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NATIONAL RECOVERY ADMINISTRATION 



arn o 



DIVISION OF REVIEW 



EVIDENCE STUDY 

NO. 8 

OF 



THE COTTON GARMENT INDUSTRY 



Prepared by 
J. W. HATHCOCK 



AUGUST, 1935 



PRELIMINARY DRAFT 
(NOT FOR RELEASE: FOR USE IN DIVISION ONLY) 



THE EVIDENCE STUDY SERIES 

The EVIDENCE STUDIES were originally planned as a means of gathering- 
evidence "bearing upon various legal issues which arose wider the National 
Industrial Recovery Act. 

These studies have value quite, aside from the use for which they were 
originally intended. Accordingly, they are now made available for confidential 
use within the Division of Review, and for inclusion in Code Histories. 

The full list of the Evidence Studies is as follows: 



1. Automobile Manufacturing Ind, 

2. Boot and Shoe Mfg. Ind. 

3. Bottled Soft Drink Ind. 

4. Builders' Supplies Ind. 

5. Chemical Mfg. Ind. 

6. Cigar Mfg. Industry 

7. Construction Industry 

8. Cotton Garment Industry 

9. Dress Mfg. Ind. 

10. Electrical Contracting Ind, 

11. Electrical Mfg. Ind, 

12. Fab. Metal prod. Mfg., etc. 

13. Fisher;/ Industry 

14. Furniture Mfg. Ind. 

15. General. Contractors Ind. 

16. Graphic Arts Ind. 

17. Gray Iron Foundry Ind. 

18. Hosiery Ind, 

19. Infant's & Children's Wear Ind. 

20. Iron and Steel Ind, 

21. Leather 

22. Lumber & Timber Prod. Ind. 



23. 
24. 
25. 
25. 
27. 
28. 
29, 
30. 
31. 
32. 
33. 
34. 



37. 

33. 
39. 
40. 
41. 
42. 
43. 



Mason Contractors Industry 

Men's Clothing Industry 

Motion Picture Industry 

Motor Bus Mfg. Industry (Dropped) 

Needlework Ind. of Puerto Rico 

Painting & paperhanging & Decorating 

photo Engraving Ind\istry 

Plumbing Contracting Industry 

Retail Food (See No. 42) 

Retail Lumber Industry 

Retail Solid Fuel (Dropped) 

Retail Trade Industry 

Rubber Mfg. Ind. 

Rubber Tire Mfg. Ind. 

Silk Textile Ind. 

Structural Clay Products Ind. 

Throwing Industry 

Trucking Industry 

Waste Materials Ind. 

Wholesale & Retail Food Ind. (See No, 

Wholesale Fresh Fruit & Veg, 31 ) 



In addition to the studies brought to completion, certain materials have 
been assembled for other industries. These MATERIALS are included in the series 
and are also made available for confidential use within the Division of Review 
and for inclusion in Code Histories, as follows; 



44. Wool Textile Industry 49. 

45. Automotive parts & Equip. Ind, 50. 

46. Baking Industry 51. 

47. Canning Industry 52. 

48. Coat and Suit Ind. 53. 



Household Goods & Storage, etc. (Drop-' 
Motor Vehicle Retailing Trade Ind, ped) 
Retail Tire & Battery Trade Ind. 
Ship & Boat BIdg. & Repairing Ind, 
Wholesaling or Distributing Trad' 



L. C. Marshall- 
Director , Division of Review 



0\b *\ 



i Ait 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Foreword 1 

CHAPTER I - DESCRIPTION AMD SCOPE 3 

Code Definition 3 

Historical Background 3 

Significant Recent Developments 4 

General Operation of the Industry 4 

Number and Location of Establishments 4 

Capital Investment ° 

Number of Failures and Turnover Among Pirms ? 

Present Financial Condition of the Industry 7 

Value of Products and Volume of Production ? 

Basis on which Volume and Value were 

Determined ? 

Competing Industries and Products 8 

CHAPTER II - LABOR STATISTICS 11 

Number of Employees H 

Wages Paid by the Industry 13 

Average Hourly Wage Rates and Average Hours 

Worked per Week 14 

Number of Employees Under 16 Years of Age 15 

Cost of Labor Relative to Value of Product 13 

CHAPTER III - MATERIALS: RAW AND SEMI-PROCESSED 19 

Principal Materials Used by Cotton Garment 

Industry 19 

Source of Production of Materials Used by 

the Industry 19 

Amount Spent for Machinery and Equipment 19 

Cost of Materials Relative to Value of 

Products 21 

CHAPTER IV - PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION 22 

Volume and Value of Products by States 22 

Value and Volume of Products Shipped 22 

Value and Volume of Products Exported from 

the United States ". 24 

Nature of Advertising 24 

Shift of Centers of Production 25 

Productive Capactiy 26 



8312 



-i- 



CONTENTS (Cont'd) 

Page 

CHAPTER V - TRADE PRACTICES 27 

Unfair Trade Practices Prevalent Before 

Code 27 

Unfair Return of Merchandise 27 

Secret Rebates 27 

Freight Allowances 27 

Excessive Terras 27 

Consignment Selling 27 

Advertising Allowances 27 

Inaccurate Advertising 27 

Improper Cancellations and Exchanges 28 

Wilfully Destructive Price Cutting 23 

Lack of Standards and Arbitration 

Facilities 28 

Unfair Competition of Prison Made Goods 28 

Spread of Unfair Trade Practices 29 

Effect of Individual Members on Price 

Structure of Industry 29 

CHAPTER VI - GEKSRAL IHFORMATIOH 30 

Trade Organizations 30 

Labor Organizations 31 

Relationship between Labor and Management 51 

In the Work-Clothes Industry 31 

In the Shirt and Men's Pajama 

Industries 32 

In the House-Dress Industry 32 

Employee Representation Plans 32 

Effect of the Code on the Industry 32 

Average Hours 32 

Hourly Rates of Pay 32 

Employment 32 

Weekly Wages 33 

Summary 33 

Per Cent of the Products of the Industry 

which are Trade Marked 33 

Foreign Competition 34 

List of Experts 35 

APPE3SDIX 37 



o o - 



3312 



-li- 



TABLES 

Page 

TABLE I - MEMBERS OF THE INDUSTRY CLASSIFIED 
ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF ESTAB- 
LISHMENTS; 1934 5 

TABLE II - NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, BY 

STATES 6 

TABLE III - VALUE AND VOLUME OF PRODUCTION, BY 

PRINCIPAL PRODUCTS 9 

TABLE IV - AVERAGE NUMBER OF WAGE EARNERS, BY 
STATES, 1929, 1931, 1933, AND 
1934, AND AVERAGE HOURS PER WEEK, 
1934 12 

TABLE V - SEASONALITY OF EMPLOYMENT, 1934 13 

TABLE VI - TOTAL ANNUAL WAGES, BY STATES 14 

TABLE VII - EMPLOYMENT, PAYROLLS, HOURS AND 

WAGES, 1933-1934 16 

TABLE VIII - VALUE OF PRODUCT, LABOR COST, AND 

COST OF MATERIALS 18 

TABLE IX - VALUE OF PRINCIPAL MATERIALS USED 
BY THE INDUSTRY, BY KIND AND 
PRODUCTION AREA: 1929 20 

TABLE X - VALUE OF SEWING MACHINES AND AT- 
TACHMENTS PRODUCED, BY STATES, 
1929 21 

TABLE XI - VALUE OF PRODUCTS BY STATES, 1929, 
1931, 1933, AND VOLUME OF PRO- 
DUCTION, 1934 23 

TABLE XII - EXPORTS BY VALUE AND VOLUME 24 

TABLE XIII - CHANGE IN EMPLOYMENT BETWEEN 1929 

AND 1933, BY PRINCIPAL STATES 25 

TABLE XIV - PRODUCTIVE CAPACITY AND PER CENT 

UTILIZED: 1934 26 



- o o - 



8312 -ili- 



-1- 

THE COTTON GARMENT INDUSTRY 

Fo reco rd 

Msot of the statistical material presented in this report for the 
years 1929, 1931, and 1933 has "been compiled from the Census of Manufactures. 
It must he pointed out, however, that these figures are not comprehensive 
enough to cover the Industry as defined hy the Code, hut apply only to the 
work clothing and shirt tranches of the Industry. Figures covering all '..- 
"branches of the Industry are, in general, available only for the year 1934, 
and such material is available only from the Cotton Garment Code Authority. 
This has therefore been used to supplement the Census data. Information 
on exports has been compiled from reports of the Bureau of Foreign and Do- 
mestic Commerce. A special tabulation showing employment, earnings, and 
hours of labor in 1S33 and 1934, which is comparable with the Code classifi- 
cation, is presented in Table VII. This information was obtained through a 
joint effort of the Bureau of Labor Statistics and the Division of Research 
and. Planning, NBA. 

