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COUNTY OF CORNWALL,
COMPRISING A CONCISE
HISTORICAL AND TOPOGRAPHICAL DELINEATION
OF THE PRINCIPAL TOWNS AND VILLAGES,
DESCRIPTIONS OF THE RESIDENCES OF THE
NOBILITY AND GENTRY,
Ucmaim of ^ntimitV*
AND EVERY OTHER INTERESTING OBJECT OF CURIOSITY J
FORMING A COMPLETE GUIDE FOR THE
TRAVELLER AND TOURIST}
F. W. L. STOCKDALE,
AUTHOR OF " ANTIQUITIES OF KENT," &C. ic.
PUBLISHED FOR THE PROPRIETORS,
BY SIMPKIN AND MARSHALL, STATIONERS' COURT j
AND KNIGHT AND LACEY, PATERNOSTER-ROW.
WITHAM AND MALDON:
PRINTED BY P. YOUNGMAN.
TO THE MOST NOBLE
WILLIAM SPENCER CAVENDISH,
DUKE OF DEVONSHIRE,
MARQUIS OF HARTINGTON, LORD LIEUTENANT
AND CUSTOS ROTULORUM OF DERBYSHIRE, HIGH
STEWARD OF DERBY, AND D. C. L.
The kind attention which I
have received from your Lordship on several
occasions, will never be forgotten; and as a small
token of gratitude, I beg leave to dedicate this
further proof of my humble endeavours, to your
Considering the great improvements which
have been made in the Fine Arts, within the last
fifty years, it is greatly to.be regretted that many
deserving artists have gone unrewarded, at least
their endeavours have not been properly and
liberally encouraged. It is true, my Lord, there
are many public exhibitions for the sale of works
of art; but the privileges of them have been so
much abused, that many artists of considerable
eminence, decline sending their performances to
them. If the Nobility of this kingdom were to
employ artists to make drawings of the anti-
quities and picturesque scenery of the several
counties, from which their titles are derived,
it would not only be a considerable benefit to
.them, but their works would become more gene-
rally known and admired.*
Although his Majesty's Government has
lately voted the expenditure of a considerable
sum, for the erection of a National Galleiy, and
the purchase of Mr. Angerstein's Pictures,
which is highly to be commended; yet still
there is much want of an institution, whereby the
artists of this country could find a certain sale
for their performances, at such prices as would
enable them to live in some degree of respecta-
bility: at present many of them are obliged to
have recourse to the picture dealers, who, in most
instances, take every advantage of their necessi-
ties : but in expressing this opinion, I hope, my
•If some of our most eminent Historical Painters were also em-
ployed to paint Altar Pieces, for the several new churches now
erecting^ in London ; it would be more beneficial to the Public, than
the expenditure of so many thousands upon useless and meretricious
ornaments: indeed some of the new buildings only tend to lessen the
fame of the architects employed to erect them!
Lord, I may not be deemed invidious, and
trust those persons who are acquainted with the
Arts, will coincide with me.
The liberal encouragement which your Lord-
ship has shewn, in promoting not only the Fine
Arts, but every other science, merits the highest
commendation ; and I sincerely hope your Lord-
ship's example will be followed by many other
Noblemen, who possess the means of promoting
Wishing your Lordship every success in your
endeavours to collect the most choice and rare
works of art,
I have the honor to remain.
With the greatest respect,
Your Lordship's most obliged Servant,
F. W. L. STOCKDALE.
LONDON, MAY 1, 1824»
On the completion of the present volume,
the Author begs to observe, that owing to the
great distance of the County of Cornwall from the
Metropolis, its hilly surface, and other unforeseen
circumstances, his endeavours have been greatly
retarded ; the great interest, however, which is attach-
ed to the county in a commercial point of view,
much more its importance to the antiquarian and
geologist, will, it is presumed, render the work highly
interesting. Although much has already been written
upon this county, most of the works extant are
either calculated as books of reference, or deficient in
graphical embellishments. The trouble and expense
which has attended the collection of the several views
contained in the work, has been very great ; for as the
Author was desirous of selecting the most picturesque
subjects, he has been compelled to visit almost every
place in the county.
When the work was first announced, the Author re-
grets to state that many gentlemen declined to pro-
mote his endeavours, from the circumstance of his
being a stranger to them ; and many unforese^i diffi-
culties have also presented themselves; but perse-
verance will, it is presumed, overcome most impedi-
ments. It is to be regretted that Cornwall contains so
few Noblemen and Gentlemens* Seats, compared with
other Counties ; but the kind assistance the Author
has received from several eminent chaiacters, will
always be remembered. To Sir William Lemon, Sir
Christopher Hawkins, the late Sir A. Molesworth,
Joseph Carne, Esq., J. T. Austin, Esq., Colonel
Trevanion, the Rev. George Moore, Jun., and the Rev.
John Wallis, of Bodmin, he feels particularly indebted.
Owing to ill health a few years ago, the Author was
unfortunately compelled to relinquish the situation of
Assistant to the Military Secretary, East India Com-
pany; but from the feeling which he has always
possessed for the picturesque, and as travelling agrees
much better witli his health, it is the Author's intention
to endeavour to bring to light many of the hidden
Relics ©f Antiquity, which the several Counties of
England contain. Much has already been done; and
considering the improved state of the Arts, there is now
sufficient talent in this country for the publication of
works in any branch. It is also the Author's intention,
with some exceptions, to retrace the steps of the late
Francis Grose, the celebrated antiquarian ; for since
his time, many antient buildings have been considerably
altered; and such as were published in his work upon
' antiquities, were made when the art of engraving was
not so generally known. The completion, however,
of any work upon a similar plan to the present
volume, is certainly most preferable; and will, it is
presumed, be fonnd not only useful to the tonrist, but
valuable to the lovers of the picturesque.
As an Antiquary, few Gentlemen possessed a higher
claim to notice than the late Samuel Lysons^ Esq.,
F. A. S.; and the Author cannot but participate in the
feelings which exist with every one who knew him ;
especially in deploring the great loss the country has
sustained by his lamented death.
In concluding, the Author begs to return his grateful
acknowledgments to those Noblemen and Gentle-
men who have been pleased to subscribe to the
work ; and takes the liberty of stating, that he is now
engaged in completing a similar one, relative to the
County uf Devonshire, which he hopes will also meet
LONDON, MAY 1, 1824.
EXCURSIONS THROUGH CORNWALL.
C-ORNWALL is the most western county in England,
and is almost wholly surrounded by the sea, excepting
the eastern side, which is partly separated from Devon-
shire by the Tamar river. The greatest length of the
county from Moorvvinstow to the Land's End, is nearly
90 miles ; but its greatest breadth from Moorwinstow on
the north, to Ram Head on the south, does not exceed
43 miles, and diminishes gradually till it is only, from
Mount's Bay to St. Ives, little more than seven miles.
Its form, therefore, nearly resembles a horn, or as some
historians term it, a. cornucopia. — The surface of the
county being extremely difficult to compute, owing to
the many promontories and juttings on the coast, is stated
at about 210 miles, containing 758,484 acres, but is sup-
posed to have been much larger in former times.
According to the works of the most respectable his-
torians, the original name of Cornwall was Cerwyx,
and so called from its peculiar shape. The antient
inhabitants were also called Carnibii, or Cerwyn and
Gwyr, or Men of the Promontory ; but after the Roman
invasion, that name is supposed by Borlase, to have
been latinized into Cornuhia, which it retained till the
Saxons imposed the name of Weales on the Britons
driven by them west of the rivers Severn and Dee,
calling their county in the Latin tongue, Wallia ; after
which, finding the Britons had retreated not only into
Wales, but into the more western extremities of the
island, the Latinists changed Cornubia into Cornwallia;
a name not only expressive of the many natural pro-
inontories of the county, but also that the inhabitants
were Britons of the same nation and descent as those of
Wales; and from this Cornwallia, the name of Cornwall
The population of the county, according to the re-
turns of 181 1, was 216,667, and 28,398 greater than it
was 10 years previous; but by the late census, amounts
to 261,000, the extraordinary increase of about 45,000
in the last 10 years. — It is divided into nine hundreds,
203 parishes, (of which 85 are Rectories, 100 Vicarages,
and 18 Curacies,) 30 market towns, and now returns
forty-two members to Parliament.
The climate of this county has long been noted for
its mildness and salubrity. Its inhabitants in respect to
longevity, are said to surpass every other county in
England, and Carcw says, " that 80 and 90 years is
common in every place, and in most persons accom-
panied with an able use of the body and senses." In
the parish where he resided, an instance is mentioned
of the decease of four persons, within 14 weeks space,
whose united ages amounted to 340 years. Various
instances of the longevity of the inhabitants of Corn-
wall, are also recorded by Borlase and other subsequent
writers. As a proof of the mildness of the climate,
« even the most tender shrubs and plants, such as myrtles,
hydrangea, geraniums, Balm of Gilead, SfC. live and thrive
the whole year in the open ground, and in many parts,
grow to the greatest state of perfection. Notwithstanding
so much rain falls in Cornwall, heavy showers are not,
however, so frequent as in other counties. — The storms
which occur, are very severe, but are considered
extremely conducive to the healthiness of the inhabi-
tants, by cleaving the air of the pernicious vapours
which exhale from the mines, leaving in their room,
the vivifying qualities wafted by the genial breezes of the
ocean. — The winters, in general, are very mild ; frosts
are of short duration; and snow seldom lies upon the
ground more than three or four days. Mr. Worgan,
the author of a work upon the Agriculture of Corn-
wall, says, " a kind of languid spring prevails through
the winter, which brings forth early buds and blossoms,
raising the expectations of agriculturists, to be too often
disappointed by blighting north-east winds, in March,
April, and even so late as May."
The cause of such frequent rains in Cornwall is, that
for three-fourths of the year, the wind blows from the
intermediate points of the south and west, and sweeping
over a vast tract of the Atlantic Ocean, collects large
bodies of clouds, which being intersected in their
passage by the hills, descend in frequent showers.
Notwithstanding the salubrity of the climate of Corn-
wall, the harvests in general, are much later than in
midland counties; but owing to the great improvements
which have been made of late years in agriculture,
the corn which it produces, is equal, if not superior, to
The sterile and rugged aspect of many parts of the
county, (especially the road from Launceston to Truro,
which presents, excepting the town of Bodmin, almost
nothing but extensive and waste moors,) impresses the
minds of travellers with a very unfavourable opinion
of the county; but the admirers of the picturesque
will always be delighted with the beauty of its nume-
rous valleys and more cultivated parts. On the other
hand, Cornwall, from its maritime situation, and the
numerous mines with which it abounds, possesses many
advantages. To an antiquarian it will always be highly
interesting, a-s few other counties contain so many Druid-
ical and Roman remains. The mineralogist will always
have an endless source for amusement in the great variety
of mineral specimens which it presents to his notice.
The north and south parts of the county are divided
by a ridge of barren and rugged hills, running from east
to west, like a distorted back bone. The most remark-
able hills are Brown-Willy, Roughton, and Henborough;
the first being no less than 1 ,368 feet above the level
of the sea.
The most considerable rivers in the county, are the
Tamar, the Lynhcr, the Looe, the Fowey, the Fal, and
the Camel or Alan.
The Tamar rises in the northern side of the county,
in the parish of Moorwinstow, and with little variation,
pursues a southerly direction, for nearly 40 miles, when
it unites with the Lynker Creek, and ultimately forms
the spacious harbour of Harmoaze, between Plymouth
Dock and Saltash. The banks of this river, which is
the most considerable in the West of England, are
richly diversified with rocks and woods, and the scenery
in many parts of its course is extremely beautiful.*
The Lynher rises in the parish of Alternon, eight
miles north-west of Launceston, and after running a cir-
cuitous course of 24 miles, spreads itself into the form
of a lake, near St. Germains, (called Lynher Creek)
and ultimately unites with the Tamar, about a mile
The Looe rises in the parish of St. Cleer, and taking
a course of seven or eight miles, meets the tide at Sand
Place, becomes navigable, and at the distance of three
miles empties itself into the sea, between the towns of
East and West Looe.
The Foxvey rises from a well near Brown-Willy, one
of the highest hills in Cornwall, between Lanson and
Bodmin. It flows for some miles in a southerly direction,
turns suddenly to the west, and pursues a course of
some miles, till it meets the tide at Lostwithiel, and
ultimately falls into the sea at Fowey. The scenery on
the banks of the river from Lostwithiel to Fowey, is
remarkably beautiful and picturesque.
* A Poem, descriptive of the beauty of the scenery on the banks
of this river, has recently been written by Mr. T. N. Carrington, and
published at Plymouth.
CORN WALT-. 5
The Fal, which is the most considerable river in the
centre of the county, rises about two miles west of
Roche Rocks, and after a course of 12 miles, meets
the tide below Tregony, and passing Tregothnan Park,
joins Truro and St. Clement's Creeks, which are navi-
gable to Truro Quay and Tresilian Bridge; from its
junction with those creeks, after flowing four or five
miles, it forms the principal branches of Falmouth
Harbour, named Carrick and King's Road.
The river Alan or Camel, rises on the north-east side
of the county, near Camelford, and after a circuitous
course of 12 miles, becomes navigable for barges at
Egleshale, near Wadebridge, from whence it flows into
the harbour of Padstow. On all these rivers, as well
as others of less note, great quantities of sea sand are
carried in barges for manure, and sold to the farmers
at a very reasonable rate.
The most considerable lake in Cornwall, is the Loo
Pool, near Helston, and which is about two miles long
and a furlong wide, formed of a bar of pebbles, sand,
and shingles, forced up against the mouth of the creek,
by the south-west winds; but in the winter time, the
whole valley between the sea and Helston, is frequently
covered with water.
Dosmery Pool, is a piece of water about a mile in
circumference, lying in the parish of Alternon, on the
borders of St. Cleer parish, and said by Leland, to be 15
fathoms deep, but which, upon trial, a few years back,
was found to be only nine feet. It is formed and supplied
by water which drains from the neighbouring hills.
Between Budock and Falmouth is a piece of water,
near half a mile in length, and secured from the sea, by
a bar of sand and shingles, called Sxcan Pool, from the
circumstance of its having had many swans kept on it
some years ago..
The -SoeYs of Cornwall chiefly consist of three species:
fust, the black growan or gravdlj/ ; second, the skelfy ox
slatif, third, loams differing iu texture, colours, and
degrees of fertility.
The first abounds in the high lands, and consists of a
light, moory, black earth, intermixed with small par-
ticles of granite or gravel. The earthy parts of this
are so exceedingly light, that in a dry summer, as Dr.
Borlase observes, the sun quickly exhales its moisture,
and in a wet summer or winter, much of the vegetable
soil is washed from the tilled grounds. This soil is
in general very productive, and fit for any kind of grain.
The shelfy or slaty soil is far the most prevalent, and is
distinguished by this name from having a large pro-
portion of the schistus, or rotten slaty matter mixed
with the light loam, of which its soil is composed.
With sand and more viscuous earths, it makes an
excellent compost, and produces great crops of wheat
and barley. In congenial situations, barley has fre-
quently been sown, reaped, and threshed, in less than
nine weeks. This soil is not unfrequently mixed with
quartz, provincially called spar, and according as this
prevails, its value is lessened. When a dun or iron-
stone is found, it is considered a fortunate circumstance,
being a certain indication of the incumbent soil.
Of the Loamy Soils, there are many very rich and
fertile patches, interpersed in different parts of the
county ; and the low grounds, declivities, banks of the
rivers and town-lands are composed of them. Some of
these are incumbent on a subsoil of clay, and partake
more or less of it in their composition. With respect
to Clays, Cornwall presents endless varieties; good
bricks are made from some of them, and in the parish of
Lelant, there is an excellent species for making furnaces
and ovens. A clay of a slaty nature, but soapy to the
touch, is found near Leskeard, and has fertilizing
powers; but the Serpentine, with veins of steatite, near
the Lizard, is the most curious of all the earthy sub-
stances found in Cornwall, although very little of it has
\ CORNWALL. 7
been used for some years in the porcelain manufactures.
Large quantities of a fine white clay, found in the parish
of St. Stephen near St. Austell, is exported annually,
and is now become an important article of commerce.
The mineralogical substances of Cornwall arc more
abundant than any other county in England, and the
variety and beauty of them affords an abundant source
for the scientific enquirer. Of the stones most entitled
to precedence, is the granite, or moor-stone, which
abounds in great quantities in almost every part of
the county. Granite is an aggregate oi felspar, quartz,
and mica, and is found of different colours and texture.
Most of the churches and gentlemen's seats in the
county are built with this stone, also the Waterloo
Bridge in London, and which was exported at a very
great expense. It is frequently cut into pillars, as sup-
porters to buildings, and is very serviceable as gate
posts, bridges over rivers, rollers, troughs, and many
Another species of stone very prevalent in Cornwall,
is distinguished by the name oiKillas. It is a schistus,
and forms the mosl considerable substratum in the
county. It varies in texture and colour, some being
hard, others more pliable and laniated, and of a blueish
yellow, and ferrugineous brown; but either forms an
excellent material for building.
The worst sort of stone found in Cornwall, is an
opaque whitish debased crystal, generally called spar,
and lies loose on the surface of the ground, in almost
every parish. It is, however, useful for making fences
and for repairing the roads.
On the north and south coasts of the county, there are
several Slate Quarries, the slate from which is generally
adopted for the roofing of houses; but the best species is
found in the celebrated quarry oi Delabole near Camel-
ford, which is said to produce the finest and largest
slates in England. — "The quarry is about 300 yards
long, 100 broad, and upwards of 40 fathoms deep.
The slate is first met with about three feet below the
surface of the ground, in a loose shattery state, with
short and frequent fissures, the lamince of unequal
thickness, but not horizontal. — Thus it continues to
the depth of 10 or 12 fathoms, when a more firm
and useful stone is procured, the largest pieces of
which are used for flat pavements. This is called the
top-stone, and continues for 10 fathoms, after which
the quality improves with increasing depth, till at
the 24th from the surface, the workmen arrive at
the most superior kind, called the bottom-stone. — The
colour is grey-blue, and the texture is so close, that it
will sound like a piece of metal. The masses are
separated from the rock by wedges driven by sledges
of iron, and contain from five to 14 superficial
square feet of stone. As soon as this mass is freed
by one man, another stone cutter, with a strong wide
chisel and mallet, is ready to cleave it to its proper
thinness, which is usually about one eighth of an
inch; the pieces are generally from a foot square, to
two feet long, by one wide, but "the flakes are somcr
times large enough for tables and tomb stones."*
The art of husbandry, three centuries ago, appears
to have been little practised in this county; the grounds,
says Carew, " lay all in common, or only divided by
stiche meale, and their bread corn very little; their
labour horses were only shod before, and the people
devoting themselves entirely to tin, their neighbours in
Devonshire and Somersetshire hired their pastures at
a rent, and stored them with the cattle they brought
from their own homes, and made their profit of the
Cornish by cattle fed at their own doors. The same
persons also supplied tliem at their markets, with many
hundred quarters of corn and horse loads of bread."
But he also observes, " that the people increasing, and
* Beauties of England and Wales for Cornwall.
the mines sometimes failing, the Cornish felt the neces-
sity of applying themselves to husbandry, and their
improvements answered their expectations; for in the
latter end of the reign of Queen Elizabeth, they found
themselves not only in a capacity to support themselves,
but also to export a great quantity of com to Spain
and other foreign parts,"
Within the last 50 years, a considerable quantity of
the waste lands has been enclosed and cultivated; but
after the growth of two or three crops of corn, much
of these lands have again been neglected on account of
the great expense of manuring them. A very consi-
derable quantity of waste land has, within these few
years, been enclosed by Charles Rashleigh, Esq., of
Deeporth, near St. Blazey, and which is likely to
prove a considerable benefit; E. I. Glynn, Esq., of
Glynn, near Bodmin, has also had a large quantity of
waste land enclosed, for permanent cultivation. In
making enclosures, the fences generally consist of a
stone hedge, or layers of turf, planted with thorns, nut
hazles, and furze. In many parts of the county on the
coast, where there is an opportunity of procuring sea
sand for manuring the land, great quantities of corn
have been grown, particularly in the western and eastern
districts. It is usual after a crop of wheat, to sow the
ground with barley, after which, turnips or potatoes;
but the general course of crops in Cornwall, is con-
sidered extremely reprehensible by the author of the
Agricultural Survey of the county, owing to the
wretched, exhausted, and foul appearance of the
grounds laid down with grass seeds. This may, how-
ever, be partly accounted for, by Cornwall not being a
dairi/ county, and milch cows being generally kept for
rearing the young stock.
The soil and climate of Cornwall are peculiarly
adapted to the growth of potatoes, and these are at all
times a standing dish at the humble repast of the U-
bourer. Of the sorts most cultivated, which have
been long established, the painted lord and painted lady
are much approved ; but a kind of apple potatoe, en-
tirely red, called Carolines, are grown in great abundance,
as the standing winter crop. The most early potatoe
produced, is the kidney sort, and as a proof of the
goodness of the soil and climate, in the neighbourhood
of Penzance, two crops are frequently produced in a
year, and one acre of ground has been known to yield
300 bushels, Winchester measure, for the first, and 600
for the second crop! Many thousand bushels of pota-
toes are exported annually from Cornwall to London,
Plymouth, Portsmouth, and other places, A Cornish
bushel of potatoes, generally weighs 220lbs., and are
sold from 4 to 5s. a bushel. — Most of the labourers in
the county keep a pig or two, and as potatoes are so
easily cultivated with advantage, they frequently use
them to fatten their pigs. •
The Cattle in Cornwall are chiefly of the Devon-
shire breed, and large quantities of the best oxen are
annually sold to graziers and contractors, and sent
out of the county to be slaughtered. Many of them
are used by the farmers for agricultural purposes.
They are shod, or cued, as it is provincially termed, and
are extremely docile and active, while they are often
driven by boys, who cheer and excite them by the
song and the goad.
The Sheep of Cornwall are also, generally speaking,
of the Devonshire species; and some of the Leicester-
shire breed have been introduced of late years, with
great advantage. Mr. Worgan says, " a pure Cornish
sheep is now a rare animal ; nor from its properties,
need their total extinction be lamented."
With respect to Horses, few are kept in Cornwall for
ostentation, or to live in idleness or luxury. The gen-
tleman's horse is often put to the cart or plough. The
farm horses are well adapted to the hilly surface of
this county, being a hardy and active sort. Most of
the farmers keep up their stocJv by breeding a colt or
two annually; but one-eighth of the horses for saddle
and draught are supposed to be brought into the
county by eastern dealers.*
Mules are bred in Cornwall, but are mostly em-
ployed in carrying supplies to and from the mines.
Troops of 50 at a time are frequently to be met on the
roads in the mining country, loaded with copper or
The trade of Cornwall is mostly confined to the ex-
portation of Pilchards, Tin, and Copper, the three great
staple commodities of the county. The imports chietly
consist in groceries and bale goods, from London,
Bristol, and Manchester, and coals from Wales. Large
quantities of flour are also imported at Falmouth and
Penryn, chiefly for the miners. — The manufactures in
Cornwall are but trifling, compared with other counties.
Some coarse woollen, a paper mill or two, and a carpet
manufactory, is all that can be enumerated.
The most important objects connected with the His-
tory of Cornwall, are its numerous Mines and Fisheries,
and which for centuries past, have given employment
to nearly one half of its inhabitants, and yielded a
considerable revenue to government.
The Pilchard Fisheries, which are mostly confined
to East and West Looe, Polparrow, Fo-wey, Charles Town,
near St. Austell, Mexagizzy, the Creeks of Falmouth
Harbour, Mount's Bay, on the southern coast, and St.
Ives, on the northern coast, generally commence in
July and end in November.
The Pilchard, in form and size, very much resembles
the Herring, except that it is smaller, and not so flat
sided. " The dorsal fin of the Pilchard," says Dr.
Maton, " is placed exactly in the centre of gravity, so
that the ordinary mode of distinguishing it from the
* Worgan's Agricultural Survey.
Herring, is to try whether, when taken up by the fin,
it preserves an equilibrium, or not. The body of the
Herring dips towards the head, and the scales are also
observed to drop off, whereas those of the Pilchard
adhere very closely." They mostly arrive from the
North Seas at the Islands of Scilly and Land's End,
about July, and shift their situation as the season
prompts and the food allures them; but unfortunately
the fish have for the last two seasons been exceed-
ingly scarce, which has been a great loss to the fisher-
men. They are generally caught in large nets of a
peculiar make, called scans, and the fishermen are
directed to the shoals of fish by persons stationed on
the high lands near the shore, who discover them by
the colour of the water. The nets in general, are
managed by tk?-ee boats, containing 18 persons. The
seans are about 220 fathoms long, l6 fathoms deep in
the middle, and 14 at each end, with lead weights at the
bottom and corks at the top. The cost of these seans
is very great, sometimes as high as ^300 each ; and a
track scan of about 108 fathoms long and 10 deep, costs
^120. The boats for carrying the seans, cost about
£60, and the expenses incident to the first out-fit, (in-
cluding every thing that is necessary,) may be estimated
from £1000 to £1200, exclusive of salt.
The fish, immediately upon being brought on shore,
are carried to the store-houses or cellars, where the
small and damaged fish are picked out by women, and
carried away and sold to the poor, or used for manur-
ing land. The remainder are laid up in broad piles
and salted. ^ In this state they lie soaking 20 or 30 days,
during which time a great quantity of dirty pickle and
bittern drains from the fish : when the piles are taken
up, the chief part of salt remaining at the bottom, is
added to some fresh salt, and serves for another pile.
The next process is to wash the fish in sea water, and
place them in hogsheads, where, with great weight,
they are pressed together as compact as possible, by
which operation a great quantity of oil issues through
the holes at the bottom of the casks.
The number of fish packed in each hogshead gene-
rally amounts to about 3000; and the quantity of salt used
annually exceeds 50,000 bushels, each bushel weighing
84lbs. and one hogshead requires 420 lbs. of salt; but
nearly one half of this quantity is spoiled and sold to the
farmers for manure at the rate of lOd. per bushel.
Forty-eight hogsheads of Pilchards generally yield a ton
or 252 gallons of oil, the price of which varies according
to the times, but generally fetches about ^25 a ton.
In some instances one scan has been known to take
and cure near 1,500 hogsheads in a season ; but the
fishermen are more fortunate at some places than they
are at others. The quantity taken in a season may be
estimated at from 40,000 to 60,000 hogsheads of 40
The number of persons employed on the fisheries,
cannot be estimated at less than 14,000; and the capital
engaged is said to amount to upwards of ^350,000.
The tythe of each scan is ^1 13s. 4d. yearly, exclu-
sive of the duty paid to government for salt.
" The sea," says Borlase, " is the great store house of
Cornwall, which offers not its treasures by piece meals,
nor all at once, but in succession, all in plenty in their
several seasons, and in such variety, as if nature was
solicitous to prevent any excess or superfluity of the
same kind." — Among those which visit the coasts of
Cornwall, the following may be enumerated.
The Blower or Fin Fish, (the Physeta of the ancients,)
and so called from the quantity of water which it blows
into the air through a hole in its head.
The Grampus, the next in size, is usually about
18 feet long, and sometimes large enough to weigh
lOOOlbs. — The voracity of this fish is so remarkable,
that it has been observed to prey upon the Sea Hog.
The Blue Shark is frequently seen during the Pil-
chard season. — It has no gills, but breathes through
holes or pipes, situated betwixt the mouth and the
The Monk or Angel Fish, is a flat species which seems
to partake both of the nature of the Dog Fish and the
Ray, The back is coloured like the Seal, without
streaks, and has a white belly.
The Sea Adder is a kind of nettle-fish, about l6 inches
long, and has a back and tail fin, with scales shaped
like those of a land adder.
The Sun Fish, so called from being round and emit-
ting a kind of lucid splendour in a dark apartment, is
\ery rarely seen.
Turbot are caught in great plenty during the summer
season. In Mount's Bay particularly, there have been
instances of 30 being taken in an evening, with the hook
and line. When plentiful, they are generally sold from
4d. to fid. per pound.
Mackarel are also caught in great abundance.
Red MuUetts and John Dory's, which are very deli-
cious fish, are very plentiful, but seldom caught east-
ward of Plymouth.
Conger Eels, of an extremely large size, weighing
from 60 to ISOlbs. each, and which with their adder-
shaped heads, have a very disgusting appearance.
All sorts of shell fish are very plentiful, particularly
Oysters; but in general they are not so good as those
found on the Kentish and other coasts. The best sort
are found in the creeks in Constantine parish, on the
Respecting the Mines, the author of the General View
of Cornwall, says, " in a narrow slip of barren country,
where the purposes of agriculture would not employ
above a few thousand people, they alone support a
population, estimated at nearly 60,000, exclusive of the
artizans, tradesmen, and merchants, in the towns of St.
Austell, Truro, Penryn, Falmouth, Redruth, Penzance,
The tin of Cornwall constituted a branch of commerce
at a very early period ; the Phenicians and Grecians ace
said to be the first persons who came to Britain to traffic
for that article, but how long they enjoyed the advan-
tage cannot be exactly ascertained. On the discovery
of the secret that the Phenicians and Grecians had the
means of procuring this valuable metal in Britain, the
Romans under Caisar were induced to undertake an
invasion. Though they had possession of the mines for
a long period, it does not appear they made much pro-
gress in working them. During the Saxon government,
the tin mines are said to have been altogether neglected,
and the subsequent wars with the Danes and antient
Britons prevented the possibility of much progress being
made in mining concerns. After the Conquest, the
mines were of little value to the proprietors, and even
in the reign of King John, the product of them was so
trivial, that the Thi Farm amounted only to 100 marks,
and the King, with whom the right of working the mines
solely rested, was so sensible of their low state, that he
bestowed sorje valuable privileges on the county, by
relieving it from the arbitrary forest laws, and granting
a charter to the tinners, &c.
During the time of Richard, King of the Romans and
Earl of Cornwall, the revenue of the tin mines yielded
an immense return ; at which time many Jews appear
to have been employed in working them. Notwith-
standing this success, the latter were banished the king-
dom in the 18th year of the reign of Edward I., when
the mines again became much neglected. Shortly after
a charter was granted (through Edmund, Earl of Corn-
wall) to the gentlemen of Blackmoor, proprietors of the
Seven Tithings, affording the greatest quantities of tin ;
by which charter, more explicit grants of the privileges
of keeping a court of judicature, holding pleas of action,
managing and deciding all stannary causes, of holding
parliaments at their discretion, and of receiving as their
own due and proportion, the toll tin, or one-fifteenth of
all tin raised, were defined. At the same time, the
right of bounding or dividing tin grounds into separate
portions, for the encouragement of searching, appears
to have been regulated ; by which the labouring tinner,
who might discover tin in waste or uncultivated lands,
became entitled to a certain interest in the land, upon
giving proper notice in the Stannary Court to the pro-
prietor thereof. The bounds limited the particular
portions of ground to which the claim was made, and
were formed by digging a small pit at each angle, so
that a line drawn from each, determined the extent of
the claim. This practise still exists, and the bounder
is obliged to renew the pits every year, by removing
any dust or rubbish that might otherwise hide his
Carew says, that " this charter had a seal affixed to
it, with a pick axe and shovel in saltier."
In consideration of the privileges granted by this
charter, the gentlemen tinners undertook to pay to
Edmund and his successors. Earls of Cornwall, the
sum of 4s. for every hundred weight of white tin. To
secure the payment of that tax, they agreed that all tin
should be brought to places appointed by the Prince,
and there weighed, coined, and kept till the duties
In the 33rd of Edward I., this charter was confirmed,
and the tinners of Cornwall were made a distinct body
from those of Devonshire, having before been ac-
customed to assemble on Hengston Hill, every seventh
or eighth year, to arrange their concerns and property in
the mines. The laws and privileges of the Cornish
miners were further enlarged in the 15lh year of the
reign of Edward III., and subsequent acts passed in
the reigns of Richard II., and Edward IV., which con-
firmed the previous privileges, and the tinners divided
into four bodies, and placed under the superintendance
of one Warden, reserving them an appeal from his
decisions, in suits of law and equity to the Duke of
Cornwall in council, or should the title be held in
abeyance, then to the Crown.
A Vice Warden is appointed by the Lord Warden,
to determine all stannary disputes; he also constitutes
four Stewards, (one for each precinct) who hold a Stan-
nary Court every three weeks, and decide by juries of
six persons, with aright of progressive appeal to the Vice
Warden, Lord Warden, and the Lords of the Prince's
Council. The original Stannary Towns were Launces-
ton, Lostwithiel, Truro, and Helston; to these places
the miners were obliged to bring their tin every quarter
of a year. But in the time of Charles IL, Penzance
was added for the convenience of the western tinners.
All tin ores are wrought into metal in the county,
and are afterwards cast into blocks, weighing from
2| cwt. to upwards of 3 cwt. each. They cannot be
disposed of till assayed by the proper officers, and
stamped with the Duchy seal, which bears the arms of
Richard, Earl of Cornwall, viz. a lion rampant, gules,
crowned or, with a border sable garnished with bezants.
Since the reign of Henry VIIL the coinages have
been held quarterly. The average annual produce of
the tin mines is about 25,000 blocks, which, exclusive
of duties, may be valued at ^260,000, and yielding a
revenue to the Duchy of Cornwall of about ^10,000
annually. The most considerable tin mines now work-
ing, are in the neighbourhood of St. Austell, St. Agnes,
and Piranzabuloe. The celebrated Polgooth Mine^
near the former place, however, has not been worked
for upwards of 20 years past.
There are also many other valuable tin mines in
the western districts, north-west of Truro.
