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Held under the auspices of the 



' Introduction and Biographical Notes 


With the collaboration of Director KARL MADSEN 

The American Art Galleries 

New York 

December tenth to twenty-fifth inclusive 





Copyright, 1912 
By Christian Brinton 

Pint Impression 
6,000 Copies 

Redfield Brothers, Inc. 
New York 


Under the Gracious Patronage of 


King of Sweden 


King of Denmark- 


King of Norway 

Held by the 

American-Scandinavian Society 






rjViE American-Scandinavian Society was estab- 

A. lished primarily to cultivate closer relations be- 
tween the people of the United States of America and the 
leading Scandinavian countries, to strengthen the bonds 
between Scandinavian Americans, and to advance the know- 
ledge of Scandinavian culture among the American pub- 
lic, particularly among the descendants of Scandinavians. 

The American-Scandinavian Foundation is an 
independent institution consisting of a self-perpetuating 
Board of Trustees, established to bold in trust and admin- 
ister an endowment of more than five hundred thousand 
dollars, ^ven by the late Niels Poulson. 

The Foundation, which is working in dose sympa- 
thy with the Society, being created to promote essentially 
the same end, has, by granting to the Society a considerable 
subsidy, made possible the Scandinavian Art Exhibition. 

The exhibition is remarkable from several points of view. 
It is one of the few occasions in the history of Scandinavian 
art that the three countries have united in exhibiting. It 
is the first time that most of the painters represented, 
although of international reputation in Europe, have ex- 
hibited in the United States, and it comprises, in as far as 
has been possible, the best work of living artists. 

The Society and the Foundation have for several years 
desired to familiarize the American public with the remark- 

able modem painting of Scandinavia, and have herewith 
endeavoured to show American Scandinavians, in the most 
favourable and acceptable manner, the production of the 
leading Swedish, Danish, and Norwegian painters. 

In order to interest the Scandinavian Governments and 
artists in the project, the President of the American-Scandi- 
navian Society went to Scandinavia during the Spring. 
Their Majesties, KingGustav V, of Sweden, King Christian 
X, of Denmark, and King Haakon VII, of Norway, 
most graciously consented to act as Honourary Patrons, 
each of their country's art; their respective Governments 

gave every possible assistance, and the artists themselves 


joined enthusiastically in the plan. Mr. Christian Brinton 
accompanied Mr. Gade and proved invaluable in his 
capacity as critic and connoisseur. The Society as well 
as American art lovers further owe a debt of gratitude to 
the brothers, Carl G. and Thorsten Laurin, of Stockholm, 
to Mr. Karl Madsen, Director of the Royal Gallery at 
Copenhagen, to Mr. Otto Benzon, of Copenhagen, and to 
Mr. Jens Thiis, Director of the National Gallery at Christi- 
ania, as well as to the numerous generous and patriotic 
owners of paintings, both at home and abroad, who have 
gladly loaned from their private collections in order that 
many of their countries' chief artistic treasures might not 
be omitted from the exhibition. It is a particular pleasure 
in this connection to mention the names of Mr. Carl Piltz, 
of Stockholm, Baron Rosenkrantz, of Rosenholm, Dr. 
Alfred Bramsen, of Copenhagen, Mrs. Joseph T. Jones and 
the Albright Art Gallery of Buffalo, Hugo Reisinger Esq., 
and Robert W. de Forest Esq., of New York. 

The Norwegian portrait painter, Mr. Henrik Lund, 
accompanies the paintings on their visit throughout this 
country, acting as Artistic Director of the Exhibition. 




JOHN A. GADE President 



REV. W. H. SHORT Treasurer 

H. E. ALMBERG Counsel 


r Auditors 



LOUIS S. AMONSON Philadelphia, Pa. 

PROF. GISLE BOTHNE, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis,Minn 

MILES M. DAWSON New York City, N. Y. 

PROF. GEORGE T. FLOM . . University of lUinois, Urbana, 111. 

J. D. FREDERIKSEN Little Falls, N. Y. 

JOHN A. GADE New York City, N. Y. 

JOHN D. HAGE New York City, N. Y. 

J. HOVING, M.D New York City, N. Y. 

A. E. JOHNSON ^®w York City, N. Y. 

E.F.JOHNSON New York City, N. Y. 

OVE LANGE New York City, N. Y. 

CARL LORENTZEN New York City, N. Y. 

REV. FREDERICK LYNCH .... New York City, N. Y. 
PROF. DAVID NYVALL, Washington State Univ., Seattle, Wash. 
PROF. A. H. PALMER . . Yale University, New Haven, Conn. 

ERODE RAMBUSCH New York City, N. Y. 

P. A. REQUE, M.D Brooklyn, N. Y. 

REV. W. H. SHORT New York City. N. Y. 

CONSUL C. A. SMITH Oakland, Cal. 

PROF. CALVIN THOMAS, Columbia Univ., New York City, N. Y. 
HON. OSCAR M. TORRISON Chicago, 111. 







REV. W. H. SHORT Treasurer 

H. B. ALMBERG Counsel 



















NOT the least significant phase of esthetic expression 
has been the constant endeavour on the one hand to 
achieve a fusion of form, line, and colour that shall commend 
itself as universal in appeal, and on the other to preserve 
those fundamental factors which may be designated as 
national in substance. It is a struggle that has been waged 
unceasingly throughout the ages, and which repeats itself 
alike in the artistic development of every nation and every 
individual. The human spirit constantly seeks to voice in 
expansive fashion the great, typical impressions received 
from nature and from life, and yet has at the same time 
been endowed ndtb the precious faculty of interpreting them 
after its own specific manner and largely according to a 
predetermined plan. If you attempt to deprive the creative 
impulse of its conscious or unconscious universality of 
utterance, or of its inherent nationality of accent, you go far 
toward diestroying its significance, for art, whether pro- 
duced in obscure wayside cottage, simple hut among the 
hills, or under the prestige of an organized institution, will 
instinctively seek to widen its outlook and clothe itself in a 
language for which it has the justification of an inalienable 
racial heritage. 

It is to the enduring credit of the leading Scandinavian 
countries that they may be counted among those fortunate 
peoples who, despite external influences, have stoutly 
guarded their native artistic birthright. Their achieve- 
ments in the field of painting, sculpture, architecture, and 
industrial design are refreshingly and unmistakably their 
own. Save in rare and isolated cases they do not speak, 
and do not attempt to speak, that superficial studio Volapiik, 
that facile salon Esperanto, which is so utterly devoid of 
character and vitality. You will remark above all in the 
production of each of these nations, and to a kindred degree 
in each instance, the salutary stamp of race and of country. 
It is in fact only the redoubtable Russians who can to-day 
compete with the sturdy Scandinavians in the possession of 
a spontaneous, unspoiled esthetic patrimony. The reasons 
for such a situation have in many respects been similar, if 
not, indeed, identical. As in the case of Russia, the relative 
geographical remoteness of the Peninsula, the barrier of an 
imfamiliar speech, and the fact that the pallid fervour 
of Christianity and the pagan richness of the Renais- 
sance were comparatively late in making appearance on 
the scene, all tended toward preserving that integrity of 
expression alike in art, letters, and music which is their most 
distinctive possession. It must not, however, be jauntily 
assumed that the contribution of the Scandinavian nations 
to the sum of creative artistic effort is, save in a broad sense, 
one and the same. Their painting, in particular, divides 
itself into three well-defined schools, which developed at 
different intervals, and the leading features of which are 
manifestly at variance. 

Historically, and in the general order of precedence, 
Sweden was the first of the Northern countries to foster 
esthetic culture in any definite degree. Long before Den- 


mark, and still longer before Norway could boast an interest 
in the fine arts — apart, of course, from their most primitive 
and elementary application — the Swedes were familiar with 
that which was being accomplished abroad, and were wel- 
coming to their shores prominent painters and architects 
from Holland, Germany, France, and Italy. Protected by 
the Court and favoured by the nobility, art flourished in 
approved fashion in Stockholm and certain other of the 
more important centres. Still, though a great deal has 
always been made of early Swedish culture, it is not clearly 
realized that it was of the most extraneous and sporadic 
description. It is true that the Thirty Years' War had 
made these hardy campaigners masters of some of the finest 
collections in all Europe; it is likewise true that Swedish- 
bom painters attained distinction in Paris and elsewhere, 
but nevertheless beauty in no sense penetrated the masses, 
and much less was it a product of patient, earnest, local 

The chief reasons why it was several generations before 
the Swedes were able to display anything resembling inde- 
pendent artistic activity were the distraction and general 
depletion of vitality occasioned by incessant foreign wars, 
and the fact that the population was distributed over such 
a wide area that communication was difficult if not, indeed, 
actually impossible. Art is essentially social and gregari- 
ous, and it is, in consequence, not to eighteenth century 
Sweden, but to Denmark during the early years of the nine- 
teenth century that we must turn for the first specific signs 
of esthetic promise throughout the entire Peninsula. Liv- 
ing in a geographically more condensed community, and 


being themselves innately peaceful and home-loving at 
heart, the Danes were enabled to produce those few almost 
apologetic, yet epoch-making figures, so sympathetically 


silhouetted by Director Madsen, who were the veritable 
founders of modem Scandinavian painting. Their inherent 
clarity of vision, their simplicity of theme and treat- 
ment and, above all, their unfailing solidarity and cohesion, 
shielded them from outside influences. At a period when 
the rest of Europe was revelling in the pretentious aftermath 
of the classic revival, and later, when the specious gleams of 
a purely studio romanticism were flashed upon soaring 
moimtain peak, crumbling ruin, and tiny peasant chalet, the 
Danes alone remained true to native type and scene. Their 
art was impretentious, but it was soimdly and endearingly 
national in feeling. Even those first, eamest-souled pil- 
grims who went to Italy, flimg off a flaccid classicism when 
they faced homeward, and ended by preferring simple 
Copenhagen townsfolk to Sicilian bandit and Neapolitan 
flower seller. You will find nowhere, save in the work of 
the Dutchmen themselves, a similar love of everyday 
motive such as you discover in the art of the Danes. This 
modestly tenacious desire to be and to remain oneself is the 
ke3mote of Danish painting. And it is this quality that 
is responsible for an unbroken continuity of development 
extending down to the present day. 

On glancing, with somewhat more than casual, tourist 
curiosity at the artistic prospect of Norway, you will be 
greeted with a wholly different set of conditions, both social 
and historical, and consequently with results which present 
still further variation from the general type under considera- 
tion. Norway enjoys the distinction of having evolved, 
during the dim, legendary days of her intrepid Vikings and 
sea rovers, a thoroughly original and independent national 
style. Buckler and shield, carved ship prow, and curious 
wooden house, not to mention commemorative tablets to 
fallen heroes, and the richly ornamental dress of the living, 


all bear witness to a bold and individual conception of the 
possibilities of decorative design. Superb in rhythm and 
splendid in form as much of this work is, it was, alas, swept 
aside by the inevitable ferment of the ages and has persisted 
largely in mind and memory, and not, to any perceptible 
degree, as a vital creative force. It is true that at present 
there is an intelligent and well-defined movement to revive 
the ancient saga spirit, yet it is mainly confined to the field 
of arts and crafts. Although boasting what should logically 
have proved a magnificently fruitful legacy, contemporary 
Norwegian painting owes little or nothing to the past. Its 
actual beginnings date only from the early decades 
of the last century. In point of fact, it is the youngest 
school of the three, and as such flaunts the priceless boon 
of a fresh, unfatigued outlook upon nature and life. There 
having been no such thing as systematic training in their 
own country, the pioneer Norwegian painters went, as a 
rule, to Copenhagen for instruction, and it was there that 
they absorbed that veracious, clear-eyed vision of external 
reality which has set its wholesome seal upon the work of 
each successive generation. 

This, in brief, is the fragmentary and not infrequently 
shadowy profile of Scandinavian painting during the forma- 
tive stages of its development. You note in the art of 
Sweden, that is to say in the art of the Gustavian and 
Carolean periods, a refined and spirited eclecticism charac- 
teristic of a community in close touch with Continental 
ideals. Still, no matter how cultured its Court and upper 
classes may have been, a nation largely composed of restless 
warriors and remotely isolated agriculturists cannot be at 
the same time a nation of painters, and Sweden was fated 
to wait until a much later date before evincing her inherent 
artistic proclivities. In the case of Denmark, as you readily 


see, the situation was distinctly more favourable for the 
fostering of native talent. Less ambitious of conquering a 
worid position by sheer force of arms, satisfied in the main 
with her restricted natural bounderies, and possessing the 
wisdom and sagacity to cultivate herself intensively along 
all lines of activity, it is but fitting that art, which is so 
essentially a flower of social stability, should have first 
taken root upon Danish soil. With Norway it must always 
be a source of regret that the inspiring substratum of 
saga tradition should have been buried so deeply beneath 
the debris of time and, indeed, often wilfully neglected or 
destroyed — ^yct still in the present-day production of these 
rugged sons of mountain and fjord we are convincingly 
confronted with the spirit of their ancestors. Full of unde- 
veloped power and passionate defiance, more fundamentally 
talented than the Swedes, and endowed with an aggressive 
force often disconcerting to the pacific Danes, the Nor- 
wegians were able, within the span of a few brief, tempest- 
uous years, to place themselves abreast of their more 
advantageously situated neighbours. 

It was inevitable, once intercommunication with the 
Continent was established, that Scandinavian painting 
should have responded to those same influences which, 
during the ensuing decades, dominated European art in 
general. Classicism was followed by romanticism, and 
within romanticism and its robust successor, naturalism, 
lurked the germs of the impressionist movement. The 
romantic tendency in German art and the taste for story 
telling genre found ready devotees among the midcentury 
Scandinavian painters. In Sweden we have Malmstrom and 
his delicately diaphanous water nymphs; in Denmark we 
note Exner and his genial souled Amager peasants, while 
Norway completes the picture with the panoramically 


viewed fjords and mountains of Gude, and Tidemand's 
more serious and solidly constructed rural pastors or gaily 
decked bridal couples in the Hardanger. Diisseldorf was 
the point from which radiated this manifestly false concep- 
tion of reality. The grandiose glow of artificial sunset and 
the softly mellow radiance of humble, candle-lit interior 
characterized the all too popular output of this period. 
Genuine, first-hand observation was unknown. Art had 
again become a mere convention, though by no means so 
diverting a one as in the days of Watteau and his mdre 
playful pedants, Fragonard, Lancret, and Pater. 

While there is no denying that Scandinavian painters of 
the middle and the third quarter of the century fell imder 
this same insidious spell, they were by no means slavish 
followers of a mood which in more than one sense was 
utterly foreign to their inborn taste and inclination. Al- 
though there were at one interval no less than twenty -seven 
Swedish students at the Diisseldorf Academy, and though 
the prestige of Dahl at Dresden and Gude at Karlsruhe and 
later at Berlin was recognized on all sides, the Northern 
painters were more sincerely naturalistic in their landscapes 
and more soundly truthful in their character studies than 
were their Teutonic professors and prototypes. And when 
at length the day of Diisseldorf was finally over, and with 
one accord they all repaired to Munich, the Norwegians in 
particular revealed a sober richness of tonality and freedom 
of brush stroke which at once made them remarked in the 
then most popular art centre of Europe. 
. While it was portraiture and landscape which mainly 
attracted the Norwegians, it was the more pretentious 
appeal of historical theme that claimed the attention of the 
Swedes. This was not alone the day of Eilif Peterssen's 
dark and imposing likenesses of the leading artistic and 


literary figures of the early 'eighties; it was also the hour 
of the huge concoctions of Georg von Rosen, Gustaf 
Cederstrom, and Karl Hellqvist, certain of whose canvases, 
heroic in size and supposedly also so in sentiment, were 
actually painted within the shadow of the Academy walls 
and imder the approving eyes of Wagner and Piloty. We 
must not, however, be imduly severe upon the Scandina- 
vians of this stressful and not infrequently distressing epoch. 
Almost every artist of the day was doing much the same 
sort of thing. It was the fashion to be impressive. The 
human coimtenance was given imwonted significance by 
Lenbach and his followers, and historical scenes were staged 
with a dramatic effectiveness which rivalled that of the 
theatre. Out of this world, which was largely composed of 
rhetoric and imreality, soimd nevertheless a few virile and 
striking notes. You cannot forget the earnest, militant 
gaze of Eilif Peterssen's Ame Garborg — ^painted, it is 
true, much later, but still in the approved Mimich manner 
— ^nor do you fail to catch a hint of veritable arctic fortitude 
in the figure of von Rosen's Adolf Nordenskiold, reso- 
lutely facing the illimitable expanse of ice and snow stretch- 
ing about on every side. 

