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NATIONAL RECOVERY ADMINISTRATION 

■ 



DIVISION OF REVIEW 



EVIDENCE STUDY 
NO. 37 

OF 



THE SILK TEXTILE INDUSTRY 



Prepared by 
W. C. HENDERSON 



September, 1935 



PRELIMINARY DRAFT 
(NOT FOR RELEASE: FOR USE IN DIVISION ONLY) 



i 



THE EVIDENCE STUDY SERIES 

The EVIDENCE STUDIES were originally planned as a means of gathering evidence 
tearing upon various legal issues which arose under the national Industrial Re- 
covery Act. 

These studies have value quite aside fron the use for which they wore originally 
intended. Accordingly, they are now made available for confidential use within the 
Division of Review, and for inclusion in Code Histories. 

The full list of the Evidence Studies is as follows: 



1. Automobile Manufacturing Ind. 23. 

2. .Boot and Shoe Mfg. Ind. 24. 

3. Bottled Soft Drink Ind. 25. 

4. Builders' Supplies Ind. 26. 

5. Chemical Mfg. Ind. 27. 
G. Cigar Mfg. Industry 28. 

7. Construction Industry 29. 

8. Cotton Garment Industry 30. 

9. Press Mfg. Ind. 31. 

10. Electrical Contracting Ind. 32. 

11. Electrical Mfg. Ind. 33. 

12. Fab. Metal Prod. Mfg. , etc. 34. 

13. Fishery Industry 35. 

14. Furniture Mfg. Ind. 36. 

15. General Contractors Ind. 37. 

16. Graphic Arts Ind. 38. 

17. Gray Iron Foundry Ind. 39. 

18. Hosiery Ind. 40. 

19. Infant's & Children's Wear Ind. 41. 

20. Iron and Steel Ind. 42. 

21. Leather 43. 

22. I/umber & Timber prod. Ind. 



Mason Contractors Industry 

Men's Clothing Industry 

Motion picture Industry 

Motor Bus Mfg. Industry (Propped) 

needlework Ind. of Puerto Rico 

Fainting & Paperhanging & Decorating 

photo Engraving Industry 

plumbing Contracting Industry 

Retail Food (See Ho. 42) 

Retail Lumber Industry 

Retail Solid Fuel (propped) 

Retail Trade Industry 

Rubber Mfg. Ind. 

Rubber Tire Mfg. Ind. 

Silk Textile Ind. 

Structural Clay products Ind. 

Throw i ng I ndus try 

Trucking Industry 

Waste Materials Ind. 

Wholesale & Retail Food Ind. (See No. SI) 

Wholesale Fresh Fruit & Veg. 



In addition to the studies brought to completion, certain materials have been 
assembled for other industries. These MATERIALS are included in the series and are 
also made available for confidential use within the Division of Review and for in- 
clusion in Code Histories, as follows: 



44. Wool Textile Industry 

45. Automotive Parts & Equip. 

46. Baking Industry 
i7. Canning Industry 
48. Coat and Suit Ind. 



49. Household Goods & Storage, etc. (Dropped) 

Ind. 50. Motor Vehicle Retailing Trade Ind. 

51. Retail Tire & Battery Trade Ind. 

52. Ship & Boat 31dg. & Repairing Ind. 

53. Wholesaling or Distributing Trade 



L. C. Marshall 
Director, Division of Review 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Foreword 1 

CHAPTER I - THE NATURE OF THE INDUSTRY AND 

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND 2 

Definitions of the Industry 

History of the Industry 2 

Operations of the Industry 3 

Imoortation of the Raw Silk 3 

Irepar,'.-.tion of the Yarn 3 

leaving and finishing the 

Cloth 3 

Number of Establishments 4 

Size of Establishments 4 

Number of Establishments by States 5 

Mills Operating in More than 

One State 6 

Caotial Investment and Financial Condition. . . . 

Failures 

Volume and Value of Troduction. .... 

Estimated Total froductive Capacity 

Estimated Unused Iroductive 

Capacity 10 

Comr.etition from Other Industries ........ 10 

Troductf Used by Other Industries H 



CHAFTER II - LABOR 1 



o 



Total Number of Employees 12 

Number of Emoloyees by States ■ L - 

Tctal Annaul Wages 12 

Annual Wages by States 1^ 

Percentage Labor Cost is of 

Total Value 13 

Average Hourly and Weekly Wages, 

and Hours Worked " 

Effect of the Code on Wages and Hours 15 

Number of Weeks Worked 1? 

Child Labor i3 



8647 



CONTENTS (Cont'd) 

lage 

CHAPTER III - MATERIALS - RAJ AND SEMI-PROCESSED 20 

Total Cost of Raw Materials 20 

Per cent Cost of Materials is of 

Total Value 20 

Principal Materials Used. .... 23 

Exnenditures for Principal Raw 

Materials . 23 

Source of Saw Materials 24 

Machinery and "Equinraarrt 24 

CHAPTER IV - PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION 25 

Value of Production in Principal 

States " 25 

Shift in Centers of Production 25 

Exports 25 

Advertising 28 

Comparison of Production and Retail 

Sales by States 28 

CHAPTER V - TRADE PRACTICES 31 

Unfair Trade Practices Prevalent 

Before Code 31 

Methods of Unfair Competition Now 

Prevalent 32 

Effect of Price:' of Individual 
Members on the National Price 
Structure • 32 

CHAPTER VI - GENERAL INFORMATION 33 

Manufacturers' Organizations 33 

National Federation of 

Textiles, Inc , 33 

Broad Silk Manufacturers of 

Faterson, N. J 33 

Master Ueavers Institute ° 3 

Blackstone Valley Manufacturers 

Association, Providence, R. 1 3,i 

- -. .. . _ Silk Manufacturers of 

Allentown, Pa 33 

Relationship Between Labor and 

Management 34 

List of Ejrperts 34 

~o0o- 



8647 



-li— 



TABIDS 



Page 



TABLE V - 



TABLE I - Fuucer 01' Establishments in the 
Silk Industry a 3 a Whole, l>y 
Frincipal States. .... 

TABLE II - Eumber of Looms Installed, by 

Principal States, 1934 

TABLE III - dumber of Sill" and Rayon Companies 
Having Mills in More than One 
State, Classified by Number of 
Stages in Which "hey Operate, 
1930 ". 

TABLE IV - Capital Investment of 1C7 Silk 

Weaving and Throwing Companies, 
1933 and the First Si:: Months of 

". or? a 

L30*t, 

Total Net Income Before Interest 
and ITet Income Transferred to 
Surplus of 107 Silk Weaving and 
Throwing Companies, 1933 and 
First Si?: Months of 1934 

TABLE 71 - Bate of Return on Capital Stock 

Equity in Specified Divisions of 
the Textile Industries, 1933 and 
1934 

TABLE VII - Value and Volume of Production of 

Broad Goods, and Value of Ribbons 
Produced 

TABLE VIII - Activity of Broad Looms Owned by 

Stock— Carrying Mills and Commission 
Weavers, 1929-1934 

Average Number of Wage Earners in 
the Silk Industry as a Whole, "by 
Principal States 

Annual Wages in the Silk Industry 

as a Whole, by Principal States ...... 



TA33 



TABLE X - 



13 



14 



8647 



-in- 



TABLES (Cont'd) 

Page_ 

TABLE XI - Average Hourly and Weekly Wages 
and Average Hours Worked Per 
Week in the Silk Industry as 
a Whole 14 

TABLE XII - Employment, Payrolls, Hours and 
Wages in the Industry as De- 
fined "by the Code, 1933-1934 16 

TABLE XIII - Average Hours and Earnings "by 
States in the Industry as a 
Whole, 1931 and 1934 17 

TABLE XIV - Hourly Earnings in the Silk and 

Rayon Industry, "by Sex and Region, 

August, 1933 18 

TABLE XV - Hourly Earnings in the Silk and 

Rayon Industry, "by Sex and Region, 

August, 1934 19 

TABLE XVI - Percentage Labor and Raw Material 
Costs Are of Total Value in the 
Silk Industry as a Whole 2C 

TABLE XVII - Quantity and Cost of Principal 

Materials Consumed "by the Silk 

Industry as a Whole, 1929 and 

1931 23 

TABLE XVIII - Value of Products in the Silk 

Industry as a Whole, "by Prin- 
cipal States 25 

TABLE XIX - Volume and Value of Various Silk 

and Rayon Products Exported 27 

TABLE XX - Volume and Value of Exports of 
Broad G-oods Made Wholly or 
Chiefly of Silk, "by Country of 
Destination, in 1930, 1931, 1933, 
and 1934 28 

TABLE XXI - Value of Production and Estimated 
Retail Sales of Silk and Rayon 
Broad Goods, By States, 1929 30 

-oOo- 



8647 



-IV- 



CHARTS 



Page 

CHART I - TEXTILE FIBER PRICES IN THE 

UNITED STATES 21 

CHART II - TEXTILE FIBER COITSULIPTION IN 

THE UNITED STATES 22 



-o0o~ 



8647 -v- 



-1- 

THE SILK TEXTILE INDUSTRY 

Foreword 

The "basic statistical materials contained in this report were taken 
from publi cations of the Bureau of the Census, the Bureau of Foreign and 
Domestic Commerce, the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and the Federal Trade 
Commission. Some additional statistical information has been secured from 
non-governmental sources. The principal non-governmental publications 
utilized were production and Distribution of Silk and Rayon , a study 
published in 1935 by The National Federation of Textiles, Inc., which is 
the leading trade association in the Industry; Textile Qrgano n, a monthly 
publication of Tubize Chatillon Corporation, which manufactures rayon; 
and Current Insolvency Trends , issued monthly by Dun and Bradstreet. 

