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Full text of "Evidence study"

3 9999 06317 b^** ' 

NATIONAL RECOVERY ADMINISTRATION 
DIVISION OF REVIEW 



EVIDENCE STUDY 
NO. 38 

OF 

THE STRUCTUAL CLAY PRODUCTS INDUSTRY 



Prepared by 
STERLING R. MARCH 



September, 1935 



PRELIMINARY DRAFT 
(NOT FOR RELEASE: FOR USE IN DIVISION ONLY) 



3 9999 06317 t)D^ 



NATIONAL RECOVERY ADMINISTRATION 

— — rtrrt 8 lyjtj 



DIVISION OF REVIEW 



EVIDENCE STUDY 
NO. 38 

OF 

THE STRUCTUAL CLAY PRODUCTS INDUSTRY 



Prepared by 

STERLING R. MARCH 



September, 1935 



PRELIMINARY DRAFT 
(NOT FOR RELEASE: FOR USE IN DIVISION ONLY) 



I 



i 



THE SVIDEiyC:^, STUDY S311IES 

The EYIDSrCE S'TUDIES vere oririnall:.'- plrAnned as a raecns of gathering 
evidence bearinj: upon verious loijal issi^es -.'liich arose ■under the National 
Industrial Secover:,- Act. 

These studies have value ajaite aside fron the iise for vrhich the:"- were 
originally intended, Accordingl;-, they are :iOn nade available for confidential 
use trithin the Division of Hevieu, and for inclusion in Code Histories, 

The fxill list of the Evidence St~adies is as iollov;s: 



1, Autono 13110 Man-'ofactui'lng 

2, Soot and Shoe 

3, Bottled Soft Drinlt 

4, Builders' Supplies 

5, Chenical Ilfg, 

6, Cigar Llf;;:. Industry 

7, Construction Industr;'- 

8, : Cotton Garment 

9, Dress I,Ifg, 

10, Electrical Contracting 

11, Electrical Mfg. Industry 

12, Fabricated Lletal Products 
15. Fishery Industr}"- 

14. F'jrniture Mfg, 

15. General Contractors 

16. Graphic Arts 

17. Gray Iron Foundr^'- 
IS, Hosiery 

19. Infants' and Children's Uear 

20. Iron and Steel Industry'- 

21. Leather 

22. L-anber and Ti:nber Products Ind\\stry 



23. l.Iason Contractors 

24. Lien's Clothing Industry 

25. notion Picture 

26. Motor Bus Mfg. Industry 

27. iTeedlework Industry?- of P-aerto 
Pdco 

23. Ps,inting said Paperhanging 

29. Photo Engraving Industrjr 

30. Plumbing Contracting 

31. Iletail Food 

32. Retail Lumber 

33. Iletail Solid ]?ael 

34. Retail Trade 

35. Rubber Mfg, 

36. Rubber Tire Mfg, 

37. Sill: Textile 

33. Strtictiu-al Clay Products 

39, Throning 

40, Truching 

41, TJaste Materials 

42, Ylholesale Food 

43, T/holesale Fresh Fruit & Vegetable 
4-1. Wool Textile Industry 



In addition to the studies brought to co;T:pletlon, certain naterials have 
"been assembled for other industries. These MATERIALS are included in the series 
and are also nade available for confidential use -Tithin the Division of Revievr 
ajid for inclusion in Code KistorieE, as follows: 



45, Autonotive Parts & Equipnert 

46, Baiting Industr;- 

47, Ccjoning Industrrr 

48, Coat and Suit 

49, Household Goods C: Storage etc. 



50, Motor Vehicle Retailing Trade 

51, Retail Tire end Battery Trade 

52 , Sliip bui 1 ding 

53, TiTnolesaling or Distributing 
Trade 



ij. C, iARs-^eiLxj 
DIRECTOR, DIVISIOM OF REVIEW 



\ 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Forei;7ord , 1 

CHAPTER I - KATUEE OP T'lE INDUSTRY 2 

Definition of the Ind"ustry 2 

N"umber of Establishments 2 

Niomber of I.Ierabers of the Industry. ........ 3 

Number of Estr.blishnents by States 3 

Capital Investment and Productive Capacity .... 6 

Value and Volume of Production 7 

Failures 7 

Continuity of Production 8 

Competing Products 9 

CHAPTER II - LABOR STATISTICS 10 

Employment and Payrolls 10 

Seasonal Variation 13 

Trend of Average Weekly Wages 14 

Percentage Ihich Cost of Labor 

is of Value of Product.. 15 

CHAPTER III - ILATERIALS: RAW AND SEMI-PROCESSED 16 

Principal Materials Used in the Industry 16 

Cost of Materials, Fuel, and Purchased 

Electric Energy 16 

Equipment 17 

CHAPTER IV - PRODUCTION AlE) DISTRIBUTION 18 

Value and Volume of products by States 18 

Interstate Movement of Goods. . . 21 

Type of Distributive Outlet 24 

Volume of Imports and Erqjorts. 25 

Shifts of Centers of Production 25 

CHAPTER V - TRADE PPA.CTICES 26 

Unfair Trade Practices Prior to the Code 26 

Unfair Trade Practices Under the Code 27 

CHAPTER VI - TIIE INDUSTRY - GENERAL INTOEIAATION 28 

Operations of the Industry 28 

Trade Associo.tions 28 

Organization of Labor 28 

Present Financial Condition of the Industry. ... 29 

Effect of the Code 29 

Trade Marks 29 

Imports 31 

Exnerts 31 



8592 



-1- 



TABLES 



Pa-gje 



TABLE I - 



TABLE II - 



TABLE III - 



TABLE IV - 



TABLE V - 



TABLE VI - 



TABLE VII ~ 



TABLE VIII - 



TABLE IX - 



TABLE X - Err: 



TABLE XI - 



Kumber of Estatlislinents iDy 

Major produ.cts 2 

Numter of EstatlisliEients Producing 

Comraon Brick by Principal States. . Cj-4 

Immber of Establishments Producing 

Face Brick by Principal States 4-5 

Humber of Establishments producing 

Vitrified Paving Brick by 

Principal States 5-6 

Niimber of Establishments producing Hollow 

Building Tile by principal States 6 

Total Value and Volnine of Prodaction in 

the Industry as Defined by the Code by 

Kind of Product 7 

Kuraber of Plants and Value of Product 

for Establislinents in the Four Main 

Divisions of the Indu.stry, Classified 

by Days Operated, 1953 8 

Average l>TaHber of Employees and Total 

Annual Payrolls In the Pour Main 

Divisions of the Industry 10 

Employment, Payrolls, and Average 

Weekly Wages in Establishments Whose 

Major product was Common Brick, by 

Principal Producing States, 1933 11 

Imployment, Payrolls and Average 
Weekly Wages in Establishments 
Whose Major Product was Face Brick, 
by Principal States, 1933 12 

Employment, Payrolls, and Average 

Weekly Wages in Establishments Whose 

Major Product was Paving Brick by 

Principal producing States, 1933 12 



8592 



-11- 



TABLES (Cont'd) 



Pag e 



TABLE XII - Eraxilojinent, Peyrolls, and Average 

Weekly ITage in Establisuinents Whose 

Major Prodtict was Hollow Building lile, 

"by Principal Producing States, IQ^CS 13 

TABLE XIII - Seasonality of Employment in the Four 

Main Divisions of the Industry 1333 14 

TABLE XIV - Average '.Teekly Earnings in the Foiir 

Main I^ivisions of the Industry 15 

TABLE XV - Relation of Total Labor and Total 
Materials Cost to Total Val\ie of 
Product in the Four l.Iain Divisions 
of the Industry 16 

TABLE XVI - Cost of Materials, Fuel, and Purchased 
Electric Energjr, by Main Divisions of 
the Industry 1929 and 1933 17 

TABLE XVII - Volume and Value of Common Brick Produced 

in Principal States 18 

TABLE X\^III - Volume and Value of Paving Brick 

Produced in Principal States 19 

TABLE XIX - Volume and Value of Hollow Tile 

Produced in principal States 20 

TABLE XXI - Volume and Value of Face Brick 

Produced in Principal States 21 

TABLE XXI - ComiDarison of Production and Consumption 

of Brick, by States, 1929 23-24 

TABLE IQCEI - Comparison of Estimated Total A^alue of 

Construction and Total Value of Structural 

Clay Products Consumotion (index, i926-lC0' ) , . , . 29 

TABLE XXIII - Factory Em.plo3?nent , Payrolls, Hours, 

and Wages 1933-1935 30 



oOo 



8592 -iii- 



ST3UCTIHAL CLAY PRODUCTS liDUSTlIY 

Ppr err or d 

The Structural Clay Products Incaistr--, as defined "by the Code, consists 
largely of tlie four "branches — connon "bricl-, fr.ce "brick, pavin;-^ "brici-.ii r.nd 
struct-t-UT-l cla.;- tile. In c'-o.dition, the Coi'e covers vitrified "brick for -our- 
noses other thcin -^avin-;, glazjd end enameled "brie':, hollo'T "byick, rv.C clay or 
shale .;:ranuJ.es. 'These products represent only a STnrll -oortion of the total 
product of the In6.ustr--, however, ?.no are lerrcely -oroduced in -olant-; of the 
four r.iain Industr;-- branches. Since riany nlonts ;oroduce more than ono "i^rodiict. 
an effo-"t has "been :nade to avoid du^olication in th? statistics used in this 
reiDort • 

