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Full text of "Evidence study"

BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 9999 06542 001 8 



3/1) S" 



NATIONAL RECOVERY ADMINISTRATION 



RESEARCH AND PLANNING DIVISION 



3 2(1 6 




EVIDENCE STUDY 
NO. 35 

OF 

THE RUBBER MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY 



Prepared by 
W. H. CROSS 



December, 1935 



PRELIMINARY DRAFT 
(NOT FOR RELEASE: FOR USE IN DIVISION ONLY) 



TIE EVID3NCS STUDY SERIES 

The E7IEE1TCE STUDIES 'rrore originally planned as a means of jjatherin;? evidence _ 
■bearing upon vcrious le^-al issues which arose under the National Indastrtal Re- 
covery Act. 

These studios have value quite aside froii the use for which they were originally 
intended. Accordingly, they are noTT made availa'ble for confidential use vrithin the 
Division of Beview, and for inclusion in Code Histories. 

The full list of the Evidence Studies is as follorrs: 



1. Automohile Manufacturing Ind. 

2. Boot anc Shoe Mfg. Ind. 

3. Bottled Soft Drinlc Ind. 

4. Builders' Supplies Ind. 

5. Chemical Hfg, Ind* 

6. Cigar Mfg.. Industry 

7. Constraction Industry 

8. Cotton G-.?^ment Industr5^ 

9. Dress Mfg. Ind. 

10. Electrical Contracting Ind. 

11. Electrical Mfg. Ind. 

12. Fab. Metal Prod. Mfg., etc. 

13. Fishery Industry 

14. pumitTire Mfg. Ind. 

15. General Contractors Ind. 

16. G-raphic Arts Ind. 

17. Gray Iron I'oundry Ind. 

18. Hosiery Ind. 

19. Infant's & Child-ren's Wear Ind, 

20. Iron and Steel Ind. 

21 . Leather 

22. Lumher & Timher prod. Ind. 



23. 
24. 
25. 
26. 
27. 
28. 
29. 
30. 
31. 
32. 
33. 
34. 
35. 
36. 
37. 
38. 
39. 
40. 
41. 
42. 
43. 



Mason Contractors Industry 

Men's Clothing Industry 

Motion picture Industry 

Motor Eus Mfg. Industry (Dropped) 

Needle-'ork Ind. of Puerto Rico 

painting & Paperhaxiging & Decorating 

photo Engraving Industry 

Plunhing Contracting Industry 

Retail pood (See lie 42) 

Retail Luraher Industry 

Retail Solid Fuel (Dropped) 

Retail Trade Industry 

Ruhher Mfg. Ind. 

Ruhher Tire Mfg. Ir.d. 

Silk Textile Ind. 

Stz'o.ctural Clay Products Ind. 

Thro^Adng Industry 

Trucking Industry 

T?aste Materials Ind. 

Tnolesale & Retail pood Ind. (See Ko. 

TSTholesale Fresh Fruit & 7eg. 



SI) 



In addition to the stxidies hrought to completion, certain materials have heen 
assenhled for other industries. These MTERIALS are included in the series and are 
also made availahle for confidential use within the Division of Review and for in- 
clusion in Code Histories, as follows: 



44. Wool Textile Industry 49. 

45. Automotive p3j:ts & Equip. Ind. 50. 

46. Baking Industry 51. 

47. Canning Industry 52. 

48. Coat and S^iit Ind. 53. 



Household Goods & Storage, etc. (Dropped) 
Motor Vehicle Retailing Trade 'Ind. 
Retail Tire & Battery Trade Ind. 
Ship & Boat Bldg. & Repairing Ind. 
Wholesaling or Distrihuting Trade 



L, C. Marshall 
Director, Division of Revievr 



1 S My 3S g 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

Boston Public Library 



http://www.archive.org/details/evidencestudyOOunit 



CONTSUTS 

Foreword 1 

CHAPTER I - TES NATUEE OF Tl-ffi IITDUSTEY 2 

General a 2 

Definitions of the Industry 2 

History 2 

Diversification of Products o 

Total Uuraber of EstaTDlishments 3 

Divisions of the Industry Under the Code , 4 
Size of Esta.lilisiTtients "by HuiulDer of 

Wage Earne r s 5 

Numlier of EstalDlisliraents "by Principal 

Stcites 6 

- Capital Investment 7 

Statistics of Income 8 

Banlcruptcies 9 

Total Value of Production 9 

VaAue of Production "oj Principal 

Product G-roups 10 

Yolurae of Production 11 

Volume of Production "by Principal 

Product Groups , 11 

prices 12 

CHAPTEH II - LABOR STATISTICS ■ 14 

Average Annual llumber of Wage Earners .... 14 
I'lumlDer of Wage Earners 'bj Principal 

States 14 

Seasonality of EmiJloyment 15 

Average Annual Wages 15 

Wages Paid "by Principal States 17 

Percentage of Cost Represented l)y Wages 

and Materials 18 

Average Hoiirly Wage 18 

Average Hours per Week 19 

Average Weekly Wage 19 

CHAPTER III - MATERIALS 20 

Consumption of Crude Rulil^er , 20 

CHAPTER IV - PRODUCTION AlID DISTRIEUTIOK 21 

Value of Production Dy Principal States .. 21 

Volume and Value of S:cports 22 

Ejrports of Ru"b"ber Footwear 24 

"OOo- 



8925 






Ti\3LES 



Pase 



TABLE I - Total mm"ber of Estatlishments 

TABLE II - WumlDer of Companier., iDy Chief Divisions 

of the Industry Under the Code, 1935 ... 

TABLE III ~ Size of EstalDlishraents T3y Wujnter of 

Wage Earners per Establishment, 1929 ... 

TiBLE IV - ITumlier of Estalilisliijients, "by Principal 

States 

TJffiLE V - Capital Investment, 1929 ~ 1930 

TiiBLE VI - Statistics of Income, Eu'b'ber Tire 

Manufacturing Industry and Bu'b'ber 
Manufacturing Industry, 1927 - 1930 .... 

Tj\BLE VII - Numher of Failures and Amount of 

LialJilities, 1927 - 1933 ., 

Total Value of Production, 1929 - 1933 ... 

Value of Production, "by Principal 

Product Groups, 1929 and 1933 .......... 

