(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Evidence study"



rt 



« \*%3lAJA& L 



~Ai 




"V 



~ " 



NATIONAL RECOVERY ADMINISTRATION 

■ ■ — ' 



DIVISION OF REVIEW 



EVIDENCE STUDY 
NO. 17 

OF 



THE GRAY IRON FOUNDRY INDUSTRY 



Prepared by 
A. B. FRIDINGER 



August, 1935 



PRELIMINARY DRAFT 
(NOT FOR RELEASE: FOR USE IN DIVISION ONLY) 



THE EVIDENCE STUDY SERIES 

The EVIDENCE STUDIES were originally planned as a means of gathering 
evidence bearing upon various legal issues which arose under the National 
Industrial Recovery Act. 

These studies have value quite aside from the use for which they were 
originally intended. Accordingly, they are now made available for confidential 
use within the Division of Review, and for inclusion in Code Histories, 

The full list of the Evidence Studies is as follows; 



1. Automobile Manufacturing Ind. 23. 

2. Boot and Shoe Mfg. Ind. 24. 

3. Bottled Soft Drink Ind. 25. 

4. Builders' Supplies Ind. 26, 

5. Chemical Mfg. Ind. 27. 

6. Cigar Mfg. Industry 28. 

7. Construction Industry 29. 

8. Cotton Garment Industry 30. 

9. Dress Mfg. Ind. 31. 

10. Electrical Contracting Ind. 32. 

11. Electrical Mfg. Ind. 33. 

12. Fab. Metal Prod. Mfg., etc. 34. 
15. Fishery Industry 35. 

14. Furniture Mfg. Ind. 36. 

15. General Contractors Ind. 37. 

16. Graphic Arts Ind. 38. 

17. Gray Iron Foundry Ind. 33. 

18. Hosiery Ind. 40. 

19. Infant's & Children's Wear Ind. 41. 

20. Iron and Steel Ind. 42. 

21. Leather 43. 

22. Lumber & Timber Prod. Ind. 



Mason Contractors Industry 

Men's Clothing Industry 

Motion Picture Industry 

Motor Bus Mfg. Industry (Dropped) 

Needlework Ind. of Puerto Rico 

Painting & paperhanging & Decorating 

Photo Engraving Industry 

Plumbing Contracting Industry 

Retail Food (See No. 42) 

Retail Lumber Industry 

Retail Solid Fuel (Dropped) 

Retail Trade Industry 

Rubber Mfg. Ind. 

Rubber Tire Mfg. Ind. 

Silk Textile Ind. 

Structural Clay Products Ind. 

Throwing Industry 

Trucking Industry 

Waste Materials Ind. 

Wholesale & Retail Food Ind. (See No. 

Wholesale Fresh Fruit & Veg. 



In addition to the studies brought to completion, certain materials have 
been assembled for other industries. These MATERIALS are included in the series 
and are also made available for confidential use within the Division of Review 
and for inclusion in Code Histories, as follows; 



44. Wool Textile Industry 49. 

45. Automotive, parts & Equip. Ind. 50. 

46. Baking Industry 51. 

47. Canning Industry 52. 

48. Coat and Suit Ind. 53. 



Household Goods & Storage, etc.(Dron- 
Motor Vehicle Retailing Trade Ind, ped) 
Retail Tire & Battery Trade Ind. 
Ship & Boat Bldg. & Repairing Ind. 
Wholesaling or Distributing Trad3 



L. C. Marshall 
Director, Division of Review 



OpS\. \ k\L 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Foreword 1 

CHAPTER I - THE NATURE OP THE INDUSTRY 2 

Definition of the Industry 2 

Number of Plants 

G-eographi cal Di stributi on 2 

Capital Investment 2 

Fai lur e s 3 

Production 4 

Utilized Productive Capacity 5 

Competing Products 6 

Production of Individual Types 

of Castings 6 

CHAPTER II - L^BOR STATISTICS 10 

Employment 10 

Annual Wage s 10 

Labor Cost 13 

Hourly and Weekly Wages 13 

Hour s 14 

CHAPTER III - MATERIALS *ND MACHINERY 15 

Machinery 15 

Materials 15 

CHAPTER IV - PRODUCTION AMD DISTRIBUTION 16 

Sales 16 

Exports IV 



-oOo- 



oU07 



-1- 



TABLES 



TABLE 

TAbLE 
TABLE 

TABLE 
TABLE 



II - 
III - 

IV - 
V - 



TABLE VI - 

TABLE VII - 

TABLE VIII - 

TABLE IX - 

TABLE X - 

TABLE XI - 

TABLE XII - 

TABLE XIII - 



Page 

- Number and Tonnage of Plants, 

by Districts, 1933 3 

- Production of Gray Iron Castings 4 

- Orders, Production, and Materials 
in the Gray Iron Foundry Industry, 
1929-July, 1933 5 

Per Cent of Productive Capacity 

Utilized July 1925 - June 1927 6 

Distribution by Geographical Districts, 
of Foundries Manufacturing Specific 
Types of Gray Iron Castings for Sale, 
1925-1927 7 