The most serious limitations of the statistical material arise from 
the fact that the Census of Manufactures data cover both the preparation 
and weaving of the yarns, whereas under the codes the throwing of silk 
and rayon yarns is considered a separate industry and does not come under 
the Code for the Silk Textile Industry. Therefore, all Census data cited 
in this report are, to some extent, overstatements since they cover work 
which would properly come under the Code for the Throwing Industry. How- 
ever, there is no means of accurately allocating the Census figures between 
the Silk Textile and Throwing Industries. Whether the data used apply to 
the Silk Textile Industry as defined by the Code, or to the Silk Industry 
as a whole as defined by the Census Bureau has been noted throughout the 
report. 

A minor limitation arises from the fact that Census figures do not 
cover establishments whose annual value of production was less than $5,000. 
It is the author's opinion, however, that there are very few establishments 
of that size in the Silk Textile Industry. 

Parts of Chapter V and all of Chapter VI are presented as prepared 
by the National Federation of Textiles, Inc. , except for minor editorial 
changes. 



8647 



-2- 
CHAP TEE I 

THE NATURE OF THE INDUSTRY 
AND HISTORICAL BACKGROUND 

Definitions of the Industry 

The Code of Pair Connetition for the Silk Textile Industry defined the 
Industry as follows: 

"The term 'industry,' ..., means the manufacture of silk and/or rayon 
and/or acetate yarn (or any combination thereof) woven fabrics or any 
of the processes of such manufacturing except throwing, "but it shall not 
not include such manufacturing of rayon and/or acetate yarn fabrics as 
are governed "by the provisions of the Cotton Textile Code. The term 
shall include also the converting of the woven fabrics enumerated above , 
the manufacture of silk, rayon, and/or acetate yarn sewing threads, spun 
silk, woven labels, and shall include such other related branches whether 
engaged in merchandising or manufacturing as may from time to time be 
brought within the provisions of this Code." 

The Census of Manufactures definition of the Silk and Rayon Manufactures 
Industry is; 

"This industry embraces two classes of establishments; (1) Those en- 
gaged primarily in the manufacture of silk a.nd rayon fabrics and other 
finished silk and rayon products, not including knit fabrics, hosiery, 
and other knit goods made of silk and rayon, which are treated as a part 
of the 'Knit Goods' industry and covered by a separate report; (2) those 
engaged primarily in the Manufacture of silk yarn (known technically as 
organzine, tram, and hard or crepe twist), spun silk, and rayon yarn 
(thrown, twisted, or otherwise changed into different forms from those 
in vhich purchased) and in the dressing of warps...." 

The principal difference between these definitions is the exclusion of 
the throwing of silk from the Code definition of the Industry. As was stated 
in the Foreword, that portion of the Census data which should be classified 
under the Throwing Industry cannot be accurately determined. 

History of the Industry 

Silk is one of the oldest textile fibres. Chinese myths date the culture 
of silk back to 2,640 B. C. , almost 3,200 years before its nature was under- 
stood in Europe. One of the three emperors to whom the Chinese ascribe the 
beginning of their ancient customs was Huang-Ti, who is said to have introduc- 
ed the making of garments of silk. He instructed his Empress, Si-Ling-Chi, 
to experiment "ith wild silk worms which lived on mulberry-tree leaves, and 
she learned ho-' to feed and raise them, and, what is much more important, how 
to reel or unwind the silk filaments from their cocoons. 1/ 

The first silk mill in the United States seems to have been started by 
Rodney and Horatio Hanks, at Mansfield, Connecticut, in 1810. In this mill, 
which was 12 feet square, the Hankses made sewing silk and twist on a machine 
of their own construction, but the venture never assumed commercial signifi- 
cance because the machinery was too crude to produce satisfactory results. 

1/ Manchester, H. H. , The Story of Silk and Cheney Silks (1916) revised 1924). 
8647 



In 1815 William H. Horstnann built a mill in Philadelphia to make trimmings 
and ribbons, and he also experimented, with partial success, with machines 
for plaiting, braiding, and fringe cutting. A Jacquard loom was imported by 
him in 1824. No record has been found of the length of time Korstmann was in 
business, but apparently- it was not long. 

What has been considered the first really successful silk factory in the 
United States was founded on January 2, 1838, by Balph, Ward, and Frank Cheney, 
and S. H. Arnold (Cheney Brothers) at South Manchester, Connecticut. In 1844 
Cheney Brothers learned the main points of silk dyeing from a Mr. Valentine of 
Northamption, Massachusetts, but the process was necessarily crude. In 1847 
the first practical machine was patented for the manufacture of sewing silk, 
which introduced the doubling, twisting and winding equipment. 

Records of 1843 show that the average pay in the Cheney silk mill, which 
employed both men and women, was 51 cents a day. Wage rates apparently in- 
creased during the next five years, for in 1348 the wages of men in the Cheney 
mill averaged $1.14 a day, and those of women, 68 cents a day. The combined 
average for all employees was 72 cents. 

The tariff placed on silk goods during the Civil War made it possible 
to develop the weaving of silk extensively in this country. In 1860 the value 
of manufactured silk was $6,600,000, and by 1921 it had increased to $533,- 
000,000. 1/ 

Operations of the Industry 

Importation of the Raw Silk . - Silk is received from Japan at the ports 
of entry of Seattle, San Francisco, and New York City, by importin-; concerns 
which in most instances are owned or controlled by Japanese firms — notably 
Mitsui, Mitsubishi, Katakura, and C-unze. The leading American importing firm 
is E. Gerli and Company of New York, which is affiliated with the Japanese 
Ashia. Conroa.ny. There are, however, some importations by individual manufac- 
turing Cu:.Tp-;r.ies whose requirements are sufficiently large to enable them to 
have direct connections with Japanese filatures and to function as importers. 
Notably among these err Cheney Brothers and Duplan Silk Company. 

Preparation o f the Yarn . - Raw silk is received in skeins packed in 
bales weighing from 130 to 133 pounds. The raw silk must first be put through 
certain preliminary steyis in preparation for throwing it into the size of yarn 
desired, and after the throwing has been completed the yarn is put up in the 
required type of package, i.e., cones for knitting; tubes, spools, cops, warps, 
or beams for weaving. 

That portion of the silk yarn which is knitted into hosiery and underwear 
usually passes through the dyeing and finishing processes in the individual 
knitting mill and the resulting protract is sold either by its own sales de- 
partment or by appointed selling agents or brokers, to the wholesale and re- 
tail trades. The silk yarn which ii; ,</ovon or otherwise processed in the Silk 
Textile Indiistry, however, usually does not reach the ultimate consumer by 
such direct methods. 

Weaving and Finishing the Cloth . - The Silk Textile Industry is divided 
from the production standpoint i ito two groups; — stock-carrying mills and 



1/ Manchester, H. H. , The Soory 3f Silk and Cheney Silks (1916; revised 1924). 
8647 



-4- 

comraission weavers. The former purchase raw materials, weave their own cloth, 
and sell the products to the cutting-un and converting trades or directly to 
the wholesale and retail trades. A stock-carrying mill may or may not finish 
its own cloth. Commission weavers are those who weave goods on commission as 
a usual practice, and seldom, if ever, purchase raw stocks on their own account 
or finish the clotb they weave. 

During the last few years commission weaving has assumed a new importance. 
The falling prices of raw materials, particularly since 1929, were accompanied 
"by large inventory losses and price cutting. In this demoralizing situation 
some stock- carrying mills began to employ commission weavers, rather than 
one rate their own looms, in the expectation of cutting costs. Other mills 
that normally operated on their own accounts accepted commission weaving or- 
ders. The supply of second-hand looms available for purchase at low prices 
from 19S0 to 1933, and the lack of other opportunities for employment, kept 
many small operators in business who worked on commission at cut rates. 

Aii accompanying development in this situation has been the rising im- 
portance of a group known as converters. Their activities consist chiefly of 
buying cloth in the greige (unfinished) and finishing or "converting" it 
(dyeing, printing, etc.), but they also buy raw materials and have the goods 
woven by commission weavers. 

For a short time the converters' relations with the commission weavers 
were -pofcsi'H.y a. boon tqths industry __ particularly the small mills. The 
abundance of commission weavers, however, offered the converters an oppor- 
tunity for trading around, especially since the converter would * iu yoently 
not onlv buy the raw material and style the fabrics, but also advance money 
for payrolls. 

This centralization of activities in the hands of the converter has re- 
sulted in a shifting of the control of the Industry from the manufacturer to 
the merchandiser. Despite this acquisition of power, the, converters have re- 
mained very mobile for they have no investment in plants or equipment, and 
consequently the;'' are able to move from weaver to weaver, wherever they can 
get the work done most cheanly. 

Number of Establishments 

In 1929 1/ there were approximately 1,491 establishments in the Silk In- 
dustry as a whole. In 1931 these had decreased to 1,211, and in 1933 to 
1,087, cue perhaps to the failure of a number of small enterprises. (See 
table I). The boom in the Industry at the inception of the codes brought the 
number back to 1,250 in 1934. 2/ 

Size of Establishments 

The Silk Industry as a whole is comprised of approximately twice as many 
small enterprises as large ones, in terms of looms operated and amounts of 
money invested. The turn-over among these small firms is very high, a condi- 
tion which, it has been asserted, has been due in most instances to unscrupu- 
lous converters upon whom this groun is very dependent. 

