(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Children's Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Evolution of the typewriter"

4? 




era? 



EVOLUTION 



OF THE 



TYPEWRITER 



BY 



C. V. ODEN 

AUTHOR OF "A TALK ON SALESMANSHIP" AND 
"TYPEWRITER COMMTiNTS AND COMPARISONS" 






"Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, 
and some few to be chewed and digested." 

— Bacon. 



DEC 14 191-7 

COPYRIGHT 1917 

BY 

C. V. ODEN 

©CI.A47i>^4 - 



FOREWORD 

The contents of this book give the steps in the evolution 
of the typewriter, and are the result of observation, study, 
and conviction. The purpose is to answer in as concise 
form as possible the many inquiries received with reference 
to the history of the typewriter. However, this book is 
not to be considered in any sense a history, for the reason 
that many typewriters have been invented and many mar- 
keted that are not mentioned. Those omitted have not, in 
the author's judgment, contributed either mechanical prin- 
ciples or educational assistance that would promote type- 
writer development. On the other hand, consideration is 
given some machines only because they have suggested 
principles or ideas that have served to assist other manu- 
facturers ; and others, from the fact that they received more 
or less recognition from the public. 

Practically unlimited numbers of patents have been 
issued on typewriters and accessories, but to enumerate 
them would require volumes, from which it would be diffi- 
cult to assort and assimilate information of value. 

The author gratefully acknowledges having drawn 
from many sources in the preparation of this work, prin- 
cipal among which are: Patent Records, Office Appliances, 
Typewriter Topics, Phonographic World, History of the 
Typewriter, the Franklin Institute, Mr. C. D. Rice, and 
Mr. Charles E. Smith, author of "A Practical Course in 
Touch Typewriting." 

Having sold the first model of the first practical type- 
writer, however, the facts contained in this book are based 
chiefly upon the author's personal experience, gained dur- 
ing a period of more than a third of a century of contin- 
uous service in the typewriter business, and he has not 
hesitated to express facts as he sees them. 

The Author. 



BUSINESS EVOLUTION 

The development of the typewriter industry is so 
closely interwoven with the history of modern progress 
that it is impossible to separate them. In fact, the type- 
writer is responsible for much of the remarkable progress 
of the world during the last four decades. For this reason, 
a synopsis of its development should be interesting to every 
intelligent, progressive thinker. 

The fundamental purpose of the typewriter is to en- 
able the typist, or operator, to do more and better work 
with less effort in a given time than cm be done with the 
pen, and the value of the typewriter is measured by the 
extent to which it increases speed and legibility in making 
records or preparing messages for delivery. 

It would be difficult for the present generation, with- 
out reference to history or the experience of others, to 
comprehend the evolution in social, educational, industrial, 
and commercial progress during the last half century. The 
telegraph, the telephone, the wireless, the aeroplane, and 
the wonderful developments in steam and electrical con- 
veyances have brought the nations of the earth into closer 
communication with each other, and the typewriter has be- 
come an absolute necessity for the preservation of the 
records of such communication. 

Telegraph and telephone messages must be confirmed 
in writing for future reference and record to avoid mis- 



understanding, and this easy means of communication has 
greatly stimulated the development of transportation. As 
evidence of these facts there is no business interest worthy 
of note today that has not from one to many thousand 
typewriters in use. For example, the Western Union Tele- 
graph Company, whose mission it is to give the best possi- 
ble service, both in speed and accuracy, in the receipt and 
delivery of messages, purchased in a single order ten 
thousand Underwood typewriters, and a repeat order for 
several thousand indicates satisfactory service. 

The development of communication in its various 
stages, with the express purpose of saving time, is inter- 
esting. In the days of King Henry VIII, before the 
telegraph, the telephone, and the typewriter, official com- 
munications were transmitted by messenger with instruc- 
tions to "Haste, post Haste! Haste for thy life!", and the 
penalty on account of delay was death. Hence it will be 
seen that the proper appreciation of the value of time has 
been, and is, the foundation of progress. The penalty for 
delay or the waste of time now, as then, is death ; not, how- 
ever, to the individual but to his business. 

The typewriter has revolutionized commercial methods. 
It lessens labor, at the same time increases it. It has 
supplanted the pen in commercial correspondence, because 
it has greater speed, accuracy, and legibility. It magnifies 
and intensifies mistakes in spelling, punctuation, and cap- 
italization, and as a result, leads to their correction. It 
stimulates accuracy by encouraging greater attention to 
detail, both on the part of the dictator and the typist. The 
typewriter has done more to promote the phenomenal busi- 
ness expansion during recent years than any other office 
appliance. Indeed, it has made most of the modern office appli- 
ances necessary, as well as possible. 

The typewriter has developed the ability and increased 
the capacity of the business man, the professional man — 



the thinking man in all lines of endeavor — to deliver his 
message. In fact, every man who contributes to the 
progress of the world, or who promotes its social, indus- 
trial, and commercial interests in any way, through com- 
munication with his fellow man, is benefited by the type- 
writer. 

Today it is possible to record thought almost as rapidly 
as it formulates, and the busy business man can dictate 




MEASURING TIME 

As compared with the second-hand of the watch the typebar of 
the typewriter moves eleven times faster. This was demonstrated by 
Miss Margaret B. Owen, in actual work, in winning the World's Type- 
writing Championship. Miss Owen struck the keys more than eleven 
strokes a second for three thousand six hundred consecutive seconds. 



more in one hour than he could formerly write in a whole 
day's time. In fact, in the days of the pen-written letter 
it was necessary to sacrifice clearness and exactness of 
thought and expression in order to conserve time and labor. 
Today the typewriter has released the business man from 
these restrictions and limitations, and has given him a 
mental freedom that enables him to produce the highest 
and most efficient results. The typewriter provides facili- 
ties which enable the business man to think quicker and 
better, and being relieved of the physical labor in recording 
his thoughts, he has much more time to devote to the 
development of new ideas in the expansion of his business. 

It was Bacon who said ''Reading maketh a full man, 
conference a ready man, and writing an exact man." 

TYPEWRITER EVOLUTION 

Authentic records show that the germ of typewriter 
genius first manifested itself more than two hundred years 
ago when in the year 17 14 Henry Mill, an English engi- 
neer, patented a writing machine which he said he "had 
brought to perfection at great paines and expense"; yet it 
was more than a century and a half thereafter before the 
first practical typewriter was built, and the development of 
genius and public opinion began to get together. No model 
showing the mechanical construction, or descriptive matter 
concerning the principle involved in this machine, is avail- 
able. 

However, during the period between the first recorded 
idea and the first practical results of a writing machine, 
many futile efforts were made to produce a commercially 
practicable machine, as the following steps show. 

In 1784 an embossing machine was invented in France 
for the benefit of the blind. It served its purpose in the ■ 
process of evolution, as all intermediate efforts did, but its 



scope was limited quite as much as its practicability, and 
as a result it received no commercial recognition. 

In 1829 Mr. Burt, of Detroit, Mich., invented and 
patented a machine which he called a "typographer." The 
merits of this invention were of such minor importance 
that the machine made little impression upon the business 
world. Unfortunately, all original descriptive matter, 
records, etc., concerning this machine were destroyed by a 
fire in the Patent Office at Washington in 1836. Only the 
original drawing, presented herewith, was preserved. 




BURT 



In 1830 M. X. Progin, Marseilles, France, took out 
patent papers for a machine which he called a "typographic 
machine or pen." It embodied the first principles, though 



10 



crudely, of the typebar idea. In 1836 another French 
machine was brought out with no greater success. The 
following is a diagram showing the typebars of Progin's 
machine. 




PROGIN 

THB FIRST IDEA OF A TYPEBAR 



In 1843-5 Charles Thurber, of Worcester, Mass., built 
a machine that did actual work. . This was a type-wheel 
machine, and it suggested the first principle of the movable 
carriage. It was very slow; its principle and construction 
were crude; and the business public was not enlightened 
concerning the value of a writing machine, hence its fail- 
ure. 




THURBER 

THE FIRST MOVABLE CARRIAGE 



II 

In 1844 a man by name of Littledale, an Englishman, 
invented an embossing machine for the blind. In this 
machine provision was also made for the use of carbon, 
which was inserted in the usual way, and while writing an 
embossed copy for the blind, a carbon impression was also 
made for those less unfortunate. 

In 1845 a machine was brought out by Dr. Leavitt. of 
Kentucky. There is no evidence that this machine was 
practical and it evidently was not, from the fact that it 
soon passed out of existence. 

During the intervening years, 1847-56, a number of 
models of a machine was invented by Alfred E. Beach, an 
American, editor of the Scientific American. From this 
machine we get the first idea of the "key stem" or finger 
key, bell crank, connecting wire, and universal bar princi- 
ple. The typebars also converged to a common center. 
However, the purpose of this machine was not for type- 
writing as it is understood today; the invention was in- 
tended only for making embossed impressions on a narrow 
tape. The following illustration shows a section of Beach's 
machine, and the application of his advanced ideas. 




^fcr 1 ^!!^! 



BEACH 

EMBODYING MANY NEW IDEAS. 



In 1848 a machine was invented by Fairbank, not, 
however, with the view of typewriting, but to print designs 
in colors on calico or fabric. This machine was patented 
for "printing purposes," which is the only reason why it 
is given place here. 



12 

In 1849 Pierre Foucauld, a blind man, invented a 
machine for those similarly affected. This machine was 
exhibited in Paris, where it attracted considerable atten- 
tion and was awarded a Gold Medal. A number of the 
machines was manufactured, but the purpose for which it 
was intended necessarily limited the demand; as a result 
its success was of short duration. 




FOUCAULD 

In 1850 a machine was invented by Mr. Eddy. It had 
seventy-eight type arranged in six rows of thirteen each. 
This was in reality a typewriter, but for reasons which 
records do not explain, the machine did not get beyond the 
experimental stage. 

In 1 850- 1 Sir Charles Wheatstone, considered one of 
the greatest scientists and inventors of his day, was ex- 
perimenting with a machine for the purpose of recording 
the messages from his dial telegraph, another of his in- 
ventions. This machine possessed very little merit, and 
while records show that Sir Charles made further attempts 
between 1855 and i860, none of his efforts possessed suffi- 
cient merit to do credit to his reputation as an inventor. 



13 




RDDY 

At about this period a machine was brought out by 
Marchesi and another by a Mr. Hughes. The latter 
machine was the more effective of the two, but it went 
the way of the many, serving only the purpose of those 
who fail in their efforts through honest endeavor, leaving 
an experience by which others may profit. 

In 1852 patents were issued to John Jones, of Clyde, 
New York, for a writing machine, called a "Mechanical 
Typographer," and although the inventor had the benefit 
of former experiments, his machine lacked practical value 
and failed to produce the desired results. 




^jfg — ^h- ^jw^vvjf w'v^ 



JONES 



14 

In 1854 Thomas, an American, invented a machine of 
such little value, except to suggest a locking device for the 
type-wheel machines of a later day, that it is hardly en- 
titled to space here. It consisted chiefly of characters 
carved on a rolling pin, with other equally crude ideas. 




THOMAS 

EMBODYING FIRST TYPE-LOCKING DEVICE. 



However, since it embodied an idea that was used by later 
and more successful inventors, it has been recognized. 




^ 



COOPER 



In 1856 a machine was invented by Cooper that had 
a type-wheel acting on a vertical axis. This anticipated 
very closely the invention of Mr. Hammond, which has 
met with such success that it still has some considerable 
following. 

In 1857 Dr. William Francis, of New York, made an 
unsuccessful attempt to build a typewriter. The machine 
was a failure because the typebar action was so compli- 
cated and heavy; nevertheless it embodied features from 
which later inventors have profited, among which was the 
principle of the type-guide. 




FRANCIS 
EMPLOYED KIRST PRINCIPLE OF TYPE-GUIDE 



In 1 86 1 -7 Thomas Hall, of New York, invented and 
constructed a typebar machine. This machine embodied 
many of the essential features of the writing machines in 
use today, but it was never offered for sale. Mr. Hall 
later directed his attention to the construction of a machine, 
which he did place on the market in about the year 1880. 
This machine was known as the Hall typewriter, and em- 
bodied the pantograph principle, operated with one hand 
by means of a stylus. This machine could be worked at a 
surprising speed, considering the one-hand method by 
which it was necessary to operate it. 

A number of these machines were manufactured at a 
profit, it is said. If this is true, the Hall was doubtless 



16 



the first typewriter to reach this point of progress. The 
one-hand stylus principle, however, was wrong-; its opera 
tion was slow, and as a result the machine was soon 
succeeded by others that embodied principles which con 
tributed to greater speed and accuracy, many of which are 
in use today. 




HALl, 

STYLOGRAPH1C MACHINE 



In 1865 George House, of Buffalo. Xew York, brought 
out a machine in which the type were arranged in a basket. 
striking the paper at a common center. By reason of this 
fact his machine marked a distinct step in the development 




HOUSE 



17 



of typewriter genius, but its value consisted solely in its 
contribution to other inventors. 

Jn 1868 John Pratt, of Alabama, was fortunate in 
bringing out a machine at about the time the press had be- 
come greatly interested in the efforts to produce a type- 
writer. The London papers commented upon the feasibility 
and the value of a machine which would produce writing 
by mechanical means. The Scientific American, comment- 
ing directly upon Mr. Pratt's production, refers to it as 
follows: 

"It is assumed that a man may print his thoughts twice 
as fast as he can write them, and with the advantage of 
the legibility, compactness, and neatness of print 
The subject of typewriting is one of the interesting aspects 
of the near future. Its manifest feasibility and advantage 
indicate that the laborious and unsatisfactory performance 
of the pen must, sooner or later, become obsolete for gen- 
eral purposes." 

The Phonographic World later published an article 
describing Mr. Pratt's machine in detail. 

Mr. Pratt's machine was soon numbered among the 
many failures that had preceded it. However, he took out 
patents on another machine in 1882, which he sold to 
James B.- Hammond, who incorporated them in a machine 
which will receive due mention. 




BROOKS 

FIRST IDEA OK TWO CHARACTERS ON EACH TYPEBAR 



18 

Byron A. Brooks, who had rendered extensive service 
in the development of typewriters, promoted the first prin- 
ciple of placing two characters on each typebar; this neces- 
sitated a lower and an upper case which was operated by 
a shift key, a principle employed in the most popular type- 
writers of today. 

Mr. Brooks later invented a machine to which he gave 
his name, and as an indication of his far-sighted knowledge 
of the ultimate demands of the typewriter industry, he 
attempted to produce visible writing. But his efforts in 
this direction were unsatisfactory because only two lines of 
writing were visible at one time. They did, however, serve 
as suggestions to assist later inventors. The typebars stood 
up back of the platen and struck forward and downward. 
The machine had no special features to commend it to pub- 
lic opinion, and as a result its manufacture was soon dis- 
continued. 



The foregoing were experimental steps in the progress 
or evolution of ideas in the development of the typewriter. 
These experiments were being conducted on both sides of 
the Atlantic. In fact, it might appear that there was a 
contest for priority in the production of the first practical 
writing machine, in which America won, as subsequent 
developments will show . Although all these steps were fail- 
ures, so far as individual practical results were concerned, 
they were valuable to succeeding inventors who culled and 
preserved the practical and eliminated the impractical. 

For example: M. X. Progin, in 1830, advanced the 
first principle of the typebar. From Charles Thurber we 
get the first idea of a movable carriage, embodied in his 
patents of 1843-5. To Alfred E. Beach we are indebted for 
the first ideas of the finger key, bell crank, connecting wire, 
and universal bar, also the converging of the typebars to- 
ward a common center. Thomas is credited with the first 



19 

idea concerning a locking device. The machine invented by 
Cooper in 1856 gives the first type-wheel device acting on 
a vertical axis. Dr. Wm. Francis originated the type- 
guide. From the invention of George House, of Buffalo, 
we get the first idea of arranging the type in a basket. 
And to Byron A. Brooks is given credit for placing two 
characters on each key — an upper and lower case — which 
necessitated a shift key for capitals and other upper case 
characters. 

About the year 1865, C. Latham Sholes, a printer in 
Milwaukee, began experimenting with a machine for insert- 
ing the numbers of pages in books. This machine attained 
such a marked degree of success that Mr. Sholes, having 
studied the comments of influential mechanical experts in 
magazines concerning the universal and practical demand 
for a typewriter, and believing in its possibility, be- 
came interested in extending his ideas to the develop- 
ment of a writing machine. With this object in view, in 
1867 he associated with himself Carlos Glidden and Samuel 
W. Soule. In 1868 they were granted patent papers for a 
machine, which although very crude, embodied such practi- 




SHOI/RS, GUDDEN AND SOULE'S 

EARLY EFFORT SHOWING PIANOFORTE KEYBOARD. 

cal ideas that it attracted the attention of James Densmore, 
a wealthy inventor of Meadville, Pa., who, upon paying 



20 

all of the expenses incurred in all previous experiments, 
secured one-fourth interest in the invention. Soon after, 
Glidden and Soule dropped out of the enterprise. 

Mr. Densmore first saw the machine in 1868, and im- 
mediately pronounced it a failure in its state of development 
at that time, at least so far as its practicability was con- 
cerned. However, he believed that the ideas and principles 
of the machine were correct, and at once began the process 
of elimination and development. Many models were made, 
all of which were rejected as impractical after having been 
thoroughly tested by those who were in a position to 
understand the requirements of a practical writing machine. 
These numerous failures discouraged Mr. Sholes, but he 
was urged by Mr. Densmore to continue his experiments. 
Mr. Densmore insisted that it was absolutely necessary to 
the ultimate success of the machine to have interested out- 
siders point out the defects and suggest wherein the 
machine might be improved. Owing to the most limited 
manufacturing facilities at their command, these machines 
were so extremely crude in workmanship that they con- 
tained little suggestion of the possibilities of the present- 
day typewriter. It was not until the year 1870 that the 
machine began to give promise of real service. The actual 
value of the machine up to this time, however, consisted 
chiefly in confirming the confidence of its inventors. 

About this time G. W. N. Yost became interested in 
the enterprise, and suggested further alterations and im- 
provements. Mr. Yost's efforts, however, were most effect- 
ive through his influence in convincing his associates that 
the machine must be made in the most skilful manner, if 
it was ever to attain a high degree of profitable service. 
With this object in view, Mr. Sholes, Mr. Densmore, Mr. 
Yost, and others, sought and secured the attention and in- 
terest of E. Remington & Sons (the Remington Arms Com- 
pany), of Ilion, New York. This company had attained 
quite an extensive reputation for mechanical skill through 



the manufacture of firearms during the late Civil War, and 
was doubtless better equipped for the quality of work neces- 
sary to build a serviceable typewriter than any other com- 
pany at that time. The first machine, therefore, that would 
really do practical writing was due to the original ideas of 
Mr. Sholes, the judgment and perseverance of Mr. Dens- 
more, and the influence of Mr. Yost. 

To Mr. Sholes is also due the arrangement of the 
keyboard. He was a printer by profession, and it has been 
said that the order of the printers' case evidently suggested 
the arrangement of many of the seventy-six characters on 
the original machine. Although some minor changes have 
been made, the present keyboard is substantially the same 
as the original. There are many who feel that a revised 
keyboard would be beneficial, and efforts have been made to 
produce one more satisfactory to all. These attempts, how- 
ever, have always proved an expensive undertaking without 
satisfactory results, because time has made the present key- 
board practically universal, a fact for which, the typist is 
largely responsible. 

A contract was given to E. Remington & Sons for the 
manufacture of a thousand machines, then known as the 
Sholes and Glidden typewriter. 




SHOCKS AND GLIDDEN 
SHOWING LATER MODEL OF DEVELOPMENT 



I 



22 

It conveys little information to reproduce the preceding 
diagrams of the earlier efforts in typewriter construction, 
as they would hardly be recognized as typewriters. Their 
only value consisted in contributing to the steps in the 
evolution of the typewriter by way of suggestion. E. Rem- 
ington & Sons later secured control of the machine and 
gave it the name "Remington." 

REMINGTON 

In 18/4 the first A r o. 1 model Remington was placed 
on the market, of which about 400 were sold. Many of 
these machines were returned, not only on account of im- 
perfections they developed, but because the business world 
had not yet given the typewriter serious consideration. 




FIRST REMINGTON 

NO. 1 MODEL 



The Western Electric Company became the first sales 
agent for the Remington, but their efforts were not suc- 
cessful and the agency was transferred to the Fairbanks 
Scale Company in 1878. The Scale Company met with 



23 

no greater success than the Western Electric Company, for 
the reason as stated before, the public were not educated 
to the value of a typewriter, and the efforts of the agencies 
were otherwise more profitably directed. 

It may be of interest to know that about this time a 
legal sham battle between typewriter inventors was insti- 
gated for the purpose of directing public attention to the 
importance the typewriter had gained in the commercial 
world, in which suits and countersuits were brought, all 
of which were settled out of court "by agreement of coun- 
sel." The suits were only intended to agitate an interest 
in the typewriter, which had not thus far been very suc- 
cessful. 

In 1882, the firm of Wyckoff, Seamans & Benedict 
was organized for the purpose of devoting its entire time 
and energy to the sale of the machine. The firm consisted 
of W. O. Wyckoff, a Court Reporter of Ithaca, N. Y. ; 
C. W. Seamans, who had been Sales Manager of the 
machine for Fairbanks and E. Remington & Sons since the 
machine was placed on the market, and H. H. Benedict, 
who had long been associated with the Remington Arms 
Company. 

The next step necessary in the evolution of the type- 
writer was the education of the public to its commercial 
value. This was no small undertaking because of custom 
and prejudice. A typewritten letter often offended the 
recipient, who seemed to feel that it was a reflection upon 
his intelligence and ability to read pen writing. For a 
number of years the typewriter was looked upon as a lux- 
ury used only by those who had sufficient money to satisfy 
a whim ; later it became a convenience, and finally an abso- 
lute necessity. 

The campaign of education which Mr. Seamans had 
inaugurated during his former association with E. Reming- 
ton & Sons was continued by the new firm. They believed 



24 

so thoroughly in the future of the machine that their idea 
was, if the business man did not appreciate the value of 
the machine it should be taken to him, and he should be 
taught its use and value. With this end in view, several 
hundred machines were placed in the offices of many prom- 
inent individuals and firms, such as editors, authors, law- 
yers, and manufacturing- concerns, with the result that the 
firm's confidence was confirmed by the unqualified endorse- 
ments of all who had been thus favored. 

Some of the endorsements secured by Mr. Seamans, a 
few of which are quoted below, were used by the new firm as 
a foundation for the further education of the public. 

••II \rtfokd. March 19. 1875. 

Gentlemen : 

Please do not use my name in any way. Please do not even 
divulge the fact that I own a machine. I have entirely stopped using 
the Type-Writer for the reason that I never could write a letter with 
it to anybody, without receiving a request by return mail that I should 
not only describe the machine but state what progress I had made 
in the use of it, etc., etc. I do not like to write letters, and so I do not 
want people to know that I own this curiosity-breeding little joker. 

Yours truly. 

Samuel L. Clemens. "' 

(Mark Twain) 



"Boston. March 17. 1875. 

Gentlemen : 

I have had one of your Type-Writers for the last ten days, and 
during this time I have written with it one hundred pages of a story 
for the magazine under my charge, all of the editorial matter for the 
current number of this publication, and a great many letters; in fact, 
I have not used a pen since the machine came into my possession. 
After this experience of ten days, I find that I can write, with this 
apparatus, about two-thirds as fast as I can with a pen ; and though I 



25 



am a rapid writer, I confidently expect to be able to put more words 
on paper, before many weeks, with this machine, than I ever could 
with a pen in the same time. Writing with it is a very pleasant occu- 
pation, while to me the use of the pen is the merest drudgery. I find 
no difficulty in 'composing' or doing any of my regular literary or 
editorial work with the Type-Writer. 

Very truly yours, 

William T. Adams, 

Editor of Oliver Optic's Magazine." 



"Phenix, R. I., March 28, 1875. 

Gentlemen : 

We have now had the Type-Writer about a month, and are en- 
tirely satisfied with it. There can be no doubt in regard to its use- 
fulness. When I saw the advertisement of the machine^ originally, 
I had little faith in it. An examination surprised me, but not so much 
as the practical working has. We have no trouble whatever with it, 
and it is almost constantly in operation. I think that it must rank 
with the great beneficial inventions of the century. 

Very truly yours, 

Henry Howard, 

Governor of Rhode Island." 

