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Full text of "Evidence study"

BOSTON 



ifiliSl ^^ 



3 



9999 0631' 3^ _^H-iT5» I - - 



NATIONAL RECOVERY ADM INISTRATION 
DIVISION OF REVIEW 



EVIDENCE STUDY 
NO. 43 

<a — 

OF 

THE WHOLESALE FRUIT AND VEGETABLE 
DISTRIBUTIVE INDUSTRY 

Prepared by 

JOHN A. LUCAS 



September, 1935 



PRELIMINARY DRAFT 
(NOT FOR RELEASE: FOR USE IN DIVISION ONLY) 



THE EVIDENCE STUDY SERIES 

The EYIDENCE STUDIES were originally planned as a means of gathering evidence 
bearing upon various legal issues which arose under the National Industrial Re- 
covery Act. 

These studies have value quite aside from the use for which they were originally 
intended. Accordingly, they are now made available for confidential use within the 
Division of Review, and for inclusion in Code Histories. 

The full list of the Evidence Studies is as follows: 



1. 

2. 

3. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 
18. 
19. 
20. 
21, 
22. 



Automobile Manufactixring Ind. 

Boot and Shoe Mfg. Ind. 

Bottled Soft Drink Ind. 

Biiilders' Supplies Ind. 

Chemical Mfg. Ind, 

Cigar Mfg. Industrv 

Construction Industry 

Cotton Garment Industry 

Dress Mfg. Ind. 

Electrical Contracting Ind. 

Electrical Mfg. Ind. 

Fab . Me tal Prod. Mf g . , e tc . 

Fishery Industry 

Furniture Mfg. Ind. 

General Contractors Ind. 

Graphic Arts Ind. 

Gray Iron Foundry Ind. 

Hosiery Ind. 

Infant's c: Children's Wear Ind. 

Iron and Steel Ind. 

Leather 

Lumber & Timber prod. Ind. 



23. Mason Contractors Industry 

24. Men's Clothing Industry 

25. Motion Picture Industry 

26. Motor Biis Mfg. Industry (Dropped) 

27. Needlework Ind. of Puerto Rico 

28. painting & Paperhanging & Decorating 

29. Photo Engraving Industry 

30. Plumbing Contracting Industry 

31. Retail Food (See No. 42) 

32. Retail Lumber Industry 

33. Retail Solid Fuel (Dropped) 

34. Retail Trade Industry 

35. Rubber Mfg. Ind. 

36. Rubber Tire Mfg. Ind. 

37. Silk Textile Ind. 

38. Structural Clay Products Ind. 

39. Throwing Industry 

40. Trucking Industry 

41. Waste Materials Ind. 

42. Wholesale & Retail Food Ind. (See No. 31) 

43. Wholesale Fresh Fruit & Veg. 



In addition to the studies brought to completion, certain materials have been 
assembled for other industries. These MATERIALS are included in the series and are 
also made available for confidential use within the Division of Review and for in- 
clusion in Code Histories, as follows: 



44. Wool Textile Industry 

45. Automotive Parts & Equip. 

46. Baking Industry 

47. Canning Industry 

48. Coat and Suit Ind. 



49. Household Goods & Storage, etc. (Dropped) 

Ind. 50. Motor Vehicle Retailing Trade Ind. 

51. Retail Tire & Battery Trade Ind. 

52. Ship & Boat Bldg. & Repairing Ind. 

53. Wholesaling or Distributing Trade 



L. C. Marshall 
Director, Division of Review 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Forei^ord 1 

CHAPTER I - THE HATUEE OF THE IimUSTRY 2 

Definition and Brief Description of 

■ the Industry , 2 

Total Nunbor of Establish-nents . . J 2 

ITunber of Sstatilishnents by States . , * 2 

Number of Zstablislinents Classified by ITunber 

of Units in Organization 3 

Establishments Classified According 

to Nxmber of Employees 4 

Net Sales of the Industx-y 4 

Capital Investment in the Industry 4 

Nunber of Failures and Anouiit of 

Liability Involved 4 

CHAPTER II - LA20R STA.TISTICS 6 

Total Number of Employees 6 

Number of Employees, by States 6 

Total Annual ^ages and Sa.laries 6 

Wages Paid, by States 6 

Weekly Hours 7 

Labor Cost 7 

CHAPTER III " DISTRIBUTION 9 

General 9 

Volvune of Shipments 9 

Shipments by States 10 

Net Sales by States 10 

Interstate Shipments 11 

Potatoes 12 

Lettuce 12 

Oranges 13 

Grapes 13 

Grapefruit 13 

Tomatoes 13 

Exoorts 15 

Volume 15 

Value 15 

Imports 17 

Volume 17 

Value 17 

CHAPTER IV - GENERAL INEORI'JLTIONt 20 

Trade Associa.tions 20 

Labor Organisation in the Industry 20 

List of Experts ' 20 



8545 



-oOo- 

-i- 



TABLS 



TABLE 



TABLE 



TABLE 

TABLE 
TABLE 

TABLE 

TABLE 
TABLE 

TABLE 

TABLE 



TABLE 



TABLE 



TABLE 



TABLES 

page 

I - KuEilier of Establsihraents, by 

Principal States, 1929 and 1933 S 

II - Estatilishraents Classified by Number 

of Units in Organization - IS 29 3 

III - Percentage Distribiition of Members 
of the Industry, Classified 
According to Number of Em- 
ployees , June 16 , 1934 4 

