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Full text of "Evidence study"

„,„, BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 

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NATIONAL RECOVERY ADMINISTRATION 

— APH 8 1936 ^ 

DIVISION OF REVIEW 



EVIDENCE STUDY 



NO. 4 

Df 



OF 



THE BUILDER'S SUPPLIES INDUSTRY 



Prepared by 

R. H. HOWARD 



September, 1935 



PRELIMINARY DRAFT 
(NOT FOR RELEASE: FOR USE IN DIVISION ONLY) 



(T!/n /!0!iiIVKi /J Jgy H9'? 3 "'"^'"^ T''/. ) 






jVIL] 



Sl'JIiY SJIRILS 



Tlie EVIDE]\fCE STUDIES v/ere originally Tolanned as a r.eans of gathering 
e-T-idence bearing upon various legal issues wiiich arose under the Rational 
Industrial He co very Act. 

These studies have value a.uits aside from the use for which they were 
originally intended. Accordingly, they are ncv made aYaila,ble for coiif idential 
use within the Division of Bevie-.j, and for inclusion in Code Histories, 

The full list of the Evidence Studies is as follovrs; 



1. Autonohile Manufac tearing Jnd. 

2. Boot and Shoe Mfg. Ind. 

3. Bottled Soft Drink Ind. 

4. Builders' SujJplics Ind. 

5. Cheraical Mfg. Ind. 

6. Cigar Mfg. Indtistry 

7. Constru.ction Industry 

8. Cotton G-ar;.-:!ent Industry 

9. Dress Mfg. Ind. 

1(3. Electrical Contracting Ind. 

11. Electrical Mfg. Ind. 

12. Fab, Metal Prcd. Mfg., etc. 

13. Fishery Industry 

14. Furniture Mfg. Ind. 

15. C-€nera± Contractors Ind. 

16. Graphic Arts Ind. 

17. Gray Iron JTonndry Ind. 

18. Hosiery Ind. 

19. Infant's & Children's Wear Ind, 

20. Iron and Steel Ind. 

21. Leather 

22. Lnmber & Timber Prod. Ind. 



23. Mason Contractors Industry 

24. Men's Clothing Industry 

25. Motion picture Industry 

26. Motor Bus Mfg. Industry (Dropped) 

27. Needlework Ind. of Puerto Paco 

28. Feinting cm Paperhianging &. Decorating 
23. photo Engraving Industry 

30. plumbing Contracting Industry 

31. Retail pood (See 'Eo. 42) 

32. P:etail Lumber Industry 

33. He tail Solid Fuel (Dropped) 

34. He tail Trade Industry 

35. Rubber Mfg. Ind. 

3;. Paibber Tire Mfg. Ind. 

37. Silk Textile Ind. 

33. Structural Clay Products Ind, 

33. ThroT^ing Industry 

40. Trucking Industry 

41. Waste Materials Ind. 

42. Tfnolesale & Retail Food Ind. (See iTo. 

43. Vnolesale Fresh Fruit & Yeg. 31) 



In addition to the studies brought to conpletion, certain materials have 
been assembled for other industries. These i^LATZPJALS are included in the series 
and are also made available for conx'identiaJ use within the Division of Reviev/ 
and for inclusion in Code Histories, as foxlows: 



44. Wool Textile Industry 49. 

45. Automotive parts & Sauip. Ind, 50. 

46. Baking Industry 51. 

47. Canning Industry 52.' 

48. Coat and Suit Ind. 53. 



Household Goods & Storage, etc, (Drop-' 
Motor Vehicle Retailing Trade lnd« ped) 
Retail Tire & Battery Tre.de Ind. 
Ship & Boat 31dg. & Repairing Ind, 
Wholesaling or Distributing Trade 



L. C. Marshall 
Director, Division of Review 



COHTEilTS 



Porenord 

CHAPTER I - HiTIEffi OP THE TRA.DE 2 

Code Definition. . 2 

Total N-urnlDer of Estalilishinents 2 

Code Authority Data 2 

Census Data 2 

Num'ber of Estalilislirnents ty States 4 

KimlDer of I.iera'bers '^ 

Failixres ^' 

•Value of Sales ^ 

Code Autliority Data 4 

Census Data 5 

Competing Products 5 

Retail Prices of Building Ilaterial 5 

CHAPTER II - LABOR STATISTICS 6 

KririTDer of Employees. 6 

Code Authority Data 6 

Census Data 6 

Ni-TTiiTDer of Eiri'-iloyees oy States 6 

Total Annu^al Payrolls 9 

Annual Payrolls '"oj States 9 

Ratio of La'cor Cost to ]iet Sales 9 

Hours Worked . , 9 

CHAPTER III - LATSRIALS 10 

Kinds and Cost of Ilaterials Sold 10 

Importance of the Trade as a 

DistrilDuting Agency 10 

Geographical So-cijcce of Materials 11 

Imports of Materials 13 

CHAPTER IV - S4LSS 14 

Sales by States » .... 14 

Code Authority Data 14 

Census Data. 14 

Extent of Interstate Business 15 

Ezcports 17 

Mark-Up 17 

Advertising liedia 17 

CHAPTER V - TRA.DE PRACTICES 19 

Unfair Practices Prior to the Code 19 

Unfair Trade Practices Under the Code 19 

Effect of Price Cutting on 

National Price Structure . . , 19 

APPEIIDIX 20 

BUILDIEG LATERIALS PRICE CliilRTS 21 

oOo 

8593 - i - 



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I1A.BLE 



I - 



EilBLE II - 

'aiA.SLE III " 

