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Full text of "Exhibition of Albert Dürer's engravings, etchings, and dry-points, and most of the woodcuts executed from his designs. Selected from the collection of Mr. Henry F. Sewall, of New York, and from the Gray collection belonging to Harvard college. Together with eight original drawings from the collection Von Franck. November 15, 1888, to January 15, 1889"

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y i 



From the Library of the 

Fogg ^Museum of Art 
Harvard University 

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Engravings, Etchings, and Dry-Points, 


selected from the collection of mr. henry f. sewall, of 

new york, and from the gray collection 

belonging to harvard college. 

Together With 

eiqhx original drawincxs 

from the collection von franck. 

NOVEMBER 15, 1888, TO JANUARY 15, 1889. 



34 Franklin Strbbt. 


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^'t!.r- . ^^t ' :ij I 



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Introduction v 

Books and papers consulted in the compilation of this 

catalogue . xz 

Durer's engravings, etchings, and dry-points ... i 

Engravings on metal attributed to Diirer, either spurious 

or doubtful 39 

Woodcuts executed from designs specially prepared for 

the purpose by Diirer 41 

Woodcuts said to be from designs by Diirer, either spu- 
rious or doubtful 70 

DUrer's scientific books 74 

Original drawings by Diirer 75 

Finding-List according to the catalogues of Bartsch and 

Passavant 78 

Location of prints in the exhibition according to cata- 
logue numbers • • 80 

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Of all the artists whose names are in everybody's 
mouth, Diirer is the one least understood. Max Allihn is 
quite right when he says of some of his compositions that 
they "may be fittingly likened to the sphinx of the old 
legend, for they attack every one who, either as critic or 
historian, or harmless wanderer, enters the realm of art, 
and propose to him their insolvable riddles." And if the 
truth were told, it would be found that all so attacked were 
vanquished, and that they ought to be counted among the 

The difficulties which beset the Diirer student are mani» 
fold, and of a peculiar kind. Rembrandt, who always 
comes up in the mind as Diirer's rival in the fascination 
which he exercises upon those who venture within the 
reach of his influence, repulses at first by his apparent 
ugliness, and to the specialist in prints brings many a sore 
trial through the Protean shapes which his plates assume 
in the way of " states," but as to the subject matter of his 
compositions, it is as easily understood as the conversation 
of a neighbor of to-day. The truth is that Rembrandt is 
thoroughly modem, and utters his homely, but heart-felt 
sentences in simple speech, which only gains from what 
there still adheres to it of an antiquated flavor. As to his 
genesis, the reason for his being and for his appearing just 
where and as he did, these also are perfectly clear, and can 
be deduced logically from the conditions which preceded 
and surrounded him. With Diirer, on the other hand, all 
this is different. He does not, indeed, trouble us with 
" states," for among all his authenticated works there is 
only one, the "Adam and Eve," of which two states, 
properly so called, are known, nor does he shock us with 
apparently vulgar ugliness, however far removed his crea» 

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tions may be from the Italian ideal of beauty as we admire 
it in Raphael. But when we come to inquire into the 
course of his development, and seek to understand the 
influences which assisted in the shaping of his mind, we 
are at once confronted by serious obstacles, and our 
troubles increase as we enter upon the task of the inter- 
pretation of his works. It seems as if it were more diffi- 
cult even to understand Diirer than the older artists still 
farther removed from us, not only in time, but also in 
feeling. And therein we may, possibly, find a first clew to 
the nature of our troubles. These older men were of the 
same metal throughout, and thus present a unity, which, 
although foreign to us, we may hope to understand by con- 
trast. Rembrandt, on the other hand, is thoroughly mod- 
ern, — cast in the same mould in which we were cast, — and 
we understand him, therefore, by similarity. Diirer, how- 
ever, is neither the one nor the other, or rather, he is both. 
We think we have divined his innermost thoughts by ap- 
proaching him from the side of the Middle Ages, when, lo 
and behold, we suddenly find ourselves face to face with 
an idea with which the Middle Ages had nothing to do ; and 
we are equally vanquished if we look at him from a mod- 
ern point of view. It is this, precisely, that makes him so 
thoroughly typical of his age, which was racked and con- 
fused by conflicting desires : — the love of and inability to 
get away from old ideas; an undefined longing for the 
new out of which the modern world was to rise ; and the 
vain hope that by returning to the dead past, as embodied 
in the Rome of antiquity, the two might be reconciled and 
enjoyed together, 'i'o a certain extent, this discord is felt 
even in the way in which Diirer deals with religious sub- 
jects, although otherwise his creations of this kind offer no 
special difficulty : — the designer of the anti-papal " Apoc- 
alypse^' (see remarks under No. 144), the warm admirer 
and friend of Luther, publishes also " The Life of the 
Virgin." Bearing in mind this condition of things, we 
may hope, if not fully to understand, at least correctly 
to appreciate Diirer's works. For it is precisely the illogi- 
cal, and therefore enigmatical, character of the time of 
struggle and transformation in which he lived that takes 
form in them and makes them representative. To hope 

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to reduce such half-felt, half-reasoned productions to the 
clearness of a problem in mathematics is in vain, and all 
attempts in that direction have, therefore, been fruitless. 

But the difficulties which the age in general interposes 
are measurably increased in Diirer's case by his nation- 
ality. He was a German, or, more broadly speaking, a 
Northerner. To the limitations which bound all the in- 
tellects of his time, there were added those which inhered 
in his race. However the spirit of classical antiquity 
might be misunderstood on the other side of the Alps, 
the favored son of the South had at least retained through 
all the vicissitudes of the Dark Ages an instinctive feeling 
of form and refinement which his Northern brother had 
never possessed. One needs only to compare a naughty 
story told by Boccaccio with a similar tale told by Chau- 
cer, to understand this difference between the North and 
the South. The former throws around it all the allure- 
ments of refined outward beauty, and thus increases the 
force of the poison a thousand-fold ; the other presents his 
subject in all its native repulsiveness, and thus robs it of 
much of its baleful influence. And the same holds good 
of pictorial art. The Apollos and Venuses, the Theseuses 
and Ariadnes of the old Florentine engravers grouped to- 
gether under the mythical firm name of Botticelli-Baldini, 
however far they may be removed from the creations of a 
Phidias or even of his late Graeco-Roman followers, are still, 
as compared with their congeners on the hither side of the 
mountains, triumphant examples of grace and beauty, and 
in so far at least make good their claim to be direct de- 
scendants of antique ancestors. To understand this, it 
is necessary only to place side by side with the Italian en- 
graving alluded to such a plate as that of ''The Judgment 
of Paris," by the Master of the Banderoles (reproduced in 
Lehrs, " Der Meister mit den Bandrollen," Dresden, i886)« 
These works preceded Diirer, it is hardly necessary to say, 
by nearly half a century. But, all advances in the interme- 
diate period conceded, the relative positions of the North 
and the South nevertheless remained about the same in his 
time. Of an age and a country which did not hesitate, in 
sober earnest and by the mouth of one of its most learned 
men, to proclaim Maximilian's ''Arch of Honor" (see 

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No. 231*), as the counterpart of an antique Roman trium- 
phal arch, and which represented Truth, in the attempted 
reconstruction of the '* Calumny " of Apelles, by a woman 
richly attired in sixteenth-century costimie, with a big 
feather hat, and carrying a flaming face, — the sun, — on 
a fruit dish (see Diirer's sketch in Thausing, II, opp. p. 
-162), we must not demand that it should distinguish to a 
nicety between the Roman Fortuna and the Greek Nemesis 
(see No, 32). 

. It would never do, however, in a fit of ultra-agnosticism 
to content ourselves with an admission of ignorance, and to 
give up all endeavor in despair. Although we may be ready 
to acknowledge that there are certain things which we can- 
not know, we yet feel it necessary to give play to our facul- 
ties, and to ascertain what we may know, and in spite of 
the rebuffs suffered by some, there will always be others 
ready to ask whether it is really utterly impossible to lift 
the veil. The answer is apparently simple : — We may hope 
to comprehend these works by studying them within their 
time, that is to say, by seeking for the general causes to 
which they owe their existence. It is the " kulturhisto- 
rische Deutung," — the explanation from the point of view of 
<he historian of civilization, — which alone promises to fur- 
nish the key so long sought. That all other ways have led 
to nothing, is evident. It is surprising to see the stupid 
ingenuity or the ingenious stupidity which has been dis- 
played in attempts to explain some of Diirer's prints merely 
upon the outward evidence of the subjects themselves. On 
the other hand, the subjective method, — that method which 
questions the works as to the effect produced upon the 
individual observer, and then, from this effect, deduces the 
causes which must have moved the artist, — has proved 
equally abortive. Nor yet will the individual life-history 
alone of the artist provide a sufficient explanation, although 
it claims a decided share in the evidence to be considered. 
Into what strange aberrations such a one-sided method of 
proceeding may lead, is plainly shown by the intrepreta- 
tions based upon the unfortunate relations which for a long 
time were supposed to have existed between Diirer and his 
wife, and which recent researches have proved to be 
almost absolutely untrue. It follows from all this that the 

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historical method remains as the only one to be followed, 
however much such an essay as Allihn's " Diirer-Studien '' 
may tend to make us shun it in view of the paucity of re- 
sults attained, as compared with the vast amount of learn- 
ing expended. It does, indeed, seem as if the past, quite 
as much as the future, were to us a book with seven seals. 
But the attempts to open it will never cease, and the 
sooner we resign ourselves to the conviction that intuition, 
or the divine furor of the poet, will not help us to break 
the seals, but that, if they are to be broken at all, nothing 
but downright hard work will do it, the better it will be for 
us. The notes herewith published are principally designed, 
so, far as opportunities and the limits of a catalogue would 
allow, to supply some hints to those who may wish to see 
what has so far been done towards the interpretation of 
Diirer's works by the writers who have made him their 
special subject of study. 

But while it must be admitted that the secret of these 
designs cannot be penetrated without effort, it is true, nev- 
ertheless, that they exercise a strong fascination upon the 
beholder, even so long as they are not in the least under- 
stood, — a welcome assurance that the admiration ex- 
pressed for them by those who have not taken the pains 
to study them is not all mere lip service. It is precisely 
their enigmatical character which here proves to be their 
strength, and this enigmatical character, again, is due, in 
the sense now under consideration, to the curious mixture of 
allegory and realism, of vague idea and definite form, which 
characterizes them and invests them with the charm of 
a vivid dream. There is such intense outward life in them, 
that it seems almost impossible not to be able to compre- 
hend them, and yet their meaning is so hidden to us, or 
so intangible in itself, that it evades us at the very moment 
when we hope to grasp it. It is the lack of this contrast 
between intangible essence and tangible form that makes 
all later allegory so distasteful. In it wrongly so-called 
idealized forms, — that is to say, forms out of which all 
individuality has been generalized, — . are united with unpic- 
torial ideas, and the result is an unutterable insipidity 
from which Diirer's realism happily saves him. We must 
not forget, however, that this fascinating incongruity is not 

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' of Diirer's intending, and we must be careful, therefore, 
riot to impute wrong motives to him. 

Our human sympathies, if nothing else, would suffice to 
explain why we are not satisfied with a knowledge of the 
works of an artist whom we admire or who in any way 
attracts us, but desire also to make his personal acquaint- 
ance, and to follow him in his development. For this 
reason the chronological arrangement adopted for the 
Rembrandt exhibition which was held in these rooms last 
year has again been followed in the present exhibition. 
It was natural, with this aim in view, to turn to Retberg, 
and it certainly would have been the least troublesome 
proceeding to follow his list, but closer investigation soon 
showed that he was not wholly to be relied upon, as he 
occasionally allowed his judgment to be misled by mere 
outward considerations which carry no weight whatever. 
There was nothing left, therefore, but to consult the hints 
thrown out and the opinions expressed by the leading 
writers upon Diirer, and from these data and the convic- 
tions gained from the study of the works themselves, to 
construct an independent list. There is, of course, no 
difficulty as regards the majority of the later dated works, 
but the case stands differently with the undated earlier 
ones. Some guidance is here found, aside from the char- 
acter of the design, in the development of Diirer's mono- 
gram, in which he evidently took much pride, but even this 
is not unfailing in every instance. The arrangement as it 
stands, therefore, does not claim to be more than approx- 
imately correct, nor has the chronological sequence been 
rigidly adhered to throughout. In the first place, the con- 
nected series of prints, "The Apocalypse," "The Great 
Passion," "The Small Passion," "The Passion on Cop- 
per," "The Life of the Virgin," and "The Apostles,'* 
have been kept together, each by itself, and placed where 
either the execution or the date of publication seemed 
to warrant it. In the second place, the engravings, etch- 
ings, and dry-points, which are throughout the work of 
Diirer's own hand, have been separated from the wood- 
cuts for which he furnished only the designs. By this 
proceeding some of the things which it would be desir- 
able to consider together are, no doubt, torn asunder. 

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We do not recognize, for instance, as readily as we other- 
wise might, how curiously two lines of thought struggle for 
the mastery over the artist immediately after his return 
from his early travels, — the one showing him to us ap- 
parently bent entirely upon the acquisition of knowledge, 
and finding expression in such studies of the nude as 
the" Four Naked Women" (No. 21) and "The Dream" 
(No. 22), with the "Adam and Eve" (No. 35) as its 
crowning triumph, all engraved by himself on copper; 
the other, and finally, in the course of his life, the con- 
quering one, leading him on to the formulation of his 
religious convictions, through the medium of the wood- 
cut as the more popular method of communication with 
the large mass of his contemporaries. The diligent stu- 
dent can easily, however, join these parts together again, 
while it will perhaps be conceded that bjr the division a 
unity has been secured in each half, which would have 
been sadly marred had the two been intermingled. And 
even with the limitations just specified, the advantages 
of the chronological arrangement are manifest. Diirer's 
printed works are, indeed, far from having the autobio- 
graphical character of those of Rembrandt, his own per- 
sonality being suppressed in them entirely, but they nev- 
ertheless conspicuously mark the events of his life, which 
was more varied than Rembrandt's. We can, therefore, 
trace in them his early connection with the humanists ; we 
may even detect faint echoes of his travels ; we are im- 
pressed with the extended activity which he displayed in 
the service of Maximilian, and the loyal attachment with 
which he followed him to the hour of death ; we note with 
pleasure the position which he made for himself among 
the scientific men of the time ; we recognize the portraits 
of the celebrated friends and patrons who remained true 
to him until the last ; and finally we see him at the close of 
his life giving to the world the results of those theoretical 
studies which, to his help or to his hindrance, he had fol- 
lowed assiduously throughout his career. Still more inter- 
esting, however, than these reflections of outward events, 
are the signs of his own inner development, which, in spite 
of the limitations of his nature and his environments, was 
steadily from the fantastic to the humane, from bizarre 

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variety to greater simplicity, from whimsical conceits and 
misunderstood classicity to portraits and the expression of 
his own feelings and convictions. On the other hand, it 
needs no chronological arrangement to convince us, upon 
the testimony of his works, of the purity of his character, 
which ennobled also his art. Diirer was vain, — there is 
no gainsaying that, — but his vanity was of a gentle, so to 
speak, modest kind, which differed greatly from the vanity, 
the vice of the time, to which his great and learned friends 
fell a prey, at the head of them all the Emperor Maximil- 
ian, the last of the knights. But of the coarseness of his 
age there is not a trace in all his authenticated works, 
which is all the more remarkable as his activity as an 
engraver and publisher might easily have tempted him to 
pander to the tastes of the multitude upon whom he was 

To enable those students who may wish to utilize this 
exhibition in connection with the reading of some biogra- 
phy of Diirer, to judge, to some extent at least, of the 
theories advanced concerning the influence presumably 
exercised upon him by the antique and by Italian art, 
notably through Jacopo de Barbari, a number of photo- 
graphs and prints bearing upon the subject have been 
grouped together in Case 9, ii. With the exception of a 
single impression, and that badly worn (see under No. 21), 
from a plate by the engraver W, no material can be offered 
to aid in the decision of the question as to the personage 
of this artist and his relations with Diirer. Nor can this 
question be discussed here, but it must be stated that 
Thausing's identification of W with Wolgemut, and his 
claim that Diirer copied his earlier plates from him, has 
not been received with much favor. A thorough review 
of all the points involved may be looked for soon in a 
work on Wenzel von Olmiitz, from the competent pen of 
Dr. Max Lehrs, of the Print Cabinet at Dresden. 

Thausing's attempt to claim for Diirer the invention of 
etching — not, indeed, a new claim — needs hardly to be 
considered, as the curt denial of the validity of the results 
of Harzen's investigations is not sufficient to outweigh 
the evidence carefully collected by the latter, even if it be 
admitted that some of it has since been disproved, and 

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the literary and other testimony showing that the armorers 
practised etching long before the painters, cannot be 
brushed aside by a mere on dit, vaguely supported by a 
reference to unnamed connaisseurs. The same author's 
assertions, however, concerning the supposed true nature 
of Diirer's dry-points and his alleged change of method in 
engraving, said to be observable from about the year 15 14, 
demand a somewhat closer examination. They are brought 
, forward with a show of scientific reasoning, — part of which 
is apparently held in reserve for future development, — 
calculated to impress upon the general reader the necessity 
of accepting them, in spite of evident contradictions. 
Thausing's argument, if so it may be called, stripped of its 
verbiage, is this : — About 15 10 Diirer made trial of the dry 
point, inspired thereto, directly or indirectly, by the works 
of the Master of 1480 or of the Amsterdam Cabinet. 
His works of this kind must be studied in the earliest 
impressions, such as the two from the " St. Jerome near 
the Willow Tree " (No. 65 of this catalogue) before the 
monogram. The rapidity with which engravings of this 
kind deteriorate in the hands of the printer soon deter- 
mined Diirer, however, to abandon the new technique. 
The plates just spoken of are generally described as dry- 
point plates, and they have all the characteristics of such 
in the first impressions full of bur. They, nevertheless, 
appear to be etched plates, /. ^., plates bitten with acid, which 
Diirer was compelled to work over with the dry point be- 
cause he did not know how to manage the acid, and there- 
fore underbit them. About 15 14 Diirer began to etch on 
iron, quite successfully. Having thus failed in his at- 
tempts to work with acid on copper, but having succeeded 
on iron, he now " found in etching a welcome means of 
reducing the labor and securing the perfection of engrav- 
ing on copper" (2d German ed., II, p. 70). This ex- 
plains why there is a total change of character in Diirer's 
engravings from the year 15 14. His older plates yield 
brilliant black impressions. "This still holds good of the 
plates of 1 5 13, the Madonna by the Tree, B 35 [No. 67 of 
this catalogue], of the Sudarium held by two Angels, 
« 25 [No. 68], and of the celebrated * Rider ' or * The 
Knight, Death, and the Devil,' B 98 [No, 69], It is only 

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the later engravings by Diirer which show the peculiar, 
more uniform, fainter tone, that delicate, silver-gray garb, 
which gives them such a distinguished appearance. The 
Madonna sitting near the wall of a city, B 40 [No. 75], 
forms, as it would seem, the transition to the new tech- 
nique. The treatment of this plate is unequal, and shows, 
especially in the flesh parts of the child and the head of 
Mary, the sharper, blacker burin lines of the older plates. 
It takes its position, therefore, close by the border line of ^ 
the two methods. On the other hand, the Virgin v*ith* 
short hair upon the crescent, B 33 [No. 74], and all the 
other six coppers of the year 15 14, including such impor- 
tant pieces as the Melancholy [No. 70] and the St. Jerome 
in the Chamber [No. 71], belong to the new group. This 
suddenly appearing difference presupposes a method dif- 
fering in principle. . . . From the evidence at hand, I 
can explain this difference only by the sharper edges of 
the burin line, as against the porous limits of the etched 
line. It would appear, therefore, that Diirer gave up etch- 
ing upon copper only in so far as he blended it with his 
burin work. The dry point had shown itself insufficient ; 
he therefore subordinated it to the well-tried burin. He 
secured to the latter the preponderance, contenting him- 
self with a very slight preparatory etching of his engrav- 
ings, with a view to trimming them line for line and com- 
pleting them with the graver. Even so the laborious 
work of the burin would receive considerable help, and a 
method would thus be established which has been prac- 
tised for centuries. Compare, for instance ... B 31 
[No. 59] . . . and B 32 [No. 86], . . . and the great con- 
trast in their general tone will be apparent at first sight. 
But upon closer inspection evidence of the traces of 
etching will also be found in the blunter, frayed lines of 
the plate last named. Experienced collectors and dealers, 
therefore, have long ago come to the conclusion that the 
faint gray impressions from Diirer's later plates are 
preferable to the lush, blacker ones " (2d Germ, ed., II, 

pp. 70-70- 

The purpose of this argument is apparent enough : — 
Thausing wishes to heap upon his hero as much honor as 
possible, and would, therefore, credit him, not onl)- with the 

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invention of etching, but also with that of " forwarding " 
by etching. But the contradictions in which he involves 
himself destroy the force of his argument. Diirer is sup- 
posed to have been led to the use of the dry point by some 
of the engravings of the Master of 1480, "the delicate, 
bloomy effect of which we must attribute principalljr to the 
dry point " (II, p. 63). But he starts out with etchmg, and 
only resorts to the point after its failure. Again, we are 
told, that the richness of these works is best seen in the 
first impressions before the monogram, while evidently the 
first impressions must be the barest of all, since the work 
of the point came in only later. After an interval of four 
years he began to etch on iron, which necessitates an en- 
tirely different treatment of the acid or mordant than 
etching on copper, and having been successful in this, he 
applied the process to copper again, but wisely abandoned 
the point and instead trimmed every line with the burin. 
Nevertheless, although the action and the purpose of the 
burin would be to sharpen and clean the work, and thus to 
remove the imperfections inherent in the etched line, the 
traces of etching are still to be found "in the blunter, 
frayed lines " produced by it. It hardly seems worth while 
to dwell upon such matters, but it is well to ascertain the 
truth in everything, and in the history of the development 
of technical processes they are of importance. The curi- 
ous results to which such unwarranted subtleties are. apt 
to lead may be seen in the conclusions based upon them 
by Thausing himself. Believing the " Passion on Copper " 
to be incomplete, he seeks a reason for its abandonment 
by Diirer, and finds it in this supposed change of tech- 
nique. "That Diirer found no inducement thereafter to 
continue the engraved Passion," he says (2d Germ, ed., II, 
P- 63), " seems to me to have still another quite external 
technical reason. In the year 15 14 Diirer so essentially 
changes his method of engraving, that by means of his 
new process it was no longer possible for him to furnish 
companion pieces equal in quality to the earlier ones. The 
carefully sustained uniformity of the whole series would 
thus have been seriously disturbed by new additions." 
That an artist should abandon a favorite project of his 
because of a change of technique, it is difficult to believe. 

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On the other hand, that Diirer was not a stickler for uni- 
formity in quality, is sufficiently shown by the very marked 
differences in the cuts of "The Great Passion." But even 
in the " Passion on Copper " there are notable differences 
of quality. " If we compare the separate pieces with one 
another," says Hausmann, "the oldest among them, B 14 
[No. 54], essentially falls below the others, whereas the 
engravings of the year 1508 are among the most beautiful 
of the whole series. But there are some also among the 
pieces of 15 12, as for instance B 7, 8, and 11 [Nos. 47, 48, 
5 1], which do not equal the others in the pictorial effect of 
the impressions." 

Those who desire to investigate this question for them- 
selves will do well to consult the German original of 
Thausing's book, as the English translation is not quite 
correct in its rendering of the technical details involved. 
To assist the student, duplicate impressions from the plates 
in question, varying in quality as to the printing, have been 
placed side by side so far as they were attainable. 

That those plates by Diirer here described as dry-points 
are really such, admits of no doubt, in spite of the fact 
that they are often spoken of as etchings by writers of 
acknowledged authority, such as Bartsch. There is a 
peculiarity in impressions from dry-point plates which, if 
discoverable, can always be relied upon, but which, so far 
as the compiler of this catalogue knows, has never as yet 
been pointed out. The bur thrown up by the point pro- 
jects above the surface of the copper, so that in a dry- 
point plate in good condition, and with the bur unscraped, 
there are two kinds of lines, the sunken lines or furrows 
which hold the ink below the surface of the plate, and the 
raised, relief lines of the bur, which hold it upon the sur- 
face. If the printer wipes with sufficient force, and the 
bur lines are not too minute, the ink is removed from the 
back of the bur. The result in the impression is a series 
of embossed black lines, produced by the furrows in the 
plate, accompanied by a series of very fine white lines, 
pressed into the paper, caused by the relief lines of ihe 
bur. The plate may have been so wiped that the back of 
the bur is still covered with ink, in which case no white 
lines are seen. But wherever the depressed white lines 

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appear alongside of the embossed black lines, the exist- 
ence of dry-point work is proven. In the impression from 
Diirer's plate, " The Holy Family," B 43, here shown under 
No. 66*, these white lines are distinctly visible upon closer 

As the prices charged by Diirer for his prints are occa- 
sionally referred to in the following notes, it may perhaps 
interest the visitor who does not care to look into the mat- 
ter more closely for himself or herself, to know something 
more about them. In the Diary of his journey to the 
Netherlands, Diirer has entered also his sales, and from 
them we can in a measure reconstruct his price-list. The 
most important sale is that to Sebald Fischer, at Ant- 
werp, from which it appears that his wholesale rates, so to 
speak, were as follows : — The Small Passion on wood, 4 
sets for one florin ; The Large Passion, The Apocalypse, 
and The Life of the Virgin, 4 sets for one florin ; The Pas- 
sion on copper, 2 sets for one florin ; whole sheets (includ- 
ing such engravings as " Adam and Eve," " Melancholy," 
etc.), 8 assorted for one florin ; half sheets (" The Great 
Crucifixion," "The Nativity," etc.), 20 assorted for one 
florin ; quarter sheets (the small Madonnas, saints, and 
peasant subjects), 45 assorted for one florin. Usually the 
sales are given in a lump, as "a set of all the copper 
plates, a Passion on wood, one on copper, two half sheets, 
and two quarter sheets, sold together for eight florins in 
gold." Single pieces or sets are priced only occasionally, 
as a Passion on wood, sold for 1 2 stivers (half a florin! 
and an " Adam and Eve," sold for 4 (one sixth of a florin). 
These prices are enough to make an admirer and collector 
of Diirer's works giddy, and to cause him to wish that he 
had been born four hundred years ago. And even if )ve 
take into account the much greater purchasing power of 
money at the time, they still remain ludicrously low. Ac- 
cording to Thausing the living expenses of a Nuremberg 
burgher at the time were computed at 50 florins a year, 
while a salary of 100 florins a year was considered quite 
decent, and the yearly income of the highest official of the 
town, that of the imperial magistrate (Schultheiss) was 
only 600 florins. Diirer himself, indeed, hardly consid- 
ered 50 or even 100 florins enough for a year's living* 

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Writing to Jacob Heller on March 19, 1508, about the pic- 
ture of " The Martyrdom of the Ten Thousand," just fin- 
ished for the Elector Frederic, he says : " I worked on it 
nearly a whole year, and shall profit little by it ; for I do 
not receive more than 280 florins Rhenish for it. One 
needs about that for food." If, however, we accept the 
figures first named, and if, on their strength, we assume 
that 100 florins in Diirer's time had the purchasing power 
of $1,000 of our money, the price in quantities of a set of 
the large woodcut publications will still be only $2.50; of 
the Passion on copper, $5.00 ; of the full sheets, $1.25 each ; 
of the half sheets, 50 cents each ; and of the quarter sheets, 
only about 22 cents each, while the retail prices mentioned 
for the Passion on wood, and the " Adam and Eve " would 
be respectively $5.00 and $1.67. 