It may be well to direct attention to a condition which 
seemed to be absolutely necessary at that time in order to 
break down the prejudice which seemed to prevail against 
the "printed" letter. The placing of these machines "on 
trial" in business offices, to demonstrate their commercial 
convenience, established the "trial habit" which manufac- 
turers have tried for years in vain to eliminate. The "trial 
habit" is wholly unnecessary and is an expensive imposi- 
tion which the public inflict upon the manufacturers, but it 
proves how tenaciously habit will cling. All of the older 
machines have been "tried" by millions, and it would seem 
today that a thorough demonstration and comparison of the 



26 

relative merits of the various machines as adapted to the 
buyer's business should be sufficient. 

The interests of E. Remington & Sons were so exten- 
sive and varied and the success of the new firm Wyckoff, 
Seamans & Benedict had been so marked that in 1886 the 
latter purchased from the Remington firm all franchises, 
patents, plant, etc., used in the typewriter manufacture, and 
started a separate manufacturing company. Thus the type- 
writer became an independent enterprise and its success 
assured. 

Thus far in these steps an effort has been made to 
place the various attempts to produce a typewriter in 
chronological order. At about this period, however, so 
many inventors sought to improve the primitive ideas em- 
ployed in the first Remington production, as well as to 
share in the profits, that a number of machines were placed 
upon the market almost simultaneously. Numerous in- 
ventors were engaged on various machines at the same time, 
whose products made their appearance so close together 
that it would be practically impossible to give them chrono- 
logical preference. 

One of the difficult problems with which inventors were 
confronted at that time was the fact that manufacturing 
facilities were limited. At least, these facilities had not 
been brought to that state of perfection necessary to build a 
typewriter with the essential mechanical accuracy and with 
sufficient speed and exactness of alignment and operation in 
all of its working parts to insure durability. Those whose 
experience dates back to the first typewriter understand the 
limitations of mechanical facilities at that time, and they 
know that the progress in manufacturing has made possi- 
ble refinements necessary to the evolution of the type- 
writer. 

The characteristic features of the Sholes-Glidden prod- 
uct, refined and improved by the Remington Company, rep- 



27 

resented the simplest and most effective form of construc- 
tion at that time. The first No. i Remington was a type- 
bar machine. The typebars hung in a circle and were 
attached to finger key levers by connecting wires. When 
the finger key levers were depressed the corresponding 
typebars converged to a common center, striking the print- 
ing point beneath the platen. The typebars had pivotal 
bearings and were suspended from U-shaped hangers, held 
in place by screws. The possible loosening of these screws 
and the wearing of the pivotal bearings affected the align- 
ment very materially. 

The No. i model Remington was succeeded by the 
No. 4, each of which was a single case, non-shift machine; 
that is, the alphabet was all capitals. The No. 2 was a 
double case machine, each typebar being provided with two 
characters. To operate the upper case, it was necessary 
to use one of the two shift keys with which the machine 
was provided. The No. 1 and No. 4 keyboards had four- 
teen less characters than the present keyboard. The No. 3 
model Remington was a wide carriage machine with eight 
more characters than the No. 2 for special work. The 
No. 5 model had a similar keyboard, but the construction 
and action of the machine were very heavy and as a result 
met with little success. It reversed the style of operating 
the escapement mechanism; the rack working in the dogs 
instead of the dogs working in the rack. 

The No. 6 model, which was the most popular blind 
Remington, was in fact the successor to the No. 2 model, 
having the same keyboard, but many improvements and 
refinements. The No. 7 model was the same as the No. 6 
with the exception that it had eight more characters, the 
same as the No. 3 keyboard. The No. 6 and No. 7 Rem- 
ingtons remained the popular machines for years, in fact 
until other inventors and manufacturers made it necessary 
to abandon that style of construction. 



28 




REMINGTON No. 6 (Blind) 

The typebars of all the various models of the Reming- 
ton typewriter, except the No. I and No. 4, were provided 
with two characters ; the small letters and a few punctuation 
marks were in the lower case; the capitals, the majority of 
the punctuation marks, and all special characters were in 
the upper case. When operated in its normal position the 
machine wrote lower case characters, and in order to get 
upper case characters, it was necessary to use the shift key. 
For this purpose two shift keys were provided; one in the 
lower bank or row of keys on the left side, the other in the 
upper row on the right. These keys being out of line or 
level with each other prevented a properly balanced hand 
action, so essential in touch typewriting. 

The escapement consisted of a rigid and a loose dog 
which operated in a rack. Its construction was crude and 
its action slow because of the carriage friction, and because 
the universal bar which controlled the escapement was be- 
neath the machine and operated by the finger key levers. 
The ringer key levers were made of wood. These were 
resilient and provided a light touch, but they were suscep- 
tible to climatic conditions; in other words they would 



29 

warp, and the spacing was irregular between the finger 
keys, which was not conducive to accuracy in touch type- 
writing. 

The carriage traveled from right to left, supported by 
a way-rod in the back and in front by a grooved wheel 
running on a rod, around which were yoke blocks directly 
connected with the shift key by means of which the upper 
case was controlled. The carriage was drawn by a main- 
spring, and when it approached the end of the writing line 
a bell gave the signal. This signal was given several spaces 
before the end of the line, when the carriage was returned 
by the right hand, at the same time giving new space for 
the succeeding line. While the whole principle and con- 
struction was crude, it was undoubtedly the best machine of 
that style. 

CALIGRAPH 

Mr. Yost, having severed his connection with the 
Remington, began experimenting with a double keyboard 
machine; that is, a machine embodying a principle which 
employed a character for each key. Mr. Yost secured the 
service of Mr. Franz X. Wagner and a Mr. Burn, skilled 
mechanics who had been connected with the typewriter in- 
dustry since the original Sholes machine, and were employed 
at the Remington factory in the later development of the 
Remington. These experiments resulted in the production 
of the Caligraph. 

The advent of the Caligraph developed a difference of 
opinion, with reference to the advantages of the single 
(shift key) and the double keyboard. The principle of a 
character for each key necessarily made the keyboard very 
large. The small letters were on white keys in the center 
of the keyboard, and the capitals arranged on the sides 
with no regard for order or system. There were two space 
bars, one on each side of the keyboard. 



30 



The Caligraph employed a principle in the movement 
of the carriage which never became popular. The carriage 
was not pulled by a mainspring in a spring barrel, but it 
was moved by a cast metal arm attached to the center of 
the carriage. This arm derived its power from a long 
spring encircling an iron bar, running from the front to 
the back of the machine beneath the finger key levers. The 
Caligraph also employed the principle of the single dog and 
the double rack; that is. it had one rigid dog operating in 
the racks. One of the racks was loose and when a key was 
depressed, it moved forward the distance of the space of a 
character, at which point it engaged the dog, which stopped 
the action of the carriage. This style of construction was 
not a success, principally on account of the irregular spac- 
ing caused by increased friction between the racks. 

The Caligraph typebar system had a leverage of the 
third order. This caused a difference in the depth of the 
depression of the several banks of keys, resulting in irregu- 
lar type impressions. At the time of the invention of the 
Caligraph the process of concaving the type was not known, 
and to overcome this limitation in manufacturing facilities, 
the circular platen of the Caligraph consisted of a series of 
facets which provided a flat surface for each line of writ- 
ing. 




CALIGRAPH 
FIRST DOUBLE KEYBOARD MACHINE. 



31 

The principles employed in the typebar and the car- 
riage return were very similar to those employed by the 
Remington. This machine proved a strong competitor of 
the Remington for a number of years, and will be referred 
to again in the course of these steps. 

HAMMOND 

Mr. James B. Hammond, a young man possessed of 
unusual ingenuity, conceived the idea of building a type- 
writer long before he had ever seen or heard of the Sholes- 
Gliddcn efforts. He employed an entirely different prin- 
ciple, however, namely, the type-wheel. When he saw a 
model of the Sholes-Glidden typewriter and reviewed their 
patent claims, it is said he was not in the least discouraged 
but rather stimulated to greater effort. The successful 
operation of the principle involved in the Hammond was 
very difficult to attain. The type-wheel, or shuttle, which 
carried a full font of type and special characters, required 
greater mechanical accuracy than did the typebar principle 
as employed at that time. On this feature alone, which is 
the basic principle of the Hammond, the inventor spent 
many years of patient toil, before it was brought to a state 
of successful operation. 

The Remington Company, having seen a model of the 
Hammond machine during this period, invited the inventor 
to visit Ilion with his machine for their inspection, with the 
result that they tried for more than a year, without success, 
to overcome the difficulties with which the inventor was 
contending. 

Mr. Hammond, possessing a spirit of perseverance, was 
not discouraged by the failure of the Remington, and set 
to work with renewed determination, which resulted, after 
eight years of work, in accomplishing his aim. He pro- 
duced a machine which embodied his ideas, and placed it on 
the market about the year 1884. 



32 

Each type-wheel of the Hammond, as has been ex- 
plained, carried a full font of type, which were instantly 
interchangeable. That is, one type-wheel, or shuttle, might 
be taken out and another inserted without affecting any of 
the working parts of the machine. This was the principle 
for which Mr. Hammond had been striving, and it is on 
account of this feature that the machine has been able to 
hold a position in the business world, although its outlet 
is special and limited. A Hammond type-wheel is made for 
practically every known language, which accounts for its 
sales being confined largely to foreign countries. 

The Hammond, however, lacks many necessary fea- 
tures for practical commercial service. It is not a good 
manifolder, nor has it the speed of a typebar machine, two 
essential qualities highly necessary in the business world to- 
day. The first Hammond typewriter had a circular key- 
board with keys fashioned after the pianoforte. This was 
not popular. The "ideal keyboard" was then tried for the 
reason that its arrangement was more suitable to the opera- 
tion of the shuttle feature of the machine. It was not a 
success. At present a keyboard is used with three shift 
keys; two for capitals and some special characters, one 
located on each side of the keyboard; the other is for fig- 
ures and other special characters. None of these keyboards 
has been satisfactory to the touch typist of the present day. 

The touch of the Hammond typewriter is uniform, so 
also is the typewritten impression, owing to the fact that a 
depression of the key simultaneously turns the shuttle to 
the proper character and releases a hammer which strikes 
the paper from the back, each time with equal force. The 
alignment is good, from the fact that the type do not strike 
the paper direct; but the impression often has a blurred ap- 
pearance. The commercial world today, at least the United 
States, requires speed; it requires a large number of copies 
and the best possible results in every respect; hence the fact 



33 




HAMMOND 

FIRST SUCCESSFUL TYPE-WHEEL MACHINE. 



that the Hammond is little used for commercial purposes in 
the United States. It occupies a special field. 

BAR-LOCK 



The Bar-Lock is the invention of Charles Spiro, of 
New York. Mr. Spiro is also the inventor of the Columbia, 
but it cannot be said that the Bar-Lock is the outgrowth of 
the Columbia from the fact that these two machines have no 
similarity whatsoever. The Columbia was a disc or wheel 
machine and was little more than a toy, while the Bar-Lock is 
a typebar machine, possessing sufficient merit to justify its 
continued manufacture. 

The Bar-Lock is the first "duplicate" keyboard 
machine. That is, it is the first machine with a key for each 
character, having the capitals arranged above the small let- 
ters in the same general order. It is also the first machine 
to be built with the typebars standing in an upright position 
when not in use. The typebars are so arranged that they form 
an arc between the platen and the keyboard. The depression 
of the keys forces the typebars down to the printing point, 
and a spring returns and holds them in position. As a re- 
sult of this style of construction there is constant stress or 



34 

tension on the springs controlling the typebars, which must 
be overcome when the keys are depressed. Thus gravita- 
tion plays no part in the return of the typebars. The type- 
bars are of two lengths, made necessary to accommodate 
them to the space in the arc. 

The Bar-Lock derives its name from a series of pins, 
extending up from a steel plate just in front of the printing 
point, between which the typebars strike. These pins are 
supposed to lock the bars and preserve the alignment. 
There are fourteen pins with thirteen spaces, therefore they 
cannot be termed guides as the type-guide is understood 
today. There is no arrangement by which these pins can 
be adjusted, nor would it be possible, because six typebars 
are supposed to be "locked" by each of these thirteen 
spaces. This makes it necessary to bend the bars, without 
order or system, to fit the spaces between the pins. 

The manufacturers of the Bar-Lock claim for it visible 
writing, whicli it does not have, for the reason that the 
typebars extend up between the vision of the typist and the 
printing point. In order to see the writing line it is necessary 
for the typist to lean forward from the regular position of the 
typist while writing, which is little, if any, improvement over 
lifting a carriage. 

The claims of the manufacturers for visible writing 
served the purpose at least of suggesting the advantages 
that might accrue from a machine actually possessing visi- 
bility. 

The insertion of the paper is not convenient, as it is 
necessary to reach around back of the perpendicular row of 
keys. This also makes corrections difficult, especially where 
erasures are necessary. 

The manufacturers also built the Bar-Lock with the 
universal standard keyboard, employing the shift key. Al- 
though this machine was invented and manufactured in the 
United States, it did not meet the requirements of the ex- 



35 




BAR-LOCK 

FIRST "DUPLICATE" KEYBOARD, DOWN-STROKE MACHINE. 

acting American business man, and as a result is no longer 
offered for sale in the country in which it originated. 

DENSMORE 

James Densmore, whose connection with the Sholes, 
Glidden and Soule experiments has already been mentioned, 
later invented a machine to which he gave his name — Dens- 
more. This machine embodied some new features. It had 
the first line-lock. The purpose of this was to prevent the 
piling of characters at the end of the line. It was the first 
to employ ball-bearings in the typebar, and it also intro- 
duced the back-spacer in a practical manner. 

The Densmore had a keyboard similar to the Reming- 
ton with a shift key on each side. In an effort to make it 
more convenient to "get at the work," the inventor devised 
a plan by which the platen might be tilted forward in addi- 
tion to raising the carriage. 

The original Densmore did not have ball-bearing type- 
bars. These were introduced in the later model. The in- 
ventors appreciated the fact that the shock in starting the 
balls, which necessarily followed a stroke of the finger keys, 
would cause unusual wear not only on the balls but on the 
retaining cup. Hence, an accelerating arm or sleeve was 



36 

provided to start the typebars, thus relieving the balls of 
the shock by first receiving the blow and lifting the type- 
bars on the ball-bearings to the printing point. This was 
not a success, as the friction on the accelerating arm offset 
any possible advantage that might have been gained by the 
ball-bearings, although it did relieve the strain or shock on 
the balls, resulting from the quick, sharp stroke of the keys. 




DENSMORE 

The machine at one time was used quite extensively in 
the United States. It embodied the same general principles 
as the Remington, which may have accounted for its popu- 
larity in the typewriter world. Its manufacture, however, 
was discontinued, the cause for which will be commented 
upon later. 

YOST 



G. W. N. Yost, who figured in the production of the 
first practical typewriter and also produced the Caligraph, 
later brought out a machine to which he gave his name — 



37 

Yost. This was the first machine of any importance to use 
an inking pad instead of a ribbon. It was also the first 
practical machine to use a type-guide at the printing point. 
(This principle was first employed by Dr. Francis.) The 
guide consisted of a solid block of metal with a square hole 
in which the type block fitted securely. The work of the 
Yost was always considered neat and attractive, largely the 
result of the guide, but the guide was not adjustable. The 
typebars were made in several sections, and had the machine 
not been provided with a guide it is doubtful whether the 
work would have been presentable. 

Although the Yost was invented by an American and 
built at Bridgeport, Conn., it could not hold its position 
against the more active and effective competition in its own 
country and was forced, like the Bar-Lock, to find a foreign 
market. 

This machine will be referred to again in the course 
of the evolution of the typewriter, for the reason that later 
inventions compelled its manufacturers to change its prin- 
ciples of construction almost enirely. ( See page 104) 

SPEED CONTESTS 

Just preceding the year 1888 the typewriter had grown 
in popularity to such an extent that competition arose among 
the users as well as the manufacturers concerning the speed 
qualities of their respective machines. This competition was 
stimulated by the demand of the buyer and user who recog- 
nized the value of speed, accuracy, and legibility. Accord- 
ingly, a contest was arranged to ascertain the respective 
speed merits of the various makes of typewriters. This con- 
test was held at Toronto, Canada, in August, 1888. Only 
the Remington and the Caligraph participated. One of the 
features of this series of contests was writing for five min- 
utes from the memorized sentence "This is a song to fill thee 



38 

with delight." This contest was won by Mr. F. W. Os- 
borne, using the Caligraph. 

In reporting this series of contests, the Phonographic 
World, the policy of which was controlled by the Reming- 
ton Typewriter Company, made no reference to the contest 
won by the Caligraph operator. In the November issue, 
however, of 1888, in response to numerous inquiries, the 
World produced an extensive article of which the following 
are extracts: 

"By those who have kept informed concerning the re- 
sults of the recent 'Speed Contests' between the 'Reming- 
ton' and 'Caligraph' writing machines (the only two 
machines which have dared to enter for a public contest in 
the world), it will be remembered that at the International 
Contest at Toronto, August 13 (1888) last, three leading 
medals were awarded by the Committee in charge, the first 
two being given to the 'Remington,' and the third to the 
'Caligraph.' The first, a Gold Medal, representing the 
championship of the world for the greatest speed in writing 
unfamiliar testimony and business correspondence, was won 
by Miss M. E. Orr, of New York, a Remington operator; 
the second, a Silver Medal, in the same class, was won by 
Mr. F. E. McGurrin, of Salt Lake City, Utah, also a Rem- 
ington operator; and the third, a Special Medal, being 
awarded to Mr. F. W. Osborne, of Rochester, N. Y., for 
writing the memorized sentence, "This is a song to fill thee 
with delight," the greatest number of times, the operator 
using the Caligraph." . . . 

"We show exact fac-similes of the work of both 
machines. These pages have been photographed directly 
from the original copy and are signed by the operators of 
each instrument. Both pages show excellent work, con- 
sidering the rapidity with which the keys were struck, and 
although the Caligraph operator is credited with writing 
sixty-seven more words than the Remington operator, 



39 

. . the sentence was written correctly by the Caligraph 
operator only twice, while the Remington operator, in less 
times, wrote it correctly forty-nine times." . . . 

"To have given in the World's report a full statement 
of the writing of the memorized sentence would have been 
to more widely advertise the Remington machine than was 
called for at the time in a news article, or than we cared 
to do. . . . But, as before stated, we have received 
numerous inquiries as to why the World had not reported 
this matter, and we here present it, in absolute fac-simile, 
and with straightforward facts, leaving the intelligent read- 
er to be judge of the respective merits of the two perform- 
ances." 

There is much truth worthy of consideration contained 
in these extracts taken from the Phonographic World, 
which applies with equal force to the contests of today, 
especially with relation to the quality of the work. The 
World leaves "the intelligent reader to be judge of the 
respective merits of the two performances," and for that 
reason a part of the fac-simile copies are submitted on the fol- 
lowing two pages. 

Typewriting contests were revived many years later, 
after the typewriter had been greatly refined and improved. 
On page 42 is a fac-simile, photographic reproduction of 
a part of the work of Miss Rose L. Fritz, writing in open con- 
test at the rate of 1 18 words a minute for fifteen minutes with- 
out error of any kind. "The intelligent reader" or buyer will 
"judge of the respective merits of the two performances." 

In some of the recent contests writers using other 
machines than the Underwood have made excellent records, 
and the work was considered technically correct, according 
to the rules, but the "intelligent reader" would not accept 
the work as practical; at least, he would not attach his 
signature to it; nor will those in control permit copies to 
be reproduced in this book. 



4P 



X> 

to 

& 

to 
id 

CO 



o 

■¥-» 
•*» CO 

s £ 

o ^ 

CO Xj 

CO %H 
^.^ 

tO 



to 

■H 

£xj 

■a* 
«<* 

^rH 

XJ -* 
o 



o3 

CO 



TO 
03 

CO 

H 



o 



Si 

co 



o 



a * 



H 



S <^ 



to 

S 

to 

0> 

CO 



V 4 H 
d> 

xj cl 

? to 

© 

XJ 



rH 
«H 

o 

p 






O CO 
tOH 

co xj 



•H 0) 


*» CO 


to xj 


3 W 


X< T-1 


. •«-• 


H s 




*' 




^H.J« 


•U 


tf^ 


o gJ 


^ »-* 


c3 tJ 


Xj -^ 


«fl 


i-f. 


«T8 



0> X} tf 

CO ^> 

CO t-» «H rt W 

t-* O ,, 5 -M ^1 

-^ fc Xj 

co tp • o to to ^» 

•H. Xj G +, G> CJ^^Q 

£-• *c* w £.»*» CO H tc 

» « • xj 5 co 

a !Tl " ^ ° '■» «J ■"* w 

is 3 "S "J ** * (2 ,r * * 

3 M "2 vi *« *0 rH rH*<- ^ , 

!w^Hri|0 W -SM 




o 



09 



6 


CO 
•H 




CO 


C3 


Jq 




•H 


-i-> 


c3 




•r-4 




H 


^ 


CO 


• 




•H 




\*' 


CO 


« 


:'J 


•H 


to 




Xj 


•H 


+> 


H 


- 1 


H 


f» 


T3 


— 1 



to 



■6 



*7l xj 



"to 
a) c 
CO o 
x! to 



o 
to 

s 

to 
w 

•H 

CO 
•H 

h 



o 

to to o> 

R ^ XX 
o ** 

CO 

CO +* r-H 

Xj •-* 

•H .tp 

^-H O 

CO (D ^ 

■H "rt 

X3 ** 

g ^a tO 

*5 •£ fa 

t: ^ o 

4> 8 rt 

•g xj - 

xj +> in 



co 



o co 



•5 H^ £-* ^ O -H 









s •*, 

xj oj 



o 



CO XJ 



'XJ O r^ 
CO ^1 



•H 



BO 



5 H W 

xj o • 
"1 CJ -P 






<« 



8 



M . ^* ,_ —, H XJ rH -H *0 ,H 

S ^ ^ J3 3 " 5 O -H 

j5 5f.cS S, £v ^J <? { 
K nj rf v rH <u n> rH 05 £ 

- Z; * H * •*-> ** -gi H w j ° « 

-:'^h * &*< * £■*«>*» £2 

T5 



T5 <*^ 




•P H ■ 
.C rt «H 



G) 


-■a 


.C 


to-n 


•P 


Q © 


* 


W #tf 


S 





H « fl> 

*H Bd ^S 



« 85 



42 



p* 









































Tb 


P 




Ti 


§ 




a: 
o 








1 

H 


CO 


•H 


•H 


CO 
•H 


9 




•d 


•H 


•0 






© 




<H 


P 




O 


nd 





.4 


CD 


• 


>d 




P 




o 


P 


<H 


o 


03 


& 


h 


© 


o 


U 


i-l 


fH 


ft 


f-4 




o 






•H 


o 


o 


o 




rH 








© 


oo 


© 


<h 


o3 


fi 


00 


<H 




•H 




ft 


A3 




O 


o 


,0 






• 


^ 


CO 






03 







l 




<H 


CO 


© 




p 


© 


o 




h 


,0 


&0 


a 


O 


s 


,* 


C3 


o 


B 


+3 


OQ 


ft 


o 


a 


gj 




•H 


O 


ft 


o 




CO 


CO 


03 


o 


s 


P 


o 


rH 


F>> 


CO 


CO 


CO 


o 




© 


rH 





CO 


A 










•H 


u 


© 






,0 


•H 


P 


© 


U 


© 


p 




o 


,0 


** 


CD 




rH 




^3 


© 


> 


1 


A 





+3 


fl 


CO 


© 




U 


+J 


t> 


o5 


o 






05 


o 


,0 


© 


a) 




o 


^3 


p 


•H 


9 


od 




,0 


«P 


,0 


© 


t5 








A^ 


a 


« 


p 




P 


A? 


A 


p 


p 


p 


^ 


*H 


a) 


A 




<H 






05 


•H 


o 


o 








» 


© 


O 


O 


rCj 












^ 


rH 


© 


o 


o 




P 


o 


T* 


M 




«H 


O 


rH 










P 


£ 


•H 


O 


A 


•d 




o 


•H 


♦H 


CO 


•H 


M 


«H 


,0 


o 


•H 


•H 


P> 


00 


& 


a. 


p 


CO 


a3 




* 


& 


^3 


»0 


u 








•H 




ft 


h 




00 


p 




© 


© 





© 




M 




© 


© 


o 




^ 


t> 


A 


O 


,0 


<H 


07 


00 


p 


CO 


T* 


p 


o 




p 


P»> 


p 


O 


t» 


a 


A 


o 







•H 


© 










© 


•H 


© 


r0 


© 


^3 


A 


r0 


p* 


CO 


^ 


a> 




© 




P 


^3 




J* 


EH 


rH 


ti 


a 


CO 


(0 


jO 


p 




p 


«H 






a 1 


o 


a) 


o 


h 




o 


•> 




r-l 


00 




o 




ft 


a? 


