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Full text of "Evidence study"

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NATIONAL RECOVERY ADMINISTRATION 
DIVISION OF REVIEW 



EVIDENCE STUDY 
NO. 18 

OF 

THE HOSIERY INDUSTRY 



Prepared by 

W. CARLTON HENDERSON 



November, 1935 



PRELIMINARY DRAFT 
(NOT FOR RELEASE: FOR USE IN DIVISION ONLY) 



TEE EVIDENCE STUDY SERIES 



m 



Tnese s 



The EVIDENCE STUDIES wore originally planned as a means of gathering evidence 
earing ueon various legal issues which arose under the National Industrial Rc- 
jvery Act. 

studies have value quite aside from the use for which they were original.: 
ntended. Accordingly, they are now made available for confidential use within the 
ivision of Review, and for inclusion in Code Histories. 

The full list of the Evidence Studies is as follows: 

Mason Contractors Industry 

Men's Clothing Industry 

Motion picture Industry 

Motor Bus Mfg. Industry (Dropped) 

needlework Ind. of Puerto Rico 

painting & Paperhanging & Decorating 

photo Engraving Industry 

Plumbing Contracting Industry 

Retail pood (See Ho. 42) 

Retail Lumber Industry 

Retail Solid Fuel (Dropped) 

He tail Trade Industry 

Rubber Mfg. Ind. 

Rubber Tire Mfg. Ind. 

Silk Textile Ind. 

Structural Clay Products Ind. 

Throwing Industry 

Trucking Industry 

Waste Materials Ind. 

Tnolesale & Retail Pood Ind. (See No. SI) 

Wholesale Fresh Fruit & Veg. 

In addition to the studies brought to completion, certain materials have been 
-.ssenbled for other industries. These MATERIALS are included in the series and are 
ilso made available for confidential use within the Division of Review and for in- 
clusion in Code Histories, as follows: 



1. 


Automobile Manufacturing Ind. 


OO . 


2. 


Boot and Shoe Mfg. Ind. 


24. 


3. 


Bottled Soft Drink Ind. 


25. 


4. 


Builders' Supplies Ind. 


26. 


5. 


Chemical Mfg. Ind. 


27. 


6. 


Cigar Mfg. Industry 


28. 


7. 


Construction Industry 


29. 


8. 


Cotton Garment Industry 


30. 


9. 


Dress Mfg. Ind. 


31. 


10. 


Electrical Contracting Ind. 


32. 


LI. 


Electrical Mfg. Ind. 


33. 


12. 


Fab. Metal Prod. Mfg., etc. 


34. 


13. 


Fishery Industry 


35. 


14. 


Furniture Mfg. Ind. 


36. 


15. 


General Contractors Ind. 


37. 


: 6. 


Graphic Arts Ind. 


38. 


7. 


Gray Iron Foundry Ind. 


39. 


.3. 


Hosiery Ind. 


40. 


-3. 


Infant's & Children's Wear Ind. 


41. 


lJ. 


Iron and Steel Ind. 


42. 


1. 


Leather 


43. 


'2. 


Lumber & Timber prod. Ind. 





54. Wool Textile Industry 

15. Automotive parts & Equip. 

±6. Baking Industry 

17. Canning Industry 

43. Coat and Suit Ind. 



Ind. 



49. 
50. 
51. 
52. 
53. 



Household Goods & Storage, etc. (Dropped) 
Motor Vehicle Retailing Trade "Ind. 
Retail Tire & Battery Trade Ind. 
Ship & Boat Bldg. & Repairing Ind. 
Wholesaling or Distributing Trade 



