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Full text of "Evidence study"

BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY ^ TSUT 



3 9999 06317 540 8 -\^ ^ > 



;A ^ U 



NATIONAL RECOVERY A DMINISTRAT ION 

MMi 8 1936 ~ 



DIVISION OF REVIEW 



EVIDENCE STUDY 
NO. 22 

OF 



THE LUMBER AND TIMBER PRODUCTS INDUSTRY 



Prepared by 
W. E. YOST 



July, 1935 



PRELIMINARY DRAFT 
(NOT FOR RELEASE: FOR USE IN DIVISION ONLY) 



THE EVIDEITCE STUDY SERIES 

The EVIDENCE STUDIES were originally planned as a means of gathering 
evidence bearing upon various legal issues ',?hich arose under the National 
Industrial Recovery Act. 

These studies have value quite aside from the use for which they were 
originally intended. Accordingly, thejr are now made a,vailable for confidential 
use within the Division of Review, and for inclusion in Code Histories* 

The full list of the Evidence Studies is as follovis: 



1. Automobile Manufacturing Ind. 23. 

2. Boot and Shoe Mfg. Ind. 24. 

3. Bottled Soft Drink Ind. 25. 

4. Builders' Supplies Ind, 26, 

5. Chemical Mfg. Ind. 27. 
5. Cigar Mfg. Industry 23. 

7. Construction Industry 29. 

8. Cotton Garment Industry 30. 

9. Dress Mfg. Ind. 31. 

10. Electrical Contracting Ind, 32. 

11. Electrical Mfg. Ind. 33. 

12. Fab. Metal prod. Mfg., etc. 34. 

13. Fishery Industry 35. 

14. Furniture Mfg. Ind. 36. 

15. General Contractors Ind. 37. 

16. Graphic Arts Ind. 38. 

17. Gray Iron Foundry Ind. 39. 

18. Hosiery Ind, 40, 

19. Infant's & Children's Wear Ind. 41. 

20. Iron and Steel Ind. 42. 

21. Leather 43. 

22. Lumber & Timber Prod. Ind. 



Mason Contractors Industry 

Men's Clothing Industry 

Motion picture Industry 

Motor Bus Mfg. Industry (Dropped) 

Needlework Ind. of Puerto Rico 

Painting & Paperhanging & Decorating 

photo Engraving Industry 

Plumbing Contracting Industry 

Retail Food (See Wo. 42) 

Retail Lumber Industry 

Retail Solid Fuel (Dropped) 

Retail Tra.de Industry 

Rubber Mfg. Ind. 

Rubber Tire Mfg. Ind. 

Silk Textile Ind. 

Structural Clay Products Ind, 

Throwing Industry 

Trucking Industry 

Waste Materials Ind. 

Wholesale & Retail Food Ind, (See No. 

Wliolesale Fresh Fruit & Veg. 31) 



In addition to the studies brought to completion, certain materials have 
been assembled for other industries. These I.iATERIALS are included in the series 
and are also made available for confidential use within the Division of Review 
and for inclusion in Code Histories, as follows; 



44. Wool Textile Industry 49. 

45. Automotive Parts & Equip. Ind. 50. 

46. Baking Industry 51. 

47. Canning Industry 52. 
43. Coat and Suit Ind. 53. 



Household Goods & Storage, etc, (Drop- 
Motor Vehicle Retailing Trade Ind, ped) 
Retail Tire & Battery Trade Ind. 
Ship & Boat Bldg. & Repairing Ind, 
Wholesaling or Distributing Trade 



L. C. Marshall 
Director, Division of Revieu 



COiTTElITS 

Page 

Forerrord 1 

CHAPTER I - THE NATURE OF THE IlIDUSTRY 2 

ITtunber of Establisliments and Value 

of Product 2 

Capital Investment 3 

Financial Condition of the Industry 3 

Geographical Distribution. » 5 

Production 8 

Competing Products 8 

Foreign Competition 8 

Uses of Lumber 8 

CHAPTER II - LABOR STATISTICS 12 

number of Wage Earners 12 

Types of Labor 12 

Wages 17 

Hours Worked 17 

Child Labor 18 

Labor Union Activity 19 

Effect of the Code on Labor 20 

CHAPTER III - MTEPJaLS: RAW AlH) SHO-PROCESSED 21 

Equipment and Machinery 21 

Cost of Materials 21 

CHAPTER IV - PRODUCTIOII AlCD DI STRIBUTIOIJ 22 

By States 22 

Methods of Distribution 22 

Production Capacity 24 

Exports and Imports 24 

CHAPTER V - TRADE PRACTICES 26 

CHAPTER VI - GENERAL INFOmiATION 27 

Trade Association Activity 27 

Pre-Code Problems of the Industry 28 

General Appraisal of the Code 28 

List of Experts 29 

-0 0- 



8318 -i~ 



TABLES 

Page 

TABLE I - Number of Zsta"blishinents for the 

Liunber and Timber Products Indus- 
try, by Principal Product Groups...., 2 

TABLE II — Value of Production for the Lumber 
and Timber Prod-ucts Industry, by 
Principal Prodiict Groups 2 

TABLE III - JJet income of Sa^TOill and Planing 

Mill Corporations 4 

TABLE IV - Percentage Distribution of Lumber 

Production, by Regions, 1849-1934 5 

TABLE V - number of Establishments and Value 
of Product for the LTimber and 
Timber Prodiicts Industry by 
Principal States 6 



