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Full text of "Evidence study"

BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 9999 06317 536 6 






NATIONAL RECOVERY ADMINISTRATION 

— ^ — _____ 

DIVISION OF REVIEW 



EVIDENCE STUDY 
NO. 5 

OF 



THE CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY 



Prepared by 
AL F. O'DONNELL 



AUGUST, 1935 



PRELIMINARY DRAFT 
(NOT FOR RELEASE: FOR USE IN DIVISION ONLY) 



THE EVIDENCE STUDY SERIES 

The EVIDENCE STUDIES were originally planned as a means of gathering 
evidence bearing upon various legal issues which arose under the National 
Industrial Recovery Act. 

These studies have value quite aside from the use for which they were 
originally intended. Accordingly, they are now made available for confidential 
use within the Division of Review, and for inclusion in Code Histories* 

The full list of the Evidence Studies is as follows; 



1. 

2. 

3. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 

10. 

11. 

12. 

13. 

14. 

15. 

16. 

17. 

18. 

19. 

20. 

21. 

22. 



Automobile Manufacturing Ind. 
Boot and Shoe Mfg. Ind. 
Bottled Soft Drink Ind. 
Builders' Supplies Ind. 



Chemical Mf ; 



Ind, 



Cigar Mfg. Industry 

Construction Industry 

Cotton Garp.ent Industry 

Dress Mfg. Ind. 

Electrical Contracting Ind. 

Electrical Mfg. Ind, 

Fab, Metal prod. Mfg. , etc. 

Fishery Industry 

Furniture Mfg. Ind. 

General Contractors Ind. 

Graphic Arts Ind. 

Gray Iron Foundry Ind. 

Hosiery Ind. 

Infant's & Children's Wear Ind. 

Iron and Steel Ind, 

Leather 

Lumber & Timber Prod. Ind. 



23. 
24. 
2o , 
op 

27 . 
28. 
29. 
30. 
51. 
32. 






40. 
41. 
42. 
43. 



Mason Contractors Industry 

Me n ' s CI o thi ng Indus t ry 

Motion picture Industry 

Motor Bus Mfg. Industry (Dropped) 

Needlework Ind. of Puerto Rico 

Painting & Paperhanging & Decorating 

photo Engraving Industry 

Plumbing Contracting Industry 

Retail Fooo. (See No. 42) 

Retail Lumber Industry 

Retail Solid Fuel (Dropped) 

Retail Trade Industry 

Rubber Mfg. Ind. 

Rubber Tire Mfg. Ind. 

Silk Textile Ind. 

Structural Clay Products Ind. 

Throwing Industry 

Trucking Industry 

Waste Materials Ind. 

Wholesale & Retail Food Ind. (See No, 

Wholesale Fresh Fruit & Veg. 31) 



In addition to the studies brought to completion, certain materials have 
been assembled for other industries. These MATERIALS are included in the series 
and are also made available for confidential use within the Division of Review 
and for inclusion in Code Histories, as follows; 



44. Wool Textile Industry 

45. Automotive parts & Equip. Ind. 

46. Baking Industry 

47. Canning Industry 

48. Coat, and Suit Ind. 



a 9 
50. 
51. 
52. 



Household Goods & Storage, etc. (Drop- 



JUL- ti & O l/U i ct4C , Cl/U.\,JJiUM- 

Le Retailing Trade Ind, ped) 
Retail Tire 4 Battery Trade Ind. 



Motor Vehiclf 

Retail Tire & Battery Traae j 

oa. Ship & Boat Bldg. & Repairing Ind, 

53. Wholesaling or Distributing Trade 



L. C. Marshall 
Director, Division of Review 



O^-b^V. \ ^U 



C01TTE1TTS 

Page 

Foreword 1 

CHAPTER I - THE NATURE OP THE BIDUSTRY 2 

Definition of the Industry 2 

Total Slumber of Establishments 2 

ITumber of Establishments by 

Principal States 2 

Humber of Members of the Industry 2 

Value of Products 4 

Consumption of Chemicals 4 

Capital Investment 4 

CHAPTER II - LABOR STATISTICS 7 

Number of Employees 7 

Seasonality of Employment ... 7 

Number of Employees per Establishment -7 

Annual Wages 8. 

