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1 i. 









The group of early tombs to which the greater part of this volume is devoted 
were found principally in two seasons, 1911-12 and 1912-18, though the excava- 
tion of them began in 1910-11. 

They lie on the ridge of desert overhanging the village of Abusir, and have long 
been recognised as being the oldest part of the continuous cemetery which stretches 
from Abusir to Dahshur. Two tombs of a much later age (XXX th Dynasty), and from 
a different quarter, which claimed our attention during the same period , are noted 
shortly at the end of this report. 

The main area excavated proved to be covered with brick mastabas of the first 
three dynasties, utterly robbed in remote antiquity , searched through again with less 
thoroughness in Roman times, but singularly little disturbed by secondary burials. 
The reason for this is not obvious, for the ground was very accessible from Mem- 
phis , and half a mile only to the south , near the Teta pyramid , there is a patch of 
desert which has been covered with tombs at five several epochs. It may be that the 
early mastabas, being on the highest land near, never get covered with sand and 
took long ages to wear away to their present invisibility, so were generally reco- 
gnised and respected, while, in the part further south, the Old Empire tombs, being 
at a low level, were quickly sanded up and forgotten, then covered by the tombs of 
the first intermediate period and so on at intervals till the Roman interments closed 
the series. 

The I-III rd Dynasty cemetery is by no means exhausted, and would indeed require 
several seasons more of work, but here, as in the Coptic area at Ras el Gisr, we may 
well leave something for a future generation — with the more tranquillity of mind, as- 
this part of the cemetery is in no great danger of being robbed. The villagers know 
too well that it does not pay. 

In ancient times the tombs had been so thoroughly worked through in the search 
for gold that very few small objects were found, but, the site having been so little 


Bted at any subsequent period, many of the upper structures of the tombs as well 
as the remarkable underground chambers remained in fair preservation and enable 
us to reconstruct, with some confidence, the processes of building and the general 
appearance of an archaic cemetery when in use. 

Let us suppose ourselves, then, at some time about the end of the III" 1 Dynasty, 
standing on the broad ridge running north and south and immediately overlooking 
the valley. Below us on the west is a wide depression, bare and windswept, where 
later the stone mastabas of the V lh Dynasty are to rise and then to disappear under 
the drifting sand. The pyramids of Abusir, even those of Giza, are as yet unbuilt; 
onlv one great monument rises from above the desert, but its aspect is most im- 

The Step Pyramid to the south of us, newly finished, towers above its mighty 
panelled wall of white limestone — as great a work as the pyramid itself — looking 
from here more magnificent than the white walls of Memphis which glitter in the 
east across the marshes. 

The brick mastabas near by vary much in size : the smaller ones are low enough 
for a man to step over them, while the larger are 5 or 6 metres in height. They 
are oblong, table-like structures, white-painted with sloping sides, accessible only 
along narrow, zigzag passages. One or two old I st Dynasty tombs are still to be seen , 
recognisable by the elaborate channelled pattern on all four sides, but most of them 
are solid masses of brickwork with two niches on the east side. In some, however, 
of the larger tombs a wooden door is to be seen near the south end, closed by a 
cord of palm fibre lied to a massive wooden hasp imbedded in the wall. Opening 
this, we penetrate into a high narrow chamber, roofed with wood, its walls deco- 
rated with painted scenes; in the west wall of the chamber is a niche built of brick 
and before it a group of tall vases ready for offerings of wine and beer. 

Only the largest tombs and not all of them have these painted chambers and 
wooden doors. Some of the smaller ones are surrounded by a boundary wall, but 
more often the little mastaba stands alone and had evidently been very simply and 
rapidly built. 

We can picture the funeral procession coming across the fields and up the hill, 
the body carried in a small box looking more like a modern linen chest than a 


coffin. For the last part of the journey over the sand, this is dragged on a sledge; 
dancing girls move before it and mourning women howl and slap their faces, till it 
arrives at the place where the little shaft is cut in the rock. Beside the shaft a few 
hundred bricks and rows of coarsely made jars stand in readiness and , as soon as 
the body is lowered, the underground chamber is bricked up, the shaft filled and 
a mastaba built over it with great rapidity, perhaps finished on the funeral day. For 
a rich burial there is much more ceremony and expense. In this case, not only has 
the series of subterranean chambers been prepared long beforehand, but also the 
solid brick mastaba and the painted chapel are ready in advance; only the entrance 
to the stairway is left open down which the dead body and his grave furniture can 
be lowered. On the funeral day there is spread on an open space a large tent , gaily 
decorated inside and floored with matting; on this are laid trays of dark wood con- 
taining all kinds of funerary offerings, food, perfumes, tools, furniture, weapons 
and clothes. At the far end of the tenths a seated statue of the deceased, before 
which all these offerings are made. Near the door the guests sit and eat their meal 
according to ritual, while the priests chant the service. Afterwards the trays and their 
contents are buried in the tomb, the statue is bricked up in a special chamber, 
with a small opening left in the wall, through which the smoke of incense may pene- 
trate and the statue can be faintly seen. 

This all takes place in a part of the cemetery that is in actual use. Here all the 
mastabas are in tolerable repair; most are white in colour and undamaged, but a 
little distance away there are endless signs of neglect and violation. 

In some tombs the stone slab from above the southern niche has been torn away, 
evidently not long ago, and the sand is drifting in so rapidly that some of the smaller 
mastabas are becoming engulfed. Nearly all seem to have been robbed. Narrow shafts 
have been sunk through the top and though the sand is quickly filling many of these 
again, here in one large tomb that has been recently violated we can see the shaft 
still open. The tomb is twenty feet in height, but on the west side the sand has 
heaped itself up unhindered and we can walk up the slope to the platform on the 
top and examine it. 

It is roughly paved with stone which has been torn up at a point on the middle 
line* and an irregular shaft with dangerously vertical sides has been sunk through 


the gravel filling. At the bottom we can see the portcullis still standing in position, 
but it m xtMiture to descend, we shall find on one side of it a hole large enough for 
a lad to squeeze through. The robbers have mined round the portcullis and pene- 
trated to the subterranean corridors: they have broken through the walls of the 
magazines, through the wall of the burial chamber itself and have carried away 
every thing easily portable, vases of the more precious stones, metal implements, 
even woodwork, if time has permitted. 

But sometimes they were much hurried and let drop some of the gold beads, lo 
the profit of other robbers who were to come in the Roman period, and who, fearful 
of missing a single one of such precious finds, were systematically to pass the whole 
of the surrounding earth through a sieve. 

It will not escape our notice that the robbers' shaft has been always sunk just at 
the point where it would drop down on the portcullis and we shall fairly draw the 
conclusion that the thieves who show so precise an acquaintance with the plan of a 
large and complicated tomb were not unconnected with its construction. 

In all the work of excavation, in tomb-planning and in the preparation of the report 
I have been greatly aided by Mr. and Mrs. A. G. K. Hayter, who spent two seasons 
with us, working as volunteers. Mr. Hayter's experience on Roman sites in Britain 
was of special utility in a late part of the cemetery, still unpublished, and his exact 
and full note-taking was always an example. How much our Department profited by 
the unselfish labours of Mr. and Mrs. Hayter no one is in so good a position to know 
in detail as myself, and it is fitting that I should express, for the Department and 
for myself, our appreciation of their services and our sense of their devotion to archaeo- 
logical interests. Not less am 1 indebted to the help of my wife both in the field and in 
the workroom; without her aid this belated report would hardly have seen the light. 
A word of gratitude to the reis Khalil Ahmed should not be omitted; our acquaintance 
is more than 2 5 years old and his zeal and honesty have never failed. 

J. E. Q. 




No mastabas in this group were of solid brickwork^ all were mere shells with a filling o f 
pebbles and coarse gravel gathered from the desert surface, of gravel mixed with quantities 
of potsherds, or again of mud fdled in very wet. This mud must at first have been introduced 
in one unbroken mass, retained by the boundary wall alone; but later on this simple method 
was modified by the insertion of crosswalls dividing up the great mass of mud and much reducing 
the dangerous thrust on the outer walls. 

The recasing observed in several mastabas may conceivably have had a similar object but was 
more probably a magical provision. 

When the filling of mud or gravel was cleared out there was found below it, in several of the 
large mastabas, a series of store-chambers ( nos. a3o5, 9807, 2329 and 2/198 are notable 
examples). They consist of a single row of brick tanks or bins , about 2 metres long and one 
wide with walls o m. 70 or so in height; sometimes there were again subdivided by cross walls. 
They were covered with stone slabs (as in no. 2322) or with wooden beams (no. 2307). Their 
interior construction was often rather elaborate. In no. 2 3 07, for example, there were two 
layers of filling with a brick floor between them and mud foundation and roof. 

The contents, as we found them, consisted chiefly of pottery, one containing as many as 76 
jars. These stood upright, embedded in a layer of mud. They were stoppered with small saucer 
like dishes, with potsherds or with chips of limestone plastered over with clay on which traces 
of sealings could occasionally be distinguished. The contents were generally mud or mud mixed 
with fat : ash, liver shells, some fruits or berries too decayed to be identified, were also noted. 
One set of jars (no. 2/198) were stained inside with a yellow sulphur-like matter, probably a 

Other contents of these hidden chambers were black ash, layers of grain, either in the husk 
or pulverised and with no visible husk, various samples of powdery organic matter brown or 
ashen grey in colour, and in one case (no. 2/198) an oblong litter consisting of matting stretched 
on four poles. Above this lay a quantity of grain in the husk. Is this the Osiris bed of later days? 

Bronze implements were found in one case and it is plain that the original contents were of 
intrinsic value ; otherwise the very well informed early robbers would not have dug them out : 
the process was dangerous. 

Excavations at Saqqara , 1913-1914. • 


The model granarv of plate \\1 with its strange little tunnel communicating with the tomb 
below, belongs presumabh to the same series as these chambers and is perhaps rather earlier in 


These hidden stores in the Idling and above ground level appear to be new; the series of 
chambers in the rock below have their parallels elsewhere, notably at B£t KhallaT. Nine of the 
most important of them are shown on plate XXX in plan : how similar they are one to the other 
a glance will show. The body, when found at all, was always in the extreme S.-W. chamber; 
the latrine, a new and startling feature, always at the S.-E. In these details and probably in the 
;ji-neral arrangement of the rooms these tombs must be copies of the houses in which their 
ow ners lived. The selection of the S.-W. corner for the master's bedroom is not so unreasonable 
as at first appears. It would certainly get very hot through the afternoon, but the good wind is 
well west of north and two nights out of three he would get a good current of air; moreover he 
would not be waked by the first dawn. 

We came early in the digging to the impression that the cemetery was of the II nd -III rd Dynasties 
and rather II nd than III rd , that there were a few r tombs of the I st Dynasty, easy to distinguish, and , 
on the other hand, nothing distinguishable as late as the IV 11 '. This still seems a reasonable view, 
but we are far from being able to offer a rigorous proof; we should especially like to see the 
IV th Dynasty tombs of Saqqara before affirming too positively that none of these mastabas fall 
into that period. Pottery was of less help than usual; there was less of it than on most sites but 
of stone vases, in fragments of course, an embarrassing quantity. The hundreds of hours of 
work spent by ourselves, our workmen, even our guests, on the sorting out and making up into 
complete vases of these tons of sherds might have been better employed. Yet one gained thereby 
this very definite impression. The average large tomb contained a battery of alabaster and schist 
howls and dishes bought by people who had a keen appreciation not only of form but of the 
beauty of the stones : they liked to have samples of the alabaster banded in pink and white, of 
the honey-coloured stone with coarse crystals like barley-sugar and several other varieties and 
among the slates had a preference for those of a fine green colour. In the tomb of Hesy (III rd Dyn- 
asty) the forms of stone vases are rather heavy and the stones are less well chosen, yet Hesy's 
was a very important tomb. One suspects it was among the latest of our group. 

The undeniable dating of no. 2171 to Netermu gave one fixed point; the large tomb of Ruabu 
(no. 23oa) with the same king's name gave another; no. 2807, by its position apparently later 
than its neighbours, and Hesy, both dated to Neterkhet (III rd Dynasty) are probably at the other 
end of the time range of this small fraction of the cemeteries of Saqqara. 


Plate I. — Southern group. All mud mastabas, varying much in size. 

Taking the larger tombs on the map from south to north and in rows from east to west, 

we have : 


large I 5t Dynasty tomb, of the type of the t rMena* tomb of Nagada ; built with niches 
cind stone chambers in the centre. Details are shown in plates V-X. 

(2 1711 A large II nd Dynasty tomb, dated to Netermu; underneath it was a I st Dynasty tomb 

dateWZer (pis. XI-XV). 

In the second row : 

(2105 .1 Large open pit, roofed, with granary (pi. XVI). 

3e other large tombs, nos. 3io3 , 2101 , 23oq . The quadrilaterals inside represent the 
stairs, which are by no means in the same position in each tomb; probably variety was sought 
as a means of discouraging plunderers. 

further west, the southern niche is sunk deep into the mass of brickwork and a 
doonvaTcloses it in : this is the beginning of the decorated tomb chapel. 

Third row : 

In (2 331 / was found an inscribed slab from the upper part of the southern niche, showing 
cleceased~before table of offerings (pi. XXVIII, 2). 

2315) and^23^/Both had underground chambers. In one was a seal of 


1 1 1 

Taking now the group of four to the north, we come to no. 2322, which yielded a good 
series of alabaster vases from the chambers cut in the rock and a group of magazines in the 
filling above ground (pis. XX-XX1). 

1 n /2313/ just to the north, was a stair protected by rather stout walls; the space between 
these anttthe boundary walls had been filled with liquid mud (pi. XIX). 

( 2307 ) A very large tomb with mud filling. The store-chambers had been robbed anciently 


(2302J Maslaba of Ruabu , a huge tomb with mud filling, the stair roofed with stone slabs and 
with-anr elaborate series of chambers in the rock (pi. X\II). 


Plate 11. The northern groups of tomhs, separated from that of ]>latc 1 by about soo 

metres of ground not vet duff, but evidently forming part of the same cemetery. 

Again beginning in the south-east corner our survey of the most conspicuous of these tombs, 
hc lind : 

( 2464) A deep shaft with good stone vases and a strange row of niches in the passage west of 

' Hha'X Deep shaft. Underground chambers. 

' ) 'fm In this was found a cataract of alabaster vases thrown down the stair (pi. XXI11). 

2_403. Hesy. This lias been published in a separate memoir ( Excavations at Saqqara, iqi i - 

The long building, no. 2&08, east of Hesy. appears not to be a tomb, but what purpose it 
mav have served we cannot say. 

p>398 ) On the right of the plate . above no: 2 h 5 2/ : it contained both an elaborate series of 
chambers in the filling and a very carefolW blockeo^stairway (pis. XXIV-XXV). 

The large tomb in the middle, no /2607 ), is remarkable for the cellular structure of the fill- 
ing. v_y 

i±2fc peculiar in plan, but has not been completely cleared. 

'Hx 06 Iliad large underground chambers (pi. XXX). 

this tomb the fine, late bronze of a composite deity shown in plate XXX VIII, was 
found at a high level, loose in the sand. 

Plate HI. — A general view of the southern group, showing the greater part of the tombs 
planned in plate I, except the two large ones on the south and one, no. 2^o5, on the east. The 
camera stood just to the north of one of the large I st Dynasty tombs. 

In the foreground above the title is a small mastaba, the walls of which stand at about half 
their original height; the larger tombs are, in proportion, more denuded. In the background the 
very large tomb of Ruabu can be distinguished. There are two piles of pots on the top of it, one 
near its north end , the other in the middle. 

Plate 1\ . — 1. Small mastaba (no. 22o3 , pi. 1) 2 m. ko cent, long, one of the smallest of 
which any superstructure survived. It had a vertical shaft of 2 metres depth, with a small chamber, 
ra. 1 m. 20 cent, only in height and length, evidently used for a contracted burial. 

