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Full text of "Evidence study"

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YB.i^^^/^ '^'^h'^ 



BOSTON 



PUBLIC LIBf'AJ'l, 



. !B-ii« 



NATIONAL RECOVERY ADMINISTRATION 



DIVISION OF REVIEW 



EVIDENCE STUDY 

NO. 40 

OF 

THE TRUCKING INDUSTRY 



Prepared 'by 

WILLIAM L. FULTON 



September, 1935 



PRELIMINARY DRAFT 
(NOT FOR RELEASE: FOR USE IN DIVISION ONLY) 



I 



THB EVIDSUCB STUDY SEHISS 

The S7IDSMCS STUDIZ^S trere originally planned as a means of gathering evidence 
bearing upon various le^^al issues which arose under the National Industrial P.e- 
covery Act. 

These studies have value quite aside from the use for vrhich they were originally 
intended. Accordingly, they are novi nade available for confidential use within the 
Ei'/ision of Hevievj, and for inclusion in Code Histories. 

The f^all list of the Evidence Studies is as follOTi's: 



1. Automohile Manufactiiring Ind. 23. 

2. Eoot and Shoe Mfg. Ind. 24.. 

3. Bottled Soft Drink Ind. 25. 

4. Builders' Supplies Ind. 26. 

5. Chemical Hfg. Ind. 27. 

6. Cigar Mfg. Industry 28. 

7. Constraction Industry 29. 

8. Cotton Garment Industry 30. 

9. Dress Mfg. Ind. 31. 

10. Electrical Contracting Ind. 32. 

11. Electrical Mfg. Ind. 33, 

12. Fab. Metal Prod, Mfg., etc. 34. 

13. Fishery Industry 35. 

14. Furniture Mfg. Ind. 36. 

15. General Contractors Ind. 37. 

16. Graphic Arts Ind. 38. 

17. Gray Iron Foundry Ind. 39. / 

18. Hosier:,' Ind. 40. '^ 

19. Infant's a Children's Wear Ind. 41. 

20. Iron and Steel Ind, 42, 

21. Leather 43. 

22. L^'Jiiber & Timber Frod. Ind. 



Mason Contractors Industry 

Men's Clothing Industry 

Motion picture Industry 

Motor Bus Mfg. Industry (Dropped) 

lleedle-'ork Ind, of Puerto Eico 

Fainting & Paperhanging & Decorating 

photo Engraving Industry 

Plumbing Contracting Industry 

Retail Food (See IIo. 42) 

Retail L-oraber Industry 

Retail Solid Fuel (Dropped) 

Retail Trade Industry 

Rubber Mfg. Ind. 

Rubber Tire Mfg. Ind, 

Silk Textile Ind. 

Structural Clay Products Ind. 

Thriving Industry 

Trucking Industry 

Waste Materials Ind. 

Wnolesalo & Retail Food Ind. (See Uo. Si) 

■Rliolesale Fresh Pi'uit & Teg. 



In addition to the studies brought to completion, certain materials have been 
assonbled for other industries. These MATERIALS are included in the series and are 
also made available for confidential use trithin the Division of Rc-'-iGw and for in- 
clusion in Code Histories, as follovrs: 



44. Wool Textile Industry 

45. Automotive Parts & Equip. 

46. Baking Industry 

47. Canning Industry 

48. Coat and S^ait Ind. 



49. Household Goods & Storage, etc. (Dropped) 

Ind. 50. Motor Vehicle Retailing Trade 'Ind. 

51. Retail Tire & Battery Trade Ind. 

52. Ship & Boat Bldg. & Rei^airing Ind. 

53. Iholosaling or Distributing Trade 



L. C, Marshall 
Director, Division of Revie-^ 



CONTENTS 

Page 
Foreword 1 

CHAPTER I - THE NATURE OP THE iNDJSTRY 2 

Code Definition of the Industry 2 

i'Tafcure of the Industry 2 

Total Numher of Freight Motor Vehicles 2 

Total Numher of por-Eire Freight Motor Vehicles. . . 3 
Numher of For- Hire Freight Motor Vehicles 

Registered Under the Code 3 

Geographical Distrihution of Por-Hire Freight 

Motor Veliicles Under the 3ode 4 

Numher of .Legistrants Under the Code 4 

NuTuher of Trucks per RegloCiant Under the Code ... 5 
Classification of Operators by Nature of 

Business 5 

Aggregate Capital Invested 5 

Commodities Carried hy Treacle 5 

Proportion of Merchandice (L.C.L>) Moved by 

Truck 8 

Shippers' Reasons for Usia^: Motor Trucks 8 

CHAPTER II - LABOR STATISTICS 10 

Estimated Total Trv.clz Drivr-.-^- 10 

Estimated Total Employees Under the Code 10 

Estimated Number of Employees of "Interstate" 

Registrants Under the Code 10 

Employees of "Interstate" Registrants Under 

the Code Classified by Nature of ijusiness 

ai\d A<''erage Number of Eni^^loyees per Registrant . . 10 
'KT.gas and Hours in the Trucking Industry Prior 

to the Code 12 

Ti/'ages and Hours in por-Hire Trucking Firms 

prior to the Code 13 

OHAFTP.R III - TEi INTERSTATE CHARACTER OF THE imUSTRY. . 15 

Estimate of Total Por-Hire Trucks in Intrastate 

Operations 15 

Estimate c " Total Por-Hire Trucks "Engaged in 

or Affecting" Interstate Commerce 15 

Interstate Operations "Engaged in" by Registrants 

Under the Code 16 

Classification of "Interstate" Registrants 

Under the Code, by Regions 17 

Classification of "Interstate" Vehicles Under 

the Code, by Regions 18 

Classification of "Interstate" Registrants 

Under tho Code, by Nature of Business 20 

Classification of "Interstate" Vehicles Under 

the Code, by Region and Nature of Business .... 22 

8789 -i- 



COKTENTS (Cont'd) 

page 

Classification of "Interstate" Re.^istrants 

Under the Code, by NirfDer of Trucks Operated. , . 25 

Average Length of Route Involved in Inter- 
state Operations 27 

CHAPTER IV - THAIS PHACTICES 30 

Trade Practices Under the Code 30 

CIIAPTJiia V - G31CSAL IKFOEIiATIOlI 31 

Trade Associations 31 

List of Ejcpcrts 31 



-0 Jo- 



8789 -ii- 



tail: 