Per Cent Labor Cost is of Total 

Value of Product 8 

Hourly and Weekly Wages and Hours 

per Week .10 

Emplo;rees under 16 Years of Age '10 

CHAPTER III - MATERIALS: RAW AND SEMI -PROCESSED 12 

Cost of Raw Materials ' 12 

Domestic Sources of Ran Materials ^12 

CHAPTER IV - PRODUCTION AID DISTRIBUTION 14 

Vertical Integration 14 

Value of Products in Principal States 14 

Interstate Movement of Selected 

Products 14 

Value of Exports '14 

CHAPTER V - GENERAL INFORMATION 19 

Trade Associations 19 

List of Experts 19 

APPEI-IDIX 21 

-oOo- 



8544 






TABLES 



Page 



TABLE II - 



TABLE III - 



TABLE I - Number of Establishments, "by 

Principal States 3 

Value of Production, "by Kind of 

Product 5 

Estimated Distribution of Sulphuric 
Acid, Soda Ash, and Caustic Soda, 
Consumed in United States "by Various 
Industries, 1934 6 

Seasonality of Employment, 1934 ' 7 

Establishments Classified According to 

Number of Eactory Workers, April, 1934. . . ' 8 

ilumber of Establishments, lumber of 

Employees, and Wages Paid, by States .... 9 

Total Value of Product, Total Labor 

Cost, and Total Cost of Materials '10 

Average Hourly and Weekly Yfages and 

Average Hours Per Week 11 

Value of Products Produced, by 

Principal States 15 

TABLE X - Value of Selected Chemicals Exported '> 16 

MPS 

Page 

MAP I - Distribution of Principal Rau 

Materials Required by the Chemical 

Industry 13 

MAP II - Fnere Heavy Chemicals are Made and 

Consumed (Sulphuric Acid Consumption) ... 17 

MAP III - Where Heavy Chemicals are Made and 

Consumed (Alkali Consumption) 18 

~o0o- 



TA3LE IV - 

TABLE V - 

TAELE VI - 

TABLE VII - 

TABLE VIII - 

TABLE IX - 



8544 



-li- 



„1- 

THE CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY 
Foreword 

The data presented in this report have been assembled almost 
entirely from governmental sources. Much of the material has been 
taken from the Census of Manufactures reports on two industries, 
"Chemicals Hot Elsewhere Classified," and "Explosives," which, when 
combined, represent a classification roughly comparable with the Code 
definition as explained in Chapter I. Other government data used are 
those gathered by the Bureau of Labor Statistics and the Bureau of 
Foreign and Domestic Commerce. Supplementary data have been obtained 
from the Oil, paint, and Drug Reporter. Chemical and Metallurgical 
Engineering , from material released by the Chemical Alliance, Incorpo- 
rated, which acted as the Code Authority for the Industry, and from 
the Chemical Foundation, Incorporated, a corporation organized to take 
over German patents during the war and whose present activity consists 
largely of promoting the general interests of the Industry through the 
distribution of literature. 

Due to lack of pertinent information, some of the topics called 
for in the first, second, third, fourth, and sixth sections of the 
"Outline for Collection of Evidence" have not been discussed in this 
report. Section V of the outline was considered inapplicable to this 
Industry since the Code contained no trade practice provisions. 



8544 



- 2 - 

Chapter I 

THE NATURE OF THE INDUSTRY 



Definition, of the Industry 

The Code definition restricts the Chemical Manufacturing Industry to "the 
production and sale "by the producer of heavy, industrial, and fine chemicals, 
and their "by-products unless separate codes ... are submitted " 

Many chemical -producing industries which, normally would otherwise have 
operated under the Chemical Manufacturing Industry Code, choose to submit and 
operate under separate codes. 

