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Full text of "Evidence study"

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3 9999 06317 547 ^ 



NATIONAL RECOVERY ADMINISTRATION 



DIVISION OF REVIEW 



EVIDENCE STUDY 
NO. 30 

OF 

THE PLUMBING CONTRACTING INDUSTRY 



Prepared by 
JOHN C. HUMPHREY 



September, 1935 



PRELIMINARY DRAFT 
(NOT FOR RELEASE: FOR USE IN DIVISION ONLY) 



THE EVIDENCE STUDY SERIES 

The EVIDENCE STUDIES were originally planned as a means of gathering 
evidence tearing upon various legal issues which arose under the National 
Industrial Recovery Act. 

These studies have value quite aside from the use for which they were 
originally intended. Accordingly, they are now made available for confidential 
use within the Division of Review, arid for inclusion in Code Histories* 

The full list of the Evidence Studies is as follows: 



1. Automobile Manufacturing Ind. 23. 

2. Boot and Shoe Mfg. Ind. 24. 

3. Bottled Soft Drink Ind. 25. 

4. Builders' Supplies Ind. 26. 

5. Chemical Mfg. Ind. 27. 

6. Cigar Mfg. Industry 28. 

7. Construction Industry 29. 
S. Cotton Garment Industry 30. 

9. Dress Mfg. Ind. 31. 

10. Electrical Contracting Ind, 32. 

11. Electrical Mfg. Ind. 33. 

12. Fab. Metal prod. Mfg., etc. 34. 

13. Fishery Industry 35. 

14. Furniture Mfg. Ind. 36. 

15. General Contractors Ind. 37. 

16. Graphic Arts Ind. 38. 

17. Gray Iron Foundry Ind. 39. 

18. Hosiery Ind. 40. 

19. Infant's & Children's Wear Ind. 41. 

20. Iron and Steel Ind. 42. 

21. Leather 43. 

22. Lumber & Timber Prod. Ind. 



Mason Contractors Industry 

Men's Clothing Industry 

Motion Picture Industry 

Motor Bus Mfg. Industry (Dropped) 

Needlework Ind. of Puerto Rico 

Painting & Paperhanging & Decorating 

Photo Engraving Industry 

Plumbing Contracting Industry 

Retail Food (See No. 42) 

Retail Lumber Industry 

Retail Solid Fuel (Dropped) 

Retail Tra.de Industry 

Rubber Mfg. Ind. 

Rubber Tire Mfg. Ind. 

Silk Textile Ind. 

Structural Clay Products Ind. 

Throwing Industry 

Trucking Industry 

Waste Materials Ind. 

Wholesale & Retail Food Ind. (See No. 

Wholesale Fresh Fruit & Veg. 31) 



In addition to the studies brought to completion, certain materials have 
been assembled for other industries. These MATERIALS are included in the series 
and are also made available for confidential use within the Division of Review 
and for inclusion in Code Histories, as follows; 



44. Wool Textile Industry 

45. Automotive parts & Equip. Ind. 

46. Baking Industry 

47. Canning Industry 

48. Coat and Suit Ind. 



49. 
50. 
51. 
52. 
53. 



Household Goods & Storage, etc. (Drop- 
Motor Vehicle Retailing Trade Ind, ped) 
Retail Tire & Battery Trade Ind. 
Ship & Boat Bldg. & Repairing Ind, 
Wholesaling or Distributing Trad3 



L. C. Marshall 
Director, Division of Review 



C^\-)k *b 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Foreword 1 

Chapter I - THE NATURE OF THE INDUSTRY 

Definition and Scope of the Industry 2 

Number of Establishments 

Size of Establishments 3 

Geographical Distribution of Establishments 3 

Aggregate Capital Investment 4 

Estimated Total Value of Business 4 

Products of the. Industry 5 

Competition from Other Industries 5 

Chapter II - LABOR STATISTICS 6 

Number of Wage Earners 6 

Census of Construction Data 6 

Census of Occupations Data 6 

Code Authority Data 6 

Research and planning Division Data 6 

Seasonality of Employment S 

Estimated Total Annual Wages Paid 7 

Census of Construction Data 7 

Code Authority Data 7 

Average Hourly Wage Rate 

Union Wage Scales 

Union Scales of Hours Per Week 9 

Average Hours Worked Per Year 10 

Child Labor 10 

Number of plumbers by Principal States 10 

Estimated Total Annual Wages Paid . • 

oby principal States 11 

Relation of Labor Cost to 

Value of Business 12 

Chapter III - MATERIALS 14 

Materials Used by the Industry 14 

Expenditures for Materials 14 

Sources of Production of Plumbing 

Fixtures and Accessories 15 

Relation of Cost of Materials to 

Value of Business 17 

Chapter IV - PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION 19 

Estimated Value of Business by Principal States. • . 19 

Interstate Nature of Plumbing Contracts 20 

Advertising 21 

Shifts in Centers of Production 21 

Productive Capacity 21 



8644 -i- 



CONTENTS (Cont'd) 

Page 

Chapter V - TRADE PRACTICES 22 

Unfair Trade Practices 22 

Sid^Shopping . •.'■,: ; 22 

Bid-peddling 22 

Substitution of Materials 22 

Selling Goods or Rendering Services 

Below Cost 22 

Lumping or Sub-Letting of Labor Contracts 22 

Spread of Unfair Trade practices from 

One Area to Another 22 

Effect of Prices of Individual Members 

Upon the National Price Structure 23 

Chapter VI ~ GENERAL INFORMATION 24 

History of the Industry 24 

History of the Industry 1 s 

Labor Organizations 24 

Experts 24 



oOo 



8644 ~ii- 



TABLES 

Page 

TABLE I - Number of Establishments, by Value 
of Business and Kind of Contractor, 
1929 3 

TABLE II - Number of Establishments by 

Principal States, 1929 4 

TABLE III - Number of Wage Earners Reported by 

2,510 Plumbing-Contracting Establish- 
ments, by Months, 1929 7 

TABLE IV - Estimated Total Annual Wages Paid: 

1929, 1931, 1933, and 1934 8 

TABLE V - Average Hourly Wage Rate for Plumbers 
in Various Cities, 1929, 1931, 1933 
and 1934 8 

TABLE VI - Union Scales of Hourly Wage Pates 

for Plumbers in 10 Important Cities, 

1929-1934 9 

TABLE VII - Union Scales of Hours for Plumbers 

in 10 Important Cities, 1929-1934 9 

TABLE VIII - Estimated Average Number of Hours 

Worked Per Year, by Selected Regions, 1929 10 

TABLE IX - Total Number of Plumbers and Gas and 
Steamfitters and Estimated Number of 
Plumbers in Manufacturing and Mechanical 
Industries, by Principal States, 193 : J ........ 11 

