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Full text of "The expedition to Borneo of H.M.S. Dido for the suppression of piracy : with extracts from the journal of James Brooke, esq., of Sarāwak"

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IT V^ J 30-f^, ? 



tmrvarb College librari? 




FROM THE 

ICHABOD TUCKER 
FUND 

ESTABLISHED IN 1875 BY THE 
BEQUEST OF ICHABOD TUCKER, 
CLASS OF 1791, AND THE GIFT OF 
MRS. NANCY DAVIS COLE, OF 
SALEM 



3 



THE 



EIPEDITION TO BOENEO 



OF 



H. M. S. DIDO 




THE ^TTrfFJilgifHi^T PIRACY 



WITH IZTBACTS FROM 



THE JOURNAL OP JAMES JROOKE, ESQ., 

OF BABAWAKy 

(Nofw AfSBt for the British GorenuneBt in Bonao). 



»rtfci 



ClPTilN THE HONmBirBY lEPPEl, K. H. 



<i' 



NEW YORK: 



HARPER & BROTHERS, PUBLISHERS, 
8t CLIFF STREET. 

1846. 



ll:riiK^^tc:<'^r'y^ 



'i^ 3 . 6 



7^ '^ 

• 

'1 \ 



-. ^ 



TO 



THE EARL OF ALBEMARLE. 



\ 



Mr DEAR Father, , 
You could scarcely have anticipated, from 
my profession, the dedication of a book in tes- 
timony of my gratituSe and affection ; but, hav- 
ing had the good fortune to acquire the friend- 
ship of Mr. James Brooke, and to be intrusted 
by him veith a narrative of his extraordinary 
career in that part of the world where the ser- 
vices of the ship I commanded were required, I 
am not without a hope that the accompanying 
pages may be found worthy of your approval, 
and not altogether uninteresting to my country. 
I am, my dear father. 

Your affectionate son, 

Henrt Keppel. 

Jhoxfofrij JoMuaryj 1846. 



• •' 



PREFACE 

TO 

THE FIRST EDITION. 



The visit of her majesty's ship Dido to Bor- 
neo, and her services against the pirates, oc- 
cupy comparatively so small a portion of this 
volume, that some excuse may be necessary 
for its leading title. 

It was only by undertaking to make the ac- 
count of them part of the narrative, that I could 
prevail upon my friend Mr. Brooke to intrust 
me with his Journal for any public object ; and 
when I looked at his novel and important po- 
sition as a ruler in Borneo, and was aware how 
much of European curiosity was attached to 
it, I felt it impossible not to consent to an ar- 
rangement which should enable me to trace 
the remarkable career through which he had 
reached that elevation. I hope, therefore, to 
be considered as having conquered my own 
disinclination to be the relater of events in 
which I was concerned, in order to overcome 
the scruples which he entertained against being 
the author of the autobiographical sketch, em- 
bracing so singular a portion of his life, which 
I have extracted from the rough notes confided 
to me. 

That his diffidence in this respect was 
groundless will, I trust, be apparent from these 

A2 



VI PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION. 

pages, however indifferently I may have exe- 
cuted my unusual task, during a long home- 
ward sea- voyage ; and, from the growing in- 
terest which has arisen throughout the country 
for intelligence on the subject of Borneo and 
the adjacent archipelago, I venture also to in- 
dulge the belief that the general information 
will be deemed no unfit adjunct to the story of 
personal adv^otfu-e. 



ADVERTISEMENT 

TO 

THE SECOND EDITION. 



The text of this edition has been* carefully 
revised, and has undergone numerous verbal 
alterations ; some portions of it have been 
tran^osed, and a few additions have been 
made to the work. [In the American edition, 
a few pages of matter, of no interest ta Ameri^ 
can readers, have been omitted from the 
pendix.] 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 



The ChiiMse War having terminated, Captain Keppel in H.M.8. 
Dido appointed to command oi tbe Straits station. — Maetinff 
with Mr. Brooke. — Sketch of his life. — Mr. Brooke's outward 
▼ojrage in the Royaliat.— Touch at Singapore. — Arrival o£f the 
coast oi Borneo. — ^Land at the island of Talang Talaag.-r^nter- 
coune with the Bandar Pagf 1 

CHAPTER n. 

Progress : observations. — Description of the coast of Borneo. — 
Account, dec. of a Pangeran. — Arrival at Sarftwafc. — Meetings 
with Rajah Muda Hassim, and conversations.— The Town. — 
biterchslnge oi visits and presents. — ^fiscttnioik to Dyak tiibes. 
—Reaooroea and conmiercial products ... it 14 

CHAPTER in. 

Second Cruise : up the River Lnndo.— The Sihaowan Dyakt. — 
Their Town of Tungong. — Their Pbysieal Proportions^ and 
Words of their Language.— Their Customs. — Skull-trophies. — 
Religious Ceremonies and Opinions. — Their Ornaments. — Ap- 
pearance of both Sexes. — Dress and Morals. — Missionary Pros- 
pects of Conversion, and Elevation in the Social Scale.— Gov- 
ernment, Laws, and Punishments^ — Dances. — hon Bfanufiic- 
toringd— -Chinese Settlement. — Excursion coiitin«ed 32 

CHAPTER IV. 

Renewed intercourse with the Rajah. — Prospects of trade. — On- 
rang-outang, and other animals. — The two sorts of roias. — Des- 
cription of the Rajah, his snite, and Panglimas, dec. — The char- 
acter of the natives. — Leave Sariwak. — Songi Dyaks.— Visit 
Seriff Sahib.— Buyat tongoe.— Attack by pirattos.— Sail tat Sin- 
gapore .V '. • . 45 

CHAPTER V. 

Summary of information obtained doifog this visit to Borneo. — 
Greographical and topographical observations. — Produce. — Va- 
rious Dyak tribes.— Natural history. — ^Langoage.- Or^ih &[ 
Races.— Sail from Singapore.— Celebes. — Fm of the country. 
—Waterfall 59 



Viii CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER VI. 

Dain Matara, the Bugis. — Excursions in Celebes. — Dispute with 
the Rajah's son-in-law. — Baboon shot-^Appearance of the 
country. — Visit the Resident. — Barometrical observations. — 
The Bugis. — Geography. — Coral reefs. — Visit the Rana of La- 
matte. — Population and products of the country . Page 72 

CHAPTER VII. 

Hr. Brooke's second visit to Sarawak. — The civil war. — Re- 
ceives a present of a Dyak boy. — Excursion to the seat of war. 
^Notices of rivers, and settlements on their banks. — Deaths 
and burials. — Reasons for and against remaining at Sar§wak. — 
Dyak visitors. — Council of war. — ^Why side with the Rajah. 
— Mode of constructing forts. — State of enemy's and Rajah's 
forces. — Conduct of the war 87 

CHAPTER VIII. 

Appearance of the country. — Progress of the rebel war.— Char- 
acter of the Sow and Smgd Dyaks. — Their belief in augury. — 
Ruinous effects of protracted warfare. — Cowardice and boasting 
of the Malays. — Council of war. — Refuse to attack the enemy's 
forts. — Rebels propose to treat. — ^The Malays oppose. — Set out 
to attack the rebels, but frustrated by our allies. — Assailed by 
the rebels. — Put them to flight. — "Treat with them. — They 
surrender. — Intercede with the Rajah for their lives. — Renewed 
treachery of the Malays 100 

CHAPTER IX. 

Retrospect of Mr. Brooke's proceedings and prospects. — Visit of 
a pirate fleet. — Intercourse with the chief leaders, and other 
characteristic incidents. — ^War dances. — Use oi qpium. — Story 
of Si Tundo. — Preparations for trading. — Conditions of the 
cession of Sarawak 119 

CHAPTER X. 

Obstacles in the way of coming to a satisfactory conclusion with 
Muda Hassim. — The law of force and reprisal considered. — 
Capabilities of Sarawak. — ^Account of Sarebus and Sakarran 
pirates. — Excursion up the river.^ Visit to the Singh Dyaks. — 
Description of Mr. Brooke's house at Sarawak. — Circum- 
stances relating to the wreck ojQf Borneo Proper . 135 

CHAPTER XI. 

Return of the Royalist from Borneo Proper with intelligence 
of the sufferers from the wreck of the Sultana.— JJflTect of the 
arrival of the Diana on the negotiations for their xweaae.— Out- 



CONTENTS. IX 

rage and oppression of Macota. — Fate of the Sultana and her 
crew. — Mr. Brooke made Rajah of Sarawak. — Liberation of 
rebel prisoners. — State of Dyak tribes. — Court of justice open- 
ed. — Dyak burials, ai^ respect for the dead. — ^Malay cunning 
and treachery Page 151 

CHAPTER Xn. 

Reflections on the new year. — ^The plundered village, and other 
wrongs. — Means for their suppression. — The new government 

Sroceeds to act. — The constitution. — Preparations for an expe- 
ition against the Sea Dyaks. — ^Form oi a treaty. — ^Wreck of 
the Viscount Melbourne. — Administration of justice. — Difficul- 
ties and dangers. — Dyak troubles. — Views and arrangements 
of the Chinese.— Judicial forms. — ^Wrongs and sufferings of the 
Ltmdus 164 

CHAPTER Xni. 

Ascent of the left-hand river to the Stabad.— Remarkable cave 
in the Tubbang. — Diamond works at Suntah. — Return. — In- 
fested bv Dyak pirates. — A meeting of prahus, and fight. — Se- 
riff Sahib's treatment of the Suntan Dyaks. — Expedition 
against the Sing^. — ^Their invasion of the Sigos, and taking 
heads. — ^The triumph over these trophies. — Arms and modes 
of war. — Hot and cold council-houses. — Ceremonies in the 
installation of the Orang Kava Steer K^jah. — ^Meeting of 
various Dyak tribes. — ^Hostile plans of Serin Sahib, and their 
issue. — ^Resolves to proceed to Borneo Proper . . 183 

CHAPTER XIV. 

Visit of Captain Elliott. — Mr. Brooke sails for Borneo Proper. — 
Arrival. — Visited by leading men. — Condition of the country.-^ 
Reception by the Sultan.— Objects in view. — The different 
chiefs, and communications witn them. — The Sultan and his 
Pangerans. — Objects of the visit accomplished. — Return to 
Sariwak. — Ceremonies of the cession.— Sail for Singapore 199 

CHAPTER XV. 

Captain KeppePs voyage in the Dido vnih Mr. Brooke to Sara- 
wak.— Chase of thTM piratical prahns. — Boat expedition.— Ac- 
tion with the pirates, and capture of a prahu. — Arrival at Sara- 
wak. — Mr. Brooke's reception. — Captam Keppel and his officers 
visit the Rajah. — The palace and the audience.— Return royal 
visit to the Dido. — Mr. Brooke's residence and household. — Dr. 
Treacher's adventure with one of the ladies of Macota's harem. 
^Another boat afliur with the pirates, and death of their 
chief 213 



^. CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER XVI. 

The Rajah's letter to Captain Keppel, and his reply. — ^Prepares 
for an expedition against the Sarebus pirates. — ^Pleasure excnr 
tdon up tne river.*-^he Chinese settlement. — ^The Singd moun 
tain. — Interior of the residences. — Dyak festival of Maugut.— 
Relics. — Sporting. — Return to Sarawak. — The expedition 
against Sarebus.---State and number of the assailing force. — 
Ascent of the river. — ^Beauty of the scenery . . Page 228 

CHAPTER XVII. 

Ascent ef the river to Paddi.— Town taken aoid bant.— Narrow 
escape of a reinforcement of friendly^ Dyaks.— Night-attack 
by the pirates. — Conference : they submit.-^^Proceed against 
Pakoo. — Dyak treatment of deaa enemies.— Destruction of 
Pakoo, and submission of the pirates. — ^Advance upon Rem- 
bas. — ^The town destroyed : the inhabitants yield. — Satisfactory 
effects of the expedition.^-Deatfa: of Dr. Sunpson. — Triumph- 
ant return to Sarawak 242 

CHAPTER XVffl. 

Captain Eeppel saile for China. — Calcutta.— The Dido ordered to 
Borneo again.— Arrival at Sar&wak.— Efifect of bar presence 
at Sarawak. — Great improvements visible. — Atrocifciea of 
the Sakarran pirates.— Mr. Brooke's letter. — Captain Sir E. 
Belcher's previous visit to Sar&wak in the Samarang. — Coal 
found. — Second letter from the Rajah Muda Haasim. — Expe- 
dition against the Sakarran pirates. — Patusen destroyed. — 
Macota remembered, and his retreat burnt. — Further fighting, 
and advance. — Ludicrous midnight alarm . . 257 

CHAPTER XIX. 

Seriff Muller's town sacked. — ^Ascend the itver m pursuit of the 
enemy. — Gallant exploit of I^ieutenant Wade.-^Hi8 death and 
funeral. — Interesting anecdote of him. — ^Ascend the Sakarran 
branch.— Native bokta hemmed in by pirates, and their erewe 
slaughtered to a man. — Karangan destroyed.— Captain Sir E. 
Belcher arrives in the Samarang's boats. — Return to Sara- 
wak. — New expedition against Seriff Sahib and Jaffer.— Ma- 
cota captured. — Flight of Seriff Sahib.— Conferences. — Seriff 
Jaffer deposed. — Mr. Brooke's speech in the native tongue.— 
End of the expedition, and return to Sar&vmk.— The Dido sails 
for England 9f74 

CHAPTER XX. 

Later portion of Mr. Brooke's JoumaL— Departure of Captain 
Keppel, and arrival of Sir £. Belcher. — ^Mr. Brooke prooeeds, 
with Muda Hassim, in the Samarang to Borneo. — Labaan ex- 



amined. — Returns to ^»r&wak. — Visit of Lingire, a Sarebus 
chief. — The Dyaks of Tunima and Bandar Cassim. — Meets an 
ussembly of Malays and Dyaks. — ^Arrival of Lingi, as a deputa- 
tion from the Sakarran chiefe. — ^The Malay character. — fixcur- 
•ion up the country. — Miserable effects of excess m opium- 
smoking. — PictuFesque aJ^tuation of the Sow villi^e of J^a-at. 
— Nawang. — Feast at ^-at. — Ketuios bom^.— ponferences 
with DjUL chiefs . Pa^e 299 

CHAPTER XXI. 

Mr. Brooke's memorandam on the piracy of the Malayan Archi- 
pelago. — The measures r^uisite for its suppression, and for 
the consequent extension ofBritish commerce in that important 
locality 302 

CHAPTER XXII. 

Arrival of Captain Bethune and Mr. Wise. — Mr. Brooke appoint- 
ed her Majesty's Agent in Borneo. — Sails for Borneo Prop- 
er. — Mnda nassim's measures for the suppression of piracy.— 
Defied by Seriff Houseman. — Audience of the Sultan, Muda 
Hassim, and the Pangerans. — Visit to Labuan. — Comparative 
eligibility of Labuan and Balambangan for settlement. — Coal 
discovered in Labuan. — ^Mr. Brooke goes to Singapore and vis- 
its Admiral Sir T. Cochrane. — ^The upas-tree. — Proceeds with 
the Admiral to Borneo Proper. — Punisoment of Pangeran Usop. 
— The battle of Malludu. — Seriff Houseman obliged to fly. — Visit 
to Balambangan. — ^Mr. Brooke parts with the Admiral, and goes 
to Borneo Proper. — An attempt of Pangeran Usop defeated.-— 
His flight, and pursuit by Pangeran Budrudeen. — ^Triumphiint 
reception of Mr. Brooke m Bomea — Returns to Sarawak 314 

CHAPTER XXni. 

Borneo, its geographical bounds and leading divisions. — British 
settlements in 1775. — The province of Sar&wak formally ceded 
by the sultan in perpetuity to Mr. Brooke its present ruler. — 
General view of the Dyaks, the aborigines ot Borneo.— The 
Dyaks of Sar&wak, and adjoining tribes ; their past oppression 
and present position 329 

CHAPTER XXIV. 

Proposed British settlement on the northwest coast of Borneo, 
and occupation of the island of Labusn. — Governor Crawfurd's 
opinions thereon 345 

Concluding Observations 355 

Pofltflcript to Second Edition 350 



XU CONTENTS; 

APPENDIX. 

L Natural History. Mr. Brooke's report on the Mias Page 365 

s a Philology 370 

m. Proposed Exploring Expedition to the Asiatic Archipel- 

Ago» by James Brooke, Esq. 1838 .... 373 

IV. Sketch of Borneo, or Pulo Kalamantan, by J . Hunt, Esq. 381 

y. Extracts from the late Mr. Williamson's Joomal . 400 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 



CHAPTER L 

The Chinese War having terminated, Captain Keppel in H.M.9. 
Dido appointed to command of the Straits station. — Meeting 
with Mr. Brooke. — Sketch of his life. — Mr. Brooke's outward 
Toyage in the Royalist.— Touch at Singapore. — ^Arrival off the 
coast of Borneo. — Land at the island of Talang Talang.'^lnter- 
course with the Bandar. 

At the conclusion of the Chinese war, the comman- 
der-in-chief^ Vice^p Admiral Sir WiWam Parker, ordered 
the Dido to the Malacca Straits, a station in which was 
included the island of Borneo ; our principal daties being 
the protection of trade, and suppression of piracy. 

In the month of March, 1843, while at Pinang, I 
received intimation from the governor of various daring 
acta of piracy having been committed near the Bomeon 
coast on some vessels trading to Singapore. I proceeded 
to that port ; and, while undergoing a partial refit, made 
the acquaintance of Mr. Brooke, who accepted my invi- 
tation to return to Sarftwak in the Dido ; and I could 
not have visited Borneo witii a more agreeable or intel- 
ligent companion. 

The objects^ of Mr. Brooke in leaving England, the 
reasons which induced him to settle at Sarawak, and the 
circumstances which have led him to take so deep an 
interest in promoting the civilization and improving the 
condition of the singular people whom he has adopted, 
form indeed a story very unlike the common course of' 
events in modem times. 

But before illustrating these circumstances from his 
own journals, it may be acceptable to say a few words 
1 A 



2 EXPEDITION TO BQRNEO. 

respecting the iDdividual himself ^d his extraordinary 
career. I am indebted to a mututd friend, acquainted 
with him from early years, for the following brief but 
interesting outline of his life ; and have only to premise, 
that Mr. Brooke is the Uneal representativo of Sir Robert 
Vyner, baronet, and lord mayor of London in the reign 
of Charles II. ; Sir Robert had but one child, a son. Sir 
George Vyner, who died childless, and his estate passed 
to his heir-at-law, Edith, his father*s eldest sister, whose 
lineal descendant is our friend. Sir Robert was renowned 
for his loyalty to his sovereign, to whom he devoted his 
wealth, and to whose memory he raised a monument. 

"Mr. Brooke was the second, and is now the only 
surviving son of the late Thomas Brooke, Esq., of the 
civil service of the East India Company ; was bom on 
the 29th April, 1803; went out to India as a 6adet, 
wl\ere he held advantageous situations, and distinguished 
himself by his gallantry in the Burmese war. He was 
shot through the body in an action with the Burmese, 
received the thanks of the government, and returned to 
England for the recovery of his prostrated strength. He 
resumed his station, but shortly afterward relinquished 
the service, and in search of health and amusement left 
Calcutta for China in 1830. In this voyage, while going 
up the China seas, he saw for the first time the islands 
of the Asiatic Archipelago — ^islands of vast importance 
and unparalleled beauty — flying neglected, and almost 
unknown. He inquired and rec^, and became convinced 
that. Borneo and the Eastern Isles afforded an open field 
for enterprise and research. To carry to the Malay 
races, so long the terror of the European merchant- 
vessels, the blessings of civilization, to suppress piracy, 
and extirpate the slave-trade, became his humane and 
generous objects ; and from that hour the energies of 
his powerful mind were devoted to this one pursuit. 
Often foiled, often disappointed, but animated with a 
perseverance and enthusiasm which defied all obstacle, 
he was not until 1838 enabled to set sail from England 
on his darling project. The intervening years had been 
devoted to preparation and inquiry ; a year speot in the 
Mediterranean had tested his vessel, the Royalist, and 
his crew ; and so completely had he studied his subject 



*^- 



TO 



THE EARL OF ALBEMARLE. 



My dear Father, 
You could scarcely have anticipated, from 
my profession, the dedication of a book in tes- 
timony of my gratituHe and affection ; but, hav- 
ing had the good fortune to acquire the firiend- 
ship of Mr. James Brooke, and to be intrusted 
by him with a narrative of his extraordinary 
career in that part of the world where the ser- 
vices of the ship I commanded were required, I 
am not without a hope that the accompanying 
pages may be found worthy of your approval, 
and not altogether uninteresting to my countr]|^. 
I am, my dear father. 

Your affectionate son, 

Henrt Kbppel. 

IDroxfofrij January, 1846. 



PREFACE 

TO 

THE FIRST EDITION. 



The visit of her majesty's ship Dido to Bor- 
neo, and her services against the pirates, oc- 
cupy comparatively so small a portion of this 
volume, that some excuse may be necessary 
for its leading title. 

It was only by undertaking to make the ac- 
count of them part of the narrative, that I could 
prevail upon my friend Mr. Brooke to intrust 
me with his Journal for any public object ; and 
when I looked at his novel and important po- 
sition as a ruler in Borneo, and was aware how 
much of European curiosity was attached to 
it, I felt it impossible not to consent to an ar- 
rangement which should enable me to trace 
the remarkable career through which he had 
reached that elevation. I hope, therefore, to 
be considered as having conquered my own 
disinclination to be the relater of events in 
which I was concerned, in order to overcome 
the scruples which he entertained against being 
the author of the autobiographical sketch, em- 
bracing so singular a portion of his life, which 
I have extracted from the rough notes confided 
to me. 

That his diffidence in this respect was 
groundless will, I trust, be apparent from these 

A2 



) 



VI PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION. 

pages, however indifferently I may have ex-e- 
cuted my unusual task, during a long home- 
ward sea- voyage ; and, from the growing in- 
terest which has arisen throughout the country 
for intelligence on the subject of Borneo and 
the adjacent archipelago, I venture also to in- 
dulge the belief that the general information 
will be deemed no unfit adjunct to the story of 
personal adrentore. 



ADVERTISEMENT 

TO 

THE SECOND EDITION. 



The text of this edition has been carefully 
revised, and has undergone numerous verbal 
alterations ; some portions of it have been 
transposed, and a few additions have been 
made to the work. [In the American edition, 
a few pages of matter, of no interest to Ameri- 
can readers, have been omitted from the Ap^ 
pendix.] 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 



The Chinese War having teirmiiiated, Captain Keppel in H.M.8. 
Dido appointed to command of the Straits station. — Meeting 
with Mr. Brooke.—Sketch of his life. — liCr. Brooke's outwara 
voyage in the Royalist.— Touch at Singapore. — Arrival off the 
coast of Borneo. — Land at the island of Talang Talang.— Inter- 
course with the Bandar ...... Pag€ 1 

CHAPTER n. 

Progress : observations. — Description of the coast of Borneo.— 
Account, ^Lc. of a Pangeran. — Arrival at Sarftwak. — Meetisfi 
with Rajah Muda Hassim, and convers^ioiM. — The Town. — 
blerchange oi visits and presents. — Ezcfltsion to Dyak tnbes. 
— Resources and commercial producta .... 14 

CHAPTER m. 

Second Cruise : up the River Lundu. — ^Tbe Siteowan Dyaka. — 
Their Town of Tungong. — Their Physical Proportions, and 
Words of their Language.— Their Customs. — Skull-trophies. — 
Religious Ceremonies and Opinions. — Their Omamenta — Ap- 
pearance of both Sexes. — Dress and Morals. — Missionary Pros- 
pects of Conversion, and Elevation in the Social Scale.— Ooit- 
ernment. Laws, and* Punishments. — Dsncee. — Iron Manufiic- 
turing.— Chinese Settlement. — Excursion continaed . 32 

CHAPTER IV. 

Renewed intercourse with the Rajah.— Prospects of trade. — Ou- 
rang-outang, and other animals. — The two sorts of mias. — Des- 
cription of the Rajah, his suite, and Panglimas, &c. — ^The char- 
acter of the natives. — Leave Sar&wak. — Songi Dyaks. — Visit 
Seriff Sahib. — Buyat tongue. — Attack by pirates.— Sail for Sin- 
gapore .V '. • • 45 

CHAPTER V. 

Summary of information obtained daring this visit to Borneo.— 
Geographical and topographical observations. — Produce. — Va- 
rious Dyak tribes. — Natural history. — ^Language.— Origih af 
Races. — Sail from Singapore. — Celebes. — ^Face of the country. 
—Waterfall 59 



VlU CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER VI. 

Dain Matara, the Bugis. — Excursions in Celebes. — Dispute with 
the Rajah's son-in-law. — Baboon shot.-^Appearance of the 
country. — Visit the Resident. — Barometrical observations. — 
The Bugis. — Geography. — Coral reefs. — Visit the Rana of La- 
matte. — Population and products of the country . Page 72 

CHAPTER Vn. 

Mr. Brooke^s second visit to Sarawak. — The civil war. — Re- 
ceives a present of a Dyak boy. — Excursion to the seat of war. 
— Notices of rivers, and settlements on their banks. — Deaths 
and burials. — Reasons for and against remaining at Sar&wak. — 
Dyak visitors. — Council of war. — ^Why side with the Rajah. 
— Mode of constructing forts. — State of enemy's and Rajah's 
forces. — Conduct of the war 87 

CHAPTER Vni. 

Appearance of the country. — Progress of the rebel war.^dhar- 
acter of the Sow and Smg^ Dyaks. — ^Their belief in augury. — 
Ruinous effects of protracted warfare. — Cowardice and boasting 
of the Malays. — Council of war. — Refuse to attack the enemy's 
forts. — Rebels propose to treat. — The Malays oppose. — Set out 
to attack the rebels, but frustrated by our allies. — Assailed by 
the rebels. — Put them to flight. — Treat with them. — They 
surrender. — Intercede with the Rajah for their Uvea. — ^Renewed 
treachery of the Malays 100 

CHAPTER IX. 

Retrospect of Mr. Brooke's proceedings and prospects. — Visit of 
a pirate fleet. — Intercourse with the chief leaders, and other 
characteristic incidents. — ^War dances. — Use of opium. — Story 
of Si Tundo. — Preparations for trading. — Conditions of the 
cession of Sarawak 119 

CHAPTER X. 

Obstacles in the way of coming to a satisfactoiy conclusion with 
Muda Hasslm. — ^The law of force and reprisal considered. — 
Capabilities of Sarawak. — Account of Sarebus and Sakarran 
pirates. — Excursion up. the river .-7- Visit to the Singd Dyaks. — 
Description of Mr. Brooke^s house at Sarawak. — Circum- 
stances relating to the wreck off Borneo Proper . 135 

CHAPTER XI. 

Return of the Royalist from Borneo Proper veith intelligence 
of the sufferers from the wreck of the Sultana.— ^ffect of the 
arrival of the Diana on the negotiations for their release.— Out- 



CONTENTS. IX 

rage and oppression of Macota. — ^Fate of the Snltana and her 
crew. — Mr. Brooke made Rajah of Sarawak. — Liberation of 
rebel prisoners. — State of Dyak tribes. — Court of justice open- 
ed. — Dyak burials, ai)d respect for the dead. — ^Malay cunning 
and treachery Page 151 

CHAPTER XII. 

Reflections on the new year. — ^The plundered village, and other 
wrongs. — Means for their suppression.— The new government 
proceeds to act. — ^The constitution. — Preparations for an expe- 
dition against the Sea Dyaks. — Form ol a treaty. — ^Wreck of 
the Viscount Melbourne. — Administration of justice. — Difficid- 
ties and dangers. — Dyak troubles. — Views and arrangements 
of the Chinese.— Judicial forms. — ^Wrongs and sufferings of the 
Lundus 164 

CHAPTER XIII. 

Ascent of the left-hand river to the Stabad.— Remarkable cave 
in the Tubbang. — Diamond works at Suntah. — Retum.-^In- 
fested bv Dyak pirates. — A meeting of prahus, and fight. — Se- 
riff Sahib's treatment of the Suntan Dyaks. — Expedition 
against the Singd. — ^Their invasion of the Sigos, and taking 
heads.-r-The triumph over these trophies. — Arms and modes 
of war. — Hot and cold council-houses. — Ceremonies in the 
installation of the Orang Kava Steer KAJab- — Meeting of 
various Dyak tribes. — ^Hostile plans of Serin Sahib, and their 
issue. — ^R^solves to proceed to Borneo Proper . . 183 

CHAPTER XIV. 

Visit of Captain Elliott.— Mr. Brooke sails for Borneo Proper. — 
Arrival. — Visited by leading men. — Condition of the country.— 
Reception by the Sultan.— Objects in view. — The different 
chiefs, and communications witn them. — The Sultan and his 
Pangerans. — Objects of the visit accomplished. — Return to 
Sarftwak. — Ceremonies of the cession. — Sail for Singapore 199 

CHAPTER XV. 

Captain Keppel*s voyage in the Dido vnth Mr. Brooke to Sart- 
vyak. — Chase of three piratical prahils. — Boat expedition.— Ac- 
tion with the pirates, and capture of a prahu. — Arrival at Sarft- 
wak. — Mr. Brooke's reception.— Captam Keppeland his officers 
visit the Rajah. — The palace and the audience.— Return royal 
visit to the Dido. — Mr. Brooke's residence and household. — Dr. 
Treacher's adventure with one of the ladies of Macota's harem. 
— Another boat affair with the pirates, and death of their 
chief 213 



^ CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER XVI. 

The Rajah's letter to Captain Kepoel, and his reply. — ^Prepares 
for an expedition against the Sarebus pirates. — ^Pleasure exctir 
^ion up the river. — ^The Chinese settlement. — ^The Sing^ moun 
tain. — Interior of the residences. — Dyak festival of Maugut.— 
Relics. — Sporting. — Return to Sarawak. — The expedition 
against Sarebus.--State and number of the assailing force. — 
Ascent of the liver. — Beauty of the scenery . . Page 228 

CHAPTER XVII. 

Ascent of the river to Paddi. — Town t9kea and bviTBt.-^Narrow 
escape of a reinforcement of friendly, I>yaks. — Night-attack 
by the pirates. — Conference : they sufaoiit.—- Proceed against 
Pakoo. — Dyak treatment of dead enemies. — ^Destruction of 
Pakoo, and submission of the pirates. — ^Advance upon Rem- 
bas. — The town destroyed : the inhabitants yield. — Satisfactory 
efifects of the expedition.-^Deatb: of Dr. Smipson. — Triumph- 
ant return to Sarawak 242 

CHAPTER XVin. 

Cwtain Eeppel sails for China. — Calcutta.— The Dido ordevsd to 
Borneo again.— Arrival at Sarftwak. — Effect of her presence 
at Sarawak. — Great improvements visible. — Atrocities of 
the Sakarran pirates. — ^Mr. Brooke's letter. — Captain Sir E. 
Belcher's previous visit to Sar&wak in the Samarang. — Coal 
found. — Second letter from the Rajah Muda Hassim. — Expe- 
dition against the Sakarran pirates. — Patusen destroyed. — 
Hacota remembered, and his retreat burnt. — Further fighting, 
and advance. — Ludicrous midnight alarm . 257 

CHAPTER XIX. 

Seriff Muller^s town sacked. — Ascend the nver m pursuit of the 
enemy. — Gallant exploit of Lieutenant Wade. — rlis death and 
fonerai. — Interesting anecdote of him. — Ascend the Sakanan 
branch. — Native boats hemmed in by pirates, and their crews 
slaughtered to a man. — Karangan destroyed. — Captain Sir E. 
Belcher arrives in the Samarang's boats. — Return to Sara- 
wak. — New expedition against Seriff Sahib and Jaflfer. — Ma- 
cota captured. — Flight of Seriff* Sahib. — Conferences. — Seriff* 
Jaffiar disposed. — ^Mr. Brooke's speech in the native tongue.— > 
End of the expedition, and return to Sarawak.— The Dido sails 
liar England 274 

CHAPTER XX. 

Later portion of Mr. Brooke's JoumaL— Departure of Captain 
Keppei,and arrival of Sir £. Belcher. — Mr. Brooke proceeds, 
with Muda Hassim, in the Samarang to Borneo.— Labuan ex- 



C0N7EKT9. II 

amined.— Returns to 8ar&w8k. — Visit of Lingire, a Sarebua 
chief. — The Dyaks of Tumma and Bandar Cassim. — Meets an 
9i88embly of Malays and Dyaks. — Arrival of Lingi, as a depatm- 
tion firom the Sakarran chiefs. — ^The Malay character. — Excmr- 
aion up the country. — Miserable efifects of excess in opium- 
smoking. — Picturesque situation of the Sow village of t|a-«t 
— Nawang. — Feast at Ra-at. — Returns home. — Conferences 
with Dyak chiefs i*4f«28P 

CHAPTER XXI. 

Mr. Brooke's memorandum on the piracy of the Malayan Archi- 
pelago. — The measures requisite for its suppression, and for 
the consequent extension of British commerce in that important 
locality 202 

CHAPTER XXII. 

Arrival of Captain Bethune and Mr. Wise. — Mr. Brooke appoint- 
ed her Majesty's Agent in Borneo. — Sails for Borneo Prop- 
er. — Muda Hassim's measures for the suppression of piracy.— 
Defied by Serifif Houseman. — Audience of the Sultan, Muda 
Hassim, and the Pangerans. — Visit to Labuan. — Comparative 
eligibility of Labuan and Balambangan for settlement. — Coal 
discovered in Labuan. — ^Mr. Brooke goes to Singapore and vis- 
its Admiral Sir T. Cochrane. — The upas-tree.— -Proceeds with 
the Admiral to Borneo Proper. — Punishment of Pangeran Usop. 
— The battle of Malludu. — Seriff Houseman obliged to fly. — Visit 
to Balambangan. — ^Mr. Brooke parts with the Admiral, and goes 
to Borneo Proper. — An attempt of Pangeran Usop defeated.— 
His flight, and pursuit by Pangeran Budrudeen. — Triumphant 
reception of Mr. Brooke m Borneo. — Returns to Sarawak 314 

CHAPTER XXni. 

Borneo, its geographical bounds and leading divisions. — British 
settlements in 1775. — The province of Sar&wak formally ceded 
by the sultan in perpetuity to Mr. Brooke its present ruler. — 
Creneral view of the Dyaks, the aborigines of Borneo.— The 
Dyaks of Sarawak, and adjoining tribes ; their past oppression 
and present position 329 

CHAPTER XXIV. 

Proposed British settlement on the northwest coast of Borneo, 
and occupation of the island of Labuan. — Governor Crawfurd's 
opinions thereon 345 

Concluding Observations 355 

Postscript to Second Edition 350 



XU CONTENTS. 

APPENDIX. 

L Natural History. Mr. Brooke's report on the Miaa Page 365 

n. Philology 370 

m. Proposed Exploring Expedition to the Asiatic Archipel- 
ago, by James Brooke, Esq. 1838 .... 373 
IV. SketchofBomeo,orPiiloKalamantan,byJ.Hmit,E8q. 381 

V. Extracts from the late Mr. Williamson's Journal . 409 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 



CHAPTER I. 

The Chinese War having terminated, Captain Keppel in H.M.9. 
Di4o appointed to command of the Straits station. — Meeting 
with Mr. Brooke. — Sketch of his life. — Mr. Brooke's outward 
Toyage in the Royalist. — Touch at Singapore. — Arriral off the 
coast of Borneo. — Land at the island of Talang Talang. — winter- 
course with the Bandar. 

At the conclusion of the Chinese war, the comman- 
der-in-chieff Vice-- Admiral Sir William Parker, ordered 
the Dido to the Malacca Straits, a station in which was 
included the island of Borneo ; our principal duties being 
the protection of trade, and suppression of piracy. 

In the month of March, 1843, while at Pinang, I 
received intimation from the governor of various daring 
acte of piracy having been committed near the Bomeon 
coast on some vessels trading to Singapore. I proceeded 
to that port ; and, while undergoing a partial refit, made 
the acquaintance of Mr. Brooke, who accepted my invi- 
tation to return to Sar&wak in the Dido ; and I could 
not have visited Borneo with a more agreeable or intel- 
ligent companion. 

The objects^ of Mr. Brooke in leaving England, the 
reasons which induced him to settle at Sar&wak, and the 
circumstances which have led him to take so deep an 
interest in promoting the civilization and im{n*oving the 
condition of the singular people whom he has adopted, 
form indeed a story very unlike the common course of' 
events in modem times. 

But before illustrating these- circumstances fi*om his 
own journals, it may be acceptable to sav a few words 
1 A 



2 EXPEDITION TO BQENEO. 

respecting the individual himself %pd his extraordinary 
career. I am indebted to a mutual friend, acquainted 
with him from early years, for the following brief but 
interesting outline of his life ; and have only to premise, 
that Mr. Brqoke is the lineal representative of Sir Robert 
Vyner, baronet, and lord mayor of London in the reign 
of Charles II. ; Sir Robert had but one child, a son, Sir 
George Vyner, who died childless, and his estate passed 
to his heir-at-law, Edith, his father^s eldest sister, whose 
lineal descendant is our friend. Sir Robert was renowned 
for his loyalty to his sovereign, to whom he devoted his 
wealth, and to whose memory he raised a monument. 

"Mr. Brooke was the second, and is now the only 
surviving son of the late Thomas Brooke, £sq., of the 
civil service of the East India Company ; was bom on 
the 29th April, 1803; went out to India as a <;adet, 
wl^ere he held advantageous situations, and distinguished 
himself by hia gallantry in the Burmese War. He was 
shot through l£e body in an action with the Burmese, 
received the thanks of the government, and returned to 
England for the recovery of his prostrated strength. He 
resumed his station, but shortly afterward relinquished 
the service, and in search of health and amusement left 
Calcutta for China in 1830. In this voyage, while going 
up the China seas, he saw for the first time the islands 
of the Asiatic Archipelago — ^islands of vast importance 
and unparalleled beauty — flying neglected, and almost 
unknown. He inquired and read, and became convinced 
that. Borneo and the Eastern Isles afforded an open field 
for enterprise and research. To carry to the Malay 
races, so long the terror of the European merchant- 
vessels, the blessings of civilization, to suppress piracy, 
and extirpate the slave-trade, became his humane and 
generous objects ; and from that hour the energies of 
his powerful mind were devoted to this one pursuit. 
Often foiled, of^en disappointed, but animated with a 
perseverance and enthusiasm which defied all obstacle, 
he was not until 1838 enabled to set sail from England 
on his darling project. The intervening years had been 
devoted to preparation and inquiry ; a year spent in the 
Mediterranean had tested his vessel, the Royalist, and 
his crew ; and so completely had he studied his subject 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 8 

and calculated on contingencies, that the least sanguine 
of his friends felt as he left the shore, hazardous and 
unusual as the enterprise appeared to be, that he had 
omitted nothing to insure a successful issue. * I go,' 
said he, * to awake the spirit of slumbering philanthropy 
with regard to these islands; to carry Sir Stamfoitl 
Raffles' views in Java over the whole archipelago. For- 
tune and life I give freely ; and if I fail in the attempt, 
I shall not have lived wholly in vain.' 

** In the admiration I feel for him, I may farther be 
permitted to add, that if any man ever possessed in him- 
self the resources and means by which such noble designs 
were to be achieved, that man was James Brooke ! Of 
the most enlarged views ; truthful and generous ; quick 
to acquire and appreciate ; excelling in eveiy manh|r sport 
and exercise ; elegant and accomplished ; ever accessi- 
ble; and above all, prompt and determined to redress 
injury and relieve misfortune, he was of all others the 
best qualified to impress the native mind with the high- 
est opinion of the English character. How he has suc- 
ceeded, the influence he has acquired, and the benefits 
he has conferred, his own uncolored narrative, contained 
in the following pages, best declares, and impresses on 
the world a lasting lesson of the good that attends indi- 
vidual enterprise, when well directed, of which every 
Englishman may feel justly proud." 

Such is the sketch of Mr. Brooke by one well com- 
petent to judge of that to which he bears witness. In 
pursuance of the mission thus eloquently and truly de- 
scribed, that gentleman left his native shores in the year 
1838, in his yacht the Royalist schooner, of 142 tons, 
bek>nging to the Royal Yacht Squadron, with a crew of 
upward of twenty men. His general views were dis- 
tinct and certain ; but the details into which they shaped 
themselves have been so entirely guided by unforeseen 
occurrences, that it is necessary to look to his first visit 
to Borneo for their explanation ; and in order to do so, I 
must refer to his private journal, which he kindly con- 
fided to me, after I had in vain tried to persuade him to 
take upon himself the publication of its contents, so rich 
in new and interesting intelligence. 



4 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

EXTRACTS FROM Mr. BROOKE'S JOURNAL. 

*^ I bad for some years turned my mind to the geog- 
raphy of the Indian Archipelago, and chenshed an ar- 
dent desire to become better acquainted with a country 
combining the richest natural productions with an unri- 
valed degree of luxuriant beauty. Circumstances for a 
tioLe prevented niy entering on this field for enterprise 
and research ; and when the barriers were removed, I 
had many preparations to make and some difficulties to 
overcome. 

" In an expediticm conducted by government, the line 
of discif^ne is so distinctly understood, and its infringe- 
ment so strictly punished, that small hazard, is incurred 
of any inconvenience arising from^ such a source. With 
an individual, however, there is no such assurance, for 
he cannot appeal to the articles of war ; and the ordinary 
legal eniactments for the protection of the mariner will 
not enable hin^ to effect objects so far removed beyond 
the scope of the laws. I was fully aware that many 
would go, but that few might stay ; for while a voyage 
of discovery in pro&pectu possesses great attractions for 
the imagination, the hardship, danger, and thousand 
other jiide realities, soon dissipate the illusion, and leave 
the aspirant longing for that home he should never have 
quitted. In like manner, seamen can be procured in 
abundance, but cannot be kept from desertion whenever 
any matter goes wrong ; and the total previous ignorance 
of their characters and dispositions renders this more 
likely, as the admission of one * black sheep' goes iax to 
taint the entire crew. 

*^ These considerations fully convinced me that it was 
necessary to form men to my purpose, and, by a line of 
steady and. kind conduct, to raise up a personal regard 
for myself and attachment for the vessel, which could 
nqt be expected in oidinary cases. In pursuance of thi» 
object, I was nearly three years in preparing a crew to 
my mind, and gradually moulding them to consider the 
hardest fate or misfortune under my command as better 
than the ordinary service in a merchant-vessel. How 
far I have succeeded remains yet to be proved ; but I 
cannot help hoping that I have raised the character oi 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 6 

many, and have rendered all happy and contented since 
they have been with me ; and certain am I that no men 
can do their duty more cheerfully or willingly than the 
crew of the Royalist. 

." I may pass over in silence my motives for under- 
taking so long and arduous a voyage ; and it will be suf- 
ficient to say, that I have been firmly convinced of its 
beneficial tendency in adding to knowledge, increasing 
trade, and spreading Christianity. The prospectus of 
the undertaking was published in the Geographical 
Journal^ vol. viii. part iii., of 1838, when my prepara- 
tions for sea were nearly complete. ' I had previously 
avoided making any public mention ot my intentions, for 
praise before performance is disgusting; and I knew I 
should be exposed to prying curiosity, desirous of know- 
ing what I did not know myself. 

»*On the 27th October, 1838, the Royalist left the 
river; and, after a succession of heavy gales, finally 
quitted the land on the 16th December. I may here 
state some farther particulars, to enable my readers to 
become better acquainted with her and her equipment. 
The Royalist, as already noticed, belonged to the Royal 
Yacht Squadron, which in foreign ports admits her to 
the same privileges as a man-of-war, and enables her to 
carry a white ensign. She sails fast, is conveniently 
fitted up, is armed with six six-pounders, a number of 
swivels, and small arms of all sorts, cairies four boats, 
and provisions for four months. Her principal defect is 
being too sharp in the floor, which, in case of taking the 
ground, greatly increases the risk ; but I comfort myself 
with the reflection that a knowledge of this will lead to 
redoubled precaution to prevent such a disaster. She 
is withal a good sea-boat, and as well calculated for the 
service as could be desired. 