The collection of Diirer's works brought together for 
this exhibition is remarkably complete. Of the engravings 
on metal, the dry-points and etchings, both authenticated 
and doubtful, everything is here, with the exception of the 
very doubtful " Conversion of Paul," P 1 10. It goes with- 
out saying, of course, that the unique, or almost unique, 
pieces are represented by copies. Of the generally ac- 
cepted woodcuts, as registered in Bartsch's list, only 28 are 
wanting out of 170, and of these only "The Large Tri- 
umphal Car" and "The Column" are of special impor- 
tance. The possibility of making such an exhibition is 
again due to the liberality of Mr. Henry F. Sewall, of New 
York, whose name, in connection with the Rembrandt Exhi- 
bition of last year is still gratefully remembered by the 
visitors of the Museum. The first division of the exhibi- 
tion, the works on metal, could have been made as com- 
plete as it is from Mr. SewalFs collection alone, so that 
the Gray Collection, which also is quite rich in Diirers, 
was drawn upon only when it offered impressions of a bet- 
ter quality. In the division of the woodcuts by far the 
largest part of the contributions likewise comes from Mr. 
Sewall. His collection is tolerably rich, also, in copies 
(including those by Marcantonio), but of these only a few 
of the oldest German have been included. Of the doubt- 
ful and spurious woodcuts listed in the appendices of 
•Bartsch and of Passavant, comparatively few only are 

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found in the two collections drawn upon. Such as there 
are have been placed on exhibition (with one exception, 
see No. 270), and they are quite sufficient to show what 
sort of stuff used to be saddled upon Diirer by the un- 
critical " connaisseurs " of by-gone days, although they in- 
clude some works of fine quality, as for instance the large 
" Head of Christ," No. 256 of this catalogue. Thanks are 
due, also, to the Trustees of the Boston Public Library, 
and to Mr. J. D. Lange and Messrs. H. Wunderlich & Co., 
both of New York, for prints and books lent, either for 
exhibition or for consultation. 

The eight original drawings by Diirer, which constitute a 
most valuable and interesting part of the exhibition, were 
kindly lent by Mr. Ferdinand Meder (with Mr. C. Klack- 
ner), of New York. They are all from the collection of 
Mr. von Franck, at Gratz, lately dispersed, and are alluded 
to at length in the works of Heller, Thausing, and Ephrussi. 

The list of books and papers consulted in the compila- 
tion of this catalogue, given elsewhere, will point out to 
those who desire to utilize them, not only the facilities for 
the verification of the references in the notes which follow, 
but also the means for a thorough study of Diirer in con- 
nection with the exhibition. The principal references are, 
naturally enough, to the latest biography of Diirer, by 
Moriz Thausing, and, for the convenience of those not 
conversant with German, to its English translation. The 
finding list at the end of the catalogue, in connection with 
the diagram showing the location of the cases, and its 
accompanying explanations, is designed to enable visitors 
to find without trouble any of the prints by or attributed to 
Diirer, so far as they are shown, according to the numbers 
given to them by Bartsch and Passavant. 

The abbreviations used in the following pages almost 
explain themselves : — B stands for Bartsch, R for Retberg, 
H for Heller, P for Passavant. 

Curator of the Print Department. 

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Allihn Max. Diirer-Studien. Versuch einer Erklaning 
schwer zu deu tender Kupferstiche A. Diirer's vom 
culturhistorischen Standpunkte. Leipsic : 1871. 

Allihn, Max. Diirer's "Vier Hexen." Eine Entgeg- 
nung. Kunstchronik, VII, p. 185. 

Bartsch, Adam. Albert Durer, In Le Peintre-Graveur. 
Vol. Vri. Vienna : 1808. 

Bergau, R. Max Allihn, Diirerstudien. Kunstchronik, 
VII, p. 154. 

Boeheim, Wendelin. Das Schwert Kaiser Maximi- 
lians I. in der k. k. Ambraser-Sammlung und der 
"Degenknopf" Albrecht Diirers. Repertorium fiir 
Kunstwissenschaft, III, p. 276. 

Chmelarz, Eduard. Die Ehrenpforte des Kaisers Ma- 
ximilian I. Jahrb. d. kunsth. Samml. d. allerh. Kaiser- 
hauses. Vol. IV, p. 289. 

Colvin, Sidney. Albert Diirer, his teachers, his rivals, 
and his followers. Portfolio, 1877. (Vol. VIII.) 

Ephrussi, Charles. Notes biographiques sur Jacopo 
de Barbarj, dit le maitre au caducee, peintre-graveur 
v^nitien de la fin du XV* sifecle. Paris : 1876. 

Ephrussi, Charles. Albert Diirer et Ses Dessins. Paris : 

Eye, Dr. A. von. Leben und Wirken Albrecht Diirer^s. 
2d edition. N5rdlingen : 1869. 

Frimmel, Dr. Th. Zur Kritik von Diirer's Apokalypse 
und seines Wappens mit dem Todtenkopfe. Vienna : 

Grimm, Hermann. Bemerkungen iiber den Zusammen- 
hang von Werken A. Diirer's mit der Antike. Jahr- 
buch der k. preuss. Kunstsammlungen, II, p. 186. 

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Hausmann, B. Albrecht Diirer's Kupferstiche, Radi- 
ningen, Holzschnitte und Zeichnungen, unter beson- 
derer Beriicksichtigung der dazu verwandten Papiere 
und deren Wasserzeichen. Hannover: 1861. 

Heller, Joseph. Das Leben und die Werke Albrecht 
Diirer's. Vol. II (the only one published). Leipsic : 

Leitschuh, Dr. Friedrich. Albrecht Diirer's Tagebuch 
der Reise in die Niederlande. Erste vollstandige 
Ausgabe nach der Handschrift Johann Hauer^s mit 
Einleitung und Anmerkungen. Leipsic : 1884. 

Passavant, J. D. Albert Durer. In Le Peintre-Graveur. 
Vol. III. Leipsic: 1862. 

Retberg, R. von. Diirer's Kupferstiche und Holz- 
schnitte, Ein kritisches Verzeichniss. Munich : 187 1. 

Rosenberg, Adolf. Diirerstudien. Zeitschrift fiir bil- 
dende Kunst, VIII, p. 284; p. 350; IX, p. 254. 

Ruskin, John. Durer and Salvator. In Modern Paint- 
ers, Part IX, Chapter IV. 

Ruskin, John. Ariadne Florentina. References to 
Diirer in Lectures IV and V, and Appendix, Article 
II, Detached Notes II and III. 

Sallet, Dr. Alfred von. Untersuchungen iiber Albrecht 
Diirer. Berlin : 1874. 

Schestag, Franz. Kaiser Maximilian I. Triumph. Jahrb. 
d. kunsthist. Samml. d. allerh. Kaiserhauses. Vol. I, 

P- 154. 

Schmidt, Wilhelm. Wenzeslaus de Olomucz. Kunst- 
chronik, XXII, p. 193. 

Springer, Jaro. Diirer und der Umrissstich "Die 
Kreuzigung." Jahrbuch der k. preuss. Kunstsamm- 
lungen, VIII, p. 56. 

Thausing, Moriz. Diirers Briefe, Tagebiicher und 
Reime, nebst einem Anhange von Zuschriften an und 
fiir Diirer, iibersetzt und mit Einleitung, Anmerkun- 
gen, Personenverzeichniss und einer Reisekarte ver- 
sehen. Vienna: 1872. 

Thausing, Moriz. Albert Diirer, His Life and Works. 
. . . Translated from the German. Edited by Fred. 
A. Eaton, M. A. Oxon., Secretary of the Royal Acad- 
emy. 2 vols. London : 1882. (This translation is 
from the first German edition.) 

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Thausing, Moriz. Diirer, Geschichte seines Lebens 

und seiner Kunst. 2d amended edition. 2 vols. 

Leipsic: 1884. 
Thode, Henry. Die Antiken in den Stichen Marcan- 

ton's, Agostino Veneziano's und Marco Dente's. 

Leipsic: 188 1. 
Thode, Henry. Diirer's "Antikische Art." Jahrbuch 

der k. preuss. Kunstsammlungen, III, p. 106. 
[Trautmannsdorff- Weinsberg, Ferdinand Graf zu.] 

Ueber das Wappen mit den drei Lowenkopfen von 

Albrecht Diirer. Jahrb. d. kunsthist. Samml. d. al- 

lerh. Kaiserhauses. Vol. V, p. 339. 
Vasari, Giorgio. References to Diirer in "Marcanto- 

nio of Bologna and Other Engravers of Prints.'* 

Mrs. Jonathan Foster's translation of the "Lives," 

Vol. Ill, p. 485. London : 1865. (Bohn's Standard 

Weiss, Dr. Edmund. Albrecht Diirer's geographische, 

astronomische und astrologische Tafeln. Jahrb. d. 

kunsth. Samml. d. allerh. Kaiserhauses. Vol. VII,» 

p. 207. 
Wessely, J. E. Das Manuscript von Paul Behaim's 

Kupferstichkatalog im Berliner Museum. Reperto- 

rium fiir Kunstwissenschaft, VI, p. 54. 
Wustmann, G. Ein unerkanntes Selbstbildniss Diirers. 

Zeitschrift fiir bildende Kunst, XXII, p. 192. 
Zahn, Dr. Albert von. Diirer's Kunstlehre und sein 

Verhaltniss zur Renaissance. Leipsic : 1 866. 

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1. The Ravisher. — B 92 ; H 893 ; R i. — Without 
either mark or date. 

Very vigorous impression, on bulFs head paper. 

Sewall Coll 

Bartsch calls this engraving " Le Violent," Heller " The Woman de- 
fending herself against the Attacks of a Man," Hausmann " The Man 
using Violence " (Der Gewaltthatige), Retberg " Death, the violent 
old Man " (Der Tod, gewaltsame Greis). Rosenberg, on the strength 
of an old inscription in the scroll above the figures, declares the sub- 
ject to be an allegory of " Envy*'; Heller sees in it merely the repre- 
sentation of an attempt of a wicked old man upon an unwilling woman, 
but the explanation most generally accepted is that given by Thau- 
sing, I, p. 205 : " It is the struggle for existence. Death, represented 
as a savage, — a dried-up hollow-eyed grey-beard, — is trying to offer 
violence to a young [ ?] girl, in burgher costume, who represents life." 
(Compare the figure of death in the " Four Riders of the Apocalypse," 
No. 133 of this catalogue; see also Frimmel, p. 26.) AUihn, on the 
other hand, p. 50, connects the subject with the belief in witchcraft, 
and sees in the male figure an tncudus, a demon in the assumed shape 
of a naked man, seeking the ruin of a human being. Bartsch and 
Heller think that the design is copied from some older master. Thau- 
sing doubts its being by Diirer, as the style " points to a period before 
that in which Diirer began to work." Retberg assigns it to before 
1495, Heller to the period between i486 and 1500. It certainly is, 
among all the plates ascribed to Diirer, the most primitive in design, 
as well as in execution. 

2. The Holy Family with the Dragonfly. — B 44 ; 
H 643 ; R 3. — Monogram. 

Early impression, with the shading on the right cheek 
of the Virgin int,act. Gray Coll, 

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Called also « The Holy Family with the Butterfly " or " with the 
Locust" The design is supposed to be a copy from some older master, 
according to Thausing (I, p. ao6) from Wolgemut. Retberg assigns 
this plate to before 149J1 Heller to the period between i486 and 1500, 
von Eye thinks it must nave been done during Diirer's apprenticeship, 
and under the influence of Schongauer's engravings. Thausing says of 
it (I, p. 205) : " The oldest known engravings undoubtedly by Durer 
are *The Holy Family with the Locust' and the 'Love Offer' [see 
No. 3 of this catalogue]. Both are signed with his usual monogram, 
and cannot, therefore, have been engraved before 1496." The shape 
of the monogram, however, points to a somewhat earlier date. The 
A as here formed, and the small d it encloses, are only found on very 
early drawings by Diirer, the " Orpheus " for instance (Ephrussi, p. 24, 
shown in Ci^e 9, il), dated 1494, and the Christ Child, copied from 
Lorenzi di Credi (Ephrussi, p. 36), dated 1495. ^^ ^^th these cases, 
however, the d stands alongside of the A. The Venetian gondola in 
this plate gives evidence in favor of Diirer's disputed first journey to 
Venice about the year 1494. 

3. The Offer of Love. — B 93; H 891; R 2. — 

Very clear impression, with only a slight imperfection in 
the left lower corner. Sewall ColL 

Called also " Juda and Thamar " (Genesis, 38, v. 16), and « Berthold 
Tucher and Anna Pfinzing " (in allusion to an old Nuremberg scandal; 
see Heller, p. 483, or Allihn, pp. 69-70). At present a more general 
explanation obtains than is hinted at in these titles. " Old age, whether 
man or woman, purchasing the affection of youth with gold, was a 
common subject in those days/' (Thausing, 1, p. 206; Allihn, p. 70) . 
Retberg places this plate before the " Holy Family with the Dragonfly," 
but the form of the monogram, in which a Roman D has taken the 
place of the Gothic d, argues against this order of succession, even 
without the evidence to be drawn from the greater skill in execution. 
Heller assigns it to between i486 and 1500, and Thausing (I, p. 205), 
who unhesitatingly accepts it as Diirer's, to not before 1496. Never- 
theless, the doubts concerning it expressed by G. von Quandt, accord- 
ing to Nagler, seem fully justified. Compared with other engravings 
by Diirer of the same period, it is abnormally skillful and delicate, and 
there is a superior quality of expression in the frivolous pose and face 
of the woman and in the face of the old man, which Diirer hardly was 
capable of. If the plate really should be his, it would, moreover, be 
the only one among his undoubted works which panders to a vicious 
taste under the guise of moralizing. Although Diirer was a true child 
of his period (see his correspondence with Pukheimer), his art is 
nevertheless singularly free from the obscenity and the grossness which 
make the work of so many of his contemporaries distateful. This was 
recognized even at the time, as shown by the words of Camerarius 
quoted by Thausing (II, p. 98). 

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4. Five Footsoldiers and a Mounted Turk. — 
B 88 ; H 981 ; R 4. — Monogram. 

Good, clear impression ; outer line of border cut away. 

Gray Coil. 

Called also "The Assembly of Warriors," "The Six Warriors," 
** William Tell," and " The Robbers," the latter on the gratuitous sup- 
position that it represents Diirer (the man seen full face) fiallen into 
the hands of brigands. It is probably only a study of costumes. As- 
signed to before 1495 ^J Retberg, to between i486 and 1500 by Heller, 
and t<f about 1498 by Thausing. A comparison of the monogram, the 
A in which is still quite pointed, with the monograms, for instance, of 
the " Apocalypse " cuts, which were published in 1498, shows that it 
must be earlier. 

5. The Prodigal Son.— B 28; H 477; R 5.— 

Clear impression, on paper with the watermark of the 
jug. Seivall Coll. 

This is one of the plates which, according to Quad von Kinkelbach, 
Durer copied from the monogramist W, but, according to Thausing (I, 
p. 217), no corresponding engraving by the latter has as yet been found. 
The " Prodigal " himself has been called a likeness of Diirer, which 
only shows how recklessly such guesses are put forward. Assigned by 
Retberg to before 1495, by Heller to between i486 and 1500, and 
characterized also by Thausing as very early work, faulty in the drawing 
of the figure. The background has always been much admired, and 
Vasari says of it : " In this engraving there are huts or cabins after the 
German manner, which are exceedingly beautiful." 

6. St. Jerome in Penance. — B 61 ; H 776; R 8. — 

Fine impression on paper with a watermark which the 
Gray Catalogue describes as a pineapple, but which looks 
more like a grape, or the Augsburg coat-of-arms, Haus- 
mann No. 18 or No. 49, although the foot seems to be 
wanting, and the general contour is different. Gray Coll. 

St. Jerome, one of the most learned of the fathers of the Latin church, 
a prolific writer, and the author of the Vulgate (born 33 1 or 342 in 
Dsdmatia of weli-to-do parents; converted at Rome about 360; lived 
four years as an anchorite in the desert; died about 420 at a monastery 
near Bethlehem, which he had founded with funds furnished by Paula, 
a wealthy lady of his following), was one of the favorite saints of 
Dilrer's and later times, and therefore often taken as a subject by 
artists. The Hon accompanies him, because, according to the legend. 

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he drew a thorn from the paw of the animal, which ever afterwards was 
his companion. According to Quad von Kinkelbach, this also is after 
W, but again Thausing (I, p. 216) says that no corresponding origi- 
nal has as yet been found, although he believes the conception to be 
Wolgemut's. Retberg places the engraving before 1495, Heller be 
tween i486 and 1500, Hausmann in the years inunediately following 
the [second] Venetian journey, which would make it about 1508. The 
monogram decidedly points to an early date. The lion has a certain 
typical resemblance to those sketched by Durer, according to Thausing 
(I, p. 112), when he was in Venice in 1494. 

7. The Penance of St, John Chrysostom^-— B 
63; H723; R 7. — Monogram. 

Very fine warm impression. Watermark a Gothic P, 
not quite, however, corresponding with Hausmann No. 3. 
Cut about one eighth of an inch on top. Sewall Coll. 

This plate is frequently, but erroneously, called " St Genevieve." 
The story of St. John Chrysostom, ** the Goldenmouthed," too long and 
too unsavory to be recounted here, may be found in Heller. Retberg, 
before 1495; Heller, 1486-1500. Thausing, I, p. 228, thinks that we 
probably have here Durer's earliest engraved study from the nude female 
figure. ** What difficulties the artist experienced in doing this figure," 
he says, "can be clearly seen even in the finished engraving. We 
can note the cutting away of a piece of the rock on which she is sitting; 
the evident shortening of the figure, as revealed by the existence, above 
the head, of the original outline, and of the parting of the hair, which 
has been turned into a hollow in the rock; and we can even make out 
the old contour of the shoulder and the top of the arm, though the cor- 
rection is meant to be hidden by the deep shading. These signs of 
uncertainty in drawing the human form, which appear to be, in some 
degree, owing to Venetian influences, are worth noticing, because they 
form rare exceptions to his later method." All of this seems fancifid 
rather than convincing. The gondola in the distance again points to 

8. The Little Fortune. — B 78; H 831 ; R 6. — 

Very vigorous impression, but with a blemish under the 
chin of the figure. Paper slightly spotted. Sewall Coll. 

Called "The Little Fortune" to distinguish it from " Nemesis " or 
** The Great Fortune " (see No. 32 of this catalogue) . Fortune " stands 
on a globe and supports herself with her left hand on a reed, to express 
her inconstancy and frailty," says Bartsch. To this Heller adds that in 
the same hand " she holds a dangerous thistle/' Retberg sees in the 
" reed " a pilgrim's staff, the form of which it decidedly has, while 
Thausing (I, p. 230) finds in it evidence that the figure was drawn 
from a living model, to whom the staff served as a support. " It seems/' 

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he goes on to say, " as if Durer were here making a slight attempt to 
see how far he could adapt engraving to his new ideas of nature before 
he undertook the larger rendering of the same subject," that is to say 
of the ''Nemesis" (see No. 32, as above). In accordance with this 
idea he places the print "a few years earlier" than 1503. Retberg 
assigns it to before 1495; Heller to between i486 and 1500. The fig* 
ure certainly is very like the " Nemesis " in point of drawing, showing 
that it was simply copied from the nude, and it is therefore quite differ* 
ent from the figures probably inspired by Italian art, such as the wo* 
man in " The Turkish Family " (No. 11) or of the one about to strike 
in the "Hercules" (No. 24), or from the figures in "The Dream" 
(No. 22) and "The Four Naked Women" (No. 21), in which faint 
traces of the antique have been detected, and also from the " Eve " in 
** Adam and Eve " (No. 35), in which Durer*s theoretical studies find 
early expression. But the workmanship and the monogram point to an 
earlier time than that of the " Nemesis." The suggestion that the fig* 
ure is a portrait of Diirer*s wife is not worth discussing. 

9. The Little Courier. — B 80 ; H 986 ; R 13. — 

Good impression ; a spot in the paper in the distance. 

Sewall Coll. 

Called also " The Postboy " and " Eppelein von Gailingen," who 
was a celebrated robber-knight of the fourteenth century. Retberg, 
before 1495; Heller, 1486-1500. According to von Eye, it "discloses 
itself at first sight as rudimentary work." Supposed also to be after 
W, but according to Thausing (I, p. 204), there is no repetition known 
marked with that letter. The plate is puzzling. It is quite primitive 
in conception as well as in execution, and yet the monogram shows 
considerable development — For "The Great Courier," see No. 103, 

10. The Monstrous Pig. — B95; H1019; R 19. 

— Monogram. 

Fine strong impression. Sewall Coll. 

"In the 1496th year," says an old Nuremberg chronicle, "there was 
bom a curious pig in the village of Landsee [near Nuremberg], with 
one head, 4 ears, 2 bodies, 8 feet, on the 6 it stood, the other 2 were 
about the body, and had 2 tongues." The description tallies with 
Durer's engraving, which is therefore unanimously assigned to about 
1496, a conclusion which the workmanship and the monogram do not 
antagonize. Von Eye gives 1476 as the date of the chronicle item, but 
this is probably a misprint. 

11. The Turkish Family. — B 85 ; H 971 ; R 12. 

— Monogram. 

Very fine impression. Gray ColU 

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Called also "The Oriental and his Wife," "The Turk and his Wife," 
and "The Wandering Turkish Family." Retberg, before 1495; Heller, 
i486- 1 500. Thausing, I, p. 308, thinks that Diirer, when he engraved 
this design, must have had in mind two of Jacopo de Barbari's plates, 
B 10 and 11, and that he combined them in his own plate. The great 
staring eyes of the figures, according to the same writer, " betray the 
early origin of the engraving, and the elegant pose of the woman's 
legs points to a foreign inspiration." There is a family resemblance in 
this Turk and the one in the " Five Footsoldiers, etc." (No. 4 of this 
catalogue). The Turks at the time claimed a large share of public 
attention, owing to their rapid advance as conquerors, and such plates 
as this were, therefore, likely to be salable. 

12, The Cook and his Wife.— B 84; H 963; 
Rio. — Monogram. 

' Brilliant impression. Sewall Colh 

Called also " The Hostess and the Cook," " The Cook and the House- 
keeper," and " Mohammed and his Wife," the latter, impossible as it 
may seem, "because," according to Heller, "the dove sits upon the 
back of the cook, and it is said that a divine dove often alighted upon 
his [Mohammed's] shoulders, and communicated to him his religious 
system." Retberg, before 1495; Heller, 1 500-1 506. Hausmann de- 
duces from the workmanship and the simple treatment of the ground 
that the plate belongs to a later period. The type of the figures, 
especially of the woman, and the monogram, point to an early time. 
Thausing, I, p. 225, opines that it is a copy after Wolgemut, and sus- 
pects a so-called copy by W at Oxford, mentioned by Passavant, .II, 
No. 76, to be an [the?] original. But it is difficult to see, why, if 
Jacopo de Barbari's influence is to be traced in the woman in " The 
Turkish Family" (No. 11), the same influence should not be seen also 
in the woman in this engraving. 

13, The Peasant and his Wife. — B 83; H 921 ; 
R II. — Monogram. 

Fine silvery impression. Sewall Coll. 

There is much diversity in the attempted interpretation of this print- 
Bartsch sa)s that "the anger expressed in the peasant's face and his 
elevated right hand, show that he menaces the woman who walks 
meekly by his side." Heller follows him, with the addition that he 
sees in the companion of the peasant a woman about to become a 
mother. An idea similar to Bartsch's is expressed in the title " The 
Drunken Lansquenet," while, by way of contrast, others see in the 
couple a pair of " Rustic Lovers." Thausing (I, p. 309) adopts the 
latter title, and declares the print to be a skit upon the conceit of the 
peasantry, an idea elaborated before him by Allihn (p. 79, et seq.'), who 
says that the pair " are about to step up to the dance, and that the man, 
far from scolding, is on the contrary trying to make* himself agree- 
able." (See also No. 14.) Retberg, before 1495; Heller, 1486-1 500. 

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14, The Three Peasants in Conversation, — 
B 86*; H 948 ; R 15. — Monogram. 

Good strong impression. Sewall Coll, 

Like the preceding plate, this is supposed to be a skit upon the con- 
ceit of the peasantry. '*The same ironical tone is apparent in the 
three peasants in conversation/' says Thausing (I, p. 309), ''one of 
whom holds a basket of eggs, and another has a sack thrown over his 
shoulders and is leaning upon a somewhat damaged sword; no doubt 
they are discussing the afkirs of the universe.*' To similar purpose 
AUihn (p. 90) : " They wear spurs, swords, and belted tunics, a cos- 
tume which is not theirs by right, and which they have borrowed from 
the wardrobe of the knights. Nevertheless, the peasant crops out 
everywhere. The scabbards of their swords are defective, and here 
and there a naked knee peeps through the hose. Of course it is only 
a bagatelle that is in question, but they discuss it with a fervor, as if 
the weal of the fatherland depended upon it." The attempts of the 
oppressed peasants to better their miserable condition were a topic of 
interest at the time. As early as 1476 risings occurred in South Ger- 
many, and these finally culminated in the Peasants' War in 1525. As 
usual, the just demands of the oppressed were met by scorn and de- 
rision, and it is likely enough that Diirer, like other artists, tried to 
make money out of this sad condition of things. If we regret this 
side of Durer's activity, we may, however, temper our regret by the 
following considerations, advanced by AUihn (p. 88) : " In these 
scenes of peasant life Diirer also is in curious discord with himself. 
It is true, he joins in the general derision of the peasants, he engraves 
his plate for those who found pleasure in testing their superior wit at 
the expense of the peasants, and who would have been as contented, 
if not more so, with the most scurrilous caricature, but it was impossi- 
ble for Diirer to demand such a production of his genius. He draws 
a character-picture of superior comic qualities, but not a libel, — yea, 
even more than this, he executes his genre representation with the 
same loving care as his most beautiful Madonna." This applies more 
especially to "The Dancing Peasants" (No. 73 of this catalogue), but 
the humor is claimed for all of Durer's similar subjects. To our very 
modern eyes there is, indeed, little or no humor in these groups. It 
must not be forgotten, however, that the people of the fifteenth century 
were differently constituted from ourselves, and were delighted by what 
to us would be utterly uninteresting, as the child finds amusement 
where the grown-up man finds only ennui. Retberg, about 1495; 
Heller, 1 500-1 506. Allihn says the print is dated 15 19, which is a 

15, St. Ann and the Virgin, — B 29; H 483; R 
44. — Monogram on a square tablet. 

Fair impression. Sewall Coll. 