Straightforward and indigenous as Danish art has ever 
been, it did not entirely escape the current fallacies of the 
hour. Though it is true that such men as Carl Bloch suc- 
ceeded in ignoring the obligations of a well-defined national 
style, such phenomena were, however, notably rare. The 
genteel provincialism of Danish art remained virtually 
imdisturbed by extraneous S3rmpathies for some time yet. 
It was not, in fact, imtil the coming of Kr0yer that any per- 
ceptible change took place in the contribution of these 
peaceful apostles of objective verity, whose vision did not 
extend beyond the confines of their serene little coimtry, 


every comer of which reflects the most benign care and 
solicitude. The mention of Kr0yer brings us, by the way, 
to the very threshold of the modem movement, the first 
effects of which tended in the direction of internationalism, 
but which, after a brief period of clarification, became the 
obedient instnmient of a national artistic expression reveal- 
ing hitherto imsuspected depth and chromatic brilliancy. 

Those same tendencies which had for years past developed 
so spontaneously and unconsciously with the Danes, now 
took definite shape with the Swedes and Norwegians. The 
inspiring period of self-discovery ably outlined by Director 
Thiis in the field of Norwegian art, was paralleled by the 
Swedes along kindred lines. Just as the early 'eighties saw 
Erik Werenskiold, Christian Krohg, Gerhard Mimthe, and 
Eilif Peterssen back in Christiania, taking up the cudgels 
for the new cause, so that less belligerent but even more 
spirited group, which included Zom, Larsson, Liljefors, 
Josephson, and Nordstrom, likewise carried the fight right 
the portals of the Swedish Academy, which they finally to 
succeeded in opening to the stimulating light of day. And 
what is still more significant, the movement was in no sense 
confined %q painting alone. It was felt alike in all three 
coimtries and in all avenues of activity. As is usually the 
case it was the author who led the way, and the artist who 
followed with his still more highly developed sense of form 
and passionate quest of colour. In Denmark the eloquent 
mysticism of Grundtvig foimd'its graphic covmterpart in 
the cartoons of Skovgaard. In Norway Werenskiold and 
Kittelsen gave typical semblance to the idyllic figures of 
native folk tale, while Swedish landscape, first pictured with 
sympathetic accuracy in the novels of Strindberg, and the 
appealingly romantic periods of Vemer von Heidenstam, 
came into its full richness and splendour in the austerely 


beautiful panels of Karl Nordstrdm, the star-studded can- 
vases of Eugene Jansson, and the noble exaltation of 
Prince Eugen's luminous views of wood, water, and majesti- 
cally soaring cloud. 

The movement toward a more conscious appreciation of 
the very soul of the Scandinavian people seemed, however, 
to focus itself in the work and personality of that remarkable 
pioneer in a singularly fruitful field, Artur Hazelius, the 
virtual creator of the renowned Northern Museum in Stock- 
holm and the nearby Open Air Museum at Skansen. It is 
owing to the zealous energy and unflagging enthusiasm of 
Hazelius that the Scandinavian nation as a whole has been 
brought to a definite, objective realization of its place in 
European ethnic and esthetic development. No one had 
heretofore a concise idea as to what had actually been 
accomplished until Hazelius and his assistants began collect- 
ing the humble, anonymous treasure troves of peasant indus- 
try and arranging them with scientific precision and pre- 
senting them in the most enlightened and effective manner 
possible. Ancient wooden houses were transported bodily 
to Skansen and nestled among appropriately authentic gar- 
dens and groimds, or perched upon stony hillside corre- 
sponding as exactly as was feasible to their original sites. 
Rooms were re-erected and furnished precisely as they were 
in bygone days, and the incidental decorative and domestic 
arts, such as wood-carving, iron work, pottery, and weaving, 
foimd place in a broad scheme, the colour notes of which 
were contributed by the bright red, clear green, dauntless 
yellow, or discreet white and black of native dress. The 
work which Hazelius accomplished in Sweden imder such 
difficulties, but in the end with such a supreme measure of 
success, was in part duplicated at the Danish Folk and 
Industrial Art Museums of Copenhagen, and later at the 


Museum of Industrial Art in Christiania and the still more 
recent Open Air Folk Museum at Bygdo. 

It is impossible to over-estimate the value of this illu- 
minating work. The fast disappearing fragments of an 
eloquent and absorbing epoch were assembled and placed 
upon permanent record. Handicrafts of various descriptions 
were revived, and old customs and the spirit of a sturdy, 
wholesome past were kept alive and can never be 
entirely obliterated. The importance of what has been 
already described as the characteristically objective side of 
this great movement toward self-discovery— which in 
essence was merely a rediscovery — is far reaching. Its 
effects can be plainly felt in numerous widely separated 
channels of activity, and not least in the province of. the 
fine arts. It has, above all, taught the general public what 
the Scandinavian peoples really are, and thus affords the 
soimdest possible basis for judging that art which they to- 
day produce in such stimulating richness, abundance, and 
variety. It is work evolved under such conditions which 
you have in the present exhibition, though before approach- 
ing its latest manifestations we must resume a little more 
definitely the logical sequence of development. 

The painting of the naturalistic period, which is best 
exemplified in the robust, veracious excursions of Christian 
Krohg into the social, and of Bruno Liljefors into the 
animal world, gradually became more impressionistic in the 
hands of those Paris-trained men to whom an analysis of the 
shifting play of light seemed for the time being the end and 
aim of pictorial expression. The leading exponents of 
pleinairismwere Kroyer in Denmark, and Diriks in Norway, 
the latter being particularly successful in his ability to indi- 
cate motion. There is a grandeur, a touch of Ossianesque 
power and solenmity, in certain canvases by Diriks, which 


give them high place in contemporary Norwegian painting. 
You see here the man who is a direct descendant of centuries 
of sea rovers, and who embodies in himself and his work 
their restless, questing spirit. Modem though they lui- 
questionably be in their feeling for bright, sparkling tints 
and dexterous and vivacious surface effects, neither Zom 
nor Thaulow, two of the most facile technicians Scandinavia 
has ever boasted, can with any strictness be termed Impres- 
sionists. Few of the Northerners, in point of fact, are 
explicit followers of the impressionist formula. Broken sur- 
faces and the minute and often meticulous suggestion of 
tonal decomposition, as practised by the Frenchmen, are 
rare in the work of these artists who as a rule prefer a more 
direct and flowing brush stroke. Instead of carrying mat- 
ters as far as the pointellists, most of them merely made use 
of the spirit of the new gospel, which they adapted to their 
several needs and purposes. The Swedes remained quite 
as Swedish as before, and in Norway you see even as early 
as the 'nineties signs of a reaction, notably in the restrained 
and fervent triumphs of the new romantic movement, fos- 
tered by the late Halfdan Egedius, and to-day exemplified in 
the deeply personal art of Harald Sohlberg, whose canvases 
recall in their zealous, conscientious craftsmanship and sub- 
dued emotional intensity the work of a still earlier period. 
And as before the painter did not stand alone, for by the 
side of Sohlberg wrote and dreamed with delicate ardour the 
brothers Thomas and Vilhelm Krag, who have enriched 
modem Norwegian prose and verse with some of its rarest 
flowers of fancy and most sensitive, penetrant observation. 
Although after Impressionism logically come Post- 
Impressionism, Expressionism, and all the other isms that 
latter-day art is heir to, we must not fail to recognize the 
fact that two veritable precursors of what is now termed the 


modem movement, not alone in Scandinavian painting, but 
in the painting of Europe as well, were the Dane, Jens 
Ferdinand Willumsen, and the Norwegian, Edvard Munch. 
Both Willumsen and Mimch are innate pathfinders. If you 
concede a hint of RafFaelli in certain of Willumsen's early 
Paris studies and sketches, and a touch of Christian Krohg's 
naturalistic integrity in the work of Munch's first period, 
every trace of early dependence was lost in the invigourating, 
defiant canvases that shortly followed. Willumsen soon 
discovered that Paul Gauguin possessed a more progressive 
potency than did the narrowly Parisian painter of boulevard 
and banlieu, and as for Munch, he had merely to look into 
his own tremulous or feverishly exalted soul in order to 
summon forth a myriad teeming pictorial fancies. In Wil- 
lumsen you find, amid an impetuous torrent of creative ex- 
uberance, two essentially Danish qualities — sanity and 
humour. In Mimch's art one is confronted with an acute 
hypersensitiveness voiced now with masterly conviction, 
now in troubled, tortured accents. A profoimd awe, a 
cosmic fear, is the ke3mote of these canvases. He is as a 
child who sees terror in the most familiar shapes, or a man 
who shudders on the brink of an abyss, obsessed with the 
eternal mysteries of life, desire, and death. 

Matters have lately moved so fast in t;he field of art that 
men whose names half a dozen years ago were considered 
the synonym of modernity, to-day find themselves occupying 
a relatively middle position. Among these may be men- 
tioned the two superlatively talented Norwegians, Henrik 
Limd and Ludvig Karsten. They are both fluent, brilliant 
draughtsmen, and colourists of rare power and vivacity. 
The work of Lund in particular will doubtless command 
attention through its spirited verve of stroke and bold, yet 
delicately modulated colour values. There are, however, in 


the present exhibition still more advanced notes. The 
Danes, Sigurd Swane, Edvard Weihe, and Harald Giersing, 
go even a step further, while in the two canvases by Per 
Krohg you have the ideals of the Salon des Independants, 
plus a certain touch of Northern seriousness and sobriety. 

There is scant question but that certain of this work will 
seem to timorous stay-at-homes the outcome of sheer, wilful 
exaggeration or deliberate perversity. It may be impatri- 
otic to say so, but, judged by current European standards, 
we are distinctly behind the times when it comes to the 
matter of esthetic development. Whatever it may have 
accomplished in the political or industrial world, our much 
discussed progressive spirit has clearly not penetrated the 
subtler province of the fine arts. Even modest and ultra 
conservative little Copenhagen has had its glimpse of the 
Futurists, while copies of Der Blaue Reiter, Der Sturm, and 
Les Tendences Nouvelles are eagerly purchased in the 
more prominent book shops. While it is true that we have 
had our intermittently illuminating tabloid exhibitions at 
the Photo-Secession, nothing is yet known of modem 
art as a movement, and it is thus, and thus alone, that it 
should be studied, not merely from isolated, unrelated sam- 
ples, or specimen^ which confuse, without in the least degree 
clarifying, the popular mind. 

It is obviously too soon to predict with any measure of 
precision what effect the Expressionist propaganda may 
ultimately have upon Scandinavian art in general. One can 
only judge by what has taken place in the past. And yet 
one thing is certain, and that is that modernism must be 
reckoned with as a force possessing a vitality which cannot 
readily be ignored or extinguished. Copenhagen, as already 
noted, has lately been given the opportimity to judge for 
itself. Stockholm boasts its Sajon Joel and The Eight— 


whose leader is Isaac Ghinewald — ^while in Per Krohg and 
kindred spirits Christiania possesses its isolated but earnest 
apostles of progress. All this is a far cry from the crisp, 
inviolate whiteness of Gustaf Fjsestad's snow scenes, or 
the quiescent ambience of Vilhelm Hanmiersh0i's discreetly 
luminous little interiors. It is also far from the sterling 
objectivity of Ring's closely painted landscapes, and from 
Sundbom, the bright-countenanced scene of Carl Larsson's 
activity, snugly nestled among the birches of Dalecarlia. 
We have pushed rapidly forward during the past decade, 
perhaps a bit too rapidly, but still there is no cause for 
alarm, since that which holds within it the precious secret 
of permanency will survive, and that which is inconsequen- 
tial will be speedily consigned to the limbo of oblivion. 

There is one. fact which stands clearly forth after a 
comprehensive survey of Scandinavian painting, and it is 
that, no matter what transitions may have been recorded 
during successive periods of development, the primal, 
elementary basis of this art has remained unchanged. It 
continues, as always, full of tender lyricism and heroic 
intensity. It is the typical expression of a race whose 
civilization is jroung, yet whose roots lie deep-anchored in 
the past, and whose present is the direct product of certain 
definite, prenatal conditions. And not only does the 
racial factor enter largely into this work, but back of it 
looms a still more sovereign source of strength. The 
marked unity of tone — ^that blond clarity so characteristic 
of the North which you will instantly recognize — is merely 
one phase of a general congruity of aim, a single broad 
harmony of purpose which exists between the land itself 
and its people. For centuries there has been going silently 
and irresistibly forward a subtle process of interaction be- 
tween these two elements which is reflected alike in litera- 


ture and in art. There can be no question but that such 
facts are eloquently manifest in the work herewith under 
consideration. You instinctively feel, on studying these 
canvases, an exhilarating sense of direct communication 
with nature and natural forces. You note the naive 
sest of healthy, imfatigued sensibilities for fresh, tonic 
^lour contrasts, and you feel the thrill of eternal aspiration 
i^ this fondness for great, open spaces and the magic 
radiance of the arctic aurora. From the very outset this 
sturdy, sea-faring and forest-loving folk have been in com- 
plote consonance with their surroundings. And we can 
only be grateful that they have conveyed their esthetic 
message in terms at once so robustly beautiful and so 
valiantly autonomous. 

Tl^e current exhibition which, in brief, may be char- 
acterlxed as a superb demonstration of pictorial pantheism, 
revealp to Americans Scandinavian art as it actually exists. 
It is distinctly more progressive than retrospective or 
reminiscent in spirit, and in being so is all the more true 
to artistic conditions as they obtain to-day in the three 
coimtries represented. Face to face with these stimulating, 
colourful canvases, you will doubtless find much to admire, 
and not a little that may prove disconcerting. Yet you 
must beaf in mind one important thing, and that is to look 
at each separate picture, in as far as possible, with the eyes 
of the man who painted it. His vision is more individual, 
his soul more vigorously or subtly expressive than yours, 
and it is your duty to take his message on faith, in case 
you do not at first comprehend it. For it has always been, 
and will always be, the artist's mission to lead, and the 
public's privilege to follow. 



By CARL G. LAURIN, of Stockholm 

IT IS not until comparatively late that Sweden makes her 
appearance in European art. It is true that in this 
country, where the same race had for thousands of years 
lived a free and hardy life, there had existed since time 
immemorial an excellent type of industrial art, which stUl 
survives in our textile peasant work, and which produced 
bronze ornaments and weapons of great artistic beauty 
even before Christian times. But it was not until the 
twelfth century that Christian architecture made its way 
up to us, and as for Swedish painting, one can hardly speak 
of it before some decades after New York, or, more properly. 
New Amsterdam, had been founded by the same industrious 
and artistically trained Dutchmen, who in painting were 
the leading nation of the seventeenth century, and frcHn 
whom Bhrenstrahl, bom in Hamburg, 1629, and called 
the father of Swedish painting, received iiwtruction, even 
though die pompous Italo-German baroque style was to be 
predominant in his production. Ehrenstrahl painted three 
great sovereigns— -Charles X, who made Sweden great, 
his son, Charles XI, who made it strong, and the latter'^ 
son, Charles XII, who made it honoured the world over, 
and for whom even our vast country was too small. Sweden 
was great, but the population was scanty and poor, and the 

eighteenth centiiry was for us a much needed period of 
economic improvement. Like the rest of Europe, Sweden, 
too, during this century, turned admiring looks on the 
literary and artistic culture of France, which also politically 
had been our traditional ally since the alliance between 
Gustavus Adolphus II and Richelieu. Among the Swedes 
who won for themselves honoured and famous names in 
Paris were the pastel painter, Gustaf Lundberg, the por- 
trait painter, Alexander Roslin, the miniaturist. Hall, the 
gouache painter, Nils Lafrensen the younger, called 
Lavreince, and K. G. Pilo. Our first and greatest sculptor, 
Sergei, also received his preliminary training in the French 
school, though the then prevailing passion for the antique 
was to chill like a cold blast the warm, sensual treatment 
of marble which was at first characteristic of him. 