" Most of her hands had been with me for three years 
or upward, and the rest were highly recommended. 
They are, almost without exception, yor^n^, able-bodied, 
and active — fit in all respects for enduring hardship and 
privation, or the more dangerous reverse of self-indul- 
gence, and willing to follow the fortunes of th^ Royalist 
and her commander through all the various shades of 
good or evil fortune which may betide. A fine, though 

A 2 



6 EXPEDITION TO BORNLO. 

slow passage took us to Rio Janeiro, which presents 
features of natural beauty rarely equaled. The wea- 
ther during our stay was liot in the extreme, and very 
wet, which marred, in some degree, the satisfaction I 
should otherwise have enjoyed in wandering about this 
picturesque country. I passed ten days, however, very 
agreeably, and departed with some regret from this brief 
visit to America and from my friends (if they will so 
allow me to call them) on board H.M.S. Calliope. I 
piuist not omit to mention that, during my stay, I visited 
a slaver, three of which (prizes to our men-of-war) lay 
in the harbor. It is a most loathsome and disgusting 
sight. Men, women, and children — the aged and the 
infant — crowded into a space as confined as the pens in 
Smithfield, not, however, to be released by death at the 
close of the day, but to linger, diseased and festering, 
for weeks or months, and then to be discharged into- 
perpetual and hopeless slavery. I wish I could say that 
our measures tended toward the abolition of this detest- 
able traffic ; but from all that I could learn and obsei*ve, 
I am forced to confess that the exertions made to abolish 
slavery are of no avail in this country, and never will be 
till harsher means are resorted to. 

"There are points of view in which this traffic wears 
a more cheering aspect ; for any one comparing the 
puny Portuguese or the bastard Brazilian with the ath- 
letic negro, cannot but allow that the ordinary changes 
and chances of time will place this fine country ifn the 
hands of the latter race. The negro will be fit to culti- 
vate the soil, and will thrive beneath the tropical sun of 
the Brazils. The enfeebled white man grows more en- 
feebled and more degenerate with each succeeding gen- 
eration, and languishes in a clime which nature never 
designed him to inhabit. The time will come when the 
debased and suffering negi'oes shall possess this fertile 
land, and when some share of justice shall be awarded 
to their cheerfol tempers and ardent minds. 

" Quitting Rio on the 9th, we cruised for a day or 
two with H.M.S. Calliope and Grecian ; and on the 11th, 
parting company, prosecuted our voyage for the Cape 
of. Good Hope." 

The next notice runs thus : — ** The aspect of Trie- 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 7 

tan d'Acunha is bold even to grandeur. The peak, tow- 
ering upward of eight thousand feet above the sea, is 
inferior only to Tenerifie, and the precipitous clifib over- 
hanging the beach are a fitting base for such a mountain. 
I regretted not being able to examine this island for omoT 
reasons, but princip^ly, perhaps, on account of the birds 
of the South Atlantic I had hoped to collect there, many 
of which are so often seen by voyagers, yet so Uttfe 
known and so vaguely described. 

** On the 29th March, after being detained a fortni|^t 
[at the Cape of Good Hope] by such weather as no one 
could regret, we sailed again in a southeaster, and after 
a passage of six weeks reached Java Head. 

** I had been suffering for some time under a severe 
indisposition, and consequently hailed the terminadoa 
of our voyage with double satisfaction, for I greatly re- 
quired rest and quiet — ^two things impossible to be had 
on ship-board. From lava Head we ghded 8k>whr 
through Princess Strait, and coasting along the island, 
dropped our anchor in Anjer Roads. The scenery of 
this coast is extremely lovely, and comprises every fea- 
ture which can heighten the picturesque ; noble moun- 
tains, a lake-like sea, and deeply indented coast-line, 
rocks, islets, and, above all, a vegetation so luxuriant that 
the eye never wearies with gazing on its matchless tints. 
Anjer combines all these beauties, and. possesses the in- 
calculable advantage of being within a moderate ride ef 
the refreshing coolness of the hills. We here procured 
water and provisions in abundance, being daily visited 
^crowds of canoes filled with necessaries or curiosities. 
Fowls, eggs, yams, cocoa-nuts, and sweet potatoes, were 
mixed with monkeys of vaiious sorts, paroquets, squir- 
rels, shells, an(i similar temptations on the stranger's 
purse or wardrobe. Great was the bartering for old clo&ies, 
handkerchiefs, and hats ; and great the number of use- 
less and noisy animals we received in exchange. Great, 
too, was the merriment aboard, and the excitement 
when the canoes first came. The transition from the 
monotony of a sea-life to the loquacious bustle of barter 
with a half-civilized people is so sudden, that the mind 
at once feels in a strange land, and the commonest pro- 
ductions proclaim the luxuriant climes of the tropics. 



8 BXPEDITIOir TO BOK9EO. 

Ufitil tiiis impression is made, we hardly know why wo 
have been sailing onward for four months past, so qoiet- 
and unvarying u the daily tencnr of a li£e aboard ship. 

** Ist June, Singapore. — On reaching Singapore I was 
most hospitably received by the kind inhabitants, and 
look up my abode with Mr. Scott. The quiet and re- 
pose ci lay present life, the gentle ride in the cool of 
the morning and evening drive after an early dinner, are 
already restoring my shattered strength^ and I trust 
soon to be enabl^ to prosecute my farther undertaking. 
In the mean time the Royalist is undei^oing a refit after 
her passage, and, like her owner, is dfuly improving in 
good looks. 

** I could say much of Singapore, for it is the pivot of 
the liberal system in the Archipelago, and owes its pros- 
perity to the enlightened measures of Sir Stamford 
Raffles. The situation is happily chosen, the climate 
healthy, the commerce unshackled, and taxation light ; 
and these advantages have attracted the vessels of all 
the neighboring nations to bring their produce to ^his 
market in order to exchange it for the manufiEu;tures of 
England. 

**The extent of the island is about 27 miles by 11 
Inroad. The town of Singapore stands on the south 
side, facing^the shores of Battam, and is intersected by 
a salt-water stream, which separates the native town 
from the pleasant residences of the European inhabi- 
tants; the latter stretch along the beach, and cover a 
space which extends to the foot of a slight eminence, on 
which stands the governor's house. Off the town lie 
the shipping of various countries, presenting a most pic- 
turesque and striking appearance. The man-of-war, 
the steamer, and the merchant-vessels of the civilized 
world, contrast with the huge, misshapen, and bedi- 
zened arks of China! The awkward prahus of the 
Bugis are surrounded by the light boats of the island. 
The semi-civilized Cochin-Chinese, with their vessels 
of antiquated European construction, deserve attention 
from this important step toward impi*ovement ; and the 
rude prahua of some parts of Borneo claim it from their 
exhibiting the early dawn of maritime adventure. 

i^mth July, — AfVer various causes of delay I sailed 



EXPEDITION' TO BORNEO. 9 

on this day fi*om Singapore. When I contrast my state 
of health at my atrival with what it now is, I may well 
be thankful for the improvement. Every kindness and 
hospitality has been shown me; 

** On Saturday at noon we got under weigh with a 
light breeze, and stood down the Strait on our way to 
Borneo. 

** 28^. — In the morning we were well out in the 
China Sea, running six knots per hour, N. I E. Lines 
of discolored water were seen about us, and about 11 a.m. 
we entered a field some two miles long and 400 yards 
wide. The consistence of this dirty mass war that of 
pea-soup, which it likewise resembled in color; and I 
doubt not the white water of the China Sea (vide Nau- 
deal Magazine) is referable to this appearance seen in 
the night, as may the report of rocks^ &;c. The Malays 
on bo8U*d called it ^sara,* and declared it to come from 
the rivers. On examination it appeared, when magni- 
fied, somewhat like a grsdn of barley or com. The par- 
ticles were extremely minute, soft, and, when rubbed 
between the fingers, emitted a strong smell like paint- 
oil ; a potent odor arose while passing through the thick 
patch. 

** It may not be superfluous to recount here the prep^ 
aratiens I have made for this trip to Borneo, or my in- 
tentions when I got there. Borneo Proper, once the 
seat of p'uracy, which few vessels could approach with 
safety, is now under the sway of the Kajah Muda Has- 
sim. The character given this rajah by many persons 
who know and have traded with him is good, and he is 
spoken of as generous and humane, and greatly inclined 
to the .English. These reasons have induced me to 
abandon my intention of proceeding direct to Malludu 
Bay, and during the season of the southwest monsoon to 
confine myself principally to the northwest coast. Muda 
Hassim being at present reported to be at Sar&wak, I 
propose, after taking a running sketch of the coast from 
Taojong Api, to enter the river of that name, and pro- 
ceed as far as the town. 

^ I believe I have availed myself of every means 
within my reach to render my visit agreeable tp the 
rajah. I cany with me many presents which are re- 



I 

10 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

ported to be to his likiog ; gaudy silks of Sarat, scarlet 
clothf stamped velvet, gunpowder, &c., beside a large 
quantity, of confectioneiy and sweets, such as preserved 
ginger, jams, dates, syrups, and to wind up aU, a huge 
box of China toys for his children ! I have likewise 
taken coarse nankeen to the amount of lOOZ. value, as 
the best circulating medium in the country. Beside 
the above mentioned preparations, I carry letters from 
the government of Singapore, to state, as far as can be 
done, the objects of my voyage, and to caution the rajah 
to take every cfure of my ssiety and that of my men. 
The Board of Commerce have at the same titne entrust- 
ed me with a letter and present to him, to thank him for 
his humanity to the crew of an English vessel wrecked 
on this coast. The story, as I had it from the parties 
shipwrecked, is highly creditable to his humanity. The 
vessel, called the Napoleon, was wrecked on the bar of 
Sarawak river in the northeast monsoon. The people 
were saved with difficulty, and remained in the jungle, 
where they were after a time discovered by some Ma- 
lays. Muda Hassim, on receiving intelligence of this, 
sent down and brought them to his town, collected all 
that he could recover from the wr6ck, clothed them 
handsomely, and fed them well for several months, and, 
on an opportunity arriving, sent them back to Singapore 
free of expense. 

*^ At the same time, however, that I have prepared 
to meet the natives as friends, I have not neglected to 
strengthen my crew, in case I should find them hostile. 
Eight stout men of the Onrang Laut, or men of the sea 
(IVfalays), have been added to the force. They are an 
athletic race, cheerful and willing ; and though not sea- 
man in our sense of the term, yet well calculated for 
thid^^pedition. They pull a good oar, and are invalua- 
ble in saving the Europeans the exposure consequent to 
wooding and watering. They possess, likewise, the 
knowledge of the jangle and its resources, and two of 
them have before been to Sarftwak and along the coast. 
Beside these, a young gentleman named Williamson 
accompanies me as interpreter ; and I have fortunately 
met with a medical gentleman, Mr. Westermann, a 
Dane, who is surgeon for this voyage, Mr. Williams 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 11 

having left me at Singapore. With these arrangements 
I look without apprehension to the power of the Malays ; 
and without relaxing in measures of the strictest vigi- 
lance, I shall never sleep less soundly when it comes to 
my turn so to do. 

** Augttst IsL' — I am, then, at length, anchored off the 
coast of Borneo ! not under very pleasant circumstances, 
for the night is pitchy dark, with thunder, lightning, 
rain, and squalls of wind. 

''*' 2d. — Squally bad night. This morning, the ck>ud8 
clearing away, was delightful^ and offered for our view 
the majestic scenery of Borneo. At nine got under 
weigh, and ran in on an east-by-south course 4^ or 5 
miles toward Tanjong Api. Came to an anchor about 
five miles from the land, and dispatched the boat to take 
sights .ashore, in order to form a base-fine for triangula- 
tion. The scenery may really be called majestic. The 
low and wooded coast about Tanjong Api is backed by a 
mountain called Gunong* Palo, some 2000 feet in height, 
which slopes down behind the point and terminates in 
a number of hummocks, showing from a distance like 
islands. 

** The coast, unknown, and represented to abound in 
shoals and reefs, is the harbor for pirates of every de- 
scription. Here, every man's hand is raised against hm 
brotiier man ; and here sometimes the climate wars 
upon the excitable European, and lays many a white 
face and gallant heart low on the distant strand. 

** 3<2.— Beating between Points Api and Datn. The 
bay, as fieir as we have seen, is free from danger ; the 
beach is lined by a feathery row of beautiful casuarinas, 
and behind is a tangled jungle, without fine timber; 
game is^ plentiful from the traces we saw on the sand ; 
hogs in great numbers, troops of monkeys^ and the print 
of an animal with cleft hoofs, either a large deer, tapir, 
or cow. We saw no game save a tribe of monkeys, one 
of which, a female, I shot, and another quite young, 
which we managed to capture alive. The captive, 
though the young of the black monkey, is grayish, 
with the exception of his extremities, and a stripe of 
black down his back and tail. Though very young, be 
* Gunong, a mountain, part of a chain. 



12 EXPEDITION TO BOftNfiO. 

ha9 already taken food, and we have some hope of pre- 
serving his life. - 

** We witnessed, at the same time, an extraordinary 
and fatal leap made by one of these monkeys. Alarmed 
by our approach, he sprang from the summit oi a high 
tree at the branch of one lower, and at some distance. 
He leaped short* and came clattering down some sixty 
or seventy feet dm id the jungle. We were unable to 
penetrate to the spot on account of a deep swamp to as- 
certain his fate. 

** A rivulet flows into the sea not fiir from where we 
landed ; the water is sweet, and of that clear brown 
color so common in Ireland. This coast is evidently the 
haunt of native prahus, whether - piratical or other. 
Prints of men's feet were numerous and fresh, and 
traces of huts, fires, and parts of boats, some of them 
ornamented after their mde fashion. A long pull of five 
miles closed the day. 

^^ Sunday f ^ih. — Performed divine service myself! 
manfully overcoming that horror which I have to the 
sound of my own voice before an audience^^ In the 
evening landed again more to the westward. Shore 
skilled by rocks ; timber noble, and the forest cTear of 
brushwood, enabling us to penetrate with ease as far as 
caution permitted. Traces of wild beasts numerous 
and recent, but none discovered. Fresh- wjoiter streams, 
colored as yesterday, and the trail of an alligator from 
one of them to the sea. This dark forest, where the 
ii'ees shdot up straight and tall, and are succeeded by 
generation after generation varying in stature, but strug- 
gling upward, strikes the imagination with pictures 
trite yet true. Here the hoary sage of a hundred years 
lies moldering beneath your foot, and there the young 
sapling shoots beneath the parent shade,' and grows in 
form and fashion like the^jarent stem. The towering 
few, with heads raised above the general mass, can 
scarce be seen through the foliage of those beneatl^ ; 
but here and there the touch of time has. cast his with- 
ering hand upon their leafy brow, and decay has begun 
his work upon the gigantic and unbending trunk. How 
trite and yet how true ! It was thus I meditated in my 
walk. The foot of European, I said, has never touched 



EXPEDITION TO BOEKEO. 13 

where my foot now presses — seldom the native wanders 
here. Here I indeed' behold nature fresh from the bo- 
som of creation, unchanged bj man, and stamped with 
the same impress she originailj bore ! Here I behold 
God's design when He formed this tropical land, and 
left its culture and improvement to the agency of man. 
The Creator's gift as yet neglected by the creature; 
and yet the time may be confidently^ looked for when 
the axe shall level the forest, and the plow turn the 
ground. 

*^ 6th. — Made sail this morning, and stood in for an 
island called Talang Taking, anchoring about eight miles 
distant, and sending a boat to take correct observations 
for a base-line. 

** Our party found Malays of Sarawak on the island, 
who were civil to them, and offered to conduct us up 
to-morrow, if we wanted their assistance. The pirates, 
both Illanuns and Dyaks, have been gone from the bay 
but a few days ; the former seaward, the latter up the 
rivers. 

*^7ih, — Morning calm. In the afternoon got under 
weigh, and anchored again near the island of Talang 
Talang; the smaller one a conical hill beeuring south. 
The Bandar* of the place came off in his canoe to make 
us welcome. He is a young man sent by Rajah Muda 
Hassim to collect turtles' eggs, which abound in this vi- 
cinity, especially on the larger island. . The turtles are 
never molested, for fear of their deserting the spot ; and 
their eggs, to the amount of five or six thousand, are col- 
lected every morning and forwarded at intervals to Sa> 
r&wak as aiticles of food. 

** Our visitor was exti'emely polite, and, in common 
with other Asiatics, possessed the most pleasing and easy 
manners. He assured ujs of a welcome from his rajah, 
and, in their usual phrase, expressed himself that the 
rajah's heart would dilate in his bosom at the sight of 
us. His dress consisted of trowsers of green cloth, a 
dark green velvet jacket, aqd his sarong round his waist, 
thrown gracefully over two krisses, which he wore at 
his girdle. His attendants were poorly attired, and 

♦ Pronounced short, for (property) BandbSra ; a treasurer, 
chief stewanl. 

B 



14 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

mostly unarmed — a proof of confideDce in us, and a de- 
sire to assure us of his own friendly intentions. I treat- 
ed him with sweetmeats and syrup, and of his own ac- 
cord he took a glass of sherry, as did his chief attendant. 
On his depu*ture he was presented with three yards of 
red cloth, and subsequently with a little tea and gun- 
powder." 



CHAPTER II. 

Progress: obserrations. — Description of the coast of Borneo. — 
Account, &c. of a Pangeran. — Arrival at Sarftwak.— Meetings 
with Rajah Muda Hassim, and conversations.— The Town. — 
Interchange of visits and presents — Excursion to Dyak tribes. 
— Resources and commercial products. 

I RESUME Mr. Brooke's Journal, which requires no 
introductory remark. 

** Aug» 8th, — ^A cloudy day, preventing us from taking 
our wished- for observations. I< made a boat-excursion 
round the two islands. The north one is somewhat the 
larger ; the southern one,^ running north and south, con- 
sists of two hills joined by a low and narrow neck of 
land. The water between these islands is deep, vary- 
ing from seven to six fathoms ; but between the smaller 
one and the main there are rocks and reefs ; and though 
a passage may exist, it would not be advisable for a 
vessel to try it. These two small islands possess all the 
characteristic beauties of the clime. Formed of brown 
granite, with a speck of white sandy beach, and rising 
into hills covered with the noblest timber, wreathed with 
gigantic creepers. 'Cream-colored pigeons flit from tree 
to tree, and an eagle or two soared aloft watching their 
motions. Frigate-birds are numerous; and several 
sorts of smaller birds in the bush, difficult to get at. A 
small species of crocodile, or alligator, was likewise seen : 
but we were not fortunate enough to shoot one. The 
natives, when asked whether they were alligators, an- 
swered in the negative, calling them crocodiles. The tides 
appear to be as irregular as tides usually are in a deep 
bay. The rise and faU of the tide is about fifteen feet. 
9^.-^After breakfiut this morning took our sights* 



it 



EXPEDITION TO BOENEO. 15 

and at twelve o^clock the latitude of the smaller Talang 
TalaDg and the ship for a base-Une. We yesterday took 
the same base-line by sound, firing alternately three 
guns from the vessel and three from the shore. 

**, 10^. — A squall from the northward brought in a 
chopping sea in the morning. We were favored with a 
visit from another native party, but the chief was in every 
respect inferior to our first acquaintance, Bandar Dowat. 

** 11^, Stmday. — Go^ under weigh early, after anight 
of torrents of rain. The breeze being directly out of 
Lundiu river, I stood as near it as i coum, and then bore 
away for Santobong, in order to reach Sarfiwak. From 
Gunong Gading the coast gradually declines, and forms 
two points. The first of these is Tanjong Bloungei, near 
whicht^on the right hand, runs a small river, of the same 
name. The next point is Tanjong Datu, which ^ows 
prominently from most parts of the bay. From Tanjong 
Datu the coast recedes into a bay, and again forms a 
few point, which I have christened Tanjong Lundo. 
The river Lundu disembogues itself into the bay just 
beyond the point of the same name ; and the land on 
its far bank forms a bight of considerable depth. The 
Lundu is a barred river with but little water ; though, 
judging from the opening, it is by no means smalL Our 
pilotslnform me at the same time, however, that within 
llie bar there is 4;onsiderable depth of water. 

**From the Sungei Lundu tiie land rises behind a 
wooded beach. The first hill, which may be said to 
form the larboard entrance of the river,^ is peaked, and 
called Sumpudin, and near it is a barred river of the 
same name. This range of high land runs some dis- 
tance ; and near its termination is the river Tamburgan. 
The low coast runs into another bight; and the first 
opening after the termination of the high land is the 
mouth of the river Seboo. Then comes another river ; 
after which the land rises into hills, gradually larger, till 
they terminate in a round-topped hill, which forms the 
starboard entrance (going in) of the Sarawak river. 

** This river discharges itself at the east corner of the 
bay ; and its locality is easily recognized by the highest 
peak of Santobong, which towers over its left bank, close 
to the entrance. A ship rounding Datu will readily per- 



16 BXPEIHTION^ TO BORNEO^ 

C6ive tlie high land of Santobong, showing like a krge 
island, with another smalier isl^d at its northern ex- 
tremity. Both these, however, are attached to the 
main : and the northernmost point, called Tanjong 
Sipang, is distinguished by two peaks, like horns, one 
small, the other larger. Steer from Data a^ direct course 
toward this high land, and when within a mile and a 
half or two miles of the shore, haul in> along the land, as 
there is a sand nearly dry at low water on the starboard 
hand, stretching from, the shore to the Saddle island, or 
Pulo Satang. The leading mark to clear this sand is to 
bring the hollow formed between the round hill at the 
right entrance of the Sarawak river and the next hill 
a-head, and as you approach the river's mouth, steer for a 
small island close to the shore, called Palo Karra, or 
Monkey Island. These marks will conduct you over a 
shoal with i three, the least depth at high water ; you 
will then deepen your water, and keep away for Ae 
low green point on the far side of the river, edging grad- 
ually in ; and when you are some distance from die op- 
posite low point on the port hand, cross the bar in three 
fathom (high water) nearly in ,the center of the river. 
You must hot, however, encroach on the larboard side. 
The bar is narrow, and just within is 7 and 7i fathom, 
where we are at present anchored. The scenery is 
noble. On our left hand is the peak of Santobong, 
clothed in verdure nearly to the top ; at his foot a luxu- 
riant vegetation, fringed with the casuarina, and termi- 
nating in a beach of white sand. The right bank of the 
river is low, covered with pale green mangroves, with 
the round hill above mentioned just behind it. Santo- 
bong peak is 2050 feet, or thereabouts, by a rough trig- 
onometrical measurement. 

** I2th. — Lay at anchor ; took angles and observations, 
and shot in the evening without any success. There is 
a fine species of large pigeon of a gray color I was desnr- 
ous of getting, but they were too cunning. Plenty of 
wild hogs were seen, but as shy as though they had 
been fired at all their lives. When the flood made, dis- 
patched my gig for Sarawak, in order to acquaint the 
rajah of my arrival. 

^*' I3ih* — ^Got under weigh, and in th<) second reach 



£XP£DITION TO BOK^EO. 17 

met our gig returniDg, followed by a large canoe, with a 
Paogei-an of note to welcome us. We gave him a sa- 
lute of five guns; while he, on his part, assured us of 
his rajah's pleasure at our arrival^ and his own desire 
to be of service. With the Pangeran . Oula Deen (or 
lUudeen, an^ice Aladdin), came the rajah's chief wri- 
ter, his shroflT, a renegade Parsee, a war-captain, and 
some others, beside a score of followers. They made 
themselves much at home, ate and drank (the less scru- 
pulous took wine), and conversed with ease and liveli- 
ness. No difference can be more marked than between 
the Hindoostani and the Malay. The former, though 
more self-possessed and polished, shows a constraint in 
manners and conversation, and you feel that his train- 
ing has made him an artificial character. The Malay, 
on the contrary, concealing as well the feelings upper- 
most in his mind,, is lively and intelligent, and his con- 
versation is not confined to a dull routine of unmeaning 
compliments. 

** Augttst 13th — The Pangeran spoke to me' of some 
ship-captain who was notoriously cruel to his Lascars, 
and insolent in his language to the Malays. He was 
murdered by his crew, and the circumstance was re- 
lated to me as though I was to approve the act ! * No 
Malay of Borneo (added the Pangeran) would injure a 
European, were he well treated, and in a manner suit- 
able to his rank.' And I am sure such a declaration, in 
a limited sense, is consonant with all known principles of 
human nature, and the action of the passions and feelings. 

** Our Pangeran was quite the gentleman, and a manly 
gentleman too. His dress was a black velvet jacket, 
trimmed with gold lace, and trowsers of green cloth, 
with a red sarong and kris. He was the only one of the 
party armed while aboard. The rest were good, quiet 
men, and one or two of them very intelligent. They 
took their leave of us to get back to the town at sunset ; 
but the ebb making, returned and stayed until twelve at 
night, when the tide turned in their favor. We had 
some difficulty in providing beds. The Pangeran slept 
in my cabin, and the rest were distributed about on 
couches or carpets. 

«' August 14th. — Got under weigh Mrith the flood, and, 
2 b 2 



18 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

favored by a light breeze, proeeeded up tBe rirer nearlj 
as far as the town. From the ignorance of the pilots, 
however, wcr grounded on a rock in the middle of the 
river in I^f fathom water^ and it took us an hour to^ieave 
the vessel off by the stern. Had the tide been falling, 
we should have been in a critical situation, as the rode 
is dry at low water; but as it was, we receivied no 
damage. Shortly after getting Off, several boats with 
assistance came from the phice, dispatched in haste by 
the rajah.. The intention was kind, though we needed 
not the aid. Being dark, we dropped anchor in 5^ fath- 
om, about li mile from the town. 

** I5th. — Anchored abreast of Sarftwak at seven, and 
saluted the rajah with twenty-one guns, which were 
returned with eighteen from his residence. The ra- 
jah's own brother, Pangeran Mahammed, then sahited 
the vessel with seven guns, which were returned. 
Having breakfasted, and previously intimated our inten- 
tion, we pulled ashore to visit the great man. He 
received ns in state, seated in his hall of audience, 
which outside is nothing but a large shed, erected on 
piles, but within decorated with taste. Chairs were 
placed on each side of the ruler, who occupied the head 
seat. Our party were placied on one hand ; on the other 
sat his brother Mahammed, and Macota and some others 
of his principal chiefs, while immediately behind him his 
twelve younger brothers were seated. 

" The dress of Muda Hassim was simple, but of rich 
material ; and most of the principal men were wefl, and 
even superbly, dressed. His countenance is plain, but 
intelligent and highly pleasing, and his manners perfectly 
elegant and easy. His reception was kind, and, I am 
given to understand, highly flattering. We sat, how- 
ever, trammeled with the formality of state, and our 
conversation did not extend beyond kind inquiries and 
professions of friendship. We were presented with to- 
bacco rolled up in a leaf, each about a foot long, and tea 
was served by attendants on their knees. A band play- 
ed wild and not unmusical airs during the interview, and 
the crowd of attendants who surrounded us were seated 
in respectful silence. After a visit of half an hour, we 
rose and took our leave. 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 19 

^* Sar&wak is but an oocasional residence of the Rajah 
Muda Hasdim, and he is now detained here by a rebell- 
ion in the interior. On my inquiring whether tiie war 
|Nt)ceeded favorably, he replied that there was no war, 
but merely some child^s play among hU subjects. From 
what I hear, however, from other quarters, it is more 
serious than he represents it ; cuaa hints have been 
thrown out that the rajah wishes me to stay here as a 
demonstration to intimidate the rebels. We shall see. 

** The town consists of a collection of mud huts erect- 
ed on piles, and may contain about 1500 persons. The 
residences of the rajah and his fourteen lnt>ther8 occupy 
the greater part, and their followers are the great major- 
ity of the population. When they depart for Borneo 
(or Bruni), the remainder must be a very smnll popula- 
tion, and apparently very poor. The river affords a few 
fish ; but there is little sign of cultivation either of rice 
or other grain. Fowls and goats seem the only other 
means of subsistence of these people. The geological 
features of the country are easily described. Vast 
masses of granite rock are scattered along the coast ; for 
instance, Gnnong Foe, Gading, Santo£>ng, 6cc, dec, 
which have evidently at some former perrod been de- 
tached islands. The. spaces' between these granite 
masses is now filled in with alluvial soil, intersected in 
every direction with rivers and streams, and on the low 
alluvial bank of the Sarawak river stands this little town. 
The distance from the sea is about twenty-five miles, 
through banks of mangrove and the Nepa palm, until 
approaching the town, where some jungle-trees first ap- 
pear. The breadth is about 100 yards, and the depth 
six fathoms at low water spring-tides in mid river oppo- 
site the rajah^s residence. In some places below, the 
river is narrower, and the depths considerable, varying 
from three to seven fathoms. The prominent points, 
however, are shallow, and the rocks bielow the town lie 
on the starboard han4 coming up just as the first houses 
appear in sight. The larboard hand should then be kept 
close aboard. Some other rocks are liliewise reported-; 
and in ascending the stream, though it be generally 
clear, a vessel itith or without a pilot should have a boat 
a-head sounding. In the evening I went ashore sud- 



20 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

denly to pay a visit to the rajah^ in order, if possible, to 
break through the ^bonds of formality. The great matt 
soon made his appearance, and received us very well. 
We talked much of the state of his country and of ours ; 
but he was very guarded when I spoke of the Dutch. 
* He had no dealings whatever (he said) with them, and 
never allowed their vessels to come here, and therefore 
could not say what they were like.' We sat in easy 
and unreserved converse, out of hearing of. the rest of 
the circle. Hib expressed great kindness to the English 
nation ; and begged itie to tell him reaUy which was the 
most powerful nation, England or Holland, or, as he sig- 
nificantly expressed it, which is thereat, and which the 
rat?' I assured him that England was the mouser, 
though in this country Holland had most territory. ' We 
took our leave after he had intimated his intention^ of 
visiting us to-morrow morning. 

"16^. — We were ready to receive the rajah after 
•breakfast; but these affairs of state are not so easily 
managed. There came two diplomatists on board to 
know, in the first place, how many guns we intended to 
salute with, and, in the second, whether I would go 
ashore in my gig, in order to fetch the chief and his bro- 
ther off. The latter request I might have refused, and 
in a diplomatic light it was inadmissible ; but I readily 
conceded it, because, in the first place, it was less trou- 
blesome than a refusal ; and, in the next, I cared not to 
bandy paltry etiquets with a semi-savage ; and what- 
ever pride might whisper, I could not, as an individual 
traveler, refuse an acknowledgment of the supremacy 
of a native prince. I went accordingly. The great man 
came on board, and we treated him with every distinc- 
tion and respect. Much barbaric state was maintain- 
ed as he quitted his own residence. His sword of state 
with a gokl scabbard, his war-shield, jewel-hilted kris, 
and flowing ^orse-tails, were separately carried by the 
grand officers of state. Bursts of wild music announced 
his exit His fourteen brothers and principal Panger- 
ans surroimded him, and a number (formidable on the 
deck of a vessel) covered the rear. He stayed two 
hours and a half; ate and drank, and talked with great 
familiarity; till the oppressive heat, of the crowded 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 21 

cabin caused me to wish them all to another place. 
However, he departed at last, under a sahite of twenty- 
one guns ; and the fatigues of the day were satisfacto- 
rily brought to a close. I afterward sent the rajah the 
presents I had brought for him, consisting of a silk sa- 
rong, some yards of red cloth and velvet, a pocket-pistol, 
scissors and knives, with tea, biscuits, sweetmeats, China 
playthings, dec. dec. A person coming here should be 
provided with a few articles of small importance to sat- 
isfy the crowd of inferior chiefs. Soap, small parcels of 
tea, lucifers, writing-paper, a large stock of cigars, bis- 
cuits, and knives, are the best ; for, without being great 
beggars, they seem greatly to value these trifles^ even 
in the smallest quantity. The higher class inquired 
frequently for scents ; and for the great men, I know 
no present which would be more acceptable than a 
small pier-glass. All ranks seemed greeitly pleased 
with those aboard ; and sotae of the lower orders, 
quite ignorant of the reflection, were continually laugh- 
ing, moving, sitting, and rising, to observe the corres- 
ponding effect. 

*^lQth. — In the morning I intimated my intention of 
paying a visit to the Panseran Muda Mahammed ; and 
being apprised of his readiness to see us, I went ashore 
to his house. He was not, however, in :the room to 
receive us ; nor, indeed, was I much surprised at this 
slight, for he is a sulky-looking, ill-favored savage, with 
a debauched appearance, and wanting in the intelligence 
of his brother the rajah. I seated myself, however, and 
remained some time ; but the delay exceeding what I 
considered the utmost limit of due forbearance, I ex- 
pressed to the Pangeran Macota my regret that hia 
compeer was not ready to receive me, adding that, as I 
was not accustomed to be kept waiting, 1 would return 
to my vessel. I spoke in the quietest tone imaginable, 
rose from my seat, and moved away ; but the assembled 
Pangeraos, rising likewise, assured me it was a mistake ; 
that he was not yet dressed, and would greatly regret it 
himself. I repeated that when I visited the raj^, he 
received me in the hall. While this brief discussion passed, 
the culprit Muda Mahammed appeared and apologized 
for his remissness, assuring me that the error was hia 



22 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO,. 

attendants', who told him I was not coming for an hour. 
The excuse of course passed current, though false, as 
excuses generally are. I vindicated my independence, 
not until it was necessary ; and I am well aware that 
any endeavor of a native to commit an indirect rudeness, 
if met with firmness and gentleness, always recoils on 
his own head. The routine of the visit resembled our 
last — ^tea, cigars, com{dimentary conversation and depart- 
ure. The Pangeran afterward sent me a present of 
fowls and goats, and I was right glad to have it over. 
Muda M ahammed is the * own ' brother to Muda Has^ 
sim, and next in rank here. As yet I had not made any 
request to the rajah to allow me to visit various parts 
of his country ; but thinking the time to do so was 
come (the ceremonial of arrival being past), I sent Mr. 
Williamson, my interpreter, to express my wish to 
travel to soihe of the Malay towns and into the countiy 
of the Dyaks. The latter request I fully expected, 
would be evaded, and was therefore the more pleas^ 
when an answer came giving a cheerful consent to my 
going among the Dyaks of Lundu, and visiting the 
towns oi Sadnng, Samarahan, &c. At the same time 
the rajah informed me, that if I went up the river, he 
could not be answerable for my safety,, as the rebels were 
not far distant, and constantly on the watch. Sarebus, 
another large Dyak town, he advised me not to visit, as 
they were inimical to his government, and a skirmish 
had lately taken place between them and some of his 
subjects. 

" 1 8^, Sunday. — Performed service. In the evening 
walked ashore, but the jungle was wet after rain. 
Every day or night since arriving it has rained, some- 
times in torrents, at others in showers, and the sky has 
been so obscured that no observations can be obtained. 
The thermometer never ranges above 81°, and some* 
times stands at 59°. 

** At twelve at night we were surprised by a boat 
sent from the rajah, to say he was taken iH, and wanted 
some physic. We dispatched our surgeon, but it was 
found impossible to admit him into the sacred precincts 
of the seraglio, and he returned' with the information 
that the rajah was asleep. 



EXPBpmON TO BOBNEO. 28 

^ %lsL — Our ^et were Id readiness before daylight, 
ftud by five o^clock we left Kuchingf* and dropped 
down the river. The Pangeran lUudeen and the 
Panglima, both in prahus, accompanied us, and with 
our k>ng-boat (the Skimalong) formed quite a gay pro- 
cession. The prahu of the Pangeran pulled twelve 
paddles, mounted two brass swivels, and in all had a 
crew of about twenty men. The PanglimaU boat like- 
wise carried a gun, and had about ten men ; while the 
Skimft^ng mounted an iron swivel, and carried six 
Englishmen and one of our Singapcn-e Malays. With 
tibis equipment we might be pronounced far superior 
to any force of the rajah^s enemies we were likely to 
meet. 

** We passed from. the Sarawak river into the Moro- 
taba. At the junction of the two streams the Morotaba 
is narrow ; but at no great distance, where it meets the 
Quop, it becomes wider, and in some places more than 
half a mile across. 

*^ The river .Quop is a fine stream, fully, as fjeir as I 
could see, as broad as the Morotaba or Sarawak. Be- 
yond the junclion of the Quop and Morotaba the latter 
river divides into two branches — the left-hand one, 
running to the sea, retains the name of Morotaba, 
while die right is caUed Riam. 

»t The Kiam is a fine stream ; at its junction with 
the Morotaba it takes that name, as the Morotaba does 
that of Sarawak where they join. Low mangrove (ur 
Nepa palm banks characterize these streams ; and 
occasionally slight eminences, with timber, are to be 
seen. The highest hill is about 3000 feet high, called 
Matang, and is at the point of junction between the 
Morotd»a and Kiam. 

** The next river on the starboard hand is the Tanjan, 
a small stream ; and some distance from it, the Kul- 
luong, or Parwheet river, more properly the continua- 
tion of the Riam. On the port hand is a smaller river, 
running N. 35°' £. We pursued this stream, called 
Ugong Passer ; and after a hard pull against a strong 
tide, emerged into the larger river of Samarahan. The 

* The old name for the town of Sarawak. 



24 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

tide was so strong against us that we brought up for a 
couple of hours till it slacked, and between four and 
five got under weigh again, with the expectation of 
shortly arriving at our place of destination. Hour aftey 
hour passed, however; the sun set; the glorious moon 
rose upon our progress as we toiled slowly but cheer- 
fully onwai'd. Silence was around, save vwhen broken 
by the wild song of the Malay boatnien, responded to 
by the song of our tars to the tune of * Bonnie laddie. 
Highland laddie.' 

** It was such a situation as an excitable mind might 
envy. The reflectiou that we were proceeding up a 
Bomeon river hitherto unknown, sailing where no 
European ever sailed before ; the deep solitude, the 
brilliant night, the dark fringe df retired jungle, the 
lighter foliage of the river bank, with here and there a 
tree flashing and shining with fireflies, nature's tiny 
lamps glancing and flitting in countless numbers and 
incredible brilliancy ! At eleven at night we reached 
Samarahan, having been eighteen hours in the boat, 
and fifteen at the oars, chiefly against tide. The men 
were tired, but cheerful. Indeed, I can give them no 
praise beyond their merits for conduct spirited, endur- 
ing, and yet so brderly as never to offend the native 
inhabitants, or infringe upon their prejudices. A glass 
of grog with our supper, and we all soon closed our 
eyes in comfortable sleep, such as fatigue alone can 
bring. 

" 22d. — The village of Samarahan consists of a few 
houses, built, as usual, upon posts, and standing close 
to the brink of the river. It contains from sixty to 
eighty inhabitants in all, and there is nothing in its site 
different from the rest of the country. While here, a 
boat, with a Dyak family, came alongside, consisting of 
a father, his son, and two daughters. They belonged 
to the Sibnowan tribe, and had a *■ ladang,' or farm, on 
the Samurahan, toward the sea. The women were 
good-looking ; one, indeed, handsome, plump, and intel- 
figent. They were naked to the waist, and ornamented 
wkh several cinctures of brass an'd colored rattans scraped 
very thin. 

" About ten we quitted Samarahan and proceeded 



- .- • -^.■^ 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO; 25 

up the river, stopping only to take a set of sights, and 
about seven in the evening reached Sibnow, having 
previously passed the villages of Rembas and Siniawan. 
Siniawan and Sibnow are not above half a mile from 
each other, and Rembas not far distant. They are all 
about the same size, consisting each of eight or ten 
houses, and containing sixty or eighty inhabitants. The 
river, during its course so far, is characterized by the 
same ctay-mud bank, evidently an alluvial deposit, with- 
out one rock to be seen. The banks are low, and for 
the most part cleared a quarter of a mile or more on 
either side, but the jungle is rarely disturbed beyond 
that distance. Occasionally^ however, the scene is 
varied by the rich foliage of this jungle, which here 
and there kisses the tide as it flows by^ and in some 
spots on the cleared ground arise clumps of trees that 
would be the pride of any park in Eiu*ope. Monkeys 
in great numbers frisked among the branches; add 
though unable to shoot them, they amused us. ofiten by 
their grotesque attitudes and the tremendous leaps 
they made. On one occasion we saw as many as 
twenty throw themselves, one after the other, from the 
branch of a high tree into a thick bush full forty feet 
below, and not one missed his distance or hold ! On 
our way to Sibnow the Pangeran had collected a num- 
ber of men for a deer-bant. The nets used, for this 
purpose are formed of rattans strongly wove together, 
which, being stretched along the jungle, have nooses -ot 
the same material, at three feet apart, attached to this 
ridge-rope. Beaters and dogs then hunt from the 
opposite quarter, and the deer, in escaping them, is 
caught in this trap. A length of sever^ hundred 
fathoms is stretched at once, each, separate part ot 
thirty or forty fathoms being joined on as required ; and 
I was told that in this way many deer were taken. 

*♦ A heavy rain came on directly after we had brought 
up, and quickly dispelled all enr preparatk>ns for sapper, 
by putting out our fire, cooling our hot water, and soak- 
ing oar ludf-broiled fowls. To a hungry man such an 
event is very disastrous ; but nothing could exceed the 
kindness- of our Malay friends. They took us to the 
best house in the village, prepared oor sapper, and pro 

C 



— N. 



26 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO, 

vided us with comfortable mats and pillows to aieep on. 
Some of our party preferred a bad supper aind wet bed 
to these accommodations; and, to consummat>e their 
discomlbit, they were kept awake a great part of the 
night by sandflies. Our lot in the house was more for* 
tunate. We heard the rattling of the pitiless rain, and 
commiserated those whose choice or distrust k^pt them 
in the boat. I obtained by this means an excellent op- 
portunity of seeing a Malay menage in its primitive 
simplicity. Women, children, and all th^ir domestic 
arrangements, were exposed to view. Nothing appeared 
to be concealed, nor could anything exceed the simple, 
kind-hearted hospitality of the inhabitants. The women 
gazed upon us freely ; and their children, with the 
shyness natural to their age, yet jiook a glance at the 
strangers. Never having seen a white man, their curi- 
osity was naturally excited ; but it was never offensive. 
Our supper consisted of an excellent curry, and cold 
venison broiled on a stick, flavored with a glass of sherry, 
and concluded by a cigar. We retired to a dry bed, 
laying our head on the pillow with as entire aifeeling of 
security as though reposing in England. 

** A description of this Malay dwelling, situated so 
far up this hitheito unknown river, may be interesting. 
Built, like other Malay houses, on posts, floored with 
split bamboo, and covered with the leaf of the Nepa 
palm, it presents the very beau ideal of fragili^, but 
affords, at the same time, many advant&ges, and with a 
little improvement might be rendered admirably calcu* 
lated for a new settler in any warm country. It is built 
at veiy small expense, is remarkably roomy, free from 
damp, and weather-proof. The interior of the Jiouse 
consists of four rooms, the center one large and com- 
modious, the front narrower, butthirty-six feet in length, 
a family sleeping- apartment on one side, and a kitchen 
at the back. These apartments Hre divided one from 
the other by partitions made of the Nepa; the doors 
were nicely spread with strong mats of Dyak manufac- 
ture. Bind on our arrival finer white mats were laid over 
these. The entrance of the house is approached by a 
ateep ladder, which in case of attack is easily removed. 
The river Samarahan is admirably calculated for trade, 



EXPEDITION TO BOSNSO. 27 

and, indeed, the same may be said of the whole conntiy, 
from the great faciliQr it offers of inland communication. 
There is no impediment for small vessels of 200 or 300 
tons navigating as far as Sibnow, the stream being deep 
and clear of danger. The tides in the river are strong, 
but not dangerously so ; and, sounding occasionally in 
every reach, we never found less water than three 
fathoms. The distant mountains, called Bukar (and 
some other name), are inhabited by Dyaks, and are 
said to offer many valuable articles of trade; and we 
may presume this true fironi the riches of the region 
whence the Sarawak river takes its rise. It is highly 
probable, indeed, that both these rivers, as well as tbo 
Quop and others, have their source in the same range, 
and will be found to afford the same mineral productions. 
Tin, the natives confidently assert, can be procured, and 
birds* nests in very considerable quantities. The latter 
article, I have heretofore ninderstood, was found only in 
the vicinity of the sea, whence the material of which 
they are composed is gathered ; but botii here and at 
Sar3,wak the best informed and most intelligent Malays 
assure me it ia^UkevHse found in the interior, and brought 
by the I^Bks from the mountains. The alluvial soil is 
a rich clay loam. The principal production at present 
is rice, of which considerable quantities are grown on 
the banks of the river, which accounts for the clearing 
of so many miles of the jungle. The mode of cultiva- 
tion is similar to what is pursued in Sumatra, and so 
well described by Marsden. A small spot is cleared of 
jungle, and when the soil is exhausted of its primeval 
richness, is deserted for another, which again in turn 
is neglected, and returns to its wild state. The rice 
produced is of excellent quality, and of a smaller grain 
than the Java rice we have with us. It is very white 
and of excellent flavor, and I am inclined to think is 
the * Padi ladang,' or rice grown on dry ground. (For 
rice, cultivation of, dec, &c., vide Marsden' s Sumatra^ 
p. 65.) .. 

