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cH& fyaf/. /a^ h 







NATIONAL RECOVERY ADMINISTRATION 



DIVISION OF REVIEW 



EVIDENCE STUDY 
NO. 13 

OF 

THE FISHERY INDUSTRY 



Prepared by 

JOHN R. ARNOLD 



January, 1936 



THE EVIDENCE STUDY SERIES 

The EVIDENCE STUDIES were originally planned as a means of gathering evidence 
"bearing -upon various legal issues which arose under the National Industrial Re- 
covery Act. 

These studies have value quite aside, from the use for which they were origi- 
nally intended. Accordingly, they are now made available for confidential use 
within the Division of Review, and for inclusion in Code Histories. 

The full list of the Evidence Studies is as follows: 



1. 

2. 

3. 

4. 

5. 

5. 

7. 

3. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 
18. 
19. 
20. 
21. 
22. 



Automobile Manufacturing Ind. 23. 

Boot and Shoe Mfg. Ind. 24. 

Bottled Soft Drink Ind. 25. 

Builders' Supplies Ind. 26. 

Chemical Mfg. Ind. 27. 

Cigar Mfg. Industry 28. 

Construction Industry 29. 

Cotton Garment Industry 30. 

Dress Mfg. Ind. 31. 

Electrical Contracting Ind. 32. 

Electrical Mfg. Ind. 33. 

Fab. Metal Prod. Mfg., etc. 34. 

Fishery Industry 35. 

Furniture Mfg. Ind. 36. 

General Contractors Ind. 37. 

Graphic Arts Ind. 38. 

Gray Iron foundry Ind. 39. 

Hosiery Ind. 40. 
Infant's & Children's Wear Ind. 41. 

Iron and Steel Ind. 42. 

Leather 43. 
Lumber & Timber prod. Ind. 



Mason Contractors Industry 

Men's Clothing Industry 

Motion picture Industry 

Motor Bus Mfg. Industry (Dropped) 

Needlework Ind. of Puerto Rico 

Painting & Paperhanging & Decorating 

photo Engraving Industry 

Plumbing Contracting Industry 

Retail Food (See No. 42) 

Retail Lumber Industry 

Retail Solid Fuel (Dropped) 

Retail Trade Industry 

Rubber Mfg. Ind. 

Rubber Tire Mfg. Ind. 

Silk Textile Ind. 

Structural Clay products Ind. 

Throwing Industry 

Trucking Industry 

Waste Materials Ind. 

Wholesale & Retail Food Ind. (See No. 

Wholesale Fresh Fruit & Veg. 



In addition to the studies brought to completion, certain materials have bee 
assembled for other industries. These MATERIALS are included in the series and 
are also made available for confidential use within the Division of Review and fc 
inclusion in Code Histories, as follows: 



44. Wool Textile Industry 

45. Automotive Parts & Equip 

46. Baking Industry 

47. Canning Industry 

48. Coat and Suit Ind. 



49. Household Goods & Storage, etc.(Droppec 

Ind. 50. Motor Vehicle Retailing Trade Ind. 

51. Retail Tire & Battery Trade Ind. 

52. Ship & Boat Bldg. & Repairing Ind. 

53. Wholesaling or Distributing Trade 



L. C. Marshall 
Director, Division of Review 



CO NTENTS 

Page 

Foreword 1 

CHAPTER I - NATURE OF THE INDUSTRY 2 

Number of Establishments 3 

Primary Producing Division 3 

Processing and Wholesaling Division 3 

Number of Members 6 

Primary Producing Division 6 

Processing and Wholesaling Division 6 

Capital Investment 6 

Primary Producing Division 6 

Processing and Wholesaling Division 6 

Volume and Value of Production 6 

Primary Producing Division 6 

Processing and Wholesaling Division 8 

Competitive Industries 

Primary Producing Division 8 

Processing and Wholesaling Division 8 

Principal Products of Fishery Industry 

Used by Other Industries 8 

CHAPTER II - LABOH STATISTICS 10 

Number of Employees 10 

Primary Producing Division 10 

Processing and Wholesaling Division 10 

Annual Wage s 10 

Primary Producing Division 10 

Processing and Wholesaling Division 10 

Average Hourly Wage Rate 14 

Primary Producing Division 14 

Processing and Wholesaling Division 14 

Average Hours Worked per Weei: 14 

Primary Producing Division 14 

Processing and Wholesaling Division 14 

Average Weeks Worked per Year 14 

Primary Producing Division 14 

Processing and Wholesaling Division 14 

Child Labor 14 

Primary Producing Division 14 

Processing and Wholesaling Division 15 

CHAPTER III - MATERIALS - RAW AHD SEMI-PROCESSED 17 

Principal Materials Used by the Industry 17 

Primary Producing Division 17 

Processing and Wholesaling Division 17 

Expenditures for Materials 17 

Processing and Wholesaling Division 17 

Source of Materials 17 

Processing and Wholesaling Division 17 

9443 -i- 



CONTENTS (Cont'd ) 

Page 

E:icpenditures for Machinery and Equipment 19 

Primary Producing Division 19 

Processing and Wholesaling Division 19 

Percentage of Value of Product Represented 

"by Cost of Materials 19 

Processing and Wholesaling Division 19 

CHAPTER IV - PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION 20 

Volume and Value of Production "by States 20 

Primary Producing Division 20 

Processing and Wholesaling Division 20 

Interstate Shipments of Fishery Products 20 

Sales to Wholesalers 23 

Primary Producing Division 23 

Processing and Wholesaling Division 23 

Number of Wholesale and Retail Establish- 
ments Handling Products of the Industry 23 

Wholesale 23 

Retail 23 

E:qiorts of Fishery Products 23 

Advertising 25 

Primary Producing Division 25 

Processing and Wholesaling Division 25 

Shifts in Centers of Production 25 

Productive Capacity 25 

Primary Producing Division 25 

Processing and Wholesaling Division 25 

Limit of Natural Supply of Pish 25 

CHAPTER V - TRADE PRACTICES 26 

Unfair Trade Practices Prevalent Prior to 

the Code 26 

Primary Producing Division 26 

Processing and Wholesaling Division 26 

Unfair Trade Practices IIov; Prevalent 27 

CHAPTER VI - GENERAL INEORUATIOIT 28 

Early Developments in the Industry 28 

Recent Developments 28 

Nature of the Operations of the Industry 29 

Primary Producing Division 29 

Processing and Wholesaling Division 29 

Trade Associations 29 

Primary Producing Division 29 

Processing and Wholesaling Division 29 

Relationship Detueen Lahor and Management 30 

Primary Producing Division 30 

Processing and Wholesaling Division 30 

Gross and Net Income 30 

Primary Producing Division 30 

Processing and Wholesaling Division 30 



9443 



-li- 



CONTEKTS (Cont'd ) 

Page 

Effect of the Code on the Industry 31 

Tro.de Marks 31 

Processing and Wholesaling Division 31 

Effect of Imports on the Industry 31 

Primary Producing Division 31 

Processing and Wholesaling Division 31 

APPENDIX 32 



9443 



-in- 



TABLES 

Page 

TABLE I - Number of Fishing Vessels and Boats, 

by 10 Principal States and Alaska 4 

TABLE II - Number of Pish Processing and Whole- 
sale Establishments, by 10 Principal 
States and Alaska 5 