For various of the topics upon which information is called for ~bj the 
outline, material is available only from the Cotton Garment Code Authority. 
It has in fact, prepared considerable material which has been incorporated 
in part in this report. Chapters I, II, III, and I? were largely written by 
Br. Alfred Cahen, Statistician for the Code Authority. Chapters V and VI, 
which are presented substantially as supplied by the Code Authority, were 
preuared as follows: 



Chapter V: 

Mr. W. C. Morgan, General Manager of the Cotton Garment Code 
Authority 

Mr. Mas J. Liebowitz, Divisional Director, Shirt, Pajama and 
Collar Divisional Code Authority 

Mr. William Oseasohn, Divisional Director, purses' , Service and 
Undergarment Divisional Code Authority 

Mr. Joseph H. Goliger, Divisional Director, Heavy Outerwear 
Divisional Code Authority 

Mr. Charles Daughters, Divisional Director, Work Clothes 
Divisional Code Authority 

Mr. Peter J. Troy, Divisional Director, House Dress 
■ Divisional Code Authority 

Mr. Harry Rogen, Prison Labor Secretary 

Chapter VI: 

Mr. W. C. Morgan 

Dr. Alfred Cahen 



8312 



-2- 

Dr. Gladys Dickason, Secretary, La"bor Compliance Committee, 
Cotton G-arment Code Authority 

Mr. A. F. Allison, Secretary, International Association of 
Garment Manufacturers 

The Appendix was supplied "by the Code Authority and is submitted in the 
form prepared by it. 



8312 






-3- 

Chapter I 

DESCRIPTION AED SCOPE 

Code Definition 

The term "Cotton Garment Industry, 11 as used in the Code 

"means and includes the production by any of the following 
processes: (a) cutting, (b) creasing, (c) sewing (all or part 
of the garment), (d) trimming, (e) pressing, (f) finishing, 
(g) examining and inspecting, (h) boxing, or all of them, of 
any article or garment known as (l) work clothing, work 
garments, work pants and children's play suits; (2) men's 
shirts, including knitted outer shirts and polo shirts; 
(3) boys' shirts and blouses; (4) boys' wash suits; (5) work 
shirts of any material, including flannel shirts; (6) pa- 
jamas and nightshirts; (?) men's collars; (8) cotton wash 
dresses; (9) oiled cotton garments; (10) men's and boys' 
pants in chief content of cotton; (11) sheep lined arid 
leather garments; (12) nurses and maids aprons and uni- 
forms; (13) washable service apparel; (14) men's cotton 
wash suits." 

Historical Background 

A hundred years ago in the United States, the few cotton garments 
produced out side the home were manufactured in small plants and were sold 
principally within neighboring towns and adjacent counties. Household 
sewing for family consumption was at th-'.vt time predominant. The only cotton- 
garment firms more than one hundred years old are those which began by 
manufacturing oiled cotton garments in Massachusetts. There are some large 
work-clothing firms, however, which ante-date the Civil War. The industry 
now manufactures a wide variety of products as suggested in the Code defi- 
nition cited above. 

Pour principal factors caused the growth of large plants with distrib- 
uting agencies all over the United States in place of the small neighborhood 
garment factory, and of household sewing. 

First, improvement in machinery gave to the operator with large capital 
resources definite production advantages over the neighborhood manufacturer 
and even rivaled the housewife in lowness of sewing costs. 

Second, style trends became prominent in cotton shirts, dresses, and 
pajamas, whereas at one time these garments had been entirely utility items. 
Thus in the matter of color and design, the advance of chemical developments 
in dye stuffs gave to large operators with adequate funds for research dis- 
tinct advantages over the small local factory. 

In more recent years the development of trade marks end national adver- 
tising, along with government progress on standards and specifications, has 
benefitted the large producer whose sales are nation-wide, and consequent^ 
reduced the proportionate importance of snail local factories. 

8312 



-4- 

Fourth, prison production of cotton garments, although a century old, 
recorded a growth in employment from 5,000 prisoners in 1885 to 16,000 
prisoners in 1932, according to the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics. 
Large-scale production "by prisons of work shirts, work pants, and overalls, 
which were shipped far and near in interstate commerce, forced many small 
factories to abandon the field of work clothing. Only large, well-equipped 
plants, with a sales force throughout the country, could afford to compete 
on a substantial scale with prison labor. 

Thus in the past century, the advance in machinery, the development of 
the style factor, chemical developments, national advertising, and the growth 
of prison competition operated against the continuance of household sewing for 
family use and small local production units and favored the large manufacturer. 
Of the 3,300 members of the Cotton Garment Industry, 200 large firms now ac- 
count for more than half of the total unit production. 

Significant Recent Developments 

Three distinct trends operating in the Cotton Garment Industry, ever- 
prior to 1929, were: (l) movement of factories from lew York City to small 
towns in Pennsylvania and Maryland; (2) substantial increases in the number 
of Cotton Garment employees in the South; and (3) increasing percentage of 
garments sold direct to retailers instead of through wholesalers. 

General Operation of the Industry 

The Industry is composed of manufacturers who own their own plants; 
manufacturers who do not own their oim plants, but who perform some of the 
operations of manufacture and contract for other operations — such as 
stitching; contractors as such; and wholesale distributors who maintain es- 
tablishments for the wholesale distribution of the merchandise through of- 
fices and stock rooms, but who contract for the entire process of manufacture 
with contractors. 

While it is difficult to describe the process of manufacture for so many 
as sixteen diversified industries, it may be said that the general practice 
is for any of the manufacturers in the above-mentioned categories to purchase 
raw materials, such as piece goods, linings, thread, buttons, and trimmings 
from sources all over the country. The piece goods are cut on the premises 
of either the manufacturer or the contractor, and then fabricated, into stock 
which is stored in suitably located stock rooms or distributing points through 
the country and sold to retailers and jobbers for consumer distribution. 

Number and Location of Establishments 

The Code Authority estimates that for the year 1934 the total number of 
concerns in the Industry amounted to 3,300, and that the total number of 
plants in the Industry was 3,700. The Industry is made up of firms which, 
for the most part, have only one establishment. Code Authority figures in 
Table I indicate that of the total 3,300 firms, 3,150 have one establishment 
only. 



8312 



-5- 

TABLE I 

MEMBERS OP THE INDUSTRY CLASSIFIED 
ACCORDING TO NUMBER OE ESTABLISHMENTS; 1934 



Number Number of Concerns with 

of Specified Number of 

Establishments Establishments 



Total number of concerns 3,300 

Total number of establishments 3,700 

One establishment only 3,150 

Two establishments 91 

Three establishments 23 

Eour establishments 16 

Eive establishments 5 

Six establishments or more 15 



Source; Cotton Garment Code Authority, Statistical Division, 
Payroll Reports. 

Data to show location by states are not available for the entire number 
of establishments estimated in Table I. The location of 3,562 establishments 
in all branches of the Cotton Garment Industry in 1934 is shown in Table II. 
This information was compiled by the Code Autnority and comparable data for 
previous years are not available as the Census of Manufactures material covers 
only the shirt and work clothing branches of the Industry. As will be noted 
from Table II, the Cotton Garment Industry is widely scattered throughoiit the 
United States. The states possessing the largest number of establishments 
are New York, with 786; Pennsylvania, with 548; New Jersey, with 258; Cali- 
fornia, with 230; Massachusetts, with 206, and Illinois, with 191. 

Capital Investment 

Dr. Alfred Calien, Statistician for the Cotton Garment Code Authority, 
has estimated that the capital investment for the entire Cotton Garment In- 
dustry in 1929 was $250,000,000. This is a revision of an estimate of 
$200,000,000 which a group of large manufacturers in the Industry made for 
the NRA hearings prior to the drafting of the Cotton Garment Code. The figure 
$200,000,000 was estimated upon the basis of products from the Census of 
Manufactures, but since all Cotton Garment products were not included in the 
sales figures used at that time, the estimate has been increased to 
$250,000,000. 



8312 



-6- 



TABLE II 
NUMBER OP ESTABLISHMENTS, BY STATES 



State 



U.S. Total 

California 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

Georgia 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Maine 

Maryland 

Mas s achus e 1 1 s 

Michigan 

Minnesota, 

Missouri! 

New Jersey 

Hew York 

North Carolina 

Ohio 

Oklahoma 

Pennsylvania 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Other States "of 



1929 a/ 1931 a/ 1933 a/ 



1,374 

44 
24 

i 

20 

57 

-13 

20 

10 

11 

13 

53 

38 

11 

21 

50 

S3 

332 

17 

44 

8 

263 

24 

43 

22 

7 

5 

21 

103 



1,249 

45 

26 

7 

20 

46 

41 

19 

7 

6 

8 

53 

42 

17 

19 

44 

55 

292 

18 

35 

7 

238 

' 26 

38 

24 

6 

15 
95 



1,143 

31 
22 
7 
21 
42 



13 
8 

12 
4 

63 

51 

11 

11 

40 

47 

229 

17 

30 

3 

220 

32 

41 

21 

5 

S 

12 

100 



1934 



3,562 

230 

85 

20 

57 

191 

75 

25 

18 

27 

18 

144 

206 

53 

61 

130 

258 

786 

33 

98 

16 

548 

47 

121 

41 

41 

22 

51 

160 



Source: 1929, 1931 and 1933 data are from Census of Manufactures , 
reports for "Shirts" and "Work Clothing" only. 1934 data 
are from the Cotton Garment Code Authority, covering all 
products of the Industry. 
a/ Data for shirts and work clothing only, and excluding establish- 
ments whose annual production is less than $5,000. 
b/ Includes the following in 1934: Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, 
and Ehode Island, with 15 establishments each; Oregon, 14; 
Florida, 13; Nebraska, 11; Arkansas, Colorado, Utah, and Vermont, 
10 each; South Carolina, S; lew Hampshire, 7; District of Columbia, 
Montana, 1. The number of establishments in these states was 
correspondingly small in the earlier years. 