L. C, Marshall 
Director, Division of Review 



CONTENTS 

Page 

CHAPTER I - DESCRIPTION AND SCOPE 1 

Operations of the Industry 2 

Plant Locations 3 

Investment , Volume and Value of Products 5 

CHAPTER II - LABOR STATISTICS 7 

Employment 7 

CHAPTER III - MATERIALS - RAW AMD SEMI-PROCESSED 12 

Materials Used. 12 

CHAPTER IV - PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION 15 

Export s and Import s 20 

CHAPTER V - TRADE PRACTICES 21 

APPENDIX 22 



-oOo- 



9094 -i- 



TABLE I - 

TABLE II - 

TABLE III - 

TABLE IV - 

TABLE V - 

TABLE VI - 

TABLE VII - 

TABLE VIII - 



TABLE IX 



TABLE X - 



TABLE XI - 



TABLE XI I - 



TABLE A 



TABLES 

Page 

NUMBER OF COMPANIES AND PLANTS, BY 

STATES DECEMBER 1934 4 

DISTRIBUTION OF COMPANIES WITH PLANTS 

IN MORE THAN ONE STATE APRIL 15, 1935 5 

VOLUME AND VALUE OP PRODUCTS 1929, 

1931, 1933 6 

NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES 1929, 1931, 1933 7 

NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES 1934, APRIL 1935 7 

NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES, BY STATES ONE 

WEEK IN MARCH 1934 9 

AVERAGE HOURLY WAGE RATE, AVERAGE WEEKLY 

EARNINGS, AND AVERAGE HOURS PER 'REEK 10 

AVERAGE HOURLY WAGE RATE, AVERAGE WEEKLY 
EARNINGS, AND AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS FOR 
SPECIFIED PERIODS IN IMPORTANT HOSIERY 
PRODUCING STATES, 1928, 1930, 1932 11 

TOTAL VALUE OF PRODUCTS, TOTAL LABOR 
COST, AND TOTAL COST OF MATERIALS, 
1929, 1931, and 1933 14 

VOLUME OF PRODUCTS, BY KIND AND BY STATE, 

1934 16 

VALUE OF PRODUCTS, BY KIND AND BY STATE, 

1934 17 

PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF HOSIERY 

PRODUCTION 19 

22 



-oOo- 



9094 



-li- 



- 1 - 



THE HOSIERY INDUSTRY 



Foreword 



Most of the statistical material presented in 
this report was obtained from the Census of Manufactures , 
the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and the Code Authority 
for the Industry. 

As explained in Chapter I, the Census and Code 
definitions of the Industry are not the same, since the 
former comprises only the Hosiery Manufacturing Industry. 
The Code Authority data used pertain only to the Manufac- 
turing Industry, however, and the data coming from these 
two sources as well as from the Bureau of Labor Statistics 
are therefore roughly comparable. The usual limitation of 
the Census data, arising from the fact that establishments 
doing an annual volume of business valued at less than 
$5,000 are not included, should be borne in mind. 

Due to lack of relevant data, no material has been 
presented on Section VI nor on certain topics listed in 
other sections of the Outline. 



9094 



- 2 - 

Chapter I 
DESCRIPTION AMD SCOPE 

Code Definit ion of the Industr y 

The Code of Fair Competition for the Hosiery Industry defines the 
Industry to include: 

"....the manufacturing, finishing, repairing, selling, and/or 
distributing "by manufacturers at wholesale or retail, or . 
distributing by selling agents, of hosiery, and other related 
branches, as may from time to time be included under the 
provisions of this Code." 

The data presented in this report pertain to the Hosiery Manufacturing 
Industry, which is a part of the Census classification for the Knit Goods 
Industry. This classification embraces all establishments (except those 
having an annual production of less than $5,000) whose principal products 
are made by machine knitting, without regard to whether the yarns used are 
of cotton, of wool, of silk, or other material, and whether the hose made 
are seamless or full-fashioned. Ken's, women's, and children's hose are 
included. 



Recent Development 

The Hosiery Manufacturing Industry ranks within the first twenty 
manufacturing industries in irrroortance in the United States as to the num- 
ber employed, and the value of product. 1/ For several years, staple items 
only were knitted. Ordinary and durable types of yarns were used and 
finished in a small range of plain colors. About 1919, however, when many 
changes were made in clothing and footwear designs, the Hosiery Industry 
"blossomed, out," as it were, and became style conscious also. Fancy and 
novelty yarns came into prominence, new and special machinery attachments 
were developed, and the trend toward light-weight and sheer hose began. 
Wearing quality was sacrificed for appearance and style; the demand grew; 
profits increased and offered a very lucrative field for entrepreneurs; and 
the Industry expanded to a saturation point with the subsequent diminishing 
cf returns, aided to some extent by the general depression in business. 

Perhaps the most radical change within the Industry has been the 
shift from the manufacture of women's seamless hose to the production of 
full-fashioned hosiery. The latter field requires considerably greater in- 
vestment than the former, and established seamless hosp companies have been 
slow to adapt their operations to the new demand. They have, therefore, 
suffered tremendously through lack of business. This is one of the major 
causes for complaints of the ills in this Industry. 2/ 

1/ Based upon Census of Manufactures, 1929 , vol. 1. 
2/ Based on opinions of experts in the Industry and the author's 
experience. 

