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Full text of "Evidence study"

•--••iiii 



063A7 



542 4 



3 9999 v)0'»" ^ -^^^\. \ --N- ^ 



NATIONAL RECOVERY ADMINISTRATION 

. I;j36- 



DIVISION OF REVIEW 



EVIDENCE STUDY 
NO. 24 

OF 



THE MEN'S CLOTHING INDUSTRY 



Prepared by 

J, W. HATHCOCK 



July, 1935 



PRELIMINARY DRAFT 
(NOT FOR RELEASE: FOR USE IN DIVISION ONLY) 



( c 



CIA' 



THE SVIDEIICS STUDY SERIES 

The EVIDEIICE STUDIES were originally planned as a means of gathering- evidence 
tearing upon various legal issues which arose under the National Industrial Re- 
covery Act. 

These studies have value quite aside from the use for which they were originally 
intended. Accordingly, they are now made available for confidential use within the 
Division of Review, and for inclusion in Code Histories. 

The full list of the Evidence Studies is as follows: 



1. 

2. 

3. 

4. 

5, 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 
18. 
19. 
20. 
21. 



Automobile Manufacturing Ind. 23. 

Boot ano Shoe Mfg. Ind. 24, 

BottlPd soft Drink Ind. 25. 

Builders' Supplies Ind. 26. 

Chemical Mfg. Ind. 27. 

Cigar Mfg. Industry 28. 

Construction Industry 29. 

Cotton Garment Industry 30. 

Dress Mfg. Ind. 31. 

Electrical Contracting Ind. 32. 

Electrical Mfg. Ind. 33. 

Fab. Metal Prod. Mfg., etc. 34. 

Fishery Industry 35. 

Furniture Mfg. Ind. 36. 

General Contractors Ind. 37. 

Graphic Arts Ind, 38. 

Gray Iron Foundry Ind. 39. 

Hosiery Ind. 40. 
Infant's & Children's T^ear Ind. 41. 

Iron and Steel Ind, 42. 

Leather 43. 
L^'Jjnber & Timber prod. Ind. 



Mason Contractors Industry 

Men's Clothing Industry 

Motion Picture Industry 

Motor Bus Mfg. Industry (Dropped) 

Needlework Ind. of Puerto Eico 

painting & Paperhanging & Decorating 

Photo Engraving Industry 

Plumbing Contracting Industry 

Retail Food (See No. 42) 

Lumber Industry 

Solid Fuel (Dropped) 

Trade Industry 

Mfg. Ind. 

Tire Mfg. Ind. 
Silk Textile Ind. 
Structural Clay Products Ind. 
Throwing Industry 
Trucking Industry 
Waste Materials Ind. 

Wholesale & Retail pood Ind. (See No, 
Wholesale Fresh Fruit & Veg. 



Retail 
Retail 
Retail 
Rubber 
Rubber 



SI) 



In addition to the studies brought to completion, certain materials have be?n 
assembled for other industries. These MATERIALS are included in the series and are 
also made available for confidential use v/ithin the Division of Review and for in- 
clusion in Code Histories, as follows: 



44. Wool Textile Industry 

45. Automotive parts & Equip. 

46. Baking Industry 
i7. Canning Industry 
48. Coat and Suit Ind. 



49. Household Goods & Storage, etc. (Dropped) 

Ind. 50. Motor Vehicle Retailing Trade Ind. 

51. Retail Tire & Battery Trade Ind. 

52. Ship & Boat Bldg. & Repairing Ind. 

53. Wholesaling or Distributing Trade 



L. C. Marshall 
Director, Division of Review 



CONTENTS 

Faffe 

CHAPTER I - THE MTURE OF THE INDUSTRY 1 

Huraber of Establishments 1 

Hvun'ber of Members 3 

Production by States 3 

Capital Investment ^ 

Failures ^ 

Val\ie and Volume of Production 6 

Competing Products S 

Use a,s an Intermediate Good S 

General Information 2 

CH.'iriSR II - LABOR STATISTICS 9 

Employment • 9 

"(Tagesi and Hour i- 12 

Continuity of Employment , ■ . , 1*+ 

EiTiplcyraent by States ,..,...,... lU 

Annual Wages = „,.,r. r „,,„,;.,,. lb 

Ratio of Labor Cost to Value of Product ................ l6 

CHAPTER III - MATERIALS: RAW AMD SEMI- 

PROCESSED IS 

Principal Materials Used IS 

Cost of Materials IS 

Source of Materials <...., IS 

Cost of Machinery and Equipment IS 

Ratio of Material's Cost to Value of 

Products ...,..., IS 

CtJiPTrP. ur - PRODUCTION AlHD DISTRIBUTION ..o .... . 21 

Value sp. d "V olivme of Production 21 

lAi^r,\t.i.cn i ;i .he Men' s Clothing Industry. ..,...,, r - ... . 25 



8319 -i- 



COxITEIITS 
(Cont'd) 

CHAPTER V - TRADE PRACTI CES 31 

CHAPTER VI - GENERAL INPORMTIOH 33 

Description of the Industry 33 

Trade Association Activity 33 

Lator Relations 35 

Trade-Marks 35 

Foreign Imports 35 

Industry Experts • 35 

Progress of the Men's Clothing Industry 

Under the Code 3° 

APPEIIDIX 39-52 

Exhihit A Firms with New York City 

Offices which Manufacture 
Outside I-Tew York State. 

Exliibit B List of 33 Manufacturers 

Wl:io have Garments Made Up 
Outside the State in which 
they are Listed. 

Exhibit C Location of Shops in which 

Garments are Made that were 
Cut in Other States. 

Eidiibit D List of 19 Manufacturers of 

Men's Clothing Showing 
Location of Retail Outlets. 

Exliihit E List of 43 Firms Engaged in 

Interstate Commerce. 



8319 -ii- 



TABLE 



I - 



TA3LE II - 

TABLE III - 

TAISLE IV - 

TABLE V - 

TABLE VI - 

T.ABLE VII - 

TABLE VIII - 

TABLE IX - 

TABLE X - 

TABLE XI - 

TABLE XII - 

TABLE XIII - 

T.i3L,!J'- J IV - 



TABLES 

Page 

tlUMBER OF ESTABLISHI-ffilJTS IN THE 

UNITED STATES 1 

MJI.IBEE AlID PER CEIIT OF PRODUCTIVE 

UNITS IN SPECIFIED STATES 2 

PER CENT OF GARi.iENTS CUT, BY 

PRINCIPAL STATES, 1S34 3 

NET WORTH AilD NET SALES U 

El.'iBARRASSr,IElOTS AND LIABILITIES 5 

TOTAL VALUE AMD VOLUt.ffi OF PRODUCTION 7 

AVERAGE NUi.IBER OF WAGE EARi^ERS, BY 

PRINCIPAL STATES 9 

EylFLOYlvIENT , i.L&N-HOURS AND EiJ^-i'^INGS, 
BY I.IARXET AREAS LAST SIX LIONTHS, 
1934 IC 

EI\£PLOYIiENT , EARNINGS, HOURS AND 

PAYROLLS 11 

IMEX OF EivIPLOYlvIENT 12 

TOTAL ANNUAL WAGES BY PRINCIPAL 

STATES 13 

AVERAGE HOURLY WAGE RATE Ai'ID AVERAGE 

HOURS PER WEEK 13 

I']Ui.lBER km PER CENT OF PERSONS 
EiviPLOYED AND TOTAL WAGES PAID BY 
PRINCIPAL STATES 15 

PER CEIOT wAN-HOURS WORKED, BY 

PRINCIPAL STATES JAITOARY, 1935 1° 



8319 



-111- 



TABLES 
(Cont'd) 



pE^e 



TA3LE XV - 



TABLE XVI - 



TiiBLE XVII - 



TABLE XVIII - 

TAI'JI.E XIX - 

TABLE XX - 

TABLE XXI - 

TABLE XXII - 

TABLE XXIII - 

table; XXIV - 

TABLvJ Js^'.V - 

TABLE :SVI - 



EATIO OF LABOR COST, AMD OE 

I'lATERIALS' COST TO TOTAL VALUE 

OF PRODUCT 17 

TOTAL VOLUiiE Aim VALUE OF 

PRODUCTION OF IviATERIAL USED BY 

THE INDUSTRY, BY KIIIDS 19 

VALUE OF PRODUCTION OF 

PRIIICIP.^ iiATERIALS USED BY THE 

INDUSTRY, BY KIITDS AlID STATES, 

1929 20 

VOLLH.IE AND VALUE OF PRODUCTS BY 

fRIHCIPAL PRODUCING STATES 21 

PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL GARI.JIKT CITT, 

BY PRINCIPAL STATES , 1934 , . . • 22 

DISTRIBUTION OF SALES OF 

iviAillFACTURING PLAilTS BY TYPE 

OF PURCHASER, 1929 ^3 

NUlvIBEE OF WHOLESALE AND RETAIL 

ESTABLISKI/IENTS 24 

VALUE Ai'JD VOLUi;IE OF EXPORTS 2U 

lIATIOlIilL I.aGAZINE ADVERTISING 
'OF SELECTED CLOTHING 
LlAlTOi'ACTLTlERS , 2b 

NEWSPAPER ADVERTISING OF TWO 
LILlDIliG CO1.IPANIES, BY CITIES 
COVERED . 27 

WAGE EAH.NERS, BY PRINCIPAL STi\TSS 23 

NUl.ffiER OF GARiuENTS CUT, IN NIIIE 

PRINCIPAL CITIES , 29 

oQo 



8319 



-IV- 



-1- 

EVIDEilCE C01TCERi:iHG 
THE tlEil'S CLOTHIi:G lUDUSTHY 

CHAPTER I 

THE MTUSE OF THE IIIDUSTRY 

jtoiiTjer of Estaolishments 

The Code Authority for the Men's Clothin^T Inductry has estiraated 
that there were 3,225 establishments in the Industry during the spring 
season of 1935. This represents an increase of slightly more than 1,000 
establisliraents over 1933, but falls 466 short of the 1929 total of 3,691. 

TABLE I 

i'TUiviBEH OF ESTABLISH;,iEl\ITS IT THE UNITEI) STATES 



Year Number of Establishments 



1929 3,691 

1931 2,945 

1933 W 2,219 

1935 3,225 



Source: Census of Manufacturers, "i'.en's Clothing;" 1935 
figure estimated by the Code Autnority for ken's 
Clothing Industry. 

a/ Regular factories and contract shops combined. 

b/ Because of changes in the classification of cotton 

garments, 1933 figures are not comparable with those 
for previous years. 

The number and percentage distribution of productive units iDy 
states are given in Table II. 



8319 



-2- 

TABLE II 
iliri.:BEll AlID PER CENT OF PHODUCTIYE UUITS IN SPECIFIED STATES a/ 



State 




1 


929 


1931 




1935 










Per 




per 




Per 




N-ajiiter 


cent 


Vxmber 


cent 


liu'nber 


cent 


United States 
















Total 


3: 


,691 


100.0 


2,945 


100.0 


3.225 


100.0 


California 




88 


2.4 


64 


2.2 


105 


3.3 


Colorado 




5 


0.1 


5 


0.2 


3 


0.1 


Connecticut 




30 


0.8 


16 


0.5 


7 


0.2 


Georgia 




7 


0.2 


8 


0.3 


5 


0.2 


Illinois 




319 


8.5 


204 


6.9 


269 


8.3 


Indiana 




25 


0.7 


18 


0.6 


5 


0.2 


Kentiicky 




24 


0.7 


18 


0.6 


10 


0.3 


Louis ipjia 




17 


0.5 


19 


0.6 


17 


0.5 


iiaine 




9 


0.2 


7 


0.2 


5 


0.2 


Llaryland 




217 


5.9 


257 


8.7 


329 


10.2 


iviassacliusetts 




161 


4.4 


1^x6 


5.0 


117 


3.6 


IviichigaJi 




22 


0.6 


13 


0.4 


10 


0.3 


Minnesota 




46 


1.2 


40 


1.4 


19 


0.6 


Hissouri 




72 


2.0 


65 


2.2 


27 


0.8 


New KaapSiiire 




5 


0.1 


3 


0.1 


2 


0.1 


New Jersey 




168 


4.6 


145 


4.9 


190 


5.9 


New York 


1 


,817 


49.2 


1,404 


47.8 


1,622 


50.2 


Ohio 




130 


3.5 


102 


3.5 


97 


3.0 


Penns3^1vania 




384 


10.4 


317 


10.7 


336 


10.4 


Tennessee 




11 


0.3 


10 


0.3 


7 


0.2 


Texas 




18 


0.5 


11 


0.4 


3 


0.1 


Virginia, 




17 


0.5 


11 


0.4 


5 


0.2 


Washington 




9 


0.2 


7 


0.2 


3 


B.l 


Wisconsin 




37 


1.0 


28 


1.0 


19 


0.6 


Other States 




53 


1.4 


27 


0.9 


13 


0.4 


Source: Census of Lianufac 


tui^es, "i 


,.;en' s Clothing; " 


1935 f 


igures 



erticiated by the Code Authority for Men's Clothing Industry. 
a/ Reg-jlar factories and contract shoTjs combined. 