TABLE IV - 

[EA.BLE V - 

TABLE VI - 

TABLE VII - 

TABLE VIII ~ 

TABLE IX - 

TABLE :[ - 

TABLE XI - 

TABLE XII - 

TABLE XIII - 



Total laimber of EstalDlishi.ients in 10 

Principal Trade States, 1929 and 1953 3 

N-umter and Liatiilities of Failures in 

Building Supply Estatlishraents, 1933 and 1934 ... 4 

Estimated Sales, Toy 6 Principal 

Kinds of Materials 5 

Estimated Annual Average ITumoer 

of Full-Time Empl03rees 6 

Total l\rura"ber of Enplo;/ees in 

10 Principal States, 1929 and 1933 7 

Total Anntial Par^Tolls in 10 

Principal Sales States, 1329 and 1933 8 

Ratio of Total Payrolls to ITet Sales, 

1929 and 1933 9 

Estimated Cost of Materials, "by 

6 Principal Kinds, 1929 and 1934 10 

Sales to IJliOlesalers and P.eta-ilers, 

l)y Manufacturers of 5 Principal 

Building Materials, 1929 11 

Production of Chief Materials 

Distri"buted liy Principal Distributing 

States, 1929 12 

Estimated Total Sales in 10 

Principal Sta.tes, October 19S3 to 

September 1934 (inclusive) 14 

Total Net Sales in 10 Principal 

States, 1929 and 1933 16 

Extent of Retail Lumber and Building 

Materials Business in 22 Metropolitan 

Districts, Wlriicli Extend Across State 

Lines, 1929 17-18 



oOo 



8593 



- 11 



THE BUILDERS' SUPPLIES TRADE 

F oreword 

Evidence presented herewith is "based on Census data and statements of 
officials of the former Code Authority for the Builders' Supplies Trade, It 
was necessary in compiling the Census data to include "both retail and whole- 
sale establishments (as defined "by the Censiis Bureau) in order to ohtain 
approximate Code coveiv,:;'-'. 

The discrepancy "between the Code Authority data and the Census data, 
which in the matters of employment and sales is great, is due to the dif- 
ference hetween the Census classification and the Code definition of the 
Trade, The comhined wholesale Census classification, "Lumher and Building 
Materials," and the retail Census classification of the same name, are rough- 
ly comparable with the Trade as defined hy the Code, hut include some types 
of establishments whose major lines of business was not covered by the Code. 
In the wholesale field these establishments consisted of dealers in "lumber 
and millwork" and "glass," both of which have been e:scluded from the Census 
data cited in this report. Insofar as these dealers carry the building 
supplies listed in Chapter I of this Study as coming under this Cod.e,. this 
exclusion is too broad. In the retail field, two subgroups, "lumber and 
building material dealers" and "lumber and hardware dealers" could not be 
broken down - even for the year 1929 when the published breakdowns were 
fairly complete - to exclude the lumber business, v;hich was covered in 
another cod-e definition. As this in particular amounts to a large proportion 
of the business done by establishments in the Census classification used, 
the data cited for this group are exaggerations of the extent of the Trade 
as defined by the Code, l/ 

Another factor which makes Census data non-comparable with Code Authority 
data is that in the Census tabulations each establisliment *- its employees, 
payroll, sales, etc. - is put in only one classification, according to the 
major portion of its business. Therefore an establishment whose major busi- 
ness V7as in builders' supplies, as defined by the Code, but which also carried 
other materials not covered by the Code definition of the Trade, such as 
lumber, coal, etc. , would be included in its entirety in the Census classi- 
fication used, while the Code Authority data pertain only to that portion of 
such a business as actually came under the Trade as codified. 

Despite the various limitations of the Census data, they are believed 
to be sufficiently representative of the Trade, as defined by the Code, to 
be used in a study of this kind. These data were collected in only two 
years, 1929 and 1933, 

The Code Authority data used herein were furnished by Mr, L, I, MacQueen, 
formerly Secretary of the Code Authority for the Builders' Supplies Trade, 
who made estimates based on the results of questionnaires sent to the Trade 
in 1934, and estimates based on his general knowledge of the Trade Gai::od by many 
years of experience as an official of builders' supplies trade associations. 

Due to the inapplicability of parts of the outline for Evidence Studies to 
non-manufacturing activity, and to lack of pertinent data, several of the top- 
ics listed in the first five sections of the Outline and all of those listed 
in Section VI have not been covered in this report* 



ly The particular subCTOups used in selectijag Census data are indicated 



Chapter I 

NATUEE Ol' TIIS TE.4DE 



Code Definition 



The Bailders' Supolies Trade is defined in the Code 1/ as follows: 

"Builders' Supplies. - The term iBuilders' Supplies' as used heroin 
is "broadly defined as those products used in building and constmc- 
tion vfork and commonly designated as fire resistant. The term 
'Builders' Supplies' as used herein specifically comprehends the 
following products; 

"Brick Ivlortars, Casement and Steel Sash, Cement and Cement Products. 
Cement Pipe, Ceramic Tile, Clay Eoof Tile, Com.mon Brick Cut Stone, 
Dampers and Fireplace Accessories, Drain Tile, Face Brick, Fire 
Brick and Clay, Glazed Structural Tile, a^-psum Products, Hollow 
Tile, Lime and Lime Products, Mineral Ag'gregates, Mortar and Cement 
Colors, Molding plasters, Eoof and Flooring Slates, Sewer Pipe, 
Flue Lining and other Clay Products, Structural Terra Cotta and 
Waterproofing Compoundso" 

Total lumher of Esta'blishments 

Code Authority Data . - Tlie Secretary of the Code Authority states that 
in 1934 there were 30,000 establishments \7hich handled a sufficient volume 
of builders' supplies to be subject to the Code, 

Census Data . - As explained in the Foreword of this report, Census data 
do not exactly fit the Trade £is defined in the Gods. By selecting the Census 
classification which aroproximately fit the Code definition, it was found that 
in 1929 there were about 28,000 establishments and in 1933 about 22,000. 
(See Table I below.) 



1/ This definition is contained in Anendment No. 2, approved October 25, 
1934. The Code was approved on October 3, 1933. 

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Mumber of EstalJlishments "by States 



The establishments were widely spread over the country. The n-onber in 
the ten most important states listed in order of their importance on the l)asis 
of munter of establishments in 1929 are given for 1929 and 1933 in Table II be- 
low. 

Number of Liembers 

The number of members of the Trade and the number of establishments were 
approximately the same, according to the Secretary of the Code Authority. 