It might appear as though this Gustavian — ^for it gathered 
round King Gustavus Ill^this bright, technically thorough, 
and elegant art had been, so to speak, put to flight by the 
pistol shot at the masked ball at the Stockholm Opera in 
1792, when Gustavus III was murdered. But the real cause 
was that the times had everjnvhere changed. Modem, 
classicism, and almost simultaneously, romanticism, now 
entered the arena. Reynolds's pupil, K. F. von Breda, 
visualizes the new aspect of the times in his portraits, at 
once dignified and romantic. During the nineteenth cen- 
tury Swedish painting was \mder the sway of the tendencies 
prevalent in European art at large, and we find among 
the painters excellent representatives of romanticism,^ 
among the most prominent of which may be mentioned 
August Malmstrom. In the middle of the century the 
Diisseldorf genre had admirable exponents in Fagerlin and 
A. Jemberg, and in landscape art Reinhold Norstedt ap- 
pears as a genuine Swedish successor of the Fontainebleau 


school. In historical painting, as it had been developed in 
Munich, Brussels, and Paris, under the influence of deep 
studies in museums, J. Hockert, J. Kronberg, G. von Rosen 
and G. Cederstrom are well worthy to be placed alongside 
good German, Belgian, and French historical painters. 
Georg von Rosen's portraits, with their lofty and noble 
style and their subtle interpretation of character, are works 
of great and enduring value, and will bear comparison 
with those of Lenbach. 

The year 1885 marks a new epoch in modem Swedish art. 
A group of young artists who had studied painting in Paris 
\mder the guidance of French masters, and who had come 
\mder the influence of Manet, Bastien-Lepage, and Cazin, 
exhibited their works in the spring and autumn of 1885 at 
Stockholm. They severed themselves from the Academy 
of Art and its method of teaching, found fault with its lack 
of interest in the arrangement of exhibitions, and accord- 
ingly adopted the name of "Opponents." Some of these 
artists joined together in 1886, and called their association 
the Konstnarsforbimdet, or Artists' Association. To this 
organization belong, or have belonged, most of the best 
Swedish artists at the close of the nineteenth century, 
though some of them, it is true, were members of it only 
for a short time. 

Their greatest painter, though a somewhat erratic type, 
was , Ernst Josephson, a combative character, full of 
melancholy and defiance, who became insane as early as 
1887. His picture Stromkarlen — The Water-Sprite — ^in 
the possession of Prince Eugen, reflects both in subject and 
execution the quintessence of the life and work of this man 
of undoubted genius. Among those who returned home 
from France, bringing with them light and joy, and having 
acquired a marvellous skill of hand, which enabled .them. to 



give a still more concise expression to the impressions 
from their own country with which they were teeming, were 
Carl Larsson and Anders Zbm. Another great artist, whom 
it is always customary to mention with them, is Bruno 

One must know Sweden very intimately in order to 
understand how it is that these three artists, above all 
others, have won the hearts of the Swedish people. Carl 
Larsson paints the home with all the associations of happi- 
ness and sunshine, of children and flowers, that the word 
calls up. Zbm, again, is pre-eminently the painter of the 
Dalecarlian people, that sturdy stronghold of the Swedish 
nation and, withal, of the Swedish peasant woman, full of 
health, vigour and unconscious sensuality, and fresh and 
hearty as a ripe cherry. Liljefors, in turn, reveals to us 
the forest with its mysterious life. No one has felt such 
deep sympathy as he with Swedish nature, with foxes, 
eagles, ducks, loons, and other birds and beasts following 
the instincts of their kind in the solitude of the primeval 
forest. The Swedish people have always loved to penetrate 
nature's secrets. Linnseus, Swedenborg, Celsius, Berzelius, 
and Arrhenius are in this respect the true children of a 
people whose science, poetry, and art have refreshed them- 
selves, with almost religious ardour, at the maternal breasts 
of nature. This absorption in the universe is also seen in 
the paintings of Eugene Jansson. Though there is a touch 
of lyrical delicacy in his work, there is a breadth and a 
grandeiu- about it vdiich, to my mind, are unique in the art 
of our time. 

With austere, manly defiance, which at certain periods 
has appeared harsh and gloomy, but which has now dis- 
solved into an intense revelling in coloiu-, this same feeling 
for nature comes to light in Karl Nordstrom, at present 


the strong hand that holds together the painters who have 
remained in Konstnarsforbundet. The art of Nils Kreuger 
is deliberate, composed, and reliable. He has delineated the 
domestic animals as they live in the open — cows placidly 
chewing their cud in juicy green pastures, shy horses, and 
stupid sheep. Seldom have realism and monumentality 
grown into one as in the pictures of Krueger. We have 
too few figure painters in current Swedish art. Prominent 
among them is Richard Bergh, our foremost modem por- 
trait painter, whose likenesses of Strindberg and the poet 
Eroding are a study for the psychologist as well as for the 
art lover. Bergh does not paint much, but what he paints 
is usually of real significance. He is at once a thinker and 
an artist, without, as is often the case, allowing the former 
to encroach upon the latter. A faithful depictor of the life 
of the Swedish people is Carl Wilhelmson. With thin, 
bright coloiu^ he paints the lean peasant girls, and has 
discovered a kind of beauty in things poor and scanty. 
The exact antithesis to him in all but the bright colours is 
Gosta von Hennigs, whose canvases are veritable orgies in 
red and blue. He is intoxicated by coloiu* — coloiu* for its 
own sake. The subjects he is most addicted to are clowns, 
dancing girls, and other pictiu-esque types outside the pale 
of prim and respectable society. 

It cannot be denied that Sweden at present is not merely 
an art producing, but also an art loving country, and a 
coimtry where art is bought. If struggle means life, we 
have been very much alive in art during the last twenty 
years. Unfortunately, there has been rife among us far too 
much of the spirit of dogmatism and bias, and this spirit has 
often hindered us from uniting our forces and appearing in 
full muster when it has been a question' of exhibiting all of 
our best, either at home or abroad. 


In virtue of his high position and his universally acknowl- 
edged artistic talent, through his judicious patronage of art, 
and not least by virtue of his personal amiability, Prince 
Eugen, whose whole bent is toward the ideals represented 
by the Konstnarsforbundet, has exerted a most beneficial 
influence. In his beauiful home in Djurg^rden Park there 
is an excellent collection of modem Swedish art. And here 
he paints pictures in which, with discreet passion, if the 
expression be permitted, he gives a personal expression to 
nature, particularly the Swedish summer night, with all its 
lyrical harmony. 

It is only in the northernmost parts that Sweden is a 
mountainous coimtry; otherwise it is a land of forests and 
lakes, and few have depicted the wide prospects over blue 
ridges in the far distance as has Otto Hesselbom. G. Kail- 
stenius paints pine forests and lakes so as to make one 
almost feel the smell of resin and the cool shade under the 
trees, and Gunnar Hallstrom lends a true Swedish char- 
acter to the waters of Lake Malaren and the stolid, earnest 
peasant culture which obtains thereabouts. Sweden is 
indeed a peasant country, and we are proud to possess a 
race of peasants which has for thousands of years been 
healthy, free, and self-reliant. The himiour of Swedish 
peasant life has its artistic interpreter in Albert Engstrom, 
a man admired all over Sweden — admired for his quaint, 
untranslateable verse, his prose which in national pith and 
vigour is unequalled by that of any living Swede, and not 
least for his drawings, in which he has revealed to us the 
very fundamentals of our being. 

Three of our sculptors are clearly in the front rank. 
Foremost perhaps is Carl Milles, a sculptor of genius, a 
man bubbling over with creative power, and endowed with 
moniunental force. Alongside of him stands Christian 


Eriksson. A consummate artist in all he touches, whether 
small or great, particularly in his treatment of surfaces, he 
has the feeling for nature and the love of detail so character- 
istic of the sculptors of the Early Renaissance. Eriksson's 
best works are his big reliefs on the walls of the new Dra- 
matic Theatre in Stockholm, but his characteristic Lapp 
subjects in wood, bronze, or stone, also bear abimdrnt 
testimony to his originality and taste. Woman has a 
glowing interpreter in the sculptor, Eldh, who has also 
admirably depicted the complicated type of the woman- 
hater as exemplified in Strindberg. 

In this brief review, where regard has been paid only to 
the very best, there has not been room even for the names 
of many Swedes who are endeavouring to give personal form 
to those elements which the people of our nation especially 
love and admire. For small nations, even more than for 
big ones, quality is a matter of supreme and vital import- 
ance, particularly in the province of the mind, where the 
small nations' thinking or thirst for beauty may sometimes 
bring forth one supreme master — a Plato, or a Rembrandt — 
outweighing all that has been produced for centuries in the 
same department in different quarters of the world. The 
Swedish historian Gejier maintains that every one can do 
something better than any one else. I believe this to be 
also true of nations, and I believe that the great world- 
symphony is decidedly enriched by the chords, the hymns, 
of Swedish clang-colour which our people set up in praise 
of beauty — ^beauty as our eyes see it. 



An Epistolary Preface 

Director of the Ro^al Gallery, Copcnhaflni 

My Dear Christian Brinton: 

SURELY you still remember the Pavilon on Langelinie 
where two or three times we lunched so congenially 
together. Through the great windows of the restaurant wc 
had an outlook eastward over the Sound and the ships, 
westward over the tranquil moat to the green trees of the 
Citadel, where we heard at times a blackbird's whistle. In 
the restaurant, near the entrance, sat loyal German tourists 
with beer mugs and souvenir postcards. At other tables 
my countrymen were laughing at their own jokes. We 
Danes are — as you correctly observed^a people who are 
fond of amusing ourselves, and who do not think very much 
about the morrow; indeed, altogether too little. Some- 
times, however, on beautiful summer evenings you will meet 
people here who, silent and dreaming, gaze out over the 
sea. This, also, is perhaps characteristic of our nation. 
We have grown up with Andersen's Fairy Tales, and have 
had other good authors with whom you are doubtless 

When from Langelinie I see the beautiful clouds floating 
over a gently rocking sea, I often find myself recalling an 


artist who, near a hundred years ago, long before the 
Pavilon was built and souvenir postcards were invented, 
went modestly on his evening walks from his professor's 
quarters in the Academy at Kongens Nytorv out to this 
spot. He was neither poet nor dreamer. His sharp eyes 
made purely scientific observations upon the formation of 
clouds, he examined the construction of ships with the 
eye of a professional, and sought to explain the laws govern- 
ing the perspective of the shifting waves. The artistic 
ambition of this upright soul was to give the most precise 
picture possible of nature, as true as a mirror. His can- 
vases are old-fashioned; all objects present themselves as 
though seen through a strong field glass, but the tones are 
fine and clear as day. When I now look from Langelinie out 
across the sea, Danish painting in later years does not seem 
to have produced works that, in striking fidelity to nature, 
surpass those of Eckersberg. 

And over there in the Citadel behind the tranquil moat 
his pupil, K0bke, had his home. Even to-day, both in fact 
and in the art of K0bke, these old fortifications are an 
idyllic spot. His sister's pink dress against the green trees 
of the rampart, the simshine on an empty wagon in the 
Citadel bakery yard, the Dannebrog flying over a boat 
landing, or a pair of poplars in the twilight, were for K0bke 
motives sufficiently rich in interest. You, dear Mr. 
Brinton, at once imderstood how to value his pictures from 
these realms of peace, his portraits of relatives, friends, and 
plain townsfolk. They are as modest and unpretentious as 
the violets on the Citadel terrace. 

When Marstrand, K0bke's contemporary and fellow- 
pupil imder Eckersberg, walked here on Langelinie, he 
looked, I fancy with greater interest upon the promenaders 
than on the sea and the Citadel. Here he must have met 


young girls, whose graceful necks, blushing cheeks, and 
bright eyes reminded him of the beautiful women of 
Rome — ^unforgettable memories of his youthful student 
days. Here, too, he met droll Copenhagen tjrpes, who 
served as capital models for his character figures from 
Holberg's comedies, and perhaps, also, the tall, gaunt 
officers he may have used for his representations of Don 
Quixote. Marstrand, the most richly endowed and many- 
sided of our older painters, had himself the noble knight's 
thirst for lofty deeds. His sketches and drawings show a 
vast range of happy inspiration, but when he had to carry 
out his work according to the demands of the time, evil and 
invincible forces paralyzed his hand. The colouring became 
crude, the form characterless, the features rigid, and life 
itself had departed. 

During this entire period exact execution was regarded 
as the hallmark of respectable painting. In all our art, from 
Eckersburg down, this was held in highest honour. It was 
the flowering time of the so-called national art. Poets 
had s\mg the praises of the fatherland, and an eloquent 
critic pointed out the importance of purely native themes. 
Landscape painters sought to epitomize the peculiar 
beauty of Danish nature. Genre painters glorified the 
Danish peasantry. Art, they held, should be Danish in 
form as well as content, and borrow nothing from other 
nations. In our separation from the world many virtues 
flourished, but also many vices, for of course men ought 
to strive to be themselves, yet, as Henrik Ibsen says, 
only the devil is self-sufficient. And so, when Danish paint- 
ing came to be exhibited at the World's Exposition at Paris 
in 1878, it made such a sorry showing that an old Danish 
artist seriously believed that the canvases were covered 
with dust, which had been overlooked in cleaning. It stuck 


80 tight and thick that they seemed lustreless, poor in colour, 
and strangely antiquated. For this reason several young 
Danish painters went to school in Paris and in due course 
brought home new conceptions of the aim of painting. 
Later, other Danish artists, when they had opportunity, 
have looked about in the worid, though it cannot be said 
that they have learned overmuch from foreign art. 

We are a little nation, and our national independence is 
for us the most precious quality we possess. A local news- 
paper has recent^ given some soimd advice regarding the 
forthcoming exhibition of Danish art in America. Regard 
for the purely artistic merit of the canvases ought, as a 
matter of principle, to be subordinated. It is far more 
important that the pictures bear the familiar national 
stamp. As yet I do not definitely know how the exhib- 
ition which is shortly to be placed before the tribunal of 
America will be constituted. But I know that you, dear 
Mr. Brinton, have wished that it might be free from 
banalities. You have preferred the characteristic to the 
commonplace, the fresh to the dusty, the vigorous to the 
vapid. You have sought to combine that which in your 
opinion is good art with that which recommends itself as 

And in any event the exhibition would not have lacked 
the national impress. This factor does not depend upon a 
peculiar manner of treatment or style of painting; Tiepolo 
is just as Italian as Botticelli. Nor does the national note 
depend upon subject. Every good artist expresses his 
nationality in new forms. The invited painters are all 
legitimate children of their land, and many of them have 
inherited some of their best qualities from those same art- 
ists who, beside the Sound and in the Citadel, founded the 
Danish school of painting. Truthfulness is quite as precious 


to Ring as to Bckersberg, and Vilhelm Hammershei has 
seen, just as Kebke, that the most unobtrusive lives and 
the simplest scenes and incidents can contain a world of 
marvellous poetry. 

But the individual characterization of these painters I 

resign to you, my dear Mr. Brinton. You have studied our 

art with a sympathetic interest and imderstanding for 

which I offer you my heartfelt thanks. 

Yours sincerely, 




Dinctor of tbc National Oalleiy, ChriatiaDia 

ON FESTIVE occasions we Norwc^aiis are prone to 
speak of "Old Norway," yet to tell the truth there is 
much that is both young and new in "Old Norway." Our 
national painting— to mention one instance — is by no 
means old in years, for it was not until after the dissolution 
of the union with Denmark that the nation awoke to con- 
sciousness and began to assert its independence in the 
domain of art. In less than a generation from that time — 
1814 — a little band of painters appeared, who in popular 
opinion stood out clearly as a true Norwegian school, 
although every member of the group had obtained his 
artistic education abroad, and was still obliged to seek a 
livelihood there. At home in Norway the people were 
wholly engrossed in the struggle to improve the economic 
position of the country, and secure her political indepen- 
dence under the new union with Sweden. Hence many 
years passed before this little band of Norwegian artists 
could find a footing on their native soil. Yet although 
every member of the older school of Norwegian painters 
obtained his training in German academies — Dresden, Diis- 
seldorf, or Munich — and to a great extent resided in foreign 
countries, they nevertheless painted the homeland, and by 

means of summer visits and frequent journeys to the 
mother country, they maintained a connection with the 
people and the scenery which was reflected in their art. 

No Norwegian painter is more worthy of mention in a 
rapid survey of the history of our art than Johan Christian 
Dahl, the father of our painting. Not only chronologi- 
cally, but in precedence, he stands in the front rank, as the 
earliest and one of the most inspired interpreters of Nor^ 
wegian scenery. In an artistic sense, Dahl was the dis- 
coverer of Norwegian landscape. Although as professor of 
the Academy at Dresden he was obliged to live far from his 
native land, he never ceased to interpret and glorify Norway 
in his art. During his summer joiimeys he traversed the 
valleys and mountain wilds, sailed the long coast and 
penetrated the deep fiords, so that later he might return to 
his studio at Dresden with a rich harvest of studies that 
were wonderfully fresh in treatment, and true in colouring. 
Dahl died at Dresden the 14 October, 1857. He was the 
Constable of Norwegian art, and one of the greatest figures 
among European landscape painters of that period. Dahl's 
talented pupil, Feamley, followed in his master's footsteps, 
and gave greater decorative effect to the healthy poetic 
naturalism of the older artist. But Feamley died young, 
just as his art reached its zenith, and thereby the line of 
tradition from Dahl was broken, and the further develop- 
ment of Norwegian painting considerably retarded. 