The data included in the follo^'in-:; tahles are derived chiefly from tvo 
sources, the Census of llanufactures and the Bureau of La'bor Statistics, The 
Census data used rre, in the main., the totals for the four "branches of the 
Indxistrv named a"bove as taken from the Census classification, "The Cla;- Prod- 
ucts Industries," and re;ores9.-_t a covera^-je roughly com-oarohle ■-'ith Code cover- 
age. Certain data used, ho^7ever — namely, that classified "by major irodxicts 
— give a coverage somerrhat less inclusive than the Code. The usual limitation 
of Census of llanufactures data arising from the exclusion of es' a'blislinents 
nith cor. rcnLrual -Droduction of less than $5,000 does not apply in the case of 
this Ind.ustry, as these smaller establishments vrere covered hy the Census re~ 
ports. 

Census dx-.ta on total nur.i"ber of estahlislinents in the f orar hra/nch.es of the 
Industr;-, on num"'oer of employees, on amo-ujit of total -nayrplls, and on vage 
rates, represent those establishments '.'hose major product '-'as either common 
brick, paving brick, face brie]-:, or hollor: ""uuilding tiles. State breakdorrns 
of data along these lines \7ere available onlj^ for 1933, and such of these data 
as pertain to labor have been used in Chapter II. Similar data are used in 
Table I uhich shous nuiber of establishments by major -products for the United 
States, In spite of a certain amount of duolication involved, in order to 
retain compETability of data for several years, th3 state breakdovms for the 
number of establishments cover all establishments Tarodticing the s-oecified 
con:iodity, v.hether as major or minor product. The r)roduction tables — whether 
givir^g the total for the United States or state breakdonns — re-oort the totcl 
production of snecified commodities in all establishments. 



85-32 



-2- 

Chapter I 

MTIIiE 0? THE IlIDUS^niY 

Definition of tne Industry 

The StructuTiil Clay Products Industry includes the nanufacturers viho :oro- 
duce in the United States and sell comnon brick, face "brick (including glazed 
and enameled "brick), structural clay tile (including; glazed tile), -oaving 
"brick, and clay or shale granules, ojid any other related groups that, nith the 
approvp-l of the Administrator, elected to operate under this Code. 

The four "branches of the Industry are: comnon hrick, paving "brick, face 
"brick, and hollon "building tile, 

Kum"ber of Esta"blishments 

Table I, beloij, gives the number of establislments whose major product 
is one of the four tynes of product specified just above. Except for 19341/ > 
figures are not available, without duplication, for the nimber of establish- 
nents v,'hic"n "oroduce these commodities as minor products .and yet are not in- 
cluded in one of the above groups. Consequently the totals giv -n in this 
table are less inclusive than the Code coverage for the Industry. 

TA3LE I 

a/ 

Number of Establisiiments by Major Products — ' 

Product 19r^9 19S3 1934 

Total 1159^/ 531 533 



Common Brick 735 352 333 

Pa,ving Brick 34^/ 25 27 

Face Brick 244 96 90 

Hollow Building Tile 146 78 83 

Source; 1929 data from Census of Manufactures, 1929 , "The Clay Products 

Industries", Table 6; 1933 and 1934 data from special Census tabula- 
tion for JxT.R.A. , Research and Planning Division, 1933 and 1934, 

aj In addition to the number of establishments nroducing the above com- 

modities as major products, there were 366 establishments in 1934 
producing tliem as minor products, resulting in a total of 899 for the 
industry. Similar figures are not available for 1929 or 1933, 

b/ Includes vitrified brick used for other purposes than uaving. 

The results of a partial study of some 500 companies made 'bj the former 
Code Authority revealed that about one-half the total number of estnblishraents 
malve one product, about one-quarter make two products, a little less than one- 
quarter make three products, and one-fiftieth make foiir products; the remain- 
ing "olants, for the most part, probably make onlj'' one product, and ver3- few 

of them more than two products. ____ 

Xj See footnote §/ to Table I, 
35^2 " 



N'um'ber of Heraljers of the Industry 

Ho thorough check has ever been made of the nuniter of companies ifho con- 
trol t\70 or more plants, "but it is jmo-r^n that ten members of the Industry- 
operate five or more plants each, and the former Code Authority estimated that 
the number of members in 1.^34 v/as equal to about thirty per cent of the num- 
ber of plants. 

Number of Establishments by States 

The total number of establishments, by states, in each of the four 
branches of the Industry is given in Tables II, III, lA^ and V below. These 
figiires include all of the e stablisliraents producing any of the commodity or 
comnodities listed, whereas Table I includes only those establishments for 
which the product specified is the major product. 

In addition to the four products for which da,ta are given in the tables 
below, the Code covers establisliments producing vitrified brick for purposes 
other them paving, glazed and enameled brick, hollow brick, and clay or shale 
granules. Undoubtedly there is considerable duplication between e stablish- 
ments producing these latter products and the products named in the following- 
tables. Por this reason the establisliraents producing the above-mentioned 
itens have not been included in the data pres^^nted in these four tables, but 
the niinber of such establishments has been indicated in footnotes of the 
appropriate table except that no data are available on clay or shale granules. 

Pennsyl-vania ranlced first in the number of establishments producing 
common brick and of those producing face brick in each of the years 1929, 193' 
and 1954. Ohio was the leadin^^ state in the number of establishments produc- 
ing building tile. As for paving brick, Pennsylvania ranlced first in 192S 
with 14 establishments, while in 1932 and 1934, Ohio led with 20 and 17 es- 
tablisliments respectively. 

The former Code Authority has estimated that over one-half of the total 
number of all plants in the United States, for all branches of the Industry, 
are located in four states; 20,7 per cunt in Ohio; 17.0 per cent in Penns3-1- 
vania; 10,4 per cent in ITew Jersey, and 6,6 per cent in Illinois. 

TABLE II 

Number cf Estciblishments Producing Corano-n Brick by Principal States ^ 

State 1929 1932 1934 

693 

18 

■6 

29 

19 

16 

7 

9 

44 

18 

22 

8592 



U. S. Total 




1074 




( 


591 


Alabama 




33 






15 


Arkansas 




10 






5 


California 




55 






37 


Colorado 




25 






22 


Connie cticut 




20 






12 


Florida 




8 






3 


Georgia 




18 






8 


Illinois 




60 






54 


Indiana 




27 






21 


Iowa 




35 






24 




(Cont: 


inued on 


following 


page) 





_4- 

TASLE II (Cont'd) 

Kansas 17 15 12 

Kentucky 22 12 16 

Lov.isiana 17 7 7 

Maine 17 10 10 

Massachusetts 22 16 13 

Michigan 13 11 14 

Liimiosota 13 10 11 

Mississippi 21 6 6 

l.Iisso\iTi 21 15 15 

Wetraska 15 4 4 

Jlevf Hampshire 9 11 10 

New Jersey 23 15 15 

Ner; York 50 38 32 

North Carolina 53 22 23 

Ohio 59 45 40 

Oklahoma 17 13 13 

Pennsylvania 104 80 74 

South Carolina 19 10 10 

Tennessee 21 15 21 

Texas 37 28 29 

Virginia 42 24 27 

Washington 19 10 13 

West Virginia 14 6 6 

Wisconsin 27 19 18 

Other States 96 49 66 



Sovj-ce; 1929 data from Ce nsus of Manufactures, 19^9 , "The Clay Products In- 
dustries," Table 5; 1932 and 1934 data from Cen3^lG reoorts on The 
Clay Products Industries , 1932 , and 1934 , Table 3. 

a/ It should be noted that the Code also covers the production of hollow 
brick for -^hich no separate table is presented. Since it and comraon 
brick are often produced in the sane plants, establishments listed as 
producing hollorr brick have not been included in this table, in order 
to avoid dui^licction. Such plants totaled 41 in 1939, 28 in 1932, 
37 in 1933, and 35 in 1934. 