The subject is in doubt. The figure to the right may be the Virgin 
holding the infant Christ, while St. Ann stands to the left. Bartsch 

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describes the group as St. Ann touching the head of the infant Virgin, 
held in the arms of a woman with flying hair. According to Retberg, 
St. Mary is "so wanting in nobility of form and pose that one is 
tempted to take her for a low grade servant, and the child in her arms 
for the infant Virgin." Hausmann, on the contrary, thinks the print 
" lovely." Thausing (I, p. 309) speaks of the subject as " a simple, 
homely scene, such as might have been accidentally suggested; indeed, 
the two women standing in bourgeois attire would hardly be recognized 
for what they are, but for the appearance of the Almighty Father in 
the clouds." As Diirer was evidently engaged at the time in studies 
from the nude and from life among peasants, etc., it is quite possible 
that he utilized one of these studies, merely adding the vision in the 
sky to adapt it for sale as a popular religious image. Retberg, before 
15CX); Heller, 1486-1500. 

16. The Virgin on the Crescent, without Crown. 

— B 30 ; H 489 ; R 9. — Monogram. 

Fine strong impression ; pasted down. Gray ColL 

Called also "The Virgin with Long Hair, tied with a Ribbon." 
Thausing (I, pp. 225-6) mentions this Virgin as a "small archaic 
figure," in Wolgemut's manner. An unpleasant feature is the face 
in the crescent, — the " man in the moon," — upon which the Virgin 
stands, a detail abandoned by Ddrer in later years. A fine example of 
far-fetched interpretation is furnished in this instance by von Eye, who 
detects a symbolical meaning in the apple held by the child, which he 
declares to be the fruit " of the new tree of life." If this view be 
accepted, it will be necessary, also, to find symbolical meanings for the 
pears and even the sucking-bag which occur similarly in other plates. 
Diirer evidently looked upon them merely as creature-comforts which, 
in the innocence and "gross materialism" of his nature, he con- 
sidered quite appropriate in the hands of a child. 

17. The Lady and the Lansquenet. — B 82; H 
991 ; R 20. — Monogram. 

(«.) Very vigorous impression, but somewhat soiled, 
and mended. Sewail ColL 

(b,) Clearer and more silvery impression, on paper 
with the watermark of the crown, Hausmann 
No. 21. Gray Coil. 

The two impressions are exhibited to show how these old prints 
sometimes differ in quality, so. as to make it difl&cult to say which of 
several examples is preferable. Called also "The Lady on Horse- 
back." The subject might simply be classed with the studies from life 
before alluded to, but the attempt has been made to invest it with a 
deeper interest. Heller thinks the pair is on its way to a tournament. 
According to AUihn (pp. 71-72) " the subject in itself is perfectly clear; 

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it 18 the old story, treated hundreds of times, of the lady in love with 
her squire." He admits that Dfirer probably desired merely to draw a 
young man-at-arms and a lady on horseback in the picturesque costume 
of the time, but argues that the moralizing tendency of his age com- 
pelled him to give a meaning to the subject. He therefore made it a 
protest " against the vices of the nobility, a tendency which must have 
secured to him the applause of the bourgeois circles for which he 
worked." There is a rendering of the same subject by W, and Thau- 
sing, therefore (I, p. 216), makes Wolgemut the author of the design. 

18. The Promenade. — B 94; H 884; R 14. — Mon- 

(tf.) Fine impression on bull's head paper, spotted 
above. Gray Coll. 

(d,) Reversed copy by Israel van Meckenem. 

Sgu'all Coll 

Called also "The Gendeman and the Lady " and " The Knight and 
the Lady." Durer and his wife, either as happy lovers or as victims of 
conjugal strife (see Retberg, Heller, and von Eye), have been detected 
in this print, although the explanation of the subject offers no difficulty. 
It is akin to the scenes of the "Dance of Deadi," so popular at the 
time : — a youthful couple, for whom death is already prepared. The 
inscription on Israel van Meckenem*s old copy reads, according to 
Heller: Ten is niet al tzeyt vast avent. Der doet kompt en 
brengt den Aevent, which might be translated : " For is it not always 
near evening? Death comes and brings evening." As there is an 
engraving, reversed as to Diirer's plate, marked W, Thausing (I, p. 
206) makes Wolgemut the originator of the design, in spite of the fact 
that an old Italian copy, ascribed to Marc Antonio, bears Durer's mon- 
ogram. Ephrussi (p. 51) describes a sketch by Durer, "which has 
served without any change whatever for the young lady in * The Gen- 
tleman and the Lady.' " The existence of such a preliminary study 
would go far to prove Ddrer's authorship. It is not to be denied, how- 
erer, that there is an archaic, somewhat austere, not to say uncouth 
character in the figures in this print, which is out of harmony with 
other works by Durer of the same period. Retberg, about 1495; ^^I' 
ler, 1486-1500. 

19. St. Sebastian tied to a Column. — B 56; H 
783; R 17. — Monogram on a piece of paper. 

Fine impression with the corrected mouth. Sewall ColL 

Retberg, before 1497; Heller, 1486-1500. Thausing (I, p. 227) 
places this among the first original plates done by Diirer. The charac- 
ter of the head and the proportions of the figure strongly resemble, as 
Thausing also remarks, the angels in the "Apocalypse," which was 
designed about the same time. 

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20. The Virgin and Child with the Monkey. — 

B 42 ; H 628 ; R 88. — Monogram. 

(tf.) Very vigorous early impression, on paper with 
the watermark of a cross, not given by Haus- 
mann. Damaged, and cut at the top. 

Sewall ColL 
(d.) Fair later impression, uncut. Gray ColL 

This is one of the most beautiful and dignified of Durer's render- 
ings of this subject, not only in the figures of the virgin and child, 
but also in the breadth and airiness of the landscape. Unfortunately 
the enjoyment of the design is marred somewhat by the fact that the 
child is teazing a poor little bird, and holds in its left hand a sucking- 
bag, which is even more objectionable than the usual apple or pear. 
The monkey has given opportunity to the commentators to display 
their ingenuity. According to Retberg it symbolizes the devil. Heller 
thinks, it is intended for the child to play with, while von Eye con- 
jectures that such animals were probably kept in the houses of persons of 
rank at the time. The opinion expressed by Passavant and others, that 
the design suggests Italian influences, seems fully justified. In its auster- 
ity, on die other hand, it is allied to the contemporaneous designs of the 
" Apocalypse," but there is more beauty in it. The loveliness of the 
background was early recognized, and several Italian engravers availed 
themselves of it. As the same design was engraved by W, Thausing 
claims the authorship for Wolgemut, adding that Diirer's rendering is 
inferior in effect to the original. Marc Antonio's copy has Diirer's 
monogram. Retberg, before 1506; Heller, 1500- 1506, which seems 
too late. 

21. Four Naked Women. — B 75 j H 861; R 21. — 
Monogram ; dated 1497. 

{a^ Fine old impression, on bull's head paper, some- 
what spotted, and mended in lower left 
corner. Sewall ColL 

(p.) The same subject, engraved by W. Late im- 
pression from the badly worn plate. 

St wall ColL 
(c,) Reversed copy, by Israel van Meckenem. 

Sewall ColL 

Thausing, who, of course, attributes the original to Wolgemut, 
makes this plate one of the main supports of his argument, and en- 
forces the latter with comparative drawings (see I, pp. 210-215). As 
to the meaning of the subject, the diversity of opinion is great and 
irreconcilable, and finds expression in the various titles applied to it, 
viz. : " The Four Witches," " Four Naked Women or Sybils," « The 
Graces," and "The Judgment of Paris." For the discussion of the 

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questions involved, the student will have to consult not only Tbausing, 
but also Allihn, Bergau, Frimmel, Rosenberg, and von Eye (see List of 
Books, etc.) . The truth seems to be that Diirer (or Wolgemut, accord- 
ing to Thausing) desired simply to utilize his studies of the nude female 
form, but that, as a concession to the spirit of the times, he introduced 
death (in the form of the skull and bone) and the devil, thus giving 
to the subject the moralizing air which alone could make it palatable 
to his countrymen. In connection with these aclditions, it might be 
taken as hinting at the frailty of female beauty, which fades before death 
and leads to sin, and in this manner it would be brought, like ** The 
Promenade," into relationship with the idea which inspired the ''Dance 
of Death." It is not at all necessary to assume that the artist did this 
grudgingly, since he remained thoroughly Northern and German at 
heart, despite the Italian influences to which he had been subjected. 
Thode (Jahrbuch, III, p. ii8, where the Bartsch numbers given are all 
wrong, however) finds reminiscences of the Venus of the Uffizi (see 
the photograph in Case 9, 11) in one of the figures of this group. The 
time of execution of the engraving would seem to be settled by the 
date, 1497 (upon the ball suspended from the ceiling, which, with the 
letters it bears, has also given rise to considerable speculation), but 
Thausing thinks that it is there simply because it is also on W's plate, 
and that Durer's engraving is later. Nagler (" Monogrammisten ") 
comes to a similar conclusion, as he considers the workmanship too 
good for this early date, — a conclusion in which it is difficult to follow 

22. The Dream. — B 76; H854; R 116. — Mono- 

Strong early impression on bull's head paper. A line 
drawn around the margin in old, faded ink. Sewall Coll. 

This is another of the much-discussed plates, both as to author and 
subject. Comparative drawings of the engraving by W, in reverse, and 
of Dflrer's version, will again be found in Thausing (I, pp. 209-210), 
and to the argument there conducted the student must be referred. 
Marc Antonio's copy bears Dflrer's mark. The titles given to this 
plate are " Idleness," " The Doctor's Dream," " The Dream Doctor," 
and " The Dream of the Podagrist." Heller most prosaically reduces 
it to the representation of the eflfect of the heat of a stove, which in- 
flames the imagination of the dreamer. Retberg conjectures that it is 
a joke at Pirkheimer's expense, in continuation of the somewhat indel- 
icate insinuations in Durer's letters to him from Venice: — The devil 
still makes him dream of love, but Cupid tries in vain to walk on stilts, 
and his luck with the ladies has deserted him, as signified by the ball of 
Fortune, lying forgotten in a corner. Vasari speaks of it as ** repre- 
senting a man sleeping in a bath-room, while Venus is behind him in- 
spiring his dreams with temptation, and Love, mounted on stilts, capers 
and sports around him, while the Devil blows into his ear with a pair 
of bellows." According to Thausing it is "a pictorial satire on senile 
lust," not addressed to Pirkheimer in particular (who, bom in 1470, 

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was not " senile " at the time), but to mankind in general. Quite likely, 
the love of the nude, in connection with the moralizing tendencies of 
the age, is again responsible for this composition. Thode (Jahrbucli, 
III, p. 1 1 8) sees in the female figure a Venus, and thinks that its forms 
and proportions are inconceivable without the influence of the antique. 
(See also the preceding print, No. 21, and compare the "Venus" with 
the " Eve," in No. 35, whom she closely resembles in the pose.) Hel- 
ler assigns the plate to 1 500-1 506. Retberg, misled by his Pirk- 
heimer theory, places it about 1507. There is no reason, however, 
why it should not belong to the same period as the " Four Naked 
Women." It may be well to note here that there is a serious mis- 
print in Prof. Colvin's article in "The Portfolio," 1877, p. 183. Among 
the pieces of evidence in favor of the Wolgemut theory, an entry in 
Paul Beheim's ms. catalogue of 15 18 is cited. The date should, hovi^- 
ever, be 161 8. 

23. The Rape of Amymone, — B71; H 801 ; R 
125. — Monogram. 

Very fine impression. , Gray Coil. 

Durer alludes to this print, in the diary of his journey to the Neth- 
erlands, as "The Sea Wonder" (Das Meerwunder); an old anony- 
mous Nuremberg writer calls it "The Sea- Robber "; Vasari describes it 
as " a nymph borne away by a sea monster, while other nymphs are 
seen bathing." The title generally accepted to-day is the one above 
given. " This representation," says Heller, however, " does not quite 
agree with the history of the Triton carrying off one of the fifty daugh- 
ters of Danaus; we think rather that it is intended to represent the 
story of Glaucus carrying off Syme, and the man crying out in the dis- 
tance is probably Glaucus when he was still a fisherman and about to 
throw himself into the sea, where he was changed into a Triton, as 
which he carried oflF Syme, and brought her to an island not far from 
Caria." The remedy proposed in this case seems as bad as the disease. 
The subject is one of those in which Diirer shows the influence of the 
antique, transmitted, possibly, through Mantegna, whose " Battle of the 
Tritons" he copied in 1494. Thausing (I, p. 215) thinks that the 
author (Wolgemut, according to him, as there is an engraving of the 
same subject by W) had in his mind the idea of a Nereid borne by a 
Triton, as seen on ancient sarcophagi. . Retberg assigns the plate to 
about 1509, Heller to 1 500-1 506, Grimm (Jahrbuch II, p. 189) to 
" the very first years after 1500," with reference to a drawing dated 
1503. A comparison of the workmanship with that of " The Coat-of- 
Arms with the Skull " (No. 34 of this catalogue), which is dated 1503, 
shows that the " Amymone " must be considerably earlier. 

24, Hercules. — B 73 ; H 815 ; R 126. — Monogram, 
(tf.) Good old impression, but mounted and the cor- 
ners restored. Gray Coll. 

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{b. Unfinished proof. Facsimile in heliogravure, pub- 
lished by the International Chalcographical 
Society. Gray Call, 

This is one of the most enigmatical of the prints which go under 
Diirer's name. It is called also " The Great Satyr " (to distinguish it 
from " The Little Satyr," or " Satyr's Family," No. 38 of this catalogue), 
" Jealousy," " The Effects of Jealousy," and « The Great Hercules " (in 
contrast to "The Great Horse," No. 40, which seems sometimes to 
have been called " The Little Hercules " ). Durer, in the Netherlands 
Diary, designates it simply as " Hercules." Vasari describes it as 
'* Diana inflicting punishment on one of her nymphs, who is flying for 
shelter to the bosom of a Satyr." Some modern commentators explain 
it as an allegory, in which the figure of the man stands as the personi- 
fication of cocuagCy is, in fact, a cuckold, marked as such by his helmet 
in the shape of a cock (in allusion to the German Hahnreiy a man 
deceived by an unfaithfd wife) and the horns (in allusion to the 
German saying " to put horns on a man's head," which makes of him 
a Hahnrei), In his debasement he even defends his own wife, in the 
embrace of the satyr, against Virtue, who is about to chastise her. 
The scurrility of this explanation is suflicient to defeat it. Allihn, in 
his attempt to explain Diirer's compositions from the general tendency 
of his age, connects it with the immorality then prevailing. " Accord- 
ingly," he says (p. 75), " the action of the allegory woidd be as fol- 
lows: Unchastity, represented by the satyr and the reclining naked 
woman, ought to be driven away; but she is defended by the evil 
desires of the man. We have here a curtain-lecture delivered by 
Durer to his dissolute contemporaries in the name of their neglected 
wives." The explanation, although more dignified, is hardly more sat- 
isfactory than the one first cited. Diirer probably knew what he was 
about when he called his engraving " Hercules," and the difliculties it 
presents are due no doubt to the confusion of ideas and the lack of 
knowledge regarding ancient myths, alluded to in the Introduction, pp. 
vii-viii. For the attempts to reconcile the design with the versions^of the 
story of Hercules, Nessus, and Dejanira, as known to us, as well' as for 
the evidence that the earlier artists of the Renaissance did not clearly 
distinguish between Centaurs and Satyrs, see Thausing (I, pp. 222-3), 
Sallet (pp. 17-20), and Ephrussi (pp. 29-30). As there is an engrav- 
ing of the same subject by W, Thausing • (I, p. 221 et seq.) attributes 
the composition to Wolgemut, but the question of authorship in this 
case is even more complicated than usual. There is a drawing by 
Durer, unhesitatingly accepted as genuine by all writers on the subject, 
which represents Orpheus attacked by the Bacchantes, and is dated 
1494 (see the facsimile from Ephrussi, in Case 9, ii). This drawing is 
evidently based upon an old Florentine engraving of the so-caUed 
Baldini-Botticelli group, representing the same subject, with some 
differences (see the facsimile published by the International Chalco- 
graphical Society, likewise in Case 9, n). That the Florentine engraver 
is the originator and Diirer the copyist seems to be the opinion gen- 
erally held, although the reverse is stated in Meyer's " Lexikon," II, 

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I. 588. In its turn, the engraving called " Hercules " is again based on 
)Qrer's drawing of 1494, as becomes evident from the figure of the 
woman about to strike, from the figure of the child, and more espe- 
cially from the group of trees. If, Sierefore, Wolgemut is accepted as 
the originator of the " Hercules," we must assume that DUrer copied 
and improved upon the old Italian print, that Wolgemut then used his 
pupil's drawing for his composition, and that finsfiy Durer copied his 
teacher's version of his own drawing, — which is rather complicated. 
Thausing's assertion that at the time when this plate was made, Durer 
was not sufficiently skilled in either technical methods or the treatment 
of the naked body, is refuted by this drawing of 1494 and the *' Coat- 
of-Arms with the Skull " of 1503. Retberg, about 1509; Heller, 1500 
-1506; Hausmann, after the Venetian journey of 1506. The work- 
manship, however, as well as the monogram, points to an earlier date. 
The unfinished proof here shown in facsimile, — a true trial proof, — 
is of special interest as of but very few of Durer's plates such proofe are 
known to exist. The only other real trial proofs by Diirer which have 
come down to us are from the " Adam and Eve '* (No. 35). 

25. St, Eustace. — B 57; H 727; R 127. — Mono- 
gram on a square piece of paper. 

Fine impression on paper with the watermark of the 
high crown, Hausmann No. 21. Sewall ColL 

Called also "St. Hubert." This is a mistake, however, as Durer 
himself, in the Netherlands Diary, repeatedly speaks of the engraving 
as "St. Eustace." The legend of the saint is as follows: Eustace, or 
Placidus by his heathen name, was a valorous general under the emperor 
Trajan, and a passionate hunter. While out hunting one time, Christ 
crucified appeared to him between the antlers of a stag and spoke to 
him, whereupon he and his whole family were converted. A similar 
story is told of St. Hubert, hence the confusion. This being the largest 
plate by Diirer, and most minutely finished, the older writers praise it 
extravagantly, the only criticism ventured upon being that the back- 
ground might be lighter. Later opinions do not quite agree with this 
high estimate, and Thausing is correct in saying (I, p. 300) that " in- 
vention and arrangemement are far surpassed by minute delicacy of 
technique and by careful execution of each separate detail." The 
horse more especially has been severely criticised. Retberg, about 
1509; Heller, 1507-15 14; Thausing: " The completion of the engrav- 
ing cannot be placed much earlier than the year 1504, although it was 
certainly finished before the Nemesis." The monogram points to a 
tolerably early time. 

26. Justice. — B79; H826; R. 51. — Monogram. 
Very fine impression. Setvall CoIL 

Often called "Nemesis," but Diirer himself evidently applied this 
name to the large print, No. 32 of this catalogue. According to Thaus- 
ing (I, p. 310) we have here the Judge of the World, "put together at 

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random from a variety of apocalyptic reminiscenes." The sentiment 
of the "Apocalypse " designs is certainly very strongly felt in this most 
delicate of Durer's earlier plates. Retberg and Thausing, before 1503; 
Heller, 1 500-1 506; Hausmann, after 15^. The monogram supports 
the earlier date. 

27. The Man of Sorrows, standing, with Arms 
extended. — B 20 ; H 450 ; R 90. — Monogram. 

Good impression. Gray ColL 

Heller, 1486-1500; Thausing (I, pp. 227-8): "The exaggerated 
anatomy, the bad drawing of the head and eyes, and the feebleness in 
the use of the burin, are so striking that we are tempted to put the 
work before the year 1497, ^"^^ ^^ look upon the monogram in the 
corner as a later insertion." Per contra: Retberg, about 1507; Haus- 
mann, about 1 5 12. According to Grimm (Jahrbuch, II, p. 190), it 
suggests the influence of Signorelli. 

28. The Virgin Nursing the Child. — B 34 ; H 
564; R. 52. — Monogram. Date, 1503, on a tablet. 

Brilliant impression, but soiled, torn and mended, with 
false margin, and retouched with India ink all around. 

Sewall ColL 

Except the date 1497, ^^ ^^ " ^^^^ Naked Women " (No. 21 of 
this catalogue), 1503 is the earliest date that occurs on any engraving 
by Diirer. There is a proof in the Berlin Cabinet, without the bare 
tree and the tablet with the date. Is the date unreliable and the plate 

29. St. Sebastian tied to a Tree. — B 55 ; H 787 ; 

R 16. — Monogram on a piece of paper. 

Fine impression, although the lines are somewhat 
doubled in the extreme upper part. Sewall Coll, 

Retberg, before 1497; Heller, 1486-1500; Hausmann, first period, 
and similarly von Eye. The engraving has a rather primitive character, 
but the monogram is certainly not very early. It has, however, a curi- 
ously twisted, somewhat suspicious look, and might possibly be a later 
addition, together with the twig to which it is attached. Grimm (Jahr- 
buch, II, p. 190) says the figure points to Signorelli. Thausing on 
the contrary writes (I, pp. 308-9) : "The St. Sebastian . . . was no 
doubt designed directly from a model, and perhaps in rivalry with a 
corresponding figure of Barbari's in his excellent group of the * Cap- 
tives.* Diirer has not, however, managed to attain that finely felt fidel- 
ity to nature which so favorably distinguishes this engraving of the 
Italian, although he has recourse to such little naturalistic expedients 
as showing the hair on the legs." (See a reproduction of de Barbari's 
"Captives " in Case 9, 1 1.) 

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30. The Standardbearer. — B 87 ; H 977 ; R 43. — 
Monogram on a tablet. 

Fine impression on bull's head paper. Sewail CoU, 

Called also ''The Ensign.*' Retberg, before 1500; Heller, 1500- 
1506; Hausmann, after 1506; Thausing (I, p. 234): "Evidendy an 
early original work of Dfirer's, the St Andrew's Cross of the Golden 
Fleece on the standard, which belonged to Maximilian I. as Dnke of 
Burgundy, pointing without doubt to the war of 1499.'' 

31. St. George Standing. — B. 53 ; H. 737 ; R. 121. 

— Monogram on a tablet. 

Vigorous impression. Sewail CoU. 

St. George, according to the legend, was a prince of Cappadoda, 
who died the death of a martyr under Diocletian. His most celebrated 
deed was the killing of the dragon which threatened to devour the 
royal princess Aja. The legend is of Oriental origin and was intro- 
duced into Europe by the crusaders. It is stated that the Emperor 
Maximilian I. reorganized the order of St. George, which had fallen 
into decay (see also one of the pictures on "The Arch of Honor,** 
No. 231 of this catalogue, and the remarks of Chmelarz, Jahrbuch, IV, 
p. 296), and possibly Durer*s two enjgravings of the saint were inspired 
by this action. Thausing assigns this plate to about the same time as 
"The Standardbearer" (see No. 30), i, e, shortly after 1499. Heller 
places it between 1507 and 15 14; Retberg and Hausmann about 1508, 
because they believe it to be contemporaneous with the second " St. 
George" (No. 60). This is, indeed, dated 1508, but the date has evi- 
dently been changed from 1505. 

32. Nemesis. — B77; H839; R 124. — Monogram 
on a tablet. 

Beautiful old impression, after the perpendicular scratch 
under the bridge, but when this was still fresh, as shown 
by the bur. On paper with the watermark of the large 
crown, Hausmann No. 4. Sewail Coll. 

This print is generally called " The Great Fortune," to distinguish it 
from "The Little Fortune " (No. 8 of this catalogue), but there is no 
doubt that Durer himself called it the " Nemesis." The strangeness of 
the conception and the incongruity of the various elements of the design, 

— the extreme realism of the repidsively ugly female body, the wings, the 
globe, etc. — have given rise to a number of most ridiculous attempts 
at explanation, connecting the figure itself with Diirer's wife, the cup 
with his father, who was a goldsmith, the bridle with his uncle, who was 
a saddler, and the landscape with his father's birthplace, Eytas in 
Hungary, all of which must be dismissed with a mere allusion, together 
with Thausing*s more attractive hypothesis (I, p. 230 et seq^ concern- 
ing Pirkheimer and the Swiss war of 1499. The great stumbling block 

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has been tbe impossibility of reconciling the attributes with the received 
conceptions of either the Roman Fartuna or the Greek Nemesis, and 
the apparent unwillingness to accept the fact that Diirer, as well as his 
humanistic friends, was not himself clear in his conception, and there^ 
fore mixed up several antique ideas, thus producing a Fortuna-Nemesis, 
which he still farther complicated with conceits of his own. (See 
Introduction, p. vii.) The best explanation of the title chosen by 
Durer is undoubtedly given by Rosenberg (Zeitschrift, IX, pp. 254-5). 
He calls attention to a passage in the " Praise of FoUy " by Eras- 
mus, which runs thus : " Even Rhamnusia herself, who gmdes the fate 
of human affieiirs, is so strong an adherent of mine \i, e» of folly] that 
she has always been inimical to the so-called wise men, while she has 
given to the fools all the advantages, even in their sleep.'' This passage 
Holbein illustrated by the figure of a naked woman standing on a 
globe, which again floats upon the water, and who showers gold upon 
a fool. ''From the words of Erasmus,'' says Rosenberg, *'it follows 
that Rhamnusia, i, e. Nemesis, so-called from her principal place of 
worship in Attica, was identical with Fortuna as the goddess of fate in 
its broadest meaning." The ** Praise of Folly " and Holbein's figure, 
drawn in IJI5, are, of course, later than DClrer's "Nemesis," but they 
show that the combination of ideas involved was not foreign to Dilrer'S 
time. Rosenberg further cites an epigram from the Greek Anthology, 
as explaining the attributes, at least in part, and calls attention to 
Dante's verses. Inferno, VII, 73-96, which do, indeed, express the same 
idea that is conveyed by Dfirer's design, but in a manner which the 
rude conception of the Northern artist cannot hope to rival. Heller, 
1 507-1 5 14; Retberg, 1509; Thausing about 1504, which is more likely 
to be correct. 

Mr. Ruskin's bitter allusion to the landscape under this " Nemesis " 
(see the Appendixfto his "Ariadne Florentina "), and his extraordinary 
comparison of Durer and Turner, compel a few words of comment 
here. The great English theorist forgets or ignores the slight circum- 
stance that Durer lived and worked in the 16. century, — did this land- 
scape, in fact, at the very beginning of that century, — and that land- 
scape painting had not yet been invented, so to speak, at the time, 
whUe Turner lived in the 19. century. Dfirer may, mdeed, be ranked 
among the pioneers of landscape art {vide his many fetches and stud- 
ies from nature) and it is curious that, in the Netherlands, he cultivated 
more especially the friendship of Patenier (see No. 108 of this cata- 
logue), who is called the father of landscape art in the Netherlands, 
and whom he describes as a " good landscape painter," thus being the 
first, according to Thausing, to introduce this term into literature. To 
understand how far in advance Dilrer was in landscape upon the old 
Florentines who are Mr. Ruskin's idols (and against whose merits not 
a word is to be said), one need only compare his rendering of the 
"Orpheus " with the original, as shown in this exhibition in Case 9, 1 1. 

