercy and pyte dothe him forsake 

If his rekening be nat clere whan he do come 
915 God will say. Ite maledicti in ignem eternum. 

And he that hath his account hole and sounde 

Hye in heuyn he shalbe crounde? 

Vnto whiche place / god bringe vs all thether 

That we may lyue body and soule toguyder 
920 Therto helpe the Trinite 

Amen say ye / for saynt charite. 

C Finis. 

C Imprynted at London in Fletestrete / by me 
Rycharde Pynson / prynter to the kynges 
moost noble grace. 

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After an interval for the length of which I can only apologize, I 
offer to the subscribers of the Materialien the conclusion of my labours 
upon the text of Everyman. My object in the pages that follow has not 
so much been myself to determine the relation of the editions to one 
another or to fix the readings where variants appear, as to supply 
other critics with the materials for forming their own judgements upon 
these points. My hearty thanks are due to Mr. Herbert Collmann, 
librarian to Mr. Christie-Miller, for information regarding the Britwell 
copy of the play, and to Dr. H. de Vocht for help with the Dutch text. 


Of Everyman four copies, whole or fragmentary, are known. 

A. A perfect copy of an edition printed by John Skot, now in the 
possession of Mr. S. R. Christie-Miller at Britwell Court. It once 
belonged to the Library of Lincoln Cathedral, and while still there 
was reprinted by Thomas Hawkins in his Origin of the English Drama 
(1773, vol. i, p. 33). Thence it was purchased, along with other books, 
by T. F. Dibdin, and advertised in the Lincoln Nosegay in 1814 x ) 
(Dodsley's Old English Plays, edited by W. C. Hazlitt, 1874, i. g5). It 
was apparently purchased by Earl Spencer for his library at Althorp. 
According to Mr. A. W. Pollard (Catalogue of the Huth Bequest, as below, 
p. 54) it ' passed by exchange from Lord Spencer to Heber and at the 
Heber Sale was purchased for the library at Britwell Court ', but this 
is not an altogether complete account of its wanderings, for after the 
Heber sale in 1834-7 it appeared in that of Thomas Jolley's collection 
in 1844 and still contains his book-plate 2 ). This ' Britwell ' copy was 
reprinted in vol. 4 of the Materialien (1904). 

*) The copy still bears the inscription ' Lincoln Nosegay N 6 '. 

2 ) Sale Catalogues, (i) Richard Heber. At Evans' sale-rooms. Part viii. 
i836, Feb. 29 and following days. No. 2365. At the end of the description is 
the note : ' There were at least two editions of this Moral Play, both printed 
by Scott, the main difference is, that one is without a colophon, but has 
six of the dram. pers. in a wood cut at the back of the title. A copy with 
these distinctive marks was sold among Mr. Caldecott's books '. The copy 
fetched 32, being bought by Thorpe. 

(ii) Thomas Jolle-y. At Sotheby's sale-rooms. Part iii. 1844, March i5 and 
following days. No. 466. Appended is a note : ' A ropy ot the second edi 
tion in Mr. Caldecot's [sirj sale for 32.. 10.. o. Another copy of that edition 
is in the Salisbury Cathedral Library ; but of this I know of no other '. 
It again fell to Thorpe for 3a. 

B. A perfect copy of another edition by John Skot, till recently in 
the possession of Mr. A. H. Huth, now in the British Museum. Des 
cribed by Mr. A. W. Pollard in the official Catalogue of the Fifty 
Manuscripts and Printed Books bequeathed to the British Museum by Alfred 
H. Huth, 1912, p. 53. Formerly in the possession of Thomas Caldecott 
and subsequently of George Daniel, who acquired it in 1834, and after 
whose death in 1864 it passed to Henry Huth ') This ' Huth' copy 
was reprinted as vol. 24 of the Matet ialien (1909) at a time before it had 
become the property of the nation 2 ). 

*) Sale Catalogues, (i) Thomas Caldecott. At Sotheby's sale-rooms. i833, 
Dec. 9 and following days. No. 1462- Appended is a note : ' This appears to 
be a totally different edition to that mentioned in Dibdin's Typographical 
Antiquities, vol. 3, p. 79, as being in the Library of Lincoln Cathedral. It 
consists of the same member of leaves, but has no colophon; and the 
signatures run thus : A6, B6, and D4 ; the other running A4, B8, and C4- 
Dr. Dibdin does not mention the six figures engraved in wood, representing 
the Dramatis Persons, which occur in this edition on the reverse of the 
title '. The copy was bought by Thorpe for 32. 10. 

(ii) George Daniel. At Sotheby's sale-rooms. 1864, July 20 and following 
days. No. 798. Appended is a note : ' In addition to a large woodcut on the 
title there are six curious cuts on wood of the Dramatis Personae not found 
in the only other edition. This most precious volume is from the celebrated 
collection of the late Mr. Caldecott '. It fell to Lilly for 74. n. 

2 ) Great trouble has been caused by a statement to the effect that a second 
copy of this edition exists in the library of Salisbury Cathedral. I have not 
been able to trace this statement back further than the sale catalogue of 
Thomas Jolloy's collection, as quoted in a previous note, and I do not know 
who was responsible for the description there given. The assertion was 
not based on any information in the book itself. The statement gained 
currency through W. C. Hazlitt's Handbook (1867, p. 463) and has been often 
repeated, among others by Dr. Logemann, who, though unable to find the 
copy for his edition of the play (Ghent, 1892, p. viii), has k no doubt that it 
will turn up again'. 1 hardly think that his confidence is justified. The 
evidence for the existence of such a copy is too slight, being indeed 
nothing but the unsupported assertion of the Jolley sale catalogue. 
Dr. Logemann, indeed, implies that Hawkins knew the Salisbury copy. 
He says that Hazlitt's ' references to Skot's other ed. are those to the Salis 
bury copy as used by Hawkins '. But here he is in error. Hawkins makes 
no mention, and shows no knowledge, of any but the Lincoln (Britwell) 
copy. Moreover, Hazlitt (Dodsley, i. 97) explicitly states that ' Hawkins 
was not aware that Skot printed the piece more than once '. Hazlitt usually 
follows the Huth text. Where he notes that ' Skot's other edition, used by 
Hawkins, reads ' so and so, he means : Skot's other edition, that used by 

In reply to inquiries I received the following letter : 

The Close, Salisbury. 6 Jany. 1910. 
My dear Sir, 

There is no copy of ' Ever}'man ' in the Salisbury Cathedral Librafy. I 
am very glad to have the opportunity of putting the fact upon record, as 


C. A fragment, consisting of portions of the last four leaves (signa 
ture C) only, of an edition printed by Richard Pynson, preserved 
among the fragments bequeathed in 1884 by Francis Douce to the 
Bodleian Library, Oxford. It was evidently recovered out of the bind 
ing of a book, and is much torn and stained. This ' Douce ' copy is 
reprinted in the present volume of the Materialicn (p. 3). 

D. An imperfect copy, wanting the first six leaves (signature A), of 
another edition printed by Richard Pynson, preserved in the British 
Museum. This copy has been interleaved and collated with the Brit- 
well copy at a time when this was still at Lincoln, that is, not later 
than 1814. According to the British Museum catalogue of English 
books to 1640, the notes are by William Herbert, but this does not 
appear to be altogether certain. I have not been able to discover the 
history of the copy. The absence of any date-stamp proves that it was 
in the Museum before 1840. On the back is a monogram of the letters 
D and G. But it does not form part of the collection of plays 
bequeathed to the Museum by David Garrick '), while the date of 
acquisition excludes the possibility of its having come from George 
Daniel's sale. This ' Museum' copy is also reprinted in the present 
volume, p. i3. 

The fact that the four copies that survive belong to four different 
editions raises a presumption that the number of editions printed was 
considerable 2 ). No copy is dated nor is it possible to assign very close 

people come to me wanting to see the book and are annoyed when they are 
told it is not here ; how the statement originated I cannot make out. 

Yours faithfully 

A. R. Maiden 
W. W. Greg Esq. Librarian. 

This should, I think, settle the matter. How the story arose I do not know 
either. It is natural to assume that there has somehow been confusion 
between the two Skot editions and the two Cathedral Libraries of Salis 
bury and Lincoln. Nevertheless, it is only right to remember that we know 
nothing of the history oi the Huth copy previous to its appearance in the 
Caldecott sale. 

*) As is erroneously stated in the Introductory note to the present volume 
(p. vi) which was printed several years ago. 