TABLE III 

ITuTiiber of Zstablishiaents Producinr^ Pace Brick by Principal States ^/ 



State 1929 1932 1934 

U. 3. Total 457 375 34-8 

Alabama 13 6 8 

Arkansas 7 5 6 

California :.7 13 17 

Colorado I'-i 11 12 

Georgia 7 6 4 

Illinois 27 26 21 

8592 (Continued on follo-.7ing page) 



TABLE III (Cont'd) 

Indiana 22 18 14 

lOT-a 21 19 18 

Kansas 14 11 13 

Kentucky 6 4 6 

Michigan 3 3 3 

Minnesota 3 2 2 

MiJ'Sissipiii 9 5 3 

Misiso-uri 12 12 9 

North Cai'olina 9 6 4 

Ohio 50 45 42 

Oklahoma 16 13 12 

Pennsylvania 84 72 59 

Soii.th Carolina 4 5 2 

Tennessee lO" 8 11 

Texas 17 16 14 

Virginia 10 12 10 

Washington 9 9 9 

West Virginia 10 7 6 

Wisconsin 7 5 3 

Other States 57 36 40 

Source: 19r:9 data from Census of Manufactiores, 1929 , "The Clay Products In- 
dustries," Tahle 5; 1932 a:id 1S34 data fron Census reports on The 
Clay Products Industries , 1932 , and 1934 , Tahle 3. 

a/ It should be noted that the Code also covers the production of en- 
a;j<^.led hrick for \7hich no separate tahle is presented. Since it 
and face hrick are often produced in the sane plants, establish- 
ments listed as rjroducing enameled brick have not been included in 
this table, in order to avoid duplication. Such plants totaled 7 
in 1929, 9 in 1932, 13 in 1933, and 10 in 1934. 

TABLE IV 

Nurriber of Establishments Producing Vitrified Paving Brick by Principal 

State sa/ 



State 1929 1952 1934 



U. S. Total 77 75 72 

Ohio 13 20 17 

Pennsylvania 14 9 10 

Illinois 8 11 9 

Indiana 5 2 6 

l0T7a 3 4 3 

Kansas 3 ' 7 7 

Texas 2 3 2 

IJew York 2 11 

Other States 22 18 17 



8592 (Continued on following page) 



-6- 

TA3LE IV (Cont'd) 

SotLTce: 19J?9 data from Census of Manufactures, 1939 , "The Clay Products In- 
dustries," Table 5; 1952 and lyol data, fi-om Census reports on The 
Clay Products Industries , 1933 , and 1954 , Table 3. 

a/ It shovad be noted that the Code also covers the production of 

vitrified paving brick for other purposes, for ivhich no separate 
table is presented. Since it and vitrified pavin^''' brick are often 
produced in the same plants, establishments listed as producing 
vitrified TDaving brick for other pumoses have not been included in 
this table in order to avoid duplication. Such plants totaled 41 in 
1929, 34 in 1932, 39 in 1933, and 54 in 1934. 

TABLE V 

Kuraber of Sstablislinents Producing Hollow Buildin-^ Tile by Principal States^:/ 



State 1929 1932 1954 



U. S. Total 419 347 327 

California 21 17 18 

Colorado 8 10 10 

Georgia 6 4 4 

Illinois 32 37 27 

Indiana 25 19 19 

lora- 36 28 27 

Kansas 16 14 15 

Kentucky 7 5 7 

Missouri 13 10 10 

Ne'.7 Jersey 14 12 8 

l\Tev/ York 5 4 4 

Ohio 63 53 47 

Pennsvlvania. 31 31 22 

Texas 14 14 14 

Tfeshington 13 11 7 

Other States 115 78 88 



Source: 1939 data from Census of Manufactures, 1939 , "The Clay Products In- 
dustries," Ipble 5; 1932 and 1934 data from Census reiDorts on The 
Clay Produces Industries , 1932 , and 1954 , Table 3. 

a/ To give Code coverage, only two of the three groups included in this 
category by the Csnsus have been used. These are (l) partition, 
load- bearing, furring, and book tile, and (2) floor-arch, silo, cXid 
corn-crib tile, radial chhanej blocks, and fire riroofing tile. The 
third group, conduit tile, was not incluaed xmder the Code. 

Ca'nital inveLtnent and Productive capacity 

The capital invested in tne Structural Clay Products Industry, according 
to a study nede some years ago by the Brick and Clay Hecord (the leadin.^,' trade 
journal in the Industry), was $275,000,000. Many hiondreds of plants liave 
failed and in many cases the same plc.nt has been involved in rey^eated 
8592 



-7- 

failiires — nev/ capital having been invested in the business v/ith each re- 
financing. Ko marked change in capacity has occurred since the above estimate 
was made. The former Code Authority estimated the productive capacity of the 
Industrjr at 45,000,000 tons annually. The invested capital vrould therefore 
have been about $6,00 per ton, on a yearly average basis. The basis upon 
which the capital investment was calcvilated is not kno\7n. 

Va].ue and Volvune of Producti on 

The total value of products and voluiae of production for the Industry are 
given in Table VI, below, for the yecrs 1929, 19ol, 1933 and 1934. This table 
shows a tremendous decline in volume and value from 1929 through 1933, i-'ith a 
sm3.ll increase in both voliime and value in 1934, as compared '-'ith 1933. These 
figures are taken from the Census of Manufactures of the Department of Com- 
merce — the volume of production is actaal production and the value is selling 
value , 

Failures 

Dun and Bradstreet reijort t-,;o failures for 1934 in the Structural Clay 
Products Industry. i/ Data for other years are not available. 

TASLI YI 

Total Value and Volume of Production in the Industry as Defined 
by the CoO.e by Kind of Product 



Kind of 
Product 



Total 



Volume of Pi'oduction 
(in millions )§:/ 

1929 1931 1933 



1934 



Value of Production 
(in thousands) 



1929 



1931 



1933 



1934 



$125,934 $49,275 $16,794 $22,598 



Common Brick 
Vitrified Brick 
For Paving 
Por Other 
Purposes b/ 
Face Brick 
Enajneled Brick 
Hollow Brick 
Ho Hot/ Building 
Tile (e:.:cluding 
conduit tile) 



5,505 2,315 1,020 1,099 
274 179 54 100 



58,733 21,652 
5,971 3,845 



8,816 11,419 

1,106 2,232 

118 202 

3 ,807 4 , 749 

172 163 

80 85 



,669a/ 1,806a/ 596a/ 672a/ 21.973 9,543 2,695 3,748 



93 


29 


9 


14 


1,533 


422 


2,139 


903 


270 


305 


36,120 


13 , 271 


17 


9 


4 


4 


1,259 


484 


26 


6 


4 


6 


345 


58 



Source: 1929 data from Co-isa-; of LianuFactures, 1929 , "The Clay Products In- 
dustries;" the remaining data from Census reports on T he Clay Product 
Industries . 1931 , 1933 , and 1934. 



a/ Hollow buildin- tile is expressed in thousands of tons. 

b/ Vitrified brick for pumoses other than paving was not specifically 

mentioned in the Code definition but since it is produced in the same 
establishments thp.t "iroduce paving brick it wo.s considered as ujider 
the Cede in th^' administration thereof. 

1/ Current Anal-sis of Insolvenc?/ Trends (February 28, 1935), 
3592 



-8- 



Continuity of Production 



This Industry has not operated continuously in recent years hecause its 
voliime is dependent upon activity in the Constru.ction Industry. Table VII, 
"below, gives a picture of operating activity in the Industry from which to 
judge the continuity of employnent aiid production throughout the year 1933, 
The table emphasizes the fact that in tliis year the vast majority of the 
plants worked fewer than 200 days per year, and that more than 80 per cent 
of the total production came from such plants. 

TABLE VII 

iJumber of Plants and Value of product for Establishments in the 
Eour Main Di visions of the Industry, Classified by Days Operated, 

1933 a/' 



Number of Days 
of Operation 



Number of 
Establishments 



Value of 
Product 
(0001 s) 



Per Cent of 
Total Value 



212 

55 
15 
40 



157 



Less than 100 days 

Total 322 

Comn;on brick 
Face brick 
Paving brick 
Hollow building tile 

100 to 199 days 

Total 

Com;non brick 86 

Face brick 31 

Paving brick 9 

Hollow building tile 31 

200 to 299 days 

Total 56 

Common brick 
Face brick 
Paving brick 
Hollow building tile 

300 or more days 
Total 

Common brick 9 

Face brick 1 

Paving brick 

Hollow buildinte tile 

Not reported 

Total 6_ 

Common brick 3 

Face brick 2 

Paving brick 1 

Hollow building tile 



22 
7 


7 



10 



$6.701 



4,003 

1,254 

689 

755 



6,571 



2,890 

1,561 

553 

1,467 



2,246 



1,103 

663 



480 

635 



635 


C 



181 



72 

109 

c/ 





41.0 
46.0 
35.0 
51.3 
27.9 



40.2 



33.2 
43,5 

48.7 



13.8 



12.7 

18.5 



17.8 

3.9 



7.3 

-■0 





1.1 



0.8 
3.0 

c/ 

■0 



(Continued on the following page) 



8592 



-9- 

TABLE VII (Cont'd) 

Source: Special Census report to NRA, Research and Planning Division, 1933, 

a/ Data are for estatlishments vv'hich produce the commodities 

listed as major products. 