Employment and Annual Wages in 

North and South, 1929-1931 10 

Factory Employment, Payrolls, 

Hours and Wages, 1933-193^ 11 

Per Cent which Labor and Material 
Cost are of Total Value of 
Product, 1929-1931 13 

Wage Rates for Selected Occupations 
in Gray Iron Foundries, 1930 and 
1931 , 13 

Minimum Hourly Wage Rates for 

Common Labor, First Quarter, 1933 14 

Value of Selected Foundry Equipment 15 

Manufacturers' Sales, by States of 

Production, 1929-1931 16 

Value of Ex-ports 1923-193U 17 



-0O0- 



SU07 



-11- 



-1- 

THS GRAY IRON FOUNDRY INDUSTRY 

Foreword 

Comprehensive data on the Gray Iron Foundry Industry are lacking 
from government or private sources. With the exception of certain 
production data taken from Census Bureau reports, and monthly labor 
data for 1933 and 1934 collected "by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the 
statistics in this report are compiled from scattered sample studies 
made during the past decade. Unless otherwise specified, these samples 
include only foundries covered "by the Code, that is, foundries producing 
gray iron castings for sale. 

The lack of Code Authority material is explained by the following 
letter to the NRA from the late Code Authority. 

"You will recall that some of the information that you 
requested in regard to the Gray Iron Foundry Industry had to 
be procured inasmuch as it was not available in the Code Authority 
statistical records. Unfortunately this information was not sent 
in, because the members of whom it was requested felt that the 
Supreme Court decision made it unnecessary for them to furnish the 
information. 

"In addition to the above obstacle, the other statistics 
that you requested us to compile were sent by the members of the 
Industry to the Code Authority. The Code Authority is now taking 
steps to return this information to each and every member of the 
Industry; as a result, it does not seem proper for us now to make 
any use of these statistics other than to see that the reports are 
returned to those furnishing the statistics." 

The scarcity of appropriate data accounts for the omission of the 
sections dealing with Trade Practices (Chapter V) and General Information 
(Chapter VI). 



8407 



Cha iter I 

THE KATuRE OF TIIE IIIEUSTHY 



Definition of the LKiL-:;tr/- 

The Gray Iron Foundry Industry as defined in the Code, which was 
approved February 10, 1934, meal s and includes 

"the "business of producing aid selling in the open 
market ferrous or ferrous "base castings other than 
steel or malleable iron castings, whether cast in 
sr.nd or otner type of mould, and commonly known as 
gray iron castings and sold in competition with 
similar gray iron castings either with or v/ithout 
any subsequent processing tnereon performed by the 
producer; provided, however, that such term shall 
not include said castings when produced by a manu- 
facturer in another Industry (including any affili- 
ated or parent company of such manufacturer) (1) as 
part of his own products in such other Industry 
(including finished and serai-finished parts therefor) 
or (2) as materieJs for servicing products of such 
other Industry (including finished and semi-finished 
parts therefor) v/hen such servicing materials are 
distributed by such manufacturer to the user of prod- 
ucts of s\ich other Industry either directly or 
through such manuf acturer' s usual distribution 
channels. M 

Number of Plants 



TTnile substantiating data are not readily available as to the 
number of plants in the Industry, a verbal remark of the former 
Executive Vice-President of the Industry's Code Authority, LIr. H. W. Halsted, 
Jr., indicated that there are today approximately 1,850 plants coming 
within the scope of the Industry as defined in the G-ray Iron Foundry 
Code. 

Geographical Distribution 

The geographical distribution, by districts, of 1,437 of these plants, 
is presented in Table I. 

According to this table, foundries producing gray iron castings for 
sale are not confined to a specific area, but are located in all states. 
Based both on tonnage and the number of reporting plants, the concentra- 
tion of the Industry appears greatest in the districts adjacent to the 
Great Lakes and in the New England States. 

Capital Investment 

Although complete data on the amount of ca >ital invested are not 
available, the Gray Iron Institute estimated that capital investment 

8407 



for the year 1933 amounted to approximately $243,500,000. 
Failures 

According to Dan and Bradstreet's report on insolvencies for 1934, 
only one failure occurred in the Industry during that year. 

TABLE I 
Number and Tonnage of Plants, by Districts, 1933 



District and District Number 



Uumber of Plants 
Reporting 



Tonnage 



Total, AH Districts 



1-A - 
1-B - 



o _ 



D 

7 



10 

11 

12 
13 

14 

15 



CTashington, Oregon, Idaiio, 
; iontana 

California, Utah, Arizona, 

Nevada 
Liinnesota, North Dakota, South 

Dakota, Wyoming, Wisconsin 

- Colorado, New Mexico, Kansas, 

Missouri, Southern Illinois 

- Iowa, northern Illinois, northern 

Indiana, Nebraska 

- Michigan 

- Northern Ohio 

- Southern Indiana, Southern Ohio, 

Kentucky 

- Western Pennsylvania, West 

Virginia, Garrett and Allegheny 
Counties in Maryland 

- Eastern Pennsylvania, Southern 

New Jersey, Delaware, D. C , 
Maryland, except Garrett and 
Allegheny Counties 

- Western New York, Erie County 

in Pennsylvania 

- Massachusetts, Rhode Island, 

Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont 

- Connecticut, Eastern New York 

- Northern New Jersey, Northeastern 

Pennsylvania 

- Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, 

Louisiana 

- Mississippi, Alabama, Tennessee, 

Georgia, Florida,, North 
Carolina, South Carolina, 
Virginia. 