8319 



-3- 

Nioml) or of I. Iem lJers 

A classification of members according to value or volume of production, 
or a classification ty members is not available now, and could only be 
supplied by the Code Authority after considerable work. Nevertheless, 
H. K. Herwitz of the Code Authority has estimated that no one member of the 
Industry produces more than 3 per cent of the volume of the Industry. A 
stud^- by the same individual lilcewise reveals that a list of the 50 largest 
producers would range down to include those firms which produce .3 of 1 
per cent of the industry voliome. 

Production by States 

The per cent of garments cut and made up in the various states is a 
good index of the importance of the Industry in relation to interstate 
commerce. The per cent of garments cut is given by principal states, for 
1934, in the following table; 

TABLE III 

PER CENT OF GAHI.IEiTIS CUT, BY PP.INCIPAl STATES, 1934 



State Per cent 



United States Total 100.0 

California 

Georgia 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Minnesota 

Missouri 

New Jersey 

New York State 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Puerto Rico 

Tennessee 

Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Other States 



0. 


,4 


1. 


.2 


9. 


.1 


C 


,9 


0. 


,7 


1. 


,5 


7. 


.2 


4. 


.1 


0. 


,3 


2. 


.1 


0. 


,7 


46. 


.2 


11. 


,2 


0, 


.1 


11. 


,7 


0. 


.1 


1. 


.2 


0, 


.7 


0. 


A 


e. 


,2 



Source: Code Authority for Men's Clothing Industry. 



831^ 



..? 



„U- 



Capital Investment 



An estimate of capital investment in the Lien's Clothing Industry is 
not available. The Industry is so '.videly scattered and composed of so 
many small establishments that v/ell infor:aed rae:nbers of the Industry re- 
fuse to hazard a guess as to capital investment. Bearing indirectly upon 
this point is Table IV which shows net v;orth and sales of 229 identical 
clothing nanufacturerc for the years 1932, 1933 '-Uid 1934. 

TABLE IV 

NET WORTH AITB IffiT SALES 
(229 Identical Concerns) 



Year Net Worth Sii iTet Sales 



1932 $14,026,270 $40,992,104 

1953 15,089,441 51,918,217 

1934 15,645,815 62,799,692 



Source; Dun and Bradstreet, Inc., "A Profit and Loss Survey of 
Clothing Manufacturers." 

a/ As of end of year. 



Failures 

The Research Department of the National Credit Office, New York City 
in its "Business Survey of 1932" presents a record of embarrassments, 
including banlcruptcies, assignments and trustees, for the Men's Clothing 
Manufacturing Industry. This study covers the years 1929 - 1932, in- 
clusive. 

The number of embarrassments has increa.sed steadily dTiring the 
period studied, while the liabilities involved increased sharply from 
1929 to 1930, receded somewhat in 1931, only to return to the 1930 level 
in 1932. More recent data relative to failures are not available e::cept 
for the year 1934, for which Dun and Bradstreet report 26 failures 
(amount of liabilities xinlcnown) . 



8319 



Period 



1929 




1st 


quarter 


2nd 


q^^arter 


3rd 


quarter 


4th 


quarter 




Total 


1930 




1st 


quarter 


2nd 


Quarter 


3rd 


quarter 


4th 


qiiarter 




Total 


1931 




1st 


quarter 


2nd 


quarter 


3rd 


quayter 


4th 


quarter 




Total 


1932 




1st 


quarter 


2nd 


quarter 


3rd 


quarter 


4 th 


quarter 




Total 



-5- 
TABLE V 
EIvEHAifflASSLxENTS AND LIABILITIES 



Uuraber of 
EmlDarras sment s 



Amount of Liabilities 
(In thousands) 



15 
11 
8 
24 
58 

49 
32 
17 
34 
132 

35 
24 
33 
61 
153 

56 
39 
32 

41 
168 



$ 722 

941 

217 

1,600 

$3,480 

$3,727 

2,175 

590 

2,018 

$8,510 

$1 , 890 

827 

1,730 

2.555 

$7,002 

$2,754 

2,992 

1,742 

967 

$8,455 



Source: national Credit Office, Yiexi York City, Business Survey of 1952 , 
"Lien's Clothing Manufacturing Industry." 



8319 



-6- 

Value and Volume of Production 

The principal products produced under the Men's Clothing Industry 
Code are: men's suits, v;holly or partly wool, mohair and linen; men's 
separa,te trousers; men's overcoats and topcoats; men's odd coats; "boys' 
suits, wool, cotton, etc. boys' separate pants; "boys' overcoats; "boys' 
mackinans, reefers and light coats; and uniforms. 

The volume and value of production in the years 1929, 1931, 1933, 
and 1934 "broken dor/n to cover all principal prodiicts, is shown in Ta'ble VI. 
It is noted that there was a steady decline in number and value of garments 
maiuifact-ored from 1929 through 1933, but that 1934 \7itnessed increases in 
volume and value somewhat in excess of 1933. 

Uniforms are not included in Table VI totals. The number of uniforms 
produced as reported in the 1933 Census of Manufacturers was 635,008 v/ith 
a value of $8,499,743. The Code Authority for the Men's Clothing Industry 
advises that 1934 production of uniforms was about the same as 1933, and 
that the value at 1934 prices would be from $9,500,000 to $10,000,000. 

The total value of the products for 1934 as shown in Table VI was 
estimated by the Code Authority for the Men's Clothing Industry, using 
the 1933 average unit values as reported in the Census of Manui'actiu-es, 
suitably adjusted. 



8319 






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Competing Product: 



Custora-tailored suits compete with the products \mder jurisdiction 
of the i.Ien's Clothing Industry Code. The Cotton Garnent Industry Code 
overlaps v/ith the Lien's Clothing Industry Code in the cases of \?ash suits 
and pants. 

Use as an Intermediate Good 

ITone of the products of this Industry is used by other industries 
as an intermediate good. 

General Infor.nation 

For further evidence bearing u;oon the interstate character of the 
uen's Clothing Industry attention is called to the five exhibits in the 
appendi::, the titles of which are self-explanatory. 



8319 



. -9- 

CHAPTER II 

LA30E STATISTICS 

Emrjloyment 

Table VII shor/s the average num'ber of wage earners "by states for the yea:' 
1929, 1931 aiid 1933, and for the last six months of 1934. The fluctuation in 
the yearly averages ranges from a lov/ of 119,253 cmploj'-ees in 1933 to the higl 
for the four-year period of 149,868 employees in 1929. 

TABLE VII 
AVERAGE NTJMBES OF WAGE EARNERS, BY PRINCIEAL STATES a/ 



State 1929 1931 1933 b/ 1934 



U. S. Total 149.863 121.964 119.253 130.317 c/ 

Illinois 20,304 15,203 13,448 

Maryland 10,007 9,642 9,482 

Massachusetts 5,551 5,345 5,143 

New Jersey 7,910 7,559 8,508 

New York 47,210 34,805 33,086 

Ohio 13,215 11,536 10,744 

Pennsylvania 18,473 16,274 17,116 

Other States 27,198 21,600 21,726 



Source: Census of Manufactures, "Men's Clothing"; 1934 figure from the Code 

Authority for Hen's Clothing Industry. 
a/ Employees included: skilled and unskilled wage earners of all classes. Re--- 

•. ■'.' 1 factories and contract shops combined, 
b/ Because of changes in the Census classification, 1933 figures are not 

comparable with those for iDrevious years, 
c/ Code Authority figure representing average of six months, July - December, 

1934. 



8319 



.10- 



MMnfffmn, ua-.mimM no iamho*. m maaat arm 

hi0t tll liOlfM, X9H 



19SF 



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t«l«i«o>« 



nmtt tf g^ttft ?^ iw<9w 

l*««vk, I. J. 

M. »•»! 

All OtMV Oi«U« ^ 
ff«%al 01«U« 



ff»tal 10 &i»*rtas« oitUt 
Total •thn eitiat ov»* 100,000 
f9%tl •l«i«« froa 9^,000 • 100,000 

n«4i •iti«» wiov 9o»ooo 



1 



Ir 

lo.iU 

■rro 



E 

foi 



I3,fft 




IK. 31? 



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1.9 
1.1 

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o.t 

i^»3 
o.t 
e.f 
o.t 



10. t 



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10. t 

t.a 

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100.0 



ot.f 

7i.o 

b9.3 



7.1 07.0 §.3 

1.3 fct.l t7.< 

Xfrir TTf iCT 



71.0 

00.^ 

8:? 

09.1 



L.ff 
1.1 



bb.i 



H.9 
t%.t 

t%.i 

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ti.t 

30.3 
38.1 
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30.0 
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87.3 
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2^8 

85.7 



•IJ.!* 




80.^7 
80.lt 
80.89 
19.19 

i|*3i 
10.93 
19. 9t 




10.30 
19. H 



17.01 



4^ Av«r«t« vMtly payxolln ware ob««ta«d ^ aultlpliriag toUl mploTMa 1»7 averai^ weekly •arnisfa 

J/ XMl«4aa aaah ai%i«a aa Kaearilla, Fan ffairaa, Zn. ianapolla, LoulaTilla, SjnraeuM, otioa, ate. 



109.3*0 
>io.»5t 

8*,803 

7.959 




u,ooi 
19.73* 

I® 

9.199 

igj'yi 

810, fll 






1.0^.910 

810»flll 

>^,ai% 

?^»i?7? 
8. ia.a98 



8319 



-11- 






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8319 



-12- 

TABLE X 

lilDEX OF miPLOTOENT a/ 
(1933=100) 



Month 



January 

Fe"bruary 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

Average 



Index of 


EiTDloynent 


1933 


1934 


90.9 


101.7 


103.2 


112.3 


101.6 


112.8 


94.8 


107.8 


87.8 


94.6 


93.7 


97.8 


104.9 


104.6 


108. 


114.5 


110.4 


115.4 


108.2 


111.7 


99.9 


102.1 


96.4 


102.5 



100.0 



106.5 



Source: Unpublished data secured by the Bureau of Labor Statistics in coopera- 
tion wita the Division of Research pnd Planning, ITRA. 



a/ 



Reporting establisiiments alnost corapletely identical vith the Code del 
iniv,inn of the Men's Clothing Industry. 1934 data came from a much 
larger proportion of the Industry than the 1933 data. 



Table VIII shows the distribution of 1934 employment by market p.reas. 
Data are not available in a form comparable Trith those given in Table VII. 

The Men's Clothing Industry has two distinct seasons, the summer and the 
wimter. In the winter, clothing is produced for summer wear, and in the sum-' 
mer, for winter wear. An exajnination of the d?,ta in Table IX, which covers a 
comrjlete winter season, and which is typical for both seasons, reveals a wide 
fluctuation in em-nloyr'ient, ranging from 139,051 in the September week to 122,- 
898 in the ITovember week. 

Table X gives a continuous monthly index of em-Dloi^Tient for 1933 and 1934, 
Wages and Hours 

The total annual wages paid by the Industry are indicated in Table XI cov- 
ering the years 1929, 1931, 1933 and 1934. The year 1933 shows the lowest 
total and 1929 the highest. The recovery in wa.?e totals for 1934 approximates 
that for 1931. Particular attention is drawn to the fact that the total for 
1934 is an approximation based on the six-months' records shown in Table IX. 
The Code Authority estimates little difference in totals as between the first 
half and the last half of 1934. A brealcdor/n of the 1934 total between states 
is not available.. 