CO 





© 


«k 


•H 





• 


o 


& 


Al 


h 


p 


03 




CO 


CO 


^ 


•H 


IN 


H 




03 










o 


O 







^ 


© 


p 


© 


o 


ft 


•H 





*0 


ft 


o 





P 


p 


CO 


A 






03 


O 




H 


a 


O 




p 




-»j 


© 


a3 


ft 


ft 


p 





o 


P> 


rd 


© 


© 




,0 






^ 


J8 


ft 


CO 




O 


,a 


M 


p 


-p 


CO 


»0 






•H 


<H 


O 




o 


•3 




© 


A 


«0 


P 


t* 


O 


^-t 


00 


p 


Q 




o 


t> 


03 


© 




o 


ft 






•H 




r* 


CD 


h 




r^ 


CO 


o 




'C* 


F>> 




p 


rH 


CO 


<D 


CO 


o 


© 


op 


© 


C 





© 





a) 




CO 


p 


o 


© 




u 


03 


o3 


M 


O 


& 


rH 




a> 


rH 


M 


o 


a 






v"^ 






rH 


,0 


o 




p 







CO 


P 


t3 


00 





♦H 


o 


ft 


© 






a 


t-i 


© 









£ 


•H 




rQ 


«0 


© 


o 


r-i 


r>> 


-0 


•H 


© 




,0 


<H 




A 


> 


•H 







rH 


h 


M 





& 


O 


o 


♦H 


h 


rC 


ft 


h 





^a 


03 


O 






p 


<H 


© 


^ 




© 


O 




P 


JH 


«H 


CD 






CO 




A 


> 


^ 


o 






O 


S 


a 


o 




CO 


P 


© 




p 


r-l 






© 


05 


CO 


,0 


H 


•H 





P 




H 


• 


,0 


,0 


60 


rH 


o 


© 


£ 







CO 


•rt 


CO 


o 


P 


© 


03 


•H 


^3 




CO 


O 


*0 


£ 


<D 


a 




,o 




,0 


P 


© 


«5 









© 


© 


© 




r-l 


* 


© 


a 


^ 


P 


© • 





h 




,0 


CO 


rH 






03 







p p 


O 


•p 


* 


P 


rH 


•H 


»0 


^3 


CO 


© 


o 


CO 


P>> 




o 




d 


& 


£ 


C 




t-i 




f> © 




«H 


rH 










a) 


03 


© 


© 


«H 


rH hi 


«H 


O 


Pi 


© 


"XJ 









A 


,0 


•H 





M 




grj 


© 


•H 


O 


CO 


« 


p 


P 




O © 




CO 


Q 


,o 


> 


S>> 


00 


© 






^3 


,0 




T* 






•H 




£ 


r-i 


p 


P 


O 


rH P 






CD 

,0 


CO 

03 




P 




,0 


& 


CO 



1 


•H 

>3 


•H 

> 




M 


«P 


A 


•H 


« 


P 


o3 


•*-j 


P 


^ 


© «rl 



43 

SMITH PREMIER 

The Smith Premier typewriter is the invention of Alex- 
ander T. Brown, of Syracuse, N. Y., and it got its name 
from L. C. Smith, famous as a manufacturer of guns. 
This machine appeared on the market in about the year 1890. 
It has a duplicate keyboard, or, as its manufacturers term 
it, a "complete" keyboard, having a key for each character. 
The Smith Premier embodied many features that were 
superior to either the Caligraph or Bar-Lock, the two 
machines preceding it having a character for each key. 

The rocker shaft principle employed in this machine 
was new in typewriter construction. Each finger key stem 
was attached to a spur on the shaft, and another spur on 
the shaft was attached to the connecting link, which oper- 
ated the typebar. The typebars were suspended in a circle, 
and the impression or line of writing was beneath the cylin- 
der out of sight, as was the custom of that day. The bear- 
ings of the typebar of the Smith Premier were very long, 
which gave better control of the alignment than on any 
of the previous machines. 

The Smith Premier had but one scale and it was not 
necessary to lift the entire carriage to see the work. The 
platen was tilted forward by a lever in a convenient man- 
ner, and the writing line appeared just above the scale. 
Erasures and corrections were quickly and accurately made. 
The machine also employed the first practical means of re- 
versing the ribbon automatically. 

Another feature of this machine was the easy means 
by which the type were cleaned. A circular brush which 
rested just below the typebars was built in the machine. 
When it was desired to clean the type the platen was re- 
moved, a crank handle inserted and turned until the brush 
was brought up into contact with the face of the type, when 
a few additional turns effectually cleaned them. This was 



44 




SMITH PREMIER (Blind) 

quite an advantage at that time, because in order to clean 
the type on the Remington and other machines, it was 
necessary to raise the carriage, lift each individual type- 
bar, and brush the type one at a time. This always re- 
sulted in soiling the hands and for this reason the typist 
neglected cleaning the type until the untidy appearance of 
the work made it absolutely necessary. The Smith Pre- 
mier proved a strong competitor for the Remington, both 
on account of its merit and the methods of the manufac- 
turer in selling the machine, without regard to uniform 
price. On account of unusual activity and price cutting 
the Smith Premier soon secured a large following. 

UNION TYPEWRITER COMPANY 



The quality of the Smith Premier and other machines, 
together with the price cutting methods of the manufac- 
turers, resulted in forcing the Remington, out of self-pro- 
tection, into a combination known as the Union Typewriter 
Company, composed of the Remington. Caligraph (New 
Century), Smith Premier, Yost, Densmore, and other com- 
panies. This combination was formed in 1893 f° r the P ur_ 
pose of eliminating competition and maintaining the price. 



45 

These companies continued separate organizations but re- 
ceived instructions from, and reported to, the Union Type- 
writer Company, which controlled the entire situation most 
effectually, both as to machine competition and employes. 
In other words, employes could not follow their conviction 
and go from one company to another without the permis- 
sion of the company they were leaving, which was difficult 
to obtain, especially if the quality of their services was such 
as to justify any one of the companies belonging to the 
Union Typewriter Company in wanting to retain them. Sales- 
men and other employes were subject to discharge on account 
of the slightest error or misdemeanor, and they had no re- 
course except to quit the business, thereby sacrificing the 
experience of years. When a salesman was discharged, his 
name was placed on a black list, and only by special dispen- 
sation could he secure employment with any of the afore- 
said companies. 

In harmony with a universal law this combination re- 
sulted in the "survival of the fittest." The Remington type- 
writer was a single shift key machine, and the Smith 
Premier a duplicate keyboard machine. The Caligraph, 
Densmore and Yost embodied no special features that 
would justify the expense of maintaining separate organ- 
izations to market them. As a result they were placed 
under one sales department and finally withdrawn from the 
American market. The manufacture of the Caligraph and 
Densmore was discontinued entirely, but the Yost embodied 
certain characteristic features which appealed to the for- 
eign trade, where it now finds its only market. 

This combination exists today, but the evolution of the 
typewriter and the Federal laws have compelled them to 
change their policy, and the Remington Typewriter Com- 
pany has now assumed direct and complete control. They 
now make the Remington, Remington Smith Premier and 
the Remington Monarch, a later product, information con- 
cerning which will be presented under the title "Monarch." 



WILLIAMS 

The construction of the Williams typewriter is peculiar. 
The platen and the paper carrier traveled through the center 
of the machine, between two sections of typebars. It was 
necessary, therefore, for one section of the type to strike 
forward and the other backward, which made a ditYerence 
in the leverage and key tension. The Williams employed 
two pads for inking purposes, one for each section of type- 
bars. The type lay on the pads face downward when at 
rest, and as a result it was very difficult to clean them. The 
pads were quite moist and always exposed to dust. 

When a finger key in the front section of typebars was 
struck, the typebar was lifted up. moved backward and 

dozen. — three distinct directions. The type in the back sec- 
tion were, of course, operated in a similar manner. up, 
forward and down. The Williams was a double shift key 
machine: that is. it employed one shift key for the capitals 
and the other for the figures and special characters. The 
typebar construction was very complicated. 



...-.,— •'..»•• 




WILLIAMS TYPEBAR 

CONSTRUCTION AND ACTION. 



The manufacturers of the Williams claimed for it visi- 
ble writing, and the machine did actually enable the typist 
to see one complete line of writing", but this immediately 
passed out of view under a scale into a receptacle for the 
paper between the typebar sections. The manufacturers 






47 

brought out several models of the Williams, but the great- 
est success of the machine consisted in stimulating the de- 
sire on the part of the typist for an actual visible type- 
writer. 

The Williams was not fast; it was not a good mani- 
f older; it was not convenient to insert paper; the type were 
not easily cleaned; and its only redeeming feature was the 
one line of visible writing. 

NEW CENTURY 

The New Century appeared on the market in 1898. It 
was generally considered an improved Caligraph, and for 
this reason it received some considerable attention. It had 
a number of improvements over the Caligraph, but retained 
the double keyboard principle. It came at a time, however, 
when the public were clamoring for visible writing, and 
because of this fact, together with the fact that it was a 
double keyboard machine, it was unable to make any head- 
way, and its manufacture was soon discontinued. 

BLICKENSDERFER 

The Blickensderfer typewriter made its appearance in 
the early nineties, and is still on the market, therefore it is 
entitled to consideration in these steps. This machine, 
commonly known as the "Blick," is a type-wheel machine; 
that is, the type are all arranged on a wheel, and every 
type moves when each key is struck. The type do not act 
independently as on most machines, hence it became neces- 
sary to arrange a special keyboard in order to produce the 
best results from this style of construction, and because of 
this special keyboard the machine did not meet with favor 
among touch typists. The supply of ink is obtained from 
a roller pad. 

The "Blick" is small, hence easily portable; it is also 
a cheap machine, and the style of type may be changed by 



48 

changing the wheel. Because of its portability, its sim- 
plicity, the ease of changing type, and its price, it has won 
a place, or at least a niche, in the commercial world. How- 
ever, it is not found in the large and more important offices 
where quantity and quality of work are the prime consid- 
erations, but among those who have little work, do it them- 
selves, and want it done on a typewriter. 




BUCKKNSDERPKR 

(LATE MODEL) 



Mr. Blickensderfer died August, 191 7, since the fore- 
going was written. 

BUCK ELECTRIC 

The maufacturers of the "Blick" produced an electric 
machine, which promised to revolutionize the typewriter 
business, but the promise was not fulfilled. It had its ad- 
vantages, but the disadvantages evidently were greater, 
because of the complications of the electric motor require- 
ments. The carriage reverse and all other active parts of 
the machine were controlled by electricity, but the best evi- 
dence of its imperfection is that its manufacture was soon 



49 

discontinued. The electric typewriter would eliminate to a 
great extent the human element, and for that reason it is not 
likely to become popular. 

MANHATTAN 

The Manhattan typewriter was composed of features 
that were formerly embodied in the No. 2 Remington. It 
had no original principles and there was no excuse for its 
having been constructed. It resembled very much in form 
and feature the No. 2 model Remington, which the Rem- 
ington Company had already discarded, and as a result of 
going backward instead of forward, it had a very short, 
unprofitable experience in the business world. 

FRANKLIN 

The Franklin typewriter is not entitled to space in con- 
sidering the evolution of the typewriter, because it ad- 
vanced no new ideas, it possessed no new features, and as 
a result it was short-lived. The typebars stood up in front, 
between the keyboard and the platen, and struck down after 
the fashion of the Bar-Lock. The keyboard was circular 
and non-standard. The only reason it is given space here 
is that it did receive some consideration from the business 
world which contributed somewhat to the education of the 
public to the appreciation of the commercial value of the 
typewriter. 

The public having begun to recognize the value of the 
typewriter, and the sales system of the manufacturers of 
the better writing machines not having been thoroughly 
organized, a number of cheaper, inefficient typewriters 
found a market. This will account for the mention of a 
number of typewriters that really possessed no features that 
contributed to the evolution of the typewriter. However, 



50 

the business man soon began to appreciate the fact that the 
best was really the cheapest. 

REMINGTON-SHOLES 

This machine got its name from a Mr. Remington and 
a Mr. Sholes, who were the patentees. These gentlemen 
were direct descendants of the Remington and Sholes fami- 
lies of typewriter fame. They advanced the foolish argu- 
ment that "if horses and dogs are bought by pedigree the 
same plan might well be adopted in selecting a typewriter." 
The name Remington-Sholes attracted more attention than 
any other feature of the machine, but it was finally changed 
to Rem-Sho, for legal reasons. 




REM-SHO 

FIRST BASKET-SHIFT MACHINE. 



The Remington Typewriter Company sought and se- 
cured an injunction restraining the use of the name "Rem" 
as an abbreviation of Remington, hence the name was 
changed to Fay-Sho. The case was appealed, and the 
court's decision which gave the injunction was reversed. In 
the meantime, however, the machine had lost favor, if it 
ever possessed any, with the public, and it was compelled 
to seek a foreign market, as did several other machines that 



51 

were unable to make good in the United States. Later, 
this machine was reconstructed almost entirely and given 
the name Japy, as the "pedigree" proposition had failed to 
contribute to its success as had been anticipated. 

The "Rem-Sho,-Fay-Sho,-Japy" had a keyboard similar 
to the Remington, but instead of shifting the platen the 
whole type basket was shifted. This machine, of numerous 
aliases, therefore, is entitled to the distinction of being the 
first to shift the type basket for capitals. Another feature 
that met with some favor was the interchangeable carriage. 
It was possible to use carriages of different lengths on this 
machine. It was also the first blind machine to have the 
marginal stops in front. 

YETMAN 

The Yetman typewriter was invented by Charles E. 
Yetman, who labored for many years trying to bring it to 
a degree of perfection that would justify its being placed 
upon the market. This he succeeded in doing about the 
year 1903. 

This machine was intended to serve a double purpose. 
That is, it might be used as a regular commercial machine, 
but its principal purpose was for the transmission of tele- 
graphic messages. By pressing a lever on the left of this 
machine it would open a telegraphic circuit and connect the 
keys in such a way that telegraphic messages could be sent. 
A corresponding lever on the right side connected the key- 
board with the typebars and a message could be sent and a 
copy made in type at the same time. It was also possible, 
by releasing the lever on the left, to convert it into a type- 
writer for ordinary commercial use, without any connec- 
tion with the telegraphic circuit. It will be seen, therefore, 
that the machine could be used for either or both pur- 
poses. 



52 

The work of this machine was effectual, and it seems 
strange that the principle has not survived and developed; 
but it was evidently impractical from the fact that it has not 
been revived since the company, organized to promote it, 
met with reverses which caused its failure. The career of 
this machine was short, but it promoted the idea of visible 
typewriting among telegraph operators, for whom it was 
primarily intended. Although few machines were made 
and used, the telegraph operators learned through the 
Telegraphic Age to appreciate the value of visible writing 
for receiving and transmitting messages. 

FOX 

The Fox typewriter is a machine that possesses no 
special merit. Its principal asset, in the original blind 
machine, consisted in the typebar hangers. Its manufac- 
turers claimed that wear and consequent lost motion in the 
typebar bearings, which would affect the alignment, could 
be readily adjusted. It was originally built after the style 
of the Remington, that is, employing the understroke blind 
writing principle. 

All manufacturers up to this time found difficulty in 
building their regular machine in such a manner that it 
would respond to the speed of the typist, and most of them 
provided special escapements, or reverse-action dogs, which 
an ordinary operator could not use. The Fox typewriter 
made an escapement which could be adjusted to meet the 
requirements of the typist more nearly than any of the pre- 
ceding machines. It was possible to cause the escapement 
to be made either on the upward or downward movement 
of the typebar. 

The Fox contained no other improvements that might 
be considered in the evolution of the typewriter over the 
machines that had preceded it and did not possess sufficient 
merit in its blind style of construction, or in any other 



53 

style for that matter, to encourage a very extensive trade, 
as compared with some other machines. 

PEERLESS 

The Peerless typewriter is perhaps entitled to mention, 
not because of the value of the machine, but because the 
Smith Brothers, who became famous through the manufac- 
ture of the Smith Premier typewriter and later the machine 
to which they gave their name, were interested in the 
machine. The Peerless typewriter was a double keyboard 
machine. It contained no advantages over previous 
machines and is given space here only for the reason as 
stated above. 

DUPLEX 

The Duplex typewriter was an invention that did not 
serve the purpose for which it was intended, that is, to in- 
crease the speed of the typist. It was a double keyboard 
machine divided into four sections. The capitals were on the 
upper left side. There were two sets of small letters occu- 
pying the lower half of the keyboard, while the upper right 
half of the keyboard was taken up with numerals and punc- 
tuation marks. It provided a means by which two keys 
might be struck at the same time, thereby making two im- 
pressions at once. That is, the typebars on the left struck 
one space ahead of those on the right, and by striking any 
two keys on opposite sides at the same time, it would give 
two impressions in the proper space, the left coming first. 

This method of operating was found to retard,' rather 
than advance, the speed of the typist, and as a result the 
purpose of the machine was not realized and its manufac- 
ture was discontinued. 

ELLIOTT-FISHER 
The original idea of the early inventors of typewriters, 



54 

it seems, was to write in bound books, but no practical re- 
sults in this direction had been attained until the Elliott 
Book Typewriter was placed upon the market. This ma- 
chine was later supplemented by improvements brought out 
by a Mr. Hatch and the machine became known as the 
Elliott and Hatch typewriter. This machine reversed the 
general style of typewriter construction by having a sta- 
tionary, flat writing plate and a movable head and key- 
board. It would indeed write on books quite successfully, 
but it required a great deal of shifting and adjusting to 
hold the bound page securely in position in order to pro- 
duce satisfactory results. The machine traveled from left 
to right across and down the page. The entire machine 
swung on a back way-rod, and was supported in front by 
two wheels running on a flat steel track. This way-rod and 
front track or frame were parallel, and supported the ma- 
chine in its movement from left to right. The side frame 
or plates, which supported the machine in its course down 
the page, were cogged to correspond with two cog-wheels 
which measured the line spacing. 

This machine was not fast, because of the. fact that the 
entire machine traveled over the printed page, instead of 
carrying the page as did all other machines preceding it. 
This changed the position of the keyboard from the left to 
right every time a key was struck. It also necessitated a 
change of the entire machine downward every time a line 
was written. In other words, the entire machine traveled 
on a frame over the writing plate from the upper left hand 
corner of a book or printed page, down to the lower right 
hand corner. If the book was large the arms had to be ex- 
tended to write the first line, while on the lower line it was 
necessary to draw the arms down following the movement 
of the machine. In fact, the finger keys never occupied the 
same position twice in writing a page. It will be seen 
from this that speed, together with accuracy, was impos- 
sible. 



55 

The work was beneath the machine and the whole type- 
bar and finger key lever system, ribbon, and all working 
parts of the machine had to be moved in order to see the 
work. 

During its introductory period a machine was invented 
by Robert J. Fisher, embodying the same general princi- 
ples so far as the operation of the machine laterally and up 
and down was concerned. Two draw bands, or main- 
springs, were necessary to pull the machine, The type- 
bars stood above the printing point and struck downward, 
something after the fashion of the Bar-Lock. The key- 
board was on top of the machine above the typebars, which 
made type-cleaning extremely difficult. This machine re- 
quired three universal bars for the keys; one for the lower 
bank, another for the second and third banks, and a third 
for the upper bank. 

By pressing a lever which threw the ribbon back, it 
was possible for the operator to look down through the 
machine and see the work to ascertain whether or not a 
mistake had been made. If it was found that a correction 
was necessary, the whole working parts of the machine had 
to be moved. On the Elliott and Hatch machine, if the 
operator was in doubt, it was necessary to move the entire 
machine to remove the doubt. 

A combination was formed between Fisher and the 
Elliott & Hatch Company, which became known as the 
Elliot-Fisher Company. This was due principally to the 
fact that the Fisher machine made it more convenient to 
see the writing. In other words, the necessity for visible 
writing was recognized in order to satisfy a desire with 
which the minds of the typist and the business public had 
become imbued. 

The Elliott-Fisher writes on a flat surface and there 
are many claims made for the machine on account of this 
fact, but the loose-leaf system of binding books soon mini- 



56 

mized the advantage of the Elliott-Fisher machine for 
writing in books and as a result the company has turned 
its attention almost entirely to billing and form work. 
For some time their business was quite extensive in this 
line, and it is still their principal asset, but progress means 
development, and the typewriter industry provides no ex- 
ception. The Elliott-Fisher is still active, but not to any 
great extent as a correspondence or book typewriter, the 
purpose for which it was originally designed. The follow- 
ing is a cut of the latest model Elliott-Fisher. 




ELUOTT-FISHER 



The machine of today embodies the same general prin- 
ciple. The improvement consists principally in making the 
work more visible. 






OLIVER 



The Oliver typewriter is indeed an ingenious machine. 
It is the product of the mind of Thomas Oliver, a minister. 
It is said that Mr. Oliver, at a conference of ministers, 



57 

learned of the value of the typewriter for preparing and 
preserving records of semons, and although he had never 
seen a typewriter, he determined to construct one. The 
truth of this statement is confirmed by the general appear- 
ance of the machine, as there has never been a typewriter 
of similar construction either before or since. 

The typebars stand erect in two banks, one on each 
side of the printing point. There are fourteen typebars in 
each bank which stand a little back of perpendicular when 
in a position of rest. These typebars vary in length; that 
is, beginning with the inside bar, each succeeding bar in 
the bank is just a little longer, stands a little higher, and 
sets a little farther back than the one preceding it. Both 
banks are alike, that is, the typebars in each bank are of 
corresponding length. The outside bars, or those at the 
extreme right and left, are about three times as long as 
the inside bars. 

To make these bars strike a common center with the 
same degree of speed and force was indeed a difficult 
mechanical problem. The typeblocks on the inside bars 
are just a little heavier than on each succeeding bar, to make 
up the necessary force that a body having a greater drop 
acquires from gravitation. It was also necessary to change 
the leverage of each succeeding bar, in order that the speed 
might be increased accordingly. As these typebars stand 
in an upright position when not in operation, they require 
tension springs to return them to this position. Although 
the forward movement of the typebar can be regulated by 
leverage to equalize the speed of the typebars, and the 
weight of the typeblock regulated to equalize the impres- 
sion, this leverage and weight must be overcome in the re- 
turn of the typebars. The connecting links that control the 
typebars are attached to "shock absorbers" on the finger 
key lever. This is necessary to prevent a disagreeable 
touch in starting the typebars, which incline a little back of 
perpendicular when in a position of rest. 



58 

Each typebar carries three characters. This makes a 
double shift necessary. When the carriage is in its normal 
or central position, the machine writes small characters 
without shifting. To write capitals the carriage must be 
shifted backward, while the figures and punctuation marks 
require a forward shift. It is absolutely necessary that the 
desk on which this machine sets be level, otherwise the 
shifts work very irregularly. In fact, if the desk be sloped 
equal to that of a cashier's desk, the backward shift will not 
work at all. The shift keys at best are very heavy because 
they are not aided by gravitation. 

Visible writing is claimed by the Oliver, but the claim 
is without the foundation of fact, at least in the sense of 
complete visibility. Only the last ten characters of the line 
of writing can be seen, and if it is necessary to read the 
complete line or several lines to get the context, the car- 
riage must be released and moved back and forth in order 
that the writing line may appear in the reading space be- 
tween the two banks of typebars. Therefore, to read sev- 
eral lines on the Oliver might be aptly compared with read- 
ing a newspaper through a knot-hole. 

The Oliver is considered a good manif older; it does 
good stencil work; it maintains its alignment fairly well; 
and is considered quite durable, but it lacks speed; it does 
not have a standard keyboard ; it is extremely noisy, and 
when it is necessary to make erasures they have to be made 
between the two banks of type. This necessitates great 
care, lest the hand become soiled by contact with the face 
of the type, which are the most exposed part of the 
machine. The adjustments, levers, and releases used in the 
operation of the Oliver are back and below the typebars. 
There is no carriage reverse lever. The carriage is re- 
versed by the left hand pushing in on the cylinder knob, 
and as a result the line spacing does not take place until 
the carriage approaches the end of the line. In fact, the 



59 

Oliver lacks many refinements and conveniences that other 
typewriters have. 

The machine, however, is better than the policy of the 
company, which has always been uncertain and vacillating. 
There has never been any fixed price on the machine, al- 
though catalogued at one hundred dollars. Within the last 
few months the price has been advertised openly at forty- 
nine dollars, which would be about the average price re- 
ceived for the machine since its introduction. This price, 
however, demonstrates that the manufacturers recognize 
that it is not worth what other machines bring, and this 
change has placed it in its proper position — about half the 
standard value. 




OLIVER 



When the Oliver was first placed on the market its 
manufacturers and salesmen everywhere claimed for it visi- 
ble writing, all of which served to stimulate the increasing 
desire for a typewriter that would actually produce visible 
writing. 