The next group of painters, which appeared in the 'forties, 
and influenced the character of Norwegian art for nearly 
twenty years, sought its education in the studios of Diissel- 
dorf . At that time a new romantic school was predominant 
there, differing from Dahl's fresh, natural romanticism in its 
more literary and eclectic outlook, with a preference for the 
theatrical, the sentimental, and a pretentious 



of colouring. Nevertheless, the period of Norwegian art 
which followed — ^the Diisseldorf Period — ^must in certain 
respects be regarded as a sort of golden age, rich in talent, 
and in definite harmony with other movements in our 
national culture. The time immediately before and after 
the July Revolution was a period of reawakening after the 
days of affliction that succeeded the war and the imion 
of 1814. The courage which long had lain crushed under 
financial troubles and political difficulties now rose and 
expanded during the so-called Patriotic Period. Recovered 
freedom, growing independence, and the glorious traditions 
of the past which the nation was now ambitious of main- 
taining, inspired the people with faith in the powers of 
their country and themselves, a faith which found focus 
in the personality of that great poet and national leader, 
Henrik Wergeland. Alike in verse and in speech all 
praised the "gallant Norwegian yeoman," and his rock- 
bound land, but neither the yeoman nor his coimtry were 
very well known at that epoch. Therefore, in the 'forties, 
we note an intense desire to study the people and the 
country, a period of self-discovery in Norwegian intellec- 
tual life, when scholarship, poetry, and art went hand 
in hand, each being accorded equal significance. 

Dahl and Feamley, it is true, began this work by the 
discovery of Norwegian mountain scenery, the beauties of 
the fiords, the majesty of the moimtain wilds, and the pic- 
turesque grandeur of waterfall. But as yet no great poet 
or painter had really approached the people. The character 
of the Norwegians still lay hidden and obscure in the dark- 
ness of the saga ages. Hence the work of the investigator 
was needed, and a desire to imite the past with the present 
was steadily persistent throughout the years of later 
romanticism which now followed in Norway. The work of 


historical research was begun, its most famous exponent 
being P. A. Mimch, the author of The History of the 
Norwegian People. Simultaneously began the systematic 
labour of investigating and preserving the great monuments 
of the past, and of collecting the rich and varied treasures 
of the Norwegian imagination. It was in those years that 
our curious wooden churches were discovered, and our fairy 
tales, our ancient legends and folk songs were collected and 
interpreted, while our composers began to imbibe at the 
foimtain head of folk melody. 

Nor must we forget such painters as Tidemand and Gude, 
the principal representatives of the Diisseldorf school, and 
the only really popular Norwegian painters of the older 
period. Tidemand desired to be an historical painter, and 
to depict our heroic age, but he soon perceived that there 
was a task nearer at hand which no one thus far had 
attempted — ^the depiction of the Norwegian people of his 
own time. It was thus that Tidemand selected the special 
field from which he rarely departed, that of painting the 
life and surroimdings of the Norwegian peasant. Tide- 
mand's art suffers from the same faults as do the majority of 
German paintings of the Romantic Period — ^it exhibits the 
same tendency toward the literary and the sentimental, and 
it reveals the same imdeveloped colour sense and lack of 
individual execution. Nevertheless, his pictures of national 
life proved a valuable factor in the onward march of 
Norwegian culture. 

The name of Hans Gude is intimately associated with 
that of Tidemand, and the two artists are often mentioned 
together. The yoimger landscape painter, who both as 
friend and fellow-worker stood so near Tidemand, is the 
second central figure in Norwegian painting of the middle of 
the nineteenth century. Gude's art shows a wide range. 


He portrayed the mountains and lakes, the narrow fiords of 
the West, and the smiling landscapes of the East — all with 
happy, harmonious feeling, and a keen sense of the idyllic. 
Gude was also an academy teacher of high repute, first in 
Diisseldorf, later in Karlsruhe and Berlin, and as such 
occupied an important position as insturctor of the yoimger 

However, during the 'seventies the yoimg Norwegian 
painters, instead of turning to the above cities for edu- 
cation, selected the new art center at Mimich, and thither 
repaired most of the prominent painters of about the year 
1880 who were destined to play such an important part in 
the development of native art — e.g., the "men of the 
'eighties" — Mimthe, Werenskiold, Eilif Peterssen, Skredsvig, 
Kittelsen, Harriet Backer, Kitty Kielland, etc. Two of 
the most gifted members of the same generation, Krohg 
and Thaulow, obtained their education elsewhere, Krohg 
in Berlin imder Gussow, and Thaulow first imder Gude at 
Karlsruhe and later in Paris, yet in spite of subsequent 
influences from other quarters, the work of most of these 
painters shows traces of German training. 

By degrees, however, the ties that boimd Norwegian 
painters to Germany were loosened. Mimthe and Isaach- 
sen, the two senior members of the group, were the earliest 
to visit Paris and to receive first-hand impressions of 
French art, and just as this latter school was celebrating its 
superiority at the International Exhibition of 1878, its fame 
appears to have reached the academy students at Munich. 
Hence after the year 1880 we find nearly all the yoimg 
Norwegian painters assembled in Paris, eager to learn and 
to participate in the fight for the cause of modem art. 

The golden age of naturalism had just dawned. The old 
studio traditions were broken, Manet had propoimded a 


new and fresher view of reality, and with his inspired tech- 
nique had made giant strides toward the further develop- 
ment of painting. Simultaneously Monet had revealed the 
claims of landscape painting in the open air and simlight, 
and was engaged in preparing a new and cleaner palette, and 
in developing the technique of impressionism and studying 
the decomposition of colour tones. Even though our Nor- 
wegian painters did not always come into dose contact with 
the actual exponents of the new art, they lived, nevertheless, 
in a productive period, when fresh ideas were disseminated 
far and wide. From Paris they journeyed northwards. 
About the year 1883 nearly every imit of our artistic 
strength was gathered in Christiania, determined to remain 
in the old coimtry, to work and struggle at home. 

We now enter a new epoch in the history of Norwegian 
painting. The Period of Emigration is past and the 
National Period begins. The younger men sought to free 
themselves from the traditions of the German school, from 
its eclecticism and studio taste, its dark and brownish 
colour. From this time forward the influence of France 
is predominant, even though foreign technique is always 
adapted, as far as possible, to the requirements of our own 
scenery and temperament. Werenskiold and Gerhard 
Mimthe, in particular, displayed a firm desire to Nor- 
wegianize themselves, and imder their guidance a new 
period of self-culture was introduced. The plain, imroman- 
tic landscape of the East, and the genuine, realistic Nor- 
wegian peasant, without any extraneous adornment, now 
appeared for the first time in Norwegian painting. 

The early years of naturalism in Norway were both 
stormy and noisy. The air resoimded with shibboleths, 
war cries, taimts, wranglings, and squabbles. The public 
was quite at a loss for a dear understanding of this new 


open-air movement in landscape, and was full of illwill and 
bitterness toward this naturalism which set itself the task 
of portraying social life with brutal frankness, without pity 
or mercy. The people at home had never seen other art 
than that of the aftermath of the German romantic school, 
and it is small wonder that this fresh tonality and free hand- 
ling were completely foreign and distasteful to them. 
Moreover, the lack of a critic with a right imderstanding of 
the issues at stake widened and deepened the gulf that 
separated the public and the painter. 

The artists themselves, on the other hand, revelled with 
no little delight in this troubled sea of contempt. Seen 
from the outside, their fight often had the appearance of a 
torrent of youthful outpourings and exaggerations. These 
men were above all accused of being one-sided, but they 
won strength in proportion as they developed this very 
quality, for behind their defiance stood a sturdy faith in the 
cause for which they struggled. Better fighters were, in- 
deed, never seen. We are compelled to admire the courage 
and fortitude displayed by this little band, crushed as they 
were by poverty, accused of heresy, and despised by the 
world at large. Yet they remained imdaimted. They 
painted, argued, drank, and battled bodily, even, for the 
new gospel. And at last the art of painting, after centimes 
of thraldom imder the overpowering prestige of the old 
masters, imder the discipline of academies, and the 
formulae of pedantic esthetes, cast off its fetters, and 
dared to view nature directly and paint her as she really 

With this newborn faith in actuality, this pantheistic 
enthusiasm for nature and truth, the men of the 'eighties 
wrote, spoke, and painted. In literature the main themes 
were social problems and stormy demonstrations of bellicose 


individualism. In art men were occupied with breaking 
tradition, and securing a victory for dear-eyed reality. 
The fight against the public and press was wild and reckless, 
but when the victory was won — comparatively quickly — 
and this young, radical art after the lapse of a few years was 
not only tolerated but even imderstood, jyhen painting in 
Norway finally achieved official recognition, there can be 
little doubt that it was the result of the artists' courage and 
sagacity, yet first and foremost because of the abimdant 
talent possessed by this band, a generation that claimed 
Werenskiold, Krohg, Thaulow, and Mimthe. Nor must we 
forget to mention the rise of a yoimger group, with such a 
genius as Edvard Mimch at its head. 

Indeed, the 'eighties produced an enormous amoimt of 
good art — a disproportionate amoimt in fact, for so small 
and poor a nation as ours. Undoubtedly during these 
years both painting and literature floiuished, and despite 
all this juvenility and bustle, the lives and struggles of 
these artists were traced in strong and characteristic lines. 
The very idealism which they scorned by name was in 
reality their inspiration — ^the idealism of life, action, and 
opinion. Yet their efiorts alone could not have achieved 
the victory so quickly. The naturalistic tendencies of 
painting had as a backgroimd our national development 
and the revolution in public consciousness that took place 
during those years. The artists were but a tiny group in 
the advancing army which at that period forcibly made its 
way through traditional barriers. The strong, vital cur- 
rents of thought from Ibsen's dramas swept through the 
intellectual life of Norway, and thence across that of 
Europe. The fresh moimtain breezes that issued from the 
verse and prose of Bj0mson, the caustic fire of Georg 
Brandes's criticism, the passion for truth in the works of 


Garborg and Jaeger, the wave of radicalism that mounted 
high in the political world — these were the secret forces in 
the backgroimd. 

This backgroimd shortly developed into a universal one. 
Positivist philosophy, with its revaluation of old values, 
scientific research, with its sobering effect in all departments 
of intellectual life — even in art — all were factors in the case. 
People began to pay more systematic attention to the 
experiences of the senses, and naturalism waxed strong in 
art, becoming a kind of twin brother to empiricism in science. 
We feel that democracy is the soil from which all these 
movements sprang, spreading restlessly about on all sides, 
seething with discontent and with dreams of happiness. A 
longing for social revolution everywhere makes itself felt, 
and the revival of Norwegian painting in the 'eighties was 
merely a reflection of those deep-seated currents of thought 
that surged back and forth at this period. 

The most prominent painters in the fighting line of the 
naturalists were Thaulow, Krohg, Werenskiold, and Mimthe. 
Of these Frits Thaulow first entered the lists, and was also 
the first to withdraw and turn his back upon the narrow 
artistic conditions of his native coimtry. Thaulow was a 
typical cosmopolitan with a refined and elegant taste for 
colour, who did not feel at home among the naturalists with 
their bold strength and imadomed truth. Weary of the 
rank smell of earth, so attractive to the open-air school, he 
returned in his latter years to the studio, where, with dainty 
touch and technical cleverness, he won for himself a Euro- 
pean reputation, and for his productions a large market in 

Christian Krohg is gifted in quite another direction. 
Originally a bold and vigorous colourist, he reached, under 
the influence of Manet, a higher measure of picturesque 


strength and raciness than any other Norwegian painter 
before or since. Moreover, he evinced decided social 
sympathies, both as painter and journalist, and above all 
regarded art as a reflex of society. His work was charac- 
terized by actuality, frequently with a definite purpose; he 
usually selecting strongly marked types and a genuinely 
veracious milieu. Krohg was first and foremost the demo- 
cratic portrayer of modem social life, especially of the 
Christiania proletariat, but at the same time he foimd a 
special field in depicting seafaring life, and in particular in 
painting the old Norwegian pilots with remarkable sym- 
pathy and skill. 

The third, and in certain respects the most significant 
figure in the art of the 'eighties, was Erik Werenskiold, a 
painter who despite his fifty-eight years still retains his 
full vigour, and keeps abreast even of the younger mem- 
bers of the school, always imprejudiced and clear-sighted 
with regard to the relative status of modem painting. In 
Werenskiold's artistic temperament we find strength of 
purpose, cool calculation, and a quiet, happy enthusiasm. 
He is a mixture of the logician and the lyrist. The fame 
of Werenskiold as an artist is chiefly connected with his 
now classic illustrations to Norwegian fairy tales, in which 
he depicts each story with a happy insight into the char- 
acter of the people, and, as it were, sees with the eyes of 
a peasant. With masterly tact the scenes are laid in an 
indefinite yet not very distant past, imagination and real- 
ity alternating and supplementing each other in the most 
delightful manner. As a painter Werenskiold has divided 
his talents between a portrayal of the Norwegian peasant 
in a typically Norwegian landscape and portrait painting. 
His artistic development has proceeded evenly and without 
lapses, yet marked by constant experiment and self-reno- 


vation as to newer tendencies, so that of late he has 
unreservedly espoused the modem movement in its striving 
after strength of colouring and decorative effect. 

Gerhard Mimthe early joined the three pioneer painters 
mentioned above and, in fact, constituted the rarest 
element in the resulting quartette. He is Norway's fore- 
most landscape artist of the naturalistic period, and at the 
same time he is the imaginative renewer and recreator of 
our present-day decorative art, conceived in the old Norse 
spirit. It is a matter for sincere regret that this original 
and stimulating talent is not represented in our exhibition. 

The whole artistic development of the 'eighties culmi- 
nated, however, about 1890, in the work of Eklvard Mimch, 
imquestionably the most gifted of all Norwegian painters. 
With his intuitive genius, the profoimd spiritual depths 
of his vision, his richly varied and soulful, though not 
always technically finished production, he remains, in the 
author's opinion, the most interesting and compelling perso- 
nality in Scandinavian painting of to-day. The only artist 
with whom he can be compared in point of creative strength 
and poetic genius is his great contemporary, Gustav 
Vigeland, the sculptor. Mimch was the product of the na- 
turalism of the 'eighties. He was originally influenced by 
Krohg, and during his fruitful period of the latter part 
of the 'eighties, he painted some of the ablest figure com- 
positions and portraits which can be foimd in the entire 
range of our art. His great canvas. Spring, in the Natio- 
nal Gallery, as a pictorial arrangement, a portrayal of 
hiunanity, and a coloiuistic achievement, is an indisputable 
masterpiece, and perhaps the most important and most 
mature work in all Norwegian painting. 

It is the first warm day of Spring. The yoimg girl's 
invalid chair has been placed by the open window, and, 


languidly reclining on the pillows, she sits and breathes the 
air that sighs through the room. A light breeze laden with 
the fragrance of the fields at this moment fills the window 
curtain, so that it swells like a sail. As if in gratitude the 
glance of the convalescent is directed toward her aged 
mother, who is seated knitting close by, and who eagerly 
scans the expression on the invalid's coimtenance. No 
words are uttered, but the silence is full of quivering 
expectation, while the vernal simshine floods every comer 
of the simple interior. 

There is another canvas, earlier in date, but with a 
similar motive, although quite differently handled, entitled 
The Sick Child, of which a later replica may be seen in the 
present exhibition. Out of warm twilight tones gleams the 
pale profile of a child with a halo of reddish golden hair. 
At her side appears the kneeling form df the mother, bowed 
in grief. The lines of composition are incomparably 
blended in this picture, over which flutter the shadows of 
the wings of Death, and in which two beings, so fondly 
imited, are about to be gently separated one from the 

As a landscape painter Mimch is first and foremost the 
portrayer of the northern siunmer night. No one has ren- 
dered as he the mystic suggestion of those light nights, with 
mighty tree tops swaying above slimibering white houses 
and the pale, blurred outlines of the surroimding coimtry. 
Often against this soft backgroimd he masses the striking 
splendour of pure colour, as seen in the bright summer 
costiunes of yoimg girls and women in the foregroimd. It is 
very characteristic of Mimch's art that it oscill^ites between 
the tender and the poetic and the most powerful demon- 
strations of chromatic strength which sometimes do not stop 
at sheer brutality. He is typically Norwegian, both in his 


lyrical feeling and in his violence, in his morbid fantasy and 
his alert and sensitive apprehension of reality. 