TABLE III - Quantity and Value of the Fishery 

Catch, by 12 Important Species 7 

TABLE IV - Volume and Value of Fishery products 
Processed in the United States and 
Alaska, by Type of Product 9 

TABLE V - Number of Fishermen, by 10 Principal 

States and Alaska U 

TABLE VI - Number of Persons Engaged in .Fishery 
Processing and Wholesale Establish- 
ments, by 10 Principal States and 
Alaska 12 

TABLE VII - Annual Salaries and Wages Paid in 

Fishery Processing and Wholesale Es- 
tablishments, by 10 Principal States 
and Alaska 13 

TABLE VIII - Pre-Code Weekly Hours of Labor in 

Typical Fishery Preparing and Whole- 
saling Subdivisions 16 

TABLE IX - Volume and Value of General Imports 
of Fishery Products, by Kind of 
Product 18 

TABLE X - Volume and Value of Fish Catch, by 

10 Principal States and Alaska 21 

TABLE XI - Value of Processed Fishery Products, 

by 10 Principal States and Alaska 22 

TABLE XII - Volume and Value of Exports of Fishery 

Products, by Kind of Product 24 



9443 ~iv- 



-1- 

FISHEEY INDUSTRY 

Foreword 

The Industry to which the UEA Fishery Code applied differed consider- 
ably in scope from the Fishery Industry as commonly understood. It not only 
covered the primary production or catching of fish and shellfish — the 
fisheries in" the ordinary sense — hut it also, in its original form, in- _ 
eluded all processing of" fishery products and the specialized wholesale traces 
that distribute the latter when fresh or frozen. 

The salmon, tuna, oyster, shrimp and clam products canning industries, 
and the less important urocessors of fish oils and oyster shells, petitioned 
out of the jurisdiction' of this master coae. The data presented in this 
report, however, apply, for the most part, to the Industry in the original 
and broader sense," as it was not practicable to eliminate those relating 
to the excluded tranches. 

Unless otherwise stated, the data in the report relate to the Continen- 
tal United States and Alaska. The Fishery Coae also applied to Puerto Rico 
and Hawaii; hut the absence of figures for the two latter territories does 
not affect the picture materially. 

To facilitate the presentation, the Industry has been divided into two 
main parts — the Primary Producing Division and the Processing arid TThole- 
saling Division. Most of the data have been taken from the annual bulletins 
of the Bureau of Fisheries, entitled, Fishery Industries of the Umtea States . 
Other sources are referred to also, however, and the author has supplied 
some estimates, with indications of the manner in which they were made. 
Full explanations would have encumbered the study unnecessarily. 



9443 



FISHERY INDUSTRY 

Chapter I 

Nature of the Industry 

The Fishery Industry was defined in the Code of Fair Competition as 
follows: 

"The term 'fishery industry 1 or 'industry' includes: 

The catching or taking from the water - 

The cultivating - 

The farming and other artificial propagation (except the propaga- 
tion of goldfish and tro-oical fish) - 

The processing - 

The wholesaling, if, hut only if the handler or distributor has 
also done the processing - 

of fish and all other commercial products of aquatic life in hoth salt 
and fresh water, as carried on in the several States, the District of 
Columbia, the several Territories of the United States, the insular 
possessions or other places under the jurisdiction of the United States; 
or on United States vessels, wherever the actual taking or processing 
of such products of the industry by said vessels takes place. The 
term 'fishery industry' or 'industry' includes also commission merchants 
trading in products of the industry. 

"The term 'x>rocessing' means the packing in ice of, filleting of, 
cutting of, freezing of, salting of, smoking of, drying of, canning of, 
extracting oil from, manufacturing meal or fertilizer from, products of 
the industry; ot* otherwise manipulating products of the industry: Pro- 
vided However, that the term 'processing' shall not include the refining 
of oils from products of the industry; the manufacture of mixed feeds 
or mixed fertilizer from products of the industry; or the manufacture 
of products obtained from shells, fish scales, sponges, sounds, skins, 
hides, bones, aquatic plants, ambergris, cuttlefish bone, and whalebone. 

"The terms 'wholesale' and 'wholesaling' mean the handling or dis- 
tributing, except by a carrier for hire, of products of the industry 
to distributors or to retail outlets, including institutions, hotels, 
restaurants, and other public eating -places, whether or not such retail 
outlets are actually or legally controlled by the member of the indus- 
try performing such handling or distributing." 

This definition refers to many sub-divisions of the Fishery Industry, 1/ 
but for the purposes of this report it was felt sufficient to take account 
of the two broad divisions mentioned in the Foreword: (l) the Primary Pro- 
ducing Division, or that part of the Industry that catches the fish and 
shellfish; and (2) the Processing and Wholesaling Division, or the part 
that prepares the catch for the market and distributes it to retailers, or 
sometimes direct to consumers. 

1/ A complete list of divisions and sub-divisions of the Industry is given 
in the Appendix. 

9443 



Number of Estab lis hments 

Primary Producing Division. ~ In the Primary Producing Division of the 
Fishery Industry the nearest equivalent of an "establishment" is a vessel 
or boat. In this connection a vessel, which is defined by the Bureau of 
Fisheries as a craft having a capacity of five net tons or more, may be con- 
sidered a relatively large establishment; a boat, being defined as a craft 
of less than five tons, is a small establishment. The number of fishing 
vessels and boats in the United States and Alaska in recent years, with 
separate figures for ten principal states and for Alaska, are shown in 
Table I. 

Processing and "Jholespling Division. - The number of processing and 
wholesaling estaolishments in operation in the United States and Alaska in 
recent years, as reported by the Bureau of Fisheries, is given in Table II, 
with a breakdown by ten principal states and Alaska. For 1929 the number of 
establishments engaged primarily in processing and the number engaged 
primarily in wholesaling are shown separately. This is the only recent 3 r ear 
for which such separate figures are available. 

The processing establishments covered by Table II include a considerable 
number which did not operate under the Fishery Code proper. This applies to 
the canning of salmon, tuna, clam products, oysters, and shrimp, the crush- 
ing of oyster shells, and the orocessing of fish oil. 



9443 



-4- 



TAELE I 

dumber of Fishing Vessels—' and Boats, £/ 
by 10 Principal States and Alaska 



Pi.- L„ 


1929 


1931 


1933 


c/ 1934 d/ 


State 




JX 












Vessels 


Boats 


Vessels 


Boats 


Vessels 


Boats Vessels 


Total, U.S. and 


4,367 


79,065 


4,181 


72,482 


3,735 


68,563 


4,000 


Alaska 
















California 


443 


1,927 


426 


1,822 


385 
99^/ 
64®/ 


1,720 

5,274§./ 

l,57Cfi/ 


401 


Florida 


114 


6,615 


119 


5,698 


103 


Louisiana 


103 


2 , 305 


89 


2,002 


Ll 


Maine 


79 


5 S 823 


78 


3,900 


74 


3,919 


Ll 


Maryland 


267 


5,776 


194 


6,627 


154 


5,596 


160 


Massachusetts 


438 


3,815 


418 


4,272 


378 


4,044 


394 


New Jersey 


366 


2,162 


335 


1,952 


211 


1,857 


£] 


Oregon 


44 


2,484 


27 


2,136 


33 


O 1 t-~i£Z/J 


Ll 


Virginia 


139 


7 639 


126 


7,548 


133 


7,935 


139 


Washington 


312 


3,248 


487 


2,791 


511 


2,572 


533 


Alaska 


69C 


5,253 


582 


4,960 


507 


4,218 


636 


Total, 10 States 
















and Alaska 


2,995 


47,047 


2,881 


43,708 


2,549 


40,925 


•— — 


Total, Other 


1,372 


32,018 


1,300 


28,774 


1,186 


27,638 


— . 