TABLE I - Registration of Freight Motor Vehicles 

in the United States, 1929-1934 '3 

TABLE II - For-Hire Trucks HogiBbered Under the 

Code, hy Regions, 1934 4 

TA£LE III - Kinds of Freight Handled, Classified 

ty Three Types of Truckers, 19(32 7 

TABLE IV - Total Tons of Merchandise Shipped, 

Classified hy Types of Transporta- 
tion Service, 1932 8 

TABLE V - Siiippers' Reasons for Usin;"; Motor 
Trucks, V7ith IT.^nter of Shippers 
Giving Each Reason, and the Tonnage 
They Handled, 1932 9 

TABLE VI - Kujnher of Truck Drivers Eaployed 1929- 

1933 10 

TABLE VII - Employees of "Interstate" Registrants 
under the Code, Classified hy iJature 
of Business, and Average IJumher of 
EKipIoyees per Registrant, and per 
Vwhicle, 1934 11 

TABLE VIII - Range of Eours per Week and Weekly 

Wages of Organized, Employee in Five 

Cities, 1932 12 

TABLE IX - Average Union Wage Rate per Hour and 
Average Full-Tinie Working Hours per 
Week of Chauffeurs, Teamsters and 
Drivers May 15, 1932 and May 15, 1933 . . 13 

TABLE X - Average Days and Hours per Weelc, Average 
Hourly ?/ages, and Average Weekly 
Earnings, for For-H^ire Truck Employees, 
Dy Regions, July, 1933 14 

TABLE XI - E-timatod Total i-cr-Eire Trucks Classi- 
fied by the Intrastate and Interstate 
Character of Their Operations, 1935 ... 16 

TABLE XII - Numher of Total and "Interstate" Regis- 
trants under the Code: Vehicles Owned 
and/or Operated by "Interstate" 
Registrants, and Vehicles That Crossed 
State Lines, 1934 17 

TABLE XIII - Classification of "Interstate" Regis- 
trants under the Code by Regions, 
1934 18 

8789 _iii_ 



TABLES (Cont'd) 



TABLE XI7 - Total Vehicles Registered, Compared 
with Vehicles Owned or Operated "by 
"Interstate" Registrants -under the 
Code, and Vehicles Operated Across 
State Lines, "by Regions, 1934 . . . 



Page 



19 



TABLE XV - Classification of "Interstate" Regis- 
trants under the Code, hy Natiare of 
Business, Together with Total Vehicles 
Owned or Operated, and the Numher 
Grossing State Lines, 1934 21 



TABLE XVI - Classification of "Interstate" Vehicles 
Registered under the Code "by Region 
and Nature of Business, 1934 



23 



TABLE XVII - Percentage Classification of "Inter- 
state" Vehicles Registered under the 
Code, ty Region and nature of Business, 
1S34 



24 



TABLE XVIII 



ClassifiCc?Ltion of "Iiterstate" Regis- 
trants under the Code, by Size of 
J'leet, Together vath Total Vehicles 
Operated, 1934 



26 



TABLE XIX - Classification of Regions "by Length 

of Routes {One 7ay) of "Interstate" 
Vehicles Operating "Short" Routes, 
1934 (In per Cent) 



28 



TABLE XX - percentage of Tc:.al ^Tiimher of Out-Of- 
5 bate Trucks O'i^erved in Each of 11 
Western ota.tes, TThich Were Registered 
East of the Mississippi River, 1930 . 



-oOo- 



8789 



-IV- 



-1- 

THB TRUCKING lEDUSTRY 

Foreword 

The characteristics of the Trucking Industry — its decentralization, 
and the fact that the small capital investment necessary to enter the "business 
is coaiducive to many small enterprises — have made it exceedingly difficult 
to collect adequate information concerning it. 

Published government data regarding the Industry are extremely meagre, 
for government agencies have made little effort to collect such information. 
The Federal Coordinator of Transportation has recently collected data con- 
cerning the various types of carriers and the kinds of commodities carried 
in the Trucking Industry. The numbt;^.' of trucks registered in the various 
states has heen collected hy the Bureau of Puhlic Hoads of the Department of 
Agriculture. This Bureau has also made a survey of traffic on the federal- 
aid highvfays of 11 western states, which throws light on the extent of inter- 
state trucking activities in those states. 

The Bureau of Lahor Statistics made an hours and wages study of for-hire 
truck employees hy states, as of July 1953, and another for unionized chauf- 
feurs, teamsters, and drivers, as of May 15, 1932, and May 15, 1933. No 
labor data for the entire Industry exist. 

The American Transportation Problem , a stud;"/ made by the Brookings Insti- 
tution in 1933, deals slightly \Yith the Trucking Industry, and pertinent data 
from this study have been incorporated in this report. A very small portion 
of the data contained in the annual publication of the National Automobile 
Chamber of Commerce, Facts and Figures of the Automobile Industry , are appli- 
cable to the Trucking Industry, and some of these are reproduced in Chapter 
II. 

li/iuch of the information called for by the outline for evidence studies 
could be obtained only from the Statistical Division of the American Trucking 
Associations, Inc., which acted as as;ent for the National Code Authority for 
the Industry. So far as the author knows this is the only organization that 
has made any attempt to analyze the for-hire Trucking Industry on the basis 
of the interstate and intrastate activities of its members. Considerable 
data from this analysis have been incorporated in this report. IThile com- 
plete covera.ge of the Industry was not obtained, due to scattered opposition 
to the Code and to poor organization of some of the State Code Authorities, 
a coverage of about 75 per cent of the Industry was obtained and this is con- 
sidered sufficient to give a fairly reliable picture of the Industry as a 
whole. (This statement is based on the assumption that there are in all 
approximately 450,000 for-hire trucks.) 

None of the data presented in this report are inclusive enough to in- 
clude teams and drays, because data covering this part of the Industry do not 
exist. This deficiencj!- is not considered serious, however, since only a 
very minor part of the Industry is involved. 

The material has not been presented in the precise manner called for by 
the outline because of the inapplicability of the outline to non-manufacturing 
industries. In addition, certain sections called for have been omitted be- 
cause of the lack of pertinent data or information. 