2 ) I have to thank my friend Mr. J. E. Littlewood, mathematical lecturer 
at Trinity College, Cambridge, for some interesting information ou this 
point. It is obvious that, if no more than four editions were printed, it is 
very unlikely that, of four surviving copies, each should belong to a dif 
ferent edition (in point of fact the chance is only 3/32 or about i in n), and 
that as the number of editions printed increases so does the probability of 
such an occurrence. There must therefore be a point (a particular number 
of editions) at which, the chance approximate most nearly to 1/2. This 
number is 10, for which the actual chance is 1/2 -\- i/zSo. Ten, therefore, is 
the smallest number of editions which makes the actually occurring arrange 
ment as likely as not to occur. 


limits for the printing of any of them. Skot was working from i52i to 
iSSy. The device which appears in the Britwell copy is not known to 
have been used before c. i53o, but this is merely negative evidence. 
Again Skot is only known to have printed in Paul's Churchyard in 
i528-g, but he may have done so any time after 1 522 and before i53j. 
The Huth copy has no address : it bears a device, which, in the state in 
which it there appears (with his monogram on the shield), Skot is not 
known to have used earlier than c. i53o, though he may have done so 
at any date after i522. Pynson was at work from c. 1491 to i528. Both 
the Douce and Museum copies contain his colophon as king's printer 
living in Fleetstreet. The address, however, only fixes the date as i5oo 
or later, the title as after May i5o8. Thus Skot's editions can only be 
limited to a period of i5, Pynson's only to one of 20, years. These 
periods overlap by six years. If we can trust the negative evidence in 
the case of Skot, then his editions must both be later than Pynson's ; 
even if we cannot, Pynson's may still be the earlier. If we could prove 
that both of Skot's editions were anterior to Pynson's we could assert 
that all four appeared between the years i522 and i528. As it is we 
only know that they appeared between i5o8 and i537- (See E. Gordon 
Duff, A Century of the English Book Trade 1457-1557, igo5, pp. 126, 149 ; 
R. B. Me Kerrovv, Printers and Publishers' Devices in England and Scot 
land 1485-1640, igiS, pp. 20, 26 ; also Hand-Lists of English Printers, 
Pt. i, i8g5, Skot, Pt. ii, 1896, Pynson, all issued by the Bibliographical 


I regret to have to say that, in spite of the care bestowed on them, 
my reprints of the texts of Everyman in this series are not altogether 
free from errors. I must therefore beg that students, before making 
use of them for critical purposes, will enter the following corrections 
in their copies. It will, of course, he understood that the object in each 
case is not to amend the text but to bring it into exact agreement with 
the edition from which it is reprinted. 


Britwell text : 

3o bloderede read blode rede 532 eurey read euery 

36 damphable dampnable 58y Forgyve Forgyue 

41 nothinge nothynge 647 pleasyth pleaseth 

288 John lohn 746 Bute But 

424 thyther thyder 


Huth text : 

288 John read lohn 784 de read be 

824 you ye go5 (dicressio (discressio 

335 (misnumbered) also on B. ii. catch-title sommen- 

536 clensyng clensynge ynge read summenynge 

565 y y and on D. ii. catch-title sommon 

767 shepeherders shepeherdes ynge read summonynge 

Douce text (Bodleian fragment) : 
No errors have been discovered. 

Museum text (B. M. fragment) : 

3g2 arte read art 617 of read os (of) 

5o3 workes werkes 744 arte art 

526 by be 755 saye say 

606 acquaintaunce read 823 arte art 

aquaintaunce go5 wyttf wittf 


The object of the following lists is threefold. In the first place they 
are intended to indicate those passages in which, owing to the 
breaking of the type, imperfect locking, bad press-work, or any other 
cause, the actual reading of the old print is open to question. In the 
second place they are meant to correct certain obvious errors of the 
compositors of the early editions, mostly of the sort sometimes called 
' literals ', which are not worth recording among the textual variants. 
In the third place they give an opportunity of indicating a number 
of more or less irregular or unusual spellings which cannot be 
regarded as actual misprints of the original, are not worth recording 
as variants, but might be suspected of being errors of the reprints. The 
second and third of these classes cannot be very sharply divided from 
one another. In every case the presumably correct reading, or the 
more usual spelling, is added in parentheses. Should it be necessary 
in the course of the collations to quote incidentally readings which 
are either certainly misprinted or appear in very misleading spellings, 
they will be given in the corrected or more normal form, but will be 
distinguished by parentheses. 

Britwell text : 

7 wonders (wonderous) 34 nomore (no more) 

28 rood (rod) 35 for sake (forsake) 

3o blode rede possibly bloderede 64 Dethe. (too high) 


go sende (sentc) 

100 lenger (longer) 

101 layser 

i3r lenger (longer) 

1 35 a bydynge (abydynge) 

142 preue (pi one) 

1 56 acqucyncc (acqueyntaunce) 

161 lyue (cj. 169) 

168 made (mad) 

i83 a vvaye (awaye) 

189 begete (be gete) 

208 a mysse (amysse) 

227 tentymes (ten tymes) 

25 1 make (maketh) 

258 a syde (asyde) 

263 who (Who) 

286 remenbre (remembre) 

297 a waye (awaye) 

298 be take (betake) 
3oo A dewe (Adewe) 

more- (more.) 

3o3 this (thus) 

325 bolde (holde) 

3a6 holde. (bolde) 

336 a counte (accounte) 

364 a gree. (agree.) 

366 be hynde. (behynde.) 

382 a byde (abyde) 

383 a wayc (awaye) 
453 caugh (caught) 
469 An (And) 

493 a counte (accounte) 

525 hole (holy) 

526 by (be) 

545 O gloryous possibly Ogloryous 
656, 666 Kynrede. (knowlege) 
667 in contynent. (incontynent.) 
6g5 heuen (heuenly) 
727 deuyuyte. (deuynyte.) 
739 hande (handes) 
863 be come, (become.) 
ox>5 dycrecyo (dyscrecyo) 

3o3 A lacke (Alacke) 

N . B. This edition is distinguished by the consistent use of the spelling 
' counseyll ' and kindred forms, and also of the spellings ' hyder ' &c. 

Huth text : 
19 kenge (kynge) 
22 Iperceyue (I perceyue) 

29 dyed possibly dyeo 

30 forgot (forget) 

31 caunot/>0ss#/yeaunot (cannot) 
34 nomore (no more) 

49 be cume (becume) 
54 I had possibly I had 
64 (MO speaker's name] 

Almyghtygod ( Almyghty god) 
68 Apylgrymage (A pylgrymage) 
74 be set (beset) 
87 (no speaker's name) 
QO, 92 sende (sente) 

100 lenger (longer) 

101 layser 

n3 rekenyuge (rekenynge) 

119 what (whan) 

127 geftes (gyftes) 

1 35 a bydynge (abydynge) 

1 52 T rust (Trust) 

1 53 gracious 

1 56 Dethe (belongs to i5j) 

161 thylyfe (thy lyfe) 

162 wordely (worldely) 
166 A nother (Another) 

168 Euenyman (Eueryman) 

177 noman (no man) 

202 cartaynely (certaynely) 

2o5 god (good) 

223 nomore (no more) 

243 herde (harde) 

248 duyte (dutye) 

261 nyuer (neuer) 

279 iourney possibly idurney 

282 wyll (first \ doubtful) 

292 Fejawe' (Felawe.) 

3i3 my kynnesmen possibly 

817 yender (yonder) 
827 Geamercy (Gramercy) 
336 a counte (accounte) 
365 Nw (Now) 
368 a nother (another) 
398 what (What) 

mesaye (me saye) 
401 Syr& (Syr &) 
4o3 a nother (another) 
406 gyne (gyue) 
414 a nother (another) 

482 for (of) 

442 condycyons (condycyon) 
449 A nother (Another) 
464 Forto (For to) 
476 a shamed (ashamed) 

483 no ther (nother) 
493 a count (account) 

tomake (to make) 
495 w possibly w 
509 Ipraye (I praye) 

538 yon (you) 

549 Redempe 

571 w possibly w 

58o crelery (clerely) 

622 god (good) 

626 Go ynge (Goynge) 

636 nomore (no more) 

656, 666 Kynred. (Knowlege) 

667 in contynent (incontynent) 

671 shalde (sholde) 

691 delyberycyon (delyberacyon) 

692 vertues (vertuous) 
704 parell (perell) 

716 benynge (benygne) 
782 excedeth (d doubtful] 
75 1 w (t doubtful] 

769 yender (yonder) 

770 satysfaccoon (satysfaccyon) 
774 thou (than) 

798 nomore (no more) 

822 Strenght (Strength) 

823 co mplayne (complayne) 
83 1 begone (be gone) 

854 god (good) 
870 ertly (erthly) 
902 men / (/ men) 

914 rekenyuge (rekenynge) 

91 5 eternam. (eternum)) 

N. B. In this edition we consistently have ' councell ' &c. for the 
' counseyll ' &c. of Britwell. There is also a tendency to substitute the 
spellings ' hether ' &c. for ' hyder ' &c. The same tendency is also 
observably in the Pynson fragments. 