States 
















Sources: Bureau o: 


t" Fishei 
is defi 


■ies, Fis 


hery Industries of 


the United States* 


a/ A vessel 


ned by the Bureau of Fishe 


rie3 as 


a craft having 


a capaci 


ty of fi 


ve net tons or more. 








b_/ A boat is define 


id by the 


Bureau 


of Fisheries as a 


craft hav: 


ing a 


capacity 


of less 


i than five net t 


ons* 








c/ Included 


in the 


1933 tot 


al are 1932 figures for the South Atlantic 



sJ 

LI 



and Gulf and the Great Lakes areas, and 1931 figures for the 
Mississippi River area* 

The number of vessels in 1934 is estimated by the author of this 
report. It is not practicable to estimate the number of boats* 

1932 figures. 

Not available. 



9443 



TABLE II 



Pumber of Fish Processing and Wholesale Establishments, 
by 10 Principal States and Alaska 



"19 29 a/ 



19 SI 



1935 b/ 



State 



Total, Processing 

and Wholesale Pro ~ " lThole - 
cessing sale 

Number Per Cent 
of Total 



Processing and Processing and 
Wholesale Wholesale 



number Per C en \ Number I 



of Total 



of Tot; 



Total, U. S. and 

Alaska 2,922 



100 . 



924 1,998 2,992 100.0 2,831 100. C 



California 


125 


4.3 


64 


61 


147 


4.9 


145 




5.1 


Florida 


267 


9.1 


21 


246 


250 


8.4 


sJ t 







Louisiana 


89 


3.1 


56 


33 


90 


3.0 


c7 







Maine 


217 


7.4 


126 


91 


157 d/ 


5.2 


131 


§J 


4.6 


Maryland 


315 


10,8 


17 


298 


342 


11.4 


308 




10.9 


Mas s achu setts 


179 


6.1 


36 


143 


204 


6.8 


165 




5.8 


New Jersey 


97 


3,3 


15 


82 


109 


3.6 


124 




4.4 


Oregon 


49 


1.7 


29 


20 


56 


1.9 


57 




2.0 


Virginia 


193 


6. 5 


41 


152 


222 


7.4 


194 




6.9 


Washington 


115 


3.9 


76 


39 


113 


3.8 


111 




3.9 



Alaska 262 S.O 262 

Total, 10 States 

and Alaska 1,908 65.3 743 

Total, Other 

States 1,014 34.7 181 



fi/ 



226 



1,165 1,916 



833 1,076 



7.6 



64.0 



36.0 



224 



7.9 



Source! 

bJ 

£,' 
4/ 
2/ 



Bureau of Fisheries, Fishery Industries of the United States . 

Included in the 1929 total are 1922 figures for the Mississippi River 
area. 

Included in the 1933 total are 1931 figures for the South Atlantic 
and Gulf, the Great Lakes, and the Mississippi River areas. 

Not .available. 

Includes New Hampshire. 

Wholesaling as a separate activity in Alaska is negligible. 



9443 



Number of Members 

Prima ry Producing Divisio n. - The number of members in the Primary Pro- 
ducing Division has never been accurately determined. Most proprietors of 
vessels and boats own and operate one craft; but there are some who ov/n and 
operate several, the maximum number under one ownership being about Lj. It is 
estimated by the author that the number of members is approximately 90 - oer 
cent of the number of fishing craft. Aoplying this to the data in Table I, 
the number of members would be approximately 75,000 in 1929, 69,000 in 1931, 
and 65,000 in 1953. No estimate is available for 1934. 

Processing and Whole saline Division . - In the Processing and 7/hole salin;; 
Division there are only a fen? cases of multi-olant operation, so that the 
number of members may be taken to be approximately the same as the number of 
establishments reported by the Bureau of Fisheries (see Table II), with the 
qualification, mentioned heretofore, that the canning of several species of 
fish and shellfish, the crushing of oyster shells, and the processing of fish 
oil were not covered by the Fishery Code proper. It has not been determined 
how many establishments were engaged in the above-mentioned activities. 

Capital Investment 

Primary Producing Division . - The caoital value of fishing vessels alone 
in recent years has been estimated by the author a.t approximately $22,150,000, 
and the gear used in these vessels at approximately $3,750,000. Data on the 
investment in boats are not available. 

Processing and Wholesalin, ■ Division . - Comprehensive data on the capital 
invested in processing and wholesale establishments are not available. 

Volume pad Value of Production 

Primary Producing Division. - The volume and value of production in the 
Primary Producing Division is measured by the number of pounds and the sales 
value of the fish and shellfish caught. Figures for this quantity and value 
for recent years, "by the principal species, are given in Table III. These 
data cover the United States and Alaska. 



9443 



TABLE III 

Quantity and Vplue of the Fishery Catch, 
"by 12 Important Species 

(in thousands of pounds and thousands of dollars) 



1929 1931 1933 



Quantity Value Quantity Value Quantity Value 
Total, All Species 3,567,277 123,054 2,657,317 77,344 2,908,004a/ 60,113a/ 
Total, 12 Species 2,573,741 80,196 1,897,530 48,515 2,119,511a/ 39,164a. 



Salmon 


584,539 


20,464 


601,095 


12,406 


574,066 


12,172 


Pilchard (California 














Sardine) 


651,802 


3,583 


300,204 


1,185 


509,805 


1,505 


Haddock 


261,653 


9,142 


182,561 


5,430 


168,613 


3,894 


Herring 


283,356 


2,480 


187,043 


1,537 


202,234 


1,110 


Oysters 


152,143 


17,074 


101 , 036 


10,299 


70,808]b/ 


5,7151 


Shrimp 


113,263 


4,575 


99,432 


2,850 


102,633b/ 


1,9191 


Cod 


116,652 


3,541 


112,303 


2,715 


123,998 


2,231 


Mackerel 


122,094 


3,277 


61,645 


2,023 


111,152 


1,321 


Flounders 


75,329 


3,479 


66,750 


2,554 


60,716 


2,103 


Tuna 


75,524 


3,938 


60,059 


2,726 


71,026 


2,977 


Halibut 


55,297 


6,413 


41,701 


2,897 


42,639 


2,537 


Crabs 


82,089 


2,225 


83,701 


1,843 


81,821 


1,630 


Source; Sureau of Fi 


sheries, Fisher?/ - Indus 


tries of 


the United States. 





a/ Estimated in part by the author. 
b/ Estimated by the author. 



9443 



-8- 



Processing and ">7holesalin°; Eivision . - The volume and value of 
fishery Droducts processed in the United States and Alaska in recent years 
are given in Table IV, with a breakdown by four principal tyoes of 
products. These figures duplicate to a considerable extent those for 
volume and value for the Primary Producing Division in Table III, That 
is, a considerable portion of the value of the "irocessed products is the 
cost to the processor of fish or shellfish included in the value of the 
catch. 