8789. 



-2- 
Chapter I 

THE NATURE OP THE INDUSTRY 

Code Definition of the Industry 

The Trucking Industry is defined "by the Code of Fair Competition for that 
Industry to mean the transportation of property and all services ordinarily 
incidental thereto in connection -^ith an^/- trade, industry, or tusiness to the 
extent that such transportation is over publicly used roadways hy vehicles 
for hire. There are a few exceptions to this, the details of which are given 
in the Code. 

Nature of the Industry 

Daring the past decade, the transportation of property over the puhlic 
highways has assumed significant proportions. This period has seen the 
development of the motor truck, with the result that the type of vehicle 
most commonly used is now the truck rather than the animal-drawn vehicle. 
Use of the latter, and the contemporaneous improvement of highways, have 
operated to enlarge the field of trucking activities to many times what that 
sphere was when practically all trucking was done hy teams and drays. While 
trucking was formerly accessory to other methods of transportation, it has 
now "become a strong competitor with them. 

Undoubtedly trucking is an essential part of the nation's distribution 
system, and it is recognized by the laws of many states as a public utility. 
The amount of control exercised, and the matters to v.'hich that supervision 
is directed, vary with the individual state. The pov/er to require freight 
motor carriers to obtain a route certificate, or permit, before beginning 
operations; the power to regulate the rates charged by common and contract 
carriers; and the power to prescribe the conditions under which motor carriers 
may use the highways of the state, are examples of the authority which a 
number of states exercise over trucking operations. 

TotP.1 Number of Freight Motor Vehicles 

The total number of trucks engaged in transporting property over the 
highways is not definitely known. In The American Transportation Problem , 
published by the Brookings Institution in 1933, it was estimated that there 
were approjn.mately 3,500,000 trucks in use. 

Most of the statistics relating to motor truck registration within the 
United States are based upon state registration figures. Due to differences 
in classification, registration of the same vehicle in more than one state, 
the fact that some states have not required the registration of trailers, 
and to other reasons, the aggregate of the state registration figures can not 
be tal:en to indicate the exact number of trucks and trailers. Data showing 
total freight motor vehicle registration in the United States are shown in 
Table I. 



8789. 



-3- 

TIBLj] I 

Rei^istration of Prei:'5ht Motor Vehicles 
in the United States, 1929-1934 



Year a/ Trucks and Tractors t/ Trailers c/ 



1929 3,379,854 193,044 

1930 3,480,939 262,507 

1931 3,466,080 349,930 

1932 3,231,-52 412,998 

1933 3,266,747 472,789 

1934 3,409,535 615,315 



Source: Department of Agriculture, Buroau of Publ.ic Roads, 
a/ As of Deceuher 31 of each -jour. 
"o/ Includes some tuses v/hich are registered as freight vehicles 

in some spates. , 

c_/ Includes passeri^-er car trailers. "^ 

Total Ilumher of For-Hire Freight Motor V e hicles 

The Brookinfs Institution in the study cited above, estimated that of 
the 3,500,000 trucks in use, 1,000,000 were farm-owned, and 2,000,000 
privately ovmed. The number of for-hire vehicles was thus placed at approxi- 
mately 500.000 . 

A similar estimate has been made by the Bureau of Public Roads of the 
Department of Agricultiu-e. A traffic survey \7hich the Bureau of Public 
Roads 1/ made in 1930 in 11 western states indicated that of the 180,000 
trucks concerning which information was compiled, approximately 14.2 per 
cent v/ere operated either as common or as contra.ct carriers. The Bureau's 
compilation of state motor vehicle registrations for the calendar year 1934 
shows the total nijmber of freight motor vehicles thus registered was 3,409,- 
335. Due to overlapping of registrations, and for other reasons as ex- 
plained by the Bureau, that figiire is not a statenent of the actual number 
of vehicles. Assuming this actual n-omber was approximately 3,000,000, and 
the ratio of 14.2 per cent was applicable to the country as a whole, it is 
estimated that the total number of for-hire trucks ajDproximated 450,000. 

The Statistical Division of the American Trucking Associations, Inc., 
has also estimated the present total number of for-hire trucks to be 
45G.,ijOO. This figure is based upon the data in the above-mentioned survey 
of the Bureau of Public Roads. 

Number of For-Hire Freight Motor Vehicles Registered Under the Code 

The Code of Fair Competition for the Trucking Industry required that 
the for-hire members of the Industrv register with the Code Authority. i 
During the fiscal year ending February 15, 1935, the total number of for- / 
hire trucks so registered was 300,475, or about two-thirds of the estimated 

1/ United States Bureau of Public Roads, Report of a Sui-vey of Traffic on 

the Federal-Aid Highway Systems of Eleven Western States (1930 ) . 
8789. 



_4._ 



total of 450,000. 

Geca-ra-hical Distri'Dution of For-Hi r e ?j.-eip-ht Motor Vehicles Under the Code 

Taole II shov'fs the geogra-ohical diEtrihution of the registrants. It will 
be noted tli. t ne.-rly half of the total vehicles re^cistered v/ere concentrated 
in the liid^.le Atlmtic rnd Ea'^t ITorth Central states. 

TABLE II 

Por-Hire Trucks R9j;>:i stared Under the 
Code, hy Regions, 1934 a/ 



Region 



?or-Hire Vehicles Re^^istered 

Per Cent 
Nuraher of Total 



Kevf England 
Middle Atlantic 
East ITorth Central 
TJest ITorth Central 
South Atlantic 
East South Central 
West South Central 
Mountain 
Pacific 

Total 



;;.4,021 
66,740 
77,187 
38,972 
23,874 
8,200 
12,587 
11,611 
27,483 



11.3 

22.2 

25.8 

13.0 

7.9 

2.7 

4.1 

3.9 

9.1 



300,475 



ICO.O 



Source; Ainerican Trucking Associations, Inc., Statistical Division, 
a/ Por fiscal year ending Pehruary 15, 1935, 



Anerican Trackin Associations, Inc., iias stated that in some states 
practically all for-hire trucks were registered, while in others, due either 
to local opposition to the Code or to inefficient Code machinery, the number 
of tr-acks registered was only a fraction of the total. Estimates of the num- 
ber not registered range from 50,000 to 200,000. This la.tter figure represents 
ap-.iroxiraately the difference between the estimate of 500,000 trucks a,s made by 
the Brookings Institution and the actual registrations. 