60 

VISIBLE WRITERS 

The development of manufacturing facilities, the re- 
quirements of the business man and the demands of the 
typist, resulted in directing the efforts of inventors to- 
ward producing a strictly visible writing machine, as has 
been shown. Many unsuccessful efforts had been made, 
and some manufacturers actually claimed visible writing, 
but their claims were not sustained by practical results, 
as some machines only showed one line, others a short 
space between the bars, while on others it was necessary 
for the operator to lean forward in order to see the work. 

PROUTY 

In response to the requirements of a universal demand 
many efforts were made to invent a machine that would 
produce and continue visible writing from the first to the 
last word. In 1888, E. Prouty, of Chicago, Illinois, in- 
vented a front stroke machine to which he gave his name. 
Mr. Prouty more nearly accomplished the desired result 




PROUTY 

FIRST FRONT STROKE MACHINE'. 



61 

than any former inventor,- but he failed in that the writing 
was hidden to the extent of the width of the ribbon. This 
machine, therefore, contained nothing more than an idea, 
which, having been sown in the fertile mind of genius, 
took root and produced an abundantly satisfactory har- 
vest, as future developments show. The machine embodied 
the first front stroke principle, and the writing was visible 
except at the immediate writing point, this being covered 
by the ribbon which ran from the front to the back of 
the machine instead of horizontally, as on all typewriters 
of today. 

GRUNDY 

On June n, 1889, Mr. Arthur Grundy, of White- 
stone, New York, secured a patent for a front stroke 
machine on which the ribbon ran horizontally, falling back 
out of the vision of the writer after the impression had 
been made. In his patent claim Mr. Grundy says: "The 
exposing of the line of printing is brought about primarily 
by mounting the inking ribbon upon a tilting frame, which 
is raised to position at every stroke of the type arms." 

This machine was never placed upon the market and 
is only given space here because it advanced an idea in 
the evolution of the typewriter from which the business 

world has received great benefit. 

■- 

DAUGHERTY 

The next machine and a more highly developed 
product was the Daugherty. This machine also embodied 
the front stroke principle and the writing was entirely visi- 
ble all the time, but it was only a step in advance of pre- 
vious efforts of manufacturers to produce a strictly visible 
writing machine without impairing in any way, but rather 



a 

improving, the efficiency of blind machines. This machine 
was simple and contained very tew parts — in tact so few 
that the requirements and refinements necessary for all 
kinds and classes of business were lacking, but its advan- 
tages as well as its disadvantages served to suggest im- 
provement over the Prouty, and it is entitled to consider- 
ation and great credit in the evolution of the typewriter. 

An effort was made to improve the machine and make 
it tit the requirements of the business world, but it had 
gotten a wrong- start, and although its name was changed 
to the Pittsburg Visible, it could not overcome the handi- 
cap of a "wrong start." and as a result the machine was 
not a success. However, it embodied ideas that served to 
assist in the perfection of its immediate successor. 

UNDERWOOD 

The Underwood is the first practical front stroke, com- 
pletely visible writing machine, and. as will be shown. tJic 
pivotal machine which revolutionised the typewriter in- 
dustry by forcing other manufacturers to turn round to a 
common-sense basis. Hence, the Underwood is the last 
step in the evolution of the typewriter today. The ma- 
chines mentioned hereafter, that have been compelled to 
imitate the Underwood, only serve to emphasize this fact, 
and for this purpose and for historical information are 
considered. 

Mr. Fran- X. Wagner, of New York (recently de- 
ceased), had been associated with the development of the 
earliest models of the Remington. Caligraph, and other 
writing machines since their inception. This gave him 
an extensive experience in typewriter construction, as well 
as a thorough knowledge of public requirements, and the 
desires of the typist for visible writing;. He was also 
familiar with the efforts and failures of manufacturers to 
produce a satisfactory visible writing machine. 



63 

Profiting- by the mistakes of others, but more espe- 
cially by personal experience, Mr. Wagner invented a type- 
bar mechanism and incorporated it in a machine, for which 
he filed application for patent, April 27, 1893, the same 
being granted July 31, 1894 (No. 523698). This machine 
later became known as the Underwood. 

The result of Mr. Wagner's invention not only solved 
the problem of visible writing, for which other inventors 
had been striving for years, but the fundamental principles 
involved in the Underwood brought about radical changes 
in future typewriter construction. This machine not only 
produced actual visible writing, from the first to the last 
word — for which typists had been asking every time they 
raised the carriage to inspect the work — but it embodied many 
other radical, practical improvements. 

It is truly said that typewriter inventors first devise 
the principle and construct the typebar, then build the 
machine around it. Mr. Wagner's chief object was to in- 
vent a strictly visible writing machine without sacrificing 
any of the advantages employed in former typewriters. 
This he did, and the style of mechanism necessary to ac- 
complish his object developed so many excellent, superior 
features that the results even exceeded the anticipations 
of the most ardent advocates of visible writing. For ex- 
ample: The front stroke principle of the typebar brought 
the type, face up, in front of the typist, practically inviting 
the brush, which resulted in clean, clear impressions. The 
marginal stops are in front; the scale with which the 
machine is provided for setting marginal stops, tabular 
stops (corresponding with tabular scale), and the scale 
locating the exact position of printing, are also in front; 
and many other conveniences which older machines did 
not possess. 

The Underwood typewriter, which was manufactured 



64 

by the Wagner Typewriter Company during its experi- 
mental period, was invented and introduced at a most 
opportune time. The efforts of other inventors and the 
advertising of other manufacturers, who had attempted 
to produce visible writing, had thoroughly prepared public 
opinion for it, and the sterling qualities of the Underwood 
not only satisfied their desires, but inspired their immediate 
enthusiasm. 




UNDERWOOD 



Mr. John T. Underwood, who had been connected 
for many years with the typewriter supply business, was 
thoroughly familiar with the requirements of the trade. 
He recognized fully the value of visible writing, as well 
as the many other excellent features employed in the 
machine, and as a result bought Mr. Wagner's inventions 
and interests. Mr. Underwood associated with him Mr. 
D. W. Bergen, present treasurer of the Underwood Type- 
writer Company, and later Mr. S. T. Smith, General 
Manager of the company, which position he retained until 
his death in May, 191 5. 



65 

Inasmuch as the Underwood represents the acme of 
perfection in present-day, practical typewriter construction, 
it is not out of place to describe the machine more in 
detail. 

The Underwood typewriter first occupied three rooms 
in the St. Paul building, 220 Broadway. In 1894-5 a 
few hand-made models were produced. In 1896, the esti- 
mated output was fifty machines; in 1897, two hundred 
eighty-six; in 1898, two thousand one hundred sixty-seven. 
From this time the growth of the Underwood has been 
phenomenal, both on account of the merit of the machine, 
and the broad policy of the Company. 

The Company soon found it necessary to seek larger 
quarters, which were secured in Bayonne, New Jersey, 
in 1898, but the demand for the machine became so in- 
tensely active that it became necessary to make further 
provision for better manufacturing facilities in a permanent 
home. This resulted in the purchase of a site at Hartford, 
Conn., to which place the factory was moved in 190 1. At 
that time the employes of the factory were only about 
three hundred — today, under normal conditions, they ex- 
ceed five thousand. 

The Underwood typewriter is most compact and com- 
plete. It is the embodiment of strength, symmetry, and 
simplicity. 

There are four fundamental principles in the con- 
struction of a typewriter to which all others are supple- 
mentary. First, the typebar construction and action, 
which makes the impression; second, the escapement or 
movement of the carriage from right to left, which gives 
new space for each succeeding character; third, the move- 
ment of the ribbon which provides coloring matter for 
the impression ; fourth, the return of the carriage from 
left to ri°:ht. 

The Underwood typebar construction is unique, there 



66 

being but three parts — the finger key lever, the connecting 
link, and the typebar proper — each of which is simpler 
and stronger than the corresponding part of any other 
typewriter. In addition to the simplicity of the typebar con- 
struction there is but one part to all o\ the typebar bearings; 
one part to all of the bearings oi the links: and one part to 
all of the bearings o\ the finger key levers. 




UNDERWOOD TYPEBAR BEARING 

The typebar construction of the Underwood is such 
that the impression and the escapement are both made 
by the typebar proper at the same time; that is, while the 
type impression is being made, the heel of the typebar at 
the bearing comes in direct contact with the universal bar 
which controls the escapement, thus eliminating all possible 
lost motion between the stroke of the key and the escape- 
ment. This is not common in other machines. 

The position of the type, as referred to before, enables 
the typist to clean the type instantly and as often as 
needed, without soiling the hands. The Underwood is 
also provided with an adjustable type-guide, which insures 
absolute control of the typebar at both ends, at the bearing 
and the printing points. 

The marginal stops are set instantly at any desired 
point without guess or doubt. Tt is also possible to get 
into the margin on the left without moving the stops by 
simply depressing a lever at the right of the thumb-piece 
on the right, front corner of the carriage frame, and 



67 




UNDERWOOD ADJUSTABLE TYPE-GUIDE 

pulling the carriage over. To get additional characters at 
the end of the line after the keys are locked, touch the 
button above the back-spacer on the left of the machine. 




UNDERWOOD MARGINAL STOPS 

(IN FRONT) 

Ball-bearings are employed wherever it is mechanically 
practical. The carriage rides on ball-bearings, the rotary 
wheel escapement is on ball-bearings, and the mainspring 
rotates on ball-bearings, all of which make a complete 
circle, thus providing for an even wear on the bearings. 

The Underwood typewriter embodied the first in-built 
tabulator and controlled all patents of any kind covering 
the tabulating idea. The tabulator stops are attached to 
a rod in the back and may be shifted to any desired posi- 
tion on the tabular rack, the scale of which corresponds 
with the front scale. Any number of stops may be 
provided. 




UNDERWOOD TABULAR STOPS 

The forward movement of the typebar is accelerated 
by means of a cam in which the actuating lever works, 
and while this insures a quicker forward movement, the 
reaction of the universal bar, with which the typebar 
comes in direct contact, forces the quickest possible return 




UNDERWOOD TYPEBAR AND UNIVERSAL BAR 

of the typebar. This is most important as speed and 
accuracy in typewriting consists more in the return of the 
bar than in the forward movement. This comes from 
the fact that the forward movement is governed by the 



69 

skill of the typist, while the return movement depends 
entirely upon the mechanism of the machine. 

Not the least among the many original features of 
the Underwood typewriter is the placing of the right hand 
shift key down in the lower bank on a level with the left 




UNDERWOOD ESCAPEMENT 



hand shift key. This has made possible a balanced hand 
action, so necessary in touch typewriting. The accurate, 
even escapement of the Underwood typewriter is the result 




UNDERWOOD INDIVIDUAL KEY TENSION 

of the rigid dog being beveled, which permits the carriage 



70 

to start forward instantly the typebar leaves the printing 
point. The individual key tension of the Underwood, an- 
other ordinal feature, makes it possible to adjust each finger 
key to the desire and requirements of the touch typist. This 
feature has not as yet been successfully imitated. 

One of the splendid though seemingly minor features 
of the Underwood is the cushion upon which the type rest. 
This is patented, and consists of a bag of shot to prevent 
a rebound when the typebars return to the position of rest. 
In addition to the cushion preventing reaction of the type- 
bars, the shot, being round, the return of the typebars 
keeps the shot in their proper position in the bag. This 
contributes greatly to the speed and accuracy of the ma- 
chine, by preventing the type from clashing on the re- 
bound. 

Much more might be said with reference to the many 
superior features oi the Underwood typewriter, but it 
could not be expressed more intelligently and impartially 
than by quoting the certified report of the Franklin Insti- 
tute accompanying the Elliott Cresson Medal, which it 
issued to the Underwood Typewriting Company in 1910 
for "Ingenuity, Skill, and Perfection of Workmanship." 

The Franklin Institute of Pennsylvania was estab- 
lished nearly a hundred years ago. Its object is the pro- 
motion of the Mechanic Arts, by educating mechanics and 
encouraging manufacturers "by offering premiums on all 
objects deemed worthy of encouragement, and examining 
all new inventions submitted to them.'' The membership 
of this Institution consists of the most expert and influen- 
tial body of mechanical engineers in the world, and its 
awards are recognized as the highest and most important 
that are issued. The Franklin Institute issues a number 
of medals, of which the Elliott Cresson is the highest. 
The value of its awards will be appreciated more fully 
from the fact that its recognition can be gained only 
through the medium of merit. 



71 

The awarding of the Elliott Cresson Medal is safe- 
guarded by the publication of the Committee's report, setting 
forth the Institute's intentions "in three successive issues of 
the Journal of the Franklin Institute." 

The Underwood Standard Typewriter was before the 
Institute for investigation for more than a year before 
the final granting of the award. The report accompanying 
the medal follows: 

"HALL OF THE INSTITUTE 

Philadelphia, February 2, 1910. 
No. 2473. 

The Franklin Institute of the State of Pennsylvania, acting 
through its Committee on Science and the Arts, investigating the 
Underwood Typewriter of the Underwood Typewriter Company, re- 
ports as follows: 

In the thirty-five years that have passed since the Franklin In- 
stitute was called upon to pass judgment upon the merits of the first 
practical typewriting machine that was then being offered for gen- 
eral use, as embodied in the Sholes and Glidden invention, (later the 
foundation of the well-known Remington Typewriter) the writing 
machine has become indispensable to our business life. It is but nat- 
ural that so important and useful a piece of mechanism should have 
undergone in these years many changes in construction in response 
to the demand for greater efficiency and wider range of work as its 
use became more general. To these improvements an army of in- 
genious mechanicians have given time and talent, out of which efforts 
the marvelously complete typewriter of today has developed. 

During the first fifteen years of writing machine history the 
understroke machine attained such prominence that few looked for 
any radical change in the then accepted form, which had reached enor- 
mous demand, and was considered to be well-nigh ultimate perfection. 
There were some minds however that reasoned that the capacity of 
the typewriter could be greatly increased by some new arrangement 
of typebar action that would cause the printing to be made in full 
view of the operator, and thus avoid the necessity of lifting the 
platen in order to see the writing accomplished. 

Evidence of this conviction began to appear in practical form 
with the invention of the front stroke visible typewriter as shown 



72 

in the patented efforts of Messrs. Prouty and Hynes, No. 389854, 
September 18, 1888. Like many others this first attempt lacked 
in details and completeness many essentials to qualify it as a rival of 
the well accepted machines of the older form. Other inventors how- 
ever soon began to supply the deficiencies, and in a very short time 
the essentials of a complete and practical visible typewriter had been 
devised, and the threatened invasion of the field began to look more 
formidable. 

Contributions of value in this new departure developed rap- 
idly in the years following 1890, and it is in part from these inven- 
tions that the present Underwood Typewriter obtained its footing, 
which paved the way to the high state of perfection of that machine 
as it exists today. 

The inventions patented and controlled by the Underwood Type- 
writer Company now number more than fifty, printed copies of thir- 
teen of the more important ones issued between the years 1890 and 
1906 are on file with the papers pertaining to this case, and may be 
consulted for more detailed description of the devices therein covered. 
(Patent numbers and dates only omitted.) Among the more promi- 
nent features of the Underwood Typewriter which merits special men- 
tion we desire to refer to the Gathright Tabulating device, patented in 
1890. This is an ingeniously contrived element to equip the machine 
with facilities for tabular work and bill writing, adding notably to 
the field of usefulness of the writing machine. 

This invention, largely copied, has been held by the United 
States Circuit Court of Appeals, in an action for infringement, to 
be a basic patent. The Court in sustaining this patent says : 'In 
short we are constrained to say that to Gathright belongs the credit of 
constructing the first commercially successful tabulator, his invention 
belongs to that large class, which has ever been treated with liberality 
by the courts when the inventor by an apparently simple change, addi- 
tion or transposition of parts, has converted imperfection into com- 
pleteness.' 

The tabulator consists of a system of adjustable stops mounted 
upon a special rack-bar running parallel with, and back of the platen. 
When these movable stops are set at desired intervals along the rack- 
bar they act as positive stops to bring the platen into position to print 
columns of figures. A tabulator key releases the platen from the 
restraint of the usual escapement rack and allows it to make a quick 
pass to the tabulator stops, one after the other as desired. Con- 



73 

nected with the release key is a friction device that places the 
speed of travel of the platen over the long interval between the tabu- 
lator stops within the control of the operator, by using more or less 
pressure upon the key as the platen moves ; these tabulator stops do 
not in any way interfere with the regular type-width escapement of 
the platen when no tabulating is to be done. 

The whole tabulating device is an added facility that materially 
increases the scope of the typewriter for column work and is an im- 
portant time saver to effect positive wide interval stops of the platen. 

A very important device is the escapement, which controls the 
intermittent lateral movements of the platen, with a degree of speed 
and precision that is remarkable. Perfection in this part of a type- 
writer implies a device that will actuate the platen immediately after 
each type impression is made, without perceptible effort on the part 
of the operator, and with a rapidity of action far beyond the require- 
ments of the most expert operator, at the same time the wearing 
quality of the parts that affect the release and catch movements must 
be such as will withstand the severe shocks given one hundred thou- 
sand times daily for several years with undiminishing reliability. 

The committee has taken pains to thoroughly test the Underwood 
Escapement with regard to its ultimate speed, and for wearing quali- 
ties as developed in typewriters having had eight years of hard usage. 

Expert, prize winning operators have demonstrated their ability 
to write for an hour at the remarkably high speed of ten strokes 
per second, and have written for the committee, from one to two 
minutes, at the enormous rate of fourteen strokes per second, with- 
out errors. 

An electrically driven automatic typewriting machine which oper- 
ates in the manner of the familiar mechanical piano player has also 
demonstrated its ability to produce beautiful work on the Underwood 
Typewriter at a speed of fourteen strokes, or impressions, per second, 
continuously. Having thus obtained reliable results of the efficiency 
of the Underwood escapement up to fourteen strokes per second, your 
committee felt an interest in an effort to determine the ultimate speed 
efficiency of the escapement. To reach this result a mechanical writer 
was made that would enable tests of speed to be made indefinitely, 
and with the aid of this machine the typewriter was operated at in- 
creasing velocities up to twenty strokes per second. The result 
showed that, up to eighteen strokes per second, the Underwood Type- 
writer responded perfectly, under normal conditions of spring tension 



74 

to platen, which rate is already far heyond the reach of the human 
hand. As to the durability of the escapement parts we find in type- 
writers which have had more than five years of average usage no det- 
rimental wear, which means much for the design of the device and 
for the good workmanship given it. 

The combination of key-levers and type-bars with their con- 
necting links, and the mountings for the system, form a very im- 
portant part of the typewriter details. To secure a light, uniform 
touch, with ample power for heavy manifolding work, and an absolute 
alignment of printed matter always, with a controlled evenness of 
impression can only be reached through superior design and good 
construction. The extreme simplicity of the Underwood key and 
type-bar system contributes much to the excellent result obtained. A 
key-lever, a type-bar. and a connecting link form the complete work- 
ing combination. Only when this combination is compared with the 
same parts in a large number of the most prominent typewriters 
now in use. which employ from eight to sixteen parts for the same 
service, can we fully realize what 'simplicity' means, and where sim- 
plicity of design is backed up by the use of the best materials and 
by good construction, the effectiveness and wearing qualities are cer- 
tainly increased. It is in this part of the typewriter that hard usage 
will soon produce ill effects if either the design or the workmanship 
is faulty. In the Underwood system the action of the type-bar to 
move the universal bar. which prepared the releasing dog of the 
escapement just before the type impression is made, is not only a 
sure means of releasing the escapement at the proper instant, but it is 
done without being felt by the operator. A rigid abutment situated 
a little below the middle of the length of the type-bar. acts as a stop 
to limit the stroke of the type, so that the impressions are very uni- 
form, not varying perceptibly with the strength of the impact upon the 
key. and this - greatly to the neat appearance of the writing. Each 
key-lever has its individual tension spring located quite near the 
fulcrum, which. s ed to overcome simply the weight of the 

key-lever, is the only adjustment necessary. This tension is so little 
beyond the balancing of the weight of the lever that it is not felt by 
the d the lightness touch is not impaired. Xo other 

spring is used in the type-bar acti 

The g : the Underwood Typewriter is accomplished 

when the : the type-bars, before the latter are 

put into the ma When the type-bars are placed in position. 

gnOH and will never change. The permanency of 




%&?» 

5?**** 



\ of Workmanship. MM* > w 



75 

the alignment is materially assisted by the type-bar guide so located 
that it does not interfere with the visibility of the writing while afford- 
ing a perfect locking device for the type when at the printing point, 
effectually preventing any side motion of the type-bars. The accuracy 
of alignment is further assisted by hanging the type-bars in a slotted 
segment, every slot having been cut by a specially constructed ma- 
chine, so perfectly that they all converge accurately to a common 
center. Aside from the several prominent features herein referred 
to at some length, there are still many essential paits that in some 
modified form are common to most of the high grade typewriters of 
the time. The Underwood lacks none of the desirable features that 
practical use has qualified as essential to the typewriter complete. In 
all these parts we find the same painstaking simplicity and effective 
form of design. 

Abundant opportunity was given the committee to examine min- 
utely every detail of the manufacture of its writing machine at the 
factory, in Hartford, Conn., where, under the most able management, 
the best materials obtainable are converted by a very superior equip- 
ment and through exacting workmanship into a writing machine of 
extraordinary perfection in its minutest details. 

In recognition of the very meritorious inventions embodied in 
the Underwood Standard Typewriter, and of its exceedingly simple 
and efficient details of construction, forming a wriiing machine of 
the most advanced type, with unsurpassed capabilities and excellent 
make-up throughout, the Institute awards the Elliott Cresson Gold 
Medal to the Underwood Typewriter Company, for the Ingenuity, 
Skill and Perfection of Workmanship displayed in the Underwood 
Typewriter. 

Adopted at the stated meeting held Wednesday, February 2, 
1910. 

(Seal) WALTER CLARK, 

President, 

R. B. OWEN, 

Secretary. 

Countersigned, THOS. SPENCER, Chairman of the Committee on 
Science and the Arts." 



7b 



3 

o 

O 

o 



6 

Q 



C 

o 

« 
g 

e 

oc 

c 

o 

CO 



<s 

B 

<H 

49 
o 

a 

o 
o 
o 



CO 
3 

o* 
W 






77 



& 

O 

o 



•p 



a 

s 

00 



If 



o 
o 

C 

a> 

S 

O 



O 
O 

C 









o 

Xl o 

<ol o 

M 

o 

H 

3 

« 

— L. 



Li 



JL 



0>0>0>0>0>OOOOOOOOOOHrlrlHHHHH 

<x>CD<Daoaoo>a>a>o>cncna»o>cna>o>o>o»a»a»CT>a»a> 

HrtHrli-IHrHrlHrtrtHHHHflHrtHrlHHrl 



78 

In 1890, four or five years before the first Underwood 
was built, the Hammond Typewriter Company was 
awarded the Elliott Cresson Medal for its shuttle feature, 
which provides for the use of various languages merely 
by changing the type shuttle. This is the one feature that 
has kept the Hammond before the business world, thus 
demonstrating the discernment of the Franklin Institute 
verdict. 

Although seven years have elapsed since the Elliott 
Cresson Medal was first awarded the Underwood Type- 
writer, no other typewriter has been able to displace it or 
secure this much coveted prize. This is due to the fact 
that for ten years the Underwood Typewriter Company 
was the sole advocate of the front stroke visible principle. 
During this time all of the best basic ideas embodied 
in the principle of front stroke visible writing were in- 
vented and patented, and other companies were compelled 
to evade these patents when it became necessary to embody 
the Underwood idea in order to continue their existence. 

From the report of the Franklin Institute it will be 
seen that the Underwood represents the highest achieve- 
ment in typewriter construction. The "History of the 
Typewriter," by Geo. Carl Mares, says with reference to 
the progress of visible writing: "Probably nothing in any 
mechanical art has been more marked than the progress 
of this principle, and in this respect the Underwood type- 
writer would seem to deserve all the honours which natur- 
ally fall to the successful leader of a revolution." Com- 
ments concerning machines that follow are made for veri- 
fication and historical information. 

When the Underwood was first placed on the market, 
its many superior advantages were immediately recognized 
by an exacting, critical public. As it grew in favor it 
became the target of all competition, against which they 
hurled the most absurd and ridiculous criticism and pro- 



79 

test, because it embodied the first radical departure from 
the primitive principle embodied in the first practical type- 
writer. 

This strenuous opposition, however, only served to 
stimulate the determination of the manufacturers, for it 
demonstrated that competition recognized in the 
Underwood a most dangerous foe. Besides, in their ex- 
cessive zeal to control the typewriter situation by discour- 
aging the progress of the Underwood, circulars were is- 
sued to their managers and salesmen pointing out the 
defects, both real and imaginary, which as a matter of 
course fell into the hands of the Underwood manufac- 
turers, and served as a guide for further refining and 
perfecting the machine. 