1/ From 1921 to 1929, 1,218 concerns with 61,987 looms entered business, while 
1,093 concerns with 61,363 looms went out of business. National Federation 
of textiles, Inc ., Production and Distribution of Silk and Hay on Broad 
Goods (1935), p. 22 

2/ Number registered with the Code Authority. 

RP.AT> 



Included in the silk and rayon industry are 35 mills with 1,000 looms or 
more each, which own 35 per cent of the total number of installed looms. There 
is another group of mills — about 325 — which owns from 100 to 1,000 looms 
each, or 48 per cent of the total installed looms. A still larger group of 
840 mills owns less than 100 looms each., or 17 per cent of the total installed 
loomage. 1/ 

Number of Establishments "by States 

The Industry is centered primarily in the Northeastern area of the United 
States, with Pennsylvania and New Jersey the most important centers. The 
greatest concentration of companies and looms is in the Paterson, Few Jersey, 
section, which accounted for 19,500 of New Jersey's 25,000 looms in 1954. The 
migration of looms from there to small Pennsylvania towns since 1929 placed the 
latter state first, however, with respect to number of establishments and looms 
in 1933 end 1934. Tables I and II give a distribution of establishments and 
looms, o-y principal states. The six leading states shown in Table I comprised 
94 per cent of the total number of establishments in 1929, 92 per cent in 1931, 
and 93 -oer cent in 1933. 

TABLE I 

Number of Establishments in the Silk Industry as a 
Whole, by Principal States 

State Number of Establishments 

1929 1931 1933 

U. S. Total 1,431 1,211 1,087 

Connecticut 38 37 36 

Massachusetts 42 38 42 

New Jersey 631 448 378 

New York 157 129 107 

Pennsylvania 497 430 397 

Rhode Island 43 41 36 

All Other States 83 88 91 



Source: Census of Manufactures , "Silk and Rayon Manufactures". Data for es- 
tablishments with an annual production of less than $5,000 in value 
are not included. 

TABLE II 

Number of Looms Installed, by Principal States, 1934 



State Number of Looms 



Total 92,355 a/ 

(Continued on following page) 



1/ Statement of Peter Van Horn, Chairman of the Silk Code Authority, at a 

public hearing, "Tashington, 1,1 y ';1, 1935. 
8647 





-6- 






TABLE II 


(Cont 


id) 




New Jersey 






25 , 000 


Pennsylvania 






37 , 713 


Massachusetts 






3 , 012 


PJioc'.e Island 






5,036 


Connecticut 






4,764 


New York 






8,544 


Virginia 






1,998 


North Carolina 






2,542 


South Carolina 






753 


Georgia and Alabama 






565 


Tennessee 






273 



Other 2,155 



Source: The National Federation of Textiles, Inc., Production and Distribu- 
tion of Silk and Rayon Broad Goods (1935). 

a/ The National Federation of Textiles estimated in the transcript of 

the hearing for the Code in September, 1933, that there were 105,000 
looms in operation or available; this number is at variance with the 
above data. 

Mills Operating in More than One State 

Table III shows that there were at least 304 mills in 1930 which were 
owned by companies operating in more than one state. Nearly two- thirds of 
these mills, which were owned by a total of 79 comnanies, belonged to com- 
panies operating mills in two states. 

TABLE III 

Number of Silk and Rayon Companies Having Mills in More 

than One State, Classified by Number of States in 

Which They Operate, 1930 

Number of States in i/hich Number of Number of 

Mills are located Companies Mills 

Total 79 304 

Two States 59 195 

Three States 13 56 

Four States 4 28 

Five States 3 25 



Source; NRA Research and planning Division, special report of May 2, 1935, by 
Victor von Szeliski. Compiled from Davison's Textile Blue Book , 193C. 

Capital Investment and Financial Condition 

The total capital investment in the Industry is unknown. However, a 
8647 



-7- 



rough estimate would possibly place it at about $545,000,000 for the Silk. In- 
dustry as a whole. 1/ 

The capital investment of a sample of 107 silk companies, as reported in 
1934 to the Federal Trade Commission, is shown in Table IV. Table V shows the 
financial condition of the same 107 companies. Additional evidence, though 
fragmentary, of the- financial condition of the Silk Industry is presented in 
Table VI, which compares the rate of return on capital stock equity in silk 
and other textile industries. According to the Federal Trade Commission re- 
raort from which this table is also taken, it is based upon a somewhat larger 
sample of the Industry than are Tables IV and V. 

TABLE IV 

Capital Investment of 107 Silk Weaving and Throwing 
Companies, 1933 and the First Six Months of 1934 a/ 



Six-Month Period 



Total Investment b/ 



January to June, 1933 
July to December, 1933 
January to June, 1934 



$63,576,875 
63,491,623 
63,196,362 



Source: Federal Trade Commission, Textile Report Part IV, Silk and Rayon 
Industry . 

a/ The sample consists of 107 companies which constitute 15.7 per cent 
of the total number of establishments, as reported by the Census for 
1933. It includes 41 companies weaving silk and rayon on commission 
and 66 comoanies throwing and weaving their own silk and rayon. 

b/ Total investment is inclusive of good will. 

TABLE V 

Total Net Income Before Interest and Net Income Trans- 
ferred to Surplus of 107 Silk Weaving and Throwing 
Companies, 1933 and First Six Months of 1934 a/ 



Six-Month Period 



Total Net Income 
Before Interest 



Net Income 
Transferred 
to Surplus 



January to June , 1933 
July to December, 1933 
January to June , 1934 



$284,881 

1,640,592 

D - 442,458 



D - $548,866 

873,707 

D -1,030,51V 



D - indicates deficit. 
Source: Federal Trade Commission, Textile Report, Part IV, Silk and Rayon Ind . 
a/ The sample consists of 107 companies which constitute 15.7 per cent of 
the- total number of establishments, as reported by the Census for 193' 
It includes 41 companies weaving silk and rayon on commission, and 66 
cormanies throwing and weaving; their own silk and, rayon. 



1/ Estimated by the NRA, Research and Planning Division from Federal Trade 
Commission Report; the estimate was made on the basis of the ratio of 
looms and spindles in the Trace Commission sample to the total in the In- 
dustry. 

8647 



-8- 

TABLE VI 

Rate of Return on Capital Stock Equity in Specified 
Divisions of the Textile Industries, 1933 and 1934 





Division 


fber of 






Per Cent 


; Return 




Nun 


F 


irst 


Second 


F; 


irst 


July- 


Companies 


Half 


Half 


Half 


Augus t 






1933 


1933 


1934 


1934 


Spinning 
















Cotton 


84 




1.43 


8.97 




3.84 


D- 3.67 


Wool 


33 




7.50 


13.55 




2.81 


D-11.25 


Silk and Rayon 
















(Throwing) 


11 




7.10 


D- 1.34 




2.50 


D- 4.03 


Silk and Rayon 
















( Commission 
















Throwing) 


43 




2.84 


D- 0.81 




1.07 


D- 2.56 


Weaving 
















Cotton 


44 




1.05 


8.54 




0.59 


D- 4.85 


Wool 


12 


D- 


6.01 


29.79 


D- 


8.05 


D-21.47 


Sill: and Rayon 


43 


D- 


3.16 


14.48 


D- 


7.21 


D-12.44 


Silk and Rayon 
















(Commission) 


41 


D- 


7.32 


2.75 


D- 


4.62 


7.60 


Spinning and Weaving 
















Cotton 


206 




4.71 


11.55 




5.36 


D- 2.08 


Wool 


79 




0.73 


16.25 




0.36 


D- 8.18 


Sill: and Rayon 


12 


D- 


3.19 


3.97 


jy. 


5.20 


D- 1.40 


Silk and Rayon 
















( Commission) 


5 




0.06 


1.53 


D- 


3.10 


D- 2.19 


Dye in;-; and Finishing 
















Cotton 


4 




6.81 


15.16 




3.87 


D- 5.59 


Cotton (Commission) 


71 




4.98 


3.19 




4.94 


D-15.56 


Wool 


5 


D~ 


0.80 


17.85 


D- 


7.88 


D- 3.13 


Silk and Rayon 
















(Commission) 


46 


D- 


5.37 


D-11.80 


D~ 


1.67 


D-16.81 


Average for Industries 
















Cotton 


409 




4.33 


10.41 




5.01 


D- 3.64 


Northern Mills 


104 




0.62 


6.84 


D~ 


0.02 


D- 6.10 


Southern Mills 


230 




6.48 


13.82 




8.07 


D- 0.10 


Dyeing and Finish- 
















ing 


75 




5.13 


4.18 




4.85 


D-14.69 


Wool 


129 




1.62 


16.03 


D- 


0.04 


D~ 8.70 


Silk 


201 


D- 


3.15 


D- 2,ia 


D- 


2.76 


D- 9.U6 


Thre ad 


19 




12.81 


12.24 


: 


13.33 


5.51 


Cordage 


7 




12.11 


12.70 




13.40 


2.21 


Total 


765 




3.93 


10.45 




4.21 


D- 4.21 



D 



indicates deficit, 



Source: Federal Trade Commissi -n, Textile Report , (1934 - 1935). 
Figures compiled from InrtG I - IV. 



