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Full text of "Exact duplicate copy of Chapter IX [personal experience] in the History of the Seventy-third [regiment of] Illinois infantry volunteers .."

EXACT DUPUCAl COPY OF CHAPTER 9 IN THE HISTORY 
* Of THE 73rd ail. INF. VOLUNTEERS 






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973.74 

1993565 

OCNEALOGY COLLECTION 



3 1833 01083 4213 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

Allen County Public Library Genealogy Center 



http://www.archive.org/details/exactduplicatecoOOilli 



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AN EXHCI.DUPlilCflTE,.COP1.0F.CHAnERTr 

HISTORY 

Seventy -ThiFd IHijiois Jniantry Volanteers, 

KNOWN AS. THE "PREACHER REGIMENT," ALSO AS THE 
"PERSIMMON REGIMENT." V' • 




One Version of the Origin of the tePm"Bun^met^/' 
as xjsed duping the xxiQt'f-r 

,-■..■. ^ '-. • ALSO, "' •'," ■ ' 

SEVERAL INTERESTING SKETCHES OF PERSONAL 
EXPERIENCE: 

IN PRISON, OUT OF PKISON; 

ESCAPE FROM PRISON, 

AND OTHER KFNDRED MATTER. 



•^ 



R COMPIiETE HISTORY OF THE SERVICES 



73cl Illinois Infantry Volunteers 

/ i FOR SALE. PRICE, SliAH). 



This History is founded on thoroughly correct and reHable 
memorandat'j has been prepared with <^r(-at care, and much 
time and pains have been taken to insure reasonable accu- 
racy ol statement. It contains nearly 700 pai^es. 



iseases 








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D F r,\wLT?R J ^^ >m.;kkick. 

COMMITTEE ON REGIMENTAL HISTORY. 

The Chickamauga campaign, including the Cipher Dis- 
patches, shown in full. The Columbia-Franklin Campaion. 
November, 1864, treated at length. 

Address, inclosing $3-00' 

V/. H. NEWLTN. 

Ch: ;rman Committee on ReKlmental History. 

Spkingfield, III. 



a^sMaaibMia^iaiii^^ ^i 



iir iT'ii'ifc fliri '111 ii'^^' 



^^^'\fl^^> 



FERfiONAL EXPERIEisCE. 563 



CHAPTER :X. 

A VARIETY OF EXPERIENCE — INCIDENT — ADVENTURE — IN AND 
OUT OF I'RISON — KEMINISCENCK — THE KECKL^ITK — KAU.-.MAK- 
ING — OTHER MATTERS OF INTEREST. 

A SKETCH OF PRISON KXPERHiNCE. 

J.Y W. K. I.AWRKNtlC, 1 ATK bECOND IJEUIKNANT i OMIANV C, .SKVENTY-THIRl) 
ILLINOIS KEGI.MKNT. 

On the morning of December 31, 1802, Avheii the right wing 
of the Union army was driven back at the battle of Stone 
Kiver, I was one of the three thou.saml captured. There was 
little ceremony about it. With a squad of other prisoners I was 
hurried to the rear, and crossed the river on the railroad bridge. 
Upon the opposite bank we saw General Bragg and his staff view- 
ing the battle-field. 

On the way back, our guards boasted of the victory of the 
morning, and informed us of our good fortune in being taken that 
day, as ujion the next they would raise the black flag and take no 
more Yankee prisoners. Tiie next day tlie Emancipation Procla- 
mation was to take eHect. This act of the President caused an 
intense feeling in the South against the North. Pollard, in his 
" Secret History of the Confederacy," states that, by reason of it, 
many of the Southern people, and some of the leading men, were 
in favor of treating all Union soldiers captured upon their soil as 
outlaws, and deserving instant death. This sentiment may ac- 
count for their cruel treatment of our prisoners. 

We were taken to the court-house yard in Murfreesboro, and 
there turned in with liuudreds of others, the larger portion of whom 
had been taken from Johnson's division upon our extreme right. The 
commissioned oflicers, about fifty in miml>er, were confined in the 
upper story of the court-house. Proiuiiunt uinoiig these was 
(ieneral Willich, who commanded a brigade in Johnson's division. 
In a vehement manner he censured his division commander for tlie 
surprise and njut in the morning. The facts, now well known, 
Bustain that censun-. 



664 ".1 SMALL, THIN, COLD BlSrllT." 

From the windows of our room, tlie smoke of the battle, two 
luiles away, could be plainly seeu, and the sound of the firing verv 
distinctly heard. By these tokens the i)rogiess of the fighting 
could be determined, and they were watched with tiie most intense 
interest. Late in the afternoon a rebel major came into the room 
and informed us that Rosecrans was being rapidly driven back, 
and his army was in full retreat to Nashville. His attention, 
however, was called to the fact that the stream of prisoners had 
ceased to flow into the court-house yard below, and that the sound 
of the battle indicated a desperate conflict, which was proof that 
Ivosecrans was holding his own, and would more likely be in Mur- 
freesboro before going to Nashville. So it proved to be. 

At sundown we were moved to the railroad depot, and packed 
into box-cars for shipment. The doors were closed, and a few' 
guards assigned to each car. As the train rolled away we could 
still hear the sullen sound of battle. 

Some of our number were suffering from wounds that needed 
surgical attention. All were hungry and much fatigued. The 
whole of the night before, our part of the army had lain in line 
of battle, without fire or shelter, under a cold December sky. 
The enemy struck us soon after daylight in overpowering numbers, 
and fiercely. It was fight and retreat for hours over rough 
ground, which tested the strength and endurance of the best 
soldiers. Not a man bad eaten during the day. Our haversacks 
and equipments were taken by the captors. 

There arose a clamor and demand for rations. They were 
j)romised to be furnished at Tullahoma. This place waa reached 
far into the night, because of the delays by side-tracking to allow 
important trains to go to the front. The sui)ply of food at Tulla- 
homa was of the most meager kind. In the scramble for it I got 
a small, thm, cold biscuit. 

We were moved slowly, and, like a jury considering its ver- 
dict, were kept in the box-cars "without meat or drink, water 
excepted," until Chattanooga was reached late in the evening 
of January 1, 18G3. Here we were marched to a vacant build- 
ing in the outskirts of the town, and had issued to us rations of 
corn-meal and pork, to be cooked according to our tastes. Half 
cooked, in the quickest manner, it was soon eaten. After a short 
halt, we were moved back to our cars, and through the long night 
rolled deeper into the Confederacy. Near morning we were in- 
formed that Atlanta was at hand, and that we would there be kept 
for some time. 



LIEUTENANT LAWRENCE'S EXPERIENCE. 51)5 

We were taken to a three-story brick I)uil(ling upon a street 
corner, and put in the upper story. The place had evidently 
been used as a lodge-room, some of the stands and platforms 
still being in their places, and several large chandeliers hung from 
the ceilings ; otherwise the room was bare and dirty, but densely 
populated, as we soon found to our grief, by the ever-present, 
body-devouring, sleep-defying prison-louse. 

Food was issued to us once a day. In the morning a negro 
came up with a wooden tray, filled with boiled beef, upon his 
head, and throwing the contents upon a table, announced the hos- 
pitality of our host with, "Here's yo' meat." This was followed 
shortly by the same tray filled with corn-bread, and unloaded with 
a like ceremony, "Here's yo' co'n-bread." These scant supplies were 
carefully divided among the prisoners, and alone wtudd have barely 
suflSced to sustain life. 

The want of food, however, was much alleviated by the per- 
mission given to buy eatables. Greenbacks were readily taken for 
Confederate scrip, at the rate of one dollar of ours for two of theirs. 
One, or even two, prisoners at a time were allowed to go into the 
market with a guard, and buy supplies. The purchases were 
mainly sweet potatoes, onions, and butter. A delicious compound 
was made with these, and the corn-bread and beef, stewed together 
in an oyster-i;au. 

Lieutenant Elliott, of the 36th Illinois, got into serious trouble 
on one of the market trips. He had a number of bills known as 
'^fac simile Confederate money," made in the North, and used to 
some extent by our soldiers in the South. It was not difficult to 
detect, because of better workmanship than that which it was in- 
tended to imitate. He paid for a large purchase of supplies with 
this paper. Soon after his return to the prison, a citizen with a 
guard came in, and after a brief search, Elliott was pointed out 
by the citizen, and he was at once taken away. After a few hours' 
absence he was brought back, when he informed us that he had 
been taken before a magistrate, and an examination had upon the 
charge of passing counterfeit money, and that he was likely to 
be indicted l)y the grand jury and sent to the Georgia penitentiary 
for his life-time, or during the life-time of the C/'onfederacy. This 
became a solemn matter for the lieutenaut. Plans for his escape 
became a topic of interest. The building was at all times sur- 
rounded by vigilant sentinels, continually passing their beats. The 
stairways and the door leading to our room were constantly 



566 VARIOUS PASTIMES. 

"watchefl by a number of guards. One of the rooms in the second 
story of the building was used as a sort of hospital for our sick. 
The lieutenant soon became sick, and was taken to the hospital 
room. Here, by some means, he became possessed of a full suit 
of butternut jeans and a hat — doubtless through the persuasive 
effect of greenbacks upon the guard. He had a map and small 
pocket compass, which were usually carried by our ofHcers. One 
dark, rainy, windy night, he let himself from the second story 
window to the ground by blaukets tied together and passed be- 
tween the pacing sentinels. When a few feet beyond them, his 
escape from the city Avas easy, After many days he reached our 
lines near Corinth, Mississippi. I met him in the following May 
at Louisville, Kentucky, on my return to my regiment, when lie 
gave me a graphic account of his adventures. 

The only means for warming our room and cooking our simple 
fare were three small fire-places and green pine-wood. Each 
prisoner was furnished an army blanket that appeared to have 
been in the service during the war, and was very dirty. Our bed 
was the floor. The vermin which infested the place were a source 
of endless torment. 

The blonde and thin-skinned German, General Willich, was 
greatly troubled with these pests. He got mercurial ointment to 
destroy them, and made a liberal application of it upon his person 
and clothing. It soon made him very sick, and he was taken to 
the hospital room below. After some days' absence te returned to 
us, very thin and pale, and with much dejection said: " If I stay 
here the little vermins will kill me, and if I use medicine to kill 
the vermins, the medicine kills me; s(j, I think, poys, I am 
done for." 

Several kinds of amusement were devised to occupy the long 
winter evenings. There Avas no restraint upon the use of gas, and 
at night all , the jets of the chandeliers were fully turned on, which 
flooded the room with light. For a consideration, a guard was 
induced to get us a fiddle. With this music " stag dances" were 
of nightly occurrence for some time. Tiring of this. General 
Willich was enlisted to lecture upon military science. Captain 
Edgerton, of an Ohio battery, a fine elocutionist, read from 
Shakespeare. An Indiana lieutenant instructed a class in calis- 
thenics. Much of the day-time was employed in games of cards, 
chess, and checkers. Confederate officers were frequent visitors. 
Their talk wjis largely devoted to the project of forming a North- 



ON TO RICHMOND 567 

western Confederacy. It was argued by them tliat the people of 
the North-western States and those of the South were natural 
allies; that the Mississippi was the natural, and should be the 
free highway for these two sections of the country. These views, 
however, met no favor from tlie prisoners. Facts have since come 
to light that show the same views were entertained by a class in 
the North, who at that particular time were noted for disloyalty 
to the Government, and who were in close cDiiiinunication with 
the enemy in the South. 

Thus passed the time until about the middle of February, when 
the information was given that we would be moved at once to 
Richmond for exchange. It was received with great satisfaction. 
At night we were moved out and placed in box-cars, but without 
guards. Augu.sta was reached the next morning, and here we 
were kept in the large depot building until dark. Passenger cars 
were now furnished us, and we started across South Carolina. 
Recent heavy rains had swollen the rivers and flooded the 
country, which prevented rapid running of the train, and we did 
not reach Wilmington, North Carolina, until late the next evening. 
Very light rations had been given us when we left Atlanta, and 
none had been issued to us on the route. Some foraging was 
done while going through South Carolina at the many stopping- 
places. 

When Weldou, North Carolina, was reached, the demand for 
food was so determined, tha\ the officer in charge managed to get 
us some meat and hard bread. 

A short time before we got to this place, a lieutenant of an 
Ohio regiment, known by the name of "Shakespeare," because of 
his happy faculty of quoting from this poet to fit our condition, 
was left in the gloomy pine-woods of North Carolina. While the 
engine was taking water at a tank he left the train to go to a 
cabin a short distance away to get bread, against the protests ot 
his comrades. Before he finished negotiating for the food, the 
train started. He ran screaming and gesticulating to stop it, but 
without avail. The last we saw of " Shakesjjeare " he was stand- 
ing u[)on the track waving his hat. He was l)Ut a few miles from 
the coast and our forces, but believing that we were on the sun^ 
road to freedom, he boarded several trains before he was allowed 
to ride into Richmond as a Yankee prisoner. When he found 
that we were guests at the Hotel de Libhy, and he was invited to 
join us, he discovered his great iiii-tnke of "on to Richmond." 



5G.S ONE MEAL A DAY. 

We reached Ricliniond in tlie night und were taken directly to 
Libby prison, entering the door at the north-western corner where 
hung the sign, "Libby & Sou, Ship Chaudlers." It was a large 
brick structure fronting north, and situate near the James River, 
between which and the prison ran the canal. It has since been 
removed to Chicago, and now stands upon the east side of Wabash 
Avenue, fronting west, and is an exact representation of the 
original. 

The first quarters assigned us were in the basement in the west 
end, a room one huudred feet long by forty feet wide, with three 
windows in the south end looking out upon the river. It was a 
dark, damp, gloomy place, in which there were several huudred 
prisoners besides our Atlanta recruits. 

When the heavy door with its iron fiisteuiugs clanged behind 
us, the trick to get us througli the Confederacy witliout guards, 
upon the promise of exchange, was apparent. 

We had been changed from bad to a great deal worse. Our 
(juarters were now of the very worst kind. Our food was not 
increased in quality or quautity, and there was no longer the op- 
portunity to supply the deticieucy by purchase. A half loaf of 
baker's bread, about one-fourth ration of inferior raw beef, and a 
like ration of black beans, or rice, were issued to each prisoner 
daily. A few cook-stoves were provided for cooking the food. 

For convenience the crowd was divided into messes of twelve, 
and numbered. Each mess took its turn in cooking, and the 
cooking was from daylight till dark to allow one meal a day i'or 
each mess. There were about fifty messes in this room. 

Soon after we got to Libby, General Stouglitou, of the Army 
of the Potomac, was brought a prisoner to our room. It was re- 
ported that he had been captured by Mo.sby's men, outside of our 
lines, while sharing the hospitality of a Virginia family. He was 
a very promising young officer, and made a fine appearance in his 
new bright uniform, particularly when contrasted with the dirty, 
tattered garbs of his new acquaintances in misery. But there was 
no distinction in rank ; the generals and colonels did their share 
of the cooking with the second lieutenants, and all fought lice 
together. 

Several sijuads of recruits came in from time to tinie. There 
were General Coburn and his officers, captured at Spring Hill, 
Tennessee; Colonel Fletcher, of the ,31st Missouri, and several 
officers of his regiment, captured in the bloody charge at Chicka- 



LAWiiEycF'S PRISON kxperie:sce. 509 

.saw Bayou. There was an addition of a few naval officers, taken 
down upon the coast. 

We were not kept a great while in this " black hole of Cal- 
cutta," as it was called; then we were moved to the top room in 
the east end of the building. It was a very agreeable change, 
being light and airy, although part of the time quite cold. 

From the beef issued to us we got a large amount of bone. 
The whitest and hardest portions of it were worked into various 
ornaments and trinkets. This became (piite an industry, and 
many of the men showed much artistic skill in their work. The 
case-knives furnished us to eat witli were made into saws to divide 
the bone into the proper dimensions. .Some of the kindly dis- 
posed guards were induced to get us a few small files, and with 
these tools the bone was fashioned into many curious shapes. 
Cards, chess, and checkers employed the time of many. Lights 
were not allowed at night. 

Each )noruing the prisoners were put in six ranks, extending 
the length of the room, and counted. This appeared an unneces- 
sary regulation, as escape did not appear possible. The guard 
duty about the prison was most rigid and vigilant. Some months 
after our release, however, General Streight and a large number 
of i)risoners escaped from a room upon the floor below the one 
occupied by us. An entrance was made mto the basement or 
cellar, and from the east wall a tunnel was dug beneath a narrow 
open sjtace of ground, coming out in a tobacco-shi-d about forty 
feet from the prison. We were more rigidly guanled, not being 
allowed to look out of a window or go about the opening in the 
floor that led into the room below. 

Every morning about sun-up an old colored man came into the 
prison with the Kichmond dailies for sale — the Enquiri'r and 
Examiner. He announced his coming at the head of the stairway 
in a loud voice: " Heah's yo' mo'ning papers — Enquiah and Ex- 
aininah — great news from Frederick.sburg — twenty thousand 
Yankees killed, and de l)alauce ob dem taken pris'nahs!" Wluii 
the old man got upon the floor and was crowded about for the 
papers, his sly grins showed that his speech wsis ma<le as mu(;h to 
jdea.se the guards below as to induce the pui chase of his wai-es. 

Military operations were active about Fredericksburg an<l 
( 'hancellorsville during our stay at Libby, and furnished most of 
the news for the Kichmond papers. 

A short tin^e before we left, Stoneman's raid caused great 



570 A GLOOMY PROSPECT. 

excitetuent in the city. One Sunday morning the long roll wa'* 
beat lit the guard quarters across the street. There was a liurried 
formation of them in the street, and they were at once marclied 
away, and men in citizen's dress were substituted for them as sen- 
tinels. A notion prevailed among some of the prisoners that 
these new men might be overpowered by a rush and our escape 
thus made. As preliminary, a few bricks were torn from the wall 
and thrown down at the guards, to which they very promptly re- 
sponded by shots. This discouraged all thought of getting out by 
stampeding the guards. 

As the weeks slowly went by, and spring began to change the 
gray hills and fields across the James to a pleasing green, the 
murmurings of the six hundred penned in this miserable place 
became general. The probability of an early exchange had dis- 
appeared. Confinement here during the long heat of summer 
was viewed with dread by the most indifl'erent. The food fur- 
nished would not keep down the constant irritation of hunger. 
The ceaseless annoyance, that amountetl to torture, of the vermin 
crawling and creeping everywhere, rasped the nerves of the most 
stoical. The narrow space in which to move and exercise was a 
serious matter. There were no means for a change of clothing nr 
for personal cleanliness. All tended to make this prison life a horror. 

At about the gloomiest time, General OuUl, the rebel commis- 
sioner of exchange, visited us, and he was at once plied with 
questions as to the chances of release. He was an afiable, smooth- 
spoken man, and very profuse in his expressions of regret at our 
situation. He claimed that it was all the fault of our Govern- 
ment that we were not exchanged; that he had gone to the ex- 
treme of liberality to bring about an exchange of prisoners. He 
did not omit to de|>ict our sad condition in the coming summer 
months should our Government persist in refusing the generous 
terms of exchange oflered by the Confederacy. With plausibility 
he argued that the South was less able to kee[) prisoners than the 
North, and that they neederl their imprisoned soldiers more than 
the North did hers. 

The commissioner's s{)eecli aroused e.>c[»ressions of censure of 
our Government by some of the prisoners. A little incident 
quickly hushed it. A lieutenant of the olst Missouri was rather 
loud and severe in his criticism, when Colonel Fletcher, of the 
same regiment, sharply reprimantled him, and gave him to under- 
stand tlitit such expressions were unbecoming an officer, and if 



FREEDOM, HOME, AND FRIENDS. 571 

persistcfl in that he would subject himself tu court-martial upon 
his return to his regiment. 

On the evening of Ma}' od it was announced by the officers of the 
prison that we would be taken to City Point the next morning for ex- 
ciiange. The joy of the prospect of release took the place of sleep for 
that night. Those, however, who had been transferred from Atlanta to 
liiclimond, upon the promise of immediate exchange were not so 
exultant as their comrades. We had begun to learn that the state- 
ments of an enemy in time of war were not at all times reliable. 

But at dawn the next morning the door in the floor was thrown 
up, and Major Winder, from the top of the stejjs in pompous tone 
commanded: "Fall in to be marched out!" We were hurried 
down and through the building, out of the door we had entered, 
when each man was given a half loaf of bread. The march was 
along the street near the river to the railroad, where flat and box 
ears were ready, and without delay we were soon inoving away. 
A number of us took deck passage — the top of the box cars — to 
get a wide view of the Virginia scenery that had been so long shut 
off by the walls of Libby. 

By noon the James River began to bi'oaden, which had the 
plea.sing significance that we were going toward City Point. Shortly 
a great cheer began at the head of the train and ran the length of 
it. Through the young leaves of the trees .skirting the river tlie 
glimpse of the flag was seen fluttering from th(; nuist of a vessel. 
Before, to the unsentimental, this emblem of our country had 
been merely a banner to designate it, for its soldiers to follow, to 
rally around, and to guide the lines of march and battle. Now it 
was the rainbow of hope, and promise of freedom, home, and 
friends — representing all that we had fought for and suffered. 

The wheels of the train had not cea.sed to turn when a wild 
break was made for the vessel with the Stars and Stripes, at the 
wharf to receive us. It .soon steamed out into the broad James, 
and we left the land of Dixie. 

We were taken to Annapolis, and after a few days' stay, during 
which we got an entirely new outfit of clothing, we were furnished 
transportation and ordered to report to our regiments. 

I found my regiment in camp nt Murfreesl)oro, within two 
miles of the spot I had last seen it nearly five months before. L 
had made the "grand rounds" of two thousand miles, and returned, 

"Like a hare whom hounds and horns pursue, 
Pants to the jtlace from whence at fu-st he Hf w." 



572 IMPRJSONMKNT AND KSCAl'E. 

SERGEANT WILLIAM CAMMIRE. 

The battle of Chickaiiiaugua was the beginning of a 
new experience to a number of the 73d, Some thirty 
of the regiment were caplured by the rebels on that 
fateful September day, in the valley of " the river of 
deaihy Among them was Sergeant William Cammire, 
of Company PI. Before the war ended. Sergeant Cam- 
mire died from the effects of a wound received in 
battle. But for a wound he would [>robably not have 
been captured ; but he might have been killed, as ho 
was a man of courage and determination, and disposed 
to go where duty called, no matter how great the risi: 
or danger. 

Cammire related the facts and circumstances of his 
capture, imprisonment, and escape to Major Pond, our 
regimental surgeon, who made a record of the same. 
This record we reproduce in part, distinguishing the 
part quoted from the part we summarize or condense. 

In a short time after we came in innnediate con- 
tact with the enemy, Cammire was wounded and be- 
came a prisoner; but being unconscious, he was not 
apprised of his real condition and surroundings for 
several hours. He gradually regained consciousness, 
and it was with much ditficulty at first that he made 
out where he was. On regaining consciousness fully, 
he found himself on the battle-field, alone of the living, 
but surrounded on all sides by the dead of both the 
Union and Confederate armies. vSustaiiiing quite a loss 
of blood from the ugly wound he had icceived behind 
the right ear, there was not only depletion of strength, 
but a dryness of the lips and tongue, and a sensation 
of thirst, intense and insatiable almost. He be":an his 



RESOLVED TO ESCAPE. 578 

r^eurch for water at once. It was pnst midnight, antl 
the search was necessarily slow and tedicus, but his 
patience was at length rewarded by finding a canteen 
partly full of water, v;hich he detached from the body 
of a dead soldier, and quenched his thirst. 

lie would have made his way from the battle-field, 
but lack of strength and ignorance as to the proper 
direction to take forbade the venture. So, heart-sick 
and weary, he reluctantly wrapped his blanket about 
him, and lay down to lest. After a seemingly long time, 
he fell asleep. We will allow Cannnire's words, as re- 
corded by Dr. Pond, to tell the story : 

" 1 was awiikened by some oue j)ulliug at my blanket. I 
started up suddenly, and there stood before me a (.'on federate 
ofKeer, who seemed to be as much surprised as I was myself. The 
first word spoken was by the officer, who said : ' Hello ! you are 
not dead.' I answered: 'No, sir; not quite.' This officer had 
come upon this part of the battle-field with a large detail of sol- 
diers, to bury the dead, C(jllect tiie war material, and remove the 
wounded I asked him for a drink of water, which he granted. 

" They took my gun and cartridge-box, but left me my blanket, 
canteen, and haversack ; the latter still contained some crackers. 
I was never harshly treated by any Confederate while I was a 
j)risoner. I was conducted to a point where a number of pris- 
oners, mostly wounded, were collected together. From this point 
we were taken to Daltou, a station on the railroad ; the badly 
wounded in ambulances, the slightly wounded in wagons, and 
those that were able, marched. It was nearly night when we 
reached the station, and the surgeons were busy through the night 
with the wounded. Next day my wound was dressed. It was 
very sore and painful for several days, and my horror of being a 
prisoner of war was aggravated by the knowledge I had gained of 
the scant rations and accommodations f)r men worse off tliau 
myself, and 1 resolved that I would in some way make my escape. 

" In the course of two days, a train of freight-cars was made 
up, and started with the prisoners for Richmond. In the ear in 
which I rode, were at least fifty prisoners. The train had a heavy 
guard of rebel soldiers, a good sliare of them riding on lop of the 



574 "A LEAP IN THE DARK," 

cars, hut there was at least one guard in each car. I had made 
up my mind, come what wouhl, to leap from the car when moving 
at night, and then make my way back to our lines. T proposed 
to several prisoners, inviting them to accompany me, but all de- 
clined, saying, I would fail, and ray condition would be worse 
after recapture. 

"I admitted it all; but as my wound had ceased to trouble me 
much, I determined to make the trial. One of the prisoners 
agreed to assist me all he could, if I was determined to go. It 
had been raining considerably, and the weather being warm and 
sultry, the side-doors of the car were both left open while running. 
As soon as we arrived at a station, the guard closed one door, and 
stood in the other until the train started again. My plan 
was to sit in the door, and when the guard's attention was called 
away, to leaj) from the car. My friend had agreed to take my 
seat the moment I left the car, to avoid raising the suspicion of 
the guard. 

"We had passed the middle of the second night, and T waj 
eagerly watching my opportunity after passing a station, when, 
suddenly the train came upon a long, high bridge, and I regretted 
ray neglect, for I knew I would have to recross that river before 
regaining our lines. Soon after crossing the river, I discovered we 
were approaching a large town, and, watching an opportunity, 
while the guard was engaged in another part of the car, I made 
the leap in the dark for liberty. As good luck would have it, I 
was successful, not even receiving a bruise, lauding on my feet 
in water and mud. I crawled up the bank, aiid by the light of 
the guard's lantern, I plainly saw my comrade sitting in my place 
in the door of the car. The train moved on, and I knew that my 
escape had not been discovered. 

" And now my troubles commenced. In the woods, and in 
the enemy's country, which I knew nothing about, with a deep 
and swift river, and au unknown distance between me and the 
Union army, my condition was anything but enviable. But it 
was too late to recall what I had done, and I determined to make 
the best of it. The country was densely wooded and uneven, and 
I made but little progress m the few remaining hours before day- 
light. The night was dark, and I took a northerly direction as 
near as I could determine ; but when daylight came, I found I 
had been traveling directly east, instead of north. I was farther 
from home than when I jumped from the car. I had nothing to 



CAMMIRK llECAFTURED. 575 

do but secrtte myself, study my bearings, aiul prepare for another 
night's tramp. I still retained my blanket, canteen, and haver- 
sack ; and my fellow-prisoners had generously divided their scant 
rations with me, wishing me success, but doubting my ability to 
accomplish my purpose. 

"The rest and sleep through the day greatly refreshed and en- 
couraged me, and early in the evening I changed my course, and 
started in a north-west direction. 1 soon found a tolerably plain 
road, leading nearly in the direction I wanted to go, and I iollowed 
the road until it disappean'd ; but the woods were more open, and 
I kept my course until daylight, when I came to a larger road, 
bearing more to the west. My small stock of crackers was ex- 
hausted, and to keep in the road in day-time Wduld probably result 
in my recapture. But hunger knows no law. 

" I continued for several milesin this open mad, hoping to meet or 
see some negroes — for I thought they would befriend me — and get 
S(jme assistance from them, in order to continue my jounu^y, when 
suddenly an old gray-headed man stepped out into the road from 
behind a clump of bushes, and presented a double-barreled shot- 
gun, and ordered me to halt. I tried to reason with him, but 
he would listen to nothing, and ordered me to take off my haver- 
sack and canteen, and lay them down in the road. I saw there 
was no use at all to try to reason with the old man, and I 
obeyed orders. He brought his old gun to a level, cocked both 
locks, and ordered me to march ten steps in front of him to liis 
house, which was about one mile from where he met me in the 
road. 

"To be taken prisoner by Confederate soldiers was bad enough, 
but to be tiiken prisoner by such a specimen of poor white trash 
as that old man, was humiliating. I was ashamed of rayi*elf, but 
there was no help for it. When we arrived at his home — a tol- 
erably good sized house, part log and part frame, with veranda in 
front, running the whole length — he shut me in a «mall room at 
one end of the veranda, and called up a small boy ten or twelve 
years of age, and jilaced him at the door with orders to shoot me 
if I attempted to escape. He informed me that he should take 
lue over the river to a railroad station where there were soldiers, 
and turn me over to them either that evening or the next morn- 
ing. I told him I was very tired and hungry, and asked him 
for something to eat. He answered me short, saying they had 
nothing in the house, and that he didn't believe in feeding th" 



5 7 ( ) OFF FOR RICH. MO M) . 1 1 1N. 

d — <l Yankees no how, and much oi'* the same kind of talk. The 
boy seemed to be kind enough, and between him and an ohl negro 
woman that was about the premises, I managed in the course of 
the night and day to get enough to appea^5e my hunger. 