Douce text : 

691 lyberacion (delyberacion) 
702 be quethe (bequethe) 

returued (returned) 
7o5 Eeuer (Euer) 
733 scriptue (scripture) 
737 concecrate (consecrate) 
755 do(dothe) 

760 othermens (other mens) 

766 ours (our) 

769 Passe (Pease) 

793 6 (speakers' names belong to 794-7) 

840 Forwell (Farewell) 

848 take (toke) 

85o forwell (farewell) - 

870, 876, 878 god (good) 
873 fleeth (second e doubtful) 
880 lordes (lorde) 

N. B. There is no upper-case Y in this text. 

882 broughtest (boughtest) 
go3 aworthe 

Museum text : 

827 euery man. (point hidden under 
mending Paper] 

335 whiche (Whiche) 

336 a counte (accounte) 
355 cosyn possibly cosyu 
367 behinde. (behinde /) 
370 feare (faire) 

394. trusshed (trussed) 

3g6 iye (eye) 

401 vvolrd (world) 

401, 414, 425 good dedes (Goodes.) 

436 myspending (my spending) 

443 one. (one /) 

461 Good. (Goodes.) 

467 lelfe (lefte) 

470 feare (faire) 

476 a shamed (ashamed) 

493 a count (account) 

5o2 a count (account) 

5io ouer (euer) 

529 toguyder (togyder) 

553 exclama- (hyphen doubtful) 

556 aswell (as well) 

573 euery man. possibly euery mau. 

N. B. There is no upper-case Y 

574 nowe possibly no we 

617 os (of) 

629 pilgrimage (pilgrim) 

656, 666 Kynrede. (knowlege.) 

665 geate (get) 

them them (them) 
667 in contynent. (incontynent.) 
709 toguyder (togyder) 
717 kayes (keyes) 
755 do the (dothe) 
810 why (Why) 

euery man. possibly euery man. 
820, 822 (in each case the speaker's 

name is half a line too high in the 


824 spendeth (spendest) 
83 1 begone (be gone) 
852 a byde (abyde) 
864 begone (be gone) 
880 lordes (lorde) 
887 meuum. (meutn.) 
91 5 say. (say /) 
917 crounde ? (crounde.) 
919 toguyder (togyder) 

in this text. 


For convenience of printing the collations are divided into three 
sections. The first of these contains the variants in that part of the 
text where only two editions are available, the second where three 
are available, and the third where, for the most part, all four are 

I have taken pains to make the collations as complete as possible, 
and I have also aimed at making them fairly comprehensive. Thus it 
has been my object to include such differences of form as ' from ' and 


' fro ', ' you ' and ' ye ', and even merely inflectional variants such as 
' has ' and ' hath '. It is true that these are as a rule quite useless for 
the purpose of determining the relation of the editions, but it seemed 
worth while to present the reader with as complete a survey of the 
variants as was practicable. Complete consistency of method must 
however not be sought, as it is an ideal difficult of attainment and but 
doubtfully w^)rth pursuit. Mere differences of spelling, of course, 
have not been recorded, nor has any notices been taken of the 
fluctuating vowels in such words as ' longer' ' lenger ', ' hand ' ' hond ', 
' harte ' ' herte ', &c. I have not included the variations of the words 
' hyder ' ' thyder ' ' whyder ' ' togyder ', but most of the cases will be 
found recorded in the lists of rimes given later on. The above are the 
practically consistent spellings of the Britwell text ; the other three 
all substitute, more or less widely but not consistently, the forms 
' hether ' ' thether ' ' whether ' ' together '. 

In every case of variation the reading of each edition is printed in 
full. In order to make the bearing of the variant clearer the context 
has also been added in italic from the Britwell text. 

In the case of the second and third sections, in which more than 
two texts are involved, I have added a final column showing by means 
of a simple formula the nature of the variant. This will I hope be 
found useful. Readers will of course understand that A = Britwell, 
B = Huth, C = Douce, and D = Museum text. 

(l) lines 1-304. 

Britwell Huth 

10 The story sayth This 

14 causeth the soule to wepe thy 

1 8 Wyll fade from the vade 

21 what he doth saye. wyll 

28 my ryghtwysnes the sharpe (rod] / that 

30 They forgete dene / forgot 
shedynge of my blode rede so redde 

3 1 / hanged bytwene two twotheues/ 
41 they be nothynge sure not 

43 The worse they be fro yere to yere are from 

5i they do all dene forgete all do 

55 7 se lyke traytours se that 

73 And cruelly out serche truely 

74 Euery man wyll I beset I wyll 
77 and fro hetten from 



77 fro heuen to departe 

78 Excepte that almes be his good frende 
91 Fro god out of his mageste 

96 thou shalte knowe. 
loo Without ony lenger respyte. 
107 before god thou shalte answere 
109 thou hast spente thy lyfe 
in Haue 1 do we were 
1 16 and no man spareth 
121 wyl I gyue y yf thou wyl 
129 But my custome 
141 were gone y I our nay e 
143 OYfe thou KY// 
i5i jTA0 mayst neuer 
1 53 C O gracyous god 

in the hye sete 
168 j/ ark (wflfl*) thou hast 
1 80 owf 0/thy syght 
190 a full grete profyte 
195 >Aaf for to rfo 
2i3 to my lyues ende 
21 5 That was well spoken 

225 fottf * your mynde fro w/ 

226 whan ye Am w* 
262 as well as we ca 
268 that lothe iournaye 

270 y promysed o/A^ teyw 

271 / say so 

273 women the /ws(y company 
''278 F0r mynde wyll so;w a/^/v 

280 Now *' good fay th 

281 arf /AoM wyll murder 

293 w^ a /ofe 

294 / '0W not haue /<r/ite 
297 wyll y forsake me. 

300 A dewe/or w^r 

for euer / shall se M* wo (more.) 

301 felawship C Infayth 

3o3 euery mS. C A lacke shall we 
3<xf A /<wfy helpe 


almes dedes 




shalte thou 


a do that we 







C gracyous 





to . 

/ vnto 






promysed me 



to folye wyll 





/ wylt 

Felawe. C Adewe 

for... neuer se 

euery man C 



(2) lines 3o5-68a. 


3i2 haih forsaken me 

314 to helpe me in my neces- 


3i8 Where be ye now 
3ig Here be we now 

321 and not spare. 

322 and to vs declare 
324 o^fc you well 

weteyou well wyll /y 
826 a man may be (bolde). 

330 TAa^ is a hye kynges 
kynges chefe offycer 

33 1 bad me go a pylgrymage 

332 And / knowe well 

333 yi/so / w5^ gy 
a rekenynge strayte 

348 / ei''fls bore [: ;o^.] 
355 cosyn wyll you mtf 
35g It auayleth-0 
362 And to daunce 
366 or abyde (behynde.) 
36y Abyde behynde / 
370 fayre promyses men 

men to me make 
373 euery man farewell now 

375 of myne owne 

of myne owne an vnredy 

376 / haue to accoute 

379 fayre wordes maketh 

380 They promyse and 
nothynge wyll do 

383 fast a waye do they flee 

386 longer to abyde 

388 / haue loued ryches 

3go He wolde make 

3q2 my gooddes and ryches. 

394 pyled so hye 






: D 

helpe me 



: D 




: D 

be we 

we be 


: D 

do not 




vs to 

to vs 






: B 

well / we wyll 

well / we will 




be to 


: D 





chefe offycere 



: D 




: D 







A : 






/ wyll you 



: D 


auayleth you 


: D 








: D 





promyses / 



: D 

do make 





as nowe 


: D 




: B 

owne / 

owne lyfe 


: D 

accounte / 

counte / 


: D 




: D 

promyse / 

promes moche / AB : D 






AB: D 



AB: D 



A: BD 



AB: D 

so hye 




Britwell Huth Museum 

3g5 / am locked so fast 
397 in packes lowe / lye 

401 Goodes. 
sorowe or aduersyte 

402 That can I helpe you to 

404 / tell the so 
406 a strayte counte 

408 / haue had loye & plea 
sure in the 

409 / pray the go with me 
414 Goodes. 

Nay euery man 
418 on me thou dyd set thy 


*42i for the loue of me. 
[: truly] 

424 Vp fc/ V5 gO 

425 Goodes. 

7 fl/w fo brytell 

426 7 wyllfolowe man 
fo ye sttftf. 

428 o good and treasure. 
480 contrary to the loue *w 

482 to /fo />0or gyue parte 

gyue parte of w 
433 Than sholdest thou not... 