Index of Production, 1929 - 1933 

Volume of Production "by Principal 

Product GroUi:)s , 1929 and 1933 

Index of Prices, 1925 - 1934 

Estima.ted Average Annual Uurnber of 

Wage Earners, 1926 - 1934 

TABLE XIV - N-um"ber of Wage Earners, ty Principal 

States 

TABIjE XV - Estimated Wage Earners and Man—Hours 

"by Months, 1929, 1931, and 1933 

TABLE XVI ~ Estimated Average Annual Wages, 1926 ~ 

1934 

TABLE XVII ~ Annual Wages Paid, loy Principal States ... 

TABLE XVIII - Percentage of Cost Represented hy 

Lator and Materials 

TABLE XIX r- Estimated Average Hourly Wages, 1926 - 

1934 



TABLE 


VIII 


TABLE 


IX 


TABLE 


X 


TABLE 


XI 


TABTiE 


XII 


TABLE 


XIII 



7 
7 



9 
9 

10 
11 

12 
13 

14 

15 

16 

16 
17 

18 

18 



8925 



*»ii~ 



TABLES (Concluded) 

Pag:e 

Ti\]3LE XX - Estimated Average Hours per ?teek, 

1926 - 1934 19 

TABLE XXI ~ Estimated Average Fee^cly '^c-ge^ 

TABLE XXII - Consumption of Crude H.u"b"ber, "by Chief 

Divisions, 1929, 1931, 1933 20 

TABLE XXIII ~ Value of Production of "Other Ratter 

Goods," ty Principal States 21 

TABLE XXI7 ^ Volume and Value of Exports, ty Principal 

Product Groups, 1929, 1931, 1933 and 
1934 23 

TABLE XXV - Estimated Forld Exports of Huhber Eootrjear 

and Ej^iorts from United States and 
JapsJi, 1926 - 1933 24 



-oOo- 



8925 



-111- 



u]_ui 



EirBBER ivJAl^fUTTACTUSIlJC- II3USTSY 
For ev/'ord 

The chief sources of data in this study are the reports of the 3vx- 
eau of the Census, the Biu-eau of Lator Sto.tistics , OJid the National In- 
dustrial Conference Board, and dato, supplied liy the HuljlDer i'.Ianufa,ctur- 
ers' Association, 

Because of the ,^eneral conparaljility hetv/een the Censtis pjid the Code 
classifications, as eivolained in Ch.a'oter I, Census datca caxi confidentl3'' 
"be used to descriloe the Industry- as codified. Eov/ever, it nmst "be "come 
in mind that the Censiis data do not cover establishnents uith on annua,l 
prodiiction vs.lued at less than $5,000; and it is the oi;5inion of the writer 
that the Paihber Lianuf .acturing Industrjr has a. niuaoer of such small esto-'o- 
lishments. 

Tlie sections on 'unfair trade pr^actices caid on general infornation, 
called for oy the Outline for Collection of ii)vidence, have been omitted 
because of the lack of -oertinent data. 



8925 



-2- 
Chapter I 
THE NATURE OP THE INDUSTRY 



» 

General 



In the United Stares, the manufacture of rubber products is divided 
into two general divisions, namely,, the manufacture of ruhter tires and the 
manafacture of other ru.hher products. There was a separate Code of Fair 
Competition for each division; and this Evidence Study deals only vdth the 
manufacture of ruFoer products other than riither tires. Statistical evidence 
regarding the Ru>j"ber Tire Manufacturing Industry may he found in the Evidence 
Study for that Inda'-itry, 

Definitions of the Industry 

The Ruhher Manufacturing Industry is defined "by the Code to mean: 

"The manufacture for sale in the continental United States 
of any ruhher product or products, expressly excluding, however, 
all solid or pneumatic tires and tuhes and tire accessories 
and/or tire repair materials together with such other ruhher 
products as may he specifically covered hy another duly ap- 
proved codeo" 

The Census definition for the Ruhher Product Industries consists of 
three suh-groups, "Rubher Tires and Inner Tuhes," "Ruhher Boots and Shoes," 
and "Ruhher Goods other than Tires, Inner Tubes, and Boots and Shoes,," Ex- 
cluding the first sub-group which was covered by a separate code, and com- 
bining the two remaining sub-groups, gives a classification comparable with 
the Industry as defined by the Code. Together the two sub-groups include the 
manufacture of rubber boots, shoes, overshoes and rubber-soled canvas shoes, 
and rubber belting and hose, rubber heels and soles, reclaimed rubber, rubber- 
ized fabrics, and hard-rubber goods. 

In the Rubber Manufacturing Industry, as defined above, there were in 
1929 about 400 establishments with a capital investment of $287,000,000, em- 
ploying 65,800 wage earners, and having annual sales of more than 
$338,478,000. 1/ The Industry is one of the basic industries of the United 
States, and its products are used by factories, railroads, mines, and con- 
tractors, and in homes throughout the country. 

History 



iL. 



Rubber footwear was among the earliest products of the Industry, and this 
branch of manufacture was probably of leading importance until around 1909, 
Between 1879 and 1889 the development of rubber belting, hose, and other 
mechanical rubber goods was an important factor in the growth of the Rubber 
Industry. The number of manufacturers of belting increased from 2 to 17 dur- 
ing this decade, 2/ and "belting and hose" was reported in the Census of 

1/ Code Application, Rubber Manufacturers' Association, September 25, 1933, 

2/ Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, "Rubber Industry Letter No, 7" 

(September 6, 1933). 
8925 



Manufact-ures as a separate branch of the Rather Industry thereafter until 
1921. Between 1890 and 1900, bicycle and other tiros became one of the 
leading products of the Industry, and so continued until the mass production 
of automobiles made automobile tires the chief product, as they have been 
since about 1909^ Until 1921; however, tires and inner tubes were grouped 
with rubber prodi^cts other than "boobs and shoes" and "belting and hose" in 
the Census reports,, As indicated above, these reports now sub-divide the 
Industry into three divisions, namely, "Rubber Boots and Shoes," "Rubber 
Tires and Inner Tubes," and "Rubber Goods other than Tires, Inner Tubes, and 
Boots and. Shoeso" The "other rubber goods" have constantly increased in im- 
portance until noWf ta!<:en as a group, they run a close second to tires in 
providing emplo5nr:entj, although in value of production they amounted in 1931 
to less than 55 per cent of the value of tires produced, 1/ 

It may thus be seen that the rubber footwear branch of the Industry is 
relatively old; that the automobile tire branch has just arrived at maturity; 
aiid that the other parts of the rubber goods Industry are a conglomeration of 
oldj middle— ageds and new industries. The new industries are constantly 
expanding as inventive genius and low prices make rubber adaptable to new 
uses. 