TABLE X - Estimated Wages Paid, by Principal 

States, 1929 12 

TABLE XI - Value of Business Compared with 

Annual Wages, 1929 13 

TABLE XII - Cost of Materials Furnished and Used, 

By Principal Product Groups, 1929 15 



8644 -iii- 



TABLES (Cont>d) 



0O0 



Page 



TABLE XIII - Volume and Value of Production of the 
Chief Enameled Iron Plumbing Fixtures, 
by Principal States, 1929 16 

TABLE XIV - Value of Production of Plumbers' Brass 
Goods and Other Plumbers' Supplies, By 
Principal States, 1929 17 

TABLE XV - Value of Business and Cost of 

Materials, 1929 18 

TABLE XVI - Estimated Value of Business, by 

Principal States, 1929 19 

TABLE XVII - Value of Business Performed in 

Home State and Outside Home State, 

By Principal States, 1929 20 



8644 _ iv . 



PLUI.IBIITG COHTPACTIhG- 
Foreword 



There is a decided la.dk of published government data coextensive 
with the code definition of the Plumbing Contracting Industry. The Census 
of the Construction Industry, taken only for the year 1929, is the prin- 
cipal source of relevant data hut for purposes of analysis of the Industry, 
as defined "by the Code, its figures are subject to Qualification. 

The Census of Construction classifies plumbing contractors hy value 
of business, dividing then into two groups: (l) those having a value of 
"business of $25,000 and riore in 1929; and, (2) those having a value of 
business of less than $25,000 in 1929. In the former group the classifi- 
cations hy kind of contractor are "Plumbing" end "Plumbing and Heating, 
Combined"; and, in the latter group, "Plumbing and Heating, Combined". 
Thus, any combination of Census classifications which includes the total 
plumbing contracting business will also include the heating contracting 
business, which was not covered "cy the Code definition. 

While the Census of Construction data are thus on the one hand too 
inclusive for the Industry as codified, they are for another reason not 
sufficiently inclusive. The establishments covered by the two combined 
Census classifications do not represent the total number of establish- 
ments doing plumbing work, since the Census counts as plumbing contractors 
only those for whom plumbing is the principal line of work, whereas the 
Code is intended to cover also the plumbing work done by other kinds of 
subcontractors and by general contractors, as well as work done by 
qualified mechanics in the employ of industrial firms and building owners 
or operators. 

Regarding the Census data, it should also be noted that not all the 
establishments reported, every item on the Census schedule. In cases 
where complete reporting of an item was lacking, estimates of totals 
have been derived from the data furnished by the reporting establishments. 

The labor data available are far from complete. In the absence of 
statistics on actual earnings, '.-rage rates as reported by the Builders' 
Association and by the Bureau of Labor Statistics have been used. 

I ; should "be pointed out that the primary data, furnished by ERA, 
Research and Planning Division, and by the former Code Authority, represent 
estimates rather than statements of fact. 



8644 



Chapter I 

THE NATURE OP THE INDUSTRY 

Definition and Scope of the Industry," 

The Plumbing Contracting Division of the Construction Industry, as 
defined by the Code, 

"includes selling to consumers and/or repairing or installing, 
for profit or hire, all types of plumbing equipment and fix- 
tures, including water supply systems or parts thereof, drain- 
age systems or parts thereof, plumbing connections to air 
conditioning systems, air and gas piping, gas and ga.soline 
piping, vacuum cleaning systems or parts thereof, such other 
piping and equipment as is commonly handled by Master PI limbers, 
and all other articles pertaining to plumbing",!/ 

The term "Plumbing Contractor" or "Master Plumber" as defined by the 
Code means: 

"Section 2. Any individual who has passed a sat isf actor;'' examin- 
ation, where required by law, covering his technical training and exper- 
ience in the engineering and manual aspects of his Division; has a 
license where required, in conformity with the requirements of the area 
in which he operates, or, in areas where no license is required, is 
capable of making a satisfactory installation under either the 'United 
States Bureau, of Standards' Recommended Minimum Requirements for Plumb- 
ing as Revised to May, 1351', or the 'Plumbing Code' approved by the 
National Association of Master Plumbers of The United States, Inc., in 
Convention June, 1933; or a firm, corporation or other entity organized 
for the purpose of selling and installing plumbing products, any member, 
officer, or regular employee of which is qualified as above provided. 
Copies of said 'Recommended Minimum Requirements' and 'Plumbing Code' 
shall be obtainable through the Code Authority. " 

The bulk of all plumbing work is done by plumbing contractors 
either direct for building owners or under subcontracts through general 
contractors. Plumbing work is also done by licensed or otherwise 
qualified mechanics in the employ of industrial firms and building 
owners or operators, and by homeowners and householders who make their 
own installations and repairs. 

Number of Establishments 

The Census of Construction reported that there were 25,524 
establishments doing plumbing contracting work in 1929, of which number 
approximately 11 per cent were engaged, in plumbing contracting only, 
and approximately 89 per cent of which were engaged in plumbing and 
heating contracting combined, (See Table I, below.) Since plumbing 
contractors usually are licensed or since their addresses are readily 



1/ Code Ho. 244— Supplement ITo. 9 
8644 



available, it is believed that the coverage of the Census canvass was 
practically complete. 

ho data are available as to the number of establishments operating 
during 1931 and 1933. The Industry presented a list of 25,000 plumbing 
contractors in 1934 and the Code Authority showed 25,500 plumbing con- 
tractors on its mailing list as of March 10, 1955. 

Size of Establishments 

As already indicated, the Census of Construction for 1929 classifies 
contractors by value of business, dividing them into two groups: (l), 
those having done a business of less than $25,000; and, (2), "those having 
done a business of $25,000 and over. Host of the establishments were in 
the former group, there being 21,498 such establishments, or approximately 
84 per cent of the total number of establishments. In the latter group 
there were only 4,026 establishments, or approximately 16 per cent of the 
total. (See Table I, Below) Only a little more than one-third the esti- 
mated total business was cone by the small-sized establishments. 

table i 

Number of Establishments, by Value of Business 
and Kind of Contractor, 1929 



Value of Business and 
Kind of Contractor 



Establi sir"; ent s 



llumber 



Per Cent 
of Total 



Value of Business 

Amount Per Cent 
(000's) of Total 



U. S. Total 



2b, 524 



100.0 



$556, 093^/ 100.0 



Less than $25,000 

Plumbing and Keating, 



Combined 21,498 




34.2 




205, 521b/ 




36.9 


$25,000 and over 














Plumbing 2,803 




11.0 




256,834 




46.2 


Plumbing and Heating, 














Combined 1,218 




4.3 




93,738 




16.9 


Source: Census Report, Construction I 


ndus 


:try, 1929, 


Subcontract 


ors, 


i 


"Plumbing, " and "Plumbing and 


Pleating, 


Comb 


ined. " 






a/ In part an estimate as explai 


ned 


in i'ootnot 


e b/. 






b/ Estimated by multiplying the 


avei 


•age value 


of business 


for 


the 



5,008 reporting establishments Vj the total number of establishments. 

