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An Exhibition of Greek Manuscripts 


The Kenneth Willis Clark 


Perkins Library • Duke University 
March 1999 


The Society of Biblical Literature 

The American Academy of Religion 
South-Eastern Section 

Page 2. 

Curator of the Exhibition and author of the catalogue: 
John Lawrence Sharpe ELT 

On the upper cover of the catalogue is a reproduction of the cover of Duke Gk. MS. 65, the manuscript 
placed in Duke University Library to celebrate the naming of the Collection 
for Kenneth Willis Clark. 
The Kenneth Willis and Adelaide Dickinson Clark Endowment Fund has provided support for this 
catalogue of which 300 copies have been printed by Wilson Litho, Inc., Morrisville, North Carolina. 

March 1999. 

Page 3. 

An Introduction and Short History 
of the Clark Collection of Greek Manuscripts 

Almost seventy years ago Professor B. Harvie Branscomb of the Duke Divinity School found a 
complete manuscript of the Greek New Testament in the Munich bookshop of Tauber 
and Weil. Professor Branscomb was a scholar of the New Testament and had written a 
number of books and articles on the Greek New Testament and its background. When he 
went into the Munich bookshop, he recognized the significance of the large codex and 
arranged for its purchase. When the manuscript arrived in the Library on the 19 th of 
February, 1931, it was accessioned "Duke Greek MS. 1." That was the beginning of the 
development of the collection of Greek manuscripts that would eventually be named "The 
Kenneth Willis Clark Collection of Greek Manuscripts." 

In the same year that the manuscript arrived at Duke, a young scholar and student of Edgar J. 
Goodspeed at the University of Chicago came to teach in the Duke Divinity School. His 
specialty was textual criticism of the New Testament (encouraged by the knowledge that 
the University Library had acquired a Greek manuscript of the New Testament). In order 
to continue in the tradition of textual studies, Kenneth Clark 1 realized that it was necessary 
for the University Library to acquire the raw materials of research, manuscripts of the 
New Testament. The files are full of Professor Clark's letters of encouragement and 
admonition to University, Library, and Divinity School administrators whenever a 
manuscript appeared on the market. Furthermore, dealers like Bernard Quaritch, Alan 
Thomas, and Clifford Maggs in London were aware of his keen interest in manuscripts and 
on every occasion that one appeared, Professor Clark was among the first to receive the 

The acquisition of the Greek manuscript, a complete New Testament, was the beginning of a 
collection that would eventually contain nearly one hundred manuscripts and bear the 
name of Kenneth Willis and Adelaide Dickinson Clark. And justly so for they established 
an endowment begun with a first contribution on the 31 st of March 1972. Throughout the 
years they continued to add funds to that account and left the residual of their estate to 
their endowment for Greek manuscript acquisition. In May 1975 The Friends of the 
Library of Duke University with assistance from the Divinity School purchased a fine 
manuscript from Lathrop C. Harper, Inc., New York. On the 15 th of May 1975, a 
ceremony was held in the Biddle Room of the Rare Book, Manuscript, and Special 
Collections Library to name the Greek manuscript collection in honor of Professor Clark. 
Manuscript 65 was presented to commemorate the event. 

Although at the beginning the intention was to collect only biblical texts of the New 
Testament, as time passed it became evident that the study of Greek manuscripts in general 
was important to a number of other disciplines— theology, classics, liturgies, and patristics. 

1 Born in New York City 11 January 1898; died in Durham, North Carolina 27 July 1979; Adelaide 
Dickinson Clark was born in New York 13 October 1898 and died in Durham 15 May 1988. 

Page 4. 

Today the collection contains a variety of materials, bringing with them diverse histories, a 
number of which have passed through notable libraries before reaching Duke's collection. 

Among the largest group represented in the collection are manuscripts that contain texts of the 
New Testament. They number 27. Among this number are the Four Gospel 
manuscripts— Tetraevangelia—MSS. 4, 5, 6, 15, 22, 25, 31, 38, 60, and 64. One of the most 
notable among this group is MS. 60, also known as Codex Daltonianus. Written in the 
latter half of the eleventh century, it contains commentary for each of the Gospels. It is of 
particular interest for the Duke collection, for MS. 60 shared a place alongside Duke's MS.l 
in the Monastery of Eikosophoenesis— the Monastery of Twenty Palms — in Drama in 
northern Greece. In that collection Duke MS. 60 bore the number 59, occupying a place 
on the shelf alongside its neighbor, No. 60, which became Greek Ms. 1! 

For reading the Gospels in the services, the Byzantine community prepared the lectionary— 
Evangelion in Greek — containing the Gospels copied out in the order in which the lessons 
were read throughout the church year, beginning with Easter Day and ending with Holy 
Saturday and the Great Vigil of Easter. This type of manuscript is represented by a 
number of examples, notably MSS. 10, 20, 12, 24, 27, 28, 39, 42, 65, 82, 83, and 85. There 
are two notable examples among this type — MSS. 65 and 85. Ms. 65, written in the 
eleventh century, was presented by The Friends of the Library in honor of Professor 
Clark, when the collection was named in his honor. This manuscript is preserved in a 
Byzantine binding of red goatskin over thick wooden boards with a silver gilt covering on 
the upper cover. It is worked in repousse from the reverse, in part with dies, with figures 
of the Four Evangelists and the Crucifixion accompanied by an inscription recording that 
the manuscript was the property of the Metropolitan Church of St. Stephen in the 
Province of Pisidia, in Asia Minor. 

The other remarkable manuscript, MS. 85, is one signed by Clement the Monk who dated his 
work when he completed it on the 20th of July, indiction 5, in the year 6560 [i.e., A. D. 
1052], making it one of the earliest dated Greek lectionary manuscripts. At one time it was 
the property of A. N. L. Munby, the late librarian of Kings College, Cambridge. 

Other manuscripts in the collection represent the diverse homiletical and liturgical books 
needed for services in the Byzantine church. There are sermons by St. John Chrysostom, 
St. Gregory of Nazianzus, and St. Basil, among others; there are also commentaries, 
liturgies and euchologia, psalters, sticheraria, and monastic rules. Apart from the 
theological and liturgical writings, there are a number of works by classical authors of 
which the largest and probably the most significant is that represented in the handicraft of 
the Renaissance scribe Damianos Guidotes. His rendering of Aristotle's Organon (MS. 30) 
was at one time in the library of San Francisco della Vigna but came to reside in the 
Holland House Library in London. The manuscript survived the bombing of the Library 
during the "blitz" despite the loss of its cover. It is now preserved in a modern dark brown 
full calf binding. 

Another manuscript of interesting scribal provenance is Ms. 39, written by the scribe Lucas 
who goes by several names: Luke the Cypriot, Lukas, Bishop of Buzau, or Luke the 
Hungaro-Vlach. A large-format lectionary written on paper, it was produced for the 
Voivode Radu of Moldavia or Wallachia and finished sometime between 1626 and 1629. In 

Page 5. 

all likelihood it was prepared for Miron Barnowski Movila who ruled during that time. 
Famous former owners are also represented among the manuscripts — most notably Sir 
Thomas Phillipps. But we also find Jacob P. R. Lyell; the Duke of Sussex; Sir Austen 
Henry Layard, the excavator of Nineveh; Gerard Meerman; the Honorable Frederic 
North, fifth Earl of Guilford; the Rev. Henry Drury, of Harrow; and the Jesuit College de 
Clermont, Paris, to name a few. 

The collection could not have been built without the interest of friends who have contributed 
and continue to contribute to the development of the collection. Encouragement and 
support have come from Mrs. Adelaide Dickinson Clark, who, in addition to giving to the 
Clark Endowment, gave eight manuscripts (MSS. 74-81) in 1979; from Mr. and Mrs. Harry 
L. Dalton of Charlotte, North Carolina, who have enriched the collection with monetary 
gifts and the special manuscript MS. 60; and from Professor William H. Willis of the 
Classics Department of the University who gave among other manuscripts and papyri MS. 
29, a liturgical collection, dated 13 th of October A. M. 6920 (i.e., A. D. 1411). 

As a collection of manuscripts, it is far richer than simply a collection of texts. The profile of a 
Byzantine monastery is contained in the diversity of the contents, bindings, illuminations, 
and provenance. Romania, Mt. Sinai, Trebizond, and Calabria all find a place among this 
diverse collection that represents the rich tapestry of politics, economics, philosophy and 
religion of Byzantium — a civilization rising from the ashes of ancient Greece and Rome 
that encircled and dominated the Mediterranean littoral for more than a millennium. 

The cabinets are numbered. The large flat cabinet in the center is CABINET 1; the vertical 
cabinets along the wall of the Biddle Room are numbered CABINETS 2-4, beginning with 
CABINET 2 nearest the arches. The flat cabinets along the outside windows are numbered 
CABINETS 5-7, beginning with CABINET 5 nearest the gates to Circulation and Reference. 

Page 6. 

Table of Contents 

Introduction p. 3 

Cabinet L: The Greek New Testament p. 7 

Cabinet 2.: The Classics and Byzantrjm p. 19 

Cabinet 3.: The Liturgy— the Gospel Unfolded Week by Week p. 28 

Cabinet 4.: Bindings— Clothed in Gold and Silver p. 36 

Cabinet 5.: Homilies— The Spoken Word as Theology p. 42 

Cabinet 6.: Lives of the Saints— Examples of Faith p. 49 

Cabinet 7.: The Monastic Life— Community and Obedience p. 54 

Summary Descriptive List of the Clark Collection p. 59 

New Testament Manuscripts by Gregory number p. 68 

Arrangement accordlng to Date p. 69 

Page 7. 

Cabinet 1. 

The Greek New Testament— Continuous Texts 
and lectionaries 

All but three books of the New Testament were written between A. D. 50 and 100. The 
originals of the"Gospels" and the "Epistles" disappeared in the very infancy of the Church; 
no allusion is made to them by any early Christian writer. Each book was written 
separately and there was no thought of combining them into a single collection. St. Paul 
wrote letters to the congregations at Rome and at Corinth on papyrus — the common 
material for writing whether for literary or for private texts. The Acts of the Apostles or 
the Gospel of St. Luke written on papyrus would have formed a portly roll of some nine 
meters. Parchment soon made its appearance, however, and that was to change things 

The New Testament began to take its form in the second century when the Four Gospels were 
clearly marked as an authoritative group. Soon the Epistles of St. Paul were grouped 
together and became easily recognized and distinguished. After the establishment of these 
two groups of writings, the Church moved toward the establishment of a Canon, or an 
authoritative collection that would rank with authority alongside the Old Testament as 

Emperor Constantine accepted Christianity in the fourth century and ceased to persecute the 
followers of Christ. The writings of these early books of the New Testament no longer 
needed to be concealed and were in great demand by the converts to the new church. 

At the outset, the Books of the New Testament were circulated individually, but soon they 
began to group themselves into Gospels and Epistles. The Revelation of John did not 
conform and therefore it remained an independent oddity. The other books soon 
coalesced around the type of literature they represented: the Four Gospels and the others; 
The Acts of the Apostles and the Epistles. The Four Gospels and the thirteen epistles of 
St. Paul were accepted by ca. 130 and were placed on the same footing with the Old 
Testament about ca. 200 at the Council of Jamnia. St. Athanasius in his Festal Epistle for 
369 provides the first complete list of the present books of the New Testament. It is about 
this time, the fourth century A. D., when parchment became the primary construction 
material, that all twenty-seven books of the New Testament appeared together in one 
volume. Most scholars assign to this earliest period two splendid examples: Codex 
Vaticanus and Codex Sinaitcus, both from the fourth century. Within the next two 
centuries Codex Alexandrinus, Codex Ephraemis Rescriptus, and Codex Bezae followed. 
Rarely after that time did the complete New Testament appear. In addition to the ones 
cited here, only about fifty are known of which there are only two in the United States — 

Page 8. 

one at Duke, our Ms. 1, and one in Maywood, Illinois, in the Gruber Collection at the 
Lutheran Theological Seminary. 2 

The Four-Gospel manuscript often contains more than simply the texts of Matthew, Mark, 
Luke, and John. There are summaries of the gospels, lives of the evangelists, 
superscriptions and subscriptions, chapter titles, and chapter divisions. Also in the 
contents are the Eusebian Canon Tables, ten tables that use Ammonias' chapter divisions 
to provide the reader with a harmony of the contents. The Canon tables, forming a unity 
of witness of the four Gospels, also serves as one more proof that the four-fold witness is 
just that - four accounts of the same story about the incarnation of the Logos. The Four- 
Gospel manuscript represents in words the Heavenly Kingdom come down to earth. The 
Four Evangelists are frequently portrayed on the four pillars that support the dome of a 
basilica. The vault of heaven is filled with stars, angels and archangels with the 
Pantocrator— the Almighty — looking down on the faithful from the center of the ceiling. 

Irenaeus, who lived between A. D. 150 and 200, justified the existence of the Four-Gospel 
arrangement. He says that there are four regions of the world, four winds, four seasons, 
and indeed the Cherubim have four faces, that of a man, a lion, an ox, and an eagle, all 
representing the Four Evangelists— Matthew, the man; Mark, the lion; Luke, the ox; John, 
the eagle. 3 Iraeneus continues, "The living creatures are quadriform, and the Gospels are 
quadriform; therefore it is natural that the Church should have four pillars and therefore 
four corners." 4 The same believing community that regarded the four-fold witness as a 
unity constructed a church, built around a square floor plan and covered by a hemisphere. 
Four— no more and no less. 

For the Orthodox Church, the Gospels are used in two forms. The continuous text, called the 
Tetraevangelia, is in the order that is familiar to us — Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John; 
however, the lectionary text, the Evangelion, is arranged for reading throughout the 
liturgical year beginning with John chapter one on Easter Sunday. The Epistles of St. Paul 
occupied a separate volume. These were the standards throughout the Byzantine period. 
To find a manuscript copy of the entire Greek New Testament before the beginning of the 
sixteenth century was extremely rare. If they were produced, the questions arise as to 
why. What function did they serve? Were they for worship? Were they for study? Here 
preserved in this collection is one of these rarities: a copy of the entire Greek New 
Testament with commentary. Of all the books, the Apocalypse alone is without marginal 
notations even though the scribe notes that Andreas of Caesarea had written a 
commentary on the visionary text of John the Theologian. 5 

2 Gruber 1424 (Gregory-Aland 1424) 

3 See Rev. iv.6-10 and Ezek. i. 

4 The "Gospel" definitions are taken from the writings of St. John Chrysostom, Cyril of Alexandria, but 

most frequently from Irenaeus (Adv. Haer., m, 11, 8 = Migne, PG, VH, cols. 885 ff.). See also 
Hermann Freiherr von Soden, Die Schriften des neuen Testaments (Gortingen: Vandenhoeck und 
Ruprecht, 191 1) I. i. pp. 302 ff. 
3 The story of the manuscript tradition may be explored in the works of Bruce M annin g Metzger, The 
Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption and Restoration (Oxford: The Clarendon 
Press, 1964), Sir Frederic Kenyon, Our Bible and the Ancient Manuscripts (revised by A. W. Adams; 
introduction by G. R. Driver; London: Eyre & Spottiswoode, 1958); Harry Y. Gamble, Books and 
Readers in the early Church: a History of Early Christian Texts (New Haven: Yale University Press, 

Page 9. 

MS. 1. New Testament, cm. A. D. 1200; Parchment, 198 ff. 
Gregory- Aland 1780. 

This manuscript with its remarkable scribal decoration is written in a very neat, small 
minuscule hand. The muted tones, the zoomorphic figures used for the initial letters, and 
the thickness and color of the parchment are enhanced by the Byzantine monastic binding 
of dark brown goatskin over wooden boards. This manuscript is from the thirteenth 
century and is one of fifty surviving copies of complete New Testaments in Greek in the 
world. There are only two in the United States: Duke Greek Ms. 1 and Gruber Ms. 152 in 
the Theological Seminary of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Maywood, Illinois. 6 
Remarkably, both of them came to reside at some time in the Monastery of the Twenty 
Palms near Kosinitza in northern Greece. 7 

Greek Manuscript 1 was the first Greek manuscript acquired by the Duke University Library 
in 1931 and is still the most significant among the 98 manuscripts that make up the 
collection. It contains the entire New Testament, including the Book of Revelation, 
written by a single scribe, who copied out not only the text of the entire New Testament 
but also added extensive marginal commentary to almost every book. The margins of the 
Gospels and the Acts are filled with text in his very small script. The only book without 
any marginal commentary is the Book of the Revelation of St. John. 

The commentaries, called catenae, are compilations of comments from the fathers, strung 
together like links in a chain to form a continuous exposition of a passage of scriptures. 
The text of the commentary that surrounds the Scriptural text is supplied with little signes 
de renvoies made up mostly at the fancy of the scribe to point to the place in the text for 
which the comment was written. The comments may be drawn from one or many 
sources, with the source or author sometimes noted. Catenae first appeared as the golden 
age of patristic exegesis came to an end in the fifth century. Among the earliest of the 
compilers was Procopias of Gaza (d. A. D. 538); others who made compilations were 
Olympodorus of Alexandria (VI Century); Andreas the Presbyter (VII Century), and 
Nicetas of Heraclea (XI Century). By the time this manuscript was written there were 
many permutations to the traditions of catenae, mostly anonymously compiled and altered 
as they were copied. As is often the case, there may be similarities with those catenae 
published by John Anthony Cramer in the 1830s, 8 but they do not conform consistently 
throughout with the printed form. There remains a great deal of work yet to be done on 
sorting out the relationships among the various traditions. 

1995); and his The New Testament Canon: Its Making and Meaning (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 

6 Kenneth W. Clark, A Descriptive Catalogue of Greek New Testament Manuscripts in America, with an 

Introduction by Edgar J. Goodspeed (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1937), pp. 104-106. 

7 See Basiles Atsalos,'// Ovofiaaia rfjg'iepdg Movr\g tfjg Tlavayiag rfjg AxeipOJtonjrov xov Flayyaiov, rfjg 

rfjg Kocnvitarig i) EiKooi<poivio<rrig (Afinoc, Apdtiai;, IaxopiKO, Sepri 1 8rpoo"iet>|i.riT0)v 2). Drama 
1996; and the review by Christos Tzitzilis, in Jabrbucb der Osterreichischen Byxantinistik, XL VIII 
(1998), 382-383 

8 Catenae Graecorum Patrum in Novum Testamentum, edited by John Anthony Cramer; Oxonii: E 

typographeo Academico. 1940-. 

Page 10. 

Although the manuscript was recorded for Caspar Rene Gregory 9 by Kirsopp Lake in 1902 
when he was in Drama, the scribal hand and decorations point to its origins in the south 
of Italy. There was a thriving Greek monastic community there that traced its beginnings 
to the seventh century. 10 It survived well into the fifteenth century. When it began to fall 
into disorder and decay, Cardinal Bessarion among others began wholesale acquisition of 
unused libraries. He acquired the whole of the library of St. Nicholas of Casola about 
1460 and made it the nucleus of the magnificent collection of Greek manuscripts that he 
left to St. Mark's in Venice. The Turks destroyed the remainder of the St. Nicholas 
library when they sacked the monastery in 1481. In 1472 after the death of Cardinal 
Bessarion, Janus Lascaris, successor to Cardinal Bessarion, entered the service of Lorenzo 
the Magnificent and was assigned the task of collecting manuscripts for the Medicean 
Library in Florence. He frequently made journeys to Calabria, Sicily, and Greece in 
search of manuscripts. 11 Sometime during the dispersal of the libraries in the Calabria, our 

Greek Ms. 1 found its way to Kosinitza and then to the Movfi Tfjc, EtKOOt^otvtocrnq 

the Monastery of Twenty Palm Trees — where it was given the number 60. During 
World War I and the crisis in the Balkans, the monastery libraries in that region were 
dispersed for "safe keeping," and many of the treasures eventually found their ways into 
the hands of book dealers in Switzerland and Germany. 

Duke Professor B. Harvie Branscomb 13 received a Guggenheim Fellowship in 1929 to study 
early Christian Ethics and Palestinian archaeology. While traveling in Germany, he 
discovered a complete New Testament in the Munich bookshop of Tauber and Weil. On 
the 19th of February 1931, it became Duke Greek Ms. 1. 

Acquired the 19 th of February 193 1 . 

MS. 60. Tetraevangelion. Four Gospels with Catenae 
(Codex Daltonianus). Parchment; ca. A. D. 1050; 352 ff. 
Gregory- Aland 1423. 

This remarkable Four-Gospel manuscript was the shelf-mate to Duke Greek Ms. 1 in the 
Monastery in Kosinitza: Duke Greek Ms. 1 was Kosinitza 60 and Duke Greek Ms. 60 was 
Kosinitza 59! Two scribes write the text — the scribe responsible for most of the 
manuscript (ff. 1-347") writes a clear, neat, largish, rounded Byzantine book hand in a dark 
brown to brownish black ink. He writes a much smaller hand for the commentary. He 

9 Gregory, Textkritik des neuen Testamentes, III (Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs'sche Buchhandlung, 1909), 1 180. 

10 Kirsopp Lake, "The Greek Monasteries in South Italy," Tin Journal of Theological Studies IV (1902), 345- 

368; 517-542; V (1903), 23- 41, 189-202; cf. Also Pierre Batiffol, L'Abbaye de Rossano (Paris: Alphonse 
Picard, 1891), passim. 

11 This account is preserved in Cod. Vat. Gr. 1412 and has been published by K. K. Miiller in the 

Centralblatt fiir Bibliothekswesen (1884), pp. 333 ff. 
u See Gregory, Textkritik, cited above. 
13 A New Testament scholar, B. Harvie Branscomb came to Duke as the Director of Libraries in 1925, 

served as Dean of the Divinity School from 1944-46 before moving to Vanderbilt University as 

Chancellor from 1946 - 1963. He died in Nashville, Tennessee, on the 23rd of July 1998 at the age of 


Page 11. 

uses his own creative imagination to construct the signes de renvoies which are gilt. A 
quire was missing or damaged at the end and Scribe II copied over the last six leaves in 
black ink in a hand not so well practiced as the first scribe. His signes de renvoies are red, 
although they appear to have been black originally. 

The contents of the catenae do not conform consistently to any of the published editions. So 
for the moment we must note their source as "unidentified." In addition to the marginal 
commentary, the manuscript includes chapter headings and introductions, i. e., hypotheses, 
for Mark and Luke but not Matthew and John. The decorations are of the simple 
rectangular forms filled with circles and floral ornament. 

The binding is fifteenth-century Byzantine, likely created in the same shop— if, indeed, not by 
the same craftsman — as the one who bound Duke Greek Ms. 1. The dark brown morocco 
over the cypress has been impressed with several of the same tools and, even more telling, 
the manner in which the covers have been attached to the textblock bear the same angle at 
which the holes for the attachments were drilled. Even the sewing threads appear to be 
the same. Can one confidently suggest that the binding of these two books was the work 
of the same craftsman working in the bindery of the Monastery of Twenty Palms in 

Sometime during the Balkan Wars the manuscript traveled into central Europe passing from 
Kosinitza, to arrive eventually at the auction house of Hartung & Karl in Munich where it 
was sold as Lot 31 on the 15 th of November 1972. Representing the University Library, 
the book dealer Bernard Rosenthal, Berkeley, California, acquired the manuscript. On the 
2 nd of April 1973, Mr. Harry L. Dalton presented the manuscript as a gift to the University 
Librarian, Dr. Benjamin E. Powell, in the Biddle Room of the Rare Book, Manuscript, and 
Special Collections Library. It was placed in the Clark Collection as Codex Daltonianus in 
appreciation for his gift and to honor Mr. Dalton. 

Gift of Harry L. Dalton, 1973. 

MS. 15. Tetraevangelion. Four Gospels. Parchment and 

PAPER; ca. A. D. 1100 AND XVI™ CENTURY. 248# 

The center of worship for the Orthodox Christian revolves around the text of the Four 
Gospels — there could be only four, according to Irenaeus, because there are four winds, 
four corners of the earth, and four seasons. Even in the basilica structure on the four 
quinches of the four columns that hold up the central dome artists provided mosaics of the 
Four Evangelists indicating the significant role they have in their account of the 
Incarnation — Heaven come down to earth. 

Verse divisions as we know them would not come about until 1551 when Robert Estienne, 
having escaped his Roman Catholic persecutors in Paris for the Protestant center Geneva, 
produced a small two-volume set of the Greek New Testament with marked divisions. 
Before that time there were several systems in use, the most common being a system of 
K£<j>dA.ata, or chapters, each with its own rixtan, or titles, which are found in the Codex 

Page 12. 

