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SIEBERT 

The Exodus of the Loyalists from 
Penobscot to Passanaquoddy 




Volume XVIII 



Number 26 



The 

Ohio State University 

Bulletin 



THE EXODUS OF THE LOYALISTS 

from 
Penobscot to Passamaquoddy 



Interna tigijatS^iaaou^ 




April, 1914 



PUBUSHED BY THE UNIVERSITY AT COIvUMBUS 

Entered as second-class matter Noveiiiber 17, 1905, at the postoffice 
at Columbus, Ohio, under Act of Congress, July 16, 1894 



THE EXODUS OF THE LOYALISTS 

from 
Penobscot to Passamaquoddy 
(With Map) 



Bv 

WILBUR H. SIEBERT, A. M 

Professor of European History 



Published bv 



The Ohio State University 
Cokimbus 

1914 



Copyrighted 19 14 

By 

WlI^BUR H. SlEBERT 



Contents 

I'AGE 

-^j The loss of old l''ort Powuall b}- the Americans 7 

\^^ The departure of Colonel Thomas Goldthwait 7 

The project of establishing a new military post on the Penob- 
scot S 

'\ , 

Knox's plan for a lo3'alist province between the Penobscot 

and the St. Croix S 

John Nutting and the British expedition to establish the 

A^ post 9 

y The unsuccessful siege of the new post b}' the Americans. . . 12 

The behavior of the local inhabitants during the siege 13 

Removal of American refugees to the post 14 

The missions of John Nutting and Dr. John Caleff to 

I{ngland 16 

The constitution proposed for the loyalist province 17 

The plan to settle the Penobscot country with loyalists from 

New York i >S 

The growth of the refugee population at Penobscot 19 

Refusal of the Americans to give up the Penobscot country 

at the peace 19 

w Removal of the loyalists from Penobscot to Passamaquoddy . . 20 

V^ vSurveyor General Robert Morse at Passamaquoddy 20 

Contention between Massachu.setts and the loyalists over the 

Passamaquoddy region 21 

The loj^alist settlement on St. Andrews Point, and its 

activities .. 23 

The town plot and grantees of vSt. Andrews 24 

Church and school at St. Andrews 25 

lixtent of the grants at Passamaquoddy to the Penobscot 

Associated Loyalists; the .settlements founded 27 

3 

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Page 

vSt. George's Town 28 

Settlements formed by loyalists from localities other than 

Penobscot 27 

The town of St. Stephen 28 

Settlements on the Digdeguash in the Parish of St. Patrick. 29 

Settlements on the lower Magaguadavic and the L'Etang. . . 29 
The settlement of the Royal Fencible Americans on the west 

side of the lower Magaguadavic 30 

The settlement of Pennsylvania Quakers at Pennfield 31 

The occupation of the small harbors east of Pennfield ... 32 
The settlement of the Cape Ann Association in the Parish of 

St. David 32 

The loyalist settlers on the Island of Grand Manan 33 

The loyalist settlers on the Island of Campobello 35 

The loyalist occupants and settlers of Deer Island ... .... 35 

Loyalist .settlers of the smaller i.slands 36 

The census of 1784; occupations of the .settlers 37 

Increase of the population to 1803 38 

Creation of the district court and the townships at 

Passamaquoddy 39 

The boundary dispute 4^ 

The boundary commission and its decision 4o 

Contention over the islands in Passamaquoddy Bay 42 

The island commission and its verdict 43 



The Exodus of the Loyalists from 
Penobscot to Passamaquoddy 

In September, 177S, the British government ordered General 
Clinton at New York to secure pose on the Penobscot River in 
Maine for the purpose of erecting a province to which loyal 
adherents of the Crown might repair.' An earlier post, Fort 
Pownall, which had occupied the bold, rocky promontory at 
Cape Jellison at the mouth of the Penobscot was no longer in 
existence, having been dismantled and burned by the militia 
under Colonel James Cargill in July, 1774. For eleven years 
previous to its destruction, the old colonial fort had been under 
the comiuand of Colonel Thomas Goldthwait, who by his com- 
pliance with an order from General Gage permitted a detachment 
greatl}^ outnumbering his own meagre garrison to carry off the 
cannon and spare arms of the fort, and thus incurred the censure 
of the Provincial Congress of Massachusetts Ba}^ the loss of his 
command, and virtual banishment. Colonel Goldthwait deserves 
a word of more extended notice on account of the important part 
he took in settling and developing the Penobscot \"alley. W' hile 
in command of Fort Pownall, he was appointed agent for a vast 
tract of land belonging to the Waldo heirs in that region. 
Later, in conjunction with Sir Francis Bernard, then governor 
of the province of Massachusetts Bay, he purchased a part of the 
Waldo Patent from General Jebediah Preble, and appears to 
have been chiefly instrumental in settling the Penobscot countr\' 
with a population which lie estimated at "more than 2,400 able 
men."- 

Colonel Goldthwait did not participate in establishing the 
new post at Penobscot, but remained in retirement there or at 
Castine until July, 1779. when he went aboard one of the frig- 
ates of the British fleet that entered Penobscot Ba}' to lay siege to 
Bagaduce. Taking passage on this vessel for New York after 

1. Report on tlic Am. il/ss. in tlic k'oy. Inst, of (,'. /hit., /, 2S4; 
Dorchester Collection, /, No. 7. 

2. Ale. Hist. Magazine, /A, 23, 18S, 254, 258, 273, 363; A', 94, 96. 

7 

1<: L-[ :i ] 



the success of the British expedition, he had the satisfaction of 
being borne to his destination by the ship that carried the good 
tidings to Ch'nton. It may be added that Mr. Goldthwait's stay 
in New York City lasted only from the early part of September to 
December 23, when he took his departure to England, there to 
remain during the rest of his life.' 

The project of planting a British force on the coast of Maine 
had long been cherished by William Knox, a Georgia loyalist, 
who was under-secretary in the Colonial Office in London. Knox 
argued that it would serve to distract the attention of the 
Americans from operations in other quarters, that as a military 
and naval base it would protect the country to the east from 
attacks by land and sea, and last, but not least, that it would 
form the center and bulwark for a new province for the friends 
of government, who were leaving the Colonies in ever increas- 
ing numbers, and were already flooding the home authorities 
with insistent claims for compensation.- Lord Germain, Knox's 
superior officer, was not ea.sily convinced of the advantage of the 
project, but at length was brought around, giving what was evi- 
dentl}^ his own chief reason for its approval when he wrote to Gov- 
ernor Haldimand at Quebec, April 16, 1779, that if the Kennebec, 
or even the Penobscot, were secured, it would keep open direct 
commimication between the Canadian capital and New York at all 
seasons, and so do away with the tediousness and delays in corre- 
spondence by way of Halifax. However, this explanation did 
not satisfy Haldimand, who still doubted the efficacy of the 
measure.-^ 

Meanwhile, Knox was anticipating with evident zest the suc- 
cess of an expedition yet to move against the coast of Maine, by 
arranging the details of the province that was intended to reach 
from the Penobscot River to the vSt. Croix, and become the Ca- 
naan of the refugee loyalists. "Lying between New England and 
'New Scotland' (Nova Scotia), it was to be christened New Ire- 
land, perhaps," a^> Batchelder suggests in his iliaminating stud}' 

1. Me. Hist. Jfagaziiie, A', 95, 96. 

2. Batchelder, yt)/;« Nutting, (Reprint from the Proceedings of the 
Cambridge Hist. See.) 74, 72. 

3. Can. Arch., /SS^, 302, 327. 

8 



of the subject,^ "in delicate reference to Knox's own national- 
ity." With manifest appropriateness, all of the oflficials of the 
proposed prov'ince were to be loj'alists of high repute, if not, in 
every case, of experience in administrative matters: thus, Thomas 
Hutchinson was to be governor, Daniel Leonard, chief justice, 
Dr. John CalefT, one of the leading tories of Penobscot, clerk of 
the council, and the Reverend Henry Caner, formerly of King's 
Chapel, Boston, bishop. Although Hutchinson was named as one 
of the beneficiaries of the scheme, he wrote from London that it 
was a "most preposterous measure," and that but few people 
there thought well of it. - 

However, as the measure already had the necessary official 
approval, it only remained to decide where the post should be 
located, and send out the expedition to establish it. These were 
important matters, to be sure, and the advice that proved con- 
clusive in regard to them came, strangely enough, from a 
carpenter of Cam])ridge, Massachusetts, who, having arrived in 
England in the fall of 1777, had succeeded in ingratiating him- 
self with Under-vSecretary Knox. This carpenter of surprising 
career was John Nutting, wdio rendered valuable service in his 
trade to the British in Boston before the evacuation, and in Halifax 
afterward. In the latter place, especially, he had found oppor- 
tunity to display his Yankee resourcefulness and ability as "Mas- 
ter Carpenter and Superintendent of Mechanics," and, despite 
the lack of skilled workmen, had performed the feat of erecting 
within a limited time "no less than ten large block houses, each 
mounting sixteen guns." In England, b}^ direct application to 
Lord North, he secured the appointment as overseer to the King's 
works at Landguard Fort in East Anglia. His isolation at this 
rather remote point on the coast of the North Sea did not prevent 
his visiting London occasionally, or keeping himself in the recol- 
lection and esteem of his patron of the Colonial Office. So it 
came about that he was called into consultation concerning the 
proposed expedition to the Maine coast. As Mr. Nutting had 
invested some years before in shore lots in what is now Castine, 
across Penobscot Bay and up the Bagaduce River, he must have 

r. Batchelder,yo//« Nutting, 74, 75. 

2. Hutchinson, Piaiy and Letters, II, 21S, 290, 291. 



l)eeii aware of the tjatural strength and well-recognized strategic 
advantages of that locality. WHien, therefore, he suggested Pe- 
nobscot as the best site for the new post, his qualit}' of "uncommon 
Loyalt}-," for which he had received deserved commendation in 
Halifax, was not being sacrificed to his self-interest, although the 
happy blend of the two must have pleased him in no small degree. 
His suggestion was adopted by the King's ministers, and Nutting 
was ordered to London to carry Germain's despatches to Clinton 
at New York, and accordingly set sail early in September, 1778. 
A fortnight out, his vessel, the government mail packet Harriet, 
was overtaken b}- an American privateer, the Veyigeancc, and 
Nutting, rid of his despatches which he sunk in the sea, but 
wounded in four places as he later testified, was taken prisoner 
with the other people on his ship. In less than two months, 
however, the King's messenger was again in London, having 
had the good fortune to be exchanged.' 