9094 



- 3 - 



Total Number of Companies and Plants 

According to records of the Code Authority, the total number of 
companies in the Hosiery Manufacturing Industry in 1934 was placed at 634. 
These companies operated 800 plants. (See Table I, "below.) 



Number of Companies and Plents by States 

The Hosiery Manufacturing Industry is scattered through 31 states. 
It is concentrated in Pennsylvania, where there are 214 companies and 257 
plants, and in North Carolina, which lias 165 companies and 195 plants. 
The distribution of companies and plants is shown in Taole I. 



9094 



4 - 



TABLE I 



NUMBER Or COMPANIES A1ID PLANTS, 
BY STATES DECEMBER 1934 



State 



Companies 



Plants 



Total 

Pennsylvania 
Delaware 
New Jersey 
New York 
Connecticut 

Massachusetts 
New Earap shire 
Rhode Island 
Maine 
Vermont 



634 

214 

1 

30 

9 

3 

9 
9 
4 
1 
2 



300 

257 

1 
31 
13 

3 



9 

11 
4 
1 
2 



Alabama 

Georgia 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maryland 



6 
28 
5 
2 
3 



6 
30 
6 
2 
4 



Mississippi 
South Carolina 
Tennessee 
North Carolina 
Texas 



3 

6 

46 

165 

1 



3 

7 

62 

195 

1 



Virginia 

West Virginia 
California 
Illinois 
Indiana 



13 

4 
8 
8 



17 

5 
9 
8 



Iowa 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Missouri 

Ohio 



1 
7 
4 
1 
6 



3 
7 

5 
1 
6 



Wisconsin 

Mills in more than one state 



11 
24 



17 
76 



Source: Code Authority Records, Pe"bruary 1935. 



9094 



- 5 - 



As shown in Table II, three-fourths of the 24 companies having mills 
in more than one state confine their operations to two states. 

TABLE II 

Companies with Plants in More Than One State, 
"by Number of States Operated in, 
April 15, 1935 a/ 



Number of States Number of Companies 



Total 24 

Two states 18 

Three states 5 

Four states 1 



Source: Code Authority Eecords, May 23, 1335. 

a/ Table A in the Aopendix hereto gives the number and location 
of plants of the individual companies. 



Capital Investment 

The estimated invested caoital in the Hosiery Manufacturing Industry 
in 1928 was $400,000,000; by 1930 this had increased to $600,000,000, but 
due to liquidations, failures, obsolescence, and the effects of the de- 
pression, this dropped in 1932 to $500,000,000. 1/ 



Volume and Value of Products 

The volume and value of products of the Industry are shown in the 
following table: 



1/ Prom Code Hearing, July 26, 1933. 



9094 



- 6 



TABLE III 



Volume and Value of Products in the 
Hosiery Manufacturing Industry a/ 



Yeai 



Volume 
(000 dozen pairs) 



Value 
(000) 



1929 
1931 
1933 



118,471 
103,865 
101,925 



$516,396 
326,492 
256,964 b/ 



Source: Census of Manufacture s, "Knit Goods." 

Data for establishments with an annual pro- 
duction of less than $5,000 are excluded. 

a/ Data apply to production for the year. 

Value is figured at prices f.o.b. at the 
establishment. 

b/ Data include Census classifications: 

"Hosiery (except infants' and athletic and 
golf hose)," "Infants' Hose," and "Athletic 
and Golf Hose." Due to insufficient breakdowns 
of tne published data, the figure may not be 
strictly comparable with 1929 and 1931, inasmuch 
as some of the smaller manufacturers may not be 
included. 



In 1934, according to the Code Authority records, the volume of 
production increased to 103,900,000 dozen pairs, or virtually the 1931 
volume, but due to declining unit prices, the value increased to only 
$290,000,000. 1/ 



Productive Capacity 

The productive capacity of the Hosiery Manufacturing Industry has 
been estimated at an output valued at $625,000,000 and $375,000,000 for 
1929 and 1932, respectively. 



1/ 1934 data from National Association of Hosiery Manufacturers Year Book 
as printed in Knit Goods Weekl y, April 29, 1935. The 1934 data are 
not entirely comparable with the earlier data. 



9094 



-7- 

Chapter II 

LA3CR STATISTICS 

Employment 

The following tables show the number of wage earners in the Hosiery 
Manufacturing Industry: 

TABLE IV 

Number of Wage Earners in the Hosiery 
Manufacturing Industry a/ 

Year Number of 

Wage Earners 

1929 129,542 

1931 112,574 

1933 115,466 

Source: Census of Manufactures, "Knit Goods." 