** Beside rice, rattans are found in great quantities, 
and likewise Malacca canes, but whether of good quality 
I am not able to say. On my expressing a wish to see 
one, a man was dispatched into the jungle, and return- 



28 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

ed with one in a few minutes. Bees-wax is another 
article to be procured here at present to. the amount 
of thirty or forty peculs per year from Sibnow, Malacca 
canes a small sliip-load, rattans in abundance, and any 
quantity of Garu wood.* When We consider the. anti- 
mony of Sarawak, beside the other things previously 
mentioned (to say nothing of gold and diamonds), we 
cannot doubt of the richness of the country : but allow- 
ance must be made for the exaggeration of. nadve state- 
ments. 

"It must likewise be borne in mind, that these jur* 
ticlep are collected in small quantities in a country thinly 
populated; and for the purposes of' trade it would, be 
necessary to have a resident European >on the spot to 

fither the produce of the country ready for exportation, 
have no doubt that permission might be ebbadned for 
an English merchant to reside in the country, a^d that 
during the lifetime of the Rajah Muda Hassim he would 
be secure from outrage. The produce of the country 
might likewise be obtained (at first) at a low rate in ex- 
change for European goods suited to native tastes. In 
addition to the articles I have already nientioned, I must 
here add pins, needles, and thread, both gold and whitei» 
showy cheap velvets, yeUow, green, and red cloth» 
Surat silks, cottons, colored beads, (for the Dyaks)» naa- 
keens in small quantities, gold-lace of various qualities* 
gunpowder, muskets, pistok, flints, 6^., 6ce» The head 
man of Sibnow (Orang Kaya), when I asked him why 
he did not coUect the produce of the eoubtry, replied, 
that the inhabitants were few, and unless an English 
merchant was settled at Kuching to buy the tlungs, it 
was no use collecting them. - The uncertainty of sale, 
as well as the very small prices to be obtained from 
trading Malays, prevents these people using the advau" 
tages of ^eir country, and as yet they seemed to con- 
sider it impossible that vessels would come for them. 
That they will one day or other be convinced to the 
contrary, I am sure ; that it will be soon, I sincerely 
hope ; for I can see no reason, with a population and 
rulers so pacific, why a trade highly advantageous to 

* Aloes wood, Ligmum alots. 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 29 

Singapore should oot be opened. I considered our 
reception as an additional }»*oof how much better the 
natives are disposed where they have had no inter- 
course with Europeans ; how perfectly willing they are 
to extend a friendly hospitali^ when never previously 
injured or aggravated ; and as the first white men who 
ever visited their country, we can bear the most cordial 
testimony to their unaffected kindness. 

'" It is true that we were under the protection of the 
rajah, and accompanied by a Pangeran, and could have 
insisted on obtaining what was readily granted. But in 
case the natives hwl shown any aversion or .antipathy 
toward us, it would easily have been observed. 

** 23<^.— Heavy rain all the morning. Our salt pro- 
visions being exnausted, we procured a goat, which was 
cooked to'last during our upward passage. 

** At 12, the flood making, we quitted Sibnow, and 
passing through the ^me description of country, reached 
the village of Guntong, consisting of eight houses, and 
about sixty or seventy inhabitants. The scattered 
population on the banks of the river amounts, however, 
to an equal, or probably greater number than in the 
Villages. Beyond Guntong the country becomes wild, 
but beautiful, and the river gradually narrows until not 
above twenty-live yards wide. The depth, however, 
was three fiithoms at high water, where we brought up 
for the nighty, about five hours* pull from Guntong. The 
course of the river is so tortuous, that in one place two 
reaches are only divided by a neck of land five yards 
across ! 

^* We were now fairly in the bush, and beyond the 
range of our Pangeran's knowledge ; and I was not 
therefore surprised (though disappointed) when he in- 
timated the necessity of retm*ning. * There was noth- 
ing to see ; the river was narrow, rapid, and obstructed 
by trees ; the Dyaks hostile ; the rajah's enemies in 
ambush.' 

**I had nothing to answer, save my desire to proceed; 
but I felt, at the same time, bound in honor to return ; 
for to abuse the indulgence of a native prince on our 
first excursion would have been a poor way to obtain his 
future permission to visit other places. 

c2 



30 EXPEDITION TO BO&NEO. 

** I did everything man could do to shake the Pang9- 
rao^s resolution ; and I believe I should have; been sue- 
cessf ul, had his stock of tobacco and sirih* not been ex- 
pended. My last resource was resorting to the means 
found efficient with most men to induce theni to alter 
their opinion. I was content to gain Ji cimsent to (mr> 
proceeding some miles farther up the stream in the 
morning, and then returning with the ebb. Nothing 
during this contention could be more p#te than the 
Pangeran's manner; for he not only expressed but 
looked his regret, and urged on me his responsiiNlity to 
the rajah. The plea was unanswerable, thpugh I could 
not help suspecting the want of tobacco and bete} as the 
leading motive. 

•* 2^h, — ^We proceeded, as previously agreed, up the 
river some ten or twelve miles fiirther, during Which 
distance it narrows to an inconsiderable but deep stream. 
In many places it was not above eighteen feet wide, l¥ith 
trees overhanging the water. The depth was 2i fii^thonis 
high water ; but being the rainy season, it would not be 
deeper than necessary for boats aH the year round. In 
the early morning the. jungle presented axharmiiig 
scene. Long vistas of noble trees with a diversity (tf 
richest foliage were before us — in some places over- 
arching the water, and forming a verdant canopy Above 
our heads. Bh*ds were numerous, and woke ti&e woods 
with their notes, but rarely approached within shol. 
Pigeons in numbers and of several varioties were seen, 
but very shy and wild. * ' - . 

" We pushed on ahead of our attendant ^Pangeran, 
and pulled up long after the ebb had made. He bad a 
long chase, and exhausted his lungs in shptHing to us to 
return ; and at last, from pity and according to pronaise, 
I did so. Poor feUow, he was very glad, fired his swirel- 
gun, and then brought up for breakfast. . I, believe a few 
hours* progress would have brought U9 to the vicinity of 
the hills and into the country of the Dyaks ; and althoo^ 
disappointed at not .being allowed to proceed thither, I 
nevertheless comfort myself that we have penetratecl a 

* The Malay name for the betel, the aromatic Feaves of wbieli 
are chewed along with the pinang or areca nut, a little pure lime, 
and various spices. 



EXFEDITION TO BORNEO. 81 

fiondred miles up a Bomeon river hitherto anknown — 
a river likewise .(as far as we have yet examiDed it) ad- 
miriEibly calculated for the purposes of navigation and 
trad^, and which may at some future period become of 
importance not only to the trade of our settlement of 
Singapore, but even to the commercial interests of Great 
Britain. The general character of the Samarahan is 
similar to that of other tivers flowing through aUuvial 
■oils ; the stream is deep, with muddy banks and bottom, 
and apparently free from danger or obstruction. Of 
course these remarks are not i^eant to prevent the ne- 
cessity of caution in any vessel proceeding up, as our 
survey was necessarily very brief; and, like other rivers^ 
one bank will usually be. found deep, the other shallow; 
which must be attended to. 

** It now remains for us to proceed up the river from 
its mouth to its junction vvith the Ugong Passer ; and 
durakl it prove to have sufficient water for vessels on the 
bar, nothing more will be desired. 

^^ Returning, it took us five hours with a &ir tide to 
Sibnow ; the next ebb we reached Samarahan in three 
hours, where we stopped for the night. A heavy 
rain ' set in after we brought to, and continued till 
mormne. 

** 25m*-^The morning was cold and raw ; but cleared 
up as the stm rose. ' At 7 we started, and at a quarter 
past 10 reached the mouth of the Ugong Passer and 
thence into the Riam. Thus it took us Hi hours, with 
a strong ebb tide^ to pull the distance. We had ascended 
the river from the junction of the Ugong Passer. Mr. 
Murray's plan of the river will show the distance as 
taken of each reach, together with its bearing. The 
ebb tide lasted us some distance up the Riam ; but the 
flood inakingi we entered a small creek, called Taruson- 
gong, scarce wide enough for the boat to get through, 
and entirely overarched with the Nepa palm. The 
general direction of the creek was N.W., and we 
emerged firotn it into the Boyur river; and pulHng 
Ihrongh several reaches, got into the Quop,* and thence, 
after a while, into the Morotaba ; from the) Morotaba 

* The banks of the Boyur and Quop are Nepa palm. 



32 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

into the Sar&wak river, reaching the schooner at sunset, 
idl weU and happy. Thus ended our first cruise into 
the interior of Borneo.*' 



CHAPTER III. 

Second Cruise : up the. River Lundu.— The Sibnowan. DyakK— 
Their Town of Tungong. — Their Physical Proportions, and 
Words of their Langi^age.— Their Customs.— Skull-trophies. — 
Religious Ceremonies and Opinions. — Their Ornaments.— Ap- 
pearance of both Sexes. — Dress and Morals. — ^Missionary Pros- 
pects of Conversion, and £levation in the SoCi^ Scale. — Gov- 
ernment, Laws, and Punishments. — Dances. — Iron Manufac- 
turing. — Chinese Settlement. — Excursion continued. 

** Aug. ^Qih, — Our flotilla, constituted as before, quit- 
ted Sarawak with the ebb tide, and reached Santobong, 
at the mouth of the river, soon after the flood had made. 
We waited for the turn of the tide; and in wandering 
along the sand, I had a shot at a wild hog, but mduckily 
missed. I likewise saw a deer, very like a red deer, and 
nearly as large. The hog I fired at was a dirly white, 
with a black head, veiy unlike in this particulak to -any 
wild hogs I have hitherto seen either in India or £u- 
TG^ ; but several young pigs, likewise seen, were black. 

^^ With the flood we weighed anchor, intending to bring 
up at the mouth of the Seboo rivisr ; but the Skinndong 
outsailing the prahus, foolishly parted company, causing 
me much uneasiness, and keeping the prahus under 
weigh all night. I was at this time aboard the Pange- 
i-an's boat, where I usually slept. About 10 on the 31st 
we reached Lobrek Bay, and rejoined our boat. 

" With the flood tide we proceeded up Lundu river, 
which has Gunong Gading on the right hand. The 
comse of the river is very tortuous, but it appears every 
where of more than sufficient depth. The Dyak village 
of Tungong is situated about eighteen miles from the 
mouth, and takes its name from a small stream which 
joins the Lundu just below, on the left hand. It was 
dark when we arrived, and we ran against a boom formed 
of large trees run across the river as a defense against 
adverse Dyak tribes. We could see nothing of the 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 33 

town, save that it appeared longer than any we had yet 
visited. 

*' S^tember 1st. — The River Lundu is of considerable 
breadm, about half a mile at the mouth, and 150 or 200 
yai^s off Tungong. Tungong stands on the left hand 
(going up) close to the margin of the s]a*eam, and is in- 
closed by a slight stockade. Within this defense there 
is one enormous house for the whole population, and 
three or fouf small huts. The exterior of the defense 
between it and the river is occupied by sheds for prahus, 
and at each extremity are one or two houses belonging 
to Malay residents. 

** The common habitation, as rude as it is enormous, 
measures 594 feet in length, and the fi'ont room, or 
street, is the entire length of the building, and 21 feet 
broad. The back part is divided by mat partitions into 
the private apartments of the various families, and of 
these there are forty -five separate doors leading from 
the public apartment. The widowers and young un- 
married men occupy the public room, as only those with 
wives are entilled to the advantage of separate rooms. 
The floor of tkus edifice is raised twelve £Bet from the 
ground, and the means of ascent is by the trunk of a tree 
with notches cut in it — a most difficult, steep, and awk- 
ward ladder. In front is a terrace fifty feet broad, run- 
ning partially alongthe front of the buUding, formed, like 
the floors, of split bamboo. This platform, as well as the 
front room, besides the regular inhabitants, is the resort 
of pigs, dogs, birds, monkeys, and fowls, and presents a 
glorious scene of confrision and bustle. Here the ordi- 
naiy occupations of domestic labor are carried on — ^padi 
ground, mats made, &c., 6cc. There were 200 men, 
women, and children counted in the room and in front 
while we were there in the middle of the day ; and, al- 
lowing for those abroad and those in their own rooms, 
the whole community can not be reckoned at less than 
400 souls. Overhead, about seven feet high, is a second 
cnusy story, on which they stow their stores of food and 
their implements of labor and war. Along the large 
room are hung many cots, four feet long, formed of the 
hollowed trunks of trees cut in half, which answer the 
purpose of seats bj day and beds by night* The Sib- 
3 



34 EXPEDITION TO BOBNEO. 

nowan Dyaks are a wild-looking but , apparently (piet 
and inoffensive race. The apartment of their cbiet, by 
name Sejugah, is situated nearly in the center of the 
building, and is larger than any other. In front of it nice 
mats were spread on the occasion of our visit, while 
over our heads dangled about thirty ghastly ^ulls, ac- 
cording to the custom of these people. The chief was 
a man of middle age, with a mild and pleasing counte- 
nance and gentle mannei*s. He had around him several 
sons and relations, and one or two of the leading men of 
his tribe, but the rest seemed by no means to be re- 
strained by his presence, or to show him any particular, 
marks of respect : certainly nothing of the servile obse- 
quiousness observed by the Malays before their priuce* 
Their dress consists of a single strip oi cloth round the 
loins, with the ends hanging down before and behind, 
and a light turban, composed of the bark of trees, twined 
round the head, and so arranged that the front is stuck 
up somewhat resembling a short plume of feathers. 

*^ Their figures are almost universally well made, 
showing great activity without great muscular develop- 
ment ; but their stature is diminutive, as will be seen by 
the following measurements, taken at random., among 
them, and confirmed by general observation : 

"Sejugah, the chief, height, 5 fl. IJ in. Head round, 1 ft 9 
in. Anterior portion, from ear to ear, 1 foot ; posterim', 9 in. ; 
across the top, 1| ft. 

•• Kalong, the chief's eldest son, height, 5 ft. 2^ in. Anterior 
portion of head, 1 ft. ; posterior, 8J in. ; across the top, 1 ft., want- 
ing a few lines. 

Hei^t. 

Man from the crowd . . . . 5 ft. 12 in. 

Another 5 l( 

Another 5 4 

Another . . . . . . . 4 10 • 

Another 5 3 

Another ,54 

** The foUowin^ is a specimen of their qames, and 
some few words of their dialect, the only ones I could 
get not Malayan. The fact, indeed, appears to be that, 
irom constant intercourse, their Dyak language is fast 
fading away ; and, while retaining their separate relig- 
ion and customs, they have substituted the soft and ^a- 
ent Malay for their own harsher jai'gon. The names^ 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 35 

«re, Jugah or Sejugah, Kalong, Bunshie, Kontong, Lang, 
Kantie. 

The vocabulary : 



that, kneah (nasal, like kgneah), 

this, to. 

to go, bajaG. 

there, ktin. 

come, jalf. 

here, keto. 

come here, jaU keto. 

to give, 6ri. 

give all, bri samonia (M). 

td bring. Mi. 

bring that, bit kneah. 

bring here, ini keto. 



hairs, bok (similar to the 

Luudu Dyaks). 
thigh, j9aA. 
woman, indo, 
father, apt. 
sea, tasiek. 
slave, Mhn. . 
spear, sdneho. 
black, chelum. 
good, badats. 
oodfjaie. 
quickt pantase. 
slow, bagacKe. 

'* The corraptdoDS of the Malay are langan for tangon, 
arm ; ai for ayer, water ; menua^or henua, country ; 
Jconiah for rumah, house ; besi for De^ar, great. 

** Like the rest of the Dyaks, the Sibnowans adorn 
their houses with the heads of their enemies ; but with 
them tfaos custom exists in a modified form ; and I am led 
to hope that the statements ah-eady made public of their 
reckless search after human beings, merely for the pur- 
pose of obtaining their heads, will be found to be exagger- 
ated, if not untrue ; and that the custom elsewhere, as 
here and at Ltmdu, will be found to be more accordant 
with our knowledge of other wild tribes, and to be re- 
garded merely as a triumphant token of valor in the fight 
or ambush ; similar, indeed, to the scalps of the North 
American Indian. 

" Some thirty skulls were hanging from the roof of the 
apartment; and I was informed that they had many 
more in their possession ; all, however, the heads of 
enemies, chiefly of the tribe of Sarebus. On inquiring, 
I was told that it is indispensably necessary a young 
man should procure a skull before he gets married. 
When I urged on them that the custom would be more 
honored in the breach than the observance, they replied 
that it was established from time immemorial, and could 
not be dispensed with. Subsequently, however, Seju- 
gah allowed that heads were very difficult to obtain now, 
and a yotmg man might sometimes get mai-ried by giving 
presents to his lady-lovers parents. At all times they 



36 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

warmly denied ever obtaining any heads but liiose of 
their enemies ; adding, they were bad people, and de- 
seiTed to die. 

*^ I asked a young unmarried man whether he would 
be obliged to get a head before he could obtain a wife. 
He replied, * Yes.' * When would he get one V * Soon/ 
* Where would he go to get one V * To the Sarebus 
river.* I mention these p&iticulars in detslil, as I think, 
hcul their practice extended to taking the head of any de- 
fenseless traveler, or any Malay surprised in his dwell- 
ing or boat, I should have wormed the secret out of them. 

" The men of this tribe marry but one wife, and that 
not until they have attained the age of seventeen or 
eighteen. Th^ir wedding ceremony is curious ; and, as 
related, is performed by the bride and bridegroom being 
brought in processic^ along the large room, where a 
brace of fowls is placed over the bridegroom's neck, 
which he whirls seven times round his head. The 
fowls are then killed, and their blood sprinkled on the 
foreheads of the pair, which done, they are cooked, and 
eaten by the new-married couple cdone, while the rest 
feast and drink during^ the whole night. c 

" Their dead ai*e put in a coffin, and buried ; but Se- 
jugah informed me that the different tribes vary in this 
particular ; and it would appear they differ firom their 
near neighbors the Dyaks of Lundu. 

*^ Like these neighboi*s, too, the Sibnowans seem to 
have little or no idea of a God. They offer prayers to 
Biedum, the gi*eat Dyak chief of former days. Priests 
and ceremonies they have none ; the thickest mist of 
darkness is over them : but how much easier is it to dis- 
pel darkness with light than to overcome the false blaze 
with the rays of truth ! 

*^ The manners of the men of this tribe are somewhat 
reserved, but fi*ank ; while the women appeared more 
cheerful, and more inclined to laugh and joke at our pe- 
culiarities. Although the first Europeans they had ever 
seen, we were by no means annoyed by their curiosity : 
and their honesty is to be praised ; for, though opportu- 
nities were not wanting, they never on any occasion at- 
tempted to pilfer any thing. Their color resembles tho 
Malay, and is fully as dark ; and the cast of their coun* 



EXPEDITION TO BOBNEO. 37 

tenance does not favor the notion that th^j are sprung 
from a distinct origin. They never intermarry with the 
Malays, so as to intermingle the two people, and the 
chastity of their women gives no presumption of its oth- 
erwise occurring. Their stature, as I have before re- 
marked, is diminutive, their eyes are small and quick, 
their noses usually flattened, and their figures cleaa and 
well formed, but not athletic. Both sexes generally 
wear the hair long and turned up, but the elder men 
often cut it short. As is natural, Uiey are fond of the 
water, and constantly bathe ; and their canoes are nu- 
merous. I counted fifty, besides ten or twelve small 
prahus, which they often build for sale to the Malays, 
at a very moderate price^indeed. The men wear a num-, 
ber of fine cane rings, neatly worked (which we at first 
mistook for hair), below the knee or on the arm, and 
sometimes a brass ring or two ; but they have no other 
ornaments. The ears of a few were pierced, but I saw 
nothing worn in them except a roll of thin palm-leaf, to 
prevent the hole closing. The women are decidedly 
good-looking, and far fairer than the men ; their figures 
are well shaped, and remarkable for their embonpoint. 
The expression of their countenance is very good-hu- 
mored, and their condition seems a happy one. Their 
dress consists of a coarse stuff, very scanty (manufac- 
tured by the Sakarran Dyaks), reaching from the waist 
to the knee ; around the waist they have rings. of ratan, 
either black or fed, and the loins are hung round with a 
number of brass ornaments made by their husbands. 
Above the waist they are entirely naked, nor do they 
wear any covering or ornament on the head. They 
have a few bracelets of brass, but neither ear-rings nor 
nose-rings ; and some, more lucky than the rest, wear a 
necklace of beads. They prefer the smallest Venetian 
beads to the larger and more gaudy ones of England. 
The labor of the house, and aU the drudgery, falls on the 
females. They grind the rice, carry burdens, fetch wa- 
ter, fish, and work in the fiekls ; but though on a par with 
other savages in this respect, they have many advanta- 
ges. They are not immured ; they eat in company with 
the males ; and, in most points, hold the same position 
toward their husbands and children as European women. 

D 



38 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

The children are entirely naked ; and the only peenliai;- 
ity I observed is filing their teeth to a sharp point, like 
those of a shark. The men marry bat one wife, as I 
have before observed. Concubinage in unknown; and 
cases of seduction or adultery very seldom arise. Even 
the Malays speak highly of the chastity of the Dyak 
women ; yet they are by no means shy under the gaze 
of strangers, and used to bathe before us in a state of 
nudity. 

' ** That these Dyaks are in a low condition there is no 
doubt; but, comparatively, theirs is an innocent state, 
and 1 consider them capable of being easily raised in the 
scale of society. The absence of all prejudice regarding 
diet, the simplicity of their characters, the purity of 
their morals, and their present ignorance of all forms of 
worship and all idea of future responsibility, render them 
open to conviction of truth and religious impression. 
Yet, when I say this, I mean, of course, only when 
their minds shall have been raised by education ; for 
without previous culture I reckon the labors of the mis- 
sionary as useless as endeavoring to read off a blank pa- 
per. I doubt not but the Sibnowan Dyaks wouki read- 
Uy receive missionary families among them, provided 
the consent of the Rajah Muda Hassim was previously 
obtained. That the rajah would consent I much doubt ; 
but if any person chose to reside at Tungong, for die 
charitable purpose of leading the tribe gradually, by 
means of education, to the threshold of Christianity, it 
would be worth the asking, and I would exert what in- 
fluence I possess with him on the occasion. I feel sure 
a missionary would be safe among them, as long as he 
strictly confined himself to the gentle precepts and prac- 
tice of his faith ; he would live abundantly and cheaply, 
and be exposed to no danger except from the incursion 
of hostile tribes, which must always be looked for by a 
sojourner amid a Dyak community. 

** I must add, that this day, when so many of my 
friends are destroying partridges, I have had my gun in 
my hand, to procure a few spedmens. 

" 2d. — To continue my account of the Sibnowan Dy- 
aks. I made particular inquiry about the superstition 
gtated to exist rf garding biros, and the omens said to be 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 99 

drawn from their flight ; but I could trace no vestige of 
such a belief, nor did they seem at all acquainted With 
its existence. The government of the Sibnowans may 
be called patriarchal. The authority of the chief ap- 
pears limited within very narrow bounds ; he is the 
leader in war, and the dispenser of the laws ; but pos- 
sesses no power of arbitrary punishment, and no author- 
ity for despotic rule. The distinction between Sejugah 
and the lowest of his tribe is not great, and rather a dif- 
ference wof riches than of power. A few ornamented 
spears, presented by the Malays, seem his only insignia 
of office ; and these were never displayed in our pres- 
ence, save in the dance. The chiefship would appear 
to be elective, and not hereditary ; but I could not dis- 
tincdy understand whether the appointment rested with 
die rajah or the tribe. The former claims it; but the 
latter did not speak as though his right were a matter 
of necessity or certainty. On asking Kalong, the eldest 
son of Sejugah (a young man of twenty years of age, 
active, clever, and intelligent), whether he would suc- 
ceed his father, he replied, he feared he was not rich 
enough ; but two or tlu-ee of the tribe, who were pres- 
ent, asserted that he would be made chief. The Rajah 
Muda Hassim told me that the only hokl he had on the 
Dyaks was through the chief and his family, who were 
attached to him ; but that the tribe at large cared noth- 
ing for the Malays. I can easily believe this, as any iU 
treatment or cruelty directed against a Dyak community 
would soon drive them beyond the power and the terri- 
tory of the prince. This is the best safeguard of the 
Dyaks ; and the Malays are well aware that a Dyak 
alliance must be maintained by good treatment. They 
are called subjects and slaves ; but they are subjects at 
pleasure, more independent and better used than any 
Malay under his native prince. 

»* The laws of this Dyak tribe are administered by 
the chief and the two principal men. They have no 
fixed code, nor any standard of punishment, each case 
of crime beine judged according to its enormity. In the 
event of murder in their own tribe, the murderer suffers 
death by decapitation, provided he be in fault. Theft 
is punished by fine, and adultery (stated as a hemoMs 



40 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

offense) by severe beating and heavy mulct. Other 
crimes are, in like manner, puiiished by fine and beating 
—one or both, according to their various shades of eviL 
The latter varies greatly in degree, sometimes being in- 
flicted on the head or arm, with a severity which stops 
short only of death. The arm is often broken under 
this infliction ; so, according to their representation, it is 
a risk to be dreaded and avoided. 

** Slavery holds among them; and, as among the Ma- 
lays, a debtor is reduced to this state until his^debt be 
discharged. Children are likewise bought, an^must be 
considered as slaves. 

**In the evening I requested Sejugah to collect his 
tribe, and to show me their dances and musical instru- 
ments. They readily consented, and about nine at 
night we went to witness the exhibition. The musical 
instruments were, the tomtom, or dnun, an^ the Ma- 
layan gong ; which were beat either slow or fast, ac- 
cording to the measure of the dance. The dances are 
highly interesting, more especially from their close re- 
semblance, if not identity, with those of the South Sea 
Islanders. Two swords were placed on the mat, and 
two men eotnmenced slowly, from the opposite extrem* 
ities, turning the body, extending the arms, and lifting 
the legs, in grotesque but not ungraceful attitudes. Ap- 
proaching thus leisurely round and round about, they at 
length seize the swords, the music plays a brisker meas- 
ure, and the dancers pass and repass each other, now 
cutting, now crossing swords, retii*ing and advancing, 
one kneeling as though to defend himself from the as- 
saults of his adversary ; at times stealthily waiting for 
an advantage, and quickly availing himself of it. The 
measure throughout was admirably kept, and the fre- 
quent turns were simultaneously made by both dancers, 
accompanied by the same eccentric gestures. The ef- 
fect of all this far surpasses the impression to be made 
by a meager description. The room partially lighted by 
damar torches; the clang of the noisy instruments; 
the crowd of wild spectator ; their screams of encour- 
agement to the performers ; the flowing hair and rapid 
evolutions of the dancers, formed a scene I wish could 
have been reduced to painting by such a master as Rem- 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 41 

brandt or Caravaggio. The next dance was performed 
by a single person, with a spear, turning like the last ; 
npw advancing, retiring, poising, brandishing, or pre- 
tending to hurl his weapon. Subsequently we had an 
exhibition with the sword and shield, very similar to 
the others, and only differing in the use of the weapons ; 
and the performai^ce was closed by a long and animated 
dance like the first, by two of the best performers. 

** The dance with the spear is called Talambong ; that 
with the sword, Mancha. The resemblance of these 
dances to those of the South Seas is, as I have observed, 
a remaiicable atid interesting fact, and one of many oth- 
ers which may, in course of time, elucidate the proba- 
ble theory th^t the two people are sprung from a com- 
mon source. The Malays of Sarawak, and other pla- 
ces in the neighborhood of the Dyak tribes, dance these 
dances ; but tibiey are unknown to Borneo Proper, and 
the other Malay islands ; and although the names may 
be given by the Malays, I think there is no doubt that 
the dances themselves belong to the Dyaks : a corrector 
judgment can be formed by a better acquaintance with 
other Dyak tribes. 

** The household utensils in use here are few and sim- 
ple.. The mode of grinding padi clear of the husk is 
througli the trunk of a tree cut into two parts, the up- 
per portion being hollow, the lower solid ; small notches 
are cut where the two pieces fit, and handles attached 
to the upper part, which being filled with padi and kept 
turning round, the husk is detached and escapes by the 
notches. 

" The Dyaks, as is weU known, are famous for the 
manufacture of iron. The forge here is of the simplest 
construction, and formed by two. hollow trees, each about 
seven feet high, placed upright, side by side, in the 
ground ; from the lower extremity of these, two pipes 
of bamboo are led through a clay -bank, three inches diick, 
into a charcoal fire ; a man is perched at the top of the 
trees, and pumps with two pistons (the suckers of which 
are made of cocks' feathers), which being raised and de- 
pressed alternately, blow a regular stream of air into the 
fire. Drawings were taken of these and other utensils 
and instmraents. The canoes are not peculinr, but the 



42 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

largest prahus (some forty feet long, with a good beam) 
are constructed, in the first place, exactly like a smaU 
canoe : a single tree is hollowed out, which forms the 
keel and kelson, and on this foundation the rest of the 
prahu is built with planks, and her few timbers fastien- 
ed with ratans. A prahu of fifty feet long, fitted for 
service, with oars, mast, attops, &c., was ordered by the 
Panglima Rajah while v^e were with him, which, com- 
pleted, was to cost thirty reals, or sixty Java rupees, or 
i£6 English. During the course of the day we ascended 
the river to visit the settlement of Chinese lately estab- 
lished here. It is situated about two and a half miles 
up the river, on the same side as Tungong, and consists 
of thirty men (real Chinese), and five women of the 
mixed breed of Sambas. Nothing can be more flourish- 
ing than this infant settlement, and I could hardly credit 
their statement that it had only been formed between 
four and five months. The soil they represented as 
most excellent, and none are better judges ; many acres 
were cleared and under cultivation ; rice, sirih, sweet 
potatoes (convolvulus), Indian com, &c., &c., weregh>w- 
ing abundantly ; and they were able to supply us with 
seven pecul, or 933 pounds of sweet potatoes, without 
sensibly diminishing their crop. They showed me sam- 
ples of birds* nests, bees' wax, garu wood (lignum aloes), 
and ebony, collected in the vicinity, chiefly firom Ga- 
nong Gading. Several peculs of birds* nests and bees' 
wax, and the wood in large quantity, could noti; be 
brought to market; and no doubt, when demand stimu- 
lates industiy, the quantities would greatly increase. 
The Dyaks, they told me, collected ratanis, and like- 
wise canes, which are plentiful. The mixed breed of 
the Chinese with the Malay or Dyak are a good-k>ok- 
ing and industrious race, partaking much more of the 
Chinese character than that of the natives of this coun- 
tiy . This mainly arises from education and early-form- 
ed habits, which are altogether Chinese ; and in refigioii 
and customs they likewise foUow, in a great measure, 
the paternal stock. The race are worthy of attention, 
as the future possessors of Borneo. The numbers of 
this people can not be stated, but it must amount to many 
thousand persons : 3000 were said to be on their way 
to the Bomeon territory. 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 43 

*^The head man of this Bettlement, a Chinese of 
C^uantung, or Canton, but long resident in the vicinity of 
Sambas, gave me some valus^le information respecting 
the Sarawak mountains. He had, with a considerable 
party of his countrymen, been employed there at the 
gold-mines, and he"" spoke of them as abundant, and of 
Sie ore as good. Tin they had not found, but thought 
it existed. Antimony ore was to be had in any quanti- 
ties, and diamonds were likewise discovered. I men- 
tion these facts as coming from an intelligent Chinese^ 
well able from experience to judge of the precious met- 
als, and the probability of their being found. 

** 3d, — Night, as usual, set in with torrents of rain, 
which lasted until the morning : the days, however, are 
fine, though cloudy. Got sights in the ahernoon ; and, 
leaving our Dyak friends, we dropped down to the moutii 
of the river, where we slept. 

** 4th, — At 2 A.M. got under weigh for the Samatan 
river, which we reached at 8 a.m. I had been given to 
understand that the Lundu and Sibnowan Dyaks w;ere 
to be found on this river ; but on arriving, I was informed 
we must pro<;eed to Seru, where we should see plenty 
of Dyaks. I accoi*ding]y started immediately after 
breakfast, and reached Seiii after mid-day. Here we 
found a small Malay fishing village, with two or three 
■tray Dyaks of the Sibnowan tribe ; and, on inquu'ing, 
we were told by them that their country was far away. 
Being convinced that the Pangeran had dragged me all 
this distance to answer some purpose of his own, I re- 
embarked on the instant, and set off on my return to 
Lundu, indignant enough. However, I had the poor 
satisfaction of dragging them after me, and making them 
repent their trick, which I believe was nothing else than 
to visit the island of Talang Talang for turtles' eggs. 
We were pretty well knocked up by &e time we reached 
Samatan, having been pulling thirteen hours, the greater 
part of the time under a burning sun. 

** The Samatan river, like the others, is inclosed in a 
bay choked with sand : the boat-passage is on the right- 
hand side, going in near Point Samatan. The sands are 
mostly dry at low water, and stretch out a considerable 
distance. There is a fishing station here, though not so 



44 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

]ai:ge as at Seru, and the fish at both places are very 
plentiful, ^nd are salted for exportation to Sambas, and 
along their own coast. Seru is ^ shallow creek; the 
village may consist of 50 or 60 inhabitants, and the sands 
stretch a long wdy out. We thus lost two days, through 
the cunning of our Malay attendant ; and the only ad- 
vantage gained is being enabled to fiU up the details of 
our survey of this bay. 

"5^. — The day consumed returning along the coast 
to the Lundu, and we did not reach Tungong till late, 

" 6th, — ^Remained at Tungong. Every impediment 
was thrown in my way to prevent my reaching the Lun- 
du Dyaks ; the distance was great, the tribe small and un- 
settled, there was little probability of finding then^ dec. 
I would, however, have gone ; but another cause had 
arisen of a more serious nature. My feet, from the 
heat of the sun, musqueto-bites, and cuts (for I foolishly 
went without shoes that unlucky day to Seru), had be- 
come so painful and inflamed that I felt great doubt 
whether, if I walked in pain to Lundu, I could come 
back again. With the best grace I could, I yielded the 
point ; with a vow, however, never to have the same 
Pangeran again. I did manage to be civil to him, from 
policy alone. He was superfluously kind and obliging. 

** 7th. — Left Tungong on our return to the vessel, and 
brought-to for the night at Tanjong Siri. In the even- 
ing I walked along the fine sandy beach as far as the en- 
trance of the Siimpudin river. We saw many wild 
hogs ; and on one occasion I was able to get within twen- 
ty yards of some ten of them together, among some large 
drift-wood. Just as I was crawling over a tree and bal- 
ancing, I found myself confronted by these animals ; but 
they were out of sight almost before I could coick my 
gun and fire. They were of a large size, and most of 
them we saw during the evening either duty white, or 
white and black. At night, after we had retired to our 
quarters in the Pangeran's boat, she filled vvith water, 
and was near going down. The first intimation we had 
of it was the water wetting our mats on which we were 
sleeping. She was beached and baled out, and a hand 
kept bsUinc all night, as they had laden her so deep that 
she leaked considerably. 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO* 45 

• •* 8^. — In the momiDg we got our anchor at daylight, 
and brenk&sted on the island of Sumpudin. There are 
deer, hogs,- and pigeons on Sumpudin Island ; but what 
was more interesting to me was, the discovery of the 
wikl nntmeg-tree in full flower, and growing to the 
height of twenty or thirty feet. The nutmegs lay in 
plenty under the trees, and are of considerable size, 
though elongated in shape, and tasteless, as usual in the 
wild sorts. While the East India Company were send- 
ing Captain Forest from their settlement of Balamban- 
gan as iiar as New Guinea in search of this plant, how 
little they dreamed of its flourishing so near them on the 
island of Borneo ! The soil on which they grow is a 
yellowish clay, mixed with vegetable mould. I brought 
some of the fruit away with me. After breakfast, a 
breeze springing up, we sailed to the mouth of the Sa- 
rawak river, waited for the tide, and pushed on for the 
vessel, getting aboard about half past three in the morn- 
ing. Uur Malay attendants were left far, far behind, and 
there is little chance of their being here to-morrow, for 
their boats siul wretchedly." 



CHAPTER IV. 

Renewed intercourse with the Rajah.— Prospects of trade. — Ou- 
rang-outang, «od other animals. — The, two sorts of mias.— Des- 
cription of the Rajah, his suite, and Panglimas, &c. — The char- 
acter of the natives. — Leave Sar§wak. — Songi Dyaks. — Visit 
Serifi* Sahib. — Buy^t tongue. — Attack by pirates.— Sail for Sin- 
gapore. 

Haying returned to Sar&wak, Mr. Brooke renewed 
his intercourse with the rajah; and his Journal pro- 
ceeds : . 

*^Sept. 9th. — ^Visited the rajah; civil and polite — I 
ought mdeed to say friendly and kind. Der Macota 
was on board, speaking on the trade, and very anxious 
for me to arrange the subject with the rajah. I could 
only say, that I would do so if the rajah wished, as I 
believed it would be gi-eatly for the benefit of their coun- 
try and Singapore. 

** 1D/A» — ^Laid up with my bad legs, and hardly able 



46 EXPEDITION TO BORN^EO; 

to crawl. Muda Hassim presented us with another 
bullock, which we salted. At Lundu we bought eight 
pigs, which arrived to-day in charge of Kalong, the 
young Dyak. He is a fine fellow. I gave him a^ gun, 
powder-jSask, powder, 6cc, He was truly delighted. 
Our Pangerans arrived at the same timow 

** 11^. — Very bad; got a novel, and read all day. 
Went ashore to see Muda Hassim in the evening. He 
gave us a private audience : and we finished our diseua- 
sion respecting the trade, and I thiuk successfully. 

*^ I began by saying, that I as a private gentleman, 
unconnected with commerce, could have no personal in- 
terest in what I was about to speak; that the rajah 
must clearly understand that I was in no way connect- 
ed with the government of Singapore, and no way au- 
thorized to act..for them : that he must, therefore, look 
upon it merely as my private opinion, and act afterward 
as his wisdom thought fit. I represented to him that 
the kingdom of Borneo was the last Malay state pos- 
sessing any povver, and that this might, be in a great 
measure attributed to the little intercourse they had had- 
with European powers. I thought it highly advisable 
to call into play the resources of his country, by opening 
a trade with individual European merchants. Sar&wak, 
I stated, was a rich place, and the territory around pro- 
duced many valuable articles for a commercial inter-, 
course — bees-wax, birds-nests, rattans, beside large 
quantities of antimony ore and. sago, which might be 
considered the staple produce of the country. -In return 
for these, the merchants of Singapore could send goods 
from Europe or China which his people required, such 
as gunpowder, muskets, cloths, 6Ec. ; and both parties 
would thus be benefited by their commercial inter- 
change of commodities. I conceived that Singapore 
was well fitted^ for trade with this place. The rajah 
must not suppose I was desirous of excluding other na-' 
tions from trsiding here, or that I wished he should trade 
with the English alone ; on the contraiy, I thought that 
the Americans, the French, or any other nation, should 
be admitted on the same terms as the English. 

** Of course, I was not allowed to proceed without- 
much questioning aodT discussion ; many of the Yiews 



EXPEDITION to BORNEO. 47 

were urged and re-urged, to remove their fake notions. 
That Mr. Bonham had the supreme command of the 
trade of Singapore was the prominent one ; and when 
he died, or was removed, would not the next governor 
alter all kind intentions and acts ? ' What friend should 
they have at Singapore then V 

** Again they bought that a few ships might come at 
first ; but then they would deceive them, and not come 
again. It was very difficult to explain, that if they pro- 
cured cargoes at an advantageous rate, they would come 
here for their own benefit ; if not, of course it would 
not be worth their while to come at all. The entire 
discussion proceeded with the utmost good-will and po- 
liteness. 

'^That the political ascendency of the English is par- 
amount here is apparent. They might if they pleased, 
by means of an offensive and defensive alliance between 
the two powers, gain the entire trade of the northwest 
coast of Borneo, from Tanjong Datu to MaUudu Bay. 

*' I obtained subsequently from Macota the following 
fist of imports and exports ; which I here commit to 
paper, for the inf(»:mation of those whom it may concern. 

** From Singapore. — Iron ; salt, Siam ; nankeen ; 
Madras, Europe, and China cotton cloth, coarse and 
fine ; Bugis and Pulicat sarongs ; gold and other threads, 
of sorts and colors ; brass wire, of sizes ; iron pans from 
Siam, called qualis ; chintzes, of colors and sorts ; coarse 
red broadcloth, and other soits of different colors ; China 
crockery; gunpowder; muskets; flints; handkerchiefs 
(Pulicat and European) ; gambir ; dates ; Java tobacco ; 
soft sugar ; sugar- candy; bisctiits; baharri; common 
decanters ; glasses, &c. &e. ; China silk, of colors ; ging- 
hams ; white cottons ; nails ; beside other little things, 
such as Venetian beads ; ginger ; curry-powder ; onions ; 
^ee; &cc. &:c. 

** The returns from Sarawak are now : antimony ore, 
tago, timber (lackah, garu), rattans, Malacca canes, bees- 
wax, birds-nests, rice, &c. Other articles, such as gold, 
tin, dec. &^*, Macota said, would be procured after the> 
war, but at present he need say nothing of them ; the 
articles above mentioned might subsequently be greatly 
increased by demand ;. and, in short, as every person oC 



48 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

experience knows, in a wild country a trade must be 
fostered at first. 

** To the foregoing list I must Add, pipeclay, vegetable 
tallow, which might be useful in commerce, being of fine 
quality; and thd ore, found in abundance round here, 
of which I can make nothing, but which I believe to be 
copper. 

^*' 12^.-r-I received from the rajah a present of an 
ohrang-outang, young, and like others I have seen, but 
better clothed, with fine long hair of a bright chestnut 
color. The same melancholy which characterizes her 
race is apparent in Betsy's face ; and though but just 
caught, she is quite quiet unless teased. 

" From the man who brought Betsy I procured a Le- 
mur tardigradus, called by the Malays Cucan, not Pou- 
can, as written in Ciivier — Marsden has the name right 
in his dictionary — and at the same time the mutilated 
hand of an ourang-outang of enormous size. This hand 
far exceeds in length, breadth, and power, the hand of 
any man in the ship ; and though smoked and shrunk, 
the circumference of the fingers is half as big again as 
an ordinary human finger. The natives of Borneo call 
the ourang-outang the Mias^ of which they say there 
are two distinct sorts ; one called the Mias rombi (simi- 
lar to the specimen aboard and the two in the Zoologi- 
cal Gardens), and the Mias pappan^ a creature far 
larger, and more difficult to procure. To the latter kind 
the hand belongs. The mlas pappan is represented to 
be as tall or taller than a man, and possessing vast 
strength : the face is fuller and larger than that of the 
mias rombi, and the hair reddish, but sometimes ap- 
proaching to black. The mias rombi never exceeds four 
or four and a half feet ; his face, unlike the pappan, is 
long, and his hair redder. I must own myself inclined 
to this opinion from various reasons : — 1st. The natives 
appear so well agreed on the point, and so well acquaint- 
ed with the distinction and the dififerent names, that it 
is impossible to suppose it a fabrication for our peculiar 
use. Of the many whom I asked respecting them, -at 
different times and in different places, the greater part 
of their own accord mentioned the difiference between 
the mlas pappan and the mlas rombi. The animal 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 49 

when brought aboard was stated to be the mias rombi, 
or small sort. In short, the natives, whether right or 
wrong, make the distinction. 2d. The immense size of 
the hand in my possession, the height of the animal 
killed on the coast of Sumatra, and the skull in the Paris 
Museum, can scarcely be referred to an animal such as 
we know at home ; though by specious analogical rea- 
soning, the great disparity of the skulls has been pro- 
nounced the result merely of age. 

** However, facts. are wanting, and these facts I doubt 
not I can soon procure, if not actual proof; and which- 
ever way It goes, in favor of Buffoo's Pongo or not, I 
shall be contented, so that I bring truth to light. 

" 19^. — From the 12th to the 19th of September we 
lay, anxious to be off, but delayed by some tnfling occur- 
rence or other, particularly for the letters which I was 
to receive for the merchants of Singapore. Our inter- 
course the whole tinre was most friendly and frequent ; 
almost daily I was ashore, apd the rajah often visited the 
vessel. How tedious and ennuyant to me can only be 
known by those who know me well, and how repugnant 
these trammels of society and ceremony are to nature. 
Nevertheless, I suffered this martyrdom with exempla- 
ry outward patience, though the spirit flagged, and the 
thoughts wandered, and the head often grew confused, 
with sitting and talking trifling nonsense, through a poor 
interpreter. 