1,437 

74 

76 

119 

81 

119 
91 
94 

124 

89 

84 

52 

117 
56 

48 

89 

124 



783,345 

9,634 

28,861 

44,042 

38 , 5S0 

120,026 

109,866 

78,261 

65,181 
31,385 

45,618 

32,273 

44,059 
34,077 

50,010 

15,308 

36,154 



Source: Gray Iron Foundry Industry Code Authority. 



8407 



- 4 - 
Production 

The value and volume of gray iron castings produced for sale, as 
reported by the Bureau of the Census, and presented in Table II, indicate 
a decline of 72 per cent in value and 67 per cent in volume from 1929 to 
1933. 

TABLE II 

Production of Gray Iron Castings a/ 



Year Tonnage Value 

(thousands) (millions) 



1929 5,080 $375.5 

1931 2,390 174.2 

1933 1,653 107.0 



Source: Census of manufactures , as re- 
ported in "Foundry a.nd Liachine 
Shop Products." Establishments 
whose annual production is less 
than $5,000 are excluded. 

a/ Data reported by the Census are 
for manufacturers' sales. 

Hew end unfilled orders, production, and receipts and stocks of 
materials are shown in Table III, from 1929 through July, 1933, when the 
reports were discontinued. Prom this table it can be seen that the Gray 
Iron Foundry Industry shared in the boom of 1933, nearly reaching the 
production level of 1930. 



8407 



TABLE III 

Orders, Production, and Materials in the Gray Iron 
Foundry Industry, 1929-July, 1933 
(uonthly average, tons per foundry) 







Order.' 


produc- 








tion 


Year 




Unfilled 




and 


New 


End of 




Month 




Lonth 




1929 


222 


203 


262 


1930 


133 


96 


152 


1931 


92 


70 


103 


1932 


62 


52 


69 


1933 








J anusxj ' 


61 


49 


62 


February 


64 


49 


69 


March 


59 


47 


65 


April 


75 


51 


68 


way 


103 


65 


99 


June 


143 


33 


122 


July 


162 


103 


141 



i iaterials 



Receiots Stocks 



281 


360 


166 


294 


120 


246 


86 


242 


67 


210 


90 


236 


86 


246 


103 


236 


145 


254 


169 


363 


206 


359 



Source: Reports of the Gray Iron Institute, Incorporated, to the 
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. 

Utilized Productive Capacity 

The capacity figures in Table IV indicate a wide variation in size 
of plant and per cent of utilization. Average plant capacity ranges 
from 665 tons in the Midwest to only 55 tons in the Pacific Northwest. 
Utilisation varies from 63 per cent in the Central Northwest to 29 per 
cent in the Pacific Northwest. 

Although the per cent of utilized productive capacity in certain 
districts is greater than in others, it is impossible to draw accura.te 
conclusions about the relative efficiency of the various plants located 
in these districts. Allowance must be made for many factors, the most 
important being the variation in the nature of the product turned out by 
the individual plant . 



8407 



- 6 - 

TABLE IV 

Per Cent. of Productive Capacity Utilized 
July 1925 - June 1927 



Districts 



Monthly Average Per Plan t Per Gent 

Capacity a/ r reduction Capacity 

(Snort Tons) (Short Tons) Utilized 



U. S. Average 
He;/ England 
Central Atlantic 
Midwestern 
Southeastern 
Central northwestern 
Western Hid- Continent 
C-ulf Southwestern 
Pacific northwestern 
Pacific Southwestern 
Unidentified 



49 8 
360 
360 
665 
110 
360 
355 
260 
65 
250 
540 



215 

175 

165 

270 

45 

225 

120 

90 

30 

95 

245 



43 
50 
46 
42 
32 
63 
30 
35 
29 
42 
45 



Source: Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, "Survey of Gray Iron 
Foundries" (1929). Data for Class 2 (production for sale) 
plants in Figures 7, 8, and 19 of this survey. 

Note: Except for the U. S. average, all figures are numerical 

interpretations of bur charts. The production and capacity 
data are not based on identical plants, the number varying 
from 146 to 152 and hence do not agree exactly with the 
utilization of capacity percentages. 

a/ Maximum, or 100 per cent capacity. 



Competing products 

The chief products which compete with gray iron castings are 
malleable iron castings, steel castings, non-ferrous castings, forgings, 
stampings, pressed steel products, and welded steel products. 

Production of Individual Types of Castings 

As indicated by Table V, the industries consuming gray iron castings 
are numerous. This table, based on a survey covering 142 to 158 gray iron 
"jobbing" foundries of the 4,009 on penton's Foundry List in 1927, shows 
the distribution by districts of plants producing individual types of 
gray iron castings for sale. Tonnage figures for the individual types 
are not available. Accordin to this survey, an average of 6.1 different 
types of castings were made in the foundries producing for sale. 