Alexandrinus. Frequently these title lists are drawn up and placed before the book as a 
kind of summary outline of the contents. There is also an ingenious system drawn up by 
the father of Church History, Eusebius of Caesarea (ca. A. D. 260-ca. 340) in which he 
divided the Gospels into much smaller passages. There are 355 in Matthew, 233 in Mark, 
342 in Luke, and 232 in John. For these smaller passages, he prepared ten Kavovec,, or 
tables, in which he placed the numbers of parallel passages in columns. The first column is 
for references to common material found in all four Gospels, followed by references to the 
common materials in three Gospels, then that which is common to two, until all the 
combinations had been completed. The final table lists the passages unique to each 
Gospel. In the margins of the text one can see the two numbers, placed one above the 
other. The upper number is the number of the passage peculiar to that text. The lower 
number signifies the canon in which it may be found. The margins are filled with these 
locating aids. 

Several leaves at the beginning of this manuscript are missing as the result of an attack by a 
precocious mouse that nibbled the edges but did not touch a word of the text. This Four- 
Gospel manuscript was written in a small and carefully executed minuscule with 
interchangeable use of uncial and minuscule characters. He has used a fine nibbed reed pen 
in brown ink that ranges from a medium to deep brown. The strokes of the letters are 
without thicks and thins; the accents are small, hardly more than a carefully formed fleck 
or an extended dot, but firmly and carefully placed. 

As for its text, this manuscript has several remarkable readings: At Matthew xv. 13 (f. 56 T ) the 
original scribe wrote "Watch, therefore, for you know neither the day nor the hour." 
This is regarded as the oldest reading, but a medieval corrector has added in the margin "in 
which the Son of Man comes." Of considerable interest is the alteration of the text in the 
story of Jesus on the road to Emmaus at Luke xxiv. 43 if. 187"). When Jesus appears to the 
two disciples on the road, they give him a piece of fish to eat to prove that he reappeared 
in the flesh after the Resurrection. The scribe follows the popular medieval gloss that 
transforms the ceremony of the occasion. He adds Kcri en\Xo\na eScoicev ccoratc, "and the 
remainder he gave to them." A later corrector has drawn a red line through this gloss. 

The bookdealers Quaritch and McLeish and Sons originally offered the manuscript to the 
British Library. A. S. Collins, the Keeper of Manuscripts, declined. He thought the price 
asked by the owner Ulysses Spanakidis, a "translator and author" who lived in Alexandria, 
was too high. However, while Professor Kenneth Clark was directing the microfilming 
project in Jerusalem and Mt. Sinai for the Library of Congress, M he received by camel post 
a letter from an Alexandrian Greek addressed To the President of the American Mission for 
Photographing the Manuscripts of the Convent of Mount Sinai at Gabal-el-Tor [i.e., K. W. 
Clark], 6 of January 1950 offering the manuscript for sale. After two visits to Alexandria 
in the spring of 1950, Professor Clark secured the manuscript for the Duke University 
Library in September. 

Acquired for the Library by Professor K. W. Clark, September 1950. 

14 See Checklist of Manuscripts in St. Catherine's Monastery, Mount Sinai, microfilmed for the Library of 
Congress, 1950, prepared under the direction of Kenneth W. Clark, General Editor of the Mount 
Sinai Expedition, 19*9-59, Washington: Library of Congress, 1952. 

Page 13. 

MS. 38. Tetraevangelion. Four Gospels. Parchment, ca. 
A. D. 1200; 272 ff. 

This Four-Gospel manuscript in a Byzantine binding contains portraits of each of the 
Evangelists. The best-preserved portrait is that of the Evangelist John. The survival of 
illustrations in Byzantine manuscripts — especially Evangelists' portraits — is less likely than 
that of illuminations in Western, or Latin, manuscripts. The large amount of fat left 
during the preparation of the surface contributes to the deterioration of the illumination. 
Byzantine parchment frequently does not have the binding agents nor the red or white 
bole or gesso so commonly used in Western manuscripts. Both the supporting material 
and the binding agents contribute to the flaking of the illuminations in Byzantine 

The standard pose for the Evangelist John is either seated in his high-back wicker chair or 
standing, attentive to the voice from Heaven, while dictating to his amanuensis Prochorus, 
who is usually seated and writing. In contrast to Luke and Mark, John is portrayed as an 
old man. Here he wears a greyish-blue himation over a dark blue chiton, and is holding an 
open codex on his lap with the right hand at the tail fore edge on the lower half of the 
codex and his left hand at the head fore edge of the upper half. He is facing a reading desk 
over which is draped an unrolled scroll. Notice that on the adjacent writing cabinet is an 
open pencase. 

Writing about the manuscript when it appeared at exhibition in Chapel Hill in 1971, Professor 
Jaroslav Folda says 

The heads of the Duke University evangelists with their layers of hair and that of John 
with his long flowing gray beard are distantly related to a simpler set of author 
portraits in a Walters Art Gallery Gospel book of the mid-thirteenth century. 
However, the proportions of the figures and the developed system of highlights as 
found in Leningrad Gospels and Acts of the Apostles (St. Petersburg, State Public 
Library, Greek Ms. 101) suggests the Duke codex was painted in Constantinople after 
the Greeks regained their capital in 1261. These fine evangelists thus belong to the 
early part of the last flowering of Byzantine art, the Palaeologan period. 

This Four-Gospel manuscript traces his recent history to the British author and diplomatist, 
Sir Austen Henry Layard (1817-1894) from whom it passed with other properties upon his 
death to the Governors of Canford School in Wimborne. When those properties were 
sold in 1967 at Sothebys (Lot 146; 12 December 1967), it was purchased by funds from a 
Ford Foundation Grant, and in January 1967 became Duke Greek Ms. 38. 16 

Acquired by purchase at auction on the 12™ of December 1967. 


Jaroslav Folda, and John M. Schnorrenberg. A Medieval Treasury from- Southeastern Collections. 
Exhibited at the William Hayes Ackland Memorial Art Center, the University of North Carolina at Chapel 
Hill, April 4 - May 21, 1971. [Chapel Hill, William Hayes Ackland Memorial Art Center, University 
of North Carolina, 1971]. Exhibit item 28. 
16 This manuscript was purchased with Duke Greek Mss. 33-37. 

Page 14. 

MS. 39. Evangelion. Four Gospels. Daily Lectionary. 

Paper; A. D. 1627 by the scribe Lucas Buzau, or Luke the 


For the Greek Christian the Gospel is an integral part the liturgy that is unfolded week by 
week in his parish church. Throughout Orthodox Christendom the liturgy has remained 
at the very heart of the Church's life. 

An Evangelion (Eurxyye^tov) contains only those Gospel passages that are actually read in the 
Eucharist throughout the entire Church year that begins on Easter Sunday and ends on 
Holy Saturday. An Evangelion almost always has two parts. The first part provides the 
readings for the movable cycle in which the date of Easter differs from year-to-year. The 
liturgical order of readings are as follows: John— the period from Easter to Pentecost, 
Matthew— from Pentecost to the Exaltation of the Holy Cross (the 14th of September); 
Luke — from the Sunday nearest the 14 th of September until the beginning of Lent, and 
Mark — throughout Lent. 

Along with these readings for the movable feasts are the Twelve Passion Gospels read at 
Orthros (the morning office) on Good Friday. These are a composite of harmonized 
readings from the Four Gospels that are arranged to recount chronologically the events of 
Jesus' passion and death. 

The second part is the synaxarion. Here are listed the readings for each day of the year for the 
prescribed, or immovable, feasts from the 1 st of September through the 31 st of August. If 
the full Gospel reading for the day appears elsewhere in the Lectionary, usually a citation 
as to where it may be found is given; otherwise, the full Gospel passage is provided. 

This remarkable Evangelion is written in the style that became identified with the production 
of manuscripts in the area of Moldavia and Wallachia, that is, modern-day Romania. This 
distinctive style originated in the scriptorium at the Hodegon Monastery in 
Constantinople east of Hagia Sophia near the sea walls. Its name is derived from 
"Hodegon" OSnyrov which in Greek means the monastery "of guides or conductors." It 
seems that the name came from the monks who led blind pilgrims to a miraculous spring 
that was able to restore sight. 

The Hodegon monastic complex was build by the LX th Century, perhaps by Michael HI (A. D. 
842-867), and restored again in the XII th Century. When a scriptorium flourished there 
during the Palaeologan period, from 1355 to the capture of Constantinople by the 
Ottoman Turks in 1453, they specialized in the production of deluxe liturgical 
manuscripts. Among its scribes were Chariton (fl. 1319-46) and Ioasaph (/I. 1360-1405/6). 
The tradition would be revived and continued centuries later in Romania. The calligraphy 
of Luke the Cypriot, who was one of the most skilled, productive, and influential post- 
Byzantine practitioners of this highly refined liturgical calligraphy, is traceable back at 
least three hundred years to the Palaeologan scribal school centered in the Hodegon 
Monastery. In layout and choice of colors, especially in the use of carmine ornament, 

Page 15. 

Duke Greek Ms. 39 shows remarkable parallels with manuscripts from the Hodegon 
school. 17 

The unusual wealth and independent status within the Ottoman world gave Romania a unique 
position to assume the role of protector of Orthodoxy. 18 Beginning sometime around 
1580 and on through the seventeenth century, the royal house of Wallachia supported a 
major revival in the production of elegant service books. At the center of the revival of 
this style of writing in Romania was the talented scribe and artists Luke, Bishop of Buzau, 
or Luke the Cypriot, the Metropolitan of Hungro-Wallachia. He apparently spent most 
of his time in Romania, having emigrated there when the Turks captured Cyprus in 
1571. 19 He lived there until his death in 1629, just two years after he wrote this 

In the colophon on/ 260 r , Luke identifies himself and his patron: 

O Ttapov Getov Kai iepov I e-uayyeXtov eypd(()Ti I 8td xeipoc^euot) tot) td I 
rcetvoij, cuKoftt-axiac,, I XouKd' At' e^oSou dvTwvtov ypauua I TtKov zov 
iptouaKaptotou I pdSoutax poe(365a Kai I £7t£860T| ev xfj xetpi atranrl Kai oi 
dvaytvaiGKOVTEC, ev%eaQe I f|uwv 5td tov Ktiptov eiouc, £pte' 

In part the translation reads as follows: 

The present godly and holy Gospel was written by me, the humble Hungaro- 
Vlach Luke, at the request of the noble lord Antonius, secretary of the thrice- 
blessed Radu Voivode, and was given into his hands in the year 1627. 

Likely, the recipient was Alexander VII, the Coconsul, who ruled over Wallachia from August 
1623 until November 1627 and over Moldavia from July 1629 until 28 April 1630. 20 The 
work of Lucas 21 has been the study of several works by most notably Linos Politis" and 
Gary Vikan. 23 

17 Linos Polites, Byzantinische Zeitscbrifi LI [1958] 17-36, 261-287. See also G. Cront, "Le chypriote 

Luca eveque et metropolite en Valachie (1583 - 1629J. TIpaKTiKa xoi) Ttpoxov Siedvovg 
KvnpoXoyiKOV IvveSpiov III (Nicosia, 1973), 45 ff. 

18 Steven Runciman, The Great Church in Captivity (Cambridge: University Press, 1968), pp. 367ff. 

19 See A. Camariano-Cioran, "Contributions aux relations rumano-chypriote," Revue des etudes sud-est 

europeennes, XV (1977), 493 ff. 

20 See "The Chronological Table of the Ruling Princes," Nicolae Iorga, History of Roumania, ed. by 

McCabe, p. 268. See also the unpublished Ph. D. dissertation of Gary K. Vikan, "Illustrated 
Manuscripts of Pseudo-Ephraem's 'Life of Joseph' and the Tlomance of Joseph and Aseneth'," 
Princeton University, 1976. 

21 Among the manuscripts known to have been written by Lucas are the following: Athens, Byzantine 

Museum, cod. 203; Athens, National Library, codices 755 [A. D. 1577] and 836; Athens, Senate 
Library, cod. 11; Baltimore, Walters Art Gallery, cod. W535; Phanar (Constantinople), Patriarchal 
Library (now lost); Jerusalem, Treasury, cod. 2; St. Petersburg, IAR, cod. 189; Meteora, Barlaam, 
codices 34 and 78; Meteora, Metamorphosis, codices 624 and 654y; Mount Athos, Dionysiou, cod. 
429 [A. D. 1588]; Mt. Athos, Iviron, Codices 1385, 1423m; Mt. Athos, Iviron, Akathistos Hymn 
(roll); Mt. Athos, Great Lavra, codices. H148 and WHO; Mt. Athos, Panteleimon, cod. 426; Mt. 
Athos, St. Paul Skiti, cod. 806; Mt. Athos, Simonpetras (lost); Mt. Sinai, St. Catherine's, 1480; Naxos, 

Page 16. 

The high quality of Luke's work is evident in all aspects of the production of this book. The 
paper is of the finest quality, heavily sized and burnished to give a highly reflective and 
glossy surface; the ink is deep black iron-gall with carbon; the colors are vibrant; and the 
layout is balanced. The separations within the phrases in the text are in gold. At some 
time the manuscripts were covered with red velvet, and from the appearance of the 
number and pattern of nail holes in the now bare wooden cover, metal plaquettes and 
bosses had been attached. While we may lament the loss of the covering, the binding 
structure has been exposed for our examination. Remarkably the boards are of a single 
piece of wood. However, the grain runs parallel to the head and tail in the style of 
Armenian bookbinders in contrast to the Byzantine which without exception (I have 
never seen one) runs parallel to the spine and fore edge. 

The provenance of this manuscript is shared with Duke Greek 38; which was part of the 
collection of Sir Austen Henry Layard which was among the properties sold by the 
Governors of Canford School, Wimborne. However, we failed to acquire it when it went 
up for sale as Lot 199 at Sotheby's on the 12th of December 1966. It was bought by Alan 
G. Thomas, London Bookseller, from whom we acquired it the following November with 
funds from the Ford Foundation Grant. 

Acquired from Alan G. Thomas, Bookseller, London, November 1967. 


Parchment and paper; A. D. 1052, by Clement the Monk; 

This manuscript is over six hundred years older than that written by Luke the Cypriot (Duke 
Gk. Ms. 39), but both were working within the same tradition under the rules of a 
scriptorium. 24 However, Clement the Monk was writing in a scriptorium in the 
Monastery of The Virgin of the Cave not far from Constantinople. A scribe, called a 
K(xM.iYpd<t>oc, in Greek, means literally "one who writes beautifully," i.e., a "calligrapher," 
the copyist of a manuscript text. The first scribe of an existing manuscript to sign his 
name in the colophon — a trailing paragraph at the end of a book giving the name of the 
scribe, sometimes the date, title, and place where the book was copied — was Nicholas who 

Koimenis, 1; Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale, cod. gr. 100A and Suppl. Gr. 407 [ca, A. D. 1592]; 
Princeton, University Library (Garrett Collection), cod. 13; San Francisco, Greeley Collection. 

22 Linos Politis, "Eine Schreiberschule im Kloster Twv '05vyd)v, Byzantinische Zeitschrift LI (1958), 17-36, 

261-287, and his "Un centre de calligraphie dans les principautes danubiennes au XVIT siecle. Lucas 
Buzau et son cercle," Dixieme Congrh International des Bibliophiles, Athenes 30 septembre - 6 octobre 
1977, edited by Francis R. Walton, pp. 1-11. 

23 Gary Vikan, "Byzance apres Byzance: Luke the Cypriot, Metropolitan of Hungro-Wallachia," Byzantine 

Legacy in Eastern Europe, edited by Lowell Clucas; "East European Monographs," No. 230. Boulder, 
Co.: East European Monographs; New York: Distributed by Columbia University Press, 1988, and 
his his unpublished Ph. D. dissertation "Illustrated Manuscripts of Pseudo-Ephraem's "Life of Joseph' 
and the "Romance of Joseph and Aseneth," Princeton University, 1976. 

24 Among the earliest rules are those laid down by Theodore of Stoudios (A. D. 759 - 826), reprinted in 

PG, XCLX: 1740B-D. 

Page 17. 

copied the Uspenskij Gospel book in A. D. 835. In the period between the X th and XI th 
Centuries it has been calculated that fifty percent of the scribes were monks. After that 
time the percentage of monastic scribes declined to sixteen percent in the XV th Century, 
replaced by an increasing number of laymen. 25 

As to how long it took a scribe to complete a work, it has been suggested that about four 
months were required to complete a manuscript of 350 folios. 26 So we may suggest that 
Clement was at work for approximately three months copying this text. Because of use 
over the years, however, it has lost a number of the original leaves and a later scribe has 
filled them in on paper. 

Clement, however, was, in his words, "a worthless monk," a self-deprecatory epithet that was 
supposed to indicate humility. In the colophon on/ 242 v he writes 

"Eypa[<t>T)] unvi to\)M.cp k' tvSiKxtov e' ezovq ,c$%:- e8copf|9et rcapa KXrptTou 
etrte a% eiq t[f|v] uo[vaoxepiov] zf\q tmlepYtac,] ©eotokou zov OTtnAmot) 

Written in the month of July [on the] 20th, indiction 5, year 6560 (i.e., A. D. 
1052); presented by Clement the worthless monk to the monastery of the 
Most Holy Theotokos of the Cave. 

The year is given according to the so-called Mundane or Adamic era that was reckoned from 1 
September 5509 B. C, which was believed to be the date of the creation of the world. 
Since the Byzantine year began on 1 September, dates given according to the Mundane era 
are converted in years of the Common Era in this manner: if the month given is 
September, October, November, or December, 5509 should be subtracted from the date in 
years; and if any of the other months is given, 5508 should be subtracted from the date in 
years. The result then is the year A. D. So according to this rule, if we subtract 5508 from 
6560— in the colophon the number is given in Greek letters— the result is 1052. 

There is no other manuscript signed by a scribe named "Clement"; however, we do know of 
one other manuscript that was presented to the Monastery of the Theotokos of the Cave, 
dated A. D. 1047, but it was written by "Mark the Monk." There are several other 
manuscripts with remarkably similar handwriting characteristics that may well be the 
work of our "Clement." They come from the same period, from A. D. 1033 to 1061. 27 

The provenance of this manuscript is of great interest because it has passed through the 
possession of Dr. A. N. L. Munby, one of the most distinguished bibliophiles, collectors, 
and librarians of this century. 


Anthony Cutler, "Social Status of Byzantine Scribes 800-1500: A Statistical Analysis based on Vogel- 
Gardthausen," Byzantinische Zeitscbrift LXXIV (1981), 328-34. 

26 Robert Devreesse, Introduction a I'etude des manuscrits grecs (Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, 1954), p. 50. 

27 Lake cites one manuscript which makes reference to the monastery of the ©eotokoc, tou OJrr|A.aiou'in 

Dated Greek Minuscule Manuscripts, IV. Ms. 159, pis. 271 and 283 (Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale, Cod. 
Gr. 662— A. D. 1047— written by MapKOC, novajco?, Kai eKKXr|OT.ripXT|C, novfjc, trie, ©eotOKOt) xwv 
Z7rnX.aicov). Cf. Vogel and Gardthausen, Die griecbischen Scbreiber, p. 291. 

Page 18. 

Born on Christmas Day 1913, Mr. Munby was educated at King's College, Cambridge, where 
he began collecting mostly eighteenth-century verse. Upon leaving Cambridge in 1935 he 
obtained a post as a cataloguer in the antiquarian book shop of Bernard Quaritch. Two 
years later he moved to Sotheby's, again as a book cataloguer. In 1936 he joined the army 
and on 22 nd of May 1940 his battalion landed at Calais to defend the town against three 
Panzer divisions. He and his men had to surrender and there followed five years in 
German prisoner-of-war camps at Laufen, Warburg, and Eichstatt. While a prisoner he 
produced a "Baedekerest camp guide" and wrote ghost stories in the style of M. R. James, 
later published under the title Tloe Alabaster Hand. In 1947 he was invited to return to 
King's as librarian and a year later was elected to a fellowship. After collaborating with 
Desmond Flower in writing English Poetical Autographs, and publishing some of his verse 
and his short stories, he was invited to write the life of Sir Thomas Phillipps. Published in 
five volumes between 1951 and 1960 as the Phillipps Studies, it was the first comprehensive 
account of the bibliophiles and book dealers of the nineteenth century. He died in 
Cambridge on the 26 th of December 1974. 2S 

The trail of ownership, having commenced with Clement the Monk presenting the manuscript 
to the Monastery of the Theotokos of the Cave in A. D. 1052, disappeared before it 
emerged in the possession of Athanasius Bournias in Athens in 1886. He owned it until it 
was put up for sale at Sotheby's on the 25th of November (Lot 264) where it was described 
as "believed to have been originally in the Greek Monastery of Mount Sinai, and carried to 
Russia." Quaritch, on behalf of the newly appointed Kings' librarian, A. N. L. Munby, 
purchased the manuscript. Upon the death of Dr. Munby, the manuscript was again 
introduced into the sales rooms of Sotheby's on the 22 nd of June 1982 (Lot 40) when Alan 
G. Thomas, of London, purchased it for Duke University Library to become Duke Greek 
Ms. 85. 

Purchased 22 nd June 1982 
by The Kenneth W. and Adelaide D. Clark Endowment Fund and the Divinity School. 


The entry for "Alan Noel Latimer Munby" in the Dictionary of National Biography, 1971-1980, was 
written by another distinguished bibliographical and binding historian Anthony R. A. Hobson. 

Page 19. 

Cabinet 2. 

The Classics and Byzantium 

The debt of modern scholarship to the Byzantine age cannot better be summed up than as 

The peculiar, indispensable service of Byzantine literature was the preservation of the 
language, philology, and archaeology of Greece. It is impossible to see how our 
knowledge of ancient literature or civilization could have been recovered if 
Constantinople had not nursed through the early Middle Ages the vast accumulations of 
Greek learning in the schools of Alexandria, Athens, and Asia Minor; if Photius, 
Suidas, Eustathius, Tzetzes, and the Scholiasts had not poured out their lexicons, 
anecdotes, and commentaries ... if indefatigable copyists had not toiled in multiplying 
the texts of ancient Greece. Pedantic, dull, blundering as they are too often, they are 
indispensable. We pick precious truths and knowledge out of their garrulities and 
stupidities, for they preserve what otherwise would have been lost forever. It is no 
paradox that their very merit to us is that they were never either original or brilliant. 
Tloeir genius, indeed, would have been our loss. Dunces and pedants as they were, they 
servilely repeated the words of the immortals. Had they not done so, the immortals 
would have died long ago. 29 

MS. 54. Pindar, The Olympian Odes. Paper, ca. A. D. 1500, 47 


This manuscript, almost certainly, is the work of the important Renaissance scribe Demetrios 
Chalcondyles Anufrtptoc, X<xA.K0v8'u^nc, (1423-151 1). 30 Born in Athens in 1424, he was one 

29 Frederic Harrison, Byzantine History in the early Middle Ages, the Rede Lecture, delivered in the Senate 

House, Cambridge, June 12, 1900 (Freeport, N. Y., Books for Libraries Press [1972]), p. 36. 

30 See Ernst Gamillscheg and Dieter Harlfinger, Repertorium der griechischen Kopisten 800-1600. LA 

Handschriften aus Bibliotheken Grofibritanniens. ("Veroffentlichungen der Kommission fur 
Byzantinistik," HI; Wien: Verlag der Osterreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1981), p. 74; l.B, 
p. 48; l.C, pi. 105. Cf. Marie Vogel and Victor Gardthausen, Die griechischen Schreiber des Mittelalters 
und der Renaissance ("Zentralblatt fur Bibliothekswesen," Beih. 33: Leipzig: Otto Harrossowitz, 
1909), p. 107; Paul Canart, "Scribes grecs de la Renaissance. Additions et corrections aux repertoires de 
Vogel-Gardthausen et de Patrinelis," Scriptorium, XVII (1963), 69; Dieter Harlfinger, "Die 
Textgeschichte der pseudo-aristotelischen Schrift Ilepi dxoncov ypanuwv. Ein kodikologisch- 
kulturgeschichtlicher Beitrag zur Klarung der Uberlieferungsverhaltnisse," Corpus Aristotelicum 
(Amsterdam, 1971), 224-229, 410 mit T.22; J. Wiesner and U. Victor "Griechische Schreiber der 
Renaissance. Nachtrage zu den Repertorien von Vogel-Gardthausen, Patrinelis, Canard de Meyier," 
Revista di Studi Bizantini e Neoellenici, N. S. DC, 64; Henri Omont, Facsimiles de Manuscrits grecs des 
XV etXVT Siecles (Paris: Alphonse Picard, Libraire-Editeur, 1887), p. II, PI. 16; Porphyrius, Sententiae 
ad intelligibilia ducentes, ed. E. Lamberz (Leipzig, 1975), T.2; S. Bernardinello, Autograft greci e greco- 
latini in occidente (Padua, 1979), p. 59; J. Wiesner, "Ps. Aristoteles, MXG: Der historische Wert des 

Page 20. 

of the Greek expatriates who moved to Rome in 1447 under the patronage of Cardinal 
Bessarion who had himself come to Italy earlier in the century as part of the Greek 
delegation at the Council of Florence. He stayed, became a Roman cardinal and remained 
in Italy the rest of his life. He brought with him a great collection of books that was to 
become a center to which humanists like Chalcondyles flocked. Later he taught Greek in 
Perugia, Padua, and then he went to Florence in 1471 where he joined the circle of 
humanists around Lorenzo dTvledici. While there, in addition to teaching Lorenzo's sons, 
he assisted Marsilio Ficino (1433-1499) in his edition of Plato. In 1488 he prepared the first 
edition of Homer — which included the Iliad, the Odyssey, some Homeric poems, and the 
Battle of Frogs and Mice— for the Florentine printer Bartolomeo Libri. In 1491 he moved to 
Milan where he prepared his own grammar and in 1499 the massive Byzantine 
encyclopaedic lexicon of Suidas. He died in Milan in 1511. 