** I here bid adieu to these kind friends, fully impress- 
G^ with their kindness, and the goodness of their dispo- 
sitions. To me they are far different from anything I 
was at all prepared to meet, and devoid of the vices with 
which their countrymen are usually stigmatized by mod- 
ern writers. I expected to find an indolent and some- 
what insolent people, devoted to sensual enjoyments, 
addicted to smoking opium, and eternally cock-fighting 
or gambling : let me speak it to the honor of the Bor- 
neons, that they neither cock-fight nor smoke opium; 
and in the military train of their rajah they find at Ku- 
f^omg few conveniences and fewer luxuries. Like all 
the rollowersDf Islam, they sanction polygamy ; and the 
number of their women, and, probably, the ease and 
cheerfulness of the. seraglio, contrasted with the cere- 
4 E 



50 EXPEWTION TQ BORNEO. 

monial of the exterior, induce them to pas9 a number 
of their hours amid their women, and exeite habits of 
effeminacy and indolence. I should pronounce thera 
indolent and nnwarlike ; but kind and unreserved to for- 
eigners, particularly to Englishmen. They are vc4atile> 
generally speaking rery ignorant, but by no meaoaP defi- 
cient in acuteness of understanding ; and, indeed, their 
chief defects may be traced entirely to their totatl want 
of education, and the nature of their government^ 'fhm 
lower orders of people are poor and wretched, and the 
freemen are certainly poorer and more wretched than 
the slaves. They are not greatly addicted to theft, and 
yet, unlike the scrupulous honesty of the Sibnowaasy 
they pHfered some trifling articles occasionally when left 
in their way. The retainers of the court showed mucii 
the same mean intriguing spirit which is too often fimnd 
in courts, and always in Eastern ones; and the rajalh 
himself seldom requested any favor frcmi me directly, 
but employed some intermediate person to sound nae-^ 
to get whatever was required for himself if possible, if 
not for the rajahs I took the hint, and always express- 
ed my wishes through the interpreter when not present 
myself. In this way we were enabled to grant at re- 
fuse without the chance of insult or offence. The saite 
of the rajah consists principally of slaves, either parw 
chased or debtors : they are well treated, tod rise ta 
offices of some note. The Panglima rajah wlis a 8laTe-> 
debtor, though we did not know it for some time after 
our anival. I never saw either cruelty or undn^ hw^hi- 
ness exercised by the great men during niy 9tay, and jn 
general their manners' were affable and kind to those 
about them. The Rajah Muda Hassim is a remarka- 
bly short man, and slightly built ; about 45 years of age ; 
active and intelligent, but apparently little indined to 
business. His disposition I formed the highest estimate 
of, not only from his kindness to myself, but from the 
testimony of many witnesses, all of whom spoke of him 
with affection, and gave him the character of a mild and 
gentle master. Muda Hassim*s own brother, >Muda 
Mahammed, is a reserved and sulky man, but they spoke 
well of him ; and the rajah said he was a good man, but 
given to fits of sulkiness. 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 51 

'*Der Macota, unlike other Malays, neither smokes 
tobacco nor t;hews sirih. He sought our society, and 
was the fhrst person who spoke to me on the subject of 
the trade. His education has been more attended to 
than that of others of his rank. He both- reads and 
writes his own language, and is well acquainted with the 
government, laws, and customs of Borneo. From him I 
derived much information on the subject of the Dyaks, 
and the geography of the interior ; and if I have failed 
to put it down, it is because I have not departed from 
my general rule of never giving any native statements 
unless tibey go far to verify my own actual observations. 
I parted from the rajah with regret, some six or seven 
miles down the river. Never was such a blazing as 
when we left Sar&wak ; twenty-one guns I fired to the 
rajah, and he firod forty-two to me — at least we counted 
twenty-four, and they went on firing afterward, as long 
as ever we were in sight. The last words the Rajah 
Mudti Hassiin said, as I took my leave, were — * Tuan 
Brooke, do not £>rget me.' 

^* Among the curiosities in my possession are spears, 
swords, and shields, from various tribes ; a coat of mail, 
made to the northward of Borneo, and worn by the pi- 
rates; specimens of Sakarran Dyak manufacture of 
cloth, and- Sarebu's ditto ; ornaments and implements of 
tiie Sibnowans ; and, last not least, a gold-handled kris, 
presented me by the rajah, which formerly belonged to 
his father, and which he constantly wore himself. I 
likewise presented him with a small English dagger, 
with a mother-of-pearl handle ; and my favor was so 
high with him, that he used always to wear my gift, and 
I, to return the compliment, wore his. 

*'The clin^iate of Sarawak is good, and is seldom 
hot : the last eight or ten days were oppressive, but 
until then we could sleep with a blanket, and seldom 
found it too warm in the day. Rain at this season faUs 
in great quantities ; and from imprudence, our crew 
suffered on their first arrival ' from colds and rheuma- 
tism ; but getting more careful, we had latterly no sick- 
list. 

" Farewell to Sarawak ! I hope to see it again ; and 
have obtained a promise from the rajah that he will go 



52 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

wil^ me to Borneo, and show ipe every part of the 
country by the way. 

** I may here state the result of some inquiries I have 
made respecting the government of Borneo. The form 
of government may be considered aristocratic rather than 
oligarchical : it is ruled by the sultan, but his power is 
kept in check by four great officers of government. 
These are, the Rajah Muda Hassim, the Bandar, in 
whose hands is the government of the country ; Pan- 
geran Mumin, the Degadon, the treasurer, or, as Mr. 
Hunt says, controller of the household of the sultan ; 
Pangeran Tizudeen, Tumangong, or commander-in- 
chief; and Pangeran Kurmaimiar, the Pen-damei, or 
mediator and interceder. This officer is the means of 
commiHiication or mediation between the saltan and his 
Pangerans ; and in case of condemnation, Ysb sues for the 
pardon or mercy of his sovereign. Mr. Hunt, in his 
short but excellent paper on Borneo, mentions some 
other officers of state : I will not foUow him, but in the 
names, as well as duties of these officers, his account 
agrees with, my information. Further than this, I have 
not yet learned, therefore state not ; for I am not mon- 
ufacturing a book, but gaining information. I-mayaddf 
however, that -these offices are elective, and not hered- 
itary : asiar as I yet know, I an) inclined to believe the 
election rests with the chief Pangerans of thastiMie ; niDt 
only those in office, but others, wlien I reach Borneo 
I can procure more ample details. 

** 2id, — Quitted the Royalist at the enti'aDce of the 
Morotaba, and accompanied by Pangerans Subtu and 
Illudeen, set sail for the river Sadung. 

** The town called Songi is of considerable size, and 
the entire population along the river may certainty be 
reckoned at from 2000 to 3000 persons, independent of 
Dyaks. The country has a flourishing aspect, but the 
soil is represented as bad, being soft and muddy. There 
is a good deal of trade, from this river, and it annually 
sends several large prahus to Singapore : two were lying 
off the town when we arrived, and two others had sailed 
for that place twenty days before. The produce of the 
country is bees-wax, birds'-nests, rice^ dec* &Ct but 
they seem to be procured in less abundance than in the 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 53 

Other contigaous rivers. There is nothing peculiar 
about the Malay population, except that, generally 
speaking; it struck me, they appeared better off than 
the people of Sarawak, or others I have visited herea- 
bouts. We ascended the river by night, anchored a 
short distance from the Songi, in a tide-way like a sluice, 
and entered the snuUer river sh(»tly after daylight. 
Having sent the Pangerans ahead to advise Seriff Snhib 
of our arrivd, we pulled slowly up to the campong of the 
Data Jembrong, where we brought up to breakfast. 
Data Jembrong is a native of Mindanao, an lUanun and 
a pb-ate ; he is slightly advanced in years, but stout and 
resolute-looking, and of a most polite demeanor — as oily- 
tongued a cut-throat as a gentleman would wish to 
associate with. He spoke of his former life without 
hesitation, and confessed himself rather apprehensive of 
going to Singapore. He was remarkably civil, and sent 
us a breakfast of some fruit, salt fish, stsde turtles' eggs, 
and cof¥e^ sweetened with syrup ; but spite of all &is, 
his blood-thirsty education and habits prejudiced me 
against htm. Breakfast finished, we went forward to 
visit Seriff Sahib, who received us in an open hall ; 
promised to get us as many animals as he could now ; 
regretted our short stay, and assured me he would col^* 
lect more by the time I returned. Among these is to 
be a mias pappan, living or dead. I at the same time 
offered ten dollars for the skeleton belonging to the hand 
already in my i^session, and a less sum for the parts. 
Being the first l^uropeans Seriff Sahib hud ever met, he 
was rather puzzled to know what we were like ; but we 
had every reason to be satisfied with his kindness and 
the civility of bis people : the inhabitants, though crowd- 
ing to see us, are by no means intrusive, and their curi- 
osity is too natural to be harshly repressed. I need 
hardly remark here> how very erroneously the position 
of the Sadung river is laid down in the charts, it being 
placed in the bay, to the westward of Santobong, and 
nearly in theposition of the Samatan river. 

"26t^ — The last night was passed off Datu Jem- 
brong*s house^ and I left him with a firm impression 
that l|e is still a pirate, or at any rate connected with 
them. He resides generally at Tawarron, to the north* 

£2 



54 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

ward of Borneo Proper, where his wives and children 
now are, and he has corae here to superintend tiie 
building of a prahu. The people about him speak of his 
pursuits -without disguise, and many informed ps the 
prahu near his house is intended for a piratical vessel. 
Nothing could exceed the polite kindness of our rascally 
host, and I spent the rainy evening in his house with 
some satisfaction, acquiring information of the coast to 
the northward, which he is well able to give. 

" Ixx the morning we dropped down with the last of 
the ebb to the mouth of the Songi, and took the yotmg 
flood to proceed up the Sadung; Beyond the point of 
junction with the Songi the Sadung retains an average 
breadth of from three-quarters of a mile to a mile. The 
banks continue to be partially cleared, with here and 
there a few Dyaks residing in single families or small 
communities on their ladangs or farms.' The "Dytik 
campong, which terminated our progress up'the stream, 
consists of three moderately long houses inhabited by 
Sibnowans. The manners, customs, and language of 
the Sibnowans of the Sadung are the same as those of 
their Lundu brethren ; they are, however, a wilder peo- 
ple, and appear poor. Like otlier Dyaks, tiiey had a 
collection of heads hanging before the entrance of their 
chief s private apartments. Some of these heads were 
fresh, and, with the utmost sang-froid, they told us they 
were women's. They declared, however, they never 
took any heads but those of their enemies, and these 
women (unhappy creatures) had belonged to a distant 
tribe. The fresh heads were ornamented with fowl's 
feathers, and suspended rather conspicuously in separate 
rattan frames of open work. They professed thekiiselves 
willing to go with me up the liver to the mountains ; 
and on the way, they informed me, were some large 
Malay towns, beside some more campongs of their own 
countrymen. Farther up they enumerated some twen^ 
tribes of Dyaks, whose names i thought it useless to 
preserve. Late in the evening we set off on our re- 
turn, and anchored once again near Data Jembrong's 
house. 

**26^. — Again visited Seriff Sahib. His name and 
descent are Arabic ; his father, an Arab, having married 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 55 

a daughter of>the Borneo Rkjah. The Malays evidently 
honor this descent, and consider his birth very high. 
His power, they say, equals his fiiraily; as he is, in 
aome measure^ independent ; and were he to instigate 
the Sadung country to take arms against Borneo, it 
is very probable he would overthrow the government, 
and make himself Sultan of Borneo. In person, this 
cfOble partakes much of his father's race, both in height 
and features, being tall and large, with a fine nose and 
contour of face. His manners are reserved but kind ; 
and he looks as if too indolent to care much about ac- 
quiring power;, too fat for an active traitor, though a 
dangerous man to oppress. We were the first Euro- 
peans he had ever seen ; but, on our second visit, he 
lost much of his previous reserve, and was curious in 
examining our arms and accoutrements. We, as usual, 
exchanged presents ; mine consisting of some nankeen, 
red cloth, knife, scissors, and handkerchief; while he 
gave me the shield of a great Kayan warrior, a Bukar 
spear,, a goat, fowls, and our dinner and breakfast daily. 
He promised me specimens of the arms of all the Dyak 
tribes, and plenty of animals, paiticularly my much-de- 
sired mias pappan ;.and I, in return, agreed to bring him 
two small tables, six chairs, and a gun. Subsequently 
to our interview he sent me a tattooed Dyak, the first I 
had seen. The lines, correctly and even elegantly laid 
in, of a Uue cokn-, extended from the throat to his feet. 
I gained but Uttle information ; yet the history of the 
poor man is curious, and similar to that of many other 
unfortunates. He represented himself as a chief among 
his own people in the country of Buyat, five days' jour- 
ney up the Cotringen river (vulgo Coti river). Going 
in hid canoe from the latter place to Banjamassim, he 
was captured by Illanun pirates, with whom he was in 
bondage for some time, but ultimately sold as a slave to 
a resident of Sadung. It was now five years since he 
became first captive; but having lately got money 
enough to buy his liberty, he is again a freeman ; and 
having married, and turned to the religion of Islam, 
desires no longer to revisit his native country. The 
language of the tribe of Buyat he represents as 
entirely Malay. I made . him a small present for 



56 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

the trouble I had given him, and he departed weH 
content. 

*' About three o^elock in the afternoon we had a heavy 
thunder-storm, with lightning as virid as the tropics pro- 
duce. Torrents of rain descended, and continued a great 
part of the night ; but, sheltered by dur kajangs or mats, 
we managed to keep tolerably dry. Indeed, the voya- 
ger on this coast must be prepared for exposure to heavy 
rains, and considerable detention from thick and ck)udy 
weather. The latter obstruction, of little moment or 
even agreeable to those making a passage, is a cause c^ 
much vexation in surveying the coast, as for days together 
no observations are to be had. 

" 27th, — ^About 7 a. m. we quitted Son^, and dropped 
down as far as Tanjong Balaban, a low point forming the 
larboard entrance into the Sadung river, and bounding 
the bay, which lies between it and Tanjong Sipang. 
Coming to this point gave us a good offing for our return, 
and enabled me to take a round of angles to iSnish the 
surveiy as far as this point and Pi^lo Burong, which ties 
off it. We crossed over the sand flats with a light 
breeze, and reached the Royalist at 4 p. m. In die 
evening the Datu Jembrong, who had preceded us from 
Slidung, spent the evening aboard. He expressed his 
willingness to accompany me next season : whether I 
shall take him is another question; but, couM he be 
trusted, his services might be highly useful. 

" Our Pangerans arrived early this morning froni Sa- 
dung ; and to-morrow was fixed for our departure, when 
an unforeseen occurrence caused a farther detention. 
The day passed quietly : in the evening I was ashore, 
and took leave of the Pangerans Subtu and lUudeen, 
who returned to Sarawak, leaving the Panglima Rajah 
to pilot us out. The first part of the night wisis dark; 
and the Panglima in his prahu, with twelve men, lay 
close to the shore, and under the dark shadow of the 
hill. About nine, the attention of the watch on deck 
was attracted by some bustle ashore, and it soon swelled 
to the wildest cries ; the only word we could distinguish, 
however, being *Dyak! Dyak!' AU hands were in- 
stantly on deck. I gave thd order to charge and fire a 
gun with a blank cartridge, and in the mean time lit a 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 57 

blue light. The ^g was lowered, a few muskets and 
cutlasses thrown into her, and I started in the hope of 
rescuing our poor Malay friends. The vessel mea nwhile 
was prepared for defence : guns loaded, boarding-nettings 
ready [or running up, and the people at quarters ; for 
we were ignorant of the number, the strength, or even 
the description of the assailants. I met the Panglima^s 
boat puUing toward the vessel, and returned wi& her, 
considering it useless and rash to pursue the foe. The 
stOTy is soon . told. A fire had been lit on the shore ; 
and after the people had eaten, they anchored their 
boat, and, according to then* custom, went to sleep. The 
fire had probably attracted the roving Sarebus Dyaks, 
who stole upon them, took them by surprise, and would 
inevitably have cut them off but for our presence. They 
attacked the prahu fiercely with their spears ; five out of 
twelve jumped into the water, and swam ashore ; and 
the Panglima JElajah was wounded severely. When our 
blue light was seen they desisted ; and directly the^n 
fired, paddled away fast. We never saw them. The 
poor Panglima walked aboard with a spear fixed in his 
breast, the barb being buried, and a second rusty spear- 
womui close to the first ; the head of the weapon was 
cut out, his wounds dressed, and he was put to bed. 
Another man had a wound from a wooden-headed spear ; 
and most had been struck more or less by these rude and, 
luckily, innocuous weapons. A dozen or two of Dyak 
spears were left in the Malay boat, which I got. Some 
were well-shaped, with iron Leads ; but the mass simply 
pieces of hard wood sharp-pointed, which they hurl in 
great numbers. Fire-arms the Dyaks had none, and 
during the attack made no noise whatever ; while the 
Malays, on the contrary, shouted lustily, some perhaps 
from bravery, most from terror. The force that attacked 
them was dififerently stated; some said the boat con- 
tained eighty or a hundred men, others rated the num- 
ber as low as fifty ; and, allowing for an exaggeration, per- 
hapa th^re might have been thirty-five — not fewer, from 
the number ofspears thrown. Being fully prepared, we 
set our watch, and retired as usual to our beds ; the 
stealthy and diuing attack, right under the guns of the 
schooner, having given me a lesson to keep the guns 



58 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

charged in future. The plan was well devised ; for we 
could not fire without the chance of hitting our friends 
as well as foes, and the deep shadow of the hill entirely 
prevented our seeing the assailants. 

** 29th. — ^I considered it necessary to dispatch a boot 
to Sard,wak to acquaint the rajah with the circumstance 
of the attack made on his boat. The wound of the 
Panglima was so severe, that in common humanity I 
was obliged to wait until all danger for him was p8^. 
He was soon well ; and, as with natives in ^neral, lus 
wound promises favorably ; to a European constitution 
a similar wound would be imminently dangerous. . " 

** 30^. — Took the long boat, and sounded along the 
edge of the sand ; soundings very regular. In the eve- 
ning Mr. Williamson returned in the gig, and a host of 
Pangerans; the Pangeran Macota at die head. He 
urged mc much to go and see Muda Hassim. The rajah, 
he said, desired it so much, and would think it so kind, 
that I consented to go up to-morrow. I am very desirous 
to fii( their good feelings toward us : and I was prompted 
by curiosity to see the rajah'« menage as his guest. 

** October Ist. — We had a heavy pull against tide, and 
arrived at Sarawak about 4 p.m.' We had eaten nothing 
since breakfast at 8 ; and we had to sit and talk, and 
drink tea and smoke, till 8 in the evening i then dinner 
was announced, and we retired to the private apart- 
ments — my poor men came willingly too ! The table 
was laid a VAnglaise^ a good curry and rice, grilled 
fowls, and a bottle of wine. We did justice to our 
cheer ; and the rajah, throwing away all reserve, bustled 
about with the proud and pleasing consciousness of hav- 
ing given us an English dinner in proper style ; now 
drawing the wine ; now changing our plates ; pressing 
us to eat; saying, * You are at home.' Dinner over, 
we sat, and drank, aind smoked, and talked cheerfully, 
till, tired and weary, we expressed a wish to retire, and 
were shown to a private room. A crimson silk mat- 
ress, embroidered with gold, was my couch : it was 
covered with white gold-embroidered mats and pillovrs. 
Our men fared equally well, and enjoyed their wine, a 
luxury to us ; our stock of wine and spirits having been 
expended some time. 



SXPEDITION TO BORNE6. 59 

**2d. — Once more bade adieu to our kind friends; 
reached the yessel at 4 p.m., and got under wei^ di- 
rectly. At dusk anchored in the passage between the 
sands. 

** 3d Five a.m. under weigh. Clear of the sands 

about mid-day, and shaped our course for Singapore. 

"4^. — Strong breeze from w.s.w. Beating from 
leeward of Datu to Pulo Murrundum, in a nasty chop 
of a head sea.'' 



CHAPTER V. 

Summary of infonnation obtained during this visit to Borneo.-^ 
Geographical and topographical observations. — Produce. — Va- 
rious Dyak tribes. — Natural history. — Language. — Origin of 
Races. — Sail from Singapore. — Celebes. — Face of the country. 
— WaleriaU. 

Mr. Brooke's journal continues his observations on 
the people and country he had just left; and, I need 
hardly say, communicates much of novelty and interest 
in his own plain and simple manner. 

" Oct. 5th, — Just laying our course. I may here brief- 
ly recapitulate the information acquired during the last 
two months and a half. Beginning from Tanjong Ajm, 
we have delineated the coast as far as Tanjong Bdaban, 
fixing the principal points by chronometer and observa- 
tion, and filling in the details by personal inspection. The 
distance, on a line drawn along the headlands, may be 
from 120 to 130 miles, the entire coast being previously 
quite unknown. 

*' Within this space are many fine rivers, and some 
navigable for vessels of considerable burden, and well cal- 
culated for the extension of commerce, such ajs Sar&wak, 
Morotaba, and Sadung. The others, equally fine streams, 
are barred, but offer admirable means for an easy inland 
communication ; these are the Quop, Boyur, Riam, 
Samaitihan, Lundu, Samatan, dec. In our excursions 
into the interior of the island, most of these streams have 
been ascended to a distance of 25 or 30 miles, and some 
fuither. We traced the Samarahan river for 70 or 



60 EXPEDITION TO BORNEa 

80 miles fVom its mouth, and pajssed througli pordonr of 
the intermediate streams of the Kiam, Quop, and Boy- 
ur. The Morotaba, which is but another month of the 
Sarawak, we passed through several times from the sea 
to its junction with that river. The Lundu and Sadung 
rivers were likewise ascended to the distance of near 
30 miles; and plans of all these rivers have been Utkea 
as accurately as circumstaiices would permit, by obser- 
vations of the latitude and longitude, and various poiBtBy 
and an eye- sketch of the distance of each reach and the 
compass bearing. The entrances into the Sarawak and 
Morotaba were carefully examined, and the foraqer ac- 
curately laid down. The productions of the country at^ 
tracted our attention, and the articles best fitted for com- 
merce have been already enumerated. Among these 
are, first, minerals ; say gold, tin, probably copper, anti- 
mony-ore, and fine white clay for pipes. Secondlyy 
woods of the finest descriptions, for ship-building, and 
other purposes ; besides aloes wood (lignum aloes), and 
arang or ebony wood, canes, and ratans. To these may 
be added, among vegetable productions, oago, compon, 
rice, &c., &:c. 

" The wild nutmeg was found growing on the isfauids 
of Sadung and Sumpudin in abundance and perfection, 
proving that by cultivation it might be brought into the 
market as cheap, and probably as good, as those produ- 
ced in the Moluccas. We have various specimens of 
ores and stones, which, on being tested, may prove val- 
uable commodities. Among these is decomposed gran- 
ite rock (I believe), containing minute particles of what 
we conceive to be gold, and an ore believed to be copper. 
Besides the articles above enunierated, are birds*^ nests 
and bees* wax in oonsidei^le quantities, and others not 
worth detailing here. We have been able, during our 
residence with the Bomeons, to continue on the most 
friendly terms with them, ind to open a field of research 
for our subsequent inquiries in the proper season. My 
attention has been anxiously directed to acquiring a knowt- 
edge of the Dyak tribes ; and for this purpose I passed 
ten days among them at Lundu. I have made such vo- 
cabularies of the language of the Sibnowans and Lundus 
as my means allow^ ; and a further addition of their 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 61 

various dkilects wiH furnish, I conceiTe, matters of high 
importance to those interested in tracing the emigration 
of na^ns. J may here briefly notice, that the nation 
of Kayans, included undisr the common denomination of 
Dyak, are a-ta$toped race, who use the sumpitan, or 
Uow-pipe ; while the other Dyak tribes (which are veiy 
numerous) are not tattooed, and never use the blow- 
pipe. 

/* The arms and instruments of many tribes are in my 
{MMsession ; and amcmg the Sibnowans I had the oppor- 
tunity of becoming acquainted with their habits, customs, 
and modes of living. 

** The appellation of the Dyak tribes near the coast 
b usually the same as, the rivers from which they orig- 
inally came. The Dyaks of Sibnow come from the riv- 
er of that name, just beyond Balaban Point, though large 
communities are dispersed on the Lundu and the Sa- 
dung. The same may be said of the Sarebus tribe (the 
most predaceous and wild on the coast), which has pow- 
erful branches of the original stock on the Skarran river. 
Beyond Point Balaban is a bay — ^between that point and 
Point Samaludum; the first river is the Sibnow; the 
next the Balonlupon, which- branches into the rivers of 
Sakarran and Linga ; passing Tanjong Samaludum you 
come to the two islands of Talison ; and between it and 
the next point,, or Banting Marron, lies the Sarebus riv- 
er. Between Banting MaiTon and Tanjong Siri are the 
Kaleka river, a high mountain called Maban, and then 
Rejong, the chief river of the Kayans. I may here like- 
wise correct some of the statements and names usually 
current in England. The Idaan, represented as a Dyak 
tribe, are a hill people, and probably not Dyaks; and 
the name Marat is applied by the natives of Borneo to 
the various wild tribes, Dyaks and others, without any 
specific meaning. 

** In natural history the expedition has done as much 
as was in its power, by forming collections of birds, ani- 
mals, and reptiles ; but these collections are as small as 
our means. ^ .Specimens of woods and seeds have been 
preserved ; but the- season was not the proper one for 
flowers, as veiy few indeed were seen. The specimen 
of the hand of the mias pappan and the head of an adult 

F 



63 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

mias rombi will, I believe, go for to establish the exij^ 
ence of an animal similar to the Pongo of the Count 
Buflfon. I have little doubt that I shall be aUe in the 
ensuing season to estaUish the fact, or set it at rest for- 
ever ; though I confess myself ^eady inclined to think 
that the former will be the case. I here leave the coast 
with an excellent prospect for the coming yealr ; and 1 
would not now have quitted it so soon, but for the want, 
of provisions, added to which, the change of the mon- 
soon, bringing squally and dark weather, greatly iQter 
feres with our further progress in sm^veying. 

" Nov, 22d, 1839, — The Malayan language has been 
compared to the lingua franca of Europe. They are 
both, indeed, used by various nations in their commercial 
transactions ; but, beyond this, nothing can be more un- 
just or absurd than the comparison. The lingua franca 
is a jargon compounded at random, ^ devoid of gnumnar 
or elegance ; the Malayan, on the contrary, is musical, 
simple in its construction, and well calculated fcTr the ex- 
pression of poetry. It boasts many dialects, like the 
Italian, of superior softness, and, like the Italian, it is 
derived from many sources, refining all to the most liq- 
uid sounds by the addition of a final vowel. ' I fully con- 
cur with Mr. Marsden in his opinion that the Malayan 
tongue, though derived from the Sanscrit, the Arabic, 
the Hindoostani, &;c., &c., is based on the language which 
he calls the Polynesian ; a language which may be con- 
sidered original (as far as we know), and which embra- 
ces so vast an extent of geographical surface. The. proof 
of this rests mainly on the fact that the simple wants of 
man, as well as the most striking features of nature, are 
expressed in the Polynesian ; while the secondary class 
of ideas is derived from the Sanscrit, or some other lan- 
guage, and usually grafted in a felicitous manner qn the 
original stem. By an original language, I must be un- 
derstood, however, to mean only a language which can 
not be derived from any other known tongue. I seek 
not to trace the language of Noah, or to raise a theory 
which shall derive the finished and grammatical Sanscrit, 
the pure and elegant Greek, from some barbarous stock, 
whether Celtic or Teutonic. Such inquiries are fitted 
for those with leisui*e and patience to undertake a hope- 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 03 

less task, and learning enonfgh to achieve better things^ 
When we look for the origin of languages we are lost, 
for those existing afford us no help. .They present some 
affinities, as mi^t be expected ; but their discrepancies 
are irreconcilable ; and, amid many equally good claims, 
who shall be aUe to demonstrate the only one which is 
right ? Supposing even that all languages agreed as to 
primary ideas, it would be difficult. to determine the 
original ; but when this primary class of ideas is express- 
ed by, sounds entirely and totally different, the task be- 
comes ntteitf hopeless, and the labor as vain as that of 
Sisyphus, indeed, it would be very difficult to show 
bow languages, derived from one stock, could possibly 
differ so far in their expression of the simplest ideas and 
wants as not to be mutually traceable : and truly, until 
this -is done (which I conceive impossible), I am content 
to rest in the belief that there are more original langua- 
ges than one — a conclusion agreeable to common sense, 
and consonant with the early history of the Hebrews. 

*^ To trace the original identity of distant races, and 
their eariy nugrations, through the affinity of language, 
is indeed a hmited task compared with the other, but 
one both feasible and useful. To further this labor, the 
smallest additional information is valuable ; and the dia- 
lects .of. the rude people inhabiting the interior of the isl- 
ands of Borneo lUid Celebes would be highly important. 
Previou^, however, to instituting such a comparison, as 
far as in my power, I propose teiking a brief glance at 
the different races whose languages may be included un- 
der the common name of Polynesian. 

*' In the first place, the Malayan. Issuing from the 
interior of Sumatra, there is reason to conjecture, and 
even facts to prove, that originally t}^e dialect of Menang- 
kabau resembled the other dialects of its birthplace. 
The gradual extension of a warlike race gave a polish to 
the language ; additional wants, increasing luxury, ex- 
tended knowledge, and contact with the merchants of 
many £ astern, nations, all combined to produce the Ma- 
layan in its present form. But, during the progress of 
tlus change, the radical Polynesian stock remained ; and 
we find, consequently, that the words necessary to man- 
kind in their earliest stage bear a sti'ikmg and convincing 



64 EXPEDITION TO BOENSa 

resemUance to the dialects of Rejong and Lampung, 
in Sumatra. Subsequent improvements were largely 
adopted from the Sanscrit and the Arabic v but the fact 
of the primary ideas being expressed in the Polynesian 
must preclude the conclusion of either of these being 
the source whence the Malayan is derived, its improve- 
ment and extension being alone referable to them. Mars- 
den positively states his inability to trace the Polynesian 
to any other £astern language ; and, at the same time, 
he has demonstrated, in what he considers a convincing 
manner, the identity of this language from Madagascar 
and the islands of the Pacific to the Philippines and Su- 
matra. 

*^ It may here be incidentally remarked, that while so 
many authors are endeavoring to prove that the Asiatic 
archipelago was peopled from the Western Continent,* 
they overlook the fact of the radical difference of lan- 
guage. Unless the roots of the language can b^ traced 
either to India, Cambodia, or other parts, it must foUpw, 
as a matter of course, that the islands were peopled at 
a time previous to the introduction of the language now 
spoken on the Continent; else how are we to account 
for the simple dialects of a rude people being radically 
distinct from the language of the mother country 1 If 
the Dyaks of Borneo and the Arafuras of Celebes and 
New Guinea speak a dialect of the Polynesian, it wifl 
go far to prove an original people as well as an original 
language, that is, as orig'mal as the Celtic, the Teutomc, 
the South Ameiican ; original because not derived from 
any known source. 

** These brief remarks on the Malfiyan will, 1 believe, 
apply to the language of the Island of Java, which« 
equally improved and enlarged by the addition of Sanscrit 
and Arabic words, and differently modified, retains, nev- 
ertheless, its radical Polynesian stock and its distinct 
written character, as do likewise the dialects of the isl- 
ands of Bally and Lombock. The districts of Kejong, 
Lampung, dec, in Sumatra, retain the original language 
in a much higher degree, possess distinctive written 
characters, and have Uttle intermixture of Sanscrit or 

* Western as regards Poljrnesia. 



EXPEDITION TO BORiVEO. 65 

Arabic. Celebes, or Bugis-laod, with a distinct lan- 
guage afid cbaracter, will probably be found to ' follow 
tiie same role ; and the Philippines, including Mindanao, 
according to Marsden, possess the same language, though 
altered and modiified into the Tagala tongue. 

** Madagascar, 00 &r removed, exhibits in its language 
a dialect 01 Tagala, or, strictly speaking, of Polynesian ; 
and the South Sea islands present striking and almost 
convinciog proofs of the same origin. 

*' The uiquiiy ought to be pushed to the languages of 
the Mexieana'Uid Peruvians of South America ; Mid, as 
far as bur knowtodge permita, their identity established 
or disproved ;. for the Janguage of this by-gone people 
would go far toward tracing l£e course of emigration, it 
being evident that a strong argument would be raised in 
favor of the migration proceeding from east to west, if 
the language is cpnmion to South America and Sumatra, 
and not traceable to any country of the Continent of 
India. 

. ** It remauM, however, to inquire into the language of 
the interior tribes of Borneo, Celebes, and New Guinea; 
and, on such inquiry, should they be found to possess 
the same primaiy roots as the rest, Fbelieve the con- 
clusion must uldqiately be arrived at of the existence of 
a Polynesian language common to this vast geographical 
extentf aui. distinct from the languages of Asia. In 
tracing this identity, we dm only, of course, find it in 
few instances in tibe cultivated Javanese and Malayan 
languages. Discrepancies must naturally be great from 
the intermixture, from early recorded times, of all lan- 
guages in the archipelago; but, nevertheless, if the rad- 
ical affinities be striking, they will be conclusive in es- 
tablishing the original identity of all the races before 
mentioned ; for, without this original identity, how can 
we account for th^se affinities of language ? It may, 
mdeed, be urged that this language h^ graduaUy crept 
into the dialects of Java and Menangkabau. But, in the 
first place, the affinities will be found in the very roots 
of the language^— in the expressions for the primary and 
necessary idMs, which seldom alter in any people ; in 
the next, there is a high degree of improbability in sup- 
posing a rude dialect to supplant a substantial portion of 
5 F 2 



66 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

a more polished one; and, thirdly, we must not overlook 
the coDateral evidence of the similarity of confdiination 
pervading the entire rlu;e from Polynesia to the archi- 
pelago—distinct alike from the Caucasian and the Mon- 
golian. 

** In tracing the identity of this language, we may 
reckon the directs of the Dyaks of Borneo, &c., as the 
lowest step of the ladder ; those of the Pacific islands 
next ; and so through the dialects of Sumatra and Tagrn- 
la, up to the Malayan and Javanese. For t]»is purpose, 
a comparative view of all must be attained ; and Eastern 
scholars should point out, when possiUe, the words tak- 
en from Sanscrit and other languages. For my 6wn 
part, these remarks are made as a sketch to be enlarged 
on, and to assist in obtaining the vocabularies of the iSy- 
aks and Arafuras. 

** Dec, 6th. — ^In looking over Marsden's adrnfaraUe In- 
troduction to- his Malayan Grammar, I find I have taken 
many of his views in the foregoing remarks ; but I con- 
sider that his opinions may be pushed to >oonclusions 
more extended than he has ventured upon. Having de- 
scribed the *• exterior circumstance' of the Malayan lan- 
guage, he proceeds to point out those more origina] laa-» 
guages from whence we may presume it to be derived. 

** *- The words of which it consists may be divided into 
three classes, and that two of these are Hindoo and 
Arabic has been generally admitted. The doubts that 
have arisen respect only the third,, or that original and 
essential part which, to the Malayan, stands in the 
same relation as the Saxon to the English, and which I 
have asserted to be one of the numerous dialects of the 
widely -extended language found to prevail, with strong 
features of aimilarity , throughout the archipelago on the 
hither side of New Guinea, and, with a less marked re- 
semblance, among the islands of the Pacific Ocean. . . • 
To show the general identity, or radical connection of 
its dialects, and, at the same time, their individual dif- 
ferences, I beg leave to refer the reader* to the tablet 
annexed to a paper on the subject which I presented, 
60 long ago as the year 1780, to the Society of Antiqua* 

• Also, vol. iv. of the BengiU Atiaik Rismtekeg. 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO*^ 67 

rie«, and is prlutde in vol. vi. of the Archeeologia ; also, 
a table of comparative numerals, in die appendix to vol. 
liL of Captain Cook's last voyi^e ; and likewise to the . 
chart of ten numerals, in two hundred languages, by 
the Rev. R. Patrick, recentTy published in Valpy's Class- 
ical, Biblical, and Oriental Journal.^ 

**" Again, Marsden states : 

** * But whatever pretensions any particular spot may 
have to precedence in this respect, die so wide dissem- 
ination of a language common to ail bespeaks a high de- 
gree of antiquity, and gives a ckum to originality, as far 
as we can venture to apply that term, which signifies 
no more than the state beyond which we have not the 
means, either historically or by fair inference, of tracing 
the origin. In this restricted sense it is that we are 
justified in. considering the main portion of the Malayan 
as ^original, or indigenous, its affinity to any Continental 
tongue not having yet been shoivn ; and least of all can 
wo suppose it connected with the monosyllabic, or Indo- ' 
Cliinese, with which it has been classed.* 

** When we find an original language bearing no traces 
of being derived firom any Continental tongue, we must 
conclude the people likewise to be original, in the re- 
stricted sense, or to have emigrated with their language 
from som& source hitherto unknown. The Sanscrit and 
Arabic additions to the original stock are well marked^ 
though the period of the introduction of the former is 
hidden in darkness. It may be inferred, however, that 
it came with the Hindoo religion, the remains of which 
are yet in existence. It is evident that the question re- 
solves itself into two distinct branches : first, the original 
language, its extent, the coincidence of its dialects, its 
source, dec. ; secondly, its discrepancies, whence arising, 
6cc. ; together with the inquiry into the probable time 
and mode of the introduction of the Sanscrit. With the 
latter of these inquiries I have nothing to do ; on thd 
former subject I may collect some valuable information 
by adding the dialects of the savage tribes in the interior 
of Borneo and Celebes. 

** The alphabets of the island of Java, of the Tagala, 
and the Bugis of Celebes, are given by Comeille, Le 
Brun, Thevenot, and Forrest." 



i^S £XFEDiTiON TO ]B0RN£0. 

Of Mr.. Brooke's sojourn at Singapore it is unnecessary 
to speak ; and I accordingly resume ray extracts with 
his ensuing voyage from that port, and again for the^ In- 
dian archipelago, but contenting myself, for reasons 
which need not be entered into at length, with only that 
portion of his excursion to Celebes and among the Bugis 
which particularly bears upon his Bomeon sequel. 

" Dec. 7th, 1839. — Off Great Solombo. Never was 
there a more tedious passage than ours' has been from 
Singapore. Sailing from that place on the 20th of No- 
vember, we have encountered a duccessibn of calms and 
light winds — creeping some days a few miles, and often 
lying becalmed for forty-eight hours without a breath to 
fill 3ie sails. Passing through the straits of Rhio and 
Banca, and watering at the islands of Nanka, we stood 
thence for Pulo Babian, or Lubeck, lay a night becalmed 
close to the Arrogants Shoal, of which, however, we saw 
nothing, owing, probably, to the smoothness of the water. 
The depths are greater than laid down on Horsburgfa's 
chart, varying from thirty-six to thirty-ei^t fethoms. 
A calm now keeps us off the greater Solombo, which it 
is my intention to visit when in my power. 

** 8di. — ^Drifted past Solombo in the calm, and, reluct- 
ant to return, I continued on my voyage with a Hgfat 
breeze from the eastward. This island is well laid 
down: from the sea we made its longitude 113** 31'; 
Horsburgh gives it 113° 28% which, considering that both 
observations were made afloat^ is a near enou^ approx- 
imation. The land is low, with a single hiU, showing 
round from the westward, flat or wedgcshaped from 
the eastward. The smaller Solombo is low: both 
wooded. 

**10t/i. — In sight of Laurots islands. 

*' 11^. — In the evening stood within four miles of the 
southern island of Laurots. These islands are high and 
steep, covered with wood, and uninhabited. The east- 
ernmost island seems, by bearings, badly laid down, be- 
ing not far enough to the southward and <3astward. Tke 
southern island is called by the Bugis, Mata iSiri ; the 
eastern, Kadapangan ; the northern one, Kalambow. A 
few rocks and islets lay off them ; water deep, and ap- 
parently clear of all danger. 



BXPEDITION TO BOBNEO, 69 

^^15th. — Turatte Bay, Af):er eiLperiencing continued 
calms and light winds; and falling short of water, we at 
length reached liiis bay, and anchcH'ed in 7\ fathoms. 
The first ioipression of Celebes is highly favorable. The 
mountains present a bold outline, and rise in confused 
masses, until crowned by what is commonly called Bon- 
thian Hill. Tho sides of the moimtains slope gradually 
to the sea, and present an mviting and diversifi^ aspect 
of wood and cleared land. I dispatched a boat fcfr wa- 
ter to a small village ; and the crew were weU received 
by die natives, after ijiey became assured that they were 
not pirates. 

** The outline of this bay, in Norie's chart, is not bad- 
ly laid down ; but on either side there is great room for 
knprovement and survey. Turatte Bay may be fairly 
so called, as the district (or negri) generaUy bears that 
name. The larboard point of Turatte Bay (approach- 
ing) is called Mal&saro, which comes next to Tanjong 
Layken in the charts. The starboard point is Tanjong 
Uju Loke, and from Uju Loke the land runs low to the 
point of Galumpang, the entrance of a river marked in 
the charts. From Uju Loke (named Bolo Bolo in No^ 
rie's chart) the coast-line runs for 12 or 15 miles to Bolo 
Bok), which space is entirely omitted. Bolo Bolo f(H*m8 
the entrance of Bonthian Bay. 

** 16th, — Bonthian Bay. Called Banthi by t^ie-natives : 
is in lat. 5° 37' s.; long. 119° 33' e. 

"The bay is pretty well laki down by Dalrymple. 
The small Dutch fort, or intrenchment, stands rather on 
the eastern bight of the bay, and is composed of a few 
huts, surrounded by a ditch and green bank. Two guns 
at each comer compose its strength, and the garrison con- 
sists of about thirty Dutchmen and a few Javanese sol* 
diers. We were cordially and hospitably received by 
the officers, and, after a great deal of trouble and many 
excuses, here procured horses to carry us to the water- 
falL Bonthian Hill is immediately over this place; a 
flat space of rice-ground, some miles in extent, only in- 
tervening. The hill (so called) may with more propri- 
ety be designated as a range of mountains, which here 
attain their utmost height and sink down gradually al- 
most across the peninsula. The view is qnost attractive ; 



70 EXPEDITION TO BOENEO. 

the green and refreshing rice-grounds in the front and 
behind, th^ slopes of the mountain and its various peaks, 
verdant grass, wooded chasms, and all the inequalities 
which mark a mountain region. I am very anxious to 
mount to the summit ; but so many difficulties are thrown 
in the way, that I ahnost despair — ^horses and guides are 
not to be procured. Tvhe Dutch say the natives are lazy : 
the natives say they dare not go without authority— -ei- 
ther way we are the losers ; but the officers certainly ex- 
ert themselves in our favor. Coming into this bay, diere 
is some difficulty in distinguishing tiie fort ; but coming 
from the westward, its position may readily be known 
by steering for two lumps on the s.e. declivity of the 
mountain. 

