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Full text of "The evolution of photography : with a chronological record of discoveries, inventions, etc., contributions to photographic literature, and personal reminiscences extending over forty years"









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PAPER, ASPHALTUM, &c. 



JOSEPH NICEPHORE NIEPCE. 
From a Painting by L. Berger. 




HENRY FOX TALBOT. 
Front a Calotype. 



SIR JOHN HERSCHEL, 
From a Daguerreotype 



THE EVOLUTION 



OP 



PHOTOGKAPHY. 

WITH A 

CHRONOLOGICAL RECORD 

OF 

rUSOOVBHIES, INVENTIONS, ETC., 

CONTRIBUTIONS TO PHOTOGRAPHIC LITERATURE, 

AND 

PERSONAL REMINISCENCES EXTENDING OVER FORTY YEARS. 

BY 



I LLU ST RATED. 



LONDON : 
PIPER & CARTER, 5, FURNIVAL STREET, HOLBORN, E.G. ; 

AND 

JOHN WERGE, 11a, BERNERS STREET, OXFORD STREET, W. 

1890. 

[All Rights Reserved.] 



Printed bt Piper & Carter, 5, Furnivai, Strket, Holbork, London, E.G. 



PREFACE. 



No previous history of photography, that I am aware 
of, has ever assumed the form of a reminiscence, nor 
have I met with a photographic work, of any description, 
tliat is so strictly built upon a chronological foundation 
as the one now placed in the hands of the reader. I 
therefore think, and trust, that it will prove to be an 
acceptable and readable addition to photographic 
literature. 

It was never intended that this volume should be a 
text-book, so I have not entered into elaborate descrip- 
tions of the manipulations of this or that process, but 
have endeavoured to make it a comprehensive and 
agreeable summary of all that has been done in the 
past, and yet convey a perfect knowledge of all the 
processes as they have appeared and effected radical 
changes in the practice of photography. 

The chronological record of discoveries, inventions, 
appliances, and publications connected with the art will, 
it is hoped, be received and considered as a useful and 
interesting table of reference ; while the reminiscences, 
extending over forty years of unbroken contact with 
every phase of photography, and some of its pioneers, 
will form a vital link between the long past and 
immediate present, which may awaken pleasing recol- 
lections in some, and give encouragement to others to 



IV. 



enter the field of experimentj and endeavour to continue 
the work of evolution. 

At page 10 it is stated, on the authority of the late 
Kobert Hunt, that some of Niepce's early pictures may 
be seen at the British Museum. That was so, but 
unfortunately it is not so now. On making application, 
very recently, to examine these pictures, I ascertained 
that they were never placed in the care of the curator 
of the British Museum, but were the private property 
of the late Dr. Robert Brown, who left them to his 
colleague, John Joseph Bennett, and that at the latter's 
death they passed into the possession of his widow. I 
wrote to the lady making enquiries about them, but have 
not been able to trace them further ; there are, however, 
two very interesting examples of Niepce's heliographs, 
and one photo-etched plate and print, lent by Mr. H. P. 
Robinson, on view at kSouth Kensington, in the Western 
Gallery of the Science Collection. 

For the portrait of Thomas We.dgwood, I am indebted 
to Mr. Godfrey WedgAvood ; for that of Joseph Nice- 
phore Niepce, to the Mayor of Chalons-sur-Soane ; for 
the Rev. J. B. Reade's, to Mr. Fox ; for Sir John 
Herschel's, to ^h: H. H. Cameron ; for John Frederick 
Goddard's, to Dr. .Jabez Hogg ; and for Frederick Scott 
Archer's, to Mr. Alfred Cade ; and to all those gentlemen 
I tender my most grateful acknowledgments. Also to 
the Autotype Company, for their care and attention in 
carrying out my wishes in the reproduction of all the 
illustrations by their beautiful Collotype Process. 

JOHN WERGE. 
London^ June^ 1890. 



CONTENTS. 



INTRODUCTION 1 

FIRST PERIOD. 
The Dark Ages 3 

SECOND PERIOD. 

PCBLICITY AND PROGBESS 27 

THIRD PERIOD. 
Collodion Triumphant 58 

FOURTH PERIOD. 
-Gelatinb Successful 95 

CHRONOLOGICAL RECORD. 
Inventions, Discoveries, etc 126 

CONTRIBUTIONS TO PHOTOGRAPHIC LITERATURE. ... 140 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Frontispiece 



27 
2? 
27 
58 
58 
95 
95 



PoRTBAiT OF Thomas Wedgwood. 
Portrait of Joseph Nicephore Niepce, 
Portrait of Rev. J. B. Reade. 
Portrait of Henry Fox Talbot. 
Portrait of Sir John Herschel. 
Portrait of L. J. M. Daguerre. 
Portrait of John Frederick Goddakd» 
Copt of Instantaneous Daguerreotype . 
Portrait of Frederick Scott Archer. 
Hever Castle, Kent. 
Portrait or Dr. R. L. Maddox. 
Portrait of Richard Kennett. 



INDEX. 



Archer, Frederick Scott, 58-69 
Argentic Gelatino-Bromide Paper, 

106 
Abney's Translation of Pizzighelli 

and Hubl's Booklet, 109 
A String of Old Beads, 309 

Bacon, Roger, 3 
Bennett, Charles, 102 
Boston, 51 

Bromine Accelerator, 29 
Bingham, Robert J., 87 
Burgess, J., 93 

Cabinet Portraits, 84 
Camera Obscura, 3 
Chronological Record, 126-139 
Convention of 1889, 122 
Claudet, A. F. J., 29, 86 
Chlorine Accelerator, 29 
Collodion Process (Archer's), 68 
Collodio- Chloride Printing Process, 
81 

Davy, Sir H., 9 
Daguerre, L. J. M., 9, 43 
Daguerreotype Process, 23, 24, 25 

Apparatus Imported, 29 

Diaphanotypes, 71 
Dolland, J., 4 
Donkin, W. F., 120 
Draper, Dr., 107 
Dublin Exhibition, 205-226 

Eburneum Process, 82 
Elliott iS; Fry, 96 
Eosine, &c., 109 

Errors in Pictorial Backgrounds, 
231 



First Photographic Portrait, 107 
Fizeau, M., 6, 28 
Flash-light Pictures, 118 

Gelatino-Bromide Experiments, 91 

Globe Lens, 78 

Goddard, John Frederick, 28, 79 

Harrison, W. H., 87 
Heliographic Process, 11, 12, 13 
Heliochromy, SS 
Herschel, Dr., 6 
Herschel, Sir John, 94 
Hillotypes, 71 
Hughes, Jabez, 55, 75 
Hunt, Robert, 117 

International Exhibitions, 42, 77, 
82, 111 

Johnson, J. R., 107 

Kennett, R., 96 

Lambert, Leon, 98 

Laroche, Sylvester, 116 

Lea, Carey, 101 

" Lux Graphicus " on the Wing, 

273-299 
Lights and Lighting, 311 

Maddox, Dr. R. L., 91 
Magic Photographs, 83 
Mawson, John, 85 
Mayall, J. E., 54 
Macbeth, Norman, 120 
Montreal, 51 
Morgan and Kidd, 106 



Vlll. 



Newton, Sir Isaac, 3 
New York, 48, 71 
Niagara, 60 

Niepce, J. Nicephore, 9, 11 
Niepce de St. Victor, 88 
Niagara, Pictures of, 140-158 
Notes on Pictures in National 
Gallery, 245 

Orthochromatic Plates, 115 

Panoramic Lens and Camera, 76 

Pistolgraph, 76 

Pensions to Daguerre and Niepce, 

33 
Philadelphia, 49 
Ponton, Mungo, 22, 103 
Poitevin, M., 85, 108 
Porta, Baptista G., 3 
Potash Bichromate, 22 
Pouncy Process, 78 
Pictures of the St. Lawrence, 158- 

169 
Pinhole Camera, 117 
Pizzighelli's Platinum Printing, 118 
Pictures of the Potomac, 183-19B 
Photography in the North, 226-231 
Perspective, 237-244 
Photography and the Immured 

Pompeiians, 303 

Rambles among Studios, 196-204 
Reade, Rev. J. B., 15-22, 90 
Rejlander, 0. G., 98 
Ritter, John Wm., 5 
Rumford, Count, 5 
Russell, Col., 117 

Sable Island, 47 
Salomon, Adam, 84 



Sawyer, J. R., 121 

Scheele, C. W., 4, 5 

Senebier, 5 

Simpson, George Wharton, 75, 103 

Soda Sulphite, 109 

Swan's Carbon Process, 80 

Stannotvpe, 107 

Sutton, Thomas, 100 

Spencer, J. A., 102 

Stereoscopic Pictures, 119 

Sharpness and Softness v. Hardness, 

249 
Simple Mode of Intensifying 

Negatives, 307 

Talbot, Henry Fox, 14, 101 

Talbot versus Laroche, 54 

Taylor, Professor Alfred Swaine, 

104 
The Hudson River, 169-183 
The Society's Exhibition, 260 
The Use of Clouds in Landscapes, 

265 
as Backgrounds in Portraiture, 

269 

Union of the North and South 
London Societies, 253 

Vogel, Dr. H. W., 109 

Washington, 49 

Wedgwood Controversy, 80 

Wedgwood, Thomas, 7, 8, 9 

Whipple Gallery, 52 

Wolcott Reflecting Camera, 28 

Wollaston's Diaphragmatic Shutter, 

116 
WoUaston, Dr., 6 
Woodbury Process, 82 
Wothlytype Printing Process, 81 



INTRODUCTION. 



Photogbai>ht, though young in. years, is sufficiently aged to be 
in danger of having much of its early history, its infantile 
gambols, and vigorous growth, obscured or lost sight of in the 
gKtter and reflection of the brilliant success which surrounds its 
maturity. Scarcely has the period of an average life psssed 
away since the labours of the successful experimentalists began ; 
yet, how few of the present generation of workers can lay their 
fingers on the dates of the birth, christening, and phases of the 
delightful vocation they pursue. Many know little or nothing 
of the long and weary travail the minds of the discoverers 
suffered before their ingenuity gave birth to the beautiful art- 
science by which they live. "\\'hat form the infant art assumed 
in the earlier stages of its life ; or when, where, and how, it 
passed from one phase to another until it arrived at its present 
state of mature and profitable perfection. Born with the art, as 
I may say, and having graduated in it, I could, if I felt so dis- 
posed, give an interesting, if not amusing, description of its rise 
and progress, and the many difficulties and disappointments 
that some of the early practitioners experienced at a time when 
photographic A B C's were not printed; its "principles and 
practice" anything but familiarly explained; and when the 
" dai'k-room " was as dark as the grave, and as poisonous as a 
chamel-house, and only occasionally illumined by the glare of 
a " bull's-eye." But it is not my intention to enter the domain 
of romance, and give highly coloured or extraTagant accounts of 



tlie growth of so beautiful and fascinating an art-science. 
Photography is sufficiently facetious in itself, and too versatile 
in its powers of delineation of scenes and character, to require 
any verboae effort of mine to make it attractive. A record of 
bare facts is all I aim at. Whatever is doubtful I shall leave 
to the imagination of the reader, or the invention of the romance 
writer. To arrange in chronological order the various discoveries, 
inventions, and improvements that have made photography what 
it is ; to do honour to those who have toiled and given, or sold, 
the fruits of their labour for the advancement of the art ; to set 
at rest, as far as dates can succeed in doing so, any questionable 
point or order of precedence of merit in invention, application, 
or modification of a process, and to enable the photographic 
student to make himself acquainted with the epochs of the art, 
is the extent of my ambition in compiling these records. 

With the hope of rendering this work readily referable and 
most comprehensive, I shall divide it into four periods. The first 
will deal broadly and briefly with such facts as can be ascer- 
tained that in any way bear on the accidental discovery, early 
researches, and ultimate success of the pioneers of photography. 

The second will embrace a fuller description of their successes 
and results. The third will be devoted to a consideration of 
patents and impediments ; and the fourth to the rise and deve- 
lopment of photographic literature and art. A strict chrono- 
logical arrangement of each period will be maintained, and it is 
lioped that the advantages to be derived from travelling some of 
the same ground over again in the various divisions of the sub- 
ject will fully compensate the reader, and be accepted as 
sufficient excuse for any unavoidable repetition that may appear 
in the work. With these few remarks I shall at once enter 
upon the task of placing before the reader in chronological order 
the origin, rise, progress, and development of the science and art 
of photography. 



FIRST PERIOD. 

THE DARK AGES. 



U^OBE than three hundred years have elapsed since the influence 
and actinism of light on chloride of silver was observed by 
the alchemists of the sixteenth century. This discovery was 
unquestionably the first thing that suggested to the minds of 
succeeding chemists and men of science the possibility of 
obtaining pictures of solid bodies on a plane surface previously 
coated with a silver salt by means of the sun's rays ; but the 
alchemists were too much absorbed in their vain endeavours to 
convert the base metals into royal ones to seize the hint, and 
they lost the opportunity of turning the silver compounds with 
which they were acquainted into the mine of wealth it 
eventually became in the nineteenth century. Curiously 
enough, a mechanical invention of the same period was after- 
wards employed, with a very trifling modification, for the 
production of the earliest sun-pictures. This was the camera- 
obscura invented by Eoger Bacon in 1297, and improved by 
a physician in Padua, Giovanni Baptista Porta, about 1500, 
and afterwards remodelled by Sir Isaac Newton. 

Two more centuries passed away before another step was 
taken towards the revelation of the marvellous fact that Nature 
possessed within herself the power to delineate her own 
T)eauties, and, as has recently been proved, that the sun could 



depict his own terrible majesty "with a rapidity and fidelity the 
hand of man could never attain. The second step towards this 
grand achievement of science was the construction of the double 
achromatic combination of lenses by J, DoUand. "With single 
combinations of lenses, such pictures as we see of ourselves 
to-day, and such portraits of the sun as the astronomers obtained 
during the late total eclipse, could never have been produced. 
J. Dolland, the eminent optician, was born in London 1706, 
and died 1762; and had he not made that important improve- 
ment in the construction of lenses, the eminent photographic 
opticians of the present day might have lived and died unknown 
to wealth and fame. 

The observations of the celebrated Swedish chemist, Scheele, 
formed the next interesting link between the simple and 
general blackening of a lump of chloride of silver, and 
the gradations of blackening which ultimately produced the 
photographic picture on a piece of paper possessing a prepared 
surface of nitrate of silver and chloride of sodium in combination. 
Scheele discovered in 1777 that the blackening of the silver 
compound was due to the reducing power of light, and that the 
black deposit was reduced silver ; and it is precisely the same 
effect of the action of light upon chloride of silver passing 
through the various densities of the negative that produces the 
beautiful photographic prints with which we are all familiar 
at the present time. Scheele was also the first to discover and 
make known the fact that chloride of silver was blackened or 
reduced to various depths by the varying action of the prismatic 
colours. He fixed a glass prism in a window, allowed the 
refracted sunbeams to fall on a piece of paper strewn with 
luna cornua — fused chloride of silver — and saw that the violet 
ray was more active than any of the other colours. Anyone, 
with a piece of sensitized paper and a prism, or piece of a 
broken lustre, can repeat and see for themselves Scheele's 
interesting discovery j and anyone that can draw a head or 



a flower may catcli a sunbeam in a small magnifying glass, and 
make a drawing on sensitized paper with a pencil, as long as the 
sun is distant from the earth. It is the old story of Columbus 
and the egg — easy to do when you are shown or told how. 

Charles William Scheele was born at Stralsund, Sweden, 
December 19tb, 1742, and died at Koeping, on lake Moeler, 
May 21st, 1786. He was the real father of photography, for 
he produced the first photographic picture on record without 
camera and without lens, with the same chemical compound 
and the same beautiful and wonderful combination of natural 
colours which we now employ. Little did he dream what was 
to follow. But photography, like everything else in this world, 
is a process of evolution. 

Senebier followed up Scheele's experiments with the solar 
spectrum, and ascertained that chloride of silver was darkened 
by the violet ray in fifteen minutes, while the red rays were 
sluggish, and required twenty minutes to produce the same 
result. 

John "Wm. Eitter, born at Samitz, in Selesia, corroborated 
the experiments of Scheele, and discovered that chloride of 
silver was blackened beyond the spectrum on the violet side. 
He died in 1810 ; but he had observed what is now called the 
fluorescent rays of the spectrum — invisible rays which un- 
questionably exert themselves in the interests and practice of 
photography. 

Many other experiments were made by other chemists and 
philosophers on the influence of light on various substances, but 
none of them had any direct bearing on the subject under 
consideration until Count Rumford, in 1798, communicated to 
the Royal Society his experiments with chloride of gold. 
Count Rumford wetted a piece of taffeta ribbon with a solution 
of chloride of gold, held it horizontally over the clear flame of 
a wax candle, and saw that the heat decomposed the gold 
solution, and stained the ribbon a beautiful purple. Though 



6 

no revived gold was visible, the ribbon appeared to be coated 
with a rich purple enamel, which showed a metallic lustre of 
great brilliancy when viewed in the sunlight ; but its photo- 
graphic value lay in the circumstance of the hint it. afterwards 
afforded M, Fizeau in applying a solution of chloride of gold, 
and, by means of heat, depositing a fine film of metallic gold on 
the surface of the Daguerreotype image, thereby increasing the 
brilliancy and permanency of that form of photographic picture. 
A modification of M. Fizeau's chloride of gold " fixing process " 
is still used to tone, and imparts a rich purple colour to photo- 
graphic prints on plain and albumenized papers. 

In 1800, Dr. Herschel's " Memoirs on the Heating Power of 
the Solar Spectrum " were published, and out of his observations 
on the various effects of difi'erently coloured darkening glasses 
arose the idea that the chemical properties of the prismatic 
colours, and coloured glass, might be as different as those which 
related to heat and light. His suspicions were ultimately 
verified, and hence the use of yellow or ruby glass in the windows 
of the "dark-room," as either of those coloured glasses admit 
the luminous ray and restrain the violet or active photographic 
ray, and allow all the operations that would otherwise have to 
be performed in the dark, to be seen and done in comfort, and 
without injury to the sensitive film. 

The researches of Dr. WoUaston, in 1802, had very little 
reference to photography beyond his examination of the chemical 
action of the rays of the spectrum, and his observation that the 
yellow stain of gum guaiacum was converted to a green colour 
in the violet rays, and that the red rays rapidly destroyed the 
green tint the violet rays had generated. 

1802 is, however, a memorable year in the dark ages of photo- 
graphy, and the disappointment of those enthusiastic and in- 
defatigable pursuers of the sunbeam must have been grievous 
indeed, when, after years of labour, they found the means of 
catching shadows as they fell, and discovered that they could 
not keep them. 



Thomas "Wedgwood, son of the celebrated potter, was not 
only the first that obtained photographic impressions of objects, 
but the first to make the attempt to obtain sun pictures in the true 
sense of the word. Scheele had obtained the first photographic 
picture of the solar spectrum, but it was by accident, and while 
pursuing other chemical experiments; whereas Wedgwood 
went to work avowedly to make the sunbeam his slave, to enlist 
the sun into the service of art, and to compel the sun to illus- 
trate art, and to depict nature more faithfully than art had ever 
imitated anything illumined by the sun before. How far he 
succeeded everyone should know, and no student of photography 
should ever tire of reading the first published account of his 
fascinating pastime or delightful vocation, if it were but to 
remind him of the treasures that surround him, and the value of 
hyposulphite of soda. What would Thomas Wedgwood not 
have given for a handful of that now common commodity? 
There is a mournfulness in the sentence relative to the evanes- 
cence of those sun pictures in the Memoir by Wedgwood and 
Davy that is peculiarly impressive and desponding contrasted 
with our present notions of instability. We know that sun 
pictures will, at the least, last for years, while they knew that 
at the most they would endure but for a few hours. The 
following extracts from the Memoir published in June, 1802, 
will, it is hoped, be found sufficiently interesting and in place 
here to justify their insertion. 

" White paper, or white leather moistened with solution of 
nitrate of silver, undergoes no change when kept in a dark 
place, but on being exposed to the daylight it speedily changes 
colour, and after passing through different shades of grey and 
brown becomes at length nearly black. ... In the direct 
beams of the sun, two or three minutes are sufficient to 
produce the full effect, in the shade several hours are required, 
and light transmitted through different coloured glasses acts 
upon it with different degrees of intensity. Thus it is found 



that red rays, or the common sunbeams passed through red 
glass, have very little action upon it ; yelloTr and green are 
more efficacious, but blue and violet light produce the most 

decided and powerful effects "When the shadow 

of any figure is thrown upon the prepared surface, the part 
concealed by it remains white, and the other parts speedily 
become dark. For copying paintings on glass, the solution 
should be applied on leather, and in this case it is more readily 
acted on than when paper is used. After the colour has been 
once fixed on the leather or paper, it cannot be removed by the 
application of water, or water and soap, and it is in a high 
degree permanent. The copy of a painting or the profile, 
immediately after being taken, must be kept in an obscure 
place ; it may indeed be examined in the shade, but in this case 
the exposure should be only for a few minutes ; by the light 
of candles or lamps as commonly employed it is not sensibly 
affected. 

No attempts that have been made to prevent the uncoloured 
parts of the copy -or profile from being acted upon by the light 
have as yet been successful. They have been covered by a 
thin coating of fine varnish, but this has not destroyed their 
susceptibility of becoming coloured, and even after repeated 
washings, sufficient of the active part of the saline matter will 
adhere to the white parts of leather or paper to cause them to 
become dark when exposed to the rays of the sun. . . . 

The images formed by means of a camera-obscura have been 
found to be too faint to produce, in any moderate time, an 
effect upon the nitrate of silver. To copy these images was 
the fijst object of Mr. "Wedgwood, in his researches on the 
subject, and for this purpose he first used the nitrate of sUver, 
which was mentioned to him by a friend, as a substance very 
sensible to the influence of light ; but all his numerous 
experiments as to their primary end proved unsuccessful." 

From the foregoing extracts from the first lecture on 



9 

photography that ever was delivered or published, it vrill be 
seen that those two eminent philosophers and exprimentalists 
despaired of obtaining pictures in the camera-obscura, and of 
rendering the pictures obtained by superposition, or cast 
shadows, in any degree permanent, and that they were utterly 
ignorant and destitute of any fixing agents. No wonder, then, 
that all further attempts to pursue these experiments should, 
for a time, be abandoned in England. Although Thomas 
"Wedgwood's discoveries were not published until 1802, 
he obtained his first results in 1791, and does not appear to 
have made any appreciable advance during the remainder of 
his life. He was born in 1771, and died in 1805. Sir 
Humphrey Davey was born at Penzance 1778, and died at 
Geneva in 1828, so that neither of them lived to see the 
realization of their hopes. 

From the time that "Wedgwood and Davy relinquished their 
investigation, the subject appears to have lain dormant until 
1814, when Joseph Nicephore Mepce, of Chalon-sur-Saone, 
lommcnced a series of experiments with various resins, with the 
object of securing or retaining in a permanent state the pictures 
produced in the camera-obscura, and in 1824, L. J. M. Daguerre 
turned his attention to the same subject. These two investi- 
gators appear to have carried on their experiments in different 
ways, and in total ignorance of the existence and pursuits of the 
other, until the year 1826, when they accidentally became 
acquainted with each other and the nature of their investigations. 
Their introduction and reciprocal admiration did not, however, 
induce them to exchange their ideas, or reveal the extent of 
their success in the researches on which they were occupied, 
and which both were pursuing so secretly and guardedly. They 
each preserved a marked reticence on the subject for a consider- 
able time, and it was not until a deed of partnership was 
■executed between them that they confided their hopes and 
fears, their failures with this substance, and their prospects of 



10 

success with that ; and eyen after the execution of the deed of 
partnership they seem to have jealously withheld as much of 
their knowledge as they decently could under the circumstances. 

Towards the close of 1827 M. Mepce visited England, and 
we receive the first intimation of his success in the production 
of light-drawn pictures from a note addressed to Mr. Bauer, of 
Kew. It is rather curious and flattering to find that the earliest 
intimation of the Frenchman's success is given in England. The 
note which M. Niepce wrote to Mr. Bauer is in French, but the 
following is a translation of the interesting announcement : — 
' ' Kew, 1 9th November, 1827. Sir,— When I left France to reside 
here, I was engaged in researches on the way to retain the image 
of objects by the action of light. I have obtained some results 
which make me eager to proceed . . . Nicephore Mepce." 
This is the first recorded announcement of his partial success. 

In the following December he communicated with the Royal 
Society of London, and showed several pictures on metal plates. 
Most of these pictures were specimens of his successful experi- 
ments with various resins, and the subjects were rendered visible 
to the extent which the light had assisted in hardening portions 
of the resin-covered plates. Some were etchings, and had been 
subjected to the action of acid after the design had been impressed 
by the action of light. Several of these specimens, I believe, are 
still extant, and may be seen on application to the proper official 
at the British Museum. M. IS'iepce named these results of his 
researches Heliography, and Mr. Bobert Hunt gives their 
number, and a description of each subject, in his work entitled, 
"Besearches on Light." M. Kiepce met with some disappoint- 
ment in England on account of the Boyal Society refusing to 
receive his communication as a secret, and he returned to France 
rather hurriedly. In a letter dated " Chalons-sur-Saone, 1st 
March, 1828," he says, "We arrived here 26th February"; 
and, in a letter written by Daguerre, February 3rd, 1828, we 
find that savant consoling his brother experimentalist for his- 
lack of encourasjement in England. 



11 

In December, 1829, the two Frencli investigators joined 
issue by executing a deed of co-partnery, in which, they agreed 
to prosecute their researches in future in mutual confidence and 
for their joint advantage ; but their interchange of thought and 
experience does not appear to have been of much value or advan- 
tage to the other ; for an examination of the correspondence 
between MM. iNiepce and Daguerre tends to show that the one 
somewhat annoyed the other by sticking to his resins, and the 
other one by recommending the use of iodine. M. Xiepce 
somewhat ungraciously expresses regret at having wasted so 
much time in experimenting with iodine at M. Daguerre's 
suggestion, but ultimate results fully justified Daguerre's 
recommendation, and proved that he was then on the right track, 
"while M. ^N^iepce's experiments with resins, asphaltum, and 
other substances terminated in nothing but tedious manipula- 
tions, lengthy exposures, and unsatisfactory results. To 
M. ^iepce, most unquestionably, is due the honour of having 
produced the first permanent sun pictures, for we have seen that 
those obtained by Wedgwood and Davy were as fleeting as a 
shadow, while those exhibited by M. Xiepce in 1827 are still 
in their original condition, and, imperfect as they are, they are 
likely to retain their permanency for ever. Their fault lay in 
neither possessing beauty nor commercial applicability. 

As M. Xiepce died at Chalons-sur-Saone in 183'i, and doesnot 
appear to have improved his process much, if any, after entering 
into partnersliip with M. Daguerre, and as I may not have occa- 
sion to allude to him or his researches again, I think this will 
be the most fitting place to give a brief description of his pro- 
cess, and his share in the labours of bringing up the wonderful 
baby of science, afterwards named Photography, to a safe and 
ineffaceable period of its existence. 

The Heliographic process of M, iN'iepce consists of a solution 
of asphaltum, bitumen of Judea, being spread on metal or glass 
plates, submitted to the action of light either by superposition 



12 

or in the camera, and the unaiFected parts dissolved away after- 
wards by means of a suitable solvent. But, in case any student 
of photography should like to produce one of the first form of 
permanent sun pictures, I shall give here the details of M. 
ISiepce's own modus operandi for preparing the solution of bitu- 
men and coating the plate : — 

' ' I about half fill a wine-glass with this pulverised bitumen ; 
I pour upon it, drop by drop, the essential oil of lavender until 
the bitumen is completely saturated. I afterwards add as much 
more of the essential oil as causes the whole to stand about 
three lines above the mixture, which is then covered and sub- 
mitted to a gentle heat until the essential oil is fully impreg- 
nated with the colouring matter of the bitumen. If this varnish 
is not of the required consistency, it is to be allowed to evapo- 
rate slowly, without heat, in a shallow dish, care being taken 
to protect it from moisture, by which it is injured and at last 
decomposed. In winter, or in rainy weather, the precaution is 
doubly necessary. A tablet of plated silver, or well cleaned 
and warm glass, is to be highly polished, on which a thin 
coating of the varnish is to be applied cold, with a light roll of 
very soft skin ; this will impart to it a fine vermilion colour, 
and cover it with a very thin and equal coating. The plate is 
then placed upon heated iron, which is wrapped round with 
several folds of paper, from which, by this method, all moisture 
had been previously expelled. When the varnish has ceased to 
simmer, the plate is withdrawn from the heat, and- left to cool 
and dry in a gentle temperature, and protected from a damp 
atmosphere. In this part of tlie operation a light disc of metal, 
with a handle in the centre, should be held before the mouth, 
in order to condense the moisture of the breath." 

In the foregoing description it will be observed how much 
importance M. Niepce attached to the necessity of protecting 
the solution and prepared plate from moisture, and that no 
precautions are given concerning the effect of white light. It 



13 

must be remembered, however, that the material employed was 
very insensitive, requiring many hours of exposure either in 
the camera or under a print or drawing placed in contact with 
the prepared surface, and consequently such precaution might 
not have been deemed necessary. Probably M. Niepce worked 
in a subdued light, but there can be no doubt about the neces- 
sity of conducting both the foregoing operations in yellow light. 
Had M. Niepce pei-formed his operations in a non-actinic light, 
the plates would certainly have been more sensitive, and the 
unacted-on parts would have been more soluble ; thus rendering 
both the time of exposure and development more rapid. 

After the plate was prepared and dried, it was exposed in the 
camera, or by superposition, under a print, or other suitable 
subject, that would lie flat. For the latter, an exposure of 
two or three hours in bright sunshine was necessary, and the 
former required six or eight hours in a strong light. Even 
those prolonged exposures did not produce a visible image, and 
the resultant picture was not revealed to view until after a tedi- 
ous process of dissolving, for it could scarcely be called develop- 
ment. M. Mepce himself says, " The next operation then is to 
disengage the shrouded imagery, and this is accomplished by a 
solvent." The solvent consisted of one measure of the essential 
oil of lavender and ten of oil of white petroleum or benzole. On 
removing the tablet from the camera or other object, it was 
plunged into a bath of the above solvent, and left there until the 
parts not hardened by light were dissolved. "When the picture 
was fully revealed, it was placed at an angle to drain, and 
finished by washing it in water. 

Except for the purpose of after-etching, M. Niepce's process 
was of little commercial value then, but it has since been of 
some service in the practice of photo-lithography. That, I think, 
is the fullest extent of the commercial or artistic advantages 
derived from the utmost success of M, Niepce's discoveries ; 
but what he considered his failures, the fact that he employed 



14 

copper plates coated witli silver for his heliograpliic tablets, and 
endeavoured to darken the clean or clear parts of the silvered plates 
with the fumes of iodine for the sake of contrast only, may be 
safely accepted as the foundation of Daguerre's ultimate success 
in discovering the extremely beautiful and workable process 
known as the Daguerreotype. 

M. Niepce appears to have done very little more towards 
perfecting the heliographic process after joining Daguerre ; but 
the latter effected some improvements, and substituted for the 
bitumen of Judea the residuum obtained by evaporating the 
essential oil of lavender, without, however, attaining any 
important advance in that direction. After the death of M. 
Nicephore Niepce, a new agreement was entered into by his son, 
M. Isidore Niepce, and M. Daguerre, and we must leave those 
two experimentalists pursuing their discoveries in France while 
we return to England to pick up the chronological links that 
unite the history of this wonderful discovery with the time that 
it was abandoned by Wedgwood and Davy, and the period of 
its startling and brilliant realisation. 

In 1834, Mr. Henry Fox Talbot, of Lacock Abbey, Wilts, 
" began to put in practice," as he informs us in his memoir read 
before the Royal Society, a method which he "had devised 
some time previously, for employing to purposes of utility the 
very curious property which has been long known to chemists 
to be possessed by the nitrate of silver — namely, to discolouration 
wlien exposed to the violet rays of light." The statement just 
quoted places us at once on the debateable ground of our subject, 
and compels us to pause and consider to what extent photo- 
graphy is indebted to Mr. Talbot for its further development at 
this period and five years subsequently. In the first place, it 
is not to be supposed for a moment that a man of Mr. Talbot's 
position and education could possibly be ignorant of what had 
been done by Mr. Thomas Wedgwood and Sir Humphrey Davy. 
Their experiments were published in the Journal of the Royal 



15 

Institution of Great Britain in June, 1802, and Mr. Talbot or 
some of his friends could not have failed to have seen or heard 
of those published details ; and, in the second place, a comparisoD 
between the last records of "Wedgwood and Davy's experiments, 
and the first published details of Mr. Talbot's process, shows not 
only that the two processes are identically the same, but that 
Mr, Talbot published his process before he had made a single 
step in advance of Wedgwood and Davy's discoveries ; and that 
his fixing solution was not a fixer at all, but simply a retardant 
that delayed the gradual disappearance of the picture only a 
short time longer. Mr. Talbot has generally been credited with, 
the honour of producing the first permanent sun-pictures on 
paper ; but there are grave reasons for doubting the justice of 
that honour being entirely, if at all, due to him, and the 
following facts and extracts will probably tend to set that 
question at rest, and transfer the laurel to another brow. 

To the late Rev. J. B. Reade is incontestably due the honour 
of having first applied tannin as an accelerator, and hyposulphite 
of soda as a fixing agent, to the production and retention of 
light-produced pictures ; and having first obtained an inefface- 
able photograph upon paper. Mr. Talbot's gallate of silver 
process was not patented or published till 1841 ; whereas the 
Rev. J. B. Reade produced paper negatives by means of gallic 
acid and nitrate of silver in 1837. It will be remembered that 
Mr. Wedgwood had discovered and stated that the chloride of 
silver was more sensitive when applied to white leather, and 
Mr. Reade, by inductive reasoning, came to the conclusion that 
tanned paper and silver would be more sensitive to light than 
ordinary paper coated with nitrate of silver could possibly be. 
As the reverend philosopher's ideas on that subject are probably 
the first that ever impregnated the mind of man, and as his 
experiments and observations are the very earliest in the pursuit 
of a gallic acid accelerator and developer, I will give them in his 
own words: — ''No one can dispute my claim to be the first to 



16 

suggest the use of gallic acid as a sensitizer for prepared paper, 
and hyposulphite of soda as a fixer. These are the keystones 
of the arch at which Davy and Young had laboured— or, as I 
may say in the language of another science, we may vary the 
tones as we please, but here is the fundamental base. My use 
of gallate of silver was the result of an inference from "Wedg- 
wood's experiments with leather, ' which is more readily acted 
upon than paper ' {Journal of the Royal Institution, vol. i., 
p. 171). Mrs. B-eade was so good as to give me a pair of light- 
coloured leather gloves, that I might repeat Wedgwood's 
experiment, and, as my friend Mr. Ackerman reminds me, her 
little objection to let me have a second pair led me to say, 
' Then I will tan paper.' Accordingly I used an infusion of galls 
in the first instance in the early part of the year 1837, when I 
was engaged in taking photographs of microscopic objects. By 
a new arrangement of lenses in the solar microscope, I produced 
a convergence of the rays of light, while the rays of heat, owing 
to their different refractions, were parallel or divergent. This 
fortunate dispersion of the calorific rays enabled me to use 
objects mounted in balsam, as well as cemented achromatic 
object glasses; and, indeed, such was the coolness of the 
illumination, that even infusoria in single drops of water were 
perfectly happy and playful {vide abstracts of the ' Philosophical 
Transactions,' December 22nd, 1836). The continued expense 
of an artist — though, at first, I employed my friend. Lens 
Aldons — to copy the pictures on the screen was out of the 
question. I therefore fell back, but without any sanguine 
expectations as to the result, upon the photographic process 
adopted by "Wedgwood, with which I happened to be well 
acquainted. I was a weary while, however, before any satis- 
factory impression was made, either on chloride or nitrate paper. 
I succeeded better with the leather ; but my fortunate inability 
to replenish the little stock of this latter article induced me to 
apply the tannin solution to paper, and thus I was at once 



17 

placed, by a very decided step, in advance of earlier experi- 
menters, and I had the pleasure of succeeding where Talbot 
acknowledges that he failed. 

" Naturally enough, the solution which I used at first was 
too strong, but, if you have ever been in what I may call the 
agony of a find, you can conceive my sensations on witnessing the 
unwilling paper become in a few seconds almost as black 
as my hat. There was just a passing glimpse of outline, ' and 
in a moment all was dark.' It was evident, however, that I 
was in possession of all, and more than all, I wanted, and that 
the dilution of so powerful an accelerator would probably give 
successful results. The large amount of dilution greatly sur- 
prised me ; and, indeed, before I obtained a satisfactory picture, 
the quantity of gallic acid in the infusion must have been 
quite homoeopathic ; but this is in exact accordance with modern 
I)ractice and known laws. In reference to this point, Sir John 
Herschel, writing from Slough, in April, 1840, says to Mr. 
Eedman, then of Peckham (where I had resided), * I am surprised 
at the weak solution employed, and how, with such, you have 
been able to get a depth of shadow sufficient for so very sharp a 
re-transfer is to me marvellous.' I may speak of Mr. Redmond 
as a photographic pupil of mine, and at my request, he communi- 
cated the process to Sir John, which, * on account of the 
extreme clearness and sharpness of the results,' to use Sir John's 
words, much interested him. 

*'Dr. Diamond also, whose labours are universally appre- 
ciated, first saw my early attempts at Peckham in 1837, and 
heard of my use of gallate of silver, and was thus led to adopt 
what Admiral Smyth then called ' a quick mode of taking bad 
pictures ' ; but, as I told the Admiral in reply, he was born a 
haby. "Whether our philosophical baby is ' out of its teens ' 
may be a question ; at all events, it is a very fine child, and 
handles the pencil of nature with consummate skill. 

*'£ut of all the persons who heard of my new accelerator, it is 

c 



18 

most important to state that my old and valued friend, the late 
AndrewRoss, told Mr. Talbot how first of all, bymeans of the solar 
microscope, I threw the image of the object on prepared paper, 
and then, while the paper was yet wet, washed it over with the 
infusion of galls, when a sufficiently dense negative was quickly 
obtained. In the celebrated trial, " Talbot t;5?-SMsLaroche," Mr. 
Talbot, in his cross-examination, and in an almost breathless court, 
acknowledged that he had received this information from Ross, 
and from that moment it became the unavoidable impression that 
he was scarcely justified in taking out a patent for applying my 
accelerator to any known photogenic paper. 

" The three known papers were those impregnated with the 
nitrate, chloride, and the iodide of silver — the two former used 
by "Wedgwood and Young, and the latter by Davy. It is true 
that Talbot says of the iodide of silver that it is quite insensitive 
to light, and so it is as he makes it ; but when he reduces it to 
the condition described by Davy — viz., affected by the presence 
of a little free nitrate of silver — then he must acknowledge, with 
Davy, that * it is far more sensitive to the action of light than 
either the nitrate or the muriate, and is evidently a distinct 
compound.' In this state, also, the infusion of galls or gallic 
acid is, as we all know, most decided and instantaneous, and so 
I found it to be in my early experiments. Of course I tried the 
effects of my accelerator on many salts of silver, but especially 
upon the iodide, in consequence of my knowledge of Davy's 
papers on iodine in the 'Philosophical Transactions.T li se 
I had previously studied, in conjunction with my chemical 
friend, Mr, Hodgson, then of Apothecaries' Hall. I did not, 
however, use iodised paper, which is well described by Talbot in 
the Philosophical Magazine iov "M-arch, 1838, as a subsiitute for 
other sensitive papers, but only as one among many experiments 
alluded to in my letter to Mr. Brayley. 

" My pictures were exhibited at the Royal Society, and also at 
Lord Northampton's, at his lordship's request, in April, 1839, 



19 

■when Mr. Talbot also exhibited his. In my letter to Mr. 
Brayley, I did not describe iodised pictures, and, therefore, it 
was held that exhibition in the absence of description left the 
process legally unknown. Mr. Talbot consequently felt justified 
in taking out a patent for uniting my known accelerator with 
Davy's hioivn sensitive silver compound, adopting my method 
(already communicated to him) with reference to "Wedgwood's 
papers, and adding specific improvements in manipulation. 
Whatever varied opinion may consequently be formed as to the 
defence of the patent in court, there can be but one as to the 
skill of the patentee. 

"It is obvious that, in the process so conducted by me with 
the solar microscope, I was virtually w/f^m my camera, standing 
between the object and the prepared paper. Hence the exciting 
and developing processes were conducted under one operation 
(subsequently patented by Talbot), and the fact of a latent image 
being brought out was not forced upon my attention. I did, 
however, perceive this phenomenon upon one occasion, after I 
had been suddenly called away, when taking an impression of the 
Trientalis Europcea^oMdi surprised enough I was, and stood in 
astonishment to look at it. But with all this, I was only, as 
the judge said, " vertj hoty I did not realise the master fact 
that the latent image which had been developed was the basis 
of photographic manipulation. The merit of this discovery is 
Talbot's, and his only, and I honour him greatly for his skill 
and earlier discernment. I was, indeed, myself fully aware 
that the image darkened under the influence of my sensitiser, 
while I placed my hand before the lens of the instrument to 
stop out the light ; and my solar mezzotint, as I then termed 
it, was, in fact, brought out and perfected under my own eye 
by the agency of gallic acid in the infusion, rather than by 
the influence of direct solar action. But the notion of develop- 
ing a latent image in these microscopic photographs never 
crossed my mind, even after I had witnessed such development 



20 

in the Trientalis Europoea. My original notion \ras that the 
infusion of galls, added to the wet chloride or nitrate paper 
■while the picture was thrown upon it, produced only a new and 
highly sensitive compound ; whereas, by its peculiar and con- 
tinuous action after the first impact of light on the now sensi- 
tive paper, I was also, as Talbot has shown, employing its pro- 
perty of development as well as excitement. My ignorance of 
its properties was no bar to its action. However, I threw the 
lall, and Talbot caught it, and no man can be more willing than 
myself to acknowledge our obligations to this distinguished 
photographer. He compelled the world to listen to him, and 
he had something worth hearing to communicate ; and it is a 
sufficient return to me that he publicly acknowledged his obli- 
gation to me, with reference to what Sir David Brewster calls 
* an essential part of his patent ' {^vide Eorth British, Review f 
Iso. 14 article — 'Photography'). 

" Talbot did not patent my valuable fixer. Here I had the 
advantage of having published my use of hyposulphite of soda, 
which Mr. Hodgson made for me in 1837, when London did 
not contain an ounce of it for sale. The early operators had no 
fixer ; that was their fix ; and, so far as any record exists, they 
got no further in this direction than * imagining some experi- 
ments on the subject ! ' I tried ammonia, but it acted too 
energetically on the picture itself to be available for the pur- 
pose. It led me, however, to the ammonia nitrate process of 
printing positives, a description of which process (though 
patented by Talbot in 1843) I sent to a photographic brother in 
1839, and a quotation from my letter of that date has already 
appeared in one of my communications to Notes and Queries. 
On examining Brande's Chemistry, under the hope of still find- 
ing the desired solvent which should have a greater affinity for 
the simple silver compound on the uncoloured part of the pic- 
ture than for the portion blackened by light, I happened to see 
it stated, on Sir John Herschel's authority, that hyposulphite 



21 

of soda dissolves chloride of silver. I need not now say that 
I used this fixer with success. The world, however, would not 
have been long without it, for, when Sir John himself became 
a photographer in the following year, he first of all used hypo- 
sulphite of ammonia, and then permanently fell back upon the 
properties of his other compound. Two of my solar microscope 
negatives, taken in 1837, and exhibited with several others by 
Mr. Bray ley in 1839 as illustrations of my letter and of his 
lecture at the London Institution, are now in the possession of 
the London Photographic Society. They are, no doubt, the 
earliest examples of the agency of two chemical compounds 
which will be co-existent with photography itself, viz., gallate 
of silver and hyposulphite of soda, and my use of them, as above 
described, will sanction my claim to be the first to take paper 
pictures rapidly, and to fix them permanently. 

" Such is a short account of my contribution to this interest- 
ing branch of science, and, in the pleasure of the discovery, I 
have a sufiicient reward." 

These lengthy extracts from the Rev. Mr. Eeade's published 
letter render further comment all but superfluous, but I cannot 
resist taking advantage of the opportunity here afforded of 
pointing out to all lovers of photography and natural justice 
that the progress of the discovery has advanced to a far greater 
extent by Mr. Eeade's reasoning and experiments than it was 
by Mr. Talbot's ingenuity. The latter, as Mr. Reade observes, 
only " caught the ball " and threw it into the Patent Office, 
with some improvements in the manipulations. Mr. Reade 
generously ascribes all honour and glory to Mr. Talbot for his 
shrewdness in seizing what he had overlooked, viz., the develop- 
ment of the latent image ; but there is a quiet current of rebuke 
running all through Mr. Reade' s letter about the justice of patent- 
ing a known sensitizer and a known accelerator, which he alone 
had combined and applied to the successful production of a negative 
on paper. Mr. Talbot's patent process was nothing more, yet he 



22 

endeavoured to secure a monopoly of what was in substance the 
discovery and invention of another. Mr. Talbot was either very 
precipitate, or i]l -advised, to rush to the Patent Office with 
his modification, and even at this distant date it is much to 
be regretted that he did so, for his rash act has, unhappily 
for photography, proved a pernicious precedent. Mr. Eeade 
gave his discoveries to the world freely, and the "pleasure 
of the discovery" was "a sufficient reward." All honour to 
such discoverers. They, and they only, are the true lovers 
of science and art, who take up the torch where another laid 
it down, or lost it, and carry it forward another stage 
towards perfection, without sullying its brightness or dimming 
the flame with sordid motives. 

.The llev. J. B. Eeade lived to see the process he discovered 
and watched over in its embryo state, developed with wondrous 
rapidity into one of the most extensively applied arts of this 
marvellous age, and died, regretted and esteemed by all who 
knew him, December 12th, 1870. Photographers, your 
occupations are his monument, but let his name be a tablet on 
your hearts, and his unselfishness your emulation ! 

The year 1838 gave birth to another photographic discovery, 
little thought of and of small promise at the time, but out of 
which have flowed all the various modifications of solar and 
mechanical carbon printing. This was the discovery of Mr. 
Mungo Ponton, who first observed and announced the effects of 
the sun's rays upon bichromate of potash. But that gentleman 
was unwise in his generation, and did not patent his discovery, 
so a whole host of patent locusts fell upon the field of research in 
after years, and quickly seized the manna he had left, to spread on 
their own bread. Mr. Mungo Ponton spread a solution of bichrom- 
ate of potash upon paper, submitted it under a suitable object 
to the sun's rays, and told all the world, without charge, that the 
light hardened the bichromate to the extent of its action, and that 
the unacted-upon portions could be dissolved away, leaving the 



23 

object white upon a yellow or orange ground. Other experi- 
menters played variations on Mr. Ponton's bichromate scale, 
and amongst the performers were M. E. Becquerel, of France, and 
our own distinguished countryman, JMr. Robert Hunt. 

During the years that elapsed between the death of M. Niepce 
and the period to which I have brought these records, little was 
heard or known of the researches of M. Daguerre, but he was 
not idle, nor had he abandoned his iodine ideas. He steadily 
pursued his subject, and worked with a continuity that gained 
him the unenviable reputation of a lunatic. His persistency 
created doubts of his sanity, but he toiled on solus, confident 
that he was not in pursuit of an impossibility, and sanguine of 
success. That success came, hastened by lucky chance, and 
early in January, 1839, M. Daguerre announced the interesting 
and important fact that the problem was solved. Pictures in 
the camera-obscura could be, not only seen, but caught and 
retained. M. Daguerre had laboured, sought, and found, and 
the bare announcement of his wonderful discovery electrified 
the world of science. 

The electric telegraph could not then flash the fascinating 
intelligence from Paris to London, but the news travelled fast, 
nevertheless, and the unexpected report of M. Daguerre's 
triumph hurried Mr. Talbot forward with a similar statement 
of success. Mr. Talbot declared his triumph on the 31st of 
January, 1839, and published in the following month the details 
of a process which was little, if any, in advance of that already 
known. 

Daguerre delayed the publication of his process until a pen- 
sion of six thousand francs per annum had been secured to him- 
self, and four thousand francs per annum to M. Isidore Niepce 
for life, with a reversion of one half to their widows. In the 
midst of political and social struggles France was proud of the 
glory of such a marvellous discovery, and liberally rewarded 
her fortunate sons of science with honourable distinction and 



2i 

substantial emolument. She was proud and generous to a 
chivalrous extent, for she pensioned her sons that she might 
have the " glory of endowing the world of science and of art with 
one of the most surprising discoveries " that had been made on 
her soil ; and, because she considered that '' the invention did 
not admit of being secured by patent ;" but avarice and cupidity 
frustrated her noble and generous intentions in this country, 
and England alone was harassed with inj unctions and prosecu- 
tions, while all the rest of the world participated in the pleasure 
and profits of the noble gift of France. 

In July, 1839, M. Daguerre divulged his secret at the request 
and expense of the French Government, and the process which 
bore his name was found to be totally different, both in manipula- 
tion and effect, from any sun pictures that had been obtained in 
England. The Daguerreotype was a latent image produced by 
light on an iodised silver plate, and developed, or made visible, 
by the fumes of mercury ; but the resultant picture was one 
of the most shimmering and vapoury imaginable, wanting in 
solidity, colour, and firmness. In fact, photography as intro- 
duced by M. Daguerre was in every sense a wonderfully 
shadowy and all but invisible thing, and not many removes from 
the dark ages of its creation. The process was extremely 
delicate and difficult, slow and tedious to manipulate, and too 
insensitive to be applied to portraiture with any prospect of 
success, from fifteen to twenty minutes' exposure in bright 
sunshine being necessary to obtain a picture. The mode of pro- 
ceeding was as follows : — A copper plate with a coating of silver 
was carefully cleaned and polished on the silvered side, that was 
placed, silver side downwards, over a vessel containing iodine 
in crystals, until the silvered surface assumed a golden-yellow 
colour. The plate was then transferred to the camera-obscura, 
and submitted to the action of light. After the plate had 
received the requisite amount of exposure, it was placed over a 
box containing mercury, the fumes of which, on the application 



25 

of a gentle heat, developed the latent image. The picture was 
then washed in salt and water, or a solution of hyposulphite of 
soda, to remove the iodide of silver, washed in clean water 
afterwards, and dried, and the Daguerreotype was finished 
according to Daguerre's first published process. 

The development of the latent image by mercury subliming 
was the most marvellous and unlooked for part of the process, 
and it was for that all-important thing that Daguerre was 
entirely indebted to chance. Having put one of his apparently 
useless iodized and exposed silver plates into a cupboard con- 
taining a pot of mercury, Daguerre was greatly surprised, on 
visiting the cupboard some time afterwards, to find the blank 
looking plate converted into a visible picture. Other plates 
were iodized and exposed and placed in the cupboard, and the 
same mysterious process of development was repeated, and it 
was not until this thing and the other thing had been removed 
and replaced over and over again, that Daguerre became aware 
that quicksilver, an article that had been used for making 
mirrors and refiecting images for years, was the developer of the 
invisible image. It was indeed a most marvellous and unex- 
pected result. Daguerre had devoted years of labour and made 
numberless experiments to obtain a transcript of nature drawn 
by her own hand, but all his studied efforts and weary 
hours of labour had only resulted in repeated failures and 
disappointments, and it appeared that Nature herself had 
grown weary of his bungling, and resolved to show him the 
way. 

The realization of his hopes was more accidental than infer- 
ential. The compounds with which he worked, neither produced 
a visible nor a latent image capable of being developed with 
any of the chemicals with which he was experimenting. At 
last accident rendered him more service than reasoning, and 
occult properties produced the effect his mental and inductive 
faculties failed to accomplish ; and here we observe the great 



26 

difference between the two successful discoverers, Eeade and 
Daguerre. At this stage of the discovery I ignore Talbot's 
claim in toto. Reade arrived at his results by reasoning, experi- 
ment, observation, and judiciously weakening and controlling 
the re-agent he commenced his researches with. He had the 
infinite pleasure and disappointment of seeing his first picture 
flash into existence, and dissappear again almost instantly, but 
in that instant he saw the cause of his success and failure, 
and his inductive reasoning reduced his failure to success ; 
whereas Daguerre found his result, was puzzled, and utterly 
at a loss to account for it, and it was only by a process of blind- 
man's buff in his chemical cupboard that he laid his hands on 
the precious pot of mercury that produced the visible image. 

That was a discovery, it is true ; but a bungling one, at best. 
Daguerre only worked intelligently with one-half of the elements 
of success ; the other was thrust in his way, and the most 
essential part of his achievement was a triumphant accident. 
Daguerre did half the work — or, rather, one-third — light did 
the second part, and chance performed the rest, so that Daguerre's 
share of the honour was only one-third. Eeade did two-third» 
of the process, the first and third, intelligently ; therefore to 
him alone is due the honour of discovering practical photo- 
graphy. His was a successful application of known properties, 
equal to an invention ; Daguerre's was an accidental result 
arising from unknown causes and effects, and consequently a 
discovery of the lowest order. To England, then, and not to 
France, is the world indebted for the discovery of photography, 
and in the order of its earliest, greatest, and most successful 
discoverers and advancers, I place the Eev. J. B. Reade first 
and highest. 



SECOND PERIOD. 



DAGUERREOTYPE. 





L. J, M. DAGUERRE. 
Used Iodine, 'Sjg. 



JOHN FREDERICK GODDARD 
Applied Bromine, 1S40. 




NEW YORK. 
Copy of Instantaneous Daguert-eotype, 18^4. 



SECOND PERIOD, 

PUBLICITY AND PROGRESS. 



1839 has generally been accepted as the year of the birth of 
Practical Photography, but that may now be considered an 
error. It was, however, the Year of Publicity, and the pro- 
gress that followed with such marvellous rapidity may be freely 
received as an adversely eloquent comment on the principles of 
secresy and restriction, in any art or science, like photography, 
"which requires the varied suggestions of numerous minds and 
many years of experiment in different directions before it can 
be brought to a state of workable certainty and artistic and 
commercial applicability. Had Eeade concealed his success 
and the nature of his accelerator, Talbot might have been 
bungling on with modifications of the experiments of Wedg- 
wood and Davy to this day ; and had Daguerre not sold the 
secret of his iodine vapour as a sensitiser, and his accidentally 
discovered property of mercury as a developer, he might never 
have got beyond the vapoury images he produced. As it was, 
Daguerre did little or nothing to improve his process and make 
it yield the extremely vigorous and beautiful results it did in 
after years. As in Mr. Reade's case with the Calotype process, 
Daguerre threw the ball and others caught it. Daguerre's 
advertised improvements of his process were lamentable failures 
and roundabout ways to obtain sensitive amalgams — exceedingly 



28 

ingenious, but excessively bungling and impractical. To make 
the plates more sensitive to light, and, as Daguerrc said, obtain, 
pictures of objects in motion and animated scenes, he suggested 
that the silver plate should first be cleaned and polished in the 
usual way, then to deposit successively layers of mercury, and 
gold, and platinum. But the process was so tedious, unwork- 
able, and unsatisfactory, no one ever attempted to employ it 
either commercially or scientifically. In publishing his first 
process, with its working details, Daguerre appears to have 
surrendered all that he knew, and to have been incapable of 
carrying his discovery to a higher degree of advancement. 
"Without Mr. Goddard's bromine accelerator and M. Fizeau's 
chloride of gold fixer and invigorator, the Daguerreotype would 
never have been either a commercial success or a permanent 
production. 

1840 was almost as important a period in the annals of pho- 
tography as the year of its enunciation, and to the two valuable 
improvements and one interesting importation, the Daguerreo- 
type process was indebted for its success all over the world ; 
and photography, even as it is practised now, is probably 
indebted for its present state of advancement to Mr. John 
Frederick Goddard, who applied bromine, as an accelerator, to 
the Daguerreotype process this year. In the early part of the 
Daguerreotype period it was so insensitive there was very little 
prospect of being able to take portraits with it through a lens. 
To" meet this difficulty Mr. Wolcott, an American optician, con- 
structed a reflecting camera and brought it to London. It was 
an ingenious contrivance, but did not fully answer the expecta- 
tions of the inventor. It certainly did not require such a long 
exposure with this camera as when the rays from the image or 
sitter passed through a lens ; but, as the sensitised plate was 
placed between the sitter and the reflector, the picture was neces- 
sarily small, and neither very sharp nor satisfactory. This was 
a mechanical contrivance to shorten the time of exposure, which 



29 

partially succeeded, but it was chemistry, and not mechanics,- 
that effected the desirable result. Both Mr. Goddard and M. 
Antoine F. J. Claudet, of London, employed chlorine as a means 
of increasing the sensitiveness of the iodised silver plate, but it 
was not sufficiently accelerative to meet the requirements of 
the Daguerreotype process. Subsequently Mr. Goddard dis- 
covered that the vapour of bromine, added to that of iodine, 
imparted an extraordinary degree of sensitiveness to the pre- 
pared plate, and reduced the time of sitting from minutes to 
seconds. The addition of the fumes of bromine to those of 
iodine formed a compound of bromo-iodide of silver on the sur- 
face of the Daguerreotype plate, and not only increased the 
sensitiveness, but added to the strength and beauty of the 
resulting picture, and M. Fizeau's method of precipitating a 
film of gold over the whole surface of the plate still further 
increased the brilliancy of the picture and ensured its perma- 
nency. I have many Daguerreotypes in my possession now 
that were made over forty years ago, and they are as brilliant 
and perfect as they were on the day they were taken. I fear 
no one can say the same for any of Fox Talbot's early prints, or 
even more recent examples of silver printing. 

Another important event of this year was the importation of 
the first photographic lens, camera, &c., into England. These 
articles were brought from Paris by Sir Hussey Yivian, present 
M.P. for Glamorganshire (1889). It was the first lot of such 
articles that the Custom House officers had seen, and they were 
at a loss to know how to classify it. Finally they passed it 
under the general head of Optical Instruments. Sir Hussey 
told me this, himself, several years before he was made a 
baronet. AYhat changes fifty years have wrought even in the 
duties of Custom House officers, for the imports and exports of 
photographic apparatus and materials must now amount to 
many thousands per annum ! 

Having described the conditions and state of progress photo- 



30 

graphy had attained at the time of my first contact with it, I 
think I may now enter into greater details, and relate my own 
personal experiences from this period right up to the end of its 
jubilee celebration. 

I was just fourteen years old when photography was made 
practicable by the publication of the two processes, one by 
Daguerre, and the other by Fox Talbot, and when I heard or 
read of the wonderful discovery I was fired with a desire to 
obtain a sight of these " sun pictures," but the fire was kept 
smouldering for some time before my desire was gratified. 
I^othing travelled very fast in those days. Eailroads had not 
long been started, and were not very extensively developed. 
Telegraphy, by electricity, was almost unknown, and I was a 
fixture, having just been apprenticed to an engraving firm 
hundreds of miles from London. But at last I caught sight 
of one of those marvellous drawings made by the sun in the 
window of the Post Ofiice of my native town. It was a 
small Daguerreotype which had been sent there along with a 
notice that a licence to practise the "art " could be obtained of 
the patentee. I forget now what amount the patentee demanded 
for a licence, but I know that at the time referred to it was so 
far beyond my means and hopes that I never entertained the 
idea of becoming a licencee. I believe some one in the neigh- 
bourhood bought a licence, but either could not or did not make 
use of it commercially. 

Some time after that, a Miss "Wigley, from London, came to 
the town to practise Daguerreotyping, but she did not remain 
long, and could not, I think, have made a profitable visit. If 
so, it could scarcely be wondered at, for the sun pictures of that 
period were such thin, shimmering reflections, and distortions 
of the human face divine, that very few people were impressed 
either by the process or the newest wonder of the world. At 
that early period of photography, the plates were so insensitive, 
the sittings so long, and the conditions so terrible, it was not 



31 

easy to induce anyone either to undergo the ordeal of sitting, or 
to pay the sum of twenty-one shillings for a very small and 
unsatisfactory portrait. In the infancy of the Daguerreotype 
process, the sitters were all placed out of doors, in direct sun- 
shine, which naturally made them screw up or shut their 
eyes, and every feature glistened, and was painfully revealed. 
Many amusing stories have been told about the trials, mishaps, 
and disappointments attending those long and painful sittings, 
but the best that ever came to my knowledge was the following. 
In the earliest of the forties, a young lady went a considerable 
distance, in Yorkshire, to sit to an itinerant Daguerreotypist for 
her portrait, and, being limited for time, could only give one 
sitting. She was placed before the camera, the slide drawn, 
lens uncapped, and requested to sit there until the Daguerreo- 
typist returned. He went away, probably to put his " mercury 
box " in order, or to have a smoke, for it was irksome — both to 
sitter and operator — to sit or stand doing nothing during those 
necessarily long exposures. When the operator returned, 
after an absence of fifteen or twenty minutes, the lady was 
sitting where he left her, and appeared glad to be relieved from 
her constrained position. She departed, and he proceeded with 
the development of the picture. The plate was examined from 
time to time, in the usual way, but there was no appearance of 
the lady. The ground, the wall, and the chair whereon she 
sat, were all visible, but the image of the lady was not ; and 
the operator was completely puzzled, if not alarmed. He left 
the lady sitting, and found her sitting when he returned, so he 
was quite unable to account for her mysterious non-appearance 
in the picture. The mystery was, however, explained in a few 
days, when the lady called for her portrait, for she admitted 
that she got up and walked about as soon as he left her, and only 
sat down again when she heard him returning. The necessity 
•of remaining before the camera was not recognised by that 
sitter. I afterwards reversed that result myself by focussing 



32 

the chair, drawing the slide, uncapping the lens, sitting down, 
and rising leisurely to cap the lens again, and obtained a good 
portrait without showing a ghost of the chair or anything else. 
The foregoing is evidence of the insensitiveness of the plates at 
that early period of the practice of photography ; but that 
state of inertion did not continue long, for as soon as the 
accelerating properties of bromine became generally known, the 
time of sitting was greatly reduced, and good Daguerreotype 
views were obtained by simply uncapping the lens as quickly as 
possible. I have taken excellent views in that manner myself 
in England, and, when in America, I obtained instantaneous 
views of Niagara Falls and other places quite as rapidly and as 
perfect as any instantaneous views made on gelatine dry plates, 
one of which I have copied and enlarged to 12 by 10 inches, and 
may possibly reproduce the small copy in these pages. 

In 1845 I came into direct contact with photography for the 
first time. It was in that year that an Irishman named McGhee 
came into the neighbourhood to practise the Daguerreotype 
process. He was not a licencee, but no one appeared to inter- 
fere with him, nor serve him with an injunction, for he carried 
on his little portrait business for a considerable time without 
molestation. The patentee was either very indifferent to his 
vested interests, or did not consider these intruders worth going 
to law with, for there were many raids across the borders by 
camera men in those early days. Sever?! circumstances 
combined to facilitate the inroads of Scotch operators into the 
northern counties of England. Firstly, the patent laws of 
England did not extend to Scotland at that time, so there was- 
a far greater number of Daguerreotypists in Edinburgh and 
other Scotch towns in the early days of photography thau in any 
part of England, and many of them made frequent incursions 
into the forbidden land without troubling themselves about 
obtaining a licence, but somehow they never remained long at a 
time ; they were either afraid of consequences, or did not meet 



33 

with patronage sufficient to induce them to continue their 
sojourns beyond a few of the summer weeks. For many years 
most of the early Daguerreotypists were birds of passage, 
frequently on the wing. Among the earliest settlers in London, 
were Mr. Beard (patentee), Mr. Claudet, and Mr. J. E. Mayall 
— the latter is still alive, 1889 — and in Edinburgh, Messrs. 
Koss and Thompson, Mr. Howie, Mr. Poppawitz, and Mr. Tunny 
— the latter was a Calotypist — with most of whom it was my good 
fortune to become personally acquainted in after years. 

Secondly, a great deal of ill-feeling and annoyance were 
caused by the incomprehensible and somewhat underhanded 
way in which the English patent was obtained, and these 
feelings induced many to poach on photographic preserves, 
and even to defy injunctions; and, while lawsuits were pend- 
ing, it was not uncommon for non-licencees to practise the 
new art with the impunity and feelings common to smugglers. 
VtT. Beard, the English patentee, brought many actions at 
law against infringers of his patent rights, the most memorable 
of which was that where Mr. Egerton, 1, Temple Street, "VNTiite- 
friars, the first dealer in photographic materials, and agent for 
Yoightlander's lenses in London, was the defendant. During 
that trial it came out in evidence that the patentee had earned 
as much as forty thousand pounds in one year by taking 
portraits and fees from licencees. Though the judgment of the 
Court was adverse to Mr. Egerton, it did not improve the 
patentee's moral right to his claim, for the trial only made 
it all the more public that the French Government had allowed 
M. Daguerre six thousand francs (£240), and M. Isidore 
Niepce four thousand francs (£160) per annum, on condition 
that their discoveries should be published, and made free to all 
the world. This trial did not in any way improve Mr. Beard's 
financial position, for eventually he became a bankrupt, and 
his establishments in King William Street, London Bridge, and 
the Polytechnic Institute, in Eegent Street, were extin- 

s 



34 

guished. Mr. Beard, who was the first to practise Daguerreo- 
typing commercially in this country, was originally a coal 
merchant. I think Mr. Claudet practised the process in 
London without becoming a licencee, either through previous 
knowledge, or some private arrangement made with Daguerre 
before the patent was granted to Mr. Beard. It was while 
photography was clouded with this atmosphere of dissatisfaction 
and litigation, that I made my first practical acquaintance with 
it in the following manner : — 

Being anxious to obtain possession of one of those marvellous 
sun pictures, and hoping to get an idea of the manner in whicJi 
they were produced, I paid a visit, one sunny morning, to 
Mr. McGhee, the Daguerreotypist, dressed in my best, with 
clean shirt, and stiff stand-up collar, as worn in those days. 
I was a very young man then, and rather j)articular aboiit the 
set of my shirt collar, so yon may readily judge of my horror 
when, after making the financial arrangements to the satisfaction 
of Mr. McGhee, he requested me to put on a blue cotton 
quasi clean "dickey," with a limp collar, that had evidently 
done similar duty many times before. You may be sure I 
protested, and inquired the reason why I should cover up my 
white shirt front with such an objectionable article. I was 
told if I did not put it on my shirt front would be solarized, 
and come out blue or dirty, whereas if I put on the blue 
"dickey" my shirt front would appear white and clean. 
What "solarized" meant, I did not know, nor was it further 
explained, but, as I very naturally wished to appear with a 
clean shirt front, I submitted to the indignity, and put on the 
limp and questionably clean " dicky." While the Daguerreo- 
typist was engaged with some mysterious manipulations in a 
cupboard or closet, I brushed my hair, and contemplated my 
singular appearance in the mirror somewhat ruefully. 0, ye 
■sitters and operators of to-day ! congratulate yourselves on 
the changes and advantages that have been wrought in the 



practice of photograpliy since then. "When Mr. McGhee 

appeared again with something Kke two wooden books in his 

hand, he requested me to follow him into the garden; which 

was only a back yard. At the foot of the garden, and against 

a brick wall with a piece of grey cloth nailed over it, I was 

requested to sit down on an old chair ; then he placed before 

me an instrument which looked like a very ugly theodolite on a 

tripod stand — that was my first sight of a camera — and, after 

putting his head under a black cloth, told me to look at a 

mark on the other side of the garden, without winking or 

moving till he said ''done." How long I sat I don't know, 

but it seemed an awfully long time, and I have no doubt it 

was, for I know that I used to ask people to sit five and ten 

minutes, afterwards. The sittings over, I was requested to 

re-enter the house, and then I thought I would see something 

of the process ; but no. Again Mr. McGhee went into the 

mysterious chamber, and shut the door quickly. In a little 

time he returned and told me that the sittings were satisfactory 

— he had taken two — and that he would finish and deliver them 

next day. Then I left without obtaining the ghost of an idea 

of the modus operandi of producing portraits by the sun, beyond 

the fact that a camera had been placed before me. Xext day 

the portraits were delivered according to promise, but I confess 

I was somewhat disappointed at getting so little for my money. 

It was a very small picture that could not be seen in every 

light, and not particularly like myself, but a scowling-looking 

individual, with a limp collar, and rather dirty looking face. 

"Wliatever would mashers have said or done, if they had gone to 

be photographed in those days of photographic darkness ? I 

was, however, somewhat consoled by the thought that I, at last, 

possessed one of those wonderful sun pictures, though I was 

ignorant of the means of production. 