Failures 

Data on the number and liabilities of failures in the Trade as defined 
by the Code are not available. Ho\7ever, Dun and Bradstreet have compiled 
failure statistics for two groups of establishments which handled builders' 
supplies along with other materia.ls not included by the Code definition. These 
data are believed to be sufficiently representative of the Trade to indicate 
at least a trend. They are given in Table II below for the years 1933 and 1934 
Data for other years are not available. 

TABLE II 







Numb 


er and Liabilit 
Supply Establi 


i.es of Failur 
3hments, 1933 


es in Building 
and 1934 








Type 


of 
shjnent 


a/ 




Number 
1933 


of 


Failures 
1934 






Li 


ab: 


Llit 


ies 


Establi 


1933 






1934 



LTxmber and Building 
Master ials 



lb8 



82 



$9,655,146 $1,571,591 



Stone, Clay and 
Glass 

Total 



154 
322 



54 
136 



3,102,170 2,141,864 
12,757,316 3,713,555 



Source: Compiled from data reported monthly in the Dun and Bradstreet Monthly 
Review. 



a/ 



Both retail and wholesale establishments are included. 



Value of Sales 

Code Authority Data . - Estimates of the value of sales in the years 1929, 
1931, 1933, and 1934 were supplied by the Secretary of the Code Authority, to- 
gether with a breakdown of the total sales by six principal kinds of materials. 
These data are contained in Table III as follows: 



8593 



-5- 



TABLE III 



Estimated Sa,!l3s, "by 6 PrinciiJal 
Kinds 01 Materials 
(In Thousand s) 



Kind of Hater ial 



1929 



1931 



1933 



1934 



Cement 

Clay Products 

Plaster 

Sewer Pipe 

Mineral Aggregates a/ 

Lime 

Other 

Total 



$247,500 
82,500 
55,000 
41 , 250 
41,253 
27,500 
55,000 

550,000 



$135,000 
45,000 
30,000 
22,500 
22,500 
15,000 



$56,250 

18,750 

12,500' 

9,380 

9,3TO 

5,250 



30,000 12,500 



300,000 125,000 



$53,000 
21 , 000 
14,000 
10,500 
10,500 
7,000 
14,000 

140,000 



Source: Code Autho_ity for Builders' Supplies Trade 
a/ Sand, gravel, and cr-ashed stone. 

Censu-s Data . - Sales made by the establishments in the Census classifica- 
tions selected amounted to $2,447,553,000 in 1929 and $718,024,000 in 1333. 
(See Table SII below). The discrepancy between these figures and those for 
the corapaa-able years submitted by the Code Authority is obviously wide and is 
due principally to the inclusion in the Census data of the sales of those 
materials that were not included in the Code definition, the principal one of 
which is lumber, the production and sale of which product was covered by other 
Codes, 

Competing Products 

The following prod.ucts, according to the Secretary of the Code Authority, 
compete with the products handled by the Trade; lumber, ready-mixed concrete, 
concrete block, and concrete pipe. 

fietail Prices of Building Material 

Indices of retail prices of building materials covering the period Septem- 
ber 1321, to March 1935, as prepared by the Research and Planning Division, 
KRA, £<.re included in the appendix of this report. Some of the charts a.epict 
the trend in the price of materials which were not inclv-ded under the Code 
definition of the Builders' Supplies Trade, and such charts are marked \Tith 
an asterisk in the list of charts placed at the beginning of the appendix. 



8593 



-6- 

Chapter II 

LifflOE STATISTICS 

Mumber of Employees 

Code Authority Data. - Estimates of the numoer of full-time employees 
engaged in the Trade, made ty the Secretary of the Code Authority, are 
given in Tatle IV as follows: 

TABLE IV 

Estimated Annual Averag'e Numter oi Fall-Tine Eirployees 

Year Average llumber of 

Pall- Time Employees 

1929 500,000 

1931 450,000 

1933 200,000 a/ 

1934 220,000 

Source: Code Authority for Builders' Supplies Trade. 

a/ Average for first 9 months. 

Censn-s Daca » - Figures on the total number of employees as compiled 
from the Census data for the classifications selected as being most closely 
comparable with this Trade are given in Table V, below. 

It is seen tha,t employi-aent fell off approximately 47 per cent in the 
country as a whole between 1929 and 1933. As part-time emioloyees and er.>- 
ployees of establishments whose annual btisiness amounted to l6ss than 
$1,000 are not included in the data for v/holesale establisliments in 1933, 
the actual decline was slightly less than that shown by this table. 

Although Census data showed sales to be considerably higher than those 
submitted by the former Code Authority, the Census figures on employment 
are considerably lower than the Code Authority's. This situation is 
probe>bly due mainly to the difference in method used in compiling the two 
sets of data. The former Code Authority's data are merely estimates, and, 
as has been pointed out above, the Census data are for classifications 
which do not exactly fit the Code definition of the Trade. Part of the 
discrepancy is probably due to the fact that an unlaiown proportion of the 
employees of wholesale dealers in lumber and millwork, and of glass were 
presujnably covered by the Code. 

number of Em-ployees by States 

Table V, supra, which lists the ten most important states in the order 
of their importance on the basis of emplojinent in this Trade in 1929, shov/s 
a toncentration of emplosonent in these states. Almost 59 per cent of the 
employees were employed in these ten states in 1929 and approximately 54 
per cent were employed there in 1933. 

8593 



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5593 



-9- 
Total .Annual Payrolls. 

Data on payrolls were not furnished by the former Code Authority, 
Cens-as data for the selected classifications of estahlishments are given 
for the United States and the ten most important states in Table VI, 
"below. The figures show that in the United States as a whole there was 
a decline in payrolls in this Trade oetv/een 1929 and 1933 of about 63 
per cent — a greater decline than that in number of employees. The 
decline vrould have been shown to have been smaller if the payrolls of 
those wholesale establislmients whose business was less than $1,000 during 
1933 had not been excluded from the 1933 data. 