33. The Coat-of -Arms with the Rooster. — B 
100; H loao; R 198. — Monogram. 

Fine impression. Gray ColL 

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Specially admired for its delicacy of execution. Durer drew many 
coats-of-arms for bookmarks, etc., but this one seems to be purely a 
creation of fancy. Heller suggests that it may be intended " symbol- 
ically for the family of truth and watchfulness which, however, seems 
evidently to have died out." Retberg, about 1512; Heller, 1507- 
15 14. According to Thausing it "belongs probably to the same time 
with B 101 [see next number], i. e., 1503." 

34. The Coat-of-Arms with the Skull. — B loi ; 
H 1022 j R 53. — Monogram on a tablet. Dated 1503. 

Very fine impression, with Mariette's autograph. 

Gray Coll, 

Called also "The Coat-of-Arms of Death" and "The Dying Bride.** 
A much discussed print, which, however difficult it may be to-day to 
follow the wandering fancy of the artist, it would seem safe to connect 
in a general way with the idea of the "Dance of Death," although the 
" wild man " is evidently not a personification of death, but a satyr, as 
his right leg, visible to the left, clearly shows. Frimmel, however, 
objects to this explanation, but without being able to suggest anything 

35. Adam and Eve. — B i; H 116; R. 55. — Full 
name, monogram, and date, 1504, on a tablet. 

(a.) Fine impression, before the change in the tree 
under the left armpit of Adam, on bull's head 
paper (Hausmann No. 19). Sewall Coll. 

(b.) Fine impression, after the change in the tree. 
Watermark, the bull's head, Hausmann No. 
19, but running abnormally across the heavy 
wires instead of with them. Gray Coll. 

It was this engraving of " Adam and Eve," according to Thausing 
(I, pp. 304-5), " which first brought Diirer before the world in the full 
consciousness of his power, as undisputedly the greatest master of the 
burin" [of his time]. The elaborate detail studies which he made for 
it (see Ephrussi, pp. 70-73) give evidence of special care in its prepa- 
ration, and the trial proofs still in existence show that he was equally 
painstaking in its execution. Such detail studies for engravings are 
exceptional with him, although of composition sketches for his engrav- 
ings and woodcuts there are many (Ephrussi, p. 195), and of only 
one other of his plates, the " Hercules " (No. 24 of this catalogue), 
have trial proofs, properly so called, come down to us. It is manifest 
also that he was satisfied with the result of his labors at the time, from 
the detailed inscription on the tablet: ALBERT DURER NORICUS 
FACIEBAT, followed by the monogram and the date. That the sub- 
ject is "Adam and Eve " admits of no doubt, even if we cannot accept 
the elaborate explanations, such as Retberg's, which assign a sjnnboli- 

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cal meaning to every detail. On the other hand it is equally certain 
that the biblical story served the artist only as a pretext for represent- 
ing the nude, both male and female, according to the best lights he 
then had. In earlier plates (Nos. ii, 12, 29 of this catalogue) the 
influence of Jacopo de Barbari, of the early Florentines (No. 24), and 
of Andrea Mantegna (Nos. 23, 24) has been detected, in others (Nos. 
21, 22) a reflection of the antique may perhaps be seen, while in a third 
class (Nos. 8, 32) we evidently have the result of the direct and unre- 
served study of nature. In the '* Adam and Eve," finally, the young 
artist who has thus far carried on his studies on various lines, some- 
times contradictory of one another, sums up his experience, and for the 
first time makes extended use of the theoretical studies of proportions 
which he pursued throughout his life. That this is the case, is conclu- 
sively shown by the constructional lines and figures on some of the 
preliminary drawings. At the same time, the earlier studies are still 
visible in tiie final result It is claimed by Thode (Die Antiken, etc 
p. 2) that ''Dfirer*s Adam is nothing but a transformation of the 
ApoUo Belvedere " (see photograph in Case 9, 11), and that '' the same 
conceptions and studies which transformed the Apollo into an Adam 
changed the Venus to an Eve " (Jahrbuch, III, p. 112). Thode's sug- 
gestions concerning the "Venus" in "The Dream" (No. 22) have 
already been pointed out, and there is no denying that there is much 
resemblance in the composition generally of this latter figure and the 
Eve, however the forms may differ in detail. That Dibrer should make 
use of antique models for the representation of biblical subjects, is 
quite in accordance with his expressed conviction of the correctness of 
sach a proceeding. It is an interesting question, however, to inquire 
whether he went to the antique direct or whether its influence was 
transmitted to him through Jacopo de Barbari or some other Italian. 
There is an engraving of " Apollo and Diana " by Jacopo (see a repro- 
duction in Case 9, 1 1 ), in which the figure of the sun-god seems also to 
have been influenced by the Apollo Belvedere, and in an early drawing 
by Durer of the same subject (see the reproduction in same case) 
there is a curious mixture of the two with a premonition of the Adam. 
Indeed the Apollo of the drawing, which as a whole is evidently related 
to Jacopo's engraving, is almost identical with the Adam, reversed. 
Ephrussi (in his essay on Jacopo de Barbari) endeavors to prove also 
that the Eve is based on a relief representing " Orpheus and Eurydice " 
Qiee the etching from it in Case 9, 1 1) which he attributes to Jacopo on 
uie strength of the sign in the upper right-hand comer. This sign, 
however, does not appear to be the caduceus, adopted by Jacopo as a 
mark, but rather a dagger or something of that sort, stuck through two 
rings. To oflbet the chorus of admiration universally called forth by 
this engraving it may be well to recall the words of Albert von Zahn 
(" Durer's Kunstlehre," pp. 44-45), the most philosophical and thor- 
ough of Diirer*s students and admirers, whose early death probably 
deprived the world of what would have been by far the best biography 
of the great artist. " The newness," says he, " of the conscious appli- 
cation for the first time of a set of rules [of proportion] explains why 
these figures have a most forced pose which is thoroughly contradictory 

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of the essence of DUrer's conception of nature, and the disagreeable 
impression of which is balanced only by the mastery of the drawing." 
The curious may look up also Mr. Ruskin's judgment in lecture V of 
his "Ariadne Florentina." There is no direct evidence to show 
whether Durer was as dissatisfied after a few years with this crowning 
triumph of his earlier activity as an engraver, as he usually was with 
his works. He carried impressions to the Netherlands with him, but 
mentions the plate by title only four times, once among the gifts, and 
thrice among the sales. His price for it was, as for all his " full sheet " 
prints, eight for one florin, or four stivers for a single copy. As regards 
the supposed influence of the Apollo Belvedere on Diirer's work, it 
is worthy of remark that this statue was discovered toward the end of 
the fifteenth century, when Diirer visited Italy for the first time, and 
undoubtedly created quite an excitement among those interested in such 

36, Apollo and Diana. — B68; H 795; R 87. — 
Monogram on a piece of paper ; the D reversed and then 

Fine impression, but soiled, and with several small holes, 
mended. Sewall ColL 

The general relationship of this design to Jacopo de Barbari's en- 
graving and to Diirer's drawing (see both in Case 9, ii) is evident, 
although there is considerable variation in detail. The plate is assigned 
to about 1505 by Retberg, to 1504 by Thode. Heller names 1486- 
1500. The monogram favors the earlier date, but the workmanship 
seems to point to about the date of the " Adam and Eve," and the 
enigmaticsd connection with the latter engraving, through Jacopo de 
Barbari, makes it desirable to keep the two together. Grimm sees so 
much of Signorelli in the conception that he is ** tempted sometimes to 
trace it back directly to him." 

37, The Nativity, — B 2 ; H 127; R 54. — Mono- 
gram and date, 1504, on a tablet. 

Good impression. Gray ColL 

Apparently the print which Diirer calls " Christmas " in his Nether- 
lands Diary. 

38, The Satyr and His Family. — B 69 ; H 819 ; 
R 83. — Monogram and date, 1505, on a tablet. 

Fine, vigorous impression on bulPs head paper. 

Sewall Coll, 

Called also "The Little Satyr" (to distinguish it from « Hercules" 
or "The Great Satyr," No. 24), "Pan and Syrinx," and "The Birth of 
Adonis." For the possible source of inspiration, see Thausing, I, p. 31 1 . 

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39. The Little Horse. — B 96; H 1000; R8s.— 
Monogram. Dated 1505. 

Fine impression on bull's head paper. Savall Coll. 

This and the following engraving are probably the outcome of 
Oarer's studies of the horse, on the proportions of which he intended 
to write a book, and the pseudo-mythological adjuncts may have been 
thrown in to make the subjects palatable to the educated public of the 
time which was always ready for something " antique." Heller and 
Ketberg suggest that the man leading the animal may be Perseus. 
Thausing substitutes Mercury, and discusses the difficulties which stand 
in the way, I, p. 314. 

40, The Great Horse. — B97; H 1009; R 84. — 
Monogram. Dated 1505. 

Fine impression, in perfect condition, with considerable 
margin, on bull's head paper. Sewall ColL 

As Quad von Kinkelbach calls the "Hercules" (No. 24) "The 
Great Hercules," it seems probable that this print was known as "The 
Little Hercules." Thausing (I, p. 313) suggests that it may be meant 
to represent Hercules carrying off the mares of the Thracian Diomedes. 

41 . The Three Genii with Helmet and Shield. — 
B 66 ; H 871 ; R 114. — Monogram. 

Good impression on bull's head paper. Sewall Coll. 

A good example of the far-fetched explanations attempted by the 
older admirers of Durer, is furnished in this instance by Retberg. 
According to him we have here a piece of Dureresque humor which 
he brought home with him from Venice in 1507, and which is to be 
thus expounded : " Genii trumpet forth Diirer's name to the right and 
to the left, and they also hold an escutcheon, to possess which was at 
that time every one's desire. But nothing is as yet recorded upon it, 
and the helmet that is being brought by another still hangs in air." 
See von Sallet, p. 17, to the effect that the design is merely one of the 
fanciful coats-of-arms, without special meaning, which were then quite 
frequently engraved. Retberg, about 1507; Heller, 1507-15 14. Thaus- 
ing, on die contrary, holds the plate to be an early one, showing the 
influence of Mantegna. 

42, The Witch. — B 67; H 867; R 115.— -Mono- 
gram, with the D reversed. 

Fine impression on bull's head paper. Sewall ColL 

So far as the witch is concerned, riding backward on a goat, and 
causing a hailstorm, it is easy enough to understand the subject, in 
connection with popular superstitions, and with the witch trials, which 
were in full blast about the time. The four genii, however, prove more 

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troublesome, and all the learning expended upon them by AllQin (p. 49) 
leads only to the suggestion that they may perhaps represent the four 
seasons disturbed in their smooth course by the unhallowed doings of 
the witch. Retberg, about 1507; Heller, 1507-15 14. Thausing 
(I, p. 226) considers this, like the preceding plate, an early work com- 
posed under Italian, and more especially Mantegna*s influence. The 
face of the witch forcibly recalls that of one of the marine monsters 
in Mantegna*s '* Battle of the Tritons." Thausing, on the other hand 
(II, p. S9), points out that the principal figure in Agostino Veniziano's 
" Lo Stregozzo " is a reminiscence of Durer's witch. (See Case 9, 11.) 


B 3-18; H 139 etc.; R 92-107. 1507-15x3. 

43. Titlepage : The Man of Sorrows. — Mono- 
gram; dated 1509. 

44. The Agony in the Garden. — Monogram and 
date, 1508, on a tag. 

45. Christ taken by the Jev^s. Monogram and 
date, 1508, on a tag. 

46. Christ before Caiphas. — Monogram and date, 
15 1 2, on a tablet.' 

47. Christ before Pilate. — Monogram. Dated 

48. The Flagellation. — Monogram and date, 1512, 
on a tablet. 

49. Christ Crowned with Thorns. — Monogram 
and date, 15 12, on two tablets. 

50. Bcce Homo. — Monogram ; dated 1512. 

51. Pilate Washing His Hands. — Monogram ; 
dated 15 12. 

52. Christ Bearing the Cross. — Monogram and 
date, 15 1 2, on a tablet. 

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53. The Crucifixion. — Monogram and date, 15x1, 
on two tags. 

54. The Descent from the Cross. — Monogram; 
dated 1507. 

55. The Entombment. — Monogram and date, 1512, 
on a tablet. 

56. Christ in Limbo. — Monogram on a tag ; dated 


57. The Resurrection. — Monogram and date, 151 2, 
on a tag. 

58. Sts. Peter and John Healing at the Temple 
Gate. — Monogram; dated 1513. 

Fine set, in uniform and vigorous impressions, from 
Maberly's collection. Sewall ColL 

"The Descent from the Cross" (No. 54) is the only engraving 
which Durer executed in 1507, the year in which he returned from his 
[second] trip to Venice. Complete sets of this series, of uniformly 
fine quality, are rare. The representation of " Sts. Peter and John etc." 
(No. 58) is hardly in place in a series of " The Passion," but it is 
always classed with the set. Of all of Durer*s engravings on metal, 
this set is the most frequently mentioned in his Netherlands Diary, 
among sales as well as gifts. His price for it was half a florin. 

59. The Virgin with the Crown of Stars. — B 
31; H 517; R 118. — Monogram; dated 1508. 

Fine impression, on bulls head paper. Sewall ColL 

The "man in the moon," abandoned in later years, still appears here, 
as in No. 16. 

60. St. George on Horseback. — B 54; H 746; 
R 120. — Monogram and date, 1508, on a tag. 

Fair impression, mounted. Gray ColL 

It will be noted that the date has been changed to 1508 from 1505. 
See No. 31. 

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6i. Christ Dying upon the Cross. — B 24 ; H 426 ; 

R 119. — Monogram and date, 1508, on a tablet 
Good impression. Sewall ColL 

Dflrer, in his Diary, calls this plate " The Cross." It is often spoken 
of as " The Great Cross," or " Crucifixion," to distinguish it from B 23 
(No. 88 of this catalogue). The St. John in this design is usually de- 
scribed as an almost literal copy from the same figure in Mantegna's 
*' Entombment," but there are many points of difference. 

62, St. Veronica with the Sudarium, — B 64; H 
464; R 167. — Monogram; dated 1510. 

Heliotype reproduction from the Dresden impression. 

E, H. GremUaf. 

A dry-point plate, and Durer's first attempt of the kind. Passavant's 
statement (III, p. 146) that this is a niello is incomprehensible, and is 
refuted by the fact that the monogram and the date are not reversed 
in the impression. Thausing points out the resemblance to Schongauer's 
rendering of the same subject, but this is due simply to the fact that 
both artists followed the usual type. Only two impressions from this 
plate are known. 

63. The Virgin with the Pear. — B 41; H 621; 
R 194. — Monogram and date, 1511, on separate tablets. 

Fine impression, with Mariette's autograph on the back. 

Sewall Coll. 

Thausing (II, pp. 59-60) rates this as one of the two most beautiful 
Madonnas engraved by Durer, the other being B 35 (No. 67 of this 
catalogue), — a rating which will probably be questioned. 

64, The Man of Sorrows, with Hands Tied« — 
B 21 ; H 445 ; R 195. — Monogram ; dated 15 12. 

Impression evidently from the worn plate. It is said, 
however, that all impressions are feeble. Sewall Coll. 

Executed with the dry point. 

65. St. Jerome by the Willow Tree. — B 59 ; H 

770 ; R 196. — Monogram. Date, 1512, on a tag. 

Late impression without bur, showing the hole in the 
lower part of the plate. Watermark, two towers (castle 
gate), but different in form from any of those figured by 
Hausmann. Sewall Coll. 

Dry-point, strengthened here and there with the graver. In the 
very rare fine impressions, showing the effect of the bur, this print is 

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said to be the richest in Durer's ceuvre^ and Thausing (II, p. 62) is in- 
clined to think that Rembrandt must have been inspired by it in his 
own dry-point work. 

66. The Holy Family, — B 43; H 648; R222.— 
Without monogram or date. 

(tf.) Good impression, showing much of the effect of 
the bur, and before any of the scratches, but 
cut on top and mounted. Gray Coll, 

(d,) Late impression, after the bur had all worn off, 
and with the scratch across the face of the 
Virgin. Watermark, coat-of-arms of Schro- 
benhausen, Hausmann No. 15. Sewall Coll, 

The first of the impressions here shown gives some idea of the rich- 
ness ascribed to Durer's dry-points, of which no trace is left in the bald 
ruins ordinarily seen. This plate furnishes a striking illustration of the 
loose manner in which, as a rule, technical questions are treated by 
writers upon art. Bartsch, who certainly ought to have known better, 
describes it as '* grav^ 4 I'eau-forte sur une planche de fer " (engraved 
with acid on an iron plate), and any number of writers have followed 
him in this, although Retberg and Hausmann long ago pointed out its 
true nature, and an examination of a good impression, like the first here 
exhibited, distinctly shows the peculiar white lines which are character- 
istic of dry-point work. (See Introduction, p. xvi.) Heller assigns 
the plate to 1500-1506, probably because on an early copy the mono- 
gram and the date 1506 have been added. The same intrinsically un- 
reliable piece of evidence misleads even Zahn to say (on p. 49, in the 
course of his remarks on the slightness of the influence exercised on 
Durer by Venetian art) : ** Only the etched representation of the Holy 
Family executed in the year of his stay at Venice, is pervaded by a har- 
mony, which gives it spiritual kinship with the largeness of conception 
of the Venetian school, and which extends to all the figures, with the 
exception of the ugly child." Prof. Colvin, who, however, favors 15 13, 
also speaks of this plate ("Portfolio," 1877) as the one "in which 
Durcr draws nearest to Italian types, and in one figure at least, the 
bearded Joseph with his upturned face, is almost with strictness Vene- 
tian." A similar remark might be applied to the St. Jerome in the 
preceding plate, which is clearly dated 151 2. There is no reason, 
therefore, why ttiis " Holy Family " should not be grouped together 
with the rest of Diirer's dry-points. Retberg dates it about 15 16, 
without giving a reason. 

67. The Virgin Seated, Caressing the Christ 
Child. — B 35 ; H 599 ; R 201. — Monogram ; dated 

Rich dark impression. Sewall ColL 

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Thausing classes this plate and B 41 (No. 63 of this catalogue) as 
the two most beautiful engravings of the Madonna by Durer, and 
points out a similarity in motive to Raphael's "Virgin of the Casa 
Tempi." It may be well to note here that in Heller's description of 
the copy No. 600 in his list the marks given are reversed, so that, 
accordmg to him, the original would appear to be the copy. 

68. The Sudarium Displayed by Two Angels. 
— B 25 ; H 467 ; R 202. — Monogram and date, 1513, on 
a tag. 

Brilliant impression. Gray Coll. 

This appears to be the print which Durer, in his Netherlands Diary, 
alludes to as "The Veronica." Bartsch calls it "The Face of Christ." 
Thausing advances the conjecture (II, p. 61) that it was intended as a 
finale to " The Passion on Copper," although it differs from the plates 
composing this series in shape as well as in size. 

69. The Knight, Death, and the Devil. —B 98; 
H 1013 ; R 203. — Monogram and date, 1513, preceded 
by an S, on a tablet. 

{a^ Very vigorous, dark impression. Gray Coll, 

(b,) Beautiful, somewhat lighter impression, rotten in 

lower right-hand corner. Gray ColL 

The two impressions are exhibited, as in several other cases, to show 
how differences may exist, without positive loss of quality. As to the 
subject, Durer himself, in his Diary, names it simply " A Horseman." 
The titles invented for the plate by others are manifold : " Le manege " 
(the art of riding or the riding school), " The Horse of Death," "The 
Knight of Death," "The Knight of the Reformation," "Fortitude" 
(Ruskin), etc. Old catalogues say that it represents a Nuremberg sol- 
dier, named Rinck or Rinneck, who lost his way and met death and the 
devil in the darkness of the night, — a story which is contradicted by 
the lighting of the composition. Heller calls it " The Christian Knight 
with Death and the Devil," and states that it has been held to repre- 
sent Franz von Sickingen (mildly indicated by the S before the date) 
"who was especially and generally feared in Germany about 1510-1512, 
and whose character was depicted by his enemies at the time in the 
most terrible and damaging manner." Retberg styles it " The Knight 
in Spite of Death and 3ie Devil," and conjectures that Durer intended 
it as a sort of monument to his friend Stefan Paumgartner, whence the 
S. Rosenberg, on the contrary, who, with others, connects the subject 
with the Dance of Death, sees in it rather " Death and the Devil in 
Spite of all Knighthood," and explains the S as salus, being an abbre- 
viation of anno saluiis (in the year of grace). Thausing finally, who 
says that the knight is grinning, to show how little he is affected by the 
apparitions around him, therein agreeing with Mr. Ruskin, is of opin- 
ion that the plate was intended to form one of a series illustrating the 

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four temperaments, and that the S stands for sanguinicus, (See 
below, under Nos. 70 and 71.) Even the blades of grass under the 
hoof of the right hind leg of the horse have become objects of discus- 
sion, some holding them to indicate a trap into which the horse is 
about to step, while others, like Mr. Ruskin (see his remarks, " Modern 
Painters," Part IX, Chap. IV), explain them as a former oudine which 
Diirer did not know how to efface. It is claimed by Grimm, who is fol- 
lowed by Thausing, that the horse is modelled on that of Verrocchio's 
Colleoni. This is quite impossible, however, unless we assume that 
Durer, in trying to improve upon his model, falsified it after a most 
astonishing fashion. For while Verrocchio*s horse is correct in its 
gait, Diirer's has the position of the feet conventionally adopted by most 
sculptors, but which, as Mr. Muybridge's investigations have shown us, 
is totally at variance with nature. Diirer's studies for this plate, or at 
least the studies which he utilized in it, reach back to the year 1498. 

70. Melancholy. — B74; H 846; R 209. — Mono- 
gram ; dated 15 14. 

(a.) Fine silvery impression, but too dark in the face 
of the large figure, and so smeared in the 
printing of the smaller figure as to present 
the appearance of having been washed with 
India ink. Gray Coil. 

(d,) Good impression, and more harmonious than a, 
but uneven in the face of the large figure, 
and muddy in the distance. Gray Coll. 

This has always been one of the popular favorites among Diirer's 
works, and all the more so because of its enigmatical character. 
Within certain limits, the subject is easy enough to understand. Diirer 
calls it the "Melancholy" in his Netherlands Diary, and this title, 
" Melencolia. I.," is plainly indicated on the print itself. But here the 
difficulty begins. Is the character after the word Melencolia the figure 
one or Ae letter I? Passavant (III, p. 153) claims that it is the latter, 
and that it means "Melencolia i!" — "Melancholy avaunt!" Thau- 
sing, on the other hand, sees in it merely the numeral, indicating that the 
print is to be the first in a series of the Four Temperaments, and Allihn 
(p. 98) asks pointedly : " Who among the contemporaries of Diirer 
would have found this solution ? " But again, it may be objected ; — If 
this is a number, why did not Diirer number the other plates? For 
further details the student is referred to Allihn, p. 94 et seq. For the 
present purpose, the following quotation from Thausing (II, p. 222) 
must suffice : " The winged woman who, supporting her cheek in her 
left hand, and with a laurel wreath on her loosely bound hair, is seated 
plunged in gb^omy meditation, all the materials for human labor, for 
art, and for science lying scattered around her — what could she be 
'meant to represent but Human Reason, in despair at the limits imposed 
upon her power?" That th§ theory of the Four Temperaments was 

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▼ery popular at the time, and quite likely to inspire Durer, has been 
weU shown by Allihn. (See also Mr. Ruskin, in " Modem Painters," 
Ptot IX, Chap. IV.) 

71. St. Jerome in his Study. — B 60; H 756; R 
208. — Monogram and date, 1514, on a tablet. 

Fine impression ; made margin. Gray Coll. 

It is a relief to come upon a subject among Durer's works which is 
IK> sufficient in itself as to need no explanation. The story of St 
Jerome was popular at the time (see under No. 6), and it is quite 
liatural, therefore, that Durer should have utilized the saint, tran- 
quilly at work upon his translation of the bible, the Vulgate, as the 
life-giving human element in the representation of a quiet, comfortable, 
lunlit interior, which, in spite of Mr. Hamerton's criticisms, will con- 
tinue to please mankind by its very wealth of detail. Nor does this 
Retail disturb the general effect, as those may see who will take the 
trouble to look at the picture through the hollow hand. With this 
enjoyment the claim of the commentators of Durer, that this is the 
third in the proposed series of the Four Temperaments (leaving only 
the choleric to be provided for), does not interfere, even if we accept 
Thausing*s interpretation. "The phlegmatic temperament," says he 
(II, p. 224), "must be the one here intended to be represented, but 
phlegmatic in the higher sense of the word, a sense, too, which was in 
accordance with the history of the time. Durer*s St. Jerome is symbol- 
ical of that humanistic learning which, coming from Italy, found its 
chief representative in Erasmus of Rotterdam, — of that aristocratic 
intellectual tendency which desires above all to secure the theoretical 
standpoint of knowledge, attaching itself exclusively to the governing 
classes, and keeping carefully clear of the people and their life. This 
wise man, were he to speak, would cry out in the words of Goethe's 
scholar in the second part of ' Faust ' : 

' The present leads us to exaggeration. 
I seek in what is written my salvation.' ** 

The three fragments of the supposed series of the Four Tempera- 
ments, "The Knight, Death, and The Devil," "Melancholy," and 
" St. Jerome in his Qiamber," fuUy deserve the fame and favor which 
they have so long commanded, for they are of all Durer's engravings 
those in which he most transcends the limits of his slavery to outward 
formality and rises into that higher artistic realm where the emotions 
have control. These three prints are the nearest approach to " Stim- 
mungsbilder " in Durer's engraved work. He begins to realize here, 
even if he never learned fully to comprehend, the power that lies in 
effects of light : — the somber gloom of " The Knight, Death, and the 
Devil," the weird, unearthly glitter of the "Melancholy," the soft, 
tranquil sunshine of the " St. Jerome," are all in accordance with the 
subjects themselves, surrounding them with an appropriate atmosphere, 
which helps to emphasize the ideas embodied in the subject. One is 
almost tempted to despair of Mr. Ruskin's ability to be just, reading 

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such a passage as this in his " Ariadne " : " People are always talking of 
his [Diirer's] Knight and Death, and his Melancholia, as if those were 
his principal works. They are his characteristic ones, and show what 
he might have been without his anatomy; but they were mere byeplay 
compared to his Greater Fortune and Adam and Eve." Simply to 
uphold a notion of his, Mr. Ruskin here ignores the fact that the t^'O 
prints last named were done ten years before the ** Knight " etc. and 
places the work of Diirer's maturer years, in which he embodied the 
experience of the man, below the results of earlier efforts in which 
the effect of experimental studies is still unpleasantly visible. The 
" Knight, Death, and the Devil " is mentioned only twice in the Diary, 
" Melancholy " seven, the "St. Jerome" twelve times. Diirer's price 
for them, as for the others of his " full sheets," was eight for one florin. 