C-eogra'ohical Distribution of Establishments 

Establishments of the Industry are situated in every State and in the 
District of Columbia, Data presented below in Table II show that 68 per 



8644 



_ 4 - 

cent of the total irariber of establishments nere sitxiated in ten states, 
lieu Yorl: having about 15 ier cent and Pennsylvania approximately 12 per 
cent of the total. 

TA3LE II 
Slumber of Establishments, by Principal States, 1929 



State 



Total 



lumber of Per Cent 
Estahlish- of Total 
nents 



$25,000 and over 
"umber of Per Cent 
Establish- of Total 

ments 



Less than $25,000 
lumber of Per Cent 
Establish- of Total 
ments 



U.S. Total 2o,524 



100.0 



4,026 



100.0 



21,490 



100.0 



California 


1,554 


6.1 




255 


6.3 


1,299 


6.0 


Connecticut 


976 


3.9 




135 


3.4 


841 


3.9 


Illinois 


1,323 


5.2 




294 


7.3 


1,029 


4.8 


liassachusetts 


' 1,300 


5.1 




230 


5.7 


1,070 


5.0 


Michigan 


1,209 


4.7 




229 


5.7 


980 


4.6 


lieu Jersey- 


2,016 


7.9 




241 


6.0 


1,775 


8.3 


Hen Yorl: 


4,039 


15.8 




698 


17.3 


3,541 


15.3 


Ohio 


1,431 


5.6 




239 


5.9 


1,192 


5.5 


Pennsylvania 


2,973 


11.6 




321 


3.0 


2,652 


12.5 


Wisconsin 


696 


2.7 




171 


4.3 


525 


2.5 


Total foi- 
















10 States 


17,517 


63.6 


2 


,813 


69.9 


14,704 


68.4 


Total for 
















Other States 


; 3,007 


31.4 


1 


,213 


30.1 


6,794 


31.6 


Source: Census Ile-oort, 


Construction 


Industry, 


1929, 


Subcontractors , 





"Plumbing, " and "Plumbing and Heating, Conbined, " 

A.^Tre^ate Capital Investment 

Estimates as to the total amount of capital invested in the Industry are 
not available. Data on the inventor - / value of construction equipment at the 
end of 1929 are available from the Census of Construction, uhich shor the 
average value of equipment per plumbing contractor as $2,746, and the average 
per plumbing and heating contractor as $5,345. 1/ Since only those firms 
xrhich did an annual business of $25,000 end over reported this item, the 
average for all establishments would not be so large as these figures indi- 
cate. 

Estimated Total Value of 3-asiness 

On the basis of Census of Construction data, the value of business 
for plumbing and plumbing and heating contractors in 1929, is estimated 



1/ Census report, The Construction Industry, 1929 , Subcontractors, 

"Plumbing," and "Plumbing and Heating, Combined," Table 5. 
3644 



- 5 - 

at $556,093,000. (See Table I, above.) Since not all of those establish- 
ments in the "less than $25,000" group reported their volume of business 
the total for this group has been estimated from the average value of 
business per reporting establishment. The value of heating contracting 
business which was not covered by the plumbing Contracting Code is included 
in the figure, but it would be difficult to find a basis for estimating 
accurately the portion of the total which should be allocated to this work. 

Products of the Industry . 

The principal products sold and/or installed by the Industry are 
domestic and industrial water and sanitary systems. ITo data are avail- 
able to show the retail sales value or the total installation cost of each 
specified product. 

Competition from Other Industries 

There are practically no other industries whose products compete 
directly with those of the Plumbing Contracting Industry, Members of 
other divisions of the Construction Industry may be regarded as competitors 
of plumbing contractors when they bid on plumbing projects; or, competition 
may be said to exist between members of this Industry and homeowners, 
householders, and commercial and industrial concerns doing plumbing won: on 
their own properties. 



8644 



-6- 

Chapter II 

LABOR STATISTICS 
Number of Wage Earners 

Census of Construction Data , - From the data in the Census of Construction, 
the number of wage earners may not be validly estimated even for the reporting 
group of establishments having an annual value of business of $25,000 and over, 
due to the peculiar characteristics of employment in this Industry. Plumbers 
operate in a common pool system. Non- continuous employment with any given em- 
ployer, continual rota.tion of plumbers from shop to shop, and high labor turn- 
over result in much lost time even during the busy seasons. The Census of Con- 
struction data, which show the number of wage earners as of the 15th of the month, 
obviously can not take into consideration the rotating aspect of employment. 
Consequently, any figure reported by this Census represents only the lower limit 
of the number employed by the larger establishmentsc 

Census of Occupations Data . - The 1930 Census of Occupations does not list 
plumbers separately but combines that classification r/ith the gas and steam- 
fitter classification. In 1930, there were reported 237,813 plumbers and gas 
and steamfitters, and 5,937 apprentices in all manufacturing and mechanical in- 
dustries. In the Building Industry alone there were reported 164,601 plumbers 
and gas and steamfitters and 5,475 apprentices. 1/ It should be noted that 
these data refer not to the number actually employed in that year, but to the 
number reporting themselves as belonging, by occupation, to the plumbing and gas 
and steamfitting trades. The use of Census of Occupations data may lead to over- 
estimation due to the fact that apprentices, laborers, helpers, and other un- 
qualified workers tend to classify themselves as plumbers. 

Reports from 4,093 local unions of plumbers and steamfitters submitted to 
the Research and Planning Division of N.R.A. in 1934 show that 65 per cent of 
their total membership was composed of plumbers. If this ratio were applied to the 
Census of Occupations totals would indicate approximately 106,990 plumbers in ad- 
dition to an indeterminate number of apprentices, laborers, etc., for the entire 
Building Industry in 1930. 