Besides the mines, there are several stream works in
the county, which have yielded immense quantities
" In digging a mine," says Dr. Maton, " the three
material points to be considered, are the removal of the
barren rocks or rubbish, the discharge of water, (which
abounds more or less in every mine,) and the rising of
the ore. Difficulties of course increase with depth,
and the utmost aid of all the mechanical powers is
sometimes ineffectual, when the workings are deep and
numerous. Mountains and hills are the most conveni-
ent for working, because drains and adits are then easily
cut to convey the water away into the neighbouring
valleys. These adits are sometimes driven (as the
miners term it) to the distance of one, or even two miles ;
and though the expense is enormous, these are found
a cheaper mode of getting rid of the water than by
raising it to the top, especially when there is a great
influx, and the mine very deep. It seldom happens,
however, that a level can be found near enough for an
adit to be made to it from the bottom of a mine ;
recourse must be had then to a steam engine, by which
the water is brought up to the adit, be the weight of it
what it may. As soon as a shaft is sunk to some depth,
a machine, called a •whim, is erected, to bring up either
rubbish or ore, which is previously broken into conve-
nient fragments, by pickaxes and other instruments.
The whim is composed of a perpendicular axis, on
which turns a large hollow cylinder of timber, (called
the cage) and round this a rope winds horizontally, being
directed down the shaft by a pulley fixed perpendicu-
larly over the mouth of it. In the axis a transverse
beam is fixed, at the end of which two horses or oxen
are fastened, and go their rounds, hauling up a bucket
or kibbul, full of ore or rubbish, while an empty one is
descending. The ore is blown out of the rock by
means of gunpowder, and when raised from the mine,
is divided into as many shares or doles as there are lords
conn WALL. ig
and adventurers, and these are measured out by bar-
rows, an account of which is kept by a person who
notches a stick for that purpose. Every mine enjoys
the privilege of having the ore distributed on the ad-
jacent fields. It is generally pounded or stamped on
the spot, in the stamping mill. If full of slime, it is
thrown into a pit called the buddle, to render the stamp-
ing more free, without choaking the grates, (thin plates of
iron full of small holes.) If free from slime, the ore is
shovelled into a kind of sloping canal of timber, called
the pass, whence it slides, by its own weight, and the
assistance of a small stream of water, into the box, where
the lifters work. The lifters are raised by a water
wheel, and are armed at the bottom with large masses
of iron, about one hundred and a half in weight, which
pound or stamp the ore small enough for its passage
through the holes of an iron grate, fixed in one end of
the box. To assist its attrition, a rill of water keeps it
constantly wet, and it is carried by a small gutter into
the fore pit, where it makes its first settlement, the
lighter particles running forwards with the water into
the middle pit, and thence into the third, where what is
called the slime, settles. From these pits the ore is
carried into a large vat, called the keeve, where it is
washed and rendered clean enough for the smelting
house. Most of the tin mines now working have steam
engines, the advantages of which have proved a great
benefit to the proprietors of them."
The famous IVood Tin, as it is called, has frequently
been found in the stream works. It nearly resembles
the colour of Hcematites, with fine streaks, or Strice, con-
verging to the different centres like the radiated zeolite.
From the experiments of the celebrated Klaproth,
wood tin was found to yield 63 parts in a hundred of
tin. The most general state in which the tin of Corn-
wall is found, is the calciform, the greater quantity of
ore being indurated, or glass-like; and its most preva-
lent matrix is either an argillaceous or a silieiotw
subtance, or a stone composed of both, and called by
the miners caple: none of the calcareous genus ever
appear contiguous to the ore, except the fluors."
The discovery of the Copper Mines in Cornwall is
of a much later date than those of tin, being about
the year I69O. Although the propriety of searching
was strongly recommended by Nordcn to King James,
many years expired before the real value of the copper
mines was discovered. Subsequent improvements and
perseverance have rendered the copper mines one of
the most important branches of commerce in this
county; and the quantity of that valuable ore, now
annually raised, is said to be worth, upon a moderate
calculation, the sum of ^350,000, or £90,000 greater
than the value of tin. Copper ores are found in Corn-
wall, in great abundance and variety. Native copper is^
sometimes found on the sides of fissures in thin films,,
deposited by the impregnated water that runs from
the lodes. Veins of copper are also frequently dis-
covered in cliffs that are left bare by the sea, but
the most certain sign of a rich ore is an earthy
©cherous stone, called Gossan, of a ruddy colour,
and crumbles like the rust of iron. Another sigiv
of the presence of copper is, when the ground is
inclinable to an easy free working blue Killas, in-
termixed with white clay. A white crystaline stone
is also found to contain a great quantity of yellow
copper. The lodes of copper pre generally lie deeper
than those of tin, and its ores are mostly of the pyritous
and sulphurated kinds, with more or less arsenic*
" The lodes, both of tin and copper, appear most fre-
quently to have granite for their country, and to make
an angle from 60" to 76" with the horizon." The ma-
trices of copper ore are very numerous. Among tlie
blue ores, there is one of an extremely fine blue earth.
The grey ore is frequently spotted witii yellow and
piirpl<?, but is deemed richest when of an uniform
The copper ore is cleansed and dressed by the same
process as that adopted for tin, but as it generally
rises in large masses, requires less washing. Owing to
the expense of importing coal, the ore is disposed of
after it is prepared for the smelting houses, and owing
to the expense of importing coal, the Smelting Houses
at Haylc have ceased working for a considerable time
past. " Nothing," says Dr. Maton, *' were so dele-
terious as the fumes of arsenic constantly impreg-
nating the air of these places, and so profuse is the
perspiration occasioned by the heat of the furnaces,
that those who have been employed at them a few
months, became most emaciated figures, and in the
course of a few years are generally laid in their
The principal copper mines now working, are mostly
in the neighbourhood of Redruth, of which the Gwen"
nass, United, Poldice, Huel Unity, Cook's Kitchen, and
Dolcooth Mines, have yielded an abundant source of
gain to their numerous adventurers.
A very accurate and well executed geological map
of the mining districts, by Mr. Richard Thomas, was
published in the year 181 9.
Lead is found in several parts of Cornwall, but not in
any great abundance. The ores are very dissimilar, but
the sort most frequently discovered is galena, or pure
sulphuret of lead, which is found both crystallized and
in masses. Its colour is most of a bluish grey, and the
form of its crystals is generally the cube. The most
common varieties are the cube, truncated at the angles
and corners, and the octahedron of two four-sided pyra-
mids, applied base to base. The principal mines are
Huel Pool and Huel Rooe, near Helston. There are
also a few others on the north coast, in the neighbour-
hood of Endellion and St. Minver, but of little conse-
quence. The oxides of lead are valuable for painting
and dying, and also for medicinal uses.
Among the numerous mineral productions of Corn-
•\vall, Gold and Silver ought not to be omitted; the
former has been frequently found in extremely small
granules, generally intermixed with the tin ore, in the
stream works. The largest piece ever found, is men-
tioned by Borlast to have weighed 1 5 pennyweights and
l6" grains. The latter has been found at different
periods in considerable quantities, particularly in a
mine called Huel Mexico, some years ago, near St.
Agnes; also in the Herland Copper Mine, in the parish
of Gwinear. — A particular account of the discovery of
silver in the Herland Mine, was furnished by the Rev.
Malachy Hitchins, and printed in the transactions of the
Royal Society for 1801. But it appears that after the
mine was sunk to a considerable depth, the works were
abandoned, the expenses of the mine having consider-
ably exceeded the receipts.
Within the last three years, a considerable quantity o|
silver has been discovered in a mine belonging to Sir
Iron, in rich lodes of red and brown ore, has been
found in great abundance, in many parts of the county,
but there are not any iron mines which have been much
worked. — Iron Fyrites, or sulphuret of iron, occur in
most of the veins of copper, as well as some magnetical
iron ore at Penzance, and specular iron ore at Tin
Croft Mine, in lUogan, Botallack Mine, near the Land's
End, and other places.
A variety of oiher semi-metals are found in Cornwall ;
the most remarkable of these are Bismuth, Zinc, Antimony,
Cobalt, Arsenic, Wolfram, Menachanite, and Molybdena,
or Sulphuret of Molybdenum ; but a description of the
places where they are found, or of their several proper-
ties, has already been published in most of the works
relating to this county.
Notwithstanding the early part of the History of
Cornwall is enveloped in obscurity, there is little reason
to doubt that (particularly from the writings of Leland)
a battle was fought between the renowned King Arthur
and his nephew Mordred, in the neighbourhood of
Camelford, in which the former was slain; and that on
the spot where the battle is said to have taken place,
several warlike antiquities have been found.
That during the incursions of the Saxons, several en-
gagements took place between them and the Cornish
Britons, particularly in the time of Athelstan, who in
the year 926, is said to have completely defeated this
county and subdued the Scilly Isles, when considerable
havoc and depredations were committed. At subse-
quent periods, the Danish pirates frequently landed,
and committed great mischief in many parts of the
county, particularly in plundering the monasteries.
During the captivity of Richard I., several commo-
tions took place in Cornwall, and St. Michael's Mount
was seized upon, but afterwards given up, and Henry
de lu Pomeroy died through fear of the King's anger.
In the year 1322, many of the Cornish people were
smitten with an enthusiasm of conquering the Holy
Land, and left the county; but some were executed,
and others returned and repented of their folly.
When Queen Margaret landed at Weymouth in the
year 1471, the people of Cornwall and Devonshire,
under the persuasions of Sir Hugh Courtenay, of Bocon-
noe, and Sir John Arundell, of Langhorne, marched to
Exeter and accompanied her to Tewkesbury, when her
troops were completely defeated, and the Queen, after
being ransomed, died a few years after in France. At the
latter end of the same year, John Vere, Earl of Oxford,
took possession of St. Michael's Mount, and retained
possession of it till the February following, when (on
his life being spared by the King) it was surrendered to
Sir John Fortescue.
24 • COIINWALL.
In 1497, the people in Cornwall rose in rebellion,
and marched to Blackheath, in Kent, where they were
defeated by Lord Dauberry, and their ringleaders exe-
cuted. Lord Bacon, says, " on this occasion, they were
armed with a strong and mighty bow, and had arrows the
length of a tailor's yard." Shortly after another rebel-
lion broke out in Cornwall, and no less than 3000 men
joined the notorious Perkin Warbeck, and marched to
Exeter; but his wife, Lady Catherine Gordon, was
taken a prisoner from St, Michael's Mount. A subse-
quent rebellion broke out in the year 1548, under
Humphry Arundell, who was defeated and executed,
together with many of his supporters.
During the civil wars in the 17th century, the inhabi-
tants of Cornwall greatly distinguished themselves by
their bravery and loyalty; but during the severe con-
tests which took place, many valuable lives were lost
on both sides; especially as the insurgents had taken
possession of some of the antient fortifications in the
county. Cornwall now furnishes a regiment of militia,
a corps of miners, and several troops of yeomanry.
During the late war with France, many volunteer corps
were raised, but fortunately their services were not
From Plymouth to the Land's End; through Looe, Foteey^
Lostwithiel, St. Austell, Metagizzy, Tregony^ Gram-
pound, Truro, FenryUf Falmouth, Helston, Marazion,
1 HE great importance attached of late years to the
towns of Plymouth, Stonehouse, and Dock, in a com-
mercial and nautical respect, has not only tended to
render those places of great consequence in the West of
England, but as travellers proceeding into Cornwall,
generally take this direction in preference to the one
which enters the county near Launceston, the following
Excursion has been considered the most likely to interest,
and display the beauties of the southern part of the
county. The scenery of Plymouth and its vicinity are
highly pleasing and picturesque, particularly the views
of Mount Edgecumbe and those on the banks of the
Tamar, which contrasted with the majestic appearance
of the numerous fine ships of war riding at anchor, form
a picture truly sublime. Previous to quitting this
neighbourhood, however, the admirers of the fine arts
will derive much pleasure from visiting Saltram, the
magnificent seat of the Earl of Morley, which abounds
with a great variety of valuable paintings, the most emi-
nent of which are the following :
St. Faith, by Guido — In her right hand she holds
her emblem of a white flag, which forms the back ground
of the head.
Peasants flaying at cards, by John Lingleback ; with
a view of the neighbourhood of the Forum at Rome, in
the back ground.
Galatea surrounded hy Nymphs — Domenichino ; copied
from the exquisite Fresco, by Raphael, in the Faraesine
Palace at Rome.
Virgin and Child, by Sassoferrato — This picture re-
calls the idea of the celebrated Madonna Delia sedia of
Raphael, of whom the painter was a close imitator.
Landscape and Figures — Karel du Sardin.
Storm at Sea, by Vandervelde.
View near Tivoti — Gasper Poussin.
Group of Soldiers, or Banditti — Salvator Rosa.
Interior of a Cottage, with group of Peasants — D.
A Conversation Piece — A. Palamedes.
Landscape, with ruins and antient sculpture — Fran-
Landscape and Figures — Disk Dalens.
Ditto — Both.
Daphne pursued by Apollo — Francesco Albano.
Landscape with Travellers, halting at a blacksmith's
shop — P. Wouverman.
The incredulity of St. Thomas — Gerard Hoel.
St. Anthony and Christ — Antonio Caracci.
View of the Doge's Palace at Venice — Canaletti.
A Negro's Head — Rubens.
St. John and Christ — Antonio Raffaelle Mengs.
A Holy Family — Frederic Baroccio.
Two Views in Venice — Canaletti.
Three Female Figures, as Huntresses, by Rubens j
supposed to be his three wives.
Bolingbroke Family — Vandyck.
SeigeofMaestricht — Anthony Francis Vander-Meulen.
A group of six Figures, size of life — P. Veronesse.
Adoration of the Shepherds — Carlo Dolce.
Figures with Goats and Sheep — Berghem.
Group of Sheep — Albert Cuyp.
Ulysses discovering Achilles — Angelica Kauffman,
Hector taking leave of Andromache — ditto.
Assumption of the Virgin^ with glory of Angels — Lo-
Portrait of Oliver Cromwell — David Beck.
Mercury — Weenix. There are also near 20 fine pro-
ductions by Sir Joshua Reynolds.
A catalogue of the pictures has been printed at the
expense of their noble owner, for the use of strangers,
■who are at all times allowed to have access to them.
The situation of the house is one of the most enchanting
spots in England, and commands a number of diversi-
Mount Edgecumbe, the seat of the Right Hon. the Earl
of Mount Edgecumbe, is another beautiful spot embel-
lished with fine promenades, gardens^ and shubberies,
perhaps equal to any in England. The house is a very
low building, erected about the year 1550, with battle-
ments and an octagonal tower at each angle. It contains
a few fine family portraits by Sir Joshua Reynolds.
The beauty of this spot has often awakened the ideas of
the poet; and who can quit it without enjoying the
same feelings which inspired the following lines?
"Farewell Mount Edgecumbe, all thy calm retreats.
Thy lovely prospects, and thy mossy seats ;
Farewell the couluessofthy dark deep woods,
Farewell th« grandeur of thy circling floods.
Where'er futurity may lead the way,
Where in this vale of life, 1 chance to stray —
Imagination to thy scenes shall turn.
Dwell on thy charms, and for thy beauties burn."
After crossing the harbour to Tor Point, on the right,
is Thankes, a seat of the noble family of Graves, which
commands a pleasing view of the Harraoaze and sur-
Antoney House, the seat of the Right Hon. Reginald
Pole Carew, is an elegant mansion beautifully situated
lOn a branch of the Lynher Creek. It contains a great
variety of family portraits, and a few other fine pain*
tings, by Holbein, Vandylce, Sir Joshua Reynolds,
and other artists.
The village of Antoney is about three miles from
Plymouth, and has a very picturesque appearance from
the road. — The Church is a small fabric situated on an
eminence, and contains several handsome memorials of
the Carew family; one of which to the memory of
Richard Carew, the author of the Survey of Cornwall,
has a long Latin inscription and the following curious
Full thirteen fires of yeares I toiling have o'erpast,
And in the fourteenth, weary, enter'd am at last.
While rocks, sands, storms, and leakes to take my bark away,
By grief, troubles, sorrows, sikness did essay ;
And yetarrivM I am not at the port of death,
The port to everlasting life that openeth.
My time uncerlain. Lord, long certain cannot be.
What 's best to me 's unknown and only known to thee,
O by repentance and amendment grant that I
May still lire in thy fear and in thy favor dye.
The prospects from the church-yard are extremely
pleasing, and justly merit the eulogium of one of our
" The raptur'd eye now wanders round
The circling stretch of distant ground,
Where fading mountains crown the scene,
With many a fertile vale between —
Where sporting with the solar beams.
Famed Tamar winds her wanton streams,
And deek'd with villas, forts, and towns.
With woods and pastures, hills and downs.
With docks and navies — England's pride —
And lighter barks that swiftly glide.*'
About four miles from Antoney, to the right of the
road after passing Craft Hole, is Sheviock Church, an
antient building containing some curious tombs of the
Dawnay's, and a superb monument to the memory of
Sir Edward Courtenay and his Lady. The following
beautiful lines are also engraved on a memorial for one
of the Duckworth Family, who died at an early age :
Dear lost Penelope, and must this tomb,
Quench the sweet promise of thy opening bloom.
Crush the sweet harvest of a mind so fair,
Its early piety, its filial care.
No there are seeds that angry tempests brave.
These cannot perish in a timeless grave,
Sprung from the Tree of Life, to them 'tis given.
Though sown on earth, to germinate in heaven.
Passing from hence through the hamlet of Hessingford,
at a short distance is Bake^ the seat of Sir J. S. Copley,
Bart., His Majesty's Solicitor General, which is a hand-
some modern edifice, built on the site of an antient man-
sion noted in former times as the residence of the Moyle's,
and which was destroyed by fire a few years ago.
On approaching the towns of East akd West
Lode, the scenery becomes highly romantic. These
towns derive their appellation from the river, on the
banks of which they are built, and over which is a low
narrow stone bridge of 12 arches. Both places re-
turn members to Parliament, but in themselves contain
little to interest the traveller. Several delightful
modern residences have been built on the banks of the
Looe river; among the most prominent, is Col. Lemon's,
near Polvellan. The population of both towns amounts
to about 1300, and the inhabitants are mostly engaged
in maritime employments.
About three miles west of Looe, is Trela-wny HousCy
the seat of the Rev. Sir Harry Trelawny, Bart., a
venerable mansion, but built at different periods. It
contains a few good family portraits, particularly one
by Sir Godfrey Kneller, of Sir Jonathan Trelawny,
Bishop of Winchester.
lu Felptt Church, wliich is not far distant from the
house, there is a very curious monument to the memory
of Francis Boiler, Esq., who died in l6l5.
About five miles from hence, is Fowey,* an antient
Borough and market town, situated in one of the most de-
lightful and romantic parts of the county, on the western
bank of the river, from which its name is derived. It is
distant 24 miles from Plymouth, and 244 from London.
The houses are very irregularly built, with foundations
composed of a hard bluish slate, (termed by Mineralo-
gists, Fat-quatz, from its greasiness to the touch,) and the
principal street extends nearly a mile in length.
Fowey has returned members to Parliament since
the 13th year of the reign of Elizabeth, and the right of
election is now chiefly vested in the inhabitants paying
scot and lot. The Corporation consists of a Mayor,
eight Aldermen, a Recorder, and Town Clerk. The
number of inhabitants, by the late census, amounts
The Church, a handsome fabric, is composed of three
aisles, with a lofty pinnacled tower at the west end. In
the north aisle is a noble altar-tomb of marble, with a
full-length figure of the deceased, in alabaster, richly
* " The glorie of Fowey," says Leiand, " rose by the warres in
King Edwarde the Firste and Thirde, and Harrey the 5 day, partely
by the feates of warre, partly by pyracie, and so waxing rich fell
all to Merchandize; so that the Towne was haunted with shippes of
dirers Nations, and their shippes went to all Nations, it also appears
by the roll of the huge fleet of Edward the Thirde before Calice,
inserted in Hakaby''s Voyages that Fowey contributed 47 ships
and 770 mariners, being a greater number than came from any
other port in England, except Yarmouth." — Carew in his time,
speaking of the prosperous state of Fowey, says, " I may not pass
iu silence the commendable deserts of Master Rashleigh the elder,
descended from a younger brother of an ancient house in Devon,
for bis industrious judgment and adventuring the Trade of Mar-
cbandize first opened a light and way to the townsmen uow thriving,
and left his sonne large Wealth and possessions, who together with
daily bettering his estate, converteth the same to hospitality and
otlier actions befitting a Gcntleniau well aficuted to hi« Gud, Prince
carved, and inscribed to the memory of John Rash-
leigh, Esq., who died Aug. 11, 1582, with the following
JOHN RASULEIOH LtTEO YEARS
AND THEN DID YIELD TO DIE,
HE DID BEQUEATH HIS SOUL TO
HIS CORPSE HEREIN TO LIE.
THE DEVONSHIRE HOUSE YBT I
RASHLEIOU'S HEIGHT |
WELL SHOWETH FROM WHENCE'
HE CAME, I
HIS VIRTUOUS LIFE IN FOWByI
DESRRVBTH ENDLESS FAME. j
LANYON HE DID TAKE TO WIPE, BY HER HAD CHILDREN STORE,
YET AT HIS DEATH BUT DAUGHTERS SIX, ONE SON, HE HAD NO MORBI
ALL THEM TO PARTAKE UNDER HERE, BECAUSE FIT SPACE WAS NONB,
THi; SON WHOSE ONLY CHARGE THIS WAS, IS THEREFORE SET ALONE.
There are also several other memorials of the Rash-
leigh and the Trespy families in this church.
On an eminence near the church, is Place or Trespy
House, a very antient building, and which is said to
have been partly rebuilt in the reign of Henry VI., by
one of the Trespy family. It is an interesting building
and displays some rich Gothic work on the southern
front ; yet has been greatly altered by modern improve-
ments. The owner, J. T. Austen, Esq., is a gentleman
of considerable ability, and has furnished Mr. Lysons
with much information respecting this county.
The Harbour of Fowey is spacious and well secured
from the destructive effects of storms, by the hills en-
circling it; and on rising ground near the sea, are
the remains of two Towers, said to have been erected
in the reign of Edward IV. There are also two other
embattled square Towers on each side the harbour,
now fast mouldering to decay, and which in former
times supported a chain across its entrance.
Fowey, like many other sea-port towns in early times,
has suffered much during the wars: at present its chief
dependance is on the pilchard fisheries. Other kinds of
fish are also to be purchased in season, at very reason-
able rates, and the river abounds with fine salmon.
On the opposite side of the river, is Polruan, said
by Lelaud, to have been in former times, a place of
considerable note; but now it consists only of a few
picturesque cottages. The ruins of an antient Chapel
and an old well, surmounted by a stone cross.
Menahilly, about three miles west of Fowey, the seat
of William Rashleigh, Esq. late M. P. and Sheriff for the
county, in the year 1820, is a neat edifice of moor stone.
The southern or principal front, commands a view of the
sea, but it is chiefly remarkable as containing a very va-
luable cabinet of minerals,* and said to be the finest in
England. There are also many other curiosities in the
house, and a few fine drawings and portraits.
About a mile from this place, in a very sequestered
spot, called Folredmouth, stands an octagonal Grotto of
curious workmanship, close to the sea, composed of
an immense number of minerals, fossils, &c. In the
centre of it stands a very handsome table of 32 species
of polished granite.
As the parish church of Tyarwardeth is more than
two miles distant from Menabilly, a neat Chapel has
been built at the expense of Mr. Rashleigh, adjoining
The road from hence to Lostwithiel, is extremely
dreary; the Church Toxcer of Lanlivery, a small village
to the left, forms a pleasing object.
Lostwithiel is a very ancient Borough and market
town, situated on the high road to Falmouth from Ply-
mouth, and 28 miles west of Tor Point. The Corpora-
tion, consisting of a Mayor, six Aldermen, and 17
Burgesses, have the right of electing the members to
serve in Parliament.
* Amongf the most remarkable specimens in this collection, are
green carbonate of lead with quartz, blende in twenty sided
crystals and green ileur in crystals ; crystalized antimony, with red
blende on quartz, yeiioMf copper ore with opal, and arseniate of cop-
per, in cubes of a bright green colour. — A very valuable work was
published a few years ago, entitled, " Specimens of British Mine-
rals," from this collection, embellished with a number of fine plates,
from drawings by Underwood awl Bone.
' CbfeNWAtLi 83
*rhe Church, is rather a handsome edifice, with one very
lofty aisle and two small ones ; the tower at the western
end is surmounted by a singularly beautiful Gothic
spire. The chief attraction of the interior is a very
curious and antient octagonal Font. It is supported by
five clustered columns, and charged with a representa-
tion of a huntsman riding an ass, accoutred in a short
jacket with a sword by his side, a horn in his mouth, a
hawk on his finger; a dog seizing a rabbit; an ape's
head entwined with a snake; a representation of the
crucifixion, with a female figure on each side; and the
arms of the Earl of Cornwall : but the whole has been
much obliterated and disfigured by a thick coat of
whitewash. The accompanying engraving, it is pre-
sumed, will be found an accurate representation of this
interesting relic of antiquity.
Lostwithiel is at present a town of little trade,
although barges are navigable to the quay, every
tide, from Fowey. The houses are chiefly built of
stone with slated roofs, and amount to about 150 in
number, and the parish contains, according to the late
census, 933 inhabitants.
At a short distance south of the church, are some
considerable remains of an antient Exchequer or Shire
Hall. It was no doubt formerly a magnificent building ;
the walls are of great thickness, supported by massy
buttresses, and the interior contains a number of gloomy
apartments, ill calculated for the purpose for which it is
now converted into a Stannary Prison. On the exterior
are the arms of the Duchy of Cornwall with supporters,
surmounted with the Prince's plume well carved. There
is also here a neat Town Hall, erected in 1740, at the
expense of Richard Edgecumbe, Esq., in which the
Summer Quarter Sessions for the county are held.
The weekly market is well supplied with all kinds
of provision, and there are three fairs annually in
About a mile and a half of Lostwilhiel, on the sum-
mit of an artificial mound, stand the venerable remains
of Restormel Castle* which in former times was a place
of considerable importance. History, however, is silent
as to the origin of this highly interesting fortification;
and as it is not even mentioned in the Doomsday Sur-
vey, it is generally supposed to have been erected
by Robert, Earl of Mortaign, and was the principal
residence of himself, and the subsequent Earls of
Cornwall. Prior to the reign of Henry the VHl.,
this place is said to have been in a dilapidated state.
The present remains chiefly consist of a circular area
of 110 feet diameter; the walls of which are nine feet
thick, secured by a deep moat, now choaked up with
brambles and wild plants. The entrance, on the south
side, (which had formerly a draw-bridge,) has an outer
and inner arch supporting a square tower in ruins.
Round the area, the foundations of three regular suites
of apartments are easily traced, connected by two dark
naiTow stone staircases leading to the top of the
ramparts. The ruins are richly overgrown with ivy,
and being almost embosomed in wood, are very pleas-
ing objects to the lovers of the picturesque. It is now
the abode of owls, bats, and jackdaws ; and unless
disturbed by the occasional visits of the curious tra-
veller, they have seldom reason to complain of
Such as wandering' near their sacred hower,
Molest their ancient solitary reign. —
* Leland describes Restormel Castle as "sore defaced" in his
time, "the fair large dungeon" says he, "yet stondith, a chapel
castoutof it, a newer work than it, and now unrofid." — Careiv says
" certes it may move compassion, that a palace so healthful for aire,
so delightful for prospect, so necessary for commodities, so fayre for
building, and so strong for defence, should in time of secure peace*
and under the protection of his natural princes, be wronged with
those spoylings, then which it could enduie no greater at the hands
of any forayne and deadly enemy, &c. — Nor Jen also says, "The
whole Castle begianeth to mourne, aud to wriuge outhaid stones for
Restormel House, the residence of John Hext, Esq. is
a low embattled structure, said to have been erected on
the site of an antient chapel. The demesne attached
thereto, is now the property of the Earl of Mount Edge-
cumbe. The valley in which Restormel House is built,
with the castle on the eminence, form for the artist
a very pleasing picture, and have often been admired.
Boconnoc House, formerly the seat of the late Lord
Camelford, is now the property of the Right Hon. Lord
Grenville. It is a large plain building, situated about
three miles east of Lostwithiel, in a richly wooded park
well stocked with deer. The interior contains many
handsome suites of apartments, a good library, and
among other works of art, a fine bust of the late Earl of
Chatham, on which the following panegyric lines have
" Here trophies faded, and revers'd lier spear,
See Engflaud's genius bend o'er Chatham's bier.
Her sails no more in every clime unfurl'd
Proclaim her dictates to th' admiring' world.
No more shall accents nerrous, bold and strong
Flow in full periods from his patriot tongue.
Yet shall th' historic and poetic page,
Tliy name, great Shade, devolve from Age to Age ;
Thine and thy Country's fate, congenial tell.
By thee she triumpb'd, and by thee she fell." —
On a commanding eminence, a short distance from
teares ; that she that was imbraced, visited, and delighted with great
princes, is now desolate, forsaken, and forlorne : the Cannon needs
not batter, nor the pioneer to undermine, nor powder to blow up this
so famous a pyle; for time and tirrannie hath wrought her desola-
tion, her water pipes of lead gone, the planching. tten, the walls
fallen downe, the fayre and large chimnye pieces, ai 4bR that would
yield roonie or serve for use, are converted to Men's private pur-
poses, and there remaj ueth a false show of honor, not contentinge
anie compassionate eye to behold her lingrynge decayes. Men greyve
to see the dying delayes of anie brute creature, so may we niourne to
see so stately apyle so long a fallinge, if it be of no use, the carcase
would make some profit, therefore if it deserve, let her fall be no
longer delayde, else will it drop peece meele downe, and her now
profitable reliques will then serve to little or no use."
the house, stands an elegant-proportioned obelisk, 123
feet in height, with the following inscription carved on
In gratitude and Affection
To the Memory of
Sir Richard Lyttleton,
And to perpetaate the Remembrance
wliich rendered him
The delig-ht of bis own age,
And worthy the Veneration of
The country between Lostwithiel and St. Austell is
pleasing, and most delightful views of the ocean occa-
sionally present themselves.
On approaching the village of St. Blazey, about
half a mile to the right, is Prideaux Place, at present the
residence of David Howell, Esq.; but what perhaps
engrosses the particular attention of the traveller, is a
very fine bold promontory, nearly opposite the bouse,
and the lands about it are ornamented with young
plantations. The Church is a small antient fabric,
standing on an eminence close to the mail road. From
hence to St. Austell the distance is four miles.
Within one mile of that town, on the left, is
PoRTiiMEAR or Chaulestown, now become of some
considerable consequence, owing to the spirited and
laudable exertions of Mr. Charles Rashleigh. Since
the year 1791> a P'^f h^s been built, and the pilchard
fishery carried on. Some pilchard scans have been put
on, and several buildings erected for that purpose.
Here from this place also, most of the China clay brought
from St. Stephen's is exported.
St. Austell is situated in a highly cultivated part
of the county, on the side of a hill. It is now become
a very considerable and populous market town, and
\Nith the parish, which is one of the largest extent,
contains no less than 6 175 inhabitants. Although it
has no claim to antiquity, it is noticed only as a poor
tillage in Leland's times; but the numerous Mines in its
vicinity,* have caused its present rapid rise. The
Church, which stands nearly in the centre of the town, is
a handsome fabric, ornamented with fanciful and gro-
tesque sculpture.t Over the principal entrance on the
south side, are some curious cyphers, the meaning of
which has not been satisfactorily explained, by the
most intelligent antiquarians. The interior is commo-
dious, and contains a few good monuments. The Font
resembles that in Bodmin church.
The benefices of St. Austell and St. Blazey, are
coupled together, and are in the gift of the crown : it
is now enjoyed by the Rev. Richard Hennah. St.
Blazey is famous for being the landing place of Bishop
Blaze, the patron of the woolcombing trade; whose
effigy is in the parish church, to whom it was dedi-
cated, and from whom its name was derived. In this
parish also is held an annual festival, on the very period
which is observed for the commemoration of the great
blaze by all the woolcombers in the kingdom. In a
field near the church is a stone above seven feet high,
and not above 18 inches square, whose inscription is
totally obliterated; but tradition says it was a sepulchral
monument of a West Saxon Chief. On it are several
The market of St. Austell is held on Friday, the char-
ter for which was first bestowed by Oliver Cromwell, as
a grateful reward for the heroic exertions of one May,
who had a seat near the town ; and for his particular
gallantry displayed in a battle fought near Boconnoc, in
* The celeLrated Tin Mine, called Polgooth, about two niiies
soutli-vrest of this town, has ceased working; for many years, owing' to
some disputes amon* its proprietors. The profits arising' from this
niine is said by Borlase to have been £20,000, for many years.
■f The inhabitants boast of the Tower as the handsomest in the
county ; but an impartial observer will not surely prefer it to that of
Probus, though some parts of the sculptural ornauientg of the former}
surpass considerably the latter.
Cornwall. It is plentifully supplied with all sorts-
of provisions. A large market, equal to a fair, is
held annually on the day preceding Good Friday.
It has two fairs for bullocks, sheep, coarse woollen
goods, &c. The first is held on Whit Thursday, and the
other on the 30th of November. Since the year 1792,
there have been two additional fairs, or shows of cattle,
held annually at this place; the one to be constantly on
the third Tuesday in July, and the other on the third
Tuesday in October. Both these last mentioned fairs
are for horses, bullocks, sheep, &c.
Although the manufactured commodities in St. Austell
are not deserving of mention, except it be in coarse
woollens; yet its commerce in various branches is very
considerable, and its inhabitants numerous. They are
in general remarked for an industrious thriving people,
deriving their subsistence from trade.
Not far from the western parts of the town, are three
very spacious Blowing Houses. In two of them, cylin-
ders are adopted instead of the common-formed bellows,
and this mode of operation is considered preferable to
There are Quarries in this neighbourhood, which pro-
duce what is commonly called china clay. Sometimes
not less than 1000 tons per year is shipped at Porth-
mear, and conveyed to Bristol, Liverpool, and Wales,
and from those places to Staffordshire; where it is ma-
nufactured into porcelain.
Near this town, at a place called Menacuddle, is a
waterfall, over which is a small dilapidated arched C/m-
pel, supposed formerly to have been used as a place of
retirement, for the sake of holy purification. Although
it is near the road, yet, being in a wood, is not easily seen.