435 now was I deceyued 
445 Nay fro /Ai's worlde not 


449 ' this samewyse 
45 1 cwrarf thou be 
462 TA0M tray tour to god 

that Aos/ deceyued me 
455 7 aw gladde 
467 thou hast had longe v 

hertely loue 
461 Goodes. Goodes. Good. 



A: BD 


lowe where 

AB: D 


good dedes. 




AD: B 



AD: B 


tell the 

AD: B 



AD: B 



AB: D 


nowe go 

AB: D 


good dedes. 

AB: D 


Nay nay / 

AB: D 



AB: D 

the loue of me 

my loue trewely 






good dedes. 





no man 

no man / 






my good 



loue of 


to gyue 




for the loue of 

AH I) 


haue be 

AB: D 

/ I was 

was I 

AD: B 

From... nay 

Nay nat fro... 



A B D 





may thou 

AB: D 

/ thou 


AD : B 


right gladde 

AB: D 


had long 

AD: B 

AB: D 


464 to go with me in that 
heuy lournaye 

465 felawshyp sayd he wolde 
with me gone [: mone] 

471 all forsake me 

473 In hope to haue corn- 

474 For my goodes 

475 he bryngeth many in to 

483 5^e can nother go nor 

486 (ye c0Me in ^ grottnde 

487 TA_V synnes hath we 
Afl/A we sore bounds 

489 7 stand e in fere 
*49i jFV helpe now sholde 

come ryght well. 
493 T^fltf ye be somoned 
497 / praye you that ye 

wyll go 
5o2 Fcwr oe o/ counte 

full redy had be 
604 Loke the bokes. . . Ase how 
they lye 

they lye vnder the/<?& 

507 one letter here 
I can not se. 

508 There is a blynde 

5ii helpe me to make 


525 And am hole content 
527 brought you there Where 

529-3o you ... your ... 

your... you 
53o For to make you loyfull 

at herte 



me / in 


AB: D 

/ he sayd 

said / 

AD: B 



AD: B 



AB: D 


haue foude 



my goodes 


AB: D 



AD: B 



AB: D 






AD: B 

so sore 


AD: B 


great feare 

AB : D 

helpe now shulde 

nowe helpe 

cum ryght 


AB: D 

thou arte 

ye be 

AD: B 

the to 

you that ye 


AD: B 

accounte / 

a count 

A: BD 

full redy now 

nowe full redy 

A: B : D 



AD: B 


vnder the 

here vnder 

AB : D 




can I 

I can 




AB: D 

my rekenynge 

my rekening 

A: BD 



A: BD 



AD :B 

thou... thy... 

you... your... 

thy... the 

your... you 

AD: B 

at the harte 

at herte 

AD: B 

*53a My good dedes gramercy 

535 go ive togyder louyngly 

537 / wolde we were there 

*538 / pray you gyue me 


53g that holy man confessyon. 

546 Wasshe fro me the spotles 

* spottes of vyce vnclene 

of vyce vnclene 
549 Redempte m'/A herte 

and full contrycyon 
55i ^4rf grete accountes 
553 Helpe my good dedes 
558 penaunce voyce voyder 

of aduetsyte 

56 1 HY sAa// you receyuc 
563 To remembre /Av 

*565 or thou scape that 

paynful Pylgrymage 
*566 Knowlegc kepe Ayw 
568 be seker o/ mircy 
570 he wyll graunte truely 
573 for his gracyous werke 
5j5 This hath reioysed and 

lyghted my herte 
577 loke your penaunce 

thai yefulfyll 
579 And knovvlege shall 

g)'ue you 

knowlege shall gyue 
584 he wolde euery man 

58^ For gyue my greuous 

58g O raunsomer and 

*59O Of all the worlde hope 

and conduyter 



I thanke the 


AD: B 




AD: B 

were there 

there were 

AB: D 

to insti ucte me 

gyue me 



AD: B 



AD: B 



AD: B 

of... vnclene 

and... clene 

AB: D 






A :B: D 

full of 


AD: B 

great accountes 

a great countes 

AB: D 


Helpe hyder 

AB: D 


/ voyder 




AB: D 

To remembre 


AB: D 

scape that 

passe thy 

AB: D 


hym and kepe 


AD: B 



AD: B 


it the 

AB: D 



AB: D 


me reioysed / 

AB: D 

your penaunce 

/ loke your 



AD: B 



AB: D 




to redeme 


AD: B 

me my 

me my 

A: BD 

raunsomer & mercyfull 



AB: D 



Britwell Huth 

5gi Myrrour of love 

foundatour of mercy 
*5g4 my prayers vn worthy 

in this heuy lyfe 
599 saue me fro the power 

602 Of your sones glory 
glory to be partynere 

603 By the meanes of his 

604 7 beseche you helpe 
helpe my soule to saue 

606 Myflesshe... shall gyue 

610 Now may you make 

611 the name of the holy 

612 My body sore 
punysshyd shall be 

614 thou delytest to go gay delytest 

615 in the way of damp- in 

616 strokes of punysshynge and 
618 To saue me from purga- from 


* from purgatory that 
sharpe fyre. 

620 / can walke... And am 

621 with euery man I wyll go I wyll 
624 good dedes cometh now do come 
626 vpryght vpon the vpon 

ground e. 
63 1 For the is preparate 

the eternall glory 
633 / wyll byde by the in 
euery stounde. 

byde by the with 

by the in euery the / in 

636 Be no more sad but euer euer more 


and founder 
of thy 
parte taker 

/ foundacion 
vnworthy in 
this heuy lyfe 

A B: D 

AD: B 

AD: B 

A: BD 

beseche beseke AB : D 

my me my AB : D 

gyue haue AD : B 

a quytaunce aquaintaunce A : B : D 

Thus Nowe AD : B 

of the holy of all the hole AB : D 

sore punysshyd punisshed sore AB : D 

delyted AB : D 

in the AD : B 

of AD : B 

fro AB : D 

hell and from purgatory that 

the sharpe AD : B 

I And AD : B 

will I AB : D 

cometh nowe / AD : B 
on AB : D 



AD: B 
AD: B 




AD: B 
AB: D 

4 8 


638 Put on this garment 
*63g Whiche is wette with 

your teres 
*64o Or elles before god you 

may it mysse 

641 Whan ye... come 

642 what do ye it call. 

643 It is a garmente ofsoroive 
a garmente 

644 Fro payne it wyll you 

647 He pleaseth god 

648 wyll you MW it 
653 7 haue for*. 

655 let ts of parte in 

66 1 beaute may not abyde 


670 Here at your wyll we be 
all redy 

671 What\vy]\ye 

674 wyll ye with him or not 

in that vyage. 
*6j6 To his helpe and 

comforte / 

678 loued myght thou be 
682 All be in my company 





with your teres is wette with 

is now all wete your teares 
Lest... /it be may 

AB : D 

AD : B 


it misse 

AD: B 








is called 




A: BD 






AD: B 



AB: D 

haue it 

haue them 

A: B D 


to feare 

AB: D 

parte in 




AB: D 



AB: D 



A: BD 





him go 

AB: D 




AB: D 

To his... 

To... comfort 

cumforte / 


AB: D 






A: BD 


.. u .. o o .. u 

Q - Q -uQWuupquu 


n p 





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In the first of the three sections of the text, that for which we 
possess only two editions, the variants are necessarily all of the same 
form, namely A : B, and statistical considerations consequently afford 
us no help. It must suffice to observe that in the course of 304 lines 
there appear 55 divergencies. In those portions for which three texts 
are available, namely lines 3o5-682 and those subsequent passages in 
which the Douce text is mutilated, the variants assume four possible 
forms, namely AB : D, AD : B, A : BD, A : B : D. Since in the case 
ot three texts no true grouping can occur, the readings of this portion 
are not of very great importance for the elucidation of the relation 
ship of the editions, but a statistical survey will nevertheless be use 
ful. Where all four texts are preserved, namely, save for certain gaps, 
in lines 683-g2i, the possible forms of variation are many, in point of 
fact, I believe, fourteen, though not all of these actually occur. 

Where a reference is placed in parentheses there is something 
irregular about the reading, though the irregularily is not of a kind to 
invalidate our statistical results. 


AB : D. 3i2, 3i4, 3i8, 3ig, 326, 33o, 33i, 355, 35g, 362, 366, 367, 370, 
373, 375, 376, 379, 38o, 383, 386, 388, 3ga, 3g4, 3g7, 401, 408, 4og, 414, 
414, 418, *42i, 424, 425, 425, 428, 43o, 433, 45i, 455, 461, 464, 471, 473, 
474, 483, 486, 48g, *4gi, 504, 5o8, 537, *54&, 55i, 553, 56i, 563, *565, 570, 
573, 575, 57g, *58g, 604, 604, 611, 612, 614, 618, 621, 626, 633, 638, 642, 
643, 648, 654, 655, 661, 674, 674, *676, 743, 744, 772, 8o5, 834, 835, 836, 
862, 867 = total go. 