8312 



Uumber of Failures and Turnover Among Firms 

Ho data are available on the number of failures nor the amount of 
liabilities involved, hat the high rate of turnover among firms in the 
Industry is indicated "by the following figures from the Census of Manufac- 
tures and the Statistical Division of the Cotton Garment Code Authority. 
Census figures show that the number of establishments- making shirts and 
work clothing declined from 1,374 in 1929 to 1,143 in 1933. l/ On the 
other hand, the Cotton Garment Code Authority has submitted figures cover- 
ing about half the establishments in all branches of the Industry which 
show that during the period July 1929 to March 1934, inclusive, 444 estab- 
lishments commenced business. Because of the small amount of capital and 
equipment necessary in the manufacture of cotton garments, many small-scale 
plants are operated for a time and then, on account of labor troubles, 
financial difficulties, or other causes, they are closed and the owner may 
subsequently open a, new factory in a more favorable location. Thus there is 
a continuous flux in the number and location of establishments in the Cotton 
Garment Industry. 

Present Financial Condition, of the Industry 

Only nine Cotton Garment firms reported financial figures to Moody's 
or to Standard Statistics, and only seven of these companies recorded their 
data, for the calendar years. These seven firms reported net income of 
$5,825,950 in 1929, $419,562 in 1931, $4,801,851 in 1933, and $2,969,253 in 
1934. 

Value of Products and Volume of Production 

The total dollar volume of products for the Industry, as defined by 
the Code, for the years 1923, 1931 and 1933 is not available, but has been 
estimated by the Cotton Garment Code Authority on the basis of Census data 
for groups selected from Census Reports on the major apparel Industries. 
The estimates a,re as follows: 

1329 $600,000,000 

1931 400,000,000 

1933 420,000,000 

Volume of $500,000,000 for the year 1934 has been estimated from label 
orders to the Cotton Garment Code Authority and average value figures sub- 
mitted on production reports to the Code Authority's Statistical Division. 
The total value and volume of sales of each specified product for the years 
1929-1934 are presented in Table III. 

Das is on which Volume and Value were Determined 

Census figures are exact records of production — for concerns whose 
annual production amounts to $5,000 or more — in thousands of garments and 
in dollar value, for those products for which distinct Census classifica- 
tions were given. For some garments, however, such as women's and children's 



1/ The Census figures refer only to plants manufacturing shirts and work 
clothing whose annual production is $5,000 or more. 

8312 



underwear and nightwear, the Census does not provide separate classifica- 
tions for cotton, silk and rayon, For other products, such as men's cotton 
wash suits and cotton pants (not work clothing), Census figures for 1929, 
1931, and 1333 were not considered comparable with Cotton Garment Code 
figures for 1934 since these particular products are manufactured to a 
considerable extent under other Codes. Likewise, the Census classification 
for nurses' uniforms are not comparahle with the Cotton Garment Code 
classification since aprons are included in the latter. 

Code Authority figures as given for 1934 are "based on lahel sales for 
the year ending April 23, 1935. These data were multiplied "by average 
value per dozen for each type of garment, as obtained from production re- 
ports to the Statistical Division of the Cotton Garment Code Authority. 
Five work-clo thing products are included under the work clothing lahel; 
namely, overalls, work pants, other pants, playsuits and outerwear. 
Separate unit production was estimated for these garments on the "basis of 
increased percentages in monthly Census reports of production of work 
clothing for 1334 compared with the preceding year, and this was then 
adjusted to the change in total unit production of work clothing from the 
1933 Biennial Census of Manufactures. 

Competing Industries and Products 

The Cotton Garment Industry, primarily "because of overlapping codal 
definitions, has met with competition from producers under the Codes for 
the Lien's Clothing Industry and the Dress Manufacturing Industry. This com- 
petition focuses mainly on men's work and wash clothing and women's wash 
dresses , 

The Industry has complained "bitterly with respect to competition 
emanating chiefly from prison Industries, sheltered work shops, vocational 
guidance schools, and imports from Puerto Hico. 



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-11- 

Chapter II 

LABOR STATISTICS 1/ 

The Godo Authority estimates that approximately iOO.OOO wage earners 
were attached to the Cotton Garment Industry in 1934. The average numbers of 
wage earners "by states for 1329, 1931, 1933 and 1934 are shown in Table IV. 
The figures for 1934 are Code Authority data based upon payroll reports sub- 
mitted by the Industry and covering the entire Industry. Figures for 1929, 
1931, and 1933 cover shirts and work clothing only, as reported in the Census 
of Manufactures. 

The degree of seasonality of enrpl02nnent in the Industry is indicated by 
the breakdown of the number of wage earners by months in 1934, shown in Table 
V. Employment fluctuated from the low figure of 172,000 wage earners in Janu- 
ary to a high of 221,000 in April. 

Seasonal variations in the Cotton Garment Industry occur primarily in 
house dresses and men's cotton wash suits which have very busy spring seasons 
in preparation for summer sales. The peak seasons for sheep-lined and leather 
garments and lumberjacks are in the autumn when preparation is made for winter 
sales. Work clothes have more modified peak seasons in the spring and fall, 
due to heavy sales in agricultural districts in the corresponding periods. 
However, as a whole, the Cotton Garment Industry is believed to be less 
seasonal and to give more regular employment to its workers than any other 
of the apparel Industries. 



i / 



lore detailed information, see Exhibit A of Appendix. 



8312-2 



^1 o_ 



TABLE IV 



AVEBAGE FJMBER OF WAG-S EARNERS, BY STATES, 
1929, 1931, 1933, A11D 1934, 
AED AVERAGE HOURS PEE. WEEK, 1934 



State 



Number of Wage Earners 
in each State a/ 

1929 b/ F931 b/ 1933 _ T/"l934 



Average Hours 

Per Week, 

1934 



U. S. Total 



98,031 90,343 109,097 200,000 



Alabama 


792 


398 


1,422 


1,893 


32.0 


California 


2,826 


2,196 


2, 474 


7,030 


34.3 


Connecticut 


2,480 


2 956 


3,148 


4,757 


33.1 


Delaware 


432 


'586 


598 


506 


31.2 


Georgia 


2,642 


3,408 


2,970 


5,071 


32.8 


Illinois 


2,913 


1,996 


5, 573 


12,563 


31.9 


Indiana 


5,380 


5, 312 


9,174 


13,124 


51.2 


Kentucky 


1,510 


797 


2,089 


2, 562 


26.8 


Loui s iana 


1,101 


280 


313 


1,014 


33.0 


Maryland _c/ 


5,140 


3,150 


4,311 


3,574 


31.5 


Massachusetts 


2, 026 


2,369 


2,471 


7,767 


33.4 


Hi chigan 


453 


825 


657 


3,916 


28.0 


Minnesota 


924 


772 


554 


2,299 


34.7 


Mississippi 






1,986 


4,422 


31.3 


Missouri 


6,796 


5, 717 


7,072 


12,969 


31.3 


New Jersey 


5,717 


5,072 


5,162 


11,065 


32.1 


New York 


16,443 


11,403 


11,124 


17,017 


31.6 


North Carolina 


2,061 


2,474 


3,261 


4,883 


31.3 


Ohio 


3, 563 


3,244 


5,904 


6,853 


33.9 


Pennsylvania 


18,272 


20,377 


22,727 


36,730 


28.7 


Tennessee 


2,315 


2,279 


3,725 


7,932 


32.3 


Texas 


3,604 


2,748 


3,873 


7,332 


■34. 4 


Virginia 


2,093 


2, 624 


5, 351 


4,754 


oq 


West Virginia 


454 




949 


2,620 


28.0 


Wisconsin 


1,046 


587 


542 


3 , 247 


26.0 



Other States d/ 



M-R 



5,673 8,057 



0,090 



Source: 1929, 1931, 1933, data are from. Census of Manufactures reports for 

"Shirts and Work Clothing" only; 1954 data are from pa3 r roll reports 
submitted to the Cotton Garment Code Authority, covering all prod- 
ucts of the Industr:". 

a/ Employees included: Skilled and unskilled workers on the payroll for week 
including 15th of month; average for 12 months, 1929 and 1931; average 
March, June, September, and December, 1933. 

b/ Shirts and work clothing only; and excluding establishments whose annual 
production is less than $5,000. 

c/ Includes District of Columbia. 



(Continued on following page) 



8312 



-13- 

TABLE IV 
(Continued" 



d/ Includes the following in 1934; Arkansas and Oregon with a total of 900- 
1,000 wage earners; Maine, 300-900; Iowa, South Carolina, 700-800; Colorado, 
Utah, 600-700; Kansas, Oregon, 400-500; New Hampshire, Vermont, 300-400; 
Florida, Nebraska, Rhode Island; 200-300; Montana, Oklahoma, less than 
200. The number of employees was correspondingly snail in the earlier 
years. The average hours per week for these states ranged between 28.6 
and 34.7. 

TABLE V 

SEASONALITY OE EMPLOYMENT, 1934 



¥eek Ending 


Nearest 


Number of 


Total 


Total 


the 15 


th 


Wage Earners 


Man-Hours a/ 


Payrolls" a/ 


January 




172, 000 


22,336,000 


$8,247,000 


February 




191,000 


24,524,000 


8,969,000 


March 




205,000 


30,344,000 


11,371,000 


April 




221,000 


32,595,000 


12,268,000 


May 




215,000 


31,341,000 


12,139,000 


June 




201,000 


28,349,000 


11,227,000 


Jul'," 




184,000 


24,844,000 


9,471,000 


Aug-:<vi 




193,000 


26,560,000 


10,158,000 


Sep ; ruber 




205,000 


29,090,000 


11,230,000 


October 




202,000 


29,011,000 


11,170,000 


Nov=jibcr 




201,000 


28,781,000 


11,080,000 


December 




191,000 


24,310,000 


9,913,000 


j\ vsrap'e 


for Year 


198,417 


27,673,800 


10,503,600 



Source: Payroll reuorts to the Statistical Division of the Cotton Garment 
Code Authority. 

a/ Figures are estimated in round numbers from concerns representing three- 
fourths of the employment in the Industry. 