8407 



- 7 - 

TABLE V 

Distribution by Geographical District:;, of 
Foundries Manufacturing Specific Types of 
Gray Iron Castings for Sale, 1925-1927 



Districts 



Type of Casting 























to 












-P 










CD 










-p 


a 




-P 


■p 




-P 




O 






CO 


CD 




to 


to 




crt 




•H 






P 5 


a 




CD 


(D 




-p 




•P 






& 


•H 


■p 


& 


& 




m 




S 






,3 


-P 


to 


rf 


J3 












-P 


PJ 


CD 


■P 


-P 


<xi 


T) 


'o 


rH 






fc 


O 


& 


u 


Ej 


(1) 


CD 


C 


-P 






o 


O 


A 


o 


o 


■H 


-P 


a 


<4 




-p 


f-i 


1 


■p 


s 


in 


<*H 


•H 


iH 






co 




T=S 


pi 






•H 


C 


'-i, 


H 


-P 


crt 


r-\ 


•r-i 


o 


o 


V 


•P 


t3 


a 


01 


to 


a) 


a 


S 


00 


• rH 


•H 


p! 




w 


fn 


CD 


,S 


u 






«H 


tn 


a) 


rH 




-P 


& 


-p 


-p 


-P 


<H 


•H 


•H 


-d 


crt 


e 


CJ 


T3 


pi 


a 


to 


rH 


O 


O 


•H 


-P 


CD 


CD 


•r-l 


o 


<D 


a) 





crt 


at 


a 


o 


& 


U 


3 


GO 


O 


t« 


C5 


Ph 


rh 


£> 


EH 



Light 



Agricultural 

Automotive 

Boiler 

Builders' hardware 

Electrical appliance 

Electrical no tor 

Furniture (including 
school, church, audi- 
torium, and barber-chair 
castings) 

Hot-water Heater 

Light machinery 

Meter (gas, electric, 
water) 

Ornamental 

Plumbing and. steam 
f i 1 1 i nc 

Pump: 

(a) Gas and oil 

(b) Steam and water 
Radiator 
Refrigerator 



2 


1 


18 


3 


5 


29 


2 


8 


18 


2 


2 


13 


4 


2 


16 


2 


4 


16 



2 3 



2 
3 
1 
2 



1 
1 



1 
1 
4 
1 



111-- 
-1-11 
1 - 2 - - 



- 1 - 



- - 1 



11 
7 
4 

12 



1 
p 



-11 



- 1 

1 - 



25 
41 
36 
20 
25 
24 



1 1 


10 












12 


- 4 


13 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- - 18 


9 21 


45 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


1-87 


2 1 


8 


, _ 


1 


„ 


- .— 


„ 


12 


3 8 


13 


1 


1 


— 


2 


2 


- - 30 



-11---- 14 



14 

17 

7 

18 



(Cont'd) 



8407 



- 3 - 
TABLE V (Cont'd) 



Type of Casting 



Districts 























CO 












-p 










CD 










-p 


G 




-p 


-p 




■P 




o 






M 


CD 




co 


CO 




cd 




•H 






<y 


C 




CD 


0) 




-p 




-P 






tj 


•H 


-p 


^ 


& 




co 




d 






^ 


-P 


en 


.3 


si 








Cd 






-p 


G 


<D 


•P 


■p 


T=l 


xi 


-rl 


rH 






u 


o 


P 


ri 


Pi 


CD 


w 


SI 


-P 






o 


o 


x! 


O 


o 


•H 


•p 


<■; 




-P 


i-^t 


J. 


-p 


K 


CO 


<H 


•H 


r-t 






w 




TS 


3 






•H 


C! 


hi) 


r-\ 


-P 


cd 


rH 


•H 


o 


o 


o 


+J 


t> 


n 


cd 


M 


a) 


cd 


j£j 


co 


•H 


•H 


CJ 




w 


h 


<D 


^ 


rl 






«H 


Cm 


CD 


rH 




-p 


& 


-p 


-P 


-P 


«H 


• H 


•H 


tJ 


cd 


f. 


p) 


-tf 


2 


el 


co 


rH 


CJ 


o 


■H 


•P 


o 


a) 


•H 


o 


a; 


a) 


d 


cd 


cd 


rt 


o 


r=* 


o 


^ 


CO 


o 


£= 


e 


(x, 


ft 


&> 


H 



Light (Cont'd) 

Sanitary 

Scales (cash register, 
adding machine, type- 
writer, vending 
machine) 

Stove plate 

Street equipment (lamp- 
posts, manhole covers, 
curbs, sewer openings, 
markers, etc.) 