" 18^. — Grot ashore by seven o'clock to start for the 
waterfall ; till nine we were detained by want of horses, 
but after much trouble the animals were procured, and 
off we started, v Our party consisted of three doctors 
(him of the fortification, a German gentleman, Treacher, 
and Theylingen) and myself, with native guides. The 
road lay for a short way along the beach, then struck 
into the thicket, and lye commenced a gradual ascent. 
The scenery was most striking and lovely ; glades and 
glens, grassy knolls and slopes, with scattered trees, and 
the voice of a hidden river which reached our ears from 
a deep valley on the left hand. Proceeding thus for 
some distance, we at. length plunged into the wood, and 
descending a short space, found ourselves by the sides 
of the stream below the water&ll. Here, breakfast be« 
ing finished, we all stripped to our trowsers, entered the 
water, and advanced along the bed of the river to the 
fall. The banks on either hand, steep and woody, pre- 
vented any other mode of approach, and the stream, rush- 
ing down and falling over huge rocks, rendered the only 
available one any thing but easy. At times we w^*e up 
to the arms, then crawling out and stealing with care over 
wet and slippery stones, now taking advantage of a few 
yards of dry ground, and ever and anon swimming a pool 
to shorten an unpleasant climb. In this manner "we ad-- 
vanced about half a mile, when the fall became visible ; 
thick trees and hanging creepers intervened ; between 
^nd through the fpliage we first saw the water glancing 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 71 

vid shining in its descent. The effect was perfect. Af- 
ter some little further and more difficult progress, we 
stood beneath the fall, of about 150 feet sheer descent. 
The wind whirled in eddies, and carried the sleet over 
us, chilling our bodies, but unable to damp oiur admira- 
tion. The basin of the fall is part of a circle, with the 
outlet forming a funnel^ bare cliffs, perpendicular on all 
sides, form the upper po^on of the vale, and above and 
below is all the luxuriant vegetation of the East ; trees, 
arched and interlaced, and throwing down long totastic 
roots and creepers, shade the scene', and form one of the 
richest sylvan prospects I havfi ever beheld. The water, 
foaming and flashing, and then escaping amid huge gray 
stones on its troubled course — clear and transparent, Ex- 
panding into tranquil pools, with the flickering sunshine 
through the dense foliage — aU combine to form ti, scene 
such as Ta^so has described.* 

" Inferior in body of water to many falls in Switzer- 
land,- it is superior to any in sylvan beauty ; its deep se- 
clusion, its undisturbed solitude, and the difficulty of ac- 
cess, combine to heighten its charms to th^ imagination. 
Our descent was like our upward progress. Having 
again dressed ourselves, we rested for a time, and then 
started for Bonthian — ^wearing away the rest of the day 
shooting amid the hills. They)ingen and myself pro- 
cured many specimens, and returned laden with our 
spoil, and charmed with our day*s excursion. , The wa- 
terfall is called Sapo, from the neighboring green peak 
of that name. The height of our resting-place (not the 
highest point of the day's ascent) was 750*5 feet, by 
Newman*8 two barometers; yet this is the bottom of 
the mountain on its western slope. The officers dmed 
with us ; they are very polite and kind ; and we retired 
early to rest, all the better foi^ our excursion. 

" 19^. — At 6 A.M. went with the Dutch officers shoot> 
ing, and reached the same stream which forms the wa- 
ter&ll. The scenery delightful ; water cool, and pleas- 
ant for bathing, a luxury I enjoyed in hig^ perfection. 
Aboard again to a late breakfast." 

* Canto zv., stanza 55, 58. 



12 BXPSDITIQN TO BOBNEO« 



CHAPTER VL 

Dain Matara, the Bugis. — Excursions m Celebe8.-^Di^ote with 
the Rajah's son-in-law. — Baboon shot. — Appearance of the 
country. — Visit the Resident-r-Barometrical.. obsemitions* — 
The Bugis.— Geographv. — Coral reefs. — Visit the Rana of La- 
matte.-r- Population and products df the country. . 

** I MAT here indulge in a brief episode^ to introdnce 
my Bugis companion, Dain Matara, — ^which properly I 
should have done long since, — ^a man well born, and, for 
his country, affluent and educated : he offered at Sin- 
gapore, to accompany me on this expedition, 'refusing all 
pay or remuneration, and stating that die good name to 
be acquired, and the pleasure of seeing different places, 
would recompense, him. At first,' I must own this dis-. 
interestedness rendered me suspicious ; but conceiving 
that the greatest utility might accrue from his assistance, 
I agreed to take him with his servant. Our long pas- 
sage seamed to make us weU acquainted, «nd, I believe, 
raised a mutual confidence. Dain, cheerful, good-tem- ; 
pered, and intelligent, gained daily on my esteem ; and, 
by the time we reached Bonthian, I was rejoiced that 
he accompanied me. 

'* On this day we succeeded in procuring horses and 
guides for the hill, as it is called. 

" 20^. — By 8 A. M. our preparations were completet 
and we mounted our horses ; a motley group we formed, 
composed of Treacher, Theylingen,* and myself, two 
seamen (Spence and Balls), Dain Matara, a son-in-law 
of the Bonthian Kajah, and six footmen. Provisions for 
four days were on one of the horses, and a goodly stock 
of fowling-pieces, beside my. mountain barometer. The 
plain was soon cleared ; and three hours* ride by a good 
horse-path brought us to the village of Senua, consisting 
of a dozen houses. We found the inhabitants hospita- 
ble, and took refuge from a heavy squall of wind and rain 
in the best house the place afforded. .During the rain 
the thermometer sunk to 76°, but rose directly after- 
ward. At half-past one the rain cleared away, but 
we were detained until three hy the Bugis getting th6ir 
dinner. During this tin^e I strayed along the sparkling 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 73 

streain which mns by the village, and after enjoying a 
bathe, called to horse, in order to proceed. Great was 
my surprise, however, to be told by the rajah^s son-in- 
law that he supposed we were going back. A discus- 
sion arose,— rhe declaring there was no road for the 
horses, and that we could not g& farther ; while I insisted, 
if he would not advance,- 1 should continue my journey 
on foot. After much time had been lost, our guide set 
off slowly and reluctantly, and we proceeded for two or 
three miles, wh^n, finding our head turned to the south- 
ward, and the road descendipg, I again called a halt, and 
was once more told it was not possible to mount farther. 
fA. scheme had been formed to lead us round about, 
and take as gradually down, until too late to mount 
again. A long parley ensued ; both parties seemed res- 
9lute ;- and-^it finished by our unloading the baggage- 
horse, and making a small parcel of necessaries to carry 
on foot. Our guide, however, never intended matters to 
go so far, and we finished at last by taking hali'the horses, 
and allowing him (the rajah*s son-in-law) to descend 
with the rest. This being done, we had to retrace our 
road near^ to Benoa ; and a little before sunset our 
party cros^sd an awkward stream, and struck into the 
path up the mountains. 

^ A short walk brought us to Lengan Lenguig about 
dusk^ where we put up for the night. For the first 
time, thid day I saw the cockatoo in his wild state ; I 
was within easy shot of two of them, but the stream lay 
between us, and I felt some compunction at shooting 
these fiiyorite birds. 

" Lourikeets were in great plenty, and many varie- 
ties of pigeons and doves, beside other birds. Near 
Lengan Lengang we encountered a community of dusky 
baboons, many c? them very large and powerful : after 
a hard scramble I got within shot of them ; on my firing 
the first barrel, the young ones and females made off, 
but the leaders of the band disdained to retreat, and, 
with threatening gestures and grimaces, covered the re- 
treat of their party. The consequence was, I sacrificed 
oneof these heroes, of a lai^e size : he fell from the branch 
on which he was seated into a deep valley, and his fall 
completed the rout of the rest. Spence, in the mean 

G 



74 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

time, having nrriyed, I dispatched him to Secure the 
prize; but at the bottom of the valley the babootis again 
showed themselves, and manifested every inclination to 
fall on him; another barrel put them to flight, and be- 
tween us we dragged the fallen hero to the horses. 

** The village of Lengan Lengang consists of about a 
dozen houses, is situated in a nook of the hills, and 
surrounded by cocoanut-trees. We were accommo- 
dated in the principal hotise, and treated ¥nth every 
hospitality. The people of the hills are poor, though 
their land is fertile, and produces abundance of rice tmd 
Indian corn. Theft is said to be common, especially i^ 
horses, and the care of the horses belonging to travelers 
devolves on the viUagers ; for, in case a horse is stolen, 
a fine is imposed un the populatioo in general. To 
prevent this misfortune, our hosts kept playing, as long 
as we could bear it, on an instrument like a darmet; 
but at twelve o'clock, after trying in vsanto 'sleep, we 
were obliged to stop the tioise and risk the horses. 

** This instrument is about thi'ee feet lon& wiSth five 
or six holes, and a' flat mouthpiece on the cane-tube ; 
the sound is musical when gently breathed into, but in 
their usual mode of playing, it emits frightful shrieks. 
During the night the thermometer sunk to 69^, and we 
were glad of our blankets. 

^'2lst. — Rose between five and six. Took some 
barometrical observations, and at half-past six continued 
our upward way. As far as Lengan Lengaitig the 
coubtry presents beautiful woodland axtd mountain 
scenery, with luxuriant vegetation, thickly wooded tiiI- 
leys, and sparkling streams. The Hats and valleys, are 
occupied by rice-grounds, and the pasturage is of tike 
very finest description for all sorts of cattle ; the grass 
short and rich. Lengan Lengang is the last point 
where the cocoanut or other pidms is seen ; but tiiere 
it grows remarkably well, and attains a great height. 
Above this point the wood, generally speaking, becomes 
smaller, and the vegetation more coarse, the hills being 
covered with a rank high grass, and ferns, similar to 
those in England. Three hours' slow traveling brought 
us to the village of Lokar, situated at the foot of we 
peak of that name. I mounted, while breakout was 



EXPEDITION TO BQ&NEO. 75 

preparing, nearly to the top, and up to the helt of thick 
wood which surrounds the last 100 or 150 feet. Obser- 
yations were repeated here, showing a great fall of the 
mercuiy, and afterward taken at the viUage. Lokar 
consists of a few scattered huts, situated amid gardens 
of fruit and vegetables: the mango, -the guava, the 
jack, and the plantain, with cabbages and Indian con^, 
compose the stock of the inhabitants ; the latter con- 
stitutes their principal food, and- is granaried foi^ use in 
large quantities, not only in ihe house, but on frame- 
works of bamboo without, on which it is thickly hung 
in rows, with the head downward, to protect it from 
the weather. The highest summit, called Lumpu 
Belong, was visible when we first arrived, some miles 
in advance : at breakfisist-time the clouds entirely Cov- 
ered it, , and rplled down upon Lokar in heavy raid, 
driving us into a miserable hut for shelter. 

** During the rain the thermometer fell to 70°. At 
3 P.M. started for some huts we saw at the foot of 
Lumpii Balong, having first sent our horses back to 
Lengan Lengang, being assured their farther progress 
was impracticable. When, however, our guide from 
Lokar understood our intention of reaching Lumpu 
Balong, he objected to proceed, on the plea that ijie 
village in advance was inhabited by people from Turatte. 
We managed to coax him on, and, after two and a half 
hours* widk, reached Parontalas. The country, as- 
cending gradually, becomes more and more wild; ^e 
wood stunted; and the streams, finding their way 
through masses of rock, leave strong traces of their 
occasional violence. Parontalas stands on the edge of 
the forest which skirts Lumpu Balong, from whiclh it 
has not long been retrieved. It consists of ^ few scat- 
tered huts, far apart. Potatoes, tobacco, and cofllee 
are grown here, the former in great abundance. Like 
the rest of the people, their food consists of Indian 
com ; and, |ls io' the other villages, they breed horses. 
Our host of Parontalas was very polite, and gave us 
some fowls and the accommodation of his house ; the 
latter, indeed, was needful, for we were all badly pro- 
vided with covering, and the mountain air was raw and 
cold. To our request for guides to ascend the moan- 



76 EXPSPITION TO BORNEO. 

tain he replied, that it was necessary to consult the 
head man of the district, who lived some little distance 
off. In the interim we made ourselves very -happy, 
determined to ascend with or without d guide or .guides. 
We lay down at nine, in order to be ready for the 
morning's work, the thermometer standing at 59° in the 
house. , 

" 22d. — At five, when we rose, the - thermometer 
stood at 56° in the air. The head man had arrived, 
and willingly gave us guides, warning us only of 1;^e 
difficulty of the ascent. Nothing could exceed ttie 
kindness and attention of this simple old man. He re- 
membered the time the English had the cpuntry, and 
spoke of his people's, respect for our nation, and their 
regret that we had left the country. At 6 a.m. we- 
started, and, after walking about a mile, plunged into 
the belt of forest which environs Lumpu Balong. From 
six till half-past two, we were alternately ascending and 
descending, scrambling over rocks or fallen timber, or 
cutting a path through the most tangled thicket that 
ever tore the wa3rfarer. To. add to our difficulty, 
during the latter half of the ascent, we could procure 
no water, which caused us considerable "suffering. At 
length, however, we stood at the summit of Llun^m 
Balong, and looked,, on either side, pvef a vast i^ea of 
fleecy clouds which rolled beneath. The top is a nar- 
row ridge, covered with stunted trees and luxuriant 
moss ; and a second peak to the westward, of rather 
less elevation, is separated from it by a declivity. I 
climbed to the top of a tree to look along the mpuntain, 
%nd make certain that we were at the highest point; 
and having convinced myself of this, 1 proceeded with 
the barometric observations, which were concluded by 
3 P.M. ; for it was highly necessary to get down before 
night overtook us in the dreary and inhospitable forest. 
Our thirst, too, was tormentmg, and increased by hear- 
ing the fall of a torrent deep in the valley to the north- 
ward. 

** As far as I could observe, the northern face of the 
mountain was perpendicular, and the ascent on that side 
would have been attended with greater difficulty than 
from the point we chose. Our way down was easier, 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 77 

and the descent was made as expeditkmsly as the nature 
of the ground would allow. Having fairly worn our 
shoes off our feet, we were pierced by brambles and 
thorns in a cruel manner. Our guide, in going down, 
discovered a tree with a bee-hive in it containing great 
store of honey. The Bugis instantly attacked the tree, 
on seeing which my first impression was, that it would 
be -prudent to retreat to a distance ; but their composure 
induced ^ne to remain ; and, to my surprise, when the 
tree was laid open, the honey was taken out in large 
quantities, and the bees brushed off the comb without 
offering to sting. Though flying round about us, and on 
the hands of all the people, they were quite innocent of 
harm; and I conclude, therefore, they were different 
from the conimon honey-bee. The honey was excel- 
lei^t, and refireshed us for a few minutes, but ultimately 
only added to our thirst. At length, about five, we 
reached a etream of water, and quenched our thirst 
with dran^^its of the coolest and most limpid mountain 
Stream. The BUgis, thotigh, like ourselves, they had 
been Without any water from nine o^clock in the morn- 
ing till five in. die evening, refused to drink,* alleging 
that it was highly injurious after eating^ honey ! Glad 
were we, just at dark, to get clear of the forest ; and a 
short v?alk farther brought us to our temporary dwel- 
ling. We were much knocked up, and very much torn 
with the thorns. A brief dinner and a delicious cigar, 
and we lay down to sleep — ^not even incommoded by the 
cold, which kept us awake the last night. 

*^23dji — ^Having, through mistake, forgotten to bring 
up any money, I had no means of repaying the obliga- 
tions received from these simple hill-people except by 
promises, ' My old friend ordered the guide of yesterday 
to accompany us to the plains, to receive his own pay- 
ment, and to bring some things, for others, up there. 
At ten we hobbled forth, very foot-sore, and lacking 
proper covering for our feet. The prospect of four or 
five hdnrs* walk to Lengan Lengang was very unpleas- 
ant; and in proportion to our expected pain was our 
gratification on meeting all our horses within three 
miles of Parontalas — aU the horses, which all the men 
swore could not, by ai^ possibility, ascend, were there ; 

q2 



78 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

and though without saddles and bridles, or tfa6 B^gis^ 
we were too glad to mount. We went down by another 
road. Four hours brought us to Lengan Lengang, 
where we rested for two hours, and,. reinouptiDg, 
reached Bonthian at about seven o'clock in the evening. 
Thus concluded this interesting excursion into a hiU- 
region, where we attained the summit of Lumjiu Ba« 
long, never before reached by European. 'The Dutch 
officeiW informed me that three successive residente of 
Bonthian had attempted it and failed. 

" Before I conclude, I may take a brief survey of the 
country. The hills are generally rounded or flat at top« 
and not. offering any rugged or -broken peaks, . The 
scenery about Senua and Lengan Lengang is the per- 
fection of woodland, with the picturesque charactdr^cs 
of a mountain region; the climate admirably suited, 
thence to the summit, for Europeans^ and capable' of 
producing most European and tropical plants to perfec- 
tion. Coffee plantations on these hills mi^t be under- 
taken with certainty of success, and there is much in 
the character of the natives which would facilitate the 
operation. To the westward of Lokar, and sqmewhat 
lower, is a fine extensive plain, which we just skirted 
coming down ; it was cultivated in every part, apparently 
with rice. The vegetable pi*oductions of the hilk .1 have 
briefly mentioned ; but I may add that the wild raspbeny 
was found, and that wild guavas grow in the greatest 
abundanpe^ as well as oranges and grapes. 

" The animal kingdom, of course, we bad no time to 
examine ; but the babi rupa is said to be found in tbe 
higher regions ; and in the forest, toward the summit 
of Lumpu Balong, we saw the dung of wild cattist 
which, I am told, are a species of urus. The burds we 
saw were, paroquets of two sorts, viz., the lourikeet and 
a smaU green paroquet; a large green pigeon, specimens 
of which we got ; the cream-colored pigeon of Borneo, 
beside many others. 

** The geological formation of the regioir I must leave 
to others. I brought down some specimens of the rocks 
and loose stones, which are,sl believe, pummice ; if so^ 
I presume the formation volcanic, similar to Java. 

*« 2ith' — Called on the resident, and saw the rajah. 



EXPEDITION TO BOBN^. 79 

** 25th. — Christinas, unth his joHy nose and icy hands. 
Here it is hot enough 1 Were I to live in this countiy, 
I should retire for the season up in the -mountains. 
Dined with the Resident of jBonthian; by no means 
surprised that he and his congeners had foUed in their 
attempt tb climb the mountain : the resident is a native \ 
In the evening, celebrated the day with aU sorts of 
sports. 

** 26^. — Mid-day, quitted Bonthian, and ran to Boele 
Comba or Compa. 

** 27ik, — I have little to say of Boele Comba* It ]» 
situated in the bight of the bay, eastward of Bonthian. 
There appears to be much, confusion an Horsburgh's 
Directory about the. latitude and longitude, and the 
hiU called after the place. This hill is the last of the 
mountain-range, somewhat detached, covered with 
wood, of moderate elevation, and peaked. From our 
anchorage, two miles from the fort, it bore N.N.W. 
The fort is similar to the^pne at Bonthian, the country 
pretty, and nearly level. The Bonthian mountains (i. e. 
Lumpu Balong and the range) show steep and well in 
the background. Game abounds, by report. Europeans 
are subject to complaints of the eyes, and occasionally 
to. fever. Any .vessel running in should be vei^y careful, 
for the charts are defective^ and Boele Comba reef is 
said to project farther to the westward of the fort than 
laid down. 

** I here subjoin a list of our barometric observations, 
the upper barometer reduced to the rate of the lower 
and standard one : — 



8J|3M5«P.M. 



Senua, 20th December^ 1839. 

Bar. A. D. 

1. 30^)54 . . 86 

2. 28-385 . . 79 

Jjengan Jjengang, 2l»t December, 

Bar. A. D. 

1. 30-119 . . 79 78-5 6»» 30« A.M. 

2. 27-988 . . 70 89-5 6I» 0» „ . 

Lohar Peakf 2lst December^ 100 feet below nanmiL 

Bar. A. D. 

1. 30-095 . . 90 W>,>jh3Q„ 

2. 26-975 . . 79 79^*^*^^^ 



80 EXrEDITIOHf TO BORNEO. 

Hill on the way tp Lumpw Balongj 22d December, ' 

Bar. • A. D. 

]. 30*144 . V. 90 - 90 . Mean between 8^ aod noon. 
8. 23-612 . .66 65-5 10»» 40'» A.M. 

JJumpu ^ahng Peaky 22d December, 

Bar. A. X). 

1. 30146 . . 89-5 90-5 2»» 0™.p.H. 

2. 23-718 . . 64 ^3-5 2»» SO"* „ 

28^. — Leaving Boele Comba after breakfast, we 
shaped ortr course for Point Berak. 

** With the ril;hest country, the natives of these {daces 
are poor, and they bear no good-will to their rulers. It 
is likewise certain that few active measures are resorted 
to for forwarding the development of the nMive charac- 
ter and local resources. The resident is a Macastar- 
born native, and^this fact alone speaks volumes for the 
mode and manner of government. The people of t2ie 
country I found a kind and simple race; and Uiough 
they are accused of pride and laziness by their mas^rst 
I could not, circumstances taken into consideratioti, dis- 
cover any trace, of the latter vice, and tfae former I 
can readily- forgive them. That the Bugis are not an 
indolent race is well proved by their whole conduct, 
wherever circumstances offer any inducement to exer- 
tion. EvoQ here, the. cleared country and the neat 
cultivation prove them far otherwise ; and traces are 
visible everywhere on the mountains^ of their having 
been more highly cultivated than at present. Coffee 
plantations once flourished, and being -destroyed during 
a war, years ago, have never been renewed. Inclosures 
and partition walls in decay are very frequent, marking 
the former boimdary of cultivation. That they are in- 
dependent enough to be proud, I honor them for \ The 
officers aUowed they were courageous, and one desig- 
nated them as ^fier comme un Espagnol ;' and, on the 
whole, no doubt exists in my mind that they are people 
easily to be roused to exertion, either agricultural or com- 
mercial ; their sullen and repulsive manners toward their 
masters rather indicating a dislike to their sway, and the 
idleness complained of only proving that the profits of 
labor are lower than they ought to bo. 



/■ 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 81 



(t 



Nothing so strongly marks the degradation of a race 
or nation as a cheerful acquiescence under a foreign rule. 
The more virtuous, the more civilized, the more edncar 
ted a people, the more turbulent, indolent, and sullen, 
when reduced to a state of subjection ; the fewer quali- 
ties will they have Uk please their masters, when foreign 
rule is oppressive, or looks solely to the advantage of 
the country of the conquerors, and not of ' the con- 
quered. There is no race will wiUih^y submit : the 
bayonet and the sword, the gallows and the whip, im- 
prisonment and confiscation, must be constantly at work 
to keep them under. 

** Leaving Boele Coraba, as I before said, we shaped 
our course for Tanjong Berak, passing between that 
point and the north island. The passage is excellent, 
clear of all danger, as far as we coukl see, with deep 
water. The rocks reported to exist by Horsburgh, and 
put down on Norie*s chart, have no existence. The 
Bugis prahus always use this channel, and know them 
not ; and the captain of a Dutch cruiser inforined me 
that he had often run through the passage at night, and 
that it was "Clear of all danger or obstruction. 

**My own observation went to verify the fiu;t, for 
every part of the passage appears deep and clear, and 
we passed over the spots where these rocks are marked. 
Approaching Tanjong Berak,^ there is a sandy beach, 
where a vessel may get anchoraee in case the wind dies 
away. The tides in the channel are strong ; here, and 
along the south coast, the ebb runs from the eastward, 
the flood from the west. Having cleared the channel, 
we hauled into the Bay of Boni, which, although run- 
ning in a north and south direction, has some headlands 
extending to the eastward. There are two places 
marked on the chart, viz. Berak and Tiero ; but these, 
instead of being towns or villages, are names of districts ; 
the first, reaching from Tanjong Berak, about 15 miles, 
tiU it joins Tiero ; Tlero, extending from the northern 
confine of Berak to Tanjong Labn, 15 miles in all. To 
the northward and eastward is a high island called Bal- 
nnrueh. From Tanjong Berak the water along the 
coast is very deep ; no soundings with 50 fiithoms. To- 
ward evening we went into Tiero Bay, a pretty sechided 
6 



82 KXPEDinOIf TO BORirSO. 

•pot. Tbe •outbem part of the buj is foul, baling a 
reef visible at low water, l^he northern headland has 
a spit mnning from it, with 14 fathom hatf a mile (or 
little more^ off. Within the baj there is no bottom 
with 50 fatnom till near ita northern extremity, where 
tbe water shoals suddenly. Running in, in a squall, we 
got into 3i fathom, where we anchored. This country 
belongs to the Dutch as fiar as Point Labn. 

*' 29th. — Calm all day. Sounded the bay : the seuA- 
em point has a steep coral reef nearly a quarter c^ a 
mile off. The southern part of the bay is inclosed by 
a reef, part of which seeras to me artificial, for the pur- 
pose of catching fish, and is shallow : outside the reef 
the water is deep close to. The western shore is lined 
by a reef close to it, and the water is deep. Tbe cen- 
ter part of the bay is very deep ; and within 100 yards 
of where we lay we got no bottom at 17 fathoms. Tbe 
next cast was 6, and the next 3 fathoms— hard clay bot- 
tom. A small river discharges itself, in the northern 
part, inside the anchorage : there is a consideraUe depth 
within, but the bar is shallow. The scenery on the 
river is beautiful ; wild at first, and gradually beooming 
undulating and cultivated. Birds are plenty : cockatoos 
abound, of which I shot two. This part of the country 
possesses considerable geological interest : the bills round 
the bay are of slight ele.vation ; and 80 or 100 feet from 
the sea level are large masses of cmral rodL, upheaved 
by some convulsion. 

" 30<fe.-^Under wei^. Brought up in 23 fathoms^ 
amid the coral shoals. 

** 3l8t — ^Visited the island of Balunrueb for sights. 

** Tanjong Labu is bluff and bold, and of moderate 
elevation. The land from thence trends away west- 
ward, forming a long bay, which, for distinction, may be 
called Labu Bay, at the N. W. part of which is the town 
of Son^, the principal place about here. Between 
Labu and Son^ are tbe following countries : Kupi Ka- 
jang, Pakah, Buah, Kalaku, Baringan, and Magnara- 
bunbang; each with a separate petty rajah. The 
country is moderately weQ cleared ; about an average 
height, near the shore, of 300 feet ; with few habita- 
tions about, but no towns or villages. The mountam 



EXPEDITION TO BOENEO. 83 

range throws a spur downward to the sea, in the Ticini^ 
of Songi and -the fine peaks of Lumpa Bakmg; and 
Wawa Karang, with the confusion of mountains, form a 
magnificent background to the prospect. From Magna- 
rabunbaog the land runs' away to the eastward toward 
Tanjong Sakmketo, which must be described on a fu- 
ture occasion. In l^e offing are severa] islands and 
numerous reefs. The pnncipal island is Bidunrueh, 
400 or 500 feet high; bold, steep, and covered with 
trees, except at its northern extremity; where it is low, 
with a sandy point. Off tins north point runs a coral 
reef; direction 354°, and extent about two miles. At 
the S.W. angle of the island there is likewise a reef 
stretching half a mile ; and the shores all round, for a 
short distance, are lined with coral, outside of which 
the water is apparently very deep. We could get no 
soundings with a hand lead, half a mile to the west- 
ward. 

** Off Balunrueh, to the S.E., is the islet of Liang Li- 
ang ; next to Liang Liang, Tanbunoh, which is larger ; 
then Cadingareh Batantampeh (the largest), Cotiog- 
dnan Larii^riah, and two islands to the northward 
called Canallo. Balunrueh and Batantampeh have both 
indifferent fresh water ; the former near the low point 
at the north end. From the S.W. end of Liang Liang 
a reef runs out. The bearing, from the small hill, over 
the watering place of Balunrueh, was 77°. The reef 
extends to 104°, and stretches to the southward beside : 
near Liang Liang it is narrow. Its limits I could not 
define. 

** Between Liang Liang and Tanbunoh a narrow reef, 
and spits from most of the islands. Two patches lay off 
Balunrueh about two miles and a half: the first, bearing 
319°, is narrow, and about half a mile long^ the other 
smaller, and bearing 287°. Part of the day we passed 
on Balunrueh was very hot; but we got satisfactory 
sights, and sailed round the island, returning to the vessel 
about SIX in the evening. 

** I must now return to Labu, to give some account of 
the channel between the reefe ; as, from the appearance 
of the charts, it would seem impossible to navigate the 
western side of the bay. Having passed Tanjong Laba 



64 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO' 

at 1^ distance of 3^ or 4 miles, get the flat-topped hiH 
called Bulu Tanoa ahead. -Close to the Bula Tanna, 
in the foreground, is another smaller hill, with two 
remarkable tufts on the top : this hill, just open to the 
eastward of Bulu Tanna, is the leading mark for Soog^ 
which, stands to the westward. This mark will kid 
clear, or very nearly so, of all the reefs ; bat as there 
is uncertainty in the distance from Tanjong Labu, it 
may be necessary to diverge from the straight course in 
order to avoid some of the patches. In the daytime the 
coral is seen with the greatest ease ; and a vessel with 
a lookout aloft, and a breeze, may proceed with safety. 
The first reef is on the starboard hand ; part was dry, 
and shoal- water about. This first patch is in the prox- 
imity of the great reef called Melompereht which ruiu 
to the eastward. Beside these, the channel is occasion- 
ally lined by patches on either hand ; but is nowhere 
narrower than a mile and a half, and is anything but 
difficult navigation, so far, in clear weather. 

** Jan. ^ili, 1840. — Arrived off Songi on the Ist, and 
dispatched a boat to the old Rajah, or Rana, of Lamatte. 
Our answer was, that not having been to Boni, she feared 
receiving us, as she felt inclined ; but if we would come 
to her house, she should be glad to see us. On the fol- 
lowing day, accordingly, we paid our visit at her resi- 
dence, which is situated about four miles up the-' river 
Tanca. 

" The old lady is about sixty-five years of age, and 
(as she herself informed us) very poor. Her hotase, 
indeed, bears every mark of great poverty; having a 
leaky roof, and not sufficient matting to cover the bam- 
boo floors. She was kind, and seemed pleased to see 
us; said I should henceforward be her son, and that 
nothing but her fear of the Boni Rajah prevented her 
receiving me in the best way in her power ; but pointing 
to the roof and to the floor, she repeated, * I hiave no- 
thing.* I presented her with such articles as I thought 
would be acceptable to her ; and, in return, she gave me 
a sarong. 

** The population of the country is considerable. The 
last district I mentioned was Magnarabunbang. The 
town of that name, on the sea-side, consists of fortj-five 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 85 

houses, beside a roving population of Badjows. Along 
the coast to the eastward, and close to Magnarabunbang, 
is the river of^ngi. Proceeding up this shallow river, 
the first villa^ is Tacolompeh, situated on the right 
bank, and eonsisting of twenty houses; nearly opposite 
the village of Pangassa, of thirteen houses ; and &rther 
up, about four miles from the river's mouth, stands 
Son^, consisting of 164 houses on the right bank, and 
60 on the left. These places are all on the low ground, 
and surrounded vnxh cocoanut-trees. 

** Joining the district of Magnarabunbang, on the coast, 
is Lamatte, die rajanate of our old friend. The river, 
like the Song^, is shallow, Imd running through very low 
ground. On the left bank is Luppa, consisting of twenty- 
five houses ; then, on the right, Ulo, twenty-two houses ; 
and above Ulo comes Ullu^, of twelve houses. Nearly 
opposite Ullud is Balammepa, with thirty houses, supe- 
rior to the others, and inhabited by merchants who have 
made money in trading voyages. This village sends 
yearly two prahus to Singapore. Just above ' Ullud 
stand seven houses ; and above Balammepa is Tanca, the 
residence of the Rajah of Laraatte, consisting of ten 
houses. The streamy, as I have said, are shallow, and 
the ground low, neatly cultivated with Indian corn, and 
abounding in cocoanut-trees. Behind Magnarabunbang 
there is a narrow strip of low ground, which becomes 
wider as it atlvances to the eastward, with here and there 
moderate elevations. 

The chief product of the country is coffee, which is 
grown in great quantities on the hills, but brought down 
as it ripens, when it is collected by the Bugis merchants 
for their yearly shipments. The yearly produce is 
stated to be 2000 coyans or 80,000 peculs. The price is 
from fifteen to sixteen Java' rupees the pecul ; to which 
must be added the trouble and expense of storing and 
clearing from the inner skin. Tortoise-shell is brought 
in by the Badjows ; and mother-of-pearl sheUs in any 
quantity there is demand for. Taking the number of 
houses in this small space, above described, the total 
will be 308 houses, which reckoned at the low estimate 
of eight persons for each house, will give 2464 inhabi- 
tants : this, however, is far below the proper estimate, 

H 



86 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

as there are villages scattered between the rivers, and 
numbers of detached houses; in all, therefore, safelj 
computed at 5000 persons, The villages, with the ex.- 
ception of Balammepa, have an aspect a£ poverty, and 
the country is ravaged by that frightful scourge the 
small-pox, and likewise some cases apparently of chol- 
era, from the account given of the complaint. Near the 
hill of Bulu Tanna there is a hot spring, and likewise, 
by the report of the natives, some ^ight remains of ao 
old building. I regretted much not seeing tliese ; but 
the natives, with much politeness, begged me not to go 
previous to my visit to Boni, as they would be answer- 
able for aUowing strangers to see the ^country without 
orders from the chief rajah. All I see and hear convin- 
ces me that the Rajah of Boni has great power over the 
entire countiy. On a friendly communication with him« 
therefore, depends our chance of seeing something of 
the interior. 

**The inhabitants here are polite, but shy and re- 
served : and the death of the Rana of Son^ and the 
absence of the Rajah Mooda, her reported successor, 
have been against us. 

»« 5^.-^Sailinsfirom Songi about 4 p.m., we durected 
our course for Tanjong Salanketo. The breeze was 
stiff, which caused us to use considerable precaution in 
sailing among the shoals. Assisted by a native Nao^ 
6dah, by name Dain Pativi, we were enabled to keep 
the tortuous channel, of which otherwise we should 
have been ignorant. A little farther than the Tanca 
river is a shoal stretching froin the shore, to avoid 
which we kept Canallo on our lee bow : this being clear- 
ed, we gradually luffed up, ran between, two shoals, and 
passed several others." 



■XPSDITION TO BORNEO. 87 



CHAPTER VII. 

Mr. Brooke's seeood visit to Sarawak. — The civil war. -^ Re- 
oeiTee a present of a Dyak boy. — Ejccursion to the seat of war. 
—Notices of livers, and settlements on their banks. — Deaths 
, and buriials. — Reasons for and against remaining at Sarft wak. — 
Dyak visitors. — Council of war. — Why side with the Rajah. 
— Mode of constructing forts. — State of enemy's and Rajah's 
forces. — Conduct of the war. 

M&. Brooke cotitinued his cruise for some time, and 
made-veiy interasting collections of natural history, be- 
side acquiring: much insight into the native history, lan- 
guage, and customs, hb detailed remarks on which it is 
to be hoped he will at a future day give to the public. 
Jle then returned to Singapore, where he was detained 
lor several months by ill health ; but availed himself of 
the opportunity to recopper and refit the Royalist, and 
set everything eiae in order for his next visit to Sara- 
wak, the remarkable results of which are related in the 
£DllQwing pages. StiM sick and languid though he was, 
the very air of Borneo, and the prospect of activity, 
seemed to restore him to life, after the listless rest at 
Singapore, with *^ nothing to observe ;" and only cheered 
by the kinjdest attentions and hospitalities of ^e inhab- 
itants of that interesting and important settlement. 

On the second visit of Mr. Brooke to Sarawak, about 
the end of August, 1840, he found the inhabitants in 
nearly the same state as at first, although there was 
much talk of reinforcements, and decisive measures for 
bringing the war to a close. The two parties lay within 
thirty miles of each other, the rebels holding the upper 
'pait of tbe river, and communication with the interior. 
The sultan, however, had sent down the Orang Kaya 
de Gadong to take more active measures, and his arrival 
stimulated Muda Hassim to something like exertion. 
This occurred on the fourth September, 1840, as appears 
by Mr. Brooke^s journal, from which I shall give various 
extracts indicative not only of the character of my friend, 
whose ideas were written down at the time the impres- 
sions were made, but also supplying a distinct picture 
of the progress of this novel and amusing civil wai*fare, 



98 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

and demonstratiDg the unwarlike character of the Sarft- 
wak Borneons. 

"An army of mixed Malays and Dyaks was raised to 
attack the Dyak tribes in rebellion, and this service was 
successfully performed ; the rebel Dyaks were defeated, 
and most of them have since come over to the rajah. 
Their forces being weakened by desertion, were reported 
not to amount to more than 400 or 500 men, In four or 
five forts situated on the river ; and it now renudoed to 
drive them from their last stronghold of resistance. It 
was confidently asserted by the rajah and Macota, that, 
were it not for the underhand assistance of the Sultan 
of Sambas, who had constantly supplied them wKh food 
and ammunition, the insurgents would long since hare 
been dispersed. 

** At die period in question they were said to be in 
great distress for want of provisions ; and as a force was 
collectmg to attack them from various quarters, it was 
greatly to be hoped that the war was verging to a ter- 
mination. During my week's stay I have frequently 
visited Muda Hassim,and he has likewise been an board: 
our good understanding knows no interruption ; and these 
savage, treacherous, bloodthirsty Bomeohs are our good 
friends, with whom we chat and laugh every evening in 
fiuniliar converse. I find no cause to alter my last ymr's 
opinion, that they have vfew active vices ; but indolence 
is the root of their evils. 

*^ Sept, 7th — Last night I received a strange and 
embarrassing present, in the shape of a young D^eUl boy 
of five years old — a miserable little prisoner, made during 
this war, from the tribe of Brong. The gift caused me 
vexation, because I knew not what to do with the poor 
innocent; and yet I shrink from the responsibility of 
adopting him. My first wish is to return him to his 
parents and his tribe ; and if I find I cannot do this, I be- 
lieve it will be better to carry him with me tlian leave 
him to become the slave of a slave : for should I send 
him back, such will probably be his &te* I wish the 
present had been a calf instead of a child. 

" 9^. — Situ, my Dyak boy, seems content and happy; 
and judging by his wars, and his fondness ioat tobaoco, 
he must be older than I at first supposed. In porsiianoe 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. BO 

of my desire to restore bim to his parents I made eveiy 
inquiry as to their probable fate ; but have learned no- 
thmg that leaves me any hope that I shall be able to do 
80. The Brong tribe having taken part with the rebels, 
were attacked by the rajah's people ; and many were 
killed and the rest scattered. Pino, the Brong, knows 
not whether Situ*s parents are alive or dead ; nor, if the 
former, whither they have fled. Supposing ray endeav- 
ors to-restore the child fail, I have i*esolved to keep him 
with Die, lor many reasons. The first is that his niture 
prospects will be better, and his fete as a freeman at 
Singapore happier, than as a slave in Borneo ; the second, 
that he can be made a Christian. I can easily provide 
for him in some reiipectable household, or take him to 
England, as may hereafter be most advantageous for 
him ; and at the former place he can always be made a 
comfortable servant with good training. Yet with all this, 
I cannot disguise from myself that there is responsibility 
-HI heavy moral responsibility — attached to this course, 
that mi^t be avoided : but then, should it be avoided ? 
Looking to >^ the boy's interests — temporal, perhaps, 
eternal---I think it ought not ; and so, provided always I 
cannot place him where humanity and nature dictate, I^ 
will take the responsibility,' and serve this wretched and 
destitute child as &r as lies in my power. He is cast 
on my compassion ; I solemnly accept the charge ; and 
I trust his friture life may bear good fruit and cause me 
to rejoice at my present decision. 

** Oct. 2d. — ^Lying at Sar&wak, losing valuable time, 
but pending the war difficult to get away ; for whenever 
the subject is mentioned, Muda Hassim begs me not to 
desert him just as it is coming to a close; and duly holds 
out prospects of the arrival of various Dyak tribes. The 
rajah urged upon me that he was deceived and betrayed 
by the intrigues of Paneerans, who aimed at alienating 
his country ; and that if I left him, he should probably 
have to remain here for the rest of his Dfe, being resolved 
to die rather than yield to the unjust influence which 
others were seeking to acquire over him ; and he appealed 
to me that afber our friendly communication I could not, 
as an £nglish gentleman, desert him under such circum- 
stances. I felt that honorably I could not do so : and 

h2 



90 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

though reluctantly enough, I resolved to giro him the aid 
he asked; — smaU indeed^ but of consequence infiucha 
petty warfare. 

*« 3d ^I started to join Macota at Leda Tcknah. At 

4h. 30in. P.M. a pouring rain delayed ub some time: 
and darkness setting in, rendered our pull a long and TCfTj 
disagreeable one. We did not reach Leda Tanah until 
eleven, when we found the army in their boatat and a 
small fort they had built on the bank of the river. I 
moved into Macota's large boat, and. slept there ;, while 
he, as commander-in-chief, went backward and forward 
from one post to another during the night. 

'* 4ik» — At *Leda Tanah the r^ver divided into two 
branches; one part running past Siniawan, and tha 
other to the left — likewise to another point of the 
mountain-range. Above Siniawan is Sarambo, a high 
detached mountain, perhaps 3000 feet in height, with a 
notch in the center. Off Leda Tanah is a sand and 
pebble bank formed by the junction of the two streams, 
and the country around is well cleared for this part; 
while the graves on the right bank bear witness to the 
fitopulation of former days. It is represented to have 
feeen a flourishing pla^e, and the neighborhood well 
inhabited, until the breaking out of this unhappy war. 
The situation is delightful, and advantageonsly oboaen 
at the confluence of the two streams. 

** 5/^.-^Ascended that to the left for a short dlstaiMse- 
On the left hand, just above Leda Tanah, ia the amafl 
creek of Sarawak, the original settlement, and from 
which the larger river now takes its name. I intended 
to have returned to-day; but as the weather threat- 
ened another deluge, I stopped till the following morn- 
ing. It was a curious sight to see the who& army 
bathe, with the commander-in-chief at their head, and 
his Pangerans. The fare of these people is anything 
but luxurious, for they get nothing but riee and salt; 
and they were thankful in proportion for the amaU sup- 
plies of tea, sugar, and biscuit I was able to spare them* 

i" eth — Quitted Leda Tanah, and reached the Roy- 
alist in five hours, one of which we were delayed bj 
the way. The river is remarkably pretty; banka 
cleared of jangle, with fine trees, and a view of the 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 91 

HMrantaiiis. Many parts are exceedingly shallow ; but 
tlie DEtiyes state there is a channel for a moderate-sized 
▼esse! as far as Leda Tanah." 

On Mr. Brooke's return on board the Royalist, he 
found his steward Rankin, who had been lingering 
some time, still alire; and a seaman named Daniel, 
whom he had left with a slight fever, suddenly expired 
at ten at ni|^t in a fainting fit. He writes in his journal : 
**It is difficult to allege the immediate cause of his 
death,. which pirobably arose from some organic com- 
plaint of liie heart or the brain, quite independent of 
fever. Five miiiates before his decease the man's 
pulse was high and fuU. The steward will follow in a 
few days ; and death, which has never before entered 
o|i board, will thus strike two blows. To me it is a 
satisfaction that neither is in any way attributable to 
climate. 

** 7th. — Muda Hassim rendered me every assistance. 
A grave was prepared, and wood for a coffin, so that by 
two o'clock we proceeded to inter the dead. His last 
resting-place was situated on a gently rising ground 
behind die Chinamen's houses. The ensign was placed 
over his simple bier, and he was carried by his ship- 
mates to the grave. All who could be spared attended, 
and I performed the service — ^that impressive and beau- 
tiful service of the Church of England. 

** 8^^«-^Havtng the melancholy duty of yesterday 
over was a relief, only alloyed by the sad prospect of a 
near recurrence. I now turned my mind seriously to 
departiire, having well weighed the pros and cons of 
the subject. . . 

** In the first place, the greatest advantage would 
result from my accompanying the rajah along the coast 
of Borneo ; and if I could hope a reasonable time 
would leave him free to go there, I would wait spite of 
the season : for it is evident that by myself I should 
have to form fresh connections among the chiefs, and 
without that I reckon it next to impossible to penetrate 
even a moderate distance from the coast in a strange 
place. The next reason is, that it has been intimated 
to me that a rival faction, headed by Pangerau Usop, 
exists io Borneo Proper, and that that Pangeran, from 



92 EXPEDITION TO BO£NEO. 

my known friendship to Muda Hassim, mi^t endeavor 
to injure me, i, e, lull me. At any rate, during Muds 
Hassim*s absence, I should be obstrjicted in all my 
proceedings, and could not do more thatf sketch the 
bare coast-line. These are strong and cogent reaaoni 
for remaining for a timet if the ultimate object be at- 
tainable ; and to these may be added my own feelings 
— ^my reluctance to quit the rajah in the midst of diffi- 
culty and distress^ and his very very acul^Biee whenever 
I mention the topic. 

'* On the other hand must be weighed the approach 
of the adverse mOnsoon, the loss of time, and the faihire 
of provisions, which, though but luxuries to gentlemen 
which they can readily <]ispense with, are nevertheless 
necessaries to seamen, without which they get dis- 
contented, perhaps, mutinous. There are good reaioBf 
on both sides. 