Competitive Industries 

P rimary Producing Division . - The Fishery Industry* s chief competitor 
is the meat-packing industry,, There is evidence, not yet completely 
analyzed, which indicates that the prices for fresh and frozen fish obtain- 
ed by fishermen are rigidly governed by the current prices of meat* 

Processing and Wholesaling Eivision . - The evidence just mentioned 
seems to indicate that the prices received for non-perishable processed 
fishery products are also governed by current prices of meat, but that the 
relationship is not as close as in the case of fresh and frozen fish. 

Principal Products of Fishery Industry Used by Other Industries 

The greater part of the products of the Fishery Industry, including 
both the fresh and frozen fish and shellfish produced by the Primary 
Producing Eivision and the products of the Processing and Vftiolesaling 
Division, enter directly into distribution channels, without further 
processing by other industries. However, a large part of the canning of 
fish and shellfish which is done by the industry as defined by the Bureau 
of Fisheries was done outside the Fishery Industry as organized under the 
Code. 

By-products of the Fishery Industry are taken and processed by the 
following industries, all of which, with the exception of the Ocean Pearl 
Button Industry, had separate codes. 

Oyster Shell Crushers Industry 

Processed or defined Fish Oil Industry 

Fresh Water Pearl Button Manufacturing Industry 

Ocean Pearl Button Manufacturing Industry 

Feed Manufacturing Industry 

Fertilizer Industry 

Paint, Varnish and Lacquer Manufacturing Industry 

Soap and Glycerine Manufacturing Industry 

Pharmaceutical and Biological Industry 



9443 



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Chapter II 

LABOR STATISTICS 

Number of Employees 

Primary Producing Division . - In a discussion of employment in the 
Primary Producing Division, the term "employee" must be used in a qualified 
sense, because relatively few fishermen work for a specified wage rate. 
The majority of them are compensated by shares in the money received for 
the catch in which they have participated. Moreover, the proportion of 
proprietors among fishermen is relatively high — 60 per cent of the total 
by the author's estimate; and while these men participate in the distribution 
of shares, they can not be classified as wage earners in the ordinary sense. 

The number of fishermen, including proprietors, in the United States and 
Alaska in recent years is given in Table V, with separate figures for ten 
principal states and Alaska. The number sho':m in this table represents the 
total engaged during the year; averages for the year or for the season are 
not available,, 

Processing and Wholesaling Division . - It has not been possible to get 
data on the number of employees in processing and wholesale establishments 
which are strictly applicable to the Industry as it operated under the Fish- 
er-- Code proper. The figures reported by the Bureau of Fisheries include em- 
ployees in establishments processing salmon, tuna, shrimp, etc., which were 
outside the Code. The figures in Table VI have the further limitations that 
they include small proportions of -oroprietors, and that both the 1929 and the 
1933 data are incomplete. There was certainly not the increase in the number 
of persons engaged in this Division from 1929 to 1931 that appears on the face 
of these figures, though the actual decline was probably moderate. No data 
exist for 1934. 

Annual TTages 

Primary Producing Division . - The only available data on wages paid 
fishermen are those obtained in a study of the vessel fisheries, made by the 
Fisheries Unit of the Research and Planning Division, NEA. These indicate 
that total earnings of fishermen in this branch of the Primary Producing 
Division in the United States and Alaska amounted to $21,153,000 in 1929, 
$9,476,0C0 in 193*3, and $12,826,000 i n 1934. 

The study also shows that only about 22 per cent of the total number 
of employees work on vessels. Data on earnings of fishermen in the boat 
and shore fisheries are not available. 

processing and Wholesaling Division . - Data on the total annual salaries 
and wages.paid in processing and wholesaling establishments in the United 
States and Alaska in the years 1929, 1931 and 1933 are shown in Table VII, 
with a breakdown by 10 principal states and Alaska. Figures for 1934 are 
not yet available. These data include wages paid in fish and shellfish proces- 
sing establishments that operated outside the Fishery Code proper, and they 
are also subject to the other limitations mentioned in connection with Table 
VI. A segregation of the figures for establishments which are primarily 
processing and for those which are primarily wholesale is shown for 1929, 
but is not available for the two later years. 
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Average Hourly Wage Rate 

Primary Producing Division . - Because of the nature of their work, 
fishermen are practically never remunerated on an hourly wage "basis. 

Processing and Wholesaling Division . - Data on the average hourly 
wage rate oaid workers in -orocessing and wholesale establishments are not 
available. It is believed, furthermore, that if it were possible to com- 
pute such an average it would not be representative of the Division as a 
whole, because only a small number are paid on an hourly basis. 

Average Hours Worked per Week 

Primary Producing Divisi on. - Fishermen's working hours are very 
irregular, being governed by such changeable factors as climatic and bio- 
logical conditions. Mo record of the hours is ever kept and no regulation 
was attempted under the Code. 

Processing and Wholesaling Divisio n. - Data on the average hours -orked 
per week in many of the processing and wholesale sub-divisions were collect- 
ed by the Research and Planning Division of ERA. through special surveys and 
from testimony at nublic hearings. These data, which apoly to pre-code 
conditiens, are shown in Table VIII, by sub-divisions of the Processing and 
Wholesaling Division. 

Average Weeks Worked per Year 

Primary Producing Division . - Data collected in the study of the earn- 
ings of fishermen in the vessel fisheries, previously referred to, indicate 
that crews on vessels whowere paid on a time basis worked an average of 26 
weeks during 1933. The average for the Primary Producing Division as a whole 
in that year was -orobably between 30 and 35 weeks. Since 1933 was a year 
of severe depression in this Industry, however, the number of w eeks worked 
has usually been greater. The normal average is probably about 40 weeks. 

Processing and Wholesaling Division .: - The data of the Bureau of 
Fisheries indicate that employees in -orocessing and wholesale establish- 
ments work, on an average-, 24 or 25 weeks a year. This indicates the ten- 
dency to extreme seasonality in this oart of the Industry. In establish- 
ments which are engaged primarily in wholesaling, however, a force of workers 
is normally employed throughout the year. 

Child Labor 

Primary Producing Division . - The number of workers under 16 years of 
age in the Primary Producing Division is not known. The only instances, 
however, are where owners of fishing craft take their young sons out to 
assist in the work. The danger involved may at times be considerable, but 
the conditions are quite different from those ordinarily associated with 
child labor. 



9443 



-15- 



Processing and Wholesaling Division . - Figures on child labor in 
processing and wholesale establishments are also lacking. The number 
of children under 16 years of ;ge is believed to be small, however, as 
the work is in general too heavy and requires too much skill to make their 
employment practicable. 



9443 



-16- 



TABLS VIII 



Pre-Code Weekly Hours of Lnbor in Tyoical Fishery 
Preparing and Wholesaling Subdivisions, 
First Half of 1933 



Subdivision 



Average Hours per Week 



Office 
Employees 



Plant 

Enrol oyees 



Preparing and Wholesaling Trades 
General! 

Ner/ England 
Middle Atlantic 
Mi dues t 

Southeast 

Gulf South 

North, 'est and Alaska 

Southwest 

Specialized: 

Oyster 

Shuckers 

Others 
Blue Crab 
Lobster 
Sponge 
Alaska Herring 

Secondary Processing Industries 

Oyster Shell Crushing 
Processed or Refined Pish Oils 



39.9 
45,9 

a/ 
48.0 

a/ 

43.0 

a/ 



42.6 



52.0 
46.0 

a/ 
43.0 



a/ 



45.2 
46.6 
56.0 
57.5 
60.0 
49.1 
55.0 



22.2 b/ 

48.9 
45.0 
50.5 
54.0 

4S.1 



42.0 
52.0 



Sources Questionnaire data furnished "by establishments and testimony 
of industry representatives at Code he -rings, contained in 
MA, Division of Research and Planning, reports prepared "by 
John R. Arnold. 



a/ 



Not available; number of office employees small. 



b/ Estimated on the basis of data for shuckers' piece v;ork in 
17 typical establishments. 