"Early the next morning we started for the railroad station, 
where I was to be given up to the Confederate soldiers, a prisoner 
again. The order of march was the same as before, myself in 
front a few steps, and the old man and boy behind, each with 
shot-gun all ready for use. In this way we marched in silence 
some four or five miles, M'heu we came to the river, and the old 
man ordered me to halt, and gave the boy orders to shoot me if I 
made an attempt to escape. He went into the bushes close \>y 
the river, and hauled out a small boat, and made me take the 
fore part of the boat, while he and the boy paddled across, one 
or the other of them constantly on guard. When we were over 
w«! resumed the march the same as before. It was a])out two 
miles down the river to the station where I was forinully delivered 
to the guanls. When the exchange was made T gave the old 
man a little good advice, which he diil not soon forget, probably. 
I told him plainly that if I ever got back to the army again, and 
should happen to come that way, I would settle the matter between 
us. I did not so much mind being a })risoner with soldiers, for 
they had some little humanity al)out them, but that old man 
had none, 

"My talk to the old man rather pleased the lieutenant, who 
conducted me to the guard-house. He said there would be a 
train-load of prisoners along that day some time, when I would be 
.sent on to Richmond. When the train arrived I- was put aboard. 
The train was full, and was guarded the same way as before. I 
had had all the experience I wanted in jumping from trains, and 
concluded to make no more effort to escajie, at least before I got 
to Richmond. It was the same old gaze by the residents at each 
station at the 'd — d Yankee prisoners,' as they called them, with 
an occasional jeer, which was only too well answered by some 'cute 
Yankee. 

"On our arrival at the city we were marched in a body, under 
a strong guard, to a large building standing on the bank of the 
river, and oonfined in the second story. The prison was called 
Castle Thunder. The reason for the name I never could tell. It 
was a queer-looking old building, and was like everything else iu 
that neighborhood — iu an unfinished condition. There were sev- 



OUT OF PRISON. 577 

eral windows in the room looking out on tlie river. It was im- 
possible to tell whether the water wa.s deep or shallow near the 
house. I can not say that our treatment as prisoners was bad. 
The rebels gave us rations of corn-bread, rather coarse, and some 
meat. We got no coffee or tea, unless some of the prisoners had, 
by good luck, saved a little money and purchased them. The 
prison was strongly guarded, and, at first sight, it seemed an im- 
possibility to make an escape. I was sick and tired, and spent 
most of the time in sleep, when the wound in my head, which 
was at times painful, would permit. 

"At least two weeks were passed in this way, when I began to 
be restless, and, there being no hope of au exchange, 1 determined 
to make my escape frf)m the prison if possible. There were many 
plans of escape suggested by the prisoners, but none of them appeared 
feasible to me. After taking a careful survey of the jjrison and its lo- 
cation, I could see no other way of escape but to let myself down into 
the river some dark night, and either swim the river or come out on 
the same side at the end of the building, and run the gauntlet of a line 
of picket-guards one-half or three-fourths of a mile in extent. 

"I told my plan to some of my comrades, but they all, Avithout 
exception, said it was impracticable, and that if I tried it 1 would 
surely be killed or captured. I could not persuade a single one 
to accompany me. I hesitated for several days before I could 
fully make up my mind to make the attempt. But the monoto- 
nous round of prison-life, shut up in a room with two or three 
hundred prisoners, was to me worse than capture or death. At any 
rate I came to the determination to make the trial. When my fellow- 
prisoners were informed of my resolution, they agreed to assist me all 
they could, and arranged to make the count hold out as long as pos- 
sible, so as to avoid pursuit, as it was the custom of the guards 
to count the prisoners every two or three days. My plan was to 
wait for a dark night, and tie blankets enough together to reach 
the water, and let myself down on them. 

" The auspicious night at length arrived. The blankets were 
tied together and let out of the window, my own blanket twisted 
over my shoulder. My comrades had furnished me au old haver- 
sack, filled with such rations as we received, eninigh it was thought 
to last me, with care, three days, and with my canteen, which they 
had also furnished me, all equipped for the dangerous journey. I 
bade my friends farewell, crawled out of the window, and let 
myself down slowly to the water. Feeling my way carefully iu 
37 



578 SLIPPED OFF FROM THE aUABDS. 

the water, I fouiKl, to my great joy, that it ^vas only two or three 
feet deep close to the building. 

" I. gave the signal agreed upon to pull the blankets in, and 
concluded to wade carefully to the end of the building, take the 
shore, and try to dodge the sentinels. I moved slowly in the 
water, keeping close to the building, and when I reached the cor- 
ner, I took a careful survey of the premises before stepping out 
upon the shore. I had the advantage of the g\uirds on duty. I 
was below, and in looking up, I could barely discover the dusky 
form ot the sentinel as he slowly paced his beat. Watching my op- 
portunity as the guard pa.*sed the corner of the building, I stepped 
lightly on shore, and walked in the opposite direction aa far as 
prudence would permit, befoi-e his i-eturu. 

" There were plenty of hiding-jdaces between the road on the 
bank and the river, formed by boxes and lund)er, of which fact I 
was well aware before I started. I concealed myself close to a jjiie 
of lumber, and waited the return of the guard. So soon a.s he 
commenced his retrograde march, I would make an advance, care- 
fully watching for any movement near me, and hiding again when 
1 thought I had gone as far as I could without being seen. It 
was a slow and tedious journey, but in this way I succeeded in 
making my way past all the sentinels, some fifteen or twenty of 
them, for nearly one mile. 

" While I was on this perilous journey, the guard was changed. 
I had to wait until everything was ouiet before proceeding, and I 
began to fear that I would not be able to get through before day- 
light. I walked on for nearly a mile farther, all the time looking 
for a safe place to hide for the day. 

" I came at last to a lumber-yard — mostly timber and railroad 
ties — and, after looking about for some little time, I found a secure 
hiding-place, and, Avrapping my blanket about me, I lay down in 
a very comfortable position to take a sleep and wait for day- 
light. My first hiding-place must have been nearly or quite three 
miles from Castle Thunder. 

"When I awoke, it was nearly noon, and the road between 
me and the river was filled with wagons and teams of every de- 
scription, passing and repassing. I was within fifty yards of the 
road, and a large body of troops passed in the c(jiuse of the day, 
going >up the river. There was one point iYom which I had 
a fiiir view of the road for nearly one-half mile. I was not very 
anxious to show myself. 



CAM MI RE'S ACCOUNT. 579 

"It must have beeu near midnight before I ventured out to 
resume my journey. The niglit was cloudy, and it liad rained in the 
after part of the day, but I was well sheltered, and my clothing 
was nearly dry from the wetting in the river. Late as it was in 
the night, I occasionally met a team in the road, which I always 
avoided, stepping to one side until it had })assed. 1 was following 
the road up the river, which ran an easterly course, and to avoid 
as much as possible coming in contact with portions of the army 
which I knew to be north of the city. I knew I must go nearly 
due north to reach Washington, or to lind any portion of the 
Union array. But I concluded to go west until I was fairly out 
of reach of the Confederate army. 

" Nothing of a startling character interrupted me in my travels 
the second night, and I probably made twelve or fourteen miles 
north, and about daylight I concealed mj'self in a thick clump of 
bushes near the road, and waited for another night. 

"Some time in the morning the clouds broke away, and the 
sun came out bright and warm, and had it not been that I was 
beginning to feel the pangs of hunger, and that the wound in my 
head had become somewhat painful and needed dressing, I should 
liave been comparatively happy. As it was, I could do nothing but 
lie still, and dream of the good time coming when I should once 
more be free. So soon as it was dark, I commenced my journey. 
• It was a starlight night ; everything bid fair for me to make a 
good march, and put several more miles between me and the rebel 
ca})ital. 

" Towards midnight I saw, at some distance ahead of me, 
several horsemen coming down the road, and I stepped aside into 
the bushes to let them pass. I soon discovered that they were the 
advance-guard of a large body of rebel cavalry, and instead of being 
detained a few minutes, I was detained four hours. A whole 
brigade of cavalry, with three or four pieces of cannon, and a 
large number of wagons, passed by. I waited impatiently, but at 
last the road was again clear, and I resumed my travels. It was 
nearly daylight, and having been detained so long, I was a little 
imprudent, and continued my walk until it was quite light. 
Just before 'I was going to secrete myself lor the day, there sud- 
denly appeared three or four horesemen iu a turu of the road 
about one-fourth of a mile ahead. I barely caught a glimpse of 
them, and immediately took to the woods, and was lucky in lindiug 
a secure place near the road, and waited for them to pass. 



580 RECORDED BY DR. POND. 

" They rode rapidly down the roatl, aud when nearly oppo.-r-ite 
me, came to a halt. I could distinctly hear every word of" their 
conversation. One of them contended that he saw a man dod^e 
into the bushes dressed in a Federal uniform, aud said he believed 
him to be an escaped prisoner from Richmond. The others said that 
they were looking down the road and saw nothing; and they tried 
to make him believe it. It was impossible for them to ride in the 
woods, and in a short time they passed on down the road, but not 
until I heard the man say he knew there was a Federal soldier 
there in the brush, and that he would go to P^s(|uire Meacham's 
and get his bloodhounds, and put them on the track. 

"This last expression as they rode away filled me with dismay. 
To be chased by bloodhounds was more than I bargained for, aud 
to risk it by staying where I was all day, was mure than I dared 
to do. One of two things I must do, risk taking the road in 
open daylight, or travel in the woods. The last was not practi- 
cable. It was an exceedingly rough country, heavily wooded, and 
full of deep cuts, rocks, and underbrush; and besides, if he did 
come with the hounds, they would surely overtake me, with n(jlh- 
ing to defend myself with except a heavy stick — hickory — wiiich 
was my only weapon. 

"In sheer desperation I took the road, aud traveled in double 
quick time at least two miles, seeing no one. Then I came to a 
long hill, and at the foot of the hill I came to a creek, which I 
crossed, and perhaps passed one hundred yards beyond, when the 
thought occurred to me to travel down the creek. I returned, aud 
took down the stream, traveling in the water, Avhich was not verv 
deep. I followed on down about two miles, where a railroad 
crossed the stream, and perhaps one-half mile farther, where I 
found a nice warm hidiug-place on the bank of the stream, and lay 
by for the day, tired, sick, and huugry, waiting for the hounds. 
My excitement was so great that it was impossible for me to sleep, 
and I passed a restless day. 

"Several trains passed on the railroad during the day ; and the 
bloodhounds were within hearing distance from about noon until 
nearly night ; but they never crossed the railroad to the ]>est of 
ray knowledge. I made another discovery during the day, that a 
wagon-road ran north in the valley, two or three hundred yards 
east of me, which I concluded to take as soon as it was dark. 

" I had now been without food of any description for forty- 
eight hours, for my three days' rations were not enough for one 



FOUND FRIENDS. 581 

day, an<l it was only a matter of time, as I kuevv then, and only 
a short time, before I would hi; compelled to get something to 
eat — if I .had to surrender — or starve. But I was determined to 
travel one more night, and take my chances before surrender. 
Weak and hungry as I was, I started early in the evenin"-, beino- 
almost discouraged, and often saying to myself: " You had better 
give up." But the thought of being again a prisoner seemed to 
renew my courage, and I traveled on, frequently resting by 
the way. 

"This road was not so much of a thoroughfare as the one I had 
left, and I was not disturbed, although I passed several large plan- 
tations during the night. The houses were generally some dis- 
tance from the road. I could not have traveled more than five 
or six miles before I discovered that it was beginning to be day- 
light. A short distance ahead there was a very large plantation — 
the largest I had seen. I went as far as the corner, where there 
was a cross-road, and hid myself in the thick bushes, and waited 
in hopes that some negro would come along and I would venture 
to ask for something to eat. Theie was a very large house some 
distance from the road, and at least a quarter of a mile from 
where I was secreted, and to the left of the house, a little village 
of small houses, which I knew to be negro quarters. It was not 
long before there was a stir among the negroes, and I waited and 
watched impatiently for some of them to come past. 

"Suddenly I heard a step down the road from the other direc- 
tion. I looked carefully through the bushes, and to my great joy 
.saw an old negro woman coming down the road with an immense 
bundle on her head. When she arrived opposite me, and not 
more than fifteen feet away, I stepped boldly out of the bushes 
and stood before her. She was terribly frightened, and came very 
near giving a shriek. I immediately said: 'Aunty, can you give 
me something to eat ?' After the first exclamation of surprise, 
her next words were : ' O Lor' gor ormity ! Massa, you nearly 
scar' me to def. Ar' you one of Mr. Linkum's sogers ?' I an- 
swered yes ; that I had run away fnnu prison, and was trying to 
get back to the Union army. ' Wal, you jest git right back in 
<le bushes dar ; ef ole Massa or any of dem white folks .sees you, 
you're a treed coon, now, sho' ; you go.' She appeared to be in 
so much fear of my being seen that I st5pj)ed back into the 
bushes, when she said : ' You keeps hid clos', and I '11 send Joe 
up hyar 'fore long. You keeps hid, and we'll teed yer.' 



582 REACHED THE LINES, NOVEMBER, ISCn. 

" She passed on down the road to the negro (piarters, an<l hope 
revived within rae ; but it seemed to nie an age before Joe made 
his appearance. At last, near noon, I saw an old, white-headed 
negro coming up the road with a bundle under his arm, and he 
was singing at the top of his voice. When he arrived nearly to 
the place where I was hid he stopped singing and stepped into the 
bushes, and came to me. He appeared to be in a great hurry, 
aud, laying the bundle down before me, he said: 'Aunt Dinah 
sent me up hyar ; can 't stay no time; you'll fin' some corn-bread 
and meat in dar, and some ole clo's, for if dey should see yer in 
dem clo's, you'd nebber get back again, sho' ; and dar is sum 
charcoal in dar, and yer must black yer face aud ban's, and when 
dem white folks down dar all done gone in de house to dar dinner, 
yer take down de road dar till yer comes to big gate, and den yer 
goes by de ole terbacker-house down dar, and go in de secon' cabin 
do'. Aunt Dinah is dar, and I '11 be dar.' 

" While this speech was going on I was untying the bundle, 
and found inside a Avhole corn-pone, tvarni, a piece of meat, and a 
large baked yam. It was the sweetest and best meal I ever ate." 

K 

Finding " Old Joe," and following his directions and 
guidance, eventually placed Camniire, after two or three 
more nights' travel, safely within tlie Union lines. 
Then he went to Washington City, from thence he 
made a long journey to his Illinois home, and in due 
time rejoined his regiment in East Tennessee, in the 
early part of 1864. Doctor Pond was greatly sur- 
prised on seeing Sergeant Cammire, as it was his un- 
derstanding that he was reported on the regimental 
records as killed in the battle of Chickamauga. 

OUR CAPTURE AND PROVIDENTIAL ESCAPE. 

JtY lUI.KV M. nOSKlNSON. 

The following narrative was written for the special use of my 
wife and family, and not intended as a public document; the 
Btatemeuts therein contained are strictly correct, to the best of the 
knowledge and belief of the writer. It is therefore submitted in 



R. M. HOSKIXSON'S STORY. 583 

its original form, omitting only some of the conversation and 
minor items, It is as follows : 

Monday, September 1-J, JSGiJ. — Three o'clock, A. M., roused to 
draw three days' rations ; obeyed. Lay down and slept about 
an hour ; roused again, ordered to march immediately ; so we packed 
up and away, right back to the Lookout Mountains, which we 
had just crossed. Arrived at the mountain foot about nine A. M. ; 
sat in the broiling sun till ueai-ly sundown, waiting for the narrow 
road to be cleared so we can get up. Our brigade slowly climbing 
Avhile I write. 

Septeviher l^h. — Traveled nearly all night getting up the 
mountain. Camped a few hours; up and away again. Just at 
sundown reached our old camp at the mountain-side; staid here 
over night. Received orders to be ready to march at five o'clock 
A. M., but did not move till about the middle of the afternoon of 
the 15th. Routed all of a sudden, and ordered off on the in- 
stant. Some of the men had gone foraging, others were asleep; 
I was issuing rations. In less than twenty minutes our brigade 
was in line, and ready for march, A moment more, and away we 
go along the mountain in a north-easterly direction. Country 
rough and stony, but of pretty good soil, judging by the corn and 
other products ; and if one could live on water alone, there need 
be no fear of death, as the water here is very abundant, and of 
the best. We camped for the night in a circular valley. I 
slei)t on three rails. Roused in the morning of the 16th at four 
o'clock, to be ready for march ; od Brigade gone ahead of us up 
the mountain. About eight o'clock A. ]\[. we are ordered into 
line, and our men to assist in getting the wagons and artillery up 
the steep mountain-side, which is the steepest of any we have 
ever climbed. It took eight hours of severe work to get our divis- 
iou-teanis to the top. The top of the mountain is nearly level, 
but poor and rocky. Found a few poor families tliere that had 
eked out a miserable existence for sixteen to twenty years. Again 
away we go across the mountain to its eastern side. Here it is 
almost perpendicular, capped with rock; but the view is sublime. 
Farm after farm rose into view, until lost in the dim distance, and 
shut out by a small mountain called "Pigeon," J'Vom this on- 
ward, we are told, commences the great cotton-growing region of 
the South. A little beyond this mountain the rebels are in- 
trenched, awaiting our ap])roach. Down we go ; road very steep, 
but .luife smooth. Readied the bottom; went into camp f(jr tliu night. 



584 INTEJiESTIXO MEMORANDA. 

Morning of the 17th. — For the first time in many months we 
are left to march in the rear. Just at suurise, boom ! goes a 
cannon, and our men raise a shout of joy. Orders are given for 
our men to take forty rounds of ammunition in their cartridge- 
boxes, and tweuty more in their pockets, and be ready for action 
at a moment's ^varning. Just at noon, ordered to march on the 
instant ; marched about half a mile to an open field, where we piled 
up in seemingly inextricable confusion ; but Generals McCook and 
Sheridan soon straightened the mass, and each party marched in good 
order, some here, and others there. Then for a time all was still, 
and we momentarily awaited the opening roar of battle ; but it 
came not, only from the distant front came the sounds of cannon. 

Here we remained till about one o'clock on the morning of the 
18th. Up and drew two days' rations ; remained quiet till nine 
A. M. Received orders to march ; moved off in a south-easterly 
direction. Country extremely poor; timber small — scrubby oak 
and pine. Three o'clock P. M., went into camp; staid till about 
seven P. M. Ordered to march again ; packed up our little 
budgets, and sat down to await orders to move on. The weather 
being quite frosty, we made a lot of nice fires out of Secesh rails. 
This was the site of the skirmishes we had been hearing previously. 
About eleven P. M. Ave were ordered to move on. "We then piled 
all the rails we had left on the fires, and had a beautiful illumi- 
nation. ^Marched only a few rods and halted again, and again 
burned more rails to make us light and keep us warm. 

Just ahead of us another brigade had fired a large log-house, 
which was burning furiously as we passed. Slowly and wearily 
on we go — start a few steps, then stop again. Quite dark, and 
the road strange, I remarked: " If I could only see the Dipj)er, I 
could tell our course." One of the men observed: " They have 
thrown away the dipper, and substituted a gourd." Thus we 
made merry the best we could, till, about three A. M. of the 19th, 
we turned into camp, some fifteen miles south of Chattanooga, in 
the valley of the Cliickamauga, Georgia. I slept in some brush 
till roused by the bugle-call to up and away. Ate a hasty break- 
fast, and in a short time were t)rdered to stay in camj) till about noon. 

While we wait in camp, the roar of artillery is constantly 
heard some little distance in fnmt of us, and we ex])ect our 
turn will soon come to join the deadly fray. About ten A. M. 
we slowly move forward. About three P. M. we come to the 
battle-ground of th'! morning, and still the sound is far in front 



CHICK A MA JKiA A ( ! A IN. 585 

of us. We halt at a huge spring, called Crawfish, thirteen miles 
south of Chattanooga, Tennessee. Here we eat our dinner, con- 
sisting of crackers and raw-side bacon (" sowbelly" the men called 
it). We again form line, and march about a mile, and halt in a 
skirt of woods. In a few minutes, General Sheridan rode up and 
ordered our brigade to go double quick to Lee & Crordon's mill, 
about a mile east, to hold a ford. I and my son Stuart were or- 
dered back to the field hospital, near the spring, to assist the sur- 
geons. By the time we got there, wounded by scores were 
being brought in. These were wounded in various parts, many in 
the legs and arms, several in the head. Stuart and I helped carry 
them to ])laces of safety, and then made fires to keep them warm, 
the houses being previously filled with wounded. AVhile all this 
wjis being done, others made cofiee and distributed among the 
sufferers; others assisted in Ijinding up wounds; so all were busy. 
The conflict lasted till about nine P, M. I shall not attempt a 
description of this; language fails to do it. 

Sctbbuth inoriiing, Septemher 20th. — Just at sunrise the work of 
death began again. Stuart and I, knowing our regiment to be out 
of provisions, started in search of them. Found them about three 
miles distant, on a hillside, covered by a small orchard. None of 
them had yet taken part in the conflict. The 3d Brigade of our 
division was in yesterday's fight, and lost heavily. Some rebel 
])risoners told us this morning that they had come prepared to 
meet one hundred and fifteen thousand men, and they intended 
giving us the severest fight of any time heretofore. 

About ten A. M. the cannonade becomes terrific, mixed with 
the incessant crash of musketry. The work of destruction goes 
fearfully on. Some of our men are asleep, some reading jiapers, 
some writing letters, etc., while a general seriousness seems to per- 
vade most of them. Just at half-past ten A. M., orders came for 
our brigade to rush to the contest. Away they go, on the double- 
(piick, down the hill into the woods, and out of sight, which is the 
last I saw of theiu — or ever will of many of them — "till heaven's 
last thunder shakes the world below." 

Stuart and J luul orders to stay on the hillside and assist the 
doctors, when any wounded were brought up tliere. In a few 
moments more the contest deepened (if j)ossible; into tenfold more 
terrific proportions. There we stood till about half-past one P. M. 
Tlie cannon-shots were too frequent to count, and the musketry 
sounded like throwing handfuls of salt into a hut lire. Add to all 



580 FATHER AXD SON I'RISONElt. 

this the shouts of officers and the screeching of the men, as thev 
charged upon each other, and it combined to make a scene per- 
fectly' indescribable. I forgot to be afraid, and wished the whole 
.Southern Confederacy annihilated for causing so much carnage 
and death. Our doctors came not, and, seeing we were about 
being surrounded, we moved back quite a distance. About three 
P. M. the sound of battle somewhat abated. 

At this time an officer told us which way to go, and we did as 
directed, and, following some ambulances that were carrying 
wounded men, they led the way back to the hospital near the 
spring. We had only time to unload the wounded men, when 
the whole premises, six hospitals in number, were surrounded by 
two brigades of Wheeler's cavalry, and a regiment of infantry, 
yelling at the top of their voices, as if hell had suddenly emptied 
itself of all its contents. In a few moments (seeing we made no 
resistance), a tall, fine-looking Texan rode u[), and told us we were 
all prisoners of war. This event took place about half-past four 
o'clock, Sabbath afternoon, September 20, 186;). 

As we were perfectly powerless, we made the best we could of a 
bad bargain. The rebs. now came up in .squads, and demanded our 
blankets, canteens, knives, guns, etc. I droi)ped my knife, pocket- 
book, and gold pen into my boot-leg, and hid my gum-blanket and 
canteen while they were robbing others. When they came to 
me, wanting my knife, I offered them a case-knife I had picked 
up on the way back to tlie hospital. This they refused, and after- 
ward let me alone. The officers did not maltreat us in the least, 
but were nice and polite, asking us numerous questions, and we 
as many in return. They took away jjart of our hospital stores, 
all our ambulances, doctor.s' horses, oui- brass baud instruments, 
and all the guns they couhl find. Several fine riHes had been 
hidden away, and after the others had been taken, I advised the 
breaking of these, which was done. 

On Tuesday, General Wheeler sent his medical direrrtor, who 
allowed one man to cook for each twenty, and four more tn assist 
the latter. IMy first duty was the taking of tlie names of all the 
wounded, their company, regiuient, and rank. T found one hun- 
dred and forty-six living, and nineteen otiiers so badly wounded a.s 
to die soon after being brought in. I then a.ssisted in the care and 
treatment of the wounded. We had not tinre to bury the dead, 
but stored them in the cellar till we could dig one vast grave, and 
tumble them in, side l)y side, seventeen in all. 



SOME PROVOKING QUESTION.^. 587 

Septeniher :3-3d. — Calm, cold morniug. Stuart and others weut 
to the battle-field, and found some five hundred of our dead still 
unburied, and about one hundred others still alive, l)ut so badly 
wounded as to be unable to help themselves, or get away. They 
collected these together in little groups, and gave them bread and 
water — all we had to give. Our provisions all gave out about 
this time, and all of us had to live on boiled wheat. 

Ou Thursday, September 24th, a detail of men was sent to 
the l^attle-field, to dress the wounds of tho.se still alive. The 
groans and cries of the wounded, and their varied wants, are in- 
describable. This day an officer by the name of Rei.ss came to 
l)arole as many as were thought necessary to care for the wounded ; 
theirs and ours both being cared for. I a.ssisted in writing paroles, 
and, in writing one for myself, .spoiled it, and the officer spoiled 
the one I wrote for my son, so we were both left out. It was now 
impre.s.sed ou my mind, " It is the will of God tiuit you should 
escape, and you ought to do it." In the afteru(jon I was sent with 
a .-^cpiad of men to Lee & Gordon's mill, to i)ut it in order to 
grind. AVhile thus engaged, two brigades of rebel cavalry came 
there to water their horses, and rest awhile. These would gather 
round us, and ask questions. Most of thejn behaved nicely, while 
others were very insulting. They Avould come close up and peer 
into our eyes, and ask: " What do you think of us now, ha?" 
" Guess we whipped you good, did n't we, ha?" " Guess we made 
you run this time, didn't we, ha ?" " You came to subjugate the 
South, did you, ha?" " You came to free our niggers, did you, 
ha?" "Gue.ss old Rosy could n't make Longstreet run !" "You 
folks broke up this mill, and now you want to grind on it. Don't 
you think, daviii you, you ought to starve to death?" etc. Finally 
got the mill gouig, ground some wheat, and returned to our hos- 
}>ital piison. 

■Friilaij, September 25th. — Built an out-oven of bricks, so they 
Could bake bread. The reljs. came with two wagons, and brought 
a little meal, some bacon, and rice, then took from the other hos- 
pitals as many wounded as they could haul, staling, at the .same 
time, that on the morrow (Saturday) they would take away all the 
unparoled. I now weut to the pine-woon.^, kmlt down, and 
asked God to direct me how to act. Rly duty to escape seemed 
clear, and I resolved to try it. 

INfeanwhile, Stuart had found a few pieces of crackers in an 
old camp some distance away; these he brought in his haversack. 



588 ESCAPE FROM THE ESEMY. 

I told him it was God's will that we should get away, aud I was 
determined to try it that night, aud he then consented to go with 
me. ■ I now made ready for our departure while he slept. I now 
asked our chief physician, Dr. McGee, of tlie olst Illinois In- 
fantry, for his advice in the matter. He said, "Go," aud then 
gave me a message to his colonel, in ease we succeeded in our 
efforts. 

About half-past nine P. j\I. I roused Stuart, aud told him : 
"Now is our time to be off." He went into the cellar, and got 
about two pounds of beefsteak, as the men had killed a small 
animal that day. Now, all being ready, we make the fearful 
plunge for our escape. We had three separate guards to pa.ss, 
and the moon shone in its beauty. AVe did not fear as long as 
we were near any of the hospital tents, but our hearts beat heavily 
as we passed into the space beyond. The crashing of the l(;aves 
and little twigs seemed to betray our object, and we momentarily 
expected to hear the word "halt!" or feel ourselves pierce*] by 
bullets. But, thanks be to God ! none of these happened. 

After some six miles' travel through fields and woodland, Ave 
came to the foot of Lookout Mountain, and felt safe. Here we 
rested awhile, and then began the steep ascent, reaching the top 
about half-past two on the morning of the 26th, nearly exhausted 
from fatigue. Crawled into the top of a fallen hickory, where we 
staid till daylight. AVe now tried to kindle a fire, but our matches 
were spoiled, so we ate a little raw beef, some bread and water. 
Looked down, aud saw some of the outer guards we had passed in 
the night. We now climbed a high j)innacle of rocks that rose 
above us some two hundred feet; reached the top of this in safety. 

