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Full text of "Evidence study"

f°fj°^ PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 9999 06317 545 7 ^ (^^v[,l (\\L 



NATIONAL RECOVERY ADMINISTRATION 
DIVISION OF REVIEW 



EVIDENCE STUDY 
NO. 2^ 

OF 

THE PAINTING, PAPERHANGING AND DECORATING INDUSTRY 
(A Division of the Construction Industry) 

Prepared by 
J. C. HUMPHREY 



October, 1935 



PRELIMINARY DRAFT 
(NOT FOR RELEASE: FOR USE IN DIVISION ONLY) 



I 



) 



THE EVIDENCE STUDY SERIES 

The EVIDENCE STUDIES \iere originally rilanned as a neans of gathering 
evidence hearing upon various le^'al issues which arose under the Rational 
Industrial Recovery Act. 

These studies have value quite aside from the use for which they were 
originally intended. Accordingly, they are now made available for confidential 
use within the Division of Review, and for inclusion in Code Histories. 

The full list of the Evidence Studies is as follows; 



1. Autonohile Manufacturing Ind. 23. 

2. Boot and Shoe Mfg. Ind. 24. 

3. Bottled Soft Drink Ind. 25. 

4. Builders' Supjilies Ind. 2c, 

5. Cheraical Mfg. Ind. 27. 

6. Cigar Mfg. Industry 28. 

7. Construction Industry 29. 

8. Cotton Garient Industry 30. 

9. Dress Mfg. Ind, 51. 

10. Electrical Contracting Ind, 32. 

11. Electrical Mfg. Ind. 33. 

12. Fab. Metal Prod. Mfg., etc. 34. 

13. Fishery Industry 35. 

14. Furniture Mfg. Ind. 36. 

15. General Contractors Ind. 37. 

16. Graphic Arts Ind. 38. 

17. Gray Iron Foundry Ind. 39. 

18. Hosiery Ind, 40, 

19. Infant's & Children's Wear Ind. 41. 

20. Iron and Steel Ind. 42. 

21. Leather 43. 

22. Lumber & Timber Prod. Ind. 



Mason Contra.ctors Industry 

Men's Clothing Industry 

Motion picture Industry 

Motor Bus Mfg. Industry (Dropped) 

Needlework Ind. of Puerto Rico 

Painting & paperhanging & Decorating 

photo Engraving Industry 

PluTibing Contracting Industry 

Retail Food (See No. 42) 

Retail Lumber Industry 

Retail Solid Fuel (Dropped) 

Retail Trade Industry 

Rv.bber Mfg. Ind. 

Ruboer Tire Mfg. Ind. 

Silk Textile Ind. 

Structural Clay Products Ind, 

Throwing Industry 

Trucking Industry 

Waste Materia,ls Ind. 

Wholesale & Retail Food Ind, (See No. 

Wliolesale Fresh Fruit & Veg. 31) 



In addition to the studies brought to completion, certain materials have 
been assembled for other industries. These liATERIALS are included in the series 
and are also made available for confidential use within the Division of Review 
and for inclusion in Code Histories, as follows; 



44. Wool Textile Industry 

45. Automotive parts & Equip. 

46. Baking Industry 

47. Canning Industry 

48. Coat and Suit Ind. 



49. Household Goods & Storage, etc.(Drop- 

Ind. 50. Motor Vehicle Retailing Trade Ind, ped) 

51. Retail Tire & Battery Trade Ind. 

52. Ship & Boat Bldg. & Repairing Ind. 

53. Wholesaling or Distributing Trade 



L. C. Marshall 
Director, Division of Review 



^ 



^%\. 



K^^ 



CONTENTS (Cont'd) 

CHAPTE?. Ill - i.IA.T3RIALS - (Cont'd) 

Exoendit-ores for Equipraent 16 

Census B-^.ta 16 

Code Autlioritv Data IS 

Source of Equipment. ....... 16 

CHAPTER IV - PRODUCTIOH AND DISTRIBUTION , . . 17 

Dollar Volume of Business by Principal States. 17 

Business Outside Home State . 13 

Advertising • 19 

Productive Capacity 19 

CEAPTER V - TRADE PRACTICES , 20 

Unfair Practices 20 

General. • 20 

Bid-Shopping- 20 

Bid-Peddling 20 

Selling Belon Cost 20 

Sabstitution of Inferior Materials .... 20 

Rebates and Commissions 20 

Subletting Labor Service 20 

Spreading of Unfair Trade Practices 20 

Effects of Unfair Practices 20 

CHAPTER VI - GENERAL Ix.'FORiviATION 22 

History and Grov/th of tlie Ina.ustry 22 

Changes in Teciiniq.ue ............. 22 

Trade and Enplo^'^ee Organizations ....... 25 

Labor Relations • 23 

Financial Condition of the Industry 23 

Exoerts 24 



3780 -ii- 



TABLE I 

TA3LE II 

TA3LE III 

TABLE IV 

TABLE V 

TABLE 71 

TABLE VII 

TABLE VIII 



TABLE 



TABLE 



TABLE 



IX 



XI 



TABLES 

Fa^e 

Concerns in the Industr;'' Classified ty 

Value of Bu.siness per Concern, 1934 4 

Nu^ntier of Establislir.ients by 10 Leading 

States, 1929 5 

Kuralier of Wage Earners in the Larger 
Establishments, "by Llonths, 1929 9 

Average Hourly 'Tage Rates of Painters 

in Various Cities. . 10 

Scale of Weekly Hours of Union Painters, 

by 10 selected Cities 11 

Number of Painters, Glaziers, Varnishers, 

and Paperhangers in the Building Industry, 

by 10 Principal States, 1930 12 

Wages Paid by Principal States, 1929 .... 13 

Production Value of Principal Llaterials 
Used in the Painting, Paperhanging and 
Decorating Industry, By Principal Producing 
States, 1929 15 

Value of Business Done by 10 Principal 

States, 1929 18 

Value of Business Dene Outside Home State 

by the Larger Establislaments, by 10 

Principal States, 1929 19 

Total Value of Paints and Varnishes llanu- 
factured in the United States, for selected 
years, 1899-1933 22 



8788 






- 1 - 



PAINTI1IG-, PAPLRHi^NGIlTa AKD DECORATirG IMUSIRY 
(a Division of tlie Construction Industry) 



PoreTrord 



Conpreliensive, relia-ole data on this Division of the Construction 
Industry are ■oractically non-e::i stent. The Censuis Bureau, has nade only one 
survey of the Ind.ustry and this 'was confined to the year 192C. In this survey 
the Sureau attenpted to o"btain reports from ^J1 of the larger concerns, i.e., 
those doing an anniial business of $3^,000 or nore, and it is helieved by the 
Census 3v:reau that practically all estahlishjvients of this size in the Industry 
vrere covered, !_/ But the Census Biu'cau found it iiipossiole to reach all of 
the small estahlishnents in the .^Toup doing a business of less than $25,000 
during the year. Therefore, while the Census data are reliable so far as they 
go, thej- do not yield complete information on the entire Industry. 