Diversification of Products 

The extreme diversification of the uses of rubber is due to the -ujiusual 
number of special characteristics which it possesses. It is airtight and 
watertight; it can be made as soft as a glove or as hard as a stone; under 
abrasion in certain conditions it will outwear steel; it will stretch but it 
is highly resilient; it has extraordinary cushioning qiialities; it is 
chemicslly inert; and it is a non-conductor of electricity. 

Because of these qualities and the number of uses to which rubber can 
be put, the number of items produced in the Industry runs literally into the 
tens of thousands. A large percentage of these items are small articles which 
are produced in very large quantities. It takes a great many bathing caps, 
teething rings, rubber sponges, jar rings, toy balloons, rubber shoes, or 
rubber heels to total a million dollars worth of sales. But, by way of con- 
trast, a mechanical rubber goods plant will occasionally turn out a conveyer 
belt weighing 25 tons and selling for thousands of dollars. 

Although the volume of sales is large in the aggregate, it is divided 
among some four bondred establishments, of which only a limited n-mnber are 
classified as large. A few of these large establishments have attained 
national prominence, either because they happen to produce various rubber 
products along with a large output of tires, or because they make so many of 
the different lines of general products that the sum total of their output 
reaches a substantial figure. 

Total Number of Establishments 

As shown in Table I, the total number of establishments in the Industry 
declined from 434 in 1929 to 364 in 1933, a decrease cf 70 establishments, or 
16 per cent, 

1/ Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, "Rubber Industry Letter No, 7" 

(September 6, 1933). 
8925 



-4- 

Thcse figures are "based on reports published in the Census of Manu- 
factures. The accuracy of the fig'ores has "been challenged "by the Euhber 
Manufacturers' Association, New York City, v^hich claims that many of the 
estahlishments included "by the Ceni^us are inoperativee The Association 
estimates the nvn\:&r of active esta'blishments in 1933 not to exceed 275. 1/ 

T1EL"E I 

Total Num'ber of Establishments 



Year Hunber 

1929 434 

1931 405 

1933 364 

Source: Cen sus of Manufactures, 1933 , 
"Rubber Prnducts." excluding 
Rubber Tire and Inner Tube 
Industry, Census data do not 
include establishs-ients having 
an annual production of less 
than $5,000. 



Divisions of the Industry Under the Code 

fJhen a Code of Fair Competition for the Rubber Industry was first con- 
sidered, the Industry (exclusive of the tire and tube division) divided itself 
into nine commodity groups, representing more or less the natural classifica- 
tions of the types of commodities made and sold» Some of them are very com- 
plex in their make-up and have little relationship with the other classifica- 
tions. 

The estimated number of establishments in each of these nine groups, is 
shown in Table II. It will be seen that by far the largest number of estab- 
lishments are fo-and in the Rainwear and Mechanical Rubber Goods Divisions* 

Because of the fact that some of the companies manufacture the products 
of several divisions, the total number of companies shown in this table, does 
not check with the total number of companies engaged in the Industry as shown 
in Table I, above. 



1/ Statement of C, W. Halligan of the Rubber Manufacturers' Association to 
the writer, May, 1935, 



8925 



-5- 

TlBtE II 

Numtcr of Companies, ty Chief Divisions of the 
Industry under the Code, 1SS5 



Division KuDiber of Companies 

AutomoTDile Fabrics, Proofing and Backing 58 

BuhlDer Flooring 15 

I^tlDer Footwear 12 

Hard Euhber 38 

Heel and Sole 60 

Mechanical Eu"b"ber G-oods 188 

Sponge EutlDer 36 

Sundries 65 

Rainwear 192 

Source: HRA Office of Deputy Administrator, April, 1935. 

Size of Esta'blishments "by Wumoer of Wage Earners 

One of the significant features of the Ruhber Industry is the grea.t dis- 
parity in size of esta'blishments. Of the 434 esta'blishments in the Industry 
in 1929j 17 employed more than 1,000 wage earners. Expressed in terms of 
percentages, 3,5 per cent of the esta'blishments employed 43«8 per cent of 
the wage earners. (See Table III.) 

In contrast to the few large establishments is the large number of very 
small establishments employing fewer than 50 wage earners each. Table III 
shows that 262 establishments employed only 3,553 wage earners, or an average 
of about 14 wage earners per establishment. Expressed in percentages, 60.4 
per cent of establishments employed only 5,3 per cent of the wage earners. 

About half of the total number of wage earners were employed in estab- 
lishments having from 51 to 1,000 wage earners. 



8925 



-6- 

TABLE III 

Size of Estatlishraents by Numlier of Wage Earners 
per EstaMisbment, 1929 



Number of T7age 
Earners per 


Eacab 


lisb-oienbs 


WaPte 


Earners 


Number 


Per Cent 


Number 


Per Cent 


Establisliiaent 




of Total 




of Total 


0-50 


262 


60.4 


3^553 


5.3 


51 - 100 


54 


12c4 


4,072 


6.7 


101 « 250 


55 


12,7 


7,780 


11.7 


251 ~ 500 


30 


6o9 


10,721 


16.2 


501 " 1,000 


16 


3.7 


10,827 


16.3 


1,001 - 2s500 


15 


3.5 


28,932 


43.8 


2,501 and over 


2 


0.4 


ay 


a/ 


Total 


434 


100.0 


65,885 


100.0 


Source: Census of 


Manrifactures, 


1929, Vol I. 


Combined total of 



"Rubber Boots exid Shoes" and "Rubber Goods other than Tires 
and Tubes and Boots and Shoes." Census data do not include 
establis'aments having an annual production of less than $5,000. 

a/ Included in total for "1,001 - 2,500" group. 