8319 



-13- 

TABLE XI 

TOTAL AIINUAL I7AGES BY PRIirciPAL STATES a/ 
(IN THOUSAITDS) 



State 



1929 



1931 



19o3hJ 



1934 



U. S. Total 
Illinois 
Maryland 
Massachusetts 
New Jersey 
New York 
Ohio 
Pennsylvania 

Other States 



§179. 769 

28,678 

9.016 

6,446 

9 , 143 

65,149 

16,553 

20,817 

23,967 



$1 15.0 41 

16,282 

7,145 

5,235 

6,541 

38,522 

10,627 

14,741 

15,948 



§92.266 

10,376 

6,188 

4,078 

6,212 

29,906 

8,238 

13,661 

13,707 



§115. 530c / 



Source: Census of Manufactures "Men's Clothing", 

a/ Employees included: skilled and unskilled wage earners of all classes 
Wages include: average annual payroll for wage earners of all classe 
Regular factories and contract shops combined. 



t/ 



c/ 



1933 figures are not comparahle with those for previous years because 
of changes in the Census cl5.ssification. 

Table IX, six-nonths' average v:eekly earnings multirilied by 52, 



The average hourly wage rate and the average hours worked per v/eek per 
employee for certain years and months for the entire Industry are shown in 
Table IX, These data are not available for each state. However, Table VIII 
presents average hours per week, average hourly earnings, average weekly earn- 
ings, for the entire Industry, broken d.ovrn by important market areas. These 
data are summarized in part in Table XII. 

TABLE XII 
AVERAGE HOURLY WAGE RATE AIID AVERAGE HOURS PER WEEK a/ 



Year 



Average 
Hourly 

Wage 



Average 
Weekly 

En.rnings 



Average 
Weekly 
Hours 



1930 
1932 
1933 
1934 



$.701 
.506 
.438 
.662 



^20,00 
13.70 
12.68 
17.01 



37.8 
37,3 
28.9 
25.7 



Source: 

a/ 

8319 



Bureau of Labor Statistics, Trend of Emiolo^ment and Bulletins on Wag'e. 
and Hours of Labor in the Men's Clothing Industry ; 1934 data from the 
Code Authority for Men's Clothing Industry. 

Data are for pay periods at or near the Industry's peak, except that 
for 1933 they refer to March. 



-Ilk. 

Continuity of Emnloyment 

The I'en's Clothin;; Industry, v'lich is fairly rrell unionir^ed, naintains tvr 
practices rdtli respect to work, First, there is ■'generally practiced an equal 
division of rrork in factories. Secondly, factories havin?; contractual rela- 
tions T.'ith unions usually provide for tenure of eraploypent, i.e., a TTorker is 
usually permanently attached to a factory, s.fter a probationary period, and 
may not be discharged except for cause. Also, the Industry is highly seasonal. 
Because of these factors, an estimate of continuity of employment must be basec 
on the average number employed. (See Table VII ) 

Child Labor 

The folloning statement '7as prepared by the Code Authority for Men's Clot 
ing Industry, as a "Memorandum Regarding Homework," April 30, 1935:- 

"At the request of the Division of Research and Planning of the NRA, the 
Hen's Clothing Code Authority in August, 1934 collected data vith respect 
to the homework situation in the Men's Clothing Industry, before Septerabe 
11, 1935, the d^te the Code became effective, and after its enactment. 
The clothing markets of Rochester, Philadelphia and New York are represen 
ed in the data presented, which, while not complete, are accurate so far 
as they go. 

"In Aoril, 1933, which was nrior to the effective date of the Code, there 

were 7,310 homeworkers employed in the clothing markets mentioned. In 

August, 1933, there were 2,381 homeworkers in the same markets; and in 
April, 1934, the amount of homework being done was nil. 

"Expansion in factory facilities since the effective date of the Code too^ 
place to accommodate those workers who had formerly been working in the 
home. In Rochester two new departments were laid out and equipped for 
former homeworkers. In Philadelphia contractors previously emrjloying home- 
workers moved into up-to-date shops. In New York fifteen new factories 
opened, employing 800 people; other homeworkers were absorbed by existing 
factories which increased their staffs, 

"There has been complete cooperation by all the elements in the Hen's 
Clothing Industry, manufacturers, contractors and workers, in eliminating 
homeworkers from our Industr". There is no homework being done in the 
Men's Clothing Industry," 

EmT)lo'/Tnent by States 

For average number of wage earners by states for the years 1929, 1931, 
1933, see Table VII. A more detailed breakdown of number and TDer cent of person 
employed (and wages paid) in various sto-tes for the years 1929 and 1931 is 
found in Table XIII. Comparable data are not available for more recent years. 
The per cent man-hours worked in various states is given in Table XIV. 



8319 



-15- 
TABU UII 

MIUIBER MD PEK CcINT OF P^:RS0ir3 StfPLOTLD, 
AHD TOTAL «AC«8 PAID, BT PaX««CIPAL STa¥£8 



RuailM? Per oeut 



i22i. 



7 ^ftOTP Pftl4 
Aaount 



er -iut 



Iter P«r o«t t 



iSlL 



luaber 



Aaount 



1 r»» e«u 



0. 8 Total 

Ca.ifomla 

Oolorado 

OoQ'teo^lout 

G«orgia 

Xllinoia 

Indlaaa 

Kentttoky 

LoulBiaaa 

lalna 

Maryland 

Hassaobuaattt 

UieMgaa 

Minna aota 

Ml saourl 

Hew Raaqpahira 

Hev Jaraay 

»a* York 

Obio 

Pe^r^e7lvania 

Teunaseea 

Taxaa 

▼IrfinU 

Waaldngton 

Hi eonsin 

Otbar iitutaa 



2,2b7 1.5 

^7 

751 
USA 

20,301^ 

2»23b 

e,i«6 

1.337 

311 

10,007 

5.551 
1,069 
2,1S8 
»^.957 

7.910 

»i7,no 

13,215 

l«.^^p 

i.?73 

?77 

2,3«1 

119 

2.«M»7 
2,28« 



8ottro«i Oaaaua oi Manufaotaraa . "Man*a Olotbing*. 
j|/ ATeraga for tba year. 

S319 



ti7?,7^.gQg 100^ 

2,b5?.321 1.5 

3b^.l«J9 0.2 

1,01«,175 O.b 

21«,433 0.1 

2S, 678.113 lb.O 

l.9l«>.270 1.1 

1.6^3.550 0.9 

729, 1H3 0,k 

238.309 0,1 

»^,fe20;19b 2.6 

b,»^^5,57« 3.fc 

927, W« 0.5 

2,377,092 1.5 

4,682,726 2.6 

177, '»09 0.1 

9,U3,167 5.1 

b5. 148.773 3b. 1 

lb,553,057 9.2 

20,817,217 11.6 

713. b93 0.4 

199,070 0.1 

1,538,218 0.9 

166,782 0.1 

2,503,056 1.4 

6,209,683 3.5 



1.618 
304 
791 

b07 

15,203 

2,329 

1.555 

1,230 

282 
9,642 
5,345 
1,164 
1,272 

3.7bO 

183 

7.559 

3*^.805 

11,53b 

lb, 274 

1,034 

268 

1,792 

1,642 



I,b77 



1.4 



im^mAm 



1.3 


l,b97.845 


0.2 


22J.371 
683,669 
327,950 


0.6 


0.5 


12.5 


16,281.957 

1.5b8,234 

972, 2$0 


1.9 
1.3 


1.0 
0.2 


b39,073 

244,441 


11 


7,145.089 

5,235,051 

698,178 


1.0 


1.0 


1.203,591 


3.1 


3.077.923 


0.2 


167.806 


6.2 


b. 540, 589 


28.6 


J8. 522,031 
10.627.278 


9.5 


13.3 


14.740.865 


0.8 


545.591 


0.2 


183.394 
1,079,486 


1.5 


0.1 


110,20b 


1.3 


1,430,385 



1.095.574 



35.5 
9.2 

12.8 
0.5 
0.2 
0.9 
0.1 
1.2 

1.0 



-.16- 
TABLE XIV 

PER CEHT ;jllI-HOUES ffOKCED, BY PEIIICIPAL STATES 
JAlfJAEY, 1935 



State 



i'an-Hours rxorl'-ed as 
■oer cent of total 



U. S. Total 

California 
Colorado 

Georgia 
Illinois 
Indiana 
Iowa 

Kentucky- 
Louisiana 
Karylancl 
Massachusetts 
I'innesota 
Missoixri 
New Jerse" 
New York 
North Carolina 
Ohio 
Oregon 

Pennsylvania 
Tennessee 
Virginia 
YJisconsin 

Other States 



100.0 

.8 

.1 

.3 

11.2 

1.9 

.3 

1.1 

2.8 

7.9 

3.0 

.3 

.3 

6.5 

33.9 

.2 

8.0 

.1 

16.3 

2.7 

1.7 

.4 

.2 



Source: Code Authority for lien's Clothing Industry, 

Annual !7a/?es 

Total annual wages paid in each state are ::iresented in Tables XI and XIII 

Ratio of La"bor Cost to Value of Product 

TalDle XV gives the percentage \7hich the cost of labor is of the value of 
products for the years 1929, 1931,1933, 1934. 



8319 



-17- 
TABLE XV 

EATIO OF LA:jOR COST, AxD OF MATERIALS' COST TO 
TOTAL VALUE OF PRODUCT 



Total Value La"bor Cost a/ Materials' Cost W 
of Product Anount Per Cent Ajnount Per Cent 
Year (000* s) (000' s) of Total (000' s) of Total 

1929 $901,104 $179,769 19.9 $440,505 43.9c/ 

1931 551,415 115,041 20.9 253,675 47.8c/ 

1933d/ 430,829 92,265 21.4 217,731 50.5c/ 

1934 450,000 e/ 115,530 f/ 25.7 f/ 

Source: Census of Manufacture s. "Lien's ClothinF-"; 1934 figures from Code 
Authority for lien's Clothing Industry. 

a/ Consists only of wages paid to wage earners. 

b/ Cost of ma^terials, fuel, and purchased electric energy''. 

cj These figures cover all men's clothing (except work) as classified "by 

the Census of Manufactures. 

d/ Because of changes in Census classifications, 1933 figures are not 
comparable with those for previous years. 

ej Code Authority estiraate. 

f/ Estimated on basis of Code Authority figure for value of products. 



8319 



chapte:: hi 

!-!ATEEIALS: BAM AilD S^iH-PilOCESSSD 

Princj-pal j.laterials Used 

The principal materials used by the Hen's Clothing Industry are troolen 
suitin^-^s and pantings, flannel suitings and pantings, topcoatings, overcoat- 
ings, worsted staple suitings ajid pantings and fancy suitings and pantings. 

Cost of Mai7erials 

Table XVI oresents the volume and value of the loroduction of material hy 
Irinds used in tne Hen's Clothing Industry for the years 1929, 1931, 1933, It 
is iriipossitle to determine hotr much of those materials is used hj'- the Men's 
Clothing Industry, so the data, given in Table XVI covers all of the me,terials 
produced. 

Source of Materials 

Sources, "by states, of the materials used in the Men's Clothing Industry 
can only be obtained for the total production as shorai in Table XVII. It is 
noted that the bulk of tlie materials is produced in the NeT7 England states of 
T.'hich Massachusetts, PJaode Island, Connecticut and Maine supply the greater 
proportion. 

Cost of Machinery and Equipment 

No estimate exists of the anoxmt spent for machiner;^ and equipment in 
the Men's Clothing Industry. 

Hatio of Material's Cost to Value of Products 

Percentage which the cost of materials is of the value of products is 
of the value of products is shov/n for the years 1929, 1931, 1933, 1934 in 
Table XV. Attention is directed to the fact that "materials" in this table 
includes fuel and electric energy, as ^ ell ?s the tppes of cloth listed in 
Table XVII " nrinci-nal materials used ." I?urther, all fi;gares and percentages 
for the years 1929, 1951, and 1933 relate to all types of men's clothing ex- 
cept work clothing and, hence, do not conform to code classifications. The 
1934 figures do follow code, lines, bat the total value figure is adjusted to 
cover the entire Industry including non-reporting branches and establishments. 



831^ 



-19- 



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S319 



tABu an 

VALUE or PROIXfOnOV Of PRIDOIPAV IUTEmXAl>8 U8B0 91 TB XVOUBfiiy, 

BT KXB08 AID STATKa, 1929 ^ 

Siiltlasa and nsnatl %iit- ttapl* 8»l%-> TWf tuit- 

Paatlngc, lx~ lug* aAd TopOMtlag* Ortveottf lags iagg tad i^t uA 

8%a%« otD% naantl Pantlaai faa^toft PmtJMw 

▼alu* H*' Mat Valtta P«z o«at Tadu* F«r o«a« Talo* Per oent Talua Par o«nt Tal«« fix ••?? 