IV - Number of Failures and Amount of 

Liabilities Involved, 1950-1934 5 

V - Nurnbr- r of Employee s , 'oy State s , 1929 6 

VI - Wages Paid to Employees, by 

States, 1929 7 

VII - Labor Cost and Total Expenses Com- 
pared with Total Value of Sales, 
1929 and 1933 7-3 

VIII - Carlo t Shipments of Fresh Fruits 

and Vegetables, 1929-1934 9 

IX - itail and Water Shipments of Fruits 

and Vegetables, by States, 10 

X- Net Sales by States, 1929 10-11 

XI - Carlot Shipments of Specified 
Commodities as Percentages of 
Total Fresh Fruit and Vegetable 
Shipments , . H 

XII - Proportion of Specified Fruits and 
Vegetables Ma,rketed in Five 
Principal Consur.;ing Cities, 1934 12 

XIII - Proportion of T^to Florida Fruits 
Marketed in Five Principal 
Gonswiing States , 1934 12 

XIV - Carlot Unloads at New York City, 

by Commodity and Princixial Source, 

1934 . . 14 



854E 



-11- 



TABLES (Cont'd) 

Page 

TABLE XV - Quantity of Principal Ey-ports 

of Eresh Eraits and Vegetables, 

1931-1934 15 

TABLE XVI - Value of EroDorts of Fresh Fruits 

and Vej^-e tables, 1931-1934 16 

TABLE XVII - Quantity of Principal Imports of 
Fresh Fruits and Vegetables, 
1951-1934 18 

TABLE XVIII - Value of Imports of Fresh Fruits 

and Vegetables, 1931-1934 19 



-oOo- 



8545 -iii- 



-1- 



WHOLESALE ERESH ERUIT AllD VEGETABLE 
DISTRIBUTIVE IliDUSTRY 

Eoreword 

There is a scarcity of information for this Industry, except for the 
data collected "by the Department of Agricult-ure concerning the shipment of 
agricultiaral commodities, and the general information collected hy the 
Census Bureau in 1929 and 1953. In connection with the Census data used in 
this study, it should be noted that nhile the 1929 Census covered all es- 
tahlishments, in 1933 only wholesalers with annual net sales of $1,000 or 
more and assemblers with sales of $500 or more, were included. This tends 
to exaggerate the extent of the decline, in annual data, from the year 1929 
to 1935, It must also be noted that the Census data are more comprehensive 
than the Code coverage, in that they include assemblers, packers, etc., who 
are excluded from the Code by definition. What proportion of the Cen'BUs 
total actually comes under the Code cannot be stated. 

The section on "Interstate Shipments" in Chapter III can b e greatly 
enlarged on the basis of data available at the Bureau of Agricultural 
Economics, if this is considered desirable. 

Because of the nature of the Industry, no section on raw materials is 
included, and, because of the lack of data, the section on trade practices 
is also omitted. 



8545 



r2- ■ 

CHAPTER i 

THE mTURE OF THE IKDUSTRY 

Definition and Brief Description of the Industry 

Code Ntunter 17, signed on June 29, 1934, and effective July 16, 1934, 
defines the Industry in Section 1 of Article II, as follows: 

"The terms 'Wholesale Eresh Fruit and Vegetahle Distrihutive 
Industry' and 'Industry' as used herein include shipping re- 
ceiving, selling or "buying, or offering to sell or "buy, either 
as principal or agent, fresh fruits and fresh vegetahles in 
wholesale quantities, hut shall not include the sale or dis- 
trihution of fresh fruits or fresh vegetables other than to a 
trade huyer. The Industry as defined shall not include the 
production nor preparation, assemhling, or loading at point 
of production of commodities for shipment, nor shall anything 
in this Code or regulations thereunder prevent anyone from 
marketing or trading produce of his farm," 

The products involved in this Industry are entirely of an agricultural 
nature consisting principally of apples, "berries, cahhage, grapefruit, 
gTEi-peSf lettuce, onions, oranges, pears, peaches, white and sweet potatoes, 
and tomatoes, Th« chief listrihutive factors involved are the fpllowingi 
auctions, "brokers, chain-"buying agencies, commission merchants, cooperative 
associations, motor truck distri'butors, jo"b"bers, and wholesalers. 

Total ITumher of Esta'blishments 

The Wholesale Census of Distri"bution reported 11,194 estahlishments en- 
gaged in this "business in 1929, while the Census of American Business re- 
ported 9,083 esta'blishments for 1933, a decrease of a'bout 19 per cent from 
1929. Ho data are availa"ble for 1931. 

According to the Bureau of Agricultural Economics of the U. S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, there v;ere on July 22, 1935, 15,944 esta'blishments 
licensed under the Perisha'ble Agricultural Commodities Act of 1930. Com- 
parative figures for corresponding dates are as follows: 

1934 (July 21) 15,488 
1933 (July 22) 14,238 
1932 (July 23) 15,281 

In the year 1933, for which "both the Census data and the license ciata 
are availa'blo, the license figure is considerably higher than the Census 
figure for the reason that canners and other food processors, as well as 
some "brokers who negotiate purchases in interstate commerce and whose activ- 
ities are not covered "by the Census blassif ication, axe included ■CJader the 
Perishable Commodities Act.. 

Number of Establishments by States 

The distribution of wholesale establishments in 1929 and 1933 is shown 
in Table I for the leading states. California and Hew York are easily the 



8545 



most important states. The decline in mjjn"ber of estalalishments from 1929 
to 1933 was more marked in New totk than in California with the result 
that New York yielded first place to California in the latter year, 

TABLE I 





Number 


of 


Sj 


stabli 


.shments. 