2. A mastaba, no. 23o6, with its outside cleared, but before any attempt had been made to 
dig out the filling or to find the shaft. Here the southern niche has been withdrawn into the 
mass of the mastaba and protected by a door. In this way, as was pointed out long ago by Marielte , 
arose the chamber which afterwards developed so considerably in size and became richly decorated. 


In this early example it is very small. The view is taken looking S.-W., showing the Pyramid 
of Neferirkara at Ahusir and the mound of the mastaha of Hesy. 

3. A group of small mastabas. The wooden trays are, of course, modern; they were given to 
the workmen to hold the small objects coming from each tomb. 

h. A view, looking to the south, of the stair of no. 2.337. ^ lne boMxmi of this stair was a 
long series of chambers cut in the rock; these are planned in plate XXX. The filling of this tomb 
is composed to a large extent, of coarse, broken vases, presumably those used by the workmen 
during the construction; exactly how they were used it is not easy to say, for they would not 
hold water and would be very clumsy to carry mud. 

The pyramids in the distance are those of Teta II and El-Mukherbish. 

Plate V. — Plan of the large I st Dynasty tomb (no. 2180) . 

Plate VI. — View of the same tomb (no. 21 85) from the south-east, showing in the distance 
the three pyramids of Abusir, and, more faintly, the two larger ones of Gizeh. 

Though much of the walling stood only a few centimetres high and some part had disappeared, 
enough was found to make us quite sure of the plan. The height of the building was probably 
once considerable, perhaps as much as G metres, but the boundary wall was very thin and 
probably did not exceed a metre in height. 

Internally the tomb had three rows of chambers, the central row at a lower level than the 
others. The side chambers were at ground level and had apparently been filled in with gravel, 
whereas the sunk ones were lined with stone, except those at the north and south ends, which 
were also gravel-filled. This central row was roofed with stone , above which had been laid the 
wooden flooring of an upper set of chambers. But this floor must have been destroyed by fire at 
some period, for many signs of burning were noticed both on the stone lining and the roof of 
the underground rooms. The upper row of chambers appears to have had plastered walls and 
presumably contained funerary furniture; nothing, however, of this remained, and the tomb must 
have been thoroughly robbed at an early date, the robbers breaking their way through from one 
underground chamber to another. 

Plate VII. — Details of the same I st Dynasty tomb (no. 2 1 85). 

1. Recessed niche at the N.-E. of the building, with two holes, possibly intended to hold 
lampstands, basins for offerings or the like. 

2. This is taken down the axis of the tomb and shows two of the chambers below ground 
level, with remains of their stone roofs. On the top of the walls, clay seals and fragments of stone 
vases have been laid. 

3. Shows part of the north wall of the tomb; in front of it is the corner of a II nd Dynasty 
mastaha, while on the left, just above the white stone are the remains of an arched roof of a 


late intrusive burial. Three periods are here clearly distinguishable side by side in a space of a 
couple of yards. 

i. The lower level chamber F of plate V, with the large vases in place and part of the 
roofing slabs. 

Plite Mil. — Small objects from the same I st Dynasty tomb (no. 21 85). 

I . Set of six copper tools found in chamber G in the last hour of digging. The largest is m. 
a a cent. long. 

8. Flint and copper knives found in chamber D. The metal was much corroded. The large 
knife is o in. 1 5 cent. long. 

3. Flint fragments from chamber A, some showing action of fire. 

h. Vases of basalt, quartz and alabaster, mostly from chamber G. These are very finely cut, 
characteristic I rt Dynasty work. A foot rule is in the foreground. 

5. Clay sealings from chamber H with the name of Zer. 

Plate IX. — Drawings of the fragmentary clay seals found in tomb no. 91 85. 

Nothing remained on some of these of the original surface, but when they were exposed to the 
weather and the clay began to disintegrate the outer layer fell away and disclosed the print of a 
seal. One immediately thought of Babylonian contract tablets with their concealed duplicates of 
the outer text : these winelabels may have had a magic value and the Egyptians may have thought 
it advisable to write them twice so that the inner copy would remain valid when the outer one 
had decayed away. Similar duplicate seals have been founded at Abydos. 

Plate X. — Drawings of stone vases from tomb no. 2 1 85. 

All were much broken and the forms have been drawn from fragments. The materials were 
quartz, porphyry, magnesite and in the four lower rows basalt. 

Plate XI. — Tomb no. 2171 H with small objects found in it. 

I. View of the tomb, found under the filling of the large II'" 1 Dynasty mastaba no. 2171. 
Outside the grave is seen a portion of the mat on which the body had been laid. 
The tomb mouth is 1 m. 4o cent, by 1 metre in size. 

"2. Photograph of ivory plaque. 

.'{. Photograph of drawing of the same plaque. Both are slightly over actual size. 

%. Ivory bulls' legs, the complete one o m. o5 cent. high. 

.). Drawing of ink inscription on a wooden plaque : the colour is very faint and the hieroglyph 
of Zer incomplete. 


0. Small objects of wood and ivory, with a gold pin (o m. i3 cent, long) in the centre. Box 
lid of wood with knob (o m. o3 cent.), ivory box lid with handle, ivory arrowheads, fragments of 
ivory inlay, feet of a casket. 

7. Three flint scrapers (o m. o5 cent.) ivory fragments and a small cylindrical vase of slate 
(o m. ok cent. 1/2 high), the only complete vase found. Glaze and carnelian beads, spheres and 
stout discs in form. 

Plates Xll and Xlll. — Stone vases from the same I st Dynasty tomb (no. 2 1 7 1 H). Scale 1 : 3. 

Plate XIV. — Stone vases from another I st Dynasty tomb no. 2188 (pi. I, E. of no. 21 85). 
Scale 1:6. 

Plate XV. — Views of the large II"' 1 Dynasty tomb, under which the small I st Dynasty tomb 
of plates XI , XII , was found. 

1 . View of stairway showing the lower part still blocked by huge stones laid on edge. Above 
are seen a number of tall, pointed jars lying on the steps; some were still covered by their clay 
stoppers and one of these was inscribed. 

2. Row of pots, about 3 m. 80 cent, in total length, laid in the sand below the gravel of the 
filling, with what object is obscure. 

3. Seal from one of the wine jars found in the stairway with the name of the II nd Dynasty 
king, Netermu, very legible. 

h. Interior of the mastaba, seen from the top of the stair, looking south. Just inside the 
stairway are the jars placed on the steps; beyond, on the right, the little dark patch on the ground 
is the I st Dynasty tomb (no. 2 171 H) : in the middle is an intrusive burial, a late limestone coffin. 
All around, the outer walls of the mastaba and the numerous pots found in the filling are seen. 
On the horizon is the pyramid of Tela. For plan of the subterranean chambers, see plate XXX. 

Plate XVI. — Views of tomb no/ 21 o5. i 

1. A shallow trench inside the m&staba, under the gravel filling, lined with bricks, mud- 
plastered and containing a double row of unbaked mud jars, 3o in number. The pots were about 
o m. 3o cent. high. This trench must once have been roofed with wood, or these fragile pots 
would otherwise have been crushed. The little channel leading from it to the tomb chamber 
is seen beyond. This was plainly a granary and the little gangway from the tomb chamber 
was supposed to be wide enough to allow the soul to pass. 

2. Interior of tomb chamber looking towards the portcullis, which is still in place. On the 
floor before it is a mass of pots. 

3. Within the filling of the mastaba, looking from above the portcullis into the granary trench. 
In the shadow, low on the right is one of the ledges on which the beams of the roof rested. 

4. Small objects of flint, ivory and copper. 


Plate XVII. — Mastaba of Ruabu, noi a3oj . 

1 . Shows the mud filling as seen in one of the holes cut by the early robbers to obtain access 
to the chambers below. Low down are limestone blocks from the roof of the subterranean passage. 

2. General view, looking south. Ruabu is on the right : only the east wall with some intrusive 
burials cut in it. the southern niche beyond them and the dwarf boundary wall come into the 
picture. The centre is occupied by a row of unimportant tombs (see no. 5?3o3 on plate I) and 
on the left is part of the west wall of no. 2807, with more intrusive burials made in it. 

On the skv line is the pyramid of Teta and to the left the house of the Antiquities Department. 

3. Clay seal of Netermu, found in the underground chamber F (pi. XXX). 

h. Inscribed slate bowl of Ruabu and part of a second bowl. The same titles occur on the 
inscribed libation tank (pi. XXVIII, fig. h). The peculiar ship-hieroglyph occurs again on a 
sherd with the name of Netermu in Petrie. Royal Tombs of earliest Dynasties, 1901. Pt. 11. 
pi. VIII, .3. 

Plate XVIII. — Large mastaba no( a3o7/ (pl. 1). 

1. Top of the shaft at the north end oF the tomb. 

2. North niche, showing offering jars in place. 

3. Interior of mastaba looking south, after most of the filling of black mud had been removed. 
Eight store chambers are seen, of which four were brick-lined and contained pottery. AH had 
been robbed in ancient times. The robbers sank a shaft through the tough black mud into one 
of these chambers, and then made a way from one to the other by breaking through or creeping 
over the partition wall. In the distance, from right to left are the pyramid of Unas, the Step 
pyramid and El-Mukherbish. 

Plate XIX. — Tomb no. *j3i3 

1. The inside of the mastaba-^looking south, after the mud filling had been removed. 

The stair takes two sharp turns inside the inner walls and was protected from the inflow of 
the mud by stout walls along its edge. 

2. hi' in. Looking north. The stairway with its protecting walls is better seen in this view. 
The floor is covered by a singular mass of pottery, perhaps intended as a food supply, possibly 

only waste material utilised as filling. Low on the right, is an intrusive burial; see also fig. h. On 
the sky line are the three pyramids of Abusir and those of Khafra and Khufu at Giza. 

3. Fine set of stone vases from the underground chambers. 

h. The late intrusive burial seen in figure 1 after the brick roof bad been removed. The 
coffin is of plain wood. 

Plate XX. — Tom!) no/ 

1. Interior of the mastabaTTooking south, after the removal of the filling; showing the top 
of the stair on the west side (right), and a row of store chambers on the east. These chambers 
were roofed with mud and stone; on the northernmost a a portion of the roof remains. 

2. Chambers a, b and c, looking north-west. In a were found two rows, 19 in all, of egg- 
shaped jars. 

Cbamber b was empty except in the south-west corner, where about 27 long jars were stacked 
together, most of them badly broken. 

Chamber c was filled with egg-shaped jars, except in a space in the south-west corner, where 
lay one big jar and below it the remains of matting. This covered a layer of grain, m. 08 cent, 
deep, which rested on the untouched gravel, and traces of this same triple flooring were after- 
wards found over all this chamber. 

3. Chamber e. Eight tall jars in the north-east corner, with mud caps, some of them incised. 
To the south of them and on a level with their base are a quantity of sherds. The floor consisted 
of sand in which the pots were imbedded. 

h. A selection of stone vases from the subterranean chambers. 

Plate XXI. — Complete set of forms of stone vases from no. 2822. 

Plate XXII. — 1 . Tomb no. 3607 . )A very large mastaba with numerous cross walls in the 
filling. This cellular construction marics an improvement on the common type in which the filling 
consists of a solid mass of mud. Perhaps accidents had taken place through the liquid mud 
bursting through Ae-enclosing boundary walls. The view is taken from the south end. 

2. Tomb no.( 2^52 .|Group of men clearing out the filling, in which a great mass of pottery 
was found. The mQuna to the west, on which a few men are working, is the tomb of Hesy. East 
of it is the long chamber which seems to be not a tomb, but a store-chamber or the like. In the 
distance on the right are the pyramids of Abusir and on the skyline that of Menkaura at Giza. 

Plate XXIII. — 1. Bricklined stairway of tomb no/ 2629 , descending from left to right with 
a right angled turn : the groove of the portcullis is justNvjsibie on the right. On the slope of the 
stair is seen a mass of stone plates and vases, mostly of calcite. In the underground chambers 
also there was a quantity of bowls and vases made of a great variety of stones, and of much finer 
work than those on the stair. 

2. Selection of vases from the stair of mastaba no. 2629, mostly of stone, but some of pot- 
tery. A few flints. 

3. Cylindrical alabaster vases with inscriptions in black paint. 

4. Copies of the inscriptions on the cylindrical alabaster vases. 

Excavations at Saqqara, 1912-1914. s 


Plate \\1\. — 1. Mastaba 110 /9/198. Magazines or store-chambers under the filling, seen 
from the north-west. There are severkoTtbese, numbered a-g. 

To tlie left are seen large blocks of limestone laid flat over the stairway. Behind these blocks 
ami between them and the further of the two workmen, a short wall can be seen standing at 
right angles to the main wall of the tomb. This is a blocking wall in the middle of the stair. 

2. Stairway showing blocking of large stones placed on edge. 

The pair of horizontal stones are the same as in the last photograph. 

3. Stone chambers e,d, c, seen from the west. 

Chamber c. The narrow part at the west end is empty; about half the remainder of the 
chamber is fdled with pottery. A few jars are seen standing in situ. 

Chamber d. Bier. See larger photograph and description in plate XXV, fig. 2. 
Chamber e. Layer of organic matter. 

h. View in subterranean chamber, showing stone vases as found at south end of the Central 
hail. The doorway leads into a second chamber to the south. 

Plate XXV. — 1. Mastaba no. 2698. Pottery. 

2. Bier in chamber d; seen from west side. On the floor of this chamber four poles are 
arranged in a rectangle, the long ones 1 m. 85 cent., the shorter, 1 metre long; diameter o in. 
o5 cent. These poles doubtless formed a litter or bier. They rest on the rock. The ends have 9, 
the sides 1 9 slits cut in them. There are some traces of matting on the inside. Both inside and 
outside the litter there was much grain in the husk, but over a space of m. 75 cent, at the west 
end of the chamber the floor was bare with no trace of organic matter. Between the litter and 
this vacant space are fragments of 8 or 9 pots, one complete. 

3. Selected pots from the store-chambers of the same tomb. 

Platb XXVI. — Limestone lintel of the royal daughter Sahnesr from tomb no. 

Size of the inscribed part o m. by cent, by o m. /j2 cent. Total length 1 m. 1 2 

It was found in the rubbish filling the shaft, but had, of course, been placed originally above 

the southern niche. It is probably of the II" J Dynasty ; th e forms of the hieroglyphs are thorough ly 

archaic , and the names of the offerings abbreviated. 

Plate XXVII. — Facsimile of the same lintel in line. 

Plate XXVIII. — 1. Inscribed lintel, not found in situ. Doubtless ll"' 1 Dynasty. The inscription 
consists of names of cloths and of food. 

2. This lintel of yellow limestone was found in place in the southern niche of tomb no. 2 33 1 . 
It was in very bad condition, but is published for the sake of completeness, the number of ins- 
criptions found being so very small. 


3. Libation tank from before niclie of tomb no. 2.3^7 , found loose near no. 2366. It bears 
tbe cartoucbe (left column inside ledge) of Userkaf, the first king of the V"' Dynasty, and startled 
our till tben tranquil conviction that all tbis cemetery was of the II nd and III rd Dynasties. Was it 
possible that some of it might be considerably later? Yet no other dateable object except from 
obviously intrusive burials turned up among all these hundreds of tombs. 

k. Libation tank o m. 35 cent, by o m. 2 5 cent., found in tomb no. 2601, not in position. 
The same titles as in the top line occur on the fragment of a bowl from the tomb of Ruabu (pi. 
XVII h , left hand fragment). 

Plate XXIX. — 1. Wooden coflin fo r contracted burial found in no. 2 17.3 A, a small stair- 
way tomb . The chamber on the east side was closed by a brick wall, on removal of which the 
coffin appeared, almost filling the little chamber . When the lid was lifted a quantity of linen was 
found, much eaten by white ants. Under it were two skeletons, an adult lying head north, face 
east, sharply contracted; and along the south end, a baby, on its face, head to the east. 