Using a heavy paper that has been sized and burnished to a shine, the scribe has ruled it by 
means of a ruling board called in Arabic a mastara. n It was most often made of wood with 
cords threaded into grooves, forming ridges corresponding to the horizontal and the 
vertical bounding lines. The scribe placed the corded board under each leaf and rubbed it 
with a hard object, like a glass or stone burnisher that consequently left their impressions 
on the leaf. Almost always the ridges are on the leaf on the right (on the recto side) and 
the grooves on the left (or the verso side of the leaf). To this day the Samaritan scribes in 
Nablus use something similar except that it is most often made of cardboard. 32 

The Theban Pindar (518 - ca. 443 B. C.) was extolled by the ancients as the brightest star in the 
Alexandrian canon's Pleiad of poets. Of him it is said that his Greek is as difficult as it is 
beautiful. He is repeatedly quoted in Plato, for example, where in the Meno he is described 
as one of the "divine poets." During the Byzantine Age Manuel Moschopulus (fl. 1300), a 
student of the erudite Maximux Planudes, produced an edition of Pindar's Odes, in 
addition to which he also compiled a catechism of Greek grammar that would be used 
extensively throughout the Renaissance. However, Pindar's writings were subjected to the 
blue pencil of the Demetrius Triclinius (ca. A. D. 1350), one of the foremost critics of the 
period of the Palaeologoi, the ruling Byzantine family. He explained and emended — and 
not infrequently "corrupted" them — the texts of Pindar among others. In whatever edition 
he was read, Pindar's influence on modern writers such as Goethe and Focsolo can hardly 
be over emphasized. 

According to Sandys, the historian of classical scholarship, Triclinius "altered the text to 
conform to his crude rules of grammar and metric. His notes are full of conceit and self- 
assertion." He continues with this assessment of his readings, "Their value has been said 
to be chiefly negative; any text is suspicious which contains the readings recommended by 

Cenophonreferats," Beitrdge zur Geschicbte des Eleatismus (Amsterdam, 1974). 337; J. Wiesner-W. 
Burnikel, Mnemosyne IV. 29 (1976), 142, a.; M. E. Cosenza, Biographical and Bibliographical Dictionary 
of the Italian Humanists and of the World of Classical Scholarship in Italy 1300-1800 (Boston, 1962), V, 
483-485; A. Petrucci, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani (Roma 1973), XVI, 542-547. 

See Malachi Beit-Arie, Hebrew Manuscripts of East and West: Towards a comparative Codicology ("The 
Panizzi Lectures, 1992": London: The British Library, 1993), p.28. 

See Malachi Beit-Arie, Hebrew Codicology ("Institut de Recherche et dUistoire des Textes: Etudes de 
paleographie hebraique" Paris, 1976), p. 78-79. 

Page 21. 

him." 33 Unfortunately most of this text of Pindar has some of the "Triclinian" touch, but 
there are notable differences. 

This little volume contains tributes to the triumphs of Hieron of Syracuse, Winner in the 
Horse Race; Theron of Acragas, Winner in the Chariot Race; Psaumis of Camarina, 
Winner in the Chariot Race; Psaumis of Camarina and Hagesias of Syracuse, Winner in 
the Mule Chariot Race; Diagoras of Rhodes, Winner in the Boxing-Match; Alcimedon of 
Aegina, Winner in the Boys' Wrestling Match; Epharmostus of Opus, Winner in the 
Wrestling-Match; for Ergoteles of Himera, Winner in the Long Foot-Race, among several 
others. According to Sandys, the Seventh Olympian ode in honor of one of the most 
famous of the Greek boxers, Diagoras of Rhodes (included also among the Odes in this 
volume) was inscribed in gold letters in the temple of Athena in the town of Lindos on the 
island of Rhodes. One scholar has suggested that the ode was written in gold ink on the 
inner surface of a little roll of parchment or fine leather. 34 

As for the history of this manuscript, it was part of the distinguished collection of The 
Honorable Frederic North, fifth Earl of Guilford (1766-1827). While the Chancellor of the 
University of the Ionian Islands, he traveled extensively in the Mediterranean islands and 
eventually built up a large library of manuscripts that were mostly modern transcripts of 
early texts. His collection was first held at Corfu but then subsequently sold in London 
between the 15 th of December 1828 and the 17 th of December 1835. 35 

An indication of the date when he acquired this manuscript is his bookplate which was 
designed to reflect his new title as Frederick, fifth Earl of Guilford which he acquired upon 
the death of his brother in 1817. Our manuscript was one (Lot 30) among the many 
purchased by Sir Thomas Phillipps at the Guilford Sale of the 8 th of December 1830. In 
the Phillipps Collection it was given the number "6434." Duke acquired it when the 
Phillipps manuscripts were offered in Sotheby's rooms on the 4 th of July 1972 (Lot 1718). 

Acquired 4 th of July 1972 at auction. 

MS. 75. Lycophron. Alexandra. With the commentary of 

Tzetzes. Paper, XVI th Century, 250 //. 

The Iconoclastic Emperors— Leo m, Constantine V, Leo IV, and Constantine VI— who would 
have the icons burned actually encouraged the cult of the classics. 36 During the twelfth 
century the scholarship seems to have developed more breadth and depth encompassing the 

33 John Edwin Sandys, A History of Classical Scholarship (3 rd edition: Cambridge: University Press, 1921), p. 


34 See Sandys, Classical Scholarship, p. 46. See also C. Graux, in Revue de Philologie, V. 1 17. 

35 See Seymour de Ricci, English Collectors of Books and Manuscripts (1530-1930) and their Marks of 

Ownership (Sandars Lectures, 1929-1930; Cambridge: University Press, 1930), pp. 94-95; and W. Y. 
Fletcher, English Book Collectors (London: K. Paul, Trench, Triibner and Co., Ltd., 1902), pp. 321-4. 

36 George Ostrogorsky, History of the Byzantine State, transl. By Joan Hussey (New Brunswick, N. J.: 

Rutgers University Press, 1952), pp. 147-156. 

Page 22. 

writings of the classical authors as we can see in the commentaries on classical authors 
made by John Tzetzes. 37 

This sixteenth-century manuscript of the Alexandra of Lycophron with the commentary of 
Tzetzes 38 is an excellent example of the type of literature read in Byzantium— apart from 
the Scriptures and the lives of the saints! Although the poet and grammarian Lycophron, 
was born in Chalcis in Euboea early in the third century B. C many years before the height 
of the Byzantine renaissance, he was a star among the lights in Alexandria during the time 
of Ptolemy Philadelphus (285-247 B. C.) It was during this period of the Hellenization of 
Egypt when Ptolemy formed both the Alexandrian Library and Museum that would 
ultimately, according to one account, contain 200,000 volumes. 39 Ptolemy entrusted 
Lycophron with the task of arranging the comedies in the library. However, his own 
compositions were mostly tragedies, the Alexandra being chief among them that 
guaranteed him a place among the Pleiads of Alexandrian tragedians. In the form of a 
prophecy by Cassandra, it relates the fortunes in the form of a prophecy of Troy and the 
Greek and Trojan heroes. Some have said that the allusions are so enigmatic as to secure 
for Lycophron the title "Obscure;" although it may have been only the author's intent to 
display his arrogant use of obscure names and words of unusual origins. 

During the Byzantine period Lycophron's tragedy was extremely popular. Almost certainly 
John Tzetzes helped his reputation along with the self-serving commentary. Along with 
his brother Isaac (ca. A. D. 1 1 10-c<«. 1180) the two of them produced commentaries that 
ranged over the classical spectrum — Homer, Hesiod, Pindar, Aristophanes, and, of course 
Lycophron. So much of his writings are biographical, even in the commentaries: from his 
complaints we learn much about his poverty and misfortunes and especially about his 
displeasure with the scanty public recognition of his poetic gifts. He reports that he was 
even reduced to such extremes as to have to sell his own books, except for his Plutarch. 
And he made matters worse — he was often in bitter feuds with other scholars. 
Furthermore, according to Sandys, "His inordinate self-esteem is only exceeded by his 
extraordinary carelessness... . He is proud of his rapid pen and his remarkable memory, 
but his memory often plays him false, and he is, for the most part, dull as a writer and 
untrustworthy as an authority." 40 What more can one say! 

Withal, the twelfth century is marked by the influence of Tzetzes who is the author of a 
didactic poem Chiliades, or BtfJXoc, totopticfi, on literary and historic topics extending to 
more than twelve thousand lines of accented verse displaying a vast amount of 
miscellaneous knowledge. 

37 See Steven Runciman, Tlie Last Byzantine Renaissance (Cambridge: University Press, 1970), p. 27; see also 

Karl Krumbacher, Geschichte der byzantinischen Litteratur (2 nd ed., Munich: Beck, 1897), pp. 526-536; 
A. A. Vasiliev, History of the Byzantine Empire (Madison, Wis.: 1952), pp. 498-500. 

38 See G. R. Mair, Callimachus ... Lycophron ... Aratus... (Loeb Classical Library, 129: Cambridge, Mass.: 

Harvard University Press, 1969), pp. 303 ff. 

39 Frederic G. Kenyon, Books and Readers in Ancient Greece and Rome (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1951), 

p. 27. 

40 Sandys, A History of Classical Scholarship, p. 419; cf Krumbacher, Geschichte der byzantinischen Litteratur, 


Page 23. 

The Duke copy of Lycophron's Alexandria, with Tzetzes commentary is unremarkable for its 
scribal hand, but it is complete and has its original binding— an extraordinary example of 
the attention given to classical authors by Byzantine commentators. 

Acquired on the 3 rd of December 1979 from A. Rosenthal, Ltd., Oxford, 

gift of Adelaide D. Clark. 

MS. 66. Commentaries on the hymns of Cosmas of 
Jerusalem and John of Damascus by Theodore 
Prodromos; Anthology of excerpts from St. John 
Chrysostom; and Aesop's Fables in an alphabetic 
RECENSION. Paper; not after A. D. 1254 [Nicaea?]. 2A5jf. 

It is notable that in this "commonplace book," we find the commentary of Theodore 
Prodromus on the hymns of Cosmas of Jesusalem and the mystic John of Damascus and an 
assortment of excerpts from the writings of St. John Chrysostom. Quite a mixture! Both 
the liturgical hymn-writer, Cosmas of Jerusalem (b. ca. A. D. 700)— also known as 
"Cosmas Melodus" — and John of Damascus {ca. A. D. 675-ca. 749) are a rich and consistent 
part of the Greek liturgy and certainly would have been known to any Greek monk or 

The relationship between Cosmas and John of Damascus, however, is of further interest. 
Cosmas was adopted by the father of John of Damascus and was educated by a monk also 
called "Cosmas" who was a poet. His most famous works are his "canons," or odes in 
honor of the great Christian feasts— Easter, the Nativity, and the Exaltation of the Cross. 
We know that Cosmas' adopted brother John of Damascus was the strong defender of 
images in the Iconoclastic Controversy. He wrote three discourses on the topic between 
726 and 730. However, his most important work, ILir/fi yvroaeax; "The Fount of 
Wisdom," dealing primarily with the faith of Orthodoxy was written at the urging of 
Cosmas. He exercised considerable influence on later theology through the Middle Ages in 
the theology of thinkers like Peter Lombard and St. Thomas Aquinas. In addition to his 
theological writings, Cosmas wrote poetry and hymns which have appeared in the modern 
English hymnal, among them is "Come, ye faithful, raise the strain." 

In sharp contrast, Theodore Prodromos 41 was a poet at the court of Irene Doukaina and John LI 
Comnenus (A. D. 1118-1143). He was born in Constantinople about A. D. 1100 and died 
ca. 1170(?). He developed a genre of poetic panegyric and used it to praise the military 
qualities of both the emperor and noble generals. His works are full of personal 
observations and emotions and even of gentle lyricism and self-mockery. He actually 
helped regenerate the genre of the erotic romance. He wrote parodies mocking the 

The first edition of the works of Theodore were published by Henry M. Stevenson, Theodori Prodromi 
commentarios in carmina sacra melodorum Cosmae Hierosolymitani et Ioannis Damasceni, Romae: Ex 
Bibliotheca Vaticana, MDCCCLXXXVLU. See Krumbacher, Gescbichte der Byzantinischen Litteratur 
(2 nd ed., Munich: Beck, 1897), pp. 749-760. 

Page 24. 

shortcomings and vices of everyday life such as lewdness, ignorance, and even the 
helplessness of a patient in the hands of a clumsy dentist. 42 From this manuscript we can 
see that he also wrote in a more serious vein, both philosophical and theological works. 

Into this mixture appears Aesop (Aioamoc,), 43 a Phyrgian slave who lived in Samos in the VT h 
Century B. C. and became renowned as the author of metaphorical animal fables. For 
Byzantine students he was one of the elementary and basic Greek readers. Originally 
traditional tales, his fables became a recognized literary device that was classed as a 
progymnasma, {npoy\>\ivao\ or "preliminary exercises" in composition. They were 
originally designed to prepare a student for gymnasmata, the public performance of 
complete speeches. Progymnasmata were designed to introduce students to the art of 
public speaking. Students were taught the use of fable, narrative, moral essay, sayings, 
characterization, and comparison to enhance their oratory. Many such manuals composed 
by teachers and men of letters survive from the time of the rhetorician Libanius of Antioch 
(ca. A. D. 314-393), the teacher of St. John Chrysostom, through the reign of the last 
Palaeologoi at the end of the fourteenth century. 44 

As noted above, this manuscript is on paper, but not the kind of paper that is favored by the 
Renaissance scribes like Damianos or the scribes of the Hodegon school such as Luke the 
Cypriot. Rather it is a type of paper associated mostly with books in the Arab world- 
soft pliable paper with little sizing and without the visible chain and wire lines of a paper- 
maker's mould. Usually "oriental" paper has few marks left as in the paper-making 
technique in Western Europe, and none have the characteristic watermarks. The paper of 
the textblock has the distinctive characteristics that would suggest an early date, that is, 
well before the fifteenth century. Furthermore, it was not produced in Italy, although the 
paper makers in Italy were supplying the eastern scribes with their writing materials from 
the time that the first mill was built in Fabriano. It was likely produced in some paper- 
making center farther to the East, like Samarkand or Bagdad. Along with the early 
appearance of the paper, the handwriting and ornamentation of the several scribes are in a 
style datable to the middle of the thirteenth century. The scribal hand, however, is not a 
"book hand" but rather one used for more casual, personal use as represented in this little 
book. It was compiled for the edification and pleasure of the reader and scribe. 

Into this little book a later hand has added a note about the death of John HI Doukas Batatzes. 
On /. 109 v , in a hand different from that of any of the scribes, is a note recording the death 
of the Emperor John IH Dukas Batatzes (A. D. 1222-1254), in Nicaea 45 on Wednesday, 
November 4, 1254. Mnvt NoeuPptw 5' fjuepaq A' rcpdc, Kijptov u£T£te9t|v O dei 5nuo. 
BacnX ' 1(6. O SoiJKaq 6 cfuTOKpcraoppauat ev etei ,c,v|/£y. It appears to have been written 

42 G. Podesta, "Le satire lucianesche di Teodoro Prodromo," Aevum, XXI (1947), 12-21. 

43 Aesop's fables are know in three major revisions: (1) the Augustana, probably first compiled in the 2 or 

3 rd C; (2) the Vindobonensis, of uncertain date; and (3) the Accursiana, in which Maximos Planudes 
had a hand. See Corpus fabularum Aesopicarum, ed. A. Hausrath, ed. By H. Hunger, 2 vols. (Leipzig 
1959-1970) and B. E. Perry, Aesopica, vol. 1 (Urbana, HI., 1952). 

44 "Byzantine Education," Byzantium: An Introduction to East Roman Civilization, edited by Norman H. 

Baynes and H. St. L. B. Moss (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1949), pp. 200ff., esp. p. 213. 

45 See Karl Krumbacher, Geschichte der byzantinischen Litteratur von Justinian bis zum Ende des ostromische 

Reicbes (527-1453), 2" Auflage (Miinchen: C. H. Beck'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1897), pp. 1044-1047. 

Page 25. 

after the text had been completed; the script itself, however, is consistent with the mid- 
thirteenth-century date. 

Here we have from the middle of the thirteenth century a manuscript that reflects the diversity 
of learning and interests of members of the Church community. Furthermore, if our 
dating is correct, the works of Theodore were copied out within a century of when he 

This is another of those manuscripts that came from the Jesuit College de Clermont, Paris, 
with ownership inscription and the "paraphe" note of deaccession dated 1763. It did not 
pass into the collection of Gerard Meerman as did so many other manuscripts from that 
library. It was, however, purchased by Sir Edward Dering. 46 When his collection was 
dissolved at several sales by Puttick and Simpson salesrooms between 8 June 1858 and 13 
July 1865, Sir Thomas Phillipps bought it at the last one, 13 th of July 1865 (Lot 685). In his 
collection it became Phillipps Ms. 23242. 47 At the Phillipps Sale on the 28 th of June 1976 at 
Sotheby's, it was offered as Lot 3873 and was purchased for the Duke collection by 
representative Winifred Myers, a dealer in manuscripts in St. Martin's Lane, London. 

Purchased at Sotheby's Sale of 28 June 1976 (Lot 3873). 

MS. 48. A Discourse on Logic. A zhthmata TRg AoriKRg 


Aristotle's Posterior Analytics. Paper, XVII th Cen-tury; 31 

This rather ordinary book in appearance is written on paper in an uncomely script with 
nothing to recommend it for its beauty. This private document reveals the deeper values 
of a community that had not lost touch with its roots in the Greek classical tradition. 

The contents of this manuscript based on Aristotle's Posterior Analytics was written by a 
student who was interested in exploring the manner in which to raise an analytical 
question based on his reading of Aristotle. But Aristotle's influence was everywhere. 
When John of Damascus wrote the "Spring of Knowledge" (HrryTl ■yvwoecoc,), an 
encyclopaedia of Christian theology, it began with the brief chapters on the Categories of 
Aristotle. Elsewhere he describes certain of his opponents as seeing Aristotle as "a 
thirteenth apostle." When John of Damascus applied to Christian theology the logical 
system of Aristotle, he became in the West through theologians like Peter Lombard and 
the great catholic theologian Thomas Aquinas, a name familiar to western scholars. 

46 De Ricci, English Collectors, p. 125. 

47 De Ricci, English Collectors, p. 125, n. 1. See also Munby, Phillipps Studies, IV, 75ff, 193, 195-196, 198, 

200, 203, 206, 208, and 210 for the dispersal of the Dering and the Phillipps Collections. 

Page 26. 

According to Sandys, he has been assigned "the double honor of being the last but one of 
the Fathers of the Eastern Church, and the greatest of her poets." 48 

Aristotle was an important source of study of commentary throughout the Byzantine period, 
and here is but one more example of the role that the study of the classics played within 
the world of Byzantium. 

This little volume comes from the collection of Sir Thomas Phillipps who had it bound in 
what is known in the bibliographical world as "Middle Hill boards." "Middle Hill" was 
the name of both the estate and therefore the press established by Sir Thomas Phillipps. 
Hence, binding of this type became described as being in "Middle Hill boards." In the 
Phillipps Collection it was numbered Ms. 20984. Purchased from Sotheby's (sale of 15 th 
June 1970, Lot 1225) by Alan G. Thomas, Bookseller, London. 

Purchased from Alan Thomas, Bookseller, London, 
by Prof. Kenneth W. Clark as a gift to the University Library 

on the 18 th of June 1971. 

MS. 30. Aristotle. Organon. Comprising Porphyry's 
isagoge, the categories, interpretation, prior 
Analytics, Posterior Analytics, Topics and Sophistical 
Refutations. Paper; early 1500s, written by the scribe 
Damianos Guidotes (ff. 1-85, 122-208 v ) and another 


Byzantine higher education always centered on the study of Aristotle. The Greek scribes in 
Italy continued to produce copies of his works for the discerning collector. The evidence 
is clear — Aristotle's works have been transmitted in over one thousand manuscripts dating 
from the ninth to the sixteenth century. He was the most widely copied ancient Greek 
author and the recipient of the most commentary. For the Byzantine theologian, Aristotle 
was safer and of greater use than Plato since parts of his system could be put to use directly 
in theological discussion. From the seventh century the logical treatises occupied 
philosophical studies; the main contact was the study of the principal concepts of the 
Organon, beginning with the Categories and ending with Sophistical Refutations. 
Aristotelian logic became the primary vehicle of argumentation in the later fourth century 
of the three brilliant leaders of philosophical Christian Orthodoxy, the Cappadocian 
fathers — St. Basil of Caesarea, St. Gregory Nazianzus, St. Gregory of Nyssa. Aristotle was 
used as the foundation upon which the theological system of John of Damascus was built. 49 

Almost the entire history of this manuscript is known from the time that it left the hand of the 
Greek scribe early in the sixteenth century. Damianos put his name in a one-line colophon 

48 Sandys, A History of Classical Scholarship, I, 392; cf. also J. M. Neale, Hymns of the Eastern Church (1863), 


49 See K. Oehler, "Aristotle in Byzantium," Greek Roman and Byzantine Studies, V (1964), 133-146. 

Page 27. 

on the last leaf 50 and that's about all we know about him. It appears that Damianos, likely 
a member of the Greek colony in Venice that became a place of retreat after the Ottoman 
Turks occupied Constantinople in 1453, was employed by some unknown humanist to 
produce a library of Greek classics. Although the entire manuscript is not written by 
Damianos; he completed ff. 1-85, 122-208"; the remainder, however, was written by a 
scribe apparently working under his tutelage. Several other manuscripts written by 
Damianos from the library of San Francesco della Vigna in Venice 51 are known. Three of 
them were acquired by Robert Curzon 52 in 1834 from a priest of San Francesco della Vigna 
and are now in the British Library (Add. MSS. 39614, 39615 and 39616). Like the others, 
our manuscript likely passed through the collection of Matteo Luigi Canonici, S.J. (1727- 
1805) 53 before finding its way into the Holland House Library. Four others went in the 
collection of the Rev. Walter Sneyd (1809-1888) 54 in 1835 and were sold at Sotheby's on the 
16 th of December 1906 (Lots 48, 52, 379 55 , and 780). All of these manuscripts are of 
classical Greek authors, including Aristotle, Homer, Plutarch, Xenophon and Thucydides. 

Very soon after this manuscript was written the first printed edition in Greek appeared, 
between 1495 and 1498, from the press of the Venetian humanist printer Aldus Manutius. 
He issued it in five volumes. Prior to the appearance of this edition, the writings of 
Aristotle reached scholars in the western world mainly in Latin translations of Arabic 
versions. Here at the end of the Greek scribal tradition is a handsome copy by an 
important scribe of Aristotle in the original — before ink and type supplanted the labor of 

After the manuscript came to England, it found a home in the great library of Holland 
House 56 , which was badly damaged by fire during the "blitz." From the appearance of the 

50 Marie Vogel and Victor Gardthausen, Die griechischen Scbreiber des Mittelalters und der Renaissance, 

(Leipzig: O. Harrassowitz, 1909), p. 438. See Dieter Harlfinger and Emil Gamillscheg, Repertorium 
der griechischen Kopisten 800-1600, 1: Handschriften aus Bibliotheken Grossbritanniens; A. Verzeichnis der 
Kopisten (Wien: Verlag der Osterreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1981), 67 (Manuscripts 
cited: London, British Library, Add. 39614-39616; Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale, Gr. 2941); cf. S. 
Bernardinello, Autograft greci e greco-latini in occidenti (Padua, 1979), Hid; Aristoteles Graecus. Die 
griechischen Manuskripte des Aristoteles, untersucht und beschreiben von P. Moraux, D. Harlfinger, D. 
Reinsch, J. Wiesner. I. Bd.: Alexandrien-London (Peripatoi VIE: Berlin; New York, 1976) I, 134; 
Cosenza, V, 886. 