Toy 

'."arm-air furnace 

Hashing and ironing 
machine 

Miscellaneous light 



lU5r2-----12 

229------- 13 

- 1+ 16 - 1 ----- 21 



3 


10 


27 


1 


4 


2 


2 


2 


1 


- 52 


2 


l 


6 














- 9 


1 


2 


10 


1 


2 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 17 


1 


7 


14 


1 


1 


_, 


1 


1 


_ 


- 26 


7 


24 


^3 


b 


4 


2 


1 


3 


2 


- 92 



1H07 



_ o _ 
TABLE V (Cont'd) 



Type of Casting 











Di 


stri 


cts 






























CO 






















CD 












-p 










•P 










-p 


rt 




-P 


•P 




CiS 




O 






CO 


cu 




W 


W 




-P 




• H 






CD 


a 







CD 




00 




-P 






fe 


■H 


-p 


& 


» 








d 






.d 


■P 


CO 


X 


,d 


T=l 


-d 




td 






-p 


rt 


CD 


-P 


-P 





CD 


t3 


rH 






u 


O 


t> 


h 


3 


■H 


•p 


fl 


-P 






o 


o 


.d 


o 


O 


«H 


• H 


cti 


■=3j 




-P 




1 


-p 




00 


•H 


d 


H 






W 




rr-j 









-P 


IP 


ttfj 


i-H 


-p 


a 


rH 


•H 


o 


o 


CJ 







a 


a! 


ca 


CD 


Cfl 


J^ 


00 


•H 


•H 


CD 


H 


N 


tn 


CD 


,-C 


u 






tH 


Vh 


id 


a) 




•p 


^ 


-p 


+J 


■p 


Cu 


•H 


•H 


•H 


■p 




a 


id 


p 1 


d 


m 


rH 


o 


o 


d 


o 


CD 


<D 


•H 


o 


CD 


CD 





CTJ 


«J 


P 


En 


1=3 


O 


S 


CO 


O 


^ 


C3 


Pn 


Ph 







Car Wheels 

Engines (gas, stea:i, oil) 
Electrical machinery 2 

Heat-trea.ting equipment 

(furnaces, riots, etc.) 1 
Heavy stamoing presses 
Machine tools 2 

Material-handling machinery 1 
Mining machinery 1 

Paper-mill machinery 2 

Plate-glass machinery 
Road-making machinery 2 

Printing machinery 
Soil Pine 

Sugar-mill machinery 1 

Textile machinery 3 

Miscellaneous heavy 



1 1 
3 13 

2 9 



3 
l 



l 
l 



2 

1 



29 
15 



76-I----I16 
37--I---112 
62U-11--1237 
59-3--I-120 
3U-211-- 12 

2 9 - - - _ _ _ 13 
2-------- 2 

UU-1--1--12 

3 11 ------- lH 

21--1---- U 

23-21---- 9 

3U1------H 

7311-II-- lU 



Source: Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, "Survey of Gray Iron 
Foundries," (1929). Class 2 foundries, p. 52. 

Note: The total number of foundries covered by this survey ranges from 

lU2 to 156, but duplication resulting from the fact that foundries 
produce castings for more than' one industry raises the apparent 
total to S66. 



8U07 



-10- 

Chapter II 

LABOR STATISTICS 

Employment 

Reliable figures showing the total number of v7orkers employed in the 
Gray Iron Foundry Industry are not available. However, figures on total 
employment contained in the Letter of Transmittal to the President and pub- 
lished in the Industry's approved Code indicate that employment decreased 
from 99,500 in 1929 to 46,200 during the first quarter of 1933. 

Employment in 1934 was about 23 per cent greater than the 1933 average, 
according to data compiled "by the Bureau of Labor Statistics for NBA. (See 
Table VI I ) 

Annual Wag;es 

The total wage bill for gray iron foundries is not available, but sample 
data on annual wages have been obtained by the Bureau of the Census. Data 
for 30 Southern and 30 Northern foundries producing for sale, are summarized 
in Table VI. 

TABLE VI 

Employment and Annual Wages in North and South, 1929 - 1931 



Item 



North 



1929 



1931 



South 



1929 



1931 



Number of Plants 
Number of Wage Earners 
Average Annual Wages 



30 
2,752 

$1,469 



30 

1,815 

$1,145 



30 
1 , 679 

$1,027 



30 

1,241 

t 820 



Source: Bureau of the Census, Snecial Tabulation for the Gray Iron Institute, 
Incorporated. 



8407 



•11- 



1 









CD 



o 



o 
p. 

ft 



Pi 

ffl 



W 



o 
-p 
c 

cd 



to 

CD 

y 

cd 



a> 



> 



to 



cd I-) cd 

P. M 

CD CD 

!> CD O 

■Si <S-. o 



cd <d] 

if H -P 

Pi Pi Pi 

CD p 05 

j> O O 
<i Hi 



[fl 

Pi 

pi 

o 

ha Pi 
cd o 

P. fs 

0) 



-d >i 



g 

o 

W 

I 






KvPi 

cd 

K 

a 

;■■ 
a 
t; 

c 



d 

(B 



w 



3 

•p 

Pi 

O 





m 


Pi 


twi 


o 


Si 




p.. 


VI 




CD 


U1 


-P 


p! 