It is a very pleasing subject for the pencil as a vignette,
and has been engraved on more than one occasion.
Penrice, which is only two miles south of St. Austell,
is an antient mansioD, but has lately undergone a com-
plete modernization by the proprietor, Joseph Sawle
Sawle, Esq. : it contains a few good family portraits.
The ride from St. Austell to Mevagizzy, a distance
of six miles, is very pleasing. The opening bay of the
sea is a striking feature, and bursts suddenly upon the
traveller at a place called Portuan, within two miles of
As a jfishing town, Mevagizzy ranks before any
other in the county. It has a spacious Harbour; and
the town, having very narrow streets, is chiefly built
in a bottom; but has an imposing appearance when
viewed from the neighbouring heights, with the beau-
tiful mansion and plantations of Helegan forming the
The Church is a small edifice, standing at the north-
east entrance of the town ; but the tower has not been
rebuilt, since it fell down a few years back. The
interior contains a handsome monument, with effigies of
the deceased, erected to the memory of Otwell Hill,
Esq., and his wife, who died in l6l4, with the following
Stock Lancashire, birth London, Cornwall gave
To Otwell Hill inheritance^and grave,
Frank, frugal, pleasant, sober, stout, and kind.
Of worde true, just in deede, men did him finde.
Two Raigus he served a justice of the Peace,
Belov'd he liv'd and godly did decease,
Mary his Wife, to overlive him lothe.
This Monument hath raised to them both.
Mevagizzy contains near 400 houses, and according
to the late census, 2450 inhabitants. About two miles
from the town, is Helegan, the seat of the Rev. Henry
Hawkins Tremayne, a very elegant and substantial
residence, most beautifully situated and embellished
with fine gardens and shrubberies, and when perfectly
finished, will be as handsome a residence as any in Uie
county. The present liberal proprietor possesses great
taste, and is daily improving the grounds, &c. The
walk to the Battery close to the sea is really delightful,
and the woody plantations add greatly to the beauty of
Caerhays, the seat of John Bettesworth Trevanion,
Esq. Lieutenant Colonel in the Cornish Militia, is an-
other beautiful mansion of a castellated form, lately
rebuilt at a very considerable expease from designs of
that eminent architect Nash.
About four miles from hence is Tregon y, a very anti-
ent Borough-town, and in former times a place of some
consequence. It formerly had two Churches, a Castle, and
Priory ; but one of the former has long since gone entirely
to decay, and the one now remaining at the head of the
town, though very small, has a respectable and venerable
appearance. Scarcely a vestige remains of the Castle,
which stood at the lower end of the town. This is said
to have been built by Henry de Pomeroy, on behalf of
John, Earl of Cornwall, at the time that King Richard I.
was in the Holy Land : it was standing, and was the seat
of the Pomeroys, in the reign of Edward VL
In the year 1696,* Hugh Boscawen, Esq., founded an
Hospital for decayed housekeepers, and endowed it with
lands, now let at Z0£. per annum, but capable of
being soon raised (at the expiration of the present lease)
to about three times that sum.
Tregony returned members to Parliament in the
reign of Edward L, and the right of election is vested
in the principal housekeepers paying scot and lot.
According to the late census, the inhabitants amount
to 1035, being an increase of only 112 since the year
1811. Tregony has a market weekly, and five fairs
On the north side of the town stood what is called.
Old Tregony, where was a church dedicated to St»
* Lyson's Mag^. Brit. Page 7d.
James, the walls of which were standing when Tomkin
made his collections about the year 1736: part of the
tower remained many years later. This church was a
rectory, the advowson of which belonged to the Abbey
de Valle, in Normandy, and was given by that convent,
in the year 1267, to the prior and convent of Merton,
in Surrey, in exchange, together with the Priory of
Tregony, a small cell to that alien monastery. Mr.
Whitaker says, that the site of the Priory of Tregony
was opposite the old mount of the castle, and speaks
of a doorway belonging to a stable, as having been the
gateway of the Priory. The rectory of St. James is
held with the vicarage of St. Cuby.
There was also in the Borough of Tregony, a chapel
of St. Anne, which was a chapel-of-ease to the church
of St. James.
Trezoarthenick, about two miles from this place, the
seat of the late Francis Gregor, Esq., formerly M. P,
for the county, is a pleasant and comfortable residence,
with a good library and a few portraits; one, of Oliver
Cromwell, is very fine.
RuAN Lan YiioiiNE, a Small village two miles south-
west of Tregony, is remarkable as having been for
upwards of 30 years, the residence of the Rev. John
Whitaker, the learned author of the Ecclesiastical
History of the Cathredral of Cornwall, who died in the
year 1808, aged 73 years. — A few days after his decease,
the following lines appeared in the Cornwall Gazette,
and are supposed to have been written by the late For-
tescue Hitchins, Esq. author of the poem called " Tears
of Cornuhia" founded on the melancholy loss of the
St. George, in which Admiral Reynolds and many
" Ah Whitaker, Cornuhia's proudest boast,
Thou brig^htest gem that ever genius lost
Froui her Tiara — must we then deplore
Thy last farewell, to time's immortal shore,
Mast we oppressed \rith unaTailing- g^rief,
Stjck, (where thou sought'st) but vainly seek relief.
From fair philosophy ; alas ! too true,
Oh wisdom's pride, oh virtue's child ! adieu !
Not even ao^e that checks fond fancy's flight.
And whelms the genius in Lethean night,
Could to thy powers one envious barrier raise.
Or blast the laurel of thy well-earned praise;
But like a cloudless morn, thy period passed.
Bright with superior virtues to the last.
When way-worn travellers, at day's decline.
See yon grand orb with matchless lustre shine.
Urged by a sudden impulse of delight.
Heedless they wander of approaching night:
Till deeper shades o'erspread their devious way.
And every pleasure vanishes with day.
Then, Whitaker, true votaries of woe !
Robb'd of thy lustre, whither shall we go,
Go where we list — prophetic is the strain.
We ne'er shall look upon thy like again."
From Tregony to Grarapound the distance is about
two miles, within half a mile of which, on the left, is the
parish church called Creed, a neat embattled structure,
pleasantly surrounded by foliage. Here, till very lately,
as rector, lived the Rev. William Gregor, one whom
fame will ever eulogize as a being of a superior or-
der; he is well known as a very scientific gentleman,
and was the intimate friend of Mr. Whitaker. In this
parish is a capital modem-built house, with beautiful
gardens and fish ponds, the residence of the Rev. George
Grampound is remarkable as having been, till lately,
one of the Borough towns of the county.* It princi-
pally consists of one street, the houses having a decayed
and mean appearance. Nearly in the centre stand a
very antient Chapel, and Market-house: the former, now
fast mouldering to decay, has a small septangular cross
• In v^ ansequence of certain corrupt practices, a Bill has recently
passed Parliament, disfranchising this borough, and allowing two
additional members to be returned for the County of York,
in front of it. Grampoimd contains, according to the
late returns, 668 inhabitants, being an increase of only
67 during the last 20 years.
Crossing an antient bridge over the Fal at the bottom
of the town, from which its name is derived, the distance
to Probus is two miles and a half, and within one mile
of that village, on the left, is Trewitham, the seat of Sir
Christopher Hawkins, Bart., M. P. It is a spacious
mansion, commanding a number of diversified prospects;
the interior is embellished with a few good paintings
and portraits, and also contains a very valuable selection
of books. Much praise is due to its owner, for his un-
wearied endeavours to promote the mining interests of
the county. He is a scientific gentleman, and has
written a small interesting Treatise on Tin, &c.
The Church of Probus has often been noticed for the
simplicity of its architecture, the tower of which rises
majestically to the height of 108 feet, which, contrasted
with the low humble thatched cottages surrounding it,
has a very picturesque appearance. Each angle of the
tower is supported by a double buttress, diminishing In
size as they approach the top, which is embellished with
embrasures, and 40 pinnacles in eight clustres. The
plinth, cornices, and upper story, are decorated with a
variety of sculpture, consisting of small figures, foliage,
ileurdelis, animals, and other objects. On the north
and south sides are three Gothic niches.* The interior
contains a large marble monument to the memory of
Thomas Hawkins Esq., of Trewitham, on which is a
female figure reclining on an urn. The accompanying
view of the church was engraved from a drawing by
the Rev. George A. Moore, of Garlennich, near Gram-
At a distance of two miles north from Probus, in the
parish of Ladock, in one of the most picturesque vales
• beauties of Englaud and Wales for Cornwall, page 249.
in the county, stands Pessick, which, though a very
small village, possesses great beauties.
Tregothnan, the seat of the Earl of Falmouth, is indeed
a beautiful mansion lately erected at a very considerable
expense, from the designs of W. Wilkins, Esq., and, in
point of beauty, is surpassed by none in the county.
The situation of the house is really delightful, and may
be considered as one of the most enchanting spots ia
the kingdom. It is built on a gentle eminence command*
ing a great variety of extensive prospects, which are
enlivened by the winding courses of the river Fal.
In the construction of this mansion, the architect has
made a very choice selection of the most perfect exam-
ples extant. Its irregularity of form, and variety of
ornament, closely resemble the style of the buildings
erected during the reign of Henry VII. The great
staircase is 42 feet in height, and occupies the large
central tower, around which are placed the drawing-
room, (54 feet long by 28 feet wide,) book room, dining
room, billiard room, &c. A wide terrace with a parapet
extends round the south-western part of the building;
the Park is embellished with some very fine timber, and
a very pleasant ride has been formed along the banks
of the river, extending some miles.
The Church of St. Michael Penkervil, which almost
adjoins the park, is an antient fabric, and contains a
handsome monument by Rysbrach, to the memory of
the late Admiral Boscawen.
From Tregothnan, after passing Nopus Passage, the
distance to Truro is two miles.
The town of Truro, which is generally and not
improperly denominated the metropolis of the county,
is pleasingly seated in a valley, at the conflux of the
rivers St. Allen and Kenwyn, which (united with a
branch of the river Fal) become navigable for vessels
of 100 tons. This town appears to have been a place
of some consequence even prior to the Conquest, and,
acfcording to Leland, once possessed a Castle, and eiijoy-
ed many privileges. Truro has returned members to
Parliament since the reign of Edward I. : the right of
election, however, like most other Boroughs in this
county, is confided to the privileged few : the Mayor
and others of the Corporation, to the number of 18 or
20, are the only voters.
The alterations and improvements made of late years
at Truro, have certainly given the town a very respect-
able and handsome appearance; the streets being also
well paved and lighted, this town is rendered more
comfortable than any other in the county. The Rev.
Mr. Warner, in his Tour through this county, published
in the year 1 809, says, " here all the modes of polished
life are visible in genteel houses, elegant hospitality,
fashionable appai'el, and cautious manners;" which
observation, although not incorrect, may be attributed
to the success of the inhabitants in mining transactions.*
The Church is a very beautiful Gothic fabric. It
consists of three aisles, with a modern tower at the
west end, surmounted by a lofty spire. On the north
side the chancel is a monument, with a long inscription
to the memory of the courageous Owen Phippen, who
died in March, l636:
Melcombe in Dorset was his place of birth.
Aged 54 : and here lies earth on Earth.
There are several other memorials in this church,
but none particularly deserving of notice. Besides the
church, there are no less than seven other places of
worship, for the different denominations of Christians.
Near the town, on a commanding healthy spot, stands
• Truro being' one of the privilejjed coinage towns, more tin is
exported here than at any other port in the county : great quantities
of copper are also exported from hence to Swansea and Neath in
Wales. The blocks of tin lie in heaps about the streets, and are left
entirely unguarded, as their great weight renders the difficulty to
remoFe them an great, that it is uerer attempted.
the County Infirmary, opened in the year 1799> undef
the patronage of his present Majesty, but maintained
entirely by voluntary subscriptions and contributions.
Truro has also a neat Assembly Room, convertible into
a Theatre ; besides a County Library, established in the
year 1792. A Literary Society has lately been set on
foot, and their Museum is already worth seeing. The
Easter Quarter Sessions are also held in this town ; and
the markets, on Wednesdays and Saturdays, are well
supplied with all kinds of provisions. The parish of
St. Mary's, with the adjoining streets, contained, accor-
ding to the late returns, 2712 inhabitants, or an increase
of 230 since the year 1811.
The celebrated Samuel Foote, of dramatic celebrity,
yras a native of this town.
The scenery in the immediate vicinity of Truro, is
particularly beautiful, and such as must delight every
traveller; the town itself has a very picturesque appear-
ance, particularly so, when viewed from the spot exhi-
bited in the accompanying engraving.
The Smelting-house for tin, about a mile from Truro,
on the Falmouth road, is well deserving of notice, as it
contains no less than 10 furnaces. Culm coal is used
as the flax in the proportion of about one-eighth to the
ore, of which nearly 600 cwt. is smelted within six hours,
and yields about 350 cwt. of tin.*
About seven miles from Truro, is Carclew, the seat of
Sir William Lemon, Bart., M. P. and one of the most
beautiful mansions in the county. It is situated on an
eminence in an extensive and rich wooded park, rising
from the valley thi-ough which the celebrated Carnon
Stream Works are conducted, and commands a number
of delightful prospects. The house is an elegant build-
ing of the Ionic order, composed of granite. The
portico in the centre, is connected with the wings, by
colonnades. The interior is not so spacious as many
* Vide Beauties of England and Wales for Cornwall,
Other residences in this county, but contains some very
handsome apartments, and the following paintings:
Portrait of Pontius Pilate, by Rembrant.
Two Bop at Dinner, and a View in India, by Murillo.
Angels singing, by Amioni.
Landscape, with Water falling over a Rocky Precipice,
A View in Italy, by Stalbent.
Landscape and Castle, by Pynaker.
Portrait of William Lemon, Esq. grand-father to the
Portrait of Sir William and his Lady, by Romney.
Penryn is a large antient Borough and market town,
pleasantly situated about nine miles from Truro, at the
head of a branch of Falmouth Harbour. It Avas
formerly embellished with a College, founded in the
thirteenth century, by Walter Stapeldon, Bishop of
Exeter, for 12 prebends, which continued until the disso-
lution of religious edifices in the reign of Henry VHI.,
when its annual revenues were valued at ^205 10*. 6d.
This building is said by Leland, to have covered
a space of three acres, and to have been surrounded
by embattled walls ; but every vestige of it has long
since been entirely obliterated. Penryn was incorpo-
rated in the 18th year of the reign of James I. and is
governed by a Mayor, eight Aldermen, 12 Common
Councilmen, a Recorder, and inferior officers. The
right of returning two members by the same charter, is
vested in the Mayor, Aldermen, and all the inhabi-
tants paying scot and lot. — There is a silver cup and
cover belonging to the corporation, given by Jane, Lady
Killigrew, with this inscription, " From maior to maior
to the town of Permarin, when they received me that
was in great misery, J. K. (Jane Killigrew) l633."
Hals says, that this lady had gone on board two Dutch
ships with a party of ruffians, and having slain two
* lijsous^g Mag. Brit, page 121i
Spanish merchants, their owners, robbed them of two
barrels of Spanish pieces of eight. The lady, he adds,
was by means of great interest pardoned; but her
accomplices all executed. Hals's stories are not much
to be depended upon ; it is more certain that she was
divorced from her husband, and that in consequence she
was protected by the inhabitants of Penryn, who bore no
good will to Sir John Killigrcw, and his rising town of
Smithick. Jane, Lady Killigrew, was daughter of
Sir George Fermor, Knt. of Easton Neston, ancestor of
the Earl of Pomfret: she died in l648.
In the centre of the principal street, which is com-
posed of many antient and irregular built houses, stand
the Market House and Town Hall, the appearance of
■which is not very pleasing.
St. Gluvias, or the Parish Church, is over a branch
of the river, the tower of which, with the surrounding
scenery, appears highly picturesque, and attracts the
attention of every one passing. The interior contains
a variety of handsome memorials to the Pendarves
family, once of Roscow, in this parish, and the follow-
ing lines are inscribed on a monument to the memory
of the Rev. John Penrose, who died in 177^> aged 63,
after being 35 years vicar of this parish.
^social manners, if the genflest mind.
If zeal for God, and love for human kind,
If all the charities which lifo endear
May claim affection, or demand a tear.
Then Penrose o^er thy venerable urn.
Domestic love may weep and friendship mourn.
The path of duty still, the path he trod.
He walked with safety, for he walked with God;
When lost the powers of precept and of prayer.
Yet still the Flock remained the Shepherd's care.
Their wants still nobly watchful to supply.
He taught his last best lesson, how to die !
Eny's House, the seat of Francis Ens, Esq., near
Penryn, which was erected before the reign of Edward
I., has been in his family from that time, and is noticed
by Camden for its fine gardens and shrubberies: it is
still a residence of great respectability.
Falmouth, which is now become a very important
and populous sea-port town, is distant from Plymouth
55 miles, and 269 west of London. The Harbour^
which is considered one of the very best in England, is
so commodious and sheltered, that the most numerous
fleet may ride here in safety ; and when it was surveyed
a few years ago by Commissioner Bowen, buoys for l6
sail of battle ships were laid down.*
Much disquisition and doubts have arisen regarding
the origin of this town; but it seems to be generally
admitted, that it was a place of but little consequence
until the reign of James I., when the greater part of
the town was then built; neither was it incorporated
until the 13th of Charles II.
The town is chiefly built along the western shore of
the harbour, the houses forming a street nearly half a
mile in length. Owing to the improvements which
have been made of late years, Falmouth has a very
prepossessing appearance, and is now inhabited by many
respectable families ; but although the population of the
parish amounts, by the late census, to 6374, it is not
represented in Parliament, whilst St. Mawes, a mean
fishing cove, on the opposite side of the harbour, pos-
sesses that advantage.
The entrance to the harbour of Falmouth is fortified
on each side, by the Castles of St. Mawes and Pendennis.
The latter has a very magnificent appearance, being built
on a rock, rising upwards of 300 feet above the level of
the sea, and is almost insulated. This castle was first
erected in the reign of Henry VIII., but the works
were materially altered and strengthened in the reign of
Elizabeth. It is now strongly fortified, and contains
• A very correct plan of this harbour is inserted in Gilbert's
History of Cornwall,
commodious barracks for troops, good storehouses, and
magazines, besides a comfortable residence for the
Lieutenant Governor. In the time of the civil wars
this fortress was bravely defended against the Parlia-
ment forces, by John Arundell, of Trenie, and was only
surrendered on the same conditions as were granted to
St. Mawes Castle, although erected in the same reign
as Pendennis, is very inferior both in size and situation.
The hamlet adjoining, is remarkable only as being one
of the Boroughs of Cornwall, and has returned mem-
bers to Parliament since the year 1562. The manor is
now vested in the Marquis of Buckingham, but the
right of election is confined to the freeholders only.
The Church of Falmouth is a modern building, with
a handsome altar, &c. It contains several memorials,
but none very remarkable. There are several meeting
houses in the town, for different sects, a small Roman
Catholic Chapel, and a Jew's Synagogue; also a Public
Dispensary and Hospital for the relief and support of
disabled seamen, their widows, and children, which is
The trade of this town, audits prosperity, have much
increased by the establishment of the packets that sail
from hence every week to Lisbon, Portugal, the West
Indies, and other places; also by the detention of fleets
of ships, (particularly those outward-bound) which seek
refuge in its capacious harbour, and frequently remain
many weeks till the gales are more favourable. — Fal-
mouth has a good weekly market, and two faii-s annually.
Arivenack House, remarkable as having been the
residence of the Killigretcs, (one of whom. Sir William
Killigrew, of notoriety in the civil wars, lies buried in
the church,) has been much altered from its original
plan, yet still possesses an antient appearance. A
manuscript history of the Killigrews, written by one of
the family, says, that there was only a single house at
IFalmouth, besides Arwenack (the seat of the Killigrews,)
when Sir Walter Rayleigh, being homeward-bound from
the coast of Guinea, put in there; that he was enter-
tained at Arwenack, and his men poorly accommodated
at the solitary house, which, it is probable, had been
originally bui It for the entertainment of sea- faring persons ;
that this celebrated navigator, being struck with the
utility of providing more extensive accommodations at the
mouth of Falmouth Harbour, for the officers and crews
of homeward-bound ships, laid before the council a pro-
ject for erecting four houses for that purpose. It is
probable, that the single house here spoken of, was
single as a house of entertainment, and that there were
also a few fishers* cottages, though too inconsiderable
to have been described by Norden, even as a village.
The Church of the village of Maylor, near Falmouth,
is a very picturesque building, containing a number of
memorials, among which there is a monument for Capt.
Yescombe, of the King George Lisbon Packet, who
was killed in defending his ship against the enemy,
Trefusis House, the property of Lord Clinton, in this
neighbourhood, is a very antient building, most delight-
fully situated ; but not having been inhabited for many
years, is going rapidly to decay. Part of it is now
occupied as a farm-house.
On the right of the road from Penryn to Helston, in
the parish of Constantine, is a very curious massy
rock, called a Tolinen; it is 33 feet long by 14| feet
■wide, 18 feet high, and 97 feet in circumference. In
form it resembles an egg, and is poised on two natural
rocks. Much has been said as to the origin of this
curious pile, but it is generally supposed to have been
erected by the Druids.
Helston, situated about 10 miles from Penryn, is
a large respectable town, built on the side of a hill,
gradually sloping to the River Cober, and is noticed by
historians as a place of considerable antiquity, and
as having once possessed a Castle*
It now principally consists of four streets built in the
form of a cross, with a handsome Market-house and
Town Hall. The Church, a handsome fabric standing
on an eminence, on the north side of the town, was
rebuilt in the year 17^2, at an expense of ^6,000,
defrayed by the then Earl of Godolphin. It contains a
number of monuments, and a neat altar-piece painted
Helston has returned members to Parliament since
the reign of Edward I., and the government of the
town is vested in the Mayor, four Aldermen, and 24
Assistants : they have exclusively the right of election
and other privileges.
The number of inhabitants, according. to the late
census, amounts to 26*71, or an increase of Z7^ since the
This town has long been noted for its remarkable
Jubilee on the 8th of May, on which day it has been
customary with the inhabitants for ages past, to cease
from their labours, and participate in the rural pleasures
of the peasantry. Yet many of the foolish customs
* "Heylstoun, alias Hellas" says Leland, "standeth onahill, a
good Market towne, liaviDg- a Mayor aud privileg'es, wythin the
which there is a Court for tlie Coinajfe of Tynne, kept twys in the
Year. Yn tlie to^vnr is both a Chapel and a paroch (Church) and
vestegia casteili, and a ryverrunnyng' under the same vestegia of the
Castel issueth towards Tbe South Sea, stopped them yn the west part,
with S. E. wyndes, casting up sandes inaketh a poole, called Loo, of
an arrow shot in breadth, and two myles yn compus yn the Somer.
In the wynter, by reasnn of fluddes, men be consfrayned to cut the
sandy banke, between the Mouth of the Poole and the Sea, by the
M'hich gut tiie Sea floweth and ehbi'th ynto the I'oole. — Loo Poole is
two mile in length, and betwixt it and the mayne Sea is but a barre
of sand, and once in three or four year what by the wait of the fresh'
watier and rage of the Sea, it bubleth out, and then the fresh and
Salt Water meeting maketh a Wonderful Noise. If this barre be
always kept open it would be a good haren up to Uailston,"
Oil tills occasion, have vanished before modern refine-
ment, and even the gentcelcst classes engage in the
pleasures of the day, when the greatest harmony
usually prevails, and dancing with its consequent hila-
rity, is kept up until a very late hour.
The scenery about the Loo Pool is peculiarly fine and,
picturesque; it combines every characteristic excel-
lence for forming a good picture, and affords many
an interesting study for the landscape painter. The
rocks start abruptly from the margin of the lake, and a
fine hanging wood clothes the sides of the neigh-
bouring hills. On the south, the prospect is only
terminated by a narrow bank of sand, which appears
almost to unite the sea with the lake: and indeed upon
certain occasions, when the pool is so full of water as to
endanger the submersion of property on the valley
above, it has been found necessary to cut through this
sandy partition, and allow the overplus water of the lake,
to flow away into the main ocean. This indulgence,
with the privilege of fishing for a peculiar and valuable
species of trout, is readily granted, on application to the
Lord of the Manor, John Rogers, Esq., of Penrose.*
On the western side of the Loo Pool, about two miles
from Helston, is Penrose, the seat of John Rogers, Esq.,
which has been considerably improved, since it came
into the possession of that gentleman.
A ride to the Lizard Point from Helston, a distance of
14miles, will be highly gratifying to the lovers of romantic
scenery, and which, to use the expression of a celebrated-
tourist, " is rarely to be surpassed in England." The im-
mense rocks which here rise in awful dignity to a very
considerable height, resisting the mighty violence of the
ocean, cannot fail to make a lasting impression on the
minds of those who visit this interesting spot.
The first place of any note, at about the distance
of six miles from Helston, is the little fishing village of
* See page 5.
MuLLioN. The tower of the Church forms a con-
spicuous feature in this part of the county.
Three miles from hence, is the celebrated Steatite or
Soap Rocks* which have been of great use to the china
Kynan's Cove, situated within a mile of the Lizard
Point, is highly deserving of notice, and is considered
one of the most extraordinary spots on the coast. It is
composed of huge rocks of immense height, partly
projecting into the sea, and in one place so singularly
formed, as to resemble an arched grotto.f
In Lanerwednack Church, almost adjoining the Lizard,
is a curious antient Font.
The Lizard Point, is remarkable as being the spot
from which all ships leaving the Channel, date their
departure; and notwithstanding two Light Houses have
been built, as beacons to warn the mariner of the
danger of steering too close to the shore, shipwrecks
are not unfrequent, particularly among foreign vessels,
whose commanders may be supposed to be unacquainted
with the dangers of this part of the coast.t
Returning to Helston over Goonholly Downs, in the
parish of Mawgain, is Trelowarrens, the seat of Sir
Richard Vyvyan, Bart., a very curious and antient
embattled mansion, containing fine portraits by Van-
* Its matrix is an liard turpentine rock, in which it lies im-
bedded in veins or lohes, almost ductile when first dug out, but
gradually indurating -when exposed to the air, though always
retaining its unctious feel. A considerable quantity has been used
in the manufacture of china, but not for some time past.
-|- In Lyson's Mag. Brit, is a beautiful etching of Rynan''s Cove,
by Miss Letitia Byrne.
t The winters of 1809 and 1817, were particularly fatal to our
shipping; and among others, the Anson Frigate was lost near PorU
leaven, when most of her brave crew were swallowed up by the
ocean. — ^The Primrose Sloop of War, was lost near Gunwalloc CoTe»
and all on board perished, except a poor Irish boy. — On the same
night, was lost off the Cove of Loveritb, a transport, when onlj
eight men escaped a watery grave 1
dyke.* The house and grounds were much improved
by the late Sir Vyell Vyvyan, and adjoining the house
is a very neat Chapel, well fitted up with an organ, &c.
In Mawgan Church, is a very antient tomb to the
memory of the Carminoe family, with the mutilated
effigies of a crusader ahd his lady.
About five miles north of Helston, on the left of the
road to Redruth, is Clowance, the property of Sir John
St. Aubyn, Bart. It is an antient building standing in
an extensive park, surrounded by high walls. This
estate is said to have been in possession of this family,
ever since the reign of Richard II. G reat improvements
have been made by the present noble proprietor,
although he seldom resides here : the plantations and
grounds are arranged with great taste and judgment,
and tend greatly to enliven the dreariness of this pait of
the county. The interior contains a number of fine
family portraits, by Sir Peter Lely and other eminent
artists, besides a valuable selection of rare and choice
Godolphin House is one of the most interesting man-
sions in the county, and although going rapidly to
decay, displays much of its former grandeur. It is
situated two miles and a half from Clowance, and
about a mile from the direct road to Mai'azion.
The Godolphin family are said to have possessed the
manor, as far back as the time of William the Con-
queror; but the present mansion was built in the reign
of Queen Elizabeth, by Sir Francis Godolphin. It also
appears, that by his successful adventures and per-
severance in mining concern^, the customs were
increased above ^10,000 per annum. Charles II.
created Sir William Godolphin a Baronet in l66'3,
* One of which, an equestrian portrait of Charles I. on horseback,
was presented to the family by Charles II,, in consideration of
the' great attachment, sufferings, and heavy losses sustained ia his
and his son Sidney was made Baron Godolphin of
Rialton, in 1689. This nobleman displayed great
ability in the House of Commons, and filled several
distinguished offices under the crown. He died in the
year 1712, and was succeeded by his son Francis^
whose youngest daughter married, in 1744, the Duke of
Leeds, by which event the Godolphin estates, are now
become the property of the Osborne family.*
Pengersick Castle, the remains of which chiefly coa-
sist of the keep, and a machicolated gate, are highly
deserving of notice. History is silent as to the origin of
this fortress; it however appears that the manor and
barter were purchased in the latter end of the reign of
Henry VIII., by a Mr. Milliton, (Job Milliton, who is
mentioned as possessor of St. Michael's Mount, in the
time of Edward VI.,) who having slain a man privately,
made the purchase in the name of his son, and immured,
himself in a secret chamber in the tower, where he died
without being called upon to account for the offence !
The remains are situated at the bottom of an eminence,,
on the borders of a creek near the sea, and although not
very extensive,, form a very interesting and picturesque
subject for the pencil of an artist.
The manor is chiefly the property of the Duke of
Leeds, and William Aremdell Harris, Esq.
From hence to Marazion, the distance is six miles,
and a very pleasing ride.
Marazion or Market Jew, is a small town distant
286 miles from London, and exactly 10 from Helston;
but few places in England surpass it for mildness of
climate and agreeable prospects. This town is stated in
former times to have been a place of some consequence,
and to have sujfered more than once by conflagration.
It now consists of about 200 houses, chiefly built at the
bottom of a hill, which shelters the town from the cold'
north winds, and, by the late returns, contains about 1300,
* Beauties of England and Wales for CornwalL,
inhabitants. This town is governed by a Mayor, eight
Aldermen, and 12 Burgesses, according to a charter
granted in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, although it
does not return members to Parliament. — It has a
weekly market, and two fairs annually.
The majestic appearance of St. MichaeVs Mounts
which has for ages past been so much extolled for its
singularity and beauty, cannot fail to arrest the attention
and admiration of every traveller.* Regarding the
origin of this wonderful object, much dispute has arisen
among antiquarians; but the circumstance that the
mount was partly, if not wholly, covered with wood,
seems to be generally credited. When the mount first
became a religious spot, is uncertain; but a Priory of
Benedictine Monks was founded by Edward the Confessor,
which after the conquest was augmented by Robert
Earl of Mortaign, and continued until the dissolution of
religious houses in the reign of Henry VIII., when its
revenues were valued at j^lllO 12s. per annum! The
monks however were frequently disturbed in their
religious avocations, during the turbulent state of early
reigns ; particularly by one Henry de la Pomeroy, who
treacherously took possession of this priory, during the
imprisonment of Richai'd I. in Germany, but who
fearing the king's anger, is said shortly after to have died
through grief.t From this and other circumstances,
* Majestic Michael rises, he whose brow
Is crowiiM with Castles, and whose rocky sides
Are clad with dusky ivy ; he whose base.
Bent by tiie storms of ages, stands unmov'd
Amidst the wreck of thing^s — the change of time.
That base, encircl'd by the azure waves,
Was once with verdure clad; the towering oaks
Here waved their branches green ; the sacred oaks.
Whose awful shades among the Druids stray'd,
To cut the hailow'd Mistletoe, and hold
High converse with their Gods.
t Sec page 23.
the mount was fortified in a castellated manner, and in
after times became a place of considerable notoriety,
particularly during the contentions in the reign of
Charles I.* After the dissolution, it was granted to
Humphrey Arundell, of Lanherne. In the reign of
Edward VI. it was leased to Job Militon, Esq. Sheriff
of Cornwall, and passed through the hands of several
persons, until it became the property of the St. Aubyn
family, and now belongs to Sir John St. Aubyn,
Bart., of Clowance, who has converted the remains
of the priory into an occasional summer residence.
Attached to it is a very pretty Chapel, in which divine
service is occasionally performed; the seats are ex-
tremely well carved and ranged on each side, much in
the manner of stalls in cathedrals. At the western end,
an organ has been recently erected, and may be con-
sidered one of the finest instruments in the county. In
the alterations which have taken place, great attention
has been paid to preserve the original character of the
buildings, and the dining room (which was the refectory
of the convent) has a curious frieze in stucco, displaying
the mode of hunting several wild animals.
* Careio states, that " duringf the Cornish Commotions, divers
Gentlemen with their Wives aud Families fled teethe protection of
this place, where the Rehels besieged them, fyrst wynning' the
playne at the hilTs foote by assault, when the watfr was out, and
then the even ground on the top, by carrying up great trusses of Hay
before them tu blench the defender's sight, aud dead their shot, after
which they could make but slender resistance, for no sooner should
any one within peep bis head over those unilanked walls, but he
became an open mark to an whole shower of arrows. This dig.
advantage together with Woman's dismay, and decrease of Victuals
forced a Surrender to these Rakehells mercey, who nothing guilty
of that effeminate Vertue, spoyi'd their goods, imprison'd their
bodies, aud were rather by God's gracious providence, than any
want of will, purpose or attempt, restained from murdering tke
principal persons." — Lady Catherine Gordon, wife of the noted Per-
kin Warbeck, the impostor and pretender to the crown, was taken
prisoner at St. Michael's Mount, and when it surrendered in 1646, to
the Parliamentary Forces under Colonel Hammond, after great resis-
tance, a coQsiderable quantity of ammunition aud stores were taken.
The mount is chiefly Composed of granite, and the
passage to its summit, which is on the north side, is
extremely steep and craggy. At high water it appears
a complete in-^ulated mass of rock, gradually diminish-
ing in size from the base, until it forms a pyramid,
nearly 240 feet high. The prospects from the summit
cannot fail to raise the most lively emotions, as the eye
ranges over a vast range of the ocean, and which ap-
pears the more noble, when contrasted with the humble
dwellings of the poor fishermen beneath.