A further limitation of the Census da.ta lies in the fact that they cover 
the 3^ear 1929 only, and data for subsequent years are not available to indi- 
cate the trend in the Industry, 

The former Code Authority and the leading trade association provided 
data on certain aspects of the Industry, and these have been used in this 
Study but in all cases these data represent arbitrary estimates and should not 
be accapted as strictly accurate. 

The Brjreau of Labor Statistics publishes periodic labor data on the 
Building Construction Industi^, bu.t these data are not brolcen dorm by divisions 
of the Industry, and therefore are of no value for the purposes of this report. 



1/ It is, ]iowever, the opinion of the Construction Unit of UHA Research and 
Planning Division thc?.t many of the larje eptablisb-ients were not covered 
in this survey. 



8788 



CODE DZFTaTITION : 

The Paintinp,-, p.-i.-ierhan^ing and Decorating; Industry is a division of the 
Construction Industry. It is defined in the Code as follows: 

"Section 1. The terra 'Painting, Paperhanging and Decorating Division' 
or 'this division', as used herein, includes the service of painting, rrood- 
finishing, TDaperhangin;: , and decorating and preparatory -jork incidental there- 
to, and such "branches or suMivisions thereof as may fron time to tiiTie "be in- 
cluded under the provisions of this chapter. 

"(a) The service of painting;; and/or woodf inishing raeems the application 
of all paint, noodf inishing and painting materials of ever^^ description in and 
on all -i^arts of nev or old buildings end. structures of every kind. 

"(b) The service of paperhanging .and/or decorating neans the application 
and/or installation of v-allpapers , hangings and decorative materials of every 
kind or descri^ition aij ilied diiectly to the siu-face in or on buildings of all 
kinds, 

"Section 2. Hoi.ie-o- -ners and householders, including farmers, sliall not 
be deemed to be included uithin the definition contained in Section 1 in their 
perfornance individually or by their remanent servants or other help of like 
character on their home premises of any services described in such definition; 
nor shall any such person, or any building O'jner or tenant, nerforming such 
servicf.s by his permanent employees and not for hire on or in buildings or 
structures ouned or occupied by him, be deemed to be included in such defini- 
tion." 

Although the definition permitted the inclusion of branches and sub- 
divisions none was added, 

NTjnber of Members, Concerns, or Establishments 

General . - In this Industr-^ the n-ar>ber of members or concerns, and the 
number of establishments are approximately the same since raultiiolant operation 
is practically non-e::istent. 

The determination of the number of members of the Industry at any given 
time is a difficult problem. Due to the limited amount ox capital necessary 
to change the status of an individual from ths.t of employee to emplojrer, the 
nuabei- of members in the Industry is constantly fluctua.ting. Pertinent data 
from various sources are given below. 

Census Data . - In the survey of the Construction Industry made by the 
Bureau of the Census and covering the year 1929, all divisions of the Con- 
struction Industry/ i-'ore covered, including the painting, Paperhanging, and 
Decorating division. As a result of this survey, which was conducted in 
part by nail and in "iiart by means of field investigators, the Census report- 
ed that there were 15,164 active tainting and decorating establishments in 
1929. Of tlais number, 1,102 reported a voltime of business for 1929 of 
$25,000 or more each, and 14,062 reported a voli:une of less than $25,000. 

8788 



A.tthough the Census Bureau feels that practically all estalilisliiaents that 
did a tu-siness of $25,000 or more in 1923 ^rrere included in its survejr, the 
Construction Unit of the N2A, Hesearch and planning Division, helieves that 
many of these vcve not covered, d\i.e to the difficulty of contacting even the 
larger concei-ns. An indeterninate nuraher of establishnients doing an annur.l 
volume of business anounting to less than $25,000 vjeve admittedly not con- 
tacted, as it v.'as an im-jossihility to obtain a coLvnlete list of small tno ajid 
three-men establishraents. 7urthernore, the Census clposif ication, "Painting 
and Decors ting" includes only those estrblishiaents in v;hich painting and dec- 
orating '.as the najor line of business. An indeterninate number of establish- 
ments where painting and decorating vras a secondary line were therefore not 
included in this clas'iif icrtion. 

Trade Association and Code Authority Data . - The number of concerns in the 
Indr.stry reported in the Code Application, which was filed by the Internation- 
al Association of Master Painters and Decorators, was 40,000 for 1929, and 
24,000 as of August 15, 1933. The figure for 1929 was obtained by making 
allowance for the incompleteness of the total establishments reported in the 
Census of Construction. The 1S33 figure was obtained by assuming that 40 
per cent of the establishments e::istin.g in 1929 had gone out of business by 
August, 1933, without, apparently, making any allowance for the opening of 
ne^-' establisbnents. 

The Code Authority estimated that there were approximately 70,000 mem- 
bers of the Industry in 1934 and 1935. It is believed, however, that this 
fig-ure includes many casual painters, who should not be counted as reg-ular 
rae 'ibers of the Industry, as, in applying for approval of its budget on May 
29, 1934, the Code Autnority estiraa-ced that there were only 16,000 esta.blish- 
ments f rora which it anticipated collecting Code assessments during the 
period April, 1934, to March, 1935. 

WRA, Research and Planning Division, Data . - In analyzing facts and figures 
covering 57 areas in v/hich Area Agreements \7ere drawn up under the Code, the 
Research anc^ Planning Division found that the ratio of the number of members 
of the Industry to the general rjopulation in the year 1S29 was 1 to 1,820. 
This ratio applied to the total population of the United States as of April, 
1930, would indicate that the total nuiaber of members in the Industry in 1929 
was approximately 67,000. 

Consideration must be given to the fact that the Area Agreements were 
drai^Ti vco in predominately urban regions, v/here the popvilation per member of 
the Industr;'- is lo'-^er than in the rural areas. If the above ratio were 
calcviated on data from both nrral and urban areas, it would Lindou'jtedlj- show 
fcwei- tlian 67,000 members when applied to the United States population figure. 

Size of Concerns, Census Data . - A majority of the members of the Industry 
run small establishinents. This is evident from the Census of Construction 
data- vliich show that of the 15,164 establisments reijorting, only 1,102 did a 
business of $25,000 or more in 1929, while 14,062 did a business of less than 
$25,000 that year. 

Code Authority Data . - Further evidence on this T'Oint has been supnlied by 
the Code Authority in a brealcdO'-Tn of firms "oy voTume of business, as follows; 



8788 



«4- 

TASLE I 

Concerns in th.i Industr:- ClrssifiGd 'oy 
VcJ-u: oi" Business per Gonc-^rn, 1934 



Value of Business oer Concern ITtunber of Concerns 



$25,000 PJid. over 10,000 

$10,000 to $25,000 20,000 

$5,000 to $10s000 10,000 

$5,000 and under 30,000 

Total 70,000 



Som-'ce: Code Authority. 