Wa^es Paid by the Industry 

The Code Authority estimates that total annual wages for the Industry in 
1934 amounted to $120,000,000. During the years 1929, 1931 and 1933 payments 
to wage earners producing work clothing and shirts only ranged from a high 
of $70,075,000 in 1929 to a low of $52,184,000 in 1933. A breakdown of these 
totals by states is presented in Table VI. 



8312 



-14- 
TABLE VI 
TOTAL AMUAL WAGES, 3Y STATES a/ 



1929 £/ 1931 b/ 1933 b/ 1934 
State (Thou sands) 

U. S. Total $70,075 $53,604 $52,184 $120,000 

Alabama 
California 
Connecticut 
Delaware 
Georgia 
Illinois 
Indiana 
Iowa 

Kentucky- 
Maryland 
Massachusetts 
Michigan 
Minnesota 
Mississippi 
Missouri 
New Jersey 
Hew York 
North 'Carolina 
Ohio 

Pennsylvania 
Tennessee 
Texas 
Virginia 
Washington 
West Virginia 
Wisconsin 

Other States 5,637 4,456 3,464 

Source: 1929, 1931, 1933 data are from Census of Manufactures reports for 

"Shirts" and "Work Clothing" only; 1934 data are from payroll reports 
submitted to Cotton Garment Code Authority covering all products 
of the Industry. 

a/ Wages consist of total payrolls paid to wage earners during the year. 

b/ Data for shirts and work clothing only; and excluding establishments 
whose aiuraal production is less than $5,000, 

Average Hourly Wage Rates and Average 
Hours Worked Per Week 

Payroll reports to the Statistical Division of the Cotton Garment Code 
Authority revealed that the Industry's average hourly wage rate for 1929 
was 28.5 cents; for 1933, 19.3; and 1934, 35.6. Average weekly earnings 

3312 



4-40 


204 


509 


2,735 


2,203 


1,597 




1,930 


1,674 


208 


218 


234 


1,451 


1,377 


1,140 


1,987 


1,230 


1,766 


4,116 


3, 333 


4,327 


629 


384 


391 


735 


341 


768 


2,117 


1,532 


2,139 


1,806 


1,635 


1,584 


254 


429 


295 


762 


573 


361 

859 


4,712 


3,350 


3,238 


4,727 


3,777 


2,799 


14,348 


8,466 


6,284 


1,133 


1,383 


1,283 


2, 847 


2,179 


2,021 


11,952 


10,508 


10,441 


1,143 


994 


1,389 


1,924 


1,319 


1,724 


1,167 


1,196 


1,288 


552 


428 


284 


229 




363 


915 


492 


352 



-15- 

for the sane years were $13.31, $8,57, and $12,58 respectively. The average 
hours per week were 46.7, 44,3, and 34.4, respectively. Average hours per 
week for the year 1934, by states, are shown in Table IV, above, 

A special tabulation of establishments operating under the Cotton 
Garment Code and reporting to the Bureau of Labor Statistics is presented 
in Table VII. The average hourly .and weekly earnings and hours worked per 
week shown in this table compare very well with the Code Authority data for 
1934. In 1933 the Bureau of Labor Statistics figures on average earnings 
are somewhat higher than those from the Code Authority while those on average 
hours per week are lower. 

Number of Employees Under 16 Years of Age . 

The Cotton Garment Code Authority advised that there was a negligible 
number of employees under 15 years of age in the Industry during 1934, On 
the basis of the United States Census of Occupations for 1930, it appears 
that 3,9 per cent of the operators in the Shirt Industry were less than 
16 years of age. For the entire Cotton Garment Industry for 1930, it can 
be estimated that approximately 7,800 employees were under 16 years of age. 

According to the Pennsylvania State Department of Labor, weekly wages 
of children under 16 in the Clothing Industry in that state were $8,38 in 
1926; $3.31 in 1932, and $2.76 in 1933. 



8312 



-16- 



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S312 



-18- 
Cost of Labor Relative to Value of Product 

The percentage which the cost of labor is of the value of product in 
the Cotton Garment Industry ranged from 19 per cent in 1934 to 21 per cent 
in 1931. Attention is again directed to the fact that the figures shown in 
Table VIII for 1929, 1931, and 1933 are based on data for shirts and work 
clothing only. The figures for 1934 are based upon Code Authority total 
value of product estimated from labor and production reports from the Indus- 
try. 

Additional information relative to labor statistics in the Cotton Garment 
Industry is contained in Exhibit A, which is a study prepared by Dr. Alfred 
Cahen, Statistician of the Cotton Garment Industry and covers cotton garment 
wages and hours for the period July, 1929 to April, 1935, inclusive. This 
study presents labor statistics by months for the period above mentioned 
and is broken down to cover (l) employment index, (2) weekly wages, (3) 
weekly hours, (4) employment in the North, South and border states, (5) hourly 
earnings, (6) and per cent change in these items during the first three 
months under the 36-hour week. 

TABLE VIII 

VALUE OF PRODUCT, LABOR COST, AMD COST 
OP MATERIALS 

Total 

Value of Total Labor Cost Total Materials Cost 

Product Amount Per Cent Amount Per cent 

Year (Thousands) (Thousands) of Total (Thousands) of Total 

1929 a/ $366,772 $70,075 19.1 $200,230 54.6 
1931 a/ 255,409 53,604 21.0 133,308 52.2 

1933 a/ 255,053 52,184 20.5 142,126 55.7 

1934 500,000 95,000 19.0 275,000 55.0 



Source: 1929, 1931, 1933 data are from Census of Manufactures , reports for 
"Shirts" and "Work Clothing" only; 1934 data from Cotton Garment 
Code Authority, covering all products of the Industry. Eor the 
latter year, total value of products are estimated from label and 
production reports; labor and material costs are estimated from a 
cost price inquiry by the International Association of Garment 
Manuf ac tur e r s . 

a/ Data for shirts and work clothing only; and excluding establishments 
whose annual production is less than $5,000. 



8312 



-19- 

Chapter III 

MATERIALS: RAW AND SEMI- PROCESSED 

Principal Ma teri als Used b : r Cotto n 
Garment Industry 

The principal materials used "by the Cotton Garment Industry are cotton 
cloth; silk cloth; wool cloth; rayon cloth; cloth composed of mixed fibres; 
leather; fleece; thread; buttons; zippers; webbing; and rubber. 

It is impossible to indicate the volume of each principal material used 
by the Cotton Garment Industry inasmuch as the total production data for these 
items are not broken down ta show distribution among this and the several other 
Industries using these materials. However, the Cotton Textile Institute has 
estimated that the Cotton Garment Industry in 1929 consumed approximately 
1,300,000,000 square yards of cotton cloth, which represented around 15 per 
cent of the total production of cotton cloth (3,541,545,733 square yards) for 
the year 1929. 

Source of Production of Materials 
Used by the Industry 

The Census of Manufactures for 1929 breaks down cotton goods into print 
cloth, denims j shirtings, drills, and ginghams. The total value of these items 
and the source of production in terms of cotton growing states and New England 
states are indicated in Table IX. As already pointed out, however, it is impos- 
sible to estimate the proportions of these various items which are used by the 
Cotton Garment Industry alone. 

Amount Spent for Machinery and Equipment 

Ho data, are available on purchases of machines and equipment, but a ques- 
tionnaire on changes in machine capacitor, employment, and payrolls sent out by 
the Statistical Division of the Cotton Garment Code Authorit3 r has elicited in- 
formation showing the incres.se in sewing machines for 947 identical plants, 
which represent three-fourths of the employment of the Industry. These 947 
plants report $108,475 spent for machinery and equipment in 1929, $122,501 
in 1933, and $131,229 in 1934. 



8312 



-20- 





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5312 



-21- 



The source of supply of the sewing machines used "by the Cotton 
Garment Industry can he fairly well ascertained hy reference to Tahle X 
which shows the total value of all sewing machines and attachments 
produced, hy states, for the year 1939. 



TABLE X 

VALUE OP SEWING- MACHINES AND ATTACHMENTS 
PRODUCED, BY STATES, 1929 



Number of Per cent of 

State Establishments Value of Products Total Value 



U. S. Total 


39 


Illinois 


4 


Massachusett s 


7 


New York 


15 



$45,094,600 100.0 

8,783,941 19.5 

2,341,851 5.2 

1,024,959 2.3 

Other States a/ 13 32,943,849 73.1 

Source: Census of Manufactures , 1929, Volume II, page 1175. 

a/ Connecticut, 3 establishments; Maryland, 1; Missouri 2; New Jersey, 2; 
Ohio, 3; Pennsylvania, 2. 

Cost of Materials Relative to Value 
of Products 

The percentage which the cost of materials is of the value of products 
is shown in Table VIII above. Special attention is directed to the fact 
that data for the years 1929, 1931, and 1933 cover only shirts and work 
clothing, whereas the 1934 figures cover the total value of the products 
of the Industry as estimated by the Cotton Garment Code Authority. 

Additional information relating to costs in various branches of the 
Industry is shown in Exhibit B of the Appendix. 