Soon after having my portrait taken, 3Ir. Me Ghee dis- 
appeared, and there was no one left in the neighbourhood who 



36 

tnew anything of the mysterious manipulations of Daguerreo- 
typing. I had, nevertheless, resolved to possess an apparatus 
and obtain the necessary information, but there was no one to- 
tell me what to buy, where to buy it, nor what to do with it. 
At last an old friend of mine who had been on a visit to Edin- 
burgh, had purchased an apparatus and some materials with 
the view of taking Daguerreotypes himself, but finding that he 
could not, was willing to sell it to me, though he could not tell 
me how to use it, beyond showing me an image of the house 
opposite upon the ground glass of the camera. I believe my 
friend let me have the apparatus for what it cost him, which 
was about £15, and it consisted of a quarter-plate portrait lens 
by Slater, mahogany camera, tripod stand, bufi sticks, coating 
and mercury boxes of the roughest description, a few chemicals 
and silvered plates, and a rather singular but portable dark 
room. Of the uses of the chemicals I knew very little, and of 
their nature nothing which led to very serious consequences, 
which I shall relate in the proper place. Having obtained 
possession of this marvellous apparatus, my next ardent aspira- 
tion was to make a successful use of it. I distinctly remember,, 
even at this distant date, with what nervous curiosity I 
examined all the articles when I unpacked them in my father's 
house, and with what wonder, not unmixed with apprehension, 
my father looked upon that display of unknown, and to him 
apparently nameless and useless toys. " More like a lot of 
conjuror's traps than anything else," he exclaimed, after I had 
set them all out. And a few days after he told one of my young 
friends that he thought I had gone out of my mind to take up 
with that "Daggertype" business; the name itself was a- 
stumbling block in those days, for people called the process 
" dagtype, docktype, and daggertype " more frequently than by 
its proper name. Daguerreotype. "What a contrast now-a-days, 
when almost every father is an amateur photographer, and 
encourages both his sons and daughters to become the same» 



37 

My father -was a very good parent, in his ^vay, and encouraged 
me, to the fullest extent of his means, in the study of music 
and painting, and even sent me to the Government School of 
Design, where I studied drawing under W. B. Scott ; but the 
new-fangled method of taking portraits did not harmonise with 
his conservative and practical notions. One cause of his dis- 
approbation and dissatisfaction was, doubtless, my many failures ; 
in fact, I may say, inability to show him any result. I had 
acquired an apparatus of the roughest and most primitive con- 
struction, but no knowledge of its use or the behaviour of the 
<;hemicals employed, beyond the bare numerical order in which 
they were to be used, and there was no one within a hundred 
miles of where I lived, that I knew of, who could give me les- 
sons or the slightest hint respecting the process. I had worn out 
the patience of all my relations and friends in fruitless sittings. 
I had set fire to my singular dark room, and nearly set fire to the 
"house, by attempting to refill the spirit lamp while alight, and I 
was ill and suffering from salivation through inhaKng the fumes of 
mercury in my blind, anxious, and enthusiastic endeavours to 
■obtain a sun picture. It is not long since an eminent photo- 
grapher told me that I was an enthusiast, but if he had seen 
me in those days he would, in all probability, have told me 
that I was mad. Though ill, I was not mad ; I was only deter- 
mined not to be beaten. I was resolved to keep pegging away 
until I obtained a satisfactory result. ITy friends laughed at 
me when I asked them to sit for a trial, and they either refused, 
or sat with a very bad grace, as if it really were a trial to them ; 
but fancy, fair and kindly readers, what it must have been to me ! 
Finding that my living models fought shy of me and my trials, 
I then thought of getting a lay figure, and borrowed a large doll 
— quite as big as a baby — of one of my lady friends. I stuck it 
up in a garden and pegged away at it for nearly six months. 
At the end of that time I was able to produce a portrait of the 
doll with tolerable certainty and success. Then I ventured to 



38 

ask my friends to sit again, but my process was too slow for life 
studies, and my live sitters generally moved so much., their 
portraits were not recognisable. There were no head-rests in 
those days, at least I did not possess one, or it might have been 
pleasanter for my sitters and easier for myself. What surprised 
me very much — and I thought it a singular thing at the time — 
was my success in copying an engraving of Thorburn's Miniature 
of the Queen. I made several good and beautiful copies of that 
engraving, and sent one to an artist friend, then in Devonshire, 
who wrote to say that it was beautiful, and that if he could get 
a Daguerreotype portrait with the eyes as clear as that, he would 
sit at once; but all the "Dagtypes" he had hitherto seen had 
only black holes where the eyes should be. Unfortunately, that 
was my own experience. I could copy from the flat well enough, 
but when I went to the round I went wrong. Ultimately I 
discovered the cause of all that, and found a remedy, but oh ! 
the weary labour and mental worry I underwent before I 
mastered the difficulties of the most troublesome and uncertain, 
yet most beautiful and permanent of all the photographic 
processes that ever was discovered or invented ; and now it is a 
lost art. No one practises it, and I don't think that there are 
half-a-dozen men living — myself included — that could at this 
day go through all the manipulations necessary to produce a good 
Daguerreotype portrait or picture ; yet, when the process was 
at the height of its popularity, a great number of people pursued 
it as a profession in all parts of the civilized world, and in the 
United States of America alone it was estimated in 1854 that 
there were not less than thirty thousand people making their 
living as Daguerreans. Few, if any, of the photographers of 
to-day — whether amateur or professional — know anyting of the 
forms or uses of plates, buffs, lathes, sensitizing or developing 
boxes, gilding stands, or other Daguerreotype appliances ; and I 
am quite certain that there is not a dealer in all England that can 
furnish at this date a complete set of Daguerreotype apparatus. 



39 

It was in 1849 that I gilded my first picture — a portrait of 
one of my friends playing a guitar. I possess that picture no-w, 
and, after a lapse of forty years, it is as good and bright as it 
was on the day that it was taken. It was not a first-class pro- 
duction, but I hoped to do better soon, and on the strength of 
that hope determined to commence business as a professional 
Daguerreotypist. "While I was considering whether I should 
pitch my tent permanently in my native town, or take to a 
nomadic kind of life, similar to what other Daguerreotypists 
were pursuing, I was helped to a decision by the sudden appear- 
ance of a respectable and experienced Daguerreotypist who came 
and built a " glass house " — the first of its kind — in my native 
town. This somewhat disarranged my plans, but on the whole 
it was rather opportune and advantageous than otherwise, for it 
afforded me an unexpected opportunity of gaining a great deal 
of practical experience on easy terms. The new comer was Mr. 
Greorge Brown, who had been an " operator" for Mr. Beard, in 
London, and as he exhibited much finer specimens of the 
Daguerreotype process than any I had hitherto seen, I engaged 
myself to assist him for six months at a small salary. I showed 
him what I had done, and he showed and told me all that he 
knew in connection with photography, and thus commenced a 
business relation that ripened into a friendship that endured as 
long as he lived. 

At the end of the six months' engagement I left Mr. Brown, 
to commence business on my own account, but as neither of us 
considered that there was room for two Daguerreotypists in a 
town with a population of one Inmdred and twenty tliousand, I 
was driven to adopt the nomadic mode of life peculiar to the 
itinerant photographer of the period. That was in 1850. Up 
to that time I had done nothing in Calotype work. Mr. Brown 
was strictly a Daguerreotypist, but Mr. Parry, at that time a 
glass dealer and amateur photographer, was working at the Calo- 
type process, but not very successfully, for nearly a^^ his efforts 



40 

were spoiled by decomposition, wMch he could not then account 
for or overcome, but he eventually became one of the best Calo- 
typists in the neighbourhood, and I became the possessor of 
some of the finest Calotype negatives he ever produced, many of 
which are still in my possession. Mr. Parry relinquished his 
glass business, and became a professional photographer soon after 
the introduction of the collodion process. Another amateur 
photographer that I met in those early days was a flute player 
in the orchestra of the theatre. He produced very good Calo- 
type negatives with a single lens, and was very enthusiastic, 
but extremely reticent on all photographic matters. About this 
period I made the acquaintance of Mr. J. AV. Swan : I had 
known him for some time previously when he was apprentice 
and assistant to Mr. Mawson, chemist, in Mosley Street, New- 
castle-on-Tyne. Neither Mr. Mawson nor Mr. Swan were 
known to the photographic world at that time. Mr. Mawson 
was most popular as a dealer in German yeast, and I think it 
was not until after Archer published his process that they began 
to make collodion and deal in photographic materials — at any 
rate, I did not buy any photographic goods of them until 1852, 
when I first began to use Mawson's collodion. In October, 
1850, 1 went to Hexham, about twenty miles west of Newcastle- 
on-Tyne, to make my first appearance as a professional 
Daguerreotypist. I rented a sitting-room with a good window 
and clear view, so as to take "parlour portraits." I could only 
take small pictures — two and a half by two inches — for which 
I charged half a guinea, and was favoured with a few sittings ; 
but it was a slow place, and I left it in a few weeks. 

The next move I made was to Seaham Harbour, and there I 
did a little better business, but the place was too small and the 
people too poor for me to continue long. Half guineas were not 
plentiful, even among the tradespeople, and there were very 
few gentlefolk in the neighbourhood. Some of the townspeople 
were very kind to me, and invited me to their homes, and 



41 

althougli my sojourn was not very profitable, it was very plea- 
sant. I had many pleasant rambles on the sands, and often 
looked at Seabam Hall and thougbt of Byron and bis matri- 
monial disappointment in bis marriage witb Miss Milbank. 

From Seabam Harbour I went to Middlesborougb, hoping to 
do more business among a larger population, but it appeared as 
if I were only going from bad to worse. At that date the popu- 
lation was about thirty thousand, but chiefly people of the 
working classes, employed at Balchow and Vaughn's and kindred 
works. I made portraits of some of the members of Mr. Bal- 
chow's family, Mr. Geordison, and some of the resident Quakers, 
but altogether I did not do much more than pay expenses. I 
managed, however, to stay there till the year 1851, when I 
<3aught the World's Fair fever, so I packed up my apparatus and 
other things I did not require immediately, and sent them to 
my father's house, and with a few changes in my carpet-bag, 
and a little money in my pocket, I started off to see the Great 
Exhibition in London. I went by way of York and Hull, with 
the two-fold object of seeing some friends in both places, and to 
prospect on the business chances they might afford. At York I 
iound Mr. Pumphrey was located, but as he did not appear to 
be fully occupied with sitters — for I found him trying to take a 
couple of boys fighting in a back yard — I thought there was 
not room for another Dagaerreotypist in York. In a few days 
I went to Hull, but even there the ground was preoccupied, so 
I took the first steamer for London. "We sailed on a Saturday 
night, and after a pleasant voyage arrived at the wharf below 
London Bridge early on Sunday evening. I put up at the 
"Yorkshire Grey," in Thames Street, where I met several 
people from the North, also on a visit to London to see the Great 
Exhibition. This being my first visit to London, I was anxious 
to get a sight of the streets and crowds therein, so, after obtain- 
ing some refreshment, I strolled out with one of my fellow- 



42 

passengers to receive my first impressions of the great metro- 
poKs. The evening was fine, and, being nearly the longest day, 
there was light enough to enable me to see the God-forsaken 
appearance of Thames Street, the dismal aspect of Fish Street 
Hill, and the gloomy column called "The Monument" that 
stands there to remind citizens and strangers of the Great Fire 
of 1666 ; but I was both amazed and amused with the life and 
bustle I saw on London Bridge and other places in the immediate 
neighbourhood, but my eyes and ears soon became fatigued with 
the sights and sounds of the lively and noisy thoroughfares. 
After a night's rest, which was frequently broken by cries of 
" Stop thief ! " and the screams of women, I arose and made an. 
early start for the Great Exhibition of 1851. Of all the won- 
derful things in that most wonderful exhibition, I was most in- 
terested in the photographic exhibits and the beautiful specimens 
of American Daguerreotypes, both portraits and landscapes, 
especially the views of Niagara Falls, which made me determine 
to visit America as soon as ever I could make the necessary 
arrangements. 

AVhile examining and admiring those very beautiful 
Daguerreotypes, I little thought that I was standing, as it 
were, between the birth of one process and the death of another ; 
but so it was, for the newly-born collodion process very soon 
annihilated the Daguerreotype, although the latter process had. 
just reached the zenith of its beauty. In the March number of 
the Chemist, Archer's Collodion Process was published, and that 
was like the announcement of the birth of an infant Hercules, 
that was destined to slay a beautiful youth whose charms had 
only arrived at maturity. But there was really a singular and 
melancholy coincidence in the birth of the Collodion Process 
and the early death of the Daguerreotype, for Daguerre himself 
died on July 10th, 1851, so that both Daguerre and his process 
appeared to receive their death blows in the same year. I don't 



43 

suppose that Daguerre died from a shock to his system, caused 
by the publication of a rival process, for it is not likely that he 
knew anything about the invention of a process that -svas des- 
tined, in a very few years, to abolish his own — living as he was 
in the retirement of his native village, and enjoying his well- 
earned pension. 

As Daguerre was the first of the successfal discoverers of 
photography to be summoned by death, I will here give a brief 
sketch of his life and pursuits prior to his association with 
Nicephore iXiepce and photography. Louis Jacques llando 
Daguerre was bom at Cormeilles, near Paris, in 1787, of poor and 
somewhat careless parents, who appear to have bestowed upon 
him more names than attention. Though they did not endow 
him with a good education, they had the good sense to observe 
the bent of his mind and apprentice him to a theatrical scene 
painter. In that situation he soon made his mark, and his 
artistic and mechanical abilities, combined with industry, pains- 
taking, and boldness of conception, soon raised him to the front 
rank of his profession, in which he gained both honour and 
profit. Like all true artists, he was fond of sketching from 
nature ; and, to save time and secure true proportion, he 
employed such optical appliances as were then at his command. 
Some of his biographers say that he, like Fox Talbot, employed 
the camera lucida ; others the camera obscura ; as there is a con- 
siderable difference between the two it would be interesting to 
know which it really was. At any rate it was one of these 
instruments which gave him the notion and created the desire 
to secure the views as they were presented by the lens or 
reflector. Much of his time was devoted to the painting and 
construction of a diorama which was first exhibited in 1822, 
and created quite a sensation in Paris. As early as 1824 he 
commenced his photographic experiments, with very little 
knowledge on the subject; but with the hope and determina- 
tion of succeeding, by some means or other, in securing the 



44 

pictures as Nature painted them on the screen or receiver. 
Doubtless he was sanguine enough then to hope to be able to 
obtain colours as well as drawings, but he died without seeing 
that accomplished, and so will many others. "What he did suc- 
ceed in accomplishing was marvellous, and quite entitled him to 
all the honour and emolument he received, but he only lived 
about twelve years after his discovery. He was, however, 
saved the mortification of seeing his beautiful discovery dis- 
carded and cast away in the hey-day of its beauty and perfec- 
tion. 

After a few weeks sojourn in London, seeing all the sights 
and revisiting all the Daguerreotype studios, I turned my back 
•on the great city and my footsteps homewards again. As soon 
as I reached home I unpacked my apparatus and made arrange- 
ments for another campaign with the camera at some of the 
sea-side resorts, with the hope of making up for lost time and 
imoney through visiting London. 

I had looked at Scarborough and found the Brothers Holroyd 
located there ; at Whitby, Mr. Stonehouse ; and I did not like 
the appearance of B,edcar, so I settled upon Tynemouth, and 
did fairly well for a short season. About the end of October I 
went on to Carlisle, but a Scotchman had already preceded me 
there, and I thought one Daguerreotypist was quite enough for so 
small a place, and pushed on to Penrith, where I settled for the 
winter and gradually worked up a little connection, and formed 
some life-long friendships. I was the first Daguerreotypist who 
had visited the town of Penrith, and while there I made 
Daguerreotypes of Sir George and Lady Musgrave and family, 
and some members of the Lonsdale family. It was through the 
kindness of Miss Lowther that I was induced to go to White- 
haven, but I did not do much business there, so, after a bad 
winter, I resolved to go to America in the spring, and made 
arrangements for the voyage immediately. Thinking that I 
would find better apparatus and appliances in America, I dis- 



45 

posed of my " Tent and Kit," closed up my affairs, bid adieu to 
my relatives and friends, and departed. 

To obtain the benefit and experience of a long sea voyage, I 
secured a cabin passage in a sailing ship named tbe Amazon, and 
sailed from Shields towards the end of April, 1853, We crossed 
the Tyne bar late in the evening -svith a fair wind, and sailed 
away for the Pentland Frith so as to gain the Atlantic by sailing 
all round the North of Scotland. I was rather upset the first 
night, but recovered my appetite next morning. "We entered 
the Pentland Frith on the Saturday afternoon, and were running 
through the Channel splendidly, when the carpenter came to 
report water in the well — I forget how many feet — but he 
thought it would not be safe to attempt crossing the Atlantic. 
I was a little alarmed at this, but the captain took it very coolly, 
and ordered the ship to be pumped every watch. Being the 
only passenger, I became a kind of chum and companion to the 
captain, and as we sat over our grog that night in the cabin 
our conversation naturally turned upon the condition of the ship, 
when he remarked that he was disappointed, and that he 
"expected he had got a sound ship under his feet this time." 
These words did not make much impression upon me then, but I 
had reason to comprehend their meaning afterwards. I was 
awoke early on the Sunday morning by the noise caused by the 
working of the pumps, and on going on deck found that we were 
becalmed, lying off' the coast of Caithnesshire, and the water 
pouring out of the pump-hole in a continuous stream. After 
breakfast, and while sitting on the taffrail of the quarterdeck 
along with the captain, waiting for a breeze, I asked him if he 
intended to cross the Atlantic in such a leaky vessel. He 
answered *' Tes, and the men are all willing." So I thought if 
tbese men were not afraid of the ship foundering, I need not be ; 
but I had reasons afterwards for coming to an opposite con- 
clusion. 

Towards evening the breeze sprang up briskly, and away we 



46 

went, the ship heading "W.N.W., as the captain said he wanted 
to make the northern passage. jS^ext morning we were in a 
rather rough sea, and a gale of wind blowing. One of the yards 
was broken with the force of the wind, and the sail and broken 
-yard dangled about the rigging for a considerable time before 
the sail could be hauled in and the wreckage cleared up. "We 
had several days of bad weather, and one morning when I got 
xip I found the ship heading East. I naturally concluded that 
we were returning, but the captain said that he had only turned 
the ship about to enable the men to stop a leak in her bows. 
The carpenter afterwards told me that the water came in there 
like a river during the night. Thus we went on through 
variable weather until at last we sighted two huge icebergs, and 
then Newfoundland, when the captain informed me that he 
intended now to coast up to New York. We got out of sight of 
land occasionally, and one day, after the captain had taken his 
observations and worked out the ship's position, he called my 
attention to the chart, and observed that he intended to sail 
between an island and the mainland, but as the Channel was 
subject to strong and variable currents, it was a rather dangerous 
experiment. Being in such a leaky ship, I thought he wanted 
to hug the land as much as possible, which I considered a very 
wise and safe proceeding; but he had ulterior objects in view, 
which the sequel will reveal. 

On the night of the 31st of May, after a long yarn from the 
captain about how he was once wrecked on an iceberg, I turned 
in with a feeling of perfect safety, for the sea was calm, the 
night clear, and the wind fair and free ; but about daylight next 
morning I was awoke with a shock, a sudden tramping on deck, 
and the mate shouting down the companion stairs, " Captain, the 
ship's ashore." Both the captain and I rushed on deck just as 
we jumped out of our berths, but we could not see anything of 
the land or shore, for we were enveloped in a thick fog. We 
heard the breakers and felt the thud of the waves as they broke 



47 

upon the ship, but -whether we had struck on a rock or 
grounded on a sandy beach we could not then ascertain. The 
captain ordered the sails to be " slewed back," and a hawser 
to be thrown astern, but all efforts to get the ship off were in 
vain, for with every wave the ship forged more and more on to 
the shore. 

As the morning advanced, the fog cleared away a little, which 
enabled us to see dimly through the mist the top of a bank of 
yellow sand. This sight settled the doubt as to our whereabouts, 
and the captain immediately gave the order *' Prepare to abandon 
the ship." The long boat was at once got ready, and lowered 
with considerable difficulty, for the ship was then more among 
the breakers. After a good deal of delay and danger, we all 
succeeded in leaving the ship and clearing the breakers. We 
were exposed in the open boats all that day and night, and 
about ten o'clock next morning we effected a landing on the lee 
side of the island, which we ascertained to be Sable Island, a 
bald crown of one of the banks of ^Newfoundland. Here we 
received help, shelter, and provisions, all provided by the Home 
and Colonial Governments, for the relief of shipwrecked people, 
for this island was one of the places where ships were both 
accidentally and wilfully wrecked. We were obliged to stay 
there sixteen days before we could get a vessel to take us to 
Halifax, Nova Scotia, the nearest port, and would possibly have 
had to remain on the island much longer, but for a mutiny 
among the crew. I could describe some strange and startling 
incidents in connection with the wreck and mutiny, but I will 
not allow myself to be tempted further into the vale of divergence, 
as the chief object I have in view is my reminiscence of 
photography. 

On leaving Sable Island I was taken to Halifax, where I 
waited the arrival of the cunard steamer Niagara, to take 
me on to Boston; thence I proceeded by rail and steamer 
to New York, where I arrived about the end of June, 1853. 



48 

On landing in New York I only knew one individual, and, 
not knowing how far I should have to go to find him I put 
up at an hotel on Broadway, hut soon found that too expensive 
for my means, and went to a private hoarding house as soon as 
I could. 

Visiting all the leading Daguerreotypists on Broadway, I 
was somewhat astonished at their splendid reception rooms, 
and the vast number of large and excellent specimens exhibited. 
Their plain Daguerreotypes were all of fine quality, and free 
from the "bu£E lines" so noticeable in English work at that 
period ; but all their attempts at colouring were miserable 
failures, and when I showed one of my coloured specimens to 
Mr. Gurney, he said, "Well, if you can colour one of my 
pictures like that I'll believe you ; " which I soon did, and 
very much to his astonishment. In those days I prepared my 
own colours, and Mr. Gurney bought a box immediately. The 
principal Daguerreotypists in New York at that time were 
Messrs. Brady, Gurney, Kent, Lawrence, Mead Brothers, 
and Samuel Root, and I called upon them all before I entered' 
into any business arrangements, finally engaging myself to 
Messrs. Mead Brothers as a colourist and teacher of colouring 
for six months, and while fulfilling that engagement I gave 
lessons to several " Daguerreans," and made the acquaintance of 
men from all parts of the Union, for I soon obtained some 
notoriety throughout the States in consequence of a man named 
Humphrey attacking me and my colouring process in a photo- 
graphic journal which bore his name, as well as in the New 
York Tribune. I replied to his attack in the columns of the 
Tribune, but I saw that he had a friend on the staff, and I did 
not feel inclined to continue the controversy. Mr. Humphrey 
knew nothing about my process, but began and continued the 
discussion on his knowledge of what was known as the 
** Isinglass Process," which was not mine. After completing 
my engagements with Messrs. Mead Brothers, I made arrange- 



49 

ments to supply the stock dealers with my prepared colours, and 
travel the States myself to introduce them to all the Daguerreans 
residing in the towns and cities I should visit. 

In the principal cities I found all the Daguerreans quite equal 
to the best in New York, and all doing good business, and I 
gave lessons in colouring to most of them. In j^ewark I met 
ilessrs. Benjamin and Poison ; in Philadelphia, ^Marcus Eoot and 
Dr. Bushnel. I encountered a great many doctors an^ professors 
in the business in America. In Baltimore, Maryland — then a 
slave State — many of the Daguerreans owned slaves. In "Washing- 
ton D.C., I renewed my acquaintance with Mr. George Adams, 
one of the best Daguerreans in the City ; and while visiting him 
a very curious thing occurred. One of the representatives of the 
South came in to have his portrait taken, and the first thing he 
did was to lay a revolver and a bowie knife on the table beside 
him. He had just come from the House of Representatives. 
His excuse for such a proceeding was that he had bought some 
slaves at the market at Alexandria, and was going to take them 
home that night. He was a very tall man, and when he stood 
up against the background his head was above it. As he wanted 
to be taken standing, this put Mr. Adams into a dilemma, and he 
asked what he should do. I thought the only thing that could be 
done was to move the background up and down during exposure, 
which we did, and so obviated the appearance of a line crossing 
the head. 

"While staying in "Washington I attended one of the levees at 
the "White House, and was introduced to President Pearce. 
There was no fuss or difficulty in. gaining admission. I had 
only to present my card at the door, and the City Marshall 
at once led me into the room where the President, surrounded 
by some of his Cabinet, was waiting to receive, and I was 
introduced. After a cordial shake of his hand, I passed on 
to another saloon where there was music and promenading in 
mixed costumes, for most of the men were dressed as they liked^ 

E 



50 

and some of the ladies wore bonnets. It was the weekly sans 
€eremonie reception. Finding many of the people of Washington 
very agreeable and hospitable, I stayed there a considerable 
time. When I started on the southern journey I did intend to 
go on to New Orleans, but I stayed so long in Philadelphia and 
Washington the summer was too far advanced, and as a rather 
severe outbreak of yellow fever had occurred, I returned to Now 
York and took a journey northward, visiting Niagara Falls, and 
going on to Canada. I sailed up the Hudson River, stopping at 
Albany and Troy. At the latter place I met an Englishman, 
named Irvine, a Daguerrean who treated me hospitably, and for 
-whom I coloured several Daguerreotypes. He wanted me to 
stay with him, but that I declined. Thence I proceeded to 
Rochester, and there found that one of my New York pupils had 
been before me, representing himself as Werge the colourist, for 
when I introduced myself to the principal Daguerrean he told me 
that Werge — a very different man — had been there two or three 
weeks ago. I discovered who the fellow was, and that he had 
practised a piece of Yankee smartneps for which I had no redress. 
From Rochester I proceeded to Buffalo, where I met with 
another instance of Yankee smartness of a different kind. I had 
sold some colours to a man there who paid me in dollar bills, the 
usual currency of the country, but when I tendered one of these 
bills for payment at the hotel, it was refused. I next offered it 
on board a steamboat, but there it was also declined. When I 
had an opportunity I returned it to the man who gave it to me, 
and requested him to send me a good one instead. He was 
honest enough to do that, and impudent enough to tell me that 
he knew it was bad when he gave it to me, but as I was a 
stranger he thought I might pass it off easily. 

I next went to Niagara Falls, where it was my good fortune 
to encounter two very different specimens of American character 
in the persons of Mr. Easterly and Mr, Babbitt, the former a 
Tisitor and the latter a resident Daguerrean, who held a monopoly 



51 

from General Porter to Daguerreotype the Falls and visitors. 
He had a pavilion on the American side of the Falls, under 
which his camera was in position all day long, and when a 
group of visitors stood on the shore to survey the Falls from 
that point, he took the group — without their knowledge — 
and showed it to the visitors before they left. In almost 
every instance he sold the picture at a good price ; the people 
were generally delighted to be taken at the Falls. I need hardly 
say that they were all taken instantaneously, and embraced a 
good general view, including the American Fall, Goat Island, the 
Horse Shoe Fall, and the Canadian shore. Many of these views 
I coloured for Mr. Babbitt, but there was always a beautiful 
green colour on the brink of the Horse Shoe Fall which I never 
could match. For many years I possessed one of Mr. Babbitt's 
Daguerreotype views, as well as others taken by Mr. Easterly 
and myself, but I had the misforture to be deprived of them all 
by fire. Some years after I lent them to an exhibition in 
Glasgow, which was burnt down, and all the exhibits destroyed. 
After a delightful sojourn of three weeks at Magara Falls, I 
took steamer on the lower Kiagara Eiver, sailed down to 
Lake Ontario, and down the River St. Lawrence, shooting the 
Lachine Rapids, and on to Montreal. 

In the Canadian City I did not find business very lively, so 
after viewing the fine Cathedral of IS'otre Dame, the mountain, 
and other places, I left Montreal and proceeded by rail to Boston. 
The difference between the two cities was immense. Montreal 
was dull and sleepy, Boston was all bustle and life, and the 
people were as unlike as the cities. On my arrival in Boston, 
I put up at the Quincy Adams Hotel, and spent the first few 
days in looking about the somewhat quaint and interesting old 
city, hunting up Franklin Associations, and revolutionary land- 
marks, Bunker Hill, and other places of interest. Having 
satisfied my appetite for these things, I began to look about me 
with an eye to business, and called upon the chief Daguerreans 



52 

and photographers in Boston. Messrs. Southworth and Hawe& 
possessed the largest Daguerreotype establishment, and did an 
excellent business. In their "Saloon" I saw the largest and 
finest revolving stereoscope that was ever exhibited. The 
pictures were all whole-plate Daguerreotypes, and set vertically 
on the perpendicular drum on which they revolved. The drum 
was turned by a handle attached to cog wheels, so that a person 
sitting before it could see the stereoscopic pictures with the 
utmost ease. It was an expensive instrument, but it was a 
splendid advertisement, for it drew crowds to their saloon to see 
it and to sit, and their enterprise met with its reward. 

At Mr. "Whipple's gallery, in "Washington Street, a dual 
photography was carried on, for he made both Daguerreotypes 
and what he called " crystallotypes," which were simply plain 
silver prints obtained from collodion negatives. Mr. Whipple 
was the first American photographer who saw the great commer- 
cial advantages of the collodion process over the Daguerreotype, 
and he grafted it on the elder branch of photography almost as 
soon as it was introduced. Indeed, Mr. Whipple's establish- 
ment may be considered the very cradle of American photography 
as far as collodion negatives and silver prints are concerned, for 
he was the very first to take hold of it with spirit, and as early 
as 1853 he was doing a large business in photographs, and 
teaching the art to others. Although I had taken collodion 
negatives in England with Mawson's collodion in 1852, I paid 
Mr. Whipple fifty dollars to be shown how he made his collodion, 
sivler bath, developer, printing, &c., &c., for which purpose he 
handed me over to his active and intelligent assistant and newly- 
made partner, Mr. Black. This gave me the run of the establish- 
ment, and I was somewhat surprised to find how vast and varied 
were his mechanical appliances for reducing labour and expediting 
■work. The successful practice of the Daguerreotype art greatly 
depended on the cleanness and highly polished surface of the 
silvered plates, and to secure these necessary conditions, Mr. 



53 

Whipple had, with characteristic and Yankee-like ingenuity, 
obtained the assistance of a steam engine which not only "drove" 
all the circular cleaning and buffing wheels, but an immense 
circular fan which kept the studio and sitters delightfully cool. 
Machinery and ingenuity did a great many things in Mr. 
"Whipple's establishment in the early days of photography. 
Long before the Ambrotype days, pictures were taken on glass 
and thrown upon canvas by means of the oxyhydrogen light for 
the use of artists. At that early period of the history of photo- 
graphy, Messrs. Whipple and Black did an immense "printing 
and publishing " trade, and their facilities were " something 
considerable." Their toning, fixing, and washing baths were 
almost worthy the name of vats. 

Messrs. Masury and Silsby were also early producers of photo- 
graphs in Boston, and in 1854 employed a very clever operator, 
Mr. Turner, who obtained beautiful and brilliant negatives by 
iron development. On the whole, I think Boston was ahead of 
New York for enterprise and the use of mechanical appliances 
in connection with photography. I sold my colours to most of 
the Daguerreotypists, and entered into business relations with 
two of the dealers, Messrs. French and Cramer, to stock them, 
and then started for New York to make arrangements for nay 
return to England. 

When I returned to New York the season was over, and 
everyone was supposed to be away at Saratoga Springs, Niagara 
Palls, Eockaway, and other fashionable resorts ; but I found the 
Daguerreotype galleries all open and doing a considerable stroke 
of business among the cotton planters and slave holders, who 
had left the sultry south for the cooler atmosphere of the more 
northern States. The Daguerreotype process was then in the 
zenith of its perfection and popularity, and largely patronised 
by gentlemen from the south, especially for large or double 
whole-plates, about 16 by 12 inches, for which they paid fifty 
-dollars each. It was only the best houses that made a feature 



54 

of these large pictures, for it was not many of tlieDaguerreans- 
that possessed a " mammoth tube and box " — i.e., lens and camera 
— or the necessary machinery to *' get up " such large surfaces, 
but all employed the best mechanical means for cleaning and 
polishing their plates, and it was this that enabled the Americans 
to produce more brilliant pictures than we did. Many people 
used to say it was the climate, but it was nothing of the kind. 
The superiority of the American Daguerreotype was entirely due 
to mechanical appliances. Having completed my business 
arrangements and left my colours on sale with the principal 
stock dealers, including the Scovill Manufacturing Company, 
Messrs. Anthony, and Levi Chapman. 

I sailed from Kew York in October 1854, and arrived in 
England in due time without any mishap, and visiting London 
again as soon as I could, I called at Mr. Mayall's gallery in 
Begent Street to see Dr. Bushnell, whom I knew in Philadelphia, 
and who was then operating for Mr. Mayall. AVhile there Mr. 
Mayall came in from the Guildhall, and announced the result of 
the famous trial, " Talbot versics Laroche," a verbatim report of 
which is given in the Journal of the Photographic Society for 
December 21st, 1854. Mr. Mayall was quite jubilant, and well 
he might be, for the verdict for the defendant removed the 
trammels which Mr. Fox Talbot attempted to impose upon the 
practice of the collodion process, which was Frederick Scott 
Archer's gift to photographers. That was the first time that 
I had met Mr. Mayall, though I had heard of him and followed 
him both at Philadelphia and Xew York, and even at ISTiagara 
Falls. At that time Mr. Mayall was relinquishing the Daguerreo- 
type process, though one of the earliest practitioners, for he was 
in business as a Daguerreotypist in Philadelphia from 1842 to 
1846, and I know that he made a Daguerreotype portrait of 
James Anderson, the tragedian, in Philadelphia, on Sunday,. 
May 18th, 1845. During part of the time that he was in 
Philadelphia he was in partnership with Marcus Eoot, and the 



55 

name of the firm was "Highschool and Eoot," and about the 
end of 1846 Mr. Mayall opened a Daguerreotype studio in the 
Adelaide Gallery, King William Street, Strand, London, under 
the name of Professor Highschool, and soon after that he opened 
a Daguerreotype gallery in his own name in the Strand, which 
establishment he sold to Mr. Jabez Hughes in 1855. The 
best Daguerreotypists in London in 1854 were Mr. Beard, 
King "William Street, London Bridge ; Messrs. Kilburn, T. R. 
"Williams and Claudet, in Eegent Street ; and "W. H. Kent, in 
Oxford Street. The latter had just returned from America, and 
brought all the latest improvements with him. Messrs. 
Henneman and Malone were in Regent Street doing calotype 
portraits. Henneman had been a servant to Fox Talbot, and 
worked his process under favourable conditions. Mr. Lock was 
also in Regent Street, doing coloured photographs. He offered 
me a situation at once, if I could colour photographs as well 
as I could colour Daguerreotypes, but I could not, for the 
processes were totally diff'erent. M. Manson, an old Frenchman, 
was the chief Daguerreotype colourist in London, and worked 
for all the principal Daguerreotypists. I met the old gentle- 
man first in 1851, and knew him for many years afterwards. 
He also made colours for sale. Xot meeting with anything to 
suit me in London, I returned to the Korth, calling at 
Birmingham on my way, where I met Mr. "Whitlock, the chief 
Daguerreotypist there, and a Mr. Monson, who professed to 
make Daguerreotypes and all other types. Paying a visit to 
Mr. Elisha Mander, the well-known photographic case maker, 
I learnt that Mr. Jabez Hughes, then in business in Glasgow, 
was in want of an assistant, a colourist especially. Having 
met Mr. Hughes in Glasgow in 1852, and knowing what kind 
of man he was, I wrote to him, and was engaged in a few days. 
1 went to Glasgow in January, 1855, and then commenced 
business relations and friendship with Mr. Hughes that lasted 
unbroken until his death in 1884. My chief occupation was to 



56 

colour the Daguerreotypes taken by Mr. Hughes, and 
occasionally take sitters, when Mr. Hughes was busy, in another 
studio. I had not, however, been long in Glasgow, when Mr. 
Hughes determined to return to London. At first he wished 
me to accompany hiai, but it was ultimately arranged that I 
should purchase the business, and remain in Glasgow, which I 
did, and took possession in June, Mr. Hughes going to Mr. 
Mayall's old place in the Strand, London. Mr. Hughes had 
been in Glasgow for nearly seven years, and had done a very 
good business, going first as operator to Mr. Bernard, and 
succeeding to the business just as I was doing. While Mr. 
Hughes was in Glasgow he was very popular, not only as a 
Daguerrerotypist, but as a lecturer. He delivered a lecture on 
photography at the Literary and Philosophical Society, 
became an active member of the Glasgow Photographic 
Society, and an enthusiastic member of the St. Mark's Lodge 
of Freemasons. Only a day or two before he left Glasgow, 
he occupied the chair at a meeting of photographers, com- 
prising Daguerreotypists and collodion workers, to consider 
what means could be adopted to check the downward tendency 
of prices even in those early days. I was present, and 
remember seeing a lady Daguerreotypist among the company, 
and she expressed her opinion quite decidedly. Efforts were 
made to enter into a compact to maintain good prices, but 
nothing came of it. Like all such bandings together, the band 
^vas quickly and easily broken. 

I had the good fortune to retain the best of Mr. Hughes's 
customers, and make new ones of my own, as well as many 
staunch and valuable friends, both among what I may term 
laymen and brother Masons, while I resided in Glasgow. 
Most of my sitters were of the professional classes, and the 
€lite of the city, among whom were Sir Archibald Alison, 
the historian. Col. (now General) Sir Archibald Alison, Dr. 
Arnott, Professor Ramsey, and many of the princely merchants 



57 

and manufacturers. Some of my other patrons — for I did all 
kinds of photographic work — were the late Norman Macbeth, 
Daniel Mc^N'ee (afterwards Sir Daniel), and President of the 
Scottish Academy of Art, and also Her Majesty the Queen, 
for she bought two of my photographs of Glasgow Cathedral, 
and a copy of my illustration of Hood's " Song of the Shirt," 
copies of which I possess now, and doubtless so does Her 
Majesty. One of the most interesting portraits I remember 
taking while I was in Glasgow was that of John Robertson, 
who constructed the first marine steam engine. He was 
associated with Henry Bell, and fitted the "Comet" with her 
engine. Mr. Napier senr., the celebrated engineer on the Clyde, 
brought Robertson to sit to me, and ordered a great many copies. 
I also took a portrait of Harry Clasper, of rowing and 
boat-building notoriety, which was engraved and published in 
the Illustrated London News. Several of my portraits were 
engraved both on wood and steel, and published. At the 
photographic exhibition in connection with the meeting of the 
British Association held in Glasgow, in 1855, I saw the 
largest collodion positive on glass that ever was made to my 
knowledge. The picture was thirty-six inches long, a view of 
Gourock, or some such place down the Clyde, taken by Mr. 
Kibble. The glass was British plate, and cost about £1. I 
thought it a great evidence of British pluck to attempt such a 
size, "When I saw Mr. Kibble I told him so, and expressed an 
opinion that I thought it a waste of time, labour, and money 
not to have made a negative when he was at such work. He 
took the hint, and at the next photographic exhibition he 
showed a silver print the same size. Mr. Kibble was an 
undoubted enthusiast, and kept a donkey to drag his huge 
camera from place to place. My pictures frequently appeared 
at the Glasgow exhibition, but at one, which was burnt down, I 
lost all my Daguerreotype views of Niagara Falls, Whipple's 
views of the moon, and many other valuable pictures, portraits, 
and views, which could never be replaced. 



THIRD PERIOD. 

COLLODION TRIUMPHANT. 



In 1857 I abandoned the Daguerreotype process entirely, and' 
took to collodion solely ; and, strangely enough, that was the 
year that Frederick Scott Archer, the inventor, died. Like 
Daguerre, he did not long survive the publication and popularity 
of his invention, nor did he live long enough to see his process 
superseded by another. In years, honouis, and emoluments, he 
fell far short of Daguerre, but his process had a much longer 
existence, was of far more commercial value, benefitting private 
individuals and public bodies, and creating an industry that 
expanded rapidly, and gave employment to thousands all over 
the world ; yet he profited little by his invention, and when he 
died, a widow and three children were left destitute. Fortunately 
a few influential friends bestirred themselves in their interest, 
and when the appeal was made to photographers and the public 
to the Archer Testimonial, the following is what appeared in the 
pages oi Punch, June 13th, 1857: — 

"To THE Sons of the Sun. 
"The inventor of collodion has died, leaving his invention 
unpatented, to enrich thousands, and his family unportioned to 
the battle of life. Now, one expects a photographer to be almost 
as sensitive as the collodion to which Mr. Scott Archer helped 
him. A deposit of silver is wanted (gold will do), and certain 
faces, now in the dark chamber, will light up wonderfully, with 



THIRD PERIOD. 



COLLODION. 




FREDERICK SCOTT ARCHER. 
From Glass Positi7\- by R. Catic, Ipswich, iSjs 




HEVER CASTLE, KENT. 
Co/>y of Glass Positive taken by F. Scott Archer in i84<) 



59 

an effect never before equalled by photography. A respectable 
ancient writes that the statue of Fortitude was the only one 
admitted to the Temple of the Sun. Instead whereof, do you, 
photographers, set up Gratitude in your little glass temples of 
the sun, and sacrifice, according to your means, in memory of 
the benefactor who gave you the deity for a household god. 
Now, answers must not be negatives." 

The result of that appeal, and the labours of the gentlemen who 
so generously interested themselves on behalf of the widow and 
orphans, was highly creditable to photographers, the Photo- 
graphic Society, Her Majesty's Ministers, and Her Majesty the 
Queen. What those labours were, few now can have any con- 
ception ; but I think the very best way to convey an idea of 
those labours and their successful results will be to reprint a 
copy of the final report of the committee. 

The Repoet of the Committee of the Akcher Testimonial. 

" The Committee of the Archer Testimonial, considering it 
necessary to furnish a statement of the course pursued towards 
the attainment of their object, desire to lay before the sub- 
scribers and the public generally a full report of their pro- 
ceedings. 

" Shortly after the death of Mr. F. Scott Archer, a preliminary 
meeting of a few friends was held, and it was determined that 
a printed address should be issued to the photographic world. 

"Sir "William Newton, cordially co-operating in the movement, 
at once made application to Her Most Gracious Majesty. The 
Queen, with her usual promptitude and kindness of heart, for- 
warded a donation of £20 towards the Testimonial. The Photo- 
graphic Society of London, at the same time, proposed a grant 
of £50, and this liberality on the part of the Society was fol- 
lowed by an announcement of a list of donations from indi- 
vidual members, which induced your Committee to believe that 
if an appeal were made to the public, and those practising the 



GO 

photographic art, a sum might be raised sufficiently large, not 
only to relieve the immediate wants of the widow and children, 
but to purchase a small annuity, and thus in a slight degree 
compensate for the heavy loss they had sustained by the prema- 
ture death of one to whom the photographic art had already 
become deeply indebted. 

" To aid in the accomplishment of this design, !Mr. Mayall 
placed the use of his rooms at the service of a committee then 
^bout to be formed. Sir "William iS'ewton and Mr. Roger 
Penton consented to act as treasurers to the fund, and the 
Union, and London and "Westminster Banks kindly undertook 
to receive subscriptions. 

"Your Committee first met on the 8th day of June, 1857, 
Mr. Digby "Wyatt being called to the chair, when it was resolved 
to ask the consent of Professors Delamotte and Goodeve to 
become joint secretaries. These duties were willingly accepted, 
and subscription lists opened in various localities in furtherance 
of the Testimonial. 

" Your Committee met on the 8th day of July, and again oa 
the 4th day of September, when, on each occasion, receipts 
wore announced and paid into the bankers. 

"The Society of Arts having kindly offered, through their 
Secretary, the use of apartments in the house of the Society 
ior any further meetings, your Committee deemed it expedient 
to accept the same, and passed a vote of thanks to Mr. Mayall 
for the accommodation previously afforded by that gentleman. 

"Your Committee, believing that the interests of the fund 
would be better served by a short delay in their proceedings, 
resolved on deferring their next meeting until the month of 
jS'ovember, or until the Photographic Society should resume its 
meetings, when a full attendance of members might be antici- 
pated; it being apparent that individually and collectively 
persons in the provinces had withheld their subscriptions until 
the grant of the Photographic Society of London had been. 



61 

formally sanctioned at a special meeting convened for the pur- 
pose, and that their object — the purchase of an annuity for 
Mrs. Archer and her children — could only be effected by the 
most active co-operation among all classes. 

"Your Committee again met on the 26th of November, when 
it was resolved to report progress to the general body of sub- 
scribers, and that a public meeting be called for the purpose, 
at which the Lord Chief Baron Pollock should be requested to 
preside. To this request the Lord Chief Baron most kindly 
and promptly acceded ; and your Committee determined to» 
seek the co-operation of their photographic friends and the public 
to enable them to carry out in its fullest integrity the immedi- 
ate object of securing some small acknowledgment for the 
eminent services rendered to photography by the late Mr. Archer. 

" At this meeting it was stated that an impression existed, 
which to some extent still exists, that Mr. Archer was not the 
originator of the Collodion Process ; your Committee, there- 
fore, think it their duty to state emphatically that they are 
fully satisfied of the great importance of the services rendered 
by him, as an original inventor, to the art of photography. 

" Professor Hunt, having studied during twenty years the 
beautiful art of photography in all its details, submitted to 
the Committee the following explanation of Mr. Archer's just 
right : — 

** ' As there appears to be some misconception of the real 
claim of Mr. Archer to be considered as a discoverer, it is thought 
desirable to state briefly and distinctly what we owe to him. 
There can be no doubt that much of the uncertainty which has 
been thought by some persons to surround the introduction of 
collodion, has arisen from the unobtrusive character of Mr, 
Archer himself, who deferred for a considerable period the pub- 
lication of the process of which he was the discoverer. 

" * When Professor Schonbein, of Basle, introduced gun- 
cotton at the meeting of the British Association at Southampton 



62 

in 1846, the solubility of this curious substance in ether was 
alluded to. "Within a short time collodion was employed in 
our hospitals for the purposes of covering with a film imper- 
vious to air abraded surfaces on the body ; its peculiar electrical 
condition was also known and exhibited by Mr. Hall, of Dart- 
ford, and others. 

" 'The beautiful character of the collodion film speedily led 
to the idea of using it as a medium for receiving photographic 
agents, and experiments were made by spreading the collodion 
on paper and on glass, to form with it sensitive tablets. These 
experiments were all failures, owing to the circumstance that 
the collodion was regarded merely as a sheet upon which the 
photographic materials were to be spread ; the dry collodion 
film being in all cases employed. 

" ' To Mr. Archer, who spent freely both time and money in 
experimental research, it first occurred to dissolve in the 
collodion itself the iodide of potassium. By this means he 
removed every difficulty, and became the inventor of the collo- 
dion process. The pictures thus obtained were exhibited, and 
some of the details of the process communicated by Mr. Scott 
Archer in confidence to friends before he published his process. 
This led, very unfortunately, to experiments by others in the 
same direction, and hence there have arisen claims in opposition 
to those of this lamented photographer. Everyone, however, 
acquainted with the early history of the collodion process freely 
admits that Mr. Archer was the sole inventor of iodized collodion, 
and of those manipulatory details which still, with very slight 
modifications, constitute the collodion process, and he was the 
first person who published any account of the application of this 
remarkable accelerating agent, by which the most important 
movement has been given to the art of photography.' 

"Your committee, in May last, heard with deep regret of 
the sudden death of the widow, Mrs. Archer, which melancholy 
event caused a postponement of the general meeting resolved 



03 

upon in November last. Sir Wm. Xewton thereupon resolved 
to make ano1;her effort to obtain a pension for the three orphan 
children, now more destitute than ever, and so earnestly did ho 
urge their claim upon the Minister, Lord Derby, that a reply 
came the same day from his lordship's private secretary, saying, 
' The Queen has been pleased to approve of a pension of fifty 
pounds per annum being paid from the Civil List to the children 
of the late Mr. Frederick Scott Archer, in consideration of the 
scientific discoveries of their father,' his lordship adding his 
regrets ' that the means at his disposal have not enabled him to 
do more in this case.' Your committee, to mark their sense of 
the value of the services rendered to the cause by Sir "William 
Newton, thereupon passed a vote of thanks to him. In 
conclusion, your committee have to state that a trust deed has 
been prepared, free of charge, by Henry "White, Esq., of 
7, Southampton Street, which conveys the fund collected to 
trustees, to be by them invested in the public securities for the 
sole benefit of the orphan children. The sum in the "LTnion 
Bank now amounts to £549 lis. 4d., exclusive of interest, 
and the various sums — in all about £68 — paid over to Mrs. 
Archer last year. Thus far, the result is a subject for con- 
gratulation to the subscribers and your committee, whose labours 
have hitherto not been in vain. Tour committee are, neverthe- 
less, of opinion that an appeal to Parliament might be productive 
of a larger recognition of the claim of these orphan children — 
a claim not undeserving the recognition of the Legislature, 
when the inestimable boon bestowed upon the country is duly 
considered. Since March 1851, when Mr. Archer described his 
process in the pages of the Chemist, how many thousands must 
in some way or other have been made acquainted with the 
immense advantages it offers over all other processes in the arts, 
and how many instances could be adduced in testimony of its 
usefulness ? For instance, its value to the Government during 
the last war, in the engineering department, the construction 



64 

of field works, and in recording observations of historical and 
scientific interest. Your committee noticed that an attractive 
feature of the Photographic Society's last exhibition was a 
series of drawings and plans, executed by the Royal Engineers, 
in reduction of various ordnance maps, at a saving estimated at 
£30,000 to the country. The non-commissioned officers of this 
corps are now trained in this art, and sent to different foreign 
stations, so that in a few years there will be a network of 
photographic stations spread over the world, and having their 
results recorded in the "War Department, and, in a short time, 
all the world will be brought under the subjugation of art. 

"Mr. "Warren De la Rue exhibited to the Astronomical Society^ 
November, 1857, photographs of the moon and Jupiter, taken 
by the collodion process in five seconds, of which the Astronomer- 
Royal said, 'that a step of very great importance had been 
made, and that, either as regards the self-delineation of clusters 
of stars, nebulae, and planets, or the self-registration of observa- 
tions, it is impossible at present to estimate the value.' "When 
admiring the magnificent photographic prints which are now 
to be seen in almost every part of the civilised world, an 
involuntary sense of gratitude towards the discoverer of the 
collodion process must be experienced, and it cannot but be felt 
how much the world is indebted to Mr. Archer for having 
placed at its command the means by which such beautiful 
objects are presented. How many thousands amongst those 
who owe their means of subsistence to this process must have 
experienced such a feeling of gratitude? It is upon such 
considerations that the public have been, and still are, invited 
to assist in securing for the orphan children of the late Mr. 
Archer some fitting appreciation of the service which he 
rendered to science, art, his country — nay, to the whole world. 
" M. DiGBT "Wtatt, Chairman, 
" Jabez Hogs, Secretary to Committee^ 
''Society of Arts, July, 1858." 



65 

After reading that report, and especially Mr. Hunt's remarks, 
it will appear evident to all that even that act of charity, grati- 
tude, and justice could not be carried through without someone 
raising objections and questioning the claims of Frederick Scott 
Archer as the original inventor of the Collodion process. iN'early 
all the biographers and historians of photography have coupled 
other names with Archer's, either as assistants or co-inventors, 
but I have evidence in my possession that will prove that neither 
Fry nor Diamond afforded Archer any assistance whatever, and 
that Archer preceded all the other claimants in his application 
of coUoflion. In support of the first part of this statement, I 
shall give extracts from Mrs. Archer's letter, now in my pos- 
session, which, I think, will set that matter at rest for ever. 
Mrs. Archer, writing from Bishop Stortford on December 7th, 
1857, says, " When Mr. A. prepared pupils for India he always 
taught the paper process as well as the Collodion, for fear the 
chemicals should cause disappointment in a hot climate, as I 
believe that the negative paper he prepared differed from 
that in general use. I enclosed a specimen made in our glass 
house. 

"In Mr. Hunt's book, as well as Mr. Home's, Mr. Fry's name 
is joined with Mr. Archer's as the originators of the Collodion 
process. 

" Should Mr. Hunt seem to require any corroboration of what 
I have stated respecting Mr. Fry, I can send you many of Mr. 
Fry's notes of invitation, when Mr. A. merely gave him lessons 
in the application of collodion, and Mr. Brown gave me the 
correspondence which passed between him and Mr. Fry on the 
subject at the time Mr. Home's book was published. I did not 
send up those papers, for, unless required, it is useless to dwell 
on old grievances, but I should like such a man as Mr. Hunt to 
understand how the association of the two names originated." 

As to priority of application, the following letter ought to 
settle that point : — 

p 



66 



"Alma Cottage, Bishop Stortford. 
"9th December, 1857. 

*' Sib, — My hunting has at length proved successful. In the 
■enclosed book you will find notes respecting the paper pulp, 
albumen, tanno -gelatine, and collodion. You will therein see 
Mr. Archer's notes of iod-collodion in 1849. You may wonder 
that I could not find this note-book before, but the numbers of 
papers that there are, and the extreme disorder, defy description. 
My head was in such a deplorable state before I left that I could 
arrange nothing. Those around me were most anxious to des- 
troy all the papers, and I had great trouble to keep all witli 
Mr. Archer's handwriting upon them, however dirty and rub- 
bishing they might appear, so they were huddled together, a 
complete chaos. I look back with the greatest thankfulness 
that my brain did not completely lose its balance, for I had not 
a single relative who entered into Mr. Archer's pursuits, so that 
they could not possibly assist me. 

" Mr. Archer being of so reserved a character, I had to find out 
where everything was, and my search has been amongst differ- 
ent things. I need not tell you that I hope this dirty enclosure 
will be taken care of. 

" The paper pulp occupied much time ; in fact, notes were only 
made of articles which had been much tried, which might pro- 
bably be brought into use. — I am, sir, yours faithfully, 

"J. Bogg, Esq. F. G. Akchee." 

If the foregoing is not evidence sufficient, I have by me a 
very good glass positive of Hever Castle, Kent, which was 
taken in the spring of 1849, and two collodion negatives made 
by Mr. Archer in the autumn of 1848 ; and these dates are all 
Touched for by Mr. Jabez Hogg, who was Mr. Archer's medical 
attendant and friend, and knew him long before he began his 
experiments with collodion — whereas I cannot find a trace even 
of the suggestion of the application of collodion in the practice 



67 



of photography eitlier by Gustave Le Gray or J. R. Bingham 
prior to 1849 ; while Mr. Archer's note-book proves that he 
■was not only iodizing collodion at that date, but making experi- 
ments with paper pulp and gelatine ; so that Mr. Archer was 
not only the inventor of the collodion process, but was on the 
track of its destroyer even at that early date. He also 
published his method of bleaching positives and intensifying 
negatives with bichloride of mercury. 

Frederick Scott Archer was born at Bishop Stortford in 1813, 
but there is little known of his early life, and what little there 
is I will allow Mrs. Archer to tell in her own way. 

" Deae Sik, — I do not know whether the enclosed is what 
you require ; if not, be kind enough to let me know, and I 
must try to supply you with something better. I thought you 
merely required particulars relating to photography. Other- 
wise Mr. Archer's career was a singular one : Losing his parents 
in childhood, he lived in a world of his own ; I think you know 
he was apprenticed to a bullion dealer in the city, where the 
most beautiful antique gems and coins of all nations being con- 
stantly before nim, gave him the desire to model the figures, and 
led him to ''he study of numismatics. He worked so hard at 
nights at these pursuits that his master gave up the last two 
years of his time to save his life. He only requested him to be 
on the premises, on account of his extreme confidence in him. 

" Many other peculiarities I could mention, but I dare say you 
know them already. 

" I will send a small case to you, containing some early speci- 
mens and gutta-percha negatives, with a copy of Mr. A.'s por- 
trait, which I found on leaving Great Eussell Street, and have 
had several printed from it. It is not a good photograph, but 
I think you will consider it a likeness. I am, yours faithfully, 

" J. Eogg, Esq. F. G. Aechek." 

Frederick Scott Archer pursued the double occupation of 



68 

sculptor and photographer at 105, Great Eussell Street. It was 
there he so persistently persevered in his photographic experi- 
ments, and there he died in May, 1857, and was interred in 
Kensal Green Cemetery. A reference to the report of the Com- 
mittee will show what was done for his bereaved family — a 
widow and three children. Mrs. Archer followed her husband 
in March, 1858, and two of the children died early ; but one, 
Alice (unmarried), is still alive and in receipt of the Crown 
pension of fifty pounds per annum. 

"While the collodion episode in the history of photography is 
before my readers, and especially as the process is rapidly 
becoming extinct, I think this will be a suitable place to insert 
Archer's instructions for making a soluble gun-cotton, iodizing 
collodion, developing, and fixing the photographic image. 

Gun-Cotto7i {or Pyroxaline, as it was afterwards named). 
Take of dry nitre in powder ... ... ... 40 parts 

Sulphuric acid ... ... ... ... 60 ,, 

Cotton 2 ,, 

The sulphuric acid and the nitre were mixed together, and 
immediately the latter was all dissolved, the gun-cotton was 
added and well stirred with a glass rod for about two minutes ; 
then the cotton was plunged into a large bowl of water and well 
washed with repeated changes of water until the acid and nitre 
were washed away. The cotton was then pressed and dried, 
and converted into collodion by dissolving 30 grains of gun- 
cotton in 18 fluid ounces of ether and 2 ounces of alcohol — 
putting the cotton into the ether first, and then adding the 
alcohol ; the collodion allowed to settle and decanted prior to 
iodizing. The latter operation was performed by adding a 
sufficient quantity of iodide of silver to each ounce of the plain 
collodion. Mr. Archer tells how to make the iodide of silver, 
but the quantity is regulated by the quantity of alcohol in the 
collodion. When the iodized collodion was ready for use, a 



69 

glass plate was cleaned and coated mth it, and then sensitized 
by immersion in a bath of nitrate of silver solution — 30 grains 
of nitrate of silver to each ounce of distilled water. From three 
to five minutes' immersion in the silver bath was generally 
sufficient to sensitize the plate. This, of course, had to be done 
in what is commonly called a darh-room. After exposure in the 
camera, the picture was developed by pouring over the surface 
of the plate a solution of pyrogallic acid of the following pro- 
portions : — 

Pyrogallic acid 5 grains 

Distilled water 10 ounces 

Glacial acetic acid 40 minims 

After the development of the picture it was washed and fixed in 
a solution of hyposulphite of soda, 4 ounces to 1 pint of water. 
The plate was then washed and dried. This is an epitome of 
the whole of Archer's process for making either negatives or 
positives on glass, the difference being effected by varying the 
time of exposure and development. Of course the process was 
somewhat modified and simplified by experience and commercial 
enterprise. Later on bromides were added to the collodion, an 
iron developer employed, and cyanide of potassium as a fixing 
agent ; but the principle remained the same from first to last. 

"When pyrogallic acid was first employed in photography, it 
was quoted at 2 Is. per oz., and, if I remember rightly, I paid 3s. 
ior the first drachm that I purchased. On referring to an old 
price list I find Daguerreotype plates, 2 J by 2 inches, quoted at 
12s. per dozen; nitrate of silver, 5s. 6d. per oz. ; chloride of 
gold, 5s. 6d. for 15 grains ; hyposulphite of soda at 5s. per lb. ; 
and a half -plate rapid portrait lens by Voightlander, of Vienna, 
at £60. Those were the days when photography might well be 
considered expensive, and none but the wealthy could indulge in 
its pleasures and fascinations. 

"While I lived in Glasgow, competition was tolerably keen, 



70 

even then, and amongst the best " glass positive men " vs^ere- 
Messrs. Bibo, Bowman, J. TPrie, and Young and Sun, as the 
latter styled himseli ; and in photographic portraiture, plain and 
coloured, by the collodion process, were Messrs. Macnab and 
J. Stuart. From the time that I relinquished the Daguerreo- 
type process, in 1857, I devoted my attention to the production 
of high- class collodion negatives. I never took kindly to glass 
positives, though I had done some as early as 1852. They were 
never equal in beauty and delicacy to a good Daguerreotype, and 
their low tone was to me very objectionable. I considered the 
Ferrotype the best form of collodion positive, and did several of 
them, but my chief work was plain and coloured prints from 
collodion negatives, also small portraits on visiting cards. 

Early in January, 1860, my home and business were destroyed. 
by fire, and I lost all my old and new specimens of Daguerreo- 
types and photographs, all my Daguerreotype and other appa- 
ratus, and nearly everything I possessed. As I was only 
partially insured, I suffered considerable loss. After settling 
my affairs I decided on going to America again and trying my 
luck in New York. Family ties influenced this decision con- 
siderably, or I should not have left Glasgow, where I was both 
prosperous and respected. To obtain an idea of the latest and 
best aspects of photography, I visited London and Paris. 

The carte-de-visite form of photography had not exhibited 
much vitality at that period in London, but in Paris it was 
beginning to be popular. While in London I accompanied 
Mr. Jabez Hughes to the meeting of the Photographic 
Society, Feb. 7th, 1860, the Eight Honorable the Lord Chief 
Baron Pollock in the chair, when the report of the Collodion 
Committee was delivered. The committee, consisting of 
F. Bedford, P. Delamotte, Dr. Diamond, Eoger Fenton, Jabez 
Hughe s, T. A. Malone, J. H. Morgan, H. P. Eobinson, Alfred 
Eos ling, W. Eussell Sedgefield, J. Spencer, and T. E. Williams, 
strongly recommended Mr. Hardwich's formula. That was my 



71 

first visit to the Society, and I certainly did not think then that 
I should ever see it again, or become and be a member for 
twenty-two years. 

I sailed from Liverpool in the ss. City of Baltimore in 
March, and reached JS'ew York safely in April, 1860. I took 
time to look about me, and visited all the " galleries " on 
Broadway, and other places, before deciding where I should 
locate myself. Many changes had taken place during the six 
years I had been absent. Nearly all the old Daguerreotypists 
were still in existence, but all of them, with the exception of 
Mr. Brady, had abandoned the Daguerreotype process, and Mr. 
Brady only retained it for small work. Most of the chief 
galleries had been moved higher up Broadway, and a mania of 
magnificence had taken possession of most of the photographers. 
Mx. Anson was the first to make a move in that direction by 
opening a "superb gallery" on the ground floor in Broadway 
right opposite the Metropolitan Hotel, filling his windows with 
life-sized photographs coloured in oil at the back, which he 
called Diaphanotypes. He did a large business in that class of 
work, especially among visitors from the Southern States ; but 
that was soon to end, for already there were rumours of war, but 
few then gave it any serious consideration. 

Messrs. Gurney and Sons' gallery was also a very fijie one, 
but not on the ground floor. Their "saloon" was upstairs. 
This house was one of the oldest in JS'ew York in connection 
with photography. In the very early days, Mr. Gurney, senr., 
was one of the most eminent " professors " of the Daguerreotype 
process, and was one of the committee appointed to wait upon 
the Kev. AVm. Hill, a preacher in the Catskills, to negotiate 
with the reverend gentlemen (?) for his vaunted secret of photo- 
graphy in natural colours. As the art progressed, or the 
necessity for change arose, Mr. Gurney was ready to introduce 
every novelty, and, in later years, in conjunction with Mr. 
Fredericks, then in partnership with Mr. Gurney, he introduced 



72 

the "Hallotype," not Hillotype, and the "Ivorytype." Both 
these processes had their day. The former was photography 
spoiled by the application of Canada balsam and very little art ; 
the latter was the application of a great deal of art to spoil a 
photograph. The largest of all the large galleries on Broadway 
was that of Messrs. Fredericks and Co. The whole of the 
ground and first floor were thrown into one " crystal front," and 
made a very attractive appearance. The windows were filled 
with life-sized portraits painted in oil, crayons,and other styles, 
and the walls of the interior were covered with life-sized 
portraits of eminent men and beautiful women. The floor was 
richly carpeted, and the furnishing superb. A gallery ran round 
the walls to enable the visitors to view the upper pictures, and 
obtain a general view of the "saloon," the iout ensemble of 
which was magnificent. From the ground floor an elegant 
staircase led to the galleries, toilet and waiting rooms, and thence 
to the operating rooms or studios. Some of the Parisian galleries 
were fine, but nothing to be compared with Fredericks', and the 
finest establishment in London did not bear the slightest 
comparison. 

Mr. Brady was another of the early workers of the Daguerreo- 
type process, and probably the last of his confreres to abandon it. 
He commenced business in the early forties in Fulton Street, a 
long way down Broadway, but as the sea of commerce pressed 
on and rolled over the strand of fashion, he was obliged to move 
higher and higher up Broadway, until he reached the comer of 
Tenth Street, nearly opposite Grace Church. Mr. Brady 
appeared to set the Franklin maxim, " Three removes as bad as 
a fire," at defiance, for he had made three or four moves to my 
knowledge — each one higher and higher to more elegant and 
expensive premises, each remove entailing the cost of more and 
more expensive furnishing, until his latest effort in upholstery 
culminated in a superb suite of black walnut and green silk 
velvet; in short, Longfellow's "Excelsior" appeared to be the 
motto of Mr. Brady. 



73 

Messrs. Mead Brothers, Samuel Root, James Cady, and George 
Adams ought to receive "honourable mention" in connection 
with the art in iN'ew York, for they were excellent operators in 
the Daguerreotype days, and all were equally good manipulators 
of the collodion process and silver printing. 

After casting and sounding about, like a mariner seeking a 
haven on a strange coast, I finally decided on buying a half 
interest in the gallery of Mead Brothers, 805, Broadway ; Harry 
Mead retaining his, or his wife's share of the business, but 
leaving me to manage the " uptow^n " branch. This turned out 
to be an unfortunate speculation, which involved me in a law- 
suit with one of Mead's creditors, and compelled me to get rid 
of a very unsatisfactory partner in the best way and at any cost 
that I could. Mead's creditor, by some process of law that I 
could never understand, stripped the gallery of all that belonged 
to my partner, and even put in a claim for half of the fixtures. 
Over this I lost my temper, and had to pay, not the piper, but 
the lawyer. I also found that Mrs. Henry Mead had a bill of 
sale on her husband's interest in the business, which I ended by 
buying her out. Husband and wife are very seldom one in 
America. Soon after getting the gallery into my own hands, 
refurnishing and rearranging, the Prince of "Wales's ^-isit to New 
York was arranged, and as the windows of my gallery com- 
manded a good view of Broadway, I let most of them very 
advantageously, retaining the use of one only for myself and 
family. There were so many delays, however, at the City Hall 
and other places on the day of the procession, that it was almost 
dark when the Prince reached 805, Broadway, and all my guests 
were both weary of waiting so long, and disappointed at seeing 
50 little of England's future lung. 

"When I recommenced business on Broadway on my own account 
there was only one firm taking cartes-de-visite, and I introduced 
that form of portrait to my customers, but they did not take 
very kindly to it, though a house not far from me was doing a 



74 

very good "business in that style at tliree dollars a dozen, and 
Messrs. Rockwood and Co. appeared to be monopolising all the 
carte-de-visite business that was being done in New York ; but 
eventually I got in the thin edge of the wedge by exhibiting 
four for one dollar. This ruse brought in sitters, and I began 
to do very well until Abraham Lincoln issued his proclamation 
calling for one hundred thousand men to stamp out the Southern 
rebellion. I remember that morning most distinctly. It was 
a miserably wet morning in April, 1861, and all kinds of business 
received a shock. People looked bewildered, and thought of 
nothing but saving their money and reducing their expenses. 
It had a blighting effect on my business, and I, not knowing, 
like others, where it might land me, determined to get rid of 
my responsibilities at any cost, so I sold my business for a great 
deal less than it was worth, and at a very serious loss. The 
outbreak of that gigantic civil war and a severe family 
bereavement combined, induced me to return to England as 
soon as possible. Before leaving America, in all probability for 
ever, I went to "Washington to bid some friends farewell, and 
while there I went into Virginia with a friend on Sunday 
morning, July 21st, and in the afternoon saw the smoke and 
heard the cannonading of the first battle of Bull Run, and 
witnessed, next morning, the rout and rush into Washington 
of the demoralised fragments of the Federal army. I wrote 
and sent a description of the stampede to a friend in Glasgow, 
which he handed over to the Glasgow Herald for publication, 
and I have reason to believe that my description of that memor- 
able rout was the first that was published in Great Britain. 

As soon as I could settle my aflfairs I left New York with my 
family, and arrived in London on the 15th of September, 1861. 
It was a beautiful sunny day when I landed, and, after all the 
trouble and excitement I had so recently seen and experienced, 
London, despite its business and bustle, appeared like a heaven- 
of peace. 



75 

Mr. Jabez Hughes was about the last to wish me " God- 
speed " when I left England, so he was the first I went to see 
when I returned. I found, to my disappointment, that he was 
in Paris, but Mrs. Hughes gave me a hearty welcome. After a 
few days' sojourn in London I went to Glasgow with the view 
of recommencing in that city, where I had many friends ; but 
while there, and on the very day that I was about to sign for 
the lease of a house, Mr. Hughes wrote to offer me the manage- 
ment of his business in Oxford Street. It did not take me long 
to decide, and by return post that same night I wrote accepting 
the offer. I concluded all other arrangements as c[uickly as 
possible, returned to London, and entered upon my managerial 
duties on the 1st November, 1861. I had long wished and 
looked out for an opportunity to settle in London and enlarge 
my circle of photographic acquaintance and experience, so I put 
on my new harness with alacrity and pleasure. 

Among the earliest of my new acquaintances was George 
"WTiarton Simpson, Editor of the Photogkaphic ]S"ews. He 
called at Oxford Street one evening while I was the guest of 
Mr. Hughes, by whom we were introduced, and we spent a long, 
chatty, and pleasant evening together, talking over my Ameri- 
can experience and matters photographic ; but, to my surprise, 
much of our conversation appeared in the next issue of his 
journal (^?^'(?e Photographic News, October 11th, 1861, pp. 480-1). 
But that was a power, I afterwards ascertained, which he pos- 
sessed to an eminent degree, and which he utilized most suc- 
cessfully at his "Wednesday evenings at home," when he 
entertained his photographic friends at Canonbury Ptoad, N. 
Very delightful and enjoyable those evenings were, and he 
never failed to cull paragraphs for the Photogkapbic News from 
the busy brains of his numerous visitors. He was a genial host, 
and his wife was a charming hostess ; and his daughter Eva, 
now the wife of "William Black the novelist, often increased 
the charm of those evenings by the exhibition of her musical 



76 

abilities. It is often a wonder to me that other editors of photo- 
graphic journals don't pursue a similar plan, for those social 
re-unions were not only pleasant, but profitable to old friend 
Simpson. Through Mr. Simpson's " at homes," and my con- 
nection with Mr. Hughes, I made the acquaintance of nearly 
all the eminent photographers of the time, amongst whom may 
be mentioned W. G. Lacy, of Eyde, I.W. The latter was a 
very sad and brief acquaintanceship, for he died in Mr. Hughes's 
sitting-room oa the 21st November, 1861, in the presence of 
G. Wharton Simpson, Jabez Hughes, and myself, and, strangely 
enough, it was entirely through this death that Mr. Hughes 
went to Kyde, and became photographer to the Queen. Mr. 
Lacy made his will in Mr. Hughes's sitting-room, and Mr. Simp- 
son sole executor, who sold Mr. Laey's business in the Arcade, 
Eyde, I."W., to Mr. Hughes, and in the March following he took 
possession, leaving me solely in charge of his business in Oxford 
Street, London. 

About this time Mr. Skaife introduced his ingenious pistol- 
graph, but it was rather in advance of the times, for the dry- 
plates then in the market were not quite quick enough for 
"snap shots," though I have seen some fairly good pictures 
taken with the apparatus. 