While I was penning notes of our night's march two rebs. 
came up the same ])ath we had come, and accosted us with, 
" Who are you ?" " Where did you come from ?" and " How came 
you here?" etc. I lied to them, and said : "We belong to a lot 
of General Hooker's men, who are crossing the mountain at Dry 
Gap yonder." Tliey then said: "AVe have guards placed all 
along this side of them ; how did you get past these guards V I 
told them we had not >>een any guards. I then questioned ihcm 
as ra])i(lly as I could respecting the lay of the land, and about 
the late battle, etc. They told us a great battle had been fought, 
that our men had been defeated, and had fled to Chattanooga, 
which was just sixteen miles distant, at the end itf this mountain ; 
that the mountain lay right up against the city, and if a\»,' would 



SOME CLOSE CALLS. 589 

go down to the foot of the mountain on tlie opposite side from 
which we came up we would find a good and [.(M-fectly safe road 
to Chattanooga, etc. 

I thanked them for this information, wished them well, and 
started ; but as soon as we got Ix'hind some rocks I told my son 
our only safety lay on the top of this mountain, as their words 
were only a decoy to trap us, which will fully :4)pear further on. 
Our path was at times fearfully rough; at others small jjatches of 
cleared land, with small huts thereon; these we carefully avoided. 
During the day we suffered from want of water, so we descended 
the mountain-side, and near its foot found plenty of water; so we 
concluded to slant up the mountain in the opposite direction from 
our descent, and when about half-way up Ave saw some forty or more 
inen on horseback coming up tlie opj)osite direction from us. We 
squatted in the weeds till they got past, and then made all the 
haste we could to get across this load before any more men should 
come along. The hillside being of loose, slaty formation ren- 
dered it very labori(nis, and we had only reached about fifty feet 
above the road, and hid in the oj)euing where a tree had turned 
out of root, when another detachment of men came in the same 
direction as the first, and also had several dogs with them. I felt 
much afraid the dogs would scent us and come up t(j us, but they 
<lid not. 

We now went unmolested, till near d:irk we came to a low place 
where was a house and a little cleared land. AVe were so tired and 
hungry we concluded we would risk going to the house and get 
some fire and make coffee. But on nearing it we found where 
numerous horses had been recently tied and fed, also numerous 
places where men had lain. We quickly skipped out of this, and 
had only gone a few rods when we came to the aforementioned 
''good, safe road," which, had we followed, our captivity was as- 
sured. We passed rapidly on, and soon came to the hollow stump 
of a huge chestnut-tree, one side of which was split off, leaving us 
room enough to creep in. Here we made our bed for the night; 
slept soundly, and did not awaken till the sun W'as up, and the 
birds singing welcome to a beautiful Sabbath morning. Here I 
fully realized the force of that Scri])turc which saj.s: "The heart 
of man deviseth his way, but the Ijord directeth his steps." I 
was fully satisfied God was guiding our steps, as will appear more 
fully further on. 

The aforesaid road now followed the niouiitaiu-toj), aixl we liad 



690 ARRIVE SA FEL Y A T CHA TTA NOOGA . 

considerable trouble keeping out of sight of it, as every little while 
we could see men on horseback })assing along it. After consider- 
able walk, we came to a thick wood of small pines, and sat down 
to rest. In a few moments we heard voices and loud laughter. 
We crept away from the sound as fast as we could, and my son 
stopped and said in a whisper, " See, this mountain falls off all 
round," which was true. I looked a little ahead and saw horses 
with saddles on, tied only a few rods in front of us, and a little 
further on, two men standing with their backs to us, looking oft 
below. This afterwards proved to be Summertown, and the men 
were standing on Lookout Point, looking down into the city of 
Chattanooga. 

We quickly turned aside, and jumped, fell, and slid down the 
mountain-side, and were soon where we coidd look up and see the 
men far above us. We soon came to a receutly deserted rebel 
camp, rested awhile, and watched the railroad, now in full view, 
to see if we could find out whose hands we were in. l'"'inally 
tired of this, and followed along tlie mountain-si<le till we came in 
view of the Tennessee River; sat down again, and soon discov- 
ered a lot of our men on the o})posite side. We now left our con- 
cealment, and hailed them, but they, taking us for rebels, only 
made sport of us, asking, " Who are you?" " AVhatdoyou wantr"" 
" Don't you want some whisky or some coftee '/" etc. T told them 
who we were, and how we came there, but they did not believe it. 
So we went a little further down the stream, where it looked shal- 
low enough to wade. Here Ave constructed a small raft of cedar- 
rails, bound together with small grape-vines, stripped oft" our 
clothing and laid them upon the raft, which we thought to })usli 
before us as we waded over. We no sooner pusiied into the stream 
than we were beyond our depth ; we clung to the raft and kicked 
our best, and soon found we were making headway, although 
rapidly drifting down stream. Finally we reached shallow water, 
where we could wade out. By this time a large number of the 
4()th Regiftieut of Ohio Infantry came to meet us, and helped me 
put on my clothing, as I was so chilled I could not stiind. 

General Whitaker, with his brigade, was here on i)icket.-duty, 
and tlie colonel of the 40th told us his men wanted to shoot us, 
but he had forbidden it. We were now conducted to General 
Whitaker, where we told our adventure. He gave us a good sup- 
per, and then sent us over the river to Chattanooga, to the pres- 
ence of General AV. S. Rosecraus. Here we each told our story 



REMINISCENCE OF LINCOLN. 591 

again, which was committed to writing, anil the next day we were 
sent to our regiment, or rather what was left of it; thence to 
Colonel Laibold; thence to General P. H. Sheridan, who told iis 
our trip had been of great use, as it told many things not previ- 
ously known. We then hunted the 51.st Regiment Illinois Volun- 
teers, and delivered our message. 

I shall only add, General Rosecraus started a h^t of ambulances 
to Chickamauga as soon as it was light, this being the first truce 
allowed to enter upon the battle-field, and our poor, suffering, 
wounded men were brought away. 

The above constitutes one of the most fearful events of my 
life, and to God be all the glory! Most respectfully, 

R. M. HOSKINSON, 
Late Cora. Sergeant, 73(1 Illinois Volunteers. 

William M. Thaler, Company A, has contributed an 
interesting reminiscence of the year I860 — one in 
which he was associated with Abraham Lincoln. It 
appears that Thaler worked for Dr. Wallace, Lincoln's 
brother-in-law, quite a good deal, in the years 1853-55, 
and not infrequently worked for Lincoln during the 
same time. 

In 1856, Thaler was a Fillmore man, ;ind on one oc- 
casion rode in a delegation of Fillmore men, consisting 
of thirty-four couples. Lincoln, knowing that Thaler 
was foreign-born, and having seen him in the delega- 
tion referred to, wrote him a letter, pointing out the 
inconsistency of his training in that kind of company. 
Thiiler failed to take the well-meant advice in good 
part, as he replied to Mr. Lincoln in terms a little harsh, 
' feeling, no doubt, that a strong point had been made 
on him. 

Two years later, in 1858, Thaler could not indorse 
either the Lincoln or Douglas party in the senatorial 
contest of that year. On election-day, that fall, Thaler 
started to Springfield (from the country, where he 



502 A PROMISE FULFILLED. 

then lived) with two wagon-loads of potatoes, and got 
stuck in the mud before reaching Williamsville ; had 
to tarn around and return home, being overtaken on 
the way by his three brothers-in-law, the Lantermans, 
going home from the election. Thaler was told by the 
Lantermans that, had he done as he ought to have done, 
gone and voted the Lincoln ticket at the election, 
he would not have got stuck in the mud. In order to 
make things go easy just then, having had trouble 
enough. Thaler promised in good faith to vote for Mr. 
Lincoln in case another opportunity to do so ever 
offered. 

In April, 1860, Thaler went to Nebraska to look at 
the country, locate a claim, or purchase a tract of land, 
and intending to remove his family later. When Mr. 
Lincoln was nominated for President at Chicago, Lan- 
termans wrote Thaler, reminding him of his promise 
to vote for Lincoln, and calling for its fulfillment. Ac- 
cordingly Thaler returned to Illinois, and next morning 
after reaching Springfield, went over to Mr. Lincoln's 
house, and had a long talk with him. Mr. Lincoln had 
been to Omaha and Council Bluffs the preceding year, 
and had many inquiries to make. 

Thaler told Mr. Lincoln he had returned to Illinois 
on purpose to vote for him, and the correspondence had 
in 1856 was adverted to, and any trouble or misunder- 
standing still existing, arising therefrom, was declared 
or considered as settled. 

Suddenly Mr. Lincoln spoke up, saying : " Well, 
William, you have come a long way t(j vote for me. 
Now, would you come as far and shoulder a musket to 
defend that vote ?" Mr. Lincoln was aware of Thaler's 
intention to move to Nebraska in the spring of 1861. 



THE RECRUITS. 593 

The reader may inquire : " Well, what has the fore- 
going to do with the history of the 73d Illinois ?" We 
answer, nothing particularly, farther than the fact that 
Thaler was a member of the 73d, and his answer to 
j\Ir. Lincoln's question was, " I will do so if it becomes 
necessary." In so answering Mr, Lincoln's question, 
INIr. Thaler claims he was the first man, in all proba- 
bility, to make a tender of his services to Mr. Lincoln. 
Thaler had little, if any, thought that civil war would 
follow Lincoln's election; but Mr. Lincoln had a settled, 
solemn conviction, that war between the sections was 
inevitable. 

Thaler, with his family, left Springfield, March 11, 
1861, for Nebraska. Mrs. Thaler, being in bad health 
at the time, died the following November. When the call 
for six hundred thousand men was made in 18G2, 
Thaler returned to Springfield with his children, and, 
making provision for them, went to Camp Butler, August 
19th, of that year, enlisted, and was sworn into service. 

The recruits of the 73u, as we have seen, were trans- 
ferred to the 44th Illinois, a veteran organization, at the 
date of our muster-out. W. II. Wilson, of Company H, 
Perry, Illinois, who was one of the num])er transferred, 
has kindly furnished the sketch below, giving briefly 
the experience of these recruits after joining the 44th: 

" Haviug wished our comrades oi the 73J Illinois a fond good- 
bye, and sending messages by them to loved ones at home, we re- 
ported to C(jlonel Russell, of the 44th Illinois, a.s ordered. We 
were at once assigned to our respective companies — recruits from 
Company \i, of the 73d, going to Company If, of the 44th, and 
so on through the list. AVe were immiidiately ordered to Nash- 
ville, and at the depot we found a train of cars ready to carry us, 
we knew not whither; but from a remark made by Doctor I'oud, 
we sui)[)osed we were going to New Orleans. 
38 



594 NEW ORLEANS— TEXAS. 

"Soon tlie shrill whistle of the locomotive announced that all 
was ready, and away we went. Next day we arrived at a small 
town gn the Tennessee River, and found there six or seven steam- 
ers in waiting for us, and soon all of them Avere loaded, and started 
down the river. Nothing of special interest transpired until next 
day, when one of the shafts of a Avater-wheel broke, and fell hack 
into the paddles of the wheel, crushing them and the rudder to 
pieces, causing our boat to swing around and around like a lost 
duck. The unusual noise caused quite a panic among the boys, 
who thought the old boat had been snagged, and many decided to 
jump off and swim to the shore. Had it not been for tlie cool- 
headed determination of Colonel Russell, some of the boys might 
have found a watery grave. After order was restored our boat 
was lashed to one of the others and towed along, and by the time 
we reached Faducah, Kentucky, the necessary repairs were com- 
pleted, and our boat was again able to go alone. 

" AVe reached New Orleans about June 24, 1805, and went 
into camp about seven miles below the city. We rtlished the ripe 
tigs that hung in clusters on the trees. After remaining at this 
camp a few weeks, we were surprised one evening by the receipt 
of orders to pack our traps immediately, ready for another boat- 
ride the following morning. When morning came we were ready, 
and some of the boys predicted we were going home. As soon 
as the boats were loaded, we steamed down the Mississippi River, 
and soon learned that we liad to cross the Gulf of Mexico. As 
we went down the river we amused oui-selves by shooting at the 
alligators that lay along the banks ; but, as far as we know, only 
one was killed. 

-' When we reached the Gulf it Avas very rough, and as the 
men of the 44th were not used to that kind of riding, it soon be- 
came necessary for all to come down to a level, and all, we think, 
except the writer, even including Colonel liussell, had a spell of 
seasickness. Allowing the men of the regiment had the courage 
to fight, had an emergency arisen at that particular time, it would 
have found them nearly all disabled for fighting, as they were as limp 
as a dish-rag, and (piite as incapable of exertion. In a few days 
the sickness was a thing of the past, and all agreed they felt much 
better. We arrived at Port Lavaca, but were not allowed to dis- 
embark, but we transferred to smaller boats, and sailed up the 
bay to Matagorda, and landed. 

"After leaving the boats we were allowed to rest and refresh our- 



MUSTERED OUT-SENT JJOME. 595 

selves; but O, how tliirsty we were! Some of us had not taated 
water for several days. While we were hunting water a citizen 
drove in with a load of watermelons to sell to the "Yankee sol- 
diers," as he said. As the citizen asked only one dollar each for 
his melons, we thought the price a little high for us, but con- 
cluded Uncle Bam was rich enough, and every man who could 
laid hold and confiscated a melon for his own use. We got our 
full share, and thought melons never tasted better. Of course the 
citizen complained to the officer in command of the post, who 
came out and threatened to arrest every one of us. But Colonel 
Russell interposing, said : ' If you think you can arrest my brigade 
with only a negro regiment, why just pitch in, iiu<LY^ will soon 
find your hands full.' iS935o'S 

'* Next morning we marched into the country, and, after going 
nearly twenty miles, halted at night at Camp Irwin. Here we 
learned that we had been sent to relieve regiments whose terms of 
service had expired. AVe greatly enjoyed the fresh beef issued 
to us, also the ripe grapes that hung thickly on almost every tree. 
Nothing of interest transpired at Camp Irwin during our st;iy. 
There was a gloom passed over us while there, occasioned by the 
death of two men of the regiment — one by disease, the other by 
drowning. How lonesome we felt! — nothing to do but eat, slee]i, 
and wait. jNIerriment was almo.st unknown among us, except as it 
was })roduced by an old comrade named Eli Ele, of Kalaraazoo, 
Michigan, who kept us amused by his fun-making and tletermina- 
tion to ' skunk ' us playing eucher, a part of the time. 

"About (September 1, 1865, it was rumored that we were to be 
mustered out soon, and sent home. Shortly afterward our officers 
were found busy making out pajiers, and by the 25th of September 
we were mustered out, and started on our homeward journey. We 
traveled night and day until we reached Camp Butler, and a few 
days later we delivered all the property we had belonging to the 
Government to the proper officer. AVe were then taken to Spring- 
field, paid ofi' on October 15th, and furni.shed transportation to 
our respective homes." 

Memoranda made by Captain E. J. Ingersoll, De- 
cember 22, 1863, to January 1, 1864, both inclusive: 

" Tlie 4th Array Corps marched to the relief of Knoxville, 
Tennessee, leaving BragL'^ with his broken and discouraged army 



596 INOERSOLL'S MEMORANDA. 

floundering in the wilderness and the mountains of Northern 
Georgia. 

"On the departure of the 73d, I had been phiced in command 
of about one hundred convalescent wounded men, and with Cap- 
tain Motherspaw, Lieutenant Sherrick, and one or two other 
officers, had charge of our camp at Chattanooga. 

" December 2'2d. — Received orders to prepare to march, with 
five days' rations. 

''December 24th. — Gloved out of camp under command of 
Colonel Laibold, to escort our division-train to Knoxville. The 
command consisted of detachments of all regiments in our brigade, 
and a number of men formerly of General Streight's command 
(just returned from prison, having been exchanged), amounting, 
all told, to about three thousand five hundred men. We crossed 
Mission Kidge near the tunnel, also Chickamauga Creek ; but 
did not get out of hearing of the pickets at the bridge l)efore 
we were informed of the near approach of Wheeler's cavalry. 
Camped for the night, thinking of Christmas at home. 

*' December 25th. — Brigade detachment was rear guard to-day. 
Cloudy, and some rain. The train heavily loaded with camp 
equipage, dragged its way slowly through the deep mud. Rain — 
cold and piercing rain. Passed White Oak Mountain, and camped 
three miles from head-quarters. 

''December 20th. — Marched about daylight; reached Cleveland. 
It was rumored that the rebel cavalry were approaching. Strag- 
gling forbidden. 

"December 27th. — Six o'clock A. M., ordered to march; the 
train moved out. We formed in line, and stood ' to arras ;' 
moved out after the wagon-train ; made a short march, then went 
into camp. It rained, rained, and raini:d. Nothing to note, 
other than swollen streams and very muddy roads, until we readied 
the little town of Charleston, on a tributary of the Tennessee 
River. Passed through a gap in a range of high hills, one mile 
south of Charleston, about dark. 

" Received order for two officers and twenty-four men to return 
to the gap and guard it, without fires, as the enemy was known to 
be near. The detail was made; all the ofi^icers were either sick or 
suffering from wounds. I took command of detail ; we marched 
back on quick time. Notwithstanding orders to the contrary, 
being a little out of humor — good humor — I told the boys to build 
all the fires they ' d— d please.' Nearly chilled to tears, we began 



CAUGjfT UP WITH division: 59^ 

our hard night's duty; sent pickets out on road, and got through 
the night until near morning. My orders required that we return 
to camp early in the morning, which we did, leaving our picket- 
fires burning, and taking breakfast at daylight in cauip. 

" Had just finished our hard-tack and coffee, when Colonel 
Laibold ordered that we cross the river, and dig down embank- 
ment for wagons to pass over. Began work seriously, in earnest. 

" Keceived orders to deploy my command, and go up the river 
to a ford about three-quarters of a mile distant, where, it was re- 
ported, Wheeler's cavalry were trying to cross. I deployed the 
detachment, and went about a half mile ; was overtaken by another 
order — an order to retreat to the south side of river at once. 
Closed column, and marched back on the double quick. 

" Had just crossed the river to south side, when, looking south- 
ward, saw the Confederate cavalry charge through the railroad cut, 
and then dash around in the rear of our picket-fires iu the gap; ' but 
\V]0 were not there.' We were ordered to ' double quick ' to the ex- 
treme right of the brigade line. Wheeler appeared with his 
brigade of cavalry in force, iu front. The 73d detachmeut had 
hardly reached the position assigned it, before the bugle blew the 
charge. We whipped the brigade of rebels in about thirty minutes, 
killing quite a number, and capturing 128 of them. Many were 
wounded. Among the captured was Wheeler's adjutant-general. 
The Confederate artillery stuck in the mud beyond the gap, and 
had we had a squadron of good cavaliy, we might have taken'the 
entire command. The train got across the river in safety. We 
camped about two miles north of Charleston. 

" Deceviher ^9th. — Took up our line of march through mud and 
rain. We reached Loudon, December 31st, at about three o'clock 
P. M., and stopped at a camp prepared by Confederate troops for 
winter-quarters. Here we had our first exiierieuce with sick flour. 

" January 1, ISG^. — Weather very cold ; snow in the mountains. 
We were engaged in ])reparing to cross the Tenneseee Kiver on a 
raft, one company and wagon at a time — a very tedious operation. 
After a weary march of several days, we reached the division 
north-east of Knoxville Avithout the loss of a nuui or a wagon. AVe 
are firmly convinced that the building of numerous fires by our 
pickets the night l)efore the attack at Charleston (Wheeler being 
thus led to su])pose our entire brigade was on guard), saved our 
commaud from suffering more or less loss of men and wagons." 
Muhs, too. 



598 BUL LARD'S A CCO UNT. 

The following additional memoranda, touching tlie 
march of the convalescents of the 4th Army Corps from 
Chattanooga to Knoxville, has been furnished by one of 
the number, William H. BuUard, of Company A : 

"December S4, 186S.—Vm\er orders of the 28(1, we left Cliat- 
tanooga, marching out past Orchard Knob to the upper part of 
the valley, and crossed Mission Ridge near the tunnel on the East 
Tennessee and Virginia Railroad, about noon. AVe passed around 
a bend of the Chickamauga, and crossed that stream on a bridge, 
guarded by the 75th Indiana. The 88th Illinois went on picket. 
Tliere are about one hundred and twenty men, and a number of 
officers, including Captain Motherspaw, Avith us. 

''December 25th. — Christmas Day. Our brigade was rear guard. 
The day was bleak, cloudy, and rainy, and we covdd only guess 
we were going in a north-eastern direction. We passed White 
Oak Mountain, through McKeuzie's Gap, from which place we 
cauglit our last sight of Lookout Mountain. We passed several 
houses that hung out the old flag. The roads were awful. We 
were taking a very long wagon-train with us, and it moved 
slowly. The rear guard camped three or four miles from the 
main body. 

" December 2Gtli. — Camped with the troops about daylight, and 
in the rain. Marched to Cleveland, and camped one mile from 
town, south-west. 

" December 27th. — Ordered to march at half-])ast six o'clock, 
but did not. I tliiuk from tlie maneuvers. Colonel Laibold, who 
is in command, is expecting an attack. We stood in line of battle 
from before daylight nntil the train passed through the town. 
There are, I think, about four thousand men in the force — two 
nearly full regiments — that have been assigned to our corps, so 
we can make quite a little fight, or could, if we had some artillery. 
Camped at Charleston, on the Hiawassee River; rained nearly all 
day, and is still at it. AVe went out on picket on the Cleveland 
road. 

"December 28th. — Left jiicket-line at daylight. AVe had only 
reached the brigade when we were sent over the river, and set to 
Work digging down the railroad embankment on the north side, 
as the railroad track bed had become impassable for the wagou- 
trnin, which is crossing the river on a trestle-bridge, built where 



QUITE A SKIRMISH. 599 

the i-ailroad bridge had stood. The 44th Illinois was helping 
lis, and Colonel Laiboldt was there personally superintending 
the work, with several of his stafl'; the reniainderhof the troops 
lay in line of battle around the town, holding a line a mile long 
or more. 

"While we were all busily at work there was some firing on 
the south side of the river. Ijaibold was so busy attending to the 
work in hand that he did not notice it until one of the staff called 
his attention to it, and the firing increiised in the meantime. We 
stopped work for a minute, and Laibold started ofl' briskly, call- 
ing back as he went: " JSot/.s, mve the hard-tarh!" 

*' We finished the work so that trains commenced crossing 
again. Then Captain Motherspaw, in the absence of other orders, 
moved up the river to prevent the possibility of any force crossing 
and coming down that side. AVe had been there but a few min- 
utes, when an orderly came to us, and we moved down the river 
to the bridge, and crossed, and took position on a bluff above the 
crossing, where we remained until the train was all across. 

"The firing for an hour had been quite hot, but the enemy, as 
well as ourselves, had no artillery. His force consisted of cavalry 
only, armed with carbines and other short guns. 

" When the last wagon had crossed the bridge, we shifted 
from the left to the right center, and took position on the Cleve- 
land road. As we had nearly reached our position the bugles in 
the center sounded the " advance," and the two regiments before 
mentioned started with a shout, and by a general advance we 
soon had Wheeler and his men hurrying for their horses, and hur- 
rying up the valley as well. Our loss was 3 killed, and 8 wounded. 
Of the enemy 14 were killed, and 120 captured. After the fight- 
ing was all over, we marched four or five miles, and went into 
camp. A squadron of ctivalry, posted at the river, helped us very 
materially in the skirmish, dashing after the enemy after we had 
broken his line. * 

''December SifOi. — To-day we marched to Athens, and camped; 
marched most of the way on the railroad. 

'' December ^iOtk. — Marched to-day to Swet-twater, a nice little 
town on the railroad. Passed a little town called Uelgan. We 
noted the beauties of this part of East Tennessee. People seem 
glad to see us, and sell us all kinds of eatables, the only trouble 
with us being the lack of funds. 

'' Deconber Slsi. — First unniversarv of the l)attle of Stone 



600 THA T "COLD'' J A N UA R Y. 

River. Marched all day in the rain ; passed the little town of 
Philadelphia, and reached Loudon, on the Tennessee River, about 
sundown. The wind then changed to the north-west, and the 
weather turned colder at once ; the ground was frozen hard before 
nine o'clock. Our little remnant of Company A arranged a 
bivouac, and got up a liuge pile of rails. AVhile our feet nearly 
roasted, our backs would nearly freeze. I think that at our one 
fire we burned at least two hundred rails during the night. 

''January 1, ISOJ^. — Very cold. Treated myself to some warm 
biscuit for a New Year's gift. They only cost fifty cents a dozen, 
and are not much larger than walnuts. We have to cross all our 
train on one small flat-l)oat that will take a wagon and one span 
of mules at one trip, and the remaining four mules the next trip. 
It will take several days to cross at that rate. 

"Jannai-y 4f]i. — Went foraging to-day, and got a little meal; 
but it was taken to Laibold's head-quarters and issued out. 

''January 7th. — We were taken across the river in a little ferry- 
boat. While waiting to cross we saw two mules drown. In driv- 
ing onto the boat, the cable broke as the wagon struck the boat ; 
the weight of the wagon kept pushing the boat into the river 
until the wagon sank in the water and pulled the mules backward 
off the boat. The weather has not warmed up much ; ropes, 
oars, and boat covered with ice yet, though no ice has formed in 
the river. 

"January 10th. — Have lain quietly since crossing river, and 
lived principally on parched corn, which is better than nothing. 
Ordered to march in the morning. The train and troops all over 
the river at last. 

"January 11th. — Marched to-day. The weather moderated so 
that it began raining in the evening. We passed Lenoir's Station, 
where there are signs of the burning of quite' an ordnance train. 
Camped near Carapbellsville, where there has been con.siderable 
fighting. 

"January l£th. — Camped near Knoxville. Signs of war 
abundant. Still living on panthed corn. 

"January 13th. — Passed through Knoxville; drew one-third 
rations of bread and some meat, and camped eight miles from the 
brigade, at Strawberry Plains. 

"January 14th. — Reached the brigade and camp, the 73d be- 
ing at Haworth's Mill, several miles away. Report is current 
that the whole command will start for Chattanooga in the morn- 



FOLLOWING THE COMMAND. 601 

ing, and for that reason ^ve are not allowed to go on to the regi- 
ment to-day. 

'^'Jannai-y loth. — Ordered to report to the regiment at Ha- 
worth's Mill, which we did, reaching there in the afternoon, being 
ferried across the Little Tennessee River in canoes or dug-outs. 
I reached Company A with thirteen men, including myself, whom 
I turned over to Captain Cross, being the same number of men he 
bad with him. 

We have lately received a letter from Comrade E. S. 
Turner, from which we make extracts, as follows : 

"Trumbull, Nebraska, January 22, 1890. 

" Dear Comkade, — Yours of the 20th inst. at hand. In re- 
ply to your inquiry, would say, that my answer to the 'Johnny's' 
question, 'What's gold worth in New York City?' was, ' Green- 
backs — something you haven't got down South.' I answered 
hastily, as I did not want the ' Johnnies ' to get ahead of us. I 
worked all night to get the boys to agree to tiiis truce, and after 
it went in force, Corzine and 'Sigel' (Benjamin Schaffner), in- 
sisted on breaking it by renewing their fire. 

" Our Company ' I' boys told me they could not get Corzine 
and ' Sigel ' to cease firing. I told them I Avould stop their firing, 
which I did by going to 'Sigel' and saying: ' Sigel, the boys 
want some fun with the ^'Johnnies," and want you to stop firing.' 
' All right,' ' Sigel ' answered. Then I went to Corzine and said : 
' The boys Avant you to quit firing, so Ave can haA'e some fun with 
the "Johnnies."' Corzine answered: 'I Avon't, though; my 
orders are to keep firing, and I am going to do it.' 

" Reasoning Avith Corzine for some time, and failing to secure 
his agreement to the ' truce,' I finally said to him : ' You have 
the best place in the Avhole line of the regiment, and if you AVon't 
agree Avith us for a " truce," I Avill put you outside of the works, 
and you can then fire to your heart's content, and I only give yo\i tAvo 
minutes to agree.' He agreed. Many questions Avere asked both 
ways, among them the one above — ' What 's gold Avorth in New 
York City ?' 

"After the rear guard, in Avhich Avere a number of the 73d, 
left Louisville, and before it reached Bardstown, a feAV of the boys 
ca.me in one day shortly after noon, and told of a rebel, at whose 
})lace thev stojiped to get water — j; verv scarce article at the 



.602 BEEF AND POULTRY. 

time — cursing and damning them, and hoping they ' would all get 
killed down South,' etc. After inquiring of several of the hoys, 
I came to the conclusion this rebel wu.s a very bitter one, and that, 
as the boys had done nothing but get water, we would draw a 
beef— this rebel having several — any one of whicii would till the bill. 

" As our rations of meat were very slim, I went to Captain 
Wallace, commanding, and said to him: 'Cap., we are almost out 
of meat, and if you will go into camp soon, we can get a beef of 
an old rebel near here, who is somewhat rampant.' ' All right,' 
said AVallace, ' we will go into camp at the first good place we 
come to. I have ration money to buy what we want.' 'No, 
no,' I said ; ' I propose to draw a heef, and give an order on the 
commissary and save the ration money.' 'I don't know so well 
ahout that ; it may get us into trouble,' said the captain. ' No,' 
I said; ' we can give the order, and put into it what the old rebel 
has said ; then the order will never be presented. This plan 
will afford us a change of diet, and effect a saving to the Govern- 
ment.' The captain agreed finally. 

" As soon as we went into camp, I detailed Jason Lyon and 
four or five otlier comrades to go and get the beef. I instructed 
them to tell the man to come in the morning, and we would settle 
with him, but to be sure and not say we would pay money, as we 
did not intend to do that. I also suggested to each of the other 
companies — all were represente<i in the squad following the army 
up from Louisville — to detail a man or two each, to go along and 
clear the whole farm of i)Oultry — ' Preacher Regiment ' — but take 
nothing else. 