During the early part of the last century, the Pier
was rebuilt and enlarged, and is now capable of afford-
ing great shelter to vessels ; the advantage of which to '
the fishermen on the coast is incalculable, as they often
put in here for safety in stormy weather. Most of the
persons who have taken up their abode on the north side
the mount, are engaged in fishing pursuits, where many
cottages have been erected for them.
After proceeding about three miles over the sands of
Mount's Bay, is Penzaxce. This town has long been
noted for the pleasantness of its situation, the salubrity
of its air, and the beauty of its natives ; and is in con-
sequence much resorted to by travellers, who, in most
instances, have derived more benefit than they had
anticipated. Indeed the mildness of the climate of Pen-
zance, is often compared to that of Italy. It is situated
on the north-west side of Mount's Bay, and distant little
more than 10 miles from the Laud's End, and 283
from London. — Owing to the improvements made of
late years, Penzance is now become a very populous
and highly respectable place,* and altogether possesses
as many claims as any watering place in the kingdom.
The Corporation consists of a Mayor, eight Aldermen,
* Penzance is thus noticed by Leland. — " Penzantes about a mile
from Mousehold, standings fast in the shore of Mount Bay, is the
Westest Market Town of all Cornwall, Socur for botes or Shypes,
but a forced pere or Key— Theyr is but a Chapel yn the sayd
12 Assistants, and a Recorder; but, like Marazion, does
not return members to Parliament. — Beside the chapet
dedicated to St. Mary, there are separate meeting-
houses for Methodists, Quakers, and Jews.
A very considerable trade is carried on here in the
pilchard fisheries, and from thence great quantities of
tin and copper are also exported. The market here is
abundantly supplied with fish, and all kinds of provi-
sions are remarkably plentiful and reasonable.
About half a mile from the town, is the celebrated
Wherry Mine, which has not been worked since the year
1798, owing to the great danger attending the progress
of the works. The opening of this mine, says Dr.
Maton, " was an astonishingly adventurous undertaking.
Imagine the descent into a mine through the sea, the
miners working at the depth of 12 fathoms below the
waves; the rod of a steam engine extending from the
shore to the shaft, a distance of nearly 120 fathoms;
and a great number of men momentarily menaced with
an inundation of the sea, which continually drains in no-
small quantity through the roof of the mine, and roars
loud enough to be distinctly heard in it." Tin is the
principal produce of this mine, and the ore is ex»
On the western side of Mount's Bay, about a mile
and a half from Penzance, is the small fishing town of
Newlyn, and the village of Mousehole ; the latter
remarkable only as having been the residence of Old
Dolly Penkeath, the last person said to have spoken the
Cornish dialect, and who died at the age of 102 years^
in the month of January, 1778.
About three miles from hence, at a place called Bos-
towne, 88 ys in Newlyn, For theyr paroche Chyrches be more than a
mile off." — Penzance is noticed in history as having^ been destroyed
by fire in the year 1595, by a party of Spaniards, who landed ati
Mousehole, but were soon prevented from effecting further mis-
ehief, by thie bravery of the Coraisbmen,
CAWENUN, close to the sea, is a very curious piece of
antiquity, composed of two large flat stones, one resting
on a natural rock, and the other on three large stones;
but whether this singular pile is the remain of some
Druidical monument, or may be classed under the de-
nomination of Roman Antiquities, is a matter not easily
determined. The most interesting Druidical remains
in this neighbourhood, are a pile of stones, between St.
Burian's and Sarund, consisting of 19 in number, set
upright in a circle 25 feet diameter, one large stone
being in the centre.
St. Burian, the next place of any note, was once
remarkable as having possessed a college of Secular
Canons, said to have been founded by King Athelstan,
after the conquest of the Scilly Isles ; but not a vestige
of this antient edifice now remains, St. Burian's, how-
ever, is an independent deanery, in the gift of the King,
and under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Exeter.
The Church, which stands on a commanding emi-
nence, and serves as a land mark, is a spacious fabric,
consisting of three aisles, and contains several curious
monumental remains; but when it was repaired in 1814,
a handsome carved screen and other relics of antiquity
were removed. Near the south porch, which is orna-
mented with embrasures and pinnacles, is a §mall cross,*
raised on four steps, with a circular head perforated
with four holes, and on one side is a representation of
the Crucifixion. In this parish are several decayed
seats, now mostly occupied by farmers, which formerly
belonged to several eminent persons in the county.
The celebrated Logan or Rocking Stone at Treryn
Castle, in the parish of St. Levan, is highly deserving
* Crosses art very prevalent in Cornwall, Almost every village
contains one or more. They consist in general, of a shaft of
granite, and a torved head, with the figure of a cross in relief.
The most remarkable ones, are the cross in Mawgan church-yard,
Lanhivitt, and Frier Hole Cross, on the side of the road leading front
Bodmin to Launcestoa.
of notice, and indeed is considered as great a curiosity
as any thing in Cornwall. This extraordinary stone, or
immense block of granite, supposed even to weigh 90
tons, is so balanced on the summit of an immense pile
of rocks, that one individual, by placing his back
to it, can move it to and fro easily.
•' Behold yon huge
And nnhewn sphere of living' adamant,
Which, pois'd by magic, rests its central weight
On yonder pointed rock, firm as it seems,
Such is its strange and virtuous property.
It moves obsequious to the gentlest touch."
The stupendous and majestic appearance of the
rocks which form the Promontory of the Land's End,
the raging of the ocean beneath, the incessant scream-
ing of sea gulls and other wild birds, when disturbed
by the sight of man, raise the strongest emotions of
admiration and astonishment. On a ridge of rocks,
called the Long Ships, a Light House was erected in the
year 1797, by a Mr. Smith, under the sanction of the
From the Land's End' to Stratton; through St. Ives,
Camborne, Redruth, St. Columb, Padstow, and Cam-
St. just, about five miles from the Land's End, is
the first place of any note in this direction, and is situa-
ted about seven miles from Penzance; but chiefly
remarkable as the birth-place of the celebrated Dr.
Borlase, the historian of the Natural History and Anti-
quities of this county.*
• William Borlase, a learned Eng^lish antiquary, was bora
at Pendeeii, in tiie parish of St. Just, Cornwall, February 2, 1695^.
The family of that name, from which he was descended, had been
settled at that place from whence they derived it (Borlase,) from tb«
time of King William Rufus. Our author was the second son of
John Borlase, Esq. of Pendeen, in the parish before mentioned, by
Lydea, the yonng'est daug-hter of Christopher Harris, Esq. of Hayne,
in the countyof Devon, and was early put to school at Penzance, from
which he was removed in 1709, to that 6f the Rev. Mr. Bedford, then
a learned schoolmaster at Plymouth. Having^ completed his gram-
matical education, he was entered of Exeter College, Oxford, in
March, 1712-3, where, on the first of June, 1719, he took the degree of
Master of Arts. In the same year, Mr. Borlase was admitted to
deacons' orders, and ordained priest in 1720. On the 22nd of April,
1722, he was instituted by Dr. Watson, Bishop of Exeter, to the rec-
tory of Ludg-van, iu Cornwall, to which he had been presented by
Charles, Duke of Bolton. On the 28th of July, 1724, he was married
in the church of lllug-an, by his elder brother. Dr. Borlase of Castle-
horneck, to Anne, eldest surviving- daughter and coheir of William
Smith, M. A. rector of the parishes of Camborn and Illugan. In 1732,
flie Lord Chancellor King, by the recommendation of Sir William
Morrice, Bart, presented Mr. Borlase to the vicarage of St. Just, his
native parish, and where his father had a considerable property.
This vicarage and the rectory of Ludgvau were the only preferments
|ie ever received.
. Wben Air. Borlase was fixed at Ludgvan, which was a retired, but
" The road to St. Ives," says Dr. Maton, " when re-
tuniing from the western part of the county, passes near
numerous shafts of mines, which render a journey over
this part of the country by night extremely dangerous.
The moor stone or granite lies dispersed in detached
a delightful sitnation, he soon recommended himself as a pastor,
a a^ontleman, and a man of learning-. The duties of his profession he
discharged with the most rigid punoluality and exemplary dignity.
He was esteemed and respected by the principal gentry of Cornwall,
and lived on the most friendly and socrai terms vt ith those of his neigh-
bourhood. In the pursuit of general knowledge he was active and
vigorous : and his mind being of an inquisitive turn, he could not
survey with inattention or indifference the peculiar objects which his
situation pointed to his view. There were in the parish of Ludgvan
rich copper works, belongiug to the late Earl of Gndolphin. These
abounded with mineral and metallic fossils, which Mr. Borlase col-
lected from time to time; and his collection increasing by degrees,
he was encouraged to study at large the natural history of his native
county. While he was engaged in this design, he could not avoid
being struck with the numerous monnments of remote antiquity, that
are to be met with in several parts of Cornwall, and which had
hitherto been passed over with far less examination than they de-
served. Enlarging, therefore, his plan, he determined to gain as
accurate an acquaintance as possible with the Druid learning, and
with the religion and customs of the ancient Britons, before their
conversion to Christianity. To this undertaking he was encouraged
by several gentlemen of his neighbourhood, who were men of litera-
ture and lovers of British antiquities; and particularly by Sir John St.
Aubyn, ancestor of the present baronet of that family, and the late
Rev. Edward Collins, v icar of St. Earth . In the year 1748, Mr.
Borlnse, happening to attend the ordination of his eldest son at
Exeter, commenced an acquaintance with the Rev. Dr. Charles Lyt-
tleton, late Bishop of Carlisle, then come to be installed into the
dfanery, and the Rev. Dr. Milles, the late dean, two eminent auti.
quaries in London. Our author''s correspondence with these gentle-
men was a great encouragement to the prosecution of his studies ;
and he has acknowledged his obligations to them, in several parts of
his works. In 175(), being at London, hn was admitted a fellow of
the Royal Society, into which he hud been chosen the year before,
after having communicated an ingenious " Essay on the Cornish
Crystals." Mr. Borlase, having completed in 1753 his manuscript
of the Antiquities of Cornwall, carried it to Oxford, where he
finished the whole impression, in folio, in the February following.
A second edition of it, in the same form, was published at London, ia
17G0. Our author's next publication was, '* Observations on the
blocks, many of them huge enough for another Stone
Henge. Scarcely a shrub appears to diversify the
prospect, and the only living beings that inhabit the
mountainous, parts are the goats, which browse the
ancient and present state of the Islands of Scilly, and their impor-
tance to tlie trade of Great Britain, in a letter to the Rev. Charles
Lyttleton, L. L. D. Dean of Exeter, and V. R. S." Tliis work, which
was printed likewise at Oxford, and appeared in 175(i, in qnarto,was
an extension of a paper that had heen read before the Royal Society,
on the 8th of February, 1753, entitled " An Account of the great Al-
terations, which the Islands of Scilly have underg-one since the time
of the ancients, who mention tliem, as to their number, extent, and
position," It was at the request of Dr. Lyttleton, that this account
was enlarged into a distinct treatise. In 1757, Mr. Borlase agaiu
employedthe Oxford Press, in printing' his " Natural History of Corn-
wall," for which he had been many years making collections, and
which was published in April, 1758. After this, he sent a variety of
fossils, r id remains of antiquity, which he had described in his works
in the Ashniolean Museum ; and to the same repository he continued
to send every thing curious which fell into bis hands. For these
benefactions be received the thanks of the University, in a letter from
the Vice-chancellor, dated Nov. 18, 1758 ; and in March, 176C, that
learned body conferred on him the degree of doctor of laws, by
diploma, the highest academical order.
Though Dr. Borlase, when he had completed his three principal
■works, was become more than sixty years of age, he continued to
exert his usual diligence and vigour in quiet attention to his pasto-
ral duty, and the study of the scriptures. In the course of this study
he drew up paraphrases on the books of Job, and the books of Solo-
mon, and wrote some other pieces of a religious kind, rather, how-
ever, for his private improvement, than with a view to publication.
His amusements abroad were to superintend the care of his Parish,
and particularly the forming and reforming of its roads, which were
more numerous than in any parish of Cornwall. ' His amusements at
home were the belles lettres, and especially painting; and the cor-
rection and enlargement of bis "Antiquities of Cornwall," for a
second edition, engaged some part of his time; and when this busi-
ness was completed, he applied his attention to a minute revision of
his " Natural History." After this, he prepared for the press a
treatise he had composed some years before, concerning the creation
and deluge. But a violent illness, in January, 1771, and the appre-
hension of entangling himself in so long and close an attention
as the correcting the sheets, solely, and at such a distance from
Loudon, would require, induced him to drop his design, and to re-
St. Ives is a very antient and populous sea-port
town, situated near the north-east angle of a very fine
bay, about eight miles from Penzance ; seven from
Marazion; 13 north-west from Helston ; 14 west from
Redruth ; and 277 from London. In antient records,
this town was called Porth-Ia; and it is said to have de-
rived its name from St. Hya, or la, an Irish saint, who
came over to Cornwall accompanied by St. Breaca and
others, and was buried in the church at this place.
It has a good Pier, erected by Smeaton, about 40
years ago; but the streets being very narrow, iiTCgular,
and dirty, the town has but a poor appearance in
cat the mdnnscript from his bookseller, when only a few pag'es of
it had been printed. From the time of his illness, he beg^n sen-
sibly to decline ; the infirmities of old ag-e came fast upon him ; and
it was visible to all his friends that his dissolution was approaehingf.
This expected event happened on the 31st of August, 1772, in the
77th year of his ag-e, when he was lamented as a kind father, an
affectionate brother, a sincere friend, an instructive pastor, and a
man of erudition. He was buried within the communion rails in
Ludg-van Church, by the side of Mrs. Borlase, Vvho had been dead
above three years.
The Doctor had by his lady six sons, two of whom alone survived
him, the Rev. Mr. John Borlase, and the Rev. Mr. George Borlase,
who was Casuistical Professor and Registrar of the University of
Cambridge, and died in 1809. Besides Dr. Borlase's literary con-
sections with Dr. Lyttleton and Dr. Milles, before-mentioned, he
corresponded with most of the literary men of his time. He had a
particular intercourse of this kind with Mr. Pope; and there is
still existing a large collection of letters, written by that celebrated
poet to our author. He furnished Mr. Pope with the greatest part
of the materials for forming his grotto at Twickenham, consisting of
such curious fossils as the county of Cornwall abounds with; and
there might have been seen, before the destruction of that curiosity,
Dr. Borlase's name in capitals, composed of crystals, in the grotto.
On this occasion a very handsome letter wa$ written to the Doctor
by Mr. Pope, in which he says, " I am much obliged to you for your
-valuable collection of Cornish diamonds. 1 have placed them where
they may best represent yourself, in a shade, bufshining," alluding
to the obscurity of Dr. Borlase's situation, and the brilliancy of his
talents. — The papers which he communicated at different times to
the Royal Society are numerous and curious.
itself, yet when viewed from the environs, it has a very
picturesque effect. It is also one of the Borough-Towns
of Cornwall, and the right of electing the Members of
Parliament, is vested in the Corporation and all the in-
habitants of the town and parish paying scot and lot.
According to the late returns, the parish contains up-
wards of 3000 inhabitants. A considerable traffic is
carried on at St. Ives, with the Bristol merchants, be-
sides the Pilchard Fisheries; but this port, like most
others on the north coast, is much incommoded by the
quantity of sand driven in by the north-west winds.
Speaking of St. Ives, Leland observes that " most part
of the houses in the peninsula be sore oppressid or
overcovered with sandes that the stormy windes and
rages castith up there. This calamte hath continuid ther
litle above 20 yeres. " Again he says, " the best part of
the toun now standith in the south part of the Peninsula,
toward another hille for defence from the sandes". Nor-
den describes the haven as much annoyed with sands,
and unfit for receiving ships of any burden. "The town
and port of St. Ives," says Carew, " are both of mean
plight; yet with their best means (and often to good
and necessarie purpose) succouring distressed shipping.
Order hath been taken," he adds, " and attempts made
for bettering the road with a peer; but eyther want or
slacknesse, or impossibilitie, hitherto withhold the effect:
the whiles plentie of fish is here taken and sold verie
cheap." Holinshed has mention of a light-house, and
block-house, near St. Ives, to the following effect. On
" a little byland cape or peninsula, called Pendinas, the
compass not above a mile, standeth a Pharos or light for
ships that sail by those coasts in the night. There is
also a block-house and a peer on the east side thereof,
but the peer is sore choaked with sand, as is the whole
coast from St. les unto St. Carantokes." There is still
a battery on the eastern side, and the old pharos, which
still exists, is used for depositing government stores.
Sir Francis Basset, member for this town in the reign
of Charles I., gave the Corporation a handsome cup, on
which is the following singular inscription:
If any discord ''ticixt my friends arise^
fVithin the borough of beloved St. /ue'*,
It is desyned that this my Cup of Love,
To evince one a Peace Maker may prove.
Then am I blest to have given a legacie
So like my harte unto posteritie.
This Sir Francis Basset, (who was of Tehiddy) pro-
cured for St. Ives, from King Charles, in the year l6'39,
its first charter of incorporation; under which the body-
corporate consisted of a Mayor, 12 capital Burgesses,
and 24 inferior Burgesses: but by the subsequent char-
ter of James II., granted in l685, the Corporation con-
sists of a Mayor, Recorder, Town-clerk, 10 Aldermen,
end 12 Common-council-mcn. Four of these are
Justices of the Peace, and hold a Sessions. It appears
that before the incorporation, the chief officer of this
town was called the Mayor or Portreeve ; and it is said
that one Payne, who held tliat office in the reign of
Edward VI., was executed by order of Sir Anthony
Kingston, for being concerned in Arundell's rebellion.*
The Borough has sent members to Parliament ever
since the reign of Philip and Mary.
The Rev. Jonathan Touss, the learned annotator on
Sudidas, and editor of Longinus, was born at St. Ives,
and died at the age of 72, in the year 1785, after being
34 years rector of St, Martin's, near Looe.
The Church is a low antient fabric, situated near the sea-
shore, and contains a curious Font, the body of St. la, the
foundress of the church, and the patroness of the town.
On the summit of a hill, near the town, is Tregvma, a
modern castellated building, the seat of S. Stephens, Esq.
which commands a fine prospect of the sea. About a
• Dr. Borlase's MSS, quoted in Lysons' Cornwall, p. 149.
mile from the house, is a pyramid erected to the memory
of the late John Knill, Esq., of Gray's Inn, London,
and secretary to Lord Hobart, when Lord-Lieutenant of
Ireland, who by will, directed that at the end of every
five years, an old woman, and 10 girls under 14 years
of age, should walk in procession with music, from the
market-house at St. Ives, to this pyramid, round which
they should dance and sing the 100th Psalm, and for
which purpose he vave some freehold lands.*
About four miles from St. Ives, at a place called Haylcj
situated on the eastern bank of the river of that name,
were, till lately, several houses for smelting copper,
but which have been discontinued, owing to the too
great expense necessary to be incurred. The process
of smelting the ore and roiling the metal, was brought
to great perfection at these works, but materially effected
the constitution of the poor men employed in them. A
very considerable trade is however carried on at Hayle,
in timber, iron, limestone, and Bristol wares.
On the west side of the harbour, is Trevcthoe, the
property of Wm. Praed, Esq. The house stands in a
very pleasant situation, and the grounds have been much
improved by the introduction of the pine-aster fir, which
flourishes extremely well in this part of the county.
The county between this place and Redruth, has long
been celebrated for its numerous mines, some of which
have produced a golden harvest for their proprietors^
and have given employment to many hundred persons.
In the midst of them stands Camborne, which has
in consequence become a considerable market-town,
and has four fairs annually. The market-house was
erected at the expense of Lord de Dunstanville.
The Church is an antient fabric, and contains some
elegant memorials of the Pendarves family, a handsome
marble altar-piece, and a curious carved stone pulpit;
but its antient font has been removed to the gardens at
* Lyson's Mag . Brit. p. 160.
Tehiddy. According to the late returns, the population
of Camborne is stated at 6219, or an increase of 1005,
during the last 10 years.
Pendarves, in this parish, the seat of Edward William
Wynne Pendarves, Esq. is a large handsome building,
situated on a commanding eminence, and has lately
undergone many judicious improvements.
About four miles to the left of the road to Redruth,
and the same distance north-west of that town, is Tehiddy
Fork, the seat of the Right Hon. Lord de Dunstanville,
■which forms a noble feature in this part of the county.
It is a handsome edifice, chiefly built of Cornish free-
stone, with detached wings at the angles, and erected in
the early part of last century. It is embellished with a
number of fine paintings, of which the following are
most worthy of notice.
King John signing Magna Charta. — Miller.
The Cascade of Terni, and another of the
Cascatellis of Tivoli, with Mecwnuskilla. — More.
The Lake of Nirni. — Dulancy,
The Death of Lucretia, & a Venus and Cupid. — Gavin
The Three Graces. — Rubens.
A Philosopher with a skull in his hand. — Rembrant.
A Nativity, and a Flight into Egypt. — G. Bassan.
Herodias, with the Head of John the Baptist. — Bonomi
Sketch of our Saviour appearing to St. Bruno, — Lan-
A small picture of a Nun. — Carlo Dolcii,
A Battle Piece. — Burgognon.
Portrait of a Venetian Senator. — Pordenon.
A whole-length Portrait of Gen. Massey. — Vandyke,
pitto of Sir Francis Basset, Vice-Admiral of Corn-
wall. — Ditto.
Chief Justice Keybridge and his Wife. — Peter Lely.
Lady Masters, aged 74, sister to Sir Francis Basset. —
The late Sir John St. Auhyn and the late Francis
Basset, Esq. — Hudson.
Lord de Dunstanville and his Lady. — Gainsborough.
Ditto, when about 1 8 years of age, in a vandyke
dress. — Sir Joshua Reynolds.
Sir John St. Aubyn. — Ditto.
John Prideux Basset. — Ramsey.
The extent of Tehiddy Park amounts to about 700
acres, and the grounds have been much improved and
beautified by extensive plantations, since the present
nobleman succeeded to this estate.
Two miles south of Tehiddy, and within the same dis-
tance of Redruth, is Carn-bre' Hill, a very interesting spot,
and considered by Borlase, (from the numerous remains
of cromlechs, basons, circles, and kairs, in its vicinity) to
have been the principal seat of Druidical worship in this
neighbourhood. Notwithstanding many other writers
have coincided in this opinion, yet it is evident from the
observations of one of the most learned Antiquarians, that
these remains do not exhibit a complete system of Druidical
worship, and Dr. Maton also observes, " these rocks
exhibit awful vestiges of convulsions, and the immense
detached masses of granite, which appear about to roll
down their declivities, awaken sublime ideas in the
mind of a spectator." Neither is there any appearance
of systematic designs in the remains alluded to.
On the eastern side of the hill, stands Carn-bre'
Castle, erected on a vast ridge of rocks, which not being
all contiguous, are connected by arches turned over the
cavities. One part of this fortress is very antient and
pierced with loop holes, but the other seems more modern,
and is supposed to have been erected to embellish the
prospect from Tehiddy, and from its elevated situation,
being nearly 700 feet above the level of the sea, com-
mands a most extensive view of the surrounding country.
In the year 1749, several gold coins and other relics of
antiquity, were found in digging a part of the hill, and
a plate of them is given in Borlase's Work.
Redruth, which is supposed to be one of the most
antient places in the county, is now become a very con-
siderable and populous market town. It principally
consists of one long street, built on the side of an emi-
nence, in the very bosom of the mining district.
The Church, which was rebuilt about 50 years ago, is
a neat edifice, standing nearly a mile from the town;
and the rectory is in the gift of Lord de Dunstanville.
Redruth has two markets weekly, and three fairs
annually. The population of the parish, according to
the late returns, amounts to 6,000.
Scorrier House, about two miles from Redruth, the
seat of John Williams, Esq., contains a very valuable
collection of minerals.
The country between Redruth and St. Agnes, appears
extremely desolate and barren, as a late writer has- ob-
served — " like the shabby mien of a miser, it's aspect
does not correspond with its hoards;" since there are
more mines in this part of the county, than any other.
St. Agnks is a sniuU town, on the northern coast,
nine miles from Truro, and 2()7 from London, and had
formofly a considerable harbour, now choaked up with
sand ; and the quay has been partly washed down t)y
the impetuosity of the waves, but is now in tolerable
The lover of the picturesque, however, will be highly
pleased at the grandeur of the rocks, which face the
shore at this part of the coast; and here is a remarkable
stupendous mountain, called St. Agned Beacon, rising
pyramidically to the height of more than 600 feet above
the level of the sea. The beacon on the top is greatly
dilapidated, yet is particularly valuable to vessels pass-
ing this coast. Au antient well at this place, has been
much extolled, and many miraculous slories are told
regarding its virtues.
St. Agnes has to boast of the birth of that celebrated
painter, Opie, and one of the members of the Royal
Academy, who died so much lamented, at an early age.
His Lectures on Painting have since been published,
with his portrait, and are highly interesting and useful
to the artist.
The Church is an antient edifice, and is consolidated
with the vicarage of Piranzabuloe, being in the patron-
age of the Dean and Chapter of Exeter. There are
also several antient manors in this parish. The popu-
lation, according to the late returns, amounted to 5,762,
being an increase of 738, since the year 1811.
In Piranzabuloe, the adjoining parish, is of a cir-
cular amphitheatre, with a rampart and fosse surround-
ing it, called Firan Round. The area is about 130
feet in diameter, and it is supposed to have been origi-
nally designed for the performance of Cornish interludes,
or where plays were acted.
Perraw Forth in this parish, is much resorted to
during the bathing season, on account of its fine sandy
Trerice in Newlyn, is one of the most interesting
antient buildings in the county, and although going to
decay, still displays much of its original grandeur.
The principal entrance hall being very spacious, is
lighted by a fine large window of 24. compartments, and
over the chimneypiece in the drawing-room, (which is
in a very deplorable state,) are the arms of the Arundel
family, who resided here at a very early period. It is
now the property of Sir Thomas Dyke Acland, Bart.,
and at present is occupied by a respectable farmer.
About three miles from hence, in the parish of St.
Columb Minor, are some considerable remains of
Railton Priory, and which is said to have been founded
by Prior Vivian of Bodmin, who is noticed in a subse-
quent part of this work.
The remains are seated in a romantic valley, and
principally consist of the entrance gateway, and an
inner court with an embattled dwelling, lighted with
three Gothic windows. There is also a very antient
Well, at the back of which is a curious carved niche,
with a pedestal for an image. At different parts of the
building are several coats of arms of the founder, and a
stone with some curious characters upon it. The
accompanying view exhibits the most interesting and
entire part of this religious building.
Quitting this sequestered spot, on ascending the hill
leading to St. Columb, on the left, stand the ruins of
Nanswhyden House, the seat of the late Robert Hoblyn,
Esq., and which was unfortunately destroyed by fire, in
1803, together with the whole of the furniture in it. The
house was one of the handsomest buildings in the county,
and erected from the designs of Potter, at an expense
of upwards of ^30,000. It had a very valuable library,
which fortunately escaped this catastrophe, having been
sold before by auction in London, after the sale lasting
25 days. The catalogue was embellished with a
portrait of the owner, and is now a valuable relic
At Mawgan, a romantic village three miles north-
west from St. Columb, is Lanherne, formerly the resi-
dence of the Arundels ; but remarkable as being the
abode of several Carmelite Nuns from Antwerp, and the
only nunneiy now existing in this county. It is a very
antient building, and contains a neat Chapel adorned
with a few good paintings, brought hither at the time the
nuns emigrated to this country. The east front of the
house being the principal, displays much of its original
character, but the whole is an interesting pile of
building. It is now the property of Lord Arundel,
of Wardour Castle, who takes great pleasure in affording
an asylum, and attending to these unprotected women:
" Oft the musing passer by
At the Mansion casts his eye,
Griov'd for the devoted host,
Tiiere to social freedom lost."
The nuns are very strict and regular in their devo-
tions, and employ their leisure time in the manufacture
of fancy articles, which are disposed of to those persons
who visit the place. Although this indulgence is
allowed, the nuns are seldom seen, except at a funeral,
when the whole of them attend the corpse, to the end
of the lawn in front of the house.
The Church of Mawgan almost adjoins Lanherne, and
is a very antient fabric, containing a great variety of
curious brass monumental inscriptions, but several of
them have been defaced. The carving of the screen
which separates the chancel, is a fine piece of workman-
ship. In the church-yard stands a very curious and
antient Gothic Cross, on the east side of which is a niche
containing the Crucifixion, sculptured in pretty high
relief. In the niche on the west side, is carved a sub-
ject, taken no doubt from some legend, consisting of the
figures of a king and queen; the latter in the dress of
the fourteenth century, kneeling on one side before
a desk. On the other side, is a large bolt with a serpent
coiled round it, which seems to be biting the face of the
king, whilst an angel holds its tail.* The whole is in
tolerable fine preservation, but for whom, or for what
purpose it was erected, has never been ascertained.
Carnanton, in this paribh, the seat of James
Willyams, Esq., is a neat and commodious building,
but almost surrounded by trees. An earthen vessel was
lately found near this house, containing near 700 silver
English coins of different reigns, in fine preservation,
* Lyson's Mag. Brit. 245.
Trewan, the seat of Richard Vyvyan, Esq, the late
Sheriff for the county, is situdtcd on the brow of a hill
facing the south, commanding a fine view of the town of
St. Columb. It is an irregular building of granite, said
to have been erected in the year l633, and the interior
contains several handsome apartments; but the drawing
room being richly ornamented with sculpture, represent-
ing the principal events of the Book of Genesis, is highly
deserving of notice. — There are also a few good portraits,
and a fine picture of a Shipwreck, by Vandervelde,
St. Columb Major, as it is called, to distinguish it
from a parish of the same name adjoining the village, but
of less consequence, is a considerable market town; and
although not situated on the high mail road to Truro, yet
is a town of some importance on the northern side of
the county. It is built on an eminence, and contains a
few good houses; the Market-house has an antient appear-
ance. It is situated 1 1 miles north-west of Bodmin, and
15 from Truro; but after leaving the regular high mail
road, the other roads winding to the town are very bad
The Church is a large antient fabric ; but has, per-
haps, been injudiciously altered from its original design.
The interior contains a variety of memorials, one of
•which has a handsome bust of the deceased Robert Hob-
lyn, Esq. of Nauswhyden, who represented the City of
Bristol in three Parliaments, and died in the year 1756.
The living of St. Columb is the best in the county, and
computed to be worth at least ^2000 per annum, and
in the gift of the Rev. George Moore, of Garlennick,
The population of the parish, according to the late
returns, amounted to about 2,493. It has a market
every Thursday, and two fairs annually.
About two miles from the town, to the left of the road
leading to Bodmin, but in St. Columb parish, is Castle-
an-DinaSf a noble entrenchment, originally fortified with
three circular walls, and an immense ditch. It is gene-
rally supposed to have been constructed by the Danes,
and was a permanent fortified residence of some Scandi-
navian Chief. The diameter of the space enclosed, is
400 feet; and the principal ditch is 60 feet wide.
Castle-an-Dinas, Dr. Borlase says, consisted of two
stone walls, built one within the another, in a circular
form : the ruins he describes as fallen on each side the
wall, shewing the work to have been of great height
and thickness: he also mentions a third wall, built
more than half way round, but left unfinished. This
remain is seated on the highest hill in the hundred of
From St. Columb to Padstow, the distance is eight
miles, but the country between those places does not
present any thing deserving particular observation.
Padstow has long been noted as the principal sea-
port town on the north coast of Cornwall, and in a com-
mercial point of view is of the greatest advantage to the
county. Here also the first religious house was founded
by St. Petreock, as early as the year 432. It is situated
1 1 miles frohi Bodmin, and about 243 from London, and
is noted as one of the most antient places in England.
The town is built on the western side of the harbour,
sheltered by an immense hill, and at high water has a
A very considerable trade is carried on here in iron,
coals, timber, groceries, and merchandize in general.
Padstow has a market weekly, and two fairs annually.
These are now little more than mere holiday fairs ;
though within these 60 years they were well supplied
with cattle, cloth, hats, &c. Leland, speaking of this
town, says — " There use many Britons with smaul
shippes to resorte to Padestowe, with commodities of
their countrey, and to by fische : the town of Padestowe is
ful of Irisch men : there is a large exporte of come."
Carew again says — " It hath lately purchased a corpo-
ration, and reapeth greatest thrift by traffiking with Ire-
land, for which it commodiously lieth." We have not
been able to learn any thing about the charter of corpo-
ration alluded to by Carew, and are assured that the
town has no such charter. The principal import-trade,
for iron, is from Cardiff; coals, from Wales ; timber,
from Norway; and groceries, and bale goods, from
Bristol: and considerable quantities of corn are still
exported; the other principal exports are malt and
In the Church, an antique building, situated at the
head of the town, are several handsome memorials: that
of Sir Nicholas Prideaux, Knt., who was Carew's con*
temporary, and died in 1627, commemorates also Sir
William Morice, who married a daughter of Hum-
phrey Prideaux: " he was knighted," says his epitaph,
" by King Charles II., on his landing at Dover, and
afterwards made Secretary of State and a Privy Coun-
sellor, in consequence of his great services in bringing
about the Restoration, by his influence with General
Monk. He died at Werrington, in 1676, aged ^b."
The learned Dr. Humphrey Prideaux, Dean of Nor-
wich, was a grandson of Sir Nicholas above-mentioned,
and was born at Padstow, in l648. Dr. Prideaux, who
was educated at Liskeard school, besides his well-known
work on the connexion between the Old and New Tes-
taments, published " The True Nature of Imposture
fully displayed in the Life of Mahomet." — The Font, in
this antient building, is in itself a curious relic of anti-
quity, decorated with effigies of the twelve Apostles.
There are several antient Chapels in this parish.