9443 



-17- 
Chapter III 

LiATERIALS - RAW AND SEI.II -PROCESSED 



Principal Materials Used by the Industry 

Primary Producing Divi sion. - As the function of the Primary Producing 
Division is the catching of fish, it uses no raw materials in the production 
of a finished product. Ice and containers, however, are used on a large 
scale. 

Processing and Wholesaling Division . - In the Processing and Wholesal- 
ing Division the principal materials used are; fresh fish and shellfish, tin 
cans, ice, and containers (for snipping perishable products). 

Expenditures for Materials 

Processing and Wholesaling Division . - There are no detailed figures 
to show the amount spent by the Processing and Wholesaling Division for its 
principal materials individually. An indication of the total expenditure 
on this account, however, may be obtained from the data of the Census of 
Manuf e.ctures for fish canning and preserving establishments in the continent- 
al United States. In 1929, 348 of these establishments reported the cost of 
materials, containers, fuel and purchased electric energy as $53,239,911; 
in 1931, 304 establishments gave the cost of the same items as $23,403,818; 
while in 1933, 264 establishments reported $26,248,000. Establishments 
whose products were valued at less than $5,000 for the year are not included 
in these figures. 

Source of Materials 

Processing and Wholesaling Division . - Every state that has within 
its borders or contiguous to it salt or fresh waters supporting usable 
species of fish or shellfish is a source of raw material for the Processing 
and Wholesaling Division of the Industry. The volume and the value of the 
fish caught in ten principal states and Alaska are given in Table X in 
Chapter IV; the volume and value of imported fishery products, which come ■ 
principally from Canada, are given in Table IX, below. All but a trifling 
proportion of the volume of these products is handled by the processing 
and Wholesaling Division at least once as raw or semi-processed material. 
The processing industries alone utilize some 35 or 40 per cent of the totel 
v o luifl e c augh t . 



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-18- 



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Expenditures for Machinery and Equipment 

Primary Producing Division. - The machinery and equipment used in 
the Primary Producing Division consist of marine engines and fishing gear, 
such as nets, dredges, pots, traps, hooks, tongs, etc. There are no data 
available on expenditures for these items. Host of this machinery and 
equipment is made in the United States, "but there has "been a considerable 
consumption of imported cordage for use in nets. 

Processing and Wholesaling Division . - Ho data are available on 
expenditures for equipment and machinery by the Processing and TJholesaling 
Division. 



Percentage of Value of Product Represented by Cost of Ma terials 

Processing and TTholesaling Division . - Por the fish canning and 
preserving establishments reporting in the Census of Manufactures, the cost 
of materials, containers, fuel and purchased electric energy averaged 66 
per cent of the value of products in the years 1929, 1931 and 1933. The 
available data do not disclose the proportion of this percentage which is 
accounted for by raw material and containers. 



— on— 
Chapter IV 

P20DUCTIOE AND DISTRIBUTION 

Volume and Value of production by States 

primary producing Division . - Data on the volume and value of the etch 
of fish and shellfish, which represents "production 11 in the Primary Producing 
Division, are given for recent years in Tahle X, by ten principal states raid 
Alaska. 

processing and Tgholesaling Division . - Data on the value of processed 
fishery products, by ten principal states and Alaska, are given for 1929, 
1931 and 1933 in Tahle XI. Volume figures can not "be shown "because of the 
varying units of measurement. Data for 1934 are not yet available. 

Interstate Shipments of Fishery products 

It has not been possible to collect exact data on the volume or value of 
products shipped outside the state of origin. However, an indication of the 
extent of interstate shipments nay be had from the following estimates, 1/ 
compiled by the author, which refer to the shipments of both raw and 
processed fish, by geographic regions. 

1. Hew England . - From 70 to 80 per cent of the fish landed in 
Hew England ports is shipped out of this region. 

2. Hew York City . - Approximately 90 per cent of the fishery prod- 
ucts handled by the processing and wholesale establishments in the Hew 
York metropolitan area originate outside of Hew York State. About 15 or 
20 -;>er cent of these products are reshipped to other states. 

3. Philadelphia . - practically all the fishery products consumed 
in the Philadelphia metropolitan area originate outside of Pennsylvania. 

4. Baltimore . - About 50 per cent of the fishery products handled 
in Baltimore originate outside of ..aryland. 

5. Florida . - Approximately 80 per cent of the fishery products of 
Florida, the chief producing state in the South Atlantic and Gulf area,, 
is shipped out of the state. The proportion shipped out of the other 
Southern coast states is smaller, but in all cases considerable. 

6. hid-TTest . - AH the mid-western states except Ohio, Michigan, 
Wisconsin and Minnesota draw the largest part of the fishery products 
they consume from outside their own borders. Substantial proportions of 
the fish landed at the ports of the Great Lakes are shipped out of the 
states concerned. 

7. California . - The greater part of the fishery catch of Califor- 
nia is used in local processing establishments. About 80 or 90 per cent 
of the products of these establishments, however, are shipped outside of 
the state. 



1/ percentages refer to volume. 



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TABLE XI 



Value of Processed Fishery Products, "by 13 Principal 

States and Alaska 
(in thousands) 



State 



1929 a/ 



Amount 



Per Cent 
of Total 



1931 



1933 b/ 



Per Cent Per Cent 

Amount of Tctal Amount of Totgl 



Total, U. S. and 

Alaska $138,175 100.0 



$116,919 100.0 $107,384 100.0 



California 


30,981 


22.4 


16,978 




14.5 


18,394 


17.1 


Florida 


1,866 


1.3 


1,177 




1.0 


1,296 c/ 


1.2 


Louisiana 


4,950 


3.6 


3,160 




2.7 


2,808 c/ 


2.6 


Maine 


9,293 


6.7 


4,379 


a/ 


3.7 


3,754 


3.5 


Maryland 


1,084 


.8 


4,147 




3.5 


3,767 


3.5 


Massachusetts 


6,030 


4.4 


10,747 




9.2 


8,707 


8.1 


New Jersey 


1,126 


.8 


3,104 




2.7 


3,054 


2.8 


Oregon 


5,659 


4.1 


3,200 




2.7 


3,359 


3.1 


Virginia 


1,304 


1.3 


3,758 




3.2 


3,478 


3.2 


Washington 


13,859 


10.0 


8,310 




7.1 


7,020 


6.5 



Alaska 



45,425 32.9 



Total, 10 States 

and Alaska 122,077 83.3 



Total, Cther 
States 



16,098 11.7 



31 , 683 



90 . 643 



26,276 



27.1 



77.4 



22.5 



31,100 



86,737 



20,647 



29.0 



30.8 



IS. 2 



Source: Bureau of Fisheries, Fishery Industries of the United States . 

a/ 1929 data are not strictly comparable with 1931 and 1933 data 

"because they do not include the value of products processed by 
fishermen and the value of several kinds of sriellfish, particularly 
shucked oysters and clams, and crab meat. 

b/ Included in the 1933 data are 1931 figures for the South Atlantic 

and Gulf, the Great Lakes, and the Mississippi River areas. 

c/ Combination of 1931 and 1933 data. 

d/ Includes New Hampshire. 