TABLE VI - Per Capita Consumption of Lumber 

and Timber Products, 1809-1934 10 

TABLE VII - Number of lYage Earners and Amoujit 
of Wa.^es for the Lumber and Tim- 
ber Products Industry by Princi- 
pal Products 13 

TABLE Viil - Number of Wage Earners and Amount 
of Wages for the Lumber and Tim- 
ber Products Industry by Princi- 
pal States. 14 

■TABLE IX - Estimated Total Monthly Eraploj^ent 
in SaTTmills and Planing Mills, 
January 1926-April 1935 16 

TABLE X - Average Wages for Common Labor in 

the Principal Yellow Pine States, 

1932 .17 

TABLE XI - Number of Establishments and Number 
of Wage Earners, by Prevailing 
Weekly Hours, for the Lumber and 
Timber Products Industry, 1929 18 



8318 



TiLBLES (Cont'd) 

Page 

TABLE XII - Eraploynent of Children Aged 10 to 

15 Years "by Princinal Occu-nations 19 

TABLE XIII - Per Cent Cost of Materials and All 
Other Costs are of Total Costs, 
1st quarter, 1934 21 

TABLE XIV - Distribution of Lumber by States, 

1932 23 

TABLE XV-- Distribution of Sales, by Sawmills, 

1929 24 

TABLE XVI - Exports and Imrjorts of Lumber and 

Tinber Products, 1929-1933 25 



CHARTS 

CHART I - Yearly Lumber Production 1919-33 

Compared with Timber Conservation 
Board's Estimated Capacity of 
Industry in 1929 



CHART II - ComTjarison of Total Lumber Con- 

simption 1928-1933 11 



- o - 



8318 -iii- 



-1- 

THE LUIvEBER AND TIKBER PRODUCTS IlIDUSTRY 

Forenord 

The Census of Manufactures and Bureau of Labor Statistics material used 
in this report is limited to establishments -Droducing more than 200,000 feet 
of Itunher annually or an annual value of more than $5,000. Because of the ex- 
clusion of the smaller concerns, the data prepared by these agencies are not 
strictly comparable with those covering the entire Industry as defined by the 
Code, 

The Lunber and Timber Products Industry was codified under the IIRA. as 
Code ITumber 9, and covers the Industry as described in the following definition: 

"Lumber and Timber Products" is defined to include (l) logs, poles 
and piling; (2) r^avm lumber and other sawn wood products of sawmills, and 
products of planing mills operated in conjunction with saw mills; (5) 
shingles; (4) woodwork (millwork) including products of planing mills 
operating in conjunction with retail lumber yards; (5) hardwood flooring; 
(6) veneers; (7) plywood; (8) kiln dried hardwood dimension; (9) lath; 
(10) sawed boxes, shook and crates; (11) plywood, veneer and wirebound 
packages and containers; and (12) certain additional minor products 
specifically provided for. 



8318 



-2- 



CHiPTER I 



THE IIATURS OP THE limUSTRY 
H-in-Qei- of Ssbo.'blislinents and Value of Frocaict 

Tlie nmilDcr of estalDlisiiuents and value of product, not incl-ading those 
estatlislinentG -oroducing less than 200,000 feet of lunter or a value of 
$5,000 ajinuaaiy", for the years 192S, 1931, and 1933, are given in Talales I 
and II, respectively, 

TJCIiE I 

IJ-unter of EstaDlislments for the Liunher and 
TimDer Products Industry, 'by Principal Product Groups a/ 



Year Total Linnher and Tinher 'S.l planing Wooden Bo:: 

Products liill Products 

(not elseTjhere Products 

classified) 



9 


18,555 


1 


3,124 


3 


6,734 



12,915 
4,996 
3,783 



4,849 
3,453 
2,356 



675 
595 



Source: Census of Manufactures , reports for the industries listed. 

a/ Does not include those estaltlishments producing less than 
200,000 feet of IxTinoer or a valiie of $5,000 annually. 

h/ Includes cooperage products uanufactured in plants connected 
vf i th s avmi 11 s . 



T^LE II 

Value of Production for the Lmiber and Timljer 
Products Indxistry, lay Principal Product Groups 
(In thous raids) 



a/ 



Year 


Total 


Lumher and Timber 
Prodii-cts (not else-, 
nhere classified) -' 




Planing-Hi 
Products 


11 Wooden 
Box 
Products 


1929 
1931 
1933 


$1,362,080 
753,976 
529,694 


$1,273,472 
443,623 
350,464 




$553,583 
235,680 
124,235 


$135,025 
74, 567 
54,995 


Source: 


Census of Man-'of 


actm-es, reports for 


the 


industries 


listed. 



(Continued on follo\:ing oage) 



8318 



TABLE II (Cont'd) 

a/ Does not include those estatflislunents producing less than 
200,000 feet of luiaber or a value of $5,000 annually. 

jb/ Includes cooperage products aanufactured in plants connected 
uith saiTmills. 

The Nation?.! Lumber lIanixfo,cttu-ers Association has computed a total of 
35,775 estahlisluients operating under the Lunilier and Timl)er Products Code 
in 1934, Tlie apparent discrepancy bet\Yeen Census and Code Authority data 
is mainly due to the fact that the former e::clv.de the smaller establish- 
ments T7hile the latter do not. 