2. The side of another II nd Dynasty coffin (no. 2172 E), containing three sharply contracted 
burials. It was noted that the bodies seemed to have been buried all at the same time. There was 
not room to lift the lid and introduce a second body unless the coffin were dragged out into the 
shaft, though this was no doubt possible. 

3. One of the burials in this same coffin; the boards have fallen apart. The skull is in good 
preservation and below the head was a mass of fine linen serving as a pillow. The limbs were 
bandaged separately and over the hips and round the body were large rolls of linen, much 
damaged by beetles (no. 2 1 72 E). 

4. Body found without a coffin in tomb no. 2 1 oh g, in a small rounded chamber 1 m. ho cent, 
by 1 m. 80 cent. It lay head north, face east, strongly contracted, knees near chin, right hand 
over cheek. Much carbonised wrapping lay over the body with a twisted strip of linen that had 
been used to tie it up into this very compact bundle. 

Plate XXX. — Plans of subterranean chambers cut in the rock, below some of the larger 

There is a general similarity between them. The largest, no. 23o2, being the most elaborate, 
will be most frequently referred to, though the others assist in corroborating its arrangements. 

It is impossible to avoid the presumption that these underground plans, intended as habita- 
tions for the dead, were suggested by the houses of the living. 

No house of the II nd or III rd Dynasties exists, but a tentative comparison with the houses at 
Tell el-Amarna (see Petiue, Tell el-Amarna, pis. XXXVIII-XXXIX), though they are many cen- 
turies later, certainly seems to confirm this view and to point to a perpetuation of the same type 
of house. 

To begin with, the rectangular turning in the stairway, so frequently noticeable at Saqqara, 
may have its parallel in Tell el-Amarna houses in the ramp entrance, at the top of which there 


is alwavs a rectangular turn through a lohby or entrance hall, before the loggia or first living 
room is reached. 

In nos. a3oa, 9171, a337 and 2629, there are chambers to the north of the portcullis. 
These are intended to represent rooms outside the house proper. In the three latter they may 
be the store-rooms. In no. 2 3o2 the four northern chambers opening out of a long cross hall 
look like stalls for cattle or horses, and bear a strong resemblance to a similar set of chambers 
attached to a house excavated in December 191 3 by the Deutsche Orient Gesellschaft at Tell 
el-Amama. This house, called Das Weihnachtshaus by the excavators, I Q 46 on their plan, 
\\;i- identified as that belonging to the Keeper of Akhenaten's cattle. 

There is a passage which encircles the north portcullis of no. 2802 on its west side, with two 
rectangular turns. This alternative route to the stalls from the private house may be intended for 
the back entrance to the stall yard, such as also exists in IQ 46. The two chambers en route 
would then be a store-room for fodder and the stallkeeper's room. 

The rooms opening out of the main passage immediately south of the second portcullis in 
no. 23o2, which were found full of jars, may be guests or servants' rooms or even store-rooms 
(cf. Petrie. loc. cit., Rooms 0, A). 

In all the plans there is a suggestion of a central hall in the widening of the main N.-S. 
passage, there being always a narrowing for a doorway at the north end preceding this. 

The square plan of this hall would naturally be modified into an oblong to avoid too wide a 

The rooms opening out of this central hall might be the unmarried men's quarters. At the 
south end of this widening of the passage (the presumed central hall) there is always a second 
doorway (see pi. XXXI, fig. 1), opening into another group of rooms. These, the farthest removed 
from the entrance and portcullis, and with no continuation of the passage beyond, must re- 
present the women's quarters and the master's bedroom (B where his body was deposited). 
Cf. Petrie, loc. cit. Rooms B-G Master's room C. 

The squarish chamber in the centre of this group may be the so-called Quadratzimmer at Tell 
el-Amama (cf. Petrie, loc. cit., Room I). 

In nos. 2337 and 2307 the harim may be the isolated room, north of the east passage con- 
necting H-L rooms with the central passage. 

The farther group of chambers labelled H-L in nos. 23o2, 2337, 2^29 and 2606 have 
double access, viz. both from the harim and from the east side of the central hall. These represent 
the bathroom and lavatory (see pi. XXXI, figs. 2, 3), which would thus be available for the 
occupants of both sets of rooms. 

The rectangular passage round the burial chamber (master's bedroom) in the one tomb 
no. 2/107 F' is not easily connected with any part of a house unless it represents a covered 

The bathroom (H) shows by its projecting pilasters (see nos. 23o2, 2337, 2307), which in 
the case of no. 2 3o2 are cut away at the top, that it reflected a design in which the chamber 
itself was curtained off from the passage outside. In the last named tomb, the circular sink- 
ings in the ground marks the place of the water jars. 


Plate XXXI. — 1. Underground passages in tomb no / a.'froa^ fjRuabu). 
Central passage looking south. The workman is seateH^intJie S.-E. angle ol* the wall just 
outside the narrow passage leading into the hall in the east side of the burial chamber. 

2. Latrine in tomb no.t 

3. Latrine in tomb no. (a^oaXThe odd earthliness of the conception of immortality revealed 
by these adjuncts to the tombSs-' calculated to surprise : one suspects that the custom was already 
a dying one, retained long after it had ceased to commend itself to the best opinion. 

Plate XXXII. — 1 . Brick arch and shaft tomb no (ai a 6' ftooking south-east : it was empty. 
This was one of the smallest found. 

r \ 

2. View, looking west, of the long building, no. (afro 8 , 1 east ot the tomb of Hesy. whose long 
corridor, covered in at the time by tenting, is seen lXJbj^background. 

This magazine, if such it was, is 97 m. 70 cent, long by 9 m. 60 cent, in width, in inside 

The thin southern wall is 1 m. 90 cent, in thickness, and the northern one 9 m. 85 cent. 
The floor is about m. 80 cent, above the ground. No door was seen. 

Plate XXXIII. — 1. Small objects from tomb no. 9101 : five wooden draughtmen, two ivory 
dagger handles, part of a small slate palette as in the sign Aft and a little wooden bolt. 

2. Fragments of bone inlay and diorite vase from another tomb. 

3. Model copper axe and chisels found at the entrance of the passage below the stair in no. 

h . Copper ewers and basins from various tombs. 

5. Fragment of an inscribed slate bowl from tomb no. 9/1 46, mentioning «the first occasion 
of the Sed-heb festivals. 

6. Small slate palette for scribe from tomb no. 9602. Length o m. ok cent. 

7. Selection of small copper objects, including a mirror and a Iamp(?). 

Plate XXXIV. — We descend suddenly to a much later age, to the XXX th Dynasty. 

A shaft near the Teta Pyramid on its west side opened into a chamber containing no less than 
nine sarcophagi ; plain rectangular coffins, a large sarcophagus of limestone and these two of 
granite, with their elaborate lace-like decoration of religious texts. The tomb was at the time 
supposed to be a new discovery, but it was found afterwards that Mariette had already opened 
it and that Brugsch had made extracts from the texts. The two coffins shown are now in the Cairo 
Museum (Journal d 'entree du Muse'e, nos. ^725 and 67399). 

Plate XXXV. — Lid of the dwarfs coffin after it had been raised out of the shaft (no. h 10). 


Plui \\\VI. — 1. View of a tomb cliapel of about tlie XXX" 1 Dynasty, seen from tbe north. It 
lies just to the south of the tourist track, midway between tbe Teta pyramid and Mariettas house. 

•2. The same from the south. The cliapel was supported by four columns. In tbe background, 
right , is seen the coping of a shaft from which we obtained a fine granite colfin of a certain Unnefer. 

Our oldest workman, Osman Duqmaq, assured me that he bad been down before, in 1869, 
when Ismail Pasha. Assim Pasha and l)e Lesseps were here with Mariette; and, indeed, (he 
shaft had been dewed in modern times, for we found part of a cigar-box at the bottom. 

Note the f\tensive benches covered with white plaster. It would seem strange if they were not 
roofed, hut no evidence of their having been covered was obtained. Tbe chapel was reused in 
Roman times, as a quantity of pottery found in it showed; perhaps as a guard-bouse, not as a 
tomb, for roasted pine-cones lay among the sherds. 

Plate WWII. — I. Seven fragments of sculpture from tbe chapel shown in the last plate 
(no. 612). 

2. Single figure from the same. 

.'}. Anthropoid coffin, lid and base from tbe same shaft as the large coffin of plate XXXIV. 
The minor members of the family, we supposed, were interred in these limestone coffins. 

h. Top of shaft of no. 612 (Unnefer), to show the excellent masonry : tbe rough dry walling 
above is, of course, due to our workmen. The long low blocks of tbe XXX ,h Dynasty work below 
are very characteristic. 

Plate XXXVIII. — Front and back views of the remarkable bronze figure of a composite 
deity found loose in tbe sand above tomb no. 2606. Height o m. 43 cent, from feather-top to base. 

1 . Front view. On each knee is a curious face with drawn down mouth , on tbe belly a cat's 
head, on the chest a scarab. Above tbe right elbow is an ape's bead and behind it a vulture. 
Above the left are, in front a bull, behind a cat. 

2. Back view. Behind the body is Isis as a hawk, behind tbe bead a ram's bead with disc and 
uraeus. Above the horns is a head of Bes and over this a much corroded bird's head with bead- 
dress, probably Thoth. The figure seems to have been cast in three pieces, head-dress, main part 
and base. All four hands are clenched and pierced by an opening large enough to pass a match 
through. There is a bar of metal from the chest to the end of the beard. 

This bronze had, of course, nothing to do with the mastaba above which it was found. A very 
large number of bronze statuettes have been found in past years, loose in the sand and uncon- 
nected with tombs, mainly near the Serapeum according to our guards. They were buried inten- 
tionally, say our men, who are indeed the only witnesses of these regrettable excavations. One 
would guess that they were intended to consecrate and limit a portion of the desert as a cemetery, 
but there was no group of tombs of a late period particularly near to this bronze. It is not likely 
to have been dropped and its position must have some meaning. • 

I'ute XXXIX. — Pottery forms. 



Tomb noJ 2185.ll' 1 Dynasty (pis. V-X). — In the two northern chambers a and b were a mass 
of broken vases-eontaining charcoal and fragments of flint knives. 

Chamber c. — Contained fragments of stone bowls. 

Chamber d. — 1 m. 4o cent, in depth, with stone roo f o m. 20 cent, to o m. 32 cent, in thick- 
ness. There were many traces of fire, especially above the roof, where charred wood was found 
and the slabs were cracked across by heat. 

The objects found included a flint knife, a much corroded copper knife and chisel (pi. VIII, a), 
fragments of rough pottery, and one fragment of granite with no surface worked. 

Chamber e. — Fragments of fifteen ivory pins, two with signs incised, four little stone spheres 
like playing marbles, doubtless from a serpent game, and a few scraps of copper. 

Chamber f. — Depth 1 m. 35 cent. On the east side were fifteen tall vases (o m. 90 cent.) 
found standing (pi. VII, h). On one was a sealing of good yellow clay mixed with fibre, in 
another were a few bones of some bird. A smaller egg-shaped vase had black mud at the 

In the brick wall above the stone roof, ends of joists were embedded which must have support- 
ed a wooden floor. They were o m. 08 cent, in diameter, about m. 3o cent, apart and from 
o m. o5 cent, to o m. 20 cent, above the stones. In the south wall of the chamber is a robber's 

On the west side were one large vase, ten eggshaped, one flat bottomed, with the bones of a 
duck lying in the eartb between them. 

Chamber g. — A limestone coffin of the Ptolemaic period lay on the floor of the upper cham- 
ber. The mummy was on its back, head west, tightly wrapped, in plain bandages, with no carton- 
nage. Near this was a Greek vase and with it a pin and kohl-stick. 

The chamber was 1 m. 5o cent. deep. 

Contents : oval pottery trays, one complete cylindrical vase of basalt and at the south end a 
fine set of copper tools (pi. VIII, 1). 

Chamber h. — Clay sealing with name of king Zer (pi. VIII, 5). 

Chamber m. — Fragments of Middle Kingdom ware — the only such found during two years' 
work in this part of the cemetery. 


Chamber n. I'nder the wall to the east was a stairway of earlier date. 

In a hole in the north wall was a wooden box, plastered and painted with a wooden hawk 
on the lid, facing west, all in very had condition and evidently from an intrusive burial. 

The seals are shown in plate IX, stone vases, basalt, slate and alabaster in plate X. 

The tomb is of the same type as the trMenesii tomb of Nagada, but. was much more denuded. 
It appeared that there had been a single upper row of chambers with wooden floors and roofs (?) 
buttb** had been very thoroughly burned and the ruins as thoroughly looted. 

1* Dynasty (p is. XI-X111). — Dimensions : i m. 4o cent, x i m. o5 cent, and ca. 
<> mv-i^cent. deep. This was a small tomb of the same reign as the preceding, Zer (I st Dynasty). 

It had already been robbed when in the time of Netermu (II"' 1 Dynasty) the large mastaba 
no. 2171 was built over it; probably the builders of the one tomb destroyed the other. The 
contents of the grave had been very thoroughly tossed about and their relative position was 

The only object of intrinsic value that had escaped the robbers was a plain gold hairpin , o m. 
1 3 cent, long, very sharp-pointed. 

On the edge of the tomb there remained part of the mud-covered mat that had once been laid 
above it. 

There was a wooden floor to the tomb, or perhaps a bed, and below this a o m. to cent. 
layer of clean sand. The sides of the tomb had been lined with bricks (o m. 2 3 cent, long) and 
then plastered. In the filling were a large number of fragments of stone bowls, of delicate shapes 
and made from fine stones : but only one of these, a tiny cylindrical vase, was unbroken. 

A catalogue of the objects found is appended below. 

1. Ivory tablet o m. o35 mill, square, broken and incomplete (photo and drawing on plate 
XI, 2. 3). 

2. Ivory tablet o m. 020 mill, long, plain. 

3. Ivory bulls' feet (largest m. o5o mill.) and fragments. 

h. Ivory box lid with handle (0 m. o35 mill, x m. o55 mill.). 

5. Fragments of ivory pins and inlay. 

6. Complete vase of slate, m. oft5 mill, in height. 

7. Slate ring stand for vase, part of; diameter m. 06 cent. 

8. A rectangular slate palette m. 2 1 cent, long with scratched lines round border. 

9. Three flint scrapers (ca. o m. o5 cent. long. PI. XI, 7). 

10. Wooden tablet inscribed (pi. XI, 5) with the king's name in ink. 

11. Wooden box lid (0 m. o3 cent.). 

1 2. Wooden plaque, o in. 1 3 cent, long, carved as a mat. 



13. Fragments of a reed mat found low down : probably part of tbe mat that covered the 

Ml. Part of a small bowl of tortoise (?) shell. 

15. Fragments of sixty-one stone vases, mostly very incomplete but of fine 
workmanship, made in quartz, jasper, slate, fine limestone, porphyry, ala- 
baster. The forms are given on plate XII. 

10. Nine cylindrical alabaster vases and parts of vases, vary- 
ing from o m. 20 cent, to o m. 35 cent, in height : the forms 
are given on plate XIII. 

17. Fragments of bones and teeth of a calf. 

18. One tall vase of pottery as in this figure i. The II nd 
Dynasty type is slighter (fig. 2). 

12188. J st Dynasty. 
£n— open grave, 2 m. 90 cent, by 2 m. 60 cent, and 1 m. ho cent, deep, 
thoroughly turned over by robbers. There were fragments of human bones scat- 
tered through the gravel, a square palette of slate, a copper adze and a small 
chisel, four large earthenware vases of a I s1 Dynasty form, four cylindrical vases, 
a (lint scraper and the considerable collection of stone vases drawn on plate XIV. 


g. a. 