IvTumber of Registrants Under the Code 

The niunber of registrants reporting these vehicles is not definitely 
knov.'n, but the National Trucking Code Authority, in analj'-zing the registrations 
under the Code, found that 165,842 registrants operated 267,532 vehicles, or 
an average of 1.61 vehicles per registrant. Assuming that this average is 
apolica,ble to the total number of for-hire vehicles registered, it is estimat- 
ed that the 300,475 for-hire vehicles were owned by apiDroximately 186,630 ^ 
operators. 



8789 



-5- 

N-um'ber of Trucks per Hegistrant Under the Code 

The large majority of motor trucks r'ere onned tv individuals who ^ere 
o^vners of one truck only. The 1928 edition of Automohile Facts and Fi .rures. 
states that in 1S27 there were 1,896,886 o-ners of one truck each, and only 
272,000 oi'ners of two or more trucks. 

As stated above, the analysis of a lar>5e sample of registrations of for- 
hire vehicles under the Code indicated an average of 1.61 trucks per regis-, -^ 
trant. Louisiana showed the highest average in mamber of cars per OTmer — 
450 registrants renorting 1,208 trucks, or tJi average of 2.68 trucks per 
oivner — while the lowest average was founa in Maine, where 8,916 registrants 
reiDorted 7,864 trucks, or an average of 1,11 per owner. 

Classification of Operators "by Nature of Business 

The operators of for-hire freight motor vehicles may be classified ac- 
cording to the nature of their business, as follows: 

Com:ion carriers, or those o-oerators who hold themselves out to serve the 
^lublic. The service of these operators may be over regular routes or 
over irregular routes. 

Contract carriers, or those operators whose transriortation services are 
performed under specific contract. 

Comnodity carriers, or a grour) recognised in the regulatory provisions 
of the laws of some states, who handle certain specified commodities. 

Anyv'here-for-hire operators, who hold themselves out to serve the public, 
but do not maintain any schediiled service or fixed routes. Their 
operations partake of the character of both contract carriers pnd 
comnon carriers over irregular routes. 

City cartage, v;hich in some cases crosses state lines. 

Mixed tynes, including two or more of the foregoing tjrpes of service, 

Aggre gate Cap i tal Inve s te d 

Beci'use of the great number of concerns in the Trucking Industry, the 
total capital investment can be only roughly estimated. TThen submitting its 
proposed Code of Pair Competition for the Trucking Industry, American Truck- 
ing Associations, Inc., estimated the value of some 3,230,000 trucks regis- 
tered in this country in 1932 at approximately $1,687,900,000, and the value 
of the trailers at $165,200,000 making a total value of $1,853,100,000, 
The value of terminals, repa.ir shops, garages, etc., o^imed by those engaged 
in trans"oorting property by motor truck and used in connection therewith, was 
estimated at aporoximately $1,200,000,000. On this basis, the total invest- 
ment in the Trucking Industry as of 1932 is estima.ted to have approximated 
$3,053,100,000. This figure, it must be understood, covers all trucking 
activity and not merely that covered by the Code, 

Comnodities Carried l>j Truck 

The "Merchandise Traffic Report" by the staff of the Federal Coordinator 
8789 



o-<6— 

of Trans-oortation includes classification of comraodities handled by coramon 
carriers, contract carriers, and private oivners. From data in Tatle III it 
has been coin-nuted. that the comraon carrier and contract carrier grouTDS, i/hich 
were ujider the Code, handled only 16,8 per cent of the freight, while the 
private ovmer group, which was not subject to the Code, handled 83.2 per cent. 
The corauon carrier group is the more important groun under the Cod.e, as its 
members handled 10.2 per cent of the freight as compared with 6,6 per cent 
handled by the contract carrier '::roup. By far the largest proportion of 
freight carried by common carrier — or 68.2 ner cent — consisted of genero-l 
merchandise. The business of contract carriers was also highly concentrated 
in the transnortation of petroleum products, which accounted for 48,6 per 
cent of their total freight. 



8789 



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S7S9 



-8- 

pro-QQ-x-tion of Merchandise (L.C.L.) Moved l3y Truck 

Data have lieen compiled "by the Federal Coordinator of TrsnsDortation to 
indicate the proportion of less-than-carload lot cerchandise shiriiDed in trucks 
hy 35,468 shippers in 1932. These shippers represented about a third of a 
grouj contacted through use of mailing lists obtained from manufacturers, 
coraiaercial houses, and distributors (and therefore excluding farmers and other 
individuals) , 

The data as shov/n in Table IV indicate that, in 1932, 54 per cent of the \/ 
tons shiiDDed by the respondents was sent by truck, as against 32 per cent by 
railroad freight, the second most uopular type of service. Most of the truck- 
ing Y/as done on routes averrging fewer than 250 miles. 

TABLE IV 

Total Tone of Merchandise Shiprjsd, 
Classified by Types of TransiDortation 
Service, 1932 a/ 

Per Cent 
Type of Service Tons of Total 

Total 112,142,038 100 

Railroad, L.C.L. 35,522,731 32 

Forwarder 12,578,131 11 

Exi^ress 3,477,235 3 

Truck, total 60,563,941 54 



Truck, 1-50 miles 29,525,143 26 

Truck, 51-250 miles 24,868,400 22 

Triick, over 250 miles 6,170,398 6 



Source: Federal Coordinator of TransTDortation, Section of Transportation 
Service, "Merchandise Traffic Report" (1934). 

a/ Analysis of reports received from 35,468 shippers. 



Ship-pers' Reasons for Using Motor Trucks 

The Federal Coordinator of Transportation also elicited from these 
35,468 shippers their reasons for preferring to shi'o by motor truck. Many re- 
plies indicated more than one reason. 