Capital Investment 

The capital investment of the Ltimher and Timber Products Industry has 
been estimated by the Timber Conservation Board at 10 billion dollars. This 
figure includes every conceivable associated industry, however, and is 
therefore too high for the Industry as defined by the Code, It is the 
opinion of the writer that, for the Industry so defined, capital invest- 
ment is more accuratel3'' stated as 5 billion dollars, 

Finajicial Condition of the Industry 

The fincjicial distress which this Industry has ey^perienced is depicted 
in Table III, vmich shows the shrinkage of income even prior to the de- 
pression years. Preliminary figures furnished by the Bureau of Internal 
Revenue for 1933 show a decided upturn: the nuraber of concerns reporting 
net income increased, whereas the n-umber reporting no net income decreased. 
Pigui-es for all reporting corporations show a decrease in the Industry's 
total net deficit of $73,075,000, or nearly 70 per cent, for the year 1933 
as compcjred vdth the year 1932, 



8318 



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Geogra'ohical Distri'b'Ation 

The principal producing regions arc the South, producing yellow 
pine; the TJest Coast, prcdixcinf,' fir; and the Southern and Appalachian 
regions, producing hai"d',70ods . Ta'ole IV shoiTS hoi; the production center 
for l-onoer has noved first from the northeastern to the Lal:e States; then 
to the Southern Statos; ajid finally, in 1929, to the Western States. 

The largest nunher of esta,T3lishnents are in the South. In 1929 nore 
thaji 25 per cent of the total nu'n'ber of esta,hlislicients nere located in 
G-eorgia,, llorth Carolina, iJLahaLia, rnd !IissiEsippi. But the greatest 
Value of product is in the ¥est Coast region. In 1929 over 25 per cent 
of the total value of product ras concentrated in Washington, Oregon, 
and California. 

Trro-thirds of the numlier of este.TDlishiaents and the value of products 
are concentrated in 15 states. Tahle V gives the numher of producers and 
the voJ-xie of product in these principal producing states. Detealed pro- 
duction fifui'es for individuals operating lumher "businesses are available 
in the lEA files. 

T-4BLE IV 

Percentage Distrihution of tomter Production, "by Regions 

13-±9-1934 







Tct?a 


ITortI: 


L-^ 


LcJce 




Souther 


J-'- 


T/estei 


'n 


Centraa 


Other 


Year 




United 


easte 


;rn 


State 


3 


States 




Stcvtes 


States 


States 






States 


State 


- '.J 


















1849 




100.0 


53.8 


a/ 


5.3 




13.6 




5.9 




18.6 


.8 


1869 




100.0 


37.8 


a/ 


24.4 




9.4 




4.9 




20.0 


3.5 


1879 




100.0 


25.8 




34.7 


a/ 


13.8 




4.5 




13.4 


2.8 


1889 




100.0 


19.8 




34. S 


a/ 


20.3 




9.5 




13.1 


2.6 


1899 




100.0 


15.3 




24.9 




31.7 


a/ 


9.9 




16.1 


1.1 


1909 




100.0 


11.7 




12.3 




44.9 


a/ 


13.4 




12.3 


.4 


1919 




100.0 


7.5 




7.8 




46.6 


a/ 


29.2 




8.7 


.2 


1929 




100.0 


3.3 




4.8 




41.9 




43.4 


a/ 


6.4 


.2 


1930 




100,0 


5.8 




5.1 




39,0 




45.6 


^ 


5,2 


.3 


1931 




100.0 


3.5 




4.3 




36.2 




50.7 


a/ 


5.0 


.2 


1932 




100.0 


o.O 




2.8 




38.8 




50.3 


^, 


4.1 


.2 


1933 




100.0 


3.0 




2.8 




41.3 




48.9 


^', 


3.9 


.2 


1934 


j/ 


100.0 


5.9 




5.9 




36.8 




51.7 


a/ 


3.5 


.2 


Soxu-ce: 


Census 


of Maiiufac 


tures. 

















cj Region having the largest production for the years 

indicated, 
o/ Estimate "based on saiaple of 630 uills. 



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-8- 

Pro duct ion 

The voliae of nationaJ. production shorm in Chart I indica.tes the 
lajrge decrease in production according to figures of the Tiaher ConseiTation 
Board raid the national Lumher Llanufactui'ers Association. 

Conpeting products 

Pi-oducts coni^etir..?; uith luirJocr and timoer productr, are nxijnerous and 
varied; practically all ouilding materials compete directlj' and have dis- 
plrxed luuher to a large errtent in the construction field. Fi'bre "board and 
paper horces have caused consideraljle inroads in the TTooden Package Indvistry, 
Tatle VI shous clearly the declining trend in per capita consumption. 

Foreign Corapetition 

Foreign competition has "been mainly from Canada. The principal species 
affected are Eastern Spruce, Cedca', and Douglas Fir. Eastern Spruce pro- 
dvicers effected a price arrangement rith CaJiadian producers 'jherehy the 
latter adjusted freight eouaJisation nith American producers. 3y Act of 
Congress in 1330, Douglas Fir imports T^ere suojected to duty nhich has held 
imports doun somewhat. Canadian Cedaa- shingles producers agreed tlirough 
mediation conducted l)y the Import Section of WA and assisted "by the Depa^rt- 
ment of Com:::erce to restrict their e::ports to this cotmtry to 25 per cent of 
expected cons-'omption in the United States for the current period. This 
agreement lia,s Taeen in effect since cahout January, 1S34, hut information 
received hy the Department of Corxierce as of July 15, 1335, indicates that 
this agreement has heen disregarded and that Canadian shipments have greatly 
ei:ceeded the quotas agreed upon. 