72. The Bagpiper, — B 91 ; H 895 ; R211/ — Mon- 
ogram ; dated 15 14, 

Fair impression. Sewali ColL 

73. Dancing Peasants. — B90; H 912; R 210.— 
Monogram; dated 15 14. 

Fine impression. Sewali ColL 

Allihn connects this and the preceding plate with Diirer's earlier 
representations of peasants (Nos. 13 and 14 of this catalogue), and sees 
in them a satirical vein. For individuality and for the happy expres- 
sion of a transient mood in face as well as in pose, these " Dancing 
Peasants " are quite as much without rivals in Diirer's oeuvre as Nos* 
69-71 are without rivals for the mood which finds expression in the 

74. The Virgin on the Crescent, with Short Hair 
tied with a Ribbon. — B 33 ; H 505 ; R 204. — Mono- 
gram ; dated 1514. 

Brilliant impression. Sewali ColL 

The "man in the moon" is omitted. (See Nos. 16 and 59 of this 

75. The Virgin Sitting by a Wall.— B 40; H 

610 ; R 205. — Monogram and date, 1514, on a tablet. 

Good, but somewhat cold impression, with considerable 
margin. Gray ColL 

Thausing specially cites this print in connection with his theory con- 
cerning the supposed change of technique adopted by Diirer in 15 14. 
(See Introduction, p. xiii.) "The Virgin seated at the foot of a 
wall," he says (II, p. 68), " would appear to show the transition from 

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the old to the new process; it is unequal in treatment, and the hard 
black lines seen in the earlier plates are discernible in the flesh of the 
Infant and the head of the Virgin. This engraving therefore consti- 
tutes the border line between the two methods." 

THE APOSTLES. 1514-1526. 

76. St. Thomas. — B 48 ; H 667 ; R 207. — Mono- 
gram and date, 15 14 (the second figure corrected), on a 

77. St. Paul. — B 50 ; H 686 ; R 206. — Monogram ; 
dated 15 14. 

78. St. Bartholomew. — B47; H 659; R 251. — 
Monogram and date, 1523, on a tablet. 

79. St. Simon. — B 49; H 678; R 252. — Mono- 
gram; dated 1523, 

80. St. Philip. — B 46 ; H 652 ; R 264. — Monogram 
and date, 1526 (with a correction in the last figure), on a 

Good impressions ; paper mostly somewhat spotted. 

Sewall CoiL 

This series was undoubtedly intended to comprise the whole of the 
twelve apostles, but was never finished. Thausing (II, p. 220) detects 
certain psychological tendencies in Diirer about this time (1514), which 
he (Diirer) developed "in a manner peculiarly his own," inferentially 
by the creation of a number of character heads. "It was with this 
object in view, that he commenced, in 15 14, a series of figures of the 
Apostles on copper, which, though never finished, occupied him, as ive 
shall see, for more than ten years, and which, in connection with an- 
other idea conceived about tibe same time, inspired the production of 
his last great work." The " other idea " was the theory of the Four 
Temperaments (see Nos. 69, 70 and 71), the "last great work" is the 
picture of the Four Apostles which Diirer presented to his native city 
in 1526. Thausing points out the striking resemblance of the St. 
Philip in this series, especially in the drapery, with the St. Paul in the 

81. The Man of Sorrows Seated. — B 22 ; H 459 ; 
R 213. — No monogram ; dated 1515. 

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Fair impression, before the rusting of the plate, with 
Mariette's autograph. ^ Seuiail Coll, 

Probably Durer's first attempt at etching, although Thausing and 
others are inclined to place B 70 (No. 85 of this catalogue) earlier 
It is evident that the six plates etched by Diirer (Nos. 81-85 and 89 of 
this catalogue) were done on iron, like all of the earliest etchings. The 
evidence is furnished by some of the plates, still in existence, and by 
the peculiar character of the spots in flie later impressions, which are 
due to the rusting and consequent roughening of the plates. 

82. Christ in the Garden. — B 19 ; H 425 ; R 212. 

— Monogram; dated 15 15. 

Late impression from the rusted plate. Sewall Coll, 

Etching on iron. (See No. 81.) 

83. The Sudarium displayed by one Angel. — 
B 26 ; H 466 ; R 223. — Monogram and date, 1516, on a 

Fine impression, before the rusting of the plate, with 
some margin. Sewall Coll. 

Etching on iron. (See No. 81.) 

84. The Rape of a Young Woman. — B 72; H 
813 ; R 224. — Monogram; dated 1516. 

Fine early impression. Watermark, anchor in a circle, 
Hausmann No. 7. Gray Coll, 

Etching on iron. (See No. 81.) An obscurely treated mythologi- 
cal subject, called also " The Rape on the Unicom," " Pluto carrying off 
Proserpine," and " Nessus carrying off Dejanira." 

85. The Man in Despair. — B 70 ; H 882 ; R 225. 

— Without monogram or date. 

Late, but good impression. Sewall Coll. 

Of the six etchings on iron (see No. 81), this is the most puzzling, 
and it may, indeed, be described as the most puzzling of all of Durer's 
engravings. Heller calls it " The Bath," on the authority of some old 
manuscript, and presumes the woman to have been drowned, the naked 
man in despair to be her husband, and the satyr etc. sympathizing 
spectators. Hiisgen, according to Heller, dubbed it ** The Dismayed 
Husband." Thausing and others maintain that it is merely an aggre- 
gation of studies taken at random, — hence the title "Study of Five 
Figures," — and that it is, therefore, Durer's first essay in etching, but 
for a mere trial plate it is altogether too elaborate. In the principal 
figure, the " man in despair," Thausing detects Italian influences, and 

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even recognizes in it the position of Michelangelo's ^ Cupid " in the 
South Kensington Museum. (See this " Cupid " among the casts on 
the lower floor.) There is a drawing by Diirer of a man, very similar 
to the figure seen in profile to the left, which Thausing declares to be a 
portrait of Andrew, Albrecht's brother, a declaration stoutly opposed 
by Ephrussi, who publishes the drawing (p. 177). Heller, 1507-1541; 
Retberg about 15 16, which seems the more likely. 

86. The Virgin on the Crescent, with Crown of 
Stars and Scepter, — B 32; H 526; R 221. — Mono- 
gram ; dated 15 16, 

(a^ Clear impression. Sewall Coll. 

(b.) More brilliant, but somewhat sooty impression. 

Gray Coll. 

This is one of the prints specially cited by Thausing in support of 
his theory that Diirer, from the year 15 14, used etching to forward his 
plates. " Compare, for example," he says (II, p. 69), " the two very 
similar plates [B 31, No. 59 of this catalogue] . . . and [this plate] 
. . . and it is easy to see at a glance the great contrast presented in 
the treatment of the two. Examine them yet a little closer, and traces 
of the action of the aquafortis are distinctly visible in the blurred un- 
certain lines of the second engraving. And this is why experienced 
collectors and dealers, whenever it is a question of Durer*s later engrav- 
ings, prefer pale gray impressions to the rich-toned darker ones." The 
two impressions here exhibited show that the " blurred uncertain lines " 
which are indeed visible in b, are not due to the character of the lines, 
but to the printing, since in a, in which they have not been over- 
charged with ink to force brilliancy, they are quite sharp and clear. 
(See the Introduction, p. xiv, and No. 95.) Again the " man in the 
moon " is left out of the crescent. 

87, The Virgin Crowned by Two Angels. — B 
39; H 547 ; R 226. — Monogram; dated 1518. 

Fine impression ; paper spotted. Sewall Coll, 

Speaking in general of Diirer's works done between the years 15 13 
and 1520, Thausing says (II. p. 134) ; «*The engravings of the Virgin 
belonging to this period are as unattractive as the paintings. The 
most agreeable among them, the * Virgin Crowned by two Angels,' of 
15 18, is taken from older studies; at least the beautiful drawing for 
the drapery on her knees, in the Albertina, belongs to the year 1508." 
Two composition sketches for this plate are published by Ephrussi 
(pp. 194-5). For Mr. Ruskin's estimate of it, see Lecture IV and the 
Appendix of his " Ariadne Florentina." The period here alluded to 
(1513-20) is that in which Diirer was principally occupied with the 
designs for the woodcut publications of the Emperor Maximilian, and 
Thausing directly makes these designs responsible for the inferior qual- 
ty of the paintings and engravings belonging to the same period. 


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88. The Small Crucifixion, — B 23; H 435; R 
227. — Without monogram or date. 

{a and ^.) See below concerning the impressions 
shown. Sewall Coll. 

This* — a niello, as the reversed position of the letters INRI shows 
— is one of the smallest and most celebrated of Diirer's engravings. 
It was engraved on gold, and originally ornamented the hilt of a sword 
belonging to the Emperor Maximilian I. Thausing in his first edition 
(II, pp. 70-71) describes a sword in the Ambras Collection, at Vienna, 
as the one which originally held the precious plate, although the place it 
once occupied is now filled by a silver plate of later insertion. Wendelin 
Boeheim, on the contrary (Rep. fur Kunstw., Ill, pp. 276-287), shows 
that this cannot be the sword in question,, and Thausing, in his second 
German edition (II, p. 73), accepts his conclusions. Heller, 1507- 
15 14; Hausmann, 15 10-15 14; Retberg, about 1518. As Maximilian 
died Jan. 12, 15 19, the plate certainly cannot have been engraved later 
than 1 5 18. Diirer mentions it as follows in a letter to Spsdatin, dated 
at the beginning of the year 1520: "I also send two little printed 
crosses with this; they are engraved on gold and one is for your honor." 
Passavant (III, p. 150) describes the prints here shown as copies, under 
A and B. Mr. Sewall, however, takes issue with him, and claims B to 
be the original. Messrs. H. Wunderlich & Co., of New York, lately 
had, or may still have, a fine impression of the print which, accord- 
ing to Passavant, is the original. 

89. The Cannon. — B 99 ; H 1017 ; R 228. — Mon- 
ogram ; dated 15 18. 

Not very early impression, with some marks of rust. 
Watermark, an heraldic lily. Sewall Coll. 

"A large field-piece, with the arms of Nuremberg on it and sur- 
rounded by footsoldiers, is being looked at with respectful astonish- 
ment by five Turks, for whom it is no doubt intended as a warning, and 
in the background are the plains of the native land it is destined to 
protect" (Thausing, II, p. 66). This plate, called also "Die Num- 
berger Feldschlange " (The Nuremberg Field-Serpent), is the last of 
the six etchings on iron (see No. 81) done by Diirer. He had evi- 
dently given up the process as unsatisfactory, but in this case used it 
once more, as an expeditious method for placing upon the market a 
plate intended to satisfy a transient popular demand. The fear of the 
Turk was then strong in Germany, the first siege of Vienna occurring 
in 1529. 

90. The Virgin Nursing the Child.— B 36; H 
576; R 232. — Monogram ; dated 1519, 

{a.) Silvery impression. Sewall Coll. 

(d.) Heavier impression. Gray Coll. 

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The two impressions are again shown with reference to Thausing's 
theories concerning Durer's methods. ( See No. 86.) The same author 
(II, p. 134) says of this plate and B 38 (No. 95 of this catalogue) that 
they "are without any particular charm or dignity, being taken quite 
casually from burgher life, and are only remarkable for the soft gray 
tone of the engraving." A slight composition sketch is published by 
Ephrussi (p. 191). 

91. St. Anthony. — B 58 ; H 695 ; R 233. — Mono- 
gram and date, 1519, on a tablet. 

Fine impression. Sewall ColL 

St. Anthony, an Egyptian saint, not to be confounded with St. An- 
thony of Padua, has inspired many artists, from Schongauer down to 
the disciples of the modern French-Italian school, but the scenes gen- 
erally chosen are those of his torment and temptation by demons, in 
which the fantastic or the voluptuous forms assumed by ^e latter are 
the main point. Durer represents another phase in the life of the 
saint, his flight from the world and application to study and prayer. 
The pig which often accompanies vSt. Anthony, as the symbol of the 
lusts which he conquered, Diirer has omitted; the bell attached to his 
staff, signifying his power to drive away evil spirits, is here. The city 
in the distance is generally supposed to be Nuremberg, but Hausmann 
says that it is strikingly like Marburg. Thausing rates the plate very 
highly. "For depth of conception," he says (II, pp. 134-135), "and 
tenderness of execution and feeling, this small plate is equal to the best 
engravings of former years. Diirer never did anything again equal to 
it." HeUer states that of the copy described by him under No. 699 
there are impressions in red. In the Sewall Collection there is an im- 
pression in the same color from the original plate, badly worn. Durer, 
in his Diary, classes this print among the " half sheets," of which he 
sold twenty for one florin. 

92. Peasants at Market. — B 89; H 931 ; R 235. 
— Monogram; dated 1519. 

{a.) Clear impression. Sewall Coll. 

(p.) More vigorous impression, a trifle muddy. 

Gray Coll. 

Two impressions shown with reference to Thausing's theory (see 
No. 86). AUihn, p. 90, mentions this engraving in connection with 
the other representations of peasants of supposed satyrical tendency. 
In the faces of the couple he detects " exemplary stupidity." All the 
prints of this size, including the small Madonnas, Diirer classes as 
" quarter sheets," of which he gave forty-five for one florin. 

93. Albert of Brandenburg. — B 102; H 1024; R 
234. — Monogram; dated 1519. 

Splendid impression, without text on back. Gray Coll. 

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Called also " The Little Cardinal " to distinguish it from B 103 (No. 
98 of this catalogue), known as "The Great Cardinal." Albert, or 
Albrecht, Margrave of Brandenburg, born 1489 or 1490, died 1545} 
was the man who, after he had received the pope's authority to sell 
indulgences within his diocese, on condition of making over to the 
papal treasury one half of the profits, appointed the Dominican Tezel, 
and thus indirectly caused Luther to post his ninety-five theses. His 
titles are given in the inscription in the upper part of the plate: 
" Albert, by divine mercy the most holy Roman church's titular presby- 
ter cardinal of St. Chrysogonus, archbishop of Mayence and Magde- 
burg, primate elector of the empire, administrator of Halberstadt, 
marquis of Brandenburg." The lower inscription reads : " Thus were 
his eyes, his cheeks, his features. Aged 29. 15 19." The plate was 
engraved for a book of relics etc., belonging to the church of Sts. 
Maurice and Mary Magdalen, at Hsdle, published in 1520. In a letter 
written by Diirer to George Spalatin at the beginning of the year 1520 
this plate is mentioned as follows : " At the same time I send herewith 
to my most gracious lord three impressions of an engraving on copper, 
which I engraved after my most gracious lord of Mayence and at his 
request. I sent and presented 3ie plate to his Electoral Grace with 
200 impressions; in return His Electoral Grace has shown himself 
gracious to me, for His Electoral Grace has made me a present of 200 
florins in gold and 20 ells of damasc for a coat." Mr. Ruskin justly 
objects to the reflections of windows in the eyes of most of Diirer's 
portraits, as in this one. They are due to an affectation of knowledge, 
displayed with a childish pride in lately acquired powers of observa- 
tion, which was quite characteristic of the time. 

94. The Virgin Crowned by One Angel. — B 37; 
H 537 ; R 236. — Monogram and date, 1520, on a tablet. 

(a.) Clear impression, washed with India ink in the 
shadows on the right-hand side. Sewall Coll, 

(b?) Vigorous impression, but somewhat rotten and 
sooty. Gray Coll, 

Two impressions shown with reference to Thausing's theories (see 
No. 86). "Stiff" and spiritless," as the same author says (II, p. 134). 
In Heller's description of the copy No. 538 of his list, the first two of 
the explanatory figures have been accidentally reversed, so that accord- 
ing to their evidence, the original would be taken for the copy. 

95. The Virgin with the Child Swaddled. — B 
38 ; H 585 ; R 237. — Monogram and date, 1520, on 
a tablet. 

(a,) Silvery impression. Sewall Coll, 

Ip,) Dark impression. Gray Coll, 

This is another of the Virgins of the period from I5i3--i520, which 
** are only remarkable for the soft gray tone of the engraving." The 

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two impressions are again shown with reference to Thausing's theories 
concerning a supposed change in Durer*s technical methods about the 
year 15 14 (see Introduction, p. xiii, and No. 86). Both, and more 
especially b, look as if they had been washed with India ink in the 
shadows, but this effect may be due to the wiping of the plate by the 
printer. As No. 94 a has also been washed with ink, it is permissible 
to conjecture that these experiments were made by admirers of Durer 
who missed m these later plates the strength of color which pleased 
them in his earlier work. For the same reason it is presumable that 
the darker, overcharged impressions must have been taken after Diirer's 
death, as he undoubtedly knew what he was doing when he engraved 
these plates so as to produce a silvery effect, and would not afterwards 
have undone his work by printing of a kind for which the plates were 
not fitted. 

96. St. Christopher with the Head turned to the 
Left. — B 51 ; H 708 ; R 245. — Monogram ; dated 

(a.) Silvery impression ; made margin. Gray Coll, 
(b.) Dark impression. Stwall ColL 

The appearance of both of these impressions as if they had been 
washed with India ink, seems to be due to the wiping of the plate. 
See remarks under No. 95. 

97. St. Christopher with the Head turned to the 
Right. — B52; H 715; R 246. — Monogram ; dated 

(dr.) Clear impression ; paper spotted. Sewall Coll. 

(b,) Impression with an appearance of tinting due to 

wiping. Gray Coll. 

See remarks under No. 95. In his Netherlands Diary, Diirer re- 
cords, in the month of May, 1521, that he drew four small St. Christo- 
phers on gray paper, heightened with white, for his friend Joachim 
Patenier, " the good landscape painter," and it has been suggested that 
we may have two of these designs in Nos. 96 and 97, both of which 
are dated 1521. Compare, however, Ephrussi, p. 340, who mentions 
a composition sketch for No. 96, dated 151 7. 

98. Albert of Brandenburg, — B 103; H 1035; R 
254. — Monogram ; dated 1523. 

Late impression. Watermark similar to, but somewhat 
different from, Hausmann No. 23. Sewall Coll, 

Called also " The Great Cardinal " to distinguish it from " The Lit- 
tle Cardinal," B 102 (No. 93 of this catalogue). The inscriptions are 

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identical with those on No. 93, except that the age has been changed 
to 33, and the date to 1523. In a letter to Albert, dated Sept. 4, 1523, 
Durer complains that, although he had forwarded the plate, with 500 
impressions, some time ago, its receipt had not yet been acknowledged. 
.There are two other engravings by Diirer dated 1523, the apostles St. 
Bartholomew and St. Simon, which see under Nos. 78 and 79. 

99. Frederic the Wise, Elector of Saxony. — 
B 104; H 1039 ; R 255. — Monogram ; dated 1524, 
(tf.) Good impression. Watermark, a jug. 

Sewall Coll, 

(b,) Late impression. Watermark, an escutcheon 

with a rampant lion in it. Seivall Coll, 

Frederic III, called the Wise, born Jan. 17, 1463, died May 5, 152'', 
elector and duke of Saxony, was a patron of science, the founder of the 
university of Wittenberg, and a supporter of the reformation, although 
he never openly espoused the doctrines of Luther. He was one of the 
earliest patrons of Diirer, who painted for him, probably, the Dresden 
altar-piece (Thausing, I, pp. 168-170), one of the first of his more 
important works, as well as other, later pictures. The inscription 
under the portrait reads as follows : " Sacred to Christ. He favored 
the word of God with great piety, worthy to be reverenced forever by 
posterity. For the Lord Frederic, duke of Saxony, arch-marshal, elec- 
tor of the holy Roman empire, Albert Diirer of Nuremberg made this. 
B. M. F. V. V." Again Diirer has thought it necessary to indicate the 
reflections of the windows in the eyes. — Impression a shows that the D 
in the monogram was originally reversed and then corrected. The cor- 
rection, however, not having been made with sufficient vigor, it almost 
disappears again in later impressions, such as b. There is an unaccount- 
able difference between these two impressions. Although not the 
slightest variation can be detected in the engraving of the portrait it- 
self and of the lettering, there is yet a very perceptible difference in 
the margins. Impression a has a simple, clearly defined line all around; 
in b the line around the portrait is not so well defined and is frequently 
crossed by the work, while around the tablet below there is shading by 
additional lines, with short lines crossing them at right angles. In the 
broad moulding surrounding the lettering, variations may also be noted 
in the HUing-in of the lower horizontal part. Impression by moreover, 
is a trifle larger than «, the latter measuring 12.2 by 18.8 cm., the for- 
mer 12.6 by 19. 1 cm. A very marked difference is noticeable also in 
connection with the coats of arms in the upper corners. In a they are 
quite close to the outer marginal line ; in b they are about one milli- 
meter inside of this line and the space thus left is filled in with shading. 
These differences are not noted in any of the authorities consulted in 
the preparation of this catalogue. It is stated that the later impressions 
are from the retouched plate, but the variations here described cannot 
be the result of retouching. 

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loo, Wilibald Pirkheimer. — B io6; H 1076; R 

256. — Monogram ; dated 1524. 

Fine impression. Watermark, coat-of-arms similar to 

Hausmann No. 12. Gray Coll^ 

This celebrated patrician, humanist, and councillor of Nuremberg, 
Durer's life-long and most intimate friend, to whom the letters from 
Venice were addressed, was born Dec. 5, 1470, and died Dec. 22, 1530. 
The inscription under his portrait which, according to Thausing (II, 
p. 244), Pirkheimer himself dictated to Diirer, may be rendered as fol- 
lows: "The mind endures; the rest is death's." As usual, Diirer 
could not withstand the temptation to show the reflections of Uie win- 
dows in the eyes. 

loi. Philip Melanchthon. — B 105; H 1056; R 
265. — Monogram ; dated 1526. 
Good impression. Gray Coll. 

Melanchthon, the colleague of Luther in the work of the reforma- 
tion, celebrated for his learning as " Pneceptor Germaniae," was born 
Feb. 16, 1497, ^^^ ^^^^ April 19, 1560. The inscription under the 
portrait says that " Diirer could depict the features of the living Philip, 
but the skilled hand could not depict h\^ mind." The trick of the 
window reflections in the eyes verges upon the ridiculous in this case, 
as the indication of clouds in the background shows that Melanchthon 
is supposed to be standing in the open air. Nevertheless the portrait 
hardly deserves the unmeasured condemnation of Mr. Ruskin, who in 
his " Ariadne Florentina " (Lecture V) says that it is not like Melanch- 
thon, " nor like any other person in his senses, but like a madman look- 
ing at somebody who disputes his hobby." 

102. Erasmus of Rotterdam. — B 107; H 1047; 
R 266. — Monogram ; dated 1526. 

Fair impression. Watermark, Hausmann No. 11. Made 
margin ; rotten in upper right-hand corner and along left 
margin. Sewall Coll. 

Desiderius Erasmus, the most celebrated of the humanists north of 
the Alps, and in certain ways a pioneer of the reformation, was born 
at Rotterdam on Oct. 28^ 1467, and died at Basel on July 12, 1536. 
Diirer met him and drew his portrait several times in the Netherlands 
(1520-21; see one of these drawings in Ephrussi, p. 277), and it was 
to him that he addressed in his diary the fervent words of entreaty to 
take up Luther's work, upon the receipt of the news that the latter had 
been kidnapped. The inscription on the print distinctly informs us 
that it was " drawn from the life by Albert Diirer." Nevertheless, it 
must have been engraved from the drawings made in the Netherlands 
five years ago, and this may in part explain the small satisfaction given 
by this portrait to Erasmus himself as well as to others. " Technically 

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as an engraving," says Thausing (2d Genn. ed., II, p. 268), " the por- 
trait of Erasmus * which his writings show better ' [the words of the 
Greek phrase in the inscription], is as superior to that of Melanchthon, 
as it is inferior to it in truthfulness, fidelity, and sentiment. Erasmus 
was polite enough, upon the receipt of the picture, to excuse its short- 
comings by remarking that he himself had changed in the intervening 
five years." Mr. Ruskin's opinion may be found in the " Ariadne Flor- 
eatina," Lecture V. This portrait was possibly the last of Durer's en- 
gravings on copper, the only other works of the kind, dated 15 26, being 
the Melanchthon, No. loi, and the apostle Philip, No. 80 of this cata- 



103. The Great Courier. — B 81 j H 1098; R 
Appendix 5. 

Modern copy by A. Petrak. Sewall Coll^ 

Called "The Great Courier," to distinguish it from "The Little 
Courier" (No. 9 of this catalo^e). Generally supposed to be one 
of Durer's earliest plates by those who accept it. Of the original 
only two impressions are known. If as Bartsch says, the execution is 
absolutely like that of " The Ravisher " (No. i of this catalogue), the 
copy cannot be exact, and Thausing states, indeed, that there is no gooa 

104. The Virgin at the Gate, — B 45 ; H 2283 ; R 
Appendix 2. 

Impression from the worn plate. Sewall Coll. 

" This engraving is a clumsy compilation of fragments taken from 
various engravings and woodcuts of Durer's, as has been thoroughly 
and convincingly proved by Mr. G. W. Reid (Fine Arts Quarterly, 
1866, N. S., I, 401). The figure of God the Father at the top is bor- 
rowed from Ae woodcut, *The Repose in Egypt,' B 90 [No. 171 of this 
catalogue] ; the groups of angels and the clouds from * The Assump- 
tion,' B 94 [No. 175]; the buildings in the background on the right 
and the doors from * Christ's Farewell to His Mother,' B 92 [No. 1 73]; 
the trunk of the tree and the fence on the left from the same source; 
and the large plants in the right foreground from the engraving called 
* The Promenade ' [No. 18]." (Thausing, II, p. 78, note.) The figure 
of the Virgin herself, according to the same author, is taken from the 

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titlepage of "The Apocalypoe " (No. 129). The forger, again accord- 
ing to Thausing, was Egidius Sadeler, while Passavant thinks it was 

105. The Trinity. — B 27 ; H.1651 ; R Appendix i. 
Impression from the worn plate. Stufall Coll, 

Bad reduced and reversed copy, probably by an Italian, of the wood- 
cut B 122 (No. 228 of this catalogue). 

106. St. Jerome in Penance. — B 62 ; H 782 ; R 
Appendix 3. 

Modem copy by A. Petrak. Sewall Coll. 

The original is a niello, from which only five impressions are known. 
Bartsch, Heller, and Passavant accept it, Hausmann doubts it, Retberg 
and Thausing think it is from a design by Dilrer. 

107. The Judgment of Paris. — B 65; H 793; R 
Appendix 4. 

Modem copy by A. Petrak. Sewall Coll. 

The original is a niello, from which only one impression is known. 
Accepted by Bartsch, Heller, Passavant, and Hausmann. Rejected by 
Retberg and Thausing. The subject is also in doubt. See Passavant, 
III, p. 153. 

108. Joachim Patenier. — B 108; H 2512; R Ap- 
pendix 6. 

Facsimile in heliogravure. Sewall ColL 

This portrait is of especial interest as it represents Joachim Patenier, 
or de Patenier or Patinir (died 1524), "the good landscape painter," 
as Dilrer calls him, with whom he became quite intimate, and whose 
wedding he attended during his sojourn in the Netherlands. He drew 
his likeness several times, and aldiough the original from which this 
engraving was done does not now seem to be in existence, it is gener- 
ally accepted as a fact that it is based upon a drawing by Durer. 
Thausing attributes the plate to Egidius Sadeler, Passavant to Corne- 
lius Cort. Patenier is called the father of landscape art in the Nether- 
lands, and according to Thausing (II, p. 202), the term " landscape 
painter " as applied to him by Durer, here appears for the first time in 

109. The Great Crucifixion in Outline. — P 109; 
H2250; R253. 

Facsimile in heliogravure. Sewall Coll. 