Number of Establishments by Principal States 

The Rubber Manufacturing Industry is not confined to a single state or 
area, but is scattered throughout the United States. However, a few states 
account for most of the establishments in the Industry, Among these may be 
mentioned Ohio, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, California, Pennsylvania, 
and Connecticut, 

Table IV shows the number of establishments in the principal rubber manu- 
facturing states for each of the Census years, 1929, 1931, and 1933, 



8925 



«7- 

TABLE IV 
Hum'ber of Sstatlishments, ty Principal States 



State 



1929 



1931 



1933 



U. S« Total 

California 
Connecticut 
Illinois 
Indiana 
Massachusetts 
Michigan 
Missouri 
Uew Jersey- 
New York 
Ohio 

Pennsylvania 
Zhode Island 
Texas 

¥ashington 
Uisconsin 



4-34 



405 



364 



28 


23 


31 


20 


17 


16 


24 


24 


20 


12 


13 


9 


70 


63 


60 


9 


9 


7 


10 


9 


9 


49 


47 


42 


45 


42 


38 


81 


81 


66 


23 


20 


17 


10 


10 


8 


6 


6 


4 


4 


2 


2 


7 


7 


9 



Other States 



36 



32 



26 



Source: Census of Manufactures . 1929 and 1933 ^ "Ea'b'ber 
Products," excluding Rubber Tire and Inner Tube 
Industry. Census data do not include estab- 
lishments having an annual production of less 
than $5,000. 

Caipital Investment 

Inasmuch as most of the rubber manufacturing companies are also engaged 
in the manufacture of tires, it is difficult to state the exact capital in- 
vested in the Eabber Manufacturing Industry, However, approximations have 
been made, and the Code proponents, in their application, estimated the in- 
vested capital in 1929 at $286,906,000, and in 1933 at $161,858,000, a de- 
crease of $125,048,000, or 43.6 per cent, as shown in Table V, 

TABLE V 
Capital Investment, 1929-1930 



Yp?)T» 


Amount of Investment 


Decrease 


from 1929 




(000' s) 


Amount 
(000' s) 


Per Cent 


1929 


$286,906 






1930 


253,354 


$33,552 


11.7 


1931 


219,000 


67,906 


23.7 


1932 


185,292 


101,614 


35.4 


1933 


161,858 


125,048 


43.6 



Source: Code Application, Rubber Manufacturers' Association 
(September 25, 1933). 



8925 



-a- 



Statistics of Income 

An analysis of the income of rulDter cor-Dorations wa.s made by the Rubher 
Division of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce in 1933. The Gvzrir- 
mary of their findings is set forth in Tahle VI. 

This tahle shows thpt the tire coroorations as a grouD hegan the year 
1931 with a net deficit, after taxes, of $44,047,000. The other ruther 
coriDorations, which accounted for only 14 xier cent of the gross income of the 
ruhher industries during the 'oeriodj had a net income, after taxes of $35,- 
042,000. This constituted a rate of 4.89 ner cent on their total gross in- 
come. The Industry as a whole had a net deficit, after taxes, of $9,005,000, 

The Bureau's statement regarding the numher of cor-oorations covered 
is as follows: 

"The average ntimher of ruhter corporations re-oorting was 528: tire 
corporations 151, and other ruhher corporations 377; the average numher 
reporting a net income "before taxes was 244, of which 44 were tire 
cor;porations and 200 were other ruhher coroorationse The average nujn- 
"ber reporting a deficit was 255, of which 94 were tire corporations and 
161 were for other ruToher corporations. Thus, less than one-third of 
the tire corporations operated at a profit, while five-ninths of the 
other rxibher corporations enjoyed a net income for the four-year per- ' •' 
iod."l/ 

TABLE VI 
Statistics of Income, Huhher Tire Manufacturing 
Industry and Rubber Manufacturing Industry, 
1927-1930 
(in Thousands) 





Tire 


Other Rubber 


Total Rubber 


Item 


Corporations 


CoriDorations 


Corporations 


Total G-ross Income 


$4,495,744 


$717,090 


$5,212,834 


Corpors.tions Reporting 








Ket Income 








G-ross Income 


2,752,995 


584,252 


3,337,247 


Net Income 


121,525 


53,935 


175,560 


Income Tax 


14,247 


6,449 


20,696 


Net Income Less Tax 


107,378 


47,486 


154,864 


Corporations Reporting 








No Net Income 








G-ross Income 


1,742,749 


132,838 


1,857,587 


Deficit 


-151,425 


-12,444 


-163,869 


Net Income or Deficit 








After Taxes 


_44j047 


35,042 


-9,005 



Source; Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, "Rubber Industry Letter 
No. 1" (July 21, 1933). 

1/ Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, "Rubber Industry Letter No. 1" 
(July 21, 1933). 



8925 



-9- 



Bankruptcies 



The com-olete insolvency record of the inibber goo6.s industry from 1927 
through 1933, as comriiled from Dun and Bradstreet renorts, is shown in 
Tahle VII. " 

Ti\£LE VII 

Eumher of Failures and Amount of Liahilities, 

1927-1933 



Year 


Mumher 


Liahilities 


1927 


4 


$1,576,900 


1928 


6 


238,200 


1929 


4 


2G8.000 


1930 


4 


67,200 


1931 


8 


1,952,170 


1932 


14 


923,883 


1933 


7 


139,968 


Source : I>an 


and Bradstreet 


Monthly 3eview 



(August, 1934), p. 14 o 

Total Value of Production 

According to Census data, the total value of the iDroduction in the in- 
dustry decreased from $434,721,000 in 1929 to $2129102,000 in 1933, a de- 
crease of $222,619,000, or 51 per cent. (See Table IX, helow). 

As will he seen from Tahle VIII, the Code proiDonents, the Ruhher Manu- 
facturers' Association, in the application for a Code, estimated the valiie 
of products in 1929 at $338,478,000. The discrepancy heti^'een this figure and 
that of the Census of Manufactures for the same year may "be due to the dif- 
ficulty of separating statistics of tires from those of other ruhher products, 

TABLE VIII 
Total Value of Production, 1929-1933 



lear 



Amount 



Decrease from 1929 
Amount Per Cent 



1929 
1930 
1931 
1932 

1933 (Pirst six 
months) 



$338,478,000 

270,654,000 

197,811,000 

143,061,000 

69,540,000 



$. 37,824,000 20.0 
140,667,000 41.6 
195,417,000 57.7 



Source: Code Ap-olication, Euhher Manufacturers' Association (September 
25, 1933). 