Uses of Lumher 



Tlie hest description of the uses of Iviiher can he had "by reference to 
Chart II, entitled "Comparison of Total L'amher Consumption," nhich shons 
the quaaitity used by each of the principal consumers. The Construction 
Industr;- is "by far the most important cons-jxier, a.s is indicated at the 
top of Chajrt II hy the fig-.u-es shoeing tiiat SO to 70 per cent of all limher 
is -aseC- for construction -ouxDOses. 



8318 



-9- CHART I 

YEARLY LUMBER PRODUCTION 1919-33 COMR^RED WITH 
TIMBER CONSERVATION BOARD'S ESTIMATED CAPACITY 
OF INDUSTRY IN 1929 



PER CENT 
100 



TIMBE.R CONSERVATION BOARD ESTI MATE 



87.5 



75.0 



82,000,000,000 



6 8,000,000,000 



67.5 



50.0 



37 5 



25.0 



IE.5 



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rag 1920 92\ 922 1923 I9E4 1925 192 . 927 1926 I9E9 930 931 \93£ \933 I93-+ 



SouRct Timber conservaton board, lumber cooe authority 

ACTUAL PRODUCT ON FOR \934- FROM HAT 3NA LUMBER 
MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION. 



NR A 
OF Review 



8318 



• -10- 

Ti3I£ VI 

Per Ca"Dito- Consmuption of LiualDor mad TimlDer 
Pi-Ofluctc, 1809 - 1934 a/ 



Year 



Per Caoita Consunption 



Year 



Per Capita Constun-otion 



1809 
1819 
1829 
1839 
184-9 
1859 
1869 
1879 
1889 
1899 

1904 
1905 
1905 
1907 
1908 
1909 

1910 
1911 
1912 
1913 
1914 



55 

55 

65 

95 

235 

260 

340 

355 

435 

460 

505 
505 
525 
510 
450 
475 

465 
435 
455 
430 
400 



1915 
1916 
1317 
1313 
1919 

1920 
1921 
1922 
1923 
1924 
1925 
1926 
1327 
1928 
1929 

1330 
1931 
1932 
1933 
1954 



380 
395 
350 
310 
325 

325 
260 
315 
355 
345 
345 
335 
300 
305 
275 

210 
130 

100 

110 

90 



Source: 1920 to 1928 computed 1)7 the Peceral P.eserve Board; 1932 to 

1934 entinated "by the Foi-est Products Division of the Deimrtraent 
of Comnerce; all other years computed hy the Porest Service, 
Departuoiit of l^-ricultuxe. 

a/ The figures in this tahle are purely nathematical and although 
they serve the purpose of showing the trend over a long range 
of years, they should not he considered to show the actv-ol per 
capita, consumption for any one year. They do not indicate such 
consumption, partly hecause of the fact that Itunher sold "by mills 
in £iny one year does not necessarily go into consiunption in that 
2'"ear "but may "build u.p stocks of lLim"ber wholesalers, retailers and 
wood consijmiing indxxs tries. 



8318 



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-13- 

CHAPTEH II 

LABOR STATISTICS 

HumlJer of T7ap:3 Earners 

Accordiiv- to the Census of Hamifactures , there were 539,772 persons 
employed in the Industry as covered hy the Code, in 1929; 274^004 in 1931, 
and 245,505 in 1933. In 1929 arjuroiiiraately 162 5 000 were woodsmen and . 
timternen; the remainder mill men. Tables VII, VIII, and IX ^ive treak- 
downs of employment and wa^e data l)y products, "by states, and ty months. 

Types of Laljor 

The type of lahor varies in the different divisions. In the South, 
approximately 80 per cent of all la'oor in the Lumher and Timher Products 
Industry is Neffro lahor in "both mill and woods. In 1930 there were 144,865 
Negroes enga.^ed in the Lumher Industry, of which 90 per cent were in the 
South. i/ A form of paternalism coupled with the climate and other conditions 
makes this lahor perhaiDS the lowest paid in the United States. Particularly 
in the snail mills, which are often adjuncts of a farm or plantation, lahor 
for "both a^^riculture and the Lunber Industry is drawn from a common -dooI, 
with a tendency to consider such lahor as agricultural later. The wage 
level in the.liiorth and Northwest Woods where lahor is chiefly migratory, is 
considerably higher, and in general comparahle with that for other manufac- 
turing lahor. 



1/ Census of - cupations 



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A con-oosite report prepared from ret"Lirns from 80 manufacturing con- 
cerns end 41 logging concerns on the West Coast, covering a period from 
FelDro^jrv 1 to June 15, 1953, shows actual ninimu;ii wages in effect ranged 
from 15 cents to 33-l/o cents per hour, and an average wage of 23-3/4 cents 
per horT. i/ 

Based on a study made for the month ox Aoril, 1933, a group of 42 
Southern Fine mills employed 7,271 men aiid showed an average hovirly wage 
for xmshilled labor of 11.6 cents per hour. In no case were we^es reported 
in e::cess of 20 cents per ho\;T, while in some cases they went d.own as low 
as 5-1/2 cents per hour. 2/ 

According to data compiled ty the Bureau of Lahor Statistics for the 
yeex 1932, approximately 25 per cent of all lahor in the West Coast region 
was at tlia,t time corjaon lahor getting the minimum, whereas in the south 
appro::imately 40 per cent was common lahor getting the minimum. Average . 
wages for common labor in 1932 in the Yellow Fine are shown in Table X. 

