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The Leonard Library 

Wpdittt College 


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Register No. ...eZ.Z...%:Z/. 






Edited by E. G. SANDFORD, M.A. 
Archdeacon of Exeter. 

With Illustrations. Two Vols. 8vo. 363. net. 


SPECTATOR.— "The Life is an excellent one, judicious 
and trustworthy, far above the average of the hasty impressionist 
portraits so often printed of modern great men." 

TIMES.—" If it be the test of a good biography that it must 
explain to us how the essential feature of a man's character 
originated, and how it remained essential to the end, then 
certainly these two large volumes come with ample credit out of 
the ordeal." 

TRIBUNE.—' 1 His life was broken up into sections, well 
denned both by place and time, and his chief mental character 
istic was breadth— breadth such as needs the point of view of 
more than one writer for its due portrayal." 


The Exeter Episcopate 


Archbishop Temple 


Exeter Episcopate 


Archbishop Temple 









All rigktf mcrrtti 


Exeter Episcopate 


Archbishop Temple 









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THIS volume is a reprint of the record of the 
Exeter Episcopate of Archbishop Temple con 
tained in the Memoirs of him "by seven friends." 
For the full account of his life the reader is 
referred either to that work in its original form or 
to the separate edition of the Editorial Supplement 
which will shortly be published, and which contains 
a summary of the Archbishop's life and work. But 
the fifteen years during which Frederick Temple 
was Bishop of Exeter have a peculiar interest of 
their own in the West of England. It is not only 
that he was the last of those who ruled over the 
united See which looked to Leofric as its first 
Bishop ; but he had special personal affinities 
with both counties — close connexion through 
his mother with Cornwall, and through his school 
and early home with Devon. Local ties are 
strong on both sides of the Tamar, and both 


Devonians and Cornishmen could claim the last 
Bishop as their own. 

There is an additional reason for a separate 
issue of the Exeter Episcopate : it is complete 
in itself. Bishop Temple lived to be Archbishop 
of Canterbury — the only Bishop of Exeter who 
thus far has reached that position — but all the 
principles and methods of his Episcopate were laid 
down at Exeter ; it was there that they were 
conceived and first put into practice. Moreover, 
the years spent at Exeter had a certain exuberance 
and freshness which make them stand out beyond 
all others in his long life as Bishop. It is hoped, 
therefore, that the interest felt in them will not 
be confined to Devon and Cornwall. 

Much help has been given to the writer by 
friends who with him served under Bishop Temple 
in the Diocese : and in most cases the kind of help 
rendered indicates the Bishop's faculty for drawing 
out men's special characteristics. Thanks are due 
to Chancellor Edmonds for aid in the historical 
parts, to Prebendary Hingeston-Randolph for full 
liberty to refer to his valuable edition of the 
Exeter Episcopal Registers, and to Mr. Edmund 
Carlyon for information in respect of the revival 


of the Cornish Bishopric. The records and corre 
spondence of Prebendary Gregory and others 
testify to the value set upon the Bishop's advice 
and counsel at Quiet Days, Conferences, and 
other times by those who had discernment and 
diligence ; the memoranda of the Rev. L. R. 
Whigham and the Rev. W. G. Morcom give 
evidence of the Bishop's personal hold on indi 
vidual friends. 

The pages given in the footnotes refer to the 
original and larger edition of the Memoirs, when 
they are not connected with passages in this 

November 1906. 





Foundation of the See — Bishop Temple's early predecessors — 

Reformation — Eighteenth century — Nineteenth century . 1 



Letters of congratulation — Opposition on account of Essays and 
Reviews — Correspondence — Election — Confirmation — Con 
secration — Enthronement — Statement in Convocation . 21 


The first tours — Blundell's School — Visits to towns . . 55 



Endowed Schools Act, 1869 — Secondary Education (Schools 
Inquiry Commission, 1864) — Elementary Education (Mr. 
Forster's Education Act, 1870) — The educational position in 
the Diocese of Exeter — The Bishop's schemes for meeting 
the situation . 77 





The principle of self-government — Rural Deaneries — Lay Con 
ferences — Archdeaconries — Central Diocesan unity — Forma 
tion, constitution, and aims of the Diocesan Conference — 
Primary session of the Diocesan Conference — Formation of 
the General Committee of Religious Instruction . . 96 



Early history of the Church in Cornwall — United Diocese — 
First efforts to revive the Cornish Bishopric — Advent of 
Bishop Temple — His work and residence in Cornwall — 
Discussion in the Exeter Diocesan Conference — Diocesan 
Committee and Lady Rolle's gift — Bill for the revival of 
the Cornish See — Appointment of Dr. Benson — His Con 
secration and Enthronement — Dr. Temple's Farewell to 
Cornwall 121 



Bishop Temple's relation to clerical life — First Ordination 
sermon — Bishop Temple's views on theological colleges — 
Bishop Phillpotts' studentships — Ordination examinations — 
Notes and incidents — Ordinations at different centres . 150 

CHAPTER VII— Continued 

Patronage system — Discipline — Conferences with the clergy — 
Visitation charges — Quiet Days — Personal relations with the 
clergy . . . . . . . . 170 





Presentation of pastoral staff — Private friendships — West of 
England Bank — Franco-German War — Soldiers and sailors — 
Temperance — Purity — Deceased Wife's Sister Bill — Good 
manners — Self-culture ' . . " . . .212 

CHAPTER VIII— Continued 

Church Extension in Plymouth — Plymouth Mission, 1877 — 
" Priesthood " of the laity — Lay readers — Parochial Councils 
— Sacredness of lay life ..... 236 



The Palace — The chapel — Home life — Miss Temple — Marriage — 
The Cathedral — Restoration — Reredos — Royal Commission 
on Cathedrals — Relation of the Cathedral to the Diocese — 
Amalgamation of city parishes — Tiverton parochial system . 251 



In Convocation : Early views of Convocation— Reception — Essays 
and Reviews — Athanasian Creed — Ecclesiastical Courts — 
Bishop's discretionary power — Ecclesiastical measures — 
Evangelistic work of the Church — Authorised Hymnal — 
Manual of Family Prayer — Rogation Days — Agenda Paper 
for Convocation — Reception of Dr. Temple's translation to 
the See of London ...... 300 

In the House of Lords : Pluralities Act Amendment Act— Truro 
Bishopric — Church Patronage — National Education — Uni 
versity Tests Bill — Opening of churchyards to Nonconformists 
—Marriage with the Deceased Wife's Sister Bill . . 320 

Relations with Public Schools and Universities . . . 326 

Rampton Lectures . . • • • • 327 


Nov. 30, 1821. Birth of Frederick Temple. 

1834. Entrance at Blundell's School. 

1839. Commencement of Residence at Balliol. 

1842. Double First Class. 

1846. Ordained Deacon by Bishop Wilberforce. 

1848. Examiner in the Education Office. 

1850. Principal of Kneller Hall. 

1855. H.M. Inspector of Training Schools. 

1858. Headmaster of Rugby. 

1 860. Publication of Essays and Reviews. 

1 869. Consecration as Bishop of Exeter. 

1 885. Bishop of London. 

1 896. Archbishop of Canterbury. 
Dec. 23, 1902. Death. 



Foundation of the See — Bishop Temple's early predecessors — 
Reformation — Eighteenth century — Nineteenth century. 

IN commemoration of Bishop Temple, Grandisson's 
great west window in Exeter Cathedral has been 
filled with stained glass. Of all the successors 
of the prelate of the Middle Ages, Frederick 
Temple is the one who most closely resembles 
him in force of character and strenuousness of 
life. But the stained glass window, as it now 
stands, carries back the thoughts to yet earlier 
days. The memorial is a bishops' window, and the 
figures in the lights span the eight centuries during 
which Bishops of Exeter presided over Devon and 
Cornwall as one united diocese. In Leofric and 
Temple we see the first and last of the line ; 
there is unity and completeness. It is well that 
Frederick Temple should be gathered into this 
fellowship. A great personality, he was also a 
great bishop, counting it high privilege to hold 
the office, having his own full conception of the 
meaning of its duties ; and from the day of 
his consecration giving himself wholly to it, 
making full proof of his ministry. And he was 
emphatically in his place as Bishop of Exeter. It 
was not only that his heart was in the West. 
Devonian and Cornish to the core, he felt that in 


coming to Exeter he was coming to his own. On 
that account, when the Prime Minister gave him 
his choice of more than one Episcopal See, he 
chose Exeter ; and quite late in life he expressed 
a doubt as to whether he had ever done right to 
leave it. But more than this — he had one special 
characteristic which has marked the Bishops of 
Exeter. The ideal bishop stands for his people ; 
he is merged in their life ; he lives in them, and 
they live in him. To this ideal the Bishops of 
Exeter have in large measure been true. They 
have been identified with the people of their 
diocese, and, as their representatives, have reflected, 
and some of them inspired the life of their times. 
It will quickly be seen, by reference to the history 
of the Exeter See, that in this respect they form a 
fitting spiritual ancestry for Bishop Temple. 

Amongst the archives of the Cathedral is its 
Charter, given to it by Edward the Confessor in 
1050, the year in which Leofric was enthroned : — 

... I, Eadweard, King, with my hand do place this Charter 
(privUegium) upon the altar of St. Peter ; and leading the 
prelate, Leofric, by his right arm, and my Queen, Eadgytha, 
also leading him by his left, I do place him in the Episcopal 
Throne (cathedra), in the presence of my lords and noble 
relations, and my chaplains ; with the affirmation and 
approval of the Archbishops, Eadsine and ^Elfric, with the 
rest whose names will be written out (describentur) at the 
end (meta) of this Charter. 1 

Archdeacon Freeman adds in his well-known 
work :— 

The signatures attesting the charter are of unique and 
wonderful interest. Those slightly undulating vertical lines of 
dots mark the places where, 823 years ago, the most famous 
men of the realm — some of whom, too, have left an indelible 
mark on the world's history — put their hands, not always 
very steadily, to a grant of no common significance. The 

1 Archdeacon Freeman's History of Exeter Cathedral, pp. 109-111. 


Confessor himself and his two Archbishops — Earl Godwin — 
Earl Harold, his son, afterwards King of the English, who 
fell, axe in hand, at Hastings fighting for his crown — and 
Tostig, his rebel brother — are among the number. 1 

The words of the charter call up before us the 
scene of the Installation, and a perpetual memory 
of it lives in the carved heads of the three principal 
actors which are inserted in the canopied sedilia of 
the sacrarium in Exeter Cathedral. The rudely 
carved representation of the Confessor, with his 
Queen and his bishop, is in striking contrast with 
the graceful work of Bishop Stapeldon's sedilia, 
and is probably of earlier date : it carries back the 
thoughts of the present occupants of the stalls to 
the first fathers of their race. 

The words of Leofric's charter and the charter 
itself show that he understood the need of security 
for life and property, which was one of the chief 
requirements of early times. 2 That he was also in 
sympathy with another characteristic of his age, 
is evident from another memorial of his Episcopate, 
the constitution of the Cathedral Chapter. Like 
his royal master, he would be instinct with Norman 
ideas and with that love of discipline and order 
which was one of them. The monks at Exeter 
were transplanted to the new royal foundation at 
Westminster, and made way for a chapter 
of secular clergy, modelled on the rule of S. 
Chrodegang of Metz, a prelate of the eighth 
century. In the college of twenty-four canons 
— with the corresponding number of vicars 3 — 

1 Archdeacon Freeman's History of Exeter Cathedral, p. 109. 

2 Edward ' ' makes over the Diocese of Cornwall to the See of Exeter, 
so that there may be one Episcopal seat" ; and this " on account of the 
fewness and wasted condition of goods and persons there : the pirates 
having been able to devastate the churches of Cornwall and Crediton ; 
wherefore it seemed good to provide better safeguard against enemies 
in the city of Exeter." 

3 It was not until the Episcopate of Bishop Stafford, in the reign of 
Henry IV. (1405), that the vicars were incorporated into a separate 
college of their own. 


sharing a common table and made responsible for 
the daily services of the Cathedral, we have the 
germs of an institution which, under altered 
conditions, continues to this day. A like founda 
tion was established in most of the English 
Cathedrals. The first prelate of the united See 
left good traditions for his successors to follow : he 
was a man of his time and understood its special 

In the generations which immediately followed, 
the Church - building epoch began ; it was the 
outcome of a greater sense of security, and in the 
first development the idea of security still had a 
place. Our first bishops were church - builders. 
They were also, for the most part, Normans, and as 
Professor Freeman has remarked — the first idea of 
a Norman was to build a castle. It is exemplified 
by the strong and massive towers of the Cathedral 
which took the place of some simpler structure 
of Leofric's time. The new Cathedral was some 
hundred years in building. The body of the 
building has since been transformed ; but the 
towers raised by Bishop Warelwast, nephew of 
the Conqueror, still stand in a massive strength 
which seems to speak security to friends and to 
frown defiance on foes. 

But it is in the thirteenth century that the 
Middle Ages reach their highest level in art, 
politics, and mental development. It is the 
century when something of the artist was to be 
seen in every builder ; it is the century amongst 
statesmen of Simon de Montfort and his royal 
rival, but pupil, the first Edward ; it is the century 
in which modern science had its origin in the 
precocious intellect of Roger Bacon, and when 
literature stands crowned in the supreme genius 
of the Florentine poet. It is an age of marvellous 
fecundity and great beginnings ; some of them may 


appear to be before their time, but was it not rather 
that, as with all that is best, growth came tardily ; 
the conceptions were as seed sown in the ground, 
to spring up after long winter hours ? 

The age is nobly represented in the Exeter 

Pre-eminent, above the rest, stand Brones- 
combe, Quivil, and Stapeldon. The last of these 
belongs strictly to the next century ; but, in the 
richness of his full capacity, he claims affinity with 
the thirteenth. This century is emphatically the 
age of Gothic Architecture, the leading principle 
of which is, according to Coleridge, " Infinity made 
imaginable." l It was then at its purest and its 
best. In its pointed arches, its " slender shafts of 
shapely stone," the spire " whose silent finger points 
to heaven," it minded men, still enslaved by violence, 
but struggling to be free, of a better choice. It 
aided creation in the throes of a new birth ; that 
which in " every part seemed to breathe with lofty 
aspirations " helped men to rise. Bronescombe did 
most for the movement in the parish churches of 
the diocese, and Quivil found expression for it in 
his noble conception of the Cathedral of Exeter. 
Perhaps it is in Bronescombe that we see the 
heavenly and spiritual aspirations of the century 
most beautifully expressed. He was consecrated 
about the middle of the century, and the grace of 
his consecration seemed, in a special sense, to rest 
upon his whole Episcopate of more than twenty 
years. His Itinerary shows that his travelling 
powers were wonderful, and they were largely 
spent in the dedication of new churches. 2 A 
wave of church-building revival was passing over 
the diocese, and in the space of nine years he dedi 
cated eighty - eight rebuilt or enlarged churches. 

1 Bishop Liglitfoot's Historical Essays, pp. 140-150. 
2 Bronescombe' s Episcopal Register (Hingeston-Randolph), p. xii. 


The inspiration of his character was breathed 
into the Cathedral, and became a legacy for his 
successor. Bronescombe remodelled or rebuilt the 
chapels of S. Mary Magdalene and S. Gabriel, 
and instituted a special festival in honour of the 
latter, " of whose favour, the Divine clemency so 
willing it, we have often felt the benefit." l This 
chapel contains his tomb ; the very lineaments of 
the sculptured face, as well as the inscription on 
the monument, speak eloquently of the piety of 
the man : — 

Quot loca construxit ? Pietatis quot bona fecit ? 

Quam sanctam duxit vitam ? vox dicere quae scit. 

Laudibus immensis jubilet gens Exoniensis 

Et chorus et turbae, quia natus in hac fuit Urbe. 
Plus si scire velis, festum statuit Gabrielis, 
Gaudeat in ccelis igitur Pater iste fidelis. 

Bronescombe was succeeded by Peter Quivil, a 
native of Exeter, the third in succession who had 
been raised to the throne of its Cathedral. To his 
genius is due the idea of the Cathedral in its present 
form, though not the complete execution. From 
his mind came the inspiration ; and the rude slab 
which now lies on the floor of the Lady Chapel, 
from which his work began, and where he is buried, 
with the quaint legend inscribed on it, is not 
without significance ; " Petra tegit Petrum : nihil 
officiat sibi tetrum." These words draw away the 
mind to the Temple which was his conception, and 
the thought of which is his best memorial. 

As Bronescombe and Quivil illustrate the 
thirteenth century on the side of its aspiring art, 
so does Walter Stapeldon represent the spring 
and freshness of the political life of the times. 
Dean Church, with delicate insight, has beauti 
fully said that while the Episcopacy is a divine 

1 Oliver's Lives of the Bishops of Exeter, p. 44. 


ministry which serves that kingdom where space 
and time are not, and in its highest functions 
looks to things not seen, so also ... it lives in 
" a larger atmosphere in which all alike live " ; it 
speaks for "a communis sensus of simpler, more 
elementary, accepted truths." l Stapeldon embodies 
both characteristics. His thoughts, like those of 
his immediate predecessors, were with his Cathedral. 
It was he who equipped it with its stately episcopal 
throne, its shapely sedilia, and a rich silver altar. 2 
He was also a great diocesan bishop ; he rivals 
Broriescombe in his powers of getting about from 
place to place, and we hear of him, at his first 
ordination held at Crediton, ordaining more than 
a thousand candidates. 3 

But his outlook is wider than the diocese, and 
his interests are not confined to ecclesiastical 
functions. It was an educational epoch. In the 
thirteenth century the University life of Oxford 
and Cambridge received large developments, crowds 
flocking from all parts to attend them, and the sons 
of the well-born accepting in friendly communion 
as fellow-students the sons of dependents. The 
needs of these poorer members of the Universities 
led to the formation of colleges as accessories to 
the University system. To these exhibitions were 
annexed for the benefit of the poorer students, 4 and 
Bishop Stapeldon has gained for himself an undying 
reputation as the founder of Exeter College at 
Oxford ; scholarships which bear his name are still 
tenable there. The kindly intention, and the 
prescient mind which animated his educational zeal, 
were also seen in the foundation of the grammar 

1 Pascal and other Sermons, by Dean Church, p. 107. 

2 Archdeacon Freeman's Exeter Cathedral, p. 46. 

3 Stapeldon's Ep. R. pp. xiv and 446. Allowance must be made for 
the number of minor orders, and for the fact that Ordinations may not 
have been held with great regularity. 

4 Bishop Lightfoot's Historical Essays, pp. 155-165. 


school in his Cathedral city. 1 The bishop set an 
example which, three centuries later, was followed 
by the citizens of Exeter when they refounded 
the school. Nearly three centuries again, and 
the mantle fell on his successor, Bishop Temple, to 
whom in the main must be ascribed the remodelled 
scheme under which Bishop Stapeldon's original 
foundation is now administered. Stapeldon is the 
first of the goodly line of educational bishops in 
the See of Exeter. He is also the greatest of the 
statesmen -bishops of Exeter — a notable example 
of that combination of the Middle Ages which, if 
it sometimes made it impossible for the bishop to 
"wait on the Lord without distraction," and 
encouraged non-residence in the parochial clergy, 
yet did much to enlarge the mind, and to insure 
that the chief of the diocese was not simply a 
local functionary with provincial interests. He 
went everywhere on his royal master's service, 
being now in France and now in England ; and he 
sacrificed life at last to his fidelity. It is not easy 
to make out the precise incidents which excited 
the Londoners against him, but it is probable that 
at the bottom lay his loyalty to two of the best 
principles which lived on from the thirteenth 
century, and emanated from the school of the First 
Edward, namely, the sovereignty of law and the 
unity of the kingdom. Stapeldon, it would seem, 
fell a victim to his determination that the citizens 
of the metropolis should be law-abiding, and that 
foreign favourites should not rule the realm. 2 To 
the skill and pertinacity of Prebendary Hingeston- 
Randolph the churchmen of Devon are indebted 
for the knowledge that Stapeldon's splendid altar- 
tomb in Exeter Cathedral is not a mere cenotaph, 

1 The project was Stapeldon's ; the execution of it stands to the 
credit of Grandisson. Oliver's Lives of the Bishops of Exeter, p. 57 ; 
Grandisson's Ep. R. Pt. III. p. xxxv. 

2 Stapeldon's Ep. R. p. xxix. 


but that it covers the actual remains of the man 
who stands at the head of the Exeter bishops 
of old time for the full richness of many-sided 
capacity. 1 

In the days of this great trio, the Middle Ages 
show most of exuberant life, and in the generation 
which followed, most of magnificence. It was the 
age of Cressy and Poitiers, a day of great, if not the 
highest, ambitions, when an imperial idea seems to 
begin to take shape, and the very form which it 
assumes shows some of the dangers which wait 
upon it. Bishop Lightfoot speaks of the " hollow 
parade" of the fourteenth century, and certainly 
the age of chivalry had its darker side of oppression 
and bloodshed. On the side of its splendour, John 
de Grandisson, the next bishop but one to Stapel- 
don, fitly represented it. An air of magnificence 
surrounds him. He is of noble birth ; he receives 
his education at the celebrated University of Paris ; 
he is a Pope's Chaplain, and a Pope's nominee, 
owing his elevation to the Bishopric of Exeter, in 
the first instance, to the provision of John XXII. 
The man corresponds with his surroundings ; he 
is cast in a large mould, with a strong will and 
great ideas ; he ranks himself and his office high ; 
" worthy of great things," he thinks himself worthy 
of them. 

But it is a greatness of soul which is under 
self-restraint. It was a far cry to Devonshire and 
Cornwall in those days, and in writing to the Pope 
he gives him an account of his first impressions 
of the latter country and its surroundings. He 
describes it "as a foreign land, adjoining England 
only along its Eastern boundary, being surrounded 
on every other side by the sea, which divides it 
from Wales and Ireland on the North. On the 
South, he adds, it looks towards Gascony and 

1 Stapeldon's Ep. R. p. xxxii. 


Britanny ; and the Cornish speak the language of 
those Lands. In the far West, beyond S. Michael's 
Mount, it overlooks the boundless expanse of the 
Ocean. His diocese, he found, included a group 
of islands — the Scilly Isles — on which his Pre 
decessors had never set foot, contenting themselves 
with sending certain Brothers thither, to look after 
the islanders, but he had not himself, as yet, done 
even so much as that." l He writes, " at the same 
time, to certain Cardinals, his friends, telling them 
that, on account of his isolated position, they " will 
" probably hear little of him, or he of them, for a 
long time to come." 

I am not only set down (he tells them) in the ends of the 
earth, but in the very end of the ends thereof. My diocese, 
which embraces Devon and Cornwall, is separated from all 
the rest of England, and, except on one side only, surrounded 
by seas so tempestuous that they can scarcely be called 
navigable. The people of Cornwall speak in a tongue which 
is unknown to the English, and only known to Bretons . . . 
there is scarcely any corn in the County, or anything else for 
the use of mortals. 

To another Cardinal, his friend, he writes more 
hopefully. " He was well and happy; for there was 
at least this comfort in his isolation, that he was far 
removed from the pressure of the populace ; and, 
if he was unable to take his place among the 
Nobles of the Land, he was, at any rate, free from 
their incursions, and could not be shaken by the 
storms of life ; he was spending his days, as it 
were, in the bosom of Abraham." 2 Grandisson 
was thus far from life. But for all this he keeps 
himself strictly to his own diocese, and though 
conscious of capacity for taking the wider outlook, 
he is eminently a diocesan bishop, rarely leaving 
Devon or Cornwall during the longest Episcopate 

1 Bishop Temple visited these islands in 1871, 1873, and 1875. 
2 Grandisson's Ep. R. Pt. III. pp. xix, xx. 


(forty-three years) of any prelate of the united See. 
And while in the diocese, he is emphatically its 
bishop, and his first care is his Cathedral. Quivil 
had given the designs for the nave, and had at least 
completed the eastern bay : it suited Grandisson's 
large views to carry out the whole conception. 
The greatness, and the very style of the west 
window, which crowns and dominates the whole 
building, in its bold outline speaks the man. 
Whether or not the conjecture be correct that 
the Minstrels' Gallery was first used at the 
reception in Exeter of the captive King John of 
France, on his way from Plymouth to London, 1 
the stateliness of the structure, with its elaboration 
of ornament, points naturally to the same magnifi 
cent mind for its origin. 

The foundation of the College of S. Mary, 
Ottery, was the bishop's companion work to his 
labour on the Cathedral. It had its origin in the 
purchase of the manor of Ottery from the Chapter 
of Rouen. 2 Its constitution shared Grandisson's 
time and thought with the ordering of the 
Cathedral of the diocese ; and, though the 
character of the remodelled and enlarged Church 
at Ottery is simple and more severe — an adapta 
tion, it is said, of an earlier style — yet its 
twin towers and general stateliness give it a close 
resemblance to the mother church. Grandisson 
makes himself felt in the government, no less than 
in the fabric of the Cathedral. The Dean and 
Chapter may question, but they obey : if other 
wise, the Dean himself is excommunicated. 3 From 
the head of the Cathedral body down to the 
individual choirman, all feel his hand. The 
behaviour of the choir, the condition of the service- 
books, each detail in turn, receive his attention. 

1 Archdeacon Freeman's Exeter Cathedral, p. 79. 
2 Grandisson's Ep. R. Pt. III. p. xlviii. 3 Ibid. Pt. III. p. xxxvi. 


His Legend a and Ordinale survive to this day 
amongst the treasures of the Chapter, 1 as enduring 
records of the bishop's detailed concern for the 
order and dignity of the Cathedral worship. Still 
in the sonorous tones of the great tenor bell, called 
after him, and, may be, the gift of his munificence, 
which peals over the city and country, and leaves 
its echoes on the ear when the vibrations of its 
sisters in the belfry have ceased, the power of the 
mediaeval bishop's grand personality still seems to 
live. His hand was felt by lay magnates as well as 
by Cathedral dignitaries, and all are brought to their 
knees at last. Not even from a Courtenay will he 
brook any censure : thus closes his contention with 
the Lord of Okehampton, who had ventured to criti 
cise his conduct : " He had been brought up in the 
School of Clerks and Prelates, and he did not see 
his way to go to school again elsewhere : how could 
a Prelate be expected to go to school to a Knight, 
when S. Paul had said that 'he that is spiritual 
judgeth all things, and he himself is judged of no 
man ' ! " 2 The bishop's interpretation of the New 
Testament is open to question ; there is no mistake 
about his claim to sit in judgment on his lay cousin. 
Even to the king he scarce bows his head, and 
when summoned to account for resisting the action 
of certain Royal Commissioners, he makes good 
his case in his Provincial Court. 3 

As long as Grandisson was in his diocese he 
would brook no ecclesiastical rival. The story of 
his armed resistance to the entry of the Archbishop, 
when the Metropolitan desired to include Exeter in 
his provincial visitation, is well known : — 

Nequiter vi armata per Johannem de Grandissono Epis- 
copum Exoniensem, ne visitationem hujusmodi impenderet, 
sicut ad officium suum pertinuit (impeditus fuit) : sicque 

1 Grandisson's Ep. R. Pt. III. p. Ixxvi, note. 
2 Ibid. Pt. III. pp. xv, xvi. 3 Ibid. Pt. III. p. Ivi. 


archiepiscopus ille, litteris regiis et aliis turbationibus illicitis, 
de dicta recedere dioecesi, infecto hujus visitationis negotio, 
est compulsus. 1 

Less familiar perhaps is the account of the 
stately courtesy he extended when he believed 
that no encroachment was being made by the 
visitor on his prerogatives. Few more imposing 
ceremonies, even under the stately regime of 
Grandisson, were seen than when Richard Fitz- 
Ralph was consecrated Archbishop of Armagh in 
the Cathedral, and rode afterwards in great pro 
cession of knights, citizens, and clergy through 
Exeter. All this magnificence suited the temper 
of the age, and rather enhanced than otherwise 
Grandisson's claim to stand for the people of his 
diocese. The position of the bishops of the Middle 
Ages, as recognised champions of the liberties of 
the people and their friends against the oppression 
of the King and nobles, was specially illustrated in 
the case of all the Bishops of Exeter. The episco 
pal registers make it plain that, in spite of much 
occupation with the King's business, they were 
much in their own diocese. When not " on visita 
tion," or engaged with other episcopal functions, 
they would be living in the Cathedral City, or 
resident on one or other of their numerous episcopal 
manors. As landowners they were brought into 
daily touch with the life of the people ; they 
educated the poor ; they bettered the condition of 
the dependents on their estates ; they were ready 
helpers in times of need. The life of the city and 
county was the bishop's life in a fuller sense than 
could be said of any other man. And this charac 
teristic especially held in the case of Grandisson. 
The man was great, but in his greatness the whole 
diocese shared. It sat with him on his bishop's 

1 Birchingtoii's Life of Simon Mepham (" Augl. Sac." vol. i. p. 18} 
Referred to by Oliver, pp. 81, 82. 


throne ; he covered it under the shadow of his own 
wide influence. When he contended, he contended 
not for himself but for his people ; in his greatness 
they were great, and under it they were safe. 

In sad contrast with the splendour of the episco 
pate is the gloom in which it closed. The quick 
succession in which notices of institutions and 
inductions in the same parish occur in the Diocesan 
Register is in itself a graphic picture of the devasta 
tion that was wrought by the plague of the Black 
Death. These records bear eloquent, though simple, 
witness to the fidelity with which the parochial 
clergy tended their people during the visitation. 1 
The ordinary annual average of institutions in the 
diocese was 36 ; but in no more than seven months 
of the year 1349, when the plague was at its height, 
the institutions amounted to 264 ; and " these 
figures, appalling as they are, do not represent all 
the deaths that occurred amongst the beneficed 
clergy," as many died for whom at the time no 
successor could be found. 2 It has been calculated 
that " the total death-roll in the clerical order 
throughout the land was some 25,000." 3 Bishop 
Grandisson remained at his post throughout the 
visitation. Foreign war was joined to pestilence 
at home, and these, in combination with the social 
strife of the times, give a sombre close to this age 
of magnificence. 

The glory of the Middle Ages was on the wane 
at the close of the fourteenth century ; and a new 
age with a new spirit and new movement was 
beginning to dawn. The Diocese of Exeter had a 
full interest in the religious crisis which followed ; 
but the work of the Church was done by different 
methods. The line of great ecclesiastics fails with 
Grandisson, and during the Reformation epoch 

1 Grandissou's Ep. R. Pt. III. p. Ixv. 
2 Ibid. Pt HI. p. Ixvi. 3 Ibid. Pt. III. p. Ixvii. 


and the settlement of the Anglican Church under 
the new conditions, the centre of interest seems 
to shift from men to movement. It is true that 
both among the bishops and other churchmen 
of the west there were men of mark. It is a glory 
to Exeter that she reckons Miles Coverdale, the 
translator of the Bible, amongst her bishops. Seth 
Ward (1662-67) was a prelate who could build the 
old waste places, and bring back order and good 
administration. Trelawny (1688-1707), in facing 
the wrath of a king, showed even more than the 
courage with which his great predecessor Grandisson 
met oppression and high-handed dealing. Ofspring 
Blackall (1707-16) exemplified on humbler levels, 
and with much graciousness of spirit, if not with 
equal power, the educational zeal of Stapeldon. 
Jewel and Richard Hooker, though not Bishops of 
Exeter, were both of them Devonshire men, and 
stand in the foremost rank, the one for his contro 
versial, and the other for his constructive ability. 
They were " pillars " of the Church of God, but 
they were great thinkers rather than great leaders 
of men. The leaders of England in these centuries 
were not all amongst " the saints " (far from it), and 
few of them were ecclesiastics. Amongst the 
latter were good men, worthy of remembrance ; 
but for the most part they did not inspire. The 
Reformation struggle in England was a soldiers' 
battle ; it was won not by the commanding genius 
of the few, but by the faithfulness of the many — 
it was won because "the common people" were 
ready to die for their cause. 

And though the dearth of leaders may have 
saved the English Church from subjection to a 
heresiarch, and from fatal aberrations from the 
faith, it was a loss. The bishops, for the most part, 
reflected only ; they did not originate ; and by that 
process of gradual deterioration which results from 


abandoning the higher aims, sometimes they came 
to reflect, not the intrinsically best, but the current 
and the conventional. In an age of non-residence, 
they were non-resident ; in an age when social and 
political considerations were the chief consideration, 
they "just conformed.'" They were often chosen 
not because they were eminent for piety or mental 
power, but because their family was good, their 
opinions were safe and free from all taint of 
" enthusiasm " ; it was thought that they would do 
no harm — and in this sense they appeared to justify 
their appointment. But did no harm come ? The 
absence of higher spirituality in the leaders produced 
a lower level amongst the main body of the clergy ; 
and this pulled down the general standard of moral 
life amongst the people. Neither amongst clergy nor 
laity were notorious criminals commonly met with, 
and the violence and oppression of the Middle Ages 
did not come back. On the contrary, benevolence 
was a special characteristic of the eighteenth century. 
But the Church did not help men to rise heaven 
ward ; some, in consequence, sank to the lowest 
depths ; and in all there was a secret sense that 
the spiritual element was not developed and that 
the soul was not fed. The Church missed a great 
opportunity, and when the leader at last came, he 
was found, it is true, in the ranks of the English 
clergy, but not amongst its bishops. Nor did the 
bishops extend to him that inspiring and sustaining 
support which might have kept John Wesley and 
his followers loyal to the Church of England. 
Bishop Lavington is styled on his monument in 
Exeter Cathedral, " a successful Exposer of Pre 
tence and Enthusiasm," and, true to this character, 
he speaks out in no measured language against the 
Methodists — " a people of sanctified singularities ; 
low fooleries, and high pretensions," he calls them. 1 

1 Tyerman's Life and Times of John Wesley, vol. ii. p. 91. 


Bishop Ross, with gentler spirit and some approach 
to appreciation, could be kind and hospitable. 
Wesley " dined on the Sunday with the Bishop in 
his Palace, five other clergymen and four of the 
aldermen of Exeter being present besides himself." 1 
But the spirit of Wesley's movement could not 
live without a full measure of positive fellowship, 
and failing to receive this, it drifted away from the 

And yet the Devonshire temperament, though 
it is slow to apprehend, is not irreceptive, and what 
it has received, it retains. The love of the Exeter 
citizens for their Cathedral still shows an influence 
imparted in the thirteenth century by its founders. 
There is still an educational zeal in the city, which 
might be traced back through Blackall and Old- 
ham to Stapeldon. The men of Devon opposed 
the Reformation in the sixteenth century, but the 
memories of the Armada show that they had caught 
the fulness of its spirit before that century closed. 
Wesley was met with open violence, 2 or with the 
indifference which he feared more, 3 when he first 
entered Devon and Cornwall ; but the crowds 
which throng the yearly gathering at Gwennap Pit, 
and the chapels which stud the roadsides, tell a 
different tale now. "The south of England will 
follow its leaders," once said Dr. Temple, all un 

But both in Church and State it must recognise 
the moral claim of the men who aspire to lead. 
After the Reformation the ecclesiastic could not 
be recalled, nor the system of which he was the 
embodiment. Medievalism had run its ap - 
pointed course, and, even if successors had been 
found worthy of Grandisson, they would not have 
held his sway. Medievalism rested on external 

1 Tyerman's Life and Times of John Wesley, vol. iii. p. 384. 

2 Ibid. vol. i. pp. 470-473. 3 Ibid. vol. i. p. 419. 



authority, and that regime belonged to the past. 
It had died hard. In Devon it never shone with 
more splendid light than under Grandisson, the last 
of the line of great ecclesiastical leaders. In 
England it had never been more dominant than 
under the Tudor dynasty. But in the throes of 
great political and religious revolutions, England 
was new-born ; at least she would lead her life 
under new conditions. Restatement of doctrine 
had been rendered necessary, and the change 
necessitated corresponding changes in ritual : 
practical abuses of system had been reformed : 
and behind and beneath all had been the change in 
the representative of Divine authority. It was now 
recognised that the throne was occupied, not by an 
external Church, but by the Divine Spirit Himself, 
using the Church, but using also the individual 
conscience, and in the last resort making that the 
highest court of appeal. Was it not here that 
Dr. Temple's immediate predecessor was at fault ? 
Bishop Phillpotts had many of the qualities of a 
leader, subtilty and incisiveness of thought, a 
strong will, great courage and pertinacity. His 
ideal of the Church, and his standard of clerical 
life, were high. He had the power of rule ; 
he kept his diocese in order ; but he lived 
too late. He was right in standing by the old 
principles, but he did not rightly apply them 
to present needs ; sympathy with modern spirit 
and method was wanting. This was illustrated 
by his conduct in the matter of the Diocesan 
Synod. In calling it together, his instinct was 
right ; he could clearlv see that the best defence 

^j * * 

of the Church would be found in the revival of 
synodical action, because it would enlarge the 
number of defenders. His instinct was at fault 
in regard to the special object for which the Synod 
was summoned ; for he summoned it, not for the 


enlarging of service, but for the narrowing of 
liberty. His whole attitude throughout the 
Gorham controversy was courageous ; but had it 
not been decided in the Courts that the Church of 
England was wide enough to comprehend both his 
view and that of his opponent, the Church would 
have been not stronger but weaker. There was 
a narrowness in the regime which did not draw 
the whole body of Churchmen : he had devoted 
adherents, but not the whole diocese at his back. 
Few generous men will deny the conscientiousness 
of his conduct and the elevation of his aim, and he 
is entitled to the lasting gratitude of Churchmen of 
all schools for preventing the body ecclesiastical from 
falling asunder in times of laxity and conflict, and 
for lifting the level of Church life. But the lead 
was not large or full enough for the ancient Church 
in the modern world ; above all, the system rested 
overmuch on external authority : it was an effort 
to rehabilitate the Church in an old vesture, and to 
place her power not in influence but edict. 

But if ecclesiasticism was dead, neither could 
individualism give the lead. The Evangelical party 
had done much throughout England to quicken 
spiritual life in the individual and to raise the 
standard of morality in society. There was, 
moreover, a warmth in the system which had some 
attraction for all, and which drew adherents into a 
very close fellowship. In the Exeter diocese the 
school was represented by good and earnest men ; 
but they stood apart — partly because official favour 
did not light upon them, and partly because they 
drew a ring around themselves ; in the spirit, not 
new to the adherents of any school, they believed 
in intensity rather than in unity in diversity. They 
were only a section, though a most important 
section, of the Church of England, and it was 
impossible for a section to speak or act in the name 


of the whole Church : they stood for what was 
individual ; they did not understand the meaning or 
the power of a Church Corporate. 

What, then, was the lead needed ? One which 
had affinities both with the old and new ; one 
which, with the historic sense which appreciates the 
past, would blend the spirit which was stirring in 
modern life ; one which would give whole-hearted 
acceptance both to the idea of the Church and the 
teaching of the Bible, though not as the expressions 
of an external authority, but as the response to the 
requirements of a free spirit ; one which, while 
recognising the value of the individual unit, would 
recognise the oneness of the collective Body. A 
strong lead was needed, but its power must rest, 
not only on a dominant will, but still more on 
spiritual attraction. Perhaps there would be 
opposition when it came ; and much that was best 
in the diocese, because of past teachings and 
traditions, would be arrayed against it ; but 
formerly Devon had in the long - run caught 
inspirations and accepted a lead which at first had 
been rejected. It might be so again. 



Letters of congratulation — Opposition on account of Essays 
and Reviews — Correspondence — Election — Confirmation — 
Consecration — Enthronement — Statement in Convocation. 

LONG before his ordination "prophecies went before 
on " Frederick Temple as to high place which 
he would one day hold in the ministry of the 
English Church ; and during the Kneller Hall 
period a bishopric had been assigned to him by 
public rumour. 1 Since this time his work at Rugby 
had brought him more prominently into notice, 
and had established his reputation both for in 
tellectual power and force of character. His line 
of thought in relation to Theology and the Church 
was not quite Mr. Gladstone's, as is evident from 
his own early correspondence with his friends. The 
following estimate, written in 1854, is a remarkable 
illustration of Dr. Temple's political prescience and 
insight into character : — 

Gladstone is the man of the future. . . . For Gladstone 
will throw a vast amount of radicalism into the scale. . . . 

His policy will be to set the Dissenters as free as possible. 
He will remove from them every kind of grievance real or 
fancied. He would even, if he could, buy up all the tithes 
and endow the Church entirely with land so as to make it a 
vast private corporation ; and I am not sure that such an 
able financier might not succeed in doing so. 

1 Editor's Supplement, vol. ii. p. 584. 


Then he would set the Church free ; give her the control 
of her own members ; revive her discipline ; revive her 
Convocation, etc. etc. etc. . . . 

That this would end in Americanism I have no doubt. 

But I believe the true spiritual hold of the Church to re 
side in her non-discipline. The Church is now the most 
tolerant of all denominations ; but she owes this character to 
her bondage. When the bondage has lasted long enough to 
teach her toleration, she may be set free ; but at present she 
needs "the schoolmaster." Until toleration is felt as a 
principle, the freedom of the body is the slavery of the 

Ergo I fear Gladstone, much as I admire him. 1 

The fundamental conceptions of the two men 
were different, and their views diverged increasingly 
as the Cavour ideal of a " Free Church in a Free 
State " gained firmer hold upon the great English 
statesman. But Mr. Gladstone, to whom Bishop 
Temple owed two of the three chief positions 
which he held in life, always recognised his claims. 
In the present instance they had specially been 
brought home to him by the eager and earnest part 
which Dr. Temple had lately taken on the question 
of the Disestablishment of the Irish Church. More 
over, Mr. Gladstone had heard him speak at Liver 
pool in 1865, and in a letter written to him two 
years later refers to his speech as one which he 
"cannot readily forget." Quite apart, however, 
from these considerations, Dr. Temple was a man 
who was bound to go to the front, whenever the 
opportunity of promoting him occurred to a states 
man anxious to do his best in the interests of the 
Church. In the summer of 1869 the Premier 
offered him the Deanery of Durham. This he 
refused. The Deanery had its connexion with the 
University, but, as he states in a letter to Dr. 
Benson, no educational position could, while he 
was still in his vigour, draw him from Rugby. 

1 Scott Correspondence. 


Christ Church and Durham had attractions, but 
"no other Deanery for me till I am well past 
sixty." In the autumn, however, of the same year 
four English bishoprics became vacant, or were on 
the point of being vacated — Oxford, Bath and 
Wells, Exeter, and Manchester. The Prime 
Minister gave him his choice. 1 Dr. Temple's 
educational experience and general habit of thought 
gave him special affinities with the kind of work 
offered at the University or the industrial centre ; 
but his West Country attachments prevailed : 
" They know me, and I know them " ; and he 
chose Exeter. 

As soon as the news became known letters of 
congratulation began to flow in. It is interesting 
for us, standing off from the event at a distance 
of nearly forty years, to recall some who helped 
to make the life of their time, and to note their 
different attitudes towards what was then taking- 
place. In not a few cases personal friendship for 
the chief figure gives a touch which increases the 
interest. Three primacies seem here to meet. 
Two archbishops send greeting to a third. Tait, 
who had helped the beginnings of the rise in 
Balliol days, writes to his old pupil : — 

October 7, 1869. 

MY DEAR TEMPLE — Mr. Gladstone tells me to-day for 
certain of your appointment to Exeter. Though I felt sure 
it would be so, I (from past experience) dared not write to 
you till I was officially assured that the arrangement was 

I trust that God's best blessings may rest upon you. 
You have before you a great work, and at this time especially 

1 " When the time came that I was honoured with the bishopric by 
the Government, and was asked to choose which of the bishoprics then 
vacant I should prefer to accept, I preferred to go to Exeter because of 
my strong 1 affection for the place and for the people " (Speech in the 
Guildhall, Exeter, 1897, see infra, p. 354). 


I expect that your independence and energy will be of the 
greatest value. . . . — Ever sincerely yours, 


Benson expresses a loyalty which is at once 
divided, and yet whole-hearted : — 

October 7, 1869. 

MY DEAR TEMPLE — Oh ! how I hope and trust that the 
" authority " is good. I don't like to see (as at Rugby, I do) 
the sharp edges of the sword coming through the sheath, and 
at Exeter the scabbard may be mended, — even while you do 
the work which for the Church's sake wants doing most. 

It will be like praying for the North and South Pole — 
and make me a true Catholic for ever, to have in my daily 
prayers "Christopher, Bishop of Lincoln, and Frederick, 
Bishop of Exeter, 11 as " in private duty bound." We are one 
— in hope — and in love — Your affectionate, E. W. B. & Co. 

Dr. Harold Browne, then Bishop of Ely, is 
specially conscious of the debt that he owes Dr. 
Temple for the training of his sons at Rugby : — 

I see it announced that you are to be a bishop of a 
diocese very dear to me, from seventeen years 1 intimate con 
nexion with it, and from its being my wife's native home. 

I write at once to offer you my best wishes and felicita 
tions; perhaps I should rather say sympathy. Probably 
there are many points in which you and I see differently. 
You would not think the better of me if I affected to be 
ignorant of them. I do not think you will accuse me of a 
very narrow spirit, or a readiness to magnify such differences. 
At all events, I have always felt and expressed very true 
respect for you as a high-minded, conscientious, religious 
man. I am deeply indebted to you for all you have done for 
my four sons, whom I have committed to your guardianship ; 
and I pray, as I hope, that you will be strengthened and 
guided by the Spirit of God to be a wise, pious, and faithful 
Chief Pastor of His Church. 

Bishop Wilberforce's memory takes him back 
to the times of Dr. Temple's ordination with the 
high hopes of his future career which he then 
formed : — 


I see in the Guardian the announcement of your appoint 
ment to the See of Exeter, and I cannot forbear writing one 
line in the remembrance of the past and the hopes of the 
future to reach out a brotherly hand to you. I can never 
forget the times of your ordination, or my brother Robert's 
loving regard for you. Often and often in my poor way I 
have defended you from what seem utter misconceptions of 
your character, and whilst I suppose there are matters on 
which we differ, I cannot forbear saying that I do firmly 
believe we shall not only sympathise with one another but work 
often together. I need hardly say that my personal feelings 
of old regard are strongly quickened, and that if in any way 
I can help you, command me. 

Dean Stanley welcomes the personal friend, and 
as he hoped, the Liberal ally : — 

October 6, 1869. 

If you have not received the official intimation that you 
are to be Bishop of Exeter, do not disclose it from this letter, 
but forgive me for being unable to suppress my extreme joy 
at the fulfilment of my long-cherished desire. Nunc dimittis 
servum tuum. . . . But my object in writing is to be the first 
and foremost to wish you and myself joy of an event which I 
do truly believe may yet be the salvation of the Church of 

Tom Hughes rejoices in the thought of a strong 
bishop : — 

October 9, 1869. 

One line to tell you how glad I am of your bishopric, 
which a line from Glyn assures me of this morning. I had 
not believed the rumour before. 

I only hope Gladstone will have the courage to promote 
strong 1 men of all the schools, else I doubt how the Church 
will hold together much longer. 

Dr. Bradby, Headmaster of Haileybury, gives 
a well-timed but little-heeded caution against 

HAII.EYBURY, October 11, 1869. 

I hear you are really going to the Bishopric of Exeter, 
and I will make bold to express my satisfaction to you. 

We have enough of Liberalism without Piety, and Piety 


without Liberalism in the world. If we get the two combined, 
as they should be, in one man, and he is put in high place, 
then there is hope of good. 

May I venture my mite of advice ? Don't work yourself 
to death. I can't see the use, or reverence, or propriety of a 
man's insisting on cramming a week's work into four days. 
As though God's purposes could not be effected unless he 
overstrained himself. 

It will be some consolation to you in leaving Rugby that 
you are going to shepherd your own county. 

Don't reply. If you do, I shall be almost certain that 
I have bored you. Now I can wish you God-speed with a 
light heart. 

Mr. Bryce is glad in the interests of culture and 
of University Reform : — 

October 18, 1869. 

Will you let me express to you the delight with which so 
many of us here at Oxford have heard of the appointment to 
Exeter ? It is not merely for the sake of the Church that we 
are glad ; but here at Oxford when the University Reform 
questions come on again we feel how much there will be that 
you can effect for putting things on anew and better footing. 1 

The letter from Matthew Arnold has special 
interest on personal grounds, and as coming from 
the son of Dr. Temple's great predecessor. 

HARROW, October 12, 1869. 

I have often thought of you in the last few days, and 
must write you one word to say how I rejoice in your move. 
I had rather you had gone to Oxford, but the great matter 
is that you should hold the post somewhere. The times, in 
spite of all people say, are good and will be better ; in the 
seventeenth century I should certainly have been in orders, 
and I think, if I were a young man now, I would take them. 

1 This letter produced the following reply, " characteristic in its 
brief vigour." 

RUGBY, October 21, 1869. 

MY DEAR BRYCE — Thank you. I mean to help the University if I 
can. But meanwhile what a noise there is in the West. I wonder 
whether I shall be able to hear my own voice down there. — Yours ever, 



The future of the Church of England entirely depends upon 
itself ; I do believe, instead of passing away into a voluntary 
sect, it may become far greater and more national than it has 
ever yet been ; few can do more for such a desirable con 
summation than you can, and therefore I so heartily rejoice 
in your appointment. 

Once more, my dear Temple, my best and heartiest 

Finally, the aged Lord Russell, lately Prime 
Minister, and formerly Dr. Temple's chief at the 
Education Office, writes characteristically : — 

November 26, 1869. 

I have been too much rejoiced at your nomination by the 
Crown, and election by the Chapter as Bishop of Exeter, to 
refrain altogether from expressing to you my satisfaction — con 
gratulation is not the word ; for the endeavour to promote 
truth by discussion, to instil the spirit of Christ into 
those who profess to teach religion, is still a struggle and a 
combat where those who engage cannot expect to escape 
without a wound. . . . 

And indeed the appointment was not to go 
unchallenged. All the influences which had been in 
operation upon Temple's mind from the day of his 
leaving school had tended to emancipate it from 
external control, and to give play to its own vigorous 
working. The atmosphere of the University, full- 
charged with the cross currents of controversy, had 
stirred him intellectually into full activity, and the 
chief ecclesiastical movement of his time, although it 
had been directed against Liberalism, working upon 
an alert mind like his, had not confined but enlarged 
thought. The intellectual and cultured friends, 
the Education Office, and finally Rugby calling 
out the response of a sympathetic nature to the 
eagerness of young minds, whether those of masters 
or of elder pupils, all told in the same direction ; 
and the result was that Dr. Temple had gained the 
reputation, even more than he merited, of being an 



advanced Liberal both in politics and theology. 
Temple through life paid the penalty which always 
waits upon special fulness and largeness of mind. 
The real fact was that he did not part with the old 
in adopting the new, and that much of the Con 
servative view kept its place in him alongside of 
the Liberal. It was the seat of authority which 
had been changed, far more than the subject- 
matter of belief. But this was never understood, 
except by those who thoroughly knew him ; and 
in the present instance the fact that he had been a 
contributor to the notorious Essays and Reviews 
was taken as sufficient proof of the sort of man 
he was. 

Events have moved quickly in the ecclesiastical 
as well as in the political sphere during the last 
forty years, and it is not easy for younger men to 
understand the stir caused in the religious world 
by this volume. The chief objection to the book 
as a whole was its negative character, but charges of 
heresy are not rightly based on absence of affirma 
tion ; and it would be impossible that Convocation 
should now solemnly condemn such a volume. 
As a matter of fact, the substance of the Essay 
in question had been given as a sermon, first in the 
school chapel at Rugby, and afterwards, in a more 
elaborate form, before the University of Oxford, 
without provoking much adverse comment. If the 
Essay had been written later it would have been 
free from some unguarded expressions ; but it was 
a clear expression of positive faith from a liberal 
standpoint, and if read now it would be regarded as 
making strongly for the defence of revealed truth. 
It appears, however, that the Prime Minister, with 
his ringer on the pulse of Church and nation, had 
fully gauged the probability of an outburst of op 
position ; and in this case the more credit is due 
for the courage shown in making the appointment. 


The storm quickly broke. The protagonist, 
Dr. Pusey, at once writes protesting against "the 
horrible scandal of the recommendation of the 
editor of the Essays and Reviews to be a Christian 
bishop." It was soon known that Dr. Temple, so 
far from being the editor, had not even seen the 
other Essays till they were published, and that he 
did not know who was the editor until he wrote to 
ask him for his paper. But whether he was the 
editor or not, he had allowed his Essay to remain 
in what was, in Dr. Pusey's estimate, "a soul- 
destroying book." Other well-known leaders, 
Mansel and Burgon, the great combatant Arch 
deacon Denison, thunder forth. High and Low 
Church join forces. The following advertisement 
is issued from a committee room in Cockspur 
Street : — 

The Earl of Shaftesbury and the Rev. Dr. Pusey having 
consented to act in unison in using every effort to prevent 
the scandal to the Church caused by the Premier's nomination 
of Dr. Temple, clergymen and laymen willing to support 
their brethren in the Diocese of Exeter are requested to 
communicate without delay with the secretaries. 

The beacon fires once lighted spread from hill to 
hill. The Church newspapers are ready messengers ; 
each post publishes a new letter and brings an 
additional protest ; each day has its new revelation, 
which the following day discredits, of the com 
plicity of the bishop-nominate in plots against the 
orthodoxy of the Church. The infection spreads 
to the threatened diocese ; two counties and the 
whole city of Exeter — Cathedral Chapter and 
Parochial Clergy alike — are in an uproar. From 
the rural deaneries, both in the town and country 
districts, memorials of protest flow in. Some of 
the first supporters become uneasy about their 
previous letters of congratulation. Bishop Harold 
Browne writes under date October 18, 1869 : — 


MY DEAR DR. TEMPLE — You have pardoned me already 
for saying that we have probably differences of opinion. I 
left my boys under your care, and my late revered friend 
Bishop Phillpotts told me that he consented that his grandson 
should become a master under you, because your character 
stood so high in all that was honourable and disinterested, 
and because you had infused such a high moral tone into 
your school. 

I, in common with many who so respected you, regretted 
deeply that you wrote in a well-known volume, though each 
writer in that volume claimed limited liability. . . . There 
is now a great agitation about your nomination by the 
Crown to the See of Exeter. I have no business with the 
question. But I am deeply interested in Exeter. I have 
valued friends in the Chapter. I have a great personal 
regard for yourself. Is there anything unreasonable in a 
bishop designate being asked to profess his faith for the 
satisfaction of those who are to elect him, and who will be 
sworn to elect according to their consciences ? Bishops in 
olden times entering on their dioceses often made some 
profession of faith. 

You will not like to do so in answer to clamour. That 
I quite appreciate. But I am no clamourer, and I am a 
common friend of yourself and the Chapter. Would there 
be anything out of place in your telling me, so that I might 
tell others, that you not only hold all the Articles of the 
Catholic Creeds, but that you believe and trust in the 
Atoning Sacrifice offered on the Cross, and that you do not 
doubt the special and supernatural inspiration of the 
Prophets and Apostles, not placing that inspiration on the 
level of genius, and so considering S. Paul as only so 
inspired as was Cicero and Shakespeare ? I do not wish to 
put words into your mouth. I may be very presumptuous ; 
but my presumption arises from an anxious desire to save 
the Church from another disastrous struggle, and to pre 
serve, if it be possible, both its purity and its peace. 

Later on Bishop Wilberforce, who had now 
been translated to Winchester, takes alarm : — 

Dec. 20, 1869. 

MY DEAR BISHOP — I write simply to explain what you say 
you are unable to understand in me. 


The letter of mine to which you refer 1 was written on my 
first hearing of your nomination. It was the natural outcome 
of my own feelings to F. Temple. When I wrote it I did 
not even recall to mind that your Essay was included in any 
Censure of Convocation. 

My feeling to you is now what it was when I wrote that 

My earnest desire that you should, for the Church's sake 
and that of others, and, I might almost say especially, for 
the sake of Gladstone, separate yourself from what Con 
vocation has condemned, seems to me not only not difficult 
of reconciliation with this feeling towards you, but to be its 
necessary consequence. — I am, very truly yours, 


Sir Stafford Northcote, who never forgot the 
past days in which he had sat with Temple at the 
Scholars' table in Balliol, writes a letter which must 
strongly have appealed to kindred feelings in his 
old college friend : — 

October 17, 1869. 

MY DEAR TEMPLE — I have hesitated for some time before 
I could make up my mind to write to you, but I think I 
may do so without being misunderstood. First, let me offer 
you my best wishes on your appointment to this diocese, in 
which I feel persuaded that you will do a great deal of good. 
Next, will you allow me to say that, having been in the 
way of hearing the opinions of a great number of persons, 
clerical and lay, representing very various shades of thought, 
I have found a strong desire prevailing amongst them all, 
that you would take some opportunity of expressing yourself 
in language that would counteract the effect produced by 
your connexion with the Essays and Reviews. There are, 
of course, some extreme men whom nothing is likely to 
satisfy; but I speak of very moderate men, who hold 
language of this kind, "I have no doubt Dr. Temple will 
make a very excellent bishop ; most probably within the 
next year or two I shall have to receive him in my house 

when he comes down to confirm at ; I wish I had some 

good reason for not joining in the opposition to his 
Election, which will place me in disagreeable relations with 
him ; but as matters at present stand I have no option but 

1 Supra, p. 25. 


to join. I regard the Essays and Reviewn (as to some of 
them) as heterodox ; I find him associating himself with the 
Essayists, and though I have no objection to make to his 
own Essay, I am pained to find that he refuses to separate 
himself from his associates in the work ; how can I do other 
wise than labour to prevent his election as my bishop ? " 

According to the best of my information I think your 
election will be carried in the Chapter, perhaps by a casting 
vote. Even if it were not, you would of course be gazetted 
by the authority of the Crown. But there would be a 
strong opposing party in the diocese, and it is not impossible 
that your appointment may give occasion for a secession of 
more or less importance ; and what the effect of a secession 
might be it is difficult to say. 

Can you not, for the sake of, not only the diocese, but 
the Church, say something that would encourage your friends 
and confirm waverers ? . . . 

But the object, whether of solicitation or attack, 
stands unmoved ; " Si fractus illabatur orbis, 
Impavidum ferient ruinae." Not that the tender 
heart within the granite case did not feel ; his 
private letters speak of sleepless nights ; and the 
marks left on the strong face by the charge of 
disloyalty to his Master, and by the disquietude of 
his friends, were plain enough to one who met 
him on the eve of his Consecration. The pallor 
of the countenance and the set face told their own 
tale. But he always stood to the conviction 
that the widest possible latitude of opinion ought 
to be allowed within the boundaries of the English 
Church consistently with the acceptance of her 
formularies, and he would not repudiate such a 
limited association as was implied by writing in the 
same volume of Essays, unless the contributors 
were condemned by the recognised Courts of Law ; 
he believed that he was maintaining the cause of 
religious liberty, and that in doing this he was 
acting as a true Churchman. He also believed that 
loyalty to the cause of religious liberty required 
that he should make no other declaration at this 


time than those required by the law of the 

RUGBV, October 11, 1869. 

MY DEAR COLEIIIDGE — . . . I do not think I can rightly 
or wisely make any public declaration about Essays and 

If I speak at all, I must be just to the other writers, and 
I must be quite open to the Church. 

Now I did not and do not consider myself responsible for 
the opinions of the other writers. I said so then. It was 
said in the Preface to the Book. 

To say so again now would mean a great deal more. It 
would mean condemnation. I am not prepared to condemn 
them, though in not a few points I disagree with several of 

Further, it would mean that I thought that the Book as a 
whole had done harm. I think it has done much good as 
well as harm, and that the good preponderates. 

To break through the mischievous reticence which was 
crusting over the clergy and damaging the very life of the 
Church was worth purchasing at a high price. Many, 
perhaps most, will think the price too high. I cannot 
think so. 

To say all this would certainly not stop any outcry. 
And less than this I fear that I cannot say, if I say any 
thing. . . . 

I am quite satisfied that when once I am among the 
clergy I can win many whom no honest declaration will win. 
Much mischief may perhaps be done meanwhile. But I 
know what I can do and what I cannot. I cannot prevent 
it, but I can repair it. — Yours very affectionately, 


RUGBY, October 16, 1869. 

MY DEAR, COOK — I cannot well tell you how much I feel 
for all my friends in Exeter just now. And for you, who 
have not merely to talk but to act, how can I feel enough ? 

But I am afraid that it is quite impossible for me to help 

To make any public statement or to answer any question 
appears to me to be quite inconsistent with my position. 
It would sanction a most dangerous precedent, sure to be 
imitated, and sure to have dangerous consequences. 



Whatever you may think of it now, you may depend 
upon it, it would distinctly weaken me for my work. I 
should become a bishop more easily, but a damaged bishop. 

But further, no statement that I could rightly make 
would disarm the opposition. If I say anything I must be 
full and open. A full and open statement would satisfy 

you. But it would be received with shrieks by and 

his followers. I preached a sermon in Whitehall some little 
time ago (which Gladstone at the time sent for and read) to 
express my belief, inter alia, that the beginning of Genesis 
was a poem, to be interpreted as we interpret the Apocalypse 
or the last part of Ezekiel. You very likely would disagree 
with such a view. But you would not say that a man who 
held it was no Christian. Yet the chief leaders of all this 
agitation would say that this was as bad as anything. 

Lastly, though I am unwilling to bring in personal con 
siderations in such a case, yet it is inevitable. What can a 
bishop be worth who has no regard for personal character ? 
It would seem to me so inconsistent with all personal self- 
respect to say one word about the other writers of Essays and 
Reviews, that I cannot imagine anything that would induce 
me to do it directly or indirectly : certainly not a bishopric. 
A right-minded man cannot enter on such an office by begin 
ning with what lowers him before his own conscience. 

I have written quite freely and unreservedly. But let me 
add that you may feel quite sure that if my letter and my 
refusal to help you hampers you so much that you judge it 
best to stand quite aside, I shall have no doubt at all that you 
have done right. 

We differ, I daresay, not a little. But at any rate we have 
learnt too much respect for each other to allow either to 
doubt the conscientiousness of the other. Even if I am 
never Bishop of Exeter I shall still know that I have your 

One report I have heard that you may perhaps come 
across and wish to meet, viz., that I was the editor of the 
Book. I was not the editor, as I think you know ; and I 
never saw any Essay but my own till the Book was published. 
I should not like to be quoted as saying this just now. But 
still it is a bare fact which you may as well know. 


MY DEAR ARCHDEACON (Freeman) — I have to acknowledge 
your letter of the 20th. It must be a matter of regret when- 


ever pain or doubt or want of cordiality affects the relations 
between the clergy and the bishop. No diocese can fail to 
suffer if there be any degree of disagreement between those 
who ought to co-operate so entirely. But any man who 
reflects must see that this is the price that we pay for the 
liberty that our Church, beyond all others, allows to its 
members and its officers. That liberty has repeatedly proved 
of the highest value. It has saved from extinction most 
valuable schools of thought which the Church could ill have 
spared. It has given the Church a more truly Catholic 
character than any other body of Christians now possesses. 
It has allowed a freer and truer study of God's works. It and 
it alone has made the Church national, and enabled it to 
satisfy those needs which only a National Church can satisfy. 
Nothing would more seriously imperil this liberty than to 
commence a course of extorting declarations of opinion from 
those who happened to hold, or to be suspected of holding, 
whatever might be at the moment least popular. If this 
practice once began it would be easy to continue it, and to 
press it with perpetually increasing force. Those who now 
ask for it might live to find their own weapons turned against 
themselves with fatal effect. The pretext for such demands 
can be easily varied. Sometimes the plea is duty ; sometimes 
charity and tenderness ; sometimes the good of the Church. 
Sometimes the demand is enforced by a threat, and the de 
claration is made a condition of holding office. But the 
result is in every case the same ; the first who yields may 
yield to persuasion ; those who follow have to yield to com 
pulsion. I have always refused to satisfy such demands, and 
must always continue to refuse. They seem to me inconsistent 
with the plainest duty to the Church and to our Lord. . . . 

Probably no one but himself fully understood 
all the workings of his mind. But he was not 
without many friends in the contest ; Dr. Benson 
promptly and chivalrously told out in the columns 
of The Times what he had learnt of his friend. 
He ends thus : — 

. . . They who censure this conge cFelire know not the 
man. They know not the singleness, and truth, and patience ; 
they know not the courage, the manliness, the life, which 
they would divert from the service of the Church; they 
know not, what is more, the power of inspiration, not short 


of genius, which he has for others ; the energy with which 
contact with hi m sets other men to work ; how many a 
shadow springs before him into a reality. For, least of all, 
do they know his sympathetic charity and the might of his 
Christian faith. 

We have yet to learn how we are to give our great 
institutes their true vitality ; how we are to make our 
selves worthy once more to be the Church of the masses — 
masses which it is my firm belief he will have helped power 
fully to penetrate with the love of the Cross, the love of the 
Church, when Essays and Reviews are forgotten. 

Thank God for the tokens which are abroad that other 
of our bishops too see somewhat of that great secret ! But 
we cannot spare Dr. Temple. — Your obedient servant, 


Oct. 16 (1869). 

Professor Hort, in thanking Dr. Benson for this 
letter, shows that he took the same fundamental 
view as Dr. Temple himself as to what the cause 
of liberty in the Church demanded. 

HITCHIN, October 23, 1869. 

MY DEAR BENSON — I cannot forbear sending you one line 
of thanks for your letter about Temple. It comes to me a& 
a personal benefit of the highest kind, and as, I trust and 
believe, an equally great benefit to the Church at large. 
Great indeed must have been the sacrifice of personal feeling 
involved in writing it ; but I am sure you will be rewarded 
with the one fitting reward, the words not returning void. 
Not only have you supplied facts which it was needful to 
have known, but the voice in which you have spoken will go 
sounding on, and inspire thousands to look to Temple with 
eager hope, who would have barely tolerated him, or even 
loathed him . . . 

I could wish you had not seemed to imply that Temple 
was merely deceived, and that his silence was due merely 
to personal grounds. Surely the one common purpose 
of all the writers in E. and R. (truthfully and truly ex 
pressed, I have always believed, in the prefatory words) 
was one in which he sympathises now and always; and 
surely he must feel that that purpose was gained by the 
publication. Like others he must lament the wide and deep 


mischief wrought by the recklessness of some of the writers 
(and indeed 1 think of the whole scheme) ; but that need 
not blind him to the good work done. Surely the air is 
clearer ever since ; and the ultimate power of the faith 
thereby immeasurably stronger. Of late the clouds have 
been somewhat gathering again ; and nothing could be more 
opportune than Temple's promotion ; not from his own 
worth only, but also, I cannot help thinking, because he has 
been lying under the ban ; and yet has questioned no article 
of the Creed. — Ever yours, 

F. J. A. HORT. 

In the Diocese of Exeter be found a supporter 
in his old master, Mr. Sanders, then Prebendary in 
Exeter Cathedral, and in many others. But the 
chief burden of the defence was borne by his 
friend and former colleague in the Education 
Office, Canon Cook. His position was difficult. 
Amongst the strongest of the opponents were 
members of his own Chapter, and he was in danger 
of forfeiting their friendship. Moreover, the trend 
of his own mind in theology and general thought 
was conservative. But he stood manfully by his 
friend, though Temple's ways were not quite his 
ways. He desired that Temple should publicly 
disavow the opinions of his collaborators in Essays 
and Reviews ; but this, as has been seen, Dr. 
Temple resolutely refused to do. Cook thought 
him wrong, and knew that his difficulties in defend 
ing him were increased by the refusal, as well as 
by his unwillingness, to disclose to the public 
those differences with the other writers which he 
admitted to his friends. But none the less he 
persevered. A great point was to secure the 
Bishop - nominate's election by the Chapter at 
Exeter. It is evident that, if the election had 
been refused, the appointment would still have 
been pressed. " If the opponents are a majority, 
Temple must come in another way," writes Dean 
Wellesley from Hawarden. " No opposition can 


keep out Temple," writes the Dean again ; " but," 
he adds with his usual sagacity, " I dread the harm 
it will do to the Church and the more worthy of 
the opponents." To have over-ridden the Chapter 
would have been a most serious step. So great was 
the tension of feeling at the time that it might 
even have endangered the relations between Church 
and State ; and the effort to win his way after so 
forcible an entrance might have proved a task 
too great even for the new Bishop's courageous 
pertinacity. It was worth much to secure a 
majority in Temple's favour, and Canon Cook 
left no stone unturned. " The matter has become 
now too notorious in all its bearings for and 
against, for anything but disadvantage to Temple 
to be gained by any management of the election 
in his favour," writes Dean Wellesley with the true 
instinct of the gentleman and the courtier ; nor 
was Cook the man to make the attempt. But he 
spared no labour, assuring first one and then 
another of the members of the Greater Chapter, 
with whom the election rested, of the strength of 
his belief, both in the orthodoxy and the personal 
character of the Bishop-nominate. Gradually, by 
correspondence and by word of mouth, he leavened 
the whole diocese with a feeling of increased 
confidence. Cook's own reputation as a student 
of great learning and calm judgment carried much 
weight ; even those who could not listen, resisted 
with great reluctance. "If this is carried out, 
disestablishment or secession occupy the whole 
prospect before us," writes one of the Prebendaries 
in the exaggerated phrase of an over-wrought 
mind ; ** but," he adds, " I must again ask pardon, 
this time, for my length ; but more than that, I 
regret my inability to put before you clearly my 
reasons for feeling very very strongly on the op 
posite side to you." " After all," writes another, 


" your opinion cannot but have great weight ; and 
though I cannot say I am as yet prepared to 
agree with you, I shall be only very glad if I am 
able to arrive at the same conclusion." 

When the day of election came, nineteen 
answered to their names in the Chapter House. 
Thirteen voted for the election ; six against it ; 
four were absent. Dr. Temple was chosen by a 
majority of seven. It must not be forgotten that 
amongst the opposing minority were some of those 
who stood highest amongst the clergy in the 
diocese for character and devotion. They knew 
not what they were doing, but they were true to 
the system in which they had been trained. 

It would be hard to exaggerate the obligation 
under which the mitis sapientia of Canon Cook 
had placed both the diocese and the Church at 
large. But the recalcitrants would not yet own 
defeat ; at the Confirmation which followed, they 
went so far as to render it necessary to summon 
Dr. Temple's elder sister, at short notice, to prove 
that he had been born in lawful wedlock ; and Mr. 
R. Lingen, 1 the secretary of the Education Depart 
ment, his former colleague, came to testify to 
personal character. The scene in Bow Church was 
striking and historic. There appeared in opposition 
two of the beneficed clergy of the Exeter Diocese, 
headed by Bishop Trower, who was sub-dean of 
the Cathedral, and had acted as the coadjutor arid 
deputy of Bishop Phillpotts during the last years 
of feebleness which terminated his strong and 
strenuous episcopate. There was the excitement 
of a crowd with the parade of a complex function 
in which civil and ecclesiastical elements were 
somewhat grotesquely combined. There has been 
opposition on more than one occasion of this kind, 
but for one reason or another it has always been 

1 The late Lord Lingen. 


fruitless. It has never been judged legally per 
missible to decide the question on its own merits. 
On this occasion there was much legal disputation, 
but the Vicar-General, Sir Travers Twiss, ruled 
that the Archbishop, on whose behalf he acted, had 
no option but to carry out the Royal mandate 
which he had received. 

It still remained to consummate the entrance 
upon the high office by the final act of Consecra 
tion. During the interval further attempts were 
made to draw the Bishop-elect from the position 
which he had taken up. The Bishop of Ely, 
unable to prevail upon Dr. Temple to make some 
declaration, did not see his way to present for Con 
secration, though consenting to take part in the act 
itself. 1 The Prime Minister himself could not 
understand the reason why Dr. Temple should still 
refuse to speak, and was unable to follow his logic 
in the matter. Even Dr. Benson, to whom he 
was almost an infallible guide, supplicates him to 
" break silence " on the eve of his Consecration, 
urging that now that " the crook of Christ's flock " 
was about to be put into his hands he should give 
the same measure of confidence which once, in 
disburdening his mind about Essays and Reviews, 
he had reposed in the Sixth Form at Rugby 
School. 2 

But the strong man holds his ground. Dr. 
Benson in writing had expressed the mind of his 
other master, the Bishop of Lincoln, who had thus 
himself addressed Dr. Temple : — 

November 13 (1869). 

MY DEAR BISHOP-ELECT — . . . You have now a glorious 
opportunity of restoring peace to the Church of England. 
In her name I plead with you. I do not ask you to condemn 
the volume to which I have referred. But I do entreat you 

1 Letter of Bishop of Ely to Dr. Temple, Dec. 2, 1869. 
2 See " Rugby " Memoir, vol. i. p. 220. 


to disclaim all responsibility for it, except so far as your 
own part of it is concerned. This, you may say, was done 
by anticipation in the preface. But the subsequent publica 
tion of numerous editions has neutralized that disavowal. 
Whether rightly or wrongly, the Essays are regarded by 
many as forming one connected whole ; and the minds of 
many are now distressed and distracted by your coming to 
the episcopal office with that book in your hand. They 
who are thus disturbed may be in error. But will you not 
feel compassion for them ? Will you not show your sympathy 
with them by uttering some words which will cost you little 
to speak, and which they will rejoice to hear? 

I have referred to the example of ancient bishops, but 
may I not rise higher and speak of Apostles ? How would 
S. Paul have acted in your circumstances ? — he who said, 
" Who is weak and I am not weak, who is offended and I 
burn not?" How would Christ Himself have acted, who 
condescended to the weakness of His disciples, and would 
not cast a stumbling-block in the way even of His bitterest 
enemies ? He " who had compassion on the ignorant and 
out of the way, for that He Himself also was compassed with 

You may now imitate them. Will you not do it ? 

In his answer to the master, Dr. Temple had, 
doubtless, also the disciple in his mind : — 

RUGBY, November 26 (1869). 

MY LORD — I did not answer your letter at once because 
the extraordinary kindness, and even tenderness, which inspires 
it throughout made me desire to reconsider once more what I 
had often considered already, and to bring myself, if I could, 
to a different conclusion about my duty from that which I 
had previously formed. 

But all consideration only brings me back to this, that 
the one safe rule for me to follow is the law of the Church of 
England. While I am neither refusing to say nor do what 
the law does not require, I am on safe ground ; and the 
responsibility lies with the law and not with me. The 
moment I step beyond these limits, I take the responsibility 
on myself, and I cannot shift it ; and whatever ill conse 
quences may follow, the blame is mine. 

It is true, my Lord, that what you propose is studiously, 
generously moderate. But to concede it is to concede the 


whole principle. And while I am quite sure that very few 
indeed would be satisfied with what you propose, who are not 
in their hearts tolerably well satisfied already, I am sure, too, 
that were I to agree I should only lay myself open to fresh 
demands to which I could no longer return the one sufficient 
answer, — that I was keeping strictly within the limits of the 
law of the Church of England. 

The examples that your Lordship sets before me have been 
present to my mind ever since I received your letter. If this 
were a question of sacrificing my own feelings to the good 
or comfort of others, such examples would be overwhelming. 
But the question is not one of feeling, but of duty ; and if 
these examples are to aid in deciding what that duty is, I 
cannot forget that the same S. Paul who made himself, as 
you remind me, "all things to all men," yet on another 
occasion, and that, too, when his conduct must have given the 
deepest pain to many devout Christians, and probably kept 
not a few religious Jews out of the Church altogether, not 
withstanding, tells us that "he gave place by subjection, no 
not for an hour." 

It would be simply presumptuous in me to say what an 
Apostle would do, if he stood where I stand now. I should 
not, indeed, venture to quote the example of the Apostles at 
all if you had not first quoted it to me. But I am quite 
sure that no Apostle would do what he believed to be plainly 

My Lord, I have a real reverence for your character ; I 
cannot adequately express my sense of the kindness of your 
letter ; but in this matter I am doing my duty in God's 
sight to the best of my ability, and when I say that, I am 
sure that you will not press me further, but rather pray that 
if I am wrong I may have clearer light and firmer strength. 
— Yours gratefully, F. EXON. (ELECT). 

The day of the Consecration, December 21, 
1869, came at last. It was the Festival of S. 
Thomas. There was a fitness in the day chosen. 
One of the most striking of Temple's Rugby 
sermons had for its subject the doubts of S. Thomas. 
After speaking of doubts of levity, conceit, hard 
ness, and of others which, though not sinful in them 
selves, become sins from the mode in which they 
are treated, he adds : — 


Such doubts are sinful : of such we must beware, as we 
would beware of any sin accompanied by peculiar danger. 
But the natural doubts that come unbidden, and demand to 
be heard, are not sins at all, and we must not treat them as 
sins. One word will tell our duty in dealing with them all — 
Wait : wait in full trust that God will give you light as you want 
it ; will teach you what is needed for your soul's health by 
ways of His own ; will make clear at last what part of your 
doubt was a mere mistake, what part was well founded ; above 
all, will make the very doubt of the loving soul the founda 
tion of a faith that can never more be shaken. Can we 
suppose that to the end of his days S. Thomas ever needed 
again any arguments to convince him of our Lord's having 
risen from the grave, or that he would ever forget the 
thrilling moment when his hand touched His Master's 
wounded side ? So, too, the Christian finds in the perplexities 
that God clears up a light even beyond the brightness of his 
earlier faith, for it is the light of the Face of Christ. 1 

But at the very last came a delay which strained 
the feelings of the crowded congregation gathered 
in the Abbey to the uttermost. The gloom of 
a London fog stealing into the Abbey lent itself 
to the uneasiness and misgiving. The bishops to 
be consecrated were those appointed to the Sees of 
Bath and Wells, the Falkland Islands, and Exeter ; 
and when, attended by their chaplains, they 
entered the Jerusalem chamber before passing 
into the Abbey, Dr. Jackson, the Bishop of 
London, presiding in the place of Archbishop Tait, 
who was ill, rose from his seat. He informed his 
brethren that he had at the last moment received 
protests from several of the bishops of the 
province against the Consecration of Dr. Temple, 
and notably one from the Bishop of Lincoln. 
Putting together all the protests, their meaning 
was that the Archbishop would not be acting in 
accordance with the law of the Church if he were 
to consecrate in the face of a protest from his 
suffragans. His own opinion, which had been 

1 " Doubts/' Temple's Rugby Sermons, 1858-60. 


fortified by the advice of the highest legal 
authorities, was that the Archbishop was bound to 
proceed, but he asked each of the bishops present 
to state his own view. The assisting prelates were 
the Bishop of S. David's (Dr. Thirlwall), the 
Bishop of Worcester (Dr. Philpott), and the 
Bishop of Ely (Dr. Harold Browne). Each in turn 
gave his voice against the acceptance of the 
protests. The Bishop of Ely, with his usual 
combination of modesty and learning, fortified his 
own judgment by the sanction of an appeal to a 
precedent of the primitive Church. With greater 
directness, the historian Bishop of S. David's 
briefly pronounced: "My judgment is that they 
cannot be received." Thus the last formal obstacle 
to the Consecration was withdrawn. The long 
procession filed its way into the great shrine round 
which gather so many memories and associations of 
Church and nation. In these Frederick Temple 
was henceforth to hold a place. 