8647 



-9- 

Fai lures 

Bun and Bradstreet, Inc., l/ reported that 10 companies failed in the Silk 
Textile Industry as defined "by the Code, in 193^» "°" at g ave no statement as to 
the amount of liabilities. The number, however, would appear to be underesti- 
mated, particularly in view of the fact that so many small shops are constantly 
entering and leaving the field 2/ 

Volume and Value of Production 

It is interesting to note from Table VII that although the total volume of 
production of "broad goods apparently declined only slightly from 1929 to 1933} 
the value of the product dropped tremendously. For example, the yardage prod- 
uction of "broad goods declined less than 7 P er cent, "but the value fell a"bout 
62 percent. The volume of production in ribbons is not shown, "but the value, 
is approximately 57 P er cent lower. One cause for this situation, aside from 
the general depression and the drop in raw sill: prices, has "been the terrific 
competition from rayon. (Cf. Chart I, Chapter III). 

TABLE VII 

Value and Volume of Production of Broad Goods, and Value 

of Ribbons Produced 
(in thousands) 

Broad Goods a/ Ribbons 

Year Value _ Volume Value Volume 

(square yards) 

1929 $UHs,30S 597, llU $25,008 
1931 2Si,6i7 566, S6H 15,3SS 
1933 ISk.^Gk 558.881 10,SU7 



Source: Census of Manufactures , "Silk and Rayon Manufactures"; data for estab- 
lishments with an annual production of less than $5,000 in value are 
not included. It is possible that tie fabrics, hat bands, and labels 
ma.y be included in the tabulations. However, the per cent represent- 
ed b; r these items would probably be snail. 

a/ Except velvets, plushes, upholsteries, tapestries, etc. 

Estimated Total Productive Capacity 

It is estimated that the potential yardage capacity of the Industry, for 
a standard weight and length of cloth (such as can be produced at the rate of 
2q- yards per loom hour), for 50 weeks a year (allowing 2 weeks for a normal 
shut-down period for repairing equipment ant" vacations) , at Uo hours per week, 
would be 525 million yards, and at SO hours per week, 1,050 million yards. 3/ 
It must be pointed out that this production estinate would vary greatly accord- 
ing to the construction of the cloth. The peal: consumption year was 192S, when 
U25 million yards of silk were sold. 

l/ Current Analysis of Insolvency Trends , February 3S, 1935* 

2/ National Federation of Textiles, Inc., P roduction of Silk ana Raynn Bioad Gocc 

3/ As estimated in NBA, Research and Planning Division, preliminary report on 

the Silk Textile Industry, by W. C. Henderson, April, 1935* 
S6U7 



■• m ■"■*' ■ .:•: - -■ ■-..,■ . ..■■■■' 



-10- 

Estimated Unused Productive Capacity 

Table VIII is indicative of the unused capacity in the Industry. This 
table shous that the hours of operation per loon omed (which ^ould appear to 
take into consideration the idle looms) declined from an average of 4S.1 hours 
per neek in 1929 to 32.2 hours in 1932. The average uas 36. 4 hours during the 
first 10 months of 1934. 

Over the ten-year period, 1923 to 1933, there was an average monthly ex- 
cess of goods -oroduced over normal sales and stocks of about 23 million yards. 
1/ 

TABLE VIII 

Activity of Broad Looms Owned "by Stock-Carrying 
Hills and Commission Weavers, 1929 - 193^ 



Month 



January 
February 

March 

April 
May 

June 



Average Weekly Hours of Machine Operations, 

Per Loom Otrned 

1929 1930 



46.0 

47. s 
1+8.1 

4s. 1 
Us. 5 
48.4 



50.7 
52.6 

53-3 



42.2 
37-9 



1951 



1932 



4 5 .1 
46. 3 
U5.0 



U3.6 U3.6 



36.6 

36.3 



42.7 

35.3 



2 0. 7 
19.0 



1933 



43.0 

3S-7 
27.2 

28.4 
36.2 
35r9 



1934 a/ 



39-5 

49.2 

48.4 

43! s 
29.4 
36.0 



July 

August 
September 



47.9 
4S.9 

4S.3 



38.0 

35.1 

38.4 



3b r 7 
3S.1 

43.5 



dd,o 

32.4 
40.2 



39,3 

33.5 

25.6 



32,5 

35.1 
27.7 



October 

November 

December 



49.2 
48.6 
47.2 



42.3 
46:3 
4r.i 



44. 7 
4o.3 
42.9 



40 ; 6 

36.6 
39*9 



30.3 
33-2 
35.0 



22.4 



Average 



48.1 



44.2 41.6 



32.; 



33.9 



Source: The National Federation of Textiles, Inc., Production and Distribu- 
tion of Silk and Payon Broad Goods ( l r 3 n) . ^ 

a/ Average for first 10 months of 1934 -jar. 36.4 hours; series has since 
"been discontinued. 

Conroetition from Other Industries 



The Silk Textile Industry feels the effect of direct competition from 
cotton-mi 1 .! products made of silk, or rayon, or other synthetic fibres, end 
garments made from the same fi"bres. Indirect competition comes from fabrics 
of cotton or wool, or combinations thereof. 

1/ Henderson report cited above, and statement of Prank Schweitzer represent- 
ing the United Textile Workers at Code Hearing September 12, 1933. 

8647 



-11- 

The keenest and perhaps the most destructive competition this Industry 
has had, both before and during the period of Code operation, has resulted 
from the weaving of rayon and silk in the Cotton Textile Industry which paid 
lower wages and could consequently offer the market substantially the same 
fabrics at more attractive prices.. 

Products Used by Other Industries 

The Code for the Silk Textile Industry divided the Industry into several 
divisions and stipulated standard terms of sale for each division. A good 
portion of the output of each division is sold to other industries; the divi- 
sions, together with the principal industries which use their products, are 
indicated below. 

1. The largest division is composed of the weavers and converters of 
broad goods - plain and Jacquard. The stock-carrying mills in this 
grout) sell to the cutting-up trade - that is, to dress and garment 
manufacturers and furriers. They also sell, of course, to converters 
and to the wholesale and retail trades. The commission weaving mills 
sell only their services, and those for whom they weave - chiefly the 
converters - must in turn dispose of the cloth approximately as the 
stock-carrying mills do. 

2. The special-fabrics group, which makes only fancy and novelty mater- 
ials, disposes of its production to the same group of purchasers as 
the ordinary broad-goods manufacturers. 

3. The ribbon group, which weaves ribbon material usually 18 inches or 
less in width, depends almost entirely upon garment manufacturers, 
milliners, typewriting ribbon manufacturers, florists, and the like 
for its business. 

4. The woven-label group is practically entirely dependent upon other 
industries for existence - underwear, garment, millinery, hat, cloth- 
ing, dress, shoe, and numerous others. 

5. The hat-bank group, naturally, sells its nroducts to the hat and 
millinery industries. 

6. Sewing threads are sold to the dress, cloak and suit trades, and 
other industries; flosses are sold to machine and handknitting es- 
tablishments. 

7. The tie-fabrics group, as its name implies, sells its product to 
the neckwear industry. 

8. The spun-yarn group derives a good portion of its business from other 
industries, such as hosiery, underwear, outerwear, and other knit 
goods industries. The Code also specifies trade terms for a group 
"Thrown silk, thrown rayon, and synthetic yarn dealers", which sells 
materials to the same industries as tha- snun silk group. 



8647 



-12- 

CHAPTER II 

LABOR 

Total Number of Employees 

According to Census data the average number of wage earners employed 
in the Silk Industry as a whole declined from 130,467 in 1929 to 109,225 in 
1931, and rose in 1933 to 110,322. (See Ta"ble IX). The estimate for 1934 
is 116,200 wage earners 1/ . 

A monthly index of employment in 1933 and 1934 is shown in Table XII, 
There appears to be a wide fluctuation in employment — the index ranging in 
1933 from 84,5 in April, to 123 in August and in 1934 from 77 in September to 
117 in February — but the seasonal pattern is not very definite for these 
two years at least. 

Number of Employees by States 

Table IX shows the average number of wage earners in the Industry as a 
whole, by principal states. It is interesting to note that the decline in 
employment in the principal manufacturing states - Pennsylvania, New Jersey 
and New York - has been rather severe, whereas there have been slight in- 
creases in Massachusetts and Rhode Island, and approximately a 45 per cent 
increase in "All Other States," which are principally in the south. This 
movement may be attributed to several causes, among which are the attempts 
of manufacturers in the former states to seek lower wage levels and to es- 
cape labor-union activity. 

Evidence of this shift may be summarized as follows: the six leading 
states comprised 91 per cent of the total number of wage earners in 1929, 87 
per cent in 1931, and 84 per cent in 1933, 

Total Annual Wages 

The total annual wages paid by the Industry as a whole declined from 
$137,547,146 in 1929 to $97,409,000 in 1931 and to $74,098,215 in 1933 (See 
Table X) . It is estimated that in 1934 wage payments rose to $05,384,000. 2/ 

Annual Wages by States 

Annual wage payments in the principal silk-manufacturing states are shown 
in Table X, It is significant that total wages in "All Other States," which 
are principally in the south, were little higher in 1933 than in 1929, al- 
though the number of wage earners in these states had increased from 40 to 
45 per cent, 

1/ Estimate for 1934 is based up^n Bureau of Labor Statistics index of factory 
employment of "Silk and Rayon Goods" adjusted to 1933 Census totals by NRA, 
Research and Planning Division. 

2/ Estimate for 1934 is based upen Bureau of Labor Statistics index of factory 
payrolls for "Silk and Rayon Goods," adjusted to 1933 Census totals by NRA, 
Research and Planning Division. 

8647 



-13- 

The proportion of the total wages paid in the six leading states has 
declined from 93 per cent in 1929 to 89 per cent in 1931 and 06 per cent in 
1933. 