Establishments with an annual production of less than 
$5,000 are excluded. 

a/ Includes skilled and unskilled workers of all classes; the 

average number on payroll during one week at middle of each month. 

TABLE V 

Number of Employees in the Hosiery Manufacturing 
Industry, 1934, and April, 1935 



Year Number of 

Employees 

1934 137,022 

April, 1935 140,475 a/ 

Source: Code Authority Records. The 1934 and April, 1935, data are net 
entirely comparable with the data given in Table IV, above. 

a/ This is an all time high in employment. 

It is impossible to determine from these figures how many of these 
employees worked full-time and part-time. This Industry normally has two 
busy seasons but the workers usually are employed fairly regularly through- 
out the year. 



9094 



Number of Employees "by States 

Table VI presents data showing the number of employees in the Hosiery 
Manufacturing Industry, by states, for a given week in March, 1934. From 
these data it can be seen that Pennsylvania, North Carolina and Tennessee 
are by far the most important states, accounting together for more than 
half the total employees in the Industry. 

Total Annual Wages 

In 1929, the total annual wages in the Hosiery Manufacturing Industry 
were $140,000,000; in 1931, $95,000,000; in 1933, $81,000,000; and in 1934, 
$108,000,000. 1/ The decline in total wages from 1929 to 1933 was more 
severe in Pennsylvania, New Jersey and other Northern States than in the 
Southern States, due, in part, to the fact that existing wage rates were 
already low in the South and could not be so readily cut as in the North. 



1/ 1929, 1931, and 1933 data iron Cens us of Manufactures , "Knit Goods"; 
and 1934 data from Code Authority. 



9094 



-9- 

TABLE VI 

HUMBER OP EMPLOYEES, BY STATES 
ONE WEEK III MARCH 1934 



Number of 

State Employee s 



Total for U. S. 137,022 

Pennsylvania 
Delaware 
Hew Jersey 
Hew York 
Connecticut 

Massachusetts 
Hew Hampshire 
Rhode Island 
Maine 
Vermont 

Alabama 

Georgia 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maryland 

Mississippi 
Scuth Carolina 
Tennessee 
ITorth Carolina 
Texas 

Virginia 
West Virginia 
California 
Illinois 
Indiana 

Iowa 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Missouri 

Ohio 

Wisconsin 

Mills in more than one state 

Source: Code Authority Records, 
February 1935. 



37 


,340 




47 


3 


,960 


1 


,872 




287 




961 




847 




117 




4 




141 


1 


,526 


5 


,233 


1 


,144 




210 




271 




358 




584 


13 


,007 


27 


,224 




154 


2 


,485 









524 


1 


,239 


1 


,793 




793 




531 




882 




55 




274 


5 


,877 


27 


,277 



9094. 



-10- 

Hours and Wage s 

The average hourly wage rate, average weekly earnings, and average 
weekly hours worked, in the Hosiery Manufacturing Indurtr;- are shown in 
the following table. It will "be seen that hourly rates were considerably 
higher in 1934 than in 1932. Average weekly earnings increased also, 
although they were held down by shortened hours of work. 

TABLE VII 

Average Hourly Wage Rate, Average Weekly Earnings, 
and Average Hours Per Week, 1932-1934 a/ 



Year 



1952 
1933 
1934 



Average Hourly 
Wage Hate 



$.341 
.379 
.435 



Average 

Weekly 

Earnings 



$13.63 
13.85 
16.11 



Average 

Hours 
Per Week 



42.6 
40.6 
33.5 



Source: Unpublished Hosiery breakdown of Bureau of Labor Statistics, 

"Knit Goods" group, covering approximately 70 per cent of wage 
earners and 45 -oev cent of firms; prepared by Bureau of Labor 
Statistics for HRA, Research and Planning Division. 

a/ The figure for the year is the average of 12 values relating 

to that week of each month which includes the 15th of the month. 



The average hourly wage rate, average weekly earnings, and average 
weekly hours for specified periods in the important hosiery producing 
states are shown in Table VIII. 



9094 



-11- 



TABLE VIII 



Average Hourly Wage Rate, Average Weekly Earnings, 
and Average Weekly Hoars for Specified Periods in 
Important Hosiery producing States, 1928,1930,1932 









Perio 


d 




State 




1928 


1930 




1932 




Sep 


t. - Dec. 