(000*«) of <000<*) of (OC}0*t) of (OOO'a) of (000*i) of (000*o) Of 

ToUl Total Total Total Total Total 

u. a. Total mjss, issaS. BJt^ mt9 m^m, ^ss^ msum, i2&^ mjsxk isii musi i&mI 

Connootieut 5,517 10.1 ~ - - 8,251 21^« 3,H9 U.3 - - - - 7»l2l Til 
Maiao 9»250 17.5 kfc7 19.9 b^ ^% «.M5 U.9 

Kaoaaokaootto IS.^35 0-5 1,0^ 25.^ 1,990 19.^ il»Mt 49.9 33»0»1 37.1 34*179 34.9 

viokigaa 30a O.b --•• --^- «. .« .... ---« 

low Htf^aliixo 3.9*4 7.k -- -- -- -- -- •- — -- -- -- 

■ow Joro07 -- -- -- -- -- -- — -- -- -- #»39* *.4 

io« Tort 4,30k «.» ---- ---- -- -. --.- 7,49fc 7.5 

Ovagoa -- -- -- -- -- -- 1,391 9.4 -- -- •- -- 

Poaaoflvanla 1,773 3.4 ---- _«.- .- -- 10,7*7 M.l J»*?7 2** 

RaoATxalaaA -- -- .... .... <b8 3.9 31.7i9 39.7 t$,440 t9.9 

▼ovaoat 793 1.5 .... .... 907 3.* - - - . «... 

Wlaaeaola -- -- -- -- -- -- tl}* 8,9 •*' -• •• •" 

othoy sutoe 14. 9^ S7.b 2.4«9 9<. 7 9»8l> 9«.4 3*329 13.9 13.4it 19.1 U,Wi U.t 

8«arooi Oonoao of M anafaotarof. "Voolon aad orated Ooode. " 

a/ It to lapooaiOlo to dotovaiao horn mtLoU of th«ae goodn are aooO lif tlM Moa'o Oloth&ag Zndaotry. 



8319 



-21- 
CHAPTER IV 

PRODUCTION AID DISTRIBUTION 

Value and Volume of Production 

The value and volume of -oroducts of the Men's Clothing Industry for 
the years 1929, 1931 and 1934 are presented in Tahle XVIII. The data for 
value and volvime are obtained from the Census of Manufactures, except for 
the year 1934. The 1934 valuer, were estimated hy the Code Authority for 
Men's Clothing Industry, using the 1933 average unit values as reported in 
the Census of Manufactures, suitably adjusted, 

TABLE XVIII 

VOLUliS AND VALUE OF PRODUCTS BY PPJNCIPAL PRODUCING STATES^/ 





1929 




1931 


1934 \J 


State 


Volume 


Value 


Volume 


Value 


Volume 


Value 




( Thou- 


(In 


(Thou- 


(In 


(Thou- 


(In 




sand 


thou- 


sand 


thou- 


sand 


thou- 




Garments) 


sands ) 


Garment 


s) sands) 


Garment: 


3 ) sands) 


U. S. Total 


77.831 


$728. 1J5 


62.319 


$447,881 


45.322 


$397,876 


Illinois 


5,771 


105,234 


3,978 


53,180 


4,133 


36,286 


Maryland 


3,042 


37,143 


3,146 


22,021 


3,263 


28,647 


Massachusetts 


1,947 


18,132 


1,79P 


13,635 


1,845 


16,194 


New York 


36,498 


333,390 


28,855 


211,755 


20,998 


184,336 


Ohio 


5,408 


61,070 


3,857 


40,159 


5,062 


44,443 


Pennsylvania 


7,240 


75,571 


7,648 


45,247 


5,312 


46,631 


Other States 


17.895 


97.565 


13.045 


61^84 


4.709 


41.339 


Source: Census 


of Manufactures. "Men's Clothing;" 1934 data from the Code 



Authority for Men's Clothing Industry. 

a/ Value is based on the selling price at the factory, whether sold or in 
stock, ejrcept for 1929, when value refers to value sold only. Data for 
1933 are not broken down by states. The totals are 37,491,000 garments 
and $326,913,000, but because of changes in Census classifications these 
figures are not strictly comiDarable vrith those for previous years. 

b/ Figures for states were computed by the Code Axithority for Men's Clothing 
Industry using 1933 Census totals. 

Table XIX shows a more detailed breakdown by states of value and volume 
expressed in percentage terms, as well as totals for the year 1934. 



8319 



-22- 
TJfflLE XIX 
PERCENTAGE OP TOTAL GAEIffiNTS CUT, BY PRINCIPAL STATES, 1934 



State 



Per Cent Yoliame of Production Value of Production 
of Total (Thousand Garments) (In thousands) 



U. S. Total 


100,0 


California 


.4 


Georgia 


1.2 


Illinois 


9.1 


Indiana 


.9 


Kentucky- 


.7 


Louisiana 


1.5 


Maryland 


7.2 


Massachusetts 


4.1 


Minnesota 


.3 


Missouri 


2.1 


New Jersey 


.7 


New York State 46.2 


Ohio 


11.2 


Oregon 


.1 


Pennsylvania 


11.7 


Puerto Rico 


.1 


Tennessee 


1.2 


Virginia 


.7 


Wisconsin 


.4 


Other States 


.2 


Source: Code 


Authority i 



45.525 

195 
548 

4,153 
421 
508 
671 

3,263 

1,845 

115 

970 

517 

20,998 

5,062 
52 

5,512 

52 

526 

295 

159 

125 



$597.876 

1,711 

4,814 

36,286 

3,700 

2,706 

5,889 

28,647 

16,194 

995 

8,514 

2,785 

184,556 

44,443 

279 

46,651 

279 

4,615 

2,586 

1,592 

1,074 



Data are not available showing the shipment of Men's clothing "between 
states. For the year 1929 the United States Census of Distribution shows 
the distribution of sales of manufacturing plants in the Men's Clothing In- 
dustry, however, these data are for regular factories only and are not broken 
down by states. 



8519 



-23- 
TiiBLE XX 

DISTRIBUTION OP SALES OP 
IviAMJFAC TURING PLANTS BY TYP3 OP PURCHASER, 1929 



Type of 
Purchaser 


Number of 
Plants a/ 


Value of Sales 
(In thousands) 


Per 


cent of Total 
Sales 


Total Distributed 
Sales 


2,167 h/ 


$833. 242 




100.0 


Sales to Retailers 


1,416 


524,831 




63.0 


Sales to Wholesalers 


472 


118,747 




14.2 



Sales to Manufacturer's 

Own Retail Branches 125 69,161 8.3 

Sales to Manufacturer's 
Own Wholesale 
Branches 80 49,752 6.0 

Sales to Household 

Consumers 299 48,813 5.9 

Sales to Industrial 
and Other Large 
Purchasers 163 21,938 2.6 

Source: Fifteenth Census of the United States; Distribution of Sales of 

ManufactuTini": Plants . 
a/ Regular factories only. 

b/ Number of plants given for "total distributed sales" is not the sum 

total of the number of plants given for the six sub-groups because some 
plants fall within more than one category, and are, therefore, counted 
more than once. 

The distribution among the more important states of wholesale and retail 
establishments, dealing with products of the Men's Clothing Industry, is 
shown by Table .XXI for the years 1929 and 1933. 



8319 



-2U- 
TABLS XXI 
ITUMBER OF WHOLESALE A13D RETAIL ESTABLISHMENTS a/ 



State 192S 1953 

Wholesale Retail Wholesale Retail 



U. Se Total 547 44 ^949 478 60.551 

Caln-:-v-n-i.?' 40 1,710 44 3,004 

Illi..v:.X3 65 2,461 66 5,726 

M&.£!S^.-L^-&l:ts 53 1,501 22 2,579 

Mich.i'.wi 1,605 5 2,269 

Nby; ■;^^3';.c7 1,465 2,916 

New York 167 5,689 186 9,150 

Ohio 30 2,500 21 5,141 

Pennsylvania 55 3,774 28 5,088 

Texas 2,124 2,871 

Other States 137 22,320 106 25,987 

Soiirce: Census of Wholesale Distrihution; Census of Retail Distribution ; 
"Men's Clothing Industry." 

a/ Retail establishments here include department stores, general merchan- 
dise, men's clothing, and family clothing stores. Wholesale establish- 
ments include men's and boys' clothing. 

Volume and value of exports of men's clothing is shown in Table XXII 
and covers the years 1929, 1931, 1955 and 1954. It is readily seen that the 
export business of this Industry is negligible, 

TABLE XXII 

V/iLUE AND VOLUME OF EXPORTS 

Volume 
Year Value (Number of Garments) 

1929 $716,000 155,000 

1951 282,000 54,000 

1953 140,779 46,916 

1934 85,155 17,710 

Source: Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Monthly Summary of 
Foreign Commerce , 



8519 



-25- 

Limited data are availntle with respect to advertising in the Men's 
Clothing Industry. Tables XXIII and XXIV sho'.v amounts spent on national 
magazine advertising and newspaper space used "by certain large firms in the 
Industry. While the number of firms is not great, they are known to be 
large and nation-wide in activity. 

Migrat io n in the Men's Clothing Industry 

The most striking -ohase of the economic development of the Men's Cloth- 
ing Ir.a\:.a':r" during the last decade (I923i-1933) , according to S. H. Kerlove, 
Associate ^.-ofessor of Business Economics, University of Chicago, is the 
mcvemeT.'t o;." ';he Industry out of the major manufacturing centers, into smaller 
cities and c:;untry districts. 1/ In support of this contention, Professor 
Nerlove gi."^s the following statistics vfhich are based on Census of Manu- 
factures data: 

"The wage earners in the five major manufacturing centers declined 
from 94,000 to 61,000 between 1923 and 1931, or about 35 per cent, where- 
as, the wage earners outside of these centers declined only about 4 per 
cent. 

"The decline in establishments in the five major manufacturing . 
centers between 1923 and 1931 was approximately 32 per cent, whereas 
the decline outside of these centers was much less, about 13 per cent. 

"Approximately the same situation has prevailed with reference to 
the average value of products and recei-pts from contract v;ork in this 
industry. The five major raaniifacturing centers declined over 52 per 
cent in the value of products and receipts between 1923 and 1931. Be- 
tween the same two years, 1923 and 1931, the decline outside of these 
centers was only about half, 27 per cent." 

For additional evidence bearing on shifts of centers of products in the 
Industry, attention is called to Table XXV showing va^e earners in regular 
factories and contract shops, by states, 1923, 1925, 1927, 1929, 1931, and 
1933, The only available check on shifts as between 1933 and 1934 consists 
of a comparison of the number of garments cut for nine important manufactur- 
ing centers in these two years, (See Table XXVl), 



1/ Clothing Manufacturers Association of America, "Statistical and Economic 
Analysis Related to Sections II and V, Code of Fair Competition for the 
Men's Clothing Industry," 

8319 



-26- 



TABLE XXIII 



NATIONAL LIAGAZIIE ADVERTISING OP SELECTSD 
CLOTHING MANUFACTURERS a/ 





Address 




1929 


1933 


Manufact''arer 


Numher of 
Magazines 
Used 


Cost Ntunher of 
of Magazines 
Space Used 


Cost 

of 

Space 


A. Nash Com-nany 


Cincinnati 


1 




$161,500 






Hart Schaffnsr 
and Marx 


Chicago 


1 




149,500 






B. Kupenheimer 
and Co., Inc. 


Chicago 


2 




80,000 






Middishade Co., Inc. 


Philadelphia 


1 




59,500 1 




$17,100 


Alford Decker 
and Cohn 


Chicago 


5 




47,380 






Rosenterg Bros. 


Rochester 


1 




38,000 







and Company 

Ed. V, Price 
and Co, 

P. H. Davis 
Tailoring Co, 

Leroy Bros, and 
Adler - Rochester, 
Inc. 

Hech T. Lears 
Clothing Co. 

American Match 
Pants Co. 



Chicago 



Cincinnati 



New York 



St. Louis 



Chicas;o 



33,600 
20,000 

5,950 1 

3,570 
2,384 3 



2,500 



852 



Source: National Advertising Records , Chicago, Illinois. 

a/ This is not a complete list but is merely a record of the outstanding ad- 
vertisers. Figures for expenditures for local advertising are not avail- 
able. 