Undaunted, Mr. Nutting undertook a second voyage in Jan- 
uary of the next year, and after fourteen weeks on the ocean was 
able to hand detailed instructions to Clinton.- In compliance 
with these orders, the latter directed Brigadier General McLean 
at Halifax to carr^' into elTect the plan of fortifying a post on 
Penobscot River, and instructed him to prepare materials for a 
respectable work capable of accommodating three hundred or 
four hundred men. McLean was unable to comply fully with 
Clinton's instructions concerning the troops to be taken, but he 
made such substitutions as were necessary, and set out on the 
expedition at the end of May, 1779. He was accompanied by 
four hundred and forty men of the 74th Regiment under Lieu- 
tenant Campbell, and two hundred of the 82nd under Major Craig, 
his convoy comprising four men-of-war under Captain Andrew 
Barkley and the flagship Albany under Captain Henry Mowatt. 
He also took with him stores for nine hundred men, which would be 
the total number when the engineers .should be included. Nutting, 
who was to be employed as overseer of carpenters in building the 
fort, acted as pilot. On June 13, the expedition arrived at the 
mouth of the Penokscot, and after reconnoitering the river for 

1. Batchelder, John Xnfliiig^ 1^-11- 

2. Ibid., 77, 78. 



several da\s, the troops were disembarked on the little neck of 
land which had ijeen chosen for the fort. The most advanta- 
geous part of the peninsula being wooded, some time was spent in 
clearing it. There was also .some difficult}' in landing the ])ro- 
visions, which had to be rolled uj) a steep hill. These prelimi- 
naries were not completed until July 2, when the work on the 
fort began.' 

Contact with the local inhabitants di.sclosed the fact, as 
McL,ean wrote Clinton, that they "had been artfull>' led to believe 
that His Majesty's troops were accti-stomed to plunder and treat 
the Country where their operations led them with the greatest 
inhumanity." To remove that prejudice, the leaders of the 
expedition issued a proclamation extending clemenc}' to all who 
would take the oath of allegiance. This procedure so far restored 
confidence that about five hundred persons sub.scribed to the oath 
in the limited time allo«u'ed, although McLeau wrote that the 
number would have been considerably increased if he had been 
able to send to "some distant settlements the Inhabitants of which 
requested that indulgence from the impossibility' of all attending 
the places appointed."- The testimony of Colonel John Allen, 
the American superintendent of Indians in the Eastern Depart- 
ment, is of a confirmatory character. In a letter written at 
Machias, Maine, July 16, 1779, he states that most of the inhabit- 
ants at Penobscot had submitted and taken the oath of allegiance 
to the King after the capture of that place by the English. But 
his condemnation is partictilarly reserved for those east of the 
Penobscot, who had gone a distance to acknowledge themselves 
British subjects, including most, if not all, of the people at l^nion 
River, Nashkeag, and Deer Island, and two or three at French- 
man's Bay, and Goldsborough.-' Dr. Caleff tells us that about 
a hundred of those who were well disposed showed their good 
will by coming in on July i9 with their captain, John Perkins, 
and helping three days to clear the ground in front of the fort.'* 

1. Report 07i the Am. Mss. in the Roy. Inst, of C. /hit., /, 440, 441, 
458; Batchelder, John Nuttitig, 78; Report 011 the . hii. Mss. in the Roy. 
Inst, of G. Brit., //, 14. 

2. Ibid., /, 458. 

3. St. Croix Courier series, L. 

4. Caleff, Sieo;e of Penol^scot (IMs. in Harv. University Library); 
Batchelder, /cV/;/ Xuttin^, 79\ St. Croi.x- Courier series, LI. 



McLean explained that the attitude of the people to the east of 
Boston, who were in want and distress, seemed in general friendly, 
but that they were prevented from any marked demonstration by 
the threats of the enemy. Their open allegiance, he thought, 
could be won only when thej^ should be furnished a force strong 
enough to afford them complete protection in their persons and 
property. However, he had to admit the existence of a division 
of sentiment among the inhabitants, remarking that "numbers 
of young men of the country had gone westward, and attempts 
have been made to raise the people, tho hitherto without 
success."^ The force under McLean's command was certainly 
not large enough to inspire the remaining population with 
feelings of safety and reviving loyalty; but, small as it was, it 
was nevertheless reduced by the withdrawal of Captain 
Barkley with four of his warships in order to shield the coast of 
Nova Scotia against the threatening presence of nine American 
vessels, wdiich had recently been sighted in the offing. Thus, 
only the Albany was left to stand guard at the mouth of the 
Penobscot, the solitar}^ ship being in turn protected by a battery 
erected for that purpose. 

The fort was not yet half completed when the American fleet 
"to the number of thirt^^-seven sail of all sizes," with 2,600 
troops aboard, traversed Penobscot Bay, and laid siege to the 
place. On August 7, according to Caleff, the Americans 
scoured the country round for the loyal inhabitants, destroj-ed 
their movables, killed their cattle for meat, and, having captured 
a number of persons, imprisoned them aboard shij:).- For three 
weeks, McL,ean and his men held out, relief from Halifax failing 
to put in an appearance. On the morning of August 14, a party 
reconnoitering without the fort discovered that the Americans 
had abandoned some works which they had constructed, in their 
attempt to avoid a clash with the King's fleet, under the com- 
mand of Commodore Sir George Collier, which had opportuneh' 
arrived from New York. In desperation, the American fleet sailed 
up the Penobscot River, where the loyal inhabitants were released, 
and the shipping was .set on fire, while the enem3''s troops retreat- 

1. Report of the Ant. Mss. in the Roy. Inst, of G . Brit., /, 460, 462. 

2. St. Croix Courier series, LI . 

12 



ed in various directions without oi)])Osition.' Thus, CoUier's 
coming resulted in the destruction of the Americans' vessels and 
the dispersal of their land forces."-' Among the ships that went 
up in flames on the Penobscot flats was the privateer [ 'cnoeance, 
to which Mr. Nutting owed his capture when first he sailed from 
England with Germain's despatches for Clinton.-' 

No doubt some of the local inhabitants were recreant to 
their oath of allegiance. If so, McL,ean excused it on the score 
that they had been compelled to join the eneni}'; but he insisted 
that most of them had been employed in working for the Ameri- 
cans, "tho," he added, "some of them were in arms." Learning 
that a number of these people had withdrawn from their habita- 
tions with the intention of going to the westward, on account of 
the fear of the resentment of the Briti.sh, McLean issued a new 
proclamation in order to reassure them and "prevent the breaking 
up of the settlement."^ Collier, however, was more severe in his 
judgment of the recent conduct of the inhabitants. In a letter 
to Clinton, he denounced them as rebels who took an oath to the 
King one day and another to the Congress the next, and a.sserted 
that all had "a.ssisted the rebels in everything they could during 
the siege. "^' It would seem, however, that the denunciation of 
Commodore Collier was too sweeping in its character. It could 
.scarcely have been the case that those who placed themselves 
under the protection of the British post, and whose need of supplies 
was causing a shortage of provisions, had been guilty of the sort 
of double dealing charged against all the inhabitants b}^ the preju- 
diced Commodore.^ Moreover, Colonel Thomas Goldth wait, who 
had settled a large number of people in the Penobscot region, 
wrote to Clinton, October 2, 1779, urging the continued impor- 
tance of the post to the Crown: "If the present arrangement of 
his Majesty'stroops won't permit of a reinforcement there, at this 
time," sa3\s the refugee's letter, "I myself will undertake torai.se 

1. .sy. Croix Courier, series L. I. 

2. Report on the Am. /Ifss. i)i the Roy. Inst, of C . Brit., II, 15, i6,- 
Coltects. Me. Hist. Sac., Series If, I'. /, 391, 392. 

3 Batchelder, Joh// A'littiiio-, So. 

4 Report of the Am. Jlsy. in the Roy. Inst, of C Brit., II, 17. 

5 Ibid. 

6 //>/</., 66. 



a Battalion out of the militia of that country, which notwithstand- 
ing their seeming delinquency in their late unhappy situation, 
I'll pledge myself for it, that they will make as good subjects as 
an}' the King has got. 'Twas I, principally, yt settled them in 
that country; I commanded them, and I fully know their princi- 
ples, and have estate enough to carry into execution what I yiro- 
pose.""^ 

Even while the loyalt\- of these people was being thus favor- 
ably or unfavorably commented tipon, many friends of govern- 
ment were removing to this haven of refuge. McLean, who 
''eturned to Halifax at the close of November, 1779, wrote to 
Clinton from that place that a considerable number of inhabitants 
had taken refuge on the peninsula, that their distressed situation 
rendered it necessary that they be supplied with provisions from 
the King's stores, and that he proposed sending a further supply 
by the Albany to complete their stock to the end of May.^ Be- 
sides the people who were coming in from the immediate neigh- 
borhood, others were arriving from localities farther removed 
both in Maine and Massachusetts. One such party came from 
Falmouth under the guidance of a tory named Baum, who was 
afterwards captured by the Americans, tried by a court-martial 
presided over by Major Burton, condemned to death, and executed 
by order of General Wadsworth. It was in revenge for this ex- 
ecution that Wadsworth and Burton were captured by a detach- 
ment from Penobscot, and imprisoned there until they made their 
escape, June 15, 1781.^ Among the loyalists from Falmouth who 
early sought protection at the post were Captain Jeremiah Pote 
and his two sons-in-law, Robert Pagan and Thomas Wyer.^ 
Pagan did not go directly to Penobscot, but in February, 1776, 
sailed with his family for Barbadoes. On his rettirn, he settled 
in the growing Penobscot colony, where, with two brothers, he 
purchased dwelling houses from Lieutenant Colonel Campbell in 
1 78 1.''' Moses Gerrish of Newbury, Massachusetts, who was a 

1. Rcpoi t oil the A)ii. iMss. in the Roy. /)ist. ofG. Brit., I/, 20, 45. 

2. Ibid, 66. 

3. Report of the Am, J/ss. iti tlie Roy. Iiixt. of (• . Urit., If, 258; 
vSabine, Am. Loyalids, 1847,148, 626. 

4. Aeadiensis, July, 1903, 175. 

5. Ibid., ]u\y, igoj, 22T,; See. Rep., Jlureau of .Irehiies, Out., PI. /, 
304 307; Sabine, Am. Loyallists, 502. 

14 



graduate of Harvard College, and was stationed at Penobscot as 
an officer in the commissary department, remained there until the 
post was evacuated by the British forces.' Colin Cam])bell, an- 
other loN'alist, acted as assistant commissary.'-' The garrison 
found its surgeon, and for a while its chaplain, in I)r John Caleff, 
a former resident of Ipswich, who had served as a member of the 
Massachu-setts legislature, but had sought .shelter at the po.st 
before the siege. '^ For a .sea.son, Caleff was also employed as 
inspector at Penobscot. On his departure for PvUgiand in May, 
1780, he was succeeded in this position by Robert Pagan. ^ John 
Jones of Pownalborough (now Dresden), Maine, escaped from 
Boston jail, and arrived at Quebec at the close of August, 1779.. 
There he joined Colonel Rogers' regiment, receiving a commis- 
sion as captain, and was .sent to Penobscot. From that point he 
engaged in forays against the Americans at the head of acompan\- 
kown as "Jones' Rangers." His swarth}^ complexion gained for 
him the nickname of "Black Jones"''' Simeon Baxter, the super- 
intendent of hospital .stores in Bo.ston, was another oj" those whose 
loyalty was too active to be tolerated by the revolutionists. He 
was, therefore, condemned to be incarcerated in the jail ait Worces- 
ter, but breaking away, he did not regard himself. as-beyond the 
reach of danger until he had gained the shelter of, FoTt, George.*^ 
John Long, a native of Nantucket, also resorted .thither probably 
as early as the year 1779. In his new retreat 'he made him.self 
u.seful by securing intelligence for Captain Mowatt, but fell into 
the hands of the enemy. However, he succeeded in making his 
escape, and during the remainder of the war commanded a priva- 
teer belonging to the Pagan brother.s.'_ Another Massachusetts 
tory who joined the contingent at Penobscot in' 1779 was Jame.s 
Symons of Union River. Like most of the other refugees who 
settled within the .shadow of the post, he reniained there until 

1. Coll. N. B. Hist, Soc, I, No ^3, ■^^\ Acadifitsis, July 1906, 170.. 

2. Repo)i ou the Ain. Mss. in tlir'Rdy. inst. of G.-'Brit., ffl, 122, 132: 
Acadiensis, ]\i\y, 1907,277-279. - .N.-. :. ' .. ' : 

-K. Coll. Me. Hist. Sac., Series //, Vol. I. 392. 