At this period a fierce controversy was raging about lunar 
photography, but it was all unnecessary, as the moon had 
photographed herself under the guidance of Mr. "Whipple, of 
Boston, U.S., as early as 1853, and all that was required to 
obtain a lunar picture was sufficient exposure. 

On December 3rd, 1861, Thomas Ross read a paper and 
exhibited a panoramic lens and camera at a meeting of the 
Photographic Society, and on the 15tli October, 1889, I saw 
the same apparatus, in perfect condition, exhibited as a curiosity 
at the Photographic Society's Exhibition, l^o wonder the appa- 
ratus was in such good condition, for I should think it had 
.never been used but once. The plates were 10 inches long, 



77 

and curved like tlie crescent of a new moon. Cleaning boards 
dark slide, and printing-frame, were all curved. Fancy the 
expense and trouble attending tbe use of such an apparatus ; I 
should think it had few buyers. Certainly I never sold one, 
and I never met with any person who had bought one. 

Amateurs have ever been the most restless and discontented 
disciples of the "Fathers of Photography," always craving for 
something new, and seeking to lessen their labours and increase 
their facilities, and to these causes we are chiefly indebted for 
the marvellous development and radical changes of photography. 
No sooner was the Daguerreotype process perfected than it was 
superseded by wet collodion, and that was barely a workable pro- 
cess when it became the anxiety of every amateur to have a dry 
collodion process, and multitudes of men were at work endeavour- 
ing to make, modify, or invent ameans that would enable them to 
use the camera as a sort of sketch-book, and make their finished 
picture at home at their leisure. Hence the number of Dry 
Plate processes published about this period, and the contro- 
versies carried on by the many enthusiastic champions of the 
various methods. Beer was pitted agaiust tea and coffee, honey 
against albumen, gin against gum, but none of them were equal 
to wet collodion. 

The International Exhibition of 1862 did little or nothing in • 
the interests of photography. It is true there was a scattered 
and skied exhibition at the top of a high tower, but as there 
was no "lift," I suspect very few people went to see the 
exhibits. I certainly was not there more than once myself. 
Among the exhibitors of apparatus were the names of Messrs. 
McLean, Melhuish and Co., Murray and Heath, P. Meagher, 
T. Ottewill and Co., but there was nothing very remarkable 
among their exhibits. There was some very good workman- 
ship, but the articles exhibited were not beyond the quality of 
the everyday manufacture of the best camera and apparatus 
makers. 



78 

The chief contributors to the exhibition of photographs were 
Messrs. Mayall, T. E. "Williams, and Herbert Watkins in por- 
traiture ; and in landscapes, &c., Messrs. Francis Bedford, E,e]- 
lander, Rouch, Stephen Thompson, James Mudd, "William May- 
land, H. P. Robinson, and Breeze. By some carelessness or 
stupidity on the part of the attendants or constructors of the 
Exhibition, nearly all Mr. Breeze's beautiful exhibits — stereo- 
scopes and stereoscopic transparencies — were destroyed by the 
fall of a skylight. Perhaps the best thing that the International 
Exhibition did for photography was the issue of the Jurors' 
Heport, as it was prefaced with a brief History of Photography 
up to date, not perfectly correct regarding theHev. J. B. Reade's 
labours, but otherwise good, the authorship of which I attribute 
to the late Dr. Diamond ; but the awards — ah ! well, awards 
never were quite satisfactory. Commendees thought they 
should have been medalists, and the latter thought something 
else. Thomas Ross, J. H. Dallmeyer, and Negretti and Zambra 
were the English recipients of medals, and Voigtlander and Son 
and C. Dietzler received medals for their lenses. 

Early in 1862 the Harrison Globe Lens was attracting atten- 
tion, and, as much was claimed for it both in width of angle 
and rapidity, I imported from "New York a 5 by 4 and a whole 
plate as samples. The 5 by 4 was an excellent lens, and 
embraced a much wider angle than any other lens known, and 
Mr. Hughes employed it to photograph the bridal bed and suite 
of apartments of the Prince and Princess of "Wales at Osborn, 
Isle of Wight, and I feel certain that no other lens would have 
done the work so well. I have copies of the photograph by me 
now. They are circular pictures of five inches in diameter, 
and every article and decoration visible in the chambers are as 
sharp and crisp as possible. I showed the lens to Mr. Dall- 
meyer, and he thought he could make a better one ; his "Wide- 
Angle Rectilinear was the result. 

Mr. John Pouncy, of Dorchester, introduced his "patent 



79 

process for permanent printing " this year, but it never made 
much headway. It was an oleagenous process, mixed with 
bichromate of potash, or bitumen of Judea, and always smelt of 
bad fat. I possessed examples at the time, but took no care of 
them, and no one else did in all probability ; but it appeared to 
me to be the best means of transferring photographic impressions 
to wood blocks for the engraver's purpose. Thomas Sutton, B.A., 
published a book on Pouncy's process and carbon printing, but 
the process had inherent defects which were not overcome, so 
nothing could make it a success. Sutton's " History of Carbon 
Printing " was sufficiently interesting to attract both readers and 
buyers at the time. 

I have previously stated that Daguerre introduced and left 
his process in an imperfect and uncommercial condition, and 
that it was John Frederick Goddard, then lecturer at the 
Adelaide Gallery, London, and inventor of the polariscope, who 
discovered the accelerating properties of bromine, and by which, 
with iodine, he obtained a bromo-iodide of silver on the surface 
of the silvered plate employed in the Daguerreotype process, 
thereby reducing the time of exposure from twenty minutes to 
twenty seconds, and making the process available for portraiture 
with an ordinary double combination lens. Somehow or other, 
this worthy gentleman had fallen into adverse circumstances, 
and was obliged to eat the bread of charity in his old age. The 
facts of this sad case coming to the knowledge of Mr. Hughes 
and others, an appeal, written by Mr. Hughes, was published in 
the Phoiogeaphic ISTews, December 11th, 1863. As Mr. Hughes 
and myself had benefited by Mr. Goddard's improvement in the 
practice of the Daguerreotype, we took an active interest in the 
matter, and, by canvassing friends and customers, succeeded in 
obtaining a considerable proportion of the sum total subscribed 
for the relief of Mr. Goddard. Enough was obtained to make 
him independent and comfortable for the remainder of his life. 
Mr. T. R. "Williams was appointed almoner by the committee, 



80 

but his office -u^as not for long, as Mr. Gocldard died Dec. 28tli, 
1866. 

On the 5th of April, 1864, I attended a meeting of the Photo- 
graphic Society at King's College, and heard Mr. J. W. Swan 
read a paper on his new patent carbon process. It was a crowded 
meeting, and an intense interest pervaded the minds of both 
members and visitors. The examples exhibited were very 
beautiful, but at that early stage they began to show a 
weakness, which clung to the collodion support as long as it was 
employed. Some of the specimens which I obtained at the time 
left the mounting boards, and the films were torn asunder by 
opposing forces, and the pictures completely destroyed. I 
have one in my possession now in that unsatisfactory condition. 
Mr. Swan's process was undoubtedly an advance in the right 
direction, but it was still imperfect, and required further 
improvement. Many of the members failed to see where the 
patent rights came in, and Mr. Swan himseK appeared to have 
qualms of conscience on the subj ect, for he rather apologetically 
announced in his paper, that he had obtained a patent, though his 
first intention was to allow it to be practised without any 
restriction. I think myself it would have been wiser to have 
adhered to his original intention ; however, it was left to others 
to do more to advance the carbon process than he did. 

During this year (1865) an effort was made to establish a 
claim of priority in favour of Thomas "Wedgwood for the honour 
of having made photographs on silver plates, and negatives on 
paper, and examples of such alleged early works were submitted 
to the inspection of members of the Photographic Society, but it 
was most satisfactorily determined that the photographs on the 
silver plates were weak Daguerreotypes of a posterior date, and 
ttiat the photographic prints, on paper, of a breakfast-table were 
from a calotype negative taken by Fox Talbot. Messrs. 
Henneman and Dr. Diamond proved this most conclusively. 
Other prints then exhibited, and alleged to be photographs, were 



81 

nothing but prints from metal plates, produced by some process of 
engraving, probably Aquatint. I saw some of tbe examples at the 
time, and, as recently as Kov. 1st, 1889, I have seen some of 
them again, and I think the " Breakfast Table " and a view of 
" "Wedgwood's Pottery " are silver prints, though very much 
faded, from calotype negatives. The other prints, such as the 
"Piper" and "A Vase," are from engraved plates. No one 
can desire to lessen Thomas Wedgwood's claims to pre-eminence 
among the early experimentalists with chloride of silver, but 
there cannot now be any denial to the claims of the Rev. J. B. 
Eeade in 1837, and Fox Talbot in 1840, of being the earliest 
producers of photographic negatives on paper, from which 
numerous prints could be obtained. 

The Wothlytype printing process was introduced to the 
notice of photographers and the public this year : first, by a 
blatant article in the Times, which was both inaccurate and 
misleading, for it stated that both nitrate of silver and hypo- 
sulphite of soda were dispensed with in the process ; secondly, 
by the issue of advertisements and prospectuses for the formation 
of a Limited Liability Company. I went to the Patent Office 
and examined the specification, and found that both nitrate of 
silver and hyposulphite of soda were essential to the practice 
of the process, and that there was no greater guarantee of 
permanency in the use of the Wothlytype than in ordinary silver 
printing. 

On March 14th, 1865, George Wharton Simpson, editor and 
proprietor of the Photographic News, read a paper at a meeting 
of the Photographic Society on a new printing process with 
collodio-chloride of silver on paper. Many beautiful examples 
were exhibited, but the method never became popular, cliiefly 
on account of the troubles of toning with sulpho-cyanide of 
ammonium. The same or a similar process, substituting gelatine 
for collodion, is known and practised now under the name of 
Aristotype, but not very extensively, because of the same 



82 

defects and difficulties attending tlie Simpsontype. Another 
new method of positive printing was introduced this year by 
Mr. John M. Burgess, of Xorwich, which he called '' Eburneum." 
It was not in reality a new mode of printing, but an ingenious 
application of the collodion transfer, or stripping process. The 
back of the collodion jjositive print was coated with a mixture 
of gelatine and oxide of zine, and when drj' stripped from the 
glass. The finished picture resembled a print on very fine 
ivory, and possessed both delicate half-tones and brilliant 
shadows. I possess some of them now, and they are as 
beautiful as they were at first, after a lapse of nearly quarter 
of a century. It was a veiy troublesome and tedious process, 
and I don't think many people practised it. Certainly 1 don't 
know any one that does so at the present time. 

This was the year of the Dublin International Exhibition. 
I went to see it and report thereon, and my opinions and 
criticisms of the photographic and other departments will be 
found and may be perused in '' Contributions to Photographic 
Literature." On the whole, it was a very excellent exhibition, 
and I thoroughly enjoyed the trip. 

A new carbon process by M. Carey Lea was published this 
year. The ingredients were similar to those employed by 
Swan and others, but differently handled, ^o pigment was 
mixed with the gelatine before exposure, but it was rubbed 
on after exposure and washing, and with care any colour or 
number of colours might be applied, and so produce a poly- 
chromatic picture, but I don't know any one that ever did so. 
I think it could easily be applied to making photographic 
transfers to blocks for the use of wood engravers. 

December 5th, 1865, Mr. "Walter Woodbury demonstrated 
and exhibited examples of the beautiful mechanical process that 
bears his name to the members of the Photographic Society. 
The process was not entirely photographic. The province of 
photography ceased on the production of the gelatine relief. 



83 

All that followed was strictly mechanical. It is somewhat 
singular that a majority of the inventions and modifications 
of processes that were introduced this year related to carbon 
and permanency. 

Thursday, January 11th, 1866, I read, at the South London 
Photographic Society, a paper on "Errors in Pictorial Back- 
grounds." As the paper, as well as the discussion thereon, is 
published in extenso in the journals of the period, it is not 
necessary for me to repeat it here, but I may as well state 
briefly my reasons for reading the paper. At that time 
pictorial backgrounds and crowded accessories were greatly in 
use, and it was seldom, if ever, that the horizontal line of the 
painted background, and the horizontal line indicated by the posi- 
tion of the camera, coincided. Consequently the photographic 
pictures obtained under such conditions invariably exhibited 
this incongruity, and it was with the hope of removing these 
defects, or violations of art rules and optical laws, that I 
ventured to call attention to the subject and suggest a remedy. 
A little later, I wrote an article, " Notes on Pictures in the 
National Gallery," which was published in the Photographic 
News of March 29th, in support of the arguments already 
adduced in my paper on " Errors in Pictorial Backgrounds," and 
I recommend every portrait photographer to study those pictures. 

February 13th I was elected a member of the Photographic 

Society of London. 

Quite a sensation was created in the Spring of this year by 
the introduction of what were termed " Magic Photographs." 
Some one was impudent enough to patent the process, although 
it was nothing but a resurrection of what was published in 
1840 by Sir John Herschel, which consisted of bleaching an 
ordinary siher print to invisibilty with bichloride of mercury, 
and restoring it by an application of hyposulphite of soda. 
I introduced another form of magic photograph, in various 
monochromatic colours, similar to Sir John Herschel' s cyano- 



84 

type, and I have several of these pictures in my possession 
now, both blue, purple, and red, dated 1866, as bright and 
beautiful as they were the day they were made. But the 
demand for these magic photographs was suddenly stopped by 
some one introducing indecent pictures. In all probability 
these objectionable pictures came from abroad, and the most 
scrupulous of the home producers suffered in consequence, as 
none of the purchasers could possibly know what would appear 
when the developer or redeveloper was applied. 

On June 14th Mr. P. W. Hart read a paper, and demonstrated 
before the South London Photographic Society, on his method 
of rendering silver prints permanent. ' ' A consummation devoutly 
to be wished," but unfortunately some prints in my possession 
that were treated to a bath of his eliminator show unmistakable 
signs of fading. In my opinion, there is nothing so eflScacious 
as warm water washing, and some prints that I toned, fixed, 
and washed myself over thirty years ago, are perfect. 

The "cabinet" form of portrait was introduced this year by 
Mr. F. R. Window, and it eventually became the fashionable size, 
and almost wiped out the carte-de-visite. The latter, however, 
had held its position for about nine years, and the time for change 
had arrived. Beyond the introduction of the cabinet portrait, 
nothing very novel or ingenious had been introduced, but a 
very good review of photography up to date appeared in the 
October issue of the British Quarterly Review. This was a 
very ably written article from the pen of my old friend, Mr. 
George Wharton Simpson, 

No radical improvement or advance in photography was made 
in 1867, but M. Adam-Salomon created a little sensation by 
exhibiting some very fine samples of his work in the Paris 
Exhibition. They were remarkable chiefly for their pose, 
lighting, retouching, and tone. A few of them were afterwards 
seen in London, and that of Dr. Diamond was probably the most 
satiafactory. M. Salomon was a sculptor in Paris, and his art 



85 

training and feeling in that branch of the Fine Arts naturally- 
assisted him in photography. 

The Due de Luynes' prize of 8,000 francs for the best mechani- 
cal printing process -^as this year awarded to M. Poitevin. In 
making the award, the Commission gave a very excellent resume 
of all that had previously been done in that direction, and en- 
deavoured to show why they thought M. Poitevin entitled to the 
prize ; but for all that I think it will be difficult to prove that 
any of M. Poitevin's mechanical processes ever came into use. 

On June 13th, in the absence of Mr. Jabez Hughes, I read 
his paper, "About Lepto graphic Printing," before the South 
London Photographic Society. This Leptographic paper was 
claimed to be the invention of two photographers in Madrid, but 
it was evidently only a modification of Mr. Simpson's collodio- 
chloride of silver process. 

About this period I got into a controversy — on very different 
subjects, it is true — but it made me determine to abandon for the 
future the practice of writing critical notices under the cover of 
a. tiom de plume. I had, under the nom de plume of "Union 
Jack," written in favour of a union of all the photographic 
societies then in London. This brought Mr. A. H. "Wall down 
on me, but that did not affect me very much, nor -was I 
personally distressed about the other, but I thought it best to 
abandon a dangerous practice. Under the nom de plume of " Lux 
■Graphicus" I had contributed a great many articles to the 
Photographic News, and, in a review of the Society's exhibition, 
published I^ov. 22nd, 1867, I expressed an honest opinion on 
Mr. Eobinson's picture entitled " Sleep." It was not so 
favourable and flattering, perhaps, as he would have liked, but 
it was an honest criticism, and ■written without any intention of 
giving pain or offence. 

The close of this year was marked by a very sad catastrophe 
intimately associated with photography, by the death of Mr. 
Mawson at Newcastle-on-Tyne ; he was killed by an explosion 



86 

of nitro-glycerine. Mr. Mawson, in conjunction with Mr. J". 
W. Swan, was one of the earliest and most successful manu- 
facturers of collodion, and, as early as 1852, I made negatives 
with that medium, though I did not employ collodion solely 
until 1857, when I abandoned for ever the beautiful and 
fascinating Daguerreotype. 

On Friday, December 27th, Antoine Jean Francois Claudet, 
F.E.S., &c., &c., died suddenly in the 71st year of his age. 
He was one of the earliest workers and improvers of the 
Daguerreotype process in this country, and one of the last to 
relinquish its practice in London. Mr. Claudet bought a share 
of the English patent of Mr. Berry, the agent, while he 
was a partner in the firm of Claudet and Houghton in 1840, 
and commenced business as a professional Daguerreotypist 
soon afterwards. Before the introduction of bromine as 
an accelerator by Mr. Groddard, Mr. Claudet had discovered 
that chloride of iodine increased the sensitiveness of the 
Daguerreotype plate, and he read a paper on that subject 
before the Eoyal Society in 1841. He was a member of the 
council of the Photographic Society for many years, and a copious 
contributor to its proceedings, as well as to photographic 
literature. In his intercourse with his confreres he was always 
courteous, and when I called upon him in 1851 he received me 
most kindly. I met him again in Glasgow, and many times in 
London, and always considered him the best specimen of a 
Frenchman I had ever met. Towards his clients he was firm, 
respectful, and sometimes generous, as the following characteristic 
anecdote will show. He had taken a portrait of a child, which, 
for some reason or other, was not liked, and demurred at. He 
said, "Ah! well, the matter is easily settled. I'll keep the 
picture, and return your money" ; and so he thought the case 
was ended ; but by-and-bye the picture was asked for, and he 
refused to give it up. Proceedings were taken to compel him 
to surrender it, which he defended. In stating the case, the 



87 

counsel remarked that the child was dead. Mr. Claudet 
immediately stopped the counsel and the case by exclaiming, 
"Ah! they did not tell me that before. Now, I make the 
parents a present of the portrait." I am happy to say that I 
possess a good portrait of Mr. Claudet, taken in November, 1867, 
with his Topaz lens, f-inch aperture. Strangely enough, Mr. 
Claudet's studio in Kegent Street was seriously damaged by fire 
within a month of his death, and all his valuable Daguerreotypes, 
negatives, pictures, and papers destroyed. 

On April 9th, 1868, I exhibited, at the South London Photo- 
graphic Society, examples of nearly all the types of photography 
then known, amongst them a Daguerreotype by Daguerre, many 
of which are now in the Science Department of the South 
Kensington Museum, and were presented by me to form the 
nucleus of a national exhibition of the rise and progress of 
photography, for which I received the "thanks of the Lords of 
the Council on Education," dated April 22nd, 1886. 

There was nothing very remarkable done in 1868 to forward 
the interests or development of photography, yet that year 
narrowly escaped being made memorable, for Mr. "W. H, 
Harrison, now editor of the Photographic News, actually 
prepared, exposed, and developed a gelatino-bromide dry plate, 
but did not pursue the matter further. 1869 also passed 
without adding much to the advancement of photography, and I 
fear the same may be said of 1870, with the exception of the 
publication, by Thos. Sutton, of Gaudin's gelatino-iodide 
process. 

On February 21st, 1870, Eobert J. Bingham died in Brussels. 
"When the Daguerreotype process was first introduced to this 
country, Mr. Bingham was chemical assistant to Prof. Faraday 
at the Royal Institution. He took an immediate interest in the 
wonderful discovery, and made an improvement in the application 
of bromine vapour, which entitled him to the gratitude of all 
Daguerreotypists. When Mr. Goddard applied bromine to the 



88 

process, he employed *' bromine water," but, in very hot 
weather, the aqueous vapour condensed upon the surface of the 
plate, and interrupted the sensitising process. Mr. Bingham 
obviated this evil by charging hydrate of lime with bromine 
vapour, which not only removed the trouble of condensation, 
but increased the sensitiveness of the prepared plate. This was 
a great boon to all Daguerreotypists, and many a time I thanked 
him mentally long before I had the pleasure of meeting him in 
London. Mr. Bingham also wrote a valuable manual on the 
Daguerreotype and other photographic processes, which was pub- 
lished by Geo. Knight and Sons, Foster Lane, Cheapside. Some 
years before his death, Mr. Bingham settled in Paris, and became 
a professional photographer, but chiefly as a publisher of photo- 
graphic copies of paintings and drawings. 

Abel Niepce de St. Victor, best known without the Abel, 
died suddenly on April 6th, 1870. Born at St. Cyr, July 26th, 
1805. After passing through his studies at the Military School 
of Saumur, he became an officer in a cavalry regiment. Being 
studious and fond of chemistry, he was fortunate enough to 
effect some saving to the Government in the dyeing of fabrics 
employed in making certain military uniforms, for which he 
received compensation and promotion. His photographic 
fame rests upon two achievements : firstly, his application of 
iodized albumen to glass for negative purposes in 1848, a process 
considerably in advance of Talbot's paper negatives, but it was 
quickly superseded by collodion ; secondly, his researches on 
"heliochromy," or photography in natural colours. Mepce de 
St. Victor, like others before and since, was only partially 
successful in obtaining some colour reproductions, but totally 
unsuccessful in rendering those colours permanent. In proof of 
both these statements I will quote from the Juror's lleport, on 
the subject, of the International Exhibition, 1862: — "The 
obtaining of fixed natural colours by means of photography still 
remains, as was before remarked, to be accomplished ; but the 



89 

jurors have pleasure in recording that some very striking results 
of experiments in this direction were forwarded for their 
inspection by a veteran in photographic research and discov^y, 
M. Niepce de St. Victor. These, about a dozen in number, 
8-1- by 2^ inches, consisted of reproductions of prints of figures 
with parti- coloured draperies. Each tint in the pictures 
exhibited, they were assured, was a faithful reproduction of the 
original. Amongst the colours were blues, yellows, reds, greens, 
&c., all very vivid. Some of the tints gradually faded and 
disappeared in the light whilst under examination, and a few 
remained permanent for some hours. The possibility of pro- 
ducing natural colour thus established is a fact most interesting 
and important, and too much praise cannot be awarded to the 
skilful research which has been to this extent crowned with 
success. The jury record their obligations to their chairman, 
Baron Gross, at whose personal solicitation they were enabled 
to obtain a sight of these remarkable pictures." Such was the 
condition of photography in natural colours towards the close 
of 1862, and so it is now after a lapse of twenty-eight years. 
In 1870 several examples of jS'icpce de St. Victor's helio- 
chromy were sent to the Photographic Society of London, and 
I had them in my hands and examined them carefully in gas- 
light ; they coiild not be looked at in daylight at all. I certainly 
saw faint traces of colour, but whether I saw them in their 
original vigour, or after they had faded, I cannot say. All I 
can say is that the tints were very feeble, and that they had 
not been obtained through the lens. They were, at their best, 
only contact impressions of coloured prints obtained after many 
hours of exposure. The examples had been sent to the Photo- 
graphic Society with the hope of selling them for the benefit of 
the widow, but the Society was too wise to invest in such 
evanescent property. However, a subscription was raised both 
in England and France for the benefit of the widow and 
orphans of Niepce de St. Victor. 



90 

December, 1870, was marked by the death of one of the 
eminent pioneers of photography. On the 12th, the Eev. J. 
B, Eeade passed away at Bishopsbourne Rectory, Canterbury, 
in the sixty-ninth year of his age. I have already, I think, 
established Mr. Reade's claim to the honour of being the first 
to produce a photograpnic negative on paper developed with 
gallic acid, and I regret that I am unable to trace the existence 
of those two negatives alluded to in !Mr. Beade's published 
letter. Mr. Eeade told me himself that he gave those two 
historic negatives to Dr. Diamond, when Secretary to the Photo- 
graphic Society, to be lodged with that body for safety, proof, 
and reference ; but they are not now in the possession of the 
Photographic Society, and what became of them no one knows. 
Several years ago I caused enquiries to be made, and Dr. 
Diamond was written to by Mr. H. Baden Pritchard, then 
Secretary, but Dr. Diamond's reply was to the effect that he 
liad no recollection of them, and that Mr. Eeade was given to 
hallucinations. Considering the positions that Mr. Eeade held, 
both in the world and various learned and scientific societies, 
I don't think that he could ever have been afflicted with such a 
mental weakness. He was a clergyman in the Church of 
England, an amateur astronomer and microscopist, one of the 
fathers of photography, and a member of Council of the 
Photographic Society, and President of the Microscopical 
Society at the time of his death. I had many a conversation 
with him years ago, and I never detected either weakness or 
wandering in his mind ; therefore I could not doubt the truth 
of his statement relative to the custodianship of the first paper 
negative that was taken through the lens of a solar microscope. 
Mr. Eeade was a kind and aftable man ; and, though a great 
sufferer on his last bed of sickness, he wrote loving, grateful? 
and Christian like letters to many of his fiiends, some of which 
I have seen, and I have photographed his signature to one of 
them to attach to his portrait, which I happily possess. 



91 

In 1871 the coming revolution in photography was faintly- 
heralded by Dr. E. L. Maddox, publishing in the British 
Journal of Photography, "An Experiment with Gelatino- 
Bromide." Successful as the experiment was it did not lead to 
any extensive adoption of the process at the time, but it did 
most unqestionably exhibit the capabilities of gelatino-bromide. 

As that communication to the British Journal of Photography 
contained and first made public the working details of a 
process that was destined to supersede collodion, I will here 
insert a copy of Dr. Maddox's letter in extenso. 

"An Experiment with Gela.tino-Bkomide. 

" The collodio-bromide processes have for some time held a 
considerable place in the pages of the British Journal of 
Photography, and obtained such a prominent chance of being 
eventually the process of the day in the dry way, that a few 
remarks upon the application of another medium may perhaps 
not be uninteresting to the readers of the journal, though little 
more can be stated than the result of somewhat careless 
experiments tried at first on an exceedingly dull afternoon. 
It is not for a moment supposed to be new, for the chances of 
novelty in photography are small, seeing the legion of ardent 
workers, and the ground already trodden by its devotees, so- 
that for outsiders little remains except to take the result of 
labours so industriously and largely circulated through these 
pages, and be thankful. 

" Gelatine, which forms the medium of so many piinting 
processes, and which doubtless is yet to form the base of many 
more, was tried in the place of collodion in this manner : — 
Thirty grains of N'elson's gelatine were washed in cold water, 
then left to swell for several hours, when all the water was 
poured ofi", and the gelatine set in a wide-mouthed bottle, with 
the addition of four drachms of pure water, and two small 
drops of aqua regia, and then placed in a basin of hot water 



92 

for solution. Eight grains of bromide of cadmium dissolved 
in half a drachm of pure water were now added, and the 
solution stirred gently. Fifteen grains of nitrate of silver 
were next dissolved in half a drachm of water in a test tube, 
and the whole taken into the dark room, when the latter was 
added to the former slowly, stiixing the mixture the whole time. 
This gave a fine milky emulsion, and was left for a little while to 
settle. A few plates of glass well cleaned were next levelled on a 
metal plate put over a small lamp ; they were, when fully 
warmed, coated by the emulsion spread to the edges by a glass 
rod, then returned to their places, and left to dry. When dry, 
the plates had a thin opalescent appearance, and the deposit of 
bromide seemed to be very evenly spread in the substance of the 
substratum. 

"These plates were printed from, in succession, from different 
negatives, one of which had been taken years since on albumen 
with oxgall and diluted phosphoric acid, sensitised in an acid 
mitrate, and developed with pyrogallic acid, furnishing a beauti- 
ful warm brown tint. 

" The exposure varied from the first plate thirty seconds to a 
minute and a-half, as the light was very poor. No vestige of an 
outline appeared on removal from the printing-frame. The 
plates were dipped in water to the surface, and over them w?s 
poured a plain solution of pyrogallic acid, four grains to the 
ounce of water. Soon a faint but clean image was seen, which 
gradually intensified up to a certain point, then browned all 
over ; hence, the development in the others was stopped at an 
early stage, the plate washed, and the development continued 
with fresh pyro, with one drop of a ten-grain solution of nitrate 
of silver, then re-washed and cleared by a solution of hypo- 
sulphite of soda. 

"The resulting tints were very delicate in detail, of a colour 
varying between a bistre and olive tint, and after washing dried 
with a brilliant surface. The colour of the print varied greatly 



93 

according to the exposure. From the colour and delicacy it 
struck me that with care to strain the gelatine, or use only the 
clearest portion, such a process might be utilised for transpar- 
encies for the lantern, and the sensitive plates be readily prepared. 

Some plates were fumed with ammonia ; these fogged under 
the pyro solution. The proportions set down were only taken 
at random, and are certainly not as sensitive as might be pro- 
cured under trials. The remaining emulsion was left shut up 
in a box in the dark-room, and tried on the third day after pre- 
paration; but the sensibility had, it seems, greatly diminished, 
though the emulsion, when rendered fluid by gently warming, 
appeared creamy, and the bromide thoroughly suspended. Some 
of this was now applied to some pieces of paper by means of a 
glass rod, and hung up to surface dry, then dried fully on the 
warmed level plate, and treated as sensitised paper. 

One kind of paper, that evidently was largely adulterated by 
some earthy base, dried without any brilliancy, but gave, under 
exposure of a negative for thirty seconds, very nicely toned 
prints when developed with a weak solution of pyro. Some old 
albumenised paper of Marion's was tried, the emulsion being 
poured both on the albumen side, and, in other pieces, on the 
plain side; but the salting evidentlygreatly interfered, the result- 
ing prints being dirty-looking and greyed all over. 

These papers, fumed with ammonia, turned grey under 
development. They printed very slowly, even in strong sun- 
light, and were none of them left long enough to develop into 
a full print. After washing they were cleared by weak hypo 
solution. It is very possible the iron developer may be employed 
for the glass prints, provided the acidification does not render 
the gelatine soft under a development. 

The slowness may depend in part on the proportions of bro- 
mide and nitrate not being correctly balanced, especially as the 
ordinary, not the anhydrous, bromide was used, and on. the 
quantities being too small for the proportion of gelatine. 



94 

Whether the plates would be more sensitive if used when only 
surface dry is a question of experiment; also, whether other 
bromides than the one tried may not prove more advantageous 
in the presence of the neutral salt resulting from the decompo- 
sition, or the omission or decrease of the quantity of aqua regia. 
Tery probably also the development by gallic acid and acetate 
of lead developer may furnish better results than the plain pyro. 
"As there will be no chance of my being able to continue these 
experiments, they are placed in their crude state before the 
readers of the Journal, and may eventually receive correction 
and improvement under abler hands. So far as can be judged, 
the process seems quite worth more carefully conducted experi- 
ments, and, if found advantageous, adds another handle to the 
photographer's wheel. R. L. Maddox, M.D." 

After perusing the above, it will be evident to any one that 
Dr. Maddox very nearly arrived at perfection in his early experi- 
ments. The slowness that he complains of was caused entirely 
by not washing the emulsion to discharge the excess of bromide, 
and the want of density was due to the absence of a restrainer 
and ammonia in the developer. He only made positive prints 
from negatives; but the same emulsion, had it been washed, 
would have made negatives in the camera in much less time. 
Thus, it will be seen, that Dr. Maddox, like the Rev. J. B. 
Reade, threw the ball, and others caught it ; for the gelatine 
process, as given by Dr. Maddox, is only modified, not altered, 
by the numerous dry-plate and gelatino-bromide paper manu- 
facturers of to-day. 

Meanwhile collodion held the field, and many practical men 
thought it would never be superseded. 

In this year Sir John Herschel died at a ripe old age, seventy- 
nine. Photographers should revere his memory, for it was he 
who made photography practical by publishing his observation 
that hyposulphite of soda possessed the power of dissolving 
chloride and other salts of silver. 



r>jun ! n t- crii\j u . 



GELATINE. 




Dr. R. L. MADDOX. 

From Photograph by J . Thomson. 
GELATINO-BROMIDE EMULSION 1871 




R. KENNETT. 
From Photograph by J . U'erge, 18S7. 

GELATINO-BROMIDE PELLICLE 1873 DRV PLATES 1874 



FOURTH PERIOD. 

GELATINE SUCCESSFUL. 



In 1873, Mr. J. Burgess, of Peckham, London, adrertised his 
gelatino-broraide emulsion, but as it would not keep in conse- 
quence of decomposition setting in speedily, it was not com- 
mercial, and therefore unsuccessful. It evidently required the 
addition of some preservatiye, or antiseptic, to keep it in a work- 
able condition, and Mr. J. Traill Taylor, editor of the British 
Journal of Photography, made some experiments in that direction 
by adding various essential oils ; but Mr. Gray — afterwards the 
well-known dry-plate maker — was most successful in preserving 
the gelatine emulsion from decomposition by the addition of a 
little oil of peppermint, but it was not the emulsion form of 
gelatino-bromide of silver that was destined to secure its universal 
adoption and success. 

At a meeting of the South London Photographic Society, held 
in the large room of the Society of Arts, John Street, Adelphi, 
Mr. Burgess endeavoured to account for his emulsion decom- 
posing, but he did not suggest a remedy, so the process ceased to 
attract further attention. Mr. Kennett was present, and it was 
probably Mr. Burgess's failure with emulsion that induced him 
to make his experiments with a sensitive pellicle. Be that as it 
may, Mr. Kennett did succeed in making a workable gelatine- 



90 

bromide pellicle, and obtained a patent for it on the 20tb of 
November, 1873. I procured some, and tried it at once. It 
gave excellent results, but preparing the plates was a messy and 
sticky operation, wbicli I feared would be prejudicial to its 
usefulness and success. This I reported to Mr. Kennett imme- 
diately, and found that his own experience corroborated mine, 
for he had already received numerous complaints of this objection* 
while others failed through misapprehension of his instruction ; 
and very comical were some of these misinterpretations. One 
attempted to coat the plates with the end of the stirring-rod, 
while another set them to drain in a rack, and those that did 
succeed in coating the plates properly, invariably spoiled them 
by over-exposure or in development. He was overwhelmed 
with correspondence and visitors, and to lessen his troubles I 
strongly advised him to prepare the plates himself, and sell them 
in that form ready for use. He took my advice, and in March, 
1874, issued his first batch of gelatino-bromide dry-plates ; but 
even that did not remove his vexation of spirit, nor lessen his 
troublesome correspondence. Most of his clients were sceptical, 
and exposed the plates too long, or worked under wet-plate con- 
ditions in their dark-rooms, and fog and failure were the natural 
consequences. Most, if not all, of his clients at that time were 
amateurs, and it was not until years after, that professional 
photographers adopted the dry and abandoned the wet process. 
In fact, it is doubtful if the profession ever tried Mr. Kennett's 
dry plates at all, for it was not until J. W. Swan and Wratten 
and Wainwright issued their dry plates, that I could induce any 
professional photographer to give these new plates a trial, and I 
have a very vivid recollection of the scepticism and conservatism 
exhibited by the most eminent photographers on the first 
introduction of gelatino-bromide dry plates. 

For example, when I called upon Messrs. Elliott and Fry to 
introduce to their notice these rapid plates, I saw Mr. Fry, and 
told him how rapid they were. He was incredulous, and 



97 

smilingly informed me that I was an enthusiast. It was a dull 
K'ovember morning, 1878, and I challenged him, not to fight, 
but to give me an opportunity of producing as good a picture in 
quarter the time they were giving in the studio, no matter what 
that time was. This rather astonished him, and he invited me 
up to the studio to prove my statement- I ascertained that 
they were giving ninety seconds — a minute and a-half ! — on a 
wet collodion plate, 10 by 8. I knew their size, and had it 
with me, as well as the developer. Mr. Fry stood and told the 
operator, Mr. Benares, to take the time from me. Looking at 
the quality of the light, I gave twenttj seconds, but Mr. Benares 
was disposed to be incredulous also, and, after counting twenty, 
went on with " one for the plate, and one more for Mr. "Werge," 
but I told him to stop, or I would have nothing more to do with 
the business. The plate had twenty-two or three seconds' 
exposure, and when I developed in their dark room, it was just 
those two or three seconds over-exposed. Nevertheless, Mr. 
Pry brought me a print from that negative in a few days, and 
acknowledged that it was one of the finest negatives he had ever 
seen. They were convinced, and adopted the new dry plates 
immediately. But it was not so with all, for many of the most 
prominent photographers would not at first have anything to do 
with gelatine plates, and remained quite satisfied with collodion ; 
but the time came when they were glad to change their opinion, 
and give up the wet for the dry plates ; but it was a long time, 
for Mr. Kennett introduced his dry plates in 1874, and it was 
not until 1879 and 1880 that professional photographers had 
adopted and taken kindly to gelatine plates generally. 

With amateurs it was very different, and many of their 
exhibits in the various exhibitions were from gelatine negatives 
obtained upon plates prepared by themselves, or commercial 
makers. In the London Photographic Society's exhibition of 
1874, and following, several prints from gelatine negatives were 
exhibited, and in 1879 they were pretty general. Among the 

H 



98 

many exhibited that year was Mr. Gale's swallow-picture, 
which created at the time a great deal of interest and contro- 
versy, and Mr. Gale was invited over and over again to 
acknowledge whether the appearance of the bird was the result 
of skill, accident, or " trickery ; " but I don't think that he ever 
gratified anyone's curiosity on the subject. I can, however, 
state very confidently that he was innocent of any "trickery " 
in introducing the bird by double printing, for the late Mr. 
Dudley EadclifFe told me at the time that he (Mr. Radcliffe) 
not only prepared the plate, but developed the negative, and 
was surprised to see the bird there. This may have been the 
reason why Mr. Gale was so reticent on the subject ; but I am 
anticipating, and must go back to preserve my plan of chrono- 
logical progression. 

In 1875 a considerable impetus was given to carbon printing, 
both for small work and enlarging by the introduction of the 
Lambertype process. Similar work had been done before, but, 
as Mr. Leon Lambert used to say, he made it "facile"; and 
he certainly did so, and induced many photographers to adopt 
his beautiful, but troublesome, chromotype process. There 
were two Lamberts in the tent — one a very clever manipulator, 
the other a clever advertiser — and between the two they 
managed to sell a great many licences, and carry away a 
considerable sum of money. T was intimate with them 
both while they remained in England, and they were both 
pleasant and honourable men. 

On January 18th, 1875, 0. G. Rejlander died, much to the 
regret of all who took an interest in the art phase of photo- 
graphy. Eejlander has himself told us how, when, and 
where he first fell in love with photography. In 1851 he 
was not impressed with the Daguerreotypes at the great exhibi- 
tion, nor with "reddish landscape photographs" that he saw in 
Eegent Street; but when in Rome, in 1852, he was struck with 
the beauty of some photographs of statuary, which he bought 



90 

and studied, and made up his mind to study photography as soon 
as he returned to England. How he did that will he best told 
by himself : — " In 1853, having inquired in London for the best 
teacher, I was directed to Henneman. We agreed for so much 
for three or five lessons ; but, as I was in a hurry to get back to 
the country, I took all the lessons in one afternoon ! Three 
hours in the calotype and waxed-paper process, and half-an-hour 
sufficed for the collodion process ! ! He spoke, I wrote ; but I 
was too clever. It would have saved me a year or more of 
trouble and expense had I attended carefully to the rudiments 
of the art for a month." His first attempt at " double printing" 
was exhibited in London in 1855, and was named in the cata- 
logue, group printed from three negatives. Again, I must allow 
Mr. Eejlander to describe his reasons for persevering in the art 
of "double printing": — "I had taken a group of two. They 
were expressive and composed well. The light was good, and 
the chemistry of it successful, A very good artist was staying 
in the neighbourhood, engaged on some commission. He called ; 
saw the picture ; was very much delighted with it, and so was I. 
Before he left my house he looked at the picture again, and 
said it was "marvellous," but added, "Now, if I had drawn 
that, I should have introduced another figure between them, or 
some light objec**, to keep them together. You see, there is 
where you photographers are at fault. Good morning ! " I 
snapped my fingers after he left — but not at him — and exclaimed 
aloud, ' I can do it ! ' Two days afterwards I called at my 
artist-friend's hotel as proud as — anybody. He looked at my 
picture and at me, and took snuff twice. He said, ' This is 
another picture.' ' No,' said I, ' it is the same, except with 
the addition you suggested.' ' Never,' he exclaimed ; * and how 
is it possible ? You should patent that ! '" Eejlander was too 
much of an artist to take anything to the Patent Office. 

"When I first saw his celebrated composition picture, "The 
Two Ways of Life," in the Art Treasures Exhibition at 



100 

Manchester in 1857, 1 wondered how he could have got so manj- 
men and women to become models, and be able to sit or stand in 
such varied and strained positions for the length of time then 
required by the wet collodion process ; but my wonder ceased 
when I became acquainted with him in after years, and ascer- 
tained that he had the command of a celebrated troupe, who 
gave tableaux vivants representations of statues and groups from 
paintings under the direction and name of "Madame "Wharton's 
pose plastique troupe." What became of the original " Two 
Ways of Life " I do not know, but the late Henry Greenwood 
possessed it at the time of Eej lander's death, for I remember 
endeavouring to induce Mr. Greenwood to allow it to be offered 
as a bait to the highest contributor to the Eej lander fund ; but 
Mr. Greenwood's characteristic reply was, " Take my purse, but 
leave me my ' Two Ways of Life.' " Mr. Rejlander kindly gave 
me a reduced copy of his " Two Ways of Life," and many other 
examples of his works, both in the nude and semi-nude. 
Fortunately Rejlander did not confine himself to such produc- 
tions, but made hundreds of draped studies, both comic and 
serious, such as " Ginx's Baby," "Did She?" "Beyond the 
Bible," and "Homeless." Where are they all now? I fear 
most of them have faded away, for Rejlander was a somewhat 
careless operator, and he died before the more permanent process 
of platinum printing was introduced. When Rejlander died, 
his widow tried to make a living by printing from his negatives, 
but I fear they soon got scattered. Rejlander was a genial soul 
and a pleasant companion, and he had many kind friends among 
members of the Solar Club, as well as other clubs with which he 
was associated. 

There is one more death in this year to be recorded, that of 
Thomas Sutton, B.A., the founder and for many years editor of 
Photographic Notes, and the inventor of a panoramic camera 
of a very clumsy character that bore his name, and that was all. 
Mr. Sutton was a very clever man with rather warped notions^ 



101 

and in the management of his Photographic Notes he 
descended to the undignified position of a caricaturist, and 
published illustrations of an uncomplimentary description, some 
of which were offensive in the extreme, and created a great deal 
of irritation in some minds at the time. 

In 1877 Carey Lea gave his ferrous-oxalate developer to the 
■world, but it was not welcomed by many English photographers 
for negative development, though it possessed many advantages 
over alkaline pyro. It was, however, generally employed by 
foreign photographers, and is now largely in use by English 
photographers, especially for the development of bromide paper, 
either for contact printing or enlargements. In the early part 
of this year, Messrs. Wratten and "Wainwright commenced to 
make gelatino-bromide dry plates, and during the hot summer 
months Mr. Wratten found it necessary to precipitate the 
gelatine emulsion with alcohol. This removed the necessity of 
dialysing, and helped to lessen the evils of decomposition and 
'' frilling." 

The most noticeable death in the photographic world of 
this year was that of Henry Fox Talbot. He was born on 
February the 11th, 1800, and died September l7th, 1877, 
thus attaining a ripe old age. I am not disposed to deny his 
claims to the honour of doing a great deal to forward the 
advancement of photography, but what strikes me very much is 
the mercenary spirit in which he did it, especially when I 
consider the position he occupied, and the pecuniary means at his 
command. In the first place, he rushed to the Patent Office with 
his gallo-nitrate developer, and then every little improvement or 
modification that he afterwards made was carefully protected by 
patent rights. "With a churlishness of spirit and narrow-minded- 
ness it is almost impossible to conceive or forgive, he tried his 
utmost to stop the formation of the London Photographic Society, 
and it was only after pressing solicitations from Sir Charles 
Eastlake, President of the Royal Academy, and first President 



102 

of the London Photographic Society, that he withdrew his 
objections. The jlate Peter le Neve Poster, Secretary of the 
Society of Arts, told me this years after, and when it was 
proposed to make Fox Talbot an honoraiy member of the Photo- 
graphic Society, Mr. Poster was opposed to the proposition. 
Then the action that he brought against Silvester Laroche was 
unjustifiable, for there really was no resemblance between the 
collodion and calotype means of making a negative, except in 
the common use of the camera, and the means of making prints 
was the same as that employed by Thomas "Wedgwood, while 
the fixing process with hyposulphite of soda was first resorted 
to by the Eev. J. B. Eeade, on the published information of Sir 
John Herschel. 

On March 29th, 1878, Mr. Charles Bennett published his 
method of increasing the sensitiveness of gelatino-bromide plates. 
It may be briefly described as a prolonged cooking of the gelatine 
emulsion at a temperature of 90 '\ and, according to Mr. Bennett's 
experience, the longer it was cooked the more sensitive it 
became, with a corresponding reduction of density when the 
prepared plates were exposed and developed. 

April 20th of this year Mr. J. A. Spencer died, after a linger- 
ing illness, of cancer in the throat. Mr. Spencer was, at one 
period in the history of photography, the largest manufacturer 
of albumenised paper in this country, and carried on his business 
at Shepherd's Bush. In 1866 he told me that he broke about 
2,000 eggs daily, merely to obtain the whites or albumen. The 
yolks being of no use to him, he sold them, when he could, to 
glove makers, leather dressers, and confectioners, but they could 
not consume all he offered for sale, and he buried the rest in his 
garden until his neighbours complained of the nuisance, so that 
it became ultimately a very difficult thing for him to dispose of 
his waste yolks in any manner. After the introduction of 
Swan's improved carbon process, he turned his attention to the 
manufacture of carbon tissue, and in a short time he became one 



103 

of the partners in the Autotype Company, and the name of the 
firm at that period was Spencer, Sawyer, and Bird ; but he ceased 
to be a partner some time before his death. 

At the South London Technical Meeting, held in the great 
hall of the Society of Arts, I exhibited my non-actinic develop- 
ing tray, and developed a gelatine diy plate in the full blaze 
of gas-light. A short extract from a leader in the Photographic 
Netcs of November 14th, 1879, will be sufficient to satisfy all 
who are interested in the matter. " Amongst the many 
ingenious appliances exhibited at the recent South London 
meeting, none excited greater interest than the developing tray 
of Mr. Werge, in which he developed in the full gas-light of 
the room a gelatine plate which had been exposed in the morning, 
and exhibited to the meeting the result in a clean transparency, 
without fog, or any trace of the abnormal action of light. . • 
"We can here simply record the fact, interesting to many, that 
the demonstration before the South London meeting was a 
perfect success." 

1880 had a rather melancholy beginniug, for on January the 
15th, Mr. George Wharton Simpson died suddenly, which was 
a great shock to every one that knew him. I had seen him 
only a few days before in his usual good health, and he looked 
far more like outliving me than I him ; besides, he was a year 
my junior. The extract above quoted was the last time he 
honoured me by mentioning my name in his writings, though 
he had done so many times before, both pleasantly and in 
defending me against some ill-natured and unwarrantable 
attacks in the journal which he so ably conducted for twenty 
years. 

Mungo Ponton died August 3rd, 1880. Though his discovery 
did little or nothing towards the development of photography 
proper, it is impossible to allow him to pass out of this world 
without honourable mention, for his discovery led to the crea- 
tion and development of numerous and important photo- 



104 

mechanical industries, ■which give employment to numbers of 
men and women. "When Mungo Ponton announced his discovery 
in the Edinhurgh JS/ew Pldlosophical Journal in 1839, he pro- 
bably never dreamt that it ■would be of any commercial value, 
or he might have secured rights and royalties on all the patent 
processes that gre-w out of it; for Poitevin's patent, 1855, 
Beauregard's, 1857, Pouneey's, 1858 and 1863, J. W. Swan's, 
1864, Woodbury's, 186G, all the Autotype and Lambertype and 
kindred patents, as well as all the forms of Collotype printing, are 
based on Ponton's discovery. But so it is : the originator of 
anything seldom seeks any advantage beyond the honour attached 
to the making of a great invention or discovery. It is generally 
the petty improvers that rush to the Patent Office to secure 
rights and emoluments, regardless of the claims of the founders 
of their patented processes. 

On March 2nd, 1880, I delivered a lecture on " The Origin, 
Progress, and Practice of Photography " before the Lewisham 
and Blackheath Scientific Association, in which 1 reviewed the 
development of photography from its earliest inception up to 
date, exhibited examples, and gave demonstrations before a very 
attentive and apparently gratified audience. 

On the 27th May, 1880, Professor Alfred Swaine Taylor died 
at his residence, 15, St. James's Terrace, Regent's Park, in his 
seventy-fourth year. He was born on the 11th December, 1806, 
at Northfleet in Kent, and in 1823 he entered as a student the 
united hospitals of Guy's and St. Thomas's, and became the 
pupil of Sir Astley Cooper and Mr. Joseph Henry Green. His 
success as a student and eminence as a professor, lecturer, and 
author are too well known to require any comment from me on 
those subjects, but it is not so generally known how much pho- 
tography was indebted to him at the earliest period of its birth. 
In 1838 Dr. Taylor published his celebrated work, " The Ele- 
ments of Medical Jurisprudence," and in 1840 he published a 
pamphlet " On the Art of Photogenic Drawing," in which he 



105 

advocated the superiority of ammonia nitrate of silver over 
■chloride of silver as a sensitiser, and hyposulphite of lime over 
hyposulphite of soda as a fixer, and the latter he advocated 
up to the year of his death, as the following letter will 
show : — 

" St. Jameses Terrace, February lOth, 1880. 
"Mfi, Wekge. 

" Dear Sir, — I have great pleasure in sending you for the 
purpose of your lecture some of my now ancient photographs. 
They show the early struggles which we had to make. Tlie 
mounted drawings were all made with the ammonia nitrate of 
silver ; I send samples of the paper used. In general the paper 
selected contained chloride enough to form ammonia chloride. I 
send samples of unused paper, procured in 1839 — some salted 
afterwards. 

" All these drawings (which are dated) have been preserved 
by the hyposulphite of lime (not soda). The hypo of lime does 
not form a definite compound with silver, like soda ; hence it is 
easily washed away, and this is why the drawings are tolerably 
preserved after forty years. All are on plain paper. Ammonia 
nitrate does not answer well on albumenized paper. The art of 
toning by gold was not known in those ancient days, but the 
faded drawings on plain paper, as you will see, admit of restora- 
tion, in dark purple, by placing them in a very dilute solution 
of chloride of gold, and putting them in the dark for twenty- 
four hours. The gold replaces the reduced silver and sulphide 
of silver. I send you the only copy I have of my photogenic 
drawing. Five hundred were printed, and all were sold or 
given away. Please take care of it. The loose photographs in 
red tape are scenes in Egypt and Greece, taken about 1850 from 
wax paper negatives (camera views) made by Mr. D. Colnaghi, 
now English Consul at Florence. If you can call here I shall 
be glad to say more to you on the matter. — Yours truly, 

"Alfred S. TAYLort." 



106 

The above was the last of many letters on photographic mat- 
ters that I had received from Dr. Taylor, and the last time I 
had the pleasure of seeing him was when I returned the photo- 
graphs and pamphlet alluded to therein, only a short time be- 
fore his death. Dr. Taylor never lost his interest in photo- 
graphy, and was always both ■« illing and pleased to enter into 
conversation on the subject. He had worked at photography 
through all its changes, despite his many professional engage- 
ments, from its dawn in 18"^9, right up to the introduction of 
gelatino-bromide dry plates, and in 1879 he came and sat to me 
for his portrait on one of what he called "these wonderful dry 
plates," and watched the process of development with as much 
interest as any enthusiastic tjro would have done, and I am 
proud to say that I had the pleasure of taking the portrait 
and exhibiting the process of development of the latest aspect 
of photography to one of its most enthusiastic and talented 
pioneers. 

Dr. Taylor was a man of remarkable energy and versatility. 
He was a prolific writer and an admirable artist. On his walls 
were numerous beautiful drawings, and his windows were filled 
with charmingly illusive transparencies, all the work of his own 
hands ; and once, when expressing my wonder that he could 
find time to do so many things, he remarked that "a man could 
always find time to do anything he wished if his heart was with 
his work." Doubtless it is so, and his life and what he did in 
it were proofs of the truth and wisdom of his observation. 

Hydroquinone as a developer was introduced this year by 
Eder and Toth, but it did not mpke much progress at first. It 
is more in use now, but I do not consider it equal to oxalate of 
iron. 

A considerable fillip was, this year, given to printing on 
gelatino-bromide paper by the issue of " The Argentic Gelatino- 
Bromide "\\"orker's Guide," published by "W. T. Morgan and Co. 
The work was written by John Burgess, who made and sold a 



107 

bromide emulsion some years before, and it contained some 
excellent ■n-orking instructions. In the book is a modification 
and simplification of J. M. Burgess's Eburneum Process, though 
that process was the invention of ^r. J. Burgess, of Xorwieh ; 
but a recent application of the gelatino-bromide emulsion to 
celluloid slabs by !Mr. Fitch has made the Ivorytype process as 
simple and certain as the exposure and development of gelatino- 
bromide paper. 

On January 30th, 1881, died Mr. J. R. Johnson, of panto- 
scopic celebrity. Mr. Johnson was the inventor of many 
useful things, both photographic and otherwise. He was the 
chief promoter of the Autotype Company, in which the late 
Mr. Winsor was so deeply interested; and his double transfer 
process, published in 1869, contributed greatly to the successful 
development and practice of the Carbon process. The invention 
of the Pantoscopic Camera, and what he did to forward the 
formation of the Autotype Company and simplify carbon print- 
ing, may be considered the sum total of his claim to photo- 
graphic recognition. 

The chief photographic novelty of 1881 was Mr. Woodbury's 
Stannotype process, a modification and simplification of what is 
best known as the Woodburytype. Instead of forcing the gela- 
tine relief into a block of type-metal by immense pressure to 
make the matrix, he " faced " a reversed relief with tin foil, 
thus obtaining a printing matrix in less time and at less expense. 
I have seen some very beautiful examples of thio process, but 
somehow or other it is not much employed. 

The man who unquestionably made the first photographic 
portrait died on the 4th of January, 1882, and I think it is 
impossible for me to notice that event without giving a brief 
description of the circumstance, even though I incur the risk of 
telling to some of my readers a tale twice told. When Daguerre's 
success was first announced in the Academy of Science in 1839, 
M. Arago stated that Daguerre had not yet succeeded in taking 



108 

portraits, but that he hoped to do so soon. The details of the 
process were not published until July, and in the autumn of 
that year Dr. Draper succeeded in obtaining a portrait of his 
assistant, and that was the first likeness of a human being ever 
known to have been secured by photography. It would be 
interesting to know if that Daguerreotype is in existence now. 
Dr. Draper was Professor of Chemistry in the University of 
"New York, and as soon as the news of the discovery 
reached Xew York he fitted an ordinary spectacle lens into a 
cigar case, and commenced his experiments first by taking views 
out of a window, and afterwards by taking portraits. To 
shorten the time of exposure for the latter, he whitened the 
faces of his sitters. In April, 1840, Dr. Draper and Professor 
Morse opened a portrait gallery on the top of the Tniversity 
Buildings, IS'ew York, and did a splendid business among the 
very best people of the City at the minimum price of five 
dollars a portrait, and they would be very small even at that 
price. 

One more of the early workers in photography died this year 
on the 4th of March. Louis Alphonse Poitevinwas not a father 
of photography in a creative sense, but, like Walter Woodbury, 
an appropriater of photography in furthering the development of 
^hoto-mechanical printing. His first effort in that direction 
was to obtain copper plates, or moulds, from Daguerreotype 
pictures by the aid of electrical deposits, and he discovered a 
method of photo-chemical engraving, for which he was awarded 
a silver medal by the Societe d' Encouragement des Arts, but 
the process was of no practical value. His chief and most valu- 
able experiments were with gelatine and bichromates, and his 
labours in that direction were rewarded by the receipt of a con- 
siderable portion of the Due de Luynes' prize for permanent 
photographic printing processes, which consisted of photo-litho- 
graphy and Collotype printing. Born in 1819, he was sixty- 
three years old when he died. 



109 

A useful addition to the pyrogallic acid developer -was this 
year given by Mr. Herbert B. Berkeley. Hitherto, nearly all 
pyro-developed gelatine plates were stained a deep yellow colour 
by the action of ammonia, but the use of sulphite of soda, as 
suggested by ^r. Berkeley, considerably lessened this evil. 

In 1883, Captain Abney rendered a signal service to the 
members of the Photographic Society, and photographers in 
general, by publishing in the Journal of the Society a transla- 
tion of Captain Pizzighelli and Baron A. Hubl's booklet on 
platinotype. After giving a resume of the early experiments 
with platinum by Herschel. Hunt, and others, the theory and 
practice of platinotype printing are clearly explained, and it was 
undoubtedly due to the publication of this translation that 
platinotype printing was very much popularised. In proof of 
the accuracy of this opinion, every following photographic exhi- 
bition showed an increasing number of exhibits in platinotype. 

Xo great novelty was brought into the world of photography 
in 1884, but there were signs of a steady advance, and an 
increasing number of workers with dry plates. I should not, 
however, neglect allusion to the publication of Dr. H. W. Yogel's 
experiments with eosine, cyanocine, and other kindred bodies by 
which he increased the sensitiveness of both wet collodion and 
gelatine plates to the action of the yellow rays considerably 
{vide Journal of Society, May 30th). The Berlin Society for 
the Advancement of Photography acquired and published these 
experiments for the general good, and yet Tailfer and Clayton 
obtained patent right monopolies for making eosine gelatine 
plates in France, Austria, and England. This proceeding seems 
very much akin to the sharp practice displayed by Mr. Beard in 
securing a patent right monopoly in the Daguerreotype process 
which was gtven to the xcorJd by the French Government in 1839. 
Germany very properly refused to grant a patent under these 
•ircumstances. 

On April 14th, 1885, Mr. Walter Bird read a paper at the 



110 

meeting of the Photographic Society of Great Britain, " On the 
Photographic Eeproductions of Pictures in the National Gallery," 
by A. Braun et Cie. I was present, and it appeared to me that 
the "effects" in some of the pictures exhibited were not pro- 
duced by any chemical mode of translation of colour, but by 
some method of after-treatment of the negative which was more 
likely to be by skilled labour than by any chemical process. 
This belief induced me to read a paper at the next meeting — 
May 12th — "On the After-Treatment of Negatives," in which 
I showed what could be done both by chemical means and art- 
labour to assist photography in translating the monographic 
effects of colour more in accordance with the scale of luminosity 
adopted and adhered to by the most eminent engravers both in 
line and mezzotint. 

At the next meeting — June 9th — Mr. J. K. Sawyer reopened 
the discussion on the above subject by reading a paper and 
■exhibiting examples of his own experiments, and Mr. Sawyer 
admitted that he was " bound to confess that while every effort 
should be made to discover chemical combinations which will 
give the utmost value that can be practicably obtained in the 
reproduction (?) of colours, yet that, in all probability, art — 
and art not inferior to that of a competent engraver — will be 
necessary to assist photography in rendering the very subtle 
combinations of colour that present themselves in a fine painting; " 
and Colonel H. Stuart Wortley proved that the copy of Turner's 
"Old Temeraire " was not only "retouched," but wrongly 
translated, as the various shades of yellow in the original picture 
were represented in the copy as if they had been all of the same 
tint. Mr. Sawyer made use of the phrase "reproduction of 
colours," but that was an error. He should have said — and 
undoubtedly meant — translation of colours, for photography is, 
unfortunately, incapable of reproducing colours. Among Mr. 
Sawyer's examples was a curious and contradictory evidence that 
isochromatic plates translated yellow tints better than ordinary 



Ill 

bromide plates, yet wrongly, for three different shades of yellow 
were translated as if they had been all one tint. I had noticed 
this myself when copying paintings and coloured prints, but in 
photographing the natural colours of fruits and flowers the 
result was different, and I attributed the mal-translation of 
pigment yellows to the amount of white with which they had 
been mixed by the painter. Be that as it may, I always obtained 
the best translation from natural colours, and a group of flowers 
which contained a beautiful sulphur coloured dahlia illustrates 
and confirms this statement in a most remarkable and satisfac- 
tory manner. It is, therefore, the more to be regretted that 
there is any restriction placed upon the individual experiment 
and development of this interesting aspect of photography. 

This was the year of The International Inventions Exhibition, 
and the photographic feature of which was the historical collec- 
tion exhibited by some of the members of the Photographic 
Society of Great Britain, and I think that collection was 
sufficiently interesting to justify my giving, in these pages, the 
entire list as published in the PJioiographic Journal : — 

** We subjoin a full and complete statement of the whole of 
the exhibits, with the names of the contributors : — 

" Capt. Abney, R.E., F.R.S. — Papyrotype process, executed 
at the School of Military Engineering, Chatham. 

" "W. Andrews — "Wet collodion negatives, intensified by the 
Schlippes salt method. 

" T. and R. Annan — Calotype process (negative and print), 
taken by D. 0. Hill. 

" F. Beasley, jun. — CoUodio-albumen negatives. 

" W. Bedford — One of Archer's first cameras for collodion 
process, stereoscopic arrangement by Archer to fit a larger camera. 

"Valentine Blanchard — Instantaneous views, wet collodion, 
1856-65. Illustrations of a method of enlargement, as proposed 
by V. Blanchard, 1873. Modification of the Brewster stereo- 
scope by Oliver Wendell Holmes. 



112 

"Bullock (Bros.)— Photo-lithograpliy, 1866 (Bullock's- 
patent). 

"T.Bolas, F.C.S.— Detective camera, 1876. Kegative 
photograph on bitumen, made insoluble by the action of light. 
Carbon negatives stripped by "Wenderoth's process. 

" E. Clifton — Portrait of Daguerre. Crystalotype by J. R. 
"Whipple, 1854. Specimens from "Pretsch" photo-galvano- 
graphic plates, 1856. 

" T. S. Davis, F.C.S. — A combined preparation and wash 
bottle for gelatine emulsion. Adjustable gauge for cutting 
photographic glasses. 

"De la Eue and Co. — Surface printing from blocks executed 
by Paul Pretsch, 1860. 

""W. England — Old Daguerreotype developing box. Old 
ditto sensitizing box. Old camera, 1860, with rapid inside 
shutter. Instantaneous views in Paris, wet collodion, 1856-65. 

"Edinburgh Photographic Society — Archer's water lens. 

" James Glaisher, F.R.S. — Nature printing, taken over thirty 
years ago. 

G. Powler Jones — Prints from negatives by Le Gray's cero- 
line process. 

"R. Kennett — Scaife's pistolgraph. Globe lens. 

"Dr. Maddox — Some of the earliest gelatine-bromide nega- 
tives, by the originator of the process, 1871. 

"Mudd and Son — CoUodio-albumen negatives. 

"R. C. Murray — Early Talbotype photographs, 1844-45. 

"H. Neville — Camera with Sutton's patent panoramic lens. 

"Mrs. H. Baden Pritchard — Impressions from pewter plates 
of heliographic drawing, by Mcephore Niepce, 1827. Original 
letter, by Nicephore Niepce, sent to the Royal Society, 1827. 
View of Kew, taken by Nicephore Niepce, 1827. 

" H. P. Robinson — Heliographic picture, by Nicephore Niepce, 
1826. Photo-etched plate (from a print), by Niepce in 1827. 
Heliograph (from a print), by Niepce, 1827. One of the 



113 

earliest printing frames, made for Fox Talbot's photogenic 
drawing, 1839. The first nitrate of silver hath used by Scott 
Archer in his discovery of the collodion process, 1850. 

"Ross and Co. — One of Archer's earliest fluid lenses. The 
first photographic compound portrait lens, made by Andrew 
Eoss, 1841. Photographic camera, believed to be the first made 
in England. 

" Sands and Hunter — Old lens, with adjustable diaphragm, 
by Archer, 1851. Old stereoscopic camera, with mechanical 
arrangement for transferring plates to and from the dark slide. 

" T, L. Scowen — Parallel bar stereoscopic camera. Latimer 
Clarke. 

"John Spiller, F.C.S., F.I.C— The first preserved plates 
(three to twenty-one days), 1854. Illustrations of the French 
Pigeon Post. 

"J. W. Swan, F.C.S. — Electro intaglios from carbon reliefs 
(Thorwalsden's " Night and Morning "). Photo-mezzotints were 
taken from these in gelatinous inks, 1860, by J. W. Swan, by 
the process now known as "Woodburytype. Plaster cast from a 
carbon print of Kenilworth, showing the relief, taken in 1864, 
by J. W. Swan. Carbon prints twenty years old (photographed 
and printed in various colours by J. "W. Swan). Old print (in 
red) by T. and R. Annan, by Swan's process. Carbon print, 
twenty years old (printed in 1864) by double transfer. 

" B. B. Turner — Talbotype. 'N'egatives and prints from same. 
Single lens made by Andrew Ross, 1851. 

"J. Werge — Examples of printing with various metals on 
plain paper, 1839-42. The Fathers of Photography. Examples 
and dates of the introduction of early photographs. Daguerreo- 
type, 1839. Collodion positive, 1851. Ambrotype, 1853. 
Ferrotype, 1855, 

""W.Willis, Jun. — Specimen of aniline process. Historical 
illustrations of the development of the platinotype process. 

" "W. B. "Woodbury — Photo-relief printing process. "Wood- 



114 

bury mould and Woodbury type print from same, 1866. Stanno- 
type printing press, with mould. Macbine for measuring 
reliefs. Woodbury lantern slides. Early Daguerreotype on 
copper. Positive pbotograpb on glass. Woodbury balloon 
camera. Microscopical objects in plaster from gelatine reliefs. 
Woodbury collograpbic process. Woodbury pboto-cbromograpb 
system, coloured from the back, 1869. Woodbury actinometer. 
Despatch-box camera. Watermark or photo-filigrain process. 
Transparency on gelatine. The first specimen of Woodbury 
printing exhibited, including the first mould printed from, and 
also proofs backed with luminous paint. 

"ColonelH. Stuart Wortley — Earlyphoto-zincographs, 1861-2. 
Experimental prints with uranium collodion, 1867 (modifica- 
of Wothly's process). Set of apparatus complete for making 
gelatine emulsion, and preparing gelatine plates, 1877-8. No. 1. 
Apparatus for cutting gelatine plates either by hand-turning 
or treadle. No. 2. Stove for keeping emulsion warm for any 
time at a fixed temperature in pure air, and for the final drying 
of the plates. No. 3. Apparatus for squeezing emulsion out 
into water. No. 4. Apparatus for mixing emulsion. Instan- 
taneous shutter, with horizontal motion by finger or pneumatic 
tube; adjustable wings for cutting off sky, and varying length 
of exposure." 

It is a very remarkable circumstance that none of the con- 
tributors to that historical collection could include among their 
interesting exhibits portraits of either Nicephore Niepce or 
Frederick Scott Archer. Among my " Fathers of Photography " 
were portraits of Daguerre, Rev. J. B. Eeade, Fox Talbot, Dr. 
Alfred Swaine Taylor, and Sir John Herschel. It was suggested 
that those historical exhibits should be left at the close of the 
exhibition to form a nucleus to a permanent photographic 
exhibition in Kensington Museum. I readily contributed my 
exhibits towards such a laudable object. They were accepted, 
and these exhibits may be seen at any time in the West 



115 

GaUeiy of the Science Department of the South Kensington 
Museum. 

At the exhibition of the Photographic Society of Great Britain 
this year, I exhibited "Wollaston's Diaphragmatic Shutter," 
in my opinion the best snap shutter that ever was invented, but 
it had two very serious drawbacks, for it was both heavy 
and expensive. 

In 1886 more than usual interest was exhibited by photo- 
graphers in what was misnamed as the isoehromatic, or ortho- 
chromatic process, and this interest was probably created by the 
papers read and discussions that followed at the meetings of the 
Photographic Society in the previous year. "Messrs. Dixon and 
Gray — the latter a young man in the employ of Messrs. Dixon 
and Son — commenced a series of experiments with certain dyes 
with the hope of obtaining a truer translation of colour when 
copying oil paintings or water-colour drawings, a class of work 
in which they were largely interested, and had obtained a 
considerable reputation for such reproductions as photography 
was then capable of rendering, and one of the results of these 
experiments was exhibited, and obtained a medal, at the 
exhibition of the Photographic Society in October. Messrs. 
Dixon and Sons' exhibit was a very surprising one, and created 
quite a sensation, as nothing equal to it had ever been shown 
before. The subject was a drawing of a yellow flower and green 
leaves against a blue ground — the yeUow the most luminous, 
the green next, and the blue the darkest. In ordinary wet 
or dry-plate photography these effects would have been reversed, 
but by Dixon and Gray's process the relative luminosities of 
these three colours were almost perfectly translated. Messrs. 
Dixon and Gray did not publish their process, but prepared 
existing gelatine dry plates by their method, and sold them at 
an enhanced price. They were not, however, permitted to supply 
anyone long, for B. J. Edwards, who had obtained a monopoly of 
TailEer and Clayton's patent rights in England, served them with 



116 

an injunction, or threatened them with legal proceedings, so 
they discontinued preparing their orthochromatic plates for sale. 
By some special arrangement they were allowed to prepare 
plates for their own use, provided they used Edwards' XL dry 
plates. 

It so happened, however, that this proviso was not a hardship,, 
for Mr. Dixon told me himself that he had found Edwards' 
plates the most suitable for their process. The hardship lay in 
not being able to apply their own discovery or preparation to 
any dry plates for sale for the public use and benefit. This 
prohibition was the more to be regretted because no other 
commercial isochromatic or orthochromatic plates had or have 
appeared to possess the same qualities of translation. The 
suppression of the Dixon and Gray preparation of plates is the 
more sui-prising when I find eosine is mentioned in the Clayton 
and Tailfer claim, whereas Mr. Dixon assured me that eosine 
was not employed by them. Mr. Edwards only acquired his 
monopoly and right to interfere with the commercial application 
of an independent discovery on Nov. 18th, 1886, and there is 
little to be gained in England by the publication of the experi- 
ments of such men as Yogel, Eder, Ives, and Abney, if one man 
can prevent all others making use of them. 