Code Authority Data . - E. L. Flentje of the former Code Authority reported 
estimates of the number employed as 172,000 in 1929; 140,000 in 1931; 120,000 
in 1933; and 130,000 in 1934. 2/ 

Research and planning Division Data . - A study made by the National Associa- 
tion of Master Plumbers covering 7045 firms, showed an average of 6 full or part- 
time employees for each plumbing contractor in 1929, and an average of 2.52 em- 
ployees for the two-year period during 1932 and 1933. Among the employees report 
ed were some engaged part-time in heating and piping and some who worked at both 
heating and plumbing. Also, these figures include journeymen plumbers, appren- 
tices, warehousemen, wagon drivers, helpers, laborers, bookkeepers, stenographers 
and estimators. These averages, multiplied by the numbe r of contractors, would 
indicate a total employment of approximately 150,000 in 1929, and 63,000 as the 
average for 1932 and 1933. 

Seasonality of Employment . - Plumbing contracting is less influenced by 
seasonal factors than other divisions of the Construction Industry, largely due 
to the steady volume of maintenance and emergency repair work. Census of Con- 
struction data, presented below in Table III, indicate that in the 2,510 plumbing 
contracting establishments reporting the number of wage earners by months, 3/ 
the minimum employment of February was approximately 83 per cent of the maximum 

reached in August during the year 1929. . 

1/ Census of Population, 1930, Occupation Statistics . "Gainful Workers by 

Industry and Occupation." 
2/ The basis for arriving at these estimates is not known. 
3/ A sample which covers about 90 per cent of all the plumbing contracting 
,- . . establishments in the $25,000 and over group. 



-7- 

TABLE III 

Number of Wage Earners Reported by 2,510 plumbing-Contracting 
Establishments, by Months, 1929 a/ 



Month 



Number of 
Wage Earners 



Per Cent of 
Maximum Month 



Average 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 



28,808 

26,796 
25,748 
26 , 898 
28,918 
29 , 494 
30 , 348 
30,525 
31 , 044 
30,900 
30,251 
23,297 
26,480 



86.3 
82.9 
86.6 
93.2 
95.0 
97.8 
98.3 
100.0 
99.5 
97.4 
91.2 
85.3 



Source: Census report, Construction Industry, 1929 , Subcontractors, 
"plumbing. 11 

a/ The reporting concerns fell in the group having an annual value of 

business of $25,000 and over in 1929. The number of wage earners 
is reported as of the 15th of each month or the nearest represexita- 
tive day. 



Estimated Total Annual Wages Paid 

Census of Construction Da ta. - Only the "$25,000 and over" group of 
establishments reported on wages in the Census of Construction. These es- 
tablishments reported that wages amounted to $89,315,000 in 1929, or 25.9 
per cent of the value of business done by their own forces ($344,293,000) if, 
If this percentage is applied to the estimated total value of business for 
both groups of establishments ($556,093,000) there would be an estimated 
total amount of wages of $144,028,000 in 1929. (See Table IV below.) 
This figure includes an indeterminate amount of wages paid in heating con- 
tracting work, which was not covered by the Code. On the other hand, the 
figure is underestimated to a certain degree since a portion of the total 
value of business is represented by wages accruing to plumbing contractors 
for their own work. 



Code Authority Data . - The Code Authority estimates of the total annual 
wages paid by the Industry are shown in Table IV, as follows: 



1/ This value figure obtained by subtracting from $350,572,000 (See Table I 
above) $5,279,000 for sub-contract work let. 



8644 



TABLE IV 
Estimated Total Annual Wages Paid: 1929, 1931, 1933, and 1934- 
Year Amount of Total Annual Wages 

1929 4189,200,000 

1931 126,000,000 

1933 84,000,000 

1934 123,500,000 

Source; Code Authority for the plumbing Contracting Division of the 
Construction Industry. 

Average Hourly Waee Bate 

The average hourly wage rate for plumbers tends to vary with the size 
and location of the city of employment, higher rates prevailing in the larger 
cities in the northern zone of states. The average rates reported by the 
Builders' Association, shown below in Table V, are for union and non-union 
plumbers in both large and small cities throughout the United States. 
Beginning in 1930, intense competition led to a collapse of the wage-rate 
structure with great instability of rates prevailing both in single com- 
munities and throughout the country. Under such conditions the wide variation 
in rates practically invalidates the significance of an "average" wage rate 
for the years following 1950. 

TABLE V 

Average Hourly Wage Rate for plumbers in Various Cities, 
1929, 1931, 1933, and 1934 

Year number of Cities Average Hourly 

Covered Wage Rate 

1929 107 $1.31 

IS 31 121 1.30 

1933 113 1.07 

1934 115 1.17 

Source: Builders' Association, Annual report: "Wage Rates per Hour 
'For Building Trades in the principal Cities." 

Union Wage Scales 

Union scales of hourly wage rates, as reported by the Bureau of Labor 
Statistics, for plumbers in ten leading cities are presented in Table VI. 

These figures indicate that the greatest reduction in hourly rates dur- 
ing the sis-year period shown occurred in 1932, with some further decreases 
following in 1953. The 1934 rates were about the same as, or slightly 
higher than, the rates for 1933. 

8644 



-9- 

TABLE VI 

Union Scales of Hourly Wage Rates for plumbers in 
10 important Cities, 1929-1934 









Rates 


Per Hour 


(Dollars) 




City 




1929 


1930 


1931 


1932 


1933 


1934 


Baltimore 




1.375 


1.375 


1.500 


1 . 500 


1.000 


1.100 


Boston 




1.375 


1.500 


1.500 


1.250 


1.250 


1.250 


Chi cago 




1.625 


1.625 


1.700 


1.375 


1.375 


1.375 


Denver 




1.375 


1.375 


1.375 


1.188 


1.000 


1.000 


Los Angeles 




1.125 


1.125 


1.125 


1.125 


1.125 


1.125 


New Orleans 




1.050 


1.050 


1.050 


1.050 


1.053 


1.050 


New York 




1.500 


1.650 


1.650 


1.400 


1.500 


1.500 


Philadelphia 




1.150 


1.250 


1.250 


1.040 


1.040 


1.150 


St . Loui s 




1.625 


1.625 


1.625 


l.§25 


1.438 


1.438 


San Francisco 




1.250 


1.250 


1.250 


1.250 


1.250 


1.100 


Source: Bureau 


of Labor 


Statist 


ics, Mor 


ithly Labo 


r Review 


( June , 


1935) 



Union Scales of Hours per Week 

Table VII, below, shows the union scales of hours per week in ten 
cities, as reported by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and indicates a 
general reduction during the last few years of hours per week for union 
plumbers. In 1929, there were union agreements in eight of the ten im- 
portant cities requiring a 44 hour week, and in two cities a 40 hour week 
was specified. By 1934, a 40 hour week was in effect for union plumbers 
in all of the cities except Chicago, where the scale of 44 hours was con- 
tinued, and in Philadelphia, where 35 hours per week was specified. 