Munch's contribution marks the parting of the ways in 
the development of Norwegian painting, the turning point 
from photographic realism and illusionism to a purely per- 
sonal interpretation and picturesque strength and beauty. 
Not one among the young men of talent can be foimd who 
has not received vivid impressions from his work, and most 
of all is this true of his gifted follower, Ludvig Karsten. 
This painter, who is justly considered the strongest and most 
spontaneous genius among the yoimger group, goes even a 
step further than Mimch in the direction of out and out 
subjectivism, but in his best work he displays qualities so 
buoyant, so strong, and at the same time so varied and 
refined, that he may even be said to compete with Munch 

The talented portrait and landscape impressionist, Henrik 
Limd, although he now pursues his own path, also clearly 
stands in a position of indebtedness to Mimch. The key- 
notes of Limd's art are his shrewd psychological analysis 
and his pointed presentation of character. None can equal 
him in catching a fleeting expression and transferring it to 
canvas — a glance, a half smile, a feature that reveals and 
yet conceals personality. He handles his brush with dexter- 
ous and virile strength, which fact makes him one of the 
few virtuosos of Norwegian painting. Allied to the fore- 
going artists we find the painter of still-life, Folkestad, with 
his gay, decorative pictures of flowers and fruit, while at a 
somewhat greater distance should be placed the tasteful 
and subdued coloxirist, Kavli, with his captivating silver- 
grey harmonies. 

The painters Thorvald Erichsen and O. Wold-Tome are 
modem colourists of another type. Both obtained solid, 


thorough training in the Danish schools, and both subse- 
quently received strong impetus from French impressionism 
and from Cezanne. We can readily trace this latter rela- 
tionship in their brilliant yet subdued and richly saturated 
colouring, often showing an iridescent siuface, and their 
fondness for tones of violet-blue. Thorvald Erichsen from 
quite an early age was a pvirist in art, and, freed from all 
restrictions, he espoused the cause of Vart pour Vart^ and 
added to Norwegian painting elements of taste and ele- 
gance that were previously lacking. In this respect he has 
faithfully co-operated with his comrade and congenial 
fellow-spirit, O. Wold-Tome, a genuine, beauty loving still- 
life painter, who, in company with Werenskiold and Mimthe, 
has led Norwegian naturalism further toward refinement 
of style and colouration. 

Lastly, we must mention Harald Sohlberg, a solitary and 
imique figure, who belongs to the new romantic group of 
the 'nineties, and has remained isolated from the impres- 
sionist movement. No one can fail to remark the carefully 
drawn and minutely detailed landscapes of this artist, with 
their rich, enamel-like colouring, affording an extremely in- 
teresting combination of stylistic and naturalistic motives. 
Sohlberg's art goes its own way, but its earnestness and 
tense sincerity are the loadstars that keep it from straying 
too far afield. Art with such a strong stamp of individuality 
will always achieve its ends, nor can it fail to rejoice and 
inspire sjrmpathetic spirits. 

Had we space we might also mention Holmboe, with his 
boldly and broadly painted landscapes; Onsager, with his 
sensitive and subdued figure compositions, as well as many 
others. Yet this brief introduction does not aim at com- 
pleteness, so we shall herewith; permit the pictures to 
speak for themselves. 



Under the Gracious Patronage of 


King of Sweden 

ANNA BOBERG— From a fitotogtapt 


BOBERG, Anna, Stockholm 

Anna Boberq was bom the 3 December, 1864 at Stock- 
holm. She is a daughter of F. Scholander, who played 
such a prominent part in the development of modem Swedish 
archiecture, and is the wife of Ferdinand Boberg, one of 
the most eminent architects in Sweden. With that daimt- 
less energy so characteristic of the highly talented family 
to which she belongs, she has, during the past few years 
worked her way up to European fame. The locality from 
which she takes her subjects is the Lofoten Islands, off 
the coast of Norway, and there she has painted those huge 
moimtains rising out of the sea, surroimded by fleets 
of fishing boats, which have the same form as the old 
Viking ships, and the crews of which have not a little of 
the hardiness and courage of the Vikings. Though certain 
Swedish critics have not infrequently treated the work of 
this talented artist with imjustiflable harshness, yet abroad, 
and especially in Venice and in Paris, these paintings from 
the North, rendered by a woman of imcommon artistic 
talent, who combines with her love of art the true Scandi- 
navian fondness for outdoor life, have been greeted with 
distinct enthusiasm. Mrs. Boberg often spends long 
periods in the solitude of these far-away islands, where 
something of the sturdy spaciousness of old Northern 
times still survives. 

1 Sunlight and Showers 

2 At Rest, Sunday 

3 Dragonheads 

4 After the Day's Work 

5 Boats and Fisher Huts 

6 Not a Ripple 

7 Putting Out to Sea 


EUGEN, H. R. H., Prince Eugen, 

Prince Euqen, son of Oscar II and Queen Sofia, was 
bom the 15 August, 1865 at Drottningholm Castle. He 
began to paint about 1885, and studied in 1887 at Paris, 
where Puvis de Chavannes seems to have aroused his taste 
for decorative art. He exhibited for the first time in 1889 
in Paris, and during the last few years has lived at Valdem- 
arsudde, in Djurgarden Park, Stockholm, occupying the 
beautiful villa built for him by the distinguished architect,^ 
Ferdinand Boberg. The services Prince Eugen has rendered 
modem Swedish art are inestimable. He has generously 
aided and supported a large niunber of yoimg painters, has 
exercised an extensive patronage in the shape of orders for 
pictures, and finally has himself created genuine works of 
art and studied his craft deeply and without a trace of 
dilettantism. It is particularly the Swedish summer night, 
with all its feeling of unison and melting into one great har- 
mony, that he depicts as no one else has done. Tegner 
describes the Scandinavian summer night with the words: 
** *Twas not day, 'twas not night — a-poise between the two," 
and for the Swedes, Prince Eugen's pictures wake into deep 
and rich life their innermost and profoundest feelings for 
nature. Yet Prince Eugen paints not alone the more remote 
appeal of distant wooded and watered landscape, but also 
devotes his energies to recording the constantly shifting 
panorama of life and scene in and about Stockholm. And 
to no theme does he fail to impart that note of refined and 
exalted lyricism which is the dominant characteristic of his 

8 Swedish Summer Night 

9 After Rain 

FJiESTAD, Gustaf Adolf, Arvika 

GUSTAF FJiESTAD was bom the 22 December, 1868 at 
Stockholm. He studied at the Academy of Arts from 
1891 to 1892, and also under Liljefors. Fjsestad, like the 


latter, is both sportsman and painter. In his art he views 
native landscape with something of an arbitrarily chosen 
viewpoint, now bringing out the decorative elements in rip- 
pling water, mosses, and snow-drifts heaped together by the 
wind, and again appljdng his stylistic vision to textiles and 
furniture. It is, however, through his snow scenes from 
wintry Sweden that he has won such appreciation abroad, 
and rarely have snow and frost effects been painted so con- 
vincingly. Fjsestad devotes himself extensively to applied 
art, and in his rustic furniture has striven to produce true 
Scandinavian decorative motives, and in his carpets and 
wall-hangings he gives artistic expression to mosses and 
flowers of the forest, or the quaint surface formation of 
water-rings. In all this work he has imquestionably said 
new and personal things concerning the treasury of beauty, 
left unregarded for centuries, to be foimd in the fantastic 
and varied shades and shapes the snow can assume, the 
snow which had previously been regarded in art and litera- 
ture from but one point of view — ^that of white, virgin 


Winter Morning 


Part of Waterfall 






September Night 




Sun and Snow 


Running Water 

18 Winter Night— Tapestry 

19 Running Water — Tapestry 

20 Thaw — Tapestry 

21 Below the Falls— Tapestry 


GUSTAF ADOLF FJ£STAD — Prom a photograph 

HALLSTROM, Gunnar, Bj6rk6 

GUNNAR HALLSTROM was bom the 2 May, 1875 at 
Stockholm. He studied from 1893 to 1897 at the Academy 
of Arts, and has resided during the past ten years at Bjorko 
in Lake Malaren. In this beautiful island, where the town 
of Birka was once situated, and where the French monk, 
Ansgar, in the middle of the ninth century, first preached 
the Christian faith, there still survives something of the 
ancient Swedish peasant culture, and this profoimdly ima- 
ginative artist has made Bjorko the focus of his esthetic 
activity. He paints and draws not only ancient graves, 
ovei^ which birches are soughing, but also yoimg, living 
Sweden — ^light-haired men and women, dancing roimd the 
Walpurgis Night fires, or speeding on skis over the frozen 
waters of the lake. Hallstrom is an entirely independent 
artist. He has a strong feeling for the decorative, which is 
displayed to advantage in his tapestries and vignettes, and 
notably in the strikingly suggestive and characteristic poster 
which he has designed for the present exhibition. 

22 On the Frozen Snow 

23 The Gladness of the Earth 

24 On the Border of the Field 

HESSELBOM, Otto, Seffle 


Otto HesselboM was bom in 1848 at Animskog, in 
the Province of Dalsland, and it is in this province, 
situated on Lake Vanem, the largest lake in Sweden, that 
he has painted and still paints his typically Swedish views 
over blue heights and broad waters. His artistic develop- 
ment was slow, and it is strange to think that the meek 
Mission School boy, who so tardily began his studies at the 
Stockholm Academy of Arts, should have been appreciated 
in Germany and Italy before his name was even known to 
Swedish artists or patrons of art. He strives after simplicity 
and monumentality, giving his pictures a lyric quality and a 


GUNKAR HALLSTROH — From a photoBraph 

quiet grandeur which are typical of certain aspects of the 
Swedish landscape. Hesselbom now resides at Seffle in 
Varmland, near Lake Vanem, and has recently had the 
satisfaction of seeing himself better and better appreciated. 
His pictures have been purchased by leading museums 
at home and abroad, and he is an artist who has made his 
way by dint of extraordinary energy and singleness of 

25 My Country 

26 View Over Lake Arran 

27 My Parental Home 

28 Evening Landscape, Lake Arran 

LARSSON, Carl, Sundbom 

Carl Larsson was bom the 28 May, 1853 at Stockholm, 
where he studied at the Academy of Arts from 1869 to 
1876. He meanwhile supported himself by illustration, 
went over to Paris in 1876, and in 1883 revealed his first 
independent artistic style in a series of bright and delicate 
water-coloiu^. As an illustrator, too, he shortly attained a 
much higher plane. Residing first at Gothenburg and then 
at Stockholm, he devoted himself to mural decoration, his 
most important work in this line being his six frescoes in the 
National Museum and his great ceiling-piece in the foyer 
of the Dramatic Theatre in Stockholm. He is best known, 
however, by his water-coloiu^, aboimding with true Swedish 
feeling, love of home, and good humour. These pictiu-es, 
executed with a consmnmate mastery of line, have, by their 
wide yet merited popularity, doubtless prevented the gen- 
eral public from fully realizing his greatness as a miu-al 
painter. Rarely has the sheer joy of esthetic creation so 
come to light as in Carl Larsson and his art. These emana- 
tions from a singularly rich personality have influenced and 
invigourated the entire nation. At Simdbom, near Falun, 
Carl Larsson has built for himself a home in every way 


OTTO HESSELBOM— From a [diotosraph 

worthy the artist, a home which he loves, and which it has 
been his delight to depict with inexhaustible charm and 




My Wife 


Shelling Peas 


The Love Park 


In Mother's Bed 


Theatrical Cogitations 


In the Snow 




Kersti at the Window 

37A In the Study 
LILJEFORS, Bruno Andreas, BuUero 

Bruno Liljefors was bom the 14 May, 1860 at Upp- 
sala, and studied from 1879 to 1882 at the Academy of Arts 
in Stockholm. The great animal painter travelled in Ger- 
many, Italy, and France, but has been little influenced by 
other painters. He has spent nearly his whole life in 
Sweden, in the coimtry, first near Uppsala, and, during the 
last twenty years, some miles south of Stockholm. Lilje- 
fors is pre-eminently the painter of the forest. It has been 
said of him that he paints natural history, and, indeed, in 
his pictures everything is reproduced with the exactness of 
the himter and the lover of nature. He delights in depict- 
ing the protective mimicry of animals, such as evoking S3rm- 
phonies of colour from a group of brown-speckled waders 
on the sandy beach. Liljefors paints animals as they are 
when no one sees them. He surprises them in their life 
and death struggles, without being visible himself. It is 
within his power, and his alone, to show us the ducks as they 
quack mysteriously in the light summer night, or the foxes 
slinking farther and farther into the forest, where the music 


of the pines has been soughing since time immemorial, and 
where everything gives forth a compelling sense of the unity 
of all organic life. 

38 Foxes 

39 The Hunter 

40 Fox Shooting 

40^ Birds in the Snow 

ZORN, Anders Leonard, Mora 

Anders Zorn was bom the 18 Febniary, 1860 at Mora, 
in Dalame, the son of a brewer from Bavaria and a 
Dalecarlian woman. He was brought up as a peasant boy 
on the banks of Lake Siljan, and when but a small child 
gave evidence of his passion for art by carving wooden 
figures, which he coloured with berry juice. At the age of 
fifteen he went to Stockholm. Though he first studied 
sculpture at the Academy of Arts, it was as a water-colour 
painter that he made his initial mark. As early as 1881 he 
began to travel, spending considerable time in Spain, and 
later residing for some years in London. Diuing the 
'nineties he passed no little time at his home in Mora, upon 
which he has lavished his most ardent love, but he has also 
resided in Paris and the United States, where his breezy 
freshness, his spirit and dash, his inimitable blending of 
rusticity and elegance, and the vigour and healthy sensuality 
of his line and stroke readily found both enthusiastic and 
discriminating admirers. Zorn may sometimes be imcon- 
vincing in his painting, but when he does succeed, he con- 
jures up reality itself, and gives his work a definite some- 
thing which recalls Frans Hals, though Zorn never*tried to 
learn from the masters of either the seventeenth or the 
eighteenth centuries. Technically he has chiefly aimed at 
giving proof of his supremacy as a painter of light and of 
fleeting chromatic effects. He has endeavoured to repro- 
duce that which he most loves — the fullness of life — 


BRUNO A. LILJEFORS — Portrait by Andera L. Zorn 

and his personality' shines forth in every line» every patch 
of colour. 

41 Mona 

42 Matins on Christmas Day 

43 Djos-MattSy Clockmaker of Mora 

44 Skeri-kulla 

45 At the Window 

46 Dagmar 
46A Hall Kesti 

EDSTROM, David, Stockholm 

David Edstrom was bom in Sweden in 1873, and came 
to America as a mere child, his parents settling in Iowa. 
Until nearly twenty he lived in the West, at which age, 
desirous of piu^uing an artistic career, he returned to his 
native coimtry and began his studies at the Stockholm 
Academy. He early revealed remarkable talent, particu- 
larly in the field of plastic portraiture, and continued his 
apprenticeship in Florence and in Paris. Edstrom was seen 
to particular advantage with his associates of the Konst- 
narsforbimdet at the Berlin Secession in 1910, and still 
more recently at Stockholm and Amsterdam, having held 
this siunmer in the latter city an important collective exhi- 
bition conjointly with his cpimtryman, Carl Larsson. His 
portrait busts of Ernest Thiel, Esq., of Professor Knut 
Kjellberg, of the publisher, Karl Otto Bonnier, and other 
notable men, display imcommon vigour of characterisation 
and psychological analysis. 

47 Ernest Thiel, Esq. — Bronze 


ANDERS L. ZORN — Portrait of telf 

MILLES, Carl, Stockholm 

Carl Milles was bom the 23 June, 1875 at Lagga, near 
Uppsala, but received his artistic training in France, 
where he studied under Fremiet. Milles, who has been 
residing in Stockholm for about a decade past, is a fertile 
artist, rich in creative power. He is as full of ideas and 
projects as he is conscientious in their execution, plunging 
into the biggest and most arduous tasks with joyous enthusi- 
asm. The statue of the Swedish chemist, Scheele, at 
Koping, is considered one of his best works, and the huge 
seated statue of Gustaf Vasa, in the Northern Museum, 
at Stockholm, shows that Milles has already entered into the 
popular consciousness, for this Gustaf Vasa stands for 
Swedes as the true type of the king who "built up Sweden 
from floor to roof." Eagles, elephants, giant lizards, and 
bears, at once grotesque and monumental, have also been 
fashioned by Milles in granite and in bronze. His work is 
free and broad in treatment and never fails to reveal a wel- 
come measure of spirited, graphic verity. 