"bj Included with "Hot reported." 

c/ Included with "Less than 100 days." 

Competing products 

All of the products of the Industry are used in the Construction 
Industry, Competing products are: 

Concrete blocl: and other concrete products 

Cinder concrete "block toid cinder "brick 

Plain and reinforced concrete 

Terra cotta 

Artificial stone 

Cut "building stone 

Cement 

LUiU'ber 

Asphalt 

Stone oaving "block 



8592 



-10- 

Chaptor II 
LABOR STATISTICS 

Emplo^'jent rad pn.yro lls 

Table VIII, below, gives the averat'^e nioiiitei- of employees and total 
amoxuit of payrolls for escablishnents who'^-.e major product was either 
comnon 'bricl:, face brick, paving brick, or hollo\7 tile, Betvjeen 1929 and 
1933 the ntiriber of employees declined 77 per cent mid the amount of total 
annu^^Z pajQ'olls declined almost 90 per cent. Tables IX, X, XI, and JCEI, 
beloTT, shoT.' the average number of employees, total anmial payrolls, and 
average weekly wages by states for 193^ for each of the four main branches 
of the Industry. 

TABLE VIII 

Average Number of Employees and Total Annual Payrolls 
In the Four iJain Divisions of the Industry a/ 



1929 



1931 



1933 



NuTjber of employees 46,179 

Total aiinual payroll 51,499 
(in thousands) 



25,298 
21,372 



10,620 
5,598 



Source: 1929 data from Census of ].Iaim.f actures, 1929 , "The Clay 
Products Industries;" 1951 data from Census report on 
Tlie Clay Products Industries, 1951 ; 1953 data from 
special Census tabulation for llPA, Research and Plamaing 
Division, 1933. 

a/ Data are for those establishments producing as major 
products either comm.on brick, face brick, vitrified 
brick for paving purposes, and holloi.7 building tile. 



8592 



-11- 

TASLE IX 

Emplo^raent, Payrolls, and Averace TJeekly 'Tages in Establishments 
whose Major Product was Connon Brick, 
"by Principr.l Producing States, 1933. 



State 



Employees a/ Pa'""olls t/ 
(in tiiousands) 



Average 'Jeekly c/ 
TTage 



U. S. Total 

Alabana 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Florida 

Georgia 

Illinois 

Indiana 

loua 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Llaine 

Iiaryla;.id 

Llassackusetts 

Uichigan 

Minnesota 

ilississippi 

Ilissouri 

ITehraska 

ITeTT Haup shire 

lTev7 Jersejr 

lieu York 

llorth Carolina 

Ohio 

Oklahoma. 

Peniis,3"lvania 

South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texa.s 

Virginia 

Washington 

Uest Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Other States 



5,963 

220 
62 

244- 
44 

173 
65 

411 

192 
70 
39 



74 

33 

192 

106 

33 

42 

152 

71 

30 

55 

427 

470 

394 

163 

56 

547 

212 

267 

130 

504 

25 

38 

55 

141 



$2,951 

69 

19 

144 

30 

101 

13 

119 

153 

37 

21 

12 

62 

21 

24 

103 

76 

17 

23 

49 

48 

17 

40 

209 

306 

129 

102 

29 

332 

55 

119 

50 

246 

18 

20 

32 

101 



$9.52 

6.04 

5.88 

11.35 

13.12 

11.23 

5.33 

5.58 

15.33 

10.17 

10.35 

7.2. 

6.4u 

5.46 

13.93 

10.31 

13.79 

9.90 

10.54 

6.19 

13.00 

10.90 

13.93 

9.40 

12.52 

6.29 

12.04 

9.96 

11.67 

4.98 

8.58 

7.40 

9.33 

13.85 

10.12 

9.46 

13.77 



csource: 
a/ 

y 

cj 
3592 



Bureau of Census 
Division, 1933. 



SiDCcial Seport to UHA, Research and Planning 



Data cover 332 estahlisiinents. 



Employees inclrde all ua.ge earners. 
Wages include wages paid to wage earners listed. 
Computed "by IIRA, Research and Planning Division - average week- 
ly payroll divided "by nuraher of employees. 



-IC- 



TA5LE X 

Employment, Payrolls end. A'rorp.Te Weekly ""ages in Establishments 

■whose Major pro"uCt '.vae luce Brick, 

■by Principal Stc.tc;^, 1933. 



State 



Employees a/ 



Payrolls h/ 
(lu tliousands) 



Average T.'eolcly cj 
TTage 



U. S. Total 


2,242 


Alabama, Arkansas 




Colorado aiid Texas 


234 


Indiajia and Illinois 


262 


loua, Kansas, Llichigan 




Liinnesota, Missouri, 




Soutii Dakota, and 




Uisconsin 


199 


IToTT Jersey, ilaryland 




Elaode Island, and 




iTeT7 York 


162 


Ohio 


481 


Pennsylvania 


623 


ICentucliy, Tennessee, 




Virginia, and West 




Virginia 


182 



$1,290 

97 
142 



Other States 



99 



140 



129 
255 
337 



73 

64 



$11,06 

7.98 
10.42 



13.54 



15,31 

10.19 
11.94 



8.04 
1.17 



Source: Bureau of Census, Special Report to NEii, Research and 
Planning Division, 1933. Data cover 96 estahlishments, 

a/ .Employees include all wage earners, 
h/ Wages include tvages paid to wage earners listed, 
cJ Computed by I7RA, Research and Planning Division, - Average 

weekly payroll divided "by n-Jinber of employees. 



TABLE XI 
Emplo3'ment, Payrolls, and Average Weelcly Wages in Sstahlishments 
uhose Llajor Product vias Pr.ving Brick "by Principal producing States, 1933. 

State Employees a/ payrolls b/ Average Weekly cJ 

(in thousands) Wage 



U. S. Total 790 
Illinois, Indiana, lovra 



aiid Kansas 
IT. Y. Pa. ct W. 7a.. 
Ohio 
C-a. Okla. Sc Texas 



242 
82 

322 
144 



3459 

147 
46 

221 
55 



$11.42 

11,67 

10.79 

13.19 

7.35 



Source: 
a/ 

£/ 

3592 



Bureau of Census, 3]jecial Report to MRA, Research and Plcjining 
Division, 1933. Data covers. 25 establishne--its, 

Er-iployees include all 'lage ea,rners. 

Wages include rrages paid to T/age earners listed. 

Corn-out ed "by IIRA, Research ejid Planning Division, - Average 

neekly payroll divided by average n-ujnoer of employees. 



-IS- 



TABLE XII 

EnplojTnent, Payrolls, aaid Average Weekly Wage in Establishments 
Wiiose Major Product was Hollow Building Tile, 
by Principal Producing States, 1933. 



ite 



ZEmployees a/ 



Payrolls b/ 
(in thoix^iands) 



Average Weekly c/ 
Wage 



U. S. Total 



1,526 



Illinois 




71 


Indiana 




91 


loua 




214 


Ohio 




357 


Penns:^''lvania 




159 


Alabama and llorth 






Carolina 




38 


Montana, California, 


& 




Oregon 




53 


Maryland & W. Virginia 


107 


Kansas and Missouri 




53 


llinnesota, ITebraska 


& 




ilorth Dalcota 




55 


lew York and Kew Jersey 


140 


Hew Ilexico and Coloi 


■ado 


50 


Arkansas, Louisiana, 






Okla. & Texas 




217 



$883 



15 



$10.50 



42 


11.38 


72 


15.21 


129 


11,60 


173 


9.33 


82 


9.92 



8,10 



52 


15.87 


52 


11,13 


25 


9.08 


44 


12. E3 


85 


11.67 


21 


8.08 



7.54 



Source; Bureau of Census, Special Report to ERA, Research and 
planning Division, 1933. Data cover 78 establishments. 

a/ Emplo;'"ees include all wage earners, 
b/ Wages include wages paid to v;age earners listed, 
c/ Computed by i'JRA, Research and Planning Division, - Average 
weekly payroll divided by average number of employees 



Seasonal Variation 

The Industry in many parts of the country is largeljr seasonal, 
particularly in the xlorth. The digging of clay and quarrying of shale 
are difficult in the rainy season and also, in the North, in the winter 
season. These interruptions, as well as the low volume of sales and the 
inability of the smaller plants to finance heavy inventories, have tend- 
ed toward intermittent operations of plejnts. The extent to which opera- 
tions are oeriodic has already been indicated in Table VII, above. 