4. Report oil tlie Aut. Ms's.^^'n-the^Roy/ hist. 0/ (,'. h'rit.J//, 229. ,^, ^i^-sfiir'^' 

5. .-^/A^i/ZdV/.w^, July, 1907^276^ ■7'^' '';''■'•' , ■ ,..,^;C0^ ■' 

6. Audit Office ClaihT's^,'^Xir,'4:f:'lni tU^' PiilDlic Record Office, I)on^'n.) 

7. See. Report . /!/n\ ii/'Arelitz;es,'07i't.v/'t-B, 315-3^7- ->?•'''>' "^ 

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"^'<<' the peace. ^ Meantime, Niitling "«-as serving as overseer of the 

- -works with such satisfaction t6 Colonel Campbell, who was then 
in command of the fort, that the' latter "in consideration of his 

■.V Attachment to His Majesty's Government," made at "Gratuitous 

Grant" to Mrs. Nutting of "a lotiof land to settle upon 

on the Nj E. side of y Road Leading' to- Fort George, formerly- 
r the Property of Joseph Pirkins now in Rebbelion." Upon this 
, lot the overseer built him -a house, which he valued at £,\ 50.'-^ 
Thus, a population of loyalists was gathering within the bound- 
aries of the proposed province of New Ireland. 

■ This development may have had something to do with Nut- 

- ting's departure! for England in the spring of 1780, by the partic- 
ular advic'e and recommendation, of . General McLean. At any 
rate, soon after hisarrival in London,' Nu^ttingannounced that he 

t had' laid a -pilan-before'' Lord George' Germain which, if put into 

ij, execution; would prove "of the greatesfUtility to Gov^ernment." 

The concerns of the prospective province were .certainly receiving 

■ ^ a great deal of attention at this time a^mo^g the loyalists at Pe- 

. inobscot, for; in May of the year named above, they sent Dr. Caleff 
to England to do what he could- toward getting the British author- 
ities to fix upon the River Penobscot asthe dividing line betw^een 

- them.selves and the United States.^ 

■ ■ . While the object of Mr. ^Nutting's journey is less clear by 
; reason of the lack of documentary proofs; the fact that he now 

■ -i'. crossed the ocean at what was virtually the request of McLean, to 
-whom had been entrusted the 'first step towards erecting a loyalist 
•^ province in eastern Maine, suggests stronglj^" that the present 
i. mission of the Ovenseer of Works was in connection with the 
carfj'ihg into effect of the second and principal part of the pro- 
gramme, namely, the' establishment of' the province itself. It 
■w'as certainly more -than a m^re coincidence that the whole New 
•Ireland scheme received a fresh' impetus soon after Nutting's 
arrival in London. >On' August 7, 1780, Germain wrote to Knox 
expressing the hope that New Ireland still eniplo3'ed his thoughts, 

1. Sec. Report, Bur. of Archives, Out., PI. /, 323, 324. 

2. Batcheldei ,yi9/;« Nu/fing, 82. 

3. fbid., 'Ra.\.ch^\di&T,Joh)i Nutting, 82,816; Report on the Am. Mss. inthe 
Roy. Inst, of G . Brit., II, 118, 420; ///, 229; Ganong, Eivl. of the Bound- 
aries of A'. B., 260; Raymond, Winsloiv Papers, 25b. 

16 



that he was more and more inclined to prefer Ohver (the ex-chief 
justice of Massachusetts Baj^) for the governorship, and that he 
wished they might "prepare some plan for the consideration of 
the Cabinet." No sooner said than done, the plan was produced 
with astonishing promptness. Its form was thatof a constitution 
for the new province, concerning which Germain wrote on 
August nth: ''The King approves the p/afi — likes Oliver for 
Governor, so it may be offered him. He approves Leonard for 
Chief Justice."' 

The instrument, thus approved, placed the province abso- 
lutely under the control of the British Parliament. On acquiring 
land, whether by inheritance, purchase, or grant from the Crown, 
every landlord had to declare his allegiance to the King in his 
Parliament. There was to be, of course, a governor and a coun- 
cil, but no elective assembly for the time being. This omission 
was obviously intended as a means of fore.stalling any disposition 
of the people to republicanism. There was, however, to be a 
middle branch of the legislature, of. which the members were to 
be appointed by the Crown for life, but also subject to suspension 
or removal by royal authority. Thqse legislators might have 
conferred upon them titles, emoluments^ or both. The traditions 
of aristocracy' were to be further secured by the granting of land 
in large tracts, thus providing at once for great landlords and a 
tenantry. The Church of England was to be the established 
church, and the governor, the highest judge in the ecclesiastical 
court, with the additional function of filling all benefices. The 
power of ordination was to be vested in a vicar-getreral, the way 
being thus opened for a bishop. The establishment of schools 
was left wholly unprovided for.'^ Such was the constitution of 
New Ireland, the purpose of which, according to that thorough- 
going loyalist, the Reverend William Walter, was by its "liberal- 
ity" to show to the American Provinces "the great advantages of 
being a portion of the Empire and living under the protection of 
the British Government."^ That these advantages remained im- 
tested insofar as New Ireland was concerned was primarily due to 

1. Batch eld er, yy//» Abutting, 86, 87. 

2. Coll. Me. Hist. Soc., Series ii, Vol. /, 395, 396; Bancroft, Hist, of the 
LK S., X, 368. 

3. Kaymond, Hist. 0/ the A'iz'er St. Jolin, 2gi. 

17 



Attorney General Wedderburn, who held that the territorial 
possessions of Massachusetts extended to the western Ijoundary 
of Nova Scotia, and that the charters of both provinces precluded 
a new one from being interposed between them. ^ 

Although this opinion prevailed, the plan does not seem to 
have been abandoned b}' its originators, for in the winter of 1781 
Germain "urged upon Clinton the ministrj-'s favorite scheme for 
the disposition of the throngs of Tories at New York: 'Man\^ 
are desirous of being settled in the covmtry about Penobscot and, 
as it is proposed to settle that countr3^ and this appears to be a 
cheap mtthod of disposing of these loxalists, it is wished you 
would encourage them to go there under the protection of the 
Associated Refugees, and assure them that a civil government 
will follow them in due time; for I hope, in the course of the sum- 
mer, the admiral and you will be able to spare a force sufficient to 
effect an establishment at Casco Bay, and reduce that country to 
the King's obedience.'" '-' 

^Massachusetts, of course, wanted "the viperine nest ^t 
Penobscot" suppressed, and appealed feelingly from time to time 
to the French and to Washington to strike the decisive blow. In 
truth, her authority had been so far encroached upon by the 
enemy that she was no longer able to collect taxes or contribu- 
tions from any place to the eastward of their stronghold. The 
garrison there was ever on the alert, and improved the defences 
of the post until it was declared by the Commander-in-chief of 
the Continental forces tb^be "the most regularly constructed and 
best finished of an\- in America." These excellent ramparts 
sheltered a throng of lo^-alists and their families, while nearby a 
refugee settlement grew up, which by the end of the war con- 
sisted of thirty-five houses (a few of two. stories), supplemented 
by the barest utilities in the form of three wharves and two 
stores.-' 

It remained to be .seen whether this outpost of loyalism 
would survive the underctuTents of diplomacy- during the nego- 

1. Coll. Me. Hist. .Soc, Series //, Vcl. /, ^,96; Batchelder, h/iN Xiilling, 
87. 

2. Batchelder, /(;//« iVii/lJfi_o-, 86. • ' ■" •• ' 

3. Ihid., S4; vSabiiie, A>//. Loyalisls, 10; .Vass. ArchiveSi V. 145, 377; 
Coif. Me. Hist. Soc., Series II. Vol. /, 400. 

18 






tiations for peace, as it had weathered the storms of war. If so, 
it might still become the capital of a real province of New Ireland, 
and by the favor of the authorities secure a population of some 
thousands out of hand from among the swarms of loyalists that 
had been gathering for years at New York. In the conferences 
of the peace commissioners England contended that the frontier 
of Mas.sachusetts extended no farther than Penol)scot Bay: she 
gave it out that she wanted the territor\- to the eastward "for 
masts." But John Adams, who was a member of the board of 
treaty commissioners, was a Massachusetts man, and was thor- 
oughly conversant with conditions at Penobscot. He pertinently 
remarked to Count Vergennes, while the contention was in prog- 
ress,^ that "it was not masts, but Tories, that again made the 
difficulty," and that "Some of them claimed lands in that terri- 
tory, and others hoped for grants there," not forgetting to add 
that "the grant of Nova Scotia by James I to Sir William AJex.- 
ander, bounoed it on the St. Croix." Adams was no less po.sith:e 
when face to face with the English commissioner, Mr. Oswald.^ 
and told him plainly that he "must lend all his thoughts to con- 
vince and persuade his court to give up" the disputed region, 
else "the whole negotiations would be broken off.'"- The un- 
jnelding character of the man from Massachusetts was confirmed 
by Lord Shelburne, who was constrained to report to the House 
of Lords that he "had but the alternative either to accept the 
terms propo.sed or to continue the war."-' Mr. Secretary Knox, 
in the bitterness of his personal disappointment over the final 
collapse of his budding province, gratified his own animosities b\^ 
alleging that Penobscot would never have been evacuated at all 
had it not been for the jealousy of Wedderburn and the igno- 
rance of Shelburne.* 

The provi.sional articles of peace were agreed to at the end of 
November, 1782. It was not until the middle of the following 
June that Carleton wrote to Governor Parr, of Nova Scotia, that 
two ships had been sent to Penobscot to remove such persons as 



1. November 10, 1782. 

2. Adams, Diary, under the dates Nov. 10, and 18; Coll. Me. //is/. 
Scries //, Vol. /, 396, 397. 

3. Coll. Me. //isl. Soe,, .Series //, I'ol. /, 397. 

4. Batchelder, yc)//;/ iV//l/i)ii;\ 94. 

19 



Soe. 