Hov;evcr, th- validity of t.ie a'oove 'breal:do\7n iti q.uestioned. As alroaxVy 
indicated, the total n'oiiber of concerns reported 'by the Code Authority (70,00'' 
is 'believed to 'be too hiy'n. Puxthermore, the aggregate volume of business ob- 
tained '.rj mt'JL tip lying the nunber of firns in each j^rour) by the lowe. voliuic 
figure in tlia.t gro\ip amounts to $500,000,0C:0, unich is tnicc tno total volirie 
reported by the Code Authority, 

Muraber of I]sta.blishjnents b^'- Princi'oal Sta-tes 

The Industry is nation-wide in sco-oe, r/ith some members in ea.ch state in 
the country. The distribution of esta.blishmonts among the ten leading; states, 
as reported b^'- the Construction Industrj'' Census for 1929, is shoiTn in Ta/ole 
II. 

Tlie number of establishments varies noro or less directly nith the densi- 
ty of population and the degree of industrial development. It nill bo seen 
that three states, Nev; York, Pennsylvajiia, rJid Cclifornia, rxcountcd for near- 
ly 40 per cent of the total rer)orted. These three states also axcoiuited for 
approximatelj?- this same oroportion of both the large ajid small-sized establis' 
ments. 



8783 



"5^ 



U'um'bc 



TABLE II 

of EctaT3lir>lr:ontG Dy 10 Lco-ding 
Stetes, 19.-39 



State 



Total EstaMishiiii^nts whose business 

Establislunents araoimted to 



$25,000 
or More 



Lesr than 
$25,000 



H-umber Per Cent Humber Per Cent Number Per Cent 
of Total of Total of Total 



U. S. Total 

New York 

Penxisylvania 

California 

Illinois 

Ohio 

Nen Jersey 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Conxiecticut 

Wisconsin 

Total, 10 states 

Total, other states 



15,164 100.0 



1,102 100.0 14,062 100.0 



2,725 


18.0 


1,783 


11.7 


1,297 


8,6 


1,067 


7.0 


874 


5,8 


850 


5.6 


837 


5,5 


708^/ 


4.7 


708 


4,7 


609 


4.0 


11,458 


75.6 


3,706 


24.4 



210 


19.1 


2 


,515 


17. S 


106 


9.6 


1 


,677 


11.9 


100 


9.1 


1 


,197 


8.5 


139 


IS, 5 




928 


6,6 


77 


?.o 




797 


5.7 


34 


3.1 




816 


5.8 


69 


6.3 




768 


5.5 


41 


3.7 




667 


4.7 


34 


3,1 




674 


4.8 


41 


3,7 




568 


4.0 


851 


77.2 


10 


.607 


75.4 


251 


22.8 


3 


,455 


24.6 



Source: Census rerjort: Construction Industry, 1929 ; SuDcontractors, "pc.int- 
ing and Decorating." 

a/ Includes sorae flooring establishments. 

Capital Investment 

Practically no reliable data on the amount of capital invested in the In- 
dustry as a whole are available. In its Code Apolication, dated August 17, 
1933, the Master Painters Trade Association estimated that $40,000,000 nas in- 
vested in the Industry in 1929, The Association arrived at this estimate by 
arbitrarily setting the capitalization at $1,000 per concern and multiplj^ing 
this figure by its estimate of the number of concerns. 

The Secretary of the former Code Authority, G. S. Stijart, estimated that 
in 1934 total capital investment amoionted to $150,000,000 for 70,000 members, 
or an average of about $2,800 per member. The reason for the wide discre- 
pancy betrreen these tvio estimates cannot be determined, and there are no othei 
data available with which to check these figures. 

Failures 



8788 



According to the Secretary of the former Code Authority, the mortality 



-6- 

rate in the Industry nas relatively higii. He estimated that, in recent years. 
2,500 firins have failed annxiEilly, involving total liabilities of about $10,- 
000,000. K'o substantiating evidence in support of this estimate has "been 
provided, hoiiever, aad. no other information on this point is available. 

Value of Business 

Census Data . - For the 15,164 specialized p§,inting and decorating es- 
tablishments which reported in tne Census of Construction, it has been esti- 
mated that the value o-f business in 1929 amounted to $175,429,000 . Tae 
1,102 establishj-.ents in the >'$25,000 and over" croup re-ported $8:^,899,000 of 
this '.\::ount and tht; balanco, $91,530,000, '..-as rr,ti:-.atod for the 14,062 estab- 
listiments in the "less than $2n,000" £;roup, on the basis of the average value 
per establishment calculated for 3,094 establishments which reported this in- 
formation. 

As indicated previously, Census data do not yield complete information o 
the Industry since an indeterminate number of establishments were not covered 
in this survey; 

Trade Association and Code Authority Data . - The Master Painters Trade 
Association considered that the Census value figure for 1929 was only half th 
actual amount, and therefore it reported, in the Code Application, value of 
business for that year of $350,000,000. As this was a purely arbitrary es- 
timate, no reliance can be placed upon it, Por 1932, the Association estimat- 
ed the value of business at $52,500,000, which it arrived at by assuming that 
business in that year was about 15 per cent of the 1929 total. No data for 
1932 from other sources are available, but it is c^oubtful if the value of 
business declined so drastically betv/een the tv/o years. 

The Secretary of the former Code Authority estimated that the value of 
business in 1929 amounted to $400,000,000, and in 1934 to $250,000,000, The 
basis of these estimates is not knovm. However, the latter figure is believe 
to be excessive as in its budget aoplication, filed May 29, 1934, the Code 
Authority estimated that the members who were expected to pay Code assess- 
ments (15,000 in number) woiild do a business of $126,000,000 in the period 
Ariril, 1934, to March, 1935. 

NBA, He search and Planning Division, Data . - Prom Area Agreement data, 
the Research and Planning Division has estimated the average value of busines 
per caiDita of the general population, in 1929, for four population districts, 
as follows: $6.75 for la,rge cities; $4.65 for mediuru-sized cities; $1,93 for 
small cities; and ,*.75 for rurnl areas. By applying these averages to the 
total population of the United States, _l/ fitted as closely as possible to 
the respective districts set up, a figui'e of $367,500,000 was derived as rei:- 
resenting the value of business done by the Industry in 1929. 

For 1933 and 1934 the value of business was estimated, by the Hesearch 
and Planning Division, at $86,275,000 and $107,160,000, respectively. These 
figures were derived by fitting a series of index numbers representing the 
trend in expenditures for additions, alterations, and repairs in the Building 
Construction Industry, l/ to the estimated figure for 1929. 



IT As of April, 1950: 

2/ Index niunbers published in Bureau of Labor Statistics Bulletin, 

Buildin^^ Construction, February, 1935 , p. 5. 
8788 



_7- 

CoWnetition 

Thsre are no industries the oroducts of v/hich compete with the products 
of this Industry. A certain degree of competition is e:cperienced, however, 
from members of other divisions of the Construction Industry. In addition, 
house-orners and tenants v/ho do their o\7n ptiinting and decorating, and tuild- 
ing managers and industrial concerns virhich maintain re,;^lar staffs of painters 
and decorators are, in a sense, also in competition with the members of this 
Indus trjr. 