Store-door delivery, faster service, cheaper total cost, and store-door 
pickup were by far the reasons most frequently given for the use of motor 
trucks. Of these f oiir , store-door delivery and faster service were the most 
important factors racJcing this type of transportation poDular with shippers 



8789 



TABLE V 

Shippers' Reasons for Using Motor Trucks, 

With KiamlDer of Shippers Giving Each Heason, 

and the Tonnage they Handled, 1932 a/ 



Re ason Responses G-iving this Reason 

Per Cent Tonnage Per Cent 
Number of Total Handled of Total 



Sim'oler classif ica,tion 

of rates 5,664 16 28,185,610 25 
Cheaper packing 7,521 21 30,522,051 27 
Store-door pickup 18,027 51 60,293,671 54 
Store-door delivery 23,008 65 74,933,479 67 
Cher?.per total cost 18,665 53 74,671,901 67 
Faster service 23,095 55 62,302,031 73 
More flQxiMe or con- 
venient service 15,118 43 68,512,668 61 
Late acceotance of 

shipraents 7,328 21 .29,512,565 26 
Less dajnage to or loss 

of freight 4,062 11 16,018,451 14 
Personal friendship or 

interest 956 3 3,230,367 3 



Source: Federal Coordinator of Trans-oortation, Section of Transportation 
Service, "Merchandise Traffic Report" (1934). 

a/ Analysis of reports received from 35,468 shippers. 



8789 



-10- 

Chnpter II 

LABOR STATISTICS 

Estinated Total Truck Drivers 

Pigiires showing the total mainher of erjoloyees in the entire Motor TriicI: 
Industry are not available. Estimates of the numher of professionoJ true!; 
drivers, made "by the iiational Autonobile Association, are as follovis: 

TABLE VI 

Number of Truck Drivers Employed 
1829-1933 



Year number of Truck Drivers 

Employed 

1929 1,550,000 

1930 2,150,000 

1931 1,510,000 

1932 1,500,000 

1933 1,500,000 



Source: national Autonobile Association, Auto- 
nobile Facts and Fir^ures (1934). 

Estimated Tota^l Enroloyees Under the Code 

Tlie ooeration of notor trucks requires the services of other euplo'-ees ir. 
addition to drivers. As sho\7n in Table VII, below, the 29,600 registrants 
under the Tru.cking Code who indicated that their operations crossed state line 
reported a total of 112,620 employees, or an average of 1.47 employees oer 
vehicle. On the assijmption that this average of 1.47 eraplo"'ees per vehicle 
held sood for all the 300,475 for-hire vehicles registered under the Trucking 
Code, s,ppro::iKately 440,000 employees in tha.t service are estinated to have 
been under the Code for this Industry. 

Estimated IXuiber of Employees of "Interstate" Hegistrajits Under the Code 

As already indicated, 112,600 employees were reported in 1934 by the 29,- 
600 operators who were engjiged. in interstate operations. (See Table VII below, 

Emplo-/ees of "Interstate" Registrants Under the Code Classified by ITature 
of B^^siness o-iid Average g-umber of 2mr)loyees ner pLe.'^istrant 

From Table VII below, it may be seen that "oy far the largest number of 
emplojrees, but not of registrants, fell in the mixed throes group, Tlie second 
largest nvanber which was, however, less then half as large, was employed liy 
contract carriers. The average number of workers employed by mixed throes and 
by regular route coraLion carriers was more thvn tv/ice that for all groups com- 
bined, while the average for comtiodity carriers and for any\7here-for-hire ope 
ators \7as less than half the average for all "interstate" registrants. The 
nwaber of eiroloyees per vehicle was notices.bly high for the regular route com- 
mon carriers. 
8789 



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-12- 
Wages and Hours in the Trucking-: Iiidiistrv Prior to the Code 

Prior to the adoption of the Code, vc-^es and hours of v/ork in the Tru.cking 
Industry showed wide vr,riations» Tliej vvere somev.'hat nore standardized axiong -^' '"'' 
the conr^on-carrier trucking coraponies. Data included in The Anericm Trans'oor- ' 
tat ion Froljlen (193.7) » published by the Brookings Institution, shov." the ro:iige 
of vreekl;- honors and wages for organized workers ernplo:/ed by well-established 
truck coKpanies in the cities nar.ied. Ihe houjrs worked per vreek rpjiged fron 48 
to 67, v.'ith the seabop.rd cities liaviiig had shorter work-weeks than Chicago and 
St, Lou-is . The weekly wa^.e , which ranged iron $28.00 to $43.00, did not vary 
consistently either in direct or indirect relation to the hours of vrork, 

TABLE VIII 

Range of Hours Per ^eek and "^eohly 'Tages 
of Organized Enployees in Jive Cities, 
19 '"■.2 



Cit->- hours ^er "eek Weekly 7age 



Hew York City 48 to 54 $41,00 to$47.50 

ChiCB^-o 57 to 50 31.00 to 45.00 

Boston 48 to 52 50.00 to 36<,50 

St. Louis 57 to 67 23.00 to 42.00 

San Prrjicioco 48.75 S3. 00 to 48.00 



Source: Tiie :^a'ool-ing3 Institution, The Ai.-.erican Trrnsportation Problen (1933). 

Tiie Code -orovided a basic 48-hour '.'Ge]:, but in cace of emergency dencads 
this could be incx-eased. It will be noted by reference to Toble VIII that the 
maxiauia nu:,iber of hours "orescribed as a basic week '.as actually appro linately 
the ninxnuja number of hours worked by organized employees in three of the five 
cities listed, end considerably below the minimum in the other tv.'o cities. 

Additional data gathered by the Bui-eau of Labor Statistics fron a repre- 
sertative snnple of organized chauffeur^., teamsters, and drivers in 1932 and 
1933 likewise indicate long hours of wor]-— usua.lly 53 or 54 per week. 



B7B9 



-13- 
TABLE IX 

Average Union V/ajce Hate Per Ho-ar and Average 
Full-Tiine Working Hours Per 7eek of Chaiif f eurs , 
Teci,msters and Drivers 
Liay 15, 1932 and Hay 15, 1933 







Average 


Uni 
Per 


.on Wage Rate 
Hoior 


Av 


erage 


Fall 
Per 


-Tiue 
Week 


Howrs 




Hay 15 
1932 


> 






Hay 15, 
1933 




Hay 15 , 
1952 




Ha-- 15, 
1933 


Cha-uifeuxs 

Teamsters and Drivers 


$.711 
.785 








$.564 

.654 




53.1 
53.6 






52,8 
54.1 



Avera^-e .722 .663 53.2 53.0 

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Honthl-'^ Labor Review? (June, 1934). 