Encouraged by the success of the machine and the 
vigorous, energetic opposition of competition, the manu- 
facturers have exerted every effort that energy, genious, 
mechanical skill, and unlimited capital could command, in 
continuing the highest state of perfection possible in the 
construction of the typewriter. 

The opposition to visible typewriting by some of the 
older companies is clearly demonstrated in their attitude 
as expressed in the following circular letter, dated October, 
1904, sent to branch managers and salesmen: 

"We are fully aware that there is a large demand for visible 
writers, and that this demand appears to be growing. We are not 
asleep. It is our business to keep posted about the wants of the 

public, but it is also our business to safe-guard reputation 

and to discriminate between passing fancies and things that have 

come to stay. The can take no liberties with its reputation. 

To put our name on any visible writer that has yet appeared would 
be taking such a liberty. 

We are and always have been experimenting along new lines. 
We have experimented with visible models for the past five years. 

We are seeking one worthy of the name , but we are no 

nearer having it today than we were five years ago. We may be no 
nearer having it a year hence than we are today. We may never 



80 

have it. But, if not. no one else shall. If and when it does appear it 
will be ours. We now have several models that would tickle the 
fancy of novices, hut we have none and have seen none good enough 
to satisfy the vast army of experienced operators or to satisfy the 
man whoso money pays for the machine, and it is by catering to these 

two that the name ' ' had become great. The machine that 

can successfully challenge supremacy has yet to be heard 

from. 

A visible writer may be the machine for the future, but that 
fact has yet to be determined. When it has been determined, the 

best machine of that kind will bear the name ' ' no matter 

what it costs. Meantime, with a factor}' working night and day, and 
many thousands of machines behind orders, and a yearly increase 
which is greater than the total business of any visible writer, we 
view with comparative complacence the trade that such machines 
are securing, because we do not consider it lost. Only a part of it 
ever was ours, and that has merely strayed away. We. too, are 
getting much of the benefit of their work today. 

We are used to 'bugaboos.' We have been through the 'shift- 
less machine scare.' and the 'wheel machine scare.' and the 'ribbonless 
machine scare." and the 'electric machine scare.'i All of these 

' annihilators' in their time looked dangerous. Where are 

they today? Of course this one may be the exception. But it, too. 
may fail. If it does, we shall have avoided its error and enjoyed our 
success without interruption: but if. on the other hand, it ultimately 
succeeds, we shall gobble up its success. If time proves their doctrine 
to be right, we shall get the benefit of all their work, for you know. 

and we know, and every one knows, that if the ever does 

put out a visible writer, the virtue of its name, the reputation of its 
house, and the size and effectiveness of its organization will enable 

the army to take by storm every stronghold that these 

feeble fellows have set up. We can do these things because of our 
power; but our power is because of our reputation, and our repu- 
tation is because we are right, and it lasts because we don't trifle with 

it. The name ' ' on any one of a dozen visible models of 

today would make an immediate success — a temporary success. But 
what then ? We contemplate no such suicidal policy. It would be 
an abuse of the confidence of the public, which confidence is based 

on the fact that the name-plate has meant for thirty years 

the best there is. The machine to which the name is attached has 
always been the best, it today is the best, and it always will be the 
best, whatsoever model that may be." 



81 

L. C. SMITH & BROS.' TYPEWRITER 

L. C. Smith, the leading power in promoting the 
Smith Premier, and active in the formation of the Union 
Typewriter Company, was the first member of the latter 
company to openly recognize the absolute demand of the pub- 
lic for visible writing. As a result he sold his interest in the 
Smith Premier Company to the Union Typewriter Com- 
pany and organized the L. C. Smith & Bros. Company, 
for the purpose of building a front stroke visible type- 
writer, which the Underwood had already demonstrated to 
be practical. 

This company established a unique reputation for 
itself by building a sales organization several months 
before it had built a machine for sale. In other words, 
they opened splendidly equipped offices in many of the 
principal cities of the United States before they had a 
machine to show or deliver. This, however, served its 
purpose as a medium of advertising, because it kept the 
public on the tip-toe of expectation, and when the machine 
did appear, it was already well-established in the minds of 
buyers and typists. But in this case the realization did 
not satisfy the anticipation, because the first models of the 
L. C. Smith, like all new machines, were in a crude, ex- 
perimental stage, and as the public had already learned 
what it wanted, the defects in principle and construction 
were quickly disclosed. This caused an immediate reac- 
tion, which served an excellent purpose by forcing the 
manufacturers to make some radical changes in refining 
and improving the machine. 

As a result of the reputation the Smith Brothers had 
gained as manufacturers of the Smith Premier, and their 
liberal policy, together with the refining effects on the new 
machine, the L. C. Smith & Bros. Typewriter soon secured 
quite a following. 



82 

The production of this machine confirmed and em- 
phasized all the claims of the Underwood, and such other 
improvements as were made were along the lines already 
incorporated in the machine which had established the 
front stroke visible writing- principle. 

The L. C. Smith Typewriter has an attractive ap- 
pearance in design and finish. The typebars in the first 
machines had what the manufacturers were pleased to 
call in their literature "The pivot-and-side-wall typebar 
bearing, a distinctive feature, unique to this machine, 
which allows greater play to the typebar (combined with 
an absolutely accurate throw) than any other typebar con- 
struction. In it the problem of 'permanent alignment/ 
which has always vexed typewriter manufacturers, has 
been completely solved. The alignment of the L. C. Smith 
& Bros. Typewriter is POSITIVE and it is PERMA- 
NENT!" 

Regardless of the foregoing broad statement, in 1907 
they discarded this "distinctive feature, unique to this 
machine," and built a machine with what they term a 
"ball-bearing, long wearing typebar." This feature they 
today make much of, but in order to control the typebar 
at the printing point they adopted a type-guide. This 
guide, however, is not very effective, as the L. C. Smith 
is a basket shift machine; that is, all of the typebar mech- 
anism is shifted instead of the platen, when capitals and 
other upper case characters are required. This also makes it 
necessary to shift the guide, which cannot be done with as 
little wear and the same degree of accuracy as the platen 
shift. The printing point on the platen is a little back of the 
perpendicular of the typebar bearings, and as a result the 
typebars do not recover as quickly as the typebars on the 
Underwood, which do not pass the perpendicular and are 
compelled to return immediately by the reaction of the uni- 
versal bar. 



83 

The typebar of the L. C. Smith, in its action from 
the position of rest to the striking point, where the im- 
pression is made, describes a quarter of a circle. In other 
words, it makes one-quarter of a revolution then drops 
back into its original position. It is just as far from the 
position of rest to the striking point as it is from the 
striking point to the position of rest, and as the typebar 
does not make a complete revolution it was found that 
the balls in the bearing returned to their respective posi- 
tions. To prevent this the number of balls in the bearing 
was reduced from sixteen to fifteen, thus leaving the space 
of one ball, which allows the balls to advance just one 
space each time the typebar strikes. 

Including the balls there are eighteen parts to each 
typebar bearing; there are forty-two typebars, which makes 
a total of seven hundred fifty-six parts in the bearings of 
all of the typebars, while in the Underwood there is just 
one part to all the typebar bearings. Exclusive of the 
bearings already explained, the typebar combination con- 
sists of the typebar, the finger key lever, the lower con- 
necting link, a sub-connecting link, and a collar or sheave 
between the main connecting link and the finger key lever 
— five separate and distinct, active parts as compared with 
three on the Underwood. 

For years this company opposed a type-guide; they 
decried the necessity of protecting the type face; they also 
advocated the right-hand carriage return, but in their 
latest models they have adopted a type-guide, a means to 
protect the type, and a left-hand carriage return (the latter 
if desired), all of which features were original with the 
Underwood. This company has brought out a number 
of models, the latest being the No. 8, for which they 
claim the principal advantage is that it makes less noise 
than their former product. This is true, but the changes 
necessary to produce this effect have not met with the 



84 

satisfactory results anticipated by many formerly satisfied 
users. 



L. c. SMITH 

The death of L. C. Smith, several years after the 
machine was placed upon the market, had at least a tem- 
porarily detrimental effect upon its development and 
progress, as the organization seemed to show the lack of 
his aggressive, determined disposition. L. C. Smith did 
much for the typewriter business, and his death was a 
blow to the entire industry. 

MONARCH 

The withdrawal of the Smith Brothers from the Union 
Typewriter Company and the announcement of their inten- 
tion to build a visible typewriter created consternation in 
the ranks of the Union Typewriter Company. This com- 
pany immediately began to dig up "visible models" with 
which they had been "experimenting for the past five 
years" in order to forestall the Smith Brothers in their new 
enterprise. 



85 

The Monarch typewriter was the result of these ef- 
forts. It was thought by many that the first Monarch 
was not intended to be a success, but rather to try out the 
"visible experiments" of the Union Typewriter Company, 
and in the meantime hold the trade until they were able 
to produce a better machine, or through the Monarch dis- 
credit visible writing. It appears, however, that they 
builded better than they knew, because the Monarch type- 
writer was received with considerable favor, and it served 
at least to prove, rather than disprove, the demand for visible 
writing, and that the machine possessed more merit than 
they had anticipated. 

This machine appeared on the market in 1904, and 
marked the beginning of the end of the "blind" writer, 
because as later developments proved, the Union Type- 
writer Company immediately began remodeling the Rem- 
ington, the Smith Premier, and the Yost typewriters, 
transforming them into visible writers. As a result the 
only feature recognized after the transformation was the 
name-plate. This placed the Union Typewriter Company 
in a unique position — that of holding on to the "blind" 
principle with one hand and building a visible machine 
with the other, because both were controlled by the same 
capital and directed by the same management — one group 
of salesmen advocating visible writing and another de- 
nouncing it. 

The typebar mechanism of the Monarch typewriter is 
quite complicated, there being ten separate parts as com- 
pared with three on the Underwood. (See typebars. ) The 
universal bar adheres to the old Remington principle; that 
is, it is beneath the machine, and is operated by the finger 
key lever. This method of transmitting power results 
in much lost motion. The typebar bearings are of the 
pivotal character and necessarily wear unevenly on the 
side bars. The machine is not supplied with a guide, and 
the alignment shows the lack of support of the bar at the 



S6 

printing point. The typebar proper is so constructed that 
it requires a little spiral spring to aid the bars to return 
promptly from the printing point, and to prevent shadow- 
ing. These springs are attached at one end of the back 
of each bar and to the segment at the other. They are 
necessary, not only to get one bar out of the way of the 
other at the printing point, but to prevent the rebound 
of the bars when they return to their position of rest in 
the basket. 




MONARCH 

FIRST VISIBLE TKCDrCT OF THE REMINGTON 



The Monarch typewriter is also a basket shift machine 
like the L. C. Smith. It has a left-hand carriage reverse 
and many other features common to the Underwood. The 
claim of the manufacturers is that there is no bar or ob- 
struction whatever in front of the machine to prevent the 
typist from seeing all of the work. This, however, necessi- 
tates placing the marginal stops in the rear, and other- 
wise inconveniencing the typist. Besides, the top front 
bars on the Underwood and L. C. Smith do not interfere 
any more with the vision of the typist than does the space 
bar in front of the kevboard. 



87 



SPEED AND ACCURACY 
CONTESTS IN TYPEWRITING 

Typewriter competition had become so active, and 
opposition to the front stroke visible machine so pro- 
nounced, that the manufacturers of the older "blind" 
machines sought to prove the superiority of the principle 
of their product by arranging a series of typewriter con- 
tests. It is believed that this action was largely for the 
purpose of discrediting the front stroke machine, the type- 
bars of which were encompassed within the space of less 
than a half circle, whereas the typebars in the blind 
machine occupied a full circle. The first of this series of 
contests, which have been kept up continually since, took 
place March 20, 1905, in Chicago. The Underwood did 
not enter. 

To force the issue, however, and bring the Underwood 
out, another contest was arranged in the same year for 
October 31, held in Madison Square Garden, New York 
City. The one hour dictation contest was won by Miss 
Mae Carrington; Miss Rose L. Fritz, then just out of 
school, second, both using Underwood typewriters. This 
was a blindfold championship contest. For the American 
Typewriting Championship (copying) two elimination con- 
tests were held, one for five minutes and the other for ten 
minutes, Miss Rose L. Fritz winning both, using the 
Underwood; Mr. Paul Munter, second, using the Rem- 
ington ; Miss Mae Carrington, third, using the Underwood ; 
and Mr. Chas. M. Nelson, fourth, using the L. C. Smith. 
In both of these elimination contests the typists stood in 
the same order, Miss Fritz winning at the rate of 73 
words a minute, and Mr. Munter, her nearest competitor, 
at 59. In the final thirty minute contest, however, Paul 
Munter was first at 70 words a minute and Miss Fritz 
second, at 69 words a minute. 



88 

Fixed rules at that time, however, had not been defi- 
nitely established, and Miss Fritz lost the first position 
only because she repeated 23 words for which she was 
penalized five words for each word repeated. Even with 
this penalty Miss Fritz lost by only 15 words, when in 
fact she had written correctly 100 more words than her 
nearest competitor. Today, according- to the revised rules 
of 1917, a typist is not penalized for a repetition if it does 
not contain an error. 

In 1906, Office Appliances, in order to promote an 
unbiased interest in these contests, offered a cup, which 
was to become the personal property of the winner in 
three consecutive contests. This was first competed for in 
Chicago, March 23, 1906, and won by Miss Fritz, using 
the Underwood, at the rate of 76 net words a minute ; her 
nearest competitor, using the Remington, wrote 64 words 
a minute. 

On November first of the same year, 1906, this cup 
was again competed for in Madison Square Garden, New 
York, and won for the second time by Miss Fritz at the 
rate of 82 net words a minute. 

In 1907, March 21, in Chicago, this cup was won 
for the third time by Miss Fritz with a record of 82 net 
words a minute, the cup thereby becoming her permanent 
property. 

In the meantime such interest had been shown by so 
many manufacturers, such as the Underwood, Remington, 
Monarch, Fay-Sho, Smith Premier, L. C. Smith, Fox, and 
other typewriters, all of which had taken part in the con- 
tests, that Office Appliances, a magazine published in 
Chicago in the interest of office efficiency, conceived the 
idea of offering a permanent trophy on a broader basis. 
In other words, they took steps to arrange for a World's 
Typewriting Championship Trophy, to be competed for 
annually in New York. The World's Championship title 







$1 ,000.00 

INTERNATIONAL IYPEWRITING TROPHY WON ELEVEN SUCCESSIVE YEARS RY TYPISTS 
USING THE UNDERWOOD 



89 

was to be awarded the winner and his name engraved 
on the cup, which was to be held in trust from one contest 
to the next by the company manufacturing the machine on 
which it was won. They submitted their proposition to 
all of the leading typewriter companies, who not only 
gave their approval but subscribed to a fund for pur- 
chasing this cup, which was specially designed and manu- 
factured at a cost of more than a thousand dollars. The 
contests for this cup were open to typists of the whole 
world. 

Experience had demonstrated that the rules governing 
these contests should be revised to cover every error, 
whether mechanical, mental, or physical. A mechanical 
error is due to the failure on the part of the machine 
to respond in any way, such as piling, crowding, skipping, 
breaking, etc. A mental error is a failure on the part 
of the typist to read copy correctly, a repetition, an omis- 
sion, or the improper division of a word at the end of a 
line. A physical error is a misstruck key, failure to return 
carriage to zero to begin the line, misuse of shift key, incor- 
rect spacing (either physical or mechanical), etc. 

The World's Championship Cup was competed for the 
first time in Madison Square Garden, New York, October 17, 
1907, and was won by Miss Rose L. Fritz at the rate of 
87 net words a minute; Mr. H. O. Blaisdell, second, 
writing 83 words a minute, both using the Underwood; 
Emil Trefzger, third, using the Remington. 

In 1908, October 22, at Madison Square Garden, New 
York, this International Trophy was competed for the 
second time and again won by Miss Fritz at 87 net words 
a minute, using the Underwood. 

In 1909, September 30, at Madison Square Garden, 
New York, Miss Fritz, using the Underwood, won the cup 
for the third time at the rate of 95 net words a minute. 



90 

In consequence of Miss Fritz having won the World's 
Championship Trophy three successive times, and about 
thirty other championship medals and prizes, her services 
were in such demand all over the world that she had to aban- 
don contest work for the purpose of giving exhibitions, 
which she did, not only in the United States and Canada, but 
all over Europe. Miss Fritz was the first to demonstrate 
the infinite superiority of touch typewriting over the old 
sight, "hit and miss" method, and her pioneer work in the 
practical development of typewriting cannot be over-esti- 
mated. 

In 19 io, October 2j, at Madison Square Garden, New 
York, this World's Championship Trophy was won by Mr. 
H. O. Blaisdell, using the Underwood, at the rate of 109 
net words a minute. 

In 191 1, October 26, at Madison Square Garden, New 
York, Mr. H. O. Blaisdell again won the contest for the 
World's Trophy at the rate of 112 net words a minute, 
using the Underwood. 

In 1912, November 12, at the 69th Regiment Armory, 
New York, the World's Typewriting Championship Trophy 
was won by Miss Florence E. Wilson, using the 
Underwood, at the rate of 117 net words a minute; Emil 
A. Trefzger, who had joined the Underwood forces, sec- 
ond, with 116; H. O. Blaisdell, also using the 
Underwood, 115. 

In 19 1 3, October 21, at the 69th Regiment Armory, 
New York, the World's Typewriting Trophy was won 
by Miss Margaret B. Owen, using the Underwood, at the 
rate of 125 net words a minute. The second, third, fourth, 
and fifth positions were held by typists using the 
Underwood. 

In 1914, October 26, at the 69th Regiment Armory, 




Miss ROSE L FRITZ 

riRST WINNER OF THE INTERNATIONAL TYPEWRITING TROPHY 
WHICH SHE WON IN 1907. I90B ANO 1909. 



91 

New York, the World's Typewriting Championship and 
Trophy were won by Mr. E. A. Trefzger, using the 
Underwood, at the rate of 129 net words a minute, with the 
next four positions held by the Underwood, the sixth posi- 
tion going to the Remington. 

In 191 5, October 25, at the 69th Regiment Armory, 
New York, Miss Margaret B. Owen, using the Underwood, 
again won the World's Championship Trophy at the phe- 
nomenal rate of 136 net words a minute with only 42 errors. 

In 1916, October 16, Miss Margaret B. Owen, using 
the Underwood, again won the World's Championship 
Trophy, breaking her previous record by writing 137 net 
words a minute. A photographic reproduction of a part of 
Miss Owen's work in this contest appears on the following 
page. 

In 191 7, October 15, at the 69th Regiment Armory, Miss 
Margaret B. Owen, using the Underwood typewriter, won 
the World's Championship for the fourth time at an in- 
creased net rate of speed, breaking all previous records, 
writing 143 net words a minute. This demonstrates that 
Miss Owen is today the undisputed World's Champion 
Typist. 

Miss Owen appreciates the value of accuracy, and her 
records have been made because of the fact that she does 
not sacrifice accuracy for speed. She knows that a busi- 
ness letter that is written at a very high rate of speed, 
filled with errors, will be returned because the business 
man, in attaching his signature to a letter containing 
errors, assumes all responsibility for such errors. 

In this contest Miss Owen wrote two full pages with 
but two errors, one on each page, copy of one of which is 
shown on page 93. This copy is reduced to fit the page of 
this book. 



92 



c-f 


o 


P 


f-l 


O 


Hj 


o 


P 


«+ 


u> 


a 1 


c-f 


c-f 




O 


Hj 


M 




O 


P 


B 


o 


p* 


3 


o 


CD 


p* 








i_i 


B" 


P 


H' 


CD 


c+ 


H 


P 


P 


P 


p 




PT 


cf 




P 


c+ 


H, 




P' 


O 


HJ 


4 




c-f 







P' 


H-< 


Cb 




H» 


CO 


H* 


P 


M 


p. 


O 






O 


CD 






P 


«< 


H» 


P 


CP 




CD 


., 


c-f 


H< 


^ 




£• 


OP 


» 




O. 


D3 


13* 


gl 


Pi 


o 


Jj* 






D- 


P 


O 


pi 


CP 


CD 






O 




HJ 


CD 


P 


et 


O 


CO 


cf 




o 




O 


c+ 


P 


P 


O 




3 


P' 


p 




c+ 


H" 


o 


O 


Hj 


P* 


Pi 


P 


O 


Hj 




P 


CO 


B 


CD 


P 


p 


Hj 




CD 


CD 


Pi 


?r 


H- 


P 


C"f 


CD 


o 


B 


<J 






c+ 




4 






•S 


o 






c+ 




CD 


3 


B 


P' 


O - 




c+ 


c+ 


CD 


<-f 


HH 


c+ 




H« 


B 


o 


«< 


CD 


HJ 


Hj 


>~^ 


P' 








£" 


B 


3 


P 


P 






H» 


O 


O 


p 


CO 


OtJ 


^ 


H, 


H« 




CD 


CO 


Hj 


Pi 


p 


H, 


VJ 


c+ 


Hj 


o 


P 


O 


O 


ef- 


H. 


cf 


P 


P 


p. 








4 


H 1 ' 


co 


P 


CD 


ts' 




P 


o 


P< 


CO 


c+ 


«^ 


P 


CD 


p 




OP 




CD 


cf 


c 


CD 


CD 




P" 


o 


K> 


P 


OP 


B 


P J 


c+ 




H, 


B 






c-f 


P 


p 


0t} 


P 




o 




O 


*3 


O 


CD 


P 


H« 


O 


c+ 


H 


P- 




c-f 


c-f 


P 




P 


P 


•» » 


P 


P 






Cb 


c-f 


P 


O 






M 


<< 


CO 




P- 




P 


Hj 






P 




P 


o 


O 




CD 


o 




3 


CI. 


O 


P 


*^ 


pi 


c-f 




H. 


O 


O 


^ 


C+" 


CO 


«<; 


3 


^ 


o 


P' 




P 


e+ 


P 


PT 


Hj 


CO 


P' 


H« 




P> 




c+ 


CD 


►o 


M 


4 


c 








o 


P 


3 


H. 


J3 




P 


p 


HJ 


P 


?r 


P 


CO 


p 


H. 


0t) 


p 


CD 


P* 


M 




H» 




3 




e+ 


c* 







CD 


*- 




CD 


CD 


M 


Cf 


c-f 


►o 


H- 


• 


H. 


Qi 


CD 


& 


CD 


3 


P 


c-f 




O 


P* 




3 




CD 




3 




P 


«< 






PV 




CD 


co 






P 


3 


cy 


O 


►P 




HH 


3 


P 


P 




&f 


ct 


>► 


g 


<< 


CD 


H, 


• 


P 




P 


o 




CO 


o 


B* 


M 


bo 




4 


Hj 




P 


H 




a 


CO 


c-f 




O 


M 




P 


CO 






H» 


CD 


H» 


K 


CD 


O 


M 






O 


cf 




3 


> 


Hj 


Hj 


P 


CD 


C 


H, 


CD 


P 


cf 


Hj 


c+ 


B 


P 




o 


C+ 




P 


c-f 


«< 


c-f 


o 


B' 




H* 


p 


o 


hJ 


•^ 




tf 




H- 






o 


H- 


3 


H. 