' 


•H 


Pi 


l; 


4 


o 


( 


r-H 


o 


i-1 


N 


O 


•• — 


<H 



LT\ r^i ro en r-i t^. r*~\<D o U3 ro 

OH O r~- LT\ KM» O r*-\U3 PO ^D Jt 



in cy\vo oj r-i ^t rH us vo h- cjnvd tn 
vr> cr»vjo Hyj m oj .zj- ^ oj o to o 



^t m OJ OJJ-VDU) I — I — I — VD^O 
rHHr-lrHrHiHrHiHrHrHiHrH 



H O O O to LT\ J" r — mvjO m m 

o r— cr> r^MD lpv j- cr> oj oj oj cm 



LTn 



CTv 

-d- 



vd r-— to cti to to 

rH rH rH rH rH rH 



r- to to to to 

rH rH rH rH rH 



m J- J" LTM*-m CM CM J" O LT\ CPirH LT. 
• •••••••••>• v 

CM OJ CM m J" LPv jzt invfl VX> LTiVP ji 
IT\ L£> LO LPi ITS LO LPi LfN LPi Lf> LTN LOi LT\ 



CTi LT\UD m LTVt f— OJ I"— CP> Cn r— 



oj oj oj oj KM^nr^f^r^nr^ 



LPv>aD OJJ-U) OJ ^KM^J OJ m 



y3HVDC\JM3r^iCTiCV)WiHCriCri 



• • • • CD >j 

P) ,0 P, P, >i rt rH 

cd cd cd p, cd p p 

CT\ 



+3 


• 


• 


• 


P 


-P 


> 





<D 


o 


o 


CD 


r/J 


o 


52; 


O 



CT> 



O 



vd oi(M J h o inc\i mj- rr\h-cjN 

H KMTi LT\ J- ^H H OOI Wl^pi 

fO r^ ro t^ r^ r\ fo r^i ro r^ i^^i r. 



o 



.rt^O OH nCVJJ- CM mU) ^t rH O 

[-— I — VD r~-tOrHOJOJCMOJrHrH O 

rHrHrHrHrHrHrH r-\ 



CTi OJ tO t^v LT\U> JlDOHCTih- O 

U) WOMMO^J-OinOr- O 

I — 1 — UD ^1 — O H w ^ n OJ H o 

rHrHrHrHrHrHrH r-\ 



^J- I^rH OJ OJU5 CJMrMT\ r^i J" J" LOi 

rH 1 — 01 — oj- iTNOjto inj- vn a> 
h c\jj-j-j- t^ai oj h w wt^rj 

rHrHrHrHrHrHrHrHpHrHrHrHrH 



1^ — rH t^tOCPvCMtOOl — r~-CMcr\K> 

• •••••••••••« 

r— LO to to CM OM^-vjo rH CTM — OH 
rH r^J- LO LPi J" K> r~^ rOfO t-^MT\ -+ 
rHi-lrHrHrHrHrHrHrHrHrHrHrH 



O 



>o0 I — CTi J" LPvVD IfMO r- O H CO O 

totor— towcnOHHWHO 



CVU J" CTvU3 J" O W fO CTiJ- LT>fiO 

• •••••• *■•••( 

o r~ J- cr.to r~-Lnoj o o ou3cj 

rHrHCMOJOJOJOJOJCMCMCMOJOJ 
rHHrHr-lrHrHrHrHrHrHrHrHrH 



CD 

SP 

Pi 

CD 



-d-h) 

CTi 



g 



CD . 



• CD 

h %> 3 ■ 
<; s "-a »-3 



!>s • -p • • • 

• M p, +J > O 
p CD O O CD 

<iw Olz;p 



p. 

CD 



3U07 



-p 

Pi 

o 
o 



9 



ri 












o 












•H 








• 


CO 


CO 








o 


CD 


•H 






>i 


o 





> 






r-i 


rH 


>J 


•H 






u 




o 


PI 


C 




cd 


Jl 


r-i 




o 









Pi 


CD 


u 




Ft 


r<~\ 


B 


,0 


h- 1 






hO 





-P 






-d 


CTi 






fe- 




fl 


rH 


o 


.r; 


ed 




cd 




O 


-p 


m 






O 


O 


•H 


C5 




CO 


-P 




ts 




• 


-p • 




Uj 




CD 


a 


p! r^i 


T=i 




Pi 


,Ci 


■p 


r*> 





>s 


o 


-p 


o 


MS 


o 
pi 


r-i 

M 


■P 


!>> 


S 


CO 


•B 


cd 


cd 


,£> 




•H £ 








fH 




CD 


r-i -H 


M 


r* 


0) 


Td 


A 


,a 






fi 1 


CD 


•p 


cd P) 


ii 


•d 


o 


M 




■p H 





D 


o 


CD 


<H 


co ,3 





id 


o 


> 
O 


o 


-p 


E; 


co 


Pi 


o 


XI 


PO Jd" 


H 


•p 


•H 




•p 


ro r^, 





p; 




t>> 


LO 


r-i en 


P 





CO 


H 


H 


rH 




B 


c 


CD 




en 


-d 


M 


•H 


•P 





O fl 





CO 


•P 


CD 


XI 


•H 


M 


•H 


co 


H 


-p 





p. 


rH 


■H 


Pi 




M M 


o 


r^ • 


-P 





•p 


cd 


te 


cd -=t 


cd 


o 


CO 


U tjj 




-p r^i 


■P 


O 


CD 


u 


(0 


co cr> 


to 




P. 