April - 


June 


March - June 




Ave 


rage Hourly 


Wage Rate 


(cents) 




All States 




48.8 


49.7 




37.6 


Georgia 




24.4 


26.5 




22.5 


New Jersey 




79.6 


83.1 




49.3 


North. Carolina 




33.4 


35.9 




29.7 


Pennsylvania 




62.5 


62,4 


/ 


41.9 


Tennessee 




29.2 


30.2 




28.7 




Ave 


rage Weekly 


Earnings 


(dollars) 




All States 




23.01 


20.83 




15.53 


Georgia 




11.30 


11.46 




9.68 


New Jersey 




36.38 


36.76 




20.32 


North Carolina 




16.00 


15.85 




12.38 


Pennsylvania 




29.80 


25.20 




17.00 


Tennessee 




13.97 


12.37 




12.50 






Average Weekly Hours 




All States 




47.1 


41.9 




41.3 


Georgia 




46.3 


43.3 




42.9 


New Jersey 




45.7 


44.2 




41.2 


North Carolina 




47.9 


44.2 




41.7 


Pennsylvania 




47.7 


40.4 




40.6 


Tennessee 




47.8 


42.6 




43.6 



Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Wages and Hours of Labor in the 

Hosiery and Underwear Industries , Bulletin No. 504, p. 48, and 
No. 591, p. 10. Data are from sample studies covering about 
25 per cent of total wage earners and about 20 per cent of num- 
ber of firms, located in 18 or 19 states. 



9094 



Chapter III 
MATERIALS: HAW AND SEMI-PROCESSED 

Principal Materials Used 

The principal materials used in the Hosiery Manufacturing Industry 
are raw silk, thrown silk, mercerised and unmercerized combed cotton yarns, 
carded yarn, 'worsted and woolen yarns, rayon and other synthetic yarns, 
linen, and various novelty combinations of these yarns. Although some of 
these yarns are made or processed by a few companies which have completely 
integrated plants, the bulk of the raw material is produced in specialty 
mills and plants and offered for sale to the Hosiery Manufacturing Industry 
in open competitive markets. 

Source of Materials 

About SO per cent of all raw silk used in this country is imported from 
Japan, and about one-fourth of the total was used in the Hosiery Manufactur- 
ing Industry in 1929. 1/ The small percentage of linen used is imported most- 
ly from Ireland. 

Most of the cotton yarn produced is made from cotton grown in the 
southern and southwestern states of this country, namely, Texas, Mississippi, 
Louisiana, Georgia, Alabama, North and South Carolina. Some cotton is im- 
ported from the British Sea Island ..ossessions and from Egypt. 

Rayon and other synthetic yarns are chemically constructed from wood 
pulp or cotton linters which are used as a base. The wood pulp comes from 
the northern and northwestern sections of this country and Canada. Cotton 
linters come from the cotton states noted just above. 

Amounts of Haw Material Used 

It has been estimated that, in 1929, the Hosiery Industry consumed 
99.5 million pounds of cotton valued at $90,780,000, or 29 ner cent of the 
total -oi-oduction of 3.5 billion pounds; 22 million pounds of silk valued 
at $123,000,000, or 26.7 per cent of the 81.5 million pounds imported; and 
19. S million pounds of rayon valued at $26,662,000, or 15 per cent of the 
131.3 million pounds consumed in the United States in that year. 2/ Since 
1929 there has been a slight shift in the importance of the different 
materials used, with decreases in the consumption of wool and rayon and 
increases in cotton and silk. The value of the principal materials used 
decreased greatly due to the decline in their prices. 



1/ Computed from consumption data in Census of Manufactures , 1929, "Knit 
Goods," and import data published in the Statistical Abstract of the 
United States 

2/ Basic data from Census of Manufactures, 1929: Statistical Abstract, 1954 ; 

Textile Qrganon of the Tubize Chatillon, Co. (Feb. 1935); and National 

Federation of Textiles, 1935. 
9094 



-13- 

Machinery and Equipment 

Although it is known that considerable money has been spent in recent 
years for machinery and equipment, the amount would be difficult to determine 
without a complete canvass of the machinery manufacturers. The more im- 
portant machinery concerns are situated in Pennsylvania, New Hampshire, 
Connecticut, and Rhode Island, while some full-fashioned machinery is im- 
ported from Germany. 