should choose to go to his province.^ Three weeks later, it was 
reported that some people of Machias, Maine, had "moved to Pas- 

samaquoddy and possessed themselves of lands between 

the river St. Croix and the River Scoodie [Scoodiac].'"'' About 
the middle of August, Parr wrote to Brigadier General Fox at 
Halifax concerning the rumored encroachments east of the St. 
Croix, encroachments made, he said, under pretense that the 
lands between that river and the Scoodiac belonged to Massa- 
chusetts. He informed General Fox that the invaded lands were 
"intended chiefly for the immediate settlement of part of the Pro- 
vincial disbanded troops and one hundred and fifty refugee fami- 
lies from Penobscot," and therefore suggested that an armed 
detachment be sent there to protect the boundary.-' Thus, before 
the definitive treaty of peace was signed, (September 3, 1783), a 
new boundary dispute had emerged, in which the luckless Penob- 
scot loyalists were involved as before. This their agents discov- 
ered when they arrived at Passamaquoddy at the close of August, 
for they were there greeted by a letter from the authorities at 
Boston, warning them not to form a settlement in the disputed 
region. The agents communicated this news to Parr, with the 
further information that the transports intended to convey their 
people to Passamaquoddy had already arrived at Penobscot, news 
suggesting that the loyalists would soon be at their destination 
and take possession.* 

Meantime, Robert Morse, the chief engineer, had received 
instructions to proceed to Passamaquoddy and report on the situa- 
tion there. He soon learned of the alleged encroachments, and 
wrote to Carleton, August 15, 1783, of the difficulties that might 
arise about the boundary river, explaining that the name St. Croix 
had been indiscriminately applied to the three rivers which empty 
into Passamaquoddy Bay, and that while the westernmost had 
been the old boundary between Maine and Nova Scotia, the middle 
and by far themo.st important one was meant for the new bound- 
ary, thus opening the way for dispute.'' Early in September, 

1. Report on the A>n. iMss. in the Roy. Inst, of G. Brit., Il\ 276. 

2. Ibid., 210. 

3. Ibid. 

4. Ibid. 

5. Ibid., 2S0. 

20 



Morse reached Pa.^samaquoddy,! in time, .ats-he explained to Carle- » 

ton, "to point out to the surveyors employed in laying but i: — 

different towns, and. the land.s adjoining, such spots • as appeared ' - - • > 

proper to be reserved for the use of Government, and future 
protection of the country."^ •: He was detained there eight days 
before he was able to sail for St. John's River. On November i, 
he again wrote the Commander-in-chief at New York to say that 
the town laid out for the people i from Penobscot was "omSt; 
Andrew's point — their lands extending up the east side of the 
River Scodiac." This position he conceived to be "totally out 
of dispute," and though it was contested, as we shall see later, 
the country to the east of the Scodiac was adjudged to be part of 
Novia Scotia and the settlers remained in posse.ssion. Morse was 
equally correct in asserting that the stream called the St. Croix 
by the Ma.s.sachusetts people and alleged by them to be the true 
boundary was in fact the "Majiggaducey" ( Magaguadavic ) , 
which he declared to be "quite out of the question." Hence, he 
urged that an early explanation shouldxbe required of the author- 
ities of Massachusetts, "lest the unfortunate people from Pen- 
ob.scot should be again disturbed, or befote any military force 'is - : ■ 
sent there." He-added that a British man-of-war was already' " 
under orders to proceed to Passamaquoddy.- ' ^ (j 

A.t Penobscot the \loyalists had formed an association with i 
Cajitain Jeremiahs Pote, Robert: Pagen, and a third member. . 
whose name is unknown, las agents to complete arrangements for 
the removal to Passamaquoddy, Many of the associators had 1 
already gone (about October i) to the location chosen for their 
new settlement to. erect houses,'^ and had evidentl}' been there 
about three weeks when Colonel John : Allan,' the agent of the - 
Massachusetts authorities, arrived on the scene, only to find the • 
surveyors exploring the rivers.and preparing to lay out townships, 
while a number of settlers were- already in possession of St. An- 
drew's Point. Hel remonstrated with the surveyors,: and, ^discov- 
ering one of them, Zebedee Jerry, of P'reetowri, to be a proeCribed f ' 
refugee, "cautioned him from appearing on any lands of the 

2. Report on the A»i. Mss. in the K'oy: Ins. of (i. Brit: /]'. 280. 
I. Ibid. 4^2. 

3. The London Chronicle, Mav 8, 1784; St. Croi.v Courier series, 
LXXIX. 



United vStates in future, as he certainly would be made a prisoner, ' ' 
and at the same time directed the Indians "not to suffer any 
British subjects to pass on the river Passamaquoddy on such 
business until further orders. ' ' In obedience to their instructions, 
the Indians soon after took ca]^tive the loyalist, Captain (John) 
Jones, of Kennebec, whom they found marking trees on the river. 
Jones was placed on parole, but had no compunctions a1)out mak- 
ing his escape at the earliest opportunity' 

Allan was further disturbed b}- the arrival on Octo])er 3 of 
two large transports and several smaller ves.sels bringing forty 
families from Bagaduce. The shijis were warned not to land 
their passengers, but nevertheless did so a few days later. On 
the 17th of October, Allan visited the refugees and pointed out to 
them what he con.sidered to be their precarious situation at St. 
Andrew's. In reply, they disclaimed any intention of encroach- 
ing upon American .soil, remindinghim that the}' had been landed 
where they were by the King's transports, and pra^-ing that they 
might not ])e molested imtil .spring, as they were poor and the 
.season was already far advanced. The deputy surveyor of Xova 
Scotia, Captain Charles Morris, Jr., was on the ground, and when 
called upon after a few day.s' inter\-al by Allan, explained cour- 
teously that he was merely following out positive instructions in 
laying out the lands for the new settlers, and freely showed the 
charts in his possession, namely, those of Holland and DesBarres, 
in which, as Allan remarked, "the westerh" branch of Pa.ssama- 
quoddy called Cobscook is set down as the River vSt. Croix." 
Soon more families disembarked, and Allan notes that vessels 
were daily arriving with supplies, that a number of houses were 
already Iniilt, as well as a large store for government provisions, 
and that valuable timber was being constantly cut and ship])ed. 
His letter went on to say — on good authority, as he asserted — 
that the British intended to claim all the timber lands on Pa.ssa- 
niaquodd\' Bay as part of Xova Scotia, and that a company of 
wealthy persons under the management of one Pagan, formerly 
of Ca.sco Ba\-, and others, was ready to go into the lumber bu.si- 
ness, having sufficient influence with the government to obtain 

I. h'cport on the .Ini. .I/.vt. /;/ the Rov. Inst. o/(,'. Brit., /!'., 372-374; 
.S7. Croi.v Courier .series, L \'.\'/A', LXXX. 

22 



settlers enough, including disbanded soldiers, to keep possession 
of the Passaniaquoddy region. To prevent this, Allan advocated 
immediate steps "to remove those settlers from St. Andrews."' 

However, the new settlement appears to have entertained 
greater fear of the Indians than of the Americans during the 
first winter, for Captain (Samuel) Osborne thought it necessary 
to patrol the bay in the frigate Ariadne throughout that season 
to ward off the red men. By January, 1784, there were sixty or 
more houses at St. Andrews, and in February Governor Parr 
established a court there for the District of Passaniaquoddy. In 
March a part of the Penobscot garrison, the 74th or Argyle 
Highlanders, arrived at vSt. Andrews, while others, it is .said, 
landed at L'Etang (St. George's Town) to await, like the 
loyalists, the location of their lands. The main body of the 
Highland regiment had sailed for England more than two months 
before. By the first days of May. there were ninety houses in 
St. Andrews, and a letter of that time, still extant, reports 
"great preparations making in every quarter of the town for 
more." The letter continues: "Numbers of inhabitants are 
daily arriving, and a great many others are hourly looked for 
from different quarters." The writer, WiUiam Pagan, had al- 
ready explored part of the land laid out for the A.ssociated Loy- 
alists from Penobscot, namely, the region round Oak Point Bay 
and up the vScoodic River. He found it to be of good soil and 
abounding "wath large quantities of hard wood, [and] all kinds 
of pine timber of a large growth" conveniently located for trans- 
portation by water. He remarked that two sawmills had already 
been erected on the Scoodic, and that he had seen good sites for 
others. He was convinced that Passaniaquoddy Bay could sup- 
ply the Briti-sh West Indies with "every species of lumber 
that could be shipped from any part of New P^ngland, except 
oak staves."-' What was actually being accomplished in the ship- 
ment of lumber by the people of St. Andrews appears in a com- 
munication of somewhat later date (May 26), signed by Robert 
Pagan and others, in which it is stated that a number of cargoes 

1. Letter of John Allan of Dec. 15, 1783, to Gov. John Hancock, quoted 
in the .S7. Croix Courier scries. LXXIX. 

2. Letter of Wni. Pagan to Dr. Wni. Paine, May 2, 1784, printed in 
Acadie)isis,]\\\y, 1907, 210-112. 

23 



had already been sent to the West Indies- and to various parts of v 
Nova Scotia.' By. the end of December, vSt. Andrews had 
expanded to a village' of between two hundred-amd three hundredi ■«< 
houses, and other settlements were making rapid headway. 
General Rufus Putman,. who visited Passamaquoddy at the time 
mentioned, reported that "a town at present called Schoodick, 
near the head of navigation has one hundred houses; besides 
which there is a township at the head of Oak Bay, granted to a 
company of associates at the head of which there is a Mr. Nor- 
wood from Cape Ann; anothdr township west of this is surveyed 
for a company from Connecticut, and these companies obtain the 
same supplies of provisions as the refugees-do." '-! i ,.. 