Although Temple's life was lived before the eyes 
of men he would not be spoken of as a man of 
many acquaintances, but he had not a few strong 
friends — none stronger than working-men. There 
was something in his rugged force and sturdiness 
of character which specially commended him to 
them, and he had done much to help the working- 
men of Rugby during his headmastership. In con 
sequence they were much interested in his fortunes 
at this time, and sent a message to the working- 
men of Westminster asking them to make a 
demonstration in his favour at the Consecration. 
It was noticed that, during a pause in the service, 
a number of men in working clothes crowded into 
the Abbey and filled the Lantern. The reason 
was not known at the time, and the incident caused 
much surprise ; but it was the dinner - hour, and 
their presence was the practical answer to the 


request of their brethren in the Midlands. But his 
friends were of every class, and they gathered in 
strength on the day of his Consecration, — pupils 
who gave him something of hero-worship ; Oxford 
contemporaries who were privy to the marvel of 
his early toil ; official colleagues who had learnt to 
respect him while working with him ; relations who 
owed him more than the ordinary obligations of 
kinship. Arthur Clough and Matthew Arnold were 
there, and Tom Hughes — the two first recalling 
Balliol days, and all seeing in him the revival of 
memories and the embodiment of a force which 
centred in Dr. Arnold. Arthur Stanley rejoiced 
in the sense that the Episcopate from which he 
hoped so much would be begun in his own beloved 
Minster. To one of the oldest of this band of 
friends, Lake, Fellow of Balliol, and afterwards 
Dean of Durham, had been confided the responsi 
bility of the sermon. A true friend he always was, 
though contentious at times, and apt to use his real 
comprehensiveness of spirit so as to alienate rather 
than to attract. Temple, as was his wont, seemed 
to like him most when most he differed from him. 
On this occasion the old friend let his affection have 
full play, and the largeness of tone was employed 
wholly to conciliate. Thus he concludes : — 

I have dwelt thus far upon certainty and simplicity of 
faith as alike essential to Christianity, because I believe that 
it is only by the union of these qualities that it can hope to 
hold its place in the world. But before I close let me refer to 
another characteristic of its spirit. In the earliest and best 
days of the Church the greatest men were largely tolerant of 
differences of opinion, and were ever ready to put the best 
construction upon the language of those whom they saw to be 
truly serving Christ. One single instance is enough to show 
my meaning. We all know that the greatest conflict of early 
Christianity was against Arianism, and the one man to whom 
we have, perhaps, owed the most since S. Paul was Athanasius. 
S. Basil, the greatest name in the Greek church, and who, 


as Dr. Newman has observed, owed the success of his great 
episcopate to the support of the laity, was constantly harassed 
through life with the charge that he was an unbeliever 
at heart. He was in communion with the opponents 
of Athanasius ; he had resolutely refused to separate 
himself from his early friends ; and he was denounced to 
Athanasius as unworthy to be a bishop. How did 
Athanasius act ? Did he exact from Basil some fresh 
assurance beyond the adoption of the Apostles' and the 
Nicene creeds ? No ; he, the great father of orthodoxy, 
simply wrote to enjoin Basil's diocese to obey him, and added 
that he had but condescended to the infirmities of the weak, 
and that they might well be happy to have received for their 
bishop a man so full of wisdom and of truth. . . . What 
Basil did and Athanasius commanded, we need not be afraid 
to imitate. 

After the Consecration the centre of interest 
was transferred from Westminster to Exeter, where 
the enthronement took place on Wednesday, 
December 29. The Bishop spent the preceding 
night at Sowton Rectory with the incumbent, his 
old schoolmaster, Prebendary Sanders — afterwards 
to be promoted by him to the Archdeaconry of 
Exeter. It was a memorable meeting. In the 
lad whose strenuous struggle he had admired and 
aided, whose future advance to high station in the 
Church he, with other patrons of the boy, had 
predicted, the former headmaster now welcomed 
his Bishop. Prebendary Sanders was an inveterate 
Tory, both in politics and churchmanship ; but for 
Temple he was even willing to sacrifice Toryism ; 
he stood by him when the tide was against him 
before his coming, and though he grumbled at 
times, and was always a little uneasy as to where 
next the duckling whom he had reared might ask 
him to follow into deep waters, yet he was always 
absolutely loyal, true, like his pupil, to the core. 
The meeting was not without its amusing side. 
Dr. Temple, in the hurry of leaving Rugby, and 
with that occasional lapse from strict business 


habits which showed him human, had forgotten to 
put the post-town on the letter which announced 
his coming. Hence there was no carriage to meet 
him at the small wayside station where he alighted, 
and the new Bishop made his entrance into the 
diocese in a country cart ! " Oh dear, how dread 
ful," exclaimed the clergyman of the old school, 
" my Bishop to come to me in this way, — and 
now, how about to-morrow's sermon ? " "I have 
thought about it, but I haven't had time to write 
a word of it ; give me paper and pen and I will 
set to work after dinner." 

Accordingly, after dinner the chaplain was sent 
out to say civil words to the village choir, which 
had come to welcome and pay homage, and the 
Bishop sat down to write his sermon. But the 
schoolmaster, knowing all that had taken place in 
the diocese, and all that might turn on the first 
sermon, was terribly anxious as to what was going 
to be said. "I must go in and see what he is 
writing," and so in he went. He returned with, 
"That introduction will do admirably — a great 
confession of faith ; it couldn't be better." For a 
time he kept quiet, but soon he fidgeted again — 
" I must go in once more ; he won't mind, will he ? " 
" No, he won't mind, but I think he'll say what he's 
going to say ; he generally does." This time the 
result was not so satisfactory : " He has got on 
that dreadful conscience." " Well, I think you had 
better leave him." And so the written sermon was 
completed. But it was not a written sermon that 
was preached. According to the usual tradition, 
the new Bishop slept outside the Cathedral City 
before his enthronement. The next morning he 
drove into Exeter. The streets were lined with a 
dense crowd ; and when the procession of civic and 
cathedral dignitaries, accompanied by the clergy of 
the diocese, filed in at the west door, and passed under 


the great window, now filled with memorial glass 
in honour of him who then first set foot in the 
Cathedral as Bishop, the great building was found 
to be full from one end to the other. The stately 
service moved on. The second lesson for the day 
was read by the dean. By one of those happy 
coincidences which not seldom follow from ad 
herence to the usual order of the daily calendar, 
it opened with the words, "Paul, thou art per 
mitted to speak for thyself." The opportunity 
had come. Recognizing that if he used a written 
sermon, the voice could not reach all that people 
which had come to hear, the Bishop, while holding 
to the fixed line of thought, discarded the manu 
script, and thus broke silence : — 

Ever since I first was told that it would be my duty to 
labour in this Diocese of Exeter, I have desired with an 
exceeding desire for the day to come when I might meet you 
face to face, and pour out before you all that is in my heart 
of devotion to you and to our common Master, our Lord God, 
the Son of God, Jesus Christ. 

More followed in due order. The general argu 
ment was that as the Bible was supreme above all 
other books, so, and in a yet higher sense, our Lord 
was supreme above all created beings. The general 
tone of the sermon struck the keynote of spiritual 
harmony between the deepest things in past, present, 
and future. It was a noble sermon throughout ; 
but its chief force lay in the creed-like sentences of 
the opening, in which burst forth the convictions 
which had long been pent up. The sermon told 
upon the congregation and the whole diocese ; it 
was a revelation of the man. And so also was the 
insistence with which he had urged upon the 
Chapter, somewhat fearful of the length of the 
service, that however long it might be, the Holy 
Communion should form part of it. 

The battle of principle was won ; and now the 


time had come for the concessions to the tender 
conscience which he had always longed to be 
justified in making. "It is difficult for a man," 
wrote Dean Wellesley, " to make explanations with 
a bishopric hanging over his head." This difficulty 
was now withdrawn. He had stood by one section 
of his friends when principle demanded steadfast 
ness ; he would stand by another when principle 
demanded charity. And now, as always, he was 
beginning to feel his special responsibilities towards 
those immediately committed to his charge — as 
much as in him lay, he would remove all that stood 
between himself and his diocese. The way appeared 
to be open. He had always held the view that Essays 
and Reviews could not be regarded as a permanent 
work, and had already taken the opportunity 1 to 
tell the editor that in his judgment the time had 
come for discontinuing the publication altogether. 
But while carefully considering how best he could 
either get it stopped or withdraw his own Essay, he 
still desired to be true to the principle upon which he 
had always acted, of not sacrificing in any degree the 
other writers. Accordingly, he had no intention of 
making any public declaration on the subject. In 
the latter object he was defeated by what he called 
a " blunder " of his own. Canon Cook had informed 
Archdeacon Freeman after the Consecration that no 
edition of Essays and Reviews would ever appear 
with the Bishop of Exeter's name in the list of 
writers. The Archdeacon asked for permission to 
mention this fact in Convocation. The Bishop, 
hastily reading the Archdeacon's letter, and mis 
taking in the somewhat illegible handwriting the 
word " Convocation " for " conversation," answered 
in the affirmative. Armed with this authority, 
Archdeacon Freeman made the corresponding 
statement in the Lower House of Convocation at 
the ensuing group of sessions in February. The 


announcement was regarded as a public renunciation 
of Dr. Temple's previous position, and a character 
was at once given to the act different from what 
had been intended. Dean Stanley and others took 
alarm, and it became necessary for the Bishop to 
make a public statement. The incident was in 
itself to be regretted, but at least it brought this 
compensation, that the subject was closed by a full 
explanation of the whole case in Dr. Temple's own 
words : — 

... I should very much have preferred letting this matter 
wait until hereafter, because it is almost impossible to express 
precisely in words that which a man feels and thinks in such 
a matter as this. He must, to a very great extent, let his 
life and his actions speak for him, and then his words will 
receive their natural interpretation ; whereas I, new to the 
Episcopal office, and new to this House, can of course convey 
my meaning by words and words only, and they must be 
interpreted as best they can. ... I cannot help regretting 
that, by a most unfortunate blunder of my own, the neces 
sity is apparently laid upon me of speaking now. . . . 
The fact is, that a little while ago I had occasion to tell 
an intimate friend — a layman, of whose opinion I think 
very highly — that I had come to the conclusion that I 
would not republish my Essay. . . . Now, so long as there 
was any legal right at stake, it seemed to me the strongest 
of all possible duties that I should not sacrifice any such 
right in any way whatever, either directly or indirectly. . . . 
But after I had become Bishop of Exeter, and when this 
matter was pressed very earnestly upon me, and pressed upon 
me by some who certainly shared with me a conviction of 
the necessity of great liberty of opinion, I thought that at 
any rate I might do this without injustice to any one — 
I might yield to those who felt the matter so keenly, by, 
so far as I was concerned, withdrawing the Essay from 
publication. . . . But in telling a friend or two of mv 
intention, I had not thought about Convocation at all, and 
it certainly never occurred to my mind that the announce 
ment would first be made in Convocation, and would thus 
have an appearance of being intended to avoid or prevent any 
such discussion as might arise either in the Upper House or 
in the Lower House. On the contrary, I think that if there 


is any place where such discussion may well be held, it is in 
these two Houses. ... I felt certainly that the publication 
of one essay amongst others was a thing which might be 
allowed to Frederick Temple, but which was not, therefore, 
to be allowed to the Bishop of Exeter. . . . The Bishop of 
Exeter would be required, of course, to be more guarded in 
everything that he did, and would be required to see not only 
that what he himself published was what he approved, but also 
that everything else that was published with it, and might be 
confounded with it, was also approved ; because it would be 
inevitable that his position would give it a kind of authority 
that it would not have of itself. . . . 

One reason I have already dealt with — my great reason 
for withdrawing my Essay from future publication ; but there 
was another. . . . When I was originally asked to join in 
writing for such a volume, my reason for agreeing to join 
was that I could not help being very much struck with the 
extraordinary reticence which then prevailed among the 
younger University men at both Universities, but especially 
at Oxford, and which seemed to me to be doing most serious 
mischief to their characters. . . . Men were unwilling to 
express doubts and perplexities which it was certainly far 
better that they should express. Such things, when they 
are kept in, always have a kind of importance which is quite 
inconsistent with their true value. Men magnify them ; 
they brood over them and fancy they are very great ; while, 
if they would only put them into words, in many cases they 
themselves would immediately begin to see how very much 
less their importance was than they had thought. ... I 
think there is a much more reasonable and better tone in 
discussing great questions in consequence of the publication 
of that book. But when this matter came before me at the 
beginning of this year and I had to consider the whole subject 
— I thought that that work had really been done, and that to 
persist in the publication of the book now was not to persist 
in advocating certain principles, but to persist in maintaining 
a particular discussion of those principles which, as it 
seemed to me, instead of assisting the cause, had begun to 
hinder it. ... 

A great deal has been said about the mischief which that 
book has done, and I think that I am bound to say something 
on that point ; and something, also, on the other side. 
I am not prepared to deny that the book has done mischief. 
. . . The fact is, that in all these cases a mischief of the 


kind which the Bishop of Lichfield [Dr. Selwyn. — ED.] 
describes is almost a necessary accompaniment of the pro 
gress of investigation ; but as God has made us, it is simply 
impossible to stop that progress, and I, for my part, cer 
tainly cannot conceive how any one can think it desirable 
to stop it. ... I am quite sure that the belief in the most 
fundamental points, if once it were supposed to be absolutely 
free from all investigation and from all question, would 
begin to lose its real vitality, and a belief without vitality 
seems to me to be not merely a negation, but a most positive 
and real mischief. ... I do not mean that the necessity of 
free inquiry has no limits ; far from it — but that in a Church 
like ours it is of the essence of the health of the Church 
that those limits should be as wide as it is possible, with 
any reasonable regard to community of spirit. . . . 
. But I wish to say a word or two more, as it seems to me 
to be a fitting opportunity to do so, on the general question. 
... It seems to me that, whether we like it or not, we are of 
necessity involved in what Dr. Arnold spoke of some years 
ago, — namely, the general discussion, all over the Christian 
world, of the degree and limits of the inspiration of the 
Bible. It is a question of absolutely enormous importance. 
The progress of discovery and historical research has made 
it quite impossible for us to leave it alone ; it is forced 
upon us on every side. It is quite impossible that this 
great discussion should really come to a worthy end unless 
it is conducted with real freedom on the part of those who 
take any real share in it. ... For my part, therefore, I 
think that such a discussion ought to be allowed the 
greatest freedom that can possibly be given it, consistent 
with the acknowledgment of the Bible as the supreme 
revelation, and with a reverent — a really reverent — spirit 
in the treatment of all subjects connected with it. ... 
It would seem to me to be monstrous to discourage such 
a man as Dr. Arnold, or the late Dean of S. Paul's 
[Dr. Milman. — ED.], because in many cases the conclu 
sions to which they arrived were very different from those 
which are ordinarily accepted. It is not whether a man 
comes to this conclusion or to that, but it is with what 
temper, with what spirit, with what feelings he enters on 
the discussion. ... I will conclude by saying that I am 
quite sure that no one has a more real reverence for God's 
Word, or a more entire desire to make it the guide of his 
life, than I have myself; and that there is no one who feels 


more confident that the result of the freest inquiry in a 
reverent spirit will be to uphold the dignity and honour of 
that Word. 1 

And here the matter ended. The actual storm 
ceased, although murmurings of the ground-swell 
were heard at intervals during the earlier part of 
Bishop Temple's Episcopate. Towards the close 
of this tempestuous passage to his bishopric there 
began to be signs of an overwrought spirit. They 
are seen in the Convocation episode, — tokens, to 
use the phrase of Dr. Benson, that * the blade was 
wearing through the scabbard.' In the corre 
spondence with Canon Cook during the incident, 
he speaks of having " hardly slept since Thursday " 
(four nights). And no wonder ; for, in addition to 
the strain of this opposition, he was bearing the 
painful responsibility thrown upon him by events 
at Rugby in connexion with the appointment of 
his successor to the headmastership. 2 There were 
those who questioned his ultimate withdrawal from 
Essays and Reviews, just as there were those who 
blamed his initial and continued partnership. 
Against the criticism from one side and the other 
may be quoted the verdict of the judicial mind of 
Dr. Lightfoot :— 

Temple's earliest acts and words, as a Bishop, inspire 
great hope. To my mind he has acted most nobly about 
Essays and Reviews, — courageous in refusing to withdraw 
his name when it was clamorously demanded, and not less 
courageous in withdrawing it now when the withdrawal will 
expose him to the criticism of his advanced friends.s 

This will be the ultimate and general verdict. 
Mistakes there may have been of detail ; but in 
all such cases it is the campaign as a whole, 

1 Chronicles of Convocation, Feb. 11, 1870. 

2 Editor's Supplement, vol. ii. p. 624. 

3 Extract from a letter of Professor Lightfoot to Dr. Benson, Feb. 
11, 1870. 


and not each special incident, by which the ability 
of a leader is judged. Viewed in its entirety, 
it had been a noble contest nobly waged. With 
marvellous self-restraint he had kept the balance 
between the two sides of his full nature,— 
sympathetic personal regard for friends on the 
one hand, and conscientious convictions on the 
other ; with wonderful courage he had stood firm 
to his fundamental principle that loyal Churchman- 
ship and full Christian belief were consistent with 
a liberal standpoint in thought and action, and 
that this was the position which in this special 
generation would enable a man to do fullest 
service. To him may be applied words spoken of a 
great protagonist, from whom he was separated by 
time, and in the form, though not in the spirit, of 
his contention. " Only in Athanasius there was 
nothing observed throughout the course of that 
long tragedy, other than such as very well became 
a wise man to do and a righteous to suffer." l 

He, too, had stood almost alone ; and in a noble 
isolation, without interest or external advantage of 
any kind, had maintained his cause, and was now 
entering upon new duties in a life of enlarged 

1 Hooker's Ecclesiastical Polity, Bk. v. (42). 



The first tours — Blundell's school — Visits to towns. 

A TWOFOLD interest, continuous and ever increas 
ing, attaches to Bishop Temple's Exeter Epis 
copate ; it is the history of a personal position 
gradually made good, and of a gradual infusion 
of a new spirit into a diocese. Few men could 
have entered upon office under greater difficul 
ties than the new occupant of the See of 
Exeter. Those to whom Bishop Phillpotts de 
puted his duties during the increasing infirmities 
of a long old age had done their work conscienti 
ously and with diligence ; but no vicarious labour 
can be a substitute for the superintendence of the 
bishop himself. Irregularities and abuses were 
numerous, arrears of work had accumulated ; new 
life in many departments of diocesan action was 
demanded, and the general level had need of 
elevation. It was necessary that the entire body 
corporate should be pulled together, and none were 
more conscious of the fact than the faithful officers 
of the aged bishop. The task would have been 
arduous for any man ; its difficulties were intensified 
by the fact that the new Bishop entered a diocese 
still seething with the recent agitation directed 
against himself. Many of the laity and a far larger 
proportion of the clergy had been stirred into 



opposition, and they included not a few of those 
who stood highest both in character and office. 
Many of the rural deaneries had memorialised 
against him, and the rural Dean of the mother city 
had been specially prominent in opposition. The 
Dean and Chapter were divided ; the election of 
the Bishop had only been carried after a sharp 
contest ; the Dean himself, though he had voted for 
the Bishop, was very uneasy. One of the three 
Archdeacons was a reluctant but strong opponent, 
anxiously divided between loyalty to his convic 
tions and obligation to his ecclesiastical head. 
Seldom has a leader taken up a command with a 
less united force — " without were fightings, within 
were fears." 

Gradually Bishop Temple built up his position. 
The work was slow, and there were checks at 
times, but no breaks. Suspicion gave place 
to trust ; the strength and truth of the man 
won confidence. Before he left Exeter, fifteen 
years later, though there were still some who had 
never penetrated beneath the hard crust of the 
rude exterior, and never fully read the character, 
there was probably no diocese in England which 
felt so secure of itself in the hands of its bishop ; 
and not a few of the clergy and laity — and some of 
them had at first been found among the ranks of 
opponents — were bound with strong ties of respect 
and love. 

And all this time a new spirit was being infused 
into the diocese. The keynote of the previous 
Episcopate had been system. Bishop Phillpotts 
would probably have been spoken of by an old 
chronicler as "a very stark" man. He was 
certainly set for the punishment of evil-doers, and 
he was the terror of opponents. He wielded his 
weapons with great courage and exquisite skill. A 
perfect swordsman in controversial warfare, he 


knew every thrust and parry of his art. Great as 
the champion of orthodoxy, he was great also in 
diocesan administration and discipline. Indeed, he 
feared no foe, either at home or abroad. Once, as the 
latest biographer of Wellington records, 1 he made 
bold to rebuke the iron Duke himself for infre- 
quency at public worship on the Lord's Day, and 
the great soldier, owning his right to speak, received 
the rebuke with all humility. Bishop Phillpotts 
was greatly regarded by many of his clergy and 
feared by all ; and that there was a real nobility in 
the undaunted front with which he met all foes, 
none will deny : always he was a great upholder of 
a cause, and often a true champion of the Faith. 
But his aim was rather the perfecting of a machine 
than the development of a life. There was but 
little love in the rule ; and able and, in some 
ways, great as he was, his Episcopate had no 
reconciling power — it accentuated differences, it 
did not soften them or mediate between them. 
For machinery Bishop Temple substituted organised 
life, and into system he infused the spirit of service. 
But it was done gradually, and without pose or 
programme or even conscious policy. Bishop 
Temple disliked these things. Very late in life he 
was heard to say : " They want me to formulate a 
policy ; I don't believe in formulated policies." In 
early days at Exeter, when told of a former pupil 
who on entering upon a living had put out a pro 
gramme as to the lines on which he intended to 
administer his parish, he had said : " Oh, that is 
a very young thing to do." A groundwork of 
underlying principles there always was ; a diapason, 
in which progressive tendency was blended with 
the best music of the older days, always ran through 
the harmony of his life ; unquenchable desire for 
justice and righteousness, and for the higher life in 

1 Maxwell's Life of Wellington, vol. ii. pp. 278-280. 


fellowship with God, burnt as a flame within him. 
But there was no parade ; for him the kingdom of 
God came not "with observation." He went 
about his work with purpose large and fixed ; but 
he did things without saying that he meant to do 
them. And slowly, and almost without knowing, 
the diocese became indoctrinated — clergy and 
laity did not realise that they were changing, but 
the change came. Dean Cowie spoke with his 
usual sagacity and insight — and the tribute, coming 
from one who in his time had known well what 
hard work was, meant much — when at the end of 
the Episcopate he said, "I have heard for years 
of your wonderful organisation of the work, — and 
no doubt fitting everything precisely into its time 
is of very great service, — but the thing that strikes 
me is that in the parts of Devonshire that I have 
known, every clergyman is half-unconsciously doing 
twice as much as he did before, and they all say it 
is your doing." 

And imperceptibly this change produced an 
other, — through service came reconciliation. 1 While 
High and Low Churchmen were working together 
the edges and angles were worn off; they began to 
feel that they were no longer in different camps, 
as the previous regime had placed them. The 
tendency spread. Liberals and Conservatives, 
clergy and laity, were drawn to each other. 
Service was the order of the day, and there was 
some service which even Nonconformists and 
Churchmen could render in common. Above all, 
service was the great reconciling medium between 
the Bishop and his flock. Through his life of 
service the diocese learnt to know what manner 
of man he really was who had come amongst them 
under so dark a cloud of suspicion. As he went in 

1 " The great modern Reconciling Bishop who came to rule over the 
Diocese of Exeter." — Memorandum of Chancellor Edmonds. 


and out amongst them men learnt by companying 
with him how strong was his faith, how deep his 
devotion, and their hearts were drawn together. 

" When once I am among the clergy I can win 
many whom no honest declaration will win," wrote 
Bishop Temple to Lord Coleridge. 1 His one policy 
was to know and be known. Accordingly, his first 
step was to arrange a diocesan tour. It was his 
way, not so much to make opportunities as to 
avail himself of those which came naturally ; and 
thus the tour was made to centre round the Con 
firmations. Few better opportunities could have 
been taken, for the Bishop was always at his best 
in his Confirmation Charges. He wisely thought 
that the best plan for instilling the spirit of service 
into the diocese was to set the diocese to do its 
own work. Accordingly he brought no staff from 
outside with him — with the exception of his ex 
amining chaplain, Arthur Butler, a Fellow of 
Oriel, formerly one of his colleagues at Rugby, 
and afterwards Headmaster of Haileybury, and 
Ernest Sandford, one of his earliest pupils, whom 
he made his resident chaplain. With the latter for 
his only companion, he traversed, in a short time, 
both the counties of Devon and Cornwall. The 
retinue brings no recollection of the mediaeval 
bishop ; but for ubiquity he matched the most 
diligent of them, Bronescombe, Stapeldon, or 
Grandisson. The remotest country parishes were 
visited — the inhabitants of which had never seen 
a bishop before — as well as the more populous 
towns. Sometimes it was but a handful of half- 
taught country boys and girls that was presented 
to him ; but to these, equally with the larger con 
gregations and fully prepared candidates, he poured 
out the full force of his earnest spirit in strong but 
simple words. Sometimes the leader and his young 

1 Supra, p. 33. 


companion were brought into strange places, where 
there was but little culture even in the parsonage 
itself. "Do you ever read any books ?" " Yes, 
we see the Gardeners Chronicle once a month." 
Sometimes there was little evidence of pastoral 
care. " How are you, my good woman ? " said the 
not very diligent clergyman, wishing to make the 
best of himself before his Bishop, " How are you, 
and how is your rheumatism ? " " You haven't 
done much to make it better. You haven't been 
near me these six weeks." But the Bishop's sense 
of humour and justice were both roused, and the 
somewhat ill-natured attempt to prejudice the 
clergyman did not meet with much response. There 
were churches so fully boxed up with pews that 
the building seemed to be empty when it was first 
entered ; though in reality it was full of candidates, 
no form was visible except that of the old leader of 
the choir, perched up in the west gallery, with his 
bass viol. In one parish the candidates were said 
to be " out in the lanes somewhere," and had to be 
gathered into church by the friendly schoolmistress 
of a neighbouring parish. The old rector himself 
hung his surplice over the end of a high pew in 
which he took refuge, whilst a kindly curate from 
outside superintended the order of the service. 
When all was over, the Bishop was invited, by 
the aged incumbent, to " come and take a glass 
of port," but was met, somewhat curtly, by the 
answer, " Thank you ; I do not drink wine." To 
the suggestion that it might be better for him to 
resign after so many years of service, he brought 
answer in person, when some time had been taken 
for consideration, that he was "going to marry 
again," and that " the new wife would be as good 
as a curate." 

And there were sadder cases than these ; or if, 
under the stricter discipline of Bishop Phillpotts, 


the worst delinquents of all had gradually been 
hunted down, the memories of their evil deeds 
still remained as a curse to the parishes which 
had known them, an influence which depressed 
the whole moral tone of the neighbourhood, and 
lowered the reputation of the Church of England in 
the estimate of the most God-fearing of the people. 
But these evil-doers formed the small minority. 
Not all who were strangers to the due order of 
clerical life were wholly secular in tone. The 
country parishes were often in the hands of men 
— "squarsons," they were called — who were half 
country gentlemen and half parish priests, with a 
leaning to the former class. Every one knew them, 
and they were the friends of the whole country 
side. Often they acted as the doctors and lawyers 
of the parish, and almost always they were fond of 
sport. But theirs was a genial and a neighbourly 
influence, and on the whole it made for the moral 
healthiness of those amongst whom they lived, and 
gave them as much of the spiritual and religious 
side of life as the generality were able to receive. 
Above all, they were peacemakers. One of the 
best known of them was the Rev. John Russell, 
Vicar of Swymbridge, in North Devon. At his 
funeral, some years later, the entire neighbourhood 
was gathered — clergy, squires, farmers, young and 
old — all sorts and conditions of men ; and amongst 
them, not a few of the Gipsy tribe whom he often 
met when riding to the meet. They used to bring 
their children to him to be baptized, and regarded 
him as a kind of patron of their class. As the 
great concourse moved away from the graveside, 
a farmer was asked what he thought was the 
secret of this widespread regard. "Oh, sir," he 
said, "he wasn't very much of a parson, you 
know, in the way of visiting and such like ; but 
he was such a man to make peace in a parish" 


And then he told the tale of a chance meeting 
with Mr. Russell on the roadside, of the turning of 
the horse's head in consequence of a conversation 
which then took place, of a visit paid to a sick 
man's bed, and a reconciliation brought about 
between a nephew and a dying uncle by a few 
plain words of homely kindness and common-sense. 
With men of this type Bishop Temple was always 
on friendly terms. He understood them, and 
perhaps winked at some of their irregularities 
because of what was sterling in them ; and they 
respected him, and pulled themselves together into 
some approach to conformity to rule, because they 
recognised the man under the dress of the Bishop. 
There was the touch of a common nature which 
made them kin. The first meeting between Mr. 
Russell and his Diocesan speaks for itself : " Well, 
my Lord, I have ridden five -and -twenty miles 
before breakfast to see you." " Well, Mr. Russell, 
I wouldn't have ridden them ; but I might have 
walked them." 

And there was another class of clergyman, 
whom Bishop Temple came across in such visits 
to scattered parishes, that was congenial to him. 
Perhaps there is less variety of clerical type under 
the more organised system of the present day ; 
and certainly, with the disappearance of clerical 
Fellows, the scholarly clergyman holding a 
sequestered living tends to disappear. These men 
he met, and cheered them with the welcome 
companionship of a culture which, amidst their 
ordinary surroundings, they greatly missed. The 
Double First-Class man was at home both with 
buried mathematician and solitary classic. 

And there were others who rejoiced him yet 
more. Sometimes, at the close of a long day, a 
country parsonage might be reached, which was a 
very oasis in a desert land, or, at least, a home of 


spiritual refreshment in the midst of that which 
was ordinary and commonplace. John Keble had 
his followers ; the line traced through George 
Herbert to the parish priest of Chaucer, and 
farther back still to S. Aidan and the first fathers 
of the Anglican clergy, was not extinct. Like 
them, the representatives who received Bishop 
Temple, while members of a spiritual order, 
mingled with their flocks. They were known as 
" men of God " ; and the very look, however simple, 
of the parish church, witnessed that the House of 
God was their first care. But they were not a 
separate caste ; they were friends, whose kindly 
influence was inspiration and comfort to a whole 
parish and neighbourhood, lifting and making 
happy all around. In one of them the knowledge 
of affairs might be more conspicuous ; another 
might have more affinity with things ecclesiastical 
and perhaps the religious life, — he had more of the 
saint about him ; — but, in both cases, they were the 
men through whose quiet, continuous ministry in 
school, church, and parish, light spread, life was 
raised, homes were kept pure. They were " the salt 
of the earth " ; and if they did not at once under 
stand and trust their new Bishop, the instincts of 
a spiritual birthright which they shared in common 
drew them together before long ; they became his 
closest friends. 

But not the clergy only were drawn by these 
visits. The business capacity and knowledge of 
affairs attracted professional men. The farmers 
saw that here was no make - believe farmer, but 
a man who had himself followed the plough. 
Teachers bowed before a teacher whose authority 
and knowledge they recognised. Educated and 
cultured men, and men of political aptitude and 
experience, saw one who could meet them on more 
than equal terms upon their own ground. He 


was brusque and somewhat awe-inspiring at times, 
but he was evidently very fond of young people 
and little children ; and if he did not partake of all 
the prepared dainties, he made himself at home in 
the house, and liked homely and friendly ways. 
And so even the lady and daughters of the house 
began to own a liking and a fascination, which 
sometimes ripened into a close intimacy with a 
whole family. Above all, it was plain to all that 
he had a right to call Devonshire and Cornwall his 
own : who then more fitted to be Bishop of the 
West Country ? Yes, he had a right to be Bishop ; 
for when the whole parish, young and old, Non 
conformist and Churchman — for once at any rate 
all together — crowded into the parish church, and 
listened to the strong man's words, so simple but 
so intense, who could doubt that he had the root 
of the matter in him, nay more, that he had a 
message from God to deliver, and was fit to be 
set to rule the Church of God ! The message 
was so full and yet so personal ; hearers did 
not stay to ask whether they were Churchmen or 
Nonconformists, — Christ was drawing them all, for 
this man was full of His great and rich Gospel, — 
and Christ was speaking to each, for this man 
was full of His intensity of spirit. As Christ's 
gracious invitation, " Come unto Me all ye that 
labour and are heavy laden," swept across the great 
congregation in the Cornish church and found its 
way into responsive hearts, each man felt that 
Christ was calling him. And those straight, simple 
words of the Confirmation Charge told the young 
men that they came from one who entered into a 
young man's temptations. The mother, watching 
the Confirmation of her daughter, felt that what 
was said about the great Father's care through life 
and the presence of love which filled the Holy 
Communion with its power, was the revelation 


of her daughter's needs, because it spoke of all 
that the experience of Me had taught her of her 
own. These words are memories now, but the 
virtue has not gone out of them for many ; to not 
a few, both in the quiet nooks of the country 
parish and the crowded walks of fashionable 
society, they still speak at times, 'minding them 
of a better choice ' ; they recall one who was 
a true Bishop, and is still, maybe, bidding them 
return to the Shepherd and Bishop of their souls. 

This was the expression of the graver and more 
intense element in Bishop Temple. On the lighter 
and more personal side the tour revealed him also. 
To his companion, as he drove beside him, different 
characteristics of the man were perpetually coming 
out — his many-sidedness, his knowledge of men 
and affairs, his interest in interpreting difficult 
passages in the Bible, his love of the English 
poets, especially Wordsworth and Shelley, and of 
the works of Coleridge ; presently would follow 
playful changes to reminiscences of nursery rhymes 
and children's literature, and the political squibs of 
former days. Above all, his practical acquaintance 
with country life and ways was seen — his delight 
in the tors and streams, and in the abundance of 
fern, gorse, and heather, which carpeted the ground, 
and by their rich colouring relieved the grey 
monotony of the moor. He watched the gleams 
of sunlight and the shadows cast by the clouds as 
they passed overhead, and he noted the silvery 
haze throwing its soft grace over valley and 
hill as one of Devonshire's special charms. He 
called each flower by its name ; he knew almost 
each inch of the ground and each turn of the 
winding lanes, for he had traversed them in early 
school -days or during the long walking tours of 
after years. Sometimes he sat silent, drinking it 
all in, the glass fixed in the upturned eye to aid 


the once clear sight, which was already beginning 
to fail. Suddenly he would break out with some 
pregnant words about the deeper things of life, or 
shrewd observations about men and events. Some 
times he would recall University days — Ward and 
Newman, and the Oxford Movement and all that 
it meant and taught, where he thought it right 
and where wrong. At rare intervals he would 
open his mind about thoughts and plans for the 
diocese, and tell of his difficulties and hopes. He 
whom men called hard had a very human and 
tender side, which made itself manifest in this 
intercourse, and it is with something better than 
pride that such words are recalled as — " The help 
in work is something, but I want the companion 
ship more " ; or again, " Young men do not always 
recognise how much they can help their elders by 
simply being with them." 

Such was the Bishop's first tour in his diocese, 
a type of many that followed it. But, besides the 
tour must be noted individual visits to certain 
places, and the special functions of stated occasions. 
Places connected with his early years had a claim 
on him which he did not neglect. He was soon in 
Cornwall, commencing his official connexion with 
it at Saltash, where he spoke of his grandfather as 
" rector of a Cornish parish," and of his mother 
and " all her ancestors for a long way back as 
Cornish ; so that when he came into Cornwall he 
was come among his kinsfolk, and the welcome 
he got was not merely from among friends, but 
from those whom he looked upon as relations." 1 
Later on he was at S. Gluvias, his grandfather's 
parish, where he became a frequent visitor at the 
house of the then vicar, Archdeacon of Cornwall 
and Chancellor of the diocese, who was a son of 
Bishop Phillpotts, and whose own son had been one 

1 Exeter and Plymouth Gazette, January 1870. 


of Bishop Temple's assistant masters at Rugby. 
Later still he visited Probus, his mother's home. 
But before he was at the two last-named places he 
went to Barnstaple, to re-open the church of Holy 
Trinity. At the public welcome which North 
Devon gave him at this first visit, he alluded to 
the fact that when he came to England his father 
first brought his family to North Devon. " Your 
welcome/' he said, " gives me the greater pleasure, 
because my earliest childhood in England was 
spent in this part of Devonshire ; Bideford and 
Barnstaple, and the towns all round on this side of 
Devonshire, are quite familiar to me from my 
earliest recollections ; and I feel, even more here 
than anywhere else in the county, as if I were 
coming back to a place which I have known longer, 
and loved more dearly than almost any other 
place. . . . Although there are other parts of 
Devonshire that perhaps I have known better, 
there is no other part I have known so long." 1 
It was to Culmstock, however, and its neighbour 
hood that his steps most readily turned. 2 He 
always remembered Culmstock, and the feeling 
was reciprocal. The parish church has for many 
years contained a stained window which recalls his 
recollection of the family home ; and it now 
holds a memorial brass telling of the pride of the 
parish in the Bishop and Archbishop whom they 
knew as a boy. It is not surprising to read that 
on the occasion of his first visit as Bishop, "the 
inhabitants came from miles around to hear " him ; 
that "the interior of the fine old church was 
crowded " ; and that " after the services the 
parishioners clustered around " 3 to exchange 
greetings and revive old memories. 

1 Exeter and Plymouth Gazette, January 1870. 

2 " Earlier Years" Memoir., vol. i., pp. 23-26. 

3 Exeter and Plymouth Gazette, April 1870. 


The celebration at Blundell's School followed 
hard upon the visit to the parish as by a natural 
sequence. A great gathering (numbering more 
than two hundred) of old school-fellows, masters, 
past and present, and friends of the school met at 
Blundell's on April 22 in honour of the old school 
boy who was now the Bishop of Exeter. Some 
were there whose family name recalled the 
Governors that had given Temple his exhibition 
twenty -one years before. Earl Devon, chair 
man of the Governors, presided, doing honour 
to a great Blundellian. Prebendary Sanders 
was there, rejoicing in the high fulfilment of the 
hopes which he had) formed for his pupil. The 
atmosphere of school-life was always to Dr. 
Temple like a whiff of his native air, the whole 
man freshened and brightened in it. Even in old 
age, when the Canterbury choristers were sitting 
round him, he seemed young again. At Tiverton, 
more than anywhere else, youth came back ; 
memory was all on the alert here, where, as the 
simple letters of the young schoolboy to his mother 
recall, he had " fagged " so hard, bent on doing his 
very best by himself for the sake of those at home ; 
here where he loved to fancy that he could look 
out upon Culmstock and Axon and see all the 
household at their daily work ; l here where he had 
made his " dearest friend," Robert Lawson, and had 
walked with him along the banks of the Loman 
and the Exe ; here where he had played hard as 
well as worked hard ; here where with simple but 
real purpose he had laid the foundations of his 
strong and strenuous life. Those early letters 
are couched in the style of Frederick Temple and 
not of William Wordsworth, but they recall the 
poet's account in the " Prelude " of his own school 
days at Hawkeshead ; and the memory forms the 

1 Editor's Supplement, vol. ii. p. 405. 


mental background of his speech at the Tiverton 
banquet, 1 and gives feeling and force to the words. 

There was no mistaking the ring of genuine 
affection in his words. Coming from Bishop 
Temple they meant future work on the school's 
behalf. How full was the measure of service and 
how fitting is the memorial which Blundellians 
have now raised to their great schoolfellow is best 
told in the words of the present Headmaster : — 

Dr. Temple, then Bishop of Exeter, was one of the 
Governors appointed under the new scheme for the adminis 
tration of the foundation dating August 12, 1876. He 
attended the first meeting of the new Governing Body on 
January 10, 1877 ; and at the next meeting was placed on the 
Committee formed to consider the practicability of providing 
a new site and new buildings for the school. Although 
deeply attached to the old site, which was endeared to him 
by so many associations, Dr. Temple felt that the change 
was inevitable, and with characteristic loyalty devoted him 
self heartily to an uncongenial task. . . . 

On the 25th of June 1880 the foundation-stone of the 
new school was laid at Horsdon, about a mile from the town, 
by the Earl of Devon, chairman of the Governors, the short 
service being read by the Bishop of Exeter. After the 
service, a large meeting was held at the old school, in 
support of a movement for providing a School Chapel, a 
purpose for which the Governors had no right to employ the 
property of the Foundation. . . . No one who was present 
can forget the passionate pleading of the Bishop. From 
the moment when he spoke the success of the scheme was 
assured, and he was himself a most generous contributor to 
the fund. At the consecration of the chapel in 1883 the 
Bishop preached, showing how men bear through life, for 
good or ill, the impress of their school, and how the hearts 
and memories of old scholars linger fondly round the chapel 
as the influence to which they owe their higher selves, their 
sense of brotherhood in the service of Christ. 

When the Bishop was translated to the See of London 
we felt his loss very deeply, for of course it was impossible 
for him to attend Governors 1 meetings, and it was only on 

1 " Earlier Years " Memoir, vol. i. p. 31. 


rare, but always delightful, occasions that we saw him. 
Most of all, we missed his Confirmation addresses, which, 
coming from the lips of one who always kept his quick 
sympathy with boys, never failed to leave a lasting 

But although Dr. Temple was far away from us and 
absorbed in the cares of a very busy life, he never lost touch 
with the school, and at our Old Boys' dinners, and other such 
times when we were privileged to see him, he showed him 
self full of interest in the school, and a gathering of past 
or present Blundellians never failed to make him almost a 
boy again. Those who had only known him as the stern 
prelate and busy man of affairs, were amazed at the over 
flowing human and sheer rollicking fun which he could 
display when enjoying such a brief respite from his cares. 
At the next meeting of Old Boys, after his death, one of 
those gatherings at which his revered face had been so 
familiar, some attempt was made to express the feeling of 
his old schoolfellows in these words : — 

"We are meeting here to-night under the shadow of a 
heavy loss. The great Archbishop, whose name lent such 
distinction to his old school, has passed away in the fulness 
of days and of honours. To one who reads the countless and 
various tributes to the inspiring story of his long career, 
there stands forth a clear-cut, commanding personality, 
unique in our time. . . . To us of BlundelPs the loss is 
nearer and more personal. We honoured him not less than 
others, and we loved him more because we knew him better. 
And we have lost him. This should have been a time of 
rejoicing; this our first meeting after the stately pageant 
of last summer, in which he was so noble and pathetic a 
figure. We feel as England felt after Nelson's death in the 
hour of victory. Gladly could we spare our triumph, could 
we but see him here to-night, could we hear once more his 
hearty laugh and watch his smile, surely the most bewitching 
that ever lit up so stern a face, a smile in which were distilled 
the bubbling mirth of boyhood and the mellowed kindliness 
of age. We have lost all this. But his spirit is still with 
us. ... His memory is a priceless inheritance to Blundell's, 
to sanctify and ennoble our aims ; and his figure will stand 
out to the nation like a great steady beacon on a hill, to 
cheer and enlighten the path of duty. 11 1 

1 Blundell's Worthies, pp. 193, 194. 


Hitherto the new Bishop had been seen in the 
less populous parts of the diocese, winning his 
way with its individual or sectional life ; but it is 
when he comes into the towns, face to face with 
men on the collective side, that the real power of 
the man is best revealed. Those who knew him in 
his later years were struck by the great exhibition 
of dogged determination and unwearied toil, but 
they can scarcely realise the vigour and freshness 
with which he sprang to work in the first days of 
his Episcopate. It was specially notable when he 
met great gatherings of his fellow-men in the 
larger towns. He was, of course, much in request 
in Exeter, Torquay, and Plymouth ; and here first 
came prominently into view the wider outlook, the 
power of grasping large questions and of swaying 
multitudes. He warmed to his work ; the resolute 
bearing, the measured but fervent utterance, the 
kindling eye, showed that he was in his element as 
the citizen-Bishop. He was a born leader, and he 
had a kind of joyous but simple consciousness of 
strength in leading in those early days, which finds 
expression in such words as these : " Coming into 
that diocese, he felt sure at any rate that he could 
count upon the clergy to support him . . . because 
wherever he went he found that all they wanted 
was a leader who would lead, and that it would be 
his fault and not theirs if they hung back. He 
found, too, that not the Clergy only, but also the 
Laity, were ready to co-operate in the work of the 
Church." Some years before, with the premature 
sense of failing strength which momentarily comes 
upon men in middle life, he had spoken in a letter 
to a friend of life's work being more than half 
done ; but because the exact sphere which called 
out his full powers was found, it seems as though 
now he had first begun to live. He brims over 

1 " Visit to Westward Ho ! " Western Morning News, March 1870. 


with energy ; " horribly vigorous he is," said a 
clergyman once in the weakness of the flesh ; but 
they liked the vigour none the less, and specially 
from the masses the response came from the first. 
The exuberant cordiality with which he was 
welcomed by the overcrowded meetings showed 
that the suspicion entertained by some of the 
clergy was not shared by the people at large. 
This exhibition of strenuous hard work in the 
open, of common humanity, of sympathy not 
confined to things ecclesiastical, but stretching out 
towards all life, was a new revelation of a bishop ; 
before they had heard of an ecclesiastic, now they 
welcomed a man. 

Perhaps two speeches of his may serve to bring 
home the breadth and all-roundness which won 
upon the common life of the diocese. The first 
was made at the visit of welcome to the Bishop at 
Plymouth on the occasion of the presentation of 
prizes to the successful students at the Art and 
Science Schools. Delivered more than a third of 
a century ago, it is a remarkable illustration of his 
foresight, no less than of his keen interest in 
problems affecting national life. 

I believe that these Science Schools are not only of very 
great value in the present, but that they are of very great 
importance for the future. Although your Science School, 
Mr. President, seems very successful, and a very good one as 
far as it goes, yet allow me to say that I look upon it as 
only the nucleus of what hereafter I shall hope to see in 
such a town as Plymouth. ... I was, not very long ago, a 
member of the Schools Inquiry Commission, a Commission 
the object of which was to inquire into the state of education 
all over England, and particularly the education of those 
whose education had not been the subject of inquiry before. 
. . . Whilst we were engaged on this Commission, before we 
had finished our labours, the French Exhibition took place, 
and from those who went from England there we had a very 
large number of letters written in very great alarm. ... It 
was said that there were plainly visible in that Exhibition 


proofs of the most extraordinary progress by all other 
countries in that in which we had previously been superior ; 
that in their manufactures, for instance, they were rapidly 
approaching our level ; and that, on the other hand, we were 
by no means making remarkable progress in those respects 
in which they had previously been superior to us. It was 
said that our workmen were distinctly falling back, that 
they were falling back partly for the reason that foreign 
workmen were so much better educated than ours. It was 
said that, go where you would, all over the continent of 
Europe, foreign workmen were instructed in the principles 
of their work, that they knew the science that lay at the 
bottom of all their occupations, that they knew the 
principles of art where art was necessary, that they were 
thoroughly cultivated so far as it was required for the 
business they had to do. It was said, on the contrary, that 
the English workman, as a general rule, even if he were a 
skilled workman, was only skilled in this sense, that he was 
able to do a particular thing that he had been taught ; that 
he did not understand the reasons, and was unable, in any 
degree, in consequence of having no knowledge of those 
reasons, to vary his work, and to adapt it to new circum 
stances, or to get at that sort of grace and finish which can 
only be given by thoroughly intelligent people. . . . But 
for all that I do not believe the alarm was well founded, 
because I have observed it is the way with Englishmen to 
grumble and then go and set the thing right. And I have 
no doubt at all, and I had no doubt at all then, that we 
should begin to grumble at the superiority of those 
foreigners, and then when we had grumbled sufficiently, that 
we should set to work to put it right. . . . 

That is one reason why I rejoice so much at the establish 
ment of such schools as these. Let me give another reason. 
We are now entered upon what a foreign philosopher has 
called the " industrial phase of society " — that is, the time 
has come when he who can do the most for the benefit of his 
fellow-creatures, either in the way of instructing them or 
in the way of comforting them, in promoting either their 
improvement or their happiness, whether a labourer with his 
head and his heart, or a labourer with his hands, will be 
reckoned as the most important person in society. . . . 

Another reason is this. These schools provide one most 
important means by which men of all classes, including even 
the lowest, can, if they have any ability at all, really get 


some thorough cultivation of their minds. There can be no 
greater improvement to any one's mind than that he should 
thoroughly master the principles of his own work, that by 
which he is to live. ... I look upon it as one of the 
greatest benefits that can be conferred upon a working-man 
that he should be enabled to cultivate his own mind, and 
the directest and easiest way to cultivate his own mind is to 
enable him to acquire the principles of his own occupation. 
I should be very glad to see a very much larger cultivation 
of the understanding in other ways besides that which these 
schools contemplate — namely, besides Science and Art. I 
should like to see working-men engaged, in every possible 
way, in the study of literature as well. But I know perfectly 
well that Literature is some way off, and that Science and 
Art on the contrary are close at hand. . . , l 

The second speech is an address at Exeter to 
Friendly Societies, and exhibits that combination of 
kindness of heart with the insistence on the prin 
ciple of self-help, which was a leading characteristic 
of the man, and had already begun to win him his 
great popularity with these institutions : — 

. . . To tell you the truth, I am quite taken by surprise 
to-night at the great numbers that I find here, for I had not 
any idea that there would be so many who were desirous of 
giving me so warm a welcome. As long as I live I am sure I 
shall never forget the sight of this room, nor the warmth 
which I can see in your faces and recognise in your voices. 
The last question which I had to answer when I was con 
secrated to the office of Bishop was, whether I would be kind 
and merciful, for Christ's sake, to the poor and needy ; and 
it seemed as if it were the climax of all the other questions ; 
and that the last thing and the highest, to which all the 
others led up, was not so much what views I held, what 
was my belief, but rather whether I was willing to do my 
best for my fellow-men. 

It is a great pleasure for me to receive such a welcome, 
not only from the class to which you belong, but especially 
from the Friendly Societies which you have formed — because 
these Societies illustrate, better than anything else, at once 
the sympathy which I feel for you all, and the path in which 

1 Exeter and Plymouth Gazette, January 1870. 


we can most help each other. We know perfectly well that 
if we give each other aid we do very often run a serious risk 
of doing each other mischief. Repeatedly it has been seen 
that misdirected charity has done a great deal more harm to 
the objects of that charity than those who bestowed it were 
ever able afterwards to do good. . . . We are not permitted 
simply to help each other on the impulse of the moment, as if 
it were a thing that could be treated as a small concern. No ; 
it has been purposely made a difficult duty in order that it 
may demand from us our time, our thought, our self-restraint, 
and our prudence. . . . Look at the growth of our Friendly 
Societies. They have been in existence now for nearly two 
centuries, and many of them have come to ruin and have 
brought serious hurt to those who were interested in them. 
. . . Was it possible to prevent this ? It may be that in a 
few cases very good advice might have been given as to the 
best mode of preventing it, but in reality the good work 
ing of these Societies depends upon the efficiency of 
the management, and the efficiency of the management 
is a thing that can only be learnt by practice and ex 
perience, in the stead of which no advice in the world can 
stand. . . . The Chairman spoke to you of my past life, and 
what I had to do with the matter of education, and the 
presenter of the address alluded to the same subject. Let 
me say to you that if there is anything in which it is possible 
for us directly to aid each other, it is just at this point. . . . 
In promoting education it is possible that I may be of real 
use to you, and that in any measures that may be produced 
you also may be of real use to me. For any one of you who 
knows any trade knows perfectly well that no man can learn 
it unless the man who is learning chooses to learn it. But it 
is not only of the education of yourselves I am thinking. I 
am speaking also of the education of your children. There, 
too, depend upon it, the same holds good. You may have 
the best possible schools, the best possible management, but 
unless the parents really care about education, unless they 
make the children feel that education is in their eyes a matter 
of the utmost importance, unless by constantly showing an 
unvarying interest they make their children understand that 
it is a thing to which the children are to give their energy, 
depend upon it there will be no results worth getting. Our 
real chance of getting our children educated depends upon 
our really desiring that the children should be educated : and 
I say this the more earnestly to you, members of Friendly 


Societies, because the very fact of your belonging to such 
societies shows that you look forward to the future, to pro 
viding for your own households. And surely you will take 
forethought for your own children. Remember that by-and- 
by the difference between the educated and the uneducated 
man, the man who has really been properly trained in his 
calling and the man who has not, will be just the difference 
between the comforts and discomforts of life. . . . Remember 
that nine-tenths of the success of any system of education 
must depend upon the people, and only one-tenth upon the 
organisation itself. 1 

The strenuous life and earnest words soon began 
to tell, and all the more because there was no 
evidence of premeditated plan. The Bishop did 
his duty — that was all. There was no proclaim 
ing of a vocation. He was not the superior man 
going forth to exhibit and justify a purpose : 
he did not set himself to win, but from the first he 
was on his way to win, because from the first he 
came to serve. 

1 Western Morning News, January 22, 1870. 



Endowed Schools Act, 1869 — Secondary Education (Schools 
Inquiry Commission, 1864) — Elementary Education (Mr. 
Forster's Education Act, 1870) — The educational position 
in the Diocese of Exeter — The Bishop's schemes for meeting 
the situation. 

DR. TEMPLE found his first opportunity of 
winning his diocese in fields of work that were 
comparatively new to him ; the second came in a 
field with which he had long been familiar. He was 
already a recognised authority on all branches of 
education, and he came with laurels fresh from his 
success at Rugby, and from the reputation which 
he had gained for sound judgment and efficiency on 
the Schools Inquiry Commission. This reputation 
endured and grew. One who had served under Dr. 
Temple as assistant on this Commission, and was 
chairman of another thirty years afterwards, said : 
" It was worth while holding this later Commission 
if only for the sake of getting Bishop Temple's 
evidence." The reputation of him, above all others, 
which survives amongst younger men is that " he 
was a profound critic of educational methods and 
aims." By more than a happy coincidence he 
came into the diocese at a time when education, 

1 Speech of Master of Balliol at Tercentenary of Blimdell's School, 
June 29, 1904. 



both Primary and Secondary, was immediately 
before the country. The schemes for the reorgan 
isation of endowed schools which followed upon the 
Report of the Commission were now being 
launched, and an assistant Commissioner, the late 
Sir Joshua Fitch, was about to pay a preparatory 
visit to Devonshire on the subject. 

Mr. Forster's celebrated Bill for dealing with 
Primary Education was also before Parliament. 
The new Bishop's counsel was sought and welcomed, 
and the schemes as well as the Act itself bear many 
marks of the Bishop's hand. 

The feature which on retrospect is most note 
worthy is the breadth and boldness with which Dr. 
Temple handled the whole question ; they speak 
out in his every utterance ; they impart a fresh 
breeziness to the atmosphere in which he moves. 
He is following in the steps of the educational 
bishops, notably Stapeldon, of the Middle Ages. 
Like that good bishop he is the patron of enlight 
enment, and takes thought for poverty ; but there is 
a new spirit of liberty in Temple's action, born of 
the Reformation, and true to his own attitude when 
he entered on the diocese. He stands for religious 
education, but he has no fears. Knowledge in itself 
is a good thing ; secular education is better than no 
education ; individual self-development is the birth 
right of men spiritually free. 

It is for the interest of the Church of England (he says 
at the Middle School at West Buckland), and it is almost 
essential for the due discharge of our work in that Church, 
that all the people should be, so far as it is possible, an 
educated people. It is impossible for any one to know any 
thing of the history of this Church, ever since the time of 
the Reformation, without perceiving that the very essential 
characteristic of it was that it called upon all men to direct 
their own conduct. . . . The very theory of the Church 
before the Reformation was that the laity were children ; the 
theory of the Church of England now is that the laity are 


men, and that they are responsible for themselves. ... I feel, 
therefore, that so far from the Church of England suffering in 
any way from any amount of education that can be given to 
the people, it is the very condition upon which alone we can 
do our work well ; for we can only do our work well when 
those who listen to us are able to understand what we say. . . . 
We cannot do better service to the Church of England than 
by encouraging, in every possible way, the education of the 
people from the very highest to the lowest ranks of society. 1 

Education, in the Bishop's view, was the right 
policy of the Church of England, and it was the 
best gift which the Commonwealth could bestow in 
order to promote individual progress. This con 
viction underlay the earnestness with which he 
advocated a system of exhibitions awarded on proof 
of capacity, in preference to educational system 
based on patronage. It was his interest to be very 
guarded in his utterances on his first entrance to 
the diocese, but nothing will keep him from 
speaking out his mind on this subject, and very 
soon he is found trying conclusions about it with 
Dean Boyd at a public meeting : — 

The Bishop said he wished to say a few words at this 
point, because otherwise it might seem as if he were willing 
to admit in some degree the force of what had been said by 
the Dean, whereas he thought, after having certainly studied 
the subject a great deal, that the conclusions at which the 
Dean had arrived were in reality inconsistent with the real 
interests of the poorer classes of the city. To lay the stress 
which the Dean did upon the maintenance of old foundations 
as such was inconsistent with the best interests of those 
foundations, and with the truest regard for the wishes of the 
founders of them. If the changes appeared to him in any 
degree whatever to interfere with the true interests of the 
poor he should be the very last man in the world to support 
them. But he believed some such reconstruction as was 
proposed was a change that was really necessary in order to 
give the poor the full benefit of the institutions. 2 

1 Exeter and Plymouth Gazette, December 9, 1870. 

2 Meeting of City Committee at Guildhall re Endowed Schools Com 
missioners' Scheme, January 29, 1872. 


I. In this large-hearted and progressive spirit 
Bishop Temple approached the general question, 
applying his principles to the specific problems 
connected with primary and secondary education 
now presented to him. It was necessary to deal 
first with the latter, as the Commissioners were 
already in the county. Devon is comparatively 
rich in educational endowments. They were to 
be found all over the county, and were speci 
ally plentiful in the Cathedral City. The two 
most noteworthy owe their origin to former 
Bishops of Exeter. (1) The Episcopal Schools 
were founded by Bishop Ofspring Blackall at the 
beginning of the eighteenth century, and at the 
time when Bishop Temple came into the diocese 
were used as Primary Schools for boys and girls. 
(2) The Grammar School had a twofold origin. 
The first founders had been Bishops Stapeldon 
and Grandisson, 1 who had attached it to the Hos 
pital of S. John, an existing institution in the city 
of Exeter, established by a citizen of Exeter for 
poor men and women some hundred years before 
Stapeldon's time. The Hospital was suppressed at 
the Reformation, but the Grammar School was re- 
founded at a later date under a Charter of Charles 
I. An orphanage was attached to it, being part of 
the original foundation of the hospital, and an 
English School. Round this composite Foundation 
the Commissioners ultimately grouped two other 
endowments known as Hele's Charity and May- 
nard's Charity, forming out of them one united 
Trust (S. John's Hospital Trust). 

No little contention arose about the proposals 
of the Commissioners. It had reference both to 
their main principle, which was the allocation of a 
substantial portion of the endowments to secondary 
education ; and also to the details, viz. — (1) The 

1 Supra, p. P. 


substitution of the system of exhibitions for nomina 
tion by patronage ; (2) the assignment of a con 
siderable share in the endowments to the education 
of girls ; (3) the infusion of a county element into 
the constitution of the Grammar School. 

On all these points Bishop Temple contended 
for the larger view, as will be seen from the 
following letter l which he addressed to the Mayor 
of the city : — 

THE PALACE, February 5, 1872. 

MY DEAR MR. MAYOR — . . . I wish to take this oppor 
tunity of trying to put the proposals of the Commissioners 
in a brief, clear form, and to express my opinion on them in 

The Commissioners propose to reorganise the endowments 
in such a way as to provide a complete system of schools 
from the lowest to the highest. 

They assume that Elementary Schools will be provided 
under the Education Act. And there is no reason to doubt 
that, after a little while, this part of the educational system 
will be as efficient as the careful control of the citizens and 
the supervision of the Government can make it. 

The grade of education next above, it is proposed to 
supply out of the Episcopal Charity and Maynard's Charity. 

The Episcopal Charity is to build an elementary school 
in connexion with the Training College. This school, while 
an elementary school within the meaning of the Education 
Act, would be not only the practising but the model school 
of the Training College, where the students could watch and 
study the best methods of teaching, but not be themselves 
ordinarily employed as teachers. The fees would be between 
6d. and 9d. a week. It would thus stand midway between 
the ordinary elementary schools and the schools of the 
Third Grade. A certain number of selected children from 
the elementary schools might be admitted either free or at 
lower terms, and their fees either partially or wholly paid for 

The schools of the third grade would be held in the 
present building of the Episcopal Charity Schools. The fees 
would be between £% and £4i a year. For the present boys 

1 This letter is incorporated in the Report of the Endowed Schools 
Commission, 1882. 



and girls would be taught in different parts of these schools. 
Hereafter, when the schools had grown (as they are sure to 
do), the girls would have school-rooms of their own, supplied, 
or partly supplied, out of Maynard's Charity. 

The second grade of education would be given, as proposed 
by the City Committee, at Helens School. 

The highest grade would be given by the Foundation 
which includes the S. John's Hospital and the Grammar 
School. It is important to notice that this is but one 
Foundation, and that from its origin both the purposes 
which it now professes to fulfil were contemplated, and, 
moreover, that the amount of the property to be assigned to 
either purpose is not to be determined by anything in the 
original ^instrument, but simply by usage. The Grammar 
School, as a matter of fact, has been almost ruined, in spite 
of laborious headmasters, by the small amount assigned to it, 
and this merely because an arrangement had come into force 
which no one was willing to disturb. 

It is proposed to assign to the purpose of higher education 
a much larger share of this joint Endowment, and to give 
girls a portion of it as well as boys. To make the education 
complete and thorough this is absolutely necessary ; and as 
the Indenture of 1629 (the starting-point of the present 
Foundation) in more than one place speaks of the good of 
the city and the inhabitants thereof as part of the general 
aim, it is certainly no real departure from the original purpose 
to make such a rearrangement of the revenues as the general 
good requires. No argument is needed to show how sorely 
Exeter suffers from the want of a good Grammar School for 
boys and of a good Upper School for girls. The wealthier 
can, of course, provide for themselves. They can send both 
sons and daughters to a distance. But the great body of the 
middle class, who will be now for the first time rated, and 
perhaps heavily rated, for Elementary Schools, have no really 
efficient schools for their own children. And although it 
seems to be thought that there is something especially incon 
gruous in providing an Upper School for girls, I cannot see 
how it is to be maintained that the middle classes, from the 
shop-keepers upwards, do not need efficient schooling for their 
girls as well as for their boys, nor how provision for it is 
inconsistent with the purpose of a Foundation which aims at 
the good of the citizens generally. Our ancestors, to whom 
we owe this Foundation, were wise men. They gave to their 
upper education the completeness, and to their lower educa- 


tion the form that suited their day. We must do the same, 
or else, though we may mimic their acts, we shall not copy 
the example of their wisdom. 

The working of these schools should be this : each school 
would be attended by the children of those parents who 
could afford to pay the fees. But children selected by merit 
from the Elementary Schools would be admitted free into 
Third Grade Schools, and children selected by merit from 
the Third Grade Schools would be admitted free into Second 
and First Grade Schools. Thus a child even of the poorest 
parents might rise by his merits as far as his powers would 
fit him to rise. This would be done by means of the 
Exhibitions. . . . 

Now this scheme of exhibitions is objected to as a robbery 
of the poor, and more particularly because it proposes no 
longer to maintain S. John's Hospital on its present footing. 

How it is possible for thoughtful men to believe that an 
educational system for the whole city which provides that 
every poor boy, if he have diligence and capacity to profit 
by the boon, shall have the means of using that system from 
one end to the other is not preferable to the maintenance 
and instruction of twenty-five poor children, it is difficult for 
one to understand. 

Consider what benefit the Hospital now confers. We 
bring a child in and give it a great boon. But meanwhile 
what have we done for those we left outside ? Is there any 
single soul the better besides this child and the relations 
that are no longer burthened with it ? The sum total of 
the benefit is that, out of this large city, you have taken 
care of twenty-five children. On the other hand, the scheme 
of the Commissioners says to every God-fearing father and 
to every careful mother that the pains taken to bring their 
child up well, to see that it is regular in its attendance at 
school, to see that it is diligent, attentive, and obedient, to 
encourage it in its learning, to see that the home life does 
not undo school lessons, — these make the most likely road to 
immediate and visible success, a success earned and not 
solicited, a success which is an honour to both parents 
and child. 

It is argued that such benefits are confined to clever 
children. It is true that where God has given special fitness 
for higher learning to any child, however poor, this scheme 
recognises the claim (it seems to me an exceedingly strong 
claim) of that special fitness. But it is a mistake to suppose 


that this, and this alone, will decide all such competitions. 
Diligence, regularity, attentiveness, will tell most heavily, 
and in these points almost everything depends on the homes 
in which the children live and the parents to whom those 
homes belong. 

It is no slight blessing to the poor that a scheme of 
education should improve every Elementary School with the 
powerful stimulus of hope. Our Elementary Schools at 
present are often well taught, well managed, well examined ; 
but they are all alike deficient in that brightness and life 
which hope alone can give. There is no aim set before the 
learners which they can easily appreciate. There is little 
encouragement to the parents. While all other classes of 
society are eager for improved education, for the poor and 
the poor alone we are driven to use compulsion. And why ? 
Chiefly, you may be sure, because every other kind of school 
offers rewards in plenty, and the Elementary School offers none. 

Nor is it a small matter to set the poor absolutely free 
in this matter from all need of soliciting trustees or patrons. 
. . . You may be sure, Mr. Mayor, that all boons given to the 
poor are multiplied tenfold in value if they are given in such 
a form as to recognise the poor man as a fellow -citizen 
among citizens, and not as belonging to a class apart. . . . 
I would wish the poor man to get what can be given him out 
of these Endowments, not because he is poor, but because he 
is a citizen of Exeter — not because he has begged for it, but 
because he has fairly won it — with no sense of humiliation, 
but with that honest satisfaction which attends the success 
of conscientious labour. And I have that opinion of my 
poorer fellow-citizens, that I feel confident that if they 
thoroughly understood the alternative, they would much 
prefer a scheme which recognised their place in the whole 
body, and duly provided for what belonged to that place, to 
one which set them apart to receive a favour conferred on a 
few by the award of personal patronage. 

This is the most important question now in dispute. But 
there is another of less importance which deserves a very few 
words. It is proposed to treat the Grammar School as not 
only an Exeter, but also a County School, and to put it for 
that reason to a great extent under County management. It 
is obvious that Exeter may be considered in two respects, 
either as an ordinary town of 40,000 inhabitants, or as the 
County town of Devon, and the Cathedral City of both 
Devon and Cornwall. In dealing with the Grammar School, 


it is proposed to consider Exeter in the latter capacity, and 
in that capacity, if it holds eight places out of twenty on the 
Governing Body, it certainly has no reason to complain. Now 
I do not think it at all unnatural that it should appear at 
first sight as if there were no reason for this, and as if the 
school ought to be treated as simply an Exeter School. But 
on the other hand, it is to be remembered that it is for the 
interest of the school itself to hold County rank. The 
difference which this makes in the position of the Head 
master is very considerable, and you will assuredly attract 
much abler men to take charge of the school if that rank is 
given to it. The whole difference between a truly great and a 
very poor school will depend on the sort of men you put at 
the head. Men of learning and ability are often keenly alive 
to the dignity of the position which they are asked to occupy, 
and to make the school a County School will greatly increase 
its chances of thorough efficiency. 

In conclusion, Mr. Mayor, let me express a little regret 
that the reorganisation of our Endowments should have been 
made, as I see that it has been made, in some degree, a party 
question. It is not really a party question at all. The 
supreme consideration is the good of the whole city, and 
especially of our poorer fellow-citizens as citizens of the city, 
and though it is natural that, till the matter is closely studied, 
party predilections should enter, they cannot remain if we 
examine deeply. Both sides have really one aim. I believe 
that both sides, if they had time to look into all the evidence, 
would come to one conclusion. For I remember the extreme 
divergence of views in the Schools' Inquiry Commission when 
it first met. And yet in the end we never had one difference 
of opinion on what we should recommend. I cannot help 
hoping that here, too, the longer we reflect, the more we 
shall tend to unanimity. — I have the honour to remain, yours 
very faithfully, F. EXON. 

The Right Worshipful the Mayor of Exeter. 

Eventually the schemes were adopted in such a 
form as to include all the main points for which 
Bishop Temple had contended. 

1. The endowments were so reorganised as to 
supply a complete system of secondary education 
in all its grades, both for boys and girls. Adequate 


provision was thus made for the education of the 
professional and commercial classes, whilst a system 
of exhibitions, furnishing a ladder by which the 
poorest citizen might rise to whatever level his 
natural faculties entitled him, extended the benefits 
to the wage-earning classes. Regard was also paid 
to the interests of these classes by providing certain 
Elementary Schools of a somewhat superior grade, 
paving the way for those which are now known as 
Higher Elementary Schools. 

2. Two good schools were established for the 
secondary education of girls, viz. a High School 
and a Middle School. 

3. Occasion was taken to plant out the Grammar 
School away from the city, and to give it increas 
ingly the character of an English Public School. 

4. The special character impressed upon schools 
of ecclesiastical origin and history, or episcopal con 
nexion, was respected, provision being made that, 
subject to a conscience clause for day-scholars, the 
religious instruction given in them should be in 
accordance with the doctrines of the Church of 
England. 1 In all other cases the religious instruc 
tion was to be regulated by the Governors and the 
head teachers, subject to the same limitation. 

5. The constitution of the Governing Bodies 
was enlarged, so as to include in one case both civic 
and county elements, and in another representatives 
as such of the clergy of the city. 

In brief, the scheme fully justifies the conclu 
sion in which a member of a Royal Commission 
summed up the situation thirty years later — " The 
whole scheme has got Frederick Temple written 
over it very large." : 

1 The schools where this provision obtains are: the Grammar School, 
the Schools (Elementary and Secondary) of the Episcopal Trust, and the 
Elementary School attached to S. John's Hospital. 

2 The latest testimony to Bishop Temple's work is contained in a 
' ( Report on the Secondary and Higher Education in Exeter," recently 


It has been thought well to describe the Exeter 
scheme in detail, because it indicates the general 
line of Bishop Temple's action in Secondary Educa 
tion, and was followed with the necessary adjust 
ment to local circumstances, both at Plymouth, 
where he was largely instrumental in founding 
Secondary Schools both for boys and girls, and 
elsewhere in the diocese. 

II. In dealing with elementary education, Bishop 
Temple was on ground as familiar to him as 
that which he occupied while handling secondary, 
and the opportunity was even more favourable. 
As has been stated, he entered upon his diocese 
at the very time when Mr. Forster's Bill of 1870 
was being contested in Parliament. Mr. Forster 
was an intimate friend, and had, moreover, great 
confidence in the soundness of Dr. Temple's judg 
ment, and the Bishop was probably consulted both 
as to the original provisions of the Bill, and also as 
to the amendments which after its introduction it 
became necessary to insert. Bishop Temple, with 
his natural instinct for breadth of treatment and 
elasticity of action, liked the Bill best in its original 
form, which allowed Kate Aid to be granted to 
Voluntary Schools, and left with School Boards 
the responsibility of deciding what the form of 
religious instruction in the schools which they 
established should be. His whole mind was in the 
direction of making the system as favourable as 
possible to religious freedom, and specially of 
emphasising the responsibility both of parents and 
teachers. In regard to the responsibility of parents 
he says :— 

issued by Professor Sadler : " In the Spring Term of 1904 there were 
more boys and girls, per 1000 of the population, receiving education in 
public and private secondary schools in Exeter than, so far as is at 
present known, in any city in this country. This is due, in no small 
measure, to the educational improvements which were carried out in 
Exeter about thirty years ago, largely under the influence of Dr. 
Temple, who was then Bishop of the Diocese." 


It was a very serious thing indeed to interfere with the 
responsibility of the parent. After all the child was, by 
God's providence, put into the parents' hands ; they were 
responsible for feeding and clothing it, and so they must 
also be for teaching and educating it. The fifth command 
ment seemed to him plainly to imply that no other authority 
could interfere between the child and the parent, except the 
neglect was such as to amount to a crime. Certainly no 
authority had a right to compel a parent to give to a child, 
in any degree whatever, religious instruction of which the 
parent disapproved. 1 

He expresses his views as to the obligation of 
the teacher with equal force : — 

He thought for himself that the thing that was most 
worth fighting for was that religious instruction should be 
given by the schoolmasters — that was in reality the distinc 
tion between a religious and a secular school. . . . He 
thought that when the schoolmaster was required to give 
religious instruction, it was almost inevitable that he should 
leaven all that he said with something of a religious cast, 
and if he was a man of any real conviction it was quite 
certain that his religious feelings would show themselves at 
all hours of the day. He thought, on the contrary, that if 
a schoolmaster did not give religious instruction, there was 
a very serious risk that the tone of the school would very 
much go down, that the schoolmaster himself would very 
rapidly become a different sort of a man — not the kind of 
man he should like to see in charge of a school for elementary 
instruction. 2 

In giving religious instruction he wished that 
the teacher should be unfettered, but he accepted 
the Cowper-Temple clause, interpreting it in the 
sense that, while it forbade the use of exclusive 
formularies (which was a flying of battle-flags), it 
was not meant to tie the hands of teachers with 
regard to truths that lay behind the formularies. 
It is in accordance with this general view that he 
speaks in the following words :— 

1 Address at South Molton. Exeter and Plymouth Gazette, March 

2 Speech at the Exeter Diocesan Board of Education, April 1870. 


He thought, on the whole it would be wiser to accept a 
compromise, and be content in the rate-supported schools 
with having the Bible as the book for religious instruction. 

He confessed that he did not quite agree with in thinking 

that they ought not to contend very earnestly against the 
mere reading of the Bible. . . . He did not question that 
the mere reading of the Bible was a very good thing for the 
child — a very good thing — but he did not think that it was 
enough for the schoolmaster. He wanted the schoolmaster 
as part of his work, if possible, to put his mind to the 
religious instruction — and not merely to hear the Bible read 
for its own sake. 1 

It follows from his desire that both parent 
and teacher should be unfettered that he was 
not a friend of the Cowper - Temple clause as 
it was eventually worked. It became to him the 
symbol of a compulsory undenominationalism 
which fettered religious freedom, while it offered 
no security that religious instruction would be 
given by men who believed the things that they 
taught, or that it would be true to the essentials 
of Christianity. 

When the Act was passed, he accepted it 
loyally, and set to work with the utmost earnest 
ness to bring the schools of the diocese up to its 
requirements. Many of the clergy and not a few 
of the Church laity had worked hard for the educa 
tion of the poor, and the parish school was a 
witness to their self-sacrificing efforts. In some 
cases the educational level itself was good, and 
almost always the schools had for long been an 
influence on the side of good manners and moral 
and religious training. But, speaking generally, 
they were hardly up even to the standard of five- 
and-thirty years ago. The good dames who kept 
many of them were, to say the least, not advanced 
scholars. " You must not go beyond seven times 
eight," said one of them, when a member of a 

1 Speech at the Exeter Diocesan Board of Education, April 1870. 


school board, full of zeal, intruded into her domain, 
and paid a friendly visit of surprise, "for I am 
not sure that I can go further myself." The 
Bishop soon realised the lack of knowledge : — 

I have been lately engaged in holding Confirmations 
throughout the diocese (he said during the course of his first 
tour), and I assure you that I have been struck, and often 
most deeply struck, when I had to speak to the young 
people who were presented to me for that ordinance. When 
watching their faces I could not help noticing every now and 
then the puzzled expression, even on the faces of those who 
were evidently doing their very utmost to follow what I was 
saying, which seemed to imply that they could not under 
stand the very simplest language that I was using. And yet 
they had been most carefully prepared, and might fairly be 
expected to represent some of the most educated of those 
who were to be found in the different parishes which I 
visited. And the more I see of the poor, the more I feel 
that the task before us is very great indeed. 1 

The buildings were often as primitive as the 
instruction was scanty. Moreover, neither clergy 
man nor squire was always eager in the cause, and 
dissent, prevalent both in Devon and Cornwall, 
hindered the establishment of Church Schools. 
The Diocesan Board had been established under 
Bishop Phillpotts, and a training school had been 
built for masters at Exeter and for mistresses at 
Truro. There was also a system of voluntary 
inspection of religious knowledge, and some of the 
leading laymen of the diocese, as well as prominent 
clergymen, had enrolled themselves as inspectors, 
the late Sir Thomas Dyke Acland amongst the 
number. Individuals were deeply interested, but 
the diocese, as a whole, had not been reached : 
Bishop Temple determined to reach it. 