Labor Cost and Cost of Materials Com-oared with Total Value of Product 

Table IX shows that labor cost is approximately 26 to 30 per cent of the 
total value of product in the Hosiery ivianufacturin : ; Industry, while the cost 
of materials accounts for 42 to 47 per cent of the total value. From 1S29 
to 1933, the per cent of total value going to labor increased slightly and 
that spent for materials decreased. 



9094 



-14- 



IA3LE IX 



Total Value of Products, Total Labor Cost, 

and Total Cost of Materials, 

1929, 1931, and 1933 



Year 


To tal 
Value 
of 
Product 
(000 »s) 


Total Labor 
Cost 




Total Materials 
Cost 




Amount 
(COO's) 


Per Cent 
of Total 


Amount a/ 
(000' s) 


Per Cent 
of Total 


1929 

1931 
1933 


$528,700 

331,209 
263,534 


$140,079 

95,129 
80,868 


26.5 

28.7 
30.7 


$248,657 

148 , 835 
111,224 


47.0 

44.9 
42.2 


Source: 


Census of Manufactures, ' 


'Knit Goods." 


Data far es 


tablishments 



rrith an annual production of less than $5,000 are excluded. 

a/ In both 1927 and 1929 fuel and purchased energy accounted for 1.7 

per cent of total cost of materials. These items are included in 
the totals for each year. 



9094 



-15- 

Chapter IV 
PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION 

Value c'.iC Volume of Production b~~ St a t _s 

Table X shows the volume of production, by states, in 1934, and Table XT 
shows the estimated wholesale value of production, by states, for the sane 
year. 

From Table X it car. be seen that North Carolina and Pennsylvania are by 
far the r.iost important hosiery producing states. Together they account for a 
little nore than half the total output. In 1934, North Carolina produced about 
three tir.es as many seamless hose as Pennsylvania, but only about one-fourth 
as many full-fashioned hose. Other imnorta-nt states producing full-fashioned 
hose are New Jersey, 'Tisconsin and Tennessee. After North Carolina, the most 
important states turning out seamless nose are, in order of their importance, 
Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Georgia, Virginia, Nev.' York, Wisconsin, and Illinois. 

Comparison of the value of production data presented in Table XI with the 
volume of production data given in Table X shows that the relative position 
of the various states is not the same in both tables. For example, although 
North Carolina's total irouuction was greater in 1934 than was Pennsylvania's, 
the value of the output in the former state was only $59,384,000, as compared 
with $91,039,000 in the latter state. In Pennsylvania, which produces a much 
larger prouortion of full-fashioned hose, unit value is more than trice "hat 
it is in North Carolina, 



9094 



-16- 

TABLE X 
VOLUME OF PRODUCTS, BY KIND AND BY STATE, 1924 



Volume of Production 
(OCO of dozen pairs) 



Full-Fashioned 



Seamless 



Total 



Total 

Pennsylvania 
Delaware 
New Jersey- 
New York 
Connecticut 

Massachusetts 
New Hampshire 
Rhode Island 
Maine 
Vermont 

Alabama 
Georgia 
Kentucky- 
Louisiana 
Maryland 

Mississippi 

South Carolina 
Tennessee 
North Carolina 
Texas 

Virginia 

California 

Illonois 

Indiana 
Iowa 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Missouri 

Ohio 

Wisconsin 

Mills in more than 
one state 



Source; Code Authority Records. 



30,549 



6,508 



73,332 



9,008 



103,881 



13,025 


9,222 


22,247 





59 


59 


1,734 


19 


1,753 


229 


2,106 


2,335 





291 


291 


96 


610 


706 


156 


504 


660 


46 


49 


95 





1 


1 





98 


98 


140 


338 


978 


133 


5,521 


5,704 





865 


865 





321 


321 


89 


52 


141 


68 


264 


332 


101 


501 


602 


1,108 


8,696 


9,804 


3,561 


27,036 


30,597 


70 





70 


194 


2,390 


3,084 


177 


9 


186 


131 


1,502 


1,633 


594 


173 


767 


233 


386 


619 


139 


213 


352 


285 


33 


318 





34 


34 





328 


328 


1,682 


1,701 


3,383 



15,516 



9094 



-17- 

TAELE XI 
VALUE OF PRODUCTS, BY KIND AND BY STATU, 1934 



Estimated, ilholesale Value 
of Production (OOP) 