Annual Payrolls by States 

Table VI below shows a slightly greater concentration of payrolls 
in the ten leading states for this Trade than in the number of employees. 
In 19.29, these ten states accounted for about 63 per cent of the total 
payroll, and, in 1933, approximately 58 per cent. 

Ratio of Labor Cost to Het Sales 

Tron the Census data it is possible to obtain an approximation of 
the proportion that labor cost is of the total value of sales made by the 
Trade. Since the Census data are not entirely representative of the 
Trade, this ratio cannot be accepted as strictly accurate. The data, 
Tirhich are given in Table VII, below, show that payrolls constituted about 
11 per cent of net sales in 1929 and 14 per cent in 1933. 

TABLE VII 

Ratio of Total Payrolls to Het Sales, 1929 and 1933 



Year Total Payrolls Net Sales Per Cent Payrolls 

(000,000's) (000,000's) are of Net Sales 



1929 $277 $2,44-8 11.3 

1933 103 718 14.3 



Source: Census data, as given in Tables VI above and XII, below. 
Hours Vforked 

The average number of hours worked per week per employee v/as estimated 
by the Secretary of the former Code Authoi-ity to have been 55 in 1929, 40 
in 1931, and 25 in 1933 and 1934. 

Tlie same authority estimated that the average nuinber of weeks worked 
per year was 50 in 1929, and 40 in 1934. 

Chilr-l Labor 

According to the Secretary ox the former Code Authority, there were 
few workers in the Trade under 16 years of age before the adoption of the 
Code and none reported during its operation, 

8593 



-IG- 



Chapter III 

IvIA-TBRIALS 

Kinds aiid Cost of llaterials Sold 

This Trade uses no materials in the production of goods. The total 
amount spent !>;'• the Trade in the purchase of materials for resale \Yas 
estina.ted hy the Secretary of the former Code Authority to have heen 
$357,500,000 in 1929, and $84,000,000 in 1934. These amounts are 65 per 
cent and 60 per cent of sales in the respective years, as estimated liy 
the same authority. Delivery costs, according to the Secretary, averaged 
20 to 26 per cent of sales. 

A trealcdcTii of the total amount spent for six principal kinds of 
materials vras also furnished hy the Secretary and is given in the follon- 
ing ta.hle, 

TABLE VIII 

Estimated Cost of Materials, By 5 
Principal Kinds, 1929 and 1934 
(in thousands) 



Kind of Material 



1929- 



1934 



Cement 

Clay Products 
plaster 
Sevrer Pipe 

Mineral Aggregates a/ 
Lime 
Other 

Total 



$160,875 


$37,800 


53,625 


12,600 


35,750 


8,400 


26,812 


6,300 


26,813 


6,300 


17,875 


4,200 


35,750 


8,400 



357,500 



84,000 



Source: Code Authority for Builders' Supplies Trade, 
a/ Sand, gravel and crushed stone. 



Importance of the Trade as a Distrihiiting Ar'^ency 

Some idea of the importance of this Trade in the field of distrihution 
may he obtained from the data contained in a puhlication of the Bureau of 
the Census, Distrihution of Sales of I.ianuf acturing Plants , which covers 1929. 
Data have heen selected from this report \7hich shot; the proportion uhich 
the sales nade hy manufacturers of five principal building materials to 
wholesalers and retailers are to the total sales to all distributing agen- 
cies, TTnile the figures are given for all wholesalers and retailers of the 
various naterials selected, including those establishments that were not 
under the Code, it is believed that the major portion of the sales made to 
wholesalers and retailers were made to the type of establishments which came 
under the sjnended definition. The data given in Table IX below show that 
approximately three-fourths the total sales of cement, fire brick, hollow 

8593 



-11- 

'buildin;2j" tile, and wall plaster were made through wholesalers and retailers, 
In the ca,se of common brick, about 40 per cent was so sold, 

TABLE IX 

Sales to Wiolesalers and Retailers, '^oy Manufacturers of 
5 Principal Building Materials, 1929 



Material 








Total Sales 
(000 's) 


a/ 


Sales to Fnolesalers 
and Retailers b/ 




ibno-ont 
(000' s) 


Per Cent of 
Total Sales 


Cement 

Common Brick 

Face Brick 

Hollow- Building Tile 

Wall Plaster, etc. c/ 




$255,604 
40,192 
17,852 
18,015 
70,563 




$196,539 
15,756 
11,441 
12,507 
56,201 


76.9 
39,2 
64,1 
69.4 
79.5 


Source: Bureaii 


of the 
1929. 


Cen 


3US, Distribul 


.ion 


of Sales of Manufacturin;?; 


Plants 











a/ Total sales include the sales made to all types of distributing 

agencies, including, in addition to wholesalers and retailers, msaiu- 
facturers' own wholesale and retail branches, sales agents, brokers, 
and commission houses. They also include sales made direct to in- 
dustrial and other large consiimers (manufacturers, railroads, con- 
tractors, etc.). The data for cement and wall plaster do not incl'ade 
the sales of establishments whose products were valued at less than 
$5,000.00 in 1929. The other sales data are for all establisliments 
regardless of size. 

b/ As here used, wholesalers and retailers include certain tjqpes of 
establishments which were not under the Builders' Supplies Trade 
Code, such as limber yards, as well as those v;hich were under this 
Code, 

c/ TJa]-l plaster, wall board, insulating board, and floor composition. 



G-eogra'phical Source of Materials 

Data which show the production by leading distributing states of 
eight principal materials distributed by this Trade were selected from the 
Census of Manufactures report for 1929 and a.re given in Table X, which 
follows. 



Production of Chief Materials, Distriljated Ijy Principal Distributing States, I929 









Wall Plaster, a/ 












Hollow Building 






Liae, 


5ydrated 






Portland 

In 

Thousand 


Cement 
Per 


Wall. Boards Jits^ 
In 


Sewer 
In 


Pipe 


Conmon Brick J^ce Brici 




Tile 




Drain 


Tile . 


__gnd Qnlek 
In 
















Barrel ■? 