The first step necessary was to ascertain the 
facts. The Bishop set a committee to work, 
among the most prominent members of which was 

1 Education Meeting in the Royal Public Rooms, Exeter, June 1870. 


a late opponent, the Rev. Henry Bramley, 
throughout his life a staunch and zealous friend 


of education, and fervent in every good endeavour. 
The former opponent became the loyal friend. 
It was a case of love at first sight. The clergy 
of the city, with Bramley as Rural Dean at 
their head, had presented an address of formal 
welcome to the new Bishop on the day of his 
enthronement, and his bearing, both then and at a 
Confirmation at the Cathedral which followed 
shortly afterwards, and his direct and fervent 
words, had begun to make the disciple. " Why ! 
the Bishop stood all the time he was confirming 
that great mass of candidates, and he never moved 
a foot the whole time. It was a sight to watch 
his face too ! I never saw such a man ! " Fellow 
ship in a work to which each was devoted com 
pleted the conquest. Henceforward Bramley was 
one of the Bishop's right-hand men ; and there was 
something touching in the simple and homely 
ministry — such as the supply of Devonshire 
produce from his garden and parish — with which 
he followed him after he had left Exeter. On this 
first Education inquiry Bramley 's industry and 
business capacity were invaluable. As a result of 
exhaustive investigation throughout the diocese, it 
was found that several thousand pounds must at 
once be spent on school buildings. Bishop Temple 
saw from the first the importance of securing the 
buildings, even if eventually they could not be 
permanently retained as Church day schools. His 
words have their lesson for the present time : — 

I think that in any parish in which the rate-supported 
system is introduced it would be a very serious deduction 
from the clergyman's power of doing his work if he had no 
building at command which he could use as a Sunday School, 
or for similar purposes of religious instruction. It may be 
that in many cases the holders of school buildings will find 


it necessary to transfer them to School Boards to be supported, 
but in all such cases the Act allows bargains to be made with 
the School Boards. I need not point out how very much 
better a position the clergyman will be in if he is able to say, 
" Here is a school building which is available for the purposes 
of elementary education, and under the present circumstances 
I am willing that it shall be maintained by the rates ; but 
in consideration that you are saved the expense of putting 
up a building, and have only to maintain the school in it, I 
should wish to make some arrangement for the use of it when 
you are not actually using it. 1 

Ideas are slow to filter through in Devonshire, 
and action is somewhat leisurely ; but in this case 
it was absolutely necessary that the pace should 
be quickened, as the Act provided that the build 
ing grants of Government should only continue for 
one year more. With his usual directness of action 
the Bishop went, with the figures supplied by the 
committee in his hand, and announced — " This is a 
big matter and we must move at once : I will give 
£500, what will you give ? " An eye-witness has 
described the scene. The great men of the 
diocese hesitated for a moment ; they were not 
quite prepared for this man's quick ways and large 
modes of action, and if this was the beginning 
what would follow ? One or two retired into 
corners of the room to confer ; they looked 
puzzled and whispered together, "What does it 
mean ? " To Bishop Temple, who was personally 
too generous to be ever a rich man, the actual sum 
meant a good deal ; and many years afterwards he 
said with a kind of rueful playfulness, " Oh yes, I 
know those Devonshire schools ; they cost me 
£500 to start with, and I haven't got over that 
yet." But in his judgment the matter was worth 
more than any financial sacrifice. He accepted 
the Board School system ; and with his political 
antecedents, it might have been expected that he 

1 Meeting of Exeter Diocesan Education Board, Sept. 1870. 


would have been content with it ; but he never 
divorced his liberalism from his religion, and with 
habitual foresight he saw that religious education 
would not be safe if the Board School system stood 
alone. It was meant, as Mr. Forster said, " to 
supplement and not to supersede " ; and even if the 
supplemental agency were one day to become the 
main agency, the Voluntary Schools would still be 
needed to stimulate and sustain the religious 
element in the Board Schools ; without the former, 
in the latter religious interest would die, religious 
instruction would be " crowded out " by the 
pressure of the secular work. Voluntary Schools 
were the security that in the training of the 
young religion would hold the supreme place. 

Accordingly, from the outset of his episcopate 
Bishop Temple stood forward as the champion of 
Voluntary Schools. In response to his strong lead 
interest was stirred in the cause as it had never 
been stirred before. Meetings were held through 
out the diocese ; he enlisted support from all — 
laymen as well as clergymen, cathedral dignitaries 
as well as parish priests, landowners and farmers, 
the dwellers alike in large towns and in small and 
scattered villages. All were drawn by the impulse 
and contagion, but his was the guiding and animat 
ing spirit. The immediate response was a sum ex 
ceeding £5000 — sufficient, when supplemented by 
the Government Building Grants and by local sub 
scriptions, for the building, enlargement, or equip 
ment of many hundred schools. But the chief gain 
of the movement lay in its permanent effect ; it was 
at once the revelation of a latent determination on 
the part of the Church and also a perpetual inspira 
tion to it. The greatness of the result was a 
surprise even to Bishop Temple himself. 

I have no doubt (he said to his Diocesan Board imme 
diately after the passing of the Act in 1870) that the great 


majority of boroughs all over England will prefer to rate 
themselves, and probably to rate themselves very speedily. 
I think it is almost certain that it will be impossible to 
maintain the voluntary principle in the boroughs very long. 
But besides the boroughs there are reasons for thinking that, 
even in many of the smaller towns and country parishes, the 
rate-supported system will take the place of the voluntary. 1 

The fact that, when he left Exeter fifteen years 
later, the Voluntary Schools of the diocese were 
stronger and more numerous than when he came to 
it, and that the legacy of his spirit remained after 
he left Exeter, is due to the force of his first utter 
ances, and the dogged pertinacity with which, in 
and out of season, he followed them up. These 
told not only upon the clergy, but upon a mass of 
serious laymen of moderate views, and brought 
conviction to them, that in maintaining Church 
Schools they were not contending for a sectional 
cause, but were supporting religion itself. Bishop 
Temple leavened a diocese and two counties with a 
great belief. And the work revealed his character ; 
it showed his sense of the proportion of things ; it 
was made plain that here was a man not of views 
and schemes, but one whose heart was set on the 
great issues of life. To secure that the future of 
the country should be a Christian future would be 
the great aim of him whose faith had been doubted. 

It has been held that in his later years Dr. 
Temple swerved from the boldness and robust liber 
ality of his early educational policy. That there were 
changes no one will deny, but from the first he had 
claimed the right to modify his policy. And he did 
change in details. In the sanguine hopefulness and 
the strong individuality of the first days of his 
Episcopate he had not perceived that a system which 
had worked well at Rugby, when controlled by him 
self, could scarcely be made the basis of a religious 

1 Exeter and Plymouth Gazette, September 23, 1870. 


settlement under the conditions of party govern 
ment ; he protested, indeed, against the party 
handling of the education question from the very 
first, but the system was too strong for him, and he 
has been heard to sigh in old age because some of 
the early visions could not practically be realised. 
But he did not change in principle. If he seemed 
to change, it was because the position of the com 
batants had been reversed ; it was Churchmen who 
now stood for freedom for parent and teacher, and 
Nonconformists who opposed it. To the very last 
he held to the essentials of his early faith. Still, to 
the very last he was true to the purpose which he 
had set before his own Grammar School at Exeter — 
the school which had come down to him from his 
predecessor, Bishop Stapeldon : — 

We are bound to aim high. We are bound to think of 
the school, not only as the place where the understanding is to 
be cultivated, but as a place where the principles on which 
the life shall be hereafter regulated are to be stamped , upon 
the soul. 1 

For half a century he was a prominent figure in 
educational work. And his last speech in the 
House of Lords recalls the man who, by the force 
and tone of his educational policy, had, more than 
thirty years before, brought home to a doubting 
diocese the conviction that he had the moral claim 
to be their Bishop. 

1 Exeter Grammar School Anniversary. Sermon by the Bishop in 
Exeter Cathedral, February 3, 1870. 



The principle of self-government — Rural Deaneries — Lay Con 
ferences — Archdeaconries — Central Diocesan unity — Forma 
tion, constitution, and aims of the Diocesan Conference — 
Primary session of the Diocesan Conference — Formation of 
the General Committee of Religious Instruction. 

THE new Bishop did wisely in making his first 
approach to his diocese on the personal and more 
human side. The diocese needed organisation. 
Shortly after Dr. Temple's appointment as Bishop 
had been announced, one of the Devonshire clergy 
who knew the diocese well, had written : — 

Some of us who have known the ins and outs of things 
during the last twelve years, when " every man has done what 
was right in his own eyes,' 1 are half-amused as well as vexed 
at the opposition. . . . You may imagine the state we have 
been in when I tell you that I have not sent in any answers 
to the Episcopal Queries for twelve years. A Cornish clergy 
man laughed at me for doing so, when I first came into the 
diocese, and assured me that the Returns were used for waste 
paper. I thought I would prove this for myself as far as I 
could, and left off making them ... I received a Circular to 
remind me that I was a delinquent. I went down . . . 
prepared to meet the charge, but not a word was said 
to me. 1 

Dr. Temple was a great organiser. But organisa 
tion is a means and not an end ; it regulates life, 

1 Letter from a Devonshire clergyman to Dr. Temple, October 15, 



but it does not create it ; it is machinery at the 
best, and if the machinery is to work well, some 
confidence in the maker of it is required. These 
considerations were never absent from Bishop 
Temple's mind, and the visits preceded the organisa 

Moreover, while Bishop Temple believed in 
organisation, the framer of an ambitious scheme 
would often be met with the criticism, "You've 
overdone your organisation ; it won't work." As 
being in the nature of things indifferent, it was not 
an essential consideration with him whether the 
organisation were old or new ; if life were still in 
it he preferred the old, and if life had fled, he 
unhesitatingly adopted new ; but it was essential 
that it should be adapted to its purpose, and that 
there should not be too much of it. 

And he chose the organisation which contained 
the principle of self-government ; it was the guiding 
principle through all his liberalism in politics. He 
harps upon this string in his letters to his friends. 
Writing to Dr. Benson in 1868 he says : — 

The aim of the Conservatives is good government. All 
forms and all legislatures are machinery to secure that. That 
in their eyes is the best Constitution which secures the best 

The aim of the Liberals is self-government. All forms 
and all legislatures are machinery to secure that. That is 
the best Constitution which most entirely makes the people 
govern themselves. 

It is, in politics, the ancient quarrel between the Law and 
the Gospel. It is, mutatis mutandis, the battle between the 
Judaisers and S. Paul. 

The Conservatives repeat for ever all the Judaising argu 
ments. What advantage, then, hath the Englishman ? Do 
you not make void the Law ? Will you not go clean wrong 
that your liberty may have its full swing, i.e. abound ? i 

In vain do we urge that our great examples in past days 
(like Abraham and David) were great in their development 
if not in their obedience to the Constitution. In vain do we 


insist that our " trust in the people "" is the one only chance 
of making the people what they ought to be. S. Paul 
must have been very hard pressed when his dear Corinthians 
turned his " All things are lawful for me " into a reason why 
a man should take his father's wife. But he did not flinch 
for all that. And if we find that the result of trusting the 
people is that the people go wrong, we shall trust the 
people, nevertheless, and maintain that it is right to do so. 

Now I do not deny that the Conservatives have a part to 
play. But I maintain that, as a rule, they enormously overdo 
it, even for their own purposes. And we Liberals are barely 
able to secure that the nation shall retain its life and not be 
drilled out of all true life ... If we get no better Parlia 
ment than before, yet the gain is enormous of having brought 
so many more into the active living part of the nation, of 
having added so vastly to the national form of the Legis 

Now, after you have read this, as I know you have been 
studying the Epistle to the Romans, I expect to receive a 
recantation of all your Conservativism, and a promise to be 
a steady Liberal henceforward. 

I am glad my godson is dreamy. I was and am very 
dreamy. — Yours affectionately, F. TEMPLE. 

In the following year he writes again : — 

I differ from you to the very utmost length of my small 
intellectual tether about good government and self-govern 
ment. I think . . . that self-government is the true aim, 
or otherwise government is not worth attempting at all. 

He uses the same argument in a letter addressed 
to the Daily News about the same time, i.e. the 
years in which Mr. Robert Lowe was making power 
ful speeches in Parliament against the lowering of 
the franchise : — 

In politics (said Dr. Temple) the aim is not an e/ayov, but 
an eve/oyeia — not a result, but an activity. The supreme con 
sideration is not what you do, but how you do it. That 
State is the most healthy in which the life passes through the 
whole Body. 

He desired to apply the principle of self- 
government to things ecclesiastical, as far as was 


consistent with the consideration that life for the 
Church comes not from beneath but from above ; 
and accordingly, in organising the Diocese of 
Exeter, it rejoiced him to find, ready to his hand, a 
system illustrating that principle. In order that 
Church life might be sufficiently diffused throughout 
the diocese he started with the ruridecanal system 
as the unit in the diocesan organisation, and in the 
Diocese of Exeter he found that system already 
based on his favourite principle : the clergy elected 
their own rural deans. This had been the method 
followed by Bishop Phillpotts when, as stated above, 1 
he had revived the Chapter Synods. He had found 
it already established as an ancient use, and although 
it is said that he wished to substitute for it Episcopal 
nomination, he yielded to the manifest unwilling 
ness of the clergy to part with a cherished privilege. 
The machinery was used by Bishop Temple for 
administrative rather than for doctrinal purposes. 
The application was changed, but the principle was 
welcomed, and was adopted by Dr. Temple not 
only at Exeter, but subsequently in the Dioceses 
both of London and Canterbury. The method has 
much to commend it. There is no doubt that 
under this system the best man is not always 
secured for the office. There may be some local 
use directing that the senior incumbent is always to 
be taken ; personal preference may also sometimes 
have more weight than public interests. No system, 
however, is free from the latter possibility ; and on 
the whole, so long as the Bishop, by holding the 
appointment of the Archdeacons in his own hands 
was secure that one set of diocesan officers would 
represent his mind, he thought it better, for the 
appointment of the rural deans, to look to the 
principle of self-government, and to trust the clergy 
to choose their own representative. By this means 

1 Supra, p. 18. 


he was always able to feel the pulse of each locality, 
and to know whether or not he should carry it with 
him in any proposed line of action. Experience 
justified the policy. "I have always held," writes 
Prebendary Martin, R.D., " that it is our election 
by the clergy themselves which gives us the peculiar 
position and influence which certainly, as a body, 
the Rural Deans in our diocese possess." 

The first occasion for making use of the ruri- 
decanal system was found in the arrangements for 
Confirmations. " Make me out a scheme for a 
Confirmation tour in North Devon," said the 
Bishop to his chaplain within a few weeks of his 
coming into the diocese. The chaplain tried his 
hand, and, being a stranger to Devonshire and the 
intricacies of its geography, soon failed. " Well, 
write to Karslake" (one of the rural deans well 
known for his business capacity and local know 
ledge); "he will do it." The result was the receipt, 
in a few days, of a detailed and workable plan 
which became a sort of model scheme for the 
diocese. When once the Rural Deans had got 
this episcopal horseman seated in the saddle there 
was no shaking him off. Soon the Rural Deans 
were entrusted, not only with the arrangements for 
Confirmations, but with the details of a large share 
of the diocesan business ; and, when a few years 
later the Bishop's chaplain left him, they took his 
place in accompanying the Bishop on his official 
visits. Gradually the duties of the Rural Dean 
were multiplied, and through the decanal system, 
worked on the principle of self-government, the 
whole area of the diocese was permeated with 
renewed life. 

But the first Confirmation tour in the diocese 
was sufficient to make it plain to the Bishop's 
quick eye for topography that, in order that the 
system might become more serviceable, a readjust- 


ment of boundaries was required. It was made 
under the authority of an Order in Council, after 
the advice of the Archdeacons and the local clergy 
had been taken ; and in making it the Bishop, with 
his usual liking for combining civil and ecclesias 
tical order, followed for the most part the divisions 
of the Unions. He grouped the parishes round 
the towns in which the meetings of the Guardians 
were held, holding that these would usually be the 
central towns of the district, and would, moreover, 
be the places where the attendance of the laity 
would be most readily secured. 

Periodical sessions of the Chapters of the clergy 
were already held in the majority of the Deaneries ; 
they now became general throughout the diocese, 
and Bishop Temple infused new life into them by 
giving a practical turn to the discussions, and by 
making the Rural Deanery a starting-point for 
all forms of diocesan activity. He utilised the 
organisation for his own episcopal visits. His 
visits in the diocese were not made at haphazard 
or sporadically l ; he concentrated his attention on 
one Deanery at a time, arranging, as far as might 
be, that all the different fixtures should be grouped 
round the periodical Confirmations. By this 
means he effected a great saving of time, and 
accomplished a much greater amount of work than 
in such a scattered diocese would otherwise have 
been possible. The most important of all the 
collective fixtures for the Deanery was his visit to 
the Chapter. On such occasions he took subjects 
bearing on clerical or parochial life. Sometimes 
they were devotional or pastoral, and sometimes 
legal and administrative. Sometimes he dealt with 
the lives of the clergy themselves, and sometimes 

1 " I intend to alter my present arrangements, and to visit every 
Deanery in the diocese once every year." — Charye of Binhop Temple, 
1875, p. 40. 


with the social and moral habits of the community ; 
sometimes, again, the discussion turned upon matters 
of general Church interest. In each case, after an 
earnest and luminous exposition of his own views, 
he asked the opinions of each of the clergy in turn. 
This last process was sometimes formidable ; but 
it had a marvellous effect in stirring, reviving, 
and spreading life, both collective and individual. 
Many of the clergy look back on the stimulus 
given by the Bishop's presence and words at these 
meetings as the strongest of all impressions which he 
made upon them. To this day many of them keep, 
amongst their most treasured records, the notes 
which they jotted down of his utterances, so 
pregnant were they with strong common sense, so 
incisive, so fervent ; they were so great a revela 
tion of the soundness and the wide range of his 
knowledge on all questions — by no means excepting 
legal, on which matters he appeared to have as 
much knowledge as the lawyers themselves and 
to surpass them in breadth of view. Whatever 
subject he approached he penetrated to the very 
kernel ; and as long as the hearer retained what the 
Bishop said, he felt that he had got the one thing 
which he most wanted to remember. 

But church life and self-government were, in the 
Bishop's mind, maimed and feeble without the co 
operation of the laity. In his early days he had 
been jealous of the revival of Convocation, fearing 
clerical monopoly. 1 Experience taught him to 
modify this view. But Convocation never repre 
sented to him the full idea. Thirty-three years 
afterwards, in 1885, when he was Bishop of London, 
he writes to Canon Lawson : — 

Reforms we ought to make quam citissime. I want to 
abolish the sale of livings, and to form a Church Legislature 

1 Infra, p. 301. 


with a large infusion of laymen in some shape or other. 
These two things are pressing, the former because the 
common people cry out for it ; the latter as an instrument for 
future reforms. 

He was always a layman's bishop, and he always 
believed that lay co-operation, to be a full force, 
must take root in the locality as well as shape in 
central assemblies. From the commencement of 
the Episcopate he had lost no opportunity of taking 
counsel with the laity, and Mr. (afterwards Pre 
bendary) Dumbleton, one of the most earnest of 
the diocesan clergy, found a ready supporter in his 
Bishop when he moved, in the Diocesan Conference 
of October 1881, l for a more formal institution of 
lay and clerical Conferences in the Rural Deaneries. 
At these the churchwardens, and representatives 
chosen in each parish, 2 met the members of the 
clerical Chapters. The Bishop attended when he 
came into the Rural Deaneries, and discussed such 
subjects affecting the social and moral life of the 
community as were of interest to the clergy and 
laity alike. The account of the Bishop's action 
and influence in the Deaneries may be fittingly 
closed by the insertion of letters from two of the 
Rural Deans who best knew their Bishop, and 

1 Previously to this date the Conferences in the Deaneries had been 
for the most part, though not invariably, between the Bishop and the 
Clergy alone. After 1881 the laity were summoned with the clergy in 
the majority of the Deaneries, but it may be gathered from Bishop 
Temple's address to his Diocesan Conference in 1882 that he thought 
it better to proceed tentatively by promoting these united Conferences 
in separate Deaneries rather than by attempting to make an order for 
them in all : ' ' I think that in all these cases the wise course is for the 
Conference to indicate the general outline,, and then to be patient with 
the officials who have charge of the work, and let them work out the 
scheme, reporting to the Conference from time to time." A more fully 
matured diocesan system was established in 1887 after Bishop Temple 
had left the Diocese. 

2 The general principle on which Bishop Temple acted was that the 
representatives themselves should be restricted to communicants, but 
that the electors should include other parishioners as well. 


the value of whose long and faithful service he 
recognised to the full. 

May 24, 1904. 

I was Rural Dean of Barnstaple the whole period of the 
late Archbishop"^ occupancy of the See of Exeter, and 
possibly I may be able to supply some little interesting 

First let me mention how greatly nearness to him 
impressed me with the deep spirituality of his life, — that 
master-thought continually appearing and fascinating, in 
his word and conversation. I may instance a quiet day 
which he spent with some of us in Holy Trinity Church, 
Barnstaple, when his instructions, or addresses, on S. John 
xvii. 19, " For their sakes I sanctify myself,"" were delivered, 
while burning tears were coursing down his face, and his 
whole attitude seemed transformed. 

But it was not only the spiritual and serious side of his 
life which impressed us all so deeply ; he was always 
genial and happy among us when there were no dark spots 
to pain and disturb his spirit. To mention a circumstance 
in illustration of this. After the dinner at one of his 
visitations he proposed the health of the Rural Deans, 
thanking them for their valuable services and speaking in 
affectionate terms of them all ; " but," he said, " for their 
work I pay them well — (sensation) — for I give them in 
return — my smiles." (Great laughter, in which his Lordship 

As a Rural Dean I felt the force of this remark, for I have 
had both his smiles and his frowns. He was delightful to look 
upon when surroundings were favourable, but it was quite 
a different thing when those surroundings were slovenly and 

Having attended the Archbishop at many Confirmations 
up and down the Deanery of Barnstaple, I could not help 
being struck by the power which he possessed of assessing 
numbers without counting them l — for an instance of this. 
I attended the Bishop at a Confirmation at Ilfracombe in 
the days of Mr. Chanter, the late Vicar. It was always 
my custom — to help my memory — to jot down the number 

1 See also Appendix to " Earlier Years" Memoir, vol. i. p. 61. 


of candidates as they came up or as they retired. On one 
occasion, when called upon in the vestry after the Confirma 
tion for my numbers, the Bishop exclaimed, in no soft voice, 
"WRONG," for he had one candidate in his mind more than 
mine on paper. The order then came, " Look at the tickets," 
the examination of which proved that the Bishop who had 
hot counted was right, and the Rural Dean who had both 
counted and noted was wrong. 

In closing these few remarks may I say that our dear 
Bishop, though separated by circumstances from his first 
diocese, never forgot it ; and repeated interviews with him 
with which I was favoured, both at Fulham and Lambeth, 
gave him opportunities of ascertaining, through question and 
answer, how matters fared in his old diocese. I cherish his 
memory with deep affection, and shall ever be grateful for 
intercourse with so great and good a man. 

(Formerly Rural Dean of Barnstaple). 

(From ROME), March -25, 1904. 

There were numbers of parishes in North Devon where a 
bishop had never been seen within the memory of man. 
Take, for instance, the district in which I was then living — 
(Challacombe). Bishop Phillpotts, no doubt owing to his 
age and infirmities, limited as far as possible his visits to 
places which could be easily reached ; so that for years all 
candidates from that large district round Lynton had to be 
brought, some of them as much as a dozen or fifteen miles 
by road, to the centre where the Confirmation was held. . . . 
I perfectly well remember the sensation caused at Challacombe 
by the arrival of the Bishop there. I remember that he 
was himself amused when, from the top of Kipscombe, I 
pointed out Challacombe Church, the centre where the 
Confirmation was to be held. The moor, as you remember, 
stretches away for miles, and there is hardly a house to be 
seen, and I remember the humorous way in which he turned 
to me and asked, "Well, Martin, what is this the centre 
of?" I think next day we must have had some thirty or 
forty candidates altogether, but I have never forgotten that 
service or the way in which he spoke to the young people of 
the love of God, while the tears coursed down his cheeks. 
He never liked having very large numbers at his Confirma- 


tions ; if there were over seventy he preferred having two 
Confirmations. . . . 

I may also mention an instance which shows his wonderful 
power, even in the greatest pressure of work, of giving his 
whole attention to any question that was brought before 
him. It was two days after he was offered the Bishopric of 
London. He wrote and asked me to come and see him. 
We had trouble going on in one of the parishes in my 
Deanery. I was shown up into his study, and without 
looking up from his writing, or greeting me in any way, he 
said, " Sit down."" So I took an arm-chair by the fire and 
made myself comfortabie. Presently he put down his pen, 
saying, " That is the 105th (letter) since yesterday morning." 
And then he turned round and we talked, I should think, 
for nearly an hour as if he had nothing whatever else to 
do or think of but the subject on which he wanted to 
talk to me. . . . 

One other thing occurs to me which perhaps is worth 
mentioning. I mean the way in which Bishop Temple made 
a great point of every parish having, every year, four 
collections which he suggested should be taken at the 
Ember seasons — Home Missions, Foreign Missions, Religious 
Education, and Hospitals. There were, I believe, numbers 
of parishes which never had any collection for any object 
outside their own parish, except the annual collection for 
hospitals. I daresay you remember that he made a great 
point of these collections, and I believe the plan was very 
largely adopted, even in the small country parishes. . . . 

(Rural Dean of Shirwell). 

The last sentence in this letter illustrates the 
practical wisdom by which the Bishop limited his 
application of large principles to what he knew was 
the furthest length to which, at the time, they could 
be taken. He thus alludes to the plan in a pastoral 
letter to the clergy and laity of the diocese in 
1878 :— 

The interest of our people in Christian work outside 
their own parishes is but scanty. But is not this partly 
due to ignorance of what that work is ? And is not that 
ignorance due to the fact that we take no regular oppor 
tunities to set the work before them ? Would not this 


ignorance be much enlightened, if, at one of the four Ember 
seasons, the clergy made it a rule to give a full account of 
what the Church is doing for the conversion of the heathen ; 
if, at another, the work of the Church in this country were 
fully described, such work, for instance, as is done by the 
Additional Curates' Society, or the Pastoral Aid Society ; if, 
at another, the educational work of the diocese ; if, at 
another, the condition and the needs of our Hospitals and 
Infirmaries. If our observance of these seasons consisted 
merely in putting before our people clear annual accounts of 
such work as I have indicated, I believe that the gain would be 
very great ; for these are things that it is good for Christians 
to know. 

One of the great hindrances to the reception in 
a remote diocese of the full Church idea is local 
narrowness. Bishop Temple, with all his love for 
Devon, was well aware of its failings in this respect. 
A wider outlook was necessary than that supplied 
by the limited area of the Rural Deanery. The 
intermediate section between the Deanery and 
the Diocese, as a whole, was naturally found in 
the Archdeaconry. The area of the Archdeaconry 
was sufficiently extended to enlarge scope of 
thought and action, while not so wide as to 
endanger the loss of individual service. The 
Archdeaconries were regarded by Bishop Temple 
as organic subdivisions of the diocese, and he gave 
them a recognised share of self-government. Thus, 
in organising both his educational and his temper 
ance work, he organised it by Archdeaconries, being 
careful, at the same time, to avoid disintegration 
of the diocese, by keeping a strong central 
organisation at Exeter as supreme under himself. 
In a diocese the size of Exeter, this half-way 
house between the centre and the boundaries was 
especially serviceable. The division of the Arch 
deaconries corresponded with recognised distinc 
tions, both of geography and character. Moreover, 
it pleased Bishop Temple to make use of an ancient 


office, and he always availed himself of it, both at 
Exeter and elsewhere. The experience of the 
elderly men who held the post of Archdeacon on 
his entrance upon the western diocese was specially 
useful to him. Archdeacon Freeman and Bishop 
Temple stood, in many respects, at opposite poles 
of thought and character, but the Bishop greatly 
respected both his learning and his spirituality, and 
enjoyed his quiet humour. The memory of an 
evening which they spent beneath the roof of a 
country parsonage brings back a rich flow of 
anecdote. " When I first came to Thorverton the 
farmers had a very poor opinion of me because I 
knew so little of farming. ' Parson isn't a bad sort 
of a man, but he is a very hignorant man.' When 
I thought about reseating the church an old 
countryman objected, because the high pews 'be 
so lew to my pate.' " The Bishop and Archdeacon 
worked together as friends, and when, a few years 
afterwards, the latter lost his life through an 
accident in London, his son recalls how " when his 
body was laid to rest in Thorverton churchyard, 
it was Dr. Temple who, bareheaded through the 
snow, led the great crowd back to the church, and 
whose strong voice, in thanking God for all who 
had ' departed this life in His faith and fear,' broke 
with a great sob, which I think those who heard 
can hardly have forgotten." Of the other Arch 
deacons, Woollcombe found much fellowship with 
his Bishop in exegetical study of the New Testa 
ment, and Downall offered him constant hospitality 
in his beautiful Vicarage at Okehampton, and 
drove him often across Dartmoor. On one 
occasion the Archdeacon slipt into the Leat, and 
the churchwardens, who were met to receive the 
Bishop and his Archdeacon at the neighbouring 
village, spread abroad the tale that the two digni 
taries had fallen out by the way, and that the 


Bishop, being the stronger man, had pushed the 
other into the water. The Archdeacon was a 
county magistrate, and illustrated the backward 
ness of the district in education by telling that on 
going his official rounds as Archdeacon he remon 
strated with the Highway Board because there 
were no signboards, and he had lost his way in 
consequence. Nothing was done until the Arch 
deacon was to come that way again, when the 
authorities set a man to work. But the Arch 
deacon went more astray than ever. When the 
delinquent was charged with neglect, he pleaded 
that he had put up the signposts all right, but, as 
he couldn't read, he had planted them in the wrong 
places. When shortly afterwards the Southern 
Archdeaconry became vacant, experience had been 
gained, and the Bishop felt himself at liberty to fill 
the vacancy by the appointment of a younger man, 1 
of whose strenuous activity and loyal services he 
made full proof, first at Exeter, and afterwards in 

Yet fuller expression of diocesan life as a 
whole, and of the principle of self-government, was 
required, and for this new machinery had to be 
created. But no man more fuUy understood the 
mistake of being in a hurry. Diocesan Conferences 
were beginning to be " in the air," but the Bishop 
did not intend to take them because they were in 
the air. His first step was to take counsel with the 
Archdeacons and Rural Deans. He then issued a 
Pastoral to his diocese on the subject, and set to 
work at the forming of the constitution. It was 
based upon lines congenial to him. Intended 
to be the organised expression of the principle of 
self-government in the diocese, the main feature 
of the Conference was naturally its representa 
tive character. The ex offido element was, how- 

1 The Rev. Alfred Earle, " London " Memoir, vol. ii. p. '2.1, 


ever, not wanting, and, in accordance with Dr. 
Temple's constant recognition of the union between 
Church and State, the lay hierarchy was worked in 
as well as the clerical, the chief county officers and 
members of Parliament 1 resident or representing 
constituencies in the diocese being included as 
members, if communicants. The laity consider 
ably preponderated in the total number of mem 
bers. The main features of the Bishop's habitual 
policy were thus writ large upon the Diocesan 
Conference, as upon his educational schemes ; 
and to this day, although he ceased to hold 
jurisdiction in Cornwall nearly thirty years ago, 
and a new regime of more definite ecclesiastical 
type has supervened, the prominent position given 
to the county authorities in the Truro Conference 
is the survival of an arrangement which obtained 
when the diocese was as yet undivided and the 
Conference was held under the auspices and accord 
ing to the plan of Bishop Temple. A correspond 
ing recognition of existing institutions was also 
seen in making the churchwardens of the diocese 
the electorate of the lay representatives. Equal 
regard was shown to the spiritual character of the 
assembly ; every member was required to be a 

Subsequent alterations have been made, but 
respect has been paid to the characteristics which 
Bishop Temple stamped upon the Conference from 
the first: — (1) the recognition of the principle of 
self-government ; (2) the union between Church 
and State ; (3) the supremacy of the spiritual aim. 

His early upbringing amongst simple country 
people always gave Dr. Temple a natural sympathy 
with parochial life, and an instinctive appreciation 
of the kind of proposal which would commend 

1 Members both of the Upper and Lower House of Parliament were 
included. ; . 


itself to the ordinary parishioner ; his advice might 
be unconventional and his plans new, but they 
were never pedantic. 

It was not so much the idea of the Diocesan 
Conference that was new, but the use to which 
he put it. With an instinctive dislike to talking 
for talking 1 s sake, he knew that, after the first 
novelty had worn off, the laity would not continue 
to come unless it were evident that the result of 
discussion was practical effort. One field for 
increased activity was already open. The need of 
extending interest in education had been brought 
closely home by the late Diocesan Inquiry, and, in 
itself, afforded sufficient occasion for calling the 
Diocesan Conference together. The result of the 
Inquiry had made it plain that the diocese, as a 
whole, had not yet fully grappled with the subject. 
Existing agencies had enlisted the warm support 
of the few, but they had not drawn in the many. 
It appeared to the Bishop that in setting the 
Diocesan Conference to work on education, he was 
doing the best possible thing, both for the one and 
the other. He therefore suggested a new Diocesan 
organisation. He proposed that a committee of 
laymen and clergy should be appointed by the four l 
Archidiaconal sections of the Conference, to act in 
conjunction with the Cathedral Chapter and the 
Archdeacons, for the purpose of gaining financial 
support, and extending educational interest through 
out the diocese. It was to be a permanent com 
mittee, and was to be called the " General Com 
mittee of Religious Instruction." Sub-committees 
were to be connected with it in each Archdeaconry, 
and it was agreed to apply the moneys collected 
by it to three main objects : — 

(1) The maintenance of the two diocesan 
Training Colleges, at Exeter and Truro. 

1 Cornwall had not as yet (1872) been formed into a separate diocese. 


(2) The provision of a system of paid diocesan 
inspection, rendered necessary by the withdrawal of 
religious instruction from the cognisance of the 
Government Inspector. 

(3) The furtherance locally, by managers, of 
religious instruction in the schools of the district. 

The inaugural session of the Diocesan Con 
ference was held in the Chapter House on May 28 
and 29, 1872. The occasion was notable. Two 
years and a half before, the new Bishop had hardly 
gained his footing in the diocese, and suspicion 
was all around. He had spent the interval in 
coming face to face with his people, and in that 
kind of hard work which, when combined with 
capacity and honesty of purpose, gradually wins 
confidence. And now he stood surrounded by the 
chief men of the diocese and county, some of 
whom had been drawn from estrangement to friend 
ship, and all into a fellowship of work, to expound 
his cherished principle of self-government, and to 
illustrate it in that subject, national education, of 
which he was an acknowledged master, and for the 
ultimate success of which he had always looked to 
its ability to enlist the co-operation of the people at 
large. His conduct of the Conference was an apt 
example of the combination of strength and good 
temper which marked his chairmanship, and of 
quick appreciation of essential points, together 
with willingness to make concessions in detail, if 
these were secured. The keynote was given by 
the Bishop's opening speech : — 

He would tell them what seemed to him distinctly to be 
matters that ought to be excluded from such a Conference as 
this. . . . He did not think a Conference of this kind was 
well adapted to discuss matters of doctrine which ought 
rather to be discussed on paper, and ought to be examined 
with the slow deliberation which a man gave to what he 
wrote rather than to what he said. He thought that the only 


result of attempting to introduce doctrinal questions here 
would be to cause a very great deal of warm feeling, without 
that substantial good which alone would justify them in 
causing that feeling to arise. Again, he thought it of the 
utmost importance that this Conference should not in any 
way discuss either the faults of those who belonged to this 
Conference, or of those who did not. He did not think it 
would be right that the laity should come there to complain 
of the clergy, or the clergy of the laity. . . . They could 
not enforce anything they decided on. All that they could 
do must be done by agreement, and in no other way ; and 
he thought, therefore, it would be wise from the very 
beginning to determine that all such questions should be 
always excluded. . . . 

Then what was it that they had met to do ? . . . The 
first subject, and the one which, he confessed, pressed most 
upon him, was the religious instruction in elementary schools. 
That seemed to him just at present the most important 
matter they could handle, when the State had rather sud 
denly withdrawn all the support it had given to religious 
instruction. To use an Americanism which was very com 
mon in their schools, he was very much afraid indeed that 
unless the Church took the matter up, religious instruc 
tion would be " crowded out " — that without any distinct 
purpose on the part of those who had to do with the 
schools, the religious instruction would, little by little, get 
less and less of that attention which was absolutely necessary 
to make it successful, and that they would find, ten years 
hence, that, although there was still, perhaps, the legal power 
of giving that instruction in schools, it had practically 
disappeared. He thought they ought to handle the matter 
at once. They would observe that it was not merely that 
the Government had withdrawn the assistance and en 
couragement which had hitherto been given, but that, side 
by side with that withdrawal, there was a great increase of 
assistance, and a still greater increase of encouragement, to 
all other instruction. All other instruction now was to be 
made universal over all the country, and the mere fact of 
making it universal at once gave it a very much greater 
importance than before. 

Now, this being so very important a subject for them to 
deal with, he had proposed that they should create a certain 
machinery for the purpose. There was a machinery already 
existing, that of the Diocesan Board, which had done a great 


deal of most admirable work. The management of the 
Training College, which had been in its hands, had in his 
opinion been always exceedingly good. The management of 
the Diocesan Inspection, which had also been in the hands of 
the Diocesan Board, had been also, he thought, as good as it 
was possible to make it under the conditions under which 
that inspection went on. But the Diocesan Board did not 
seem to him by itself to be sufficient for the work. The 
diocese as a whole should have the means of expressing its 
opinion ; for this reason he wanted, if possible, to create a 
representative machinery to work side by side with the 
Diocesan Board. In the erection of that representative 
machinery, he proposed in a great degree to follow in the 
track the Diocesan Board had originally marked out. Those 
who knew anything of the commencement of that Board 
were aware that in the beginning there were district Boards 
as well as a central Board — that there was a local as well as 
a diocesan organisation. Following that hint he wanted to 
create a local as well as a diocesan organisation — the 
difference being that he wanted it to represent the diocese, 
and not merely a body of subscribers. Now it was obvious 
enough that there was some little risk in a proposal of that 
sort that the organisation created to represent the diocese 
might not work in perfect harmony with the Diocesan 
Board. He did not deny the danger, but at the same time 
he must say that he did not think it so great as to be a 
serious obstacle to the working of such machinery as he 
proposed. He would describe to them what he imagined 
this machinery he proposed would do. The machinery would 
consist of a general committee of religious instruction — with 
sub-committees, one for each archdeaconry — which would do 
its very best to raise the necessary funds. For that purpose 
he thought it would have very considerable advantages. 
All those who had anything to do with it would feel that it 
was a committee which was practically of their own appoint 
ing, that it was ultimately responsible to them, and which 
would have to give an account to them of all it was doing. 
And he thought people would go along much more heartily 
with a body of that kind than with any other. Then 
further, he supposed this general committee would decide 
first upon these questions — what proportions of the funds 
raised ought to be given to local objects, and what to 
diocesan. Local objects would be administered by the 
Archidiaconal sub - committee, and matters which con- 


cerned the diocese at large the general Committee would 
request the Diocesan Board to deal with. The com 
mittee he proposed, not meeting very often, would say to 
the committee of management of the Diocesan Board — 
those were the general objects which they, as representing 
the diocese, wished to be aimed at, and the general 
principles they wished to be pursued, and they would 
hand over the money to them with the request that they 
should manage it on their behalf. It must be remembered 
that while it was very important to have a general committee 
to represent the diocese and to carry the sympathies of 
the diocese with it, it was also quite certain that this 
administrative work could not be thoroughly well done 
unless it was by a body that was practically on the spot. 
They could not very well have a body that was gathered 
together from a very large surface to be the immediate 
executive. Of course all this presumed that the committee 
of the Diocesan Board were willing to accept that position. 
He had given them his reasons why he wanted them to 
create this machinery ; he believed that it would carry the 
diocese along with it much more than any other. 

He would give one further reason why he wished very 
much indeed that such machinery should be set up. He 
could not help feeling, in dealing with this matter, that it 
was impossible for the Bishop to forget all through that he 
was the Bishop of the diocese, and that he had a 
responsibility as Bishop which only very strong reasons 
indeed would justify him in shifting on others. Now, if 
it came to a difference of opinion between himself as Bishop 
and a Board like the Diocesan Board, he should certainly 
feel that he ought to be very slow in giving way. He 
should feel that it was a voluntary association, having no 
distinct position, and therefore he ought to be quite sure 
what he was doing before he consented to work with them, 
when at any conjuncture he felt that they were making a 
very serious mistake. But the matter would be very different 
indeed if he felt that his opinion was confronted by the 
opinion of the whole diocese, or that of a Board which 
really represented the whole diocese. In many cases, 
then, he should feel, even if he retained his opinion, quite 
justified in saying that if he could not carry the diocese 
with him it would be absurd for him to stand quite alone 
— it would be like a general walking straight into the 
enemy's ranks without his army. A bishop without his 


diocese was nobody, and he might as well be anywhere 
else. 1 

The main point at issue in the discussion which 
followed was the relation in which the new Com 
mittee of Religious Instruction would stand to the 
existing Diocesan Board. The approved resolu 
tions show the results at which the Conference 
eventually arrived : — 

1. That it is our bounden duty as Churchmen to offer 
systematic encouragement and aid to Religious Instruction 
in Elementary Schools and Sunday Schools. 

2. That a Committee be appointed to co-operate with 
the Diocesan Board for this purpose, to be called the General 
Committee of Religious Instruction, and that it consist of 
the Dean, the Archdeacons, the Canons Residentiary, and 
thirty-five elected members, of whom eight Laymen and six 
Clergymen shall be elected by the representatives of the 
Archdeaconry of Cornwall, and four Laymen and three 
Clergymen by the Representatives of each of the Arch 
deaconries of Devonshire. 

3. That the members so elected by each Archdeaconry 
with their Archdeacon be a Sub-Committee for their own 
Archdeaconry, and the Sub-Committee for Cornwall have 
power to divide themselves into two Sub-Committees, one for 
East and one for West Cornwall, each under the Archdeacon, 

4. That each Archidiaconal Sub-Committee be charged to 
undertake the raising of funds in its own Archdeaconry, and 
be empowered to administer a certain proportion of the funds 
so raised under certain rules, the proportion and the rules 
to be determined by the General Committee. 

5. That the General Committee make it their aim, first, 
to support the Training Schools at Exeter and Truro in full 
efficiency ; secondly, to provide for the payment of Inspectors 
to report on the Religious Instruction in all Schools to 
which the Managers are willing to admit them ; thirdly, to 
provide for making grants to Managers on the report of 
these Inspectors; 2 and the General Committee shall have 
power to hand over to the Diocesan Board such sums a& 
they shall think fit for these purposes. 

1 Exeter and Plymouth Gazette, May 1872. 

2 The Fund raised with this threefold ohject was entitled the 
Diocesan Religious Instruction Fund. 


6. That the General Committee meet at least once a year 
at Plymouth, Exeter, Truro, and Barnstaple successively. 

7. That the General Committee report annually before 
Easter to the Bishop, and that the Report be published 
forthwith, and considered at the next following meeting of 
the Conference. 

It may be well here to quote two letters from the 
Bishop to Prebendary Sanders, his right-hand man 
in the diocese on all educational matters. They 
emphasise, in the Bishop's own trenchant way, the 
principles which lay behind the foregoing resolu 
tions and his whole course of action in the diocesan 
settlement : — 

May 4, 1879. 

MY DEAR MR. SANDERS — I send you the proposed resolu 
tions under the first head. I should like to have them back 
with your remarks by Monday evening next. You observe 
that hitherto the one English principle has been to make 
subscribers supreme over the administration of the money 

Will you let me point out to you that the other principle 
is the principle of the Church ? 

The Church's mode is to collect money at an offertory. 
The money so collected is administered by the clergyman 
and churchwardens who need not have contributed a penny. 

Following that analogy I propose a Committee which is 
to stand to the diocese as the clergyman and church 
wardens stand to the parish. 

I think you will see that my plan is thoroughly true to 
Church principles. 

May 7, 1872. 

Thank you for your criticism. I shall make some 

But I hold fast to my general principles. I want to 
make the encouragement and aid of Religious Instruction 
(as far as I can so make) a diocesan Avork, and not a work 
taken up by individuals who combine. I do not want the 
money to come first and the principles after. I want the 
diocese to settle the principles and then let the money 

If ever there is a collision between the Diocesan Board 


and the Diocesan Conference, I shall hold by the Conference. 
The Board has always the possibility (it is inherent in all 
Voluntary Boards) of being a party organ. The Conference, 
with its present constitution, can hardly have that character, 
unless, and in so far as, the diocese has that character. 

The true position of the Board is to be the agent of the 
Conference in administering certain money under rules to be 
made by the Conference; and if it will not accept that 
position I do not see any other for it. — Yours affectionately, 


It had been originally intended to discuss 
matters connected with other branches of the work 
of the Church in the diocese, but so much interest 
was excited by the discussion on Education that 
time failed for this purpose. The same result 
sometimes followed at succeeding sessions. The 
Diocesan Conference was held annually during the 
Episcopate of Bishop Temple, and subsequent 
sessions followed the pattern of the inaugural meet 
ing. The General Committee of Religious Instruc 
tion has been enlarged in conformity with the 
representative principle from which it started, and 
now, under the title of the Diocesan Council of 
Religious Education, exercises through its special 
Committees and Associations a general superin 
tendence over all branches of Diocesan Education. 
These include Secondary and Sunday as well as 
Elementary Schools, and the Higher Education of 
Adults. True to the principle which lay behind 
the original project, the Conference has been con 
nected with the greater part of the executive 
agencies of the diocese, and is the source from 
which, under the bishop, all such organisation 
flows ; it is the spring and centre of collective work. 

Two of its earliest products were a system of 
Diocesan Sunday School Examinations, and the 
Diocesan Branch of the Church of England 
Temperance Society. The former of these was 


the practical outcome of a resolution moved by 
Mr. Bramley, in the second year of the Conference. 
The Bishop thought that the first step should be 
the institution of examinations, and he annually 
set the papers and looked over the answers himself. 
There are still Sunday School teachers of the 
diocese who can show his comments on the manu 
scripts which, after the papers had been looked 
over, he always made a point of returning. The 
work continued after Dr. Temple left Exeter. 
The Committee has been developed into an 
Association, and has elaborated plans for which, in 
the Bishop's judgment, the diocese was not then 
ripe ; but no more suitable foundation for Sunday 
School service could have been laid than that 
supplied by the example of Bishop Temple. Few 
other men would after this fashion have instilled 
the true impulse and spirit. The same deliberate- 
ness characterised the Bishop in the matter of 
temperance. 1 

It may be that though Bishop Temple believed 
in the principle of self-government he was sometimes 
unconscious of the extent to which others leant upon 
his strong guidance, and that thus self-government 
had not always the free course which he desired to 
give it. It may be also that, strongly impressed as 
he was with the sense that the greater part of the 
best work must be drudgery, he did not always 
appreciate that this was hard doctrine for the mass 
of men, and that there are many, both amongst the 
clergy and the laity, who, while professing admira 
tion for the practical only, nevertheless " shy at " 
discussions which are too practical, and prefer 
"burning questions" to the details of diocesan 
administration. Such men sometimes voted 
Diocesan Conferences, under Bishop Temple's 
regime, a weariness of the flesh. But on the 

1 Infra, p. 227. 


whole it is undoubtedly true that in the constitu 
tion of his Conference Dr. Temple cut one of those 
broad and deep lines which marked all his work 
and made it permanent. He found a place for his 
favourite doctrine of self-government in the 
economy of the Church ; he adapted the principle 
of synodical action to the requirements of modern 
days ; he infused a new vitality into old forms. 
In fostering and sustaining life in all departments 
of diocesan work the Conference acquired a special 
character of its own. It has kept the impress 
which the founder stamped upon it. Presiding 
over it, in the absence of the bishop of the diocese 
twenty years later, Bishop Barry was struck with 
its special features, as giving a freshness and a 
reality which reminded him of experiences in a 
younger community than the Church of England. 
In earlier years Dr. Temple had written, " Nowa 
days Institutions are no longer Habits, as they once 
were, but Ideas." l He was true to his own belief. 
His organisation was not machinery only, but an 
expression of life ; 2 as such it aided the growth and 
progress of the diocese ; and thus it has continu 
ance and is fruitful, and will be the parent of new 
enterprises when it has done its work and the time 
for change has come. 

1 Letter to the Rev. R. Lawson, April 27, 1848. 

2 Dr. Temple's subsequent co-operation with Bishop Harvey Good 
win in the scheme for building the Church House at Westminster is 
an illustration of his quick eye to perceive the kind of project which 
would give vitality to organisation. 



Early history of the Church in Cornwall — United Diocese — 
First efforts to revive the Cornish Bishopric — Advent of 
Bishop Temple — His work and residence in Cornwall — 
Discussion in the Exeter Diocesan Conference — Diocesan 
Committee and Lady Rolle's gift — Bill for the revival of 
the Cornish See — Appointment of Dr. Benson — His Con 
secration and Enthronement — Dr. Temple's Farewell to 

THE greatness of Frederick Temple's life was the 
life itself; but many will think that his greatest 
piece of work was the revival of the Cornish 
Bishopric. It was all the greater because the 
severance from Cornwall which it demanded was an 
act of self-sacrifice. Bishop Temple on the mother's 
side was a Cornishman, and the Cornish instinct 
within him had been powerfully appealed to during 
his Cornish tours. The hearty reception and the 
quick response to his earnest words had warmed 
his Cornish blood. It cost him much to part with 
Cornwall. The thing had to be done because duty 
demanded it, but the wrench was severe. 

Cornwall and Devon had been placed under one 
Episcopate before Leofric's time. Cornish life 
emerges slowly from the region of picturesque 
legend ; but if traditions themselves cannot be 
relied on, there is, no doubt, a substratum of actual 
fact beneath. Christianity was probably at home 



in Cornwall in the fourth century. 1 The Cornish 
were Celts, and most of the Christianity was Celtic 
in its form and usage, and had close links with 
Ireland, Wales, and Brittany. From Cornwall and 
the adjoining counties, the last-named province 
received British Christians fleeing from the Saxon 
invaders, and from this circumstance acquired its 
present title in substitution for its old name of 
Armorica. The south-west of England, under the 
title of Damnonia, retained its own usages for some 
time after the departure of the Romans, and the 
Cornish were the last to part with civil and 
ecclesiastical independence. It was not until the 
tenth century that Alfred's son, Edward the Elder, 
when founding a Bishopric of Devonshire with its 
centre at Crediton, annexed to it three towns in 
Cornwall. Previously, Cornwall had enjoyed 
bishops of its own, who placed their sees apparently 
sometimes at Bodmin, and sometimes at S. 
German's and other places. Alfred's grandson, 
Athelstan, finished what his son had left incomplete ; 
he reduced Cornwall to subjection, and the Cornish 
were finally incorporated with the English, both 
civilly and ecclesiastically. 2 In the reign of Edward 
the Confessor, as is well known, the seat of the 
bishop was transferred from Crediton to Exeter, 
and for more than 800 years (1050-1876) the 
Diocese of Exeter embraced both Devon and 

But perhaps, under the conditions of a united 
See, the union of hearts was never complete. 
Differences in race, language, geography, and 
occupation, constituted a complex and sufficiently 
stout barrier. 

No doubt (says Professor Freeman) from the Axe to 
the Tamar, and still more from the Parret to the Tamar, 

1 Memorandum contributed by Professor Stubbs to the Truro 
Diocesan Kalendar, 1895. s Ibid. 


the people are still very largely of Welsh descent, though 
they have spoken English for many ages. In Cornwall 
itself, . . . the old Welsh tongue went on being spoken for 
many hundred years ; . . . and yet many Englishmen must 
have settled there, for in the days of Edward the Confessor 
. . . the greater part of the land of Cornwall was held by 
men bearing English names. 1 

It has been already noticed that in the fourteenth 
century Bishop Grandissori spoke of Cornwall as a 
semi-foreign land, and its language as semi-barbaric. 2 
When he preached to the Cornish it was necessary 
for him to speak by an interpreter, the parson of 
S. Just -in -Pen with translating his words "in 
linguam Cornubicam." 3 Grandisson's Archdeacon 
of Cornwall finds, like his chief, a difficulty in the 
alien tongue, and apparently, not having his robust 
ness of constitution, physical or mental, and being 
a man well stricken in years, succumbs to the 
difficulties and resigns his post. " I have never 
got on well with these Cornish folk," is his pathetic 
lament, " for they are a truly wonderful race, of a 
rebellious temper, unwilling to be taught or to 
submit to correction. A more influential man 
than myself is needed to deal with them. ... I 
have but few friends in these parts, and am too 
weak and ailing to stand up, alone, against so many 
rebels." 4 Accordingly, he exchanges with a friend 
in the home counties, where he feels himself to be 
in his own land, " et lingua mea est magis nota." 5 
* The same barrier of language was still seen in 
all its obstruct iveness in the Cornish rising of 
1549 against the Book of Common Prayer, part 
of the grievance of the Cornish being that English 
was not their language.' 6 

1 Freeman's Old English History (1878), p. 152. 

2 Supra, pp. 9, 10. 

3 Grandisson's Ep. R., Pt. III. p. xliv., and Pt. II. p. 820. 

4 Ibid. Pt. III. p. liv. 6 Ibid. Pt. II. p. 958. 

6 Memorandum contributed for this Memoir bv Chancellor Edmonds, 


The barrier of the different language was ulti 
mately removed, but the geographical difficulty 
still remained. It has been seen how the wonderful 
energy and activity of such men as Bronescombe, 
Stapeldon, and Grandisson overcame it. 1 But not 
all bishops had their powers or will. The visits of 
more easy-going prelates of later centuries were 
few and far between. The clergy, left to themselves, 
kept less vigilant watch over their flocks, who sank, 
in consequence, into spiritual slumber, or wandered 
from the fold. Some of the pastors succumbed 
altogether, and became absolutely vicious ; and 
though these formed the minority, yet in very few 
was the flame so bright as to kindle the hearts of 
others. And yet spiritual life did not wholly die 
in Celtic breasts ; many felt an unsatisfied longing 
and craved for better food. No wonder if a quick 
response was given to John Wesley or his brother, 
"going in and out through the length and breadth 
of any district he might select as his field of labour, 
visiting and sleeping in humble cottages in rural 
parishes, and bringing the Church to the people 
who would not come to the Church, where too 
frequently apathy prevailed." 2 Wesley left his 
well-conceived system of local preachers behind 
him, and it wooed the hearts of Cornishmen far 
more effectually than did the regular ministry left 
without Episcopal supervision ; for that defect still 
continued. Bishop Phillpotts, though quick to 
detect breaches of discipline, found the geographical 
difficulty too great an obstacle, and was seldom seen 
in Cornwall — except for his official visitations — 
especially towards the close of his long Episcopate. 
The introduction of railways had, in some degree, 
lessened the difficulty of communication, but it had 

1 Supra, pp. 5-10. 

2 Memorandum II., contributed for this Memoir by Mr. Edmund 
Carlyon,, of S. Austell, 1904. 


not removed it. Not even the penny post could 
be taken in lieu of the personal presence of a 
bishop, although offered as a substitute by a Home 
Secretary on behalf of the Crown. 1 " As for some 
of the remoter parishes, far off from the line of rail, 
with bad roads, and in a hilly country, it would 
take nearly as long to reach them from Exeter as 
to get from London to Paris by the fast night 

To the geographical barrier that of occupation 
was added. The inhabitants of Devon are chiefly 
agricultural, while Cornishmen find their livelihood 
chiefly in mining and fishing. It is not easy to 
exaggerate the difference in tone and character 
which results from a difference of occupation and 
corresponding interest of life. The situation is well 
summed up in the words of Chancellor Edmonds : 
" Thus quite unconsciously the Cornish part of the 
diocese . . . carried in its bosom the elements of 
its ancient unity in itself. . . . The barrier of race 
had long been obliterated, the language of the 
dominant race had long ceased to be an alien 
speech, but geography and race and history," and 
perhaps it may be added difference in the occupation 
of the people, "combined to make a separate diocese 
of Cornwall a plain necessity." 3 

The feeling in favour of the reassertion of this 
unity through a revival of the separate Episcopate 
had long slept ; but with the revival of Church life 
in the middle of the nineteenth century it began to 
revive. In 1847 the then Prime Minister, Lord 
John Russell, influenced possibly by the growth of 

1 In 1863 a petition from both Houses of Convocation, praying for 
the revival of the Cornish Bishopric, was refused on the ground of 
" the great facilities for Episcopal administration obtained by the pro 
gress of railroads and the penny post " (Record Newspaper, 1863). 

2 Letter to the Rt. Hon. W. E. Gladstone, M.P., from the Rev. W. 
S. Lach-Szyrma, M.A., 1869. 

3 Memorandum contributed for this Memoir by Chancellor Edmonds. 


some local feeling, included Cornwall in the Bill 
for the erection of four new bishoprics. Public 
opinion was not sufficiently matured to ensure the 
passing of the Bill ; but from that time forward 
the movement never wholly ceased. Some eight 
years later a Royal Commission, appointed to 
inquire into the condition of cathedrals in England, 
amplified their reference by recommending the 
restoration of the bishopric to Cornwall. Bishop 
Phillpotts had both that sympathy with the grow 
ing Church feeling of the day which favoured an 
increase of the Episcopacy, and also the practical 
insight to see the necessity for applying the 
principle to his own diocese. With characteristic 
generosity he offered to resign his patronage of all 
the Episcopal livings in the county of Cornwall, 
and to subscribe £500 per annum from his own 
income, intimating also that he was prepared to 
promote proposals of a more permanent character. 1 
Dr. Walker, Rector of S. Columb Major, offered 
the advowson of that valuable living, of which he 
was the patron, towards the endowment of the 
see. Prebendary Tatham, Rector of Boconnoc 
and Broad Oak in the county of Cornwall, was a 
zealous promoter of a scheme for this purpose, 
and secretary of the committee which was formed 
to carry it out ; and in 1869 the Rev. W. S. 
Lach-Szyrma wrote a letter to Mr. Gladstone, 
the Prime Minister, which he published, urging 
the revival of the bishopric. All these proposals 
were based on the supposition that a large portion 
of the income of the see would be provided by 
existing Church endowments, especially the Church 
property in Cornwall, which was in the hands of the 
Ecclesiastical Commissioners. It must be noted 
that the movement was especially ecclesiastical in 

1 A pamphlet of Prebendary Tatham, entitled " A Cornish Bishopric ; 
the Necessity and Means for its Restoration, 1859." « 


its features, and reflected the current Church 
temper of the time. The Oxford school had not 
at that period embraced the wider life of the 
country within its sphere of thought and care. It 
was concerned with Episcopacy as an essential 
element in the life of the Divine Society, and 
desired its increase on that ground, without much 
reference to the need of it as an agency to enfold 
and bless the growing commercial enterprise and 
city life of the times. These characteristics were 
reflected in the local movement in the West. It 
was not so much on the mining population of 
Cornwall and social problems that thought was 
concentrated as on the deficiency of full Church 
organisation, and on the loss of spiritual influence 
which followed from a lack of full Episcopal min 
istry. The feeling was intense in those who took 
part in the movement ; but the interest was confined 
to a few, and the conception was not ample. 

Such was the position of affairs when Dr. 
Temple was nominated to the See of Exeter. A 
large proportion of the supporters of the scheme 
for the division of the diocese belonged to the 
" straitest sect " of Churchmen — notably Pre 
bendary Tatham, the Secretary of the Committee. 
Upon these, the news of Dr. Temple's nomination 
feU like a thunderbolt. They saw in it the death 
blow of all their hopes. Those who viewed 
the matter most seriously wrote letters, signed 
memorials, and convened meetings ; a less serious 
view of the case was expressed in the witticism — 
"We have memorialised Gladstone to divide the 
diocese, and he has sent us — Temple." 1 Few 
expected a favourable issue. But Dr. Temple 
himself was not dismayed. It appears that at the 
time of his nomination the Prime Minister was 
considering representations which had been made 

1 Letter to Prebendary Tatham, December 14, 1869. 


to him from Cornwall in favour of a revival of the 
See, and that the Bishop-Nominate of Exeter had 
given assurance that the whole matter should 
receive full consideration after he had entered his 
new diocese, and that he would then test both 
the extent of his own powers to do the work of 
the undivided diocese, and the force of the local 
feeling in favour of the division. 

This he set himself to do in the first three years 
of his Episcopate. Several weeks of his first 
summer were spent in the neighbourhood of S. 
Austell, where he occupied Nansladron, a house in 
the parish of S. Ewe. The following year, Glen 
Dorgal on the north coast, in the parish of S. 
Columb Minor was lent him by the proprietor, 
Mr. Francis Rodd of Trebartha Hall. He spent 
some weeks of a succeeding summer in the vicar 
age house of S. Breward, near Bodmin, of which 
Dr. Martin — a much-respected friend, who had once 
been mathematical master at Blundell's School, and 
afterwards Principal of the Exeter Training College 
— was incumbent. At S. Breward he not only 
made himself responsible for the duties in church, 
but, renewing the experiences of younger days 
at Culmstock, he taught in the village Sunday 
School. Using these places as in some sort 
mission stations, he visited the adjoining districts, 
and was seen everywhere by both high and low. 
Other visits into the county for Confirmations, 
church openings, and sermons were frequent. 
He came to know and get himself known, and he 
succeeded. Being of Cornish blood he "took 
kindly " to the Cornish people, says Mr. Carlyon, 
and they to him. 1 " No one got hold of the 
Cornish in the way he did," is the remark of one 
who has the same reason as Bishop Temple had 

1 Memorandum II., contributed to this Memoir by Mr. Edmund 
Carlyon, 1904. 


for knowing Cornishmen. Even one who was not 
Cornish himself could see how much the homely 
heartiness told, and how greatly the fact that the 
Bishop was one of themselves appealed to Cornish 
instincts. When he stood in company with his 
friend Saltren Rogers in Gwennap Pit, and looked 
round the great natural amphitheatre in which a 
multitude of Cornish men had once responded to 
the stirring appeals of John Wesley, he was filled 
with a different mind towards Wesley ans from 
that which animated his own predecessor, Bishop 
Lavington ; l and he stood there, not as a Bishop 
only, but as a Cornishman, with his heart full of 
the memories of all the influence brought to bear 
on his fellow-countrymen by the mighty evangelist 
of the eighteenth century. When he preached in 
the Cornish pulpits some reflection of the spirit 
of John Wesley seemed cast upon him, and the 
rugged eloquence had even more than its usual 
power. Simple incidents come back recalling the 
impression produced. On one occasion an old 
peasant woman trudged many miles across the 
moor, bringing a present of honeycomb because the 
Bishop was Cornish like herself. Often ejacula 
tions of " Alleluiah," " Praise the Lord," and loud 
" Amens," after the Cornish manner, used to sound 
in the crowded seats. The Bishop was careful to 
note, after such ebullitions, that S. Paul desired 
that the " spirits of the prophets should be subject 
to the prophets," 2 but he was helped by the evident 
token of sympathy with his message which these 
irregularities implied. He drew the clergy, no less 

1 Supra, p. 16. 

2 When Bishop Temple went to confirm in the parish of Pendeen, 
old Mr. Aitken, father of modern missioners, narrated how when a 
deputy-bishop came on a like errand several years before, he had 
been disturbed by these irregular responds on the part of the Con 
firmation candidates, and remonstrated. " You may stop them, my 
Lord, if you can, but now they have once begun it is beyond me," was 
Mr. Aitken' s perhaps not unwilling answer. 



than the people, and the lighter as well as the more 
serious moods had their effect. Sometimes he was 
playing with golden-haired children on the Rectory 
lawn ; sometimes, with head bared, he was breasting 
Cornish hills, and provoking from the panting 
clergyman on the return from the hot walk the 
question — " I say, Sandford, does your Bishop 
always walk like that?" Sometimes he was peering, 
all unconcerned, over a precipitous cliff while the 
incumbent, alarmed for his Bishop's safety, hung 
on to his coat-tails. But whether thus off duty, 
or giving clear, shrewd advice on parochial diffi 
culties, or again, discarding all brusqueness, and 
with deepest sympathy responding to individual 
spiritual needs, he began to prevail ; the simplicity 
of the man's nature spoke "with power." A 
fellowship of men who caught the inspiration 
formed around him. Not a few of those who 
were gathered into it had passed away before the 
long life of Bishop Temple closed — Chappel of 
Camborne, and Mills of S. Erth, and Phillpotts 
of Porth Gwidden, later still, Paul Bush, Scott's 
successor at Duloe, and now his dear friend, 
Saltren Rogers, and last of all, Tyacke of Helston, 
have been taken ; but a remnant still remain to 
recall how the man, whose coming was to shatter 
hopes and frustrate work, falsified these predic 
tions, and brought home to many who were 
sceptical on the point the real usefulness of the 
bishop's office, and the good that would accrue to 
Cornwall from having a bishop of her own. 

The Bishop was not insensible to this growing 
feeling, and moreover, from all that he saw, he 
began to think that he understood the line of 
action which the problems of Church life in Corn 
wall required. He recognised both the defects and 
the merits of the prevailing Wesleyanism. He 
saw the causes for it in the past history of the 


Church, and in the special character of the people. 
He saw also that much of it was not as yet Non 
conformity in any formal sense. One who is four 
score years of age, himself the son of a Cornish 
rector, bears witness " to the fact that at the time 
of Bishop Phillpotts' coming to the diocese, and 
for a long time afterwards, Wesleyan Methodists 
did not desert the Parish Church services and her 
Ordinances, and their own modest Chapels in out 
lying parts were not open during the hours of 
Divine Service in the Parish Church." l It may be 
that the stricter ecclesiastical regime of his pre 
decessor, and the continued want of a Bishop of 
Cornwall, had tended to widen the breach ; but still 
it seemed to Bishop Temple at his coming that 
differences were not irreconcilable, and that he saw 
an ultimate church unity which was compatible 
with the preservation of much that Wesleyans and 
even more pronounced Nonconformists prized. The 
several denominations would be communities within 
the Church, and each would represent a special 
form and view of Christian truth, while the Church 
would be the home in which the fulness of the 
Faith would abide, and the organ through which 
central truths would find expression. In order to 
attract the Cornish mind by exhibiting the spiritual 
side of the Church's work, he held more than one 
Ordination in Cornwall during his short Episcopate. 
The first of these took place in S. Mary's Church, 
Truro, on Trinity Sunday, 1871, and this view of 
an ultimate unity was the thought running through 
the sermon which he preached. Taking for his 
text S. Paul's words to the Corinthians (1 Cor. 
ii. 2), "For I determined not to know anything 
among you, save Jesus Christ, and Him crucified," 
the Bishop began by showing that while the Greeks, 

1 Memorandum II., contributed for this Memoir by Mr. E. Carlyon, 


after their manner, " were thinking of the strife of 
words, S. Paul was thinking of spiritual life ; while 
they were thinking of precise and subtle distinc 
tions, S. Paul was thinking" of central truths 
and of a life surrendered to Christ ; and then he 
proceeded : — 

This contrast between what the Corinthians expected and 
what S. Paul intended to give them marked also, at all 
times, the special contrast which distinguished the Christian 
Church from all the religious bodies comprehended within 
it. It was of the very essence of all such bodies within the 
Church that they should mark out some special form of 
truth by which they would hold, and which was the very 
condition of their existence. He did not mean to say that 
this form of truth was of necessity an untrue or imperfect 
form ; . . . but they took it as the very condition of their 
existence, and by so doing they marked themselves out as 
not being the whole Church of Christ, but only a special 
section of it. They existed for the sake, not of bringing 
men to Christ only, but for the sake of bringing men to 
Christ through this or that particular channel ; they desired 
that all should accept the truth of God in the form in 
which they put it. ... But it was a special mark of the 
Catholic Church of Christ to know nothing save Jesus Christ 
and Him crucified. It was not, of course, that forms of 
truth were indifferent to it, any more than to S. Paul, but 
it contended that all these things were mere means towards 
a great end, and the great end was Christ — and Christ 
only. . . . 

He was speaking to those who were to be ordained 
ministers in the Catholic Church — to those who were about 
to be sent forth to minister in the name of the Church as 
a whole. But not only so ; he was speaking in respect of 
those who were to be sent forth to minister in a country 
that had accepted their branch of the Catholic Church, 
and had taken it to be the instrument in keeping up the 
religious life of the whole land, and in bringing every man 
in the land to Christ ; and inasmuch as their branch of the 
whole Church had accepted this mission, he wished them 
to observe that there was upon them, as ministers of such 
a Church, a special duty to bear in mind this great truth. 
No other Christian denominations in the country had a 


mission to those who were not willing to accept their 
ministry. Not so the responsibility of the Church. Its 
responsibility was to all alike. If any man had not yet 
come to Christ, the minister of the Church was bound to 
feel that his mission was to that man, and they could not 
say, " Others perhaps may succeed where I failed. 11 . . . 
They might have done their best, but the measure of their 
mission was the whole country, and as long as there was 
any man who had not yet learnt the truth as it was 
in Christ, their labours were not done. They must still 
go on. 

There were others, as he said, who were labouring in a 
different way. He for his part had no hesitation at all in 
saying that he looked upon the ministers of every denomina 
tion in this country as true ministers of Christ. He knew 
no test by which their work could be tried which would not 
come to that result, because he saw that men under their 
ministry had accepted God's truth ; and when he saw that 
the Lord, Master of them all, had so blessed their work, he 
could not doubt for one moment that their work had His 
approval, and that He had sent them. But still their mission 
was partial. Their mission was limited by the particular 
form of truth which they had to teach. But the Church 
had a larger and fuller mission. . . . 

And as it seemed to him, there was about the mission of 
the Church a nobility which corresponded with that largeness 
and fulness. And so it was for this reason that in the Church 
of Christ, and in the branch of it to which they belonged, 
there must of necessity be a diversity of opinion which they 
could not have in any special denomination. The Church 
had a mission so wide that diversity of opinion became a 
necessity, but it was held together by the largeness of its 
mission, and men who differed from each other very widely 
indeed, still belonged together to the same Church, because 
they felt that their consciences were satisfied with the fulness 
and breadth of their task. . . . And so this diversity of opinion 
among the ministers of the Church which sometimes, in their 
eagerness and desire to come as close as they could to the 
very truth of God, might produce unseemly controversies 
and give reason to men outside to say how they quarrelled 
amongst one another, was, nevertheless, the very condition of 
the mission on which they were sent. Such controversies 
there always must be within a Church which had such work 
to do. . 


Well may the question be put, Was it true that the 
ministers in the Church really acknowledged this diversity, 
and were content to accept it as a condition of the largeness 
of the work they had to do ? The answer to the questions 
was that they were but men, and that even when conscious 
of the greatness of the task given them, and even when 
they saw how heavy was the responsibility, yet still they 
did not — and the weakness of human nature was such 
that they could not — lift themselves up to that high and 
noble mission. And also as men . . . they could not help 
being blind very often, short-sighted always. They could 
not help sometimes being shut up within their own narrow 
intellects, and unable to see that which did not come within 
their range. And their labour, too, though indeed it was 
heavy upon those who felt it, heavy with a weight that pressed 
day and night on some, yet still they could not always feel 
how much they Avere charged to do. . . . And so he did not 
say that the Church of England had ever fulfilled its great 
mission as it ought. . . . But this should be always the pre 
dominating thing in the Christian minister's soul — he had 
to teach what he believed to be true ; to use and interpret 
the present forms put into his hands, according as his con 
science dictated, — but he had to remember that above all 
forms, above all interpretations, still would stand the one 
great purpose of his mission, to bring men to Christ, and 
Him crucified ; the test of the fulfilment of his mission as a 
minister of the Catholic Church was his fidelity to the central 
aim, the Supreme Lord. 1 

The Bishop concluded his sermon with some 
such words as these : — 

A striking picture of the Church has been handed down 
to us through Papias of Hierapolis, a hearer of S. John the 
Evangelist. Papias tells us that the beloved disciple related 
how the Lord used to teach and say, ' The days will come, in 
which vines shall grow, each having ten thousand shoots, and 
on each shoot ten thousand branches, and on each branch 
again ten thousand twigs, and on each twig ten thousand 
clusters, and on each cluster ten thousand grapes, and each 
grape when pressed shall yield five-and-twenty measures of 
wine. And when any of the saints shall have taken hold of 

1 West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser, June 1871. 


one of their clusters, another shall cry, I am a better cluster ; 
take me, bless the Lord through me.' l The words are 
fanciful, but truth lies behind them ; they speak of unity in 
diversity as the characteristic of the Church of the ultimate 
future, and of the only rivalry possible amongst its members 
— which can best help the redeemed to praise their Lord. May 
God give them grace to keep this vision before their eyes, 
and in this spirit to devote themselves to their great task. 

The sermon provoked not a little criticism at 
the time on account of its breadth of view, and its 
supposed surrender of the Church position, and of 
the doctrine of the apostolic succession of the 
ministry. To the succession as an historic fact 
Bishop Temple always clung, and this belief he 
expressed, both in his private 2 and public utter 
ances, — notably in the sermon preached at the 
Consecration of Truro Cathedral, which must be 
read as the complement of the sermon at the 
Truro Ordination in 1871. " The purpose of that 
succession," he says in this second sermon, " is to 
link the Church of the present, from generation to 
generation, back by steps that cannot be mistaken, 
to the first appointment of the Apostles by the 
Lord. The purpose of that succession is to make 
men feel the unity of the body as it comes down 
the stream of history, and, if possible, to touch 
their hearts with some sense of that power which 
the Lord bequeathed when He ascended up on 
high and gave gifts to men." 3 Bishop Temple 
accepted the fact and believed in its power. The 
Church was to him a divine creation ; it " takes its 
origin," he says in the same sermon, "not in the 
will of man, but in the will of the Lord Jesus " : 
and, " It is for this that we insist upon the 

1 Irenaeus, Haer. v. 33, 3, 4. 

2 Editor's Supplement, vol. ii. pp. 521 and 566; also "London" 
Memoir, p. 10. 

3 Sermon preached at the Consecration of Truro Cathedral, 
November 3, 1887. 


succession of the ministry, because we find the 
Church from the very beginning flowing out of the 
ministry." Again, in a letter written to Bishop 
Benson in June 1877, he writes : — 

Wesley laid great stress on the right of " the Ministers " 
to govern the Church and to decide all questions of doctrine, 
and would not allow any Layman to have any voice in such 
matters. This logically requires that the Ministry shall 
have a Commission independent of the Laity. And this 
logically requires that there shall be a succession. And 
they wince if it be pointed out that they have no succession. 
And if your finger points in that direction they turn very 
cross immediately. 

But in spite of this strong position he shrank 
from condemning an " irregular " order in face of 
the manifest blessings that had rested on Wesley an 
work. He made much of the principle involved 
in the words, " By their fruits ye shall know them," 
and he applied it largely as a test of Divine accept 
ance of work done. To him, Wesleyanism, as 
he saw it in Cornwall, although not having full 
credentials, was an agency in the Divine economy. 
It was not because his conception of the Church 
was inadequate, but because it was so full that he 
held this view. He recognised the truth set forth 
in the allegory of Papias, and he believed that the 
road to its realisation lay in the concentration of 
the Church upon the larger and essential verities, 
while it allowed the freest scope to different schools 
and denominations for the enforcement of special 
tenets and rules of life. Moreover, he thought 
that the final goal would be more surely reached if 
the ancient church — her Episcopate and all her 
ministry, clothed with the power and authority 
which came down to them from primitive days — 
were to throw herself with full energy into the 
solution of the social problems of modern life. 
This had been the idea of the student on which he 


loved to dwell when writing to his friends, and it 
was the aspiration of the Bishop. 

But the fruition of the vision was not for his eyes, 
and though he thought that he understood some 
thing of the methods by which the vision could be 
realised, the experience of four years' hard work 
had taught him that the strain was too great for 
a single man who had the responsibility of other 
labours heavy upon him. He was the pioneer, but 
he was "not to go over Jordan," and he thus 
expresses himself in answer to a memorial addressed 
to him by Cornish clergy in November 1874 : " I 
can assure the memorialists that I feel as much as 
they do, and perhaps even more, the need of that 
division of the Diocese of Exeter which they desire. 
That I should not put any obstacles in the way 
of such a division was understood when I first 
accepted the bishopric ; and my experience of the 
work, without any suggestion from others, would 
have made me feel it a plain duty to advocate the 
creation of a Bishopric of Cornwall if ever an 
opportunity offered." l By an effort he put the 
thought of retaining the Cornish section of the 
diocese from him, and threw the whole power of 
his energy into the work of carrying through the 
division. The force of the man's personality and 
his methods were such that what had hitherto been 
the pious aspiration of ecclesiastical minds was con 
verted into the robust determination of a whole 

The chief auxiliary on which the Bishop relied 
in accomplishing this work was his Diocesan Con 
ference. In the aid which it gave to the revival of 
the Cornish See, more even than in launching the 
new educational work, the action of the Bishop in 
calling it together was justified. " I could never 

1 Letter from Bishop Temple to the Rev. F. Hockin, in reply to a 
Memorial, November 1874. 


have carried through the Cornish Bishopric," he 
used to say in later years, "if it had not been 
for the Diocesan Conference." It was the 
assurance that he had the diocese at his back. 
By it the diocese was stirred ; it was the organ 
through which it acted, and in the Diocesan Confer 
ence, the movement in Bishop Temple's time had 
its origin. It is believed that as early as 1871 the 
matter was incidentally mentioned at a meeting in 
Truro over which the Bishop was presiding ; but the 
actual beginning of the movement may be dated 
from the Diocesan Conference of 1874, when Mr. 
Edmund Carlyon, of S. Austell, took the occasion 
of a discussion raised by the Rev. E. N. Dumble- 
ton, then Vicar of S. Paul's church in Truro, to 
introduce the subject. 

In entering upon any scheme for the increase of Church 
agencies (Mr. Carlyon said), they ought to consider whether 
their superintendence under present conditions would not be 
more than one Bishop could manage. The diocese was very 
large and ought to be divided . . . and he would further 
venture to say as a Cornish representative that the only 
drawback in such a solution of the question would be the 
possible loss to Cornwall of their present Diocesan ; and that 
if the Bishop would select Cornwall instead of Exeter as his 
future see, it would add much to the happiness as regards 
Cornwall of the result of the efforts to divide the diocese. 1 

The Bishop said nothing, but smiled. The 
smile was historic. To it the Cornishmen present 
are wont to trace the renewal of their long-cherished 
design. From the face of the Bishop the smile 
spread over the face of the diocese. On March 1, 
1875, Mr. Carlyon convened a meeting at the 
Royal Hotel, Plymouth, under the presidency of 
the Rev. C. C. Bartholomew, R.D. Dr. Temple 
was not present, but the announcement was made 

1 Memorandum I., contributed for this Memoir by Mr. E. Carlyon, 
1903 ; and Report of Diocesan Conference, 1874, Exeter and Plymouth 


that he was willing to surrender £800 a year of the 
income of the see in furtherance of a scheme for 
the revival of the bishopric. A Committee was 
formed, and it was agreed that a deputation should 
wait upon the Prime Minister to bring the project 
before him. 1 

On May 28, 1875, Mr. Disraeli received it. 
His manner and words were gracious ; but an 
incident which in later years Dr. Temple used to 
recall with amusement, showed where, for the time, 
the difficulty lay. The Bishop had travelled up 
from the neighbourhood of the Land's End, and in 
order to give some point to his remarks, began as 
follows : — 

It may give you some idea, sir, of the need for this 
change if I state that the extremity of my diocese is 140 
miles distant from its centre, Exeter, and that, in order to 
have the opportunity of meeting you this morning, being at 
present engaged in work near Penzance, I found it necessary 
to travel all night. 

More was to follow ; but at once and with great 
politeness came the remark, "You must be very 
tired ; wont you sit down ? " It stopped the flow 
of the Bishop's eloquence, and, whether intentionally 
or not, took the wind out of the sails. " I never 
felt so exquisitely snubbed in my life," the Bishop 
used to say in telling the story. He sat down, but 
the effect produced on his mind was precisely what 
was required. Previous efforts for the revival of 
the see had failed because they relied more or less 
upon a grant from Public Church Funds, and the 
Bishop was now confirmed in his view that the 
Government had no intention of making such a 
grant, and meant to throw the applicants back 
upon their own resources. This belief he had 
already expressed, two months before, in a letter to 
Mr. Carlyon : — 

1 Memorandum I., contributed for this Memoir by Mr. E. Carlyon. 


EXETER, March 8, 1875. 