" 9ih. — ^I sent Williamson to intimate my approaching 
departure ; and when I went in the evening the littlo 
man had such a sorrow^l countenance that my heart 
smote me. When I told him 1 would remain if there 
were the slightest chance of a close to the war, his 
countenance cleared, and he gaily repeated that my 
fortune and his would bring this struggle to an end, 
though others forsook him. I then consented to await 
the issue a few days longer, and to revisit Leda Tanah 
to ascertain if the news were true. It ran to the effect 
that the rebels, under the Patingi and Tumangong, are 
fortified at the foot of the mountain of Saranalra, oa 
which hill are three Dyak tribes below that of Sanmbo; 
over them Bombak ; and on the summit the Paninjow. 
The Bombak and Paninjow have already, in part, 
joined Macota, and the Sarambo are to come in as to> 
day. These three last Dyvk tribes deserting the rebels 
wUl leave them surrounded in their forts, which are 
commanded by the rest of the hill; and eveiything 
promises well, if the opportunity be vigorously used. 
The Sow and the Singd are in part at Leda Tanah, 
and more Dyaks daily joining. I must posh the rajah 
on to adtion, for help from without is not likely to come. 
Yet I wish still more to accommodate matters; and if 
he would spare the leaders' lives, I beUeve Ibey wodU 



BXPEOITION TO BORNBO* M 

lay down their arms on mj gnaranty. But though he 
does not say that he will kUl them, he will listen to no 
terms of compromise; and when I reflect that a 
Emropean monarch, in the same circumstances, would 
act in the same way — that the laws of my own country 
would condemn the men for the same offence — ^I cannot 
urge the subject into a~ personal matter, n 

** 16£^u^— Rankin's (my steward's) death having be€$n 
some time inevitable, it was a relief when the event oc- 
curred. He was cut off in the flower of manhood, from 
the effects of hard drinking, which even his fine consti- 
tution oould not resist. 1 buried him near the other 
man, and had a neat inscription; with the name of the 
individual, his ship and age, placed over each. 

** Days passed on, but not quite unrelieved by events. 
And now I- may positively state, that the war will be 
over in a few days, or not over at all. The first of 
these events was the desertion of the Dyaks, and the 
arrival of their chie£i with Macota. Next arrived 200 
Chinese from Sambas, under a very intelligent ca^n- 
tan. Rajah Ali came next, bringing some ourang- 
outangs' heads; thenDatu Naraja ; and lastly, Pangerian 
Jedut from Sarebus, with the mformation that the Dyaks 
of that name, in consequence of a war with Linga, 
would not come here. Thus they not only refused to 
come themselves, but obliged the Linga people to stay 
at home to defend their country. To quiet this coast 
the Sarebus should receive a severe lesson.- 

** I7th, — I had a large party of Dyaks on board in the 
evening, viz. the Singe, Sow, Bombak, and Paninjow, 
in all iSwut fifteen men and two old chiefs. They ate 
and drank, and asked for ever3rthing, but stole nothing. 
One man wore a necklace of bei^ set with human 
teeth, taken of course in war, which I got from him for 
two yards of red -cloth. Another was ornamented with 
a necklace <^ bears' teeth ; and several had such a pro- 
fusion of araall white beads about their necks as to re- 
semble the voluminous foldings of the M fashioned cra- 
vat. As far as I could observe, they all seemed in earnest 
about attacking Siniawan; and theur allegiance to the 
rsjah was as warm now (in words) as it h»A been here- 
tofore defective in action. 



94 EICPEDITION TO BORNEO^ 

*U8^. — Proceeded in the long-boat to Leda Tanafa* 
which we reached in three and a half hoars' poUiiig, 
and just in time to witness the start of 150 Malays arc 
100 Dyaks of Lundu for the mountain of Sarambo, at 
the foot of which Siniawan and the enemies' forts are 
situated. - 

" 19^. — Did everything in my power to mrge Maeota 
to advance and divert the attention of the rebels from 
the party going up the mountain, but in ndn : Malay- 
like, he would wait. 

*' 20^. — I have before remarked that two rivers iOTm- 
ed a junction at Leda Tanah ; and this day I ascended 
the left hand stream, or, as they call it, the Songi besa^ 
(i. e, great Songi). The scenery is picturesque ; the 
banks adorned witn a light and variegated foliage cf frait- 
itrees ; and everywhere bearing traces of former clear- 
ing and cultivation. In the background is the range of 
mountains, among which Stat is conspicuous from his 
noble and irregular shape. On our return, thewfaHa 
flag (a Hadji's turban) was descried on the nMraDtaiOf 
being the prearranged signal that- all was weU. No 
news, however, came from the party; and in spite of 
the white banner Maeota took fright at the idea thai 
the rebels had surrounded them. 

** 2l8t, — Detachments of Dyaks are coming in. Ten of 
the tribe of Sutor were dispatched as scouts i and in a 
few hours returned with the welcome intelligence tiiat 
the detachment was safe on the top of the monntaiiiy 
and that the three ti'ibes of Paninjpw, Bombak, and Sa- 
rambo, had finally decided on joining the rajah, and sur- 
rendering their fortified houses. Soon after litis news 
the chiefs of the tribes arrived with about 100 men, and 
were of course well received ; for if chargeable ^fHth de- 
serting their cause, it is done with the utmost simpfieity, 
and perfect confidence in their new associates. From 
their looks it was apparent they had sufllered greati|y 
from want of food ; and they frankly confessed tbit 
starvation was their principal motive for coming o?er. I 
did all in my power to fix their new faith by {nresents of 
previsions, 6cc. 6cc. : and I think they are tru s two rthy ; 
for there is a straightforwardness about the Dyak char- 
acter far dififerent from the double-faced dealings of the 



JBZPEDITION TO BORNEO. 95 

Maky. Their stipalationa were, forgivenew for the 
peat, and an assurance that none of the Djraks from the 
sea (i* e. Sarebus and Sakarran) should be employed ; 
Ibr they were, they said, hateful to tbeur eyes. These 
terms beine readi^ conceded — ^the first from interest, 
the second from necessity— =-they became open and 
communicative on the best means of attacking the forts. 
A grand council of war was held, at which were pres- 
ent JMacota, Subtn, Abong Mia, and DatuNaraja, two Chi- 
nese leaders, and myself— certainly a most incongruous 
mixture, and one rarely to be met with. After much dis- 
cussion, amove ckwe to the enemy was determined on for 
to-morrow, and on the following day to take up a position 
neartheir defences. To judge by the sample of the council, 
I shoukl form very un&vorable expectations of the con- 
duct in action. Macota is lively and active ; but whether 
from indisposition or want of authority, undecided. 
The Capitan China is lazy and silent ; Subtu indolent 
and self-indulgent ; Abong Mia and Datu Naraja stupid. 
However, iUlb event must settle the question ; and, in 
the mean lame, it was resolved that the small stockade 
at this i^bice was to be picked up, and removed to our 
new position, and there erected for the protection of 
the fleet. I may here state my motives for being a 
spectator ai, or participator' (as may turn out), in Ma 
scene. In ihe first {^ce I must confess that curiosity 
strongly prompted me ; since to witness the Malays, 
Chinese, and Dyaks in warfare was so new, that the 
novelty akme nught plead an excuse for this desire. 
But it was not the oidy motive ; for my presence is a 
stimulus to our own party, and will probably depress the 
other in proportion. I look upon the cause of the ra- 
jah as most' just and righteous: and the speedy close 
of the war would be rendering a service to humanity, 
specially if brought about by treaty. At any rate 
much niight be done to ameliorate the condition of the 
rebels in case of their defeat ; for though I cannot, per- 
haps ought not to, save the lives of the ti[iree leaders, yet 
all^tiie <Hhers, I believe, will be forgiven on a slight in- 
tercession. At our arrival, too, I had stated that if they 
wished me to remain, no barbarities must be committed ; 
and especially that the women and children nnist not be 



96 ISXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

fired upon. To counterbalance these motives was the 
danger, whatever it might amount to, and which. did not 
weigh heavily on my mind. So much for reasons, 
which, after all, are poor and weak when we determine 
on doing anything, bee it right or be it wrong. If evil 
befall, I trust the penalty may be on me rather tiian on 
my followers. 

** 22d. — At daylight the fleet w^aa astir ; and in an 
hour the defences were cut down, the timber, bambooa, 
6cc.^ formed into rafts ready for transportatioD, and die 
stockade, by breakfast- time, had as completely Tanished 
as though it had been bodily lifted away by some -genius 
of the Wonderful Lamp. Everything was ready for a 
start, and we waited lazily for the flood-tide ; bat when 
it did make, the usual procrastination ensued, and there 
was no move till it was near done. Then, indeed, we 
proceeded up about two-thirds of the way, and broo^t 
up with two good hours' daylight, in spite of my remon- 
strances. No place could be better calcnliMM than 
where we rested for an attack upon boats: hig^ banks 
covered with grass and trees ofiered a safe sl^lter for 
musketry, against which no return could be made. The 
night, however, passed away quietly. 

** 24th. — Dawn found us on the advance to our proper 
position. A thick fog concealed us, and in half an hour 
the people were on shore busy reerecting our fort, leas 
than a mile from two forts of the enemy, but concealed 
from them by a point of the river. No opposition was 
offered to us ; and in a few hours a neat defence was 
completed from the debris of the former. The ground 
was cleared of jungle ; piles driven in a square, alwut 
fifteen yards to each face ; and the earth from the cen- 
ter, scooped out and intermixed with layers of reeds, 
was heaped up about five feet high inside die piles. At 
the four corners were small watch-towers, and along the 
parapet of earth a narrow walk connecting them. In the 
center space was a house crowded by the Chinese gar- 
rison, a few of whose harmless gingslls were stack up 
at the angles to intimidate rather than to wound. While 
they labored at the body of the defence, the Dyaks sar^ 
rounded it by an outer work, made of slight sticks ran 
into the ground with cross binding of split bamboo^ and 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 97 

bristling with a chevaux defrise (if it may be so styled) 
of sharpened bamboos about breast-high. The fisistemngs 
of the entire work were of rattan, which is found in 
plenty. It was commenced ^t 7 a.m. and finished about 
3 P.M., showing how the fellows can get through busi- 
ness when they choose. This stockade, varying in 
strength according to circumstan6es, is the usual defence 
of the Sambas Chinese. The Malays erect a simple 
and quicker-constructed protection by a few double up- 
rights, filled in between with timber la^d lengthwise and 
supported by the uprights. Directly they are under 
cover, they begin to form the ranjows or sudas, which 
are formidable to naked feet, and stick them about their 
position. Above our station was a hill which entirely 
commanded both it and the river ; to the top of which I 
mounted, and obtained an excellent view of the country 
around, including the enemies* forts and the town of 
Siniawan. A company of military might finish the war 
in a few hours, as these defences are most paltry, the 
strongest being the fort of Bahdah, a^inst which our 
fimnidable assault was to be leveled. It. was situated at 
&e water^s edge, on a slight eminence on the right bank 
of the river ; and a large house with a thatched roof and 
a lookout house on the summit ; ' a few swivels and a gun 
or two were in it, and ^ound it a breastwork of wood — 
judging from a distance, about six or seven feet high. 
The other defences were more insi^ificant even than 
this ; and the enemies' artillery amounted, by i^scount, 
to three six-pounders and numerous swivels ; from 350 
to 500 men, about half of whom were armed with mus- 
kets, while the rest carried swordi^ and spears. They 
were scattered in many forts, and had a town to defend, 
aD of which increased their weakness. Then: principal 
arm, howevei^, consisted in the ranjows, which were 
stated to be stuck in every direction. These ranjows 
are made of bamboo, pointed fine and stuck m the 
ground ; and there are beside, holes about three feet 
deep, filled with these spikes, and afterward lightly cov- 
ered, which are called patobong. Another obstacle con- 
sists of a spring formed by bending back a stiff cane with 
a sharp bamboo attached to it, which, fastened by a slight 
twine, flies forcibly against any object passing tl6xragh 
7 I 



98 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

the bush and brushing against it: they resemble thti 
mole-traps of England. The Borneons have a great 
dread of these various snares ; and the way they deal 
with them is by sending out parties of Dyaks during the 
night to clear the paths from such dangers. 

** Though I have stated the insignificant nature of the 
enemies* lines, it must not be supposed I imagined them 
at all inferior to our own resources. Our' grand army 
consisted of 200 Chinese, excellent workmen, but of 
whose qualities as soldiers I can aay nothing. - Thev 
were, however, a stout, muscular set of men, thoogfa 
wretchedly armed, having no guns and scarcely any 
muskets ; but swords, spears, and shields, together with 
forty long thin iron tubes with the bore of a musket dud 
carrying a slug. These primitive weapons wer^ each 
managed by two men, one being the carrier of the ord- 
nance, the other the gunnery for while one holds the 
tube over his shoulder, the other takes aim, turns away 
his head, applies his match, and is pleased with the 
sound. Their mode of loading is as curious as the piece 
and its mode of dischai'ge. Powder is poured in, the 
end knocked on the ground, and the slug wifh another 
knock sent on the powder, without either ramming or 
cartridge. Indeed, it is difficult to imagine any weapon 
more rude, awkward, or inefficient. 

*♦ Of Malays we had 250, of whoni 150 were on the 
Sarambo mountain, occupied in defending the Dyak 
houses. Of the hundred remaining with the grand 
army, about half were armed with muskets. A few 
brass guns composed our artillery ; and in the boats 
were a good many swivels. The Dyaks amounted to 
about 200, of various tribes, viz., Sibnowans, Faninjows, 
Bombak, Sarambo, Kampit, Tabah, Sanpro, Snntah; 
but these were merely pioneers, and would not fiu;e the 
report of fire-arms. The Borneons, in fighting, wear 
a quilted jacket or spencer, which reaches otter the 
hips, and from its size has a most unservicelike apjsear^ 
ance : the bare legs and arms sticking out from under 
this puffed-out coat, like the sticks which support the 
garments of a scarecrow. Such was our incongruous 
and most inefficient army; yet with 300 men who 
would fight, nothing would have been easier thaj) to take 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 99 

the detached defences of the' enemy; ndne of which 
could oontam abo?e thirty or. forty men. But our allies 
seemed to have little idea of fighting except behind a 
wall ; and my- proposal to attack the adrenary was im- 
mediately treated as an extreme of rashness amounting 
to insanity. - At a council of war it was consequently 
decided that advances should be made from the hill be- 
hind our fort to Balidah by a chain of posts, the distance 
behig a short mile, in which space they would probably 
erect fimr or fire forts ; and then would come a bom- 
bardment, noisy but harmless. 

" During the day we were not left quiet. The beat- 
ing of gongs, shouts, and an occasional shot, gave life to 
the scene. With my glass I could espy our forces at 
the top of the hill, pleased no doubt to see us coming to 
their support. At night l6^d shouts and firing from the 
rebels caused us to prepare for an attack ; but it proved 
to be nothing but lights moving about the hill-side, with 
what intent we were ignorant. The jungle on the left 
bank having been cleared, we (jiid not much expect any 
skirmishers ; but some spies were heard near our boats. 
With this exception the night passed away unbroken on 
our part, though the rebels kept up am incessant beating 
of gongs, and from time to time fired a few stray shots, 
whether against an enemy or not was doubtfhL 

" 25th. — The grand army was lazy, and did not take 
the field when they possessed themselves of two emi- 
nences, and commenced forts on each. About 11 a.m. 
we got intelligence that the enemy was collecting on 
the right bank, as they had been heard by our scouts 
shouting one to another to gather together in order to 
attack me stockades in the course of building. Even 
with a knowledge of their usual want of caution', I could 
not believe this, but walked nevertheless to one of the 
forts, and had scarcely reached it when a universal rebel 
shout, and a simultaneous beating of the silver-tongued 
gongs, aunounced, as I thoaght, a general action.' But 
though the shouts continued loud and furious from both 
sides, and a gun or two was discharged in the air to re- 
fresh their courage, the enemy did not attack, and a 
heavy shower damped the ardor of the approaching 
armies, and reduced all to inaction. Like the heroes m 



100 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

old, however, the adverse parties spoke to each other : 

* We are coming, we are coming,* exclaimed the rebels ; 
May aside your muskets and fight us with swords.* 

* Come on,' was the reply ; * we are building a stockade, 
and want to fight you.' And so the heroes ceased not 
to talk, but forgot to fight, except that tho rebels opened 
a fire from Balidah from swivels, all of which went over 
the tops of the trees. Peace, or rather rest, being re- 
stored, our party succeeded in entrenching themaehres, 
and thus gained a field which had been obstinately as- 
saulted by big words and loud cries. The distance of 
one fort from Balidah was about 800 yaids^ and manned 
with sixty Malays ; while a party of Chinese garrisoned 
the other. Evening fell upon this innocent warfare. 
The Borneons, in this manner, conteqd with Tociferous 
shouts ; and, preceding each shout,- the leader of the 
party ofiTers up a prayer aloud to the Almighty, the cho- 
rus (or properly response) being the acclamation of the 
soldiery. We, on our side, kept up a firing and hallooing 
till midnight, to disguise the advance of a party who 
were to seize and build a stockade within a shorter dis- 
tance of Balidah. When they reached the spot, how- 
ever, the night being dark, the troops sleepy, and the 
leaders of different opinions, they returned without ef- 
fecting anything." 



CHAPTER VIIL 

Appearance of the country. — Progress of the rebel war.— Char- 
acter of the Sow and Singd Dyaks.-^Their belief in vagatj. — 
Ruinous effects of protracted warfare. — Cowardice and boarting 
of the Malays. — Council of war. — Refuse to attack the enemy's 
forts. — Rebels propose to treat. — The Malays oppose. — Set oat 
to attack the rebels, but frustrated by our allies. — Assailed by 
the rebels. — Put them to flight. — Treat with them. — They 
surrender. — Intercede with the Rajah for their lives. — ^Renewed 
treachery of the Malays. 

'* 26^^. — 1 MUST here pause in my account of this 
extraordinary and novel contest, briefly to describe the 
general appearance of the country. 

** It is one delightful to look upon, combining all the 
requisites of the picturesque, viz. wood, water, woontain. 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 101 

c]iif, and a foreground gently undulatang, partially culti- 
vated , and of the richest 'soil. The mountain of Sarambo, 
about 3000 feet in height, is the principal feature in the 
scene, situated at a short distance from the left bank of 
the river. The remainder of the ground . slopes gradu- 
ally ; and the town of Siniawan, likewise on the left 
bank, is close to the water, and at the foot of the emi- 
nence called Gunga Kumiel. 

** The advance of the party last night was, as I have 
said, disguised by firing, drumming, and shouting from 
the fleet and forts ; and; in the deep stillhess of the fine 
night, the booming of the guns, the clamor of the gongs, 
and the outcries raised from time to time^ came on our 
ears like the spirit of discord breaking loose on a fair 
and peaceful paradise. About one o'clock the noises 
died away, and I enjoyed as quiet a slumber tiU daylight 
as though pillowed on a bed of down in the heart of 
Old England. About six I visited the three forts. The 
Chinese, Malays, and Dyaks were taking their morn- 
ing meal, consisting of half a coacoanut-shell full of boiled 
rice with salt. The Dyaks were served in tribes ; for 
as many of them are at war, it is necessary to keep liiem 
separate ; and though they will not fight the enemy, 
they would have no objection to figill out with one an- 
other, and the slightest cause might give rise to an in- 
stant renewal of hostilities. 

** About 9 A.M. a party proceeded to the elevation 
previously marked, within 300 yards of Balidah, and 
worked quietly till 2 p.m., by which time they had 
made considerable progr-ess ; and being then reinfoi;'ced, 
they soon finished this new stockade, with a strong face 
toward their adversaries, and an outer fence. This 
erection, however, being below the brow of the hill, is 
useless as a post whence to assault Balidah ; and to-mor- 
row anotlier stockade is to be made close to it on the 
summit, the present being intended to cover the work- 
ing party at the next. The enemy, about 4 p.m.« 
having discovered the stockade, opened a fire for half an 
hour; but finding it ineflfectual, they sank into their 
usual apathy. It is difficult to attribute this quietude 
to any other cause than weakness ; and they are doubt- 
less harassed by the want of Dyak light troops, as they 

1 2 



102 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

are unable to oppose stockade to stockade. Our partjt 
by diese successful advances, seem to gain confidence ; 
and it must soon come to an issue one way or other. To 
make it favorable, I have sent for two six-pounder car- 
ronades, guns of vast caliber here, together with a small 
addition to our force. I had the curiosity to inquire of 
Macota the progress of his former campaign, whea h« 
had 1000 Malays with only a few Dyaks. He repre- 
sented the enemy as active and daring then, and vevy 
different from their want of spirit now« They had, he 
declared, combats by sea and by land; stockade was 
opposed to stoekade, and the fighting was constant and 
severe ; but he never lost a man killed during the two 
months, and only hoasted of killing five of the enemy I 
The principal danger in Malay war&re ia the * Menga- 
muk ' {AngUcCf running a-muck), which is the last re- 
source of a desperate man. 

** 27th, — The night passed quietly as usual. About 6 
A.M. I started for the hills, and inspected each post in 
turn. They are about commencing - another nut. I 
visited the spot to reconnoiter it ; and tiie enemy opened 
a fire directly they perceived me,- which we returned. 
They shot wretchedly ill ; and the position is good, but 
exposed. About 10 a.m. they again began to fire from 
their fort, and detached thirty or forty men, who crept 
out between our forts in order to interrupt the work. 
The Malays, however, received them steadily ; while 
the Chinese placed them between two fires, and, by a 
discharge from a tube, knocked down one man. The 
rebels showed anxiety to -possess themselves of their 
fallen comrade, while the opposite party shouted, ^ Cut 
off his head ;' but he was carried off; and the enemy, 
when they had saved his body, fled in all directions, 
dropping a number of their small bamboo powder flasks 
on the way. Some fierce alarms were giveh oi an at- 
tack by water, and I went up the river to ascertain 
really whether there was any mischief to be expected ; 
but there was no appeanlnce of any adversary. A 
slack fire from the hill proclaimed that our work was 
going on there ; and toward evening all was in repose. 

** 28^. — The stockade was completed in the evening, 
with ranjows stuck round the outer defence. It was 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 103 

exc^ently situated for battering Balidah ; but Balidah, 
I fear, is too loosely constructed to be battered to the 
best advantage. During the day the Sow and Singd 
Dyaks joined, to the amount of about 150 men, and other 
tribes haive been gradually dropping in ; so that altogeth- 
er t^ere are not fewer than 500 of these men joined to 
our equipment. Most of them show all the character- 
istics of a wild people ; never openly resisting their mas- 
ters, but so obstinate that they can always get their own 
way in evezy tUng ; to all threats and entreaties oppos- 
ing a determined and immovable silence. Many of 
them 4epend upon us for their food and salt, and their 
applications are endless. Three women of Singd are 
our regular pensioners; for their sex excludes them 
from the rations granted to the men. By these means 
we had many exceDent opportunities of judging of their 
habits and temper. Among all these tribes the language 
differs but slightly — so slightly, indeed, that it is need- 
less to note the variations in detail. They have the 
same superstition about particular birds, and I often 
heard this omen alluded to in conversation ; but their 

. l[>ii'ds are not the same as those of the sea Dyaks 

The chief of the Sarambo, explaining his reasons for 
leaving the rebels, urged the constant unfavorable omen 
of the birds as one. Often, very often, he said, when 
he went out, the bird cried, and flew in the direction of 
Siniawan, which will be explained by what I have be- 
fore stated ; for if they hear the bird to the right, they 
go to the left, ancl vice versa ; so that the bird may be 
considered as warning them from evil. 

** The Sow Dyaks brought in the head of an unfor- 
tunate Malay whom they had decapitated in the jungle. 
This species of warfare is extremely barbarous, and in 
its train probably brings more evil than the regular cam- 
paigns of civilized nations. Not that it is by any means 
so mtal to human life directly ; but it is the slow poison 
which wastes the strongest frame, the smoldering fire 
which does its work of destruction slowly but surely. 
Year after year it is protracted ; few fall in open fight, 
but stragglers and prisoners are murdered ; and while 
both vreak parties, gradually growing weaker, hold thehr 
owtf ground, the country becomes a desert. First, trade 



104 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

Stagnates, agriculture withers, food becomes scarce, all 
are ruined in finances, all half-starved and most misera- 
ble—and yet the war drags on, and the worst passions 
are aroused, effectually preventing the slightest conces- 
sion, even if concession would avail. But each comba- 
tant knows the implacable spirit — ^the. deep desperation — 
of the other too well to trust them ; and if at length the 
fortunes of &mine decide against them, they die rather 
than yield ; for a Dyak can die bravely, I believe, though 
he wiU not light as long as life has any prospect. ' Tms 
is also the case here : for the irebel chie& knpw there 
is no pardon,, and the Bandar is disgraced if he ftils. It 
is indeed a ^w process, but one of extermination. 

'* 29th. — Our guns arrived with a welcome reinforce- 
ment. In the evening I dropped up the river to recon- 
noiter; but the adversary discovered' us, as we were 
dressed in White clothes. 

'* 30^. — ^Fort not finished. AH quiet. 

*^ 3l8t. — Got the guns and amnmnition up, and while 
fixing them opened a fire fram one of our swivels to over- 
bear the fire of the enemy. The little piece was weD 
served ; and, in a quarter of an hour, we silence^ their 
fire entirely, and knocked about the timber considera- 
bly, making a breach which several men could enter 
together. Seeing the effect, I proposed to Macota to 
storm the place with 150 Chinese and Malays. The 
way from one fort to the other was protected. The 
enemy dared not show themselves for the fire of the 
grape and canister, and nothing could have been easier ; 
but my proposition caused a commotion which it is diflH- 
cult to forget, and more difficult to describe. The Chi- 
nese consented, and Macota, the commander-in-chief, 
was willing ; but his inferiors were backward, and there 
arose a scene which showed me the fuU violence of the 
Malay passions, and their infuriated madness when once 
roused. Pangeran Houseman urged with energy the 
advantage of l£e proposal, and in the course of a speech 
lashed himself to a state of fuiy ; he jumped to his feet, 
and with demoniac gestures stamped round and round, 
dfmcing a war-dance after the most approved fashion ; 
his countenance grew livid, his eyes glared, his features 
inflamed ; and, for my part, not being able to interpret 



SXPBDmON TO BORNEO. 105 

the torrent of his orator;, I thought the Rian possessed 
of a devil, or about to * run a-muck.' But after a min- 
ute or two of this dance, he resumed his seat, furious 
and panting, but silent. In reply, Subtu urged some 
objections to my plan, which was warmly supported by 
Illudeen, who apparently hurt Subtu^s feelings ; for the 
indolent, the placid Subtu leapt from his seat, seized his 
spear, and rushed to the entrance of the stockade, with 
his passions and his pride desperately aroused. I never 
saw finer action than when, with spear in hand, pointing 
to the enemy*s fort, he challenged any one to rush on 
with him. Houseman and Surradeen (the bravest of 
the brave) like madmen seized their swords to inflame 
the courage of the res^-it was a scene of fiends — but in 
vain ; for though they appeared ready enough to quarrel 
and fight among themselves, there was no move to at- 
tack the enemy. All was confusion ; the demon of dis- 
cord and madness was ainong them, and I was glad to 
see them cool down, when the dissentients to die as- 
sault proposed making a round to-night and attacking to- 
morrow. In the mean time our six-pounders were 
ready in battery, and it is certain the assailants might 
walk nearly to die fort without any of the rebels daring 
to show themselves in opposition to our fire. 

•• Nov. IsL — The. guns were ready to open their fiery 
mouths, and their masters ready to attend on them ; but 
both had to wait till mid-day, when the chiefs of the 
grand army, having sufficiently slept, breakfasted, and 
bathed, lot^iged up with their straggling followers. 
Shortly after daylight the forts are nearly deserted of 
their garrisons, who go down at the time to the water 
more like a flock of geese than warriors. The instant 
the main division and head-quarters of the army arrived 
at the battery, I renewed my proposal for an assault, 
which was variously received. If the Malays would 
go, the Chinese agreed; but the Malays had grown 
colder and colder. In order to encourage them, I opened 
a fire to show the effect of our guns ; and having got a 
good range, every ball, as well as grape and canister, 
rattled against and through the wood. I then urged 
them again and' again, but in vain ; that coward Pangl^ 
ma rajah displayed that dogged resolution which is 



106 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

inyiDcible — an invincible resolution to do nothing; and 
the cold damp looks of the others at once told the amount 
of their bravery ! A council of war was called — grave 
&ces covered timid hearts and fainting spirits. The 
Chinese contended with justice, that in fairness they 
could not be expected to assault without the Malays did 
the same; Abong Mia was not brave enough. The 
Dutu agreed, and Panglima delivered himself of a wise 
harangue, to the effect that, * the last campa^n, when 
they had a fort, how had the enemy fired then ? — stabbed 
them, speared tiiem, &c. &cc. ; and without a fort» as- 
saulting! — ^how could it be expected they should suc- 
ceed ? how unreasonable they should gp at all !' But 
even his stohd head seemed to comprehend the sarcasm 
when I asked him liow many men had been killed dar- 
ing all this severe fighting. However, it was clear that 
it was no batUe. We were all very savage, and I inti- 
mated how useless my being with them was, if they 
intended to play instead of fight * What,' I asked, * if 
you will not attack, are you going to do ?' Oh, the wise 
councils of these wise heads ! Abong Mia proposed 
erecting a fort in a tree, and thence going ^puflT, puff,* 
down into Balidah, accompanying the words *puff, pufi^* 
with expressive gestures of firing ; but it was objected, 
that trees were scarce, and the enemy might cut down 
the tree, fort and all.* 

** 2d. — Till two o'clock last night, or thereabouts, I 

*The following is an extract from an ei^uaUy sapient proposi- 
tion, published in the Chinese state-papers on the 14th January, 
1840; it is headed, Memorial of Toang Wangven to the emperor, 
recommending plans for the extermination of barbarians : " Yooi* 
minister's opinion is this : that we, being upon shore wad they in 
their ships, it is not at all requisite to order our naval forces to 
nroceed out a great distance to contend with them in battle, 
when the commercial intercourse of the said barbarians shaii 
have been entirely put an end to, and their supplies grow scanty, 
it will be impossible for them to remain a loqg tin^e ftQcHored in 
the outer seas, and they will necessarily, as formerly, enter the 
inner waters in order to ramble and spy about them. We can 
then, by means of our naval vessels, tempt them and cause them 
to enter far in ; and a previous arrangement havimg been made, we 
can summon the people who live along the coasts, such as are 
expert and able swimmers, and those who possess brftvety und 
strength, to the amount of several hundreds of men : we can then 
cause them, ditring the night, to divide then^aelvea intoennipsniBs, 



EXPEDITION TO BOANCO. 107 

sat oa our rampart and gazed upon the prospect around, 
shaded with gloom. The doctor was with me, and we 
ran over every subject — ^the past, present, and the future. 
Such a scene — a rude fort in the interior of Borneo ; 
such a night, dark but starlight — Cleaves an indefible 
impres$ion on the blind, which recurs to move it even 
after long years. The morning, however, found us 
ready, and no one else. ' The fort was left to ourselves ; 
we waited and waited until 2 p.m., when I was' made 
aware that all thoughts of attack were at an end. . Ma- 
cota, for very shame, staid below ; and I must say there 
was not a countenance that met mine but had that bash- 
ful and hang-dog look which expresses cowfvrdice and 
obstinacy predomina^it, yet shame battling within. They 
were now resolved not to make the attempt ; and I asked 
them casually whether they would fly a white flag, and 
hold a conference with the enemy. They caught at 
the alternative >; the flag was hoisted ; the rebels were 
ready to meet me, and it was agreed that we should as- 
semble on the morrow. But no sooner was the arrange- 
ment made than a thousand objections were started, and 
any thing, even attack itself (though that was out of the 
question), was held to be preferable. I need not dwell 
on this mixture of deceit and fear ; in short, as they 
would do nothing themselves, they expected us to do 
nothing : and without the courage to carry on the war, 
they had not either wisdom or sorcery to bring it to a 
conclusion. 

*' 3d. — Dispatched an express during last night to the 
rajah, and received an answer that he was coming up in 
person; but my resolve. was taken, and I quitted the 
grand army, much to their evident surprise and vexa- 
tion. Nevertheless, they were still friendly and polite, 
and very very lazy about bringing down our guns. This 
was, however, done at last, and we were ready for a 
start. 

'*4th, — Reached the ship at two p.k., saw rajah, 
&c. &c. 

'« From the 4th to the 10th of November I may con- 

and silently proceeding through the water, straightway board the 
foreign ships; and overcomiog the crews in their. unprepared 
state, make an entire massacre of the whole of them. 



108 EXPEDITION TO BOKlfEO. 

demise intx> the shape of a narrative. I ezpfadned to the 
rajah how useless it was my remaining, and intimated 
to him my intention of departing ; but his deep regret 
was so visible, that even all the self-command of the 
native could not disguise it. He be^ed, he entreated 
me to stay, and offered me the country of Siniawan and 
Sarawak, and its government and trade, if I would only 
stop, and not desert him. I could at once have obtained 
this grant, but I preferred interposing a delay ; because 
to accept such a boon when imposed by necesuty, or 
from a feehng of gratitude for recent assistance, would 
have rendered it both suspicious and useless ; and I was 
by no means eager to enter on the task (the fuQ difficul- 
ties of which I clearly foresaw) without the undoubted 
and spontaneous support of the rajah. 

" Ja/i. 8^, 1841. — The following narrative, extracted 
from my journal, includes a period from the 10th of 
December to the 4th of January, and it is put into its 
present shape to avoid the tedium of detailing each day's 
proceedings. On the 10th of December we reached 
the fleet and disembarked our guns, taking up our resi- 
dence in a house, or rather shed, close to the water. 
The rajah's brother, Pangeran Budrudeen, was inith 
the army, and I found him ready and willing to uree 
upon the other indolent Pangerans the proposals I made 
for vigorous hostilities. We found the grand army in a 
state of torpor, eating, drinking, and walking up to the 
forts and back again daily ; but having built these im- 
posing structures, and their appearance not driving the 
enemy away, they were at a loss what next to do, or 
how to proceed. On my arrival, I once more insisted 
on mounting the guns in our old forts, and assaulting 
Balidah under their fire. M acota*s timidity and vacil- 
lation were too apparent ; but in consequence of Budru- 
deen's overawing presence, he was obliged, from shame, 
to yield his assent. The order for the attack was fixed 
as follows : — Our party of ten (leaving six to serve the 
guns) were to be headed by myself. Budrudeen, Ma- 
cota, Subtu, and all the lesser chiefs, were to lead their 
folk) we rs, from 60 to 80 in number, by the same route, 
while 50 or more Chinese, under their captain, were to 
assault by another path to the left iVtacota was to make 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 109 

the paths as near as possible to Balidah, with his Dyaks, 
who were to extract the sudas and fill up the holes. 
The guns having been mounted and their range well 
ascertained the previous evening, we ascended to the 
fort at about eight a.m., and at ten opened our fire, and 
kept it up for an hour. The effect was severe : every 
shot tokl upon their thin defences of wood, which fell in 
many places so as to leave stoi^ming breaches. Part of 
the roof was ci^t away and, tumbled down, and the 
shower of grape and canister rattled so as to prevent 
their retumine our fire, except from a stray rifle.. At 
mid-day the rorces reached the fort, and it was then 
discovered that Macota had neglected to make any road 
because it rained the night before I It was evident that 
the rebels had guned information of our intention, as 
they had erected a frieze of bamboo along their defences 
on the very spot which we had agreed to mount. Ma- 
cota fancied the want of abroad would delay the attack ; 
but I well knew th^t delay was equivalent to failure, 
and so it was at once agreed that we should advance 
without any path. The poor man^s cunning and re- 
sources were now nearly at an end. He could not refuse 
to accompany us ; but his courage could not be brought 
to the point, and, pale and embarrassed, he retired. 
Everything was ready — Budrudeen, the Capitan China, 
and myself at the head of our men — ^when be once more 
appeared, and raised a subtle point of etiquet which an- 
swered his purpose. He represented to Budrudeen 
that the Malays were unanimously of opinion that the 
rajah's brother could not expose himself in cm assault ; 
that their dread of the rajah's indignation far exceeded 
the dread of death ; and in case any accident happened 
to him, his brother's fury would rail on them. They 
stated their ireadiness to assault the place ; but in case 
Budrudeen insisted on leading in person, they must 
decline accompanying him. Budrudeen was angry, I 
was angry too, and the doctor most angry of all ; but 
anger was unavailing : it was clear they did not intend 
to do anything in earnest; and after much discussion, in 
which Budrudeen insifted that if twent he should like- 
wise go, and the Malays insisted that if he went they 
would not go, it was resolved W9 should serve the guns, 

K 



110 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

while Abong Mia and the Chinese (not nnder tjie eap- 
tain) should proceed to the assault. But its fate was 
sealed, and Macota had gained his object ; for neither 
he nor Subtu thought of exposing themselves to'ti ain^e 
shot. Our artillerj opened and was beautifully served. 
The adverse troops advanced ; but our fire completely 
subdued them, as only three rifles, answered ns, ot one 
of which a seaman (Williams) was wounded in the nand, 
but not seriously. Two-thirds of the way the storming- 
party proceeded without the enemy being aware of thrar 
advance ; and they might have reached me very foot of 
the hill without being discovered, had not Abong Mia, 
from excess of piety and rashness, begun most loudly to 
say his prayers. The three rifles men began to phr 
on them ; one Chinaman was killed, thd whole halted, 
the prayers were more vehement than ever, and, after 
squatting under cover of the jungle for some tinte, they 
all returned. It was only what I expected ; but I was 
greatly annoyed at their cowardice and treachery — 
treachery to their own cause. One lesson, however, I 
learned, and that was, that, had I assatdted with our 
small party, we should assuredly have been victimized I 
The very evening of the failure the rajah came up the 
river. I would not see him, and only heard that the 
chiefs got severely reprimanded ; but me effects of rep- 
rimand are lost where cowardice is stronger than shame. 
Inactivity followed; two or three useless forts were 
built, and Budrudeen, much to my regret and the detri- 
ment of the cause, was recalled. 

" Among the straggling arrivals I may mention Pan- 
glima Dallam, with a number of men, consisting of the 
OrangBentulu, Meri Muka, and Kayan, Dyaks mm the 
interior. Our house — or, as it originally stood, shed — 
deserves a brief record. It was about twenty feet long, 
with a loose floor of reeds, and an attop roof. It servM 
us for some time ; but the attempts at theft obliged us 
to fence it in and divide it into apartments : one at the 
end served Middleton, Williamson, and myself; adjoining 
it was the store-room and hospit;^l ; and the other ex- 
treme belonged to the seamen. Our improvements kept 
pace with our necessities. Thefl induced us to shut in 
our house at the sides, and the unevenness of the reedi 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. Ill 

suggested the advantage of laying a floor of the bark 
<ji trees over them, which, with mats 6yer all, ren- 
dered our domicile far from uncomfortable. Our ibrts 
gradually extended at the back of the enemy's town^ on 
a ridge of swelling ground ; while they kept pace with 
us on the same side of the river on the low ground. 
The inactiyi^ of our troops had long become a by- word 
among us. It was indeed truly vexatious, biit it was in 
vain. to urge them on, in vain to'offer assistance, in vain 
to propose a joint attack, or even to seek support at their 
hands ; promises were to be had in plenty, but perform- 
ances never ! 

^ At length the leaders resolved on building a fort at 
Sekundis, thus outflanking the enemy and gaining the 
command of the river. The post was certainly an im- 
portant one, and in consequence they set about it with 
the happy indifference which characterizes their pro- 
ceedings. Pangeran Illudeen (the most active among 
them) had the building of the .fort, assisted by the Oraog 
Kaya Tumangoog of Lundu. Macota, Subtu, dec* were 
at the next fort, and by chance I was there likewise ; 
for it seemed to be littl^ apprehended that aoy interrup- 
tion would take place, as the Chinese and the greater 
number of Malays had not left the boats. When 
the fort commenced, however, the enemy crossed the 
river and divided into two bodies, the one keeping in 
check the party at- Pangeran 6apoor*s fort, while the 
other made an attack on the works. The gronnd was 
not unfavorable for their purpose ; for Pangeran Gapoor*3 
fort was separated from Sekundis by a belt of thick wood 
which reached down to the liver's edge. Sekundis itr 
self, however, stood on clear ground, as did €rapoor*s 
fort. I was with Macota at the latter when the eoemy 
approached through the jungle. The two partieaw^re 
within easy speaking distances, challenging and threat- 
ening each other; but the thickness of the jungle pre- 
vented our seeing or penetrating to them. When this 
body had advanced, the real attack commenced on Se- 
kundis with a fire of musketry, and I was about pro- 
ceeding to the scene, but was detained by .Macota, who 
assured me there were plenty of men, and that it was 
nothing at all. As the musketry became thicker* I 



112 EXPEDITION TO EOffNfia. 

had my doubts, when a Dyak came running through the 
jungle, and with gestures of impatience and anxie^ 
begged me to assist the party attacked. He had been 
sent by my old friend the Tumangong of Lundu, to say 
they could not hold the post unless supported. In spite 
of Macota's remonstrances, I struck into the jungle, 
winded through the narrow path, and a^er crossing an 
ugly stream, emerged on the clear ground. The si^t 
was a pretty one : to the right wjas the unfinished stock- 
ade, defended by the Tumangong; to the left, at the 
edge of the forest, about twelve or fifteen of our party, 
commanded by Jlludeen, while the enemy were stretched 
along between the points and kept up a sharp shooting 
from the hollow ground on the bank of the river. They 
fired, and loaded, and fired, and had gradually -advanced 
on the stockade as the ammunition of our party fiiiled ; 
and as we emerged from the jungle, they were within 
twenty or five and twenty yards of the defence. A 
glance immediately showed me the advantage of onr 
position, and I charged with my Europeans across the 
padi-field; and the instant we appeared on the ridge 
above the river, in the hoUows of which the rebels were 
seeking protection, their rout was complete. They 
scampered off in every direction, while die Dyaks and 
Malays pushed them into the river. Our victory was 
decisive and bloodless : the scene was changed in an in- 
stant, and the defeated foe lost artbs, ammunition. Sec* 
&c., whether on the field of battle or in the river, and 
our exulting conquerors set no bounds to their triumph. 
** I cannot omit to mention the name of Si Tundo, 
the only native who charged with us. His appearance 
and dress were most striking, the latter being entirely 
of red, bound round the waist, arms, forehead, dec with 
gold ornaments ; and in his hand bearing his formidable 
Bajuck sword, he danced or rather galloped across the 
field close to me, and mixing with the enemy was aboot 
to dispatch a had^i or priest who was prostrate before 
him, when one of our people interposed and saved him 
by stating that he was a companion of our own. The 
Lundu Dyaks were very thankful for our support, our 
praises were loudly sung, and the stockade was conchided. 
After the rout, Macota, Subtu, and Abong Mia arrived 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 118 

on the field ; the latter with forty followers had yen- 
tared half Way before die firing ceased, but the detach- 
ment, under a paltry subterfuge, halted, so as not to be 
in time. The enemy might have had fifty men at the 
attack; the defending party consisted of about the same 
Dumber ; 'but the D^iks had very few muskets. I had 
a dozen Eii||K«hmen, Seboo, one of our boatmen, and 
Si Tundo. Seknndis was a great point gained, as it 
hindered the enemy from ascending the river and seek- 
ing any supplies. 

^'Macota, Snbtii, and the whole tribe arrived as 
soon as their safety from danger allowed, and none 
were louder in their, own praise; but nevertheless 
their countenanees evinced some sense of shame, which 
they endeavored to disguise by the use of dieir tongues. 
The Chinese came really to afford assistance, but too 
late. We remained until the stockade of Sekundis was 
finished, while, the enemy kept up a wasteful fire from 
the opposite side' of the river, which did no harm. 