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Accepted by Retberg and Passavant; rejected by Heller and Thatt« 
sing (II, p. 266); unknown to Bartsch. Ephrussi (p. 318 et seq^ 
argues in favor of the genuineness of the engraving, because there are in 
existence quite a number of sketches and studies by Durer upon which 
it is based. Jaro Springer (Jahrbuch, VIII, p. 59), on the contrary, 
finds in this same fact conclusive evidence against it, because DQrer 
habitually made detail studies for those of his engravings only, the 
subjects of which interested him theoretically, — the horse, for in- 
stance, in *' The Knight, Death, and the Devil," the human body in 
" Adam and Eve/* Wessely (Repert. VI, p. 57) quotes an entry in 
Paul Behaim's ms. catalogue of 161 8, in which the print is already 
spoken of not as by, but after Dflrer. 



110. The Men's Bath. — B 128; H 1897; R 18.— 

Fine impression. Watermark, the large imperial globe, 
Hausmann No. 24. Crray ColU 

Heller, 1486-1505; Retberg, about 1496; Thausixig, 1496, on the 
strength of a drawing by Diirer, ** The Women's Bath/' which is dated 

111. The Holy Family with the Rabbits. — B 
102 ; H 1815 ; R 26. — Monogram. 

Fair impression, mended through the middle. Water- 
mark similar to Hausmann No. 49. Sewall Coll. 

** The most remarkable of Diirer*s early engravings on wood," ac- 
cording to Thausing (I, p. 264), "grand in £e antique character of 
its conception, and in the simple modelling of the figures. The full- 
formed bodies, the^ delicate oval face of the Virgin, reminding us of 
Schongauer, the charming Infant Christ, standing with one litde foot 
upon the other, and the two cherubs floating above with the crown, 
which display a truly Italian, not to say Florentine, grace, all seem to 
reflect in this one composition the most varied impressions of his 
travels." Heller, 1486-1505; Retberg, about 1497. See also remarks 
under No. 123. 

112. Samson Killing the Lion. — B 2; H 1102; 
R 23. — Monogram. 

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Late impression ? Watermark not given by Hausmann. 

Sewall Coll. 

Thausing (I, p. 265, note) suggests that possibly Durer intended 
here to represent, not Samson, but Hercules lulling the Nemean lion. 
Heller, i486- 1505; Retberg, about 1497. 

113. Hercules. — B 127; H 1893; R 24. — Mono- 

Very good impression. Watermark, crowned serpent, 
Hausmann No. 47. Sewall Coll. 

Durer's woodcuts do not offer as many riddles as his engravings on 
metal, but this one feirly rivals the latter, in its enigmatical character, 
and no explanation of its subject has as yet been offered. As to the 
title, there can be no doubt, since it is given upon the print itself. 
Note the affinity with the ** Hercules " among the copperplates, No. 24 
of this catalogue. Heller, 1486-1505; Retl^rg, about 1497. 

114. The Knight and the Footsoldier. — B 131; 
H 1895 ; R 25. — Monogram. 

Good later impression with some few breaks in the lines. 
Watermark, similar to Hausmann No. 49. Sewall Coll. 

It has been suggested that this might be intended to form part of 
the previous cut, the knight and his follower going to the rescue of their 
brethren set upon by Hercules. But, as Thausing points out, the de- 
sign does not match along the respective margins, and so the one cannot 
be a continuation of the other.* Heller, 1 486-1 505; Retberg, about 

115. The Martyrdom of St. Catherine. — B 120; 
H 1883 ; R 22. — Monogram. 

Late impression, showing many worm holes and breaks. 

Sewall Coll 

* Of the cuts No. zio, 1x3, ix^, zx4^and 1x6 there exist rare impressions without 
the monogram. In his first edition, Thausing assumed that these were early proofs 
and that the monogram had been inserted later. In his second German eaition he 
declares them to be independent versions, and certainly proves this (I, p. 871) in the 
case of one of them, the " Hercules." He also states that in these proofs without 
monogram the " Hercules " and ** The Knight and the Footsoldier " fit together. In 
pursuance of his Wolgemut theory, he furthermore claims that the unsigned versions 
are earlier and were made for Wolgemut or in his shop, while the signed cuts are ■ 
later repetitions, made by or for Durer after he had established a siKrp of his own. 
In this second edition he also accepts as a genuine Diirer an until lateW undescribed 
cut after ''The Women's Bath" (see No. xio), but forgets to state that Ephrussi, 
whom, in his preface, he accuses of plagiarism, had come to the same conclusion before 
him (see Ephrussi, ''Albert Diirer et ses dessins," p. 40). 

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"On the other hand/' says Thausing (I, p. 264), contrasting this cut 
with "The Holy Family with the Rabbits " (see No. iii), " the great 
' Martyrdom of St. Catherine/ besides its fantastic and confused arrange- 
ment, shows all the crude figure-drawing of the Apocalypse." — Heller, 
1486-1505; Retberg, about 1497. 

116. The Martyrdom of the Ten Thousand 
Saints. — B 117 ;*H 188 1; R 117. — Monogram. 

Somewhat defective impression, but before the worm 
holes. SewaU Coll. 

Heller, 1486-1505. Retberg attributes this cut to about 1507, evi« 
dently because Durer painted the same subject, but differently treated» 
for Frederic the Wise, in the year 1508, — a most uncritical proceeding, 
which does not give a high idea of R.'s judgment. 


117. Titlepage. — B 4; H mo; R 174. 

(a^ Late impression, after the block had been dam- 
aged by worms, etc. Text cut off. 

Sewall Coll. 
(b.) Modern copy, with the lettering. J. D, Lange. 

Neither monogram nor date, but done probably about 15 10. 

118. The Last Supper. — B 5; H 1113; R 175. — 
Monogram ; dated 1510. 

Fair impression, with Latin text on the back. 

Sewall CoH. 

119. The Agony in the Garden. — B6; H 11 18; 
R 176. — Monogram. 

Modern copy. J. D, Lange. 

120. Christ Taken by the Jews. — B 7; H 1120; 
R 177. — Monogram; dated 1510. 

Late impression without text, lower right-hand corner 
mended. Watermark, a shield with letters over it, not 
described by Hausmann. Sewall Coll, 

To the technically-minded, the evidence of a large square plug in- 
serted in the lower part of the cut, will be of interest. 

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lai. The Flagellation. — B8 ; H 1122; R 178. — 
Good impression with Latin text on the back. 

Sewall Coll. 
The drawing of this design is very archaic. 

1^2. Christ Presented to the People. — B 9; H 
1124; R 179. — Monogram. 
Modern copy. J. D, Lange. 

. 123. Christ Carrying the Cross. — B 10 ; Hi 127 ; 

R 180. — Monogram. 

Fair impression, with Latin text on the back. 

Sewall Coll^ 

The monogram, with an A very much contracted towards the top, is 
the oldest looking of all those that occur on Durer*s woodcuts, with 
the exception, perhaps, of that on "The Bath" (No. no), and might 
almost lead one to believe that this must be his earliest work of the 
kind. It certainly is very early. See the remarks about the character 
of the design, under No. 128. 

124. The Crucifixion. — B 11; H 1129; ^ 181. — 

Good impression, with Latin text on the back. Mounted. 

Sewall Coll. 

Judging from the monogram, this design is one of the later ones in 
the series. 

125. The Lament over the Body of Christ. — 
B 13; H 1 134; R 182. — Monogram. 

Modern copy. J, D. Lange. 

126. The Entombment. - B 12; H 1137; R 183. 
— Monogram. 

Modern copy. J. D. Lange. 

127. The Descent into Limbo. — B 14; H 1131; 
R 184. — Monogram ; dated 1510. 

Late impression without text, mended and mounted. 

Sewall Coll 

Prof. Colvin (Portfolio, 1887) tries to show that the demons in this 
design were inspired by Mantegna. 

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128. The Resurrection. — B 15; H 1140; R 185. 
— Monogram ; dated 1510. 
Modern copy. J, D. Lange, 

The designs for " The Great Passion " are attributed by Heller to 
1 507-1 1; by Retberg to 151 1, because four of the designs are dated 
1 5 10, and Dilrer did not publish the completed series before 1511* 
lliausing points out that the character of most of the undated designs 
shows them to be much earlier than 15 10, and he therefore assigns them 
broadly to about 1500, "soon after the Apocalypse." The whole series 
has here been placed before " The Apocalypse," because some of the 
designs seem to bear evidence that they are at least as early, if not 
earlier. If, with Thausing, we date " The Holy Family with the Three 
Rabbits" (No. 1 11) before "The Apocalypse," it will be necessary to 
assign a similar position to "Christ Bearing the Cross" (No. 123) of 
"The Great Passion." The character of the monogram has already 
been alluded to, and the similarity in feeling of the design with " The 
Holy Family with the Three Hares " is indicated by Thausing, when 
he says (I, p. 325) : " The Bearing of the Cross is perhaps the most 
remarkable composition of the whole series. In it Diirer was the first 
to adopt from Schongauer^s large engraving the motive of Christ sink- 
ing on his knees." (See his remarks about " The Holy Family with the 
Three Rabbity" No. 1 11.) It is quite true, indeed, that this is one of 
the finest designs, not only of "The Great Passion," but of all of 
Diirer*s works put forth in the shape of prints, and in the nobility of 
the faces, especially of Christ and of some of the women, it goes 
beyond almost anything that he did later. It shares this peculiarity of 
face-type not only with "The Holy Family with the Three Hares," 
but also with several of his earlier engravings on metal, " The Holy Fam- 
ily with the Dragonfly " (No. 2), for instance. The influence of Schon- 
gauer seems to be upon the young artist here, but the delicacy and 
over-elegance of the former become more virile under the hands of 
the latter. In later years Diirer abandons Schongauer's oval tjrpe of 
face, and adopts a much rounder and less graceful form. Compare, 
for instance, the faces of the two women standing to the left in the 
" Bearing the Cross," with the female heads of Schongauer on the one 
hand, and on theT other with the heads of the Virgins by Durer in Nos. 
87, 95, etc. Concerning the several editions of " The Great Passion," 
see Heller, Retberg, and Hausmann. The Latin poems which are 
printed on the backs of the cuts in the edition of 15 11 were written by 
a friend of Durer*s, the Benedictine monk Chelidonius, who called 
himself Musophilos. Diirer frequently mentions the series in his 
Netherlands Diary, and records sales at the rate of four sets for one 
florin, or single sets at half a florin. There is a complete set in Mr. 
Sewall's collection, but, being bound, it could not be shown in detail. 
The modem copies used to piece out Mr. Sewall's second, incomplete 
set, kindly lent by Mr. J. D. Lange, of New York, are from the " Diirer 
Album," edited by W. von Kaulbach and A. Kreling. 

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129. Titlepagc— B 60; H 1652 ; R 27. 

Fine impression with Latin text on the back. Water- 
mark, Hausmann, No. 27. Gray Coil. 

The first edition of "The Apocalypse" was published in 1498, but 
this title appeared for the first time with the edition of 151 1. 

130. The Martyrdom of St. John the Evangelist. 
— B61; H1656; R 28. — Monogram. 

Very fine impression, without breaks in the lines, and 
without text on the back. Watermark, Hausmann No. 
24. Gray CoU. 

This design, which has no direct connection with the Apocalypse, 
serves as a sort of introduction to the series. Thausing (2d Germ, 
ed., I, p. 252) : "The isolated but distinct resemblance to the Renais- 
sance' architecture of Venice in the building seen near to and behind 
the brocade pattern on the back of the throne, and which is probably 
intended to represent the palace of the heathen emperor [Domitian], 
is worthy of remark." 

131. The Calling of St. John. — B 62; H 1658; 
R 29. ^— Monogram. 

Fair impression, with Latin text on the back. Water- 
mark, Hausmann No. 27. Gray Coll. 
Rev. I, 10 et seq. 

132. St. John is directed towards Heaven. — B 
63 ; H 1660 ; R 30. — Monogram. 

Fair impression with Latin text on the back. Sewall Coll. 

Rev. IV and V. 

133. The Four Riders of the Apocalypse. — B 
64; H 1664; R 31.— Monogram. 

Good impression, with Latin text of the second edition 
on the back. Sewall Coll. 

Rev. VI, 1-8. Note the resemblance of the face of Death on the 
Pale Horse to that of the demoniacal man in " The Ravisher " (No. I 
of this catalogue). 

134. The Breaking of the Fifth and Sixth Seals. 
— . B 65 J H 1666 ; R 32. — Monogram. 


by Google 


Good impression with Latin text on the back. Gray Coll. 
Rev. VI, 9-17. 

135. The Four Angels who hold the Winds, and 
the Sealing of the 144,000 Saints.— B 66; H 1668; 
R 33. — Monogram. 

Good impression on browned paper, with Latin text on 
the back. Tom and mounted. Seivall Coll, 

Rev. VII, 1-4. 

136. The Distribution of the Trumpets to the 
Seven Angels, and the Plagues caused by the first 
five of them. — B 68 ; H 167 1 \ R 35. — Monogram. 

Fair impression with Latin text on the back. Gray ColL 

Rev. VIII; and IX, I--I2. The cry of the eagle is "Woe, woe, 

137. The Effects of the Sixth Trumpet: The 
Unloosing of the Angels of the Euphrates. — B 69; 
H 1673 ; R 36. — Monogram. 

Fine impression, with Latin text on the back. Water- 
mark, Hausmann No. 28. Gray Coll. 

Rev. XI, 13 €t seq, 

138. St. John Commanded to Swallow the Book. 

— B70; H 1675; R 37. — Monogram. 

Fine impression, with Latin text on the back, but dam- 
aged in the upper part of the large tree. Watermark, 
Hausmann No. 27. Gray Coll. 

Rev. X, I- 10. 

139. The Woman Clothed with the Sun, and 
the Seven-Headed Dragon. — B71; H 1678; R 38. 

— Monogram. 

Fine impression, with Latin text on the back. Water- 
mark, Hausmann No. 28 ? Gray Coll. 

Rev. XII, 1-6, 14. 

140. The Combat of the Archangel Michael 

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with Satan and his Dragons. — B 72 ; H 1681 ; R 39. 
— Monogram. 

Fine impression, with Latin text on the back. 

Gray CoIL 

Rev. Xlly 7 et seq, Thausing conjectures, from the archaic charac- 
ter of the drawing in this design, that it may be the earliest of the 

141. The Worship of the Two Monsters, and 
the Son of Man. — B 74 ; H 1683 ; R 40. — Monogram. 

Fine impression, with Latin text on the back. Water- 
mark, Hausmann No. 28. Gray Colh 
Rev. XIII; XIV, 14 ^/ j^rj?. 

142. The Triumph of the Elect. — B 67 ; H 1685 ; 
R 34. — Monogram. 

Good impression on browned paper, with Latin text on 
the back. Sewall Coli. 

Rev. XIV, I, 3; VII, 9 et seq, ; XIX, 10. 

143. The Destruction of the Babylonish Pros- 
titute. — B 73; H 1687 ; R 41. — Monogram. 

Fine impression, with Latin text on the back. 

Gray Coll. 

Rev. XVII, 4; XVIII, 2, 6, 16, 21; XIX, 11 etseq, 

144. The Imprisonment of the Dragon, and the 
New Jerusalem. — B 75 ; H 1689 ; R 42. — Monogram. 

Fine impression on browned paper, slightly torn, and 
mounted. Sewall Coll. 

Rev. XX, I, 2; XXI, 2. 

The titles here given are those indicated by Thausing (in the text of 
the English edition), and he has also been followed in the order of the 
subjects and the references to the Bible. For the same author's analy- 
sis, the student is referred to his work on Diirer (II, pp. 245-259). One 
passage, however, must be cited here, to show how intimately these 
compositions were connected with the life of the time, and that they 
were not merely fantastic conceptions, inspired by a mystical turn in 
Diirer's mind, or by a hankering after the enigmatical or the terrible, 
which the Apocalypse is well fitted to satisfy. " When Durer drew the 
woman upon the seven-headed beast," says Thausing, speaking of the 
cut No. 143, "... he was not thinking, like the writer of the Revela- 

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tion, of the old city upon the seven hills, but of the papal Rome of his 
own days. And, this being the case, it is easy to understand that the 
Apocalyptic text would have all the ring of a revolutionary hymn, and 
XhaX Durer's illustrations of it would at that time flash like lightning in 
a storm upon the minds of men." We have, therefore, in these de- 
signs not only most interesting documents in the history of art in 
general and of wood engraving in particular, but we have in them also 
a most important party pamphlet which helped to inaugurate the pe- 
riod of the Reformation. The curious fact that, while Diirer was at 
work upon these somber compositions, which he destined to be mul- 
tiplied by the woodcut, he was diligently engaged also in studies of 
the nude, and engraved on copper such subjects as the " Four Naked 
Women" (No. 21) and "The Dream" (No. 22), has already been 
pointed out (Introduction, p. xi). The claim advanced for DQrer by 
Thausing (I, p. 252) that, " in opposition to the conventional idea," he 
was the first to represent the destroying angels of the Apocalypse " as 
aged and gaunt, though beardless men," thus aptly distinguishing them 
at once " from the childlike and feminine forms usually given to the 
heavenly messengers of good tidings," is challenged by Thode (Jahrb., 
Ill, p. 115), who refers to the illustrations of the Koberger Bible of 
1483 as the source of many of Durer's ideas. Thode's extreme posi- 
tion is, however, modified by Frimmel, who, while he allows that men- 
angels were known in art before the time of Durer, yet defends the 
latter's compositions as thoroughly original. The general influence of 
Mantegna perceptible in the designs, is pointed out by both Frimmel 
and Prof. Colvin. The " Apocalypse " was first issued by Diirer, with 
the text of the Bible in German as well as in Latin, in 1498. A later 
Latin edition, for which the titlepage, No. 129, was engraved, appeared 
in 1511. The preface and text of the German edition are taken from 
the Bible of Koberger, above referred to. Concerning the several 
editions, see Heller, Retberg, and Hausmann. The " Apocalypse " is 
quite frequently mentioned among the sales and gifts recorded in 
Durer's Netherlands Diary. Price, four sets for one florin. 

145. Celtes presenting his Edition of Roswitha 
to Frederic the Wise. — P 277* ; H 2088. 
Modern phototypic reproduction. 

At the beginning of the 16. century there appeared in Nuremberg a 
number of books, — RevelaHones Sancta Brigitta, 1500 (see No. 266), 
Opera Roswitha, iSOi» edited by Celtes, Quatuor Ltbri Amorum^ 
1502, by Celtes, and Ligurini de GesHs Friderici etc., 1507, edited by 
Celtes, — the woodcuts in which have been attributed, at least in part, 
to Diirer, by some, while others reject them. Thausing will allow only 
a few of the cuts in the last-named two works to be by Durer. Wust- 
mann (Zeitsch. f. b. K., XXII, pp. 192-196) endeavors to show that 
the cut here exhibited is from a design by Durer, and that he has rep- 
resented himself in it, in the young man with flowing locks, while the 

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two other figures in the background are Wolgemut, Diirer's teacher 
(the old man with the crutch), who also furnished some of the illustra- 
tions, and Koberger, the printer of the book and Diirer's godfather (the 
bearded man in the background). The rudeness of the cut may be 
explained on the supposition that Durer himself did not supervise its 
execution, but merely furnished the design, and left it to the publisher 
to have it engraved. As none of the cuts of this group admitted by 
Thausing and others were attainable for the present exhibition, it was 
thought desirable to show at least this reproduction, as a reminder of 
DQrer's early connection with the literary and scientific men of his time, 
such as Hartmann Schedel, Celtes, Stabius, Pirkheimer, etc., which was 
to last through his life. (In his second edition Thausing again emphat- 
ically rejects this cut, I, p. 278, note 4.) 

146. St. Christopher with the Birds in the Air. 

— B 104 ; H 1823 ; R 56. — Monogram on tablet. 

Old impression, from the block in good condition, but 
overcharged with ink. Sewall Coll. 

Thausing (I, pp. 297-8) points out, that after the completion of the 
two large woodcut series, "The Apocalypse" and "The Great Pas- 
sion," Diirer published a number of smaller cuts, mostly of saints, singly 
or in groups, of inferior quality and intended merely to meet the re- 
quirements of the market at church festivals and pilgrimages. The 
date of these cuts, he says, cannot be placed much before 1504, and 
they obviously belong to a time when Durer*s interest in the woodcut 
had somewhat abated and he gave more attention to engraving on 
metal and to painting. He also calls attention to a passage in the 
Netherlands Diary, in which Durer speaks of some of his works as 
" bad woodcuts," and conjectures that the cuts now under considera- 
tion are the ones thus alluded to. Among these " bad woodcuts " he 
includes the "St. Christopher with the Birds." Heller, 1486-1505; 
Retberg, about 1504. 

147. St. Francis receiving the Stigmata. — B 
no ; H 1829 ; R 57. — Monogram on tablet. 

Fine impression ; the text in lower margin cut off. 

Gray Coll. 

Presumably one of the " bad woodcuts." (See No. 146.) The text 
originally printed under the cut, " The wounds which for the sake of 
Christ, o Franciscus, thou borest, may they be, I pray, the medicine of 
our ills," shows that it was an ordinary devotional image. Retberg, 
about 1504; Heller, 15 12-17. 

148. St. Onuphrius and St. John the Baptist. — 
B 112; H 1869; ^ 5^' — Monogram on a tablet. 

Good impression. Sewall Coll. 

^ Digitized byCaOOQlC 


Presumably one of the "bad woodcuts" (see No. 146). Gener- 
ally called, but erroneously, as Thausing has shown, "St. John the 
Baptist and St. Jerome." Retberg, about 1504; Heller, 1512-17. 

149. St. Paul and St. Anthony. — B 107 ; H 1867 ; 
R 59. — Monogram. 

Fine, vigorous impression. A narrow strip along the 
right-hand margin has been cut off, but very skilfully put 
on again. Scivall ColL 

Called also "The Hermits," and "Elijah fed by the Raven," but 
erroneously. The St. Paul represented is, of course, the hermit, not 
the s^stle. Presumably one of the " bad woodcuts" (see No. 146). 

150. St. George Killing the Dragon. — B iii; H 
1832 ; R 86. — Monogram. 

Late, but good impression ; torn but skilfully mended. 

Sewall Collm 

There is something queer about this cut, which gives it a distinctive 
character. See Thausing's remarks, I, p. 297, which, however, do not 
explain the anomaly. Presumably one of the " bad woodcuts " (see 
No. 146). Retberg, about 1505; Heller, 1 507-11. 

151. St. Mary of Egypt borne to Heaven. — B 

X2I ; H 1885 5 R 60. — Monogram on a tablet. 

Good impression ; paper somewhat spotted. Sewall ColL 

Called also '*The Ascension of the Magdalen." Although this 
seems to belong to the time of the " bad woodcuts " (see No. 146), it 
is, nevertheless, one of the most attractive of DUrer's works of the 
kind. (See Thausing, I, pp. 307-8.) Retberg, about 1504; Heller, 
1 5 12-17. 

152. The Holy Family with Five Angels. — B 
99 ; H 199 1 ; R 89. — Monogram on a tablet. 

Muddy impression, mended. Sewall Coll, 

Presumably one of the "bad woodcuts" (see No. 146). Retberg, 
before 1506; doubted by Heller. 

153. The Holy Family in a Vaulted Room. — 
B 100; H 1806; R 61. — Monogram on a piece of paper. 

Fine impression, on bulPs head paper, apparently Haus* 
mann No. i, but nevertheless with the white spot to the 
right of the small figure of Adam in the left spandrel. 

Sewall Odl. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


Presumably one of the "bad woodcuts" (see No. 146). HeUer, 
1486-1505; Retberg, about 1504. 

154. Calvary. — B 59; H 1640; R 62. — Monogram 
on a tablet 

Early impression, judging by the nail in the hand of the 
good thief. Sewall Coll. 

Not mentioned by Thausing. See a composition sketch in Ephrussi, 
p. loi. Heller, 1486-1505; Retberg, about 1504. 

155. St. Stephen, St. Gregory, and St. Law- 
rence. — B 108; H1876; R 123. — Monogrom on a tab- 

Fine impression. Sewall Coll. 

Presumably one of the "bad woodcuts" (see No. 146). Retberg, 
" about 1508; Heller, 1512-17. 

156. St Nicolas, St. Udalric, and St. Erasmus. 

B 118; H 1874; R 122. — Monogram on a tablet. 

Fine old impression ; the comers mended. Watermark, 
buirs head, Hausmann No. i» Sewall Coll. 

Generally known as " The Three Standing Bishops." Presumably 
one of the "bad woodcuts" (see No. 146). Retberg, about 1508; 
Heller, 15 12-17. 


157. Titlepage. — B 76 ; H 1692; R 63.— Without 
either monogram or date. 

Fine impression with the text. Sewall Coll. 

Sallett insists that the short strokes seen to the right and left of the 
Virgin indicate " the curled hair and the unshaven chin " of the " man 
in the moon." But they seem rather to stand for a fur robe. The 
** man in the moon " appeared for the last time under the feet of the 
Virgin of 1508 (No. 59 of this catalogue). 

158. The Highpriest Rejecting Joachim's Offer- 
' ing. — B 77 ; H 1694; R 64.— Monogram on a tablet 

Good later impression, showing breaks in the border 

line, without text on the back. Watermark, Hausmann 

• No, 42. Sewall Coll. 

Digitized by LaOOQlC 


159. The Angel Appearing to Joachim. — B 
78; H 1698; R 65. — Monogram on a tablet 

Good impression, without text on the back. Sewall ColL 

160. Joachim and Anna embracing under the 
Golden Gate. — B79; H 1703; R 66. — Monogram on 
a tablet ; dated 1504. 

Fair impression, without text on the back. Watermark 
indistinct, but certainly not given by Hausmann. 

Sewall Colh 

i6x. The Birth of the Virgin. — B 80; H 1709; 
R 67, — Monogram on a tablet. 

Good (late ?) impression, without text on the back. 

Sewall Coll 

162. The Presentation of the Virgin in the 
Temple. — B 81; H 1715; R 68. — Monogram on a 

Good (late ?) impression, without text on the back ; dam- 
aged in upper left-hand corner. Sewall Coll. 

163. The Marriage of the Virgin and Joseph. 

— B82 ; H 1720; R 69. — Monogram on a tablet 
Good (late ?) impression, without text on the back. 

Sewall Colh 

164. The Annunciation. — B 83; H 1725; R 70. 

— Monogram on a tablet. 

Fair impression, without text on the back. Sewall Colh 

165. The Meeting of Mary and Elisabeth. — B 
84 ; H 1730 ; R 71. — Monogram on a tablet. 

Good (late ?) impression, without text on the back. 
Watermark, a small coat-of-arms not figured by Haus- 
mann. Sewall Colh 

166. The Nativity. — B 85 ; H 1738 ; R 72. — Mon- 

Fair (late?) impression, without text on the back« 
Watermark, Hausmann No. 45 ? Sewall Colh 

Digitized by LaOOQlC 


167. The Circumcision. — B86 ; H 1745 ; R 73. — 
Monogram on a tablet. 

Good (late?) impression, without text on the back. 
Small watermark not given by Hausmann. Sewall ColL 

168. The Adoration by the Magi. — B 87; H 
1754 ; R 74. ^- Monogram. 

Good (late?) impression, without text on the back. 
Same watermark as No. 167. Savall ColL 

169. The Presentation in the Temple. — 388; H 
1759 ; R 75. — Monogram on a tablet. 

Heavy, black impression, without text on the back. 
Watermark, the crown, Hausmann No. 21. Sewall ColL 

170. The Flight into Egypt. — B 89; H 1764; R 
76. — Monogram on a tablet. 

Mediocre (late ?) impression, without text on the back. 
Watermark, similar to Hausmann No. 46, but more regu- 
lar. Sewall ColL 

Reminiscences of Schongauer's engraving of the same subject are 
very clearly apparent in this design. 