That of St. Saviour, of which the east wall remains,
stood on the brink of the precipice which overlooks the
town: near Place-house, at the top of the town, was St.
Sampson's chapel : at Trethyllic, near Place grounds,
was a chapel with a cemetery : between St. Saviour's,
and Stepper-point, was another chapel, the name of
Xvhich is not known : and about a mile and a half from
the town, that of St. Cadock, which had a tower, the
pinnacles of which were used in rebuilding that of Little
One of the schools founded by the trustees of the
Rev. St. John Elliot's charitable donations (176O;) and
endowed with £5 per annum each, was established in
Padstow. Two Sunday-schools, and several Day-schools,
have also been established; by which several institutions
for relieving the poor, and encouraging the industrious,
Padstow contains, according to the late returns,
1702 inhabitants, or an increase of 204, since the
On Sander's Hill, a handsome residence was erected
a few years ago, at a very considerable expense, by the
late Thomas Rawlings, Esq., but which is about to be
taken down, owing to the death of that gentleman, and
as the property cannot be disposed of.
Place-House, the seat of the Rev. Charles Prideaux
Brune, situated a little distance above the church, is
an antient embattled mansion. It contains a few re-
markable fine family portraits, and bther works of art.
The house has been lately beautified and enlarged at a
considerable expense, and may now be ranked as one
of the finest residences in the county. The western
front with its circular tower and Gothic library window^
has a very handsome effect.
The Rocks off the coast in the neighbourhood of
Padstow, and the sand banks on the coast, not always
visible at low water, have been the cause of many ship-
wrecks, and scarcely a winter passes without the occur-
rence of such dreadful calamities. The Rev. Mr.
Warner, in his Tour through Cornwall, speaking of the
dangerous rocks off this coast, says, " their black per-
pendicular heads frown inevitable destruction on every
vessel that approaches them, and seldom does one of the
unhappy crew survive to tell the horrors of the wreck.'*
Again she plungfes ! hark a second shock
Tears her strong bottom on the marble rock.
Down on tlie vale of death, with dismal cries.
The fated victims shuddering roll their eyes
In wild despair, while yet another stroke
With deep convulsions rends the solid oak :
*Till like the mine, in whose infernal cell
The lurking daemons of destruction dwell.
At length asunder torn, her frame divides,
And crashing spreads in ruin o'er the tides.
Quitting Padstow, the lover of the picturesque will
be much delighted with the village of Little Pkther-
wiCK, where a bridge across the road, an old mill, the
church, a few rustic cottages, and some luxuriant foil*
age, form a picture highly interesting.
After crossing the river Camel at Wadebridge, over
which there is a bridge, built in the year 1485, of 17
Gothic arches, and 320 feet long, in the parish of
Egleshale, is Peucarrow, the handsome seat of Sir
Arscott O'Molesworth, Bart. The house has lately
undergone a complete repair, and is fitted up in an
elegant style, with a good library, billiard room, and
the usual comforts attached to a gentleman's residence.
Here are also a few good pictures, but mostly portraits.
The gardens and hot-houses are very beautiful, and
kept in excellent order.
In the Church of Egleshale, is a very handsome
carved stone pulpit, and a neat monument to the me-
mory of Sir John Molesworth and his lady.
The road from hence to Camelford, a distance of 11
miles, contains little to interest the traveller, excepting
perhaps, the celebrated Slate Quarry of Delabole, in the
parish of St. Teath, and which has been already des-
cribed in page 7.
The town of Camelford is a place of considerable
antiquity, and has returned members to Parliament,
Since the reign of Edward VI. The right of election is
vested in the freemen, and the town is governed by a
Mayor and eight Burgesses.
Although it is a place of but little trade, yet it has
a market weekly, and four fairs annually, at which
great quantities of cattle are bought and sold.
The Town Hall is a neat structure, built a few years
ago, at the expense of the late Duke of Bedford.
According to tradition, the neighbourhood of Camel-
ford is remarkable as having been the site of a memo-
rable battle fought between King Arthur and his trea-
cherous nephew, Mordred; in which the former was
slain, and his troops routed with considerable loss.
About five miles north-west of Camelford, is Tinta-
GELL, in which parish, the small Borough-town of Bos-
siNEY is situated; but as far as regards appearances,
this town can only rank as a village of the meanest
description, although it has returned members since the
reign of Edward VI. It contains about 140 houses, but
the number of voters seldom exceed 14 or 15, the right
of election being chiefly confined to certain individuals
possessing the property.
Among its noble representatives are ranked the great
Sir Francis Drake, Sir Thomas Cottington, Secretary of
State to Charles 1., and Sir Richard Weston, afterwards
Earl of Portland and Lord Treasurer in the same reign.*
But the most interesting circumstance relative to Tinta-
gell, is its being the reputed birth-place of the re-
nowned King Arthur; respecting whom, it was the
opinion of Lord Chancellor Bacon, that there was truth
enough in history to make him famous, besides that
which was fabulous. His history, however, has been
so blended with the marvellous, by the monkish histori-
ans, that some authors have been disposed to doubt
even his having ever existed; and certainly the circum-
stances connected with his asserted birth at Tintagell,
• Lyson's Mag. Brit. p. 306.
82 CORN ATA Lt.
are not among those parts of his story which are most*
entitled to credit.
The certainty, however, that there has been a Castle
at this place, cannot be imaginary, even if we only
judge from the ruins now existing; but as far as regards
its origin, there are many different accounts, and none,
perhaps, whose authority can be relied on. That there
should have been a castle erected here, in the time of
the antients, is very probable, as few places are so
well calculated for the mode of warfare then in prac-
tice. The commanding and open situation of this spot,
with other concurrent circumstances, leave but little
doubt that this fortress was erected long previous to the
Conquest. " The ruins now existing, consist of two
divisions, one scattered over the face of the main pro-
montory, and another over the peninsula, which is
severed from it. The walls of the former are garetted and
pierced with many little square holes, for the discharge
of arrows. They seem to have included within them,
two narrow courts. At the upper end of the most
southern of them, are the remains of several stone
steps, leading probably to the parapet of the walls.
Here the ramparts were high and strong, this being the
quarter overlooked by the neighbouring hill. As they
wound round to the west, however, less labour had been
expended upon their structure, for a hideous precipice
of 300 feet deep, to the edge of which they were car-
ried, prevented the fear of any assault in that quarter.
The works on the peninsula had been anciently con-
nected with those on the mainland, by a draw-bridge
thrown across the chasm, in the division above men-
tioned."* This however had gone to decay in Leland's
time, and the only means of approaching this part are by
a dangerous and narrow ascent, winding up the cliffs on
the western side.
Leland's desciiption is curious. — " This castelle hath
• Warne^-'s Tour.
bene a marvelus strong and notable forteres, and almost
situ loci inexpugnabile, especially for the dungeon, that is
on a great high terrible cragge, environed with the se,
but having a draw-bridge from the residew of the cas-
telle unto it. There is yet a chapel standing withyn this
dungeon of S. Ulette alias Ulianne. Shepe now fede
within the dungeon. The residew of the buildinges of
the castel be sore wetherbeten and yn ruine, but it hath
beene a large thinge." In another place he says — " The
castel had be lykhod three wardesj wherof two be woren
away with gulfing yn of the se : withowte the isle ren-
neth alonly a gate howse, a walle, and a fals braye dyg-
ed and walled. In the isle remayne old walles, and yn
the est parte of the same, the grownd beyng lower, re-
may neth a walle embatteled, and men alyve saw ther
yn a postern, a dore of yren. There is in the isle a prety
chapel, with a tumbe on the left syde." Carew's and
Nordeu's accounts of Tintagell castle are nearly similar;
the latter of these, indeed, appears to have been taken
from the former. " Half the buildings," says Carew,
"were raised on the continent, and the other halfe on an
Hand, continued together (within men's remembrance)
by a drawebridge, but now divorced by the downefaln
steepe clififes, on the farther side, which, though it shut
out the sea from his wonted recourse, hath yet more
strengthened the iland ; for in passing thither you must
first descend with a dangerous declyning, and then
make a worse ascent, by a path, through his stickleness
occasioning, and through his steepnesse threatning, the
ruine of your life, with the falling of your foote. At
the top, two or three terrifying steps give you entrance
to the hill, which supplieth pasture for sheepe and
conyes : upon the same I saw a decayed chappell. Un-
der the iland runs a cave, through which you may rowe
at full sea, but not without a kinde of horrour at the un-
couthnesse of the place." Norden is rather more parti-
cular in his description of the ascent to the island '* by a
very narrow rockye and wyndinge waye up the steeps
sea-clyfFe, under which the sea-waves wallow, and so as-
sayle the foundation of the ile, as may astonish an un-
stable mayne to consider the perill, for the least slipp
of the foote sendes the whole bodye into the devouringe
sea; and the worste of all is the highest of all, nere the
gate of entraunce into the hill, where the offensive stones
so exposed hang over the head, as while a man respect-
eth his footinge, he indaungers his head ; and lookinge
to save the head, indaungers the footinge accordinge to
the old proverbe ; Incidit in Scyllam qui vult vitare Cha-
rybdim. He must have his eyes that will scale Tintagell.
Most of the iland buyldings are ruyned." It appears by
the view of Tintagell annexed to Norden's description,
that a great part of the building on the main land was
in his time standing.
The immense height of the cliffs on which these ruins
are situated, the desolated aspect of the surrounding
country, and the grandeur of the ocean raging beneath,
all conspire to form a scene truly sublime, and cannot
fail to make a lasting impression on the mind of those
who have visited this interesting spot.
O'er Cornwall's cliffs the tempests roar*d,
High the screaming' Sea Mew soar'd
On Tintagel's topmast tow'r.
Darksome fell the sleety show'r,
Round the rough Castle shrilly sung
The whi<jtling blast, and wildly flung
On each tall rampart's thund'ring side
The surges of the trembling tide.
When Arthur rang'd his red-cross ranks,
On conscious Camban's crimson banks,
By Mordred's faithless guide decreed,
Beneath a Saxon spear to bleed !
Wharton's Poems, p. 95.
After the Conquest, Tintagell Castle became the oc-
casional residence of several of our English Princes,
and here Richard, Earl of Cornwall, entertained his
nephew, David, Prince of Wales, when the latter re-
belled against the King in 1245.
In subsequent centuries, almost within a few years of
the commencement of the reign of Queen Elizabeth, it
had, like other fortresses in this county, a governor,
(being annexed to the Duchy of Cornwall) and was oc-
casionally used as a state prison. The remains are now
fast mouldering to decay; and in a few years, perhaps,
not a vestige will be standing, to shew where grandeur
had once usurped its despotic power.
The Church of Tintagell was formerly appropriated
to the abbess and convent of Fontevralt in Normandy,
and having passed in the same manner as Leighton-~
Buzzard in Bedfordshire, was given by King Edward IV.
to the collegiate church at Windsor; the Dean and
Chapter of which church have now the great tithes, and
are patrons of the vicarage. There were chapels in this
parish dedicated to St. Piran and St Dennis, besides
that in the castle of Tintagell.
At Tintagell is a Charity-school, supported by the
mayor and free burgesses, who pay a salary of £\0
per annum to the master.
About two miles from hence, over a rocky road, is
BoscASTLE, a small village, in a very romantic situa-
tion. Here a pilchard fishery has been established
some years, but with little success to the adventurers.
The Qiiay has been greatly improved, and several
new buildings erected. — This place had formerly a
Castle, the antient residence of the Bottreaux family;
but it was entirely gone prior to Leland's time.
In the Church is the following epitaph for the Rev.
W. Cotton and his wife, who died within a short time
of each other.
Forty-nine years they lived man and wife,
And whafs more rare, thus many without strife^
The first departing, he a few weeks tried
To live without her, could not and so died.
The road from hence to Stratton, is highly pleasing,
and presents many fine prospects of the surrounding
The village of St. Maky Week is noticed by
Carew, as the birth-place of Thomasiw Bonaventure, who,
although a poor cottager's daughter, had the good for-
tune to marry for her last husband, (the last of three,)
Sir John Percival, a wealthy merchant, and L.ord Mayor
of London; at whose death she became possessed of a
large property. She retired to this, her native village,
where she spent the remainder of her life and fortune
ip acts of unbounded charity.
Stratton is a small market town, standing rather
in a low situation, 223 miles from London, and 18 from
Launceston, but noted in history as the place where a
great victory was obtained during the civil wars by the
King's forces, in consideration of which, Sir Ralph
Hopton was in l643, created Lord Hopton of Stratton.
The parliamentary force amounted to upwards of 5000
men, with 13 pieces of ordnance, and although ihe
troops of the King were very inferior, they fought with
such desperate fury, that the enemy were completely
defeated, their baggage, ammunition and ordnance,
being all lost. A few years after the death of Lord
Hopton, Sir John Berkeley was created Baron Berkeley
of Stratton, but the title became extinct in 1773. In
the year 1797, Lord de Dunstanville was created Baron
Basset of Stratton, with remainder to his daughter and
her issue male.*
The market is on Tuesday, and there are here held
three fairs annually. The former appears to have been
held by prescription: it is for corn and ' provisions.
Camden states this parish to have been famous for
gardens and garlick: there are now no gardens in the
neighbourhood, but such as are cultivated for private
use, nor is it remarkable for the culture of garlick,
* Lyion's Mag. Brit, for Cornwall, p. 206.
although it is occasionally to be seen in the market,
where it is purchased by the cattle doctors.
The manors of Straiten and Binamy belonged, at an
early period, to an antient family, called in various
records, De Albo Monasterio, Blanchminster, and
"Whitminstcr. Sir John de Blanchminster dying with-
,out issue, towards the latter part of the fourteenth cen-
;tury, these estates passed to Erameline, only daughter
and heir to Sir Richard Hiwis, who had married Alice,
daughter of Sir Ralph de Blanchminster, and aunt of
Sir John: this Emmeline first married Sir Robert
Tresilian, Chief Justice of the King's Bench, and after
his death, Sir John Coleshill, to whom Guy de Blanch-
minster, rector of Lansallos, released in 1393 all right in
the manors of Stratton, Binamy, &c. Sir John Coles-
hill, son of the above, who was killed in the battle of
Agincourt in 1415, left an infant son; after whose
death, in 1483, the large estates of this family passed by
a female heir to a younger branch of the Arundells,
soon extinct, and were afterwards in severalties among
its numerous representatives. The manors of Binamy
and Stratton, having been purchased by the Grenville
family, passed with the Kilkhampton estate, and are
now the property of Lord Carteret, Binamy Castle,
which appears to have been built by Ralph de Blanch-
minster, in or about the year 1335, is spoken of as a
seat of the Coleshills by William of Worcester, who
made a tour through Cornwall in the reign of Edward
IV. Borlase describes the house of the Blanchminsters
as having been situated half a mile from Stratton, and a
furlong from the antient causeway made by that family:
on this estate, now called Binhamy, is a farm-house, a
little to the west of which is a moated orchard, descri-
bed in Camden's map as a square fort, and called
The Church contains several antient memorials, one
of which, with the effigy of a knight in armour, is sup-
posed to be intended for Ralph de Blanchminster, who
was Lord of the Manor at a very early period. In
the parish-register occurs the following remarkable
instance of longevity: — " Elizabeth Cornish, widow,
buried March 10th, ifipi. This Elizabeth Cornish
was baptized in October, 1578: her father's name was
John Veale: she was, when she died, in the 114th year,
having lived at least 113 years, four months, and 15
days." It appears also by the register, that not less
than 153 persons died of the plague in this small town,
in the year 1547: and in 1729, out of 49 persons bu-
ried, 42 fell victims to that destructive distemper the
The lands given to the church of Stratton, for the
maintenance of the poor of the parish are very consi-
derable, and chiefly vested in eight persons, who have
the appropriation of the rent of them. — There is also in
the church, the following epitaph, to the memory of one
of these eight trustees, and which is rather a curious
piece of composition.
Near by this place interr'd does lye.
One of the eight whose memory
Will last, and fragrant be to all posterity.
He did revive the Stock, and Store,
He built the Almshouse for the poor;
Managed so well was the revenue ne'er before.
The Church he lov'd and beautified,
His highest glory and his pride,
The sacred Altar shews his private scale besides.
A Book he left for all to view.
The accounts which are both just and trnej
His owne discharge, and a good precedent for you.
Be silent then of. him who's gone,
Touch not I mean, an imperfection,
Fur he a pardon has from the Almighty throne.
Look to your ways, each to his trust.
That when yoi} thus are laid in dust,
Your actions may appear as righteoos and as just.
About two miles north from Stratton, is the small
port of BuDE, which is much resorted to in the sum-
mer season for sea-bathing. The trade of this place
will be gieatly increased when the Canal, now making,
is completed: the chief exports are timber, bark, and
oats; the imports, coal and lime-stone from Wales, and
groceries, &c., from Bristol. The harbour, on account
of its sands, is best adapted to vessels not exceeding 60
tons burden: but occasionally, vessels of from 80 to 90
tons enter it; and one of more than 90 tons was built at
Bude in 1813 for the trade of this port. Great quan-
tities of sea-sand are carried from hence for manure,
not only into the neighbouring parishes, but into the
north of Devonshire, to the distance of 20 miles and
KiLKHAMPTON, about four miles north of East
Stratton, is remarkable for the singular beauty of its
Church. It is a large edifice, said to have been erected
by a Baron of the Grenville line, who came into Eng»
land with William the Conqueror, and whose arras are
sculptured in many parts of the building.
The whole fabric is a light and rich piece of work-
manship, particularly the southern enti'ance, a semicir-
cular arch, round which is a very curious zig-zag
Anglo-Norman moulding, in fine preservation. The
interior contains three aisles, divided by slender pillars,
supporting obtuse Gothic arches, and has an elegant
appearance. It is embellished with several handsome
memorials, but the most remarkable one is, the monu-
ment of Sir Beville Grenville,* who was slain in the civil
wars; and as Hervey says, " swords and spears, mur-
dering engines and instruments of slaughter, adorn the
stone with formidable magnificence." It bears the fol-
lowing inscription :
" Here lyes all that was mortal of the most noble and
truly valiant Sir Beville Grenville, of Stowe, in the
county of Cornwall, Earl of Corbill, and Lord of Tho-
* A very fine portrait of Sir B. Grenville, is to be found in Gil-
rigny and Grenville, in France and Normandy, descend-
ed in a direct line from Robert, second son of the war-
like RoUo, first Duke of Normandy, who, after having
obtained divers signal victories over the rebels in the
West, was at length slain, with many wounds , at the
battle of Lansdowne, July 5, l643. He married the
most virtuous Lady, Grace, daughter of Sir George
Smith, of the county of Devon, by whom he had many
sons, eminent for their loyalty and firm adherence to
the crown and church; and several daughters, re-
markable examples of true piety. He was indeed an
excellent person, whose activity, interest, and re-
putation, were the foundation of what had been done
in Cornwall; his temper and affections so public,
that no accident which happened could make any
impression upon him, and his example kept others
from taking any thing ill, or at least seeming to do so.
In a word a higher courage and a gentler disposition
were never married together, to make the most cheer-
ful and innocent conversation."
" To the immortal memory of his renowned grand-
father, this monument was erected by the Right Honour-
able George Lord Lansdowne, Treasurer of the House-
hold to Queen Anne, and one of Her Majesty's most
honourable Privy Council, &'c, in the year 1714."
"Thus slain thy valiant ancestor* did lye,
When his one bark a navy did defy,
When now encompassed round (he victor stood.
And bath'd his pinnace in his conquVing blood.
Till all his purple current dryed and spent,
He fell, and made the waves his monument:
• Sir Richard Grenville, a celebrated military and naval com-
mander in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. He first distinguished him-
self in the viars under the Emperor Maximilian against the Turks, for
which his name is recorded by several foreign writers. In the year
1591, being then Vice-Admiral of England, he was sent in the
Revenge, with a squadron of seven ships, to intercept the Spanish
galleons ^ when falling in with the enemy's fleet, consisting of 52 sail,
1Vh(<re shall the next famed Granville's ashes stand.
Tliy gfrandsire fills the seas, and thou the land.''
Vide Oxford University Verses^ printed 1643.*
Clarendon^ in his History of the Rebellion, speaks of
Sir Beville Grenville's death as " that which would have
clouded any victory, and made the loss of others less
spoken of: and the monument is indebted to that noble
author's own words for all the latter part of the pane
gyric it js so properly inteoded to perpetuate.
The Pulpit is a rich piece of carved work, and the
font very antient.
The magnificent and old. residence of the Grenville
family, called Stowe, in this parish, has been pulled
down many years, and the park dismantled. It was
one of the most superb residences in England, and the
beauty of the grounds and scenery adjacent, have been
frequently eulogized. John Grenville, Earl of Bath in
the reign of Charles II., erected it. It stood on an
eminence, overlooking a well-wooded valley; but not a
tree near it, says Dr. Borlase, to shelter it from the
north-west. That writer speaks of it as by far the
near the Tercera islands, be repulsed them 15 times in a continued
fig^ht, till his powder was all spent : his ship, which sunk before it
could arrive in port, was reduced to a bulk, and himself covered
viith wounds, of which he died two days afterwards, on board the
vessel of the Spanish commander.
• A collection of verses, by the University of Oxford, on the death
of Sir Beville Grenville, was printed in 1643, and reprinted in 1684.
To these are annexed King Charles's Letters to Sir Beville Gren-
ville, and to the county of Cornwall; and a patent of Charles I.
which g^rants to the county of Cornwall a trade to Denmark, to the
great Duke of Muscovy, and to the Levant. Martin Llewellyn was
a poet and physician, and was some time principal of St. Mary Hal),
in Oxford : m the latter part of his life he resided at High Wycomb ;
died there ia 1682, and lies buried in the north aisle of the cbancel.
noblest house in the west of England, and says that the
kitchen offices fitted up for a dwelling-house, made no
contemptible figure. It is a singular circumstance, that
the cedar wainscot, which had been brought out of a
Spanish prize, and used by the Earl of Bath for fitting
up the chapel in this mansion, was purchased by Lord
Cobham at the time of its demolition (the house being
then sold piecemeal) and applied to the same purpose
at Stowe, the magnificent seat of the noble family of
Grenville in Buckinghamshire, where it «till remains.
Kilkhampton is noticed in history, as the place where
the renowned and pious Harvey conceived his Medita-
tions among the Tombs,
Trom Stratton to Bodmin; through Launceston, Calling-
ton, Saltash, St. Germains, and Liskeard.
1 HE country between Stratton and Launceston, a
distance of 12 miles, does not present anything requir-
ing particular notice, except perhaps, within a few
miles of the latter place bordering on Devon, Werring-
ton Park, the seat of his Grace, the Duke of North-
umberland. The house is ra*her a low building, and in
point of architecture, is by no means imposing. The
situation of the park, however, is particular fine, being
highly diversified and embellished with some of the finest
trees and foliage in the kingdom.
On entering St. Stephen's, the attention of the travel-
ler is immediately arrested by the handsome appearance
of its Church, which is embellished with a handsome
Gothic Tower, of great height. This edifice was rebuilt
in the sixteenth century, and before the Conquest, was
made collegiate; but suppressed through the iofiuence
of William Warlewast, Bishop of Exeter, who founded
a Priory of Austin Monks in the adjoining parish of St.
Thomas. This continued until the dissolution of relt-
gious houses in the reign of Henry Vlll., when its annual
revenues were valued at 354£. 0*. ll^rf. ; yet not a
vestige of it has been in existence for many years.
A most interesting view of Launceston presents itself
from the bridge of Newport, and the Keep of its vene-
rable castle rises with awful dignity over the surround-
ing houses. The accompanying view is taken from
the position alluded to.
Newport Church, generally called St. Thomas, is a
small fabric of a very antient appearance, and here are
several decayed houses, which exhibit the nature of
domestic architecture a few centuries past.*
After ascending a steep hill, and passing through the
north gate, stands Launceston, one of the most antient
towns in the county, on the great western road to the
Land's End, distant 214 miles from London. This town
ranks as one of the principal in the county, and from
the influence it formerly possessed, from being fortified
with a noble castle and embattled walls, it has en-
joyed in early reigns, many privileges and immunities;
but was not, however, incorporated until the reign of
Queen Mary, in the year 1555. It has returned mem-
bers to Parliament, however, since the reign of Edward L
The right of election is in the Corporation and free
The assiees for the county were formerly held wholly
in this town ; but an act was passed in the first of George
I. to empower the proper authorities to hold the summer
assizes at Bodmin.
The magnificent ruins of the Castle are still highly
• Newport, which wasantiently under the jurisdiction of the town
of Launceston, is one of the notorious Boroughs of Cornwall, having'
returned members to Parliament since the reign of Edward VI.
The aumber of roters, does not, in geaeral| exceed 30 persons.
interesting to the antiquary, and few subjects are better
calculated for the pencil of the artist; their form being
highly picturesque, and which are highly pleasing from
being richly over-grown with ivy. The accompanying
view exhibits the remains of the principal entrance,
with the majestic and venerable keep rising above,
together with the walls now fast falling to decay.
Regarding the origin of this antient fortress, little is
known that may be deemed authentic; but, according
to historians, it is said to have been in existence long
prior to the conquest, which opinion is materially
strengthened, from this neighbourhood having been the
scene of many severe contests with the antient Britons
and Saxons. After the conquest, it was given to the.
Earl of Morteyne, to whom no less than 288 manors in
this county were also granted by William the Conqueror.
The remains chiefly consist of a Gateway^ a small
Tower at the south east angle, some decayed walls and
the keep. The latter is 93 feet in diameter, and the
height of the parapet from the base of the conical rocky
mount on which the keep stands, is upwards of 100
feet. The ascent to it is on the south side, but the steps
are mostly wanting, and to get its summit is now be-
come even dangerous. It consists of three wards, each
surrounded by a circular wall; the outer one, or parapet
wall, is not more than three feet thick; the second waU
is about six feet from the former, near four times as
thick, and considerably higher; but between these two,
a staircase leads to the top of the ramparts. The inner
wall is 10 feet thick, and 38 feet high, and the diameter
of the inclosed area is about 18 feet. This is said to
have been divided into two apartments, and the lower
one, having no light, is supposed originally to have been
a dungeon, but the whole pile has become so extremely
ruinouSj thai it is impossible to state exactly how, and for
what purpose it was originally constructed. The door
ways of the keep are chiefly composed of round arches.
and a curious Saxon doorway, now forming tbe entrance
to the White Hart Inn, is supposed to have belonged for-
merly to the castle. Lysons, however, concludes that it
came from the antient priory at St. Thomas, abore
This fortress, like most others in the county, had
in former reigns a governor ; but the mode in which
buildings of this kind are in general constructed, render
them ill calculated as places of residence. It appears
that Launceston Castle was in ruins as early as the
reign of Edward III., although it was a post of much
consequence during the civil wars in after times. At
the Restoration it was granted to Sir Hugh Pyper, Knt.
(who lies buried in the church here,) and was in the
possession of his grandson, till the year 1754. It now
belongs to his Grace, the Duke of Northumberland.
The Church is a large handsome structure, composed
of square blocks of granite, each of which is enriched
with carved ornaments. The porch on the south side
is particularly beautiful, and has a very striking appear-
ance from the street adjoining. At the eastern end, also
highly sculptured, is a curious figure of a Magdalene, in
a recumbent posture. The interior contains several
monuments, but none meriting particular observation*
On the north side of the church is a very pleasant
promenade sheltered by an avenue of trees, which is
enlivened by a very extensive and beautiful prospect of
the distant country.
Part of the old wall that surrounded the town and
two Gateways still remain : the one on the eastern or
Exeter road, has a very antient and interesting appear-
ance. The accompanying view which represents this
gateway, is taken from the road leading to Callington.
The houses in the town are in general well built, but
the streets are very narrow and badly paved. There
are two Charity Schools maintained by voluntary sub-
scriptions, and a Free School founded in the reign of
Queen Elizabeth, and endowed with an income pay-
able out of the revenues of the Duchy of Cornwall.
The market at this town is well supplied with all
kinds of provision, and remarkably cheap. There are
also no less than six fairs, held here annually. The
town suffers much inconvenience in the summer season,
from a scarcity of water.
The number of inhabitants, according to the late
returns, amounted to 2l63, and in 1811 to 1758, ex-
clusive of the adjoining parishes of St. Thomas and St.
Trebursi/, near this town, a handsome modern resi-
dence, erected some distance from the site of the old
house, is the property of the Hon. W. Eliot, M. P.
late Colonel of the Cornwall Militia.
From Launceston to Callington, the distance is about
12 miles, and the country, as far as the first nine miles ex-
tend, is very beautiful and romantic. About three miles
from Callington, in the parish of Stoke Clainsand, is
JVhiteford House, the seat of Sir William Pratt Call,
Bart. It is a handsome building, standing in a beautiful
and luxuriant valley, which, with the meandering water
in front, has a very pleasant aspect. The fish ponds
and gardens here are extremely fine, and kept in a"
high state of cultivation.
Callikgton is a market and BoroBgh-town, situated
in a flat and open part of the county, distant 214 miles
from London. The houses are chiefly disposed in one
broad street, and being very irregularly built, have
rather a poor appearance.
The Church is an antient and spacious fabric, consist-
ing of three aisles, the centre one very lofty, and was
built chiefly at the expense of Nicholas de Asheton, one
of his Majesty's Justices of the Court of King's Bench,
who died in the year l645, and lies buried in the chan-
cel, where there is a handsome brass plate with effigies
of himself and lady.
There is also a handsome alabaster tomb, to the
memory of Lord Willoughby de Broke, lord of the
manor, who died in the year 1502. In the church-yard
is a very antient octagonal cross, surrounded with some
antient sculpture, but it has been roost shamefully
This town is governed by a Portreve, who is chosen
annually, at the court leet of the lord of the manor.
The elective franchises of the inhabitants were lately
determined by a committee of the House of Commons,
but the members are usually returned by the freeholders
and resident leaseholders.
Callington has a weekly market on Wednesday, and
four fairs annually.
The prospects from the summit of Kitt Hill on Hen-
geston Downs, near Callington, are very extensive;
comprehending the windings of the Tamar, the Hamoaze,
Plymouth Sound, Mount Edgecumbe, and surrounding
country. About five miles from Callington, in the
parish of Calstock, is Cotekele or Cuttayle House, one of
the most antient and curious constructed mansions in
England. It is situated on a pleasing eminence on the
western bank of the Tamar; but being almost surrounded
with wood, the river can only be seen from some of the
windows of the higher apartments. There is no account
when this mansion was erected; but from the style of
architecture, is supposed to have been built about the
time of Henry VII. It is a very irregular pile of
building, inclosing a small quadrangle, the approach
to which is through a square gateway tower on the
south side. At the north angle, is a large square tower,
which contains the principal apartments.
This place from the beauty of its situation and other
local circumstances, has excited great curiosity, and
parties of pleasure make frequent water excursions to it
in the summer: boats for such purposes are to be hired
at Plymouth or Saltash.
08 CORN WALT-.
The entrance hall opening from the quadrangle, is
embellished with a collection of antient armour, and
warlike instruments; and gives a true picture of the
feudal dignity of antient times. The several apartments
in the house are enriched with a great variety of
curious old articles of furniture, such as carved ebony
chairs, cabinets, &c. There is besides, some very fine
tapestry, ornamented with the figures of Romulus and
Remus, &c., in good preservation. The chapel con-
nected with the dining room is small, and was origi-
nally ornamented with painted glass windows. The
altar cloth, composed of rich velvet embroidered, is
ornamented with the figures of the Twelve Apostles,
and other appropriate embellishments.
This mansion has belonged to the Edgecumbe family
since the reign of Edward III.; and here Sir Richard
Edgecumbe, who was attached to the House of Lancas-
ter, concealed himself from the tyranny of Richard III.
In remembrance of his miraculous escape, he erected
the small chapel which stands on a rocky precipice,
close to the river.
In the month of August, 1789> their late Majesties,
■with the Princess Royal and the Princesses Augusta and
Elizabeth, honoured this old mansion with a visit, and
breakfasted with the Earl and Countess of Mount
Cahtock Church stands about half a mile from the
village, on a commanding eminence, and is a small
antient fabric, containing several memorials of the
About a mile from the church, is Harewood House,
the seat of Salisbury Trelawney, Esq. It is a hand-
some building, erected on one of the most delightful
spots of the banks of the Tamar. Mason in his poem
of Elfrida, has made Harewood the scene of the love*
of Ethelwold, and of the misfortunes consequent to
his union with the fair daughter of Edgar.
The village of Calstock is situated close to the
side of the river, and here is a regular ferry to Beer
Alston, in Devonshire.
About three miles from hence, is Pentillie Castle, the
seat of John Tillie Coryton, Esq. which was erected a
few years ago, from designs by Wilkins, on the site of
an old family mansion. It is a very beautiful Gothic
structure, with a majestic portico on the south side,
surmounted with pinnacles, and being built on a bold
eminence rising abruptly from the river Tamar, it really
possesses a commanding and dignified appearance. The
interior contains a number of spacious apartments
finished in a handsome and costly manner.
The approach to the house is embellished with a
neat Gothic Lodge, on the road leading to Saltash; and
the grounds are enriched with a variety of beautiful
plantations. In the grounds is a Tower or Sepulchral
Building, erected for Sir James Tillie, whose interment
here has given rise to a tale, that being of Atheistical
principles, he had directed himself to be placed after
his death, in a chair therein, with bottles, glasses, &c.
to perpetuate his derision of a future existence. The
fact however, of his being buried in a coffin, was
proved a few years ago; and from his will, it is clear
that he died in the ** hope of a glorious immorta-
From hence to Saltash, the distance is six miles, and
about a mile and a half to the left, in the church of
the village of Landulph, is the following remarkable
Here lyeth the body of Theodore Paleologfus
of Pesaro in [lale, descended from the iuiperyall
Lyiie of the last Christian Emperors of Greece
Being thesonne of Camilio, the sonne of Prosper
the sonne of Theodoro, ye sonne of John,
the sonne of Thomas, the second brother to Constantine
Paleologus that rayr^d in Constantinople, until
Subdued by the Turiis, who married with Mary the
daughter of William Balls of Hadiye in
Suffolke Gent, and had issue five children, Theodore,
John, Ferdinando, Maria and Dorothy, and departed
this lyfe at Clifton the 21st of January 1636.