Pi 


p' 


O 


3 


P- 


CD 


P 


O 


o 


3 


>i 


CO 


P 


CD 






Pi 


- 


O 


O 


c-f 


P 


Hj 


CD 






ef 




Hj 


o 






3 


P 










P 


Hi 


O 


3 


O 


Hj 


P" 


CT 1 


CD 


P 


c-f 


o 


c+ 


H- 


B 




*-i 


P 


P 




o 


P 




03 


p' 


H; 


& 


P 


£X 


B^ 




CO 


B 


P 


<rf 


c+ 


HH 


CD 


CD 




P 


• 




P 


Hj 




P^ 














c- 1 


c* 




«3 


P 


4 


p 




Hj 


CO 


3 


P' 


cf 


P 


•j* 






B' 




O 


CO 


P 


H' 


p' 


{3* 


P 


P" 


O 


O 


p 


t— i 


CD 


c-f 


3 






P 


H- 


CD 


P 


CD 


o 




p 




B 


o 




Hj 


^ 


CD 


P 


P 






4 


o 


<< 


^ 






cf 


P 


o 




op 




CO 


M 




H* 


« • 


CD 


P 


O 


B 


M 


CO 


tf 


H-> 


H-l 


CD 


P 


O 


cf 




» 


c-f 


K 


C 


M 


cf 


O 


CD 




CD 


P 


Hj 


«< 


H- 


cf 




tw 






H« 


P 




P 


P 


P 






c-f 




M 


M 


3" 


O 


3 


P 


P* 


P 




H 


c+ 


^ 




e 


CD 


P 


o 


H, 


OP 




P 


3 


P- 


P 


P" 


P 


H" 


*cj 


B 


H- 


CO 




i 


o 


P 


CD 


CD 


P 


CD 


CO 


CO 




Cs 


3 


CD 


B" 


►d 


H, 






^ 


<cj 








c+ 


c-f 




» 


o 


H» 




P- 


cr 






P 


o' 


CD 


O 


^ 


<rf 




M 


P 


P' 


H' 


P 


HJ 


P 


O 


p 


P 






O 


P 


CD 


O 


P 


c+ 


o 


CD 


H> 


P 


4 


O 


3 


CO 




B 


03 


CD 


H« 




i*r 


CD 


Pi 


CO 


p 


P 


<< 


& 


cf 


P 






»-i 


S' 




HJ 




CD 


CD 


op 




CD 


B 




P 


O 




CD 


c+ 


H* 


P 




P 


P- 


►i 




CD 


P 


CO 


B 


P 




P* 


P 


o 


^ 


• 




o 


B 




H» 






P 


o 


CD 


0t) 


c+ 


P" 




c-f 


o 


P 


M 


M 


P 


3 


a 


p 


*-i 






o 




O 


3 


P 


P 






«<J 






CD 


o 


fir 


4 


M 








P> 


>■>' 


CO 




P 






p 


p 


CD 


c+ 


CO 


P 


O 


<<J 


B 


H* 


Hj 






^ 


c+ 


o 






p 


B 


o 






O 


4 






p 




4 


Hi 


jj 


V! 


p. 


3 

CD 






<1 
CD 


O 
c 






00 




3 




P 
CO 




$fc 








• 


{*T 










* 


/^ 






£?&*/. 






<h 


^5 


^TO* 


sdCZt^*<s<L&-^ ' 


(3 


ZoZd 


<# 


-fou 


^ 


^ 


L^ 


\S 


(^A /£, /fVtf, 












Miss MARGARET B. OWEN 

WORLD'S CHAMPION TYPIST 

PRESENT HOLDER OF THE INTERNATIONAL TROPHY 
WHICH SHE WON IN 1913, 1915, 1918, 1917. 

PRESENT RECORD 143 NET WORDS A MINUTE. 



93 

state so far as i have known hira, his voice is like that which you would 
imagino might ccmo from the bottom of Hades when the lid is off and there 
is a row going on down thera. All these talents, as you 77111 see, place 
him in a class by himself ajd. he is the very last word so far as cats go. 

It was a thing like that which raised the hair on the back of Ruin and 
which lay on the limb of that big pine Just ahead of us. Had we gone on 
our way and taken no notice of him I doubt if we should have hi erd any- 
thing from him for he was wise enough to know that while he might damage 
U3 in a rough and tumble fight yet in the long run the two of us would 
be too many for him. But wo did not go on for Ruin and I were of one 
mind, we would have a round with that bobcat let what would come of it. 
It wa3 the open season for game and as a rule I carried a gun with me and 
had fairly good success with it but I had not taken it that morning as 
we had planned a final hunt for the afternoon and wanted to finish our 
«ork and get back to camp as soon as we could do so. I looked about 
for a stick or stone but could find none and so I walked on a few steps 
at a time and Ruin did the same, always with one eye on me and the other 
on the cat, until we got to within forty feet of the pine. Ruin was no 
coward and I knew that he wanted to come to hand grip3 with the cat but 
I also knew that at best the dog would bo torn more or less to tatters 
and I did not want that for he was ragged enough as he was without any 
additions* »'e crept on, our feet making no noise on the soft carpet of 
pine needles and the only sound that broke the stillness was a soft hiss 
from the cat or a low growl from Ruin. When we reached a point about 
thirty feet from the tree the cat no doubt thought of the maxim I have 
quoted, for giving vent to one last spit he jumped free and clear twenty 
feet from his roost and was off in long leaps as fast as hi3 legs would 
carry him, with Ruin close behind him and filling the air with hi3 short 
yelps. 

I went back and got my transit and then made my way to where the boys 
had driven the last stake in our survey; it was at the highest point on 
the mountain and as we got our tools together we could hear Ruin on the 
track of the cat as the latter tried to throw the dog off tho scent by 
running around the hill. We hid our stuff under a bush for we could 
oome back and got it later, whereas the cat must be looked after at one© 
if we wished to look after it at all, and we wanted to be on the. job if 
Ruin should catch up with the beast for we knew tho dog would tackle an 
elephant when he got his mad up and we also had soma idea of the kind of 



4>SC 



/-^/c^~~ **££, 



94 

No mention thus far has been made of the Amateur 
Championship, which differs from the Professional only in 
point of time, the Amateur being for one-half hour and 
the Professional for one hour ; both, however, being written 
from the same copy at the same time. 

Mr. George L. Hossfeld, winner of the Amateur 
Championship contest in 191 7, established a record which 
justifies mention, because it proves the possibilities of the 
typewriter. Mr. Hossfeld, using the Underwood type- 
writer, wrote 145 net words a minute for thirty minutes. 
This means after five words had been deducted for every 
error. In winning this championship Mr. Hossfeld wrote 
at the rate of 152 words a minute, one page of which is 
without error. In other words, for over four minutes he 
wrote at the rate of 152 words a minute, perfect, which is 
the highest record ever made in open competition even 
for one minute only. The reproduction of Mr. Hossfeld's 
work, bearing the signature of approval of Mr. J. N. 
Kimball, Contest Manager, appears on page 95. 

Thus for eleven consecutive years, typists using the 
Underwood have won and held the World's International 
Trophy, purchased by all the typewriter companies and of- 
fered under the auspices of Office Appliances. The rate of 
speed attained in these contests has been nothing short of 
phenomenal. Exclusive of the return of the carriage, which 
was more than five hundred times, not including the 
shift key for capitals and other upper case characters, 
and not considering the insertion of sixteen sheets of 
paper, and turning twenty-five sheets of copy, the typists 
have written at the rate of more than eleven strokes per 
second for three thousand six hundred consecutive seconds. 

Emil A. Trefzger, winner of the first endurance con- 
test held in Chicago, March 20, 1905, writing 90 minutes 
from copy and 90 minutes from dictation at the rate of 
62 net words a minute (only one word being deducted 
for every four errors), used the Remington typewriter. 



95 



to blows If It had not been that at meal time me oould let off steam by 
finding fault with tho oook. How grouohy we might all have become is a 
matter for conjeotura but for one saving grace, the dumb friend of man 
which is ever at his elbow, or to speak by the card which Is ever la 
his pocket--whioh soothes him In hours of pain and calms him in times 
of anger, and more than all, being often in his mouth shuts off impious 
co mment--his pipe. I do not know how many of you have what our fore- 
fathers were wont to call the filthy habit of using tobaooo, but I do 
know that suoh of you as have that habit will be of one mind with mo when 
I say that there ere many things in this old world of ours whloh I would 
be. willing to dispense with before I would part with that bit of briar 
wood and its amber stem. Of course during the two days I speak of we 
had eaten, and we lingered at the table Just as long as possible to pass 
eway the time, but three meals a day were all that were allowed ub by 
the rules and if we had tried to break those rules the cook would have 
resigned snd left us to starve; but there was no rule as to our pipes 
and that wo made the best use of them you may be sure. And all the time 
It rained cats and dogs as the scylng Is, and as I think It must have 
rained when Hoah first snut the door of the ark and m&de things snug 
and trim for his voyage, and now at the end of the second day, the supper 
dishes having boen taken from the table and washed by Dan whose turn it 
was at the time, each of U3 sat with his pipe in his mouth and puffe<? 
away as If for dear life. It was early in September and the weather was? 
not cold but the blaze of the open fire felt good and gave an air of cheer 
to the room as night came on. .Then it was fine outside we used to group 
atout the door at night and after we had made our plana for the next day ^3 
we would sing' and spin yarn3 and watch the stars as they oame from their 
hiding places in the sky, or listen to the oall of some night bird in 
the depth of the wood; but after two days In jail one does not care to 
plan for the morrow and has no mind to sing unless It be a dirge, and 
aa for story telling, at suoh a time one oould not tell the truth if he ~ , 
tried — and so we sat there each of us as dumb as an oyster and as silent 
as a olam. <Vhen the fire got low one of the boys, we oalled him vjasN 

"Beef" bee-use of his size, was eleoted to go out and bring in an arm full 
of wood from the pile which we kept dry in the eh6d and when he cane back 
end sat down in a chair the water ran off him and insde pools on the floor 
in which Dick proposed that we go fishing, t"Ut the Joko, if it wa3 
one, foil flat. 



II 



«. 



96 

Mr. Trefzger continued to use this machine until the 
year 1908, when he began using the Underwood. The 
following year, operating the Underwood, he competed 
in London for the English Championship, and won the 
contest regardless of the unusual conditions imposed, which 
consisted in copying twenty minutes from printed matter, 
writing from dictation for twenty minutes, and copying 
from pen-written lithographed manuscript for fifteen 
minutes. 

In addition to winning this contest and cup in 1909, 
Mr. Trefzger returned and won it under similar condi- 
tions in 1910, and again in 1912, there being no contest 
held in 191 1. The terms of the contest were that the cup 
became the personal property of the contestant who won 
three consecutive contests. A sample of the manuscript 
from which Mr. Trefzger copied is given on page 97; 
It was required that all abbreviations be translated and 
written in full. A fac-simile reproduction of a paragraph of 
printed matter copied by Mr. Trefzger, follows: 

The Commissioners were Lord Balfour of 
Burleigh (Chairman) and Sir John Dickson 
Poynder (now Lord Islington and Governor of 
New Zealand), representing Great Britain, (he 
Hon. W. S. Fielding and the Hon. William 
Paterson, for Canada, and Sir Daniel Morris, 
as representing the West Indian Colonies. In 
a letter of instructions addressed to the 
Commissioners by the Earl of Crewe (Colonial 
Secretary) it is laid down that the term British 
West Indies includes " Bermuda, the Bahamas, 
and British Honduras, in addition to the British 
West Indian Islands, as usually so-called, and 
British Guiana " ; and the Commissioners are 
informed that "His Majesty's Government 
have undertaken that in any arrangement 
which may be arrived at between Canada and 
the West Indies due regard will be had to the 
interests of Newfoundland." 



97 




96 






CO 

O 



o 

►—I 
CO 
CO 

W 
to 

O 



CO 

Q 
O 



o 

O 



u £ 



o 



H 



O 

CO 

P4 

w 



^TS Tj-fOiOO\NO^NO\C>«) 

1> £ H^Hl^fOHO\H\0 fOOO 

oi oj Km N O ^-I\»-h oi in 

N N N00 OC 00 



kT <.N VN l^» "3 l^N 

j^ in in m vo no 



~ vo in 
co 
C 

u 



W 



4) 

s 



CO 



- O O in O 

O On 01 vO 

i" io ^t ro ^ 



O u~) o 



rf tJ- CO Os ~ 
TT "^ *- 01 



O u~> 

•-« 01 
CO CO 



>-< On t}- 01 On 00 vO 

00 ►-> 00 K^O 00 00 



On n oi in 



& ONOOiooNr^OiooiONONco 

o •-'cocowHr^inoi'-irx'^ - '-' 

,*r VO 00 i-h OnO ^tONONCOlOON 

U iO mvO ^O K K N t\00 00 00 



N N 



n "w *aS !> 

-f- 1 T-l T-! 



u s- s- 

fe fo fe 



JJhI 



*T3 -O 

.2 .S3 m 

a! rt w 



C 

o 



c 



c 
O 



£ CQ P3 P3 

c - ' -»-> -t-t ■*-> 



"OO 



PS P4 ^ E 



E fc 



fcjo — 



CJ 


4> 


a> 


5- 


U 


s- 


rt 


rt 


rt 


bn 


tuO 


ojO 


s- 


u 


s- 


Rj 


rt 


rt 



^ w ^ ^ ^ 



"O ""O "O "O "O ""O "^3 *0 ""O "O "O 
OOOOOOOOOOO 

ooooooooooo 

£££££££££££ 

tD"0'"0'0"O'0*O*0*O'TD"TD 



O h n ro tJ- in v£> ts» 

►■Ht— (I— INHHHI-Ht-HH- 1 

OnOnOnOnOnOnOnOn 



99 



REMINGTON NO. 10 



The first practical typewriter was known as the Rem- 
ington. This machine was introduced to a critical public 
nearly a half century ago. The name Remington, there- 
fore, is recognized as the pioneer in the typewriter world, 
and great credit is due it for the educational work it 
accomplished in converting the public from criticism to 
appreciation of the value of the typewriter. The success 
of the Remington typewriter, the evolution of which was 
stimulated by various imitators, was so marked that its 
manufacturers were loath to abandon the understroke prin- 
ciple of the blind writer. 

For many years the Remington enjoyed the distinc- 
tion of being the best typewriter, not only because it was 
the first, but because it actually led in all essential re- 
quirements possible in the manufacture of the blind type- 
writer. After the public had become educated to the value 
of the typewriter, however, many users of the machine 
saw possibilities of improvements and suggested many, 
principal among which was visible writing. Although 
numerous suggestions were adopted, that of visible writing 
was deemed impractical from the manufacturers' stand- 
point, because it required so many changes in the forma- 
tion of the machine; in fact, a complete remodeling. 

The desire of the typist for visible writing, however, 
finally developed into an actual demand, to which the 
Underwood and other machines had already responded. The 
success of the visible writer was so marked and the confirma- 
tion by public opinion so pronounced that the Remington 
typewriter was finally compelled to surrender, and reluct- 
antly accept and advocate the principle it had so strenu- 
ously opposed for so many years. 



100 

The name "Remington" in the typewriter world had 
become famous, and the anticipation following the an- 
nouncement of a "visible writing Remington" was the 
cause of much speculation. But the Remington Company 
had opposed the demand of typists and the business public 
too long, and as a result, when they were compelled to 
accede to the demand for a visible writer they found that 
the most practical features required in such construction 
had already been employed, and their effort to evade in- 
fringement necessarily complicated their machine. 

After the Remington had "seen the light," and the 
transformation had taken place, there was little left by 
which it could be identified except the name-plate. The 
typebar combination, instead of being simplified was more 
complicated, employing about double the number of parts, 
and the frictional points increased from three to five. Steel 
finger key levers were substituted for the wooden levers 
of which they had made such a strong feature in their 
blind writers. The power was no longer transmitted 
direct from the finger key lever through a single connect- 
ing link to the typebar, but through a connecting link to 
a bell-crank, thence through another connecting link to the 
typebar. This increased lost motion, and resulted in less 
speed in the return of the typebar, to overcome which, in 
fast writing, it was necessary to employ a part known as 
the "repulser." 

As has been stated before, it is not the purpose of 
these steps to point out defects or deficiencies in any type- 
writer, but rather to direct attention to all important fea- 
ures that mark an advance in the evolution of the type- 
writer. Inasmuch, however, as the Remington Typewriter 
Company claim a "new self-starting Remington," it may 
be interesting to the reader to know the truth concerning 
this. In the first place, they have built no new model 
since 1908. They have simply recognized and tried to cor- 



101 



rect mistakes in their original visible model. The "self- 
starter" is not a new feature, as it was embodied in the 
first No. 10 Remington typewriter in 1908, but it was then 
called the "column selector." 




REMINGTON No. 10 

It is true, the No. 10 Remington has been improved 
since it was first submitted to the public. For example: 
Their first machine had the double wheel escapement with 
a single loose dog. This was soon found to be imprac- 
tical, and they returned to the time tested principle of the 
single wheel and two dogs. Both dogs, however, are 
loose. They also made many other alterations, among 
which was the change in name of "column selector" to 
"self-starter." This term, popularized by the automobile 
industry, was appropriated by the Remington simply as a 
catch phrase. The machine does not have a self-starter; 
it starts the same as all machines — by a touch of the finger — 
and the feature to which they give the name "self-starter" 
is in fact a self-stopper, but this name being literal is too 



102 

significant. It matters not, however, whether it be a 
column selector, self-starter, or self-stopper, it embodied 
the principle of the Gathright Tabulator patents which 
were owned and controlled by the Underwood, and could 
only be used by other machines on payment of a royalty 
to the Underwood until the patents expired. (See tabulators.) 

The transformation of the Remington from a blind to 
a visible writer definitely and conclusively confirmed all 
the claims of the Underwood, which not only served to 
establish the latter machine more firmly in the estimation 
of the public, but to acknowledge its leadership in the 
typewriter world. 

SMITH PREMIER NO. 10 

The federal laws restricting trusts and other combi- 
nations apparently made it necessary for the Union Type- 
writer Company to claim its own, and sell its products 
from one general headquarters, and not from different 
points apparently in competition with each other. The 
Remington, the Smith Premier, and the Monarch were 
therefore brought together, and the Smith Premier of 
necessity was also transformed into a visible writer. 

The first model of the Smith Premier Visible was, as 
all first models are, very crude, and some vital changes 
were necessary, one of which was the so-called "target," 
which actuated the escapement. In other words, the uni 
versal bar was brought up to the type end of the typebar. 
Theoretically, this was good, but practically it was not a 
success, and as a result it became necessary to change the 
position of the universal bar. 

The Smith Premier as a blind machine had doubtless the 
best method of cleaning the type, but the visible Smith 
Premier has possibly the most difficult method of cleaning the 
type — they are hard to get at with the brush; besides, there 



103 



are two sets. The ribbon is very difficult to place in position. 
The machine, however, recognizes and emphasizes the value 
of visible writine. 



»5' 



The No. 10 Smith Premier has no special advantages 
over the old blind model except the visible feature which 
the evolution of the typewriter forced it to adopt. It still 
has the double keyboard, which compels a change in the 
bearings to accommodate them to the reduced space on a 
front stroke machine. It now has ball-bearing typebars, 
and being a Remington product, this places the company in 
a position that is quite inconsistent, that of advocating 
three different styles of machine — the Remington, with 
pivotal typebar bearings, a single keyboard, and carriage 
shift for capitals; the Smith Premier with ball-bearing 
typebars and a double keyboard (a key for each char- 
acter) ; and the Monarch with a single keyboard and bas- 
ket shift for capitals. 




SMITH PREMIER No. 10 



To further accommodate the typebars of the Smith 
Premier to the space allotted them, it is necessary to make 
them in two lengths, the short bars being hung three- 
quarters of an inch above the lower or long bars. In 



104 

order to equalize the touch and impression, the type on 
the short bars should be made heavier. This is not the 
case, however. The power necessary to operate the type- 
bar embodies the same principle as that of "horse power," 
the universal term used in mechanics, which includes force, 
distance, and time. To equalize the time, which is the 
most essential, the leverage in the two sets of bars must 
differ, which affects the touch, or power, and speed ac- 
cording to the principle involved in "horse power." 

The Smith Premier is no longer popular among the 
best typists principally because of its double keyboard, 
which is an objectionable feature for touch typewriting, the 
method almost universally taught in schools at the present 
time. It is only the older and slower operators who use 
the sight method in typewriting, and to these the evo- 
lution of the typewriter would not appeal. 

YOST MODEL A (Visible) 

The Yost typewriter, being a member of the Union 
Typewriter family, immediately followed suit in changing 




YOST MODEL A 



105 

its blind machine to a visible writer. The result of their 
effort to retain some of the features which the Yost had 
employed in the blind writer is really interesting, not on 
account of its efficiency, but as an example of mechanical 
possibilities. The typebar combination requires fourteen 
separate active parts. The inventor must indeed have had 
a wonderful mind to solve a problem involving such mar- 
velous intricacy. (See diagram, page 140.) There are ten 
frictional points in this typebar combination, which is one 
of the most complicated of any machine. 

The blind Yost typewriter was a pad machine, and 
this feature is retained in the visible. In order to do this 
it is necessary for the type to lie face down on the pad 
directly beneath the writing line, exposed to all the erasure 
and office dust. To lift the type from the inking pad, or 
position of rest, to the point of contact with the paper, 
where the impression is made, four definite and distinct 
movements are necessary. The type are lifted up, back, 
up, and forward to the printing point. The typebar itself, 
as may be seen, is composed of three parts, one of which holds 
the type, and another serves both as a lever and a hammer to 
lift the part holding the type and to strike it in the back to 
make the impression. On account of the position of the type 
lying face downward, it is extremely difficult to clean them. 

It would be difficult to even attempt to describe the 
complexity of this typebar construction, or anv other fea- 
tures of the machine, except that it changed from a blind 
to a visible writer, and from a double to a single key- 
board. Suffice it to say that the machine marks no step 
in the evolution of the typewriter, hence it could not find 
a market in the United States, and practically the entire 
product is consumed abroad. 

ROYAL 

The Royal typewriter is a machine with a checkered 
career. Its first appearance on the market was in 1906, 



106 

and it was current comment at that time that the machine 
was designed and built for the purpose of forcing a fur- 
ther combination of typewriters, which the Underwood 
had practically succeeded in breaking up. It was not suc- 
cessful, however. It did not possess sufficient merit at 
that time to attract public attention to the extent that it 
would disturb other manufacturers. 

Two models were built, one known as the Royal 
Grand, and the other the Royal Standard. The former 
sold for one hundred dollars, or at least it was so listed, 
but for reasons best known to the manufacturer it was 
soon withdrawn from the market. The latter, however, 
was continued at a list price of sixty-five dollars. 




ROYAL STANDARD 

The company adopted a very suggestive slogan, "You 
can pay more, but you can't buy more." The price and 
the aggressiveness of the company attracted some little 
attention. It was found, however, that a typewriter of 
quality could not be made and sold at a price less than 
one hundred dollars without loss to the manufacturer. 
The result was, the company built another model, No. 5, 
in which were incorporated the back-spacer, the tabulator, 
and the bichrome ribbon, and increased the price to sev- 



107 

enty-five dollars. These added features already being in 
use on all the older machines served to discredit their 
slogan. Still this machine did not measure up to the re- 
quirements of either the typist or the business man, and 
another change became necessary. 

This time the machine was changed in form, model, 
and price. It was built higher to conform, as they said, 
"to generally accepted appearance in typewriter construc- 
tion, and would be sold at the standard price of one hundred 
dollars." They called this the No. 10 model, but aside from 
the change in form, practically the only improvement was the 
automatic reverse of the ribbon. The manufacturers found 
that changing the form of the machine and raising the 
price did not conform with their slogan. This had served 
an excellent purpose in the sale of the machine at sixty- 
five dollars, but it became retroactive with the change, 
which may account for the many reports that the com- 
pany is unable to secure list price. In introducing the 
Royal Typewriter No. 10, through Office Appliances in the 
June issue of 1914, the company says: 

'The introduction of the first model of the Royal 
Typewriter was attended by the discouragement which 
always follows the production of any machine, for any 
purpose, which does not conform in appearance with that 
which the public is familiar." 

"The public, once used to a certain form, gives slight 
response at first to the suggestion of change. . . . But 
the public, although slow in response to change, does 
always in good time accept what was once considered an 
innovation, provided it have merit." 

"When the typewriter which first put writing in sight 
of the operator was introduced," (the Underwood) "and 
which machine was essentially different from older models, 
the public was not so sure it wanted a machine that 
differed in construction from the kind to which it had been 



108 

accustomed. The machine did not look like those with 
which the public was acquainted. But presently the public 
would have no machine that did not embody the principle 
of the writing in sight of the operator." 

"The first model of the Royal resembled no other 
typewriter. It did not conform to the generally accepted 
lines of typewriter construction, and the manufacturers 
had to be content with the psychological disadvantage." 

From this statement it would appear that the No. 10 
Royal was introduced principally for the purpose of "con- 




ROYAL No. 10 

forming with the appearance of other typewriters," and 
of enabling them to sell it "at the standard price of one 
hundred dollars." The No. i and No. 2 Royal Standards 
gave way to the No. 5 with an advance of ten dollars in 
price. The No. 5 was succeeded by the No. 10 with an 
advance of twenty-five dollars, catalog price. The No. 10 
begins with the serial number where the No. 5 left off, 
and the No. 5 where the No. 2 was discontinued. 

While the outward conformation of the machine re- 
sembled the Underwood, and other visible writers that 
had preceded it. its interior or vital working parts did not 
conform with those of any other machine. The typebar 
combination, as shown by diagram, page 136, is composed 



109 

of eight parts. The link or links connecting the finger 
key lever with the typebar proper has five parts, consisting 
of a series of bent wires. The back wire, the one that 
operates the universal bar, is encased in a spiral spring 
hooked into the frame at one end and a section of the 
links at the other. This is for the purpose of assisting in 
taking up lost motion. 