^7 


Pr: 


incipal 


States, 


1929 


and 


1933 


State 


















Number 
1929 


of Establ 


.ishments 
1933 



U. S. Total 11,194 9,083 

California 1,072 1,161 

Illinois 610 491 

Massachusetts 362 331 

Missouri 458 311 

New York 1,453 1,143 

Ohio 383 358 

Pennsylvania 946 Gil 

All other states 5,910 4,707 

Source: Census of Wholesale Distribution, 1929 ; 
Census of American Business. 1933 ; 1933 
data do not include wholesalers whose 
annual net sales were less than $1,000, 
or assemblers with sales of less than 
$500. 

Establishments Classified by Number of Units in Organization 

The Census of Wholesale Distribution for 1929 reported information con- 
cerning the number of establishments in organizations having one or nore 
units. As is shown in Table II, by far the majority of the establishments 
were in one-unit organizations. 

TABLE II 

Establishments Classified by Number of Units in 
Organization - 1929 
Number of Units 

in Organization N umber of Establishments 

All establishments 11,194 

1 9,02^0 

2 388 

3 to 5 420 
6 to 25 504 
25 to 100 538 
Over 100 2 
More than 1, but lonknown 322 

Source: Census of Wholesale Distribution, 1929 . 



8545 



-4- 

Estaljllshments Classified According: to Ifajn"ber of Employees 

Sample questionnaire data recently conpiled "by EEli for 6,209 employees 
from 985 establishments in the Industry indicate the distribution of ostoJb- 
lishments "by numter of employees. Prom the data presented in Ta'ble III it 
can "be seen that the Industry is composed of snail-size esta"blishments — 
over half of the members employing less tho.n 5 workers, 

Percent-.Tc Distri"'outior. of Llenbers of the Iniustry, Classified 

Accordir-.f^ to I''in"ber "of Emjlbyees, June 16, 19;?4 

Ter Cent of Establishments with 
Number of Employees Specified Number of Employees 



All establishments 100.0 

None 3.3 

1 and under 5 56,1 

5 and under 10 22.1 

10 and under 20 12,5 

20 and under 40 4.7 

40 and under 80 1.2 

80 and over •! 



Source: Compiled by IJRk, Research and Planning Division, from special 
questionnaires. 

Net Sales of the Industry 

Net sales in 1933 totaled $1,733,284,000 compared with $3,2^2,975,000 
in 1929, or a, decrease of about 47 per cent. 

The Industry ranlced third among wholesale trades, and during 1933 its 
net sales were exceeded only by wholesale petroleum and grocery distributors, 

Cax)ital Investment in the Industry 

A number of sources were consulted for data on the capital investment 
in the Industry, but no information could be obtained. 

Number of Failures and Amount of Liability Involved 

A special tabulation made by Dun and Bradstreet indicates that the 
number of failures in the Industry as defined by the Code more than doubled 
from 1930 to 1933, with a marked decline in 1934. The amount of liabilities 
involved nearly quadrupled from 1930 to 1933, but declined somewhat in 1934. 
(See Table IV). 



8545 



-5- 

TABLE IV 

ITum'ber of Failures and Amount of Liabilities Involved, 

1930 - 1934 



NumlDer of Amouxit of 

Year Pailui-es Liabilities Involved 

1930 49 $ 668,250 

1931 55 790,500 

1932 75 2,358,526 

1933 109 2,596,398 

1934 63 2,204,757 

Source* IXxn and Bradstreet; special compilation sent liy letter to the 
HRA, Research, and Planning Division, 



8545 



-6- 

CHAPTER II 

LABOR STATISTICS 

Total Humber of Employees 

The Bureau of the Census reported 92,799 employees engaged in this In- 
dustry in 1929, compa,red rdth 55,418 employees in 1933, or a decrease of e.hoxxt 
40 per cent. Figures received from the office of the former Code Authoritj'- fo 
985 identical firms indicate that for the neek of June 16, 1934, shortly "i'efor 
the Code was signed, 6,209 employees rrere reported, compared with 6,247 on 
October 20, 1934, several nonths after the Code was signed. 

]\[um"ber of Emx)lovees. hy States 

The Distrihution Census reported 1929 employment figures, ^y states, as 
presented in Tahle V. California employed "by far the largest number of worker 
— nearly one-fourth of the total reported. Comparable figures for other year 
are not available. 

TABLE V 

Ilumber of Em-plovees. by Stp^tes. 1929 

State Number of Employees 

U. S. Total 92,799 

California 21,227 

Illinois 4,403 

1 Massachusetts 2,399 

Missouri 2,433 

New York 8,465 

Ohio 2,561 

Pennsylvania 4,044 

All other states 47.167 

Source: Census of Uholesple Distribution, 1929. 

Total Annual Uai^ves end Salaries 

Annual wages and salaries in this Indus tr;'- as reported by the U. S, Bur- 
eau of the Census for 1929 totaled $123,628,000 compared with $79,032,000 in 
1933, Part-time wages and salaries durin;'' 1933 totaled $12,685,000. Corre- 
sponding figures for 1934 are not available. 

Wages Paid, by States 

Wages paid in leading states in 1929 are shown in Table VI. The wide 
varis.tion in wage rates in different states is indicated by the fact that al- 
though New York employs only two-fifths as many employees as California, its 
annual wage bill is four-fifths as large. 



8545 



TJ^BLE VI 
U.T'.^es Fa id to Yiroloyee^.. l3y Stater^ ,1929 



(in thousand E^) 



U. S. iotal . 1^123, S-'B 

Crliiornia 24,578 

Illinois 9,441 

Kassachucetts 4,S04 

rissouri 3,540 

Yox! YorV ■ 19:, 173 

Oiiio 4,548 

?ennsj-l vp-nia, 6 , 459 

All other states 51,535 



Source : Ccp.'^^ift of "Triolesalff Di s tribntinn. ]92 9. 