> cd 


M 


r-i 




-P 


cd 


Cd rH 


PJ 




H 


CO 


CD 




o 


^^ Pi 


o 


o 


fl 


FJ X 


£1 


C\J -H 


-9 


S 




cd o 




r-H 


cd 


rH 


tH 


g 





fn 


i-3 


cd 


O 


W) B 


£>p 


tj) 






•H 


a 


id 


Pi t»o 


<H 


CD 


W 


•H CO 


w 


•n U 


O 


rO 


CD 


M cd 





P) cd 






P. 


p. 


> 


rH 


d 


O 




> 


cd 


> 


cd 


■P 


rH 


O 




o s. 







r-i 


O rH 


CO 


O rH 


f-4 


TJ 


O 


Pi 





,Cl 


CD 


CD 


P. 


B 


B 


cd 


H 
CD 


ft 

P: 


rH id- 
p, CO 


•H 
-P 


rH M 

Q 


,3 • 


■ r-i 




cd 


-P 


Cd -H 


-p <j 


CO 


CD 


CO ,£J 


Pi 


CO CO 


Ph 


ci 


A 


EH 





P! 


>sS 


o 


•P 





s 


o 


^> 


o 




> 


K> 


> o 


• 




M 


•H • 


o 


•H 


Td fciO 


CO 


O 


-P t^ 


r-H 


4J CO 


co pi 


-p 


tH 


cd r*^ 




cd cd 


f-l -H 


a 




-P CTi 


Q 


•p t 


p< a 


CD 


CD 


p! h 





£ 


a) cd 


J 







M 


<H 




CO rH 


CO ,-H 


CO 


t- 


-H 


O 


p 


_, ^ 


•H 




M 




M a 


cd 


rH 


TH 


p to 


X 


Pi Cd 


+3 ^d 


•s 











CO 


$ B 


cd 


•p 


U 


Ti 


H 


T3 Cd 


■p • 


m 


, >» 


Pi 







CO CD 


o 


cd o 


1-H 


cd ^i 

Eh 


-O ,ci 


CD tJ 


Pi 


rH 




o 


o 





Pi P- 




Pi 

o 


^ M 


MO 


M 


O 0' 


.. 


to cd 


c 




P 


■d 


Pi • 


•h a) 


•H t>a 


CO 


Pi 





pi t^i 


i-I CO 
,0 CD 


-P fi 



u 


_, o 


■p 
p) 




12 


P: 3 


s 


O 
■J) - 


§' 


rH 

to 


Pi <H 


CD C 


•H 


cd o 


o 


cd Pi 


P O 


PcJ P=l 


ft 


W rH 


o 


pq -h 




^51 


^ 


~o"l 


^ 


^1 


p. 












pi 












o 












ro 













8U07 



-13- 



Labor Cost 

Wrges in the North were U5 per cent of the value of product, and in 
the South 33 per cent, in 1931, according to the aforementioned Census 
survey. It must he remembered, however, that differences in the nature of 
the product (large rough vs. small finished castings) nay he an important 
cause of this differential. (See Table VIII) . 

TABLE VIII 

Per Cent which Labor and Material Cost are 
of Total Value of Product, 1929-1931 
(in per cent) 



Item 



North 



South 



192S 



1931 1929 1331 



Labor to Value 
of Product 

Material Costs 
to Value of 
Product 



UU.2 U5.6 29.0 32.9 

27. b 30.6 35.^ 35-2 



Source: Bureau of the Census, Special Tabula- 
tion for the Cray Iron Institute, 
Incorporated. 

Hourly and Weekly TTa^es 

Data presented in Table VII show an increase in hourly wage rates 
from U9.I cents in 1933 to 5^-5 cents in I93U; average weekly wages in- 
creased from $15. U3 in 1933 to $18.05 in IS3U. 

Earlier wage figures for the Gray Iron Foundry Industry are available 
only for four months during 1930 and 1931. (See Table IX). The e::tent of 
the sex differential is indicated by the fact that rates for women core- 
makers (a skilled occupation) are less than for male common laborers. 

TABLE IX 



Occupation 



Molders: 

Bench 
Floor 
Loan 
Machine 

SH07 



Wage Pates for Selected Occupations in 

Gray Iron Foundries, 193° 3Xl ^- 1 93 1 

( Cents per hour) 



February 
1930 



SI. U 
23.0 
73.0 

T 1 



c 

.0 



August 
1930 



79,3 

SU.l 

71.1 

TO. 9 



February 
1931 



75-3 

31. 9 

7<" o 

66.6 



(Continued on ne;:t p; ) 






ctober 




1931 




76.2 




S3. 3 
66.1 




6b. 2 



-14- 



TABLE IX (Cont'd) 



Occupation 


February 
1930 


August 

1930 


February 
1931 


October 
1931 


Coremakers: 
lien 
Women 


73.7 

U3.9 


71. u 

42.7 


70. S 

4l.9 


69.2 
42.1 


Patternmakers: 
Wood 
l.Ietal 


S2.9 
72.9 


84.7 
76.7 


76. 4 
72.6 


75.2 
69.O 


Chippers 


53-3 


52.6 


51.9 


51.1 


Common laborers 


4s. 4 


^7.1 


U7.U 


45.7 


Source: Bureau. 


of Labor Stati 


sties, Monthly 


Labor Beview, 





December, 1931, page 197 • 

Minimum wages paid to common labor in the first quarter of 1933 
averaged approximately 20 cents per hour in the South and 30 cents in the 
North, as shown in Table X. 