The fragile mechanism of the machine is encased in 
plate glass. This, it is claimed, is for the purpose of 
keeping the dust out, but the real reason, it is believed, 
is to prevent the typist's cleaning brush and the inspection 
of the exacting buyer from getting at the frangible con- 
struction. 

NOISELESS 

The Noiseless typewriter is a machine that deserves 
mention. Of course, it is a visible machine, and it is 
really noiseless. But while this noiseless feature is appre- 
ciated in some offices, to secure it numerous sacrifices of 
other important features are necessary, which makes it 
undesirable in the great majority of busy business orifices. 

The type are arranged in a fan-like formation, three 
characters on each bar, and by means of an actuating arm 
are "pushed" horizontally from their position of rest a 
distance of about two inches to the printing point, and 
when they reach the printing point the force that impels 
them has been expended. There is a steel bar that ex- 
tends along between the cylinder and the printing line 
on the paper to give a solid printing surface. 

The typebars in their forward movement slide into a 
guide that is not adjustable, and the surface over which 
they slide is not only exposed to dust, but they have five fric- 
tional points which cause the sluggish return of the bars. 
The return of these bars on the new machine is caused 



110 

by a tension spring and a balancing weight. These must 
be evenly and accurately adjusted because the least ten- 
sional friction greatly retards the return of the bars. 

In front of the machine there is a dial graduated 
from o to 1 6. On this dial there is an indicator which, 
when set at o, is intended to adjust the position of the 
cylinder for writing on one sheet of paper. As the dial 
is advanced, the cylinder is forced back. This is supposed 
to provide for a number of sheets of carbon and to give 
the same pressure on each sheet from one to sixteen; but 
it does not, for the reason that the number of sheets serve 
as a cushion which prevents the final pressure and nullifies 
the purpose of the steel bar. This adjustment, however, 
prevents battering the face of the type against the steel 
bar back of the printing point. Because of the impression 
being made by a push rather than a blow, the effect is not 
good. A quick, sharp blow of a few ounces will produce 
a better carbon copy than the pressure of several pounds. 

It would be difficult indeed to describe or define the 
typebar and its action of the Noiseless typewriter, but the 
reader can perhaps draw his own conclusions by referring 
to the diagram of the typebar on page 138. It should 
be remembered also that the construction of the typebar 
is the all-important feature of all typewriters. 

The marginal stops and the tabular stops are both on 
the same rack in the back, and they are very inconven- 
iently set. It is necessary to adjust them according to 
a graduated scale on the paper shelf, which agrees with 
the scale on the cylinder. These stops being on the same 
rack interfere with the adjustment of each other. It is 
often necessary to move both to adjust one. 

The keyboard is not universal from the fact that it 
has two shift keys, one for capitals, and the other for the 
numerals and many of the special characters. This will 
always make the machine unpopular with touch typists. 



Ill 

The machine is very much heavier than other machines as 
the result of the thick casting- of which the frame is com- 
posed for the purpose of reducing the noise. 

The efforts of the manufacturers of the Noiseless 
machine are commendable, but the results will not meet 
the requirements of the modern business office. It is the 
author's contention that whatever the mind conceives the 
hand can execute. In other words, the conception of the 
mind is a prophecy of the possibility of its accomplish- 
ment. However, as with the typewriter itself, it often 
takes a long time for the realization of a prophecy. The 
mental conception of the typewriter, formulated more than 
two centuries ago, was in the process of evolution one 
hundred and fifty years before the first practical type- 
writer was built, and then only in a very crude form. 
Therefore, the noiseless machine may in time develop into 




NOISELESS 



a practical typewriter, but as it is today it has many diffi- 
culties to overcome, before it will meet the requirements 
of the exacting business public. 



112 

VICTOR 

Supplementing the efforts of the Underwood in its 
early days to educate the business world to the value of 
visible writing-, several machines were built along similar 
lines, and each served its purpose by confirming the front 
stroke visible principle made popular by the Underwood. 
Some of these machines that should be mentioned are the 
Secor, the Stearns, the Fox Visible, and in fact all ma- 
chines that were built embodying the principle of the front 
stroke visible writer. 

Among this number is also the Victor. The strong 
claim of the manufacturers of this machine is the wide 
pivotal typebar bearings, and in this respect the individual 
pivotal bearing for each typebar is wider than the bearing 
of any other machine with similar bearings, but it does 
not have any other feature that would especially recom- 
mend it. In fact, its ribbon control is crude, and is in 
the way oi the typist. There is nothing to prevent the 
face of one type from striking against the back of another, 
which at times cannot be avoided even by the most skilled 
typist. The breaking or battering of the type causes irreg- 
ular, imperfect impressions, and spoils the appearance of 
the work. This defect was provided against in the earliest 
model of the Underwood, but its value has only recently 
been confirmed by such machines as the Remington, L. C. 
Smith. Royal, and others. 

CORONA 

The purpose of this machine primarily, and it might 
be said finally, is portability. It is the outgrowth of the 
Folding Typewriter; in fact, it is a folding typewriter — 
the carriage and upper framework folding down over the 
keyboard when not in use. thus making a compact form 
for carrying. 



113 

The machine has a double shift, that is, one shift for 
capitals, and the other for figures and special characters. 
It is attractive, and does good work to the limit of its 
capacity, but its capacity is quite limited as compared with 
machines that are designed and built for heavy, fast office 
work. For the purpose, however, that it is intended, it 
meets the requirements quite satisfactorily. It advanced 
no new ideas other than the folding feature, which is 
essential for convenience in carrying, and to accomplish 
this it is necessary to sacrifice other features common on 
better machines. 

EMPIRE 

This is a machine of numerous names. It is manu- 
factured in Montreal, Canada, where it is known as the 
Empire; in the United States, the Wellington; and in 
Europe, where it is made under license to a Mr. Adler, 
it bears his name. This machine is not mentioned as a 
step in the evolution of the typewriter because it pos- 
sesses no new ideas that are especially commendable, but it 
has some considerable following in Canada and Europe, 
hence the consideration. 

The typebar construction of the Empire-Wellington- 
Adler is peculiar and quite complicated. The typebars rest 
on a flat surface and are pushed forward to the printing 
point, a distance of about two inches, into a guide, where 
the type are held securely. It is claimed for this machine 
that it has a universal keyboard. This is not true, however, 
The recognized universal keyboard has a single shift, or 
at least two shifts, one on each side, that may be operated 
by either hand, but the function of both is the same, and 
it is not necessary to shift for figures or many of the 
special characters. In other words, in using all of the 
characters on the standard universal keyboard it is neces- 
sary to use the shift key just half as many times as would 



114 

be required in using all of the characters on the Empire- 
Wellington-Adler. It is claimed that the typebars do not 
move as far as on most other machines. This is true, but 
it is also true that they do not move nearly so fast be- 
cause of the friction on the surface upon which the type- 
bars rest and move, and the lack of gravitation. 

It is evident that the typebar of the Empire suggested 
the typebar construction embodied in the Noiseless. 

EDISON 

The Edison typewriter was designed expressly by the 
manufacturers of the Edison Mimeograph, A. B. Dick 
Company, for the purpose of providing a machine that 
would cut a good stencil, and sell for less than one hundred 
dollars. This was an aspersion on other typewriters, espe- 
cially when this company tried to enter the regular type- 
writer field. The machine did not possess quality, and 
although cheap it was expensive for the owner because 
it did no better stencil work than other machines, and was 
not equal to the requirements of general office work. 
Almost all machines of the day in which it was manu- 
factured would cut a stencil quite as good as the Edison, 
and as a result it was soon discontinued. The fact that 
they tried to enter the regular typewriter field served to 
encourage mimeograph competition by typewriter compa- 
nies who were building machines that would cut satisfac- 
tory stencil copies. 

The Underwood Typewriter Company brought out the 
Underwood Revolving Duplicator with a full line of sup- 
plies and specially prepared stencil paper of the highest 
quality. This work is so important that digression is par- 
donable — few typists understand how to cut a stencil prop- 
erly — they are too apt to give a heavy, hesitating blow 
when a quick, snappy, even stroke is required. 



115 



FOREIGN TYPEWRITERS 

It is a strange fact that all of the best typewriters 
that have been produced have been built in America, and 
American machines find a better market in Europe and 
other countries than machines built elsewhere. 

The style of construction of foreign machines does 
not fulfill the requirements of the most exacting users. 
They are all visible writers, of course, of the front stroke 
principle, but they seem to lack the refinement? of the 
American made machine. 

As this book is intended solely to record the steps in 
the evolution of the typewriter, the whole foreign product, 
of which the great majority is manufactured in Germany, 
may be treated under one head. There is no foreign 
machine entitled to recognition in this book as a step in the 
development of typewriters, and they are given consider- 
ation only as a matter of historical reference, as well as 
to confirm the front stroke visible principle introduced 
by the Underwood, which brought about the revolution 
in the style of typewriter construction, and their imper- 
fections only serve to emphasize the superiority of the 
American typewriters. 

This statement is confirmed by the fact that an edict 
was issued by the German Government prohibiting any 
branch of the Government from purchasing typewriters 
that were not made in Germany. This was necessary be- 
cause the German product was lacking in quality and was 
not appreciated. 

CONTINENTAL— The Continental typewriter is a 
German product, and is perhaps one of the most promi- 
nent foreign built machines, but it is crude in comparison 



116 

with the highly developed American machines. It contains 
absolutely no feature that is commendable by comparison 
with the machines already mentioned in this book. 

IDEAL — The Ideal, it is said, is an American inven- 
tion, but if this be true, it only proves the facts before 
stated with reference to the superiority of the American 
typewriters. It is made in Germany, for the reason that 
it could not find a market in the United States. 

KANZLER — The Kanzler is manufactured in Berlin. 
This machine has eight characters arranged on each type- 
bar. However, the keyboard would seem to be larger than 
the regular standard keyboard. The machine has never 
made any impression either in its own country or else- 
where. 

STOEWER — The Stoewer is also a German machine, 
and other writers say that it ''more strongly resembles 
the Underwood than any other." It is true that all ma- 
chines have tried to "resemble the Underwood," but the 
Stoewer machine has fallen very short in its effort. This 
machine was placed upon the English market as the Swift, 
and while few changes were made they were all more in 
imitation of the Underwood than the Stoewer proper. 

TORPEDO — The Torpedo, another German machine, 
has undergone several changes in its formation since it 
was first introduced. This machine is also built in imi- 
tation of the Underwood, although it has a right-hand 
reverse located very awkwardly. Nevertheless, it con- 
firms the basic front stroke visible principle. 

MERCEDES — The Mercedes typewriter is another 
German product, but it differs so little from the machines 
already mentioned that it is really quite unnecessary to 
make any comment concerning it. Of course, it employs 
the front stroke principle, as all machines built today do. 
A feature is claimed for this machine which is an old 
neglected idea first used on the Daugherty, that of inter- 



117 

changing the type by loosening a few screws, and re- 
moving the entire typebar mechanism and substituting an- 
other. This is impractical, however, because the change 
of type is not of sufficient importance to justify the ex- 
pense and trouble. 

TRIUMPH — The Triumph, another German machine, 
is quite on a par with those already mentioned, although 
to speak frankly, as is the aim of this book, it is doubtless 
the best one of the entire German product. None of these 
machines contains a single feature that has not already 
been incorporated in some one of the many American 
machines, but they have copied in a crude manner more 
closely the Underwood ideas, evidently recognizing its 
superior principle of construction. 



Cuts of the foregoing typewriters would convey no 
information, as they all have the same general appear- 
ance and differ in no essential features from the cuts 
shown of the American made machines. However, the 
reader's attention is directed to the diagrams of the type- 
bars in the back of the book, which show how closely they 
have tried to imitate the Underwood typebar action. 



MASKELYNE — During the long personal experience 
of the author in the actual sale of the typewriter, he has 
been asked many times why manufacturers did not provide 
a means for differential spacing; that is, the regulation 
of the space between the characters. As typewriters are 
built today, it requires as much space for the "i," "1," and 
other letters of similar width as it does for the "m" and 
"w," and where a wide type character is doubled or comes 
together, followed or preceded by a narrow faced type, 
the spacing seems quite irregular. This principle in type- 
writer construction has not been overlooked. Various at- 



118 

tempts have been made to secure this feature, as manu- 
facturers recognize that the work would have a better ap- 
pearance if spacing could be made to suit the individual 
character without sacrificing other and more important 
advantages. 

The most worthy effort in this direction was that 
made by the manufacturers of the Maskelyne typewriter. 
It provided for different spacings, one for a character 
similar to "i;" another for "e" and similar width; another 
for V and "\v;"and still another for diphthongs. This 
construction necessarily affected the touch of the keys, and 
the action of the carriage. 

In careful writing, with a desire to favor this feature 
of the machine, the work was satisfactory, but in fast 
writing the mechanism that produced this result became 
negligible or inoperative, and as the disadvantage was far 
greater than the advantage, which consisted chiefly in the 
appearance of the work, the idea was abandoned and the 
manufacture of the machine discontinued. 



119 



TABULATORS 

The typewriter, for typewriting in its simplest form, 
having been thoroughly established, inventors were making 
every effort possible to improve the machine and develop 
its practicability. For example: The earlier typewriters 
were not practical for doing statement or form work; it 
was necessary to strike the space bar for each intervening 
space between various positions of writing on the same 
line, then lift the carriage and compare scales. This was 
very necessary, and work of this character could not be 
done with any degree of facility and accuracy. 

Many attempts of various kinds and classes were made 
to produce a tabulating device that would be practical, 
but among the many only two are entitled to recognition, 
all others embodying practically the same principle. These 
are the Gathright and Gorin, the latter being an infringement 
on the former. 

GATHRIGHT— On January 15, 1889, Joseph B. 
Gathright, of Louisville, Kentucky, filed application and 
secured patent (No. 436916), September 23, 1890, for a tabu- 
lating device. The use of this invention permitted the car- 
riage to move forward from one position to any other desired 
position, skipping the regular spacing controlled by the rack, 
and indicated by the scale on the machine. 

This device made it possible to do billing and other 
statement or form work easily and accurately b\ mechan- 
ically skipping spaces desired to be left blank. This was 
accomplished by touching a key that released the dogs 
from the rack and permitted the carriage to pass to a 
fixed position, where its course was arrested by a stop. 
The number of columns was limited only by the number of 
engaging stops. 



120 



For reasons unknown, this patent was not used by 
any of the typewriters manufactured at that time. Its 
value, however, was immediately appreciated by those re- 
sponsible for the development of the Underwood, who 
secured control of the Gathright patents and embodied 
them in the construction of the earliest Underwood ma- 
chines. This invention increased the value of the type- 
writer inestimably as it was the initial step to the many 
uses in which the typewriter has been employed in the 
various forms of billing, bookkeeping, statement work, etc. 

GORIN— On January 3, 1895, F. P. Gorin, of 
Chicago, Illinois, filed application for a patent on a tabu- 
lating device, which was awarded him May 5, 1896, (No. 
559449). This patent was assigned to the Remington Type- 
writer Company and the device sold as an attachment to their 
machine at a price of twenty dollars each above the list price 
of the machine. 

The Underwood typewriter, which was first produced 
in practical form about the year 1896, entered suit for 
infringement upon the Gathright patents, and after several 
years of litigation, established through the courts their 
claim of priority as sole owners of this device. 

It will therefore be understood that all mechanical 
spacing devices that permit the carriage to move forward 
any number of spaces in excess of the single regular scale 
space, used by all machines, whether they be called tabu- 
lators, column selectors, self-starters, or any other name, 
embody the principle contained in the Gathright patents, 
which belonged to, and was a part of, the first Underwood. 



121 



TYPEBARS 

In the anatomy of the typewriter the typebar con- 
struction is the heart, and its action the pulse or power 
that vitalizes the entire machine. The power is trans- 
mitted through the touch of the finger key to the typebar, 
which makes the impression on the paper, and causes the 
escapement or forward movement of the carriage. To 
illustrate: By removing a typebar from the Underwood, 
then touching the finger key to which it was attached, it 
will be found that the machine will not respond in any 
particular. This is true with the Underwood only, as it is 
the only machine from which a typebar can be removed and 
replaced without loosening a screw or the necessity of re- 
adjusting the alignment. Each typebar is numbered and 
made to fit its position in the segment, and it fits it. 

Geometry teaches that a straight line is the shortest 
distance between two points. The two points in type- 
writing are the touch and the impression — the cause and 
the errect — the action and the result. It necessarily follows 
that the best results accrue from the most direct "straight 
line" action. This is accomplished by the elimination of 
parts and the reduction of frictional points. 

For the benefit of the reader diagrams have been 
prepared showing the construction of the typebar com- 
bination of the most prominent typewriters in use in recent 
years, from which he can draw his own conclusions with 
reference to the merit of the principle and construction. 
These diagrams will be found commencing on page 133. 

While the typebar has been termed the "heart of the 
typewriter," there are other very important features that 
must perform their proper functions in order that the best re- 



122 

suits may accrue. It is not the work performed by any indi- 
vidual part, but the close direct co-operation of the many 
parts that contributes to the best results in typewriting. 

It would be impossible to definitely describe the differ- 
ence in the typebars as shown in these diagrams. It will be 
observed, however, that the Underwood, the first one shown, 
has but three active parts — the finger key lever, the connect- 
ing link, and the typebar proper. The principle embodied in 
this construction not only contributes to the greatest speed, 
accuracy, and durability, but conserves the energy of the 
typist. It is the quickest typebar, not only because of the fact 
that each individual finger key can be adjusted to suit the re- 
quirements of each individual finger of each individual typist, 
but because, at the instant the typebar reaches the printing 
point where the impression is made, it comes in direct contact 
with the universal bar, and the reaction of the latter causes 
the immediate return of the typebar. This, too, is supple- 
mented by the bevel on the rigid dog. which prevents the 
slightest hesitancy in the reaction of the universal bar, which 
in turn acts directly upon the typebar. The accelerated lever- 
age for which provision is made by the cam in the heel of the 
typebar, in which the connecting link works, increases the 
momentum of the typebar as it approaches the printing point, 
as shown on diagram, page 133. 

The correct touch of an expert typist is a quick, sharp, 
snappy blow, releasing the key before the typebar reaches the 
printing point. This not only relieves the hand of the jar, but 
it gives the machine a chance to do its work properly. The 
carriage cannot go forward until the key is released. 

As a concrete example: The winners of the World's 
Championship Trophy have not always struck more keys 
than contestants using other machines, but the simplicity, 
direct action, elimination of friction and lost motion, both in 
the typebars and escapement of the machines used by the 



123 

winners, have reduced the number of their errors to a mini- 
mum. Hence, it will be seen that it is necessary to have a 
machine that will respond to every effort of the typist in 
order to produce the best results, not only in winning the 
championship, but in all things for which the typewriter is 
used. These facts will be appreciated by a careful study and 
comparison of the diagrams of the typebars and escapements 
in the back of the book. 

It will be observed that many of the foreign machines 
have not hesitated to imitate the style of construction of the 
Underwood typebar even more than some of the domestic 
machines, but the lack of harmony in the operation of the 
numerous other active parts renders these machines even less 
effective. Hence, it will be seen that the "heart" of the type- 
writer, though most important, is not the only vital organ 
necessary to the life and activity of the machine. 

In the evolution of the typewriter inventors have de- 
signed machines, which manufacturers have built / with the 
typebars striking the printing point from all directions. 
From the present style of construction, however, it will 
be noted that the front stroke principle has been almost 
universally adopted by all the leading machines. The type- 
bars lie in front and strike upward, a style first success- 
fully used by the Underwood. 



124 



UNIVERSAL BARS 

The universal bar is that part of the machine upon 
which the power, resulting from the stroke of the finger 
key, actuates the escapement, that permits the forward 
movement of the carriage. 

There are three means or methods by which the uni- 
versal bar is operated. First, by direct action of the type- 
bar, without division of power, through the stroke of the 
finger key to the typewritten impression as shown by dia- 
gram, page 145. The second method is by the action of 
the connecting link against the universal bar, the power 
resulting from the stroke of the finger key being divided 
at that point of contact; one force operating the typebar, 
the other the escapement ; hence a division of time in the 
action of these two important parts is not unusual. See 
diagram, page 146. The third and last style is the action 
of the finger key lever on the universal bar. This re- 
moves the power or cause farther from the effect, and 
often results in "skipping" or "piling." See diagram, 
page 146. By the last two methods it is possible for the 
impression to be made without the escapement taking place 
and vice versa. Study and compare these diagrams as 
well as all diagrams relating to the typebars and links. 

LINKS 

The finger key lever receives the blow and the typebar 
makes the impression, but there is a connection between 
the finger key lever and the typebar, called the link. The 
number of parts in this link-connection varies from one to 
many, as is shown by diagrams of four machines on 
pages 147 and 148. 



125 

It has been wisely said, and the theory universally 
accepted, that "A chain is no stronger than its weakest 
link." Through these links the touch or cause which pro- 
duces the effect or impression is transmitted. The more 
parts in the link connecting the finger key lever and the 
typebar, the more the construction is complicated and the 
number of frictional points increased. This indirect action 
necessarily causes a loss of time and power. 

It will be observed that the Underwood has but one 
part or link connecting the finger key lever with the type- 
bar, and as the typebar comes in direct contact with the 
universal bar it more fully complies with the geometrical 
definition of a "straight line" than any other typewriter 
built. If you are interested in typewriter construction 
study these diagrams closely. 

KEYBOARDS 

Today the arrangement of the twenty-six small letters 
of the alphabet on the keyboards of all typewriters is 
practically universal, but the remaining characters, which 
are more than two-thirds, are arranged in three different 
forms. More than ninety per cent, of all machines manu- 
factured have a keyboard with a single shift for capitals, 
or rather a shift key on each side of the keyboard, which 
may be operated with either hand, both performing the 
same function. The advent of touch typewriting has dem- 
onstrated that this is the best style of keyboard. It is 
simple, compact, and complete. Machines equipped with 
this keyboard are universally used in the classrooms of all 
high grade schools, the only exception being where a stu- 
dent desires to be prepared for a certain position where 
another style of keyboard is used. See diagram of uni- 
versal keyboard, page 149. 

The double keyboard has a character for each key. 
This style is not popular with touch typists, from the 



126 

fact that it is necessary to change the position of the hand 
when a capital is desired. Besides, thirty-three and one- 
third per cent, of all the keys, including the numerals, are 
operated with the little finger, as shown by figures 4 on 
diagram page 149. 

The third style of keyboard has three characters on 
each key, which requires a double shift; one for capitals 
and the other for numerals, punctuation marks, and special 
characters. This keyboard is so arranged not because of 
any advantage it gives the typist, but for the benefit of the 
manufacturer, which enables him to accommodate the keys 
to the limit of the typebar capacity as a result of the style 
of construction of the machine. (See page 150.) 

The diagrams of keyboards given in this book show 
numbers above each key. This number indicates the finger 
used on that key, and it refers to both hands. Number 
one indicates the first finger of either hand, number two 
the second finger, number three the third, and number 
four the little finger. The space bar is operated by the 
right thumb. 

In the course of the evolution of the typewriter the 
keyboard itself has undergone many changes. All kinds of 
freak ideas have been advanced, one of which will be seen 
in diagram, page 150. As long as opinions difTer, and cer- 
tain styles of typewriter construction are continued, it will 
be impossible to adopt a keyboard that will be uniform in 
all respects. Besides, the frequent occurrence of certain 
characters in other languages than English necessitates 
certain changes in order to produce the best results. 

The Universal Keyboard, as indicated in the first dia- 
gram, will doubtless remain unchanged, not only from the 
fact that millions of typists use it and would object to a 
change, but all publications for the instruction of the stu- 
dent of typewriting are based upon this style of keyboard, 
which a change would materially affect. 



127 



SPECIAL MACHINES 

The story of the evolution of the typewriter, so far as 
it relates to correspondence and general office work, has 
been told. But when the value of the typewriter as a gen- 
eral office assistant became fully appreciated by typists and 
business men, they began to cooperate with manufacturers 
to enlarge the scope of its usefulness. Inventors responded 
to this universal desire for the further development of the 
typewriter, until today there is a machine built for every 
purpose for which the pen was formerly used, except the 
actual signature, which individualizes and establishes re- 
sponsibility for the work. 

For example: The Underwood provides a machine for 
general accounting, such as ledger posting and statement 
work, railroad waybilling, statistical and form work of 
all kinds. In fact, it might truly be said that the great 
future of the typewriter industry lies in this direction. 

BOOKKEEPING MACHINE— The bookkeeping 
machine enables the operator to make and prove daily all 
records in bookkeeping and statement work, keeping the 




UNDERWOOD BOOKKEEPING MACHINE 



128 



ledger and statement of accounts automatically balanced 
to the minute. This eliminates the troubles common in 
taking off the trial balance. 