Table XIII, below, gives monthly employment in the Industry as a 
whole du.ring 1933. It will be seen that employment in February, the 
low month, was not much more than a third of that reported for August, 
which was the high month. Census data on monthly payrolls are not avail- 
able. 



8592 



-1 CI- 
TABLE XIII 



Seasonality of Si.iploy.ent in the 
Four Main Divisions of the Industry 19333:/ 



Week Ending rlearest 
the 15th 



Jan'oar;'" 
Fehriiary 



Ntunher of 
En-olo^-ees 



IJarch 
April 
Hay 
Jtme 

July 

Aligns t 

Septemher 

October 

I'lovenher 

Decenher 

Average 



6,315 
5,984 
6,856 
8,199 
10,399 
12,430 

14,853 

15,406 
13,351 
12,719 
11,077 
9,353 

10,520 



Source: Bureau of Censvis, special report to HRA., Research 
and Planning Division, 1935. 

a/ Data cover those estahlisliments nhose major prod- 
uct vas either comnon hricl:, face 'brich, paving 
hricl:, or hollou "building tile. 



Chart I shons the seasonality of emplojaient hours, and T/ages for the 
Industry as defined hy the Code, i.Ionthly data for 1933 and 1934 on 
emplo^Tient, earnings, and hours u:oon Trhich the chart is hased are pre- 
sented in Tahle ZSIII, helov/. 

Trend of Average Weekly TTage s 

?or Coraparisons of average v/eeliy 'i7ages. Table XIV, "beloi.7, has been 
prepared from Census data for the years 1929, 1931, and 1933, and from 
Bureau of Labor Statistics data for 1S34. These figures show the sane 
general trend as volume of production. 1/ There was a decided decline 
fron 1929 through 1933, but a fairly substantial rise in 1934 as conpared 
with 1933, This increase in weei:l3r wages anounted to 30 per cent, r/here- 
as total value of production increased 35 "oer cent. 



8592 



-■15- 
[EilBLE XIV 

Aver?s<^ V/eekl3;- .'Zarinni^T ir the Tbur l.iain 
j)iv-isior.s cf the l\v~ns'-rys^ 



Year Kvv^'ar^c Weekly Harnin^ss 



1929 $21.45 

1S51 15.25 

195.3 10.14 

1934 IS. 00 ll/ 



Sonrce: 1929, 19C1. aiic. 1933 fjt,-ar33 comput-d fro:n Tahle VIII, 

a-OGve; 1934 frcn Burerru of Laoor StatiatiCR, as explained 
in the source tmi -cootnotD cj cf Tsiole ILilll helov?. 

Si,' Data c.Qvei tho?e escaulishrients whose rae.jor product was 

either ccinnon hriok. fa.cs "brick, paving "b.-ick, or hollov; 
"building ti].e. 

h/ Hefers to the Industry ae aefmed ^o^j the Cede. See 

Ta'ble JCiIII "below. 



Percentage Tfcich Coat of La'o or ^ s nf YaJv p -if prodT"".t 

In spite of rnoderni^^atton of plnjits and tr.r. u-ts o+ in-orov(d riacxiiner;'-, 
lahor continues to "be tho ciie-"" factor in the cost of the finished product. 
It ha.s "been olained that lajor repres-'-itp a larg; •, • ovoportion of the totrl . 
cost of sti-.-ctui-el cl:..-- pro.....^-;,, t]'an it do,-;; o-.i any coTipe-i/in..; jiaterial. ^ 
The per cent that ■aai;es constitute of the total vaT^ie of the ■.roauct 1^: 
sho^/n in Taole XV, "belo.;?. for -.he years 1929, 1931, px_d 193L.' 

The difference in the cost of prodviction on a spread of 10 cents -ler 
ho-ar in the ""onsic wage scal<^ T-ill, in thp average size plant, (50,000 to 
60,000 "bricks per da"^, or its equivalent in tonnage) enovni tu 50 cents 
per thousand "brick. .?-/ 



1/ See Tr^ol'? V.L, ahove. 



2/ Puhlic Hjarin^ on the Str-act-.j:, .1 Clay InCLuotry, llovein'ber 3, 1933, 

page 17. 



8592 



-16- 

Chapter III 

MATrSIALS: SA^ AKD SEMI-PROCESSED 

Principal liaterials Used in the Industry 

The ciiief raw materials used in the mamxfacture of structui'al cl3y prod- 
ucts axe shale, surface clay, e.nC. fire clay. PJliile at least one of these raw 
materials is found in each state, certain highei' grades of rav/ material v/hich 
are used in producing the better types of products ore found only in certain 
areas. Ohio and Pennsj'lvania are noted for their fire clay deposits. Of 
necessity, plants are "built where raw materials ore found and this situation 
makes for long hairls to market in maJiy instances — especially for certain 
types of products, such as face brick and structur-jl clay tile. 

Cost of materials. Fuel, and Purchased Electric Energy . 

Taole XV below, gives the total value of product, total labor cost, rnd 
total cost of materials for 1929, 1931, 1933, and 1934, and shov/s the relation 
of each of the latter items to the total value of the product. 

TABLE XY 

Relation of Total Labor and Total Materials Cost 
to Total Value of Product in the Pour Main 
Divisions of tue Indus ti-y a/ 

Cost of Materials, Fuel 
Total Value Wages Paid and Rirchased Electric 
Yeeix of Product Energy 



(000" s) Amount Per Cent Ajno-ujit Per Cent 

(000' s) of Total (OOP's) of Tota l 

192S $120,659 $51,499 42,7 $35,587 29.5 

1931 47,542 21,372 45.0 13,970 b/ 29.4 

1933 15,134 5,598 34.7 4,550 28.2 



Source: 1929 data from Census of Ivianuf actures , 1929, "The Clay Product 
In6.ustries; " 1931 data from Census report on The Cl3.y Products 
Industries , 1931; and 1933 data from special Census report to ilRA, 
Researcn and Planning Division, 1933. 

a/ These data include those establishments -.vhose major product T/as either 
comiiion brick, face brick, psving brick, or hollow building tile. 

b/ Cost of Materials for 1931 estimated by NRA, Research and Planning 
Division. 

Fael cost is an important factor in the manufacture of the Industrie's 
products. In areas such as New England, New York, and certain southeastern 
states, as v/ell as western states, coal must be shipped on comparativel3r long 
hauJLs. Even in states tl'iat produce lower grades of coal, it is ofter neces- 
sar;'- to ship in nigher grades of coal for use in certain burnings. 

Table XVI below, gives the value of purcnases of materials, fuel, and 
electric energy for the years 1929 and 1933 for the four branches of the In- 
dustry'-. Establishments are classified according to major products. 

8592 



-17- 
TABLE XVI 

Cost of Materials, Fuel, and Purchased 
Electric Energy, by Main Divisions of the In- 
dustry lC;a9 and 1933. 
(in thousan ds ) 



Division of the 1929 1933 

Industry 



Total $35,587 a/ $4,55y 

Common Brick 15,170 2,464 

Pace Brick 10,756 999 

Paving Brick 2,239 §:/ 348 

Hollow Building Tile 7,422 739 



Source: 1929 data from Censur, of Manufactures, 1929 , "The Clay Products In- 
dustries;" 1933 data from special Census report to Wk, .lies^rxc-'. .^d 
Pl....nninc^, Division, 1933. 

a/ Includes vitrified "brick used for p-urposes other than ; saving. 

Equipment 

The equ-ipment used in plant operations is largely of midwestern manu- 
facture, but belt conveyors, one of the heavy supply cost items, are 
mostly manufactured in the south and in Mew Englsind. 



8592 



-18- 

Chapter IV 
PHODUCTIOW AlID DISTEIBUTION 
Value and Vol-ume of Prodncts ly States 

Altho-ugh structural clay products of one or more tranches of the Industry 
are manufactured in each state, there is a consideratle movement of these ^ 
products across state lines. Face trick and stractural clay tile in particur- 
lar, and common "brick, and paving "brick to a somcv/hat lesser extent, are in- 
volved in interstate movement. 

Tables XVII, XVIII, XIX and XI belov/, shovr the total volume and value of 
production for the major proaucinf; states for the four "branches of tl.e In- 
dus tr;;'-. 