AD : B. 32i, 322, 324, 33o, 332, 348, 370, 375, 401, 402, 404, 406, 426, 
432, 435, 452, 457, 465, 465, 475, 487, 487, 4g3, 4g7, 504, 5o7, 5o7, 527, 
5ag-3o, 53o, *532, 535, *538, 53g, 546, 54g, *566, 568, 577, 57g, 584, 5go, 
*5g4, 5gg, 602, 602, 610, 6i5, 616, *6i8, 620, 624, 63i, 633, 633, 636, *63g, 
*640, 641, 644, 647, 771, 772, 801, 834, &H, 8g5 = total 67. 

A : BD. 324, 333, 3go, 3g5, 426, 44g, 5o2, 5n, 525, 546, 558, 5&7, 6o3, 
643, 670, 671, 678, 682, 73g, 800, 804, 864, 8g7 = total 23. 
A : B : D. 432, 445, 5o2, 54g, 5gi, 606, 653, 774 = total 8. 


ABC : D. 694, 6gg, 6gg, 7o5, 706, 756, 763, *786, 787, 788, 7g3, (7g5), 
807, (811), *8n, 8i5, *8 2 i, *822, 824, *827, *828, 82g, 8 2 g, *83o, 837, 
*840, 844, 847, 85o, 85i, 852, 868, 873, 8;5, 889, 904 = total 37. 

ABD : C. 691, 6g5, 848, 88a, 904, 918 = total 6. 

ACD : B. 684, 685, 687, 732, 764, 781, (821), 844, 870, 918, 9 2I, 921 = 
total 12. 

A : BCD. 695, 75i, 780, 782, 789, 793, 814, 83g, 845, 868, 893, 902, 908, 
914 = total 14. 

AB : CD. 686, 687, 694, 738, 745, 746, 748, 752, 764, 778, 797, 8i3, 
844, 856, 85g, 880, 883, 888, 891, 892, 901, 903, 906 = total 23. 

AC :BD. 814 = total i. 
AD : BC. 85g, 885 = total 2. 
AB : C : D. 755, 825, 907 = total 3. 
A : B : CD. 702, 717 == total 2. 
A : B : C : D. 806 = total I . 


Readers may find it convenient to have a list of the imperfect rimes 
in the play and of those in which there is disagreement between the 
different editions, since the consistency of an edition in the matter of 
rime clearly affords some criterion of its general trustworthiness. In 
the first column are given the rimes of the Britwell text together with 
the line-number of the first of the group, in the other columns the 
rimes of the other texts. Commas in the later columns imply that the 
form is exactly the same as that of the Britwell text. 

An X indicates the absence of any rime word ; a mark of exclama 
tion the total absence of rime in a pair. I have added a few foot 
notes on cases where it seemed possible to emend the text. 

Some of the lines marked with an X appear to be genuinely widowed 
lines, others are most likely corrupt, and originally belonged to one of 
the adjacent rime groups. Lines marked as unriming pairs are pro 
bably in most instances real pairs in one of which a corruption has 
distroyed the rime, but of course the appearance of such pairs might 
also arise from the corruption of a line belonging to a rime group in 
the neighbourhood of a widowed line, or from the corruption of two 
lines belonging to neighbouring rime groups. It is only for con- 
venince that such lines are here treated as pairs, nothing is implied 
as to their origin. The irregular rime scheme of the great bulk of the 
text makes any conjectures on the subject hazardous. See the notes 
on 11. 3i7, 4i5, 422 and 526. 


4 it is : shewes 

i3 swete : wepe 

19 kyiige : rekenynge 

26 god : rood 

3o rede : deed : heed 

5a every man : mansyon 

60 ryches : lustyce 

66 euery man : name 

68 take : escape 

70 rekenynge : taryenge 

96 knowe : X 
100 respyte : wytte 
u3 gyue : thou (!) 
127 grete : gete 
i3i respyte : seke 
1 53 celestyall : terestryall 
167 done : come 
175 aduysement : consent : 

189 begete : grete 
212 mynde : ende 
222 strawe : no more 
241 it is : daungerous 
260 come agayne : dome(!) 4 ) 
3oi ende : mournynge 
3n flee : me : truely : 


3i7 them go : kynnesmen (!) z 
323 whyder : to gyder 
335 hynder : render 
345 mater : water 
347 more : bore 
363 Tourney : a gree 
375 rekenynge : taryenge 


kenge : 
: rod 

redde : : 
eueryman : 

eueryman : 




great : 

: secke 
: terestyall 

: cume 
aduysemente : : 

be gete : great 

straw : nomore 

cume agayne : 

: mournyge 

i : 

whether : to gyther 
hyndre : rendre 
matter : 

: borne 
iurnaye : agree 

flye : : trewely : 

: kynnes men 
whether : togider 
: rendre 

iournay : agre 
rekeninge : taryeng 

*) Read ' agayne come' in 260. 

2 ) Two consecutives lines, 3i6 and 3 17, end in ' go '. The second ' go ' is, no doubt, an 
accidental repetition. The line should end with ' them ', making an imperfect rime 
with ' kynnesmen '. 



38i faythfully : stedfastly : 

flee : me 

387 there is : ryches 
3gi dystresse : ryches 
3g3 haste : fast 
41 5 vyages : X ') 
420 truly : me 

422 sore : X 8 ) 

423 answere : to gyder 
436 tyme : thyne 

446 otherwyse : gyse : wyse 
463 mone : gone : alone 
472 best : leest 
478 hate : take 
490 counseyll : well 
493 to make : take : make 
5o3 eke : fete 
5i5 able : X 

52i rekenynge : thynge : 

526 creature : X 3 ) 

527 there : togyder 

528 smarte : herte 

53i trynyte : gramercy : 

534 swete : X 
56o seruyce : endure (!) 
567 the : mercy : be : truely 
573 werke : herte 
582 vysyon : X 
584 redeme : deuyne 
58g redemer : conduyter 


: to 

truely : 


: guyse : 
: go : 

councell : 
to make : : 

: to gyther 

: harte 
trynytye : hartfully 

: conductor 
(5g3 be) : benygnytye 

Douce Museum 

: : 
flye : 

: richesse 

distresse : richesse 



rewely : trewely 

: togyther 


otherwise : : > 

: : 

: lest 


counsayle : > 




: toguyder 

Trinite : : 

seruice : 
::: the 

visyon : 


: conduiter 
lyfe : 

*) To read ' vyages longe ', riming with the three preceding lines, would be possible 
but hardly satisfactory. 

*) I do not know whether it would be possible to regard ' sore ' as an imperfect rime to 
' answere '. 

*) There is no doubt that this should be ' Greater ', representing French ' createur ', 
which would give a sort of rime to ' there ' ' togyder '. 

4 ) B's emendation is to be rejected, but it cannot be said that the line as it stands in AD 
looks very healthy. A rime could of course be provided by bringing ' vnworthy ' to the 
end of the line. 


601 prayer : partynere 

6o5 penaunce : acqueyntaunce 

609 sauyour : sure 

617 clere : fyre 

63 i glory : X 

63g teres : mysse l ) 

646 is : forgyuenes 

647 well : hele 

65i taryenge : rekenynge 

663 counseylours : houres 

665 hyder : togyder 

675 thyder : togyder 

691 delyberacyon : 

702 be : X 2 ) 

709 togyder : hyder 

7i5 beynge : benygne 

719 medycyne : payne 

737 consecrate : make 

739 hande : bandes 

745 god : preesthode 

75 1 smarte : herte 

759 bad : harde 

765 honour : socoure 

769 come : satysfaccyon 

775 take it : respyte 

777 longe : honde 

78o b gyde : X 

788 stande : lande 

794 alas : lesse 

800 lohan : gone 

804 chest : truste 

806 me : dye : denye 

809 all : all 

817 vnderstande : hande 


: parte taker 
> : a quytaunce 
sauyoure : 

wete : vnswete 

councellers : 
hyther : to gyther 
thether : to gyther 
delyberycyon : 


lyberacion : 



: parti nere 
: aquaintaunce 
sauiour : 
glorye : 
teares : misse 
: forgyuenesse 

: heale 
taryeng : rekenyng 
counsaylours : 


thy ther : together 
: deliberacion : 



toguyder : 

: benigne 
medicyne : 

: take 
handes : 

togyther : 

: benynge : 

: pyne medesyne : 
: concecrate : take 
handes : [ ] 

: pryesthode : : 

: smart[e] : : 

: herde : herde : 

honoure : honoure :socker honoure : socour 
cume : satysfaccoon : [ ] : satisfaction 

: [ ] : respy[te] : respite 



lohn : 

guyde : 
stonde : londe 


[ ] Ihori : 

[ ] 

: hye : : [djenye hye : 

vnderstonde : honde 


1 ) B's emendation is unnecessary : ' teres ' or ' tearis ' is quite a good enough rime to 
mysse '. 