Ful ] .- Fa sh i o ne d 



Seamless 



Total 



Total 

Perms; Ivania 
Delaware 
Now Jersey 

Hew York 
Connecticut 

Massachusetts 
New Hampshire 
Rhode Island 
Maine 
Vermont 

Ala"bana 

Georgia 
Kentucky 
Louisiana 
Maryland 

Mississippi 

South Carolina 
Tennessee 
North Carolina 
Texas 

Virginia 
California 
II lino i s 
Indiana 

Iowa 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Missouri 

Ohio 
"."isconsin 

Mills in more than 
one state 



$133,10: 



39,004 



$103,611 $236,71^ 



78,062 


12,977 


91,059 





116 


116 


10,401 


36 


10,437 


1,330 


2,967 


4,347 





411 


411 


574 


859 


1,433 


935 


709 


1,644 


276 


80 


356 





2 


2 





264 


264 


838 


1,179 


2,017 


1,097 


7,772 


3,859 





1,219 


1,219 





453 


453 


537 


106 


643 


410 


373 


783 


604 


699 


1,305 


5 ,635 


12,238 


18,871 


21,351 


38 ,033 


59,584 


419 





419 


1,167 


4,066 


5,235 


1,061 


25 


1,086 


733 


2,118 


2, SCI 


3,556 


344 


5,900 


1,597 


546 


1,945 


336 


301 


1,137 


1,693 


85 


1,733 





103 


105 





464 


454 


10,033 


2,398 


12,431 



12,668 



51,672 



Source: Code Authority Records. 



9094 



-18- 

Intcrstate Character of the Inioiotr y 

By prina facie evidence such as has been presented in Tables X ?n '.1 , it 
can readilj 7 "be seen that the traffic in hosiery is national in scope and enter 
freely into interstate commerce. 

Further evidence of the interstate character of the Industry can be es- 
tablished by a careful study of Table XII, which gives a percentage distri- 
bution of hosiery production and of population, by states. It is not possible 
to make a direct comparison of production and consumption for the individual 
states, but in the case of a consumer's goods like hosiery, consumption nay 
be said roughly to vary with the distribution of the population. This being 
the case, states shown to nave a small percentage of total production and a 
large percentage of the total population are necessarily dependent upon "im- 
ports" from other states. In the converse situation, hosiery is bound to be 
shipped out into other states. 

From Table XII it is found that the 10 leading producing states U sup- 
plied about 92 per cent of the total output in 1929, but these states account- 
ed for only about 43 per cent of the total population as of January 1, 1930. 
The lack of detailed breakdowns showing production for various of the states 
limits the conclusions which may be drawn to those states for which production 
data are separately published. Producing states with very different propor- 
tions of production and population are: Pennsylvania, production 42 per cent, 
uopulation 8; Forth Carolina production 14 per cent, population 3; and TTiscon- 
sin, production 8 per cent, population 2. Important consuming states with 
relatively small or noi oroduction are Hew York, Virginia, Ilichigan, Massachu- 
setts, Kansas, Florida, and Alabama. 



1/ Pennsylvania, North Carolina, Wisconsin, Tennessee, Indiana, Hew York, 
Hew Jersey, Georgia, Illinois, and Massachusetts, 



QOQA 



-19- 



TABLE XII 



Percentage Dist.-ibation of Hosiery Production, 1929, 
ma Population, 1930, by States 



Per Cent of Tot-1 



Per Cent of Total 



State 



Hosiery 


Popul. 


Produc- 


tion 


tion 





State 



Kosiery 
Pro auc- 
tion 



Populc 

tion 



United States 



100.0 



100.0 



Alabama 
Arizona 
Arkansas 

California 
Colorado 

Connectictit 
Delaware 

District of Colunbia 

Florida. 

Georgia 

Idaho 

Illinois 
Indiana. 
Iowa 
Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana 



.7 


2.2 


Nebraska 


oO 


.4 


Ilevada 


-a/ 


1.5 


Hew Hampshire 


-a/ 


4.6 


New Jersey 


.0 


.8 


He -.7 Mexico 


-ft/ 


1.3 


Hew York 


-ft/ 


.2 


North Carolina 


.0 


.4 


North Dakota 


.0 


1.2 


Ohio 


2.7 


2.4 


Oklahoma. 


.0 


.4 


Oregon 


1.9 


6.2 


Pennsylvania 


5.3 


2.6 


Hhodc Island 


-a/ 


2.0 


South Carolina. 