TABLE XVII 

Volume and Value of Common Brick Produced in Principal 

States 





1929 






1931 






1934 




State 


Volume 




Value Volume 


Value 


Volume 


Value 




(000,000' 


3) 


(000 's) (000, 


000' s) 


(000 's) 


(GOG 


,OCO-s) 


(000' s) 


U.S. Total 


5,505 




$58,732 2, 


315 


$21,652 


1, 


099 $11,419 


Ala"bana 


143 




1,301 


59 


421 




41 


338 


California 


287 




2,967 


95 


881 




20 


180 


Connecticut 


146 




1,753 


86 


956 




34 


,360 


Georgia 


143 




1,146 


48 


281 




40 


302 


Illinois 


836 




7,805 


143 


1,297 




75 


702 


Indiana 


112 




1,083 


21 


190 




13 


140 


Kentucky 


47 




515 


26 


226 




23 


256 


Maryland 


97 




1,285 


43 


496 




17 


225 


Massachusetts 


93 




1,435 


51 


656 




31 


373 


Michigan 


153 




1,764 


28 


301 




26 


250 


Mississipr)i 


96 




941 


26 


202 




13 


116 


Missouri 


104 




l,3fe'3 


43 


427 




19 


207 


Net: Jersey 


248 




2,848 


135 


1,508 




53 


626 


New York 


764 




7,515 


601 


4,970 




156 


1519 


North Carolina 


217 




2,010 


95 


652 




60 


565 


Ohio 


260 




2,559 


87 


891 




29 


310 


Pennsylvama 


418 




5,584 


162 


1,315 




93 


1088 


Tennessee 


99 




1,074 


29 


284 




36 


353 


Texas 


182 




1,812 


65 


522 




39- 


365 


Virginia 


151 




1,971 


66 


762 




62 


665 


All Others 


899 




5,971 


40G 


3,974 




219 


2,478 


Source: 1929 


data from 
•ies , " Ta"b] 


Census of Manuf 


actures 


, 1929. 
a from C- 


'clay Pro due 
3nsus Report 


ts In- 


dusti 


.e 


5; 1531 and 1 


934 dat 


fer 


Clay 


Products Industries, 1931 


and 1934. 









8592 



-19- 

11A.BLE ;:viii 

Volrcne aiid Value of Paving Brick 
Produced in Princiioal States 



State 1929a/ 1931 



1934 



"oltune Value Volwne Value VolMine Value 

(000,000's) (OOO's) (000,000's) (OOO's) (000,000's) (OOO's) 



U.S. 




Total 


274 


Illinois 


21 


Indiana 


4 


Kansas 


14 


Ohio 


116 


Pennsylvan-ia 




35 


All 


84 


Others 





$o,971 115 $2,411 100 $2,232 

495 25 500 17 321 

78 a/ a/ 6 112 

291 a/ a/ a/ a/ 

2,305 69 1,509 44 1,074 

773 5 96 13 326 

1.829 15 306 20 399 



Source: 1929 data from Census of Ilanufactm-ers. 1929 . "The Clny Products 
Industries", Tal3le_5; 1931 and 1934 data from Census reports on 
The Clay Products industries . 1931 and 1934, Table 3. 



a/ ITot availahle separately "but included in "All 0th 



ers". 



3592 



-SO- 
TABLE XIX 



Volune and Value of Hollon Tile Produced in 
Princi-nal States 



State 




192? 


) 


193] 




1' 


934 




Vol-jjne 




Value 


Volume 


Value 


Volune 


Value 




(000 to 


ns) 


(000 's) 


(000 tons) 


(000 's) 


(000 tons 


) (OOO's) 


U.S. Total 


3,318 




$19,835 


1,646 


$8,774 


635 


$3,501 


California 


81 




674 


52 


385 


17 


135 


Illinois 


230 




1,400 


101 


385 


55 


233 


Indiana 


232 




1,675 


86 


776 


26 


200 


Iowa 


234 




1,597 


113 


595 


64 


400 


Kansas 


106 




533 


25 


107 


10 


48 


Kentuclzy 


16 




103 


9 


43 


11 


37 


Missouri 


40 




261 


26 


135 


16 


85 


ilew Jersey 


434 




3,496 


248 


1,695 


a/ 


a/ 


Kerr York 


80 




466 


45 


211 


15 


74 


Ohio 


745 




3,443 


399 


1,639 


73 


401 


Pennsylvania 


253 




1,433 


110 


448 


53 


255 


Texas 


109 




603 


53 


237 


39 


196 


All Others 


708 




4,151 


379 


1,962 


257 


1,435 


Source: 192! 


3 data ; 
o-stries' 


from 

II rn 


Census 


of I'laiwi'actur 


es, 1929. "The Clav 
dr^ta from Census re 


Products 


Indc. 


aole 5; 


1931 and 1934 


3ports on 


The 


Clay P: 


ro an 


cts Indu 


stries 1951, 


and 1954, 


Table 3. 





a,': ITot available separately but included in "All Others". 



8592 



-SI- 
TABLE IQZ 

■Volume and Value of Face Brick Produced 
in Princi-oal States 







— __- 


1' 


329 





1931 








19 


34 


State 


Volume 




Valuo 


Vol 


jme 




Value 


Volume 




Value 




(000 
2 


,000» 
,139 


s) 


(OOO's) 
$36,120 


(000 


, 000 ' 


s) 


(OOO's) 


(000 


,000' 


s) 


(OOO's) 


U.S. Total 




905 




$13,271 




305 




$4,749 


Illinois 




220 




3,407 




81 




1,145 




28 




415 


Indiana 




130 




2,269 




50 




721 




15 




264 


Missouri 




56 




1,133 




24 




365 




7 




101 


Ohio 




501 




7,4-02 




218 




3,280 




59 




977 


Pennsylvania 




466 




8,013 




211 




3,094 




65 




955 


Texas 




96 




1,759 




43 




541 




16 




228 


All Others 




670 




12,157 




276 




4,125 




115 




1,809 



Source: 1929 data from Census of i.Ianufactiires. 1929 . "The Clay Products 
Industries", Tahle 5; 1931 and 1954 data from Census reports on 
The Cla?.^ Products Industries . 1931. and 1934, Tahle 3. 



Interstr.te Ilovenent of Good s 

Moveinents of structural clay products in interstate commerce are 
demonstrated oy Tahle XXI, helon, nhich shows oroduction and constiniotion 
for 1929 of all of the hrici: products of the Industry hy states.!/ ^Penn- 
sylvania, Ohio, and Illinois, the leading producing states, accounted for 
ahout 38 per cent' of total "oroduction but consui.-.ed only ahout 30 per cent. 
Actually more than 8 per cent was aoubtless "e:qported" to other states he- 
cause the particular hinds and qualities of hrick wanted might not have heen 
available within the home state and hecau.se the production center nearest 
the consumer may have been located on the other side of the state boundary. 
Other relatively important producing states which consumed less tlmn they 
produce and therefore had a balance to send out were Indiana, ITorth Carolina, 
Texas and Virginia. 

In the converse situation were those states which used considerably 
more brick than they produced and thus had to "import" the product from 
other states. Conspicuous e:anples were Hew York^, Ulchigan, Massachusetts 
and I'iew Jersey. 



!/ It is emphasized that the figures given in Table 7zd are in the nature 
of estimates only. As e-^-plained in footnote a/ the -oroduction data are 
not completely broken down fov all states. Rirthermore, as indicated 
below, it does not necessarily Tallow that cons^jmption within a state is 
met out of that state's production merely because the quantity of brick 
produced there is large enough to supply it. 