The Census of Manufactures does not include a classification which is 
strictly comparable with the Industry as defined in the Chemical Manufacturing 
Code. However, a combination of the data included under the Census Industries 
No. 698, "Chemicals hot Elsewhere Classified" and ho. 613, "Explosives" was 
considered sufficiently representative of the codified Industry to "be used in 
this survey. The principal differences "between the scope of these two class- 
ifications combined and the Industry, as defined in the Code, are that the former 
does not include ethyl alcohol, which accounts for about 5 per cent of the value 
of output of the codified Industry , nor "by-product coke produced under the 
Chemical Manufacturing Code. The combined Census classifications, furthermore, 
include some items produced under Codes for the Lye Industry, Plastic Fabricator, 
and. Hatural Organic Products. It is "believed that the combined Census class- 
ifications and the Code classification have a"bout 90 per cent of their respective 
coverages in common. 

Total Ilumber of Establishments 

As shown in Table 1, below, the number of establishments operating in the 
Chemical Manufacturing Industry declined from 646 in 1929 to 607 in 1933. 

Number of Establishments by Principal States 

The number of establishments in each of the principal chemical -producing 
states is shown in Table I. New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania contain the 
largest number of establishments, in the order mentioned. Large numbers are also 
located in Ohio, California and Illinois, 

Number of Members of the Industry 

A good idea of the number of members of the Chemical Industry may be obtain- 
ed from the results of a survey undertaken in April, 1934, by The Chemical Alli- 
ance, Incorporated, the leading trade association in the Industry. Question- 
naires were sent to all members of the Alliance and returns were received from 
337 chemical companies which covered the operations of 598 distinct factory units. 
1/ This number compares vary well with the total of 607 plants shown in the 1933 

Census. ____^___ _ _— 

1/ The Chemical Alliance, Incorporated, "Report of the Committee on Statistics 
Showing Distribution of Labor and Easic VJage Rates for the Chemical Manufacturing 
Industry," (November 1934), p. 1. 

3544 



- 3 - 



TABLE I 



Number of Establishments, by Principal States 



State 



lumber of Establishments 



1929 



1931 



.933 



U. S. Total 



645 



636 



607 



Alabama 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Llaryland 

Mas sachus et t s 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Missouri 

Hew Jersey 

Hew York 

Ohio 

Oklahoma 

Pennsylvania 

Ehode Island 

Tennessee 

Tercas 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 



3 


7 


7 


5 


2 


1 


51 


54 


54 


5 


5 


4 


7 


7 


9 


45 


41 


39 


10 


11 


10 


5 


5 


6 


4 


3 


3 


6 


4 


4 


9 


10 


10 


16 


21 


19 


15 


19 


13 


4 


4 


3 


14 


12 


12 


103 


106 


97 


101 


92 


85 


53 


60 


55 


5 


3 


3 


70 


71 


71 


7 


6 


4 


10 


10 


11 


11 


11 


16 


11 


10 


12 


11 


12 


7 


19 


18 


14 


7 


6 


6 



Other States 



23 



26 



27 



Source: Census of Manufacturer s. "Chemicals not Else- 
where Classified" and "Explosives." 



8544 



Value of Prod ucts 

The total value of chemicals produced in the Industry as defined in the 
Code decreased fron $844,143,000 in 1329 to $615,036,000 in 1931, and to 
$525,231,000 in 1933. The value of the more important chemical products is 
shown in Table II. The decrease in value has "been general, but the groups 
classified under "Miscellaneous Chemicals" and "Explosives" have apparently "been 
the most seriously affected, 

A similar summary of changes in the volume of production is not available. 
Consumption of Chemicals 

An indication of the consumption of chemicals "by other industries is given 
in Table III. The information presented is confined to three principal products 
— sulphuric acid, soda ash, and caustic soda. A ride variety of industries 
purchase these products. The fertilizer and petroleum-refining industries were 
the largest users of sulphuric acid in 1934. The largest quantity of soda ash 
was used by the Chemical Industry itself; the second largest, by glass workers. 
The Rayon Industry used a large share of caustic soda. 

The location of six of the principal chemical-consuming industries is shown 
in the Appendix Tables I to VI, inclusive. These tables ere presented merely 
to indicate the wide geographic scatter of the consuming industries. 

Capital Investment 

Complete figures on the capital invested in the Chemical Industry are not 
available. Francis P. Garvan, President of "he Chemical Foundation, Incorporated 
estimated that in 1934 the 598 plants mentioned above had a capital investment 
of over a billion dollars. "LI 



1/ Garvan, Francis P., In the Hatter of a Pro-oosed Reci'orocal Trade between the 
Unite d States and Switzerland, published by The Chemical Foundation, Incorpo- 
rated (1935), p. 41. 