MY DEAR SIR — Nothing will strengthen my hands except 
such an expression of desire for a Cornish Bishopric as 
would be shown by a large Cornish subscription. All the 
world over men measure earnestness by the sacrifices which 
it prompts, and in London I hear but one comment on the 
matter : " We shall judge by the subscriptions." That I 
am in earnest I have tried to show. Until Cornwall shows 
it in the same way, we shall make very little progress. 

And I am decidedly against the creation of a new set of 
bishops at lower salaries ; bishoprics so endowed will either 
be filled by men of less ability, or be made stepping-stones. 

I have written quite frankly, because it is of some 
importance that we should understand each other in such a 
matter. — Yours very truly, F. EXON. 

With a view to stimulating voluntary effort, the 
Earl of Devon moved the following resolution in 
the ensuing session of the Diocesan Conference 
(1875): "That, whilst the necessities of the 
Church in England and Wales demand an increase 
of the Episcopate, nowhere are those necessities 
more conspicuous than in the Diocese of Exeter. 
In order, therefore, to promote a division of this 
diocese, and the creation of a bishopric in 
Cornwall, it is expedient that a Committee be 
formed, to be called * The Diocesan Committee for 
promoting the restoration of a Bishopric in Corn 
wall.' " To this resolution a rider was added on the 
motion of the Rev. R. Hobhouse, a most respected 
Cornish clergyman, whose early opposition to 
Bishop Temple had given way before the evidence 
of hard work and sincerity : " That it shall be the 
duty of the Committee to co-operate with the 
Bishop in all reasonable measures likely to procure 
such restoration." The Bishop was made Chairman 
of the Committee ; Archdeacon Earle and (sub 
sequently) the Earl of Devon, Vice-Chairmen ; 
Mr. Carlyon was appointed Secretary. 

The first fruits of the appointment of the Com- 


mittee were seen in the announcement of a princely 
donation on the part of Lady Rolle of £40,000 
towards the Endowment Fund. Stimulated by 
this munificence, the Committee put out their 
first appeal to the diocese. It gave the previous 
history of the movement and the reasons for it, 
and concluded with the following words from the 
Bishop : — 

In signing this statement and appeal as Chairman of the 
Committee appointed by the Diocesan Conference, I desire 
to add on my own behalf, as Bishop of the diocese, that my 
six years 1 experience of the work to be done has made me 
feel (and that more and more every succeeding year) how 
impossible it is for one man to do all that is required from a 
bishop throughout so extensive an area ; not only has the 
work to be done with a steady speed which it is difficult to 
maintain for any length of time, but much has to be left 
undone which it would be of advantage to the efficiency of 
the Church's work that the Bishop should do. This is felt 
by many of the clergy, and it is no less felt by the Bishop ; 
and I have no doubt that both Devon and Cornwall would 
greatly gain in this respect if each county were a diocese by 

It will be, in my judgment, very much to be regretted if 
the present opportunity be lost, and the munificent offer of 
d£?1200 a year be made in vain for lack of a sufficient sum 
being raised to meet it. F. EXON. 

January 1876. 

Events moved quickly as soon as the Committee 
set to work. The issue of the appeal was followed 
by an arrangement for central meetings in pro 
motion of the Bishopric Fund to be held in the 
chief towns of the diocese. Lord Devon was 
present at many of them, and by his earnest 
advocacy no less than by his high position in 
Devonshire, and the respect in which his personal 
character was held, became the Bishop's right- 
hand man in the cause. Archdeacon Earle was 
fervent and ready, Mr. Carlyon indefatigable, and 


the Bishop carried conviction by his unadorned 

The general question of the increase of the 
Episcopate was in the air, and in the previous 
year, 1875, Lord Lyttelton had carried an enabling 
Bill for that purpose through the House of Lords. 
The Bishop of Exeter had taken part in the dis 
cussion, and had vividly described his own overwork 
under present conditions : — 

He might say that during the first year after his appoint 
ment to the Diocese of Exeter he was at work every day from 
an early hour in the morning until a late hour at night ; so 
much so, that when the late Government asked him to allow 
his name to be put upon a Commission of some importance, 
he was obliged to refuse on the ground that until the end of 
the year he had only eleven days at his disposal, and after 
wards even those days were filled up. 1 

It had been found impossible to carry this Bill 
beyond the Upper House, but fortified by the 
success of the first efforts to raise the endowment 
by voluntary effort in the western counties, the 
Government introduced a Bill for the revival of the 
Cornish See in 1876. The Bill provided for the 
transfer of sufficient endowment from the Bishopric 
of Exeter to yield an annual income from that 
source of £800 ; but with this exception the funds 
were to be raised from private sources. The 
ultimate income of the bishop was fixed at £3000 
annually. Truro was selected as the Cathedral 
city. The patronage held by the Bishop of 
Exeter in Cornwall was transferred to the Bishop 
of Truro. The Ecclesiastical Commissioners were 
empowered to prepare a scheme for creating new 
Archdeaconries ; and, pending the constitution of a 
Dean and Chapter in the new diocese, for founding 
Honorary Canonries. The Church of S. Mary, 
Truro, was to serve as the Cathedral Church. 

1 Second reading of the Increase of the Episcopate Bill, February 
23, 1875. 


The Bill was piloted through the Lower House by 
Mr. (afterwards Lord) Cross, the Home Secretary, 
who in his introductory speech 1 paid the following 
tributes, both to Lady Rolle and Dr. Temple : — 

There had been an offer of ^ISOO a year from a single 
individual for the formation of this see, but there was a 
condition attached to that, viz. that the see shall be formed 
in the lifetime of the donor. That gift had been most 
generously met by the Bishop of the diocese. The see of 
Exeter was entitled to ^5000 a year, and it was of the class of 
ordinary bishoprics. It was proposed to transfer it from the 
higher class to the lower class of bishoprics, and it would 
consequently receive £4t%QQ — the lowest sum that was 
received by ordinary bishoprics. But the Bishop of the 
diocese, with all the generosity and zeal which characterised 
him in every act of his life, insisted that the reduction in his 
income of .£800 per annum should begin from the moment 
the new diocese was founded, and that they should not wait 
till his death, for he wanted to make the self-sacrifice for the 
good of the Church. That was a noble example, which 
entitled the Bishop to due consideration at their hands. 

The art of Parliamentary obstruction had not 
then been perfected, and in spite of some opposition 
from Welsh and Irish members the Bill passed 
through the House of Commons without much 
difficulty. Under the guidance of the Duke of 
Richmond and Gordon, the Government leader, 
it was quickly carried through the Upper House, 
and received the Royal assent before the close of 
the session (1876). 

In comparison with the dreary length of time 
spent in later efforts for the creation of new 
sees, the celerity with which the revival of the 
Cornish See became an accomplished fact is mar 
vellous. In his opening address at the ensuing 
session of the Diocesan Conference, 1876, 2 the 
Bishop gratefully owned the obligation under which 
the diocese stood to Lady Rolle, Lord Devon, and 

1 June 9, 1876. 2 October 24, 1876. 


Mr. Carlyon, and the extent to which the action of 
the Conference itself had expedited the realisation 
of their hopes : — 

He wished to congratulate the diocese on the fact of 
their having appointed the Cornish Bishopric Committee 
last year. He did not think any one but himself could be 
aware how very fortunate that appointment was, because 
the extraordinary munificence of Lady Rolle for the first 
time made it possible to accomplish this work within a very 
limited period. They would have found very much greater 
difficulty in following up Lady Rollers munificence if that 
Committee had not been in existence. She wrote in the 
first instance to the Archbishop of Canterbury, who com 
municated at once with himself and Mr. Cross, the Home 
Secretary. He (the Bishop) was not informed at that time 
who the donor was, but he was requested to see Mr. Cross 
immediately on the subject, and the first question he asked 
him was, " How can you get the diocese as a whole to act in 
support of Lady Rolle's proposal ? " 

He told Mr. Cross that a committee had been already 
appointed for the very purpose by the Conference of the 
diocese, and that that committee had the authority of the 
whole diocese to support it. Mr. Cross then said that 
would no doubt hasten matters very much. . . . He hoped 
he might say how much they owed in this work to the unre 
mitting labours of two laymen — Lord Devon and Mr. 
Carlyon. Mr. Carlyon had worked at it with a devotion 
which, he might say, very largely overbalanced a very large 
subscription. Lord Devon had been the leading spirit in 
everything that had been done. He (the Bishop) felt it had 
been a very admirable move, — he felt grateful to God for 
having brought it about. He could not have believed last 
year that there was any chance of such a thing being done 
in ten years at least. The Bishop ended by saying how 
greatly the Conference would miss their Cornish brethren 
when they left them. 1 

His reply to the vote of thanks for his own 
labours in the cause was full of the warmth of 
feeling which he always showed when really 
stirred : — 

1 Exeter and Plymouth Gazette, October 1876. 


He felt their kindness the more because the longer he had 
worked in the diocese the more he found their hearts had 
been towards him. He had found the clergy willing in every 
possible way to make the Bishop's work not only easy, but 
delightful. The sacrifice of income and patronage was in 
reality a very small part of what he would sacrifice in this 
case. He felt far more the sacrifice of the warm, the cordial, 
the affectionate kindness with which so large a part of his 
work had always been met in Cornwall. 1 

Before the see could actually be founded, the 
issue of a second appeal was necessarv. The 
diocese quickly responded, and before the year 
closed the Bishop was able to announce to the 
Church Congress (1876), which opportunely met at 
Plymouth and was a witness of the success of the 
western counties in their great effort, that the 
full sum needed to secure Lady Rolle's benefaction 
had been raised. 

This announcement was shortly afterwards 
followed by Dr. Benson's appointment as first 
Bishop of the revived diocese. The choice of his 
friend to take charge of Cornwall was a great 
delight to Bishop Temple. " You must like your 
bishop very much. He is without any equal." 
The two men were different ; but what was lacking 
in one, the other supplied : each rejoiced in all 
that his friend possessed, and they never forgot 
their debt to each other. The new bishop was a 
constant and almost daily applicant for the advice 
of his elder Episcopal brother, both as to principles 
and details of action ; the practice continuing 
through life. " I don't feel able to stir without 
you," writes Dr. Benson at a later period — and Dr. 
Temple never tired of responding. Here is a list 
of subjects upon which, in the " present distress," 
letters kept pouring in from Dr. Benson : Confirm 
ations, and the duty of parish clergy in regard to 

1 Exeter and Plymouth Gazette, October 1876. 
2 Letter to the Rev. Saltren Rogers, II. D., June 5, 1877- 


them ; the baptism of adults ; the expediency or 
otherwise of the continued residence in the parish 
of clergy incapacitated by age from work ; relations 
with Wesley ans ; the Truro Chapter Bill ; the 
administration of Bishop Phillpotts' Trust for the 
training of ordination candidates. There is a 
correspondence amounting to fifty-nine letters on 
a single subject — the provision of an Episcopal 
residence at Truro. Most of these last letters 
involved legal questions or architectural detail, and 
must have cost him time and thought. True to his 
own invariable practice, Bishop Temple made a 
great point of securing that the bishop should 
reside in the mother city of the diocese, and 
brought all his business powers to bear on the 
subject. The vicarage house at Kenwyn, enlarged 
and adapted to its higher purpose, was the fruit of 
the joint labours of the two friends. In it the first 
bishop found a home during his tenure of the see, 
and although not occupied by his present successor, 1 
the Trusts still hold. It is ready for the Bishop of 
Truro whenever the present or any future prelate 
thinks well to resume actual possession. 

The crowning acts of Consecration and En 
thronement took place on the Festivals of S. Mark 
and SS. Philip and James, April 25 and May 1, 
of the following year, 1877, the former in S. Paul's 
Cathedral, and the latter in the church of S. Mary, 
Truro. The Bishop of Exeter was present on both 
occasions. Bishop Benson was, naturally, the centre 
of prayers and thoughts, but in this memoir it 
is natural to dwell on the senior Bishop who had 
prepared the way for his friend. The High Sheriff 
of Cornwall, Mr. Rashleigh, brought him the 
tribute of an old college acquaintance. 

Of this I am certain, that even with the Bishop of 
Exeter and Lady Rolle's liberality, it would have been very 

l Dr. Gott. 


difficult to have completed the work we had in hand, if it had 
not been for the missionary tour which Bishop Temple took 
through Devon and Cornwall. The way in which he spoke 
at Penzance, S. Austell, and Bodmin stirred the hearts of 
those who were hesitating as to whether it was necessary to 
have a separate Bishop for Cornwall. 1 

The new bishop combined his tribute of affection 
with the scholarly playfulness which was one of the 
habitual charms of his eloquence : — 

I feel sure you will let me dwell for a moment on the 
name of one who has at once made it both easy and difficult 
for me to come here — easy because he has made the office of 
bishop dear to you — easy because I find the work mapped 
out with those same beautiful clear lines for me with which 
his work used to be mapped out for us at Rugby ; and 
again most difficult, because any one who looks even at the 
records of toil among figures and statistics, which his schemes 
and plans show, and listens to the many burning thoughts of 
work and duty which he more than any one pours forth in the 
shortest time, in the most simple and unpretending way, must 
feel it is a task of no ordinary difficulty to step along the 
path which he has pointed out. . . . 

To the Church in Cornwall what shall I say? . . . On 
the day of the battle of Cannae, when the Carthaginian army 
was in so difficult a position on the banks of the Aufidus, 
when the hosts of the Roman army were displayed against it, 
it is said that the staff of Hannibal clustered around him, and 
in a moment all their anxiety was dispelled, for Hannibal 
laughed. And this morning, as we entered the Council 
Chamber, the first thing that was said to me was : " Look at 
the Bishop of Exeter; how cheerful he always is; how he 
is laughing." (Turning to Dr. Temple) — Our Hannibal ! 
(Much laughter and applause.) We will think of no 
difficulties whatever when Hannibal laughs. 2 

Dr. Temple spoke with simple eloquence and 
generous affection : — 

You know that what we are doing to-day is the crown of 
what has been sought for many years in this county. It is, 

1 The Church in Cornwall, vol. ii. No. 27, p. 13. 
2 Ibid. pp. 14, 17. 


I think, more than twenty years since the people of Cornwall 
first began to demand that their ancient bishopric should be 
restored, and that they should have one of the chief officers of 
the Church placed among them, to encourage the clergy in 
their work, and to promote all that the Church has to do 
here amongst you. And for a long time, although we have 
earnestly desired it, very little could be done ; but, at last, 
more, one may say, by the providence of God than by any 
exertion of ours, that wish has been crowned with success, our 
ancient bishopric has been restored, and Cornwall once more 
has become one of the dioceses of the English Church. And 
we trust that it is the beginning of what all will rejoice to see 
— a more energetic and a more earnest labour on the part of 
the Church of England to do its work here in this place, and 
more hearty appreciation of that work by all who see it. ... 
But I confess that I neither expected that we should 
accomplish the effort in so short a time, nor still less could I 
have hoped that there should be such a crown to our work 
as that my dear and valued friend should have been the first 
occupant of this see. ... I may be pardoned, even in his 
presence, if I express to you how deeply I feel the value to 
this part of the English Church of the services of such a man 
as I know my friend to be. I have known him for nearly 
twenty years with ever-increasing intimacy. I have known 
him and worked with him as a brother. A scholar of the 
very first rank, a man of the very widest reading, a man of 
the most genial sympathies, and, above all, one who gives 
his heart to our Lord and Master as few men are able to do 
it. Such a man I present to you to-day, to be welcomed as 
the first occupant of this see. 1 

Bishop Temple was not thinking of himself, 
bat those who then were gathered were thinking 
of him. It was a great achievement which had 
been accomplished when, to use Bishop Benson's 
phrase, * a Cornishman gave back Cornwall 
to herself.' Seven years before he had come 
amongst them as an object of suspicion ; his 
Episcopate was held to be foredoomed to failure, 
and his advent was regarded as the death-blow of 
cherished hopes. Now these hopes had been 

1 The Church in Cornwall, vol. ii. No. 27, pp. 6-8. 


crowned with an extraordinary richness. Other 
men had done their part, but those who had done 
most knew best the real leader. The methods 
had been characteristic. There was no hurry, but 
when the time was ripe, the action was strong and 
continuous. There had been no grasping nor self- 
assertion ; he used others and he recognised their 
work ; but his were the large principles, and from 
him came the inspiration ; his was not a lead of 
demonstration, but it was always ready when it 
was wanted, and it was a lead with power. Much 
progress has since been made ; but Cornishmen will 
remember the Pioneer, the hand which sowed the 
seed for the harvest which others would reap, the 
man who laid the foundation-stone of a revived 
diocese, and by the spirit no less than by the 
extent of his work pointed the way to a yet greater 
revival, and helped to make it possible. 




Bishop Temple's relation to clerical life — First Ordination sermon 
— Bishop Temple's views on theological colleges— Bishop 
Phillpotts' studentships — Ordination examinations — Notes 
and incidents — Ordinations at different centres 

AN attitude of aloofness from clerical life sometimes 
characterised Bishop Temple. He would speak 
of the clergy as an external body which had to be 
reckoned with ; he would note their peculiarities 
and their interests with a special independence of 
judgment, as though he had no close connexion 
with them himself. This characteristic was partly 
the result of his official career at the Education 
Office, which had compelled him to stand off more 
or less from the clerical point of view, and during 
the Kneller Hall l period had made him the repre 
sentative of a system to which special sections of 
the clergy were strongly opposed. His position 
as Headmaster had brought main interests of 
clerical life prominently before him, but not the 
parochial. And with the exception of short inter 
vals during which he had been in charge of Dr. 
Scott's living of Duloe, he had no experience of 
the work of a parish clergyman. But the main 

1 Editor's Supplement, vol. ii. p. 569. 


cause of the detachment was to be found in his lay 
parentage and in the circumstances of his early 
life. The clerical calling stood apart in his estimate, 
and he invested it with the special sanctity with 
which his memory surrounded the parish priests of 
his early home. Unconsciously to himself he was 
always comparing the actual clergyman with the 
ideal. The attitude of aloofness exposed him to 
the charge from the clergy of censoriousness and 
want of sympathy, but it created an impression of 
freedom from clerical exclusiveness in the minds of 
the laity, and it led him always to set a high aim 
before his brethren. The real fact was that, while 
he was a layman's bishop in freedom from pro 
fessional narrowness and in sympathy with large 
human interests, his past memories and the upward 
turn of his whole nature combined to inspire him 
with a strong and steady devotion to the clerical 
calling. In it he lived ; its labours absorbed his 
energies ; the spiritual life with which it was con 
cerned was his food, and he was never so much at 
home as when he was urging his brother clergy to 
walk worthy of the vocation wherewith they were 
called. No mere ecclesiastic, he was yet specially 
a Bishop of the Church of God, and the supreme 
delight no less than the highest duty of his office 
was to live for his clergy. The more closely the 
details of his Episcopate are studied, the more 
closely the master motive is revealed : his aim was 
to bring the clergy nearer to the ideal. 

And in a sense his concentration on this aim 
imparted a kind of narrowness and monotony to 
the line of his Episcopate. Genuine as was his 
interest, and indefatigable his toil, in social subjects, 
they were not the dominant theme of his addresses 
to the clergy. He was not a prolific writer on 
such topics like other leading ecclesiastics. In one 
of Lord Acton's letters he speaks of Temple's 


"arid mind." 1 The criticism shows that though 
the writer had read much, he had not read Dr. 
Temple's personality ; what is true, and was 
possibly meant, is that Dr. Temple had not a 
fertile fancy or imagination ; there was no facile 
flow of new ideas in mature life, nor was it natural 
to him to set off the subjects on which he thought 
and wrote with much play of light and shade. 
Owing to this fact, but still more as the result of 
his conception of what was supreme in importance, 
he kept mainly in his addresses to the most direct 
teaching of Scripture, and spoke about it in 
direct and simple language. He was no friend of 
ambitious schemes, and sometimes a sense of 
disappointment was expressed by ardent friends 
that he had not fulfilled their anticipations by 
formulating any startling policy and diverging 
further from the lines of the conventional and 
ordinary. He did not follow his contribution to 
Esxays and Reviews by appearing as a prophet of 
progressive theology ; he did not lead an advanced 
wing of political Churchmen. The reason some 
times given was that having reached higher 
altitudes he had become more wary in his ways, 
and had learnt that a safe policy is wisest for a 
leader. But there could be no more mistaken 
estimate of the man ; he gave himself to the 
plainest things, not because they were the safest, 
but because they were the main things ; he led his 
clergy in the path of common duty because he 
believed it to be the highest path. 

Within these lines the Episcopate was in a 
marked sense educative. The Exeter Diocese 
under Bishop Temple rivals in this respect the 
Oxford Diocese under Bishop Wilberforce. The 
mode and kind of education were different, but 
in each case the clergy were being moulded by the 

1 Letters of Lord Acton, p. 204. 


hand of their bishop, and were gradually and 
insensibly drawn to a fuller conception of their 
office. Under him ordinary duties assumed a new 
dignity, and clerical life, enlarged interest. Of 
ecclesiasticism there was little in the Bishop, and of 
sacerdotalism in the ordinary sense, none ; but, as 
has been seen, 1 he had a high view of the origin of 
the Christian ministry, and, if possible, a yet higher 
view of its purpose. This comes out strikingly in 
his first Ordination sermon preached in Exeter 
Cathedral on the Feast of the Epiphany, 1870 : — 

" Now then we are ambassadors for Christ, as though God 
did beseech you by us : we pray you in Christ's stead, be ye 
reconciled to God. 1 '— 2 Cor. v. 20. 

This is the character of the ministers of the Gospel ; they 
are ambassadors for Christ, and their mission is to pray all 
people in Christ's stead, that is, as He Himself would have 
prayed them, to be reconciled to God. A good ambassador, 
evidently enough, is he who loses himself entirely in the 
service of the sovereign who sends him. If on any occasion 
it should happen that his own wishes, or his interests, or 
purpose come athwart the duties he owes to the sovereign, it 
is plain enough he is unfaithful to his trust. . . . 

This, brethren, is what is incumbent on us simply because 
we are ambassadors, but much more when we consider whose 
ambassadors we are. We are the ambassadors of Christ ; 
therefore we shall see in Him the model which we are required 
to copy. How can we represent Him? . . . His human 
character is not distinguished by any traits that seem to mark 
it off as distinct in kind, and yet all this which is so common 
place in itself is lifted up to the very throne of heaven by 
the Heavenly Love which pervades it all. It is surely when 
He is most human that we are thrilled with a sense that He 
is Divine ; it is when He is most like ourselves that we 
feel most deeply how utterly unlike He is to all that man 
can be. It is because the power of the spirit transforms 
everything in Him, until it seems to be full of the heavenly 
brightness, that His life is all unlike ours. How shall 
we represent this ? . . . We have, as I said, to deliver 
His message and maintain His dignity, and we can only 

1 Supra, p. 135. 


do it by endeavouring to set before our people, not only in 
all that we say, but in the whole of our lives, that we are, to 
the very utmost of our power, copying the model that He 
has set before us. But if we do not even attempt this, if it 
does not enter into our thoughts, and we take up our 
profession of ministers of the Gospel just as if it were one 
profession among many others, just as if a minister of the 
Gospel were a man who had chosen that walk of life 
rather than some other ordinary profession — if we are seeking 
all the time our own pleasure, our own ease, our own will, the 
gratification of our own vanity, how can it be said for one 
moment that in any real sense at all we are ambassadors of 
Christ ? 

We are to be ambassadors of Christ, and in that capacity 
we have a message to deliver ; we are to pray the people to 
whom we have been sent to be reconciled to God. . . . There 
is one condition before any man can deliver such a message 
as this ; it is, first, that he should have had it delivered to 
his own soul. Unless the message has within it that reality 
which only comes from its being a real part of your own 
life, a great deal of what you are saying must inevitably 
be words, and nothing else. ... If there be any truth that 
you are setting forth, of which it is possible for you to say, 
" Had it been untrue I should have been just the same as I 
am, 11 then depend upon it such a belief as that is not a belief 
that would enable you to impress the truth upon your 
people — it is not a belief that will enable you to be a real 
ambassador of Christ to deliver that message. Spiritual 
teaching must be backed up by truth of life, or else it loses 
its power. . . . 

Specially does this hold in regard to the truth, which is 
the sum and substance of the message — reconciliation to 
God. A minister of Christ must contend earnestly within 
himself against sin, and then he will be able to tell sinners 
what the battle against sin is like. He must stand out 
against temptation, and then he will be able to tell his 
hearers what it is to resist temptation. He will be blest 
with victory in the struggle, and then he will be able to tell 
them what no one else can possibly tell, what is the blessing 
that attends such victory. He will look to the one source 
of strength and cleansing, the Cross of Christ, and then he 
will be able to say in words that will reach his hearers 1 
hearts, what is the power of that Cross to save. But if he 
derives all this from books and from study, and takes it up 


simply from what he has heard or read, he may preach it if 
he will, and God in His mercy may give the work power 
which it would not have from him, but he cannot be an 
efficient minister of Christ to deliver such a message as this, 
" Be ye reconciled to God." 

... Be ye reconciled to God is the prayer of Christ's 
ambassador; he measures all his work by this — am I now 
doing what will help my brethren to be reconciled to God ? 
The Heavenly Father longs to take His children home, and 
only waits for them to come. Is our teaching, preaching, all 
the words we use in conversation and by the bedside, directed 
to this end ? We have other things, perhaps, to think of, 
but they are all necessarily secondary. They all have to be 
judged by their effect in producing this one result. To 
convert a sinner, to bring back people really to God, to 
unite them to their Father, to help them day by day to live 
even if it be but a little better than before, to be a little 
more true, a little more just, a little more pure, and, most 
of all, to cling to Christ as the one Saviour who alone can 
save — if we can do this, then at the last day may we hope, 
as S. Paul hoped, that our flocks may be to us a joy and a 
crown of rejoicing. 1 

These words give the keynote to his whole 
thought and aim in regard to the clergy. It was 
to be expected that with this high sense of the 
sacredness of the calling he would lay great stress 
on all the preparations for it. Reviewing the 
whole position from the standpoint of his long 
Episcopate of more than thirty years, he speaks 
favourably, as President of Convocation in 1900, of 
the progress on the intellectual and, still more, the 
moral and spiritual side which had taken place in 
the candidates for ordination during that period ; 
but that he had no very high opinion of the 
standard when he came to Exeter is plain from 
words written to his friend, Dr. Benson, in 1871 :— 

I am glad, but not a little surprised, at your finding the 
examination for Orders " very cheering." You must get the 
pick. Here it is a perpetually renewed anxiety to me, and 

1 Exeter and Plymouth Gazette, January 7, 1870. 


I ask myself over and over again, How is it to be hoped that 
these men shall teach when they seem to possess so little 
depth of knowledge, so little thought, so little passion of 
self-sacrifice ? But I daresay I am a hard judge. 1 

But the judgment would be borne out by others. 

Happily, as in the case of the education 
question, he entered upon his diocese at a time 
when special opportunities presented themselves for 
supplying manifest needs. The keen eye of his pre 
decessor discerned what would be one of the most 
urgent requirements of the near future, and, with 
characteristic generosity, he had devoted consider 
able sums during the last years of his life to the 
training of theological students. By the joint 
action of the Bishop and the Dean and Chapter, the 
nucleus of a Theological College had been formed 
at Exeter in 1861. The late Dr. Ellicott, until re 
cently Bishop of Gloucester, and at that time Dean 
of Exeter, became Principal, and under him the late 
Rev. R. C. Pascoe and the Rev. J. N. Hardy held 
office as Vice- Presidents. On the Dean's elevation 
to the Episcopate he was succeeded as Principal 
by Canon Harold Browne, subsequently Bishop of 
Winchester ; but notwithstanding the distinguished 
auspices under which the College was started, it 
met with but limited success. The students, who, 
pending the erection of permanent buildings, 
occupied lodgings in the city, were few in number, 
and in 1867 the College was closed. Bishop Phill- 
potts mainly supported the College during his 
lifetime. Soon after his death, in 1869, his 
executors handed over the sum of £11,204 to 
the Dean and Chapter, as Trustees and Managers, 
for the further promotion of the scheme. 2 A plan 
for remodelling it, on the basis of an arrangement 

1 Letter to Dr. Benson, December 27, 1871. 

2 Statement supplied to the Charity Commissioners in 1877 by the 
Dean and Chapter of Exeter, and Memorandum contributed for the 
purposes of the Memoir (1904) by Mr. W. J. Battishill, Chapter Clerk. 


for locating students with experienced clergymen 
of the diocese, and carrying on the work under the 
general superintendence of a Principal in Exeter, 
with whom the students were to reside for a limited 
period in each year, was then attempted. It had 
the concurrence of Bishop Temple, and accorded 
with his general line of thought, which favoured 
as large an infusion as possible of the parochial 
element into the training of the clergy ; but it may 
be doubted whether it received the hearty support 
of the Chapter generally, and it was laid aside. 
Finally the scheme was adopted which has been in 
operation with marked success since its approval 
by the Charity Commissioners as a tentative 
measure in 1878. 1 It appears to have been drafted 
by Canon Cook, with the advice of Bishop Temple, 
and it was due chiefly to the Bishop's efforts and 
influence that the Charity Commissioners were 
induced ultimately to sanction " so wide a departure 
from the Founder's design of establishing a Theo 
logical College." The scheme provides that the 
income of the endowment, amounting to some 
£300 per annum, shall be expended in exhibitions 
tenable by students at the older Universities who 
have completed their undergraduate course, and 
are selected after examination and evidence given 
of possession of satisfactory moral qualifications. 
The exhibitioners attend the lectures of the 
Divinity Professors, and are placed under the 
special superintendence of one of them ; they are 
attached to certain of the parochial clergy of the 
University city in order to learn something of 
pastoral work, and they undertake to seek Holy 
Orders, and to serve for two years in the diocese 
of either Exeter or Truro. Some hundred students 
have been elected in the twenty-seven years during 
which the scheme has been in operation, and not 

1 Letter from Charity Commissioners, July 16, 1878. 


a few of the most promising clergy of the two 
dioceses have been chosen from their number. 

The breadth of view which characterises this 
scheme gives proof of its parentage. The Bishop's 
preference of it to a renewed attempt to establish 
a Theological College at Exeter was characteristic. 
His sense of the considerable services which 
Theological Colleges have rendered in raising both 
the mental and spiritual standard of the clergy 
grew increasingly with his experience as a bishop ; 
but his latest utterances on the subject in Convoca 
tion make it plain that to the very end he was 
sensitive as to their tendency in some instances 
to favour a less manly type of character and to 
produce narrowness and extravagance of view and 
practice, especially when set up in small areas, and 
containing only a limited number of students. 

There can be no question, in the first place, beginning 
with the lowest consideration, that a larger college is able 
to have a much stronger staff than a smaller college. You 
can get better teaching and a wider range of subjects by 
having a larger number of students. At present very often 
the number of students is so small that the colleges get into 
financial difficulties. These colleges cannot be altogether 
supported from without. Besides this, which is of course 
the lowest consideration, I think that the influence of a 
strong man is far more healthy when he has a larger number 
to deal with, because, although the strong man may be free 
from peculiarities and special views and the like, and may 
earnestly desire to be quite impartial among the different 
schools of thought, it is inevitable, do what he will, that 
there will be a tendency on the part of the students, if there 
is only a small number, rather to copy his peculiarities than 
to obtain the benefit of his larger and deeper views. The 
influence which is exercised upon a larger body is of a 
different kind from that which is exercised upon a much 
smaller body. ... I should say, without any hesitation, that a 
theological college of one hundred was a far more wholesome 
thing than a college of twenty. It will be better taught. 
It will be inspired altogether on higher and broader lines. 
For it must never be forgotten that if a man is a real teacher 


he necessarily, to a very great extent, forms himself upon 
those whom he is teaching as well as forms them. As a 
great teacher once said to his pupils, " You are my wings."" 
The learners are the wings upon which the leading man rises 
to his highest and best instruction of those whom he has to 
instruct. 1 

His sympathies were with the two later experi 
ments at Exeter. But he foresaw the need of 
strengthening the Phillpotts' studentships on the 
side of fellowship, on which Theological Colleges 
are admittedly strong ; and the Exeter plan would 
probably have attained a yet larger measure of 
success, if his recommendation that the students 
should be called together at intervals for joint 
instruction and intercourse had been carried out. 
Another point which he strongly urged was the 
introduction into the scheme of words laying stress 
on other qualifications besides those which could 
be tested by an examination on paper. To refer to 
his own words, he was most anxious that some 
evidence should be forthcoming that the students 
selected were likely, "from their high principle, 
their devotion to duty, their good sense, and their 
sympathy with others, to become truly useful 
clergymen." 2 

The same mind, bent on enlarging the outlook 
and raising the standard, both mental and religious, 
of the candidates, can be traced in all his own 
arrangements for the ordination and the steps 
preparatory to it. Eventually, when the prominent 
clergy of his diocese became better known to him, 
he included one or more of the Archdeacons 
(Woollcombe, Sanders, Earle) among his Examin 
ing Chaplains ; but so strong was his sense of his 
individual responsibilities as to those whom he 
ordained, that at first he relied exclusively on the 

1 Chronicles of Convocation, February 18, 1901. Cf. vol. ii. p. 342. 

2 Letter from Bishop Temple to the Dean and Chapter of Exeter, 
July 17, 1877. 


help of his own personal friends. Dr. Benson and 
Canon Cook aided him in the conduct of his 
primary Ordination Examination, and the post of 
Examining Chaplain was subsequently filled, first 
by the Rev. A. G. Butler, Fellow of Oriel, and 
afterwards by Dr. Percival, the present Bishop of 
Hereford ; both of these men enjoyed his intimate 
friendship, and had been his colleagues at Rugby. 
The following extract from a letter to Canon Cook 
gives his view on the matter :— 

RUGBY, December 10, 1869. 

The Examining Chaplain ought to be very intimately 
known to the Bishop, for, as you know, the Bishop, not the 
Chaplain, is really responsible. The Chaplain ought to be 
the Bishop's eyes and ears for the examination. . . . The 
duty is in reality personal rather than official. ... I know 
that it would be a popular thing to appoint . . . but I am 
rather bound, I think, just now to let popularity follow on 
right, not to seek popularity, even in permissible ways. 

In the character and conduct of the examination 
itself, the same robustness of mind and elevation 
of aim were conspicuous. The examination was 
not confined to formal theology. True to the 
conviction that the Anglican clergyman's ultimate 
appeal is to the individual conscience, and that 
the Bible is the supreme authority over conscience, 
and its best teacher, — impressed, moreover, with 
the belief that while books about the Bible were 
much read, the Bible itself was not studied, — he 
made it the staple of the examination, seeking to 
saturate the candidates, as far as possible, not 
only with the knowledge, but with the spirit of 
the Scriptures. The papers on pastoral theology 
were set by the Bishop himself, and the following 
is given as a characteristic instance of his insight 
into spiritual life, and of his knowledge of the 
practical requirements of the clerical calling : — 


1. What are the advantages of a periodical system of 
visiting people in their own homes ? How can such a system 
be best organised and worked ? 

2. What are the legal duties of an incumbent as regards 
the sick, and as regards the children in his parish ? Com 
ment on the due discharge of these duties. 

3. Give an account of the part that you take in parochial 
school work. What Rubrics and what Canons bear on the 
question ? 

4. What is the difference between careless people and 
thoughtless people, and how are we to deal with each ? 

5. What kind of teaching is generally best for the sick ? 

6. Explain the relation of Confirmation to Baptism. 

7. By what arguments would you endeavour to persuade 
a young man to be confirmed and to come to the Holy 
Communion ? 

8. Describe your method of preparing candidates for 

9. How would you deal with a man who abstained from 
Holy Communion, (a) from superstitious fear, (6) from care 
lessness about religion, (c) from consciousness of secret sin ? 

10. How do you prepare your sermons ? 

11. What is the law respecting the election, the duties^ 
and the powers of churchwardens ? 

It was no slight advance on the ordinary practice 
of thirty-seven years ago that from the first the 
candidates were entertained at the Bishop's Palace. 
Soon the examinations were divided into two 
sections separated by an interval of some weeks— 
an anticipation of the now ordinary practice — and 
to the latter part only those were admitted who 
had passed the previous examination in mental 
qualifications. It was exclusively devoted to the 
spiritual side of the preparation. The Bishop, for 
the most part, gave the addresses himself, and they 
stand out as the main feature of the whole period, 
things which in many cases left an indelible im 
pression on those who heard them. Passing over 
all subsidiary subjects, with slight reference even 
to the official duties of the clergyman, without 
rhetoric, with no appeals to sentiment, with no 



use of the imagination, he went straight to the 
main point — spiritual preparation ; and even here 
there was no premature demand. It was the first 
stage of spiritual life that was mainly dealt with, 
renunciation, the resolve to war against sin within. 
The words had the power of the Word of God in 
them, ' piercing even to the dividing asunder of 
the joints and marrow, and discerning the thoughts 
and intents of the heart.' 'Better,' so spoke the 
stern voice, ' that you should turn back even now 
at the last moment than that you should make a 
false presentment of yourselves before God at your 
ordination.' And some did turn back. In all 
such utterances Frederick Temple had thought of 
himself ; the measure which he meted out to others 
he had long ago meted out to his own conscience ; 
and he was not always sensible how searching and 
scorching his words were, and that weaker men 
could not well endure the treatment to which he 
had subjected his own strong soul. In later years, 
when speaking in Convocation on the subject of 
the preparation of candidates for Holy Orders, he 
alluded to these withdrawals, but scarcely as one 
who realised what the force of his own personality 
had been : — 

I think that the increase in the number of those who 
show that they really have the vocation for the ministry is 
marked, because I think that there were some who came 
forward to be ordained who did so from motives that hardly 
justified their ordination. I always had some conversation 
individually with the men who came forward, as of course 
every one of you has, and I remember that when I was Bishop 
of Exeter it happened once or twice that when I urged on a 
man that he would be obliged to say that he had a call to 
the ministry, the result was that the man withdrew and de 
clined to be ordained. It was not that I put the call to 
the ministry as anything that was really out of reach, as 
if it were a supernatural call ; but when I put it so low as 
to say that a man ought not to consider himself called 


unless, on review of his own character and circumstances and 
aims in life, he could honestly say that he conscientiously 
believed that the work of the ministry was the work which 
God intended him to do here in this present world, some at 
the very last moment have withdrawn. I do not find now 
that there are men who are staggered by having that view 
put before them, but I did find it again and again in former 
years. 1 

Some there were who could not bring them 
selves to the great surrender ; they went away 
sorrowful. The effect on others of a nobler mould 
may be best illustrated by the recollections of one 

of them : — 


These are a few rough notes that I made at the time of the 
addresses given the evenings before my Ordination as Deacon 
and Priest. They seem to me now so very rough, and the 
connexion, alas ! has so entirely passed away from my mind, 
that I can hardly conceive that they will be any help to you. 
But short as they are, they are very characteristic of the 
man. They have lived in my purse — or rather successive 
purses — ever since, i.e. for thirty years or more. 

(1) Truth. Make the inner life at least as high as the 

Never preach anything that you have not yourself ex 

(2) Live ever in close communion with God. Let every 
act be habitually referred to His decision. 

(3) Try and live a spiritual life, to which the greatest 
helps are the study, (a) of the Bible, (6) of the works and lives 
of holy men. 

(4) Give up your own will, your own prejudices, your own 
desires, whether in themselves right or wrong, to what will 
advance God's word in that particular spot where you are 

June 8, 1873. 

(1) The call of the Spirit necessary. Test : Love of 
the Lord — u Lovest thou Me ? " " Feed my sheep " — Is this 
the leading principle of whole life ? Without this none 
should enter the ministry. 

1 Chronicles of Convocation, July 1900, p. 367. 


(2) Self -discipline. The negative side: "I keep under 
my body." Most essential. A secret sin unfought against 
will most assuredly — though we may know it not till too 
late, perhaps not at all — infect those with whom we have 
spiritual dealings. Then positive side equally essential. 
Ever constant communion with God. Other men deadened 
by absence of religious duties, we by very presence. FORCE 
yourselves to be in earnest. 

(3) Study of Bible and Prayer. Essentials of spiritual 
life. Both must be regular. Sometimes we see men who 
began well, now cold, worldly. Why? They neglected 
these. Sometimes we see one of few intellectual attainments 
and naturally hard, become soft, gentle, with almost instinc 
tive apprehension of meaning of Bible passages. Why ? 
Because he has been careful in these. Do not neglect them. 

February 21, 1875. 

Perhaps the notes help to explain what followed, 
and the store that was afterwards set by them. 

I shall never forget my interview with him on the night 
before my Ordination as Priest, when, after every one else had 
gone to bed, I stole up to his room to tell him that I did 
not think I ought to be ordained. It was a wonderful 
revelation, both of the loving gentleness that underlay his 
rough exterior, and of his true wisdom in dealing with souls. 
He saw that I was overwrought, and his last words were, 
" Now mind you never make a confession of this sort again." 

It is natural that the writer should thus sum up 
his recollections : — 

The thing which stands out most clearly in my recol 
lection of the Ordinations is the extraordinary force and 
directness of the appeal that was made to one^s conscience, 
and yet, at the same time, the exceeding tenderness and 
sympathy with which the wounded conscience was dealt 
with, when the sledge-hammer blows had battered it into 
a regular pulp of self-reproachfulness. 

There was another aspect of the Bishop in his 
dealings with men. And different sides appealed 
to different natures. A certain grim humour was 
never far away, even in solemn moments, as the 
following incident will show : — 


A candidate for ordination ushered into the library. His 
Grace seated. 

Archbishop : " Sit down." A long interval — five minutes 
perhaps, at the end of which time the Archbishop adjusts 
his glasses and picks up the candidate's papers. "Why 
didn't you fill in the answers properly ? " 

Candidate mildly protests that he thought he did. 

Archbishop : " No, you didn't. You were asked to put 
down your name, your address, and your age. Here's your 
name — and that's on the wrong line — now where's your age ?" 
(Collapse of candidate — grim smile from His Grace.) " Take 
this " (a New Testament), " go to the end of the room, read 
1 Cor. xv., beginning at the 35th verse." 

Candidate reads till stopped. 

Archbishop : " That will do. Now why did you read the 
36th verse wrong ? " 

Candidate protests — energetically this time. 

Archbishop : " But I tell you, you did. Can you read 
Greek?" (Hands New Testament in Greek.) "Now read 
the verse." 

Candidate : " a<£pcov, a-v o orrei'peis," etc. 

Archbishop : "Now read the English again." 

Candidate does so. 

Archbishop : " Why, you've read it wrong again ! " After 
some painful minutes His Grace explains it is a matter of 
emphasis on the personal pronoun. "Thou fool, that which 
*<n5' thou thyself sowest. And if you read it as you did, 
the whole argument is spoiled." 

Candidate, now reduced to a proper state of humility, 
apologises for the error, and says he hasn't noticed the point 
before, whereupon — 

Archbishop : " No, and 99 out of 100 clergymen read it 
wrong. And there's a special word '<rv' to make it more 
emphatic too, and that shows you that before reading the 
lessons you ought first to read them in the Greek." (This 
prospect has its difficulties, so candidate, who has now re 
covered somewhat, asks what the Revised Version has to say.) 

Archbishop : (In a tone not altogether of satisfaction) — 
" You can look " (but displays little interest in the result). 

Candidate (mildly) : " Wouldn't it be helpful if the lessons 
were read in the Revised Version, and the congregation 
followed with the Authorised Version, so that they could note 
the different readings ? " 

Archbishop : " They'd only think you read very badly." — 


(and drops the subject). "Now sit still, and turn to Isaiah 
xxxvii. 21, and read." 

Candidate reads : " Whom hast thou reproached ? " 

Archbishop : " Who is thou ? " 

Candidate reads : " And this shall be a sign unto thee." 

Archbishop : " Who is thee ? " etc. etc., and goes on to 
explain that the chapter is an example of the difficulties 
attached to the reading of the Old Testament — the constant 
change of personality of those addressed, or speaking. " And 
to make it worse the Queen's printers have not discovered 
the use of inverted commas. 1 " (Speaks of the chapter as 
" most difficult.") " Turn to Psalm xi." 

Candidate reads : " In the Lord put I my trust." 

Archbishop : " Who is I ? " 

Candidate : " David, I suppose " (continuing), " How say 
ye to my soul." 

Archbishop : " Who are ye ? " and so on to show change 
of speaker. He then reads the Psalm himself — magnificently 
— in answer to candidate's question whether he considered it 
possible to bring out this difference in ordinary reading — and 
also describes how there were many portions of the Old 
Testament preserved by tradition before being committed to 
writing, and how a man would enter a village and stand on a 
raised place and repeat the Psalms, etc., and would denote the 
different speakers by action, or turning hither and thither, 
or by greater change of voice than ordinary reading allows 
of. Suddenly : " Would you want to be ordained if you had 
£50,000 a year ? " 

Candidate cannot contemplate such a possibility, and 
says so. 

Archbishop : " Now what have you been thinking about 
all these years ? You haven't been thinking about Theo 
logy — you've been thinking about Natural Science." 

Candidate (now getting desperate) says he has, and means 
to think of it and go on doing so — and to his surprise — 

Archbishop : " And quite right too " (rises). 

Archbishop : " Have you any idea of the difference 
between the ministry and every other profession ? " 

Candidate — who it must be remembered has not yet be 
come accustomed to shape his thoughts on such matters into 
words, and especially in such company — struggles to do so. 

Archbishop : " Yes — that's so. But there's one great 
distinction which you haven't mentioned." (With a grim 
twinkle.) " You can get out of any other profession if you 


don't like it. You CAN'T get out of the ministry. Now, 
will you give me the names of three clergymen, etc. I want 
names, understand — not letters — because they'd write what 
you wanted them to write." Interview drawing to a close. 

Candidate has, unfortunately, not taken Theology at 
Cambridge and fears the "Preliminary." Hoping he has 
made a favourable impression, but not daring to ask to be 
excused the examination, he says tentatively as he picks up 
his hat, " Then I suppose I shall have to pass the Preliminary 
Examination ? " 

Archbishop (now seated at his desk again and without 
turning round) : " Yes." 

Candidate is just at the door, retiring gracefully, when 
the Archbishop's concluding remark shoots him out — 


and completes a forty minutes' experience which the 
candidate will always treasure. 

The incident belongs to a later period of the 
life, when the Bishop's sense of humour was, perhaps, 
more frequently in evidence ; it is recorded here 
because it is connected with the subject in hand, 
and is typical — illustrating the quickness with 
which he read his candidates, and taught his lessons 
incidentally. Such experiences were somewhat 
appalling, but useful if the patient could receive 
them ; in this case, being wise, he pondered and 

But the full understanding was for those who 
had gained from earlier years the knowledge of 
what lay beneath that rough exterior. 

It was simply love for the Dr. (writes the first of Dr. 
Temple's Rugby pupils ordained by him) that took me 
down to Devonshire to continue my pupilage under my old 
master. It is certain that to him I owe a desire to enter 
Holy Orders, which was not a profession for which I was 
intended, nor with which I had any special connexion. I do 
not think that Dr. Temple consciously sought to influence a 
boy's life in the direction of Holy Orders ; in fact, I feel sure 
he did not. But he inspired boys to follow out his teaching 
in a calling such as his own. He never would have encour 
aged a boy to enter the ministry of the Church as a pro- 


fession, but he did make him feel it was a noble vocation. 
So it was that in 1870, the year following Dr. Temple's con 
secration, I went down to the Palace at Exeter on a visit, 
and found that the Bishop and his sister were the same true 
friends as in the old days. The warm grip of the hand, the 
old, straight, searching look were there again. How difficult 
those early days in the Exeter Diocese must have been for 
the Bishop and Miss Temple we could in a measure feel. 
How loyal to him, and how proud of him we youngsters 
felt, as week by week the Bishop won his way and turned 
opponents into disciples, and hostile critics into admirers. 
At my Ordination as Deacon and Priest (1871-72) I well 
remember the earnestness of the Bishop's short addresses at 
the evening services held in the Palace Chapel during the 
Ember week. I have vivid recollections, also, of the men 
who gathered round that long table in the Palace dining- 
room. — Chancellor Benson, who examined in the early days 
of Dr. Temple's Episcopate ; Canon Cook, then engaged on 
the Speaker's Commentary ; the then Sir Stafford Northcote, 
maliciously suggesting to the learned scholar that "tepeo" 
was the probable derivation of tea - pot ; Mr. Bramley, 
who j once got the Bishop to preach in his church, and 
gave no notice of his coming, so that he should see the 
ordinary congregation and no more ; my own dear good 
Vicar, Leopold Acland of Broadclyst ; and then the Bishop's 
old master at Tiverton, Prebendary Sanders, a very Tory of 
the Tories, and brimful of kindness and fun, between whom 
and his old pupil there was a constant interchange of friendly 
political repartee. Only one of the inner circle of those 
early Exeter days still remains, — Ernest Sandford, the 
Chaplain, old Rugbeian like myself. 

Mine is, perhaps, a unique experience — to have been 
present at the Consecration Service in Westminster Abbey, 
and to have knelt by the side of the simple coffin with its 
purple pall through the long December night, thirty-two 
years later, in the nave of Canterbury Cathedral. May the 
life and its lessons of thoroughness and duty never fade. 1 

In order to diffuse throughout the diocese a 
fuller conception of the importance of the clerical 
office, and to let the people generally see and hear 
what the service itself was, Dr. Temple held Ordina- 

1 Memorandum of Rev. Laurence R. Whigham. 


tions at different centres — Truro, Plymouth, Tor 
quay, Launceston, Barnstaple. After the examina 
tion at Exeter, the candidates were conveyed to the 
appointed town, were lodged in the houses of the 
clergy and leading citizens, and were ordained in 
the Parish Church. Not a little was sacrificed, but 
much was gained. In the early years of Bishop 
Temple's Episcopate, the evident impression made 
upon the inhabitants, which strongly reacted upon 
those who were ordained, was a more living and 
lasting power than even the quiet atmosphere and 
sacred associations of the Cathedral. Perhaps the 
balance of gain and loss has shifted during a genera 
tion, but it is possible that an occasional recurrence 
to this practice might be useful. 

CHAPTER VII (continued) 



Patronage system — Discipline — Conferences with the clergy — 
Visitation charges — Quiet Days — Personal relations with the 

IT is not difficult to gather from the Bishop's view 
of the preparation for Ordination what would be his 
relations with the clergy after it. 

I. He quickly laid his finger upon the greatest 
external hindrance to the well-being of the 
parochial ministry, namely, the patronage system, 
and throughout his whole Episcopate of thirty-three 
years the recurrence to the subject was constant. 
He gave a hearty support, according to his wont, 
to all efforts to effect even a partial reform, and 
accepted, as an instalment, the Benefices Act of 
1898, which abolished the sale of next presentations, 
and introduced many beneficial changes in the 
existing system of patronage. But his ultimate goal 
was the entire abolition of the sale of livings. All 
reforms, which stopped short of the ultimate goal, 
were to him merely steps on the journey. Minor 
evils in public affairs he would often tolerate, but 
with evils that touched vital interests he never 
abandoned his warfare. There is scarcely one of 
the charges delivered during the fifteen years of 
his Exeter Episcopate in which patronage is not a 



prominent subject, and some of his strongest and 
most direct utterances were made during this period, 
either at conferences or visitations. 
These are his first words : — 

The traffic (in the sale of livings) has unquestionably had 
the effect of inducing all concerned to disregard altogether 
the undeniable and most important fact that every patron 
is an officer of the Church, holding a most important office. 
A patron is an officer of the Church charged with a very 
serious and a very responsible duty — at present, indeed, 
responsible to God alone, but nevertheless responsible to 
Him in the most serious sense. A patron is entrusted with 
the duty of seeing that a fit man is appointed to take charge 
of the spiritual interests of a parish. ... I believe the 
Church of England is absolutely the only Church in the 
world in which this hurtful traffic is still tolerated. Perhaps 
I may go on and say, it is not only the only Church in the 
world, but the only institution in the world ; and in secular 
things men have already set themselves free from what they 
had found a very serious mischief. I cannot but hope that 
the time will come, and come before long, for the entire 
prohibition of all this traffic. I do not think that until that 
is done it will be possible to speak of the Church as free 
from a serious blot. ... I believe it to be a duty of all 
who are interested in the welfare of the Church to study the 
question carefully, and to do their part towards the creating 
of public opinion of a healthy and high-toned character. 
And I shall think it my duty to take fitting opportunities of 
pressing the matter again and again upon the Church, in the 
hope that by slow degrees something may be effected, even 
though it be very little at the time, and even though nothing 
like a great or real improvement be very near. ... I feel 
strongly on the matter, and believe it would be well worth 
while to pay even a very heavy price in order to get rid of 
what is a most serious scandal and does most serious 
mischief. 1 

He returns to the attack in 1880, after the issue 
of the report of the Commissioners on the Sale and 
Exchange of Benefices, and in the next year the 
Bishop says : — 

1 Charge of Bishop Temple, 1875. 


For myself I can see but one escape from the system, and 
that is, .that Parliament should fix the proportion of the 
income that is equivalent to the patron's interest, and that 
the patron who desires it should be allowed to appropriate 
to himself as absolute property that proportion of the 
endowment of his benefice as soon as the benefice becomes 
vacant, and on doing so cease altogether to hold the 
advowson. The Church would, of course, be a loser by the 
amount thus abstracted by patrons surrendering their 
patronage, but the price would be well worth paying. 1 \ 

His final utterance on the subject in the Exeter 
Diocese was made in the Charge in the following 
year. He expresses approval of a Bill agreeing 
very nearly with his " own suggestions given some 
years back to a Select Committee of the House of 
Lords." The Bill went as far as to propose the 
abolition of the sale of advowsons " unless to the 
lord of the manor, or to an owner of land in the 
Parish producing twice the income of the benefice, 
or to some public patron who cannot sell again " ; 
and it also provided "that any Patron may require 
the Bounty Office to purchase his Living for a sum 
not greater than half its market value " ; with 
permission to the office to borrow and recoup itself 
with instalments out of the living. 

He then concludes : — 

Year after year, as it seems to me, we approach nearer to 
the abolition of a system which is indefensible in itself, and 
most mischievous in its consequences, which degrades the 
office of Parochial Minister, demoralises more or less every one 
that has to do with it, exposes the Church to well-founded 
attacks, seriously impairs her influence over a vast number of 
religious people, wounds the feelings of many of her most 
devoted sons, and obscures the Divine character of her 
mission. 2 

1 Charge of Bishop Temple, 1881. 

2 Charge of Bishop Temple, 1882. — It will be seen from the references 
to Bishop Temple's Charges in this and the previous page that they 
were delivered in consecutive years. In the latter part of his Exeter 


But, in spite of the hopeful anticipation of these 
words, the reform was long in coming ; he had still 
to wait sixteen years l before Parliament passed a 
patronage measure ; and even then the improve 
ment was but limited. He could not wholly 
exonerate the clergy from blame, and he thought 
that they were infected by the moral evil of the 
system. In a pastoral letter, addressed to the 
clergy and laity, in 1879, he writes : — 

One thing more I think it right to add ; the real strength of 
the present system is in the support which it receives from the 
clergy. If the clergy were more decided in their disapproval 
of it, it would, undoubtedly, be far easier to deal with. I 
beg of my brethren to give the matter their thoughts. I 
know well what will be the inevitable, slow perhaps, but 
inevitable result of much stirring of this question in our 

To two other measures he also gave special 
support, with the same object of maintaining the 
efficiency and moral welfare of the clergy, as far as 
legislation could effect this result — the one was the 
Incumbents' Resignation Act of 1871, and the 
other the Pluralities Act Amendment Act of 1885. 
His action in regard to the patronage question 
was a marked example of the patient pertinacity 
with which he followed up essential reforms ; his 
Diocesan administration of the Incumbents' Resig 
nation Act illustrated his anxiety always to combine 
justice to the individual with thought for the body, 
and to show his consideration for those who had 
grown old in the service of the Church. He 
brought all his legal ability to bear on individual 
cases in which he thought the general laws bore 
hardly, and spared no amount of detailed labour in 
their settlement. Many of those who reaped the 

Episcopate it was his custom to spread the usual triennial visitation over 
three years, taking one Archdeaconry a year, and visiting conjointly 
with the Archdeacon. 

1 Benefices Act, 1898 ; also "Primacy" Memoir, vol. ii. p. 352. 


benefit of his pains in this and kindred matters — 
such, for instance, as appeals to Societies and 
Commissioners — will perhaps never fully realise 
the extent to which they are indebted to his 
interest on their behalf, and to the influence which 
his well-known justice and knowledge of affairs 
exercised with officials. His advocacy was a 
guarantee that no "job " was on foot, and that the 
plan proposed would work. An Exeter clergy 
man, who had been appointed to the charge of a 
new district, furnishes an illustration in this 
connexion : — 

The Ecclesiastical Commissioners assigned an income of 
to the benefice, and they also gave ,£1500 towards the 
erection of the vicarage. When I was at last admitted 
incumbent, the Bishop asked me how I was getting on, and, 
amongst other things, I necessarily told him about the 
endowment, etc. " Perhaps, 1 ' he said, " I had something to 
do with that."" 

The Bill which was ultimately developed into 
the Pluralities Act Amendment Act, was carried 
through the House of Lords by the Bishop him 
self. 1 Though he was not actually its author, it 
bore very markedly the impress of his hand, its 
aim being to make more efficient provision for the 
appointment of curates in parishes suffering from 
the negligence or incapacity of incumbents. In 
this case also great pains were taken to safeguard 
individual claims, both moral and legal. 

II. But in his effort to raise the standard of 
clerical duty the Bishop's main appeal was to 
deeper powers than external law. His reliance 
was not on regulation of conduct, but on education 
of character. 

(1) In collective administration to that end, 

1 Charge of Bishop Temple, 1883, p. 23. It was piloted through 
the House of Commons by Mr. (now Sir C. T. D.) Acland, the eldest 
eon of his old friend. 


two principal agencies were Ruridecanal Con 
ferences and Quiet Days. The former were 
mainly, though not exclusively, devoted to the 
practical, and the latter to the spiritual side of 
clerical life. The Quiet Days he conducted him 
self; in the Conferences he was the chief speaker, 
but his main object was to draw out the opinions 
of others. It would be hard to find a parallel in 
the history of the Anglican Episcopate for the 
diligence and regularity with which both were 
carried on, or to exaggerate their influence in 
widening the outlook, and in gradually raising the 
whole conception of the life of the parochial clergy. 
He began the Conferences in 1875, 1 holding them 
that year in the Archdeaconry of Cornwall, as well 
as in Devonshire. The first Quiet Day was held at 
Barnstaple on November 15, 1878. 2 Both were 
continued (the former annually) until the close of 
his Exeter Episcopate in 1885. For ten years the 
Exeter clergy enjoyed a quiet education of the 
highest kind in all the significance and opportunities 
of their ofBce. 

(a) A reference has already been made in a pre 
vious chapter to the Ruridecanal Conferences as 
part of the organisation of the diocese ; 8 but it is 
desirable here to lay emphasis upon their influence 
as an educational power. The mere enumeration of 
some of the chief subjects discussed will suffice : — 

As bearing on the liturgical and religious side 
of Church life the following may be mentioned : — 

Baptism and the Sponsorial system. 
Confirmation and preparation for it. 
Holy Communion. 
Reading in Church. 

1 Charge of Bishop Temple, 1875, p. 40. 

2 Memorandum from Rev. T. S. Rundle. 

3 Supra, pp. 101-104. 


The Offertory and Systematised Collections. 

Studies of the clergy. 

Religious instruction of the young. 

Sunday Schools, Guilds, and Adult Classes. 

Family Prayer. 

Missions in Country Parishes. 

Under the category of subjects connected with 
Church economy generally, these topics came under 
discussion : — 

Surplice Fees. 

Duties of Churchwardens. 

Seating in Church. 

Concerted action of the Clergy. 

Lay Assistants, official and general. 

Reform of Convocation. 

Lay Co-operation (Parochial, Diocesan, and Central). 

The National Church. 

In the list of social subjects 1 were included : — 

The Young Men's Friendly Society. 2 

The following are the notes of his remarks on 
the subject of PREACHING : — 

The subject divides itself into two parts — The Sermon 
itself ; Delivery of Sermon. 

The Sermon itself: — 

The Bishop wished that it was not expected of the clergy 
to preach two or three sermons every week ; that it was more 
the practice to read printed sermons ; we should often teach 
people more, probably, in this way ; but it needs courage to 

A sermon, to be worth preaching, requires a good deal 
of preparation. Matter need not be, ought not to be, of 
necessity original. But the way of expression may be our 
own. It is a great mistake to strain after originality. This 
especial caution for younger clergy ; as we get older we 

1 For his comprehensive treatment of Temperance, vide infra, pp. 

2 Many of these topics also formed the subjects of more detailed 
treatment in the Bishop's Visitation Charges. 


shall have more to say. But it is right for us still to be 
reproducing old teaching, suitable to our own time. We 
must learn so as to instruct. Commentaries, writers on 
kindred subjects, Latin and Greek writers, good — especially 
Augustine, Chrysostom, and again S. Gregory who puts 
great moral truths in a striking light ; so also many of our 
old English divines. Having got our material, we must 
then arrange it. The Bishop said he used to take ten 
hours ; now he would always like to have three hours at 
least for preparation. 

There was great need in these days of eacpository 
sermons. Clergy are not alive to this. People need the 
intellectual side — to know the meaning of the Bible ; to 
have a good Commentary, not to read, but to listen to. 
This necessity arises partly from the intellectual activity of 
our times, which makes the spiritual life deficient unless the 
intellect is engaged. We must teach children dogmatically ; 
but now people are demanding evidence, not content to be 
taught as children. Hence the Bible must be explained, and 
with much pains. Expository sermons, well prepared and 
illustrated, will be liked. 

Again, these days are days of great excitement. People 
expect a great deal of emotion ; it is often much mistaken, 
and hence often does harm ; l it must have a corrective, and 
that is " knowledge " ; " true, definite teaching." Hence the 
great importance of exposition. It implies much care ; it is 
the work now specially demanded of us. 

Delivery of Sermon : — 

It must be either without book, or with book. No one 
ought to preach a strictly extempore sermon. But suppose 
sermon prepared, is it to be delivered with book or without 
book ? 

No doubt, if it can be done well, best without book, 
especially with uneducated people. They derive benefit 
from gestures, tone, etc. The most effective sermon is one 
that has been written three or four times over, and then 
preached without book. All great orators have prepared, 
learnt by heart, and then delivered. But this costs a great 
deal of time. By practice, words will come without writing. 

Dangers of written sermons. 

They are apt to be dull. 

We get a stock of them ; better make a rule to burn 

1 Butltnrfe infra, pp. 244-246. 


or to publish. A sermon, to be good, must represent your 
own feeling at the time. We ought to feel that we are 
called to live by what we recommend. We may fail, but 
we must try for it. Now, if we think an old sermon " will 
do," certainly it will not do ; l unless, indeed, the old sermons 
are sermons of great learning, but these are not numerous. 

Dangers of sermons preached without MS. 

We shall ramble, or repeat, or forget ourselves. Re 
member "the spirits of the prophets are subject to the 

People will admire us, and we get conceited. In primitive 
times the gift of tongues was thought to be best ; so now. 
But S. Paul says " No," and puts this gift at the bottom. 

We shall get a stock of words instead of belief and 
conviction. There is danger in fatal facility of expression, 
words with nothing behind. The true corrective is constant 

The sermon is the proper opportunity for oratory ; only 
one must always be master of oneself; gestures must be 
natural ; we must avoid particular tricks ; the physical 
requisites for preaching are much the same as for reading ; 
we must attend to the pitch of the voice ; not be too fast ; 
aim at distinctness ; but more may be allowed to powers 
of rhetoric than in prayer, and in reading the lessons. Some 
can produce more effect by quietness, deliberateness, etc., 
but these depend upon the individual. We must always 
remember we are giving God's message. 

(There was then a brief discussion, after which the Bishop 

He thought we preached more to the conscience — dissenters 
more to the heart. 

For expository sermons the Bishop suggested St. Augus 
tine's expositions. In regard to the length of sermons, the 
Bishop thought the laity did not mind long sermons, and 
that we exaggerated the shortness. 2 

The same subject had been dealt with in a 
somewhat more formal manner in the Visitation 
Charge of 1880 :— 

1 Dr. Temple was not opposed to the use of old sermons provided 
they are " new to yourselves." 

^ Address of Bishop Temple at a Conference held at Exeter in 
1884 — a transcript of notes taken at the time by one of the clergy (Rev. 
E. I. Gregory, Rural Dean, now Prebendary of Exeter Cathedral). 


The last subject on which I desire to speak on the 
occasion of this Visitation is that of preaching. I do not 
think that even yet the power and utility of preaching, or 
perhaps I may say, of what our preaching might be and 
ought to be, is sufficiently appreciated. Educated people 
are not at all good judges of what preaching is to the less 
educated. Educated people have already read or heard almost 
all that sermons can tell them, if we except the sermons of men 
much above the average mark ; and they are apt to think 
that average sermons are no more to others than to them 
selves. But less educated persons can learn, and do learn, a 
great deal from sermons. They get new knowledge, new 
thoughts, new methods of thought ; and they get all this in 
the best way, that is, unconsciously. The people, as a rule, 
find a sermon more to them than the prayers, and that is 
not caused by any self-indulgent desire to seek what pleases 
them. It is the free judgment of their spiritual experience. 
They are not at the intellectual level at which prayers, 
except very short and specific prayers, can give them the 
help which they can get from good teaching in the form of 

Now, I wish to point out that the sermons which are 
most needed are precisely those which every one of us would 
be best able to give, if only we would take the necessary 
pains — I mean sermons to explain passages of Scripture. . . . 
It requires a good deal of reading, and a good deal of think 
ing, and a good deal of writing. But in this kind of sermon, 
taking pains will enable us to do really useful work. . . . 

And our best and most religious people are hungry for 
knowledge of the Bible. The more education spreads . and 
people can read for themselves, the more do they want to 
understand that book. It is in attacking that book that 
sceptics attack religion. It is in explaining that book that 
teachers make the deepest impressions — false teachers in 
spreading error, and true teachers in building men up with 
the truth. The deeply religious, the inquiring, the unhappy, 
the perplexed, they all go to the Bible for what they want. 
We can hardly do anything, I doubt if we can do anything, 
for our people to be compared with helping them to under 
stand the Bible ; and sermons especially directed to that 
end will fall in with their need better than almost any other 
sermons. A clergyman will do very good service who will 
go carefully over one of the Gospels, explaining everything 
in consecutive order; telling also who wrote it, and as 


nearly as possible when ; showing the structure of it, the 
main divisions of it ; above all, explaining in order the 
connexion of each part as it is reached with the parts that 
have preceded. We have all read the Gospels in this way 
ourselves ; we have studied them paragraph by paragraph ; 
we have been guided in doing so by men who knew more than 
we did. Our people would be the better if we would give 
them the guidance that we have received. I do not mean 
that we are to do nothing else ; but I believe that many 
of us would find that if a third of our sermons were turned 
into lessons of this kind, we should satisfy our people far 
better than we do. There are very many who would gladly 
bring their Bibles and follow our comments with the book 
open before them ; and those who could not read would 
listen very attentively while we read first and explained 

Now, of course, we have much to do, and work of this sort 
takes up time, and a man may very often find that he has 
not time to make two sermons for every Sunday, one of 
which shall be of this kind ; and he must, therefore, sacrifice 
his other sermons, his hortatory or doctrinal sermons, if he 
is to do what I am recommending. And this leads me to a 
further recommendation which I desire to give my brethren, 
and that is, that they should not be ashamed openly and 
avowedly to use good sermons written and published by 
others. I do not believe that any clergyman would lose the 
respect of his parishioners if he began a sermon by saying, 
" I am going to read to you a sermon written by such and 
such a man " ; he might add something of the man's history, 
just to let his people know to what they were listening, and 
he might mention whether he read the whole of it or only 
selections, and whether he had inserted or appended remarks 
of his own. The one objection to preaching other people's 
sermons is the want of perfect truthfulness, if we lead our 
people to suppose that what we are giving them is our own 
when it is not. If our people thoroughly understand what 
we are doing, they will certainly be quite as ready to listen 
to good sermons which we have chosen for them, as to 
inferior sermons which we have written for them. There 
will still remain a good deal that must be our own ; and 
thoroughly good expository sermons such as I have described 
already we must compose, because we shall not find them 
ready-made. But we may be sure that in teaching our 
people we shall gain and not lose by being manly and open, 


and not pretending to do what none but very few can do, and 
what we are not at all the better clergymen for being able to 
do, that is, being able to write two fresh sermons every week. 
But I must add that I do not think, as a rule, that we take 
pains enough with our delivery of what we have to say. It 
is essential to teaching of any kind that the teacher should 
study to make his hearers feel his sincere conviction, his fixed 
resolution to live, or to try to live, by what he is preaching, 
his serious earnestness, his fervent wish that all should under 
stand the truth and lay hold of it. The foundation of good 
preaching is that the preacher lay to his heart what he is 
saying. If we are thinking, not of helping our people, but 
of the sort of figure we are making, if we allow ourselves to 
be self-conscious, if we do not try with all our strength to 
speak as in God's sight, as if the Lord Himself were hearing 
all that we said, we shall fail in reaching our people's 
consciences and hearts. The foundation of good preaching 
is in the preacher's own self-surrender to what he is saying. 
And as this is the way to reach the conscience and the heart, 
so in order to reach their understandings we must first have 
our own understandings clear. If we are going to preach a 
sermon of our own composing, we must study until we know 
what we are going to say. We must be clear in our own 
minds, or we shall never be clear to the minds of our hearers ; 
and this requires a great deal of pains to be taken. It may 
be that we have not the gift of expressing ourselves readily, 
even when we do know what we mean ; but we can write 
what we mean, and rewrite it until we have satisfied our 
selves, and no pains taken for this purpose will be thrown 
away. And so, too, if you mean to make another man's 
sermon effective, you must take pains first to thoroughly 
understand it, and then to be careful in reading it. It is 
well worth while to take much trouble to make ourselves 
both audible and pleasant to listen to; it is well worth 
while to cultivate distinctness of utterance, earnestness, and 
liveliness of manner. It is possible to spoil very good 
sermons by reading them in a dull or slovenly way, by being 
too rapid or too monotonous, by false cadences, wrong 
emphasis, or frequent mistakes and corrections of those 
mistakes. All these things may seem small matters in com 
parison with the solemn nature of our duties ; but they are not 
small, because they have a considerable effect on the result of 
our labours. We are serving God. In His service all things 
that help forward our great mission are of importance. 


Very suggestive is what he says at Halberton, 
in 1884, on READING IN CHURCH : — 

The Bishop said : — 

The physical conditions of good reading, though not of the 
highest importance, were yet of considerable importance. 

The reading should be loud enough ; the younger genera 
tion of clergy were not loud enough; it was needful for 
uneducated people. 

There should be the right pitch of voice ; this varies from 
church to church ; voice is often drowned in echo ; new 
buildings are harder than old. 

Management of the breath : never allow it to be exhausted ; 
breathe through nostrils. 

Speed: necessary to adapt pace to the building; a 
smaller building admits of more rapidity. 

Distinct articulation, especially of the consonants. These 
things cannot be attended to in church ; all this ought to be 
done mechanically ; we want to know our own defects ; this 
is not easy ; we should get a candid critic ; we must practise. 

The intellectual qualification of good reading. — It is 
necessary to understand what we read; original sources 
often throw great light on the meaning; find out where 
phrases come from in the Bible. Particularly true in the 
reading of the lessons that we should understand them ; 
it is well to read them over beforehand ; we shall almost 
always find something new ; that is characteristic of the 
Bible. In the Old Testament all the more necessary because 
of the dramatic character of the writing ; the perpetual 
shifting of Character; look at Prophets, Job, Ecclesiastes, 

There are two distinct schools of reading in this respect : 
simple, like the reading of a well-taught child; for the 
prayers, the Bishop preferred it. Best reader Bishop ever 
knew was John H. Newman, 1 whose whole manner was 
penetrated with reverence, as if he were learning ; but it is 
doubtful if all could read in this way : it may degenerate into 
monotony. Rhetorical: aims at giving full meaning; calls 
in aid of intonation, manner, etc. ; has tendency to degenerate 
into preaching. The best reading is the most natural. 

Spiritual conditions of good reading. — We must not 

1 "Earlier Years" Memoir, vol. i. p. 65, and Editor's Supplement, 
vol. ii. p. 445. 


think whether we are reading well or ill. Remember our 
first duty is to worship ourselves, not only to lead the 
devotions of others. Prayers ought not to be said to the 
people, but to God : characteristic of such reading is 
reverence and humility, which will be there, if in the heart 
first. We should be conscious of the presence of others who 
are joining with us in prayers. In the lessons we are 
speaking to the people ; we must always try to make the 
people feel that the lessons are God's Word ; remember it is 
a message from God, and then read in a natural way. 

We should not trouble about the instrument (our voice) 
which we have to use, but do the best we can. 

What are the chief faults or temptations which may 
beset us ? 

Conceit or vanity. No merit will make up for the de 
merit of vanity. 

Slovenliness. A more widely spread temptation, arising 
from nervousness or dread of affectation. There is danger 
also from idleness. 

There is a growing desire in the Church of England far 
more music. — This is undoubted ; not so much, perhaps, for 
intoned, as for monotoned services ; really good monotoning 
keeps out certain temptations, such as to preach the prayers, 
and it is easier; it is best when uneducated people don't 
recognise it. We should guard against being artificial, but 
very often it is a very effective way of rendering the service, 
often leads to better responding. 

In conclusion the Bishop said : Take care of small details 
of the service. " The Lord be with you " is, perhaps, not 
thought of enough, as a change in the service. The human 
voice is intended to reach the heart. 1 

The subject of CLERICAL STUDY was handled 
both at Conferences and in Charges. It would 
be difficult to find advice more tersely or forcibly 
expressed than this : — 

Finally, I desire to point out that, if the clergy are to be 
the true instructors of the people, they must, all their lives 
long, persist in seeking instruction themselves. I speak of 
this the more earnestly because I do not think it possible for 
any bishop to have much to do with the younger clergy, and 

1 From notes taken at the time by Rev. E. I. Gregory, Rural Dean. 


with those who seek ordination at his hands, without 
perceiving that we run a very serious risk of losing that 
which has hitherto been one of the great glories of the 
English Church, namely, that her clergy has been for the 
most part a learned clergy, students of the Bible and well 
instructed in it. I cannot but notice that there are increasing 
difficulties in the way of true study. The increased demands 
made upon the clergy in their parochial work, the demand 
for more visiting, the demand for more frequent services, and 
that those services should be of a much more exhaustive 
character, press upon the clergy very heavily ; and there is a 
perpetual temptation to under-rate the importance of study, 
and to think that a clergyman is justified in setting it entirely 
aside in order to attend to his parish. Of course the different 
kinds of work the clergy have to do have their claims upon 
them in their proper order, but I am satisfied that nothing 
they have to do is of so much importance as to justify them 
in disusing their study of the Bible, even for a single day. 
I notice that this difficulty presses most hardly upon those 
who are really in earnest in the desire to do their duty, 
and upon those who have the deepest sense of the responsi 
bility of their ministry ; and all the more is it my duty to 
insist upon the importance of that which is the essential 
condition of all the rest of the work being done well, 
namely, unremitting and careful study throughout life. 
Every one who has had any experience of the matter knows 
that it is very difficult, indeed, to resume study if it has long 
been disused ; and if the younger clergy lose the habit of 
steadily pursuing their study of the Word of God, the Church 
will hereafter most seriously suffer, and it will then be too 
late to supply the necessary remedy. I am quite sure that 
not only the work we have to do in the instruction of the 
people, but also our endeavours to reach the people's hearts, 
and stir their feelings, will, to a very great extent, depend 
for their success upon the degree in which our own minds are 
penetrated with the power of God's Word. In the course of 
years a man's preaching suffers very seriously — all the more 
seriously because he himself, very likely, does not notice the 
gradual deterioration — if he allows himself to fancy that he 
already knows enough, and that all he has to do is to 
communicate that which in his early days he had stored up 
in his mind. Nothing can be a greater mistake, and I am 
certain that when a clergyman of mature years is complained 
of as being dry or dull, a complaint that we sometimes hear, 


it arises much more often from the fact that he has disused 
the quiet and living study of the Bible than from any other 
cause. In these days when the knowledge of the Bible is of 
such paramount importance, when it is a protection on the 
one side against disbelief of religion altogether, and on the 
other side against religious fervour degenerating into mere 
excitement and emotion, it is impossible to overrate the 
importance of making the study of it by our people, living, 
real, and thorough ; and unless we ourselves are students all 
the time, we must fail in all such endeavours. . . . But it is not 
only to the younger clergy that I would speak, because unless 
their seniors feel the importance of this matter, and make it 
their business to aid and encourage those who are younger 
than themselves, very little can be done simply by the 
exhortation of the Bishop, delivered, as it must be, on rare 
occasions, and sure to be thrust aside by the pressure of 
ordinary work. Much can be done by the clergy joining 
together for the purpose of study, and by occasional meetings 
for the purpose of hearing each other's conclusions and con 
ferring on parts of the Bible previously read. In many 
parts such meetings of the clergy have been already held, and 
I would urge that they should be more frequent, and that 
every one should be encouraged to make some direct pre 
paration for them, because it is upon such preparation that the 
advantage of any such conference almost entirely depends. 

As the character of the study should be such that the 
results of it may be used in the instruction of others, it is 
well also to bear in mind that the Scripture — and that for 
a very natural reason — is always its own best commentator. 
More particularly is this the case in the study of the New 
Testament, the writers of which certainly wrote with the 
most extraordinary fulness of knowledge of the Old. They 
had the phrases, they had the lessons, they had the doctrines, 
they had the history of the Old Testament fresh and living 
in their minds ; whenever they wrote it was perfectly clear 
that they had all these in the background, and the more a 
man studies the New Testament with the Old fresh in his 
mind, the better able will he be to enter into its meaning 
and the relations of its parts. For this and similar reasons 
the study of every part of the Bible tells directly on the 
study of every other part. A student of the Bible should 
be perpetually comparing Scripture with Scripture. And 
the more familiar he is with Biblical language and Biblical 
forms of thought, the more progress will he make in under- 


standing every fresh portion of the Bible on which he enters. 
And what is best for his study will be best also for the 
teaching of his people. By God's providence it has come 
about that the religious book with which the Church has 
made our people most familiar is the Bible. . . . And he 
who would instruct them must constantly make use as much 
as possible of Biblical language. Let me urge upon those 
who have to teach, the advantage of following in such a 
matter the example set by a great leader of the early Church 
to whom we owe the Nicene Creed. It is a characteristic of 
that Creed, that although it was necessary to gather the faith 
of the Church into such expressions as would suit the time at 
which it was drawn up, yet there is but one single word in 
the whole of it that is not taken straight out of the Bible. 
And so, too, in all our instruction, it should be our endeavour, 
as much as possible, whilst using what is given to us by 
other writers, ancient and modern, to cast our teaching into 
such a form that a man who has read the Bible, and made it 
the chief source of his own private study, will be able to 
follow thoroughly all that is told him and to constantly 
find the confirmation of our teaching in his own private 
reading. . . . 