8925 



-10- 



Value of Production "by Princirial Product Groups 

Changes in value of prod.uction of leading items from 1929 to 1933 are 
shown in Tahle IX. The decline in total value was 51 rier cent, while de- 
clines in individual items ranged from 7 to 71 per cent. The chief 'oroducts, 
measured "by valuej suffered severe decreases: rulaher shoes and overshoes, 
accounting for almost 15 per cent of the total value of iDroduct in 1929, 
dropped 65 per cent; and canvas ruhter soled shoes, accounting for 7 per 
cent of total value of loroduct in 1929^ dropxied 54 per cent. The smallest 
decrease occurred in ruhter soles; their value declined only 7 per cent, 
while, as pointed out elsewhere in this report, (See Tahle XI, helow) the 
volume actually increased, 

TABLE IX 
Value of Production, "by Principal Product Groups, 1929 and 1933 



Product Group 



Unit 









Decrease, 


1929 to 1933 




1929 


1933 








(OOO's) 


(OOO's) 


Amount 
(OOO's) 


Per Cent 


pairs 


$16,141 


$' 4,659 


$11,482 


71.1 


pairs 


64,883 


23,042 


41 , 841 


64.5 


pairs 


30,335 


13,813 


16,522 


54.1 


pairs 


17,927 


11,119 


6,808 


38.0 


pairs 


8,960 


8,316 


644 


7,rl 


sq.yds. 


11,864 


3,362 


8,502 


1\.2 


sq.yds. 


9,682 


.5,456 


4,226 


43.6 


TDOunds 


13,146 


6,512 


5,534 


50,4 


-oo\"inds 


8,213 


2,704 


5,509 


67.0 


feet 


9,049 


3,783 


5,266 


58.1 


feet 


5,988 


2,622 


3,366 


56.2 


TDOunds 


5,033 


1,872 


3,161 


62.8 


pounds 


5,107 


1,474 


3,633 


71.1 


pounds 


4,950 


2,134 


2,816 


56.8 


so. ft. 


4,267 


1,237 


3,030 


71.0 





8,806 


3,926 


4,880 


55.4 





210,370 


116,071 


94,299 


44.8 




434,721 


212,102 


222,619 


51,2 



Ru'b"ber Boots 

Iluh"ber Shoes and Overshoes 

Canvas Eu"b"ber soled Shoes 

*Eu'bl)er Heels 

*E.u'b'ber Soles 

Suhherized Pa'brics 

*Automo"bile and Carriage 

*Eaincoat Pa'brics 
*Transmission Belting 
*Conveyor Belting 
* Garden Hose 
*Pire Hose 
*E.u'b"ber Packing 
*Washers, "V"alves, 

Gaslcets, etc. 
*Ru"b'ber Friction Tape 
*Eu"b"ber Plooring 
*E.uh"ber Mats and Matting 
*Other Ruh"ber Goods 

Total 



Source: Census of Manufactures. 1929 and 1935 ^ "Ru"b"ber Products," excluding 
Eu'b"ber Tire and Inner Tu'be Industry, Census data do not include 
esta"blishments having an annual Toroduction of less than $5,000. 

*1929 and 1933 data are not strictly comparahle "because of the a'b"brevia,ted 
schediile used in 1933; therefore a slight error occurs in the per cent 
and amount of decrease. 



8925 



-11- 

Volume of Production 

Inasmuch as the RuToher Manufacturing Industry consists of the manu- 
facture, of some 30 -,000 different items, the total volume of production is 
difficiilt to ascertain. However, Table X Toresents an index of the volume 
of production obtained "by applying weights to the leading -oroducts s.nd ex- 
pressing the weighted comiDOsite in terms of 1929 production. It '•all he seen 
that the low point came in 1932 when nroduction wa,s not much more than ha,lf 
its 1929 volume. 

T^LE X 

Index of Production, 1929-1933 
(1929-100) 

Year Index 

1929 100.0 

1930 78.0 

1931 ,. 60.2 

1932 56,7 

1933 67.6 

Source: KRA., Research and Planning Divi- 
sion, constructed from production 
and/ or shipments data for selected 
items as reported in Bureau of For- 
eign and Domestic Commerce Survey 
of C ' lrrent Business , weighted ac- 
cording to price. 

Volume of Production hy Principal Product G-roups 

It is interesting to compare the production figures for the principal 
ruhher produ.cts for the years 1929 and 1933. As shown in Tahle XI, the out- 
put of every item except rubber soles was less in 1933 than in 1929. The 
percentage decline varied from 7 per cent for rubber heels to 71 per cent 
for the washers, gasket, and valve group. The decline in production reflected 
the decrease in activity in other industries using rubber products. For 
example, the decreased activity in automobile production was reflected in the 
61.5 per cent decrease in the production of automobile rubberized fa^bric. 

The change in fashion and in the habits of the American people was re- 
flected in the decreased production of rubber boots, which declined 60 per 
cent. However, the most noticeable change in volume of production occurred 
in rubber soles, which showed an increase of 99 per cent. This incre3-se is 
undoubtedly due to the lower cost of rubber soles compared with leather soles 
— a particularly significant factor in years of low income levels — and to 
the development of a technique whereby rubber soles can readily be applied 
by the consumer. An ordinary layman with no loiowledge of shoe-repairing can 
now buy a pair of rubber soles, at a low cost, and affix them to his shoes. 



8925 



-12- 
TABLE XI 
Vol-ume of Production "by Principal Product Grou-os, 1929 and 1933 



Product Group 



Unit 1929 1933 Decrease. 1929 to 1933 
(000' s) (OOO's) Amount Per cent 

(000' s) 



Rutber Boots 

EubTDer Shoes and Overshoes 
Canvas Ruhber- soled Shoes 
*Ru'b'ber Heels 
*Ru"bT3er Soles 
*Ru'b'berized Fabrics 

*Auto, and Carriage 

*Raincoat Pahrics 
* Transmission Belting 
*Conveyor Belting 
*Garden Hose 
*Pire Hose 

*Ruh"ber Packing 

*Washers, Gaskets, Valves, 
etc. 
^Ruliter and Friction Tape. 
♦RublDer Flooring 



pairs 

riairs 
pairs 
pairs 
pairs 
sq, yds 



Toounas 

pounds 

feet 

feet 

pounds 

pounds 
Dounds 
sq, ft. 