8788 



-8- 

Clis.iter II 

LA30P. STATISTICS 

Nuin"ber of Wage Earners 

Censiis Data. - The Cenfjiis of Constraction da.tr on number of ^lage 
en.rners are qo.ite incomplete due to the fact that the Census canvass 
covered onl;- a portion of the Industry, ^...rtheraore, their usefulness is 
limited h" the fact that the data reported represent onl^'- the lover limit 
of the nuinher einplo?/ed "oy the reporting eota'blisiments. This is due to 
the peculiar characteristics of the Industry' which resr.lt in non- continuous 
employi.ient v.dth any giver en^-oloysr, coritinual rotation from one emplo^^er to 
another, hif:h labor turnover and much lost time even during busy seasons. 

In the Census of Occumtions for 1930, 430,105 persons were classified 
as paperhan£-ers in the Luilding Industry. !_/ Thir, combined figure of 
458,433 is probably an overstatement of the ntimber of rrage earners in the 
Industr3- a,s defined by the Code, since it inc?oa.des Glaziers, who were not 
covered IiY the Painting, PaiDerhanging and LecoratinG' Code, and also because 
it includes those who were unenoloyed a.t the tine of the Census (April, 1S30), 
an unlrnoT;n n^Jifoer of whom i-ere undoubtedly unemployed throughout the entire 
year. 

Trade Association and Code A ut hority Data. -- In the- Code Applicr-tion the 
Master Painters Trade Association reported 450,000 enoloyees for 19?b. This 
agency stated that this fif^ure was obtained from the Census of Population 
data referred to above, but did not explain how it was adjusted — if at all 
— to represent 1929. 

The Secretary of the former Code Authority estimated that there were 
400,000 wa^'e earners in 1934, without indicating the basis of the estimate. 

KRA, Research and Planning Division, Data . - Prom Area Agreement data, 
the P.esearch and Planning Division has calculated that in 1929 the ratio of 
journey:.ien to total popvi.lation v/as 1 to 340 in those area,s for which agree- 
ments were drawn up under the Code. Applying this ratio to the 1930 popu- 
lation figiu-e for the United States (122,775,000), a fi^are of 361,000 is 
obtained. However, the ava.ilable data on which the ratio was ca,lculated 
were representative mainly of urban areas a,nd if data from rural areas had 
been included in the calculation, it is believed that the ratio woiild yield 
a smaller fig-are as representative of the total number of journej'Tnen in 1929. 

Seasonal Variation in Employment 

This Industrj'- is influenced by seasonal factors v/hich strongly affect 
employment. The outdoor pp.inting worl: is necessarily dependent on wea,ther 
conditions, and, in the northern oart of the coimtry at least, the winter 
months are slack periods in this tjr.ie of work. The interior work — painting, 
varnishing, and paperhanging — is also influenced by seasonal factors, 
such as the custom to redecorate houses in the spring, fixed spring and fall 
leasing dates, etc. 



1/ Census of Population, 1930, Occu-oations by States , p. 8. 



Q'^QD 



„9- 

A measu-renent of tlie vaxiation in emplo^^/Tnenfc caused "by these seasonal 
factors is avs.ila'ble from data reported in the Census of the Construction 
Industr;'- which show the number of wage earners en-oloyed on the 15th day 
of each month in 1929. These figures, shown in Tahle III, "below, indicate 
tiiat the peali month of en-olojnnent that year was Septemher, and the low 
month was January. Wliile only 1,008 establishments re^oorted the number of 
wage earners by months, the trend revea,led loy these figures is believed 
fairly representative of the entire Industry. 

TA3LE III 

number of Wage Earners in the Larger Establisliments, 
by ilonths, 1929 a/ 



Month 



number of Wage 
Earners b/ 



Per Cent of 
Peak Llonth 



January 
February 

Ilarch 

April 

May 

Jvjie 

July 

AiJLgUSt 

Seiitember 
October 
November 
December 



12,136 
12,428 
15,241 
18,920 
20,580 
19,921 
19,729 
21,147 
21,814 
20,847 
17,613 
14,062 



55.6 
57.0 
69.9 
86.7 
94.8 
91.3 
90,4 
96.9 
100.0 
95.6 
80.7 
64.5 



Source: Census report, Construction Industr;^, 1929 ; 
Subcontractors, "Painting and Decorating." 

a/ As rei^orted by 1,008 esta.blishments in the 
"$25,000 and over" group. 

b/ Number of v.'age earners as of the 15th, or the 
nearest representative day, of each month. 



Wages 

Census Data . - The amount of wages paid in 1929 l/y the painting and 
paperhanging establishments covered in the Census of the Construction 
Industry has been estimated at $91,925,000. This figure was obtained by 
applying the percentage that wages were of the value of business handled 
by the "$25,000 and over" group of establishments to the estimated valu.e 
of business liandled by both groups of establishments. It was necessary to 
do this becav.se the establisliments in the "loss than $25,000" group did 
not report on wages. This estimated fi:rure cannot be considered as a total 
for the Industry, however, since en indeterminate nuriber of establislments 
were not covered in the Census. 



8788 



-10- 

Trade Association Data . - The Secretary of the former Code Author- 
ity estimated that v/ages ano\ii:ted to $180,000,000 in 1929 and to $150,000,- 
000 in 1934. The "basis of these estimates is not Icnov.m. 

Wa.ge Rates 

In Tahle IV, "below, data are -oresented to shoT7 average hourly wage 
rates of painters for the years 1939, 1931, 1933, and 1934. The rates for 
paperhangers are not availa"ble, 

TABLE IV 

Average Hourly Wage Rates of Painters in Various Cities a/ 

As Ee-Qorted "by 

Year Painters and Paperhangers 

and Decorators Union h/ Builders Association c/ 

1929 $1.14 $1.10 

1931 1.15 1.09 

1933 .96 .89 

1934 1.01 .93 



Source: llnpuhlished data from Brotherhood of Painters, Paperhangers, 

and Decorators, Lafayette, Indiana; and from Builders' Associa^ 
tion, Chicago, Illinois. 

a/ The territory covered ranged from 87 to 138 cities. 

Id/ Consists of union ra.tes only. 

c/ Consists of "both union and non-union rates. 

The a"bove figures were compiled "by the Construction "Unit of the 
Research and Planning Division, WA, from data provided "by the respective 
agencies mentioned. The rates reported by the "Union are rates of union 
printers only. The rates reported "by the Builders' Association comprise 
both union and non-union rates. The territory covered in the compilation 
of these rates was very extensive, the smallest number of cities covered 
in any one yeav being 87, and the largest number, 138. All sections of the 
country a,nd both large and small cities were covered. The rates shown in 
this table are, therefore, believed to be representative airerages ,for 
the entire Industry, 

Hours -per TJeek 

The scale of hours per week for union painters in ten selected cities 
for the years 1929, 1931, 1933 and 1934 are shown in Table V, below. These 
scales are representative only of large cities-; data, covering the smaller 
cities E,re not available. The data must be understood to refer to full- 
time hours of work and not to hours actually v/orked. 