9443 



-23- 

8. Washington and Oregon . - Of the fresh, frozen and cured 
fish produced in the states of Washington and Oregon, about 75 
per cent is shipped outside of these two states. Of the fish and 
shellfish canned in these two states, 95 per cent is shipped 
elsewhere. 

9. Alaska . - All hut a trifling fraction of the fish and 
shellfish landed in Alaska is shipped out of the Territory. 

Sales to Wholesalers 

P rimary Producing Division . - Nearly all the output of the Primary 
Producing Division is sold either to wholesalers or processors in the Pro- 
cessing and T/holesale Division. The only important exception is the direct 
sale for local consumption in or near the port of landing. In certain 
summer resorts the volume of such business is considerable, but for the 
country as a whole it is insignificant. 

Processing and Wholesaling Division . - Most of the output of fishery 
processing establishments in sold to the general grocery wholesale tre.de. 

llumher of Wholesale and Retail Establishments Handling Products of the 
Industry 

Wholesal e. - The number of establishments engaged exclusively in the 
wholesaling of fishery -oroducts in 1929 was reported by the Bureau of 
Fisheries as 1,998 (see Table II). Most of the -orocessing establishments, 
other than canneries, however, and even some of the latter, also do a whole- 
sale business in un-orocessed products. The number of establishments which 
wholesale fishery -oroducts as a minor part of their business is not obtain- 
able. A large part of the volume of cured fish and shellfish and a still 
larger proportion of the canned -oroducts are distributed by the wholesale 
grocery trade; but the latter handles practically no fresh fish. 

Retail . - The total number of establishments engaged in the retail dis- 
tribution of fish, the greater -oart of which is handled by the retail grocery 
trade, is not available. The number of retail establishments specializing 
in the sale of fishery products was reported in the Census of Distribution 
as 6,077 in 1929. 

Exports of Fishery Products 

The volume and value of fishery products exported from the continental 
United States in recent years are given in Table XII, by type of product. 



9443 



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Advertising 

Primary Producing; Division . - Only those members of the Primary Produc- 
ing Division who ooerate wholesaling or processing establishments do any 
advertising, and the little they do is restricted mainly to trade-marked 
canned and packaged goods. 

Processing and Wholesaling Division . - Relative little advertising is 
done "by wholesale establishments, but processors do a considerable amount, 
principally in magazines and newspapers. 

Shifts in Centers of Production 

There have been shifts of major importance in both the primary produc- 
tion and the processing of fish and shellfish since the beginning of the 
present century. They have been slow, however, and there is no clear 
evidence of important changes since 1929. The most important of the earlier 
shifts was from the Atlantic and Culf coasts to the Pacific coast j in which 
California, Oregon, Washington and Alaska gained at the expense of all of 
the Atlantic and Gulf coast states. 

Productive Capacity 

Primary Producing Division . - The -oroductive capacity of the Primary 
Producing Division, as measured by the number of documented or registered 
craft, is never fully utilized. The last Census of Water Transportation, 
taken in 1926, indicated that about 13 per cent of all fishing vessels 
were inactive during that year -nd in 1916. The author estimates the 
corresponding proportion in 1933 at about 27 ner cent. 

Processing and Wholesaling Division . - There are no statistics on the 
productive capacity of processing establishments. It is known, however, 
that there has been a substantial unused capacity in the sardine canning 
industry in New England, in the fresh oyster industry, and in some others. 

Limit of Natural Supply of Fish 

In general, the fisheries o-oerating in enclosed or semi-enclosed 
waters, like the Great Lakes and Chesapeake Bay, and those engaged in 
talcing sessile species like oysters, and river-spawning species like 
salmon, sturgeon, and shad, have encroached more or less seriously on the 
natural supply. In the case of most commercial species of pelagic or open 
ocean fish, however, there is at present no conclusive evidence of such 
encroachment. 



9443 



-26- 

Chapter V 

TRADE PRACTICES 

Unfair Trade Practices Prevalent Prior to the Code 

Primary Producing Division . - It was claimed by members of the Primary 
Producing Division that the following unfair trade practices were particular- 
ly dettimental to the well-being of the Industry: 

li Destructive Price Cutting . - The prices of meat reached a long 
tine cyclical peal; in 19 38 and 1929, The fall in the prices of a number 
of important fishery products from these years to the latter part of 1932 
and early 1933 more than reflected the drop in meat prices. This long 
tine cyclical movement in meat prices is more severe than the short time 
cyclical movement in general commodity prices, though in the case under 
discussion the two happened to coincide in point of time. 

As the earnings of about 80 per cent of the persons engaged in the 
primary production are directly dependent on the prices received for 
the fish they catch, owing to the system of com-oensation by shares, these 
earnings were reduced, in 1932 and 1933, below any accepted living stand- 
ard. Repairs and upkeep had to be skimped, and marine insurance, in a 
large number of cases, was allowed to lapse. The situation was better 
in 1934, but even in that year the fisheries of most areas of the country 
failed to earn depreciation. 

In view, however, of the relationship between the price of neat and 
the price of fish, previously referred to, it is the author's belief that 
coercive action under the authority of the Code could not have done much 
to remedy the price situation without some corresponding measure of con- 
trol of meat prices. 

2. Excess Catches . - The natural course followed by the owner or 
captain of a fishing craft is to land from each trip the maximum practica- 
ble quantity of fish or shell-fish. Prom 1929 to 1933 this practice tend- 
ed to accentuate the fall in prices and led, at times, to the dumping of 
quantities of fish at ports of landing. 

3. Maladministration of Share Agreements . - Complaints were heard 
at public hearings of financial abuses in connection with the administra- 
tion of "lays," or share agreements. It was charged, for example, that 
rebates allowed by dealers on fuel oil had been, in some cases, kept by 
captains, instead of being credited to all the persons sharing in the 
"lay." 

Processing and Wholesaling Division . - Members of the Processing and 
Wholesaling Division reported that the following unfair trade practices had 
been particularly obnoxious; 

1, Destructive Price Cutting . - The domward price trend, previous- 
ly mentioned, had resulted in serious losses to processing and wholesal- 
ing establishments, and their working capital had been heavily cut into. 
This impairment was claimed to have gone so far that the available work- 
ing capital had been insufficient to handle the increase in the volume of 
business which accompanied the nrice recovery of 1934 and 1935. 
9443 



s- 



-27- 

2. Consignment Shipments . - The perishability of raw fish, the 
small size of the majority of primary producing enterprises, and the di 
to.nces at which some of the latter are located from the main distributing 
and consuming centers had led to an extensive use of consignment shi;>- 
r.ents. It had cone to he a general belief on the -oart of hoth primary 
producers and distributors that this method of doing business had helped 
to accentuate the decline in prices from 1929 to 1933. It has not been 
possible to determine how much basis in fact this belief may have had. 