Percentage Labor Cost is of Total Value 

The percentage which labor cost is of total value of products in the 
Silk Industry increased from about 19 per cent in 1929 to 25.5 per cent in 
1933, This increase in relative proportion which labor forms of the total 
value, is due in large part to the decline in raw material costs (cf. Table 
XVI). 

TABLE IX 

Average Number of Wage Earners in the Silk Industry as 
a Whole, by Principal States 

Number of Wage Earners a/ 



10,501 


9,662 


8,527 


7,390 


6,939 


9,270 


21,419 


13,626 


10,705 


10,261 


7,290 


6,114 


61,544 


49,938 


49,215 


7,589 


7,060 


9,187 



State 1929 1931 1933 

TJ. S. Total 130,467 109,225 110,322 

Connecticut 
Massachusetts 
New Jersey 
New York 
Pennsylvania 
Rhode Island 

All Other States 12,063 14,710 17,295 

Source: Census of Manufactures, "Silk and Rayon Manufactures." Data for 
establishments with an annual production of less than $5,000 are 
not included. 

a/ Employees include skilled and unskilled workers on payrolls during 

week including the 15th of each month. Averages for 1929 and 1931 
cover 12 months; for 1933 iha averages cover March, June, September, 
and December. 



S647 



-lH- 

TABLE X 

Annual Wages in the Silk Industry as a Whole, by Prin- 
cipal States (In thousands) 



■ . 






Total 


Annual Wa^es 






State 


1929 


1931 


1933 


U. S. Total 






$137,547 


$97,409 


074, 


,098 


Connecticut 






12.046 


10,208 


7, 


,049 


Massachusetts 






7.105 


5,810 


*>i 


,515 


New Jersey 






28 , 100 


15,009 


8, 


,522 


New York 






11,621 


7,419 


4 


,548 


Pennsylvania 






59,013 


40,815 


30, 


,259 


Rhode Island 






8,558 


6,952 


6, 


,629 


All Other Stai 


;es 




10,304 


11,197 


10, 


,576 


Source: Census 


of 


J'anuf actur 


es, "Silk and Rayon Manuf 


actures." 


Data for 



establishments with an annual production of less than $5,000 are 
not included. 

Average Hourly and Weekly Wapes, an d Hours Worked 

The changes in average hourly earnings in the Industry as a whole since 
1929 are summarized in Table XI. It appears from this that average hourly 
earnings in 1934 were higher than in 1929 - 44.9 cents as compared with 42. S 
cents. However, during the same period the hours worked per *.7eek were re- 
duced from 48 to 33, with the result that average weekly earnings which were 
$21.16 in 1929 dropped to $14.85 in 1934. 

TABLE XI 

Average Hourly and Weekly Wages and Average Hours Worked 
Per Week in the Silk Industry as a Whole 



Year 



Average 
Hourly 
Wage a/ 



Average 
Weekly 
Wage b/ 



Average Hourj 

Worked 
Per Week a/ 



1929 
1931 
1933 
1934 



$ 



.426 
.409 
.353 
.449 



$21.16 
17.88 
13,14 
14.85 



40.0 
44.2 
37.6 
33.0 



Source: As indicated in footnotes. 

a/ 1929 and 1931 data are from National Industrial Conference Board, 
Service Letters , with adjustment downward so as to he comparable 
with Bureau of Labor Statistics series. 1933 and 1934 data from 
Bureau of Labor Statistics, Trend of Em pl oyment . 

b/ Bureau of Labor Statistics, T rend of Employment . 



8647 



-15* 

Effect of the Code on Wages and Hours 

The monthly variations in working time and earnings in the Industry as 
defined "by the Code, for the years 1933 and 1934, are shown in Table XII. 
The figures are unpublished data obtained by the Bureau of Labor Statistics 
from a representative sample, the size of which is indicated in the foot- 
notes of the table. These data differ slightly from those shown in Table 
XI, due, presumably, to the fact that the samples are not identical, but the 
discrepancies are slight. The effect of the NBA on hours and wages is 
evident from Table XII, which shows that from August, 1933 on, hours of work 
were reduced and hourly earnings were increased. 

Similar information by states for 1931 and 1934 is shown in Table XIII. 
The figures in this table are from two different sources (see footnotes) and 
are probably not strictly comparable. 1/ Nevertheless, they are indicative 
of the effect of the Code in different sections of the country. The Southern 
States, for instance, had a longer working week in 1931, but, with the ex- 
ception of North Carolina, had much lower weekly earnings than the Northern 
States because of the low wage rates in the south. In February, 1934, how- 
ever, the working week in the Southern States was about the same as in the 
Northern States. Weekly wages in the south were still lower than in the north, 
but the disparity was much narrower than in 1931 because wage rates had been 
raised. 



1/ The earnings and hours, in February, 1934, as shown in Table XIII, are 

higher than those shown for February in Table XII. Even though the figures 
in Table XIII may have an upward bias, they no doubt reflect geographic 
differences with sufficient accuracy to be useful. 



8647 



-16- 



TAELE XII 



Employment, Payrolls, Hours and Wages in the Industry 
as Defined "by the Code, 1933 - 1934 a/ 



Month b/ Indexes, 1933 = 100 

1933 Employ- Pay- Man- 

ment c/ rolls c/ hours d/ 



Average 
Hours 
Worked 
Per Week 



Wages 



Average 
Hourly ej 



Average 
Weekly c/ 



Jan. 

Peh. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

Sept, 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec, 

Average 

1934 

Jan. 

Peh. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

Ju.ly 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 

Average 



96.2 
94.3 
85.4 
84.5 
93.2 
97.6 

108.6 
123.2 
115.8 
94.8 
102.9 
103.6 

100.0 



100.7 
117.3 
117.5 
111.3 
102.8 
108.6 

105.7 
101.5 
77.0 
100.8 
102.9 
105.0 

104.9 



87.7 
87.4 
73.8 
72.4 
85.7 
89.0 

107.4 
138.9 
118.2 
108.4 
116.9 
114.1 



102.6 

102.4 

86.8 

84.6 

94.5 

101.0 

116.1 

123.6 

105.2 

91.6 

97.0 

93,3 



100.0 100.0 



115.2 
140.0 
140.8 
132,9 
113.4 
123.5 

115.3 
116.2 
77.2 
120.9 
120.4 
126.4 

120.2 



94.4 
113.1 
111.4 
103,7 

91.2 
100.1 

92.4 
92.7 
59.6 
95.1 
96.0 
99.8 

95.8 



40.4 
41.1 
38.5 
37.9 
38.4 
39.5 

40.7 
38.0 
34.4 
36.6 
35.7 
34.1 

37,9 



32.9 
36.5 
35.9 
35.3 
33.6 
34.9 

33.1 

34.6 
29.3 
35.7 
35.3 
36.0 

34 t 4 



31.5^ 

30.9 

32.0 

33.0 

32.1 

31.0 

32.9 
41.2 
42.2 
44.1 
44.0 
44.0 

36.6 



44.1 
44.4 
44.8 
45.8 
44.8 
44.8 

44.8 
44.0 
47.1 
45.8 
45.7 
45.3 



45.) 



$12.75 
12.95 
12.07 
11.97 
12.80 
12.69 

13.05 
15.02 
14.30 
16.02 
15.75 
15.10 

13,84 



14.61 
16.34 
16.44 
16.40 
15.18 
15.63 

14.98 
15.69 
13.65 
16.33 
15,96 
16.41 

15,64 



Source: 
a/ 

V 

at 

8647 



Unpublished data secured hy the Bureau of Labor Stati.-.tics in coopera- 
tion with the Division of Research and Planning, NBA, 
Haporting establishments considered to be almost completely covered 
by the Silk Textile Code. 

Pigures reported were for the payroll period nearest the 15th of the 
month. 

Based upon a representative s-mple covering an average of 108 estab- 
lishments and more than 19,000 employees in 1933. The sample was 
somewhat larger in 1934. 

Computed: Index of employment times average hours worked per week re- 
duced to 1933 = 100, 

Based upon a representative sample covering an average of 58 estab- 
lishments and nearly 12,800 employees in 1933, The sample was much 
larger in 1934, 



-17- 

TABLE XIII 

Average Hours and Earnings "by States in the Industry as a Whole, 

1931 and 1934 



Averages in 1931 a/ 



State 



Hours 
Worked 
Per Week 



Earnings 
Per Hour 



Actual 
Earnings 
Per Week 



Averages in February, 1934. 

Hours Earnings Per Week 

Worked On 40- Esti- 

Per Hour mated 

Week b/ Basis b/ Actual c/ 



Connecticut 47.8 

Massachusetts 42.7 

New Jersey 42.4 

New York 45.8 

Pennsylvania 45.4 

Rhode Island 45.0 

Maryland 46.3 

North Carolina 49.9 
South Carolina 

Alabama & 

Georgia 50.4 

Tennessee 49,9 

Virginia 48.0 

Total 45.5 



5.459 
.367 
.500 
.400 
.392 
.495 
• 253 
.382 



.268 
.196 
.292 

.406 



$23.04 
17.95 
23.60 
19.88 
20.07 
24.75 
13.03 
21.09 



14.85 
11.05 
15.77 

20.58 



38.2 
36.1 
37.9 
38.9 
37. S 
39.7 

35.1 



39.5 
39.2 
38.3 

37.9 



>20.15 
20.45 
20.92 
17.75 
18.43 
18.73 

17.03 



15.53 
15.01 
15.79 

19.03 



$19.24 
18.45 
19.82 
17.26 
17.32 
18.59 

14.94 



15.34 
14.71 

15.12 

18.03 



Source: As indicated in footnotes. 

a/ Bureau of Labor Statistics, Wages and Hours of Labor in the Manu- 
facture of Silk and Ravon Goods. 1931 (Bulletin No. 568). Figures 
were collected for a representative week in the period of March, 
April, May and June. 

b/ National Federation of Textiles, Inc., Production and Distribution 
of Silk and Ravon Broad Goods (1935), p. 29. 

c/ Estimated by multiplying the average weekly wages on a 40-hour 

basis by the ratio of the average hours worked per week to 40 hours, 

Tables XIV and XV furnish a comparison of hourly earnings of male and 
female employees in the leading manufacturing centers of the Silk and Rayon 
Goods Industry in August, 1933, and August, 1934. Tha number of workers in 
all sections receiving less than 30 cen'js an hour was greatly diminished in 
1934, In the south the greatest concentration of workers in 1934 was in the 
wage classification 30- to 32.5 cents, but in the other sections larger pro- 
portions of the workors were grouped in the higher wage brackets. 