G544 



- fi - 



TABLE II 



Value of Production, "by Kind of Product 
(in thousands) 



Kind of 


Val 


ue of Product 


ion 




Product 












1929 


1931a/ 


19315/ 


1933 


Grand Total c/ 


$844-, 14-3 


$615,096 


$603,445 


$525,231 


Total "Chemicals Hot 










Elsewhere Classified" 


781,190 


575,827 


563,176 


495,136 


Acids 


98,620 


66,433 


65,096 


55,487 


llitrogen & Fixed 










ITitrogen 


33,337 


33,483 


33, 262 


30,756 


Sodium Compounds 


137,655 


108,591 


104,025 


95,107 


Potassium Compounds 


9,998 


8,112 


8,112 


7,434 


Alums & Other Aluminum 










Compounds 


15,949 


10,761 


10,621 


11,501 


Coal Tar Products 


130,652 


103,083 


100,532 


107,273 


Plasters 


39,734 


27 , 847 


27,346 


26,381 


miscellaneous Chemicals 


310,245 


217,512 


214,182 


162,247 


Total Explosives 


62, 953 


40,269 


40,269 


29 , 045 


Dynamite 


36,989 


22,024 


22, 024 


J.D j td&O 


Permissible Explosives 


3,375 


5,820 


5,820 


4,154 


Nitroglycerin 


2,447 


434 


434 


451 


Blasting Powder 


7,750 


4,909 


4,909 


4,056 


Puse Ponder 


427 


293 


293 


186 


Gunpowder Block & Other 










Explosives 


6,955 


6 , 789 


6,739 


4,975 


Source: Census of Manufactures, 


"Chemicals, 


Hot Elsewher 


e Classified" 


and 



"Explosives. " 

a/ Due to changes in Census schedule these figures are comparable 
only with 1929. 

b/ Due to change in Census schedule these fig-ores are comparable 
only with 1933, 

c/ The grand totals do not agree with totals shown in Tables VII and IX 
since the above include chemicals made as secondary products in other 
Industries, and exclude other products, not normally belonging to the 
Chemical manufacturing Industry, which were made in chemical manufact- 
uring plants. 



3544 



„ 6 - 



TABLE III 



Estimated Distribution of Sulphuric Acid, Soda Ash and Caustic 
Soda, Consumed in United States by Various Industries, 1934 



Thousands of Tons 



Consuming 
Industries 



Sulphuric Acid 






and 


Soda 


Caustic 


(Basis 50° Baume) 


Ash 


Soda 



Total 



5,660 



1,696 



659 



Fertilizer 

Petroleum Refining 

Chemicals 

Coal Products 

Iron and Steel 

Other Metallurgical 

Paint and Pigment 

Rayon and Cellulose Fiber 

Textile 

Glass Works 

Soap 

Cleansers & Modified 

Sodas 
Pulp and Paper 
Water Softening 
Lye 

Rubber Reclaiming 
Vegetable Oil 
Exports 
Miscellaneous 



1,450 
1,100 
755 
535 
475 
390 
210 
230 
75 



580 



80 
109 



250 



— 


140 


28 


33 


480 


— 


175 


93 


100 


_ 


70 


37 


40 


— 


— 


34 


— 


9 


— 


9 


45 


65 


170 


50 



Source: Oil, Paint and Drw; Reporter , May 27, 1935, Page 32; 

(from "Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Statistics"), 



8544 



-7- 

Chapter II 
LABOR STATISTICS 



Number' "of Employees 



The average number of employees in the Chemical Manufacturing Industry was 
higher in 1934 than in 1929. Changes in employment since 1929 may be summarized 
as follows; !_/ 



Average for 1929 
Average for 1931 
Average for 1933 
Average for 1934 



67,813 employees 
53,255 employees 
57,358 employees 
71,500 employees 



Seasonality of Employment 



There appears to he little seasonal variation in employment in the Industry 
considered as a whole. The monthly data for 1934, which are assembled in Table 
IV, show that the number of employees at work in November, the low month, was 
only 7 per cent below the peak in July. There was about the same variation in 
total man-hours. However, if information were available for various branches of 
the Industry, seasonal fluctuation for the individual branches would probably 
appear more pronounced than it does in the totals where the seasonal variation 
of one branch may be offset by that of another. 