TTeokl-^ Houri-: 

llo data are a^vailahle 'n hourc. of rjorh, except those gathered in tvo sur- 
veys conducted ty the 17BA in June 1933, and J'one and October 1934. In the :nic 
die of June 1933, rivara^e wee'.ly hours of all employees were 54.1, By Jane 
1934, they ha,6. declinpd to 43.3, and in October they rere 42.9. 

L abor Cost 

As shovn in Table VII, the total labor cost in handlin,'^ uholesale fresh 
fruits and vegeta,bles. as reported b;- the Census of distribution, was $123,- 
628,000 in 1929, co-.;pared Lvith $79,032,000, in 1933, or a decrease of 35 ver 
cent. The total labor cost in 1923 was 2.6 per cent of the total sales, com- 
pared rith 4.6 in 1933. Total expenses in 1929 were $260,535,000, compared 
with ni74, 646,000 in 1933, or a decrease of about 33 iDer cent. Total e^qoenses 
were 8 "oer cent of the sales in 1929, and 10.1 per cent in 1933. 

TALL?. VII 

La.bor Cost and Total "1:rpen5-'os Conpa.rod with 
Total Value of S ales. 1929 anr] 1^933 



Total Value Total Labor Cc^t Total g-rpeir.es SJ 

Year of Sales Anoiuit Per Cent A'no\mt Per Cent 
(000' g) (000 's) of Sales (OO P's) of Sales 

1929 $5,252,976 $123,628 2.6 $200,538 3.0 

1933 1,733,284 79,032 4.6 174,646 10. 1 

Source: Ce nsus of V,nolesale Distributior^. 1920 ; and Census of Ajnerican Tusi; 
ness. 193" ; 1933 data do not include wholesalers whose annual net 
sa,les were less than $1,000, or ass-cT.blers -/ith sales of less than 
3500. 

(Cont'd, on following pa.'^e) 

8545 



TABLE VII 
(Cont'd) 

a/ Includes all expenses paid bj the reporting wholesale establishments. It 
covers total payroll, and all other expenses incurred in the operation of th 
"business, such as traveling and other e^rpenses of salesmen, rent paid for th 
premises, interest, advertising expenses, credit and collection e:qDense in- 
cluding losses from bad debts, insurance, certain ta.xes', light, heat, po^ver, 
posta.ge, etc. Neither capital investment, (land, buildings, fixtures, and 
the li]:e) noi" the cost of goods sold is included. 



8545 



-9- 

CHAPTER III 
DISTEIBUTIOK 

Gener?2 

The 1)1111: of fresh fruit and vegetable shipuents at one stage or ajiother 
in their progress to a. final uarket are of el^ interstate nature. 

The data in the section on "Interstate Shipnents" give some indication 
of the interstate nature of the Industry. They do not, however, nal:e as 
complete and conclusive a case as might 'be made 'oi'' use of the vast amount 
of material availahle from the Bureau of Agricultural Economics. To utilise 
these materials properly, horrever, a considerahle amount of time must be 
e:q3ended to compile them into suitable forTi. The tables herein presented 
are merely a sa;:ple of uhat ca,n be obtained if desirable. 

Volume of Shi'oments 

According to the Bureau of Agricultural Economics of the Dejpartment 
of Agricu-lture, carlot shipments of fresh fruits rJid vegetables from 1929 
to I93U r^alf;ed from l,066,UOO carlots in I929 to 7SS,UoO carlots in 1933; 
in 193^> 225,097 carlots uere shipped. These fig\i.res include boat ship**. 
raents reduced to carlot eo^uivalents, but they do not include shipments by 
motor truck. (See Table VIIl). 

TABLE VIII 

Carlot Shipments of Eresh Fruits and Vegetables, 

1929-193^ 



Year Ca.rlots a/ Year Carlots a/ 

1929 i,o66,Uoo 1932 333, S2S 

1930 l,0U4,l40C 1933 7G£,US0 

1931 1,013,012 193^1 S25,097 

Source: Bureau of Agriciiltural Bconor.ics, 1 

"Ca.rlot Shipments of Eruits and Vege- 
ta,ble3 by Conxiodities, States and 
Months, I93U". 

a/ Including boat shipnents reduced to 
carlot equivalents, but not motor 
t ruck shipment s . 

During recent years the shipments by truck have increased very 
rapidly. Although no complete official figures are available, authori- 
ties in the Industry estimate tlia.t the annual tonnage moved 'by trucks 
ranges from 3O to 35 per cent of the total. 

The movement by water has likewise increased rapidly during recent 
years, as evidenced by the following boat shipment figures submitted by 



l^hr 



-10- 

tlie Bureau of ^ri cultural Sconomics: 

1932 - 20,lgU carlots 

1933 - 32,119 carlots 
I33IJ. „ III, 959 carlots 

Shi foments b:' States 

Shipnents "b;' rail arid water frou the principal proclucing states are 
sho\7n in Taole IX. The data include shipment of ciTied, as well as fresh 
fruits and vegetables, but the former constitute onl"-- from one to tv/o per 
cent of the total. T'le table shows the marked degree of concentration 
of shipnents fron the two states, California and Plorid^. 