Number of Weeks Workfid 

No information is readily available on the number of. weeks worked. per 1 
year in the Silk Industry. 



8647 



-IS- 



Child Labor 

For the Silk Industry as a whole the Census of Occupations in 1930 
listed 3,596 children under 16 years of age. It should be noted that this 
figure refers not to the number actually employed but rather to the number 
reporting themselves as belonging, by occupation, to this Industry. Al- 
though it is undoubtedly true that child labor still exists to some extent, 
it seems reasonable to believe that it has been greatly reduced. 

TABLE XIV 



Hourly Earnings in the Silk and Rayon Industry, by Sex and Region, 

August 1933 













Number of 


Employees 








Hourly 






















Earnings 


South a/ 


Middle 




















Atlantic b/ 




Paterson 


S/ 


New 


England d/ 




Male Female Male 


Female 


Male 


Female 


Male 


Female 


Less than 






















$.225 


100 


141 


333 


336 


28 


40 




51 


107 


$•225 "• $, 


.275 


46 


35 


132 


269 


25 


33 




46 


81 


.275 - , 


.300 


31 


34 


59 


65 


6 


7 




21 


44 


.300 - ; 


.325 


.239 


296 


128 


131 


18 


20 




35 


52 


.325 - , 


.350 


98 


143 


891 


3424 


78 


466 




417 


1108 


.350 - , 


,400 


184 


216 


602 


1338 


113 


158 




438 


936 


.400 - , 


.450 


232 


127 


883 


522 


115 


96 




339 


585 


.450 - , 


.500 


187 


70 


501 


225 


188 


60 




345 


515 


.500 - , 


.600 


214 


48 


766 


230 


199 


76 




545 


528 


.600 - , 


,700 


137 


9 


469 


100 


95 


23 




365 


179 


.700 and 


over 


44 


1 


364 


31 


165 


7 




413 


76 


Total Number 




















of Employees 




















in Sample 




1512 


1170 


5128 


6671 


1030 


936 




3015 


4211 



Source: 



Bureau of Labor Statistics, Textile Report, Part II, "Wage Rates 
and Weekly Earnings in the Silk and Rayon Goods Industry from April 
1933 to August 1934," p. 28. 

The largest figure in each column is underscored. 



a/ 

22/ 
Si 



Alabama, North Carolina- Virginia. 

Pennsylvania, Upstate New York, Philipsburgh and Burlington, N. 

Paterson, N. J., and environs. 

New York City and New England. 



J. 



-19- 



TABLE XV 



Hourly Earnings in the Silk and Rayon Industry, "by Sex and Region, 

August 1934 



y 











11 


umber of 


Employ 


ses 








Hourly 






















Earnings 


South a/ M 


iddle 


















Atlantic 


5/ 




Pater son c/ 


Hew England d/ 






Male 


Female 


Male 


Female 


Male Female 


Male 


Female 




Less than 




















$. 


225 


6 


2 


32 


20 


2 


8 


4 


3 




$.225 - 


$.275 


21 


25 


147 


86 


13 


21 


22 


23 




.275 - 


.300 


37 


7 


30 


26 


5 


5 


5 


11 




.300 - 


.325 


299 


599 


41 


58 


16 


20 


17 


20 




.325 - 


.350 


65 


132 


1084 


4385 


70 


267 


391 


891 




.350 - 


.400 


226 


169 


848 


2236 


91 


272 


519 


995 




.400 - 


.450 


224 


149 


1055 


1088 


134 


114 


459 


660 




.450 - 


.500 


198 


67 


1071 


645 


173 


88 


429 


444 




.500 - 


.600 


247 


101 


1143 


534 


233 


122 


622 


481 




.600 - 


.700 


162 


29 


800 


238 


124 


34 


601 


241 




/ .700 and over 


66 


5 


907 


88 


221 


19 


S77 


94 




Total Number 




















of Employees 




















in Sampl 


.e 


1551 


1285 


7158 


9404 


1082 


970 


3646 


3863 





Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Textile Report, Part II, "Wage Rates and 
Weekly Earnings in the Silk and Rayon Goods Industry from April 1933 
to August 1934", p. 28. 

The largest figure in each column is underscored. 

a/ Alabama, North Carolina, Virginia. 

b/ Pennsylvania, Upstate Ne\7 York, Philipsburgh and Burlington, H. J. 

c/ Paterson, N. J. and environs. 

d/ Hew York City and New England. 



8647 



-20- 

CHAPTER III 

MATERIALS - RAT/ A1ID SEMI -PROCESSED 

Total Cost of Raw Materials 

The amounts spent for raw materials by the Silk Industry as a whole have 
declined from $412,181,260 in 1929 to $212,846,607 in 1931, and to $143,611,- 
431 in 1933. l/ The sharp decline in raw silk prices and the increasing 
amounts of rayon used, which are indicated in Charts I and II, 2_/ account for 
a large part of decrease in raw material costs. 

Per Cent Cost of Materials is of Total Value 

The proportion which raw materials costs represents of the total value 
of products in the Industry as a whole is shown in Table XVI to have declined 
from 56.4 per cent in 1929 to 49.4 per cent in 1933. l/ 

TABLE XVI 

Percentage Labor and Raw Material Costs Are of Total 
Value in the Silk Industry as a Whole 



Total Value Total Factory Total Materials 
Year of payroll Cost a/ 



Products Amount Per Cent Amount Per Cent 

of Total of Total 



1929 $731,200,231 $137,547,146 18.8 $412,181,260 56.4 
1931 422,771,960 97,409,008 23.0 212,846,607 50.3 
1933 290,577,662 74,098,215 25.5 143,611,431 49.4 



Source: Census of Manufactures , "Silk and Rayon Manufactures". Data for 
establishments with an annual production of less than $5,000 are 
not included. 

a/ Total cost of materials includes fuel and purchased electrical 
energy which amounted to 2.1 per cent of the total in 1927 and 
1929. 



1_/ These figures include expenditures for fuel and purchased electrical 
energy which amounted to 2.1 per cent of the total in 1927 and 1929. 

2/ Chart II depicts total textile fibre consumption and is not limited 
to consumption by the Silk Textile Industry. 



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-23- 

Principal ' later i?. ls U sed 

The principal materials user in the Silk Textile Industry as a whole are 
shown in Table XVII. Silk, of course, is by far the most important material, 
but increasing quantities of rayon are being used. Silk mills increased their 
rayon consumption from 1,900,000 pounds in I91U to 40,700,000 pounds in 1931, 
and to 60,000,000 pounds in 193 ! +« The consumption, of raw, thrown, and spun 
silk has increased from 29,500,000 pounds in 1914 to 64, 200,000 pounds in 1929. 
Consumption has since declined to 5 ? , 700,000 pounds in 1931, and to an estimat- 
ed 45, 500,000 pounds in 193^« * n addition to silk and rayon, the Industry uses 
small quantities of cotton yarn and other fibres. 

TAEL2 XVII 

Quantity and. Cost of Principal Materials Consumed by 
the Silk Industry as a 'Jhole, 1929 and 1931 



Kind of Material 1Q29 1931 

Quantity Cost Quantity Cost 

(Founds) (Pounds) 

Silk ~~ 

Raw 54, 1+73,331 $267,027,248 ' 47,436,042 $116,091,275 

Organizine 1,666,070 10,07^,253 902,430 3,065,417 

Tram 7^5,865 2,97S,3 l U 369, 3°6 1,135,353 

Hard and Crepe 

twist 6,180,199 35,410,495 .3,707,593 26,232,^97 

3-o,:i 1,152,224 3,912,537 1.2.96,^57 3,365,145 

piorcec Cocoons, 

etc. 2,227,122 7,622,627 . 3,7.1S,'57 l * 1,459, 5 h d 

Rayon Yarns 32,551,60* 44,937,707 •. 40,742,062 36,732,072 

Cotton Yarns 13,26Q,609 2,121,631 12,233,932 1^813,349 

Other Yarns 2,217, 004 3,659,629 . 2,452,790 3,236,792 

s 

Total, above 

items 121,129,029 $383,768,528 117 = 915. 192 $196,757,542 



Source: Census of Manufactures . "Silk and Rayon Manufactureis" . 

Data, for establishments with sn annual production of less than $5,000 
are excluded. 

Expendit u res for Principal Raw Materials 

The Industry's expenditures for various raw materials cannot be shown in 
detail. The amount spent for raw silk, which is the principal raw material 0. 
the Industry, declined from $267,000,000 in 1929 to $116,000,000 in 1951 for 
the Industry as a. whole. Although the quantity of rayon yarns consumed has i: 
creased, the expenditures for r; yon nave decreased from $44,900,000 in 19'- 9 
to $36,700,000 in 1931. Comparable data am not available for later years. 
(See Table XVII>. 