8312 



-22- 

Chapter IV 

PRODUCTION MB DISTRIBUTION 1/ 

Volume and Value of Product s "by Stat es 

Table XI presents value of cotton garment products "by states for the 
years 1929, 1931, and 1933, and volume of production for 1934. It must "be 
noted that data for all years except 1934 are for shirts and work clothing 
only. The 1934 data,, which are 'based on label sales, indicate that approx- 
imately 47 per cent of production in the Industry originated in the five 
states of Indiana, Massachusetts, Missouri, New York and Pennsylvania. 

Value and Volume of products Shi pped 

No data are available on interstate shipments of cotton garments. 
However, it is significant to note that 99 per cent of men's collars are 
manufactured in New York State although worn by consumers in every state. 

Data on sales offices were not required on Code Authority reports, 
but several hundred firms submitted such information. One hundred and 
thirty-four companies with no plants in New York State maintain sales 
offices in New York City; 19 companies with no plants in Illinois have 
sales offices in Chicago; 12 companies with no plants in California 
maintain sales offices in Los Angeles, and an additional 16 companies 
have sales offices in San Francisco. Twenty-three companies maintain 
sales offices in Baltimore, St. Louis, Boston, Detroit, Minnesota, Dallas, 
Phoenix, Cincinnati, Philadelphia, Seattle, and Omaha, but have no 
plants in the states in which these cities are located. 



1/ For a breakdown of production costs for various types of garments, 
see Exhibit B of the Appendix. 



8312 



-23- 

TABLE XI 

VALUE OF PEODUCTS BY STATES, 1929, 1931, 1933 
AND VOLUMS OF PRODUCT I OH, 1934 



1 


.929 a/ 


1931 a/ 


1933 a/ 


1934 b/ 




Volume 
(Thousands 






Value 


Value 


Value 


Per Cent 


State (Thousands) 


(Thousands) 


(Thousands) 


of Garments) 


of Total 


U.S. Total 


$366,772 


$255,409 


$255,053 


600,000 


100.0 


Alabama 


1,846 


783 


2,350 


5,400 


0.9 


Arkansas 


1,649 


979 


1,055 


2,400 


0.4 


California 


11,321 


7,704 


6,932 


18,600 


3.1 


Connecticut 


8,013 


5,574 


5,474 


16,200 


2.7 


Delaware 


597 


241 


1,037 


3,600 


0.6 


Georgia 


6,753 


5,732 


8,159 


15,600 


2,6 


Illinois 


9.14C 


4,999 


7,588 


31,200 


5.2 


Indiana 


20,682 


14,893 


19,476 


37,800 


6.3 


Iowa 


3,542 


1,968 


1,853 


3,600 


0.6 


Kansas 


972 


725 


601 


1,200 


0.2 


Kentucky 


5,746 


2,923 


4,317 


7,800 


1.3 


Louisiana 


2,784 


703 


680 


2,400 


0.4 


Maine 


1,715 


729 


207 


1,200 


0.2 


Maryland 


13,039 


10,447 


12,852 


22,200 


3.7 


Massachusetts 


9,188 


6,962 


6,672 


31 , 200 


5.2 


Michigan 


1,426 


1,805 


1,246 


11 , 400 


1.9 


Minnesota 


3,592 


2,306 


1.820 


6,000 


1.0 


Mississippi 






3,945 


12,600 


2.1 


Missouri 


22,816 


12,743 


13,407 


42,600 


7.1 


New Jersey 


26,393 


15,912 


11 , 203 


34,800 


5.8 


New York 


87,744 


65,883 


44,207 


70,800 


11.8 


llorth Carolina 6,324 


6,171 


6,714 


18,600 


3.1 


Ohio 


13,331 


8,154 


8,590 


22,800 


3.8 


Pennsylvania 


54, 540 


39,935 


43,201 


96,000 


16.0 


Tennessee 


8,536 


7,234 


7,782 


24,000 


4.0 


Texas 


9,783 


5,530 


8,281 


16,200 


2.7 


Virginia 


5,670 


4,856 


7,411 


15,600 


2.6 


Washington 


2,974 


1,729 


1,449 


2,400 


0.4 


West Virginia 


1,432 




2,725 


9,600 


1.6 


Wisconsin 


4,843 


1,936 


1,714 


8,400 


1.4 


Other 










States c/ 


20,381 


15,853 


12,105 


7,800 


13.0 


Source: 1929 


, 1931, and 1933 data 


are from Census of Manufactures re-oorts 



on "shirts" and "Work Clothing" only; 1934 data are from label 
orders of the Cotton Garment Code Authority, covering all products 
of the Industry 

(Continued on following page) 



8312 



-24- 

TABLE XI 
( Continued) 



a/ Data for shirts and work clothing only; and excluding establishments 

whose annual production is less than $5,000. 
b/ Value not given for individual states in 1934. Total value was 

$500,000. 
c/ Includes the following in 1934, with estimated production of 600,000 

to 1,200,000 garments: District of Columbia, Florida, Nebraska, 

Hew Hampshire, Oregon, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Utah, Vermont. 

The volume for these states was correspondingly small in earlier 
years. 



Value and Volume of products Ex-ported from the United States 

Table XII presents the exports of cotton garments from the United 
States by value ' and volume for the years 1929, 1931, 1933, and 1934. 
Particular attention is drawn to the fact that figures for dozens are 
not comparable with dollar values since no unit export data are available 
for some of the garments included. It is noted that exports declined in 
value from the 1929 high of $5,492,395 to $1,697,696 in 1933. However, 
an upturn to $2,195,987 was registered in 1934, although volume in 1934 
did not quite attain the 1933 level. 

TABLE XII 

EXPORTS BY VALUE AND VOLUME 



Exports 1929 1931 1933 1934 



Value 
(Dollars) a/ $5,492,395 $3,391,545 $1,697,696 $2,195,987 

Volume 
(Dozens) b/ 688,976 410,225 268,461 240,156 



Source: Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Foreign Commerce and 
Navigation of the United States . Figures for dozens are not 
comparable with dollar values since no unit export data are 
available for some of the garments included, 
a/ Data for collars and cuffs, cotton overalls, breeches and pants, 
underwear (not knit), shirts, dresses, skirts and waists, and 
other cotton clothing, 
b/ Data for all classifications listed in a/ except "other cotton 
clothing." 

Nature of Advertising 

Members of the Cotton Garment Industry advertise by magazine, radio 
and newspaper, on both a national and a local scale. A comparatively 

8312 



-25- 

small number of firms in the Cotton Garment Industry utilizes all of 
these means of advertising. 

Shift of Centers of Production 

Between 1929 and 1935, the Census recorded a shift in employment on 
work clothing and shirts from New York, New England, and other high-wage 
states to Pennsylvania, Maryland, and the South, where lower wages prevail. 
This shift is indicated by the percentage change in employment between 
1929 and 1933 presented in Table XIII. 



TABLE XIII 

CHANGE IN EMPLOYMENT BETWEEN 1929 AND 1933, 
BY PRINCIPAL STATES 



State 



Percentage Change in Employment 
Between 1929 and 1933 



Alabama 

Arkansas 

California 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

Georgia 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland a/ 

Michigan 

Missouri 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina 

Ohio 

Oklahoma 

Pennsylvania 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia 



+ 


80 


+ 


2 


- 


12 


4- 


27 


+ 


38 


+ 


12 


+ 


23 


+ 


56 


- 


28 


- 


21 


+ 


38 




72 




80 


+ 


37 


! 

T 


45 


+ 


4 


- 


46 


- 


10 


- 


32 


+ 


53 


+ 


10 


- 


52 


-t- 


24 


+ 


61 


1- 


7 


- 


8 


- 


41 


+ 


60 


- 


32 


+ 


105 



Source: Computed from figures in Table IV of this report, 
a/ Includes District of Columbia. 



8312 



-26- 
Productive Capacity 

The Cotton Garment Code Authority has estimated the productive 
capacity of the Industry and the percentage utilized for the year 1934. 
(See Table XIV). It is noted that the 1934 production of 600,000,000 
units represents 54 per cent of the theoretical maximum capacity output. 
The 138,393 machines operated represented 63.6 per cent of the number 
of machines in place. The actual machine hours of operation represent 
54 per cent of capacity machine hours of operation. The Code Authority 
stated that these figures are "based on theoretical maximum capacity, i.e., 
100 per cent of the machines working 40 hours per week. In contrast 
to this, actual working capacity, which may he figures on the "basis of 
38 hours per week, with 85 per cent of the machines in operation, 
would have "been approximately 896,000,000 garments in 1934. Thus, 
1934 production (600,000,000 units) may "be estimated at approximately 
6? per cent of actual working capacity (896,000,000 units). 

TABLE XI Y 

PRODUCTIVE CAPACITY AKD PER CENT 
UTILIZED: 1934 



Items 1934 



Theoretical Maximum Capacity Output (Units) 1,110,000,000 

Actual Production (Units) 600,000,000 

per Cent 54 

Number of Machines in Place 217,600 

Number of Machines Operated 138,393 

Per Cent 63.6 

Capacity Machine Hours of Operation 452,608,000 

Actual Machine Hours of Operation 244,678,824 

Per Cent 54 



Source: Questionnaire on machine capacity, and monthly payroll reports 

to the Statistical Division of the Cotton C-amient Code Authority. 



8312 



-27- 
Cha.pt er V 
TRADE PRACTICES 
Unfair Trade Practices Pr eva lent Before Code 

A brief description is given below of a number of unfair trade prac- 
tices which have been prevalent in the Cotton Garment Industry. 