This year death removed from our midst one, and perhaps the 
greatest, of the martyrs of photography — Sylvester Laroche. 
This was the man that fought the battle for freedom from the 
shackles of monopoly. He won the fight, but lost his money, 
and the photographers of the day failed to make him a suitable 
recompense. There was one honourable exception, and Mr. 
Sylvester told me himself that Mr. J. E. Mayall gave him £100 
towards his legal expenses. Laroche's surname was Sylvester, 
but as there was a whole family of that name photographers, he 
added Laroche to distinguish himself from his brothers. 
Sylvester Laroche was an artist, and worked very cleverly in 
pastel, but somehow or other he never appeared to prosper. 



117 

Nothing particular marked the photographic record of 1887, 
but death was busy in removing men who had made their mark 
both in the early and later days of photography. First, on 
March 19th, Robert Hunt, the most copious writer on photo- 
graphy in its earlier period. As early as 1844 he published the 
first edition of his " Researches on Light," in which he was 
considerably assisted by Sir John Herschel, and it is astonishing 
to find what a mine of photographic information that early work 
contains. 

The next was Colonel Eussell, better known, pliotographically, 
as Major Russell. He was bom in 1820, and died on May 16th, 
1887. He was best known for his tannin process and alkaline 
developer, with a bromide solution as a restrainer. For a long 
time his tannin process was very popular among collodion dry- 
plate workers, and very beautiful pictures were taken on 
Russell's Tannin Plates, but it is many years since they were 
ruthlessly brushed aside, like all other collodion dry-plates, 
by the now universally employed gelatino-bromide plates or 
£lms. 

A revival of interest in pinhole photography was awakened 
"this year, and several modes of constructing a pinhole camera 
were published ; but I remember seeing a wonderful picture by 
2i.'key}iole camera long before I became a photographer. I had 
called to see an old lady who lived opposite a mill and farm. It 
was a bright, sunny afternoon, and, when I was leaving, I was 
astonished to see a beautiful picture of the mill and farm on the 
wall of the haU. "Ah!" said the old lady; "that's my 
camera-obscura. "When the sun shines on the mill at this time 
of day, I am sure to have a picture of the mill brought through 
the keyhole." It was something like this that suggested the 
camera-obscura to Roger Bacon and Baptista Porta. So it is not 
necessary to have such a small hole to obtain a picture, but it 
is necessary to have the smallest hole possible to obtain the 
■sharpest picture. 



118 

Pizzighelli's visible platinotype printing paper was introduced 
this year, and I welcomed it as a boon, for the double reasons 
of its simplicity and permanency. I had been longing for years 
for such a process, for I, like Koger Teuton, had come to the 
conclusion that there was no future for photography, in conse- 
quence of the instability of silver prints. They would be much 
more durable than they are if they were only washed in several 
changes of warm water, but few people will be at the trouble to 
do that, some because they don't know the efficacy of warm 
water, and others because it lowers the tone. An eminent 
photographer once asked me how to render silver prints 
permanent ; but when I told him there was nothing equal to 
warm water washing, he exclaimed, " Oh ! but that spoils the 
tone." When a photographer sacrifices durability to tone, he 
is scarcely acting honestly towards his customers. Admitted 
that there is nothing so beautiful in photography as a good 
silver print when it has its first bloom on it, neither is there 
anything so grievously disappointing as a silver print in its last 
stage of decay. It is quite time that the durahility of a photo- 
graph should be the first consideration of every photographer,. 
as well as the amateur. Years ago I proposed and published a 
plan of raising a fund to induce chemists and scientists to 
consider the subject, but not a single photographer responded 
by subscribing his guinea. 

A very simple and interesting means of making photographs 
at night was introduced this year by Dr. Piff'ard, an amateur 
photographer of IS'ew York, and the extreme simplicity and 
efficacy of his method was surprising. For good portraiture it 
is not equal to the electric light, but for family groups, at 
home occupations or amusements, it is superior, and I have 
taken such groups with Pifi'ard's magnesium flash light, which 
no other means of lighting would have enabled me to produce. 
I have taken groups of people playing at cards, billiards, and 
other games in their own homes with the simplest of apparatus^ 



119 

the ordinary lens and camera, plus an old tea tray — but to obtain 
the best results, the quickest lens and the quickest dry plates 
should be employed, and I have always found the best position 
for the light to be on the top of the camera. 

1888 is chiefly remarkable for the attempted revival of 
the stereoscope, and ATr. "W. F. Donkin read an interesting 
and instructive paper on the subject, in which he endeavoured 
to account for its disappearance, explain its principles, and 
give an historical account of its early construction, and 
modern or subsequent improvements. As to its immense 
popularity thirty to thirty-five years ago, that was due to 
its novelty, and the marvellous effect of solidity the pictures 
assumed when viewed in the stereoscope ; but it soon ceased 
to be popular when the views became stale, and people grew 
tired of looking at them ; to keep up the interest they had to 
be continually buying fresh ones, and of this they soon got tired 
also ; and when hosts saw that their guests were bored with 
sights so often seen, they put them out of sight altogether, and 
I fear that nothing will, for the same reasons, bring about a 
revival of the revolving or any other form of stereoscopes, for 
views. It is becoming much the same now with lantern slides — 
possessors and their friends grow weary of the subjects seen so 
frequently, and hiring instead of buying slides is becoming the 
practice of those who own an optical lantern. 

With stereoscopic portraits it was not so, for there was 
always a personal and family interest attached to them, and 
I made a great many stereoscopic portraits by the Daguerreo- 
type process; but even they were somewhat ruthlessly and 
precipitately displaced when the carte-de-visite mania took 
possession of the public mind. However, I see no reason 
why stereoscopic portraiture should not be revived if good 
pictures were produced on ivoryine, and it appears to me that 
substance is most suitable for the purpose, as the pictures can be 
examined either by reflected or transmitted light. Every one 



120 

interested in stereoscopic photography should "read, mark, learn, 
and inwardly digest," the late Mr. Donkin's able and instructive 
paper on "Stereoscopes and Binocular Vision," published in the 
journal of the Photographic Society, January 27th, 1888. 
This was unhappily the last paper that Mr. Donkin read at the 
Photographic Society, for he was unfortunately lost in the 
Caucasus the following autumn. W. F. Donkin, M.A., F.C.S., 
P. I.e., was for several years Honorary Secretary of the 
Photographic Society and of the Alpine Club, and, at the 
November meeting of the Photographic Society, the President, 
James Glaisher, F.E.S., made the following remarks on the 
melancholy event : — " There is, I am sure, but one feeling in 
regard to the fact that the gentleman who usually sits on my 
right is not here to-night. Our Secretary, "W. F. Donkin, is, I 
fear, irretrievably lost in the Caucasus. The feeling of every 
member of this Society is one of respect and esteem towards 
him. During the time he held the post of Secretary, his 
uniform courtesy won him the respect of all. I fear we shall 
see him no more." This fear was afterwards confirmed by 
the search party, which was headed by Mr. C. T. Dent, 
President of the Alpine Club. The late Mr. Donkin was both 
an expert Alpine climber and photographer, and many of 
his photographs of Alpine scenery have been published and 
admired. 

Every year compels me to record the death of some old and 
experienced photographer, or some artist associated with photo- 
graphy from its earliest introduction. Among the latter was 
Norman Macbeth, R.S.A., an eminent portrait painter, who was 
quick to see and ready to avail himself of the invaluable 
services of a new art, or means of improving art, both in 
drawing and detail, and make the newly-discovered power a 
help in his own labours, and an economiser of the time of his 
sitters. The first time I had the pleasure of meeting him was 
in Glasgow in 1855, when he brought one of his sitters to me to 



121 

T)e Daguerreotyped, and he preferred a Daguerreotype as long 
as he could get one, on account of its extreme delicacy and 
details in the shadows ; but he could not obtain any more 
Daguerreotypes after 1857, for at that time I abandoned 
the Daguerreotype for ever, and was the last to practise 
the process in Glasgow, and probably throughout Great 
Britain. 

From the time that Mr. Macbeth commenced taking photo- 
graphs himself, he took a keen interest in photography to the 
last, and only about a month before he died, he read an able, 
instructive, and interesting paper on the " Construction and 
Requirements of Portrait Art " before the members of the 
London and Provincial Photographic Association ; and that 
paper should be in the possession, and frequent perusal, of 
every student of photographic portraiture. Although an artist 
in feeling and by profession, Mr. Macbeth was no niggard in 
his praises of artistic photography, and I have frequently 
heard him expatiate lovingly on the artistic productions of 
Eejlander, Robinson, and Hubbard ; but, like all artists, he 
abominated retouching, and denounced it in the strongest 
terms, and regretted its prevalence and practice as destructive 
of truth, and "truth in photography," he used to say, "was 
its greatest recommendation." 

The annals of 1889 — the jubilee year of published and 
commercial photography — commence with the record of death. 
On the 21st of January, Mr. John Robert Sawyer died at Naples 
in the 61st year of his age. Mr. Sawyer had been for many 
years a member of the Autotype Company, and his foresight and 
indefatigability were largely instrumental in making that 
Company a commercial success. It was anything but a success 
from the time that it was commenced by the late Mr. "NYinsor 
and Mr. J. R. Johnson, but from the moment that Mr. J. R. 
■Sawyer became " director of works," the company rapidly became 
a flourishing concern, and possesses now a world-wide reputation . 



122 

Mr. Sawyer was one of the early workers in photography, and 
for several years conducted a photographic business in the city 
of Norwich. It was there that circumstances induced him to 
give his attention to some form of permanent photography with 
the view of employing it to illustrate a work on the carving 
and sculpture in Norwich Cathedral, particularly the fine work 
in the roof of the nave. Mr. Sawyer naturally turned his 
attention, in the first place, to the autotype process, but it was 
then in its infancy, and the price prohibitory. The collotype 
process then became his hope and refuge, but that also was in 
its infancy, and not practised in England. Mr. Sawyer there- 
fore started for Berlin early in 1869, and there met a certain 
Herr Ghemoser, a clever expert in the collotype process, from 
whom he obtained valuable information and working instructions. 
On his return home, Mr. Sawyer laboured at the collotype 
process until he overcame most of its difficulties, and on 
January 1st, 1871, he entered into partnership with Mr. "Walter 
Bird, and removed to London with the intention of making the 
collotype process a feature in the business. Messrs. Sawyer 
and Bird commenced their London experiences in Eegent Street, 
but on January 1st, 1872, they entered into an agreement with 
the Autotype Fine Art Company to work the collotype process 
as a branch of their business. Meanwhile, another partner, Mr. 
John Spencer, had joined the finn, and at the end of that year 
Messrs. Spencer, Sawyer, Bird and Co. purchased the Autotype 
patents, plant, and stock at Ealing Dene, and all its interest in the 
wholesale trade ; and, in 1874, they bought up the whole of the 
Fine Art business, including the stock in Eathbone Place, 
and became the Autotype Company. 

The great photographic feature of this year was the Convention 
held on August 19th in St. James's Hall, Regent Street, London, 
in celebration of the jubilee of practical photography, which 
was inaugurated by the delivery of an address by the president, 
Mr. Andrew Pringle. The address was a fairly good resume of 



123 

all that had been done for the advancement of photography 
during the past fifty years. 

The exhibition of photographs was somewhat of a failure ; 
little was shown that possessed any historical interest, and that 
little was contributed by myself. There was a considerable 
display of apparatus of almost every description, but there was 
nothing that had not been seen, or could have been seen, in the 
shops of the exhibitors. 

The papers that were read were of considerable interest, and 
imparted no small amount of information, especially Mr. Thos. 
E. Dallmeyer's on "False Rendering of Photographic Images 
by the Misapplication of Lenses " ; Mr. C. H. Bothamley's on 
" Ortho chromatic Photography with Gelatine Plates"; Mr. 
Thomas Bolas's on "The Photo-mechanical Printing Methods 
as employed in the Jubilee Year of Photography " ; but by far 
the most popular, wonderful, and instructive, was Professor E. 
Muybridge's lecture, with illustrations, on " The Movements 
of Animals." The sight of ^ the formidable batteries of lenses 
was startling enough, but when the actions of the horse, and 
other animals, were shown in the "Zoopraxiscope," the effect 
on the sense of sight was both astounding and convincing, and I 
began to marvel how artists could have lived and laboured in the 
wrong direction for so many years, especially when the lecturer 
showed that a prehistoric artist had scratched on a bone a rude 
but truthful representation of an animal in motion. Both the 
sight and intelligence of that prehistoric artist must have been 
keener than the senses of animal painters of the nineteenth 
century. 

Taking it all in all, the Jubilee Convention was an immense 
success, and brought photographers and amateurs to London 
from the most distant parts of the country. Looking round the 
Hall on the opening night, and scanning the features of those 
present, I was coming to the conclusion that I was the oldest 
photographer present, when I espied Mr. Baynham Jones, a 



124 

man of eighty-three winters, and certainly the oldest amateur 
photographer living ; so I willingly ceded the honour of seniority 
to him, and as soon as he espied me he clambered over the rails 
to come and sit at my side and talk over the past, and quite 
unknown to many present, aspects and difficulties of photography. 
Mr. "Baynhara Jones was an enthusiastic photographer from the 
very first, for in 1839, as soon as Daguerre's process was 
published, he made himself a camera out of a cigar-box and the 
lens of his opera glass, and, being unable to obtain a Daguerreo- 
type plate in the country, he cut up a silver salver and worked 
away on a solid silver plate until he succeeded in making a 
Daguerreotype picture. Mr. Baynham Jones was not the first 
photographer in this country, for the Rev. J. B. Beade preceded 
him by about two years ; but I have not the slightest doubt of 
his being the first Bagiierreotypist in England, and in that 
jubilee year of 1889 he was working with gelatine plates and 
films, and enthusiastic enough to come all the way from 
Cheltenham to London to attend the meetings of the Jubilee 
Convention of Photography. 

"With this brief allusion to the doings and attractions of the 
Jubilee Convention, I fear I must bring my reminiscences of 
photography to a close ; but before doing so I feel it incumbent 
on me to call attention to the fact that two years after celebrating 
the jubilee of photography we should, paradoxical as it may 
appear, celebrate its centenary, for in 1791 the first photo- 
graphic js/ciw^-e that ever was made, seen, or heard tell of, was 
produced by Thomas "Wedgwood, and though he was unable to 
fix it and enable us to look upon that wonder to-day, the honour 
of being the first photographer, in its truest sense, is unquestion- 
ably due to an Englishman. Thomas Wedgwood made photo- 
graphic pictures on paper, and there they remained until light 
or time obliterated them ; whereas J. H. Schulze, a German 
physician, only obtained impressions of letters on a semi-liquid 
chloride of silver in a bottle, and at every shake of the hand 



125 

the meagre impression was instantly destroyed. If we consider 
such men as Mepce, Reade, Daguerre, and Fox Talbot the fathers 
of photography, we cannot but look upon Thomas Wedgwood 
as the Grand Father, and the centenary of his first achievement 
should be celebrated with becoming honour as the English 
centenary of photography. 



CHRONOLOGICAL RECORD 

OF 

INVENTIONS, DISCOVERIES, PUBLICATIONS, AND 
APPLIANCES, FOEMING FACTORS IN THE INCEP- 
TION, DISCOVERY, AND DEVELOPMENT OF PHOTO- 
GRAPHY. 



1432 B.C. Iron said to have been first discovered. 

424 B.C. Lenses made and used by the Greeks. And a lens 
has been found in the ruins of Nineveh. 

79 A.D. Glass known and used by the Romans. 

697. Glass brought to England. 

1100. Alcohol first obtained by the alchemist, Abucasis. 

1287. Nitric acid first obtained by Raymond LuUy. Present 
properties made known by Dr. Priestley, 1785. 

1297. Camera-obscura constructed by Roger Bacon. 

1400. Chloride of gold solution known, to Basil Valentine. 

1500. Camera-obscura improved by Baptista Porta. 

1555. Chloride of silver blackening by the action of light. 
Doubtless it was the knowledge of this that induced Thomas 
"Wedgwood and Sir Humphrey Davy to make their experi- 
ments. 

1590. Paper first made in England, at Dartford, Xent, by 
Sir John Speilman. It is said that the Chinese made paper 
170 years b.c. 

1646. Magic lantern invented by Athanasius Kircher. 



127 

1666. Sir Isaac I^ewton divided a sunbeam into its seven 
component parts, and re-constructed the camera-obscura. 

1670. Salt mines of Staffordshire discovered. 

1727. J. H. Schulze, a German physician, observed that 
light blackened chalk impregnated with nitrate o£ silver solution 
and gold chloride. 

1737. Solution of nitrate of silver applied to paper, by Hellot. 

1739. Chloride of mercury made by K. Neumann. 

1741. Platinum first known in Europe: M. H. St. Claire 
Deville's new method of obtaining it from the ore, 1859. 

1750. J. Dollond, London, first made double achromatic com- 
pound lenses. 

1757. Chloride of silver made by J. B. Beccarius. 

1774. Dr. Priestley discovered ammonia to be composed of 
nitrogen and hydrogen; but ammonia is as old as the first 
decomposition of organic matter. 

1777. Charles "William Scheele observed that the violet end 
of the spectrum blackened chloride of silver more rapidly than 
the red end. Chlorine discovered. 

1779. Oxalate of silver made by Bergmann. 

1789. Uranium obtained from pitch-blende by Klaproth. 

1791. Thomas Wedgwood commenced experiments with a 
solution of nitrate of silver spread upon paper and white leather, 
and obtained impressions of semi-transparent objects and cast 
shadows. Sir Humphry Davy joined him later. 

1797. Nitrate of silver on silk by Fulhame. 

1799. Hyposulphite of soda discovered by M. Chaussier. 

1800. John William Bitter, of Samitz, in Silesia, observed 
that chloride of silver blackened beyond the violet end of 
the spectrum, thus discovering the action of the ultra violet 
ray. 

1801. Potassium discovered by Sir Humphry Davy. 

1802. Examples of Heliotypes, by Wedgwood and Davy, 
exhibited at the Eoyal Institution, and the process published. 



128 

1803. Palladium discovered in platinum by Dr. Wollaston. 
1808. Strontium obtained from carbonate of strontia by Sir 
Humphry Davy. 

1812. Iodine discovered by M. D. Curtois, of Paris. 

— Nitrate of silver and albumen employed by D. Fischer. 

1813. Ditto investigated by M. Clement. 

1814. Joseph Mcephore de !Niepce commenced experiments 
with the hope of securing the pictures as seen in the camera- 
obscura. 

— Iodide of silver made by Sir H. Davy. 

1819. Sir John Herschel published the fact that hyposulphite 
of soda dissolved chloride and other salts of sLlver. 

1824. Niepce obtained pictures in the camera-obscura upon 
metal plates coated with asphaltum, or bitumen of Judea. 

— L. Gr. M. Daguerre commenced his researches. 

— Permanganate of potash. Promenkerz. 

1826. Bromine discovered in sea- water by il. Balard. 

— Bromine of silver made. 

1827. Xiepce exhibited his pictures in England, and left one 
or more, now in the British Museum. 

1829. Kiepce and Daguerre entered into an alliance to pursue 
their researches mutually. 

1832. Evidence of Daguerre employing iodine. 

1837. Eev. J. B. Reade, of Clapham, London, obtained a 
photograph in the solar microscope, and employed tannin as an 
accelerator and hyposulphite of soda as a fixer for the first time 
in photography. 

1838. Eeflecting stereoscope exhibited by Charles "Wheat- 
stone. 

— Mungo Ponton observed that light altered and hardened 
bichromate of potash, and produced yellow photographs with 
that material. This discovery led to the invention of the 
Autotype, Woodburytype, Collotype, and other methods of 
photo-mechanical printing. 



129 

1839. Daguerre's success communicated to the Academy of 
Science, Paris, by M. Arago, January 7th. 

— Electrotype process announced. 

— Professor Faraday described Fox Talbot's new method of 
photogenic drawing to the members of the Eoyal Institution, 
January 25th. 

— Fox Talbot read a paper, giving a full description of] his 
process, before the Royal Society, January 31st. 

— Sir John Herschel introduced hyposulphite of soda as a 
fixing agent, February 14th. 

— Dr. Alfred Swaine Taylor employed ammonia-nitrate of 
silver in preference to chloride of silver for making photogenic 
drawings, and employed hyposulphite of lime in preference to 
hyposulphite of soda for fixing. 

— Daguerre's process published in August, and patent, for 
England, granted to Mr. Beard, London, August 14th. 

— " History and Practice of Photogenic Drawing " ; L. S. 
M. Daguerre. Published September. 

— First photographic portrait taken on a Daguerreotype 
plate by Professor J. "S7. Draper, New York, U.S., in the 
autumn of this year. 

1840. '-On the Art of Photogenic Drawing," by Alfred S. 
Taylor, lecturer on chemistry, &e., at Guy's Hospital. Pub- 
lished by Jeffrey, George Yard, Lombard Street, London. 

— The Handbook of Heliography, or the Art of "Writing or 
Drawing by the Effect of Sunlight, with the Art of Dioramic 
Painting, as practised by M. Daguerre." Anon. 

— "Wolcott's reflecting camera brought from America to 
England and secured by Mr. Beard, patentee of the Daguerreo- 
type process. 

— The moon photographed for the first time by Dr. J. "W. 
Draper, of New York, on a Daguerreotype plate. 

— John Frederic Goddard, of London, inventor of the polari- 
scope and lecturer on chemistry, employed chlorine added to 



130 

iodine, and afterwards bromine, as accelerators in the Daguerreo- 
type process. 

1840. Antoine F. J. Claudet, F.R.S., of London, employed 
chlorine for the same purpose. 

— M. Fizeau, of Paris, deposited a film of gold over the 
Daguerreotype picture after the removal of the iodine, which 
•imparted increased brilliancy and permanency. 

— Chloride of platinum employed by Herschel. 

— Fox Talbot's developer published September 20th. 

1841. Calotype process patented by Fox Talbot, September 
■:20th. 

— First photographic compound portrait lens made by 
Andrew Ross, London. 

— Towson, of Livei'pool, noted that chemical and visual foci 
did not coincide. Defect corrected by J. Petzval, of Vienna, 
for Voightlander. 

— "A Popular Treatise on the Art of Photography, including 
Daguerreotype and all the New Methods of Producing Pictures 
by the Chemical Agency of Light," by Robert Hunt, published 
by R. Griffin, Glasgow. 

— Daguerre announced an instantaneous process, but it was 
not successful. 

1842. Sir John Herschel exhibited blue, red, and purple 
photographs at the Royal Institution. 

— "Photography Familiarly Explained," by W. R. Baxter, 
London. 

1843. "Photogenic Manipulation," by G. T. Fisher Knight, 
Jtf'oster Lane. 

— Treatise on Photography by N. P. Lerebours, translated 
hy J. Egerton. 

1844. Fox Talbot issued " The Pencil of Nature," a book of 
silver prints from calotype negatives. 

— C. Cundell, of London, employed and published the use of 
bromide of potassium in the calotype process. 



131 

1844. " Researches on Light and its Chemical Relations," by 
Robert Hunt. First edition; second ditto, 1854. 

— Robert Hunt recommended proto-sulphate of iron as a 
developer for Talbot's calotype negatives ; also oxalate of iron 
and acetate of lead for other purposes. 

— A. F. J. Claudet patented a red light for "dark-room," 
but at that date a red light was not necessary, so the old photo- 
graphers continued the use of yeUow lights. 

1845. "Photogenic ^Janipulations :" Part 1, Calotype, &c. ; 
Part 2, Daguerreotype. By George Thomas Fisher, jun. Pub- 
lished by George Knight and Sons, London. 

— "Manual of Photography," including Daguerreotype, 
Calotype, &c., by Jabez Hogg. First edition. Second ditto, 
including Archer's collodion process, bichloride of mercury 
bleaching and intensifying, and gutta-percha transfer process, 
1856, 

1845, "Practical Hints on the Daguerreotype ; "Willat's Scien- 
tific Manuals." 

— " Plain Directions for Obtaining Photographic Pictures 
by the Calotype and other processes, on paper ; "Willat's Scien- 
tific Manuals." Published by "Willats, 98, Cheapside ; and 
Sherwood, Gilbert, and Piper, Paternoster Row. 

1846. Gun-cotton made known by Professor Schbnbein, of 
Basel. 

1847, Collodion made by dissolving gun-cotton in ether and 
alcohol, by Mr. Maynard, of Boston, U.S. 

1848. " Photogenic Manipulation :" Part II., Daguerreotye, 
by Robert Bingham. Published by George Knight and Sons, 
London, 

— Albumen on glass plates first employed for making nega- 
tives byM. jS'iepce de Saint Victor. Process published June 13th, 

— Frederick Scott Archer experimented with paper pulp, 
tanno- gelatine, and iodised collodion, and made collodion nega- 
tives in the autumn. 



132 

1849. Collodion positive of Hever Castle, Kent, made by 
Prederick Scott Archer early in the year. 

— M. Gustave Le Gray suggested the application of collodion 
to photography. 

1850. "A Practical Treatise on Photography upon Paper and 
Glass," by Gustave Le Gray. Translated from the French by 
Thomas Cousins, and published by T. and R. Willats. This 
book is said to contain the first printed notice of collodion being 
used in photography. 

— E. J. Bingham, London, suggested the use of collodion 
and gelatine in photography. 

— M. Poitevin's gelatine process, published January 25th. 

1851. Frederick Scott Archer published his collodion process 
in the March number of The Chemist, and introduced pyrogallic 
acid as a developer December 20th. 

— Fox Talbot announced his instantaneous process, and 
obtained, at the Royal Institution, a copy of the Times news- 
paper, while revolving rapidly, by the light of an electric spark. 

— Mepce de St. Victor's heliochromic process, published 
June 22nd. Examples sent to the judges of the International 
Exhibition of 1862. See Jurors' Report thereon, pp. 88-9. 

— Sir David Brewster's improved stereoscope applied to 
photography. 

1851. " Photography, a Treatise on the Chemical Changes 
produced by Solar Radiation, and the Production of Pictures 
from Nature, by the Daguerreotype, Calotype, and other Photo- 
graphic Processes," by Robert Hunt. Published by J. J. Griffin 
and Co., London and Glasgow. 

1852. "Archer's Hand-Book of Collodion Process." Pub- 
lished May 14th. Second edition, enlarged ; published 1854. 

— "Archer's Collodion Positive Process." Published July 
20th. 

— Fox Talbot's photo- engraving on steel process ; patented 
October 29th. 



133 

1853. A Manual of Photography, by Hobert Hunt, published. 

— Photographic Society of London founded. Sir Charles 
Eastlake, P.E..A., President ; Roger Fenton, Esq., Secretary. 
First number of the Society's Journal published March 3rd. 

— Cutting's American patent for use of bromides in collo- 
dion obtained June 11th, and his Ambrotype process introduced 
in America. 

— "The Waxed-Paper Process," by Gustave Le Gray. 
Translated from the French with a supplement, by James How. 
Published by G. Knight and Co., Foster Lane, Cheapside. 

— Frederick Scott Archer introduced a triple lens to shorten 
the focus of a double combination lens. 

1854. E. E., of Tavistock, published directions for the use of 
isinglass as a substitute for collodion. 

— First series of photographic views of Kenilworth Castle, 
&c., from collodion negatives, published by Frederick Scott 
Archer. 

— Liverpool Photographic Journal, first published by Henry 
Greenwood, bi-monthly. 

— First roller-slide patented by Messrs. Spencer and Mel- 
huish, May 22nd. 

— Fox Talbot first applied albumen to paper to obtain a 
finer surface for photographic printing. 

— Photo-Enamel process ; first patent December 13th. 

— Dry collodion plates first introduced. 

1855. M. Poitevin's helioplastic process patented February 
20th. 

— Dr. J. M. Taupenot's dry plate process introduced. 

— Photo-galvanic process patented June 5th. 

— "Hardwich's Photographic Chemistry." First edition, 
published March 12th. 

— Ferrotype process introduced in America by Mr. J. "W. 
Griswold. 

1856. "Photographic Notes." Edited by Thomas Sutton. 
Commenced January 1 bt ; bi-monthly. 



134 

1856. Sutton's Calotype process, published March. 
1856 Dr. Hill Norris's dry plate process. Patented Septem- 
her 1st. 

1856. Caranza published method of toning silver prints 
with chloride of platinum. 

1857. Moule's photogen, artificial light for portraiture. 
Patented February 18th. 

— Carte-de-visite portraits introduced by M. Ferrier, of Xice. 

— Kinnear Camera introduced. Made by Bell, Edinburgh. 

1858. Pouncy's Carbon process patented April 10th. 

— Skaife's Pistolgraph camera intotrodueed. 

1858. J. C, Burnett exposed the back of the carbon paper 
and obtained half-tones. 

— Fox Talbot's photo-etching process, patented April 20th. 

— Paul Pretsch's photo-engraving process introduced. 

— " Sutton's Dictionary of Photography," published 
August 17th. 

— The Photographic News, founded, weekly. First number 
published September 10th, by Cassell, Petter , and Galpin, London. 

— "Fothergill Dry Process," by Alfred Keene, published 
August. 

1859. Sutton's panoramic camera patented, September 28th. 

— Photo-lithographic Transfer process patented by Osborne, 
in Melbourne, Australia. 

— "Wm. Blair, of Perth, secured half-tone in carbon printing 
by allowing the light to pass through the back of the paper on 
which the pigment was spread. 

— Asser, of Amsterdam, also invented a photo-lithographic 
transfer process about this time. 

1860. " Principles and Practice of Photography," by Jabez 
Hughes. First edition published ; fourteenth edition, 1887. 

— Fargier coated carbon surface with collodion, exposed, and 
transferred to glass to develop. 

— Spectroscope invented by Kertchoff and Bunsen. 



135 

1860. "Year-Book of Photography," edited by G. Wharton 
Simpson, first published. 

— Improved Kimiear camera with swing front and back by 
Meagher. 

1861. Captain Dixon's iodide emulsion process patented, 
April 29th. 

— M, Gaudin, of Paris, employed gelatine in his photogene, 
and published in La Lumiere his coUodio-iodide and collodio- 
chloride processes. 

— H. Anthony, Xew York, discovered that Tannin dry 
plates could be developed by moisture and ammonia vapour. 

1862. "Alkaline Development," published by Major Russell. 

— Meagher's square bellows camera, with folding bottom 
board, exhibited at the International Exhibition. Noticed in 
Jurors' Report. 

— Parkesine, the forerunner of celluloid films, invented by 
Alexander Parkes, of Birmingham. 

1863. Pouncy's fatty ink process ; patented January 29th. 

— Toovey's photo-lithographic process ; patented June 29th. 

— " Tannin Process," published by Major Russell. 

— " Popular Treatise on Photography," by D. Van Monck- 
hoven. Translated from the French by W. H. Thornthwaite, 
London. 

1864. Swan's improved carbon process; patented August 27th. 

— " Collodio-Bromide Emulsion," by Messrs. B. J. Sayce 
and "W. B. Bolton ; published September 9th. 

— Collodio- Chloride Emulsion," by George "Wharton 
Simpson ; published in The Photographic News, October 28th. 

— Willis's aniline process ; patented November 11th. 

— Obernetter's chromo-photo process ; published. 

— Instantaneous dry collodion processes by Thomas Sutton, 
B.A. Sampson, Low, Son, and Marston, London. 

1865. Paper read on " Collodio-Chloride Emulsion," by 
George Wharton Simpson, at the Photographic Society, 
March 14th. 



136 

1865. Photography, a lecture, by the Hon. J. W. Stnitt, now 
Lord Rayleigh, delivered April 18th ; and afterwards published. 

— Eburneum process ; published by J. Burgess, Norwich, in 
The Photographic News, May 5th. 

— Bromide as a restrainer in the developer ; published by 
Major Eussell. 

1865. Interior of Pyramids of Egypt, photographed by Pro- 
fessor Piazzi Smyth with the magnesium light. 

— "W. H. Smith patented a gelatino-bromide or gelatino- 
chloride of silver process for wood blocks, &c. 

1866. Magic photographs revived and popularised. 

— "Woodburytype process patented by Walter Bentley 
Woodbury, of Manchester, July 24th. 

— Photography reviewed, in British Quarterly Eeview, by 
George Wharton Simpson, October 1st. 

1867. M. Poitevin obtained the balance of the Due de Luyne's 
prize for permanent printing. 

— Cabinet portraits introduced by F. E. Window, photo- 
grapher, Baker Street, London. 

1868. W. H. Harrison experimented with gelatino-bromide 
of silver and obtained results, though somewhat rough and 
unsatisfactory. 

1869. John Robert Johnson's carbon process double transfer 
patented. 

— " Pictorial Effect in Photography," by H. P. Robinson, 
first edition. London : Piper and Carter. 

1870. Thomas Sutton described Gaudin's gelatino-iodide 
process, 

— Jabez Hughes toned collodion transfers with chloride of 
palladium. 

— John Robert Johnson's single transfer process for carbon 
printing patented. 

1871. Dr. R. L. Maddox, of Southampton, published his 
experiments with gelatino-bromide of silver in the British 
Journal of Photography, September 8th. 



137 

1872. '^Emaux Photograpliiques " (photographic enamels), 
■second edition, by Geymet and Alker, Paris. 

1873. J. Burgess, of Peckham, advertised his gelatine-bromide 
of silver emulsion, but it would not keep, so had to be withdrawn. 

— Ostendo non Ostento published a gelatino-bromide of 
silver formula with alcohol. 

— Platinotype process patented by W. "Willis, junior, 
June 1st. 

1873. K. Kennet's gelatino-bromide of silver pellicle patented 
^November 20th. 

— "The Ferrotypers' Guide" published by Scovill Manu- 
facturing Company, K'ew York. 

1874. K. Kennett issued his gelatino-bromide of silver dry 
plates in March. 

— Gelatino-bromide of silver paper first announced by Peter 
Mawdsley, of Liverpool Dry Plate Company. 

— "Backgrounds by Powder Process" published by J. 
"Werge, London. 

— Plcxible supports in carbon printing patented by John 
Robert Sawyer, of the Autotype Company. 

— Leon Lambert's carbon printing process patented. 

1875. Demonstrations in carbon printing by L. Lambert given 
in Lonlon and elsewhere. 

— Eder and Totli intensified collodion negatives and toned 
lantern sliles with chloride of platinum. 

1876. "Practical Treatise on Enamelling and Retouching," 
by P. Piquepe. Piper and Carter, London. 

1877. Ferrous oxalate developer published June 29th. 

— "Wratten precipitated the gelatine emulsion with alcohol, 
and so avoided the necessity of dialysing. 

1878. Improvement in platinotype patented by W. Willis, 
junior, July. 

— Abney's "Treatise on Photography " published. 

— Abney's " Emulsion Process " published. 



138 

1879, J. Werge's non-actinic developing tray introduced at 
the South London Photographic Society. 

1880. "Principles and Practice of Photography," by Jabez 
Hughes, comprising instructions to make and manipulate 
gelatino dry plates, by J". AVerge. London : Simpkin and 
Marshall, and J. Werge. 

— Gelatino-bromide of silver paper introduced by Messrs. 
Morgan and Kidd. 

— Platinotype improvement patent granted. 

— Iodides added to gelatino-bromide of silver emulsions by" 
Captain "W. de W. Abney. 

1880. "Warnerke's sensitometer introduced. 

— "The Argentic Gelatino-Bromide Workers' Guide," by 
John Burgess. "W. T. Morgan and Co., Greenwich. 

— "Photography; its Origin, Progress, and Practice," by J. 
"Werge. London: Simpkin, Marshall, and Co. 

— Hydroquinone developer introduced by Dr. Eder and 
Captain Toth. 

1881. Stannotype process introduced by "Walter "Woodbury. 

— Photographers in Great Britain and Ireland 7,614 as per 
census returns. 

— "Modern Dry Plates; or Emulsion Photography," by 
Dr. J. M. Eder, translated from the German by H. Wilmer, 
edited by H. B. Pritchard. London : Piper and Carter. 

— "Pictorial Effect in Photography," by H. P. Eobinson 
(cheap edition). Piper and Carter. 

— "The Art and Practice of Silver Printing," by H. P. 
Eobinson and Captain Abney. Piper and Carter. 

1882. Herbert B. Berkely recommended the use of sulphite of 
soda with pyrogallic acid to prevent discolouration of film. 

— " Eecent Advances in Photography " (Cantor Lectures, 
Society of Arts), Captain Abney. London : Piper and Carter. 

1882. "The A B C of Modern Photography," comprising 
practical instructions for working gelatine dry-plates, by W. K» 
Burton. London : Piper and Carter. 



139 

1882. " Elementary Treatise on Photograpliic Chemistry," by 
A. Spiller. London : Piper and Carter. 

1883. Translation of Captain Pizzighelli and Baron A. Hubl's 
booklet on " Platinotype ; " published in The Photographic 
Journal. 

— Orthochromatic dry plates ; English patent granted to 
Tailfer and Clayton, January 8th. 

— "The Chemical Efifect of the Spectrum," by Dr. J. M. 
Eder. (Translated from the German by Captain Abney). Lon- 
don : Harrison and Sons. 

1883. " The Chemistry of Light and Photography," by Dr. H. 
Vogel. London : Kegan Paul. 

1884. " Recent Improvements in Photo-Mechanical Printing 
Methods," by Thomas Solas, Society of Arts, London. 

— ** Picture-Making by Photography," by H, P. Robinson. 
London : Piper and Carter. 

1885. " Photography and the Spectroscope," by Capt. Abney^ 
Society of Arts. 

— "The Spectroscope and its Relation to Photography," by 
C. Ray "Woods. London : Piper and Carter. 

— "Photo-Micrography," by A. C. Malley ; second edition. 
London : H. K. Lewis. 

1886. Orthochromatic results exhibited by Dixon and Sons at 
the photographic exhibition in October. 

— English patent rights of Tailfer and Clayton's ortho- 
chromatic process secured by R. J. Edwards and Co., Nov. 18th. 

1887. Platinotype improvements ; two patents. 

1888. Pizzighelli's visible platinotype printing paper put on 
the market in June. 

1889. Eikonogen developer patented by Dr. Andresen, of 
Berlin, Germany, March 26th. 

— Wire frames and supports in camera extensions patented 
by Thomas Rudolph Dallmeyer and Francis Beauchamp, 
November 6th. 



COSTRIBUTIONS TO PHOTOGRAPHIC LITERATURE. 

BY 

JOHN WERGE. 

Originally published in the "Photographic News" ^^ British Journal 

of Photography" Photographic Year-Book, and 

Photographic Almanac. 



PICTUEES OF NIAGARA. 
Taken with Cameha, Pen, and Pencil. 
Many very beautiful and interesting photographic views of 
Niagara Falls, and other places of romantic and marvellous inte- 
rest, have been taken and exhibited to the world. Indeed, they 
are to be seen now in almost every print-seller's window ; and in 
the albums, stereoscopes, or folios of almost every private col- 
lector. But I question very much, if it ever occurred to the 
mind of anyone, while looking at those pictures, what an amount 
of labour, expense, and danger had to be endured and encoun- 
tered to obtain them — " the many hairbreadth 'scapes by flood 
and field," of a very "positive" character, which had to be 
risked before some of the "negatives" could be "boxed." 
Doubtless Mr. England, Mr. Stephen Thompson, and Mr. Wilson 
have many very vivid recollections of the critical situations they 
have been in while photographing the picturesque scenery of 
the Alpine passes of Switzerland, and the Highlands and glens 
of Scotland. 

Mr. Stephen Thompson has narrated to me one or two of his 
"narrow escapes" while photographing his "Swiss scenes," 
and I am sure Mr. England did not procure his many and 



141 

beautiful *' points of view " of Niagara Falls without exposing 
himself to considerable risk. 

I had the good fortune to be one of the earliest pioneers, in 
company with a Yankee friend, ilr. Easterly, in taking photo- 
graphs of the Falls ; and my recollections of the manner in which 
"we " went about," poised ourselves and cameras on " points of 
rock" and ''ledges of bluffs," and felled trees, and lopped off 
branches overhanging precipices, to " gain a point," even at 
this distant date are somewhat thrilling. To take a photograph 
of what is called " Visitors' View " is safe and easy enough. 
You might plant a dozen cameras on the open space at the brink 
of the #" American Fall, " and photograph the scene, visitors and 
all, as they stand, " fixed " with wonder, gazing at the Falls, 
American, Centre, and Horseshoe, Goat Island, and the shores 
of Canada included, for this point embraces in one view all those 
subjects. But to get at the out-of-the-way places, to take the 
Falls in detail, and obtain some of the grandest views of them, 
is a very different matter. 

I remember, when we started, taking a hatchet with us, like 
backwoodsmen, to take a view of Prospect Tower, on the 
American side of the great Horseshoe Fall, how we had to hew 
down the trees that obstructed the light ; how we actually hung 
over the precipice, holding on to each other's hands, to lop off a 
branch still in sight where it was not wanted. The manner in 
which we accomplished this was what some bystanders pro- 
nounced " awful." I hugged a sapling of a silver birch, grow- 
ing on the brink of the precipice, with my left arm, while friend 
Easterly, holding my right hand with one of the Masonic grips 
— I won't say which — hung over the precipice, and stretching 
out as far as he could reach, lopped off the offending branch. 
Yet in this perilous position my lively companion must crack 
his joke by punning upon my name, and a Cockney weakness at 
the same time, for he " guessed he was below the t^erge of the 
precipice." The branch down, and we had resumed our perpen- 



142 

dicular positions, he simply remarked, if tliat was not holding 
on to a man's hand in friendship, he did not know what was. 

But the work was not done yet ; to get the view of the Tower 
we wanted, we had to make a temporary platform over the pre- 
cipice. This we managed by laying a piece of " lumber " across 
a fallen tree, and, unshipping the camera, shoved it along the 
plank until it was in position, balancing the shore end of the 
plank with heavy stones. "When all was ready for exposure, I 
went round and stood on the point of a jutting rock to give 
some idea of the great depth of the Fall, but I very nearly 
discovered, and just escaped being myself the plummet. In the 
excitement of the moment, and not thinking that the rock would 
be slimy and slippery with the everlasting spray, I went too 
rapidly forward, and the rock having a slight decline, I slipped, 
but was fortunately brought up by a juniper bush growing 
within a foot of the edge. For a second or two I lay on my 
back wondering if I could slide out of my difficulty as easily as 
I had slidden into it. In a moment I determined to go back- 
wards on my back, hands, and feet, until I laid hold of another 
bush, and could safely assume a perpendicular position. After 
giving the signal that " all was right," the plate was exposed, 
and I cautiously left a spot I have no desire to revisit. But it is 
astonishing how the majesty and grandeur of the scene divest 
the mind of all sense of fear, and to this feeling, to a great 
extent, is attributed the many accidents and terrible deaths that 
have befallen numerous visitors to the Falls. 

The Indians, the tribe of the Iroquois, who were the aboriginal 
inhabitants of that part of the country, had a tradition that the 
" Great Spirit " of the " Mighty Waters " required the sacrifice 
of two human lives every year. To give rise to such a tradition, 
doubtless, many a red man, in his skifi", had gone over the Falls, 
centuries before they were discovered by the Jesuit missionary. 
Father Hennepin, in 1678 ; and, even in these days of Christian 
civilization, and all but total extirpation of the aboriginals, the 
** Great Spirit " does not appear to be any less exacting. 



143 

I^early every year one or more persons are swept over those 
awful cataracts, making an average of at least one per annum. 
Many visitors and local residents have lost their lives under the 
most painful and afflicting circumstances, the most remarkable 
of which occurred just before my visit. One morning, at 
daylight, a man was discovered in the middle of the rapids, a 
little way above the brink of the American Fall. He was 
perched upon a log which was jammed between two rocks. 
One end of the log was out of the water, and the poor fellow 
was comparatively dry, but with very little hope of being 
rescued from his dreadful situation. No one could possibly 
reach him in a boat. The foaming and leaping waters were 
Tushing past him at the rate of eighteen or twenty miles an hour, 
and he knew as well as anyone that to attempt a rescue in a 
boat or skiff would be certain destruction, yet every effort was 
made to save him. Rafts were made and let down, but they 
were either submerged, or the ropes got fast in the rocks. The 
life-boat was brought from Buffalo, Lake Erie, and that was let 
down to him by ropes from the bridge, but they could not 
manage the boat in that rush of waters, and gave it up in 
despair. One of the thousands of agonized spectators, a Southern 
planter, offered a thousand dollars reward to anyone that would 
save the " man on tbe log." Another raft was let down to him, 
and this time was successfully guided to the spot. He got on 
it, but being weak from exposure and want, he was unable to 
make himself fast or retain his hold, and the doomed man was 
swept off the raft and over the Falls almost instantly, before 
the eyes of thousands, who wished, but were powerless and 
unable, to rescue him from his frightful death. His name was 
Avery. He and another man were taking a pleasure sail on the 
Upper Niagara river, their boat got into the current, was sucked 
into the rapids, and smashed against the log or the rock. The 
-other man went over the Falls at the time of the accident ; but 
Avery clung to the log, where he remained for about eighteen 



144 

hours in such a state of mind as no one could possibly imagine, 
None could cheer him with a word of hope, for the roar of the 
rapids and thunder of the cataracts rendered all other sounds 
inaudible. Mr. Babbitt, a resident photographer, took several 
Daguerreotypes of the "man on the log," one of which he 
kindly presented to me. Few of the bodies are ever recovered. 
One or two that went over the Great Horse Shoe Fall were 
found, their bodies in a state of complete nudity. The 
weight or force of the water strips them of every particle of 
clothing ; but that is not to be wondered at, considering the 
immense weight of water that rolls over every second, the 
distance it has to fall, and the depth of the foaming cauldron 
below. The fall of the Horse Shoe to the surface of the 
lower river is 158 feet, and the depth of the cauldron into 
which the Upper Niagara leaps about 300 feet, making a 
total of 458 feet from the upper to the lower bed of the 
Niagara Eiverat the Great Horse Shoe Fall. It has been 
computed that one hundred million, two hundred thousand 
tons of water pass over the Falls every hour. The depth of 
the American Fall is 164 feet ; but that falls on to a mass 
of broken rocks a few feet above the level of the lower river. 

Our next effort was to get a view of the Centre Fall, or 
" Cave of the Winds," from the south, looking at the Centre 
and American Falls, down the river as far as the Suspension 
Bridge, about two miles below, and the Lower or Long Rapids, 
for there are rapids both above and below the Falls. In this 
we succeeded tolerably well, and without any difficulty. Then, 
descending the " Biddle Stairs " to the foot of the two American 
cataracts, we tried the "Cave of the Winds" itself; but, our 
process not being a "wet" one, had no sympathy with the 
blinding and drenching spray about us. However, I secured 
a pencil sketch of the scene we could not photograph, and 
afterwards took one of the most novel and fearful shower-baths 
to be had in the world. Dressed — or, rather, undressed — for 



145 

the purpose, and accompanied by a guide, I passed down by the 
foot of the precipice, under the Centre Fall, and along a wet 
and slippery pole laid across a chasm, straddling it by a process 
I cannot describe — for I was deaf with the roar and blind with 
the spray — we reached in safety a flat rock on the other side, 
and then stood erect between the two sheets of falling water. 
To say that I saw anything while there would be a mistake ; 
but I know and felt by some demonstrations, other than ocular, 
that I was indulging in a bath of the wildest and grandest 
description. liecrossing the chasm by the pole, we now entered 
the " Cave of the Winds," which is immediately under the 
Centre Fall. The height and width of the cave is one hundred 
feet, and the depth sixty feet. It takes its name from the great 
rush of wind into the cave, caused by the fall of the waters 
from above. Standing in the cave, which is almost dry, you 
can view the white waters, like avalanches of snow, tumbling 
over and over in rapid succession. The force of the current of 
the rapids above shoots the water at least twenty feet from the 
rock, describing, as it were, the segment of a circle. By this 
circumstance only are you able to pass under the Centre Fall, 
and a portion of the Horse Shoe Fall on the Canadian side. To 
return, we ascended the " Biddle Stairs," a spiral staircase of 
115 steps, on the west side of Goat Island, crossed the latter, 
and by a small bridge passed to Bath Island, which we left by 
the grand bridge which crosses the rapids about 250 yards above 
the American Fall. Reaching the American shore again in 
safety, after a hard day's «vork, we availed ourselves of 
Mr. Babbitt's kindness and hospitality to develop our plates in 
his dark room, and afterwards developed ourselves, sociably and 
agreeably, refreshing the inner man, and narrating our day's 
adventures. 

I shall now endeavour to describe our next trip, which was 
to the Canadian side — how we got there, what we did, and 
what were the impressions produced while contemplating those 

L 



•ff-onderful works of nature. In the first place, to describe how 
we descended to the "ferry" and crossed the river. On the 
north side of the American Fall a railway has been constructed 
\)j an enterprising American, where the " cars " are let down 
a steep decline by means of water-power, the proprietor of the 
railway having utilized the very smallest amount of the 
immense force so near at hand. Placing our "traps" in the 
car, and seating ourselves therein, the lever was moved by the 
" operator,"' and away we went down the decline as if we were 
going plump into the river below ; but at the proper time the water 
was turned off, and we were brought to a standstill close by 
the boat waiting to ferry us across. Shifting our traps and 
selves into the boat and sitting down, the ferryman bent to the 
oars and off we dashed into the dancing and foaming waters, 
keeping her head well to the stream, and drawing slowly up 
until we came right abreast of the American Fall ; then letting 
her drop gently down the stream, still keeping her head to 
the current, we gained the Canadian shore ; our course on the 
river describing the figure of a cone, the apex towards the 
" Horse Shoe." Ascending the banks by a rather uphill road, 
we reached the Clifton Hotel, where we took some refreshments, 
and then commenced our labours of photographing the Grand 
Rapids and the Falls, from Table Eock, or what remained of it. 
On arriving at the spot, we set down our traps and looked 
about bewildered for the best point. To attempt to describe 
the scene now before us would be next to folly, nor could the 
camera, from the limited angle of our lens, possibly convey an 
adequate idea of the grandeur and terrific beauty of the Grand 
Rapids, as you see them rushing and foaming, white with 
rage, for about two and a half miles before they make their 
final plunge over the precipice. Many years ago an Indian 
was seen standing up in his canoe in the midst of these fearful 
rapids. Nearing the brink of the terrible Fall, and looking 
«bout him, he saw that all hope was lost, for he had passed Gull 



147 

Island, his only chance of respite ; waving his hand, he was 
seen to lie down in the bottom of his canoe, which shot like 
an arrow into the wild waters below, and he was lost for ever. 
Neither he nor his canoe was ever seen again. In 1829 the 
ship Detroit, loaded with a live bufialo, bear, deer, fox, &c., 
was sent over the Falls. She was almost dashed to pieces in 
the rapids, but many persons saw the remains of the ship rolled 
over into the abyss of waters. jS'o one knew what became of 
the animals on board. And in 1839, during the Canadian 
Eebellion, the steamer Caroline was set fire to in the night and 
cast adrift. She was drawn into the rapids, but struck on Gull 
Island, and was much shattered by the collision. The bulk of 
the burning mass was swept over the Falls, but few witnessed 
the sight. Doubtless no fire on board a ship was ever extin- 
guished so suddenly. The view fi'om Table Rock is too extensive 
to be rendered on one plate by an ordinary camera ; but the 
pantascopic camera would give the very best views that could 
possibly be obtained. 

Taking Table Rock as the centre, the entire sweep of the 
Fail is about 180 degrees, and stretching fi'om point to point 
for nearly three-quarters of a mile — from the north side of the 
American Fall to the termination of the Horse Shoe Fall on the 
west side. The American and Centre Falls present a nearly 
straight line running almost due north and south, while the 
Great Horse Shoe Fall presents a line or figure resembling a 
sickle laid down with the left hand, the convex part of the 
bow lying direct south, the handle lying due east and west, 
with the point or termination to the west ; the waters of the 
two American Falls rushing from east to west, and the waters 
of the Canadian Fall bounding towards the north. By this 
description it will be seen that but for the intervention of 
Goat and Luna Islands the three sheets of water would embrace 
each other like mighty giants locked in a death struggle, before 
they fell into the lower river. The whole aspect of the Falls 



148 

from Table Rock is panoramic. Turning to the left, you see 
the American rapids rushing down furiously under the bridge, 
between Bath Island and the American shore, with a force and 
Telocity apparently great enough to sweep away the bridge 
and four small islands lying a little above the brink, and pitch 
them all down on to the rocks below. Turning slowly to the 
right, you see the Centre Fall leaping madly down between 
Luna and Goat Islands, covering the Cave of the Winds from 
view. A little more to the right, the rocky and precipitous 
face of Goat or Iris Island, with the "Biddle Stairs" like a 
perpendicular line running down the precipice ; and to the 
extreme right the immense sweeps of the Great Horse Shoe. 

Doubtless this fall took its name from its former resemblance 
to the shape of a horse shoe. It is, however, nothing like that 
now, but is exactly the figure of a sickle, as previously described. 
Looking far up the river you observe the waters becoming 
broken and white, and so they continue to foam and rush and 
leap with increasing impetuosity, rushing madly past the 
" Three Sisters " — three islands on the left — and " Gull Island " 
in the middle of the rapids, on which it is supposed no man has 
ever trodden, until, with a roar of everlasting thunder, which 
shakes the earth, they fall headJong into the vortex beneath. At 
the foot of this Fall, and for a considerable distance beyond, 
the river is as white as the eternal snows, and as troubled as 
an angry sea. Indeed, I never but once saw the Atlantic in 
such a state, and that was in a storm in which we had to " lay 
to" for four days in the Gulf Stream. 

The colours and beauty of J^iagara in sunlight are indescrib- 
able. You may convey some idea of its form, power, and 
majesty, by describing lines and giving figures of quantity and 
proportion, but to give the faintest impression of its beauty and 
colours is almost hopeless. The rich, lovely green on the very 
brink of the Horse Shoe Fall is beyond conception. All the 
emeralds in the world, clustered together and bathed in sunlight.. 



149 

would fall far short of the beauty and brilliancy of that pure 
and dazzling colour. It can only be compared to an immense, 
unknown brilliant of the emerald hue, in a stupendous setting of 
the purest frosted, yet sparkling silver. Here, too, is to be seen 
the marvellous beauty of the prismatic colours almost daily- 
Here you might think the "Covenant" had been made, and 
set up to shine for ever and ever at the Throne of the Most 
Mighty, and here only can be seen the complete circle of the 
colours of the rainbow. I saw this but once, when on board 
the Maid of the Mist, and almost within the great vortex at 
the foot of the Falls. A brilliant sun shining through the 
spray all round, placed us in a moment as it were in the very 
centre of that beautiful circle of colour, which, with the 
thunder of the cataract, and the sublimity of the scene, made 
the soul feel as if it were in the presence of the " Great 
Spirit," and this the sign and seal of an eternal compact. 
Here, also, is to be seen the softer, but not the less beautiful 
Lunar Rainbow. Whenever the moon is high enough in the 
heavens, the lunar bow can be seen, not fitful as elsewhere, 
but constant and beautiful as long as the moon is shedding her 
soft light upon the spray. On one occasion I saw two lunar 
bows at once, one on the spray from the American Fall, and 
the other on the spray of the great Horse Shoe Fall. This I 
believe is not usual, but an eddy of the wind brought the two 
clouds of spray under the moon's rays. Yet these are not all 
the " beauties of the mist." One morning at sunrise I saw one 
the most beautiful forms the spray could possibly assume- 
The night had been unusually calm, the morning was as still 
as it could be, and the mist from the Horse Shoe had risen in a 
straight column to a height of at least 300 feet, and then 
spread out into a mass of huge rolling clouds, immediately 
above the cataracts. The rising sun shed a red lustre on the 
under edges of the cloud, which was truly wonderful. It 
more resembled one huge, solitary column supporting a canopy 



150 

of silvery grey cloud, the edges of which were like burnished 
copper, and highly suggestive of the Temple of the Most High, 
where man must bow down and worship the great Creator of 
all these wondrous works. It is not in a passing glance at 
Niagara that all its marvellous beauties can been seen. You 
must stay there long enough to see it in all its aspects — in 
sunshine and in moonlight, in daylight and in darkness, in storm 
and in calm. No picture of language can possibly convey a 
just conception of the grandeur and vastness of these mighty 
cataracts. No poem has ever suggested a shadow of their 
majesty and sublimity. No painting has ever excited in the 
mind, of one that has not seen those marvellous works of God, 
the faintest idea of their dazzling beauties. Descriptive writers, 
both in prose and verse, have failed to depict the glories of this 
" Sovereign of the World of Floods." Painters have essayed 
with their most gorgeous colours, but have fallen far short of 
the intense beauty, transparency, and purity of the water, and 
the wonderful radiance and brilliancy of the ' ' Rainbow in the 
Mist." And I fear the beauties of Niagara in natural colours 
can never be obtained in the camera; but what a glorious 
triumph for photography if they were. Mr. Church's picture, 
painted a few years ago, is the most faithful exponent of 
nature's gorgeous colouring of Niagara that has yet been produced. 
Indeed, the brilliant and harmonious colouring of this grand 
picture can scarcely be surpassed by the hand and skill of man. 

After obtaining our views of the Grand Rapids and the Falls 
from Table Rock, we put up our traps, and leaving them in 
charge of the courteous proprietor of the Museum, we prepared 
to go imder the great Horse Shoe Fall. Clothing ourselves in 
india-rubber suits, furnished by our guide, we descended the 
stairs near Table Rock, eighty-seven steps, and, led by a negro, 
we went under the great sheet of water as far as we could go to 
Termination Rock, and standing there for a while in that vast 
cave of watery darkness, holding on to the negro's hand, we felt 



151 

lost in wonder and amazement, but not fear. How long we 
might have remained in that bewildering situation it would be 
impossible to say, but being gently drawn back by our sable 
conductor, we returned to the light and consciousness of our 
position. The volume of water being much greater here than at 
the Cave of the Winds, and the spray being all around, we could 
not see anything but darkness visible below, and an immense 
moving mass before, which we knew by feeling to be water. 
There is some fascination about the place, for after coming out 
into the daylight I went back again alone, but the guide, hurry- 
ing after me, brought me back, and held my hand until we 
reached the stairs to return to the Museum. On our way back 
our guide told us that more than " twice-told tale " of Niagara 
and Vesuvius. If I may be pardoned for mixing up the 
ridiculous with the sublime, I may as well repeat the story, for 
having just come from under the Falls we were prepared to 
believe the truth of it, if the geographical difficulty could have 
been overcome. An Italian visiting the Falls and going under 
the Horse Shoe, was asked, on coming out, what he thought of 
the sight. The Italian replied it was very grand and wonderful, 
but nothing to the sight of Mount Vesuvius in a grand eruption. 
The guide's retort was, "I guess if you bring your Vesuvius 
here, our Niagara will roon put his fires out." I do not vouch 
for the truth of the story, but giye it as nearly as possible as I 
was told. Returning to the Museum and making ourselves '* as 
we were," and comforting ourselves with something inside after 
the wetting we had got out, wc took up our traps, and wending 
our way back to the ferry, recrossed the river in much the same 
manner that we crossed over in the morning ; and sending our 
"baggage " up in the cars we thought we would walk up the 
" long stairs," 290 steps, by the side of the railway. On near- 
ing the top, we felt as if we must " cave in," but having trodden 
so far the back of a " lion," we determined to see the end of his 
tail, and pushing on to the top, we had the satisfaction of having 



152 

accomplislied the task we had set ourselves. Perhaps before 
abandoning the Canadian side of IS'iagara, I should have said 
something about Table Rock, which, as I have said, is on the 
Canadian side, and very n6ar to the Horse Shoe Fall. It took 
its name from the table-like form it originally presented. It 
was formerly much larger than it is now, but has, from time to 
time, fallen away. At one time it was very extensive and pro- 
jected over the precipice fifty or sixty feet, and was about 
240 feet long and 100 feet thick. On the 26th of June, 1850, 
this tremendous mass of rock, nearly half an acre, fell into the 
river with a crash and a noise like the sound of an earthquake. 
The whole of that immense mass of rock was buried in the 
depths of the river, and completely hidden from sight. No one 
was killed, which was a miracle, for several persons had been 
standing on the rock just a few minutes before it fell. The 
vicinity is still called Table Eock, though the projecting part 
that gave rise to the name is gone. It is, nevertheless, the best 
point on the Canada side for obtaining a grand and comprehensive 
view of Niagara Falls. 

The next scenes of our photographic labours were Suspension 
Bridge, the Long Rapids, The Whirlpool, and Devil's Hole. 
These subjects, though not so grand as Niagara, are still interest- 
ingly and closely associated with the topographical history and 
legendary interest of the Falls. And we thought a few 
"impressions " of the scenes, and a visit to the various places, 
would amply repay us for the amount of fatigue we should have 
to undergo on such a trip under the scorching sun of August in 
America. Descending to the shore, and stepping on board the 
steamer Maid of the Mist, which plies up and down the river 
for about two miles, on the tranquil water between the Falls 
and the Lower Rapids, we were " cast off," and in a little time 
reached the landing stage, a short distance above the Long Rapids. 
Landing on the American side, we ascended the steep road, 
■which has been cut out of the precipice, and arriving at 



153 

Suspension Bridge, proceeded to examine that wonderful speci- 
men of engineering skill. It was not then finished, but the 
lower level was complete, and foot passengers and carriages 
could go along. They were busy making the railway "track " 
overhead, so that, when finished (which it is now), it would be 
a bridge of two stories — the lower one for passengers on foot 
and carriages, the upper one for the " cars." I did not see a 
" snorting monster " going along that spider's- web-like structure, 
but can very well imagine what must be the sensations of " rail- 
way passengers " as they pass along the giddy height. The span 
of the bridge, from bank to bank, is 800 feet, and it is 230 feet 
from the river to the lower or carriage road. The estimated cost 
was two hundred thousand dollars, about £40,000. A boy s 
toy carried the first wire across the river. When the wind was 
blowing straight across, a wire was attached to a kite, and thus 
the connecting thread between the two sides was secured, and 
afterwards by means of a running wheel, or traveller, wire after 
wire was sent across until each strand was made thick enough to 
carry the whole weight of the bridge, railway trains, and other 
traffic which now pass along. "We went on to the bridge, and 
looked down on the rapids below, for the bridge spans the river 
at the narrowest point, and right over the commencement of the 
Lower Eapids. It was more of a test to my nerves to stand at 
the edge of the bridge and look down on those fearful rapids 
than it was to go under the Falls. To us, it seemed a miracle 
of ingenuity and skill how, from so frail a connection, a mere 
wire, so stupendous a structure could have been formed ; and 
yet, viewing it from below, or at a distance, it looked like a 
bridge of threads. During' its erection several accidents 
occurred. On one occasion, when the workmen were just 
venturing on to the cables to lay the flooring, and before a plank 
was made fast, one of those sudden storms, so peculiar to America, 
came up and carried away all the flooring into the Rapids. Four 
of the men were left hanging to the wires, which were swaying 



154 

backwards and forwards in the hurricane in the most frightful 
manner. Their cries for help could scarcely be heard, from the 
noise of the Eapids and the howling of the wind, but the work- 
men on shore, seeing the perilous condition of their comrades, 
sent a basket, with a man in it, down the wire to rescue them 
from death. Thus, one by one, they were saved. Leaving the 
Bridge, and proceeding to the vicinity of the Whirlpool, still 
keeping the American side of the river, we pitched the camera, 
not over the precipice, as I heard of one brother photographer 
doing, but on it, and took a view of the Bridge and the Rapids 
looking up towards the Falls, but a bend in the river prevented 
them being seen from this point. Not very far above the angry 
flood we saw the Maid of the Mist lying quietly at her moorings. 
We next turned our attention to the great Whirlpool, which 
is about a mile below Suspension Bridge. Photographically 
considered, this is not nearly of so much interest as the Falls ; 
but it is highly interesting, nevertheless, as a connecting link 
between their present and past history. It is supposed that 
ages ago — probably before the word went forth, "Let there he 
light, and there was light" — the Falls were as low down as the 
Whirlpool, a distance of over three miles below where they 
now are, or even lower down the river still. Geological obser- 
vation almost proves this ; and, that the present Whirlpool was- 
once the great basin into which the Falls tumbled. In fact, 
that this was, in former ages, what the vortex at the foot of the 
Great Horse Shoe Fall is now. There seems to be no doubt 
whatever that the Falls are gradually though slowly receding, 
and they were just as likely to have been at the foot of the 
Long Rapids before the deluge, as not ; especially when it is 
considered that the general aspect of the Falls has changed 
considerably, by gradual undermining of the soft shale and 
frequent falling and settling of the harder rocks during the last 
fifty years. Looking at the high and precipitous boundaries of 
the Long Rapids, it is difficult to come to any other conclusion- 



155 

than that, ages before the red man ever saw the Falls of Niagara, 
they rolled over a precipice between these rocky barriers in a 
more compact, but not less majestic body. The same vast 
quantity of water had to force its way through this narrower 
outlet, and it doubtless had a much greater distance to fall, for the 
precipices on each side of the river at this point are nearly 250 
feet high, and the width of the gorge for a mile above and 
below the Whirlpool is not more than 700 feet. Considering 
that the Falls are now spread over an area of nearly three- 
quarters of a mile, and that this is the only outlet for all the 
superfluous waters of the great inland seas of Canada and 
America — Lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron, and Erie — and the 
hundreds of tributaries thereto, it may easily be conceived how 
great the rush of waters through so narrow a defile must neces- 
sarily be ; their turbulence and impatience rather aptly 
reminding you of a spoilt child — not in size or form, but in 
behaviour. They have so long had their own way, and done as 
they liked on the upper river and at the Falls, they seem as if 
they could not brook the restraint put upon them now by the 
giant rocks and lofty precipices that stand erect, on either side, 
hurling them back defiantly in tumultuous waves, seething, and 
hissing, and roaring in anger, lashing themselves into foam, and 
swelling with rage, higher in the middle, as if they sought an 
unpolluted way to the lake below, where they might calm their 
angry and resentful passions, and lay their chafed heads on the 
soft and gently heaving bosom of their lovely sister Ontario. 
It is a remarkable circumstance that the waters of the Rapids, 
both above and below the Whirlpool, in this defile are actually 
higher in the middle, by eight or nine feet, than at the sides, as 
if the space afforded them by their stern sentinels on each side 
were not enough to allow them to pass through in order and on 
a level. They seem to come down the upper part of the gorge 
like a surging and panic stricken multitude, until they are 
stopped for a time by the gigantic precipice forming the lower 



156 

boundary of the Whirlpool, which throws them back, and there 
they remain whirling and whirling about until they get away 
by an under current from the vortex ; and, rising again in the 
lower part of the gorge, which runs off at right angles to the 
Tipper, they again show their angry heads, and rush madly and 
tumultuously away towards Lake Ontario. The bed of these 
rapids must be fearfully rugged, or the surface of the waters 
could not possibly be in such a broken state, for the water is at 
least 1 00 feet deep, by measurement made above and below the 
Rapids. But nobody has ventured to ''heave the lead" either 
in the Eapids themselves or in the AVhirlpool, the depth of 
which is not known. There is not much picturesque beauty at 
this point. Indeed, the Whirlpool itself is rather of a fearful 
and horrible character, with little to see but the mad torrent 
struggling and writhing in the most furious manner, to force its 
way down between its rocky boundaries. I saw logs of wood 
and other " wreck," probably portions of canal boats that had 
come down the river and been swept over the Falls, whirling 
around but not coming to the centre. When they are seen to 
get to the vortex they are tipped up almost perpendicularly and 
then vanish from sight, at last released from their continually 
diminishing and circular imprisonment. It has sometimes hap- 
pened that the dead bodies of people drowned in the upper part 
of the river have been seen whirling about in this frightful 
■pool for many days. In 1841, three soldiers, deserters from the 
British army, attempting to swim across the river above these 
rapids, were drowned. Their bodies were carried down to the 
Whirlpool, where they were seen whirling about for nearly a 
fortnight. Leaving this gloomy and soul-depressing locality we 
'proceeded for about half a mile further down the river, and 
visited that frightful chasm called Devil's Hole, or Bloody E,un. 
The former name it takes from a horrible deed of fiendish and 
savage ferocity that was committed there by the Indians, and 
the latter name from the circumstance of that deed causing a 



157 

stream of human blood to run through the ravine and mingle 
with the fierce water of the Rapids. Exactly one hundred 
years ago, during the French and Canadian wars, a party of 250 
officers, men, women, and children, were retreating from Fort 
Schlosser, on the Upper Niagara River, and, being decoyed into 
an ambush, were driven over into this dreadful chasm, and fell 
to the bottom, a distance of nearly 200 feet. Only two escaped. 
A drummer was caught by one of the trees growing on the side 
of the precipice, and the other, a soldier named Steadman, 
escaped during the conflict, at the commencement of the 
treacherous onslaught. 'He was mounted, and the Indians sur- 
rounding him, seized the bridle, and were attempting to drag 
him off his horse ; but, cutting the reins, and giving his 
charger the "rowels deep," the animal dashed forward, and 
carried him back in safety to Fort Schlosser. The Indians 
afterwards gave him all the land he encircled in his flight, and 
he took up his abode among them. In after years he put the goats 
on Goat Island — hence its name — by dropping carefully down the 
middle of the upper stream in a boat. After landing the goats 
he returned to the main land, pushing his boat up the stream 
where the Rapids divide, until he reached safe water. The 
events of the foregoing episode occurred in 1765, and it is to be 
hoped that the Indians were the chief instigators and perpe- 
trators of the massacre of Bloody Run. 