Tomb no. 2190. I st Dynasty. — Sharply contracted burial, head S. face W. disturbed. Male 
skeleton with dust of wood or mat below. 

Contents : fragment of wood, some fragments of copper, one copper spatula, fragments of ten 
stone vases, two flints, two large pottery jars with mud seal in place (type D). 


All the remaining tombs figured on the plan (pis. I and II) belong to these dynasties; they con- 
tained very little pottery but a vast quantity of stone vases, mostly in fragments; the types are 
throughout similar to those shown on plate XXI. 

'2101. Large mastaba (pi. I, near middle). Stairway in the N.-W. corner. The filling is mostly 
of limestone chip and a row of pots stood on the floor (forms E, L). Portcullis in place, chamber 
to S. (5 metres x 3 m. 80 cent. 1 m. 55 cent.); walls very irregular. 

Contents : twenty-three bowls of alabaster, two of granite, one of slate, three of dark marble 
with fragments of about six more; seventeen of these were complete. Also some cylindrical ala- 
basters and four limestone dummy cylindrical vases, o m. i5 cent. high. 

Pottery forms A, B, C, D (pi. XXXIX). 

A group of small shafts west of the main tomb is numbered 2101 (1 , 2), etc. 

Excavations at Saqqara , 191 2-191 A. 3 


2101 (a). Near S.-W. comer of the last, a roughly arched tomb, arch to S. 
Contents : two small stone vases. 

2101 (3). North of (a) and W. of main tomb. Chamber to west. 

Contents : fluted pillar headrest, with stone vases (one of diorite, one marble, four alabaster) 
and part of an offering table. 

"2101 (7) and 1 8). Two small mastabas in good preservation. Stair to E. No chamber. 
Contents : in (8 ), one cylindrical alabaster vase. 

2101 (9). Stair. Chamber to west. 

Contents : one large alabaster, one small, two small limestone vases and fragments, mostly 
of diorite. 

2101 (10). Chamber to west. 

Contents : one porphyry bowl, fragment of slate, three alabaster, two limestone, eleven dum- 
my limestone vases. 

Slightly later in date are two tombs : 

2101 B. At the south-east corner of the main mastaba. A shaft tomb with arched chamber. 
The chamber and shaft were plastered. The blocking of the door was found intact, but the arch 
was broken in from above. Only fragments of vases found. 

2101 C. Just to south of no. 2 1 1 B and built to lean against the main tomb. Stair from E. 
Chamber to W., both plastered. Chamber 1 m. 60 cent, by 1 metre. 
Contents : fragments of about six stone bowls. 

2 1 02. Bow of small mastabas to the E. of no. 2101. 

B. Mastaba of black brick. Shaft, rather than stair, about 2 m. 3o cent. deep. Chamber to W. 

Contents : one (lint flake, part of an alabaster table. 

K. Mastaba of bright yellow brick, built over chamber, not over stair. 

Contents : skull and a few bones, one diorite bowl, one of granite and twenty-three others. 

2103. Large mastaba with brick walls and gravel fdling (bricks o m. ik cent.). Stair shaft, 
portcullis still in place and the robbers' way forced round it. On the floor and below the walls a 
lot of pottery ( forms 1 , P , C , B ). 

Contents of chamber : thirty-four stone bowls and four cylindrical alabaster vases. 

2103. Secondary. Two intrusive burials of poor quality, one in a couple of pots placed mouth 
to mouth, the other covered by a brick arch. 

2104. A row of small mastabas between nos. 2io3 and 2io5. 

2 I 04 b. Shaft lined with light coloured brick. Chamber on W. side. In it some human bones, 
four stone bowls, three cylindrical alabaster vases, part of a table of limestone, a shell and pot- 


2104g'. Part of the mastaba remained. A stair of four rough steps descends on the E. side of 
the 2 m. 20 cent, deep shaft to a small chamber of rounded shape i m. 4o cent, long by l metre 
wide and only o m. 8o cent. high. The mouth of the little cave was closed by a dry wall of l i/a 
bricks (bricks o in. 2 5 cent, and om. ali cent. long). 

Inside the body lay undisturbed in a sharply contracted position, head N. and face E. : the 
knees were close to the chin : the right hand lay upon the cheek. Over the body lay a consider- 
able quantity of carbonised linen ; one tie of twisted cloth lay across the body. 

A few pieces of stone were in a row E. of the body. N. of the head were the remains of a wooden 
headrest with two pillars. 

The south side of the chamber is broken into by the next tomb (A), which is therefore later 
than (g). 

2104 h. A very small mastaba which had to be removed bodily in order to reach the shaft. 
The blocking of the door was intact. When it was removed there appeared, first, a large pot 
containing a little clay, behind it to the south a body, head N. face E. , sharply contracted , with 
carbonised cloth above it. Behind this was a cylindrical alabaster vase, o m. i 5 cent, high, con- 
taining organic matter. Over the body lay two reeds crossed, and two more lay behind the back. 
These were parts of musical instruments. 

There was also a poor coffin of the II nd Dynasty type in the tomb (o m. 70 cent, x m. 46 
cent, x o m. 43 cent.) externally. Above it stood a box ( ca. o m. 27 cent, xom, a4 cent, x 
o m. 10 cent.) with lid of wood, painted red; both box and coffin partly eaten by white ants. 
The body in the coffin lay very sharply contracted, head N. face E. The wrappings were in dust, 
but the limbs appear to have been bandaged separately. A mass of hair twisted in tiny cork- 
screws and apparently daubed with fat lay near the head. 

2105 (pi. XVI). A large tomb with stair on the east side underneath the mastaba walls, 
portcullis below still in place; the burial chamber a large square pit once roofed with timber 

The gravel filling was cleared from all the southern half and underneath . in a trench cut in 
the ancient floor, was found the singular granary of plate XVI, 1, consisting of two rows of un- 
baked mud jars, twenty-eight in all. A tiny bricked passage along which a cat might creep, led 
from this to the S.-E. corner of the pit. The unbaked pots in the trench had cone-shaped stop- 
pers outside and a concave lid inside. There was an oblong impressed stamp on each vase, but 
no inscription. Search was made for seeds, without success, but the lowest third of each vase 
contained a very light organic powder, somewhat of the appearance of coffee grounds. 

Save for the egg-shaped pots shown in plate XVI, 2 , the contents of the pit were scanty, viz. : 
fragments of three bowls, slate, breccia and alabaster and the small objects of ivory and flint 
shown in plate XVI, 4. 

2110. Mastaba. The superstructure ca. 1 m. 4o cent. high. Shaft 2 m. 5o cent. deep. Chamber 
to W. 1 m. 4o cent, x m. 70 cent, x 1 m. 4o cent. 

Contents : two copper ewers and basins, a third basin, a few fragments of very thin metal, a 
flint knife o m. 21 cent, long, five alabaster tables, two bowls, fragments of diorite. 


Sill. Mastaha with plastered shaft and a small chamber lined with an arched roof also plas- 

Contents : fragments of stone howls and two alabaster tables. 

3 1 I 2. N. and S. Two mastabas standing about i in. 5o cent. high. Filling of yellow limestone 
chip. N. shaft with narrow, useless steps at the top; three chambers to N., S. and W. Top of stair 
under the north wall of tomb. 

Contents : three small bronze bowls (largest o m. o3 cent.), mirror (o m. 07 cent.), two large 
alabaster plates, alabaster bowl with spout mended in antiquity, fragments of other alabaster 
bowls and cylindrical vases, small diorite bowl, and a dumbbell shaped bead of stone. 

2\ \h. Two stairs in this mastaba descend in opposite directions one N. one S. 
N. Stairway. Chamber to N. 1 m. 20 cent, x o m. 80 cent, x m. 90 cent. 
Contents : five dummies, two limestone cylindrical vases with red painted edges, two cylin- 
drical alabasters, incomplete, and a few beads of green glaze, these last perhaps intrusives. 

21 \k. S. The stairshaft 2 m. 90 cent, deep, with chamber 1 m. 70 cent, x 1 hi. i5 cent. 
and " in. i|."i cent. high. It contained : 

1 . V bowl ol limestone 4V '' • diameter m. 117 cent., and another incomplete; 

2. Two small vases ^ ( 2 ) of the same stone, of a wellknown II nd Dynasty type, made in 
two pieces o m. o3 cent, and o m. o5 cent, in diameter; 

3. The upper half of an alabaster bowl of the same type, o m. 10 cent, in diameter, and the 
ring top of a black and white marble; 

h. A shallow copper bowl, diameter o m. i5 cent.; 

5. A ferrule of copper ; 

6. A diorite bowl fP, diameter o m. 1 5 cent. ; 

7. A small diorite bowl with spout, m. oh cent.; 

8. Fragments of an ostrich egg; 

9. A shell with stains of green paint; 

10. An ivory spoon in very bad condition, a gold foil bracelet, consisting of a strip of metal 
bent round, but the ends not joined; 

1 1. A similar bronze bracelet; 

i 2. Three barrel shaped beads of green glaze ; 
1 3. The tip of an ivory pin. 

The exact form does not exist in our fount of type : pi. XXI, 4 th column, second from top, gives the shape belter. 
" Rather pi. XXI, 5" column, a" vase from bottom. These two forms, possibly an oilflask and a lamp are often found 


2115. Stairway descends from N. in nine little steps, then becomes a shaft (total depth h m. 
60 cent.) from which opens a small chamber very irregular in shape, with hard boulders pro- 
jecting from the walls. 

Contents : copper ewer and basin and a very large number of stone vessels, viz. : two ala- 
baster tables, ten good alabaster bowls, one of diorite, one of serpentine, one of slate, many good 
alabaster fragments, one of a spouted bowl, five cylindrical alabasters and about forty dummy 
limestone vases. Types similar to the less flat types of plate XXI. 

2116. A shaft really, but in plan an irregular oblong like the staircases. Chamber to the west. 

21 16. N. Close to the south niche of no. 9101. Chamber to N. In it a body lying on its back, 
one arm and both legs sharply doubled up. It had been disturbed in antiquity, but was certainly 
buried in the contracted position. It lay with its head east against the north wall. The wrap- 
pings were very rotten, but there was a clear space of as much as 2 centimetres in places between 
the bones and the layers of cloth. 

Contents : one alabaster bowl , one cylindrical vase. 

This tomb is not shown on the plan. It lies N. of no. 2116 and E. of no. 2101. 

2118. Shaft 3 m. 20 cent. deep. Two small chambers, one to S. , one to W. 

Contents : two fragments of an alabaster bowl; a third, which fits with these, was found out- 
side the tomb sometime before. 

A few steatite beads and one lotus flower bead, belonging to a different period, probably came 
from an intrusive burial above. 

2119. Two tombs. (1) Small mastaba with arched chamber to S. Shaft well plastered. 
Contents : ivory pin (o m. 08 cent.), two alabaster ring tops of vases, blue slate disc (o m. 

018 mill.), perhaps base of a vase, some alabaster fragments. 

(2) Intrusive burial at full length, in a brick lined grave which cut through the mastaba 
stair. Head to the E. The grave was roofed with palm logs, one of which remains in place. Bricks 
o m. 3o cent. long. 

2120. Chamber to S., small and irregular in shape, but evidently intended for a contracted 

Contents : fragments of one marble vase and one alabaster spouted bowl. 

2121. Staired shaft well plastered. 

Contents : ten cylindrical dummy vases of limestone. 

2122. Small irregular chamber to W. 


2125. Barrel vault N. to S., one brick in thickness. Width of span o m. 92 cent. Height from 

arch spring o m. 96 cent., length of span 1 m. 1 2 cent. The widening joints on convex surface 

were filled with potsherds. Bricks laid on edge. The doorway, which carries two thirds of E. 

spring of vault, is m. 65 cent, wide and is covered by a single limestone slab as architrave. 


2 1 "26. A verv small tomb, the chamber roofed by a barrel vault in perfect condition, similar 
to that of no. aiaa. Shaft o m. go cent, square, vault l m. 3o cent, long (pi. XXXII, i). 

2131. Mastaba of yellow brick. Skew shaft cutting into an earlier mastaba. Chamber to S. 
Contents : two-pillared head-rest in very bad condition and one alabaster bowl, stained red 


2132. Mastaba of yellow brick. Chamber cuts into no. 21 64. 

Contents : one fine alabaster table, two bowls, one cylindrical, five short dummy vases and 
many fragments. 

2136. Three small, poor mastabas. One contained copper ewer and basin, porphyry bowl, 
small alabaster bowl , a plate and two cylindrical vases. Two had chambers to the S. , the third 
no chamber at all. 

2137. Shaft and chamber to S., both well plastered. 

Contents : two slate, three alabaster bowls, plate, fragments of breccia, coarse pots (form K) 
found close by shaft. 

2143. Chamber to S.; blank. 

2143 A. Short wide stair, lined with white plaster. Chamber to N. 

Contents : two alabaster bowls, one flat dish, one dish of red and white breccia, fragments 
of other bowls of alabaster, breccia and bluish marble, a dummy limestone jar and a coarse 
pot (form K) found in the debris. 

2145. An abnormal plan. Shaft to W. leads to a square chamber which contains square pillar 
near N.-E. corner : another chamber to S. of this. Probably not of the early period. 

2146. A square shaft opening into a small (1 metre by o m. 80 cent.) chamber. Half a bowl 
of diorite and a disturbed skeleton were all that was left in it. 

2146 E. Steep stair, 2 metres deep. Small chamber to N. with stone lintel. 
Contents : two dummy limestone vases, fragments of alabaster bowls, and three cylindrical 
beads, one steatite, two of glaze. The stela shown in plates XXVI-XXVII was found in the rubbish. 

2149. Mastaba of yellow brick. Lining of shaft of black brick. Chambers to S. and N. In N. 
chamber a few bones and a skull. 

2 152. Stairway 3 m. 20 cent, deep, descending from N. in nine steps. Portcullis in situ. 
Chamber to S. Body at S. end, contracted, head W. 

2155. Shaft. Chamber to S. with another opening from it to E., but the latter is probably 
the burial chamber of another tomb which has broken through. 

Contents : wooden spoon, fragment of bronze, fragments of fine bowls, thirteen dummy 
limestone vases, two long blue beads, one faience disc. Bead and finally a slate lotus petal (o m. 
06 cent, long) at the time not understood but plainly a fragment from a cup in form of a lotus 


2158. Yellow brick mastaba. Chamber to S., brick arched, i metre by o in. 90 cent. 

2 101. Plaster lined steep stair, 3 metres deep witb small chamber to west. 

2162. Chamber to S. The stair has but asinglestep, is almost ashaft. In the chamber a broken 
skull and three sherds from three different stone bowls. 

2165. Stairway. Chamber to S. 

Contents : two alabaster bowls type of plate XXI, col. A, no. 3 and seven dummy vases. 

2166. Yellow brick mastaba. Chamber to S. Ox skull in rubbish above. 

Contents : two alabaster bowls, broken, but complete; had been mended in ancient times 
with some dark-coloured adhesive. 

2166 E. Black brick mastaba. Chamber to S. Six dummy vases. 

2167 N. Brick stairway. Chamber to S. 

Contents : limestone cylinder, 0111.12 cent, by o m. 3 1/2 cent, marked with 4- on the end, 
a few fragments of an alabaster table and of porphyry and diorite bowls. 

2168. Shaft, 1 metre deep, lined yellow plaster. Chambers to E. and W. In E. chamber, two 
canopies with human heads, fragments of two others, planks from a coffin and a pot. All these 
clearly from a New Empire intrusive burial. 

2169. Bricklined and plastered shaft. Chamber to S. , of the usual dimensions (1 metre by 
m. 80 cent.) but quite empty. 

2170. Mastaba built against N. wall of ho. 2 102. Chamber to E. Body in S.-VV. corner, con- 

Contents : part of a panel from a II" a Dynasty coflin lay over body; there were a few dummy 
limestone vases. 