" The beef was distributed that evening ; the boys feasted, 
and, after a refreshing sleep, enjoyed a breakfast of beef and 
chicken. AVhen the old 'Johnny' Reb. appeared in camp, he 
said he had come to get his pay for the beef, as the boys who got 
it said if he would come to camp in the morning, he would get 
his pay. 

" * Those boys were instructed to tell you to come in this morn- 
ing and we would settle with you,' remonstrated Turner ; then 
adding : ' We can 't pay you any money. We will give you an 
order on the commissary department.' 

"That will do,' said the rebel. 'I suppose the department is 
good.' 

" Captain Wallace — 'It is all I can do; tiiose are my orders.' 

'" What do you want for your heefi" a.sked Turner. 



ORDER NO T SA TISFA CTOR Y. 603 

"Answer — 'Well, I think it wiis worth twenty dollars.' 

" 'All right, the captain will draw an order for you for twenty 
dollars,' said Turner. 

" 'Hold,' said the reb., 'the boys cleaned me out of poultry 
too, last night, and I would like to have that included in the 
order.' 

"Captain W. — 'I want you to understand my men are not 
chicken-thieves. I can't give you an order for pay for chickens, 
but if you will pick out the men who got your chickens, I will 
have them pay you; the men all have money.' 

"The Confederate made a search, wandered all round through 
camp for a full half hour; then returned, saying he could not 
pick out a man — though nearly every man was eating chicken, 
and the ground was carpeted with feathers. Our captain handed 
him the order as filled out. 

" After reading it over, the ' Johnny ' said : ' This is not good 
for anything. I can't get any money on it.' 

" 'What's the matter with it?' asks Wallace. 

" * It mentions in it what I said to the boys la.st night,* an- 
swered the man. 

" Wallace — 'Then you did say that to the boys, did you?' 

"'Yes.' 

" 'Did the boys disturb you any before you talked that way 
to them ?' a.sked Wallace. 

" ' No.' 

" Wallace, continuing — 'Well, you will learn to keep your 
mouth shut hereafter, when troops are passing through tlie 
country.' 

" {Not for jmblicntioii.)" 

RAIIv-MAKINO. 

As our brigade came into Nashville, in the spring 
of 18G5, some person said our 1st Division was making 
rails to replace those it had burned. Our boys — 
among them "Jate" — declared they wouhl burn rails 
if necessary or convenient, but would not make any. 
We camped on land belonging to a widow, lying north 
of Hardin's land, a stone wall between the two trncts. 
As the land south of us was divided up into small 



604 RAIT^MAKlNOf 

fields, there were many high rail sttike-and-ridered 
fences. We had orders not to burn rails, but to pick 
up pieces of wood and down timber, and were told that 
wood in due time could be issued. So the fences were 
accordingly drawn upon for good first-class rails, out of 
which to make bunks and benches. As day after day 
passed and no wood issued, we kept on drawing and 
burning bunk timber until the fences near camp had dis- 
appeared. 

Late one evening the usual quiet of the camp was 
disturbed by word being passed along the line that a 
detail of one hundred and fifty men of the brigade was 
called for to make rails. ''Did you hear that?" a com- 
rade said to "Jate." "Hear what?" asked " Jate." 
"A detail of one hundred and fifty men called for to 
make rails," was the reply. The comrade added : " I 
would not be surprised if you were the first man de- 
tailed." " Jate" remembered his declaration, and then 
re})eated it — that he would make no rails. Sure enough, 
Sergeant Jason Lyon was detailed as one of the rail- 
makers. The boys said the}^ had no axes. New axes 
were promptly furnished them, and they started off, 
and soon went to work in a body of fine heavy timber. 

All forenoon the noise and clatter of axes could be 
heard. At noon the boys came in to dinner, and were 
plied with the question, "Have you made any rails?" 
quite frequently. " No," was the answer, " But we have 
downed a lot of fine timber." The work was resumed 
after dinner, but not with vim and energy. Excuses 
were made; one man said there was a llaw in his ax, 
it could n't be relied on. Another man said his ax 
was dull, very dull, had never been sharpened ; it would 
only cut bark, to do any good; consequently he cut 



''SOLDIER, WILL YOU WORKr 605 

the bark and peeled it off one tree from the ground up 
all around as high as he could reach ; that done, he 
would go to another tree and serve it in like manner — 
get the bark out of the way so some other man might 
chop if he felt like it. Several of the detailed, from 
some one cause or another, did little more than "ffirdie'* 
(get the bark off) the trees. None felt like chopping; 
had n't enlisted for that kind of work. 

A portion of the detail was ordered to " log off," 
but no particuhir length prescribed. Logs of various 
lengths were cut off, varying from three to nearly 
twenty feet in length. Another j^ortion of the detail 
was ordered to split the "cuts" into rails — ^^ make 
rails." Excuses were again resorted to. One man s.aid 
he could not split the logs with an ax; a maul and 
an iron wedge would be needed — several of them, 
really. The men were told to go and try, and do the 
best they could. One man got his ax fast, and in un- 
dertaking to loosen it he put more force into the 
"grunt" than he applied to the ax. Another man 
came to his assistance, but not feeling "' first rate " he 
could n't plant his ax just where it ought to have 
been ; he struck it right on the top of the other ax, doing 
neither any good. This was the way it went. Several 
axes were "■ demoralized." Very few rails were made, 
if any. The aggrieved party, the proj)rietor of the 
estate of the woods around about our camp, concluded 
to have the detail "called off;" but we kept on burning 
" bunk timber." 

While the 73d lay in camp at Louisville, the rations 
issued were poor in quality, as well as meager in quan- 
tity. Some of the boys eked out a living by drawing 
extra supplies from the adjoining country ; others bought 



606 IRREGULAR FORAGING. 

provision at the markets. After the bulk of the regi- 
ment had started on the Perryville trip, a number of 
the boys were left behind sick — including, of course, a 
few from Company I. 

The camp was near the water-works, and about the 
time many of the men began to mend, word was given 
out that Company H had fresh pork to sell. Turner, 
of Company I, gave money to two of his comrades, and 
told them to go and buy pork. They soon returned, 
saying the price was too high, and they would not pay the 
price without Turner's consent. Turner said : " We can 
kill a hog as cheaply as they." The boys replied : 
" But it is contrary to orders, and the provost-guards 
are too near." " Let me know," continued Turner, 
*' when a hog comes near, and I will shoot it, if you 
will take care of it." This proposal was agreed to. Next 
day Turner was duly notified that a hog was approaching 
the vicinity of Company A's line. Turner immedi- 
ately armed himself, and took position in a Company A 
tent, and at the ''crack" of the gun, the hog dropped 
flatly. The boys '' went " for the hog, but none of 
them had a knife to stick it with ; so Turner returned 
to his tent, picked up one, and, after sharpening it, went 
back to the porker. Just as he reached down to turn 
the hog over to stick it, it jumped up and ran of[\ 
Lacy ran alongside of the hog, shooting at its head, 
till he emptied his revolver, the hog squealing for "dear 
life," the men in camp and other spectators generally 
cheering and hallooing. Turner was considerably ex- 
ercised, and warned the men not to make noise, to at- 
tract the attention of the provost guards. 

Shortly, under Turner's direction, the hog was caught 
at the end of Company I's street — the proper place — 



RIGHT OF PROPERTY. 607 

and stuck. Just as the boys were beginning to skin the 
hog,. a woman living near by, came and claimed the hog 
as her property. Whereupon Turner said : " If it is 
your hog, you probably had it marked. How was your 
hog marked?" queried Turner. Instead of answering 
directly and promptly, the woman walked all around 
I the hog, looked it carefully over, and then said: "My 
hog had a short tail, like that one." 

Then there were two hogs with short tails, this one, 
and the woman's hog. The hog in controversy was pure 
white in color, not a mark or a blemish on it, except its 
two-inch stub tail. Turner said to the woman : " You 
can't have this hog without an order from the captain in 
that tent (Wallace's) ; he commands this camp now." 
The boys did not want to dress the hog, but Turner 
got them to proceed by saying : ''It is not her hog; if 
it was, the most she could do would be to make us pay 
for it." Turner cut the tail — what was left of it — off 
close up to the body. 

In a few minutes Captain Wallace came running up, 
saying : " Hold on, boys." " What 's the matter, Cap- 
tain ?" asked Turner. '' This woman claims you have 
killed her hog," answered Wallace. " Well," said 
Turner, " I suppose she will have to prove property, 
won't she. Captain ?" " Yes, that is right," said the 
captain ; and then asked the woman, '• How do you 
know this to be your hog?" ''Because mine had a 
short tail ; it had been cut off just like that." " AVas 
it a fresh cut?" asked Wallace. The woman did not 
answer, and Turner said to Wallace : '' Captain, this is 
an American woman, and if you want her to understand, 
ask her in English, something after this fashion: ' Was 
this hog's tail lately cut off, or has it been <]one ^ome 



608 MORE FORAGING. 

time ?' " To which amended inquiry the woman an- 
swered : " no ; its tail has been cut off some time." 
Turner then uncovered the hog, and Captain Wallace 
said : " Well, this, then, is not your hog, as the tail has 
just been cut off." 

The woman's jaw and arms dropped, and a more 
crest-fallen individual was not seen at any time about 
the camp of the 73d during the war. If the woman 
had acted as though the hog was really her property, 
had not hunted all over it for marks that never existed, 
the boys would either have let her have the hog, or 
paid her for it. What became of the meat, Turner does 
not say ; he only got a small part of it himself. He 
would like to hear from all who ate thereof. 

A SUCCESSFUL FORAGl-: TRIP 

BY TWO COMPANY I HOYS. 

While chasing Hood, after the battle of Nashville, we camped 
one (lay in the timber of Northern Alabama. We were short of 
rations, and there was a detail of two men from each company to 
go out from camp and find something to eat. It fell to my lot 
and Wm. M. Corzine, of my company (I, 73d Illinois) to go. 
About nine o'clock A. M. we rigged up our mule (Old "Honest 
John"), that we had to carry our cooking outfit on, and started 
westward from camp. I had a Spencer rifle and plenty of ammu- 
nition, l)ut my comrade took no arms. 

The first humble cabin we came to was besieged by dozens of 
" Yanks," inside, outside, and underneath. Those under the house 
were trying to capture the last remaining goose. There being no 
show for us, we went on to the next, and found matters just as 
bad. On we went, determined to go until we .should strike it 
rich. We passed some half dozen log-huts, but nothing was found. 

At last we spied a house about a mile off, which we were con- 
fident no one had visited. So we renewed our tramp to reach it, 
through by-ways and thickets which we knew to be infested by 
bushwhackers. We reached the house in safety ; but by this time 
it was late, and we were some seven miles from camp, lint wo 



BUTTERMILK AND SORGHUM. 609 

were happy iu finding plenty there to supply our wauls. Tliere 
was a woman and two children iu the house. She said her hus- 
band was in the rebel army, and that she had not anything for 
" you 'uus Yankb ;" but our orders were imperative, and we soon 
found enough to load up our mule. 

I shot a porker and a couple of geese, and strapped them on ; 
then we helped ourselves to a hill of sweet potatoes we found in 
the garden. In the smoke-house we found bacon and a churn full 
of fresh cream. The latter we put into ourselves and our can- 
teens. The best "find" was a half-barrel of sorghum molasses. 
Some of this we wanted, and must have, but we had nothing to 
carry it in. Corzine found a large soap-gourd, which he went to 
filling, while I searched the house for anything that would hold 
sorghum. While thus engaged I made another important dis- 
covery. Under the bed was a two-gallon tin bucket, also several 
sacks of meal. I did not disturb the meal just then, but I did 
the bucket. I pulled it out and found it half full of buttermilk. 
I told the woman 1 wanted the bucket to take home a sample of 
her sorghum in. I would gladly have saved the milk, but could 
not; 1 was already full of cream. She said we'uns shouldn't 
have that bucket, and as I started she made a dive and seized it. 
Then came the tug of war. She pulled and I pulled, and how the 
buttermilk Hew all over me and her and the llooi-. But I was the 
stronger, and soon won the victory, and got my bucket full of 
molasses. 

By this time we thought we had more forage than " Honest John " 
could carry alone, and, seeing a fine young horse in the barn-yard, 
we concluded we needed him to help. But what should we do for 
a bridle? We asked the lady of the house where we could find 
one, and she said : " You'uns haiut a goin' ter take my last boss. 
He hain't never been rid, and you all can't take him." We went 
to the barn and hunted it all over in hopes of finding a bridle or 
halter. In the loft was a lot of corn-leaves in bundles. We 
kicked over some of these, but found no bridle, and were com- 
pelled to abandon the idea of adding to our forage-train. We 
then loaded up our mule, but while thus engaged I set my 
bucket of molasses on a stump near the house, and when I was 
ready to get it, it was gone. The woman had "stolen" it, and 
taken it into the house. This treasonable act "riled" me, and 
I stormed the fort in search of the lost property, which then be- 
longed to Uncle Sam. She had hidden it behind the l)urcuu, 



610 DIFFICULTIES ENCOUNTERED. 

and the cover was gone. I did not have time to hunt for the 
cover, so I took a clean towel and tied over the top. Then we 
started for camp by a different route from that we came. 

Such a load as we had ! We knew that if we could only- 
land it safely in camp we Avould have a royal reception, and all 
of us could get filled up for once. We started down a lane just 
as the sun was going down, and with a seven-mile tramp before 
us. We had gone only about forty rods when whang! zip! 
came a bullet past our heads. It did no damage, but came id- 
together too close to make us feel comfortable. We stopped, 
and looking back could see the smoke curling up from the cracks 
in the loft of that log-barn. We made up our minds at once 
that that woman's husband was not ia the rebel army, but WJis 
hid in that barn-loft under those leaves. He had not dared to 
attack us while at the house, because his own life would have 
paid the penalty, there being two of us with a seven-shooter at 
command. He had waited until he thought he was safe, then fired. 

Our first impulse was to go back and clean him out, but it 
was so late we concluded to hurry on. But our direction was 
wrong, so we left the road, and started across fields and through 
woods toward camp. We had not gone far before we came to 
a stake-and-ridered rail fence, beyond which was heavy timber. 
We tore down the fence, and my comrade, with many regrets, aban- 
doned his gourd of sorghum. On into the now almost impene- 
trable darkness we went. At times our heavily-laden naule would 
get wedged between two trees, and we would back him out and 
try again. 

We finally came to a well-beaten path, which we could hardly 
see for the darkness, and conijluded to follow it, thinking it 
would lead us out somewhere, and sure enough it did. We had 
followed it a long ways through dense timber, when all at once, 
down in a dark and dismal gulley, we came to the end of it. 
A band of guerrillas had just left. There was their abandoned 
camp and fires still burning, and their shelters made of bark yet 
standing. We did not stay there long. We thought it best to 
get out of that hole as quick as possible, or we might lose our 
load of grub. We struck out again through the dense forest, 
and soon landed in a blackberry-patch. Neither of us was 
adilicted to profanity, or we might have done some tall "cuss- 
ing," but we patiently worked our way through the brambles 
and over fallen trees. 



cro 



A ROYAL FEAST. 611 

We got out at last into a clearing, and breathed easier. After 

-.sing thi.s opening we came to timber again, but just then we 
f-aw a flickering light oil" to our right. We halted our supply- 
train, and while Corzine guarded it I cauliou.sly advanced to the 
light, wiiich I found to be a pine-knot in a cabin. 1 slioutcd, 
and a woman came to the door. I told her we were hj.^t, and 
asked her if tjhe knew where the Yankee army was camped. 
She said she had heard music oil" " in that direction," pointing 
east, and guessed it was where the camp wa:-. She tohl me 
tliere was a road leading that way not far off, wiilch we soou 
f(Hnid, to our great lelief 

We now made good time, although pretty well used up, tired, 
hungry, and sore ; but our spirits revived, and after a mile or 
two more we came in sight of our cami)-(irts. \W were halted 
by the })ickets, who informed us that we had l)i,( u given up as 
" bushwhacked," and tliat a detail had l)een made to iiunt us 
u]) in the morning. We were delighted to get back sale, and 
the boys were overjoyed at our success. 

It was long after " tai)s " when we rolled into our dog-tent 
that night. Who can describe a soldier's (beams alter such a 
trip, and in view of what we weie to have to eat the next day? 
SufHce it to say that we had a royal feast lijr all of old Com- 
pany I. 

1,. F. (iOl Ll>, 
Companv I, 7:)(1 Illinois Volunte.T lufantrv. 



EXPKRIKNCK OF EDWARD PKXSTONK AS A 
PRISONER. 

COMPANY n, SKVKNTY-TUIUn II.IJNOIS. 

As we made the charge at CUiickamauga, I was shot down, ihc 
ball pa.ssing through the left arm, and, striking me in the side, 
knocking me .senseless. Wlien 1 revived, a rebel regiment was in 
line clo.se by me, tiring at our boys as tliey i-etreated up the sloi)e. 
After the firing ceased, I, with .some more of our men who 
were taken prisoners, was marched about a mile in the rear. 
Those of us who were wounded wen- sent to (Icmial Ibvckin- 
ridge's division-hos])ital, whei-e oui' woumls were drc-scd as our 
turns came. Rebels and Yankees '.vere treated the same. We 
were there ten days, .sleeping on the ground at night, with no 
covering but our blankets and the trees above us. I did not eveii 



612 PRISON EXPERIENCE. 

have a blanket ; but a dollar greeuback sooti procured mc one. 
There were about fifty of our wounded there, though I was tiiL- 
only" one from the 73d. Several of our boys died there, and those 
of us who could walk were sent to Ringgold, (u'orgia. There we 
found several hundred t)f our men, luid were all put on the ears 
and sent to Atlanta, Georgia. 

As they marched us from the depot to the stockade, or, wliat 
they called the bull-pen, they took care to take us through all the 
principal streets, wliich were lined with people, to gel a sight of 
what they called the "Blue-bellied Yankees." I guess we must 
have made a sorry api)earauce in our dirty and blood-stained 
clothes, just as we were taken from the field of battle. (The next 
year, when, after the battles of Jouesboro and Lovejoy Station, we 
marched into Atlauta from the south, with Hags Hying and bauds 
playing, there was quite a change in our rece|)tion). We were 
kept at Atlanta two or three days, and then sent on to Kichnujud, 
Virginia. We were told that when we reached theie we would be 
paroled and sent North, but were badly disapj)ointed. 

Arriving early in October, we who were wounded were sepa- 
rateil from the rest, and sent to the hospital — a large tobacco waie- 
house near Libby prison — where we weie given cots io slec}) on, and 
I g(jt the first good rest since the battle of Chickamauga ; the 
nurses say I slept twenty-four hours. Then, for the first time, I 
got my wounds pmperly dressed, and cleaned some of the l)lood 
anil dirt off my clothes. Our rations there were enough to keep 
us alive — a pint of bean or pea soup, a small piece of meat, and a 
slice of bread twice a day. We amused ourselves by playing chess 
and other games, and were allowed to send short, open letters to 
our friends at home, telling where we were, and hdW badly we were 
wounded. 

I had been reported killed; my mother and sisters had ])iit on 
mourning, and Rev. ]\Ir. Whipple, of the Congregational Church at 
( M'iggsville, Illinois, was to have preached my funeral sermon on 
Sunday ; but my father, receiving a letter from me the Friday be- 
fore, stating that I was alive and well, prevented it. 

About ten o'clock each day an old darkey came around with the 
dead-wagon, to take away the boys who had die<l during the 
night. There were generally three or four, mostly the poor fellows 
who were brought from Bell's Island, on the James River, an<l they 
were nearly dead from starvation and exposure before they came. 

About the 20th of November, a numljer of us were taken to 



PA R OLED A NJ) KXCHA XG FA). {\\'. \ 

another prison, a block from Libby, where I found Win. Camniire, 
of Company H, 73d. He was the first man of our regiment that 
1 luid seen since the battle, and had been wounded in tlie head. 
One dark, stormy night, while the rebel guard, who usually stood 
on the street in front of (jur building had ste'p})ed inside for 
shelter, Wm. Cammire and a man belonging to a New Ynrk 
battery, escaped by making a roi)e of their blankets and clind)ing 
down from a third-story window to the street. Tiiey found a skill, 
and rowing acress to the south side of the James Kiver, succeeded in 
reaching our lines. I siiould have gone with them, but with one 
arm in a sling, could not climl) down the roj)e. I havi^ always 
thought it strange that more of our men did not try to esca}»e, as 
the rope hung there until just before dayiiglit, when some one 
drew it iu and hid it. The next day, when the little rebel Sergeant 
Ro.ss counted us, and found two missing, he was fuiious ; but 
though he threatened all kinds of punishment, no one would tell 
how they escaped. 

One morning, about the 15th of l^ecend)er, the rebel doetor 
who dies.sed our wounds, told us that a Union ve-s-td w;is coming 
14) the James River to City Point, with a number of rebel pris- 
oners, to be exchanged for a number of our men, and some of the 
men were to be taken from our prison. \s^g were wild with ex 
citement. Who would be the lucky ones? was the next (piotioii. 
At noon a rebel captain came and picked out such as he thoughl 
least likely to be of service for some time. We signed our paroles, 
and took the oath not to fight again until exchanged, and that 
night we were taken to City Point. At daylight we saw oui- steamer 
at anchor, and the Stars and Stripes floating in the bree/e. It was 
the first time we had seen our Hag f)r thi'ee months, and we' felt 
like we were getting back into " God's Country." 

The transfer from one vessel to the othei- was soon made, and 
we were taken to Annapolis, IMaryland, and sent to the college l)iiiM- 
ings, which were then u.sed as hospitals, wdiere we reeiived the b.'^t 
of care. I was declared exchanged in March, ]S(>4, went to the 
r(>giment, and staid with it until we were mustered out at Nash- 
ville, Tennessee, in June, LSBH. 

In response to an inquiry made, we ]i:i\o been in- 
formed by letter from the ollieer in cliarge of tlie 
ilecord iind Pension Division of the War Department. 
IJ. S. A., that tlie following named men were on extra 



614 .S VNDR Y MA TTERS. 

(liiily duty as regimental pioneers, during and for some 
time after the baltles of Nashville: Ivichard Baker, 
Company A ; Geoige W. Falor, Cuni}i;iny B ; Isaac Iv. 
Thornton, Company C; Samuel J. Boon, Company C; 
Samuel T. Ilickets, Comi>any D ; Edwin Robinson, Ser- 
geant, Company E ; Sampson .Mr( 'ool, Company 1-i : 
George Dudney, Company F ; James 0. Thompson, 
Company G; James Lytle, Company If; .lason l.yon. 
Corporal, Company I; Bobinson Crews, Comj>aiiy K; 
W. H. Newlin, Lieutenant, Company C. 

The same letter informs us that the official records 
of the regiment do not show who were the first color- 
guards and color-bearer in the year ISGli. 

The names of the comrades who served on the first 
detail of color-guards for the 73d, are as follows, so fai- 
as has been ascertained : David 1'. Lawler, Company 
B ; William D. Coffin, Company D ; Benjamin F. Kirk- 
ley, Company E; James J. Boland, Company F; Wni. 
Talbott, Company G; James Lytle, C(un})any H; Ash- 
ford W. Clark, Company I, color-bearer. 

After the wounding of A. W. Clark, D. F. Lawler, 
of Company B, carried the colors, or had charge of 
them, through the remainder of the battle of Perry- 
ville, and until farther orders. It is impossible to as- 
certain farther concerning color-guards, but it is safe 
to say, that after the first year, Comjtany C furnished 
the color-bearers: Jehu Lewis and Ixoltert J. Hasty. 

At the battle of Franklin, Dr. l^^nd, surgeon of the 
78d, became deeply interested in some of the prelinu- 
nary o[terations. lie was desirous of ascertaining 
whether or not a certain contingenc}' had beeji pro- 
vided for; wliether a section of artillery had been nio\ cd 
from, or to, a. certain place, or something ol' tliai kind. 



HIS TO R Y OF A B fl! I. E. 615 

Colonel Opdycke called the doctor to an account, tolling 
him that he was very much out of phice ; that his 
services would soon he lieeded in another and quite a 
diflerent locality. Just at that time things assumed a 
very threatening aspect — in fact, matters hecanie very 
Iiot immediately after the doctor hurried olf in accord- 
ance with Colonel Opdycke's suggestion. That was one 
time when the doctor did not stop long to argue the 
case, or to ask: "What's the matter?" 

CAl'Tl^RIU), KliCAPTURIiD, AND vSURRHNDHRED. 

8. S. Lytle, of ('ompany F, 11th Iowa lidVmtry, lost, 
among other things, at the battle of Sliiloh, in April, 
1862, a small pocket Bible, which was precious to him 
in itself, but more so on account of associations, having 
])een presented to him in the year 1854 by his mother. 
One Jesse W. Wyatt, of the 12th Tennessee Confed- 
erate Volunteers, became proprietor, by right of capture, 
of this Bible, and retained possession and proprietor- 
ship of the same for more than two years, until the 
seventeenth day of May, 1861, at the battle of Adairs- 
ville, Georgia, when Charles W. Keeley, of the '' Preacher 
]legiment," Com}KT.ny F, too, recaptured the Bible, and 
held possession of it as a sacred war relic until the 
year 1887. a term of twent3'-three years, when he, after 
repeated solicitations, sent the Bible to its owner, S. S. 
Lytle. 

It was with great reluctance that Comrade Keeley 
j)arted with this liihle ; but thinking that if anybody 
was more or better entitled to it than liimself, it was 
S. 8. Lytle, he sent it to him. And there is this 
further thought in connection with this case : If there 
is aiivthinii; a member or suivivor of the " Preacher 



616 FAME OF THE SEVENTY-THIRD ILLINOIS. 

Regiment" ought to have ■■' enoiigli ami to spare" of, it 
is Bihles. So the act of Comrade Keeley in surren- 
dering the Bible to the 11th Iowa man, is one to be 
commended and approved, and it is hereby approved by 
these head-quarters. 

Tliere were several instances in which the bullets of 
tlie enemy came in contact with Bibles on the ])ersons of 
soldiers of the Tod. Tlie 73d was a Bible llegiment. 

Doctor Turner, mayor of Fairmount, Illinois, or presi- 
dent of the Board of Trustees, in his address of wel- 
come to the comrades of the 73d, on the occasion of 
their third annual reunion, held in that village, October 
8, 1889, said he had heard of the 73d on the western 
border of the continent. 

Senator Dolph, of Oregon, in a public address, inci- 
dentally mentioned the regiment in a complimentary way 
for its conduct in some one of its many engagements — 
Stone Biver, perhaps. It has been but a few years 
since Dr. Turner heard the address referred to ; so the 
fame of the 73d has spread abroad, and no doubt is 
still living and spreading, or will, as this history gains 
circulation among the people. 

In this connection we may mention the fact, ihat 
Colonel Schaefer's dying utterances were partly in praise 
and commendation of the conduct of the 73d at Stone 
River. He had never before eulogized the regiment — 
had abused it rather ; but under the ciicuimstances he re- 
deemed the past, and set himself aright before his death. 

EXPERIENCE IN SOUTHERN PRISONS. 

Of tho.se members of the 73d who were j)risoiier.< <ii' \.ar, ii..m; 

served or suffered i\ longer term of imprisonment thtin didJolm Tj. 

Hesser and John \\. North, of Company A. The circiunstanees 

iittending tiieir capture did not ditler mtiteriiilly from those at- 



iJK'suj'JR AND NO urn. C17 

tending the capture of all others of the 73d. Hesst^r and >Jorth 
Avere made prisoners at nearly the same lime — about numi, Sun- 
day, September 20, IMliP) On the way to tiie rear, North secured 
the hat-cord, Bible, and two or three other articles belonging to 
Adjutant Winget. These articles were faithfully kej)t, and in the 
course of time were delivered to Winget's relatives. 

Brown and Newlin, of Company C, joined Hesser and North 
very soon after they reached the point where the ])risoners were 
being collected. It was not known to these four for soiiif days 
whether any of their regimental comrades, except the wounded, 
were captured. Josejdi C. Scpiires, a young orderly of Ro.secrans's 
staff, fell in with the group, more particularly with North. An 
order and a i)lan of battle which Scjuires had, was, by North's 
advice, committed to the flames. On meeting Colonel Von Strader, 
after tanving a <lav and night with the I'M S(juad, young S(piires 
j)la(*'d himself under his care. 

Snntlay night the prisoners were cuiraled at a })oint about half 
way between Ifinggold and Tunnel Hill. Several thousand rails 
were burned at this point by the prisoners, not as a matter of 
necessity to promote comfort, but that was the only way in whfch 
tb.e boys couhl prusecatt the war under the circumstances. 

Shortly after eight o'clock Monday morning, having hail some 
coffee (the last to many) and crackers, the jjrisoners and their 
guards moved on to Tunnel Hill, meeeting on the way a Confed- 
erate ammunition train and escort. A small bit of bacon was 
issued to each prisoner at Tunnel Hill, and soon after, the train 
of box stock-cars having been made up, the prisoners were crowded 
into them, and the journey to Richmond commenced. Hes.-^er and 
liis regimental comrades managed to get in, or on, the same car, 
having agreed to stick together through the trying ordeal of 
jnison-life. 