51 See J. P. Tomasinus, Bibliothecae venetae manuscriptae 1650. 

52 See Robert Curzon, Visits to the Monasteries of the Levant, London: John Murray, 1851, passim; and his 

remarkable Catalogue of Materials for Writing, early Writing on Tablets and Stones, rolled and other 
Manuscripts, and Oriental Manuscript Books; London: Printed by W. Nicol, 1849. 

53 See De Ricci, English Collectors, pp. 136-137; Munby, Phillipps Studies, U, 38n; HI, 50, 122n. 

54 Catalogue of a selected Portion of the Library of Valuable and Choice Illuminated and other Manuscripts and 

rare early printed Books, the Property of the late Rev. Walter Sneyd ... 16 December 1903. 

55 Now New York: Columbia University, Plimpton 3 (Homer, Iliad and Odyssey) certainly was written by 

Damianos and it is likely that he also copied Plimpton 16 (works by Aristotle and Theodore Gaza). 
See Samuel A. Ives, "Corrigenda and Addenda to the Descriptions of the Plimpton Manuscripts as 
Recorded in the De Ricci Census," Speculum XVII. No. 1, 34 and 36. 

56 See Marie Liechtenstein, Holland House (London: Macmillan and Co., 1874) II, 197 where she mentions 

an Aristotle in Greek, possibly of the fifteenth century; O. von Schleinitz, "Holland House," 
Zeitschriften fur Bucherfreunde, III (1899), 24-35; G. A. E. Bogeng, Die grofien Bibliophilen, Leipzig, 
1922, 1, 462-463; m, 227. 

Page 28. 

textblock (there is water damage) it is it likely that the present modern binding is a 
replacement for the one lost during the fire. It was acquired from Alan G. Thomas, 
Bookseller, London, in 1965. 

Acquired from Alan G. Thomas, Bookseller, London, 1965. 

Cabinet 3. 

The Liturgy— The Gospel unfolded Week by 

"Nobody who has lived and worshipped amongst Greek Christians for any length 
of time but has sensed in some measure the extraordinary hold which the recurring 
cycle of the Church's liturgy has upon the piety of the common people... who has 
kept the Great Lent with the Greek Church ...who has known the desolation of the 
Holy and Great Friday, when every bell in Greece tolls its lament and the body of 
the Savior lies shrouded in flowers in all the village churches throughout the land; 
who has been present at the kindling of the new fire and tasted of the joy of a world 
released from the bondage of sin and death— none can have lived through all this 
and not have realized that for the Greek Christian the Gospel is inseparably linked 
with the liturgy which is unfolded week by week in his parish church. " !7 

Liturgy is the life of the church and the monastery. It is saying prayers day-by-day and 
remembering a holy example who set the standard, blazed the trail, and led the way by 
precept and example and, ultimately, with the gift of His life showed the faithful how to 
follow the lead of the Source of his faith. The center is the Eucharist, along with the 
morning office (Orthros) and the evening office (Hesperinos). For these services the 
Orthodox church depends upon a number of books: first and foremost is the Evangelion, 
or the Gospels arranged according to the liturgical year beginning with the Gospel of St. 
John on Easter Sunday. This holy book usually rests on the center of the Holy Table and 
should in no account be bound in the skin of dead animals, that is, parchment or leather. 
It is treated in the same way as the Holy Icons, and is regarded as the icon of the Savior — 
the Word Incarnate. 58 Along with the Gospel lectionary are the Apostolos which contains 
the readings from the Acts of the Apostles and the Epistles for the liturgical year; the 
Psalterion, the Psalms of David together with the nine Biblical Canticles; 59 the Euchologion 

57 Peter Hammond, Tin Waters ofMarah — The Present State of the Greek Church (New York: Macmillan, 

1956), p. 51. 

58 Mother Mary and Archimandrite Kallistos Ware, The Festal Menaion (London: Faber and Faber, 1969), 

p. 535. 
' 9 The Song of Moses (Exodus xv. 1-19); the Song of Moses (Deut. xxxii. 1-43); the Prayer of Hannah (I 
Samuel ii. 1-10); the Prayer of Habakkuk (Habakkuk iii.1-19); the Prayer of Isaiah (Isaiah xxvi. 9-20); 

Page 29. 

or Book of Prayers for the use of the priest; the Horologion, a "reader's" book that contains 
the fixed portions of the daily offices and a list of the feasts and saints' days throughout the 
year along with the corresponding apolytikia, or dismissal hymns, and kontakia, verses read 
between Canticles Six and Seven of the canon at Orthros. 60 

The Octoechos or Book of Eight Tones contains only the Sunday's hymns and is a subset of the 
the Parakletike which contains the variable portions for the daily offices throughout the 

There are eight series of offices, one for each of the eight tones, and within each series there are 
seven sets of services, one for each day of the week. Throughout the year the services 
proceed week by week through the tones beginning with the first tone on the Sunday of 
St. Thomas — the first Sunday after Easter — and then throughout the succeeding tones until 
Tone Eight is completed. After that the offices for Tone One are resumed. 

The Triodion and the Pentecostarion contain the services for the movable feasts of the year 
following from Easter. The Triodion covers the three-week period of preparation before 
Great Lent, Great Lent and Holy Week up to the Holy and Great Saturday. The 
Pentekostarion contains the services for Eastertide and Pentecost covering the services from 
Easter Sunday until the Sunday of All Saints (the first Sunday after Pentecost); the Menaia 
contains the services for the fixed feasts throughout the twelve months of the year; and 
then there is the Typikon which contains the rules and rubrics governing every aspect of 
the Church services and their proper celebration throughout the year. As if to make 
matters a little more complicated, the priests and monks have made variations on the 
liturgical books cited — the Evangelion and Apostolos being excepted; sometimes they are 
very abbreviated with only the barest reference to the text that follows. Often it depends 
upon the uses to which the books are to be put according to the needs of the community. 61 

Liturgical rolls with one of the liturgies of Ss. Chrysostom, Basil, or Gregory survive in large 
numbers from the XI th Century, but only a few have extensive figural decoration. They 
were copied parallel to the narrow side, i.e., at right angles to the long axis and most 
frequently both sides of the roll were used. 62 It was not usually wound onto an umbilicus 
at either end of the length of parchment, but rather only onto one so that, as the scroll was 
unrolled as the service progressed, the loose end was usually handled by a deacon. When 
the priest reached the end attached to the umbilicus, the re-rolling commenced as the priest 
read from the opposite of the roll and when the service was completed the scroll had been 
rewound around the umbilicus and ready for its next use. It has been suggested that scrolls 

the Prayer of Jonah Qonah ii. 3-10); The Prayer of the Three Holy Children (Daniel iii. 26-56); the 
Song of the Three Holy Children (the Benedicite: Daniel iii. 57-88); and the Song of the Theotokos 
(the Magnificat: Luke i. 46-55) and the Prayer of Zacharias (the Benedictus: Luke i. 68-79). 

60 See "Appendix HI: Glossary," in Festal Menaion, p. 545 and 554. 

61 A good discussion of the types of Orthodox liturgical books may be found in the work cited above: 

Mother Mary and Archimandrite Kallistos, The Festal Menaion, pp. 535-543. The authors include a 
glossary that is quite helpful. 

62 See E. G. Turner, The Terms Recto and Verso— the Anatomy of the Papyrus Scroll. Bruxelles: Foundation 

egyptologie Raine Elisabeth, 1978. 

Page 30. 

for liturgical use were inspired by imperial documents 63 and added solemnity to the 
occasion. The numerous rolls from the Palaeologan period are seldom elaborately 
embellished, although one has an ornate border with monograms of the imperial family. 
Rolls figure prominently among the products of the Hodegon Monastery and constitute 
about one third of the signed works of its best know scribe, Joasaph. 64 The earliest 
surviving liturgical roll on parchment, called "The Ravenna Scroll," is probably of the VTT h 

MS. 14. The Liturgy of St. Basil. Parchment, ca. 1400; in 
the form of a scroll some 5.4 m. long (originally nearly 6 m. 
long), with writing on both sides. 

The three great Cappadocians belong to the neo- Alexandrian school of theology represented by 
Athanasius. St. Basil the Great (ca. A. D. 330 - 379), his younger brother Gregory of Nyssa 
(d. ca. A. D. 394) and his friend Gregory of Nazianzus (ca. 329/330 - ca. 390) were united 
not only by common intellectual interests but also by an intimate friendship. Their 
influence on the development of the Church can hardly be exaggerated. 

St. Basil came from a family distinguished by its traditional zeal for the faith. His mother 
Emmelia; his grandmother Macrina the Elder; Gregory, his third brother; Peter, Bishop of 
Sebaste; and their sister, Macrina the Younger are all venerated as saints. 65 St. Basil did 
much to renew the order of the liturgy in a form which is now used only on ten days of 
the year: the five Sundays of the Great Lent, Thursday, and Saturday of Holy Week, 
Christmas Day, St. Basil's feast on the 1 st of January, and the Epiphany (the 6 th of January). 
Like the so-called Liturgy of Cbrysostom, it underwent extensive changes over time. 
Outwardly it differs very little from the Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom, but the prayers 
said privately by the priest are far longer. 

The first portion of the Duke scroll has been cut away, likely because it was decorated, as is 
often the case with liturgical scrolls. They were decorated with fine ornamental uncial 
scripts or with images of priests celebrating the Eucharist under the multiple domes of a 
church which are highly decorated with variegated colored marble, mosaics, and frescoes. 66 

This manuscript is an elegant presentation of the liturgy on calf-skin parchment with clearly 
defined elements of palaeography that have their origins within the Hodegon school from 

63 See L. W. Daly, "Rotuli: Liturgy Rolls and formal Documents," Greek Roman and Byzantine Studies, 

XIV (1973), 333-338. 

64 G. Cavallo, "La genesi dei rotoli liturgici Beneventani," in Miscellanea in memoria di Giorgio Cencetti, 

(Turin 1973), 213-229; A. Grabar, "Un roleau liturgique constantinopolitain et ses peintures," 
Dumbarton Oaks Papers, 8 (1954), 161-99. 

65 See especially Berthold Altaner, Patrology (translated by Hilda C. Graef; 2 nd edition; New York: Herder 

and Herder, 1961), pp. 335-337, 341-342. 

66 See The Glory of Byzantium— Art and Culture of the Middle Byzantine Era, A. D. 843-1261, edited by 

Helen C. Evans and William D. Wixom (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1997), 

Page 31. 

which have produced some of the finest liturgical manuscripts. This scroll is a splendid 
example of liturgical palaeography from the end of the fourteenth or beginning of the 
fifteenth century — clearly written with red marginal instruction and rubrics within the 

Acquired July 1950 from Raphael King, Bookdealer, London. 

MS. 29. Miscellaneous prayers. Paper, 232^. 

This chubby little manuscript contains special prayers and liturgies and represents generations 
of monks who would have passed it from one to another as evidenced by the diversity of 
hands. It is a great mixture of familiar and personal prayers that give insight into the 
concerns, especially as seen in the prayers, of monks in their communities. Most 
frequently these types of books are simply "made up" copies of liturgies and prayers 
important to an individual in his devotional and personal life. Such items are not rare, but 
neither are they frequently examined for what they can reveal about the personal spiritual 
development of the owners. That they were passed from one generation to another is an 
indication of the manner of training a novice and bringing him up under the guidance of a 
spiritual father until he is able to take over the training of younger entrants to the 

Even as a private book of prayers and known liturgies, it has been prepared in accord with the 
standards of bookmaking known to the monastic community. It is rubricated throughout 
and even has a colophon that dates the time when George, "the sinner and reader," 
completed the last portion. Written in red on the verso of the final leaf, he colophon reads 
as follows: 

+eteXet(69Ti to raxpov . . . [Pt(3A.t] 

8dpiov(?), imb x ei PO^ duaptoXot) 

Kat ^evovte (?) recoypioD To'uSeA.A.ouq 

dvaYVCoaTO'u trixa 8e iced ya)iXT\c,. 

Eiq (XT)v. ' OktcoPpIov 17' ezovq ,q~^K iv6. e [A. M. 13 October 6920, indiction 5] i.e., 

13 October 1411, indiction 5. 

This little book was completed 

by the hand of the sinner and foreigner (refugee?) George Goudelles 

reader and psaltis (cantor) 

on the 13 th of October 6920, indiction 5 [i.e. A. D. 1411]. 

This is at least the third binding. The repair with blue thread indicates an earlier stage of 
repair. Nevertheless, the binding conforms to the Byzantine tradition of preparing the 
edges of the boards by "bridling." In the construction one-half of the quires which make 
up the book are sewn onto each board at the bridling stations, and then the two halves are 
sewn together on the spine. Enlarged endbands at the head and tail, typical of Byzantine 

Page 32. 

bindings, give stability to the whole structure when they are laced into the ends of the 
gatherings and then into the top of the boards. The bound volume is then wrapped in a 
linen spine covering that extends onto the boards and then the whole is enclosed in a 
leather covering. Finally a fore-edge clasp is affixed so that when the book is closed, it will 
remain closed and retain its shape. The clasp is lost with only the fore-edge pin remaining 
in the upper cover. The wood here is pine (or perhaps a cypress) which is a resinous wood, 
not the type usually chosen by Byzantine binders. 

Professor David M. Robinson bought this little item at Sinope sometime early in this century. 
He bequeathed it to Professor William H. Willis of the Department of Classics who 
presented it to the Library in 1965. 

Gift of William H. Willis, April 1965. 

MS. 37. Liturgies of Saints Chrysostom, Basil, and 
Gregory (The Presanctified). Paper; dated 1634 by the 


From the Hodegon palaeographical school that was thoroughly adopted by the Romanian 
Orthodox, this is within the school over which Lucas Buzau, or Luke the Cypriot, 
presided. It is even bound in the style consistent with that typical of Romania in the 
XVLT 11 Century. This little manuscript is typical of those that bring together the three 
primary liturgies of the Orthodox Church, almost always in the same order with the 
primary liturgy of St. John Chrysostom coming first. Frequently from this period in the 
seventeenth century it was common to have inserted before each liturgy an "icon" of the 
saint. In this manuscript pen drawings of Ss. Basil and Gregory, about 75 mm high, 
enclosed within borders filled with gold strapwork ornament on a colored background 
occupy the same position as that of the portraits of the Evangelists in the Gospel books — 
facing the opening of their respective books. Missing from this volume is the image of 

Each liturgy has its own headpiece in gold and colors with title spreading over from three to six 
lines in gold with large illuminated initials almost entirely in gold. Throughout there are 
illuminated initials in silver and colors on many pages. 

The scribe, the monk Anthimos, has signed his name and added a date: 1634. The binding is a 
fine Romanian example from the seventeenth-century; it is covered in brown morocco and 
decorated with gilt, blind stamping, and arabesque ornaments. It reflects the strong 
influence that the Islamic world had upon Greek bookmaking during this period. 

This manuscript came from the collection of the great excavator of Ninevah, Sir Austen Henry 
Layard, who gave most of his collection to the Governors of Canford School, Wimborne. 
This item was Lot 200 in the Sale of the 12 th of December 1966 at Sothebys. 


Page 33. 

MS. 41. Liturgical miscellanea— Part I: prayers and 
Hymns, mostly for the morning office (Orthros) 
throughout the week; Part II: Prayers and hymns by 
"wise and notable men who flourished after the fall 
of Constantinople. Paper; XV™ - XVII™ Century. 

This is a mixed collection of prayers and hymns that come mostly from the "Morning Office" 
or Orthros" as the Greeks call it. In addition it contains a number of prayers and hymns 
by, as the title says, "Wise and notable men who flourished after the Fall of 
Constantinople. " 

Here is a private collection of prayers that have been gathered by a pious monk. Its contents 
have yet to be explored completely. 

Owned by the Honorable Frederic North, fifth Earl of Guilford (1766-1827), with his ex-libris 
with the number "457," it was presented in The Guilford Collection Sale of 8 th December 
1830 (Lot 549). The bookdealers Payne and Foss bought it and then it was sold to Sir 
Thomas Phillipps. In his collection it was numbered 7758. In the sale of his collection on 
the 26 th of June, 1967, N. S., Part HI (Lot 639), it was purchased by Alan G. Thomas who 
offered it to the University Library for purchase. On the 17 th of October, 1967, the 
manuscript was acquired for Duke Library by Kenneth W. Clark. 

Gift of Kenneth W. Clark, 17 th of October 1967. 

MS. 26. Anastaslmatarion. Paper;. XIX™ Century. 96 //. 

According to the title, this slender volume, bound in its original cover of red goatskin, contains 
hymns relating to the Resurrection, in a setting by Peter Lampadarios of Peloponnesus as 
transcribed by Gregory Protopsaltes into the notation of Chrysanthos of Madytos of the 
"New School of Musical Learning." The title is mysterious. It offers many intriguing 
possibilities. It is likely that this manuscript was actually transcribed by the father of 
modern Greek musical notation for use in his school. Certainly it is timely. All details of 
the physical construction of this little volume indicate that it is contemporary with the 
time between which Peter Lapadarios rose to the rank Protopsaltis. Was this little book one 
used in the "new school of Greek music" as transcribed and taught by Peter? If not 
transcribed by him, it was done at the time of the transition from the old notation as seen 
in the other manuscripts here and this one. This manuscript is among the earliest examples 
of modern Greek church musical notation. 

In the beginning of the nineteenth century Byzantine music had become so complicated that 
learning how to sing it properly in the church required ten years or more of study. 
Notational principles and musical theories had obscured from all but a few the intricacies 
of chanting the services. Chrysanthos of Madytos and two collaborators — Gregory, who 

Page 34. 

bore the title Protopsalt, i. e., the lead chanter, and Chourmouzios the Archivist devised a 
simplification of the theory and notation of Byzantine music that allowed for greater 
facility in learning the music. Chrysanthos lived from about 1770 to 1846, was well 
educated with a good knowledge of Latin and French and was familiar with European and 
Arabic music, being proficient in playing the European flute and the Arabic "nay." He 
had learned the art of singing in the Church from Peter Byzantios, also a protopsalt, who in 
turn had been a pupil of Peter Lampadarios of Peloponnesus, probably the most important 
figure in Greek church music between 1453 and the time of Chrysanthos. Chrysanthos' 
theory and notation is currently used in modern Greece. 

As an archimandrite, an ecclesiastical rank equivalent to that of an abbot of a monastery, 
somewhere and somehow he was responsible for teaching music. 67 To facilitate this and 
simplify the teaching of this difficult art, he invented a set of monosyllabic sounds for the 
musical scale in a kind of so-fa system using the first seven letters of the Greek alphabet: 








vH (Greek) 








ni (English) 








Do (Western) 

Chrysanthos was exiled to Madytos by order of the Patriarch of Constantinople for this break 
with the traditional methods of teaching. However, he continued to pursue his original 
approach to the teaching of ecclesiastical music. In Madytos he discovered that whereas it 
had taken pupils as many as ten years to learn the old system, they were able to learn the 
new one in at least ten months. His ability to teach others to learn this system was 
discovered when Melitios, the Metropolitan of Heracleia, was supervising the building of a 
house near Tzibalio. When he heard the masons from Madytos singing from the roof the 
traditional melodies of church music — the Communion Hymns and the kalophonic 
Heirmoi — with great ease, he inquired as to how this was possible. The masons explained 
that they had learned this holy art from Chrysanthos. Soon, Chrysanthos was permitted 
to teach music in his own way. 

Here he joined forces with Gregory — mentioned in the title of our little manuscript as a singer 
and teacher of the new method of singing Greek music— who was the son of a priest and 
born in Constantinople in 1777 on the same day that Peter Lampadarios had died. 
Gregory in collaboration with Chrysanthos transcribed into the new notations many of 
the ancient hymns of the Church, using the talents of, among others, Peter Lampadarios of 
Peleponnesos. Chourmouzios undertook the task of teaching the new method. 

This little book preserves the form of notation that began its life in the Greek Church with 
Chrysanthos and was carried forward by Gregory. Remarkably, it is within a century of 

67 See Georgeios Papadopoulos, Iv>|ipoXai eic, rpv iaxopiav rfjc; Jtap' finiv eKK?ui<naoTiKfjc, (Athens, 1890), 
pp. 329-335. 

Page 35. 

the time that this development happened that we place the origin of modern Greek church 

music. 68 

Gift of Kenneth Willis Clark, December 1963. 

MS. 45. Sticherarion. Paper, XV-XVI™ Century. 176//. 

A Sticherarion is a bulky volume that contains the sticbera, or stanzas, inserted between verses 
taken from the Psalms for Vespers (Hesperinos) and Matins (Ortbros) arranged according to 
the cycle of the liturgical year. Not very many complete volumes have come down to us 
primarily because they were used everyday and worn to pieces. The great Austrian 
composer and musicologist Egon Wellesz says that few are preserved in libraries in the 
western world. There are, however, quite a number preserved in the monasteries of Mt. 
Athos where their day-by-day use is requisite. 

Those that have been preserved are mostly late, attributable to the fact that they were in 
constant use, as were the liturgies, and therefore they were constantly being replaced with 
renewed copies. 

Written by various scribes, this Sticherarion contains the Triodion, the Pentecostarion, Fixed 
Feasts for the Year; Stichera Alphabetica; Stichera Anatolica and Anastasima. The greater 
part of the music of the hymns follows the Mt. Athos or Giletan tradition of the XII th and 
XIir h Centuries. Manuel of Gaza who is mentioned in the Triodion as composer of one 
section of the Good Friday music is a XVT h Century musician. The manuscript dates 
mainly from the beginning of the XVH 111 Century. Some leaves may actually be two 
centuries earlier, and some are of the eighteenth century. Milos Velimirovic, Emeritus 
Professor of Music at the University of Virginia, actually suggests that most of the text is 
before the seventeenth century. 69 

It has an unidentified exlibris with the motto: Ex hasta successit oliva. This manuscript came 
through the collection of Jonathan Peckover and subsequently through that of his sister 
Algerina. 70 It was acquired from Davis and Orioli, Booksellers, on the 12 th of February 
1968 (item 225). 

Gift of Kenneth W. Clark 12 th of February 1968. 

MS. 76. Liturgies of Ss. Basil, Chrysostom, and the 
Presanctified. Paper 190^ XVI™ Century. 

68 See Maureen M. Morgan, "The 'Three Teachers' and their Place in the History of Greek Church 

Music," Studies in Eastern Chant (Egon Wellesz and Milos Velimirovic, general editors; London: 
Oxford University Press, 1971), 86-99. 

69 Private Correspondence, 4 December 1971. 

70 See De Ricci, English Collectors, pp. 166-167. 

Page 36. 

This very utilitarian manuscript provides a window into the worshipping community. First, 
there are the three liturgies followed by the Epistle and Gospel propers and the vesicles for 
selected saints days, beginning with the feast of St. Michael and All Angels. From there 
follow a miscellaneous selection of lessons for other feasts and celebrations: Women 
Martyrs, St. George, the prophet Elijah, St. Anthony, Constantine, the Apostle Philip, 
among others. The pages for the lessons for the Apostle Philip are the most heavily 
thumbed suggesting that St. Philip may have been the patron of the holy place where this 
book was kept. 

It is likely that this was prepared for the priest. The places in the liturgy where the priest and 
not the reader or deacon reads have dark thumb-printed margins from many years of 

It is written on a strong western type paper and in the palaeographical style of the Hodegon 
school. The pages have been foliated likely soon after it was written and each quire is 
numbered in Greek. More than likely it began life in a monastery community. There are 
leather stains inside the lower cover that indicate that it was bound in the Greek monastic 
style. However it is now in red, gilt morocco covers with gauffered and gilt edges 
suggesting that its last resting place was somewhere among the worshipping communities 
in Italy. Having been read nearly to pieces in a worshipping community in the East, it is 
entirely possible that it was brought into the West after the fall of Constantinople in 1453 
and received its Italian Renaissance clothing there. 