The plan of St. Andrews, which. was completed perhaps 
early in 1784, provided for "six parallel streets running from 
northwest to southeast and thirteen streets cutting them at -right 
angles, thus forming sixty square blocks, besides twelve. blocks 
on the southwest side of the town more or less indented by the 
irregularities of St.- Andrews Harbor. Each block was divided 
into eight lots," On August 12, this <town plot was granted 
to "William Gammon and 429 others," .several of the grantees 
receiving more than one lot. Some of the'carliest houses erected 
ill the town had been set up originally at Penobscot,: only to be 
taken down for removal at the evacuation. ' Among these 1 are the 
St. Andrews Coffee House still standing at the foot of William 
Street, the store and the home once owned by Robert Pagan, and 
houses built by Robert -Garnett and Captain • Jeremiah: Pote. 
The first two-story building to be erected in St. 'And re wsi was 
owned and occupied by John Dunn, who' brought the frameiand 
materials from- New York in 1784, the year in which' the other 
structures were also set up.^ Many of the refugee families were 
loth to leave behind their coats of arms and their treasures in 
mahogany and silver. These cherished possessions stilV' remain- 
in some old homes at vSt. Andrews,* and doubtle.ss- at other 
places on Passamaquodd}' Bay. By 1788, if we may credit the 
statements in an old manu.script, the population of St. Andrews 

1. AcadiensiSy July, 1907, 213. , - ■ 

2. St. Croix Courier series, CXI'/. ■ 

3. Acadiensis, July, 1907, 231, 214, 222, 226 228, 225; July,ii9o3, 160. 

4. Ibid., July 1903, 161. 

24 



and vicinity had increased to more than three thousand, while 
the town itself now numbered about six hundred houses. ' At 
this time, and for some j'ears afterwards, the place rivaled vSt. 
John, New Brunswick, in commercial importance. - 

Ever since the settlement of St Andrews, religious services 
had been conducted by the civil magistrate, who acted as lay 
reader on Sundaj's. In November, 1785, the Rexerend Samuel 
Cooke, of Shrewsbury, New Jersey, who had recently removed to 
St. John where he had been appointed missionary, visited Campo- 
bello, St. Andrews, and Digdeguash. At these places he read 
prayers, preached, and performed baptisms, and then returned to 
his own parish. In the following year, the Reverend Samuel 
Andrews, a graduate of Yale College, who had been rector of St. 
Paul's Church in Wallingford, Connecticut, came to minister at 
St. Andrews. He found there "a considerable body of people of 
different national extraction, living in great harmony and peace, 
punctual in attending Divine Service, and behaving with pro- 
priety and devotion." Sent as a missionary by the Society in 
London for the Propagation of the Gospel, "Parson" Andrews 
proved to be a man of broad and liberal spirit without any sacer- 
dotal pretensions. This was fortunate, for the majority of the 
people of his netv parish were Scotch Presbyterians. Neverthe- 
less, he won the favor of all, his congregation compri.sing all the 
Protestant elements represented in the town. The first vestry 
meeting was held August 2, 1786. In the following April, Mr. 
Andrews was temporarily incapacitated for his work by a paralyt- 
ic stroke; and his son, Samuel F. Andrews, was appointed 
school master and catechist, being thus able to relieve his father 
of part of his duty. The missionary's illness did not prevent 
the taking of prompt measures to erect a church edifice, which 
was accomplished in 1788, although the structure was not com- 
pleted until September, 1790. It was called All Saints' Church 
and measured fifty-two feet in length by forty in width, the ex- 
pense being met partly out of a fund contributed by the parish, 
but chiefly out of a government allowance. The church had a 
bell presented by Mr. John MacMaster, a merchant in London, 

1. Raymond, Winslmv Papers, jj^. 

2. Acadiettsis, July, 1903, 158. 

25 



and was decorated with the royal coat of arms which the mission- 
ary had himself brought from Connecticut.^ Owing to the fact 
that most of the inhabitants of St. Andrews professed the Pres- 
byterian faith, the number of communicants remained small, but 
baptisms, especially of children, were frequent. Besides All 
Saints' Church, another memorial of the first rector is to be found 
in "Minister's Island," which had been granted under the name 
of Chamcook to Captain vSamuel Osborne, but was sold by him to 
Mr. i^ ndrews in March, 1791, Captain Osborne having removed 
to London, England. On this island, overlooking St. Andrews, 
the rector built his house and passed the remainder of his life.'-^ 

Some years after purchasing Chamcook, the genial clergyman 
gathered about him a little group of the most notable loyalists in 
the town in an organization known as "The Friendly Society." 
Its members held weekly meetings, at which they discussed 
questions of religion, morality, law, medicine, geography, and 
history, besides contributions of importance in newspapers and 
magazines. By an article of their constitution, they limited 
themselves to "spirits and water" as the only refreshments per- 
mitted in time of meeting. Their philanthrophy was manifest in 
their purpose to exert their influence in suppressing immorality 
in the community of which the}^ were the leaders. It should be 
added that during the summer of i Soo three members of this society, 
namely. Dr. Caleff, Colonel Wyer, and Henry B. Brown, together 
with Mrs. Robert Pagan, rendered heroic service in combatting 
an epidemic of smallpox that swept vSt. Andrews and vicinity. 
Of the five hundred and more cases that developed, onl}^ three 
were lost. The society flourished during the lifetime of its 
founder, that is, for thirteen years, and then died.^ 

Aside from the town plot of St. Andrews, the Old Settlers' 
Reserve at Scoodic Falls, (now the town plot of St. Stephen), 
the Indian Reserve, ( now Milltown ) , and a few scattered lots 
reserved for i)ublic use, six tracts of shore and river lots were 

1. This coat of arms now hangs over the main entrance of All Saints' 
Church in St. Andrews, the second structure of that name. 

2. Xc?i' Haven Hist. Soc. Papers, VII, 324, 325; Lee, First Fifty Years 
of tlie Cljurch of Enoland in the Province of N. B., 32-35, 8284; Eaton, The 
Church in Nova Scotia, 150-152, 158; Acadicnsis, July, 1903. 193; July, 1907, 
236, 238. 

3. Acadiensis, July, 1907, 1S7-192; Raymond, /r/;/\A'rt' />(?/)(■■;•.<, 455. 



p^ranted to the Penobscot Associated Loyalists in 1784. These 
tracts extend from Boca])ec on the inner ba>- of Passamaquoddy 
to vSprague's Falls on the vSt. Croix, and include two ranges of 
lots on Mohannes Stream. They form the greater part of the 
water front of the ])resent parishes of St. Patrick, vSt. Andrews, 
St. Croix, vSt. l)a\-id, Dufferin, and St. Stephen, and extend over 
nearly half the length of Charlotte County.' In this region, 
the associators formed their settlements, among which were Boca- 
bee, Dufferin, Moannes, St. Croix, and St. David. St. Croix 
was first settled along the river of the same name and the Waweig, 
while St. David sprang up at the head of Oak Bay, all around 
which extended settlements of the Penobscot loyalists. The 
village of Chamcook, which arose from the expansion of neighbor- 
ing colonies, was of somewhat later origin. - Another lo\alist 
village, whose inhabitants came in large part from Penobscot, 
was St. George's Town. It was laid out on the western side of 
the little peninsula in I/Etang Harbor, facing the island now 
known as Fry's Island. Its original grantees numbered one hun- 
dred and fifty-three persons, who received their lots imder date of 
November i, 1784. In all perhaps two himdred families settled 
here, many of the townsmen being disbanded soldiers of the Roy- 
al Fencible Americans and probably of the S4th Regiment. Of 
these men Captain Peter Clinch wrote a dismal account to the 
Provincial Secretary in February, 1785, charging them with 
general worthlessness, due to the introduction of rum into the 
community through the agency of Captain Philip J3ailey. Clinch 
also charged Bailey with exploiting the inhabitants for his own 
benefit. However, even Clinch admitted that there were man\- 
settlers in the town again.st whom no reasonable objection could 
be raised."' In 1799, a forest fire destroyed the village, and it 
had never been rebuilt.^ 

In addition to the settlements formed by the Penobscot As-^ 
sociated Loyalists, there was a number of .settlements established 
in the Passamaquoddy District in the same period by loyalists 
from localities other than Penobscot. Among these were the 

1. ^-iaufii'/isis, July, 1903, 172. 

2. Gaiiong:, Origins qf Settlements in N./>., 118, 123, 12S, 156, ibj-^' 

3. .-Iracfieiisis, July, 1907, 250-260. -' ' ^ . ■•.-• 

4. .S7. Ci oi.r Courier series, L.W I V. " 'V' ' ''' '" 



town of St. Stephen and the Old Ridge, a colony on the Digde- 

guash above its mouth, another on the Magaguadavic to the 

« "•' Second Falls, Pennfield, and farther east along the coast Lepreau, 

•i '" Mace's Baj-, Seeley's Cove, Dipper Harbor, Chance Harbor, and 

-'"I Musquash. The town of St. Stephen at the head of navigation 

on the St. Croix, together with the country north of the town, 

» including the Old Ridge, was settled by the Port Matoon( Mouton) 

Association of loyalists and disbanded soldiers of the British 

^ Legion. This association took its name from the village it had 

» founded late in i7S3in Queen's County, Nova Scotia. When the 

~ t snow disappeared in the following spring, the locality was found 

to be rocky and sterile. Hardly had this discovery been made 

- when an accidental fire consumed the town, and compelled the 

immediate removal of the inhabitants. Of these, the majority 

i> betook themselves to Chedabucto Bay in the eastern part of Nova 

Scotia, while the rest decided to accompany Captain Nehemiah 
Marks to Passamaquoddy. Captain Marks was a refugee from 
Derby. Connecticut, had served as a captain in the corps of Armed 

'i^' Boatmen and later as lieutenant in the Maryland Loyalists. His 

party landed where the town of St. Stephen now stands, May 26, 
1784, hoisted the British flag, and called the place Morristown, a 
name it continued to bear for several years. In the following 
September, 19,850 acres on the Scoodic or St. Croix River were 
distributed among the members of the association, one hundred 
•' and twenty-one in number, while garden lots in Morristown were 

bestow^ed upon John Dunbar and one hundred and five others. 
Captain John Jones, who had first come to Passamaquoddy as a 

- • surveyor for the lo3alists, was one of the recipients of a farm lot. 

Among the grantees of the town are found the names of many 
' -a- ' members of the Penobscot Association, who also held grants in 

- St. Andrews, besides of some who were favored with lots both in 
■^'■■- St. Andrews and vSt. George's Town. It is no doubt true that a 

■ ■ number of the grantees of St. Stephen abandoned their lands or 

sold them for a nominal sum; but manj' others remained, and 

—■' numerous farms along the Old Ridge are still held by their de- 

1 scendants. Captain Marks became a grantee ofbothwSt. Andrews 

and St. Stephen, and was one of the first justices of the peace in 

Charlotte County. He died in St. Stephen in July, 1799, having 

- lived long enough to see the community he had planted in the 

28 



. wilderness making substantial proj^ress. By 1803, the parish as 
a- whole had a population of nearly seven hundred. It boasted 
seven sawmills, 'or almost half the number to be found in the 
entire Passamaquoddy. District, and was turning out annually 
4,000,000 feet, of boards, or more than all the other mills to- 
gether. ■ 

i " The .settlements formed by loyalists who had not come from 
Penobscot were assigned locations on the east side of Pa.ssama- 
quodtj)- Bay. -Thus,'! John Curry and forty-two others received 
15,250 acreson the Digdeguash in the Parish of "St. Patrick, at 
the end of March, 17H4; At the same time, a grant "of 2,000 acres 
was issued to Colin Campbell. Lieutenants Thomas Fitzsimmons 
and Colin 'McNab, who were assigned 1,000 acres in the same 
region, ipermitted their grant to escheat to the government. ^ 
■-'■ 'Two tracts, one on the east side of the lower Magaguadavic, 
and the other on the L'Etang with its western shoreline on Pas- 
-samaquoddy Bay, were granted to a score of loyalists, of whom 
Dr. • William- Paine of Worcester, Massachusetts, was the most 
notable. A refugee in Halifax after the evacuation of Boston, 
■Dr.' Paine had brought his party to -Passamaquoddy late in 1783. 