48 Dancing Girl — Marble 

49 Dancing Girl with Drapery — Marble 

50 Lost in Thought — Polychrome marble 

51 After Six O'Clock — Bronze 

52 At the Farrier's — Bronze 

53 Elephants — Study — Bronze 

54 Dutch Milkmaid — Bronze 

55 Six Studies from Holland — Silver 

PETTERSSON, Axel, Doderhult 

Axel PetTERSSON was bom in 1868 at Doderhult, 
in SmMand. He is from the same province as the 
great humourist, Albert Engstrom, and, like the latter, 
depicts the lean, shrewd old peasants and peasant women 


CARL MILLES — From a photograph 

AXEL I^rraRSSON— From ■ photograph 

with their quaint air of assurance. He also carves similar 
subjects, and, like the Japanese, puts something at once 
grotesque and artistic into his wooden statuettes, which 
arc now known and prized the world over. Pcttersson is 
himself a peasant's son. Me first began work as a joiner. 
He is wholly self-tai^t, and a man of unusual originality. 
His style of execution, his feeling for the requirements of 
the material, and for broad, simple planes, constituting a 
sort of impressionism in wood carving, render his emacia- 
ted hacks, his obstinate bulls, and burlesque peasant wed- 
dings and funerals really remarkable works of art. 

56 The Christening — Wood 

57 At the Photographer's — Wood 

58 The Burial — Wood 


Under the Gracious Patronage of 


King of Denmark 

THORVALD BINDESBOLL— Portrait by Vilhelni HammeMhCi, 
CoUection of Dr. Alfred Bramaeo, Copetiha{eii 


The late THORVALD BiNDESBeLL, whose countenance so 
characteristically adorns the opposite page, was indisput- 
ably the most virile and fecund force in the entire field of 
contemporary Scandinavian decorative art. Bom at 
Copenhagen in 1846, he died sixty-two years later in the 
city which he strove so variously to beautify, and of which 
he remains to-day one of the imperishable glories. The 
career of this remarkable individual was an incessant 
struggle toward an ever richer and more typical esthetic 
self-expression. His energy was boundless, and his activity 
as unceasing as his flow of wit and lusty good hiunour which 
were tempered now and again by a manly and merciless 
sarcasm. He touched current artistic endeavour at an 
infinite niunber of points, and everywhere left the impress 
of his vigorous personality and unflagging inventive ex- 
uberance. The son of the well-known architect who 
planned the Thorvaldsen Museum, he was himself trained 
in the paternal profession, which he practised whenever 
opportimity offered. It was, however, in the province of 
creative design that he attained highest rank, and no one 
familiar with his work in pottery, furniture, silverware, 
tapestry, book-binding, or decorative ornament of any 
description will fail to recognize the abundant freedom and 
rhythmic eloquence of his contribution. While there are 
echoes in this art of such widely divergent influences as the 
Romanesque, Baroque, and Chinese, still, in the final 
analysis, £dl that he has left behind remains sheer BindesboU 
in its opulent breadth of form, fluent individuality of 
stroke, and sonorous richness of tone. It is a pleasure 
to offer herewith even such an inconsiderable fragment of 
BindesbcU's art as may be noted in the cover and incidental 
decorative features of the present catalogue. The designs 
are published with the special sanction of Director Karl 
Madsen, and have been adapted and arranged, in as far as 
has been necessary, by Bindesbj&U's favourite pupil, Mr. 
Svend Hammershei, brother of the Danish painter, Vilhelm 
Hanunershci, and himself an artist of distinction. 



GIERSING, Harald, Copenhagen 

Harald Giersing was bom in Copenhagen and oc- 
cupies a prominent place among the younger group of 
Danish painters who have lately done so much toward 
shattering the chrysalis of a comfortable past. They have 
one and all derived their chief impetus from the ever fruit- 
ful city by the Seine, which, at stated intervals, takes it upon 
herself to revolutionize and renovate the field of art. 
If his friend and fellow worker Eklvard Weihe leans vaguely 
toward Cubism, Giersing goes further back and takes his in- 
spiration mainly from Cezanne. He exhibits of course at the 
Erie Udstilling, the stamping groimd of modernism, his group 
last spring and summer being a particularly interesting 
one consisting of eight portraits and nature studies. While 
it cannot be said that Giersing has as yet found himself 
in an artistic sense, he has nevertheless given evidence of 
uncommon talent. In order to be comprehensive, an 
exhibition should look courageously forward into the futiu-e, 
as well as safely and placidly back to the past, and Harald 
Giersing is one whose work clearly points to newer and 
fresher accomplishment. 

59 Girl with Blue Skirt 

HAMMERSH0I, Vilhelm, Copenhagen 

VILHELM HAMMERSH0I, was bom the 15 May, 1864 
in Copenhagen, and pursued his artistic studies at the 
Royal Academy of Arts from 1879 to 1884, after which he 
was for sometime a pupil of Kr0yer. In the spring of 1885 
he made his first appearance at the annual Charlotten- 
borg Exhibition, on which occasion he displayed the 
celebrated Portrait of a Young Girl, now in the Hirsch- 
sprung Collection. There was little trace in any of his 
early work of the facile pleinairism of his master, Kr0yer, 
for from the very outset Hammersh0i began to see life 


HARALO GIERSING — Portrait of self 

and nature after his own inherently subtle and in- 
dividual manner. In their delicacy of vision, subdued 
ambience of .tonality, and premeating quietude of spirit 
these interiors and genre studies are quite without parallel 
in the province of modem artistic achievement. They re- 
call in a measure the modest triiunphs of the Dutchmen 
of the seventeenth century, yet no Dutchmen ever showed 
the tense and tremulous subjectivity which these incom- 
parable little panels reveal. In 1891 Hammershei, to- 
gether with a niunber of the more progressive Danish 
painters, left the dull official somnolence of Charlottenborg 
in order to imbibe the fresher atmosphere of the Frie 
Udstilling, and year by year his work has gained in depth 
and esthetic penetration. He is now recognized throu^- 
out Europe as a unique artistic personality, and in 1911 
won the Grand Prize at the International Exhibition in 
Rome. Although the early stages of his career were not 
marked by a conspicuous measure of success, Hammershoi 
was fortunate in finding a discriminating and enthusiastic 
patron in Dr. Alfred Bramsen, of Copenhagen, to whose 
courteous generosity we are indebted for the present 
characteristic group of canvases. 

60 Western Portal, Christiansborg Castle 

61 The Church, Christiansborg Castle 

62 The Young Virtuoso, Mr. Henry Bramsen 

63 Sunbeams 

64 Kronborg, Hamlet's Castle 

65 Open Doors 

66 Montague Street, London 

67 Entrance to Asiatic Company, Copenhagen 

68 The Balcony Door 

69 Bedroom 

70 Drawing-room, Lady Reading 


J0RGENSEN, Axel, Copenhagen 

Axel JORGENSEN was bom the 3 February, 1883 in 
Copenhagen, and thus obviously belongs to the younger 
group of Danish painters who are to-day winning their 
laurels with such remarkable rapidity and assurance. 
Studying first at the Technical School at Copenhagen, 
J0rgensen made his debut at Charlottenborg in 1908, and 
two years later attained signal success on the occasion of 
his appearance at the exhibition of The Thirteen, a group 
of young radicals who have already given excellent account 
of themselves. The same year — 1910 — ^he was invited to 
send to the Erie Udstilling, or Free Exhibition, and sub- 
sequently made his appearance at the International Ex- 
hibition at Rome. The painter's recent retrospective dis- 
play at Blomqvist's in Christiania stamped him as con- 
siderably more than a promising newcomer. His style 
reveals welcome breath and freedom, his grasp of character 
is firm, and, both in his work in black and white and on 
canvas, he proves himself the possessor of a distinctly 
marked esthetic individuality. It is a pleasure to add that 
J0rgensen is another of that group of talented progressives 
who have lately won favour with Director Madsen of the 
Royal Gallery. 

71 Portrait 

72 Portrait of Young Man 

KYHN, Knud, Copenhagen 

Knud Kyhn was bom the 17 March, 1880 in Copen- 
hagen, and received his preliminary training at the Royal 
Academy of Arts, where he at once displayed his fondness 
for pure colour and refreshingly decorative effects. He 
made his first professional appearance at Charlottenborg 
in 1906, and since 1908 has been regularly invited to ex- 
hibit at the Erie Udstilling where he finds himself in dis- 
tinctly more congenial company. Although still a young 


AXEL J0RGENSEN — Portrait of »elf 

man he has ah-eady won recognition on the Continent, 
having recently hem seen to advantage at the Salon des 
Independants in Paris and also at the Berlin Secession, 
his group of three brightly tinted panels having been parti- 
cularly admired in the latter galleries last summer. Both 
in spirit and in practice an essentially decorative painter, 
Kyhn adds a welcome note to Danish art, which, until now, 
has shown marked neglect of those tendencies which may 
be briefly characterised as stylistic, and with which the 
Swedes evince such pronounced S3rmpathy. 

73 Ducks in Flight 

74 Mowgli in the Jungle 

LARSEN, Johannes, Kjerteminde 

Johannes Larsbn was bom the 27 December, 1867 
at Kjerteminde, on the Island of Fyn. He did not receive 
formal instruction from any of the Danish art schools or 
academies but from 1884 to 1893 pursued his studies in 
more leisurely and stimulating fashion under Kristian 
Zahrtmann. In 1891 he made his appearance for the first 
time at the Charlottenborg exhibition, and since 1893 
has been a member of, and regular contributor to, the 
Frie Udstilling. Larsen has also studied and painted at 
different intervals in Paris, in Italy, and even Boston, where 
he resided for sometime in 1907, Together with his fellow- 
pupils under Zahrtmann, Fritz Syb^ and Peter Hansen, 
Johannes Larsen forms the nucleus of what is known in 
modem Danish painting as Den fynske Skole, a group of 
sincere and earnest natiu-e worshippers who find their 
chief inspiration in the Island of Fyn and whose best pro- 
ductions are to be seen in the provincial museum of Faaborg. 
Larsen is Denmark's foremost painter of bird life, and inva- 
riably lends his work a verity of observation and char- 


JOHANNES LAESEN — From a photograph 

acteristic truth of setting and colouration ^ich never 
fail to attract interest both at home and abroad. 

75 At the Window 

76 Peahen and Young 

77 Summer by the Sea 

78 Goldfinch in Cage 

MADSEN, Viggo, Lyngby 

VIGGO Madsen was bom the 5 March, 1885 at Lyng- 
by, one of the numerous beautiful suburban resorts in the 
vicinity of Copenhagen. Like his distinguished father, 
Director Karl Madsen of the Royal Gallery, Viggo Madsen 
early gave evidence of marked artistic talent, and in 1903 
made his entry at Charlottenborg. The following year he 
became a member of the Frie Udstilling, the magnet which 
inevitably draws into its energizing radius the younger 
and more progressive exponents of Danish art as well as 
not a few of the older spirits who thereby seek to postpone 
as long as possible the impending process of fossilisation. 
In his portraits, genre studies, and landscapes Viggo 
Madsen displays no little fresh charm of vision and freedom 
of handling. 

79 Portrait of My Mother 

80 View from My Bedroom Window 

NIELSEN, Einar, Hellerup 

EiNAR Nielsen was bom the 9 July, 1872 at Copen- 
hagen. After studying for a brief period at the Technical 
School he entered the Royal Academy of Arts where he 
remained from 1889 to 1893, making his appearance the 
latter year at the Charlottenborg exhibition. Owing 
largely to considerations of health he has, since 1905, 
resided mainly in Italy, returning occasionally to pass the 


EINAR NIELSEN — From a photograph 

summers at Gem, in Jutland, and but rarely opening his 
modest white house set among the trees of Hellerup. His 
position in Danish art and, indeed, in the art of Europe is 
imique. His tense, scrupulously designed, and penetrant 
portraits and character studies are imlike anything in 
modem painting. Almost achromatic in tone, yet incom- 
parately faithful in line, instinct with psychological feeling 
and imbued with a deep sense of himian misery and suffer- 
ing, these canvases exercise a powerful appeal wherever 
they make appearance. His own lack of phjrsical vigour 
has imquestionably coloured his vision of external reality 
and conferred upon his art its acutely sensitive modernity 
and sympathetic affinity with that which is most enduring 
in the production of the past, particularly the work of the 
Italian primitives. 

81 Evening Bells 

82 Portrait 

83 Brittany Woman 

PAULSEN, Julius, Copenhagen 

Julius Paulsen was bom the 22 October, 1860 at 
Odense, where he began his artistic career in humble 
fashion as pupil in the Technical School, and was subse- 
quently apprenticed to a local house painter and interior 
decorator. Encouraged chiefly by his mother to continue 
his studies, he moved to Copenhagen, remaining at the 
Royal Academy of Arts during 1879-1882. His debut was 
made at Charlottenborg in 1879 and since then he has been 
a constant exhibitor and has at various intervals been 
accorded the highest official honours. As a member of the 
Royal Academy, a member of the Academy Council, and 
an Academy Professor he has enjoyed unusual prestige, 
a prestige in the main justified, though within the past few 
years taste has decidedly changed respecting the more 
academic side of his production. As a landscape painter, 
and in the province of portraiture he however continues 


to hold his own, being indeed the only Danish artist save 
Krjeryer, and in a lesser degree Tuxen, to give his sitters 
that touch of cosmopolitan elegance so currently admired 
in social and diplomatic circles. 

84 Portrait of Baron Rosenkrantz 

RING, Lauritz Andersen, Baldersbrcnde 

Lauritz Andersen Ring was bom the 15 August, 
1854 in the village of Ring, in Seeland, where his ancestors 
had for generations been humble cottagers. There being 
scant opportunity to pursue his artistic studies in the 
nearby town of Praestjer he came to Copenhagen in 1875 
and remained at the Academy for a considerable period. 
In 1882 he made his first appearance at the Charlottenborg 
exhibition, and it is on the historic walls of this same 
venerable institution that his canvases are still annually 
seen. Save for a few brief trips abroad this essentially 
home-loving artist has passed most of his quiet, industrious 
lifetime in Denmark, the fiat, wide-horizoned scenery of 
which he loves so deeply and paints with such endearing 
truth and sincerity to fact and to spirit. Ring continues 
the line of that older generation of artists who were the 
veritable founders of Danish landscape. His art is purely 
traditional, and has nothing in common with that of the 
younger men now so much in the public eye. To visit 
his modest, vine-covered and flower-fronted home near 
Roskilde is like finding one's self back in the frlagrant, repose- 
ful atmosphere of past existence and patient endeavour. 

85 The Postman 

86 Winter Day 

87 The Farewell 

88 Karrebaksminde 

89 Marshland 


SCHOU, Karl, Valby 

Karl Schou was bom the 9 March, 1870 in Copen- 
hagen, and at the age of seventeen became a pupil of Kris- 
tian Zahrtmann, than whom no one has done more toward 
opening the eyes of the younger generation of Danish and 
Norwegian painters to the myriad possibilities of nature in- 
terpretation and the colouristic beauty of wellnigh any speci- 
fic object or scene either within or out of doors. Like so 
many of his comrades, Karl Schou made his first public 
appearance as a painter at Charlottenborg (1891), after- 
ward joining forces with the Frie Udstilling of which he 
has been a member since 1896. Continuing his studies in 
Paris, London, and Italy, he returned to his native coimtry 
where he has won a distinct place for himself as a subtle 
and poetic apostle of delicately varied atmospheric effects. 
Schou in essence belongs with the tonalists. His freely 
handled little canvases are usually conceived in a single 
carefully sustained key, and seldom fail to reveal refinement 
of taste and true esthetic sensibility. His art is subjective 
in appeal, and stands in direct antithesis to the clear-eyed 
objectivity so characteristic of Ring. 