.0 


1.5 


South Dakota 


-a/ 


2.1 


Tennessee 


-a/ 


1.7 


Texas 


.0 


.6 


Utah 


-a/ 


1.2 


Vermont 


1.9 


3.5 


Virginia 


.7 


3.9 


Washington 


-a/ 


2.1 


TJest Virginia 


-ay 


1.6 


Wisconsin 


-a/ 


3.0 


Wyoming 


.0 


.4 





.0 


1.1 


.0 


.1 


.9 


-.4 


4.5 


3.3 


.0 


.3 


4.6 


10.2 


14.3 


2.6 


.0 


.6 


-ft/ 


5.4 


.0 


2.0 


.0 


.3 


42.0 


7.9 


.2 


.6 


-ft/ 


1.4 


.0 


.6 


6.9 


2.1 


-ft/ 


4.7 


.0 


.4- 


-ft/ 


• 3 


.9 


2.0 


.0 


1.3 


■ "ft/ 


1.4 


7.6 


2.4 


.0 


.2 



Other States 



4.9 



Source: Census of Po-eula.tion, 1930 , and Census of Manufactures. 19~9 . 
Population data, as of January 1, 1930. 

a/ Included in "Other States." Population in the states so listed 
amounted to 34.4 per cent of total. 



J j'j-i 



Meth od of Shipment 

Figures are not available as to the percentage of shipments made "by 
railroads, auto trucks, and parcel post, "but it is a fact that all these 
methods are used. Mail order houses such as Sears Roebuck, Montgomery TJard, 
and the Chicago Mail Order House, and also the Zeal Silk Hosiery Company use 
the mails freely. 

Exports and Im-oorts 

From the reports of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Depart- 
ment of Commerce, it is found that the exports of all types of hosier 1 / to all 
countries in 1934 were 589,000 dozen pairs valued at $2,023,000. During the 
same period, 597,000 dozen pairs were imported valued at $951,000. During 
January and February 1935, the exports were 80,000 dozen pairs valued at 
$269,000, and the imports 75,000 dozen pairs valued at $87,000. The greater 
portion of these imports were cheap cotton hose from Japan. 

Some statistics concerning shipments of hosiery to our island possessions 
are given herewith. In 1934, these shipments, which may properly be classi- 
fied as interstate commerce, included 74,000 dozen pairs sent to Hawaii, value 
at $213,600; and 260,000 dozen pairs sent to Puerto P.ico, valued at $575,000. 
During January and February, 1935, Hawaii received 9,700 dozen pairs, valued 
at $20,800; Puerto Rico, 69,800 dozen pairs, valued at $95,100. 

Advertising Media 

Aiding in the sale and distribution of hosiery, all types of advertising 
media are used — magazines, ne\7spapers, catalogues, and radio. The Industry 
advertises on both a local and national scale. 

Trade Marks 

Many brands of hosiery are trade marked by manufacturers, selling agents, 
and jobbers. Some of the most prominent manufacturers' brands are, Hole- 
proof, Interwoven, Kayser, Gotham and Mojud. 



9094 



Chapter V 

THADE PRACTICES 

Unfair Trgde practices Before the Code 

Prior to the approval of the Code, the Hosiery Industry was somewhat 
disorganized, although there had been serious efforts by the National 
Association of Hosiery Manufacturers to create and maintain a standard of 
ethics of fair play in trading. The most common of these practices were 
as noted below. 

1. The "chiseling" of prices, which, in many cases, was 

not so much the fault of the seller as the misrepresenta- 
tion of the buyer in claiming offers of better prices from 
unnamed sources. 

2. Misbranding and misrepresentation of quality, as implied by 
transfers, rider tickets and packing. 

3. The giving of special terms and discounts was considered by 
some an unfair trade practice, and possibly was the cause of 
some of the so-called cut-throat competition. 

Effect of the Code on the Industry 

Perhaps the Hosiery Industry has profited as much by the provisions in 
its Code as any other codified Industry. Speaking in a general way, it may 
be said that the entire Industry cooperated nearly 100 per cent in living 
up to Code provisions. The desire of the Industry to maintain the status quo 
developed under the Code is expressed in a letter recently received from the 
Ex-Director of the Code Authority, and present Managing Director of the Na- 
tional Association of Hosiery Manufacturers, in which he writes; "This 
office, like all industry headquarters, has gone back to the pace which ex- 
isted at the time Codes were being formulated and effectuated. We are 
devoting every minute of our time and energy to steps intended to save the 
values of the recent Code and develop a practical program for the future." 



9094 



-22- 



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