Number of Employees per Establishment 

A few establishments employ a very large proportion of the total workers in 
the Industry. As can be seen from Table V, the 10 per cent of the plants which 
employed more than 250 employees in 1934 accounted for over 60 per cent of the 
total employees. The remaining workers were scattered among a large number of 
small plants. 

TABLE IV 

Seasonality of Employment, 1934 



Week Ending 
Nearest the 
15th 



Estimated Number 
of Employees 



Estimated Weekly 
Man-Hours 
(Thousands) 



Estimated Weekly 
Payroll 
( Thousands ) 



Average 



January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 



71 , 500 

69 , 300 
69 , 610 
71,310 
73,480 
73,680 
73,850 
73,950 
73,130 
71 , 410 
70,390 
69,150 
68,720 



2,743 


$1,580 


2,692 


1,481 


2,705 


1,506 


2,743 


1,526 


2,857 


1,645 


2,730 


1,618 


2,825 


1,642 


2,858, 


1,646 


2,822 


1,647 


2,677 


1,571 


2,730 


1,581 


2,642 


1,554 


2,639 


1,540 


sties, Trend 


of Employment, 



Source: Basic data from the Bureau of Labor Stati 
B.L.S. indexes for "Chemicals 11 and "Explo 
Census base figures for "Chemicals Not El 
"Explosives" and adjusted by NEA to 1933 



1/ See Tables IV and VI, 



sives" have b 
sewhere Class 
Census totals 



een multiplied by 
ified" and 



-8- 



TABLE V 



Establishments Classified According to 
Number of Factory Workers, April, 1934 



Number of Factory Workers 
per Establishment 



Number 



Per Cent of Total 
Classified 



Establish- 


Employees 


Establish- 


Employees 


ments 




ments 




20a/ 


„ 


3.3 


•^ 


82 


246 


13.7 


0.4 


151 


1,752 


25.3 


2.9 


133 


4,363 


22.2 


7.3 


79 


5,544 


13.2 


9.2 


72 


11,410 


12.0 


19.0 


31 


10,493 


5.2 


17.5 


23 


15,660 


3.8 


26.1 


7 


10,645 


1.2 


17.7 


598 


60,113 


100.0 


100.0 


- 


9,832 


— 


w— 


— 


69,945 


— ■ 


— 



No employees 
1-5 employees 
6-20 employees 
21-50 employees 
51-100 employees 
101-250 employees 
251-500 employees 
501-1,000 employees 
1,000 or more employees 

Total Classified 
Not Classified 
Total 



Source: The Chemical Alliance, Incorporated, "Report of the Committee on Statis- 
tics Showing Distribution of Labor and Basic Wage Rates for the Chemical 
Manufacturing Industry." (November 1934), p. 2. 

a/ Not operating 

Note; There were 19,103 office workers in addition to the above, thus making 
a total of 89,048 employees. 



Annual Wages 

The total wage bill of the Industry declined from $103,167,9»3 in 1929 to 
$71,932,554 in 1931, and still further to $63,364,000 in 1933. Comparable Cen- 
sus data are not available for 1934, but by multiplying the estimated average 
weekly payroll of $1,580,000, shown in Table IV, by 52 weeks, we arrive at a 
figure of $82,160,000 for the estimated annual payroll in 1934. From this it 
would appear that earnings have not improved to the same extent as employment, 
for it has previously been pointed out that 1934 employment was above the 1929 
level. 

Employment and annual wages in the principal chemical producing states are 
shown in Table VI. New Jersey and New York have the largest number of employees 
and the largest payrolls. Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Illinois are also important 
centers. 

Per Cent Labor Cost is of Total Value of Product 

Wages form a comparatively small proportion of the total value of chemical 
products. The percentage has varied little since 1929, for, as can be seen from 
Table VII, labor costs formed about 12 per cent of the total value in 1929, 1931 
and 1933. 