TABL3 X 

Average Wages for Common Labor in the Frincipal 
Yellow Fine States, 1932 





State 


Average Wage Per Week 






Georgia 






$3.76 






South Carolina 






4.18 






north Carolina 






4.65 






Ilississippi 






4.77 






Alabama 






4.86 




Source: 


Bui-eau of Labor Statistics, 
the Lumber Industry, 1932. 


Wa<?:es and 
(Bulletin 


hours .of Labor in 
xTumber 585) . 





Hours Worked 



According to Bureau of Census data, which covered over 90 per cent oi 
all wr.-e earners in 1929, about half were then working in excess of 54 novxs 
a wee^-T (See Table XI) Under the Code the hours were limited to 40 hov_'S 



a week. 



1/ Statement of W. B. Greely, Secretary-kanager of the ^ff Coast Lumber 
Association, at Fvl^lic Hearing of Jviy 21, 19^o, on tne Lumber cUid 
Timber products Industry. 

2/ State of C. C. Shepard, President of Louisiana Central Lumber Company, 

- it Fua^lic hearing of J'ky 20, 1333, on the Luraber and Timber Proc.acts 
industry. 

8318 



-18- 
TiBLS XI 

Itajber of Estr.blisliinGiits and Itoiter of ¥s^e Earners, ty 
Prevailing Weelily Hoiirs, for the Lum"ber and Tir.iber 
Products, Industry, 1929 



Group 


Ilujnber 


IJtunber 


Per Cent 


Per Cent 




of 


of 


Establish- 


Wage Earners 




Sstab- 


TJage 


ments are 


are of 




lish- 


Earners 


of Total 


Total 




raents 








Total a/ 


11,599 


505,499 


100.0 


100.0 


40 hovjrs and under 


675 


21,264 


5.8 


4.2 


Over 40 but uiider 54 










hours 


9,571 


227,055 


8?. 4 


44.8 


Over 54 houi's 


1,251 


258,179 


10.8 


51.0 


Source: Census of i :a,nuf ac tva-e s , 


"Lumber and 


Timber Produc 


:ts (not else- 



a/ 



TThere classified)," "Plaiining iiills Products," "Boxes, Wooden, 
e:^cept Cigar Soxes." 

'Total does not include 6,959 establislments and 33,273 \7age 
earners for nhich hourly brealcdovras were not reported. 



Child Labor 

Due to the heavy nature of the \7oric involved, the employment of 
minors has not been a great problem in this Industry, except in lumber 
mills nhere they uere xised considerably in the manufact-are of boxes and 
in other light neniifacturing processes. Table XII presents Bureau of 
the Census data for 1930 r/ith percentage of decrease since 1920, 



8318 



-19- 



IKBIS. XII 



Smplojnaent of Children Aged 10 to 15 Years 
"by Principal Occupa,tions 





m 


OtPl 


Male 




Female 


C-roup 


1930 
Amount 


percent- 
age De- 
crease 
Since 
1920 


1930 
Aiiount 


Percent- 
age De- 
crease 
Since 

1920 


1930 
Amount 


Percent- 
8.ge De- 
crease 
S ince 
1920 


All groups 


5,163 


51.5 


4,738 


50.5 


425 


61.2 


Forestrj'- lalDorers 


1,047 


43.3 


1,038 


49.3 


9 


- 


LuDber mill 
operators 


353 


d3.o 


302 


53.3 


51 


76.7 


All other uood- 
V7orld.ng operators 
a/ 


327 


76.6 


179 


81. 1 


148 


67.3 


Lualjer nill 
laborers 


2,828 


41.7 


2,690 


42.0 


138 


34.0 


All other T70od- 
'.7orld.ng laborers 
a/ 


608 


55.6 


529 


54.8 


79 


60.0 


So-'orce: Census of 


Occrx)ations 













a/ Includes cooperage operators and laborers 

Labor Union Activity 

There never has "oeen 3.n:/ semblajice of labor organization in the 
Southern Lumber Industrj^. Records indicate that there has been at least 
one strihe in the South, hovjever, namely, tho.t at liogalusa, Louisiana, in 
1911, uhich spread to a considerable part of the southern region. The 
¥est Coast, on the other hand, has experienced considerable labor diffi- 
culty, particularly throrigh the I.¥.W. This organization conducted a 
strike in the early years of the war, v/hich resulted in the formation of 
the four L's - Loyal Legion of Logj'^rs and Ltunbermen. This is an orgajaiza- 
tion composed of both employers and employees and therefore is not a trade 
union in the true sense of the nord. Evidence at the Hearings indicated 
that it T7as largely controlled by the employers rather than oy the emplo:^^s. 



8318 



-20- 

Effect of tlie Code on Iia"bor 

According to data publislied tj- the Bureau of Lator Statistics, the 
act-oal a,verage hoiirly vrace in sa^vnills increased 58 per cent and the 
actual average Treekly wage has "been increased 52 per cent from the lo;7est 
T/age nonth of 1933 to April, 1935. -^ TJlien wages are deflated h;,^ the 
HRA cost of living inde:-:, we find tliat the real hourly wage has "oeen 
increased 33 per cent aiid the real weekly wage 28 per cent. The Industry 
has "been successftil in reemploying sppro::imately 100,000 2/ men during the 
first year of the Code. This reenplo^rment has teen maintained at appro::i- 
mately an even rate, considering adjustnents for seasonal demand. 



1/ Corr-uted from Bureau of LalDor Statistics, Tre^d of an-plo:,'gent . 
2/ national Lumher Ifejiufactm-ers Association. 