8319 



-27- 

TABLE XXIV 

NEWSPAPER ADVEETISING OF TWO LEADING COI-IPANIES, 
BY CITIES COVERED 



Manufacturer 
















Cities 


Niimher of 


Total 


Numher of 


• T6tal 




Adver- 


Newspapers 


Agate 


Newspapers Apate a/ 




tised in 


Us( 


3d 


Lines 


Used" 


Lines 


Hart, S chaff ner 


Cleveland 




2 


3,775 


1 


904 


and Marz 


South Bend 




1 


840 


— 


— 


(Chicago) 


Wichita 




1 


1,50' 


- 


- 




Oakland 




2 


1,564 


- 


~ 




Baltimore 




_ 


— 


2 


1,792 




Boston 




_ 


— 


1 


888 




Hartford 




_ 


— 


1 


2,484 




New York 




_ 


— 


2 


1,796 




Philadelphia 




— 


— 


1 


5,048 




Providence 




- 


— 


1 


2,508 




Syracuse 




_ 


— 


1 


2,376 




B-offalo 




_ 


— 


1 


896 




Chicago 




- 


— 


1 


904 




Cincinnati 




— 


— 


1 


912 




St. Louis 




^ 


— 


1 


892 




Los Angeles 




^ 


— 


1 


904 




San Francisco 




- 


— 


1 


888 


Total 






6 


7,679 


16 


23.192 


Cohen, Goldman 


Boston 




.^ 


lb** 


1 


8,036 


Company 


Nev; York 




— 


_— 


1 


20,720 


(New York City) 


Philadelphia 




- 


— 


1 


4,040 




Chicago 




- 


— 


1 


15,232 




Pittshurgh 




— 


«■•«« 


1 


2,070 




St. Louis 




- 


— 


1 


4,040 


Total 






- 


— 


6 


54,138 


Source: Media Recor 


•ds, New York Ci 


■ ty. 











a/ An agate line is one column wide and one inch deep. 



8319 



■' i 



-28- 
TABLS XXV 



HA(i£ £4H'(Bit8, BY JPRIflCIi-ilL STATtSS £/ 



^' '^^£mm * u i S K1£Srt i P 3 H 8S 5* 'iS?B 



>tat« 



23S1. 



S. Total 
Hbama 

■Hlifornla 

Colorado 

Coniicetiou't 

D«la«ar« 

Floil-la 

C«orgla 

Illinois 

Indiana 

I ova 

Kqnsnt 

^entuolry 

i.cuifllana 

taln9 

'''arylp.nd 

li^seaohue«tt« 

Ulchig^i9r. 

Vinnesota 

Ml9«n»jr* 

^flbrnslca 

'?«» Haapehlrt 

New Jer4«y 

New York 

Jiorth Carolina 

Ohio 

Otrialioma 

Oregon 

PennsjlTanla 

Tannasiqae 

Texas 

Utsh 

Vemio.it 

Virginia 

^aehlugton 

*eBt Virginia 

''I scon Bin 



fTamHer fer cen 



19<L g gP 
50k 

3,511 
291 

925 



2.31«^ 

33,««« 

3»729 

1.1^ 

203 

3»97? 

1.272 

1|24 

9,720 

7.5»i3 
1,71b 
l,9U 

3l« 

7.00b 

5«,b20 

13. «3* 



1«,J>21 

2bl 

2,170 

5M> 

8H 
3.970 

2.119 



oj 
0.3 

l.S 

0.1 

0.5 



1.2 

l7.^^ 
1.9 

O.b 

0.1 
2.0 
0.6 
0.2 
5.0 
9.9 

0.9 
1.0 

0.2 
3.6 

30.1 

7.1 



9.5 
0.9 
1.3 

0.1 

1.1 

0.1 

2.0 
1.1 



1925 1927 

r Fer cant^ ifumber per cent 



;uraDer i'QT can 



7bi 

39b 
3.289 

432 
1.U3 

277 

2.1^95 
25.169 

'•SS 

1.566 

3ii^ 

10, lU 

6,230 
1.709 

l.«»^9 
i.»5< 

196 
430 

6,967 
•^9,928 

1,051 

U,309 

169 

636 

lb,i02 

2,093 
2,Sb2 

355 
320 

1.707 

?S 

2,m 
«M>5 




l.H 

2.0 

0.5 

0.2 
2.0 

0.9 
0.2 

5.8 
3.6 

l.O 

l.l 

0.1 
0.2 
KO 

20.6 
0.6 
8.2 

0.1 

0,k 

9.6 

1.2 
1.6 

0.2 
0.2 
1.0 

0.^ 

n 

0.3 



iH.Q?? 100^ 



i,»H5 
078 



186 
22,060 

1,706 
195 

2.i^56 

8,816 

6,H88 

6»^3 
1.562 

»>.17l 

192 
6.522 

>>9,523 



52i 
17.378 

2,559 



1.0 

0.6 



O.l 

15.0 

1.2 

O.l 

1.7 

0.5 
O.t 
6.0 
K,k 

0.5 
1.1 
2.9 

O.l 



13,318 9.1 



0*; 
11. 

0. 
0.1 



1.0 

o.t 

1.8 
1,0 



.mi 



Nun^er Per oent 



19n 

liua6«t Per oenf 



B2«M ^00,0 121.96l» 100^ 



2,267 
H67 
751 

22 

20,3011 
2,236 

'^ 

2,186 

1.337 

311 

10,007 

5.551 
1,085 
2,128 

»>.957 

7,910 
i-haio 



Otber Statee 

"BouTcet Cenau8'of"^a n u?ftct\ire8 . *^n' e"l)lo thing Induslryi^ '"^ -------- ~— — ~ 

a/ He^ulaf 'f'actori«« and ooatxaot shops oorabined. NuiBber of wage eanera 
b/ Because of oh^jiges la Censua olaeKlfioationa, 1933 (i&ta art not eoapar 



18.1^73 

2,381 
119 

2,lMi7 
1,222 



1.5 

0.3 

0.5 

o.l 
0.3 
13.5 
1.5 
0.3 
0.1 

1.5 
0.9 
0.2 

6.7 
3.7 

?:Z 

3.3 

0.2 

5.3 

31.5 



13,215 8.8 



0.3 

12.3 
0.8 
0.2 



1.6 

0.1 

1.6 

0.8 



1.618 



15.203 

2,329 



1.555 

1.230 

282 

9.6W 

U^ 

1,272 
3.760 

183 

7,559 

3^.805 



1,792 
92 

1.6H2 

1,677 



1.3 

0.2 

0.6 



12.5 

1.9 



1.3 

1.0 
0.2 

1.0 
1.0 

3.1 

0.2 

6.2 

28.9 



11,536 9.5 



16.27J 13. J 

1,03^ 0.8 

268 0.2 



1.9 

0.1 

1.3 



IfSSSSi 



Pm 



oeat 



JIZsM ISSaA 



l,92i> 



2.238 
133 



0.6 



960 
13. Mi 


0.8 

11. % 


«.53< 


9,9 


398 


0.3 


^•r,i 


J:8 


251 


O.f 


9.Wt 


8.1 


5.U3 

99% 


k.k 


0.8 


1,227 
2,663 


1.0 


2. J 


8,508 


*I:f 


33.086 



10,77% 9.t 



U. 



0.1 



1,936 1.6 
1.309 l.l 



repreeente average for the year. 
61« with prewioua years. 



-29- 



hmM 



im 









Total 
195% 

#«». tj 
?•*. 2% 
■tf • t% 

^f. n 

*tT If 

JVM 1^ 

#ttl7 1% 

Up%, $ 
Oet. ^ 

■•▼. 3 

Dto. 1 
Dto. >9 

ToUl 



JSM^ 





»I9.1«1 



TABU Xlf I 

SUiiBZR or fiiHJBKTS OUT, U IlK niWQlfAh OITUt 

(Xa ttMnkMiadt) 







17.75> 



22, lib 




».i59 




10,565 



frt OMoMe» 




.57« 



Hi 

12% 
ISi^ 
122 

in 

IS 

132 

i.70« 



— Klfii^Br 



IS 



i.bkO 



iok 

321 
2b2 
232 
212 
220 
822 
20% 
203 
811 

2,7^ 






1«3 



too 


1ft 


224 

290 


iO 


«!^ 


1T§ 


2! 3 


tii 


290 


211* 


2%% 


20% 


•19 


ibi 


171 


i%b 



2.09% 



176 
221 
200 
19a 
101 
07 
1%1 

1*9 
170 
192 
129 

115 






1,990 



752 



6% 
01 

107 
111 

2' 

02 

6b 
65 

77 

101 
91 
v) 



1,072 



biooft- 
-ElltL 



^ 


t 


52 


ta 


S 


ii 


^ 


S 


62 


?1 


70 


S 


^1 



73< 



"ir— 



1^7 

100 
73 
96 

S0 

01 

57 
bO 

i|2 

065 



XMI0 



1,371 



1.73* 



IssSOSl 



00 
117 


g 




8 


T» 


IHO 


U 


171 

13« 


S 


1 


S 



7^ 



«3 


ci 


i?J 


s 


m 


w 


151 


91 


12«> 


60 


14i^ 


62 


lilO 


6% 


H»6 


60 


120 


%1 


9% 


P 


103 


w 



713 



i«ttV««t Oo4t Aatboylty for !!•■•• Clothing Xnanotn* **»• nwsbor of ettftbllKhmenta oorered In 193% Is oonalderably groator than la 1933' 



«319 



-30- 

Productive Ca-gacity 

America's Ca-pacity to Produce , published by the Brookings Institution, 
quotes a correspondent to the effect that in 1929 the Men's Clothing Indus- 
try worked 30 to 36 full weeks out of 52. Tlae analysis made of reasons for 
the slack -period is: 60 per cent due to seasonal variation, and 40 per cent 
due to lack of business. This publication gives an operating ration (men's 
and women's clothing industries? combined) of: 63 -per cent not adjusting for 
seasonal variation, and 85 per cent adjusting for seasonal variation. The 
1923 Census places the operating ratio for the Industry at 73 per cent. 

The Brookings' study estimates that the per cent of practical ca-oacity 
utilized in the Men's Clothing Industry was 78 per cent for the period 
1925-29, and 76 per cent for 1929, 



8319 



.■y.\- -'. 



-31- 
CliAPTER V 

TRADE PRACTICES 

The trade practices which the Men's Clothing Industry was almost 
unanimous in declaring unfair were the practices of selling on consign- 
ment and producing on a "cut, make and trim" "basis. The Industry addi- 
tionally, recognized that unfair practice prevailed in the matter of 
selling telow cost and disposing of dropped lines or snjjrplus stocks. The 
practices which became most detrimental were consignment selling and "cut, 
make and trim." 

The Clothing Manufacturers' Association in submitting a code for the 
Men's Clothing Industry described consignment selling in the following 
language : 

"There has develo-ned a growing evil in the Clothing Industry 
commonly known as delivery of merchandi se on consignment or memoran- 
dum by the manufacturer to the distributor. This was accomplished by 
any of the following methods: (l) By being billed on consignment or 
memorandum; (2) By making the distributor an agent of the manufacturer 
in the sale of the product; (3) By agreement to take merchandise back 
that remained unsold after a given time; (4) By agreement that mer- 
chandise Tonsold after a given time may be exchanged for other goods; 
(5) By agreement that merchandise not paid for within a given time may 
be reclaimed or returned and other and various agreements designed to 
weaken or modify the usual terms upon which an order for the manufac- 
ture and sale of merchandise to cover the requirements of the distribu- 
tor is given to the manufacturer." 