171. The Repose in Egypt. — B 90; H 1770; R 
77. — Monogram on a tablet. 

Fair (late.?) impression, without text on the back. 
Watermark, similar to Hausmann No. 89. Sewall ColL 

172. Christ Among the Doctors. — B91 ; H 1775 ; 
R 78. — Monogram on a tablet. 

Very mediocre (late?) impression, without text on the 
back. Seivall ColL 

173. Christ Taking Leave of his Mother. — B 92 ; 
H^J78i ; R 79. — Monogram on a tablet. 

Meditim (late?) impression, without text on the back. 
Watermark, an escutcheon not given by Hausmann. 

Sewall ColL 

1174. The Death of the Virgin. — B93; H 1787; 
R 80. — Monogram; dated 1510. 

Digitized by LaOOQlC 


Good, but very black impression, without text on the 
back. Watermark, bull's head, Hausmann No. 2. 

Sewall Coll. 

175. The Assumption and Crowning of the 
Virgin. — B 94; H 1793; ^ ^^* — Monogram; dated 
1510. - 

Good (late?) impression, without text on the back. 
Watermark, crown, Hausmann No. 4. Sewall ColL 

176. The Adoration of the Virgin. — B 95; H 
1797 > R ^2. — Monogram. 

• Fine impression, without text on the back. Watermark, 
crown, Hausmann No. 4. Sewall ColL 

The " Life of the Virgin," or "of our Lady," as the artist himself 
calls it, is to-day the most admired of all the woodcut works of DCirer, 
and enjoyed a similar popularity already in his own time. In his 
Diary it is mentioned oftenest, next to the " SmaU Passion on Wood," 
but he nevertheless sold it at the same price as the " Apocalypse " and 
" The Great Passion," at the rate, namely, of four sets for one florin* 
The designs, with the exception of the few that are dated (No. i60| 
1504; 175 and 176, 1 5 10), and perhaps of the last and of the title- 
page, must have been, not only drawn, but cut on wood and issued 
separately, in the years 1504 and 1505, although the complete edition, 
with Latin poems by Chelidonins, did not appear until 151 1. The 
proof of the statement just made is found In die fact that several of 
the copies by Marcantonio are dated 1506. It is evident, therefore, 
that some of the impressions still extant without text on the back are 
quite early, although the fact that an impression has no text is not con- 
clusive proof of earliness, as the blocks were again printed from after 
the edition of 151 1 had been issued. (See Retberg.) The execution 
of the cuts shows not only a great improvement as compared with that 
of the early sheets of " The Great Passion," but also with that of the 
"bad woodcuts" immediately preceding, "a proof," as Thausing 
remarks (I, p. 328), " that Durer was again turning increased attention 
to technical execution, which for some years he had neglected." 


177. The First Knot. — B 142; H 1926; R 108. 
Impression with the monogram. Watermark, a figure 
like an A in a circle. Sewall Coll, 

Digitized by LaOOQlC 


178. The Third Knot. — B 141 ; H 1929; R no. 
Impression with the monogram. Watermark, a cross 
in a rose within a circle. Sewall CoU. 

179- The Fifth Knot. — B 143 ; H 1931 ; R 112. 
Ta.) Impression without the monogram. Sewall Coll. 
Ip^ With the monogram, from the block damaged by 
worms. Watermark, a double headed eagle. 

Sewall Coll. 

180. The Sixth Knot. — B 145 ; H 1932 ; R 113. 
Impression without the monogram. Watermark, appar* 
ently the cardinal's hat Sewall Coll. 

The numbering of these " knots," of which there are six in all, is 
here given according to Heller and Retberg, who have changed the 
order of Bartsch for some reason that is not apparent. Called also 
•* Patterns for Embroidery," and " Labyrinths," but by Durer himself 
''The Knots." These cuts have given rise to considerable speculation 
concerning a possible connection of Durer with Leonardo da Vinci. 
" The very same patterns," says Thausing (I, p. 362), " are to be found 
in some old Italian copper engravings, but on a white ground, and 
bearing in the centre the curious inscription ' ACADEMIA LEONAROI 
VINCI.' Vasari knew of these strange pieces, which are the only ex- 
isting memorials of that mysterious learned society. [This is not strictly 
true, as at least one other engraving, the " Bust of a Young Woman," 
Publ. of the Intern. Chalc. Soc. for 1887, No. 7, bears a similar inscrip- 
tion.] That they must have been designed by one of the artists imme- 
diately about Leonardo at Milan is shown by their resemblance to the 
decorations of the vaulted ceiling of the sacristy of Santa Maria delle 
Grazie." Heller describes only one of these Italian engravings and 
calls it a copy of the first knot, presumably of the 1 7. century. Zahn 
(p. 50) holds it to be more likely that Dflrer copied " from the small 
engravings marked * Academia Leonardi da Vinci' ", than the reverse. 
The fact that these ^* knots" occur with and without Durer's monogram, 
and that this has evidently been inserted later, might appear to argue, 
at first sight, that it is a fraudulent addition and that DClrer had nothing 
at all to do with them. But this argument is upset by Diirer himself. 
He thought these cuts important enough to take them to the Nether- 
lands with him, and mentions them as follows in his Diary : ** I gave 
to master Dietrich, the glazier, an Apocalypse and the 6 knots." Most 
probably the " glazier " was a glass painter or stainer, and these orna- 
ments interested him professionally. See also a reference to this 
"knotty" question in Ephrussi, p. 126, where an article by the Marquis 
d' Adda, in the Gazette des Beaux-Arts, XVII, p. 434, is cited. The 
year 1507, that is to say the year of Diirer*s return from his second 
journey to Venice, is generally suggested as the probable date of tiiese 
cuts, in consequence of the supposed Leonardesque influences apparent 
in them. 


by Google 



B 16-52; H 1 142 etc.; R 129-165. 

181 • Titlepage. — Monogram. 

(a,) Impression from the original block, with Latin 
text on back. Watermark, crown, Haus- 
mann No. 21. Sewall ColL 

(b.) Copy, without text on back. Gray Coll. 

\c.) Copy, without text on back. Sewall ColL 

The lettering on the original, as here shown, is as follows : — Above 
the cut : P^usio Christi ab Alberto Durer Nu | renbergensi efHgiata cu 
varii generis carminibus Fratris Benedicti Chelidonii | Musophili (The 
Faauon of Christ figured by Albert Durer of Nuremberg, with poems 
of various kinds by Brother Benedict Chelidonius Musophilus). Below 
the cut four lines of verse by Chelidonius, a pathetic appeal to sinners, 
which may be translated : " O to me, the just one, the cause of so much 
pain, O to me the bloody cause of the cross and death, — O man, 
enough would it have been for me to suffer these once for you ! O 
cease to crucify me by new sins ! " Below these again there ought to 
be : Cum privUegio, but this has evidently been cut off. On the copy 
by there is only the title above the cut as follows : Figvrae pas- | sionis 
domini | nostri lesu Christi. The impression c is from the same block 
as by and the title, above the cut, is also the same as to words, but 
differently set up: Figurae | passionis domini | nostri lesu Christi. 
These various titles are here carefully noted, as the question of editions 
of " The Small Passion " seems to be still somewhat in doubt, and the 
lettering of the titles is given in all sorts of ways, and sometimes erro- 
neously, as for instance by Bartsch, who makes of the Frater Benedic- 
tus Chelidonius Musophilus, three persons, one of whom is St. Benedict : 
" cxan. varii generis carminibus Fratrum S. Benedicti, Chelidonii, Moso- 

182. Adam and Eve. — Monogram. 

183. The Expulsion from Paradise. — Monogram 
and date, 1510, on a tablet. 

184. The Annunciation. — Monogram. 

185. The Nativity. — Monogram ; the D reversed. 

186. Christ Taking Leave of his Mother. — Mon- 
ogram on a tablet. 

Digitized by LaOOQlC 


187. The Entry into Jerusalem. — Monogram ; 
the D reversed. 

188. Christ Clearing the Temple. — Monogram. 

189. The Last Supper. — Monogram. 

190. The Washing of the Feet. — Monogram on 
a tablet. 

191. The Agony in the Garden. — Monogram on 
a tablet. 

192. Christ Taken by the Jews. — Monogram. 

193. Christ before the Highpriest. — Monogram. 

194. Christ before Caiphas. — Monogram. 

195. The Mocking of Christ. — Monogram. 

196. Christ before Pilate. — Monogram. 

197. Christ before Herod. — Monogram and date, 
1509, on a tablet. 

198. The Flagellation. — Monogram. 

199. Christ Crowned with Thorns. — Monogram. 

200. Ecce Homo. — Monogram. 

201 . Christ Condemned. — Monogram. 

202. Christ Bearing the Cross. — Monogram and 
date, 1509, on a tablet. 

203. The Sudarium. — Monogram; dated 1510. 

204. Christ Nailed to the Cross. — Monogram. 

Digitized by LaOOQlC 


205. Christ Crucified. — Monogram. 

206. Christ in Limbo. — Monogram. 

207. The Deposition from the Cross. — Mono- 
gram on a tablet 

208. Christ Mourned. — Monogram. 

209. The Entombment. — Monogram on a piece of 

210. The Resurrection. — Monogram on a piece of 

211. Christ Appearing to his Mother. — Mono- 
gram ; D reversed. 

212. Christ appearing to Mary Magdalen in the 
Garden. — Monogram on a piece of paper. 

213. The Supper at Emmaus. — Monogram on a 
piece of paper. 

214. Christ in the Midst of the Disciples. — 


215. The Ascension. — Monogram on a tablet. 

216. The Descent of the Holy Ghost. — Mono- 

217. The Last Judgment. — Monogram on a tablet. 

Durer published this set of the Passion in 151 1, which was the great 
publishing year with him, for he then issued also " The Great Passion," 
"The Life of the Virgin," and the second Latin edition of "The 
Apocalypse." Only four of the cuts are dated: No. 183, 15 10; No. 
I97> 1509; No. 202, 1509, and No. 203, 15 10. The accompanying 
latin poems are, as has already been stated, by Chelidonius. Con- 
cerning the many editions and copies, see Heller, Retberg, and Haus- 
mann. The fine set here shown may possibly be of the first edition 

Digitized by LaOOQlC 


mentioned by Hausmann. Only one of the prints, No. 213, "The 
Supper at Emmaus," shows a watermark, apparently Hausmann's No. 
24^, but it may be also either No. 24 or No. 5. All without text on the 
back, except the title. Durer, according to his Diary, gave away and 
sold more copies of this series in the Netherlands than of any other of 
his works. Price, four sets for one florin. 

218. Death and the Soldier. — B 132 ; H 1901 ; 
R 171. — Monogram ; dated 1510. 

Late impression without Diirer's poem. Sewall Coll, 

Durer, being an ambitious man, aspired to be, not only an artist, but 
also a poet. So, as he himself informs us, he began to make rhymes 
in 1509. His learned friends Pirkheimer and Spengler, hgwever, ridi- 
culed him for his pains, but, nothing daunted, he went on rhyming for 
a while, and even published three of his pieces, each with a design by 
himself. The cut here shown was accompanied by a poem on death. 
The others were "Christ Crucified," B 55, also dated 15 10, with rhymes 
relating to the seven hours of prayer, and "The Schoolmaster," B 133, 
likewise of 15 10, with a poem on the philosophy of life. Durer's 
verses are hardly more than doggerel, but that is true of about all the 
so-called German poetry of his time. As to the matter contained in 
them, their dogmatic, homely, but true-hearted philistinism is in strange 
contrast with tibe love sonnets of Raphael and the passionate abstruse- 
ness of Michelangelo's poetry. (See lliausing, II, pp. 82-86.) 

219. The Penitent. — B 119; H 1866; R t68. — 
Monogram; dated 1510. 

Fine impression. Sewall Coll. 

220. The Beheading of St. John the Baptist. — 
B 125 \ H 1851 ; R 172. — Monogram; dated 1510. 

Good impression, before the block was damaged by 
worms. Sewall Coll, 

221. The Head of St. John delivered to Hero- 
dias. — B 126; H i860; R 173. — Monogram; dated 

Good impression ; lower corners mended. Sewall Coll. 

** Both gracefully treated cabinet pieces, but more like fashion plates 
than pictures of sacred subjects." Thausing, II, p. 73. 

222. The Adoration of the Magi. — B 3 ; H 1103 ; 
R 187. — Monogram; dated 1511. 

Digitized by LaOOQlC 


Late impression, with the crack through the beam 
extending through the border line. Watermark, double 
eagle with crown, apparently Hausmann No. 51. 

Sewall Coll, 

223. The Mass of St. Gregory. — B 123 ; H 1833 ; 
R 190. — Monogram; dated 1511. 

Good impression, rather- black. Watermark, Hausmann 
No. 25. Sewall Coll, 

224. St. Jerome in His Study. — B 114; H 1840; 
R 191. — Monogram; dated 1511. 

Fine early impression, with two slight black spots. 

Gray Coll. 

225. The Holy Family with the Jumping Child. 
— B96; H 1800; R 189. — Monogram; dated 151 1. 

Fine old impression. Sewall Coll. 

226. The Holy Family with the Lute. — B 97; 
H 1802 ; R 188. — No monogram ; dated 151 1. 

Good impression. Watermark, standing dog, but unlike 
any of those figured by Hausmann. Sewall Coll. 

Thausing is inclined to doubt these two Holy Families, No. 225 and 
226, and thinks that *' a weaker and less able hand is evidently respon- 
sible for " them (II, p. 74). There certainly is a something about diem 
which does not quite correspond with Diirer's other work, and No. 226 
especially has a suspicious look. The angel with the bagpipe, for in- 
stance, is very bad. (Concerning this bagpipe, see a curious sugges- 
tion, Allihn, pp. 88 and 89.) A similar character of workmanship, in 
the treatment and openness of the lines, is observable in No. 227. 
Note also that Nos. 226 and 227 are without monogram. 

227. St. Christopher. — B 103; H 1818; R 192. — 
No monogram; dated 1511. 

Fine old impression, a trifle spotted. Watermark, stand- 
ing dog. Sewall ColL 
Compare with No. 260. See remarks under No. 226. 

228. The Trinity. — B 122; H 1646; R 193.— 
Monogram and date, 151 1, on a large tablet. The mono- 
gram divides the date into two halves. 

Digitized by LaOOQlC 


Later impression, showing the parting; of the block down 
the middle; mended. Watermark, coat-of-arms with a 
lion rampant. Sewall CoU. 

So much has been written in praise of this cut (Thausing, II, p. 72), 
which in a very general way recalls the central group of ^e "All 
Saints" picture, also dated 151 1, that it is decidedly venturesome to 
say anything against it. It is true nevertheless, that a monogram sim- 
ikur in arrangement to the one on this cut, is not to be found on any 
other undoubted work of Durer, and that the lines have a sharp, 
scratchy character, especially in die lower part, which is foreign to 
Durer's work. It may be said, of course, that the worn impression here 
shown is not good enough evidence, but worn cuts become heavy, and 
not sharp and scratchy, and the modem copy in Kaulbach and Kre- 
ling's " Durer Album,'* presumably done from a good impression, shows 
the same peculiarity. The character of the head of the dead Christ, and 
the meaningless winds below, evidently introduced only as stop-gaps, 
also give rise to doubts. See the engraved, reversed, and reduced copy. 
No. 105 of this catalogue. Among several other copies mentioned by 
Heller, there is one by Martin Rota (No. 1648), which, besides Diirer*s 
monogram and the date 151 1, has also the date 1566. 

229. St. Jerome in the Grotto. — B 113; H 1845; 
R 197. — Monogram ; date in first state 1512. 

(tf.) Fine impression with date, and with text on the 

back. Sewall Coll. 

(b,) Heavy impression with date, but without text on 

the back. The lines begin to show breaks 

Sewall CoU. 
(c.) Late impression without date, and without text 
on the back. The lines much broken. 

Sewall Coll. 

Durer furnished this design for Lazarus Spengler's German transla- 
tion of Eusebius's "Life of St. Jerome," published in 15 14. Unless 
there should, indeed, exist two blocks of this same design, which is 
hardly likely, although not impossible (see Thausing, II, p. 215, note), 
there would seem to have been a great deal of unnecessary writing 
about this cut, caused by a lack of knowledge of, or insufficient atten- 
tion to, technical detail. It has been claimed, on the one hand, that 
the first state is without the date, on the other that the alleged second 
block differs from the first only by the lack of a certain line. The 
three impressions here exhibited make it evident that the one with the 
date is from the block when it was still in good condition; the second, 
still with the date, already shows breaks in the lines, and in the third, 
without date, the breaks have increased. The line, the lack of which 
is depended upon to establish the existence of a repetition, is, indeed, 
still to be seen, even in the latest of the impressions here shown,, but it 

Digitized by LaOOQlC 


might have broken down in the further course of deterioration. This 
unimportant question could only be decided by a comparison of au 
impression from the alleged second block with a progressive series 
like the one in this exhibition. 

230. The Pirkheimer Title. — H 1936; R 200; 
P. 205. — Neither monogram, nor date. 

Impression with the Lucian title of 1517. Sewall ColL 

This titlepage was used for three works of Dfirer's friend Pirkheimer, 
pubUshed respectively in 1 5 1 3, 1 5 1 6, and 1 5 1 7 . 


231. The Arch of Honor. — B 138; H 1915; R 
217. — Without monogram, but with Diirer's coat-of-arms ; 
dated 1515. 

(tf.) Modern photo-mechanical reproduction of the 
whole Arch, reduced in size. Gray Coll. 

{b ; 1-36.) Modern impressions, most of them from 
the original blocks. Gray Coll, 

(c\ 1-6.) Old impressions from six of the original 
» blocks. Gray Coll. 

232. Part of the Triumphal Procession. — R 
ii8; B under Hans Burgkmair 81. — Neither monogram, 
nor date. 

(a-x.) Modern impressions from the original blocks. 

Gray Coll. 

233. The Patron Saints of Austria. — B116; H 
1880 ; R 219. — Neither monogram, nor date. 

GkK)d impression with the two saints added on the right 
for the edition of 1517. Sewall ColL 

The " Arch of Honor " is of all the publications which the Emperor 
Maximilian ordained for the perpetuation of his own fame the largest 
and most ambitious. It consists of 190 blocks (according to the " Jahr- 
buch," although Thausing says only 92) of various sizes which together 
measure 3120 by 2900 mm. There is no doubt that Diirer sketched 
the whole composition, but the ideas were furnished to him by Maxi- 
milian's historiographer Stabius, prompted by the emperor himself, 
and in Ae execution he had the assistance of a number of younger 
artists. The d^te, 1515, inscribed on the bases of both the towers to 

Digitized by LaOOQlC 


tiie right and left, probably marks the completion of the drawing. 
Dflrer's coat-of-arms appears third among those figured in the lower 
right-hand comer, the first being that of Stabius, the second belonging 
to some person whose name and connection with the work have been 
forgotten. The general conception is that of a triumphal arch with 
three gateways, — an antique idea in the wild and bizarre garb of the 
early German, Ddreresque Renaissance. Above the middle gate, called 
the " Porch of Honor and Might," is the genealogical tree of Maxi- 
milian, reaching back to Troy, on either side of it the arms of the coun- 
tries ruled by the Habsburgs. The porch to the left is that of " Praise," 
the one to the right that of " Nobility," and above them are twenty-four 
historical representations, commemorating the deeds of the emperor 
in war, in politics, and in matrimony. To the left of and above the 
pictures over the left-hand porch are the predecessors of Maximilian as 
emperors and rulers of Italy, beginning with Julius Caesar; similarly on 
the right the princes connected with the Habsburgs by marriage. The 
two round towers on the flanks are decorated with scenes from the pri- 
vate life of Maximilian, and the whole is interwoven and bound 
together by ornaments of symbolical meaning. The explanatory text 
({dates 1-5) and the inscriptions are from the pen of Stabius. The 
principal assistants in executing the designs upon the blocks from 
Durer's sketches are supposed to have been Albert's brother Hans, in 
later years painter to the king of Poland, and Hans Springinklee. The 
sketches of heads, etc., reproduced on plate 36, are still to be seen on 
the back of one of the blocks, and are attributed to Hans Diirer. The 
cutting was done by Hieron)rmus Andrea (erroneously called Resch), 
or in his shc^. The triangular figure stamped on most of the blockS| 
and reproduced on plate 36, is interpreted as his trademark. MaximiU 
ian was not a favorite of fortune (Chmelarz. Jahrb. IV, p. 310), either 
in his political career or as regards his literary-artistic undertakings. 
Of all the works he planned, — Freydal, Theuerdanck, Weisskunig, 
Triumphal Procession, Arch of Honor, Genealogy and Saints of the 
J^ouse of Austria, — he lived to see only one, the Theuerdanck, finished, 
^n incomplete edition of the Arch, rather in the nature of a proof 
edition, was printed in 151 7; the first complete edition, still wanting 
however, the twenty-fourth historical representation (see plate 25), 
did not appear until about seven or eight years after Maximilian's 
death (1526 or 27). The first really complete edition appeared in 
IC59, at which time the date was inserted which appears to the right 
of ** Rudolf der streitpar" (plate 26). The twenty-fourth historical 
representation, relating to events which happened six years after Maxi- 
milian's death, was added at the same time, which accounts for its alto . 
gether different character. The impressions here shown are printed 
from the original blocks still preserved in Vienna, with the exception of 
twenty, which were lost, and which were therefore replaced by photo- 
t3rpic reproductions from old impressions. On plate 36 are printed 
also a number of corrected inscriptions, a warning to unauthorized 
capyiite, and the tide of the archduke Charles, intended for use in 
connection with the edition of 1559. 

Besides the editions of the Ardi as a whole, there are also several 


by Google 


old editions of the historical representations by themselves. Six im-^ 
pressions from one of these editions are shown under c 1-6. It wiU 
be noticed that one of these, ^ i, the representation of Maximilian aS 
archduke, with his bride, Mary of Burgundy, does not occur in the com* 
plete edition, its place being taken by a similar but different picture 
(see plate 20). The original block was lost, it seems, at a very early 
time, and a second block, c i, cut in its stead. Since then, howeveri 
tiie original has been found again. 

The " Triumphal Procession of Maximilian " was, on Bartsch's author* 
ity, ascribed in its entirety to Hans Burgkmair, who designed the greater 
part of it (according to the indications of the emperor and his private 
secretary, Marx Treitzsaurwein), until Thausing showed that some of 
the blocks were from drawings by Dtirer. llbte whole of the **Pro« 
cession,'* in the modem impressions from the original blocks published 
in Vienna some years ago, was exhibited in these rooms in 1886. Only 
those plates are now shown which were designed by Dtirer, in all 
twenty-four, to wit: Nos. 89 [135 of Bartsch's edition of 1796], 90 
[not in Bartsch's edition], 91-110 [89-108], 121 and 122 [130, 131]. 
The engravers of most of these cuts are known to usj as their n&mes 
were noted on the backs of the blocks at the time. Jerome AndreE 
cut Nos. 89, 91, 95, loi, 106, 107; Qaus Semftn (Saniit Germann?)* 
92; Wolfgang Resch, 93, 100; William Liefrinck, 94; Comelis Lie* 
frinck, 96, 102; Hans Franck, 97-99, 103, 105, 109; Jan de Bom^ 
104; Alexius Lindt, 121 ; Jost Necker, 122. 

The cut of the "Patron Saints of Austria" seems to have beeh 
intended for a larger public than the cosdy and extensive series, as 
Stabius wrote a Latin prayer, " Ad sanctos Austriae patronos etc." (cut 
off in the impression here shown), for the second edition* 


234. Horoscopes. — P 295-297. — The second dated 

(«.) Modem impression. (Jahrbuch, VII.) 

Gray Coll. 

(b,) Modern impression. (Jahrbuch, VII.) 

Gray Coll. 

235. Imagines Coeli. — B 150-152; H 1923-1925; 
R 2 15, 216. — Dated 15 15 in the privilege; Diirer's coat- 
of-arms on the " Imagines coeli meridionales." 

Modern phototypic reductions. (Jahrbuch, VII.) 

Gray Coll. 

236. Map of the World. — H 21 10; R Appendix 
66 ; P 201. — No monogram ; privilege dated 15 15. 

Digitized by LaOOQlC 


Impressions of 1781 ? Watermark, an oval escutcheon, 
with lion ; crown over the shield ; below: JAV I WOLFEG. 

Sewall ColL 

Of the prints here shown, only the " Imagines Cceli " are generally 
acknowledged as Diirer's work, but all of them have been admitted to 
this exhibition because they are claimed for Durer by the editors of the 
Austrian ** Jahrbuch," where they are treated at length in an article 
by Prof. Weiss, the director of the astronomical observatory at Vienna. 

The " Horoscopes " « ere designed for Johannes Stabius, the historio- 
grapher and court-mathematician of Manmilian. The numerous works 
of this at the time celebrated man of science, *' seem all to have been 
lost," says Prof. Weiss. "Of his Horoscopes, on the contrary, the 
woodblocks are still preserved in the Court-Library. In this instance, 
however, the word ' Horoscope ' must not be taken in its astrological 
meaning, according to which it denotes the point of the ecliptic 
(ascendant) rising in the hour of nativity, but rather in its true ety- 
mological signification, i, e, in our case as a construction for the calcu- 
lation of problems concerning the length and the divisions of the day 
etc." Of the three " Horoscopes " preserved only two are republished 
in the " Jahrbuch." One of these is dated 15 12, and Prof. Weiss states 
that both were drawn in that year, in all probability during the sojourn 
of Stabius at Nuremberg. According to their date, they ought, there- 
fore, to have been placed immediately after No. 229, but it seemed 
better to group them together with other similar works. 

The star-charts, or " Imagines Codi," are unfortunately given in the 
" Jahrbuch " in reductions only. They also seem to have been drawn 
in 1 51 2, but were not published until 1515. Prof. Weiss writes that, 
so far as he knows, these star-charts are the first ever published, which 
invests them with quite a special interest. Durer carried impressions 
to the Netherlands with him, and records the gift of a set to one Aug- 
ustin Lombard. 

The ** Mappa Mundi " or Map of the World, likewise projected by 
Stabius, has, again according to Prof. Weiss, " a special historical inter- 
est, even to-day, as ih^ first attempt at a representation of one half of 
the globe in perspective." Like die star-charts, this map is dedicated 
•to Matthaeus Lang von Wellenberg, archbishop of Salzburg and cardi- 
nal. The imperiS privilege is dated 1515. 