2171. Main tomb (pi. XV). 

Large mastaba with brick stairway and underground chambers (plan on plate XXX). 

In the underground chambers were found over 100 stone bowls of diorite, slate, breccia, 
limestone and alabaster of various shades. Pottery forms A, C, K and L. Pottery forms thus 
lettered are shown in plate XXXIX. 

In the shaft, between the blocking stones, one copper hatchet, also a seal of Netermu. 

Just outside the portcullis were fragments of a large vase, form D, and of an alabaster bowl, 
three small alabaster vases, some fragments of copper. 

On the stair were pots of the form shown in the figure 2 on page 17, o m. 75 cent, to o m. 
80 cent, in height. Some had scratched marks on them. They contained blackened organic 

The pottery found in the gravel filling was of the forms C, D, H (red and black), I (black 
topped), with coarse cylindrical types as shown in plate XV. 

The line of pots under the gravel was 3 m. 80 cent, long; it starts from the W. wall. i3 m. 
90 cent, from inside N. wall (pi. XV, 2). 


a metres If. of this line was a large heap of pots, form D. 
Five secondary hurials were found in the filling. 

1. Wooden coffin, Greek period, well made, plastered and painted. 

Face W. Inside a cartonnage mask with green wig and gilt face and inscription in relief with 
the name painted later in hlue. apparently fU U . Narrow, regularly spaced handages on 
the mommy. 

2. Wooden coffin in poor state. Mummiform. 

3. Oval red pottery coffin of a child. Head W. 

h. Burial without coffin. Head W. 

5. Stone coffin of Greek period, near the Old Kingdom pots. It is visible in plate VI, left side, 
high up. It is hollowed out to the shape of a mummy, but externally is flat sided, broader, how- 
ever, at the head than at the feet (o m. 7 5 cent, to m. 5o cent.). 

2172. Group of small tombs near the northern niche of no. 2171. 

2172 A. Small mastaba. Shaft with one step only at the top, 3 m. &o cent. deep. Chamber 
1 m. 80 cent. N. and S. irregular in shape. 
Contents : a few fragments of stone bowls. 

2172 B. Shaft 2 metres deep. In a chamber to the S. of it were two bodies in contracted 
position, heads N., faces E. They had been disturbed and one head had been removed, but the 
trunks remained in their original position. They had been laid in a short wooden coffin, parts 
of the planks of which remained on three sides of the four : the length of the box could be safely 
measured; it was 1 m. 01 cent. There were some remains of carbonised cloth. 

The eastern body was that of a child. A third body lay with head to W. in contracted position, 
but had been too much disturbed for more detail to be observed. In the shaft were parts of three 
Hat stone dishes and a granite cup o m. 08 cent. high. 

2172 C. Same shaft deeper down. Chamber to N. (1 m. 3o cent. N. and S., o m. 75 cent. 
E. and W.). Contents : five dummy vases. 

"J I 72 E. Oblong shaft with single step. In the shaft, part of a limestone table. The chamber 
to N. was still blocked with a wall of dry bricks (o m. 22 cent. long). The shaft had been appa- 
rently plastered after the chamber was closed. The coffin lay E. and W., the decorated face to N. 
II nd Dynasty type (pi. XXIX, 2). 

Three bodies were inside, two with head W., face N., sharply contracted. The head of the 
third was in the N.-W. corner, looking N. The bodies must have been buried at the same time. 
There was not room to lift the lid and introduce another body, unless the coffin were dragged 
out into the shaft. This was possible, no doubt, but the likelihood that this was a case of suttee 
must not be overlooked. There had been no disturbance except by white ants. 

2172 G. The mastaba, still in. 85 cent, high, was built over one half of Ihc shaft. This 
was 3 m. 70 cent, deep, had three steps in the E. side, a small chamber below to the S. 


2172 H. Mastaba still more than a metre high. The shaft is but 1 m. 20 cent, deep and the 
roof of the chamber, which opened on the south, was strengthened by an arch of brick. Con- 
tents : fragments of ten stone vases. 

2173. Similar group of tombs between nos. 2171 and 2 1 85. 

Mastaba with large stair of seven steps. 3 m. 80 cent, deep, from N. to S. Chamber at S. end. 

Contents : skull and a few bones of a young person, a fragment of a wooden headrest, a bit of a 

slate palette with green paint and a few fragments of stone bowls, one with a leaf pattern in relief. 

2173 A. Plastered brick shaft; chamber to east was still closed by a wall, one brick thick, 
of o m. 2 5 cent, bricks, bigger than those of shaft. Two uprights, from a wooden head-rest 
were found outside the chamber. 

In the chamber was a small coffin of II nd Dynasty type (pi. XXIX, 1). The chamber was only 
just large enough to hold it. Inside were the bones of an adult and a baby. The adult burial was 
sharply contracted with hands over the face; head N. face E. Disease was noticed in one femur. 
There was a large quantity of linen, much eaten by ants. Traces of a mat. 

2173 D. Shallow shaft, bricklined and plastered yellow. Chamber to N. was still blocked by 
yellow bricks (o m. 27 cent, x o m. 16 cent, x o m. 08 1/2 cent.). 

The chamber was arched. It had contained a coffin , but everything had been eaten by white 
ants. The body was on its back and left side with head N. and face E., sharply contracted. The 
bones were those of an aged person. 

2175. Mastaba of black brick, with shaft 3 m. 35 cent, deep, below the southern niche. The 
chamber on the W. side had its blocking intact, built of o m. 2 3 cent, bricks, laid as headers 
on their sides. Inside was a II nd Dynasty wooden coffin with the body in the usual position, head 
N., face E., hands over face. A large piece of fine linen lay loosely over the body and masses of 
it also were behind the head and below the feet. 

2176. Mastaba standing still 1 m. 20 cent. high. Stair from E. Chamber to W. of the usual 
dimensions for a contracted burial. 

2177. Burial in round-ended pottery coffin (New Empire?). Head W. covered with bricks 
(o m. 3i cent, x m. i5 cent. xom. i4 cent.) forming pointed roof above. 

1 metre to S.-E., on the same level, but not connected with this was a two handled vase, 
XVIII th Dynasty type, built round with bricks (o m. 28 cent, long) and filled with charred bones 
and twigs. 

2178. Small mastaba. Chamber to south, 1 m. 60 cent, by 1 m. 20 cent, and o m. 80 cent 
high. Contents : two bowls of alabaster and chips from a table of the same material. 

2178 N. Shaft plastered. Chamber to W., small, empty. 

2178 A. Intrusive burial cutting into the mastaba. Very poor painted wooden coffin. 

2179. Black brick mastaba. Chamber to W. Shaft plastered yellow. 

Contents : alabaster bowl with spout, two small vases of alabaster and one of marble. 

Excavations at Saqqara, 1913-191/1. & 


2180. Steep stair. Chambers to S. and W. 

In W. chamber, bones and fragments of a wooden coffin, painted red. 

In S. chamber: wooden panel (o m. a5 cent, x o m. 10 cent.) and other fragments, perhaps 
from coffin, perhaps from a wooden box. Lump of bronze and two fragments of bronze bracelet, 
cylindrical carnelian beads and round felspar beads, one large alabaster bowl complete and frag- 
ments of five others. 

2183. Stair from N., 3 m. ao cent. deep. Large portcullis found in place (i m. 90 cent, 
high ). Large chamber to S. with recess to W. 

Contents : fragments of bronze and alabaster, thirty-three dummy vases. 

2185. (See I rt Dynasty tombs above.) 

A Ptolemaic coffin was found intact to the S.-E. of no. 21 85. The lid was of two pieces fixed 
on by plaster. The body lay head W. with a garland of leaves over it and a fillet over the head. 
Beyond the head was a package of linen which fell to dust on being touched and disclosed inside 
a cake of white powder. The mummy was elaborately wrapped. 

2186. E. of no. 2i85. Chamber to N. Portcullis only 1 metre by m. 65 cent, — not large 
enough to block the door. 

Contents : scattered and broken bones, a pair of copper tweezers, one dummy limestone vase. 

2 1 86 A. Intrusive burial in wooden coffin over S. end of no. 2187. Head W. Mummy in poor 

2187. Stair. Chamber to S. 

Contents : skull and a few bones, copper tweezers and bit of ring, alabaster table with foot 
repaired in antiquity, five alabaster bowls, cylindrical alabaster vase, shell with trace of green 
paint, twenty dummy limestone vases. 

2187 S. Stair. Chamber to S., small, very irregular. 

Contents : black and white marble table (incomplete), fragments of diorite, alabaster, and a 
few flint flakes. 

2188. I" Dynasty tomb already described. 

2189. Stairway 6 1/2 metres deep descending from N. Chamber to S. Portcullis 2 1/2 metres 
high, leaning back from the chamber mouth. 

Contents : fragments of a narrow necked copper vase, five bronze tools, chisel and spatula, 
pink limestone table, eleven fine stone bowls (diorite, slate, alabaster), five cylindrical alabasters, 
two with raised ridge (not cord) pattern, four flint flakes. Pottery forms G, K, M. 

2190. I st Dynasty tomb already described. 

2191. Stair descending from N., chamber to S. 

Contents : very young body, disturbed in ancient times, head S. face W. Lot of decayed linen, 
some fragments of a coffin, but too small to give the shape. There was room in the chamber for 
two contracted burials. 


2192. Small mastaba of black brick (between nos. 2171 and 91 85). Shaft. Chamber to W. 
1 m. 20 cent, x o m. 80 cent. Bones disturbed anciently. 

Contents : lot of linen, floor and part of sides of small coffin, which cannot have exceeded 
1 metre by m. 60 cent, by m. 75 cent, in dimensions. 

2193. Shaft. Chamber to S. Fragment of wood, probably from a small coffin. 

2194. Mastaba. (In group between nos. 2171 and 21 85.) Stair from N. Chamber to S., plas- 
tered yellow in the upper part. 

Contents : a wooden rod o m. 10 cent, long, square in section with hole at one end. 

2195. Stair descends from N. to a small chamber of irregular shape. 

Contents : eight dummy vases, one cylindrical alabaster with cord pattern on neck and a few 
chips of diorite and alabaster bowls. 

2196 A. Brick mastaba. Both niches preserved. Vertical shaft 1 m. 60 cent, with arched 
chamber to S. The arch and the upper part of the walls of the shaft were all plastered. The 
position gives evidence that this is of the same period as the mastabas with stair. 

.2198. E. of no. 21 85. 

Contents : two copper needles, bit of porphyry shell, two spherical vases of limestone (dum- 
mies, only slightly hollowed out in the neck, one with lugs), one alabaster vase^, two ^) . 
three flat alabaster plates and one bowl. 

2199. L-shaped stairway descending from N., then turning to W. Chamber to W. The port- 
cullis in place but broken. 

Contents : fragments of a thin bowl of beaten copper, two flint flakes, fragments of four flat— 
tish alabaster dishes and one good cylindrical alabaster vase. 

2199 (2). Large mastaba on eastern limit of the work. Not dug. 

2199 (3). Small stairway tomb built on to no. 2 199, 2. 

Contents : two alabaster tables, one porphyry bowl, one diorite, one grey marble, eighteen 
dummy cylinders of limestone. 

2240. Stairway from E. : chamber W. 

Contents : ten stone bowls and flat dishes, most af alabaster, three pots form S (pi. XXXIX). 

2241. Shaft 2 m. 80 cent. deep. Chamber to N. 1 m. 5o cent. long. Blank. 

2243. Vertical shaft 1 m. 7a cent. deep. Chamber with arched roof on W. side (1 m. 
26 cent, x m. 90 cent, x m. 98 cent.). 

2245. Stair descends three steps from E. Chamber to W. 2 m. 20 cent, x 1 m. 80 cent. 
Contents : fine porphyry bowl, alabaster bowl and fragments of others, five dummy vases, 
some fragments of one of the short II nd Dynasty box coffins. 


Shapes as in no. 1 1 1 4 S above. 


2245. N. Stair only. The sides are plastered, but it was never finished. 

2246. Shallow shaft. Chamber to N. In it had been a box coffin o m. 75 cent, x o m. 
5o cent, x m. 5o cent., of panelled design, but no particle of wood remained : the chamber 
had filled with gravel wbich had consolidated into a kind of cement and in this the side of the 
coffin had left a sharp imprint. 

22'i7. Mastaba. No superstructure left. Stair from N. Chamber to S. The portcullis stood in 
place, but tbe tomb had been robbed. 

Contents : two limestone trays, alabaster vase, cylindrical alabaster, three pottery saucers, 
form S (pi. XXXIX). 

2255. Small mastaba of yellow brick. 

2259. Black brick mastaba. Shaft 2 m. 1 o cent. deep. 

Contents : fragments ot ivory bracelets, alabaster bowls O. large cylindrical alabaster vase. 

2259. E. Small mastaba. Shaft 3 m. 10 cent. deep. Chamber to S. 

2259. W. Shaft, not a stair. Chamber to W. Contents : an alabaster dish, a diorite bowl and 
three cylindrical vases ornamented with comma-marks in black paint. 

2259. S. Rough stairway. Chamber to W. 

2260. Mastaba. Shaft 2 m. 60 cent. deep. Chamber to W., 1 m. 3o cent, x 1 metre x 
1 metre. 

Contents : skeleton in the usual sharply contracted position with head N. and face E. An ala- 
baster table, nearly complete, was the only object found with it. 

2261. Stair from E. Chamber to W. It measures 1 m. 60 cent, by 1 metre and 1 m. 10 cent, 
in height. 

Contents : fragments of a bowl and a flat dish of alabaster; a small sharpedged bowl and a 
(lint flake of the regular oblong 0. K. type. 

2262. Shaft. Chamber to S. Body lay head N., face E. 
One coarse pot (form M) to south. 

2263. L-shaped shaft. Chamber to W. rather larger than usual. 

Contents : body head S. face W. , lying on its left side. The linen wrappings were very rotten, 
but it was clearly to be seen that the limbs were wrapped separately and that the whole body 
was tied up into a bundle with twisted wisps of linen. As in other cases in this cemetery, the 
bones of the arm lay loose in a hollow cylinder of linen. 

A vase of black and white marble was the only object of funerary furniture remaining. 

2264. Contents : diorite table the foot of which had been mended in antiquity with mud 
mixed with quartz chip; with it two marble vases ^) . 

2266. Mastaba of black brick; nearly all tbe space between the walls filled by the stair (2 m. 
60 cent. deep). Chamber to S. 


Contents : top of alabaster table, stone bowls, one slate, one diorite, one porphyrv, small 
alabaster, thirty-eight dummy vases, some painted with red bands, lastly a few cylindrical beads 
of glaze. 

2267. Shaft with chamber to W. side. Contained sherd of IV th Dynasty milk bowl with sbarp 
edge 1 and round bottom i , made of good red pottery. 

2301. Stairway of ten steps, 3 m. 8o cent, deep, leading to a small chamber at the west 
end, ca. i m. 5o cent, square and i metre high. In the chamber were two Hat dishes and one 
deep bowl, all of alabaet^NAvith a little well preserved iinen and a few human bones. 

2302. Mastaba of\Ruabu)( P I. XVII). 

This is a very large-brick mastaba with black mud filling, resting on a bed of gravel. As 
shown on the plan the smooth mud facing of the mastaba core has been enlarged by a mud 
brick wall all round, thus forming inner and outer niches. Some plastering remained on the 
outer face of the south, east and west sides. 

Two entrances were pierced by robbers through the layer of mud and the shafts as they 
descended were buttressed up by rough walls made froni broken up roofing blocks (pi. XVII, 
i). When they got down to the main passage, the robbers found it blocked by large slabs of 
stone, but burrowed round them and also round the big portcullis. 