5. Excessive Allowances on Customers' Claims . - Because of the 
perishability of most fishery products, disputes with regard to the 
quality and condition of shipments arise very easily. There was a wides- 
siread complaint in the general wholesaling trades that many such claims 
were made without sufficient reason, and sometimes after undue delay, to 
e::tricate purchasers from difficulties arising from demoralizing of the 
markets , 

4. Reversal of Communication Charges . - The perishability of fish- 
ery products leads to an extensive use of telegrams and of long distance 
telephone calls in inquiring as to prices and otherwise initiating trans- 
actions. The practice of attracting business from competitors by allow- 
ing -orospective customers to reverse such charges was claimed to have 
reached the proportions of an abuse. 

5. Diversion of Brokerage Charges . - There was extensive complaint 
of the practice of accepting orders subject to an understanding that the 
fee or commission customarily paid to a "broker should be credited wholly 
or in part to the customer. Such diversion constituted, in effect, a 
reduction in price. Compl ints regarding it were quite general in the 
Processing and Wholesaling Division, but were particularly stressed in 
connection with the distribution of canned fish and shellfish. 

6. Competition of Truckers. - In some parts of the United States, 
particularly the South and Middle West, there has grown up in recent 
3'ears an extensive distribution of fishery products by truckers. As a 
rule these operate single vehicles and have no fixed places of business. 
They buy directly from fishermen and distribute over radii, in some 
instances, of several hundred miles. They sell direct to consumers or 
to retail stores and in some cases to secondary rfnolesalers at inland 
points. As a result they have cut severely into the business of the 
established wholesalers at the principal landing and distributing centers. 

The complaints of the latter were based on assertions that the truck- 
ing enterprises were in many cases irresponsible and of the fl3' , -by— night 
type, and that their business was to a great extent obtained by the cutting 
of trices to levels below their true cost of operation. 

7. Unsanitary Handling . - The unsanitary handling of fish had had 
an effect in diverting consumer demand away from the products of the In- 
dustry. This was especially true in inland areas of the country, where 
a taste for fish and shellfish had never been solidly established. 

Unfair Trade Practices How Prevalent 

The unfair tra.de practices described above are believed to be still pre- 
valent, with the qualification that since the Spring of 1933 the trend of the 
prices of fishery products has been upward, so that destructive price cutting 
has not been so important an issue. 
3443 



-28- 

Chapter VI. 

GENERAL INFORMATION 

Early Developments in the Industry 1/ 

The establishment of the Fishery Industry goes tack to the first 
settlement of the United States. Seafood, especially shellfish, played a 
large part in the diet of the Indian tribes of the Atlantic and Gulf coasts; 
and the early colonists, faced with the difficulties of establishing them- 
selves as farmers and stock breeders, imitated their primitive predecessors 
in this respect. Early visitors from Europe commented on the extensive 
consumption of sea foods. 

The development of the New England groundf ishery (the taking of cod 
and haddock on the banks off Nova Scotia and Newfoundland) was accelerated 
in Colonial days by the development of an export trade in salt fish from 
the North Atlantic ports of the United States to the west Indies and south- 
ern Europe. 

In the middle of the nineteenth century the menhaden industry cone 
into existence on the Middle and South Atlantic coasts. The product of 
this industry, in imitation of an Indian custom, supplied the first impor- 
tant domestic commercial fertilizer, when the imported supply of guano 
from the islands off the coast of South America began to fail. 

These old established fisheries of the Atlantic and Gulf coasts are 
still prominent, though in recent years their relative importance has 
diminished. The settlement of Lhe inland states far outran the facilities 
for the distribution of fresh fishery products; and by the end of the 
nineteenth century a substantial proportion of the population had almost 
ceased to be consumers of such foods. The migration from the interior of 
the country back to the eastern cities, as the latter expanded, tended to 
exit down the per capita demand for fishery products in the latter centers. 
The pollution of the waters near these cities by industrial and other 
wastes seriously affected the supply and the cost of some species. 

Recent Developments 2/ 

Along with this decline in the Atlantic and Gulf fisheries there came, 
after the beginning of the present century, a rapid development in the 
fisheries of the Pacific coast. After the collapse of the Klondike gold 
rush the fisheries of Alaska became the principal recourse for making a 
livelihood in that territory. The development of the salmon canning indus- 
try of Alaska and of the puget Sound and Columbia River regions started in 
the 1880' s; but this industry for the most part, and the California sardine 
and tuna and the Alaska herring industries in their entirety, are creations 



1/ This discussion of early developments applies to both the 

Primary Producing and the Processing and "Wholesaling Divisions 

2/ The discussion of recent developments applies to both the 

Primary Producing and the Processing and wholesaling Division 

9443 



-29- 

of the last f/enty or twenty-five years. The great increase in the Pacific 
Coast population during this period has of course created a substantial 
market" for fresh fish. In the case of the Pacific Northwest the improvement 
of transportation facilities has made possible a substantial trade with the 
Middle TTest and even with the Atlantic Coast in fresh and frozen halibut 
and salmon. 

While the fisheries of the Atalntic and Gulf coasts have for the most 
part declined relatively during the past thirty years, there has been a 
considerable development in the fisheries of Florida, along with the increase 
in the population of the state and the development of facilities for ship- 
ping its products to the North and Northwest. 

Nature of the Operations o f the Industry 

Primary Producing Division. - The operations of the members of the 
Primary Producing Division consist in catching the fish and shellfish and in 
landing them at the ports of operation. At the latter, in most instances, 
they pass immediately into the hands of wholesalers or processors. 

Processing and Wholesaling Division . - The members of the Processing 
and Wholesaling Division fall, with respect to the nature of their operations, 
into two rather distinct groups — the wholesaling and preparing trades and 
the processing industries. The operations of the former consist in the 
assembling of fresh fish and shellfish in the ports of landing or in other 
centers, and in distributing them to the secondary wholesale and retail trade 
throughout the country. These establishments also do much simple processing, 
such as cleaning, packing in ice for shipment, shucking oysters, picking crab 
meat, and heading and cooking scrimp. 

The processing establishments, the majority of which are located at 
ports of landing where they buy direct from the fishermen, can and cure fish. 
The curing is done by drying, salting, pickling, and smoking. 

Trade Associations 

Primary Producing Division . - The fishery producing industry has 
been an unfavorable field for the development of association and coopera/tive 
activities. Most of the associations that existed before the establishment 
of NBA had little influence or vitality. There was a tendency for them to be 
dominated by small groups of large concerns, which combined the operation of 
fishing fleets with wholesale or processing operations. 

The first incentive to trade association in many branches of the 
fisheries was supplied ~oy NBA; and though the discontinuance of the Code has 
greatly retarded this movement, something of value has probably remained. 
An Act of Congress entitled, "An Act Authorizing Associations of Producers 
of Aquatic Products, " passed in the Spring of 1934, was designed to promote 
cooperative fishermen's Organizations. Up to the present, however, the 
movement has not gone very far. 

Processing and Wholesaling Division . - The remarks just made with 
regard to trade organization in the Primary Producing Division apply also, 
but to a less extreme degree, to the wholesale trades. The principal canning 

9443 



-30- 

industries had strong organizations or were affiliated with the National 
Oanners Association. 