While we were looking about the chasm to see if there were 
any fossil remains in the place, an unlooked-for incident 
occurred. I saw two men coming up from the bottom of the 
ravine carrying Jish — and the oddest fish and the whitest fish 
I ever saw. The idea of anyone fishing in those head-long 
rapids had never occurred to us ; but probably these men knew 
some fissures in the rocks where the waters were quiet, and 
where the fish put into as a place of refuge from the stormy- 
waters into which they had been drawn. No wonder the poor 
finny creatures were white, for I should think they had been 



158 

frightened almost out of their lives before they were seized by 
their captors. I don't think I should have liked to have partaken 
of the meal they furnished, for they were very " shy-an'-hide " 
looking fishes. But soon we were obliged to give up both our 
geological studies and piscatorial speculations, for black clouds 
were gathering over head, shutting off the light, and making 
the dark ravine too gloomy to induce us to prolong our stay in 
that fearful chasm, with its melancholy associations of dark 
deeds of bloodshed and wholesale murder. Uefore we gained 
the road the rain came down, the lightning flashed, and the 
thunder clapped, reverberating sharp and loud from the rocks 
above, and we hurried away from the dismal place. On 
reaching the landing-stage, we took refuge from the storm and 
rain by again going on board the Maid of the Mist. She soon 
started on her last trip for the day, and we reached our hotel, 
glad to get out of a "positive bath," and indulge in a "toning 
mixture " of alcohol, sugar, and warm water. "We had no 
■\/joM," but our " paper " being (/ood, we did not require any. 

After a delightful sojourn of three weeks at the Falls, and 
visiting many other places of minor interest in their neighbour- 
hood, I bade adieu to the kind friends I had made and met, 
with many pleasant recollections of their kindness, and a 
never-to-be-forgotten remembrance of the charms and beauties, 
mysteries and majesty, power and grandeur, and terror and 
sublimity of Niagara. — Photographic News, 1865. 



PICTURES OF THE ST. LAWRENCE. 
Taken in AniuMN. 
Photographs of the River St. Lawrence conveying an adequate 
idea of its extent and varied aspects, could not be taken in a 
week, a month, or a year. It is only possible in this sketch to 
call attention to the most novel and striking features of this 
great and interesting river, passing them hurriedly, as I did, in 



159 

the ■• express boat," by which I sailed from the Niagara River 
to Montreal. Lake Ontario being the great head waters of the 
St. Lawrence, and the natural connection between that river 
and Niagara, I shall endeavour to illustrate, with pen and pen- 
cil, my sail down the Niagara River, Lake Ontario, and the St. 
Lawrence. Stepping on board the steamer lying at Lewiston, 
seven miles below Niagara, and bound for Montreal, I went to 
the " clerk's office," paid seven and a haK dollars — about thirty 
shillings sterling — and secured my bed, board, and passage for 
the trip, the above small sum being all that is charged for a 
first class passage on board those magnificent steamers. I don't 
remember the name of "our boat," but that is of very little 
consequence, though I dare say it was the lulton, that being in 
steam-boat nomenclature what " Washington " is to men, cities, 
and towns, and even territory, in America. But she was a 
splendid vessel, nevertheless, with a handsome dining saloon, a 
fine upper saloon running the whole length of the upper deck, 
about two hundred feet, an elegant '* ladies' saloon," a state- 
room cabin as well, and a powerful " walking engine." "All 
aboard," and "let go;" splash went the paddle-wheels, and 
we moved off majestically, going slowly down the river until 
we passed Fort Niagara on the American side, and Fort George 
on the British, at the foot of the river, and near the entrance to 
the Lake. On Fort Niagara the " Star Spangled Banner" was 
floating, its bright blue field blending with the clear blue sky 
of an autumn afternoon, its starry representatives of each State 
shining like stars in the deep blue vault of heaven, its red and 
white bars, thirteen in number, as pure in colour as the white 
clouds and crimson streaks of the west. The mingled crosses 
of St. Andrew and St. George were waving proudly over the 
fort opposite. Brave old flag, long may you wave ! These 
forts played their respective parts amidst the din of battle during 
the wars of 1812 and 1813; but with these we have neither 
time nor inclination to deal ; we, like the waters of the Niagara, 



1(50 

are in a hurry to reach the bosom of Lake Ontario. Passing 
the forts, we were soon on the expanse of waters, and being 
fairly " at sea," we began to settle ourselves and " take stock," 
as it were, of our fellow travellers. It is useless to describe 
the aspect of the Lake ; I might as well describe the German 
Ocean, for I could not see much difference between that and 
Lake Ontario, except that I could not sniff the iodine from the 
weeds drying in the sun while we " hugged the shore," or taste 
salt air after we were out in mid ocean — " the land is no longer 
in view." 

To be at sea is to be at sea, no matter whether it is on a 
fresh water ocean or a salt one. The sights, the sensations, and 
consequences are much the same. There, a ship or two in full 
sail; here, a passenger or two, of both sexes, with the "wind 
taken out of their sails." The "old salts" or " old freshes " 
behave themselves much as usual, and so do the "green" ones 
of both atmospheres — the latter by preparing for a "bath" of 
perspiration and throwing everything down the " sink," or into 
the sea ; and the former by picking out companions for the 
voyage. Being myself an " old salt," and tumbling in with 
one or two of a " fellow feeling wondrous kind," we were soon 
on as good terms as if we had known each other for years. 
After "supper," a sumptuous repast at 6 p.m., we went on to 
the "hurricane deck" to enjoy the calm and pleasant evening 
outside. There was a " gentle swell " on the Lake — not much, 
but enough to upset a few. After dark, we went into the 
" ladies' cabin " — an elegant saloon, beautifully furnished, and 
not without a grand piano, where the " old freshes " of the 
softer sex — young and pretty ones too — were amusing themselves 
with playing and singing. An impromptu concert was soon 
formed, and a few very good pieces of music well played and 
sung. All went off very well while nothing but English, or, I 
should more properly say, American and Canadian, were sung, 
but one young lady, unfortunately, essayed one of the sweetest 



161 

and most plaintive of Scotch songs — " Annie Laurie." No'w^ 
fancy the love-sick " callant " for the sake of Annie Laurie 
lying down to die ; just fancy Annie Laurie "without the Scotch ; 
only fancy Annie Laurie in a sort of mixture of Canadianisms 
and Americanisms; fancy "toddy" without the whisky, and 
you have some idea of " Annie Laurie " as sung on board the 
Fulton while splashing away on Lake Ontario, somewhere be- 
tween America and Canada. There being little more to induce 
us to remain there, and by the ship's regulations it was getting 
near the time for "all lights out" in the cabins, we took an 
early " turn in," with the view of making an early "turn out," 
so as to be alive and about when we should enter the St. Law- 
rence, which we did at 6 o'clock a.m., on a fine bright morn- 
ing, the sun just rising to light up and "heighten" all the 
glorious tints of the trees on the Thousand and One Islands, 
among which we were now sailing. 

It is impossible to form a correct idea of the width of the 
St. Lawrence at the head of the river. The islands are so large 
and numerous, it is difficult to come to a conclusion whether you 
are on a river or on a lake. Many of these islands are thickly 
wooded, so that they look more like the main land on each side 
of you as the steamer glides down " mid channel " between 
them. The various and brilliant tints of the foliage of the trees 
of America in autumn are gorgeous, such as never can be seen 
in this country; and their " chromotones " present an insur- 
mountable difficulty to a photographer with his double achromatic 
lens and camera. Imagine our oaks clothed with leaves possess- 
ing all the varieties of red tints, from brilliant carmine down to 
burnt sienna — the brightest copper bays that grow in England 
are cool intone compared with them; fancy our beeches, birches, 
and ashes thick with leaves of a bright yellow colour, from 
gamboge down to yeUow ochre ; our pines, firs, larches, and 
spruces, carrying all the varieties of green, from emerald down 
to terra vcrte ; in fact, all the tints that are, can be seen on the 

M 



162 

trees when they are going into "the sere and yellow leaf" of 
autumn, excepting blue, and even that is supplied by the blue- 
birds (sialia "Wilsonii) flitting about among the leaves, and in 
the deep cool tint of the sky, repeated and blended with the 
reflection of the many coloured trees in the calm, still water of 
the river. Some of the trees — the maples, for instance — exhibit 
in themselves, most vividly, the brightest shades of red, green, 
and yellow ; but when the wind blows these resplendent colours 
about, the atmosphere is like a mammoth kaleidoscope that is 
never allowed to rest long enough to present to the eye a 
symmetrical figure or pattern, a perfect chaos of the most vivid 
and brilliant colours too gorgeous to depict. Long before this 
we had got clear of the islands at the foot of the lake and head 
of the river, and were steaming swiftly down the broad St. 
Lawrence. It is difficult to say how broad, but it varied from 
three to five or six miles in width ; indeed, the river very much 
resembles the Balloch End, which is the broadest of Lochlomond ; 
and some of the passages between the islands are very similar to 
the straits between the " Pass of Balmaha " and the island of 
Inchcailliach. The river is not hemmed in with such mountains 
as Ben Lomond and Ben Dhu, but, in many respects, the St. 
Lawrence very much resembles parts of our widest lakes, Loch- 
lomond and Windermere. Having enjoyed the sight of the 
bright, beautiful scenery and the fresh morning air for a couple 
of hours, we were summoned to breakfast by the sound of the 
steward's " Big Ben." Descending to the lower cabin, we seated 
ourselves at the breakfast table, and partook of a most hearty 
meal. All the meals on board these steamers are served in the 
most sumptuous style. During the repast some talked politics, 
some dollars and cents, others were speculating on how we should 
get down the Eapids, and when we should make them. Among 
the latter was myself, for I had seen rapids which I had not the 
slightest desire to be in or on ; and, what sort of rapids we were 
coming to was of some importance to all who had not been on 



163 

them. But everybody seemed anxious to be "on deck," and 
again "look out" for the quickening of the stream, or when 
the first " white lippers," should give indication of their where- 
abouts. ATy fellow passengers were from all parts of the Union ; 
the Yankee " guessed, " the Southerner "reckoned," and the 
"Western man "calculated" we should soon be among the 
"jumpers." Each one every now and then strained his eyes 
" a-head," down stream, to see if he could descry " broken water." 
At last an old liver-man sung out, " There they are." There 
are the Longue Sault Eapids, the first we reach. Having plenty 
of " daylight," we did not feel much anxiety as we neared them, 
which we quickly did, for "the stream runs fast." "We were 
soon among the jumping waters, and it is somewhat difficult to 
describe the sensation, somewhat difficult to find a comparison 
of a suitable character. It is not Kke being at sea in a ship in 
a " dead calm." The vessel does not " roll " with such solemn 
dignity, nor does she " pitch " and rise again so buoyantly as an 
Atlantic steamer (strange enough, I once crossed the Atlantic 
in the steamship Niaga/ra), as she ploughs her way westward or 
eastward in a "head wind," and through a head sea. She 
rather kicks and jerks, and is let " down a peg " or two, with a 
shake and a fling. Did you ever ride a spavined horse down a 
hill ? If so, you can form some idea of the manner in which we 
were let down the Longue Sault and Cedar Eapids and the St. 
Louis Cascades. One of our fellow passengers — a Scotchman — 
told that somewhat apropos and humorous story of the 
" Hielandman's " first trip across the Frith of Forth in a " nasty 
sea." Feeling a little uneasy about the stomach, and his bile 
being rather disturbed, the prostrate mountaineer cried out to 
the man at the " tiller " to " stop tickling the beast's tail — what 
was he making the animal kick that way for ? " And so, telling 
our stories, and cracking our jokes, we spent the time until our 
swift vessel brought us to a landing, where we leave her and go 
on board a smaller boat, one more suitable for the descent of the 
more dangerous rapids, which we have yet to come to. 



164 

"All aboard," and away we go again as fast as steam and a 
strong current can take us, passing an island here and there, a 
town or a village half French and English, with a sprinkling of 
the Indian tribes, on the banks of the river now and then. But 
by this time it is necessary to go below again and dine. Bed, 
board, and travelling, are all included in the fare, so everyone 
goes to dinner. There is, however, so much to see during this 
delightful trip, that nobody likes to be below any longer than 
can be avoided. Immediately after dinner most are on deck again, 
anxious to see all that is to be seen on this magnificent river. 
The sights are various and highly interesting to the mind or 
" objectives " of either artist or photographer. Perhaps one of 
the most novel subjects for the camera and a day's photographing 
would be "Life on a Raft," as you see them drifting down the 
St. Lawrence. There is an immense raft — a long, low, flat, 
floating island, studded with twenty or thirty sails, and half a 
dozen huts, peopled with men, women, and children, the little 
ones playing about as if they were on a "plank road," or in a 
garden. It is " washing day," and the clean clothes are drying 
in the sun and breeze — indicative of the strictest domestic 
economy, and scrupulous cleanliness of those little huts, the 
many-coloured garments giving the raft quite a gay appearance, 
as if it were decked with the " flags of all nations." But what 
a life of tedious monotony it must be, drifting down the river 
in this way for hundreds of miles, from the upper part of Lake 
Ontario to Montreal or Quebec. How they get down the rapids 
of the St. Lawrence I do not know, but I should think they 
run considerable risk of being washed off"; the raft seems too 
low in the water, and if not extremely well fastened, might part 
and be broken up. "We passed two or three of these rafts, one 
a very large one, made up of thousands of timbers laid across 
and across like warp and weft ; yet the people seemed happy 
enough on these "timber island ;" we passed them near enough 
to see their faces and hear their voices, and I regretted I could 



165 

not ''catch their shadows," or stop and have an hour or two's 
"work among them with the camera or the pencil ; but we passed 
them by as if they were a fixture in the river, and they gave 
lis a shout of " God speed," as if they did not envy our better 
pace in the least. 

There is abundance of work for the camera at all times of the 
year on the St. Lawrence ; I have seen it in summer and autumn, 
and have attempted to describe some of its attractions. And I 
"was told that when the river — not the rapids — is ice-bound, the 
banks covered with snow, and the trees clad in icicles, they 
present a beautiful scene in the sunshine. And in the spring, 
w^hen the ice is breaking up, and the floes piling high on one 
another, it is a splendid sight to see them coming down, hurled 
about and smashed in the rapids, showing that the water in its 
liquid state is by far the most powerful. But now we are 
coming to the most exciting part of our voyage. The steam is 
shut off, the engine motionless, the paddlewheels are still, and 
we are gliding swiftly and noiselessly down with the current. 
Yonder speck on the waters is the Indian coming in his canoe 
to pilot us down the dangerous rapids. We near each other, 
and he can now be seen paddling swiftly, and his canoe shoots 
like an arrow towards us. Now he is alongside, he leaps lightly 
on board, his canoe is drawn up after him, and he takes command 
of the " boat." Everybody on board knows the critical moment 
is approaching. The passengers gather "forward," the ladies 
cling to the arms of their natural protectors, conversation is 
stopped, the countenances of everyone exhibit intense excite- 
ment and anxiety, and every eye is " fixed ahead," or oscillating 
"between the pilot and the rushing waters which can now be 
seen from the prow of the vessel. The Indian and three other 
men are at the wheel in the "pilothouse," holding the helm 
^' steady," and we are rushing down the stream unaided by any 
other propelling power than the force of the current, at a rate 
•of twenty miles an hour. Now we hear the rushing and plung- 



106 

ing sound of the waters, and in a moment the keen eye of the 
Indian catches sight of the land mark, which is the signal for 
putting the helm "hard a port;" the wheel flies round like 
lightning, and we are instantly dropped down a perpendicular 
fall of ten or twelve feet, the vessel careening almost on her 
"beam ends," in the midst of these wild, white waters, an 
immense rock or rocky island right ahead. But that is safely 
"rounded," and we are again in comparatively quiet water. 
The steam is turned into the cylinders, and we go on our course 
in a sober, sensible, and steamboat-like fashion. When we wer& 
safely past the rapids and round the rock, a gentleman remarked 
to me that " once in a lifetime was enough of that." It was 
interesting to watch the countenances of the passengers, and 
mark the difference of expression before and after the passage of 
the rapids. Before, it was all excitement and anxiety, mingled 
with a wish-it-was-over sort of look ; and all were silent. 
After, everybody laughed and talked, and seemed delighted at 
having passed the Lachine Eapids in safety ; yet most people 
are anxious to undergo the excitement and incur the risk and 
danger of the passage. You can, if you like, leave the boat 
above Lachine and proceed to Montreal by the cars, but I don't 
think any of our numerous passengers ever thought of doing such 
a thing. As long as ever this magnificent water way is free 
from ice, and the passage can be made, it is done. I don't know 
that more than one accident has ever occurred, but the risk 
seems considerable. There is a very great strain on the tiller 
ropes, and if one of them were to " give out" at the critical 
time, nothing could save the vessel from being dashed to pieces 
against the "rock ahead," and scarcely a life could be saved. 
No one can approach the spot except from above, and then there 
is no stopping to help others ; you must go with the waters, 
rushing madly down over and among the rocks. The Indians 
often took these rapids, in their canoes, to descend to the lower 
part of the St. Lawrence ; and one of them undertook to pilot 



167 

the first steamer down in safety. His effort was successful, 
and he secured for his tribe (the Iroquois) a charter endowing 
them with the privileges and emoluments in perpetuity. I 
wish I could have obtained photographic impressions of these 
scenes and groups, but the only lens I could draw a " focus " 
with was the eye, and the only ''plate" I had ready for use 
was the retina. However, the impressions obtained on that 
were so " vigorous and well defined," I can at any moment call 
them up, like "spirits from the vasty deep," and reproduce 
them in my mental camera. 

The remaining nine miles of the voyage were soon accom- 
plished. Passing the first abutment of the Victoria Bridget 
which now crosses the St. Lawrence, at this point two miles 
wide, we quickly reached the fine quay and canal locks at 
Montreal, where we landed just as it was growing dark, after 
a delightful and exciting voyage of about thirty hours' duration, 
and a distance of more than four hundred miles. Quick work; 
but it must be borne in mind how much our speed was accelerated 
by the velocity of the current, and that the return trip by 
the canal, past the rapids, cannot be performed in anything like 
the time. 

On reaching the quay I parted with my agreeable fellow 
travellers, and sought an hotel, where once more, after a long 
interval, I slept under a roof over which floated the flag which 
every Englishman is proud of — the Union Jack. 

Next morning I rose early, and, with a photographic eye, 
scanned the city of Montreal. The streets are narrow, but 
clean, and well bailt of stone. Most of the suburban streets 
and villa residences are ''frame buildings," but there are many 
handsome villas of stone about the base of the "mountain.' 
I visited the principal buildings and the Cathedral of Notre 
Dame, ascended to the top of the Bell Tower, looked dovS^n 
upon the city, and had a fine view of its splendid quays 
and magnificent river frontage, and across the country south- 



168 

•wards for a great distance, as far as the Adirondack Mountains, 
where the Hudson Eiver bubbles into existence at Hendrick 
Spring, whence it creeps and gathers strength as it glides and 
falls and rushes alternately until it enters the Atlantic below 
New York, over three hundred miles south of its source. Eut 
the mountain at the back of Montreal prevented my seeing 
anything beyond the city in that direction. I afterwards 
ascended the mountain, from the summit of which I could see 
an immense distance up the river, far beyond Lachine, and 
across the St. Lawrence, and southwards into the " States." 
Being homeward bound, and having no desire at that time to 
prolong my stay in the western hemisphere, I did not wait to 
obtain any photographs of Montreal or the neighbourhood ; but, 
taking ship for old England, I leave the lower St. Lawence and 
its beauties ; Quebec, with its glorious associations of Wolfe 
and the plains of Abraham, its fortifications, which are now being 
so fully described and discussed in the House of Commons, and 
the Gulf of the St. Lawrence, where vessels have sometimes to 
be navigated from the "masthead," in consequence of the low- 
lying sea fog which frequently prevails there. A man is sent 
up "aloft" where he can see over the fog, which lies like a 
stratum of white cloud on the gulf, and pilot the ship safely 
through tlie fleet of merchantmen which are constantly sailing 
up and down while the river is open. The fog may not be much 
above the "maintop," but is so dense it is impossible to see 
teyond the end of the " bowsprit " from the deck of the ship you 
are aboard ; but from the " masthead " the " look out " can see 
the high land and the masts and sails of the other ships, and 
avoid the danger of going " ashore " or coming into collision by 
crying out to the man at the wheel such sea phrases as " Port," 
''Starboard," "Steady," &c. ; and when "tacking" up or 
down the gulf, such as "luff," "higher," "let her off." 
Indeed, the whole trip of the St. Lawrence — from Lake Ontario 
to the Atlantic — is intensely exciting. While off the coast of 



1d9 

Newfoundland, I witnessed one of those beautiful sights of 
nature in her sternest mood, which I think has yet to he 
Tendered in the camera — icebergs in the sunlight. A great deal 
has been said about their beauty and colour, but nothing too 
much. Anyone who saw Church's picture of "The Icebergs," 
exhibited in London last year, may accept that as a faithful 
xeflection of all their beautiful colours and dreadful desolation. 
All sailors like to give them as wide a " berth" as possible, and 
never admire their beauty, but shun them for their treachery. 
Sometimes their base extends far beyond their perpendicular 
lines, and many a good ship has struck on the shoal of ice under 
water, when the Captain thought he was far enough away from 
■it. The largest one I saw was above a hundred feet above the 
water-line, and as they never exhibit more than one-third of 
their ponderous mass of frozen particles, there would be over 
two hundred feet of it below water, probably shoaling far out in 
all directions. "We had a quick run across the Atlantic, and I 
landed in Liverpool, in the month of November, amid fog, and 
smoke, and gloom. "What a contrast in the light ! Here it was 
all fog and darkness, and photography impossible. There — 
the other side of the waters — the light is always abundant 
both in winter and summer ; and it is only during a snow or 
■rain storm that our transatlantic brother photographers are 
brought to a stand-still. — Photographic News, 1865. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC IMPRESSIONS. 

The Hi7dsox, Developed on the Voyage. 

" We'll have a trip up the Hudson," said a friend of mine, one 
•of the best operators in Kew York ; ' ' we'll have a trip up the 
Hudson, and go and spend a few days with the ' old folk ' in. 
Termont, and then you will see us ' Yankees ' — our homes and 
hospitalities — in a somewhat different light from what you see 
"them in this Gotham." 



170 

So it was arranged, and on the day appointed we walked 
down Broadway, turned down Courtland Street to the North 
Kiver, and went on board the splendid river steamer Isaac 
Newton, named, in graceful compliment, after one of England's 
celebrities. Two dollars (eight and fourpence) each secured us 
a first-class passage in one of those floating palaces, for a trip 
of 144 miles up one of the most picturesque rivers in America. 

Wishing for a thorough change of scene and occupation, and 
being tired of " posing and arranging lights" and " drawing a 
focus" on the faces of men, women, and children in a stifling 
and pent-up city, we left the camera with its " racks and 
pinions" behind, determined to revel in the beautiful and 
lovely only of nature, and breathe the fresh and exhilarating 
air as we steamed up the river, seated at the prow, and fanned 
by the breeze freshened by the speed of our swift-sailing boat. 

Leaving New York, with its hundred piers jutting out into 
the broad stream, and its thousand masts and church spires on 
the one side, and Jersey City on the other, we are soon abreast 
of Hoboken and the "Elysian Fields," where the Germans 
assemble to drink "lager beer" and spend their Sundays and 
holidays. On the right or east side of the river is Spuyten 
Duyvil Creek, which forms a junction with the waters of the 
Sound or East River, and separates the tongue of land on which 
New York stands from the main, making the island of Man- 
hattan. This island is a little over thirteen miles long and two 
and a-half miles wide. The Dutch bought the whole of it for 
£4 16s., and that contemptible sum was not paid to the poor, 
ignorant, and confiding Indians in hard cash, but in toys and 
trumpery articles not worth half the money. Truly it may be 
said that the " Empire City " of the United States did not cost 
a cent, an acre not more than two hundred and fifty years ago, 
and now some parts of it are worth a dollar a square foot. At 
Spuyten Duyvil Creek Henry Hudson had a skirmish with the 
Indians, while his ship, the Half Moon, was lying at anchor. 



171 

^Now we come to the picturesque and the beautiful, subjects 
fit for the camera of the photographer, the pencil of the artist, 
and the pen of the historian. On the -western side of the Hud- 
son, above Hoboken, we catch the first glimpse of that singular 
and picturesque natural river wall called the " Palisades," a 
series of bold and lofty escarpments, extending for about thirty- 
five miles up the river, and varying in an almost perpendicular 
height from four to over six hundred feet, portions of them 
presenting a very similar appearance to Honister Craig, facing the 
Vale of Buttermere and Salisbury Craigs, near Edinburgh, 

About two and a-half miles above Manhattan Island, on the 
east bank of the Hudson, I noticed a castellated building of 
considerable pretensions, but somewhat resembling one of those 
stage scenes of Dunsinane in Macbeth, or the Castle of Ravens- 
wood in the Bride of Lamtnennoor. On enquiring to whom this 
fortified-looking residence belonged, I was told it was Fort Hill, 
the retreat of Edwin Forest, the celebrated American tragedian. 
It is built of blue granite, and must have been a costly fancy. 

.Kow we come to the pretty village of Yonkers, where there 
are plenty of subjects for the camera, on Sawmill River, and 
the hills behind the village. Here, off Yonkers, in 1609, Henry 
Hudson came to the premature conclusion, from the strong tidal 
current, that he had discovered the north-west passage, which 
was the primary object of his voyage, and which led to the 
discovery of the river which now bears his name. 

At Dobb's Ferry there is not much to our liking ; but passing 
that, and before reaching Tarrytown, we are within the charm- 
ing atmosphere of Sunnyside, where "Washington Irving lived 
and wrote many of his delightful works. Tarrytown is the 
next place we make, and here, during the war for independence, 
the enthusiastic but unfortunate soldier, 3Iajor Andre, was cap- 
tured; and at Tappan, nearly opposite, he was hung as a spy on 
the 2nd of October, 1780. 

All the world knows the unfortunate connection between 



172 

■Benedict Arnold, the American traitor, and Major Andre, the 
frank, gallant, and enterprising British oflScer; so I shall leave 
those subjects to the students of history, and pass on as fast as 
our boat will carry us to the next place of note on the east bank 
of the river, Sing Sing, which is the New York State prison, 
where the refractory and not over honest members of State 
society are sent to be "operated" upon by the salutary 
treatment of confinement and employment. Some of them are 
"doing time" in dark rooms, which are very unsuitable for 
photographic operations, and where a little more light, no matter 
■how yellow or non-actinic, would be gladly received. The 
" silent cell" system is not practised so much in this State as 
in some of the others ; but the authorities do their best to 
improve the negative or refractory character of the subjects placed 
under their care. It is, however, very questionable whether 
their efforts are not entirely negatived, and the bad character of 
the subject more fully developed and intensified by contact with 
the more powerful reducing agents by which they are sur- 
rounded. Their prison is, however, very pleasantly situated on 
the banks of the Hudson, about thirty-three miles above New 
York City. 

Opposite Sing Sing is Rockland Lake, one hundred and fifty 
feet above the river, at the back of the Palisades. This lake is 
celebrated for three things — leeches and water lilies in summer, 
and ice in winter. Kockland Lake ice is prized by the thirsty 
idenizens of New York City in the sultry summer months, and 
even in this country it is becoming known as a cooler and 
' refresher." 

Nearly opposite Sing Sing is the boldest and highest buttress 
of the Palisades; it is called "Vexatious Point," and stands 
six hundred and sixty feet above the water. 

About eleven miles above Sing Sing we come to Peekskill, 
which is at the foot of the Peekskill Mountains. Backed up by 
those picturesque hills it has a pretty appearance from the river. 



173 

This was also a very important place during the wars. At this 
point the Americans set fire to a small fleet rather than let it 
fall into the hands of the British. 

A little higher up on the west side is the important military- 
station of West Point. This place, as well us being most charm- 
ingly situated, is also famous as the great military training 
school of the United States. Probably you have noticed, in 
reading the accounts of the war now raging between North 
and South, that this or that general or officer was a " West 
Point man." General George M'Clellan received his military 
education at West Point ; but, whatever military knowledge he 
gained at this college, strengthened by experience and observa- 
tion at the Crimea, he was not allowed to make much use of- 
while he held command of the army of the Potomac. His great 
opponent, General Lee, was also a "West Point man," and it 
does not require much consideration to determine which of the 
" Pointsmen " was the smarter. Washington has also made West 
Point famous in the time of the war for independence. Bene- 
dict Arnold held command of this point and other places in the 
neighbourhood, when he made overtures to Sir Henry Clinton 
to hand over to the British, for a pecuniary consideration of 
£10,000, West Point and all its outposts. 

A little higher up is Cold Spring, on the east side of the 
Hudson ; but we will pass that by, and now we are off 'New- 
burg on the west bank. This is a large and flourishing town 
also at the foot of high hills — indeed, we are now in the high- 
lands of the Hudson, and it would be difiicult to find a town or 
a village that is not backed uj) by hills. At the time I first 
visited these scenes there was a large photographic apparatus 
manufactory at Newburg, where they made "coating boxes," 
"buff" wheels," "Pecks blocks," &c., on a very extensive scale, 
for the benefit of themselves and all who were interested in 
the " cleaning," " buifing," and "coating" of Daguerreotype 
plates. 



174 

Opposite Newburg is Fishkill ; but we shall pass rapidly up 
past Poughkeepsie on the rigbt, and other places right and 
left, until we come to Hudson, on the east side of the river. 
Opposite Hudson are the Catskill Mountains, and here the 
river is hemmed in by mountains on all sides, resembling the 
head of Ullswater lake, or the head of Loch Lomond or Loch 
Katrine ; and here we have a photographic curiosity to descant 
upon. 

Down through the gorges of these mountains came a blast 
like the sound from a brazen trumpet, which electrified the 
photographers of the day. Among these hills resided the Rev. 
Levi Hill, who lately died in Xew York, the so-called inventor 
or discoverer of the Hillotype, or Daguerreotypes in natural 
colours. So much were the " Daguerreans " of New York 
startled by the announcement of this wonderful discovery, that 
they formed themselves into a sort of company to buy up the 
highly -coloured invention. A deputation of some of the most 
respectable and influential Daguerreotypists of New York was 
appointed to wait upon the reverend discoverer, and offer him I 
don't remember how many thousand dollars for his discovery as 
it stood ; and it is said that he showed them specimens of 
" coloured Daguerreotypes," — but refused to sell or impart to 
them the secret until he had completed his discovery, and made 
it perfect by working out the mode of producing the only 
lacking colour, chrome yellow. But in that he never succeeded, 
and so this wonderful discovery was neither given nor sold to 
the world. Many believed the truth of the man's statements — 
whether he believed it himself or not, God only knows. One 
skilful Daguerreotypist, in the State of New York, assured me 
he had seen the specimens, and had seen the rev. gentleman at 
work in his laboratory labouring and " buffing" away at a mass 
of something like a piece of lava, until by dint of hard rubbing 
and scrubbing the colours were said to " appear like spirits," 
one by one, until all but the stubborn chrome yellow showed 



175 

themselves on the surface. I could not help laughing ut my 
friend's statement and evident credulity, but after seeing 
"jumping Quakers," disciples of Joe Smith, and believers in 
the doctrine of Johanna Southcote, I could not be much sur- 
prised at any creed either in art or religion, or that men should 
fall into error in the Hillotype faith as easily as into errors of 
ethics or morality. I was assured by my friend (not my travel- 
ling companion) that they were beautiful specimens of colouring. 
Granted ; but that did not prove that they were not done by 
hand. Indeed, a suspicion got abroad that the specimens shovv^n 
by Mr. Hill were hand- coloured pictures brought from Europe. 
And from all that I could learn they were more like the beauti- 
fully coloured Daguerreotypes of M. Mansion, who was then 
colourist to Mr. Beard, than anything else I could see or hear 
of. Being no mean hand myself at colouring a Daguerreotype 
in those days, I was most anxious to see one of those wonderful 
specimens of "photography in natural colours," but I never 
could ; and the inventor lived in such an out-of-the way place, 
among the Catskills, that I had no opportunity of paying him a 
visit. I have every reason to believe that the hand-coloured 
pictures by M. Mansion and myself were the only Hillotypes 
that were ever exhibited in America. Many of my coloured 
Daguerreotypes were exhibited at the State Fair in Castle 
Garden, and at the Great Exhibition at New York in 1853. 
But perhaps the late Rev. Levi Hill was desirous of securing a 
posthumous fame, and may have left something behind him after 
all ; for surely, no man in his senses would have made such a 
noise about Daguerreotypes in " natural colours " as he did if 
he had not some reason for doing so. If so, and if he has left 
anything behind him that will lead us into nature's hidden 
mine of natural colours, now is the time for the "heirs and 
administrators " of the deceased gentlemen to secure for their 
deceased relative a fame as enduiing as the Catskill Mountains 
themselves. 



The KatzLergs, as the Dutch called the Catskill Mountains^ 
on account of the number of wild cats they found among them, 
have more than a photographic interest. The late Washington 
Irving has imparted to them an attraction of a romantic character 
almost as bewitching as that conferred upon the mountains in 
the vicinity of Loch Lomond and Loch Katiine by Sir Walter 
Scott. It is true that the delicate fancy of Irving has not 
peopled the Katzbergs with such " warriors true " as stood 
" Along Benledi's living side ; " 

nor has he *' sped the fiery cross " over " dale, glen, and valley ; " 
neither has he tracked 

"The autler'd monarch oE the waste " 

from hill to hill ; but the war-whoop of the Mohegans has 
startled the wild beasts from their lair, and the tawny hunters 
of the tribe have followed up the trail of the panther until with 
bow and arrow swift they have slain him in his mountain hiding 
place. And Irving's quaint fancy has re-peopled the mountains 
again with the phantom figures of Hendrick Hudson and his 
crew, and put Rip van Winkle to sleep, like a big baby, in one 
of nature's huge cradles, where he slept for twenty years, and 
slept away the reign of good King George III. over the 
colonies, and awoke to find himself a bewildered citizen of the 
United States of America. And the place where he slept, and 
the place where he saw the solemn, silent crew of the " Half 
Moon " playing at ninepins, will be sought for and pointed out 
in all time coaaing. And why should these scenes of natural 
beauty and charming romance not be photographed on the spot? 
It has not been done to my knowledge, yet they are well worthy 
the attention of photographers, either amateur or professional. 
W^e leave the Catskill Mountains with some regret, because of 
the disappointment of their not yielding us the promised 
triumph of chemistry, "photography in natural colours," and 
because of their beauty and varying effects of chiaroscuro not 



177 

liaving been sufficiently rendered in the monocliromes we have 
so long had an opportunity of obtaining in the camera. 

Passing Coxackie, on tlie west bank of the Hudson, and many 
pleasant residences and places on each side of the river, we 
are soon at Albany, the capital of the State of Xew York, and 
the termination of our voyage on the board the Isaac Newton. 
And well had our splendid steamer performed her part of the 
contract. Here we were, in ten hours, at Albany, 144 miles 
from Xew York City. "^Tiat a contrast, in the rate of speed, 
between the Isaac Newton and the first boat that steamed up 
the Hudson I The Claremont took over thirty-six hours, wind 
and weather permitting, to perform the voyage between Xew 
York and Albany ; and we had done it in ten. "What a con- 
trast, too, in the size, style, and deportment of the two boats! 
The Claremont was a little, panting, puffing, half-clad, always- 
out-of-breath sort of thing, that splashed and struggled and 
groaned through the water, and threw its naked and diminutive 
paddle wheels in and out of the river — like a man that can 
neither swim nor is willing to be drowned, throwing his arms 
in and out of the water in agony — and only reached her 
destination after a number of stoppings-to-breathe and spasmodic 
start-agains. The Isaac Newton had glided swiftly and smoothly 
through the waters of the Hudson, her gigantic paddle-wheels 
performing as many revolutions in a minute as the other's did 
in twenty. 

But these were the advanced strides and improvements brought 
about by the workings and experiences of half a century. If 
the marine steam engine be such a wonderfully-improved 
machine in that period of time, what may not photography be 
when the art-science is fifty years old ? "What have not the 
thousands of active brains devoted to its advancement done for 
it already ? "^^hat have not been the improvements and 
wonderful workings of photography in a quarter of a century ? 
"What improvements have not been effected in the lifetime of 



178 

any old Daguerreotypist ? When I first knew photography it 
was a ghostly thing — a shimmering phantom — that was flashed 
in and out of your eyes with the rapidity of lightning, as you 
tried to catch a sight of the image between the total darkness 
of the black poUsh of the silvered plate, and the blinding light 
of the sky, which was reflected as from a mirror into your eyes. 
But how these phantom figures vanished! How rapidly 
"they changed from ghostly and almost invisible shadows to solid, 
visible, and all but tangible forms under the magical influence 
of Goddard's and Claudet's "bromine accelerator," andFizeau's 
'* fixing " or gilding process ! How Mercury flew to the lovely 
and joint creations of chemistry and optics, and took kindly to 
the timid, hiding beauties of Iodine, Bromine, Silver, and 
Light, and brought them out, and showed them to the world, 
proudly, as "things of beauty," and " a joy for ever !" How 
Mercury clung to these latent beauties, and " developed " 
their charms, and became "attached" to them, and almost 
immovable ; and consented, at last, to be tinted like a Gibson's 
Venus to enhance the charms and witcheries of his proteges! 
Anon was Mercury driven from Beauty's fair domain, and bright 
shining Silver, in another form, took up with two fuming, 
puffy fellows, who styled themselves Ether and Alcohol, with a 
villainous taint of methyl and something very much akin to 
gunpowder running through their veins. A most abominable 
compound they were, and some of the vilest of the vile were 
among their progeny; indeed, they were all a " hard lot," for 
I don't know how many rods — I may say tons — of iron had to 
be used before they could be brought into the civilised world 
at all. But, happily, they had a short life. Now they have 
almost passed away from off the face of the earth, and it is to 
be hoped that the place that knew them once will know them 
no more ; for they were a dangerous set — fragile in substance, 
frightful abortions, and an incubus on the fair fame of photo- 
graphy. They bathed in the foulest of baths, and what served 



179 

for one served for all. The poisonous and disgusting fluid 
was used over and over again. Loathsome and pestiferous 
vapours hovered about them, and they took up their abode in 
the back slums of our cities, and herded with the multitude, 
and a vast majority of them were not worth the consideration 
of the most callous officer of the sanitary commission. Every- 
thing that breathes the breath of life has its moments of agony, 
and these were the throes that agonised Photography in that 
fell epoch of her history. 

From the ashes of this burning shame Photography arose. 
Phoenix-like, and with Silver, seven times purified, took her 
ethereal form into the hearts and ateliers of artists, who 
welcomed her sunny presence in their abodes of refinement 
and taste. They treated her kindly and considerately, and 
lovingly placed her in her proper sphere ; and, by their kind 
and delicate treatment, made her forget the miseries of her 
degradation and the agonies of her travail. Then art aided 
photography and photography aided art, and the happy, delightful 
reciprocity has brought down showers of golden rain amidst 
the sunshine of prosperity to thousands who follow with love 
and devotion the chastened and purified form of Photography, 
accompanied in all her thoughts and doings by her elder sister — 
Art. 

I must apologise for this seeming digression. However, as I 
have not entirely abandoned my photographic impressions, I take 
it for granted that I have not presumed too much on the good 
nature of my readers, and will now endeavour to further 
develop and redevelop the Hudson, and point out the many 
phases of beauty that are fit subjects for the camera which 
may be seen on the waters and highland boundaries of that 
beautiful river in all seasons of the year. 

Albany is the capital of the State. It is a large and flourishing 
city, and one of the oldest, being an early Dutch settlement, 
which is sufficiently attested by the prevalsnce of such cognomens 



180 

as " Vanderdonck " and " Onderdunk " over the doors of the 
traders. 

About six or eight railes above Albany the Hudson ceases tO' 
be navigable for steamers and sailing craft, and the influence of 
the tide becomes imperceptible. Troy is on the east bank of 
the river; and about two miles above, the Mohawk Eiver joins 
the Hudson, coming down from the Western part of the State 
of New York. For about two hundred miles the Hudson runs 
almost due north and south from a little below Fort Edward ; 
but, from the Adirondack Mountains, where it takes its spring, 
it comes down in a north-westerly direction by rushing rapids,, 
cascades, and falls innumerable for about two hundred miles 
more through some of the wildest country that can possibly be 
imagined. 

We did not proceed up the Upper Hudson, but I was told it 
would well repay a trip with the camera, as some of the wildest 
and most picturesque scenery would be found in tracking the 
Hudson to its source among the Adirondack Mountains. 

I afterwards sailed up and down the navigable part of the 
Hudson many times and at all periods of the year, except when 
it was ice-bound, by daylight and by moonlight, and a more 
beautiful moonlight sail cannot possibly be conceived. To be 
sailing up under the shade ^v of the Palisades on a bright 
moonlight night, and see the eastern shore and bays bathed in 
the magnesium-like light of a bright western moon, is in itself 
enough to inspire the most ordinary mind with a love of all 
that is beautiful and poetical in nature. 

Moonlight excursions are frequently made from New York to 
various points on the Hudson, and Sleepy Hollow is one of the 
most favourite trips. I have been in that neighbourhood, but 
never saw the " headless horseman" that was said to haunt the 
place ; but that may be accounted for by the circumstance of 
some superior officer having recently commanded the trooper 
■without a head to do duty in Texas. 



181 

My next trip up the Hudson was in winter, when the surface 
•of the river was in the state of " glacial," solid at 50'^ for two 
or three feet down, but the temperature was considerably lower, 
frequently IS'* and 20° below zero — and that was nipping cold 
" and no mistake," making the very breath " glacial," plugging 
up the nostrils with ''chunks" of ice, and binding the beard 
and moustache together, making a glacier on your face, which 
you had to break through every now and then to make a 
breathing hole. 

On this arctic trip the whole aspect of the river and its 
boundaries is marvellously changed, without losing any of its 
picturesque attractions. Instead of the clear, deep river having 
its glassy surface broken by the splash of paddle wheels, it is 
converted into a solid highway. Instead of the sound of the 
" pilot's gong," and the cries of " a sail on the port bow," there 
is nothing to be heard but the jingling sound of the sleigh bells, 
and the merry laugh and prattle of the fair occupants of the 
sleighs, as they skim past on the smooth surface of the ice, 
wrapped cosily up in their gay buflfalo robes. 

The great excitement of winter in Ctinada or the States is to 
take a sleigh ride ; and I think there is nothing more delightful, 
when the wind is still, than to skim along the ice in the bright, 
winter sunshine, behind a pair of spanking "trotters." The 
horses seem to enjoy it as much as the people, arching their 
necks a little more proudly than usual, and stepping lightly to 
the merry sound of the sleigh bells. 

At this time of the year large sleighs, holding fifteen to 
twenty people, and drawn by four horses, take the place of 
steamers, omnibuses, and ferry boats. The steam ferries are 
housed, except at New York, and there they keep grinding 
their way through the ice "all winter," as if they would not 
let winter reign over their destinies if they could help it. 
Xarge sleighs cross and recross on the ice higher up the 
Hudson, and thus keep up the connection between the various 



182 

points and opposite shores. As the mercury falls the spirits of 
the people seem to rise, and they shout and halloo at each 
other as they pass or race on the ice. These are animated 
scenes for the skill of a Blanchard or any other artist equally 
good in the production of instantaneous photographs. 

Another of the scenes on the Hudson worthy of the camera 
is " ploughing the ice." It is a singular sight to an English- 
man to see a man driving a team of horses on the ice, and see 
the white powder rising before the ice-plough like spray from 
the prow of a vessel as she rushes through the water, cutting 
the ice into blocks or squares, to stow away in " chunks," and 
afterwards, when the hot sulty weather of July and August is 
prostrating you, have them brought out to make those wonderful 
mixtures called " ice-creams," sherry-cobblers," and "brandy- 
cocktails." 

The Hudson is beautiful in winter as well as in summer, and 
I wonder its various and picturesque beauties have not been 
photographed more abundantly. But there it is. Prophets 
are never honoured in their own country, and artists and photo- 
graphers never see the beauties of their country at home. I 
am sure if the Hudson were photographed from the sea to its 
source it would be one of the most valuable, interesting, and 
picturesque series of photographs that ever was published. Its 
aspects in summer are lovely and charming, and the wet process 
can then be employed with success. And in winter, though the 
temperature is low, the river is perfectly dry on the surface, the 
hills and trees are glistening with snow and icicles, the people 
are on the very happiest terms with one another, and frequently 
exhibit an abundance of dry, good humour. This is the time 
to work the "dry process" most successfully, and, instead of 
the "ammonia developers," try the "hot and strong " ones. 

With these few hints to my photographic friends, I leave the 
beauties of the Hudson to their kind consideration. — British 
Journal of Pho tography, 1865. 



183 

PICTIJEES OF THE POTOMAC IN PEACE 
AND WAR. 

"When first I visited that lovely region which has so recently- 
been torn and trampled down — blackened and defaced by the 
ruthlessness of war — peace lay in the valleys of the Potomac. 
Nothing was borne on the calm, clear bosom of the broad and 
listless river but the produce of the rich and smiling valleys of 
Virginia. Its banks were peaceful, silent, and beautiful. The 
peach orchards were white with the blossoms that promised a 
rich harvest of their delicious fruit. The neat and pretty houses 
that studded the sloping boundaries of the river were almost 
blinding with their dazzling whiteness as the full blaze of the 
sun fell upon them. Their inhabitants were happy, and dreamt 
not of the storm so soon to overtake them. The forts were 
occupied by only a few, very few soldiers. The guns were laid 
aside, all rusty and uncared for ; and pilgrims to the tomb of 
Washington, the good and great, stopped on their return at Fort 
Washington to examine the fortifications in idleness and peaceful 
curiosity. The Capitol at Washington echoed nothing but 
the sounds of peace and good will. The senators of both North 
and South sat in council together, and considered only the 
welfare and prosperity of their great confederation. 

The same harmonious fellowship influenced the appearance 
and actions of all ; and at that happy conjuncture I made my first 
acquaintance with Washington, the capital of the United States. 
I shall not attempt a description of its geographical position : 
everybody knows that it is in the district of Columbia, and on 
the banks of the Potomac. It is a city of vast and pretentious 
appearance, straggling over an unnecessary amount of ground, 
and is divided into avenues and streets. The avenues are named 
after the principal States, and take their spring from the Capitol, 
running off in all directions in angular form, like the spokes of 



184 

a wheel, the Capitol heing the " angular point." The streets 
running between and across the avenues rejoice in the euphonious 
names of First, Second, and Third, and A, B, and C streets, the 
straight lines of which are broken by trees of the most luxurious 
growth all along the side-walks. These trees form a delightful 
sun-shade in summer, and have a very novel and pleasing effect 
at night, when their green and leafy arches are illuminated by 
the gas lamps underneath. 

Excepting the Capitol, "White House, Court House, Post 
Office, Patent Office, and Smithsonian Institute, there is nothing 
in the city of photographic interest. The "United States," 
the " JSTational," and "Willards," are large and commodious 
hotels on Pennsylvania Avenue; but not worth a plate, photo- 
graphically speaking, unless the landlords wish to illustrate 
their bar bills. The Capitol is out of all proportion the largest 
and most imposing structure in Washington — it may safely be 
said in the United States. Situated on an elevated site, at the 
top of Pennsylvania Avenue, it forms a grand termination to 
that noble thoroughfare at its eastern extremity. The building 
consists of a grand centre of freestone painted white, surmounted 
by a vast dome of beautiful proportions. Two large wings of 
white marble complete the grand facade. Ascending the noble 
flight of marble steps to the principal entranca, the great portico 
is reached, which is supported by about eighteen Corinthian 
columns. The pediment is ornamented with a statue of America 
in the centre, with the figures of Faith on her left, and Justice 
on her right. On each side of the entrance is a group of 
statuary. On one side an Indian savage is about to massacre a 
mother and her child, but his arm is arrested by the figure of 
Civilization. On the other side the group consists of a man 
holding up a globe, representing Columbus and the figure of an 
Indian girl looking up to it. 

The large rotunda, immediately underneath the dome, is di- 
vided into panels, which are filled with paintings, such as the 



185 

■" Landing of the Pilgrim Fathers," " The Baptism of the Indian 
Princess Pocahontas," and other subjects illustrative of American 
history. On either side of the Eotunda are passages leading to 
the House of Representatives on the one side, and the Senate 
Chamber on the other. Congress being assembled, I looked in 
to see the collective wisdom of the " States" during a morning 
sitting. In many respects the House of Representatives very 
much resembled our own House of Commons. There was a 
Mr. Speaker in the chair, and one gentleman had "the floor," 
and was addressing the House. Other members were seated in 
their desk seats, making notes, or busying themselves with their 
own bills. In one essential point, however, I found a difference, 
and that was in the ease of access to this assembly. I^o 
" member's order " was required. Strangers and "citizens" 
are at all times freely admitted. There is also a magnificent 
library, which is free to everyone. 

During the Session there is Divine service in the Senate 
Clhamber on Sunday mornings. On one occasion I attended, 
and heard a most excellent discourse by the appointed chaplain. 
The President and his family were there. 

In some side offices, connected with the Capitol, I found a 
government photographer at work, copying plans, and photo- 
graphing portions of the unfinished building, for the benefit of 
the architects and others whose duty it was to examine the 
progress of the works. From this gentleman I received much 
courteous attention, and was shown many large and excellent 
negatives, all of which were developed with the ordinary iron 
developer. 

I next visited the Patent Office, and the museum connected 
therewith, which contains a vast collection of models of all kinds 
of inventions that have received protection— among them several 
things, in apparatus and implements, connected with photo- 
graphy. The American patent laws require a model of every 
new invention to be lodged in this museum, which is of immense 



186 

value to inventors and intending patentees ; for they can there- 
see what has already been protected ; and aa the Patent Office 
refuses to grant protection to anything of a similar form, use, 
or application, much litigation, expense, and annoyance are 
saved the patentees. Our Government would do well to 
take a leaf out of " Brother Jonathan's " book on this subject ; 
for not only is there increased protection given to inventors, 
but the fees are considerably less than in this country. 

The presidential residence, called the AYhite House, was the 
next interesting subject of observation. It is situated at the 
west end of Pennsylvania Avenue, and a good mile from the 
Capitol. The building is of white marble, and of very unpreter d- 
ing size and architectural attractions, but in every respect 
sufficient for the simple wants of the chief magistrate of the 
United States, whose official salary is only twenty-five thousand 
dollars per annum. 

During congressional session the President holds weekly levees ^ 
and one of these I determined to attend, prompted as much by 
curiosity to see how such things were done, as desire to pay my 
respects. Accordingly, on a certain night, at eight o'clock 
precisely, I went to the White House, and was admitted without 
hesitation. On reaching the door of the reception room, I gave 
my card to the district marshal, who conducted me to President 
Pearce, to whom I was introduced. I was received with a 
hearty welcome, and a shake of the hand. Indeed, I noticed 
that he had a kindly word of greeting for all who came. Not 
having any very important communication to make that would 
be either startling or interesting to the President of the United 
States, I bowed, and retired to the promenade room, where I 
found numbers of people who had been "presented" walking 
about and chatting in groups on all sorts of subjects — political, 
foreign, and domestic, and anything they liked. Some were in 
evening dress, others not ; but all seemed perfectly easy and 
affable one with another. There was no restraint, and the only 



187 



passport required to these levees was decent behaviour and 
respectability. There "was music also. A band was playing 
in the vestibule, and everyone evidently enjoyed the reunion, 
and felt perfectly at home. K'ever having been presented at 
court, I am not able to make any comparison pro or con. 

There is also an observatory at Washington, which I visited ; 
but not being fortunate enough to meet the — what sholl I say ? 
" astronomer- royal," comes readiest, but that is not correct: 
well, then, the — " astronomer republic," I did not see the large 
telescope and other astronomical instruments worked. 

The photographic galleries were all situated on Pennsylvania 
Avenue, and they were numerous enough. At that time they 
rejoiced in the name of "Daguerrean Galleries ; " and the pro- 
prietor, or operator, was called a ''Daguerrean." Their recep- 
tion rooms were designated " saloons," which were invarinbly 
well furnished — some of them superbly — and filled with speci- 
mens. Their " studios " and workshops behind the scenes were 
fitted with all sorts of ingenious contrivances for " buffing " and 
"coating" and expediting the work. Although the greatest 
number of mechanical appliances were employed in the Daguerreo- 
type branch of photography, art was not altogether ignored in 
its practice. One house made a business feature of very 
beautifully-coloured Daguerreotypes, tinted with dry colours, 
quite equal to those done in Europe. Another house made a 
feature of "Daguerreotypes painted in oil;" and the likeness 
was most admirably preserved. I saw one of the President, 
and several of the members of Congress, which I knew to be 
unmistakable portraits. Although the Daguerreotype was most 
tenaciously adhered to as the best means of producing photo- 
graphic portraits, the collodion process — or the " crystaltype," 
as they then called it — was not neglected. It was used by a 
few for portraits, but chiefly for views. 

Having seen all that was worth seeing in the city, I made 



188 

excursions into the country, in search of subjects for the camera 
or pencil. 

Georgetown, a little way from "Washington, and its picturesque 
cemetery, offer several pretty bits for the camera. Arlington 
Heights, the Long Bridge, and many nooks about there, are 
sufficiently tempting; but of all the excursions about "Washing- 
ton, Mount Vernon — a few miles down the Potomac, on the 
Virginia side — is by far the most interesting. Mount Vernon is 
the name of the place where General George "Washington lived 
and died, and is the " Mecca " of the Americans. !N'early every 
day there are pilgrims from some or all parts of the States to the 
tomb of "Washington, which is in thq grounds of Mount Vernon. 
They visit this place with a kind of religious awe and venera- 
tion, and come from far and wide to say they have seen it. 
For, in truth, there is little to see but the strangest-looking and 
ugliest brick building I ever beheld, with open iron gates that 
allow you to look into the darkness of the interior, and see 
nothing. 1 took a view of the tomb, and here it is : — A red 
brick building, squat and low, of the most unsightly design and 
proportions imaginable — resembling one of our country "dead- 
houses " more than anything else I could compare it to. It was 
stuck away from the house among trees and brushwood, and in 
an advanced state of dilapidation — a disgrace to the nation that 
had sprung from that great man's honest devotion ! Over the 
Gothic entrance is a white slab, with the following inscription 
on it : — 

' ' "Within this Enclosure 

Eest 

the remains of 

Geneeal Geokge "Washington." 

The remains of " Lady "Washington " lie there also ; and there 
are several white obelisks about to the memory of other members 
•of the family. 



189 



The house itself is a "frame building" of two storeys, with a 
piazza running along the front of it, and is on the whole a mean- 
looking edifice ; but was probably grand enough for the simple 
tastes of the man who dwelt in it, and has hallowed the place 
with the greatness and goodness of his life. The interior of the 
house looked as if it had once been a comfortable and cozy 
habitation. In the hall was put up a desk, with a "visitors' 
book," wherein they were expected to enter their names; and 
few failed to pay such a cheap tribute to the memory of the 
father of their country. 

The grounds, which were full of natural beauties, had been 
allowed to run into a state of wild tangle-wood ; and I had some 
trouble to pick my way over broken paths down to the river- 
side again, where I took the "boat," and returned to the city, 
touching at Fort Washington on the way. The day had been 
remarkably fine ; the evening was calm and lovely ; the silence 
of the river disturbed only by the splash of our paddles, and the 
song of the fishermen on shore as they drew in their laden nets ; 
and the moon shone as only she can shine in those latitudes. 
'N'othing could denote more peace and quietude as I sailed on the 
Potomac on that lovely evening. There was such a perfect 
lull of the natural elements — such a happy combination of all 
that was beautiful and promising — it seemed impossible for such 
a hurricane of men's passions — such yells of strife and shouts of 
victory, such a swoop of death as afterwards rushed down those 
valleys — ever to come to pass. 

Such sad reverse was, however, seen on my second visit to 
the Potomac. The narration of the stirring scenes then presented 
will form a picture less peaceful and happy, but unfortunately 
intensely real and painfully true. 

My second visit to the Potomac was paid after the lapse of 
several years, and under very different circumstances. When 
the Capitol echoed loudly the fierce and deadly sentiments of 



190 

the men of the North against the men of the South. When 
both had shouted — 

•'' Strike up the drums, and let the tongue of war 
Plead for our int'rest." 

When the deliberations of the senators were " war estimates," 
arming of troops, and hurrying them to the "front" with all 
possible despatch. When the city of Washington presented all 
the appearance of a place threatened with a siege. When every 
unoccupied building was turned into barracks, and every piece 
of unoccupied land was made a "camp ground." When the 
inhabitants were in terror and dismay, dreading the approach 
of an invading host. When hasty earth-works were thrown up 
in front of the city, and the heights were bristling with cannon. 
When the woods and peach orchards on the opposite side of the 
Potomac were red with the glare of the camp fires at night, 
and the flashing of bayonets was almost blinding in the hot sun 
at noon. When the vessels sailing on the river were laden 
with armed men, shot, shell, and "villainous saltpetre." 
When the incessant roll of drums and rattle of musketry 
deadened almost every other sound. When sentinels guarded 
every road and access to the capital, and passports were required 
from the military authorities to enable you to move from one 
place to another. In short, when the whole atmosphere was 
filled with sounds of martial strife, and everything took the form 
of desolating war. 

In spite of all these untoward events, I found photography 
actively engaged in the city, in the camp, and on the field, ful- 
filling a mission of mercy and consolation in the midst of carnage 
and tumult — fulfilling such a mission of holy work as never 
before fell to the lot of any art or art-science to perform. For 
what aspect of life is photography not called upon to witness ? 
— what phase of this world's weal or woe is photography not 
required to depict? Photography has become a handmaiden to 



the present generation — a ministering angel to all conditions of 
l^'fe, from the cradle to the grave. Aq aide-de-camp of the love- 
liest character to the great " light of the -world," humanizing 
and elevating the minds of all, administering consolation to the 
sorrowing, increasing the joy of the joyous, lessening the pangs 
of separation caused hy distance or death, strengthening the ties 
of immediate fellowship, helping the world to know its bene- 
factors, and the world's benefactors to know the world. When 
grim death stalks into the gilded palaces of the great and power- 
ful, or into the thatched cottages and miserable dwellings of the 
poor, photography is the assuager of the griefs of the sorrowing 
survivors, and the ameliorator of their miseries, by preserving 
to them so faithful a resemblance of the lost one. "When the 
bride, in her youth and loveliness, is attired for the bridal, pho- 
tography is the recorder of her trustful looks and April smiles, 
the fashion of her dress, the wreath and jewels that she wore; 
and, come what change in her appearance that may, the husband 
•can look upon his bride whene'er he likes in after years, as 
vividly and as distinctly as on that day, connecting the present 
with the past with a kind of running chord of happy recollec- 
tions. Photography is now the historian of earth and animated 
nature, the biographer of man, the registrar of his growth from 
childhood to " man's estate," the delineator of his physical, 
moral, and social progress, the book of fashion, and' the mirror 
of the times. The uses and applications of photography are 
almost indescribable ; scarcely an art, or a science, or a trade or 
profession that does not enlist photography into its service. 
Photography does not merely pander to the gratification of 
earthly vanity, but is an alleviator of human misery. Photo- 
graphy enters our hospitals and registers faithfully the progress 
of disease, its growth and change from day to day, until it is 
cured, or ripe for the knife of the surgeon ; its pictures are les- 
sons to the professor, and a book of study for the students, charts 



192 

for their guidance through the painful and tedious cases of others- 
similarly afflicted, teaching them what to do and what to avoid, 
to relieve the suffering of other patients. Photography is 
dragged into our criminal law courts, and sits on the right 
hand of Justice, giving evidence of the most undeniable charac- 
ter, without being under oath, and free from the suspicion of 
perjury, convicting murderers and felons, and acquitting the 
innocent without prejudice ; and in our courts of equity, cases 
are frequently decided by the truth-telling evidence of photo- 
graphy. 

Astronomers, geographers, and electricians freely acknowledge 
how much they are indebted to photography in making their 
celestial and terrestrial observations. Engineers, civil and mili- 
tary, employ photography largely in their plans and studies. 
Art, also, has recourse to photography, and is the only one of the 
liberal professions that is half ashamed to admit the aid it gains 
from the camera. If art admits it at all, it is done grudgingly, 
apologetically, and thanklessly. But there it is the old, old 
story of family quarrels and family jealousies. Old art might 
be likened to an old aunt that has grown withered and 
wrinkled, and peevish with disappointment, who, in spite of all 
her long-studied rules and principles of light and shade, harmony 
of colour, painting, " glazing," and "scumbling," has failed to 
win the first prize — that prize which a woman's ambition pants 
after from the moment she enters her teens until her dream is 
realised — that living model, moulded after God's own image, 
which, not having won in her mature age, she becomes jealous 
of the growing graces, the fi-esh and rollicking chaims, the 
unstudied and ingenuous truthfulness of form exhibited by her 
niece. Old Art the aunt. Photography the niece. Eeaders, 
draw the moral for yourselves. 

I have digressed, but could not help it. Photography is so 
young and lovely, so bewitchingly beautiful in all her moods, so 



193 

fascinating and enslaving — and she has enslaved thousands since 
she first sprung from the source that gives her life. But to 
return to my theme. 

The practice of photography, like the aspects of the country 
and condition of the people, was changed. " Old things had 
passed away, and all things had become new." The shining 
silver plates, buffing wheels, coating boxes, mercury pans, &c., 
of the old dispensation had given place to the baths, nitrate of 
silver solutions, and iron developers of the new. Ambrotypes, 
or glass positives, and photographs on paper, had taken the place 
of the now antiquated Daguerreotype. Mammoth photographs 
were the ambition of all photographers. The first full-length 
life-sized photograph I ever saw was in Washington, and was 
the work of Mr. Gardner, the manager of Mr. Brady's gallery. 
But a more republican idea of photography, which, strange to 
say, originated in an empire not remarkable for freedom of 
thought, soon became the dominant power. Cartes-de-visite, 
the many, ruled over mammoth, the few. The price of mammoth 
photographs was beyond the reach of millions, but the prices of 
cartes-de-visite were within the grasp of all ; and that, com- 
bined with their convenient size and prettiness of form, made 
them at once popular, and created a mania. 

The carte-de-visite form of picture became the "rage" in 
America about the time the civil war commenced, and as the 
young soldiers were proud of their new uniforms, and those who 
had been " in action " were prouder still of their stains and 
scars, the photographers did a good business among them, both 
in the city and in the camp. I saw a little of this " camp 
work " and " camp life " myself, and some of the havoc of war 
as well. Photographers are adventurous, and frequently getting 
into odd kinds of ''positions," as well as their " sitters.'' 

It was my destiny, ujider the guidance of the Great Source o£ 
Light, to witness the results of the first great conflict between 





194 

the opposing armies of the Federals and Confederates ; to hear 
the thunder of their artillery, and see the clouds of smoke 
hovering over the battle field, without being in the battle itself. 
To see the rout and panic of the Northern troops, who had so 
recently marched proudly on to fancied victory ; to witness the 
disgraceful and disastrous stampede of the Northern army from 
the field of Bull Run ; to listen to the agonized groans of the 
*' severely wounded " as they were hurried past to the temporary 
hospitals in Washington and Georgetown ; to be an eye-witness 
to the demoralized condition of men who, naturally brave, were 
tinder the influence of a panic caused by the vague apprehension 
of a danger that did not exist ; to hear the citizens exclaim, 
"AVhat shall we do?" and "For God's sake don't tell your 
people at home what you have seen ! " and comparing the 
reverse of their national arms to a "regular Waterloo defeat," 
which was anything but a happy simile. To see the panic- 
stricken men them selves, when they discovered their error, and 
"began to realize their shame, weeping like women at the folly 
they had committed. But they atoned for all this, afterwards, 
by deeds of glorious valour which were never surpassed, and 
which ended in restoring their country to peace and reunion. 

The 21st of July, 1861, was a Sunday, and as calm and 
beautiful a day as could be wished for. From its associations 
it ought to have been a day of rest and peace to all ; but it was 
not. There was terrible slaughter among men that Sunday in 
Yirginia. Durin g the morning, I took advantage of an opportunity 
off'ered me to go down to Alexandria, in Virginia, about five or six 
miles below Washington, which, was then occupied by a portion 
of the Federal Army. Everything in the place had the appear- 
ance of war. There were more soldiers than civilians about. 
Hotels were turned into barracks and military storehouses. The 
hotel where Colonel Ellsworth, of the New York Fire Zouaves, 
was shot by the proprietor for hauling down the Confederate 
:flag — which the latter had hoisted over his house — had been 



195 

taken possession of by the military authorities, and the whole 
place was under martial law. It was there I first heard rumours 
of a battle being fought in the neighbourhood of Manassas 
Junction. These rumours were soon confirmed by the roar of 
cannon in the distance, and the hurrying of fresh troops from 
Washington to the field of battle. But they were not needed. 
Before they could reach the field the "stampede" had commenced, 
and the retreating hosts came like a rushing tide upon the 
advancing few, and carried them back, absorbed in theunshapen 
mass of confusion. 

The night came, and little was known by the inhabitants of 
Washington of the rout and rush of terrified men towards the 
city ; but the next morning revealed the fact. 

Wet and wretched was the morning after the battle. The 
heavens seemed to weep over the disgrace as the men poured 
into the city, singly and in groups, unofficered, and without 
their firearms, which many had lost, or thrown away in their 
flight. The citizens gathered round them, anxious to learn all 
about the defeat, and the whereabouts of the Confederate 
army, and invited them into their houses to take refreshment 
and rest. Several instances of this impromptu hospitality and 
sympathy I witnessed myself ; and many of the weary and 
wounded soldiers I talked to. They that were only slightly 
wounded in the hands and arms had their wounds washed and 
dressed by the wives and daughters of many of the residents. 
The hotels were crowded, and the " bars" were besieged by the 
drenched and fatigued soldiers, whom the curious and sympa- 
thizing citizens invited to " liquor." The men all told wonderful 
stories of the fight and of their own escape, but none could tell 
satisfactorily what had created the panic. Some said that a few 
" teamsters " took the alarm, and, riding to the rear in hot 
haste, conveyed the impression that an exterminating pursuit by 
the Confederates had commenced. 

In a day or two the majority of the men were mustered 



196 

together again, and occupied their old camping grounds, where I 
visited them, and heard many of their stories, and got some of th& 
relics of the battle field. Fresh troops were raised, and placed 
under the command of another general. But it was long before 
another "onward march to Richmond " was attempted. The 
North had learned something of the strength and prowess of the 
South, and began to prepare for a longer and fiercer struggle 
with " Secession." 

Such are the two pictures of the Potomac which I have 
endeavoured to reproduce, and which fell under my observation 
during my professional peregrinations in connection with the 
practice of photography. 



E AMBLES AMONG THE STUDIOS OF AMERICA. 

Boston". 

Mt impressions of America, from a photographic point of 
observation, were taken at two distinct periods — which I might 
call the two epochs of photographic history — the dry and 
the wet ; the first being the Daguerreotype, and the second 
what may be termed the present era of photography, which 
includes the processes now known and practised. 

I take Boston as my starting point for several reasons. First, 
because it was the first American city I visited ; secondly, it 
was in Boston that the change first came over photography 
which wrought such a revolution in the art all over the United 
States ; thirdly and severally, in Boston I noticed many things 
in connection with photography which difi'ered widely from 
what I had known and practised in England. 

Visiting the gallery of Mr. Whipple, then in Washington Street, 
the busiest thoroughfare in Boston, I was struck with the very 
large collection of Daguerreotype portraits there exhibited, but 
particularly with a large display of Daguerreotypes of the moon 



197 

in various aspects. I had heard of Mr. Whipple's success ia 
Daguerreotyping the moon before I left Europe, but had no idea 
that so much had been achieved in lunar photography at that 
early date until I saw Mr. Whipple's case of photographs of the 
moon in many phases. Those Daguerreotypes were remarkable 
for their sharpness and delicacy, and the many trying conditions 
under which they were taken. They were all obtained at 
Cambridge College under the superintendance of Professor Bond, 
but in what manner I had better allow Mr. Whipple to speak 
for himself, by making an extract from a letter of his, published 
in The Photographic Art Journal of Xmevicsi, July, 1853. Mr. 
Whipple says : " My first attempt at Daguerreotyping the moon 
was with a reflecting telescope ; the mirror was five feet focus, 
and seven inches diameter. By putting the prepared plate 
directly in the focus of the reflector, and giving it an exposure 
of from three to five seconds, I obtained quite distinct impres- 
sions ; but owing to the smallness of the image, which was only 
about five-eighths of an inch in diameter, and the want of clock- 
work to regulate the motion of the telescope, the results were 
very far from satisfactory. 

''Having obtained permission of Professor Bond to use the 
large Cambridge reflector for that purpose, I renewed my experi- 
ments with high hopes of success, but soon found it no easy 
matter to obtain a clear, well-defined, beautiful Daguerreotype 
of the moon. Nothing could be more interesting than its 
appearance through that magnificent instrument : but to transfer 
it to the silver plate, to make something tangible of it, was quite 
a different thing. The "governor," that regulates the motion 
of the telescope, although sufficiently accurate for observing 
purposes, was entirely unsuitable for Daguerreotyping ; as when 
the plate is exposed to the moon's image, if the instrument does 
not follow exactly to counteract the earth's motion, even to the 
nicety of a hair's-breadth, the beauty of the impression is much 
injured, or entirely spoiled. The governor had a tendency to 



198 

move the instrument a little too fast, then to fall slightly behind. 
By closely noticing its motion, and by exposing my plates those 
few seconds that it exactly followed between the accelerated and 
retarded motion, I might obtain one or two perfect proofs in the 
trial of a dozen plates, other things being right. But a more 
serious obstacle to my success was the usual state of the atmos- 
phere in the locality — the sea breeze, the hot and cold air 
commingling, although its effects were not visible to the eye ; 
but when the moon was viewed through the telescope it had the 
same appearance as objects when seen through the heated air 
from a chimney, in a constant tremor, precluding the possibility 
of successful Daguerreotyping. This state of the atmosphere 
often continued week after week in a greater or less degree, so 
that an evening of perfect quiet was hailed with the greatest 
delight. After oft-repeated failures, I finally obtained the 
Daguerreotype from which the crystallotypes I send for your 
journal were copies ; it was taken in March, 1851. The object 
glass only of the telescope was used. It is fifteen inches in 
diameter, and about twenty-three feet focal length ; the image 
it gives of the moon varies but little from three inches, and the 
prepared plate had an exposure of thirteen seconds." 