2 ) To alter ' be ' to ' dwell ' would be a possible but not a satisfactory emendation. 



821 dette : not 
829 me : louyngly 
337 trynyte : pyteously 
83g come : euerychone : 
alone : dyscrecyon 

860 daunger : X ' 

861 herte : departe 
863 be come : be gone 
881 lost : boost : 

hoost : moost 
885 dome : meum 
900 come : dome 

902 mynde : the ende 

903 yonge : dycrecyo 
914 come : eternum 
918 thyder : togyder 




: : wot : 

: : ; be 
trynytye : trinyte : petyously Trinite : se 

cume : : : : : : 
: descressyon : discrecion : Discrecion 

daungere : : daungere : 

: = [ ] hert : 

become ; [ ] become : begone 

: : loste : boste : loste : boste : 

: hoste : moste hoste : 

: : : meuum 

cume : : : 

: y ende : : thende 

: discressio : discrecion : discrecion 

cume : eternam : : 

thether : to gyther thether : thether : toguyder 


Were it possible to suppose that the editions of Everyman formed 
what I may call an ancestral series, one that is in which each edition 
was printed from its immediate predecessor, there are certain consi 
derations which would clearly establish the order of those four which 



Text ends on page 

Lines to a page 

Line 780 printed as 

Type of speakers' names 

Type of Latin quotations 

Line 453 begins C 

The last is needed to establish the direction of the series. 

In point of fact a very casual glance at the collations of those por 
tions for which all four texts are preserved will suffice to show that 
the editions do not form part of any such ancestral series. Each con 
tains a number of readings peculiar to itself in which it is opposed by 
a concensus of the other three texts. The numbers actually are 
A 14, B 12, C 6, D 37. It will be noticed that C has by far the fewest 









AB 8 C 4 

A 6 B 6 D 4 

[ ]C< 

[ ]B 6 C 4 









one line 

one line 

two lines 

two lines 










s C gracyous 

[ ] 

t ] 


of these peculiar readings, and it may be just worth while inquiring 
whether, after all, it might not be the. parent of the strongly indivi 
dual D. The first four variants of C are obvious misprints which the 
compositor of D might very well have corrected. That in 1. 904 
consists of a verbal form which it would not be very surprising to find 
the compositor altering back of his own accord. With that in 1. 918 
however the case is very different. It is, I believe, a mere misprint, 
but it happens, in the absence of any punctuation, to make perfectly 
good sense, and I can imagine no reason why a compositor should 
not have retained it. I think that this one case is sufficiently strong 
to make us hesitate to regard C as the parent or ancestor of D, and I 
fancy that a glance at the rime list, in which it will be observed that 
certain peculiarities of C do not persist in D, will confirm this view. 
All, therefore, that the few peculiarities of C warraat us in concluding 
is that C was very accurately printed. Unfortumatily )this only means 
that it followed accurately its immediate source/nof that it accurately 
represented the archetype of the extant texts. 

Turning now to those readings in which we find real grouping, that 
is, in which each reading is supported by more than one text, we find 
23 cases of AB : CD, one case of AC : BD, and two of AD : BC. This is 
a rather striking result and its force is but increased when we observe 
that the case of AC : BD in 1. 814 arises through B and D omitting 
the intensive ' to ' in the obsolescent ' to brast ', and that the case of 
AD : BC in 1. S5g depends upon the use of a quite indifferent auxil- 
liary. There remains the instance in 1. 885 only, and this it must be 
allowed is a rather remarkable one. A reads : 

That shall be saued at the day of dome. 

With this D agrees, while B and C instead of ' the day of dome ' 
read simply 'the dome'. I suggest that the latter was the original 
reading, but that, being uncommon, A and D independently altered it 
to the more usual expression. It may be noticed that the phrase ' the 
day of dome' occurs in two other passages in the play, 11. 261, 901. 

It is safe, therefore, to conclude that the frequent agreement of A 
and B and of C and D against one another indicates a significant and 
constant factor in the genetic relations of the texts. We must, however, 
beware of arguing for each pair of texts a common source independent 
of the other pair ; it will be sufficient to explain the observed facts if 
we postulate such a source for either pair. For suppose A and B to 
have a common source, X, then in all cases in which X departs from 
the archetype, A and B follow X correctly, and C and D follow the 
arc hetype correctly, the resulting grouping will be AB : CD. Such an 
arrangement may be expressed by the formula (A + B) + C -f- D, 


meaning that A and B have a common source X and that X, C, and D 
are independently derived from the archetype. It will be obvious that 
an arrangement A + B -f (C -f- D) will equally yield groupings 
AB : CD. The difference in two cases will be that in the first the 
CD reading, and in the second the AB reading, will be the original. 
To determine, therefore, which of the two arrangements is in fact 
correct, we shall have to discover, among the readings grouped as 
AB : CD, which are original and which not. If we find AB invariably 
correct we shall know that C and D have a common original, say Y, 
independent of A and B. If CD is invariably correct we shall know 
that A and B have a common original, X, independent of C and D. 
If sometimes one and sometimes the other is correct we shall be able 
to infer the existence of both X and Y. 

But it is no easy matter to determine which of two readings is ori 
ginal, for it by no means follows that of two readings, one of which is 
sense and one nonsense, the former appeared in the archetype. Very 
often, indead, the reverse is pretty certainly true. Not even if the 
sense appears to lie invariably with one text is it altogether safe to 
draw a conclusion in its favour, for its apparent correctness may be 
due to nothing but careful editing. There are, indeed, some errors 
which appear certainly to be corruptions of other readings, and there 
are certain plausible readings which can with some confidence be 
regarded as emendations of other less readily intelligible ones, but 
even these cases are liable to mislead, and different critics will pro 
bably take different views as to their significance. 

The solution of the problem would .therefore remain at best a diffi 
cult and doubtful one were it not for a fortunate and peculiar circum 
stance connected with the text we are examining. Everyman is a trans 
lation, and the original Dutch play Elckerlijk is extant and accessible 
in Dr. Logeman's useful edition (Ghent, 1892). Here is a criterion 
which as a rule should decide with absolute certainly as to the origin 
ality of variant readings, and in the light of this we must criticize all 
the variants of the AB : CD type. 

As a matter of fact the number of cases in which the Dutch text 
affords us help is disappointingly small. A large proportion of the 
variants are in themselves insignificant (equivalent grammatical 
forms and the like) and do not affect the sense, while in several others, 
where there is a significant difference of meaning, the whole passage 
is found to be divergent from the Dutch. There remain, however, 
sufficient cases to establish certain important results. 
There is no difficulty whatever in establishing a common source 


for C and'D independent of A and B. 

A (B) 737-8 : With .v. wordes he may consecrate 

Goddes body in flesshe and blode to make (CD : take). 
Here ' take ' is anyhow difficult to make sense of, and Elckerlijk, 
1. 706, settles matters : 

Want elc priester kan maken claer... Gods lichaem. 
A(B) 764 : He solde them not to vs that lorde omnypotent (CD : helde 

them not to]. 

Elckerlijk, 1. 725 : Hi en vercoft ons niet die heere. 
A(B) 888 : Now hath he suffred that we all shall endure (CD omit 


Elckerlijk, 1. 857 : Hi heeft leden dat wij alle moeten gelden. 
In these cases the reading of C and D is certainly not the original, 
neither can it have crept independently into the two texts : it follows 
that they had a common source, Y, which was neither an ancestor nor 
a descendent of either A or B. 

Can it be shown that such a source existed for A and B likewise ? The 
only other instances of variants of the form AB : CD (or of the derived 
forms AB : C : D, A : B : CD, A : B : C : D) in which the Dutch 
can with any relevancy be quoted, appear to be as follow. 
A(B) 745-6 : No remedy we fynde vnder god 

But all onely preesthode (CD : alone on). 
Elckerlijk, 1. 717 : Dan aen den preisterliken staet. 
Here the Dutch supports CD and the fact must be allowed some 
weight though the passages do not correspond very closely. 
A(B) 747-8 : Euery man god gaue preest that dygnyte 

And setteth them in his stede amonge vs to be (CD : letteth... be}. 
Elckerlijk, \. 719 : Ende zijn inzijn stede hier ghebleuen. 
This does not seem to throw any light on the variant. 
A(B) 75i-3 : But whan lesu hanged on y crosse w grete smarte 
There he gaue out of his blessyd herte 
The same sacrament (CD : gaue he vs). 