This tomb contains the largest set of underground chambers (pi. XXX) , as yet excavated 
here. Outside the portcullis to the north are four rooms, to the east, one. Inside, the long pass- 
age runs southwards (pi. XXX), with chambers opening on either side. These chambers vary 
in height from i m. Ao cent, to i m. 8o cent. Most have pilaster door jambs ca. o m. 45 cent, 
to o m. 5o cent, wide and door sills o m. 26 cent, to m. 3o cent. high. Some are com- 
pletely plastered, in others plaster only remains in the pittings of the stone while some appear 
never to have been plastered at all. 

It was first observed in this tomb and confirmed by all subsequently found that the burial 
chamber is to the S.-W. and that on the S.-E. there are chambers not directly accessible from 
the passage, and suggesting arrangements for privacy taken from the design of a private house. 
These are marked on the plan H and L; the former being probably for water jars, and the 
latter certainly a latrine (pi. XXXI, 3). 

In this tomb, chamber H is divided, has plastered walls and two projecting pilasters, one in 
the north, one in the south wall; these are connected by a low ridge in the floor, dividing the 
room into two and giving the E. half the appearance of a recess. In it, towards the S. end, is 
a circular, funnel-shaped depression, o m. i5 cent, deep and about m. 26 cent, wide at the 
top, possibly for resting a jar. The pilasters are cut away at the top, as if to afford supports 
for beams. 

In the latrine, the seat is at the extreme E. end of the chamber, facing south. 

The burial chamber is fairly square, 2 m. 5o cent, high, with a pit 1 m. 10 cent, deep in 
the floor, which projects under the S. wall, thus forming a sort of cupboard. The walls were 
plastered. There is a step down half way through the entrance. A few bones were found in this 


Over the door to the first room to W. inside the first portcullis was the following inscription 

■ ■ ■ mm nnn 
in ink nnnss. 

Inside the room were large quantities of stone bowls, mostly in fragmentary condition. One 
of green slate was fairly complete. It and some fragments of others had an inscription (pi. 
XVII. 4) in hieroglyphs. 

A clay seal (pi. XVII, 3) dates this tomb to Netermu of the II nd Dynasty. It reads : 


] rrr c 



On another not reproduced in the plates, could be distinguished 

i i 





(J (3 (3 

and there were two other fragmentary inscriptions in ink, one on a potsherd j#X 
another the sign ^^ on the base of an alabaster bowl. Of pottery the forms A, C, L (pebble 
polished) and T of plate XXXIX were found with some late fragments and an Arab glaze lamp 
left by a predecessor. 

2303. This group of small tombs east of no. 2 3o2 proved a complete blank (pi. XVII, 2). 

2304. A small libation tank remained in place in the niche. A possible serdab behind. 

2304 C. A shaft brick-lined and mud-plastered (bricks o m. 2 5 cent.). The entrance to the 
chamber was still closed by a brick wall laid with sand but without mortar, the courses of head- 
ers and stretchers alternately, all bricks laid on their sides. Inside there had been a short box 
collin (?) filling the small arched and red painted room, but it was utterly eaten up by the 
white ant. 

2305. A mastaba of somewhat irregular shape and with underground chambers and tank-like 
magazines hidden in the filling. There were three shafts, the most northerly 4 metres deep to the 
top of the portcullis. The chambers lie to the W. From shaft b parts of some thirty bowls 
and tables of stone of the regular forms were obtained, and from shaft c a clay seal of 

There were also two intrusive burials of the New Empire. 

2306. On the western limit of the work, a bricklined arched burial about 1 111. 20 cent, deep, 
lying N. and S. The body was not found. In the filling was a mixture of O. K. objects with 
others of a very late period, — dummy vases of limestone, sherds of alabaster and of red and 


white breccia vases, all of 0. K. (pi. XVII, 2), while a bronze Ta-urt amulet and bowl are of 
N. E. and possibly Ptolemaic date respectively. 

2307. M. Large mastaba (pi. XVIII), with magazines in filling and underground chambers 
(plan on plate XXX). In the filling of black mud were eight brick-lined trenches, all of which 
had contained stores, had been duly robbed. A shaft had been dug through the mud into one 
of the magazines and then a way broken through from one to another. 

Contents : 1 . Only fragments of egg-shaped pots. 

2. Empty. Divided by wall of rough stone slabs. 

3. Two division walls. At E. end, small group of pots. 
h. Empty. 

5. Floor of brick halfway down; below it mud. 

6. Brick floor half way down covered with mud plaster. Red dust of wood below bricks. 

7. Brick floor o m. 5o cent, from top; red dust from decayed wood above, presumably from 
a wooden roof. 

8. Similar to preceding. Black ash below brick. 

Contents of underground chambers : many stone bowls, granite, breccia, pink limestone, dark 
slate, green slate, magnesite, mostly in fragmentary condition. 

The arrangement of the burial chamber and latrines was similar to that in no. a3o2 (pi. 
XXXI), but with single access. 

In the N. wall was a New Empire grave under a brick vault, 2 m. 20 cent, x h metres. At the 
N. end of this were three burials. 

The bodies lay head W. 

( 1 ) The northernmost was in a mat tied with four rope ties, in very bad condition. 

(2 ) Was a coffin of rough wood; once painted white. Inside it were two bodies of children. 

(3) Part only of a coffin. 

At the W. end, a fine round basket with lid containing a small inlaid cabinet with fastenings 
complete and a small pot of XIX th Dynasty form. 

Facing S. niche of the mastaba was another intrusive burial in a late coffin, mummiform, 
black, with figure and text, but no name. 

2309. Mastaba with underground chambers. 

Contents : good set of stone vases, about twenty in number, of diorite, magnesite, alabaster 
and sixty-five dummy cylindrical , six flint flakes and knife (o m. 10 cent.). 

A N. E. intrusive burial in the filling at the N. end. Body lay with head W. in a wooden coffin 
with rounded lid. Inside the coffin was a kohl tube in the shape of a palmleaf column, also two 
small longnecked vases. 


2311. Four shafts. 

(A) Blind. 

(B) Full of stone chips among which one complete alahaster vase was found. Ghamher to W. 
In it II nd Dynasty panelled collin. hroken. 

Contents of shaft : copper basin, copper double spouted vase (hroken, and in had condition), 
two diorite howls, an alahaster table, three or four cylindrical vases, one alahaster bowl mended 
in antiquity with reddish adhesive. 

The collin was of the type of plate XXIX, 1, and well made; inside it a wooden headrest, 
two pillared, and a great deal of linen. The body lay head N. face E. The bandaging was elaborate 
and masses of folded linen, like sheets, lay below the head, before the face and over the head, 
shoulders and hips. The limbs were bandaged separately; eight thicknesses were counted. One 
continuous bandage was taken from the tips of lingers and toes to the top of the limb. The 
fingers and toes were not separated. The abdomen was bandaged with a strip of linen, o m. 
i i cent. wide. There was a pad between the knees. 

Two qualities of linen were used, one very fine — as in the pad before the face — while 
the bandages and the large rolls were much coarser. There was a twisted, rope-like bandage 
over the scapula, a knotted, twisted, tapelike bandage over the mid line of the upper dorsal 
region and at least fourteen layers of bandages over the chest. The large rolls were about h m. 
5o cent, long and o m. 65 cent, wide : one piece was joined and fringed on one side; the widtli 
of it was i m. 3o cent. 

No flesh remained; the bones were quite clean, the pelvis was hopelessly broken; the bones 
were generally slender; the sacrum broad. 

231 1 D. Blind shaft. In the filling small fragments of hones of a calf, bits of stone bowls part of 
a shell of diorite, some pieces of ivory from inlay of a box and two of the common egg-shaped pots. 

23 1 1 E. Was a shaft without a chamber but contained numerous fragments of stone bowls. 

2312. Intrusive. Late mummy in grave cut through the wall of mastaba. Head W. Gilt face, 
blue wig. 

2312 A. Mastaba. Bather large stair descending in five steps from E. Chamber to N. Shaft 
3 m. 8o cent. deep. 

Contents : two marble vases, one with spout, two alabaster bowls, fragments of pottery, six- 
teen dummy vases of limestone. 

2313 (pi. XIX). Mastaba with very thick outer walls, the stair descending from N. with two 
turns to E. and S., shaft stone lined, portcullis still in place but broken away at the side enough 
to admit a boy. In the filling of the mastaba, on the ground, was a layer of mud mixed with 

An intrusive burial (pi. XIX, i and k) was inside the building against the E. wall. The bricks 
used in the new construction were o m. 3i cent, long, those of the mastaba only o m. 2 5 cent. 


The coffin lay with feet E. and head W. The body was covered with carbonised linen among 
which six cross ties each an inch hroad, and a ring of linen for a pillow, could he distinguished. 
A Ptolemaic coin was found above the collin. 

In the underground chambers was a good set of stones vases (46) including a line one of ala- 
baster with cord ornament in relief, this o m. 70 cent, high, also a large number of pots of two 
types, ninety of the smaller one and seventy of the large I st Dynasty type. Most of these contained 
a black ash and in this in one jar was a fish bone. These tall jars often bore simple marks, a 
square, square and one stroke, -j-, h ^, the broad arrow, -but these marks were never found on 
the smaller vases. 

231/l B. Mastaba with shaft 3 metres deep in which was a single step, 1 metre down. There 
was a small chamber below on the W. 

2314 C. Similar shaft with one step and chamber to W. In it one coarse pot of tvpe k 

(pi. xxxix). 

2314 D. Mastaba with stair shaft and chamber on W. side, 1 m. 20 cent, x o m. 60 cent, x 
o m. 70 cent. high. 

2314 E. Mastaba with stair shaft and chamber below to W. Fragments of two stone bowls. 

2314 F. Mastaba with stair shaft (two steps) Chamber to W. contained fragments of a deep 
alabaster bowl and one flint flake. 

2315. A large mastaba, nearly 16 metres by 6 1/2 metres, with filling of limestone chip. The 
portcullis was in place at the bottom of the stair. Seven underground chambers. 

In the filling were two groups of pots, five of unbaked mud (type P) four more, o m. 5o cent, 
high (type C) and one (type I), also an alabaster bowl with mark in ink, "^^ T; in the under- 
ground chambers a fine set of thirty-five stone bowls of alabaster of varied tints, of marble and 
of slate. 

2316. Small mastaba N. of no. 2307. Near it was found a blue glaze ball (diam. o m. 
o3 1/2 cent.). 

Contents : bone needle, bronze needle, oblong slate palette (o m. 16 cent, x m. 1 1 cent.), 
two flints «=", small bronze cup, green stone cylindrical bead, alabaster table (diam. m. 
38 cent.) with fragments of another, a chip of galena, fragments of clay sealings, eighteen 
dummy vases. 

2317. Mastaba with stair descending from N. and chamber to S. 
Contents : fragments of an alabaster table and one bowl. 

2318. Mastaba with three shafts. That to the S. was blank: the middle one led to a chamber 
on the W. and contained fragments of diorite and alabaster bowls and four teeth of a calf : the 
northern one only a few fragments of pottery, types K, T (pi. XXXIX). 

2319. Three small mastabas against N. wall of no. 2 3 1 5. The shaft of one was about 9 metres 
deep, square at the top, rough and varying in size with every accidental break in the stone. 

Chamber to S. 3 metres x 2 metres x 2 m. 10 cent. high. 

Ercavatiom at Saqqara, 1913-1916. •> 


2322 (pi. XX, figs. i-k). Underground chambers on plate XXX. 

Large mastaba, nearly 2 i metres long. Stairway descending from N. on the west side (pi. XX, 
i ). Six tanks in the filling occupy most of the east side. 
Contents of the tanks, taken from N. to S. 

A. In the photograph of plate XX, i, this chamber is seen in the foreground with most of 
the mud covering in place. Beneath it were one hundred and seven tall jars of the type A , thirty- 
one of these containing fat, seventy mud; also nineteen small egg-shaped vases, one filled with 
ashes, the rest with mud. The jars had once been covered with clay seals and on what was left of 

111111111 — %^ M •! "^k 

one of them, this inscription could be deciphered >**-* ^^ © fl 1 1 lL®* ^ m *t thirteen of 
the tall jars bore on the shoulder one of some twenty-three simple marks ||, |||, these marks 
crossed by one horizontal, ix, ix,xi, xl, a square with and without a horizontal line above, a 
double square, a pyramid with cross lines on the top. All the marks were made before baking. 

B. Empty, except in the S.-E. corner, where some twenty-seven long jars were stacked, nearly 
upright, most of them badly crushed. All but one bore one of the marks described above. 

C. About seventy-six egg-shaped jars. In the S.-W. corner lay a long jar containing a little 
sand and three flat shells. Below the jars was a bed of mud and under this the remains of matting 
which covered a layer of grain o m. 08 cent, deep, resting on bare rock. AH the jars contained 
mud. Not one bore a potter's mark. 

D. Bemains of three rows of egg-shaped jars all containing mud and resting on the same 
triple layer of mud, matting and grain as in tank C, but in this case there seemed to be no 
husks; the grain was pulverised. In all these 'tanks' some of the jars had been broken and dis- 
turbed, so it would appear that some objects of intrinsic value had been deposited in them. 

E. Eight tall jars remained in N.-E. corner (pi. XX, 3), capped with hemi-spherical seals of 
clay : in most there was sand, in five a trace of fat (?). The floor beneath them was composed 
of six layers, — mud, flat coarse potsherds, matting, potsherds again, stone slabs, and, lowest 
of all an organic powder, presumably the last remains of corn. Intruding into these layers were 
two jars, one containing berries which our men called pepper but were not identified; like most 
organic remains in this cemetery they were in the last stage of decay. 

F. contained no pottery, but all over the floor was a layer o m. 20 cent, deep, of fine, pow- 
dery organic matter. In the shaft was a clay seal with traces of inscription (sign of a scorpion), 
a flint knife m. i5 cent, long, another seal with three lines of imprint, very faint II v 

IrtJn I and a third, bearing perhaps the name of a king, though it is by no means certain that 

the ring surrounding the name nebka, is a cartouche : 








2323 C. Shaft 3 metres deep with chamher to W. (i m. so cent, hy o in. 8o cent, hy o in. 
Go cent.) containing another sharply contracted hurial. Head north, face east. There had heen 
a box coffin of thin wood, rather ill made and it had fallen to pieces. Enough linen remained to 
show that, as in all these tomhs, a great quantity of loosely folded cloth had heen employed, Itut 
here it was badly carbonised and decayed. 

2325 A. Intrusive burial E. and W. cutting into the wall of no. 23o7. 

The bricks that lined the shaft contained much straw, while those of the mastaba had none 
and their size was different, those of the mastaba being o m. 25 cent, long, of the intrusive burial 

m. 3i cent. 

2331. Mastaba 10 m. 65 cent. N. and S. x 3 m. 65 cent. E. and VV. In south niche, on the 
side facing east, a slab from above the tambour showing the deceased seated before the table of 
offerings (pi. XXVIII, 2). 

Thirty-two vases and bowls, nearly all of alabaster, of the usual shapes. 

2331 A. Shaft. Chamber to W. (1 m. 20 cent, x o m. 80 cent.). 
Contents : one diorite bowl of O type mended in antiquity, — with mud. 

2331 B. Stair with two steps to shaft. Chamber to W. 
Contents : fragment of a marble bowl. 

2331 S. Built against S. wall of no. 233 1. Shaft with one step. Arched chamber. Part of a 
wooden headrest. 

2332 N. Mastaba of black brick. 
Chamber to W. 

Contents : two alabaster bowls, one limestone U- 

2332. Southern shaft. Stair from E. Very small chamber to W. 
Contents : alabaster table, one diorite bowl, fragments of pottery. 

2333. N. Mastaba with stair. Chamber to S. 

Contents : fragments of alabaster plates and of a diorite bowl. 

2336. Mastaba with large stair (twelve steps to shaft) k m. 75 cent. deep. 

Contents : alabaster bowl, three small blue and white marble bowls, three dummy vases of 

2336 (A). West of no. 2336. No superstructure left. Stair. Chamber to W. 1 m. 3o cent, x 

1 metre. 