8788 



-11- 

TABLE V 
Scale of Weekly Hours of Union Painters, liy 10 selected Cities 



City 


1939 


1931 




1935 




1934 


Baltimore 


40 


40 




40 




40 


Boston 


40 


40 




40 




40 


Chicago 


40 


40 




40 




30 


Denver 


40 


40 




40 




30 


Los Angeles 


44 


40 




40 




40 


New Orleans 


44 


44 




44 




44 


Nen York 


40 


40 




40 




35 


Philadelphia 


4^1 


44 


a/ 


44 


a/ 


40 


St. Louis 


40 


40 




40 




40 


Sa.n Francisco 


44 


40 




40 




40 


Source: Bureau of Labor 


Statistics, 


Monthly 


Labor Review, 


(June, 1935) p. 



a/ 



1559. 



40 hours per week, June to August, inclusive. 



Number of Ueeks Worked per Year 

The only information available on the average niomber of weeks worked per 
year ;oer wor^cer is an estimate made by G. S. Stuart, Secretary of the Former 
Code Avithority, who estimated that the number in 1929 was about 26. 

Employees Under 16 Years of Age 

There are few employees in the Industry under 16 years of age. In the 
Census of Occupations, out of 430,105 r^ainters, glaziers, and varnishers re- 
ported in the Building Industry classification, only 2,360, or .5 per cent, 
were less than 17 years of age. No paperhangers were reniorted in that age 
group. 

Wage Earners by Principal States 

Census Data . - Although the occupation data reported in the Census of 
Population do not accurately represent the total number of wage earners in 
this Industry, as previously explained, they do serve to indicate the relative 
imx)ortance of the various states. Table VI, below, shows the number of 
painters, glaziers, varnishers, and paperhangers in the ten leading states, 
as reported in this Census. 

It is seen from these data that approximately 64 per cent of tho persons 
who reported themselves belonging, by occupation, to this Industry in 1930 wer 
located in ten states, with New York, Illinois, and Pennsylvania together con- 
taining about 33 per cent of the total. 



8781 



-12- 



TABLE VI 

Num'ber of Painters, Glaziers, Varnishers, and Paperliangers 
in the Building Industry, ty 10 Principal States, 1930 



State 



Number 



Per Cent 
of Total 



U. S. Total 

Kew York 

Illinois 

Pennsylvania 

Ohio 

California 

Massachusetts 

New Jersey 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

Connecticut 

Total, 10 States 

Total, Other States 



458,433 

78,025 
36,995 
33,742 
31 , 434 
27,117 
23,170 
22,892 
20,265 
10,177 
8,081 

291,898 

166,535 



100.0 

17.0 
8.1 
7.4 
6.9 
5.8 
5.1 
5.0 
4.4 
2.2 
1.8 

63.7 

36.3 



Source: Census of Population, 1930, Occupations by States . 

Wages Paid by Principal States 

Census Data . - Data on the amoijxit of wages paid in the Industry by 
states are ava.ilable only in the Census of the Construction Industry, v/hich 
covered the year 1929 only. As previously'' explained, the Census of the Con- 
struction Industry data do not yield coni"olete information on this Industry, 
but in the matter of v/ages paid they serve to indicate the relative importance 
of the various states. 

As 'jas done in estimating wages paid in the United States as a \/hole, the 
amount of Y/a^es uaid in ten leading states v/as estimated by computing the valu< 
of business done by the establishments in the "$25, COO and over" groiijj and 
applying this percentage to the estimated value of business handled by both 
groups of establishments. 

The data given in Table VII, below, indicate that a-pproxiraately 81 per 
cent of the wages paid in the Industry \7ere distributed in the ten leading 
states, with New York, Illinois, and Pennsylvania a,ccounting for approximately 
44 per cent of the total. 



8788 



-13" 

TABLE VII 
Wages Paid "by Principal States, 1929 a/ 



State 



Wage s 
( In thousands ) 



U. S. Total 

IJew York 

Illinois 

Pennsylvania 

California 

Massachusetts 

Ohio 

Connecticut 

Ne\7 Jersey 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

Total, 10 States 

Total, Other States 



$91,925 

18,005 
12,003 
10,074 
7,412 
6,240 
6,199 
4,025 
3,882 
3,810 
5,038 

74,688 

17,237 



Per Cent 
of Total 



100.0 

19.5 
13.1 
11.0 
8.1 
6.8 
6.7 
4.4 
4.2 
4.1 
3.3 

81.2 

18.8 



Source: Census report. Construction Industry , 1929; Subcontractors, "Paint- 
ing and Decorating." 

a/ Estimated for all establishments which reported in the Census by 

apT)lying the ratio of v/ages to value of business handled as calculat- 
ed for the "$25,000 and over" group of establishments, to the total 
value of business estimated for both groups of establisliraents. 

Labor Cost in Relation to Value of Business 

The proportion that wages are of the value of business done in this In- 
dustry may be a-oproxiraated from Census of Construction data. The 1,102 es- 
tablishments in the "$25,000 and over" group reported their value of business 
as $83,899,000 and wages paid out as $43,504,000 in 1929. The proportion tlmt 
wages are of the value of business in these firms is thus about 52 per cent, 
which is considered representative of the Industry as a whole. 



8788 



-14- 

Chapter III 

MATERIALS 

Princj-pal Materials Used 

In the Painting, Paperhanging and Decorating Industry the only- 
processing of raw and serai-processed materials is that involved in mixing 
pigments, white lead, nnd. oils in the preparation of paint. The principal 
materials used, are: ready-mixed paint, varnish, white lead, shellac, putty, 
pigment, linseed oil, turpentine, wallpaper, and paste. 

Total Cost of Materials 

Cenggs Data . - Complete, reliable data on the cost of materials used "by 
the Industry are not available. Heferring to the Census of the Construction 
Industry, it is found that the 1,102 establishments which reported this in- 
formation expended $17,523,000 on materials in 1929. This represents about 
21 per cent of the total volume of business done ($83,899,000) by these es- 
tablishments in that year. 

Code Authority Data . - The Secretary of the former Code Authority 
estimated that the cost of materials used by the Industry in 1934 amoimted 
to $75,000,000. Ernest I, Trigg, of the Institute of Paint and Varnish Re- 
search, estimated that in 1934 the amount spent for paint and varnish by all 
classes of users was $125,000,000. Of this total amount, he estimated that 
about 70 per cent, or $88,000,000 was spent by the painting "trade," which 
is believed to be roughly comparable with the Painting, Paperhanging, and 
Decorating Industry. However, this percentage estimate is considered ex- 
cessive. 