2647 



Source of Bay.' Materials 

A"bout SO per cent of the raw silk usee, in this country in 1933 was import- 
ed from Japan. Host of the remainder came from China and Italy, l/ Practically 
all of the' rayon used is produced domestically — in Pennsylvania, New York, 
Virginia, T7est Virginia, and Ohio. 

Machinery and Equipment 

No data are available on recent expenditures made hy the Industry for 
machinery and equipment. It is the author's opinion, however, that such out- 
lays must have "been relatively small. 

According to Census data, the leading machinery and equipment manufactur- 
ers are located in New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and 
Illinois. A very small amount of equipment is imported from England and Ger- 
many. 



1/ Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Porcim Commerce and Navigation 
of the United States. 1931 . 

S6U7 



-25- 

CHATTSR IV 

PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION 

Value of Production in Principal State s 

Table XVIII shows the value of goods produced in the Industry as a 
whole, "by leading states. In 193.3 Pennsylvania produced silk and rayon 
goods valued at almost $110,0^0.000, and Nov; Jersey, which was second in 
importance, $31,555,000. The percentage decline in value of products be- 
tween 1929 and 1935 has varied widely among the leading states. In Pennsyl- 
vania the decrease was about 66 per cent; in New York, 73 per cent; in New 
Jersey, 75 per cent; but in Rhode Island the decrease was only about 30 per 
cent. 

The six states shown in Table XVIII produced 91 per cent of the total 
value of products in 1929, 83 per cent in 1931, and 82 per cent in 1933. 

TABLE XVIII 

Value of Products in the Silk Industry as a Whole, by Principal States 

(in thousands) 



State 



1929 



1931 



1933 



U. S. Total 

Connecticut 
Massachusetts 
New Jersey 
New York 
Pennsylvania 
Rhode Island 

All Other States 



$731,200 

54,298 

37,413 
126,308 

90,238 
320,956 

35,658 



66,355 



^422,772 

56,756 
22,920 
58,050 
49,457 
167,520 
26,475 

71 , 654 



$290,578 

25,245 
25,937 
51 \ 555 
25,966 
109,925 
24,965 

55,009 



Source: Census of Manufactures . "Silk and Rayon Manufactures". Data 
for establishments with an annual Production of less than 
$5,000 are not included. 

Shift in Centers of Production 

There have been some changes in the relative importance of the various 
centers of production, although the Paterson, New Jersey, area and the Pennsyl- 
vania sections still maintain the lead. However, in the last decade several 
of the Southern states — North Carolina particularly — have grown in 
prominence as producing areas, although practically all of the dyeing and 
finishing is still done in New Jersey and the adjacent New York Sectiono 
(cf. Chapter II, section entitled ""lumber of Smplo?/ees by States" ). 



8647 



-26- 

Exports 

The amount of silk goods and silk yarn exported from the United 
States has never been very large, out exports in 1933 and 1934 were small- 
er than at any time for at least the past 15 years. As shown in Table XIX, 
both the volume and value of practically all types of silk products ex- 
ported decreased "between 1929 and 1934. However, the exportation of tram 
(silk yarn) increased slightly in volume, although the value greatly de- 
creased. Both the volume and value of exports of rayon products have 
increased since 1929. 



8647 



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S6U7 



-PS- 



Table XX shows the principal countries to which silk fabrics are 
exported* The only country which showed an increase in the amount import- 
ed from the United States between 1930 and 1934 was the Philippines. 

TABLE XX 



Volume and Value of Exports of Broad Goods Made TTholly or Chiefly of 
Silk, by Country of Destination, in 1930, 1931, 1933, and 1934 

(in thousands) 



Country 


IS 


130 




193] 




1 


.933 


1934 


a/ 






















Quantity Value 


Quant i t 


y Value 


Quantity 


■ Value 


Quantity Value 




(yards) 




(yards) 






(yards) 




(yards) 




Canada 


1,448 


$1,709 


1,534 


$1, 


583 


229 


$ 202 


260 


$196 


Cuba 


697 


667 


343 




259 


153 


61 


134 


64 


Australia 


186 


267 


100 




110 


84 


47 


177 


119 


Philippines 


111 


117 


194 




128 


768 


324 


421 


208 


Mexico 


50 


90 


25 




42 


18 


25 


5 


7 


United 




















Kingdom 


76 


139 


76 




78 


56 


50 


50 


44 


Dominican 




















Republic 


25 


23 


25 




18 


16 


11 


10 


6 


Colunbia 


23 


22 


46 




21 


8 


9 


9 


10 


Argentina 


51 


79 


31 




43 


5 


9 


5 


2 


Hawai i 












270 


148 


186 


111 


Puerto Rico 












194 


65 


161 


66 


Other 




















Countries 


221 


308 


170 




154 


119 


72 


78 


51 


Total 


2,887 


$3,423 


2,594 


$2 ; 


,365 


1,980 


$1,023 


1,493 


ijjOOO 


Source: Nat 


■ ional Federation 


of Text 


iles, Inc 


. , Production and Distribution 


of 


Silk and 


Rayon B 


road Goo 


ds 


(1935 


), p. 41, 


1 







a/ 



Nine months only. 



Advertising 

Various advertising media are used, but there are no available data as 
to the amount of expenditures. A few of the leading producers who advertise 
and sell under their own brands are Cheney Brothers, Stehli Silk Corporation, 
Julius Kayser and Company, Belting-Heminway-Corticelli, Inc., and Van Raalte 
Company, Inc. Not many others sell trade-marked goods. 



Comparison of Production and Retail Sales by States 

A comparison of the value of production of silk and rayon broad goods 
with the retail distribution of these products for specified states is given 
in Table XXI. The value of products represents the total value of silk and 
rayon broad goods (exclusive of velvets, plushes, and upholsteries) produced 
in establishments classified in the Census of Manufactures under "Silk and 

8647 



-29- 

Rayon Manufactures". The estimated value of retail soles for each of the 
states shown consists only of sales made in the three types of stores — 
department, dry-goods, and general merchandise — hut the hulk of silk and 
rayon goods is sold in such stores, (See footnote d/ of Tahle XXI). Be- 
cause the sales figures cover velvets, etc., while the production figures 
do not, and because the Census data on retail sales are for various reasons 
not completely satisfactory for deriving commodity sales, the comparison 
is necessarily rough. 

The limitations of the data require that conclusions drawn from 
them he guarded. It is evident, he 'ever, that the manufacture of silk hroad 
goods is concentrated in a few st? tes in the Eastern part of the country, 
hut that retail sales are net concentrated to anything like the same e;:tent. 
For example, in 19£9 Pennsylvania produced about 48 per cent of the total 
output, but consumed something in the neighborhood of only about 8 per cent. 
Similarly Her Jersey produced abort 19 per cert of the total, but used only 
about 2 per cent. At the other end of the scrle are found states like 
Missouri, Washington, Kansas, Iowa, Louisiana, and many others that are not 
shown, where consumption amounts to one or more per cent, all of which has 
to be brought in from outside the state, since there is no production with- 
in these states. 



8647 



-30- 



TABLE XXI 



Value of Production and Estimated Retail Sales of Silk and Rayon 

Broad Goods, by States, 1929 



State 



Total Production a/ Estimated Total Retail Sales b/ 



Value of 

Production Per Cent 

(Thousands) of Total 



Number of Value of 
Establish- Sales cj Per Cent 
ments (Thousands) of Total 



U. S. Total 


$483,208 


ICO 


41,702 


$236,634 


300 


Connecticut 


18,577 


1 


631 


1,828 


1 


Massachusetts 


22 , 943 


4 


1,394 


8,960 


4 


New Jersey 


92, 132 


19 


2,053 


5,537 


2 


New York 


45,337 


9 


4,956 


29,960 


13 


Pennsylvania 


231,375 


43 


3,117 


17,717 


8 


Rhode Island 


23,341 


5 


294 


978 




Washington 







562 


3,317 


1 


Kansas 







616 


2,580 


1 


Iowa 







633 


2,952 


1 


Missouri 







1,389 


6,906 


3 


Louisiana 







605 


3,358 


1 



Other States 



53,203 



11 



25,397 



152,541 



65 



Source: 



a/ 



6/ 



2/ 



Census of Manufactures, 1929 ; and Census of Retail Distribution , 
1929 . 

Silk and Rayon broad goods exclusive of velvets, plushes, etc. 
Data for establishments v,ith an annual production of less than 
$5,000 are not included. 

As reported bv three kinds of retail establishments: 

(1) Department stores with and without food 
departments. 

(2) Dry goods stores (dry goods and piece goods) and 

(3) General merchandise stores (with and without 
food departments). 

Value of sales has been estimated by multiplying the total 
net sales of department, dry goods, and general merchandise 
stores by the per cent which sales of rayon and silk and 
velvet piece goods were of total sales of all stores in 
these categories. 



8647 



CHAPTER V 
TRADE PRACTICES 

Unfair Trade Practices prevalent B efore Code 1/ 

The Sill: Textile Industry, like most of the other textile industries, 
was plagued by unfair trade practices "before the Codes were adopted. 