359-2 



o o o 

(C f^ ifl 




•I 

U I 



/ 

l!e\7 York Cit;--, for exr.nple, cor.s-ui.ies structiiral cla7 products fron 
plants located in llev Jorse^'-, p3nns7lvniiia, Ilassaclmsetts, Connecticut, 
Ohio, and a ntu.Aer of other states. The Chicago narlret draws -uijon the 
prod\iction of plants located in Ohio, Indiana, Ilisso-uri, Iowa, ITisconsin, 
and elsenhere, St. Loais, i:iF.EOirri, sit-jatod on a state border, cons-'Jjnes 
a considerable vol-une of structural clay products fron Illinois, Ohio, 
17isconsin, sjid llebracka. Other large cities located in states of small 
production also dvaw upon plaiits in other states. On important face- 
brick contract jobs for e.-:iamplc, it is usual tliat there is keen conpeti- 
tion fron producers in several states, A survey made of plants located 
in Ohio and Uestern PennsylvoJiia (states producing the largest anoimt of 
structural clay products) indicated that between 40 and 50 per cent of 
the products are shipped outside of these states, Kansas has 15 large 
plants within 70 miles of the Oklahoma liue, some only a mile or two from 
the line. Oklaliona has 5 plants which are on the average fewer thr.n 70 
miles from the state line, l/ 



1/ Fablic Hearing on tho Structural Clay Products Industry, Augjast 8, 1933, 
page 19, 



8592 



state 



-22- 
T1A.3LE ]Ci:i 

Comparison of Production and Coni-ujiption of 
3ricl:, bj^ States, 1929 



Value of 
Pro duct icn^/ 
( C^Q ' s ) 



Percentage 
of Tctali/ 
Production 



Value of 
CoriS^unption 
(OOP's) 



Percentage 
of Total 
Co n s'on'otiOxi 



Total 



$103, 95e 



100.0 



$65,05C 



100.0 



Alabama 


l,92o 


1.3 


Arizona 


440 


A 


Arkansas 


433 


4 


California 


3,587 


0.5 


Colorado 


944 


.9 


Connecticut 


1,763 


1.7 


Delaware 


230 


--> 


District of Columbia 


- 


— 


Florida 


208 




Georgia 


1,447 


1.4 


Irifljio 


49 


.0 


Illinois 


11,935 


11.5 


Indiana 


3,430 


5.3 


lovra 


1,059 


1.0 


Kansas 


1,527 


1.5 


Kentuc]:y 


648 


.5 


Louisiana 


520 


.5 


Ilaine 


311 


.3 


Maryland 


1,285 


1.2 


Massachusetts 


1,435 


1.4 


Hichigan 


2,130 


2.0 


Minnesota 


438 


.4- 


Mississippi 


1,106 


1.1 


I.Iisso\u'i 


2,436 


2.3 


Montana 


111 


.1 


Nebraska 


711 


.7 


ITevada 


— 


M 


ITew Hampshire 


526 


.5 


xTew Jersey 


3 , 633 


'D ^'O 


lien Liercico 


82 




lieu York 


7,515 


7.2 


ITorth Carolina 


2,470 


2.4 


llorth Dalrota 


31 


.1 


Ohio 


12,877 


12.4 


Oklahoma 


1,544 


1.5 


Oregon 


190 


.2 
(Continued) 



652 


1.0 


156 


.2 


306 


.5 


2,494 


3,8 


223 


.3 


1,299 


2.0 


346 


.5 


501 


.9 


286 


.4 


1,299 


2.0 


34 


.1 


5,392 


9.3 


1,421 


2.2 


756 


1.2 


564 


1.0 


442 


.7 


322 


.5 


168 


.2 


925 


1.4 


2,915 


4.5 


4,375 


7.5 


6V3 


1.1 


158 


.2 


1,433 


2 ? 


165 


.3 


574 


.3 


1 


- 


88 


.1 


2,301 


4.3 


49 


- 


12,137 


13.6 


650 


1.0 


147 


.2 


6,632 


10.4 


532 


.8 


187 


.3 



8592 



-24- 
TA-T!T,T. }CCI (Continued) 

Conparison of Production and Conswnption of Brick, 
"by States, 1929 






Value Of 




Percentaf;e 


Value 


of 


Percentage 


state 


Product iona/ 


of 


TotalaJ 


ConsujTOt 


ion 


of 


Total 




(OOO's) 




Pre 


) duct ion 


(000' 


s) 


Consumption 


Penns-^lvania 


$14,529 






14.0 


$5,933 






9.2 


Bliode Island 


- 






— 


437 






.8 


South Carolina :■ 


904 






.9 


221 






.3 


South Da]:ota 


- 






— 


105 






.2 


Tennessee 


1,709 






1.5 


703 






1.1 


Texas 


3,551 






3.4 


1,719 






2.6 


Utah 


777 






.8 


243 






.4 


Vermont 


~ 






~- 


72 






.1 


Virginia 


2,694 






2.6 


878 






1.3 


TTashin^ton 


924 






.9 


430 






.7 


West Virginia 


902 






.9 


223 






.3 


ITisconsin 


876 






.8 


1,212 






1.9 


TJ3''Oinin.2: 


72 






.1 


18 






» 



Others 



a/ 



7,839 



7.6 



Source: Census of I :&nuf act-ares , 192G.-p.S48 (Connon, ?ace, Vitrified, Enaneled, 
Hollow Brick); C ensus of Constr^iction , 1930, pl20 (Common, ?ace, 
Paving, etc.. Brick) 

a/ Production d^ta for most states are inconplete in that the value of 
production vas given ^oy groups rather than indivi dually for the 
less important states in the various industries. Tlie total for 
these groups is given under "Others." Complete data are presented 
only for Belaware, Plorida, Kansas, Ilississippi, Ohio, Pennsylvania, 
South Carolina, Utali, Virginia and YJisconsin, 



T?roe of Distrib-ative Outlet ij 

The chauinels of distrihution of struct^oral clay products in the fonar 
"branches of the Industry var:/ from one "branch to another. Face orick and 
structural clay tile are largely sold throiVih retail and wholesale dealers. 
Those plants which engaged principall"/ in the production of face "brick in 
1929 made 64 per cent of their sales to such dealers, 13 per cent to their 
own wholesale "branches end the remaining 23 per cent to consumers (including 
industrial consumers). In the case of hollow "building tile these per cents 
were 69, 4, a;id 27, Ccxion "brick is also marketed to a considera"bie e::tent 
tlirough dealers "but perhaps more ths.ii half of the total is sold direct to 
contractors and other consumers. In 1929, these direct sales amounted to 55 
per cent of the total. Paving "brick, on account of the character of its 
markets, is practically never sold tliro-'j^-jh dealers hut is sold direct to 
inaustrial and other lar-re consumers and contractors. 



1/ Tliis section is "based on de,ta pu":olished "b;^ the Biureau of the Census in 
I)istri"bution of Sales of Llgjiufacturing Plants, 192"" . 

8532 



I 



I 



Vol-uine of IriTiorts and E:30orts 

Imports and exoorts of the products of the Industry have never "been 
considered as ira-oortrnt items. 



Shifts of Centers of Fr o duc tion 

'There have "been no material shifts of centers of production in the 
Industry for man;'- years. 



8592 



e 



♦ 



-26- 

Chapter V 

TRADE i'E ACT ICES 



Unfc.ir Trade Pra.cticep p rior to the Code 

At various tiroes in 1930 end. 1931, the Federal Trade Corar:ission held 
conferences v^ith representatives of three oranches of the Industry (structural 
Clay Tile, Pace Bricl:, and Cora::ion Brick), Pair trade practice n:les '.7ere 
issued for each of these groups by the Coaiiiission on Au^iast 39, Au^aist 17, 
and July 19, 1931, respectively covorir..-';; rules on Cj^L'tain lonf-'.ir trade prictices 
such as: 

1, Discri'riin?,tion in ririce "between different purchasers. 

2, Secret paynent of rebates, 

3, Giving money or anything of value to agents of 

customers or of coinj-^etitor' s custodiers, 

4, Maliciously inducing or atten3ting to induce breach 

of existing contracts. 

5, False disparage.ient of gracie or quality of go ode 3f 

competitors, 

6, Sefanation of conpetitors, 

7, Initation of trade mar]:s, trade names, or slogans. 

8, Shipment of goods on consigniient T7ith the intent and 

effect of injuring e. competitor. 

9, Deviation from established standards of the Industiy. 

10, Shipping or delivering products v.hich do not conform 

to the samples subnittfd, 

11, Coercing the p-'urchase of several or a group of products 

as a condition to the purchase of one or more products 
under the exclusive control of the seller. 

These uere..nhat aro.knoun as "GlaLis A" rules and a.re enforceable by 
decree of the Commission, In adcition to them, certain other rules, hnovm 
as "Class 5" rules '.vere published at the time. These latter rules are 
permissive in the groups affected and are not necessarily enforceable by 
order of the Comnission, 

The Class A unfair trade practices ruf er: ed to by the Federal Trade 
Commission are all covered, though in aifferent forrr., by the Trp.de Practice 
Rules of the Code, and in adcition the folloijing rules were approved: 

12, Repudiation of contracts v-ritten or oral, 

13, llaking misleading guarantees of products, 

14, The giving of premiums in connection with sales, 

15, Sale of inferior products on under st,anding that superior 

products would be delivered. 

16, Interference with contracts. 



8592 



I 



-27- 



17, Halving of lump sum bids or installed prices, thereby 

concerling unit prices or guaranteeing that any 
specific quantities would do a jot, 

18, Acceptance of stocks or "bonds except at current 

marketable cash value in payment for Industry 
products. 