8318 



-21- 

CHIPTER III 

MATERIALS: MW AND SEMI-PHOCESSED 

Equi-pnB nt and Machinery 

According to Bureau of Census reporto, the principal purchases of wood- 
working equipment, machinery, and saws, which amounted in 1929 to •$41,825,732, 
declined to $16,244,230 in 1931, and $10,695,205 in 1933. iJ 

Cost of Materials 

The relationship of cost of material and other costs to the total cost 
is shown "by a summary of data gathered from cost questionnaires covering the 
first three months of 1934. These data which were audited hy the Research 
and Planning Division of IIRA were used ty the Code Authority in arriving at 
minimum prices •'ander the Code. Tahle XIII shows that, for the Industry as a 
whole, material cost, salaries, and wages, and other costs, each constitute 
about one~third of the total cost. A breakdown is also given for the lumber- 
ing and fabricating divisions. 

T.\BLE XIII 

Per Cent Cost of Materials and all Other Costs 
are of Total Costs, 1st Quarter, 1934 
(In thousands) 







Total 


Lumb 


erin,!^ 


Fabricating 


Item 


Amount 


Per Cent 
of Total 


Amount 


Per Cent 
of Total 


Amount 


Per Cent 
of Total 


Total 


$76,163 


100.0 


$46,624 


100.0 


$29,538 


100.0 


Material 


25,847 


33.9 


12,497 


26.8 


13,349 


45.2 


Salaries 














and wages 


25,762 


33.8 


17,416 


37.3 


8,346 


28.2 


Other costs 


24,554 


32.3 


16,711 


35.9 


7,843 


26.6 



Source: Code Authority 



ly Census of Manufactures . Herjort on "Power Woodworking Saws," and "Woodwork- 
ing Machinery." 



8318 



-22- 

CMPTER IV 

PItODUCTIOlI Aid DISTinBUTION 

By States 

Distritution of lunter "by states for the year 1932 as compiled from 
a STorvey of the Forest Service, is sho\7n in Tatle XIV. A treakdown to 
show interstate and intrastate distribution suggests that approximately 
only one-third is distributed Y^ithin the states where it is produced. 

Methods of Distribution 

There has been a constant change in the methods of distribution in the 
Lumber Industry, particularly due to the keen competition between the two 
major species; and widely differing customs in the method of distribution 
have grown up in the different regions. It must be remembered that the 
Lumber Industry grew out of agriculture, that originally savnnill i- were 
local in character, and erected for the -nroduction of lumber which was used 
locally when the country was exr^anding and new farms were the principal out- 
let for the Industry's product. Ap-nroximately 40 per cent of the lumber is 
sold through retailers 5 apiDrozimately the s-rne axiount through vholesnlers , 
'-'hilo "p ?rozi:;-."t--;ly 20 "osr cent is sold to large industrial users, including 
railroads. 



I 



8318 






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-24- 

Pof 1929 the Bureau of the Census reported distribution of sales ty saw- 
mills as follows: 

\ TABLE XV 

Distribution of Sales, "by SarTmills, 1929 



Distribution of Sales Per Cent 



Total 100,0 

To manufacturers 13,8 

Interplant transfers 4«4 

Railroads, utility companies and contractors 4,7 

Principal wholesale establishments 4,7 

Brokers and commission houses 14.0 

Wholesalers and jobbers 30,2 

Directly for ejrport 8.4 

Direct to retailers 14,9 

Loceil sales at the mill 4,7 

Miscellaneous »^ 



Source: Bureau of Census, Distribution of Sales by Manufacturing Plants , 

It has been testified at various Public Hearings on this Code that there 
are 2,500 wholesalers engaged in the distribution of this product. Tlie 
thirty- two divisional offices of the Retail Lumber Code Authority have fur- 
nished the HBA with a list cf the names and addresses of 23,531 retail dealers. 

Production Ca-pacity 

The production capacity has been far beyond demand for many years. As 
shown in E>:hibit 4, the capacity is rated at from 66 to 82 billion, while the 
largest recent consumption was 41 billion feet in 1925. There has been a 
continuing shift of production centers as shown in Exhibit 2, According to 
the reports of the Bureau of Census, the Northeastern states were principal 
producers in 1850; the Lake States in 1879; the Southern States in 1899; and 
the Western States in 1929. 

Erports and Iin-ports 

Exports and Imports both showed a decided decrease from 1929 to 1933, as 
shown in Table XVI. 

G31B 



-25- 



TASL3 XVI 



Erports and Imports of L-ijUnter and Timber Products, 1929-1933 a/ 

(in thousands) 



Year Total Exports Imports 



1929 $214,371 $139,361 $14,510 

1930 149,349 98,9-80 50,859 

1931 87,975 59,018 28,957 

1932 48,316 32,671 15,645 

1933 62,567 40,618 22,049 



Source: Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Foreign 
Commer ce and Navigation of the United States . 

a/ Includes; logs, timbers, ties, poles, piling and 
firewood, sa'"'ed timbers, boards, planks, lath and 
shingles, box shooks, veneers, and ply\TOods, flooring 
and mill'-jork. 