After a tedious trip, Atlanta was reached, late on Sej.tember 
2L'd. A delay occurred here until the morning of the 2 Ith, the 
time being passed by the prisoners inside the barracks. Some in- 
ferior grade rations were issued, and rolls of the prisoners were 
nia<le out, showing name, company-, and regiment of each man. 
Th.- journey was resumed early on the2-lth, with a detail of guards 
fr')m the militia. Not knowing anything about real soldiering, 
these guards wt-re very "pesky" and ofiicious. 

Augusta was the next stopjMug jjlace. The pri.«oners were 
taken fro-;i the cars again, and guarded during nigiit in the court- 



()18 ON TO RICHMOND. 

house yard. Mounting the cars again on the morning of the 25th, 
the trip was resumed. Arrived at Columbia, South Carolina, early 
on the 2(ith, and, after a short deUvy, procecili-d toward Ra- 
leigh, arriving tliere Sunday afternoon, September 2li\\. Passing 
on through Charlotte and Creensboro, Weldou was reached late on 
the 28th. 

The prisoners were taken off' the cars at Weldon, and guarded 
over night in the open sjjace alongside the railroad. Rations 
were issued early on the 2yth, and immediately afterward the word 
was: " All aboard !" Starting out at once and moving steadily on, 
Petersburg was passed and Richmond reached the uigh.t of the 
29th of Seiitember. 

It was fully two hours from tlie time of getting ofi" the cars before 
the j)risoners were turned into Libby prison, at ten P. M. Owing 
to the arrival at an unseasonable hour of a large number of 
"guests," the space being insufficient, the prisoners were crowded 
together, and failed to get any sleep or rest that was beneficial. 
On the 30th, however, after being thoroughly "gone through," 
and relieved of some money, knives, and other traps, these prison- 
ers were moved to the Rosser building, remaining there until Oc- 
tober 1st, then changed to Pembert(r< building for awhile, and 
then to the Smith building. 

While on the street, marching along, Hesser and his three com- 
rades espied three more comrades of the 73d, who luul been so un- 
fortunate as to fiiU into the hands of the enemy, viz. : Jesse D. 
Kilpatrick, Company B, and Wm. F. Ellis and John Thornton, of 
Company C, the latter a nephew of Brown. This discovery was 
made just in time to get all seven of the squad together before 
entering the prison building. At this late date it is impossible to 
definitely determine which of the two buildings we occujjied first 
after leaving the Rosser house, the Pend)erton or the Smith 
building. While in the building.s — all tohacco-hou.ses — last named, 
rations in light quantities were issued regularly twice a day, unless 
some of the cooking a})paratus got out of fix. During this time 
the raid was made on the sugar in the basement of the prison. 
The raid was soon discovered, and promptly checked, by the re- 
moval of the sugar to another place. Time was S|)ent in conje(^tur- 
ing what the next day, or week, would bring llirth, in reading, in 
case of having any matter at hand, in playing checkers, and in 
slaying gray-backs. Hesser says he thinks he played ten thousand 



SUM ]•: I i:ii y tedio us da vs. 6 1 9 

games of checkers, but lie niiirit liave meant that he slew ten thou- 
sand with tlie jaw-bone of his tliunib-naiis. 

Confinement in prison was very exasperating to Hesser. He; 
very frequently grew impatient, and criticised the (lovernment in 
language not very mild, considering that he was a member of the 
Preacher Regiment, for not bringing about an exchange of prisoners. 
North was very considerate and patient, and exercised a whole- 
some influence over Hesser, curbing and modifying his tendency 
for outbreaking and turbulent denunciation of the way things 
were going. 

Time passed wearily ; there was but little to relieve the dull- 
ness and monotony of life within prison-walls. The hours seemed 
so long, even in day-time; and at night, when prisoners were rest- 
less and sleepless, they seemed interminably lengthened out. "Post 
number five ! Half-i)ast three o'clock, and all 's well !" as squawked 
out by a guard in the early morning, was a reminder to many a 
wakeful pri-soner that it was almost an age till daylight. 

Novend)er loth brought a change. The })risoners were moved 
across the street, and some distance farther east, and i)ut in tlie 
Scott warehouse to remain until next day, on which date they were 
taken out and marched to the railroad, loaded into hog-cars, and 
shipped to Danville. They arrived at Danville, Virginia, at noon 
of Sunday, November 15th. On the way, Hesser and his regi- 
mental comrades, by hustling, contrived to keep together, and so 
were (piartered on the second floor of prison No. 2, a frame build- 
ing. Ilations were issued once each day, instead of twice, as at 
Richmond. This made less trouble all around, and many prisoners 
made one meal only out of the morsel they received. 

There was a good deal of talk, ])lanning, and scheming, with 
reference to an outbreak ; overpowering the guards, and attempt- 
ing a wholesale flight. This was about all it amounted to. Ii 
seemed to facilitate the Jiight of time, and did some gootl in 
that way. 

While in this prisoji, Hesser enumerated iiuiit \ arii-ticsof ])ie than 
he had ever sampled before that time, or since. He was certainly 
trying himself to see how much he could cause the mouths of his 
comrades "to water." If all the different varieties had been noted 
by name it would have been a pie dictionary, or vocabulary. < )ne 
thing is quite certain, Hesser did not sample any one, not even 
the comtnonest, of his many varieties of pie whiK' in i)risoii. 

On Dec-ember ir)th, on account of sniall-pox, one nuMnbei- of 



C20 AXDERSOXVJL/.K, GKORGJA. 

the luesd had to sej)arate from the others and go to the hos])itaI. 
As it turned out, this member never returned to the j/rison or 
mesa again, as Avas expected. Between Christmas and January 
lit this ex-member wrote and sent to Hesser a note, informing him 
that he was getting well. Failing to get any more notes or otlier 
word, Hesser concluded his foni.er messmate had sutiered a re- 
lapse, and gone to Join the silent army of the dead, Avhen, in la<;t, 
lie had only gone to rejoin the Army of the Cumberland. 

Early in ]\Iarch, 18G4, the prisoners were removed from Dan- 
ville to Audersonville, Georgia, The season of the year, the con- 
dition of the prisoners, and the quality of the transportation fur- 
nished, combined to produce not only discomfort, but much suffering 
among the pris(mers. The train-load, which included ]Ics.s( r and 
his comrades, reached Andersonvilie about I^Lirch 20tii. >\'hile 
the grounds were fresh and clean, and pieces of wood and brush 
could be gathered, with which to build fires for cooking purposes 
or comfort, and before the stockade was crowded with prisoners, 
their condition was not nearly so bad as it subsequently became. 
Some time was required to originate and put in operation a sys- 
tem of slow but sure starvatiim, and deprivation, also, ir. other 
directions. The workings cf the system had to be observed, so 
that it might be rendered more severe and effectual in accomplish- 
ing the purposes desired. AVealher, hot and dry, heat of the 
southern sun, were powerful factors, in connection with scant, im- 
pure, and unwholesome food and filthy water, in bringing about 
sucli a physical condition of the prisoners as would render them 
liable to all sorts of diseases, the most tolerable of which were 
loathsome and delnlitating in tlie extreme. 

The spring and early summer passed without auy of the c(im- 
rades with whom Hesser was inuuediately associated haviui,' to suc- 
cumb to the undermining and deteriorating and disintegrating pro- 
cesses inseparable fro2u the system inaugurated in the treatment of 
the })risoners. But as the number of prisoners increased, as the 
quantity and purity of supplies decreased, as the opportunities for 
cleanliness diminished or entirely failed, and as the summer ad- 
vanced the expected results began to "crop out" a])undantly. 
John Thornton died September IGth, Enoch P. Brown died Seji- 
teraber 2Uth, and AV^illiam F. Ellis died Septcndjf r 2.'jd. The two 
former died at Andersonvilie, while the latter died in the jail-yard 
at Charleston, South Carolina. At about the dates above given, and 
later, the shipment of prisoners back and forth u> Cliarleston and 



JIESSJ^JR AX J J yOJlTJl. 021 

Florences aud other points, and tlieu back to Auilersonville, for tlie 
purpose ot keeping them beyond the pot>sible reach of succor by 
the bodie,s of raiding cavalry sent out by Sherman, commenced. 
Thus it is exphiiued how it came that P^llis died at Charleston. He 
left Andersouville, but did not live to get back there. Hesser de- 
scribes tiie death of Billy Ellis to be the most pitiable and s<jrro\vfiil 
scene he ever witnessed. After l)is company conn-ades, Thornton 
and Brown, died, Billy seemed to lose heart and all hope, and 
gradually and surely yielded to the inevitable, expressing in his last 
moments an inteuse desire to see his mother and liome once more; 
but he yielded up his young life with the knowledge that the pre- 
cious privilege he yearned for could Uf^t be vouchsafed to him. 
There were hundreds of such cases. 

The death of the three persons named, Xewliii having shaken 
the dust of Dixie— within Confederate lines — from hlsi'eet, reduced 
the squad, or mess, to three — Hesser, North, and Kilj)atrick. 
These three found other associates, and, by dint of hard and cli)se 
watching and sharp management, lived to get through the f< arful 
and trying ordeal. At Wilmington, North Carolina, however, 
Kilpatrick died from the eilects of indiscretion iu eating. This 
was in the latter jiart of ^Nfarch, or early in April, ISCia, while on 
the way North for exchange. 

The "saving clause" with Ilesser and North, perhaps, was in 
being able to borrow money of a party who knew North's father, 
and felt certain he would get his money back if he — the party — 
lived, whether North lived oi' not. All that was necessary was for 
the father to know, or have some assurance, that his son received 
the money. kSoiiic sort of evidence of indebtedness, due-bill, or 
note, was furnished by Hesser and North, and paid by them after 
the "cruel war" was over. AVith tlie mom-y thus ])roviili<l, 
Hesser and his comrade bought food and sanitary supi)lies, the 
latter serving them a good purpose in checking and counteracting 
the ravages of scurvy in their systems. The money borrowed was 
not all the money they obtained. 

Sometime in the course of the late summer or early fall, some 
unfortunate ])risoner died, leaving a few trinkets, including an 
old-fashioned daguerreotype, in Hesser's care, to deliver to his 
family, in case Hesser survived. Through all the changes and 
vicissitudes of his imj)risonment, Ilesser clung to the trinkets, 
though he Avas on the ]u,\\t[, two or three times, of throwing them 
away, until, by men' chance or acci.aiil, one day, the picture and 



622 00' 7 OF I'll IS ON. 

inside IVanie or case dropped out of the larger outside case, re- 
vealing, to the great astonishuieut and delight of Hesser and his 
comrades, five or six greenback bills, twenties antl tens, neatly 
folded and tucked in the case. It almost scared Hesser to think 
how often and how nearly he came to throw iug the trinkets aside as 
an unnecessary and useless ])urden. This money was "put where it 
■would do the most good," and helped (»ul wonderfully. We do 
not know whetlier Hesser iuis quit looking f(n- the family of the 
man who intrusted him with the trinkets or not. He may have 
settled that score years ago, liowever. 

North became pretty generally and favorably known among 
the prisoners on account of his kind, conciliatory, and cheering 
words to his fellow-priscmers. We do not mean to be under- 
stood as intimating that He.sser was unfavoraljly kimwu, because 
the contrary was true ; but North, IxMug a very large man, wtis 
more (;onspiciious, and bi'iiig always considerate of the weak, and 
nevrr failing to u.-e his best ellints to secure "iair play" for them, 
was ^cneralh' and favorably known. 

ESCAPE OF \V. H. NEWEIN FROM PRESON, 

I'KUliUAUY lit, TO MAKCII L'2, 1SI)4. 

In the year 18(i6 we prepared an account, giving all the de- 
tails of our experience in getting out of the scrape which had its 
beginning at Chickamauga. After condensing it somewhat, we 
])uhlistied the account in 1870, and in 1885 we incorporated a few 
facts and particulars, sui)plementary to the original narrative. 
This narrative having been sold to the nund)er of at least twelve 
thousand co[)ies, we assume that nearly all the readers of this 
i)'iok have some knowledge of the leading fiutts, as set forth in tlie 
narrative ; and we shall treat only on three or four points or 
features of our experieiu-e in coming up from Dixie, in tliis 
sketch. 

It has been asserted that it was no very great or ditlii'ult 
achievement to elfeet an escape from a Southern pri.sim <luring the 
late war. We think difleiently, and will venture a few reasons 
for our opinion on this matter. The Southt m Slates, and espe- 
cially Virginia, was the field of operations of both armies. This 
resulted in j)roduciug a scarcity of food, and necessitated the build- 
ing up of an extensive home-guard system on the j)art of the 
Confederates. 



DIFFICULTIES ENCOU^'TFRFI). 623 

At all the larirer towns, and at very many smaller ones, where 
there were no regular troops, these honie-guanls were to be 
found in squads of a dozen and more. Thesi- guards were vigi- 
lant and active in picking up conscripts for, and deserters from, the 
Confederate service, spying out and arresting Union citizens, and in 
recapturing and returning to captivity escaj)ing Federal prisoners. 

In 1864, when nearly the entire population of the rebel StatesJ, 
subject to military duty, were either at the front oi- preparing to 
go there, or were in the militia or State sei'vice, or doing duty as 
home guards, it was cpiite an easy thing for a vci-y small .^quad of 
men to attract notice, and be called to an account. The number 
of Federal prisoners that attempted an escape through the Con- 
federate territory, and were recaptured, some the second and third 
time, is proof of the risk an<l difficulty attending an expedition of 
this kind. 

Late in the war, it was incundient on the Confederate home- 
guards to catch as many prisoners, deserters, and other persons who 
were hiding, as was possible, in order to keep themselves from being 
sent to the front, by showing an apparent necessity at least for their 
organization. Density of the population North operated to the ad- 
vantage of the Confederate prisoner or squad in making an escajie 
from Chicago, Illinois, Elmira, New York, or other points, where 
held ; while the reveree as to the population South, operated to the dis- 
advantage of the escaping Federal prisoner in the manner already 
noted. A detachment of cavalry was kept at or near Danville, 
Virginia, the i)oint we escaped from, whose duty it was to patrol uj) 
and down on either side of Dan River, in quest of " loose Yan- 
kees," and to intei'cept and recapture them, if found, and to keep 
a watch at the ferries and crossings. 

Our companions on the trip through from prison were L. B. 
Smith, 4th Michigan Cavalry ; William Sutherland, l(>th United 
States Infantry; and John F. Wood, 2oth Ohio Infantry. Robert 
a. Taylor, 2d ]\Iassachusetts Cavalry, and W. C. Tripp, 15th 
United States Infantry, started with us. 'J'lie former continued 
with us one week, and the latter two weeks. We supplied our- 
selves with food and clothing at the small-])ox ho.^pital immediately 
before slii)j)ing off from the guards, tlie night of February 19, 
1864. Extremely cold weather for that region prevailed at the 
date mentioned. This was against us in one .sense, that of comfort ; 
but doubtless we were fully compensated by lack of watchfulness 
on the ])art of guards, and also luck ol suspicion that prisoners 



624 



START yoRTlIWARI) 



would venture out in sucli v.entliei-; and the further fiict that we 
were apt to move the more raj)idly in <^irder to warm ourselves. 
We got away from the hospital and guaids in detachments of two 
each, and by, or before, nuduight our party of six fouinidcs li:id 
effected a junction at a ])uint ])reviously agreed on, and wei'i 
making "good time" in a south-westerly direction. 




HNC.kAVi;!) KXl 



,V lOR NKWr.IX'S "N" \RRATIVI. 
,SI .VTK I'. N T 1 1 TH( >IS A XI). 



I'RISON KSCAPK. 



At about two o'clock in the early morning (if February 20th 
we arrived in the near neighborhood of Seven JNlile ferry, on Dan 
River. Tri})p's precaution, and the cold weather together, pre- 
vented our falling int.) th.e hands of tlie "butternut" cavalrymen, 
who were posted at tiie feriy. We ([uickly and luMselessly fell baek 



THE SECOND MA SSA CH USE T TS CA VA L R 1 WfA X. (') 2 O 

from our ailvanced position, and, on reaching a sai'e place, con- 
sulted briefly, and determined to push on up the river, which we 
did, and by midnight of the 20t]i we were safely across Dan Kiver 
and ready to start in the direction of the Union lines. The point 
where we crossed the river was at least twenty miles from Dan- 
ville and the small-pox hospital. We tailed in our first attempt 
to secure f )od, mainly on account of a squad of cavalry ; ])erhaps 
the same one we had encountered at the ferry, (letting off Irom that 
{)la('e, us fnim the ferry, but not without leaving })lain traces be- 
hind us, we humped ourselves during the renuiinder of that night, 
Sunday, Fel)ruary 21st. Monday, 'J2d, we got a bountiful store 
of provisions, all we could carry, paying the negroes sixty dollars 
therefor out of the one hundred and eighty dollars Confederate 
shin-plasters we had procured before setting out on our trip. This 
supi)ly lasted until February 27th, the day in the early morning 
of which we left Taylor behind. 

At the beginning of this sketch we have Taylor's name as 
Robert (r. Taylor, which was the name he gave us at the time we 
parted from him. We have no recollection of hearing his given 
name mentioned at any previous time in the short period of our 
association with him, the begiiining of wdiich Avas attended by 
rather peculiar, not to say suspicious circumstances. The writer, 
as ward-master of ward number one at the hospital, received a 
note from some Confederate authority at Danville, introducing the 
bearer, Taylor, and requiring us to give him work in the ward. 
In view of the fact that there were plenty of coavalescents in the 
ward at the time, both able and willing to give all the assistance 
needed, we thought the circumstance a little strange, in connection 
with the further fact that Taylor came out to the hospital unat- 
tended by a guard, ^\''e complied with the request, however, and 
assigned Taylor a share of the work, and thought but little more 
of the matter, supposing an explanation of the case might be found 
in the fact that Taylor was an Englishman, and was not a natu- 
ralized citizen of the United States, having been in this country 
but a few weeks, or months at most, before his eidistment in tlie 
army. In the narrative referred to, we give the details of (»ur 
separation from Taylor, the reasons a.ssigned by him for preferring 
to be left, also the substance of information bearing u[)on his case, 
or another very sinular one, and also the sad fate which Taylor 
met, allowing the information was correct, and had reference to 
him. We left Taylor, with a well-grounded suspicion that some- 
-10 



026 A POSSIBLE EXPLASATJOy. 

thing was kept back; tliat he bad utber reasons, wbifh he did not 
disclose, for persisting in being left alone. 

In trying to verify his record as a member of the 2d Massacliu- 
setts Cavalry, we found that there were seven Taylors in that regi- 
ment, and neither of them named Robert G. Alex. H., Thomas ,J. , 
Thomas, John, Samuel, Archibald, and George were the givin 
names of the seven Taylors respectively found on the rolls of the 
organization named. If the Taylor we left died at or near the 
place where we left him, as the information received indicates, and 
if he was a member of the 2d Massachusetts Cavalry, then the 
record of George Taylor would come very nearly suiting or meeting 
the conditions in the case of the man we left, George Taylor's rec- 
ord being as follows: "Age, twenty-three; residence, San Fran- 
cisco; date of enlistment, March 19, 1863; May 10, ISHo, de- 
serted." Will state in this connection, that a portion of the 2d ^las- 
sachusetts Cavalry — some four companies, jjcrhaps five — came from 
California, and was called and known as the " California Contingent." 
Five of the Taylors are accounted for in the manner following: 
"Discharged April 14, 1865 — disability." " jMustered out July 
20, 1865 — expiration of service." "Mustered out July 20, 1865 — 
expiration of service." " Discharged June 7, 1865 — expiration ut' 
service." " Died September, 1864, at Savannah, Georgia." The 
space opposite the name of Thomas Taylor, wherein he should t)e 
accounted for, is left blank ; but as he enli.sted June 10, 1864, he 
could not have been the man we left behind the night of Friday, 
February 26th, of that year. 

Thomas J. Taylor enlisted April 22, 1864, so he could not have 
been the man we left. It is barely possible, even probable, that 
the George Taylor mentioned may have been the man we kft. 
The age and the different dates given in connection witli Ins 
name do not conflict or render it impossible or unlikely that he 
should have been the man ; and the desertion would go far, very 
far, in explanation of the determination manifested by our man 
to have his own way as to a matter that most seriously concerned 
himself We have letters from James McDougal, Salinas City, 
California; W. D. Belknap, Youngsville, Peniwylvania ; T. L. 
Kodgers, Blake, Florida; George H. Cordwdl, Shirley, Mas- 
sachusetts; H. H. Crocker, Washington, New Jersey; George 
A. Manning, Rathdrum, Idaho; Charles O. Welch, Salem, .:Mas- 
ssichusetts, and from two or more other persons, in response to 
r((]uests for information concerning Taylnr, but none of them con- 



PVRSVED BY THE ENEMY. 627 

tain auy information of date later than onr own personal knowl- 
edge. We l)ecanie informed as to Taylor's surname and the re-d- 
nieut he belonged to before auy motive cduld have existed in his 
mind to ])rompt him to deceive us. 

Some six or seven miles from the point where we left Taylor, 
we spent February 27th. exhausting our supply of food late in tiie 
day, and the night of tlial day we crossed the Blue Ridge ^lount- 
ain, passing through a gap, which, according to information lately 
obtained, is located near the Peaks of Otter Kiver. 

On Sunday, February 28th, we procured our .second .supply of 
food, having arranged for it before daylight. Near miduiglit we 
passed through Big Lick, a station on tlie East Tennessee and Vir- 
ginia Railroad, and before daybreak of the 29th rain began fall- 
ing, causing us much discomfort, besides delaying us until tlie 
night of jSIarch 2d. The delay was partially compen.sated by an 
opportunity of securing more food and some information as to roads. 

We traveled faithfully the night of March 2d, also the night of 
March 3d, until about four o'clock in the morning of the 4th, 
when, owing to our weariness, the roughness of the country, and 
a considerable stream which ran across our route, we fell back 
to a safe hiding-place, as we supposed ; but learning early in the 
day that our position was uncomfortably near to a sugar-canij), 
which was being operated, and not very far from a camp of train- 
guards, we were compelled to cliauge base, or at least did do so, and 
by three o'clock P. M., and just after we had crossed the stream 
before mentioned, we liad a lively race with a detail of train- 
guards, which continued for the space of thirty minutes. 

In making this extraordinary race, W. C. Tri]))) Avas compelled 
to take to cover, hide himself among the rocks on toj) the mount- 
ain, up the rugged side of which we scrand)lt'd hurriedly and very 
laljoriously, knowing that the rebels could not pursue us on horse- 
back over that route. Tripj) got separated from the other four of 
our party, and, like Taylor, was left alone. Almost inunediately 
after first hiding, Tripp was eitlier overlooked or ignored by the 
pursuing rebels-, who kept right on at their best s})eed, hoping and 
exj)ecting to gobble our entire party. Tripp shifted from liis first 
<ov('r to another close by, and watihed and waited ior the return 
of the enemy, Avith feelings of no little anxiul)'. Tin' C'djifidcr- 
atis soon tired of their chase, and startetl back to camp in a veiy 
disappointed mood, ])assing near the place of Tripj/s concealment, 
i,n*l stopj>ing and sitting down on the rocks to rest at the pciiul 



6 2 8 TRIPP L KF T ALO NK. 

where Tripp first hid. Well, they did not catch us, neither did 
they catch Tripp, but, after a little time, got up and went tlicir 
way. wearily to camp. 

Tripp fully expected we would be overtiiken and recaptured, 
and on learning we were yet free, he started out to find us as soon 
as the rebels had departed. The shades of closing day coming on, 
he moved rapidly for some distance in the direction we had gone ; 
tried at first to discover our trail, but could not. He stopj)ed, 
called, signaled, and waited for response from us, but no response 
did he hear, nor other noise or sound save the eclio of his own voice, 
broke the excessive stillness which prevailed all around him. Trip}) 
had no idea how far or how rapidly we had traveled; nor did we, 
as we put our whole strength into the flight, becoming thoroughlv 
warmed, perspiring freely, puffing and blowing, until, of necessity 
from sheer exhaustion, we "slowed up," but did not stop before 
we liad nearly cooled off, which was best for us. 

\Vq devote a small space now to Tripp. He soon realized that 
he was left, badly left. Amid the darkness and solitude, he ex- 
perienced a lonesomeness that was intensified to such a degree a,>i 
to baffle description. Being both hungry and crumbless, as well us 
bewildex-ed and weary, made his case worse, if possible. He moved 
about considerably in the early part of the night, hoping to dis- 
cover some means of relief, hear some voice, or see a light, if oidy 
a dim one, in the distance. At last, weary of groping in the dark- 
ness, he halted for rest and slept some before sunrise of March 5th. 
On that date Tripp managed to place himself in a position where 
he could be safe, and from which he could venture after night-fall, 
and soon reach a human habitation where his most pressing wants 
could be supplied. He followed up this path of opportunity, called 
at a house — the abode of Union people — got food, shelter, and in- 
formation ; but none of the latter was concerning us. Tripp in- 
formed me by letter in 1881, that he never made any inquiries for 
bis " flying comrades," sup[)osing, perhaps, that we being good flyers, 
had "gone up." 

Falling into the hands of friends, Tripp recu|>erated for three 
or four days, in the meantime obt:xiuing information that a certain 
person was going to start through to the TTnion lines about the first 
of April. He visited this man, and found l\w information was 
correct, and arranged to go through with him. Another man 
wanted to go, and still another, and another, and Tripp kept on 
until he had seen six or seven or more persons who wanted to 



MIS.SED OUR WAY. (Vl[) 

make an exit from Dixie. Where so inauy were concerned, delay 
was inevitable, and Tripp finally "struck" the wrong man, and 
the result was his recapture April 6th. He was subjected to several 
examinations before civil magistrates, but he was not proven to be 
a spy as charged. In course of time he was sent to Richmond as 
a "demented Yankee" — which he was not by any means — kept 
there until September, 1864, was then paroled, sent to Annapolis, 
Maryland, or some other point, to be exchanged and discharged, 
his term of service having in the meantime expired. 

AVe recur now to the events in the experience of our party on 
and after March 4tli As soon as we realized we were winners in 
the race, we changed direction and went down the side of the 
mountain, stopping for a brief rest when about half-way to the 
valley. An hour later we took supper at the cabin of a Union 
family, where we found a deserter from Buckner's Confederate 
force, hid under the bed. We came upon the house so suddenly, 
that this deserter had no opportunity to escajjc from it. Until 
informed by us to the contrary, these people considered us a de- 
tachment of home-guards from New Castle. We wei-e directed to 
the home of " Jeems" Huffman, where we arrived at about nine 
o'clock P. M., being provided with another and better supper near 
midnight. We feasted, with no thought that Trii)p was supperless 
and lonely. We imagined that he was surrounded and being fed 
by the enemy. 

Though receiving particular directions how to get across Craig's 
Creek at a certain place, we failed to find that place, owing to rain 
and darkness, and in wading that stream, our whole i)arty got a thor- 
ough and cold soaking. Smith would probably have drowned had 
Sutherland not been in a position to aid him. The discomfort we 
experienced in the early morning hours of March 5th can scarcely 
be depicted, yet we have lio recollection that anything was said 
about ])ensions, as we exerted ourselves to dry our clothing by 
the warmth of our bodies, produced by the extra exertion. We 
carried with us from Huffman's some shelled corn and Irish pota- 
toes, the parching and roasting of which, together with eating our 
rations and drying our clothing, occupied the time March 5th, 
sleep being next to impossible under the circumstances. The night 
of the 5th, we got a cake of corn-bread at the hou.^e of a Confed- 
erate home-guard, who had seen service at the front in Buckner's 
army in East Tennessee. As on the previous night, we missed our 
way, and were compelled to retrace our steps, losing several hours 
in consequence. 



630 "BOGUS YANKEES." 

Sunday, March 6th, avc slept awliile; hut owing to the Weak 
weather, the scant quantity and inferior quality of our food, the 
day seemed a long one. At ten o'clock P. M. we reached the 
abode of AVilliani Paxton, the point we had expected to make 
twenty hours earlier. We got a late supper at Paxton's, and in- 
structions, the following out of which would take us to the home 
of another good Union man, where we arrived by about four 
o'clock Monday morning. We made our ])resence known imme- 
diately, thinking we should receive advice and shelter, but were 
disaj)poiuted. It was at this point where "bogus Yankees" began 
to prove an obstacle in our pathway. 

A woman, the wife of Robert Childs, protested against being 
interrupted at that early hour, alleging her husband was not at 
home. AVe went on nearly a fourth of a mile, and hid for the 
day. We had no thought of other or further trouble than merely 
that occasioned by Childs's absence, and that trouble, we thought, 
would be done away by the aj)proach of midday, whether Childs 
returned or not. After sunrise, one of our ])arty visited Childs's 
house, and was told by Mrs. Cliilds that her husband had not re- 
turned. An extended conversation was had witli Mrs. Childs, 
during which she plainly announced her disinclination to aid us or 
any squads of soldiers roving about over the country, no matter 
which army they claimed to belong to. Her talk was very dif- 
ferent from that we had hoped and expected t(; hear, our impres- 
sions as to the character and sterling loyalty and devotion to the 
Union of Childs and his wife being due to the information Pax- 
ton had given us at the time of sending us to their house. 