The Church of England, beyond any other Christian body 
in the country, has everything to gain by careful and earnest 
study. The sobriety, the quietness, ana the calmness of the 
services of the Church, the very large amount of God's 
Word that is constantly used in every such service, the 
degree in which almost every prayer therein contained is 
full of Biblical instruction as well as of Biblical language, 
are quite certain, if we could but use all these aright, to 
attract all whom we most wish to attract, in proportion as 
they study the Word of God and drink in its spirit. We 
are pastors and we are teachers, but in the present day the 
teacher is the character that the clergy ought to value most 
highly and use most largely. For this is the great need of 
our time. 1 

The subject of Family Prayer was congenial to 
him as bearing on the home life. He discussed it 
with his clergy in all the Rural Deaneries, and in 
the course of the discussion he recommended that 
the clergy should speak about it at marriages 

1 Charge of Bishop Temple, 1875. 


and baptisms, that they should circulate good 
forms of Family Prayer, and instruct their people 
how to use them. The discussion which he in 
augurated in his own diocese led to further action 
on his part in Convocation. 1 

(b) One of the results of the Conferences was 
to bring out the wide range of the Bishop's 
knowledge, and to inspire increasing confidence 
in the soundness of his judgment. He became to 
his clergy, as he had been to his pupils, a general 
referee on every kind of subject. The Confer 
ences had made it plain that, intimate as was his 
knowledge of the secular side of clerical life, it 
was not confined to this ; and eventually it became 
as natural to go to him for advice on spiritual 
matters as on others. A striking illustration is 
the invitation to direct Quiet Days for the Clergy. 
Recognising that spontaneity is the essence of 
real success in such movements, he did not himself 
inaugurate them, but when the request came 
he responded. His addresses at Quiet Days 
were probably the highest expression of Bishop 
Temple's character, and produced a deeper and 
more permanent effect on the clergy than did any 
other work of his Episcopate ; but their effect was 
not a little due to the self-diffidence with which 
he made the effort. His first utterance in his first 
address was a simple expression of doubt as to 
his personal capacity for such undertakings. He 
had hesitated, he said, but to refuse was to lower 
the conception of the Episcopate, and loyalty to 
his office compelled consent. Spiritual reserve 
was characteristic of him ; he had a natural un 
willingness to unbare the soul. "Virtue" came 
out of him while he spoke, and like all truest 
virtue it was wrung out. The rugged force of his 
words had nothing in common with the facile flow 

1 Infra, pp. 314-317. 


of self-complacence ; they did not even express 
the continuous current of days "Bound each 
to each by natural piety " ; they spoke of self- 
mastery won by self -discipline, sometimes of a 
strong man's battle not yet finished, and there was 
that in the eye and voice which told its own tale. 
The general subjects followed the lines of his first 
Ordination sermon — the Christian minister, Christ's 
ambassador ; the minister was wholly Christ's, and 
the aim for him was not respectability, but that 
highest life which implied self-sanctification and 
constant pressing forwards through union with the 

The addresses at Barnstaple, 1 November 15, 
1878, give the keynote — 

S. John xvii. 17-19- — "Self-consecration after the 
example of Christ." 

The power in all such meetings as these, and indeed in all 
our ministry, is a form of the communion of saints. There 
is a current of common spiritual life pervading the whole 
body transmitted from the Head, even as He received it 
from the Father. That which was in Him passed on to His 
hearers, that which is in us passes on to our people, that 
which is wanting in us will be wanting in our people. All 
the labour is not of so much value as the secret self-conquest. 
Where we fail, the failure could often be traced home, not to 
lack of learning or eloquence ; it is really due to a lack of 
constant communion with God, of which Christ was an 
example. We must find means of sanctifying ourselves ; 
otherwise all else will be of little avail. The thought of it 
should be with us now. Self-examination and prayer, a 
necessary preliminary ; and then meditation on Christ's 
excellency and love, — we need to lose ourselves in Him. 

What is this self-sanctification ? There are three aspects 
of it. First, that spirit which consists in setting before 
ourselves a high ideal and perpetually straining after it. 
Turn to the example of our Lord — that strange and awful 
revelation which it is impossible to read without dread. 

1 Prebendary Pigot's Memorandum, supra, p. 104. 


(Heb. v.) " Who in the days of His flesh . . . though He 
were a Son yet learned He obedience."" How strange the 
possibility of His having to learn ! Of all mysteries of the 
Incarnation, this the most wonderful, how completely he 
became man. So, too, S. Paul, " I keep under my body," etc. 
Apply this to ourselves as ministers. There is a constant 
tendency to settle down, to be contented with ourselves. 
Nothing hinders our ministry more than this content. The 
old schoolmen called it sloth, — it is a snare to all. Not 
positive sin, but a low level. What is the spirit of our 
lives ? — the general current of our thoughts ? How much 
worldliness there can be without scandalising ! Every now 
and then a sharp decision is necessary. What would you do 
if suddenly challenged with a demand for absolute self- 
surrender? How wanting we may be in industry and 
diligence, content with a lifeless discharge of our duties, 
giving little offence, while, perhaps, here and there is a soul 
perishing for lack of nurture. How greatly inclined we are 
to live far too easy a life. We recognise the beauty of the 
heavenly devotion of some saint — an ideal of unearthly 
goodness ; but because it is an ideal we make no effort to 
attain it. Remember that this upward striving is the road 
to His love ; it is the recollection of this high ideal through 
ordinary days of ordinary life which gradually lifts us 
higher, and it is this which gives power to our ministry. 
Who can fail to recognise the magic which resides in un 
earthly characters ? It is this which reveals to others the 
power of God — this which by some subtle penetration seems 
to pierce into the hardest ; even those who are most sunk 
often show a strange approbation of heavenly-minded men. 
On the other hand, we often fail for no reason we can trace, 
but simply because we have not within us this desire to 
'purify ourselves even as He is pure. 1 What answering 
note can there be in the hearts of those who cannot find any 
sign in the speaker that he has himself obeyed the call to a 
higher life which he makes to others ? If we are to be true 
to our ministry, this is the first condition — to learn the 
meaning of that deep repentance, that never-failing struggle 
which never loses hope that by God's grace and love some 
day the ideal shall be realised, — that we are seeking Him, 
and shall not fail. 

The second aspect of self-sanctification is that by which a 
man is brought into contact with God. High ideals may 


attract those who are, nevertheless, not religious men, because 
they do not live in communion with the Supreme Being. 
There are instances among heathen systems of men's attempts 
to realise high ideals in their own strength. The Stoic 
belief is an attempt to live above humanity. Sure to fail. 
If such efforts be true the end is S. Paul's — "Who shall 
deliver me ? " Morality, which is obedience to law, leads on 
of necessity to religion, which is devotion to a personal God. 
Abiding in the Lord is the keynote, the core of all spiritual 

The highest expression of it in acts of devotion is Holy 
Communion. That Sacrament has no value except as 
penetrated by the power of the Atonement. We "show 
forth " the Lord's death as the source of our life on the one 
hand, and the great offering to the Father on the other. 
We desire to be taken up to Him, to receive from Him that 
eternal gift of which the death of Christ is the source, to 
offer all we have or are, purified and hallowed by the grace 
of Christ. Surely this is the spirit in which we have to live 
all day long. I do not speak of it as easy to do, or even to 

Nor is it easy to believe in prayer, which is another 
expression of the life which abides in God, in face of the 
apparent failure of our petitions. And yet, if any truth in 
revelation — whatever other difficulties, however strange and 
mysterious some articles of faith — here we stand on an 
immovable rock ; prayer is heard and prayer is granted. 
This work of prayer is, more than we think, the work of the 
whole Church. Christian life is hid with Christ in God ; 
underneath, moving in channels of which we know nothing, 
the hidden influence operates ; and many a minister who has 
laboured long and never known outward success has assuredly 
been blessed, and his work will be one day visible. Moses 
did not enter Canaan, Elijah was taken away before the 
downfall of Baal ; God will have us labour in dependence 
and prayer. And so the faithful minister of Christ, whilst 
labouring among; will, still more, labour for the people. His 
prayers will, day by day, go up to God. We must ask our 
selves whether the spirit of prayer permeates all our labour 
as it ought. How powerful is prayer for individuals ! 
When we have to deal with each one by one, how surely 
must we plead for each one by one. When you visit a rich 
man remember him in your prayers ; or a hardened sinner, 
or penitent, or an unbeliever who cannot see his way — all 


must be backed up by earnest prayer. Not long ago it 
became known, after the death of a well-known bishop, that 
it was his daily custom to pray for every priest in his diocese 
by name. Can we hear of it without a sense that this must 
have been a power to that man's ministry, far beyond any 
thing due to personal gifts ? l Such examples are given that 
we may know what spirit should rush into our hearts. No 
doubt I am only reminding you of known duties, but when 
we come to speak of these essential truths of spiritual life I 
cannot too earnestly impress on you that we cannot look too 
often to see whether, knowing that we ought to be men of 
prayer, our prayers are anything like what they ought to be, 
and whether, when we fail, it is not from want of prayer. 
Our Lord is the Vine, and we the branches. Does the sap 
flow ? Are our souls perpetually turned towards Him ? Or 
is it that our prayers are hasty, careless, and cold ? Or, 
again, are they, as is more natural, unbelieving, with no 
true faith, with little of childlike simplicity and willingness 
to leave to Him to do what He will with our prayers ? 
Meditate. God give us grace to find blessing, and make us 
a blessing to His people. 

We come now to the third form or aspect of spiritual 
life — forgetting ourselves altogether, and losing ourselves in 
contemplation of God. I have put this aspect last, because 
I wish to finish with that which contains deepest peace. " I 
have prayed and striven long," said a penitent, "and yet I 
have failed. How can I pray, better ?" " Go home," was 
the saint's reply, " and pray for God's glory." There is in 
such prayer a wonderful power to elevate the spirit ; God 
and Eternity dwarf time and care ; infinity makes our 
world nothing. The majesty and love of God are something 
more bright and glorious than we can conceive. How can 
we cast down — how rise above — some of those things which 
so vex us ! We find the thought and contemplation of Him 
something that lifts us above them ; we find that ideal which 
must be ever before our eyes. What is the moral standard 
but ' a reflection of God ? And " Holiness," which we 
substitute for " Morality," comes from God. Does it not 
enlarge the soul, fire the heart, to seek holiness ? The 

1 At this point the Bishop nearly broke down with intense feeling, 
and could hardly go on. 


contemplation of these truths has a marvellous power to rob 
the world of its charms, and fill the soul with new influence 
and purpose. There is much to fight against, but the 
enemies are cast down by the knowledge of God. 

And thus — in the knowledge and contemplation of God — 
we find deepest, surest peace. In striving, there is the pain 
of effort, failure, anxiety, grief, humiliation, sadness — how 
can it be otherwise ? In all penitence there must be 
sorrow ; when there comes with our petition still the 
knowledge of deep need, there is much to cause despond 
ency. In all our temptations, trials, work, there is trouble 
and disturbance ; in the thought of God there is peace. 
His Eternal Majesty ! The thought of it brings perpetual 
calm. If in our ministry, or in our lives, there is that 
which casts us down, shall we not forget it in His eternal 
purpose and in the thought of His unalterable love? In 
praise and study of Him there is pure happiness ; what is 
life but ' to know Thee and Jesus Christ ' ? That know 
ledge is the perfect supply of all needs. Elsewhere we are 
all astray — at other times we are giving out ; but in 
contemplation and praise we are receiving; and so it 
moulds our character. ' Now we see as in a mirror,' and 
yet, while so beholding, there is perpetual transformation. 
We are " changed into the same image." The power of 
such study sinks unconsciously into life, and, whilst blessing 
us, gives calm strength for all that will come. 

Let me commend to you the contemplation of God as 
the great solace of life — as that which, beyond all else, will 
enable you quietly and steadily to persevere. In prayer 
there is often irrepressible emotion which seems to throw us 
off our balance; but here there is calm. Let us find rest 
in Him ; let us make it part of our life to study Him — 
till we know Him better and better — till we approach His 
likeness by ' seeing Him as He is. 1 x 

A good commentary on the effect produced by 
the Bishop's clerical Conferences and Quiet Days is 
found in the following memorandum, written from 
the point of view of one of the younger clergy of 
the diocese : — 

1 From notes taken at the time by the Rev. R. Martin, Rural Dean, 
now Prebendary of Exeter Cathedral, and the Rev. T. S. Rundle. 


As to his Quiet Days for the clergy in the Palace 
Chapel, in no other way did he impress me as then. 
I have seen the tears roll down his face as he spoke of 
the love of God as manifested in the Incarnation, and I 
never wanted further answer as to his orthodoxy, and I 
have myself had ever afterwards a firmer grip of these vital 
truths. 1 

(2) In speaking of the Quiet Days we pass into 
the inner chamber of clerical life ; and the transition 
from these is therefore easy to the Bishop's personal 
relations with individual clergy. Familiar inter 
course was checked at first by brusqueness of 
manner, and some men fancied that the school 
master was always hidden beneath the garb of the 
Bishop. But there probably never was an ecclesi 
astical ruler who had less of the official about 
him, and, if once his clergy had penetrated through 
the hard exterior, they found no barriers of social 
or professional etiquette to keep them off. 

The only real obstacles were unreality, or pose, 
or any touch of falseness of character, in those who 
approached him ; no matter was too trivial, no 
detail too troublesome, to enlist the interest and 
sympathy of the Bishop when the personal footing 
had been established. The reality of the little 
incidents of everyday life gave them an interest in 
his eyes. Here is an instance : — 

EXETER, December 30, 1874. 

MY DEAR SANDFORD — The smoking of the chimney has 
nothing whatever to do with the grate proper. The smoking 
is due either to the shortness, or the straightness, or to the 
openness at bottom of the chimney itself. The two former 
causes can only be dealt with by putting on a cowl. The 
last cause can only be dealt with by narrowing the mouth 
of the chimney above the fire. 

This can be done whatever grate you put in, though it is 
true that some grates are made with a register, or a valve 
at the top for this purpose. 

1 Memorandum of Rev. T. J. Pouting. 


I recommended the grate as giving most heat from least 

Narrow the flue over it, and it will not smoke. 

He was as much at home in the business affairs 
of the parish as in the small things of the parson 
age. Moreover, the subject of the following 
letter had its own special attraction, and always 
" drew " him : — 

EXETER, October 22, 18T5. 

MY DEAR , — I have looked into the law bearing on 

your right to close the public-house on your glebe, and I am 
quite satisfied that you can do it without fear of impeach 
ment of waste. You are not bound to let the house at all ; 
if you were to keep every house that there may be on the 
glebe unlet nobody could interfere with you, or afterwards 
complain ; and if you let this to a tenant who does not use 
it as a public-house, the remedy of the next incumbent is 
to let it to some other tenant who will so use it. ... 

The Bishop's aptitude for legal questions, both 
great and small, was so marked as to have produced 
the remark about him credited to some public 
man : " Temple, it's a pity you are a clergyman ; 
otherwise you'd have been Lord Chancellor." A 
sense of the soundness of his advice made him a 
constant referee to his clergy on all legal subjects. 
A coUection of his answers on such questions, if it 
could be made, would be a clerical handbook of 
great value. The question of clerical fees was dis 
cussed at more than one of his clerical conferences. 
It is pleasant to know that action was taken in 
accordance with the sound and practical advice 
given in the following letter, and brought permanent 
peace to a parish which had long been disquieted, 
after the manner of country parishes, by this small 
financial trouble : — 

EXETER, June 21, 1875. 

MY DEAE SIR — No fees can be charged for burials, 
marriages, churchings, or the like, except on one of two 


grounds, either the custom of the parish (not of the diocese, 
nor of the neighbourhood, but of that particular parish), or 
a scale settled under Act 59 George III. ch. 134, §11. 

Mr. 's neglect to take the fees would not destroy but 

would greatly weaken the evidence of custom. You would 
have to go back to his predecessor. 

I think I should advise you to get a scale settled under 
the Act. It requires the consent of the vestry and of the 
Bishop. The Rural Dean and Archdeacons would be your 
best advisers how to proceed. 

The following letters are full of sound judgment 
as to the general principles on which a parish is 
successfully managed : — 

EXETER, May 11, 1870. 

MY DEAR ... I have thought much of your matters 

since I saw you. 

I think it unfortunate that you said anything whatever 
about not altering the seats. I think that you put yourself 
in a false position. You did not mean to bind yourself; 
but your words would mislead and probably did mislead. 

I doubt, too, whether you were right in preaching in 
the surplice till you had got your people to consent. What 
harm would be done if you had preached in a gown for 
twenty years ? And the result has probably been to make 
the proper reseating very difficult ; and yet the seating is an 
important matter, and if that is postponed twenty years 
much harm is done. 

All things considered I cannot but advise simply waiting. 

You cannot give up on the question of seats ; for the 
interests of the poor are at stake, and they are your special 
charge. But very likely the matter may wait without much 
mischief for a year or even for two. And patience will win. 

The vestry and the place of the organ I look on as 
comparatively unimportant. It is, no doubt, best that the 
singing should be near the east end under the clergyman's 
eye. But the point is not vital. 

I think if you waited and tried whether the offertory 
would help you, in a little time you might by mere patience 
and good-humour melt the opposition away. To do that 
would be worth a great deal. 

Meanwhile, think whether you can retract in any matters 
that do not involve principle. The important thing is to 
show that you are not simply self-willed. 


Anyhow, you will have a hard task. But I hope God will 
help you in it. 

THE PALACE, EXETER, April 20, 1871. 

MY DEAR , — The important matter is not to com 
promise the future. Leave the organ gallery, and promise, 
if it seems prudent, not to propose its removal for the 
present, or for ten years if they like ; but decline to give any 
pledge that is to last for ever. So, if you are pressed about 
reading the offertory sentences, agree to have a hymn, but 
decline to say that you will never change : it is quite possible 
that both in this and in the former matter the parish may 

The screen I should not care to keep at all. Screens do 
not really suit our services, and I should not care if they 
entirely disappeared. 

The giving up the seats in the body of the church is 
a much more serious matter. In agreeing to this I think 
you ought to press very earnestly the grievous wrong of 
what sometimes happens, that the seats are very often 
either empty or half-full, and the persons to whom they 
are assigned act as dogs in the manger. It is impossible 
for any clergyman to press on his parishioners with real 
effect the duty of coming to church if he is liable to the 
answer, " There is no room for me if I do come." Those who 
have seats assigned to them ought to be willing expressly 
to agree that if they are not present at the service the un 
occupied sittings may be filled up by the churchwardens for 
the occasion, and that if they cease to come their right to the 
seats ceases also. But, subject to such stipulations as these, 
I think your proposal x and Mr. 's may be accepted. 

I think it important to notice that in any parish where 
Church rates have been given up the moral right of the rate 
payers as against the body of the parishioners is plainly 
given up with it. 

The assignment of the seats beforehand seems to me a 
good idea. — Yours affectionately, F. EXON. 

Relations with Nonconformists is a matter 
which looms large before the eyes of all clergymen 
in the western counties. The Bishop always 
handled it with large -heartedness and sagacity. 
In answer to his Chaplain, who was soon face to 

1 This was a form of conditional allotment of seats. 


face with the question in the parish to which the 
Bishop had appointed him, he lays down general 
principles in some such terms as these, not without 
thought of their suitability to the individual case 
with which he was dealing : — 

You will want strength and tact in dealing with the 
Nonconformists ; some clergymen think it best to have 
nothing to do with them at all. It is not the best or 
highest policy, but sometimes it is the safest, and some men 
it suits. 

How accurate was the prognosis of the diffi 
culties in this connexion was verified not long 
afterwards in North Devon. A meeting was 
summoned in one of the larger towns, to promote 
Home Reunion. Owing to unintentional causes 
the Nonconformists of the district were irritated, 
and the Bishop, who had promised to preside at a 
gathering favourable to an object with which he 
sympathised, found himself in the presence of a 
crowded audience, consisting largely of opponents. 
The whole incident was an opportunity for the 
exercise of that patience and courage which he had 
more than one special occasion for displaying 
during his lifetime. In the midst of clamour and 
contention his attitude was self-restraint, dignity, 
and persistence. 

" I am quite sure that all alike, in various ways, regret that 
the great Christian body should now present so very different 
an appearance from that which our Lord desired it to pre 
sent when He prayed that we all may be one — one so that 
man should see it, and that the unity might be an evidence 
of the Divine mission which He Himself brought from His 
Father, and which He gave to His Apostles and Disciples 
to continue until He came again. I am quite sure that all 
alike will feel that, if there be any means which can bring 
Christians closer to one another, it is the duty of all to 
study those means. We know very well that it is impossible 
for us, any one of us, either on one side or the other, to 
surrender what we believe to be God's truth. Even if we 


are mistaken, yet we cannot help it ; our consciences bind us, 
and until it has pleased God to make us see more clearly, 
we are compelled to follow the guidance of those consciences. 
But, at any rate, it may be possible to remove those causes 
of differences which come from misunderstanding, which 
come from not really knowing each what the other thinks, 
which come from supposing things to be of greater import 
ance than they are, which come, perhaps, a great deal from 
mere ignorance, and because we have not looked at both 
sides of the question. And I for my part am ready always 
to acknowledge that, however deep my own convictions may 
be, however much they have laid hold of me, however 
difficult I may find it ever to part with them, yet I should 
be foolish indeed if I did not confess that after all, in many 
particulars, I may be grievously mistaken, and that others 
may be right who seem to me to be wrong. It is in that 
spirit we ought to approach one another, earnestly desiring 
to recognise the common faith which we all hold, and the 
common Master whom we all worship. I do not know 
whether much can come out of any discussion or considera 
tion of our differences. But it seems to me at any rate 
something is gained by the mere desire to come together. 
Something is gained if only we show in every possible way 
how we long for unity, though it may be as yet far off. It 
is out of the desire for unity ; it is out of the desire to insist 
perpetually on those points on which we are agreed, and to 
remind one another how very much more we are agreed than 
we disagree ; it is out of that that it seems to me that there 
is some hope that greater union may some day come, because 
if there be love to begin with and the spirit of love, there is 
hardly any miracle which we cannot hope will be brought 
by that which is above all other things." 

The Bishop afterwards invited opponents to come upon 
the platform and take part in the discussion — an oppor 
tunity of which they availed themselves ; but in spite of 
much demand he refused to put to the meeting any resolu 
tion on the merits of the actual question, and stated that, 
had he been informed that there was any intention of pass 
ing such a resolution, he would have declined to take the 
chair — the meeting was for discussion, and discussion only. 
The refusal to put the resolution caused no little uproar, 
which was disregarded. The close of the meeting is an 
object-lesson as to the character of the Chairman, and shows 
the one point on which all were agreed. 


The Bishop then thanked them for what they had said 
about his impartiality and courtesy, and in return he 
thanked those who sat on his left side for their courtesy 
towards him. It was not a matter of any surprise to him, 
because he had always found that his Nonconformist 
brethren had received him with the most entire kindness. 
(A voice : " We always shall.") " Thank you," the Bishop 
replied. " I feel it from my heart, and I desire particularly 
to acknowledge the kindness and the graciousness with 
which the resolution which was proposed has now been 
withdrawn. I feel that it is in itself a kindly expression of 
regard for me and a real act of union between both sides of 
the platform. I will now conclude with prayer." His lord 
ship stood up holding his prayer-book in front of him. 
Cries of " Resolution " were still heard from the bottom of 
t*he hall, but the Bishop stood firm with book in hand, and, 
after a little while, there was silence, and he offered up 
prayer. The meeting separated quietly at eleven o'clock. 1 

The Bishop draws his own conclusions on the 
whole incident in the following letter : — 

THE PALACE, EXETER, May 7, 1880. 

MY DEAR MR. GRANVILLE — I do not think the meeting on 
Friday did us any harm. But I very strongly advise your 
keeping out of all controversy with your Nonconformist 
friends for a long time. 

I do not think there were any " roughs " at the meeting. 
— Yours truly, F. EXON. 

It is satisfactory to read the Rector's own 
judgment as to the eventual results : — 

March 9, 1903. 

I never regret that meeting myself. I am sure it did 
good, though it was very painful at the time and nearly 
killed me. Two men took Holy Orders afterwards who 
were then Wesleyans, and told me the discussion had 
influenced them, and even the son of the chief opponent 
ultimately did the same. 2 And I believe a great many 
Nonconformists became Churchmen, more or less influenced 

1 Exeter and Plymouth Gazette, May 1880. 
2 He is now an incumbent in the Diocese of Exeter. 


by * the discussion. Mr. , ... in the town, though he 

died a Dissenter, ,\ . . often had talks with me afterwards 
on the subject, and I lent him Home Reunion literature. 

Here are some illustrations of the modes in 
which principles were applied to practical questions 
generally : — 



October 25, 1887. 

MY DEAR SIR — I do not remember the Charge that I gave 
in 1882 sufficiently well to check the report of it. I can 
only say that I can conceive I may have said that the co 
existence of the two chapels in a cemetery was a scandal 
and reproach. I thought so then and I think so still. 
But I certainly never said that I desired to give up the 
consecration of cemeteries or of any part of them. I should 
at all times have tried hard to have a consecrated ground 
for the burial of our people. 

Some bishops, as I suppose you are aware, decline to 
consecrate cemeteries because the consecration does not 
reserve the ground for the use of the Church. But I cannot 
agree. I have always consecrated, and have refused to 

... I steadily refused from the first to the last when I 
was Bishop of Exeter to allow parishes to be left without any 
consecrated ground. But I was always willing to consecrate 
a whole cemetery, and obliterate the distinction between 
consecrated and unconsecrated in that way.- — Yours truly, 



Inscription. — She was a member of the Bible Christian 
denomination for fifty-nine years, and a local preacher for 
fifty years in the said (section) or denomination. 

June 8, 1878. 

I think I should use my eloquence with the preacher to 
try to persuade him to yield, as all the rest of the parish do. 
But if he will not, I should not object to the word " Bible." 
Coupled with denomination it is, I think, harmless. 

I should try to get him to omit the last half sentence, 
and to substitute for it the words " and teacher " after 
" member." 


I myself should rather yield than go to law. But there 
is no doubt that you can insist on his getting a Faculty 
before he puts it up. 

Once put up (even by stealth and by night) you cannot 
remove it without a Faculty. 



June 26, 1882. 

... I cannot agree with the Archdeacon of Exeter 
(Sanders) in thinking that Mr. Barnes will do wrong in 
taking a part with a Nonconformist in the examination of a 
Board School in religious knowledge. Let us in every 
way encourage partial religious instruction when we cannot 
get complete. And since the instruction is to be unde 
nominational it is not unreasonable that there should be 
various examiners to see that no denominational questions 
are set. Depend upon it, all study of the Bible ultimately 
tends to the advantage of the Church. 



December 16, 1870. 

MY DEAR , — I think it would probably be better that 

the lady about whom you write should be formally received. 
Such a step should be deliberate and public in order to 
guard against its being taken lightly. It is not necessary 
that she should be received in her own parish church. She 
may choose for herself. 

Nothing more is needed than a quiet but public announce 
ment immediately before the Exhortation (not the Notice) 

in the Communion Office to the effect that , hitherto a 

member of the Church of Rome, desires to be admitted into 
the Church of England, and that the Bishop has directed 
that she be allowed to receive the Holy Communion accord 
ingly. Then let her communicate at that celebration with 
the rest. 

I think it more straightforward, and in every way better, 
that she should tell the priest what she is going to do. 


No less practical is the advice given on different 
points as to the services of the Church. In reply 
to a request for advice as to the expediency of 
maintaining the daily service in a country parish, 
he answers by stating the law on the subject, and 
concludes, " If I were in your place, I should find 
daily service the greatest help, and should certainly 
keep it up." 

The following letter is in some sense supple 
mental to the above advice : — 


EXETER, June 1, 1875. 

MY DEAR , — The Rubric which orders the Baptism 

to follow the second lesson must be read with that which 
orders Daily Service. If you have Daily Service, you ought 
to have the Baptism after the second lesson. But I do not 
think a clergyman can rightly hold to the Baptismal Rubric 
which his people do not like, and give up the other Rubric 
which he does not like. 

Whether you have the Baptism on Sunday or week-day is 
a question not of law but of expediency. In these days I 
certainly should not press for a Sunday if I were a clergyman. 

If they press to have the Baptism on a Sunday I should be 
firm to have it in service time in such a parish as . 

I think I have covered all your points. 

He advises that children of ten years of age 
should be baptized as adults. 


December 14, 1878. 

MY DEAR SIR — I do not think children of ten ought to 
be baptized as infants, however stupid or ignorant. They 
should be carefully prepared for Baptism. When you think 
any one of them ready for Baptism, you have my sanction 
for administering that Sacrament. 

It should not be administered on the same day as Con 
firmation. But there need not be a long interval. — Yours 
truly, F. EXON. 


His reverence for the Sacraments of the Church, 
coupled with his respect for law and individual 
rights, is conspicuous in the following letters :— 

December 17, 1878. 

I think you will do wisely to see and press upon him 

that he ought not to come to the Holy Communion while 
he is under this cloud of suspicion. He must have been 
guilty of levity to make it possible to suspect him so gravely. 

But beyond advice you cannot go. 

You cannot refuse a man on suspicion. All you can do 
is to press upon him the fearful responsibility he incurs. 

December 30, 1879. 

Your question about the marriage of unbaptized persons 
raised a point of law which I did not like to settle without 
consideration and consultation. 

I am advised by high legal authority (and I fear there is 
no doubt that it is true) that we cannot refuse the marriage 
service to unbaptized people. There is a special provision 
for Jews and Quakers. But all others we must marry. 

This is what the law is ; I cannot say I think that it is 
what the law ought to be. 

Characteristic of his clearness of view in regard 
to spiritual matters is his judgment in regard to an 
irregular marriage : — 

August 27, 1884. 

I do not like the idea of using our marriage service for a 
purpose fqr which it was never intended, namely, consecrating 

a marriage already consummated years ago. The are 

married people. Their marriage was, in the eye of the 
Church (and in the judgment of God), irregular. But it was 
valid nevertheless. Fieri non debuit ; factum valet. To 
use the marriage service now is to lower the service. People 
who have done wrong have no right to ask us to lower the 
service in order to set their feelings at rest. It is part of 
their punishment to bear the pain of thinking that their 
marriage was in the beginning unblest. 

The case is parallel to that of baptism by heretics or 
schismatics. Such baptism (unless administered by those 
who denied the Trinity, and consequently could not rightly 


use the proper words) has been always held valid, but yet 
irregular. Such baptism cannot be repeated ; but it ought 
to be repented of. 

It would be quite right that the should use whatever 

form of repentance most satisfied their own consciences ; for 
instance, they might observe the anniversary of their wedding- 
day every year with fasting and penitent prayer. But they 
ought not, in my judgment, to ask or to have the Marriage 
Service. F. EXON. 

I presume there are no children. 

His habitual view that merciful treatment is the 
most just comes out in the following letter as to 
the burial of infidels : — 

March 15, 1881. 

You are right in refusing to use the Burial Service at the 
interment of an avowed infidel. 

But possibly you may find that he may become softened 
at the approach of death. It is something that he allows 
your visits. You ought to be very sure that he does not 
repent, if you are to refuse him Christian burial. 

You are of course aware that he may, or his friends after 
his death may, procure some one else to bury him with any 
service whatever. In that case you have nothing to do with 
the matter. — Yours faithfully, F. EXON. 

Let me know in a day or two if he is still alive, and 
whether he shows any sign of change in his opinions. 

The spirit in which he received, recognised, and 
encouraged meritorious service is thus illustrated : — 

PLYMOUTH, April 27, 1870. 

MY DEAR MR. BARNES l — Do you think that you can 
undertake a mission into Cornwall ? I want a man to go 

down to and take charge of it during the vacancy of 

the living. It is in a very bad condition, and requires a 
vigorous man for a little while. 

You will, of course, have to provide for your own place 
in your absence. But possibly that would not be very 
difficult. — Yours truly, F. EXON. 

1 Subsequently Archdeacon of Barnstaple and Treasurer of Exeter 


July 8, 1870. 

MY DEAR BARNES — As has now been instituted, 

your mission at is at an end, and you can go back to 

your own living. 

You have done at precisely what I wanted you to 

do, and I doubt if any one could have done it better. 

I shall look out for an opportunity to give you more 
important work than the charge of your present living. — 
Yours very truly, F. EXON. 

The preceding letters serve to show how official 
relations gradually shaded off into personal. 
Friendships with him could become very close 
and intimate, and the power of his influence over 
those who were fully drawn to him was unique. 
His words were not many, but the crisp, terse 
phrase of his utterances had a special power of its 
own. It is thus that he writes to an old pupil 
when asking him to come into Devonshire as his 
chaplain : — 

RUGBY, October 14, 1869. 

MY DEAR SANDFORD — The first letter that I wrote when I 
was allowed to mention the fact of my nomination for Exeter 
was to the Archbishop of Canterbury to ask his leave to ask 
you to come to me instead of to him. 

He asked you as a favour to you, but now that I have 
leave to do so I ask you as a favour to me. 

Will you think of it ? — Yours affectionately, 


My letter to him had to wander and I have only just got 
his answer. 

The reply and the letter that followed it speak 
for themselves : — 

October 15, 1869. 

MY DEAR DR. TEMPLE — I accept your most kind offer most 
gratefully and gladly. I could have few greater pleasures or 
privileges than to work under you, and try, if it is in my power, 
to help you, and make others know you and love you. . . . 

Whatever you wish me to do, I will do as well as I can ; 
only, might I ask you at your convenience to let me know 


what you want from me, and when you want me ? . . . With 
my renewed thanks, and my love to Miss Temple, — Yours 
with gratitude and affection, E. G. SANDFORD. 

RUGBY, October 16, 1869. 

DEAR SANDFORD — Your letter has made me very glad. . . . 

I am very sorry to hear of your sick household. I hope 
the illness will soon pass away. Give my love to the Arch 
deacon. — Yours most affectionately, F. TEMPLE. 

The friendship begun at Rugby grew stronger to 
the very end, and even when official ties were 
broken, the sometime pupil and chaplain found 
Dr. Temple's home his own. There was much 
work to do where the Bishop lived, but never once, 
though the chaplain might break in upon the 
busiest moments, was there a petulant or impatient 
word, or any mention, if he had done his best, of 
blunder or inefficiency, and all was not business, as 
these words show : — 

EXETER, December 31, 1872. 

MY DEAR SANDFORD — This is not on business, but only to 
wish you a Happy New Year, . . . and you know that I 
wish it to the Archdeacon with all the honour and regard 
that his long life in God's service deserves from all of us that 
know him. . . . 

I hope you are getting better and stronger, and enjoying 
much happiness. — Yours affectionately, F. EXON. 

The allusion to " getting better " is explained in 
the following letter written a few days later : — 

EXETER, January 22, 1873. 

I am very sorry indeed to have such an account of your 
health. Of coarse we must all submit, and if the Exeter 
climate is not good for you at present you must stay away 
from it. The loss of your companionship is a good deal 
more to me just now than even the loss of your work, though 
the latter is not a little. Nevertheless, we must bear what 
God sends. 

I cannot at present say anything about the future. I 
must turn it over in my mind, and will write to you again in 
a few days. . . . 


Not many busy men would be content, even for 
affection's sake, to continue for a year such an 
arrangement as the next letter proposes : — 

EXETER, January 24, 1873. 

I cannot undertake just at present to drill a new chaplain. 
It would simply be a greater burden than help. 

I want you, therefore, to keep your present post for a time 
at any rate. I will send you the letters to be answered with 
minutes of the answers in the corners. The difference will be 
that you will answer them from Alvechurch instead of from 
the library here. The delay is not of real consequence, and 
you will of course try to prevent it from being greater than 
it must. 

The going about on Confirmation tours is not now of so 
much need as it was. You have pretty well drilled the 
clergy in my ways. 

Kate will do the sending out of circulars. She can now 
do that very well. 

I will try this plan at any rate for the present. If you get 
work that you like, it may be advisable to make a change. 

The above is an instance of exceeding considera 
tion for others. A touch of the same quality is 
illustrated by the following memorandum with 
the closing incident : — 

In 1877 (was it ?) he spent several weeks at . 

He had offered to take my whole duty, but not part 
of it. I could not be away that month, having been away 
for a usual month already, and having certain parish tribula 
tions to tackle. . . . He was always in church when there 
was a service, Sunday and week-day, and we exchanged calls 
and saw something of his ladies, but nothing of him. At 
the end of his stay he sent me word that he wished to preach 
on the Sunday afternoon. It was a grand sermon for u$, on 
the second commandment, and would have been great any 
where — making graven images — not literally, but making 
our own ideas of God — low ideas leading to tolerance of evil 
in ourselves, etc. etc. The next morning, before he left for 
Exeter, he came to the vicarage, " I just came to tell you not 
to be cast down. 1 ' 


Another and by no means unfrequent form of 
consideration comes out in the appended narrative 
received from a former Rural Dean in the Exeter 
Diocese : — 

An old clergyman, curate in sole charge of a very poor 
living, and receiving only a small stipend, and with hardly 
any private means, drifted into debt, although he and his 
wife lived very quietly. He was not a good man of business, 
and illness probably accounted for part of the debt, which in 
the course of two or three years amounted to £80 or £90. 
Some of the clergy in the Deanery, knowing the old man and 
his blameless life, privately collected amongst themselves a 
sum of money to lessen his debts, and the Rural Dean took on 
himself to write to the Bishop and tell him what was being 
done. No answer came, and the writer regretted he had 
written, as very possibly the Bishop was inundated with 
appeals for charities and societies of all kinds — indeed, seeing 
the Bishop at a railway station, he avoided meeting him. 
But soon the old curate called, and asked the Rural Dean if 
he had written to the Bishop. He was told " Yes." The 
old man said that that accounted for what had puzzled him, 
for he had received a letter from the Bishop appointing a 
day and hour at which he was to see him at Exeter, and 
he went. " Well, what happened?" he was asked ; the answer 
was, " The Bishop said, ' What will clear you of your debts ? ' 
I said, * £50.^ The Bishop at once wrote and gave me a 
cheque for £50, and said, ' Good-day.' " 

But there was another side ; he could be " short," 
even with those whom he liked and respected. He 
was especially susceptible to signs of unprepared 
and disordered work, and had a special objection to 
requests for the reopening of points which he had 
already settled. He was rather a strong tonic at 
times to loss of nerve. 

On that occasion (writes an official who had been come 
down upon) I had, as Secretary, arranged matters, but had no 
one I could persuade to speak first after the Bishop, and the 
Bishop had refused to say what he would speak about. His 
address had taken the wind out of my sails, and I fumbled 
about, left out part because he had said it, and part because 


he had said the opposite of it, and made a general mess. 
Going with him to the station I received a scolding for not 
having my firstly, secondly, and thirdly, and generally for 
not having my ideas sufficiently in order. 

In the following extract from a letter he speaks 
the truth in love to a very close friend : — 

I had begun to fear that you were letting " nerves " get 
the better of you — I wonder whether you thought my letters 
very ferocious. I rather hope you did. — Yours very affec 
tionately, F. EXON. 

There was no sting in such admonitions. They 
were " precious balms " that broke no man's head. 
But with cases of gross neglect of duty he could be 
very stern ; with proved guilt, which persisted in 
screening itself by falsehood, he would make no 
terms. A gradual depression of the standard of 
life and character in a clergyman was especially 
painful to him. But for all that he always judged 
men at their best, and if the verdict was at fault, 
for the most part it erred on the side of over 
leniency. His heart towards the individual man 
was tender -, towards his best friends the love was 
"wonderful." The quotation of letters may well 
be closed with those which show how to each he 
could give just "the food convenient," kindling the 
young, and imparting a glow of pride in the sense 
of his friendship,- — following the old to the very 
end with affection and appreciation of tried work 
and character. 

PLYMOUTH, July 5, 1874. 

MY DEAR SANDFORD— I have thought much of you to-day 
and of your entrance on your new duties. And for the sake 
of old affection, now going for nearly sixteen years, I have 
had you much in my prayers. 

God bless you in your new work, and give you not only 
success, and, if it please Him, visible success, but peace also 
and quiet happiness. The work of a country parish to those 
whose work never penetrates below the surface not only 
seems, but in course of time is sure to become very 



monotonous. Not so to those who put their hearts into the 
spiritual welfare of their people. And you, I trust, will 
find in it an ever-increasing blessing. 

Remember me in your prayers, as I, you may be assured, 
never forget you in mine. We shall often come across each 
other, and always shall we find a pleasure in meeting. For 
we can trust each other's hearts. God be with you. — Your 
affectionate, F. EXON. 

December 9, 1899. 

MY DEAR ROGERS — It is good to see a very old friend's 
handwriting, and it is specially good when the handwriting 
tells about another friend, not known so long but highly 
valued. Chappel, I suppose, is now quite laid on the shelf, 
but what good work he has done in the course of his life 
and how quietly he can contemplate the future. 

You, my dear friend, are resting in some degree, and 
your delightful children a perpetual joy, and your wife more 
than ever a part of yourself and fading away into the blessed 
future for both of you. God is wonderfully good to us. 

I am well still, though some of the infirmities of old age 
are already upon me. I do not find my power of work 
diminished as yet, but I have poor sight, I can no longer 
walk as in former days, and my hearing is beginning to go. 
I can still think and still enjoy study. God is good to me 
also, and has given me a wonderful wife and two perfect boys. 

God's mercy be on us all. — Your affectionate old school 
fellow, F. CANTUAR. 


November 18, 1899. 

MY DEAR WHIGHAM — Thank you much for writing to tell 
me about Leopold Acland's funeral. He was one of my 
oldest friends. I knew him first when I went to stay with 
Canon Lawson, then his curate, in 1847. And I learnt to 
value him very much. How unworldly he was ; how simple ; 
how affectionate ; how careful and diligent in his parish. 
To have known him was and is a perpetual blessing. 

God make us worthy to have had such examples. — Yours 
affectionately, F. CANTUAR. 

Dr. Temple was a born educator, and could not 
help exercising influence on others. The clergy 


specially were brought under the spell ; a new 
inspiration, a higher conception of their office came 
into the whole body. It was not given to all men 
to receive him ; he required to be known. All 
were not capable of knowing him, and some had 
not the opportunity ; but to those who received 
him, he came almost as a new revelation of what a 
man could be ; and some who had most sympathy 
with such a nature were drawn by a magnetic 
influence stronger than any other which they had 
ever known. 



(Social Life} 

Presentation of pastoral staff — Private friendships — West of 
England Bank — Franco-German War — Soldiers and sailors — 
Temperance — Purity — Deceased Wife's Sister Bill — Good 
manners — Self-culture. 

ON S. Luke's Day, October 18, 1877, a great 
service was held in Exeter Cathedral to celebrate 
the completion of its restoration. On the evening 
of that day, in the hall of the Palace, the Bishop 
was presented with a pastoral staff by leading laymen 
of his diocese. On the address accompanying the 
staff was the following inscription : — 

Presented to Frederick Temple, Lord Bishop of Exeter, 
for the use of himself and his successors in the See, in 
testimony of the high respect and admiration entertained by 
the subscribers for the zeal and energy displayed by him in 
the administration of his diocese, and for his liberality in 
surrendering a portion of his income and patronage for the 
endowment of the See of Truro. 1 

The leading note of the Bishop's reply was 
Episcopacy as a centre of unity and united work. 
" More than ever before," he said, " age after age 
seems to accumulate within itself all the excellence 

1 A corresponding recognition from the clergy of the diocese was 
the Bishop's portrait painted by Mr. Pryune, son of the well-known 
Plymouth incumbent, which now hangs in the Palace at Exeter. It was 
not actually executed until Dr. Temple had been translated to London, 
the subscriptions having been temporarily lost at the time of the 
failure of the West of England Bank. 



and good of all the ages that preceded it " ; and of 
this historic unity Episcopacy is a symbol and 

The presentation of the staff is thus a suitable 
starting-point for a chapter entitled "The Bishop 
and the People," and it expresses the character of 
his Episcopate in this connexion. Its aim was 
unity, not in any narrower or more formal sense, 
but the comprehensive unity which draws not only 
all systems, but all life, into one. This unity 
Bishop Temple was fitted to promote by his own 
personality, and all his work made for it ; it became 
evident to all men that he presided over a branch 
of the Church of the Incarnation — a Church in 
sympathy with all humanity. 

Thus he was a Bishop, not of the clergy only, 
but of the laity. In recalling his administration 
we are reminded of Dean Church's words : 

A bishop was there to remind Christians of that vast, 
wide, spiritual society which was meant to embrace us all ; 
of the force and value of what is common, and public, and 
continuous, and customary. He was there to bind together 
in each age the old and the new, the weak and the strong ; 
to witness, amid the vicissitudes of individual thought and 
energy, for something which, with less show, wears better and 
lasts longer ; for a common inheritance of faith and religion, 
which needs indeed to be filled up in its outlines by private 
conviction and activity, but without which everything private 
risks becoming one-sided in ideas and cramped in sympathy, 
and, at last, poor in heart. 1 

The donors of the staff were leading laymen. 
It has often been said that Bishop Temple was 
never quite at home in the House of Lords, and 
never caught its tone when speaking there ; but he 
impressed the Peers with his nobility of character, 
and their last recollection of him will be the scene 
in which, with pathetic dignity, he embodied that 

1 Pascal and other Sermons, by Dean Church, pp. 111-112. 


courage to the death which is one of their noblest 
characteristics. Nor will one who heard his words 
forget the vehemence with which, even in the early 
days of his demonstrative Liberalism, he defended 
the hereditary principle against the attacks of a 
young republican. Some of his chief friends were 
to be found amongst the leading laity of his 
diocese — William, Earl of Devon, Sir Stafford 
Northcote (afterwards the first Lord Iddes- 
leigh), Sir John Duke Coleridge (afterwards 
Lord Coleridge), Colonel (now Sir Robert) White 
Thomson, and the late Earl Fortescue. One of 
the most touching sights which met the eye on 
the platform of Victoria Station, when the body 
of the Archbishop was borne away from London 
to Canterbury, was the form of the last mentioned 
of these friends, paying by his presence in extreme 
old age a final tribute of admiration and affection. 
In his case, as in that of Sir Thomas Acland, whom 
Dr. Temple first met at Netting Hill on January 
14, 1857, 1 the earliest bond of sympathy was in 
terest in the cause of education, especially as it 
affected the middle class. But it did not end there. 
The intimacy ripened into the closest friendship : 
the men loved, because they understood each other. 
The friendship with Sir Stafford Northcote and Sir 
John Coleridge began at the University. Colonel 
White Thomson was drawn to him in later life by 
personal sympathy, affection, and the tie of common 
interests. In Church matters Bishop Temple did 
not see eye to eye with Lord Devon, but the 
friendship which grew up between them was another 
striking instance of the cementing power of common 
work and character. 

But the attraction in these cases was to in 
dividuals and not to a class. Dr. Temple was not 
a courtier, 2 and except in cases where there was 

1 Editor's Supplement, vol. ii. p. .540. 2 Ibid. p. 582. 


some common ground of intellectual sympathy or 
human interests, he and society were not quite at 
ease with one another. The chief point of contact 
between the Bishop and this class as a whole was 
his endeavour, by encouraging simplicity of life and 
promoting unselfish effort for the common good, to 
bring it into closer fellowship with the mass of the 

The sympathy deepened the nearer he came to 
those who were identified with the common work 
and interests of daily life. Thirty years before he 
had dreamed a young man's dream about the 
chivalry of industry. Writing to his friend Robert 
Lawson in 1846 he had said : — 

There was much in chivalry that partook of the spirit of 
lifeless formality ; but the idea, as most of the ideas of the 
Middle Ages, was noble and beautiful and Christian. The 
profession of arms has now passed away ; the industrial, not 
the military, life is to be the greatest business of the world. 
As the military sprang from the foulest sources, from 
robbery and violence and animal passion, so, too, the in 
dustrial has a low and degraded origin — mere love of money 
and selfish gain. But the one before its death was gradually 
purified into a lofty and noble calling in spite of its natural 
opposition to all that is lofty and noble ; and if we have had 
a chivalry of arms, why not a chivalry of industry ? I 
believe it is coming, though centuries must elapse before it 
can reach that state. And when it does come it will be 
infinitely nobler than the other chivalry, for it contains in it 
none of those really low debasing elements. A regular order 
like the old knights, of course, I am not dreaming of, though 
such a spirit, if realised, will soon issue in congenial institu 
tions. But they will come of themselves, only let us, if we 
can, help the growth of the temper which is to be so de 
veloped. Such seems to me the course of history, and, 
therefore, I cannot think that man ought to look upon 
secular employments as anything else than a service of God ; 
the world we know will go on as God has ordained, whatever 
the men who carry it on may be ; but the privilege of the 
Christian is that he works with his eyes open, and his labour 
perishes not ; the worldling is but a mere instrument, which, 


when it has been used for its purpose, will be cast away as 
worthless. I cannot think when we find a world working 
rapidly onwards, when we see all around us full of life and 
energy, when we are taught that all this is God's ordinance, 
that it can be our duty to hold back ; I think an instinct, a 
right instinct, will drive England into a redoubled activity 
of labour, and because I think it a right instinct I fear much 
for any Church which refuses to acknowledge it. And so I 
long to see again the days of the Middle Ages, when the 
Church was at the head of all that was doing, and science 
and literature and every kind of enterprise was headed by 
men who laboured in her name. . . . 

I do not know what all this may seem like to one who 
takes a different view of things — perhaps ranting nonsense. 
But it is not so to me ; with all that I feel to make me 
hesitate, and finding few quite to agree in it, I cannot give 
it up. It may be nonsense as I have stated it, but I am 
sure what I mean is no nonsense, and I really wish you would 
think of it too. 

The experience of life had toughened the fibre 
of thought, but it had not quenched the ideal ; it 
had only given the inspiration practical force. 
Bishop Temple at Exeter, as afterwards in London 
and at Canterbury, was the friend of municipal life, 
throwing himself specially into all such projects as 
aimed at the improvement of social conditions and 
the brightening and elevation of the life of the 
people — co-operative societies, charity organisation, 
improved dwellings. In all such matters city men 
were profoundly impressed by his practical capacity 
and knowledge of affairs. His schemes were such 
as would work. They recognised that he knew as 
much about business as they knew themselves. 
"Bishop Temple," said a leading citizen, years 
afterwards, "when amongst us, was a member of a re 
cognised triumvirate — the Diocesan, the Mayor, and 
the Lord Lieutenant — and their pronouncements 
had something of the force of statutory edicts." 1 

1 Alluded to by Archbishop Temple in his speech in the Guildhall, 
Exeter, in 1897. 


The year 1878 closed gloomily in Devonshire 
owing to the failure of the West of England Bank. 
The liabilities were estimated at three and a half 
millions ; the shareholders numbered about 2000, 
and were drawn largely from the lower middle class, 
comprising a great number of widows of trades 
men and professional men. Their liabilities were 
unlimited and the distress was widespread. The 
distress, being unavoidable, was just of the kind 
which appealed most strongly to the Bishop. He 
promptly put himself at the head of the movement 
for relief. 

How thoroughly he took his own personal share 
is plain from what he said at a meeting held at 
Plymouth on June 9, 1879 : — 

He was quite sure, having himself taken part in every 
investigation that had yet been made, that, if any committee 
of impartial men were to review their work and to have put 
clearly before them the reasons why they had made such 
grants of assistance as they had, they would be perfectly 
satisfied that the grants had been given for the relief of 
distress and nothing else. 

His special sympathy with the interests of the 
aged comes out in his final words : — 

The provision eventually to be made for the permanent 
assistance of these poor people, such as to relieve them from 
very exceeding distress, would require a very large sum of 
money. He believed that they had found, if they were to 
take only the old people above sixty, and to purchase for them 
annuities for the rest of their lives, equal to what they had 
lost, it would require something little short of ,£20,000. Of 
course they could not profess to do anything like that ; they 
could only do their best to enable these poor people to live for 
the rest of their lives without positively going to the work 

Bishop Temple's conduct in regard to the bank 


failure sank deeply into the mind of the commercial 
community, and left upon it a more lasting impres 
sion than anything else which he did in the course 
of his Episcopate, owing to its combination of 
tenderness, business capacity, and willingness to 
take infinite pains. The best lessons filter down 
slowly, and such characters as Bishop Temple's are 
not quickly read. Not until he was Archbishop 
was the appreciation by Exonians so complete as 
to lead them to make Frederick Temple a Freeman 
of the city ; but memory then awoke. Later on, 
when the life of labour was at last closed, thoughts 
were gathered up in a few significant words of 
his friend, the Registrar of the Diocese (the late 
Mr. Arthur Burch), at a meeting held in the castle 
to inaugurate a memorial. The life was of such a 
kind that the memory of it will deepen as time 
goes by. 

Early in the Exeter Episcopate he had the 
opportunity of showing his sympathy with suffering 
in a wider area. Within a few months of his 
coming the Franco-German war broke out (1870). 
Dr. Temple withdrew from party politics after he 
became Bishop ; but the larger interests of politics 
suited his cast of mind and habit of thought, 
specially engrossing him when they touched national 
movements and the griefs and aspirations of men. 
There are some who can still recall the solemnity 
and sense of awe with which he spoke at the Guild 
hall meeting at Exeter in aid of the sick and 
wounded, September 3, 1870 — the day on which 
the news of the battle of Sedan and the collapse of 
the second French Empire was received. 

Mingling with sympathy with suffering and the 
calamities of a great nation, it was easy to see the 
special interest manifested in soldiers. Frederick 
Temple never forgot that he was a soldier's son. 
Many were struck with the plain tokens of fellow- 


feeling with the soldier in one of his first sermons 
in Rugby Chapel ; l and he gave proof of it after 
wards on more than one public occasion, notably in 
1871, when preaching to the Militia in the nave of 
Exeter Cathedral. When addressing soldiers for 
the last time, shortly before his death, he declared 
that he never could hear the sound of troops in 
march without a thrill, and without wishing to 
march with them. 

The calling of seamen struck the same chord of 
human sympathy in his nature. A terrible storm, 
which raged round the southern coast in February 
1877, and made many children fatherless, excited 
his compassion and gave him his opportunity, and 
from that time onwards he took the Brixham 
Orphanage under his special charge. He fitted it 
into the routine of other Episcopal duties, being 
constant in attendance at committees, speaking 
on its behalf in and out of season, and selecting 
chief men amongst his clergy to watch over its 
interests. And there is something deeper than the 
tone of official interest in the words of his address 
to the friends of Missions for Seamen at their 
annual meeting at Exeter in April 1875. He did 
not think that the country had a sufficient sense of 
its debt to sailors. The Society was excellent, but 
not adequate. For his own part " he confessed that 
he desired that this work should be taken up by 
the Church as a whole. He wished that the 
Society, instead of being as now a rather small 
Society, consisting only of persons who had some 
direct connexion with the work, should be much 
larger — that, in fact, it should be taken up by the 
leaders of the Church, and organised as the proper 
instrument of doing what he considered to be a 
part of the work of the whole Church." He had 
the same wish in regard to soldiers, and his desire 

1 Sermons, vol. i. " Love and Duty." 


was not forgotten ; it explains his action as 
Primate, nearly twenty years later. 1 

The Bishop's instinctive sympathy with common 
humanity resulted not merely in interest in special 
callings or efforts to meet special cases, but in a 
search for the true principles upon which to deal 
with the collective problem. He found them in a 
few simple ground truths which specially touched 
himself. Of these the chief was self-help, as will be 
seen from a speech which he made at the Brighton 
Church Congress the year before his death. 

There is one general conclusion at which I arrived some 
time back, and that is, that I am convinced that if you are 
to remedy the trouble and distress of those who, for various 
reasons, are now, as it were, in the very lowest stage of 
society, you must carry them with you, or you can do 
nothing. There is a tendency in that class to apathy, to a 
false contentment . . . with bad surroundings, which drags 
them down in spite of every effort you may make to draw 
them up. And what they like is, as a general rule, steadily 
to resist all that is best to be done for them ; and I think 
that the philanthropists should bear this in mind in all their 
dealings with the poor. . . . But there is a terrible tempta 
tion to a philanthropist to formulate a good scheme, and 
then to think much more of the scheme than the individuals 
who are to be benefited by the working of it. 

Self-help and self-control had been engrained in 
Dr. Temple from earliest years ; in him they were 
combined with self-sacrifice. These three principles 
were the secret of his staunch advocacy of the 
cause of temperance. Few people quite under 
stood the dominant place which that cause held in 
his mind, forcing from him such expressions as 
these — " He was so impressed with the importance 
of the movement that he felt at times as though 
he could wish to divest himself of other duties, and 
devote himself entirely to it " ; but there were 
few who fully gauged the depth either of his 

1 Editor's Supplement, vol. ii. p. 675. 


sympathy with the ' common people,' or of his 
belief in these three principles as the 'means of 
their salvation.' 

With total abstinence he had natural affinities 
from the first, as some amusing references to his 
school days imply. When a small boy at Blundell's 
he was asked out to dinner by a gentleman in the 
neighbourhood who had known his father, and 
writing about it afterwards to his mother, he says : 
"The boys laughed at me very much when I told 
them that I had not drunk any wine, but only a 
tumbler of water." l In a letter to his little brother, 
" Johnnie," written about the same time, he says : 
" I can tell you I'm better off here than you are, 
for I have a hot penny roll with butter every morn 
ing, with some hot milk, and as much bread and 
butter at supper as I can eat, with some good beer, 
though, to tell the truth, I like water better " ; he 
adds, " but then you have Mamma and Netta, and 
that makes up for all the penny rolls and bread and 
butter in the world." 

There was thus what out-and-out teetotallers 
might call "latent grace" from the first. The 
history of the actual conversion is given in the 
following memorandum : ' 2 — 

The attention of Dr. Temple was called to the temper 
ance question by the Rugby Temperance Society soon after 
he became Headmaster, and in 1862 he accepted the invita 
tion of the National Temperance League to preside at a 
meeting in the Town Hall. . . . Dr. Temple proved to be 
antagonistic. . . . What took place, however, was enough to 
make the friends of temperance feel that it was worth while 
to make further efforts to enlist the Headmaster on their side, 
and subsequent events justified the attempt ; for when, six 
or seven years later, Mr. Waite, the secretary, arranged a 
meeting on the platform between Dr. Temple (in the chair), 

1 Letter from F. Temple to his mother, February 26, 1834. 

2 Memorandum from Mr. Morris Davies, Hon. Secretary of the Old 
Rugbeian Society. 


and Mr. Thomas Wyles, Principal of Allesley Park College, 
near Coventry, the opposition of the Chairman was distinctly 

The next year the Doctor readily consented to take 
the chair again. . . . At the close of the meeting Mr. 
Waite, in moving a vote of thanks to the Chairman, 
narrated a story of a boy whose teacher could not induce 
him to say A in learning the alphabet, and after pressure 
gave as a reason that if he did he would be asked to say B. 
Dr. Temple enjoyed the hit immensely, laughed heartily, and 
in his reply said, " You have got me to say A and B, and I 
suppose you will not be content till I have said the whole of 
the alphabet."" 

The next step in the recital of the alphabet was the 
acceptance of the chair at the anniversary of the United 
Kingdom Alliance in the Free Trade Hall, Manchester, in 
1869. He was then Bishop-elect of Exeter. In 1878 a 
testimonial was subscribed for in recognition of the service of 
Mr. Waite to the temperance cause, and Dr. Temple readily 
acceded to the request of the committee to go down to Rugby 
to present it at a public meeting. 

But though the principle of total abstinence 
may have been accepted at Rugby, the practice 
was not entirely adopted until later years, nor were 
the doctrines of the extreme school ever part of Dr. 
Temple's creed. What grew was steady devotion 
to the temperance cause, and it received new 
impulse as soon as he became Bishop and was 
brought into fuller relations with national life. It 
forms one of the subjects of his primary charge in 
1872 :- 

And now I pass on from the work the clergy do in their 
schools, to the work they do in their parishes, and I wish, in 
the first place, to ask you how imperative a duty it is with 
any Church entrusted, as ours is, with the care of a whole 
country, not to see a great sin doing most terrible mischief 
to thousands and thousands of our people without the most 
persevering and conscientious efforts to study what are the 
causes of it, and what the remedies. ... It is not our 
business to legislate for the country at large, and if we are 
to take any part in legislation, we take it, not as clergy, nor 


as laity of the Church, but as subjects of the Queen. . . . 
But do not let us fancy that making our services reverent and 
orderly, and our churches beautiful and glorious, . . . and 
preaching to the best of our power the doctrine of the Cross 
to those who will be there to hear us — do not let us fancy 
that this is any more our duty than the duty of wrestling 
with this terrible mischief which seems more and more to 
lay hold upon our people. It is the glory of the Church of 
England that the ministers of that Church do a great deal 
more than their visible and public work ; that their private 
ministrations are very often of much higher value than any 
thing which meets the public eye — and all this may be used, 
if only we will endeavour to use it quietly and steadily, to 
deal with this terrible evil. I speak very earnestly on this 
subject because I feel very deeply ; there is hardly any service 
which the Church of England could render to this country 
greater than that of grappling with this terrible mischief. 

These words may be regarded as the inaugura 
tion of the Bishop's temperance work in the 
diocese, and from utterances thus grave, but 
passionless, did this conspicuous effort of his 
Episcopate flow. The principles had already 
taken root in his mind ; convictions had been 
strengthened by a study of the lately published 
report of the Lower House of the Convocation of 
Canterbury on Intemperance (1869), with its 
abundant evidence of widespread evil ; but the 
immediate occasion for speech may perhaps be 
found in the startling object-lesson given by the 
discreditable scene at the meeting of the United 
Kingdom Alliance held in Exeter (January 23, 
1872), a few weeks before the delivery of this 
charge. Bishop Temple often had to meet during 
his lifetime the opposition of religious opponents ; 
but it was left to supporters of the publican 
interest in his own Cathedral city to carry opposi 
tion to the length of physical violence. AVhatever 
excuse there was for the exhibition must be found 
in the irritation and alarm caused to the liquor 
traffic by Mr. Bruce's Licensing Bill, which was 


then before Parliament. In order to show what 
actually took place it may be well to give the 
realistic account of the local press : — 

By seven o'clock the hall was almost filled, and it was 
said that a large number of persons gained admission by 
means of forged tickets. Besides this a number of men, who, 
it appeared, could not have been provided even with spurious 
tickets of entry, forced their way into the hall ; the door 
keepers did their utmost to keep them back, but it was of 
no avail, the mob quickly beating them out. From the first 
it was evident that the proceedings would be stormy, but 
one was hardly prepared for the exhibition of violence that 
occurred during the two hours that the meeting lasted. . . . 
The chair was taken by the Bishop, and on the platform 
also were Sir Wilfrid Lawson, M.P. ; G. O. Trevelyan, Esq., 
M.P. ; Sir John Bowring, and many others. As soon as the 
Bishop appeared he was greeted with cheers mingled with 
some hisses. 

The Bishop said . . . the time had come when it appeared 
to him that the cause of temperance ought to gather round 
it all who were willing to support it, when they should 
welcome those who would only go a little way as well as 
those who would go a great way. . . . He believed it would 
be a very long time indeed before any one who supported the 
Alliance to the very utmost would have any reason to repent 
of having gone too far. (Cheers.) He believed that with 
all their enthusiasm, with their most earnest determination 
to carry their principles into effect, and not only that, but by 
their votes at elections — (Hear, hear, and cheers and voices, 
" No politics ! ") — it would be a long time before they would 
be able to obtain anything more than a bare minimum. 
... (A voice, " Drop politics," and cries of " Turn him 
out.") This was the signal for some confusion at the end of 
the room, but it could not be seen by the reporters, as almost 
the whole of the audience rose to their feet, and a great 
many mounted on to their chairs. When order had been a 
little restored, the Bishop said there was another thing he 
wanted to urge on all those who would listen to him. . . . He 
wanted them to do their very best to compel public opinion 
of their own class to put down the evil of intemperance 
amongst themselves (Cheers) ; he wanted to make drunkards 
feel that their own fellow-men who could judge of their 
temptation, and knew what it was that tempted them — (A 


voice, ** You want to rob a man of his beer ") — who knew 
their weakness and their strength, condemned their conduct. 
(Confusion, and a voice, " Where's the police ? " Fighting 
went on freely at the end of the hall for a few minutes.) . . . 

A terrible row ensued. A cry was raised, amid shouts 
and yells at the bottom of the room, " To the platform," 
and a rush was accordingly made to the right side of the 
hall by a number of men to effect this object. Then a 
terrific battle followed. The teetotallers fought desperately 
to keep back their opponents, but were beaten back. . . . 
The scene was one of the most indescribable confusion, the 
whole of the audience being on their legs, some standing on 
chairs, others rushing to the side doors to make their escape, 
as the mob appeared likely to force their way to the 
front. . . . 

Upon comparative quiet being restored, Mr. G. O. 
Trevelyan, M.P., came forward, and was greeted with 
mingled cheering and hooting. A man mounted a chair 
at the back of the room and shouted something about 
depriving the poor man of his rights, denying to him what 
the rich could get for themselves. Upon this Mr. Trevelyan 
invited him to the platform, and accordingly to the platform 
he came, escorted by a number of his associates. The man 
had apparently been in the heat of the former scrimmage, 
for his clothes were literally torn off his back, and there was 
little to cover the upper part of his body except the 
fragment of a shirt. One of the other men produced a 
black bottle, apparently, however, empty, and, wishing the 
audience luck, went through the pantomime of drinking, 
afterwards passing the bottle to his fellows, who went 
through a similar performance. This was the signal for 
roars of laughter, yells, and hisses. 

Mr. Raper said he hoped that they would now have a 
good meeting. It was evident, however, that certain men 
had come there to create a disturbance. 

One of the belligerents who was upon the platform 
hereupon indignantly wished to propose an amendment, 
and he mounted his chair for that purpose. He then 
made a rambling speech, concluding with the words, " I 
likes my beer, and I shall have it — there !" (Loud laughter.) 

During the delivery of this oration, delivered with a 
number of flourishes of the black bottle before mentioned, 
several gentlemen on the platform endeavoured to stop the 
speaker's garrulity, but it was of no avail. The friends of 



the three men on the platform, seeing that they were being 
remonstrated with, apparently deemed it their duty to go to 
their succour, and they made a rush to the platform, and 
another battle royal ensued, a number of their friends going 
on the platform, overturning the chairs, and putting the 
Chairman in imminent peril. Whilst this was going on Mr. 
Superintendent Steel, with five or six policemen, entered, 
and the three men who first went upon the platform and 
two others were removed in custody. 

Mr. Trevelyan then continued his speech amidst constant 
interruptions. There must be something very bad in a 
cause, he said, which sent its poor victims to interrupt 
proceedings taken for their protection. (Mr. Trevelyan was 
unable to proceed further in consequence of the terrible noise.) 

The Bishop said he was exceedingly sorry to have had to 
send for the police. (Hisses and yells.) It was very much 
against the grain to do so. It was evident he must call 
upon the police again. (Tumult.) 

On the noise somewhat subsiding Mr. Trevelyan again 
essayed to speak. He said the way in which the meeting 
had been interrupted was an insult to the Bishop as well as 
to the great majority of the citizens of Exeter. (Here a 
bag of flour was thrown at the speaker, but fell short. 
Another bag, however, struck the Bishop full in the chest, 
covering him with flour, and also the face of Sir Wilfrid 
Lawson, who was sitting next to him.) 

The Bishop, amidst hoots and yells, which made his voice 
inaudible beyond the limits of the platform, then put the 
motion, which was to the effect that no statesman could 
frame a measure dealing with the licensing laws, so as to 
grapple effectually with the evils of the liquor traffic, unless 
the measure included the valuable principle of popular 
control, enabling each district to veto the issue of all licences 
when enlightened public opinion should so determine. The 
motion was carried. 

The Bishop : " We have finished our business to-night in 
spite of all. 1 ' 1 

The whole scene shows the public peril that 
may ensue if a trade which administers the supply 
and commands the services of intoxicating drinks 
increasingly become a compact and dominant 

1 Exeter and Plymouth Gazette, January 26, 1872. 


influence. The Bishop's closing words are an 
apt text for the sermon of his whole life on the 
temperance question. 

But though the occurrence impressed, it did not 
disturb him. While it lasted he was almost the 
only man present who did not lose self-control, and 
he returned home afterwards as if nothing had 
happened. He was not a member of the Alliance 
before the occurrence, and he did not join it after 
wards. He waited until he found a suitable agent 
for working the diocese in the Church of England 
Temperance Society, re-formed on a double basis 
which included abstainers and non -abstainers. The 
inaugural meeting of this Society was held in Lam 
beth Palace on February 18, 1873. Bishop Temple 
was not present, but he sent a sympathetic apology 
for his absence. 'The gathering itself,' says Mr. 
Morcom, a faithful follower of Dr. Temple first at 
Exeter and then in London, both in the temperance 
movement and in all Church work, *was memor 
able ; it was the occasion of the public official 
adoption by the Church, in accordance with the 
recommendations of Convocation, of an organisa 
tion founded ten years before, as a private society, 
and now broadened to meet new requirements 
and to discharge a larger mission.' 1 

With this action Bishop Temple was in thorough 
sympathy, and he took part in the formation in his 
own diocese of those parochial branches which, 
with the aid of a pastoral letter from the Arch 
bishop issued immediately after the Lambeth meet 
ing, began to spread throughout the country. 
" The Bishop," says Mr. Morcom, " was in these 
preliminary endeavours an irresistible power," 
always present wherever possible, even in the 
smallest places, "allaying anxieties by making it 

1 Memorandum from Rev. W. G. Morcom, Vicar of S. Michael's 


evident that liberty of conscience would be 
respected in all," 1 but always reiterating that a 
duty was laid upon all to take part in the battle 
against intemperance. 

But the work was not easy. The Alliance 
meeting had rallied many to the side of the Bishop, 
even though not in full agreement ; but there was 
plenty of indifference, if comparatively little active 
antagonism. It was not until July 26, 1880, that, in 
the judgment of the Bishop, opinion was sufficiently 
ripe for combining the parochial branches into one 
Diocesan Society, and thus giving the force of 
unity to sporadic effort. This proposal had been 
mooted and accepted by the Diocesan Conference 
four years before (October 1876), at the time 
when Mr. Woollcombe of Plympton secured the 
diocesan imprimatur for the formation of par 
ochial branches ; but the Bishop held his hand. 
When the day at last came it was opened by a 
service in the nave of the Cathedral. At a 
subsequent meeting in the Public Rooms the 
Bishop justified the delay. On the proposal of the 
Earl of Devon a Diocesan Branch of the Society 
was formed. The Bishop became President ; Arch 
deacon Earle was appointed Secretary ; and a 
general Committee was appointed for the dio 
cese, with a Committee in each Archdeaconry 
to act under it. Gradually as the years went 
by the obstacles were removed. The Bishop's 
temperate and broad method of argument attracted 
numbers both of the clergy and laity to active 
co-operation and disarmed the opposition of others. 
Before he left Exeter the diocese was leavened 
with interest. The cause was broad-based and 
strong. Mr. Morcom, who succeeded Bishop 
Earle as Secretary, was summoned to a meeting 
of the Rural Deans at the Palace shortly after 

1 Memorandum from Rev. W. G. Morcom. 


Dr. Temple became Bishop of London ; his re 
quest that he might be allowed in every Deanery 
to plant temperance organisation in connexion 
with the Diocesan Society was at once granted, 
and he mentions that 'as he travelled home, the 
contrast with the early days of struggle and sus 
picion was present to his mind, and redoubled his 
admiration for the patience and wisdom of the 
leader.' 1 

But the fulness of Dr. Temple's sympathy with 
the temperance movement was not bounded by 
the limits of Church organisation. After he left 
Exeter his conviction that total abstinence, not 
legislation, is the simplest and surest cure for 
intemperance led him to become President of 
the National Temperance League ; and while at 
Exeter he took much kindly interest in the 
Independent Order of Rechabites. Its combina 
tion of thrift with total abstinence imparted grit 
and directness, and appealed strongly to his love 
of the practical ; but perhaps one sentence of his 
many addresses to the Order (August 5, 1885) 
discloses the secret of the attraction better than 
anything else : "I like in all cases, where I can, to 
stand upon the same floor with my fellow-men." He 
was at his best and most himself when the conven 
tional was farthest off, and simplest things and 
people were nearest. It was in connexion with 
this organisation that he first signed a total 
abstinence pledge. " But he thought it every 
man's duty to look at the pounds, shillings, and 
pence of every society before becoming a member," 
and gave the officers of the Society, according to 
their own account, a very severe half-hour while 
he was engaged in this process. Having satisfied 
himself of the financial soundness of the Order, he 
became an honorary member (April 18, 1883), 

1 Memorandum from Rev. W. G. Morcom. 


Mrs. Temple being enrolled at the same time. 
" Brother Temple " was constantly with his fellow- 
members while at Exeter, and visited them several 
times after he left ; once (at their Jubilee cele 
bration, 1888) he preached in Exeter Cathedral, 
and during the same visit made a tour with the 
Order to different centres in the county ; once he 
squeezed in a special meeting in a day already 
overcrowded with other engagements. His last 
words to the Order sum up the whole of his 
temperance policy, and may be taken as his final 
message to temperance workers : " We shall not 
get at a single stroke all that we desire, but we 
shall get something, and every something shall be 
a step to something more ; and that something 
more shall be an inspiration and an encouragement, 
and we shall begin to look forward, forward, forward, 
and ask what is the next step to take. Form your 
ranks, join together heartily, and press on. You 
cannot in the end fail of the victory, for the cause 
is the cause of God." l His brethren will not soon 
forget either the teaching or the man. 

It would have been matter for surprise if Bishop 
Temple had taken no thought for the people's 
deliverance from a yet more deeply penetrating 
evil than intemperance. During his Episcopate 
the question of social purity was brought before 
the Diocesan Conference by the late Admiral 
Ryder, the Rev. R. Granville, and others. A com 
mittee was appointed which issued annual reports 
on the working of different remedial agencies. A 
special Vigilance Committee was also constituted 
in the city of Exeter. In all this work the Bishop 
took an earnest part, while at the same time making 
plain his sense of the danger of aggravating the 
evil by public discussion and action. To take no 
steps seemed to him a lesser evil than to take false 

1 Speech at Exeter, October 2, 1900. — Devon Evening Express. 


steps. The evil could not be met by action so 
vigorous and direct as that which had marked his 
temperance campaign ; but no one doubted his 
intense earnestness in regard to such subjects, and 
perhaps there was no single speech of his which 
made so lasting an impression on the diocese as 
that which he delivered on the kindred question of 
Marriage with the Deceased Wife's Sister (October 
25, 1882). The effect was deepened for those who 
heard it by the force of emotion in the speaker. 
It raised the discussion of the subject to the 
highest level, and it was a revelation of the man. 
It may be well to let it speak for itself ; it is the 
crown of all his efforts to sustain the purity of 
family life. 

I find myself driven to the conclusion that it would be 
wrong to alter the law. I am very unwilling to come to 
that conclusion, because I feel so strongly how very serious a 
matter it is to interfere with the liberty of all Christian men 
and women in matters of this kind; but it seems to me 
that in all these cases the one consideration must be 
the good of the Christian community ; and the great guide 
in judging what is best for a Christian community must 
be found in the best application you can make of the 
directions given in God's Word. I cannot escape from 
the conclusion that it was intended by God's Word to 
put a man and his wife in these respects precisely on the 
same footing. I cannot escape from the conclusion that 
this was included in what our Lord meant ; and I look upon 
the law of Leviticus as not, indeed, laying this down, but as 
so distinctly and plainly corroborating it, that when the two 
are taken together there is no other way of interpreting 
God's Word that can be made consistent with itself. We 
are taught in the New Testament . . . that in the Old Law 
we should look, not indeed for the immediate and precise 
directions for the rule of our conduct, but for the principle 
and spirit which is to govern us. ... What, then, do I find is 
the very fundamental idea, as I may say, of these prohibitions 
of marriage ? It seems to me unmistakable that the purpose 
and object of them always has been to protect the purity 
of the family. It is, as a mere matter of fact, quite certain 


that there is nothing which so surely protects the purity of 
the domestic circle as the impossibility of marriage within it, 
. . . and that anything which would interfere with the pro 
hibition of marriage of those who are nearly related by 
blood would very seriously affect the purity of the home 
and the morality of all Christian people. And it seems 
to me further that, in the prohibitions of marriage within 
near degrees of affinity, the case is precisely the same. It 
is intended to throw over the wife's family precisely the 
same shield as that which is thrown over the man's own 
family. . . . And it is impossible in this matter to confine 
ourselves to the question as to what is to happen after a 
wife is dead. The wife is still living — shall it be possible 
that a man should be allowed to entertain those feelings 
towards her sister which may end in marriage afterwards ? 
and yet if marriage be thus allowed, such feelings, such 
temptations, such natural impulses of the flesh are absolutely 
impossible to prevent. I know of no other way by which 
they can be restrained than by the law of the Church as it 
now stands. Of course this is only one particular instance, 
and it is proposed to relax the law only in one particular 
case, but we all know that in matters of this sort that 
changes always come by degrees. There are very many men 
who now advocate this marriage who would be shocked by the 
idea of a man marrying his step-daughter, . . . and the 
sense of this is strong enough at present to make the great 
majority of us feel that there is something horrible in 
allowing a marriage, first with the woman and then with her 
daughter. But if you begin by altering the law in this 
particular, how long will this horror last ? You may depend 
upon it that by and by a great many men will begin to 
question each restraint in its turn. Soon a large number 
will feel that they have no principle to guide them at all, 
and that this is a mere question of expediency ; and 
that, inasmuch as it is a mere question of expediency, 
we have no right to impose restraint on one another. . . . 
It seems to me that it is imperative to require that, 
before you make any change in the law of marriage, 
you should provide that the change shall be made, not 
in detail, but by a definite rule, a definite principle, 
which will show precisely where you stop. . . . The moral 
sense of people left without any kind of restraint cannot be 
trusted long. ... I do not mean that the passing of this law 
would immediately be followed by great impurity, but I do 


mean to say this, that the passing of this law would tend to 
introduce the possibility and the probability of many im 
purities, seductions, and adulteries of a new and peculiar 
kind, such as adultery with the wife's nearest relations. . . . 
I cannot bring myself to any other conclusion. I do 
not think that I have come to that conclusion from 
any desire whatever to agree with other people who have 
already come to the same conclusion. I do not think it is 
a mere professional feeling in the slightest degree. I do 
not think I have been moved by finding the great majority 
of my brethren on that side. I do not feel that I should 
flinch, if I had come to the opposite conclusion, from saying 
so fearlessly here. But I have been compelled to it by the 
course of my own study and consideration of the subject. 
. . . Now I have said what I have said because I thought it a 
duty, and I am grateful to you for having heard me in silence, 
because it is a subject which I do not like to have handled 
with either applause or disapprobation. It seems to me too 
deeply and too nearly to touch the most vital of all questions 
that Christians can handle — the purity of the body. I do not 
hesitate to acknowledge that there are men who take the 
other view — men who are really good, really high-minded, 
high-principled men, and I feel strongly the pain of differing 
from them ; but it is not a matter upon which hesitation 
appears to me to be possible when conviction has been 
attained. Most deeply do I mourn over the mischief which 
has been done by the Roman Catholic Church in this matter 
— for the mischief began there. When the integrity of the 
law was broken down by dispensations, of course it necessarily 
followed that there would be those who would be ready to 
grant themselves dispensations. . . . The mischief has been 
done, and I mourn over it as a mischief which has been 
most serious in its character, and has had consequences 
which certainly were never intended by those who began it. 
Of course as things are it may be the case that the law may 
be passed, and the rule hitherto governing our marriages 
will, in that case, be relaxed. What will be the result is in 
God's hands, but those who feel how serious the matter is, 
ought, I think, to do their best to impress their convictions 
upon public opinion generally, and, if possible, prevent all 
that seems to be so immediately threatened. Perhaps if we 
had been somewhat more careful to explain the doctrine of 
the Church as soon as ever it was first questioned ; perhaps 
if the clergy had earlier taken it in hand, we might have 


done much to make people understand better than they 
seem to do now what is the ground on which the present 
law is maintained. Even yet I think we may do something. 
At any rate it seems to me that we ought to do what we 
can. I will now put the question, and may I ask you, 
simply as a matter of feeling, to vote without any further 
demonstration of opinion. (Vide vol. ii. p. 343.) 
(The motion was then put and carried.) 