Ho-orly nage rates for the groups covered in Table IX averaged 72 cents 
TDer iiou.r in the sriring of 1932, ajid 66 cents a yeo.r later. These qtovsos are 
not strictly comparable vdth those covered by the Codo, and, furthernore, a 
con-oarison of these rates \7ith Code rates is not feasible because of the fact 
that the Code wage varied \7ith size of city. 

Wages and Hours in For-Hire Truckin,? Pirms Prior to the Code 

The 3u-:-eau. of Labor Statistics, in cooperation \7ith the Federal Coordina- 
tor of Transportation, made a study in 1933 of wa^ges and hours of 312 represen- 
tative for-hire trucking firns throughout the coujitry. These firms en'Dloyed 
7,129 vrage-earners. It \7ill be noted in Table X, 'oelov;, that the nui.iber of 
days uorked per v;eek differed remarkably little betueen regions, vhile average 
hours per vreek, average hourly wa^e rates, and average \7eekly earnings ci'.fs red 
considerably. Average hours were longest, while average houi'ly v/age rates and 
average weekly earnings v.-ere lov/est, in the East South Central and South 
Atlantic regions. The highest hourl;)' v/age rates and weekly earnings vjere in 
the Pacific and East Noriih Central regions, but both regions were axiong those 
having long v/orking hours per week. 

In all regions, the hours actually worked exceeded those later establish- 
ed a,s the basic week by the Code. A compajrison between the hourly v/age rates 
actually paid in the Industry and thosa established by the Code is notfc-..-z^'x-^ 
as ha,s previously been pointed out. 



8789 



-14- 



TABLS X 



Average Days and iloin-s Per TJeek, 
Avei'aA-;e Hourly TJa^os, am'. Averages T7ee^,:ly Earnings, 
for Por-Kire Truc^: Er.oloyees, by 
He.-ions, July, 1933 



Hegion 



Average Ds-ys 

Worked 
Per Week 



Average 
number of 

Hours Per 

■'Jeek 



Average 
Ho\irly 



Average 
Weekly 
Earnings 



U. S. Total 



5.6. 



51.0 



$.437 



$22.31 



New England 


5.3 


Middle Atlantic 


5e4 


East ilorth Central 


5.5 


West llortia Central 


5.6 


South Atlantic 


5,6 


East South Central 


5.7 


West South Centra] 


5.7 


Motuats.in 


5.7 


Pacific 


5.8 



50.3 


.480 


24.12 


51.3 


.473 


24.26 


51.1 


.493 


25.22 


51.0 


.427 


21.78 


51 .e 


ryr-rr 
.COO 


-in oo 


52.5 


.527 


17.17 


49.9 


.394 


19.65 


43.8 


.477 


23.28 


51.0 


.533 


27.14 



Source: Coiiipiled from dz ta of the Biireau of Labor Statistics, published in 
" Ivlonthly Labor Revlev; ," (June 1934). 



8 78^ 



-15- 

Chapter III 

TIffi INTEESTATE CHARACTER OF THE ILDUSTRY 

Estimate of Total Eor-Ei re Trucks in Intrastate Operations 

In Jvl-j, 19o5, the Statistical Division of American Trucking Associa- 
tions, Inc., estimated tliat the total number of for-hire trucks engaged in 
intrastate operations vras 220,500. The tasis for that estimate is herein- 
after indica-ted. When presenting those figures, the Division stated that 
they '.7ere ca-bitrarily arrived at, and they must he accepted as estimptes 
only. 

(l) The Division estimated that the numher of dump 
trucks engaged in intrastate operations equalled 15 per cent /6' 
of all vehicles for hire. 



/ 



o 



(2) The Division found that appi'oxirmtely 13 per cent {(J 
of all vehicles registered tmder the Code were engaged in ' y 
local cartage rork exclusively. Giving consideration to that 'ui 
fact, it estimated tliat 10 per cent of the tru-cks registered 
represented the nuinher engaged in purely intrastate local- 
cartage O'oerations. 

(3) The Division estiraroted that the numhcr of trucks 
used 1)3^ contract carriers who were engaged in intrastate 
operations equalled 10 per cent of the total numher of for- 
hire vehicles registered. 

(4) Intrastate any\"here-for-hire operators were estimated 
to control 14 per cent of the total trucks registered. 

Applying these percentages, which total 49, to the estimated total 
number of for-hire trucks, it is found that 220,500 tracks v/ere classified 
as engaged in intrastate operations. (See Taole XI, helon-. ) 

Estimate of Total For-Hire Truck s 

"Engaged in or Affecting" Interstate Coiixmerce 

The nu..ioer of trucks operating in purely intrastate commerce, as 
previously estimated, has heen deducted from the estimated total nuiTiher of 
for-hire trucks (450,000) to give the n-omher of for-hire trucks "engaged 
in or affecting" interstate commerce. Tahle XI, "belox/, shor/s this figare 
to "be 229,500. 



8789 



-16- 



TABLE XI 



Estimated Total For-Hire Trucks Classified 
by the Intrastate and Interstate a/ Character 
of Their Operations, 1935 



T-f-pe of Operation 



Trucks 



Percenta 


.ge 


Numher 


49 




220,500 


15 




57,500 


10 




45,000 


10 




45,000 


14 




63,000 


51 




229,500 



Intrastate Operation, Total 

'Dvj.ro tr^i-cks 
Loca.1 ca,rtage 
Contra.ct carriers 
Anywhe re- f o r- hire 

Interstate Operation, a/ Total 



Total 



100 



450,000 



Source: American Trucking Association, Inc., Statistical Division, 

"Character and Extent of Interstate Operation of Motor Vehicles 
for the Transportation of Property Por-Hire" (1935). 

a/ "Interstate" operations are taken to include "both those "engaged 
in" or "affecting" interstate commerce. 