The Clothing Manufacturers' Association, through one of its members, 
argued before the Deputy Administrator in the pre-code hearings that con- 
signment selling was unfair to both the retailer and the manufacturer. It 
was contended that if the retailer got into financial difficulty, a manu- 
facturer selling on consignment could withdraw his merchandise without risk 
of great loss, whereas a manufacturer selling outright would have a greater 
chance of losing more. If the retailer was strong financially and bought on 
consignment, it was asserted, the accumulation of unmanageable surpluses 
would be encoiiraged. It was further asserted that the practice of shipping 
goods for a few days for special sales usually resulted in a very low prico 
with the consequent forcing down of wage rates. 1/ 

With respect to the practice of "cut, make, and trim," the Clothing 
Manufacturers' Association, in submitting a code, stated: 

"There has developed in the Clothing Industry a pernicious practice 
on the part of a certain class of distributors to manufacture clothing 
without the usual responsibility and obligations that a producer in the 
industry owes to labor for giving decent hours of work, fair wages and 



1/ Men's Clothing Hearings, July 26-27, 1933, pp. 63-66; testimony of J, G. 
Hickey, 

8319 



■>'; •,■,::■; 



-32- 

sanitary working conditions, A distributor, "by ejrerting price pressure 
on these operators, has 'becoine a menace to the industry and labor. Thip 
is accomplished by: (l) The distribiitor buys the cloth a.nd farms it out 
to fly-by-night Qnd irresponsible persons who carry no annual overhead 
and who shift their plant from place to place, making orderly super- 
vision of hours of work, wages, and sanitary labor conditions in their 
plants impossible. Tlie cloth is cut by these irresponsible contractors, 
trimmed and made un into garments; (2) The establishment of credit by 
the distributor for the benefit of the so-called manufacturers with the 
woolen mills so that, while in theory the goods are charged to the manu- 
facturer, they are in fact purchased and paid for by the distributor, or 
with money advanced by the "distributor to the manufacturer with which tq^ 
pay for such nerchandise." 

In the July 26-27 hearings, pursuant to the adoption of a code, Mr, 
Victor Riesenfeld, spokesman for the Clothing Manufacturers' Association, 
summarized the objections to the practice of "cut, mal-ce and trim" as follows: 

"It has been indulged in in most instances by retainers for the 
purpose of underselling their competitors, or where a lower selling price 
than the generally accepted standard is the main consideration for gettin 
business. The pressure of competition in forcing down the cost of cuttin. 
making and trimming has become a menace to labor and industry. The 
special type of contractor or manufacturer doing this type of work has 
been for the most part the most irresponsible." 



8319 



-33- 

CHAPTER VI 
GEICEEAL I1\T0IMATI0N 
Description of the Industry 

There are two distinct types of firms in the Men's Clothing Industry. 
First, there are establishments nhich "buy material, cut the cloth, market 
the finished product, finance production from raw materials to finished 
garments, hut which often do not own and operate the plant where the gar- 
ments are made. Secondly, there are estahlishments called "contract shops," 
or contractors who talce out cloth and accessories from one who finances the 
business and performs the remaining operations necessary to completing the 
garment on a piece price iDasis. This contractor is ordinarily responsihle 
for his own force of workmen and usually owns machinery and a workroom. Un- 
til the code went into effect, a suhstantial part of the work was done on a 
"home work" hasis, in iirhich lahor was performed in the homes of the employee 
themselves, and not in a factory omied and conducted "by the employers. 

In a few cities including Chicago, Rochester, Cleveland, and St, Louis 
most prodtiction is found in shops which complete the entire garment. In 
other cities, of which K'ew York is the most significant, the work for the 
most part is conducted in contract shops, -having been let out 'hy manufactur- 
ers who cut the cloth and who, as above described, finance the entire 
process. The areas (Not clearly defined) which employ the practice and use 
of the contract shop method of production are sometimes referred to as the 
"centralized areas," as distinguished from the plants, ordinarily found in 
small towns and cities, which produce the entire garment, and ore described 
as the "decentralized areas." It is emphasized for certain purposes that 
the plants in the "decentralized area-s" are highly integrated and usua.lly 
employ highly sub-divided processes of manufacture. 

While there are many operations in the making of a garment, depending 
in part upon the type of manufacture employed - these operations can be 
divided into a few distinct occupationa,l groups, the principal groups being 
cutters, fitters, sewing machine opera.tors, pressers, basterc, hand sewers, 
shapers, bushelers, and tailors, l/ 

Trade Association Activity 

The following statement was prepared by H. K. Herwitz, member of the 
Code Authority for the Hen's Clothing Industry, May 20, 1935* 

"There was no nationaJ trade association functioning in 
the Men's Clothing Industry until Ma.y 1933« S'or a nujnber 
of years there have been loca.l trade associations. 

"Clothiers' Exchaiige of Eochester, S^O Hudson Avenue, 
Rochester, New York, of which Max L. Holtz is president, 
and which includes a.ll but one manufacturer in the Rochester 
market, was organized in 1919 3-^cL has been in continuous 
operation since. Its t)rincipal function is to promote the 

1,/ Bureau of Labor Statistics, ITages a^nd Hours of Labor in 

the Men's Clothing Industry^ IQll to 1930 (Bulletin 557). 

S319 



-3^ 

welfare of the Clothing Industry of Rochester and transact 
negotiations with the itaalgaiiated Clothing Tforkers of 
America, a labor union governing conditions in the market, 
provide for arbitration nachinery and to operate jointly 
with the A. C. W. of A., an Unemployment Insurance Fund, 

"New York Clothing I.Ianuf acturers ' Exchange, Inc., 22 E. 
17th Street, New York, New York, of which Mr. Charles D. 
Jaffee is president, was organized in 1922 and functions 
similar to the Rochester Clothiers' Exchange. 

"Philadelphia Clothing Ilajiufacturers' Association, Inc., 
W. B. Flickstein, secretary, 215 S. Broad Street, Phila- 
delphia, Pennsylvania, was organized in I929 and operates 
similarly to the Clothiers^ Exchange of Rochester, except 
that there is no Unemployment Insurance Fund. 

"Baltimore Clothing manufacturers' Association, Inc., 
90S Baltimore Life Building, Baltimore, Maryland, Benjamin 
Lebow, president, was organized in 1933 and its function 
is limited to the welfare of the Clothing Industry in the 
Baltimore market. Each manufacturer makes its own agree- 
ment with the lahor union. 

"American Clothing Contractors' Association was formed 
in July 1933. This organization is national in its activi- 
ties. It is composed of representatives from various 
local contractors' associations. The general function is 
to represent the contractors in their dealings with manu- 
facturers in various parts of the country. 

"The Clothing Manufacturers' Association of the United 
States was organized in May 1933. primarily for the purpose 
of presenting a Code of Fair Competition for the lien's 
Clothing Industry. It A7as organized hy representatives from 
the various local organiz actions ahove referred to and "by . 
individual manufacturers who did not "belong to any associa- 
tion, but were considered representative of various market 
areas such as Chicago, Cincinnati, and of manufacturers in 
localities where there were organizations, but where there 
were also independent manufacturers who were not members of 
the Association. It is estimated at the present time that 
the Clothing Manufacturers* Association of the United States 
employs over 75 P®^ cent of the workers in the Industry. 

"The Industrial Recovery Association was organized in 
June 1933 to present s. code in opposition to the code sub- 
mitted by the Clothing Manufacturers' Association of the 
United States. They lia.d 111 members in July, 1933j ^'^^ 
this number was reduced_to approximately 70 by Februar;^ 1935* 
In part the reduction came from resignation from the 
Association because they had signed the union agreeuentj in 
other cases, because prod-acts manufactured did not come 
within the jurisdiction of the Men's Clothing Code. It is 
estimated at the present time that the Industrial Recovery 
Association employs abo^lt I5 per cent of the workers in 
the Industry. " 



^319 



-35- 



La'bor Relations 



Two labor unions operate in the Hen's Clothing Industry - The United 
Garment Workers of America, and the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. 
Mr. Sidney Hillman, president of the last-named group, stated at the pre- 
code hearing of July 26, 1933 that the Industry was 80 per cent organized. 
One i-roup of plants in the Industry, located principally in the urhan 
"centralized" areas, is almost entirely unionized, having woi^king agreements 
with the Amalgamated Clothing Workers. Another group, located mainly in 
the small cities and country areas, operates under working agreements with 
the United Garment Workers of America. 

Until around I910-II, the United Garment Workers, affiliated 'jith the 
American Federation of Labor, was the only union in the Industry. This union 
centered in the Chicago area and abou.t the firm of Hart-S chaff ner and Marx, 
which had developed a tremendous business through national advertising^ and 
standardized quality. Hart-S chaff ner and Marx operated an inside shop, but 
were under contract control, also 

Labor in 19II struck against both management and labor leadership. 
The Amalgamated Clothing Workers' Union was founded and has since become 
the dominant union of the Industry. The Chicago strike of 1911j headed by 
the Amalgamated group, lead to the recognition of a more responsible rela- 
tionship of manufacturers to employees. The irresponsible contractor control 
system in Chicago was eliminated. The aggressive Amalgamated Union by 1919 
had achieved unionization of the entire Chicago market and of other sized 
■markets throughout the countrjr. The important New York market has had agree- 
ments with the Amalgamated since 191^-+i the last strike was in I92O. 

Trade-marks 

K. K. Herwitz of the Men's Clothing Code estimates that about 25 to 30 
per cent of the products of the Industry are trade-marked (registered). 

Foreign Imports 

Foreign imports ha,ve no significant effect upon the Men's Clothing 
Industry. 

Industry Fxoerts 

Following are names, addresses, business affiliations and qualifications 
of persons who, due to training and e:rperience, are thoroughly faniliar with 
conditions in the Men's Clothing Industry: 

Raymond H. Reiss ; International Tailoring Company, IO7 " ^th 
Avenue, Wew York, New York -♦ Charge of manufacturing- operations 
for the International Tailoring Company and the J. L, Taylor 
Company, leading tailor~to— the— trade manufacturers in the 
country, Mr. Heiss is also chairman of the Executive Committee 
of the Code Authority for the Lien's Clothing Industry. He has 
been in charge of the International Tailoring Company for a 
number of years, and is one of the best qualified persons on 
the tailor-to-the-trade branch of the Industry. 

S319 



-36- 

Victor Biesenfeld ! Cohen-G-olcj.ip.n Company, U5 W. IStli Street, 
Ne\7 York, New York - in charge of manufacturing for Colien- 
Goldjnan Companj^, one of the larger manufacturers of cta,ndard 
private trade-marked clothin.c in the country. Mr. Riesenfeld 
is chairman of the Committee on Enforcement for the Men's 
Clothing Industry Code Authority, and has had 25 years erperi- 
ence in charge of clothing manufacturing operations. 

Hyman BlumTperg ! Amalgajiiated Clothing TTorkers of America, 
II-I5 Union Square, Hcj York, Llew York, one of the lahor members 
of the Men's Clothing Industry Code Authority; is a member of 
the General Executive Board of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers 
of America. Mr. Blunberg is in general charge of fixing piece 
work rates in negotiations carried on by this organization. 
Mr. Blumberg is considered en e:rpert on direct labor costs, 

Harry K. Eerwitz : Code Authority for Men's Clothing Industry, 
51 Madison Avenue, New York, lTe\7 York - Comptroller of the 
Men's Clothing Industry Code Authority; formerly statistician 
for the Amalgamated Clothing "Jorkers of America, and he, also, 
prepared the economic briefr; for the union in connection nith 
the code hearings. 

David Drechsl er: 225 " 5'^^^ Avenue, l^evr York, New York, - has 
been, for the last ten years, counsel for the New York Clothing 
Manufacturers' Exchange, and since 1933 > secretary and co;insel 
for the Clothing Manufacturers' Association of the United 
States. He is at present secretary and general counsel to the 
Code Authority for Men's Clothing Industry. Mr. Drechsler 
drafted the Code for the Clothing Manufacturers' Association, 
which was presented at the public hearing in July 1933 » 3-^cl is 
unusually well-qualified in all the legal and industrial 
aspects of the Code as it affects the Industry. 

Progress of the Men's ClothinA" Industry Under the Code 

The following statement was prepared by Mark W, Cresap, president of 
the Clothing Manufacturers' Association of the United States, May 22, 1935« 

"The Men's Clothing Code has been in operation for twenty 
months. Its experiences and achievements under the National 
Recovery Act are worthy of careful consideration in the 
present deliberations concerning the extension of the NRA, 
The purpose of the Recovery Act was (l) to increase emplojinent; 
(2) to increase purcha.sing power; (3) to rehabilitate industry 
without appreciable burden on the consiimer. These high 
purposes have been achieved. This is the record. 



S319 



-37- 



(l) Hon Workers in the Industry rere Affected 



Period^ 

March 1929 
March 1933 
March 1935 

( Sour ce : 



ivTuralier of Total man- Average 
Workers hours worked Weekly 
Employed per week Earning-s 



154,135 5,548,660 
109,610 3,167,729 
147,066 4,897,298 



$24.82 
12.68 
22.04 



Total 

Weekly 

Payroll 

$3,825,631 
1,389,855 
3,242,011 



United States Bureau of the Census; United States Bureau 
of Labor Statistics; Code Authority for iuen' s Clothing 
Industry. ) 

(2) Hot; the Consumer was Affected 

Present day retail prices of clothing of standard "brands in all 
price ranges are only from 16 per cent to 25 per cent higher 
than they were in the spring, 1933, the time of the "bank holiday; 
present day prices are approximately 20 per cent - 30 per cent 
below 1929 prices. 