•■ buJt did not obtain the grants, which together amounted to 5,500 
acres, until some three or fourhionthSilater. Of the tract on the 

'Magaguadavic, the Worcester loyalist ^received 1,000 acres. In 

- additiofn, he was given theJsland of LaTete in recognition of his 
serk^ices in Rhode Island and New 'York- as apothecary to the 
^British forces and at Halifax as^hysician to the King's hospitals 
With his family, Dr. Paine too"k possession of La Tete in the 
summer of 1784,' but within a twelvemonth removed to St. John, 
New Brunswick, to educate his children- and practise his ]irofes- 
sion. Nevertheless, the County of Charlotte elected him to the 
Assembly 'of New .Brun^\^ick in i785,';atid he was appointed clerk 
of the House. <> He was also commissioned as' a ju.stice for the 
County of Sunbiir}', dnd held other offices during his residence 
there. In 1787, having secured thepermission of the War Office, 

r. SL Croix Courier series. CI\\ LXX, LXXXl\ AAAA ///, 
LXXX/X, XC XCI, XC//, C/X; OAnon^, Origins 0/ the Settlemenls 
in N.B.f- 55, 57, 170; Ganong, Historic Sites i/iX. £., 340; Raymond 
Winshnv Papers, 489. 

2. Ganong, Hist. Sites in iV. />'., 339. 

29 



lie returned to Massachusetts, at first to Salem where he spent 
six years, thence removing to Worcester to enjoy the privilege 
— unusual for one of his former attachments — of residing in the 
paternal mansion and being treated with respectful consideration 
by his fellow-townsmen. Here he lived out the remaining forty 
years of his life with means ample to provide for every want. His 
status as a citizen of the United States, which he had forfeited 
early in the Revolution, was restored to him by special act in 1825. 
Samual Bliss of Greenfield, Massachusetts, one of the grantees 
of Dr. Paine' s party, later secured the concession of the large 
island at the mouth of I^'Etang Harbor, still known as Bliss's 
Island, and of the small island near it called the White Horse. ^ 

West of the lower Magaguadavic, theRo^-al Fencible Ameri- 
cans were for the most part settled. Although included among the 
loyalist corps, the Fencibles had been enlisted in Nova vScotia and 
Newfoundland. Such of their officers and men as received 
grants at Pa.ssamaq noddy appear to have been in garrison at Fort 
Cumberland, where they were disbanded in 17S3. Captain Philip 
Bailey and fifty-eight others landed on November 10 of the same 
year at the mouth of the Magaguadavic, and perhaps Lieutenant 
Peter Clinch accompanied them, although he had visited the 
region in advance. Late in Februar}', 1784, Lieutenant Clinch 
was granted seven hundred acres extending from the lower falls 
to the headwaters of L'Etang and in the following month the 
others received their grant of more than 10.000 acres. That an 
additional number of the Fencibles came to Passamaquoddy is 
.shown by the muster held at L'Etang, or St. George's Town, on 
Juh' 3, 1784, when there were present of the "late Royal Fencible 
American Regiment," one hundred and eight men, forty women, 
and fifty-three children, or a total of two hundred and one per- 
sons. The valley of the Magaguadavic contained rich meadow 
lands, abundant forests, and ample water powers; but these ad- 
vantages made no appeal to most of the disbanded soldiers, who 
occupied themselves with hunting and fishing, or gave them- 
selves over to the pleasures of the cup. Many soon left the coun- 

I. .S7. Croix Courier series. LAW'///, AAA'/',- Co//. N.J!. Hist. Soc. 
V. /, No. 3, 273; Stark, Loya/isis 0/ Mass. , 2)^^-?>^T> Ganong, Hist. Sites in 
A^. B., 339; Chandler, T/ie C/iaud/cr Fajiii/y, 269; Paine, Paine Family 
Reo^ister. 

30 



tr}'. The others improved their farms, and probably followed 
the life of the woodsman. The descendants of the latter were 
joined by new immigrants, the settlement was extended iij) the 
river, and lumbering operations were considerably increased. By 
1803, the population of the Parish of St. George was four hun- 
dred, of which only seventy-eight were men. There were al- 
ready five mills in the parish, w^hich were cutting annually 
2,300,000 feet of boards. In addition, the settlers were raising 
good crops of various cereals, besides potatoes and flax.^ 

East of St. George's Town, an association of Pennsylvania 
Quakers settled on the west shore of Beaver Harbor, where a 
town called Bellevaew was laid out for them. The assocation 
was formed early in 17S3 in New York Cit}', where its members 
had taken refuge. Joshua Knight of Abbington, a suburb of 
Philedelphia, appears to have been the leader of tue "societ}'." 
Samuel Fairlamb, John Rankin, and George Brown were .sent 
out as agents to .select a place for settlement on the river St. John, 
but chose Beaver Harbor instead. Among the regulations 
adopted before the part}' sailed was one providing that "no slave be 
either bought or sold nor kept b}' any person belonging to said 
societ)^ on any pretense whatsoever." The associators reached 
their destination sometime before October 12, 1783, and were 
granted one hundred and forty-nine lots of the nine hundred and 
fifty constituting the town plot at Beaver Harbor. The}' renamed 
their settlement Penn's Field, since contracted to Pennfield, 
and were evidently joined by other immigrants, for a contem- 
porary writer estimated the population of the place at eight 
hundred. It is said to have contained about three hundred 
houses in 1786, but was devastated by fire in the following year. 
Doubtless, it was this disaster that caused the removal of most 
of the inhabitants to Pennfield Ridge, Mace's Ba}-, and other 
localities, and left those remaining behind in great poverty. 
Fortunately, two Quakers from Philadelphia vi.sited the town in 
the late summer of 1787, and noting the distres.sed condition of 
the colonists, raised a subscription among the members of their 

I. S/. Croix Courier scries, L XX /I', LXXVI I-.CoU. N. H. Hist.Soc. 
No. 5, 197, 201, 217, 21S; Ganong, Hist. Sites in N. B., 339,- Ganonp, 
Origins of the Settlements in N.B., 167; Raymond, Winslow Papers 490; 

Aeadiensis, July, 1907, 255, 256. 

31 



sect on their return home, with which the}' purchased and shipped 
a supply of flour and Indian meal, together with other necessaries, 
to Beaver Harbor. According to certain brief but interesting 
records of the town, which are still extant, donations were also 
received from Friends in England, these donations being 
mentioned under date of March lo, 1789. The records also tell 
us that in July, 1786, the society at Pennfield decided to erect a 
small meeting house on ground allotted for the purpose. This 
intention was carried out, and the meeting house was still standing 
in the spring of 1789. The loss in population suffered by the 
Parish of Pennfield during this period is shown by the census of 
1803, which reported but fifty-four inhabitants, principally Quakers 
concerning whom it was noted that they were excellent farmers 
living on a good tract of land and in comfortable circumstances.^ 

The decline of Pennfield helped to populate the smaller 
harbors farther east, although some of these had been settled 
shortly after the war by loyalists who may have come either from 
vSt. John or directly from the States. Lepreau was first occupied 
in 1 784; Mace's Ba}' was settled later by the exodus from Penn- 
field; Seely's Cove had its origin in 1784 or 1785 as a small loyalist 
colon}' formed by Justus Seely; Dipper Harboi and Chance Harbor 
both began as fishing villages founded by loyalists in 1784, and 
Musquash was established a year earlier by people of the same 
class. The expan.sion of the descendants of these groups has 
supplied settlers to other places along the coast.- 

Another settlement worthy of mention was that of the Cape 
Ann Association in what is now the Parish of vSt. David. This 
parish lies northwest of the Bay of Passamaquoddy, and includes 
the headwaters of Dennis Stream and the Digdeguash River, 
which are not navigable. The as.sociation numbered two hundred 
and twenty members, and received a grant of nearly 23,000 acres 
on October i, 1784. Many of the grantees appear to have come 
from Gloucester, Massachusetts, and vicinity. Several, however, 
were from New Boston in New Hampshire. Francis Norwood, 
the leader of the association, was one of the latter. Twenty-six 

1. .5"/. Croix Courier scries, LXXII: Coll. N. B.Hist. Soc.. /l\ 73-80; 
Ganong, Origins of Ihe Settlcuients in X. B., 158; Raymond, H'inslozv 
Papers, 345, 490. 

2. Ganong, Origins of l/ie Seltloiwitls in X. /A, 144, 171, 127, 123, 152. 

32 



of those whohad grants at St. Andrews drew lands also in St. David; 
while several others, whose names appear in the Penobscot As- 
sociation grant, are listed among the grantees of the Cape Ann 
Association. Among the latter were Moses Gerri.sh, John Gillis, 
and William Monroe. These facts indicate that nearly one 
seventh, if not more, of the Cape Ann company were loyalists. 
Since, however, most of them did not belong to this cla.ss, the 
association was assigned "l)ack lands," that is, lands back from 
navigable waters, evidently on the principle that loyalists and 
disbanded troops were entitled to the best locations. It is prob- 
able that the St. Andrews and Penobscot grantees drew "back 
lands" either for their children, which they had a right to do, or 
as a matter of speculation. However, the .settlement in St. 
David did not fulfil its promi.se, although the .soil there 
was of excellent quality: in 1788, there were nearl\' one 
hundred and fifty absentees, and two years later, all but 
forty-six lots had been escheated. By 1803, the settlers num- 
bered two hundred and eighty-six, and were reported to be the 
most independent farmers of any in the County of Charlotte.^ 

Thus far we have been dealing almost exclusively with the 
.settlements formed on the mainland by loyalists, or, in the case of 
St. David, with a settlement in which lo>alists had .some small 
share. We turn now to the islands. The large islands on the 
west side of Passamaquoddy Bay, as well as some of the smaller 
ones, gained a number of settlers at the close of the Revolution- 
ary War. Indeed, the outermost of these i.slands, namel}-, Grand 
Manan, became the resort of several loyali.st families''^ as early as 
177Q, these families coming from Machias, Maine, where the}- con- 
sidered it unsafe to remain any longer. The place in which they 
built their huts still retains thename of the leader, Joel Bonney, 
being known as Bonney's Brook. However, the}^ were not per- 
mitted to enjoy peace even here, and in 1780 the}- removed to 
the mouth of the Digdeguash on the mainland.-^ With the 

I SL Croix Courier series, IvXX, CXVI; Ganong, Hist. Sites in N. 
^■. 338. 3^0; Ganong, Origins oj the Settlements in N. B., 55; Raymond, 
J{'instozv Papers, 489. 

2. The families were those of Joel Bonney of Pembroke, Conn., (now 
in Mass.), Abiel Sprague. and James Spragne: Cot/. jV. R. Hist. Soc, I'. I, 
No. 3, 346. 

3. Coll. N. B. Hist. Sac, I'. /, No. 3, 346, 347, 359; Acadiensis, July, 
1906, 165; St. Croix Courier series, XCl'I, IJII. 