Interstate Operations "Engaged in" hy 
Begistra.r-ts Under the Code 

As already indicated, 100 "oer cent registration of the operators 
under the Code of Pair Competition for the Trucking Industry ^:'as not ol)- 
tained. Hor.'ever, of the estimated 185,630 operators registered, 29,600, 
or nea,rl3^ 16 i/ per cent reported that they were engaged in interstate 
activitj'-. Of the 300,475 vehicles registered, 76,810, or approximatel;- 
26 per cent, '-'ere 0T7ned and/or operated "by registrants '"ho reported tiia.t 
they v/ere engaged in interstate transportation. ITot all the vehicles 
OT/ned 'by these operators were engaged in intersta.te transportation, hvit 
58,367 vehicles, or approximately 20 per cent of the total number register- 
ed, were reported actually to have "been operated across state lines. It 
should he noted that this latter figure is, in part, an estimate, due to 
the fact tha.t ahout 10 per cent of the 29,600 registrants who reported that 
they were engaged in interstate oiaerations failed to report the nu.mher of 
vehicles involved. Por the grou-o failing to report, the numher was esti- 
mated on the ha-sis of the ratio iudica.ted "by those operators in the same 
state who did report the munher of vehicles so operated. 2/ A siommary of 
the interstate character of the Industry is presented in the following tahle. 



1/ In the report of the American Trucking Association, Inc. , already cited, 

this percentage ?/as erroneously given as 10 per cent and the error was 

acknowledged when attention was directed to it by the Statistics Section, i:nii' 

2/ American Trucking As so ciationt;, Inc., Statistical Division, "Chara.cter and 

Extent of Interstate Operations of Motor Vehicles for the Transportation of 
Property Por-Hire" (1935). 

8789 



-IV- 

WBLE XII 

number of Total and "Interstate" Registrants 
Under tlie Code; Vehicles Owned and/or Opereted 
'by "Interstate" P.egistrants, and Yehicles that 
Crossed State Lines, 1934 



llumher 



Per Cent of 
Total 



136,630 PiJ 



Regi'-;trants Under the Code 
U. S. Total 

"Intersta^te" Registrants 
Vehicles P.ej^istered Under the Code 
U. S. Total 

Ovmed. or Operated "by 
"Interstate" Registrants 
Operated across State Lines 



29 , 600 
300 , 475 



15.9 



76,310 
58,367 



25.6 
19,4 



Source: Corapiled from Americ£.,n Truc^cing Association, Inc., Statistical 

Division, "Character and Sxtent of Interstate Operation of Motor 
Vehicles For the Transporting of Propertj For Hire" (1935). 

a/ Estimated as indicated above, p. 7. 

B7 applying the percentages given in Table XII to the estimated total 
of 450,000 for-hire tru.cks, it is estimated that there ^ere in all some 
71,550 "interstate'' operators of for-hire truchs; and that they o\7n or op- 
erated 112,000 trucks, 90,000 of which actuiilly crossed state lines. The 
latter figure does not include trucks whose operations only "affected" 
interstate commerce, and therefore is considerably lower th?ai the estimate 
given in Table XI, above, which includes such operations. 

Classifica ti on of " Intorsta . te" Regis ti'3 nts 
Under the Code, by Regions 

The following table shows registrants ixnder the Code, who reported 
that the],- were engaged in interstate operations, classified by regions. The 
percentage distribution shows that nearly 70 per cent of these registrants 
were located in the Middle Atlantic, "ast North Central, and West North 
Central states. 



8789 



-18- 



TASLE XIII 

Classifica.tion of "Interstate" Registrants 
Under the Code, "by Regions, 1934 



Region 



"Interstate" Registrants 



Number 



per Cent 



U» S. Total 

New England 
Middle Atls,ntic 
East ilorth Central 
West ilorth Central 
South Atlojitic 
East South Central 
West South Central 
Mountain 
Pacific 



29,600 

2,275 

7,343 

7,003 

5,888 

3,685 

909 

880 

907 

710 



100.0 

7.7 

24.8 

23.7 

19.9 

12.4 

3.1 

3.0 

3.0 

2.4 



Source: Aiaerican Trucking Associatioix, Inc., Statistical Division 

"Character and Extent of Interstate Operation of liotor Vehicles 
for the Transportation of Property For-Hire" (1935). 



Classification of "Interstate" Vehicles 
Under the Code, hy Regions 

While "interstate" registrants owned and/or operated 25.6 per cent 
of th? total vehicles registered under the Code in the United States as a 
vrhole, they onned 34, 32, and 30 per cent, respectively, of the total 
vehicles so registered in the Middle Atlantic, South Atlantic, and West 
North Central states. In the Pacific states, on the other hand, thejr 
o?med onl;r ahout 9 per cent. 

In the three regions, Middle Atlantic, South Atlantic, and West 
North Central, the percentage of cars actually crossing state lines was 
noticea'bl;^ higher than the average of 19.4 for the country as a whole, 
and the Pacific states were again much helow the average. The percentage 
distrihution shows, however, that concentration was less marked in the 
case of "interstate" vehicles than in the case of "interstate" registrants. 



8789 



-19- 





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-20- 



Classificr.tion of "Interstate" aegiijtrants 
Under tie Code, "by Ilature of Bu-gines s 

The folloTring tatle gives a classification of the 29,600 "inter- 
state" registrants under the Code according to the nature of their husiness. 
It also shoTTs the tota.1 numher of vehicles operated "by the registrants in 
each class, together with the number actually operated across state lines. 

It ^Till he noted that more than one-third of the registrants fell 
in the "anyirhere-for-hire" group, "but that the largest number of total ve- 
hicles and also of those operated interstate xiere controlled rather bj'" 
members of the mixed t;noe group. 



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-22- 



Classification of "Interstate" Vehicles 

Under the Code, ty Region and Ifattire of Business 

TaLle XVI TdoIow, shows the actual distribution of the 58,367 vehicles 
registered under the Code as operating across state lines, among the nine 
geographical regions listed. The nature of the "business involved is also 
shoTTn, A percentage distrihution of these data is presented in Table XVII, 
below. 

From the latter table it has been conputed that, for the United States 
as a whole, the vehicles used in comvion carrier, anywhere-f or-hire, and 
mixed tjnpe services coitprised approximately 76 per cent of the total number 
of vehicles operating across state boundaries. More than 70 per cent of 
the vehicles engaged in common carrier and mixed type operations were locat- 
ed in the states east of the Mississippi and north of the Ohio and Potomac 
Rivers. The "anywhere-f or-hire" operctox's were more widely scattered and 
only about 47 per cent of the vehicles were located in that region. 