Elckerlijk, 1. 728 : Aent cruce daer gaf hij ons wt zijnder herten. 
Here CD certainly has the support of the Dutch for what it is worth. 
A(B) 778 : Now set eche of you on this rodde your honde (CD: his). 
Elckerlijk, 1. 749 : Slaet aen dit roeyken alien u hant. 
This is a case in which the Dutch supports AB, but the difference 
of construction lessens its significance. 
A 806 : Beaute gothe fast awaye fro me (B : goeth... and from me 

C : gothe... and hye D : dothe... hye). 
Elckerlijk, 1. 777 : Schoonheyt vliet oftmense iaechde, 
does not appear to help us. Lastly we have : 

6 4 

A 701-2 : And the other halfe styll shall remayne 

In queth to be retourned there it ought to be 
(B : In quyet CD : I it bequethe}. 

Elckerlijk, 1. 671 : Ghenick daer si schuldich is te gaen. 
Logeman considers that the Dutch supports CD. Now the readings of 
A and B are evident!)' related, while at the same time ' In queth ' 
must be related to ' bequethe '. This disposes of the possibility of 
1 In quyet ' being the original reading ; it is clearly an emendation for 
the misunderstood ' In queth '. The latter I believe to be the original 
reading. ' Ouethe-word ' is common for legacy, and the verb ' quethe ' 
was used indifferently with the compound ' bequethe '. ' Bequeath ' is 
also used as a substantive in the sense of bequest or will, and it does 
not seem impossible that ' quethe ' might have the same sense. I 
take it, therefore, that the phrase ' In queth ' may mean as a legacy, 
or in trust. But it would be easily misunderstood ; hence B's emend 
ation ' In quyet ' and the paraphrase ' I it bequethe ' of C and D. 

So far we have found no very strong evidence of unoriginal readings 
common to A and B where these differ from C and D. But it may be 
worth while examining the collations of those proportions for which 
only three texts are preserved, for though the variants AB : D are no 
doubt often of the common type AB[C] : D they must include a good 
many of the type AB : [C]D as well. The AB : D variants amount 
to the large number of 90, but of these the majority are trivial and of 
no evidential value. Certain instances occur in which D is proved to 
be unoriginal, but I can find no clear case in which an examination 
of the Dutch points in the opposite direction. There are, however, 
two readings in which AB might be suspected of being unoriginal 
though the Dutch throws no light on the question. One is : 

A(B) 421 : And that hast thou for the loue of me. (D : my lone trewely.} 
Here D is manifestly wrong since the line rimes with 1. 420 which 
also ends in ' truly '. But it is difficult to imagine why D should alter 
a perfectly satisfactory reading in order to produce an impossible one, 
and we might, therefore, be tempted to suspect that the reading of AB 
is not original but an emendation. I feel very reluctant, however, to 
condemn AB without stronger reason than this. We shall see later on 
that D is capable of some fairly stupid emendations, and moreover 
there is, I fancy, no clear case of such editorial interference to be 
traced in either hypothetical source X or Y ; it seems always confined 
to B or D. The other possible case of unoriginality in AB occurs in the 
difficult passage : 

A 548-9 : I come with knowlege for my redempcyon 

Redempte with herte and full contrycyon (13 ; Redempe D : Repent}. 


Elckerlijk, 1. 514 : B^edroeft van herten ende seer versaecht. 
Here I feel sure that there is some deep-seated corruption. Loge- 
man first accepted ' Repent ' and later ' Redempte '. It is quite true 
that ' Redempte ' and even perhaps ' Redempe ' might have the 
meaning of redeemed, but this gives no sense in the context. I sus 
pect ' Redempe ' to have been the reading of the archetype (having 
got there in place of the original word by repetition from the previous 
line), and ' Redempte ' and ' Repent ' to be emendation of A and D 

We have not, I think, been very successful in our search for 
evidence of a common original of A and B independent of Y. I shall 
return to the matter in a moment. 

First it will be necessary to consider whether any of the variant 
readings found in one text only (apart from the variants of D in the 
form AB : D already examined) suggest any knowledge of the Dutch 
text. And in the first place it will be well to consider those more 
extensive variants, starred in the previous lists, which appear to be 
the outcome of deliberate editorial activity in B and D. In a good 
many instances these occur in passages where the English is not 
closely parallel to the Dutch, but certain cases remain in which the 
latter can be cited very relevantly indeed. 

A(D) 566 : Knowlege kce hym in this vyage (B : hym and kepi), 

Elckerlijk, 1. 533 : Kennisse hout hem in desen ganghe. 
Here B, in the absence of punctuation, has mistaken ' knowlege ' for 
a verb (= acknowledge) and accordingly attempted an emendation. 

A(D) 638-40 : Put on this garment to thy behoue 
Whiche is wette with your teres 
Or dies before god you may it mysse 
(B : with your teres is now all wete Lest... / it be vnswete] 

Elckerlijk, 11. 6i5-8 : doet aen dit elect tuwen loone 
Het is met uwen tranen beuloeyt 
dus draechtet vrij onghemoet 
Oft anders soudijt voor gode gemissen. 

Here B has failed to understand or to approve of the rime teres : 
mysse and has consequently emended in a manner which, so far as 1 
can see, makes nonsense. 

A(B) 675-6 : We wyll brynge hym all thyder 

To his helpe and comforte /ye may beleue me 
(D : To helpe and comfort him /} 

Elckerlijk, 1. 646 : Tsijnre hulpen ende tsijnen rade. 

A(BC) 786-7 : These lines are given as part of the speech of Know 
lege. D makes them a separate speech assigned to Strength. 


Elckerlijk, 11. 759-60 : Cracht. Elckerlijc siet hoe wi v bi staen 

Streck vroem en hebt gheen vacr. 

This is the only really good conjecture offered by the editor of B 
or D, and it is plesant to find it borne out by the Dutch. 

A(BC) 827-8 : He that trusteth in his strength 
She hym deceyueth at the length 
(D : But I se well! he that... Is greatly discerned). 

Elckerlijk, 11. 797-8 : Wie wil hem verlaten op zijn cracht 
Si vliet alst mist doet \vter gracht. 

A(BC) 83o : Yet they promysed mefayre and louyngly 
(D : stedfast to be). 

Elckerlijk, 1. 801 : Ghi seydet mi toe schoon ter kore. 
Thus, in one case only does the Dutch support the divergent text 
and this in a case in which any intelligent editor might be expected 
to supply the correct emendation 1 ). 

Once we have realized that B and D must have been printed from 
copies which had undergone editorial revision we shall probably 
be inclined to refer to the same source a number of minor alterations 
which might otherwise pass as ordinary compositor's variants. I may 
mention, for instance, those in 11. 473, 497, 53g, 5go, 602, 746, 748, 787, 
795, 824, 829, 835. 

So much for the starred variants. Are there any other cases in 
which a single divergent text appears to be supported by the Dutch ? 
We might cite the following instances : 

A 432 : As to the poore gyue parte of me (B -.for D '.for the loueof). 

Elckerlijk, 1. 401 : Ende van mi ghedeylt den armen. 

Here A is supported by the Dutch and is certainly correct. Yet both 
B and D have ' for '. I imagine that the meaningless reading of B 
must have been in the archetype, that A made the obvious and 
correct emendation, and that D blundered into the expansion ' for 
the love of me '. 

A 670 : Here at your wyll we be all redy (BD omit all). 

Elckerlijk, 1. 640 : Hier sijn wi alle tot uwer minnen. 
This may be a case of accidental omission in two texts. 

A 782 : Tyll ye haue done this vyage longe. (BCD gone). 

Elckerlijk, 1. 754 : Voer ghi ghedaen hebt dese vaert. 
It is rather strange that in all three instances it is A that is supported 
by the Dutch against the rest. Such cases, of course, suggest that 

') Neither Hawkins nor Hazlitt did so, but neither Hawkins nor Hazlitt 
could be called on intelligent editor. They even left 11. 656 and 666 to 

6 7 

B and Y may have had a common source independant of A, that in 
fact the arrangement should be A -)- [B -f- (C + D)]. And it must be 
observed that there is nothing to make such an assumption inad 
missible. It is only if we suppose, as we have no business to do, that 
the number of variants in every reprint is approximately constant, that 
we need expect from such an arrangement a greater number of A : 
BCD variants than of, say, ABC : D variants. All we can say is that 
if the suggested arrangement is correct, the original of BCD, say Z, 
was a very faithful reprint of the archetype, and that, after all, the 
evidence for its existence is not strong. 