Cent 


Thousand 


Per 


Thousand Per 


In 


Per 


In 


Per 


In 


Per 


In 


Per 


Thousand Per 




State 






Dollars 


Cent 


Tons 


Cent 


Millions 


Cent 


Millions 


Cent 


Millions 


Cent 


Thousands Cent 


Tons 


Cent 


State 


U. S. Total 


169,86s 


100.0 


$70,663 


100.0 


1.675 


100.0 


5.505 


100.0 


2.139 


100.0 


3. 318 


100.0 


859 


100.0 


3.256 


100.0 


U. S. Total 


Cal if omla 


12,965 


7.6 






82 


4.9 


288 


5-2 


















California 


Illinois 














836 


15.2 


220 


10.3 


280 


8.4 


137 


15.9 






Illinois - 


Indiana 










122 


7.3 






130 


6.1 






116 


13.5 






Indiana 


Iowa 






U,5l6 


b.k 














234 


7.0 


200 


23.3 






Iowa 


Michigan 


13.326 


7.8 


3, 9^4 


5.6 


















^3 


5.0 






Michigan 


Missotiri 










8>t 


5.0 


















318 


9.8 


liissouri 


New Jersey 






















434 


13.1 










Ivevf Jersey 


New York 


10,71+3 


t5 


17.290 


2U.5 






76I+ 


13-9 


















Nevr York 


Ohio ■ 


9,1^ 


3.920 


"J.^ 


697 


1^1.6 


260 


4.7 


501 


23.4 


7I45 


22.5 


272 


31-7 


l6g 


17.4 


Ohio 


Pennsylvania 


39.310 


23.1 






263 


15.7 


1+18 


7.6 


466 


21.8 


253 


7.6 






13.0 


Pennsylvania 


Tennessee 






























5.2 


Ten-ie see 


Texas 






3.8U1 


^.h 










96 


4.5 














Texas 


iTest Virginia 






























241 


7.4 


Vi'est Virginia 


lotal, 3 Leading 
States Prodacing 
These Items 


' B3Mi 


50.2 


33.511 


kl.k 


i.aUg 


7^.5 


2.566 


U6.6 


1M3 


66.1 


i.9lt6 


58.6 


768 


89.4 


1.720 


52.8 


Total, 5 Leading 
States Producing 
These Items 


Total, Other 
States 


gi|,3go 


U9.S 


37.152 


52.6 


»*27 


25.5 


2,939 


53.i* 


724 k 


33.9 


1,140 


34.4 


91 


10.6 


1.605 


49.3 


Total, Other 
States 


■ Source: Census of Uanofactures. 19g2. Voluae 


II. Data for 


the three groups. 


cement 


, wall plaster. 


and line do not 


cover establishments 


having 


an f>T»infli prodoction of less than $5,000 



^ Data are for value, not volume. Gypsum board, gypsum and other plaster, fibre wall and Insulating board and floor composition are included. 



-13- 



The volume of prod-action of the materials selected is shoivn — 
excBTjt ill the case of wall plaster, etc., r/here sales fi^ires only uere 
available — for the five states leading ir: their productions, along -dth 
the percentage which each state's production is to the total of the 
United States, l/hile the naterials are, produced in nearly all states, it 
is evident from the dat,a that there is a marhed f.^eographical concentration 
in the prod'action of these naterials. 

Imports of Materials . - Imports of building naterials anou-it to e, 
sroall iDro^iortion of United States production. In 1929, 1,723,000 harrels 
of cement were ixaported, 1/ amounting to ahout one jjer cent of United 
States -orodaction in that year. Ir. the same ireax , 32,848 tons of lime 
and crude limestone were imported, 1/ which amouiited to atout one per cent 
of the United States production of finished lime. 

According to the Secretar/" of the former Code Authority, the chief 
scarce s of imp)orted cement were Belgium, Poland, Gzechosloval:ia, aiid 
Sweden; of lime, Canada. 



1/ Bureau- of foreign and Domestic Commerce, Poreign Commerce and 
ITo.vigation of the United States, 1929 . 



359[ 



/• V 



-14- 
Chapter IV 
SiliES 
Sales Tjy States 

The Trade is nationwide in scope and sales are made in every state, 
tut more than half of the sales are made in ten states, as will he seen from 
Tahles XI and XII, helow. 

Code Authority Data. - The former Code Authority, in applying for ap- 
proval of its hudget, submitted, a tahlo showing the estimated sales, hy 
states, for the period "-ctoher, 1333, to September, 1934. This table has 
been reduced to show the sales in the ten leading states, in order of their 
importance in sales, as follov/s: 

TABLE XI 

Estimated Total Sales in 10 Principal States, 
October 1933 to September 1934 (inclusive) 
(In thousands) 



State 



Sales 



Amount 



Per Cent 
of Total 



U. S, Total 

New York 

Illinois 

Ohio 

Pennsylvania 

California 

Missouri 

Kansas 

Michigan 

Teza.G 

New Jersey 

Total, 10 States 
Total, Other States 



$118,603 

9,200 
9,000 
8,353 
7,373 
7,347 
6,500 
3,750 
3,719 

KJ g Do4t 

3,000 
61,776 
56,827 



100,0 

7.8 
7.6 
7.0 
6.2 
6.2 
5.5 
3.2 
3.1 
3.0 
2.5 

52.1 

47.9 



Source: Budget Application, submitted by Code Authority for Builders' 
Supplies Trade. 

Census Data. - Census data on the sales of the establislriments in the 
classifications selected are given in Table XII for the calendar years 1929 
and 1933, 

While the periods covered by Tables XI and XII are not the sajne, the 
discrepancy between the Census and Code Authority figures cannot be assigned 
to this cause alone. The major discrepancy lies in the tvro factors hereto- 
fore mentioned — the non-comparability of the Census classification and the 
Code definition and the fact that the former Code Authority's data are 



8593 



mis- 
estimates. It may "be noted, however, that both tables show a concentration 
of sales volume in a limited number of states, and that eight of the ten 
most important states in sales are identical in both sets of data. 