TAELS VII 

Union Scales of Hours for Plumbers in 10 Important 
Cities, 1929-1954 



W*tk 



Hours Per 



City 



1929 



1930 



1931 



1932 



1933 



1934 



Baltimore 

Boston 

Chicago 

Denver 

Los Angeles 

New Orleans 

New York 

Philadelphia 

St . Loui s 

San Francisco 



40 
44 
44 
44 
44 
44 
44 
44 
40 
44 



40 
40 
44 
40 
44 
44 
40 
40 
40 
40 



40 
40 
44 
40 
40 
44 
40 
40 
40 
40 



40 
40 
44 
40 
40 
44 
40 
40 
40 
40 



40 

40 
44 
40 
40 
44 
40 
40 
40 
40 



40 
40 
44 
40 
40 
40 
40 
35 
40 
40 



Source: 



8644 



Bureau of Labor Statistics, M onthly Labor Rev iew (June, 1935) 
p. 1559. 



-10- 

Average Kours Worked Fer Year 

Since plumbing work is done on an hourly rather than a weekly "basis, 
the best available measure of the period actually worked per year is the 
average number of hours worked. The Research and planning Division, NRA, 
has estimated the average number of hours worked in 1929 for a few important 
regions. These figures, which are presented in Table VIII below, were de- 
rived by dividing the average annual earnings by the average hourly wage 
rate. Assuming a 44-hour week for all regions, these data would indicate 
a range of weeks worked per year from approximately 21.5 for the Gary region 
to about 30 for the Denver region. 

TABLE VIII 

Estimated Average Number of Hours Worked per Year, by Selected Regions, 1929 



_ . Average Number of 

11651011 Hours Per Year 

Denver, Colorado 1,328 

Buffalo, New York 1,185 

Gary, Indiana 947 

Louisville, Kentucky 960 

Galveston, Texas 1,000 

Birmingham, Alabama 1,023 



Source: NRA, Research and planning Division, compiled from 
"area agreement" data. 

Child Labor 

Child labor is not an important problem in the Industry. According to 
the Census of Occupations, there were 1,«98 plumbers', gas, and steamfitters 1 
apprentices reporting themselves as belonging to the Building Industry who 
were between the ages of 10 and 17 years in 1930. 1/ 

Number of plumbers by principal States 

Census of Occupations data have been used to show the distribution of 
wage earners in the principal states. (See Table IX, below.) Since plumbers 
are not classified separately, but combined with gas aud steamfitters, the 
number of plumbers has been estimated for the principal states by assuming 
that 65 per cent of the total reported were plumbers, as indicated by the 
membership of local unions of plumbers and steamfitters. 2/ As already 
indicated, these estimates include the plumbers in all manufacturing and 
mechanical industries, rather than in the Building Industry only, and tend 
toward exaggeration. These figures do not apply to the number of persons 
actually employed, but apply rather to the number of persons reporting 
themselves belonging, by occupation, to the plumbing trade. 

1/ Census of Population, 1930, Occupation Statistics , "Gainful Workers by 
Industry and Occupation." 

2_/ Regarding this percentage, see above, p. 6. 
8644 



-11- 

The data in Table IX show that in 1930 about 66 per cent of the total 
estimated number of plumbers resided in the ten leading states, with approx- 
imately 17 per cent in New York and 10 per cent in Pennsylvania. 

TABLE IX 

Total Number of Plumbers and Gas and Steamfitters and Estimated 
Number of Plumbers in Manufacturing and Mechanical Industries, 
by Principal States, 1930 



State 



Total Number of Plumbers 
and Gas and Steamfitters 



Estimated Number 
of Plumbers 



Number 


Per Cent 




of Total 


154,578 


100.0 


8,713 


5.6 


3,496 


2.3 


10,908 


7.1 


7,806 


5.1 


7,235 


4.7 


10,703 


6.9 


26,785 


17.3 


9,069 


5.9 


14,750 


9,5 


3,091 


2.0 



U. S. Total 237,813 

California 13,405 

Connecticut 5,379 

Illinois 16,781 

Massachusetts 12,009 

Michigan 11,131 

Ne\7 Jersey 16,466 

New York 41,207 

Ohio 13,952 

Pennsylvania 22,692 

Wisconsin 4,755 

Total for 10 States 157,777 

Total for Other States 80,036 



102,574 
52,004 



66.4 



33.6 



Source; Census of Population, 1930, Occupations, "oy States for total num- 
ber of plumbers and gas and steamfitters; number of plumbers 
estimated at 65 per cent of the total on the basis of membership 
of local unions of plumbers and steamfitters. 

Estimated Total Annual Wages Paid by Principal States 

The method previously used in this report in estimating total wages 
paid in both groups of establishments in the United States as a whole has 
been applied in estimating wages paid in the ten principal states. The 
data are given in Table X, below. These wage figures include wages paid 
in heating contracting work, which was not covered ^y the Code, but do 
not include wages paid to plumbing contractors for their own work. 

Approximately 73 per cent of the total annual wages were paid in ten 
states. 



8644 



-12- 

TABLE X 

Estimated Wages Paid, by principal States, 1929 a/ 

Estimated Total W ages 
State Amount Per Cent 

(000' s) of Total 

U. S. Total $144,028 100.0 

California 

Connecticut 

Illinois 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

New Jersey 

New York 

Ohio 

Pennsylvania 

Wisconsin 

Total for 10 states 

Total for other states 

Source; Census report, Construction Industry, 1929 , Sub-contractors, 
"plumbing," and "Plumbing and Keating, Combined." 

a/ Estimated by computing the percentage relationship of reported 

total wages to reported net value of business for the "$25,000 and 
over" group of establishments in each of the ten states, and apply- 
ing this percentage to the estimated total value of business for all 
reporting plumbing and plumbing and heating establishments. 

Relation of Labo r Cost to Value of Business 

In the 2,808 plumbing contracting establishments reporting wage data in 
the Census of Construction, wages represented, on the average, approximately 
26 per cent of the total value of business, and in the 1,218 plumbing and 
heating contracting establishments, 24.5 per cent. (See Table XI, below.) 