Unfair Return of Merchandise . - Retailers and jobbers tool: unfair and 
unjust advantage of manufacturers by the arbitrary return of merchandise 
without just cause. Manufacturers, therefore, got merchandise back some- 
times many months, and even a year, after delivery. This resulted in the 
return of tremendous quantities of merchandise which were later offered as 
distress merchandise. These goods were then sold below the market, there- 
by resulting in losses to the respective Industries. 

It is claimed that unreasonable return of worn merchandise worked a 
hardship on the manufacturer and became a habit with retailers, for the 
purpose of boosting their sales at the expense of the seller. Returns of 
unseasonable merchandise because of carry-overs created a situation whereby 
merchandise had to be sold by the manufacturer at terrific losses. 

Secret Rebates . - Secret rebates were allowed to a particular class of 
customers, but not to all customers. 

Freight Allowances . - Freight allowances were granted to certain sec- 
tions, but not equally to all trade areas, thus giving selected manufacturers 
an advantage in a particular market. 

Excessive Terms . - The allowance of excessive terms to a particular class 
of customer, but not given uniformly to all customers, created an unfair com- 
petitive advantage. 

Consignment Selling . - Many types of garments coming under the juris- 
diction of the Cotton G-arnent Code were produced by large producers who were 
financially strong and who have benefitted through the selling of their prod- 
cuts to stores in various sections of the coimtry on a pLirely consignment 
basis. This has resulted in lowering price levels because the retailer had 
no -risk, and because he had the privilege of returning the merchandise. The 
retailer could also offer to sell this merchandise cheaper than his compet- 
itor who had bought it outright from other members of the Industry. The 
accumulation of returned and soiled left-overs from the retailer caused ad- 
ditional distress in the market when these goods were finally dumpted. Con- 
signment selling created an advantage to highly capitalized concerns, at the 
disadvantabe of smaller producers. 

Advertising Allowances . - The ability to grant advertising allowances 
created a condition advantageous to highly capitalized concerns, and reacted 
to the disadvantage of smaller producers who could not afford to grant such 
allowances. 

Inaccurate Advertising . - Misrepresentation of quality, content, color, 
size, fabric, and wearability misled the consumer, to his detriment, and gave 
the offender an undue competitive advantage. 

3312 



-23- 

Improper Cancellations a nd Exchanges. - This attempt on the part of 
the purchaser to pass on his legitimate risk to the manufacturer helped to 
cause over-production and economic losses. 

Wilful!"' Destructive Pric e Cuttin g. - This method of destroying com- 
petitors' gains in a particular field through the introduction of prices 
"below cost for the sole purpose of gaining an unfair competitive advan- 
tage in that field of operation affected the stability of labor standards 
and price levels. 

Lack of Standards and Arbitration F acilities . - Lack of standards in 
the Industrie created a destructive method of merchandising to the detri- 
ment of the consumer by lowering the generally accepted Quantitative stand- 
ard measurements of garments. Many members of this Industry, for the 
purpose of gaining a price advantage, cut down on ciastomarily accepted 
standards of measurements of garments, without labelling such garments siib- 
standard. 

Lack of arbitration facilities for the determination of disputes con- 
cerning unfair trade practices created an ill feeling among purchasers and 
sellers. Lack of such facilities prevented any adjustment, thereby tend- 
ing to perpetuate the existence of unfair conditions. 

Unfair Competition of Prison Made Goods . - The low cost of orison- 
made goods demoralized the price structure of cotton garments, causing 
price cutting among manufacturers, and resulting in the shutting down of 
free plants and in throwing free workers out of employment. 

The prisons began to make merchandise many years ago, and as early 
as 1879 the competition of that class of merchandise with the free-made 
goods started to have a telling effect. Although the volume of cotton 
garments in general prodticed by convict labor was not great, its con- 
sequences upon the few branches of the Industry with which it does com- 
pete have proved serious and destructive. This effect can be directly 
traced to the fact that prison-made goods were placed -upon the market in 
competition with merchandise made by free labor. 

Competition of prison-made garments continued daring the period of 
Code operation and a recent example is given with respect to the production 
of prison-made work shirts, which, since 1914, has had considerable effect 
on the work-shirt branch of the Industry. In April 1934, chambray work 
shirts sold for about $5.50 to $6.50 per dozen, but the price has recently 
been reduced to $3.90 per dozen. This decline is attributed directly 
to the selling of similar shirts made by prison labor. A like condition 
existed in the summer of 1935 with regard to higher grade work snirts which 
were quoted as low as $5.37-;j per dozen bv free manuf acturers a.s against 
$6.50 per dozen a year ago. Competing garments of similar type produced in 
prisons were cruoted at prices ranging rron $.75 to $1.25 below the above 
prices. 

Labor employed in the making of work shirts and work pants has always 
been paid the lowest hourly wages in the Cotton Garment Industry, averaging 
only 22 cents for work shirts and 25 cents for work pants in 1929, as com- 
pared with 32 cents for overalls a line which has been relatively free from 
prison competition. In March 1933, work shirt hourly wages were 16 cents 

8312 



-29-i 

and work pants 18 cents, compared with 22 cents an hour for overall workers. 
In March 19S5, work shirts end work pants producers were still paying the 
lowest wages in the Cotton Garment Industry, hut had registered unparalleled 
gains in hourly wages of 136 and 129 per cent, respectively, in the past 
two years. 

Spread of Unfair Trade Practices 

Several instances are cited 7«here an unfair competitive practice in 
one area spread to another area, or affected the flow of interstate commerce. 

In the Northwest, certain large producers of heavy outerwear were in 
the habit of granting November 1st dating, net 60 days, on merchandise 
which they sold at the "beginning of that year and shipped any time before 
November 1st. This practice spread to all other sections of the country, 
but could be imitated only by "the large producers. It was strongly op- 
posed by the smaller manufacturers because they could not meet such competi- 
tion. 

Early in May, 1934, a large overall producer in North Carolina reduced 
his price by $1.00 per dozen, or 11.6 per cent. Within ten days, two other 
nearby manufacturers, located in Virginia, slashed their prices by a simi- 
lar amount. Within thirty days complaints were registered from Arkansas, 
Illinois, Indiana, Maryland, Missouri, Ohio, Tennessee and Wisconsin. An 
inquiry sent by the Compliance Division of the Cotton Garment Code Authori- 
ty in December elicited the facts that five large overall producers, whose 
factories are located in Georgia, Illinois, Kentucky, North Carolina, Tenn- 
essee, and Virginia, despite geographical distances and state lines, were 
so vitally influenced by competition that all were selling at $7.62r£ per 
dozen, or 11.6 per cent lower than the price prior to the slash by one large 
producer seven months earlier. 

Effect of Individual Members on Price 
Structure of Industry 

In all product groups of the Cotton Garment Industry with the excep- 
tion of house dresses, the largest firms represent more than 5 per cent of 
the total unit output, and a much larger proportion of the -production 
within a given price range, so that one such leader is capable of break- 
ing the market price. 



8312 



-30- 

CHAPTSR VI 
GENERAL INFORMATION 

Trade Organizations 

The International Association of Garment Manufacturers was organized 
in 1908 in order to take care of the various interests represented by manu- 
facturers who subsequently came under the jurisdiction of the Cotton Garment 
Code. In addition, many of the trade associations listed "below are also 
members of this parent organization. 

National Association of Shirt Manufacturers 

National Association of Boys 1 Blouse and Shirt Manufacturers 

National Pajama Manufacturers' Council, Incorporated 

National Association of Collar Manufacturers 

National Association of Work Clothes Manufacturers 

The Union-Made Garment Manufacturers' Association of America 

National Association of Work Shirt Manufacturers 

National Association of Sheep Lined, and Leather Garment Manufacturers 

Associated Pants Manufacturers of America 

National Association of House Dress Manufacturers, Incorporated 

National Oiled Cotton Garment Manufacturers' Association 

National Association of Nurses' and Maids' Aprons and Uniforms 

Shirt Institute, Incorporated 

National Association of Hen's Shirts and Boys' Blouse Contractors 

Associated Manufacturers of Washable Service Apparel, Incorporated 

Association of Cotton Undergarment and Sleeping Garment Manufacturers 

The above associations were formed for the purpose of taking care of the 
interests of the manufacturers in the indicated branches of the Industry. They 
later became active in the promulgation of the Code for the Industry. 

The Industry is also organized in the following regional associations: 

The Southern Garment Manufacturers' Association 

The Baltimore Needle Trade Association 

New England Garment Manufacturers' Association 

Men's Apparel Industries of Los Angeles 

The Central Garment Manufacturers' Association 

The Southwest Work Clothes Manufacturers' Association 

Ohio-Indiana Garment Manufacturers' Association 

Pacific Coast House Dress Manufacturers' Association 

San Francisco Manufacturers' and Wholesalers ' Association 

The Southern Garment Manufacturers' Association, for example, is an asso- 
ciation which has a membership of manufacturers located in the southern area 
and is primarily interested in regional problems, such as wage differentials. 
The other associations have similar problems of both local and national scope. 

The membership of these organizations consists of both large and small 
manufacturers who in many cases are members of both local and national asso- 
ciations as well as the parent body, the International Association of Garment 
Manufacturers . 