Bishop Temple's sympathy with human life 
was not satisfied by efforts to purify it from moral 
evils. Evil was cast out in order to make room for 
higher growths. He believed in the ascent of man 
in fellowship with the fulness of his life, and in 
the close connexion between each step in the pro 
cess ; intellectual and moral progress were bound 
together, and there were points in which the one 
shaded off into the other. He was interested in 
those societies which occupied this borderland, and 
in later days gave much counsel as to the formation 
of the Church of England Men's Society. At 
Exeter he took thought for its forerunner, the 
Young Men's Friendly Society, and discussed it in 
the Diocesan and Ruridecanal Conferences. But 
his most noteworthy action at Exeter in this con 
nexion was the formation of a Society for the 
promotion of good manners, under the title of the 
Semper Fidelis Society. In some respects Bishop 
Temple was not the natural patron for such an 
organisation ; but the Society took as its motto 
Tennyson's lines— 

For Manners are not idle, but the fruit 
Of loyal nature, and of noble mind. 

In this sense, Frederick Temple exemplified good 
manners more than most men. Few had a finer 
instinct for doing a kindness with delicacy, or for 
handling the graver issues, and tending the deeper 
sorrows of life : at such times the nobility of the 
man's nature came out. How fully in his place 


he was as head of such a society may be gathered 
from his admirable address at the inaugural meeting, 
of which the concluding passage is here given : — 

... It is practice that makes perfect in these things. And 
so too by practice a man at last attains to that ease and grace 
of manners which is the crown of all. For the final perfection 
of Good Manners consists in forgetting ourselves altogether ; 
in not only perpetually sacrificing our own pleasure and com 
fort, but in maintaining Self-Control and Self- Respect, instinc 
tively without thinking about it. What is more beautiful 
than the good manners in which there is no trace left of 
Self -Consciousness, but all is kindliness, simplicity, and ease ? 

Last of all let this be said. Good Manners give the last 
grace and finish to good conduct. They are, when perfect, 
the visible flower and bloom of inward excellence ; of excel 
lence which has so taken possession of the man as to pervade 
his being and colour the minutest details of his life. They 
sweeten all social intercourse and contribute to human 
happiness beyond all proportion to the effort of self-discipline 
which they cost. The true man will desire to remember 
at every moment of his life the Scriptural precept, "Be 
courteous."" l 

The same desire to aid the gradual elevation of 
human life, and to enlarge the conception of a 
bishop's office, was seen in the delivery of frequent 
addresses to mutual improvement and kindred 
societies. One of these given at Plymouth has 
already been noted. 2 In his view there were higher 
things than culture, but sympathy with it was part 
of his nature, and this sympathy was not the least 
among his qualifications to be a bishop in the 
Church of Christ. 

1 Good Manners, by the Right Rev. The Lord Bishop of Exeter. 
(S.P.C.K.) 2 Supra, p. 72. 

CHAPTER VIII (continued) 


(Spiritual Life) 

Church Extension in Plymouth — Plymouth Mission, 1 877 — 
" Priesthood " of the laity — Lay readers — Parochial Councils 
— Sacredness of lay life. 

LACK of spirituality was sometimes imputed to 
Dr. Temple. The criticism was due to a certain 
hardness of manner combined with a natural reserve 
of character and dread of unreal words ; but if his 
own definition of spirituality may be taken — de 
votion of the conscience, heart, and will to Christ x 
— he was amongst the most spiritually minded 
of men. It was impossible for him to stop short 
at efforts for moral elevation or mental culture ; 
his aim for the people was " the glorious liberty of 
the sons of God." While conscious of how little 
could be done by one man in a single generation, 
this final end was a constant inspiration. The 
thought leads to consideration of his work on 
behalf of Church Extension, and the promotion of 
spiritual life in large centres. 

The problem in its fulness was not presented 
to him until he became Bishop of London. The 
fullest expression of it in Devonshire was to be 
found in the three towns, i.e. Plymouth, Stone- 

1 See Temple's Bampton Lectures, pp. 247-251. 


house, and Devonport. 1 During the years between 
1871 (shortly after he came to Exeter) and 
1903 (shortly after his death), the population in 
this centre had grown from 132,792 to 196,734 
— viz. at a rate approximating to 50 per cent. 
There had been growth previously, and a scheme 
of Bishop Phillpotts (1840-50) had endeavoured to 
deal with it. But since then the increase had been 
more rapid, and it may be mentioned, as an 
illustration, that S. Peter's Church, which at that 
time was transferred from its original Noncon 
formist connexion and converted into a church, 
was approached through fields ; and that the parish 
which had fields in its area during the episcopate of 
Bishop Phillpotts comprehended a population of 
12,000 when his successor came into the see. At 
the beginning of the nineteenth century the only 
two parishes were S. Andrew's and Charles, and 
the appointment to these livings was in the hand 
of the Corporation. After the repeal (1828) of the 
Test and Corporation Act the patronage was trans 
ferred, first to private individuals, and then to a 
private Trust. District churches were eventually 
built ; but, except in the case of three districts con 
stituted under the " Peel " and " Blandford " Acts 
(1843, 1844, and 1856), the clergymen in these were 
nominees of the incumbents of the original parishes. 
The problem presented to Bishop Temple for 
solution was sufficiently difficult. There was a 
large and rapidly increasing population. A large 
proportion of it was poor, and most of it, as is 
always the case in a naval and military centre, was 
shifting ; there were not many wealthy inhabitants, 
and where the power of help was not wanting, the 
interest created by long residence and family 

1 The chief authorities for the work recorded in this chapter are 
memoranda by Archdeacon Wilkinson, the Rev. Prebendary Bird, 
Mr. John Shelly, and the Reports of the Three Towns Church 
Extension Society. 


connexion was often lacking. Sailors and soldiers 
came and went, but the classes which may be 
regarded as the camp followers of a garrison town 
and seaport were always in evidence. Much good 
work was being done to meet these needs, but 
neither from the educational nor spiritual point of 
view was the supply adequate. The whole position 
was complicated by a bad Patronage system, which 
resulted in contention and excess, and rendered it 
exceedingly difficult to bring laity and clergy 
together with anything resembling unity of Church 
action. The Church was weak, but dissent was 
strong, and the leaders of thought and work were 
largely to be found amongst Nonconformists. 

It did not seem probable at first that the coming 
of Dr. Temple would improve the situation. The 
feeling against him ran high at Plymouth as at 
Exeter, but the urgency of the need did not admit 
of delay. A question of Church organisation like 
the revival of the Cornish Bishopric, or an educa 
tional policy, might wait ; but the supply of 
spiritual needs in a great centre of human life 
touched the essence of a bishop's work and duties, 
and must be dealt with at once. Accordingly, 
within two years of his consecration the Bishop 
summoned the clergy of the Three Towns to meet 
(September 5, 1871) 'for the consideration of the 
condition of the Church therein and of the means 
to remedy deficiencies.' This meeting was followed 
by others of a preliminary character, and on April 
22 of the following year (1872) a public meeting 
was held, attended by laity as well as clergy, at 
which a Church Extension Society for Plymouth 
was constituted, and power was given to the 
committee to frame rules. It is significant that the 
first rules were very general in their character, and 
did not touch the essential question of Patronage. 
The fact was that, while all soon began to respond 


to the touch of the Bishop's wise influence, and to 
recognise the ability of his management, differences 
of view appeared from the outset, which required 
all his skill and patient firmness to adjust. Of 
these the most crucial was the Patronage question. 
" Party and local feeling," says Archdeacon Wilkin 
son, " were aroused, and for a time it seemed doubt 
ful whether a solution might be found. Here the 
skill, the tact, the force of character, and the good 
sense of the Bishop were of great value, and a scheme 
of Patronage was agreed upon, which upon the whole 
has worked well." It was expressed in the following 
terms : — " That the Patronage of each of the new 
churches shall be vested in the incumbent of the 
parish from which the district is taken, and in 
three lay trustees appointed for life, with a 
reference to the Bishop in case of equality of votes." 
It may be stated in this connexion that the original 
scheme agreed upon had included the Bishop ex 
officio as one of the trustees, and that he accepted 
the modification, in order to secure unanimity. 
* Practically the scheme left the Patronage in the 
hands of the incumbent of the Mother Church.' 
It was decided that the sittings in the new churches 
should be free. The pages of the carefully kept 
Minute-Book 1 afford the best evidence of the debt 
which Plymouth owes to the Bishop. He was 
seldom absent from any important meeting of the 
committee during the whole of his episcopate ; he 
made personal applications whenever influential 
support could be gained ; again and again he 
renews failing courage with his patient strength ; 
he set the example of reliance upon persistent and 
continuous effort. To him is referred each knotty 
point for solution, and almost without knowing it 
men find that they have accepted as universal 

1 The secretary of the Church Extension Society was the Rev. 
James Metcalfe, Vicar of Christ Church, Plymouth. 


arbiter one whom they first received with general 
suspicion. The actual result was the formation of 
four new districts with corresponding churches — 
All Saints', S. Matthew's (Stonehouse), S. Mark's 
(Ford), and S. Jude's. The success was consider 
able, but it might have been greater if the diocese 
as a whole had given the same full co-operation 
which a few years later was accorded to the scheme 
for reviving the Cornish Bishopric. But though 
the Bishop made frequent appeals, and his request 
that the Harvest Offerings throughout the diocese 
might be given to the Plymouth scheme met 
with general response, " the Committee find reason 
to regret," in their third annual report, "that the 
increased support and pecuniary assistance, which 
they looked for, have not been given them so fully 
as they had hoped by the Churchmen of the 
diocese." Was the contrast due in any way to the 
fact that in the Truro case the help of the Diocesan 
Conference was sought, and enabled the Bishop to 
say that he had the diocese at his back, while in 
the case of Plymouth the question was crowded 
out from the discussions of the Diocesan Conference 
in its first session, 1 and a proposal previously 
made by the Bishop to the Plymouth committee, 
which suggested that they "should consider whether 
it was desirable to hold a public meeting at once, or 
to wait till after the Diocesan Conference," was not 
taken up ? 2 Whatever success the work obtained 
was largely due to the thoroughness and strength 
of the leader, and his power to inspire and sustain 
others ; where it failed, the failure must be 
attributed to an inability fully to respond all at 

1 Supra, p. 118. One of the resolutions on the agenda which 
was not discussed owing to want of time was : " That this Committee 
be instructed to pay special attention in the first instance to the 
work already begun in Plymouth, Stonehouse, and Devonport." 

2 Minute-Book, Committee meeting, March 23, 1872. 


once to a great call. But inspiration did not 
wholly die, and the work continues still. 

The Church Extension Scheme was not the 
full measure of the Bishop's labour at Plymouth. 
Besides giving new life and improved system to 
primary education in the Three Towns, he was, as 
a previous chapter has noted, 1 the originator and 
mainstay of its chief secondary schools. He was a 
tower of strength in the temperance work ; he held 
Quiet Days for the clergy, and made personal visita 
tions of the parishes, giving addresses to the church- 
workers therein ; the Confirmations were increased 
in number and frequency, and held often in the 
evening hours, to suit the needs of working people. 
All was systematised and periodical, but all was 
work. " He never spared himself," says Dr. Wilkin 
son, "as to time or labour, but endeavoured in every 
way to raise to a higher level the religion and the 
education of the people of the Three Towns ; it is 
impossible to overestimate the influence of his 
character and the impression produced on all classes 
by his varied addresses and devoted work. He 
will never be forgotten by those who knew him and 
loved him as a Christian man, a friend, and a 
Bishop." ! 

After these warm words of a personal friend and 
fellow-labourer, it may be well to give a criticism 
of the Bishop's work at Plymouth from a somewhat 
more external point of view : — 

I was one of those who sympathised with Archdeacon 
Freeman in his opposition to the appointment of Dr. Temple 
to Exeter, but I was influenced on the other hand by the 
strong advice of a relative of mine, who was also a friend of 
the Archdeacon's, that Dr. Temple, having been consecrated, 
should be cordially received, and was quite prepared to see 

1 Supra, p. 87. 

a Memorandum from Dr. Wilkinson, Archdeacon of Totnes and late 
Vicar of S. Andrew's, Plymouth. 



or make the best. One sentence in his Essay in Essays and 
Reviews — " We shall best imitate the Early Church, not by 
doing what she did, but by doing as she did " l — had so much 
influenced me at an important crisis of my life, that my 
personal prejudice was all in favour of the writer. But like 
most Churchmen in Plymouth, I think I was not favourably 
impressed or attracted by him at first. . . . The hardness of 
his manner offended some Church people, and disappointed 
others who had hoped that the personal influence of a new 
Bishop might unite and strengthen the Church in Plymouth. 
He soon, however, put himself at the head of a movement 
for building new churches, of which there was great need in 
the three towns. He insisted on the churches being free and 
open, and was perfectly fair and impartial in his support of 
the schemes both of High and Low Churchmen. This, I 
think, led Churchmen of both parties to trust him even before 
they learned to like him. The success of that church-building 
scheme was due very much to his determination. It was of 
this, however, his determination and the strength of his will, 
rather than any spiritual influence that people took notice. 
I remember very well his first Confirmation addresses. They 
were earnest, almost laboured, but the theme of them was the 
power of the Will — " You are going out into life, you will 
have new duties, will meet new temptations, it will be a 
struggle and a fight, but you can conquer if you will — you 
must nerve yourself and gather up your strength for the 
battle."" ... In later addresses he insisted no less strongly 
on the struggle, but said plainly that the struggle would fail 
unless it were inspired by the grace of the Holy Spirit, and 
that this grace must be sought and would be received in the 
Ordinances of the Church, and particularly in our Lord's 
special gift of Himself in the Holy Communion. ... It may 
be only that people got used to him as years went on, but I 
think there was more than this . . . and that at least he 
showed more freely a tenderness and spirituality which may 
always have been latent, but was at first effectually hidden 
by the power of his character and the strength of his will. 
On two occasions I was greatly struck, and no doubt others 
will tell you of this, by the revelation of tenderness and 
depth of feeling in speeches at the Diocesan Conference. 
The first was when the question of Temperance was being 

1 Essays and Reviews, p. 30 : " Education of the World " — " To copy 
the Early Church is to do as she did, not what she did." 


discussed, and I said that impurity wrought perhaps greater 
havoc than intemperance. He spoke of this, and especially 
of the need of giving warning to the young, with very deep 
feeling. The other was when he made his well-known speech 
on marriage with a deceased wife's sister. 1 The power of 
it must be evident to all readers, but those who heard it can 
never forget the earnestness, even to tears, the manner in 
which he checked the beginning of applause, saying that he 
could not bear it, that the subject was too serious. A 
striking instance of thoughtful kindness hidden by his 
brusque manner was told me by a Cornish clergyman who 
died some years ago. The Bishop was confirming in the 
parish, and the clergyman told him of a schoolmistress who 
had lately left and gone to a parish which the Bishop was to 
visit in a few days. She was in some distress and despondent 
about her work, and the clergyman asked the Bishop if he 
could speak to her. The only answer was, " I don't suppose 
I shall see her," but not long afterwards the clergyman had 
a letter from the mistress saying that the Bishop had been 
there, and part of his address seemed exactly to meet her 
case, and she had been so much consoled and strengthened 
by it. 

The Bishop had no desire for the Church Congress 2 
which met at Plymouth in 1876 — he said plainly that he did 
not believe in Congresses, and his opening address showed 
this. But as it went on I think his opinion altered. 
Certainly the Congress gave a great impetus to Church life 
and work in Plymouth. He was an excellent Chairman, 
watchful, firm, and, what one would not so much have ex 
pected, patient. . . . 

To me personally he was again and again most kind, and 
I found the hardness and brusqueness of his manner disappear 
in discussions of business, both Church and secular, which I 
had with him. . . . 

Very few people ... in Plymouth . . . got to know 
him, but a great many learnt to admire him and believe in 
him and to trust him, and this, I think, was what he felt and 
meant when he wrote to me as he was leaving Exeter for 
London, " When shall I ever find such friends again ? " 3 

Perhaps the work would have been no less 
effective, while the knowledge of him would have 

1 Supra, p. 231. 2 Infra, p. 351. 

3 Memorandum from Mr. John Shelly of Plymouth. 


been fuller, if a meeting here and there had been 
exchanged for a quiet evening of personal inter 
course ; but nothing of the unique personality 
could have been spared, and the isolation made it 
more striking. In his view fellowship in work was 
the natural road to fellowship in spirit. After 
all there was that in the lifelong attitude of detach 
ment and pure service which unconsciously made 
its own appeal for the friendship and sympathy of 

Much of the work at Plymouth touched organisa 
tion only, but he looked deeper. Reviewing in 
one of his later charges at Exeter (1883) the lead 
ing characteristics of the time as noted during his 
Episcopate, he says : — 

The present day is a day of great intellectual activity. 
There is hardly any doctrine which is not questioned and 
challenged to defend itself. There is hardly any institution 
which is not asked to show its reason for existence. There 
is hardly any practice which is not required to prove its 
character by its fruits. And most of this incessant criticism 
of all things divine and human is not, as such criticisms 
ought to be, quiet, patient, deliberate, and as far as possible, 
profound ; but noisy, restless, hasty, superficial. . . . What 
ever there may be underneath, there is undeniably before our 
eyes a swelling tide of restless and superficial questioning 
of all truth and all authority. 

But, further, side by side with this great intellectual 
activity there is (as there always has been) a corresponding 
vehemence of emotional activity. 1 

He knew the dangers which wait upon excited 
feelings, but he knew also their use, and the truth 
was that there was always in him much of the 
evangelistic spirit. Shortly after his coming to 
Exeter, when his doctrinal position was still a 
matter of much discussion, an earnest but somewhat 
formal theologian expressed his belief that all the 

1 Charge delivered by Bishop Temple in 1883. 


theology which the new Bishop possessed was a 
somewhat loose evangelicalism. There were more 
things in Dr. Temple's creed than he dreamt of, 
but the criticism did at any rate give a description, 
though inadequate, of part of it — his firm hold on 
the Cross of Christ, and his conviction that in the 
simple preaching of it lay the great strength of 
Christianity. He never spoke with deeper feeling 
to his boys at Rugby than on Good Friday ; l his 
power to sway great masses was at its highest in 
the pathos of his appeals to the love of God in 
Christ. There was something of the same touch 
of character in the readiness with which he turned 
to sections of the Temperance body where simple 
words on this theme were most sure to find home 
and response. He took part in Home Missions 
sparingly, because of his dread of letting the 
emotional reserve within him run dry, and of being 
called upon to produce feeling " to order " ; but 
whenever he spoke at such times his words were 
"with power." He was a prime mover in the 
Exeter Mission of 1875 ; into the Plymouth Mission 
of 1877, which was supplemental to the Church 
Extension movement, he threw himself with all 
his spiritual force, making it plain that he well 
knew the need of the inner power to give life 
to external organisation. "In this Mission," says 
Dr. Wilkinson, "public interest and deep feeling 
in the Three Towns were excited to a greater 
extent than was ever known before. To all the 
work he lent his aid : the Mission lasted for more 
than a week, and his interest and co-operation 
continued to its close." 2 At all such times he felt 
the strain to be very great — the spiritual tension 
was evident to all, and he relied largely on spiritual 
means of grace to help him through. There was 

1 See " Rugby " Memoir, vol. i. p. 244. 
2 Memorandum from Archdeacon Wilkinson. 


some question during the Mission as to the 
frequency with which the Holy Communion should 
be celebrated. " Where can I find a daily Com 
munion ? " he asked ; " I cannot do such work as 
this without it." The words, look, and tone were 
enough : the point was settled. 

But he was fully alive to the need of following 
up the work of missions. 

If we wish to secure that what we do shall have a permanent 
value, it seems to me that we must make great efforts to 
follow all such excitement, of whatever kind, by careful and 
diligent instruction in those truths by which Christians 
ought to live; and in these days, more than any others. 
The very fact that we are called upon to speak to people's 
hearts, makes it still more imperative that we should also 
speak to their understandings, and endeavour to give them 
something to which they may hold fast in spite of all 
fluctuations of feeling. 1 

And when men had been lifted into something 
of Christian life, he would have them rise to Church 
fellowship and realise the priesthood of the laity. 
The " royal priesthood " was the whole body of the 
faithful, and it needed organic expression. The 
question of the form to be given to it was a topic 
which Bishop Temple more than once brought 
before his Conferences, both diocesan and ruri- 
decanal. His last word on the subject to the 
Exeter Diocese is spoken in his charge in 
1884 :— 

We all know the need there is in the Church for more 
labourers in the work of visiting, teaching, preaching, and 
leading united prayers. The difficulty has made many of us 
groan for years past, and we know that in many large 
centres of population the people must have gone off' to 
practical heathenism if the Nonconformists had not stepped 
in to do the work which was quite beyond our reach. The 
immense growth of Nonconformity during this century is really 

1 Charge delivered by Bishop Temple in 1875. 


due to this fact. Our ministry has not grown with our 
people, and the work simply could not be done for lack of 
means to do it. We are even yet but slowly awakening to 
the need ; I do not think we are all awake to it now. We 
want more men. . . . 

Now it has been suggested that we might make more use 
of lay assistants or Scripture readers than we do, and that, 
in the second place, we might have more deacons at com 
mand, if we were content to recognise them as a distinct 
order, and not require of them very much the same know 
ledge, and very much the same service as we require in the 

Both these suggestions have been the subject of careful 
inquiry time after time by committees of our Convocation in 
both provinces. . . . 

It is not intended that the standard now required for 
ordination of the priesthood should be in any degree lowered. 
These deacons would, for the most part, remain deacons 
permanently. Some, however, might desire after a time to 
enter the priesthood. And if they had done good service, 
there would be no objection whatever to their seeking the 
higher office. But they would have to fulfil two conditions. 
In the first place, for a whole year, at least, and if not 
graduates, for four years, they would have to give up their 
whole time to the work of the ministry, and not merely such 
portion of it as they had originally agreed to give. And in the 
second place, they would have to pass the same examinations 
as other priests, and would have to show such a knowledge 
of Greek as would enable them to read, understand, and 
explain the Greek Testament. 

Now it remains to be seen whether we can obtain any 
candidates for the diaconate on this footing. Here, even 
still more than in the case of the lay readers, the towns 
might help the country parishes. The men that I have 
been describing are mostly to be found in the towns. And 
certainly there are very few things that a man of leisure and 
independent means can do, and do without much strain, of 
greater value than this. How many hamlets might have 
services which now have none ! How many old people who 
now find the parish church quite out of reach, might in this 
way find the inestimable blessing of regular worship close to 
their doors ! We can offer these deacons no money. The 
very purpose of the whole proposal is to endeavour to obtain 
gratuitous ministerial labour. There must be men who 


have the time to spare and the gifts for the work, and if 
God should touch their hearts with a sense of the reality of 
the need, I hope and pray that they will not hold back. 1 

The sense of need has grown since these words 
were spoken, and the growth of the public opinion 
of the Church makes the whole subject more ripe 
for settlement ; but twenty years ago matters were 
not far advanced, and Bishop Temple was a 
pioneer. He was the first of the Bishops of Exeter 
of more modern times to license lay readers in the 
diocese. The total number licensed during his 
Episcopate amounted to 238. The development 
under his successors has been considerable, and the 
organisation is now a recognised institution of the 
diocese with large possibilities of future growth 
before it. Bishop Temple was the founder. 

He was also one of the first of the bishops to 
recommend the formation of Parochial Councils. 
The time had not yet come when he could urge 
with effect his long-cherished project of a repre 
sentative Lay Body for the Church at large ; but 
it was open for him as a diocesan to treat the 
question in its relation to the parish, and he deals 
with it in the charge (1884) to which reference has 
already been made. With his usual desire to avoid 
hasty steps he recommends a policy which starts 
from what is already in existence. 

I think that we shall be most likely to form good 
parochial councils by using the sidesmen whom the canons 
permit us to elect, and tell us how to elect. The sides 
men are to be elected just as the churchwardens are to 
be elected ; that is, jointly by the rector, or vicar, and the 
parishioners. But there is this important difference. If 
the vicar, or rector, on the one side, and the parishioners on 
the other, do not agree in their choice of men to be church 
wardens, the canon orders that the rector, or vicar, shall 
appoint one, and the parishioners the other. And in many 
places it has become a settled custom to proceed in this way, 

1 Charge of Bishop Temple, delivered 1884. 


and the clergyman and parishioners do not even attempt to 
agree upon both churchwardens, but proceed at once, each 
to nominate one. But in the election of sidesmen, if the 
clergyman and parishioners cannot agree, the matter must 
be referred to the bishop, and the bishop appoints. The 
result is, that any attempt to force, on either side, very 
objectionable sidesmen can always be defeated. In any 
parish where disputes run high, it will always be possible to 
prevent the election from taking a merely party character. 
The bishop is bound, if called in, to appoint such sidesmen 
as are likely to promote peace, to conciliate opposition, to 
give all aid and sympathy to whatever tends to sober, earnest 
religion. I think, with this protection ready in case of need, 
the clergy would find it easier to form a parochial council 
by the election of sidesmen than in any other way. . . 

In all cases the purpose must be to take our people with 
us, to make them understand, as far as possible, why we do 
what we are doing, and to secure their hearty assent and, 
if possible, concurrence and co-operation. 

There will be not a few parishes in which nothing of this 
sort can yet be done. There are neither the materials nor 
the need for any such parochial council. But I think the 
clergy will do well to bear in mind everywhere that it is 
good for all Christian people to be drawn into direct 
Christian work, and it is good for Church people to feel that 
they are living members of the Church ; quite independent 
of the value of what they may do, it is good that they and 
no others should do it. A parish ought to have a spiritual 
life of its own, and ought to be a body and not a mere 
aggregation of separate units. The clergy are everywhere 
more active than they were. It is time to draw the people 
into the current of that activity. 1 

In this, as in the previous case of licensed lay 
readers, things have gone forward since the 
Bishop's words were uttered, but his remarks are 
not out of date, for they speak the spirit of 
wisdom which is the permanent guide for the 
settlement of all such subjects. 

But beneath all his desire for the organisation 
of the lay life of the Church was his belief in the 
sanctity of lay life itself. The priesthood was in 

1 Charge delivered by Bishop Temple, 1884. 


the whole body, and primarily each man was a 
priest, not because of what he did, but in virtue 
of what he was — a member of Christ. Definite 
functions were a sign of life, but they were not 
the life itself — necessary outcomes of vitality, but 
not the principle of vitality. This is the thought 
behind such words as these : — 

What is a good Churchman ? The first and most special 
characteristic of a good Churchman is, that in every respect 
he shows that he has a conscience. He is just, he is upright, 
he is true, he takes nothing on himself, he upholds with all 
his strength what he reads in the Bible to be good. A good 
Churchman ought to be known more than any other by his 
trustworthiness, and by his kindness to all around him ; and 
whilst this is the character that he shows everywhere, to 
those who know him well and come to closer intimacy, he 
presents the character of a God-fearing man, a man who 
loves the Lord, not over-ready, perhaps, to talk about that 
love, but cherishing deep in his heart, and showing in what 
ever he does say that he loves the Lord, and that he loves 
the Lord's Church, because there he finds the Lord's teach 
ing, there he finds the Lord's worship, the Lord's sacraments. 
If the laity could convince England that these are the men 
whom the Church produces, how far it would go to make it 
impossible to hurt such a Church as that. 1 

A continuous study of Bishop Temple's mind 
shows that there never was a time when he did 
not see that Christian doctrine was an essential of 
Christian faith, and his sense of the need of definite, 
though not minute, exposition of doctrine grew 
with deepening experience. But always for him 
Christian creed was not a system, but a life ; and 
it was the robustness of tone resulting from this 
conviction which commended him as a guide to 
the lay mind. In his relations with his people the 
Bishop's supreme aim was to leaven all ranks with 
a sense of the religiousness of all life. The offering 
of the life was the fullest expression of the priest 
hood of the laity. 

1 Charge delivered by Bishop Temple, 1884. 




The Palace — The chapel — Home life — Miss Temple — Marriage 
— The Cathedral — Restoration — Reredos — Royal Commission 
on Cathedrals — Relation of the Cathedral to the Diocese 
— Amalgamation of city parishes — Tiverton parochial 

BISHOP TEMPLE combined special characteristics of 
two of his most distinguished predecessors. Like 
Bishop Stapeldon, he had many and wide interests ; 
but, like Bishop Grandisson, he was emphatically a 
diocesan bishop. Concentration, not diffusive 
ness, was the keynote. It was an outcome of the 
compact unity of his character. One illustration 
was the conviction that there must be one centre 
for the diocese, and that for an historic Church 
that centre must be the Cathedral city, with its 
associations and traditions. On this belief he 
acted, both at Exeter and Canterbury. The 
Bishop was to issue forth in all directions on 
all kinds of work ; but he presided over not a 
Mission, but a Church ; there must be a centre, 
and the Bishop's seat at the centre must be a 
home. With some sides of social life Dr. Temple 
had no special affinities, but its fundamental 
principle was part of himself; for him social life 
began in the home ; the family was the basis on 
which society rested. His love of home was in 
large measure the explanation of his homeliness of 



manner. To know him it was necessary to see 
him in the undress of home life. It was not that 
there was any abandonment or self- forgetfuln ess — 
far less any of the expressions of small selfish 
ness which sometimes creep into family circles. 
Regularity (not troublesome, but prompt) was the 
order of the day ; all the little details as to dress 
and punctuality which help to keep refinement 
and order in a busy life were observed. Some 
times, perhaps, the quickness with which one 
engagement followed upon the heels of another 
was a little trying to steady -going ordinary 
mortals ; an occasional sigh might be heard, " I 
can't get hold of either the Bishop or the dinner ; 
it is all gobble and go at the Palace." But there 
was full compensation in the freedom and simplicity 
which placed every one at his ease. Above all, it 
was the home of duty, and the whole atmosphere 
was quietly religious. No social amenities or 
business engagements interfered with the daily 
observance of family prayer, at which, both 
morning and evening, the whole household gathered. 1 
The Palace at Exeter was the first of his 
Episcopal homes ; he adapted it for his purpose, 
and he liked it well. The actual date of its 
erection cannot be fixed with exactness, but it is 
recorded in the archives of Exeter Cathedral that 
Bishop Bruere gave a site for the Chapter-house, of 
which he was the builder, "in orto nostro, juxta 
turrim Set. Johannis." 2 The mention of the 
garden seems to imply a contiguous building, 
and we know from Bronescombe's Register that 
Bishop Blondy died in the Palace in the middle of 

1 In this connexion may be noticed the Bishop's love for the more 
homely and ordinary routine of religious life. It was always his custom 
to attend his parish church, and to preserve the due relation between 
the church and the home. The worship of the former was kept distinct 
from the devotions of the latter. 

' z Exeter Cathedral Archives, No. 2084. 


the thirteenth century. 1 During the Common 
wealth the Palace appears to have passed into the 
hands of the city authorities, and by them to have 
been made over to the Governors of S. John's 
Hospital, who leased it to a sugar-baker ; but at the 
time of the Restoration, Bishop Seth Ward "re 
trieved " it out of the hands of the sugar-baker, 
repaired it, and made it habitable. 2 It has suffered 
alterations and vicissitudes since its first erection, 
but the Early English character of the original 
architecture still remains, in central arch and chapel 
window as its main and most attractive feature. 
The mediaeval bishops divided their time between 
residence in the Palace and visits to their numerous 
manors. Bronescombe had his home at Clyst S. 
Mary, where the motto over the gateway, " Janua 
patet : Cor magis," testified to the character of the 
man, and gave his successors an indication of the 
kind of hospitality to which a bishop must be 
given. Stapeldon by his will shows that he is an 
apt disciple, and leaves directions that a hundred 
poor shall be fed in the hall, or at the gate of 
Exeter Palace. 3 Quivil was continually at the 
Palace, 4 as was natural for one who made the 
Cathedral his main charge. That busy overseer, 
Bishop Grandisson, was perpetually travelling from 
manor to manor, and found his favourite residence 
at Chudleigh. 5 Of the 270 letters in Part I. of his 
Register, ranging over a period of more than ten 
years, only three or four are dated from Exeter ; 
most of them are written at Chudleigh, and some 
at Clyst S. Mary. In mediaeval times the Palace 
appears to have been an occasional residence to 
many, and a regular home to some. After the 

1 Oliver's Lives of the Bishops of Exeter, pp. 38-39. 

2 Dr. Pope's Biography. See Oliver, p. 259. 

3 Oliver, p. 63. 

4 Quivil's Episcopal Register (Hingeston-Randolph), p. xxi. 
6 Oliver, p. 82. 


Reformation it was the habitual place of residence 
of the bishop. 1 In confirmation it may be said 
that the portraits of the bishops which hang in 
the Palace are those of post -Reformation pre 
lates. The majority of those who have held the 
See since the Commonwealth find their place 
in the series. The chief personal memorial of 
the mediaeval bishops is the "splendid" 2 stone 
mantelpiece of Bishop Peter Courtenay (1478) 
which now stands in the old hall, converted into 
a dining-room. It is elaborately adorned with 
heraldic sculptures which tell their own tale of the 
Courtenay family, and of its connexion, long and 
large, with diocesan and national history. Blackall, 
Weston, and Lavington are all known to have lived 
at the Palace. Dr. Oliver speaks of Bishop Keppel 
as "this affable, open-hearted, bountiful prelate," 
and mentions that he " expended considerable sums 
on the improvement of the Palace." 3 That Bishop 
Ross had his home at the Palace, and made it a 
home to others, is plain from John Wesley's 
commendation. He praises "the lovely situation 
of the Palace, covered with trees, and as rural 
and retired as if it was quite in the country." 
The eulogy embraces not the situation only, but 
the whole style of the Bishop's establishment : 
"The plainness of the furniture, not costly or 
showy, but just fit for a Christian Bishop : the 
dinner sufficient, but not redundant, plain and 
good, but not delicate : the propriety of the 
company — five clergymen and four of the alder 
men." He has a good word for the Bishop himself 
and for the Cathedral service : " The genuine, 
unaffected courtesy of the Bishop," who, he hopes, 
" will be a blessing to his whole diocese," is greatly 
to his mind, and he was "much pleased with the 

1 Memorandum of Chancellor Edmonds. 

2 Oliver, p. 255. 3 Ibid. p. 163. 


decent behaviour of the whole congregation at the 
Cathedral ; as also with the solemn music at the 
post-communion, one of the finest compositions I 
ever heard." 1 But non-residence was frequent in 
the later times. Bishop Bethell, transferred from the 
See of Gloucester, had hardly seen the Diocese of 
Exeter when he was translated in the same year 
(1830) to the Bishopric of Bangor ; and, "in con 
sequence either of the non- residence, or the 
translation to richer Sees of several of his pre 
decessors, the Exeter Palace had been suffered to 
go so much out of repair as scarcely to be 
habitable." ' When Dr. Phillpotts succeeded him, 
he "found the Palace in a very unfit state to 
receive him ; but he has restored it in a most 
creditable manner." 3 In the process he added to 
the library an old Gothic oriel window rescued from 
a dwelling-place in the city. The window is filled 
with stained glass containing emblems and crests 
connected with former bishops and dignitaries. 

But though Bishop Phillpotts enriched the 
Palace he did not live in it. For many years 
before his death his residence was at Bishopstowe 
in Torquay. The succession of Dr. Temple to 
Exeter was the coming home of its Bishop. To 
make the Palace a home some change of structure 
was required ; but the chief thing to be done was 
to open out the ground, and to let in light, and 
introduce something of home comfort into the 
building. It was necessary to include the private 
chapel of the Palace in the work of renewal. 
" The most ancient part " of the Palace, says Dr. 
Oliver, "is the Chapel of S. Mary. Its east 
window, with its three lancets of the Earliest 
English style, is singularly rich and graceful." 4 
It is probably a debt which, like the Chapter- 

1 Wesley's Journal, abridged by Percy Livingstone Parker, p. 441. 

2 Oliver, p. 167. 3 Ibid. p. 1(58. * Ibid. p. 254. 


house, the See owed to Bishop Bruere. It 
was founded as a chantry chapel for perpetual 
prayers for the departed bishops. The Dean and 
Chapter made an annual offering to it of wax 
candles on the Festival of S. Faith (October 6), 
and Alwyngton and Harberton churches were 
under charges to assist in supporting the officiating 
chaplain. Here in mediaeval times a musical service 
was regularly rendered by chaplain and choir. A 
canon leaves a legacy to defray costs, and a Pope 
commends a bishop's (Arundell, 1502) piety for 
maintaining the daily service : — 

Cujus in Deum pietatem quotidianus Dei in suo sacello 
cultus ostendit ; tot suis capellanis ac domesticis, cum 
symphoniacis pueris angelicam harmoniam in Dei ac Dive 
Virginis laudem, bis quotidie canoris vocibus vocalique jubilo 
efficientibus. 1 

The chapel has been the shrine of many 
solemnities, some of which have touched both 
individual and ecclesiastical life very closely. In 
it a chancellor of the Cathedral in the thirteenth 
century cleared himself of a charge of simoniacal 
action in the disposal of patronage ; in it hands 
have been laid on many generations of candidates 
for Holy Orders. 

The continuity of sacred function in this chapel 
was preserved and strengthened by Bishop Temple. 
Here he sanctified his home by the service of daily 
family prayer ; here those who were about to receive 
Holy Orders met for the fellowship and strength 
of Holy Communion, and for the Bishop's words 
of inspiration and counsel ; here in hours of quiet 
retreat the clergy of the diocese were encouraged 
by the same voice " to stir up the gift " that was in 
them. The Palace Chapel was the spot in which 
home and diocese met, and where individual 

1 Oliver, pp. 254-255. 


clergymen most fully felt the presence of the 
spiritual father. Bishop Phillpotts occasionally 
used the Chapel for ordinations, and fitted it with 
stalls of cedar wood ; but fuller restoration and 
enrichment were required in order to bring back 
its original grace and beauty, and to make it help 
ful to purposes of devotion. This duty, as well as 
the general renewal of the Palace, was entrusted 
to the well-known architect, Mr. Butterfield. Mr. 
Butterfield's work always arrested attention and 
provoked criticism. His restoration of the Exeter 
Palace Chapel was no exception to the rule. To 
some the colouring seems crude, and the whole 
restoration to have been carried out with little 
sympathy for the past history of the building ; to 
others, and especially Bishop Temple, the result 
appeared a complete success. The restored Palace 
and Chapel were to him always a great delight. 
Between the Bishop and the architect there was a 
good deal of fellow-feeling, born of common aims 
and characteristics. 1 Both had the same indiffer 
ence to the conventional, and the same love of 
what was simple and direct. The Bishop cared 
but little for the colours which were dear to the 
architect, but he greatly admired the boldness and 
dignity of his designs, and he recognised with 
kindred spirit both the reverence which pervaded 
the whole conception, and also the truthfulness 
which always ensured correspondence between esti 
mated and actual cost. Moreover, Mr. Butterfield's 
reality and downrightness were much after his 
mind. It pleased him to recall how, when applica 
tion was once made to the architect to build a 
racquet court at Rugby, and there was some doubt 
as to whether so great an artist would lend his art 

1 Mr. Butterfield, by the Bishop's suggestion, was also employed 
as the architect of the new buildings in connexion with the Exeter 
Grammar School. 



to so homely a purpose, the reply was, " I will 
build a pig-sty if it has got to be built." The 
inscription placed on the south-west wall of the 
Chapel tells the tale of the restoration in plain 
words which suit the spirit in which it was 


The eastern end of this Chapel was built in the early 
part of the thirteenth century ; the western was an ante-room 
of later date. The wall between these has now been removed 
and the present screen and stalls erected where it stood. A 
passage to the Cathedral has been cut off from the western 
end. The east wall and its three fine windows, which were 
ruinous when the Bishop took possession of the See, have 
been accurately rebuilt and all the sound stones have been 
replaced. The roof has been repaired, the floor renewed, 
the ancient ceiling, which had been concealed by plaster, has 
been uncovered, repaired, and painted. The Chapel has been 
entirely refurnished. The glass in the centre light of the 
eastern triplet is the gift of the Lady Caroline Lascelles, 
that in the lights on either side, of her daughters Mary 
Louisa Lascelles and Beatrice Blanche Temple. The glass 
in the northern and southern windows is the gift of the 
Archdeacon of Exeter and eight of the Prebendaries of the 

This work was done under the direction of William 
Butterfield in the Episcopate of Frederick Temple in the 
years 1878-79. 

The furniture of the Chapel was afterwards 
enriched by a gift of communion vessels from 
chaplains and some of those who received ordina 
tion at the Bishop's hands. 

The new home, exclusive of the Chapel, was 
ready for the Bishop and his family in the summer 
of 1870, about six months after his consecration. 
He brought into it the two daughters of his brother, 
Colonel Temple (the "Johnnie" of Blundeh 1 days), 
and his chaplain. His sister Jennetta took her place, 
as at Rugby, at the head of the household. In a 
book which the Bishop once gave his sister, he 



styles himself her " admiring brother." The epithet 
was well chosen. Miss Temple was no ordinary 
woman. It was necessary to know her well before 
she could be appreciated, but she was worth knowing. 
Like her brother in many things, it could not be 
said that she was modelled on him ; she was herself 
and no one else — perhaps co-ordinate with him, 
but not subordinate either to him or any one. 
But the similarity between the two was striking. 
She had all, and more than all, of his outspoken 
speech and directness of action. Dr. Benson used 
to give, with much amusement, a striking instance. 
Once in early days he came somewhat late for an 
appointment with his chief at Rugby. "Benson, 
you have kept me waiting," was the greeting. 
"Yes, I must apologise, but I have had a tooth 
out." "Oh, poor fellow, I am sorry." "Don't 
waste pity on me, Dr. Temple, I took gas." (In 
astonishment) — " What did you take gas for ? " 
" Because it hurt." " Hurt ! of course it hurt." 
And so they went to business. After it was over 
the young master went to pay his respects to the 
sister. " Oh, do you know you kept my brother 
waiting, Mr. Benson ? " " Yes, I was so sorry, but 
I waited to have a tooth out." " Oh, how I pity 
you." "You needn't pity me, Miss Temple, I 
took gas." " What did you take gas for ? " " Be 
cause it hurt." "Hurt ! of course it hurt." 

Here is another case which she recalled her 
self. In Oxford days a friend of Tractarian 
sympathies came to luncheon during Lent. She 
knew that he spoke strongly about the duty of 
fasting at that season, and she felt that she must 
order her table accordingly. She thought that she 
was only doing what was right by him, but some 
how he did not like it. She judged him by herself, 
but it is not every one who likes being taken at his 
word. The directness was not always liked, but it 


had a wonderful way of carrying its point. It was 
not always easy to gain an entrance into parishes for 
the new Bishop in the first days of suspicion and 
hesitation. Here is an instance of directness and 
sisterly devotion helping each other to the desired 
end. " Soon," says Mr. Carlyon, " after the Bishop 
came to reside at Nansladron, 1 I was in my garden, 
and saw the Bishop's carriage arriving with a lady 
alone in it. On my approaching, 'Are you Mr. 
Carlyon,' she asked, 'the churchwarden?' 'Yes.' 
'I want you to do me a favour. I am the Bishop's 
sister, and very anxious that your Vicar should ask 
him to preach. The Bishop's chaplain has already 
asked him, but the reply is that the services are 
already provided for, and that the Vicar will not 
trouble the Bishop. The Chaplain has just come 
back. What a muddle ! I am very anxious that 
my brother should preach in S. Austell Church, but 
he must be asked. Can you see the Vicar and set 
it right ? ' ' Certainly, I will do my best ; but I 
am just going out to dine at a house seven miles 
off ; I could see the Vicar to-morrow morning.' 
On being asked how much time I could at once 
spare," continues Mr. Carlyon, "and suggesting 
some few minutes only, Miss Temple rushed the 
situation and said, ' Jump into my carriage ; I will 
take you down to the Vicarage and back again.' 
An interview of two or three minutes with the 
Vicar, whom I found ill in bed, sufficed, and on the 
following Sunday the pulpit was occupied by the 
new Bishop, to the satisfaction, not only of his 
sister, but of a large congregation." 

But with all her force of character Miss Temple 
did not stretch herself " beyond her measure." 
Supreme in the household, she had the good 
sense and womanly feeling to make no attempt to 
rule the diocese. Being keenly interested in the 

1 See supra, p. 128. 


success of her brother's educational policy, she 
accepted a seat on the School Board of S. Thomas' 
(Exeter), and threw herself heartily into the work. 1 
She also discharged all the social duties of her posi 
tion with kindly conscientiousness ; but her first 
care was to make a home for her brother, so that 
he might be free and happy in his labours. In and 
for her brother she lived from first to last, and the 
affection was reciprocated. Next to his mother his 
sister " Netta " is his chief home correspondent in 
the early days. The expression, " You have 
Mamma and Netta," quoted in the previous 
chapter from his school letters, 2 speaks volumes. 
She was his confidant in all matters great and 
small at each successive stage in his long life. 

One letter from the sister will suffice to illustrate 
the devotion : — 

October 19, 1869. 

MY DEAR DR. BENSON — I must thank you with all my 
heart for your brave, loving letter. 3 

All the storm has pained me so much — it is so unlike 
what I should desire for him. These two months, when his 
own prayers and the prayers of those who care for him or the 
Church should have been invited, to be broken in upon by 
such discordant outcries has been very sad to me. God bless 
you for loving him, for praying for him, as I know you 
will do. 

This earnest and affectionate nature applied itself 
strenuously to all the routine of the Exeter home 
life. Her view of the kind of establishment which 
a bishop should maintain was an unconscious 

1 The book of prayers and hymns which, with the help of one or 
two others, she compiled for the schools is still in daily use. "Miss 
Temple gave me my first lessons in School Board work/' says a leading 
member (Mr. John Stocker) of the present Exeter Local Authority, 
" and she it was who first made me feel the nobility and dignity of 
Education." 2 Supra, p. 221. 

3 His published letter in the Times at the time of the Exeter 
appointment. Supra, p. 35. 


reproduction of John Wesley's idea as given above. 1 
" I want the clergy very often to come into meals," 
she once said to a friend, "but when they come, 
not to find things altogether unlike what they have 
at home " ; and so her aim was " sufficiency," but 
not " redundance," a fare " plain and good, but not 
delicate," as Wesley said. She was the most loyal, 
not of sisters only, but of friends. There was 
nothing she would not do for them ; only she liked 
to do it in her own way, and give them what she 
thought good for them. She understood the welfare 
of others better than she understood their self- 
development. On these principles she made the 
Bishop's home and administered his household : 
a good, strong, loving woman, always looking at 
the * very heart of things,' incapable of doing, 
or indeed of comprehending, anything mean or 
small, judging life not by conventional standards, 
but by the laws of right and wrong, which to 
her were always plain ; one whose company braced 
like a tonic, and from whom her friends parted 
with a sense that a higher view of life and duty 
had been gained in her presence. After three 
years at Exeter her health, which had never 
been vigorous, began to fail ; she was forced re 
luctantly to leave her brother's home, and to reside 
wherever the conditions of climate were found most 
favourable. For the last seventeen years of her 
life her self-reliant nature underwent the discipline 
of illness. Still eager for an active life, she was 
compelled to sit apart and to watch and wait. She 
gave herself to her life of sickness with the same 
set purpose with which she had faced the life of 
activity. At Clifton, Cannes, and elsewhere she 
drew as friends around her those who could 
appreciate an uncommon character. To the last 
she retained her keen interest in the public move- 

1 Supra, p. 254. 


ments of the day, bringing to bear on them open 
eyes and strong, pungent common sense ; to the 
last she lighted up character and circumstance 
with the play of her kindly humour ; to the last 
her devotion to her brother was the ruling passion. 
She died at Tunbridge Wells, August 16, 1890, 
and was buried there in the presence of her brother, 
Mrs. Temple, and relations, and of one friend, 
Ernest Sandford, who owed her much. 1 This is 
the estimate formed of her by one who had known 
her long and read character well : — 

BALLIOL COLLEGE, August 19, 1890. 

MY DEAR BISHOP — I am deeply grieved to hear of your 
sister's death. I think that she was one of the best women 
whom I ever knew. She never thought of herself, and was 
so capable and self-sacrificing and did so much good in such 
a sensible manner. Your life was her joy and pride ; and to 
a nature like this it was a real happiness to know that she 
had left you with one who could do more for you than 
she could in the late years of life. I remember her as 
far back as the year 1843. Many things which she said 
to me have become impressed on my mind — one in par 
ticular which occurs to me while writing, "That persons 
who wanted to do good must efface themselves." I was 
very glad to have renewed acquaintance and friendship with 
her last summer. I was greatly struck by her clearness of 
mind and resignation to her great trial. 

With most kind regards to Mrs. Temple, yours truly 
and affectionately, B. JOWETT. 

An elder sister, Mrs. Thorold, 2 who lived at 
Plymouth, and gave a welcome there to the Bishop 
and his chaplain during frequent visits, died and was 
buried at Exeter in the autumn of the year 1872. 

In the early days of her illness Miss Temple had 
been made anxious by the thought that her brother 
was left in solitude at Exeter, and she wrote to a 

1 The Rev. Percy Smith, Chaplain of Christ Church, Cannes, took 
part in the service. 

2 "Earlier Years" Memoir, vol. i. p. 16. 


friend suggesting the possibility of a new chaplain, 
to supply in some measure her place ; but the 
Bishop found for himself a more excellent way. 


MY DEAR DR. BENSON — I daresay the Bishop will write 
himself, but I write to ask you and Mrs. Benson to share my 
joy in his happiness, for he is engaged to be married to 
Beatrice Lascelles, and is very happy. I saw her once and 
liked her very much ; she is a true, sweet woman with a most 
pleasant voice and charming, simple manners. He has so 
Jived for others all his life that to see him at last with 
happiness for himself fills one with thankfulness. I was in 
any case to have gone abroad for the winter, and was prepar 
ing with a most sore heart to leave him, with all his hard 
work, alone in this great house ; now it is all well, for even 
my illness makes it on one side more perfect for him, as he 
has not even the passing regret that I had to leave my old 
home. He does look so happy — his eyes shine like stars. God 
bless them both. I have been to Vichy and am better. Love 
to you both. — Yours affectionately, J. O. TEMPLE. 

August 2. 

On August 24, 1876, he was married in S. 
Michael's Church, Chester Square, London, to 
Beatrice Blanche Lascelles, fifth daughter of the 
Right Honourable William Sebright and Lady 
Caroline Lascelles. The peals which rang out on 
the marriage day from the tower of Exeter Cathedral 
were an omen of the happy years which followed, 
and in that happiness both the western diocese 
and the whole Church of England may be said to 
have had their share. The debt which both owe to 
Mrs. Temple is very large. To her the vigorous 
and prolonged service of the twenty-six years which 
succeeded the marriage is mainly due. When men 
looked at the cheerful face and unabated force of 
Dr. Temple in old age, and rejoiced in the sense 
of security which his rule of the English Church 
inspired, they instinctively thought of Mrs. Temple ; 
they knew that she made his life, and lightened the 


burden of the " care of all the churches." She 
did not intensify the characteristics of the strong 
personality, but she supplemented and interpreted 
them. No one fully read Dr. Temple until they 
had seen him with his wife and boys. A new 
brightness came into the home at Exeter ; the boy 
nature in him awoke and helped to keep him young. 
" A wonderful wife and two perfect boys," he wrote 
to his old friend, Canon Saltren Rogers. 1 Both the 
sons were born at Exeter, Frederick Charles, June 
25, 1879, and William, October 15, 1881. Both were 
baptized after the second lesson at Evensong on 
Sunday in Exeter Cathedral. To play with them 
as children, to take long walks with them and 
inspire them with his own love of the country, as 
they grew older, to be in their company, to poke 
fun at them, was a daily joy. No home life was 
freer or more happy ; it was good to see. There 
was teaching and training, and the Bishop was 
never so busy that he could not make time to 
answer a question or solve a problem, or give 
regular preparation at solemn times. But for the 
most part, that which opened mind and developed 
character was the unconscious training of growing 
fellowship with the father. Constant and almost 
daily letters passed during time of absence, and 
through correspondence and intercourse the things 
learnt became part of the learner. The father's 
thoughts and aims passed into the sons. 2 

Mrs. Temple's influence at Exeter soon made 
itself felt. It was not only that she made the 
home at Exeter, but she extended it. Many 
new activities were set on foot, and into them all 
something of home atmosphere began to pene 
trate. The word to express her own part in 
them would not be management, but sympathy 

1 See supra, p. 210. 
2 Editor's Supplement, vol. ii. p. 677. 


and fellowship. It may be that Dr. Temple con 
ceived of a diocese as a hive rather than as a 
home, but Mrs. Temple did not a little to make 
it a home. The Bishop had gained not so much 
a champion, still less a joint administrator, as a 
good and gracious wife ; and through her some of 
the corners were perhaps worn off, and at any rate 
the strong, great man was better understood ; the 
character was translated into a language which had 
a softer sound in men's ears. 

As soon as Dr. Temple had made the Palace 
habitable, he began to make himself at home 
in the Cathedral City- And naturally his first 
charge there was the Cathedral, the Mother 
Church of the diocese. For him the two 
conceptions of hive and home went together, 
and his aim was to make the Cathedral a home 
from which diocesan activities should emanate, 
with the inspiration of prayer and religious 
thought attaching to them. More than most 
cathedrals the Church of S. Peter at Exeter 
is bound up with the Exeter Episcopate. There 
is scarcely a foot of the sacred ground which does 
not call up the memory of one or other of the 
long line of bishops. The Cathedral, both in 
constitution and fabric, is their handiwork, and 
theirs had been in the earlier days a dominant and 
prevailing influence. As far as there had been 
developments in later days they had been less 
Episcopal. It was not desirable to undo history, 
nor indeed, with the diminished revenues of 
modern times, was it possible for a bishop to 
repair or enlarge the fabric at his own charges ; 
but it was Dr. Temple's aim and duty to make 
the bishop's influence in the Cathedral a reality. 
At the Restoration of 1660 the first act of Dean 
(soon to be Bishop) Seth Ward had been the 
casting out "the buyers and sellers who had 


usurped the Cathedral, and therein kept distinct 
shops to vend their wares." 1 He had then 
removed the " Babylonish Wall " of the Common 
wealth which had portioned off the building into 
two compartments, called respectively East Peter's 
and West Peter's. Afterwards he repaired and 
beautified the Cathedral at a cost of £25,000, and 
bought a " new pair of organs " (John Loosemoore's 
organ), esteemed the best in England, which cost 
another £2000. 2 Since that time Grandisson's 
great west window had been newly glazed under 
the direction of Mr. Peckett (1760), and a new 
reredos had been erected. 3 But with these excep 
tions and a good deal of occasional cleansing, 
colouring, and touching up, little had been done ; 
and the work, such as it was (including both 
reredos and glazing of the west window), was 
more true to eighteenth - century ideas than to 
earlier and better days of ecclesiastical art. To 
the Dean and Chapter of Bishop Temple's 
Episcopate belongs the credit of restoring the 
building to much of its original beauty, and adapt 
ing it, under the altered conditions of modern 
times, to enlarged uses worthy of a cathedral. 
With wise providence they had accumulated out 
of the capitular revenues a large sum for this 
purpose ; they added great donations from their 
own private resources ; and, taking advantage of 
the impulse given to Church effort by the coming 
of a new bishop, eager for work and enterprise, 
they entered (1872) upon the great undertaking of 
a full and worthy restoration. The choice of the 
late Sir Gilbert Scott as architect was a guarantee 
for careful treatment on conservative lines. With 
the evidence thus given of thought and liberality, 
the Capitular Body soon had the city and county 
and the whole diocese at their back. 

1 Oliver, p. 152. 2 Ibid. p. 153. 3 Infra, p. 271. 


The Bishop threw himself with characteristic 
energy into a congenial work. He was a fore 
most spokesman of the committee at a series of 
meetings organised in different centres, and he 
knew well how to evoke the feelings natural to 
each place where he spoke. In the Guildhall 
of Exeter, February 1872, his theme was local 
sentiment :— 

. . . There were other cathedrals which might claim to 
have more grace in their beauty, but there was none, it 
seemed to him, that possessed more quiet dignity, more 
of that majesty that spoke so directly to the soul and 
left a permanent impression on the memory. And all the 
more did he value it because the beauty that specially 
distinguished it was a beauty that belonged to this part of 
England, for it seemed as if the cathedral represented, in the 
most perfect form, the architecture of Devon and Cornwall ; 
and somehow he could not help feeling about the very defects 
just as a man very often felt about some slight fault or 
blemish that other people might see in those he loved, as if 
they were but fresh reasons for attraction — that even such 
things as seemed blemishes to others were something that 
awoke his love, something that spoke to him of his home. 1 

In the hall of Exeter College at Oxford, Nov 
ember 4, 1872, Dr. Temple's appeal is chiefly to 
the religious and historic sense : — 

It ought not to be very difficult to interest the University 
of Oxford in such a work as this. Here they were not all 
absorbed in the interest of the moment ; here, surely, if any 
where, men would take a deep interest in their past history, 
and in the monuments of that history, and would feel a great 
desire to maintain the beauty of the old works of art. They 
would, he thought, feel a still deeper interest in those 
monuments of history and of art which belonged to the 
Church of England, and which spoke to them of the endur 
ing character of that faith by which we all lived. . . . 
Exeter Cathedral had one special claim upon some of the 
colleges at Oxford. The college in which they were assembled 
owed its original foundation to an Exeter Bishop of great 

1 Exeter and Plymouth Gazette, February 9, 1872. 


fame in history ; l and this was not the only college that must 
feel an interest in Exeter. Others owed something in various 
ways to the liberality of Cornish and Devon benefactors. 
They appealed, for instance, to Corpus Christi College, 
because, as every one knew, it was a Bishop of Exeter 2 that 
induced the founder of that college to spend his money upon 
a college in Oxford, instead of establishing an additional 
monastery. He almost felt also that there was a tie between 
Balliol College and Devonshire, because a Devonshire scholar 
ship was attached to that college. Such ties as these, and 
there were many more that he could enumerate, were surely 
reasons why Oxford men should do their part in assisting to 
restore the great cathedral of the west. 3 

The work of restoration cost £50,000. This 
sum was augmented by special offerings connected 
with incidents and names of which Devon has 
reason to be proud — notably the pulpit in the nave, 
commemorating the martyrdom of John Coleridge 
Patteson, first Bishop of Melanesia. Amongst 
many great gifts the donation of Lady Rolle, who 
presented the greater part of the fittings of the 
Lady Chapel at her sole cost, stands out prominent. 
In the chapter, Chancellor Harington was the 
chief contributor, giving more than £4000, and 
Archdeacon Freeman was the graphic historian. 
Dean Boyd was chief promoter and champion, and 
everywhere made his ascendency felt. The whole 
restoration was seven years in progress. It was 
taken in two periods, the first being devoted to the 
more elaborate work required for the restoration of 
the choir, and the latter being occupied with renewal 
and refitting in the nave. The boarding erected in 
order to screen off the portion of the Cathedral at 
the time under restoration from that part required 
for service was a harmless and temporary rebuilding 
of the "Babylonish Wall." This is no place for 
detailed account of all that was done. Structural 

1 Stapeldon. 2 Hugh Oldham. 

3 Exeter and Plymouth Gazette, November 8, 1872. 


alteration was confined to the piercing of the screen, 
attributed to Bishop Stapeldon, which divides the 
choir from the nave. The main work was to 
remove certain "encroaching pews and Georgian 
pannelling," and to cleanse the great piers from the 
yellow wash with which they had been covered in 
later days, and thus to enable the building to speak 
for itself. It only remained to bring back some 
trace of the original colouring to the chapels and 
vaulted roof of the choir, and to enrich the building 
with costly new furniture in the shape of marble 
pavements and carved oaken stalls and stained 
windows, of which last it had been well-nigh 
denuded by the stern hand of the Puritan. 

A great diocesan gathering on S. Luke's day 
1877 celebrated the completion of the restoration. 
It was the first of many like functions ; they have 
demonstrated the purposes for which the fabric of 
the Mother Church was restored, and they have 
justified the work. The dedication services were 
continued for two days, and the preachers were 
Bishops Harold Browne, Moberly, Mackarness, 
and Lord Arthur Hervey. These had been chosen 
either for their past connexion with the diocese, 
or on account of the contiguity of the sees which 
they held. Their words made a mark at the time, 
and now that, with the presiding prelate himself 
and all the members of the then chapter, the four 
bishops have passed within the veil, they will always 
be associated with this day of abiding memories. 

Bishop Temple's own voice was often heard in 
the pulpit of his restored cathedral, and it was 
there that he first became known as a preacher of 
sermons to the people. These sermons, strangely 
unlike the crisp, condensed, and forceful addresses 
in Rugby School Chapel, had nevertheless a nobility 
of their own. The sympathy of a strong man in 
deadly earnest pouring out his heart to his fellow- 


men attracted by the reality of every word. The 
hearers became conscious that they were the better 
for what they heard. From the day of the reopen 
ing, Exeter Cathedral has become increasingly the 
home of the people at large, and the utterances 
of Bishop Temple will always fit in with the 
truest messages of after days ; in his direct and 
simple words on essential truths and duties he 
gave the type on which appeals to a great congrega 
tion of people may best be modelled. 

The aims and permanent results of the restora 
tion of the Cathedral have been indicated. During 


its progress an incident occurred which, while it 
lasted, was sufficiently unpleasant, and threatened 
for a while to make shipwreck of the undertaking. 
Among the new fittings designed by Sir Gilbert 
Scott for the restored building was a reredos 
destined to take the place of the specimen of 
eighteenth-century work referred to above, 1 which 
was itself a substitution for an older altar-piece, 
spoken of by a historian of Exeter as a " grand 
performance in painting." 2 The "performance" 
represented apparently an imaginary duplicate 
cathedral, and included portraits of Moses and Aaron 
supporting the tables of the Decalogue. It was 
probably introduced as part of Seth Ward's work of 
restoration after the Puritan epoch. Its immediate 
successor dates from 1817, and was designed by Mr. 
John Kendal, a stone-mason, acting under the 
Cathedral surveyor ; it was a simple slab inscribed 
with the Ten Commandments and surmounted by 
some canopy work. When this later reredos in its 
turn gave place to Sir Gilbert Scott's design, the 
tables of the Decalogue were removed to the retro- 
choir, where they now hang. The present reredos 

1 Supra, p. 267. 

2 History of Exeter, compiled from Hooker, 1765. Referred to in 
Freeman's History of Exeter Cathedral, p. 95. 


is the joint gift of Chancellor Harington and Dr. 
Blackall, the latter being a well-known citizen of 
Exeter and a lineal descendant of Bishop Ofspring 
Blackall. The material is alabaster and marble, 
studded with costly stones. The subject of the 
central panel is the Ascension, our Lord being 
represented in the act of blessing as He rises from 
the earth. In the two other panels are depicted 
the Transfiguration and the descent of the Holy 
Spirit at Pentecost. The whole is crowned by a 
cross with angels standing on either hand. There 
is neither crucifix nor Calvary group, and doctrin- 
ally the reredos had no controversial significance. 
From an artistic point of view, while the structure 
is graceful it may be held to be slightly mechanical ; 
and had it been erected now, something bolder and 
ampler might possibly have been suggested — a 
design which would more naturally have carried 
back thought to the silver altar of Bishop Stapeldon, 
reputed to be the costliest in the world, 1 with its 
canopied reredos, "rich with statuary, colouring, 
and gold." : But the artist of the nineteenth 
century had restraining limitations to consider ; the 
design expressed the high -water mark of general 
Anglican feeling on such subjects at the time, and 
it commends itself by its combination of modera 
tion and good taste to the main body and sober 
mind, if it does not fully satisfy artistic require 

Unobjectionable as it was, it did not pass 
unchallenged. Archdeacon Phillpotts, Chancellor 
of the Diocese, son of the late Bishop, lodged 
complaint against it on the ground of illegality. It 
was not that the Archdeacon was quick, from 
the Protestant standpoint, to scent out danger ; 
but he inherited something of his father's liking 

1 Freeman's History of Exeter Cathedral, p. 46. 
2 Ibid. p. 60. 


for legal points. Perhaps also he recalled the days 
when his father, averse to all novelties, and 
champion of the old, and not the modern, High 
Church cause, had swept off intruding flower -pots 
from the altar of a Torquay church. Moreover, the 
Chancellor had had previous trouble with a reredos 
in the parish church of Lynton, and having ordered 
the removal of certain figures thereon may have 
conceived that it was his duty to make his protest 
on the present occasion. 1 Anyhow, he presented a 
petition to the Bishop, praying him to exercise his 
power as Visitor of the Cathedral and inquire into 
the legality of the reredos, both in itself and also 
as having been erected without the consent of the 
Bishop. Dr. Temple had no sympathy with the 
Archdeacon's line, but the complainant was his 
Chancellor ; the Public Worship Regulation Act 
had not as yet been passed, 2 giving the Episcopal 
veto, when his Chancellor presented his petition ; 
and his own record and lifelong view were in 
favour of leaving the settlement in such cases to 
the law, as ultimately the surest security for 
liberty. He had a very strong personal repugnance 
to anything that might create friction between 
himself and the Chapter, but for him personal 
considerations could not enter in a matter of this 
kind ; and on full review he concluded that he 
had no option, and that the case must go forward. 
His sole aim was to hold the scale of the balance 
even ; and when the Privy Council had ruled that 
there was nothing illegal in the figures on the 
Exeter reredos, and shortly afterwards the legisla 
ture granted an Episcopal veto, he was well satisfied 
to exercise it in the case of the reredos in S. Paul's, 
and to base his action on the decision which had 

1 Report of the Exeter Reredos Case, preserved by the Chapter 
Clerk, p. 67. 

2 This Act was passed August 7, 1874, and came into operation 
July 1, 1875. 



been previously given by the Court of Appeal in 
the parallel instance at Exeter. 

The following were the different stages in the 
Exeter case : — 

(1) The Bishop having decided to receive the 
Chancellor's petition, and having obtained, through 
application to the Lord Chancellor, the assistance 
of Mr. Justice Keating as assessor, cited the Dean 
and Chapter nominatim to appear before him in 
the Chapter-house of the Cathedral on January 
7, 1874. Mr. W. F. Phillpotts was present as 
Counsel for his father, the petitioner ; Dr. Deane, 
Q.C., and Mr. Walter Phillimore represented the 
Dean and Chapter ; Mr. A. Sturtees was solicitor 
on the side of the petitioner, and Messrs. Force 
and Battishill acted in that capacity for the re 
spondents. At the close of a three days' crowded 
session the court was adjourned, to meet again in 
the Chapter-house on April 15 following, when 
the Bishop first read the opinion of his assessor. 
It upheld the Bishop's jurisdiction, and maintained 
the illegality of the figures both in themselves, 
and also on the ground that the reredos had been 
erected without a faculty. 

The Bishop then delivered his judgment, in 
accordance with the opinion, in the following 
terms : — 

Having now read the opinion of my learned Assessor in 
which the law affecting the questions before me is so ably 
and so clearly stated, it remains only for me to say that I 
assent to and adopt that opinion, and to pronounce judg 
ment in conformity therewith. 

Accordingly, I, as Visitor and Ordinary, do declare and 
adjudge that the removal of the Stone Screen which recently 
formed the East End of the Choir of this our Cathedral 
Church with the Ten Commandments thereupon, and the 
setting up of a Reredos with certain Images thereon in 
substitution of the said Screen so removed by the Dean and 
Canons, being the Respondents herein, without any faculty 


or other lawful authority, was illegal as contrary to the Laws 
Ecclesiastical. And I do further declare and adjudge that 
the Images upon the said Reredos so set up, and the placing 
and continuing of the same by the Respondents upon the 
said Reredos, are and is illegal as contrary to the Laws 
Ecclesiastical. And I do order and adjudge that the 
said Reredos and the Images thereon be removed, and that 
either a Stone Screen without Images thereon be erected, or 
the open ironwork lately erected and now standing on each 
side of the said Reredos be continued, so as to occupy its 
place. And I do further order and adjudge that the Ten 
Commandments be set up on the East End of the Choir of 
our said Cathedral, in compliance with the terms of the 
Canon, where the people may best see and read the same. 

Having now, in accordance with the advice of my learned 
Assessor, pronounced a formal Judgment so as to found a 
right of appeal, if any of the parties should be so advised, I 
think it right to add that I shall be quite ready to entertain 
an application for a Faculty to vary the above order and 
to make such arrangements as, without involving anything 
illegal, would contribute to the Architectural beauty of the 
Cathedral, and I may observe that the position of the 
Petitioner as Chancellor will offer no obstacle, as I should 
myself hear the application according to the reservation 
contained in his patent. 

I may state that if there is no appeal it will be competent 
for the Petitioner, if the Reredos be not removed or a 
Faculty granted, to apply to me within a reasonable time for 
a monition to enforce the order, giving, of course, the usual 
notice. 1 

(2) Against this decision the Dean and Chapter 
appealed to the Court of Arches. In a private 
letter written to his Chaplain the Bishop makes it 
evident that this appeal was much to his mind : — 

KINGSBRIDGE, April 21, 1874. 

MY DEAR SANDFORD — . . . I am very sorry about the 
Reredos business. From what was said in London by other 
lawyers I had hoped that Keating would not have condemned 

1 Report of Exeter Reredos Case, preserved by the Chapter Clerk, 
pp. 177, 178. 


the whole, but only the central figure. And this would have 
made the whole matter much easier to deal with. 

As it is, I wish very much that they would appeal. I 
cannot, I fear, rightly enter into the matter with them 
myself. After all, my position is judicial, and if I am to 
confer, I ought to confer with both parties and not with only 
one of the two. But I would gladly give a good deal and 
do a good deal to get the Chapter out of all trouble in the 

But it seems to me that to appeal is the only course open. 
— Yours affectionately, F. EXON. 

The Dean of Arches reversed the judgment 
given at Exeter, (a) He held that although the 
Bishop had a general jurisdiction as Visitor of the 
Cathedral, it was doubtful how far it extended to 
the ornaments and fabric thereof, (b) In regard 
to the question of the necessity for a faculty, Ms 
words were these : — " A careful consideration of 
the whole of this question, with reference both to 
principle and to practice, leads me to a clear con 
clusion that the absence of an Episcopal faculty 
does not render the erection of this reredos illegal." 
(c) In regard to the illegality of the figures in 
themselves he states : — " I do not think that in 
the Cathedral of Exeter the reredos put up by the 
Dean and Chapter can be justly said, to borrow the 
words of our 30th Canon, * to endamage the Church 
of God, nor offend the minds of sober men.' " l 

(3) The Archdeacon in turn appealed to the 
Privy Council, who reversed the judgment of the 
Court of Arches in so far as it limited the Bishop's 
visitorial jurisdiction over the Cathedral, but 
maintained the judgment on the two points of the 
non-requirement of the faculty and the legality 
of the figures. The following are the parts of 
the judgment which bear upon these three 
particulars : — 

1 See Report as above. 


(a) Their Lordships are, under these circumstances, unable 
to agree with the opinion expressed by the learned Dean of 
Arches against the jurisdiction of the Bishop in the present 
case. ... (6) No authority has been cited, and no instance 
has been produced, in which a grant of any such faculty has 
been applied for, either in the case of Exeter Cathedral 
or of any other Cathedral, although it is notorious that 
important alterations in the fabric of most Cathedrals have 
continually been effected. . . . (c) What, then, is the 
character of the sculpture on the reredos in the case before 
their Lordships ? For what purpose has it been set up ? 
To what end is it used ? and is it in danger of being abused ? 
It is a sculptured work in high relief, in which are three 
compartments. That in the centre represents the ascension 
of our Lord, in which the figure of our ascending Lord is 
separated by a sort of border from the figures of the 
Apostles, who are gazing upward. The right compartment 
represents the Transfiguration, and the left the Descent of 
the Holy Ghost on the Day of Pentecost. The representa 
tions appear to be similar to those with which every one is 
familiar in regard to the sacred subjects in question. All 
the figures are delineated as forming part of the connected 
representation of the historical subject. The ascension 
necessarily represents our Lord as separated from the 
Apostles, who are gazing at Him on His ascent. As finials 
to the architectural form of the reredos, there is on each side 
a separate figure of an angel. It is plain to their Lordships 
that the whole erection has been set up for the purpose of 
decoration only. 

It is not suggested that any superstitious reverence has 
been, or is likely to be, paid to any figures forming part 
of the reredos, and their Lordships are unable to discover 
anything which distinguishes this representation from the 
numerous sculptured and painted representations of portions 
of the sacred history to be found in many of our cathedrals 
and parish churches ; and which have been proved, by long 
experience, to be capable of remaining there without giving 
occasion to any idolatrous or superstitious practices. Their 
Lordships are of opinion that such a decorative work would 
be lawful in any other part of the church ; and, if so, they 
are not aware of any contravention of the Laws Ecclesiastical 
by reason of its erection in the particular place which it now 
occupies. . . . 

Their Lordships desire it to be clearly understood that 


nothing decided in this case affects the question of super 
stitious regard being paid, contrary to the XXIInd Article 
of Religion, to any representations or images that are, or 
may at any time be, set up in churches. The law will at all 
times be sufficiently strong to correct and control any such 
abuse ; but their Lordships are of opinion that the sculpture 
in question is not liable to be impugned in that respect. 
Their Lordships will therefore recommend Her Majesty to 
reverse the decree pronounced by the Dean of Arches, so 
far as it reversed the decree of the Lord Bishop of Exeter in 
pronouncing for his jurisdiction as Visitor and Ordinary 
of the Cathedral Church of S. Peter, in Exeter, but to 
affirm the decree of the Dean of Arches in all other 
respects. 1 . . . 

The reredos still stands in the sacrarium of 
Exeter Cathedral. There was a strange inversion 
of parts connected with its erection, and it is 
possible for those who look at it to indulge in 
irony : — " This is a piece of imagery which was put 
up by a Protestant Dean and denounced by the 
son of a High Church Bishop ; the ultimate result 
of the attempt to expel it was to give sanction and 
impulse to uses against which the petitioner pro 
tested, and to confirm that Episcopal jurisdiction 
in the Cathedral against which the respondents pro 
tested ; the concession made to the High Church 
man was ultimately granted by a court which he 
abhors ; a Bishop decreed the removal of the reredos, 
but it still stands in open defiance within view from 
the Episcopal throne." But another way of looking 
at what happened is to reflect with satisfaction that 
in the long-run the moderate settlement is brought 
about, and that what is in itself indifferent does not 
permanently stand as a barrier between sensible 
men. Bishops and Cathedral authorities at Exeter 
never now give a thought to what but for a little 
wise discretion on both sides might have become a 
perpetual bone of contention ; and simple Christian 

1 Judgment of the Privy Council, delivered February 25, 1875. 


people visiting the place " lift up their hearts " as 
they gaze at the reredos, all unconscious of the wordy 
strife which once raged over it in the Chapter 
house hard by. This, perhaps, is the truer view. 

The Bishop's desire in regard to the Cathedral 
was twofold — (1) to widen its influence as a centre 
of worship and home of thought ; (2) to bring it 
into closer contact with the Diocese for purposes 
of executive action. To his mind the aims were 
inseparable ; but not so in the view of the Chapter ; 
and while this great work of restoration was a 
manifest token that they went with him in his 
desire to draw the Diocese to the Cathedral as the 
centre of its worship, they had little mind to take 
the Cathedral out into the Diocese for purposes of 
work. Most of them were old and stay-at-home ; 
he was comparatively young, and vigorous exceed 
ingly ; they were students or preachers ; he was a 
man of action, and though he had studied much, 
he was not a student of the cloister. Thus he 
was not in sympathy with their point of view, 
and was perhaps too much inclined to connect the 
stay-at-home attitude with distaste for work. An 
amusing incident in illustration, something of this 
kind, comes to mind. The Bishop, having swallowed 
a scanty luncheon, is off to a public meeting, 
pursued by his chaplain. Meeting a Canon of the 
Cathedral walking leisurely and with dignity through 
the Close, he interjects, almost without stopping : 
" Oh, Cook, I thought you would like to know that 
there was no time to discuss the Cathedral question 
at the Bishops' meeting last week." "Was there 
not ? I do not think there is much to discuss, 
except that I believe that the Bishops want the 
capitular revenues to pay their suffragans with." 
" Oh, I don't know about that ; but there was a 
general opinion that they ought to do more work. 
Good morning." And so each went his own way, 


one towards the city, and the other in the direction 
of the Cathedral. About the same time — the early 
days of his Episcopate — after a meeting with the 
Chapter, he confided to his Chaplain, "I wish I 
found it easier to get on with the old men — I can 
manage the young ones well enough ; but I was 
suggesting to the Chapter some diocesan work, 
and what do you think one of them said ? — ' My 
Lord, my conception of my duty is to keep my 
residence, to preach in my turn, and to attend 
Chapter. I don't see that there is any call upon 
me to undertake external duties besides this.' 
How am I to get them to work ? And yet they 
are so good." 