" Bogus Yankees," a then very recent invention or discovery, 
was the cause of the trouble. Childs had just been api)rised a day or 
so before we called, as to the objects and methods sought and prac- 
ticed by " bogus Yankees," but Paxton was yet ignorant of this new 
affliction and agency of persecution of Southern Union people. 
Well, at the close of the unsatisfactory talk with Mrs. Childs, she 
gave us a dish heaped full of the reiunants of the family breakfast, 
and promised to send her husband to our hiding-j)Iace as soon as he 
came home. Our S(]uad thoroughly relished and as thoroughly de- 
voured the food Mrs. Childs furnished, caring litlh- for the time as to 
whether she was Union or rebel in her sympathies and affiliations. 
Luckily, by mere accident, we convinced Childs, on his second 
visit to us in our retreat, that we were not " Ixigus Yankees," as 
himself and wife had reason to pusj)ect, but were tin- rral 



]yK FOUND FRIl'JNDS. ■ ^31 

" true blue," genuine Yankees, some of whom he hud befriended 
a few weeks before tlie date of our visit to him. We happened 
tn mention tlie names of two men wlio liad received "aid 
and comfort" from Childs wiiile on tlieir way escaping prison, 
and described eacli of them minutely, whereupon Childs "owned 
uj)," and gave at length an explanation for his conduct, telling us 
about the deception and carrying off in irons to captivity of cer- 
tain Union men, neighbors of his, by false or pretended Yankee 
})risoners, called by the Union peojde " bogus Yankees." As soon 
as C'hilds found we were all right, he was the sanie ; and we found 
that Paxton's information was correct; also that ]\Irs. Childs's aci 
in giving us a breakfast was the index of her character rather 
lliun the words or sentimenfcj she seemed to express. 

Childs determined to warn Paxtou next day of the danger of 
l)laying into "false hands." It was exceedingly provoking to be 
placed in a })Osition which made it impossible to get assistance from 
our friends ; at the same time being suspected as being not only 
rel)els, l)Ut deceivers and impostors, by passing — up to a certain stage 
in the game — ourselves off for what we were not. We have always 
thought Ivobert Childs was secreted, either in the house or about 
the premises, during the whole of our two interviews with his 
wife. Circumstances undoubtedly compelled her to resort to the 
})ractice of <leceptiou to protect her husband, as she fully believed 
we were playing that sort of game, with the intention of making 
him the victim. 

(Jn j)artiug from Childs, we were directed to the home of David 
Hepler, eight miles distant, with the assurance that our tlescription 
of the two men who had gone before us, getting away, whom 
llej)ler had also aided, would be certain to insure us a welcome 
and such assistance as might be necessary at his hands. This 
turned out as expected. We remained during the night of March 
7th under Ilejiler's roof, and innnediately after breakfast, on the 
8th, Hepler went with us to the highest i)oint in the mountain 
west of his house, from which the house of William J^ewis could 
be dindy seen. Being in the very roughest region in Virginia, in 
Alleghany County, as well as Alleghany Mountains, we were to 
go across the two valleys and ridge of mountain betw»t'n them to 
Ijewis's house in daylight, it being next to impossible i'ov strangers 
to go over the rout by night. We parted from llej)ler, and found 
trouble enough in linding our way in day-time. On going up the 
rugged side oi' the mountain on which Lewis's house was located we 



6S2 DISTRUSTED BY FRIENDS. 

met two men, one woman and child coming down the winding path. 
Neither party accorded the other any recognitiim beyond keeping out 
of the way one of the other. We suspected th.ey were rebels, and 
they suspected we were rebels, as was ascertained later, but both 
were mistaken. The two men and another we met that night at 
Lewis's house, and had quite an extended interview witli them, 
but were unable to come to an understanding. Owing to the 
muddle, the exceedingly rough nature of the country, and the 
change of weather (rain beginning and continuing to fall for a 
day or two, then changing to snow), and being destitute of rations 
and information, we made our way back to Hepler's, arriving there 
at noon of March 9th, as wet as "drowned rats." 

Hepler was much alarmed by our reappearance, and concluded 
we were "bogus," and h:id only returned to "gobble" hin). We 
finally succeeded in reassuring Hepler, telling him if we were 
"bogus" he had already showed his hand, and matters would be 
no worse for him, let him do as much as he might for us, sujjpos- 
ing we were genuine. We remained with Hepler, hid out on the 
mountain-side on his premises until the morning of March loth. 
In the meantime Hepler saw his son, who was one of the men Ave 
had met at Lewis's, and was a brother-in-law to Lewis, and found 
that the latter had been taken in by the " bogus Yankees." Be- 
coming again fully convinced that we were all right, Hepler tried 
to get a good Union man named Huddlesou to guide us through a 
part of the way to the Union lines. But Pluddleson was unneces- 
sarily cautious; said he would have nothing to do with us, and that 
we would yet prove to be " bogus." 

Patching up a little during this delay, and provided with some 
parched corn, we took leave of Hepler the second time on March 
13th. We went in day-time, as in the first case, to Lewis's house, 
remained near it over night, and before finally leaving it we took 
all we could find there in the provision line, and scjuiething more. 
March 14th to 16th Ave passed through a very rough country, 
reaching the Greenbrier River on the latter date. We rested 
one night, on finding Ave could safely do so, in a barn on the 
premises of a Unicjn family named Mann. Five or six miles Avest- 
ward of the river Ave procured a guide by the name of Alderman, 
who conducted us tAventy miles in day-time along obscure })aths 
and by-paths, on March 18th. 

On leaving us in the midst of a Avilderness of woods on tlie 
crest of a high ridge, the toj) ami sides of which Avere marked l)y 



ARRIVE WITHIN UNIO.Y LINKS. 633 

deep and narrow paths made by deer, Alderman gave us mi- 
uule and somewhat extended directions as to how to find Neflf, his 
brother-in-law, who lived north ot the Gauley Jviver. AVe were to 
follow these directions up to a given point in day-time, March 19th, 
resting the night of the 18th at the place where Alderman left us, 
heeding his admonition to keep the fire burning all night which he 
started for us, so the " boogers would n't git " us. 

Early on the morning of the 20th we were put across the Gau- 
ley Kiver by Mr. Nell", and. after being provided with breakfast at 
his house, we were secreted for the day not far from the sugar- 
camp where Neff Avas at work. Dinner and supper were furnished 
us, and after sunset, having received instructions from Neff, we 
started out on tlie road leading down the Gauley Kiver to Gauley 
bridge, about forty-nine miles distant. Our instructions contem- 
])lated our hiding away safely during the day, INIarch 21st, but 
early on the morning of that date we unex})ectedly ran on to an 
aged, loyal Irishman, from whom we derived information, which, 
after due consideration, determined a different course for us to })ur- 
sue. AVe traveled steadily all day ]\Iarch 21st, arriving at the 
Union lines just before dark of that date. 

This was the end of a loig period of suspense, anxiety, and ex- 
citement. For more than four weeks we had to keej) a sharp look- 
out behind, before, and on either hand. ]\Iarch 22d was the first 
(lay for many days that we felt absolutely and perfectly safe and 
free to relax our watchfulness and solicitude. The reader may pos- 
sibly be able to faintly imagine the extent of our joy and thank- 
fulness for our deliverance from the privations and sufferings inci- 
dent to })rison life and fare in the Southern Confederacy; we know 
we can not describe it. As the years pass, tlie recollection of those 
adverse and perilous days grows not dim, but our fortunate escape 
from prison, missing Andersonville, and '• ills that we knew not 
of," is to us an exultant mein(u-y, and becoming more and more so. 

Of the four who completed the trip, one comrade, John F. 
AVood, Company G, 2Bth Ohio Iniantry, was wounded early on the 
Atlanta campaign, and died June 20, 18(54. L. B. Smith, Com- 
pany F, 4th JNlichigan Cavalry, resides at Dundee, Monroe County, 
Michigan. William Sutherland, Company 11, IGth United States 
Infantry, resides near Eagle, Clinton County, Michigan. The 
writer, W. H. Newlin, Company C, 7od Illinois Infantry, resides 
at Springfield, Illinois. W. C. Tripp, Com{):my E, ir)th United 
States Iniantry, resided, at latest ac<'ount, near Uilliurd, Franklin 



C34 ORIGIN OF THE TERM ''BL'MMEl:." 

County, Oliio, but he was with us two weeks ouly. Of Tayl )r, 
who chximeJ t) be a member of the iM Massachusetts Cavahy, we 
have uo tidings. 

"BUM" RODCxI-:RS. 

Along al)out 18.5."), a boy was picUed up on the streets of New 
York City by tli^ hulies engaged in the commendable and charitable 
work, at " Five Points," of gathering together sui;h waifs as had 
no home or friends. These they placed in their charitable home or 
school, known as the Five Points School. This boy was retained 
there until a home was found for him with a farmer in Tazewell 
County, Illinois, 

At the organization of Company B, 73d Illinois, he was enlisted 
as drummer in the company, as William D. Kodgers. He was about 
fifteen or sixteen years old, and a very bright, active Ijoy, who 
made friends of all with whom he came in conta<t. He apparently 
came of Irish parents, and was possessed in an unusual degree of 
that quick wit for which that people are famous. He .soon be- 
came a great favorite in his company, for he was one oi" the most 
liberal-hearted and congenial meml)ers of the company. He always 
spoke of himself as "Poor Bum," and soon caiue to be known as 
*' Bum Rodgers." 

He often sang an Irish song, of which, " Jiu miners, beware! 
and snoozers, take care !" was the closing line of each verse. In 
answer to the question of the writer of this as to where he learned 
the song, he explained that, when a " l)ummer " in New York, 
they had among themselves as street-gamins a s(jrt of organization 
for mutual protection against the raids that were made u})ou 
them by the police and others who were wont to annoy them, and 
often disturb and break their rest at night in their usual haunts in 
empty boxes, barrels, hogsheads, etc. One of their number was 
always placed on guard to give the alarm at the aj)proach of the 
enemy, and this song was used as a signal. The last words of each 
verse, "Bummers, beware! and snoozers, take care!" would be 
followed by a general stampede. 

From his frequent use of these words, he very .soon catne to 
be known in the regiment as "Company H's buiniiier," and ere- 
long this name had attached itself to the other musicians of the 
c()m})any, then spread to musicians of the other i-ompanies of the 
h'ft wing, and very soon to all musicians of the regiment. By de- 
grees it bt,Tame customary to apply it to company cooks, hostlers, 



AT HIS OLD TRADE. G3;j 

teamsters, hospital nurses, and orderlies about head-quarters, and 
by the spring of 1864 it had become a common name for all per- 
st)us who did not actually carry arms and do duty in the ranks. 
This was true, not only in the 73d, but in other regiments of the 
brigade and division. 

From that time on, old comrades who were on the Atlanta cam- 
paign will remember how common the name became, and how it was 
applied to every man who was away from his command, no matter 
for how short a time. The pioneers were " l)u miners ;" the man who 
fell out of ranks on a march was a " bummer ;" the foragers, above 
all others, were "bummers ;" and I?uin Kodgers Mas admitted by all 
who knew him to be the " King Bee" in the swarm of bumming 
foragers. So when the army left Atlanta on its liimous " march 
to the sea," and the entire marching column became foragers, it 
was but natural that they should all become " bummers," and 
with the training they had received by Bum Rodgers and his as- 
sociates, were very successful ; and no history of the great Bebellion 
is complete in which "Sherman's buiumers" do not have a very 
prominent place. 

I am told he is still at his old business of foraging and " bam- 
ming" in the wilds ol the Rocky JNIountaius. His exploits as a 
*' bummer " in the army would make a very interesting as well as 
very large volume. He could pass the most vigilant guard ever 
placed around a camp, could beat the most expert provost-marshal 
that ever signed or approved a pass. When caj)tured at Chicka- 
uuiuga with Will Jaquess, who was an enlisted musician, he went 
boldly to the rebel otHcer in charge of the guard, represented 
that Will was a civilian, son of the colonel, Avho was only on a 
visit to his father, and therefore not liable to be held as a prisoner 
of war ; and his statement seemed so honest, and his demand so 
forcibly put, that the officer passed AVill through the lines without 
further evidence. "Bum" was sent to prison in Richmond, where 
he feigued rheumatism, and played his part so well that he was 
soon exchanged and returned to his company. 

He was never caught but once in his foraging expeditions. 
General McCook and staff rode upon him while appropriating the 
contents of a very heavy bee-gum. lie had ciUKpiered the bees 
when he was caught, and, without ceremony, he was taken in 
charge by a staff officer. He asked to be allowed to speak to the 
general, to whom he represented his case in such a favoral)le light 
that he was at once release«l, and soon marcheil into caiiij) with the 



636 SEVENTY-THIRD ILLINOIS INFANTRY. 

full contents of the bee-gum. He was an expert "chuck-luck'* 
player, by which he accumulate<i several hundred dollars. This 
the writer sent to his friends in Illinois for him, and there it 
awaited him upon his return from the army. 

He was, without doubt, the original " bummer" of Sherman's 
army, justly entitled to the honor of having originated the name 
in the army, and if half the reports are true, should Bum Kodgers 
meet with any of the readers of this, they might well say : " Bum- 
mers, beware! and snoozers, take care !" 

Bum Rodgers was a good soldier, and did faithfully and well all 
duty assigned him, and was withal a warm-hearted , generous comra<le. 
He was always the leader of his mess — whether fur good or evil — 
a polished gentleman in genteel society, and a " hail lelhjw " at all 
times. <;. W. PATTEN. 

ROLL OF HONOR. 

At this place it was intended to show the roll of 
honor of the 73d. It would have embraced one hun- 
dred or more names of comrades who were killed in 
battle, or died of wounds. (See Roster.) The roll 
of honor and much other carefully prepared and re- 
A'ised matter intended for this history was, at the last 
moment, rejected. The pages in this book number fully 
two hundred more than were first allotted to it. 

The revised reports of the adjutant-general of Illi- 
nois fail to show the full number of men of the 73d 
who were wounded in the course of three years' 
service. We are able to present the following names 
of wounded of the regiment: 

Fie/d and Hlujf. — William A. Presson, James I. 
Davidson, Thomas Motherspaw, Henry A. Castle. 

Conipunf/ A. — Emanuel Cross, John \V. GrifHths, 
Ceorge Hudson, Pierson H. Kiser, Jacol) UnlUc, Thomas 
C. Perry, James Kelley, Richard Baker, Edward Can- 
trill, John S. Kiser, John Tally, Joseph Williams. 

CoiUjHiutj B. — Richard B. Scott, Daniel Boyden 



CASUALTIES OF BATTLES. C.'iT 

(twice), Reuben Dodd, Jacob llildebrand, James 
Holmes, Joel Isenberg, William 11. McNichols, Josliua 
Bailey. David W. Alexander, John A. Brown, Thomas 

C. Hatch, Andrew J. Beid, Marshall Brown, George 
W. Patten. 

Cohipany C. — Alfred E. Lewis, Samuel Hewntt, Will- 
iam R. Lawrence, AVilliam 11. Newlin, Carey A. Savage 
(accidentally), Joseph A. Allison, John Braselton, John 
R. Burke (arm amputated), Samuel J. Been, William 

D. Bales, Josiah Cooper (leg amputated), David W. 
Doop, John Doop, Henderson Goodwin (left arm am- 
putated October 19, 1886), Henry (-. Henderson, Na- 
thaniel Henderson, Austin Henderson, Abraham Jones 
(slightly), Jehu Lewis, John S. Long, William Martin, 
Alex. C. Nicholson, Steplien Newlin, Joseph Reagan, 
Francis M. Stephens, John J. Halsted, John Bostwick, 
James E. Moore (foot amputated). 

Compan// D. — Jonas Jones, Thomas S. Jones. Samuel 
r>. Garver, Allen Wiley, John Barnes, Jas. M. Branch, 
Thomas Creviston, William D. Coffin (twice), Francis 
M. List, Henry Watrous, Jesse Zorger, Richard S. 
Hopkins (twice), Hiram S. Watson, Thomas S. Rush, 
Martin V. Deter, William J. Long, James Abnett, 
Hiram S. Watson, Nathaniel L. Furguson, James W. 
Hold, John F. Brown, John M. .Albert. 

Company E. — Joseph M. Dougherty, Mahlon Al- 
dridge, John L. Moore, William H. Neville, William 
McCoy, William Hickman. William JL Busby. Robert 
Connor (accidentally), F. ^L Dougherty (accidentally), 
Aaron Dalbey, John C. Gorrell, Charles Harvey, Rat- 
rick INLirtin, John Murdock, George Pierce, Hilkiah F. 
Meharry. 

Compan// F. — James A. Coil, Wesley Lung, James 



633 NAMES OF WOUNDED. 

J. Bolaiid, Ileniy McBride, Isaac C. Coil, Nelson G. 
l)avis, George II. McKiniiie, Noah Baxter, William W. 
iNIartenia, Benjamin Pounds, William Shrader, William 
B. C. Fipton, Noah T. Barrick, Morgan Level. 

Compamj G. — John II. McGrath, Ezekiel J. Inger- 
soll. William T. Talbott, James W. Davis, William H. 
Dimmick, James Hagle, Jasper Hooker, Stuart F. IIos- 
kiiison, William II. Crooks, William 11. Brown, Orland 
Meacham, Patrick McMahon. AVilliam T. Purnell, 
Thomas Horton, James F. Tolle. 

Companf/ II. — John W. Sherrick, William Cammire, 
John J. GouUee, Thomas Wade, Elijah Bazin, Michael 
Culler, Smith Culler, JMarion Fuller, Nathaniel Lynd, 
Isaac Lytle, James Lytle, Charles McLane, James Mc- 
Knight, Giles II. Penstone, William 11. II. Swin, Ed- 
ward Penstone (twice), Isaac INIcCune, George John- 
son, James Greenough, James Hedges, David Turni- 
eliiT, Jesse B. Newport, Smith Hist, George Culler, 
James Lancaster. 

Coijijjan// J. — Elisha T. McComas,William B. Crooker, 
David Cook, Daniel G. Foster, Green W. Ausbrey, An- 
drew J. Parrish, Alex. JM. Cassity, James 0. AVeir, 
Ashford W. Clark, John S. Drennan, William II. Dodd, 
Ferd. AL Duncan, James W. Denny, William F. Inglish, 
William E. Joy, John W. Joy, George F. Sandgi-ebe, 
James Mills, Eleven C. Thorp, Benj, SchaiTner, Chaun- 
cey 11. Castle, William G. Miller, William Fortner, 
Wiley Fortner. 

Compani/ K. — James A. llice, Franklin Glidewell, 
Josei)h A. Weir, IMartin Aloody, JIarlin P. Tuthill, 
Jacob Millhouse, John Beam, Benajah Alorgan, James. 
M. Murray, Enoch ALirtin, William C. Turk, George 
Koll), Noah Earner. 



PRISONERS OF WAR. 639 

Some of these men died so soon after being wounded 
that they may be found classed among the '"killed," 
or " died of wounds." This list is nearly complete ;is 
to Companies C and E, but incomplete as to all otlier 
companies, owing to lack of information. 

The following is a list of names of all members of 
[the 73d, as far as ascertained, who were, for a longer 
or shorter time, in the hands of the Confederates, a iz. : 

Compani/ A. — John L. Ilesser, Thomas C. Periy,* 
Erastus Jackson,* John W. North. 

Company B. — John Brady,* Jesse D. Kilpatrirk,* 
Wm. D. McNichols, John A. Brown,* Cieorge R. Kib- 
bey, J. B. Baylor, T. J. Frazee, W. 1). Rogers. 

Company C. — Joseph A. Allison,* Enoch V. Brown,* 
John R. Burke, William F. Ellis,* Austin Henderson, 
William R,. Lawrence, Jehu Lewis, William H. Newlin, 
Daniel Suycott, John Thornton.* 

Company D. — John Weddle,* Samuel B. Garver. 

Company E. — Not represented. 

Company F. — Charles W. Keeley. 

Company G. — Riley M. lloskinson, Stuart F. Hos- 
kinson, Thomas Ilorton, Joseph M. Derrickson.* 

Company II. — James Dolby,* Edward A. Robbins, 
Mark Dickerson, William Cammire, Edward Penstone, 
Absalom Lawless.* 

Company I. — Gilbert 0. Colburn,* John W. Fisher, 
James M. Joy, Andrew J. Parrish, Piol)ert R. Roberts. 

Company K. — James A. Rice, Joseph Jarvis,* Frank- 
lin Glidewell,* Jacob Millhouse, Bennjah Morgan. 

We give below a list of names of all comrades of 
the 73d who have been reported to us as having died 



Dit^'.l 



640 DIED 8IXCE THE WAR. 

since their discharge from or muster out of service. 
It is incomplete, but the best we can make, owing to 
lack of iliformation : 

Fiehl and Staff'. — -James I. Davidson, Joseph ]\I. 
M. Garrett, Henry 0. McPherson, John S. Barger, 
Sylvester Dustin. 

Comi>any A. — John W.North,Varnum T. Aylesworth, 
Charles Allen, Harrison J. Beaver, Jacob Liudsey, Isaac 
Miller, William Neer, Lewis Neer, Andrew J. Perry, 
John A. Bobbins, Philip N. Shrake, John Tally, Milton 
Wi throw. 

Compani/ B. — Alfred Baldwin, William F. Ballard, 
J. B. Baylor, Joshua Bailey, Peter B. Few, Robert 
Faith, Lewis Hill, George R. Kibbey, Samuel McCor- 
mick, William Martin, Adam Sherman, John Wertz. 

Compani/ C. — Patterson McNutt, Tilmon 1). Kyger, 
John V. Don Carlos, David Branson, Lawrence Dye, 
Amasa Hasty, Abraham Jones, John S. Long, James 
S. Peck, Daniel Suycott, Chris. C. Shires, Walter Scott, 
Charles W. Cook, James F. Williams, Merida Thornton. 

Company D. — James C. Spencer, Hugh Galbreath, 
John Cronise, David Clover, Thomas Jones, Thomas 
Rush, James Howard. 

Company E. — John Shults, Joseph AL Dougherty, 
William A. Dougherty, Mahlon Aldridge, William 
Powell, Titus J. Fox, W. H. Neville (killed February, 
1890, railroad bridge wreck, Peoria, Illinois). 

Company F. — William Toberman, William 0. Wiley, 
Absalom Newkirk, Ephraim Phillips, James D. Evans. 
Harvey Long, Isaac Eisinminger, Charles Loutzenhizer, 
Noah T. Barrack, Stephen Work, Sidney Anderson, 
George Montgomery, George W. Brown, Logan Knowles, 
James A. Coil, Henry Fars. 



INOERSOLL'S DIARY. 641 

Coinpany G. — William Emery, Alex. Pennington, 
Oscar Gorsage, John Wright, Smith Wright. 

Company TI. — John Prather, Samuel C. Cohenoui', 
William Harris, James Lytle, Marion Fuller, James 
Green, Oliver II. Anderson. 

Company I. — John W. Joy, William Crooker, William 
0. Gamble, James Fortner, Cole Moxson, Jas. N. Barger. 

Company K. — D. INI. Davis, Perry Fulton, Joseph 
Heiple, Henry HincholifT, James Lancaster, Henry G. 
Morgan (found shot in woods in jNIissouri, 1880; sup- 
])0sed suicided or assassinated), Enoch JMartin (accident- 
ally shot, 18GG), John Rodman, Elijah Stacy, D. B. 
Van Winkle. 

Captain E. J. IngersoU's memoranda, covering dates 
November 29 to December 1, 18G4, inclusive, besides 
corroborating fully other statements as shown in chap- 
ter vi, also furnish the following additional testimony 
concerning Spring Hill, the falling back to Franklin, 
and the battle there : 

" Nvuember L'9tJi. — . . . Skirmished with cavalry. Que man 
of Company G received a sliglit wound. On picket again at 
night, south-east of Spring Hill, left of regiment resting near the 
pike. Crawled to top of ridge, and looked over into Confederate 
camp ; so close we could hear conversation in enemy's camp. Our 
troops kept moving all night. 

"November oOth. — Relieved from picket; formed skirmish- 
line. . . . Regiment rear guard, and skirmished all forenoon. 
Hard duty. Very tired. 

" ^.^ P. M. — N earing Franklin. Rebel army appeared to be 
marching in close column, ready for engagement. Enemy's cav- 
alry in force on our right and left flanks. 

" J F. M. — Passed through two brigades of mir division. Had 
some conversation with artillerymen about their position. Colonel 
Opdycke ordered our brigade inside fortifications, to prepare 
lunch. Brigade formed in rear of the Carter Hill and house, in 
coluum of regiments ; 73d in front, left resting at the pike. 

41 



642 MORE ABOUT FRANKLIN. 

Noticed two regiments of new troops in worlcs in line, one an Ohio, 
the other a Missouri regiment. Called to assist the majctr 
commanding regiment. Held conversation with the major; 
suggested a move forward nearer crest of hill in rear of works, by 
which time cavalry on our right were skirmishing lively, and a few 
s])eut balls fell among our boys. Major ]Mothersi>aw did not like 
to move regiment Avithout orders. Troops in front engaged those 
in works south of Carter house. Very uneasy. That part of 
artillery left out in front went to rear under full whip. Major 
Motherspaw Aveut to left of regiment and said : ' We will move 
out of ravine.' Called regiment to 'attention.' The boys sprang 
to arms. Balance of brigade did the same. The brigades out in 
front fell back in confusion. Kebels charged. Everything looked 
panichj at this time, exce])t Opdycke's brigade. The major gave 
the command, ' Forward !' Boys began to cheer and yell as they 
advanced ; they tore down a picket-fence also. Balance of brigade 
caught the enthusiam, and went to the works, too; so far as I 
know, without orders. As the left wing of the 73d was nearing 
the Carter house, a staff officer of our brigade rode up and 
said: ' Seventy-third, for God's sake, halt I' I repeated the command, 
halted about fifty men long enough to start again, and then all 
Avent on to the Avorks together. Some of the new troops Avent back 
Avith us, as did also many of Conrad's and Lane's men. Think the 
charge without a parallel in our army. One of Company K 
bayoneted a rebel on the Carter house steps. I passed from Cartel- 
house to cotton-gin, then returned to first piece of artillery in 
rear of Carter house. Captain Patton, Adjutant Wilmer, and 
myself assisted artillerymen in firing until ammunition gave out. 
A lieutenant of French's division surrendered at the cannon's 
mouth. I took him to brigade head-quarters. Met General Cox 
on the pike in front of Carter house about five P. ]M., and again 
at about ten P. M., the only general officer I saw on the ground. 
Was struck by a ball on left arm Avhile assisting in firing cannon. 
When we reached the Avorks, the rebels Avere mostly on the out- 
side. AVe left the line about eleven o'clock P. M., crossed Harpeth 
Kiver for Nashville, arriving December 1, 1864." 

Captain Ingersoll says that, as to orilcrs, Major 
IMotherspaAv deserved more credit than any other man, 
as he finally ordered the regiment to crest of hill, Avhere 
every man could instantly see tliat tlie onh^ salvation 



TH F.R S TA TKMKS TS. 643 

for the army was for our brigade to retake and hold 
the works in front of Carter house. Having thus seen 
the imperative need of the occasion, the brigade proved 
equal to the supreme emergency, and saved the day 
and the Army of (he West. After the wounding of 
Major Motherspaw, the command of the 73d devolved 
upon Captain Burroughs. 

In looking through the mass of letters Avhich have 
accumulated since we have been preparing this histoiy, 
we found the first statement., made by Joseph Cun- 
ningham, also statements made by T. C. Hatch and 
John S. Parke, of Company B, in each of which the 
leading features of the situation at the battle of Frank- 
lin, and the part performed by the 73d, are set forth 
substantially the same as in all other statements here- 
in. Sergeant Parke says : 

" AVlien Hood made his impetuous cliarge, the Tod was lyinj^ 
iu rear of the Carter house. The 44th jNIissouri bi-oke, and came 
ninuing to the rear through our lines. One of Coni})any B, lieu 
Oj)dycke (no relation to the colonel), said : ' Let's stop this stam- 
pede.' AVith that the regiment started for tlie front without regu- 
lar formation." 

T. C. Hatch says, in recounting the work of the 73d 
at Franklin, that he did not know what the balance of 
the ai'my was doing at the same time, but expresses 
the opinion that all who remained in or about the works 
did their best. 

Harlin P. Tuthill, of Company K, has furnished a 
statement on the C(dumbi:i-h'r:inklin campaign, ti>«) 
late for insertion in propei' place, in the sixth chapter. 
According to said statement, we remained at or near 
Columbia one or two days, and built breastworks. The 
73d was in the advance on tli(^ march to Spring Hill. 



644 FRANKLJi\ again: 

We reached Spring Tlill some time aftei- noon, November 
29th,. and left there early next morning for Franklin. 
Our regiment was a part of the rear guard, and 
marched, or fell back, in line of battle nearly the whole 
of the way to Franklin. At about four o'clock P. M., 
were ordered to retake the works that had been sui- 
rendered. On the way up to the works, (Jomrade 
Tuthill was shot through the leg, and afterwards made 
his way across the river, was put in an ambulance, and 
reached Nashville before morning of December 1, 1S04. 
The 73d had stacked arms some distance in the rear 
of line of works for the purpose of cooking supper, not 
having hail an opportunity to cook anything since the 
night before, and were then ordered by Major Mothers- 
paw to recapture the section of the works near the 
turnpike. On the way we encountered hundreds of 
new recruits (new clothes) running back. After over- 
coming these and other obstructions, the works were 
recovered and held until our forces voluntarily relin- 
quished them. 