Acquired the 3 rd of December 1979 from A. Rosenthal, Ltd. Oxford. 

Cabinet 4. 

Bindings— Clothed in Silver and Gold. 

The practice of covering an entire binding of the New Testament with a precious metal, 
sometimes inlaid with semi-precious stones, was appropriate for the one book that would 
always lie on the altar, be taken in procession, held high to be venerated by the faithful, 
and placed on the lectern to be kissed by worshippers. The Byzantine craftsmen raised to a 
high art the covering of these holy books with embroidery, enamels, semiprecious stones, 
filigree and repousse ornamentation. The Armenian Orthodox craftsmen followed the 
practice well into the eighteenth century when they prepared metal covers that could be 
slipped over the modest wooden or paste boards of service books whether in paper or 

Page 37. 

S. N. The Silver gilt cover— cm. 1700 (Armenian). 

This silver gild cover, the gift of Kenneth W. and Adelaide D. Clark, was acquired in Jerusalem 
in 1946. In all likelihood it was produced in an Armenian workshop to enclose a copy of 
the Gospels, likely a lectionary of the text arranged for reading in church where the silver 
encased Gospels were regarded as "the treasure of God's church." On the upper cover is a 
scene of the Agony in the Garden, an emblematic representation of the Crucifixion; it is 
most often found on the upper cover of Greek lectionaries, and the lower cover is of the 
resurrected Christ holding the resurrection flag. The style of the trees and the puffy clouds 
are all in the style of Armenian craftsmanship. In Armenia the earliest silver cover is the 
Ejmiatsin Gospel of 989 (Matenadaran 2374), which received as covers a pair of sixth- 
century Byzantine ivories carved with scenes from the life of Christ and the Virgin. In the 
Cilician period, a Gospels of 1249 (Matenadaran 7690) was decorated with gilt-silver covers 
in 1255 at Hromklay. Few such examples from the mediaeval period survive. Among the 
earliest is one dated A. D. 1623 71 which was made in Tokat in north-central Turkey. 
However, most silver covers were made by silversmiths working in Kayseri (Caeserea) in 
the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Almost all of them are descendants of Armenian 
artisans who emigrated from Persian Armenia to Kayseri where they founded a school for 
silver binders. 72 

In fact these are not actually bindings in the traditional sense of the word, but rather luxurious 
silver paquettes and were made not by bookbinders, but by skilled silversmiths. The 
covers were often nailed onto the previously bound manuscripts and attached by a system 
of turnins over the boards and decorated with filigree, colored enamels, or precious and 

semi-precious stones. 73 

Gift of Kenneth Willis and Adelaide Dickinson Clark. 

MS. 94. Paracletice and Triodion in Greek; 266 ff.; Paper. 

TEXT CA. A. D.1450; BINDING CA. A. D. 1700 (ROMANIAN?). 

The Paracletice (ff. 1-32) is a liturgical text that contains the variable parts of the services from 
the first Sunday after Pentecost until the tenth Sunday before Easter. The rest of the 
manuscript iff. 33-266) is the Triodion, a liturgical book that contains the variable portions 

71 New York Public Library, Armenian No. 3. 

72 See H. Kurdian, "The Silver Bindings from Kayseri School of Goldsmiths," Hask Armenological 

Yearbook, I (1948), 51-61. 

73 A good discussion of this practice may be seen in Thomas F. Mathews and Robert S. Wieck, Treasures in 

Heaven (Princeton: University Press, 1994), on pp. 115 ff. where the practice of the production of 
silver covers is examined by Sylvie Merian and the accompanying book of essays: Treasures in 
Heaven: Armenian Art, Religion and Society: Papers delivered at the Pierpont Morgan Library at a 
Symposium organized by Thomas F. Mathews and Roger S. Wieck 21-22 May 1994 (New York: The 
Pierpont Morgan Library, 1998), passim. See also Sylvie Louise Merian, "The Structure of 
Armenian Bookbinding and its Relation to near eastern bookmaking Traditions," Ph. D. 
Dissertation, Columbia University, 1993. 

Page 38. 

of the services from the fourth Sunday before Lent until the Saturday before Easter. Its 
contents are drawn from the Prophets, Genesis, and Proverbs as well as from the major 
Byzantine poets like Theodore of Studios. 74 

The binding consists of heavily decorated repousse silver, or a silver alloy, over a binding made 
in the Armenian style, with a fore-edge flap attached to the lower cover and held closed 
with two chains which with circle ornaments attached to the outside of the upper cover in 
contrast to the Byzantine which are anchored to pins in the fore edge. The center of the 
upper cover is filled with a large panel (145 x 84 mm) of the Crucifixion; whereas, on the 
lower cover there is the Coronation of the Theotokos — the Virgin Mary enthroned 
holding the Infant Jesus. The fore-edge flap consists of four compartments with the 
symbols of the Four Evangelists. The spine is made of eight closely linked vertical rows of 
small metal parts in the shape of seashells— about 160! The leather cover over which the 
outer silver cover has been anchored is more characteristic of the Armenian style of 
binding — especially the internal construction of the cloth pastedowns inside the covers. 
The silver cover, however, contrasts with the other silver cover here displayed. 

There is a striking stylistic resemblance between the binding of the Paracleteke and some which 
have come from Romania 75 during the reign of Prince Constantine Brancovan (or 
Brancoveanu) a great patron of the arts who ruled Wallachia from 1689 until his 
imprisonment by the Turks in 1710. He along with his sons was beheaded in 1714. 

Acquired 1 1 June 1990 from Bernard M. Rosenthal, Inc., Berkeley, California. 
Gift of the Caleb C. and Julia W. Dula Educational and Charitable Foundation. 

MS. 25. Tetraevangelion. Four Gospels. Parchment, 235$ 
Ca. 1100. Gregory-Aland 1813 

Written by the scribe Hierotheos, he signs it on /. 235 r : "Iepo0[EOcJ iepetx; 6 ypayfdcj tov 
PiP^ov tccuttiv (sic) but he fails to tell us when 76 or where he completed it. However, we 
do know that the manuscript was in the Monastery of the Theotokos in Soumela which is 
situated on the western side of Mount Melas in the high valley of Prytanis very near 
Trebizond 77 in north-east Turkey on the Black Sea. When Papadopoulos-Kerameus saw 
the manuscript at the end of the 1800s, he says that it was kept in the treasury most likely 

74 The first edition of the Triodion was printed in Venice in 1522. 

75 Nicolae Iorga and Georges Bals, Histoire de I 'art roumain ancien (Paris: E. de Boccard, 1922), cf. esp. pp. 

258, 261, and 262. 

76 The only scribe by the name of Hierotheos mentioned by Vogel and Gardthausen, Die griechischen 

Schreiber des Mittelalters und der Renaissance, p. 161:'Iep69eoc, tEpeuc,, from a thirteenth-century 
document from Soumela 83 is a reference to Duke Greek MS. 25, cited by A. Papadopoulos- 
Kerameus in Tlapapvqpa napd ZvXXoyov KaxaXoyoq x&v ev rrj iepd p-ovfj tov ZovfieXa 'EXXtjvikti 
%eipoypd(pav (Athens, 1898) as being at Trebizond ev tw CfK£i>o(|>-uXaKiq) wO vaot) Tfjc, novfjc, 

77 Raymond Janin, Les eglises et les monasteres des grands centres byzantins (Bithynie, Hellespont, Latros, 

Galesios, Trebizonde, Athenes, Thessalonique) (Paris: Institut Francais d'Etudes Byzantines, 1975), pp. 
274 ff . 

Page 39. 

because it was so handsomely adorned with the ten silver-gilt plaquettes — five on each 
cover — and two triple chain fore-edge clasps. 

The manuscript contains the Four Gospels along with unidentified verses for each Gospel, a 
Prologue, and an "Hypothesis." With headpieces throughout, the ornaments are in 
delicate and pastel colors with patterns suggestive of a Sassanian influence. The manuscript 
may have been produced not very far from where it was given a place of honor within the 
Monastery of the Theotokos at Soumela. 

Although the binding has a modern repair to the spine, the original binding was probably 
added in the fourteenth century. It was bound in a dark purple velvet over wooden boards 
onto which the plaquettes were attached. Both covers have the same arrangement— corner 
pieces with portraits of the Evangelists at their writing desks and a central lozenge with the 
Crucifixion. Each is held in place with four gilt nails. The repousse plaquettes, made of 
gilded silver, 78 are modeled after the standard poses of the Evangelists which are often 
painted on the leaf facing the opening of their Gospels. 79 Seated in the position of the 
scribe, each of the Evangelists, except St. John, is writing. His feet are resting on a small 
stool, a writing desk is before him with an inkpot clearly visible, and an open codex is held 
on his lap. He has a reed pen in his hand. John, in the upper left corner, is turning 
towards the voice of God while dictating to his amanuensis Prochorus who is seated 
writing. In the background are the hills of Patmos where John was exiled under 
Diocletian. On the lower cover it is possible to discern the letters MAT© in the upper 
border of the plaquette on the lower cover at the head near the spine — the same image is 
on the upper cover at the fore edge. The arrangements have John and Matthew at the top 
and Luke on the lower left and Mark on the lower right. 

The lozenge-shaped plaque with the representation of the Crucifixion in the center of each 
cover shows the crucified figure hanging on the cross in an s-shape curve. On the right of 
Christ is Mary with her left hand on her cheek and the right hand close to her body; 
behind her stands another woman — likely the other Mary Magdalene. On the opposite 
side stands St. John with his right hand at his cheek, the left arm falling down, and his 
body slightly bent forward. His head is surrounded by an aurora. Behind St. John is the 
figure of a man clad in a short garment. His head is turned upward. He holds in front of 
his body a round shield. According to the tradition in Matthew xxvii. 54, he is the 
centurion who explained after Christ's death that "He was indeed the Son of God." 

Purchased on 29 June 1961 from Maggs Brothers, Booksellers, London. 


It is almost impossible to determine from external examination the composition of the metals that are 
used in the production of this metal binding furniture. "Silver gilt" means in this context that the it 
is a silver alloy with a gilded surface. As to how this was accomplished, much is unknown; however, 
for a start one may consult A History of Technology, edited by Charles Singer, et al., II: The 
Mediterranean Civilizations and the Middle Ages c. 700 B.C. to c. A. D. 1500 (Oxford: The 
Clarendon Press, 1979), p. 42ff 

The only comprehensive study of Evangelists' portraits is that of A. M. Friend, Jr., "The Portraits of the 
Evangelists in Greek and Latin Manuscripts," Art Studies, V, 115-147, and VII 3-29. 

Page 40. 

MS. 65. Lectionary (Daily) of the Gospels. Parchment, 
XI™ CENTURY; 256# Gregory-Aland / 1839. 

Following the standard order for the Greek lectionary, it begins with the first reading for 
Easter Sunday (John i. Iff.) and continues through the liturgical year until the Saturday 
vespers before Easter. There follows the Menologion, or the fixed calendar of readings for 
saints days for every day of the year beginning with September 1 and concluding on 
August 31. Most of the latter are only cited, however, and the text is not written out in 
full. Copied in a very fine small minuscule Greek book hand of the eleventh century, it is 
decorated with delicate headpieces and initials in the style of the Byzantine Court Art of 
the period. It is furnished with musical notations for chanting the Gospels in red 

Over the Byzantine or red goatskin and red dyed edges is this remarkable cover— probably 
datable to sometime during the fifteenth century. Worked in repousse from the rear, in 
part with engraved dies, are various figures including the Crucifixion and an inscription 
recording that the manuscript was the property of the Metropolitan Church of St. Stephen 
the Protomartyr in the province of Pisidia in Asia Minor. 

On this solid sheet of gilded silver alloy the images have been impressed with dies from the 
back and raised in relief on the front. In the center, nearly the full length of the crucified 
Christ within the outline of the cross which has cross bars serving at foot space for two 
full-length male figures with auroras on either side facing the cross with heads bowed. 
Beneath the figure of the Christ is what appears to be a square opening to a tomb below 
which is the scull of Adam. Occupying the width of the cross from below the skull of 
Adam is a smaller full-length figure with aurora. 

Above the cross within a frame made by small twisted columns on both sides and a 
semicircular vault above are three figures — the Father with the two other persons of the 
Holy Trinity on either side. Directly above the head of the Christ and within the arms of 
the cross at the end of the extended hands of the crucified figure may be seen the busts of 
two figures. On the right appears to be that of John the Beloved Disciple (barely 
decipherable is the abbreviation and at the end of the right hand of the crucified Christ the 
figure may be Peter since the Greek letters IIET are barely discernable. Resting on the 
upper arms of the cross at the top on either side facing Christ are archangels Michael and 
Gabriel— Gabriel on the left hand and Michael on the right. Below the figures in reverse 
letters one can decipher the Greek names for the Archangels. In the small rectangular 
space above the head of the Christ between the top of his head the top of the cross are the 
initial letters 1 N B I which is in GreekTnaoiJi; Na^rapatoc, Bacnteijc,' Iou8ai(ov "Jesus of 
Nazareth, the King of the Jews." 80 In each of the four corners are impressions of the bust 
of the same figure — the Pantocrator — with an open codex in his left hand and his right 
hand raised in pontifical blessing. Outside his circular nimbus are the letters IC XC. The 
one on the gutter side at the spine has broken away leaving only half of the image. 

1 John xix. 19:' Incou; 6 Nct^wpcrioc, 6 Baoi^euc, xrov IovSaicov "Jesus of Nazareth, the King of the Jews." 

Page 41. 

On either side of the figures standing on the foot pace are two identical impressed images of 
full-length figures within a rectangle with an oval top. The figure in a Roman tunic is 
likely the Centurion with his hands raised in the orans position. The figure is definitely 
not wearing the long chiton or himation as are the two figures "guarding" the cross. The 
plaque covers the entire upper cover and is bordered with a rope-like pattern. 

As for the provenance of this manuscript, the craftsman who applied the covering plaque 
inscribed the note in Greek 

' O rccxpov evayyeXio\ tcrro vaov xov afiov OTe^avoc, zr\q moiStac, 

which is to say "This lectionary is the property of the Church of St. Stephen of Pisidia." A 
long presentation note on the last leaf of the manuscript says that the manuscript was given 
to the Church of St. Stephen in Pisidia by a city official named Tourmisi. In the 
presentation there is an anathema pronounced upon anyone who removes the book from 
the church— "May he suffer the scorn of all the holy Fathers of the Church and that his 
fate be that of Judas." Judas is the Apostle who betrayed Christ and committed suicide by 
hanging himself. 81 

From the Church of St. Stephen the Protomartyr, the manuscript eventually passed into the 
hands of Dositheos Kladis, Archbishop of the Greek Orthodox Church, Izmir, Turkey. 
From him it was purchased in 1954 by Sfc. Philip M. Conalis while serving with the U. S. 
Army at the Headquarters Allied Land Forces South Eastern Europe, Izmir, Turkey. In 
May 1975 The Friends of the Library of Duke University purchased the manuscript from 
Lathrop C. Harper, Inc., New York. On the 15 th of May 1975, at a ceremony in the 
Biddle Room of Special Collections to name the Greek manuscript collection in honor of 
Kenneth Clark, the manuscript was presented to mark the event. 

Gift of the Divinity School and The Friends of the Library, 15 th of May 1975. 

MSS. 27 and 43. Lectionary (Saturday-Sunday) of the 
Gospels. Parchment, XIII th Gregory-Aland / 2144 and / 2145. 

Although most of this manuscript has disappeared into the hands of collectors of leaves 
scattered about the world, at least six are at Duke and one is at Yale. This binding 
represents another style of book decoration that was common among monastic 
communities. Again, veneration of the Holy Scriptures that were carried about in solemn 
procession in the services deserved decorations befitting their status. The two crosses on 
the binding of what is left of this manuscript are in the shape of processional crosses. 
Wider at the extensions of the arms, with decreasing width as they move towards the 
center, and the corners of each arm is given a little knob. The crosses are set each with ten 
garnets. One garnet, however, is missing from the cross on the lower cover. At each 
corner of the cover are crown-like bosses that protected the covers from damage when the 
book was placed on a reading desk or table. 

81 Mark xiv. lOff. and 43 ff.; John xiii. 2, xviii. 3ff.; and Matt, xxvii. 3-5 and Acts i. 16-20 

Page 42. 

On the inside the sewing has been exposed where the leaves have been torn out revealing the 
sewing structure that originally held this book together. Rarely does one have the 
opportunity to see such complete and intricate construction from the inside of a binding. 
Purchased on the 22 nd of May 1964 from Maggs Bros., of London. 

MS. 2. Lectionary (Daily) of the Gospels. Paper, XVII™ 

CENTURY; 312^ 

This daily lectionary is a product of a Venetian workshop. Long after 1453 when so many 
Greeks emigrated to Italy in the wake of the fall of Constantinople, the community 
continued to produce manuscripts for the services in the church. This is a splendid 
example of some of the best Venetian needlecraft. The cover has been worked in silver 
threads on a silk support that has been backed with linen and then drawn over wooden 
boards. One can discern at least three dozen different embroidery stitches, singly and in 
combination, represented here. There are also varieties of metallic threads which when 
couched give depth and form to the overall repeat pattern. 82 

A cast silver-alloy medallion anchors the center of each cover: on the upper cover is the 
Crucifixion and on the Trinity is on the lower cover. One of the fore edge clasps is 

Acquired in 1933 from Van Dam of London. 

Cabinet 5. 

Homilies— the Spoken Word as Theology 

MS. 32. St. John Chrysostom (ca. A. D. 344/54 - 407). 
Homilies to the People of Antioch about the Statues- 
and Instructions to the Catechumens. Parchment; ca. 
A.D. 1100. 160^ 

82 See Catherine Christopher Roberts, The Complete Book of Embroidery and Embroidery Stitches. 
Kingswood, Surry: The World's Work (1913) Ltd. 1948. 

Page 43. 

Seldom do we think of the difficulties that the early preachers encountered as they delivered 
their sermons especially in the presence of the Emperor and his court. Certainly not when 
a preacher takes on issues like taxation. But that is precisely what St. John Chrysostom did 
during Lent in the year A. D. 387. 

He had come from a noble family in Antioch and was called "Chrysostom" — meaning, "the 
one with the golden mouth" — and had been brought up by his devout mother Anthusa 
who was widowed at the early age of twenty. After he was baptized, probably not later 
than 372, he led a strictly ascetical life in his mother's house. Then for four years he was 
under the instruction of an old hermit and then lived alone as a monk for two years in the 
quiet of the mountains near the city. Because of weak health he was compelled to return 
to Antioch where Meletius ordained him deacon in 381 and Bishop Flavian ordained him 
priest in 386. He preached for twelve years until about 397 in the principal church, and 
established himself as a great orator. It was during this twelve-year period that the most 
famous of his exegetical homilies were delivered. 

It was on the occasion of the outbreak of the rebellion in caused by an increase in taxation that 
his brilliance as an eloquent orator was most forcefully demonstrated. The city of Antioch 
had incurred the displeasure of the Emperor Theodosius owing to a riot in which statues of 
him had been destroyed. Savage punishment was feared and Chrysostom, then still a 
deacon, preached to the populace urging upon them calm and restraint. At the last sermon 
at Easter, he was able to announce that Bishop Flavian, in Constantinople, had secured a 
complete amnesty for the city. 

Originally consisting of 21 sermons, of which the 20 th is likely spurious, the text of part of or 
all of 7 through 21 are represented in this manuscript. 

Chrysostom's homilies furnish ample reason for his popularity with the people. He exhibits 
the free command of a pure and copious vocabulary, an inexhaustible fund of metaphors 
and similitudes which give gaiety and grace to the most familiar topics, with an almost 
dramatic exposure of the folly and turpitude of vice, together with a deep moral 
earnestness. His zeal as a bishop and eloquence as a preacher, however, gained him enemies 
both in the church and in the court. He was eager to abolish the abuses in the life of the 
Church. On the archepiscopal throne Chrysostom preserved his monastic simplicity by 
using his rich revenues to establish hospitals and help the poor. At his command the 
ecclesiastics were parted from the laysisters, whom they kept ostensibly as servants, and 
thirteen bishops were deposed for simony and licentiousness at a single visitation. The idle 
monks who thronged the avenues to the court and found themselves the public object of 
his scorn all conspired against him. Their resentment was inflamed by a powerful party, 
which included the magistrates, the favorite eunuchs, the ladies of the court, and Eudoxia, 
the wife of the Emperor Arcadius, against whom the preacher thundered daily from the 
pulpit of St. Sophia. Once when a statue of the Empress was unveiled near the church of 
the Bishop, the games and dances were so noisy that the Bishop complained that "one can 
hardly hear the words of the preacher." The Empress was not amused. She was even more 
offended when on the feast of John the Baptist, he began the sermon with the words, 

Page 44. 

"Once more Herodias rages in fury, once more she dances, demanding the head of John in 
a dish." 83 It was not the best way to incur the support of the Court! 

Chrysostom was not known as "the one with the golden mouth" for no good reason: his 
homilies are fascinating both in their contents and their effective eloquent presentation, 
combining the Greek beauty of form with the Christian spirit. His sermons, which often 
lasted as long as two hours, are not tiring for they are lively with imagery and parables, 
often beginning and ending with allusions to contemporary applications, a good 
homiletical device in any age. 84 

The Duke copy of the "Sermons to the People of Antioch about the Statues" is, alas, 
fragmentary; however, it is datable to about A. D. 1100 and is the work of at least three 
scribes. When it arrived in the library, it was in a great state of disrepair. It is now in one 
of the finest conservation bindings in the collection. It is covered in a fine piece of red 
morocco that came from the shop of Douglas Cockerell, the great conservator-binder, 
when his properties were dispersed upon his death in the 1960s. 

The manuscript passed through the hands of Sir Austen Henry Layard, the excavator at 
Nineveh, before it was placed among the properties of the Governors of Canford School, 
Wimborne, from which this manuscript was sold through Sotheby's on the 12 of 
December 1966 (Lot 195). It was bought through the good offices of Clifford Maggs, 
Bookseller, London, representing Duke University Library. It arrived at Duke to become 
Greek Ms. 32 in January 1967. 

Acquired January 1967 with General Funds of the University Library. 

MS. 47. Gregory of Nyssa (fl. A. D. 379-394J. Sermons on 
the Beatitudes (I-VII). Paper; XVI th Century; 49^ 

The younger brother of St. Basil, Gregory was first of all an orator. He was later influenced by 
his friend Gregory of Nazianzus to retire into the solitude of the monastic life. He 
accepted the elevation to the episcopal throne at the insistence of his brother Basil. In 371 
he became the Bishop of Nyssa in Cappadocia. Like Gregory of Nazianzus, Gregory of 
Nyssa 85 failed before the difficulties of practical ecclesiastical responsibilities. Being of an 
introspective nature and yet possessed with eminent speculative gifts, he surpassed the 
other Cappadocians as a philosopher and a theologian and contributed much to the 
understanding of the doctrines of the faith. 

Socrates Scholastics, Historia Ecclesiastka 6, 18, ed. Robert Hussey (2 nd ed.; Oxonii: E Typographeo 
Academico, 1863) = Migne, PG, LXVLL29; Sozomen Salaminus Historia Ecclesiastka 8, 20, ed. Robert 
Hussey (Oxonii: E Typographeo Academico, 1860) = Migne, PG LXVII.844. Cf. Berthold Altaner, 
Patrology, (2 nd ed. Hilda C. Graef, transl. New York: Herder and Herder, 1961), p. 373ff. 

4 The best edition of his sermons are those edited by Bernard de Montfaucon. Among the best authorities 
for his life are the histories of Socrates, Sozomen, and Theodoret, cited in the note above. 

85 See Altaner, Patrology, pp. 35 Iff. 

Page 45. 

Gregory was not so firm and able an administrator as his brother Basil, nor so magnificent an 
orator as Gregory of Nazianzus, but he surpassed them both as a speculative and 
constructive theologian and in the breadth of his achievements. Although strictly 
Trinitarian, his teaching shows considerable freedom and originality of thought. His style 
has been frequently praised for its sweetness, richness, and elegance. 

Although the Clark Collection does not contain early works by Gregory of Nyssa, the diverse 
elements of Byzantium, whether from the point of view of the theologian, the 
philosopher, or the preacher, are represented in the Collection by the variety of literature 
which the Collection encompasses. 

This simple manuscript was purchased from Dawson's of Pall Mall, from their Cat. 200, Item 
16, in July 1969. It was acquired from among the stock of Davis and Orioli, Booksellers, 
April 1959. 

Acquired from Dawson's Pall Mall, July 1969. 