Extent of Interstate Business 

There s-re no comprehensive data available on the extent of the inter- 
state business carried on by this Trade. However, some data have been 
selected from Census reports which may serve as an indication of the extent 
of this xihase of the Trade, 



8593 





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8593 



-17- 

In Talile XIII, telow, data are given on the nwnlDer of estalDlishments 
and employees, the amotmt of sales and paj^rolls in 22 metropolitan dis- 
tricts. It is not possible to tell from these data, the volume of commodi- 
ties shipped across state lines, hut the figTO-es do show the amount of 
sales made in the districts selected, part of which undoubtedly consisted 
of commodities which crossed state lines. 

The data given in this tahle are suhject to the limitations mentioned 
heretofore; namely, that they are not strictly representative of the Trade 
as defined hy the Code, "because data for "lumher and huilding ma^terial deal- 
ers" and "lumher and hardware" des^lers, only a minor part of whose husiness 
was covered hy the Code definition, are includedo 

Exports 

The amount of goods exported hy the memlDers of this Trade is negligihle, 
according to the Secretary of the former Cede Authority. 

Mark-Ux) 

The Secretary estimated that the average mark-up on warehouse items is 
50 per cent of cost; on carload items, 12^? per cent; and that the average 
mark-up on all items is 40 per cento 

Advertising Media 

The advertising media used hy the Trade are: radio, newspapers, trade 
journals, calendars, pencils and miscellaneous items. 

TABLE XIII 



Extent of Retail Lumher and Building Materials Business 

in 22 Metropolitan Districts, 

Ihich Extend Across State Lines, 192957 



District 


Numter of 
tahlishment 


s^ 


Hiimher of 
Employeesc/ 


Payrolls 
(OOO's) c/ 


Net Sales 


Es- 


Amount Pex 


• Cent of 












(OOO's) U. 


S. Total 


U. S. Total 


26,377 




149,559 


$222,854 


$1,918,284 


100.0 


Total, 22 Met- 














roioolita.n Dis- 














tricts 


1,896 




19,199 


35,632 


269,609 


14,1 


Chattanooga 


11 




175 


240 


1,637 


0.1 


Chicago 


259 




3,308 


7,363 


48,783 


2.5 


Cincinnati 


65 




670 


1,118 


8,663 


0.5 


Davenport 


20 




644 


1,000 


7,842 


0.4 


DuLuth 


30 




199 


367 


2,982 


0.3 


Evansville 


22 




223 


329 


1,630 


0.1 


Huntington (¥. Ya.) 


9 




75 


98 


575 


0.0 


Kansas City (Kans. & 


Mo.) 104 




1,053 


1,735 


11,813 


0.6 



8593 



(Continued on following p-^<^^ 



-18- 



TABLE XIII (Cont'd) 



District 


Number of 
Estahlishment 


sb/ 


Numter of 
Employees c/ 


Payrolls 
(OOO's) c/ 


Net Sales 






Amount Per ( 


3ent of 














(OOO's) U. S 


, Total 


Louisville 




41 




481 


■ 514 


4,094 


0.2 


Memphi s 




S7 




494 


711 


5,056 


0,3 


New York 




650 




6,006 


12,290 


108,134 


5.6 


Omaha 




54 




556 


912 


6,605 


0.3 


Philadelphia 




171 




1,475 


2,422 


17 , 246 


1.0 


Portland (Ore.) 




61 




268 


382 


2.505 


0.1 


Providence 




85 




1,013 


1,619 


11,260 


0,6 


St. Louis 




135 




1,113 


1,791 


11,535 


0.6 


Springfield (Mass. 


) 


20 




182 


330 


2,621 


0.1 


Trenton 




18 




187 


420 


3,038 


0.2 


Washington, D, C. 




31 




354 


581 


4,598 


0,2 


Wheeling 




14 




105 


195 


840 


0.0 


Wilmington 




9 




246 


365 


2,691 


0.1 


Youngs town 




50 




472 


849 


5,460 


0.3 


Source: Bureau oi 


' the 
jorts 


Census, 


Met 


roTDolitan Di 


stricts; Hetail Distribut 


ion, 


State Rei 


\9P.9.. 













a/ The Metropolitan Districts selected are those which extend across 

state lines. The data for these districts were compiled from Census 
data reported for the larger cities within each District. As data for 
the smaller cities are not available, the figures shown here are not 
complete, but can be accepted as a minimum for each respective Dis- 
trict. 

b/ Consists of lumber and building material dealers, lumber and hardware 
dealers, roofing dealers, and others (brick, stone, cement, etc.). 

c/ Includes salaried persons and wage earners; part-time and full-time 
employees. 



8593 



-19- 

Chapter V 

TRADE PEACTICES 

Unfair Practices Prior to the Co de 

Statenents of the Secretary of the former Code Authority indicate that 
the chief -unfair trade practices prevalent in the Trade prior to approval of 
the Code v/ere sales by manufacturers to contractors v/ithout adequate mark-up, 
and selling lielov; cost. 

An explanation of the nature of the unfair trade practices existing in 
this Tr£,de prior to the adoption of the Code has also "been supplied "by John 
B. Rose, Chairman of the former Code Authority, whose statement is reproduced 
herewith: 

"...The practices prohibited by the Code include; the acceptance or offer- 
. \ ing of secret allowances, rebates and unearned discounts; defcjnation of 
competitor; attempts to induce breach of contracts between competitors 
and customers ^.d interference with the performance of contractual duties 
for the purpose of injuring and embajrrassing competitors; inducing sales- 
men and credit men of the competitor to leave the employment of such com- 
petitor in order to obtain information and otherwise injure the competi- 
tor's business; offering or agreeing to f-ornish the requirements of a 
project at a lump sum price; 3nd misrepresentation of quality and ruajiti- 
ty of merchandise to contractors and consumers. 

"Perhaps the greatest injury to the Trade prior to the inception of 
of the Code was that received due to the use of certain of its members of 
sales below cost. The Builders' Supplies Trade, regulating distributors 
of supplies for construction, is a Trade which is subject to terrific 
price competition since there is practically no competition as to the 
style or quality of products distributed. 