Cost of Individual Items Used 

A brealcdown of the total cost of materials by individual items is not 
available, A breakdown in the Census of the Construction Industry report 
shows that 97,8 per cent of the total cost of materials reported by 1,102 
establishments was represented by paints, varnishes, and glass. What pro- 
portion of this percentage is represented by glass, which is not generally 
used by this Industry, is not known. Also, no data are available on the 
percentage of the total cost of materials that was spent for wallpaper and 
other items, 

Soin-co of Materials 

liaterials are purchased either direct from the manufacturer or from 
wholesalers and retailers. Data on the amount purchased direct from the 
manufacturer are not available. It is impossible also, to determine the 
amount of material supplied by manufacturers in the various states either 
direct to the members of the Industry or through the regular distribution 
channels. However, as an indication of the original source of the principal 
material used by the Industry, the main producing states of the materials and 
the value of these products in 1929 are listed in Table VIII, below. 



8788 



-15- 



The Ijuli: of the materials is seen to iDe produced in a relatively small 
numter of states, indicating' that the materials enter into interstate com- 
merce "before they are delivered to the members of this Industry. 

TABLE VIII 

Froduction Value of Principal i.'aterials Used in the Painting, 
Paperhaiiging and Decorating Industry, By Principal Producing States, 1S29 

( In thousands) 

State Paints and Varnishes ^1 Tfcite Lead ^b/ Linseed Oil £/ Wall Paper 

A/:iouiit per Cent A/aount per Cent Amount Per Cent AmoT.int Per 

of of of Cent 

Total Total Total of 

Total 

$24,591 100.0 $119,927 100.0 'teO,008 100.0 



U. S. Total !• 


:. 568, 976 


100.0 


California 


26,394 


4.6 


Illinois 


90,399 


15.9 


Massachusetts 


15,826 


2.8 


Michigan. 


43,693 


7.7 


Minnesota 






Missouri 


27,778 


4.8 


New Jersey 


82,293 


14.5 


New York 


89,420 


15.7 


Ohio 


63,686 


11.2 


Pennsylvania 


48 , 966 


8.6 


Wisconsin 


13,556 


2.4 



1,378 5.6 
7,172 29.2 



2,560 


10.4 


1,433 


5.8 


4,744 


19.3 


4,060 


16.5 


3,007 


12.2 



8,730 



7.4 9,328 31.1 



28,612 23.7 



18,989 15. i 



3,637 12.1 
6,966 23.3 

6,794 22.6 



Total, Speci- 
fied States 502,011 88.2 

Total, Other 
States 66,965 11.8 



24,354 99.0 56,331 46.9 26,725 89.1 
237 1.0 63,596 53.1 3,283 10,9 



Source: 
a/ 



Census of lianufactures, 1929 , "Paints and Varnishes", "Oil, Cake, and 
Keel Linseed", and "Wall Paper", The data do not include the production 
value of estahlisliments whose output was less than $5,000 in 1929. 

"Paints and Varnishes" include; pigments, paints in paste form, paints 
mixed ready for use, varnishes, lacauers, japans, enamels, fillers, 
stains, etc, 

Tiihite lead in oil. 

Linseed oil, and its hy-prodacts, cake and meal. 



8788 



-16- 

Machinery and Equipment 

practically the only machinery used in the Industry is the spray 
machine, a machine vfhich sprays the paint on the surface to te covered. 
The machines are manuiactrtred mainly in Ohio. The equipment used includes 
such items as trushes, ladders, and scaffolding. 

Expenditures for Squioment 

Census Data . - There is little information availatle on expenditures 
for equipment. Only 941 esto.blishments out of the 15,164 contacted reported 
on expenditures for equipment iii the Census of Construction. These estab- 
lishments reported tne cost of equ.ipraent purchased in 1929 at $740,913, or 
an average of $787 per establishment. 

The value of paint and varnish brushes (including artists' brushes) 
produced in 1929, as reported in the Census of Manufactures, was $16,705,771, 
but the proportion which vras purchased by members of the Painting, Paper- 
hanging, and Decorating Industry is not known. 

Code Authority Data . - The Secretary of the former Code Authority es- 
timated tliat the 70,000 members of the Industry spent $40,000,000 for 
equipment in 1934, or an average of about $570 per member. 

Source of Equipment 

llo information is available which definitely shov/s the states in which 
are manufactured tne equipment for the Industry. In the case of brushes, 
the Census of Manufactures, which is usually a good source of information, 
combines various types of brushes, such as tooth, household, and industrial, 
with paint and varnish brushes. It is therefore impossible to tell definite- 
ly from the Census data, the states in which paint and varnish brushes are 
made. 



8788 



-17- 
Chapter IV 
PRODUCTIOii AlTD DISTRIBUTION 
Dollar Volume of Business l):,' Princi'iDa] States 

In this Industry, "production" is represented "by contracts made and per- 
formed and the "best measure of "production" is therefore the dollar voluiie of 
these contracts. 

Comprehensive data on the total dollar volume of "btisiness by states are 
not available, Ho\7ever, the data contained in the Census of the Construction 
Industry serve to illustrate the relative importance of the various states in 
this Industry, 

In Table IX, belo\7, is sho->7n the value of business done by establishments 
in ten leading states in 1929, as estimated from the Census data. The amo-umts 
for the various states lYere derived by estimating the value of business done 
in all the establishments in the "less than $25,000" group on the basis of the 
average araount per establishment for the establishment which reported this 
information, and adding this araount to the value of business reported by the 
establishments in the "$25,000 and over" group, all of which reported this 
information. 

The value of the business done in the ten leading states in 1929, as 

indicated by the Census data, amounted to approximately 82 per cent of the 

United States total, with Hew York, Illinois and Pennsylvania together con- 
tributing about 44 per cent of the total. 



8788 



-IB- 



TABLE IX 

VeJ-ue of Business Done by 10 Principal States, 1929 

(in thousands) 



State 



Total Value 

All EstaTplishments Esta."blishments v/hose Business amounted to 

Amount Per Cent $25,000 or More a/ Less than $25,000 b/ 

of Total 



U. S. Total $175,429 100.0 



IIev7 York 

Illinois 

Pennsylvania 

California 

Ohio 

Massachusetts 

Michigan cj 

New Jersey 

Connecticut 

Wisconsin 



35,304 

21,095 

20,644 

14,707 

11,785 

11,183 

7,760 

7,718 

7,239 

6,150 



Total, 

10 states 143,585 

Total, other 

states 31,844 



20.1 
12.0 
11.8 
8.4 
6.7 
6.4 
4.4 
4.4 
4.1 
3.5 



81.8 
18.2 



$83,899 

17,033 
14,831 
9,484 
7,094 
5,996 
5,374 
3,120 
1,999 
1,953 
2,439 



69,323 
14,576 



$91,530 

18,271 
6,264 

11,160 
7,613 
5,789 
5,809 
4,640 
5,719 
5,286 
3,711 



74,262 
17,268 



Source: Census report. Construction Industry. 1929 ; Subcontractors, 
"Painting and Decorating." 

a/ Value reported by all of the 1,102 establishments in this group, 

b/ Value estimated for 14,062 establishments on basis of reports" 
from 3,094 establishments. 

c/ Value of business of some flooring establishments included. 