MS. 70. Gregorius Nazianzus, Saint, patriarch of 
Constantinople, (ca. A. D. 329/30-ca. 390) Miscellany. 

PARCHMENT; CA. A. D. 935. 40^. 

This miscellany of theological materials from the pen of Gregory Nazianzus is among the 
earliest manuscripts in the Clark Collection, dating from the middle to the end of the tenth 
century. Although it is a composite collection, it contains Sermons — "Second Invective 
against Julian the Apostate," "On the Consecration of Eulalius as Bishop of Doara in 
Cappadocia in 373"; Letters to Nectarius, Patriarch of Constantinople (Gregory's 
successor) and "To the Monk Evagrios on the Nature of God"; and Moral Poems; "An 
Exhortation to Virgins"; and Dogmatic Poems "On Vespers." These are representative of 
the range of the types of literature that Gregory of Nazanzius made throughout his life — 
sermons, poetry, and letters. 86 

Gregory was born on the estate of Arianzus near Nazianzus in Cappadocia, the son of Bishop 
Gregory the Elder of Nazianzus. His mother Nonna exercised a powerful influence over 
the religious convictions of both father and son. He was educated in the school of rhetoric 
in Caesarea in Cappadocia and then spent a short time at Christian schools in Caesarea in 
Palestine and Alexandria. When he finally went to the university in Athens, where he 
remained until ca. 357, he became St. Basil's lifelong friend. Strongly inclined by nature 

Among the collections of the published works of Gregory of Nazianzus, see Andreas Gallandi, 
Bibliotheca veterum patrum antiquorumque Scriptorum ecclesiasticorum. Venetiis: Ex Typ. J. B. Albritii 
Hieron fil., 1765-1781; Gregory of Nazianzus, Discours 4-5 contre Julien, edited by Jean Bernardi, 
("Sources chretiennes," 309); Paris: Editions du Cerf, 1983; Gregory of Nazianzus, Briefe, edited and 
translated by Paul Gallay ("Die Griechischen christlichen Schriftsteller der ersten Jahrhunderte," Bd. 
53), Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, 1969; and Gregory of Nazianzus, In Iulianum invectuae duae ... ex 
Bibliotheca Clarissimi viri D. Henrici Savilii, edidit R. Montagu, Etonae: in Collegio Regali: 
Excudebat Ioannes Norton, in grecis, &c Regius Typographus, 1610. 

Page 46. 

and education to a contemplative life spent among books and in the company of congenial 
friends, he was both by circumstances and an inward call to serve in pastoral work. The 
world of Cappadocia at the time was in turmoil when the emperor Constantius, by 
intrigue and intimidation, succeeded in forcing a semi-Arian formula upon the Western 
bishops assembled at Ariminum in Italy and had attempted the same efforts upon Eastern 
bishops. Gregory's father, the aged bishop of Nazianzus, yielding to imperial threats, 
capitulated, and caused a great storm to be raised among the monks of the diocese that was 
quelled only by the efforts of the younger Gregory. As was characteristic throughout his 
life, the young Gregory attempted to run away from the obstacles, and on this occasion he 
attempted to escape in the same way. He failed, however, and was forced to return to act 
as a presbyter within his father's diocese; and it is probable that his two Invectives against 
Julian are to be assigned to this period. 

In A. D. 379 he was called to undertake the direction and administration of the Orthodox 
party in Constantinople which was greatly in need of leadership. Soon, under his able 
pastoral "cure of souls," the community thrived as he urged his flock to the cultivation of 
the loving Christian spirit that cherishes higher aims than merely hunting for heresy and 
endless disputation. He was, nevertheless, doctrinal as is abundantly clear in his five 
discourses on the Trinity, which earned for him the distinctive appellation of GeoAdyog. 
These orations are the finest exposition of the Catholic doctrine of the Trinity as conceived 
by the Orthodox teachers of the East. It has been said that of all Orthodox writings 
"There is no single book in Greek patristic literature to which the student who desires to 
gain an exact and comprehensive view of Greek theology can be more confidently 

With the arrival of Theodosius in A. D. 380 came the triumph of the Orthodox cause; the 
metropolitan office was then conferred upon Gregory, and after the assembling of the 
second ecumenical council in 381, he received consecration from Meletius. Many worries 
and intrigues — the legality of his episcopal office being among the disputed items — caused 
him so much disgust with his new position that, in order to end all disputes, he decided to 
resign after a few days. The rest of his days were spent partly at Nazianzus in ecclesiastical 
affairs, and partly on his neighboring patrimonial estate at Arianzus where he followed his 
literary pursuits, especially poetical composition, until his death ca. A. D. 390. 

Gregory of Nazianzus had a sensitive, contemplative nature, and, in contrast to Basil, possessed 
little gift and inclination for practical activities. He liked to devote himself to a life of 
scholarly and contemplative leisure. He was drawn, from time to time, into public life and 
activities, but as a result of his poor health he could be nervous and irritable and, especially 
near the end of his life, bitter against others. However, he was possessed of a rather 
conciliatory disposition. His ability to use rhetorical devices and to produce in prose and 
poetry their elements with consummate skill caused Byzantine scholars to name him the 
Christian "Demosthenes." 

Before this manuscript first appears in the hands of Frederic North, fifth Earl of Guilford 
(1766-1827), we can only assume by its characteristic palaeography that it derived from a 
monastic community near or close to the center of Orthodoxy, likely in the vicinity of 
Constantinople. The Lord North had built up a considerable collection while he was 
living in the Middle East. In 1814 he was elected the first president (TtpoeSpoq) for the 

Page 47. 

promotion of culture ( Etatpia xrov ^tXopoiJOCOv) founded at Athens. On the 
establishment of the protectorate over the Ionian Islands, North devoted himself with his 
friend Count Capodistrias to founding an Ionian university. On the 26 tk of October 1819, 
he was created Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St. Michael and St. George by the 
Prince Regent, who on his accession to the throne nominated him ctpxtov, or chancellor of 
the projected university. At first a site was chosen in Ithaca, but later abandoned for one 
in Corfu, and on the 29 th of May 1824 the Ionian University with Guilford as chancellor 
was solemnly inaugurated. 

Guilford placed in the library several rich collections of printed books, manuscripts, scientific 
apparatus, and sulfur casts of antique medallions. His enthusiasm, and particularly his 
practice of wearing the classical costume adopted as the academic dress habitually and all 
the year round excited much ridicule in England. Because of ill health he was recalled to 
England in 1827 and died on the 14 of October that year. His executors recovered his 
collections at Corfu, which he had bequeathed to the university, because the university did 
not comply with the conditions incumbent upon the bequest. 87 The collection of which 
this manuscript was a part was sold at the Guilford Sale, 8-12 December 1830 (Lot 676) and 
was bought by Payne and Foss. 88 Later it found its place in the Phillipps Collection as Ms. 
716. At the Phillipps Sale on the 30 th of November 1976 (Lot 856), it became Duke 

University Greek Ms. 70. 

Acquired the 30™ of November 1976. 

MS. 23. Maximos the Peloponnesian (d. 1625?). 
Kyriakodromion: a series of homilies for 36 Sundays 
based on the lection ary texts. paper; xvii™ century. 
366 ff. (each leaf is composed of two thin sheets pressed 
together). 89 

87 See Dictionary of National Biography, XIV (Oxford: University Press), XIV, 609-611; Seymour de Ricci, 

English Collectors of Books and Manuscripts (1530-1930) and their Marks of Ownership ("Sandars 
Lectures, 1929-1930; New York: The MacMillan Company; Cambridge, England: University Press, 
1930), pp. 94-95. 

88 See Phillipps Studies, HI, p. 56: "The very extensive manuscript portion of the library of Frederic North, 

fifth Earl of Guilford (1766-1827), was sold on 8 December 1830 and the four following days. This 
celebrated philhellene had during his period of residence in Corfu collected a large number of 
manuscripts, some of them in Greek, but the majority relating to Italian history and literature. Pan 
of his collections was given during his lifetime to the Ionian University of which he was the founder 
and first Chancellor, while the residue provided material for eight sales in London. At the sale of the 
manuscripts and from the booksellers subsequently Phillipps bought over 1560 items for his 
library... ." 

89 Concerning the matter of pressing together two sheets, creating a sheet of two-layers, double-face paper, 

see J. Karabacek, "Das arabische Papier," Mittheilungen aus der Sammlung der Papyrus Erzherzog 
Rainer, 11-111 (Vienna, 1887), pp. 140-11. Cf. the recent English translation of most of Karabacek's 
study by D. Baker and S. Dittmer, Arab Paper (London 1991), p. 53; J. Irigoin, "La datation par les 
filigranes du papier," Codicologia (ed. A. Gruys), V ("Litterae textuales", Leiden 1980), p. 15; H. 

Page 48. 

Little is known about Maximos the Peloponnesian other than what we can gather from the few 
of his letters that have survived. He left a couple translations into modern Greek and a 
long polemical treatise again the papacy which was published by Dositheos, Patriarch of 
Jerusalem (1641-1707) with an added introduction in which he repeats the old story about 
"Pope Joan." 90 However, Maximos lived in a troubling time for the Greek Orthodox 
Church. During the turbulent 1600's, Cyril Lucar was Patriarch five times between 1612 
and 1638, as was Parthenius IV Mogilalos who also was Patriarch on five occasions between 
1657 - 1685. 91 In this manuscript Maximos provides for the faithful, and especially for the 
monks, his theological views which provide excellent insight into the "Calvinist" invasion 
of Orthodox theology in the seventeenth century. Maximos was also concerned to provide 
the priests with ecclesiastical texts in the common Greek language of that age, so he turned 
his attention to translating old Greek works among which is the commentary of Andreas 
of Caesarea on the Apocalypse of St. John. 

Born in the Peloponnesus sometime near the end of the sixteenth century, he was named 
"Manuel" before he became a monk when he took the name Maximos. 92 About 1590 he 
appears as a disciple of Meletius Pegas, Patriarch of Alexandria (d. 1601). During the 
following decade he advanced as a reader in the church, then deacon, and finally 
archdeacon. We know that he also served as a scribe, as he is so designated in our 
manuscript. And from several manuscripts that were in the Alexandrine Patriarchal 
Library, he served as librarian. 

When his master and patron Meletios died in 1601, Cyril Lucar (1572 - 1638) who had served as 
Melitios' "syncellus" 95 or domestic chaplain succeeded Meletius. Maximos gained the high 
regard of Patriarch Cyril likely because both of them shared common theological 
interest — Melitios had known Cyril when they were studying in Venice. In 1608 when the 
Ecumenical Patriarch Neophytos was installed in office, Maximos was dispatched as the 
official representative of Cyril, the Patriarch of Alexandria. 

Prior to Cyril's time in Europe he had viewed the Roman Church with respect, but he now 
became more and more positively disposed towards the Reformed Churches. But during 
his time studying in Venice, Padua, and Geneva, he absorbed the Calvinist teaching that he 

Gachet, "Papier et parchemin), IPH Information, 16 (1982), pp. 36-41; J. Pederson, The Arabic Book, 
tr. by G. French, (Princeton University Press, 1984), p. 66; and for sources published by J. Karabacek, 
see C.-M. Briquet, Le papier arabe au Moyen-Age et sa fabrication, (Berne 1888; an off-print from 
Union de la Papeterie, aout-septembre) [=Briqnet's Opuscula, Hilversum 1955 (Monumenta Chartae 
Papyraceae Historiam Illustrantia, 4), pp. 162-170]. 

90 See Friedrich Spanheim, Histoire de la papesse Jeanne (2 le ™ ed., augmentee; A la Haye: Chez Henri 

Scheurleer, 1720) and Sabine Baring-Gould, Curious Myths of the Middle Ages (New York: John B. 
Alden, 1885). 

91 See Duke Greek Ms. 42. 

92 "Maxime le Peleponnesien," Dictionnaire de Spiritualite X (Paris: Beauchesne, 1980), cols. 851-851; 

Dictionnaire de Theologie catholique X (Paris: Libraire Letouzey et Ane, 1928), cols, 463-464; and 
Demetrios K. Michaelides, "AvekSotoi ZtvkoI Kara Tfjc, Aua6£iac,," EXXr\viKd, XXV (1972), 106- 

93 A "syncellus" is actually someone who shares the same monk's kelli, or cell; in the case of a bishop he is 

always accompanied by a chaplain in order to guarantee the purity of the his moral life. 

Page 49. 

absorbed into his life and writings when he became Patriarch of Constantinople in 1620. 
His appointment was as agreeable to the Protestants as it was unwelcome by the Jesuits. 
When he left Alexandria to become Patriarch of Constantinople, he brought with him a 
number of books; among them was a fifth-century copy of the Greek Bible, both Old and 
New Testaments. About 1625 he presented it to George Abbot, the strong Puritan 
Archbishop of Canterbury. Today known as "Codex Alexandrinus" it remains one of the 
chief treasures of the British Library. 

When Cyril published his Confessio in 1629— about the time that Maximos was writing his 
virulently anti-papal treatise — he presented a thoroughly Calvinistic interpretation of the 
faith of the Greek Orthodox Church. Eight years later, accused of inciting the Cossacks 
against the Turkish Government, he was strangled by the Janizaries at the command of the 
Sultan Murad and his body cast into the Bosphoros. 94 

As for Maximos, he returned to the Peloponnessus about 1620 and there died quietly in his 

Purchased from the general fund May 5, 1954, from Raphael King, London. 

Cabinet 6. 

Lives of the Saints— The Golden Chain of Faith 

The Holy Trinity, pervading all men from first to last, from head to 
foot, binds them all together... . The saints in each generation, joined to 
those who have gone before, and filled like them with light, become a 
golden chain, in which each saint is a separate link, united to the next 
by faith, works, and love. So in the One God they form a single chain 
which cannot quickly be broken. 

Symeon, the New Theologian, Apophthegmata, Antony, 2. 

The Orthodox idea of the communion of the saints is best illustrated with the quotation from 
Symeon, the New Theologian. This chain links the members of the Church on earth who 
are "called to be saints" by mutual love and prayer to those who have led the way. 
Reverence for the saints is closely bound up with the veneration of icons which are placed 
by the Orthodox in each room of their homes as an ever-present point of meeting between 
the living members of the Church and those who have gone before. For the Orthodox the 
saints are not remote and legendary figures long since dead, but contemporary and personal 
friends. 95 

94 See Georgios A. Chatzeantoniou, Protestant Patriarch (Richmond, Va.: John Knox Press, 1961); Aloys 

Pichler, Geschichte des Protestantismus in der orientalischen Kircbe im 17. Jahrhundert, oder, Der 
Patriarch Cyrillus Lucaris und seine Zeit (Miinchen: J. J. Lentner, 1862); and Germanos, Metropolitan 
of Thyateira, Kyrillos Loukaris, 1572-1638: a Struggle for Preponderance between Catholic and Protestant 
Powers in the Orthodox East (London: S. P. C. K, 1951). 

95 Timothy Ware, Tloe Orthodox Church (Baltimore, Md.: Penguin Books, 1963), pp. 260ff. 

Page 50. 

Throughout the entire year, a saint or saints is remembered on every day — and each day has its 
own set of prayers, psalms, versicles (sticbera) and responses. The "propers" for each day, 
along with a life of the Saint — sometimes long and at other times hardly more than a 
paragraph — remind the worshipper of the reason for the celebration at the Eucharist, 
Vespers (Hespertnos), or Matins (Ortbros). The Menaia — Mnvaia from the Greek word for 
"month" — contain the services for the fixed feasts throughout the twelve months from the 
1 st of September, the beginning of the ecclesiastical year, until the 31 st of August. It is 
usually divided into twelve volumes, one for each month of the year. 

While the Anglican Church in theory has only two books— the Bible and the Book of 
Common Prayer, and the Roman Catholic Church requires only two books— the Missal 
and the Breviary, the Orthodox Church requires a small library of some nineteen or 
twenty substantial volumes. John Mason Neal remarked about the Orthodox Service 
Books: "On a moderate computation these volumes together comprise five thousand 
closely printed quarto pages, in double columns." 96 In these twenty volumes are contained 
the services for the Christian year, and the Menaia are part of annual sequence of feasts and 
fasts which commemorate the Incarnation and its realization within the Church within the 
lives of the saints. 

MS. 18. Menologion for December 4-13. Parchment; XII th 
Century. 214^ 

A "menologion" (unvoXoytov, from uriv, "month" and taSyoc,, "catalogue") is a collection of 
lives arranged according to the date of each saint's celebration in the church calendar. It 
should be distinguished from a menaion (such as represented by Duke Greek Ms. 89), 
which contains liturgical poems and prayers for the saint's annual celebration. The lives of 
the saints may be of considerable length and there may even be a few homilies, as well, to 
be read at the same commemorative service to exhort the believers to follow the example 
of the holy life as laid out before them. As early as the ninth-century, the first mention of 
a collection of saints lives is by Theodore of Studios who speaks of such a collection in 
twelve deltoi — or "small volumes." 97 The earliest surviving menologia manuscripts date 
from the IX th Century. The standard edition of some 150 texts in ten volumes, compiled 
in the late X th Century by Symeon Metaphrastes, was to become the standard edition of 
the menologion. By the twelfth century his collection is in general use in the monastic 

This large twelfth-century volume contains the extended lives of the saints for only the first 
half of December beginning with St. Barbara (Dec. 4) and continuing with St. Sabas of 
Jerusalem (Dec. 5), St. Nikolaus of Myra (Dec. 6); St. Ambrose of Milan (Dec. 7); St. 
Patapios the Anchorite (Dec. 8); Ss. Menas, Hermogenes and Eugraphos, Martyrs in 
Alexandria under Diocletian (Dec. 10); St. Daniel the Stylite (Dec. 11); St. Spyridon (Dec. 

% John Mason Neale, Tl)e Hymns of the Eastern Church (3rd ed.: London, 1866), p. 52. 
97 Migne, PG, XCLX. 912B. 

Page 51. 

12); and concluding with Ss. Eustrathios, Auxentios, Eugenios, Mardarios and Orestes, 
Martyrs in Armenia under Diocletian (Dec. 13). 98 From the size of this volume, one can 
imagine the shelf-space required for a twenty-four-volume set that included a saint's life for 
every day of the year. 

According to Prof. Ehrhard, 99 he had seen this manuscript in the Antiquariat Rosenthal in 
Munich in 1938. From there it went to the London bookshop of Raphael King who 
offered it to the University Library in the Spring of 1953. It was sent "for examination on 
approval" to Professor Clark. After careful study of the manuscript, in a letter on the 1 1 
of May 1953, he, along with Professor William F. Stinespring, Professor of Old Testament 
and Chairman of the Divinity Library Committee, and Professor Ray C. Petry, James B. 
Duke Professor of Church History, recommended its purchase to the Library Council and 
to Dr. Benjamin E. Powell, University Librarian. The cost? $378.00! The Council 
approved the purchase, and it became Greek Ms. 18. 

Purchased from the General Fund from Raphael King, Bookseller, Spring 1953. 

MS. 80. Menologion for March. Paper; ca. A. D. 1550. 13 ff. 

Although incomplete, this manuscript is evidence of the long tradition of venerating the lives 
of the saints as they were recorded by hand well after the invention of printing from 
moveable type in the middle of the fifteenth century. Dated to the middle of the sixteenth 
century on the basis of the watermarks 100 and palaeography, the manuscript was likely 
copied for use in a Greek monastic community in the West. It contains the "Life of 
Sophronius" by Ioannes Zonara, 101 for 11 March and the "Life of Alexius," 102 for 17 March. 

The manuscript was found in the attic storeroom of the book shop of A. Rosenthal, Inc., 9 and 
10 Broad Street, Oxford in the winter of 1979 along with a pile of Spanish cedulas and six 
other manuscripts that are now part of the Clark Collection. 103 Although none are 
spectacular, they are valuable, as witnesses to the kinds of materials that the monastic 
scribes continued to produce long after printing had pushed manuscript production off the 
landscape in Western Europe. In the East, books were either imported or they were 
written out by hand until well into the seventeenth century. After all, the first printing 

98 Notes from Albert Ehrhard, Uberlieferung und Bestand der hagiographischen und homiletischen Literatur 

der griechischen Kirche von den Anfangen bis zum Ende des 16. Jahrbunderts ["Texte und 
Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der altchristlichen Literatur," vol. 51] (Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs 
Verlag, 1938), I.ii, p. 483: "Miinchen: 52. Antiquariat Rosenthal, Cod. LLT 2 m.s. 12, 214 Folien; 32 x 
24. Von 4.-13. Dezember. Ohne Abweichung. Die untere Grenze ist die urspriingliche." 

99 See Note 4 above. 

100 Cf. Dieter and Johanna Harlfinger, Wasserzeichen aus griechischen Handschriften LT (Berlin: Verlag 

Nikolaus Mielke, 1980), Anchor 75 (1548-1556) and Anchor 78 (1560). 

101 See Athanasius Papadopoulos-Kerameus, A ' AvaXeKxa ' iepoaoXvpuiKi)g StaxvoXoyiag fj IvXXoyr) 

AvekSotcov (Bruxelles: Culture et Civilisation, [1888] impression anastatiquel963), V, 137-150. 

102 Hans Ferdinand Massmann, Sanct Alexius Leben in act gereimten mittelkochdeutschen Behandlungen. 

Nebst geschichdicher Einleitung so wie deutschen, griechischen und lateinischen Anhangen (Quedlinburg 
and Leipzig,: Gottfried Basse, 1843), pp. 192-200. 

103 Duke Greek Mss. 75, 76, 77, 7, 79, and 81. 

Page 52. 

press did not come to Constantinople until 1627 — only eleven years before the first press 
in Cambridge, Massachusetts — and it would be 1798 before a press would be turning out 
books and pamphlets in Cairo and Athens. 

Meanwhile Greek printing had commenced in Milan with Constantine Lascaris' Grammar in 
1476 and had continued apace especially in the Venetian printing house of Aldus Manutius 
from 1494 to 1515. He published no fewer than twenty-seven editiones principes of Greek 
authors before the sack of Rome in 1527 that effectively brought an end to the revival of 
learning in Italy. 104 

By that time the enthusiasm for Greek classical studies had passed beyond the Alps into the 
north of Europe. However, it would be nearly a century before a printing press would be 
brought into Constantinople, and then it was through the ingenuity of that remarkable 
Cretan, the "Protestant Patriarch" Cyril Lucar, an eager patron of up-to-date thought. 

In 1627 he managed to provide the Patriarchate with a Greek printing press which he procured 
from England. 105 It proved to be a great asset for Greek learning during the short period 
that the Turks permitted its existence. The establishment of the press was to provide more 
plentiful books for the Greek boys so that they were less dependent on Jesuit 
establishments. To procure books Cyril had agents abroad to collect them for him. One, 
a young Greek from Cephalonia called Nicodemus Metaxas, while visiting his brother in 
London, saw that he had set up a small printing-house for the benefit of the Greeks in 
London. In June 1627 Metaxas arrived in Constantinople with his equipment and packing 
cases filled with books, much to the delight of the Patriarch Cyril. In order to get the 
materials through customs he prevailed upon the English Ambassador Sir Thomas Roe for 
assistance. With the cooperation and aid of the Dutch ambassador, he got the materials 
through customs. The ambassador was unenthusiastic about having the press set up in the 
Embassy, so it was installed in a house nearby. At once, under the guidance of Cyril, the 
press began to issue theological works in Greek; most of them, however, were anti-Roman 

The press, however, had a short life. The Catholics were not pleased with what it turned out. 
Pope Urban VIII had just a year before set up a Greek press in Rome. With Cyril issuing 
anti-Roman tracts, the Congegatio de Propaganda Fide in Rome was convened, and they 
determined that Cyril's press must be stopped at all costs. They sent a Greek Catholic, 
Canachio Rossi, to try to lure Cyril over to a friendlier attitude; but his efforts were in 
vain. So they devised another plan to destroy the print shop. One of the tracts printed by 
Metaxas was a short and ironical piece on the Jews written by Cyril himself. It contained 
an incidental passage noting Muslim dogmas that were unacceptable to Christians. The 
Jesuits obtained a copy, took it to the French Ambassador, the Counte de Cesi, who 
underlined the passage and then presented it to the Grand Vizier. The Ambassador said 

104 An interesting exhibition highlighting the contributions made by the Greek emigres to Italy during the 

fifteenth century was mounted by Robert G. Babcock and Mark L. Sosower: Learning from the 
Greeks: An Exhibition commemorating the Five-Hundredth Anniversary of the Founding of the Aldine 
Press; New Haven, Connecticut: Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, 1994. 