E. L. Elentje of the former Code Authority has stated that labor costs 
represent about 33 per cent of tlie cost of new work and about 31 per cent of 
the cost of remodeling work. These averages are not contradictory to the 
Census of Construction averages, since it appears that the Code Authority 
figures are based primarily on the cost to the contractor, rather than on the 
cost to the ourchaser or ultimate consumer. 



9,071 


6.3 


4,775 


3.3 


12,525 


8.7 


7,534 


5.2 


7,719 


5.4 


9,247 


6.4 


29,972 


20.8 


8,039 


5.6 


11,736 


8.1 


4,472 


3.2 


05,090 


73.0 


38.938 


27.0 



8644 



-13- 

TABLE XI 
Value of Business Compared with Annual Wages, 1929 a/ 



Kind of Contractor 



Number of Value 
Establish- of Amount 

ments Business (000' s) 

Reporting (OOC's) 



Annual Wages 



per Cent 
of Value 
of Business 



Plumbing 

Plumbing and Heating, 
Combined 



2,808 $256,834 $66,393 25.9 

1,218 93,738 22,922 24.5 



Source; Census report, Construction Industry, 1929 , Subcontractors, 
"Plumbing," and "plumbing and Heating, Combined." 

a/ The reporting concerns fell in the group having a value of 

business of $25,000 and over in 1929. 



8644 



-14- 

Chapter III 
MATERIALS 

Materials Used "by the Industry 

The principal materials used "by the Industry are mainly finished prod- 
ucts rather than raw or semi-processed materials. The principal materials 
used are as follows: 

(1) Enameled iron, vitreous china, and porcelain plumbing fixtures. 

(2) Brass, lead, copier, tin, wrought iron, vitrified and steel 

pipe. 

(3) Cast and spun trass accessories. 

Expenditures for Materials 

According to the Census of Construction, the total cost of materials 
for the 4,026 plumbin? and plumbing and heating contractors in the" $25,000 
and over" group amounted to $134,357,000 in 1920. 

An analysis of the cost of materials purchased and used by plumbing con- 
tractors is presented in Table XI I. Although t^o Census groups, "plumbing," 
and "plumbing and heating," should be combined to obtain coverage as broad as 
that of the Code, data are presented here for the first group only because 
of the large proportion of materials used by members of the latter group in 
operations that were not actually covered by the Code. 

The table indicates that equipment, or fixtures, represented approxi- 
mately 80 per cent of the total cost of materials; plumbing and gas fitting 
equipment accounting for approximately 65 per cent; and heating and ventila- 
ting equipment for about 15 per cent. 



8644 



-15- 



TABLE XII 



Cost of Materials Furnished and Used, 
By Principal Product Groups, 1929 a/ 



Product Grottos 



Total Cost of all Materials 

Plumbing and Gas Fitting Equipment 
Heating and Ventilating Equipment 
Pine: Cast Iron, Sheet, and Tube Steel 
Roofing and Sheet Metal 
Electrical Appliances and Supplies 
Pipe: Drain Tile, Vitrified, Concrete 
Textiles and Caulking Materials 
Lumber, Hough and Finished 
Tile, Facing, and Terra Cotta 
Composition Board 
Cast Iron, Excluding Pine 

Cost of Materials Distributed "by Kind 

Cost of All Other Materials 



Cost of Materials 



Amount 



$135,603,332 

87,363,345 

20,463,654 

1,920,754 

301,595 

619,962 

596,345 

125,060 

98,746 

58,343 

55,821 

54,948 

112,663,575 

22,939,757 



Per Cent 
of Total 



100.00 

64.79 
15.10 
1.42 
.59 
.46 
.44 
.09 
.07 
.04 
.04 
.04 

83,08 

16.92 



Source: Census re-oort, Construction Industry T 1929 . Subcontractors, 
"Plumbing," 

a/ The reporting firms fell in the grotip having a value of business 
of $25,000 and over in 1929. 

Sources of Production of Plumbing: Fixtures and Accessories 

Data from the Census of Manufactures, presented in Tables XI II and XIV 
below, show the principal states for the production of the chief fixtures 
and accessories used by the Industry. It is reasonable to assume that prac- 
tically all of the -plumbing fixtures manufactured are used by the Plumbing 
Contracting Industry or by industrial concerns and property owners making 
their own repairs. 

Production of enameled iron plumbing fixtures is concentrated in 
Pennsylvania, California, and Ohio. Pennsylvania produced approximately 
25 per cent of the bath-tubs, 25 per cent of the lavatories, and 22 per cent 
of the sinks manufactured in 1929. 



8644 



-16- 

TABLE XIII 

Volume and Value of Production of the Chief Enameled Iron 
Plumbing Fixtures, by principal States, 1929 



Bath- Tub s Lavoratories Sinks 

State Number Value Number Value Number Value 



U. S. Total 943,905 $21,355,379 1,116,347 $3,050,040 1,210,615 $12,872,142 

California 81,438 2,272,733 111,754 831,159 119,708 649,366 
Ohio 43,486 1,029,282 59,745 749,594 94,971 909,401 

Pennsylvania 243,430 5,470,566 275,735 1,832,265 268,858 2,785,614 

Total for 
3 States 368,354 8,772,581 447,234 3,413,018 483,537 4,344,381 

Total for • 

Other 
States 575,551 12,582,798 669,615 4.637,022 727,078 8,527,761 

Source: Census of Manufactures. 1929 . Vol. II, "Plumbers Supplies, " Data do 
not include -ornduction of those establishments whose products were 
valued at less than $5,000 in 1929. 

Table XIV below, indicates that the oroduction of plumbers' brass goods 
and miscellaneous supplies is largely concentrated in eight states which, in 
1929, oroduced about 74 per cent of the total value of brass valves, faucets, 
and spigots; for about 89 -oer cent of -clumbers' other brass goods; and for 
atroroximately 65 t>er cent of other clumbers' supplies. 