Unfair Trade Practices Under the Code 

The former Code Authority has stated that after the Code became effec«. 
tive it had complaints or reports concerning alleged violations of the 
unfair trade practices described in Article XI, Sections a, "b, d, e, f, i, 
0, and q, of the Code. These constitute essentially the items listed above 
as numbers 2, 4, 5, 5, 9, 10, 15, 16, and 17. 



8592 



-38- 

Chapter VI 

THE INDUSTRY - GEMERAL lilFOmiATION 

Operations of the Indtistry 

Hie manufacture of structural clay products begins with the quarrying, 
excavating, or raining of the raw materials. The materials are then ground 
and tempered with water, shaped into the type of imit being manufact-ored, 
dried preparatory to burning, bui'ned in kilns for periods ranging from two 
to tliree weeks, and sorted according to perfection of color, degree of 
burning, ate. The products are then ready for distribution. Some large 
concerns, manufacturing all or part of the products of the Industry, own 
or control thirty or more plants each, yet there are hundreds of small 
individually-o\¥ned conmon brick plants. 

Trade Associations 

During the years when building construction was more active, four 
national trade associations actively promoted the development of the 
Structural Clay Products Industry, These associations, which eIso sponsored 
the Code, were: 

!• The Brick Manufacturers Association, foimded in 1918, representing 
the common brick manufacturers. 

2, The inerican Face Brick Association, founded in 1912. 

3, The National Paving Brick Association, founded in 1905. 

4, Tlae Structural Clay Tile Association, fouiided in 1919, 

Each of these associations has carried on advertising and research 
programs. In recent years the low dem.and for the products has curtailed 
these activities. 

Late in 1934, Structural Clay Prodixcts, Inc., was formed as a single 
organization to promote the use of the Industry's products. While the 
National Paving Brick Association is carrying on its own work, due to the 
special nature, of that branch of the Industry, it is affiliated with the 
new organization. The Brick Manufacturers Association also is continuing 
its work — without affiliation — while the other two associations have 
ceased active work pending deteri'aination of the success of the new 
organization. 

Orgaiiization of Labor 

The United Brick and Clay Workers of America, with headquarters at 
Chicago, Illinois, represents organized labor in the Industry. It has been 
claimed by the Industry that, dujring many years of operations, both 
unionized and open shop, manufacturers have had comparatively few dis- 
putes with labor. 



8592 



-29~ 



Present Financial Condition of the Industry 

No figures are available on the financial condition of the industry for 
the years 1929, 1931, and 1933. The earning capacity of the Industry very 
prohably follows the same trend line as does the value of structural clay 
products consumption. A comparison of the latter series with the estimated 
value of total construction indicates that a more extreme decline took place 
"between 1929 and 1934 in the Structural Clay Industry than in general con- 
struction, (See Tahle XXII helow) 

TABLE XCII 

Gompajison of Estimated Total Value of Construction and Total Value of 
Structural Clay Products Consumption (index, 1926 - lOO) 



lear 



Estimated Construction 
Value for 48 States a/ 



Structural Clay 
Products Consumption h/ 



1925 
1927 
1928 
1929 
1930 
1931 
1932 
1933 
1954 



100.0 
97.5 

100.4 
88.6 
66,1 
48.1 
21.6 
19.7 
23,4 



100.0 
89.9 
84.1 
72.0 
50.3 
34.4 
15.8 
11.6 
12.6 



Source: As indicated in footnotes. 

a/ Adjustment to totality hy IJEA Division of Review, of F. W. 
Dodge Reports for total construction contracts awarded in 
37 states. 

h/ Computed hy IIBA Division of Review, from Census of Manu?- 
factures figures. (Beginning stock, plus production, less 
ending stock.) 

Effect of the Code 

There was a marked increase between 1933 and 1934 in employment, payrolls 
and wage rates. Average hours worked per week were lower in 1934 than in 
1933 and were subject to less extreme fluctuation. These series are pre- 
sented by months for 1933 and 1934 in Table XXII I, below, and in Chart I, 
supra. 

Trade Marks 

Although many manufacturers adopt trade names for their products and sell 
them under such names, there have been comparatively few trade names regis- 
tered. Certain types of Industry products are given names and occasionally 
such names are stamped upon the product. 



8592 



-SO- 



TABLE XXIII. 
Factory Employment, Payrolls, Houro, and Wages 1933-1935 a/ 













Average 








Month t/ 




Inde'^es 


(I9o3=100) 


Hours 
WcTked Per 




¥a 


ges 


Enploy- ■ 


Pay 1 311 


s c/ 


Man-Hours i_\/ 


Average 




Average 




nent c/ 








T.eek e/ 


Hourly • 


ey 


Weekly c/ 


1933 


















Jan. 


63,8 


53.9 




53.6 


28.2 


$.306 




$8.75 


Fel3. 


65.2 


55.3 




56,3 


29.0 


.306 




8.78 


Mar, 


67.2 


57,1 




52.2 


31.1 


.283 




8.75 


Apr, 


74.8 


62c 4 




68.6 


30.8 


.289 




8.60 


May 


95.3 


88.3 




105. 3 


37.1 


.275 




9,54 


June 


110.0 


108.8 




127.8 


39.0 


.278 




10.38 


July 


131.5 


133.5 




153.1 


39.1 


4 285 




10.65 


Augo 


137.2 


149.2 




145.7 


35.9 


.322 




11,43 


Sept, 


131.3 


135.2 




122.8 


31.4 


.352 




10.82 


Oct. 


114.3 


126.0 




111.3 


32.7 


.361 




11.64 


Nov, 


109i,7 


123.0 




101.0 


30.9 


.364 




11.57 


Dec, 


99.8 


107.3 




91.2 


30.7 


.373 




11*29 


Average 100,0 


100.0 




100.0 


33.0 


.316 




10.20 


1934 


















Jan, 


80.4 


87.9 




69,0 


28.8 


.399 




11.48 


Feb. 


82.2 


94.4 




68.5 


28.0 


.373 




12.01 


Mar. 


95.1 


100.8 




80.1 


28.3 


.382 




11.51 


Apr. 


119.7 


144.6 




111.6 


31.2 


.399 




13.09 


May 


134.4 


167.6 




128.9 


32.2 


.421 




13.46 


June 


138.7 


178.2 




137.1 


33.2 


.427 




13*90 


July 


133.4 


169.0 




128.3 


32.3 


.431 




13.70 


Aug. 


134.2 


165.7 




128.7 


32.2 


.421 




13.49 


Sept. 


129,2 


155a 




120.0 


31.2 


.428 




13.31 


Oct, 


125.2 


157,1 




120.8 


32.4 


.423 




13.84 


Nov, 


127.0 


155,2 




125.2 


33.1 


.414 




13.56 


Dec. 


108.6 


124.1 




99.9 


30.9 


.413 




12.56 


Averagi 


3 117.3 


141.6 




109.8 


31.2 


.411 




13.00 


Source: 


Unpublished data 


secured by the Bureau of Labor Statistics in 




cooperation with 


the 


Division of Re 


search and Planning, 


IffiA. 


a/ 


Reporting 


establishments considered 


. to be almo; 


3t comple 


itely covered 




by the St: 


ructural 


. Clay Products Industry Code. 








^ 


Figures reported 


were 


for the payro 


11 period nearest the 15th of the 




month. 
















£/ 


Based upon a representative sample 


covering an 


average 


of 


291 estabr- 




lishments 


and about 5 


,680 employees 


in 1933. The sampl 


.e was some— 




what larger in 1934. 












^ 


Computed: 


Index 


of employment times average hours worked 


per week 




reduced t 


1933=100. 












e/ 


Based upon a representative sample 


covering an 


average 


of 


120 estab- 



lislments and about 2,340 employees in 1933. The sample was con- 
siderably larger in 1934. 



8592 



-31- 

Imports 

Imports have been snail in volimie and have not appreciably affected the 
Industry, 

Experts 

Men who, by training and experience are thoroughly familiar with the 
Industry, are: 

Manufacturing, sales, and administration 

Mr. Paul B, Belden, General Manager 
Belden Brick Company, Canton, Ohio. 

Mr, P. W, Bottesworth, President, 

Western Brick Company, Danville, Illinois. 

Mr, W. Gardner Long, Treasurer, 
New England Brick Company, 
#3 Park St. , Boston, Massachusetts. 

Mr, 0. W. Renkert, President, 

Metropolitan Paving Brick Company, 
Canton, Ohio, 

Ceramics 

Mr, L. B. Hainey, Vice President, 

Fallston Company, New Brighton, Pennsylvania, 

Professor G, A. Bole, 
Experiment Station, 
Ohio State University, 
Columbus, Ohio, 

Professor C. W. Ps,rmelee, 

Department of Ceramic Engineering, 
University of Illinois, 
Urbana, Illinois. 



8592-#