But worship and study were work nevertheless. 
It is much to the credit of both sides that with 
these essentially different views they got on so well 
together, especially considering that sometimes the 
delicate question of a bishop's special relations to 
a cathedral intervened, complicated in the case of 
Exeter by the fact that Bishop Phillpotts had him 
self been a member of the Chapter, and held the 
offices of Canon and Treasurer to the end of his 
life. In such cases the Bishop's old friend, Arch 
deacon Sanders, himself one of the Canons, was 
often a go-between. The following resolutions 
have regard to the question of the Bishop's right 
to attend the weekly meetings of the Chapter ; the 
question arose out of misunderstanding on the 
Bishop's part of some words spoken by a member 
of the Chapter at the Diocesan Conference, which 
were taken to imply that right :— 

Resolutions adopted by the Chapter at their meeting on 
November 13, 1880 :— 

1. That we fully recognise the right of the Bishop, as 
Visitor, to visit the Chapter when and as often as he pleases, 
and are prepared to respond to his Citations for that purpose 
with all due respect and obedience. 


2. That we are unable to find that the Bishop, not being 
a Canon, has ever attended any of the ordinary or special 
meetings of the Chapter, and are unwilling to introduce a 
practice unsanctioned by law, statute, or precedent. 

3. That it is the anxious desire of this Chapter to act in 
concert with the Bishop in all things which he may consider 
likely to promote the interests of religion and the welfare of 
the Diocese, and trust that the cordial relations hitherto 
existing between the Bishop and ourselves may remain 

Here are two letters relating to the right of 
the diocese to express an opinion about Cathedral 
reform :— 

October 25, 1879. 

MY DEAR ARCHDEACON — I send you a copy of a resolution * 
passed by the Ely Diocesan Conference at its meeting in 

But that the Exeter Diocesan Conference should do the 
same thing is monstrous ! — Yours ever, F. EXON. 

October 26, 1879. 

MY DEAR ARCHDEACON — I send you what I promised. I have 
little doubt that some other suggestions would be made by 
the clergy. . . . — Yours ever, F. EXON. 

P.S. — Your note has just come in. I am much amused at 
your funny jealousy of the Conference. What other organ 
does the Diocese possess ? You cannot seriously mean that the 
Diocese is to open its mouth and shut its eyes and see what 
their High Mightinesses the Chapter would give them. The 
Conference did quite right ; if no one had moved for a 
Committee I should have suggested one. 

Do not show the paper I send, but come and talk about 

1 "That in view of the Royal Commission which the Premier 
has announced that he will recommend to the Crown, to inquire into 
the Cathedral Foundations, a Committee be appointed to report to the 
next Conference upon the relations of Ely Cathedral to the Diocese, and 
to offer such practical suggestions upon this subject as shall appear 

Agreed to unanimously by the Diocesan Conference of Ely. June 
17, 1879. 


it to-morrow evening. Come to dinner at 7.30 if you can, 
and we will talk it over alone. 

The postscript of the last letter shows that the 
Bishop fully understood the way to win his old 
master. The Archdeacon might say that the 
dinners were " all gobble-and-go," but he liked to 
come all the same, and in a friendly, social chat 
afterwards many a friendly diocesan treaty was 
signed between the two. 

It is evident that the fuel was ready, but neither 
side wished to light the fire. With all his plain 
ness of speech the Bishop was never ruffled, and 
thoroughly respected the learning and worth of his 
Chapter, while they had an equal belief in their 
Bishop's sincerity and singleness of aim. 

The main issue — the participation of the 
Chapter in the executive work of the diocese — 
was raised as the result of the appointment in 1879 
of a Royal Commission to inquire into the condition 
of cathedrals. The general aim of the Commission 
is expressed in an opening paragraph of their final 
Report : — 

We have regarded the Cathedral and the members of the 
Cathedral body with reference not merely to the city in 
which they exist, nor, on the other hand, merely to the 
Church at large, but also and perhaps chiefly to the interests 
of the Diocese of which the Cathedral is the Mother Church 
and the Dean the leading Presbyter ; nor have we omitted 
to recognise the importance of endeavouring to promote 
earnest and harmonious co-operation between the Bishop of 
the Diocese and the Cathedral body. 

We have endeavoured to define and establish the relation 
in which the Bishop stands to the Cathedral, and have made 
provision for assuring to him his legitimate position and 
influence ; and we have made recommendations which, as we 
believe, will have the effect of making the Cathedral body 
more helpful to the Bishop in the work of the Diocese than 
has usually been the case in recent times. 1 

1 Final Report of Royal Commission on Cathedrals, 1885. 


The Commission issued this Final Report in 
1885 ; but previously to that date two general 
reports had been issued, together with a separate 
report on each cathedral, including Exeter. 
Inquiries had been addressed, as a preparatory 
measure, to all the Cathedral authorities. It was 
natural that while such projects were in the air, the 
question should be brought before the Diocesan 
Conference. This was done in 1879, when the 
following resolution, moved by the Rev. H. Tudor 
(now Sub-Dean of the Cathedral), was carried :— 
" That a Royal Commission having been appointed 
to inquire into Cathedral Foundations, a Committee 
of Clergy and Laity, members of this Conference, 
be named, to consider the relations of Exeter 
Cathedral to the Diocese, and to offer such 
practical suggestions to the Royal Commissioners, 
or to the Diocesan Conference, if time permits, as 
may seem to the Committee desirable." 1 The 
Report was presented in the following year, when 
an animated debate took place, chiefly remarkable 
for an outspoken speech of the Dean, in which he 
"maintained that there were no relations between the 
diocese and the Cathedral, and thought it was a 
mistake to say that the Cathedral was the life and 
centre of the diocese." "The changes proposed," 
he said, "were of a most revolutionary character, 
and one of them would supersede the present 
Cathedral system, and convert its clergy into 
diocesan officers." 5 He created much amusement 
when closing his spirited oration by applying to 
the Diocesan Conference the rebuke administered 
to intruders of old — " Ye take too much upon you, 
ye sons of Levi." 

Ultimately the following resolutions were 
carried : — 

1 Exeter Diocesan Conference Report, 1879. 
2 Ibid. 1880. 


I. That the number of Canons should be increased, and 
special duties over and above those at present required by 
law should be attached to some of them. 

II. That one Canonry should be divided between three 
junior Canons, required to reside three months each, not 
forming part of the governing body, nor admitted to plenum 
jus, but eligible for advancement, and that those three 
Canons should be at the disposal of the Bishop for 
occasional charge of parishes and other spiritual work in 
the Diocese. 

III. That the office of Chancellor should be attached to 
a Canonry, and that the duties of the Canon-Chancellor 
should be those which were originally imposed upon the 
Chancellor, with such additions as the circumstances of the 
Diocese or of the time may render desirable ; for example, 
giving lectures on Theology, Ecclesiastical History, or 
Ecclesiastical Law, in the Cathedral or elsewhere. 

IV. That the office of Precentor should be attached to 
one of the Canonries, and that the duties of the Canon- 
Precentor, assisted by a Succentor, should be to super 
intend, as the representative of the Chapter, the services of 
the Cathedral, and the training, education, and conduct of 
the Choir. 

V. That the Archdeacons should be Canons in addition 
to the three present Canons, and should be required to 
reside three months in every year. 

VI. That the Dean and Canons (other than the Arch 
deacons and the Junior Canons) should each of them reside 
for nine months in the year at the least, the time occupied 
by them in performing special duties elsewhere in the 
Diocese being counted as residence, and the time of residence 
being so arranged as that there should be always two Canons 
in residence at the same time. No exception to be made to 
the above rule of residence but by licence from the Bishop 
on the proposal of the Chapter. 

VII. That except by Archdeacons no Livings be held by 
either Dean or Canons. 

VIII. That in order to carry out the above recommenda 
tions, a readjustment should be made in future, as vacancies 
occur, in the divisible income of the Dean and Chapter, so 
that ultimately it should be applied annually as follows, 
viz. : — 


The Dean to receive . . . . £1600 

Three Canons, ^800 each . . . 2400 

Three Junior Canons, <£>333 : 6 : 8 each . 1000 

Three Archdeacons, ^833 : 6 : 8 each . 1000 


IX. That the attention of the Royal Commissioners 
should be directed to the desirability of some liberal scheme 
of compulsory retirement, by which Deans, Canons, Arch 
deacons, and Priest Vicars may retire when unable from old 
age, long-continued illness, or other incapacity to perform 
their duties, unless those duties be discharged by a deputy 
approved by the Bishop. 

X. That Prebendaries should be summoned to all 
elections in which they are to take part by letter instead of 
by a notice placed on the Precentor's Stall in the choir of 
the Cathedral, and that the equal right of the Prebendaries 
to represent the Cathedral body in Convocation should be 
considered and determined. 1 

The Bishop summed up the discussion with 
words of grateful acknowledgment to the 
Chapter : — 

He thought that they ought not to allow the occasion to 
pass without taking the opportunity of publicly noticing the 
very great services which the Dean and Chapter had 

1 To these Resolutions of the Diocesan Conference two clauses are 
annexed in the copy forwarded by the Bishop to the Commissioners : — 

"The following recommendations were also made by the committee, 
but were withdrawn in consequence of a statement by the Chancellor 
of the Cathedral that the Bishop already had a right to summon the 
whole Cathedral body whenever he thought fit, and to attend the 
Chapter (that is, the governing Chapter) weekly, if he desired it." 
(It appears that the Bishop was under a misapprehension in concluding 
that the Chapter recognised his right to attend the ordinary weekly 
meetings of the Chapter. See supra, p. 280. — ED.) 

" That the Bishop should have power to summon the whole Chapter 
(including non-residentiary as well as residentiary members) to meet 
in the Chapter House of the Cathedral for the purpose of consulting 
them as his council whenever he may desire their advice ; and that 
this should be done not less frequently than once in each year. Such 
meetings of the Chapter as the Bishop's council might usefully precede 
and arrange for the summoning of Diocesan synods, or conferences, 
or both." — Exeter Report of Royal Commission on Cathedrals, 1885, 
p. 9 of Appendix. 


rendered. . . . No body of men had discharged duties of 
patronage more faithfully, and to this must be added the 
munificence they had shown in the work of restoration, 
which would be long remembered with gratitude to their 
honour. For himself, in his relations with them, although 
they had not always agreed with his views, yet that was no 
more than might be expected from thinking men ; but he 
had certainly found them exceedingly courteous and desirous 
to consider everything that he had put before them. 1 

The Bishop, besides forwarding the resolutions 
to the Commissioners in accordance with the 
desire of the Conference, presented the following 
memorandum of his own : — 

It appears to me that, in any alterations affecting the 
laws which govern the Cathedral, three aims ought to be 
kept in view : — 

To improve the services. 

To attach the Diocese to the Cathedral. 

To render such services to the Diocese as the Cathedral 
body can best render. 

1. For the improvement of the services the most im 
portant alterations appear to me to be the dissolution of 
the college of Vicars Choral and the appointment of a 

The college is an anachronism, and its quasi-independence 
of control is a serious hindrance to efficiency. The members of 
the college ought to be appointed by, and removable at the 
pleasure of, the Dean and Chapter. The Priest Vicars ought, 
however, to have an appeal to the Visitor, that they may not 
in that respect have a lower position than licensed curates. 

A Succentor is needed who, being a first-rate musician, 
may have control over all the singers and choristers. I do 
not think it would be wise to take the only other course, 
namely, to pay the Precentor as such for this service, 
because I think it would be better that the precentorship 
should be attached to a canonry, and that the choice of a 
Canon should not be limited in this way. 

But if the precentorship be paid as such, I think it must 
not be attached to a canonry. In that case a Succentor 
would not be needed. 

1 Exeter Diocesan Conference Report, 1880, p. 19. 


There are minor improvements that might be made in 
the services, some of which would involve an alteration in 
the statutes. But these, I think, ought to be made by the 
Cathedral body itself under the power which that body 
possesses, and which ought to remain absolutely intact, of 
making new statutes with the consent of the Visitor. 

2. For the purpose of strengthening the ties which bind 
the Diocese to the Cathedral, I think it would be wise to 
make the office of Rural Dean a Cathedral office. The Rural 
Deans in this Diocese are elected by the clergy annually at 
the Archdeacon's visitation. They are generally retained in 
office for some years by re-election. They are, in fact, 
representatives of the clergy. Their superiors, the Arch 
deacons, are already Cathedral officers ; every archdeaconry, 
whether held by a Canon or not, being as such a place or 
office in the Cathedral. It would tend greatly to attach the 
clergy to the Cathedral if the Rural Deans, without being 
made members of either the greater or lesser Chapter, had 
a place among the Cathedral officers, tenable so long as they 
continued to be Rural Deans, ranking them next after the 
non-residentiary Canons, and allowing them to wear surplices 
at all Cathedral services. What other privileges might be 
conceded to them should be left to the consideration of the 
Cathedral body. 

Besides this recognition of the Rural Deans in the 
Cathedral, I think it would tend in the same direction to 
attach the canonries, residentiary and not residentiary, 
either to the rural deaneries or to the larger towns in the 
Diocese ; first, by making each such Canon take his title from a 
deanery or town, and secondly, by requiring of him some light 
duty, such as a sermon once a year in the deanery or town. 

3. By far the most important aim to be secured, if possible, 
is that of obtaining from the Cathedral body such services to 
the Diocese as a Cathedral body can best give. 

There are four kinds of work in the Diocese which very 
greatly need the aid which the Cathedral body and the 
Cathedral revenues can and, in my judgment, ought to give. 

A. First, in the promotion of study among the clergy, 
and especially the younger clergy. Nothing, I am convinced, 
would be more valuable to them, and would tend more to 
make them better preachers and teachers, than if a first-rate 
theologian were periodically to lecture in their neighbour 
hood once a week for six or eight weeks. To prepare to 
understand and profit by such lectures they would read a 


great deal as the lecturer might direct. And very many 
who now sink as they get older into a dull routine, would 
be stimulated into keeping their knowledge fresh and ever 

Such lectures a Canon might certainly give every year 
both in Exeter and in two or three other towns, taken in 
succession, in the Diocese. It would not imply a labour in 
delivering of more than six or eight weeks. And the labour 
spent in preparing would fall in well with that learned 
leisure which is often spoken of as one of the purposes for 
which canonries are intended. 

The promotion of Biblical study in the Diocese is one of 
the duties which may well belong to the Chancellor, who, in 
former days, always had the oversight of schools and seats of 

But if the work is to be well done it is necessary that it 
should be done in other places as well as in the Cathedral 
city. Many of the clergy could not afford to come to 
Exeter for the purpose of attending lectures, and the very 
presence of the lecturer in their own neighbourhood would 
be of value to all. 

B. Next to the promotion of study among the clergy I 
put the supervision of religious instruction in the elementary 
schools. That instruction, which a little while ago was 
stimulated and aided by the State, is now left entirely to 
the Church. To make it thoroughly efficient, regular in 
spection is required, and that inspection ought to be care 
fully organised. To pay for it requires the collection of 
funds all over the Diocese, and the supply of full information 
on the subject to all who are interested, without which 
information the money will not be forthcoming. 

It is very fitting work for a Canon to take charge of this ; 
to be responsible for collecting the money by meetings and 
sermons and similar appeals ; to supervise the whole inspec 
tion, and be himself the head inspector, although he could 
not personally inspect very many schools ; to report to the 
Bishop on the state of the instruction every year. 

This work I should like to attach to the dignity (as it is 
called) of the precentorship. It seems to me germane to 
one part of the duty discharged by the Precentor in early 

C. A very important part of the Church's work every 
where is now done by great societies ; thus the missionary 
work abroad is mainly carried on by the Society for the 


Propagation of the Gospel and the Church Missionary 
Society : the provision of additional clergy at home is in 
the hands of the Pastoral Aid Society and the Additional 
Curates' Society ; and other work is similarly undertaken by 
other societies. 

No work is more suitable for the ecclesiastical centre of 
the Diocese than the promotion of the interests of these 
societies. A Canon might be charged with the duty of supply 
ing full information to all inquiries concerning all the great 
Church societies, and of preaching for them and speaking 
for them, on an organised plan. In this work he might 
be allowed to require the aid of the Prebendaries or non- 
residentiary Canons each in the deanery or town from which 
he took his title, and some small payment might be assigned 
to them for this work. 

I do not think the work of these societies receives nearly 
as much support as it should. Englishmen are very parochial 
by nature, and need much to stir them into willingness to 
aid what is not under their own eyes. But the cathedrals 
might do much to create a healthier interest everywhere in 
what concerns the Church at large. 

D. Lastly, I think the Cathedral might do a good deal to 
encourage and improve the music of the Diocese. 

The Succentor, with proper aid, could be at the service 
of the clergy to inspect and advise the country choirs ; to 
organise and supervise the preparation for choral festivals, 
many of which might be held in the Cathedral itself; I 
believe the clergy would be very grateful for aid in this 

Now in regard to all this, I am aware that it may be 
said that the canonries would no longer be places of learned 
leisure as heretofore, that the Canons as they grew older 
would be unable to discharge the duties assigned to them, 
and that I leave out of sight the view of canonries as rewards 
for past labour and dignified places of retirement for men 
who have done their work. 

With regard to learned leisure, I think it will be quite 
sufficiently provided for by such a place as I have proposed 
to assign to the Chancellor. A man studies better, not 
worse, if he be compelled periodically to produce, in the 
shape of lectures, some of the results of his studies. To 
write eight lectures a year, which is the substance of what 
I propose, would be no tax on any man engaged in 



As men grew older they would, no doubt, be unable to 
discharge their duties. But in that case they ought to be 
allowed to resign under the Resignation Act, or to appoint 
and pay substitutes approved by the Bishop. Or the Bishop 
might be allowed to appoint the substitute cum jure succes- 
sionis, in which case the substitute could be obtained at a 
smaller rate of payment. 

I confess that I do not think it well to look at canonries 
as retiring pensions for clergy who have done work. The 
emoluments are too large for that purpose, and the numbei 
of canonries too small. Nor, most certainly, was it with that 
idea that canonries were originally created. 

I have said nothing of any duties to be assigned to the 
Dean. The Canons are now required to reside only four 
months in the year, the Dean eight. What I have proposed 
is what I think may fairly be asked of the Canons, to bring 
the service required of them up to the level of that 
required of the Dean. Four months is proved to be enough 
for the Cathedral ; let them give another four months to the 

But, in the circumstances of this Cathedral, I think the 
burden of the theological college especially belongs to the 
Dean, and if in its development anything more is required 
than at present for its working efficiently, it should rest on 
the Dean for the time being to supply what may be 

In conclusion, I have to say something on one matter of 
considerable importance, which might not seem at first sight 
connected with my proposals. 

It is often said that the Dean and Chapter ought to be 
the council of the Bishop in the government of the Diocese. 
Nothing would in my judgment be more valuable than such 
a council. I feel the need of it every day. 

But a council, to be of any real use, must consist, not of 
men who live by themselves in the Cathedral city, and know 
very little of the great body of the clergy or of the work 
that the clergy are doing, but of men who are labouring all 
over the Diocese as well as and alongside of the Bishop him 
self; of men who are constantly brought in contact by the 
discharge of their duties with their brethren, who know how 
best they can be guided and aided, and whose advice, when 
known to be theirs, will have the weight due to thorough 
comprehension of the circumstances, and hearty sympathy 
with the governed. 


Men engaged in such work as I have described would 
indeed be valuable advisers in all Episcopal work. 

F. Exox. 1 

It will be seen that the Bishop proposed to 
assign diocesan duties to the Precentor, Chancellor, 
and another of the Canons, to abolish the College 
of Vicars, to bring the Rural Deans of the diocese 
into official connexion with the Cathedral, and to 
give the Dean special responsibilities with respect 
to a Diocesan Theological College. 

Several attempts were made to legislate upon 
the report of the Commissioners ; but none of them 
passed into law. Many of the proposals of the 
Bishop and the Conference have been practically 
realised by the scheme inaugurated by Dr. 
Temple's successor, Bishop Bickersteth, when the 
canonries fell vacant — which did not happen 
during the Temple Episcopate. This scheme 
assigns to the several Canons the supervision of 
different departments of diocesan duty — educa 
tion, pastoral work, home and foreign missions. 
It may be questioned whether the scheme, though 
excellent in many ways, has not a tendency to 
concentrate the attention of the Canons in question 
upon the diocese rather than upon the Cathedral. 
This difficulty would have been met to a large 
degree by the adoption of a suggestion (Resolution 
No. 2) of the Exeter Committee (see p. 284), viz. 
that one canonry should be divided into three for 
executive purposes, to be held by younger men, 
not members of the Chapter proper. 

That Bishop Temple at heart fully entered into 
the spirit and purpose of a Cathedral is evident 
from his sermon preached in the Cathedral when 
the restoration was first contemplated in 1872 :— 

1 Exeter Report of the Royal Commission on Cathedrals, 1885. 
Appendix, pp. 8 and 9. 


Psalm Ixxxiv. 1, 2. 

. . . There are two things to which such buildings as this 
specially bear witness in the midst of us, two feelings which 
they seem to express, about which I should like to speak 
to you. 

In the first place, these buildings seem to tell us of the 
permanence of our Faith ; they are a perpetual witness to us 
that whilst there are many things in this world that change, 
and change to the very bottom, things that shall be speedily 
forgotten, one thing shall hold its place to the very last, a 
thing which goes back into the distant past for hundreds 
of years, which shall last on into the distant future, yes, 
until the Judge of all the world shall Himself come to judge 
the doings of mankind, and that is the Church of Christ. 
The Church is the blessed Company of all faithful people 
who, being united in His Son, the Lord Jesus, and their hearts 
knit to His by their faith and trust in Him, shall always find 
that He cannot fail, that what was once preached to the 
saints of old under His authority shall be preached to distant 
ages yet, and that even if when He comes He finds that 
there are few to welcome Him, and acknowledge His 
authority, still that there shall be a faithful few — His bride 
— the Church. We hold communion with great and good 
men in past days who have served the Lord in their own 
generation — up to the best of their power ; we shall hold 
communion with many who shall live after us, who shall 
look back upon our day as we look upon the days that have 
passed away, and shall recognise that we have handed 
down to them that which we received. Here, in this 
Cathedral Church, shall we forget the great men in past 
time who spent all their energy, and all their love, in rearing 
it up in the midst of this city? Shall we think because 
there may be various changes and differences that have 
marked the time between us and them, that therefore we 
are cut off altogether from the past, and that we are not 
standing on the same old foundation ? No. Those great 
and good men belong to us. We recognise their work, and 
we hope that we shall hand it on as it was given to ourselves. 
It is true that when we look back into past days, often can 
we see that men in former days did not know much that we 
know. . . . Shall we not add that often we see, too, that 
their ignorance puts our light to shame, and that their little 
knowledge inspired them with love for God and fervent 


devotion to His service, which it would be well indeed if we 
could imitate ? . . . A Cathedral is a witness that amongst 
all the things that are here upon earth this surely shall stand 
as one of the most solid and immovable, namely, the Faith 
of Christ, to the worship of whom it is dedicated. . . . 

And yet there is another, and perhaps a still more 
important truth : a Cathedral bears a perpetual witness, as 
once did the Temple amongst the people of God in former 
days, to the dignity and importance which we must always 
assign to God's worship above all other things. There is 
much in the work of the world that we may admire and 
take part in. ... We may see how the various forces which 
stir men's hearts are at work amongst them. We may 
watch the hot debate and the eager controversy stirring 
men's souls, and seeming as if they were the only powers 
that moved the world. We may follow all the delibera 
tions of the great Councils that rule the nations, and it 
may seem to us as if here was laid bare the very machinery 
by which all human history moved. One man may devote 
himself to the creation or the maintenance of institutions 
that shall guide men straight in the path of life, and 
another man may labour hard to correct abuses ; one man 
may be keen in the pursuit of his object ; another man may 
be more restrained and deliberate, watching and waiting ; 
and all in their various turns may be doing real work, as 
God would have them do it, and obeying their conscience 
when it gives them clear directions. But this Cathedral, 
and such Cathedrals, shall perpetually say, Yes, it is true 
that there you behold a great force that moves the world, 
but there is another of which, perhaps, you take little count, 
which is stirring men's souls more deeply than anything you 
witness there. . . . Here in this Cathedral shall be offered up, 
calmly and quietly, day after day, the worship of the God 
that rules the world. Here where there is no sound of strife, 
where passions that stir men's souls outside seem for the time 
to be set at rest, where men seem for the moment to forget 
the world, shall they find new strength, and a new power to 
do their duty in that very world from which they are for the 
moment withdrawn, a power greater than all other powers 
that the world can know. Is it not the case that, as a man 
lives longer he learns more and more that behind all political 
forces, all social forces that work upon men in various ways, 
there lies one that is sure in the last resort to be stronger 
than all of them, and that is, their moral standard ? Cannot 


we see the more we study, the deeper we look, the older we 
grow, that the strength of a nation invariably rests upon 
the moral character of it, and that if its moral standard 
be lowered, the nation is sure before long to go wrong, 
and to sink in power and dignity ? And does not every 
Christian know, although perhaps others may not see it, that 
lying behind the moral standard, and behind all moral force, 
the root and source of everything of the kind is invariably 
the religious life, the contact of the soul with God, that flow 
of the spiritual power of God Himself into the hearts of men, 
without which it is quite certain that at last all morality 
shall wither up and become mere obedience to mechanical 
rules ? So this Cathedral seems silently to say, Yes, you 
have your work to do, go and do it well ; yes, there are 
other things in the world besides that for which I speak ; 
and yet for all that I tell you, that deeper than all that you 
may rely upon besides is the power of constant prayer to 
God, which stirs men's souls, which fills their hearts with 
Divine power, which brings them close to God Himself, 
which makes them know what is that Rock on which they 
are standing. It is good for all of us that there should be 
this perpetual witness borne to such truths as these, and 
that the witness should be conspicuous and marked so that 
all men can read it ; it is good that we ourselves should 
show that we are not ashamed to give our witness, and to 
give it in the plainest way, by making such a building as 
this Cathedral as beautiful and as dignified as is the import 
ance of the work that is here to be done on behalf of all 

These are noble words ; and yet it may be that 
in his schemes the man of action did not quite 
fully gauge the value of an agency that had just 
produced the restoration of a Cathedral destined 
to stand when his own schemes for executive work 
had had their day and passed. Animals cannot run 
and ruminate at the same time, nor can the same 
men, unless raised far above the usual level, both 
contemplate and circulate. It would be nothing 
short of disastrous if, for the sake of executive 
activity, the Cathedral system were to sacrifice the 
life of thought and worship ; nothing would suffer 


more certainly than the work itself for which the 
surrender was made. Dr. Temple lived long 
enough to lament, " I have no time to think." He 
spoke within view of Westminster Abbey, and the 
great Church bore its own witness to a power which 
even the best workmen always need. But, looking 
back, and regarding the position as it stood at the 
time, who can doubt that the Bishop, and not the 
Dean, was right in his general line, and said the 
thing which then needed to be said ? It was 
essential that the Cathedral should go to the 
Diocese if the Diocese were to come to the 
Cathedral ; nay, thought and study would have lost 
their value if divorced any longer from connexion 
with those modern problems of human life which 
must be studied, not in cloisters only, but in the 
abodes of men. The existence of the Cathedral 
system itself, and perhaps more, was involved in 
such a discussion as took place at Exeter ; and the 
Bishop, with his usual breadth of view, saw the 
main direction in which security lay. 

A difficulty of a precisely opposite character 
forced itself upon the Bishop's attention shortly 
after his coming to Devonshire. In this instance 
the problem was not how to deal with a single 
large interest, but with a number of minute in 
terests. Exeter, like not a few other Cathedral 
cities, contains many very small parishes which 
were originally dependencies of the Cathedral and 
were served from it. Earlier times had not been 
without difficulties connected with this arrange 
ment. They arose either from the shifting of the 
population or the poverty of the cures. Churches 
had been pulled down in consequence, or for a time 
disused, and boundaries had been altered, without 
apparently any violence being done to the religious 
feelings of those concerned. The inconvenience of 
the system had not grown less in later times, and 


it is aptly described in the words of a Commission 
appointed by Bishop Temple's successor to deal 
with the matter : — 

The general tendency of the Churches activity in the 
towns is now in the direction of organised work amidst 
populations of some considerable size and in churches capable 
of holding large congregations, and whatever may be said 
for the more personal work with individuals which small 
parishes might seem to favour, the spiritual wants of a 
thickly populated city, largely influenced by common thought 
and feeling, cannot be provided for by the minute machinery 
of a series of miniature parishes ; the areas are too small to 
supply vigorous parochial life ; the incumbent is left like an 
officer who has no troops to command ; and there is little 
that is helpful to wider corporate unity. 1 

Local opposition to changes of the kind pro 
posed is strong ; how strong, may be judged from 
the fact that hitherto, in spite of two local com 
missions and several attempts at legislation, not 
a few of the threatened parishes still survive. 
Bishop Temple's eye for practical effectiveness soon 
saw the need for reform, and he made his first essay 
at legislation on the subject in 1871. Foiled then 
in an attempt to carry through a general measure, 
he confined himself four years later to an effort to 
pass a Bill dealing only with the city of Exeter. 
But the difficulties to be overcome were too great 
even for Dr. Temple's persistency. He left Exeter 
without accomplishing his purpose. As Archbishop 
he renewed bis efforts in the same direction, with 
the authority of his position as Primate to back him. 
Reverting once more to the principle of a general 
measure, he introduced a Bill which would have 
covered the Exeter case and made it part of a com 
plete whole ; but the tardiness with which the wheels 
of ecclesiastical legislation move was once more 
exemplified — and he died before the Bill was passed. 

1 Report of Local Commission on the Union of Small Parishes in 
Exeter, 1893. 


In this, as in many another case, he was content to 
act as pioneer, and he has the credit of being the 
first to see the need. His successors were in 
doctrinated, and, without the help of legislation, 
have gained in several individual cases the amal 
gamation which he desired, and some, though not 
all, of the benefits which legislation would have 

In other cases affecting parochial church life at 
Exeter success was more immediate and visible. 
Three new churches were built in the city during 
the Episcopate — S. Leonard's, S. James', and S. 
Matthew's — and the old churches of Allhallows, 
Goldsmith Street, 1 and S. Petrock were restored. 
Two of the new churches replaced old buildings 
on the same sites. The erection of S. Matthew's 
involved the creation of a new parish, and the first 
incumbent bears witness to the cheering support 
and business capacity which smoothed the path for 
him at critical moments and secured ultimate 
success : — 

. . . These details serve to illustrate what I mean, when 
I speak of the determination and patience with which the 
Bishop made the work to move without regard to little 
cross-currents and under-currents, and in spite of the fact 
that sometimes people seemed to lose heart — to him it was 
necessary work for the Church, and he went on doing it. 2 

As a set-off against the Bishop's failure to secure 
amalgamation of the small parishes at Exeter by 
legislation may be placed the Bill which he passed 
through Parliament for bettering the ecclesiastical 
arrangements of Tiverton. That town had always 
a special interest for him owing to the associations 
of early days, and the interest extended from school 
to parish. The Bill was read a second time in the 

1 This church has since been demolished (1906) under the authority 
of an Act of Parliament. 

2 Memorandum of Rev. T. J. Ponting. 


House of Lords on June 19, 1884. In submitting 
his proposals, the Bishop explained that by the old 
arrangements the whole town was brought together 
into a kind of ill- working and fictitious unity by a 
system which placed it under the joint control of 
four incumbents. Each of these was supreme in his 
month at the Parish Church, and modelled the 
service more or less after his own liking. Each had 
separate pastoral responsibility as regards four out 
of the five " portions " into which the town was 
divided ; but in the fifth " portion," called " All 
Fours," no rector was permanently responsible, but 
only each during his time of office. The patronage 
was in different hands. 

'The system works ill,' said the Bishop, 'in spite of 
every desire to work it well. I have in past days known 
instances of children presented for Confirmation by one 
Rector who had been rejected as unfit by another. . . . The 
rotation in the charge of the Parish Church ... is particularly 
a cause of perpetual friction. Neither clergy nor people are 
satisfied, nor is it likely that they ever could be. . . . There 
is, in fact, no means whatever of procuring that unity in action 
which is essential to the successful management of a parish.' l 

The remedy proposed was subdivision into in 
dependent parishes, two of which were the country 
districts, which hitherto had been held as annexes 
to one or other of the different "portions." The 
evil was manifest, the remedy simple ; and not even 
the passion for delaying church legislation was proof 
against the arguments for effecting a change. The 
Bill passed into law the same session. The generosity 
of one rector, the Rev. H. Venn, who resigned his 
" portion " in order to accelerate the carrying out 
of the scheme, and the efflux of time aided the act 
of the legislature ; and before Dr. Temple's death 
the old Blundellian had the satisfaction of knowing 
that through him the town had been freed from a 

1 The Chronicles of Twyford, by F. J. Snell, pp. 374, 375. 




yoke of parochial servitude under which it had 
laboured for centuries. The conferring of this 
benefit upon Tiverton was one of the last of the 
more important acts of the Exeter Episcopate, and 
the mention of it closes the Home chapter with 
that which to Bishop Temple would have been as a 
whiff of the air of home. But in such work there 
was for him more than a sentimental interest ; the 
home air must be good ; from the centre at and 
around Exeter, worship, thought, and service must 
go forth into the diocese. 



In Convocation : Early views of Convocation — Reception — Essays 
and Reviews — Athanasian Creed — Ecclesiastical Courts — 
Bishop's discretionary power — Ecclesiastical measures — 
Evangelistic work of the Church — Authorised Hymnal — 
Manual of Family Prayer — Rogation Days — Agenda Paper 
for Convocation — Reception of Dr. Temple's translation to 
the See of London. 

In the House of Lords : Pluralities Act Amendment Act — 
Truro Bishopric — Church Patronage — National Education — 
University Tests Bill — Opening of churchyards to Noncon 
formists — Marriage with the Deceased Wife's Sister Bill. 

Relations with Public Schools and Universities. 

Hampton Lectures. 

WHEN the question of Dr. Temple's translation to 
the See of London was first mooted, doubts were 
expressed in some quarters as to whether he was 
not too exclusively a Diocesan Bishop for the 
metropolis, which required for its overseer a man 
of enlarged interests. Exeter and Devon were in 
a full sense his home, his Bishopric was there, 
and they had the first claim. This claim, as he 
understood it, taxed even his powers to the 
full : he was single-handed throughout his Epis 
copate, and looking back when Archbishop he said 
that even after the severance of Cornwall the work 
of the Exeter Diocese left him very little time for 
outside duties. But he discharged them fully and 



conscientiously nevertheless, both for their own 
sake and in the interests of the diocese. A wide 
outlook was natural to him ; he knew, moreover, 
that he was best serving his own diocese by 
extending its view. The wide range of the sub 
jects discussed in his Conferences, both Diocesan 
and Ruridecanal, testify to his sense of the advan 
tage which his clergy and laity would derive from 
their Bishop's participation in the life of the 
Church at large. It took time and added the 
strain of night journeys to a life already full-laden ; 
but the thing had to be done, and the effort was 

His life in Convocation no less than his diocesan 
work is an illustration of confidence and success 
gradually won. At first there was little confidence 
on either side. 

What is g°i n g to be about with his Convocation 

elections ? (he asks his old Balliol tutor, Mr. Scott, 1 as far 
back as July 31, 1852, when the revival of Convocation was 
first attempted). / dread the revival of such a fearful power : 
I do not know what you think. But if Convocation ever gets 
a voice, its first utterance will render unmistakable the fact 
that the Clergy and the Laity of England do not agree in 
doctrine. And how long will our Established Church last 
then ? The Clergy have not yet learnt that they can only 
guide the Laity in doctrine by convincing them. I should 
not wonder if the present Government were to revive Convo 
cation. If they do they will have the vessel on the breakers 
in a twinkling. There are other rocks ahead, no doubt, 
but this one is close at hand. 

When Dr. Temple was made Bishop of Exeter 
in 1869, the vehemence of his early feeling against 
Convocation had been superseded by an attitude 
of indifference. Of this an incidental remark in 
one of his letters to Canon Cook, accounting for 
the slip by which he had mistaken " Convocation " 

1 Afterwards Dean of Rochester. 


for " conversation " in the Freeman incident l of 
the first days of his Episcopate, is a striking con 
firmation :— 

I certainly was not thinking of Convocation as Convoca 
tion at all, and if it was mentioned I only thought of it as a 
place where Freeman would meet many of his own way of 
thinking and talk to them. The word convocation in 
Freeman's note I read conversation, though it is clear 
enough, and though I now see that it does not make sense. 

Again in the same letter : — 

Remember that while it was quite natural that you and 
Freeman should think of Convocation, it was equally natural 
that I should not be thinking about it. Whenever I 
thought of coming to London, I thought not of Convocation 
but of Parliament. 2 

But though he did not at first take much 
account of Convocation, he intended to do his duty 
by it, and his connexion with it is a remarkable 
illustration of a gradual change of relations on 
both sides ; to the last he knew that Convocation 
could not stand as a representative body for the 
whole Church, but the fear of its stretching itself 
beyond its measure lessened, and the sense of its 
influence grew. When as Archbishop he acted as 
the President of the historic body which in earlier 
days he had condemned or disregarded, no sturdier 
champion of its rights and position could be found. 
And Convocation had long learnt to trust their 
destinies in his hands. 

But the earliest attempts were not wholly 
successful. His first speech — the apologia for his 
position in the matter of Essays and Reviews* 
though brave and powerful, did not attract 

1 Supra, p. 49. 

2 Letter from Dr. Temple to Canon Cook, February 17, 1870. 
3 Supra, p. 50. 


Never was anything more perverse and wrong-headed (is 
the verdict pronounced by a leading member to Canon 
Cook) than Bishop Templets speech on Friday, unless it be 
Stanley's outrageous letter in the Times to-day. What do 
they want ? — a fight, I suppose. . . . But it was a wanton 
provocation of those who had so readily given him the right 
hand of brotherhood, and specially hard on those who had 
stood by him in the fray, to volunteer a defence of free 
speaking at least, if not free thinking. 1 

Nor were his first subsequent utterances entirely 
to the mind of his brethren. The earliest speech 
of importance was on the subject of the Athanasiaii 
Creed. He seconded an amendment of the Bishop 
of Norwich against the publication of a synodical 
declaration to explain its language, and in doing so 
took exception to the public use of the formulary 
in church : — 

... I think that such a synodical declaration would be 
a very great relief to meet the objections of those who have 
simply a difficulty in signing the Creed, but I think it would 
be a relief to very few indeed of those who object to 
the use of it in public worship. . . . The explanation is not 
to be used at the same time (as the Creed itself); it is to be 
kept somewhere else in the documents of the Synod of the 
Convocation of Canterbury. ... If you suppose that men 
will be content to submit to this grievance without any 
other effort at all to remove it, I think you will find that 
you have done nothing either to remove disquietude or to 
prevent agitation. ... I did not desire to detain the House 
longer than was absolutely necessary to satisfy my own 
conscience that I had not been on this occasion cowardly in 
pressing on the authorities of the Church what I believe to 
be at this time their duty. 2 

The amendment was rejected by 12 against 2, 
the Bishops of Exeter and Norwich forming the 
minority, and the President interpreted the objection 
of the two prelates to the proposed declaration as 

1 Letter to Canon Cook, February 15, 1870. 
2 Chron. of Convocation, 1873, p. 303. 


implying "that because they cannot get all that 
they want, they will not even have half of what 
they want." l 

The Bishop of Exeter remonstrated against this 
interpretation, but it doubtless expressed what 
might be called a common-sense view, and it was 
evident that the House had not taken the measure 
of Dr. Temple's mind and character. The declara 
tion was published, but it may seem to many that 
Dr. Temple's last words of warning have been 
verified : — 

Although you will not agree with me, I think you will 
find, after a little time, you will have to reconsider your 
decision. 2 

Six years later Dr. Temple again attempted in 
Convocation to offer relief in the matter of the 
Athanasian Creed by a suggestion for the insertion 
of a rubric at the end of the Communion Office in 
these terms : — 

That upon the principal festivals when the Holy 
Communion is about to be celebrated, the minister may, if 
he think fit, proceed at once to the Litany or Communion 
Office after the Benedictus or Jubilate in the Order for 
Morning Prayer. 3 

This endeavour to deal indirectly with the 
matter gained more support. The Resolution was 
defeated by the narrow majority of 2 — the numbers 
being 8 for and 10 against. 

Some years later (July 2, 1884) the Bishop of 
Exeter, in a debate in Convocation on the question 
of Ecclesiastical Courts, again pleaded for what he 
conceived to be the cause of religious liberty, but 
on different points : — 

He wished to call the attention of the House to one or 
two things not in his judgment sufficiently present to the 

1 Chrou. of Convocation, 1873, p. 308. 
2 Ibid. p. 307. 3 Ibid. 1879, p. 267. 


minds of all. In the first place he wished to observe that 
at present there was a very strong desire apparent that 
decisions should be given by the spirituality ; but he could 
remember (and he was not certain that the time would 
not come again) when there was a great desire that the 
spirituality should be altogether relieved from the responsi 
bility of giving such decisions, on the ground that the 
Bishops would bind the Church, whereas the decision of the 
judicial Committee could not be said to do more than to 
bind the practice of the Church. By the Bishops giving 
their opinion on a point of doctrine it would be felt that the 
Church of England would be committed to that doctrine. 
It was true that if they looked back to early days they 
would find that all such questions were decided by the 
Bishops, but they must remember the enormous difference 
made by the present divided state of Christendom. There 
was always in those days behind the decision of the 
Bishops the possibility of a general council, and that 
made an enormous difference, and, as it seemed to him, it 
was the duty of every branch of the Church, as things now 
were, to avoid giving decisions as much as possible, and 
simply to keep within the lines laid down by the formularies. 
He could not but think that, with the exception of the 
difficulty pointed out by the Bishop of London — namely, 
that sometimes lay judges were not sufficiently informed 
of the meaning of technical terms, — men accustomed to 
interpret documents were certainly likely to do justice more 
fairly than men not accustomed to any such practice, and 
who usually looked at the documents with a totally different 
purpose. It was true that to a certain extent the decisions 
of the judges bound the Church ; but they bound the Church 
in quite a different way from the binding effect which would 
come from the decision of a body of Bishops, if a body of 
Bishops were to decide a question. He was quite sure, for 
instance, that the results of the decisions of the Bishops 
in that respect upon the formularies which they now held 
would be practically to add to those formularies, and that 
he would deprecate very much indeed. . . . 

There was one thing more which had not been noticed, 
but which was nevertheless of the gravest importance. They 
were considering the mode in which the court shall be con 
stituted, not in a Church in the abstract, not in a Church 
having no connexion with the State, but in a Church which 
was connected with the State ; and they must not leave that 



out of sight, but must consider . . . how far the State, without 
any sacrifice of truth on their part, might fairly claim to inter 
fere with them. Just let them look at the position in which 
the State had put them. A Bishop had control of the pro 
ceedings. Not a single clergyman could be prosecuted for 
ritual or doctrine without his consent, and the whole body of 
Bishops could lay hold of that power and could say, " We 
won't have this question raised." If any clergyman should 
be prepared to say, "I will submit to the Bishop in this 
matter," then he would on one hand be perfectly ready to 
submit himself to the judgment of the Archbishop with such 
assessors as he chose to call in, and on the other hand he 
would say that the clergyman should not be brought into 
the ordinary ecclesiastical courts. The State said to them, 
" We acknowledge your independence, your independent 
existence as a Church ; we cannot go into the details of your 
constitution ; we cannot determine what is to be the precise 
way in which you are to work. So far as we are concerned 
you must settle that for yourselves, but you are an Episcopal 
Church ; you profess to have Bishops at the head of your 
Church, and if the Bishops choose to keep things in their 
own hands they have the power to do so." No clerk was to 
be prosecuted without the Bishop's leave, and if the clerk 
would not submit, and the matter was to be brought into 
the courts, then they could only do in the last resort what 
was proposed by the Commissioners ; they could only decide 
according to the judgment of the best lawyers whether or 
not this particular man was so contravening the formularies 
by which he was bound that he ought to be deprived of his 
benefice, or, if he had no benefice, be silenced for any length 
of time that might be thought fit. ... He hoped very 
much indeed that Convocation would be prepared to restrain 
its natural impatience of control by the State if only they 
would reflect upon the large amount of independence which 
was necessarily given to them by the control of the 
Bishop. 1 

The Report to which the Bishop referred in the 
above speech is that of the Royal Commission on 
Ecclesiastical Courts, published in 1883. It pro 
posed to leave the final appeal in matters ecclesi 
astical as at present with the Crown, represented 

1 Chron. of Convocation, 1884, pp. 328-332. 


by lay judges, with the proviso that the spiritualty 
should be consulted x upon specific points arising in 
the course of the trial, " on the demand of any one 
or more of their number present at the hearing of 
the appeal. " : 

With this presentment of the claims of religious 
liberty his brethren were in general agreement; they 
understood the Bishop's position far better than 
when he first came amongst them. He had gained 
their confidence by his repeated manifestations of 
full acceptance of the essential truths of the faith. 
One such instance was given in the course of this 
very debate : — 

The Bishop of Exeter thought, on the whole, that this 
recommendation (of the Lower House of Convocation) 3 
would work as their Lordships desired. It was observ 
able that a case might go back to the Archbishop for a 
judgment different to what his officer, the judge of the 
court, had pronounced; but this would enable the Arch 
bishop in extreme cases to refuse altogether to agree to 
commit the Church to some deadly heresy. For example, 
in such a case as had happened to himself (the Bishop 
of Exeter). A man came to him with the presentation 
to a living, saying he thought himself bound to inform 
him that he did not believe in the resurrection of the 
Lord Jesus Christ. He said he was justified in seeking 
institution, as the old form of assent had been altered. 
Formerly a man was required to assent to the "doctrines 
of the Church"; that had been altered to "doctrine 
of the Church," and he said that this form of assent had 

1 There is no proviso that the opinion of the spiritualty should be 
binding on the Court. But comp. Report of Royal Commission on 
Ecclesiastical Discipline, 1906, p. 69, par. 369, with Recommendation 
5, pp. 77-78. It will be seen that it is proposed by the later Commis 
sion to make the opinion of the spiritualty binding. 

2 Report of Royal Commission on Ecclesiastical Courts, 1883, vol. i. 
pp. Iviii. and liv. 

3 " That when on appeal to the Crown the judgment of the Church 
court is to be varied, the cause should be remitted to the court the 
judgment of which is appealed against, that justice may be done therein 
according to the order of the Crown " (Chron. of Convocation, 1884, 
p. 337). See also p. Iviii. Report of Royal Commission. 


been altered with the express view of not binding any 
man to details. Belief in the resurrection of the Lord 
Jesus Christ, he said, was a matter of detail ; and, therefore, 
he should feel himself quite justified in holding a living in 
the Church of England, although he did not believe with 
the Church in this " detail." Of course he (the Bishop) said 
he should not institute him ; and he could take his case into 
court if so advised, and that he (the Bishop) would be pre 
pared to meet him there. Now, if it was conceivable that 
by any possibility the supreme court should hold that a man 
not believing in the resurrection of the Lord Jesus Christ 
was to be considered capable of holding a living as a minister 
in the Church of England, he (the Bishop), if Archbishop, 
would most certainly decline to pronounce any such sentence 
at all. It was hardly conceivable that any such case could 
arise, but if the court should so hold, then this rule provided 
a means by which the Church (as a last resource) could be 
protected from being committed to any such vital heresy. 
He moved the adoption of the Resolution. 1 
The Resolution was unanimously adopted. 

The growing confidence which the Bishop in 
spired was also due to the reputation which he 
acquired for absolute impartiality, and for clearness 
of perception and boldness in matters of practical 
policy. Thus in speaking on the question of 
Vestments he is prepared to accept a proposal 
of the Lower House that the Ornaments Rubric 
should be so worded as to admit of the priest 
wearing a cope provided that "it shall not be 
introduced into any church other than a collegiate 
or cathedral church without the consent of the 
bishop." 5 But he expresses his opinion that the 
ultimate settlement will be found by canon rather 
than rubric : — 

I think it would be a very great gain to us if we could 
transfer this question from Rubrics to Canons. I believe that 
if originally this had been a matter of Canon the whole thing 

1 Chron. of Convocation, 1884,, pp. 337, 338. 
2 Ibid. 1879, pp. 197, 215. 


might have been ten or fifteen years ago entirely settled. 
But because it was a matter of Rubric it was impossible to 
deal with it without the concurrence of Parliament, and we 
know very well how exceedingly difficult it would be to bring 
such a matter before Parliament, and, in fact, we cannot do 
so at all unless we brought before Parliament the whole body 
of Rubrics. 1 

The Bishop's aim throughout the discussion on 
the Ecclesiastical Courts was, in the interests of 
peace and individual right, to preserve the Epis 
copal veto, and concurrently not to restrain the 
general power of complaint. He desired to sub 
stitute the exercise of the bishop's paternal 
influence for judicial proceedings, but at the same 
time to preserve to the full the right of the 
individual to appeal for "lack of justice." Thus 
in a debate in Convocation in 1884 he speaks as 
follows : — 

He looked on the discretionary power which the Bishop 
now had as being of double value. First, he thought it was 
often of great importance to prevent the scandal of public 
proceedings at all ; and that was particularly the case in 
respect to moral offences, in regard to which any prosecution 
was a serious infliction on an innocent man, and the Bishop 
ought to have the power to say that he was satisfied that 
the case ought not to come into court at all. Further, it 
was of great importance to prevent the scandal of litigation 
upon very small points, from which the Church has suffered 
not a little, and it was certainly right in such cases that the 
Bishop should be able to say : " This is a frivolous thing, 
and ought not to be a matter of litigation."" . . . Another 
value to be attached to this mode of proceeding was that it 
might be made the foundation of a voluntary jurisdiction of 
the Bishops. For himself he should not hesitate to stop any 
prosecution, especially any prosecution as to ritual offences, 
if the clergyman simply said that he should put himself in 
his hands. If he stopped proceedings he should say to 
the clergyman, " I shall require you to submit to any order 
which I may make, subject to what the Book of Common 

1 Chroh. of Convocation, 1879, p. 214. 


Prayer distinctly recommends. Subject to that, if the order 
which I make appears to you to be a grievance, I am 
prepared to submit it to the Archbishop. That is in the 
Prayer Book, and I am prepared to follow the line laid down 
there." If his Grace thought fit to take counsel of the other 
Bishops in such a case, he (the Bishop of Exeter) would be 
only too glad ; but he should submit the grievance com 
plained of to .his Grace, and act in accordance with his 
Grace's direction. 1 

We see here the germ of the policy on which 
he acted himself when he became Archbishop. 
But if the matter went into the Courts, there 
must be in a question of ritual or doctrine the 
fullest right of appeal for every one : — 

On questions of law he did not think it was reasonable 
that anybody, either prosecutor or defendant, should be 
required to be content with anything lower than the 
Supreme Court of Appeal. 2 

Yet fuller part was taken by the Bishop in 
matters affecting the ordinary discipline of the 
Church. For four years (1880-1883) he was 
largely occupied with efforts in this direction. 
His aim was twofold — both to diminish the ex 
penses incurred in promoting the enforcement 
of discipline, and also, while doing no injustice to 
the individual clergyman, in the interests of the 
parishioners to make discipline more effectual. 
When speaking on the subject of the expenses of 
litigation he referred to his own experience : — 

It seems to me monstrous that the charges should be so 
great as they now are, and I cannot but believe that by 
careful consideration these charges might be materially 
reduced. I have had some experience in these matters. 
Some time ago I had a case which cost me <£1270 — a case 
in which I do not think any bishop could have avoided 
entering upon a prosecution. It was a case in which a 

1 Chron. of Convocation, 1884, pp. 293, 294. 
2 Ibid. 1884, p. 29.5. 


clergyman was charged with immoral conduct, and in which 
it was absolutely necessary for the due government of the 
diocese that he should be prosecuted. Of that £1210 
something like £500 was paid for fees to counsel. I do not 
suppose it is possible by any legal enactment to diminish 
that ; and if I had been fully alive to the matter, I daresay 
I should not have incurred so large an expense. But there 
still remains £100 or £800 — an amount which was incurred 
for the purpose of satisfying all the legal forms in the first 
place, and in the next place of paying the witnesses. Now, 
with respect to the legal forms, I cannot but believe that a 
great deal may be done in the way of diminishing expenses 
of that kind. There is a great deal more incurred in the 
Ecclesiastical Courts than in any other. 1 

A Committee of which the Bishop was chairman 
was appointed. The Committee eventually became 
a joint committee of both Houses, and the reference 
to it was enlarged so as to include the consideration 
of the administration of a parish during the in 
capacity of a clergyman from illness or other cause. 
The final outcome was the passing of the Pluralities 
Act Amendment Act in 1885, and of the Clergy 
Discipline Act in 1892. The former Act, which 
was virtually the Bill of the Bishop himself, was 
carried through the House of Lords by him during 
the Exeter Episcopate. The Bill, besides en 
deavouring to secure its special object, incidentally 
introduced general improvements in the parochial 

The Clergy Discipline Act secured that simpli 
fying of proceedings and consequent reduction 
of expense of which the Bishop spoke when 
introducing the subject to Convocation, and both 
measures did much for the general efficiency of the 
Church. How careful he was to safeguard the 
interests of the individual clergy, is incidentally 
illustrated by a letter to Archdeacon Barnes : — 

1 Chron. of Convocation, 1880, p. 130. 


June 7, 1883. 

I wish if you see you would tell him — 

1. That he is not a Pluralist. He holds only one Benefice 
though that Benefice contains two parishes. 

2. That the proposed Bill puts absolutely no duties upon 
him which were not and are not upon him under the old 

3. That under the old Act he is liable to be brought 
before a Commission for neglect of duty just as much as 
under the new Bill. 

4. That the old Act would bring him before a Com 
mission of five, of which three would be appointed by the 
Bishop, and the new Bill makes the Commission independent 
of the Bishop altogether. 

5. That in every respect but one the Bill is less stringent 
than the old Act in such a case as his, and that one par 
ticular is that if he were required by the judgment of the 
Commission, of the Bishop, and (if he appealed) of the Arch 
bishop to appoint a Curate, and if being required to appoint 
a Curate he failed to do so, the Bishop could appoint a 
Curate and compel a higher payment to that Curate than 
the old Act would allow. 

But in Bishop Temple's view the better discipline 
of the clergy was but a first step towards the eleva 
tion of the daily life of the people. This was the 
subject in his mind when, in 1883, he followed up 
some remarks in Convocation on the Salvation 
Army by moving in Convocation for the appoint 
ment of a Committee to consider what steps could 
be taken by the Church to meet the spiritual needs 
of the masses of the population. He could not 
see his way to advocate co-operation with the 
Salvation Army. Accordingly the Bishop obtains 
a Committee with the following reference : — 

That in view of the present unsatisfactory spiritual state 
of great masses of the population, especially in large towns, 
and of the various methods adopted and suggested for 
reaching them, a Committee be appointed to consider whether 
the Church ought to take any, and if so, what special action 
to meet the need. 


He characteristically put his finger upon the 
weak point in all such special action, and he 
appends to his Resolution the following remarks : — 

I think the proposal of special action very often has a 
questionable effect in this respect, that it gives the idea that 
the work is to be done by this special action, and that, 
therefore, there is no need to work in the ordinary course of 
things ; but that on the contrary the ordinary work may be 
allowed to be a little slack for the sake of the special action. 
Now I am convinced that what is wanted is not special 
action, but greater labour in following out the line on which 
the Church usually works. 1 

The Committee appointed was a Committee of 
both Houses. It circulated forms of inquiry 
through both provinces, and two years later (1885) 
presented an exhaustive report, which was com 
mended by a resolution of the Upper House 
(February 13, 1885) to the consideration of the 
Church at large. It will thus be seen that Dr. 
Temple was one of the first to set the stone rolling, 
and to press the attention of the Church on that 
problem of dealing with the masses which still 
waits its full solution. 

The Bishop was plainly anxious that the 
Church, while not dragooning national life into 
allegiance, should provide for its needs, and show 
herself furnished and prepared for them. While 
desiring also to meet to the full the demand for 
individual freedom of action, he wished the Church 
collectively and with authority to represent her 
own mind, and to give a type of what was desirable 
in the tone and regulation of ordinary religious 
life. With this object he supported the movement 
for an authorised hymnal, which had been inaugur 
ated by Archdeacon John Sandford in Convocation 2 
shortly after the revival of that body in the middle 
of the last century. In 1871 a number of petitions 

1 Chron. of Convocation, April 10, 1883, p. 21. 
2 Ibid. March 1, 1861. 


were presented in its favour by the Bishop of Bath 
and Wells and other prelates, and in presenting one 
signed by more than a thousand Churchmen in his 
own diocese Dr. Temple spoke as follows : — 

I wish to take the opportunity of saying that I very 
heartily concur in the prayer of the petition. I think such 
a hymnal might be formed, and that it would tend very 
much indeed to bind the members of the Church together. 
I cannot help saying that in other bodies of Christians the 
use of a recognised hymn-book has a powerful effect in 
attaching together all the members of the bodies to which 
they belong, and I cannot but believe that a good hymnal 
would have the same effect on our own body. 1 

He maintained this position throughout his life, 
and, when Bishop of London, acted as chairman of 
a joint committee having this object in view. He 
was ultimately obliged to acquiesce in the conclusion 
that for the present the attempt was premature, but 
he adhered to the belief that the putting out of 
a Convocation hymnal was in itself desirable. 

His issue of a manual of Family Prayer by 
Convocation was, however, his main work in the 
direction of authorised expressions of the Church's 
mind as to worship. He explains the genesis of it 
in the speech in which he introduced the subject in 
Convocation : — 

It is my practice to hold conferences with the clergy all 
through my Diocese, one in every rural deanery, and in these 
conferences one of the subjects discussed by the clergy was 
the best mode of promoting the practice of family prayer. 
It was very generally said that family prayer is not nearly so 
common, especially among the middle and lower classes, as 
it ought to be, and as it used to be, and there was an almost 
unanimous expression of opinion that it would be very much 
easier for the clergy to urge this duty on the people if they 
were supplied with forms of family prayer, having the 
authority of Convocation, and I was requested to bring the 
matter before your Lordships, and to ask you to take it into 

1 Chron. of Convocation,, June 13, 1870-71, p. 306. 


consideration. ... I only want to add that it seems to me 
somewhat an argument in favour of the proposal that the 
Episcopal Church in America has always had a form of 
family prayer in its Prayer-book, and I have been repeatedly 
told by Americans that in every case you will find that that 
is the part of the Prayer-book that is more used than any 
other part, and that a great many value it very much indeed. 
There is a further advantage in it — that inasmuch as we do 
not propose to make any public use of such forms, there is 
no occasion for Convocation to seek any authority outside 
itself; but it would be simply recommended on the authority 
of Convocation, and the clergy would be able at all times to 
say to their people, " Here is a form authorised by the 
authorities of the Church. You need not, therefore, be 
troubled as to what precise form you should use, because 
this is put into your hands as the form authorised by Con 
vocation." I move — 

That a Committee be appointed to prepare forms of 
family and private prayers to be considered and, if thought 
fit, authorised by Convocation. 1 

The book was published in 1879, and the Report 
which is appended to the published manual explains 
its main characteristics. The forms are not 
identical with those of the Prayer-book, but the 
spirit of them is the same. There is much use 
of Holy Scripture, and the book includes a care 
fully prepared lectionary 2 following the order of the 
ecclesiastical seasons. The phraseology is Biblical 
throughout, to suit the religious thought and 
language of the people at large. There is suffi 
cient elasticity to admit of the use of the book by 
different classes, and the general aim is, consistently 
with adherence to one general framework, to add 
supplemental prayers and litanies which will suit 
the different seasons of the year and the occasional 
and varying needs of family life. Large space is 
given to intercession, and to those subjects of 
intercession which occupy the main place in the 

1 Chron. of Convocation, 1878, pp. 51, 52. 

2 In the arrangement of the Lectionary Dr. Benson, the Bishop of 
Truro, was a constant referee. 


minds of Churchmen and citizens. Some of the 
forms are taken from accredited post-Reformation 
manuals of devotion ; some were written by the 
members of the Committee. Among those con 
tributed by Dr. Temple is one — a commendation 
of absent and departed friends — which is a char 
acteristic expression of his strong love of home. 1 
The whole work is penetrated with his sober spirit 
of simple practical religion, which centres on the 
weightier things. 2 

Dr. Temple's sympathy with daily life showed 
itself in other ways. He spoke on this subject in 
Convocation (Feb. 18, 1879) with reference to the 
observance of the Rogation Days, and he drew up 
a service to be used in his own diocese at that 
season. His speech arose out of a proposal that 
the day of intercession for Foreign Missions should 
be one of the Rogation Days. 

... I believe if this could be done it would be found 
that the congregation that would attend would be very 
large. I believe, for instance, in my own Diocese, which is 
an agricultural Diocese, if it were understood that on that 
day there were to be prayers for the harvest, and that the 
two things were to be combined together, nine farmers out of 
ten would be there, with most of their neighbours. If we are 
to observe these days, I think it would be sacrificing a great 
opportunity, if we did not endeavour to recall the original 
purpose for which they were instituted. My own particular 
reason for wishing to suggest this is that, before the assign 
ment of this day for the intercession of Missions had been 
proposed, I had already, in a Charge to my own Diocese, sug 
gested that, as it was a general practice to observe festivals 
of thanksgiving for the harvest, it would be a very advisable 
thing indeed to observe one of the Rogation Days by the use 
of prayers for God's blessing on the harvest. The two things 
would correspond very well to one another, and I have no 
doubt that the observance would be very generally kept. 3 

1 See Editor's Supplement, vol. ii. p. 712. 

2 This book is now published by the National Society. 

3 Chron. of Convocation, 1879, pp. 13, 14. 


Bishop Temple was neither the first nor the 
last who has been hindered in his Convocation 
work by the unsatisfactory arrangements or lack 
of arrangements under which that assembly suffers. 
Archbishop Tait had the knack of conducting its 
affairs by the aid of special personal aptitudes, and 
rather enjoyed the freedom from binding forms ; 
his own will and administrative capacity gave the 
law. To Bishop Temple, however, immersed in 
work in his own diocese, the uncertainty conse 
quent upon such methods was a trial ; he did 
not know when his attendance would be wanted 
nor what papers to bring with him when he came. 
Accordingly, in the summer session of 1880 he 
ventures to bring the subject to the attention of 
his brethren : — 

I think it desirable to call attention to the necessity 
of giving greater facilities for conducting the business of 
Convocation ; and in doing so I cannot help instituting a 
comparison with the manner of conducting that business and 
the manner in which the business is conducted when meetings 
of the Bishops are summoned, and when we have an agenda 
placed before us. That prevents the waste of time which 
frequently occurs here. We now come together without 
any previous notice of what is to be done, and the conse 
quence is that nobody knows when any subject is to be 
brought forward, and what is to be brought forward. I 
therefore think it very desirable that some notice should 
be circulated before we meet. It is frequently said that 
we must wait for what is done by the Lower House ; l but 
we might have an agenda prepared, to be used at the dis 
cretion of the President. I think it would not be very 
difficult to have a paper prepared and sent round to your 
Lordships, so that we might understand the matters which 
are to be brought forward, and then we could be prepared 
to deliberate upon them. I had no idea of the subjects to 
be brought under consideration at the present sitting ; 

1 When a similar effort was made in the Lower House some ten 
years later, it was objected that the Lower House was bound to wait for 
what was done by the Upper. 


but I think there are matters which we ought to have 
an opportunity of discussing ; but in consequence of the 
want of any notice we have been wasting a considerable 
time. Under present circumstances there are members who 
think it almost unwise to come to Convocation any longer, 
because we do so little. I do not think there is much in 
that objection, because I should come under any circum 
stances. But I think that our work would be enormously 
lightened if we had a paper sent round before we meet. 
I do not think there would be any great difficulty in 
sending round an agenda stating the business intended to 
be brought forward at your Grace's discretion. I do not 
wish to move any resolution on the subject, but I hope your 
Grace will consider the desirability, before the commence 
ment of our sittings, of sending out a paper stating what 
business is intended to be brought forward. 1 

To this suggestion, which was strongly supported 
by other bishops, the President ultimately agreed, 
although not without the usual official demur in 
such cases against useless change. " Now that 
you have got your Agenda Paper, what are you 
the better for it?" he ejaculated on the first 
occasion in which the document was produced. 
Method is not everything, but, in the long run, 
when a strong hand has been withdrawn, the want 
of it may be mischievous, and to Bishop Temple is 
due the credit of introducing a change which 
ultimately suggested imitation in the Lower 
House, and may eventually be productive of still 
further improvements in the arrangements of 
Convocation generally. 

Such is an account of the main work accom 
plished by Bishop Temple in Convocation during 
his Exeter Episcopate. In fifteen years he had 
lived down the suspicion with which he was 
regarded when he first entered the Assembly, and 
gradually had built up a great reputation for sound 
judgment, administrative capacity, strength of 

1 Chron. of Convocation, 1880, pp. 105, 106. 


grasp, and elevation of aim. No man's loyalty to 
the Christian faith and devotion to the Church was 
more fully recognised when he became Bishop of 
London ; and he had gained his position, not by 
adaptation to circumstance, but simply by showing 
himself for what he really was. Here, as elsewhere, 
external influences worked upon his receptive 
nature, but not in such a sense as to unmake 
the man but rather to develop him. The record 
of useful work in Convocation is all the more 
notable when it is remembered that it was sup 
plemental to an astonishing amount of work in 
his own diocese. At the end of his Exeter 
Episcopate he stood second to none in the con 
fidence and esteem of his brethren. The follow 
ing appreciation from Bishop Harold Browne 
is all the more striking when contrasted with the 
fact that, while supporting Dr. Temple against 
attack when he became a bishop, he had not felt 
himself able to act as a sponsor for him at his 
consecration. 1 

Perhaps we ought to remember the saying of the Greek 
philosopher, which has been translated for us by Horace : — 

Dicique beatus 
Ante obitum nemo, supremaque funera debet. 

But I think we may speak of our brother as " beatus " 
— beginning life with a noble youth, struggling against 
great difficulties — difficulties against which few of us would 
dare to struggle — succeeding first by gaining a Fellowship in 
one of the most distinguished Colleges in the world, then 
becoming master of a great School, and afterwards Bishop 
of a large Diocese, which he administered, we all know, 
vigorously, with great self-denial, and with large-hearted 
charity. I am sure, therefore, that he has given us every 
prospect of assurance that he will succeed our dear brother, 
Bishop Jackson, and do the work which was no longer 

1 Supra, p. 40. 


allowed to him to do. I am sure we all welcome him 
heartily to the first place in our body after our Metropolitan, 
and not only the first place among us, but the first place in 
the world. 1 

The welcome of the Archbishop, Dr. Benson, 
had in it a yet fuller ring of personal friend 
ship : — 

May I add one word to the welcome addressed to the new 
Bishop of London ? He has been to me, as you all know, 
a constant friend and helper and most strong upholder. 
I can't tell you how many times his joyful laughter has dis 
persed weak fears of mine, and how many times when I have 
been in a difficulty he has given me courage by clutching my 
wrist. And I think I am the right person to bear witness 
to the wonderful organisations, both lay and clerical, touch 
ing every part of the spiritual life of his people, which I 
found when I succeeded to a small portion of his Diocese. 
He left me in that third part of his Diocese as much work 
as a man could reasonably accomplish, and yet he went on 
doing admirably the work of a Diocese twice as large. I 
wish I could tell you how constantly I have enjoyed credit 
down at Truro which was due to him alone. I am quite 
certain he enjoyed me having the credit of certain work 
infinitely more than he would have enjoyed its being given 
to him. 2 

It is perhaps not surprising that Dr. Temple, re 
membering all the things that had been, should 
" confess," in rising to second the Bishop of Win 
chester's resolution, that he felt "a little off his 
balance just at present, and not able quite to say all 
he would desire to say." 3 

Dr. Temple's experience in the House of Lords 
is not a record of a great personal success to the 
same extent as is his life in Convocation. One 
reason, doubtless, is to be found in the fact that the 
more official atmosphere of the House of Lords did 
not bring him to such close touch with those whom 

1 Chron. of Convocation, February 1885, pp. 3, 4. 

2 Ibid. 1885, pp. 6, 7. 3 Ibid. 1885, p. 4. 


he met ; and thus the great force of his personality 
had not the same opportunity to attract and prevail. 
But success was not necessary to the same degree ; 
it was needful for his influence in the Church that 
he should be a leader among the bishops ; it was 
not needful for his influence in the State that he 
should lead in the House of Lords. His power 
was felt sufficiently for the work which had to be 

He soon established a reputation for administra 
tive capacity. He appears to have made some four 
teen or fifteen set speeches, besides carrying through 
at least two Bills on practical subjects : one of them 
the Pluralities Act Amendment Act, and the 
other the Truro Chapter Act. He spoke twice 
with reference to the separation of Cornwall from 
the Diocese of Exeter, — once in the debate on Lord 
Lyttelton's Bill for the increase of the Episcopate 
in 1875, and once during the passage of the Truro 
Bishopric Bill itself. 

He more than once attempted, when Bishop of 
Exeter, to get a Bill passed for the amalgamation 
of small parishes. 1 He made at least one speech 
on the subject of Church Patronage, which he 
had so constantly in his mind and so near to 
his heart. Conscious that he was speaking to a 
House of Patrons who would listen but coldly, 
he nevertheless drove home with cogent force his 
conviction that the sale of livings was a standing 
scandal, and that palliatives were no full or lasting 
remedy. 2 

Once he spoke on his special subject — National 
Education — with characteristic common sense and 
knowledge of detail. The occasion was a debate 
raised by the late Lord Norton on over-pressure in 
Board Schools. 

1 Supra, p. 295. 
2 Speech in the House of Lords, February 25, 1875. 


The system of payment by results produced two things 
— it led the master to see, as far as possible, that every boy, 
even the dullest, should be taught reading, writing, and 
arithmetic ; and, in the second place, it compelled the master 
to look to the younger children, because these children were 
compelled to be individually examined quite as much as the 
children more favourably situated. A great change had 
come over the condition of schools in consequence of this 
system of examination, and in consequence of the method in 
use, of payment by results. The system, however, required 
very careful watching. If they put a man under the system 
of payment by piece-work, instead of payment by day-work, 
there was a tendency to sacrifice the man to the work. The 
end of the matter was, they made the man a mere grinder at 
one class of work ; while, in the meanwhile, he was seriously 
hurt as a man, because he was confined in his scope, because 
his whole mind was made mechanical. If they made the 
master grind at one class of things, and nothing else, there was 
a tendency to make the mind mechanical. In the long-run, he 
unfitted himself for the work he had to do, and that was the 
objection to the mode of payments by results. It had to be 
carefully watched ; but he thought they were very far from 
the time when it would be either wise or safe to give up the 
system. There was another thing in the Code which required 
careful modification, and that was the rigidity of the Standards. 
If he were a schoolmaster, he would be perpetually fretting 
against the rules by which the promotion of boys from 
standard to standard was regulated. The master had to 
satisfy the inspector that he had made the right promotion ; 
but he (the Bishop) maintained that the master ought to 
have the organisation of the school and the promotion of the 
boys in his own hands. He admitted, however, that a great 
deal had been done in relaxation of this rigidity, and he was 
not at all inclined to complain that the Code had done 
mischief on that score. With regard to over-pressure, of 
which a great deal had been recently heard, he was afraid 
there was some over-pressure ; but few children suffered from 
it. The chief sufferers were the pupil -teachers and the 
masters. In making these remarks, however, he, at the same 
time, confessed that he thought the present system was 
working very well, and that all that was wanted was that 
the authorities should be kept alive to the necessity of 
making constant improvements. It would be a mistake 
to give up the system of individual examination. He 


advocated a closer and more thorough inspection ; because 
he was of opinion that mere watching of a school was 
not sufficient for a thorough and reliable carrying out of 
the Act. 1 

Dr. Temple's record in the House of Lords 
showed that he had more in him than practical 
ability : it was a revelation of his hold on large 
principles — the progressive spirit in politics in com 
bination with higher things of which the politician 
does not dream. His speeches on the University 
Tests Bill and the Law of Burial show him true to 
his liberal principles. 

In speaking on the former subject he says : — 

I think, my Lords, we ought not only to pass this Bill, 
but pass it with the least possible delay. Many are lost to 
the Church because we require of them what their consciences 
will not accept. When a young man carries off a Fellowship, 
and signs the necessary declaration, it often occurs that he is 
vexed in conscience by all manner of questions, which it 
would be much better to allow him to put aside, and con 
sider calmly and deliberately, and without anything depend 
ing on his decision. But by the very nature of the case, he 
is obliged to settle such questions for himself at once, or 
forfeit the character of an honest man. If left to himself 
these questions would be settled in a legitimate manner, by 
his quietly thinking over them until the conclusion to which 
his conscience would lead him should be quite clear to his 
understanding. Whilst, however, he is called upon to 
decide under such circumstances as exist at present, it is 
almost inevitable that difficulties should arise like mountains 
before him, and that doubts that were in reality hardly 
worth considering should appear insurmountable obstacles, 
and in this frame of mind you call upon him to decide what 
must affect the whole future tenour of his life. ... I speak 
from experience, and I say I am sure that, as long as this 
state of things continues, the Church of England must suffer, 
and suffer in a way which is most difficult to meet. They 
may be only a few who are thus compelled to enter into 
these speculations and thus decide for themselves ; but they 

1 Speech in the House of Lords, June 27, 1884. 


are the very pick of the Universities — the very men who are 
to lead their fellow-men ; and to lose one of them is a matter 
ot grievous consequence. Very often I would rather sacrifice 
the endowments of the Universities altogether than lose the 
men who are sometimes lost through the present system. . . . 
Now this Bill still protects the clerical Headships of Colleges, 
and the clerical Fellowships. But wait another year, and 
the chances are you may then find that the clerical Fellow 
ships and the clerical Headships of Colleges are gone too. 
This is no menace. It is not a thing that I desire, nor do I 
believe the Government desire it ; but it is the irresistible 
current of popular feeling ; and I am quite sure you will put 
in peril the remaining safeguards of religious instruction if 
you allow this Bill to wait. . . . There is no question that 
the atmosphere of truth is freedom, and that it is quite 
inconsistent with narrowness and exclusiveness. If you will 
only remove these tests, I, for one, have no fear of what can 
be done by the Church of England. It could fight its own 
battles without fear or favour. ... It is said we shall do 
little to conciliate the Dissenters by admitting them into 
the Universities. My Lords, I believe we shall do much. 
Pardon me if I speak warmly of my own University. It is 
impossible for a man who has learnt much in that University 
not to feel that no words can express the depth of his 
affection or the strength of his conviction of her power to 
extend to others the blessings which she has conferred on 
himself. And when those now outside of her pale are intro 
duced within it, will they be insensible, my Lords, to what 
we have all felt so keenly ? Will they not be touched with 
something like the love that we have cherished for our own 
Universities ? Will not that have some effect in softening 
down their asperities ? The sooner we Churchmen invite 
them to join us the better, for we shall find them, I am 
quite sure, such allies that there will not be the slightest 
reason for what I cannot but think the bugbears held up to 
frighten us by those who advocate delay. 1 

The following are his words in favour of the 
opening of Churchyards to Nonconformists : — 

It was unjust to the Nonconformists that they should 
be excluded from that which all natural and right-feeling 
men would give them; it was mischievous to the Church 

1 Speech in the House of Lords, July 14, 1870. 


of England that it should be put in the attitude in which 
it now stood. No greater mischief could be done her than 
to alienate the sympathies and affections of the great body 
of the people. There were not only political agitators to 
deal with — he should care little indeed if they were to 
remain unsatisfied to the end ; but there were many religious 
people, both among Nonconformists and among Church- 
people, who felt that in this matter we were treating Non 
conformists with unkindness and injustice. As a matter of 
justice and in the interests of the Church of England, he felt 
bound to vote for the Resolution. 1 

The division resulted : — Contents 92 ; Non-Contents 148. 
Majority against the Resolution 56. 

Dr. Temple was the only Bishop among the Contents. 

It may be that all the hopes that the Bishop 
built on these measures of enfranchisement were 
not realised, and that not all the fears of others 
were proved groundless. The opening of Church 
yards has not wholly conciliated Nonconformists, 
nor is the tone of the Universities increasingly 
religious as the result of the abolition of Tests ; 
but in Dr. Temple's eyes the course followed was 
just, and that was enough ; and many men will 
think that the ideal view was also practically the 

In such questions he was bound by no party 
ties. Whichever side represented in any given 
case the higher view, this had his whole-hearted 
support. He was heart and soul with the Liberals 
on the Turkish question, and he made his sympathy 
with them manifest ; but his protest against legalis 
ing marriage with the deceased wife's sister was 
none the less emphatic, because in making it he was 
opposed to the main body of his political friends. 
The whole question took him into a higher region 
than politics, and the House of Lords listened to 
the same line of lofty argument as that with which 
he had so deeply moved an assembly of Churchmen. 

1 Speech in the House of Lords, May 15, 1876. 


. . . He was looking only a little time ago at a message 
of a Governor of one of the States of the American Union 
to the Legislature of the State. There was a proposition 
before the Legislature for dealing in a particular manner 
with the property of divorced persons, and the Governor 
remarked that already things had come to such a point that 
marriages were contracted almost with the expectation that 
they might very soon be dissolved, and his objection to the pro 
position was that it would make the dissolution of marriages so 
easy that marriage would cease to be a permanent contract. 
In those countries where there had been any relaxation of this 
kind, they would find that, even if the surface were smooth 
enough to the eye to enable them to say that morality and 
decency were the rule, yet the solemn and holy bond of 
matrimony was not looked upon as it should be, and was no 
longer what it had been and ought to be. He had always 
advocated what had been called measures of progress, and 
he believed in the progress of the people, and that in their 
progress they would find true elevation ; but all depended 
on its being true progress, consistent with pure morality ; 
and it was the duty of every one who held that the morality 
of the people was now in danger to protest with all his 
strength, as he did, against the passing of this Bill. 1 

It is probable that this speech contributed not 
a little to an unusual result — the rejection of a 
measure at the final stage. The Bill was thrown 
out on the third reading by a majority of five. 