We have found, in the course of the above investigation, abundant 
evidence of the existence of an edition Y, the source of C and D. We 
have also found some slight evidence for the existence of X, the 
source of A and B, and of Z, the source of B and Y. But the existence 
of X is not compatible with that of Z. Therefore, in at least one of these 
cases the evidence is misleading ; and in neither is it strong. Unfor 
tunately, however little evidence there may be for the existence of X 
or Z, it is in the nature of the case impossible to prove that neither 
existed. We cannot directly prove that A, B, and Y are independently 
derived from the archetype. 

It is to be regretted that no more certain conclusion can be reached, 
for the matter is one of great importance in respect of the editing of 
the text. Supposing A, B, and Y to be derived from the archetype 
independently of one another, the agreement of any two of these 
practically determines the reading of the archetype. If, however, A 
and B have a common original X, then, though the agreement of AY 
or BY still determines the reading of the archetype, the agreement of 
AB only leads to a conflict of evidence between X and Y, which are 
of equal extrinsic authority. On the other hand, if B and Y have a 
common original Z, then, though the agreement of AB or AY deter 
mines the reading of the archetype, that of BY only leads to a conflict 
between A and Z, again of equal extrinsic authority. In the one case 
it is the variants AB : (C)D that are ambiguous, in the other the 
variants A : B(C)D. 

I repeat, however, that the evidence in favour of the existence either 
of X or of Z is slight, and when we consider that the two cases are 
mutually destructive, we shall, I think, come to the conclusion that 
an editor would not be unduly venturesome if he ignored them alto 
gether and assumed for the texts the genetic relation expressed by the 
formula A + B + (C + D), the only relation which will give un 
ambiguous readings wherever three texts survive. 

Of course where only two texts are available the readings are 


ambiguous whatever the relation. In these cases comparison with the 
Dutch should supply a much needed criterion. Unfortunately, owing 
partly to the insignificant nature of the variants and partly to the 
divergeance of the translation from the original, there do not appear 
to be any passages in which help can be obtained from this source. 


I should like before closing to offer a few criticisms upon certain 
miscellaneous variants appearing in the lists but which have not so 
far been the subject of comment. 

A 444-5 : Wenest thou that I wyll folowe the 
Nay fro this worlde not veryle. 
(B : From... nay verely D : Nay natfro... verely). 

Elckerlijk, 11. 411-2 : Waendi dat ic v sal volghen elckerlijc 

Van deser werelt neen ic sekerlijc. 

In spite of the Dutch, which has the air supporting B, the reading 
of A must be original. Of this B and D offer plausible but different 
(and I think unnecessary) emendations. 

A 646 : Wasshe fro me the spottes ofvyce vnclene 
(B : of vyces vnclene D : and vices dene). 

Elckerlijk, 1. 5io : Ende doncker smetten doet vergaen. 
The original reading is probably that of B : it is difficult to see any 
reason for D's alteration. 

A(D) 568 : But in ony wyse be seker of mercy (B : sure). 

Elckerlijk, 1. 535 : ende emmer hoept aen gode oetmoedlich. 
Both internal and external considerations are, I think, against B, but 
what is the reason for its alteration ? I coniecture that the compositor 
mistook ' seker ' for ' seeker' , ' sicker ', and so, as he thought, modern 
ized or anglicized it to ' sure '. If so, he was presumably a Scot, for 
the misreading would hardly have occured to a southerner c. i53o. 

A 6o5-6 : Knowlege gyue me the scourge of penaunce 
My flesshe therwith shall gyue acqueyntaunce 
(B : gyue a quytaunce D : haue aquaintaunce). 

Elckerlijk, 11. 578-9 : Kennisse gheeft mi die gheselen bi vramen 

Die penitencie hieten bi namen. 

Here 'gyue acqueyntaunce 'appears to be the original reading, since 
each word is supported by two texts; the others emendations. Which 
of these, if either, is correct I can offer no opinion. Unfortunately the 
Dutch affords us no help. 

A(B) 880 : In to thy handes lorde my soule 1 commende (CD : lordes). 
It is strange indeed that C and D should both retain such a very 
obvious misprint. 


A(B(") 889 : The good dedes shall make all sure (D : Thy). 

Elckerlijk, 1. 858 : die duecht sal nv haer seluen melden. 
Here D's reading is of course absurd, ' His ' would be the only 
possible emendation. But the reading of ABC is awkward. It looks as 
though the article had been carelessly retained from the Dutch. 

A(B) 899-901 : Now shalte thou in to the heuenly spere 
Vnto the whiche all ye shall come 
That lyueth well before the daye of dome. (D : after). 
Intrinsically, with suitable punctuation, there seems nothing to 
choose between these readings. It is one of those cases which make 
one regret the impossibility of deciding for certain between the 
arrangements A + B + (C + D) and (A + B) + (C + D). If we assume 
the former, or even A + [B + (C + D)], then the reading ' before ' must 
be original, if the latter we are left with no obvious means of deciding 
the question. 

On the whole, however, the number of important readings which 
remain open to doubt is not large, and we may fairly hope to see the 
text of Everyman definitely established within reasonable limits. As a 
basis the Britwell edition appears to offer somewhat the more satis 
factory text. It is free from the editorial impertinences of the Huth 
edition, and is, in some respects at least, the most consistent in its use 
of grammatical and linguistic forms. In point of correctness it would 
seem as though the balance varied in different portions as between the 
two Skot editions. Thus it is a curious fact that, in the 426 lines for 
which we have three texts, B is apparently unoriginal in 67 instances 
and A in only 23, while in the 23g lines for which we have four texts A is 
apparently unoriginal in 14 instances and B in only 12. Further 
analysis might modify these figures somewhat, but not greatly. What 
the state of affairs may be in the 804 lines for which A and B are the 
only texts extant, we can but wonder. 


p, 46. The asterisk (*) should be prefixed to line 58g not to line 590. 
p. 47. Line 602 (bis). Add AD : B 
Line 606. Omit AD : B 

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Ml'dancr to the \\ 

J. O. Al iiasta, i635. 

A. WAGNER, Marlowe's !V a Paris. 

\V. BANG, J. Taim-ii nach der l ; olio 1616 (Hand VII, 3). 

\\'. I tier vor 1616 erschienenen Ouartoausgaben 

von Jonson's I )ramen. 

\\'. 1 :ni I-'oules 1 >raiiiatische Wer! den Original- 

quartos herausgegeben. 

Die folgcnden Bande n'trden u. a. enthalten : 

I-, A Concordance, to the 1616 Folio of Jonson's Works. 
K. ]'.. Mi- KI.KKOW, A List of Modern Editions and Reprints of 

Hsh Plays written before 1643. 

\\'.IUNG,Udall-Studien(darin u. a. seine Flonres for Latine Spekynge , 

die Ubersetziing von Erasmi Kot. Apophthegmcs, \ r ersuch 

eines Nachweises, t! 11 <lie Respublica und die 

Historic of Jacob and Ksau geschrieben hat). 

K. UKOTANKK, Die altesten Denkmaler der Schottischen Dramatik 

(Dunbar, Jakob VI., Philotus,\V. Clarke's Marciano,etc.). 

A. DK MAN, Joannis Palsgravii Londoniensis Ecphrasis Anglica in 

Comoediam Acolasti (1540). 
P. ]>URVENICH, Jonson's Barthol. l-'air. 

A.J^i.K'i KANc.'l'* renz' Andria in den Englischen ('bersetzungen des 

1 5. und 16. Jahrhunderts. 
E. SIEPER, Marlowe's Edward 11. 

ARTHUR M. CHARLES, Brandon's Virtuous Octavia (i5gS}. 
CH. BOI.EN, Guy of Warwick (Q 1661). 

\\'. BANG und R.BROTANEK, Die Maskenspiele des Thoni. Nabbes. 
J. RlTTER und J.ZucK, II. Killi^rew's The Conspiracy (1'allantus 

and Eudora). 

\\'. BANG und W. W. GREG, Bale's Dram. \Yerke. 
A. FEUII.LERAT, Everie \\oman in her Humor (1609). 
M. ROSLER und R. BROTANEK, Nebuchadm < lie I ; u: 

nach MS. Had. 7578. 

J.NSI.Y, Rob. Burton's Philosophaster (1606). 
\V. W. (iREG, Actor-Lists, i583-:642. 

\\ . W. GREG, Character Index to the English l)rama to 1642. 
A. FEUII.LERAT, Documents concerning the Revels at Court temp. 
Edward VI and Mary, from the Loseley MSS in the 
possession of W. More Molyneu- 

J. LE GAY BRERETON, Marlowe : N a Bibliography. 

J. VAN DE \VVER, The \\"isdome of Doctor Dodypoll ; Th<- I Hoodie 
Banquet; The Knave in Graine Xew Vampt ; 
The History of the Triall of Chevalry. 

Librairie Universitaire, A. UYSTPRUYST, Louvain. 

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