8644 



-17- 

TABLS XIV 

Value of Production of Plumbers' Brass Goods and Other 
Plumbers' Supplies, By Principal States, 1929 





Brass Val 


.V9S, 




Other Plumb 


ers' 


Other Plumbi 


3rs' 




Faucets, 


and 




Brass Goods 


a/ 


Supplies 






Spigot 


;s 












State 




Per 




Per 




Per 




Value 


Cent 




Value 


Cent 


Value 


Cent 




(000' s) 


of 




(000' s) 


of 


(000' s) 


of 




Total 






Total 




Total 


U. S. Total $32,834 




100.0 


$32,772 


100.0 


$20 , 440 


100.0 


Connecticut 


1,987 




6.1 


5,314 


17.7 


504 


2,5 


Illinois 


6,006 




18.3 


8,548 


26.1 


1,477 


7,2 


Michigan 


2,700 




8.2 


4,189 


12.8 


2,377 


11,6 


New Jersey 


838 




2.6 


942 


2.9 


1,789 


8.8 


New York 


537 




1.6 


2,949 


9.0 


3,168 


15.5 


Ohio 


9,283 




28.3 


2,689 


8.2 


1,534 


7.5 


Pennsylvania 


847 




2.5 


2,588 


7.9 


1,943 


9.5 


Wisconsin 


2,188 




6.7 


1,331 


4.1 


431 


2.1 


Total for 
















8 States 


24,386 




74.3 


29,050 


88.7 


13,223 


64.7 


Total for 
















Other 
















States 


8,448 




25.7 


3,722 


11.3 


7,217 


35.3 


Source: Census of Manufactures, 1929 


, Vol. II, " 


Plumbers 


1 Supplies." 





Data do not include production of those establishments whose 
products were valued at less than $5,000 in 1929. 

a/ Includes brass valves, faucets, and spigots not reported separately. 

The tools used by the Industry consist -orimarily of machine hand tools 
which are produced largely in Connecticut, Illinois, Michigan, Ohio, Rhode 
Island, and Wisconsin. 1/ 

Relation of Cost of Materials to Value of Business 

In the 2,808 plumbing contracting establishments in the "$25,000 and 
over group" reporting to the Census of Construction in 1929, the cost of 
materials represented, on the average, approximately 52.8 ner cent of the 
total value of business, and in the 1,218 plumbing and heating contracting 
establishments in the same group, about 52.0 per cent. 



1/ Census of Manufactures. 1929 . Vol. II, "Machine Tool Accessories." 
8644 



-13- 

TABLE XV 
Value of Business and Cost of Materials, 1929 27 



Type of Contracting Number of Cost of Materials 
Establishment Establishments Value of 



Reoorting Business Amount Per Cent of 
(000 «s) (000' s) Total Value 

of Business 



Plumbing 2,808 $256,834 $135,603 52.8 

Plumbing and Heating, Combined 1,218 93,738 48,754 52.0 

Source: Census reoort, Construction Industry. 1929 . Subcontractors, "Plumb- 
ing", and "Plumbing and Heating, Combined." 

a/ The reporting establishments fell in the group doing a business of 
$25,000 and over in 1929. 



8644 



-19- 

Chapter IV 

PRODUCT I OK AND DISTRIBUTION 

Estimated Value of Business by principal States 

The "mroducts" of the Industry are represented by contracts made and 
performed and the best available measure of total production is the value of 
business transacted. The value of business transacted by plumbing, and 
plumbing and heating contractors in ten states is shorm in Table XVI below. 

These ten states accounted for approximately 74 per cent of the total 
value of business performed ~by the establishments in all establishments 
combined. In 1929, New York, Pennsylvania, Illinois, and California account- 
ed for about 45 per cent of the total. 

TABLE XVI 

Estimated Value of Business, by Principal States, 1929 

(in thousands) 



Estinated Total $25,000 and Over Group Less than $25,000 C-roup 

State Per Cent Value Per Cent Value a/ 

Value of Total (reported) of Total (estimated) 

U. S. Total $555,003 100.0 $550,572 100.0 $205,521 



California 


39,097 


7.0 


26,388 


7.7 


12,209 


Connecticut 


17,750 


o« 2 


o, 5oo 


2.4 


9,162 


Illinois 


42,029 


7.6 


30,681 


8.8 


11,348 


Massachusetts 


27,005 


4.9 


16,716 


4.8 


10,289 


Michigan 


32,570 


5.9 


22,295 


6.4 


10,275 


New Jersey 


35,373 


6.1 


16,272 


4.6 


17,601 


Hew York 


111,420 


20.0 


82,454 


23.5 


28,996 


Ohio 


29,884 


5.4 


17,251 


4.9 


12,633 


Pennsylvania 


60,807 


10.9 


37,308 


10.6 


23,499 


Wisconsin 


13,478 


3.3 


12,595 


3.6 


5,883 



Total for 10 

States 412,913 74.3 271,048 77.3 141,895 

Total for 
Other 
States 143, 18C 25.7 79,524 22.7 63,626 

Source; Census report, Construction Industry, 1929 , Subcontractors, "Plumb- 
ing", and "Plumbing and Heating, Combined." 

a/ Estimated by multiplying the average value of business per reporting 
establishment by the total number of establishments. 



3644 



-20- 



Interstate Nature of plumbing Contract s 

The distributive function performed by the Industry is that of supply- 
ing goods and services to the ultimate consumer. While shipment of goods 
by plumbing contractors from one state to another is not an important phase 
of the Industry, contractors may receive a large portion of their plumbing 
fixtures and supplies from establishments outside the contractors' home 
states. 

In addition, contracts may be performed in one state by contractors 
located in other states. Data from the Census of Construction, shown in 
Table XVII, below, indicate that approximately 97 per cent of the total 
business reported, by location, was performed within the contractor's home 
state and about 3 per cent was performed outside his home state. The pro- 
portion done outside the home state varies among the ten leading states, 
ranging from 0,2 per cent in Michigan to 4.6 per cent in Massachusetts. 

TABLE 171 I 

Value of Business Performed in Home State and Outside 
Home State, By Principal States, 1929 a/ 





Humber 






Value of 


Business 






of 
E s tab- 
lishnents 






(in thousands 




State 


Total 


In Home 


State 


Outside 


Home State 






Per Cent 


Per Cent 




Reporting 




Amount 


Of Total 


Amount 


of Total 


U. S. Total 


3,937 


$33C,568 


$321,283 


97.2 


$9,285 


2.8 


California 


247 


25,087 


24, 523 


97.8 


564 


2.2 


Connecticut 


133 


8,272 


8,178 


98.9 


94 


1.1 


Illinois 


285 


28,333 


28,149 


99.4 


184 


0.6 


Massachusetts 


i 226 


15,907 


15,171 


95.4 


736 


4.6 


Michigan 


227 


22,014 


21,963 


99.8 


51 


0.2 


Hew Jersey 


238 


15,936 


15,881 


99.7 


55 


0.3 


Hew York 


674 


73,577 


76,499 


97.2 


2,178 


2.8 


Ohio 


236 


16,751 


16,592 


99.1 


159 


0.9 


Pennsylvania 


313 


25,683 


25,078 


97.6 


605 


2.4 


Wisconsin 


169 


10,759 


10,703 


99.5 


56 


0.5 


Total for 1C 


1 












States 


2,748 


247,419 


242,737 


98.1 


4,682 


1.9 



Total for 

Other States 1,189 



83,149 78,546 



94.5 



4, 603 



5.5 



Source; Census report, Construction Industry, 1929 , Subcontractors, "Plumb- 
ing", and "Plumbing and Heating, Combined." 



a/ 

8644 



The reporting establishments fell in the group having a value of 
business of $25,000 and over in 1929. 