8544 



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-10- 



TABLE VII 



Tctal Value of product, Total Labor Cost, and 
Total Cost of Materials 



Total Total labor Cost Total Materials Cost 

Year Value of 

product a/ Amount per Cent Amount Per Cent 

(Thousands) (Thousands) of Total (Thousands) of Total 



1929 $810,588 $103,163 12.7 
1931 579,434 71,933 12.4 
1933 511,609 63,364 12.4 



$395,341 


48.8 


265,587 


45.8 


234,158 


45.8 



Source: Census of Manufacture s, "Chemicals not Elsewhere Classified," 
and "Explosives." 

a/ The totals shown here do not agree with those shown in Table II, 

since the above do not include chemicals made as secondary products 
in other industries, and include other products, not normally be- 
longing to the Industry but made in chemical manufacturing plants. 

Hourly and Weekly Wages and Hours per Week 

Hourly wage rates in this Industry are high in comparison with most other 
industries. The average in 1929 was 65.5 cents; in 1933 it was down to 56.2 
cents, but it rose to 61.6 cents in 1934. 

Average hours worked per week have decreased since 1931. In 1929 and 1931 
the average working week was about 45 hours; in 1933, 40.7 hours; and in 1934, 
38.4 hours. 

Weekly earnings are affected both by wage rates and the length of the 
working week. Thus, in the Chemical Industry the increase in hourly earnings 
in 1934 has been counteracted by the reduction in hours, so that weekly earn- 
ings in 1934 averaged only $23.67 as compared with $23.13 in 1933. In 1929 the 
average was almost $30. The information pertaining to hoiirs and earnings is 
summarized in Table VIII. 

Employees under 16 Years of Age 

Very few children have been employed in the Chemical Industry. The Census 
of Occupations showed that only 773 "operatives" and 465 "laborers" from 10 to 
15 years old were employed in "Chemical and Allied Industries" in 1930. This 
classification is much broader than the one used in this report, since it in- 
cluded, among others, rayon, fertilizer, charcoal, coke, gas, and petroleum 
refinery workers who would be excluded from the Chemical Industry as defined 
by the Code, 



8544 



-11- 

TABLE VIII 
Average Hourly and Weekly Wages and Average Hours Per Week a/ 





Average 


Average 


Average 


Year 


Hourly 


Weekly 


Weekly 




Wages 


Earnings 


Hours 


1929 


$0,655 


$29.67 


45.3 


1931 


.607 


27.54 


45.4 


1933 


.562 


23,13 


40.7 


1934 


.616 


23.67 


38.4 



Source; Data for 1929 and 1931 are national Industrial Conference 
Board figures, adjusted toy tne Division of Research and 
planning, ERA, to correspond with Bureau of LaDor Sta- 
tistics figures which have "been available since 1932. 

a/ Weekly averages "based upon data for the week ending 
nearest the 15th of each <»onth. 



8544 



-13- 

Chapter III 

MATERIALS: RAW AHD SEMI-PROCESSED 

Cost of Raw Materials 

The Chemical Industry spent $395,341,000 for raw materials, fuel, and 
electric power in 1929, $265,587,000 in 1931, and $234,153,000 in 1933. As 
shown in Table VII above, the cost of raw materials is a very important fac- 
tor in the total value of products. In 1929 raw materials formed almost 49 
per cent of the total value, and in 1931 and 1933, about 46 per cent. 



Domestic 'Sources of Raw Materials 

The states in which the principal raw materials used by the Chemical In- 
dustry are produced are shown graphically in Map I. There are no figures 
available on the total quantities or value of each of these materials consumed 
by the Chemical Industry, nor on the proportions of the total production of 
these raw materials which are converted into chemicals. 

The map cannot show precisely the sources of materials but an indication 
of the interstate movement of raw" materials can be obtained from it. For 
instance, New Jersey, which has been shown to be one of the two leading states 
in the Chemical Manufacturing Industry, is not shown on this map as supplying 
any raw materials for the Industry. This statement is, of course, a, broad 
generalization and should not be taken too literally. 