(3) How the Manufacturers in the Industry were Affected 

Dan and Eradstreet's reports to us containing an analysis of 

229 identical establishments combined showed a loss in 1932 

and an average profit on volume of sales for the years 1935 

and 1934 of 2 per cent per year for each of these two years. 

Dun and Bradstreet also gives us the following information 
on bankruptcies for the manufacturers of clothing for the 
past three years; (Note: Includes manufacturers of both 
men's and women's clothing.) 



Year 



Uumbe r 



Liabilities 



19 ."2 
1933 
1934 



840 
293 
211 



$23,298,941 
7,100,951 
5,257,241 



"It will be observed that the Recovery Act has put almost 
forty thousand (40,000) workers in the Industry back into 
the shops and that employment today is within striking distance 
of the 1929 enrollment. Average wages, which were as low as 
$12.00 per week in 1933, are now back to $22.00 a week; and 
the total weekly payroll has increased one hundred and thirty- 
three per cent (135"^), thus enabling the worker in the Clothing 
Industry to purchase an increasing amount of products of other 
industries. 



8319 



"The improvement in the Clothinc; Industry to the worker and 
to the manufacturer, as can be clearly seen from the ahove 
figures, has not "been at the expense of the consumer. While 
V7ages in the Industry are approachin- the 1929 levels, prices 
to the consumer are considerably below those prevailing in 
1929. Present day retail prices are fully twenty oer cent 
{20fc) to thirty per cent (30>) below the 1929 level. It 
will be observed that the margin of profit for the clothing 
manufacturer is approximately 2 per cent on gross sales. 
Pigares on the great decline of bankruptcies in the Industry 
spea].c for themselves. 

"Production in 1935 is higher by tvventy per cent (20-b) 
than it was in 1934 and 1934 was an improvement over 1933 
and 1932. 

"It requires from three to four yards of cloth to make a 
suit of clothes. This increased production has meant more 
work for the wool manufacturer and an expanding market at 
better prices for the sheep grower. 

"To the Clothing Industry which has accomplished so much 
in rehabilitating itself and which has 'gone' back to work, 
a termination or emasculation of the Recovery Act at this 
time would be disastrous and would quickly undo all that 
has been accomplished toward increasing employment, in- 
creasing purchasing power and generally rebuilding industry." 



5319 



-39- 

Exhiliit A 

Firms TTitli He-j York City Offices 
Wliich Hoiini'act-ai-e Outside llev Yorl: State 



Alco Zrjider Co. 

Andersor. IZondazian Co., Inc. 

Arons, Adol23li ^ Sons 

ErJter Clothes, Inc. 

Baltimore Clotlios, Inc. 

Eangor Clothing Mfg. Co., Inc. 

Barron Anderson Co. 

Block Co., The 

Brael)^Ji-n of Rochester 

ColnnDia Coat Co., Inc. 

Curlee Clothing Co, 

Daroff, H. & Sons, Inc. 

Decker, Alfred, & Cohn, Inc. 

D-oraont Clothes, Inc. 

Eisner, Sigmund Co. 

Epstein Bros. 

Fashion Park Mfg. Corp. 

Fine, I la:: & Co. 

Finkelstein, Sain C. Co, 

Franlcel System Clothes, Inc. 

Freemaii, K. & Son 

Friecjnan-Harry Lferks Clo. Co., Inc. 

Goldsnith, Louis, Inc. 

Goodiuate Co., The 

Greif, L. & Bro., Inc. 

Gutman, E. & Sons, Inc. 

Hammonton P3.rk Clothes, Inc. 

Hart, S chaff ner & I.Iarx 

Eickey Freeman Co . 

Jacohs Tailored Clothes 

Joseph c: Feiss Co., The 

K. & G. Clothing Co, 

Keller-IIex-unann-Thompson Co., Inc. 

riirschhavjn, A. B., Co., Inc. 

KupperJieinier, B. & Co., Inc. 

Lamm Bros. 

LcJigrock Clo. Co. 

Lo.yman, Berlcvritz & Scott, Inc. 

LehovT Brothers 

Levy Bros. £: Adder Rochester, Inc. 

LielDenie::!, Aron & Sons 

Loo-Hxthhart, Inc. 

Haimon, B. 

Malcransl::;-, S. cc Son 

Hiddi shade Co., Inc., The 

Horse Leopold Co» 



8319 



-Uo~ 



Pri.di Clothes, Inc. 

Philco Clothing Co., Inc. 

Pincus Brothers, Inc. 

Progressive Clo. Mfg. Co. 

Rosenthal, H. B., - Ettlinger Co. 

Schloss Bros. & Co., Inc. 

Schoenemaji, J., Inc. 

Seinsheimer, H. A. Co., Inc. 

Siegel, Jacoh Co, 

Silverte:: Co., The 

Singer C^ Snow Co. 

Sonne corn Bros. , Inc. 

Sportsv.'eaT, Inc. 

Stein-Bloch Co. 

Surre:", Bohert 

Teplicl: d Eisenherg Bros, 

Trimovait Clo. Co., Inc. 

WaJhroohe Clothes, Inc. 

Weinherg-Schiller Co, 

Weitn, S. & Co. 

Wile, il. & Co. 

Zeeiaa-i c^: Seligman 



Source: Directory of Mew Yorl: , "lien's YJear" (Fall, 1954) 



8319 



Exlii"bit B 

List of 59 Man-ufactnorers Who Have 
Garments Llade Up Outside the State 
in Which They are Listed 



Hajitif actirL-er and Location 
ITev; xorl: 

Alhan & Sang, Inc. 



Baruch & Huruitz, Inc. 



Bodernan Clothing Co., Inc. 



C.I.I.T. Clothinii Co., Inc. 



Leo C-reenherg & Shapiro, Inc. 



Greenstone Stern Co., Inc, 



Zaufaan & Kaplsji 



lioe Levy & Sons 



Lev/is Bros. 



Location of Contract Sho-g 



Souderton, Pa. 
Garfield, Pa. 
Ps,ssaic, H. J. 
Easton, Pa,. 

Passaic, IT. J. 
Clifton, II. J. 
Garfield, II. J. 

Bangor, Pa. 
Easton, Pa. 

Passaic, II. J. 
Patterson, IT. J. 
Wevrark, IT. J. 
South Amhoy, H. J. 
Garfield, II. J. 

Egg Harhor, II. J. 
Ferkasie, Pa. 
Vineland, II. J. 
Haniaonton, II. J. 
Pr.tterson, II. J. 

Scranton, Pa. 
¥ilkes Barre, Pa. 

Middletovm, Comi. 
Woodhine, N. J. 

Baltimore, Hd. 
Perkasie, Pa. 

Vineland, N. J. 
Plainfield, IT. J. 
Hanmonton, N. J. 
Soiith Amhoy, N. Ji 



8319 



^k2^ 



J lainifac tm-er and Location 
Her; York CCont'dl 

Jloral Clo tiling Corp. 

Rose Bros. 



Satico & Sons, Inc. 
I. Askinas & Son 

Benjamin Bros. 
Barman Mfg. Co. 



Better Clothing Co., Inc. 



So'oel-G-olchnan 



Relia^ble Clothing ilfg., Inc, 



Location of Contract Shop 



Patterson, IT. J. 
Passaic, IT. J. 
Bangor, Pa. 

Hatfield, Pa. Inside Shop 
Ship:^ensLurg, Pa." " 
LelDanon, Pa. " " 
Q-ualcertotm, Pa. " " 
CooperslDiu-g, Pa. 
Haamonton, IT. J. 
Vineland, IT . J . Inside Sho]: 
Trenton, H. J. 

Bethlehem, Pa» 
Easton, Pa. 

Neu Haven, Conn, 
llorvrich, Conn. 
Ba;i''onne, IT. J. 

Easton, Pa. 
Pittston, Pa. 

Sellersville, Pa. 
Qualcertomi, Pa. 
Ivliddletomi, Conn. 
Nen Bi-unav7icl:, IT. J. 

Baltimore, Lid. 
Qijakertown, Pa. 
Newark, IT. J. 

Perkasie, Pa. 
Pen Argj^le, Pa. 
Bethleher.i, Pa. 
Baj''onne, IT. J. 

Fitchhorg, h'ass. 
Bajigor, lie. 
Perkasie, Pa. 
Nevf Bedford, Mass. 
Easton, Pa. 
TrumLa.tiersville, Pa. 
Perth AjnlJoy, IT. J. 
Lawrenceville, G-a. 



8319 



-U3^ 



ManirFcctiu'ei- aiirl Location 
ITeTT Yorl: (Cont'd) 
Sclavrai" t s-S t oiiy 



Boston 

G-inslDxa-gh Clothing Co. 

llodern Pojitc 

H.5.C. Pants Co. 
Philr.derohia 

S . Alai-ahams 

Best Wear Pants Co. 

Loiiis Goldsnitli, Inc. 

Keystone Tailoring Co. 

B. I3.ein & Bros., Inc. 

B. liaimon 

J. Uainon S: Son 

¥n. C. Rouland 

I. Zs.t7. Co, 

Joseph H. Cohen Sons 
Phila.de Iphi a, main office 
cutting, designing, stocl:. 
Her.- York City, man-ufo.ct'uring 
"olrait . 



Location of Contract Sho-o 



Clifton, 1\F. J. 
ilev; Brunsnick, IT. J. 
Perth Amboy, IT. J. 
■Wilkes Barre, Pa. 



Nevrark, IT. J. 
P.ockland, Me . 
Portland, Me. 

Maple shade, IT. J. 

Riverside, IT. J. 

Par kh era, IT. J. 

Red Banl-:, IT. J. 

Mapleshade, H. J. 

Riverside, IT. J. 

Egg Harhor, N. J. 

Mapleshade, IT. J. 

Trenton, K. J. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 
Sellersville, Pa. 
perkasie, Pa. 
Bangor, Pa. 
Bridgeport, Pa.. 
Sassasmansville, Pa. 



8319 



Maiiufactiirer and Location Location of Orrn Sho-ps 

Baltinore 

J. Schoeneman, Inc. Wilmington, Del. 

Souderton, Pa. 
Lansiale, Pa. 

L. Greif & Bros. Fredericksburg, Va. 

Everett, Pa. 
Wayne sboro, Pa. 
l.Ioiint Union, Pa.. 
Staixnton, Va. 
Stenartstown, Pa. 
LsJLcaster, Pa. 
Sherristown, Pa. 
Hanover, Pa. 

Ilisccllaneous 

H. A. Seinsheiraer - Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Cincinnati, Ohio - Main Office - cutting and mfg. 
ITeu Albany, Ind. - Ho emitting ~ raantifacturing. Production 

Gent to Cincinnati. 

International Tailoring Co, - Kev York City. 
Controls J. L. Taylor & Co. - selling a^gency. 
Cuts and malces to individual order exclusively. 
Orders received by J. L. Taylor i Co. are cut by them 

and made up by International Tailoring Co. 
Has no contractors. 

Does cut, iaal:e and trim for other firms. 
Plant in Chicago cuts and aglces to individual order. 

Curlee Clothing Co. 
IJo contractors. 

Plant at St. Louis, Ho., cuts and malres there. 
General offices - St. Louis, Ho, 
Plant at Mayfield, Ky. - cuts and malces there. 

Goodall Co. 

Main office - Cincin;iati, Ohio - Sales, shipping, stock 

and cutting. 
Shop at Sanford, Haine - cutting only for Cincinnati 

shop. 
Shop at Kno:cville, Tenn. 
Shop at Loraine, Ohio, 

Cohen-Goldms-n 

New York - Hain office - cutting - stock. 
Plants - Syra-cuse 

Pouglilceepsie 

New Bern, IT. C. 