** The next great object was to follow up the advan- 
tage by crossing the staream; but day after day some 
fresh excuse bnra^t on fresh delay, and Macota built 
a new fort and made a new road within a hundred 
yards of our old position; I cannot detail further our 
proceedings fpr many days, which consisted on my part 
of efforts to get something done, and on the others a 
close adherence to the old system of promising every- 
thing and doing nothing. The Chinese, like the Ma- 
lays, refused to act ; but on their part, it was not fear, 
but disinclination. By degrees, however, die prepara- 
tions for the new fort were complete, and I had grad- 
ually gained oveir a party of the natives to my views ; 
and, indeed, among the Malays, the bravest of them 
had joined diemiselves to us, and what was better, we 
had Datu Pangeran, thirteen IJlanuns, and the Capitan 
China allowed me to take his men whenever I wanted 
them. My weight and consequence were increased, 
and I rarely moved now without a long train of fol- 
towers. The next step (while crossing the river was 
uncertam) was to take my guns up to Gapoor's fort, 
which was about 600 or 700 yards from the town, and 
half the distance from a rebel fort on the river's bank. 
8 



114 EXPEDmOlf TO BOSlfEO. 

**Pangliina Rftjah, the day after out guns were id 
battery, took it into his head to build a fort on the 
river^s side close to the town, in front and between two 
of the enemy's forts* It was a bold iiiidertekiD|;' finr 
the old man, after six weeks of uninterrupted repoae. 
At night, the wood being prepared, the party moved 
down, and wwked so silently that they were net dia- 
covered till their defence was nearly finnhed, when the 
enemy commenced a genend firing from allSheir fSDrtSy 
returned by a similar firing frt>m all oura, nene of the 
parties being quite dear what they were firing at or 
about, and ttie hottest from either party bmng eqoaDy 
harmless. We were at the time about going to bed in 
our habitation ; but expecting some reverse, I aei off {to 
scale the hills) to the stockade where our guns were 
placed, and opened a fire upon the town and the 9tock- 
ade near us, till the enemy's fire gradually sladLened 
and died away. We then returned, and in uie monrine 
were greeted with the pleas'mg news that they had 
burned and deserted five of their forts, and left ua aole 
occupants of the right bank of the river.. The tame 
day, going throu^ the jun^e to see one of these 
deserted forts, we came upon a party of the enemy, 
and had a brief skirmish with them before they toekto 
flight. Nothing can be more unpleasant te a Euro- 
pean than this bush-fighting, where he scares aees a 
foe, while he is well aware that their eyelnf^ ia far 
superior to his own. To proceed with this narrative, 
I may say that four or five forts were built on the edge 
of the river opposite the enemy-s town, and distant not 
above 50 or 60 yards ; 'here our guns were r^mofed, 
and a fresh battery formed ready for a bombardment, 
and fire-balls essayed to ignite the houscya. . 

'^ At this time SerifT Jaffer, from Singd, arrived with 
about seventy men, Malaya and Dyaks of Bak>w. The 
river Singd being situated close to Sarebus, and ineea- 
sant hostilities being waged between the two dbces, 
he, with his followers, was both more active and mora 
warlike than the Borneons, but their war&re consists 
of closing hand to hand widi spear and sword. They 
scarcely understood the proper use of fire-arma, and 
were of little use in attacking stockades. As a nego- 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 115 

tiator, however, the seriff bore a distinguished part; 
and on his arrival a parley ensued, much against Ma- 
cota*8.will, and some meetings took jdace ' between 
Jaffer and a Inrother serifT at Siniawan, named Mok- 
sain. After ten days* delay nothing came of it, though 
the enemy betrayed grear desire to yield. This nego- 
tiation being at an end, vve had a day's bombardment 
and a fresh treaty brought about thus ; Macbta being 
absent at Sar&wak, I received a message from Seriff 
Jaffer and Pangeran Subtu to say that they wished to 
meet me; and on ray consenting, they stated that 
Seriff Jaffer felt confident the war might be brought to 
an end, though alone he dared not treat v^th the 
rebels ; but in case I felt inclined to join )iim, we could 
bring it to a favcn^ble conclusion. I replied that our 
habits of treating were very unlike ^their own, as we 
allowed no delays to interpose ; but that I would unite 
with him for one interview, and if that interview was 
fiaivorable, we might meet the chiefs at once and settle 
it, or put an end to all further treating. Pangeran 
Subtu was delighted With the proposition, urged its 
great advantages, and the meeting by iny desire for 
that very ni^t, the place Pangeran Illudeen*s fort at 
Sekundis. The evening arrived, and at dark we were 
at the appointed place, and a message was dispatched 
for Seriff Moksain. In the mean time, however, came 
a man from Pangeran Subtu to beg us to hold no inter- 
course; that the rebels were false, meant to deceive 
us, and if any did come, we had better make them 
prisoners. Seriff Jaffer, after arguing the point some 
time, rose to depart, remarking that with such proceed- 
ings he would not consent to treat. I urged him to 
stay; but finding him bent on going, I ordered my gig 
(which had some time before been brought overland) to 
be put into the water, my intention being to proceed to 
the enemy's campong, and there hear what they had to 
say. I added that it was folly to leave undone what we 
had agreed to do in the morning because Pangeran 
Subtu changed his mind — that I had come to treat, 
and treat I would. I would not go away now vrithout 
giving the enemy a fair hearing — ^for the good of all 
parties I would do it ; and if the seriff liked to join' nto, 



116 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

as we proposed before, and wait for Seriff Moksaiiit 
good ; if not, I woold go in the boat to tfao campong. 
My. Europeans, on being ordered, juipped up, ran out 
and brought the boat to the water's edge, axid in a few 
minutes oars, rudder, and rowlocks were in her. My 
companions, seeing this, came to terms, and we waited 
for Seriff Moksain ; during which, however, I overheard 
a whispering conversation from Subtu's messenger, pro- 
posing to seize him ; and my temper was ruffled to such 
a degree that I drew out a pistol, and told him I would 
shoot him dead if he dared to seize, or talH of seizing, 
any man who trusted himself from. the enemy to meet 
me ! The scoundrel slunk off^ and we were na more 
troubled with him. This past, Seriff Moksain arrived, 
and was introduced into our fortress alone — alone and 
unarmed in an enemy's stockade, manned with two hun- 
dred men ! His bearing was firm ; he advanced witfa 
ease and took his seat; and, during the interview, the 
only sign of uneasiness was the quick glance of his eye 
from side to side. The object he aimed at was to gain 
my guaranty that the lives of all the rebels ahookl be 
spared ; but this I had it not in my power to grant. He 
returned to his campong, and came again toward morn- 
ing, when it was agreed that Seriff Jafier and myself 
should meet the Patingis and the Tunuingong, and ar- 
range terms with them. By the time our oonrorence 
was over, the day broke, and we descended to the boats 
to enjoy a little rest. 

'* On the 20th of December we met witfa the chiefii 
on the river ; and they expressed themselves ready to 
yield, without conditions, to the rajah, if I would promise 
that they should not be put to death. My rejrfy was, 
that I could give no such promise ; that if they- surren- 
dered, it must be for life or death, according to tlie ra- 
jah's pleasure ; and all I could do was to use my influence 
in order to save their lives. To this they assented after 
a while ; but then there arose the more difficult question, 
how they were to be protected until the rajah's orders 
arrived. They dreaded both Chinese and Malays, es- 
pecially tJie former, who had just cause for angiy feel- 
ings, and who, it was feared, would make an attack on 
them directly their surrender had taken from them 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 117 

their means of defence. The Malays would not assail 
them in a body^ but would individually plunder th^m, 
and give occasion for disputes and bloodshed. These 
apprehensions were almost sufficient to break off the 
hitherto favorable! negotiations, had I not proposed to 
them myself to und/^rtake their defence, and to become 
responsible for their safe^ until the cH^ers of their 
sovereign arrived.. On my pledging myself to this, they 
yielded up their strong fort of Balidah, the kpy of their 
position. I immediately made it known to our own 
party that no boats were to ascend or descend the river, 
and that any persons attacking or pillaging the rebels 
were my enemies, and tha^ I should fire upon them 
without hesitation. 

" Both Chinese and Malays agreed to the propriety 
of the measure, and gave me the strongest assurances 
of restraining their respective fi)llower8, the former widi 
good faith, the latter with the intention of involving 
matters, if possible, to the destruction of the rebels. By 
the evening we were in possession of Balidah, and cer- 
tainly found it a formidable fortress, situated on a steep 
mound, with dense defences of wood, triple deep, and 
surrounded by two inclosures, thickly studded on tiie 
outside with ranjows. The effect of our fire had shaken 
it completely, now much to our discomfort ; for the walla 
were tottering, and the roof as leaky as a sieve. Oti the 
20th of. December, then, the war closed. The very 
next day, contrary to stipulation, the Malay Pangerans 
tried to ascend the river, and when stopped began to 
expostulate. After preventing many, the attempt was 
made by Subtu and Pangeran Hassim, m three large 
boats, boldly pulling toward us. Three hails did not 
check them, and they came on in spite of a blank car- 
tridge and a wide ball, to turn them back. But I was 
resolved ; and when a dozen musket-balls whistled over 
and fell Ctose around them, they took to an ignominioua 
flight. I subsequently upbraided them for this breach 
of promise, and Macota loudly declared they had been 
greatly to blame ; but I discovered that he himself had 
set them on. 

** I may now briefly conclude this detail. I ordared 
the rebels to bora all their stockades, which they did al 



118 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

oticer and delivered up the greater part of their armg | 
and I proceeded to the rajah to request fi'om.him thoir 
lives. Those who know the Malay character will ap- 
preciate the difficulty of the attempt to stand between 
the monarch and his victims ; I only succeed^ when, 
at the end of a long debate— I soliciting, be denying — ^I 
rose to bid him farewell, as it was my intention to sail 
directly, since, after all my exertions in his cause, if he 
would not grant me the lives of the people, I could on^ 
consider that his friendship for me was at an end. Oi^ this 
he yielded. I must own that during the discussion he 
had much the best of it ; for he urged that they had for- 
feited their lives by the law, as a necessary sacrifice to 
the future peace of the country ; and argued that in a 
similar case in my own native land no leniency would be 
shown. On the contrary, my reasoning, though per- 
sonal, was, on the whole, the best for the rajah and the 
people. I stated my extreme reluctance to have the 
blood of conquered foes shed ; the shame I shoidd ex- 
perience in being a party, however involuntarily, to theur 
execution ; and the general advantage of a merciful tine 
of policy. At the same time I told him their lives were 
forfeited, their crimes had been of a heinous and unpar- 
donable nature, and it was only from so humane ^ man 
as himself, one with so kind a heart> that I could 1^ 
for their pardon ; but I added, he well knew that it was 
only my previous knowledge of his benevolent disposi- 
tion, and the great friendship I felt for him, which had 
induced me to take any part in this struggle. Other 
stronger reasons might have been brought forward, 
which I forbore to employ, as being repugnant to his 
princely pride, viz. that severity in this case would arm 
many against him, raise powerful enemies io Borneo 
Proper, as well as here, and greatly impede the future 
right government of the countiy. However, I gained 
my point, and was satisfied. 

** Having fulfilled thb engagement, and being more- 
over, together with many of my Europeans, attacked 
with an ague, I left the scene with all the dignity of 
complete success. Subsequently, the rebels were or- 
dercKl to deliver up all their arms, anmiunitioD, and 
property ; and last, the wives and children of the |niiF> 



BXPEDITION TO BOB.NEO. 119 

eipal people were demanded as hostages, and obtained. 
The women and children were treated with kindness, 
and preserved from injury or wrong. Siniawan thus 
dwindled awaj ; the poorer men stole off in canoes and 
were scattered about, most of them coming.to Sard,wak. 
The better class puUed down the houses, abandoned the 
town,^and lived Jn boats for a month ; when, alarmed by 
thp delay and Impelled by hunger, they also fled — Patingi 
Gapoor, it was said, to Sambas ; and Patingi Ati and the 
Tumangong among the Dyaks. After a time it was 
supposed they would return and receive their wives 
and children. The army gradually dispersed to seek 
food, and the Chinese^ were le& in possession of the 
once-renowned Siniawan, the ruin of which they com- 
pleted by burning all that remained, and erecting a vil- 
lage for themselves in the immediate neighborhood. 
Seriff Jafier and many others departed to their respect- 
ive homes, and the pinching of &mine succeeded to the 
faorron of war. Fruit being in season, helped to Sup- 
port the wretched people, and the near approach of the 
rice-hfljrest kept up their spirits." 



CHAPTER IX. 

Retrospect of Mr. Brooke's proceedings and prospects. — Visit of 
a pirate fleet. — Intercourse with the chief leaders, and other 
characteristic incidents. — ^War dances. — Use of opium. — Story 
of Si Tundo. — Preparations for trading. — Conations of the 
cession of Sarawak. 

I HAVE gone into the details of this curious rebellion, 
and selected from my fiiend^s memoranda more, per- 
haps, than the actual and present importance of the cir- 
cumstances might seem to require ; but I have done so 
under the impression that in developing the traits and 
lineaments of the native character, I am laying the foun- 
dation for a more accurate estimate of them and their 
benring upon futurity. The difference between the 
Makiy and the Chinese, between the soa and the land 
Dyak, and even between one tribe and another, presents 
a variety of elements out of which a consistent whole 



120 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

has to be compounded, and a new state of llungiB to be 
established in Borneo. It is^ therefore, of considerable 
mterest to view these elements in their earliest contact 
with European noind and civilization, and thence endeiiv- 
or to shape out the course which is best calculated to 
insure the welfare of all in the closer ties and more 'ex- 
tended connection which is s[ninging out of this new in- 
tercourse* ' To enlarge the beijieficial effects of trade and 
commerce, it is not enough to ascertain the {Ht>ductB of 
a strange country, nor even the cluef wants of its pop- 
ulation ; but to inform ourselves of their hatuts, feeling 
and disposition, and so devise the wisest measures for 
8up[dying what is immediate, removing obstacles; and 
increasing demand by a continually growing unprowe- 
ment in government and general condition. 

Following the war, and receiving the investkiiTe of 
the government of Sarawak, Mr. Brooke^ was enabled, 
from the insight he had obtained into the divenified to- 
lations and habits, motives and way^ of thinking <rf'thege 
people, to address himself clearly and at once to reform 
the evils which oppressed, and the abuses which de- 
stroyed them. Had he not mixed with them and shared 
in this protracted contest, he must have begun rather as 
an experimentalist with a theory which might be right 
or might be wrong. But he had acquired the necessa- 
ry experience, and could proceed to put his finger where 
it was required to repress or to foster, Y>thoot dangw 
of mistake. It was extraordinaiy what his eneigy pro- 
duced within a small compass of time. Security suc- 
ceeded the utmost uncertainty, equal justice superseded 
tyrannical caprice, order arose out of confusion, and 
peace was gradually spread over the fruitful soil so 
lately polluted by the murderous warfiure of heads-tak* 
ing and imperishable feud. It is to be. hoped that sudi 
an example will not be lost in the further prosecutioa of 
international and commercial policy in this interesting 
and important quarter of the eastern worid. Piracy 
must be put down, slavery must be efiaeed, industry 
must be cherished and protected ; and these objects, we 
shall see, from the model afforded by our truly illostri- 
ous countryman, may be accomplished ; and we ma^ 
further learn from his example, that fram the ezpen- 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 121 

ence even of ^\ a little war," an enlightened observer may 
deduce the moat sound data on which to commence a 
mighty change, leading, probably, to the happiness of millr 
ions, and the foundation. of colonial empire. 

With these few retrospective remarks, I resume the 
sequel of my friend's Bomean Journal. 

** Our subsequent adventures," he notes, **■ may be 
easily related. We layftir some days, after winding up 
our affairs, in order to have an agreement drawn ouit 
between the rajah and myself, and during this time 
heard the bruit of a pirate fleet being on the coast. In 
a day or two after, certain news arrived of their having 
taken two Sadung boats, bound from Singapore, and 
Datu Pangeran was, in consequence, dispatched to com- 
municate with them. He returned from Tanjong Datu, 
Imnging the fleet with him to the mouth of the river, 
whence they requested permission to visit Sarawak, and 
pay their respects to the rajah. I was consulted on 
the subject whether I would meet them ; and as I pre- 
ferred a pacific to a hostile rencounter, and had, moreo- 
Ter, a considerable curiosity to see these roving gentry, I 
consented without hesitation. Reports — a greater curse 
in Malay countries than elsewhere — stated their object 
to be the capture of the Royalist, as they had, it was 
averred, received positive accounts of her having fifty 
lacks of dollars on board, and that her figure-h6&d was of 
solid gold. As, however, we had no such treasure, and 
the meeting was imavoidable, and might be hostile, I put 
myself into a complete posture of defense, with a de- 
termination neither to show backwardness nor suspicion. 
The day arrived, and the pirates swept up the river; 
eighteen prahus, one folloveing the other, decorated with 
flags and stzeamers, and firing both cannon and musket- 
ry ; the sight was interesting and curious, and height- 
ened by the conviction that these friends of the moment 
might be enemies the next. Having taken their stations, 
the chief men proceeded to an interview with the rajah, 
which I attended to witness. Some distrust and much 
ceremony marked the meeting ; and both parties had nu- 
merous rollowers, who filled the hall of audience and the 
avenues leading to it ; and as few of the Ulanuns spoke 
Malay, the communication was rendered difficult and 

L 



122 EXPEDITION TO BORNSO, 

troublesome. The pirates consisted of Tlkimiiw and 
Malukus from Gillolo. The Illanmis are fine aliiletic 
meo, with a strong resemblance in appearance to the 
Bugis; their bearing was haughty and reserved, and 
they seemed quite ready to be friends or foes, aa best 
suited their purpose. The Malukus are from a bay in 
Gillob, and their coundy is noW in possession of the 
Dutch ; they are a darker and an uglier race, bat their 
manners more supple and pliant. They were the prin- 
cipal talkers, while the Illanuns maintained a dignified 
silence. 

'* These Malukus, from their own account, since the 
capture of- their rajah, and the subjugation of their coon- 
try, have led a wandering, piratical iSe ; tfaey represent 
their force at about twenty-five boat^, of which three 
are now joined by the Illanuns, as amatterof mei« con- 
venience. Beyond the usual formalities, this meeting 
had nothing to distinguish it ; one party retired to thek 
boats, while the other went to their respective houses, 
and every thing betokened quiet. In the evening I pnB- 
ed through the fleet, and inspected several of the largest 
prahus. The entire force consisted of eighteen b^its, 
viz., three Mahikus and fifteen Illanuns ; the smallest of 
these boats carried thirty men, the hurgest (they are 
mostly large) upward of a hundred ; so' that, at ^ modp 
erate computation, the number of fighting men might be 
reckoned at from five to six hundred. The THani^m ex- 
pedition had been absent from Magindano upward of 
three years, during which time they had cruised among 
the Moluccas and islands to the eastward, had hanrnted 
Boni Bay and Celebes, and beat up the Straits of Mfe- 
kassar. Many of their boats, however, being worn tfot, 
they had fitted out Bugis prize prahus, and were now 
on their return home« They had recently attacked one 
of the Tambelan islands, and had been repulsed; and 
report said they intended a descent upon Sirhassin, one 
of the Southern Natunas group. These lai^ pnhui 
are too heavy to pull well, though they cany thir^, 
forty, and even fifty oars : their armament is one or two 
six-pounders in the bow, one four-pounder stem-chaser, 
and a number of swivels, besides musketiy, spears, and 
swords. The boat is divided into three sectiDns, aad 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 123 

fortified with strong planks, one behind the bow, one 
amidships, and one astern, to protect the steersnian. The 
women and children are crammed down below, where 
the unhapp^r prisoners are likewise stowed away during 
an action. Their principal plan is boarding a vessel, if 
possible, and carrying her by nmnbers ; and certainly if 
a merchantman fired ill, she would inevitably be taken ; 
but with grape and canister fairly directed, tne slaughter 
would be so great that they would be glad to sheer off 
before they neared a vessel. This is, of course, suppos- 
ing a calm, for in a breeze they would never have the 
hardihood to venture. far from land with a ship in s^ht, 
and would be soriy to be caught at a distance. Their 
intefnal constitution is as follows : one chief, a man usu- 
ally of rank, commands the whole fleet ; each boat has 
her captain, and generally from five to ten of his rela- 
tions, free men : iJ^e rest, amounting to above four fifths, 
are slaves, more or less forced to pursue this course of 
life. They have, however, the right of plunder, which 
is indiscriminate with certain exceptions ; viz., slaves, 
guns, mone^, or any other heavy articles, together with 
the very finest description of silks and cloths, belonging 
to the chiefs and free men ; and the rest obey the rule 
of * First come, first served.' No doubt the slaves be- 
come attached to this predatory course of life ; but it 
must always be^ remenibered that they are slaves and 
have no option ; and it appears to me that, in the oper- 
ation of our laws, some distinction ought to be drawn on 
this account, to suit the circumstances of the case. The 
Datus, or chiefs, are incorrigible ; for they are pirates 
by descent, robbers from pride as well as taste, and they 
look upon the occupation as the m6st honorable hered- 
itary pursuit. They are indifferent to blood, fond of 
plunder, but fondest of slaves : they despise trade, though 
its profits be greater ; and, as I have said, they look upon 
this as their * calling,* and the noblest occupation of 
cfaiefii and free men. Their swords they show with 
boasti, as having belonged to their ancestors who were 
pirates, renowned and terrible in their day ; and they 
always speak of their ancestral heir-loom as decayed 
firom, its pristine vi^or, but still deem the wielding of it 
as the highest of earthly existences. That it is in real- 

; a*' '"'-•■■ L' ■ 






1 






124 EXPEDITION TO BOSNEO* 

ity the most accursed, there can be no doubt, for it» 
chief support is slaves they capture on the diflfeTest 
coasts. If they attack an island, the women «nd chil- 
dren, and as many of the young men as they require, 
are carried off. £ very boat they take furnishes its quota 
of slaves ; and when they have a fvU cargOf they anit 
that coast or countiy and visit another, in order to ais- 
pose of their human spoil to the best advantage. Thus 
a cargo of slaves, captured on the east coast of Bomeot 
is sold on the west; and the slaves ef the south find 
ready purchasers to the northward, and vice versd. As 
the woolly-haired Papuas are generally prized by the dmt 
tives, constant visits are made to New Guinea and the 
easternmost islands, where they are procmed, and af- 
terward sold at high prices among any Malay commoni- 
ty. The great nests of piracy are Magindano, Sedoe^ 
and the northern part of Borneo; and the devaatatioD 
and misery they inflict on the rest of the Archipelago 
81*0 well known ; yet are no measures adopted for ihSar 
suppression, as every European community, be it Eng- 
lish, Dutch, or Spanish, seems quite satisfied to dear 
the vicinity of its own ports, and never considers the 
damage to the native trade which takes place at a dis- 
tance. To be attacked with success, they must be at- 
tacked on their own coasts with two or tluree steamers. 
A little money would gain every intelligence as to where 
they were preparing ; and while the steamers were so 
worthily engaged in suppressing piracy, they niight at 
the same time be acquiring information respecting coun- 
tries, little known, and addmg to our stock of gaograf^y 
and science. A few severe examples and constant har- 
assing would soon cure this hereditary and personal 
mania for a reveres life ; and while we conferred the 
greatest blessings on the rest of the Archipelago, Magin- 
dano itself would be improved by the change. 

**The lUanun Datus and the OilldD chiefs visited 
the schooner constantly, and were always coiteiderate 
enough to bring but few followers. We conversed much 
upon piracy in general, their mode of life, their success- 
es, and their privations. They seemed to have but few 
fears of the Dutch or English men-of-war being able to 



B:StPEDITION TO BOftNBO. 125 

take them, dnd during their three years' cruise had ner- 
er been chased by fuay of them. 

** After being three or four days in company with these 
worthies, i. e., the fleet of Illanuns and Malukus, the 
Royalist dropped down the riyer to Santobong, while 
WUliamson and myself stayed yet a few days widi Muda 
Hassim in his house. We had a week's incessant tor- 
rent of rain^ Nothing could exceed the kindness of the 
rajah during Qur stay« with his brothers, of all ages, as 
our constant companions.. We had one day a dance of 
the lUanuns and Gillolos : they might both be called war- 
dances, but are very different. The performer with the 
Illanuns is decked out with a, fine helmet (probably bar- 
rowed from our early royagers), ornamented with bird- 
«f-paradis^ feathers. Two gold belts, crossed, like our 
soldiers', over the breast, are bound at tiie waist with a 
fantastical garment reaching Iralf way down the thigh, 
and composed of various-colored silk and woolen threads 
one above another. The sword, or * kempilan,' is dec- 
orated at the handle with a yard or two of red clolliv 
and the long upright shield is covered with small rings, 
which clash as the performer goes through his evolutions. 
The dance itself consists of a variety of violent warlike 
gestures, stamping, striking, advancing, retreating, turn- 
ing, falling, yelling, with here and there bold stops, and 
excellent as to dplombf which might have elicited the ap- 
plause of the opera-house ; but, generally speaking, the 
performance was outrageously fierce, and so far natural 
as approaching to an actual combat ; and in half an hour 
the dancer, a fine young man, was so exhausted that he 
fell, lidnting, into the arms of his conu*ades. Several 
others succeeded, but not equal to the first; and we had 
hardly a fair opportunity of judging of the Maliiku dance 
from its short continuance ; but it is of a more gentle na 
ture, advancing with the spear stealthily, easting it, then 
retreating wiSi the sword and shield. The Maluku 
shield, it should be observed, \a remarkably narrow, and 
is brandished somewhat in the same way as the single 
stick-player uses his stick, or the Irishman his shiUel^ 
that is to say, it is held nearly in the center, and whirled 
every vray round. I procured some of the instruments, 
and found that the sword of the Malukus of Gillolo is 

L2 



■136 EXPEDITION TO BOftNSO. 

flimUar to that of the Moskokas of Boni Bay, in CelebM. 
All these pirates are addicted to the ekcesnve use of 
ophun ; but the effects of it are by do means so delete- 
rious or so strongly marked as has been represented ; 
and it must likewise be remembered that they are in 
other respects dissolute and debauched. Among die 
"Chinese it would be difficult — ^nay, impossihle— to de- 
tect the smokers of the drug. Here and there you may 
■ee an emaciated man ; but, out of a body of five hon- 
dred, some are usufiUy emaciated and unhealthy. I do 
not mean to deny the bad effects of opium ; but the sto- 
ries of its' pernicious results are greatly exaggehited 
where the habit exists in moderation. The Chinese 
themselves, when I spoke to them of the bad coosequen- 
ces, always argued that, taken moderately, it was a stim- 
ulus to industry and activity ; but they allowed, at the 
same time, that excess was higMy injunooa. 

^* The time at length came for my departure* oat I 
was pressed to stay one day -after another, for our soci- 
ety was a relief to the usual monotonous tenor of their 
lives. The papers were signed which made me Resi- 
dent oi Sarawak. I started to Santobong, and reach- 
ed the vessel on the 13th of February ; and after wait- 
ing two days, in the vain hope of a lull or change of wind, 
we beat out of the channel.'* 

Mr. Brooke did not remain long at Singapore. His 
principal object was to procure a vessel to trade between 
that place and Sarawak. Trading, however, was not 
his forte ; but he already feltihe deepest interest in the 
welfare of those people. By accident— or, more prop- 
erly, by Providence — he appears to have been sent to 
put a stop to an imnatural war, and to save the lives of 
the unfortunate rebels ; and the benefit he had conferred 
on so many of his feUow-creatures, the good he had al- 
ready done, and the infinity of good which he saw he 
still might do, made him anxious to return. 

After some difficulty, he succeeded in panrrhasing a 
schooner of 90 tons, called the Swift, which I recollect- 
ed in the Malacca Straits as the Zephyr, then a cruiser 
in the East India Company's service. Having pnt a 
suitable cargo into her, he sailed with his squadron (Roy- 
alist and Swift) for Sar&wak early in April, 1841- 



SXFXDITION fo BoKirio. 127 

The njah, already described as an indecent, weak- 
minded man, had promised Mr. Brooke the government 
of the jcountry ; \nstf among other obstacles with which 
he woukl have to contend in accepting it, I do not think 
my fiiend cakolated on jealousy, K>w cunning, and 
treachery, or tiie dangerous enemy he had nuide in 
Paageran Macota. He had been an eye-witness to his 
cowardice, and had paore than once detected and expos- 
ed his cxuniiDg and trickery ; sins not to be forgiven, ee- 
peciaUy by a Malay. Notwithstanding this, firmness, 
«oarage, and strai^lforward honesty gained the victory, 
as the sequel will show. 

Among the characters with v^om Mr. Brooke got 
acquainted daring the rebel war was a young chi^ 
named Si Tundo, who was constantly by his side when- 
ever there was danger. He was an IBanun, and had 
been sent from Sadung, with some thirteen of his coun- 
trymen/ by Seriff Sahib, to offer his services to Maco- 
ta, commander-in-chief of the rajah's forces ; and I re- 
sume Mr. Brooke's memoranda, with the following in- 
teresting account of this poor fellow's fate : ** On my 
arrival tt Sarftwak, we were received with the usual 
honors ; and.4iie fint thing I beard of was the decease 
of my poor companion. Si Tundo of Magindano, who 
had been put to death by the rajah's orders. The 
course of justice, or, rather, injustice, or perhaps, more 
justly, a mixture of both,, is so characteristic of the peo- 
ple, that I am tempted to give the particulars. Si Tun- 
,do feU in love with a woman belonging to an adopted 
son of Macota, and the passion being mutual, the lady 
eloped from her master and went to her lover's house. 
Tins being discovered in a short time, he was ordered 
to surrender her to Macota, v^ch he reluctantly did, 
on an understanding that he was to be aUowed to marry 
her on giving a proper dowry. Either not being able to 
procure the money, or the terms not being kept, Si Tun- 
do and a relation (who had left the pirate fleet and resided 
with him) mounted to Macota's hill, and threatened to 
take the woman and to bum the house. The village, 
however, being roused, they were unable to effect their 
purpose, and retired to their own residence. Here they 
remained for some days in a state of incessant v^tchful- 



128 EXPBDITION TO BORNEO. 

pess; and wbea.tbey molred. they efush curried their 
kempilan, and wore the krisses ready to the hand. The 
Rajah Muda Hassim, being well aware of the state of 
things, sent, at this crisis, to order Si Tundo mnd his 
friend to his presence ; which order they obeyed forth- 
with, and entered the balei, or audience-hall, which was 
full of their enemies. According to Ma& Haanm's ac- 
count, he was anxious to save Si Tundo's fiife, and offer- 
ed him another wife ; but, his affections being fixed on 
the girl of his own choice, he rejected' the offer,, only 
praying he might have the woman he loved. On enter- 
ing the presence of the rajah, surrounded by foes, aMi 
dreading treachery (which most probaUy was inteiided)^ 
these unfortunate men added to their preTious fsaikt by 
one which, however slight in European estimation, is 
here of an aggravated nature — ^they entered the pres- 
ence with their kempilans in their hands, and their sa- 
rongs clear of the kris-handle ; and instead of seating 
themsebes cross-legged, they only squatted on their 
hams, ready for self-defense. From that hour their 
doom was resolved on : the crime 'of disrespect was 
deemed worthy of death, though their previous crime 
of abduction and violence might have obtained pardon. 
It was no easy matter, however, among^an abject and 
timid population, to find executioners of the sentence 
against two brave and warlike men, wefl armed and 
watchful, and who, it was wdU known, wonld sell their 
lives dearly; and the subsequent proceeding is, as al- 
ready observed, curiously characteristic of ttie people, 
and the deep disguise they can assume to attain their 
purposes. It was intimated to Si Tundo that, if he 
could raise a certain sum of money, the woman should 
be made over to him ; and to render this the more prob- 
able, the affair was taken out of Maoota*8 hands, and 
placed at the decision of the Orang Kaya de Gadong, 
who was friendly to the offenders, but wno received faiui 
private orders how to act. ' Four men were appointed to 
watch their opportunity, in order to seise die cn^pnts. 
It is not to be imagined, however, that a n^ve would 
trust or believe the friendly assurances held out to him ; 
nor was it so in the case of Si Tundo and his compan- 
ion; they attended at the Orang Kaya de Gadong's 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 139 

house freqaently for weeks, widi the same precautionsv 
and it was found impossible to overpower them ; but the 
deceit of their enemies was equal to the occasion, and 
delay brought no change of purpose. They were to 
die, and opportunity alone was wanting to carry the 
sentence into effect. Time passed ever, suspicion was 
lulled; and as suspicion was lulled the professions to 
serve them became more frequent. Poor Si Tundo 
brought all his little property to' make good the price 
required for the woman, and his friend added his share ; 
but it was still far short of the required amount. Hopes, 
however, were still held oUt ; the Orang Kaya advanced 
a small sum to assist, and other pretended friends, slow- 
ly and reluctantly, at' his request, lent a little money. 
The negotiation was nearly complete; forty or fil^ 
reals only were wanting, and the opposite party were 
ready to deliver the lady whenever the sum was made 
good. A final conference was appointed for the conclu- 
sion of the bargahi at the Orang Kaya's, at which num- 
bers were present ; and the devoted victims, lulled into 
fatal security, had ceased to bring their formidable kem- 
pilans. At the last interview, the forty reals being still 
deficient, the Orang Kaya proposed receiving their gold- 
mounted krisses in pledge for the amount. The knislses 
were given up* and the bargain was complete, when the 
four executioners threw Ihemselves on the unarmed 
men, %nd, assisted by others, overpowered and secured 
them. Si Tundo, wounded in the scuffle, and bound, 
surrounded by enemies flourishing their krisses, remark- 
ed, *You have taken me by treachery; openly you 
could not have seized me.' He spoke no more. They 
triumphed over and insulted him, as though some great 
feat had been achieved, and every kris was plunged into 
his body, which was afterward cast, without bunal, into 
the river. Si Tundo's relation was spared on pleading 
for mercy ; and after his whote property, even to his 
clothes, was confiscated, he was aUowed to retire to Sa- 
dung. Thus perished poor Si Tundo, a Magindano pi- 
rate, with many, if not all, the vices of the native char- 
acter, but with boldness, courage, and constancy, which 
retrieved his faults, and raised him in the estimation of 
brave m^n. In penon he wm tidl, efegantiy made, with 
9 



130 ^EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

small and handsome features, and quiet and graceful 
manners ; but toward the Malays, even of rank, Ihere 
was in his bearing a suppressed contempt, which they 
often felt, but could not well resent. Alas ! my gallant 
comrade, I mourn your death, and could have better 
spared a better man; for as long as you lived, I had 
one faithful follower of tried courage among the natives. 
Peace be with you in the world to come, and may the 
great God pardon your sins and judge you mercifi:Qly i 

'^ The case of poor Si Tundo proves that the feeling 
of love is not quite dead among Asiatics, though its power 
is obscured by their education and habits of polygamy ; 
and that friendship and relationship may induce a man 
here, as elsewhere, to risk his life and sacrifice his prop- 
erty without any prospect of personal advantage. An old 
Magindaoo man, a sort of foster-father of Si Tundo*s, 
when he saw me for the first time, clasped my arm, and 
repeatedly exclaimed, * Si Tundo is dead; they have killed 
him ;* adding, * had you been here, he would not have 
been killed.* I was touched by the old .man's sorrow, 
and his expression of feeling.*' 

Datu Jembrong was likewise an Illanum, and retifed 
to Sadung when the rebel war had. closed, and died af- 
ter a few days* iUness. Mr. Brooke writes : ** Thus I 
have lost the two bravest men — men whom I would rath- 
er trust for fair dealing than any score of Borneons ; for 
the Magindanos, though pirates by descent and education, 
are a far superior people to any in the Archipelago, with 
the exception of the Bugis. Whatever may he their 
vices, they are retrieved by courage to a certain degree ; 
and where we find a manly character, we may presume 
that the meaner arts o£ finesse and treachery are less 
prevalent. Dampier and Forrest both ^ve them an ex- 
cellent character ; and it is a pity that of late years little 
is known of them, and so little pains taken to hold a 
friendly intercourse either with them or the Sodoqs.'* 

The important changes which ensued on the return 
of Mr. Brooke to Sarawak, in the spring of 1841, now 
demand attention ; and, as heretofore, I proceed to da- 
scribe them from the data intrusted to my charee. 

*^ In a former part of my journal,** says Mr. Brooke, 
*' I have mentioned briefly the occasions which led to my 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 131 

invitation, and the reasons which induced me to accept 
the offer of the Rajah Muda Hassim ; but I wiU repeat 
these, in order to bring the narrative at .once more dis^ 
tinctly before the memory. When I ^returned here for 
the second time, in August of last year, it was with the 
determination of remaining for a few days only on my 
way to the northward ; and nothing but my feeling for 
the miserable situation of Muda Hassim induced me, to 
alter my intention. The rebellion, which he had come 
from Borneo to quell, had defied every effort for tiiearly 
four years ; and the attacks he'had made on the rebels 
had failed entirely and almost disgracefully. His imme- 
diate followers were few in number, and aid from the 
neighboring countries was either denied, or withheld on 
trivial excuses ; while the opposition of Pangeran Usop 
in Borneo paralyzed the efforts of his supporters in the 
capital, and, in case of non-success, threatened his own 
power. The pride, the petty pride of the Malay prince 
bent before these circumstances, and induced him to 
state his difficulties to me, and to request my assistance. 
His failure was strongly dwelt on, and his resolution to 
di& here rather than abandon his undertaking — to die 
disgraced and deserted! Under these circumstances, 
could I, he urged upon me, forsake him ? could I, * a 
gentleman from Enghind,' who had been his friend, and 
knew the goodness of his heart, could I leave him sur- 
rounded and begirt with enemies ? It was possibly fool- 
ish, it was perhaps imprudent, but it accorded with my 
best feelings ; and I resolved not to abandon him without 
at any rate seeing the probabiliBes of success ; and it 
must always be remembered that, in doing so, I ha;d no 
ulterior object, no prospect of any personal advantage. 
I joined his miserable army, which, in numbers, .barely 
exceeded that of the rebels, strongly stockaded. I joined 
them at the outset of their campaign ; and in a few days 
(ten days) witnessed such scenes of cowardice, treach- 
ery, intrigue, and lukewarmness among his followers, 
such a determination not to take advice or to pursue any 
active measures, that I left them and returned to my 
vessel. The Chinese I do not include in this represent- 
ation; they were true and willing, but wretchedly 
armed, and very justiy refused to be thrust forward into 



132 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

posts of danger, which the Malays in their own country 
would not share. On my return to the vessel, 1 frankfy 
stated how useless my presence was among men who 
would not do any thing I desired, yet would do nothing 
fbr themselves ; and, under the circumstances, I intima- 
ted my intention of sailing. Here, again, I was pressed 
with liie same entreaties ; every topic was eithausted to 
excite my compassion, every aid was at my disposal; 
and lastly, if I would stay, and we were successful, the 
country was offered to me. The only inquiry was, 
whether the rajah had the right and authority to make 
over the country to me, and this I was assured he had. 
The government, the revenue (with slight dedactions for 
the sultan), and one of his broUiers to reside here in oir- 
der to insure the obedience of the Malays, were all com- 
prehended in this cession, freely and without condition. 
I might, at this point of thd negotiation, have insured the 
title to the government as far as a written agreemekit 
could give it ; but for two sufficient reasons I declined 
all treaty upon the subject until the war was oyer. The 
first of tiiese reasons was, that it would have been high- 
ly ungenerous to take advantage of a man*8 distress to tie 
him down to any agreement which, in other circum* 
stances, he might not be wiUing to adopt ; and by acting 
thus ungenerously, it would be tempting the rajah to 
deceive me when the treaty came to be ratified. The 
second reason was equally cogent; for a mere barren 
bond, which I had no means to enforce, was worse than 
useless, and no man would be nearer possesskm by mere- 
ly holding a written promise. I may add, likewise, that 
t saw so many difficulties in the way of the undertaking, 
that I was by no ineans over-anxious to dose with it; 
and, previously to accepting and entering on so Ixdd a proj- 
ect, I was desirous thoroughly to be assured of the gooid 
faith of the promisor. To the Raj oh Mu& Hassim's 
proposal I, therefore, replied, that I could not accept it 
while the war was pending, as I considered it wrong^ to 
take any advantage of his present situation ; and that, if 
he conferred authority on me in the camp, 1 would once 
more go up the river and assist him to the utmost of my 
power. It is needless to repeat any details of the war, 
except to say that I found eveiy support from him, and 



EXPEDITION Vfb BORNEO. 133 

the highest consideration, both in personal attentions and 
the bestowal of influence. He conquered, I may say 
without self-praise, through my meanis ; and on the close 
of hostilities our negotiation about the country was re- 
vived. In its progress I stated to him that Malay gov- 
ernments were so bad, that theiiigh were allowed so 
much license, and the poor so oppressed, that ieiny at- 
tempt to govern without a change of these abuses was 
impossible ; and as a foundation of my acceptance was 
the proposition^ that all his exertions must be employed 
to establish the principle that one man was not to take 
any thing from another, and that all men were to enjoy 
the produce of their labor, save and except at such times 
as they were engaged in working for the revenue. That 
the amount of the revenue was to be fixed and certain 
for three years, at a stated quantity of rice per family; 
in lieu of which, should a man prefer it, he might pay in 
money or in labor : the relative price of rice to money or 
labor being previously fixed at as low a rate as possible. 
That the officers, viz», Patingi, Bandar, and Tumangong, 
were to receive stated salsu-ies out of this revenue, in order 
to prevent any extortion, either by themselves or in their 
name; and that they. were to' be answerable for the 
whole revenue tmder my superintendence. That the 
Dyaks were to be treated the same as the Malays, their 
property protected, their taxes fixed, and their labor free. 
At the same time, I represented to him the-diiliculty of 
doing this, and that nothing but his power could effect 
it ; as any foreigner, without liis unlimited support and 
confidence, would have no chance of finding obedience 
from she numerous inferior Pangerans and their follow- 
ers. This, with much more, was the theme of my con- 
versation ; to which was replied, imprimis. That their 
customs and religion must not be infringed. That with 
regard to the violence and* rapacity of the higher classes, 
and the uncertainty of taxation, which led to so much 
oppression, they were by no means any part of the On- 
dong Ondong, t. e., the written law of Borneo, but gross 
abuses which had arisen out of lax govermnent. That 
it was the wish of his heart to see these things mended ; 
and that nothing should be wanting on his part to assist 
me in accomplishing objects so oeairable, particularly 

M 



134 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO.- 

with respect to the Dyaks, who were so grossly abusecL 
On this, a written agreement was mi^de out, merely to 
the purport that I was to reside at Sacawak in order to 
^ seek for profit ;* and on my remarking that this paper 
expressed nothing, he said I must not think that it was 
the one understood between tis, but merely for him to 
show to the sultan at Borneo in the first place. I ac- 
cepted this version of the stpry, though it looked suspi- 
cious ; and on my part, over and above our written agree- 
ment, which expressed nothing, 1 consented to buy a 
vessel, and bring down trade to the place, in . return for 
which I was assured of antimony ore in plenty; and 
though I knew that profit was not to be expected, I was 
desirous to comply, as, without a vessel regularly trading 
here, it would be imp6ssible to develop the resources m 
the country. Wliile I went to Singapore, the rajah 
promised to build me a house, in whic£ I was to take up 
my residence. I sailed accordingly, and returned with- 
in 'three months, having performed all my engagements ; 
but on reaching Sar&wak, the first disappmntment I ex- 
perienced was, that the house was- not commenced^ I 
urged them to begin it, and after the jnost provoking de- 
lays at length got it finished. I mention this because it 
was the o^y instance in which good faith was kept. 

" Augtist 3d — The two schooners. Royalist and Swift, 
having arrived at Sarawak, I found myself with a hisavy 
monthly expense, and was naturally anxious to dispatch 
them as speedily as possible. I was assured liiat; 6000 
peculs of antimony ore would be. down immediate^, ai|i 
that whenever the people were set to work, any quanitilrr 
might be procured without difficulty ; which, indeed, I 
knew to be true, as Macotah had loaded a ship, a brig, and 
three native vessels in six weeks. The procrastination, 
therefore, was the more provoking ; but as I had deter- 
mined to drm myself with patience, and did not antici- 
pate foul play, I was content to. wait for t time. - The 
Swift being leaky and requiring repairs, was another in- 
ducement to me to lie by and land her careo, which, 
ever since my aiTival, the rajah petitioned to hftve 
ashore, giving every jdedge for a quick and good return. 
At length I consented to let him have the cargo into his 
own hands, on the assurance that the antimony ore" (t. «•, 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 185 

the 6000 peculs which were ready ?) ** should be brought 
down durectij. Nothing could be more correct than the 
way they received the cargo, taking an account of each 
separate article, comparing it with the invoice, and noting 
down the deficiency ; and the rajah himself superinteud- 
ed this mteresting process from morning till dark. At 
this time, having agreed with him for the whole, as the 
easiest and best xnode of dealing under the circumstances, 
I did not much trouble myself about the deposit; and 
my attentioQ was first roused by the extreme apathy of 
the whole party directly the cargo was in their possession 
— overfaauled, reckoned, and disposed of among them." 



CHAPTER X. 

Obstacles in the way of coining to a satisfactoiy conclusion with 
Muda Hassim. — The law of force and repnsal considered. — 
Capabilities of Sarawak. — Account of Sarebus and Sakarran 
niratas. — Ehccursion up the river. — Visit to the Sing^ Dyaks. — 
Description of Mr. Brooke's house at Sarawak. — Circum- 
stances relating to the wreck off Borneo Proper. 