90 Miss B. at the Piano 

91 The Farm 

92 Farmyard After Rain 

93 In the Garden 

SWANE, Sigurd, Copenhagen 

Sigurd Swane was bom the 16 June, 1879 at Frederiks- 
berg, Copenhagen. During 1900-1902 he studied at the 
Royal Academy of Arts, and from 1904 to 1906 was imder 
the sound and stimulating guidance of Kristian Zahrtmann. 
He meanwhile, before going to Zahrtmann, made his debut 
at Charlottenborg, and in 1907, after completing his studies 
at home, spent considerable time in Paris. It was in Paris 
that he absorbed to the full the new gospel which at that 


LAURITZ ANDERSEN RINQ — From a pbotc«raph 

period had barely become known in Copenhagen, and on 
his return naturally cast his lot with the Frie Udstilling of 
which he is one of its strongest pillars. Swane's work is 
marked by a pronoimced degree of colouristic vigour and 
beauty. He also draws with freedom and power, and his 
grasp of character is imcommonly sure. In that great 
struggle for self-expression along novel and independent 
lines, that fight for simplification of contour and of tone 
whidi is so completely dianging the complexion of modem 
painting, Swane is already making his personality felt, and 
will doubtless prove a prominent factor in the forward 
march of contemporary Danish art. 

94 Four Artists 

95 Early Spring 

96 The Forest, Afternoon 

SYBERG, Christian Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich, 

Fritz Syberg, as he is somewhat more expeditiously 
known, was bom the 28 July, 1862 at Faaborg, and it is as 
a prominent member of Den fynske Skole that he takes well 
defined place in the minds of the Danish public. Like his 
comrades Johannes Larsen and Peter Hansen, a pupil of 
Kristian Zahrtmann, with whom he studied from 1885 to 
1891, Syberg made his debut at Charlottenborg, and sub- 
sequently joined the Frie Udstilling where he has regularly 
exhibited since 1893. At different intervals he has con- 
tinued the study and practice of his profession in Germany, 
Italy, and Paris, and from 1909 has resided in Pisa. While 
in no sense brilliant or dexterous, the art of Fritz Syberg 
compensates for any seeming lack of manipulative mastery 
by its manifest sincerity of purpose and fidelity to fact. 
There is an inborn as well as voluntary rusticity of theme 
and treatment to the work of this particular group which 
at once commends their production to the quiescent, home- 


SIGURD SWANE — Portrait of Mlf 

loving Danes. They represent that national note in 
Danish painting so dear to Director Madsen, and which, 
though it is never lost, is at times in danger of being obscured 
by extraneous influences. 

97 The First Day of Spring 

98 September Sunshine 

99 Gulls at Meilo 

100 Sunshine and Mist, Kattegat 

WEIHE, Edvard, Copenhagen 

Edvard Weihe was bom the 18 November, 1879 
and received his preliminary training at Copenhagen under 
Zahrtmann during 1905-07. It is, however, Paris and the 
restless ferment of latter day artistic effort which have 
had the most pronoimced influence upon him as, indeed, 
upon so many of the younger Copenhagen painters of his 
generation. He has lately joined the Frie Udstilling where 
his recent canvases displayed distinct traces of that wave 
of wholesome radicalism which is at present causing con- 
sternation among the ranks of the timid and conservative 
devotees of precedent. Weihe is to-day engaged in casting 
off the shackles of a smooth, insipid beauty that has long 
since lost all significance and seeking, in the sturdier and 
more simplified creed of the progressives, a characteristic 
esthetic programme. Judged according to the most 
advanced standards he cannot be called an extremist, 
though he is thus regarded in Copenhagen, and will doubt- 
less be considered even more so in America. It is such 
young men as Swane and Weihe who should help to con- 
vince us that we are artistically stagnant, and their presence 
in the current exhibition is to say the least — opportime. 

101 Portrait of My Mother 

102 Flower Market » Copenhagen 


EDVARD WEIHB — Portrait of self 

WILLUMSEN, Jens Ferdmand, HeUerap 
Jens Ferdinand Willumsen was boifn the 7 

September, 1863 at Copenhagen, and received his prelimin- 
ary training at the Technical Institute, later entering the 
Royal Academy of Arts where he remained from 1881 to 
1884, subsequently studying for a time under Krjeyer. 
His first public appearance was made at Charlottenborg 
in 1883 and after a brief period of work and struggle in 
Copenhagen, he settled in Paris where he resided continu- 
ously for over a decade. Few artists have displayed such 
restless creative activity or attacked so many different 
phases of esthetic endeavoiu*. Willumsen is not alone a 
painter, but also sculptor, architect, and decorative de- 
signer. In 1891, largely through his efforts, was organized 
the now famous Frie Udstilling which has played such an 
important role in the emancipation of modem Danish 
painting. From 1897 to 1900 he was Artistic Director of 
Bing and Grjerndahl's Pottery, to which firm his efforts 
lent imexampled prestige. It was again Willumsen who 
was mainly responsible for the success of the Friluftsteatret 
or Open Air Theatre at Dyrehaven and, in brief, no one 
save perhaps the late Thorvald Bindesbjerll has left so 
strongly personal a stamp upon the varied field of current 
Danish artistic development. Willumsen is an avowed 
internationalist in his attitude. He is the enemy of that 
confiding provincialism so dear to many of the Danes even 
in these progressive dajrs. He holds that art is a imiversal 
language, and fiaimts his viewpoint squarely in the face 
of the Copenhagen public. For years his pictiu'es, so un- 
compromisingly modem in feeling and technique, aroused 
the angry scorn or good natured sarcasm of his countrymen, 
but recently the tide has tiuned in his favoiu*. The day 
has been won through sheer force of his superb creative 
energy and enthusiasm, and he now enjojrs a rapidly 
increasing prestige both at home and abroad. Like Munch 
in Norway, Willumsen is one of the young Titans of con- 
temporary Scandinavian art, a trifle battle-scarred perhaps, 


J, F. WlLLtJMSEN— Portrait by Johan Robde 

for his fight has been a long and bitter one, yet the victory — 
and the vindication — ^have fortunately not come too late. 

103 Youth and Sunshine 

104 The Painter and His Family 

105 A Mother*s Dream 

106 The Mountain Climber 

107 Paseo de las Delicias, Sevilla 

108 Plaza de San Fernando, Sevilla 

109 Sefiora de Valencia 

110 Summer Night, Denmark 



111 VILHELM FISCHER — Vase, Pelican 


112 VILHELM FISCHER — Vase, Heron 


1 13 C. MORTENSEN — Vase, Danish Land- 

scape Motive 

114 C. MORTENSEN— Vase, Crow Motive 

115 Small Pieces, Various Motives 



Under the Gracious Patronage of 


King of Norway 

EDVARD DIRIKS — Portrait of self 


DIRIKS, Karl Edvard, Drobak 

Edvard Diriks was bom the 9 June, 1855 in Chris- 
tiania, and at the age of seventeen went to Germany with 
the intention of devoting himself to architecture. He 
studied successively in Stuttgart, Karlsruhe, and Berlin, 
and it was in the latter city, while a pupil at the Bauaka- 
demie that, imder the influence ofhis countr3rman Christian 
Krohg and the magnetic German, Max Klinger, he re- 
nounced architecture and found more congenial expression 
in the field of painting. He shortly repaired to Weimar 
where, after a brief period under Theodor Hagen, he re- 
tiuned to Christiania in 1879 and has subsequently divided 
his time between Norway and Paris. Diriks is one of the 
heroic figures of contemporary Norwegian art. He was 
intimately connected with the great struggle for clearer 
vision and cleaner palette, and was one of the earliest 
Scandinavian exponents of Impressionism. He is to-day 
that rare and welcome phenomenon — a man of middle 
age who has remained fresh and buoyant in feeling and in 
brush stroke. The fight for recognition at home was for 
his generation a long and bitter one, but he enjoys at last 
assured position as a poetic and colourful interpreter of 
the changing beauty of fjord, mountain, and sky. 

116 Clouds Mirrored in the Sea 

117 Pine Trees by the Fjord 

ERICHSEN, Thorvald, Gudbrandsdalen 

Thorvald Erichsen was bom the 18 July, 1868 in 
Trondhjem. After beginning his artistic studies in Berg- 
slien's School in Christiania he went to Copenhagen where, 
in company with other yoimg compatriots, he spent some 
time imder the sagacious and inspiring eye of Kristian 
Zahrtmann. In order further to enlarge his vision and 


develop his maturing taste he later visited Paris and Italy, 
returning home to identify himself with that significant 
movement which in the 'nineties was headed by such men 
as Sohlberg and Egedius, and which may be characterized 
as the new romanticism. Erichsen, however, possesses 
distinctly more painterlike qualities than either of the 
foregoing artists. His technique is freer and more ex- 
pressive, and he has learned, possibly from the Danes, to 
give his work a soft, almost luscious richness of tone and 
texture quite imlike Sohlberg's more constrained surfaces. 
His most important canvases have been painted in Gud- 
brandsdalen, and such of those as attain the excellence of 
the Telemarken Landscape in the National Gallery are 
certainly a distinct contribution to Scandinavian art. 

118 Twilight 

119 Snow After Sunset 

120 Red Cliffs 

FOLKESTAD, Bemhard, Christiania 

Bernhard Folkestad was born the 13 June^ 
1879 in London, and received his preliminary training in 
Copenhagen and Paris, exhibiting for the first time at 
Christiania in 1901. In common with Wold-Tome, 
Erichsen, and other young Norwegians who have come 
under Danish influences, Folkestad displays an opulent 
harmony of vision which has added a welcome note to 
modem Norwegian painting. There is indeed nothing 
in the art of the past generation that in any way challenges 
comparison with these splendidly seen and eloquently 
handled bits of fruit and flowers or these studies of poultry 
feeding in simlit cottage kitchen-garden. The talented 
group to which Folkestad belongs seems to have decided in 
favour of tonalism instead of crisply dazzling outdoor 
effects. Their work is always discreetly siunptuous in 
colouring. It is an appeal to the senses rather than a 
scientific analysis of light or a rigorously simplified arrange- 


THORVALD ERICHSBN — From a photograph 

ment of line. They arc avowed beauty lovers, these men, 
and as such their art year by year gains both in distinction 
and in maturity of utterance. 

121 Still-life 

122 Summer Day 

HOLMBOE, Thorlof, Christiania 

Thorlof Holmboe was bom the 10 May, 1866 in 
Vefsen, Helgeland, and from the age of six exhibited dis- 
tinct talent for drawing. In 1886, somewhat before — ^it 
must be added in extenuation — ^that the old regime was 
completely swept away, he went to Berlin in order to pursue 
his studies under Hans Gude. After a brief interval passed 
in Christiania he turned toward France, studying for awhile 
in Paris with Bonnat and Cormon. A confirmed traveller, 
and a manifest cosmopolitan in his general attitude toward 
life and art, Holmboe is nevertheless fimdamentally Nor- 
wegian in his artistic expression. He was for a time more 
or less closely identified with the yoimger romantic group, 
and particularly in his illustrations attained heights of 
decorative romanticism which placed him quite by himself. 
Of late his style has considerably broadened and his colour- 
ing has become more positive, and there is to-day in these 
wind-tossed pines and towering, snow covered peaks a note 
of vigour and virility which is alone the gift of a true son 
of the Northland. Happily for his progress, Holmboe 
early repudiated the academic pedentry of Bonnat and 

123 Moimtains, Lofoten 

124 Landscape with Pine Trees 

125 Autumn 

126 View of Christiania Fjord 
126^ Landscape 


THORLOF HOLMBOE — Portrait of self 

KARSTEN, Ludvig Peter, Christiania 

LUDVIG KARSTEN was bom the 8 May, 1878 at Chris- 
tiania, and prepared himself for his future career at the 
Munich Academy and in Paris imder Eugene Carriere. 
His first appearance as a professional painter was made at 
Christiania in 1901, since which date he has travelled, 
studied, and resided at different intervals in Germany, 
Italy, Spain, and France. The most powerful and decisive 
influence in Karsten's esthetic development has been that 
exercised by the compelling personality of his own coimtry- 
man, Eklvard Mimch. From Munch Karsten has learned 
much, yet in the end without undue sacrifice of his own 
sovereign artistic individuality. The freest draughtsman, 
and the boldest, and at the same time one of the subtlest 
colourists of the yoimger Norwegian school, Karsten has 
already placed to his credit a niunber of exceptionally 
interesting canvases. His temperament is restless, he is 
constantly seeking new and fresh effects and may without 
hesitation be pronounced one of the most talented figures 
in present day Norwegian art. It would indeed be hard 
to find anywhere a man of his age possessing such a vigorous 
grasp of diaracter and such chromatic strength. 

127 Still-life 

KAVLI, Ame Texnes, Christiania 

Arne Kavli was bom 27 May, 1878 in Bergen, and 
received his first restricted initiation into the world of 
artistic expression at the Technical School in his native 
city, afterward studying in Copenhagen under Kr0yer, 
at the Antwerp Academy, and in Paris. The son of a 
well known actor, it is not imnatural that Kavli should 
from the outset have excelled in the province of character 
interpretation and portraiture. His debut was made at the 
Bergen Kunstforening in 1895, since which date his efforts 
have been attended with no little success and have seldom 
failed to enlist the most discriminating interest and appre- 


LUDVIG KARSTEN — Portrwt of self 

ciation. It was toward the subtle, almost monochromatic 
harmonies of Whistler and the sober, decorative vision of 
William Nicholson that Kavli first turned for sympathetic 
assistance, achieving at this period effects that were not 
alone imitative but at times even inspiritional. Of late, 
however, his eyes have been cast in the direction of Paris, 
and more especially attracted by the violet grey clarity and 
broad, expressive contour of Cezanne. Yet Kavli's recent 
landscapes from West Norway and the Christiania Fjord 
are no more lacking in individuality than were the early 
portraits and figure compositions. 

128 In the Pine Forest 

129 Grey Day 

130 Northern Summer Night 

KROHG, Christian, Dr0bak 

Christian Krohg was bom the 13 August, 1852 in 
Christiania. Eklucated for the bar he was however not 
slow to relinquish the law and begin the study of painting 
which he did in 1873 as a pupil of Gussow at Karlsruhe. 
When the latter removed to Berlin Krohg followed, continu- 
ing his apprenticeship under the same master from 1875 
to 1878. He visited Paris for the first time in 1880 and a 
decade later returned for a sojourn of several years. Un- 
questionably the most picturesque figure in contemporary 
Norwegian art, Christian Krohg early made his reputation 
as a hardy and uncompromising exponent of naturalism 
with distinctly social sympathies. He has always believed 
that painting should express brain force as well as a feeling 
for beauty, and his close association with Klinger in Berlin, 
and his admiration for the writings of the Goncourts, Zola, 
and Maupassant have had no little influence upon an 
inherently intellectual and reasoning temperament. He 
stands to-day an epic figure, the once phenomenal power 
of eye and hand somewhat diminished, the characteristic 
vigour of thought imimpaired. It is impossible to under- 


CHRISTIAN KROHG— Portrait of mIT. Collection of Otto Benzon, 
Esq., CopeohaKcn 

stand the development of Norwegian painting without 
visiting Krohg in his unpretentious fjord-side, home at 
Dr0bak. He remains the sturdiest and most consistent of 
that great group of pioneer naturalists who laid the 
foundations of his coimtry's art. 

131 Portrait of Myself 

132 Dangerous Waters 

133 "Look Out!'^ 

KROHG, Per, Dr0bak 

Per KROHQ, the indisputably talented son of Christian 
Krohg, was bom the 18 Jime, 1889 in Asg&rdstrand, near 
Christiania. When but eight years of age he went to live 
with his parents at the home of his uncle, Fritz Thaulow, at 
Dieppe, and from thence onward his association with France 
and particularly with the* modem movement in contem- 
porary French art has been close and intimate. Before ten 
he was sketching at the Academic Carlorossi and had made 
his debut at a Children's Exhibition at the Petit Palais. 
At fifteen he became a regular pupil at Carlorossi's under 
his father, later continuing his studies with Mile. Olga de 
Boznanska, with the Spanish painter Anglada, and fhially 
with Henri-Matisse. If Christian Krohg represents so 
staunchly the older regime, his son is a veritable modem 
of the modems, and has already grasped considerably 
more than the mere rudiments of the new gospel. He ^s 
one of those young radicals who are to-day Imocking so 
lustily and so eloquently at the door, and to whom the door 
cannot fail shortly to open. 

134 Danse 

135 Carnival 


HENRIK LUND — From a photc^raph 

LUND, Henrik Louis, Christiania 

Henrik Lund was bora the 8 September, 1879 in 
Bergen, and received his preliminary training at the Chris- 
tiania School of Design, later studying in Copenhagen and 
travelling extensively in Holland, Belgium, Germany, 
France, and Spain. Although virtually self-taught, Limd's 
progress was rapid, he having won in quick succession the 
Thaulow Prize, Schaffer's Stipend, and the State Stipend. 
While the chief esthetic influence during the formative 
stages of his development was imquestionably that of 
Eklvard Munch, Henrik Lund to-day stands squarely upon 
his own feet, his achievements in the province of impres- 
sionistic portraiture, landscape, and genre being marked 
by pronounced individuality of tone and treatment. His 
accurate and ready analysis of character is little short of 
phenomenal, and his stroke imexcelled in contemporary 
Norwegian art for spirited freedom and breadth. In 
point of colour Limd's work is typically Northern in its 
fresh, blond clarity. If, indeed, one were to venture a 
comment in connection with such brilliant production as 
he has already placed to his credit it would merely be 
to the effect that he possibly suffers from a sheer super- 
abimdance of talent. Once he attains maturity, and com- 
plete sovereignity over his truly astonishing powers, there 
is literally nothing Lund should not be able to accomplish 
after his own vigorous, stimulating fashion. 