TABLE IX 

Ea-il and Uater Shipments of Fri.iits and Vegeta,bles, 

b7 States 
(in thousands of carlot equivalents) 



29s. s 


222.1 


233.2 


246.5 


109.7 


IIS.O 


103.9 


101.6 


53.2 


kz.i 


U9.S 


50. U 


^U.2 


5U.6 


3S.2 


33.3 


51.9 


5S.3 


36.6 


i+3.7 


57.3 


U6.1 


27.H 


29.7 


5S.6 


56. S 


U5.I 


51.3 



State 1929 1931 1933 193^4 

U. S. Total 1,07^.1 1,023.3 79s. 5 S34.6 

California 

FloricLa 

Maine 

¥.e\j York 

Texas 

Virginia 

Washington 

All other 390. ^l 359.3 264.3 27s. 1 

Source: Bureau of Agricultural Economics, O'o . ci t . 

Het Sales by States 

The distribution of sales in 1929 by the 7 lep.ding states is shown 
in Table X. ITew York States accounted for more tlian a fifth of total 
sales in that year and California was second in importance, accounting 
for more than one-eighth of the total. 

TABLE X 
Net Sales by Sttites, I929 



S545 



State Sales 

(in thousands) 

U. S. Total $3,252,976 

California ^37,567 

Illinois 30U,1SS 

Massachusetts 139>OS3 

Missouri 112, Ull 

(Continued on next page) 



-11- 



TABLE X (Cont'd) 



State 



Sales 
(in tliousands) 



NevT York 

Ohio 

Pennsylvania. 

All other state; 



lU0,hg7 
2^6,165 



1,136,551 



Source: Census of tirholesale Distrioiition. 1929 

Interstate Shipments 

The larQ-e proportion of fresh fruits and ve;';;et aisles shipped across 
state borders in 193^ is indicated by the data, in Tables XII and XIII. 
The importance of the 6 conr.iodities specified in these 2 tables is shown 
by the fact that they comprised over ^0 per cent of a,ll the fresh fruits 
a,nd vegetables shipped in 193'+' Table XI sho'js the relative importance 
of each crop. 

TABLE XI 

Carlot Shipments of Specified Commodities a.s Percentages 
of Total Presh Pruit and Vegetable Shipments, 193^ 



Commodity 



Carlot s a/ 



Per Cent 
of Total 



Potatoes 
Oranges b/ 
Lettuce c/ 
Grapes 
Tomatoes 
C-rape fruit 

Total, o commodities 

All others 

Total, fresh fruits and 
vegetables 



223,507 


27.1 


SU,93S 


10.3 


U^^ll!-5 


5.U 


32,Uso 


3.9 


25,226 


3.1 


20,55s 


2.5 


k3Q,83k 


52.3 


39^,2^3 


^7.7 



225,097 



100.0 



Source: Bureau of Agricultural Economics, "Carlot Shipments of Fruits 
and Vegetables, by Commodities, States, and Months, 193^." 

a/ Includes boatloads reduced to carlot eptiivalents, but not 
t rucl: shipment s . 






Includes Romaine. 
Incliides Satsumas. 



The follo\7ing tables sho'j the amount of a given fruit or vegetable 
received in 5 important consumption areas outside the state of origin, 
compared v.'ith the total marketed. 

S5U5 



-13- 

TAJBLE XII 

Proportion of SpecifieJL Pru.its and Veget?/bles Marketed in 
?ive Principal Constiraing Cities, 133^ 



Conmodity and Tot-al Carlots a/ 

State of Origin I!ar]:eted 



Carlots?/ Unloaded in Pive 
Principal Concui-iinjT,- Cities 
Outside Sbate cJi Origin 

Per Cent cf 
llunoer 'Total Marketed 



Grapes (California) 3O.73O 1^,593 H7.5 

Tomatoes (Florida) 7, SI 7 3,660 Ho.S 

Potatoer, (Maine) 50,012 22,130 14^1.2 

Lettuce (California) 3U, O75 13,376 39.3 

Source: Conpiled ty IJSA fro^i data of Bureau of j-igriculturpj. Econonics. 

a/ Inclxides "boatloads reduced to carlot ccaiivalents, but not 

t imc' : shipment s . 

TABLE XIII 

Proportion of Tv/o ITlorida Pruits Marketed in Pive Principal 

Consv-inins States. 193^ 

Carlots a/ Received b/ in Five 
Principal Consuming; States 
Pjiicludinr; Florida 

Per Cent of 
llix.iber Total Ma,rketed 



Pnit Total Carlots a/ 

Marketed 



Orances 27,792 20,9S7 75-5 

Grapefruit ll|,U02 10,2^2 71.2 

Source: Co:rpiled bj' ITRA fron da,ta of Duregiu of A^:ricultural Economics. 

a/ Includes boatlords reduced to ca.rlot equivalents, biit 

not t'^uck sliipinents. 

b/ Includes receipts for reshipment. 

Further indication of the extent of interstate shipnent of the above 
rnen.tioned fruits njid vegetables is furnished by cLata shcTing the state of 
origin of these conmodities unloaded in He'r York City in 193'+« (See Table 
XIV.) In the case of ea,ch commodity nentioned, noi'e than 5O P^r cent of 
the quantity received in Hev/ York cane fron not nore than 2 to 5 sources. 

Potatoes . - IXiring 133^-> 12,6^7 cars of potatoes Tiere received at 
Nev York City, of vririch 90.5 per cent cane fron the follov/ing 5 states: 
Maine, llort/. Carolinji, South Carolina, Virginia, and Florida. 

Lettucej - Lettuce totaling 6,790 cars nas received at ilevi York 
City in 193^1-j "f v/liich four states, Arizona, California, Florida, tind 
Washington furnished 6,237 cars, or 91 '9 P^i' cent of the total. 