TABLE X 

Minimum Hourly Wage Bates for Common Labor, 
First quarter, 1933 



Region 




ITur.be r of 
Plants 


Number of 
Employees 


M 


Average 
inimum Hate 
(cents) 


United States 

North 

South 




S23 

731 

92 


23,99^ 

22,627 

1,367 




30.1 

30.7 
19.5 


Source: Penton 


Publishing Company, 


Special Questionnaire. 





Averages computed by NRA, Be search and Planning Division. 
See report of this Division by F. C. Beich, 
"G-ray Iron Foundry Industry, " 
(November IS, 1933), Page 2§. 



Hours 



Average weeklj' hours worked in the Industry showed a marked decline 
during the depression, while the number of hours per week exceeded 50 
prior to 1930, average weekly hours, as shown above in Table VII, decreased 
to 3O.9 in 1933, and rose to 32.9 in 1934. 



S407 



-15- 
Chapter III 

r.JiTEAIALS AI T D LiACHIltfERY 



Maciiinery 



Molding machines, sand "blast machines, tumbling barrels and other 
foundry machinery used in all types of foundries are manufactured chiefly 
in the mid-western states. The total value of this machinery, according 
to the Bureau of the Census, declined nearly 82 per cent in 1933 from 
1929. (See Table XI). 

TABLE XI 

Value of Selected Foundry Equipment 
(In thousands) 



1929 



1931 



193C 



Total 

Molding Machines 

Sand Blasting Lia chines 
Other Types 



$10,639 

3,752 
1,476 
5,411 



$3,338 $1,957 



948 

sJ 

2,390 



1,051 

a/ 

906 



Source: Census of uanuf actures. "i.achinery, not including transportation 
equipment. " 
a/ Included in "Other Types. " 

Materials 

The principal materials used in the manufacture of gray iron castings 
are pig iron and scrap, which are obtained, respectively, from iron sn&lters 
and scrap dealers located in various states. 

According to date, contained in Table VIII, the cost of materials 
amounts to approximately 35 per cent of the value of the oroducts manu- 
factured in southern foundries, and 30 per cent in northern foundries. 



8407 



-16- 

Ghapter IV 

PRODUCTION AlfD DISTRIBUTION 

Adequate information concerning the distribution of gray iron 
foundry products is not available. Hence this chapter must be limited 
to data indicating -production (manufacturers' sales), by states, and the 
value of exports. 

Sales 

Sales of gray iron castings presented in Table XII refer to cast- 
ings sold as such by establishments classified by the Bureau of the 
Census in the "Foundry and i.iachine Shop products" Industry and by those 
in all other industries which reported the sale of castings. 

According to these data approximately 60 per cent of total 1931 
manufacturers 1 sales were made by plants in Illinois, Michigan, Hen York, 
Ohio, end Pennsylvania. 

TABLE XII 

Manufacturers' Sales, by States 
of Production, 1929 - 1931 
(In thousands) 



1929 



1931 



Tonnage 



Value 



Tonna~e 



Value 



U. S. Total 



5,080 



$375,508 2,390 



$174, 19? 



California. 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Missouri 

New Jersey 

New Pork 

Ohio 

Pennsylvania 

Wisconsin 

Total 11 States 

38 Other States 



1-19 


12,257 


72 


5,545 


504 


36,073 


212 


13,898 


234 


20,779 


114 


8,542 


132 


14,173 


84 


7,966 


769 


63.270 


445 


46,150 


123 


8, 741 


53 


3,200 


156 


15,321 


99 


8,039 


347 


27,736 


149 


11,417 


739 


59 , 502 


240 


18,132 


824 


41,779 


377 


10,539 


106 


11,642 


46 


4,39? 


4,083 


311,273 


1,891 


145,820 


997 


64,235 


499 


28,377 



Source: Census of Manufactures. 



foundry and Machine Sho _ o products." 



Establishments whose annual production is less than $5,000 are 
excluded. 



8407 



-17- 



Exports 



As indicated in Table XIII, gray iron castings are exported princijC.lly 
to Canada and Mexico. Of the total value exported in 1933, slightly more 
than 77 per cent was shipped to these countries. 

Total 1934 exports, which increased over 1933, were 56 per cent less 
than 1S28. 

TABLE XIII 

Value of Exports, 1328 - 1934 
(In thousands) 



Exports 



1928 



1931 



1934 



Total 



Canada 
Liexico 



Other Countries 



$1,518 

906 
43 

569 



$689 

493 
20 

176 



$422 

283 
43 



$667 

a/ 
a/ 

a/ 



Source: Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Foreign Commerce and 
navigation of the United States. 



a/ ilo information available. 



8407 #