Such utterances go far to justify the position of 
a bishop in the House of Lords, and on a full 
review it may be questioned whether any episcopal 
record there could make out higher claim for the 
highest place of responsibility in the Church. It 
demonstrated firm grasp both of principle and 
detail, in conjunction with vast power of work. 
Above all the consciousness of a higher world was 
manifest, and the conviction that true progress 
depended on true elevation. 

Next to Convocation and Parliament the Public 
Schools and Universities had the first place in the 

1 Speech in the House of Lords, June 28, 1883. 


Bishop's extra-diocesan interests. He preached in 
Eton College Chapel in 1874, and he became a 
Governor of Rugby and Sherborne, and ultimately 
of Winchester and Charterhouse. The entries in 
his engagement books give simple but striking 
witness to the regularity with which he managed 
to work in his attendance at Governors' Meetings 
with all his work in a distant diocese ; the minute- 
books, and the testimony of his colleagues, speak 
for his sound judgment and governing power. 
His personal connexion with the College, and his 
friendship with the successive masters, Drs. Scott 
and Jowett, drew him often to Balliol, where he 
was always welcome as a guest in the Hall and a 
preacher in the Chapel. His kindly presence and 
vigorous speech had a bracing influence at the 
time, and are helpful memories to not a few. 
More than once he preached the University 
Sermon, not always without a protest from some 
who were both old friends and also antagonists, 
but always with acceptance to the young life of 
the University. 

Ultimately the sound of protest died away, and 
was unheard when, urged to the task by Dr. 
Jowett, he undertook the office of Bampton 
Lecturer in 1884, during the last twelve months of 
his Exeter Episcopate. This is not the place to 
consider the argument of his lectures, on which 
something will be said elsewhere. 1 Once more 
Matthew Arnold, as at the Consecration in West 
minster Abbey, waited on the old colleague and 
the friend who revived the memory of his own 
father, and beside him stood Robert Browning. 
The subject of the final lecture was the perception 
of spiritual truth by the spiritual faculty, and in 
the Lecturer's pleadings for devotion to Christ as 
the test that this faculty has reached its highest 

1 Editor's Supplement, vol. ii. p. 633. 


development, it seemed to some that there was that 
which recalled the poet's picture of the Apostle S. 
John as he lay waiting for death in the desert : — 

I say, the acknowledgment of God in Christ 
Accepted by thy reason, solves for thee 
All questions in the earth and out of it. 1 

In the case both of Apostle and modern Bishop, 
the force of proof was not in word only but in 
life, and this evidence became stronger as the long 
years of service grew. The following graphic 
reminiscences of Dr. Cosmo Lang, the present 
Bishop of Stepney, recall the scene : — 

The Bishop of Exeter's Bampton Lectures were delivered 
in the Lent term of 1884. It was a term in which Oxford 
life was more than usually keen and active. The "social 
movement" was running strong. The plans for Toynbee 
Hall and Oxford House were being laid. There was much 
excitement over the question of the admission of women to 
University examinations. In the midst of this stirring debate 
and discussion the Bishop appeared upon the scene. If I 
remember rightly, the audience at first was not unusually 
large ; but it gradually increased until S. Mary's was 
crowded in every part. The force and massiveness of the 
man arrested and held the attention of the University. I 
was then a Scholar of Balliol, entirely outside the ecclesiastical 
life of Oxford. But Temple was to Balliol men a College 
tradition. We had all heard of his undergraduate days, 
and seen the staircase where he had read at night to save 
the oil in his own lamp. Stories were already in circulation 
of the bluntness and decisiveness of his manner and speech. 
The Oxford Magazine (recently started), reporting the first 
lecture, said : " The harsh tones in which the Bidding Prayer 
was spoken called up a recollection of the famous sonnet in 
the Spectator which apostrophised Dr. Temple as 'The 
Hammer of the Lord/ " I well remember the effect which 
his voice made upon me. Certain characteristic phrases and 
intonations passed for the time into the currency of under 
graduate talk ; and increased the curiosity with which the 
Bampton Lecturer was regarded. But this curiosity soon 

1 Browning's " A Death in the Desert." 


gave place to the conviction that a personality of singular 
force and reality was standing Sunday after Sunday in the 
pulpit of S. Mary's. The magazine of May 14 asked : 
" Who can say whether it is as a writer, as a bishop, or as 
himself that the Bampton Lecturer attracts such large 
audiences?" There is little doubt that most of us would 
have answered, " As himself."" Indeed, my clearest recollec 
tion of the lectures is the impression made by the man who 
spoke them. To be quite honest, many of the arguments I 
have forgotten ; some of them, I know, in those brave days 
of youthful confidence, we criticised with some severity and 
superiority. But the man himself made a deep and strong 
impression. We lived — and this is true, not least of those of 
us who liked to be thought " liberal " — in an atmosphere of 
philosophic phrases (mine were Hegelian). Here was a man 
whose words and arguments were his own, coined in his own 
vigorous mind, and stamped with his own personality. We 
were all supposed to be " thinking for ourselves, 1 " and were 
apt also to suppose that this process was hardly consistent 
with any decided acceptance of the Christian Creed. Here 
was a man who was obviously thinking for himself, and 
thinking with vigour, freedom, and honesty ; yet his think 
ing brought him to that Creed. Jowett, I remember, had 
said shortly before, in one of his quaint and characteristic 
Balliol Sermons, " The search for truth is one thing ; 
fluttering after it is another." Here was a man whose 
earnestness rebuked all "fluttering,"" who was plainly in 
honest and urgent search for truth, and who found it in 
the Word made Flesh. Few of us who heard the concluding 
words of his last lecture, summing up the long array of 
vigorous argument, are likely to forget the ring of absolute 
reality with which they were spoken — "read, ponder, pray 
to the Lord Jesus Christ." In short, the strength, the 
sincerity, the simplicity of the man were the true apologia 
for the Christian Faith offered by the Bampton Lecturer of 
1884 ; and there were many who felt its force. 



Ordinations during Episcopate — Confirmations — Church building 
and restoration — Foreign Missions — Ritualism — Offer of 
the See of London — Farewell from clergy and laity — 


Temperance — Religious education — Tiverton — Church extension, 
Plymouth and Exeter — Church Congress — Reception as 
Archbishop at Exeter. 

IN the beginning of 1885 Dr. Temple had been 
fifteen years Bishop of Exeter. In the previous 
chapters an attempt has been made to follow the 
general lines of his busy life. It remains to say 
something by way of summary and supplement. 
During his Episcopate he is recorded to have 
ordained 294 priests and 323 deacons. During the 
last fifteen years of Bishop Phillpotts' tenure of 
the see, the number of those admitted to the 
priesthood was 272, and to the diaconate 165. The 
fact that the proportion under Bishop Temple, as 
compared with his predecessor, was greater in 
respect of the lower order, may naturally be 
accounted for by the consideration that the 
younger Bishop would be more likely to attract 
the younger men, and that in the case of Bishop 
Temple, deacons would be more needed to supple- 



ment the increasing activities of resident clergy 
than priests to supply the place of non-resident. 

93,203 persons appear to have been confirmed 
by Bishop Temple during his Episcopate. No 
account of confirmations is kept in the Diocesan 
Registry, and therefore there is not the same 
facility, as in the case of ordination, of reference to 
authorised documents for the purpose of comparing 
the experience of different periods ; but it is 
probable that the multiplication of centres for 
confirmation, and the increased diligence of the 
clergy in seeking out candidates, greatly augmented 
the number of those who were presented ; and it is 
certain that the preparation of the candidates was 
far more thorough and conscientious than in the 
past, and tended to increase the value of confirma 
tion to those who received it, and the estimation in 
which it was held by the people. The stress which 
Bishop Temple laid on the limitation of the 
numbers to be presented at each Confirmation — his 
invariable practice of laying hands on each candidate 
separately — his whole conduct of the rite, including 
his requirement that the candidates should be so 
placed that each face should be in view during the 
address — and his rule that everything else should 
give way to the necessity for absolute silence at 
the moment when each was confirmed — are well- 
known facts to all who attended him as chaplains, 
and testify to the high place which he gave to 
Confirmation amongst Episcopal functions. Un 
aided by the help of any Suffragan, untiringly and 
with absolute regularity, he kept year after year 
to his tale of yearly Confirmations, and to the last 
his addresses retained freshness and force. There 
have been Confirmation addresses more eloquent 
than his ; but it may be questioned whether any 
have lived longer in the memory, or had more 
lasting influence upon those who heard them. He 


was, above all things else, a Bishop for the young ; 
they understood each other. There was that in 
his simple directness which was like them ; and it 
was this which gave power to his words. 

During the Exeter Episcopate some 110 
churches and chapels were built or restored. 
Sometimes, as in the case of new churches in the 
Three Towns, the circumstances of the locality gave 
importance to the building ; sometimes it was the 
remoteness of a spot like Rousdon on the coast 
which imparted the interest ; sometimes, as at 
S. Buryan in Cornwall, historic memories were 
called up by the restoration of an old church ; 
sometimes, as at Otterton or Revelstoke, a new 
church testified to modern munificence. The 
church of Lamerton was twice reopened — the 
second time owing to fire — and twice the neigh 
bourhood responded to an appeal. In 1879 the 
church openings were so frequent as to recall the 
days of Bishop Bronescombe — Mary Tavy, Beaford, 
Whitchurch, and Meavy all seeing their old parish 
churches restored within a twelvemonth. 

None of this activity related to work outside his 
own diocese. It was not until the days of the 
London Episcopate, or his tenure of the Primacy, 
that the wider survey and enlarged responsibilities 
thereby entailed brought his missionary zeal to its 
fullest development ; but that interest was always 
in him from childhood, as he told the supporters of 
the Church Missionary Society at their annual 
meeting, January 19, 1870, shortly after he came 
to Exeter. The occasion was interesting in itself 
and as showing his methods of conciliating doubtful 
friends. No great pains had been taken to insure 
the presence of a new Bishop, whose soundness in 
the faith and the cause was at present a doubtful 
quantity, and there was some consternation and 
questioning surprise when suddenly he appeared as 


guest at the tea-table. The Chairman, father of 
the present Sir John Kennaway, had not yet 
arrived, and the Bishop in a natural way took the 
Chairman's place as if it were a matter of course. 
A few simple words telling that he had been a 
subscriber to the Society from early years — an apt 
sentence saying that he sympathised with the old 
clergyman's dictum to John Wesley, "Young 
man, you cannot go to heaven alone," soon won 
for him favourable reception, and before the 
meeting broke up the work of conversion had 
well begun. As days went on hesitation gradu 
ally became acceptance, and toleration was ex 
changed for approval and even confidence ; the 
new Bishop did not satisfy all the tests of the 
straitest sect, but it was plain that he had the root 
of the matter in him. This was another, and not 
the least, of the victories which Dr. Temple won 
over good men by his own goodness, and this was 
the manner of his entry as Bishop upon a great 
career of zeal in the missionary cause. The time 
of maturity was not yet, but he made the begin 
nings in the Exeter Diocese by endeavouring to 
secure that the work of the great Societies should 
be brought into connexion with the Diocesan Con 
ference, and that their diocesan organisation should 
be well maintained. 

Amongst the questions of which only the 
beginnings were seen during the Exeter Episco 
pate was the development of Ritualism. But 
the Bishop's principles of action were laid. It 
has been held at times that in regard to Ritualism 
he simply followed the policy of drift. In reality 
he knew his own mind and was acting on settled 
principles throughout. He had known the Oxford 
Movement from the first, and had learnt to regard 
Ritualism in its proper setting, i.e. not as a passing 
incident, but as the outcome of a permanent 


condition which could not be dealt with summarily 
and got rid of. The life of the Church was for him 
measured not in years but centuries, and all that 
one man could do was but a little section of an 
age-long work. Thus it came about that, though 
always active, he was never fussy or premature, 
but a steady figure in the midst of politicians 
and churchmen of the hour ; and men got from 
him not hasty measures extemporised for a crisis, 
but outlines of stable policy. It was on these 
principles that he dealt with Ritualism. There 
was the transient element as well as the permanent. 
The former was a fashion which would pass. It 
must be dealt with, and where the law was plainly 
broken discipline must be used : the law must be 
respected, and in the end vindicated. But his 
main reliance for dealing even with excesses of the 
hour was in positive training in right principles : 
if these were taught, and the right model were 
set, in time the excesses would be mitigated and 
the fashion would pass ; and if the law must come 
in, it must, as far as possible, fasten upon those 
infringements of rule which touched essential 
truths and not merely positive regulation. 1 But 
there were permanent as well as transient elements 
in Ritualism. Of these some were good, develop 
ments of what was best in the Oxford Movement 
as he had known it so well — the sense that the 
Church was a divine society, an organisation with a 
perpetual life in it — the sacramental principle, em 
bodied in the Incarnation, that things material might 
become the vehicle of spiritual grace. But some 
of the permanent elements in the ritualistic move 
ment were bad — the tendency to invert the order, 
to dissociate the material from the spiritual and to 
make the former supreme — the inclination to revert 

1 See " London " Memoir, vol. ii. p. 104, and " Primacy " Memoir, 
pp. 334 and 353. 


to fixed patterns of a certain period arbitrarily chosen 
by irresponsible persons, to place the seat of authority 
without and not within, to disregard law and all use 
of the historic sense in estimating where jurisdiction 
really lay. These evils must be fought resolutely 
and without compromise ; but the battle would be 
long, and any attempt to precipitate the conclusion 
by hasty coercion would cause delay in the long- 
run. Scarcely any sacrifice was too great in order 
to carry conscience along with the decision. This 
was the meaning of the persistency with which he 
pressed in Convocation for that voluntary reference 
to the Bishops rather than appeals to Courts of 
Law, which was the germ of his subsequent plan 
as Primate for the intervention of the Arch 
bishops : this was the meaning of his recurrence 
in Convocation more than once to the agreement 
to abandon lawsuits, as a settled policy on the 
part of the Bishops. He was throughout his 
Episcopacy an educational Bishop ; his aim was 
by careful training to produce an instructed 
Church conscience. To that end he desired the 
mind of the collective Church to be always in 
evidence — in formularies reflecting the sober mind 
of the Church and having the imprimatur of 
recognition by the Church upon them — in sermons 
and writings, in models of right practice set by the 
authorities of the Church. He believed that such 
modes of action would prevail in the end — the 
setting forth of the "more excellent way." Mean 
while, though he refrained from prosecution, he 
was resolute in the refusal to countenance law 
breakers. Some of these stood high in his diocese 
for devotion and character. He recognised their 
personal qualities, but they never received prefer 
ment from him, though he was often pressed to give 
it. Some of the minutiae of advanced Ritualism 
he regarded with a little amused contempt; they 


violated his conception of good sense and manliness, 
and his language might be trenchant in speaking 
of them ; but he was always just, and seldom gave 
offence, because, though outspoken, he was never 
"nasty." Such were his methods at Plymouth, 
the only centre in the Exeter Diocese where the 
matter was really serious. If it be said that the 
results of his policy there were not effective, the 
answer is that the evil could not be remedied 
quickly, and that the ultimate cure lay in changing 
the faulty system of Church patronage, against 
which he was at war all his life, and which, as 
operating at Plymouth, had made the place a 
battlefield of contending parties, and brought many 
of the parishes under the domination of extreme 
sections of the Church. His chief fears were not 
in the excesses themselves, mischievous as he held 
them to be, but in what might come of them. 
He saw the risk of alienating the mass of thought 
ful religious laymen on the one hand, and of 
throwing the general body of loyal High Church 
men into joint action with the extreme men, by 
any appearance of injustice, on the other. There 
fore he walked slowly, and he did not expect a speedy 
end to the journey ; but all the time he knew the 
way. A mind and will were behind his steady steps. 
The policy of dealing with Ritualism here 
indicated was followed to the end of Dr. Temple's 
life, and in one respect it failed. Consisting not 
in drastic measures, but in influence and right train 
ing, it required patient and continuous attention to 
individual cases, and this he did not give. There 
was always in him something of what an old 
official once called " the idleness of busy men " ; 
if the business was uncongenial, or the point to be 
decided difficult, action was not always prompt. 
He had a special objection to a policy of worry. 
Bishop Temple's law was made for a righteous 


man — but if any one did not respond to a generous 
treatment, sometimes he was let alone. Once in 
Rugby days a case of ill-doing occurred, which 
required something of the ferret eye to track it 
to its lair. "My brother is the worst man in 
England for such work," said his sister. She was 
right : the delinquent did not give himself up, and 
was not brought to justice. Ritualism was not 
to be hunted down, but individual law-breakers 
needed to be followed up ; for the most part they 
were merely passed by, and some of them went on 
breaking the law still more. The policy itself was 
good, but the author of it was not in all respects 
the right man to carry it out. 

Archbishop Tait died at the close of 1882. 
There was some expectation that Dr. Temple 
would be his successor in the Primacy, and it is 
not possible to read the record of his life, and to 
recall the work, the grasp, the power, without 
knowing that the anticipation was reasonable, nor 
to refrain from one sigh of regret that he did not 
come to the supreme charge in the fulness of his 
vital strength. But it was not to be ; and there is 
compensation in the thought that London would 
have lost a great spiritual privilege had it not 
experienced the mastering Christian force of Dr. 
Temple as Bishop in the midst of it, and that 
even the full historic life of the See of Canterbury 
could ill have spared the Primacy of Archbishop 
Tait's successor, with its gracious dignity, its 
ample store of varied knowledge, its refined taste, 
its instinctive sense of all the calls of a high posi 
tion, and the power to respond to them. Moreover, 
as events were ordered, opportunity was given to 
two men, each in his time, worthily to fill the 
highest place, and the Church has been correspond 
ingly enriched. The lives of the two men them 
selves were blessed by the ordering of events ; 


the relations in which they were henceforth placed 
to each other made a great demand upon their 
personal spiritual character, and they met it to 
the full. The former under -master was always 
quick to recognise the powers "of his old chief, 
and to claim his help with something of filial 
respect and devotion ; and the elder friend, to 
take the subordinate position and to place his 
powers unreservedly at the service of the new 
Archbishop. Not even in the confidence of private 
life and close personal correspondence is there a 
trace of the slightest sense of incongruity — nothing 
more than a word of justification for the situation 
as it was : " Benson suits the clergy better than I 
should have done." Affection and generous judg 
ment alone ruled. Those who knew him well and 
watched his life sometimes marvelled at the beauty 
and nobility of all this, and instinctively recalled a 
sermon of the old days in Rugby Chapel on John 
the Baptist and self-abnegation 1 — they saw that 
the preacher had learnt his own lesson. The 
struggle, if there had been one, was passed ; all 
seemed to come quite naturally and to be taken as 
a matter of course ; the victory had been won. 
And the change of Archbishops affected Bishop 
Temple's position at once : it is plain from the 
Chronicles of Con vocation that from the commence 
ment of the new Primacy he counted for more 
amongst his colleagues. N ot only did the fact that 
Dr. Tait had been Frederick Temple's tutor at 
college give him a natural ascendency over the 
younger man, but in subsequent years — in the 
controversy about Essays and Reviews — the rela 
tions between the two had been somewhat strained ; 
they respected each other, but they were different 
men as regards both thought and tempera 
ment. The Bishop of Exeter's position steadily 

1 Rugby Sermons, 2nd series, xxvi. 


rose higher under the new regime, and two years 
later, in the early days of 1885, Dr. Jackson, the 
Bishop of London, died. Two names appear to 
have hung in the balance for the succession — Dr. 
Lightfoot's, Bishop of Durham, and Dr. Temple's, 
Bishop of Exeter. The former had special claims, 
having become well known in London as Canon of 
S. Paul's, and as Examining Chaplain to the Bishop 
of London. He was, moreover, a man who com 
bined great learning with soundness of thought and 
breadth of view ; he attracted young men, some of 
whom lived with him a kind of community life like 
a school of the prophets — an adaptation of the 
ways of Aidan or of Bede to modern life — and by 
his robust and simple character he was fast becom 
ing as great a power amongst the manufacturing 
centres of the north, as he had been in the student 
life of the University of Cambridge. But Dr. 
Temple stood out as no one else for those very quali 
fications which the Metropolitan See required — force 
and determination of character, vigour of action, 
abounding power of work, ability to grasp large 
problems, and to rule and sway great masses of 
men. It was counted in Dr. Lightfoot's favour 
that he was six years or more younger than Dr. 
Temple ; but the native vigour of the latter did 
more than adjust the difference in age, and 
eventually he outlived three members of the 
great Cambridge fraternity, Lightfoot, Benson, 
and Westcott, all of whom were his juniors. 
Ultimately the choice fell upon Dr. Temple. The 
following is the letter in which Mr. Gladstone 
made the offer : — 

January 27, 1885. 

MY DEAR BISHOP OF EXETER — I have now to propose to 
you, with the sanction of Her Majesty, that you should accept 
the nomination of the Crown for the vacant See of London. 

More than fifteen years have elapsed since I had the 


pleasure of submitting to your Lordship a proposal of this 
nature, and it is the experience of those years which leads to 
this repetition, and invites you to assume for the service 
of the Church and your fellow -men even more arduous 
labours than those already performed, with a still heavier 

I trust on every ground that your reply may be in the 
affirmative. . . . 

I remain with much respect and regard, faithfully 
yours, W. E. GLADSTONE. 

There was always a touch of personal devotion 
in Dr. Temple's response to any expression of the 
Queen's wishes, but it was in no spirit of elation 
that the offer was accepted, as is plain from the 
following words of a letter to the Archbishop : — 

January 29, 1885. 

I suppose from your letter that you must have known all 
about London some days ago. I was beginning to hope 
that no offer was coming. I have said yes because it seemed 
to be a duty. But you cannot tell how far rather I would 
stay here. 

" I wish it had come two years earlier," he said 
to his first Exeter chaplain, when he sent for him a 
few days later to talk things over with him ; and 
the same tone, with a little brotherly playfulness 
thrown in, was apparent in his letter to his sister : — 

I wish I were younger. But as it is I must do my best 
at my present age. For some little time I am not likely to 
lack strength, as far as it is possible to judge. The people 
here are very kind about our going, and are expressing regret 
in every possible way. And I feel it is a terrible wrench to 
part from work that I have continued now for fifteen years 
(longer than I have ever worked anywhere else) and from 
many friends who have been very kind. ... I wonder 
whether you will feel a little taller among your friends at 
Cannes, or whether if you do not feel taller they will think 
you so. 

I cannot help in spite of myself feeling somewhat depressed. 


The same mood came back sometimes in later 
years : " I wonder whether I was right in ever 
leaving Exeter," he said suddenly one day to the 
same chaplain, in the midst of a walk in the streets 
of London. 

But none the less he buckled-to at the great task 
before him with set purpose, "because the thing 
had to be done." 

When the news was known, congratulations and 
regrets came pouring in. Amongst the foremost 
were his temperance friends, eager to testify to the 
inspiration which they had received from his energy, 
and to the steadfastness with which he had upheld 
their cause. 

Eager also was the young life of his old Devon 
shire school to do honour in Latin speech and with 
appropriate memorial from the oak of " Old Blun- 
dell's,' to the man who had done much to raise its 

The personnel of the Diocesan Clergy had no 
doubt changed during the fifteen years of his Epis 
copate, and many new faces were to be seen 
amongst them ; but rapid transition is not the 
characteristic of the Anglican Ministry, and the 
difference in the attitude on their part towards 
Dr. Temple between 1869 and 1885 was not the 
result of sudden conversion or of change of personnel, 
but of gradual growth of confidence and loyalty in 
the mind of the diocese. The contrast was a great 
revelation of what may be effected by steady dis 
charge of duty. 

We, feeling the responsibility that rests upon us as 
stewards of God's mysteries and ministers of His Word, while 
praying that God may guide you in this matter with His 
Holy Spirit, are constrained to express our earnest hope 
that you will not elect Dr. Temple to the Bishopric of this 
Diocese. 1 

1 Memorial from Clergy of Exeter Diocese, October 1869. 


This is the language of clergy of the diocese in 
1869 to the Dean and Chapter of Exeter. After 
fifteen years' experience of their Bishop, 654 out of 
the 700 clergy of the diocese speak with different 
voice : — 

We, the undersigned clergy resident in this Diocese, who 
have served or are now serving in it, cannot permit the 
occasion of your translation to the See of London to pass 
without the expression of our heartfelt reverence and esteem, 
and of our sincere regret at the severance of the ties which 
for fifteen years have so happily bound us together. Yet, 
while we so regret, we must, in the interests of the Church, 
rejoice at your removal to a higher and more extensive 
sphere, in which you will have wider scope for the develop 
ment and exercise of those powers which have impressed, and 
will leave behind them, so signal a mark on your admini 
stration here. 

The address as it proceeds lays stress on those 
special characteristics of Dr. Temple's personality 
which had struck home : — 

We feel sure that the same devotion to God and disre 
gard of self, the same unsparing energy and reliance on the 
help of the Holy Spirit through Jesus Christ, the same sense 
of justice and power of influencing all classes for good, and 
the same readiness at all times "to take counsel together 
with them as friends," will secure the like results among the 
vast multitudes now to be committed to your charge. 1 

The following extract from another clerical 
address adds yet other touches to the picture, and 
in the same way brings out the sense of personal 
affection towards one in whom had been discovered 
more than a great ruler : — 

You have ever been in the highest sense our Father in 
God, and we have found in you an example, a guide, and a 
friend. The now perfectly organised Diocese of Exeter tells 
with a voice that cannot be mistaken what your work among 
us has been, and the uninterrupted peace of the Diocese 

1 July 31, 1885. 


during your Episcopate speaks with no uncertain sound of 
the firm but gentle hand which has guided its destinies to so 
happy a result. We grieve to say " good-bye," but we do so 
with heart-felt gratitude and affection, and with earnest 
prayers that your future career may be fraught with blessings 
to you, and to all dear to you, as your past has been to us. 1 

The full expression of the feeling of the diocese 
was given by public meeting in the Guildhall at 
Exeter 2 and in the Memorial which emanated from 
it. All the interests for which Dr. Temple had 
sought to care were represented, and the kind of 
special tone which belonged to the Episcopate 
made itself manifest. The speakers had been 
fellow-labourers and friends. Lord Devon told 
how all 

Had learnt to appreciate the earnestness of pi rpose, the 
devotion and religious spirit, the fairness, the impartiality, 
and the anxiety to promote the cause of religion and 
morality, and of education. ... It was due to the temper 
thus shown that there was in the Diocese a willingness to think 
more of points on which people were agreed, and less on those 
on which they differed. 

Mr. T. Andrew, a leading Wesleyan, spoke as 
one of a large body of Nonconformists, and alluded 
especially to the deep impression made upon him, 
at the time of the failure of the West of England 
Bank, by the Bishop's " constant consideration " and 
" unwearied application," which had brought him 
to " the conclusion that the Bishop was not only a 
great administrator, but a man of boundless love." 

Mr. Alexander, as a Jewish citizen, touched the 
same note, and bore testimony to the " liberality 
and humanity " of the Bishop's character. 

Mr. Luscombe, an ex - Mayor of Plymouth, 
recalling the labours, educational, social and reli 
gious, of Dr. Temple in the Three Towns, said that 

1 Address from Deanery of Totnes, February 27, 1885. 
2 February 13, 1885. 


Plymouth had its own share in the debt owed to 
the Bishop, and claimed the right to join in the 
discharge of it. 

Sir Thomas Acland spoke as the old friend who 
knew "the good mother," and the early struggles 
as the foundations upon which the " great character 
was founded. . . . The Bishop possessed the quali 
ties of a statesman, and what was more valuable, 
a comprehensive, deep, and devout mind and heart." 

The testimonial took the form of a service of 
silver plate. 1 It was presented to the Bishop at a 
large gathering of clergy and laity held in Exeter 
on August 7 of the same year (1885), shortly after 
he had left the diocese. The Bishop's speech in 
reply was like himself, revealing the humility of 
spirit which had led him to concentrate his admini 
stration on the plainest and simplest things, and 
the warmth of strong affection with which his heart 
was full. 

... If he had chosen for himself any praise, it would have 
been that he had always endeavoured as far as he could to 
put life and force into that which was quite ordinary, and to 
draw men more and more towards the plain simple lines 
which, as it seemed to him, were the lines which the Christian 
Church — and he believed, of all other branches of the 
Church, most specially the Church of England — had pre 
scribed for their constant guidance. He knew very well 
that there would be nothing striking in such a work as 
that. It was not that he valued but little the result of 
deep study and profound thought ; but it was that he was 
sure that all their work depended very much for its true 
power upon what was done by inferior men like himself, 
who could only take up that which all must acknow 
ledge, and try to make it worth living for ; and if he 
had helped any man in any way to live more simply, more 
truly, more justly, more kindly, he would rather do that 
than be remembered afterwards as a great thinker, who 
struck out new ways, who opened the door to new specula- 

1 Three diamond stars were presented to Mrs. Temple as a memento 
from the ladies of the diocese. 


tions, who led men in unaccustomed paths. He felt more 
than he could say what was the value of warm hearts, of kind 
recognition, of true friendship. 

And so the Exeter Episcopate closed. It is 
noteworthy even from the personal point of view ; it 
records the working out of a great personal success, 
and the success was precisely of that kind to which 
it is well for the Church to give emphasis. It was 
not only a victory of courage and endurance over 
great obstacles, but it was the victory of an un 
worldly spirit, won with absolute disregard of all 
the ordinary means taken to insure personal success. 
Bishop Temple went straight on, saying and doing 
what he believed to be right in the simplest and 
most direct fashion, without thought of the effect 
upon his own position. It was not that there was 
any ostentatious neglect of appearances — as far as 
his unconventional eyes saw how things would look, 
he took them into consideration for the sake of the 
public interests which he guarded ; and he had a 
considerable share both of insight and shrewdness 
and of the statesman's instincts in judging of such 
matters — but self never entered into the calcula 
tion at all ; he simply did his duty as he saw it. 
And this unworldly spirit told ; this man who 
entered upon his Episcopate with half his diocese 
against him, at the end of fifteen years was — without 
finesse and in spite of rough exterior and brusque- 
ness of speech — not only the ruler, but the friend 
of his people, trusted and followed as few, if any, 
of his predecessors had been. The telling power 
of an unworldly life was the lesson taught by 
Bishop Temple to the Diocese of Exeter. 

And yet there was a minority who did not 
own the spell. The figures given above l may be 
taken as a rough estimate of its proportion. No 
such Episcopate as Bishop Temple's will com- 

1 Supra, p. 342 ; 654 Out of 700 clergy signed the Clerical Memorial. 


mand universal commendation, and to speak of 
him as in favour with all men would be to detract 
from the uniqueness and nobility of his character. 
It was not only that a small minority were to the 
end suspicious of his religious views ; nor was it 
merely that some, even of his admirers, were pained 
at times by the appearance of want of consideration 
(no one was more pained than himself when this 
was brought home to him), but such men, though 
they felt the occasional absence of a kindly word 
or act when they were sensible that it would have 
helped them, yet made allowance and soon came 
back to their allegiance ; nor was it that some men 
could never quite understand him. It was more 
than all these things ; there was a moral antipathy 
between him and some. For such men as Dr. 
Temple are touchstones of character, and the 
residuum will always be repelled by a character of 
which absolute sincerity and high principle, plain 
ness of speech and action are the prominent features. 
It was one of Dr. Temple's chief claims upon his 
generation that he illustrated the revealing and 
sifting power of moral goodness. The test was 
applied with absolute impartiality ; it mattered 
nothing whether a man were Churchman or Non 
conformist, Liberal or Conservative ; if he rang 
true he was accepted as worthy of respect, if not, 
he must stand aside. He was quick to detect, and 
no one liked being found out. 

But he had the allegiance of all true-hearted 
men, and that, not solely or chiefly because of 
commanding intellect or the sterner moral qualities, 
nor yet because of his grasp or power to rule, but 
because of his great heart, the truthfulness of his 
nature, the simplicity of his faith. These drew 
men after him. They had a magnetic power, they 
swayed multitudes, and they held fast individual 
followers and friends. 


And yet it was not only the personal side of his 
character which gave him his claim to be a great 
Bishop ; his methods and still more his principles 
trained his diocese. He organised it, he brought 
a fresh spirit into it — new activity, enlarged outlook, 
fuller unity, greater efficiency, higher aims. Clergy 
and laity learnt to understand the fellowship of 
Church membership by common work ; Low 
Churchmen no longer felt that they were out in 
the cold ; Nonconformists themselves began to 
realise that they were not without lot and part in 
the aims of the Church. " Now that I am leaving 
Exeter," writes Dr. Temple to a prominent Non 
conformist citizen, in reply to a friendly note, " my 
heart is more than ever drawn to the Nonconformist 
friends who have so often shown me kindness, and 
with whom I have so often been able to labour for 
that best of all service to the Lord, the good of 
our fellow-men. God be with you always, and 
bless you in every way." 1 The diocese and 
county as a whole gained a new conception of 
the function of a Cathedral and the office of a 
Bishop. The Church began to enter more than 
formerly into the thoughts of the people at large, 
for the Bishop was at the head of all that most 
nearly touched their daily life. 

The time had come for him to go when he 
received the call to London : he was required for 
yet larger interests, and his labours were just of the 
kind which become more fruitful when the actual 
presence of the labourer is withdrawn. For his 
work was always on broad lines, and he cut deep. 
Such a harvest as he sowed needs time for maturing. 
Things will fall into their right place, and assume 
their right proportion as time goes forward ; the 
whole Episcopate will be better seen in its true 
perspective a generation hence than now. The 

1 Letter to Mr. Gadd, January 30, 1885. 



reputation is of that sort which grows ; he ranks 
with the greatest of his predecessors in the see — 
the men who taught not only their own generation, 
but those that were to come. 

O'er that wide plain, now wrapt in gloom, 
Where many a splendour finds its tomb, 
Many spent fames and fallen mights — 
The one or two immortal lights 
Rise slowly up into the sky 
To shine there everlastingly. 1 

He is of that number, and his own Diocese of 
Exeter will always be his debtor for the legacy of 
a great spirit. 

Dr. Temple paid eight visits to Devonshire, 
including the occasion on which his testimonial was 
presented, after he had ceased to be Bishop of 
Exeter. It is characteristic of him that when he 
came, he came for work — to encourage or supple 
ment in some way some form of public effort which 
he had promoted when Bishop of the diocese. 
There was something almost touching in the un 
wearied importunity with which the friends of 
temperance pursued their Patron whenever they 
saw their chance, and he was gracious to the 
requests of others besides his brother Rechabites ; 2 
once he went down to Plymouth as President of 
the National Temperance League ; once he was 
welcomed in Exeter by the Diocesan Church of 
England Temperance Society, and at one visit he 
extended an interest in temperance to sections of 
the community which hitherto had more or less 
stood aloof, by inaugurating a League of S. George 
for the younger members of the middle and upper 

The supporters of education also claimed his 
help to carry them through each recurring crisis. 

'The New Age," Matthew Arnold. 

Supra, p. 230. 


Once, September 29, 1890, on the eve of the passage 
of the Free Education Act, he came in response to 
earnest invitation to rally Churchmen round the 
standard of religious education, and to exhort them 
to fellowship and organised confederation. His 
former allies came round him in great force on 
the occasion, and the outcomes of the gathering 
were the creation of a Central Diocesan Fund 
to supplement the original effort which he had 
started in 1870, and the union of Church schools 
in a Diocesan Confederacy which paved the way 
for the Association formed under the provisions 
of the Act of 1897. 

Primary Education and Sunday Schools had 
received their full share of attention under Bishop 
Temple's Episcopate, but while schemes for the 
improvement of Secondary Education had made 
their full demand upon the Bishop's mind and 
thought, secondary schools and the children of 
the higher middle classes had not been brought 
into any diocesan connexion : time had not 
sufficed, nor had the moment come for dealing 
with the subject. Bishop Temple was in Exeter 
in September of 1891, and spoke at a meeting 
summoned in the Chapter House to remedy the 
defect. The principle of association was called 
into requisition, as had been done the preceding- 
year on behalf of the elementary schools of the 
diocese, and, in advocating the scheme proposed, Dr. 
Temple said that they had been gathered together 
that day because the time had come when some 
organisation should be created for the purpose of 
dealing with what was a serious defect. 

There could be no doubt that the religious instruction 
of the middle and upper classes had not received the same 
attention as the religious instruction of the children in the 
elementary schools. He constantly found, from the accounts 
which came to him from the clergy, that when candidates 


,were being prepared for Confirmation, over and over again 
the children of the upper and middle classes were not nearly 
so well informed on this matter as the children of the class 
below them. Much of the best teaching they could have 
was that which was given in very early years by the mother, 
and there was nothing they could put in its place. 

Shortly afterwards the Association was started 
on its way successfully, and still looks back to the 
impulse which Dr. Temple gave it in its early days. 

Bishop Temple's educational record in Devon 
shire may well close where it began — at Blundell's 
School. Within a little more than a year of the 
close of his long life he was at Tiverton, to receive 
the Freedom of the Borough, and to pay a last 
visit to the school of his boyhood. After dedicating 
a window in the Chapel in memory of Blundellians 
who had died in the service of their country, he 
spoke to the boys in the School Chapel ; and then, 
in the old buildings of the school, let himself go, 
and with delightful self-abandonment poured out 
tale after tale of the days when he was young. 
For a glad hour, in the bright evening of his life, 
he was a schoolboy again. Nothing was too 
trivial or full of frolic to recall ; it was an ideal 
picture of happiness in old age — a Primate's last 
visit to his old school. The sight must have been 
good to see. The Headmaster said afterwards in 
speaking to his boys : — 

Fix and store up the memory of this day in your hearts, 
the stately presence, the gathered wisdom of the great 
Archbishop. Many of you may look, in the course of 
nature, to live far on into the coming century, but rest 
assured that you will never see a greater Englishman than 
him who loves to call you his school-fellows. 

Both the chief centres of population in the 
Exeter Diocese will connect last thoughts of Dr. 
Temple with his labours for the highest life of the 
greatest number. The day before his final visit to 


Tiverton he had preached at the opening of a new 
church, Emmanuel, built in a poor district of 
Exeter. It was thought that his presence in 
Plymouth would help the scheme of Church 
Extension which had been revived, and he made 
the effort necessary to respond to the call in the 
autumn of 1901. 

But the two principal occasions on which he 
visited Exeter still remain to be noticed — his visit 
to the Exeter Church Congress when Bishop of 
London in 1894, and his reception as Archbishop 
in 1897. In early days he was not in love with 
Church Congresses, thinking that they encouraged 
irresponsible talk. When he accepted the office of 
President of the Plymouth Congress in 1876, he 
let fall an expression which was taken to imply 
that in his opinion the most diligent clergy of his 
diocese would be found in their parishes rather than 
in the Congress halls. 1 But as years went on, and 
the more regular assemblies of the Church had had 
time to assert their position, his opinions on the 
subject were modified ; he accepted the invitation 
of the Bishop of Exeter, and threw himself into 
the effort to make the session of the Church 
Congress in the mother city of his old diocese 
as great a success as possible. The subject of his 
sermon at the opening service at the Cathedral was 
" Charity thinketh no evil." It gave the keynote 
to the whole meeting, and expressed the conclusion 
in which his spirit rested as his long life of service, 
which had been no stranger to contention, drew 
near to its close. 

My brethren, the lack of charity, wherever it comes in, 
has every mark of being opposed to the will of God. It is 
uniformly unsuccessful in its ultimate results. It produces 
a bitterness which ought never to come — which need not 

1 Mr. Shelly's Memorandum, supra, p. 243. 


come in if our charity is strong enough. But, above all, it 
lowers the dignity of the Church itself; it lowers the majesty 
of that great creation which the Lord created to exhibit His 
Gospel to the world ; it deprives all the preaching of the 
Gospel of the most influential power that can be used in its 
preaching ; it deprives the Church of that heavenly appear 
ance which shines before men whenever the Church rises to 
her highest tasks, and which makes men feel that here, 
indeed, is something which represents the Lord of all 
holiness — that here is something that speaks straight to our 
consciences, and our consciences answer, " This is the 
representative of Christ to men."" l 

His speeches during the Congress were on the 
subjects which he had made especially his own, 
Education and Temperance. The Congress was 
held when the country was standing on the 
threshold of the campaign which reached a climax 
in the Education Bill of 1902, and he made a 
characteristic and resolute stand for a steady 
attitude in opposition to the push for forward 
moves. He did not believe that the time was 
ripe for an appeal for rate aid in support of 
Church schools. " I think," he said, " that until 
we can see our way to fighting this battle on the 
issue that we shall keep the appointment of the 
teachers in our own hands, it wiU not be wise to 
go to Parliament and ask for aid from the rates." 
Therefore at that time he was for the policy of 
stand-fast. "I stand for the Fabian policy, and 
though Fabius was not popular at Rome when he 
was defending Rome on the lines he marked out, 
we know how the Romans regarded him after 
wards, impatient as they were at the time, and 
longing for a * forward policy ' as the only one 
suitable to the crisis of the day." He made a 
striking figure as he stood before an excited 
audience, the embodiment of a veteran soldier, his 
grim steadfastness stronger than the impetuosity 

1 Exeter Church Congress Report, 1894, p. 9. 


of younger combatants. 1 " It was grand to see the 
old lion shaking himself." The question of Second 
ary Education was no less urgent, the Second 
Royal Commission having just been appointed to 
report on it. As a few years previously, 2 he 
pressed the religious side of the matter as the 
special responsibility of the Church, and the con 
sequent obligation of bringing home the duty to 
parents and teachers, and of preparing for impend 
ing action on the part of the State. The ultimate 
outcome of the debate at the Exeter Congress was 
the constitution of the Church Central Council of 
Secondary Education, of which Dr. Temple was 
promoter as Bishop of London, and afterwards 
Chairman as Archbishop of Canterbury. 3 

The same note of moderation, the same adher 
ence to tried principle, rather than reliance on 
heroic measures, was observable in his advice on 
temperance legislation — one step at a time. " If 
we were to agree on one of these small measures " 
(the suspension of the grant of new licences), " then 
on another, and so feel our way, we should not 
have things set right by a great stroke, but . . . 
we should secure that kind of progress which, 
more than anything else in the legislation of this 
country, makes a deep mark upon the national 
mind." 4 

The general impression made by Dr. Temple 
when he visited Exeter at the time of the Church 
Congress, after nine years' experience of the 
Bishopric of London, was that of a great tower 
settled upon massive foundations, a character 
maturing in kindliness and softened by an increas 
ing touch of humour, shoulders already bearing 

1 Exeter Church Congress Report, 1894, pp. 197-201 . 

2 Vide supra, p. 349. 

3 Editor's Supplement, vol. ii. pp. 646, 647. 

4 Exeter Church Congress Report, 1894, p. 114. 

2 A 


great responsibilities and fitted to carry the 
weightiest of all. 

The impression was confirmed when three years 
later (January 22, 1897) he came to receive the 
Freedom of the City, and to be welcomed in the 
Cathedral as Primate of all England by the clergy 
and laity of the Exeter Diocese. It was a great 
day for Exeter, and for him — in some sense, the 
crowning day of his life. The thoughts of all were 
with the past. In tendering the Freedom of the 
ancient City the Mayor, Mr. Alderman Pople, 
spoke of the honour as mutual between giver and 
receiver : Mr. Alderman Andrew, in making the 
presentation of the casket, referred to the leading 
part which Dr. Temple had taken in the reorganisa 
tion of the Endowed Schools of the City of Exeter, 
and said that it was owing to his energy that the 
scheme had been carried out. They recognised in 
the Archbishop one of the foremost Educationists 
of the times, and they looked to him to help for 
ward the solution of the elementary education 
question, and to form public opinion on the im 
pending measure, " for the good reason that he was 
just as well as powerful." The Archbishop's reply 
was a simple and pathetic story, told as to friends, 
of his past life in its connexion with city and 
county. From the Guildhall the Archbishop went 
to the Cathedral, where the clergy of the diocese, 
with a great gathering of citizens and others, were 
waiting to receive him. Six Devonshire clergy 
men, chosen out on special grounds of personal or 
official connexion, acted as his chaplains for the 
day ; and as the procession moved through the 
throng to the stalls in the nave, thought went 
back to a like passage up the Cathedral on the 
day of the Enthronement twenty - seven years 
before, and found expression in the address of 
the clergy : — 


When first you came among us and were permitted to 
speak for yourself, you broke silence with the declaration l 
that since the day when you knew you were to be our 
Bishop, you had longed with a great desire to tell out all 
that was in your heart of devotion to our Lord God, the 
Son of God, Jesus Christ. You spoke in this Cathe 
dral ; there are those here now whose memories still thrill 
with the ring of those strong words and the power of 
their deep conviction. We recall the scene and the voice 
to-day. Your work and teaching among us were the 
commentary on them. 

The address went on to speak of the wider out 
look into Church life beyond the diocese which 
the Archbishop, when Bishop of Exeter, had 
laboured hard to give, of the sympathy of the old 
diocese in these wider interests, and of their 
confidence that they were safe in the hands of 
one who had taught them to care for such 
things. The Archbishop began by expressing a 
doubt whether often again " the Archbishop's 
cross would be borne through that Cathedral " ; 
perhaps there was some touch of memory of that 
former scene as he spoke the words, but he passed 
on to the deeper things on which the address had 

You have duties which concern not only the Church 
but the nation. You have to look to the Education of the 
people, to the religious life which must pervade that 
Education, if indeed it is to be called Education at all. 
You have duties which relate to every kind of social 
improvement which the circumstances of the time demand. 
You have duties which concern the due organisation of the 
Church of England within these isles, and the removal of 
the abuses which now interfere with the fullest discharge of 
her duty. I welcome your encouraging words, and the 
appreciation of the objects to which my heart is given. I 
assure you that to those objects my whole energy shall be 
devoted. I assure you it fills me with joy that here in the 
West, where I laboured longer than I have laboured any- 

1 Supra, p. 48. 


where else throughout my life, there are those who care for 
all these things. 

And then the Archbishop's thoughts went yet 
higher, as he told out the secret of his life : — 

To live with the Lord, to rest ourselves in His wonder 
ful goodness, to remember His power to sanctify our lives — 
those are the conditions upon which, and upon which alone, 
it is possible for ministers to do their work. I assure you 
that though I shall not be with you often in body, yet I 
shall be with you in spirit, and we shall always be one. 

The path had been long for him and at times 
steep, and he looked back with gratitude. But 
the supreme thoughts were not with himself, 
but elsewhere — with the large life of the Church 
entrusted to him, and with the Lord whom he 
served. The spirit which inspired this devotion 
was the real crown of his life that day — and, may 
be, there was that in his faithful love for his 
friends which added to its lustre : — 

I am not sure that I shall not feel on my death-bed 
that of all the places where I have been, Exeter stands 
above every other in my heart. 1 

1 Speech at the Guildhall. 


Acland, Sir C. T. D., 174 note 1 

Acland, Sir T. D. (llth Baronet), 
90, 214 

Acton, Lord, criticism of Arch 
bishop Temple, 151-152 

Acton, Lord, Letters of, 152 note 1 

Additional Curates Society, 107 

Addresses. See Speeches and 

Agenda Paper for Convocation, 
Archbishop Temple on the 
necessity of, 317-318 

Aitken, Rev. Robert, 129 note 2 

Amalgamation of city parishes 
(Exeter), 295-297, 321 

Archdeaconries, 107-109 

Arnold, Matthew, letter congratu 
lating Archbishop Temple on 
appointment to Exeter, 26-27, 
45, 327, 348 note 1 

Arnold, Dr. Thomas, 52 

Athanasian Creed — Speeches in 
Convocation, 303-304 

Axon, 68 

Bampton Lectures, 327 ; Dr. 

Cosmo Lang's reminiscences 

of, 328-329 
Baptism, Archbishop Temple on, 


Barnes, Archdeacon, 204 
Barry, Bishop, 120 
Bartholomew, Rev. C. C., 138 
Battishill, W. J., 156 note 2 
Beaconsfield, Lord, 139 
Benefices Act (1898), 170, 173 

note 1 
Benson, Archbishop, 22 ; letter to 

Archbishop Temple on his 

appointment to Exeter, 24 ; 

letter to The Times on Arch 
bishop Temple's appointment 
to Exeter, 35-36 ; asks Arch 
bishop Temple to disclaim 
responsibility for Essays and 
Reviews, 40-41 ; 53, 136 ; ap 
pointed Bishop of Truro, 145- 
146 ; consecration and en 
thronement, 146 ; 155, 160 ; 
anecdote of Archbishop 
Temple, 259 ; letter of thanks 
for Times letter from Miss 
Temple, 261; 315 note 2 ; 
welcomes Archbishop Temple 
to the See of London, 320 ; 

Bethell, Bishop, 255 

Bird, Rev. S. W. E., 237 note 1 

Blackall, Bishop Ofspring(Exeter), 
15, 80, 254, 272 

Blackall, Dr., 272 

Bloudy, Bishop, 252 

Blundell's School, Tiverton, Arch 
bishop Temple's visit in 1870, 
68-69 ; memorandum by the 
Headmaster, 69 - 70 ; Arch 
bishop Temple's last visit, 

Blundell's Worthies, 70 note 1 

Board Schools, speech in House 
of Lords (1884), 322-323 

Boyd, Dean, 79, 269 

Bradby, Dr., letter to Archbishop 
Temple on his appointment to 
Exeter, 25-26 

Bramley, Rev. Henry, 91 

Bronescombe, Bishop, 5, 6, 69, 
124, 253 

Browne, Bishop Harold, of Win 
chester, letter to Archbishop 



Temple on his appointment to 
Exeter, 24 ; Essays and Re 
views, 29-30 ; 44, 156, 270 

Browning, Robert, 327 

Bruere, Bishop, 252, 256 

Bryce, Right Hon. James, 26 

Burch, Arthur, 218 

Burgon, Rev. J. W. (afterwards 
Dean of Chichester), 29 

Burial, Law of, speech by Arch 
bishop Temple in the House 
of Lords (1876), 324-325 

Burial of infidels — Letter of Arch 
bishop Temple's, 204 

Bush, Rev. Paul, 130 

Butler, Rev. A. G., 59, 160 

Butterfield, William, 257 

Carlyon, Edmund, and the revival 
of the Cornish See, 124, 128, 
131 note !, 138, 139 note l , 140, 
141, 144 ; reminiscence of Miss 
Temple, 260 

Cathedrals, Royal Commission on 
(1885), 282-291; Archbishop 
Temple's memorandum, 286- 

Cemeteries, Consecration of (letter 
from Archbishop Temple), 200 

Chapter, Exeter, and Archbishop 
Temple, 280 et seq. 

Chapter Synods, 99 

Charity Commissioners and Exeter 
Theological College, 156-157 

te Chivalry of Industry " — letter 
from Archbishop Temple to 
Canon Lawson (1846), 215- 

Chronicles of Convocation, 159 note 1 , 
163 note 1 , 303 note 2 , 304 
note 1 , 2 , 3 , 306 note 1 , 307 
note 3 , 308 note 1 , 2 , 309 note 1 , 
310 note 1 , 2 , 311 note 1 , 313 
note 1 , 2 , 314 note \ 315 note 1 , 
316 note 3 , 318 note 1 , 320 
note l , 2 , 3 

Chronicles of Twyford, by F. J. 
Snell, 298 note 1 

Church building and restoration 
in the Exeter Diocese, 332 

Church Congresses : — 
Exeter (1894), 351 
Plymouth (1876), 351 

Church Discipline — Archbishop 

Temple's speech in Convoca 
tion (1884), 310 

Church Extension in the Three 
Towns during the Exeter 
Episcopate, 237 et seq. 
Church in Cornwall, The, 147 

note 1 , 2 , 148 note 1 
Church Missionary Society, 332- 

Church of England Men's Society, 

Church of England Temperance 

Society, 227 et seq. 
Church Patronage, 170-173, 321 
Church, Reading in, Archbishop 

Temple on, 182-183 
Church, Dean, 213 
Clergy Discipline Act (1892), 311 
Clergy, Memorials from, on Arch 
bishop Temple's appointment 
to London, 341-343 
Clergy, Archbishop Temple's per 
sonal relations with (Exeter), 
193 et seq. 

Clerical Study, Archbishop 
Temple's Charge (1875), 183- 

Clough, A. H., 45 
Coleridge, John Duke, Lord, 
letter from Abp. Temple con 
cerning Essays and Reviews, 
33 ; 59, 214 

Confirmations, 100-101, 331 
Convocation, 300 et seq. 
Convocation : Speeches : — 

Agenda Paper, the necessity of, 


Athanasian Creed, 303-304 
Church Discipline, 310 
Ecclesiastical Courts, 304-308 
Episcopal Veto, 309-310 
Family Prayer, Manual of, 314- 


Hymnal, Authorised, 314 
Ornaments Rubric, 308-309 
Rogation Days, 316 
Salvation Army, 312-313 
Vestments, 308-309 
Cook, Canon, letter to, on Essays 
and Reviews, 33-34 ; his sup 
port of Archbishop Temple, 
37, 38, 39, 53; Phillpotts' 
Studentships, 156-159 ; 301, 
302 note 2 , 303 note 1 



Cornish See, Revival of the : — 
History of theCornish Church, 
121-125; first efforts to re 
vive the Cornish Bishopric, 
125-127; Archbishop Temple's 
advent and work in Cornwall, 
130-137 ; discussion in the 
Exeter Diocesan Conference, 
137-138 ; Deputation to Mr. 
Disraeli, 139 ; appointment of 
Diocesan Committee, 140-141; 
Lady Rolle's gift, 141, 143, 
144 ; Bill for revival of the 
Cornish See, 142-143; Dr. 
Benson appointed first Bishop, 
145 - 146 ; consecration and 
enthronement, 146 ; Arch 
bishop Temple's farewell to 
Cornwall, 147-148 

Courtenay, Peter, Bishop of 
Exeter, 254 

Coverdale, Miles, Bishop of Exeter, 

Cowie, Dean, 58 

Cross, Lord, 143, 144 

Culmstock, 67, 68 

Daily News, 98 

Da vies, Mori-is, memorandum on 
Archbishop Temple's con 
version to Total Abstinence, 

Deane, Dr., Q.C., 274 

Deceased Wife's Sister, Marriage 
with, speech by Archbishop 
Temple, 231-234; speech in 
House of Lords, 325-326 

Denison, Archdeacon, and Essays 
and Reviews, 29 

Devon, Earl, 68, 69, 140, 141, 143, 
144, 214, 343 

Devon Evening Express, 230 note 1 

Diocesan Church of England Tem 
perance Society, 348 

Diocesan Conferences, 109-120, 228 

Diocesan Organisation (Exeter), 96 
et seq. ; Chapter Synods, 99 ; 
Confirmations,100-101 ; Rural 
Deaneries, 101-107 ; Chapter 
addresses, 101-102 ; co-opera 
tion of the laity, 103 ; Arch 
deaconries, 107 ; Conferences, 
109 et seq. ; Sunday School 
Examinations, 118 

Disraeli, Right Hon. Benjamin. 

See Beaconsfield, Lord 
Dumbleton, Rev. E. N., 103, 138 

Earle, Bishop, of Marlborough 
(Dean of Exeter), 140, 141, 
159, 228 

Ecclesiastical Courts, Archbishop 
Temple's speeches in Convoca 
tion, 304-308 

Ecclesiastical Courts, Royal Com 
mission on, 306, 307 note 2 
Ecclesiastical Polity, 54 note * 
Edmonds, Canon W. J., Chancellor 
of Exeter Cathedral, memo 
randum by, 123 note 6 , 254 
note 1 
Education : — 

Education Acts and Bills (1870), 

87-89 ; (1902), 352 
Elementary Education, 78, 86- 

92, 349 

Endowed Schools, Archbishop 
Temple's letter to the Mayor 
of Exeter, 81-85 ; 85-86 
Free Education Act, 349 
Religious Instruction, 88, 116- 

118, 349-350 
Schools Inquiry Commission 

(1864), 77 
Secondary Education, 78, 349, 


Voluntary Schools, 91-95 
" Education of the World," Arch 
bishop Temple's contribution 
to Essays and Reviews, 242 
Elementary Education. See Edu 

Ellicott, Bishop, of Gloucester^ 156 
Endowed Schools. See Education 
Episcopal Veto, speech in Convo 
cation by Archbishop Temple, 

Essays and Reviews, 28 ; Dr. Pusey 
and, 29; DeanManselland,29; 
Dean Burgon and, 29 ; Cock- 
spur Street Committee, 29 ; 
Lord Shaftesbury and, 29 ; 
Bishop Harold Browne and, 
29-30 ; Bishop Wilberforce 
and, 30-31 ; Sir Stafford North- 
cote and, 31-32; letter to 
Lord Coleridge from Arch 
bishop Temple, 33 ; to Canon 


Cook, 33-34 ; Archbishop 
Benson's letter to The Times, 
35-36 ; Professor Hort's letter 
to Archbishop Benson, 36-37; 
Canon Cook's support of Arch 
bishop Temple, 37 et seq. ; cor 
respondence between Arch 
bishop Temple and the Bishop 
of Lincoln, 40-42 ; withdrawal 
of Essays and Reviews, 49 ; 
Archdeacon Freeman's state 
ment in Convocation, 49 ; 
Archbishop Temple's state 
ment in Convocation, 50-53 ; 
effect of the agitation on Arch 
bishop Temple, 53 ; 152, 242 
note 1 

Exeter, Archbishop Temple pre 
sented with the Freedom of, 

Cathedral, memorial window to 
Archbishop Temple in, 1 ; 
Edward the Confessor's Char 
ter, 2-3 ; restoration of, 266 
et seq. ', Archbishop Temple's 
sermon in aid of the Restora 
tion, 291-294 

Church Congress (1894), 351 
Episcopal Schools, 80 
Grammar School, 80 
Hele's Charity, 80 
Hospital of St. John, 80 
Maynard's Charity, 80 
Palace, history and restoration 

of, 252 et seq. 

See, foundation and history of, 

Exeter and Plymouth Gazette, 66 
note 1 , 67 note 1 ,*, 74 note 1 , 
79 note 1 , 88 note 1 , 94 note 1 , 
116 note 1 , 144 note 1 , 145 note 1 , 
155 note 1 , 268 note 1 , 269 note 3 

Exeter Cathedral, History of, by 
Archdeacon Freeman, 2 note 1 , 
3 note l , 271 note 2 , 272 note J , 2 

Exeter College, 7, 268 

Exeter, History of, 271 note 2 

Exeter, Lives of the Bishops of, 8 
note 1 

Exeter Mission (1875), 245 

Family Prayer, 186 
Family Prayer, Manual of, Arch 
bishop Temple's speeches in 

Convocation (1878-1879), 314- 


Fitch, Sir J. G., 78 
Forster, Right Hon. W. E., 78, 87 
Fortescue, Earl (3rd), 214 
Franco-German War, 218 
Free Education Act, 349 
Freeman, Archdeacon, of Exeter, 

2, 3 note 1 , 11 note 1 ; letter 

from Archbishop Temple, 34- 

35 ; relations with Archbishop 

Temple, 108 ; 269 
Freeman, Professor E. A., 122 
Friendly Societies, Archbishop 

Temple's address to (1870), 


Gladstone, W. E., Archbishop 
Temple's estimate of (1854), 
21-22; offers Bishopric of 
London to Abp. Temple, 339- 

Good Manners, by Archbishop 
Temple, 235 

Grandisson, Bishop, of Exeter, 
1,8 note 1 , 9-14, 17, 18, 59, 
80, 123, 124, 251 

Granville, Rev. R., letters to, from 
Archbishop Temple, 199, 201 

Gregory, Rev. E. I., notes of ad 
dresses delivered by Arch 
bishop Temple, 178 note 2 , 183 
note 1 

Harington, Chancellor, and the 
restoration of Exeter Cathe 
dral, 269, 272 

Hervey, Lord Arthur, 270 

Hingeston-Randolph, Prebendary, 

Historical Essays, by Bishop Light- 
foot, 5 note 1 

Hockin, Rev. F., letter from Arch 
bishop Temple, 137 note 1 

Holy Communion, administration 
of, to a possibly unfit per 
son, letter from Abp. Temple, 

Home Reunion Meeting in North 
Devon and address by Arch 
bishop Temple (1880), 197-199 

Hort, Professor F. J. A., letter 
to Archbishop Benson on 
Essays and Renews, 36-37 



House of Lords. See Lords, 
House of 

Hughes, Thomas, 45 

Hymnal, authorised, Archbishop 
Temple's speech in Convoca 
tion (1870), 314 

Iddesleigh, Lord, letter to Arch 
bishop Temple re Essays and 
Reviews, 31-32 ; presentation 
of Pastoral Staff at Exeter, 

Increase of the Episcopate Bill 
(1875), Archbishop Temple 
and, 142, 321 

Incumbents' Resignation Act, 
(1871), 173 

Infidel, Burial of, letter of Arch 
bishop Temple's on, 204 

Inscription on Memorial Tablet, 
letter from Abp. Temple, 

Irish Church, Disestablishment of, 
Archbishop Temple and, 22 

Jackson, Bishop, of London, 43, 

Joint examination of Board Schools 
in religious knowledge, Arch 
bishop Temple on, 201 

Jowett, Benjamin, 327 

Keating, Mr. Justice, 274 
Kendal, John, 271 
Kennaway, Sir John, 333 
Keppel, Bishop, 254 

Lach-Szyrma, Rev. W. S., 125 
note 2 , 126 

Lake, Dean, of Durham, sermon 
at Archbishop Temple's con 
secration to the See of Exeter, 

Lang, Dr. Cosmo (Bishop of Step 
ney), reminiscences of Arch 
bishop Temple's Bampton 
Lectures, 328-329 

Lascelles, Beatrice Blanche. See 
Temple, Mrs. (wife of Arch 
bishop Temple) 

Lascelles, Lady Caroline, 258, 264 

Lascelles, Hon. Mary Louisa, 258 

Lascelles, Right Hon. William 
Sebright, 264 

Lavington, Bishop, of Exeter, 16, 

129, 254 
Lawson, Canon Robert, Archbishop 

Temple's friendship with, 68 ; 

letter to, 215-216 
Lay Readers, 248 
Leofric, Bishop, of Exeter, 1, 2, 3, 

Lightfoot, Bishop, of Durham, 9 ; 

on Archbishop Temple's action 

respecting Essays and Reviews, 

53, 339 

Lingen, Lord, 39 

London, offer of See of, to Arch 
bishop Temple, 339-341 
Lords, House of, Speeches : — 
Board Schools (1884), 321-323 
Burial, Law of (1876), 324-325 
Marriage with Deceased Wife's 

Sister, 325-326 
University Test Bill, 323-324 
Lowe, Robert (Viscount Sher- 

brooke), 98 
Lyttelton, Lord, Increase of the 

Episcopate Bill, 142, 321 

Mackarness, Bishop, of Oxford, 

Mansel, Dean, and Essays and 
Reviews, 29 

Marriage, Archbishop Temple's, 
264 et seq. 

Marriage of unbaptized persons, 
letter from Abp. Temple, 203 

Martin, Rev. R., 100 ; notes of a 
Quiet Day address delivered 
by Archbishop Temple, 192 
note 1 

Metcalf, Rev. James, 239 note 1 

Milman, Dean, of St. Paul's, 52 

Missions, 245 et seq. 

Exeter Mission (1875), 245 
Plymouth Mission (1877), 245 

Moberly, Bishop, of Salisbury, 270 

Morcom, Rev. W. G., memoran 
dum on Archbishop Temple's 
Temperance work at Exeter, 
227, 228, 229 

National Society, 316 note 2 
National Temperance League, 229, 

"New Age, The/' by Matthew 

Arnold, 348 note 1 


Nonconformists, relations with, 

Northcote, Sir Stafford. See Iddes- 

leigh, Lord 

Old English History, by E. A. Free 
man, 123 note 1 

Ordinations — sermon at Truro 
(1871), 131-135; sermon at 
firstOrdinatiori (Exeter, 1870), 
153-155 ; examination of can 
didates, 159-163 

Ornaments Rubric, speech by Arch 
bishop Temple in Con vocation, 
(1879), 308 

Oxford Movement, 334 

Parochial Councils, Archbishop 

Temple on (Visitation Charge, 

1884), 248-249 
Pascal and other Sermons, by Dean 

Church, 213 note 1 
Pascoe, Rev. R. C., 156 
Pastoral Aid Society, 107 
Pastoral Letters, Abp. Temple's, 

106-107; Church Patronage, 

Pastoral Staff, presentation of, to 

Archbishop Temple at Exeter, 


Patronage. See Church Patronage 
Patteson, John Coleridge, Bishop 

of Melanesia, 269 
Percival, Bishop, of Hereford, 160 
Phillimore, Mr. Justice, and the 

Exeter Reredos Case, 274 
Phillpotts, Archdeacon, 66, 130, 

Phillpotts, Bishop, of Exeter, 18- 

19, 39, 55, 56, 57, 60, 90, 99, 

124, 126, 131, 156-157, 237, 

255, 257, 280 
Phillpotts, W. F., 274 
Phillpotts' Studentships, 156-160 
Philpott, Bishop, of Worcester, 44 
Pigot, Rev. J. T., reminiscences 

of Archbishop Temple, 104- 

105 ; memorandum of a Quiet 

Day address of Archbishop 

Temple's, 188 
Pluralities Act Amendment Act, 

173, 174, 311, 321 
Plymouth, Archbishop Temple's 

speech at the Art and Science 

Schools (1870), 72-74 ; Arch 
bishop Temple's work at — 
memorandum by Mr. John 
Shelly, 241-243 ' 

Plymouth, Church Extension in, 
236 et seq. 

Plymouth Church Congress (1876), 

Plymouth Mission (1877), 245 

Ponting, Rev. T. J. , memorandum 
on Archbishop Temple's Quiet 
Day addresses, 193, 297 

Preaching, Archbishop Temple on, 
176-178 ; Visitation Charge, 

Public Worship Regulation Act, 

Purity, Social, Archbishop Temple 
and, 230 

Pusey, Dr., and Essays and Reviews, 

Quiet Days for the Clergy, 175, 

Quivil, Bishop, of Exeter, 5, 6, 


Reading in Church, Archbishop 
Temple on, 182-183 

Rechabites, Independent Order of, 
Archbishop Temple's con 
nexion with, 229, 230, 348 

Religious Instruction. See Educa 

Reredos in Exeter Cathedral, 271 
et seq. ; account of the Exeter 
Reredos Case, 272-279 

Ritualism, Archbishop Temple's 
action with regard to, 333-337 

Rodd, Francis, 128 

Rogation Days, Abp. Temple's 
speech in Convocation (1879), 

Rogers, Canon Saltren, 129, 130 ; 
lettter to, from Archbishop 
Temple, 210 ; 265 

Rolle, Lady, gift to the See of Corn 
wall, 141, 143, 144, 269 

Roman Catholic, admission of a, 
into the Church of England — 
letter from Abp. Temple, 201 

Ross, Bishop, of Exeter, 17, 254 

Rugby Sermons, by Archbishop 
Temple, 338 note l 



Rundle, Rev. T. S., notes of a 
Quiet Day address delivered 
by Archbishop Temple, 192 
note 1 

Rural Deaneries, Abp. Temple 
and, 101-106, 175 et seq. 

Russell,Lord John, letter to Arch 
bishop Temple on his appoint 
ment to Exeter, 27 ; 125 

Russell, Rev. John, 61 

Ryder, Admiral, 230 

Sadler, Professor, 86 note 2 

St. Gluvias, 66 

Salvation Army, Abp. Temple 
on (Convocation, 1883), 312- 

Sanders, Archdeacon, of Exeter, 
37, 46-47, 68, 117, 159 

Sandford, Venerable Ernest Grey, 
Archdeacon of Exeter, 59, 
130, 263 

Sandford, Venerable John, Arch 
deacon of Coventry, 313 

Schools Inquiry Commission. See 

Scott, Sir Gilbert, 267, 271 

Scott, Dr. Robert, Dean of Ro 
chester, 150 ; letter to, from 
Archbishop Temple, 301 ; 
Archbishop Temple's intimacy 
with, 327 

Seamen, Missions for, Archbishop 
Temple and, 219 

Secondary Education. See Educa 

" Self-Sanctification," Quiet Day 
address by Abp. Temple, 
(1878), 188-192 

Semper Fidelis Society, 234 

Shaftesbury, Earl, and Essays and 
Reviews, 29 

Shelly, John, 237 note 1 ; memoran 
dum on Archbishop Temple's 
work at Plymouth, 241-243, 

Simon Mepham, Life of, 13 note l 

Smith, Rev. Percy, 263 note 1 

Snell, F. J., 298 note 1 

Social Questions, Abp. Temple's 
interest in, 216 et seq. 

Speeches and Addresses : — 

Art and Science Schools, Ply 
mouth (1870), 72-74 

Diocesan Conference, First 

(Exeter), 112-116 
Education (West Buckland, 

1870), 78-79 
Exeter Cathedral, Restoration 

of, 268, 269 

Friendly Societies (1870), 74-76 
Home Reunion, 197-200 
Presentation on leaving Exeter, 

reply to, 344-345 
Quiet Days for the Clergy, 188- 


Stafford, Bishop, of Exeter, 3 note 3 
StanleyyDean, letter to Archbishop 
Temple on appointment to 
Exeter, 25 ; 45 

Stapeldon, Bishop, of Exeter, 3, 
5, 7, 8, 59, 78, 80, 124, 251, 
253, 270 

Stocker, John, 261 note 1 
Stubbs, Bishop, of Oxford, 122 

note 1 

Study, Clerical — Abp. Temple's 
Visitation Charge (1875), 183- 
Sunday Schools, 349 

Tait, Archbishop, letter to Arch 
bishop Temple on appointment 
to Exeter, 23-24; 43, 317, 
337, 338 

Tatham, Prebendary, 126, 127 

Temperance — Abp. Temple's 
conversion to Total Ab 
stinence, 221-222; work at 
Exeter, 223 et seq.; United 
Kingdom Alliance Meeting, 
224-226 ; Church of England 
Temperance Society, 227 et 
seq. ; National Temperance 
League, 229 ; Ancient Order 
of Rechabites, 229-230 

Temple, Anne Laura. See Thorold, 

Temple, Frederick, Archbishop of 
Canterbury, appointment to 
Exeter, 23; letters of con 
gratulation, 23 et seq. ; opposi 
tion on account of Essays and 
Reviews, 27 etseq. ; Archbishop 
Benson's letter to The Times, 
35-36 ; election at Exeter, 37- 
39 ; Confirmation, 39 ; Con 
secration, 42-46 ; Enthrone- 


ment, 46-47 5 statement in 
Convocation as to Essays and 
Reviews, 50-53 ; . condition of 
diocese at Abp. Temple's 
appointment, 55 - 58 ; first 
tour, 59-67 ; visit to Blundell's 
School, 68 ; Plymouth, 72-74 ; 
Friendly Societies, 74-76 ; 
educational work, 77-95 ; 
advocacy of the principles of 
self-government, 96-98 ; or 
ganisation of Rural Deaneries, 
98-102 ; Lay Conferences, 
102 - 106 ; Archdeaconries, 
107-109; formationand objects 
of Diocesan Conferences, 109- 
112 ; speech at inaugural Con 
ference, 112 - 116 ; General 
Committee of Religious In 
struction formed, 116-117 ; 
work and residence in Corn 
wall, 128 - 131 ; Ordination 
sermon at Truro, 131-135 ; 
first efforts to revive the 
Cornish Bishopric,137 ', assist 
ance of the Diocesan Confer 
ence, 137-138 ; deputation to 
Mr. Disraeli, 139 ; Lady 
Rolle's gift, 141 ; Bill for the 
Revival of the Cornish See, 
142-143 ; appointment of Arch 
bishop Benson to See of Truro, 
145 ; consecration and en 
thronement, 146-149 ; Arch 
bishop Temple's attitude to 
wards the clergy, 150-153 ; 
first Ordination sermons, 153- 
155 ; Theological Colleges, 
156-159; Bishop Phillpotts' 
Studentships, 159 ; examina 
tions and preparation for Or 
dination, 159-169; Oi-dina- 
tions at different centres, 169 ; 
Church Patronage, 170-173 ; 
Pluralities Act Amendment 
Act, 173-174; Ruridecanal 
Conferences and Visitation 
Charges, 175-186 ; Quiet Days, 
186-193 ; personal relations 
with the Clergy, 193, 204-211 ; 
aptitude for legal questions, 
194-195 ; relations with Non 
conformists, 196-200 ; con 
secration of cemeteries, 200 ; 

joint examinations of Board 
Schools in religious know 
ledge, 201 ; admission of a 
Roman Catholic into the 
Church of England, 201 ; 
Baptism, 202 ; Marriage, 203 ; 
Burial of infidels, 204 ; pre 
sentation of Pastoral Staff, 
212-214 ; letter to Canon Law- 
son, 215-216 ; interest in 
municipal affairs, 216 ; West 
of England Bank failure, 217- 
218 ; Franco - German War, 
218 ; interest in soldiers and 
sailors, 218-219; Temperance, 
221 et seq. ; United Kingdom 
Alliance Meeting, 223-226; 
Purity, 230 ; Marriage with 
Deceased Wife's Sister Bill, 
231 - 234 ; Young Men's 
Friendly Society, 234; Semper 
Fidelis Society, 234 - 235 ; 
Church Extension in the 
Three Towns, 236-245 ; Ply 
mouth Mission, 245-246 ; 
Priesthood of the Laity, 246- 
248, 249-250; Parochial 
Councils, 248-249 ; restoration 
of Exeter Palace and Chapel, 
252-258; Miss Temple, 258- 
263 ; Archbishop Temple's 
marriage, 264-265 ; restora 
tion of Exeter Cathedral, 266- 
270 ; Reredos Case, 271-279 ; 
Archbishop Temple and the 
Chapter, 279-282 ; sermon, 
291-294 ; amalgamation of 
city parishes, 295-297 ; Tiver- 
ton parochial system, 297-299; 
early views on Convocation, 
301-302 ; ArchbishopTemple's 
reception in Convocation, 302- 
303 ; Athanasian Creed, 303- 
304 ; Ecclesiastical Courts, 
304-308 ; Ornaments Rubric, 
308-309 ; Bishop's discretion 
ary power, 309-310 ; expenses 
of litigation, 310-311 ; Plural 
ities Act Amendment Act,311- 
312 ; evangelistic work of the 
Church, 312-313; authorised 
Hymnal, 313-314 ; Manual 
of Family Prayer, 314-316; 
Rogation Days, 316 ; Agenda 



paper for Convocation, 317- 
318 ; translation to London — 
reception by Convocation, 319- 
320 ; Archbishop Temple in 
the House of Lords, 320-326 ; 
Pluralities Act Amendment 
Act, 321 ; Truro Bishopric 
Act, 321 ; Church Patronage, 
321 ; Speech on National Edu 
cation, 321-323 ; University 
Test Bill, 323-324; opening 
Churchyards to Nonconform 
ists, 324-325 ; Marriage with 
Deceased Wife's Sister Bill, 
325-326 ; relations with Public 
School and Universities, 326- 
327 ; Bampton Lectures, 327- 
329 ; Ordinations, 330-331 ; 
Confirmations, 331 ; Church 
building and restoration, 332 ; 
Foreign Missions, 332-333; 
Ritualism, 333-337 ; offer of 
See of London, 337-341 ; ad 
dresses from the clergy, 342 ; 
public testimonial, 343-345 ; 
close of the episcopate, 345- 
348 ; return visits to Exeter, 

Temple, Frederick Charles (son of 
Archbishop Temple), 265 

Temple, Jennetta Octavia (sister 
of Archbishop Temple), re 
miniscences of, 258-264 

Temple, Colonel John (brother of 
Archbishop Temple), 258 

Temple, Mrs. (wife of Archbishop 
Temple), marriage of, 264 ; 
life at Exeter, 265-266 

Temple, William (son of Arch 
bishop Temple), 265 

Testimonial to Archbishop Temple 
on leaving Exeter, 344 

Thirlwall, Bishop, of St. David's, 44 

Thomson, Sir Robert White, 214 

Thorold, Mrs., nee Temple (sister 
of Archbishop Temple), 263 

Three Towns, Archbishop Temple's 
work in, 241-244 

Three Towns Church Extension 
Society, 237 et seq. 

Times, The, 35, 303 

Tiverton, Bill for improving the 
ecclesiastical condition of, 297- 

Trelawny, Bishop, of Exeter, 15 

Trower, Bishop, 39 

Truro Bishopric, Revival of. See 

Cornish See, Revival of 
Truro Bishopric Act, 321 
Truro Chapter Act, 321 
Truro Diocesan Kalendar, 122 note 1 
Truro Training College, 111 
Twiss, Sir Travers, 40 
Tyacke, Rev. R., 130 

Union of small parishes in Exeter, 
295-297, 321 

United Kingdom Alliance, uproari 
ous meeting at Exeter (1872), 

University Test Bill, Archbishop 
Temple's speech in the House 
of Lords (1870), 323-324 

Venn, Rev. H., 298 

Vestments, Archbishop Temple's 

speech on, in Convocation 

(1879), 308-309 
Visitation. Charges, 171-175, 178- 

186, 246-250 
Voluntary Schools. See Education 

Walker, Dr., 126 

Ward, Bishop Seth, 15, 253, 266 

Warelwast, Bishop, of Exeter, 4 

Wellesley, Dean, on Archbishop 
Temple's appointment to 
Exeter, 37, 38, 49 

Wellington, Duke of, 57 

Wesley, John, 16, 17, 124, 129, 
136, 254, 262, 333 

Wesley, John, Life and Times of, 
16 note l , 17 note l , 2 , 3 

West Briton and Cornwall Adver 
tiser, 134 note 1 

West of England Bank failure, 
(1878), 217-218 

Westcott, Bishop, of Durham, 339 

Western Morning News, 71 

Weston, Bishop, 254 

Whigham, Rev. L. R., remin 
iscences of Abp. Temple, 
168 note l , 210 

Wilberforce, Samuel, Bishop of 
Oxford, letter to Archbishop 
Temple on appointment to 
Exeter, 25 ; Essays and Re 
views, 30-31 ; 152 


Wilkinson, Archdeacon, of Totnes, 
memorandum on Archbishop 
Temple's work at Plymouth, 
237 note l , 239, 245 note 1 

Woolcombe, Archdeacon, 108, 

Wordsworth, Bishop, of Lincoln, 
correspondence with Arch 
bishop Temple on Essays and 
Reviews, 40-42 ; 43 

Young Men's Friendly Society, 234 


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