S5U5 



-13- 

ranges . - During 193'-!-. 17.SS9 cars of oranfjes were received at Hew 
Yorl: City, of wliich 17,226, or 99*6 per cent, cane frori California and 
Plorida. 

Grapes . - Lurin/: 193^> i'Sv; Yorh received 0,767 cars of grapes, of 
uhich 7j796 cars were fron California and Pennsylvania; imports included 
U30 cars fron the Argentine, ^0 cars fron Chile, and U3O cars fron Spain. 
These 5 sources accounted for 99«3 per cent of t]ie total received. 

G-ra"oef:.-uit . - Shipnents of i:;ra;oefruit received in He\7 York in 193^ 
totaled 6,2'l-9 cars, of vrhich practically 100 per cent caine fron the 5 
sources listed. 

Tonatoes . - Shipnents of tonatoes into Nev; Yorl: City daring 193^ 
totaled 5»926 cars, of which 3,72S cars were from California, Florida, 
Uississippi, eJio. Texas, with 1,6U6 cars fron Cuha. These 5 sources ac- 
counted for 90*7 of all the toma.toes received. 



S5U5 



-14- 



TABLE XIV 



Carlot Unloads r.t New York City, "by Commodity and 
Principal Soorce. 1954 



Comraodity and Source 



Carlot ssT Comraodity and Soiurce 



Garlotss/ 



Potatoes 



G-ra-Des 



Maine 10,472 
North Carolina 1,459 

South Carolina 1,097 

Virginia 1,705 

Florida 2,136 

Total, ahove sources 16,869 

Total receipts 18,647 
Per cent supplied hy 

above sources 90,5 



California 7,624 

Pennsylvania 172 

Argentina 430 

Chile 50 

Spain 430 

Total, ahove sources 8,706 

Total receipts 8,767 
Per cent supplied "by 

atove sources 99.3 



Lettuce 



GraiD efruit 



Arizona 


834 


California 


4,889 


Florida 


376 


Washington 


138 


Total, ahove sources 


6,237 


Total receiDts 


6,790 


Per cent supplied "by 




atove sources 


91.9 


Oranges 




California 


7,662 


Florida 


10,164 



Total, ahove sources 17,826 

Total receipts 17,889 
Per cent supplied "by 

ahove sources 99,6 



California 100 

Florida 5,171 

Texas 17 

Cut a 219 

Puerto Rico 741 

Total, ahove sources 6,248 

Total receipts 6,249 
Per cent supplied "by 

above sources 100.0 

Tomatoes 



California 






781 


Florida 






1,409 


Mississippi 






565 


Texas 






973 


Cuba 






1,646 


Total, above sources 


5,374 


Total receipts 




5,926 


Per cent 


sup-olied 


ty 




above sources 




90.7 



Sources: Bureau of Agricultural Economics, "Carlot Unloads of Fresh Fruits 
and Vegetables, 1934." 



a/ 



Including boatloads reduced to carlot equivalents, but not truck 
shipments. 



8545 



-15- 



Exoortr, 



Volur.e . - The -orinci-oal erroorts of fresh f^;^it^ from the United Str-tej 



in 133'-'- consisted of grapefiiiit, oraiiges, a^^ples, 
e.'P'plez, peaches, oeri-ies, and pears. 



.'apes, lezions, pine- 



32r tjjnpes, the 193^'- exports of these fruits 'jere as follo'.Ts: G-rapc- 
fruit, 95S,000 oo::es; lenons, 227,000 "boxes; oranges, 3,318', 000 ho-es; 
pineapples, 2S,7So hoxes; apples, 7j355>000 'bozies; also Ul7,000 baskets 
and 7*56,000 oarrels; berries, 7sS9S>0'^0 pounds; grapes, 35!l36,000 pounds; 
pears, 106, 231,000 pounds, and peaches, ■;, 1^1-6, 000 pov.ndc. 

Srports of fresh vegetables in 193^+ consisted chiefly of ;7hite 
pot8.toes rjid onions. Srports of potatoes totaled 1,171,000 Ijushels, 3,nd 
onions, 327,000 hushels. (Gee Tahle XV). 

Value . - A quantitative co: .pari son can:--ot he nade of course between 
itens riaving caffcrent unitr of neasure. The crroorts mentioned above 
are all e: pressed :n terns of value, ho""'ever, in Ttaole XVI. i'rou this 
table it can be seen that in 193^ apples r/ere 'o}' far the most important 
iter.! expoi-ted - exports of apples in boxes, baskets p.nd barrels ar:iounting 
in all to a little'nore than $lU, 000, 000 out of the total $32,707,000 
vorth of fruit exports. Oranges, pears and grapefimit were next in im- 
portance in the order mentioned.. The most important vegetable e:rport, 
potatoes, accounted for $S0o,000 of the total $3,907,^00 worth of vege- 
tables erroorted. 



TABLE XV 

Qi-iantit-^ of Principal lirports of ?resh :?raits and Vegetables, 

I93I-I93U 



Articles 




(In 


Unit 




1931 


IQ32 


1933 


193^ 






thousanci: 










Pm.i t s 


















Gra-'oefruit 






bGx.es 




1,3^1 


1,022 


96s 


959 


Lemons 






boxes 




25s 


21 G 


16s 


227 


Oranges 






boxes 




U,SU9 


3,129 


3,395 


3,31s 


Pineap'oles 






boxes 




53 


2G 


15 


27 


Apples (in 


boxes) 




boxes 




9,966 


10,220 


7,2'^ 


7,355 


Ap"Dles (in 


basket 


s) 


ba.skets 




— 


^10 


226 


1+17 


Apples (in 


barrel 


s) 


ba.rrels 




2,606 


2,130 


1,173 


766 


Berries 






-pounds 




7,0S9 


5,154 


7,200 


7,S99 


G-ra-DCs 






pounds 




2S,S76 


22,237 


27,226 


35.136 


Pears 






pounds 




L03,Ui6 


112,007 


105,210 


106,231 


Peaches 






pounds 




10,297 


3,603 


2,7S2 


5,lU6 


Vegetables 


















PotOotoes ('. 