"Cements, limes, plasters, brick, etc., are all of almost identical 
quality and the competitive pressure which style affords to some retail 
products is not present in this Trade. Consequently, price becomes a 
verj'- vital factor and prior to the Code's inception, and in many in- 
stances since that date, prices have fallen to such a low level that it 
is impossible for a Member of the Trade to maintain decent wage and hour 
schedules and meet the price competition to which such Member is sub- 
jected. 

"Since the greatest item by far in the overhead cost of doing busi- 
ness as a Member of the Trade is that of labor, it is evident that de- 
moralized prices immediately have the effect of lowering wage rates and 
increasing the hours of labor. " 

Unfair Trade Practices Under the Code 

According to the Deputy formerly in charge of administration of the Code, 
the chief unfair practices under the Code were failiire to file prices, and 
selling at other than filed prices. 
Effect of Price Cutting on National Price Structure 

Prices of individual members of the Industry or of a given area have lit- 
tle effect on national price structure because of high shipping costs. 
8593 



-20- 

APPEwDIX 

Building material "orices in bi^enty cities of the United States 
fell one and one-half per cent from Deceiu'ber 15, 1934, to March 15, 
1935, according to re-i)orts covering retail prices of twenty- two prin- 
cipal building materials reported to the Division of Research and Plan- 
ning, Suhstantial increases were renorted for window glass, asphalt 
shingles and pine boards, while fir dimension lumber, gypsum board and 
building imper showed substantial declines. Common brick increased one- 
half of one i^er cent, and cenent three-tenths of one per cent, or 
approximately t'"0 cents a barrel. Gypsum plaster showed no change from 
December 15, while gyosum boa^rd showed a decline of more than two a.nd one- 
half per cent. TJhite lead also showed a decline of t^-^o and three-fourths 
per cent. 

The materials represent the comnosite prices fronfeventy cities re- 
ported to the WRL in cooperation with the respective Code Aiithorities. 
Each item represents a composite price in the twenty cities, with the 
cities weighted in accordance with square foot construction in 1929 
and 1934, All items are then assembled to produ.ce a weighted average 
index, with eac.i item weighted in proportion to its relative importance 
to building construction. All materials represent the delivered price 
paid by Contractors to Retail Lumber and Builders' Supplies Dca] or-s for loss 
than carload lots. 



3593 



-21- 

BUILSIInTG MATEIiIALS FPJCZ GHA2TS 

Index of Building: Materials Prices , Chart Wo. 1 

Comraon Brick ...... o.........^. < Cl'iart ilo . 2 

Crushed Stone o Ci3.rt Imo . 3 

Building Sand » Che,rt No . 4 

Portland Cement Chart 1-To . 5 

Hollow Tile Chart No . 6 

G3/psum Plaster Chart So . 7 

C-j'psum Board Cb^rt No . 8 

Lime (Eydrated) Chart No. 9 

*vThite Lead (in oil) ,. Chart No. 10 

*aosin Sized Sheeting (Building Paper) = Ch-art No. 11 

*Asphalt Shingles Chart No. 12 

Roofing Slate Chart No . 13 

*¥indow Glass Chart No. 14 

*Steel Pipe Chart No. 15 

*Cast Iron Soil Pipe Chart No. 16 

*Structural Steel , Chart No . 17 

^Reinforcing Steel Bars Chart No. 18 

*Wire Nails Clmrt No . 19 

*Douglas Fir (#1 common) Clmrt No . 20 

*YelloT7 Pine (#2 common) Cliart No . 21 

*Plum'bing Fixture s Chart No . 22 

*Not included in code definition of Builders' Surjplies Trade 



8593 



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CHART m 



Dollars 



3.00r 



CRUSHED STONE RETAIL PRICES SEPT ia2hMAR.I9a5 

r4fNCHES„ L.C.L. DEUVERED 




M J > 9 n J * 
1930 1931 



MJ5DMJSDr<J8DMjSP(«IJS0MJ»0f4J80MJiP|*IJ»0 

1921 132 Z r9Z3 1924 1925 I9Z6 1927 IJ28 1929 
30VRCC. BUREAU or STANDARDS, DIVISION or SUILDIftQ a~d HOUSING. 
■BUILDING MATtRIALS AND PRICES", JCFTCMBIR 1921 - JUNf IS35 

CODE AUTHORITY FORTW BUILDER*' SUPPLIES TRADE SEPT. 1S55- DEC ISM 
RCMKTS TO N.R. A, fROM DUILOBM 8ufPLIC> ReTHlLBRS MARCH t»»ff 



b HJ SO « 

1932 l«M 



STTTnTj* 



I9>4 



1 1 1 1.1 J I 1 1 1 1 



I9SS 



1936 1937 






CHART EZ" 
BUILDING SAND RETAIL PRICES-SEPT. 1921 - MAR. 1935. 

L.C.L. DELIVERED 



00LLAR9 
PER CUBIC YO. 



?.J0. 



2.-40r 




IfZI |M2 1923 1911 l«5 1926 1927 1926 1923 1930 1931 

SOURCt' BUREAU Of STANDARD*, DIVIBION OF BLULOINS AND HOUSINS , 
"BULOPNG MATtRIAL PRICES' SEPT. 1921 TO JUNE 1933. 
coot AUTHORITY FOR THE BUK-DCRS SUPPUtS TRADE SE.PT 1839 TO DIG. tS34 

ncpoirra to n. r. a. from buildero supplies retailers, mar. i935 



1932 193? 



MJ9OIV1J9OMJ90MJ5O 
(93+ I93J 1936 193/ 

MRA 

RESEARCH /»l«D PLAKMIWe 




U. 1(0 






CHART m 



DOLLARS 
PER riLE 



czx,-. 



HOLLOW TILE RETAIL PRICES* SEPT I92i 
a"X \Z"X 12", L.C. L. DELIVERED 



MAR. 1935. 