5,454 

51,357 

43^354 

292,719 

46,189 



22,408 
25,576 
21.575 
15.443 
145J255 
15,567 
17,923 



2,622 
32,984 



2^ 



389 



13,320 

20,426 

8,566 



272,504 
91,995 

8,620 
18,064 
13,754 

8,536 
103,548 

7,603 

9,328 

3,811 

11,439 

4,325 



2,832 
18,373 
14,255 
20,212 
45,806 a/ 

13,788 

7 J 512 

7,821 

6,907 
41,707 

7,964 

8,595 



9,509 
8,987 
4,241 



51*9 
35.8 
32.5 
5,9 
99,2 a/ 

61.5 
29.4 
36.3 
44.7 
28.7 
51.2 
47.9 

71,4 
44.0 
49.5 



Source: Cen sus of Manufactures., 1933 . "Rubber Products," excluding Rubber 

Tire and Inner Tia.be Industry, Census data do not include establish- 
ments having an annual Toroduction of less than $5,000, 

* 1929 and 1933 data are not strictly comparable because of abbrevia- 
ted schedule. Therefore, a slight error occurs in the per cent 
and amount of decrease or increase. 



a/ 

Prices 



Increase, 



The index of prices declined from 100 in 1929 to a low of 73.5 in 1933, 
In 1934, however, there was an upward swing and the index stood at 83,0, as 
shown in Table XII. 



8925 



-13- 

TABLE XII 

Index of Prices 5 1926-1934 
(I929=i00) 



1S26 
1927 
1928 
1929 
1930 
1931 
1932 
1933 
1934 



121.8 

109,0 

108.5 

lOOoO 

100.3 

86.6 

76.0 

73.5 

83.0 



Source: HRA. Division of Research and Planning^ Con- 
structed ty obtaining the unit value of selected 
ex-Qort items as reoorted in Bureau of Foreign 
and Domestic Commerce, Monthly Summary of Foreign 
and Domestic Commerce , and weighting according to 
the im-oortance of these items in total x)roduction 
during the years 1929-1931. 



8925 



-14- 

Chapter II 

LABOR STATISTICS 

Avera,^e Annual UumTper of Wgige Earners 

The average nu-^ber of wage earners, as reported in the Census of 
luanufactures, declined from 65,885 wage earners in 1929 to 53,307 in 19r33, 
a decrease of 12,578 or 19 per cent. Tahle XIII presents the estirna.ted 
average annual number of employees for the years 1926 through 1934, from 
which it can "be seen that the lowest employment is estimated to have 
occurred in 1932. 

TABLE XIII 

Estimated Average Annual Numher of 
Wage Earners, 1926-1934 



Year 



ilumher of 
fege Earners 



1927 
1928 
1929 
1930 
1931 
1932 
1933 
1934 



61,400 
63,700 
66,000 
65,800 
55,600 
50,100 
46,100 
53,300 
57,900 



Source: HEIA, Research and Planning Division; "based 
on Bureau of Labor Statistics and National 
Industrial Conference Board data for groups 
comparable with those covered by the Code. 
The slight discrepancy between these figures 
and the Census data as published for Census 
years is due to the involved computation. 



Humber of Wage Earners by Principal States 

It will be seen from Table XIV that the three states. New Jersey, 
New York, and Ohio, accounted for about one-half of the total wage earners 
in rubber manufacturing not including boots and shoes, in each of the 
years shown, Massachusetts, which is shown separately only in the rubber 
boot and shoe group, reported the largest employment of any state in 1929, 
but emplojn-nent there had fallen off considerably by 1931, and had not 
recovered a;opreciably by 1933. 



8925 



-15- 

TA3LE XIV 
STumber of TJage Earners, "by Principal States 



942 


686 


890 


3,200 


2,323 


2,510 


1,496 


1,003 


1,343 


1,333 


1,032 


997 


502 


371 


54S 


590 


758 


785 


7,740 


6,664 


7,162 


5,441 


4,361 


4,072 


6,707 


6,151 


5,274 


2,117 


1,498 


1,479 


1,822 


2,645 


2,979 


98 


71 


34 


28 


— a/ 


— a/ 


478 


306 


403 


7,732 


5,349 


6,731 



State 1929 1931 

B.u"b"ber I.Ianufact-U-ri n,^, Hot Including 
Exi'b'ber Boots and Shoes 

California 

Connecticut 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Michigan 

Missouri 

leu Jersey 

Nen York 

Ohio 

Pennsylvania 

Ehode Island 

Texas 

Washington 

Wisconsin 

Other States 

Total 40,226 34,218 35,205 

Ruhher Boots and Shoes 

Massachusetts 11,163 6,277 6,678 

Other States 14,496 9,605 11,424 

Total 25,659 15,882 18,102 

Grand Total 65,885 50,100 53,307 

Source: Census of Manufactures , 1929 , and 1933 , "Euhher Products," 

excluding Rubher Tire and Inner Tuhe Industry. Census data do 
not include estahlishments halving an annual value of production 
of less than $5,000, 

a/ Included in Other States." 

Seasonality of Employment 

The seasonality of eniployment for the years 1929, 1931, and 1933 is . 
illustrated hy Table X7, which shows for each month of the year the index 
of number of wage earners and of man-hours. It will be noted that the 
seasonality of employment for the three years was not identical. Per example, 
in 1929 employment was greater in the early months of the year and declined 
in the later months. In contrast to this, in 1933, emplojnnent was greater 
in the later months. These fluctuations were probably due more to the 
peculiar economic conditions characterizing the years 1929 a-nd 1933 than to 
any purely seasonal influence. The index in 1931 shows less fluctuation 
than in either of the other two years. Both the indexes of employment and 
8925 



-16- 



man-hotirs reflect the rash of production during the last half of 1933, 

T13LE XV 

Estinated Wage Earners and l.Ian-Hoi\rs, "by Months, 1929, 1931, and 1933. 

(Annual Average = 100 ) 



Month 



Index 


of llumher of 




Index of 




Fa, 


ge Earners 




llan-Hours 




1929 


1931 


1933 


1929 


1931 


1933 


102.7 


103,0 


86,1 


99.0 


102.6 


84.8 


101 a 


101,8 


85.4 


98o9 


97.7 


91.6 


101.2 


96.0 


81.6 


100,9 


90,4 


90.0 


101.4 


98.7 


81.2 


103,7 


94,8 


77.6 


101.1 


99.6 


79.9 


104.8 


100.2 


81.0 


101.8 


100.8 


86.1 


103.0 


101.4 


94.8 


102.9 


100.4 


95.7 


111.0 


103.6 


110.2 


103.0 


96.7 


112.9 


101 o 3 


100.2 


117,3 


102.4 


101.0 


123.1 


100.0 


102.9 


115.6 


99.5 


100,6 


125.3 


99.1 


106.1 


123.6 


91.6 


101.8 


123.8 


87.9 


100.6 


116.4 


91.3 


100.0 


118.2 


90.4 


99.4 


113.1 



January 

Pehruary 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

Au.gust 

Septemher 

October 

Novemher 

Decemher 



Source: ITRk, Research and Planning Division; hased on Bureau of LalDor 
Statistics and National Ind.ustrial Conference Board data for 
groups conipara'ble with those covered by the Code. 