There is also a large tomb in the chancel, with a
handsome marble slab to the memory of Sir Nicholas
Lower and his lady.
The Parsonage House has been greatly improved, and
commands a beautiful prospect of the river and Saltash.
It contains a good library, and a few paintings by some
of the antient masters. Much praise is due to the pre-
sent incumbent, the Rev. F. V. I. Arundell, for having
raised an embankment round the house, and for bring-
ing the grounds into a high state of cultivation, and for
improving the plantations.
About two miles from hence, in the parish of Botus
Fleming, is Moditonham, the seat of Charles Carpenter,
Esq. a commodious modern building, most delightfully
situated, and commanding some extensive views of the
In the Church, a small venerable pile, is a recumbent
figure of a crusader with a sword and target, which
■was accidentally discovered about three years ago, on
the removal of some old wainscot.
In the centre of a field, at the north side of the
village, stands a pyramidical monument, erected in
memory of Dr. William Martin, of Plymouth, who died
in the year 1762.
The town of Saltash principally consists of one
long street rising abruptly from the Tamar, to a con-
siderable eminence, and the houses in general have an
antient appearance. It is a place, as Carew observes,
which, owing to the steep ascent on which it is situated,
" every shower washes clean." It is also of great an-
tiquity, and in the year 1393, the assizes for the county
are said to have been held here. During the civil wars
it was considered of much importance, being one of
the principal passes into the county. It was first gar-
risoned by the Parliament, and surrendered without
opposition to Sir Ralph Hopton, in the autumn of l642.
General Ruthen, finding it open after his defeat at
Bradock-down, in January, l643, took possession, and
hastily fortified it; but it was soon afterwards taken by
assault, by Lord Mohun and Sir Ralph Hopton : a
garrison was left in it in the month of May that year, but
on the approach of the Earl of Essex, it was given up
the latter end of July, l644. We are told that on this
occasion Sir Edward Waldegrave gallantly defended the
pass, and, as it appears, with temporary success. After
the capitulation of Essex, Saltash was again taken
possession of by Sir Richard Grenvillc: in the month
of October following, it was taken by a detachment
from the garrison at Plymouth ; Sir Richard Grenvillc
afterwards recovered it by assault: and it was finally
abandoned by the King's troops in the month of Feb-
Saltash is governed by a Mayor, six Aldermen, and
an indefinite number of burgesses ; but they generally
amount to about 50. It was made a free borough
in the reign of King John, or that of Henry III., by
Reginald de Valletort, who confirmed to the burgesses
various privileges which they had enjoyed under his
ancestors: these privileges were confirmed by King
Richard II. In the year l682, Charles 11. granted this
borough a renewed charter of incorporation, under which
the body-corporate was defined to consist of a ^layor
and six Aldermen, styled the council of the borough,
who had liberty to chose a Recorder: but the charter
first mentioned, in virtue of which the town is now
governed, was procured in 1774. It has returned mem-
bers to Parliament since the reign of Edward VI. The
right of voting is confined to the freeholders of the
borough, amounting to about 70 persons. Some names
of eminence appear in the list of its representatives; as
Sir Francis Cottington, Edward Hyde, afterwards Earl
of Clarendon, and Edmund Waller the poet.
The Chapel is an antient structure, having Gothic
windows and a massive tower. It contains a handsome
altar piece. In the north aisle there is a superb monu-
ment to the memory of three brothers, named Drew,
officers in the navy, who were unfortunately drowned.
Saltash has a market weekly, and four fairs annually ;
and over the river is a constant ferry; boats are to be
had at a short notice, for Plymouth Dock, or any place
in its vicinity. The market mentioned as attached to
the castle of Trematon, when the survey of Domesday
was taken, was probably held at Saltash : it is spoken of
in that survey as a new market of the Earl's, which
had been prejudicial to the Abbot's market at St,
Germain's. The small weekly market for butcher's
meat is held on Saturday: an old writer says, that the
burgesses claimed another market on Tuesday, but that
it was not in his time held. The present fairs are on
the Tuesday before each quarter-day, (the remnant,
probably, of the Tuesday's market,) February 2, and
July 25 : the two last are for horned cattle and sheep.
The tolls of the market and fairs belong to the Corpora-
tion, who are entitled to the proceeds of the ferry over
the Tamar, the privilege of dredging for oysters, the
farm and tolls of oysters, and certain duties payable by
masters of ships; which altogether produced about
i6300 per annum in 1714.
Leland speaks of " Asche (Saltash) as a praty quick
market-town. The tounesmen," he says, " use boothe
merchandise and fischery." Norden says, " the towne
increaseth daylie in merchandise and wealth: there
belonge unto the towne some 8 ships besydes small
boates. The haven is capable of anie burden. The
great carrack that Sir Frauncis Drake browghte home
so rich, arrived here, and was here disburdened, and
after fatally fyred."
The remains of Trematon Castle are situated on a
commanding eminence on the northern bank of the
river Lynher, just below Saltash, but the carriage road
to it, a very pleasing ride, extends at least two miles
from the town. Proceeding in the latter direction,
about half way, the tower of St. Stephen's Church has
a conspicuous appearance. It is remarkable as con-
taining a variety of antient memorials, but many of
them are much defaced. Carew relates, that in the
church of St. Stephen's a leaden coffin was found about
the middle of the sixteenth century ; but the grounds
on which he supposes it to have been that of Orgarius,
Duke of Corn-wall, are very weak ; for it appears that
all he learned from his informant, who had been an eye-
witness of the discovery fourscore years before, was,
that an inscription on the lead imported it to contain the
body of a Duke, whose heiress married a Prince. One
of the monuments in this church, is for iV/as^er Hechins,
as Carew calls him, lessee of the great tithes in the reign
of Queen Elizabeth. The church was given to Windsor
College by Edward the Black Prince.
On approaching the Castle, its venerable Keep arises
majestically amidst the surrounding foliage, and with
the little bridge and cottages in the valley, forms alto-
gether a very picturesque subject. The entrance is
through a small arch on the north side, and a circular
road, leading to it, has been lately cut through the hill
on which it stands. The site of the area covers more
than an acre of ground, and is enclosed by embattled
walls, six feet in thickness. The keep stands on the
summit of a conical mound at the north-west angle,
embattled with walls 10 feet thick and 30 high. The
space enclosed is of an oval form, and was formerly
divided into apartments, but as there are no marks of
windows, they would appear to have been lighted
from the top. The entrance to it was through a circular
arched doorway on the western side, from whence an
irregular path leads to a small sally-port; but the most
perfect part of the building is the principal gateway,
composed of three strong arches, with grooves for port-
cullisses between them. These arches support a square
tower, embattled, containing an apartment, which has
been fitted up as a museum for natural curiosities. The
walls are decorated with some of the finest tapestry in
England, the colours being as bright as if it had only
lately been finished.
Regarding the origin of this antient fortress, little is
known, that may be deemed authentic; but it is gene-
rally believed, like most other buildings of a like nature,
to have been originally erected prior to 'the Conquest.
Afterwards it was given to Robert, Earl of Moreteyne
and Cornwall, and in subsequent reigns was annexed to
the Duchy of Cornwall. During the civil wars of the
eighteenth century, we find no account of this castle's
having been occupied by either of the contending
parties: but Carew relates, that during the Cornish
commotions in 1549, Sir Richard Grenville held Tre-
maton for a while against the rebels ; but that having
been induced to quit it, for the purpose of holding a
parly with the beseigers, they intercepted his return,
seized on the castle, sent him a prisoner to Launceston
gaol, and plundered and ill-treated his lady and her
attendants. — A few years ago it was leased to Benjamin
Tucker, Esq. Surveyor General of the Duchy of Corn-
ivall, and who was for many years Secretary to the
^^allant Admiral, Earl St. Vincent. This gentleman has
frected a very comfortable residence within the area,
«id embellished it with a great variety of choice paint-
ings and other works of art. Among the most valuable
is " L#*^meuse Aurore de Natier," a picture well known
•on the Cqptinent, besides the Twelve Caesars, by Golt-
zius. Thenfe-is also the celebrated organ which was
madie by Mr. Moor^_^ of Ipswich, for the Empress of
Russia, at the price of ;^i6,000, and a most beautiful
specimen of shell-work, which was formed in the
Brazils, and the construction of which is said to have
occupied two nuns the whole of their lives. The garden
round the house, is laid out with great taste, and em-
bellished with a good hot-house. In one part of it, on a
marble slab, is a bust of Admiral St. Vincent, with the
following inscription from the eclogues of Virgil. '
O Meliboce, Deus haec nobis otia fecit
Namque erit ille miiii semper Deus, illius aram
Saepe tener nostris ab ovilibus iiiibuet agnus,
A short distance from the castle, near the ferry across
Anthoney Passage, are some small remains of an antient
Chapel, called Shillingham, which is richly over-grown
The manor of Ashe-torre, or Esses-torre, the site of
which is a rock at the bottom of Saltash town, abutting
on the water, has an extensive jurisdiction, although it
was itself held as seven fees under the honor ofTrema-
ton. Carew speaks of this rock as "invested with the
jurisdiction of a manor, and that it claymed the suites
of many gentlemen as his freeholders in knights' service."
This manor, which extends its jurisdiction into several
parishes in Cornwall and Devonshire, belonged to the
ancient family of Fleming of Devonshire, Barons of Slane
in Ireland: it was sold in the sixteenth century, by
Nicholas and Robert Dillon, sons and heirsof Anne, one
of the sisters and co-heiresses of Christopher Fleming,
Baron of Slane, to Thomas Wyvell, Esq. from whose
family it passed, by a female heir, to the ancestor of
Francis Wills, Esq. of Saltash. The site of this manor
is thus described in old papers: — "All that messuage,
tlwellinghouse, palace, &c. and waste ground in and
nigh Ashe-torre Rock, with the remains of houses, on
which premises manor-courts were held, all unconnected
with any other person's land, and forming a peninsula,
situated at the bottom of Fore street or road, in the
borough of Saltash, on a rock, part of which abuttcth
into the sea." — A record of the year l620 is said to
have claimed Wadsworthy as parcel of the demesne of
the manor of Ashe-torre.
Ince Castle, the seat of Edward Smith, Esq. is an
interesting building, situated on the banks of the Lynher,
and forms a conspicuous object in this part of the
Returning to the high road at the distance of three
miles, is Lan drake, the Church of which is remark-
able for its high tower, which is visible for many
miles round. In the interior is a curious brass plate,
dated 1509, with an effigy of Edward Courtenay, Esq.,
and a monument to the memory of Nicholas Wylls,
Gent., who died in the year 1607.
Wootton, an antient seat in this parish, has long since
gone entirely to decay.
Near Landrake is Stockton, the seat of Admiral de
Courcy, a modern mansion, commanding many inte-
resting views. The interior contains a number of war-
like instruments, and a variety of natural curiosities.
From Landrake to St. Germains, a decayed market
and Borough-town, the distance is three miles. This
place is remarkable as having been in early time, the
seat of the episcopal government of the diocese of the
county; and it takes its name from St. Germain, Bishop
of Auxerre, who is said to have resided here for a time,
during his visit to England. It is situated in a very
romantic dell, on the borders of a creek formed by the
river Lynher, about nine miles from Plymouth and
eight from Liskeard ; but is one of the largest parishes
in the county, being 20 miles in circumference. It has
been represented in Parliament since the year 1562;
the right of electing the members being vested in the
inhabitant householders, who have resided 12 months
within the Borough. The town, as it is called, which
contains less than 100 dwellings, is governed by a
Portreve, chosen annually at the Court Leet. Leland
spoke of it as " a poor fischar town," and he adds, that
" the glory of it stood by the priory." Carew observed,
" the church-towne mustereth many inhabitants and
sundry mines, but little wealth, occasioned eyther
through abandoning their fishing trade, as some con-
ceive, or by their being abandoned of the religious people,
as the greater sort imagine." Its market scarcely ex-
isted even when the survey of Domesday was taken ;
having been reduced almost to nothing in consequence
of the Earl of Moreton's market (most probably Salt-
ash) then lately established in the neighbourhood. This
market was at that time held on Sundays; but the day
was afterwards altered to Friday: in Browne Willis's
time it was very inconsiderable, and has long been
wholly discontinued. There are two cattle fairs, held
May 28, and August 1.
Whitaker supposes the bishop's see to have been
established at this place, so early as the year 6l4.
That St. Germains was the episcopal see as long as an
episcopal see existed in the county of Cornwall, he has
proved in the most satisfactory manner; but of its
existence at that early period, his learned volumes
on the subject of the Cathedral of Cornwall afford no
proof; nor have we any intimation from history of any
Bishop of St. Germains before the year 910, when
Athelstan was appointed to that see. King Athelstan,
who founded a college of Seculars here, made Conan
Bishop of St. Germains in 936. After the death of
Bishop Burwold, Livingus, Bishop of Crediton, pro-
cured this bishopric to be annexed to his own, and his
successor Leofric made interest to have them both
united to that of Exeter. Leland says, that Bartholo-
mew (Iscanus) Bishop of Exeter, who died in 1 1 72,
changed the Monks of St. Germains into Canons Regular,
on account of the laxity of their lives. At the sup-
pression of this monastery in 1535, it was valued at
£227. 4s. 8d. clear yearly income. King Henry VIII.
leased the site of the priory and other lands to John
Campernown and others; relative to which grant, Carew
has the following story. " John Charapemowne, sonne
and heir apparent to Sir Philip of Devon, in Henry the
Eighth's time, followed the court, and through his plea-
sant conceits, of which much might be spoken, wan
some good grace with the King. Now when the golden
showre of the dissolved abbey lands rayned wellnere
into every gaper's mouth, some two or three gentlemen
(the King's servants,) and INIaster Champernowne's ac-
quaintance, waited at a doore where the King was to
passe forth, with purpose to beg such a matter at his
hands: our gentleman became inquisitive to know their
suit; they made strange to impart it. This while, out
comes the King: they kneel down; so doth Master
Champemowne. They preferre their petition; the King
gi-ants it: they render humble thanks; and so doth
blaster Champemowne. Afterwards, he requireth his
share ; they deny it : he appeals to the King : the King
avoweth his equal meaning in the largesse; whereon,
the overtaken companions were fayne to allot him this
priory for his partage." Norden has strangely mistaken
this story, and says, that King Henry VIII. bestowed
the priory of St. Germains upon an ancestor of the
Eliots, " being full of pleasant conceytes wherewith the
the Kinge was delited." It is certain that the Chara-
pemowns became sole possessors of the priory estate,
and that in 1565 they conveyed it to Richard Eliot,
Esq., of Coteland, in Devonshire, in exchange for that
manor. Sir John Eliot, son of Richard, was a distin-
guished patriot in the reign of James I., and an active
opposer of the Duke of Buckingham and the court
measures, particularly that of raising taxes without the
consent of Parliament: for some bold speeches on this
subject he was committed to the tower, where he died
in the year 1632. Daniel Eliot, his grandson, left an
only daughter, maitied to Browne Willis, the celebrated
antiquary, by whom we are informed that his father-in-
law, in order to keep up the family name, bequeathed
his estates of Edward Eliot, grandson of Nicholas,
fourth son of Sir John above-mentioned, from whom
they descended to the present possessor.
It appears that the Cathedral, now the Parish Church,
was first built in the reign of Athelstan, when it formed
a part of the Priory, founded at the same time for
Secular Canons. On the removal of the diocese to
Exeter, the manor of St. Germains was divided between
the Bishop and the Prior of the convent. On the Priory
site a spacious mansion has been erected for the resi-
dence of the Eliot family, and is now the property of
the Right Hon. the Earl of St. Germains. It is called
Port-Eliot, but was formerly called Porth-Prior. The
exterior is not very striking; perhaps " its simplicity,"
says a late writer, " is more correspondent to the scenery
by which it is surrounded, and which is rather to be
called pleasing than picturesque or grand." The inte-
rior, however, is embellished with some fine portraits
by Sir Joshua Reynolds, Rembrant, Opie, &c.
The Church almost adjoins Port Eliot House, and in
point of architectural beauty, is equal, if not superior to
any in the county.
At the west end are two towers, both of which are
said formerly to have been octagonal, but the south one
is now of a square form, and contains the clock. Between
the towers is a remarkably fine entrance doorway, or
circular receding arch, 20 feet wide, with four pillars
on each side, having plain square bases and capitals.
The arch contains seven mouldings, with alternate
zig-zag ornaments, which is also continued between the
pillars. Over the arch is a pediment, with a cross at
the top resembling an heraldic cross. Above are three
narrow round-headed windows, and as great part of the
edifice is richly mantled with ivy, it forms a very inte-
resting and beautiful subject for the pencil. The inte-
rior is spacious; and the capitals of the pillars which
divide the aisles from the nave, are curiously ornamented
with Saxon sculpture. It contains a great variety of
memorials, but the most remarkable are those for the
learned Walter Moyle, who died at the age of 49, in the
year 1721, and the superb monument by Rysbrack, in
memory of Edward Eliot, Esq. who died in the follow-
ing year. A white marble tablet, to the memory of
Elizabeth, wife of John Glanville, Esq., has the follow-
ing beautiful lines inscribed on it.
While faithful earth doth thy oold relics keep,
And soft as was thy nature is thy sleep,
Let here the pious, humble, placed above,
Witness an husband's g^rief, an husband's lore;
Grief that no rolling years can e'er efface.
And love, that only with himself must cease;
And let it bear for thee this heartfelt boast —
'Twas he that knew thee best, that lored thee most.
In the south aisle is a low ornamented recess, said to
have contained the effigy of an abbot of the convent.
Another recess is called the Bishop's throne; and among
other relics of antiquity, is preserved a curious carved
oaken chair, supposed to have belonged to one of the
monks. — "A great part of the chauncell" of this church,
as Carew relates, " fell suddenly downe upon a Friday,
very shortly after the publick service was ended, which
heavenly favour, of so little respite, saved many persons'
lives, with whom immediately before it had been stuffed ;
and the devout charges of the well-disposed parishioners
quickly repayred this ruine."
Cuddenbeck the antient seat of the Bishops, has long
been occupied as a farm, and now exhibits but little
of its ancient episcopal grandeur.
Quitting St. Germains, at the distance of about a mile,
is the direct coach road from Tor Point, and within four
miles of Liskeard is Catchfrench, the seat of Francis
Glanville, Esq., which being built on an eminence, has
a commanding eflfect ; although it is a very comfortable
and spacious building, yet it does not possess much
architectural beauty. The west front is embattled and
faced with slate, and at a distance, with the surrounding
scenery, has a pleasing effect.
The road from Tor Point to Liskeard is extremely
hilly, and in many places even dangerous.
Coledrirnicky another spacious mansion like Catch-
french, is also in the parish of St. Germains. It stands
about a mile from the road, and within three miles of
Near this also on the right, is the village of Men-
HENIOT, the Church of which is a very large edifice
with a lofty spire, visible at a considerable distance.
This building contains memorials for the families of Car-
minow and Burell; J. Trelawney, of Coldrinnick, Dean
of Exeter; and Lady Charlotte, daughter of James, Earl
of Errol, Lord High Constable of Scotland, and wife of
William Holwell Carr, B. D., incumbent of the parish,
who died in 1801. The vicarage is one of the most va-
luable benefices in Cornwall, being endowed with the
great tithes, subject only to an annual payment of £20
to Exeter College, Oxford. The Dean and Chapter of
Exeter are patrons, but pursuant to the directions of
Bishop Courtenay, must nominate a fellow of Exeter
College. William of Wykham was vicar of this parish :
and Dr. Moreman, a learned divine, who was instituted
to the vicarage in the reign of Henry VIIL, is said to
have been the first in these parts who taught and cate-
chised his parishioners in the English language.
The parish of Menheniot abounds with beautiful
scenery; its numerous vallies being pleasingly diversi-
fied with rock and wood.
Here is a very antient and curious building called
Fool, now occupied by the poor of the parish; but
remarkable as having been the seat of the ancestors of
the present Sir Harry Trelawny ; though Carew speaks
of it as being far beneath the worth and calling of its
then possessor, Sir Jonathan Trelawny. It is now fast
mouldering to decay, but displays some very interesting
specimens of antient architecture. On the south front,
which was the principal entrance, (and exhibited in the
accompanying view) is a massive chimney, which age
and other circumstances have inclined three feet from
its perpendicular; and at this time perhaps, it is chiefly,
if not wholly, supported by the ivy which grows
LiSKEARD is a large and populous market town,
situated on rocky hills, and partly in a bottom, about 16"
miles from Plymouth, and 223 from London. This
place ranks as one of the oldest towns in the county ;
and it had once a Castle, supposed to have been erected
by one of the Earls of Cornwall. It stood on the north
side of the town, and its site is still called the Castle Hill ;
but, even in Leland's time, it was little more than a
heap of ruinous walls. The manor of Liskeard
formed a part of their ancient possessions; Liskeard
having been made a free borough in 1240, by Richard
Earl of Cornwall and King of the Romans, who bestowed
on the burgesses the same privileges which he had
already granted to those of Launceston and Helston.
His son Edmund, in 1275, granted them the fee of the
borough, with the profits arising from the markets, fairs,
&c., subject to a rent of ^18 per annum, which rent
King William III. granted to Lord Somers : it is now
paid to Lord Eliot, who purchased it of the late Lord
The Church is a spacious edifice, standing on an
eminence at the eastern entrance to the town. It is
composed of three aisles, with a low embattled tower at
the west end, on which are some curious grotesque
heads. The southern part of the building is the most
handsome, and over the porch are three Gothic niches.
It contains but few monuments worthy gf notice, — In
the south aisle, is a neat cenotaph to the memory of
Lieut. Joseph Hawkey, who was killed in action with
some gun boats in the Gulph of Finland, in July I8O9,
in the 23rd year of his age. There is another for Joseph
Wadham, who died in 1707, " being the last of that
family, whose ancestors were the founders of Wadham
College in Oxford."
Liskeard has returned members to Parliament, since
the reign of Edward the I.; the right of election being
vested in the corporation and freemen. The former,
according to the charter of Elizabeth, consists of a
INIayor, Recorder, eight capital Burgesses, and 15
Assistants.* In the list of representatives for this bo-
rough, we find the name of Lord Chief Justice Coke.
Leland speaks of the Market at Liskeard as " the
best in Cornwall, savyng Bodmyn." In his time the
market was held on Monday, and there are still three
great markets on that day; Shrove-Monday, the Mon-
day after Palm Sunday, and the Monday after St»
Nicholas's Day. Browne Willis tells us that this market
much exceeded that of Bodmin; it was then held, as it
now is, on Saturday. It is most amply supplied with
all sorts of provisions; a great portion of which is
purchased for the supply of the market at Plymouth
Dock. There are three large caltle-fairs; upon Holy
Thursday, the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, and St.
Matthew's Day. Liskeard is one of the four towns for
the coinage of tin; but there has been no coinage held
there of late years.
The Tozvn Hall was erected about the year 1707>
at the expense of Mr. Dolben, one of the representatives
for the borough. It is a curious structure supported by
granite columns; and the meat market is held in the
space between them.
* In the course of the proceedinj^s on the election case in 1803,
when the rifj-hts of the Corporation were confirmed, it appeared from
records, that there was a Mayor in t!ie reign of Richard II.
A new Market Houfe is about to be erected on a very
The trade of the town is not of any particular de-
scription ; but such as most country towns enjoy,
where the neighbouring agriculturists carry on the
farming business to a great extent. There is, however,
a Paper Mill in the neighbourhood, which perhaps does
not so particularly affect the place.
The population of the town, according to the late
tensus, amounts to I896, being an increase of but 101
persons, since the year 1811. Browne Willis speaks of
Liskeard as the largest town in Cornwall, containing as
he was informed, 1000 houses. He must have been
much misinformed; as the population appears, by the
parish-register, to have been considerably increased
within the last century, and in 1801 there were but 323
houses, and I860 inhabitants.
The town consists of several streets very irregularly
built; still the houses are in general substantial, and
slate-roofed. It has two good Inns, called the Bell,
and the King's Arms.
Here was formerly a Nunnery of Poor Clares, founded
and endowed by Richard, Earl of Cornwall and King of
the Romans, but of which we have not been able to
obtain any further account. A great part of the con-
ventual buildings, known by the name of the Great
Place, yet remains, converted into dwelling-houses;
and the Chapel is now a bake-house.
A battle was fought near Liskeard on the ipth of
January, l643, between Sir Ralph Hopton, and the
Parliamentary forces, in which the latter were defeated ;
Sir Ralph marching into the town with his army that
night. King Charles, on his entrance into Cornwall in
1644, halted at Liskeard on the 2nd of August, and
stayed there till the 7th.
A survey of the year 1337, in the Treasurer's Re-
membrancer's Office, speaks of a new Park at this
place, in which were then 200 deer: it was disparked
by Henry VIII, and the land which it comprised (still
called the Park) is now held on lease by Lord Eliot.
There was formerly a chapel in this park, dedicated to
the Virgin Mary, to which there was a great resort of
pilgrims. — There are three Meeting-houses in the town,
belonging to the Independents, Quakers, and Methodists:
the former was originally built by the Johnson family,
for the Presbyterians. Defoe, in his Tour through
Great Britain in the early part of the last century, speaks
of it as a large new-built meeting-house; and observes,
that there were only three more in Cornwall. A
volume of Poems by the Rev. Henry Moore, some time
hiinister of this Meeting, was published after his death,
under the superintendance of Dr. Aikin. — The Gram-
mar-School here is supported by the corporation, with a
salary of ^30 per annum : Dean Prideaux, and Walter
Moyle, were educated at this school, A Charity-School
for poor children, in which 10 girls are now taught, was
founded by the trustees of the charitable donation of the
Rev. St. John Eliot, who died in J 7^0, and endowed by
them with £5 per annum.
The Church of St. Cleer, a village three miles
north-west of the town, is an interesting fabric, with a
lofty tower, surmounted with pinnacles at the angles,
and the buttresses which support it are embellished
with purfled fineals. The antient IVell of St. Cleer,
about a mile from the church, is a pleasing subject for
the pencil, the top being richly overgrown with ivy.
Near it is a Stone Cross, ornamented at the top with some
In this neighbourhood are several other objects
highly interesting to the antiquary. The Hurlcrs, when
perfect, consisted of three circles of upright stones
from three to five feet high, but several of them have
been removed. According to historians, these monu-
ments of antiquity are said to have been of Druidical
Il6 CORNWAtLi ,,
Origin; but the name of hurlers is most probably de*
rived from an opinion among the common people, that
the stones were once men, who were transformed for
Hurling (a favorite game among the antient Cornish
people) on the sabbath day.
The Cheese-Wring is a natural pile of rocks 32 feet
high, of eight stones, or layers, apparently placed one
above another, the largest at the top: considering its
perilous form and exposed situation, how this pile has
withstood the rage of storms for so many ages, is a
matter of just astonishment.
The Cromlech, or Trewethy Stone, as it is generally
called, standing on an eminence some distance from
the Cheese-Wring, may be ranked as one of the greatest
antiquities in the county. It consists of six upright
stones, and one large slab, covering them in an inclined
position. This impext measures l6 feet in length,
and 10 broad, and is, at a medium, about 14 inches
thick. It rests on five of the uprights only, and at its
upper end it is perforated by a small circular hole.
No tradition exists as to the time of its erection ; but, its
name at once designates its being a work of the Britons,
The village of St. Neot's, four miles from Liskeard,
has long been celebrated for possessing a church,
embellished with some of the finest painted glass win-
dows in the kingdom. They amount to 17, and display
various subjects connected with the legend of St. Neat,
Portraits of Saints, the History of the Creation^ &c., but
some of them have unfortunately been defaced by igno-
rant or malicious depredators.
The Church is a handsome fabric, built of granite,
and from the style of architecture is supposed not to
be older than the reign of Henry VI. It stands on a
rising ground at the head of the village, and has a
dignified appearance, especially when contrasted with
the humble dwellings near it.
* fieauties of Cornwall,
A correspondent has favoured us with the following
additional particulars relative to St. Neot's: —
This village is about four miles west of Liskeard.
Until the close of the ninth century, it was called
Ham-stoke; from that period till the Conquest, or
later, it had the name of Neot-stoke; it received its
present name soon after. About the middle of the
ninth century, St. Neot (a pious hermit, who had been
Sacristan at Glastonbury Abbey) retired here. His
pool is still shown; respecting which there are some
curious traditions.* The Saint erected a College of
Priests, and a church here, (on the site of the more
antient Chapel of St. Guerir,) in which he was buried in
877: the edifice was rebuilt in 884. The present
Church was erected in l480.t It is an elegant building,
consisting of a nave and two side aisles. Its greatest
ornament is its beautifully stained glass; of which a con-
siderable portion remains in a mutilated state. Many
of the legends of these richly "storied windows," have
perished: Mr. GorhamJ has preserved 85: in 1786, Mr.
Forster published a coarse outlined engraving of the
windows, containing the legends of St. Neot, and of
On the north side of the Chancel (where was doubt-
less the Saxon Chapel) is a small recess, from which
projected one end of a stone casket, 18 inches by 14.
Here were preserved some remains of Neot; the found-
ers of St. Neot's Priory in Huntingdonshire, having left
"one arm"|| of the Saint for the Cornish Church, when
• See Gorhahi's History of St. Neot's, pp. 29— 37. London, 1820.
f So determined in Gorham's History of St. Neot's, p. 231. Mr.
Whitakcr (Life of Neot, pp. 191— '203) thinks the date is intended for
1530; and that the body of the Church was built in 1199,— a wild
conjecture, in defiance of architectural evidence!
X See Gorham's History of St. Neot's, pp. 2S3— 245.
II Archives of Line. Catli., in a vol. entitled, " Memoranda Olireri
Sutton," ff. 122 b., 123, a curious testimonial by Ansclni, .Abbot of
Bee, of his examination of the relics of St. Neot, iu 1078.
they stole the greater part of the treasure about 974 !
In October, 1795, this little cemetery was broken open
by some intoxicated workmen, whose curiosity had
been excited by a visit of Mr. Whitaker. The casket
above-mentioned, was found to be a shallow cenotaph :
behind it was a stone, closing the mouth of an aper-
ture rudely formed in the solid wall; in this inner
recess was discovered "about a quart of mould-earth,
very fine in itself, yet adhering in clots, and dark in
colour."* By the side of this cavity is a wooden
tablet ; on which are inscribed some quaint and puerile
verses, supposed to have been written just before the
Reformation: the narrative which they detail, is ex-
Returning from St. Neots to the high road, within four
miles of Bodmin is Glynn House, the residence of E. J.
Glynn, Esq., which has lately been rebuilt on the site
of an elegant mansion, unfortunately destroyed by fire,
about three years ago. This misfortune not only was
a great loss to its worthy owner, but the literary world
has suffered an irreparable one ; for it contained one
of the finest libraries in the county. The family also
narrowly escaped, being all in their beds at the time,
but were luckily apprized of their dangerous situation
by a female domestic. — The present mansion is built at
the bottom of a gentle declivity, in a very pleasing
valley, and is therefore sheltered from the violence of
the north-east winds. It is certainly a low structure,
but contains a number of commodious apartments. The
grounds round the house have been greatly improved,
and now have a very pleasing aspect from the road.
After crossing an antient bridge over one part of the
river Fowey, at Resprin, the antient mansion of Lanhy-
drock, situated at the head of a noble avenue of trees,
nearly a mile in length, has a very striking effect. It
is an embattled sti-ucture of granite, occupying three
♦ Whitaker's Life of Neot, pp. 203—211.
sides of a quadrangle, and the windows are divided by
stone mullions. On the north side is a gallery ll6 feet
long, covered with a profusion of uncouth and ill-executed
plastered figures. There are, however, a few family
portraits, but none remarkable. In front of the house,
is a large irregular building, with a fine circular arch,
once a porter's lodge ; but as the owner of it, the Hon.
Mr. Bagnal Agar, has not resided here for some years,
the whole building is getting much out of repair, though
as interesting a spot, perhaps, as any in the county.
The Church of Lanhydrock, almost adjoining the
house, is a beautiful small edifice, with an embattled
tower, finely mantled with ivy. The whole fabric has
recently undergone a complete repair, and at the same
time the antient character of the building has been
judiciously preserved as much as possible.
The plantations in the grounds near the grand entrance
lodge, are daily improving; and in a few years lime will
tend materially to the beauty of the domain.
About three miles from hence, is Bodmin, a large
town, situated on the high western road, 243 miles from
London, 30 from Plymouth, 21 from Launceston, and
about 12 from the two channels on the north and south
sides of the county. The late learned Mr. Whitaker,
in his History of the Cathedral of Cornwall, has whh
much ability, proved the fallacy of the grounds upon
which it was supposed to have been a bishop's see; an
error into which Dr. Borlase, Browne Willis, and other
eminent antiquaries, had fallen; and has shewn very
satisfactorily, that it was not the monastery at Bodmin,
but another religious house dedicated to St. Petroc,
near the sea-side, at Padstow, that was burnt by the
In early times, however, Bodmin possessed a Priory,
a Convent of Grey Friars, and several other religious
structures, of which there are now but few remains.