Copies of several of these " crystallotypes " of the moon I 
afterwards obtained and exhibited at the Photographic Exhibition 
in connection with the British Association which met in Glasgow 
in 1855. The " crystallotypes " were simply enlarged photo- 
graphs, about eight or nine inches in diameter, and conveyed to 
the mind an excellent idea of the moon's surface. The orange- 
like form and the principal craters were distinctly marked. 
Indeed, so much were they admired as portraits of the moon, 
that one of the savans bought the set at the close of the 
exhibition. 

Mr. "Whipple is still a successful practitioner of our delightful 
art in the " Athens of the "Western "World," and has reaped 
the reward of his continuity and devotion to his favourite 



199 

art. The late decision of the American law courts on the 
validity of Mr. Cutting's patent for the use of bromides in. 
collodion must have laid Mr. "Whipple under serious liabilities^ 
for he used bromo-iodized negative collodion for iron develop- 
ment as far back as 1853. 

There were many other professional photographers in the 
chief city of Massachusetts ; but I have described the charac- 
teristics of the principal and oldest concerns. Doubtless there 
are many new ones since I visited the city where Benjamin 
Franklin served his apprenticeship as a printer; where the 
" colonists" in 1773, rather than pay the obnoxious " tea tax," 
pitched all the tea out of the ships into the waters of Boston 
Bay, and commenced that long struggle against oppression and 
unjust taxation which eventually ended in severing the Xorth 
American Colonies from the mother country. "With the know- 
ledge of all this, it is the more surprising that they should now 
so quietly submit to what must be an obnoxious and trouble- 
some system of taxation ; for, not only have photographers to 
pay an annual licence of about two guineas for carrying on 
their trade, but also to affix a government stamp on each picture 
sent out, which is a further tax of about one penny on each. 
Surely the patience of our brother photographers on the other 
side of the Atlantic must be sorely tried, what with the troubles 
of their business, the whims and eccentricities of their sitters, 
Mr. Cutting's unkind cut, and the prowling visitations of the 
tax-collector. 

New York. 
"What a wonderful place New York is for photographic galleries I 
Their number is legion, and their size is mammoth. Every- 
thing is " mammoth." Their " saloons " are mammoth. Their 
"skylights" are mammoth. Their "tubes," or lenses, are 
mammoth. Their "boxes," or cameras, are mammoth; 
and mammoth is the amount of business that is done in 
some of those "galleries." The "stores" of the dealers in 



200 

photographic "stock" are mammoth; and the most mammoth, 
of all is the "store" of Messrs. E. & H. T. Anthony, on 
Broadway. This establishment is one of the many palaces of 
commerce on that splendid thoroughfare. The building is of 
iron, tall and graceful, of the Corinthian order, with Corinthian 
pilasters, pillars, and capitals. It is five storeys high, with a 
frontage of about thirty feet, and a depth of two hundred feet, 
running right through the " block " from Broadway to the next 
street on the west side of it. This is the largest store of the 
kind in New York ; I think I may safely say, in either of the 
two continents, east or west, containing a stock of all sorts of 
photographic goods, from "sixpenny slides" to "mammoth 
tubes," varying in aggregate value from one-hundred-and-fifty 
thousand to two hundred thousand dollars. The heads of the 
firm are most enterprising, one taking the direction of the com- 
mercial department, and the other the scientific and experi- 
mental. Nearly all novelties in apparatus and photographic 
requisites pass through this house into the hands of our Ameri- 
can confreres of the camera, and not unfrequently find their 
way to the realms of Queen Victoria on both sides of the 
Atlantic. 

When the carte-de-visite pictures were introduced, the oldest 
and largest houses held aloof from them, and only reluctantly, 
and under pressure, took hold of them at last. Why, it is 
difiicult to say, unless their very small size was too violent a 
contrast to the mammoth pictures they were accustomed to handle. 
Messrs. Eockwood and Co., of Broadway, were the first to make 
a great feature of the carte-de-visite in New York. I'hey also 
introduced the " Funnygraph," but the latter had a very short 
life. 

In the Daguerreotype days there was a "portrait factory" on 
Broadway, where likenesses were turned out as fast as coining, 
for the small charge of twenty-five cents a head. The arrange- 
ments for such rapid work were very complete. I had a dollar's 



201 

worth of these "factory" portraits. At the desk I paid my 
money, and received four tickets, which entitled me to as many 
sittings when my turn came. I was shown into a waiting 
room crowded with people. The customers were seated on 
forms placed round the room, sidling their way to the entrance 
of the operating room, and answering the cry of "the next" 
in much the same manner that people do at our public baths. I 
being "the next," at last went into the operating room, where 
I found the operator stationed at the camera, which he never 
left all day long, except occasionally to adjust a stupid sitter. 
He told the next to " Sit down " and "Look thar," focussed, 
and, putting his hand into a hole in the wall which communi- 
cated with the "coating room," he found a dark slide ready 
filled with a sensitised plate, and putting it into the camera, 
"exposed," and saying " That will dew," took the dark slide 
out of the camera, and shoved it through another hole in the 
wall communicating with the mercury or developing room. 
This was repeated as many times as I wanted sittings, which 
he knew by the number of tickets I had given to a boy in the 
room, whose duty it was to look out for " the next," and collect 
the tickets. The operator had nothing to do with the prepara- 
tion of the plates, developing, fixing, or finishing of the picture. 
He was responsible only for the " pose " and " time, the " de- 
veloper," checking and correcting the latter occasionally by 
crying out " Short " or " Long " as the case might be. Having 
had my number of "sittings," I was requested to leave the 
operating room by another door which opened into a passage 
that led me to the " delivery desk," where, in a few minutes, I 
got all my four portraits fitted up in " matt, glass, and pre- 
server," — the pictures having been passed from the developing 
room to the " gilding " room, thence to the " fitting room " and 
the "delivery desk," where I received them. Thus they were 
all finished and carried away without the camera operator ever 
having seen them. Three of the four portraits were as fine 



202 

DagueiTGotypes as could be produced anywhere. Ambrotypes,. 
or "Daguerreotypes on glass," as some called them, were after- 
wards produced in much the same manufacturing manner. 

There were many other galleries on Broadway : Canal Street ;. 
the Bowery; the Avenues, 1, 2 and 3; A, B, and C, Water 
Street ; Hudson Street, by the shipping, &c., the proprietors of 
which conducted their business in the style most suited to their 
"location" and the class of customers they had to deal with; 
but in no case was there any attempt at that " old clothesman" 
— that "Petticoat Lane" — style of touting and dragging 
customers in by the collar. All sorts of legitimate modes of 
advertising were resorted to — flags flying out of windows and 
from the roofs of houses ; handsome show cases at the doors ; 
glowing advertisements in the newspapers, in prose and verse ; 
circulars freely distributed among the hotels, &c. ; but none of 
that " have your picture taken," annoying, and disreputable 
style adopted by the cheap and common establishments in 
London. 

Unhappily, " Sunday trading " is practised more extensively in 
New York than in London. I^early all but the most respectable 
galleries are open on Sundays, and evidently do a thriving trade. 
The authorities endeavoured to stop it frequently, by summoning 
parties and inflicting fines, but it was no use. The fines were 
paid, and Sunday photography continued. 

The " glass houses " of America differ entirely from what we 
understand by the name here ; indeed, I never saw such a thing 
there, either by chance, accident, or design — for chance has no 
" glass houses " in America, only an agency ; there are no 
accidental glass houses, and the operating rooms built by design 
are not " glass houses " at all. 

The majority of the houses in New York and other American 
cities are built with nearly flat roofs, and many of them with 
lessening storeys from front to back, resembling a flight of two 
or three steps. In one of these roofs, according to circumstances,. 



203 



a large " skylight " is fixed, and pitched usually at an angle of 
45*^, and the rooms, as a rule, are large enough to allow the 
sitter to be placed anywhere within the radius of the light, 
so that any effect or any view of the face can easily be 
obtained. 

The light is not any more actinic there than here in good 
weather, but they have a very great deal more light of a good 
quality all the year round than we have. 

The operators work generally with a highly bromized 
collodion, which, as a rule, they make themselves, but not 
throughout. They buy the gun-cotton of some good maker — 
Mr. Tomlinson, agent for Mr, Cutting, generally supplied the 
best — then dissolve, iodize, and bromize to suit their working. 

Pyrogallic acid as an intensifier is very little used by the 
American operators, so little that it is not kept in stock by 
the dealers. Requiring some once, I had quite a hunt for it, 
but found some at last, stowed away as "Xot Wanted," in 
Messrs. Anthony's store. The general intensifier is what they 
laconically call " sulph.," which is sulphuret of potassium in 
a very dilute solution, either flowed over the plate, or the 
plate is immersed in a dipping bath, after fixing, which is by 
far the pleasantest way to employ the ''sulph. solution." 
Throwing it about as some of them do is anything but agreeable. 
In such cases, "sulph." was the fijst thing that saluted 
my olfactories on putting my head inside one of their ' ' dark 
rooms." 

Up to 1860 the American photographic prints were all on plain 
paper, and obtained by the ammonia-nitrate of silver bath, and 
toned and fixed with the hyposulphite of soda and gold. The 
introduction of the cartes-de-visite forced the operators to make 
use of albumenized paper ; but even then they seemed deter- 
mined to adhere to the ammonia process if possible, for they 
commenced all sorts of experiments with thai volatile accelerator. 



204 



both wet and dry, some by adding ammonia and ether to 
an 80-grain silver bath, others by fuming, and toning 
•with an acetate and gold bath, and fixing with hypo after- 
wards. 

With the following " musings " on " wrappers " (not *' spirit 
rappers,"nor railway wrappers, but " carte-de-visite wrappers"). 
I shall conclude my rambles among the galleries of New York. 
"Wrappers generally afford an excellent opportunity for orna- 
mental display. Many of the wrappers of our magazines are 
elegantly and artistically ornamented. Nearly every pack of 
playing cards is done up in a beautiful wrapper. The French 
have given their attention to the subject of " carte-de-visite 
wrappers," and turned out a few unique patterns, which, how- 
ever, never came much into use in this country. The Americans, 
more alive to fanciful and tasteful objects of ornamentation, and 
close imitators of the French in these matters, have made more 
use of carte-de-visite wrappers than we have. Many wrappers 
of an artistic and literary character are used by the photographers 
in America — some with ornamental designs ; some with the 
address of the houses tastefully executed ; others with poetical 
effusions, in which the cartes-de-visite are neatly wrapped up, 
and handed over to the sitter. 

Surely a useful suggestion is here given, for wrappers are 
useful things in their way, and, if made up tastefully, would 
attract attention to the photographic establishments that issue 
them. Photography is so closely allied to art that it is desirable 
to have everything in connection with it of an elegant and 
artistic description. The plain paper envelopes — gummed up at 
the ends, and difficult to get open again — are very inartistic, and 
anything but suitable to envelop such pretty little pictures as 
cartes-de-visite. Let photography encourage art and art manu- 
factures, and art will enter into a treaty of reciprocity for their 
jnutual advancement. — Photographic News, 1865. 



205 

TO DUBLIN AND BACK, WITH A GLANCE AT THE 

EXHIBITION. 
The bell rings ; a shrill shriek ; puff, puff goes the engine, and 
we dart away from the station at Euston Square, provided with 
a return ticket to Dublin, issued by the London and North 
Western Eailway, available for one month, for the very reason- 
able charge of £3, first class and cabin ; £2 7s. 6d. second class 
and cabin ; or forty shillings third class and steerage, via Holy- 
head. These charges include steamboat fare and steward's fee. 
The Exhibition Committee have made arrangements with the 
raUway companies to run excursion trains once a fortnight at 
still lower rates ; twenty-one shillings from London to Dublin 
and back, and from other places in proportion. This ticket will 
be good for a fortnight, and will entitle the holder to another 
ticket, giving him two admissions to the Exhibition for one 
shilling. With the ordinary monthly ticket, which is issued 
daily, it is quite optional whether you go by the morning or 
evening train ; but by all means take the morning train, so that 
you may pass through North Wales and the Island of Anglesea 
in daylight. Passing through England by Eugby, Stafford, 
Crewe, and Chester, nothing remarkable occurs during our rapid 
run through that part of the country. But an "Irish Gentle- 
maQ," a fellow traveller, learning our destination, kindly 
volunteered to enlighten us how we could best see Dublin and 
its lions in the shortest possible time, and advised us by all 
"manes" not to "lave" Dublin without seeing " Faynix 
Park," and taking a car drive to Howth and other places 
round the "Bee of Dublin." Accordingly we agreed to take 
his advice ; but as our primary object in visiting Dublin 
is to see the Exhibition, we will first attend to that on our 
arrival in the Irish capital ; and if, after that, time will permit, 
the extraneous lions will receive our attention. First of aU, 
we must describe how we got there, what we saw on the way, 
and what were our impressions on entering Dublin Bay. 



206 

As we said before, nothing particular occurred during our 
journey tlirough England to excite our attention or curiosity; 
but on passing into "Wales — Flintshire — our attention is at once 
arrested by the difference of the scenery through which we pass. 
Soon after leaving Chester, we get a sight of the river Dee on 
our right, and continue to run down by its side past Flint, 
Bagillt, Holywell, and Mostyn, then we take a bend to the left 
and skirt a part of the Irish Channel past Rhyl, Abergele, and 
Colwyn to Conway, with its extensive ruins of a once vast and 
noble castle, through, under, and about the ruins of which the 
double lines of iron rails twist and twine and sinuously encoil 
themselves like a boa constrictor of civilisation and demolisher 
of wrecks, ruins, and vestiges of the feudal ages and semi- 
barbarism. Our iron charger dashes up to the very walls of 
the ancient stronghold, close past the base of a tower, and right 
under the hanging ruins of another, which is in truth a " base- 
less fabric," but no " vision," for there it is suspended in mid 
air, a fabric without a base, holding on to its surroundings by 
the cohesive power of their early attachments. We rush into 
the very bowels of the keep itself, snorting and puffing defiance 
to the memoried sternness of the grim warriors who once held 
the place against all intruders. Anyone who has not had an 
opportunity before of visiting North Wales should keep a sharp 
look-out right and left, and they will get a peep at most of the 
principal places on the route : the Welsh mountains on the left, 
their summits illuminated by the sun sinking towards the west, 
and the mass of them thrown into shadow in fine contrast. 

!N'ow we are at Penmcenmawr, that pretty little watering 
place, with its neat-looking houses snugly nestHng in the laps of 
the hills, and we pass along so close to the sea, we can feel the 
spray from the waves as they break on the shore. 

Passing Llanfairfechan and Aber we are at Bangor, and almost 
immediately afterwards make a dive into the long, dark chamber 
of the Tubular Bridge, with a shriek and rumbling rattle that is 



207 

almost startling. In a few seconds we are out into the daylight 
again, and get a view of the Straits of Menai ; and on the right- 
hand side, looking back, get an excellent sight of the Tubular 
Bridge. At the moment of our passing, a ship in full sail was 
running before the wind through the Straits, which added con- 
siderably to the picturesque beauty of the scene. On the left a 
fine view of the " Suspension Bridge " is obtained. "We are soon 
past Llanfair, and across that bleak and desolate part of the island 
of Anglesea between the Menai Straits and the Valley. 
Arriving at Holyhead, we go on board the steamer which is to 
carry us across the Channel to Dublin. The boat not starting 
immediately, but giving us a little time to look around, we go on 
shore again, and saunter up and down the narrow hilly streets 
of Holyhead, listening in vain for the sound of a word spoken in 
our mother tongue. Not a word could we hear, not a word of 
English could we get without asking for it. The most of the 
people can speak English with a foreign-like accent, but you 
seldom hear it unless you address them in English. Even the 
urchins in the streets carry on their games and play in the Welsh 
and unintelligible sounds resembling language. 

We also had time to examine the stupendous breakwater 
which the Government is building at Holyhead to form a harbour 
of refuge. The wall is a mile and three-quarters in length, and 
of immense thickness, in the form of three terraces, the highest 
towards the sea. At one place we noticed that the solid slatey 
roeks were hewn and dressed into shape, and thus formed part 
of the wall itself, a mixture of Nature's handiwork and the work 
of man. 

Time to go on board again, and as the wind was blowing 
rather strong, we expected to have a rough voyage of it ; 
and sure enough we had, for we were scarcely clear of the 
sheltering kindliness of the sea wall and the '' north stack " till 
our vessel began to "pitch and toss," and roll and creak, and 
groan in agony ; and so highly sympathetic were we that we did 



208 

the same, and could not help it, do what we could. Strong tea^ 
brandy and water, were all no use. Down we went, like prostrate 
sinners as we were, on our knees, with clasped hands, praying 
for the winds and the waves " to be still ; " but they did not heed 
our prayer in the least, and kept up their inhumane howling, 
dancing, and jumbling until, by the time we reached the middle 
of the Channel, we began to think that the captain had lost his 
course, and that we were somewhere between Holyhead and 
purgatory, if not in purgatory itself, being purged of our sins^ 
and becoming internally pure and externally foul. But we dis- 
covered that we, and not the captain, had lost the course and the 
even tenour of our way, for we fancied — perhaps it was only 
fancy — that we could hear him humming snatches of old song, 
among them " Oh ! steer my bark to Erin's Isle ! " and soon the 
mountains of Wicklow are in sight. As we near, and get under 
the lee of the land — for it was a stiff " sou' -wester " that 
bothered us — our sensations and feelings begin to improve, and 
we pick ourselves up out of the mire, and turn our eyes eagerly 
and hopefully towards the Emerald Isle, and Dublin Bay more 
particularly. 

As we approach the Bay, the Carlingford Hills can be seen on 
the right, and a little more southwards Lambay and Ireland's 
Eye. The latter island is rugged and precipitous, seaward, in 
the extreme — a barren and desolate-looking spot, possessing an 
unenviable notoriety on account of the murder of a lady by her 
husband having been committed there a few years ago : Howth, 
the light-house, and the Bailey Eock, where the Queen Victoria 
steamer was wrecked, now attract our attention. And, as nearly 
as we can remember, these are the most striking features on the 
north side of the Bay. On the south the Harbour of Kingstown 
is distinctly visible, and we saw the mail steamer which crosses 
from Holyhead to Kingstown, a distance of sixty miles, in three 
and a-half hours, blowing off her steam. By paying a little 
extra you can cross in the mail steamers, if you wish, but it is 



209 

not worth while paying the difference, as the ordinary steamers 
cross from Holyhead to Dublin in about five and a-half hours. 
All round the south side of the Bay we could trace the Kings- 
town and Dublin railway, which is the oldest line but one in 
the United Queendoms of Great Britain and Ireland. An obelisk 
commemorates the visit of the last of the four Georges to Ireland 
in 1821. Eight over Kingstown the Killinny Hills are to be seen^ 
and all along the water line the Bay is studded with pretty little 
villas, and the scene is truly beautiful. If possible, arrange 
your entrance into the Bay of Dublin in the early morning, for 
then the sun, rising in the east, lights up the subjects to the 
very best advantage, and throws a charm about them which 
they do not exhibit at any other time of the day. By waiting 
at Holyhead for the early morning boat you can easily manage 
this. But now we are at the North Wall, and on landing are 
besieged by carmen to have a " rowl," and jumping on to one of 
those light, odd-looking, jaunting cars which are one of the 
institutions of the country, we are "rowled" up the North 
Wall for nearly a mile, past the Docks, over the drawbridges, 
and past the Custom House — a large stone building, too large 
for the business of the port — along Carlisle Bridge, down West- 
moreland Street, past the Bank of Ireland — once the Houses of 
Parliament — and up Dame Street, leaving the College on our 
left, and passing King William's statue, representing a mounted 
Roman with gilded laurels and ornamental toga, we arrive at 
Jury's Hotel, a commercial and family house of superior arrange- 
ments which was well recommended to us before we left London ; 
and here we rest. 

After breakfast, and having made ourselves internally and 
externally comfortable, we start for the Exhibition, which is 
within easy walking distance of the hotel ; but the car fares are 
so very moderate that we prefer a " rowl." The fare is sixpence 
a "set down ; " that is, you may ride from one end of the city 
to the other for sixpence, but if you get off to poet a letter, or 



210 

"buy an umbrella to keep the rain off— for the cars have no 
covering — that is a "set down;" and so every time you get 
down and get up again you have sixpence to pay, no matter 
how short the distance you are taken each time. So we hailed 
a car at the door of the hotel, determined to be "rowled" to the 
Exhibition for sixpence each. AVe go down Dame Street, across 
College Green, up Grafton Street, along the west and south sides 
of St. Stephen's Green or Square to Earlsfort Terrace and the 
principal entrance to the Dublin Exhibition, which occupies the 
site of what was formerly Coburg Gardens. 

Arriving at the entrance-hall, we pay our admission fee, and 
on passing the registering turnstiles we are at once in the 
sculpture hall on the ground floor, the contents of which we 
shall notice more particularly by-and-by. Passing through the 
Sculpture Hall we are within the western transept, or winter 
garden portion of the Exhibition. This transept is 500 feet 
long and of lofty proportions, with galleries on each side, and 
tastefully hung with the banners and flags of the nations 
exhibiting. The northern court is about 300 feet long, also of 
iron and glass, with galleries running round both sides similar to 
the western transept. The ground floor and part of the galleries 
of the northern court are devoted to the productions of the 
United Kingdom. On the north side of the northern court is 
the machinery department, both at rest and in motion. Here 
machines of the most delicate and ponderous nature are at work. 
There a forge-hammer daintily cracking nuts, or coming down 
^vith a crushing force at the will of the attendant. In another 
place a delicate curving-machine is at work ; and another can 
be seen making steel pens. There are high pressure engines, 
sewing machines, and photographic rolling-presses. Indeed, 
-there is almost everything to be seen and everything going on 
that is instructive, edifying, and amusing. The Exhibition 
building is small, but well arranged and compact, and partakes 
of the character of an art and industrial exhibition and place of 



211 

amusement and recreation, like our Crystal Palace at Sydenham, 
with ornamental gardens and archery grounds attached. The 
gardens are small — a little larger than the area of the building 
itself — but most tastefully laid out. And there are fountains 
and grottoes, and rockeries and cascades, with flowers growing 
about them, which give the whole place a pleasant, healthy, and 
delightful appearance. Stepping out of the western transept 
into the gardens, we found the band of the 78th Highlanders 
playing in the centre, and their pipers walking about the grounds 
ready to take up the strains of music in another key, for 
presently we saw them marching about, playing "Hielan' 
•Skirls," and sounding the loud pibroch, with a five-bag power 
that was more stunning than the nocturnal wailings of a dozen 
or two Kilkenny cats. The directors furnish music and offer 
other inducements to secure a good attendance, and their efforts 
ought to be successful, and it is to be hoped they will be so. 

On the first day of our visit there was a grand archery meeting, 
and the turn-out of Dublin belles was double in numbers. There 
was a large attendance of bowmen, too, and belles and beaux 
were banging away at the targets most unmercifully in keen 
■contest for the prize ; whether it was a medal, a ring, or an 
heiress, we could not learn ; but if nothing more than the 
privilege of entering the lists against such lovely competitors, 
the bowmen ought to have been satisfied ; but we don't suppose 
they were, for men are both ambitious and avaricious, and 
probably some of them hoped to win a prize medal, kill a beauty, 
and catch an heiress all at once, with one swift arrow sent 
whizzing and quivering into the very heart and gilded centre of 
the gaily-painted target. 

Perched up on the top of the cascades we noticed a double 
sliding-front stereoscopic camera, and doubtless Mr. York was 
busy photographing the scene we have been describing — 
impressions of which the London Stereoscopic Company will 
probably issue ere long. We must, however, leave this gay 



212 

scene and turn our attention to other things, certainly not more 
attractive ; but duty calls us away from beauty, and we must 
submit. 

Re-entering the Exhibition building, we seek the photo- 
graphic department, which we readily find on the ground-floor, 
between the music hall and the first class refreshment-room. 
Entering from the Belgian department in the western transept, 
we find three rooms in the main building devoted to the exhibition 
of photographs, and a lobby between the rooms pretty well 
filled with apparatus. To Sir J. Jocelyn Coghill are photo- 
graphers indebted for obtaining so much space for their works, 
and in such a get-at-able situation ; but it is a pity the rooms 
are not better lighted. Many of the pictures on the screens are 
very indistinctly seen, and some are in dark corners scarcely to 
be seen at all. 

The foreign department, which is the first room we enter, is 
mainly made up of reproductions of old and modern engravings, 
and copies of drawings and paintings. One very remarkable 
photograph on the wall of this room is an immense magnification 
of a flea, by A. Duvette. "What a subject for the camera ! — one 
that suggests in sporting phraseology something more than the 
"find," the "chase," and the "death." 

A panoramic view of Rome, by M. Petagna, is a great 
achievement in panoramic photography. There are seven 
impressions from 15 by 12 plates, all carefully joined, and of 
equal tone. The point of view is " Tasso's Oak," and the 
panorama gives us an excellent idea of Rome at the present 
day. 

The British part of the Photographic Exhibition in Dublin 
might be very properly denominated an enlargement of the 
Society 's exhibition now open in Conduit Street, London. Nearly 
all the principal exhibitors there have sent duplicates of their 
chief works to the Dublin Exhibition. There is Robinson's 
l)eautiful picture of "Brenda," his "May Gatherers," "Sun- 



213 

shine," " Autumn," " Somebody Coming," '* Bringing home the 
May," &c., all old and familiar pictures, every one of which 
we have seen before. Robinson himself in his study — a 
beautiful piece of photography, even to his black velvet coat. 
Blanchard also repeats his " Zealot," and other subjects, and 
sends a frame full of his exquisite stereographs. England also 
sends some of his charming stereoscopic pictures of Switzerland 
and Savoy. Bedford's contribution is much the same as his 
pictures in the London exhibition. Among them are his 
lovely Warwickshire pictures. Wet- plate photography is well 
represented, both in landscape, portraiture, and composition. 
Among the latter, Rejlander is most prominent. One frame 
containing some pictures showing the " expression " of the 
hands, illustrates Re j lander's artistic knowledge and ability 
more than many of his other pictures. None but a thoughtful 
and accomplished artist could have disposed of those members in 
such a skilful manner. His pictures of " Grief," " The Mote," 
" The Wayfarer," " 'Tis Light within— Dark without," and his 
"Home, Sweet Home," reveal exquisite feeling in his treatment 
of such subjects. Thurston Thompson also exhibits some of 
his fine reproductions of Turner. There is " Crossing the 
Brook," and " Childe Harold's Pilgrimage ; " but a much larger 
collection of these beautiful copies of Turner's pictures are now 
on view at Marion's, in Soho Square. 

Dry-plate photography is exemplified in all its phases, from 
the oldest form of albumen alone, to the latest modifications with 
collodion, collodio-albumen, Fothergill, tannin, malt, &c. The 
most prominent and largest contributor to this department is 
Mr. Mudd. In addition to the duplicates in the London 
Exhibition, he sends a few others, the most remarkable of 
which is a large view of " Borrowdale," a noble picture, 
exquisitely treated, showing masses of light and shade and 
pleasing composition which stamp it at once as a work of art. 

Mr. G. S. Penny exhibits some very fine examples of the 



214 

tannin and malt process. They are soft and delicate, and 
possess sufficient force to give powerful contrasts when necessary^ 
Mr. Bull's tannin and malt pictures are also very good ; his 
''Menai Bridge " particularly so. 

The amateur photographers, both wet and dry, make a good 
show. And among the Irish followers of our delightful art are 
Sir J. J. Coghill, who exhibits twelve very pretty views of the 
neighbourhood of Castletownsend. Dr. Hemphill, of Clonmel, 
also exhibits a variety of subjects, many of them pretty com- 
positions and excellent photography. 

Dr. Bailey, of Monaghan, contributes both landscapes and 
portraits of very good quality. Mr. T. M. Brownrigg shows 
seventeen photographs all excellent examples of the wet 
collodion process. Many of them are exquisite bits of photo- 
graphy, and evince an amount of thought and care in selecting 
the best point of view, arrangLng the lines of the subject, and 
catching the best effect of light so as to make them pictures, 
which is seldom attended to by professional photographers. 

Amongst the Irish professional photographers in landscape 
work, Mr. F. Mares, of Dublin, stands pre-eminent. His 
pictures of Killarney, and views in the county of Wicklow, are 
very beautiful, and give evidence of a cultivated eye and artistic 
taste in the selection of his subjects and points of view. There 
are other excellent views and architectural subjects by Irisk 
photographers ; but we are sorry to observe some that really 
ought not to have been admitted. They are not even average 
photography, being utterly destitute of manipulative skill, and 
as deficient in art-excellence as they can well be. 

One branch of landscape, or, we should say, marine photo- 
graphy, is without competition. "We refer to those exquisite 
and charming transparencies by Mr, C. S, Breese. His moonlight 
effect is wonderfully managed ; the water looks '* alive," and 
the moonlight is dancing on the waves just as we have seen it 
far away upon the sea. His " Breaking Wave " is marvellous, 
coming to shore with its cavernous curl ; we almost fancy we 



215 

hear its angry howl as it clashes itself into foam on the beach. 
We have seen such a wave sweep the deck of a ship before now, 
and know well with what a ponderous weight and velocity it 
comes ; and we wonder the more at Mr. Breese's success in 
catching the wave in such a position. We cannot, however, speak 
so highly of the "Sunlight" effects by the same artist. The 
transparencies as photographs are inimitable ; but there is colour 
introduced into the skies which ought to have been taken up by 
the rocks, and so carried into the foregrounds of the pictures, to 
be natural. Such warm skies and cold middle distances and 
foregrounds are too antagonistic for the harmony of nature. 

In portraiture, our Irish brethren of the camera contribute 
somewhat liberally. In that branch we noticed the works of 
Messrs. Robertson and Co., S. Lawrence, and G. Schroeder, of 
Grafton Street; Millard and Eobinson, Nelson and Marshall, and 
S. Chancellor, of Sackville Street, Dublin. T. Cranfield, 
Grafton Street, also exhibits some photographs beautifully 
coloured in oil. 

The most eminent English photographers also show up well. 
We saw the well-known works of Mayall, Silvy, Claudet, 
Maull and Co., and others, eminent in plain photography. 
Messrs. Lock and Whitfield exhibit a Royal case of exquisitely 
coloured photographs of the Prince and Princess of Wales, and 
Prince Albert Victor. Mr. G. Wharton Simpson also exhibits a 
few specimens of his beautiful collodio-chloride of silver printing 
process. There are some lovely specimens of that process with 
such a frightfully ugly name, but which, in plain parlance, are 
pictures on opal glass, though Mr. Helsby has christened them 
" Helioaristotypia miniatures." As a set-off to this, the next dry 
process that is discovered should be called " Hydrophobiatypia." 

In amateur portraiture, Mr. H. Cooper, Jun., exhibits a 
large number of his clever life studies, as well as those quiet 
and charming representations of his friends in their habits as 
they live. 



21() 

Solar camera enlargements are very numerously contributed. 
Mr. Claudet sends some good pictures enlarged by solar camera, 
and developed with gallic acid. Mr. Solomon also has some 
very good examples of enlarging. Dr. D. Van Monckhoven is 
an exhibitor of the capabilities of his direct printing camera. 
Mr. Mayall exhibits two series of very interesting enlargements 
by the Monckhoven camera, printed direct on albumenized 
paper ; one is Tennyson, in eight different sizes, from a one- 
ninth to a life-size head on a whole sheet of paper ; of the other, 
€aptain Grant, there are seven similar pictures. These photo- 
graphs are all bold and vigorous and uniform in colour, and 
come nearer to our idea of what an enlargement should be than 
anything we have yet seen. Of the two, that of the Poet- 
Laureate is the best; the other is harsher, which is in all 
probability due to the difference in the subjects themselves. We 
can easily imagine that the face of Captain Grant, bronzed and 
weather-beaten as it must be, will present more obstacles to the 
obtaining of a soft negative than that of Tennyson. Specimens 
of photo-sculpture are also to be seen at the Dublin Exhibition, 
many of which are very pretty and life-like statuettes ; but 
some of the figures seem much too large in the busts, and the 
plinths on which the figures of ladies stand are in very bad 
taste ; being diminishing beads of a circular form, they suggest 
the idea of a huge crinoline just dropped. 

^N'early all the denominations of photography have their 
representative forms and impressions in this Exhibition ; and 
the history of the art, from the early days of the Daguerreotype 
to the latest vagary of the present day, may be traced in the 
collection of photographs spread before you on the walls and 
screens of the Dublin International Exhibition. There is the 
Daguerreotype, the Ambrotype, and the collodiotype, which 
ought to have been known as the Archertype ; for the wet 
collodion process, although it is the most important of all the 
discoveries in photography that have been made since the first 



217 

pictures "vrere obtained by Wedgwood, is without a name 
conferring honour on the man who first applied collodion 
to photography. Archer's name is generally associated with 
it, but without taking that definite and appellative form it 
ought to. We know that another claimant has been "cutting 
in" for the honour, but unless that claim can be "backed 
up " by data, we are not disposed to believe that it was 
anterior to 1851 — the year of the first exhibition; at that 
date we know that Mr. Archer took photographs on collo- 
dionized glass plates. Then why should we not honour Archer 
as the French honoured Daguerre, and call the wet collodion 
process the Archertype ? 

In printing and toning, there are samples of nearly all the 
formulae that have been discovered since the days of printing on 
plain salted paper and fixing in "hypo" only. There are 
prints on plain paper and on albumenized paper, toned and fixed 
in every conceivable way. There are prints on .glass, porcelain, 
and ivory ; prints in carbon, from the negative direct ; and 
impressions in printer's ink from plates, blocks, and lithographic 
stones, which have had the subjects transferred to them by the 
aid of photography. There are Wothlytypes, and Simpsontypes, 
and Tooveytypes, and all the other types that have sprung from 
a desire to introduce novelties into the art. 

In graphs and the various forms and fanciful applications of 
photography to portraiture, &c., there are stereographs and micro- 
graphs, and the old-fashioned " sit-on-a-chair " graphs, .the 
" stand-not-at-ease " graphs, the "small carte" graph, the 
"large carte" graph, the " casket gem" graph, the "magne- 
sium " graph, the " cameo " graph, the " double-stupid " graph, 
and the latest of all novelties, the " turn-me-round " graph. 
The latter is a great curiosity, and must have been suggested by 
a recollection of that "scientific toy" of ancient manufacture 
with which we used to awaken the wonder of our little brothers 
and sisters at Christmas parties when we were boys, by twirling 



218 

"before their astonislied eyes a piece of cardboard with a bird 
painted on one side and a cage on the other, both pictures being 
seen at the same time during the rapid revolution of the card. 

In apparatus there is not much to talk about, the Pantascopic 
camera being the chief novelty. There are several of the 
manufacturers exhibiting in the photographic department, but 
we could not reconcile ourselves to the circumstance of Mr. 
Dallmeyer not exhibiting in the right place. His name is hon- 
oured by photographers, and he should have honoured Photo- 
graphy by going in under her colours. If he must go to the 
*' scientific department," he ought to have gone there with his 
scientific instruments alone, and shown his photographic appa- 
ratus in the place assigned for that purpose. True, he makes a 
handsome show, but that does not atone for his mistake. 
Photographers are queer animals — jealous of their rights, and as 
sensitive to slight as their plates are to light ; and we fear we 
are ourselves not much better. A large majority of photo- 
graphers stand by Mr. Dallmeyer, and very justly believe in his 
1 and 2 B's as shippers do in A I's at Lloyd's; and his stand 
should have been in the photographic department. 

In other parts of the Exhibition building there are various 
subjects highly interesting to photographers. 

The chemical department has its attractions in samples of 
collodio- chloride of silver, prepared by Messrs. Mawson and 
Swan, for the opal printing process and the Simpsontype. Spe- 
cimens of each type are also to be seen there ; and there are 
other chemicals used in photography, even to dextrine and 
starch : the purity of the latter is known by the size and length 
of its crystals. 

In metallurgy there is also something to interest photo- 
graphers. Messrs. Johnson and Sons exhibit some very fine 
samples of nitrate of silver, double and treble crystallized, silver 
dippers, chloride of gold, nitrate of uranium, and other scarce 
metals. 



219 

Messrs. Johnson, Matthey, and Co. also exhibit some fine 
samples of nitrate of silver and chloride of gold ; and some won- 
derful specimens of magnesium, in various forms, in wire and 
ribbon. One coil of ribbon is 4,800 feet long, and weighs 40 
ounces ; and there is an obelisk of magnesium about 20 iuches 
high, and weighing 162 ounces. 

There are many other things in this case of great value which 
have a photographic bearing — amongst these a platinum boiler, . 
valued at £1,500, for the concentration and rectification of sul- 
phuric acid; a platinum alembic, value £350, for the separation 
and refining of gold and silver; also an ingot of platinum, 
weighing 3,200 ounces, and valued at £3,840. The exhibitors 
say that " such a mass of fused platinum is never likely to be 
again produced." The whole of the contents of Messrs. John- 
son, Matthey, and Co.'s case of precious metals, most of which 
have a direct or indirect application to photography, are esti- 
mated at the enormous value of £16,000 ! 

Mining, too, has its attractions for us ; and as we near the 
Xova Scotia division of the Exhibition building the needle of 
our observation dips towards a bar of pure gold, weighing 48 
pounds, and valued at £2,200 sterling. 

By the gentlemanly courtesy of the Eev. Dr. Honeyman, 
Honorary Secretary and Commissioner in Dublin, from the pro- 
vince of Nova Scotia, we were favoured with a "lift" of this 
valuable lump of gold, and we could not help exclaiming, 
** What a lot of chloride this would make ! " But we had to 
"drop it" very quickly, for the muscles of our fingers could 
not bear the strain of holding it more than a few seconds. This 
bar of gold was obtained from very rich quartz, specimens of 
which are to be seen near it ; and Dr. Honeyman informed us 
that the average daily remuneration from such quartz was thirty 
shillings sterling per man. 

It is not generally known that the province of Nova Scotia is 
so rich in gold ; but, from statistics by the Chief Commissioner 



220 

of Mines for the province, we find that the average yield of the 
iN'ova Scotia quartz is over 19 dwt. per ton, and richer than the 
quartz of Australia ; and the deeper the shafts are sunk the 
richer the quartz becomes. In 1864 the total yield from all the 
gold districts of Nova Scotia was 20,022 ounces, 18 dwts., 
13 grs. Gold dust and scales have also been found in the sands 
on the sea coast of the province, and in the sands of Sable 
Island, which is eighty miles distant, in the Atlantic Ocean. 
Having in our own colonies such an abundance of one of the 
precious metals so extensively used in the practice of our art, 
photographers need not be under any apprehension of having 
their supplies cut off. 

Continuing our general survey, we stumble upon many things 
of considerable interest. But, as our space will only allow us 
to particularize those articles which have a photographic attrac- 
tion, direct or indirect, we must as far as possible imagine our- 
selves something like animated photometers for the time being, 
registering the aspects, changes, and remarkable phenomena 
connected with our art, and whatever can be applied to photo- 
graphy and the use of photographers ; or whatever photography 
can be applied to, artistically or commercially considered. 

Of some things non-photographic, but of interest to photo- 
graphers as well as others, we may be induced to say a little ; 
but of most subjects foreign to our profession we shall simply 
say to our readers, "We have seen such wondrous things, go 
ye and do likewise." 

We finished our last paper with a few comments on what was 
photographically interesting in the province of !N^ova Scotia. 
Passing from that to the provinces of the Lower and Upper 
Canadas, which are very properly placed next door to each 
other, we are struck with some very good and interesting photo- 
graphs of Canadian scenery, both plain and in colours, and a 
frame of portraits of the delegates of the British North American 
Confederation. Samples of all kinds of native and Indian 



221 

manufactures, and specimens of mineral ores, chiefly iron and 
copper, are also displayed here. 

Pursuing our way southwards from the Colonial division of 
the galleries, we come to China and Japan. The geographical 
and relative positions of the countries exhibiting are not strictly 
adhered to in the plan of the Exhibition, so we must, of necessity, 
make some "long legs," and experience some imaginarv 
transitions of temperature during our journey of observation. 
In Japan we stop to look at a life-size group of female figures, 
representing a princess at her toilette, attended by four female 
slaves, books illustrated with wood-cuts, plain and coloured, 
bronzes, and many other articles of art and manufacture, by the 
Japanese, of much interest. 

In China, there is a State bedstead of great beauty, books of 
paintings upon rice-paper, and many beautiful bronzes, carvings, 
and other specimens of Chinese art. 

We pass through Turkey, and next come to Siam. but the 
latter country does not exhibit much, except of a "seedy" 
character. We admit we are sometimes addicted to making 
puns, but the Siamese send puns for exhibition. There is an 
article called " pun," which is "prepared lime, coloured pink 
with turmeric." but to what use it is applied we have not been 
enlightened. 

Passing through France, Austria, Prussia, Belgium, and 
Holland, without stopping to notice anything particularly, 
and turning into the south corridor, we enter the Water Colour 
Gallery, which we quickly leave, sighing, "How unlike that 
beautiful and attractive section of the Art Treasure Exhibition 
at Manchester in 1857 ! " Hastening into the Central Picture 
Gallery, we are much struck with the difPerent appearance 
it presents, and find numbers of ladies and gentlemen 
admiring the numerous productions by painters belonging to 
the various foreign schools. Among these works are some 
grand subjects, both in historical and ideal composition, and 



222 

landscape representations. This gallery has a particularly- 
noble and handsome appearance. It is oblong, well-lighted, 
and open in the middle, by which means the Sculpture Hall, 
■which is underneath, is lighted. The sides of the galleiy 
next the open space are handsomely railed round, and pedestals, 
with marble busts and statuettes on them, are tastefully arranged 
at intervals, leaving room enough for you to look down into the 
Sculpture Hall below. What with the fine pictures on the 
walls and staircase, and the noble statues in marble about and 
below, you cannot but come to the conclusion that this is a noble 
temple of art. 

AVe next enter the east front room, which contains the works 
of the Belgian artists. Many of these paintings are very finely 
conceived and executed. The largest and most striking of them 
is the " Defeat of the Duke of Alen^on's Troops by the Citizens 
of Antwerp," painted by A. Dillens. 

Now we enter the Great Picture Gallery, which is devoted to 
the painters belonging to the British school. Here we find 
many of the well-known works from the National Gallery 
and Kensington Museum. There are examples of the works 
of Callcott, Collins, "Wilkicj Wilson, Turner, Landseer, Mulready, 
Etty, Egg, Ward, Leslie, and a host of others. Her Majesty 
the Queen also sends several pictures from her piivate collection, 
as examples of the works of Winterhalter, Thomas, and Stanfield. 
Nearly all the British artists are creditably represented in the 
Dublin International Art Exhibition. 

We next come to the Collection of Ancient Masters in the 
North Gallery, which we enter from the North Corridor. To 
this part of the Eine Art Exhibition the Earl of Portarlington 
is the most liberal contributor. He sends examples of Titian, 
Eubens, Carlo Dolci, Tintorette, Canalette, Claude, Watteau, 
Eembrandt, Gerard Dow, Schneiders, Vandevelde, Sir Joshua 
Heynolds, Sir Peter Lely, and others. The Marquis of Drogheda 
also sends several examples of the same masters, some of them. 



223 

very fine ones. Sir Charles Coote sends a great many paintings ; 
among them a Murillo, a Guide, and a Gainsborough. 

Thence we pass into the Mediaeval Court, where we find 
nothing but croziers, sacramental cups and plates, carved panels 
for pulpits and clerks' desks, reminding us of ** responses " and 
'* amens." These we leave to Churchmen, enthusiastic Puseyites, 
and devotees of Catholicism. And we wend our way round the 
galleries, passing through Switzerland and Italy into the United 
Kingdom, where we stop to examine some of the art manufactures 
peculiar to Ireland, and are particularly interested in tlie 
specimens of Irish bog oak, carved most tastefully into various 
ornaments, such as brooches, pins, paper-knives, &c., and 
sculptured into humorous and characteristic statuettes. The 
most noticeable of that class of Irish art and industry is a clever 
group, entitled, " Where's the man that dare tread on my coat ? " 
This really humorous and artistic statuette is one of a group of 
two. One is a rollicking Irishman brandishing his shillelah 
over his head and trailing his coat on the ground, which is the 
Irishman's challenge for a fight at such places as Donnybrook 
Fair. The other Irishman, who is equally ready for a "row," 
is in the act of treading on the coat, as an acceptance of the 
challenge. The story is so cleverly told, that we almost fancy 
we see the fight begin, and hear the shillelahs cracking crowns 
in a genuine Irish row. 

Pushing on through India to the British Colonies again, 
whence we started, we descend to the ground floor, and resume 
our survey of Sweden, Jforway, Italy, and Eome, and turn into 
the Music Hall, which is on the south side of the entrance and 
Statuary Hall. Here we find the organ builders at work on the 
grand organ, blowing up one pipe after another, and producing 
such volumes of inharmonious sounds that we are glad to leave 
them to the full and hearty enjoyment of their pipes, chords, 
discords, and bellows-blowing. The walls of the Music Hall are 
nearly covered with cartoons and paintings of a high class, some 



224 

of them so high that we require an opera-glass to bring tliem 
■within the range of our visual organs. 

We next enter the Sculpture Hall with a view of examining 
the statues and describing them carefully. But they are so 
numerous that we can only find space to call attention to the 
most striking. There are over three hundred pieces of sculpture 
from various countries, comprising colossal and life-size figures, 
groups, busts, statuettes, and alto-relievos in marble and bronze. 
The most attractive of the marble statues are " Michael Angelo, 
when a child, sculpturing the head of a Faun " (his first work), 
by Emilio Zocchi, of Florence. The earnestness of pui-pose and 
devotion to his task are wonderfully expressed in the countenance 
of the boy-sculptor. Plying the hammer and chisel actively 
and vigorously, every part of the figure betokens a thorough 
abandonment to his occupation. A very remarkable work by a 
lady sculptor — Miss HaiTiett Hosmer — entitled " The Sleeping 
Faun," is the very opposite to the other, in its complete abandon- 
ment to repose. This fine statue has been purchased by Mr. 
Guiness, and we were told he had given a munificent sum for it. 
Another piece of exquisite beauty and daring skill in marble 
working is " The Swinging Girl," by Pietro Magni, of Milan, 
the sculptor of "The Reading Girl," which attracted so much 
attention in the International Exhibition of 1862. The figure 
of the girl swinging is beautifully modelled, and entirely free 
from contact with the base ; and is supported only by the swing 
attached to the branch of a tree, and the hand of a boy giving 
action to the subject. " Ophelia," by "W". C. Marshall, is 
perhaps the most poetic conception of the loveliest and most 
mournful of Shakespeare's creations that has ever been sculptured. 
It is almost impossible to look at this touching representation of 
Ophelia in her madness without exclaiming, in a modified 
quotation of her own description of Hamlet — 

"0, what a gentle miud is here o'erthrown.'' 



225 

But we must stop. To go on in this way describing all the 
beautiful works of art in the Dublin Exhibition would fill a 
volume. Already we have allowed our admiration to carry us 
beyond the limits we had assigned ourselves. "We have been 
tempted to describe more than photographic works, but none 
that have not a value artistically or otherwise to photographers. 
We recommend all our readers that possibly can to go and see 
for themselves. The trip is a very pleasant one, and need not 
be expensive ; nor need much time be spent unnecessarily. A 
week's absence from business will give you five clear days in 
Dublin, the other two only being occupied in travelling. Five 
days will be amply sufficient to see the Exhibition and the 
''extraneous lions" of Dublin also. If your time is limited, 
give a carman a job to "rowl" you to the principal places of 
interest. But " by all means " select a rough, ragged, red- 
headed, laughing-faced Irishman for your jarvey, and depend 
upon it he will keep you in good humour during the whole of 
your trip. And every time you come to a public-house he will 
say his "horse wants a dthrink," and "Won't yer honours 
have a dthrop ?" as if he was going to stand treat ; but of 
course you know what he means ; besides, the idea of allowing 
a carman to treat his fare is not to be entertained for a moment, 
nor can you resist the good-humoured intimation of his desire 
to drink your health, for which honour, as a matter of course, 
you pay costs. 

Having endeavoured to conduct our readers to Dublin, and 
give them a glance at the Exhibition, photographically and 
generally, we shall now take our leave of the capital of Ire- 
land, and return to town in much the same manner as we went. 
"We leave the Irish capital at 1.30 in the afternoon, and, after 
a pleasant and quiet run across the Channel, enter Holyhead 
harbour about seven o'clock. This arrangement gives you an 
opportunity of seeing the "Welsh coast to the best advantage as 
you approach. Stepping into the train which is waiting our 

a 



226 

arrival, we are speedily on our way home. At Rugby we have 
to change, and wait a little ; but before leaving there we pass 
the sign which only old masons and travellers know, and are 
provided with a first-class bed and loard, and so make ourselves 
comfortable for the night. "We know nothing more of the 
remainder of the journey. Old Somnus has charge of us inside, 
a«id an old kind-hearted guard takes care of us outside, until 
we are aroused by the guard's " Good morning, gentlemen !" 
about six o'clock, a.m., within a few miles of Euston Square. 
In conclusion, we sincerely recommend as many of our readers 
as can to take a trip " to Dublin and back," and a glance at the 
Dublin International Exhibition. 



PHOTOGRAPHY IN THE NORTH. 

On a recent journey northwards, I was tempted to stop at 
York, take a look at the Exhibition there, and see if there 
were anything worth notice in the Photographic Department. 
That part of the Exhibition is exceedingly scanty, but the best 
Yorkshire photographers are well represented, both in landscape 
and portraiture. Among the contributors are the names of 
Sarony, Glaisby, Holroyd, Gowland, and other well-known 
names. Mr. Sarony exhibits a couple of frames containing 
several " new photo-crayons," cartes-de-visite vignettes, which 
are very sketchy and effective, exhibiting those free and " dashy 
lines" and "hatchings" so characteristic of the "softening 
oflf " of artistic crayon drawings. This effect may be produced 
by a process of double printing, but it is more likely to have 
been obtained direct in the camera from a screen, having the 
edges of the aperture "softened off" with some free touches, 
the screen, in all probability, being placed between the lens and 
the sitter. Mr. Sarony also exhibits some large photographs 
very beautifully finished in colours, Messrs. Gowland exhibit, 
in a revolving case, a very unique collection of medallions and 



227 

Tignettes, both plain and coloured, mounted on tinted grounds, 
•which, give the pictures a very chaste and delicate appearance. 
The photographs themselves are exquisite bits of artistic pose 
and careful manipulation. They also exhibit a charming vig- 
nette of twenty-nine young ladies, all cleverly arranged, each 
figure sharp and distinct, and evidently recognisable portraits. 
This picture reminds one of "Watteau, for the figures are in the 
•woods, only, instead of semi-nude nymphs, the sitters are all 
properly and fashionably dressed young ladies. Messrs. Holroyd 
contribute some very excellent cartes-de-visite and enlargements. 
Mr. E. C. Walker, of Liverpool, exhibits some very beautiful 
opalotypes, or " photographs on enamelled glass." Mr. Swan, 
Charing Cross, London, also sends specimens of his crystal cube 
portraits. Mr. A. H. Clarke, a deaf and dumb photographer, 
exhibits some very good groups of the Princess of "Wales, Lady 
Wharncliffe, Lady Maud Lascelles, Countess Granville, and the 
Hon. Mrs. Hardinge, taken in the conservatory, when the 
Princess and suite were on a visit to Studley Royal, York- 
shire. 

Amongst the landscape photographs are to be found some of 
Bedford's finest views of Egypt and Jerusalem, Devonshire and 
Warwickshire, the beauties of which are so well known to every- 
one interested in photography. Some of the local views by 
local artists are very fine ; W. P. Glaisby's views of York 
Minster are capital, especially the interiors. Messrs. Jackson 
Brothers, of Oldham, exhibit some very fine views, and show 
what atmospheric eff'ects the camera is capable of rendering. 
That view of "Bir stall Church" is a perfect master-piece of 
photo-aerial perspective. There are also a considerable number 
of photographic productions from the South Kensington Museum. 
Mr. Gregson, of Halifax, exhibits some excellent photographs 
of machinery. In apparatus there is nothing novel or striking, 
there being but one case of cameras, &c., exhibited by a Lon- 
don maker. There is a "water agitator" in the machinery 



228 

"annexe," for washing photographic prints, but the invention 
is more ingenious than effective, for the water is not agitated 
sufficiently, except in the immediate neighbourhood of the fan 
or "agitator," which moves backwards and forwards in the 
water, in a manner somewhat similar to the motion of the pen- 
dulum of a clock, and so laves the water to and fro ; but the 
force is not sufficient to prevent the prints from lying close 
together at the extremities of the trough, and imperfect washing 
is sure to be the result. The motion is given to the " agitator " 
by the water falling on a small wheel, something like 
" "Williams's revolving print washing machine." 

To describe the Exhibition itself: It is rather like a "com- 
pound mixture " of the church, the shop, and the show. The 
" GrreatHall " is something like the nave of a wooden cathedral, 
with galleries running all round, and a grand organ at the end, 
peeling forth, at intervals, solemn strains of long measure. 
Over the organ, in white letters on a red ground, is the quota- 
tion, " He hath made all things beautiful in his time." 

The show cases on the floor of the Grand Hall are arranged 
as indiscriminately as the shops in Oxford Street. In one case 
there are exhibited samples of Colman's mustard, in that next 
to it samples of " Elkington and Co.'s plated goods," and in 
another close by are samples of saddlery, which give the place 
more the business aspect of a bazaar than the desirable and 
advantageous classification of an exhibition. Then you are 
reminded of the show by the frequent ringing of a loud bell, 
and cries of " This way to the fairy fountain, just going to 
begin, only twopence." Such things jar on the ears and nerves 
of quiet visitors, and are only expected in such a place as the 
Polytechnic in London. 

The great features of the York Exhibition are the pic- 
ture galleries; and here a better order of things prevails. 
The collections are classified; one gallery, or part of it, 
being devoted to the works of the old masters, another 



229 

to the modern, and another to the water colours. Among the 
old masters are some fine portraits by Yelasquez, Tintoretto, 
Eembrandt, Vandyke, Sir Joshua Reynolds, Gainsborough, Sir 
Peter Leley, and others. And some of those grand old land- 
scapes by Salvator Rosa, Rubens, Claude, "Wilson, the English 
Claude, and George Morland, such pictures as are rarely seen 
out of private collections. The modern masters are abundantly 
represented by Wilkie, Etty, Erith, "Westall, Faed, Cope, 
E. Nicol, Stanfield, Linnell, and a host of others. Amongst 
the water colours are many fine examples of the works of 
Turner, the Richardsons (father and sons), Birket Foster, 
&c., &c. 

Sculpture is very faintly represented, but there is a charming 
little Canova, Dirce, exhibited by Lord Wenlock ; an antique 
bust of Julius Caesar, which seems to have been found in frag- 
ments and carefully joined together. This bust is exhibited by 
the Hon. P. Downay, and was found in Rome amongst some 
rubbish, while some excavations were being made. There is 
also an interesting series of marble busts of the Twelve Caesars, 
exhibited by Lord Londesborough. The Exhibition is open in 
the evening, and brilliantly lighted with gas till ten o'clock ; 
and, taking it " all in all," it is a very creditable efi'ort in the 
right direction, and does honour to York and Yorkshiremen. 

Further north still, at Newcastle-on-Tyne, there is another 
-exhibition of " Arts and Manufactures," the chief photographic 
feature of which is a considerable display of "Swan's Carbon 
Prints," from several well-known negatives by Bedford and 
Robinson. The promise of this process is very great, and its 
commercial advantages were singularly demonstrated to me 
when visiting the printing establishment of Mr. Swan, which I 
happened to do on a dark and unfavourable day — one totally 
unfit for silver printing ; and yet I saw several very beautiful 
carbon prints that had been produced that day, the rate of produc- 
tion being about eight to one over silver printing. As a proof of 



230 

the certainty and commercial application to wliicli Mr. Swart 
has reduced his beautiful process, I need only mention that he 
has undertaken the printing of two thousand copies of the cele- 
brated picture of " The Eirst General Assembly of the Church 
of Scotland," painted by D. 0. Hill. This historical picture 
contains four hundred and fifty portraits : the negatives were 
taken from the original painting by Mr. Annan, photographer, 
Glasgow, and are 32 by 14 inches, and 24 by 9 inches ; and 
Mr. Swan has to turn off one thousand copies of each within a 
given time. The publishers of the work give a guarantee to 
their subscribers that every print shall be of a high standard, 
for each one has to pass the examination of two competent 
judges. They also very justly pride themselves on being the 
very first to translate and multiply such noble works of art by 
a process *' so beautiful, and, at the same time, imperishable.''^ 
I saw several of the prints, both in process of development and 
complete ; and anything more like rich, soft, and brilliant 
impressions of a fine mezzotint engraving I never saw, by any 
process of photography. 

Mr. Swan's arrangements for conducting the various parts of 
his process are very extensive and complete ; and his mode of 
"developing and transferring" seems to be the very acme of 
perfection. But, as Mr. Swan is about to publish a work con- 
taining a full description of the process, with a beautiful speci- 
men print as frontispiece, I will not anticipate him, or mar his 
own comprehensive account of the details of a process which 
he has brought to such a state of beauty and perfection, by an 
amount of patient perseverance and thoughtful application rarely 
exhibited or possessed by one individual. 

I also visited the photographic establishment of Messrs. 
Downey in Newcastle, and there saw some cabinet pictures 
of the Princess of Wales, taken recently at Abergeldie Castle. 
Messrs. Downey have just returned from Balmoral with upwards 
of two hundred negatives, including whole-plate, half-plate, 



231 

and cabinet size, -u-hicli mil be published in one or all those 
sizes, as soon as the orders of Her Majesty have been executed. 
From the well-known reputation of the Messrs. Downey as 
photographers, it is, in all probability, a treat in store for the 
lovers of photography, to get a sight of their latest works at 
Balmoral and Abergeldie. 

Mr. Parry, another excellent photographer in Newcastle, was 
also making arrangements to introduce the new cabinet size 
picture in a style that will insure its success. 

Altogether, the movements of the best photographers in the 
North are highly commendable, and, with their notoriously 
practical minds, there is little doubt of their undertakings 
becoming a success. Let us hope that the same elements of 
energy and "push " will speedily impregnate tne minds of all 
photographers, and create a combination that will develop a 
new form of popular beauty, and result in forming a salt that 
will savour their labours, produce deposits of gold, and create 
innumerable orders of merit. 



EERORS IN PICTORIAL BACKGROUNDS. 
"VSTe have recently had a few papers on the necessity of art 
culture and art knowledge in relation to photography, but they 
have chiefly been of a theoretical and speculative character, 
few, if any, assuming a practical form. " Apply the rod to 
teach the child" is an old saying, and our artist friends and 
teachers have applied the rod and belaboured photography most 
unmercifully, but they have not taught the child. They have 
contented themselves with abusing photographers for not doing 
what was right, instead of teaching them how to avoid what 
was wrong. 

It will be my endeavour to point out, in this paper, some 
errors that have crept into photographers' and artists' studios, 
and I hope to be able to suggest a remedy that will lessen 



232 

these evils, and elevate photography in the scale of art. The 
faults in pictorial backgrounds that I invite your attention to, 
arise from the neglect of the principles of linear and aerial 
perspective. 1 do not speak of the errors in perspective that 
may exist in the backgrounds themselves, viewing them as 
pictures; but I refer to the mnnifest fault of depicting the 
sitter — the principal object — according to one condition of 
perspective, and the background that is placed behind him 
according to another. An unpardonable error in any work of 
art, whether photograph or painting, is to represent a natural 
object in an unnatural position. By this I do not mean an 
awkward and constrained attitude, but a false position of the 
principal subject in relation to the other objects by which it is 
surrounded. We frequently see portraits, both full-length and 
three-quarter size, with landscape backgrounds — or a bit of 
landscape to be seen through a painted or actual window — of 
the most unnatural proportions in relation to the figure itself. 
The head of the subject is stuck high in the heavens — some- 
times so high that, in relation to the painted landscape, nothing 
shorter than a church steeple could attain such an altitude. 
The trees and castles of the pretty landscape, supposed to be 
behind the sitter, are like children's toys; the mountains are 
like footballs in size, and the "horizon" is not so much in 
relation to the figure as the width of a fishpond is to a man 
standing on one side of it. It must be admitted that artists 
themselves have set this bad example of departing from truth 
to give increased importance to their subjects by placing their 
figures against diminutive backgrounds; but that is a liberty taken 
with nature which photographers should neither imitate nor allow. 
Photography is, in all other respects, so rigidly truthful that it 
cannot consistently sanction such a violation of natural laws. 

Pictorial backgrounds have usually been painted on the same 
principle as a landscape picture, and one of the earliest things 
the painter has to determine is, where he shall represent that 



233 

line where the sky and earth appear to meet — technically, the 
horizontal line. This settled, all the lines, not vertical or 
horizontal in the picture, below this are made to appear to rise 
up to it, and those above descend, and if all these are in due 
proportion the perspective is correct, no matter whether this 
governing line is assumed to be in the upper, lower, or middle 
part of the picture. A painter can suppose this imaginary line 
to be at any height he pleases in his picture, and paint 
accordingly. In photography it is invariable, and is always on 
a level with the lens of the camera. To illustrate the relation 
of the horizontal line to the human figure, when a pictorial 
background is to be introduced, let us imagine that we are 
taking a portrait out of doors, with a free and open country 
behind the person standing for his carte-de-visite. The camera 
and the model are, as a matter of course, on the same level. 
Now focus the subject and observe the linear construction of 
the landscape background of nature. See how all the lines of 
the objects below the level of the lens run up to it, and the 
lines of the objects above run down to it. Right across the 
lens is the horizontal line, and the centre is the point of sight, 
where all the lines will appear to converge. Suppose the lens 
to be on a level with the face of the subject, the horizontal line 
of the picture produced on the ground glass will be as near as 
possible as high as the eyes of the subject. Trees and hills in 
the distance will be above, and the whole picture will be in 
harmony. This applies to interior views as well, but the ocular 
demonstration is not so conclusive, for the converging Hnes wlU 
be cut or stopped by the perpendicular wall forming the back- 
ground. Nevertheless, all the converging lines that are visible 
will be seen to be on their way to the point of sight. ^Yhether 
a natural background consisted of an interior, or comprised 
both — such as a portion of the wall of a room and a peep 
through a window on one side of the figure — the conditions 
"would be exactly the same. All the lines above the lens must 



234 



come down, and all that are below must go up. The following 
diagrams will illustrate this principle still more clearly. 

Fig. 1. 




Point of 
Observation. Base Line. 

Pig. 1 is a section of the linear construction of a picture, and 
will show how the lines converge from the point of observation 
to the point of sight. Artists, in constructing a landscape of 
an ordinary form, allot to the sky generally about twice the 
space between the base and horizontal lines. But for portraits 
and groups, where the figures are of the greatest importance 

Fig. 2. 




V _ 

U Point of Observation. 



and nearer to the eye, the proportion of sky and earth ia 
reversed, so as to give increased value to the principal figures,. 



235 

by making them apparently larger, and still preserving the 
proper relation between them and the horizontal line (see fig. 2). 
This diagram represents the conditions of a full-length carte 
portrait, "where the governing horizontal line is on a level 
with the camera. If a pictorial background, painted in the 
usual way, with the horizontal line low in the picture, is now 
placed behind the sitter, the resulting photograph will be 
incongruous and offensive. It will be seen, on referring to fig. 2, 
that all the lines below the horizon must of necessity run up 
to it, no matter how high the horizontal line may be, for it 
is impossible to have two horizons in one picture ; that is, a 
visible horizon in the landscape background, and an imaginary 
one for the figure, with the horizontal line of the background 
far below the head of the figure, and the head far up in the sky. 
The head of a human figure can only be seen so far above the 
horizontal line under certain conditions ; such as being elevated 
above the observer by being mounted on horseback, standing 
on higher ground, or otherwise placed considerably above the 
base line, none of which conditions are present in a studio. 
"WTienever the observed and observer are on the same level, as 
must be the case when a photographer is taking the portrait of 
a sitter in his studio, the head of the subject could not possibly 
be seen so high in the sky, if the lens included a natural 
background instead of a painted one. As, for convenience, 
the painted background is intended to take the place of a 
natural one, care should be taken that the linear and aerial 
perspectives should be as true to nature as possible, and in 
perfect harmony with the size of the figures. The lens 
registers, on the prepared plate, the relative proportions of 
natural objects as faithfully as the retina receives them through 
the eye, and if we wish to carry out the illusion of pictorial 
backgrounds correctly, we must have the linear construction of 
the picture, which is intended to represent nature, as true in 
every respect as nature is herself. 



236 

Aerial perspective has not been sufficiently attended to by 
the painters of pictorial backgrounds. There are many other 
subjects in connection with art and photography that might 
be discussed with advantage — such as composition, arrangement 
of accessories, size, form, character, and fitness of the things 
employed ; but 1 leave all these for another opportunity, or to 
some one more able to handle the subjects. For the present, I 
am content to point out those errors that arise from neglecting 
true perspective, and while showing the cause, distinctively 
supply a remedy. 

It is not the fault of perspective in the background where 
the lines are not in harmony with each other — these too 
frequently occur, and are easily detected — but it is the error of 
painting a pictorial background as if it were an independent 
picture, without reference to the conditions under which it is 
to be used. The conditions of perspective are determined by the 
situation of the lens and the sitter. If the actual objects 
existed behind the sitter, and were photographed simultaneously 
with the sitter, the same laws of perspective would govern the 
two. "What I urge is, that if, instead of the objects, a repre- 
sentation of them be put behind the sitter, that represenation 
be also a correct one. The laws of perspective teach how it 
may be made correctly, and the starting point is the position of 
the lens in relation to the sitter. 

Some may say that these conditions of painting a background 
cannot be complied with, as the lens and sitter are never twice 
exactly in the same relation to each other. There is less force 
in this objection than at first appears. Each photographer 
uses the same lens for all his carte portraits — and pictorial 
backgrounds are very frequently used for these — and the height 
of his camera, as well as the distance from his sitter, are so 
nearly constant, that the small amount of errors thus caused 
need not be recognized. If the errors that exist were not 
far more grave, there would be no necessity for this 



237 

paper. Exceptional pictures should hare corresponding back- 
grounds, 

"When a "sitter" is photographed standing in front of a 
pictorial background, the photograph will represent him either 
standing in a natural scene, or before a badly-painted picture. 
Nobody should wittingly punish his sitter by doing the latter 
when he could do the former, and the first step to form the 
desirable illusion is pictorial truth. There is no reason why 
the backgrounds should not be painted truthfully and according 
to correct principles, for the one is as easy as the other. I 
daresay the reason is that artists have not intentionally done 
wrong — it would be too bad to suppose that — but they have 
treated the backgrounds as independent pictures, and it is for 
photographers to make what use of them they think proper. 
The real principles are, however, now stated, by which they 
can be painted so as to be more photographically useful, 
and artists and photographers have alike the key to pictorial 
truth. 

In conclusion, I would suggest to photographers the neces- 
sity of studying nature more carefully — to observe her in 
their walks abroad, to notice the gradual decrease of objects 
both in size and distinctness, to remember that their lens is to 
their camera what their eye is to themselves, to give as faithful 
a transcript of nature as they possibly can, to watch the flow 
of nature's lines, as well as natural light and shade, and, by a 
constant study and exhibition of truth and beauty in their 
works, make photography eventually the teacher of art, instead 
of art, as is now the case, being the reviler of photography. 



PERSPECTIVE. 

To the Editors. 
Gentlemen, — At the end of Mr. Alfred H. Wall's reply to 
Mr. Carey Lea's letter on Artists and Photographers, I notice 



238 

that he cautions your readers not to receive the very simple 
rules of perspective laid down in my paper, entitled Errors in 
Pictorial Backgrounds, until they have acquired more information 
on the subject. Allow me to state that all I said on perspective 
in that paper only went to show that there should be but one 
horizon in the same picture ; that the lines of all objects lelow 
that horizon should run up to it; that the lines of all objects 
uhove should run down, no matter where that one horizon was 
placed ; and that the horizon of the landscape background should 
be in due relation to the sitter and on a level with the eye of 
the observer, the observer being either the lens or the painter. 

If your correspondent considers that I was in error by laying 
<lown such plain and common-sense rules, which every one can 
see and judge for himself by looking down a street, then I freely 
admit that your correspondent knows a great deal more about 
false perspective than I do, or should like to do. 

Again, if your correspondent cannot see why I " volunteered 
to instruct artists " or painters of backgrounds, perhaps he will 
allow me to inform him that I did so simply because background 
painters have hitherto supplied photographers with backgrounds 
totally unfit for use in the photographic studio. 

In spite of Mr. Wall's assumption of superior knowledge on 
subjects relatiug to art, I may still be able to give him a hint 
how to produce a pictorial background that will be much more 
natural, proportionate, and suitable for the use of photographers 
than any hitherto painted. 

Let Mr. Wall, or any other background painter, go out with 
the camera and take a carte-de-visite portrait out of doors, placing 
the subject in any well-chosen and suitable natural scene, and 
photograph the "sitter" and the natural scene at the same 
time. Then bring the picture so obtained into his studio and 
enlarge it up to "life size," which he can easily do by the old- 
fashioned system of "squaring," or, better still, by the aid of a 
magic lantern, and with the help of a sketch of the scene as 



239 

TV'ell, to enable him to fill in correctly that part of tlie landscape 
concealed by the figure taken on the spot; so that, when repro- 
duced by the photographer in his studio, he will have a repre- 
sentation of a natural scene, with everything seen in the 
background in correct perspective, and in natural proportions in 
relation to the "sitter." This wili also show how few objects 
can naturally be introduced into a landscape background ; and 
if the distant scenery be misty and undefined, so much the 
better. It is the sharpness, hardness, and superabundance of 
subjects introduced into pictorial backgrounds generally that I 
object to, and endeavoured to point out in my paper ; and I 
consider it no small compliment to have had my views on that 
pai't of my subject so emphatically endorsed by so good an 
authority as Mr. Wallis, in his remarks on backgrounds at the 
last meeting of the South London Photographic Society. 