Average Annual Wages 

The cLverage annual wages pa.id in the Rubber Manufacturing Industry, as 
reported by the Census of Manufactures, declined from $80,224,000 in 1929 to 
$44,379,000 in 1933, a decrease of $35,845,000, or about 45 per cent. .Table 
XVI presents the estimated annual wages paid for the years 1926 thror.gh 1934. 

TABLE XVI 
Estimated Average Annual Wages, 1926-1934 



Wages 



Source: 



Tear 



1926 
1927 
1928 
1929 
1930 
1931 
1932 
1933 
1934 



Amount 


Index 


(000' s) 


(1929=100) 


$72,644 


90.3 


78,260 


97.3 


80,808 


100,5 


80,444 


100,0 


63,752 


79.2 


49,556 


61,6 


38,792 


48.2 


44,304 


55,1 


51,948 


64.6 



MA, Research and Planning Division; based on Bureau of Labor 
Statistics and ITational Industrial Conference Board data for groups 
comparable with those covered by the Code. The slight discrepa.ncy 
between the dollar figures as reported in this table and as roTDorted 
by the Census for Census years is due to the involved computation. 



8925 



Wages Paid "by Principal States 

Ta.'ble XVII, "based on data pu"blished in the Census of Hamife,ctL\res, 
shows the estimated total annual wages paid to ra"bber workers in the 
various states. As in the case of em|.:)loyees, Hew Jersey, Kew York, Ohio, 
and Massachusetts were the leading states in each of the yea,rs shown. 

TiBLE XVII 

Annual Wages Paid, "by principal States 



State 



1929 



1931 



1933 



Eu"b'ber Manufacturing Kot Including 
Boots and Shoes 



California 

Connecticut 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Michigan 

Missouri 

Hew Jersey 

Hew York 

Ohio 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

Texas 

Washington 

Wisconsin 

Other States 
Total • 



$ ,1,270 


j;;90i 


$ ;784 


3,889 


2,277 


1,825 


1,957 


1,160 


1,231 


1,526 


1,061 


665 


958 


433 


498 


591 


732 


604 


10,605 


7,658 


6,772 


6,943 


4,752 


3,972 


8,047 


5,948 


4,132 


2,505 


1,655 


1,186 


2,045 


2,355 


2,320 


70 


61 


24 


28 


— a/ 


— a; 


455 


257 


263 


9,390 


6,491 


5,662 



50,279 35,738 



29,939 



Ruhher Boots and Shoes 



Massachusetts 

Other States 
Total 



Grand Total 



13,522 


6,393 


5,740 


16,424 


7,377 


8,700 


29 , 945 


13,770 


14,440 


80,224 


49,508 


44,379 



Source: Census of Manufactures , 1935 , "Hu"b"ber Products," excluding 
Hu"b"ber Tire and inner Tu"be Industry. Census data do not 
include esta'blishments having an annual production of less 
than $5,000. 

a/ Included in "other states." 



8925 



-18- 

Percenta^e of Cost Represented "by Wages and Materials 

Prom 1929 to 1933 wages increased as a percentage of cost of production, 
while materials decreased. The data are shown in Table XVIII. 

TABLE XVIII 
percentage of Cost Represented "by Labor and Materials 





Total Value 
of Product 
(OOOts) 


Total 


Wage s 


Total Mate 

Amount 
(OOOts) 


trials Cost 


Year 


Amount 
(0001 s) 


per Cent 
of Total 


per Cent 
of Total 


1929 
1931 
1933 


$347,284 
207,982 
173,430 


$80,224 
49 , 508 
44,379 


23.10 
23.80 
25.59 


$149,070 
79,263 
72,005 


42.92 
38.11 
41.52 


Source: 


Census of Manufactures, 


1933, "Buhher 


Products," 


excluding Ruhbf 



Tire and Inner Tube Industry. Census da.ta do not include estab- 
lishments having an annual production of less theji $5,000. 

Averg.ge Hourly Wage 

As sho\Tn in Table XIX, the estimated average hourly wage declined 
from 55,0 cents per hour in 1929 to 44.1 cents in 1933, a decrease of 10,1 
cents per hour, or 19,8 per cent. In 1934 hourly wage rates were 50,2 
cents, e-n increase of 6.1 cents, or 11.5 per cent over the preceding year. 

TABLE XIX 
Estimated Average Hourly VJages, 1926-1934 



Year 



Hourly Wage 
(in cents per hour) 



1926 
1927 
1928 
1929 
1930 
1931 
1932 
1933 
1934 



55.6 
55.5 
54.7 
55.0 
55.1 
54.8 
45.5 
44.1 
50.2 
/ 



Source: NRA, Research and planning Division; based 
on Bureau of Labor Statistics and National 
Industrial Conference Board data for groups 
comparable with those covered by the Code, 



8925 



-19- 

Average Hours per Week 

Estimated average hours worked per week ty wage earners declined fron 
42.7 in 1929 to 38.9 hours in 1933, and to 34.9 hours in 1934. The decline 
from the 1929 average represented a decrease of 3.8 hours per week, or 8.9 
per cent in 1933^ and 7.8 hours, or 18.2 per cent, in 1934. Table XK 
shows the average hours per week for the period 1926 through 1934, 

TABLE XX 
Estimated Average Hours per Week, 1926-1934 



UuialDer of 
Hours per Week 

1926 41, C 

1927 42.6 

1928 43.0 

1929 42.7 

1930 42.2 

1931 37.5 

1932 36.8 

1933 38.9 

1934 34.9 

Source: HEA, Research and planning Division; "based on Bureau of Lahor 
Statistics and National Industrial Conference Board data for 
groups coinparahle with those covered hy the Code. 