The Priory y which stood near the church, has gone
entirely to decay, but a handsome modern house,
called the Priory, erected on its site, is now the resi-
dence of Walter Raleigh Gilbert, Esq. This spot was
first selected for religious retirement as early as the
sixth century, by St. Guron and St. Petroc. It owed
its origin^ to the circumstance of St. Petroc, its founder,
having taken up his abode in a valley, now occupied by
the town of Bodmin, but then the residence of St. Guron,
a solitary recluse, who having resigned his hermitage to
St. Petroc, it was by him enlarged for the residence of
himself and three other devout men, who accompanied
him with the intention of leading a monastic life accord-
ing to the rules of St. Benedict. Here St. Petroc died
before the middle of the sixth century. His shrine was
preserved in a small chapel, attached to the east end of
Bodmin church, as we learn from Leland and William
of Worcester. The hermitage which he had founded,
continued to be inhabited by monks of the Benedictine
Order, till the reign of King Athelstan, who, in 926,
founded, on or near the same spot, a priory of Benedic-
tines : but this convent having been dissolved at an early
period, and its possessions fallen into the hands of secu-
lar canons, Robert, Earl of Moreton and Cornwall seized
them for his own use, and, after the death of his son
William, Earl of Moreton and Cornwall, they became
vested in the crown. Algar, to whom it is probable
they had been granted, with the King's license, and that
of William Warlewast, Bishop of Exeter, re-founded the
monastery, and replenished it with Austin Canons, who
continued till the general dissolution of religious houses,
when its revenues were valued at 270^. Os. lid. clear
annual income. The Pi'ior had, among other privileges,
a market and fair, gallows, pillory, &c. as proved in a
quo warranto, in the reign of King Edward I. The site,
■with the demesnes, was granted to Thomas Slernhold,
one of the first English translators of the Psalms. — Va'
fioys yelics of antiquity have been found at different
times on this consecrated spot; among which were some
columns with ornamented mouldings and a mutilated
effigy of a skeleton, finely executed, which has been
placed against a gateway in the garden belonging to the
The Convent of Grey Friars is said to have been
founded in the year 1239, under the patronage of Ed-
mund, Earl of Cornwall, and principally supported by
the benefactions of Sir Hugh and Thomas Peverell, of
Egloshale, who were buried in the friary church.
In the year 1565, it was conveyed to the Corporation of
Bodmin, to whom it still belongs. Since the early part
of last century, it has been fitted up as an Assize Hall,
150 feet long and 60 in height; but the removal of its
two beautiful Gothic windows is to be lamented. The
two ends are appropriated for the Courts of Assize, and
the intermediate space for the business of the Corn
Market, &c. Above is the Grand Jury Room, and a
large Ball Room, often used during the races in August.
The only remains of the Chapel of Ben/, is a ruinous
tower, standing on a hill north of the town.
Some ruins of 5^. Leonard's and St. Nicholas' Chapels
were standing when Dr. Borlase published his work on
the Antiquities of the County ; but they have long since
been entirely removed.
The Church, which is the largest in the county, and
stands at the north-east end of the town, on rising ground,
was rebuilt in 1472, as appears by the inscription on the
coniice of the south chancel, viz.
An'? dni M? CCCC? LXX.?II doinafcm fecit.
It is a handsome edifice, consisting of a lofty nave and
side aisles, separated by clustered columns and pointed
arches. The capitals of the pillars, which are of very
fine moorstone, are ornamented with roses.
The Tower stands on the north side, and has a vene-
j5j,ble appearance. Over the porch on the south sid^,
there are three handsome niches. The whole building
(particularly the interior) has, within the last seven
years, undergone a thorough repair. It contains a fine
altar-tomb, erected in memory of Prior Vivian, Suffragan
Bishop of Megara, in Greece, who died in the year
1533, and on which is the effigy of the deceased in his
pontifical robes, with a mitre and crozier, his hands
clasped on his breast, and two angels supporting shields,
charged with the Vivian and Priory arms.
The Font is the most interesting piece of antiquity in
the church, and of large dimensions. It is supported
by a pedestal in the middle, and four pillars on the out-
side, with angel's heads for capitals ; and the basin in the
centre is highly ornamented in the Saxon style, with
grotesque animals, foliage, &c. A handsome painted
window, by Lowe, of London, representing the Resur-
rection of our Saviour, will be put up in the course of a
short time. It is the gift of Lord de Dunstanville, who
is the patron of the vicarage.
A very particular account of the expense of rebuild-
ing the church, is preserved among the town records.
The whole cost, exclusive of presents of timber, amount>-
ed only to 194£. 3s. 6|d. The timber for St. John's
aisle cost 20^. 13s. 4d. Sir John Arundell gave seve-
ral timber-trees for the building. The lead for roofing,
came to l6^. 2s. 3|d. The rate of wages at this time
appears to have been, for a laboui'er, four-pence by the
day ; for a mason, hewing stones, five-pence ; for making
the pillars, &c. sixpence; for a plasterer, five-pence
half-penny. The following is a specimen of some of the
charges : — " Forty-nine journeys (days work) for the
windows above the Vyse, 24s. 6d.; fourteen journeys on
the gabell window, 7s." There was formerly a spire on
the tower, said to have been built by Prior Vivian, and
esteemed, as Tonkin tell us, the loftiest and finest in the
West of England. It was destroyed by lightning in
1699.— Jasper Wood, 37 years vicar of Bodmin, who
died in 1716, a man, it may be supposed, of deranged
intellects, fancied himself bewitched, and that he was
delivered from the witches' power by his guardian-angel.
Tonkin says there was a printed account of this man, and
various traditions relating to him are still current in the
The Corporation consists of a Mayor, 11 Aldermen,
24 Common Councilmen, and a Town Clerk. This
town was regularly incorporated by charter of Elizabeth,
which was lost, by lapse, previously to the year 1798,
when a similar charter was granted by his late Majesty.
The right of electing two representatives in Parlia-
ment is vested solely in the 37 members of the Corpo-
Among the antient corporation accounts, are the fol-
lowing curious items, relating to the election of mem-
bers of Parliament, and the payment of their wages, in
the reign of Henry VII.
" 19, 20 Hen. VII, paide to Richard Watts and John
Smyth, burgesses of the Parliament for the towne,
" Paide for the endentes for the burgesses of the par-
" Paide and yeven in malmesey to the under-sheryff,
" Paide for the makyng a payr of endentes and an
" It. Paide and yeven onto Thomas Trote in rewarde,
" It. Paide to Sir Richard Downa, the wich was
promysed by the maier and the worshipfull in a reward
towardes his wagys, 13s. 4d.
The town principally consists of one long street,
running nearly a mile from east to west; the houses in
general, are low, decayed, and irregular; but much
improvement has been made within the last 20 years.
Some centuries ago, Bodmin appears to have been of
much greater extent, and more populous, than at pre-
sent: it was probably largest, and contained the greatest
number of inhabitants, about the fourteenth century. It
is now smaller than either Helston, Liskeard, Megavissey,
and Penryn ; and considerably smaller than St. Austell,
Truro, Redruth, Penzance, or Falmouth; yet in the
reign of Queen Elizabeth, it appears to have still taken
precedence of all the other Cornish towns.
The Grammar School, said to have been founded by
Queen Elizabeth, and endowed with 5£. per annum,
(which the Corporation have increased to 100^. per
annum) was held in an old chapel, in the church-yard,
until the last year, when a new school-room was opened
in a more commodious situation.
The population, according to the late returns, amounts
to 2902, but the whole parish contains 3278, being 802
more than the number returned in 1811.*
The market on Saturday is much frequented, and
well supplied with provisions; but some judicious regu-
lations are necessary, (particularly to remedy the want
of a market house,) which would render it more gene-
rally useful and commodious. There are also three
fairs held here annually, chiefly for cattle.
There was a market at Bodmin when the survey of
Domesday was taken, the profits of which, belonging
to the Prior, were then valued at 35s. per annum:
the tolls were afterwards let at a fee-farm rent to the
burgesses, in whom the market and fairs are now
vested. Leland speaks of the market at Bodmin as
being like a fair for the confluence of people ; and Hals
compares it, in point of supply of all kinds of provisions
* Bodmin has been described by many writers, as a very un-
healthy place; the contrary, however, is the fact: for during the last
ten years, the number of funerals have only been 409, and baptisms
854. — The town suffered much in the years 1576 and 1581, from a
pestilence. It is uow remarkable for the health and longevity of the
&c., to those of Exeter and Tavistock. The fairs, which
are great marts for cattle and horses, are on the feast of
the Conversion of St. Paul, Saturday after Midlent Sun-
day, Saturday before Palm Sunday, Wednesday before
Whitsuntide, and on the feast of St. Nicholas the Bishop
(December 6.) Leather-shoes are made in great quan-
tities at this town, and exposed to sale in standings at the
markets and fairs.
Bodmin is said to have been one of the coinage towns
which had the privilege of stamping tin; butit appears
that it had been lost before the year 1347, when the
burgesses petitioned parliament, complaining, that al-
though by royal charter they were authorised to deal in
all kinds of merchandise, tin as well as other, in the
county of Cornwall, they had of late been hindered by
the Prince and his men from buying or coining tin : they
were unsuccessful in their application, the answer of
Parliament being, that the Prince might order the tin to
be sold where he pleased.
The Summer Assizes for the county have been held
in this town, with few exceptions, since the year I7l6,
and the Michaelmas Quarter Sessions are also held here.
The races usually commence the week following the
assizes, and are held about a mile and a half from the
town, on the left of the road leading to Launceston.
The course is considered one of the finest in England.
The County Gaol was erected in the year 1780, from
the designs of Sir John Cull, on the principles recom-
mended by the great philanthropist, the late John
Howard, Esq. It stands in a healthy situation, on the
side of a hill, to the north of the town.
Within the last three years a very handsome and
commodious Lunatic Asylum has been erected at the
western end of the town, and is fitted up in a very
comfortable manner, for persons afflicted with that
The earliest historical event, of any importance, con-
nected with this place, is, that it became the head-quar-
ters of Thomas Flanmauck and Michael Joseph, the
ringleaders of the rebellion of 1496, both of whom
indeed appear to have been inhabitants of this parish. —
Perkin Warbeck, after his landing in Cornwall, in the
year 1498, assembled at Bodmin a force of 3000 men,
with which he advanced to attack Exeter. — In 1550,
the Cornish rebels, under the command of Humphry
Arundell, encamped at Castle-Hynock, near this town,
and marched thence to the siege of Exeter. After th^
suppression of this rebellion, which soon followed. Sir
Anthony Kingston, the Provost-marshal, came, with the
King's commission, to punish some of the chief offend-
ers; and, it is said, he hanged the mayor at his own door,
after partaking of the hospitalities of his table. — Bodmin
does not appear to have had any garrison during the
Civil War, though it was occasionally occupied by both
parties. General Fairfax finally took possession of it for
the Parliament in l646, a few days before the capitula-
tion with Sir Ralph Hopton, near Truro.
At St. Lawrence, about a mile north-west of Bodmin,
are some remains of the Hospital for Lepers, founded by
Queen Elizabeth, in the year 1582, but which was abo-
lished a few years since owing to certain abuses, and the
lands belonging to it, worth about ^140. per annum,
appropriated to the Infirmary at Truro. The remains
chiefly consist of three fine arches, springing from clus-
tered columns, with ornamented capitals, and some
ruinous walls, now fast mouldering into decay. On one
part of the old buildings, is the following inscription:
Kic'^arlte (itartet of J^apnt Columlie Msxt^mX tig
tis lastc tDsUe ^ Ccstantent in ano Mora. 15S2
Irtlr gebe ten poutiHe for X'^t oUurance of ttoentie
s^tlltngcs. serelse to tie iiaseH unto us tp pocv
ILeyers of \\it ^ospstall & to oure successors for ebet
tottct ten pounire ts X^t consent of ^ts iSiecutor toe
tabe tmyloselr totoarttee tfje maltsng of t^i)S ftotose
in ano. 1586. to^ose cfjarttable & rare example in
oure tstne (ISoD grantete main to folloto Tjcreaftre
The seal of this hospital is a curious relic of antiquity,
containing the figure of St. Lawrence, under a Gothic
canopy, and another figure below it, in the attitude of
prayer, with this inscription: — " S, Set Lawrencie
Bodmons de peupo."
St. Lawrence is merely a hamlet to Bodmin, but
is remarkable as having two very large fairs for cattle
At Lanhwit, the adjoining village, about three miles
from Bodmin, are some remains of an antient Monastery^
called St. Bennet's, which, although greatly defaced
some years ago, by the removal of the cloisters, still
displays a fine tower, richly mantled with ivy. The
other parts have been fitted up at the expense of the
proprietor, the Rev. F. V. L Arundell, as a family re-
sidence. The remains are seated in a narrow valley,
almost surrounded by wood, with a rapid stream in the
front, which adds greatly to the beauty of this roman-
Tremere, an ancient seat of the Courtenays, in this
parish, is now a farm-house.
A ride from hence to the Roach Rocks, will be highly
gratifying to the curious traveller, or an admirer of
natural curiosities. They consist of three immense
piles of craggy ponderous stones, rising to a considerable
height, and at a distance resembling an antient castle.
On the summit of the pile, in the centre, stand the re-
mains of a small building, which formerly contained
two apartments, and is supposed to have been erected
for religious purposes.
These rocks, says Dr. Maton, " consist of a white
sparry quartz, mixed with schoerl, which appears in
innumerable needle-like crystals. Two or three vari-
eties of this substance are observable; in one the
schoerl being more sparingly interspersed, and in
another more abundantly." A pile of rocks starting
abruptly out of a wide green surface, and covering
some space with enormous fragments, on which there
are only a few vestiges of incipient vegetation, form a
singular scene, exhibiting a kind of wild sublimity,
peculiar to itself. The accompanying view was taken
from the south side, and the chapel on the summit is
a very beautiful and picturesque feature in the picture.
MINES IN CORNWALL,
mcnv&ion to m §,cin^ UUntf^.
? .f f -'•■■.■
THE MINES, &c.
In a former part of this work, we gave a list of the
principal Tin and Copper Mines in this county ; but
as we apprehended the limits of it would not allow a
particular description of them, we have since, at the
suggestion of some of our subscribers, curtailed the
historical and topographical notices, with the view to
enable us to present our readers with some little
particulars as to the situation and nature of the most
valuable mines now working. In passing through the
county according to the plan of our several Excur-
sions, there are not any mines deserving of pai'ticular
attention, until the traveller arrives at St. Austell; here
it is necessary that he should make some stay, as the
vicinity of the town possesses many attractions, and
the numerous works now in progress will amply gratify
The most considerable Tin Mine in the county is
Polgoothy which is situated about two miles south-west
of St. Austell ; and even in Borlase's time, is said to
have yielded to its proprietors a profit of ^20,000
annually for some years. Owing, however, to some
unfortunate disputes, the operations have been sus-
pended for nearly 20 years, but have lately been
resumed with increased vigour. From the extensive
nature of the works earned on in this mine, the whole
surface of the country in its vicinity, has been completely
disfigured, and presents a very gloomy aspect. The
quantity of ore which has been raised from this mine,
during the progress of its workings, is far beyond
calculation: the immense piles of earth, which have been
excavated and thrown up, have quite a mountainous
appearance: roads have been formed in several direc-
tions leading to the places or shafts, where the miners
are at work; and the dreariness of the scene is only
enlivened by the humble cottages, which have been
erected for their residence. The number of shafts which
have been sunk in this mine, amount to near 30, and
the greater part of.them are mostly working; but since
the introduction of steam engines, the operations have
been considerably increased, as the water is now raised
to the level of the adits, and which before had in some
cases overflowed certain parts of the mine.
The introduction of steam engines for drawing off
the water from the mines in Cornwall, is one of the
most valuable discoveries imaginable; and the greatest
advantages have attended these powerful machines,
while on the other hand few accidents have been occa-
sioned by their adoption.*
• Owinof unfortunately to the burstings of the boilers of some of
the engines at this mine, very lately, two men lost their lives; but
most fortunately many others had previously quitted their work, or
otherwise they would have experienced the same melancholy fate.
In Dr. Maton's Observations on the Western Counties,
is the following description of a Steam Engine; but since
that time, their powers of acting have been considerably
augmented ; and on some occasions they are now made
on a very large scale, with cylinders even 90 inches in
" The Steam Engine is one of the most curious, and
perhaps most useful machines that owe their origin to
the discoveries of philosophy; without it many of the
mines in Cornwall must long ago have ceased to have
been worked ; and among other purposes to which it has
elsewhere been most advantageously applied, should be
mentioned, the supplying of towns with water, the
grinding of corn, the turning of the wheels of machines
in woollen manufactories, and the blowing of bellows
to fuse ores and metals; we have to boast of this grand
machine, being invented, as well as perfected, in our own
country ; Captain Savery is said to have first discovered
the method of raising water by the pressure of air, in
consequence of the condensation of steam ; or at least he
was the first person that put any method of this sort into
practice: he obtained a patent, in the year l698» ^^"^ ^
machine contrived in the following manner; the air was
expelled from a vessel by steam, and the steam condensed
by the admission of cold water, which causing a vacuum,
the pressure of the atmosphere forced the water to ascend
into the steam vessel through a pipe 24 or 26 feet
high: by dense steam brought from the boiler, the
water in the steam vessel was elevated to the requisite
height. This construction, however, did not answer,
because very strong vessels • were wanted to resist
the expansive violence of the steam; an enormous
quantity of which was, besides, condensed by coming
in contact with the cold water in the steam vessel. The
danger of bursting the vessels was avoided soon after-
wards by the invention of Messrs. Newcoraen and
Cawley, of Dartmouth. These gentlemen employed
for the steam vessel a hollow cylinder, shut at the bottom
and open at the top, and furnished with a piston sliding
easily up and down in it, but made tight by oakum or
hemp, and covered with water: the piston was sus-
pended by chains from one end of a beam moveable on
an axis in the middle of its length ; to the other end of
this beam hung the pump rods. Some imperfections still
remained ; but the most important were at length wholly
removed by the discoveries of Mr. Watt, and the con-
struction made use of by that gentleman and Mr. Bolton,
of Soho, near Birmingham ; who obtained a patent for
25 years, in addition to the term granted to Mr. Watt
alone, in the year 176S. One of these machines will
work a pump of 18 inches in diameter, and upwards
of 100 fathoms in height, at the rate of 10 or 12 strokes,
of seven feet long each^ in one minute. It will raise to
the height of 80 feet, in that same space of time, a
weight equal to 18,000 pounds; the combined action of
200 horses could not effect more. In Newcomen's
engine this would have required a cylinder 10 feet in
diameter; but as, in the new engine, the steam acts, and
a vacuum is made, alternately above and below the
piston, the power exerted is double to what the same
cylinder would otherwise produce ; and is farther aug-
mented by an inequality in the length of the two ends
of the lever. It must be considered too, that one-third
part only of the coals which the old engine would
have required, is used for the same portion of work.**
The expense of erecting the first steam engine in the
Polgooth Mine, amounted to nearly ^20,000; and the
quantity of coals consumed by it, in the short space of
24 hours, is stated to amount to 144 bushels.
According to Borlase, the main vein of ore in this
mine, was about six feet thick, running from east to
west, and dipping to the north, at the rate of about six
feet in a fathom ; towards the east it divides into two
branches, and there is another that cuts the former
nearly at a right angle, and consequently runs north
and south, but dipping to the east. The ore is dissemi-
nated in general through a matrix of Caple* accom-
panied with a yellow cupreous pyrites, and sometimes a
ferrugineous ochre; it is of the vitreous kind, but rarely
found in crystals, the colour for the most part being of
a greyish brown.
Crennis Copper Mine, which is situated about two
miles east of St. Austell, is highly deserving of notice:
here also steam engines have been introduced with the
most beneficial effects; but although the ore found in
this mine is extremely rich, it was not discovered till
within the last few years, but is stated in some in-
stances to have yielded a clear profit to its proprietors
of ^84,000 in one year.
The several Tin Stream Works also in the neighbour-
* One of the vag'ue terms soinetiines given to the crust or coating^
of the ore, sometimes to an argillaceous substance, and sometimes
to a quartz ore one. The miners have pretty generally determined,
however, that caple must be black ; and at Polgooth they mean a
heavy kind of quartz, which is perfectly opake, and contains a large
portion of argill.
hood of St. Austell, are particularly deserving of notice}
the one on the left of the road near Pentuan, has proved
a considerable benefit to the adventurers concerned in
it. In Luxilian parish, through which the road leading
from St. Austell to Bodmin has been formed, there are
several works of a similar nature; but owing to the
number of excavations which have been made for the
discovery of ore, it is desirable that strangers should
avoid travelling in this direction after dusk. The cele-
brated JFood Tin, as it is called, is mostly found in the
Stream Works, and which although extremely valuable,
appears far from prepossessing^ in the minds of those
persons who are unacquainted with mineralogy.
Small particles of gold are frequently found in the
Stream Works, but they are mostly incorporated with
tin crystals in streaks. -
The celebrated Clay Works in the parish of St.
Stephen's are also well deserving of attention; as they
are now conducted upon a very extensive scale. In a
commercial point of vjew, the discovery of this clay,
or china stone, has been attended with the great-
est advantages, besides being the means of affording
employment to many men, women, and children. The
value of this clay, or china stone, as it is generally called,
was accidentally discovered about 60 years ago ; since
which time, immense quantities have been exported for
the porcelain manufactories in Staffordshire and Wales.
It is a decomposed granite, the felspar of which has
lost its properties of fusibility ; but, in the manufacture
of china and earthenware, it is of the greatest value. In
the manufacture of crucibles at Truro, it has been
found of much value. Notwithstanding, however, the
great success which has attended the progress of the china
stone works, it is to be lamented, the wages allowed to
the several persons employed in them, are so trifling.
Little occurs to interest the traveller in regard to mines
after leaving St. Austell, until his arrival at Truro.
The Carnon Stream Works, on the left of the road
leading to Falmouth, are the most considerable in the
county, and merit particular observation. It is now
nearly 40 years since they were fitst discovered ; and
the quantity of tin which they have yielded, has proved
a golden harvest to the proprietors of them. The works
occupy a considerable extent of ground, and appear to
have been gained from the sea; the mud and other
matter washed down by the stream, having raised a
sort of embankment, which, by its continual extension,
and some assistance from art, has gradually contracted
the boundaries of the tide.* The bed of pebbles from
which the tin is extracted, is about 30 feet below the
the surface of the ground, and from four to six feet
thick. As a proof that these works must have been known
in very early times, a wooden shovel, and picks made
of deers' horns, together with some human bones and
skulls, have been found at different periods. Great
improvements have been lately made in the works for
drawing off the water, and which has also, from the
lowness of their situation, been attended with con-
siderable benefit to several other mines in the neigh-
When at Helston, the traveller will derive much
gratification from visiting the celebrated Tin Mine,
called Huel Vor, which is situated about three miles
* Vide Beauties of Eng^land and Wales for Cornwall, page 438.
west of that town. This mine is allowed to be one
of the most valuable in the county ; and its proprietors
are said to have gained a clear profit of upwards of
^10,000, in the short space of three months, notwith-
standing the monthly charges amount to ^5,000. Here
are no less than five large steam engines for drawing off
the water, besides several others of less magnitude for
raising the ore, &c. There are also four large stamping
mills worked by steam. The operations of this mine
extend more than a mile and a quarter below the surface
of the earth, and about 1300 persons are employed
in conducting the different works. The ore is smelted
and roasted on the spot; and when properly cleansed,
is ladled from the furnaces into moulds of 370lbs.
each. The principal lode in this mine is said to be of
the enormous width of 30 feet, and extremely rich
The expenses incident to carrying on the working of thi&
mine are very great; especially in the consumption
of candles and gunpowder, which far exceeds any esti-
mate a stranger to mining concerns could form. In this
mine, no less than 3,000lbs. of candles, and about
3,500lbs. of gunpowder are consumed every month.
The Botallack Tin and Copper Mine, in the parish of
St. Just, near the Land's End, is one of the most sur-
prising undertakings in the county, as the operations of
the miners extend for nearly 70 fathoms under the bed
of the sea; and the entrance to the works is at least
200 feet below the cliffs.
And dizzy 'tis to cast one's eyes so low,
The crows and choug^hs that wing the midway air
Show scarce so gross as beetles :
-V\\ look no more,
Lest my brain turn, and the deficient sight
Topple down headlong."
As a late writer* justly observes, that on descending
to the surface of the mine, " You will then behold a
combination of the powers of art with the wild sublimity
of nature, which is quite unparalleled; the effects of
the whole being not a little heightened by the hollow
roar of the raging billows which are perpetually lashing
the cliff beneath. In looking up you will observe
troops of mules laden with sacks of coals, for the
supply of the engine, with their undaunted riders,
fearlessly trotting down the winding path which you
trembled at descending even on foot. As you approach
the engine, the cliff becomes almost perpendicular;
and the ore raised from the mine is therefore drawn
up over an inclined plane, by means of a horse engine
placed on the extreme verge of the overhanging rocks
above, and which seems to the spectator below, as if
suspended in " Mid Air."
The ore of this mine is the grey and yelbw sulphuret
of copper, mixed with oxide of tin. Here a great
variety of interesting minerals have been collected,
among which are several varieties oi jasper; arborescent
native copper; jaspery iron ore; arseniate of iron; sul-
phuret of bismuth, imhedded in jasper ; beautiful «pec«/ar
iron ore; lamatitic iron, and the hydrous oxide of iron, in
prisms .terminated by pyramids.
The neighbourhood of Redruth is, as before stated
in a preceding part of this work, the very centre of
the mining district ; and there are more mines in the
• The author of the Guide to Mount's Bay, recently published.
vicinity of that town than in any other part of the
County. We therefore recommend travellers, especially
those who are interested in mining transactions, to make
some stay at Redruth, and we can venture to say that
they will derive much gratification in consequence.
About two miles west of that town is the noted Copper
Mine of Dolcoath, which from its situation on the brow
of a hill, enables the visitor to see at one view, all the
principal machinery by which its working is conducted.
As the same writer justly observes; " it is quite im-
possible to convey an idea of this singular and in-
teresting scene; steam engines, water wheels, horse
■whims, and stamping mills are all in motion ; while in
the glen beneath, many hundred labourers are to be seen
busily engaged in the different operations of separating,
dressing, and cleansing the ore. In the whole circle of
human inventions, there is nothing which so fully
manifests the resources of intellect, for the production
of immense effects, as the stupendous art of mining, and
it is impossible that the workings of Dolcoath Mine,
can be viewed without exciting the strongest sensation
of wonder and exultation." The works of this mine
extend upwards of a mile in length, from east to west,
and in depth, 1050 feet below the level of the sea;
being much deeper than any other mine in the
Cook's Kitchen in Illogan, another rich copper mine,
is also situated on the summit of the same hill, and from
the extent of its operations presents a grand scene, the
picturesque effect of which is materially heightened by
the solemnity of Carnbre' Hill, and the numerous pon-
derous masses of rock which lie scattered about its base
In the Chacewater Mine, which is situated three miles
• south of Redruth, is one of the largest steam engines
now in use; and when erected in the year 1813, was
then the most powerful engine ever made. As a proof
of its immense power, if it were applied as a mill, it
could grind a bushel of wheat in a minute; and notwith-
standing its velocity, and the complex nature of its seve-
ral parts, the engineer in charge of it, can in one instant
put a stop to its motion, by the mere act of turning a
screw. This engine is made upon the improved system,
by Bolton and Watt, and finished with much elegance.
The cylinder is 66 inches in diameter ; the depth of the
engine shaft is 128 fathoms; from the adit to the bot-
tom, 90 fathoms. It makes eight strokes in a minute,
and at every stroke raises 108 gallons of water to the
adit, and at the same time also, 60 gallons 10 fathoms
high, for the purpose of condensing the steam. The
quantity of coals which it consumes in 24 hours, is
estimated at about eight chaldrons.
About two miles from hence, in a southerly direction,
are' the Consolidated Mines, which have only lately been
re-established.* Here are two very powerful steam
engines, with cylinders 90 inches in diameter. The
expenses attending the resumption of the workings of
these mines, are said to have amounted to the enormous
* " As some men were lately sinking an air hole to the bottom
level of the Consolidated Mines, when at the depth of 160 fathoms
from the surface, they struck into a cavern ; the rush of foul air
from which, compelled them to call out to their companion stationed
above, to raise them by the tackle kept in readiness for that purpose.
This vast subterranean vault is situated in one of the principal lodes
of the mine ; it is about nine feet high, and six feet wide; the west-
sum of nearly £70,000; but owing to the immense
quantity of copper ore which has been raised, and other
advantageous circumstances, the shares are now selling
in London at more than £100 per cent. The monthly
charges for workmen, &c. amounts to no less a sum
than £7000. These mines are now under the manage-
ment of Mr. Taylor and a London Company.
Huel Unity and the Poldice Mines are also situated
in this neighbourhood; the former produces copper,
and the latter tin and copper. Both have been very
profitable to their adventurers, and are said to have
yielded them a profit of from 12 to £l6,000 annually.
The Poldice Mine is one of the oldest in the county,
and yields a yellowish copper ore, a rosin tin, and a few
stones of galena. In both of these, steam engines have
been long erected, but they are not on so extensive a
scale as those used in some of the mines above noticed.
In these mines, some of the most beautiful specimens
of arseniate of copper and lead have been discovered.
A whitish grey copper, crystallized, in triangular and
quadrangular pyramids, has also been found here.
Huel Alfred Copper Mine, which, some years ago,
was the richest and most profitable mine in Cornwall,
is situated about a mile and a half south-east of Hayle.
In former times the adventurers in this mine are said to
have gained £130,000; but owing to some misunder-
standing, the operations have been discontinued since
cm end from the place of entry, has been explored, and is found to
be about 40 fathoms in length ; the foul air in the eastern end, has
hitherto prevented the miners from fully exploring it ; the appear-
ance of the sides and roof is very craggy, and shews that the carity
has been occasioned by a courulsioa of nature.
the year I8I6, until within the last six months. It is
in contemplation to erect two steam engines in this
mine, with cylinders of the largest dimensions; when
no doubt, from the favourable appearance of the lodes,
the proprietors will be amply repaid the expenses
incident to such an undertaking. To the Mineralogist
this mine is highly interesting, as several very rare and
curious minerals have been discovered ; viz. stalactitic
swimming, and cubic guartz, carbonate and phosphate of
lead, stalactitic, cotryoidal, and investing calcedony, Sj^c.
If a stranger should be desirous of descending into a
mine, he cannot select a better opportunity than here
presents itself, owing to the extensive scales of the lodes.
On these occasions, it is always customary to put on a
suitable dress; viz. a flannel jacket and trowsers, a close
cap, an old broad brimmed hat, and a thick pair of
shoes; thus accoutred, a lighted candle is put into his
hand, and another suspended to a button of his jacket.
A few years ago the Duke of R d gratified his
curiosity in this respect, and many others have followed
his example; but as a satisfaction toour readers, we
insert Dr. Forbes's observations on the subject. " A
person unacquainted with the details of mining, on
being informed of many hundreds of men being employed
in a single mine, might naturally imagine that a visit
to their deep recesses, would afford a picturesque and
imposing spectacle of gregarious labour and bustle ;
tremendous noise, and much artificial brilliancy to cheer
the gloom: nothing, however, is further from the truth,
as far as regards the mines of Cornwall ; for, like their
fellow labourers, the moles, the miners are solitary in
their operations. Seldom do we find more than three
or four men in one level or gallery, at a time, where they
are seen pursuing the common operations of digging, or
boring the rock, by the feeble glimmering of a small
candle, stuck close by them, with very little noise or
more latitude for bodily movement ; besides whom, there
are generally one or two boys employed in wheeling the
broken ore, &c. to the shaft. Each of these boys has
also a candle affixed to his wheelbarrow by the univer-
sal subterranean candlestick, a piece of clay. A certain
band of men, who, however numerous, are always
called " a pair" generally undertake the working of
a particular level. These subdivide themselves into
smaller bodies, which by relieving each other at the
end of every six or eight hours, keep up the work,
uninterruptedly, except on Sunday. By means of this
subdivision of the pairs, there is in general not more
than one third of the under-ground labourers below at
any one time. Very seldom are the miners within the
sound of each other's operations, except occasionally
they hear the dull report of the explosions. In the
vicinity of the main shaft, indeed, the incessant action
of the huge chain of pumps, produces a constant, but
not very loud noise; while the occasional rattling of the
metallic buckets against the walls of the shaft, as they
ascend and descend, relieves the monotony both of the
silence and the sound; still every thing is dreary, dull,
and cheerless; and you can be with difficulty persuaded,
even when in the richest and most populous mines, that
you are in the centre of such extensive and important
The Herland Mines are situated about a mile east of
Huel Alfred, and are chiefly remarkable for the beau-
tiful specimens of native silver, vitreous silver ore, and
black oxide of silver, which they have produced, and
which has been noticed in a former part of this work.
After an interval of nearly 20 years, the workings of
these mines have lately been resumed, under the
management of a London Company; who have had
two steam engines erected, with cylinders 80 inches in
diameter. The copper ore found in the Herland Mines
is extremfily rich; but although the lodes are more
numerous than in Huel Alfred, they are not so large.
All mines are placed under the superintendance of a
foreman, called the Captain, who keeps the accounts, and
pays, and regulates the workmen; they are in general
men of respectability, and get liberally paid. The
designation of Captain, however, is very absurd ; for in
many instances, even strangers are frequently accosted
as such by the Cornish people. There are also inferior
superintendants, who are employed to superintend the
internal operations of the miners.
The miners, in general, are a civil, honest, and active
class of beings, and since the extension of the Wesleyan
system, have become very religious. The hardships
many of them endure is beyond belief, particularly-
such as have large families ; and who, in most cases,
live in little huts in the immediate vicinity of the mines.
Their mode of living is very hard, as they seldom taste
animal food ; indeed, the reduced scale of their wages is
such as scarcely to allow bread, and that in many
instances composed of ground barley only. In some
cases, many of the miners work like slaves, and are
obliged to wheel barrows a considerable distance, filled
with ore to the extent of four cwt.j while on the
Other hand, those who are employed under ground,
Lave a wretched emaciated appearance, and mostly die
at an early age, in pulmonary consumptions.
The Iron Foundries at Hayle are well deserving of
notice, and here some of the largest engines used in the
iflines were cast. The Water Dam which was constructed
about 30 years ago, (near the house where the copper
was formerly smelted,) for scouring out the sand from
the harbour, has been attended with the moS4 beneficial
effects. It is now in contemplation to have a causeway
built across the Hayle, the estimate for which amounts
to about cg5,000; and which, if accomplished, will
be highly beneficial.