8544 



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-14- 
Chapter IV 
PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION 



Vertical Integration 

The trend of corporate development in the Chemical Industry has been 
toward consolidation and integration. The large organizations often control 
all stages of processing from basic raw materials to consumer's goods. This 
has "been due to the marked economies resulting from large scale production, con- 
tinuous operation, and recent developments of processes for the efficient use 
of "by-products. 

The integration of the Industry eliminates the distribution problem of 
some of the plants, as their outputs are taken up "by affiliated companies. As 
a result of the intra-industry consumption of chemicals most products of the 
Chemical Industry are in general sold and shipped in "bulk so that only about 
40 per cent of the selling price of chemical products represents distribution 
costs, l/ Only a relatively small percentage of the output of the Chemical 
Manufacturing Industry is purchased "by the ultimate consumer in its original 
form. 



Value of Produ c ts in Principal States 

The value of chemicals and explosives produced in .the various states is 
shown in Table IX. For some states the value of explosives was not available, 
so that the value of those states is somewhat understated, and to the same ex- 
tent the value shown in "/J.1 Other States" is overstated. New York and New 
Jersey are the leading producing states; these two states in 1933 produced about 
38 per cent 2/ of the total value. Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Illinois 
also produce large amounts of chemicals. 

There are no figures to indicate the total volume of chemicals produced 
in each state. 



Interstate Movement of Selected Products 

The interstate movement of chemical products is illustrated by Maps II and 
III which show the states in which sulphuric acids and alkalis are produced and 
consumed. 



Value of Exports 

The value of important exports of chemicals produced in the Industry as 
defined by the Code declined from $56,092,000 in 1929 to $32,185,000 in 1933. 
In 1934 there was noticeable improvement and the value of exports rose to 
$40,310,000. A summary of chemical exports is contained in Table X. The groups 
shown in this table have been selected because they appeared to correspond most 
closely with the Code definitions of the Chemical Manufacturing Industry. 

1/ Haynes, Uilliam. Chemical Economies . Van Nostrand Co., New York (1933) p. 104 
2/ This does not include the value of "explosives" produced in New York and 

New Jersey. 
8544 



-15- 

table ix 

Value of Products Produced, "by Principal States a/ 



State 



V alue of Production in Each State (Thousands) 
1929 " 1951 1933 



U. S„ Total 



$810,538 



$579,434 



California 




24,636 b/ 


26,085 


Illinois 




64,513 


47 , 681 


Indiana 


£./ 


13,798 


7,051 


Maryland 




12 , 942 


7,153 


Massachusetts 


a/ 


19,103 


14,700 


Michigan 


?./ 


53,183 


36,870 


Missouri 




19 , 425 


13,150 


New Jersey 


a 


155, 7S3 


111,887 


New York 


d 


168,629 


110 , 325 


Ohio 




47,906 


36,515 


Pennsylvania 




60,081 


35,189 


Tennessee 


h/ 


18,320 


17,443 


Virginia 




20,682 


20,917 


West Virginia 


i/ 


22,859 


21 , 741 



All Other States 



108,128 



72,727 



$511,609 

26,319 
33,117 
7,111 
7,345 
12,697 
37,707 
12,772 
97,162 
96,496 
37 , 949 
33,389 
13,609 
18,833 
19,484 

57,619 



Source: 



sJ 



a/ 

fi/ 



Census of Manufactures , "Chemicals not Elsewhere Classified," and 
Explosives. " 

The notes "below when read in connection with the footnote references 
in the body of the table indicate the number of explosive plants in 
given states for which figures on value of products were' not given 
separately. The value of products for these plants is therefore in- 
cluded in "All Other States." 



Three plants. 
One plant. 
One plant. 
Two plants. 
Five plants in 
1929 and 1931; 
4 in 1933. 



sj Two plants in 1929 and 1931; 

1 in 1933. 

h/ Two plants in 1929; 1 in 1931 

and 1933, 
i/ Pive plants in 1929; 4 in 1931; 

2 in 1933. 