I make no pretensions to the title of " artist," although I 
studied perspective, drawing from the flat and round, light and 
shade, and other things in connection with a branch of art which 
I abandoned many years ago for the more lucrative profession of 
a photographer. "Were I so disposed, I could quote Reynolds, 
Burnett, and Ruskin as glibly as your correspondent ; but I 
prefer putting my own views on any subject before my readers 
in language of my own. 

I endeavour to be in all my words and actions thoroughly 
independent and consistent, which is more than I can say for 
your correspondent "A. H. "W." In proof of which, I should 
like to call the attention of your readers to a passage in his 
" Practical Art Hints," in the last issue of The British Journal 
of Photography, where he says : — "It is perversion and degrada- 
tion to an art like ours to make its truth and unity subservient 
to conventional tricks, shams, and mechanical dodges," while at 
the last meeting of the South London Photographic Society, 
when speaking of backgrounds, he admitted they were all 
conventional. 



240 

"Now, that is just what we do not want, and which was the 
chief object I had in view when I wrote my paper. We have 
had too many of those art-conventional backgrounds, and want 
something more in accordance with natural truth and the 
requirements of photography. 

In conclusion, allow me to observe that I should be truly 
sorry were I to mislead anyone in the pursuit of knowledge 
relative to our profession, either artistically or photographically. 
But let it he borne in mind that it is admitted on all sides, and 
by the best authorities, that nearly all the pictorial backgrounds 
now in use are quite unnatural, and totally unsuited for the 
purposes for which they are intended. Therefore the paper I 
read will have done the good I intended, and answered the 
purpose for which it was written, if it has been the means of 
calling attention to such glaring defects and absurdities as are 
now being perpetrated by background painters, and bringing in 
their place more natural, truthful, and photographically useful 
backgrounds into the studios of all photographers. — I am, 
yours, &c., J. Weege. 

lelrua/ry lOth, 1866. 



PERSPECTIVE IN BACKGROUNDS. 
To the Editors. 

(xENTLEMEN, — I must beg of you to allow me to reply to Mr. 
"Wall once more, and for the last time, on this subject, especially 
as that gentleman expects an answer from me. 

To put myself into a fair position with regard to Mr. "Wall 
and your readers, I will reply to the latter part of his letter 
first, by stating that I endeavour to avoid all personality in this 
discussion, and should be sorry to descend to anything of the 
kind knowingly. "When I spoke of " independency and con- 
sistency," I had not in view anything relative to his private 
character, but simply that kind of independence which enables 



241 

a man to trust to his own powers of utterance for tlie expression 
of his ideas, instead of that incessant quoting the language of 
others, to which your correspondent, Mr. Wall, is so prone. As 
to his inconsistency, I mean that tendency which he exhibits to 
advocate a principle at one time, and denounce it at another. 
I shall prove that presently. Towards Mr. "Wall, personally, I 
have neither animosity nor pique, and would take him by the 
hand as freely and frankly as ever I did were I to meet him at 
this moment. With his actions as a private gentleman I have 
nothing to do. I look upon him now as a controvertist only. 
So far, I hope I have made myself clearly understood by Mr. 
Wall and all concerned. 

I also should like to have had so important a question 
discussed without introducing so much of that frivolous smart- 
ness of style generally adopted by Mr. Wall, But, as he has 
introduced two would-be-funny similes, I beg to dispose of them 
before going into more serious matter. Taking the " butcher '» 
first (see the fifth paragraph in Mr. Wall's last letter), I should 
say that, if I were eating the meat, I should be able to judge of 
its quality, and know whether it was good or bad, in spite of all 
the butcher might say to the contrary ; and surely, no man not 
an out-and-out vegetarian, or lacking one of the five senses — ta 
say nothing of common sense — will admit that it is necessary to 
be a " butcher" to enable him to be a judge of good meat. On 
the same ground, I contend that it is 7iot necessary for a man to 
be an artist to have a thorough knowledge of perspective; 
and I have known many artists who knew as little about 
perspective, practically, as their easel did. They had a vague 
and dreamy idea of some governing principles, but how to put 
those principles into practice they had not the slightest notion, 
I once met an artist who could not put a tesselated pavement 
into perspective, and yet he had some right to the title of artist, 
for he could draw and paint the human figure well. Perspective 
is based on geometrical principles, and can be as easily mastered 



242 

"by any man not an artist as the first book of Euclid, or the 
first four rules of arithmetic ; and, for all that, it is astonishing 
how many artists know so little about the working rules of 
perspective. 

Again : Mr. "Wall is surely not prepared to advance the 
dictum that no one can know anything about art hut a pro- 
fessional artist. If so, how does he reconcile that opinion with 
the fact of his great and oft-quoted authority, Euskin, not being 
an artist, but simply, in his public character, a voluminous 
writer on art, not always right, as many artists and photographers 
very well know. 

Mr. Wall objects to my use of the word "artist," but he 
seems to have overlooked the fact that I used the quotation 
marks to show that I meant to apply it to the class of self-styled 
artists, or men who arrogate to themselves a title they do not 
merit — not such men as Landseer, Maclise, Faed, Philips, Millais, 
and others of, and not of, the " Forty." Mr. "Wall may be an 
artist. I do not say he is not. He also is, or was, a painter of 
hackgrounds. So he can apply to himself whichever title he likes 
hest ; but whether he deserves either one or the other, depends 
on what he has done to merit the appellative. 

Mr. "Wall questions the accuracy of the principles I advo- 
cated in my paper. I contend that I am perfectly correct, 
and am the more astonished at Mr. Wall when I refer to 
vol. v., page 123, of the Photographic News. There I find, 
in an article bearing his own name, and entitled " The Techno- 
logy of Art as AppKed to Photography," that he says : — 

" If you make use of a painted cloth to represent an interior 
or out-door view, the horizontal line must be at somewhere 
about the height which your lens is most generally placed at, 
and the vanishing point nearly opposite the spot occupied by the 
camera. * * * * I have just said that the horizon of a 
landscape background and the vanishing point should be opposite 
the lens ; I may, perhaps, for the sake of such operators as are 



243 

not acquainted witli perspective, explain why. The figure and 
the background are supposed to be taken at one and the same 
time, and the camera has the place of the spectator by whom 
they are taken. Now, suppose we have a real figure before a 
real landscape : if I look up at a figure I obtain one view of it, 
but if I look down on it, 1 get another and quite a different 
view, and the horizon of the natural landscape behind the figure 
is always exactly the height of my eye. To prove this, you may 
sit down before a window, and mark on the glass the height of 
the horizon ; then rise, and, as you do so, you will find the 
horizon also rises, and is again exactly opposite your eye. A 
picture, then, in which the horizontal line of the background 
represents the spectator as looking up at the figure from a 
position near the base line, while the figure itself indicates that 
the same spectator is at that identical time standing with his 
eyes on a level with the figure's breast or chin — such productions 
are evidently false to art, and untrue to nature. * * * * 
The general fault in the painted screens we see behind photo- 
graphs arises from introducing too many objects." 

Now, as I advanced neither more nor less in my paper, why 
does Mr. "Wall turn round and caution your readers not to receive 
such simple truths uttered by me ? I was not aware that Mr. 
"Wall had forestalled me in laying down such rules ; for at that 
date I was in America, and did not see the News; but, on 
turning over the volume for 1861 the other day, since this 
discussion began, I there saw and read, with surprise, the above 
in his article on backgrounds. I am perfectly aware that I did 
not say aU that I might have said on perspective in my paper ; 
but the little I did say was true in principle, and answered my 
purpose. 

When Mr. Wall (in the second paragraph of his last letter) 
speaks of the * ' principal visual ray going from the point of 
distance to the point of sight, and forming a right angle to the 
perspective plane," it seems to me that he is not quite sure of 



244 

the difference between the points of sigJd, distance, and oiserva- 
tion, or of the relation and. application of one to the other. 
However, his coming articles on perspective will settle that. It 
also appears to me that he has overlooked the fact that my 
diagrams were sections, showing the perspective inclination and 
declination of the lines of a parallelogram towards the point of 
sight. In my paper I said nothing about the point of distance ; 
with that I had nothing to do, as it was not my purpose to go 
into all the dry details of perspective. But I emphatically 
deny that anything like a " bird's eye view " of the figure could 
possibly be obtained by following any of the rules I laid down. 
In my paper I contended for the camera being placed on a level 
with the head of the sitter, and that would bring the line of the 
horizon in a pictorial background also as high as the head of the 
sitter. And if the horizon of the pictorial background were 
placed anywhere else, it would cause the apparent overlapping 
of two conditions of perspective in the resulting photograph. 
These were the errors I endeavoured to point out. I maintain 
that my views are perfectly correct, and can be proved by 
geometrical demonstration, and the highest artistic and scientific 
testimony. 

I wish it to be clearly understood that I do not advocate the 
use of pictorial backgrounds, and think I pretty strongly 
denounced them ; but if they must be used by photographers, 
either to please themselves or their customers, let them, for 
the credit of our profession, be as true to nature as possible. 

I think I have now answered all the points worth considering 
in Mr. "Wall's letter, and with this I beg to decline any further 
correspondence on the subject. — I am, yours, &c,, 

J. Weegi. 
March 5th, 1866. 



245 



NOTES ON PICTURES IN THE NATIONAL GALLERY. 

In the following notes on some of the pictures in the National 
Gallery, it is not my intention to assume the character of an art- 
critic, but simply to record the impressions produced on the mind 
of a photographer while looking at the works of the great old 
masters, with the view of calling the attention of photographers 
and others interested in art-photography to a few of the pictures 
which exhibit, in a marked degree, the relation of the horizon to 
the principal figures. 

During an examination of those grand old pictures, two 
questions naturally arise in the mind : What is conventionality 
in art ? and — In whose works do we see it ? The first question 
is easily answered by stating that it is a mode of treating 
pictorial subjects by established rule or custom, so as to obtain 
certain pictorial effects without taking into consideration whether 
such effects can be produced by natural combinations or not. 
In answer to the second question, it may be boldly stated that 
there is very little of it to be seen in the works of the best 
masters ; and one cannot help exclaiming, " What close imitators 
of nature those grand old masters were ! " In their works we 
never see that photographic eye-sore which may be called a 
binographic combination of two conditions of perspective, or the 
whereabouts of two horizons in the same picture. 

The old masters were evidently content with natural com- 
binations and effects for their backgrounds, and relied on the 
rendering of natural truths more than conventional falsehoods 
for the strength and beauty of their productions. Perhaps the 
simplest mode of illustrating this would be to proceed to a kind 
of photographic analysis of the pictures of the old masters, and 
see how far the study of their works will enable the photographer 
to determine what he should employ and what he should reject 
as pictorial backgrounds in the practice of photography. As a 
photographer, then — for it is the photographic application of art 



246 

we have to consider — I will proceed to give my notes on pictures 
in the National Gallery, showing the importance of having the 
horizontal line in its proper relation to the sitter or figure. 

Perhaps the most beautiful example is the fine picture by 
Annibale Carracci of ** Christ appearing to Peter." This 
admirable work of art as nearly as possible contains the propor- 
tions of a carte-de-visite or whole-plate picture enlarged, and is 
well worthy the careful attention and study of every photo- 
grapher ; not only for its proportions and the amount of land- 
scape background introduced, showing the proper position of the 
horizon and the small amount of sky visible, but it is a wonderful 
example of light and shade, foreshortening, variety and contrast 
of expression, purity of colour, simplicity of design, and truth- 
fulness to nature. Neither of the figures lose any of their force 
or dignity, although the horizontal line is as high as their heads, 
and the whole of the space between is filled in with the scene 
around them . In its linear perspective it is quite in keeping 
with the figures, and the scenery is in harmonious subjection, 
controlled and subdued by aerial perspective. 

The large picture of "Erminia takes refuge with the 
Shepherds," by the same artist, is also a fine example of a 
horizon high in the picture. The figure of Erminia is separated 
from the other figures, and could be copied or reproduced alone 
without any loss of beauty and dignity, or any violation of 
natural laws. 

Murine's picture of " St. John and the Lamb " suggests an 
admirable background for the use of the photographer. It 
consists of dark masses of rock and foliage. Nothing distinct 
or painfully visible, the distant masses of foliage blend 
with the clouds, and there is nothing in the background but 
masses of light and shade to support or relieve the principal 
objects. 

In the picture of " Christ appearing to Mary Magdalene," by 
Titian, the water-line is above the head of Christ, but if the 



247 

figure were standing upright, the head of the Saviour would 
break the horizontal line. 

Titian's " Bacchus and Ariadne " also has the water-line 
breast high, almost to the neck of Ariadne. The figure of 
Bacchus springing from the car, as a matter of course, is much 
higher in the sky. This picture presentsthe perspective conditions 
of the painter having been seated while painting such figures from 
nature, or similar to the results and effects obtained by taking a 
group with the lens on a level with the breast or lower part of 
the necks of figures standing. 

In Titian's portrait of Ariosto there is a dark foliated back- 
ground which gives great brilliancy to the picture, but no sky 
is visible. The " Portrait of a Lady," by Paris Bardone, has an 
architectural backgroiind in which no sky is to be seen. The 
picture is very brilliant, and the monotony of a plain background 
is skilfully overcome. 

The picture of " St. Catharine of Alexandria," by Eaphael, 
has a landscape background, with the horizon about as high as 
the breast, as if the artist had been seated and the model standing 
during the process of painting. 

Raphael's picture of " The Vision of a Knight " is another 
example of the fearlessness of that artist in putting in or backing 
up his figures with a large amount of landscape background. 

The proportions of Correggio's " Venus, Mercury, and Cupid," 
are as nearly as possible those of a carte- de-visite enlarged ; and 
that picture has no sky in the background, but a very suitable 
dark, cool, rocky scene, well subdued, for the rocks are quite 
near to the figures. This background gives wonderful brilliancy 
to the figures, and contrasts admirably with the warm and 
delicate flesh tints. 

Correggio's " Holy Family " has a landscape and architectural 
background, with a very little sky visible in the right-hand 
comer. 

In the "Judgment of Paris," by Eubens, the horizontal line 



248 

of the background cuts the waist of the first female figure, 
showing that the artist was seated. The other two female 
figures are placed against a background of rocks and dark masses 
of foliage. Eubens' picture of the " Holy Family and St. 
George" is also a good example of the kind of picture for the 
photographer to study as to the situation of the horizontal 
line. 

The picture of "The Idle Servent," by Nicolas Maas, is also 
an excellent subject for study of this kind. It shows the due 
relation of the horizon of an interior in a very marked degree, 
and its shape and subject are very suitable to the size and form 
of a carte-de-visite. So are his pictures of " The Cradle" and 
" A Dutch Housewife." 

The picture of "John Arnolfini of Lucca and his Wife," 
painted by John Van Eyck in the fifteenth century, is an 
excellent specimen of an interior background, with a peep out of 
a window on one side of the room. This is a capital subject for 
the study of photographers who wish to use a background 
representing an interior. 

" The Holy Family at a Fountain," a picture of the Dutch 
school, painted by Schoorel in the sixteenth century, has an 
elaborate landscape background with the horizon above the heads 
of the figures, as if the artist had been standing and the models 
sitting. 

For an example of a portrait less than half-length, with a 
landscape background, look at the portrait of "An Italian 
Gentleman," by Andrea da Solario. This picture shows how 
very conscientiously the old masters worked up to the truth of 
nature in representing the right amount of landscape in propor- 
tion to the figure ; but the background is much too hard and 
carefully worked out to be pleasing. Besides, it is very 
destructive to the force and power of the picture, which will be 
at once visible on going to the portraits by Rembrandt, which 
have a marvellous power, and seem to stand right before the 



249 

dark atmospheric backgrounds whicli that artist generally painted 
in his portraits. 

There are other examples of half-length portraits with land- 
scape backgrounds, wherein the horizontal line passes right 
through the eyes of the principal figure, one of "which I will 
mention. It is that of the " Yirgia and Child," by Lorenzo di 
Credi. In this picture the horizontal line passes right through, 
the eyes of the Virgin without interfering with the interest of 
the chief object. 

Several examples of an opposite character are to be seen in 
the National Gallery, with the horizon of the landscape back- 
ground much too low in the picture. It is needless to call 
special attention to them. After carefully examining the works 
already named, and comparing them with the natural effects to 
be observed daily, it will be quickly seen which is a truthful 
picture in this respect, and which is a false one. 



SHARPXESS AI^^D SOFTNESS F. HARDNESS. 

The discussion on " Sharpness : what is it ? " at the meeting of 
the South London Photographic Society in May, 1861, and the 
more recent discussion on "Focussing" at the last meeting of 
the same Society, seem to me to have lost much of their value 
and importance to photographers for want of a better definition 
of the term hardness as applied to art, and as used by artists in 
an artistic sense. Webster, in his second definition of the word 
" hardness," gives it as " difiiculty to be understood." In that 
sense Mr. "Wall succeeded admirably when he gave the term 
concentration, in reply to Mr. Hughes, who asked Mr. "Wall 
what he meant by hardness. Fairholt gives the art meaning of 
the word as "want of refinement; academic drawing, rather 
than artistic feeling." But even that definition would not have 
been sufficiently comprehensive to convey an adequate idea of 
the meaning of the term in contradistinction to the word sharp- 



250 

nesSf and I cannot but think that Mr. "Wall failed in his object 
in both papers, and lost considerable ground in both discussions, 
by not giving more attention to the nice distinctions of the two 
terms as used in art, and explaining their artistic meanings 
more clearly. 

Sharpness need not be hardness ; on the contrary, sharpness 
and softness can be harmoniously combined in the representation 
of any object desired. On the other hand, a subject may possess 
abundance of detail, and yet convey to the mind an idea of 
hardness which the artist did not intend. This kind of hardness 
I should attribute to a miscarriage of thought, or a failure, from 
want of manipulative skill, to produce the desired effect. Tor 
example : one artist will paint a head, model it carefully, and 
carry out all the gradations of light and shade, and for all that 
it will be hard — hard as stone, resembling the transcript of a 
painted statue more than flesh. With the same brushes and 
colours another artist will paint a head that may be no better 
in its drawing, nor any more correct in its light and shade, but 
it will resemble ^(?sA, and convey to the mind of the observer a 
correct impression of the substance represented — its flexibility 
and elasticity — that it is something that would be warm and 
pleasant to the touch, and not make you recoil from it as if it 
were something cold, hard, and repulsive, as in the former case. 
Again, two artists will paint a fabric or an article of f arniture 
(say a table) with the same brushes, pigments, and mediums : 
the one artist will render it so faithfully in every respect that it 
would suggest to the mind the dull sound peculiar to wood 
when struck, and not the sharp, clear ring of metal which the 
work of the other artist would suggest. 

Another example : one artist paints a feather, and it appears 
to have all the feathery lightness and characteristics of the 
natural object ; the other will paint it the same size, form, and 
colour, and yet it will be more like a painted chip, wanting the 
downy texture and float-in-the-air suggestiveness of the other. 



251 

Thus it will be seen that both artists had similar ideas, had 
similar materials and means at their disposal to render on canvas 
the same or similar effects. The one succeeded, and the other 
failed, in giving a faithful rendering of the same subjects ; but 
it was no fault in the materials with which they worked. The 
works of one artist will convey to the mind an idea of the thing 
itself; with its texture, properties, weight, and proportions ; 
nothing undervalued ; nothing overrated, nothing softer, nothing 
harder, than the thing in nature intended to be portrayed. The 
other gives the same idea of form and size, light and shade, and 
colour, but not the texture ; it is something harder, as iron 
instead of wood, or hard wood instead of soft wood, or stone 
instead of flesh. This, then, is the artistic meaning of hardness 
(or concentration, as Mr. Wall said), and that is an apparent 
packing together, a compression or petrefaction of the atoms or 
fibre of which the natural materials are composed. This differ- 
ence in the works of artists is simply the effects of feeling, of 
power over the materials employed, and ability to transfer to 
canvas effects that are almost illusions. And so it is with 
photographers in the production of the photographic image. 
There is the same difference in feeling and manipulative skill, 
the same difference of power over the materials employed, that 
enables one photographer to surpass another in rendering more 
truthfully the difference of texture. Photographers may and 
do use the same lenses and chemicals, and yet produce widely 
different results. One, by judgment in lighting and superior 
manipulation, will transfer to his plates more texture and sug- 
gestiveness of the different substances represented than the 
other. It is a fact well known to old photographers that in the 
best days of the Daguerreotype practice two widely different 
classes of pictures were produced by the most skilful Daguerreo- 
typists, both sharp and full of exquisite detail ; yet the one was 
hard, in an artistic sense, not that it wanted half-tone to link 
the lights and shades together, but because it was of a bronzy 



252 

hardness, unlike flesh from ■vrhich it was taken, and suggested 
to the mind a picture taken from a bronze or iron statue of the 
individual, rather than a picture taken from the warm, soft 
flesh of the original. The other would be equally sharp as far 
as focussing and sharp lenses could make it, and possess as much 
detail, but it would be different in colour and texture ; the de- 
tail would be soft, downy, and fleshy, not irony, if I may use 
that word in such a sense ; and this difference of effect arose 
entirely from a difference of feeling, lighting, preparation of the 
plate, and development of the pictures. They might all use the 
best of Yoigtlander's or C. C. Harrison's lenses, the favourite 
lenses of that day. They might all use the same make of plates, 
the same iodine, bromine, and mercury, yet there would be this 
difference in the character of the two classes of pictures. Both 
would be sharp and possess abundance of detail, still one would 
be soft and the other hard in an artistic acceptation of the word 
hardness. 

Collodion positives exhibited a similar difference of character. 
The works of one photographer would be cold and metallic 
looking, while the works of another would be softer and less 
metallic, giving a better idea of the texture of flesh and the 
difference of fabrics, which many attributed to the superiority 
of the lens ; but the difference was really due to manipulation, 
treatment, and intelligence. And so it is with the collodion 
negative. A tree, for instance, may be photographed, and its 
whole character changed by selecting a bad and unsuitable light, 
or by bad manipulation. The least over-development or " piling 
up " of a high light may give it a sparkling effect that would 
change it into the representation of a tree of cast iron, rather 
than a growing tree, covered with damp, soft, and moss-stained 
bark. Every object and every fabric, natural or manufactured, 
has its own peculiar form of " high light " or mode of reflecting 
light, and care must be taken by both artist and photographer 
not to exceed the amount of light reflected by each particular 



253 

object, else a hardness, foreign to the natural object, will be 
represented. But not only should the artist and photographer 
possess this feeliug for nature in all her subtle beauties and 
modes of expressing herself, to prevent a miscarriage in the 
true rendering of any object, the photographic printer should 
also have a sympathy for the work in hand, or he will, by over- 
fixing, or in various other ways, mar the successful labours of 
the photographer, and make a negative that is full of softness, 
and tenderly expresses the truth of nature, yield prints that are 
crude, and convey to the mind a sense of hardness which neither 
the natural objects nor the negative really possess. 

Now, I think it will be seen that hardness in a painting or a 
photograph does not mean sharpness ; nor is the artistic meaning 
of the word hardness confined to "rigid or severe drawing," 
but that it has a broader and more practical definition than 
concentration; and that the converse to the art meaning of 
hardness is softness, tenderness, truthfulness in expressing the 
varied aspects of nature in all her forms, all of which are coinci- 
dent with sharpness.: — J. Werge {Photographic News). 



TJMON OE THE NORTH AND SOUTH LONDON 

PHOTOGRA.PHIC SOCIETIES. 

To the Editors, British Journal. 

Gentlemen, — Allow me to express my opinion on the sug- 
gestion to unite the North and South London Societies, and to 
point out a few of the advantages which, I think, would accrue 
from a more extensive amalgamation. 

Though I am a member of all the three London photographic 
societies, I have long been of opinion that there are too many, 
and that the objects of all are considerably weakened by such a 
difi'usion of interests. If the furtherance of the art and the free 
and mutual interchange of thought and experience among the 
members were the only things considered, there would be but 



254 

one society in London ; and witli one society embodying all the 
members that now make the three, how much more good might 
be done ! 

In the first place, the amounts now paid for rent by the three 
would, if united, secure an excellent meeting room or chambers, 
in a central position, for the exclusive use of the society, where 
the ordinary and special meetings, annual exhibitions, and 
soirees could be held much more independently than now, and 
at a cost little or no more than what is now paid for the privi- 
lege of holding the ordinary meetings alone. 

Secondly : If such a place of meeting were secured, then that 
laudable scheme of an art library, so strenuously advocated by 
Mr. Wall and Mr. Blanchard at the South London Photographic 
Society, might be successfully carried into effect. Then a 
library and a collection of works of art might be gradually 
gathered together, and one of the members could be chosen 
curator and librarian, to attend the rooms one evening in the 
week, or oftener, as circumstances might require, so as to give 
members access to the library to make exchanges, extracts from 
bulky books, &c. 

Thirdly : If the union were effected, and the place of meeting 
more central, there would be a larger attendance of members, 
and more spirited and valuable proceedings would be the result. 
Papers to be read at the regular meetings would be much more 
certain, and the discussions would be more comprehensive and 
complete. The members would become personally acquainted 
with each other, and a much better feeling would pervade the 
whole photographic community. 

These, gentlemen, are a few of the advantages which ought 
to accrue from a union of the three societies ; but, if that cannot 
be effected, by all means let the triumvirate now existing be 
reduced to a biumvirate. If it be not possible for the " Parent 
Society" and her offspring to reunite their interests and affec- 
tion for the common good, surely the other two can, and thereby 



255 

strengthen themselves, and secure to their members a moiety of 
the advantages which would result from the triple alliance. 

But, before proceeding farther, let me ask — Has such a thing 
as a triple alliance ever been considered ? Has it been ascer- 
tained that an amicable amalgamation with the Photographic 
Society of London is impossible ? If so, what are the motives 
of the proposers of the union of the Xorth and South London 
Societies ? Do they wish to form a more powerful antagonism 
to the other society, or do they simply and purely wish to fur- 
ther the advancement of our art- science, and not to gratify 
personal pique or wounded pride ? I do not wish to impute such 
unworthy motives to anyone ; but it does seem singular that the 
proposition should come from the Chairman of the Xorth London 
Photographic Association almost simultaneously with the 
resignation of his seat at the council board of the Parent Society. 

If, however, the motives are pure, honest, and earnest, I 
heartily approve of the suggestion as a step in the right direc- 
tion, although I candidly admit that I would much rather see 
^11 the societies united in one, and fully believe that that would 
be the most advantageous arrangement that could possibly be 
made for all concerned. — I am, yours, &c., 

London, February ISth, 1867. Union Jack (J. "Werge). 



UNION OF THE LONDON PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETIES. 

To the Editors of the British Journal. 

Gentleiten, — Perhaps I am in courtesy bound to answer the 
questions of your correspondents, Mr. Homersham and "Blue 
Pendant," but in self -justification I do not think it necessary, for 
it turns out that my suspicions of antagonism to the Parent Society 
were well founded; and, from their remarks, and the obser- 
vations of your contributor "D.," I learn that the disaffection 
is more widely spread than I at first thought it was. 

I may have been wrong in suspecting the Chairman of the 



256 

North London Photographic Association of unworthy motives * 
if so, I frankly beg that gentleman's pardon. But I am not 
wrong in suspecting that antagonism is mixed up with the 
movement. 

Your contributor " D." chooses to construe my unwillingness 
to make a direct charge — my hope that there were no such 
unworthy motives — into timidity; but I beg to remind "D." 
that there is not much, if any, of that apparent in my putting 
the plain questions I did, which, by-the-bye, have not yet been 
very satisfactorily answered. 

I flatter myself that I know when and how to do battle, and 
when to sue for peace, as well as any in the service under whose 
flag I have the honour to sail ; and I, as much as anyone, admire 
the man that can fight courageously when in the right, or 
apologise gracefully when in the wrong; but, as the object of 
this correspondence is neither to make recriminations, nor 
indulge in personal abuse, 1 return to the primary considera- 
tion of the subject, and endeavour to sift the motives of the 
movers of the proposition to unite the North and South 
London Societies, and ascertain, if possible, whether they have 
the good of those societies and the furtherance of photography 
really at heart or not. 

Imprimis, then, let us consider the arguments of "D.," who 
cites the resignation of three gentlemen in proof of the manage- 
ment of the London Photographic Society being "out of joint." 
He might as well say, "because a man is sick, leave' him and 
let him die." If there were anything they disliked in the 
government of the Society, or any evil to be corrected, their 
most manly course was to have held on, and fought the evils 
down. They all had seats at the Council board, and if they had 
wished well to the Society, they would not have resigned them, 
but battled for the right, and brought their grievances, real or 
imagined, before the members. A special meeting has been 
called before now to consider personal grievances which affected 



257 

the honour of the Society, and I should think it could have 
been done again. I do not maintain that all is right in the 
Society, but I do think that they were wrong in resigning their 
seats because an article appeared in the Society's journal con- 
demnatory of a process to vrhieh they happened to be devotedly 
attached. 

It can scarcely be supposed that the cause of reform, or the 
general good of the country, would have been forwarded had 
Gladstone, Bright, and Earl Eussell resigned their seats as members 
of either House because they couldnot carry their ministerial bill 
of last session. From this I argue that men who have the 
object they advocate, and the "best interests" of the Society, 
thoroughly at heart, will stick to it tenaciously, whether in or 
out of office, and, by their watchfulness, prevent bad becoming 
worse, in spite of captious opposition, fancied insults, or 
journalistic abuse. 

The next paragraph by " D." on which I shall comment 
contains that bold insinuation of timidity, which I have already 
noticed as much as I intend to do. But I wish to discuss the 
question of " absorption " a little more fully. I cannot at all 
agree with the sentiments of " D." on that subject. Absorption 
is in many instances a direct and positive advantage to both the 
absorber and absorbed, as the absorption of Sicily by Italy, and 
Frankfort and Hanover by Prussia. Xitric acid absorbs silver, 
and how much more valuable and useful to the photographer is 
the product than either of the two in their isolated condition ; 
and so, I hold, it would be with the Society were the two other 
Societies to join the old one, impart to it their chief character- 
istics, re-model the constitution, and elect the members of the 
Council by ballot. "We should then have a society far more 
powerful and useful than could ever be obtained by the formation 
of a new one. 

In the foregoing, I think T have also answered the question 
of Mr. Homersham, as well as that part of " Blue Pendant's " 



258 

letter relating to the establishment of a fourth society. On 
that point my views harmonise with those of your contributor. 

On the subject of "members of Council," I do not agree 
with either "D." or your correspondent "Blue Pendant." 
The Council should be elected from and by the body of members, 
and the only qualifications necessary should be willingness and 
ability to do the work required. IS'o consideration of class 
should ever be admitted. The members are all recommended 
by " personal knowledge," and elected by ballot, and that 
alone should be test sufficient on the score of respectability. 

Concerning " papers written as pufis," I cordially agree 
with "Blue Pendant" as far as he goes; but I go further 
than that, and would insist on each paper being scrutinised, 
before it is read, by a committee appointed for the purpose, 
so as to prevent "trade advertisements" and such shamefully 
scurrilous papers as I have heard at the South London Photo- 
graphic Society. 

With reference to the questions put by "Blue Pendant," I 
beg to decline answering his second, it not being pertinent ; but 
I shall reply to his first more particularly. He seems to have 
forgotten or overlooked the fact that I thought the advantages 
I enumerated would result from a union of the three societies — 
not from an alliance of the two only. That I still look upon 
suspiciously as antagonistic to the Parent Society; and "Blue 
Pendant's " antagonism is proved beyond doubt when he says it 
is "tottering to its fall," and he almost gloatingly looks forward 
to its dissolution coming, to use his own words, " sooner or 
later," and "perhaps the sooner the better." But I venture to 
think that "Blue Pendant" is not likely to be gratified by 
seeing the "aged Parent" decently laid in the ground in his 
time. There is too much "life in the old dog yet" — even 
since the secession — for that to come to pass. It cannot be 
denied that the Parent Society has amongst its members some of 



259 

the best speakers, tliinkers, writers, and workers in the whole 
photographic community. 

While discussing this subject, allow me, gentlemen, to advert 
to an article in your contemporary of Friday last. In the 
"Echoes of the Month," by an Old Photographer, the writer 
thinks that the advantages I pointed out as likely to accrue from 
a union of the societies are a " pleasant prospect that will not 
bear the test of figures." It is a fact that "figures" are 
subject to the rules of addition as well as of subtraction, and I 
wish to show by figures that my ideas are not so impracticable 
as he imagines. In addition to the eight guineas a year paid by 
the North and South London Photographic Societies for rent, I 
notice in the report of the London Photographic Society, 
published last month, two items in the "liabilities " which are 
worth considering. One is "King's College, rent and refresh- 
ment, £42 4s. 6d.," which, I presume, is for one year. The 
other is "King's College soiree account, £20 15s. 6d.," part of 
which is undoubtedly for rent of rooms on that occasion. Now 
there is a clear showing of over £50 12s. 6d. paid in one year 
by the three societies for rent and refreshment, the latter not 
being absolutely necessary. I may be mistaken in my estimate 
of the value of central property ; but I do think a sum exceeding 
£50 is sufficient to secure a room or chambers large enough for 
the purposes of meeting, and keeping a library, &c. ; or, if not, 
would it not be worth while making a strain to pay a little more 
so as to secure the accommodation required ? If the Coventry 
Street experiment were a failure from apathy or other causes, 
that is no proof that another attempt made by a more numerous, 
wealthy, and energetic body would also be abortive. In sea 
phraseology, " the old ship has made a long leg to-day ! " but I 
hope, gentlemen, you will not grudge the space required for the 
full and careful consideration of this subject. The " developing 
dish " and the ordinary modus operandi of photography can well 
afford to stand aside for awhile to have this question discussed 



260 

to the end. I have not said all I can on the amalgamation 
project, and may return to it again with your kind permission, 
if necessary. — I am, yours, &c., TJition Jack (J. Werge). 

London, March 4, 1867. 



THE SOCIETY'S EXHIBITION. 
Impeessions and Contioxioks of "Lux GiiAPHicns." 

The brief and all but impromptu Exhibition of the Photo- 
graphic Society, recently held in the rooms of the Architectural 
Society, 9, Conduit Street, Eegent Street, where the 
Society's meetings are to be held in future, was one of the 
pleasantest and most useful expositions in connection with 
photography that has been consummated for many years. In 
the first place the idea of an exhibition evening free from the 
formalities of a soiree was a happy one ; the locale was happily 
chosen ; and the whole arrangements most happily successful. 
Everybody seemed to be pleased ; cordial expressions of agree- 
able surprise were freely exchanged ; and there were abundance 
£ind variety enough of pictorial display to satisfy the most fas- 
tidious visitor. 

As might have beea expected, the works of M. Salomon, 
exhibited by Mr. Wharton Simpson, were the chief objects of 
attraction, and during the whole of the evening an anxious group 
surrounded the collection ; and it was curious to remark with 
what eagerness these pictures were scrutinized, so as to ascer- 
tain whether they were examples of photography "pure and 
undefiled," or helped by artistic labour afterwards. That they 
are the very finest specimens of art-photography — both in the 
broad and masterly treatment of light and shade, pose, manipu- 
lation, tone of print, and after finish — that have ever been 
exhibited, is unquestionable ; but to suppose that they are 



261 

photographs unaided by art-labour afterwards is, I think, a. 
mistake. All of the heads, hands, and portions of the drapery- 
bear unmistakable proofs of after-touching. Some of them 
give evidence of most elaborate retouching on the hands and 
faces, on the surface of the print. I examined the pictures by 
dayKght most minutely with the aid of a magnifying glass, and 
could detect the difference between the retouching on the nega- 
tive, and, after printing, on the positive. The faces of nearly 
all the ladies present that appearance of dapple or " stipple " 
which nothing in the texture of natural flesh can give, unless 
the sitter were in the condition of " goose flesh " at the moment 
of sitting, which is a condition of things not at all likely. 
Again, hatching is distinctly visible, which is not the photo- 
graphic reproduction of the hatch-like line of the cuticle. In 
support of that I have two forms of evidence : first, comparison, 
as the hatchings visible on the surface of the print are too long 
to be a reproduction of the hatch-like markings of the skin, 
even on the hands, which generally show that kind of nature's 
handiwork the most. Besides, the immense reduction would 
render that invisible even under a magnifying glass, no matter 
how delicate the deposit of silver might be on the negative ; or 
even if it were so, the fibre of the paper would destroy the 
effect. Again, the hatchings visible are not the form of nature's 
hatchings, but all partake of that art-technical form called 
*' sectional hatchings." I could name several of the prints that 
showed most conclusive evidence of what I say, but that is not 
necessary, because others saw these effects as well as I did. 
But I wish it to be distinctly understood that I have not been 
at the pains to make these examinations and observations with 
the view of lessening the artistic merit of these pict'ores. I 
unhesitatingly pronounce them the most beautiful achievements 
of the camera that have ever been obtained by combining 
artistic knowledge and skill with the mechanical aid of the 



262 

camera and ability to handle the compounds of photographic 
chemistry. There is unmistakable evidence of the keenest 
appreciation of art, and all that is beautiful in it in the produc- 
tion of the negative ; and if the artist see or think that he can 
perfect his work by the aid of the brush, he has a most un- 
doubted right to do it. This question of pure and simple 
photography has been mooted all the summer, ever since the 
opening of the French Exhibition, and I am glad that I, as 
well as others, have had an opportunity of seeing these wonder- 
ful pictures, and judging for myself. Photography is truth 
embodied, and every question raised about the purity of its 
productions should be discussed as freely and settled as quickly 
as possible. 

There was another picture in the exhibition very clever in 
its conception, but not so in its execution, and I am sorry to say 
I cannot endorse all the good that has been said of it. I allude 
to Mr. Robinson's picture of " Sleep." How that clever photo- 
grapher, with such a keen eye to nature as he generally mani- 
fests in his composition pictures, should have committed such a 
mistake I am at a loss to know. His picture of " Sleep " is so 
strangely untrue to nature, that he must have been quite over- 
come by the " sleep that knits up the raveU'd sleeve of care" 
when he composed it. In the centre of the picture he shows a 
stream of light entering a window — a ghost of a window, for it 
is so unsubstantial as not to allow a shadow to be cast from its 
seemingly massive bars. Now, if the moon shone through a 
window at all, it would cast shadows of everything that stood 
before it, and the shadows of the bars of the window would be 
cast upon the coverlet of the bed in broken lines, rising and 
falling with the undulations of the folds of the covering, and 
the forms of the figures of the children. In representing moon- 
light, or sunlight either, there is no departing from this truth. 
If the direct ray of either stream through a closed window and 
fall upon the bed, so wiU the shadows of the intervening bars. 



263 

Any picture, either painted or photographed, that does not render 
those shadows is simply untrue to nature ; and if the difficulty 
could not have been overcome, the attempt should have been 
abandoned. Then the beams are not sharp enough for moon- 
light, and the shadows on the coverlet and children are not 
deep enough, and the reflections on the shadow side of the 
children's faces are much too strong. In short, I do not know 
when Mr. Eobinson more signally failed to carry out his first 
intentions, "^'anting in truth as the composition is, it proves 
another truth, and that is, the utter inability of photography to 
cope with such a subject. Mr. Eobinson exhibited other pic- 
tures that would bear a very different kind of criticism ; but as 
they have been noticed at other times I shall not touch upon 
them here. 

Herr Milster's picture bears the stamp of truth upon it, and 
is a beautiful little gem, convincing enough that the effect is 
perfectly natural. 

Mr. Ayling's pictures of the Victoria Tower and a portion of 
Westminster Abbey are really wonderful, and the bit of aerial 
perspective " Across the Water " in the former picture is truly 
beautiful. 

Mrs. Cameron persists in sticking to the out-of-the-way path she 
has chosen, but where it will lead her to at last is very difficult to 
determine. One of the heads of Henry Taylor which she 
exhibited was undoubtedly the best of her contributions. 

The pictures of yachts and interiors exhibited by Mr. Jabez 
Hughes were quite equal to all that could be expected from the 
camera of that clever, earnest, and indefatigable photographer. 
The portrait enlargements exhibited by that gentleman were 
exquisite, and of a totally different character from any other 
exhibitor's. 

Mr. England's dry plate pictures, by his modified albumen 
process, are undoubtedly the best of the kind that have been 
taken. They lack that appearance of the representation of 



264 

petrified scenes that most, if not all, previous dry processes 
exhibited, and look as "juicy" as "humid nature" can well 
be rendered with the wet process. 

Mr. Frank Howard exhibited four little gems that would be 
perfect but for the unnatural effect of the artificial skies 
he has introduced. The " Stranded Vessels " is nicely chosen, 
and one of the wood scenes is like a bit of Creswick un- 
coloured. 

Messrs. Locke and Whitfield exhibited some very finely and 
sketchily coloured photographs, quite up to their usual standard 
of artistic excellence, with the new feature of being painted on 
a ground of carbon printed from the negative by the patent 
carbon process of Mr. J. W. Swan. 

Mr. Adolphus Wing's cabinet pictures were very excellent 
specimens, and I think it a great pity that more of that very 
admirable style of portraiture was not exhibited. 

Mr. Henry Dixon's copy of Landseer's dog "Pixie," from the 
original painting, was very carefully and beautifully rendered. 

Mr. Faulkner's portraits, though of a very diff'ei'ent character, 
were quite equal in artistic excellence to M. Salomon's. 

Mr. Bedford's landscapes presented their usual charm, and 
the tone of his prints seemed to surpass the general beauty of 
his every-day work. 

Mr. Blanchard also exhibited some excellent landscapes, and 
displayed his usual happy choice of subject and point of sight. 

An immense number of photographs by amateurs, Mr. Brown- 
rigg, Mr. Beasley, and others, were exhibited in folios and 
distributed about the walls, but it is impossible for me to describe 
or criticise more. 

I have already drawn my yarn a good length, and shall con- 
clude by repeating what I said at starting, that a pleasanter 
evening, or more useful and instructive exhibition, has never 
been got up by the Photographic Society of London, and it is to 
be hoped that the success and eclat attending it will encourage 



265 

them to go and do likewise next year, and every succeeding one 
of its natural life, which I doubt not will be long and prosperous, 
for the exhibition just closed has given unmistakable evidence 
-of there being '• life in the old dog yet." 
Photographic News, Nov. llnA, 1867. 



THE USE OF CLOUDS IN LANDSCAPES. 

The subject of printing skies and cloud effects from separate 
negatives having been again revived by the reading of papers on. 
that subject at the South London Photographic Society, I think 
it will not be out of place now to call attention to some points 
that have not been commented upon — or, at any rate, very 
imperfectly — by either the readers of the papers or by the 
speakers at the meetings, when the subject was under discussion. 

The introduction of clouds in a landscape by an artist is not 
so much to fill up the blank space above the object represented 
on the lower part of the canvas or paper, as to assist in the 
composition of the picture, both as regards linear and aerial 
perspective, and in the arrangement of light and shade, so as 
to secure a just balance and harmony of the whole, according 
to artistic principles. 

Clouds are sometimes employed to repeat certain lines in the 
landscape composition, so as to increase their strength and 
beauty, and to unite the terrestrial part of the picture with the 
celestial. At other times they are used to balance a composition, 
both in form and effect, to prevent the picture being divided 
into two distinct and diagonal portions, as evidenced in many 
of the pictures by Cuyp ; on other occasions they are introduced 
solely for chiaroscuro effects, so as to enable the artist to 
place masses of dark upon light, and vice versa. Of that use 
I think the works of Turner will afford the most familiar and 
beautiful examples. 

In the instances cited, I make no allusion to the employment 



266 

of clouds as repeaters of colour, but merely confine my remarks 
to their use in assisting to carry out form and effect, either in 
linear composition, or in the arrangement of light and shade in 
simple monochrome, as evidenced in the engraved translations of 
the works of Rembrandt, Turner, Birket Foster, and others, the 
study of those works being most applicable to the practice of 
photography, and, therefore, offering the most valuable hints 
to both amateur and professional photographers in the manage- 
ment of their skies. 

Before pursuing this part of my subject further, it may be 
as well, perhaps, to state my general opinions of the effects of 
so-called ''natural skies," obtained by one exposure and one 
printing. Admitting that they are a vast improvement on the 
white-sky style of the early ages of photography, they fall far 
short of what they should be in artistic effect and arrangement. 
In nearly all the "natural skies" that I have seen, their 
office appears to be no other than to use up the white paper 
above the terrestrial portion of the picture. The masses of 
clouds, if there, seem always in the wrong place, and never 
made use of for breadth of chiaroscuro. 

No better illustrations of this can be adduced than those large 
photographs of Swiss and Alpine scenery by Braun of Dornach, 
which nearly all contain "natural clouds;" but, on looking 
them over, it will be seen that few (if any) really exhibit that 
artistic use of clouds in the composition of the pictures which 
evidence artistic knowledge. The clouds are taken just as they 
happen to be, without reference to their employment to enhance 
the effects of any of the objects in the lower portion of the view, 
or as aids to the composition and general effect. For the most 
part, the clouds are small and spotty, ill-assorting with the 
grandeur of the landscapes, and never assisting the chiaroscuro 
in an artistic sense. The most noticeable example of the latter 
defect may be seen in the picture entitled " Le Mont Pilate," 
wherein a bald and almost white mountain is placed against a 



267 

light sky, much to the injury of its form, effect, and grandeur ; 
indeed, the mountain is barely saved from being lost in the sky, 
although it is the principal object in the pictiire. Had an artist 
attempted to paint such a subject, he would have relieved such 
a large mass of light against a dark cloud. An example of a 
different character is observable in another photograph, wherein 
a dark conical mount would have been much more artistically 
rendered had it been placed against a large mass of light clouds. 
There are two or three fleecy white clouds about the summit of 
the mountain, but, as far as pictorial effect goes, they would 
have been better away, for the mind is left in doubt whether 
they are really clouds, or the sulphurous puffs that float about 
the crater of a slumbering volcano. That photographs possessing 
all the effects required by the rules of art are difficult, and almost 
impossible to obtain at one exposure in the camera, I readily 
allow. I know full well that a man might wait for days and 
weeks before the clouds would arrange themselves so as to relieve 
his principal object most advantageously ; and, even if the 
desirable effects of light and shade were obtained, the chances are 
that the forms would not harmonize with the leading lines of 
the landscape. 

This being the case, then, it must be self-evident that the 
best mode of procedure will be to print in skies from separate 
negatives, either taken from nature or from drawings made for 
the purpose by an artist that thoroughly understands art in all 
its principles. By these means, especially the latter, skies may 
be introduced into the photographic picture that will not only 
be adapted to each individual scene, but will, in every instance 
where they are employed, increase the artistic merit and value 
of the composition. But to return to the subject chiefly under 
consideration. 

Clouds in landscape pictures, like "man in his time," play 
many parts — "they have their exits and their entrances." 
And it is almost impossible to say enough in a short paper on a 



268 

subject so important to all landscape photographers. I will, 
however, as briefly and lucidly as I can, endeavour to point 
out the chief uses of clouds in landscapes. Referring to their 
use for eJBPects in light and shade, I wrote, at the commence- 
ment of this paper, that the engraved translations of Turner 
afPord the most familiar and beautiful examples, which they 
undoubtedly do. But when I consider that Turner's skies are 
nearly aU sunsets, the study of them will not be so readily 
turned to practical account by the photographer as the works 
of others, — Birket Foster, for instance. His works are almost 
equal to Turner's in light and shade ; he has been largely 
employed in the illustration of books, and five shillings will 
procure more of his beautiful examples of sky efi'ects than a 
guinea will of Turner's. Take, for example, Sampson Low 
and Son's five shilling edition of Bloomfield's " Farmer's Boy," 
or Gray's "Elegy in a Churchyard," profusely illustrated 
almost entirely by Birket Foster ; and in them will be seen 
such a varied and marvellous collection of beautiful sky efi'ects 
as seem almost impossible to be the work of one man, and all 
of them profitable studies for both artist and photographer in 
the varied uses made of clouds in landscapes. In those works 
it will be observed that where the lower part of the picture is 
rich in variety of subject the sky is either quiet or void of 
form, partaking of one tint only slightly broken up. "Where 
the terrestrial part of the composition is tame, flat, and 
destitute of beautiful objects, the sky is full of beauty and 
grandeur, rich in form and masses of light and shade, and 
generally shedding a light on the insignificant object below, so 
as to invest it with interest in the picture, and connect it with 
the story being told. 

From both of these examples the photographer may obtain a 
suggestion, and slightly tint the sky of his picture, rich in 
objects of interest, so as to resemble the tint produced by the 
"ruled lines" representing a clear blue sky in an engraving. 



269 

Hitherto that kind of tinting has generally been overdone, 
giving it more the appearance of a heavy fog lifting than a calm 
blue sky. The darkest part of the tint should just be a little 
lower than the highest light on the principal object. This tint 
may either be obtained in the negative itself at the time of 
exposure, or produced by '• masking " during the process of 
printing. On the other hand, when the subject has little to 
recommend it in itself, it may be greatly increased in pictorial 
power and interest by a judicious introduction of beautiful 
cloud effects, either obtained from nature, or famished by the 
skill of an artist. If the aid of an artist be resorted to, I 
would not recommend painting on the negative, but let the 
artist be furnished with a plain white-sky print ; let him wash 
in a sky, in sepia or India ink, that will most harmonise, both in 
form and effect, with the subject represented, take a negative 
from that sky alone, and put it into each of the pictures by 
double printing. This may seem a great deal of trouble and 
expense, and not appear to the minds of some as altogether 
legitimate, but I strenuously maintain that any means employed 
to increase the artistic merit and value of a photograph is 
strictly legitimate ; and that wherever and however art can be 
resorted to, without doing violence to the truthfulness of 
nature, the status of our art-science will be elevated, and its 
professional disciples will cease to be the scorn of men who 
take pleasure in deriding the, sometimes — may I say too often ? 
— lame and inartistic productions of the camera. 



THE USE OF CLOUDS AS BACKGROUl^DS IN 
PORTRAITURE. 
Thebe has long been in the world an aphorism that everything 
in I^ature is beautiful. Collectively this is true, and so it is 
individually, so far as the adaptability and fitness of the object 
to its proper use are concerned; but there are many things 



270 

which are truly beautiful in themselves, and in their natural 
uses, which cease to be so when they are pressed into services 
for which they are not intended by the great Creator of the 
tiniverse. For example, what can be more beautiful than that 
compound modification of cloud forms commonly called a 
" mackerel sky," which is sometimes seen ona summer evening? 
What can be more lovely, or more admirably adapted to the 
purposes of reflecting and conducting the last flickering rays of 
the setting sun into the very zenith, filling half the visible 
heavens with a fretwork of gorgeous crimson, reflecting a warm, 
mysterious light on everything below, and fiilling the mind with 
wonder and admiration at the marvellous beauties which the 
heavens are showing ? Yet, can anything be more unsuitable 
for forming the background to a portrait, where everything 
should be subdued, secondary, and subservient to the features 
of the individual represented — where everything should be 
lower in tone than the light on the face, where neither colour 
nor light should be introduced that would tend to distract the 
attention of the observer — where neither accessory nor effect 
should appear that does not help to concentrate the mind 
on the grand object of the picture — the likeness? Still, how 
often do we see a photographic portrait stuck against a sky as 
spotty, flickering, and unsuitable as the one just described ! 
How seriously are the importance and brilliancy of the head 
interfered with by the introduction of such an unsuitable back- 
ground ! How often is the interest of the spectator divided 
between the portrait and the "overdone" sky, so elaborately 
got up by the injudicious background painter ! Such back- 
grounds are all out of place, and ought to be abandoned — 
expelled from every studio. 

As the photographer does not possess the advantages of the 
painter, to produce his effects by contrast of colour, it behoves 
him to be much more particular in his treatment of light and 
shade ; but most particularly in his choice of a background that 



271 

-will most harmonise with the dress, spirit, style, and condition in 
life of his sitter. It is always possible for a member of any class 
of the community to be surrounded or relieved by a plain, quiet 
background ; but it is not possible, in nine cases out of ten, for 
some individuals who sit for their portraits ever to be dwellers in 
marble halls, loungers in the most gorgeous conservatories, or 
strollers in such delightful gardens. In addition to the 
unfitness of such scenes to the character and every-day life 
of the sitter, they are the most unsuitable for pictorial effect 
that can possibly be employed. For, instead of directing atten- 
tion to the principal object, they disturb the mind, and set it 
wandering all over the picture, and interfere most seriously with 
that quiet contemplation of the features which is so necessary to 
enable the beholder to discover all the characteristic points in 
the portrait. When the likeness is a very bad one, this may be 
advantageous, on the principle of putting an ornamental border 
round a bad picture with the view of distracting the attention of 
the observer, and preventing the eye from resting long enough on 
any one spot to discover the defects. 

When clouds are introduced as backgrounds to portraits, they 
should not be of that small, flickering character previously 
alluded to, but broad, dark, and ''massy," so as to impart by 
contrast more strength of light to the head ; and the lighter 
parts of the clouds should be judiciously placed either above or 
below the head, so as to carry the light into other parts of the 
picture, and prevent the strongly-lighted head appearing a spot. 
The best examples of that character will be found in the engraved 
portraits by Reynolds, Lawrence, Gainsborough, and others, 
many of which are easily obtained at the old print shops ; some 
have appeared in the Art Journal. 

As guides for introducing cloud effects, accessories, and 
landscape bits into the backgrounds of carte-de-visite and 
cabinet pictures, no better examples can be cited than those 
exquisite little figure subjects by R. Westall, R.A., illustrating 



272 

Sharpe's Editions of the Old Poets. The engravings are about 
the size of cartes-de-visite, and are in themselves beautiful 
examples of composition, light, and shade, and appropriateness 
of accessory to the condition and situation of the figures, affording 
invaluable suggestions to the photographer in the arrangement 
of his sitter, or groups, and in the choice of suitable accessoriea 
and backgrounds. Such examples are easily obtained. Almost 
any old bookstall in London possesses one or more of those 
works, and each little volume contains at least half-a-dozen of 
these exquisite little gems of art. 

Looking at those beautiful photographic cartes-de-visite by 
Mr. Edge, I am very strongly impressed with the idea that they 
were suggested by some such artistic little pictures as Westall's 
Illustrations of the Poets. They are really charming little 
photographs, and show most admirably how much the interest 
and artistic merit of a photograph can be enhanced by the skilful 
and judicious introduction of a suitable background. I may as 
well observe, en passant, that I have examined these pictures 
very carefully, and have come to the conclusion that the effects 
are not produced by means of any of the ingeniously contrived 
appliances for poly-printing recently invented and suggested, 
but that the effects are produced simply by double-printing, 
manipulated with consummate care and judgment, the figure 
or figures being produced on a plain or graduated middle tint 
background in one negative, and the landscape effect printed on 
from another negative after the first print has been taken out of 
the printing frame ; the figures protected by a mask nicely 
adjusted. My impressions on this subject are strengthened 
almost to conviction when I look at one of Mr. Edge's photo- 
graphs, in particular a group of two ladies, the sitting figure 
sketching. In this picture, the lower part of the added 
landscape — trees — being darker than the normal tint of the 
ground, shows a line round the black dress of the lady, as if 
the mask had overlapped it just a hair's breadth during the 



273 

process of secondary printing. Be that as it may, they are 
lovely little pictures, and afford ample evidence of what may be 
done by skill and taste to vary the modes of treating photography 
more artistically, by introducing natural scenery sufficiently 
subdued to harmonise with the portrait or group ; and, by 
similar means, backgrounds of clouds and interiors may be added 
to a plain photograph, which would enrich its pictorial effect, 
and enable the photographer to impart to his work a greater 
interest and beauty, and, at the same time, be made the means 
of giving apparent occupation to his sitter. This mode of treat- 
ment would enable him, in. a great measure, to carry out the 
practice of nearly all the most celebrated portrait painters, viz., 
that of considering the form, light, shade, and character of the 
background after the portrait was finished, by adapting the light, 
shade, and composition of his background to the pose and 
condition of life of his sitter. 

I shall now conclude my remarks with a quotation from Du 
Presnoy's " Art of Painting," bearing directly on my subject 
and that of light and shade : — 

" Permit not two conspicuous lights to shine 
With rival radiance in the same design ; 
But yield to one alone the power to blaze, 
And spread th' extensive vigour of its rajs ; 
There where the noblest figures are displayed, 
Thence gild the distant parts and lessening fade : 
As fade the beams which Phoebus from the east 
Flings vivid forth to light the distant West, 
Gradual those vivid beams forget to shine, 
So gradual let thy pictured lights decline." 



"LUX GRAPHICUS" ON THE WII^G. 
Deak Mb. Editob, — I have often troubled you with some of 
my ideas and opinions concerning the progress and status of 
photography, and you have pretty often transferred the same to 

T 



274 

the columns of the Photographic News, and troubled your readers 
in much the same manner. This time, however, I am going to 
tell you a secret — a family secret. They are always more 
curious, interesting, and important than other secrets, state 
secrets and Mr. McLachlan's photographic secret not excepted. 
But to my subject : " The Secret." Well, dear Mr. Editor, you 
know that my vocations have been rather arduous for some time 
past, and I feel that a little relaxation from pressing cares and 
anxieties would be a great boon to me. You know, also, that I 
am a great lover of nature, almost a stickler for it, to the 
exclusion of prejudicial art. And now that the spring has come 
and winter has fled on the wings of the fieldfares and woodcocks 
— that's Thomas Hood's sentiment made seasonable — I fain 
would leave the pent-up city, where the colour of the sky can 
seldom be seen for the veil of yellow smoke which so constantly 
obscures it, and betake myself to the country, and inhale the 
fresh breezes of early spring ; gladden my heart and eyes with a 
sight of the bright blue sky, the glistening snowdrops and glowing 
yellow crocuses, and regale my ears and soul with the rich notes 
of the thrush and blackbird, and the earliest song of the lark at 
the gates of heaven. 

It is a pleasant thing to be able to shake off the mud and 
gloom of a winter's sojourn in a town, in the bright, fresh fields 
of the country, and bathe your fevered and enfeebled body in 
the cool airs of spring, as they come gushing down from the 
hills, or across the rippling lake, or dancing sea. I always had 
such a keen relish for the country at all seasons of the year, it 
is often a matter of wonder to me that I ever could bring my 
mind to the necessity of living in a town. But bread and butter 
do not grow in hedgerows, though " bread and cheese " do ; still 
the latter will not support animal life of a higher order than 
grub or caterpillars. "There's the rub." The mind is, after 
all, the slave of the body, for the mind must bend to the require- 
ments of the body ; and, as a man cannot live by gazing at a 



275 

" colt's foot," and if he have no appetite for horseflesh, he is 
obliged to succumb to his fate, and abide in a dingy, foggy, 
slushy, and bewildering world of mud, bricks, and mortar, 
instead of revelling in the bright fields, fresh air, and gushing 
melodies which God created for man, and gave man senses to 
enjoy his glorious works. 

But, Mr. Editor, I am mentally wandering among " cowslips," 
daises, buttercups, and wild strawberry blossoms, and forgetting 
the stern necessity of confining my observations to a subject 
coming reasonably within the range of a class journal which you 
so ably conduct ; but it is pardonable and advantageous to allow 
mind to run before matter sometimes, for the latter is more 
frequently inert than the former, and when the mind has gone 
ahead, the body is sure to follow. Melancholy instances of that 
present themselves to our notice too frequently. For example, 
when a poor lady's or gentleman's wits are gone, lettres des cachets, 
and some kind or w/jkind friends, send the witless body to some 
retreat where the wits of all the inmates are gone. I must, 
however, in all sober earnestness, return to my subject, or I 
fear you will say: "He is going to Hanwell." TTell, perhaps 
I am, for I know that photography is practised at that admirable 
institution ; and now that I have struck a professional chord, I 
may as well play on it. 

Lenses and cameras, like birds and flowers, reappear in spring, 
and, as the season advances and the sun attains a higher altitude, 
amateurs and professionals are quickened into a surprising 
activity. Renewed life is imparted to them, and the gregarious 
habits of man are developed in another form, and somewhat in 
the manner that the swallows return to their old haunts. At 
first, a solitary scout or reconnoitering party makes his appear- 
ance, then another, and another, until a complete flock of 
amateur and professional photographers are abroad, seeking 
what food they can deyour : some preferring the first green 
^'bits of foliage" that begin to gem the woods with emeralds> 



276 

others waiting till the leaf is fully out, and the trees are thickly 
clothed in their early summer loveliness : while others prefer a 
more advanced state of beauty, and Kke to depict nature in her 
russet hues, when the trees " are in their yellow leaf." Some 
are contented with the old-fashioned homesteads and sweet 
green lanes of England for their subjects; others prefer the 
ruined abbeys and castles of the feudal ages, with their deeply 
interesting associations ; others choose the more mythical monu- 
ments of superstition and the dark ages, such as King Arthur's 
round tables, druidical circles, and remains of their rude temples 
of stone. Some delight in pictorializing the lakes and mountains 
of the north, while others are not satisfied with anything short 
of the sublime beauty and terrific grandeur of the Alps and 
Pyrennees. Truly, sir, I think it may be safely stated that 
photographers are lovers of nature, and, I think, they are also 
lovers of art. If some of them do not possess that art knowledge 
which is so necessary for them to pursue advantageously either 
branch of their profession, it is much to be regretted ; but there 
is now no reason why they should continue in darkness any 
longer. I know that it requires years of study and practice to 
become an artist, but it does not require a very great amount of 
mental labour or sacrifice of time to become an artistic photo- 
grapher. A little hard study of the subject as it appears in the 
columns of your journal and those of your contemporaries — for 
I notice that they have all suddenly become alive to the 
necessity of imparting to photographers a knowledge of art 
principles — will soon take the scales off the eyes of a man that 
is blind in art, and enable him to comprehend the mysteries of 
lines, unity, and light and shade, and give him the power to 
compose his subject as readily as he could give a composing 
draught to an infant, and teach him to determine at a glance 
the light, shade, and atmospheric effects that would most 
harmonize with the scene to be represented. Supposing that he 
is master of the mechardcal manipulations of photography, he 



277 

has acquired half the skill of the artist ; and by studying and 
applying the rules of composition and light and shade to his 
mechanical skill, he is then equal to the artist in the treat- 
ment of his subject, so far as the means he employs will or can 
enable him to give an art rendering of nature, fixed and 
immovable. 

I do not profess to be a teacher, but I do think it is much more 
genial in spirit, and becoming the dignity of a man, to impart what 
little knowledge he has to others, than to scofp at those who do not 
know so much. If, therefore, Mr. Editor, in the course of my pere- 
grinations, I see an opportunity of calling your attention, and, 
through you, the attention of others, to any glaring defects or 
absurdities in the practice of our dearly beloved art, I shall not 
hesitate to do so ; not, however, with any desire to carp and 
cavil at them for cavilling's sake, but with the more laudable 
desire of pointing them out, that they may be avoided. During 
the coming summer I shall have, or hope to have, many oppor- 
tunities of seeing and judging, and will endeavour to keep you 
duly advised of what is passing before me. 

My letters may come from all parts — N., E., "W., and S. — so 
that they will, in that sense at least, harmonize with the 
nomenclature of your periodical. "Where I may be at the date 
of my writing, the post-mark will reveal to you. And now I 
must consider my signature : much is in a name, you know. I 
can hardly call myself your " Special Correspondent " — that 
would be too much a la Sala ; nor can I subscribe myself an 
"Old Photographer," for that would be taking possession of 
another man's property, and might lead to confusion, if not to 
difficulties; neither can I style myself a "Peripatetic Photo- 
grapher " — though I am one — for that name sometimes appears 
in the columns of a contemporary ; and my own name is such a 
long one, consisting of nearly half the letters of the alphabet. 
"Well, I think, all things considered, I cannot do better than 
xetain my old nom de plume. And with many apologies for this 



.278 

long, round-about paper, and every expression of regard, I beg 
to subscribe myself your obliged and bumble servant, 

March 21th, 1868. Lux Geaphicus (J. "Weege). 



" LUX GRA.PHICUS " ON THE WING. 

OXTOKD AND CaMBBIDGE — CABINET PoRTBAITS — Mr. McLaCHLAn's 

Secbet. 
Deae Mb. Editob, — Do not let the above heading alarm you. 
I have no desire to convert the columns of your valuable journal 
into a kind of photographic BelVs Life or Sporting Chronicle. 
Although the great University boat race has just been decided 
for the eighth consecutive time in favour of Oxford, it is not of 
that aquatic struggle that I am going to write, but of another 
matter in which the Cantabs seem to be behind the Oxonians in 
the race of life, or the pursuit of novelties. Not only are the 
Cantabs short in their stroke with the oars, and unable to obtain 
the first place in the contests on the Thames, they are also slow 
in giving their orders for a certain article of commerce which is 
of very great importance to professional photographers, especially 
those in the neighbourhood of the University of Cambridge. It 
is a remarkable fact, that while Oxford has gone in with a rush 
for those very charming portraits technically named " cabinets," 
Cambridge holds aloof. How is this, I wonder. There are as 
good photographers in Cambridge — Mr. Mayland, to wit, whose 
work is all of the first class — as in Oxford ; the sun shines as 
brightly in the region of the Cam as he does in that of the Isis. 
Have the Cantabs made up their minds not to be cabinet men in 
opposition to Oxford ? or is the fact due to the lukewarmness of 
the Cambridge photographers themselves ? It seems somewhat 
strange that two places likely to be so simUar in tastes and a 
refined appreciation of the beautiful should so difi'er in this 
respect. Are the men of the two great seats of learning in this 
country opposed in matters of photographic proportion as they 



279 

are in other matters of minor importance — as in the proper 
pronunciation of either and neither, for instance ? Not having 
graduated at either, I do not know which is correct, neither do 
I care ; but I am concerned in this question of photography. 
While at Oxford the cabinet picture has taken deep root, and 
has grown into a strong and vigorous article of demand, it is a 
well-known fact that at Cambridge it is " sicklied o'er with the 
pale cast of thought," and languishes on in a state trembling 
between life and death. "Whether the producers or consumers 
are to blame for this langour in the demand for an article that is 
certainly woith being cultivated, is more than I can say. I 
know that the discrepancy exists, and the rest I leave to those 
most immediately interested. It cannot, however, be supposed 
that a demand for any particular size or style can spring up 
spontaneously ; that must be created by the producer, by 
popularising the style in some attractive and judicious manner, 
and the cabinet size is well deserving of a very strenuous effort 
being made in its favour. 

Of all the photographic sizes that have been introduced to the 
public, the cabinet is the most artistic in its proportions. As 
nearly as possible it falls under that art rule of producing an 
oblong or parallelogram of the most agreeable proportions, which 
is as the diagonal is to the square. The size of the cabinet is 
oj by 4, and if you measure the diagonal of the square of 
4 inches, you will find that the length of the cabinet, 5^ inches, 
is as near that as possible. Doubtless Mr. Window had this in 
view when he introduced the size, and whether for upright or 
horizontal pictures, such proportions are decidedly the best. 
Many of the sizes already in use are too long, others are too 
short and square. In addition to the beautiful proportions of 
the cabinet size, it gives the portrait photographer more room 
and opportunities to introduce harmonious forms and effects in 
the posing and arrangements of portraits and groups ; and I have 
seen some very charming views on the cabinet size, 5^ by 4 



280 

inches horizontally ; as well as some very beautiful interiors of 
"Westminster Abbey, by Mr. Y. Blanchard, on the cabinet cards 
vertical, which proves pretty conclusively that the proportions 
of the diagonal to the square of any size will suit both vertical 
and horizontal pictures. I have not the least doubt but a much 
greater demand for those cabinet pictures, both portrait and 
landscape, could be created, if photographers would set about 
introducing them with a will : depend upon it if they will but 
put their heart into the matter, they would put money into their 
pockets. I know how much has been done by launching them 
fearlessly on the sea of public patronage in several localities, 
and I feel certain the demand would be much more general if 
the cabinet picture were judiciously introduced. Mr. H. P. 
Robinson and Mr. Nelson K. Cherrill, having entered into 
partnership, are on the point of opening a photographic establish- 
ment at Tunbridge Wells, where they intend to incur considerable 
expense to introduce the cabinet portrait, and give it that 
prominence it so justly merits. 

Since writing you last, I learn from a friend who is intimate 
with Mr. McLachlan that there is every possibility of his secret 
being revealed ere long. That this secret formula will be an 
immense boon to all photographers, there can be little doubt. 
If an absolute immunity from streaks in the direction of the dip, 
brain-markings, and pinholes — which are the advantages said to 
be derived from the process — can be guaranteed, then will the 
manipulatory part of photography be at once made easy ; and 
Mr. McLachlan will have conferred a personal obligation on 
every photographic manipulator. Not only will photographers be 
benefitted by Mr. McLachlan' s generous conduct, the whole 
world will participate in the advantages he intends to place as a 
^ift in the hands of photographers ; and even art, that is so afraid 
of a photographic amalgamation, will be honoured by the revela- 
tion. But once let the mind of the operator be for ever free 
from the cares and anxieties of his negative being clean, spotless, 



281 

and excellent in quality, he will then have more time and 
inclination to put his art knowledge, if he have any, into 
practice, by paying more attention to the pose of his sitters and 
the artistic choice and arrangement of accessories. If he be 
without art knowledge he will be obliged to acquire it and put 
it into practice, or be driven out of his field of operations. For, 
if the chemical difficulties and uncertainties are to be so 
summarily disposed of, and all the manipulations reduced to a 
certainty and dead level, a pre-eminence in the profession can 
only be maintained by him who exhibits a taste, feeling, and 
love for his labours superior to the desire to palm upon the 
public, for mere gain, works that are a disgrace and a scandal to 
the profession of which he is a member. That such a condition 
of things photographic may be quickly brought about is much 
to be desired, and if such be the result of Mr. McLachlan's very 
noble willingness to give to the photographic community 
experiences that have cost him much time and money in acquiring 
by close observation and experiment, he will, at the least, be 
entitled to the sincere and hearty acknowledgments of all well- 
wishers and lovers of our art-science. 

Apropos of clean and easy development, I should like to know 
if any of your numerous readers have tried the efi'ect of sulphate 
of zinc with the iron developer. I understand its use obviates 
the necessity of using acetic acid as a retardant ; that the 
deposit of silver is much more delicate than that produced by 
iron alone ; that the control over it is very great ; that any 
amount of intensity can be obtained by one or more applications, 
without the aid of pyrogallic acid, and without producing harsh- 
ness or hardness. With such recommendations it is certainly 
worth a trial. I have had no time to try it myself, but think 
it is of sufficient importance to give your readers an opportunity 
of experimenting with it, and judging for themselves. 