136 Andreas and Margit 

137 Portrait of Hans Jaeger 

138 Portrait of Herman Gade, Esq. 

139 Portrait of Gunnar Heiberg 

140 Landscape 

141 Portrait of Finn R0nn 


EDVARD MUNCH— Portrait of lelf. 

MUNCH, EDVARD, Hvitsten 

Edvard Munch was bom the 12 December, 1863 at 
Ljditen, Hedemarken, and following the removal of his 
parents to Christiania began his artistic training at the 
Royal School of Design, later studying with Christian 
Krohg and in Paris under Bonnat. His debut took place 
at the autumn exhibition of 1883, from which date his 
periodical appearances in Christiania art circles have been 
the signal for the most bitter and insensate campaign of 
wilful misinterpretation and villification that could pos- 
sibly be imagined. The battle waged a generation before 
against the apostles of naturalism was nothing compared 
with the chorus of crude denunciation which has been 
heaped upon Eklvard Munch. About 1900, however, 
Munch, Uke Ibsen, was fortunate in finding a valiiant, 
authoritative champion in Director Thiis, whose services 
in behalf of the yoimg painter in many respects recall 
those which Georg Brandes rendered the sorely maligned 
poet and dramatist. Ibsen and Mimch have in addition 
not a little in common. They are both poets at heart, 
they are both exponents of that psychic restlessness so 
characteristic of the Norwegian temperament, and they 
both look at life with searching, penetrant gaze, seeking not 
the obvious but that which is fundamentally significant. 
Ever since the appearance of the first version of The Sick 
Child, Mimch has given pictorial form to one of two 
typical themes — sickness or sex. You will find in these 
beseechingly beautiful or feverishly troubled canvases, 
now the most exalted and sensitive response to human suf- 
fering, now the scarlet trail of the serpent. 

142 The Sick Child 

143 Portrait of Hermann Schlittgen 

144 In the Garden 

145 Summer Night 

146 Starlit Night 

147 In the Orchard 


BILIF PBTERSSEN — PorbBit of self 

ONSAGER, S0ren, Christiania 

S0REN ONSAGER was bom the 6 October, 1878 in 
Holmestrand, and received his early artistic training froni 
the well known Norwegian painter of interiors Harriet 
Backer, afterward studying in Copenhagen under Kristian 
Zahrtmann. As the recepient of both the Finne and the 
Rosenkrans Stipends, each of which he was twice awarded, 
he has been enabled to travel and study at considerable 
leisure on the Continent, having visited at different inter- 
vals France, Italy, and Spain, and at one period passing 
considerable time in Paris where he made successful entry 
at the Salon in 1908. It is in the province of figure painting 
that Onsager excels, his sketches of young girls and maidens 
asleep or in the act of adorning themselves having of late 
years proved his favourite themes. Onsager is a delicate 
and spirited draughtsman, and a colourist of considerable 
independence of taste and vision. He belongs without 
question to the advanced group of young Norwegian 
painters who owe not a little to the contemporary French- 
men, yet like most of them is able to reveal his personality 
in fresh and congenial fashion. 

148 Sisters 

149 CHrls Asleep 

150 Young Girl 

PETERSSEN, Hjalmar Eilif Emanuel, Lysaker 

ElLiF PETERSSEN was bom the 4 September, 1852Xin 
Christiania, beginning his studies with Eckersberg in his 
native city and subsequently continuing at the Copenhagen 
Academy, at Karlsruhe, and at the Royal Academy, 
Munich, under Professor Diez. Like Krohg and Wcren- 
skiold, Eilif Peterssen belongs with the old guard whose 
ranks are year by year growing thinner. He stands in the 
history of modem Norwegian painting as a transition 
figure. He has enjoyed unusual prestige in hiis profession, 


has been awarded numerous distinctions, and has placed 
to his credit many admirable canvases, yet he has rarely 
displayed that compelling, whole-hearted conviction which 
so notably characterizes the work of Krohg. The rich, 
dark tonality of Munich days and a lingering love for the 
discreet sumptuousness of the Venetians alternates in his 
production with the open air stimulus and clarity of a 
later date. A conscientious and scholarly craftsman, 
Eilif Peterssen has given proof of his powers in landscape, 
portraiture, genre, and decorative composition. He attains 
perhaps highest rank in his likenesses of the sturdy and 
thoughtful men and women of his generation — a generation 
rich in significant personalities, among whom he himself 
has won enduring place. 

151 Osterdalen Sater 

152 Summer Night, Western Norway 

SKREDSVIG, Christian, Eggedal 

Christian Skredsvig was bom 12 March, 1855 in 
Modum, and received his preliminary training from Eckers- 
berg in Christiania and Vilhelm Kyhn, Copenhagen. He 
continued his studies in Mimich from 1875 to 1879, and in 
Paris from 1880 to 1885. A year or more was spent at 
Grez, and it was there that Skredsvig made the acquaintance 
of the talented Swedish painter Ernst Josephson and with 
him journeyed to Spain. It was not, however, the mag- 
netic Josephson who most influenced the yoimg Norwegian 
but the considerably milder Frenchmen, Corot, Millet, 
and Bastien-Lepage. Skredsvig, who,^ despite his humble 
origin, was one of the earliest to affect the delicacy of hand- 
ling and somewhat monotonously grey tonality of the 
Frenchmen of the early 'eighties, has won perhaps greater 
distinction abroad than at home. The celebrated canvas 
Menneskens s0n in the Christiania National Gallery dis- 
plays considerably more social sentimentality than sound- 


ness of observation, and indeed most of his work suffers 
fircmi similar defects. 

153 Astray 

SOHLBERG, Harald, Christiania 

Harald Sohlberg was bom the 29 November, 1869 
in Christiania, and received the groimdwork of his artistic 
training at the Royal School of Design in his native dty, 
also studying for a brief period with Sven j0rgensen at 
Slagen. On leaving J0rgensen he went for a time to 
Werenskiold and to Harriet Backer, completing his appren- 
ticeship under Zahrtmann in Copenhagen, and later spend- 
ing a year at Weimar and another year in Paris. The decade 
from 1890 to 1900 found Sohlberg among the group known 
as the new romanticists, at the head of which stood the 
late Halfdan Egedius, but since then, and particularly 
after he settled amid the primitive isolation of R0ros, where 
he resided winter and summer, he has revealed himself as 
a wholly original and independent artistic personality. 
There is nothing in the entire range of Scandinavian painting 
comparable with these carefully wrought and tensely keyed 
canvases. To the patient exactitude of the Italian primi- 
tives, as seen in the pellucid landscape backgrounds of 
panels Tuscan or Umbrian, has been added, with kindred 
restraint, all the grandeur and austerity of the North with 
star-studded sky and illimitable stretdr of snow covered 
mountain. Sohlberg's canvases possess to a wellnigh 
unique degree the quality of emotional concentration. 

154 Autumn Landscape 

155 Fisherman's Cottage 

156 Mountains, Winter Landscape 

157 Afternoon 

158 Wagon Road 


HARALD SOHLBERG — Portrait of self 

WERENSKIOLD, Dagfin, Lysaker 

Dagpin WERENSKIOLD was bom in 1892 in Chris- 
tiania, and is the son of the well known portrait and landscape 
painter and illustrator Erik Werenskiold. This talented 
youth, who has the distinction of being the youngest ex- 
hibitor in the present display, studied with his father and 
also in Paris where he naturally became allied with the 
modem group of French painters. • It is not, however, with 
brush and palette that Dagfin Werenskiold is seen to best 
advantage, but in the field of decorative wood-carving. 
Already an accomplished craftsman, he not only designs 
but cuts and colours these clearly conceived and boldly 
executed panels. His favourite motives are birds and 
flowers or decoratively distributed foliage, and his work is 
strong in accent and discreetly vigourous in tone. It is in- 
teresting to watch this slender, blond giant patiently carving 
one of his compositions on the piazza of the family home 
at Lysaker. There is much of the old Norse spirit alike 
in this work and in the youthful workman. It strikes a 
healthy, virile note, and implies a concentration and self- 
discipline manifestly lacking in the production of certain 
of the young painters of his generation. 

159 Turkey Cock Family — Decorative Panel 

WERENSKIOLD, Erik Theodor, Lysaker 

Erik Werenskiold was bom the 11 February, 1855 
in Kongsvinger, and after studying at the University of 
Christiania began his artistic training at the Royal School 
of Design. From 1876 to 1880 he attended the Munich 
Academy in the classes of Professors Lofftz and Linden- 
schmidt, and from 1881 to 1883 continued his apprenticeship 
in Paris, to which dty he has retiuned at subsequent in- 
tervals. His debut was made at Christiania in 1878 with 
an admirable portrait of his father, since which date he 
has devoted his energies alternately to portraiture, illu- 
stration, and landscape, mainly in combination with the 


ERIK WERENSKIOLD — Portrait of ttlf 

O. WOLD-TORNE — Portrait of aelf 

figure. Werenskiold enjoys a prestige second to that of no 
living Norwegian artist. While it is possible that he may be 
longest remembered through his series of earnest, characterful 
portraits of the leading figures of his day — Ibsen, Bj0mson, 
Collett etc., he has lately added not a little to his varied 
accomplishment by embracing, with studious sincerity and 
rare open-mindedness, the bc^t features of the modem 
movement. He lives on the pine-crested heights of Lysaker, 
overlooking the Christiania Fjord, drawing daily from 
nature fr^ stimulus and inspiration and, like nature, 
illustrating the eternal principle of self-rejuvenation. 

160 Two Little Girls 

161 Norwegian Boy 

162 By the Christiania Fjord 

163 Flowers 

WOLD-TORNE, Oluf, Christiania 

O. WOLD-TORNE was bom the 7 November, 1867 in Soon, 
and, as has been the case with so many of the gifted young 
Norwegian painters of the day, received his preliminary 
training under Kristian Zahrtmann in Copenhagen. On 
leaving Zahrtmann he went to Paris where he studied awhile 
with Roll, and subsequently travelled on the Continent. 
His debut was made in 1893, and though he has devoted 
his energies with no little success to portraiture and land- 
scape, his most congenial field is that of the decorative arts, 
his designs for book -bindings, tapestry, porcelain, and 
faience marking a veritable epoch in Norwegian ornamental 

164 Portrait of Self 

165 Flowers 



(121} BERNHARD POLKESTAD — Still -Ufe 

(64) VILHELM HAM I.IERSH0I — Kronborg. Hamlet's Ceatle. 
Collecdofi of Dr. Alfred Bramscn, Copenhasen 

(63) VILHELM HAMMBRSH0I— Sunbeama. CoUection of 
Dr. Alfred Bramsen, Copenhagen 

(124) THORLOF HOLMBOE ~ Landacape with Piae Treei 

(131) CHRISTIAN KROHG — Portrait of MyMlf 

(135} PER KROHO — Carnival 

(137) HENRIK LUND — Portrait of Hans Jeeger 

(136) HENRIK HJND — Andrras and Margit 

(80) VIGGO MADSEN — View from My 

(142) EDVARD MUNCH — The Sick ChUd 

(84) JULIUS PAULSEN — Portrftit of Baron Kosenltranto 

(94) SIGURD SWANE — Pour ArtiatB 

(97) FRITZ SYBERG — The First Day of Spring 

(101) BOVARD WEIHB — Portrait of my Mother 

(105) J. P. WILLUMSEN — A Mother's Drettm 

(43) ANDERS L. ZORN— MatiotonChrittmuDcy 

(46 A) ANDERS L. ZORN— Hall Keati 

Collection of Hugo ReUinger, Esq., New York 


Bindesb0ll, Thorvald 

Boberg, Anna .... 

Diriks, Edvard .... 

Edstrom, David 

Eugen, H. R. H., Prince Eugen 

Erichsen, Thorvald . 

Fischer, Vilhelm 

Fjsestad, Gustaf Adolf 

Folkestad, Bemhard 

Giersing, Harald 

Hallstrom, Gunnar . 

Hammersh0i, Vilhelm 

Hesselbom, Otto 

Holmboe, Thorlof 

j0rgensen, Axel 

Karsten, Ludvig 

Kavli, Ame 

Krohg, Christian 

Krohg, Per 

Kyhn, Knud 

Larsen, Johannes 

Larsson, Carl 

Liljefors, Bruno A. 







101, 102 



102, 104 








106, 108 

108, 110 







Lund, Henrik 
Madsen, Viggo . 
MiUes, Carl 
Mortensen, C. . 
Munch, Eklvard 
Nielsen, Einar . 
Onsager, S0ren 
Paulsen, Julius . 
Peterssen, Eilif . 
Pettersson, Axel 
Ring, Lauritz A. 
Schou, Karl 
Skredsvig, Christian 
Sohlberg, Harald 
Swane, Sigurd . 
Syberg, Fritz 
Weihe, Edvard 
Werenskiold, Dagfin 
Werenskiold, Erik 
Willumsen, J. F. 
Wold-Tome, Oluf 
Zom, Anders L. 










116, 117 










120, 123 
















Bindesb0ll, Thorvald — Portrait of 

Boberg, Anna — Portrait of 54 

« (2) At Rest, Sunday . ... 127 

Diriks, Edvard, Portrait of 100 

Eugen, H. R. H., Prince Eugen — Portrait of . 57 

" " (8) Swedish Summer 

Night 128 

« " (9) After Rain 129 

Fjsestad, Gustaf A. — Portrait of .... 59 

(12) Hoarfrost .... 130 

(15) Ripples ... 131 

Erichsen, Thorvald — Portrait of 103 

Folkestad,Bemhard — (121) Still-life ... 132 

Giersing, Harald — Portrait of 79 

Hallstrom, Gunnar — Portrait of 61 

" " (22) On the Frozen Snow 133 

Hammersh0i, Vilhelm — Portrait of 81 

(64) Kronborg, Hamlet's 

Castle 134 

. 135 


. 136 

. 105 





(63) Simbeams 
Hesselbom, Otto — Portrait of 

" " (25) My Country . 

Holmboe, Thorlof — Portrait of 



(124) Landscape with Pine Trees 137 






j0rgensen, Axel — Portrait of . . . 
Karsten, Ludvig — Portrait of . . . 

« « (127) Still-life 

Krohg, Christian — Portrait of . . . 

« " (131) Portrait of Myself 

Krohg, Per — (135) Carnival 
Larsen, Johannes — Portrait of . . 
Larsson, Carl -^ Portrait of . 

(34) Theatrical Cogitations 
(31) Shelling Peas 

Liljefors, Bnino A. — Portrait of . 

« « (38) Foxes . 
Lund, Henrik — Portrait of . 

(137) Portrait of Hans Jseger 
(136) Andreas and Margit 
Madsen, Viggo — (80) View from Bedroom Window 

Milles, Carl — Portrait of 

Mimch, Eklvard — Portrait of .... 

(142) The Sick ChUd 
(147) In the Orchard 
Nielsen, Einar — Portrait of . 

« " (81) Evening Bells 

Onsager, S0ren — (148) Sisters 
Paulsen, Julius — (84) Portrait of Baron Rosenkrantz 
















Peterssen, Eilif— Portrait of 115 

Pettersson, Axel — Portrait of 72 

Ring, Lauritz A. — Portrait of 91 

Sohlbcrg, Harald — Portrait of 119 

« « (156) Mountains, Winter Land- 

scape 152 

Swane, Sigurd — Portrait of 93 


« « (94) Four Artists 
Syberg, Fritz — (97) The First Day of Spring . 
Weihe, Edvard — Portrait of . . . . 
« « (101) Portrait of My Mother 
Werenskiold, Erik — Portrait of ... . 
Willumsen, J. F. — Portrait of 

« « « (103) Youth and Sunshine . 

« « « (105) A Mother's Dream . 

Wold-Tome, Oluf— Portrait of . . . . 
Zom, Anders L. — Portrait of ... . 










« « « (42) Matins on Christmas Day . 158 
" (44) Skeri-kulla .... 159 




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