105 For the history of Greek printing in Constantinople, see R. J. Roberts, The Greek Press at 

Constantinople in 1627 and its Antecedents; London: The Bibliographical Society, 1967. 

Page 53. 

that he thought the press was being used to print false versions of the Vizier's decrees. 
Immediately the Vizier sought not only the arrest of Metaxas but also evidence that his 
work was treasonous. So he sent out his Janizaries on the Feast of the Epiphany in the 
afternoon of the 6 th of January 1628 when there was to be a dinner at the English embassy 
in the Patriarch's honor. 

When the Janizaries broke into the print shop to arrest Metaxas, he was not to be found. 
When just a few minutes later they saw him walking down the street in the company of 
the secretary at the English Embassy, they were astonished that this elegant gentleman in 
an English suit was their quarry. In frustration and anger they destroyed the press and 
carried off fragments of manuscripts and cases of type. 

The press was out of action, but Ambassador Roe demanded an interview with the Vizier and 
shouted at him for insulting a friendly power and reminded the Vizier that it was that he 
who had granted permission for the press to be imported. Furthermore, the Grand Mufti 
had pronounced the tract as harmless. As a result, the men who had deceived the Vizier — 
three Jesuit brothers and Canachio Rossi— were imprisoned. When the French 
Ambassador, the Comte de Cesi, came to raise a protest, the Vizier would not receive him, 
but rather sent a deputy, the Grand Kaimakam who told him that if he could not behave as 
an Ambassador it would be best for him to leave the country. Some two months later all 
Jesuits were expelled from the Sultan's dominions. 106 

Gift of Adelaide D. Clark, November 1979. 

MS. 86. Menaion for September. Parchment; cm. A.D. 1100. 

The menaion is the companion volume to the menalogion. The latter is the one with the long 
stories of the lives of the saints and the former contains the additional liturgical outline of 
the materials appropriate to the day that will be used in the service whether for Vespers 
(Hesperinos), Matins (Orthros) or the Divine Liturgy. Duke Greek Ms. 86 contains the 
liturgical instruction, poems, and even short vitae for the Saints for the 5 th — Zacharias, the 
father of John the Baptist; 12 th - and 13 th of September and the 1 st and 2 nd of October. 

The condition of this little manuscript is evidence of the importance in daily use that they 
served among the larger library of liturgical books for the immovable feasts of the Church 

Acquired from Bernard M. Rosenthal, Inc., Booksellers, 
San Francisco, California, 29 th August 1983. 

106 Steven Runciman, The Great Church in Captivity: A Study of the Patriarchate of Constantinople from the 
Eve of the Turkish Conquest to the Greek War of Independence (Cambridge: The University Press, 
1968), pp. 222 ff., and 269 ff. 

Page 54. 

Cabinet 7. 

The Monastic Life— Community and Obedience 

MS. 8. Monk's Book— Manual and Guide for the Conduct 
of a Member of the Monastic Community. XVT™ Cen- 
tury. 13 8 ff. 

Monks often copied out selections both as a matter of devotional practice and for their own 
private use. What they collected for their own private prayers often reflects their spiritual 
journey and aspirations. This little book, about whose origins we know very little, was 
purchased in 1947. It is one such example of "private bookmaking" and serves as a manual 
and guide for the conduct of a member of a monastic community. Certainly the original 
owner— and there appear to have been several who contributed to its contents — was a 
member of a community, for a note on page 34 reads: "Yet we have need of a careful watch 
over this holy monastery." Which community? It is easy to speculate that it came from 
St. Catherine's on Mt. Sinai if we interpret rightly the following blessing: 

Xatpe opoq. x°up e Pate. X a ^P e *n&Tl. X°^P e K\iual; 
Xatpe 9eia ipajte^a xov ^oyoij. xoiipe fi tavxcov [JoriOetor 

Hail, mountain; hail, bush; hail, gateway; hail, ladder 
Hail, sacred table of the Word, hail, the Help of all. 

The mountain may mean Sinai; the bush may refer to Moses' burning bush which according to 
tradition is enclosed within the walls of St. Catherine's. "Gateway" is vague, perhaps a 
reference to the entrance — Sublime Entrance to a life of holiness? "Ladder" would likely 
mean John Climacus, an early saint associated with St. Catherine's who portrayed his 
precepts as rungs of a ladder leading to heaven; the "sacred table of the Word" may be a 
reference to the tablets of stone which Moses brought down to the Israelites. However 
"Sacred table" is such a common designation for the gathering of the community to eat 
after services that any different meaning is to be used with caution. Taken together, 
however, the evidence points to St. Catherine's on Mt. Sinai. 107 

It contains Liturgy and Prayers (pp. 3-34), Instructions for Confession and Penance (pp. 70- 
128); Synodic and Apostolic Canons of St. Basil the Great and other Saints (pp. 121-254); 
and Miscellaneous Documents and Admonitions concerning Ordination (pp. 255-276). In 
the latter section there is a letter of endorsement for one to be ordained a priest and a later 
hand has written: "In the year 1746, May 2, Elachestos Gerasimos became a monk, and I 
witness to his spirit that he is worthy of the priesthood... ." There follows certain other 
instructions if the conduct of a monk or priest is unbecoming, for example, "Concerning a 

The book was the subject of a Master's Thesis at Duke in 1953 by John V. Chamberlain. 

Page 55. 

Priest or Deacon if he Sins to the Extent of a Kiss" and "Concerning a Priest, or a Layman 
who wishes to be a Priest, whose Wife commits Adultery." 


MS. 50. Nicolaus Cabasilas. The Christian Life, etc. Paper, 
XV™ Century. 201^ 

This collection of six writings by Nicolas Cabasilas (d. 1371), John of Damascus, and Gregory 
of Nyssa is a mixture of ascetic and spiritual writings that would have been commonplace 
within the monastic community. The contents are as follows: Six Treatises on the 
Christian Life, by Nicolas Cabasilas, and his treatise "Against Usurers"; Three works by St. 
John of Damascus— "Elementary Introduction to the Faith" "Letter to the Archimandrite 
Jordanes about the Pharisee" and the first of his treatises "Against the Iconoclasts";and A 
Commentary on the Song of Songs, attributed to Gregory of Nyssa. 

The Byzantine mystical writer Nicolas Cabasilas (d. 1371) became Archbishop of Thessalonica 
in 1355. His work principally sets forth the Orthodox view of the three mysteries of 
Baptism, Confirmation, and the Eucharist as the means whereby spiritual union with 
Christ was to be achieved. From a much earlier period comes John of Damascus (ca. 675- 
ca. 749). He was born of a wealthy family in Damascus and the son of the chief 
representative or "Logothete" of the Christians to the Caliph. He succeeded his father in 
that position, but because of his faith was forced to retreat to the Monastery of St. Saba 
near Jerusalem where he became a priest. He was a strong defender of icons in the 
Iconoclastic Controversy which agitated the Greek Church from ca. 725 to 842, writing 
three discourses on the subject between 726 and 730. From an even earlier time comes 
Gregory of Nyssa (ca. 330-ca. 395), a younger brother of St. Basil the Great. After a 
temporary career as a rhetorician, he returned to his first vocation and entered the 
monastery founded by his brother. He was an ardent defender of the dogma of the church 
and is regarded as a thinker and theologian of great originality and knowledge, especially in 
Platonist and Neo-Platonist speculation. Among his exegetical and homiletical works is 
one on the Song of Songs. As expounded here and in his treatises on virginity, he develops 
the idea that by virginity the soul becomes a spouse of Christ. 

This manuscript has an interesting provenance, having passed through a number of owners 
beginning with the College de Claremont in Paris where it received the number 17. From 
there in 1763 it went into the collection of Gerard Meerman of The Hague as Manuscript 
No. 104. 108 Upon the death of Gerard Meerman, his son John sold the collection at public 
auction in 1824. 109 On that occasion, the largest portion of the Meerman Collection went 
to the famous English collector Sir Thomas Phillipps. This manuscript, however, did not 
go immediately into the possession of Phillipps, rather it passed into the collection of the 

108 For the account of the dispersal of the Meerman Collection and the perigrinations of its contents, see 
Guilelmus Studemund et Leopoldus Conn, Codices ex Bibliotheca Meermanniana Phillippici Graeci 
nunc Berloninenses, Berolini, MDCCCLXXXX. 

109 The sale was on the 8 th of June 1824 in which the manuscript was Lot 104. 

Page 56. 

Duke of Sussex whose bookplate is on the inside of the upper cover with the shelf mark 
VI. H. / lb. When the Duke's collection was sold in 1844, 110 Sir Thomas Phillipps 
purchased the manuscript. Upon the dissolution of that famous collection by Sotheby's 
over a long period of time, it was purchased on the 15 th /16 th June 1970 as Lot 1227 by the 
book dealer Alan G. Thomas of London. He offered it to Duke and by the IT 111 of June 
1971, it was Greek Ms. 50. 

Purchased from Alan G. Thomas, Bookseller, London, on 10 May 1971. 

MS. 42. Parthenios IV, Mogilalos or Choumchoumes, or 
the "Stutterer." Sentence of Deposition composed by 
Balasses the Sacristan of the Great Church and 
pronounced by the synod upon parthenius iv 
Mogilalos. Paper, copied in A. D. 1735 by Loldovtkios 


Balasses was the Grand Ekklesiarches which corresponds to that of Sacristan or Master of 
Ceremonies in the West 111 . The epithet "Grand" was added in the fourteenth century 112 
and was preserved throughout the Ottoman period. The Grand Ekklesiarches signed 
synodical letters, tomoi, letters of credit and other such documents which emanated from 
the Patriarchal Chancellery. Balasses, or Balasios — or Palases the Byzantian 113 — appears 
variously during this period in the capacity of Grand Ekklesiarches, Grand Rhetor, Grand 
Chartophylax and as Grand Skevophylax. 114 

Parthenios IV, Mogilalos or Choumchoumes, 115 was called "mogilalos" or "choumchoumes," an 
impolite epithet for one who cannot speak plainly, likely one who stuttered or otherwise 
had some speech impediment. The name stuck and he is known either as "Mogilalos" or 
"Choumchoumes." He was consecrated bishop and assigned to the Metropolis of Prousa 
in January 1655. From there he was elevated to the Ecumenical Throne on 1 st of May 1657 
and remained Patriarch until his expulsive resignation on the 19 th of June 1662. 116 He then 

110 Sole as Lot 127 on the 31 st of July 1844. 

111 R. L. Langford James, A Dictionary of the Eastern Orthodox Church (London, 1930), p. 50. 

112 Constantine Fvhalles, "Flepi tot) afy.ii>\iaxoc, tot) eKK^.T|cnapxot>," TIpaKziKa Tf\g' AKa8r\iiiag' AQr\vw, 

Vm (1933), 306-311. 

113 Constantine Sathas, MeoawviKr) BlpAloOrJKTI, JH (Venice, 1872), 488. 

114 Nomikos Michael Vaporis, Some Aspects of the History of the Ecumenical Patriarchate in the seventeenth 

and eighteenth Centuries— a Study of the Ziskind Ms. No. 22 of the Yale University Library ("The 
Archbishop Iakovos Library of Ecclesiastical and Historical Sources," No. 1) (New York: Greek 
Orthodox Archdiocese of North and South America, 1969), pp. 27ff. 

115 Manouel Gedeon, TlaxpiapxiKai nivaKsg (Constantinople, 1890), p. 587. 

116 Germanos, Metropolitan of Sardeis, "£i>n(k>A.f| eic, touc, ilatpiapxiKOtx; KataXoyoui; Kcovatavrivo'u- 

jtotetoc, goto thc,' aXibozwc, Kai eijnc,," 'OpdoSolgia XI (1936), 133-34; Gennadios, Bishop of Helioupolis, 
0corieiog Bif)AiodrJKri rjroi eniaripa Kai iSianiKa eyypafya Kai aXXa pvrifiela axetiKa npog rr)v 
ioxopiav rov oiKOVfieviKov natpiapxeiov Kai yeviKav Kai eidiKav npoXeyopevwv (Constantinople, 

Page 57. 

returned to Prousa as proedros (Administrator). 117 As proedros of Prousa, Parthenios 
traveled a great deal in Wallachia, but returned to Constantinople in time to become 
Patariarch again on the 21 st of October 1665. He remained until the 9 th of September 
1667 118 when he was expelled and exiled to the island of Tenedos in the Aegean Sea. To 
sustain himself, he was appointed the administrator of Proilavo (Braila in Romania) and 
later of Tirnovo. 119 Upon his expulsion in September, Parthenios' successor was Clement, 
Metropolitan of Iconion, who forced his way to the Patriarchal throne on the 9 th of 
September 1667. He was not acceptable, however, to the other metropolitans and was 
consequently expelled in a matter of days. 120 After the patriarchal throne was vacant for 
four months, Methodios lH Morones (Metropolitan of Heraclea) became Patriarch. 
Methodios served from the 5 th of January 1668 until the beginning of March 1671 121 , i.e., 
until Parthenios succeeded in regaining the Patriarchal dignity for the third time. 
However, he was expelled six months later on the 7 th of September 1671, anathematized 
and exiled to Rhodes. 122 Sent into exile again, Parthenios attempted to escape but was 
apprehended and banished to Cyprus. On the 10 th of November 1674 Parthenios was 
appointed proedros of Adrianople. Two months later, he became Patriarch for the fourth 
time and remained in office until the 29 th of July 1676. 123 Expelled once more, Parthenios 
was appointed proedros of Anchialos on the \T of December 1676 and on the 24 ,h of 
November 1677, proedros of Adrianople. On the 10 th of March 1684, Parthenios became 
Patriarch for the fifth and last time. He retained the position until March of the next 
year. 124 

Between 1 May 1657 and March 1685, Parthenios was Ecumenical Patriarch five times. His 
ecclesiastical chronology is as follows: 

Metropolitan of Bursa, January 1655 - April 1657 
Ecumenical Patriarch, 1 May 1657 - 19 June 1662 
Proedros of Bursa, after 19 June 1662 
Ecumenical Patriarch, 21 October 165 - 9 September 1667 
Proedros of Proilavo (Braila), after 9 September 1667 
Proedros of Tirnovo, after Proilavo 
Ecumenical Patriarch, March 1671 to 7 September 1671 
Proedros of Adrianople, 10 November 1674 
Ecumenical Patriarch, 1 January 1675 to 29 July 1676 
Proedros of Anchialos, 17 December 1676 to ? 
Proedros of Adrianople, 24 November 1677 
Ecumenical Patriarch, 10 March 1684 to March 1685 

1933)-1935), I, 212; V. Grumel, La Chronologie ("Traite d'etudes byzantines, Bibliotheque 
byzantine," edited by Paul Lemerle et al. Paris: Presses universitaires de France, 1958), p. 438. 

117 Meletios, Metropolitan of Athens, ' EKKkriaiaariKi) taxopia nepiex<ov rfjg £KKXr\owcniKf\c, iaropiag 

tt)v dKoXoi>&r]0~iv and tovg x i ^' ov ? SiaKoaiovg Spovovg rfjg rov Xpioxov revvrjaemg ecog tovg 
%Movg exTdKOoiovg, edited by G. Vendonotis, HI (Vienna, 1784), 467; Gedeon, fflvaiceg. p. 587. 

118 Gennadios, <Pa>rieiog, I, 212; Gedeon, TlivaKeg, p. 592. 

119 Gedeon, TlivaKeg, p. 592. 

120 Germanos, EunPoA,T|, p. 167. 

121 Grumel, p. 438; Germanos, Eup.poXf|, p. 167. 

122 Germanos, Su|ipoA.T|, p. 168. 

123 Grumel, p. 439; cf. Germanos, £u^PoA.r|, p. 361 and Gennadios, @anieiog, I, 213. 

124 Gennadios, 0mtieiog, I, 214. 

Page 58. 

The manuscript first appears in the collection of the Honorable Frederic North, fifth Earl of 
Guilford and contains his ex libris. In the sale of the Guilford Collection on 8 December 
1830, it was Lot 549 and bought by Payne and Foss, great purveyors of manuscripts to Sir 
Thomas Phillipps. Sir Thomas Phillipps bought it shortly thereafter and it became Pillipps 
Ms. 7760. When the Phillipps Collection was dissolved by auction at Sothebys (25 June 
1967; lot 636, N. S. Part HI), it was purchased by Alan G. Thomas, London bookdealer 
who offered it in his Catalogue 19, item 19. Duke acquired it on 17 October 1967. 

Gift of Kenneth Willis Clark on the 17™ of October 1967. 

MS. 71. DOROTHEUS OF Gaza, Auackaaiai Wy^w^exeig 


Dorotheus is a sixth-century ascetical writer who entered a Palestinian monastery near Gaza 
when he was influenced by the work of Barsanuphius, who wrote a work against the errors 
of Origen and Evagrius. Later he founded a monastery of his own of which he became the 
Abbot. As instructions for his monks, he wrote the treatise AuACK^A-iaa TY^u^eAeic, on 
the ascetic life. Among the priorities of the monastic life for Dorotheus is humility that he 
actually regarded above that of love; he believed that humility was the cement that held 
together the other holy virtues. Having drawn many of his ideas from the early Fathers, 
his work is an important source for the study of their writings. 

Although containing writings primarily from the Didascalia of Dorotheus, the manuscript also 
contains a short life of Dorotheus 125 and includes ascetic writings by Gregory of Nazianzus, 
Archbishop of Constantinople, and St. Basil's homilies on fasting, selfishness, and envy. 

Acquired from Bernard Quarttch on the 1 st of November 1977. 

125 See "Vie de l'Abbe Dosithee Ilepi toO ' APfkS Aoai6eov>," Orientalia Christiana, XXVI. 1 (No. 77; April 
1932), 102-123. 

Page 59. 

A Summary Descriptive List 


Clark Collection of Greek Manuscripts 

GREEK MS. 1. NEW TESTAMENT WITH COMMENTARY. Parchment; at. A. D. 1200. 198 ff.; 
1 col. (251 x 186 mm), 41-52 lines. 306 x 227mm. Order of the books: Gospels, Acts, 
James, Pauline Epistles, General Epistles (except for James), the Apocalypse. Commentary 
on all books except the Apocalypse. Provenance: Kosinitza. Gregory-Aland 1780. 

GREEK MS. 2. EVANGELION with daily readings. Paper; 17th century. 312 ff. including 55 
blank; 1 col. (170 x 108 mm), 25 lines(194 x 137 mm). In 12's, except for signature era with 
14, iota with 10 and/if with 14. Gregory- Aland / 1619. Provenance: Venice. 

227 ff. 1 col. (153 x 90 mm), 27 lines. 225 x 163 mm. Acts, General Epistles, Pauline Epistles 
with Hebrews between II Thessalonians and I Timothy. Gregory- Aland 2423. 

GREEK MS. 4. MARK. Parchment; ca. A. D. 1300. 1 f.; 1 col.(152 x 123 mm), 22 lines. 225 x 
163 mm. A single leaf containing the first fourteen verses of the Gospel of Mark, with a 
portrait of the Evangelist. Gregory-Aland 2268. 

GREEK MS. 5. TETRAEVANGELION. Parchment; XIII Century. 184 ff.; 1 col.(128 x 98 mm.; 
however, ff. ll-166 v , the Matthew portion of the manuscript, has writing space of 137 x 95 
mm), 21-28 lines; 195 x 145 mm. Order of the Books: Mark, Luke, John, Matthew. 
Gregory-Aland 2612. 

GREEK MS. 6. TETRAEVANGELION. Parchment; XI Century. 321 ff.; 1 col.(120 x 80 mm) 18 
lines. 180 x 144 mm. Gregory-Aland 2613. 

GREEK MS. 7. TETRAEVANGELION. Parchment; XIH Century. 272 ff.; 1 col.(130 x 100 
mm), 20 lines. 202 x 150 mm. Gregory-Aland 2614. 

GREEK MS. 8. LITURGICAL MISCELLANY, or "Monk's Book." Paper; first half of XVI 
Century. 138 ff.; 1 col.(I. ff. 3-34: 110 x 72 mm., 14 lines; LL ff. 35-128: 105 x 65 mm., 15 
lines; HI. ff. 131-138: 120 x 68 mm., 16 lines). 137 x 105 mm. Provenance: Mt. Sinai? 
Liturgical directions and prayers with a long discussion of the proper conduct of priests 
and monks. 

Page 60. 

GREEK MS. 9. LITURGY OF ST. BASIL. Parchment; XIII Century. Scroll, with writing on 
both sides. The lines run transversely, not in columns. 210 mm x 1.920 m. Original 
length was approximately 3 meters. The beginning and end are wanting. Writing space: 
1 10 mm. One column runs the length of the scroll. 

GREEK MS. 10. EVANGELION. Parchment; XII Century. 181 ff.; 2 col., 23-24 lines. 265 x 
192 mm. Gregory-Aland / 1965. 

GREEK MS. 11. STICHERARION. Portion of the liturgy for July 20, Elijah the Tishbite. 
Paper (sized and burnished), ca. 1600. 1 f.; 1 col. (140 x 100 mm), 24 lines with words and 
music alternating. 202 x 137 mm. 

GREEK MS. 12. EVANGELION. Parchment; ca. A. D. 1100. 224 ff. with 4 ff., paper added at 
the end. 2 cols. (232 x 170 x 74 mm), 29 lines. 330 x260 mm. Gregory-Aland / 1966. 

GREEK MS. 13. MENAION FOR APRIL. Parchment; XII Century. 155 ff.; 1 col.(160 x 100 
mm), 21 lines. 221 x 158 mm. 

GREEK MS. 14. LITURGY OF ST. BASIL. Parchment; ca. A. D. 1500. Scroll, with writing on 
both sides. The lines run transversely, not in columns. 270 mm x 5.380 m. The beginning 
and the end are wanting. 

GREEK MS. 15. TETRAEVANGELION. Parchment; XII Century. 248 ff.; 1 col.(130 x 106 
mm), 17 lines. 202 x 154 mm. Gregory-Aland 2615. 

GREEK MS. 16. TETRAEVANGELION. Parchment; XII Century. 280 ff.; 1 col, 21 lines. 177 
x 129 mm. Gregory-Aland 2616. 

272 ff.; 1 col.(102 x 62 mm), 16 lines. 160 x 115 mm. 

GREEK MS. 18. MENOLOGION FOR DECEMBER 4-13. Parchment; XII Century. 214 ff.; 2 
cols.(240 x 165 x 75 mm). 30 lines. 318 x242 mm. 

AND GREGORY (THE PRESANCTIFIED). Parchment; XII Century. 251 ff.; 1 col.(160 x 100 
mm), 19-27 lines. 230 x 154 mm. 

GREEK MS. 20. EUCHOLOGION. Parchment; XH Century. 2 ff.; 1 col.(150 x 90 mm), 18-23 
lines. 225 x 150 mm. Fragmentary copy containing five prayers for various occasions. 

GREEK MS. 21. Michael Psellus (ca. A. D. 1019-G4. 1078), Commentary on the Song 

OF SONGS (1:1-6:8). XVI Century (before 1588). 80 ff.; 1 col.(120 x 70 mm) 16-18 lines. 
146 x 110 mm. 

GREEK MS. 22. TETRAEVANGELION. A single leaf containing Matthew xxii. 31-xxiii.lO. 
Parchment; XH Century. 1 f.; 1 col. (180 x 130 mm), 24 lines. 262 x 204 mm. Gregory- 
Aland 2492 (formerly 2617). 

Page 61. 

Century. 366 ff., each leaf composed of two thin sheets pressed together; 1 col., 21 lines. 
210 x 150 mm. A Series of Homilies for 36 Sundays, based on the lectionary texts. 

GREEK MS. 24. EVANGELION. Parchment; XI Century. 241 ff. (ff. 1-230 parchment and ff. 
231-241 paper); 2 cols.(180 x 58 mm), 20 lines. 246 x 185 mm. Gregory-Aland / 1967. 

GREEK MS. 25. TETRAEVANGELION. Parchment; ca. A. D. 1100. 235 ff.; 1 col.(140 x 80 
mm), 25 lines. 225 x 149 mm. Gregory-Aland 1813. Provenance: Trebizond. 

GREEK MS. 26. ANASTASIMATARION. Paper; XDC Century. 96 ff.; 1 col.(162 x 85 mm) 28 
lines (14 lines of text and 14 lines of musical notation, interlinear). 223 x 160 mm. 

GREEK MS. 27. EVANGELION. Parchment, XII Century. 5 ff.; 2 cols. (172 x 110 x 48 mm), 
28 lines. 225 x 153 mm. Gregory- Aland / 2144. 