8318 



-^25- 



CHAPTER V 
THADE PHACTICES 



The records of the Federal Trade Commission sho'7 that in the Pre- 
Code period, the following unfair trade practices vvere prevalent in the 
Lumher Industry: 

Selling ■belo\7 cost 

Price cutting 

Dumping 

Unfair "buyini- practices 

Exploitation of small producers 

Long tern credits 

Extra datings 

Extra disco ants 

Favoratle concessions from recognized 

terms of sale 
Splitting counissions 
Consignment se-les 
Protection against price declines 
Grade manipule.tions 
Mi stranding 
Suhstitution of s'oecies 



231S 



-27- 
CHAPTER VI 
GE&imL II^IFOEJAATION 

Trade Association Activity 

Prior to the Code the Intoistry was rather disorganized, uith only a 
framework of trade organizations engaged principally in looking after the 
legislative requirements of the Iiicxistry and in the gathering of statistics. 
The process of Code formulation axid Code operation served to integrate the 
Industry. The administration of the Code \7as given over to trade associa- 
tions iThich in general r eorgani zed and changed their TD^/^lar/s to allow a 
nore democratic means of control of the Industry. Three exceptions are 
noted; namely, the Northern Pine Ilr.mifacturers Association, the Mahoga.ny 
Association, and the Philippine L'ahogany Importers Association. These three 
have ty-lavTs which permit of monopolistic control of their respective divi- 
sions of the Industry, 

Tile Industry has had an aggressive national organization - the National 
Lumber Manufacturers Association. This association, which is in fact the 
only one attempting to cover the entire Industry, is a federation of other 
associations, including the Southern Pine, Southern Cypress, and Uestern 
Pine Associations; the Hardv.'ood Institute; and one or two other assiciations 
in full. It also has individual merfoers. It has had a competent statisti- 
cal organization which for years has teen recording and publishing statistics 
in the lumber field. Its activities have been chiefly confined to publicity, 
statistics, and the education of members in regard to the best methods of 
producing lumber, and of the public as to its uses. 

For 1931, the Department of Commerce reported 110 trade associations 
having 22,323 members. Host of the organizations had small memberships, 
so far as actual members were concerned, and were controlled by the larger 
units. Some were organized for price and statistics reporting, such as 
the Hardwood Institute, while others were mere luncheon clubs. Two im- 
portant factors responsible for bringing many of the lumbermen together in 
certain types of organizations were the complexity of traffic problems and 
the political complexion of the tarnation problem. The liaple Flooring Asso- 
ciation was organized for the purpose of equalizing freight in order to 
control competition, l/ The Hardwood Institute attempted, through price 
reporting, to control production to some extent, but was stopped by a 
Supreme Court decision, gj In general, however, lumber associations prior 
to the Code were inactive and losing membership at a rapid rate. 



l/ Maple Flooring Manufacturers Association v. U. S. 
Case 268 U. S. 563, ^5 S.Ct. 57S (I925). 

2/ American Coliomn and Lumber Compr/ny v. U. S, 
Case 257 U. S. 377, U2 S.Ct. llU (1921). 



S31g 



-28- 

Pre-Code FroTjlems of the Industr:/ 

The Industry has had a grer.ter opportunity for indaotrial self-govern- 
ment than that provided under onY other Code. The problens of the Industry 
revolved chiefly around spec"alation, standing timber, and an e::cess capacity 
which amounted to six and one-half times the production in 1952. The com- 
pelling necessity of converting standing timber into cash, because of high 
local taxes, and the vicious competition betvveen the major species, resulted 
in excePG production which flooded the market and demoralized the price 
structure. 

Due to the natxire of the product and to the competition between species, 
prices of Ituiiber have varied considerably more than other comnodities. The 
index of wholesale prices of lufoer as given by the Bureau of Labor Statistics 
(1926 = 100) fell from 111 in 19:"3 to 55.9 in January 1933 - a range of 100 
per cent in ten years. Softv/oods, which are used in greater proportion in 
the Construction Industrj'- than hardwoods, have probably had a greater range 
theai this. Hardwoods, being used for a large part in the Manufact\u-ing 
Industries, have not had so wide a range, although in later years, princi- 
pally since 1926, the influence of siibstitutes has been felt to a consider- 
able degree. 

Jlnother important problem was that of competition in the distribution 
of the product. There was no clearly defined function for the vaxious 
types of distributors prior to or diiring tne Code period. 

General Ao'craisal of the Code 

In whole sections of the country wages had been driven down to the 
lowest reported by any industry. It was attempted in the promulgation 
of the Code to increase wages and shorten hours and to recover this e:ctrs. 
cost by firing prices. 

Price fixing has proven itself a failure due to the fact that there 
was not sufficient flexibilitj^ to meet changes in demand. Prices, 
furthermore, were set too high, and the Code Aiithority was loath to mffire 
adjustments necessary to maintain the operation of price fixing. The 
impossibility of enforcement of those high prices was amply demonstrated. 
In addition, prices could not be based on costs as provided for in the 
Code, since the majority of the units in the Industry were small units 
which !:ept no cost records. Thus it becajne impossible to carry out the 
provision of the Code without interpretations that were far beyond the 
expressed intent of the price fixing clause. 

The fixing of prices was supplemented and strengthened by providing 
for production control. The operation of this control succeeded in the 
lumbering divisions but failed in the fabricating division where pro- 
duction was on a made- to-order basis. In siich divisions it amotmted to 
the dividing of orders. In the lurabering divisions prodiiction control 
was e,bused through the use of the large amount of authority which v/as 
delegated to the Code Authorit-^. 



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In addition to constituting'; support for the fixed prices, production 
control \7a3 designed to distribute the available business with reasonable 
equitjr and to prevent the waste of resources in the manufacture of the 
product. The adoption of production control was also looked upon as a 
means of introducing forestry pr&.ctices designed to sustain the American 
forest and to outlaw many of the practices whicii had resulted in an un- 
necessary destruction of such forests. 