The singular and desolate appearance of the whole
■ surface of the country in this neighbourhood, which,
with few exceptions, extends even as far as Padstow,
excites the attention of every stranger. The immense
banks of sand which have been thrown up on the coast,
have been a great injury; and in some instances, many
dwellings have even been buried by the shifting of the
sands; here human bones have also been frequently
discovered, supposed to have belonged to cemeteries
which have been inundated during violent hurricanes.
Many of the above particulars were obligingly com-
municated by Sir Christopher Hawkins, Bart., M. P.,
and Recorder for St. Ives; and who also has a seat,
called Trewinnard, in this part of the county.
Tredea, which is near to Trewinnard, is the property
of Davies Gilbert, Esq., M. P. for Bodmin, and Presi-
dent of the Royal Geological Society at Penzance.
With the view to enable mineralogists to prosecute
their endeavours, it is necessary on their proceeding
into Cornwall, that they should visit the most interesting
collections in the county. Of these may be ranked the
valuable collection belonging to William Rashleigh,
Esq., at Menabilly, near Fowey, which has been noticed
in a former part of this work. In this splendid collec-
tion are some very magnificent oxide of tin, Jluors^
melachite, and some very rare varieties of sulplturet of
copper; wood tin forming a vein in a matrix of quartz,
to one side of which adheres a fragment of rock. An
account is given in the first volume of the trans-
actions of the Penzance Geological Society. Here are
also some fine specimens of yellow copper ore, with
opal; triple sulphuret of antimony; copper and lead in va-
rious forms; ruby copper in cubes; quartz with water in
globules; ^ojuajes of beautiful lustre ; axi^ green Jluor, in
crystals with 24 sides. Many of the specimens above
enumerated are of considerable value and scarcity,
besides which there are also many others highly in-
teresting. They are contained in a spacious apartment,
which has been fitted up in the most elegant manner,
with glass cases to prevent them from being injured.
Mr. Rashleigh takes great pleasure in allowing strangers
to visit his collection, and is entitled to every mark of
commendation for his politeness on such occasions.
In the collection of Joseph Carne, Esq. at Penzance,
may be seen prehnite in a variety of forms, axinite in
its usual form, stilbite in flat four-sided prisms termi-
nated by pyramids, mesotype radiated, garnets in 12
and 24 sided, crystals, pirite in six and 12 sided prisms,
nranite in quadrangular tables with the angles in some
cases truncated, and also in forms much resembling
cubes and octohedrons, uranochre, native bismuth, and
specular iron ore, very simular to that found at Elba;
grey sulphuret of copper, the best defined crystals of
which are very obtuse dodecahedrons, and six-sided
prisms; in some specimens the dodecahedrons are so
placed upon the summit of the prisms, as to resemble af
nail: this is one of the most rare specimens ever
found in Cornwall, and is much sought after by minera-
logists. Here are also two very rare and curious
specimens of yellow and grey sulphuret of copper, in
forms resembling a cube, the latter being pseudomor-
The Royal Geological Society at Penzance possessed
many valuable and rare specimens ; among the earthy
species may be enumerated, calcedony, sodalite, Jiaiiyne^
petalite, colophonite, vesuvian, Sfc. In the metallic
branch, is carbonate of lead, specular iron, arseniate of
iron, the oxide, carbonate, arseniate and phosphate of
copper, native gold, found in the Cornish Tin Stream
Works; arsenical pyrites, uranite, uran ochre, native
nichel, &c. besides a mineral but little known, viz. sub-
carburet of iron, and which was analyzed by the late
Rev. W. Gregor.
The cabinet of John Williams, Esq. at Scorrier House,
near Redruth, is unrivalled in its specimens of red
oxide of copper in octohedrons, cubes, and capillary
crystals ; there are also some fine specimens of arseniate
of copper in very perfect obtuse octohedrons; a mass
of uranite, which for size and beauty surpasses any that
has ever been found: blende in octohedrons and cubes,
native and ruby silver, besides a very rare and highly
valuable specimen of the muriate of horn silver and
arseniate of lead in six-sided prisms.
Such strangers as are desirous of forming a collection
of the several minerals which have been found in this
county, cannot adopt a better plan than applying to the
different dealers; they are, however, sometimes to be
had of the miners. The most respectable dealers in
minerals are, at St. Austell, Mr. Hennah, Bookseller ;
at Truro, Tregoning and Mudge; at Falmouth, Mr.
Trathan; at Penzance, Mr. Jacobs; at Redruth, Mr.
Bennett; at Gwenap, Mr. Michell; at St. Agnes, Mr.
Argall ; and the landlord of the Tamar Inn, Calstock ;
who was once a superintendant of some of the mines
near St. Austell.
EXCURSION TO THE SCILLY ISLANDS.
Such travellers as may be desirous of making an
excursion to these islands, will not only be much gra-
tified by the voyage, but their health will be materially
benefited by the congenial breezes of the ocean, and the
mild temperature of the atmosphere, which is so pecu-
liar to this part of the coast. The beauty also of the
several marine prospects which such an excursion pre-
sents to notice, cannot fail to excite the most lively
emotions : yet who can enjoy it, without reflecting on the
many dreadful shipwrecks which have occurred off the
Scilly Islands; especially the melancholy fate of Sir
Cloudesly Shovel and his brave companions. Owing,
however, to the erection of light-houses, and other
salutary measures, such disasters have not been so fre-
quent as formerly. The difficulty of navigating -the
passage round the Land's End, is nevertheless very
great, and, in many instances, attended with much
The contiguity of these islands to the county of
Cornwall, renders it necessary that some little notice of
them should be given in the present work. From the
Land's End they are distant ab6ut nine leagues, and on
a clear day are distinctly visible; but from Penzance,
from whence the packet sails every Friday, the distance is
fourteen leagues. With a fair wind the voyage is gene-
rally accomplished in six hours ; but on some occasions
has lasted two days.
According to the most eminent historians, these islands
Avere originally denominated the Cassiterides, or Tin
Isles, and their number not to have exceeded ten; but
their original appearance has been greatly altered,
either by the violence of the sea, or some other convul-
sive effort of nature* At present their number amounts
to one hxmdred and forty, although the following only
appear to be inhabited; viz. St. Mary's, St. Agnes, St.
Martin's, Trescow, Bryher, and Sampson. The population
of the whole of them, (more than half of which reside
in St. Mary's,) does not exceed 2000.
St. Mary's is the largest and most cultivated, pos-
sessing three towns, a pier, a garrison, custom-house,
&c. The length of this island is about two miles and a
half; and its circumference is about 10 miles. The
prospects from some of the hills are extremely fine; and
from their rocky character and other local circum-
stances, present a very singular and interesting appear-
ance. " The principal settlement is Heugh Town, so
called from the neighbouring peninsula, on which,
during the pilchard fishery, a man is stationed to watch
the coming of the fish, and give notice of their ap-
proach by heughing to the boats below. On the summit
of the peninsula is a small fort, erected in 1793> by
Sir Francis Godolphin, and called Star Castle, from
having eight points projecting like the rays of a star. In
the centre is the governor's house, having a foss between
it and the outer rampart; where, at the salient angles,
are four small apartments, designed for as many cap-
tains of the garrison. The lines are at some distance
below the fort, nearly two miles in extent, and flanked
by several strong batteries. Below them are the re-
mains of an antient fort, that seems to have had a circular
keep, like the castles of Trematon, Launceston, and
Restormel. Nearer the water's edge, on the western
side of the peninsula, is the Heugh Town, which skirts
the border of a sandy bay, with a good anchorage, and
sufficiently spacious to contain 100 sail of shipping.
The houses are chiefly low buildings, but were much
improved under the late Earl of Godolphin, at whose
expense the pier was erected about the year 1750. The
other towns, which are called Old Town and Church
Town, consist only of a few houses, and present little
to excite curiosity."*
At Porthelk Cove, on this island, the body of Sir
Cloudesly Shovel was washed on shore, and not being
recognized, was buried in the sands, but afterwards
removed to Westminster Abbey, where there is a hand-
some monument to his memory. It is to be regretted,
that although it was executed many years ago, when
the art of sculpture had not arrived at much perfection,
it has been so much defaced by idle and mischievous
persons. When the fatal accident occurred. Sir
Cloudesly was returning with his squadron from Toulon;
and in a thick fog on the night of the 22nd October, 1707>
his ship (the Association) struck on the Gilstone Rock,
and sunk instantly, when every soul on board perished:
the Eagle, Captain Hancock, experienced a similar
fate, and the Romney and Fire-Brand were also lost,
but their captains and 25 men were fortunately rescued
from a watery 'grave.
* Beauties of England and Wales for Corawall, page 485.
The civil government of the Scilly Islands is chiefly
managed by 12 of the most respectable inhabitants,
who hold their meetings every month at Heugh Town,
where they mostly settle difl'erences or disputes by
compromise : all criminal causes are referred to the
St. Agnes contains upwards of 300 inhabitants, and
is situated about a mile to the south-west of St. Mary's.
It is extremely pleasant, fertile, and well cultivated, but
is chiefly remarkable for its beautiful light-house.
This highly useful structure was completed about the
year l680, under the superintendance of Mr. Adam
Walker, the celebrated lecturer on natural and experi-
mental philosophy; it is upwards of 60 feet high, and
is built on a very elevated spot. The light is produced
by several parabolic reflectors of copper, plated with
silver, and each having an Argand's lamp in its focus,
supplied with oil from behind. The frame in which the
reflectors are disposed, stands perpendicularly to the
horizon, on a shaft united to a machine below, that
turns the whole round every two minutes; by this
motion the light progressively sweeps the whole horizon,
and by its gradual intermission and increase, is readily
distinguished from any other; its brilliancy is also
extraordinary ; and by these combined effects, its bene-
fits are greatly increased, as the seaman is at once
rendered completely sensible of his situation.* The
charges attending the erection of this light-house, were
defrayed by the Trinity House; but all vessels passing
it pay the same rates as those received by the one on
the Long Ships at the Land's End, except coasting ves-
* Beauties of England and Wales for Cornwall, p. 487.
sels, which pay only a shilling each. There is a small
church on this island, the service of which is performed
by a minister, appointed and paid by the/Society for
Promotins; Christian Knowledge.
St. Martin's, which is situated about three miles
eastward of St. Mary's, appears from the remains of
the numerous enclosures which intersect it in various
places, to have been formerly well cultivated, and it
would in all probability have been entirely deserted,
had not Mr. Thomas Ekines, a respectable merchant
of these islands, encouraged some people to settle here
about a century ago. This gentleman likewise caused
a tower and spire to be erected on it, as a land mark to
seamen passing this part of the channel. The inhabi-
tants chiefly consist of between 30 and 40 families,
who are mostly related to each other, and much at-
tached to the place. They have also a church, the
service of which is performed by the minister ap-
pointed by the same Society, who also officiates at
Trescow and Bryher. Borlase has noticed a druidical
circle on this island; and from the several barrows
which are also to be seen, concludes that not only this,
but most of the other islands were in former ages
very populous, and the lands much cultivated. The
barrows, " says that learned writer, were all constructed
in one manner; the outer ring is composed of larg^
stones pitched on end, and the heap within consists of
smaller stones, clay, and earth, mixed together: they
have generally a cavity of stone work in the middle,
covered with flat stones; but the barrows are of various
dimensions; and the cavities, which, being low, and
covered with rubble, arc scarcely apparent in some.
consist of such large materials in others, that they
make the principal figure in the whole monument."
Although he had several of them opened, nothing of any
consequence was discovered.
Trescow, which is situated two miles south-west of
St. Mary's, is only about half the size of that island ;
although Leland describes" it as the largest of the whole
cluster. It is, however, chiefly remarkable for having
once possessed a monastery, some small remains of
which are to be seen in a very beautiful situation, near
the borders of a lake, separated from the sea by an
ever-green bank. There • are also the ruins of several
other buildings; but those belonging to the Old Castle,
which are situated on an eminence overlooking the
harbour are most extensive. " Some other fortifications
are called Oliver's Castle, Battery, &c., in honor of
Cromwell; though that called Oliver^s Castle seems to
have been originally fortified many years prior to the
civil wars; about the conclusion of which, these islands
were seized for the king, by Sir John Grenville, who
afterwards capitulated to Blake and Sir George Ascough.
This event was chiefly effected through the judicious
disposition of the Parliament's forces on this island, and
on Bryher; which prevented supplies being carried to
St. Mary's, where the King's forces were concentrated."*
The number of inhabitants at Dolphin Town amounts
to about fifty families, who live in about twenty small
houses. Here is also a Church and some Tin Mines;
the latter, although of little value, are said to be the
only mines now to be seen on any of the islands. This
circumstance is the more singular, as the Scilly Islands
Vide Beauties fur Cornwall, page 488.
have long been noted for their numerous mines, and
extensive trade with the Phenecians, &c. Much ha»
been said by Borlase and other celebrated writers
respecting the great change which the island* have
undergone; not only in regard to antiquities, trade,
extensive population, &c.; but that it must be evident
to those who are acquainted with the situation, all the
changes have arisen from the continual encroachments
made by the sea, and violent tempests. The many
shipwrecks which have also occufred, have in a great
measure prevented many persons from entering into trade
with them. It is the opinion also of a very eminent
writer; that the islands are undoubtedly undergoing a
gradual diminution; and that at no great distance of
time, St. Mary's will probably be divided by the sea,
and a channel formed through the low land, betwceu
the new town and the south-east side of the garrison.
Brither or Br^har, so called from its extreme
mountainous position, is situated to the west of Trescow,
and contains little to interest the tourist, except several
barrows; the largest of which, situated on high ground,
is 77 feet in diameter. Borlase says, " within this
barrow are many kistraens, as the Britons call stone
cells; and many of the flat stones which covered them, ■
lie here and there ; some keeping their first station, and
some being removed to make stands for shooting rabbits,
with which this part of the hill abounds." The number
of families now resident in Breharj do not exceed 20.
At low water, the sands between this island and that of
Trescow, may be crossed by foot passengers.
Sampson Island ischiefly composed of two circular
hills, connected by a low rocky precipice. The in-
habitants are but trifling compared to the other islands,
but it is noted by Borlase for containing several stone
barrows, some rock basins, a kistraen, &c.
After the conquest of the Scilly Islands by King
Athelstan, they were bestowed on several monks, and
continued in their possession till the reign of Henry I.,
who granted " to Osbert, one of the Abbots of Tavistock,"
all the churches of Scillj/, with their appurtenances, and
the land, as the monks or hermits held it in the time
of Edward the Confessor, and Burgald, Bishop of
Cornwall. •' Prior to the reign of Edward I., they
appear to have reverted to the crown, being then held
by Ranulph de Blackminster, who paid annually, at
Michaelmas, a rental of 300 puffins, or six shillings and
eight pence." In the reign of James I., they were leased
to Sir Francis Godolphin, and are now held by the
Duke of Leeds, on a lease for 3 1 years, granted in the
year 1800, at an annual rent of ^40, with the option
of a renewal on paying a fine of ^4000,
The climate of the Scilly Islands is reputed to be
both milder, and more equable than that of Cornwall;
but the storms which occur, are more sudden and
violent. The natives are remarked for being a robust
and hardy race of people ; but as a late celebrated wri-
ter* observes, were it not for the facility with which
they obtain spirituous liquors, they would live to an
They are mostly employed in maritime pursuits, and
in making kelp from the Algce, which is disposed of to
the Bristol merchants for the use of the glass manufac-
tories. The same writer also justly observes; " from a
* Xbe author of the Guide to Mounts Bay, &c. recenOy published.
combination, however, of unfortunate circumstances, in
addition to the fatal blow given to the smuggling trade
by the activity of the preventitive service, the inhabitants
were reduced to such extreme distress, that it became
necessary in the year I8I9, to appeal to the generosity
of the public in their behalf; and notwithstanding the
great difficulties of the times, the sum of £9000 was col-
lected for their relief: in this great work of charity it is but
an act of justice to state, that the Society for Promoting
Christian Knowledge, by their purse, as well as by their
writings, performed a very essential service. The funds
thus obtained, were in part appropriated to the relief of
the immediate and pressing distress under which they
laboured, while the remainder was very judiciously
applied towards the promotion of such permanent ad-
vantages as might prevent the chance of its recurrence.
A fish cellar was accordingly provided in the island
of Trescow, for the purpose of storing and curing fish ;
boats adapted for the mackerel and pilchard fisheries
were purchased, and others were repaired; nets and
various kinds of tackling were also at the same time
liberally supplied. By such means have the inhabitants
of these cheerless rocks been enabled to avail them-
selves of some of the resources which Providence has
placed within their reach, and their families have been
thus enabled to exist without the dread of absolute
Notwithstanding this relief, the fisheries of the Scilly
Isles are capable of much extension, and although the
expense incident to the necessary outfit woud be con-
siderable, yet the advantages to the inhabitants would
be incalculable. The importance of this subject has
been very ably brought to notice by the Rev. George
Woodley, Missionary from the Society for Promoting
Christian Knowledge, and Minister of St. Agnes and St.
Martin's, in his work on the State of the Scilly Islands,
which was published in the year 1822.
Various species of fish are to be caught by the hook
and line at these islands during the season, and which
are salted by the inhabitants for winter consumption.
A very curious fact is also noticed respecting
the arrival of the woodcock, in Scilly, that they are
generally to be had there before any other place in
England. Owing to the great distance they are supposed
to have travelled, great numbers have been taken by the
natives, from their becoming exhausted ; instances have
also occurred of their falling dead by striking against
the light-house, the splendour of the lanthern no doubt
having attracted them !
To the geologist, the Scilly Islands present but little
to interest; at St. Mary's are several beds of porphyry
and clorite containing pyrites ; the former are deserving
of attention on account of their distinct appearance of
stratification. The granite of the Lizard Point at the
Island of Trescow, the felspar of which is of a pure
white, might be advantageously employed in the China
The interior of the church of St. Anthony , which is
situated on the coast south of Falmouth, is highly
deserving of notice from its style of architecture, the
arch separating the nave being a fine specimen of
In the parish of Luxilian is an immense pile of rocks,
totally different from the Roach Rocks, yet extremely
well worth seeing; they are seated on a considerable
eminence, and many of the ponderous fragments have
rolled into the valley beneath, presenting altogether a
very singular appearance. In some places the stones
very much resemble antient cromlechs.
Four-Hole Cross is situated about six miles on the
right of the road leading from Bodmin to Lanson, and is
considered one of the most interesting relics of antiquity
in Cornwall; but the upper part, either from age or
other causes, is not perfect.
LIST QFTHE PRESENT KEPRESENTATJVES IN .PARLIAMENT, FOR
THE SEVERAL BOROUGHS OF THE COUNTV OF CORNWALL,
WITH THEIR RESPECTIVE RESIDENCES.
Bo'dmin . . D. Gilbert, Esq., F. R. & L. S., Eastbourne.
J. W. Croker, Esq., L. L. D., F. R., and
L. S., Secretary to the Admiralty, &c.
BossiNEY , . Sir C. Domville, Bart., SantryHouse, Dublin
John Stuart Wortley, Esq., Wortley Hall,
Callin<»ton . . Matthias Attwood, Esq., Banker.
William Thompson, Esq., an Alder*
man of London.
Camelford Mark Milbank, Esq., Thorpe Hall,
Sheldon Cradock, Esq., Hartforth,
Corn WALL , , . . Sir William Lemon, Bart., D. C. L.,
Carclew, near Truro.
John Hearle Tremayne, Esq., Heligan,
FowET. . . , . . . .Viscount Valetort, John Stree^
George Lucy, Esq., Pall Mall,
HELSTON.,.,..Lord J. N. B. B. Townsend.
Harrington Hudson, Esq., Bessenby,
near Bridlington, Yorkshire.
Laitkceston. . . James Brogden, Esq., Clapham,
Hon. Pownall Bastard Pellew, R. N,
LiSKEARD. . , . ,Hon. W. Eliot, now Earl St. Germains,
Sir William Henry Pringle.
East Looe .... Thomas Potter Macqueen, Esq., Ridg-
mont House, Bucks.
George Watson Taylor, Esq., D. C.L.,
Earlstoke Park, Wilts.
West Looe. ... Sir C. Hulse, Bart., Breamere, Hants,
Right Hon. Henry Goulbum, 17,
Upper Grosvenor Street.
LosTWiTHlEL..Sir Robert Wigram, Knt. F. R. S.,
Belmont Lodge, Worcestershire,
Alexander C. Grant, Esq.
Newport Jonathan Raine, Esq.
Wm. Northey, Esq., Box Hall, Wilts
St. Germain's. .Hon. Seymour Thomas Bathurst.
Right Hon. Charles Arbuthnot, K. C.
St. Ives Lyndon Evelyn, Esq.
Sir Christopher Hawkins, Bart., Tre-
withan, near Truro.
St. Ma WES.... Sir S. B. Moreland, Bart., Pall Mall.
Joseph Phillimore, Esq., D. C. L.
St. Michell . . Sir George Staunton, Bart., L. L. D.
and F. R. S., Leigh Park, Hants.
William Taylor Money, Esq., Strea-
tham Park, Surrey.
Penryn Pascoe Grenfell, Esq., Taplow House,
R. Stanton, Esq., Colebook House.
S ALTASH William Russell, Esq., Brancepeth
Castle, near Durham.
Tregony Viscount Barnard, Selby, Northamp-
James O'Callaghan, Esq.
Truro Sir Richard Hussey Vivian
William Gossett, Esq., Sackville Street.
THE LOGAN STONE OVERTURNED.
The following Letter to the Editor of the Annals of
Philosophy is taken from that work for May, 1 824.
" DEAR SIR, Plymouth, April 18, 1824.
Your geological readers will hear with infinite regret, that the
celebrated Logan Stone in Cornwall, which lias for so long a period
been regarded as an object of great national interest and curiosity,
and which has been visited by persons from the remotest extremity
of Europe, has within the last few days been overturned by one of
the Lieutenants of his Majesty''s navy^ now commanding a revenue
cutter, stationed between the Lizard and Land's End, assisted by a
party of his men. The barbarous and wanton folly which could
induce an officer bearing his Majesty's commission to commit so
unwarrantable an act, as to remove a great national curiosity from a
position in which it had stood for ages, defying the hand of time,
and affording to tlie enlightened traveller an object of such singular
interest, will, it is hoped, be visited with the severest displeasure of
the Admiralty. In a tour through Cornwall in the summer of 1821,
I was informed by a cottager who lived near the spot, that an
attempt was made by a party of seamen some years before, to remove
it, but without success. Cornwall by this wanton outrage, has lost
one of its most interesting monuments.
I remain, dear Sir, yours very truly,
G. W. HARVEY."
N. B. For a description of the Logan Stone, and an interestias^
view, vide p. 61,
Adder, Sea, a fish 14
Angel Fish ibid
Antoney, Village of, Charch, Monaments, House, and
Pictures 27 and ?6l
Arwenack House, remarkable as the antient seat of the
Bake, an antient seat of the Moyles ,, 29
Blower, or Fin Fish 13
Blowing Houses, near St. Austell S8
Boconnoe House, a fine seat 35
Bodmin, Town of, antient Buildings, Church, Font,
Population, &c 119
Boscawen-un, singular Pile of Stones at 61
Bossiney, remarkable as one of the Boroughs 81
Boscastle, a Fishing Village, curious Epitaph in the
Botus Fleming, Church, and Tomb of a Crusader 100
Botailack Mine, at St. Just, account of 138
Bude, a bathing place, its Canal, &c b8
Carhays, a seat 40
Callington, Town of, Antient Buildings, &c 96
Calstock, a Village, Church, &c 98
Camborne, 1 own of. Church, Population, &c 69
Camelford, Town of, Buildings, &c 80
Carn'-bre, Castle, Rocks, &c 71
Carnon Stream Works, account of 137
Carnanton, a seat 75
Carclew. seat of Sir William Lemon, Pictures, &c 46
Castle-an-Dinas, an Antieut Entrenchment 76
Cattle, different Species of, bred in Cornwall 10
Catchfrench, tlie seat of F. Glanville, Esq 110
Cliarlestown, near St- Austell 36
Cheese Wring 116
Church of Creed 42
Clay Works, at St. Stephen's, an account of 136
Clowance, a fine seat, belonging to Sir J. St. Aubyn .... 55
Coldrinnick, a seat Ill
Cornwall, derivation of its Name, Situation, Climate, Po-
pulation, &c 1 to 3
Consolidated Mines, account of 141
Cook's Kitchen, a celebrated Copper Mine 140
Copper, its discovery, Mines described, &c 20
Cotehele House, a very antient building 97
Copley, Sir J. S, seat of 29
Crennis Copper Mine, account of 135
Cross, Antient, at Callington, 97, and Four-Hole Cross 161
Cuddenbeck, at St. Germains, noted as the seat of the
Dolcoath, a noted Copper Mine 140
Eels, Conger, very plentiful 14
Egleshale, Church of, Carved Pulpit, Monuments, &c. . . 80
Eny's House 48
Falmouth, Town of. Buildings, fine Harbour, &c 49
Fowey, Town of. Church, Monuments, Antient Buldings
at. Harbour, Population, &c 30
Fonts, Antient, in Lostwithiel, 33; St. Austell, 37; Lau-
erwednack, 54; Padstow, 78; Kilkhampton, &c 91
Foote, the Comedian, born at Truro 46
Glynn House, a seat 118
Gold , found in Cornwall 22
Godolphin House, an antient building 55
Grampus, a fish 13
Gran.ponnd, till lately one of the Boroughs of Cornwall,
|)reseut State 42
Harewood House. , .»«•.,....,, 98
Hayle, Port of, Works, &c ,,. 69
Heligan, a seat 39
Helston, Town of, Church, Population, &c 51
Herland Mines, some Account of. I44
Hills in Cornwall 3
Historical Events, brief description of 2S
Huel Vor, a noted Tin Mine 137
Unity ditto, for Copper 142
Alfred, ditto ibid
Husbandry, improvement in, noticed 8.
Ince Castle, a seat on the banks of the Lynhcr 106
Iron, found in great abundance in Cornwall 23
Foundaries at Hayle 1-16
John Dory s, a delicious fish I4
Kilkhampton, village of, noted for the singular beauty
of its Church, Monuments, Font, &c 89
' , the birth-place of the pious Hervey 92
Kuill, J. Esq., singular custom respecting his will...... C9
Ky nan's Cove, a curious pile of Rocks at 54
Ladock, a picturesque vale at 43-
Lakes in the County, the Loo particularly described .... 5
Lands, Waste, enclosed 9
Lanlivery, Tower of its Church noticed 32
Lanhydrock House, an antient seat. Church, &c 118
Laudulph, "Village of, singular Monument in the Church,
Parsonage House, &c 99
Landrake, Church of, remarked for its high Tower 106
land's End, singular Promontory, Light Honse, &c 62
Lanherne, Nunnery of, at the village of Mawgan 74
Lauerweduack Church, near the Lizard, Antient Font at 54
Launceslon, Town of, Antient Castle, Church, Public
Buildings, Population, &c 93
Lead Mines, not very abundant 21
Liskcard, Town of, Church, Population, &c 112
Lizard Point, Rocks at, very curious 53, 64
Looe, East and West, Town of. Bridge, Popula-
tion, &c 29
liOo Pool, a Lake near HelstoD 53
Lostwithiel, Town of, Church, Antient Font, Exchequer
Hall, Population, &c 33
Mackarel, very plentiful in Cornwall 14
Marazion or Market Jew, its pleasant Situati«n, &c 56
Martin, Dr. William, Monument of 100
Mawgan, Village of, highly rural, Antient Church,
Cross, &c 74
Menabilly, a fine seat belonging to W. Rashleigh, Esq.,
noted for its collection of Minerals 32 and 147
Menacnddle, Ruin at 38
Menheniot, Village of. Church, Old Buildings, &c. ...... Ill
Metals, various sorts, found in Cornwall 22
Mevagizzy, remarkable as a Fishing Town, Church,
Monument of Otwell Hill, Population, &c 39
Mineralogical Substances, described 7
Mines in Cornwall, the mode of working them described 19
Moditonham, the seat of Charles Carpenter, Esq 100
Mount Edgecumbe, a fine seat 27
Mousehole, Village of, remarkable as the birth-place of
Old Dolly Penkeath 60
Mullets, very plentiful l4
MuUion, a Fishing Cove, near the Lizard 64
Maylor, the Church of, a picturesque building, Monu-
ments, iSfC 51
Nanswhyden House, ruins of 74
Newport Church 93
Newly n, Village of 60
Padstow, Town of. Harbour, Chnrch, Antient Buildings,
Population, &c 77
Pelynt Church, Antient Monument in 29
Pencarrow, seat of the late Sir A. Molesworth 80
Pendarves, a Seat 70
Pendennis Castle 49
Pengersick Castle 56
Pen rice, the seat of J. S. Sawle, Esq 38
Penrose, seat of S. Rogers, Esq. near Helston 53
Penryn, an Antient Town, Church of St. Gluvias, Monu-
ments, Population, &c 47
PentilUc Castle, the seat of J. T. Coryton, Esq 90
Penzance, remarked as a beautiful Town, healthy cli-
mate, &c 59
Perrow Forth, noted as a bathing place 71
Pessick, village of 44
Petherwick, Little, Village, noted as being highly pic-
Pilchard Fisheries described, and mode of curing them 12
Piranzabuloe, singular Amphitheatre at 73
Place House, Padstow 79
Plymouth, scenery about, noticed 25
Polredmoutb, Grotto at 32
Pool, Menheniot, an antient seat of the Trelawney's .... Ill
Potatoes, the soil of Cornwall, favourable for the
growth of 9
Polgooth Tin Mine, account of. 131
Poldlce, Mine of 142
Porthmear, or Charlestown 36
Prideanx Place ibid
Probus, Village of, noted for its fine Church 43
Redruth, Town of. Church, Population, &c 72
Restormel Castle, House, &c 84
Rialton Priory, account of 73
Rivers in Cornwall 4
Roche Rocks, a great natural curiosity 127
Ruan Lanyhorne, a village remarkable as the residence
of the Rev. J. Whitaker 41
Saltash, Town of. Church, Population, &c 100
Saltram, Seat of Earl Morley, with its fine Pictures .... 25
Scorrier House, a seat remarkable for its fine collection
of minerals 72
Shark, the blue species, caught off the Coast of Cornwall 14
Scilly Islands, concise description of ..< 151 to 160
Sheviock Church and Monuments ....,..• 28
Shillingham, ruins of an antient Chapel 105
Silver, discovery of 22
Slate, Delabole, the most celebrated Quarry for , . 7 and 80
Smelting House near Truro, noticed 46
Soap Rocks, at the Lizard 61
Soils^ described • 5
St. Blazy, Village of, Festival of St. Blaze, Church,
&c , 36 to 37
St. Austell, Town, fine Church, Population, &c. ..< 36
St. Michael Penkervil Church, a pictureisque edifice .... 44
St. Mawe's Castle 50
St. Mawgan Church, an antient Tomb in 55
St. Michael's Mount, brief description of 57
St Neot's, Village of, noted for the beauty of its Church,
Painted Glass Windows, &c 116
St. Bennett's, remains of a Priory 1 27
St. Burian, au antient place, College, Church, and antient
St. Germains, a decayed town, remarkable for the beauty
of its Situation, Antient Church, Monuments, &.c 106
St. Just, near the Land's End, and remarkable as the
birth-place of Dr. Borlase 63
St. Ives, Town of. Fisheries, Harbour, Church, Popula-
tion, &c 66
St. Agnes, Town, Beacon, the birth-place of Opie, the
Painter, &c 72
St. Columb Major, Town of. Church, Population, &c. ..76
St. Stephen's Church, near Trematon Castle 92
St. Mary Week, Village of, remarked as the birth-place
of Thomasine Bonaventure 86
St. Cleer, Village of, noted for its Church, and numerous
St. Lawrence, Ruins at 127
Stratton, Town of. Church, Monumental Epitaphs, &c. 86
Stockton, seat of Admiral de Conrcy - 106
Steam Engines, their extensive powers described, and
great utility in the Mines 133
Stow, an antient seat of the Grenvilles 91
Sun Fish mm... 14
Tehiddy Park, seat of Lord de Dunstanville, Pictures,
Thankes, seat of the Graves 27
Tin, the different Mines described, and the mode of pre-
paring it; Laws relating to, &c 15 to 18
Wood, highly valuable 19 and 136
Tintagel, renowned birth-place of King Arthur, antient
Fortifications at. Church, &c 81
Tolinen, a curious one in Constantino Parish 51
Touss, Rev, J. born at St, Ives •• 68
Trebnrsy, a seat near Launceston 90
Tredea, the seat of Davies Gilbert, Esq., M. P 140
Trespy House, Fowey, an antient building 31
Trefusis, an antient seat 51
Treguma, a seat of S. Stephens, Esq 68
Tregony, Town of, Antient Buildings, &c 40
Tregotlinan, seat of Earl Falmouth, and its fine Park. ... 44
Trelawuey House, Pictures, &c 29
Trelowarrens, an antient seat 54
Trematon Castle, a fine ruin, seat of B. Tucker, Esq 103
Tremere, an antient seat of the Courtenay's 127
Trerice, an antient building, formerly the seat of the
Treryn Castle, Logan Stone, at 61
Trevethoe, the seat of the Praeds 69
Trewarthenick, a seat 41
Trewithan, seat of Sir C. Hawkins, Bart 43
Trewaii, seat of Richard Vyvyan, Esq 76
Truro, Town of, noted as the metropolis of the West of
England, fine Church, Buildings, Population, &c 44
Turbots, plentiful in Cornwall 14
Wade&bridge, near Bodmin 80-
Werrington Park, seat of the Duke of Northumberland 92
Wherry Mine, near Penzance, remarkable one 60
Whiteford House, seat of Sir W. P. Call, Bait 96
Woodcocks, singular account of their arrival in Cornwall 160
Wootton, an antient seat at Laudrake 106
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