2312 



-31- 



La"bor Organizations 



Estimates l/ of the membership of the unions representing workers in 
the Cotton Garment Industry are given below. Membership figures in any 
branch of the Industry must necessarily be approximate, since, for example, 
lumberjacks are sometimes made in shirt factories, and the union would not 
have the workers employed in their production separately classified. Also, 
although the Amalgamated may have a figure for its total membership of 
pants workers, it does not have them classified according to the Code under 
which the manufacturer operates, i.e., whether it is the Men's Clothing or 
the Cotton Garment Code. 



Name of Union 



Total 
Membership 



Membership in 
Cotton Garment 
Industry 



Amalgamated Clothing 
Workers of America 

United Garment Workers 
of America 

International Ladies' 
Garment Workers' Union 



150,000 
HO ,000 



220,000 



Ho, 000 
20,000 
20,000 



ilame of Union 



Product 



Number of Employees . 

Total in 

Specified Number in 

Branch Union 



Amalgamated Clothing 
Workers of America 



United Garment Workers 
of America 



Men's shirts, pajamas, 
and boys' blouses 

Heavy oxiterwear and 

sheep lined and leather 

Men's and boys' pants 

Men's shirts 
Overalls, work shirts 

and work pants 
Men's and boys' pants 



62,000 30,000-35,000 

lH,000 6,000- S,000 

7,600 H,000 

62,000 5,000 

62,000 15,000 

7,600 Not available 



International Ladies' 
Garment Workers ' 
Union 



House dresses and 
nurses' and 
maids ' uniforms 
women's undergar- 
ments 



Ho, 600 15,000 

5,200 Hot available 



Relationship between Labor and Management 

In the Work- Clothes Industry . - The United Garment Workers Union is the 
oldest union in the cotton garment field. Organized in IS92, it has for many 
years been strong in the work—clothes field. Relations between the United 



1/ Representatives of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America and of the 
United Garment Workers of America could not be reached to verify these fig- 
ures as to union membership, but they are correct to the best information 
of the writer. 

S312 



-32- 

Garment Workers and the Union-Hade Garment Manufacturers Association have 
"been cordial, and have redounded "both to the "benefit of the manufacturers 
and the workers. Garments manufactured by union labor "bear the union label 
and are, in general, purchased by union members in preference to non-union- 
made work-clothes. Wages in the union houses are relatively high. 

In the Shirt and Men's Pajama Industries. - Workers in the shirt and 
pajama industries in general were not organized, except in Hew York City, un- 
til the spring of 1933- Attempts to organize had been made at intervals 
previous to that time, but had been, on the whole, unsuccessful. In the 
spring of 1933, the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America began a general 
drive to organize shirt workers in Pennsylvania. At that time, shirt workers 
in that area were receiving a wage of from $3 to $7 per week. Strikes were 
called in some cases to enforce the $5 per week minimum. Daring the two years 
since the beginning of this campaign, more than one-half of the shirt and 
pajama workers in the United States have been organized. While there have been 
a number of hard fought strikes of from 3 to 7 weeks' duration, strikes have 
not occurred once collective bargaining relations have been established. 

In the House-Dress Industr y. - Relations between cotton-wash-dress manu- 
facturers and the unions representing the employees in that industry have not 
been so smooth as in the other industries mentioned. An organizing campaign 
has been carried on in this Industry for the past 2 years with some success. 
The lew York and Philadelphia markets are organized, and the union has some 
membership in Milwaukee, Chicago, and St. Louis. A number of bitter strikes 
occurred during the spring of 1935 with an accompaniment of arrests, injunc- 
tions, etc. 



Sm/oloyee Re-presentation Plans 

While some plants which have no agreements with national labor unions 
have employee representation plans, these are relatively few as compared with 
the total number in the Industry. 



Effect of the Code on the Industry 

Average Hours . - Under the ERA the average hours worked have been re- 
duced from about HH in March 1933, to approximately 31, or a decline of near- 
ly 33 P er cent. 

Hourly Rates of Pay . - These have risen since the bottom of the de- 
pression in March 1933, by 117 per cent, a very exceptional achievement. 
Hourly rates of pay are even U7 per cent higher than in July I929. 

E mployment . - In the Cotton Garment Industry employment did not decline 
appreciably during the depression so that February 1935 records an advance 
of" almost 10 per cent over both March 1933 and July 1929. By virtue of 
maintaining employment and long hours during the depression, cotton garment 
producers were in the unique position among industries of having an expand- 
ing unit production. Sales of cotton garments, particularly work clothing, 
increased because unemployed and impoverished workers and farmers could not 
afford the more expensive apparel. On the other hand, during 193^> tiie 
period of business revival, Census figures on work clothing showed a decline 

S312 



-33- 

in production of k per cent from the previous year. Inasmuch as employment 
in the Industry was sustained during the depression, the principal effect of 
ERA. upon this Industry has not 'been in the field of reemployment, but in 
raising wages. 

Weekly Wa^e s. - The weekly -or,y envelope of the worker indicates his 
purchasing power. The advance of $U.Ho per worker from March 1933 to Feb- 
ruary 1935, multiwlieu by 200,000 employees, adds $880,000 per week to the 
Industry's payroll, or an increase of $^5, 000, 000 annually. This consti- 
tutes the Industry's contribution toward increasing purchasing power under 
ERA.. Weekly wages are only 3 per cent lower than 1929, while living costs 
have fallen 20 per cent. 



Summary . - The gains under 
which follow: 

July 

1222 



the Jode are summarized in the figures 



Weekly hours 
Hourly wages 
Weekly wages 
Index of employment 



US. 6 
$ .2S6 

$13.37 

100.0 



March 
1933 . 

$ .133 
$ £'.59 
55.7 



February 
1Q5'4 

32.1 
$ .356 

$11. ih 
99-6 



February 

1935 

30.9 
$ .U19 
$12.99 
109.1 



So^lrce: Prepared by the Cotton G-ament Code Authority. 



In addition, 10,000 child 
— « have been replaced by adult 

The foregoing figures are 
ing lU7,S9S workers in Februar; 
Cotton Garment Industry. Data 
available prior to the work of 
ment Code Authority, and this 2 
achievement of the Code. 



laborers — more than in any other industry 
workers. 

on the basis of 979 identical plants report- 
- 1935, or approximately three-fourths of the 
covering the Cotton Garment Industry were not 
the Statistical Division of the Cotton Gar- 
lobilization of factual evidence is another 



The Cotton O-armcnt Industry has registered these gains in spite of 
unfair competition from prisons, sheltered work shops, vocational guidance 
schools, and imports from Puerto Pico. The average of 19 cents per hour in 
1933, as cited above, refers to the entire Cotton Garment Industry, but many 
individual plants have submitted records to the Statistical Division of the 
Cotton Garment Code Authority admitting payments as low as 3 cents an hour. 
Hoxirs were in some instances not less than 5U per week. Only one-fifth of 
the total employees were receiving as high as the present minimum wage prior 
to ERA., while two-thirds of the workers are now paid above the Code minimum. 

Per Cent of the Products of the Industry which are Trade Marked 

On the basis of information from the International Association of 
Garment Manufacturers, it may be estimated that approximately 15 per cent of 
the cotton garment products are trade marked. This figure refers to the 
proportion of the unit volume of the Industry that is trade marked and is 
not a per cent of the total value of products made in the Industry. 



8312 



-34- 
Foreign Competition 

Imports of all cotton wearing apparel from foreign countries, excluding' 
Puerto Hico and the Philippine Islands, amounted in 193^ to only $238, 066, 
or an infinitesimal fraction of the $500,000,000 sales "by cotton garment manu- 
facturers. Nevertheless, Japanese shipments to the United States more than 
doubled those of 1933. while imports from England and France remained at a 
stationary level, and shipments from G-ermany, Italy, Belgium and Holland de- 
clined sharply. Japan now ships a greater dollar volume of cotton garments 
to the United States than any other country. Total dollar volume of cotton 
garments from all countries rose only 4. 6 per cent over 1933, which probably 
indicates an actual decline in units shipped owing to price rises. 

The following tabulations present breakdowns upon which the above 
summary is based. 

1S33 123i± 

Average Average 

Shirts Dozen Value Value Do sen Value Value 



All Countries 2,991 $11,731 $ 3.92 1,595 $11,397 $ 7*15 

Japan 2,832 a, 512 3-01 1,347 6,259 4.65 

England l48 2,819 19.0U 160 4,055 25.34 

All Other Cotton Wearing Apparel 
All Countries $216,699 $226,669 

Japan 39,260 79*209 

England 75,820 76,172 

Prance 38,367 34,198 

Ge rmany 3 5 , 544 21 , 683 

Belgium 5,538 3,375 

Hong Kong 1,057 1,535 

Italy 5,810 1,467 

Canada 1,0 60 713 

Netherlands 9,423 19 

All Other Countries 4,820 8,298 

Source: Prepared by the Cotton Garment Code Authority. 

Duty-free shipments of cotton garments from the Philippine Islands in- 
creased from $1,830,874 in 1933 to $2,120,684 in 1934. The price rise would 
probably account for this advance in dollar value. 

Shipments of cotton garments from Puerto Rico to the United States 
showed a slight increase in 1934 as compared with 1933- Most of this in- 
crease occurred, however, during the first 8 months of the year. During the 
last 4 months of the year the higher wage scale enforced by the ERA Needle- 
work Code in Puerto Eico resulted in a decline of 6 per cent in the volume 
shipped from September to December 1934, inclusive, compared with the same 
months in the previous year. These shipments were all free of duty. 