Contents : fragments of a wooden coffin, blue and white marble bowl, alabaster bowl. 

2337. Large mastaba E. of no. 23 13, not all cleared. 

Underground chambers planned on plate XXX. North of them a long open trench running N. 
and S. The filling of the mastaba was of sand above, below this a layer of pottery o m. 60 cent, 
thick, much of it unbaked (type B, pi. XXXIX), and still lower of stone chip. 



Contents : in the filling, eight pots (type C), three of type I, and the base of a large howl 
of brownish red ware, black shouldered, with a hole in the bottom made anciently. 

In the trench nine tall vases (type A), three stone bowls and one cylindrical vase, some 
dummy vases of soft bluish stone (? calcite) and a red pot stand. 

Stairwav of thirty steps. Portcullis groove 6 m. 4o cent. high. 

Contents of chambers : twelve stone bowls, very incomplete, two flints. 

2338. Shaft with one step at the top on the E. side. Chamber to W. 

Mastaba above i m. 5o cent. high. The plastering of the shaft runs i 1/2 metres below the 
ground level. The chamber is small, ca. 1 m. /jo cent. E. and W., but very irregular in shape : 
nothing was left in it. 

2338 N. Similar to no. 2338. Contents : fragments of one stone bowl. 

2341 . Mastaba. Shaft under the middle of the mastaba, steps to stair well plastered. Contents : 
five stone bowls. 

2343. Late shaft 1 m. 60 cent, x 1 m. 5o cent, x o m. 70 cent. deep. Four chambers open 
from this, one of which cuts into the chamber of no. 2 33 1. These contained a number of poor 
burials much broken and damaged. 

Contents : inscribed uprights of coflin, inscribed wooden fragment, small Ptolemaic coins, bits 
of gilt plaster and fragments of a vase. 

2344 A. W. of no. 2336. Shaft 2 m. 70 cent, deep to chamber, but the shaft goes still deeper. 
Upper part lined with brick, then plastered. Blank. 

2344 B. Shaft 3 m. 60 cent. deep. Chamber to W. 
Contents : twenty cylindrical vases, one alabaster bowl. 

2344 C. Stair from S. Chamber to N. 1111.10 cent, x o m. 70 cent, x o m. 80 cent. 
Two little steps from the E. at the top of stair. Blank. 

2345. Mastaba with two shafts. The south shaft, plastered, square, with a recess, rather than 
a chamber, to W. Contents : fragments of coffin, handmade pot (type K), with deep groove 
round top. piece of vase stand. 

The north shaft was similar, with recess on W. side. 

Contents : part of a skeleton and half of a bowl (type T) of dark red ware. There was also 
an intrusive burial, i metre deep. Two bodies side by side, head W. feet E., wrapped in ban- 
dages. Above them, but probably belonging to them, a squat tumbler of light blue glaze (height 
m. 10 cent.). 

2346. Mastaba of yellow brick, well preserved. Stair from N. with two steps. Chamber to S. 

2347. Libation tank (pi. XXVIII, 3) with cartouche of Userkaf (V lh Dynasty) was near where 
the N. niche had been. 

Contents : twelve stone bowls, shell with green paint, copper chisel. 


2347 B. Shaft with one step to E. Chamber to W. (i m. 20 cent, x 1 metre x m. 90 

Beams m. 06 cent, to o m. to cent, in diameter must once have roofed the shaft : traces of 
four were seen. 

Contents : five stone bowls, one of diorite, the rest alabaster. 

2347 C. Mastaba. Stair descending from E. No trace of the roof of a chamber, according to 
our men, but at the bottom of the shaft there were fragments of wood from a coffin, part of ;■ 
skeleton and a little cloth. One alabaster bowl of the regular ^p type (see note to no. 21 14 S). 

An intrusive burial, a late coffin, brightly painted on a white ground, is mentioned for com- 
pleteness. It lay head W. . feet E., about 1 m. 5o cent, below the top of the mastaba. 

2348. Stair from E. Chamber to W. Contracted burial much disturbed. 

2348 B. Shaft 2 m. 5o cent. deep. Chamber to W. Bones of child. 

2349. Stair, shaft to E. 3 m. 10 cent., deep. Chamber to W. The foundation wall of the 
mastaba no. 2 356 crosses one of the steps. 

2349 B. Unfinished shaft, 1 m. 90 cent. deep. No chamber. 

2350. Well preserved mastaba, about t m. ho cent, high with Hat brick roof. Shaft h m. 
80 cent, deep; stair from E.; chamber to W. 1 m. 5o cent, x 1 metre very irregularly shaped. 

2351 A. Shaft with one step, chamber roughly circular. 
Contents : one alabaster bowl (B ( sec no. 21 ih S ). 

2352. Shaft 2 metres deep with no chamber. Shaft plastered down to 1 m. ho cent, through 
the pebble layer. 

2353. Mastaba of black brick, flat topped, covered with yellow plaster and white washed. 
Shaft am. 80 cent, deep with one step near bottom. 

Contents : fragments of fine alabaster table, stone bowls, ten dummy limestone vases. 

2357. W. of no. 2332. Mastaba with plastered shaft, two steps at W. side (this exception- 
al). Chamber to W. No objects. 

2358. Mastaba of black brick, stair and shaft, 2 m. 3o cent. deep. 
Contents : two stone bowls, nine dummy limestone vases. 

2360. Mastaba of black brick. Stair. Chamber to W. 

2361. S. of no. 2358. Shaft. Chamber to W. Blocking intact, but robbed from the other side. 
In the filling a wooden box, m. 9.5 cent, x m. 22 cent, x o m. 10 cent., with ivory pegs 

and inlay. No lid. 

2370. Mastaba of yellow brick, enlarged with black brick. Stair from S. plastered. Chamber 
to N., very rough. 


2371. Shaft i m. 4o cent, deep, bricklined and plastered. Chamber to N., roofed by stone 
slabs and plastered. The flat bench, one brick high, at the top of shaft, which was plastered over 
and left till the upper structure was built, is very clearly to be seen here. • 

2372. Shaft. Chamber to N. Two pieces of an alabaster bowl found here fitted with two others 
found in no. 2373. 

"2373. Shallow shaft, hrick arched. Chamber to N. Here also the white finished top of the 
shaft, left before the mastaba was built, showed clearly. 

237 '1. Mastaba of black brick. Stair 2 m. 80 cent. deep. Chamber to N. 

•237/1 S. Stair from E. Chamber to W. 

2100 and 2401 were a detached group, outside the plan to the N. and directly west of the 
village of Abusir. 

A search was made 1 00 metres beyond the last group of tombs and the same type of mastaba 
was found to continue. A passage was dug out which had a doorway at the north end and a plain 
wall to E. , while on the west were three niches, each with its libation tank in front. The walls 
were about 1 m. 20 cent. high. The name fi II t I % was found on the door jamb of one of them. 

2401. About 4o metres E. of no. 2600. A mound looking like a large mastaba. A libation 
tank was found in it, but not in position (pi. XXVIII, 4). 

Digging was not continued at this point ; it served only to prove the very considerable exten- 
sion of this cemetery to the N. 

2405. Tomb of Hesy. Has been published separately [Excavations at Saqqara, lgi 1-1012 , 
The Tomb of Hesy, by J. E. Quibell, 1913. Le Caire, Imprimerie de flnstitut francais). 

2406 M. Large mastaba with stairway. Underground chambers planned on plate XXX. Above, 
loose in the sand, two bronzes were found, one an Osiride figure of the usual type, the other 
a compound, trPantheonn statuette, of very fine workmanship (pi. XXXVIII). Under these, 
but probably not connected with them, was a plain, heavy mummiform coffin lying with head 
\\ . and feet E.; inside it was a much decayed mummy with a wreath over the hips. A little to 
the W. was a similar burial, equally poor and decayed. 

In the mastaba, an adze and two copper chisels were found at the entrance to the passage 
at the foot of the stair (pi. XXXIII, 3) and in the chambers were two pieces of stone offering 
tables and about twenty bowls, mostly of limestone, besides dummy cylindrical vases. 

2407. Large mastaba with two shafts, the filling divided into numerous cells (pi. II) and an 
elaborate series of chambers in the rock. 

From the shaft F a large series of stone bowls, badly broken, of course, and with many 
pieces missing, were obtained : no less than 123 cylindrical dummy vases were with them. 

Part of a large alabaster vase decorated with cord pattern in relief and engraved =■■=, a fragment 


from one diorite bowl inscribed (« — •) 1 "^"fi^ and another jQ(j " === * jj i |§ showed that 
the equipment of the tomb liad once been much richer. 

From the second shaft forty stone vases were extracted, of which but four were complete. 

2408. Long gallery (pi. XXXII, 2). Probably a storehouse or magazine. 

2415. Intrusive, open grave oriented E. and W. dug partly in the S. wall of no. a4o5. 
Contents : four stone vases of XVIII th Dynasty type, two fragments from a vase of dark blue 

faience and a wooden ape in bad condition. 

2416. Mastaba of black brick with gravel filling. Stair from N. Chamber to S. 

Contents : two alabaster tables, two diorite bowls, one porphyry, one alabaster, the skull, 
teeth and foot bones of calf. Also a bronze arrow head with hollow shaft , but as the tomb was 
robbed, we cannot be sure of the date of it. Above, loose in the sand, was a fragment of lime- 


stone o m. i 5 cent, x o m. i 2 cent, inscribed 


2417. Intrusive N. E. burial, between the enclosure wall and S. side of no. 2407. Shallow 
coffin, wood o m. o3 cent, thick. 

Contents : pottery N. E. type, wooden chair leg. 

2421. Intrusive burial. Child's coflin, lying head E. and feet W. Two dom nuts at the head, 
two more at the feet. Fragments of XVIII th Dynasty pottery. 

2422. Large mastaba N. of no. 2 4o6. Not cleared. 

2425. Intrusive burial E. of no. 2407. N. and S. Head N. 

Contents : six vases of XVIII th Dynasty types, a head-rest with octagonal column. Under the 
feet a bronze knife for leather work (?), two pomegranates, five sycomore fruits and a lot of dates. 

2426. Row of small mastabas built into a passage E. of no. 24o6. 

(1) Tiny shaft, o m. 80 cent, deep with recess to W. In it female skeleton (age ca. 26) dis- 
turbed except for the head. The body most probably lay with head N. and face E. 

( 2 ) Similar, also female (age ca. 1 4 ). 

Contents : metal bracelet, fragment faience bracelet, fragment ivory bracelet, faience cylin- 
drical bead , a lump of copper. 

(3) Shaft 1 metre deep, blocking intact. Contracted body, male (age 17-18). Head N., face 
and knees E. 

2427. East of the boundary wall of no. 2407, and near the N. end of it two stelae were found 
in place in W. wall of a chamber about 2 metres wide. 

Of the northern one but the lower half remained : the southern one was complete, though in 
bad condition. It measured 1 m. 70 cent, by 1 metre and was of the ordinary Saqqara VI th Dyn- 
asty type, bearing the titles and name A * ^^ ^ m m | V. 


In front of the stela a slab of stone (1 in. 10 cent, by o m. 80 cent, and o at. i5 cent, thick) 
tare a single column of text, the same name and titles, placed so as to be read by the man com- 
ing out from the false door, upside down, that is, to the visitor to the tomb. And in front of this 
to the E.. lower by the thickness of the slab, was a tiny tank, m. 19 cent, long, opposite the 
middle of the N. half. It too was inscribed with the names of the man and his wife, and its text 
too was upside down. 

This tomb surely belongs to the late Old Kingdom and it is strange to find it thus isolated in 
the early cemetery, by that time deserted. 

m 2'i'2~ A. A cubical box (o m. 20 cent.) of limestone found loose in the sand o m. 5o cent. 
from the surface. Scene on the one side, the King before Isis, on the other, a bird. The figures 
had been gilt. This is of a quite late period. 

2^28. Mastaba. Not large, but with a very large stair descending to a short shaft with cham- 
ber on the north side, i.e. under the stair. The portcullis was in place and had to be broken up. 
Contents : seven stone bowls, a pebble with green stains and a bit of copper wire. 

2^29 (pi. XX1I1). Large mastaba. Brick lined stair running from under E. wall, then turning 
north. This stair has a ledge on either side. On the stair a very large quantity of stone vases 
[1 calcite) were found, some inscribed in ink (pi. XXIII, U). 

Above them was a quantity of decayed organic matter, including seeds. 

The portcullis was in place, but the tomb had of course been thoroughly robbed. In the stair- 
way were also found a few Hint fragments and pottery (pi. XXIII, 2). 

The underground chambers are planned on plate XXX. 

Contents : a very fine set of stone vases, twenty-nine in number from the chambers. 

2430. Intrusive N. E. tomb in passage S. of no. 2/107. F° un, l with blocking of crude brick 
still intact. Collin of good wood, body head W. feet E., lying on back with arms extended. To 
right of the head a small pot and at the middle of the S. side three pots. Over the chest two 
narrow bands of thin silver with eyelets at each end; on the longer one (0 m. 2 5 cent.) is a plain 
band, the shorter (o m. 19 cent.) widens at the centre (bracelet and necklet?). 

243 1 . Intrusive N. E. burial about 1 m. 5o cent, below the foot of 0. K. walls. Collin , lidless, 
high, of narrow planks worked by adze. At E. end two vases with stoppers, in the collin, two 
blackhandled vases and two of the faience spheres like large playing marbles (X VIII th Dynasty). 

2436. Stair of ten steps, descending from N. to 5 metres shaft. From this, m. 70 cent. 
from the bottom, opens a small chamber, 1 m. 60 cent, deep, m. 90 cent, wide at mouth, o m. 
35 cent, wider at the back. 

Contents : alabaster table, tall cylindrical vase, three diorite bowls, spouted ewer and basin 
of bronze. 

2437. Fragments of a stela of ordinary 0. K. type originally ca. o m. 75 cent, high, bearing 
the name of fl J -w» V nln were found on the stair. 


Contents : two alabaster tables, two alabaster bowls, four diorite bowls, funnel-sbaped por- 
phyry vase, all incomplete. 

2442. Small mastaba with chamber to S. Stair of two large steps, h metres deep. 

Contents of chamber : human skeleton, head, shoulder-blades and foreleg of ox, fragment of 
pot (type T), two alabaster tables, one porphyry bowl of (^ form (see note on no. 21 lft S), 
sherd of a pottery bowl of same type, two diorite and two alabaster bowls. 

2445. A double mastaba (pi. II, low on right). 

The N. stair descends steeply from N. 3 m. 60 cent, in four steps to a chamber larger than the 
ordinary, viz. 1 m. 60 cent, each way in plan and 1 m. ko cent. high. 

Con I en Is : open diorite bowl, heavy, two alabaster Im Mr-, ^fc (see note on no. 21 14 S) vase 
of marble, three small diorite bowls -^mtw, a flint flake. 

The S. stair led to an unfinished chamber. 

2446. Mastaba with stair 6 m. 1 5 cent, deep descending from N. to chamber on S. The cham- 
ber is not at the bottom of the shaft but 1 m. 75 cent, above it. 

Contents : a rectangular slate palette, parts of two alabaster tables, a bowl of red breccia, 
another of blue limestone, a third of alabaster, and one of a green slate bearing an incised inscrip- 
tion (pi. XXIII, 5). 

There were also the skull and the bones of one limb of a calf. 

2447. One of the tombs roofed with raking arch. Contained a few bones only. 

2448. Small mastaba with shaft, lined with stone and brick and plastered. Chamber to south. 
A small diorite lamp and a fragment of serpentine were all it contained. 

2449. Very small chamber, apparently arched, but roof damaged. 

Contents : fragment of serpentine lamp ^P (see note on no. 2116 Si. 

2450. Small mastaba built on to no. a452 and earlier than no. 2446, which overhangs it to 
E. Stair lined with brick and stone, plastered. 