8544 



-16~ 

TABLE X 
Value of Selected Chemicals Exported 



Item 



Value of Exports (Thousands) 



1929 



1931 



1933 



1934 



Coal-Tar Products 

Industrial Chemicals, 
Exclusive of Com- 
pressed and Liquefied 
Gases 

Nitrogenous Fertilizer 
Materials 

Explosives 

Total 



$18,061 $10,308 $12,421 $13,264 



27 •, 091 18,947 15,973 20,730 

7,526 4,828 2,729 4,940 

3,414 1,177 1,062 1,376 

56,092 35,260 32,185 40,310 



Source: Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Comnerce, Monthly Summary of Foreign 
Commerce of the United States (December issues). 



8544 



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-19- 

Chapter V 

GENERAL INFORMATION 

Trade Associations 

Important trade organizations in the Chemical Industry are: The Chemical 
Alliance, Inc.; Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturers' Association; and 
Manufacturing Chemists' Association of the United States. Membership lists 
showed 510 members of the Chemical Alliance, Inc.; 42 members of Synthetic 
Organic Chemical Manufacturers' Association, and 81 members of Manufacturing 
Chemists* Association, at the end of 1934, 1/ The lists of members are over- 
lapping as some companies appear on all three lists. 

The Chemical Alliance, Inc., which has the largest membership, sponsored 
the Code. 

Experts 



It is understood that the men listed below have not been consulted in 
any way regarding their potential use as experts in connection with evidence 
as to the interstate character of these industries and we have no information 
available as to their education, experience and other qualifications. In most 
instances leaders in the trade have designated these individuals as men best 
qualified to discuss the particular segments of the industry for which we 
are suggesting them as expert s t 

Solvents and Alkalies 

Robert T. Baldwin, Chemists Club Building, 

52 - East 41st Street, New York City 
Secretary, American Chemists Society 
Director, Chlorine Institute 
Adviser on Industrial Alcohol Industry 

Solvents 

Glenn Haskell, U. S. Alcohol, Company, 42nd Street, 

New York City 
M. P. Chase, Commercial Solvents Corporation, 

New York City 

Alkalies 

E. M. Allen, Mathieson Alkali Works, Hew York City 

Irving Taylor, Michigan Alkali Co., 42nd St., New York City 

A. B. Chadwick, Semet-Solvay Company, New York City 

Chas. Millard, General Chemical Company, New York City 

Harold Alouist, Consulting Engineer, 331 Madison Ave., New York City 

Mr, St scuff » Semet-Solvay Company, New York City 

1/ Garvan, Francis P., " A proposed Reciprocal Trade Treaty Between the 
United States and Switzerland ," published by "The Chemical Foundation, 
Inc.," (1935) pp. 109 ff. 



8544 



~20~ 
Sulphuric Acid 

Henry Merriam, General Chemical Company, Hew York City 
Howard Mansfield, Graseili Company, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Bynami t e 

Mr. Higgins, Hercules powder Company, Sew York City 

Heavy Chemicals 

Chas. Belknap, Merrimac Chemical Company, Everett, Mass. 

Pine Chemicals 

George Merck, 161 - 6th Avenue, Hew York City 

Potash 

Horace Albright, Canadian Pacific Building, Hew York City 

Foreign Trade 

William Buffam, Chemical Foundation., Madison Ave., New York City 
Francis C-arvan, Chemical Foundation, Madison Ave., New York City 

Chlorine 

Robert T. Baldwin, Chemists Club Building, 

52 East 41st St., Hew York City 

Carbon Bi oxide 

George Pettee, Carbon Bioxide Institute, 

Grand Central Bldg. , Hew York City 

Nitrogen and nitrate of Soda 

Chaplin Tyler, BuPont Company, Wilmington, Bel. 

Coal Tar Products 

Henry Atherton, President, Allied Chemicals Corp., Hew York City 
Willard Bow, Bow Chemical Company, Midlands, Michigan 
Orlando Weber, c/o Allied Chemicals Corp., Hew York City 

General 

Caeser Proto, Economist, BuPont Company, Wilmington, Bel. 
Br. William J. Hale, Cosmos Club, Washington, B. C. , 

formerly consultant for the Bow Chemical Company 
Hans Clarke, Medical Center, Hew York City, formerly 

consultant for the Eastman Kodak Company 
Sidney Kirkpatrick, Editor, Chemical and Metallurgical 

Engineering, 42nd Street, Hew York City 



8544 



-21- 



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