Business Outside Home State 

^JThile the Industry is not engaged in interstate commerce, in the sense 
of the floTT of goods across state lines, there is a certain amount of inter- 
state competition for business among members of the Industry. That is, an 
establishment in one state sometimes gets contracts for work in another 
state. 

The cjnount of business thus done outside the home state in 1929 is shown 
for the ten leading states in Table X, below. The data here presented were 
reported only by the establishments whose business amounted to $25,000 or 
more for the year, because the establishments whose business amounted to less 
than $25,000 did not report this information. The data in the following 
table may, therefore, be considered representative only of the larger 
establishments. 



8788 



-19- 



TABLE X 



Value of Business Done Outside Home State ty the Larger EstaMishments, 

by 10 Principal States, 1929 a/ 



State 



Nuiiber 
of 

lishjnents 
Ri'^porting 



Total 

Value 
P.eported 
(000 <s) 



Done in "Tome State 
Per Cent 
of Total 



Amount 
(000 «s) 



Done Outside 

Eorae State 

Amount Per Cent 

(000 's) of Total 



1,068 $75,566 $72,039 



95.3 



U. S. Total 

Illinois 

New York 

Hew Jersey 

OJaio 

Penns3rlv,ania 

Michigan 

Missouri 

California 

Massachusetts 

Wisconsin 



Total, 10 states 804 61,210 53,131 95.0 
Total, other states 264 14,356 13,908 96.9 



131 


12,125 


11,753 


96.9 


198 


13,424 


12.840 


95,7 


34 


1,999 


1,813 


90.7 


74 


5,401 


5,199 


96.3 


103 


9,041 


8,528 


94.3 


39 13/ 


2,821 


2,733 


98.6 


18 


1,845 


1,738 


95.9 


99 


5,935 


6,625 


94.8 


67 


5,128 


4,424 


36.3 


41 


2,439 


2,378 


97.4 



$3,527 4,7 



373 


3.1 


583 


4.3 


186 


9,3 


202 


3.7 


513 


5.7 


38 


1.4 


58 


3.1 


360 


5.2 


704 


13.7 


62 


2.6 


3,079 


5.0 


448 


3.1 



Source: C ensus Report. Construction Industry. 1929 ; Subcontractors, 
"Painting and Decorating:;." 

a/ Includes only establisliments whose business v;as $25,000 or more in 
1929. 

b/ Includes some flooring establishjaents. 

Advertising 

The Industry, as such, does little advertising except locally. It does, 
however, share in the benefits of advertising on a national scale, through 
such media as the radio, magazines, and newspapers, which is conducted by the 
maJcers of the products it uses, vi3„ , paints, varnishes, and wallpaper, etc, 
Wr.tional advertising in connection with "Save the surf-'^ce" campaigns p.nd 
local "Paint Up and Clepn Up" cainpaigns are of much importance in developing 
buciness foi" the Industry, 

Productive Ca'oacity 

The productive crpacity of the Indtistrj/ and the degree of utilization of 
tliat capacity are beyond deteraination. There probably has been no time in 
the history of tne Industry vrhen it approached capacity production throughout 
the nation. Maximum production v;as reached in the Industry in 1929 when the 
volume of business reached a total of from $360,000,000 to $400,000,000, but 
all employers and employees throughout the nation were not constantly engaged 
even during that year. 



8788 



-?0- 

Chapter V 
i^?ADE PMCTICES 



Unfair Practices 



Genera l. - The aoucivo trade "oractices nhich v/ere prevalent in the 
Industi-y orior to the Code, E:.id v.'hich continued under the Code, although 
protaol-- to a lesser degree, vere: Did-shor-pins, hid-peddlin;!-, selling 
goods or rendering of services Delon cost, sul)stitution of inferior naterials, 
grejiting of rebates jmd denandin™ of comiissions, connercial "brilier^, suo- 
letting of labor services, and roouirenent of a coMuission ^oy realtors nho 
acted as agents for property oun£.:rs. These -practices are described belon, 

Eid-~ Shop-pin-^ . - The practice of bid-shopping is the seeking by the 
arrarding axithority of louer bids than those subnitted by the original bidders. 
The awarding av.thority literally "shops" around in an attempt to find a con- 
tractor or sub-contractor vrho :7ill -.mdertahe the job at a lower figrjre than 
sxi'j he has previously siibnitted, 

Bid-Peddlin~ . - Bid-peddling is practiced when the contractor or sub- 
contractor ascertains the figure of the lov/ bid and attempts to secure the 
contract by reducing his own figi-ure. 

Selling Below Cost . - The s.^lling of goods or rendering of services 
below cost may result from either of the above practices or nay occur with- 
out the stimulus of ou.tside pressure. The competing contractors, in their 
zeal to obtain contracts, nay submit bids which are less than the cost of 
performance, intending ].ater to shift the burden to their employees or the 
consLU-ier, or both. 

Substitution of Inferior Llaterials . - Tiie oractice of substitution of 
inferior materials is self erq^lanatory. The contrs.ctor, in an attempt to 
gain a profit, substitutes less costly materials than those specified in 
the contract. 

Rebates gmd Commissions , - The granting of rebates and the demands for 
commissions o.re siuf icientl'^'' related to be discussed together. In both 
instances the contractor, in order to obtain the contract, agrees to return 
a percentage of the amount he receives for the job to the person from \7h0r., 
or through whom, he received the contract, 

Siiblettinug; Labor Service . - In the subletting of labor services, the 
contractor attempts to reduce labor costs by contracting for labor services 
at a figujce less than he estimates the cost will be. In this manner an 
effort is r.ade to counteract the effects of a bid which was too low to return 
a legitimate profit. 

Spreading of Unfair Trade Practices 

To iDOint to the origin of and to trace the spreading of, unfair trade 
practices in this Industry v?ould be an iirpossible task. The initiation of 
an;/ of the above enumerated abusive practices, in any particular locality^or 
area, is a matter of small conseaj-ience rjid probably passes without notice. 

8788 



«21- 

The ■■oiiiversality of use and the sinilarit:'- of nethods is clear evidence fc lat 
such aousive -oractices spread li':e disease and contaninated the Industr" 
thro-U(-;hout the nation. The rapidit:' vith T.'hich these -practices spread was 
accelerated hj^ the fact that, as shoun in the Construction Ind-astr','- Census, 
a-opro::inately 17 per cent of all T'ork reported was perfomed outside the 
contractor's hone cit;^. 