Average Weekly Wage 

The estima.ted average weekly wa,ge declined from $23.49 in 1929 to 
$17.19 in 1933, a decrease of $6.30, or 26.8 per cent. There was a slight 
increase in weekly wages in 1934 when they were $17.95, an increase of 
$0,75 over the preceding year, 

TABLE XXI 
Estimated Average Weekly Wage, 1926-1934 



Year Weekly Wage 

1926 $22.76 

1927 23.64 

1928 23.53 

1929 23.49 

1930 23.22 

1931 20.54 

1932 17.85 

1933 17.19 

1934 17.95 

Source: WA, Research and Planning Division; "based on Bureau of Lahor 
Statistics and national Industrial Conference Board data for 

groups coKipara"ble with those covered "by the Code. 



8925 



-20- 

Chapter III 

ILA.TEPJALS 

Constu'.rotion of Crude RuTplier 

The chief ran materieJ used "by the Industr"/ is crude rubber, Coiisujiiption 
of crude rv.hjer in the Rubber i.iantifacturing Indiistry increased fron 76,765 lorii 
tons in 1929 to 90,974 long tons in 1933, an increase of 14,209 tons, or 1G,5 
per cent. As shown in Table iCKII , most of the increased consmaption too^: -pltic 
in the heel and solS' d_ivision, where constimption increased from 3,104 tons to 
19,054 tons, or more than 100 per cent. 

Table XXII shows the consumption of crude rubber bj'- chief divisions of th( 
Industr3- for the years 1929, 1931, and 1933. 

TA3LE }[XII 

Consumption of Crude Rubber, b:^" Chief Divisions, 
(in long tons) 



Division 



1929 



19315:/ 



1931 



y 



19G 



£/ 



Total 

Boots and Shoes 
Rubber Heels sn.d Soles 
Rubberized Fabrics 
Mechanice.l Groods 

Belting 

Hose and Tubing 

Other 
Rubber Flooring 
Hard Rubber Goods 
Rubber Tliread 
Rubber Cement 
Rubber? C-love s 
Druggist Lie die al Supplies 
Stationer's G-oods 



75,765 



65,; 



65,383 



90,974 



:0,79S 


11,611 


11,611 


17,823 


9,104 


12,020 


11,947 


19,054 


7,655 


7,375 


7,331 


9,141 


4,828 


3,357 


3,355 


3,872 


7,170 


5,147 


5,035 


8,023 


,0,159 


9,283 


9,055 


12,656 


1,906 


2,572 


2,663 


5,152 


2,148 


1,406 


1,384 


2,197 


3,080 


2,547 


2,547 


2,125 


1,824 


1,540 


1,397 


313 


549 


513 


'Pie 


535 


2,091 


2,230 


2,183 


1,794 


2,319 


^ 2,015 


2,008 


3,729 



Other 



3,124 



4,659 



4,424 



6,043 



Source: Census of fenufactures , 1333, "Rubber Products," excluding Rubber Tir. 
and Inner T^abe Industry. Census date, do not include esto.blislniients 
laaving an annual value of products of less than $5,000 

a/ Compare.ble with 1323, but not with 1335. 

b/ Comparable with 1935, bu.t not with 1923, 

cj Hot comparable with 1323, 



8325 



-21- 

Chapter lY 

PRODUCTION AilD DISTRIBUTION 

Value of Production 'by Principal States 

The value of' production of "other ruljlier goods" is shown, hy principal 
states, in Table XXIII. A coraolete state breakdoi-rn of the value of production 
of "'boots a.nd shoes," the other Census groxip covered by the Code, is not avail- 
able. In 1931 the total value of boots and shoes produced was $47,805,000, of 
which Massachusetts acco-unted for $19,116,000; in 1933 the total value was 
$42,019,000, of which Massachusetts produced $18,292,000» 

The value of production of "other rubber goods" is seen to have decreased 
from 1929 to 1933, in each of the states listed. 

TAEL3 XXIII 

Value of Production of "Other Rubber Goods," by Principal States 

(in thousands) 

State 1929 1931 1933 



U. S. Total 

California 
Connecticut 
Illinois 
Indiana 

Massachusetts a/ a/ . a/ 

Michigan 
Missouri 
New Jersey 
New York 
Ohio 

Pennsylvania 
Rhode Island 
Texas 

-Washington 104 b/ «..»-^ b/ 

Wisconsin 

Other States 51,457 35,157 29,794 



Source: Census of Manufactures , 1935 , "Rubber Products," excluding Rubber Tire 
and Inner Tube Industry. Census data do not include establishments 
having an annual value of production of less than $5,000, 

a/ Value of product for Massachusetts is included in the figure for "other 
states." It is not reported separately because of possibility of dis- 
closures. However, the combined value of production of rubber tires, 
Inner tubes and "Rubber Goods Other than Tires, Inner Tubes, and 
Boots and Shoes" in that State is reported as follows (in thousands of 
dollars) • 

1929 ~ 76,440 1931 -, 46,371 1933 - 35,954 
b/ Included in "Other States." 
8925 



$244,746 


$160,077 


$131,411 


7,437 


4,234 


3,890 


19,268 


10,795 


8,188 


8,555 


4,425 


4,502 


5,824 


4,390 


2,682 


— a/ 


— a/ 


. 


5,077 


2,619 


2,250 


4,112 


4,237 


3,368 


50,797 


29,812 


25,936 


32,762 


21,026 


17,745 


33,912 


24,309 


16,749 


12,047 


7,470 


5,235 


10,760 


10,296 


9,222 


405 


273 


185 


104 


™b/ 


*^ «;<:*-» 


3,231 


1,035 


1,665 



-22- 

Voliup.e an d Vo.lue of Export s 

The total value of ezqjorts declined from $17,855,000 in 1929 to 02,1CO,- 
000 in 1933, a decline of $15,676,000, or 83 per cent, as shovni in Ta'ole 'JDZLY. 
The principal Ccause of the decline of our rubber e:r;ports was the conpetition 
of Js;panese and others. In 1934, however, a slight improvement was noted xrhen 
the value of our e:cD0rts \7a.s $2,729,000, an increase of $549,000, or 25 per 
cent over the preceding year. Our loss of the e:rx3ort market v/as not confined 
to enir one rubber product, such as footwear or drug sundries, bi\t was t^ppical 
of practically p.ll lines of rubber goods. 

Hie volxmie and value of our exports of rubber goods for the years 1929, 
1931, 1933, DJid 1934 is shown in Table XXIV. 



8925 



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