No chamber, but the bones of a strongly built man were scattered in the shaft. 

2452. A large tomb. In the narrow passage east of it five fragments of a limestone statue of a 
woman were found. The arms were close to the side : the head was missing. Originally the statue 
may have been o m. 5o cent. high. There is a presumption that it belonged to the tomb, but its 
condition was hopeless : one could just affirm that it had been a statue. 

The S. niche was rather elaborate and a difference of surface in the centre part made us suspect 
that a wooden (?) stela had once stood there. Part of the filling of the mastaba, was composed of 
broken pottery; there was a bed of it half a metre thick; all the pots being of very coarse Old 
Kingdom types. 

The stair descended nearly 8 metres from the mastaba top, 6 m. 60 cent, from the desert 
level : the portcullis was in place, a formidable block more than 2 metres high. It had to be 
broken before we could penetrate into the underground chambers : these were on a simpler plan 

Excavations at Saqqara, 19 1»- 191 4. " 


than those shown in plate XXX. consisting of the long main room with one large recess on the W. 
side and two smaller ones on the E. : there were, however, two other chambers at the bottom of 
the stair, north, that is, of the portcnllis. 

In the east chamber were several alabaster vessels and two pots, one of them of the tall late 
archaic type with a ridge, broken at two points, round the shoulder. From the chambers S. of the 
portcullis no less than sixty stone bowls and vases were obtained, including a fine shallow dish of 
slate o m. 3j cent, in diameter, an elliptical bowl and three others of the same stone, two of 
quart/, part of a tall alabaster vase with cord pattern in relief and one bowl of granite. Most were 
of alabaster and there was no diorite. 

There was a rectangular palette of slate with two little cups in relief (pi. XXXIII, 6), an axe 
head of copper, two small copper bowls (one with a foot) much crushed and three chisels. 

There had doubtless been a head and haunch of an ox or calf, but only a few teeth of the ani- 
mal remained. 

Three objects not in the tomb, but found near it and probably belonging to it, remain to be 
mentioned, — a small limestone tank o m. 3o cent, long, with the inscription S^ ■*=*• I "*", a 
pot"V of good red-washed ware and a very poor and small stela, uninscribed : all these were 
near the N.-E. corner. 

2458. Small square shaft, a m. 20 cent. deep. Recess to west. Blank. 

2459. Intrusive N. E. burial underneath wall of no. 24o5 (Hesy) and 6 metres from S.-W. 
corner. Robbed. In the filling fragments of pottery of XVIII th Dynasty type and little faces, m. 
08 cent, long of gilt plaster, with eyes and eyebrows painted black and white, perhaps from Osi- 
ride figures. 

2460. Stair W. of, and older than, no. 2 442. Good steps in brick, white plastered. No cham- 
ber. In the filling, fragments of human bones and a few sherds of stone bowls and pottery. 

2461. Mastaba. Stair about 3 m. 80 cent. deep. Chamber to S. Lining of stone with brick 
above. Line of plaster showing that the lower part was finished before the upper structure was 

Contents : fragments of two diorite bowls, twenty-four dummy cylindrical , six of which were 
painted red at the top with diagonal stripes of red and yellow. 

2462. Mastaba, W. of no. 2452, with square shaft, 1 m. 5o cent, deep, plastered, but lead- 
ing to no chamber. In the shaft, bits of a much decayed plank. 

2463. Northern mastaba of a row. Shaft 1 metre square, 3 metres deep. Small unfinished 
chamher or recess to W. 

Contents : a few human bones, bones of a bird (? owl), fragments of a wooden coffin and of 
stone bowls. The mastaba no. 2 4 76 is built over part of the shaft. 

2464. Mastaba with shaft 10 m. 4o cent. deep. In the filling two long vases type A, but larger 
than usual and smooth; one bears a wet mark ^k. Chambers to S. and N. 


Contents : tables and vases of alabaster and limestone, twenty-one in number, of tbe usual 
types; fragments of tbin copper. 

2465. Small mastaba with rather large stair for its size. Stair from E. Chamber to W. High 
in the filling were two very coarse pots (type D). In the chamber, though the coffin had disap- 
peared the mould of its panelled sides and ends remained sharp cut in the gravel which had 
drifted in, and the dimensions, 1 m. 10 cent., o m. 70 cent., could be measured. 

2466. Small mastaba of black brick. Stair from E. Chamber to W. 

In the filling a small tank (0 m. 2 5 cent, by o m. 1 5 cent.) inscribed X • — — k J. 
also a skull and a few human bones and part of the shoulder-blade of an ox. 

2468. No superstructure. Square shaft 2 m. 5o cent. deep. Chamber to S. ca. o m. 80 cent, 
cube. Shallow recess, also to E. of shaft. 

Contents : in the filling small copper bowl (diam. m. i5 cent.), ewer (o m. 06 cent, high), 
part of model mirror, l>ils of metal ribbon (0 111. 02 cent, wide), four good small stone vases ^p 
(see note on no. 9 1 1 4 S). 

2469. Black brick mastaba. Stair large and well plastered descending from E. to W. to a 
chamber intended for contracted burial. 

Contents : bones but no skull, the lid of white stone vase ^p (see note on no. 9i i4 S), 
some fragments of alabaster, twelve rough dummy cylindrical vases. 

2470. Mastaba. Square shaft 4 m. 70 cent, deep; a little ledge on the N. side is the last 
trace of a stair. Chamber to W. (1 m. 20 cent, x 1 metre x 1 metre). 

Contained only some bones from the head and foreleg of an ox. 

2471. Mastaba, which had apparently been built on to E. wall of no. 2464, but no super- 
structure remained. Square shaft o m. 65 cent, x o m. 80 cent. 

Chamber to W., evidently for a contracted burial but empty. 

2473. Short stair. Chamber to W. Blank. 

2474. Mastaba. Shaft vertical, deep (19 m. 95 cent.) but still kite shaped: chamber to S. 
Fragments of portcullis in filling. 

Contents : fragments of eight stone bowls , two dummy cylindrical vases. 

2475. Shaft 1 metre square, 3 metres deep. Chamber to S., very low, 1 m. 10 cent, x 
1 metre x m. 70 cent. 

2476. Mastaba, superstructure ca. 1 metre high, half covering the square shaft. No chamber. 

2477. Small mastaba. This and no. 9476 are in a line skew to no. 9 452 and therefore 
earlier. Shaft 9 m. 60 cent, deep, plastered. Chamber to W. ca. 1 metre x m. 5o cent. 

Contents : bones of a young child and of a baby found in two heaps, bones of a calf, frag- 
ment of wood from a child's colfin, fragment of a diorite bowl, bits of coarse vases. 



2478. No superstructure. Shaft 2 m. Go cent, deep, red plastered and the rock also coloured 
red down to the lowest o ni. 10 cent, to o m. i5 cent., where it is white. Chamber to S. 
Above the door is a lintel; the mud with which this is held in place is not reddened. INo objects. 

2480. Mastaba. Superstructure still i m. 20 cent. high. Shaft 1 in. 1 o cent, square, 2 111. 
60 cent. deep. Chamber (1 m. 20 cent, x 1 m. 20 cent, x 1 metre), curiously far to W. 

Contents : a number of slender faience beads m. o3o mill, long, m. 001 mill, or 111. 
002 mill, in diameter. 

2481. Maslalia. Superstructure 1 m. 5o cent. high. Square shaft, 2 m. 60 cent. deep. 
Chamber to W. In it a body sharply contracted, head N., face E. , right hand on knee. 

Contents : head-rest in very bad condition, a fragment of copper, a faience bead, shoulder 
bone of sheep. In the tilling, a coarse pot. type L. 

2482. The southernmost of a row of small mastabas E. of no. 2/107. Shaft o m. 60 cent. 
deep under the mastaba. Small recess just large enough to hold a sharply contracted body; it 
lay with head N., face E., and knees up to the chin. 

2485. The fourth little mastaba from north of this row and to W. of no. 2698. Small 
square shaft ca. o m. 70 cent. deep. Chamber to W. with blocking intact, and inside a con- 
tracted burial, head N. face E., knees drawn up to the level of the hips, right hand on the 
knees. Scraps of linen over the bones and much decayed linen below the body. 

2487. Small mastaba built on the E. wall of no. 2607. Small limestone tank before the 
niche. Square shaft 1 m. 4o cent, deep, recess to W., only m. 5o cent. high. In it a skeleton, 
head N. face E., legs contracted, but not drawn up to body. Left arm extended, hand under 

2488. Small mastaba o m. 5o cent, high, the northern one of this row. Square shaft. 
Chamber to W. Blocking of dry brick intact. Small rounded chamber to W. In it a body sharp- 
ly contracted with head N. and face E. The teeth were very bad and many were missing; one 
eye was preserved, dried up in its orbit, and the brain was seen inside the skull. Linen wrap- 
pings in bad condition. In the passage before this a small oval tank, o in. 20 cent. long. 

2495. Small square shaft in passage E. of no. 2627. About h metres deep. Upper part of 
brick (long bricks, o m. 3o cent.) plastered. Small chamber to W. holding coffin (1 m. o3 
cent, x o m. 55 cent.) in which was a contracted burial, head N. face W. Bones badly broken. 

2497. Another mastaba of the row no. 2^82, etc. The superstructure 1 m. 20 cent. high. 
Square shaft U metres deep. Small recess, no burial. 

Contents : near the bottom of the shaft some animal bones (dog?); half of a coarse saucer 
(type Q), two pots (K) and one good bowl (T, pi. XXXIX). 

2498 (pis. XXIV-XXV). Large mastaba E. face destroyed. Stairway from under E. wall, run- 
ning to S. then to W., blocked with large stones set on end (pi. XXIV, 2). As many fragments 
of stone bowls were found between these blocks of stone, they may have been purposely thrown 


down on the stair, as in no. 2429. Four inscribed clay seals were found in the filling : three 
reading so far as the) could be made oul >~~*M A TTYYY J TrB^V' while on 

the fourth the name was thought to be seen , but not with certainty. Underground chambers 

planned on plate XXX. Photograph of one of these chambers, plate XXIV, h. 

In the filling there were seven brick-built store chambers or granaries (pis. XXIV, i-3, 
XXV, 2) numbered A-G. 

A. Was completely gutted except for fragments of coarse reddish pottery (C, Q. T). On the 
bowl T were remains of a haematite coating like false Samian ware. 

B. The contents appear to have been in three layers, the lowest (1) an ash-grev, powdery, 
organic matter, (2) layer of single bricks, (3) layer of jars (type C) plastered together with 

C. A narrow strip at the W. end was empty (o m. 60 cent, to o m. 5o cent. E. and W.). 
It was bounded on the E. side by a layer of brick. The centre of the chamber to nearly half 

its length was filled with fragments of pottery; a few pots (type C) remained in situ standing 
against the wall. Their contents, of a mud like substance", have stained the inside with a yellow 
matter of the colour of sulphur. The E. end had a lower level of floor covered with fragments 
of the same pottery. 

D. In the floor of this chamber, against the N. wall, four poles were arranged in a rectangle, 
the long poles 1 m. 85 cent., the shorter 1 metre, diameter o m. o5 cent. They probably 
formed a litter. The ends had nine, the sides nineteen L-shaped slits. Inside were some traces 
of matting. Both inside and outside the litter lay a lot of grain in the husk; it had originally 
formed a layer o m. 3o cent, thick; at the W. end there was none of it. 

Between the litter and the vacant space on the N. side are fragments of some eight or nine 
pots (L) with red (? haematite) surface. One of these is complete (o m. i5 cent, x m. 
1 2 cent. ) and contains blackish berries. 

E. Floor covered to a depth of ca. m. o5 cent, with organic matter, similar to that des- 
cribed in F, but redder in colour. 

F. Floor covered, as in E., by organic matter of brown ashen character with splashes of 
white powder. The present level of the floor is. m. 60 cent, below the top of the surrounding 
wall, but the original level appears to have sunk o m. 20 cent, as judged by a margin of mat- 
ting (?) with which the whole chamber was covered. Wall surface plastered with mud. 

G. Was subdivided into five smaller granaries, separated by one-brick walls, roughly plas- 
tered. Shown on plan (pi. II). 

In the westernmost sub-chamber : fifty pots (types A and B) with mud caps bearing marks 
similar to those in nos. 23 1 3 and 232 2 a. Nearly all contained fat. In the next sub-chamber 
west, were thirty pots, five rows of six, of pink, soft, roughish ware. 

In the middle sub-chamber were five red ,' egg-shaped vases (type G), of which only one 
was whole. All contained tough black mud in the lower part. The sub-chamber on the extreme 


E. side was divided into two parts by a cross wall. The tall pots it contained (type A) were 
stoppered with chips of stone. Many contained a light organic substance, possibly fat again. 

The roof of G consisted of a single course of bricks with mud mortar above, covering about 
two thirds of the chamber. 

Contents of the underground chambers : a fine set of stone bowls (about seventy), pottery 
vases type A, with clay stoppers, containing mud or sand. 

2501. Square shaft, o m. 6o cent, square at the top, 2 metres deep. Recess to W., con- 
taining a few human bones. 

2503. Mastaba. Superstructure o m. 8o cent. high. Under it a short shaft with chamber 
to S. Contents : two unbaked pots (type 0, pi. XXXIX). 

2504. Small mastaba near no. 26/16. Shaft 1 m. 60 cent, deep; lined and plastered. Very 
small vaulted chamber. The roof may have been an arch, but was carelessly built and damaged. 

2505. Intrusive N. E. burial under the S. wall of the tomb of Hesy. 

Contents : seeds (lentils?), seven dom palm nuts, top of a basket, pottery lid, fragments of 
a wooden box with ivory edge. 

2508. Small mastaba. Kite shaped shaft, 5 m. 60 cent. deep. Chamber to W. 1 m. 5o cent. 
x 1 m. 20 cent, x 1 m. 10 cent. Part of portcullis in place. 

Contents : fragments of a box coffin, bits of thin copper and of six stone bowls, diorite, 
porphyry and alabaster. 

2509. Mastaba. Stair from N. Under the stairway a small shaft, total depth about U metres 
from top of superstructure. Contents : a few human bones, cat skeleton, one chip from an 
alabaster table. 


' / 


kTE I . . . . 

Plan of S. group. 

Plate XX ... . 


Plan of N. group. 
General view. 

XXII . . . 


Single mastabas. 


Plan of I" Dynasty tomb (no. 21 85). 



View of I" Dynasty tomb (no. 21 85). 
Details of I" Dynasty tomb (no. 2 1 85). 
Small objects of I" Dynasty tomb 

(no. 2 185). 

XXV .. . 


Clay sealings of I" Dynasty tomb 
(no. 2i85). 



Stone vases of I" Dynasty tomb 


(no. 2i85). 


XII.. j 

Tomb of I" Dynasty (no. 2171 H). 
Stone vases of I" Dynasty (no. 2 1 7 1 H). 

XXX .. . 


Tomb of I rt Dynasty (no. 2188). 
Stone vases. 



Tomb of II nd Dynasty (no. 2171). 
Tomb with granary. 
Tomb of Ruabu. 



Tomb no. 2807. 



Tomb no. 23 1 3. 


Tomb no. 23aa. 

Stone vases of tomb no. 232 2. 

Views of tombs nos. 2^07 and 

Tomb no. 2/129. 

Tomb no. 2/198. Views of maga- 
zines, stair blocking and burial 

Tomb no. 2698. Bier. 

Lintel (no. 2 1/16 E). 

Lintel. Line drawing. 

Lintels and libation tanks. 

Coffins and crouched burials. 

Plans of underground chambers. 


Arched tomb. Store-house. 

Small copper objects. 

XXX' h Dynasty coffins. 

Lid of dwarf's coffin. 

Late tomb-chapel. 

Sculptures, etc., from above. 

Composite deity of bronze. 

Pottery forms. 



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