-21- 

Advertising 

The Plumbing Contracting Industry itself participates in advertising 
only locally. However, the Industry shares in the "benefits derived from the 
national advertising of manufacturers of plumbing fixtures. 

Shifts in Centers of Production 

It would be difficult to determine to what extent, if any, the centers 
of the Industry have shifted since 1929. Changes of this nature are taking 
place more or less constantly and usually accompany movements in the general 
building industry and follow the adoption of higher standards of living. 

Productive Capacity 

- j. • w 

The productive capacity of the Industry is almost without limitations. 
Due to the limited amount of capital necessary to enter the Industry, the 
number of members may increase or decrease very rapidly. The capacity of 
the Industry has ever been taxed throughout the country as a whole, although 
capacity may have been reached at times within restricted areas. 



8644 



-22- 
Chapter V 
TRADE PRACTICES 



Unfair Trade Practices 



8644 



The unfair trade practices prevalent in the Industry, which were 
diminished rather than eliminated under the Code, are quite similar to 
those found in the Construction Industry as a whole and in its other 
divisions. 

These practices are mainly: bid-shopping, bid-peddling, substitu- 
tion of materials, selling goods or rendering services below cost, lumping 
or subletting of labor contracts, enticing employees from competitors, and 
inducing the abrogation of existing contracts. The most important of these 
are discussed below. 

3 id- Shopping . - Bid-shopping is the practice of seeking, by an award- 
ing authority, of a bid lower than any of those submitted by the original 
bidders. Other contractors are contacted or the original bidders are re- 
quested to lower their bids, or both. 

Bid-Peddlin^r . - 3id-peddling is the practice of attempting to secure 
a contract by reducing the original bid. The bidder, having ascertained 
that his submitted bid was not the lowest figure, reduces the original bid. 

Substitution of Materials . - This is the practice of substituting 
materials less costly, and usually of inferior quality, than those called 
for in the contract or agreed upon. 

Selling Goods or Rendering Services Below Cost . - This practice 
tends to be cumulative in effect. In his attempt to realize absolute costs 
or a minimum of -orofit, the contractor turns his attention to the costs of 
materials and labor, substituting inferior materials and reducing wages and 
lengthening hours. 

Lumping or Sub-Letting of Labor Contracts . - This practice is engaged 
in as a subterfuge for reducing labor costs. The contract for labor serv- 
ices is transferred from one who is qualified by experience to bid to one 
who is not qualified to bid, and through bargaining, labor rates are reduced 
to a minimum. 

Spread of Unfair Trade Practices From One Area to Another 

It would be difficult to cite specific examples where unfair trade 
practices originating in one area spread to other areas. But unfair trade 
practices are so universal and the methods so similar, that it seems evident 
that whenever such practices have originated they have permeated the Industry. 
According to the Census of Construction, approximately 16 per cent of the 
total value of business, reported by location, was performed outside the 
contractor's home city. 1/ The fact that contractors operate outside their 
home community enhances the spread of unfair practices. 

1/ Census report, Construction Industry, 1929 , Table 3, Subcontractors, 

"Plumbing," and "Plumbing and Heating, Combined." The reporting establish- 
ments fell in the group having a value of business of $25,000 and over in 
1929. 



-23- 



Effect of Prices of Ind.ivid.-ual Members Upon the national Price 
Structure . 

Due to the relative ease with which a member of the Industry may 
operate vdthin a more or less unlimited area, the prices of the lorrest 
bidder tend to determine prices throughout the country. 



8644 



-24- 



Chanter VI 



GENERAIi INFORMATION 



History of the Industry 



As recently as 1874 the plumbing processes in the United States were 
simple and to a high degree ineffective. House drains consisted of "blue- 
stone flags laid on earth or rock foundations; the brick sides, covered with 
loose bluestone flags, formed a square or oblong box. Such drains were not 
satisfactory, frequently serving as breeding places for rats and vermin and 
often filling the house with sewer gas. 

During the years immediately following 1874, in which year the vent 
was first used, considerable progress was made as evidenced by the fact that 
the trap, the vent, and other improvements were developed. In 1886 an order 
was issued in New York City requiring that "all future house drains in the 
interior of buildings must be of extra heavy cast iron pipe and all soil, 
waste, and vent piping and fittings used for rising lines and branches of 
soil waste, and vent piping must be of heavy cast iron steel or wrought iron. 
As governmental divisions and subdivisions have realized the importance of 
efficient plumbing in relation to health and sanitation, and have legislated 
to that end, the Industry has grown and developed. 

History of the Industry's Labor Organizations 

It was during the period of rapid development that plumber employers 
began to organize. The National Association of Master Plumbers was formed 
in 1883. In 1912, as the result of an amalgamation of plumbers, and steam 
and hot-water fitters, the United Association of Journeymen Plumbers and 
Steamfitters of the United States and Canada was formed. Both organizations 
have experienced a spasmodic and sporadic growth. The National Association 
of Master Plumbers has affiliated with it 530 local associations, and in 
1929 had a membership of 150,000. The United Association of Journeymen is 
comprised of 656 locals in 46 states, and in 1929 had a membership of 65,000. 

Experts 

The following is a list of persons who, because of their 
training and experience, may be regarded as qualified experts 
in the Industry: 



E. L. Flentje 
Robert J. Barrett 
P. W. Bonoghue 
E. B. Kleine 
L. J. Kruse 
B. A. Mayfield 
J . J . Shanahan 
Geo. IT. Prank 
J. Sheehan, Jr. 
James Smyth 



1240 Shoreham Building 

1240 Shoreham Building 

342 Newberry St. 

329 Ludlow Ave. 

6247 College Ave. 

131 E. Bay St. 

217 W. Freemason St. 

79 Best St. 

1609 Olive St. 

230 N. Division St. 



Washington, D. C. 
Washington, D. C. 
Boston, Mass. 
Cincinnati, Ohio 
Oakland, Calif. 
Jacksonville, Fla» 
Norfolk, Va. 
Buffalo, N. Y. 
St. Louis, Mo. 
San Antonio, Texas. 



8644#