33 



endiug of the war, a license was granted "to John Jones, Thomas 
Oxnard, Thomas Ross, Peter Jones, and Moses Gerrish, and 
others, being fifty famihes, to occupy during pleasure the Island 
of Grand Manan, and the small islands adjacent in the fishery, 
with liberty of cutting frame stuff and timber for building." 
Gerrish and a few of his associates took possession, and begati 
their settlement near Grand Harbor in May, 1784. They found 
their island to be fourteen miles in length and nine miles in 
l)readth, "very steep and craggy on all sides," but fertile in soil 
and covered with good timber. Evidently, not all the families 
expected joined the new community, but so far as we can tell 
those who came were prominent refugees from Penobscot. Ger- 
rish himself was one of these, although originally from New- 
bury, Massachusetts, and a famil}^ by the name of Cheney was 
from the same place. Thomas Ross had been a mariner at 
Falmouth, Maine, and entered the West Indies trade after 
coming to Grand Manan. He was granted a small island, still 
called Ross Island, just east of the one on which he made his 
home. Captain John Jones appears to have returned to Maine 
in 1786, after disposing of his interest in the island to James and 
Patrick McMaster, two merchants of Boston, who had become 
discredited early in the Revolution on account of their loyalty. 
John Dogget, another of the refugee settlers, was a native of 
Middleboro, Massachusetts. No doubt, the isolated position of 
the island retarded its development: at any rate, its population 
was but one hundred and twenty-one in 1803. Nevertheless, the 
number of inhabitants was sufllicienth' large to help establish the 
British claim to Grand Manan in the long controversy with the 
United States that followed years after. The retention of the 
island was regarded of great importance by England on account 
of its being the key to the entrance of the Bay of Fvindy. To- 
gether with other islands in Passamaqiioddy Bay, Grand Manan 
was declared part of New Brunswick in 181 7. For years, Gerrish 
was the most prominent resident on the island, and served both 
as collector of customs and justice of the peace. While he and 
his as.sociates failed to secure the fifty families required by the 
license of occupation to obtain a grant of the entire island, the 
Council of New Brunswick ordered grants to the settlers of their 
respective possessions and allotments, together with a glebe and 

34 



a lot for iniblic uses, and these grants were dul}' passed, November 
I, 1810.' 

North of Grand Manan, the Lshmd of Canii)obello was partly 
settled by loj'alists, a few of whom remained but a short time. 
At the opening of the Revolution, John Hanson, a native of 
Marblehead, Massachusetts, came to the island in a whaleboat, 
only to pass on to Minister's Island, where he settled. Captain 
Christopher Hatch, a grantee of Parr Town on the River vSt. John, 
went into tlie mercantile business at Campobello. Later, he sold 
out to Lieutenant Thomas Henderson, who became the customs 
officer of the island. Another grantee of Parr Town, who settled 
temporarily on Campobello, was Nathan P'rink, a native of 
Pomfret, Connecticut, and a captain in the King's Loyal 
American Dragoons. It is recorded by a historian of the island 
that many of the early inhabitants, who lived along what is called 
the North Road, were tories from New York, some of them being 
of Scotch origin. Later on, this loyalist element appears to have 
been considerably increased by the accession of numerous families 
from the mainland, who, dissatisfied with their locations, either 
sold or abandoned their grants there. In 1S03, the population of 
Campobello, including both lo>'alistsand other settlers, numbered 
nearly two hundred and fifty persons. - 

North of Campobello, Deer Island had occupants who, as 
previously noted, went to considerable trouble to take the oath of 
allegiance to the King at the time of the American attack upon 
Penobscot. The earliest refugees to join these settlers probably 
fled from Colonel Allen's rule at Machias. Among these, it 
would appear, was Josiah Heney, a native of Portland, Maine, 
w.ho was aided in making his escape from Machias in 1777 by 
James Brown of Passamaquoddy. Later, Heney .sought the pro- 
tection of the post at Penobscot, and came thence to Deer Island, 

1. Coll. N. li. Hist. Soc. ]'. /, No. 3, 347-350; Acadie)isis,]\\\y , 1906, 
168; ibid., July, 1907, 209; Ganong, Origins of the Settlements in X. /?., 
136; Lorimer, ///,sV. of Islands, II; Raymond, II 'ins/ozc Papers, ^Sg, 4()o, 
580, n; Sabine,^-//;/. Loyalists, 1847, 4S<); St. Croijr Courier series, L/ II, 

\cifi, xcri, CXff. 

2. Coll. X. IJ. Hist. Soc., V. /. No. 2, 215; .S7. Croix Courier series, 
f.XXrfff, CXXIV; WeUs, Campobello, 6; Raymond, JVinslozv /'apers, 
490; Ganong, Origins of the Settlei/ients in X'. B., 67. 

35 



where he built a house opposite Pleasant Point. ^ About the same 
time, John Rolf and his daughter arrived from Machias. Several 
members of the Penobscot Association also took up their resi- 
dence on the island, including Daniel Leemen and William 
Stewart, the latter settling at Pendleton's Passage. Other 
loyalists came in from St. John, New Brunswick, one of these 
being John Appleby, who located at Chocolate Cove. Both Ap- 
pleby and Leeman have descendants now living on Deer Island. 
Another settler from St. John was Issaac Richardson, whose name 
is perpetuated in that of Richardsonville. It was not long be- 
fore these loyalist inhabitants were joined b}' .some of the fami- 
lies from the mainland, who evidently thought they could better 
their condition by removing to Campobello. In 1803, this island 
and its dependencies had a poinilation of one hundred and seven- 
teen. In the following year, a .score of these residents tried to 
establish a claim to the lands on which they were living. The 
memorial of the.se petitioners states that they had been on Cam- 
pobello for twenty 3"ears (or since 17S4), which would suggest 
that many of them, if not all, were refugees from the States. 
Gideon Pendleton, whom we know to have been a loyalist from 
Long Lsland, and whose name appears in that of Pendleton's 
Lslaud, was one of the.se. "-^ 

The island just named had been granted, no doubt, to Gideon 
Pendleton, as other of the small islands were granted to other 
adherents of the Crown. However, Moo.se Island ( now l{a.stport) 
was inhabited at the close of the Revolution by about half a doz- 
en families, who had been more or less in sympathy with Great 
Britain during that struggle. It is not known how many out- 
side loj-ali.sts joined this little colon3^, but it is said that George 
Cline (or Klein), a recruiting sergeant during the War, and 
Joseph Ferris, a native of vStamford, Connecticut, and a captain 
in Butler's Rangers, both lived for a time on Moo.se Island. The 
former spent the end of his days on Bar Island, and tlie latter, 
on Indian Island. James Maloney, who was a mariner and a 
grantee of St. Andrews, .settled on St. Andrews Lsland, and 

1. S/. Croi.r Courier series^ C'X.W, A'A/A', C'/.\'; Loriiiier, Ifisfory of 
Islands, 89. 

2. St. Croix Courier series C.VAV, CX.\'l/\ Ganong, Origins of the 
Settlenients in N. B., 6-]\ Raymond, ]l' in slew Papers, 490. 



Matthew Thornton who fled to escape ]:)ersecution after the battle 
of Bennington, spent one winter there, being later provided with 
a grant as a member of the Penobscot Association. Thornton 
was a native of New Hampshire.^ 

The population of the Passamaquoddy region in 17H4, accord- 
ing to Colonel Edward Winslow's muster was 1,744 persons, of 
whom seven hundred and ninety were men, three hundred and 
four, women, and six hundred and fifty, children. ^ The various 
regiments and other groups represented compri.sed the 42nd, 
70th, and 72nd regiments. Royal Fencible Americans, King's 
Orange Rangers, Royal Garrison Battalion, Tarleton's Dragoons, 
Nova Scotia Volunteers, Regiment of Specht (Brunswick 
soldiers), various corps at L'Etang, Nehemiah Marks' Company, 
loyalists and others at Beaver Harbor, Penobscot loyalists, and 
Ivieutenant Colonel Stewart and part}-, besides two small com- 
panies, one in the District of Passamaquoddj^ and the other on 
the River Magaguadavic. As we have already' seen at some 
length, most of these people w^ere loyalists, and although the 
men had pursued the most diverse occupations in their former 
homes, farming engaged the great majority of them at Passa- 
maquoddy. However, at the time of the landing of the refugees 
from Penob.scot, lumbering operations were already in progress 
near the headwaters of the Scoodic or St. Croix River, on both 
sides of which a settlement of fifteen or twenty families was in 
existence. Most of these families had come from Machias, and 
had evidently chosen their location on account of the valuable 
timber and the water power to be had there. At the mouth of 
Dennis Stream they had built a sawmill.^ Thus began the lum- 
ber trade of the St. Croix, which may have supplied building 
material to loyalists who settled farther down the river. How- 
ever, there were abundant supplies of fine timber along the other 
large rivers emptying into Passamac^uoddy Bay, and there were 
ample water powers and excellent harbors at hand. The new- 
comers, appreciating these advantages, established important 

1. .Sy. Croix Con rit-y series, LI I, CXXI, CXXIV, XC/V, CXI II. 

2. [hid., LXl'II. The ficjures given in the text are taken from tlie 
original Muster Book, now in the possession of the Rev. Dr. \V. (,). 
Raymond, of St. John, N. R. 

3. .S7. Croi.r Courier series, LII . 

37 



villages at St. Stephen, Milltown, St. Andrews, St. Patrick, and 
St. George's Town, and erected sawmills at numerous points of 
vantage. Sailing vessels were needed for the lumber trade, and 
so ship-building became an important industry- in ."Several of the 
parishes that were .settled by the loyalists. By 1803, the Passa- 
maquoddy District had no less than twenty-one sawmills, which 
together cut 7,700,000 feet of boards, and it also had a fleet of 
fifty-nine .sails, besides numerous smaller craft. Of the sailing 
vessels, St. Andrews Parish alone had built forty-two since 1 785. ^ 
The principal markets for the lumber exported from Passamaquod- 
dy were Nova Scotia and the British West Indies, in both of 
which regions thousands of loyalist refugees were settling during 
this period. It need scarcel}' be added that fishing was an im- 
portant occupation of many of the .settlers on the shores and 
islands of Passamaquoddy Ba}-. The quantit}^ of fish taken in 
1803 amounted to 9,900 quintals and 3,000 barrels, besides about 
5,000 boxes of herring."-^ 

Meanwhile, the loyalists and their fellow-colonists were 
multiplying in numbers despite the removal of many from 
Pa.ssamaquoddy to other places in New Brunswick or to the 
States. By 1803, the population of Charlotte County had reached 
2,622 persons, or nearly eight hundred and fifty more than that 
of the year 1 784. With the growth in numbers, desirable lots that 
had been abandoned by the first grantees were taken up and oc- 
cupied by young men coming into maturity who wished farms of 
their own, and, following this, new settlements were made on the 
uplands back of the older settlements. In this way, an expan- 
sion seems to have taken place up thcvSt. Croix, Digdeguash, and 
Magaguadavic.-^ 

The coming of the loj^alists had led to the creation of Char- 
lotte County, together with the seven other counties of New 
Brunswick, earh^ in 1786. At the same time, Charlotte County 
had been subdivided into seven towns or parishes, namely, St. 
Stephen, St. David, St. Andrews, St. Patrick, vSt. George, Penn- 
field, and the West Lsles. The act establishing these divisions 