AZI 



J-SO' 



:xt9 - 



0.16 



0.i7 



O.ii, 



O./f 




H J 3 

1921 
souMce 



KJ) 6MJ? tMJt DMJSDMJSDMJSDtlJSDMJSPMj SDMJaPWJ6PMJ9 

1922 (923 1921 1925 1926 1927 (923 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 

BUREAU OF STANDARDS, DIVISION OF BUILOIfHO AND HOUSING, 
'BUIL0IN6 MATTRIALS PRICES;' SEPT. 1921 TO JUNE (933 
CODE AUTHORITY FORS THE BUILDCR'S SUPPLIES TRADE, 
MPT. I«35 TO OtC, IBS.* 

Kcpoara TO N,R.A. FROM BUILDERS suppu^a ReTAiLEns, MAH. toaff 



M J S P 

1934 



MJ5CMJ3D 

1935 1936 



J 9 S 

/937 



N.R.A. 

RESEARCH AND PL^NNINO DIVISION 






I 
is 



CHART 

GYPSUM PLASTER RETAIL PRICES-SEPT 1921 TO MAR. 1935 

GROUND, L.C.L. DELIVERED 

OOLLMS 
20.60 



20.00 



19.90 



19.00 



(•JO 



tt.eo 



tf.M 



jf.oo 



W.SO 



M.OO 



19.90 



M.eo 




RESEARCH AND PLANNING 



l»i »«» 1923 l«a I9K (tW 1987 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 
S««r«M turmu a* St>«<vM, Dl>l»l*« of tvll*!*) u>* N, R. A. 

itoti«)i>( TulUIng Mt«fUU IN-le***, %^t. IMI 
to ^M IVSS. 

C««« Hutliarltj' for tho ■iiU«oro t<«#l lot TrMo, 
«a*t. HBS ts Am. nm. 
Dat*r\» to ■.K.A froa toltMrt |«fftl«« RotoHofi, 



."^r 



GYPS 



lOARD RETAIL PRICES -SEPT 8921- ftiAft. J935 




H J s 

1921 

SOURCE' 



m J s D M J 
1931 1932 



1MJ3DMJ90MJSDMJSDMJSDMJ3DMJ30MJ90MJSP 

1922 1923 1924- 1925 I92S 1927 1926 1929 1930 
BUREAU OF STANDARDS, DIVISION OF BUILDINa AND HOUSINfi, 
"SUILDlNe MATERIALS PRICES" SEPT. 1921 TO JUNE 1933. 
CODE AUTHORITY FOR RETAIL LUMBER AND BUILDIN& MATERIALS 
PRODKOTS INDUSTRY SEPT. 1933 TO DEC. I93-*. 
REPORTS TO NRA FROM SUH-OING MATERIALS RETAIL6RS MAR. 193S 



MJS^MJ• PMJ S DMJS D»tje« 

1933 1934 1935 1936 r937 

N.R.A. 

RESEARCH AMD PLANNING 



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OaLSRS PER 

100 tBS. 
16.90 



16.00 



15.50 



(5.00 



M.90 



l-i.OO 



J3.50 



13.00 — 



12.50 



12.00 



11.50 



11.00 



10.50 



CHART X 

RETAIL PRICES -SEPT !92l TO MAR. 1935 

IN OIL, L.C.L^DELIVERED 




)0* jSCBJt D 



>4»BBrf kO»J S1«W40 »J.ieiIJ»n»J SOIiJ S6BJII1HJS OMJlOIIJiOMJSO "J i 

1921 1922 1923 192^ 1925 I92« 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 I9?3 193a 1935 I93fi 1937 



5ourc«; Bureau of Standards^ Dlwlslon of Builainy and 

Hauling, "Building Materials Prices", Sept. IQ2I 
to June 1433. 

Code Authority of the Lead Industry, Sept, I"'? 
to Mar. I43«. 



N. R. A. 
REStARCH AND PLANNING 



tXXL 



ROSIN SIZED SHEETSN8 RETAIL PRICES-SEPT l9ai"MAR. 1935 



DOLLARS 
PER 500S<5.rT. 

2.(0 



3 PLY 50 POUNDS PER ROLL, L.G.L DELIVERED 




Z.t4 



Sept. 


1931 


$ 2.00 


June 


1922 


.92 


June 


1923 


1.36 


June 


1924 


1.31 


June 


1925 


1.70 


June 


1936 


1.56 


June 


1927 


1.63 


June 


19213 


1.19 


June 


1939 


1.2S 


June 


1930 


1.32 


June 


1931 


1.30 


June 


19S2 


1.10 


June 


1933 


1.05 


June 


1934 


1.16 


Sept. 


1934 


1.16 


Dec. 


1934 


1.45 


Mar. 


1935 


1.27 



M J S ft 

I9t\ 

aooRce' 



H J. S H J SOMJa O^ J «DMJ»OMJ*0MJ »BMJS0MJSO Hi SO f* J S O t^J slo MJSOMJ^OHJSf 
l»ZZ 1»25 1924 IS25 I8Z6 IBM I»t6 ISZ9 I930 1931 I93Z 1933 (934 193* 1836 (937 
BUREAU Of STANDARDS, DIVISION OF BUILDINQ AND HOOSINfl, "OUIUDINS N R /^ 

MATCRIALS PRICts;' SEPT. IBil TO JUNE l»33 " ^ 

CODE AOTHOmTY FOR RETAIL LUMBER AND BUILPlNfl MATERIALS PRODUCTS 
INDUSTRY, SEPT 1933 TO DEC. 1934- 
RCPORrS TO N. R.A. FROM BUILOINfi MATERIALS RETAILERS, MAR. 1935. 



RE.3EARCM AND PUANNIHO 



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4.80 



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4.20 



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3.80 



3.20 



3.oa 



CHART ^nST 

^LASS RETAIL PRICES -SEPT 1921 TO MAR. 1935 

SINGLE A 10X12 LC.L DELIVERED 




RESCMCH AW KuMitlC 



1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 ISM 1927 1926 1989 1980 1931 1932 (983 1984 1MB IMS IW 

leurc*] BwTMu of 'Stwidtrdc, OWIslon af Sullding and "• '• " 

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