The Code wages did not impose undue hardship on small mills, accord- 
ing to testimony at various Hearings and according to reports on costs 
by the Division of Research and Plaiining of 'MA, and further substantiated 
by investigations of the Fe^deral Trade Commission. 

List of Experts 

A request to Wilson Compton, formerly head of the Trade Association 
Division of the MA and a recognized authority on all matters pertaining 
to lumber, resulted in the following list of experts on the Lumber Industry. 
We believe this list covers all phases of the manufacture of lumber o,nd 
timber produ.cts and that these persons are thoroiighly competent to advise 
and testify in their respective lines. 

List of Experts 

California Redwood Association. 

H. 17. Cole, President C.R.A. , 

Heinmond Lumber Company, 310 Sansome Street, 
San Erancisco, California 

R. W. Lea, Special Adviser to the Hammond interests, 
c/o Hammond Lumber Company, 310 Sansome Street, 
San Erancisco, California 

Southern Cj'press Manufacturers Association. 

T. Li. True, Executive Secretary, S.C.Li. A., 
Barnett national 3anl: Building, 
Jacksonville, Florida 

Li. L. Eleishel, President, 
Putnam Lumber Company, 
Shamrock, Florida 

C. R. Liacpherson, President, 
Wilson Cypress Company, 
Palatka, Florida 

Southern Pine Association. 

H. C. Berckes, Executive Secretar.y, S.P.A., 
Interstate Bank Building, 
Kew Orleans, Louisiana 



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V. A. Stitolt, president, 

iTatalbaiiy L'oinoer Company, 
Hammond, Louisiana 

Ernest L. Kurtii, Prssident, 

Angelina County Luiatjer Company, 
Keltys, Texas 

ITestern pine Association. 

S. V. Fallaway, Jr., Executive Secretary, v:.I'.A., 
Yeon Building, 

Portland, Oregon 

C. L. Hamilton, A^ice-President and Secretary, 

General Timter Service, Inc., 1st ilational Banlc Building, 
St. Paul, Minnesota 

J. P. Coleman, President, "/.P.A., 
Kinzua Pine Mills Comp^Jiy 
Kinzua, Oregon 

Maple Flooring Manufacturers Association. 

E. C. Singler, Executive Secretary, i;.?.i,i.A., 
332 South Iviicliigan Avenue, 
Chicago, Illinois 

A. C. Wells, President 

J. W. Wells Lumber Company, 
Menominee, Michigan 

C. A. Goodman, 

Sp.wyer-C-oodman Company, 
Marinette, Wisconsin 

AmericaJi Walnut Manui'actixrers Association. 

Burdett Green, licecative Secretary, A.W.M.A. , 
516 South Michigeji Avenue, 
Chicago, Illinois 

Eorthern Hemlock and Hai'dn'ood litinuf L-.cturers Association. 

0. T. S'.'an, Executive Secretary-Mangger , 'T.H.H.u.A., 
Os-Olcosn, Wisconsin 

H. B. Goodman, President, IT.H.H.ii.A. , 

Marinette, Wisconsin (Sawyer-Goodman Company) 

Appalc.chian rlardsiiood. Manufactrjrers, Inc. 

H. E. Everly, Meinaging Director, A.H.M. 
414 Walnut Street, 
Cincinnati, Ohio 
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J. W. Mayhew, 

17. 1,1. Hitter Lumber Corapany, 
Colnm"b\is, Ohio 

Southern Hardwoods, Inc. (Hardvrood Manufacturers Institute). 

J. H. Townshend, Secretary-LIanager, E.H.I. , 
Sterick Bailding 

Memph is, T enne sv.ee 

H. B. Johnson, President, 

iiansfield Hardwood Lximber Corapany, 
Shreveport, Louisiana 

P. R. Gadd, H.M.I. , 
Sterick Building, 

Memphis, Tennessee 

northern Pine Manufacturers Association. 

S. L. Coy, President, IJ.P.LI.A., 

President, IJorthwest Paper Corapany, 
Cloquet, Minnesota 

17. A. Ellinger, Secretary, il.P.M.A., 
Lumber Exchange Building, 
Minneapolis, Minnesota 

northeastern Lumber Manufacturers Association. 

E. W. Treen, Secretary, H.E.L.M.A., 

2505 Chanin Building, 122 East 42nd Street, 
Kew Yoi-k, iJev; York 

E. R. Plunlcett, President, 

Plunkett-Webster L-omber Company, 
New Eochelle, ilev/ York 

national Oalc Flooring Manufacturers Association, 

Ralph E. Hill, Secretarjr, 
830 Dermon Building, 
Memphis, Tennessee 

West Coast Lumbermen's Association. 

Colonel ff. B. Greeley, Secretary-Manager, W.C.L.A., 
364 Stuart Building, 

Seattle, Washington 



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C. H. Kreienbatun, 

Heed Mill COiiipany, 

Shelton, f/ashington 

G. T. Gerlinger, 

Willamette Valley Ltunber Company, 
Portland, Oregon 

Lumber Exporters. 

L. E. Eorce (West Coast Woods) 

Douglas Fir Exploitation aid E:coort Company, 
1125 Henry Building, 

Seattle, Washington 

W. J. Sov;ers (Southern Fine) 

American Pitch Pine Export Company, 
New Orleans, Louisiana 

Douglas P. Heuer (Southern Hardwoods) 

Hational Lumber Exporters Association, 
Memphis, Tennessee 



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