1. Raymond, ll'iiislou' Papers, 489-491. 

2. Ibid. 

3. Ganong, Origins 0/ the Settlements in X. />'., 59, 61. 



had also declared that vSt. Andrews should be thereafter the seat 
of the County of Charlotte. ^ lint before the passage of this 
measure 1)\- the llrst Assembly of the pro\-ince, and e\'en before 
New Brunswick had been made a separate i)rovince, Governor 
Parr had created a court for the District of Passmaciuoddy (early 
in 17S4) by appointing John Curr}-, Philip Bailey, Robert Pagan, 
and William CTallop to be justices of the peace therein. All of 
these men were loyalists, and three of them were grantees of vSt. 
Andrews; while the fourth, Cai)tain Philip Bailey, was a grantee 
of vSt. George's. Two of them received appointments in addi- 
tion to that of justice of the peace. Mr. Pagan served the Crown 
as agent for lands in New Brunswick and in looking after matters 
connected with grants to the loyalists. He also represented his 
county for a number of years in the Provincial Legislature. Mr. 
Gallop was commissioned as first registrar of deeds for Charlotte 
Count}', in March, 1786, and continued in that oilfice until 1789. 
Another vSt. Andrews loyalist. Colonel Thomas Wyer, became 
the first sheriff of the county, being appointed in the spring of 
1785, and serving until 1790, when he was succeeded b\- his fellow- 
townsman, John Dunn, a refugee from New York, who held the 
position twelve years. Mr. Dunn also acted as comptroller of 
customs at St. Andrews for a long period. - 

The action of Governor Parr in appointing justices of the 
peace for the District of Passamaq noddy in 1784 is to be regarded 
as the revival of an earlier court, rather than as the creation of a 
new tribunal. Before the Revolution, the general .sessions of the 
peace for the District had been held on the Island of Campobello. 
That they were resumed there after the war is shown 1)y Robert 
Pagan's statement that he went to Campobello to attend the .ses- 
sons in his capacity as magistrate for the Count\- of vSunbury.-' 
A little later, se.ssions were held at vSt. Andrews, but whether 
there or on Campobello, the jurisdiction of the court appears to 
have extended over all the islands of Passamacpioddy Bay. It 
should be noted, however, that Grand Manan had at least one 

1. ^■h'ad!('//sis, July, i9<->7, 232. 

2. /did. 223-225; ("()//. A". /.'. ///.sV. Soc, I'. /, No. 3, 363. 

3. .S7. Croix Courier si-rits, L X X X ! 7 .- Canons Evolution of the 
Jlnuintai ies of i\\ /»' , 2S1, n. 

39 



resident justice of the peace in the person of Moses Oerrish who, 
as ])reviously mentioned, served also as collector of customs for 
that island. Joseph Garnett, who died in St. Andrews in the 
year iSoo, is said to have been "New Brunswick's first master in 
Chancery and the first deputy registrar of deeds and wills and 
deputy Surrogate or Judge of Probate for Charlotte CountN."^ 

The settlement of the loyalists on Passamaquoddy Bay gave 
rise, as we have .seen, to a dispute over the western or 
river boundary of Nova Scotia. That dispute was to re- 
main undecided until 1798. By the treaty of 1783, the 
boundary had been fixed at the vSt. Croix; but the topographical 
location of the true St. Croix was as yet unknown. However, 
the Nova Scotia authorities had acted on the assumption that the 
Scoodic was the St. Croix by settling large numbers of loyalists 
on its eastern bank. John Allan had called the attention of the 
Massachusetts government to the refugee settlements at St. An- 
drews in August and again in September, 1783. Thereupon, the 
Massachusetts House of Representatives had directed Governor 
Hancock (October 23) to obtain information regarding the al- 
leged encroachments, and communicate the same to Congress. 
This was done at once, and Congress replied (Januar}^ 26, 1784,) 
with a recommendation that representations should be made to 
Nova Scotia, if the results of an investigation warranted it. The 
advice was followed, a committee was sent to Passamaquoddy, 
and on its return reported that the Magaguadavic, lying about 
three leagues east of St. Andrews, was the original St. Croix. 
On the basis of this report, Governor Hancock wrote to Governor 
Parr, November 12, 1784, requesting him to recall such of the 
King's subjects as had "planted themselves" within the Com- 
monwealth of Massachusetts. The reply to this communication 
came from Thomas Carleton, governor of New Brunswick, the 
province that had been recently erected on the north side of the 
Bay of Fundy: Carleton wrote that "the Great St. Croix, called 
Schoodick by the Indians," was considered by the Court of 
Great Britain as the river intended by the treat\- of 1783 to form 
part of the boundary. President Washington urged the adjust- 
ment of the matter in a special message to Congress in 1790: but 

I. Aca(/!r>!sis, ]u]y, 1907, 210, 226, 227. 

40 



nothing was done until Jay's treaty was signed four years later, 
a clause in this instrument providing for the reference of the 
question to the final decision of commissioners.' 

It is interesting to note that, first and last, not less than 
four prominent loj-alists took part in the important labors of the 
board of commissioners thus authorized. Thomas Barclay, a 
graduate of Columbia College and a cajitain in the Loyal Ameri- 
can Regiment, who had fled to Nova Scotia at the close of the 
Revolution, was named commissioner for Great Britain. His 
American colleague was David Howell, an eminent lawyer of 
Rhode Island, and they together designated Egbert Benson, a 
distinguished jurist of New York, as the third member of their 
board. Edward Winslow^ of Plymouth, Massachusetts, who had 
served as muster-master general of the loyalist forces at the close 
of the war, and then had taken up his residence in New 
Brunswick, became secretary of the commission. Each govern- 
ment had an agent to prepare and present its case before the 
board. The British agent was Ward Chipman of Massachusetts, 
a graduate of Harvard college and deputy muster-master general 
under Winslow. In New Brunswick, whither Chipman removed 
after the war, he attained the highest honors, serving as member 
of the House of Assembly, advocate general, solicitor general, etc. 
The agent for the United States was James Sullivan, one of the 
ablest members of the bar in Massachusetts at that time. The 
identification of Bone (now Dochet ) Island with the Isle of St. 
Croix of Champlain, on which the identification of the River St. 
Croix largely depended, was accomplished by Robert Pagan, one of 
the loyalist grantees of St. Andrews. After a series of meetings held 
at various times from August to October 26, 1798, the commission 
rendered the verdict that the Scoodic was in fact the River St. 
Croix intended by the treaty of 17S3. The source of the stream, 
thus declared to be the boundary between Maine and New Bruns- 
wick, was decided to be the eastern or Chiputneticook branch of 
the St. Croix. This was undoubtedly a fair line of division, in- 
asmuch as the St. Croix had been the old eastern boundary of 
Massachusetts Baj'.^ 

1. Gallons, Evol.of the Boundaries of X. /?., 241-254, and the autlior- 
ities there cited; Rives, Conrspondciuc of Thomas Barclay, 45. #• 

2. {VAWon^, EvoL of thr flouitdarics of N.B., 254-259; Sabine, Am- 
Loyalists, 144, 711, 208; Stark, Loyalists of Mass., 436, 432. 

41 



In i7'S4 and 1785, the question of ownership of some of the 
islands in Passamaquoddy Bay became a point of contention be- 
tween the British and American governments. The loyahsts 
and other British settlers of that period laid claim to all of these 
islands, and were supported therein by the New Brunswick au- 
thorities. Nevertheless, the Ha.stern Lands committee of the 
Mas.sachusetts House of Representatives had Moose, Dudley, 
and Frederick islands surveyed (in 1784), and sold Dudley Is- 
land to John Allan, who settled there and made some improve- 
ments. At about the same time, the same committee was author- 
ized to make sale of Grand Manan and the small islands adjacent, 
despite the fact that the government of Nova Scotia had already 
granted a license (December 30, 1783,) to Moses Gerrish and his 
associates to occupy Grand Manan. In October, 1785, Congress 
passed a resolution instructing the American minister in London 
to attempt an adjustment of these matters, or failing that, by 
commissioners appointed by the two governments. Ignoring 
both the resolution of Congress and the operations of the Massa- 
chusetts committee, the Assembly of New Brunswick enacted a 
law (January 3, 1786, ) dividing the province into counties and 
parishes, in which the Parish of West Isles in Charlotte County 
was declared to comprise Deer Island, Carapobello, Grand Manan, 
and Moose, Frederick, and Dudley islands, with all the lesser islands 
contiguous to them. Several 3'ears later (that is, in 1791), Mas- 
sachusetts played the next card by causing Moose Island to be 
divided into lots and granting these to the occupants. When 
the boundary question was taken up by the St. Croix commi.ssion, 
the contention over the islands was wisely excluded from the 
discussion by the explicit instructions of the British ministry. 
The next step took the form of negotiations, which were con- 
cluded in 1803 by a convention or agreement declaring Deer 
Island and Camphbello, with the small islands lying to the north 
and east, to l)e under the jurisdiction of New Brunswick, the 
others to the south and westward being declared subject to Mass- 
achuettes. vStrangely enough. Grand Manan was not men- 
tioned.^ 

I. Gaiioui;, ICi'ol. of thr J,\)in!(/<nifs of X. />., 278-287, ami the 
authorities tlifie riled; . Icadicitsis. July. i^K), 168. 

42 



In the War of 1812, Moose Island was seized by the British, 
and was permitted to remain in their possession by the treat}- of 
Ghent until its title could be determined. The fourth article of 
this treaty provided for a commission of two members to settle 
the island question. Thus, the suggestion first made b}- the 
American Congress in 1785 was finally adopted. Two of the 
loyalists who had shared in the work of the boundary commission, 
were assigned tasks of like kind in connection with this one. 
They were Thomas Barclay and Ward Chipman, representing Great 
Britain as commissioner and agent, respectively. The United 
vStates was represented b\- John Holmes, a prominent citizen 
of Maine, as commissioner, and James T. Austin, a leading 
law3-er of Massachusetts, as agent. The memorial of the British 
agent rei)eated the old claim of Nova Scotia to all the islands of 
Passamaquoddy Bay, not forgetting Grand Manan, on the basis 
of their inclusion within the original limits of that province, the 
extent of its jurisdiction, the exercise of its civil authorit}', etc 
The counter-claim of the United States was also heard, and the 
rejoinders on both sides. Finally, on November 29, 18 17, the 
commis-sioners gave their decision, namely that Moose, Dudley, 
and Frederick islands belong to the United States, and that all 
the other islands, including Grand Manan, belong to his Britannic 
Majesty, "in conformity with the true intent of the second 
article of the treaty of 1783." As both governments accepted 
this decision, the dispute over the islands was closed.^ Thus, 
the loyalist settlers, whether on or off the mainland of Passama- 
quoddy Baj', were finally left to enjo)' in peace the lands granted 
them at the close of the Revolution. 

I Ganong, Evol. of the Boundaries of N. B,, 287-290. 



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comprises seven colleges and a graduate school. 

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The Legacy of the American Revolution to the British West Indies 
and Bahamas, a chapter out of the History of the American Loyalists, by the 
Author of this bulletin. Published by tht= University, April, 1913. May be 
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