7hite) 




bushels 


a/ 


1,060 


912 


719 


1,171 


Onions 






bushels 


^ 


562 


^'35 


Ul'!- 


3^-7 


Source: B-^re; 


:u 01 'J 


orei 


gn and Domes' 


tic Com:: 


lerce, as }_ 


)ublished in 


the 


Stat: 


Lstical 


Abr 


;tract. 













a/ B'.ishcls of 60 pounds, 
b/ Bushels of 57 pounds. 

25^5 



-16- 

TifflLE XVI 

Value of Exports of Fresh Eriiits and Vegetables, 

1931-1934 
(in thousands) 





Article 




1931 


1932. 


1933 - 


1954 


Fruits 












Total 




$ 55,249 


$39,104 


$28,412 


$32,707 


G-ra'oefrLiit 




3,951 


2,396 


2,181 


2,177 


Lemons 




1,107 


819 


628 


897 


Oranges 




13, 255 


7,112 


6,665 


8,227 


Pinea-oples 




155 


61 


38 


72 


Apples (in 


boxes) 


17,608 


13,102 


8,318 


10,187 


Apples (in 


baskets) 


— - 


499 


414 


598 


Apples (in 


barrels) 


11,553 


8,816 


4,365 


3,115 


Berries 




742 


438 


411 


567 


Grapes 




1,461 


1,060 


979 


1,541 


Pears 




4,510 


3,994 


3,696 


4,077 


Peaches 




339 


106 


95 


170 


Other fresh fruits 


1,559 


701 


622 


978 


Vef^etchles 













557 


659 


808 


304 


293 


345 


2,577 


2,261 


2,753 



Total 5,706 3,438 3,213 3,907 

Potatoes (white) 901 

Onions 577 

Other fresh vegetables 4,228 

C-raiid Total 61,955 42,542 31,625 36,614 



Source: Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, as published in the 
Statistical Abstract 



8545 



-17- 



Imports 



YoluLie . - Imports of fresh fruits during 193^ consisted chiefly of 
the follov/in£^-: "bananas, h'J,G'JS,000 bunches; grapefruit, 7>6U5,000 pounds; 
lemons, l,9lS,000 pounds; limes, 5»S32,000 pounds; oerries in natural 
state or in "brine, 4,091,000 pounds; cherries, naturrJ, s^olphured, or in 
"brine, 1,S10,000 pounds; grapes, 666,000 cuhic feet. 

Durin/;- 193^!-j inports of fresh vegeta"bles consisted chiefly of the 
following: "beans, green or in "brine, 4,3^6,000 pounds; green peas,, U,575jOOO 
pounds; potatoes, white or Irish, 92,293|C)00 pounds; garlic, U,6S3,000 
pounds; turnips, SS, 562,000 pounds; tomatoes, natural state, 55j01S,000 
pounds; onions, 5,213,000 pounds. (Sce Ta"ble XVII.) 

"Value . « As already indicated, compa.rison of itens e:cpressed in 
different units of measure is not possi"ble. Prou Taole XVIII, hoTrever, 
it can he seen that the dollar volume of our inports of fruit is much 
larger thon in the case of vegetables. In 193^ ^l''-^ fruit imports totaled 
$27,327,000, while only $U,Ul9,000 worth of vegetables were imported. It 
has ^oeen conputed that bananas accounted for nearly S5 per cent of the 
fruit imports. Peas and tomatoes each accounted for a little more than 
one-fourth of the total imports of vegetables. 



S5U5 



-Ig- 

TA3LE XVII 

Quantity of Principal Imports of Fresh Fniits and Vegetables, 

1931-1934 



Article 



Unit 



(In thousands) 



1931 1933 1933 1934 



Fruits 



Bananas 

G-rapeixuit 

Lemons 

Limes 

Apples 

Berries (natural or 

in "brine) 
Cherries (natural, sul- 
phared or in brine) 
Grapes 



bunches 55,854 49,457 39,613 47,679 



pounds 3,957 


7,101 


2,257 


7,545 


pounds 20,059 


7,714 


8,534 


1,915 


pounds 5,718 


4,187 


3,278 


5,832 


bushel sa/ 35 


54 


7 


15 



pounds 



3,455 2,797 4,025 4,091 



pounds 7,099 3,886 1,341 1,810 
cubic feet 232 248 250 655 



Vei^etables 




Bea:is (green or in 




brine) 


pounds 


Peas (green) 


pounds 


Potatoes (v/hite or 




Irish) 


pounds 


Garlic 


pounds 


Turnips 


pounds 


Tomatoes (natural state) 


pounds 


Onions 


pounds 



5,aio 

21,074 



7,322 



16 



5,628 



274,013 43,515 

5,557 5,558 

92,838 95,343 

103,555 119,140 
7,684 33,240 



5,525 4,345 
10,034 4,575 



70,805 

5,398 

95,567 

58,134 

3,596 



92,293 

4,583 
88,562 
55,013 

5,213 



Source: iureau of Foreign and Domestic Comraerce, as published in the 
Statistical Ab s tract . 



a/ 



Bushels of 50 pounds. 