Comrade Tuthill adds the following : 

"George Outnian was the first niau of Compatiy K killed. 
He was killed in the raih-oad cut, at Htone Uiver, December .'51, 
1862. Levi Crews was the last one killed, })eing killed at Kesaca, 
May 14, 1864." 

Company K escaped remarkably well during tlu; 
year 1864, the forogoing statement being true. The 
statement continues : 

" At Chickainauga, Company K had thirty men on the after- 
noon of the second day ; in a few minutes' time it had seven men 
killed, seven wounded, and four captured, jnustering only twelve 
men at the next roll-call. I was shot in the foot on the retreat 
across the open field. After reaching tlie woods, found ;m anibii- 



"PRE A (J HER regiment:' (\i'j 

lance. Lieuteuaiit Bailey, of Company B, and myself got in it, 
and, on invitation, Pat Sweeny, of Comj)any G, got out and dis- 
appeared too quickly, ambulance driver having one dead and two 
living passengers. Left for Chattanooga, arriving there during the 
night ; were moved next day across the river to field hospital, and 
later were sent across the mountains in army-wagons to Bridge- 
port, wliere we took the train for Nashville." 

HOW THK SEVKNTY-THIRD BECAME KNOWN AS 

Tin-: "I'ri':aciii-:r recument." 

In September, 18G2, the following communication 
appeared in the Cincinnati Commercial, and was co{)ied 
into nearly every paper in the United States, thus 
spreading widely the fame of the T/hI Illinois. It was 
written by Henry A. Castle, then adjutant's clerk, after- 
ward sergeant-major: 

" CoviNGTOX, Kentucky, September 17, 18(>2. 

•' Mr. Editor, — The following is a list of the held officers and 
ca})tains of the 7od Regiment of Illinois Volunteers, known at 
home as the " Methodist Preacher Regiment," now stationed at 
Camp Russell, in the suburbs of Covington : 

" Cohnel. — Rev. James F. Jaquess, D. I)., late president of 
Quincy College. 

" Lieutenant-Colonel. — Rev. Benjamin F. Northeott. 

" Major. — Rev. Wm. A. Presson. 

" Cu])tain.H. — Company A, Wm. E. Snuth ; Company B, Rev. 
W. B. M. Colt; Company C, Rev. P. MeNutt ; Company D, Th-.s. 
Motherspaw ; Company E, Wilson Burrougiis; Company F, Rev. 
Geo. W. IMontgomery ; Company C, John Sutton; Company H, 
Rev. Jas. I.Davidson; Com[)any I, Rev. Peter Wallace; Com- 
pany K, Rev. R. H. Laughlin. 

" Six or seven of the twenty lieutenants are also licensed Meth- 
odist preachers. Being thus officered, you may rest assuri'd we 
are a good set of boys. 11. a. C." 

" PICRSIMMON RIvOIMl'.NT." 
It was while on the march fr(»m Crab Orchard to 
Nashville, and later at Mill Creek in the fall of 180'.^, 



646 ''PERSIMMON REGIMENT." 

that the 73d displayed an unusual fondness for per- 
sinuno.ns — ripe ones. At the end of a hard march, near 
the close of day, if a persimmon-grove was any who le 
in the vicinity of the bivouac, everything, the pre]);i- 
rations for coflee and a night's rest, was subordinated 
by many of the regiment to the raid on the persim- 
mon-patch. The 2d Missouri, likewise, had a '• han- 
kering" for rails. At one time and place, Colonel 
Laiboldt grew a little impatient and restless while wit- 
nessing, and at the same time endeavoring to restrain, 
the efforts of the two regiments to gratify their respect- 
ive longings mentioned above. He declared wilh 
emphasis that if there was a pile of rails and a per- 
simmon-tree in the public square of Richmond (Va.), 
he could take the 2d Missouri and 73d Illinois regi- 
ments and capture that city. 

It was in this way, manifesting this fondness for 
persimmons — ripe persimmons — that the 73d gained the 
soubriquet of " Persimmon Regiment." 

NAMHS OF PERSONS NOT MEMBERS OF THE SEVENTV- 

THIRl), WHO WERE PATRONS OF THIS IHSTORY IN 

ADVANCE OF PUBLICATION. 

Charles AUinger, 2d Missouri Infantry, Fond du 
Lac, Wis. ; Arthur MacArthur, 24th Wisconsin Infantry, 
Washington, D. C. ; Henry F. Router. 2(1 Mis.soiu'i 
Infantry, Nashville, 111.; August F. Tauherl, 44th Illi- 
nois, Pekin, 111.; Olive Newliu, Danville, 111.; Mrs. 
S. W. Cook, Evansville, Ind.; W. H. Hodge, J. P., 
Rushville, 111.; G. W. Oliver, Griggsvill.^ III.; .Afrs. 
(J. M. Harrington, Griggsville, III.; Mrs. ,lob Clark, 
Perry, 111.; Mrs. Lizzie E. Kyger, Danville, III. ; V. M. 
Simmons, 137th Illinois Infantry, Griggsville, 111.; H. 
l]\atis, Wm. Rrar^turv, d. M. P>r(>wning. J. Sha.-lid, 



NAMES OF FATROXS. G4T 

James Whittaker, John Wicha, Perry, 111.; General 
John McNulta, 94th Illinois Infantr}^, Chicago, 111. ; 
Thos. B. Holt, 4th Illinois Cavalry, Pekin, 111.; Captain 
A. Behrens, Chris. Frederick, 44th Illinois Infantry, 
Pekin, 111. ; D. C. Smith, Ex-M. C, 8th Illinois IntMntry, 
Pekin, 111. ; E. F. Unlan, Ex-Memher Illinois General 
Assembly, 8th Illinois Infantry, Pekin, III. ; Mrs. Edwin 
Nichols, Delavan, 111. ; Mrs. J. B. Baylor, Fairbnry, 111. ; 
Hiram H. Ashmore, Chaplain, 25th Illinois Infantry, 
Peoria, 111. ; J(din Trowbridge, Lewis II, Burns, Green 
Valley, Illinois ; George Little, Mrs. Sarah G. Wright, 
,1. G. Noland, Hushville, 111. ; Miss Lucy Young, Bloom- 
field, Iowa; Anna E. Dean, Griggsville, 111.; E. C. 
Bradbury, Conway, Kan. ; II. H. Brengleman, Thomas 
Boothby, Perry, 111.; Lewis Brown, B. Ta\lor, Delavan, 
111. ; Dennis Turpin, James F. Turpin, James M. Hur- 
ley, Ephraim Hurley, Loanii, 111. ; Thonuis Osborne, 
13th Kentucky Infantry, Loami, 111. ; James M. Hawas, 
16th Illinois Cavalry, Loanii, 111. ; il. L. Underwood, 
Perry, 111.; Clarinda Olin, McLean, 111.; F. 8. Halliday, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 

NAlNlIiS AND POST-OFFICES OF SURVIVING COMRADES OF 

THE SEVENTV-TIIIRD, AS FAR AS KNOWN OR 

REPORTED. 

FiKi-D AND Staff. — James F. Jaquess, London, Eng., 
(January, 1890), Tunica, Miss. ; William A. Pres.son, 
Yuma., Col. ; Wilson Burroughs, Fairmount, III. ; George 
(). Pond, Camp Point, 111.; Robert PL Stephenson, 
Olathe, Kan. ; James W. L. Slavens, Kansas City, Mo.; 
Richard R. Randall, Lincoln, Neb.; Isaac N. Jaquess, 
Mt. Carmel, 111.; Henry A. Castle, St. Paul, Minn.; 
RolxM-t J. Alexander, Mound City, Kan.; Riley M. 
lioskiuson, Port Blakcloy. Washington; ,Iosei)h O. Joy, 



048 POST-OFFICE ADDRESSES OF SURVIVORS. 

Loanii, 111. ; John W. Hush, Lanuir, Mo. ; I»enj. F. North- 
cott, Linneus, Mo. 

Company A. — Richard Baker, Mechanicsburg, 111.; 
AVilliam S. Bullard, Mech.'.nicsburg, 111. ; William It. 
Billiard, Olena, Ark. ; Emanuel Cross, Mechanicsburg, 
111. ; David C. Fletcher, Mechanicsburg, 111. ; Thomas 
W. P'ortune, Springfield, 111. ; Harrison P. IIani[)ton, 
Illiopolis, 111. ; Preston B. Hampton, Niles, Kan.; Jere. 
C. Ham, Stonington, 111.; .lohn L. Hesser, Riverton, 
111.; Jesse Humphrey, Niantic, 111. ; Eli Huckleberry, 
Illiopolis, 111. ; John S. Kizer, Niantic, III. ; Pierson H. 
Kizer, Mechanicsburg, 111. ; A. B. Iliatt, Belleflower, 
III. ; Joel Hudson, Lenora, Kan. ; John Marion, ]\Ie- 
chanicsburg, 111. ; Andrew ]\IcGath, Mechanicsburg, III. ; 
Robert McCurdy, Niles, Kan. ; William W. Meredith, 
Severy, Kan.; Richard Oliver, Niantic, 111. ; Samuel F. 
Ridgway, Springfield, 111. ; Thomas Underwood, Daw- 
son, 111. ; William Morgan Thaler, Palmyra, Neb. ; Ira 
J. Morgan, Holliday, 111. ; Henry M. Cass, Ilolden, 
Mo.; William H. Maxwell, Millersville, 111. 

Company B. — Harvey Pratt, 98 Turner Avenue, 
Chicago, 111.; David F. Lawler, Green Valley, 111.; 
Thomas J. Frazee, Green Valley, 111. ; Thomas J. Cas- 
saday. Green Valley, 111. ; James W, Mundy, Lincoln, 
111. ; Erastus R. Mundy, Broadwell, 111. ; William 11. 
McNichols, N(dvomis, 111. ; Charles W. McNichols, 
Oconee. 111. ; Benjamin F. Miller, Armington, 111. ; Cal- 
vin F. Randolph, Danvers, 111. ; Wm. B. AVard, Fair- 
bury, 111.; Darius Baylor, Gibson City, 111.; William 
A. Jacobus, Burt Newman, William MoDihead, Robert 
.1. Patterson, Delavan, III.; David W. Alexander, M(tund 
City, Kan.; Alfred A. Holmes, Ellis Day, Hiawatha, 
Kan.; Bcnj. Opedyke, RandoI])h, M... ; Jesse Holt, liaker, 



POST-OFFICE ADDRESSES OF SURVIVORS. (i49 

Kan. ; Daniel lioyden, Eldorado, Kan. ; Joel II. Fmck- 
nian, Lyndon, Kan.; Tra L. Lamphere, Los Angeles, 
Cal. ; DoWitt K. Gooch, Belleflower, 111.; Thomas C. 
Hatch, Iloldredge, Neb. ; Marshall IJrown, Sayhi'ook, 
111.; Cyrus M. l^ailey, Fairbury, Neb.; Thomas .1. 
Wakefield, Anson, Ivan. ; Jno. S.Parke, St. Louis, Mo.; 
George W. Ohniart, Palmyra, Neb.; Daniel .1. Lcid, 
Altamont, Kan.; Thonuis A. Martin, Smithfield, Mo.; 
Martin L. Freeman, Neligh, Neb.; John W. Holt, Oak- 
wood, Kan. ; Thomas P. Wright, Almena, Kan. ; Simon 
P. Bell, Olney, 111.; Alexis F. Cahow, Amite City, La,.; 
Abraham Provost, St. Louis, Mo. ; -lames Wa.kfdield, 
Clinton, 111.; Noah Drake, Plainfield, N. .1.; dohn II. 
Long, Colorado Springs, Col. ; Chas. L. Gale, ClTh-'ago, 
111.; Marion McCorniaek, McLean, 111.; Daniel W. Dil- 
lon, Peoria, 111. ; DaA'id II. Palmer, St. Louis, ^lo. ; 
Ileniy ^liller, Petersburg, 111. 

Company C— Mark D. Ilawes, Decatur, 111.; Wm. 
K. Lawrence, Danville, 111.; Wm. 11. Newlin, Spring- 
field, 111.; Richard N. Davies, Delavan, 111.; Samuel 
J. IJoen, Eugene, Ind. ; David McDonald, Georgetown, 
III.; Carey A. Savage, Danville, III.; William O. Un- 
derwood, Unionville, Mo. ; William 1). Cowan, llidge 
Farm, 111. ; John Braselton, (Georgetown, 111.; l^K.ch 
Braselton, Georgetown, 111. ; Nathan lirady, Ceoige- 
town. 111.; Clark B. Brant, Danville, 111.; Kobert W. 
Cowan, Georgetown, III; Jonathan Ellis, Quaker Hill, 
liid. ; Benjamin F. Edmonds, Georgetown. 111.; Hen- 
d(;rson Goodwin, Indianola, 111.; Uoni}' (!. Henderson, 
Humerick, III.; Austin Henderson, Homer. 111.; Thos. 
Judd, Cuba, 111.; Jehu Lewis, Georgetown, 111.; Thos. 
E. Madden, (Georgetown 111. ; Isaac IL Thointon, 
(leorgetown, III. ; I'raiicis M. Stevens, (irape Creek, 111. ; 



()•")() SKVKNTY-TIIIRD IIJ.INOIS SU itVIVOR.-^. 

.l;is. P. Slaughter. Logun, 111. ; Jiio. Triinljle, Blooining- 
(l.ile, 111.; Jas. Trimble, Sinter, Mo. ; Isaac If. Thoin[)son, 
KidgeFarm, 111. ; Jno. Bostwick, llidge Fiinii, 111. ; Win. 
1(. Cook, Alma, Ark. ; Geo. Ilolliiigswortli, Ridge Farm, 
III.; James E. JNIoore, L;i. Cygne, K;iii. ; Beiij. Purdiim, 
Ridge Farm, 111. ; Stephen jS'ewlin, Georgetown, III. ; 
Alex. C. Nicholson, Paxton, 111. ; Rob<'rt J. Uasty, 
Newport, Ind.; Wni. j\I. Sheets, Georgetown. 111.; Al- 
fred E. Lewis, Georgetown, 111. ; Wesley Bishop, Ridge 
1^'arni. 111. ; John M. Thompson, Palermo, 111. ; James 
T. Maudlin, Mound Valley, Kan. ; David W. Doop, 
('herryvale, Kan. ; John Doop, Chenyv.ile, Kan. ; Pleas. 
B. llutthian, Manchester, 111. ; Thomas T. Ashmore, In- 
dianola. 111.; William J). Bales, Oakwood, 111. ; William 
Cook, St. Joseph, III, ; Nathaniel Henderson, Sweet 
Water, Neb.; William Martin, Arkansas City, Kan.; 
George W. Martin, Arkansas City, Kan, 

Company I). — donas Jones, Monticello, III.; James 
n. Piper, Monticello, 111. ; John ]\I. Albert, Monticello. 
III.; John Musseluian, Argenta. 111.; John T. Talbert. 
JNIonticello, III.; ^Villianl I). Cottin, Bement, 111.; Win. 
Knowles, liement. 111. ; Jonas B, Garver, Deland, III. ; 
l^dward Williamson, Deland, 111. ; Samuel B. Garver, 
Farmer City, 111. ; John C. E. iMcMillan, Russell Springs, 
Kan,; Allen Heath, Iluml)oldt, Kan.; Stephen Vail, 
North Topeka, Kan. ; Lucian Langdon, Girard, Kan.; 
Elias M. Miller, Belle l^laiu, K:in. ; Richard M, Sturm, 
Eugene, Ind. ; William H. Secrist, Roscoe, ]\lo. ; Ira 
Kuapp, Roscoe, Mo.; Elishman Brady, Champaign, 
111.; Allen Wiley, Bloomington, 111.; Lem.anl McCar- 
dle, Beecher City, 111. ; John H. Weddle, Cisco, 111. ; 
Harry M. Alvord, Mansticld, 0.; James W. Hold, Ida 
(irove, la.; William J. Long, CarroUton. Neb.: Richard 



SEVE.XT Y THIRD ILFANOIS SUR I 'IVORS. 651 

S. Hopkins, Buflalo, Wyoming; James Y. Abnett, 
^lonticello, 111. ; Robert Newton, Mansfield, 111. ; John 
Reynolds, Perris, C;il. 

Company E. — Amos V>. Barker, Fairmount, 111. ; Reu- 
ben Jack, Fairmount, 111.; Charles Tilton, Fairmount, 
111. ; Edwin Robertson, Fairmount, 111. ; John Quinn, 
Fairmount, 111.; Thomas E. Rusby, Catlin, 111.; Aaron 
Dolbey, Homer, III.; llilkiah F. Meharry, Danville, 
III. ; Joseph L. Catlett, Sidell, III. ; Sampson McCool, 
Ridge Farm, 111. ; William McCool. Ridge Farm, 111.; 
Silas M. Busby, Ridge Farm, 111. ; Benjamin F. Kirk- 
ley, Paxton, 111. ; George Ward, Monticello, 111. ; John 
L. Moore, Leon, Kan.; David Blosser, Ilolton, Kan.; 
'J\jwnsend Ilendrickson, Scranton, South Dakota; Le- 
Grand J. Place, Newport, Ind. ; Butler Presson, Bea- 
trice, Neb.; George i\lcCully, Bellwood, Neb.; Patrick 
IMartin, Vandercook, 111. ; William J. Moore, George- 
town, 111. ; William H. Busby, Hebron, la. ; Cyrus J. 
Timmons, Urbana, 111. ; Joseph McBroom, Oakwood, 
111. ; William B. 'J\-iyl<)i-, New Salem, Kan. ; George E. 
Harvey, Selma, Kan. ; Charles Harvey, Lincoln, Mo. ; 
John W. Dutton, Washington, D. C. ; Geo. J. Harrier, 
Grape Creek, 111. 

Company F. — George Dudney, Tecumseh, Kan. ; 
George H. McKinnie, Beloit,Kan. ; Jacob Spivey, Min- 
neapolis, Kan.; Johnson W. Wright, Springfield, HI.; 
Ezra D. McMasters, Lincoln, 111.; James P. Stone, 
Lincoln, 111.; E'Uvard W. Bennett, Carbondale, III.; 
John Spindler, Paxton, III. ; Charles W. Keeley, VA- 
dred. 111.; Nelson G. Davis, New Ilollund. Jll.; Newton 
S. Dunn, New Holland, 111.; William Shaner, Mi<ldle- 
town, 111.; Wm. Boyer, JNIiddletown. 111. ; Peter Hoyer, 
Middletuwn, 111.: Dennis Barrick. Middhdowu, 111.; 



{'Jr2 SKVKXTY-THIRD ILLINOIS SihVl VCiIiS. 

Uobcit Weiiver, Middletown, 111. ; Jonathan C. Lloyd, 
MiddletoAvn, 111. ; William Banick, Sedalia, Mo. ; Mark 
S. Gordon, Broadwell, 111.; lletir}^ B. Dove, Broadwell, 
]ll.;William II. Van Meter, Elkh.-irt, III.; Benjamin II. 
Hunt, Eankin, 111.; Marion McGarvey, Ivoodhouse, 111.; 
Jesse L. Kinney, Schuyler, Neb.; John StoUard, Teka- 
mah. Neb.; Benj. ¥. Morris, Western, Neb.; Beriy 
llobbs, Edgar, Neb. ; Francis A. Craig, Central City, 
Neb.; Joseph A. Davidson, Biverton, Neb.; James II. 
Henderson, Dawson, Neb.; Allen W. Broddess, Deca- 
tur, 111. ; James J. Boland, Chester, 111. ; Wesley Long, 
Atlanta, 111.; Harvey Eisenminger, Hutchinson, Kan ; 
Joseph B. Thompson, Denver, Col. ; Abij.ih Anderson, 
Trenton, N. J.; Henry Schasteen, Mound City, Kan.; 
Samuel Burkett, Marion, In. ; Archibald Thompson, 
Eve, Mo. 

Company G. — Ezekiel J. IngersoU, Carbondale, 111. ; 
John E. Seward, Industry, 111. ; Kail Yapp, Industry, 
111.; Harris A. Vanorder, Ivushville, 111.; Jasper Hooker, 
Ilushville, 111. ; Stillman Stout, liushville, 111. ; Ered- 
erick Glossop, Ilushville, 111. ; George W. Vanorder, 
Bushville, 111.; John II. McGrath, Doddsville, 111.; 
Stujirt E. Iloskinson, Blakeley, Wash. ; Joseph Cun- 
ningham, Conwiiy, Mo. ; Joseph Vannatlan, S^tringfield, 
111.; Norman A. Vannattan, Springfield, 111.; Thomas 
Ilorton, Industry, 111.; James E. Tolle, Trenton, Mo.; 
William T. Purnell, Trenton, Mo. ; James Ilagle, Sa- 
l)etlia, Kan.; Peter H. K. Colt, Lincoln, Neb.; Louis 
Day, Upland, Neb.; Wm. H. Dimmick, Ludell, Kan.; 
John W. Worthbaugh, Clarks, Neb. ; John W. Dough- 
erty, Carthage, 111. ; George Swackhanuner, Montrose, 
Mo. ; John Swackhammer, Montrose, Mo. ; William II. 
Blackley, Bipley, 111.; Josiah Emery, Soldiers' Home, 



SKrEXTV- THIRD JLLJyOJS SIR 1 7 VORS. (ioS 

Minnehahn. ]\Iinn. ; Jacob C. Wekonic, Burns, Oieg. ; 
Win. T. Tulbott, Astoria, 111.; James AV. Davis, Muscle 
Fork, Mo.; William II. Dodge, Marshall, Mich. 

Company II. — T<isej)h L. ^Morgan, Qninc y. 111. ; Janios 
B. Wolgcninth, I'i.'ire, So. Dakoia; John W. .Sln'rvick, 
Camp Point, 111.; Juo.M. Mull, liradloidloii, III. ; Jliram 
Evans, Quincy, 111. ; Jos. Firestone, liig Nock, ill. ; John 
Hedges, Pana, 111.; Jas. Hedges, lvosann)nd, Jlk ; John 
Yelliott, Milton, 111. ; James Anthony, CiriggsviUe, 111.; 
VVm. Anthony, Griggsville,Ill.; Chas. IJickerdike, Griggs- 
ville, 111. ; James Bickerdike, Griggsville, 111. ; Francis 
A. Phillips, Griggsville, 111. ; Giles H. Penstone, Griggs- 
villa, III.; Edwin McCallisler, Griggsville, 111. ; William 
II. Wilson, Perry, 111.; John J. Goullee, .\c\v Florence, 
Mo.; James Lancaster, Mt. Sterling, la.; DeWitt C. 
Simmons, Salem, Neb.; William G. Ja(jucs.-. Tunica, 
Miss.; Josejih D. Cawthon, Kingston, Mo.; ^lartiu 
Culler, Little Indian, 111.; Smith Bist, Little Indian, 
111.; Jesse B. Newport, Girard, Kan. ; Archibald CJood- 
win, Girard. Kan.; Isaac Lytle, Arcadia, Kan. ; Simeon 
Baldwin, Parsons, Kan.; Alpheus Winegar, Lenerxa, 
Kan.; Joshua Duran, Carlinville, Mo.; (ico. Y. John- 
son, Willis. Kan.; James ^IcKnight, Barnard, .Mo.; 
Edward Penstone, Pittsfield, 111. 

Company I. — George W. Patten, St. Elmo, Tenn. ; 
Peter Wallace, Clinton, 111.; James M. Turpin, Loami, 
111.; William E. Joy, Loami, 111.; Calvin J. llinn.:.):. 
Loami, 111.; James M. Joy, Wavcrly, 111.; Adna Pliclp.-. 
S[);ingfield, Jll. ; John F. Drennan, Auburn, III.; Jas. 
AV. Osborne, Auburn, 111.; W^m. M. Corzine, Auburn, 
III.; John N. AVilliams, Auburn, 111.; J(din C. Clowcr. 
Zenobia, III.; Wm. Forlncr. linn-kiniidge. 111.; Francis 
M. Kellev, Morrisonville, 111.; INJ.c-t N. S. Larger, 



654 THE OFFICIAL RECORD. 

llopedale, III.; Alex. (^ Rea, Sigei, 111.; Alex. ^[. 
Ca.ssily, Tayloiville, 111. ; Edward S. Turner, Trumbull, 
Neb.; Wiley W. Fortner, Slater. Mo.; Thus. N. Baker, 
Le Loup, Kan.; John W. Fisher. Artlmr. 111.: Lucius 
V. Gould. Folsoni, C;il.; Ivichard R. Roberts. Lonixtou, 
Kau.: Chauncey H.Ciistle, Qiiiucy, III.; llirain T. 
ColTnian. Mason City, Neb. : James 1>. Kemiiigton, Na- 
tional Military Home. 0.; Charles R. Campbell, Os- 
wego, K;in. 

CoMPANV K.— Wiley Gray. Kikville, 111.; Benajah 
Morgan, DeSoto, 111.; Wm. M. Karnes, Pa.lucah, Ky.; 
James A. Rice, Ilarrisburg, 111.; Reuben W. Laughlin, 
Benkleman, Neb.; llarlin P. Tuthill, Anna. 111. ; Geo. 
Kolb. DeSoto, 111.; George B. Corry, DeSoto. 111.; 
Noah Fariier, DeSoto. 111.; Henry Nosley, DeSoto, III. ; 
Hol)iiison Crews, DeSoto, 111. ; Alvas Rude, DeSoto. 
111.; Jacob Millhouse, DeSoto, 111.; Frank Heiple, De- 
Soto. 111.; Samuel Ileiple, DeSoto, III.; John Heiple, 
DeSoto, 111.; Henry Heiple, DeSoto, 111.; John W. 
Purdy, Makanda, 111.; Kliphaz C. Porter, Vergeunes, 
III. ; Benjamin Spieth, Doniphan, Neb. 

WAR RKCORD. 

Vv^mi i\\(i oflicial records we present the following, foi- 
which we are indebted to Captain Patten, of St. Elmo, 
Tennessee, and J. W. Kirkley, of the War Records 
l*ublicati(»ii OIHce, War Department, Washington City, 
D. C. 

From N'^olume XVI, Series I, Part 1, R(^[>orts, l)age 
1036, Ollicial Records, War of the Rebellion, we lind 
losses of the 73d Illinois Volunteers, at Perry ville, Ken- 
tucky, ()ct(d3er 8, 1 802, stated, as being two killed, 
thijty-three wounded. Total loss, thirty-live. 



FX TRA C TS—SHER IDA A' " .S' A KROR T. T) 5 

Page 1081, same volume, shows the following: 

" I can not speak with too much praise of the good conduct of the 
officer? and men of my whole division, all of wliom were engaired. 
The new troo])s vied witli the t)ld trooj)s of the division in their 
coolues.< nnd courage." (Sheridan's report on Perryville.) 

A^duuie XX, Series I, Part I, page 209, shows losses 
of Tod at Stone River to be eighty-eight in all. 

Pa"^es 2G0, 201, same volume, shows the losses of 
regiment at Stone River to be twenty-two killed, 
fifty-two wounded. Total seventy-four; the ca])tured 
and missing not included. 

On page o51, same volume, we find these words: 

" 1 refer with pride to the splendid conduct, bravery, and ef- 
liciency of the fuHowing regimental commanders, and the officers 
jind men of their resi)ective commands." (Sheridan's rejtnrt on 
Stone Kiver. ) 

Among the regimental commanders embraced in the 
list is, -'Major W. A. Presson, 73d Illinois, wounded." 

Same volume, page o()5, shows the report of Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Bernard Laiboldt, 2d ^lissouri Infantry, 
commanding 2d Rrigade : 

" nKAl)-<jUAKTKUS SlCCONU BcK . Al iK, Tl 1 1 KO l>IVIMi>N,~l 

'• Rk.iit Win(;, ,I;innary 7, iMili. I 

" I have the honor to sul)mit to you a lepcrl of the part taken 
by the brigade I now liave the honor to conuiuind, in the battle in 
front of Murfreesboro : 

"The brigade, then in command of tbe lamented Coh)nel Fred- 
erick Schaefer, was assigned jMisition as reserve of the third (Hvis- 
ion, on December 30th, and took no part in the engagement on ilif 
left on that day. 

" Sliortly after daybreak next morning, I )ecend>cr 31st, (.'olonel 
Scliaefer received orders to re-enforce General Sill's hrigade with 
two regiments, and the ir)th Missouri Volunteers and 44th Illinois 
Volunteers, mider command of Lieutenant-Colonel Weber, (tf the 
ir.th IMissouri Volunteers, were accordingly sent to (Miural Sill, 



656 LAIBOLDT—STONE RIVER. 

witli orders to report to him lor July. The 2(1 Biittalion of the 
73d Illinois Vohiuteers, under command of Major Pressoii, was 
detached, to protect Captain Hescoek's battery, while the other bat- 
talion of the 7od Illinois Volunteers and the lid Missouri V'^olun- 
teers were held iu reserve. 

"The loth Missouri Volunteers, and the 44th Illinois Vol- 
unteers had a position assigned to them about thirty yards in 
rear of General Sill's brigade, when, after a short interval, Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Weber received orders to advance in doul)le- 
(juick. The order was promptly executed, and Lieutenant-Colonel 
Weber found himself iu front of the enemy, the artillery 
previously stationed there having retreated, leaving one Parrott 
gun, supposed to belong to Carpenter's battery, Davis's division, 
behind. The two regiments mentioned kept up a strong tiring ; 
ami even when one regiment on their left broke and ran, they held 
their j)ositiou until attackeil from the flank and front at once. 
Lieutenaut-Colonel Weber then retreated in good order, keeping 
up a constant firing, until, being heavily pressed by the enemy, he 
reached a corn-field, where he iialted. 