ADDENDAGRAPH— The Addendagraph is practi- 
cally unlimited in its capacity for statistical work. Any 



ADDENDAGRAPH 

number of columns may be made to the full capacity of the 
form used. This machine will give the total of each col- 
umn vertically; of each line in all columns horizontally; 
and will give a grand total which results in the proof of 
the correctness of the work. 

Other manufacturers have likewise appreciated the 
desire on the part of the business world for using the 
machine in a broader capacity than its original purpose, 
and they too are building machines in various forms in an 
effort to meet this desire. 

AUTOMATIC WRITER— The Underwood also 
builds an Automatic typewriter for circular work. This 
machine will write an unlimited number of copies from 



129 



the original, each having a different name and address. 
This original is prepared on a Master Model machine, and 
is a perforated continuous roll of paper, similar to the 
pianola record. The perforated roll containing the body 




UNDERWOOD AUTOMATIC WRITER 

of the letter, together with a similar roll with the names 
and addresses, are inserted in the machine, a supply of 
paper placed in a receptacle for the purpose, and the elec- 
tric current turned on. The machine will continue oper- 
ation until the supply of paper, which can be renewed as 
often as desired, is exhausted. Another advantage is the 
fact that the perforated roll or copy may be taken out, 
changes made, and preserved for future use. 

During the last four decades the typewriter has 
evolved from an experimental, doubtful degree of progress 
into an intensive industry, the magnitude of which it 
would be difficult to over-estimate. The invested capital 
necessary to conduct the manufacturing end involves many 
millions of dollars — a multitude of the most expert me- 
chanics are engaged in the experimental department, en- 
deavoring to further improve the typewriter — many thou- 



130 

sands are employed in the actual manufacture of the ma- 
chine — while there are armies of men all over the world 
employed in the sales and distribution of the typewriter — 
nor does this include the vast number of employes in the 
various offices required to keep the accounts and conduct 
the general office affairs of the industry. The typewriter 
has also contributed greatly to the world's welfare by pro- 
viding employment for hosts of typists, principally young 
women, who have not only made themselves self-supporting 
and independent, but have gained a higher and truer esti- 
mate of their worth. 

The Franklin Institute of the State of Pennsylvania, 
Philadelphia, says: "The writing machine has become in- 
dispensable to our business life." 

The Shorthand Writer, edited by W. L. James, a man 
with an extensive knowledge of the service the typewriter 
renders, says: "Thomas A. Edison, no doubt the greatest 
inventor of all time, never invented anything more useful 
than the typewriter." 

J. N. Kimball, Manager of the International Type- 
writing Contests, says: "And now one last word. I said 
a little while ago that the thought of Shole? had moved 
the world as much as it could have been moved by the 
lever of Archimedes, and I believe that is a correct state- 
ment. Suppose, for instance, that all the results of that 
first thought were banished, instantly, from the world, 
what would be the result? It is something worth pon- 
dering upon, is it not? In the first place, and as the 
most immediate disaster, thousands upon thousands would 
be deprived of a livelihood, people who know of no other 
method by which they could make a decent living. The 
wheels of trade would stop with a suddenness that would 
be appalling, and no panic that the world ever saw would, 
equal, in pecuniary loss, the result of the withdrawal of the 
typewriter from commercial houses." 






131 

It would be presuming upon the intelligence of the 
reader, and mistaking the requirements of the business world 
to say that any one typewriter possessed all of the many ex- 
cellent features known to the typewriter industry. It is, how 
ever, an indisputable fact that the United States is the great 
leader in the manufacture of typewriters, and the foreign 
made machines are practically imitations of the domestic pro- 
duct. 

As evidence of this fact, from 191 1 to 1915 inclusive, 
the United States exported $47,950,951 in typewriters, and 
in 191 6, $9,104,189. There were no imports. 

The Underwood typewriter is the only writing machine 
that has been able to place the million (1,000,000) serial 
number on its product, which strongly indicates its popu- 
larity. 



132 



TYPEBARS 



Diagrams showing number of parts, number 
of fractional points, position of universal bar, and 
principle involved in the action of the typebar. 



133 



UNDERWOOD 



I -TYPE -BAR 

2 -CONNECTING LINK 

3 -FINGER KEY LEVER 



/ r- 1 





A-FINGER KEY 
B-UNIVERSAL BAR 
C-CYLINDER 



T- TYPE-BAR AT REST 
A-ACCELERATED ACTION 

TYPE-BAR 
P-PRINTING POINT 




I- FINGER KEY LEVER 

2-CONNECTING LINK 

3-TYPE-BAR (DIFFERENT POSITIONS) 

4-TYPE-BAR REST (SHOT PAD) 

5-UNIVERSAL BAR 

6-TYPE GUIDE 

7-TYPE GUIDE SIDE ADJ. SCREW 

8 -TYPE GUIDE FRONT ADJ. SCREW(3) 

9-SEGMENTRING 

10-KEY LEVER TENSION SPRING 

I ^INDIVIDUAL KEY LEVER ADJ. SCREW 

12-RETAINING PLATE.SPRING AND SCREW 

13-TYPE-BAR BEARINGS (ONE PIECE) 

14-CONNECTING LINK BEARINGS(ONE PIECE) 

15-KEY LEVER BEARINGS (ONE PIECE) 

15 



UNDERWOOD TYPE-BAR SECTION 
SHOWING ACCELERATED ACTION 



134 



REMINGTON N9 6 



I -TYPE-BAR 

2 -TYPE 

3 -TYPE-BAR HANGER 

4-CONNECTINGWIRE 

5-CONNECTING WIRE LOCK NUT 

6- CONNECTING WIRE SWIVEL 

7- LOOP AROUND FINGER KEYLEVER(TIN 

8-FINGER KEYLEVER (WOOD) 



fc=r: 



ill, 




5 — , 



A- FINGER KEY 

B- UNIVERSAL BAR. 
C- CYLINDER, 



Y) 



REMINGTON 
VISIBLE 




I -TYPE 

2 -TYPE-BAR 

3 -TYPE-BAR HANGER 

4 -TYPE-BAR HANGER BINDING PLATE 

5-BINDING PLATE SCREW 

6-TYPE-BAR SUB LINK (3 PARTS) * 4» 1 

7- BELL CRANK <•> rt =^=a e 

8-BELL CRANK HANGER 

9-BELL CRANK HANGER SCREWS 

10-CONNECTING WIRE (2 PARTS) 

1 1 -FINGER KEY LEVER ° 

12-UNIVERSAL BARADJUSTING SCREW 



A- FINGER KEY 
B- UNIVERSAL BAR 
C- CYLINDER 



SHOWING CHANGE IN CONSTRUCTION NECESSARY IN 1 HK TRANSFORMATION FROM THE BLIND TO 

THE VISIBLE WRITER. 



135 



INDICATING BASKET SHIFT 



1 TYPE-BAR 

2 TYPE-BAR HANGER 

3 TYPE-BAR BEARING (is parts) 

4 BALL BEARING CONE 

5 BALL BEARING CONE SCREW 

6 CONNECTING LINK 

7 CONNECTING SUB-LINK 

8 CONNECTING LINK SHEAVE 

9 FINGER KEY LEVER 



_ _..j 




A- FINGER, KEY 

B - UNIVERSAL BAR 

C- CYLINDER. 



LCTMITH 



3 



5ECTI0N JH0WIN6 
BALL BEARING 

f 

END SECTION OF TYPE-BAR 
CONTAINING BALLS 



I -TYPE 

2 -TYPE -BAR 

3 -TYPE -BAR BEARING CONE (2) 

4-TYPE -BAR BEARING BALLS (9) 

5-TYPE-BAR8EARING LOCK SCREW 

6- CONNECTING LINK 

7- CONNECTING LINK ACTUATING LEVER 

8-CONNECTING WIRE 

9-CONNECTING WIRE ADJUSTABLE END 

10-CONNECTING WIRE COTTER PEN 

ll-SPECIAL BELL CRANK 

12-FINGER KEY STEM 

3 RIVITED BEARING PINS 



N9I0 SMITH PREMIER VISIBLE 





A- FINGER KEY 

B- UNIVERSAL BAR 
C- CYLINDER 



136 



I -TYPE -BAR 

2-FINGER KEY STEM 

3-FRONT SECTION CONNECTING WIRE 

4-MIDDLE SECTION CONNECTING WIRE 

S-INTERMEDIATE ARM CONNECTING WIRE 

6-REAR SECTION CONNECTING WIRE 

7-SPIRAL SPRING AROUND REAR SECTION 
CONNECTING WIRE 



ROYAL STANDARD 



A- FINGER KEY 
B- UNIVERSAL BAR 
C-CYLINDER 



TOP 



BOTTOM 




N? 10 ROYAL 



1 -TYPE -BAR 

2-FINGER KEY LEVER 

3 -151 SEC. CONNECTING WIRE 

4-FULCRUM LEVER BETWEEN CONNECTING WIRES 

5-2*2 SEC. CONNECTING WIRE 

6 -CONNECTING LUG 

7-352 SEC. CONNECTING WIRE 

8-KEY TENSION SPRING 




A- FINGER KEY 
B- UNIVERSAL BAR 
C-CYLINDER 




137 



I -TYPE 

2- TYPE-BAR 

3-TYPE-BAR RETURNING SPRING 

4-TYPE-BAR HANGER 

5-TYPE-BAR HANGER SCREW 

G-HANGER BINDING PLATE 

7-SUB CONNECTING LINK RETAINING CLIP 

8-SUB CONNECTING LINK RETAINING CLIP 

9-CONNECTING LINK A 

IOFINGER KEY LEVER 

A-FINGER KEY 
B-UNIVERSAL BAR 
C-CYLINDER 



INDICATING BASKET SHIFT 




MONARCH 



CP^F 






B\» 



f - TYPE -BAR 

2 - TYPE -BAR FASTENING SCREW- REAR 

3- TYPE -BAR FASTENING SCREW-FRONT 

4-TYPE-BAR BEARING 

5- CONNECTING LINK 

6 -SHOCK ABSORBER 

7- FINGER KEY LEVER 

A- FINGER, KEY 
B- UNIVERSAL BAR 
C- CYLINDER. 



SIDE VIEW OP TYPE-BAR 




*"-5TT) 



138 



I -TYPE -BAR 

2-TYPE-BAR DRIVING ARM 

3-TYPE-BAR DRIVING ARM LEVER 

4-BELL CRANK 

5- BELL CRANK HANGER 

6-B- ADJUSTING SCREW 

7 — \- RETAINING PLATE 



NOISELESS 



■L— RETAINING PLATE SCREW 
-r-INTERM. LEVER 
— A -SPRING 
K-CAM 



8- 
9- 

10- 

II- 

12-UPPER SECTION CONNECTING LINK 

13-ADJUSTING SECTION CONNECTING LINK 

!4-L0WER SECTION CONNECTING LINK 

(5-RETAINING PLATE •• > 

15 FINGER KEY LEVER (2 

16 RIVETS AND 

13 FRICTIONAL POINTS 




A-FINGER KEY 
B- UNIVERSAL BAF1 
C -CYLINDER, 
D - STEEL PRINTING BAR. 



VICTOR 



D 



•FINGER KEY LEVER 
■UNIVERSAL BAR 
•CYLINDER 





■TYPE- BAR 
2-(Al CONNECTING LINK 
3 -(B) CONNECTING LINK 
4-(0 CONNECTING LINK 
5-(D) CONNECTING LINK 
6-MAIN CONNECTING LINK ADJ. SCREWlZl 
7- MAIN CONNECTING LINK ADJ. SCREW PLATE 
8-SUB-CONNECTING LINK RETAINING WIRE 
9-UNIVERSAL BAR ADJUSTING SCREW 
10-TYPE -BAR HANGER (2) 
1 1 -TYPE -BAR HANGER BINDING SCREW 
12-TYPE -BAR HANGER ADJ. SCREWS (2) 
13-TYPE -BAR HANGER ADJ. SCREW PLATE 



139 



1 -TYPE-BAR 

2 -TYPE 

3 -TYPE BAR HANGER 
4 -CONNECTING WIRE 

5 LINK 

6-n « «i •! 
7 



FOX VISIBLE 



ADJUSTING CLIP 



SCREW 



8 -FINGER KEY LEVER 

9 -UNIVERSAL BAR EQUALIZER 

10- » » 

II 

12-KEY LEVER HANGER 



A- FINGER KEY LEVER 
B- UNIVERSAL BAR 
C- CYLINDER 

D- RIBBON SHIELD 

OPERATING BAR 




1 TYPE-BAR 

2 TYPE-BAR HANGER (4 parts) 

3 TYPE-BAR HANGER SCREW 
A TYPE-BAR RETAINING PLATE 

5 TYPE-BAR RETAINING WASHER SCREW 

6 CONNECTING LINK 

7 SUB CONNECTING LINK 

8 FINGER KEY LEVER 

I 




STEARNS 



A- FINGER KEY 
B- UNIVERSAL BAR 
C- CYLINDER 




ENLARGED VKWQF 
HANGER SHOWING 
VSHAPE BEARING 



140 



I -TYPE 
2-TYPE-BAR 

3- «' » ANCHOR UNR 

4- » " RETURN SPRING 
5 ACTUATING LEVER (2 PARTS) 

6- ACTUATING LEVER HANGER 

7- •• SCREWS (2) 

8- • " " CONNECTING LINK (3 PARTS) 
9-CONNECTING LINK BELL CRANK 
10- BELL CRANK HANGER 
II SCREW CAP 

12-key Lever connecting link (3Parts) 
13-key lever 

14- •' •• separating washer 

-A 



YOST MODEL"A"VISIBLE 



A- FINGER KEY 
B-UNIVERSAL BAR 
C- CYLINDER 



S& 





ELLIOTT- FISHER 



I -FINGER KEY LEVER 

2 FULCRUM 

3-UPPER CONNECTING LINK 

4-BELL CRANK 

5 -INTERMEDIATE CONNECTING LINK 

6 -LOCK NUT 

7- « 

8-LOWER CONNECTING LINK 

9 -TYPE -BAR 

10 FULCRUM 

M-TYPEBLOCK 

12 -TYPE ( UPPERCASE) 

13" " (lowercase) 

14-UPPER CASE SHIFT LOCK 
15-SHIFT LOCK TENSION SPRING 
16-TYPE-BAR TENSION SPRING 
17-TENSION SPRING COLLAR 

9 FULCRUM? 



O-A 



A-FINGER KEY 
B-3 UNIVERSAL 

( NOT SHOWN ) 

C- PLATEN 




141 



1 TYPE 

2 TYPE-BAR 

3 TYPE-BAR HANGER (2 parts) 

4 TYPE-BAR HANGER SCREW 

5 TYPE-BAR BEARING PIN 

6 CONNECTING WIRE 2 

7 CONNECTING WIRE LINK 

8 CONNECTING WIRE LINK ADJUSTIN6 NUT 

9 FINGER KEY LEVER 

10 KEY LEVER TENSION SPRING 





BAR-LOCK 



A- FINGER KEY 
B- UNIVERSAL BAR 
C- CYLINDER 




10 



-'- ■ •■ -v^-i 



TYPEBARS'OF FOREIGN TYPEWRITERS, PAGES 115, 116, 117. 



TRIUMPH 



I -TYPE -BAR 

2 -CONNECTING LINK 

3 -FINGER KEY LEVER 





A-FINGER KEY 
B-UNIVERSAL BAR 
C-CYLINDER 



MADE IN GERMANY. 



142 



I -TYPE-BAR. 

2 -CONNECTING LINK 

3- FINGER KEY LEVER 



CONTINENTAL 




A- FINGER. KEY 
B- UNIVERSAL BAR. 
C - CYLINDER, 




M u>' IN GERM \X V. 



URANIA 



I -TYPE -BAR 
2-CONNECTING LINK 
3-FINGER KEY LEVER 




A -FINGER KEY 
B- UNIVERSAL BAR 
C -CYLINDER 




MADE IN GERMANY. 



143 



STOEWER 



1 - TYPE -BAR 

2 - CONNECTING LINK 

3 - CONNECTING LINK STUD COLLAR 

4 - FINGER KEY LEVER 




;.':: 



iff '.... 



A- FINGER KEY 
B- UNIVERSAL BAR 
C- CYLINDER 




MADE IN GERMANY. 



TORPEDO 



f{~\< 



I -TYPE-BAR 

2 -CONNECTING LINK 

3 -FINGER KEY LEVER 



I • 

[ftj A- FINGER KEY 

fill B-UNIVERSAL BAR 



X\\t 



D- RIBBON UNIVERSAL BAR 




MADE IN GERMANY. 



144 




TYPE- BAR. 
2 -KEY LEVER PART "A". 
3- KEY LEVER PART "B". 
4-KEY LEVER FULCRUM HANGER. 
5-HANGER BINDING NUT. 
6-KEY LEVER "A" STOP SCREW (2). 
7- KEY LEVER "A" FULCRUM. 
8 -KEY LEVER "A" SPRING. 



A- FINGER KEY LEVER. 
B- UNIVERSAL BAR. 
C- CYLINDER. 
D- TYPE-BAR GEAR ACTION 



MADE IN" GERMANY 



JAPY | 



I -TYPE 

2 -TYPE-BAR 

3 -TYPE-BAR HANGER 

4 -TYPE-BAR HANGER PLATE 

5-TYPE-BAR HANGER SCREW 

6-TYPE-BAR CONNECTING WIRE 

7- BELL CRANK BRACKET 

8- BELL CRANK BRACKET SCREW 

9-CONNECTING WIRE-BELL CRANK 

10-FINGER KEY LEVER CONNECTING WIRE 

1 1 -FINGER KEY LEVER CHECK NUTS (2) 

12-FINGER KEY LEVER COUPLING 

13-FINGER KEY LEVER Y 

14-UNIVERSAL BAR ADJUSTING SCREW 




\\ 



A- FINGER KEY 

B- UNIVERSAL BAR 

C-CYUNDER 




MADE IN GERMANY. 



145 



I - TYPE -BAR . 

2- TYPE -BAR HANGER 

3- TYPE -BAR HANGER SCREW | 

4 -CONNECTING LINK 

S- CONNECTING LINK WIRE 

6 - CONNECTING LINK WIRE SCREW 

7 - FINGER KEY LEVER 

6 -KEY LEVER SPRING RETAINING SCREW 



IDEAL 



A- FINGER KEY 

B- UNIVERSAL BARS (4) 

C- CYLINDER 







MADE IN GERMANY 



ESCAPEMENTS 




/ 1 

j i UNIVERSAL 

i j / BAR 

! ! * 




ESCAPEMENT 



ILLUSTRATING UNIVERSAL BAR OPERATED BY TYPE BAR 



FOLLOW THE ARROWS. 



146 



;& 





ESCAPEMENT 



ILLUSTRATING UNIVERSAL BAR OPERATED BY CONNECTING LINK 




ESCAPEMENT 



UNIVERVAL BAR 
ILLUSTRATING UNIVERSAL BAR OPERATED BY FINGER KEY LEVER 



147 



LINKS 



A CHAIN IS NO STRONGER THAN ITS WEAKEST LINK. 



C^^^ 



UNDERWOOD 



LINK 





L. C. SMITH 



LINKS 



40 2 



J-L 



3 



148 



^^^2=1 




REMINGTON 




149 



KEYBOARDS 



4 3 2 1 112 


3 


4 


/backn m f*\ f^\ (7°\ r~-\ r^\ c^\ ( 

w ww ww Wvl/w v 

4 3 2 11112 


( 


)( i /tabular) 

3 4 

'"~\ /■ — \ 


@®3©®©®©Ci 




v / — N. •"T^N 


4 ®Q@©©®®.( 


K 




©®®©®®®(E 


)( 


D0© 


|" SPACE BAR 




' ) 





UNIVERSAL KEYBOARD. 
SIKGLE SHIFT KEY ON EACH SIDE. 




DOUBLE OK "DUPLICATE" KEYBOAIiD. 
A KEV FOB EACH CHARACTER. 



ISO 



# ® (D <D ® (D (5) (D © (D 

* 3 2 I I | | 2 3 4 



WQQQ^QQQQO 



C 



SPACE BAR 



DOUBLE SHIFT KEYBOARD. 
THREE CHARACTERS ON SACS KEY. 




ALLEN KEYBOARD. 

ILLUSTRATING ON'. OF MANY SUGGESTIONS CONCERNING THF ARRANGEMENT 

OF A KEYBOARD. 



ISI 



INDEX 



PAGE 

Addendagraph 128 

Adler 113 

Automatic Writer 128 

Bar-Lock 33 

Beach 11 

Blickensderfer 47 

Blick Electric 48 

Bookkeeping Machine 127 

Brooks 17 

Burt 9 

Business Evolution 5 

Caligraph 29 

Columbia r 33 

Contest Records 98 

Continental 115 

Cooper 14 

Corona 112 

Daugherty 61 

Densmore 35 

Duplex 54 

Eddy 13 

Edison 114 

Elliott Cresson Report 71 

Elliott-Fisher 55 

Empire 113 

Escapements 147 

Fairbank 11 

Fay-Sho 50 

Foreign Typewriters 115 

Foucauld 12 

Fox 52 

Francis 15 

Franklin 49 

Gathright Tabulator 119 

Gorin Tabulator 119 



pagp: 

Grundy 61 

Hall 15 

Hammond 31 

House 16 

Hughes 13 

Ideal 116 

.Japy 51 

Jones 13 

Kanzler 116 

Keyboards 125 

L. C. Smith & Bros 81 

Leavitt 11 

Links 124 

Littledale 11 

Manhattan 49 

Marchesi 13 

Maskelyne 117 

Mercedes 116 

Mill 8 

Monarch 84 

New Century 47 

Noiseless 109 

Oliver 56 

Peerless 53 

Pratt ty 

Progin 10 

Prouty 60 

Remington 22 

Remington No. 10 99 

Remington Sholes 50 

Revolving Duplicator 114 

Royal No. 10 107 

Royal Standard 105 



152 



PAGE 

Sholes, C. L 19 

Smith Premier 43 

Smith Premier No. 10 102 

Special Machines 127 

Speed Contests 37 

Speed and Accuracy Con- 
tests 87 

Stoewer 116 

TabulatoVs 118 

Thomas 14 

Thurber 10 

Torpedo ..^416 

Triumph 117 

Typebars 121 



PAGE 

Typewriter Evolution .... 8 

Underwood 62 

Union Typewriter Co 44 

Universal Bars 124 

Victor 112 

Visible Writers 60 

Wellington 113 

Wheatstone 12 

Williams 46 

Yetman 51 

Yost 36 

Yost Model A 103 



153 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



PAGK 

Addendagraph 128 

Automatic Writer 129 

Bar-Lock 35 

Beach 11 

Blickensderfer 48 

Bookkeeping Machine .... 127 

Brooks 17 

Burt 9 

Caligraph 30 

Cooper 14 

Densmore 36 

Eddy 13 

Elliott Cresson Medal 74-75 

Elliott-Fisher 56 

Foucauld 12 

Francis 15 

Growth of Underwood Fac- 
tory 77 

Growth of Underwood Pro- 
duct 76 

Hall 16 

Hammond 33 

House 16 

International Trophy 88-89 

Jones 13 

L. C. Smith 84 

Manuscript copied by Mr. 

Trefzger 97 

Margaret B. Owen's work 

1916 92 

Margaret B. Owen's work 

1917 93 

Measuring time 7 



PAGK 

Miss Margaret B. Owen.. 92-93 

Miss Rose L. Fritz 90-91 

Monarch 86 

Noiseless Ill 

Oliver 59 , 

Perfect page (G. L. Hoss- 

feld) 95 

Perfect copy (Rose L. 

Fritz) 42 

Printed copy used by Mr. 

Trefzger 96 

Progin 10 

Prouty 60 

Remington No. 1 22 

Remington No. 6 28 

Remington No. 10 101 

Rem-Sho 50 

Royal No. 10 108 

Royal Standard 106 

Sholes-Glidden 21 

Sholes, Glidden & Soule. . . 19 

Smith Premier (blind) .... 44 

Smith Premier No 10 103 

Thomas 14 

Thurber 10 

Toronto Contest (Cal.) .... 40 

Toronto Contest (Rem.).. 41 

Underwood 64 

Bearing 66 

Type-guide 67 

Marginal Stops 67 

Tabulator 68 

Universal Bar 68 

Escapement 69 



IS4 



NLOI 

c 

C» Suitfe 135 

t ■■ e \ q . 

Royal v- •-■ - ; 

I . : f 

e 

138 
Stnras . : 

Ffcte 

141 



^ VUCT 

I Q 
. .. M 
■ ) 

■ s S 

c - ■• ■ • 

C S •' : ' 

Royal L48 

x .-.:•:.' ■ 14S 

K I - 

I ■ - . sal 

t S • I 



</> o 

-• o 



= 3 



s o 

° z 




750 



>