8545 



-19- 

TABLE XVIII 

Value of Imports of Presh Fruits and Vegetables, 

19S1-1934 
(In thousands) 



Article 1931 1932 1933 1934 

Fruits 



Total 


$35,142 


$28,297 


$22,855 


$27,387 


Plantains 


159 


167 


149 


172 


Bananas 


29,427 


24,701 


20,205 


24,104 


G-r apefru.it 


208 


165 


44 


125 


Lemons 


560 


209 


198 


50 


Limes 


212 


131 


95 


164 


Pineapples (natural state) 


1,958 


917 


638 


726 


Apples 


54 


100 


7 


17 


Berries (natural or in "brine) 


238 


189 


206 


255 


Cherries (natiursl , sul-phured 










or in brine) 


707 


281 


83 


133 


Grapes 


500 


466 


359 


647 


Other fruits (natural, prepared, 










or preserved) 


1,119 


971 


871 


993 


Vef2:eta'bles 










Total 


9,610 


7,229 


4,671 


4,419 


Beans (green or in trine) 


194 


249 


164 


120 


Peas (green) 


1,090 


840 


468 


230 


Potatoes (white or Irish) 


3,126 


393 


1,016 


1,310 


Garlic 


210 


188 


190 


159 


Turnip s 


482 


420 


656 


656 


Tomatoes (natural state) 


3,253 


3,589 


1,554 


1,249 


Onions 


130 


566 


48 


89 


Other vegetables (fresh) 


1,125 


984 


575 


606 


Grand Total 


44,752 


35,526 


27,526 


31,806 


Source: Bureau of Foreign and Dome 


stic Commerce, as 


puhlished 


in the 


Statistical Abstract. 











8545 



-20- 

CHiPTEH IV 

GENEHAl IKPOHMATION 

Trade Associations 

The Wholesale Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Distrihutive Industry is highly 
organized. The following four leading trade associations were active in for- 
mulating a code for the Industry; 

(1) The National League of Commission Merchants of the United States, 
organized January 6, 18S3, reported a merahership 530 as of January 15, 1934. 
This association claims to handle 538,712 carloads annually of the products of 
the Industry, or more than 50 pe::- cent of the total. 

(2) The American pruit and Vegetable Shippers' Association reported 
20,645 raemhers as of January 30, 1934. This number includes 18 cooperative 
groi.7ers' associations. No data have been submitted as to the date of its 
organization nor the volume of business handled cnnually, 

(3) The International Apple Association, which was organized on Augu-st 
15, 1929, lias a re-oorted membership of 11,764 growers and shippers who are 
organized into 26 aTDple and pear cooperative associations, exchanges, and 
marketing organizations. No data have been su.bmitted on the annual voltime of 
business handled. 

(4) The ijestern Pruit Shippers' Association of America is composed 
primarily of shippers. No data have been submitted by it on the date of or- 
ganization, nuraber of members, and volume of business. 

Labor Organization in the Industry 

Large grou'os of employees in this Industry are not organized. Those 
employees v?ho are members of unions consist generally of truck drivers, 
teamsters, and others engaged in allied trans'oortation activities. Chicago 
and New York are said to have strong unions, with iDOssibly some existing also 
in Boston, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and other large cities. 

List of Prperts 

1. Industry Members: 

E. W. J. Hearty,- Chairman, 

National Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Council, 

99 Hudson Street, 

New York, New York, 

Wra. L. i,7agner, Secretary, 
Western Fi-uit Jobbers' Association 
1425 South Racine Street, 
Chicago, Illinois. 

L. J. Keach, former ChairraaJi, 
Code Authority, 
105 South Delaware: Street, 
Indiananolis, Indiana, 
8545 



-21- 

Horace E. Herr, Secretary, 

National League of Commission Merchants, 

512 P Street, IT. W. , 

Washington, D. C. 

George Lafbury, President 

National League of Coramission Merchants, 

Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Aubrey Milam, President, 
Green-Milam Company, 
Atlanta, Georgia. 

E. S. 3riggs, Ilanager, 

Aiisrican Fruit a.nd Vegetable Shippers' Association, 

1425 South Racine Street, 

Chi cago , 1 11 ino is. 

Robert "iT. Nix, Vice President, 
Jolin Nix and Company, 
New York, New York, 

John A. Martin, General Manager, 
Wesco Foods Company, 
1425 South Racine Street, 
Chicago, Illinois, 

R. G. Phillips, Secretary, 
International Apple Association, 
1108 Mercantile Building, 
Rochester, New York 

2. Government Officials; 

R. C. Butner, 

Senior Marketing Specialist, 
Special Crops Section, AAA., 
Washington, D. C. 

W. B. White, 

U. S. Food and Drug Administration, 
Department of Agriculture, 
Washington, D. C. 

porter Taylor, 

Special Crops Section, AAA, 

Washington, D. C. 

E. L. Markell, 

Special Crops Section, AAA, 

Washington, D. C. 

Charles H. Walleigh, 
Bureau of Agricultural Economics, 
Department of Agriculture, 
Washington, D. C. 



8545 



-23- 

W. A. Sherraan, Associate Chief, 
Biireau of Agricultioral Economics, 
Division of Fruits and Vegetables, 
U. S. Department of Agriculture, 
Washington, D. C. 

r. G. Eotb, Chief, 
Division of Fruits and Vegetables, 
Bureau of Agricultural Economics, 
U. S. Department of Agriculture, 
Washington, D. C. 



8545-4