This little group of works illustrates very markedly the unique posi- 

*tion held by Durer among the scientific men of his time, and the esteem 

accorded to him by them. On the " Imagines coeli meridionales " he 

is named as the peer of the astronomers and mathematicians engaged 

'upon the work with him: "John Stabius ordered it; Conrad Hein- 

vogel placed the stars; Albert Diirer circumscribed the figures," and 

their three coats-of-arms stand closely linked together. In the last 

quarter of the fifteenth century, Prof. Weiss informs us, many scien- 

*tific men went from Vienna to Nuremberg to escape the turmoil of 

war. "Through their instrumentality Nuremberg sdso, in the earlier 

part of the sixteenth century, became a focus of scientific life, and the 

house more especially of the wealthy and art loving Willibald Pirk- 

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heimer, one of Durer's most intimate friends, was made the point of 
trnion of all the savants and artists. Durer himself thus stood in the 
midst of the intellectual life of his time, and the works of the art of 
wood engraving treating scientific subjects which were the result of the 
united activity of such a master and of the leading scientific men of 
the University of Vienna, may justly be looked upon also in a scientific 
sense as the highest achievements of their time." 

237. The Rhinoceros. — B 136; H 1904; R 214. — 
Monogram; dated 15 15. 

{a,) Impression of the Dutch edition, described by 
Hausmann as the seventh, showing the let- 
tering above the cut. Watermark, eagle 
with one head. Sewali ColU 

(b.) Same edition, showing the lettering below the 
cut. Same watermark. Gray Colh 

The lettering reads about as follows : — Above : " In the year of our 
Lord 1 5 15, the first day of May, there was brought to the king of Port- 
ugal at Lisbon from India such an animal, called Rhinoceros, and it is 
of color like a tortoise clad with strong plates, and is of the size of an 
elephant, but lower in the legs, very strong and courageous, and has a 
sharp horn forward on its nose, this it whets whenever it comes to some 
stones, this animal is the elephant's deadly enemy and very victorious 
over the elephant, when this animal meets the elephant, it runs with its 
horns bet»reen its forelegs, and thus rips open its belly, and thus kills 
the elephant. This animal is so armed that the elephant cannot hurt 
it, also is it very quick, light of movement, and besides cunning, &c. 
This here figured Rhinoceros was sent by the before named king to 
High-Dutchland to the Emperor Maximilian, and by the highly famed 
Albert Dtirer pictured from the life as one may here see." Below; 
" They can be found for sale at Hendrick Hondius's, engraver, at the 
Hague." As Hendrick Hondius, the elder, lived from 1573 to some 
time after 1630, it is evident that his edition of the Rhinoceros is quite 
late, and the impressions in chiaroscuro, which are often attributed to 
Durer himself, are still later. Hondius's description of the animal and 
its pictorial representation, although generally based upon that whidi 
originally accompanied the cut, is wrong in stating that Dilrer drew it 
from the life. The king of Portugal, according to Heller, instead of 
sending it to Maximilian, sent it to the pope, but the vessel was 
wrecked, and the animal was drowned oflf Genoa. Diirer's drawing 
was made from a sketch sent to Germany from Lisbon. 

238. The Virgin with the Apple, adored by 
Angels. — B loi; H 1811 ; R 229. — Monogram ; dated 

Digitized by LaOOQlC 

68 ivooDcars, 

Very fine, although late impression, on paper with the 
watermark Hausmann No. 45 (or very similar), from the 
block still in almost perfect condition. Sewall Coll, 

This is perhaps the most enjoyable among Durer's representations 
of the Virgin, despite the fact that it belongs to the period between 
15 13 and 1520. (See under No. 87.) 

239. The Emperor Maxmilian in a Border. — 
B ^53 5 ^ '949 5 ^ 230. — Monogram ; dated 1519. 

Impression showing the crack or joint and a few worm 
holes. Watermark not decipherable. Sewall Coll. 

The Latin inscription in the upper part of the plate reads as follows: 
'TTie divine Emperor Caesar Maximilian, the righteous, the fortunate, 
the august." The lower German legend ; " The dear prince Emperor 
Maximilian blissfully departed this life on the 12. day of January in his 
fifty-ninth year. In the year of the Lord 15 19." The monogram on 
this print is quite old-fashioned looking, — a warning that too much 
reliance must not be placed on such outward signs. 

240. The Emperor Maximilian, without Border. 
— B 154; H 1950; R 231. — Neither date, nor monogram. 

Impression from the block with the letters "ae" not 
within the capital C. Watermark, a coat-of-arms not fig- 
ured by Hausmann. Sewall Coll, 

There are two portraits of Maximilian without a border, which are 
most readily distinguished by a difference in the word " Caesar." In 
the one case the letters " ae " are within the C, in the other they follow 
the capital, as usual. The cut with the variety first noted is generally 
described to be somewhat superior to the other, although the two are 
so nearly identical among themselves and with the portrait No. 239, 
that it is difficult to account for their origin. To say that they were 
probably cut from the same drawing, explains nothing. One is led to 
believe that these old woodcutters must have known and practised the 
making of transfers, which would, of course, solve the mystery. (See 
the remarks under No. 246.) The Latin inscription is the same as that 
on No. 239. 

241. The Coat'Of-Arms with Three Lion's 
Heads. — B 169 ; H 1947 ; R 238. — Neither monogram, 
nor date. 

Modern impression. (Jahrbuch, V.) Gray Coll. 

Digitized by LaOOQlC 

W60DcU7is. 6g 

Retberg, about 1 520; Heller, 15 12-15 17. '^^ coat-of-arms (see 
Count Trautmannsdorff-Weinsberg's article in Jahrbuch, V, p. 339) is 
that of Jacob de Bannissis, and was most likely drawn for him by 
Diirer during the latter's sojourn in the Netherlands. 

242. The Coat-of-Arms of Stabius with the 
Laurel Wreath. — B 166; H 1945; R 243. — Neither 
monogram, nor date. 

Modem impression. (Jahrbuch, IV.) Gray ColL 

Retberg, about 1521; Heller, 15 12-17. Chmelarz (Jahrbuch, IV, 
p. 301), "about 15 12 or a little later." 

243. Coat-of-Arms of Nuremberg. — B 162; H 
1942; R Appendix 20.— No monogram; dated 1521. 

Fine impression, with the three lines of the title on the 
back. Gray ColL 

Designed by Diirer for the third edition of the Nuremberg Statute- 
Book. Curiously enough Retberg rejects this cut, and suggests Georg 
Pencz as its author. T^ausing, on the contrary (II, p. 214), and with 
more reason, reckons it *' among the finest of his [Durer's] wood 

244. Portrait of Ulric Varenbiiler. — B 155; H 
1952 ; R 248. — Pull name (in the inscription) ; dated 1522. 

Good impression, before the crack on the left. 

Sewail ColL 

Ulric VarenbMer, imperial councillor, chancellor of the supreme 
court of the empire, etc. " was a learned friend of Erasmus and Pirk- 
heimer, much valued by both, and often mentioned in their letters '* 
(Thausing, II, p. 258). His relations with Diirer were of the most 
intimate kind, as shown by the inscription, in which it is stated that he, 
Diirer, wishes to honor Varenbuler and to transmit his likeness to pos- 
terity as that of one "whom he singularly loves." According to Thau- 
sing, ** the letters that are wanting [t. e. apparently covered by the white 
strip running across the inscription] form, with a little transposition, 
VarenvuolUre, which is something like the name Varenbuler, and such 
perhaps may have been the object of this anagrammatic conceit." Note 
again the reflection of the windows in the eyes. The impressions from 
this cut in chiaroscuro, like those of the Rhinoceros, were issued in the 
Netherlands in the 17. century. A drawing of Varenbiiler's portrait, 
made by D&rer from life, is given in a reduced reproduction by 
Ephrusd, p. 325. 

245. The Last Supper. — B 53 ; H 1622 ; R 250. — 
Monogram and date, 1523, on a tablet 

Digitized by LaOOQlC 


Good impression from Bartsch's " second block/' Mount- 
ed, Sewall ColL 

According to Hausmann this *' second block '' is a later copy. 

246, The Siege of a City. — B 137; H 1903; R 
269. — Monogram and date, 1527, on a tablet. 

• («.) Impressions froml)oth blocks joined together. 

SewaU ColL 
(d.) Impression from the right-hand block. 

Gray ColL 

Called also, but erroneously, "The Siege of Vienna." The two 
sheets from the Sewall Collection are watermarked by a small coat-of- 
arms not described by Hausmann ; the watermark of the Gray impres- 
sion is not decipherable. The latter is from a block with many worm 
holes, especially in the sky, and the white spots thus caused have been 
filled in with the pen. Although the general resemblance of the two 
right halves here shown is very close, there are, nevertheless, some dif- 
ferences, from which it would appear that these impressions are not 
from the same block. The most notable of these differences are in the 
round cloud in the upper left-hand corner of the sheet, in the row of 
stones in the road in the foreground, immediately under the large 
clump of trees, and in the ruts in the same road on the right-hand side. 
There is, moreover, a joint visible in the Sewall impression lo centi- 
metres from the left-hand margin of the right-hand ^eet, which is not 
in the least visible in the Gray impression, although this is from a block 
much worm eaten. In spite of these differences, however, the two im 
pressions are so nearly identical, that only the supposition of a transfer 
made for the repetition can account for their close similarity. Curi- 
ously enough, there is on the left sheet, from the Sewall Collection, a 
large blurred spot, which looks as if it might have been made by an 
alkaline fluid, such as might be used to revive the dry ink, preparatory 
to transferring. (See remarks under No. 240.) 


247. Portrait of Durer. — B 156; H 1953; R Ap- 
pendix 17. 

Late impression, without lettering, and with the coat-of- 
arms and date, 1527. From the worm-eaten block, the 
spots retouched. Mounted. Sewall ColL 

Digitized by LaOOQlC 


248. Portrait of Charles V. — B Appendix 41 • H 
3161; P334. 

Late (Derschau ?) impression. Sewall Coll. 

This print is generally described as arched at the top, of which the 
impression here exhibited shows no sign. Thausing (II, pp. 15S-159) 
defends its genuineness, but the workmanship is very bad, and the 
monogram not at all like Durer's. 

249. The Holy Family. — B Appendix 10; H 
1986; R Appendix 28; P 178. 

Chiaroscuro from two blocks, with the monogram, but 
without the date (15 19). Savall Coll, 

' 250. St. Ann. — B Appendix 11 ; H 1988; R Ap- 
pendix 29 ; P 238. 

Late impression, without the monogram, from the block 
showing a joint and some breaks. Sewall Coll. 

251. The Virgin with the Child. — B Appendix 
13 ; H 1995 ; K. Appendix 31 ; P 239. 

With the monogram. Sewall Coll. 

252. Christ Crowned with Thorns. — B Appen- 
dix 4; H 1971 ; P 226. 

Without the monogram. Sewall ColL 

With the monogram, possibly stamped on. 

Sewall Coll. 

253. Christ as Gardener. — B Appendix 8 ; H 
1978; R Appendix 26; P 231. 

Modem (Derschau ?) impression. Sewall Coll. 

The monogram, according to Heller, is added on modem impressions 
by stamping, but here it is evidently printed with the rest of the cut. 

254. The Deposition from the Cross. — P 176. 

Without monogram. Sewall Coll. 

With monogram. Sewall Coll. 

In this case the monogram does seem to have been added by 


255. The Great Crucifix with Three Angels. — 
B 58 ; H 1643 ; R Appendix 9. 


by Google 


From the original plate, after the addition of the lower 
part. Watermark, script letters. Setvall Coll. 

Originally printed with a prayer securing an indulgence of 5475 
days, granted by Pope Gregory III. Thausing says that the upper part 
of the cut, without the later addition by a less skilled hand, is certainly 
from a drawing by Durer, done in 1520, or a litde later. But even if 
it is from such a drawing, it does not seem to be a cut made for or 
authorized by Durer, as it differs entirely from all the other undoubted 
cuts. According to an old, unauthenticated story, Ddrer engraved this 
crucifix for a house-altar for his friend Pirkheimer. 

256. The Large Head of Christ. — B Appendix 
26; H 1629 ; R Appendix 41 ; P 192. 

Weak on the left side ; showing the joint on the right 
side. Sewall Coll 

Thausing (II, pp. 102-103) says of this cut, that it is among the 
grandest of Durer's representations of Christ. " Although this work,'' 
he continues, " was assuredly neither drawn by Durer Umself on the 
block nor engraved under his direction, yet in a certain sense it is his, 
having been probably executed from one of his later drawings." Evi- 
dence that we have here the work of a later follower or copjrist of 
DQrer may, perhaps, be found in the reflections of the windows in the 
eyes. Diirer carried this childish affectation of close observation to the 
verge of the ridiculous in his portraits (see Nos. 93, 99, 100, and loi), 
but he would hardly have introduced it here, where it is absolutely out 
of place. An imitator, on the contrary, seeking to give verisimilitude 
to his work, might, after the fashion of his tribe, hit upon such an out- 
ward sign as conspicuously expressive of Durer's manner. 

257. The Last Judgment. — B 124; H 2051; R 
Appendix 13. 

Good impression, with the monogram. Mended on the 
lower right side. Sewall Coll, 

258. St. Barbara. — B Appendix 24; H 2038; R 
Appendix 39 ; P 261. 

{a,) Fine impression without monogram. Mounted. 

Sewall ColU 
{b,) Fair impression with monogram. Sewall Colh 

259. The Great St. Christopher. — B 105; H 
1827; R Appendix 10. — Monogram; dated 1525. 

Late, but good impression, with the feet added. Water- 
mark similar to Hausmann No. 50. Oray Call, 

Digitized by CaOOQlC 


This is as unlike DOrer's other cuts in conception as in workmanship, 
and those who claim that the monogram and date have been added 
are quite probably right. The monogram divides the figures of the 
^ear, which was not Durer's custom. (See No. 228.) 

260. St. Christopher. — B Appendix 16; H 2013; 
P 181. 

Modern (Derschau ?) impression. Sewall Coll. 

G>mpare with No. 227. 

261. The Small St. Jerome in Penance. — B 115 ; 
H 1848; R Appendix 12. 

Reversed photograph from a modem copy. Scwall Coll* 

• 262. St. Jerome. — H 2016; P 188. 

With the text P 188 /on the back. Sewall Coll. 

263. The Conversion of St. Paul. — B Appendix 
17 ; H 2021 ; R Appendix 34; P 252. 

Slightly spotted and with some small holes, mended. 

Sewall Coll. 

264. St. Martin Dividing His Cloak. — B Appen- 
dix 18; H 2020; R Appendix 35; P 251. 

Fine impression. Sewall ColL 

ThausiDg (I, p. 86) is inclined to attribute this cut to Wolgemut, as 
the composition corresponds with that on the right wing of the 
Schwabach altarpiece. The monogram, he says, was added later. 

265. St. Coloman. — B 106; H 1828; R 199. 
Modern impression. (Jahrbuch, IV.) Gray ColL 

This is accepted by Bartsch, Heller, and Retberg, but Thausing (II, 
p. 242, note) emphatically rejects it. The head is said to be a likeness 
of Stabius. 

266. Illustrations to the Revelations of St. 
Bridget of Sweden. — P 194, Nos. 7, 8, 9, 10, 15. 

(fl-^.) From the Latin edition of 1500. Gray ColL 

Passavant accepts these cuts as Diirer's, but Thausing (I, pp. 269- 
270) rejects them. The descriptions given by Passavant are not quite 

Digitized by LaOOQlC 


267. Coat-of-Arms of Stabius with Liettering 
around it. — B 165; H 1944. 

Modern impression. (Jalirbuch, IV.) Gray ColU 

268. Hector Pomer's Bookmark. — B 163; H 
2140; R Appendix 21. 

Modem impression issued by Campe ? Sewall ColL 

269. Coat-of-Arms of the Scheurl and Tucher 
Family. — H 2146; P 214. 

: Modem impression. Seufoll Coll. 

270. The Old Man and the Young Woman. — 


Old impression. Sewall Coll. 

. This cut, which represents the power of gold over love, is happily 
rejected by all later writers. It is quite unworthy of Durer (see the 
remarks under No. 3), and is, therefore, not shown. The style is much 
later than DQrer's time. 

dUrer's scientific books. 

271. The Book on Geometry. The first German 
edition of 1525. Sewall Coll. 

The two cuts shown are those erroneously described by Bartsch, B 
146 and 147, as belonging to a work on perspective by Paul Pfintzing 
the elder. A fragment of the Latin edition of 1532 is bound up with 
this copy. 

272. The Book on Geometry. The second Ger- 
man edition of 1538. 6". jR, Koehler. 

The pages displayed show Durer's method of constructing Roman 

273. The Book on the Proportions of the Human 
Body. The first, German, edition of 1528. 

Boston Public Library, 
The figure on the right-hand page is the one alluded to by Thode 
(Jahrbuch, IH, p. 119), as betraying the influence on Diirer of the 
Apollo Belvedere, which is apparent also in such early works as the 
Apollo drawing (Case 9, 11) and the ** Adam and Eve " (No. 35 of this 
catalogue). "The Apollo, therefore," exclaims Thode, " at the begin- 
ning and at the end of Durer's artistic career ! " 

Digitized by LaOOQlC 


274. The Book on the Proportions of the Human 
Body. Latin edition of 1532. Sewall CoU. 

This edition contains only Books I and 2. Books 3 and 4 appeared 
separately in 1533. 

275. The Book on Fortification. Latin edition of 
1535. Sewall Coll. 


276. Lime Tree on a Projecting Bastion, witii 
two figures. — From the collection of the Chevalier Alfred 
von Franck, at Gratz. F, Meder. 

Thausing, I, p'. I2i : "Several very curious and detailed studies of 
trees, which probably also formed part of his travelling sketch-books 
[of the earliest period], are highly characteristic of Diirer's eye for 
color. For instance, a tall lime-tree, on a projecting bastion, the para- 
pet of which slopes off to the left, but is out of drawing. In the back- 
ground, on the stone bench parallel with the wall, is the figure of a 
man dressed in black, perhaps a scholar. Another stands beneath the 
tree, the foliage of which is bluish green, with gray shadows. This 
fine tempera painting is [was] in the possession of Herr Alfred R. von 
Franck, at Gratz." — See also Ephrussi, p. 108. 

277. Head of the Virgin. — From the collection of 
the Chevalier Alfred von Franck, at Gratz. F. Meder, 

Thausing, I, p. 321 : " Herr Alfred von Franck, Gratz, has [had] a 
head of the Virgin with a soft and singularly noble expression." — 
Ephrussi, p. 54: "Head of the Madonna, noble and sweet type, in 
charcoal, 1503 (collection of Mr. von Franck, at Gratz).** 

278. Study for the Left Arm of Eve, for the 
painting of "Adam and Eve" of 1507. — From the col- 
lection of the Chevalier Alfred von Franck, at Gratz. 

F. Meder. 

Thausing, II, pp. 2-3 : " Many studies of different parts of this Eve, 
some done in chiaroscuro, and some with the pen, during the years 
1506 and 1507, are in the British Museum. The left arm with the 
apple was repeated several times by Diirer. One of the sketches, three- 
quarter life-size, on Venetian paper, and dated 1507, belongs [belonged] 
to Herr Alfred von Franck at Gratz,'* — Se^ alsQ Ephrussi, p. 144. 


by Google 


379. Study for the Feet of the Kneeling Apostle 
in the foreground of "The Assumption of the Virgin,'* 
known as the Heller altarpiece, painted 1509. — From the 
collection of the Chevalier Alfred von Franck, at Gratz. 

F. Meder. 

Ephnufti, pp. 152-153 (note) : " It is said that an Italian, enthusiast 
^ as well as barbarian, offered one hundred crowns for the privilege of 
cutting the feet of this apostle from the original painting. These feet 
recur again in the Assumption on wood (the nineteenth in the series of 
the Life of the Virgin [No. 175 of this catalogue]), and in the corre- 
qwnding plate of the small P^on [No. 215]. They show a striking 
and curious analogy to those of one of the kings in the small altarpiece 
by Mantegna in the Tribuna (No. iiii)." — See also Thausing, II, 
p. 17, No. 10. 

280. The Imperial Crown. — From the collection 
of the Chevalier Alfred von Franck, at Gratz. F. Meder, 

281. The Imperial Orb. — From the collection of 
the Chevalier Alfred von Franck, at Gratz. F, Meder. 

282. The Imperial Sword of Charlemagne. — 
From the collection of the Chevalier Alfred von Franck, 
at Gratz. F, Meder. 

Nos. 280, 281 and 282 are studies made by Diirer in 1 5 10 for the first 
of the two large portraits, of the Emperor Charlemagne and King Sigis- 
mund, painted by him for the city of Nuremberg. Thausing, II, pp. 
108-109, speaks of them as follows : " The other studies are separate 
sketches of the imperial crown with a red cushion, and with the inscrip- 
tions * Rex Salomon * on the right, and * Per me rege? regnant ' on 
the left; of the imperial orb; and of a part of the imperial sword, 
with the hilt and the inscription, * This is the Emperor Charles's sword, 
just the exact size of it, and the blade is as long as the string with 
which this paper is tied outside ' (Z?fl« ist keiser Karls schwert, vnd ist 
dy kling eben cUs lang^ ah der strick, domit daz papier awssen punden 
isf). These representations of the imperial insignia, among which 
there was formerly one of the gloves, are aU life-size. They belong 
[belonged] to Herr Alfred von Franck of Gratz." — See also Ephrussi, 
p. 168. 

283. Portrait of a Woman turned sideways towards 
the left. — From the collection of the Chevalier Alfred 
von Franck, at Gratz. F^ Meder, 

Digitized by LaOOQlC 


Not described by either Thausing or Ephrussi. — Heller describes it 
as follows (p. 124, No. 21): ''The features of the face are of the 
purest proportions. Over the hair pass ribbons braided crosswise, and 
upon them is a low cap; neck and bust are decorated by pearls and a 
golden chain; above in the middle the mark and 15 13. This drawings 
of superior beauty of execution, is very well preserved; it is worked 
in India ink, red and brown color, partly with the brush, partly with 
the pen. Height 11" 9'"; breadth 7" 10'"." At the time Hellet 
wrote, this drawing was in the collection of Joseph von Grunling, whom 
he describes as an "imperial and royal privileged wholesale dealer^ 
collector of works of art, and connaisseur." Grunling lived at Vienna^ 
and his collection is said to have been sold there at auction in i8i8» 
Heller's notes, therefore, considerably antedate the publication of his 
book, which on the titlepage bears the year 1821, while the preface is 
dated 1826. All the drawings here shown at one time formed part of 
Grunling's collection. 

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In the first column the numbers of Bartsch and Passa- 
vant are given, in the second those of this catalogue. The 
numbers not referred to in the latter are omitted. 


1 35 

2 37 

8-18 43-68 

19 82 

20 27 

21 64 

22 81 

28 88 

24 61 

25 68 

26 83 

27 105 

28 5 

20 15 

80 16 

81 59 

82 86 

3S 74 

84 28 

86 67 

86 90 

87 94 

88 ! 95 

80 87 

Bartsch's Catalogue. 

40 75 

41 63 

42 20 

48 66 

44 2 

45 104 

46 80 

47 78 

48 76 

49 79 

50 77 

51 96 

52 97 

53 31 

54 60 

55 29 

56 19 

57 25 

58 91 

50. 65 

60 71 

61 6 

62 106 

Passavant's Additions. 
100 109 

63 ... 

.... 7 

64 ... 

.... 62 




.... 41 


.... 42 


.... 36 


.... 38 


.... 85 

71 ... 

.... 23 


.... 84 

73.. . 

.... 24 




.... 21 


.... 22 


.... 32 

78 ... 

.... 8 


.... 26 


.... 9 




.... 17 


.... 13 


.... 12 


.... 11 

86 14 

87 30 

88 4 

89 92 

90 73 

91 72 

92 1 

93 3 

94 18 

95 10 

96 39 

97 40 

98 69 

99 89 

100 33 

101 34 

102 93 

103 98 

104 99 

105 101 

106 100 

107 102 

108 108 

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... 265 


. ..226 

104 146 

105 269 

106 266 

107 149 

108 156 

110 147 

HI 160 

112 148 

118 229 

114 224 

115 261 

116 233 

117 116 

118 1U6 

119 219 



145. . . . 








168 .... 






126 .. 



















166. . . . 





Bartsch's ' 






11. '.250 

18...... -.251 

16 260 















... 249 

188 282 

192 256 










... 260 


289 251 

251 264 

252 263 








The Tr] 




. . • .271*275« 



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I so* ' 

Diagram showing Location of Caaes in 
Second Print Room. First Print Room. 

9Z 93 

SZ ^Z 


09 6S 8S ZS 

_2S Si- 

(See Diagram of Cases.) 



1-9 Case I. 

10-17 "2. 

18-20 "3. 

21-24 « 4- 

25-27 "5. 

28-35 « 6. 

36-^8 "7. 

99^8 « 8. 

59-66 "ID. 

67-71 "12. 

72-80 "13. 

81-89 "14. 

90-92 "15. 

93-97 "16. 

98-102 « 18. 

103-109 " 17, 19. 

110-115 "20. 

116-120 « 21. 

121-126 "22. 

127-132 "23. 

133-138 "25. 

139-144 "26. 

145-156 "28. 

157-179 " 4i» 42. 

180-199 « 42 A. 

200-219 «43- 

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Nos. 220-230 Case 44. 

•♦ 231» "45- 

«« 231'>, Plates 1-4 « 45, 46. 

<♦ M " 5-7 « 46 A. 

" « " 8-13 "47, 48. 

" ** " 14-17,19-20 ..." 49,50- 

" " " 21-23, 25-27 . . . "51, 52. 
** « " 18-24,28-31 ..." 53,54. 

" " " 32-36 "55, 56. 

<« 231« "56. 

*« 232, d, c, b, a "38, 39. 

« « h,g,f,e " 36,37. 

" l.k,j,i « 34.35. 

** •« p,o, n,m " 32,33. 

" «« t,s,r,q " 30,31. 

•• " V, u . . . . . . "27. 

" *• x,w "24. 

" 238 "56. 

" 234-236 "57. 

*• 237-238 "58- 

" 239-240 "59. 

*• 241-243 "58. 

244-246 "60. 

247-255 "61. 

256-265 "62. 

266-269 . . . • In frames below " 61,62. 

270 Not shown. 

271-275 Case 50 A. 

276-284 In frames. 


The following photographs and prints have been placed in Case 9, 
1 1, for comparison. See references in this catalogue under Nos. 2, 21, 
24, 29, 32, 35, 36, 42. 

I. The Apollo Belvedere. (Photograph.) 

II. The Medicean Venus. (Photograph.) 

III. Orpheus attacked by Bacchantes. Old Florentine engraving. 


IV. Orpheus attacked by Bacchantes. Drawing by Diirer. (Helio- 

V. Apollo and Diana. Drawing by Durer. (Phototype.) 
VI. Apollo and Diana. Engraving by Jacopo de Barbari. (Photo- 
VII. The Captives. Engraving by Jacopo de Barbari. (Woodcut.) 
VIII. Orpheus and Eurydice. Basrelief by Jacopo de Barbari? 
(Etching by LeRat.) 
IX. The Battle of the Tritons. Engraving by Andrea Mantegna. 
(Photogravure.) ^^ 

X. Lo Stregozzo. Engraving by Agostino Veniziano. \ 


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beyond the specified time. 
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