Baltimore, Hd, 

Soitrce: Code Authority for Men's Clothing Industry. 
3319 



-1+5- 

Exhibit C 

Location of Shops in Which G-arments are Made 
That vere Cut in Other States 



Hew Jersey 

I,;aple Shade 

Riverside 

Paul shore 

Red B?ank 

Egs Harhor 

Mizpah 

Trenton 

llewarls 

Garf ieir 

Passaic 

Hammonton 

Vineland 

Clifton 

Paterson 

South Amhoy 

Jersey City 

Eahvray 

Ear i tan 

Plainf ield 

Perth Ainhoy 

Hobolren 

Ba.yonne 

Hew Brunsi-'ick 

Woodbine 

Lodi 

Carteret 



Pennsylvania 

Trurabauersville 

Perkasie 

Easton 

Wilkes-Barre 

Philadelphia 

Pensburg 

Quaker town 

Lands dale 

Line Lexington 

Pen Argyle 

Bethlehem 

Coopersbarg 

Scranton 

Sassamansville 

3rid.-;eport 

Sellersville 

Bangor 

llorth Hampton 

Dublin 

Pittston 

Hatfield 

Shipoenburg 

Lebanon 

Souderton 

Everett 

TTaynesboro 

Mount Union 

Stewartstown 

L-iacaster 

Sherristown 

Hanover 



Others 

Portland, Me, 
ilorwich, Conn, 
Fitchberg, Mass, 
Bangor, Me, 
New Bedford, Mass, 
Lawrenceville, Ga. 
Baltimore, Md, 
Hew Haven, Conn, 
Chicago, 111, 
Middle town, Conn, 
Eacine, Wise. 
Mount Healthy, 0. 
St. Louis, Mo, 
Eockland, Me. 
Detroit, Mich, 

May field, Ky. 
Predericksbur:":, Ya, 
Wilmington, Del, 
Staunton, Va, 
Hew Albany, Ind, 
Knoxville, Tenn, 
Loraine, Ohio, 



Source: Code Authority for Men's Clothing Industry. 



8319 



-U6- 



Exhitit D 



List of 19 Lan-ufacturers of Men's Clothing 
Shoeing Location of Retail Outlets 



Manufacturer and Location 



Name of Retailer and Location 



Jos. Levy 

836 Broadway, H.Y.C. 



Crawford Clothes 



Sanford Clothes 
Powers Clothes 



New York City 

Brooklyn 

Jamaica * 

Philadelphia 

Upper Darby 

Brooklyn 

Jamaica 



Simon Ackerman, Inc. 
79-5th Ave., N.Y.C. 



Simon Ackerman 



Brooklyn 

Bronx 

Manhattan 



Aplo, 

Rochester, H,Y, 

915 Broadway, N.Y.C. 

New Brunswick, No J. 



Bond Stores, Inc. 
(Randall Clothes) 
(Bond Clo, Co.) 



New York City 

Chicago 

Cleveland 

Detroit 

Akron 

Toledo 

Youngstown 

Columhus 

Cincinnati 

St. Louis 

Lorain 

Buffalo 

Boston 

Dayton 

Newark 

Washington 

Minneapolis 

Syracuse 

Rochester 



Cohen Goldman Co, 

45 W, 18th St., N.Y.C. 
New Bern, N« C. 
Baltimore, Md. 
Syracuse, N.Y, 



Broadstreets 



New York City 



8319 



-U7- 



Ife.n'oi'act'arer and Location 



Name of Retailer and Location 



Brooks Bros. 

345 Liadison Ave., N.Y. C. 



Brooks Eros. 



Hew York City 
Boston, i.iass. 
Palm Beach, IFlai 
Newport, R. I, 



Kahn Tailoring Co. 
Indis.napolis 



English lollen Co. 
Capitol Ave, & 
Bt. Clair Street 



N.Y.Buying Office 



Indianapolis 

Cleveland 

Detroit 

Louisville 

Dayton 

New York City 



Fashion Park Clo. Co. 
Rochester, N.Y, 



Los Angeles 



Fashion Pa.rk Asso- 
ciates, Inc. 
(1457 Broadway, N.Y. C 
Subsidiaries: 
Desmond's Inc. 
The Hub, Henry 
C, Lytton & Sons Chicago 
Weber & Heilbroner 

Inc. 
Brokaw Bros. 
Shulman & Co, 
B.R.Baker Co. 



Doutrich & Co, 



New York City 
New York City 
Norfolk, Va. 
( Cleveland) 
(Toledo) 
(Harrisburg) 
(Pottsville) 



Croll & Keck 
L.Strauss & Co, 
The Metropolitan 

Co. 
Chaix, Copley Co, 
Juster Bros,,Inc, 
(Pinchley) 



Reading 
Indiana,polis 

Dayton 
St, Paul 
Minneapolis 
New York City. 



Foreman & Clark Mfg. Co, 
28 T7, 23rd St., N,Y,C. 



(13 stores) 



Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 
Illinois 
California 
New York City 



8319 



M^ 



ManrJacturer and Location 

Linden Clo.Co, (Jos. 
Hilton & Sons) 
35 E, Elizabeth Ave, 
Linden, N.J. 

Howard Clothes, Inc., 

160 Jay St., Brooklyn, N.Y. 



Name of Retailer and Location 



Jos. Hilton & Sons 
129 Fulton Street, 



Howard Clothes 



Nev York City 



Boston 

New York City 
Syracuse 
Brooklyn 

Philadelphia, Pa, 
Pittsburgh, Pa, 
Providence, R, I. 
Jersey City, N.J, 



Langrock Clothing Co., 
Ne'j Haven, Conn. 



D.T, Langrock, Inc. 
268 York St. 



New Haven 



Langrock Harvard, Inc. Cambridge, Mass, 

Exeter 



The Andover Shop 



Andover,N,H» 



Langrock Princeton, Inc. Princeton 

Lawrenceville 

Langrock Fine Clothes 
Inc. New York City 

The Penn Shop Philadelphia, Pa, 

Langrock-BroTTn Inc. Providence 



Moe Levy & Son, Inc. 

119-125 TTalker St.,N,Y,C. 
and Baltimore, Md, 



Moe Levy & Son 



New York City 

Brooklyn 

Jamaica 



S, Hendelson Sons 
6103 Euclid Ave,, 
Cleveland, 0, 



Sherman Stores 
(25 stores) 



Indiana, 

W, Virginia 

Illinois 

Pennsylvania 

Ohio 

Iowa 



8319 



.1+9- 



Hamifac turer and Location 

Richjnan Bros. Co, 
1600 E. 55th St., 
Cleveland, 0. 



Name of Retailer and Location 



Rogers Peet Co., 

84?. Broadway, N.Y.C. 

Standard Tig. 
Coliimlius, Ga. 



(62 stores) 



(6 stores) 



The Schrab Co. 
(Simon Schwah) 

(24 stores) 
Columhus, Ga, 



Ohio 

Wisconsin 

Pennsylvania 

New York State 

Missouri 

Michigan 

Massachusetts 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Kansas 

Nebraska 

Minnesota 

W. Virginia 

Kentucky'' 

New York City 
Boston, Mass. 

Albany, Ga. 
Athens, Ga. , 
Atlanta, Ga. 
Columbus, Ga. 
Griffin, Ga, 
La Grange, Ga. 
Macon, Ga. 
Rome, Ga. 
Savannali, Ga. 
West Point, Ga. 
Valdosta, Ga. 
Birmingham, Ala. 
Dotham, Ala. 
Huntsville, Ala. 
Montgomery, Ala. 
Mobile, Ala. 
Jacksonville, Pla. 
Orlando, Pla. 
Pensacola, Pla, 
Tampa, Pla, 
Knoxville, Tenn, 
Chattanooga, Tenn. 
Jackson, liiss. 



Stein Bros., 

149 Fifth Ave., N.Y.C. 
Hall-Tate, Knoxville 
Tenn. 



(43 stores) 



New York State 
Vermont 
Pennsylvania 
North Carolina 
Virginia 



8319 



-50- 



ManvJ'ac't-urer and Location 
Stein Bros. (Continued) 



Name of Retailer a.nd Location 



Tennessee 
Delaware 
Georgia 
lle\7 Jersey 
So. Carolina 
Florida 



Stetson "D" Tailors 
4 N, Howard St, , 
Baltimore, kd. 



Stetson ""D" Stores 



Tuscaloosa, Ala. 
Berkeley, Cal. 
Atlanta, Ga. 
Chicago 
New York City 
Chapel Hill, 11. C, 
Davidson, N. C. 
Greensboro, N.C. 
Raleigh, N.C. 
Stillwater,Okla» 
Norman, Okla. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
State College, Pa, 
Lexington, Va» 
University, Va, 



Hart-Schaffner & Marx 
Chicago, 111, 



Wallach Bros, 
114 E. 23rd St. 



New York City 

Brooklyn 

Jamaica 

Flushing 

Newark 

Trenton 



Source: Fairchild's Retffuil Book 



8319 



-51" 
Exhi^oit E 
List of 43 Pirns Siiga{:;ed in Interstate Comacrce 



Eirri JMame 

Langrocl: Clothing Co, 
Lee, I.IcClcin & Scalzo 
Made Hight Tig. Co. 
Uichigan ITholesale Tlrs. 
Rosenlierg & Saffer 
Ro^r Tlrs. 
Rude , I , 

H. A. Seinslieiner, Co, 
Silverstein cc Sons Co, 
Schwartz Tig. Co. 
Storre-Shaefer Co. 
Suoerior Tig. Co, 
Wolfe Bros, 
United Tig. Co. 
Sm-e Fit Clo. Co. 
Wilson, Tora 
Beacon Clothing 
Berr;' Clo. Co. 
Biltnore Pants Co, 
Bing, I, & S. 
The Block Co. 
Fr allies Bros, 
Preednan-Harry Harks 
Eiiilcel stein, San 
Globe Tig. Co, 
Goodall Clo, Co. 
Harold Clo. Co, 
H.S,i.I. Clo, Co. 
Galler & Blaustein 
I.Ialcolm Kenneth Co, 
L. Greif 
ITorth Chicago Clo. Co, 

(l-Ieraian Clo. ) 
Sapperstein, I. (Secirrit^'' 

ITholesale Clo. Co,) 
Standard Tig, Co, 
United Woolen Co. 
Bodenstein 
P. H. Davis Co. 
Detroit Wholesale Tlrs. 
Gate City Mfg. Co. 
Gross Wholesale Tlrs, Inc. 



Locatio n 

Hew Haven, Conn, 
Shelhyville, Ky. 
Baltimore, lud, 
Detroit, Llich. 
Ne^T Yor]: City 
Cincinnati, 0. 
Denver, Colo. 
Cincinnati, 0. 
Cincinnati, 0. 
Cincinnati, 0. 
Cincinnati, 0. 
Cincinnati, 0. 
Troy, IT. Y. 
Detroit, I.Iich, 
Philadelphia, Pa, 
Boston, Mass. 
Boston, Llass, 
Pantucket , R. I , 
Baltimore, Md. 
Cincinnati, 0. 
Cleveland, 0. 
Lawrence, Mass. 
Richmond, Ta. 
llorfolk, Va. 
Milwa-'alcee, Wise. 
Cincinnati, 0. 
Cincinna.ti, 0. 
Hew York City 
Baltimore, Md, 
Boston, Mass. 
Baltimore, Md. 

Horth Chicag'O, 111. 

Baltimore, Md, 
Colijmlius , Ga, 
Col-omhiis, Ga, 
Streater, 111. 
Cincinnati, 0. 
Detroit, Mich^ 
Kansas City, Mo, 
Denver, Col, 



8319 



-52- 



Firn Hame 

Hochschied Wliolesale Tlrs. 
Levine Bros. 
Y<-llow Ca'b Co. 



Location 

l.If. Healthy, 0. 
Cincinnati, 0. 
Chicago, 111, 



12 Pirns not Definitel;^ I^norn to "be Engaged 
in Interstate Coiarierce, of the Total of 55 
which have "been Certified to the national 
Compliance Board 



Pirn llama 



Location 



Cohen, Goldrrater l.Ifg. Co, 

Davis Clo. Co. 

Eagle Blue Serge 

English Woolen I.iills 

Freeman Bros. 

Kendig, S. H. 

Ilichael Tig. Co. 

Modern 

Overglohe Clo. Co, 

Monarch Tig. Co. 

Peters, i:^. 

Star IToveltj'- Coat Co. 



Los Angeles, Calif. 
Boston, Mass. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Indianapolis, Ind. 
Chicago, 111. 
Lands dale, Pa. 
Detroit, Mich. 
St. Loxiis, Mo. 
Boston, Mass. 
Chicago, 111, 
Syracuse, N. Y. 
Brookljm, IT. Y. 



8319