8312 



'. i 



-35- 



133U 



Dozen 15 " 3 Value Dozen Va^e 

Women's dresses, , Qq g ^ 7 $2.289, 09^ 

skirts ana waists M %^% ^37 1^ 3 5 

Women' s underwear f 1 ' ?* ~r{oi Z l 1+5? 592 1,172,372 

Children's dresses 1+79,302 *,Og2,738 ^,»* 

Men's and toys' . 6 70 6g6 ^37,9^9 

clothing 38,131 ^,^ D / 

Nightgowns and i.USl.lOO 5,726,35 1 

-oajamas J±±*Dj~l _ ■>> ^ '^— — - - , 

2?2 6 3t 545 Ji£^9J^_^^^ 
Sourc e: Prepared hy the Cotton Garment Code Authority. 

T.ist of Experts 

stttCT nOLLAB. TrnngHKEAH. PAJAMA HJffiOTrA ggTO^S 

Mr. C. H. Palmer, President Cluett^aoody J Co 330 "^-fe"^ 
Mr. Ralph Hunter, President, Hall-hartwell ft 00., Inc., 

,1. /I^Phnii-ps President, Phillios-Jones Corp., 122 5 Broadway, H.T.Q. 

Mr. A. 0. fniiJ-xps, fi«^ c , - ,.„„, Pnrn 192^ Broadway, K. i.C. 

Mr. L. J. Treuhaft, Treasurer P^ll-P^o.e. Oorpj. 12 ^ J y> Q< 

Mr. A. P. Hichtmyer, Sr. , Knothe Brothers .0., 24 ..est 

BOYS' BLOUSE, , SHIHD ASP WASE^Sg iQAgglACTg^S 

Mr. George P. Wakefield, President, The Ilaynee Co., 

350 Fifth Ave. , IT. Y. C. 
Mr. M, Edward Rowan, Vice President, Elder Mfg. Co., 

St. Louis, Mo. 

■„>. Lied l. aaa n,^.*.* 0°^ ^^. p m- 



-36- 

UORK-SHIRT MiANUFACTURERS 

Mr. W. E. Stephens, President, W. B. Stephens Mfg. Co., Nashville, Tenn. 
Mr. I. Pine, President, M. 'Fine & Sons Mfg. Co., 93 Worth St., IT. Y. C. 

SHEEPLINED AND LEATHER GARMENT IvIANUFACTUIGCRS 

Mr. Robert L. Smith, Partner, United Sheeplined Clo. Co., Newark, IT. J. 
Mr. E. C. Ostermann, President, Pried, Osteraian Co., Milwaukee, Wise. 

WORK-PANTS MANUFACTURERS 

Mr. Lester Rosenbaum, President, Salaclaaoo Pants Co., Kalamazoo, Mich. 
Mr. Sidney Moyer, President, Mover Mfg. Co., Youngstown, Ohio. 

COTTON HOUSE-DRESS MAITUEACTURERS 



Mr. ¥. J. Schminke, Vice President, Ely & Walker 13. B. Co., St. Louis, Mo. 
Mr. S. L. Hoffman, President, 3. L. Hoffman & Co., 1350 Broadway, N.Y.C. 

OILED COTTON GARMENT MAFJFACTURERS 

Mr. Edward W. Swan, President, A. J. Tower Co., Boston, Mass. 
Mr. H. C. Fox, President, Standard Oil Clothing Co., 210 East 152nd St., 
N. Y. C. 

NURSES' AND MIPS' APRONS AND U NIFORMS 

Mr. Charles B. Jacobs, President, Jacobs Brothers, Inc., 
1350 Broadway, N. Y. C. 

MEN'S SHIRTS AND BOYS' BLOUSE CONTRACTORS 

Mr. Meyer S. Feinberg, President, Unity Shirt Co., Derby, Conn. 

WASHABLE SERVICE APPAREL MANU FACTURERS 

Mr. Mont Levy, President, Angelica Jacket Co., St. Louis, Mo. 

COTTON UNDERGARMENT AiTD SLEEPING GARMENT MANUFACTURERS 

Mr. Sidney L. Bachrach, Steiner-Liberty Corp. , 
Baltimore, Md. 

INDUSTRIAL ENGINEER IN COTTON GARMENT INDUSTRY 

Mr. Arthur Schwab, Suite 1127, 
3U2 Madison Ave., N. Y. C. 



S312 



-37- 

APPEND1X 

EXHIBIT A 1/ 

COTTON GARMENT EMPLOYMENT, WAGES AND HOURS 
July 1929 to April 1935 

Alfred Cahen, PH. D. 
Statistician, Cotton G-ament Industry 

602 principal companies, including 916 plants, reported 154,927 workers for t) 
second week in April, with a payroll of $2,107,459 representing approximately 
three-fourths of the employment in the Cotton Garment Industry. 

1. Employment Index 



April 1935 


100.0 


April 1934 


100.2 


March 1935 


99.2 


July 1933 


102.2 


February 1935 


93.5 


March 1933 


86.7 


January 1935 


34.0 


July 1929 


84.8 



Chart 1 chows that employment in April 1935 remained almost constant compared 
to the preceding month, March 1935, and also compared to the same month one 
year ago, April 1934, However, the number of Cotton Garment workers in April 
1935 exceeds by 18 per cent the July 1929 employment. 

2. Weekly Wages 



April 1935 


$13.52 


April 1934 


$12.39 


March 1935 


13.25 


July 1933 


9.38 


February 1935 


12.97 


March 1933 


8.58 


January 1935 


11.90 


July 1929 


13.25 



During the past year, Cotton Garment weekly wages rose $1.13 per worker over 
April 1934, or an increase of 9.2 per cent compared to a rise of 6.1 per cent 
in lining costs \>j the index of the National Industrial Conference Board. Wei 
ly wages advanced in all of the 17 product subdivisions during the past year. 
The weekly pay check of the worker is 27 cents higher than in July 1929 pro- 
viding employee purchasing power due to a fall of 17 per cent in living costs 

3. YJeekly Hours 



April 1935 


32.3 


April 1934 


33.9 


March 1935 


31.8 


July. 1933 


45.6 


February 1935 


31.1 


March 1933 


44.4 


January 1935 


29.6 


July 1929 


46.7 



Despite a 10 per cent legal reduction in hours from April 1934 to April 1935, 
average working hours fell only 4.7 per cent. 252 of the 602 large companies 
were working longer than 36 hours per week in April 1934 and these concerns 
would be most directly affected, in spreading emplo3nnent under the 36-hour wee] 
However, Chart 2 shows that their employment increased only 1.8 per cent thou* 
their average hours declined 11.8 vev cent. 



1/ This Exhibit is presented, as prepared by the Cod.e Authority. 
8312 



-38- 



4. Uorth, South, and Border States 

In the past year from April 1934 to April 1935, Chart 3 records a slight in- 
crease in employment in the North, a small decline in the border states of 
Maryland, District of Columbia, West Virginia, Kentucky, and Southern Missouri, 
and a marked decrease in the southern states. Higher wages in the North cor- 
respond to increases in employment, and sections of the country where lower 
wages were paid one year ago have now lost in employment. 

5. Hourly Earnings 



April 1935 


41.8 cents 


April 1934 


36.4 cents 


March 1935 


41.7 


July 1933 


20.5 


February 1935 


41.6 


March 1933 


19.3 


January 1935 


40.0 


July 1929 


28.4 



Hourljr earnings of labor in the Cotton Garment Industry, excluding Sheep lined 
and Leather concerns, remained practically the same as in the preceding month, 
hut gained 14.8 per cent over the same month one year ago exceeding the man- 
dator;'- 11.1 per cent increase required under the 36-hour week. A very sig- 
nificant tendency is shown in Chart 4 that companies paying barely above the 
minimum in April 1934 have lost workers, while concerns averaging considerably 
above the minimum wage one year ago have now gained in employment . Hourly rate 
of pay increased in all of the 17 product groups between April 1934 and April 
1935. 

6. First Three Months Under the 36-Hour Week 



February, March and April 1935 under the 36-hour week compared with identical 
months one year ago under the 40-hour week record declines in weekly hours in 
all three months considerably less than 10 per cent. Increases in average 
hourly earnings in all three months. were greater than 11.1 per cent. No change 
in employment were reported in March and April 1935 compared with the same 
months one year ago. February 1935 was the only month under the 36-hour week 
to record increased employment, namely, 9.5 per cent, over February 1934. This 
result is not due to spreading work by shorter hours since average working 
hours have declined only 3.7 per cent from February 1934 to February 1935. The 
expected rise in retail prices of Cotton Garments due to increased labor costs 
from 11.1 per cent advance in wages and increased overhead owing to the 36- 
hour week did not occur according to price indexes of the National Industrial 
Conference Board, the U. S. Bureau of Agricultural Economics, and the Fair- 
child Publications. Cost increases under the 36-hour week were compensated by 
decline in price of cotton cloth so that the consumer of Cotton Garments has 
not experienced rising prices in the past year. Although the 36-hour week 
contemplated no change in weekly wages of workers, nevertheless, the past 
3 months have all recorded fair increases above one year ago in the weekly pay 
checks of Cotton Garment Employees. 



Per Cent 


April to April 


change s 


1934 1935 


Weekly Wage 


+9.2 per cent 


Weekly Hours 


-4.7 


Hourly Earnings 


+14.8 


Employment 


-0.2 



Mar oh to March 
1934 1935 



4-5.8 per 
-7.6 
+14.5 
+0.2 



cent 



Feb. to Feb. 
1934 1935 

-+10. 6 per cent 
-3.7 
-1-14.8 
+9.5 



8312 



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