" Sooji afterwards our trooj)s on the left advanced again on the 
enemy, Avhen Lieutenaut-Colonel Weber also rapidly advanced to a 
place about fifty yards iu advance of his previous position, and 
formed in line of battle. He had the gun above referred to 
dragged l)y his men to the rear of his column, from where it after- 
ward was removed to a safer place. Lieutenant-Colonel Weber con- 
tested his ground admirably until the enemy advanced six C(jlumns 
deej), and the ammunition of the 15th Missouri Volunteers gave 
out; the 44th Illinois Volunteers having previously withdrawn. 
Then the order to retreat was given and carried out without im- 
propei' haste, until the edge of the timber was reached, when the 
])ressure by the enemy was so hard, that it became necessary to 
resort to the double-quick. 

"By the time the IStU Missouri Volunteers and 44th Illinois 
\'olunteers rejoined the brigade, orders were given in retreat across 
the pike toward a piece of cedar woods, and two companies of the 
2d Mis.souri Volunteers were deployed as skirmishers to retard the 
ra|)id advance of the enemy. 

"The whole brigade, with the exception of the 1st Battalion ot' 
the 7.'>d Illinois Volunteers, under temporary command of Cai)tain 
liergan, and being a short distance from the main body, arrived 



OFFICIAL—STONE RIVER. 657 

aafely at the woods above mentioned, at the edge of wliich the 
2d Missouri Volunteers, behind natural and very favorable for- 
tifications of huge and deejjly cut rocks, opened a brisk fire 
on the enemy, which kept him at bay for a cousideraljle length 
of time. 

"The first Battalion of the 73d Illinois Volunteers was at tlic 
same time attacked by the enemy, but repulsed them. When in 
the attempt to join the brigade, the battalion was, by the advance 
of General Rousseau, separated, but, keeping up a constant firing, 
crossed the pike and took a position in the cedar grove. Here 
Captain Bergan, commanding the battalion, withstood three dif- 
ferent charges of a whole rebel cavalry brigade, and was shortly 
afterward enabled to join his brigade. 

" By this time the ammunition of the 2d Missouri Volunteers 
had given out, as Avell as that of the rest of the brigade, and they 
were ordered into the thicket of the cedar grove. After the lapse 
of one hour, the brigade was enabled to receive ammunition, and 
had a new position assigned to them on the Chattanooga Railroad. 
Cohmel Schaefer ordered the loth Missouri Volunteers to deploy 
iii a corn-field, while the balance of the brigade held the railroad, 
and kept up such a galling and well-aimed fire, that the enemy, 
though of a strength to which our force was hardly comparable, 
and fighting with the utmost dtsperation, was again and again 
repulsed. 

" The 15th Missouri Volunteers, being in danger of being out- 
flanked, retreated toward the position of the brigade, and it was 
at that moment, when about giving orders to said regiment, that 
the true soldier and brave man, my lamented predecessor, Colonel 
Frederick Schaefer, fell. By order of General Sheridan, I a.ssumed 
forthwith the command of the brigade, the SOth Illinois V<jlun- 
teers, commanded by Captain Olson, having been attiiched to it; 
and, after taking up another favorable position on the line of the 
railroad, I was enabled to hold the enemy in check in spite of his 
despurate eudeavoi-s until night broke in, and the bloody drama of 
that day was ended. 

"On January 1, 1863, at two A. ]M., my brigade was ordered 
to take a position in front of an open field, edged by heavy tind)or, 
and I had, as so(m as daylight permitted, heavy breastworks en-cted 
along the whole front I was to protect, and, keeping a vigilant look- 
out, I held that position until danuary ()th, when I was ordi'red to 
advance to the pn\sent caiiii). Tin- olliccrs and incn of the briiiade 



658 CHATTANOOGA— RINGGOLD CAMPAIGN. 

all behaved as would naturally be expected of veteran soldiers who 
liave heretofore earned the highest ])raise for their bravery and 
gallantry, and to enumerate single ones would lianlly be in justice 
to the balance. 

"Among those wlio laid down their lives for our holy cause, I 
particularly lament Captain Zimmerman and Lieutenants Kellner 
and Quintzius, of the 15th INIissouri Volunteers; Captain Als(jp, 
of the 73d Illinois Volunteers; Captain llJjsmer, of the 44th Illi- 
nois Volunteers ; Lieutenant Taliaferro, of the 1st Missouri Artil- 
lery. May their relatives find a consolation, as their comrades do, 
in the thought that the death on the battle-field for the righteous 
cause wins immortal laurels for the slain ! 

" I can not omit to mention Captain llescock's battery, which, 
on December 31st, as oftentimes before, did splendid execution. 
The skill and bravery of its officers is almost pi-overbial, and need 
not be further commented on by me than to express my heartiest 
gratification that they stood by me as formerly, with right good- 
will and telling courage. Inclosed, I have the honor to transmit a 
list of the causalties in my brigade. 

" I am sir, your obedient servant, B. TjAIBolut, 

"Lieutenant-Colonel 2d ]\Iissouri Volunteer Infantry, commanding 
" 2d Brigade, 3d Division, right wing. 
" First Lieutenant George Lee, 

"Acting Assistant Adjutant-General, ?>d i)i vision." 

The report of Colonel Francis T. Sherman, com- 
manding 1st Brigade, 2(1 Division, 4th Army Corps, on 
the Cliattanooga, Ringgold campaign, covering Novem- 
ber 2.V27, 1863, showeth as follows, in No. 28, Volume 
XXXI, Part II, pages 194, 195, 196, thereof: 

'■^November QJ^th. — At four A. j\[., orders were received to jdace 
three regiments of my brigade on the right of the 3d Brigade in 
prolongation of their first line, behind hastily constructed rifle- 
pits. In obedience to this order, the 44th Illinois, 3(>th Illinois, 
and the 73d Illinois, were thus placed, and Colonel W. W. Barrett, 
a.ssigned to take command of them, the 88th Illinois and 74th 
Illinois in rear as support to the above regiments. This disposition 
of the brigade remained unchanged until twelve noon of 25th, 
when the entire division line was moved forward some three hun- 
dred yards. The other regiments of my brigade were moved to 



MISSJOXA R Y RIDGE— OFFICIAL. 659 

the ri<:ht and rear of the line, Avheu they were I'onntrd in ilie fol- 
lowing order, in four liue< : 

"First line: 44th, 36th, and 73d IWnnn^, Colonel Barrett 
commanding. 

"Second line: 88th Illinois and l.'4th Wii^con-siu, Colonel ]\ni- 
k-r commanding. 

"Third line: 22d Indiana, Colonel Gooding commanding. 

" Fourth line : 2d iMiss(niri, 15th Mi.s,souri, and 74th lUinoiis, 
Colon 1 I-.aiboldt commanding." 

The report de.scribes the ascent of JMissioiiary llidge 
up to and including the taking of the enemy's second 
line of works, then proceeds : 

" Again the onler to advance was resjiouded to with cheers, 
the colors borne by their brave and gallant bearers taking the 
lead, each bearer wishing to be the first to j)lace the V)anner of his 
regiment upon the last of the rebel works. Slowly and surely we 
pressed up the hill, overcoming all obstacles, defying the enemy in 
his efforts to check our determiired advance. Officers and men alike 
vied with each other in deeds of gallantry and bravery, cheering 
one another on to the goal for which we were contending. In this 
manner we gradually worked our way to the summit over the 
rugged sides of the ridge, every foot being contested by the enemy. 
Itocks were thrown upf)n our men when the musket ceased to be 
of use, but to no purpose. When within ten yards of the crest, our 
men seemed to be thrown forward as if by .some }>owerfal engine, 
and the old flag was planted firmly and surely on the last line of 
works of the enemy, followed by the men taking one battery of 
artillery. The battle was won, and Mission Ridge was taken, while 
the enemy fled in great disorder from before our victorious troops, 
who took whole companies of the rebels prisoners." 

No claim is made by Colonel Sherman on beh.-ilf of 
his own regiment, lite 8Sth Illinois, that its colors were 
the first ])lanted on the summit of the ridge. Being 
tlie brigade commaii<ler, it might not Jiavc been sti-i<lly 
proper for him to have done so, even if Ilic facts had 
\v;irranted it — which they probably did not, the 8bth 
Itcinif in the second line. 



660 COLONEL F. T. SHERMAN'S REPORT. 

Referring in terms of praise to Colonels Luiboldt 
and Miller, of the 2d Missouri and 3Gth Illinois, the 
report concludes : 

'l take great pleasure in calling the attention of the general 
commanding to their distinguished services. I also recommend to 
the general commanding, for favorable notice, Colonel Jac^uess, 7od 
Illinois; Colonel Barrett, 44th Illinois; Colonel Marsh, 74th Illi- 
nois ; Colonel Conrad, 15th Missouri ; Lieutenant-Colonel Chan- 
dler, 88th Illinois; Lieuteuaut-Colouel Olson, 36th Illinois; Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Beck, 2d Missouri, for meritorious conduct and cool 
courage they displayed in the action, each one leading his regiment 
in the assault, until the ridge was taken, and by their example 
encouraging and inspiring their men with confidence to deeds of 
bravery and valor. I take this opportunity to make favorabhj 
mention of the officers attached to the brigade staff. Captain B. 
Carroll, Lieutenant John M. Turnbull, Lieutenant N. P. Jackson, 
and Lieutenant jNIorse, 21st Michigan, acting assistant adjutant- 
general, for the prompt and cool manner in which they executed 
the orders intrusted to them." 

From No. 29, page 198, same volume, we copy the 
following from the report of Lieutenant-Colonel Porter 
C. Olson, commanding the 36th Illinois, in the battle 
of Missionary ltid<2:e : 

"Of the conduct of the enlisted men, the facts stated in this 
report form a more brilliant compliment than any other that could 
be given. I must, however, mention the name of the flag-bearer. 
Private William R. Fall, of Comi)any C, for bravery. Ho can 
have no superior; he was among the first to reach the summit and 
wave the Stars and Stripes in the face of the enemy." 

From No. 30, page 199, same volume, we cop}- from 
the report of Colonel W. W. Barrett, rommanding the 
44th Illinois, and first line, in which line .ilso were the 
oOth and 73d Illinois, as follows: 

"At this point Captain Harnisch, of C(jmpauy E, took the 
colors which had fallen, and, while carrying iliem conspicuously 
up to the third line of works, was shot dead. Tlie colors were now 



COLONEL J. F. JAQUESS'S REPORT. GGl 

tiiken up by Abraham Loring, a private of Company H, wlio 
carried tbein conspicuously in front of the whole line, and planted 
them first of any uj)on the enemy's works on top of the 
ridge. 

" I desire to make especial mention of Abraham Loring, a pri- 
vate of Comj)any H, for his bravery in taking the fallen colors 
and planting them first upon the ridge, and Benedi'-t AValdvogel, 
a private, Company A, who, by killing a rebel capt;iin, caused the 
capture of an entire company of the enemy." 

No. 31,pnges 200, 201, same volume, we copy in full : 

Rl-,PORT OF COLONEL JAMES F. JAQUESS, SEVEXTV-THIRD 
ILLINOIS INF\\NTRY. 
" IlKAD-yrAKTEKS 7.'!d Regiment, Illinois Infantky. ) 
" CiiATTANOuciA, Novcuiber 27, 1808. • 

"Colonel, — I have the honor to submit the following report, 
of the part taken l)y my regiment in the engagement of the 25th : 

''There seemed to be a perfect confidence among officer.s and 
men in the success of the move to be made ; hence the order for 
forward was received with unusual joy and delight. In making 
the charge across the valley and up Mission Ridge, the regiment was 
in front, with the 44th Illinois on the right, and the 36th Illinois 
4)n the left. There was no faltering. When we reached the first 
rifle-pits, we halted but for a moment to take breath ; having ad- 
vanced on the run for ahout one mile, the men were quite ex- 
hausted. It required but a few moments, however, till we were 
ready for the ' forward !' On we charged, passing the second line 
of works, dealing death to the flying foe. The ascent from here 
to the top of the hill was difhcult. The fallen trees, rocks, and 
underbrush, though impeding our progress, afforded us some pro- 
tection, and over these we climbed under the flying missiles of the 
foe, eager to plant our colors on the top of tlie ridge. AVe were 
among the first that reached the goal. 

" I have no language equal to the ta^k of expressing my ad- 
miration of the courage and noble daring of my officers and men. 
To make special mention of any would seem to do injustice to 
others, but I must be allowed to speak of a few cases of special 
note. Lieutenant-Colonel Davidson was wounded at the first rifle- 
j)it, after having heroically and bravely cheered the men through 
tiie storm of shot and shell that was poured out on us, as we crossed 
the open fiehl in reaching the enemy's first works. He was ordered 



662 COLOR-BEAIIER II. J. IfASTY. 

to the rear. Captuiu Bennett, in charge of Couipauies A, B, aud 
F, deployed as skiriuishers, assisted by Captaiu Cross, of Company 
A, Lieutenant Patten, of Company B, did a work tliat entitles 
them aud their men to lasting praise and honor. Captain Kyoer, 
of Company C, i'ov galhiutry iu pusliing forwanl the colors, and 
Captain JMorgau, of Company H, and Lieutenaut Wolgemuth, of 
tlie same Company, Lieutenant Bodman, commanding Company 
D, and Lieutenant Van Winkle, cummauding Otimpauy K, deserve 
great praise for courage and promptness iu pushing ft)r\vard their 
respective companies. Lieutenant Tiltou, Ailjutant Wilnier, aud 
Sergeaut-Miijor Garrett, my special assistants alter Lieutenant- 
Colonel Davidscm was wounded, did nol)le service. 

" Captaiu Burroughs, of Company E, deserves special mention, 
he being the only captaiu remaining of those presi'ut at the organi- 
zation of the regiment. Captain Burrouglis has beeu iu every 
fight, and has displayed coolness and courage which has won the 
admiration of all. Corporal Hasty, the bravest of the brave, wh.j 
carried the colors, has wou for himself, his cause, and his country, 
everlasting honors, and no officer or soldier iu this or any other 
part of the army deserves more praise than C'orporal Hasty. He 
will be rewarded with promotion in his company. His as.sociates 
in the color-guard did nobly. 

"The 7.')d Illinois capture<l more prisoners in number than there 
were men ni the regiment. The casualties iu the regiment were : 
three privates killtid ; one officer — Lieutenant-Colonel David.sou — 
wounded ; tweuty-three privates wounded, some two or three of 
them mortally. The 73d Regiment Illinois Volunteers has lo.st 
many valuable meu since it entered the service, but is still ready 
for any emergency of march or battle. We are ready to do or 
sutler. I have tiie honor to be Yours truly, 

"jA>rKS F. jAiiUKSS, 

"Colonel 73d Illinois Infantry Volunteers. 
" Cot.oNKr, F. T. SuKKMA.N, (.'onlmanlliIl^' 1st Brigade, LM Division, 
4tli Army Oorps." 

rrom No. 32, ))nges 202-3, same volume, beino- the 
report of Jasoii Marsh, colonel commanding 74th Illi- 
nois Volunteers, we extract the following : 

" Where all diil their duty so nobly, so bravely, it wmdd be un- 
just and impracticai)le to particularize individuals; and yet I can 



COLOR-FiEAllEliS DID NOBLY. ()03 

not forbeiir to make mention of the unexampled bravery of my 
CA)lor-l)earer, Sergeant Alien, who kept the advance from the first 
until within six or eight rods of the crest, where he was struck down 
and disabled. The flag was then seized by Corporal S. C. Comp- 
ton, who bravely bore it erect to within a few feet of the crest, when 
he was shot dead. Private Hensey, of Comj)auy 1, then seized it, 
as by instinct of duty, and planted it where it was started — on 
the l)reast-work, on the very crest of Missionary Ridge, which 
they had boastingly l)ut vainly regarded as inaccessible and im- 
pregnable." 

From No. 33, pages 203-4, same volume, we copy 
the following from the report of Lieutenant-Colonel 
George W. Chandler, commanding 88th Illinois : 

" This fire, not in any way diminishing, 1 ordered the colors for- 
ward on the works, which a moment afterward were carried, and 
the Stars and Stripes waved triumphantly on Missionary Kidge, the 
enemy being in full retreat and great confusion. 

" It affords me great satisfaction to mention our brave color- 
hearer. Sergeant John Cheevers. Gallantly he carried our banner, 
planting it always in the advance for the regiment to rally on, 
never letting it trail in the dust, but waving it encouragingly to 
those behind, and defiantly to the enemy before him, never falter- 
ing till he waved it (jver the top of Missionary Ridge." 

From No. 34, page 205, s;ime volume, being the re- 
port of M. Gooding, colonel commanding 22d Indiana 
Volunteers, we copy the following : 

"I will recommend Color-Sergeant Geo. W. Gibson, CJompany 
C; Color-Corporals John Caton, Company F; and Theodore B. 
Ridlen, Company IT, to the Governor of Indiana for promotion, for 
their gallantry in action, ami for the admirable manner in wliich 
they escorted tlie colors up the heights of Missionary Ridge." 

There is no mention of the regimental iwdorsor color- 
bearer in the report of Lieutenant-Colonel Beck, com- 
manding the 2d Missouri Volunteers. 

From No. 30, page 207. same volume, being the 



0(54 OTHER HONORABLE MENTION. 

report of Captniii S;imuel Rexinger, coninianding 15th 
Missouri Volunteers, we copy the following: 

" . . . I would particularly mention from personal view 
the following men for their brave ami gallant behavior: AVilliam 
Willi, bugler, who kept continually in front, sounding his bugle to 
advance ; JNIichael Keck, (jur color-bearer, and First Sergeant John 
H. Droste, Company I ; and Corporal Ulrich Frei, Company E, for 
keeping with the flag, most always in front of the whole storming 
column. Our colors were the second ones inside of the intrench- 
ments at the summit of the hill. . . ." 

From No. 37, page 208, sunie A-oluine, being the re- 
port of Major Carl von Baumbach, commanding 2-4th 
Wisconsin Volunteers, we copy the following : 

"... I would most respectfully mention Adjutant Arthur 
McArthur, Jr., for his bravery. When the color-sergeant was ex- 
hausted, he carried the flag in front of the regiment, cheering the 
men to follow him up the ridge. . . ." 

From pages 138-9, volume last referred to, we copy 
the following : 

" HeAD-QUAKTEUS 4t1I AuMY CoKFS, J^KAGG's IlEAn-UUAliTKUS, > 

"Missionary Ridge, Tennessee, Novemljer 2(3, 18G;'. J 
"Soldiers of the 4th Army Corps: 

"The following dispatch from the major-general, commanding 
department, is published for your information : 

" 'HeaD-QUAKTEKS DEPAKTMENT OB- THK CUMBERLAND,) 

" ' Cha'1"1'anooga, Tennessee, November '_'5, 1863. i 
•" Major-General. Granger, Missionary Ridge: 

" ' Please accept my congratulations on the splendid success of 
your troops, and convey to them my cordial thanks for the brilliant 
style in which they carried the enemy's works. Their conduct can 
not be too highly appreciated. Geo. H. Thomas, 

" ' Major-General Commanding.' 

" In announcing this distinguished recognition of your signal 
gallantry in carrying, through a terrible storm of iron, a mouiif:uu 
crowned with batteries and encircled with riflc-|)its, I am con- 
strained to express my own admiration of your noble conduct, and 
\ am proud to tell you that the veteran generals from other fields 



"THANKS, SOLDJKR.S!" 6G5 

who witnessed your heroic bearing, pkice your assault and triumph 
among tlie mc^st brilliant achievements of the war. Thirty cannon, 
more than three thousand prisoners, and several battle-tlags taken 
from the enemy, are among your trophies. Thanks, soldiers! 
You made that day a glorious page of history. 

" G. Granger, Major-General Commanding." 

From the foregoing, it appears the 22d Indiana was 
for a brief period of time in our brigade. Below 
find the report of Colonel Laiboldt, our brigade com- 
mander, on the campaign, September 2-29, 1803. It 
appears from this that Colonel Jaquess made a report 
of the operations of the 73d on same campaign, but it 
is not on file in the War Records Publication Olfice. 
Later reports could not be obtained without much 
trouble, involving expense and delay: 

REPORT OF COLONEL BERNARD LAIBOLDT, SECOND MIS- 
SOURI INFANTRY, COMMANDING SECOND BRiCiADE. 

"Head-quarters 2d Brigade, 3[> Division, 20th Aumv Coki's, "I 
"In Trenciie-s before Ciiatta.vooga, September 29, 18G;5. j 

'* Sir, — In compliance to circular from corj)s head-quarters, I 
have the honor to submit to you the following rejjort of the move- 
ments of my brigade since crossing the Tennessee River, and of the 
part it took during the late engagement: 

" After crossing the Tennessee River, on Beptember 2, Xf^iVo, we 
proceeded to Hog Jaw Valley, from where we ascended the Rac- 
coon Mountain on the 5th, and marched to Gunther's Mill. 

"On the 6th we marched over to Trenton, on Lookout Creek, and 
on the 7th to Stevens's JMill, on Stuart's Creek. 

"On the 10th we proceeded through the Lookout and Will's 
Valleys to Rock Creek, and on the 11th reached Alpine, Georgia. 

"On the 13th, returning, we crossed the Lookout Mountain, 
and camped on Little River. Reached Stevens's ^lill on the 14tli. 
Left there at two P. M. on the 15th, and arrived at John.son's 
Creek at six P. M. Ascending Lookout Moimtaiu on the l»»th, 
we took position in McLemore's Cove, which position we held till 
the 18th. Starting at nine A. M. that day, we marched to Lee's 
Mill and Pond Spring. 

" On the lyth we proceede<l to Crawfish Spring, where we ar- 



GGC) REPOllT ON ClIlCKAMAUdA. 

rived about one P. M. My brigade was the first formed in line 
of battle on tlie crest of the bill, from wliere it was ordered to take 
})ositi(m near Gordon's Mills, and to guard a ford of Cbickamauga 
Oeek. At about 4.30 P. M. my brigade was ordered to the battle- 
field to support General Davis. 

"On arriving there, a line of l)attle was formed along a road, 
and one regiment ordered to advance, but the enemy having already 
been driven by Colonel Bradley's brigade, my brigade took no further 
part in the struggle of that day, and ke{)t their position until near 
daybreak of the 20th, when we were ordered to the extreme right 
of the right wing, where the brigade took a position on a hill near 
the Chattanooga road, having Colonel Bradley's brigade as reserve. 

"At 11.30 o'clock we were ordered toward tlie center to sup- 
jK)rt General Davis, and took a very favorable position on the slope 
of a hill. After a short interval, when General Davis's division 
was already routed, Major-General McCook ordered tlie brigade to 
charge in the rear of the flying troops, and promptly obeying the 
command, the position ou the hill-slope was abandoned, and the 
regiments, with charged bayonets, rushed into tlie thicket of woods, 
parting them yet [farther] from General Davis's command, unable 
to fire etiectually without injuring our own men. Thrown in con- 
fusion by the fleeing troops, and finally exposed to the scathing fire 
of the enemy in front, as also a fire in the flank, my troojts gave 
way, and after rallying them once more, but not being able to hold 
a position, I fell back to the mountains, where, after the lapse of 
about tiiree quarters of an hour, I succeeded in collecting the re- 
maining portion. 

" You will please find annexed the list of casualties during 
the engagement. 

"In connection with the official report of the participation of 
my brigade in the late engagement, I have the honor to remark 
tluit the commanding officers of tlie 2d INIissouri Volimteers and the 
73d Illinois Volunteers make no especial mention in their respective 
reports of cases of courage and bravery, as, in tlieir opinion, offi- 
cers and men alike sustained their former reputation of true cour- 
age and unflinching valor. 

" The commanding officer of the 15th Missouii Volunteers men- 
tions especially his adjutant, First Lieutenant Fricdiich Lipps, and 
the commanding officer of the 44th Illinois Infantry, Major Sabin ; 
Captains Freysleben and Knappen, and Acting Adjutant First Lieu- 
tenant Weyhrich, for gallant conduct. Lieutenant 8chueler, com- 



LAJBOLDT'S REPORT— NOTE. 0G7 

manding Battery G, 1st Missouri Artillery, meutions Second Lieu- 
tenant John Miller and Sergeant S. H. Jennings for brave behavior. 
" I take great pleasure to state that Lieutenant-Colonel A. Beck, 
2d Missouri Volunteers; Colonel Conrad, 15th JNIissouri Volunteers; 
Colonel Barrett, 44th Illinois Volunteers ; and Colonel Jaquess, 73d 
Illinois Volunteers, anil First Lieutenant Scliueler, commanding 
Battery G, 1st Missouri Artillery, entitled themselves, by their un- 
flinching courage and gallant behavior during the engagement, to 
the highest commenilations. The company of" sharp-shooters 
(Captain Ernst) did the work assigned to them fiiithfully ; while 
the members of my staff". Major Spinzig, brigade surgeon ; Captain 
Fuelle, acting assistant adjutant-general ; Captain INIorgau, brigade 
inspector ; Captain Carroll, provost-marshal ; Captain Gale, assistant 
quartermaster and commissary of subsistence; First Lieutenant 
Neu'lorft', aid-de-camp ; and Second Lieutenant Ileydtmau, topo- 
graphical engineer, merit my aekuowledgment of their zeal and 
activity during the campaign, and in battle. I feel it incund)ent 
on me to especially mention Captain B. A. Carroll and Lieutenant 
Neudorff*, Avhose untiring elTorts in assisting me to rally the bri- 
gade I shall always thankfully remember. 

*' I have the honor to sign, your obedient servant, 

"B. Laiboldt, Colonel Commanding 2d Brigade, 

"oil Division, 'JDlh Army Corps. 

" Cai'tain GicouGii: I^ee, 

"Assistant Adjutant-General, 3d Division, 20th Anuy Corps." 

NoTK.— Tlie necessity of conforming pretty closely to llie i)lau outlincil in 
tal)le of contents, and tlie unexpectedly large proportions tliis work luis 
attained, obliged us to omit mention of many matters we had inlonded to nt»tice 
Inchapterix, among these being : 1st. The narrow escape of tlie 73d from the gall- 
ing lire of a rebel bailerj' while lying in the railroad cut at Stone lliver, iJeceni- 
ber 31,1802. Our escape was due to the " we.ither eye " of S.rgoant-Major Castle, 
who, immediately on noticing the posting of the battery, moved the regiment 
out Of cut. 2d. The recpiest of Mrs. General George H. Thomas that CJ|)ilyeke's 
Itrigade make a charge, on the occasion of the review of the Ith Coi-ps at Nash- 
ville, Tennessee, in INIay, 1805. This request was further proof of recognition 
accorded by General Thomas to our brigade, for services at Franklin, Novem- 
ber 31), 1801. 3d. Detached service. Many olHcers and men of the 7;id did duty 
at times away from the regiment, viz. : Dr. Pond, Captains Pratt and Morgan, 
and Q,uarterma.ster Slavens. 4th. Pensions. 6th. Anecdotes were omitlcd, as 
were also some accounts of foraging and scouting ventures. 0th. Home slcelches 
are shown onlj' in part. Cammire's aci-ount was shortened to tlie extent that 
the statement of Ills experience while hid in a hogshead, at same time being 
sought after, is omitted. Our thanks are extended to printers and binders for 
good quality of material aiul excellence of mechanical execution of this work, 
and to Captain Castle for trouble taken in keeiiing a "weather eye'' lookout 
for errors, to the end that very few, if any, might appear in tliese pages. His 
exi)erience with a section of wagon-train in October, 1802, doubtless increased 
the capa<:ity of that eye. Chapters viii, ix, aud x of tliis history have lieeii elec- 
trotyped. W. 11 N. 



jj^jjp^^SijJSjjIEuyMJIJ^St^Mpi^^q 



m EXACT DUPblCflTE COPY OF CHAPTER VlII 



History of the 73d Illinois Infantry Volanteers ■ 



SE/VT, POST-PAID, ON RECEIPT OF TWENTY-FIVE CENTS. 
SEVEN COPIES. SIM. 



T^his chapter is pt_it tip separately in paper 
covers, and contains an acconnit of tine trip 
to Richimond, Va.. nriade by Colonel JAIVIES 
F- JAQUESS, of ttie Seventy-third, accompa- 
nied h)y J. R, GILLN40RE. of New^ Vorl<, in Ji^ily, 
18G4:, together with an accouint of their cele- 
brated interviev^ with JEKRERSON DAVIS 
and JUDAH P. BENJAMIN. Facts derived 
fron-L authentic sources. TThe report of the 
result of this interview shov.^n to have had 
an innportant bearing in the l-*residential 
carni)aign and election of 186-4. 

Send for one or n^ore copies of Chapter VIII 
of History of the Sevent\^-tlnrd Illinois Vol- 
unteer Infantry. Kine portrait of Colonel 
JAOUESS also sj lown. 




ADDRESS, INCLOSING F-RICE. 

V/. H. NKV/LTN, 

Chairman Committee on Regimental History. ^< 

Springfield, III. 



^tf)i<i>aM«fli(tiii^ 



5990H