Photographic News, April \Qth, 1868. 



282 



" LUX GRAPHICIJS " ON THE WING. 

The Late Loed Bkoitgham — New Fields foe Photogbaphi — 
Natueal Objects Coloueed — The Monochrome and Aoto- 
TXPE — Me. McLachlan again. 

Death has just swept away one of the most gigantic intellects 
of the nineteenth century. For me to state what the late Lord 
Brougham was, or attempt to enumerate his vast attainments, 
or measure the strength of his colossal mind, would be a piece 
of intolerable presumption ; but I think I may safely say that 
he was an enthusiastic admirer of photography. Years ago, in 
the midst of his parliamentary and other pressing duties, when- 
ever he could find time to enjoy the quiet of Brougham Hall, 
near Penrith, his giant mind was not above indulging in the 
delightful relaxation it afforded ; and many a pleasant hour he 
used to spend chatting with Mr. Jacob Thompson, an artist of 
great ability, and also a very early amateur photographer, on the 
wonderful results obtained by the new art. The late Lord 
Brougham began his literary career by publishing a treatise on 
"Light," before photography was known or thought to be 
practicable ; in after life he interested himself in its marvellous 
productions, and his last literary labour was also about light. 
Not only did the great statesman "know a little of everything," 
he did a little in everything. The deceased lord took a lively 
interest in the progress of photography during his lifetime, from 
its earliest introduction to within a short period of his death ; 
and it would have been a graceful and fitting compliment to the 
memory of the great man of law, politics, literature, and science, 
if the English newspapers had embellished their memoirs of th©^ 
late Lord Brougham with a photographic portrait of his lordship. 
Such a thing is quite practicable, and has been done successfully 
by our more enterprising confreres in Canada and the United 
States. The Montreal Weekly S(?r«?(? of April 18th illustrates 
its memoir of the late Mr. T. d'Arcy McGee with a very excellent 



283 

carte-de-visite portrait of the lamented and unfortunate Canadian 
Minister, mounted on the upper corner of the front page^ 
surrounded with a deep black border. What an appropriate 
accompaniment such a presentation would have been to the able 
articles and memoirs which appeared in the daily press on 
Monday, May 11th, 1868 ! How much more interesting and 
valuable those clever biographical sketches of great men, as they 
pass away to their rest, which appear in the Baihj Telegraph 
and other daily and weekly papers, would appear if illustrated 
with a photograph from life ! That it can be done the Montreal 
WeeUy Herald has recently and satisfactorily shown ; and surely 
there is enterprise, spirit, and wealth enough among the British 
newspaper proprietors to follow the very laudable example of 
our transatlantic cousins. Negatives of great men are always 
attainable, and there need be no commercial difficulty betweea 
the photographer and newspaper proprietor on the score of supply. 
A multiplication of negatives or Woodbury's process, would 
afford all the necessary facilities for producing the prints in large 
numbers. 

Many new fields for the good of photography are opening up. 
Pathological works have been photographically illustrated with 
some amount of success. But far pleasanter fields are open to 
enterprising photographers in the faithful representation of 
natural objects, such as flowers, fruits, ferns, grasses, shrubs,, 
trees, shells, seaweeds, birds, butterflies, moths, and every variety 
of animal life, from the lowest orders to the highest. I believe 
the time is not far distant when the best works on all the 
physical sciences will be illustrated by coloured photographs. 
Those very beautiful German photographs of flowers recently 
introduced show most conclusively of what photography is 
capable as a help to a study of the natural sciences. The flowers- 
are not only photographed from nature, but exquisitely coloured 
after the same fountain of truth ; and the sense of reality, 
roundness, and relief which they convey is truly wonderful. 



284 

Hitherto the colouring of natural objects photographed from, 
nature has been a very difficult thing to accomplish ; but now 
it is done, and with a marvellous success. 

The monochromatic process is also making great strides in 
advance. Those very beautiful transparencies, cabinet size, of 
the Queen and Royal Family are now to be seen in most of the 
photographic picture shop-windows in town and country. These 
transparencies are the productions of the Disderi Company, by 
"Woodbury's photo-relief process, and the results now obtained 
are really beautiful, both in effect and colour, and sold at a very 
low price. But the chef d''(eiivre of all monochromatic effects 
has just been achieved by the triple labours of Mr. Macnee, the 
artist, and Mr. Annan, the photographer, of Glasgow, and Mr. 
J. W. Swan, of Newcastle. The subject in question is a work 
of art in every respect. The original is a full-length portrait of 
Lord Belhaven, painted by Daniel Macnee, and now in the Royal 
Academy Exhibition. A photograph taken from the painting 
by Mr. Annan was worked up in monochrome by the eminent 
artist, from which another negative was taken by the same 
skilful photographer, and placed in the hands of Mr. J. W. Swan 
to be printed in carbon, which the latter gentleman has done in 
the most admirable manner. Altogether, the result is the most 
satisfactory reproduction by photography that has ever been placed 
before the public, and is less like a photograph and more like a 
fine mezzotint engraving than anything I ever saw. Mr. Annan 
is now publishing the work on his own responsibility, and a 
specimen of it can be seen at the offices of " The Autotype 
Printing and Publishing Co.," 5, Haymarket, London. Mr. 
Hill, of Edinburgh, is also about to publish, in carbon, a photo- 
graph of that beautifully painted picture entitled "A Fairy 
Raid," which was exhibited last year in the rooms of the Royal 
Academy by Sir Noel Paton. As in the former case, Mr. Annan 
copied the painting. Sir Noel worked on a print in monochrome, 
which was again photographed by Mr. Annan, and the negative 



285 

passed to Mr. J. "W. Swan to be printed in carbon. I under- 
stand that Poynter's celebrated picture of "Israel in Egypt" 
is about to be published, in a similar manner, by the Autotype 
Company. It is therefore quite evident that photography is 
becoming, in reality, more and more "a foe to graphic art," and 
eclipsing the lights and deepening the shadows of the unluxy 
engraver. 

Mr. McLachlan has again spoken without giving any very 
materially new facts, or throwing much more light on his 
mysterious mode of working. The great point is, to throw light 
on the concentrated solution of nitrate of silver ; and until that 
has been done it will be impossible for any one to say from 
experience and practice that there is nothing in the principle. 
Mr. McLachlan attributes a chemical property to the action of 
light on the bath that has never been thought of before, and he 
seems to believe it so sincerely himself, and expresses his con- 
victions so earnestly, that I think photographers are somewhat 
bound to wait patiently till time and light wUl enable them to 
comply with all the conditions he lays down, and make a series 
of careful experiments, before they can say whether they are 
under obligations to him or not. At any rate, natural justice 
suggests that they should not render a foregone verdict. 

May nth, 1868. 



The ExmBirioN of K^ational Pobtkaits — The TrN^ixPE of 
Amebica — The Spieit of Photogeapht ln Canada — The 
""Wise "Week," and the Total EcirpsE of the Sxtn. 

Deae Me. Editor, — Erom various causes I have been absent 
from your columns as a contributor for some time, but not as a 
reader. The chief reason for this was the weather, which of 
late has been so hot and prostrating as to dry up both my ink 
and my energies. I^ow that the atmosphere is more cool, moist, 
and pleasant, my ink and my thoughts may flow together, and 



286 

the resulting epistle may find a place on some page of the 
Photogbapic I^ews ; if not, I shall not be angry. I know that 
the world — and photography is my world — is not always mindful 
of its atoms. The great and immortal Cicero discovered that 
even he could be absent from Rome, and all Eome not know it. 
How much easier, then, for your readers not to discover my 
absence from your pages. But my inability to write and attend 
to other duties entailed more serious losses to myself. Amongst 
others I missed seeing the Royal Academy Exhibition, but 
found a compensating pleasure in going to see the Exhibition 
of iS'ational Portraits at South Kensington. "What a school it 
is for photographers ! What a variety of pose, arrangement, 
management of light and shade, is to be seen in that glorious 
collection of Vandykes, Hogarths, Gainsboroughs, Reynolds, 
Opies, Wilkies, Raeburns, Tforthcotes, Lawrences, Phillips, 
Shees, Richmonds, Grants, and many others of the present day ! 
I hope many photographers have seen the collection. None 
ought to have missed the opportunity. All that saw must have 
profited by the sight. Portraits of great men that have been 
familiar to me in black and white for years were there before 
me in the rich mellow colouring of Vandyke, Reynolds, "Wilkie, 
and Lawrence, and the mind seemed carried back into the past 
while looking at the works of those great artists. 

The exhibition will soon close, and all that have not seen it 
should endeavour to do so at once. There may never again be 
seen such a gathering together of the great of England, painted 
by England's greatest portrait painters. The [Manchester Art 
Treasures Exhibition was a great assemblage of the glory of 
England, but it was not so complete, nor so instructive, nor so 
comfortable to view as that now open at South Kensington. 
In addition to the paintings there is a large and valuable 
collection of rare engravings, both in mezzotints and in line. 
The latter collection alone would make a visit highly pleasing, 
and, in a sense, remunerative to every photographer. Art is 



287 

TDeginning to take root in the minds of those "who follow 
photography, either professionally or for amusement, and those 
exhibitions are the salt that "savoureth the earth," which in 
due time will bring forth rich fruits. 

The "Tintype " is now being largely practised in America, 
and is fitted into an envelope or slip, carte -de- visite size. The 
slip is formed of paper, with an aperture to show the picture, 
and a flap to fall over it as a protector. I had some of these 
shown to me a short time ago. The tintype is only another 
name for the ferrotype or melainotype, which is a collodion 
positive picture taken on a piece of tin or iron, coated with 
black japan on the front, and a varnish on the back, to prevent 
the metal from acting on the bath. The carte-de-visite form of 
the tintype fitted in the envelope or holder is a very good and 
ready way of supplying all portraits wanted in a hurry, and its 
adoption might be found very serviceable to many photographers 
in England. The American examples that I have seen are 
very brilliant and beautiful, and, to my mind, next in delicacy 
of detail and richness of colour to the long discarded but ever 
beautiful Daguerreotype. I must admit, en passant, that the 
Americans always excelled in producing fine, brilliant Daguerreo- 
types, and it is much the same with them in the production of 
glass positives, ferrotypes, or tintypes. 

The spirit of photography in America and Canada is admi- 
rable. !Mr. Xotman, of Montreal, has long been doing some 
-excellent cabinet pictures representing out- of-door-life, pleasures, 
and pastimes. Is'ow Mr. Inglis, of Montreal, also produces 
most beautiful carte-de-visite and cabinet pictures of indoor and 
out-of-door scenes, such as drawing-rooms, libraries, &c., with 
suitably arranged and occupied figures in the former, and boat- 
ing, bathing, and fishing parties in the latter. Some of these 
pictures have recently been shown to me. They are all very 
fine examples of photography. The tone and quality of some 
are beautiful. Many of them are admirably arranged, and. 



288 

exTiibit considerable knowledge of composition ; but some of 
them, particularly the interiors, are sadly at fault in their chiaro- 
scuro. They possess no dominant light, or, if they do, it is in 
the wrong place, leading the eye away from the principal object. 
In most cases the lights are too scattered, giving a spotty and 
flickering effect to the picture, which is painful to look at. 
"With his out-of-door scenes ]Mr. Inglis is more happy, and pro- 
bably, from his antecedents, more at home. For example, the 
" Boating Party " is very happily composed, embracing the 
double form of angular composition — the triangle and the 
lozenge — and just a little more skill or care would have made 
it perfect in its lines. The whole scene is well lighted and got 
up. The boat, foreground of pebbles, stones, shrubs, and trees 
are all real ; the water is represented by tin-foil, wet black oil- 
cloth, or something of the kind, which reflects the forms and 
colours of objects placed upon or above it. The reflections 
seem too sharp to be those of water. The plan adopted by 
Mr. Ross, of Edinburgh, is the best. That gentleman has a 
large shallow trough fitted up in his studio with water in it. 

Surely such pictures of groups of friends and families would 
take in London and the provinces if people only knew where to 
get them. At present I know there is not a place in London 
where photographic pictures possessing such a variety and inte- 
rest can be obtained. Mr. Faulkner is the only photographer 
that has yet attempted to produce such rural subjects in 
London, but I am not aware that he has yet introduced " the 
boat " into his studio. 

This is the "Wise Week," and it is to be hoped that the 
gathering together of the wisdom of the world at Norwich will 
in some way be beneficial to photography. You, Mr. Editor, I 
presume, will attend the meetings, and I shall look forward 
with considerable interest to your gleanings from the harvest of 
science that will this year be garnered in the transactions of the 
British Association. 



289 

As I think of tlie date to affix to my letter, I am reminded 
that this is the day of the great total eclipse, visible iu India, 
and that several expeditions are engaged in taking observations. 
The photographic arrangements, I notice, are more than usually 
complete, and I most sincerely hope that the astronomical pho- 
tographers are favoured with bright and calm weather, so that 
they may succeed in obtaining the best photographic representa- 
tions of the phenomenon. In this I am not influenced by the 
mere photographic idea of getting a picture, but rather with 
the hope that photography may be the legitimate and honour- 
able handmaiden to the savants, astronomers, and mathematicians 
in enabling them to ascertain the constitutional condition, mode 
of sustenance, and interminable length of life of the great 
source of all our labours and achievements. Then would the 
sun write his autobiography, and his amanuensis would be his 
favoured child, photography. 

August lUh, 1868. 



The Harvest is ovee, the Gea^'aeies abe Full, yet Famixe 
IS IN ouB Medst — Photogeapheks' Benevolent and Peovtdent 
Societies — Photogeaphy Ennobled — Revival of the Ebuk- 
neum Peocess — The Societies and the CoiiiNG Session — 
Photogeaphic AppAEATrs r. Pebsonal Luggage. 
Deae Me. Editoe, — My quill is as restless as my wing, and, as I 
skim about like the swallows, many things fall under my observa- 
tion that would otherwise not do so, some of which are noteworthy 
and of interest to the photographic profession, many are not ; but 
harvest time is interesting to everyone, and it is of this I am 
going to make a few remarks. It is always a subject of grave 
importance and anxiety to a nation like ours, with a very limited 
area of cereal land, until it is known whether the harvest has 
been abundant or otherwise. It is also equally important that 
the harvest, however plentiful, should be carefully reaped and 



290 

garnered, so that famine may not fall upon the people before 
another season of plenty shall come in its course. The cereal 
harvest is over, and has been wonderfully abundant, in spite 
of the unusually long, dry, and hot summer. The stack-yards 
are full, and the granaries are teeming with plenty, and there 
is bread enough for all that can afford to buy. There, that 
is the qualification that brings to my mind the most serious part 
of this subject. Although the season has been wonderfully fine 
and favourable for a rich harvest of all things, " famine is in 
our midst." A cry of woe is mingled with our mirth. A 
glorious summer and autumn have, on the whole, yielded a rich 
reward to the labourers in the pleasant and profitable fields of 
photography ; yet there is want among some of the workers. 
In the columns of your contemporary I observe a letter " begging 
alms" on behalf of a poor widow and her little orphans. It is 
a case of pure charity, and far be it from me to say to anyone, 
" Do not help her ; " " They have no claim on the sympathies 
of the photographic public ; " " Neither she nor her late husband 
did anything to forward the progress of the art nor advance the 
interests of photographers in general." I grant the latter 
hypothesis, and say, "He that giveth to the poor lendeth to the 
Lord." Nevertheless, I cannot refrain from expressing my 
opinion that such painful appeals should not be allowed to appear 
in the columns of the photographic journals; all such private 
cases could and should be provided for by any of the provident 
organisations so common to other trades. The subject has been 
frequently mooted in your own columns, but no action has been 
taken. Very recently a lady correspondent called attention to 
the subject again, and now, in the pages of your contemporary, 
I notice an elaborate plan is laid down as the ground-work of 
a Photographers' Provident and Benevolent Society. That plan 
is open to some objections, but it is certainly desirable that such 
a society should be formed. It is rather late in the season for 
photographers to make any provision for cases 1 and 2, as the 



291 

correspondent in your contemporary suggests — this year, at least ; 
but I think his other plan of making a provision, however small, 
for widows and orphans is highly to be commended, and, if only 
carried into effect, would undoubtedly mitigate the anguish and 
lessen the fear of want in the minds of many deserving women, 
and might prevent the recurrence of those painful appeals to 
which I have just alluded. It is just as important and 
imperative a duty for every man to make some sort of provision 
for those dependent upon him as it is for the husbandman to 
reap and carefully house his harvest. Knowing the interest 
which you, ]\Ir. Editor, personally take in this subject, I trust 
that you will exert your influence, and see if it be possible to 
found a society at once that will grow in after years to be a 
monument to photography and to the goodness and forethought 
of the photographers of the present generation. 

Photography, like the fine arts, is honoured with a title of 
nobility. A baronetcy has recently fallen to the lot of one who 
for years has followed photography as a profession, taking 
cartes-de-visite and other photographs in the usual business-like 
manner. Of all the styles of distinction that are conferred upon 
men, I think baronetcies have been subject to the greatest 
number of vicissitudes, and spiced with the greatest amount of 
romance, from the romantic succession of Sir Robert Innes to 
Sir William Don, " a poor player ; " and now the photographic 
profession includes among its members one of the baronets of 
England. 

Tour description of the Ebumeum process, given recently in 
your "Visits to Noteworthy Studios," has awakened quite a 
new interest in that beautiful form of photograph, introduced a 
few years ago by Mr. Burgess. Several photographers whom 
I know have set about producing them. The specimens which 
1 have seen are very beautiful as cards, but they are particu- 
larly suitable for lockets, brooches, studs, pins, rings, &c., being 
sharp, clear, and delicate, and easily cut to fit any size or 
shape. 



292 

Next montli some of the London photographic societies will 
commence the session of 1868-9, and it might be asked, Wkai 
are their prospects ? It is to be hoped that the North London 
will do better than it did last session. There was more than 
one 7ul meeting. The South London will doubtless keep up its 
character, and exhibit its usual vitality. The personal interest 
taken in the meetings by their kind, genial, and courteous 
President is almost sure to develop all the latent force of the 
members. It is also to be hoped that the Society will make as 
brilliant a start as it did at the commencement of the session 
last November. Such an exhibition as that in Conduit Street 
may easily be repeated, though it may not be such a startling 
one. 

The question raised, whether photographic apparatus be or 
be not considered " personal luggage " by the railway com- 
panies, is one of very great importance to photographers, but 
particularly to amateurs, for if decided against them it will 
cause no end of inconvenience, vexation, and expense by delays 
and extra charges. On the other hand, it must be admitted 
that the view taken by the railway authorities is technically 
correct. The very word " personal " shows that they mean 
such articles as are really and absolutely necessary for the per- 
sonal comfoit and convenience of travellers, which can only 
rightly include wearing apparel, changes of linen, dressing- 
cases, ladies' work boxes, and writing desks. These are abso- 
lutely indispensable for the comfort and convenience of tra- 
vellers. Photographic apparatus, and particularly chemicals, 
do not come under that classification, and I think it is of great 
consequence to the railway companies and their passengers to 
know what should, or should not, be put into the" luggage van," 
I know a case where an amateur photographer was travelling 
Tjy rail with a 12 by 10 bath full of nitrate of silver solution 
packed among his clothes in a box in the luggage van. The 
Tbath leaked, the solution spoiled all his shirts, and he was driven 



293 

to the shift of papering the fronts. !N"ow, supposing the box 
containing the leaky bath had stood upon someone else's box — 
say a lady's — it might have run through and spoiled some valu- 
able dresses ; at the least, it would have spoiled the appearance 
of the bos, to the great annoyance of the lady passenger, and 
the probable claim on the company for compensation. There 
are always two sides to a question, and though few men have 
travelled more with photographic apparatus in the luggage van 
than myself, I think, in this case, the best of the argument may 
be fairly ceded to the railway companies. 
September \%th, 1868. 



"LUX GRlPHICrS" ON THE WING. 

His Flight to and feom the Exhibition of the 
Photographic Society. 

Dear Mb. Editor, — On Tuesday night last I took the liberty 
of looking iato the rooms of the Architectural Society, to see the 
photographs, and listen to the gossip of the visitors at the 
conversazione of the Photographic Society. To hear the com- 
plimentary remarks and the exclamations of pleasure was as 
delightful to my ear as the first song of the lark in spring. 

The assemblage — not brilliant, but genial, pleasant, and happy 
— was as refreshing to the eye as the first glimpse of the vernal 
flowers ; and the pictures hung upon the walls and screens, and 
laid upon the tables, were, in more senses than one, a feast to 
the mind almost without alloy. For my own part, I felt so 
joyful, I could not help fluttering my wings, shaking my 
feathers, and flitting about from one place to another, chirping, 
chatting, and pecking lovingly about this pretty thing, and at 
that old friend, till long after my usual time of going to roost. 
And when I did at last tear myself away and fly home, I could 
not help exclaiming, "Well, there never was a pleasanter evening 
nor a nicer exhibition in the whole history of the Society ! But 



294 

I could not sleep ; I put my head under my wing, shook my 
feathers, and tried to settle into the most comfortable and cosy 
positions, but it was no use. The pretty landscapes and pleasing 
portraits I had seen shone brighter and brighter before me ; I 
was compelled to mentally review them ; and here follows the 
result of my incubations. My first thoughts were to work the 
pleasures of the evening by a kind of rule-of-three process, by 
considering the value of the landscapes and portraits exhibited, 
to arrive at the worth of the exhibition ; but not so much in a 
money point of view, as in the merits of the works, and their 
probable influences on the workers. 

Taking the landscape portion of the exhibition as first in the 
order into which I had mentally catalogued the pictures, it was 
an easy and delightful thing to skim over such a vast extent of 
this world's surface that evening. To journey to and from the 
glens of Scotland, the dales of England and Wales, the lakes of 
Ireland, the mountains of the Tyrol, to Abyssinia and the famous 
heights of Magdala, was but the work of a few minutes, thanks 
to the purveyors of that mental banquet. But to do full justice 
to the exhibitors I must endeavour to enumerate their principal 
works, and comment thereon with the utmost impartiality. 
Most unquestionably the gems of the landscape portion of the 
exhibition were eight exquisite little pictures by Mr. Russell 
Manners Gordon, afi'ording unm.istakable proof of what the gum- 
gallico dry process is capable of yielding in his hands. It is 
almost, if not quite, equal to the wet process for detail and 
delicacy. This is particularly noticeable in the view of 
Carnarvon Castle. Indeed, Mr, Bedford's picture of the same 
subject — which, I presume, is by the wet process — on the other 
side of the screen, contrasts rather unfavourably with it. IMr. 
Gordon's selection of his point of sight, and general treatment of 
that subject alone, are unmistakable proofs of his refined taste 
and feeling for the art capabilities of landscape photography. 
The wet-collodion pictures by Mr. Gordon are also beautiful 



295 

examples of the art. His cottages with sheep browsing in the 
foreground, which is an instantaneous picture, is remarkable for 
its beauty and arrangement. These pictures are beautifully 
printed, and possess a tone which harmonizes charmingly with 
the subjects. Amongst the other landscaape photographers Mr. 
England and Mr. Bedford stand unrivalled in their peculiar 
branches. The views in the Tyrol, lately taken by Mr. England, 
are so excellent that they cannot but add to that gentleman's 
high reputation. 

Mr. Bedford's views are also quite equal, if not superior, to his 
previously-exhibited works. Some pretty views of the Lakes of 
Killarney by Mr. Archibald Irvine were well worthy of notice. 
Mr. F. Beasley, Junr., exhibited some very excellent examples 
of the Fothergill process ; some printed in silver, and others in 
carbon, from the same negatives. I think the carbon prints 
were superior in colour, but the silver prints possess most detail 
and depth. "Views of "Wimbledon and other places by Mr. "Vernon 
Heath were also good examples of that gentleman's photography. 
Some beautiful cloud effects by Messrs. Robinson and Cherrill, 
of Tunbridge Wells, and Mr. Fox, of Brighton, attracted con- 
siderable attention, and elicited great praise. The large com- 
position picture, " Beturning Home," by Mr. Robinson, was 
greatly admired by nearly everyone that looked at it. One or 
two ill-natured or ignorant remarks were made about that 
picture, but I candidly think it is the very best picture that Mr. 
Eobinson has produced. The sunshine on the one side, and 
the rain storm sweeping over the other, are both cleverly 
and artistically managed. I am sorry I cannot say the same of 
the group of children which hung near the latter. The group, 
though perfect in its photographic details and tone, is too 
suggestive of scissors and paste to be a good picture, in my 
estimation. 

Mr. "NVardley's large Taupenot pictures were very excellent. 
The very interesting pictures of Abyssinia by the 10th Company 



296 

of Engineers were very attractive. Groups of the captives — 
political, religious, and artisan, with their families — and the 
officers of the Expedition, formed interesting pictures. The 
views of Magdala, Theodore's house, the mushroom fortifications, 
and other flimsy defences, as revealed by the truth-telling 
camera, seemed to lessen considerably the glory of the capture 
of Magdala. 

Having dismissed the landscape portion of the exhibition 
without mentioning all the many excellent contributions thereto, 
I next turn my thoughts again to the contributions of portraits. 
The examples of that branch of photography were nearly all of 
fijst-rate excellence, a large number of them being a la Salomon, 
M. Adam-Salomon himself contributing no less than fifteen. 
"With one or two remarkable exceptions, these pictures were not 
equal to those exhibited last year, and a general feeling pre- 
vailed that they were neither his later works, nor the best of his 
former ; still, they were a very effective display, and attracted 
great and deserved attention. As I have, on a former occasion, 
expressed my opinion on the great excellence of j\I. Salomon's 
works, I shall not comment further thereon at present, but pro- 
ceed to notice those which most nearly approached them in 
photographic and artistic essentials. Undoubtedly Mr. Valentine 
Blanchard's contributions, both in number and quality, come 
nearer to M. Salomon's works than any other contributor's. Mr. 
Blanchard exhibited ten portraits a la Salomon, some of which 
are quite equal to the French artist's best works, without the 
elaborate working-up which the latter exhibit. Mr. Blanchard 
has not been at all times fortunate in his sitters, which is very 
much to be regretted, for we all know how much a beautiful 
subject helps a good photograph. Hitherto, Mr. Blanchard has 
been an exhibitor chiefly as a landscape and figure-study photo- 
grapher. I^ow that he has taken more kindly to portraiture, 
and exhibits such capabilities for its successful practice, I hope 
he will find it sufficiently remunerative to induce him to be a 



297 

steady and persevering disciple of M. Salomon. ^Messrs. Robin- 
son and Cherrill also exhibited two beautiful and Salomon-like 
portraits : one of 'SL. Salomon himself, and one of Mr. Hain 
Friswell ; the latter, I think, is decidedly the best. '^Lv. May- 
land, of Cambridge, sent six very excellent portraits in Salomon's 
style, all very good but one ; a gentleman in a velvet coat vras 
particularly successful. 

The pictures exhibited by Mr. Briggs, of Leamington, though 
extremely forcible and beautiful, were not exactly an imitation 
of the style of ^L. Salomon. 

Mr. Leake, of Cornhill, had a frame containing six very 
capital portraits in the style of the eminent French photographer, 
but a little over-done in after-touching — too much elaborated. 
In this respect he far outdid his great prototype. Messrs. 
Fradelle and Leach also exhibited a number of whole-plate 
pictures a la Salomon, which were very good indeed. Messrs. 
SHngsby, Burgess, Ashdown, Dunmore, and S. Fry, were also 
exhibitors of the same style of portraits, 10 by 8 size ; but it is 
a pity the latter did himself the injustice of exhibiting so many, 
for there was only one — an old gentleman with a grey beard — 
that was really worthy of him. Xever did any man's joke recoil 
more forcibly on himself than that of Mr. Fry's. The faces of 
some of his female portraits — one in particular — were, in my 
estimation, as flat, white, and shadowless as a piece or knob of 
sal-ammoniac itself ; but I must say that the portrait of the 
gentleman above referred to was all that could be desired as an 
artistic photograph. 

Amongst the cabinet pictures exhibited by English photo- 
graphers, I think those by Mr. Hubbard were decidedly the 
finest. One entitled " The Toilet," and another of a lady seated 
at a window, which might be named "A Sultry Day in Town," 
are charmingly artistic photographs. A composition picture by 
the same artist was also very skilfully treated ; indeed, it was 
mistaken by many to be a copy of a picture, and might easily 



298 

have been taken for a copy of a painting by T. Faed. Mr. Briggs, 
Mr. Godbold (of Hastings), Mr. Gillo, Messrs. Lucas and Box, 
also exhibited some beautiful cabinet pictures. 

Cartes-de-visite in their ordinary form were somewhat scarce, 
but Dr. Wallich, Mr. Charles Heath, Mr. Bateman, and others, 
made a good show of vignettes. 

Mrs. Cameron exhibited some large pictures in her peculiar 
style ; but my own opinion and that of others was, that she is 
improving. 

Mr. Ernest Edwards exhibited a large collection of carbon 
pictures, in black and other colours ; some mounted on chromo- 
tinted paper, and some excellent enlargements in carbon. The 
Autotype Company exhibited a fine copy of Lord Belhaven, 
which I noticed some time ago ; also a very valuable and beautiful 
collection of copies from drawings by old masters, all bound 
together, making a handsome and very interesting collection. 

Mr. Rejlander had a large collection of his art photographs on 
view, all of which were clever, some facetious, and many very 
beautiful conceptions. 

A frame of coloured enamels by Mr. Bailey, and some in black- 
and-white by Mr. Henderson and Mr. Barnes, also attracted 
considerable notice. 

The eburneumtypes by Mr. Burgess, a coloured collodio- 
chloride portrait on ivory by Mr. J. Edwards, and other collodio- 
chloride and opalotype pictures, were very much admired. The 
cabinet vignettes by Reutlinger, and the cabinet pictures by 
Wenderoth, were both in request at the table, on account of 
their beauty and interest. 

I must not forget to mention a veiy interesting series of twenty- 
four stereoscopic pictures by Mr. Alfieri, illustrative of " The 
Potter's Art." 

Mr. Jabez Hughes and Mr. Meagher were both exhibitors of 
very excellent and useful apparatus — cameras, camera-stands, 
and rolling presses. 



299 

Now I think such an exhibition as I have but partially 
described cannot fail to have produced a pleasing and beneficial 
effect on the minds of all who saw it, and ought, on the whole, 
to have given infinite pleasure and satisfaction to both exhibitors 
and visitors. Yet I think I heard one or two growls of discontent 
about the hanging from some one whose pictures or whose friend's 
pictures were not on the line ; but I think I may safely say there 
never was a case of hanging yet that was not objected to by 
one individual at least. Even the hangers of the Koyal Academy 
do not escape censure, and they are supposed to have far more 
skill, taste, and experience in hanging than the volunteer 
hangers of the late photographic exhibition. I think, however, 
that the hangers performed their duties both conscientiously and 
creditably, especially when it is considered in how very short a 
time the work had to be done. Anyone who felt aggrieved, and 
expressed himself churlishly on that point, must surely have been 
in that unenviable state which the French very adroitly designate 
Etre marque mi B. 

After these reflections I felt too drowsy to reflect any more, 
and was barely awake enough to subscribe myself — Yours very 
truly. 

November IQth, 1868. 



The Kefunding of the Balance of the Goddaild Fund — The 

PhOTOGRAPHEBs' PbOVIDENT SoCIETT A FeBOCIO^S DoOESMAlf 

— The South London Dinnee — A Chbistmas Carol. 

My Deae Sik, — iN'ow that the balance of the Goddard Fund is 
returned to the contributors, and all the trials and vexations the 
administration of the fund brought upon the chief promoters are 
known, I think the very best thanks of the whole body of sub- 
scribers to that fund are due to the committee for their firm and 
sensible determination to provide for the wants of the poor 
imbecile recipient in the manner they did, and for their withstand- 



300 

ing the attempt made by a person who was not in the least 
related to the late !Mr. Goddard to obtain possession of the 
balance in hand. I, for one, a subscriber to the fund, return 
them my most hearty acknowledgments, not for the money 
returned to me, but for the straightforwardness of their report, 
and the wise and judicious manner in which they dispensed the 
funds. "While congratulating myself and confreres on seeing the 
money not required for the relief of the late Mr. Goddard 
returned to the subscribers instead of going into the possession 
of a person for whom it never was intended, I think it is to be 
regretted that no responsible party had foreseen that much of 
this returned money would have been gladly placed to the credit 
of some benevolent or provident institution connected with 
photography. The whole amount, or even the half of it, would 
have made a very handsome nucleus for the commencement of 
such a fund. I have heard several wishes to that effect expressed 
during the last few days. Doubtless the committee did the very 
best thing they could have done for their own credit and the 
entire satisfaction of the whole of the subscribers ; but I am 
afraid an opportunity has been lost in the interest of the incipient 
relief fund by not having had a receiver for these stray and un- 
expected sums appointed. The praiseworthy act of Messrs. 
Eoss and Pringle, as noticed in another journal, confirms this 
impression. 

AVhile the subject of a photographers' provident or relief fund 
is before me, I may mention that in the Report of the Friendly 
Societies recently issued by Mr. Tidd Pratt, he speaks in the 
highest terms of those societies which are managed by the 
laembers themselves without salaries, and condemns the extra- 
Tagance exhibited by the societies of a similar nature which are 
conducted by salaried officials. Now, as it is a friendly society 
pure and simple that sick or needy photographers ought to look 
to for future help, in my opinion the former is the kind of society 
that should be established. The movement is not to be started 



301 

as a business speculation, and there should be no salaries attached' 
to any of the offices. Each member joining the provident society 
should be prepared to submit to the tax on his time and energies, 
if elected to office, as part and parcel of the amount he subscribes 
for the general ^velfare of the body and relief of individual 
members. For my part, I object to the contemplated society 
taking the form of a relief fund depending upon donations, 
collections at dinners, &c., for its support. Such means for 
raising the necessary funds to start the society may be allowable > 
but after it is commenced, every individual connected with it 
should be a subscribing member, and not allowed to receive any 
benefit, except under the most urgent necessities, until he has 
paid a certain number of subscriptions. 

During one of my peregrinations about town lately I stum- 
bled upon a very ferocious doorsman. My attention was 
suddenly arrested, while passing one of those photographic 
establishments which keep a kind of two-legged hyena prowling 
up and down before their doors, by hearing the somewhat 
startling and cannibalistic exclamation of "I'll eat yer ! '*■ 
Looking round, I saw that one of those prowling bipeds had 
fastened upon two quiet-looking young gentlemen, evidently 
strangers in town and to town ways, and had so importuned 
them to sit for " a correct likeness," until they turned upon 
him, and threatened to give him in charge if he did not desist ; 
when he retaliated by threatening to eat them, and used a great 
deal of sanguinary and abusive language as a substitute for more 
palatable suavity. Is such an "outsider" or hanger-on a fit 
and proper person to join a photographers' provident society, or 
be the recipient of a benevolent relief fund ? 

The South London Photographic Society's annual dinner 
came ofi" on Saturday evening last at the " Salutation Tavern," 
Newgate Street. Twenty-three members and friends, all told, 
sat down to dinner, and enjoyed a thoroughly English repast. 
After the cloth was removed, the pleasantest part of the evening 



302 

commenced. The worthy and honoured president, the Eev. F. F. 
Statham, M.A., who occupied the chair, was all geniality, and 
gave the toast of the evening — " The South London Photographic 
Society " — in his usually felicitous style. To Mr. Jabez Hughes 
was allotted the task of proposing the next important toast — 
"iPhotography " — which he did in the most glowing and eloquent 
terms, dwelling on the rise and progress of the art in England, its 
' position in a competitive point of view at the Paris Exhibition, 
interspersed with some racy and facetious remarks on the different 
modes and liinds of rewards, from the bronze, silver, and gold 
medals, to the paper certificates, which he considered the most 
honourable mentions that could be given by a discerning public. 
From that he soared into the higher aspirations of photographers 
and sublime regions of photography, giving, with thrilling effect, 
a description of the social joys, scientific pursuits, and human 
ameliorations to which photography administers. Mr. Baynham 
Jones, being the oldest photographer present, had the honour of 
replying on behalf of the art. Mr. G. Wharton Simpson, in 
very appropriate terms, gave the toast, "Art Photography," 
which was responded to by Mr. 0. G. Eejlander. Mr. Johnson, 
of the Autotype Company, had the honour of proposing the 
toast "Professional Photography," which was responded to by 
Mr. Valentine Blanchard, who occupied the vice-chair. Other 
toasts of a professional and semi-professional character were 
given and responded to. The intervals were filled up with part 
and instrumental music by members of the Society. Mr. Cooper 
contributed greatly to the evening's enjoyment by giving two 
charming performances on the cornet-a-piston, which were 
admirably accompanied by Mr. Henry Cooper on the piano. 
Taking it all in all, it was one of the pleasantest and merriest 
evenings I have ever enjoyed at the convivial meetings of the 
South London Photographic Society, and formed a delightful 
introduction to the season of universal festivity which is close 
at hand. 



303 

Christmas, all over the civilized world, is not only a period of 
festive reunion, but, according to the only rational interpreta- 
tion of the word, a time of good will towards men, and peace 
upon earth. Photographers, like other men, have had their 
little differences of opinion, which have produced partial 
estrangements during a portion of the year which will so soon 
expire ; but let the approaching season, which is held in com- 
memoration of the birth of the greatest Peacemaker that ever 
came among men, be looked upon by all as the fittest time to 
forget and forgive all slights, injuries, or insults, real or imagin- 
ary ; and let not the great festival of our common faith be 
clouded or eclipsed by an angry thought, nor the immeasurable 
charity of true Christianity be dimmed by one unforgiving feel- 
ing. The light of the Christian faith is a light that should 
penetrate to the dark cells of our hearts, and dispel all the 
gloomy and corrosive accumulations of controversy that may 
have lodged there, and unconsciously eaten away any part of 
our better nature. Few of us — none but the most presumptu- 
ous — can lay his hand upon his heart and say, " Mine is im- 
maculate ! " jS'one of us are without sin, and charity and for- 
giveness are the greatest of the Christian virtues; and they 
should be the more carefully studied and practised by all who 
live in and by the Light of the world. 

JDecemher I5th, 1868. 



PHOTOGRAPHY AND THE IMMURED POMPEIIANS. 

EvEEY one must be sensible of the many and varied applica- 
tions of photography. Even photographers themselves, familiar 
as they are with the capabilities of the art they practise, must 
necessarily have their wonder excited occasionally at the scope 
of their art-science, especially when they consider that the pro- 
cess, as practised at the present day, is not more than seventeen 
years old. That it should be the historian of the life and 



304 

manners of the present period more fully and faithfully than- 
any written account, is not so much a matter of surprise. 
Appealing, as it does, to the vanity and affections of the people, 
it is at once a recorder of the changes of fashion, a registrar of 
marriages, births, and deaths, and a truthful illustrator of the 
times in which we live ; hut that it should be brought to bear 
upon the past, and make the inhabitants of the world in the 
nineteenth century familiar with the forms, fashions, manners, 
life, and death of the people of the first century of the Christian 
Era, is something to be marvelled at, and at first seems an 
impossibility. Yet such is the fact ; and photography has been 
made the cheap and easy means of informing the present genera- 
tion of the manner in which the ancients behaved, suffered, and 
died in the midst of one of the most appalling catastrophes that 
ever overtook the inhabitants of any part of the world, ancient 
or modern, as vividly and undeniably as if the calamity had 
occurred but yesterday. 

The foregoing reflections were excited by seeing very recently 
some photographs from plaster casts of the forms of human 
beings as they had fallen and died when Pompeii and Hercu- 
laneum were destroyed by the first known and terrible eruption 
of Mount Vesuvius. The photographs alluded to reveal with a 
fearful fidelity the dreadful agonies of some of those who perished 
at Pompeii, and, while looking at the pictures, it is very diffi- 
cult to divest the mind of the idea that they are not the works 
of some ancient photographer who plied his lens and camera 
immediately after the eruption had ceased, so forcibly do they 
carry the mind back to the time and place of the awful immure- 
ment of both a town and its people. 

That these photographs were not obtained from the lifeless 
forms of the Pompeiians the reader will readily understand, 
for their bodies have not been preserved entire from that day to 
this. The question then naturally arises, "How could plaster 
casts be obtained from which the photographs were produced ?" 



305 

To answer that question I must briefly explain that Pompeii 
was not, as is generally understood, destroyed by an overflow of 
red hot lava, which would have burnt up every particle of 
human flesh with which it came in contact almost instantly, 
without leaving a mould or impress of the form which it sur- 
rounded. The Mack mud which flowed from Vesuvius into the 
doomed town of Pompeii entombed the houses and inhabitants — 
covered them up and formed a thick crust over them, which 
gradually hardened, and as the bodies crumbled away to dust a 
mould or matrix was left, from which plaster casts of great 
beauty and finish might have been obtained of almost every- 
thing that was destroyed. Unfortunately, this was not dis- 
covered until very recently, after many of the beautiful moulds 
had been destroyed by the process of hurried, thoughtless, and 
unsystematic excavation. It was only a short time ago, since 
Ts'aples was united to Italy, that careful and intelligent excava- 
tion secured to future generations impressions from those 
matrices made by the most terrible process of natural mould 
making. 

Sig. Fiorelli, who was appointed superintendent of excava- 
tions at Pompeii, happily thought of obtaining casts from these 
natural moulds by pouring in soft plaster of Paris, and thus 
secure more useful mementos than by preserving the moulds 
themselves. Amongst the first casts thus obtained were the 
forms of four human beings, described as follows in the Quarterly 
Review for 1864: — 

' ' These four persons had perished in the streets. Driven 
from their homes, they sought to flee when it was too late. 
These victims of the eruption were not found together, and they 
do not appear to have belonged to the same family or household. 
The most interesting of the casts is that of two women, probably 
mother and daughter, lying feet to feet ; they appear from their 
garb to have been people of poor condition. The elder seems to 
lie tranquilly on her side, overcome by the noxious gases. She 

w 



306 

probably fell and died without a struggle. Her limbs are 
extended, and her left aim drops loosely. On one finger is still 
seen her coarse iron ring. Her child was a girl of fifteen ; she 
seems, poor thing, to have struggled hard for life. Her legs 
are drawn up convulsively. Her little hands are clenched in 
agony. In one she holds her veil, or part of her dress with 
which she had covered her head, burying her face in her arms 
to shield herself from the falling ashes and from the foul, sul- 
phurous smoke. The form of her head is perfectly preserved. The 
texture of her coarse linen garments may be traced, and even the 
fashion of her dress, with its long sleeves reaching to her wrists. 
Here and there it is torn, and the smooth young skin appears in 
the plaster Kke polished marble. On her tiny feet may still be 
seen her embroidered sandals. At some distance from this group 
lay a third woman, apparently about the age of twenty-five, and 
belonging to a better class. Silver rings were on her fingers. 
She lay on her side, and had died in great agony. Her garments 
had been gathered up on one side, leaving exposed a limb of the 
most beautiful form. She had fled with her little treasure, two 
silver cups, a few jewels, and some silver coins, and her keys, 
like a careful matron. The fourth cast is that of a man of the 
people, perhaps a common soldier. He is almost of colossal size. 
He lies on his back, his arms extended by his side, and his feet 
stretched out, as if, finding escape impossible, he had laid him- 
self down to meet death like a brave man. His dress consists 
of a short coat or jerkin, and tight-fitting breeches of some 
coarse stuff, perhaps leather ; heavy sandals, with soles studded 
with nails, are laced tightly round his ankles. On one finger is 
seen his iron ring. His features are strongly marked, his mouth 
open, as in death. Some of his teeth stUl remain, and even 
part of the moustache adheres to the plaster." 

Such is the description of the plaster casts ; and the photo- 
graphs which I possess of those casts convey to the mind at one 
glance all that is there written. Wonderful photography I 



307 

How eloquent in their silence are thy pictures ! To what more 
dignified and sublime uses could any art be put ? Only a few 
can look upon those casts of the dead Pompeiians in the Museum 
of I^aples, but the whole world may view the photographs taken 
from them, and look upon the Pompeiians in their forms and 
habits as they died, and read a page from the unwritten histories 
of those terrible death-struggles, when the strong man, the 
tender, placid mother, and the young and delicate maiden were 
all entombed in that fearful sea of mud, amidst darkness and 
horrors that can never be adequately described. 

Such an awful catastrophe will never cease to interest the 
student of ancient history, and photography will now be the 
means of deepening his interest, and revealing to his mind with 
greater force and lucidity many scenes that actually occurred at 
the very moment of the appalling destruction of Pompeii, on 
the 24th of August, a.d. 79. 



A SIMPLE MODE OF llS'TEJfSIFYING NEGATIVES. 

Undoubtedly the best possible practice of photography is that 
which requires no after intensification in the production of a 
first-class negative. This, however, though a " consummation 
devoutly to be wished," is not always attained, even by the 
most experienced photographer. Every operator knows that 
there is sometimes a condition of things that renders a simple 
and efficient process of intensifying afterwards indispensable. 

Of all the modes of intensifying — and their name is legion — 
I think the readiest and most generally useful has been 
much neglected. The persulphate of uranium and ferridcyanide 
of potassium process gave wonderfully charming results. But 
what of that ? It was completely impracticable, and a failure, 
in consequence of its tendency to go on increasing in intensity 
in the hands of the printer. 

The bichloride of mercury and iodine processes, unlimited in. 



308 

number, also went on increasing in an unlimited degree, and no 
amount of "roasting" could reduce the negatives so treated to 
the desirable degree of transparency that would enable any printer 
to obtain good impressions. There is, however, one of the 
bichloride of mercury processes, published some years ago, 
which I modified so as to give the most satisfactory results. It 
rendered the negative sufficiently intense, and preserved the 
most exquisite modelling, without changing afterwards; but 
the process was very troublsome, and not very agreeable. 

The simplest, cheapest, and most reliable process of intensifying 
negatives that I know of is with sulphuret of potassium (liver 
of sulphur) used in the following manner : — 

Make a very dilute solution of sulphuret of potassium, put 
it into any old gutta-percha or porcelain bath ; and, after the 
negative is developed as far as is desirable with the ordinary 
iron developer, fixed, and washed in the usual way, immerse the 
plate in that state at once into the solution of sulphuret of 
potassium, in the same manner as in sensitising the plate in the 
nitrate bath, by using a dipper, and leave it there until sufficiently 
intense, which is generally in about the time required for coating 
and sensitisiag another plate, so that, if the operator be working 
single-handed, very little, if any, time is lost in the process of 
intensifying. 

The solution may also be flooded over the plate in the same 
manner as the developer, after fixing and washing as before. 

When sufficiently intense, rinse the plate with water, dry, and 
varnish in the ordinary way. But it is best to use the intensifier 
in the manner first described, which is by far the most cleanly 
and economical plan, both in the saving of time and solution. 
By using it with the " bath and dipper," it is not offensive, on 
account of its extreme dilution, andnot being disturbed so much, 
or immediately under the olfactory nerves of the operator, it may 
"be worked in the ordinary dark room with the greatest safety 
jxnd convenience. 



309 



A STRING OF OLD BEADS. 

He is a rash man who announces "something new" in these 
days. I believe there is nothing new under the sun, and in 
photography especially. If any man be rash enough to rush 
into print with what he considers a new idea, some other man 
rushes into print also and says the idea is old, exploded, useless, 
worthless, or worse. 

I lay no claim to originality. I have lived so long in the 
atmosphere of photography, I don't know where or how I picked 
up my knowledge — such as it is. Some of it I may have 
stumbled on, some of it I may have found, and some of it I may 
have stolen. If the lattei", I forget from whom, when, or where, 
and in all such cases a bad memory is a good and convenient 
thing. But I will endeavour to atone for such sins by publicly 
restoring all I may have filched from other men's brains for the 
benefit of all whom it may concern. I shall not count the 
beads ; that would be like running over a rosary, and I object to 
sub rosa revelations ; neither shall I attend to the order of 
stringing the beads, but will put them on record just as they 
come to hand ; and the first is — 

Sow to Make Vignette Papers. — Take a piece of sensitized 
paper, lay it under a piece of glass and let it blacken. Then 
take a camels' -hair pencil dipped in a weak solution of cyanide 
of potassium, and paint the extreme size and shape of the desired 
aperture. Let it dry, and with a little stronger solution of 
cyanide paint within the size and shape, and then with a stronger 
solution paint the centre, which will be perfectly white and 
semi-transparent. The object of using the three strengths of 
solution and painting three separate times is to obtain gradation, 
and the edges will be yellow and softened like a vignette glass. 
These vignette papers can be attached to the back of the nega- 
tive or to the outside of the printing-press, and can be used 
either in shade or sunshine without materially prolonging the 



310 

time of printing. The cost of production is trifling, as any waste 
piece of paper and spare time can be employed in making them, 
and they do not occupy much time in making ; in fact, one can 
be made in less time than will be spent in reading this descrip- 
tion. I need not expatiate on the advantages of being able to 
make a special vignette quickly. Every photographer must 
have experienced the difficulty of purchasing a special size and 
shape to suit a particular subject. 

Hoio to Point a Pencil. — Eub the pencil to a point in the 
groove of a corundum file. This is a better and cheaper pointer 
than a Yankee pencil-shai-pener, and it puts a finer point to a 
blacklead pencil than anything else I know. Eetouchers, try it. 

How to Ease a Tight Stopper. — There is nothing more annoy- 
ing in the practice of photography than to take up a bottle and 
find the stopper ^a;5(Z. In many instances the bottle is broken, 
and time wasted in trying to remove the fixed stopper. "When 
such an obstinate stopper gets into your hands, run a little 
glycerine round the top of the bottle. Set the bottle down, and 
in a few minutes the stopper will be free. Prevention is better 
than cure. Keep a little glycerine on all your stoppers. 
Glycerine agrees with every chemical in photographic use, and 
prevents stoppers and bottles coming to grief. In a thousand 
and one ways a little glycerine is beyond all price. 

How to Prepare Alhumemzed Prints for Colouring. — Pour 
over them a little matt varnish. This removes the greasiness, 
and gives a fine tooth and ivory-like surface for the artist to 
work upon. 

How to Remove Silver Stains from the White Ground of a 
Vignette. — Touch it with a solution of cyanide of potassium, and 
wash off immediately. The other parts of the picture will not 
be injured. 

How to Stipple a Window Wliite or Yellow. — For white, mix a 
little dextrine and kaolin in water. Dab the mixture on the glass 
with a piece of cotton. For the purpose of obscuration that is 



311 

quite enough ; but if sightliness be essential, finish by stippling 
with the ends of a hog's-hair brush. For yellow, mix a little 
dextrine and deep orange chrome in powder together in water, 
and apply it to the window in the same manner. Dabbing once 
or twice with a piece of cotton will exclude white light and 
make a luminous dark room. The same mixture makes an 
excellent backing for dry plates to prevent halation. 



LIGHTS AND LIGHTING. 

A GEEAT deal has been written and said about lights and lighting 
— a great deal too much ; yet more must be said and written. 

Light is to the photographer what the sickle is to the shearer 
— a good reaper can cut well with an indifferent sickle, but an 
indifferent reaper never gets a good sickle in his hand. A good 
photographer, who also understands light and shade, can 
produce good pictures in an ordinary studio. It is the indifferent 
photographer who runs after "fancy lights," and is, like a 
benighted traveller in pursuit of a will-o'-the-wisp, eventually 
left floundering in a bog. It is folly to construct powerful 
concentrators if powerful reflectors have to be employed to 
counteract their defects. If a limited amount of JdiffusedUight be 
absolutely necessary it is best to retain it and use it in its 
simplest and least expensive form. 

When I commenced photography glass houses were scarcer in 
England than comets in the heavens, and the few that were 
in existence were all constructed on false principles. It was 
not until I visited America that I saw a properli/ -constructed 
studio. The Americans were, and are, prone to give stupid 
names to sensible things ; and the names they gave to their 
studios were no exceptions. This, that, and the other photo- 
grapher advertised his " mammoth skylight." I went to sit, 
see, and be satisfied that their mode of lighting was very 
superior to ours. I was convinced instanter that the perpen- 



312 

dicular sides and sloping roofs of our miserable little hot- 
houses were mistakes and things to be abhorred, while their 
spacious rooms and " mammoth skylights " were things to be 
admired and adopted. 

In one of these rooms, and almost without blinds or reflectors, 
the sitter could be " worked " on a semi-circle or half oval, and 
"lighted" either in front or on either side at pleasure, and with 
the greatest facility. I determined, there and then, to build 
my next studio on similar principles ; but until recently I have 
had no opportunity of carrying out my intentions. To get 
what I required and to make the best of my situation I had to 
"fence and fiddle" the district surveyor: but I gained my 
point, and the victory was worth the foils and the fiddlestick. 

My studio can be lighted from either side ; but the ' ' light 
of lights " is the north one, and that is a large fixed window 
11 by 9 feet with a single slope of two and a-half feet in the 
height ; that is, two and a-half feet out of the perpendicular at 
the top, with no other top light and no perpendicular side light. 
With this light I do all ordinary work. I can work round the 
light from one side of the room to the other, as under a 
mammoth skylight, without using either blind or reflector. If 
I want Rembrandt efi'ects I have only to open a shutter on the 
south side, and let in subdued sunlight. That at once becomes 
the dominant light, and the north light illumines the shadows. 
The bottom of the north light is three feet from the floor. 

The advantages of this form of studio are these. It is cool, 
because no more light is admitted than is absolutely necessary. 
It is neat, because no rag-like curtains are hanging about. It 
is clean, because there is nothing to collect dirt. It is dry, 
because the pitch of the roof renders leakage impossible. It is 
pleasant to the sitter, because of these desirabilities, and that 
the light is not distressing. It is agreeable to the operator, 
because the work is easy and everything is comfortable. 

Printed by Piper & Carter, 5, Furniral Street, Holborn, London, E.G. 





n 




ALL WITH 



TRANSPARENT 
FILM. 



No apparatus connected with Photography has ever excited 
so much interest as 

THE KODAK. 

The No. I, making a round picture, was only the entering 
wedge, and ser\'ed its purpose admirably, in introducing to 
the public the vast advantages of a Camera using films over 
any form of Camera using glass. 

This year we beg to call your attention to SEVEN NEW 
SIZES, viz. : — 

No. 2, 3^4 inch Circular Picture, one finder. 

No. 3, Regular, 33^ ^4}iy Square Picture, two finders. 

No. 3, Junior, 

No. 4, Regular, 4x5, 

No. 4, Junior, „ 

No. 4, Folding, „ 

No. 5, „ 5 X 7, 



Send for the New KODAK PRIMER, fully describing all 
sizes and styles. 



THE EASTMAN PHOTOGRAPHIC MATERIALS COMPANY, Limited, 
I 15, Oxford Street, London, W. 



IT IS ADMITTED by 

Every Competent Authority 



THAT 



WRATTEN'S 

'LONDON' PLATES 

ARE THE 

UmVEBSAL STANDARD OF EXCELLENCE 

AND COMPARISON. 

This high reputation has been sustained 
against a host of competitors for twelve 
years :— a fact without parallel in the 
annals of the Gelatine process. 

Messi-s. Weatten <fc "Wainwbight's Complete Uliistrated Catalogiie coutaius 
full Particulars and Prices of a large and varied Stock of Photograi^hic Re- 
quii-ements, together with specially-written Instructions for developing the 
" London " Plates, Printing, Toning, and other operations, and will be for- 
warded free upon application to 

WRATTEN & WAINWRIGHT, 
PHOTOGRAPHIC CHEMISTS AND APPARATUS MAKERS, 

AND 

Sole Proprietors and Manufacturers of the 
" London" Dry Plates, 

88, GREAT QUEEN STREET, LONG ACRE, 

LONDON, W.C. 



THE AUTOTYPE COMPANY 

MANUFACTURES 

AUTOTYPE TISSUES, TRANSFER PAPERS, & MATERIALS 
FOR PERMANENT PHOTOGRAPHIC PRINTING. 



AUTOTYPE ENLAKGE3IENrS.— Portraits and Views produced of any 
dimensions up to 5 ft. by 3 ft. 6 in. ; their grandeiu', beauty, and unalter- 
ability secure public favoiu'. 

AUTOTYPE DRY PLATES, manufactured with Burton's Coating Machine, 
are rich in silver, very rapid, yielding clear vigorous negatives, of miiform 
quality. The plates ai-e of superior glass, and packed in strong metal- 
grooved boxes up to 15 bj' 12 inches. To be obtained only of the 
Autotype Company. 

. BOOK ILLUSTRATIONS, by Sawyer's Collotype Process, employed by 
the Trustees of the British Museum, by the Koyal, Pala^ographical, 
Hellenic, Numismatical, and other learned Societies, and by the leading 
publishers. Prints direct on the paper with suitable margins. 

AUTO-(tRAVURE.— The Autotype processs as applied to Photographic 
Engraving on Copper is of wide application in the reproduction of Works 
of Art, and is highly appreciated by the disciples of Naturalistic Photo- 
graphy as efficiently rendering the qualities of negatives direct from 
nature. Examples of Auto-gravure. in the reproduction of paintings 
by Holman Hunt, the late Frank Holl, R.A., W. Ouless, R.A., Val. 
Prinsep, A.R.A., of di-a wings bj' Hy. Rylands, of a frieze, "Spring," by 
Herbert Draper, of a Group from the frieze of the Parthenon, &c. , &c. , 
can be seen at 74, New Oxford Street. 



The AUTOTYPE FINE ART GALLERY, 

74, New Oxford Street, London, 

is remarkable for its disj^lay of Copies of celebrated Works by 

"THE GREAT MASTERS" 

from the Loiivi-e, Vatican, Hermitage, and the National Galleries of Italy, Spain, 
Holland, and London, including H.M. Collections at Buckingham Palace and 
Windsor Castle. 

Albums of reference to the various Galleries are provided, are easily looked 
over, and of great interest to lovei-s of Ai't. Send for the new Pamphlet, 
'- AUTOTYPE : a Decorative and Ediicational Art," per post to any addi-ess. 

The AUTOTYPE FINE ART CATALOGUE, 186 pp., free per post for 6d. 



THE AUTOTYPE COMPANY, LONDON. 

Offices : 74, New Oxford Street, w.c. — Works : Ealing Dene, Middlesex. 



Grand Prix & Gold Medal, Paris Exliibitioii, 1889. 

Council Medal and Highest Award, Great Exhibition, London, 1851. 

Gold Medal, Paris Exposition, 1867, Medal and Highest Awaid, Exhibition, London, 1862 

Medal and Diploma, Antwerp. 1878. 

Medal and Diploma, Centennial Exhibition. Philadelphia, 1875. 

Two Gold Medals, Paris Exposition, 1878. Medal and Diploma, Sydney, 1S79. 

Gold Medal, Highest Award, Inventions Exhibition, 1885. 



ROSS' LENSES AND APPARATUS. 

IMPORTANT ANNOUNCEMENT. 

In consequence of the greatly increased demand for their Photographic 

Cameras and Apparatus, Ross & Co. have fitted up the 

first floor of 112. New Bond Street, as 

SPECIAL SHOW ROOMS 

for exhibitiug the newest and most improved forms of 

CAMERAS AND ACCESSORIES OF ALL DESCRIPTIONS. 



For the convenience of purchasers, they have also constructed 

A FULLY EgUIPPED DARK ROOM, 

where the Apparatus maj" be practically tested, and 

USEFUL INSTRUCTIONS GIVEN TO BEGI?<NERS. 

Amateurs are invited to inspect ROSS' COMPLETE OUTFITS. 



ROSS' IMPROVED CAMERAS. 

Extra Light and Portable ; Double Extension. 

New Form JDOXJBT^E STRIDE, 

Less Costly than the Ordinary Form of Dark Slide. 

Absolutely Light-proof. Smaller than Ordinar}-. No Superfluous Openings. 

No risk of Plates being broken by pressure. Certainty of Register. 

Lighter than Ordinary. No Hinges or Clips to get out of order. 

No chance of Warping. 

SPECIAL SMALL & LIGHT CAMERAS, 

For use with the New Form Double Slide. 
Catalogues and FuU Particulars, with Estimates, on application to 

EOSS & CO., 112, NEW BOND STEEET, LONDON. 

Works: Clapham Common, S.W. 



H. MOORSE, 

Photographic Apparatus Manufacturer 

TO THE GOVERNMENT (Established over 25 years), 

154, High Holborn, London, W.C. 

(Near New Oxford Street and Mwseum Street.) 



SQUARE CAMERA. 
LIGHT CAMERA. 

Both one price. Cash with Order, 10 per cent. off. 





8 10 10 10 16 15 25 
(2 ca.ses) 



4JX3i 6JX4I 8ix6J 10x8 12X10 15X12 18x16 24X18 

£, s. d. £ s. d. £ s. d. £ s. d. £ s. d. £ s. d. £ s. d. £ s. d. 

Camera and three Double 6 7 10 !» 8 11 15 U 14 18 IS 24 26 

Backs. 
Rectilinear Lens with 3 00 3100 5 00 

Iris Diaphragm Travel- 
ling Bag. 
Brown Canvas with 18 1 00 1 20 

Spring Lock. 
?olid Leather Spring 1 5 1 80 112 

Lock. 
Rotating Turn Table with 1 7 1 12 1 12 

Tripod Stand. 
Brass Binding Camera 1 50 1 5 110 

and Slide. 



6 10 

1 15 

2 5 
2 
1 12 



2 10 

3 5 
2 5 2 10 



3 12 4 14 

4 15 6 5 



2 2 12 



2 15 

3 3 



6 

8 

3 5 

4 4 



CAMERA BELLOWS. 



Outside Size. Length. 

6X5 8 . 

6x6 9 . 

7ix 7* 12 . 

gjx 94 i8 ., 

II X II i8 

13 X 13 ■ 20 . 

17 X 17 22 . 

18 X 24 30 . 

24 X 24 60 . 



Leather. 

3/3 . 

3/6 . 

, 8/- . 

12/- . 

U/- . 

15/. . 

20/. . 

40/- . 

100/- . 



Black Cloth. 
.... 2/3 
.... 3/- 
.... 6/- 
.... 8/6 
.... 9/- 

.... 11/. 

.... 15/. 

.... 30/- 



POCKET OR HAND CAMERAS, WITH THREE DOUBLE BACKS, 

4? X 3^, £3 3s. 6i X 4I, £4 4s. 




& CO;S PLATES. 

Manufactured at their Works, Southgate. 

BRITANNIA ORDINARY PLATES (Yellow Label.) 
BRITANNIA EXTRA RAPID „ (White Label.) 
INSTANTANEOUS „ (Brown Label.) 

Prepared sijecially for extremely rapid work. 

ACADEMY LANDSCAPE PLATES (Cream Label.) 

Specially prepared for Landscape work ; very thickly coated and rich iu 

Silver. 



Marion's Argentic-Bromide Opals. 

Priucijjally used for Enlargements and Contact printing. Very effective. 

COWAN'S GELATINO-CHLORIDE PLATES (GreenLabel). 

For Lantern Slide Work. 



COWAN'S CHLORO-BROMIDE PLATES (Violet Label), 

For making Transparencies in the Camera. 



COWAN'S GELATINO-CHLORIDE TRANSPARENCY PLATES 

On ground glass. 

COWAN'S ORGANIC CHLORIDE OPALS (Red Label), 

Printed and toned like ordinary sensitized paper. Very artistic. They 
must be i;sed fresh. 



MARION & CO., 22 and 23, Soho Square, 

LONDON. 



For PHOTOGRAPHIC 

GOODS AID PBOIPT ATTEITIOI 



GO TO 



0". ^TsTEI^O-E, 

PHOTOGRAPHIC STORES, 

Ua, Berners Street, Oxford Street, London. W. 



WERGE'S " Sans Ammonia Developer " is used by 

numerous expert amateurs. A 1/- bottle will develop 128 quarter 
plates, any make. 

WERGE'S Dry plate Yaruisli dries without heat, 
and protects the negatives from silver and platinum stains, 1/- 
per bottle aud upwards. 

WERG-E'S Retouching Medium, 1^ - per bottle. 

WERGE'S Sensitized Paper is the best. 12 6 per 

quire ; sample sheet lOd. post free. 

WERGE'S Borax Toning Solution gives the best 
tones, and is simplest and most economical. I/- per pint. 

WERGE'S Ferro-Prussiate Paper gives the best 

results with least trouble. 1/- per sheet. 

WERGE'S Shilling Lantern is the best ever in- 
troduced. 

WERGE'S Dry Plate Instructions are the best 

ever published. 1/1-| post free, including Jabez Hughes's 
" Principles and Practice of Photography." Wet Plate Process, 
Printing, &c., &c. 



J. 



H. DALLMEYER, OPTIOIW, 

25, NEWMAN STREET, LONDON, W. 

Has obtained the highest awards for his Lenses wherever exhibited, and at all je r 
Intemational Exhibitions. 

CASH PRICES OF iW PRINCTPATPOllTRArT AND VIEW lUH 



EXTRA RAPin (0). 



2C, For Cnildren, 2| dia. 
3C „ H .. 



44 f. 
. 6 f. 



£l.i 15 
, -.'6 5 



IB, 



QUICK ACTING (B). 

in. distance. 

forC.D.V. 2 dia....l2 tt....£6 5 



IB Long, „ 2i „ 

2B, „ 2? „ 

2B Patent, „ 2| „ 

3B „ Cabts.and SJ „ 

4B „ larger 4^ „ 



.14 ft.... 6 15 

.18 ft.. ..12 16 

..18 ft.. ..13 5 

..18 ft.. ..20 

.25 ft. ...40 



NEW RAPID RECTILINEAR PORTRAIT 

LENSES. 

See descriptive Catalogue. 

ORDINARY INTENSITY (A)— Patf.nt. 
lA, for Cabinets, in short rooms. 

dia. 2Jin., distance 14 ft. £13 n 

2A, for Cabinets up to 84x6.4, dia. 

34in., distance 20 feet 18 d 

3A, for Cabinets up to 9x7, dia. 

4in., distance 24 feet 27 

4A, for Imperial Portraits and 10x8 

dia. 44i"-' focus 14 in. ... ... 38 10 

5A, for plates 15x12 and under, dia. 

5in., focus 18in. .. . 50 

6A, for plates 20 x 16 and under, dia. 

6in., focus 22in 60 



5 



PORTRAIT AND GROUP (D) -Patent. 
3D, Portraits 84 X 64, Views 10x8, 

dia. 2Jin., focus lO.^in... ... 9 10 

4D, Portiaits 10x8, Views 12vlO, 

dia. 2?m., focus 13in 13 10 

5D, Portraits 12x10, Views 15x12, 

dia. 3iin., focus 16in 17 m 

6D, Portraits 15x12, View, 18x16, 

dia. 4in., focus i94in .- 26 Hi 

7D, Portraits 18x16, Views 22x20, 

dia. 5in., focus '24in 48 

8D, Portraits 22x20, Views 25x21, 

dia. 6in., focus 30in 58 

STEREOSCOPIC LENSES. 
Patent Stereographic Lens, 3^-in. f. ,, 
Ditto, with raclj-and-pinion ,, 
No. 1, Quick-acting Single Combina- 
tion Landscape Lens, 44in. fecus 
No. 2, Ditto ditto 6in. focus 



4 5 
4 15 



2 
2 5 



Rect.'stereo. Lenses, 2in.&24in. focus 4 

NEW RECTILINEAR LANDSCAPE I. ENS. 

(Patent). 



Largest Diinen- Diameter j Equiv 
sions of Plate, of Lenses. Focus. 



64 by 4iin 

84 „ 64 „ 

10 „ 8 ,. 

12 „ 10 „ 

15 „ 12 „ 

18 „ 16 „ 

22 ,. 20 „ 



14 in. 

1? ., 

2 , 

•2i „ 
2| „ 

3 „ 
34 „ 



«4in 
114 ., 
134 ,. 
164 ., 
20 „ 
25 „ 
32 „ 



Price. 



£4 15 

6 

8 

10 5 

12 10 

16 

21 



OPTICAL L4.NTERN LENSES NT. 
(Patent). 
No. 1 Lens, 14 in. and 1| in. dia. with 
Rack Motion... ... ... I 1 

No. 2 do 1^ in. and 2 in. do. do. 
Condensers — 34 in dia. mounted, ea. j k ' 
Do. 4 in do. do. do. I ( 
K A fiU RECTILINEAR (P ATI I 
The best Leus for general use out oio 
and for Copying. 




7iby44 
84 „ 64 



,10 

I 12 
,16 
20 
21 



IJin. 

63 „ 

71 

11 „ 
14 „ 
17 



13 

154 

19 



£4 1 

5 Ilk 

7 1(1 
10 1(1 
14 01 
20 0| 
30 Ol 



• To be had in pairs for Stereoscopic Views. 

WIDE ANGLE LANDSCAPE LENS^ 

'P*tent), for Landscapes, pure and simpll 



No. 



Price. 



lA 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

5a 

6 

7 



5 by 4 
n ,. 44 
84 „ 6| 
10 „ 8 
12 ,.10 
15 „12 
15 „12 
18 „16 
22 „20 
25 „21 



6iin. 

8^" 

10 „ 

12 „ 

15 „ 

18 „ 

18 „ 

22 „ 

25 ,. 



£3 5 

3 15 

4 10 
j 5 10 

7 

8 10 

9 10 
10 10 
14 
19 





NEW RAPID LANDSCAPE LENS. 

For Distant Objects and Views. 


No. 


I.arj^est Dimen- 
sions ol Plate. 


Diameter 

of Lenses. 


§quiv. 
Focus. 


Price. 


1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 


64 by 4|in. 

8| „ 64 „ 
10 „ 8 „ 
12 „ 10 „ 
15 „ 12 „ 
18 „ 16 „ 
22 „ 20 ,. 


1-3 in. 

16 „ 

2 125 „ 

2 6 ., 

3 

3-5 „ 

4-25 ., 


9 in. 
12 „ 
15 „ 
18 „ 
22 „ 
25 „ 
30 „ 


£4 10 

5 15 

7 10 

9 10 

11 10 

14 

17 10 



DALLMEYi.R -' On the Choice ana U.-e of Photographic Lenses." 
Eighth Thousand (Greatly Enlarged), Is. Descriptive Catalogue on application. 

25, NEWMAN STREET, OXFORD STREET, LONDON, W. 



Ife^