Possibly the nost widespread unfair practice has been the exploitation 
of commission weavers by the converters. Many of the commission weavers 
operate on a very small scale with from 10 to 50 looms. As a group they 
have practically no "business training nor knowledge of costs, and they are 
not responsible enough financially oven to "be able to purchase raw materials. 
In addition, their looms in virtually all instances are anticipated. The 
converters advance enough money to the commission weavers to meet the small 
payroll, and in return for these advances they receive silk yardage from the 
commission weaver at very low cost. It frequently happened that the small 
weaver soon found himself unable to pay for such items as his rent and the 
carrying charges on his machinery, and was forced to accept foreclosure. The 
holder of the machinery lien, who was usually the converter, would then either 
set the weaver up in business again or move the machinery to another small 
operator. This cycle might be repeated time after time and the effects 
were far reaching. In addition to the effects of this method of operation 
on the commission, weaver and his employees, it enabled the converter to 
offer low-priced goods which demoralized the markets in which the more 
responsible and the more efficient operators had to compete. Although the 
quantities offered may not have been large, they were sufficient to establish 
price levels which could be considered unfair to the stock-carrying mills. 

Excessive weighting of silk materials, for the purpose of giving body to 
a sleazy fabric, was -practiced by some manufacturers. Such weighting, which 
greatly reduces the durability of the cloth, is believed to be much less 
widespread than formerly. 

Design piracy, or the stealing of patterns and styles, has long been a 
problem for which no adequate and effective remedies have as yet been found. 
There are two schools of thought in regard to the use of designs: one school 
demands strict governmental protection similar to the patent laws; the other 
favors liberal and unrestricted use of all created designs. 



1/ It must be noted that the statements made in this section, unless other- 
wise noted, are generalities based only on the author's knowledge of the 
Industry and not on any factual material that can now be presented. 



8647 



As already indicated, the above discussion of trade practices was drama 
from the author's knowledge of the Industry. The "balance of this chapter is 
based on material prepared by tfce national Federation of Textiles, Inc. 

According to the iteration, unfair trade practices prevalent in the 
Silk Textile IndusW prior to the Code were: 

1. Exc-^sive terns given under pressure from buyers. 

2. returns made for other than reasons of unsatisfactory 

merchandise. 

3. Excessive claims for damaged merchandise including the 

making of claims by dress manufacturers against several 
manufacturers in one lot of dresses - the fabric not 
being identifiable after having been put into the dresses. 

4. Lack of definite understanding between buyer and seller as 

to conditions of sales, due to lack of contracts or other 
order confirmations. 

5. Secret rebates. 

6. Commercial bribery in the form of gifts to buyers or buyer's 

representatives. 

7. Allowances for advertising which constituted in most cases 

nothing more than allowances on the price. 
3. Selling below cost. 

The extensive use made of these practices so broke down the price 
structure that it was almost impossible for manufacturers to compete on the 
basis of the actual value of the merchandise. In other words, purchases and 
sales became a matter of barter on price concessions without much relation 
to the quality or cost of producing the merchandise. The seller had to try 
to keep in mind at the time of the sale how many ways the buyer could bring 
pressure on him on subsequent allowances through claims, returns, advertis- 
ing allowances, extra datings, cash rebates, and the like. 

Methods of Unfair Competition Now Prevalen t 

According to the national Federation of Textiles, Inc., selling below 
cost is still considered prevalent and there is still complaint about return- 
ing merchandise after too long an interval, but the abuses which resulted 
from secret rebates, advertising allowances, trading down on terms, etc., are 
thought to have more or less disappeared. 

Effect of Prices of Individual Members on the national Price Struct ure 

In the opinion of the National Federation of Textiles, Inc., the fact 
that so much buying and selling in the Silk Industry is done within the Hew 
York City area — either through representatives of out-of-town firms or by 
dress manufacturers whose plants are in New York — means that any action 
taken hj an individual member of the Industry with respect to trices quickly 
spreads throughout the Industry. The condition is aggravated by the over- 
supply of merchandise, which constantly exists, and the fact that most of the 
merchandise is not sold under the manufacturer's name or trade-mark, but simply 
goes into the general pool of fabrics supplied by the several hundred manu- 
facturers in the Industry. 



8647 



CHAPTER VI 

GENERAL INFOaiATION 1/ 

Manufacturer s ' Qrgani zatioiis 

national Federation of Textiles, Inc . - Silk manufacturers realized the 
need of cooperative handling of their problems at an early date, and con- 
sequently organized the Silk Association of America in June, 1872. This 
organization was one of the earliest trade associations in this country 
and included in its membership all of the early manufacturers and dis- 
tributors of silk fabrics, as well as the importers of raw materials. 
The organization has a long, uninterrupted history. In 1934, because of 
the increasing importance of rayon in the making of finer dress fabrics, 
the name of the Association was changed to the National Federation of 
Textiles, Inc. Through this organization the Silk Industry handles such 
problems as: competition of foreign fabrics which are manufactured at 
much lower wage levels; encouragement of production of increased quantities 
and better qualities of raw silk; development of high-speed machinery to 
bring greater variety of fabrics to American consumers at prices not pos- 
sible in the costly imported lines; settlement of disputes by arbitration 
instead of by relying on the more expensive and often unsatisfactory 
method of settlement by jury trial in the public courts; establishment of 
standard forms of contract to minimize misunderstanding between buyers and 
sellers and to make available to all trade customs that have developed 
through years of experience; standardization not only of trade customs and 
methods of manufacture, but also methods of merchandising, including grad- 
ing and testing of raw silk; prevention of misrepresentation of silk goods 
through cooperation with the Federal Trade Commission; and extensive tech- 
nical and scientific research on matters affecting the Industry. 

Broad Silk Manufacturers of Paterson, N. J . - This is a local organiza- 
tion of small manufacturers in Paterson who operate what are known as "family 
shops", in which the owner runs his own looms with the aid of his family and 
possibly a few outsiders. The group is composed almost entirely of commission 
weavers who simply perform the service of weaving for a converter who supplies 
the raw material and sells the fabric. 

Master Weavers Institute . - This organization, which is also confined 
to paterson, consists of owners of Jacquard looms. It was formed primarily 
for the purpose of putting through a special labor agreement, the details of 
which are not known to the author. The employees of this group are skilled 
and therefore receive relatively high wages. 

Blackstone Valley Manufacturers Association, providence, R. I . - This is 
an organization of manufacturers in the Rhode Island territory who, with few 
exceptions, are of about the same class as the commission weavers forming 
the Broad Silk Manufacturers Association of Paterson. 

Silk Manufacturers of Allertowr, Pa . - The silk manufacturers in the 
Allentown section, many of wnom came originally from Paterson, are not very 
formally organized but do hold occasional meetings. 

1/ The information in this chapter is, with minor editorial changes, as 
prepared by the National Federation of Textiles, Inc. 

8647 



Relationship Between Labor and Management 

Dae to the comparatively small size of the individual enterprises in 
the Silk Industry, the relationship "between labor and management has "been 
relatively close. The only difficulties of any consequence have "been 
centered around Paterson, Hew Jersey. A very serious strike occurred in 
1913, and strike activities in other years — together with the higher 
wage level there — have caused a number of manufacturers to move their 
mills to smaller communities where the workers were not organized. 

In 1918 an Industry-wide movement for trie inauguration of the 48-hour 
week was attempted through the United Textile Workers of America. It was 
found, however, that silk workers were not "anxious" to join the movement 
and that except in the Allentown, Pennsylvania, and paterson, New Jersey, 
centers there was little or no difficulty in adjusting the hours. 

No significant labor difficulties occurred from 1918 until subsequent 
to the adoption of the NBA Code. In the intervening years wages were in 
general comparatively high until the depression. When the wage market 
broke the workers most seriously affected were those in the "family shops" 
and in other shops operated without proper regard to costs. The principal 
t method of reducing costs was cutting wages, and wages in such shops were 
reduced to "unheard of" levels, despite the fact that the average in the 
well-established mills remained high. 

It was to be expected that the Code — particularly the 7 (a) clause — 
would encourage workers to strike for better wages. The Code provided for 
a minimum wage for all workers, with a clause regarding differentials which 
was not specific with respect to the various crafts. In August, 1933, a 
general strike was called in protest of the proposed Code; it lasted about 
twelve weeks. The center of the strike was in the Paterson, New Jersey, 
area. The strike was considered unsuccessful to the extent that the Code 
minimum wage was not changed and the compromise agreement effected by the 
National Industrial Labor Board was not carried out. 



List of Exoei-ts 

Peter Van Horn, Chairman, 
The National Federation of 
Textiles, Inc. , 
10 East MOth Street, 
New York City. 



Nathan Lewis, 
Nairn & Peldman, Inc. , 
40 E. 29th Street, 
New York City. 



K. E. Blake, 
Cheney Brothers, 
1S1 l.Iadison Avenue, 
New York City. 

Alexander P. Ix, 
Frank Ix & Sons., Inc. 
1410 Broadway, 
New York City. 



Edward H. Schniewind, 
Susquehanna Silk Hills, 
lH9 lladison Avenue, 
New York City. 

Paul C. Debrj'-, 
Duplan Silk Corp. 
1H5O Broadway, 
New York City. 



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•35" 



Raymond C. Kramer, 
The Bel&ing**£ieminT7ay 
Corticelli Co., 
119 17. Uoth Street, 
Ne'7 York City. 



Henry Z. Stehli, 
Stelili Silks Corp, 
1372 Broadway, 
lie- York City. 



John R. LicG-inley, 
Phillip sTmrg Silk Co., 
FhillipsTrurg, l"en Jersey 



ilotjusulce Egawa, 
'..orimuira, Arai & Co. , Inc., 
2 Pari: Avenue, 
He- York City. 



R. K. Laros, 
R. K. Leros Sill: Co., 
Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. 



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