8789 



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-25- 



Classification of "Interste.te" Re.? istrants 
Under tlie Code, liy Isruinlier of Trucks Operate i 

As Tjii 1 "be seen from Tatle XVIII, "below, by far the greatest number 
of the 29,600 "interstate" operators registered under the Code own hut 
one vehicle each, and approximately 92 per cent of them do not own more 
than five vehicle Se It will he noted that a much smaller proportion - 
only ahout 52 per cent - of total vehicles are owned hy operators having 
no more tlia,n 5 vehicles. 



8789 



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-26- 



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-27- 



Average Length of Route Involvod in 
Interstr.te Operations 

In conmon and contract carrier trucking operations, regularly 
scheduled runs in excess of 500 miles are not infrea^uent. Trucking com- 
panies freoj^ueutly publish joint tariffs or rate schedules and operate on 
through schedule s . 

Questionnaires sent out hy the Code Authority for the purpose of 
obtaining information relative to hoiirs worked "by truck employees, brought 
replies shordng one-way mileage of vehicles on interstate routes on which 
the roiu.d trips could not be completed in 8 hours. These questionnaires, 
which were apportioned (l) among the several states, and (2) among the 
different tj^pes of operators in each state, brought approximately a 10 per 
cent return. Approximately 55 per cent of these returns, which came from 
29 states, contained such data. These data, as s"ammarized in Table XIX, 
below, give some indication of the distances involved in interstate opera- 
tions, but do not "oerrait the deterninntion of average length of route, l/--' 
The classification of regions by length of routes involved shows a notice- 
able concentration for nearly all regions in the three groups: 51-100, 
101-150, and 3.51-200. In the Mountain and Pacific states, the proportion 
of vehicles engaged in hauls of more than 250 miles was marked. 






l/ These data are summarized in the report of the National Code Authority, 
April, 1935, relative to an eight-hour day for the Trucking Industry, 

8789 



-28- 



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Table XX, below, is also sugc^estive in connection with the average 
length of haul involved in interstate operations because it shoT/s that 87 
per cent of the out-of-state trucks seen in the western states specified 
were registered in states east of the Mississippi. These trucks were obvi- 
ously operating on long hauls. In 1930. 't^e percentage of such tracks was 
especially high for California, where trucks came in from all states and 
geographical regions, excepting New Mexico and the Mew England states. 

Table xx 



Percentage of Total Kumber of Out-of-State Trucks 
Observed in Each of 11 lu'estern States, liHiich T/ere 
Registered East of the L'dssissippi River, 1930 



State 



Percentage of Total Out-of- 
State Trucks Registered 
East of Mississippi River 



Total 

Arizona 

California 

Colorado 

Idaho 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Mexico 

Oregon 

Utah 

Washington 

Wyoming 



gy.o 
9.6 

15.6 
9.3 

U.i 

13.7 
1.5 
U.6 
2.6 

S.7 
7.6 

9.6 



Source: U. S. Bureaii of Public Ro ,as, "Repo rt of a Survey of Traffic on 
the Federal-Aid Highv/ay System of Eleven V/estern States " (1930). 



87S9 



-30- 

Chapter IV 

TRADE PBACTICES 

T rade Practices Under the Code 

Hie Code of Fair Competition for the Trucking Industry undertook to estab- 
lish vrithin that Industry certain trade practice rules. Provision r;as also 
made that other trade practice ru].es, which uere considered necessary to ire- 
vent unfair competition, could be formulated through trade agreements rxiong 
members of the Industrjr, and subject to rules and regulations established by 
the Ifo,tional Code Authority, r;ith the approval of the Administrator. 

In any industry as widespread as this, and including such a large 'oropor- 
tion of ovmer-operators, the establishing of trade -practice rules must of 
necessity have been gradual. Apparently at the out set the Eational r,nd State 
Code Authorities place greater emphasis urjon registration and the filing of 
rates and rariffs than they did upon trade practices. The length of tip.e ths.t 
the Code was in effect did not permit of a,ny great "jrogress in the !?.atter of 
obtaining universal acceptance of tJ.^ r^^les as promulgated. 

Due to the lack of specific information as to the extent that the tro.de 
practice rules of the Code xiere followed by the Industry, no concrete pjppraisal 
of this matter can be given. Opinions which have been e^gjressed in vrxious 
conferences and public hearings by members of the Industry are to the effect 
that the discriminations and rebating which are extensively practiced v.lthin 
this Industry brought about a chaotic condition. However, factual data in sup- 
port of this belief are scarce. 



8789 



-31- 

Chapter 7 

GEllEHAL lijEOHl/ATION 

I Crad e Associations 

Trado associations of motor truck operators exist in nearly every state, 
and in several st?.tes there are a half dozen or more of such associations. Hie 
American Trucking Association, Inc., is prohatly the largest and is cor.VDOsed of 
affiliated state organizations. It was formed in 1933 "by the amalgamation of 
the Ai.iericrji Highway Freight Association and the Federated Truck ssociation of 
America, V.hile the Code of Folr Competition proposed for the Trucking Industry'- 
was under consideration, the president of the American Trucking Association, 
Inc., re'jorted that as of November, 1933, it included 90 associations having a 
total membership of more than 38,000. 

iiany of these trade associations represented S'jecial groups within the 
Industry, Some of these were the a.ssociations for dump truck ovmers, certified 
highv;ay carriers, harbor frari-chise carriers, city cartage, milk trans'oortation, 
transfer and viarehouse service, scavenger service, and agricultural trojisporta- 
tion. These were organized in some instances into strong groups, v/hile others 
had but loosely constructed and unstable organizp,tions. 

List of Exoorts 

Three of the m.any names tha.t coiild be included in a list of those cpja.li- 
fied to spealc of certain as'oects of the Trucking Industry are: 

Professor John '■!. Vlorley, University of Michigan, 

Ann Arbor, l.iichigan. 
J, Rowland Bibbins, Consulting Engineer, 

Washington, D. C, 
L» E, Peabod^v, Division of Highway Transport, 

U. S. Bureau of Public Hoards, 

Washington, D. C. 

Each of these is a recognized authority and is the author of reports and 
other published data rela.ting to highway transport. Their names are given here 
without their knowledge or consent. 



8789#