GREEK MS. 28. EVANGELION. Paper; XVI Century. 232 ff.; 2 cols.(198 x 128 x 55 mm), 28 
lines. 225 x 153 mm. Gregory-Aland / 648. 

GREEK MS. 29. LITURGICAL MISCELLANY. Paper; dated October 13, 6920 (i. e., A. D. 1411), 
Indiction 5. 232 ff.; 1 col.(95/105 x 75 mm), 14-15 lines. 140 x 106 mm. 

GREEK MS. 30. ARISTOTLE, ORGANON. Paper; ca. A. D. 1500. 209 ff.; 1 col.(ff. 1-85, 122- 
208: 212 x 110 mm., 30 lines; ff. 86-121: 215 x 117 mm., 31 lines). 175 x 195 mm. Greek 
minuscule hand by two copyists: I. ff. 1-85, 122-208 by Damianos Guidotes; II. ff. 86-119 
by an unidentified scribe working under the auspices of Damianos. In addition to 
Aristotle's Organon, this volume includes Porphyry's Isagoge, the Categories, Interpretation, 
Prior Analytics, Posterior Analytics, Topics, and Sophistical Refutations. 

GREEK MS. 31. TETRAEVANGELION. Parchment; XEI Century. 147 ff.; 1 col.(140 x 100 
mm) 20 lines. 196 x 155 mm. Gregory-Aland 2766. 

GREEK MS. 32. St. John Chrysostom, Homiles to the People of Antioch about 
THE STATUES. Parchment; XII Century. 160 ff.; 2 cols.(215 x 165 x 70 mm), 25 lines. 296 
x 232 mm. 

GREEK MS. 33. Liturgies of Ss. Basil, Chrysostom, and Gregory (the 

PRESANCTIFIED). Paper (burnished), XV century. 151 ff.; 1 col.(100 x 55 mm), 12 lines. 
145 x 105 mm. 

GREEK MS. 34. PSALTERION WITH ODES OF MOSES. Parchment; ca. A. D. 1200. 106 ff.; 1 
col., 20 lines. 212 150 mm. Including the liturgy for vespers. 

GREEK MS. 35. LlTURGIAL MISCELLANY. Paper; XV century. 256 pp.; 1 col.(165 x 96 mm), 
21-23 lines. 206 x 136 mm. Italian provenance. 

Page 62. 

GREEK MS. 36. Miscellaneous Sermons of Ss. Gregory Nazianzus, Basil, and 

ATHANASIUS FOR THE MONTH OF OCTOBER. Paper; XVI Century. 308 ff.; 1 col. (145 x 
90 mm), 23 lines. 220 x 140 mm. 

PRESANCTIFIED). Paper; 1634. 96 ff.; 1 col.(130 x 75 mm), 15 lines. 214 x 155 mm. 

GREEK MS. 38. TetRAEVANGELION. Parchment; ca. A. D. 1100. 272 ff.; 1 col.(190 x 124 
mm), 26-27. 265 x 187 mm. Gregory-Aland 2757 (formerly 2861). 

GREEK MS. 39. EVANGELION. Paper (burnished), 1627, by the scribe Luke Buzae, the 
"ungarovlachian" under the auspices of the secretary Antonios for the Voivode Radu of 
Walachia. 260 ff.; 2 cols.(2 70 x 160 x 72 mm), 26 lines. 200 x 272 mm. Gregory-Aland / 
2138. Provenance: Walachia. 

ICONOCLASTS. Paper; ca. A. D. 1500. 176 ff.; 1 col.(245 x 130 mm), 32 lines. 322 x 238 
mm. Provenance: Italy. 

GREEK MS. 41. LITURGICAL MISCELLANY. Paper; XV (Part I), XVI/XVH (Part IT). 209 ff.; 
1 col.) Part I: 84 x 55 mm.; 14 lines; Part II: 90 x 62 mm.; 13-15 lines). 90 x 62 mm. 
Prayers and hymns: I. Prayers for the morning office throughout the week; II. Prayers and 
hymns by "wise and notable men who flourished after the capture of Constantinople. " 


the Great Church and pronounced by the Synod against Parthenios IV 

1735 by Loidovikios Ioannikos (f. 125 v ). 148 ff.; 1 col.(122 x 64 mm), 18 lines. 162 x 114 

GREEK MS. 43. EVANGELION. Parchment; XHI Century. 1 f.; 2 cols.(185 x 110 x 50 mm), 
33 lines. 228 x 154 mm. The leaf contains portions of the readings for June 24 (Luke i.59- 
80)-June 25 (Matthew xvi. 13-18). Gregory-Aland / 2145. 

PRESANCTIFIED). Paper; XV Century. 77 ft.; 1 col.(148 x 90 mm), 15 lines. 208 x 150 

GREEK MS. 45. STICHERARION. Paper; XVH Century. 176 ff.; 1 col.(160 x 90 mm) 30 lines 
(15 of text and 15 of music). 210 x 143 mm. 

GREEK MS. 46. HYMNS IN HONOR OF THE THEOTOKOS. Parchment; XII Century. 7 ff.; 1 
col. (178 x 150 mm), 30 lines 240 x 200 mm. The hymns are for Thursday, Friday and 
Saturday of the "Second Week. " 

BEATITUDES (I-VII). Paper; XVI Century, 49 ff., 1 col.(222 x 122 mm), 24 lines. 311 x 214 
mm. Provenance: Italy. 

Page 63. 

GREEK MS. 48. An Inquiry into six Problems of Logic, with an introduction 

col, 29-30 lines. 212 x 156 mm. 

GREEK MS. 49. ON CURRENCY, WEIGHTS, AND MEASURES. Paper; Paris, 5 February 1660; 
transcribed by Samuel Tennulius from a manuscript in the Bibliotheque Nationale. 

GREEK MS. 50. Nicholaus Cabasilas (ca. A. D. 1371) and St. John of Damascus 

(CA. A. D. 675-G4. 749), VARIA. Paper; XV Century. 201 ff.; 1 col., 29 lines. 318 x 211 
mm. Containing De Vita in Cbristo, with Contra feneratiores; De institut. elementari, De 
Hymno Trisagion, and Comment, in Cant. Cant, by Cabasilas, and De Imaginibus Oratio I 
of St. John of Damascus. 

Paper; XVLTI Century. 20 ff.; 1 col., 20-21 lines. 198 x 158 mm. Transcribed from a 
manuscript in the Bibliotheque Nationale by Tcoctwei; "Icovac, 6 ' Etet)0Epio<;. Qohn Jonah 
the Free Man.) 

Paper; ca. A. D. 1470. 51 ff.; 1 col., 23 lines (double-spacing with intermittent linear glosses 
on some pages). 210 x 143 mm. 

GREEK MS. 53. Theophylact of Okhrid (fl. XI Century), Commentary on the 
GOSPEL OF JOHN. Paper; ca. A. D. 1540. 214 ff.; 1 col., 30 lines. 331 x 244 mm. 
Colophon on f. 212 v (in Greek and Latin); the Latin reads as follows: Anno Cbristi 
Servafnjtoris / 1573 / Nunc legeris agnovit Librum Claudius Naulotus Vallensis, et 
Avallonoeus, et / Haednus: CI. Naulot du Val Avallonois 

GREEK MS. 54. PINDAR (518-CA. 443 B. C), OLYMPIA. Paper; ca. A. D. 1490. 47 ff.; 1 col., 
18 lines. 211x140 mm. Provenance: Italy. 

GREEK MS. 55. PSALTERION. PSALTERAND ODES OF MOSES. Paper; A. D. 1434. 143 ff.; 1 
col. (145 x 80 mm), 21-23 lines. 204 x 138 mm. All before Ps. xvii (xviii): 13 wanting. 

GREEK MS. 56. Timothy, Patriarch of Constantinople (d. A. D. 517), 
Concerning Heretics who come to Church. Parchment; LX Century. 1 f.; 2 

cols.(250 x 170 x 75 mm), 33 lines. 338 x 249 mm. 

GREEK MS. 57. ST. BASIL (CA. A. D. 330-379), HOMILIES. Parchment; XLT Century. 4 ff.; 2 
cols. (250 x 170 x 80 mm), 30 lines. 290 x 205 mm. 

Parchment; ca. A. D. 1150. 3 ff.; 2 cols.(255 x 176 x 80 mm), 28 lines. 350 x 261 mm. 

Parchment; ca. A. D. 1200. 2 ff.; 2 cols.(245 x 165 x 70 mm), 33 lines. 317 x 245 mm. 

Page 64. 

GREEK MS. 60 (Codex Daltonianus). TETRAEVANGELION, with commentary. Parchment; ca. 
A. D. 1000. 352 ff., 1 col. with marginal commentary (235 x 160 mm), ± 21 lines. 290 x 
218 mm. Gregory-Aland 1423. Provenance: Kosinitza. 

Paper; A. D. 1682. 182 ff.; 1 col. 187 x 140 mm), 23 lines. 217 x 150 mm. Copied from 
Florence, Laurenziana Plut DC 28, of the X Century, between January 21 and February 13, 

Century. 15 ff.; 1 col.(151 x 91 mm), 43 lines. 208 x 138 mm. 

AND LEONTIUS OF JERUSALEM (D. A. D. 1190). Paper; XVII Century. 19 ff.; 1 c ol. (185 
x 105 mm), 30-35 lines. 210 x 139 mm. Provenance: Jesuit College de Clermont in Paris. 

GREEK MS. 63. BREVIARY IN GREEK AND HEBREW. The breviary in Greek and Hebrew 
consists of the latter half of the Divine Office. Parchment; XVI Century. 59 ff.; 1 col. (80 x 
55 mm), 8 lines. 131 x 87 mm. 

GREEK MS. 64. TETRAEVANGELION. Parchment; ca. A. D. 1300. 315 ff.; 1 col.(143 x 95 
mm), 24 lines. 179 x 140 mm. Gregory-Aland 2861. 

GREEK MS. 65. EVANGELION. Parchment; XI Century. 256 ff.; 2 cols.(182 x 108 x 47 mm), 
27 lines. 245 x 170 mm. Gregory-Aland / 1839. Presented by The Friends of Duke 
University Library in honor of Kenneth Willis Clark on the occasion of the naming of the 

GREEK MS. 66. Theodore Prodromus (ca. A. D. 1100-1170) and Aesop. 
Commentaries on the hymns of Cosmas of Jerusalem and John of Damascus by 
Theodore Prodromus; Anthology of excerpts from St. John Chrysostom; 

AND AESOP'S FABLES. Paper; not after A. D. 1254. 245 ff.; 1 col.(135 x 90 mm), 23-27 
lines. 176 x 120 mm. 

CaeSAREA, (FL. 648). The PHILOKALLA of Maximus is included along with SELECTIONS 
from Thalassius. Paper; ca. A. D. 1500. 29 ff.; 1 col.(260 x 140 mm), 31 lines. 332 x 214 

SERMON ON THE ANNUNCIATION. Paper; XVI Century. 65 pp. and 6 blank ff.; 1 col.(246 
x 148 mm), 35-39 lines. 277 x 205 mm. 

Page 65. 

GREEK MS. 69. ANTHOLOGIA GRAECA. Paper; transcribed by Richard Francois Philippe 
Brunck in Paris, A. D. 1769. 168 pp.; 276 x 233 mm. This anthology is a transcript of the 
743 epigrams of Paris: Cod. Reg. Gr. 2742, with variant readings and a few notes in Latin. 

POEMS. The Invective against the Emperor Julian is included among the sermons. 
Parchment; at. A. D. 935. 40 ff.; 2 cols.(207 x 149 x 65 mm), 26 lines. 334 x 230 mm. 

GREEK MS. 71. Ss. Dorotheus of Gaza (VI Century), Basil of Caesarea (ca. A. D. 
330-379), AND GREGORY NAZIANZUS (A. D. 329-389). Containing the Didaskaliai 
Psycbopbeleis (Doctrines 11-17, 19, 20-23) of Dorotheus, a life of Dorotheus, several 
sermons by St. Basil, and a homily by St. Gregory Nazianzus. Parchment; ca. A. D. 985. 
81 ff.; 1 col. (179 x 122 mm), 27 lines. 232 x 171 mm. 

GREEK MS. 72. LITURGY OF THE PresancTIFIED. Portion of the Liturgy of the 
Presanctified for Good Friday. Paper; XVI Century. 1 f.; 1 col., 17 lines, ca. 207 x 143 


and Gregory Thaumaturgus (d. ca. A. D. 270), inter alia. Homilies. Paper; 

late XTV Century. 136 ff.; 1 col. (162 x 95 mm), 31 lines. 220 x 138 mm. 

GREEK MS. 74. THEOTOKION. Paper; A. D. 1575. 148 ff.; 2 cols.(215 x 135 x 60mm), 30 
lines. 300 x 201 mm. 

COMMENTARY OF ISAAC AND JOHN TZETZES (CA. A. D. 1110 - 1180/1185). Paper; ca. A. 
D. 1500. 250 ff.; 1 col.(131 x 98 mm), 23 lines. 208 x 140 mm. 

GREEK MS. 76. LITURGICAL MISCELLANY. Paper; ca. A. D. 1510. 190 ff.; 1 col.(158 x 91 
mm), 15 lines. 190 x 142 mm. 

GREEK MS. 77. ST. JOHN CHRYSOSTOM, ECLOGUES. Paper; ca. A. D. 1500. 39 ff.; 1 
col.(190 x 147 mm), 25-31 lines. 243 x 191 mm. 

GREEK MS. 78. LITURGICAL MISCELLANY. Miscellaneous collection of liturgical documents 
and hymns with excerpts from decrees of the Councils also included. Paper; ca. A. D. 
1405. 165 ff.; 1 col.(207 x 155 mm), 30 lines. 290 x 213 mm. 


Thaumaturgus (d. ca. A. D. 270). Theological Miscellany. Paper; ca. A. D. 

1400. 313 ff.; lcol.(137x 92 mm), 22-23 lines. 190 x135 mm. 

GREEK MS. 80. MENOLOGION FOR MARCH. Paper; ca. A. D. 1500. 8 ff.; 1 col.(210 x 120 
mm), 25 lines. 290 x 195 mm. 

Paper; ca. A. D. 1500. 6 ff.; 1 col. 276 x 172 mm. 

Page 66. 

GREEK MS. 82. EVANGELION. Parchment; ca. A. D. 1200. 95 ff.; 2 cols.(260 x 171 x 70 mm), 
23-28 lines. 345 x238 mm. Gregory- Aland / 1623. 

GREEK MS. 83. EVANGELION. Paper; ca. A. D. 1450. 199 ff.; 2 cols.(205 x 127 x 54 mm), 28 
lines. 307 x212 mm. Gregory-Aland / 302. 

GREEK MS. 84. TETRAEVANGELION. Parchment; ca. A. D. 1150-74. 176 ff.; 1 col., 24-25 
lines. 210 x 166 mm. Gregory-Aland 2862. 

GREEK MS. 85. EVANGELION. Parchment; A. D. 1052. 242 ff.; 2 cols.(225 x 160 x 68 mm), 
22-23 lines. 303 x 224 mm. Written by Clement the monk who signed and dated the 
colophon on f. 242 v (in Greek): "Written in the month of July 20, indiction 5, year 6560 [i. 
e., A. D. 1052]; presented by Clement the worthless monk to the monastery of the most 
Holy Mother of God of the Cave. " Gregory- Aland / 451. 

GREEK MS. 86. MENAION FOR SEPTEMBER. Parchment; ca. A. D. 1100. 51 ff., 1 col.(166 x 
120 mm), 26 lines. 247 x 183 mm. 

GREEK MS. 87. STICHERARION. Paper; before A. D. 1750. 356 ff.; 1 col.(187 x 122 mm), 34 
lines (17 of text and 17 of music). 233 x 176 mm. 

GREEK MS. 88. MENAION. Parchment; ca. A. D. 1200. 244 ff.; 2 cols. 290 x 320 mm. 

GREEK MS. 89. EVANGELION. Parchment; XII Century. 1 f., 2 cols.(207 x 132; 1 col.: 207 x 
60 mm), 23 lines. 219 x 142 mm. The fore edge and tail have been trimmed along the 
vertical margins with the loss of a portion of the letters at the end of the line. The text 
begins in the middle of the readings for the fifth Sunday in Matthew (viii.31) and continues 
through the sixth and ends in the middle of the reading for the seventh Sunday at Matthew 
ix.3. Gregory-Aland / 241 1. 

GREEK MS. 90. EUCHOLOGION. Parchment and paper; XV - XVI Century. 88 ff. (ff. 1-3 of 
paper), 1 col. (155 x 99 mm), 22 lines (Within the main portion of the text the line numbers 
are consistent; however, they vary within the portions on paper). 203 x 149 mm. 
Although incomplete, this volume contains portions of the Liturgies of Ss. Basil, 
Chrysostom, and the Gregory (the Presanctified) in addition to supplementary prayers and 
scriptural texts. Stamped on the inside of both covers in gold within an ornamental shield 
is "Torre del Palasciano. " 

GREEK MS. 91. ABRAHAM EREMITA, VITA. Paper; XVI Century. 32 pp. 200 x290 mm. 

GREEK MS. 92. EVANGELION. Parchment; Xn/XLU Century. 276 ff., 2 cols.(194 x 160 
mm.; 1 col.: 194 x 68 mm), 20 lines. 278 x 218 mm. Gregory-Aland / 2412. 

GREEK MS. 93. EVANGELION. Parchment; ca. A. D. 1100. 158 ff., 1 col.(170 x 95 mm), 28 
lines. 207 x138 x51mm. Provenance: So. Italy. Gregory- Aland / 345. 

Page 67. 

GREEK MS. 94. PARACLETIKE AND TRIODION. Paper; XV. 266 ff.; 1 col., 28 lines. 184 x 
135 mm. The binding consists of heavily decorated repousse silver over leather with a fore 
edge flap attached to the lower cover and fastened with two slim chains to the upper cover. 
When closed, the flap covers the entire fore edge and creates the appearance of a silver box. 
The center of the upper cover is filled by a large panel (145 x 84 mm) of the Crucifixion. 
The corresponding portion on the back cover with the Coronation of the Virgin Mary, 
enthroned, holding the infant Jesus crowned by two angels. On the fore edge flap are four 
compartments with the symbols of the Evangelists. The spine is made of eight closely 
linked vertical rows of small, seashell-shaped metal components. 

col.(128 x 80 mm), 15 lines. 201 x 145 mm. 

AND Offices FOR ORDINATION. Paper; A. M. 7141, (i. e., A. D. 1633, by the scribe 
Isaiah). 95 ff., 1 col.(118 x 77 mm), 17 lines, 191 x 145 mm. The Liturgy of St. John 
Chrysostom, lacking several leaves at the beginning, is preceded by extracts of advice to 
young priests and followed by the Liturgy of the Pre-Sanctified and the rites for ordaining 
subdeacons, deacons, priests, and bishops. 

SANCTIFIED). Paper; 1580-1660. 84 ff.; 15 lines. 200 x 143 mm. 

GREEK MS. 98. ST. GREGORY OF NAZIANZUS (A. D. 329-389), HOMILIES. Parchment; XI 
Century. 68 ff.; 2 cols.(123 x 103 x 45 mm), 31 lines. 180 x 142 mm. 

New Testament Manuscripts by Gregory Number 126 



MS. 83 



MS. 93 



MS. 85 



MS. 28 

/ 1619 


MS. 2 



MS. 82 

/ 1839 


MS. 65 



MS. 10 



MS. 12 



MS. 24 



MS. 39 



MS. 27 



MS. 43 



MS. 89 



MS. 92 


New Testament. 

MS. 1 



MS. 60 



MS. 25 



MS. 4 



MS. 3 

2491 (formerly 2617) 


MS. 22 



MS. 5 



MS. 6 



MS. 7 



MS. 15 



MS. 16 

2757 (formerly 2861) 


MS. 38 



MS. 31 



MS. 64 



MS. 84 

Kurzgefafite Liste der griecbischen Handschriften des neuen Testaments. (2" 
neubearbeite und ergantze auflage) in Verbindung mit Michael Welte, Beate 
Koster, und Klaus Junack; bearbeitet von Kurt Aland ("Arbeiten zur 
neutestamentlichen Textforschung," I; Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1994). 

Page 69. 

Arrangement according to Date 

Dated Manuscripts 



MS. 85 


Prodromus and Aesop. 

MS. 66 


Liturgical Miscellany. 

MS. 29 



MS. 55 



MS. 74 



MS. 97 



MS. 95 



MS. 39 



MS. 96 



MS. 37 


On Currency. 

MS. 49 


Cosmos Indicopleustes. 

MS. 61 


Deposition and Nomocanon. 

MS. 42 



MS. 87 


Anthologia graeca. 

MS. 69 

Dates based on Palaeographical evidence. 

ca. 935 Gregory Nazianzus. MS. 70 

ca. 985 Dorotheus of Gaza, et al. MS. 71 

CA. 1100 EVANGELION. MS. 12 

CA. 1100 Tetraevangelion. MS. 25 

ca. 1100 Tetraevangelion. MS. 38 

ca. 1000 Tetraevangelion. MS. 60 

ca. 1100 Menaion for September. MS. 86 

CA. 1100 EVANGELION. MS. 93 

CA. 1150 CHRYSOSTOM. MS. 58 

ca. 1150-74 Tetraevangelion. MS. 84 

ca. 1200 New Testament. MS. l 

ca. 1200 Praxapostolos. MS. 3 

CA. 1200 PSALTERION. MS. 34 

CA. 1200 CHRYSOSTOM. MS. 59 

CA. 1200 EVANGELION. MS. 82 

ca. 1200 Menaion. MS. 88 

ca. 1300 Mark. MS. 4 

ca. 1300 Tetraevangelion. MS. 64 

ca. 1400 Theological Miscellany. MS. 79 

ca. 1405 Liturgical Miscellany. MS. 78 

CA. 1450 EVANGELION. MS. 83 


ca. 1490 Pindar, Olympia. MS. 54 

ca. 1500 Liturgy of St. Basil. MS. 14 

ca. 1500. Aristotle, Organon. MS. 30 

ca. 1500 St. Theodore of Studios. MS. 40 

ca. 1500 Maximus and Thalassius. MS. 67 

Page 70. 

CA. 1500 LYCOPHRONylI£A^ND^4. 

ca. 1500 Chrysostom, Eclogues, 

ca. 1500 Menaion for March, 

ca. 1500 Chrysostom, Selections, 

ca. 1510 Liturgical Miscellany, 

ca. 1540 Theophylact of Okhrtd. 

CA. 1600. Sticherarion. 

MS. 75 
MS. 77 
MS. 80 
MS. 81 
MS. 76 
MS. 53 
MS. 11 

Suggested Dates 



MS. 56 

XI C. 


MS. 6 

XI C. 


MS. 24 

XI c. 


MS. 65 

XI c. 

Gregory of Nazianzus. 

MS. 98 



MS. 10 


Menaion for April. 

MS. 13 



MS. 15 



MS. 16 



MS. 17 



MS. 18 



MS. 19 



MS. 20 


Tetraevangelion. A single leaf. 

MS. 22 



MS. 27 


Chrysostom, Homiles. 

MS. 32 


Hymns (Theotokarion). 

MS. 46 


Basil, Homilies. 

MS. 57 



MS. 89 



MS. 92 



MS. 5 



MS. 7 


Liturgy of St. Basil. 

MS. 9 



MS. 31 



MS. 43 

XV - XVI c. 


MS. 90 

XV c. 


MS. 33 

XV c. 


MS. 35 

XV c. 

Liturgical Miscellany. 

MS. 41 

XV c. 


MS. 44 

XV c. 

Cabasilas and John of Damascus. 

MS. 50 

XV c. 

Paraclettke and Triodion. 

MS. 94 

XVI c. 

Michael Psellus. 

MS. 21 

XVI c. 


MS. 28 

XVI c. 

Gregory Nazianzus, et al. 

MS. 36 

XVI c. 

Gregory of Nyssa. 

MS. 47 

XVI c. 

Liturgical Offices. 

MS. 62A 

XVI c. 

Breviary in Greek and Hebrew. 

MS. 63 

Page 71. 

XVI c. 

Germanius n. 

MS. 68 

XVI c. 


MS. 72 

XVI c. 

Liturgical Miscellany. 

MS. 8 

XVI c. 

Abraham Eremita. 

MS. 91 



MS. 2 


Maximos the Peloponeslan. 

MS. 23 



MS. 45 



MS. 48 



MS. 62B 


Hermogenes of Tarsus. 

MS. 51 

An Exhibition of Greek Manuscripts 
from the 

Kenneth Willis and Adelaide Dickinson Clark 

Duke University 
March 1999