Relationship Between Labor and Management 

Frimary Frcducing Division . - Several factors have tended to prevent 
the development of capital-labor controversies of the ordinary type in the 
fisher;- producing industry. The enterprises are for the most part snail, the 
proportion of entrepreneurs is large, and most of them are drawn from the 
sane social class and the same communities as the rank and file of the fisher- 
men. In some cases fishermen who do not own vessels or boats have interests 
in the gear. About eighty per cent of all fishermen, moreover, work on 
shares. Taken together, these conditions modify the employee status in the 
fisheries extensively, and tend to render labor controversies in the ordinary 
sense unnecessary. The fact that fishery products are so perishable, finally, 
has made it relatively easy for discontented employees to obtain concessions 
by brief and informal intermissions of their work. 

Between the fishermen operating the large groundfish fleets of Hew 
England and their employees, and in a few parallel cases in other parts of 
the country, something like the ordinary capital-labor relationship exists. 
This is, however a rather recent development. 

Processing and Wholesaling Division . - The relationship between labor 
and management in this part of the Industry is to a great extent the same as 
in the Primary Producing Division, as the enterprises are for the most part 
small, and the perishability of the products handled has a similar effect. 
In the large scale canning industries, however, and in the general preparing 
and wholesale trades of the big cities, particularly New York, there have 
been labor controversies and strikes of the ordinary type. 

Gross and Net Income 

Primary Producing Division . - Questionnaire data collected by the 
author indicated that the average gross income per fishing vessel, after 
paying operating expenses and fishermen's compensation, but before deducting 
upkeep, insurance, taxes, other overhead charges, and depreciation, was 
$8,342 in 1929, $4,340 in 1933, and $5,873 in 1934. The same data put the 
average annual overhead expense and depreciation per vessel at $8,185, with 
little change from 1929 to 1934. 

These figures indicate a heavy average loss to owners of fishing 
vessels in 1933, and a considerable though smaller loss in the yeex follow- 
ing. In 1933 there was a loss, on an average, in all the main areas, and in 
1934 in all except California. A minority of individual vessels, of course, 
made a. profit in both years. The relative improvement in 1934 is believed 
to be entirely the result of the recovery in the prices of fishery products, 
following the recent upward movement in the price of meat. 

Data on the financial returns in the boat fisheries are not available. 

Processing and Wholesaling Division . - At present no satisfactory 
data exist on income in this Division of the Industry. 



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Effect of the Code on the Industry 

The primary advantage of the code system for the primary producing 
industry and the wholesale trades lay in the fact that it provided then for 
the first time with a systematic framework of industrial organization. 'The 
psychology of these industries was such that an organization of the sort 
would have teen exceedingly slow to develop without the incentive provided 
by the KRA. legislation and the expressed wish of the government. 

The code system did not last long enough to permit these industries 
to derive from it the benefits that should ultimately have accrued. The 
provisions of some of the codes, moreover, were not as well suited to the 
industry's real problems as they would have been if the system had been 
developed more gradually and experimentally. The need for organization, 
however, still exists. 

In the fish and shellfish canning industries the conditions affecting 
the operation of the Code differed comparatively little from those normal 
to the manufacturing industries as a class. In the Canned Salmon and in 
both the California and the New England Sardine Industries the Codes were 
felt to have worked tolerably well and to have had beneficial effects. In 
abolishing the use of Oriental contract labor in the Alaska canneries the 
Canned Salmon Code effected an important labor reform which, having proved 
financially beneficial to the operating companies, seems likely to be 
permanent. 

Trade Marks 

Processing and Wholesaling Division . - The products of the fish and 
shellfish canning industries are generally trademarked, as are also some cured 
products. The trademark ing of non-processed products of the preparing and 
distributing trades, however, is practically impossible. 

Effect of Imports on the Industry 

Primary Producing Division . - The fisheries of Hew England, the 
Great Lakes, and the Pacific northwest have been adversely affected "oy the 
importation of Canadian products. Complaints have been made particularly 
in connection with the importation of lobsters into Boston, of fish from 
the Canadian waters of the Great Lakes and from the interior lakes of 
Canada into the American lake ports, and of salmon and halibut from British 
Columbia in competition with shipments from Washington and Oregon. In the 
case of lobsters and of fresh water fish particularly the importations 
represent substantial items in the domestic consumption. More recently im- 
ports of frozen fish from Japan have attained considerable volume. 

Processin ; and Wholesaling Division. - The preparing and wholesaling 
trades are of course affected by the foreign competition described in the 
preceding paragraph, except insofar as they handle the importations them- 
selves. The latter is the case with some of the products in question, but 
not with all. 

In the case of the processing industries the competition of canned 
fish and shellfish and of fish meal from Japan is more important than the 
Canadian competition. These importations have given rise to numerous 
complaints and investigations on the part of the Tariff Commission and of 
other authorities. 

9443 



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APPENDIX 



Names and Code Status of the Divisions of the Fishery Industry- 
May 27, 1935 



Division 

Fisheries Prope r 

Regular Food Fisheries: 1_/ 
Atlantic Mackerel 
Oyster 
Blue Crab 
G-reat Lakes 

Alaska Herring 

Pacific Halibut 

Pacific Crab 

Florida 

Lobster 
Inedible Products Fisheries: 

Menhaden 

Sponge 
Oyster Cultivating Sub industry 
Trout Farming 

Preparing and Wholesaling Trades 

General, rath Geographical Subdivisions: 
New England 
Middle Atlantic 
Midwest 
Southeast 

Gulf South 

Northwest and Alaska 
Southwest 

Specialized: 2/ 
Oyster 
Crab 
Blue 
Pacific 

Lobster 

Sponge 

Alaska Herring 



Code Status 



Supplementary Code Approved 
ii n it 



Supplementary Code Heard, out not 

approved 

Supplementary Code Heard 
it n n 



11 


II 


II 


II 


II 


II 


II 


II 


II 



National Code Only 
ii it ti 

Supplementary Code Approved 
ii n it 



Supplementary Code Approved 
ii ii ii 

it n ii 

Supplementary Code Heard, but not 

approved 
Supplementary Code Heard Approved 
Supplementary Code Approved 
Supplementary Code Heard, but not 

approved 

Supplementary Code Approved 

Supplementary Code Approved 

Included under Northwest and Alaska 

Preparing and Wholesaling Code 

Supplementary Code Approved 
ii ii n 

Supplementary Code Heard, out not 

approved 



Specialized Processing Subindustries 



Canning: 
Salmon 
Sardine 

New England 
California 



Canned Salmon Code 

Supplementary Code Approved 

ti ii ii 



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Division 



Code Status 



Specialized Processing Sub industries (Continued) 



Tuna 

Clara Products 

Oyster 

Shrimp 

California Mackerel 

Alaska Crab 

Reduction: 3/ 
Sardine 
Alaska Herring 

iienhaden 

Secondary Processing Subinaustries 

Oyster Shell Crushing 
Processed or Refined Fish Oil 



Canning Code 
it 11 



Supplementary Code Heard, but not 

approved 

Included under Northv/est and Alaska 
Pre-oaring and Wholesaling Code 

Supplementary Code Approved 
Supplementary Code Heard, but not 

approved 
National Code Only 



Oyster Shell Crushers Code 
Processed or Refined Fish Oil Code 



l/ Only the fisheries for which supplementary Codes reached oublic he-ring 
are listed under this head; the total number is much larger. 

2/ Only the subindustries of this group for vrhich specific supplementary 
Codes reached public hearing are listed under this head. 

3/ A reduction plant is engaged in converting a fishery product into meal 
and oil, as distinct from products for human consumption. The raw 
material may be by-products of canning, or the reduction plant may 
operate independently, and utilize whole fish.