Effects of Unfair Practices 

'The effects of the various unfair trade -oractices react upon consuriers, 
enplovees, and the nenhers of the IndListry. 'Tlie tendency, in nost instances, 
is to lessen or eliminate the contractor's profit. In order to coahat this 
tendenc:^, the contractor attevrpts to pass the hm'den on to consumers or to 
eraployees. He na;', hy substitution of cheaper and f;enerally inferior materials 
or 1)3" reducing wages, lengthening,'; hours, and drivin;" his enpl03/"ees, attempt 
to reduce costs, Thtis, the employee, the consujncr, and the contractor — 
any or all of them ma;.' oe adversely affected. 



8788 



-22- 

Chapter VI 

GSlTESAIi Il^F0SivL4.TI0K 

History gjid Growth of the Industry 

As to the origin and early history of tne Indixstry, little is recorded. 
It is protatle that early painting was largely for decorative purposes and 
the materials consisted only of whitewash and ochre. With the discovery 
that paint had a more material value, i. e., that of a preservative, the 
field of operation was broadened and great impetus was given the Industry, 
It was no longer dependent merely upon the esthetic taste, tut it became 
a matter of economy to apply iiaint at more or less regular intervals, 

progress in the Industry has been aided by new techniques in the manu- 
facture of paint and consequent improvement in the product. This improve- 
ment has been mainly along tr/o lines. The variety of colors has been in- 
creased, and the preservative qualities of paint have been developed. Some 
conception of the success of the paint manufacturers and some idea of the 
growth of the Painting, Paperhanging and Decorating Industry may be had from 
the following table: 

TABLE XI 

Total Value of Paints and Varnishes Manufactured 

in the United States, for selected 
;g3ars. 1899-1953 



Year Value 
(in Thousands) 

1899 $ 69,562 

1909 124,899 

1919 340,346 

1929 563,976 

1931 348,855 

1933 289,442 

Source: Census of Manufactures , "Paints and 
Varnishes." 

The figures, though dealing only with value of products, indicate that 
since 1899 the country has become "paint conscious," and suggest that the 
volume of business performed by the painting contracting industry has in- 
creased tremendously within the last few decades. 

Changes in Technique 

The changes in methods of application have hardly kept pace with the 
development in materials and their uses. The greater portion of paints, var- 
nishes, and wallpapers are still applied in much the same manner as they were 
years ago. The brushes and various instruments of application have been 
improved, but remain the basic instruments. The only change of a revolutionary 
nature has been the appearance within the past two aecades of the spray 

8788 



-23- 

machine as an instruiaent for ap^'lying paint. 

As the Paint Manufacturing Industry has developed, the degree of skill 
required of the members of the Painting Contracting Industry has lessened 
in the field of paint preparation, and increased in the field of application. 
The chemist of the paint nroducer has taken over the v7ork of compounding 
color, while the painter has had to increase his dexterity in applying the 
many nev! finishes and color schemes now a.vaila'ble. 

Trade and Emplo7/"ee Organizations 

The members of the Indastr?/ recognized the advantages of organiza.tion 
and as early as 1834 the International Association of Master Painters was 
organized, the first annual convention having been held in llew York City in 
1885. The employee organization, the Brotherhood of Painters aJid Decorators 
of America,, was not far behind, having been organized in 1887. 

The early history of the latter group is filled with conflicts between 
competing elements, both within and outside the organization. Despite these 
difficulties, the Brotherhood became numerically strong, growing from 600 to 
7,000 within the first year, and reaching 20,000 by 1894 when a split oc- 
curred. The immediate cause of the split was an attempt to wrest control 
from the Baltimore members. This caused a marked decrease in membership, 
but when reconciliation was effected rapid gains were made. When reunion 
finallj'' occurred in 1901 there were 29,000 members. Locals which had been 
organized independently during the period of strife began to affiliate with 
the International and by 1904 the membership had increased to 65,000, In 
1911 the paperhangers became affiliated. 

In more recent years the growth has not been so constant. The member- 
ship in 1920 had reached 124,835, but the next year it fell to 110,082, and 
in 1922 to 97,117, The membership "^or the past few years, as reported at 
the international convention, was'; 1929, 108,100; 1933, 59,300; and, 1934, 
57,800, The sharp decrease in membership from 1929 may, for the most part, 
be attributed to inability to pay dues which, of course, results from un- 
emplojonent. 

Labor Relations 

The relationship between labor and management has, on the whole, been 
amicable. This friendly relationship can be explained in part by the fact 
that in many instances the employers of today v/ere the employees of the past. 

In an attempt to counteract the loss of working time due to the seasonal 
fluctuations in the Industry, the Master Painters Union in 1930 successfully 
negotiated agreements for the five-day week in 17 cities, affecting 65,000 
journejTnen. At the 1933 convention 76 agreements were reported regarding 
wages, hours, and general working conditions. This report did not include 
all agreements of 1933, but only those reported up to April 30 of that year, 

Financial Condition of the Industry 

While no statistics are available relative to the subject, it is gen- 
erally believed that the financial condition in 1934, including net profits, 
improved somewhat over the year before, 

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Notwithstanding this general improvement, a larce part of the responsi'bilitj'- 
for mich, according to the Secretary of the fomier Code Authority, may "be 
attributed to the Code of Fair Competition, the Incmstry has "by no me?jis 
attained the financial standing it enjoyed in 1929, 

Experts 

The outstanding men in the Industry, who, according to the Secretarj' 
of the former Code Authority, may "be regarded as experts qualified to furnish 
information relative to the Industry, are: 



Herbert E, Brace, 

314 Divisadero Street, 

San Francisco, Calif. 

Charles B. Hart, 
Vice-President and Treasurer, 
National Decorating Service, 
4035 S» Michigan Ave,, 
Chicago, 111. 

Franklin Marling, Jr, , 
President and Treasurer, 
T, C. G-leich Company, 
3945 Sheridan Eoad, 
Chicago, 111. 

George D. Cornell, 

President, George D. Cornell Co,, 

3£19 Detroit Avenue, 

Cleveland, Ohio, 

Otto Grimmer, 
Charles Grimmer & Sons, 
230 E, 37th St., 
New York, N, Y, 

Charles Kra,yer, 

Owner, Charles Krayer and Sons, 

4526 Oneida Avenue, 

New York, N, Y. 



P. G. Osborn, 
P. G. Osborn Company, 
807 Sipley St,, 
San Antonio, Texas. 

J. Frank Jones, 
110 E. Gary Street, 
Richmond, Va. 

S. B. Oster, 
S, B. Oster Company, 
1541 W. Thompson St., 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

J. J. Swan, Owner, 

Swan Paint ^ Decorating Company, 

6547 Pacific Street, 

Omaha, Neb, 

John Ehrhardt, President, 
Ehrhardt Studio of Decorating, 
5737 Vernon Ave. , 
St. Louis, Lio, 

E, E. Breno, Owner, 
E, E, Breno Company, 
528 S. Zunis St. , 
Tulsa, Oklahoma, 

Arthur D, Campbell, President, 
Anerican Painting & Decorating Co., 
40 Batterymarch St., 
Boston, Mass. 



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