During the sncceeding pages of my friend*s journal, 
one hardly knows which to admire most ; his firmness, 
his cool courage, his determined perseverance, or his 
patience. . On the other hand, it is difficult to decide 
whether the rajah's indolence and ingratitude, or Ma- 
cota*s low canning and treachery are the more disgust- 
mg. But I continue the narrative, and readers will 
judge for themselves. 

**Yet," says Mr. Brooke, **I had confidence, and 
was loth to'aUow any base suspicion to enter my mind 
against a man who had hitherto behaved well to me, 
and had not deceived me before. From the time the 
cargo had been disposed of, I found myself positively 
laid on the shelf. No return arrived ; no steps were 
taken to work the antimony ore ; no account appeared 
of die positive aniount to be received : a promise wag 
tendered ; and all my propositions — nay, my very de- 
eh-e to speak of the state of the country — ^were evaded. 
i found myse^ clipped like Samson, while delay was 
heaped upon delay, excuse piled on excuse, and all qoy^ 



136 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

ered with the utmost sl^w of kmdness and ciTility. It 
was provoking beyond sufferance; but with several 
strokes which I considered important, I bore it with. 
saint-like patience. I remonstrated mildly but firmly 
on the waste of my money, and on the impossibility of 
any good to the country while the rajah conducteded 
himself as he had done. I urged upon him to release 
the poor women whom he had kept confined fi>r nearly 
five months ; and I guarantied the peaceful disposition 
of the people if it were done. I might as well have 
whistled to the winds, or have talked reason to stones. 
I was overwhelmed with professions of affection 
and kindness, but nothing ensued. I had trusted — 
my eyes gradually opened — I feared I was betrayed 
and robbed, and had at length determined to be obser- 
vant and watchful, when an event occurred which fin- 
ished the delusion, and woke me fully to the treacheiy, 
or at any rate the weakness, at work against me. My 
house was finished, and I had just taken possessioB of 
it, when I understood that an overwhelming body of 
Dyaks, accompanied by Malays, were proceeding up 
the river, with the avowed purpose of attacking a hostile 
tribe, but with the real design of slaughteoing aU the 
weak tribes in their way. Upward of 100 boats, with 
certainly not fewer than 2500 men, had been at Sar&wak 
a week, asking permission for this expedition; and I was 
informed there was not the slightest chance of its being 
granted, when to my surprise I saw the expedition start. 
" On being convinced that they really were going up 
the country, I instantly quitted tlie house and returned 
on board the Royalist, sending to know whether the 
rajah had granted leave for Sieir entnace into the 
interior. By him the whole blame of the transaction 
was thrown upon Macota and the Orang Eaya de 
Gadong ; and he himself was said to be so ill that he 
could nojt be seen ; but it was added, as I disliked the 
measure so greatly, the same parties who had sent the 
Dyaks up could recall them down, which indeed I had 
insisted on being done. They accordingly retromded 
and left ; after which I continued sulky on boaro and 
the rajah, shamming sick, sulked in his harem. That 
any man beside the rajah himself would have been 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO* 187 

bold enough to grant the permission, I knew, from ex- 
perience, was impossible. I accepted his denial as the 
groundwork of a reconciliation. In . the mean time, as 
he continued ivdisposed, I intimated my intention of 
proceeding to Borneo in three days, and dispatching 
the Swift at the ssune time to proceed to Singap<N*e ; 
part of her cargo, 750 peculs of antimony ore, having 
been at length put on board. On Ma being made knovm 
to the rajui, he forgot his sickness, and came out and 
proffered me a meeting to discuss affairs, which I post- 
poned until the following day. In the mean time I took 
a candid view of my position, and considered the best 
means of extricating myself from my difficulties ynth as 
little trouble and inconvedience-as possible to either party. 
** I had lost much valuable time, spent much money, 
and risked my life .and the lives of my crew, in oi'der to 
render assistance to Rajah Muda Hassim in his distress ; 
in return for which he had voluntarily offered me the 
country. The conditions of my acceptance had been 
discussed and mutually understood, and I had, in fulfill- 
ment of my part, brought vessel and cargo. Profit I did 
not much care about ; the development of the country 
was my chief,/ 1 may say my only, aim ; and on my ar- 
rival I had been delayed and cheated by &lse promises* 
which showed too plainly that he neither meant to ad- 
here to his former agreement, nor to pay fi>r what he 
had on false pretences obtained. It may appear to many 
that no measures ought to be kept with one who had so 
behaved ; but for the following reasons I resolved still to 
wait his pleasure. In the first place, it was barely pos- 
sible that indolence, and not treachery, might have actu- 
ated him ; and in the next place, if it was possible to ar- 
range so as to get back the amount of the Swift's cargo, 
I was in duty and justice bound to use every endeavor 
before resorting to measures of force. As for the ces- 
sion of the country, and i^l the good which must ;have 
resulted from it, I put these considerations altogether 
out of the question. I had been deceived and betrayed, 
and had met with the grossest ingratitude ; but I had no 
ckuDi, nor would any written agreement have given me 
one ; and I was therefore constrained to submit without 
returning evil for evil. Every point weighed, I felt, 

M 2 



138 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

from every motive, inclined, nay desirous, to avoid a rap* 
ture, or taking an equivalent for my property by force. 
The Swift, with the part of her cargo received on board, 
after thi^ee months* detention, and no more even talked 
of, I therefore resolved, as already stated, to dispatch to 
Singapore. My first intention on arriving here had been 
to send the Koyalist back to that port and dispose of her ; 
but a native rumor being afloat ^at the cirew o^ a ship- 
wrecked vessel were in Borneo Proper, I deemed it in- 
cumbent on me to visit that place and effect their release. 
I had used every means in niy power since jny arrival 
to induce the Rajah Muda Hassim to send one or two 
of his Pangerans and a letter from himself to the snltan 
by the Koyalist, in order to insure that object; bnt al- 
though, day by day, I had received promises, they were 
never performed. Seeing now that this duty of human- 
ity could no longer be delayed with propriety, 1 resolved 
to dispatch the Royalist to Borneo, and myself to remain 
here, to endeavor, if I could, to obtain my ovm. Each 
vessel was to return as quickly as possible from her place 
of destination ; and I then resolved to give two additional 
months to the rajah, and to urge him in every way in 
my power to do what he was bound to do as an act of 
common honesty. Should these means fail, after making 
the strongest representations and giving amplest time, 
I considered myself free to extort by force what I could 
not gain by fair means. 

** Having determined on these steps, I met the rajah 
by appointment, and repeated all my grievances, and set 
strongly before him the injury done in consMdquence ; 
and lastly, plainly told him that I only came and now 
only stayed in his country at his request, but that the 
property he had taken must be repaid, tmd subsiiequently 
to that, if he had any proposition to make, I would eh- 
deavor to meet his wishes. To all this I received fio 
owe satisfactory answer, and, from the shuffling on eveiy 
complaint, I formed the worst opinion of his intentions. 

** My determination, however, having been previously 
made, the result of this conversation had no effect upon 
me ; and at the end of three days, the time I had limit- 
ed, no letter for the sultan being forthcoming, on the 
fourth morning the two schooners proceeded to sea, obe 



EXPEDITION TO BORK&O. 139 

for Borneo, the other for Singapore, while, with three 
companions, I remained in my new house.* 

^' I wish now to discuss a question which has often 
occupied my mind, and upon which I have been very 
desirous to arrive at a right conclusion. It is certain 
that a British subject cannot wrongfully attack or injure 
any prince or person m his own country without render-> 
ing himself liable to be punished by the laws of Eng- 
land. It is both right and just that it should be so, be- 
cause in demi-civilized or savage countries the natives 
are often unable to protect themselves, and an attack 
Upon them savors of piracy. On the other hand, if the 
native princebe the party to blame ; if he fraudulently 
possess himself of property under false pretences, make 
promises which he breaks, and enter into agreements' 
before witnesses which he never intends to fulfiU ; then, 
I ask, is a British subject to submit to the loss, when the 
party defrauding him is able to pay and will not? I 
answer decidedly, he is not bound to submit to be cheat- 
ed, and, if he have the means, he has the right to en- 
force repayment. It may be urged that trust ought not 
to be reposed ; but trust is the ordinary course of trade, 
and cannot alter the question. Again, it may be said. 
Apply to the government ; but it is well^ known and ac- 
knowledged that the government will not interfere in any 
case of the sort. Seek redress by law! there is no law 
to meet the contingency. Bear the loss,'t. e, be betray- 
ed, deceived, and cheated, and submit ! It cannot be ; 
for although the law may properly inquire into the cir- 
cumstances, yet as it will not protect me here, or give 
' ne . any redress for fraud or murder j it cannot punish, 
jif right be on my side. Am I quite sure that the right 

* I need hardly remark on the singular courage and disregiird 
of personal safety and life itself evinced by my friend on this oc- 
casion. At issue with the rajah on points of great temptation to 
him, beset by intrigues, and surrounded by a £erce and lawless 
people, Mr. Brooke did not hesitate to dispatch his vessels and 
protectors, the one on a mission of pure humanity, and the other 
m calm pursuance of the objects he had proposed to himself to 
accomplish ; and with ** three companions," place himself at the 
mercy of such circumstances, regardless ot the dai^er, and rely- 
ing on the overruling Providence in which he trustea, to bring him 
safely through all his difficulties and perils.— H. K. 



140 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

is OQ my side ? It is, as far as I can judge ; and having 
candidly stated eveiy ^t and circumstance, I am con^ 
vinced there can be but one opinion on the subject. I 
am sure that if I seize property to the amount of that 
taken from me, I act justly, though perhaps not legally ; 
yet I firmly believe legally likewise, although law and 
justice do not necessarily go always hand in hand. On 
the whole, there was the (A& sore rankling — ^tiie false 
promises, the gross deceit, the base ingratitudeNto a man 
who had done everything to relieve this equivocating 
rajah from disgrace, defeat, and perhaps death. But 
here I close this account for the present, to be resumed 
on the return of the Royalist from Borneo. 

'^ August 4ih, — Both retrospectively and prospectively 
the grounds for all these transactions were ever, pressing 
on my mind and guiding my actions. The capabilities 
of the Sarawak country were very. great. It could 
abundantly supply the richest produce of the vegetable 
kingdom ; it abounded in mineral wealth, and especially 
in a vast staple commodity of antimony ore ; with a con- 
siderable population of Dyaks, whose condition was de- 
cidedly improvable; a Malay population, by no means 
large, which was advantageous ; and a Chinese popula- 
tion ready to immigrate with even a moderate prospect 
of protection. Beside these inducements, must be added 
its propinquity to the Pontiana.. river, and the trade 
which by that route might flow even from the center of 
this little-known island. To crown all, there were the 
credit to myself in case of success, the amelioration of 
the native condition, however partaal, and the benefit to 
commerce in generals These were the reasons that 
induced ipe to enter, on this arduous task ; and to these 
I may add a supplementary one, viz., that when I had 
struggled for a time, I might rouse the zeal of others, 
and find efficient support either from govenunent or the 
mercantile body. 

'* I have in a former part of my journal mentioned the 
Illanun pirates, and my meeting with them here. On 
our return we heard of their being still on the coast, and 
from that time to this they have been ravaging and plun- 
dering between Tanjong Datu, Sirhassan, and Pontiana. 
Malays and Chinese have been carried off in gresEt uwaof 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 141 

lien ; Born^ and Sambas prahus captared without 6nd ; 
and so mueh hayoc committed, that the whole coast,. as 
far^as the natires are Concerned, may be proaomiced in 
a state of blockade. . 

*' Beside the lUanuns, there are two other descrip- 
tions dr pirates infesting these seas : one, the Dyaks of 
Sakarran: and Sarebus, two predatory tribes abready 
mentioned; the other called Balagnini, a wild people 
represented to oome from the northward of SookxK I 
hare not seen them ; but their boats are said to be very 
long and swift, with sometimes outi'iggei*s ; and one par- 
ticular in their mode of attack is too curious to omit. In 
closing on their victims they use long poles, having a 
hook made fiist at th& extremity, with which, being ex- 
pert, they hook their opponents at a distance and drag 
them overboard, while others are fighting with saligis 
and spears; 

** I have before mentioned the arrival of one hundred 
Dyak boats at Sarawak, to request permission from the 
rajah to ascend the river and attack a tribe toward Sam- 
bas. What a tale of misgovemment, tyranny, and weak- 
ness, does this request tell ! These Dyaks were chiefly 
from Sakarran, mixed with the Sarebus, and with them 
thrae boats of the Male tribe, whose residence is toward 
the Pontiana river. The Sakarrans are the most pow- 
erful, the naost -predatory, and the most independent 
tribe on the N«W. coast, their dependence on Borneo 
being merely nominal. The latter are likevnse preda- 
tory and numerous, but they are on good terms with 
all the coast tribes and with the Malays, while the Sa- 
rebus are against all, and all are against them. Speak- 
ing general^, they are a remarkably fine body of people, 
handsome, intelligent, powerful, well-made, beautifully- 
limbed, and elear-skinned. They are somewhat fairer 
than the Malays and the mountain Dyaks ; but in man- 
ners, customs, and language, exactly resemble the Sib- 
nowans, except that the last, from misfortune, have be- 
come a peaceful tfibe. The Sarebus and Sakarrans are 
only distinguishable by the numerous rings they wear in 
their ears.. On one man I counted fourteen of brass, 
various sizes, in one ear only. They are ra^ther fond of 
ornament, and wear grotesque caps of various-colored 



142 EXPEDITION Ta BORNEO. 

cloths (particularly red), some of them sqnare, otfaen 
peaked, and others like a cocked hat worn atnwiirt-shipe, 
and terminating in sharp points on the top of the head. 
These head-dresses are ornamented with tufts of red 
hair or black human hair, shreds of cloth, and sometimes 
feathers ; but what renders them laughable to look at 
is, that the hair is cut clo^e to match the shape of the 
cap ; so that when a man displaces it, you fihd him bare 
of hair about the forehead and posterior part of the skull, 
that over the ears cut into points, and the rest of the 
skull showing a good crop of black bristles. 

" The commanders of this party were yclept poeti- 
cally by their own people, as noms de guerre, the Son 
and the Moon, i. e., Bulan, for moon, and Matari far 
sun. The Sun was as fine a young man as the eye 
would wish to rest upon ; straight, elegantly yet strongly 
made, with a chest and neck, and head set on them, 
which might serve Apollo ; legs far better llum his of 
Belvidere ; and a countenance mild and mteDigent. I 
became very good friends with both Sun and Mo(HL, and 
gave them a great deal of good advice aboat piracyv 
which, of course, was thrown away. 

** Their boats are built very long, raised at the stem, 
and the largest pulling as many as sixty paddles ; but I 
should Qot think them fast, and any boat with a swirel 
might cut them up. The least average! ebuld give the 
hundred boats is twenty-five men per boat, making, as 
already observed, 2500 in all. We counted ninety, and 
there were others down the reach we could not see ; 
and they themselves stated their force to be 140 boats 
and 4000 men. The manners of these Dyaks toward 
us were reserved, quiet, and independent. They stole 
nothing, and in trading for small quantities of rice, bees- 
wax, cotton, and their cloths, showed a full knowledge 
of the relative value of the articles, or rather they priced 
their own at far above their proper worth. I may indeed 
say of all the Dyaks I have seen, that they are uixiouB 
to receive, but very loth to give ; and when they hare 
obtained cloth, salt, copper, beads, &c. to the amount of 
two or three dollars as a present, will bring in a buneh 
of plantains or a little rice, and ask you to buy. The 
Sibnowans are the chief exceptions to this, and liiey are 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO; 143 

my pet tribe. The language of Sakarran and Sarebus 
is the same as the SibDowan; and with all the word 
God, the AUak TaUa qi the Malays, is expressed by 
Battaroj from which we may infer diat their notion of 
the Deity, as probably was all the religion of these 
regions, was derived from the Hindoos. 

** When this force of Dyaks was, contrary to the as- 
surance given to me, sweeping up the river, t had just 
finished a late dinner. I was angry enough,Bndi resolved 
instanter to leave the house, when who should come in, 
as if hy pure cuxident^ but Pangejan Budrudeen, the 
rajan^s brother. I controlled myself, spoke strongly 
withal but civilly, aud sent him away wishing he had 
not come near me; and the boat being ready, I retired 
from the house totiie Royalist. Their immediate recall 
was the consequence; for theLT&jah having denied his 
permission, those who fathered the act dared not per- 
sist in it when I told them it was an act of disobedience. 
They tried to frighten me with the idea that the Dyaks 
would attack us ; but as I felt sure we could blow them 
away in ten minutes, it had not the. desired efTect. They 
had in the mean time reached Leda Tanah, whence 
they were brought down again sulky enough, and did 
show a slight inclination to see whether the people on 
board the Swiffc wer« keeping watch; for several of 
their boats dropped close to her, and one directly under 
the b6wsprit, as silently as death ; but on being chal- 
lenged, and a musket leveled near them, they sheered 
off, and the next day finally departed. The poor Dyaks 
in the interior, as well as the Chinese, were in the 
greatest state of alarm, and thence I gained some credit 
among them for my interference on their behalf. The 
very idea of letting 2500 wild devils loose in the interior 
of the country is horrible ; for though they have one 
professed object, they combine many others with it, 
and being enemies of all the mountain tribes, they cut 
them up as much ad they can. What object, it may be 
inquired, can the Malays have in destroying their owb 
country and people so wantonly 1 I must endeavor to 
explain, to the best of my belief and knowledge. The 
Malays take part in these excursions, and thirty men 
joined the Sakarrans on the present occasion, and con* 



144 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

BoqueDtly they share in the plunder, and share largely. 
Probably Muda Hassim would have got twenty s^res 
(women and cbildren^; and these twenty bemg reck- 
oned at the low rate of twenty reals each, makes four 
hundred reals, beside other plunder, ameuntmg to one 
or two hundred reals more. Inferior Pangerans would 
of course partake likewise. Muda Hassim must have 
given his consent,- must have been a participator in l^iis 
atrocity, nobody being desperate enough to do such a 
thing without his orders. In fact, they dare not move 
up the river themselves without leave, much l^s send 
up the Dyaks. It is a hateful feature in this govern- 
ment, newly developed since tiie close of the war, 

*^ August 5tk. — One excur^on I made up the river 
over our old ground, staying a week, . visiting various 
places. Where the village of Siniawan once stood is 
now a small Chinese settlement, and their garden be- 
speaks the fertility of the soil. From Siniawan I walked 
over to Tundong, now the principal Chinese station. 
The scenery was beautiful aO the way from Siniawan 
to Tundong — gently undulating ground rising into re- 
spectable MUs, and backed by noble mountains, and 
valleys so quiet and still, and looking so fertile, that I 
sighed to think man's cultivating hand was not here. 
We paused, and rested at a farm of the Paniniow. 
Their mode of cultivation is the same as described by 
Marsden — cutting, clearing, planting, and abandoning 
after one or two crops. They se^m likewise to prefer 
the upland to the wet ground. Tundong is quite a new 
settlement, situated close on ~the banks of the river, 
which is here quite narrow and shallow. The distance 
may be ten miles by water, as it took our boat four 
hom's and a half to pull against stream. We spent the 
same time walking, but diverged from the road. Wher- 
ever the Chinese are, the sound of the ase and the saw 
is to be heard in the woods as you approach, and all are 
industriously employed. They have their carpentera» 
sawyers, blacksmiths, and housebuilders, while the 
mass work the antimony ore, or are busy constructing 
the trench where they find and wash the gold. With 
such inhabitants a country mu»t get on well, if they are 
aUowed fair play. I was quite tired, and stayed all 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 145 

night at Tundong. On the foUowing morning I started 
for the Singd mountain, which is the residence of the 
Dyak tribe of the same name. The walk, including a 
irest, occupied nearly three hours, the latter part up- 
hill, and we reached the village a good deal knocked up 
from the^ heat of the sun and the badness of the way. 
Our entertunment was not of the best ;' yet the Sing& 
were not inhospitable, but suspicious that we came to 
rob them. The rice and the fowls we required, al- 
though we paid for them at double their value, were 
reluctantly produced; while at the same time they 
showed themselves anxious enough to obtain the salt we 
had brought to exchange, without giving the equivalent. 
** The village is built on the shoulder of a mountain, not 
halfway up, and only accessible by a ladder-like padi 
on either side. It consists of about 200 miserable huts, 
and is as dirty and filthy as any place I ever was in, witii 
numerous half-starved pigs and dogs running about it. 
The houses are small and mean, and detached from 
each other, contrary to the usage of the other Dyaks, 
who inhabit one large house containing numerous parti- 
tions for families ; here, however, they have one or two 
public halls or council-houses, which are built and 
thatched in a circular form, and in which theii* young 
men and bachelors sleep ; here likewise are deposited 
the heads, of which they have more than enow, as above 
one hundred ghastly remnants of mortality ornamented 
the abode in which we slept. I could not on this occa- 
sion find out that they professed to take the heads of 
friends or strangers, though the latter may fell victims if 
on enemies* ground. They seem to have no idea of 
cannibalism or human sacrifice, nor did they accuse their 
enemies of these practices. They have a custom, that 
in case of sickness in a house, or child-bearing, the 
house it forbidden to the males and strangers, which is 
something similar to the ta^boo of the South- Sea Islands. 
This plea was urged as a reason why the head man or 
Orang Kaya Parembam could not receive us in his 
dwelling. The Dyaks are always decorous in their be- 
havior, rarely give way to mirtli, and never annoy by 
their curiosity. Toward the Malays they are Extremely 
sulky and mulish ; but they have good reasons, as thto 
10 N 



14^ EXPEDITION TO BORNEO* 

Malays are ever extorting from them, and threatening 
them with the anger of the rajah or the incursion of die 
Sakarrans . The women wear black bainboo stays, which 
are sewn on when they arrive at the age of puberty, and 
never removed save when enceinte. These Sing^ Dyaksy 
like the others, attend to the warning of birds of various 
sorts, some birds being in more repute than otl^ers. On 
starting for a hunting excursion we met one of them on the 
hill-side, who sud, *Tou will be fortunate : I heard the 
bird behind you.' Here, if a bird is before you, it is a 
sign that enemies are there too, and they turn back : if 
behind, they proceed in good spirits. They have a pre^ 
judice against the jflesh of deer, which the men may not 
eat, but which is allowed to wonaen and children. The 
reas6n ^ven for this is^ that if the warriors eat the flesh 
of deer, they become as faint-hearted as that animal. 
These may be called their superstitions,, but region they 
have none ; and though they know a name for God, and 
entertain some i^nt notion of a future state, yet it is only 
in the abstract, for practically the belief seems to be a dead 
letter. At their- marriage tiiey kill fowls, as I have nar- 
rated; but this is a ewemony, not a sacrifice. They have 
no priests or idols^ say no prayers, make no offerings te 
propitiate the Deity, and it is httie likely therefore that 
human sacrifice should exist among them. In thk re- 
spect they are different from any known people who have 
arrived at the same state of civilization. The New 
Zeajanders, the inhabitants of t)ie South Seas, A;c. &c^ 
for instance, all bow to their idols, toward which the 
same feelings of reverence and devotion, of awe and fear, 
obtain as with more civilized beings in regard to the in- 
visible Deity ; but here are the mere woids, barren and 
without practice. 

** The day following our arrival at SingS we de- 
scended into the plains, amid their former rice-fields, to 
shoot deer. The place is called Pasar (bazaar or mar- 
ket), though it could scarcely ever have been one. 
The rice-cultivation was formerly very extensive, and 
the low ground all about the mountain is well cleared 
of wood by the industry of these Dyaks. But ^ the 
country becoming unsettled and troubled, and roving 
parties of strange Dyaks landing on the coast near One- 



BXPBJDITION TO BORN|K>* HT 

tong» cut off the people employed in the fields, and 
they^ consequently were abandoned. . We took up our 
quarters in a ruinous little deserted hpvel, and in the 
evening walked over ^the neighboring district, where the 
cocoanut and betel-trees mark its former state of pros- 
perity. The sago is likewise planted in considerable, 
quantity, and serves for fi[>od, when rice falls shorts 
Deer, the large deer- of Borneo, abound, and in a walk 
of a few miles we saw from fifteen to twenty, and from 
their tracks they must be very numerous indeed. The 
walking was difficult, fcnr owing to the softness of the 
ground, we often sank in up to our thighs* and gene- 
rally to our knee^ : and a short distance in this sort d 
wad'mg in stifif mud serves to knock a man up. I was 
fortunate enough to kill one of the deer, and have no 
doubt that with more fayor able light a man; might get 
many. The night's repose in the hut was broken and 
uncomfortable, and our people were busy for several 
ho.urs curing the fiesh of the animal, which is done as 
follows : first it is slightly salted, and then burnt over a 
quick wood-fire in slices or lumps, and thus keeps for 
many davs, and is very palatable. Seriff Hussein (for- 
merly 01 Siniawan) was my companion on this excur- 
sion. He had three followers, while I had three 
Javanese with me, beside my Bugis boy Situ, who 
walks with the best of us. The morning after kilting 
the deer we ascended the Sing^ again by a desperately 
steep path ; and after resting an hour or two, walked to 
our boats, and descended the stream to Siniawan. 
The night was marked by torrents of rain, thunder, 
and lightning, which left the roads so bad that I re- 
signed my intention of walking up to Sarambo, and in 
the evening dropped down to Leda Tanah, and tried 
unsuccessfully for another deer. We saw some, but 
could not get near them. Here likewise are plenty of 
rice-fields deserted, but which a little labor would brinff 
again into cultivation. The day following we rejoined 
the schooner, and, as usual* found everything at m 
stand-still on shore. 

** I may here mention our house, or, as I fondly 
styled it, our palace. It is an edifice fifty-four feet 
square, mounted upon numerous posts oi the Nibong 



148 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

palm, with, nine windows in each front. The roof 
{atap) is of Nipah leaves, and the floor and partitaona 
are all of plank : furnished with couches, tables, churs, 
books, dec. the whole is as comfortable as man would 
wish for in this out-of-the-way country ; and we Jiave, 
beside, a bathing-house, cook-house, and servants' 
apartments detached. The view from the house to 
the eastward comprises a reach of the river, and to the 
westward looks toward the blue mountains of Matang ; 
the north fronts the river, and the south the jungle ; 
and but for the uncertainty of our affairs, I would have 
had a garden ere this, and found amusement in clearing 
and improving. Farewell, I fear, to these aspirations ; 
our abode, however, though spacious, cool, and com- 
fortable, can only be considered a temporary residence, 
for the best of all reasons — that in the course of a year 
it will tumble down, from the weight of the super- 
structure being placed on weak posts. The original 
plan was to have had a lower story, but about this I am 
now indifferent. The • time here passes monotonously, 
but not unpleasantly. Had we but the animation of 
hope, and the stimulus of improvement, time would 
pass rapidly, though . without a companion to converse 
with. 

" August 6th. — ^The Royalist, as I mentioned before 
I reverted to the subject of the pirate fleet, started for 
Borneo Proper, to inquire respecting the cfew of an 
English vessel, reported to have been shipwrecked. 
Pangeran Sulieman brought the intelligence from Bor- 
neo, but l\e knew very few particulars ; and having 
been here four months before my arrival, the chances 
were that with the change of the monsoon they had 
sailed for Manilla. As, however, he assured me he 
had Seen European men and women, and a numerous 
Lascar crew, I thought it right, at all events, to ascer- 
tain the fact ; and in case of their being there still, to 
endeavor to obtain their release. For this purpose I 
was very desirous of procuring a letter from Muda 
Hassim to the sultan, conveyed by a Pangeran of rank ; 
which, in addition to my own application, would mjost 
likely insure the object in view. This, however, 
though promised, I could not accomplish ; delay coming 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 149 

upon delay, and the plague of my own affairs also inter- 
vening, ppstponed my intention till I could see the 
Swift fairly off for Singapore. The Royalist then went 
out with her on the Sunday, July 25th, proceeding to 
Borneo to demand the crew, if there : and the other to 
Singapore. On the 2d of August I was surprised by 
the receipt of a letter brought from Sadong, and bearing 
date the 10th of July. The gentleman who writes it 
can best tell his own stoiy. 

* Island Sirhassan, off Tan Datn, 

* July 10th, 1841. 

' A boat leaves this to-morrow for Sarawak ; perhaps this 
n^ faU into the hands of Mr. Brooke, or some of my country- 
men, which, dumld I not succeed in getting to Singapore, I 
trust will lose no time ;in letting the authorities know, so that 
steps may be taken for the release of the remaining thirty-six 
British sulnects now at Borneo; which I fear nothing but 
one of'H.M. ships wiU' effect. The pirates are cruising in 
great force between Sambas and this, and have taken thir- 
teen Borneo prahus, or more ; they know that there are Euro- 
peans in the prahu, and have expressed a wish to take them. 
Our situation is not very enviable. The bearer of this has 
just escaped from them. I have been living ashore with 
Abduramon, a native of Pulo Pinang, who knows Mr. Brooke, 
and has been very kind ,to me. Trusting penmanship and 
paper will be excused, 

* I remain, &c. &c. 

* G. H. W. Gill,' 

".On the reverse was the following attestation, which 
threw more light on the circumstances : — 

% G. H. WiUoughby Gill, late chief officer of the. ship 
Sultana, of Bombay, do hereby certify that the said ship was 
totally destroyed by lightning, thirty miles N. E. of the Bom- 
bay shoal, coast df Pdawah, on the 4th of January, 1841. 
Part of the crew^, forty-one in number, succeeded in reaching 
Borneo on the 16th of January, in a state of starvation ana 
misery pot to be described ; the remainder are reported to 
have landed on the coast of Borneo per long-boat : — Captain 
John Page; G. H. W. Gill, chief officer; Alexander Young, 
second offioer ; one gunner ; five sea-cunnies ; two carpen- 
ters ; twenty-three natives and Lascars ; two Nakodas. Pas- 
sengers: — Mrs. Pa&[e (of a daughter, 31st of March); Mr. and 
Miss^e Sooza; Idrs. Anderson, servant; one Ayah; in all 

v2 



150 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

fbrly-two souls. The sultan has permitted myself, Mr. and 
Miss de Souza, with three servants, to proceed to Singapore 
in one of his prahus, where I hope to succeed in procuring 
the release of the remainder of my companions from their 
present very imcomfortable situation. I dare not say mM>re. 
Mr. de Souza and myself left on the 24th of May, ana put in 
here dismasted on the 20th of June ; since then have been 
detained by a fleet of piratical prahus, which arrived on the 
24th, and left 9th of July. Should nothing prevent, we ex- 
pect to be ready by the 15th ; but am very doubtful of ever 
getting to Singapore, as I fear they are on the look-out for us 
outside.' 

'* This is the contents of the paper, which arriving 
after I had retired to rest, effectuallj banished sleep 
from my pillow. The *■ uncomfortable situation,' coupled 
with *• I dare say no more/ gives the worst anspicions of 
their ti*eatment in Borneo; wlnle the chance of the 
party at Sirhassan falling into the bands of the pirates 
is extremely shocking. I instantly, on the receipt of the 
letter, sent to the rajah to request that he would dis- 
patch a boat for Sirhassan, with a person competent to 
treat with the pirates-; and on the morning of the 3d I 
succeeded in dispatching a boat to Songi, in the Sadong, 
to get some of the Datu Pan'geran's people, who are 
Illanuns ; but up to this time they have not returned. 
I can only hope these poor people at Sirhassan will be 
wise enough to stay there, instead of risking a capture 
by the pirates. Should the Royalist return shortly, and 
have obtained the crew, we may fight our way to that 
place and release the party, who, I have littl6 doubt, are 
still detained there. If the Royalist is long away, and 
the captain goes in search of the missipg boat's crew, 
we may yet have the Illanuns from Sjadong here in time 
to dispatch. As for myself, I am tied, and have not the 
means at present of locomotion ; my situation is an anx- 
ious one. The Swift must have been liable to &11 in 
with this great force of pirates on her way to SingapcMre, 
and will be again liable on her return. The doubt- and 
uncertainty about the poor fellows in Borneo and Sir- 
hassan, and the wretched condition of my own affairs, 
all cause unpleasant reflections to my mind ; yet I yield 
not, but will fight it out. 

** I have just brought up my history to the present 



• EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 151 

time ; and, like a log on fiie water, muM wait for events 
to develop tfaemsehres. 

** 7th, — \ report arrhred this morning that the Sir- 
hassan partj sailed fin* Singapore on the 3d of the moon ; 
and as Mn GiU says they would be ready for sea abont 
the 15th of last month, I consider it likely to be true. 
r trust they may escape the pirates, and safely reach 
their destination.*' 



CHAPTER XI. 

Return of the Rojalist from Borneo Proper with intelligence 
<^ the sufferers from the wreck of the Sultana. — Effect of the 
arrival of the Diana on the negotiations for their release.^-nOnt- 
rage and oppresnion of Maeota. — Fate of the Sultaiia and her 
crew. — Mr. Brooke made Rajah of Sarawak. — ^Liberatioo of 
rebel prisoners. — State of Dyak tribes; — Court of justice open- 
ed. — Dyak burials, and respect for the dead. — liuilay cunning 
and treachery. 

While waiting events, Mr. Brooke amused himself 
by writing down such accounts of the interior as he was 
enabled to collect, from time to time, from the natives 
visiting Sar&wak, as well as a brief description of the 
constitution and government, as enacted in Borneo Prop- 
er. But as my object now is to tince the {MX>gress of 
my friend up to the time when he embarked on board 
the Dido, I shall refer to these matters hereailer. ^ 

" Tuesday, August I7th, 1841. — Three weeks the 
Royalist has now been absent, and I begin, in spite of 
my determination to the contrary, to be somewhat un- 
easy about her. Suspense is certainly more difficult to 
bear dian misfortune, for the certainty of an event arous* 
es within us some oi our beat feelings to resist it; but 
suspense lets loose our imagination,, and gives rise to 
that sickening feeling of * hope deferred,' so truly char- 
acterized in the Scriptures. 

^' 18^. — The Royalist arrived near Sar&wak, having; 
come into the river on the 16th, and in one tide from 
the Morotaba entrance as far as the Paduman* roclfti. 
They reported that they had not effected the releoM 

* Now called ISamarang. 



152 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO.* 

of the prisoners, were very rudely treated, the boat de- 
tained at a fort near the entrance of the Borneo river, 
an communication denied with the Europeans, a letter 
for them seized from the native crew, and provisions and 
water refused. In addition to this, a letter from the 
sultan, addressed to me, stated to the effect, that the 
crew of the Sultana having entered into a treaty with him, 
tiie merchant and mate (Messrs. de Souza and GiU) had 
gone to Singapore to fulfill that agreement. The captain 
having a wife in the family way, preferred staying in Bor- 
neo, as the vessel was a sniall one, and therefore the 
sultan did not grant my request on this occasion ; and 
further, having an agreement, he did not wish to be de- 
ceived regarding .it. This was a falsehood from begin- 
ning to end, as will be clear by copaparing it with Mr, 
Gill's statement, though I fear the poor men have been 
rash enough to enter into some arrangement to ransom 
themselves.** 

On the 19th of August the Swift arrived ; but the 
journal was laid by until the 24th of October, when it 
thus reconunences : 

'* I may now continue my narrative of events which 
have happened since I last used my p^n, together widi 
fresh details of my present intentions, and such addition- 
al knowledge as has been acquired. After the arrival of 
the Swift, I still adhered to mj former resolution of 
waiting patiently for a settlement. I made several strong 
remonstrances, and urged for an- answer to a letter I 
had addressed to Muda Hassim, in which was recapitu- 
lated our entire negotiation. This letter was acknowl- 
edged to be perfectly true and correct, and the rajah, 
in the conference which followed, again [hedged himself 
to give me the coimtry, saying he always intended to 
do so, but was involved in difficulties of the nature of 
which I could not be aware. Thus ftr things went 
well, and there appeared, indeed, a frwakness hi his 
manner which had formerly pleased me, but had long 
been in abeyance. 

'* On the return of the Royalist from Borneo, I had 
assured them that a government vessel would be sent to 
demand the captives ; but, taking this assnranee for a 
mere boast, they paid little attontion to it, and wero 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 153 

therefore excessively frightened when, a week after die 
Swift, the Diana steamer entered the river. I had the 
pleasure of calming their fears, and was too, generous to 
push matters to a settlengient during the two days the 
steamer remained. ^ 

" Muda Hassim now expressed himself desirous of 
sending some Pangerans to Borneo, and I wished him 
likewise to do so on accoimt of the reflective power of 
the steamer, which, in that case, would have shone upon 
liim. ' With his usual delay, howeyer, he &iled to be 
ready, and these Pangerans did not quit the river for 
two. days afterward, when they proceeded in a native 
prahu. I accompanied the steamier to the month of the 
river, and wishing them success, pulled biBck to the cap- 
ital of Sarawak. 

" Oct, 30th, — The Swift was slowly laden with anti- 
mony ore, worked by the Chinese ; and I gradually rob- 
bed the Royalist of furniture for my house On shore. 
But I had no intention of allowing either vessel to sail 
until the time arrived which I had fixed, on for the final 
adjustment of my affairs. By degrees, however, I learn- 
ed many of the difi&culties of poor Muda Hassim's situ- 
ation, and much of the weakness of his character. The 
dissensions in. Borneo ; the intrigues of Macota ; the ra- 
pacity of his own people, and their total want of fidelity ; 
the bribes from the Sultan of Sambas ; the false repre- 
sentations of numerous Borneo Pangerans who asserted 
the immense profit to be derived from the country ; the 
dilatory movements of the Chinese ; some doubts of my 
good faith; and, above all, the natural tenacity of pow- 
er,, all conspired to involve the rajah in the utmost per- 
plexity, and would, but for counterbalancing circumstan- 
ces, have turned the scale against me. Muda Hassim 
knew Macota to be false and in league with the Sul- 
tan of Sambas ; and he felt that he had no power, and 
that if he broke with me^ it would be extremely difllcult 
to support himself against the former rebels. He was 
fond of me, and trusted me more than he trusted any 
one else; and pecuniary considerations had no doubt 
some weight, for with idl Macota's promises he could 
not get sufficient ore to repay one quarter of his debt to 
me However, all these conflicting considerations, in- 



154 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

Stead of inducing Mada Hassim t» take one conrte, onhr 
served to encourage his dilatory temper, apd although 
puzzled, ashamed, and fearful, he could not decide. 

** At this period a robbery was cDminitted up the riv- 
er by some of Macota^s followers on a Chinese hadji, a 
converted Mohammedan. They beat the old man, threw 
him into the wa.ter, and robbed him of a tael of gold. 
The beating and attempt at drowning were certain, for 
the Chinese hadji was so ill for several days under my 
care, that he was in considerable danger. He complain- 
ed to me loudly of Macota; and from other' 4iources I 
gained a pretty accurate account of that gendeman^s 
proceedings. By threats, by intrigue, by fidsehood, and 
eveh by violence, he had prevented or dnven all persons 
from daring to visit or come near me, whether abroad or 
ashore. He was taxing the poor Dyaks, harassing the 
Siniawans, and leagued with the Borneo Pangerans to 
plunder and get all he possibly could. Every Dyak com- 
munity was watched by his followers, and a spear rais- 
ed opposite the cluefs house, to intimate that no person 
was to trade or ba.rter except the Pangeran. The mode 
of plunder is thus perpetrated. Rice, clothes, gongs, 
and other articles are sent to a trit»e at a fixed price, 
which the Dyaks dare not refuse, for it is at the nsk of 
losing their children! The prices thus demanded by 
Macota were as foUows : one gantong of rice for thirty 
birds* nests. Twenty -four gantongs here is equal to a 
pecul of rice — a pecul of rice costs one doUar and a half; 
whereas thirty birds* nests weigh one catty, and are val- 
ued at two rupees, so that the twenty -fourth part of 
oniB and a half dollars is sold for two rupees. Was it 
surprising that these people were poor and wretched ? 
My astonishment was, that they continued to labor, and, 
indeed, nothing but their being a surprisingly industrious 
race can account for it, and they are onhr enabled to live 
at all by secrating a portion of their food. Yet war and 
bad goverament, or, rather, no government, have had the 
effect of driving more than half the Dyak tribes beyond 
the limits of Sarftwak. 

** The rapacity of these Malays is as unbounded as it 
IS short-sighted ; for one would think that the slightest 
degree of common sense would induce some of the chie& 



EXPEDITION TO BO&NEO. 155 

to allow no one to plunder except themselves. But this 
is so far from being the casie, that, when &eir demand 
has been enforced, dozens of inferior wretches extort and 
launder in turn, each according to hi& ability ; and though 
the Pyak is not wanting in obstinacy, he can seldom 
witiistand these robberies, for eacli levy is made in the 
name of die rajah, or some principal Pangeran ; and the 
threat of bringing the powerful tribe of Sakarrans or 
Sarebus to deprive them of their heads and wives find 
fiEimilies, generally reduces them to obedience. WThile 
on this subject, I may as well mention a fact that came 
later to my knowledge, when several of the Dyak chiefs, 
and one of particular intelligence, Si Meta by name, as- 
sured me that-'each family paid direct revenue frbtn tMr- 
ty to fifty pasus (tubs) of padi, besides all the other pro- 
duces, which are extorted at merely nominal prices. 

** To return to my relation : the Chinese hadji recov- 
ered, and I determined to punish the aggressora, for 
which purpose I seized an Illanun said to be concerned, 
but who was innocent. In the mean time the steamer 
returned from Borneo, and once more put in here fdl: 
wood and water. She brought Captain and Mrs. Page, 
Mr. Young, the second officer, and all the rest of die 
crew, save only a few who had landed at~the north part 
of Borneo, and there been seized and sold as slaves, and 
brought afterward as slaves to Borneo Proper. As the 
history of the shipwreck and detention is curious, I may 
here relate it as nearly as T can. 

" The Sultana, a fine ship of 700 tons, the day previ- 
ous to her being struck by lightning, found the French 
frigate Magicienne aground and deserted on the Bom- 
bay shoal ; Captain Page boanjed her, and discovered 
every thing as it had been left by the crew — provisions, 
Water, &c., in abundance. The day after, the Sultana 
met with a worse fate, being struck, and the cotton in 
the hold, fore and aft, fired by the electric fluid. They 
had scarcely time to hoist out .the boat when the flames 
burst forth, and they quitted her very short of provisions, 
and saving only some money and jewels. Captain Page 
bore up for the wreck of die French frigate, intending 
to refit his long-boat aboard her, and take provisions and 
snns to last thiBm to Singapore ; but, on making her, there 



156 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

was so great a wash of the sea on the lee part of the 
reef, that it was totally impossible to reach the Magi- 
cienne. Under these unfortunate circumstances they 
bore up once more, still intending to prosecute the voy- 
age to Singapore, and made the land to the. southward 
of Palawan ; and, being then short of water and provis- 
ions, landed on a small islet off Balabac, or Balambangian. 
Here they procured a. few shell-fish and some very bad 
water ; but seeing some natives in prahus on a neigh- 
horing islet, and being unarmed and appi'ehensive, they 
lighted large fires in the evening to mislead these peo- 
ple, and, as night advanced, silently put to sea, and made 
the best of thjd'ir way along the coast. With a heavy 
sea, and o^n high wind, they reached as far as Labu- 
an, off the entrance of the Borneo river ; and here, be- 
ing in the utttiost want, and reduced to an allowance of 
half a biscuit and a cup of water pier day, they were 
forced to put into Borneo Proper, not without hopes of 
being well used, and enabled to buy provisions and stores 
sufficient to carry them to Singapore or Sambas. I 
have omitted to mention that, on making the land the 
first time, they parted from the cutter, in consequence 
of the tow-rope breaking in the night ; but as they were 
then within sight of Borneo, and the wind fair, there 
was no doubt of its making the land somewhere. This, 
indeed, it did at Malludu Bay, where the native crew 
were seized and sold as slaves. 

** The arrival of Captain Page in his long-boat caused, 
as may well be imagined, considerable sensation in the 
campong; and they reached the sultan's house, think^ 
it the best place to seek shelter and protection. In tms, 
however, they were soon undeceived; for neither the 
one nor the other was granted, but a message sent that 
they must deliver up all their property into the sultan's 
hands, as otherwise he was anaid they would be {Sun- 
dered by his people. Accordingly, having . possessed 
himself of their money, some jewels* their l^at, &c., he 
gave them a miserable shed to live in. Here they pass- 
ed the time, and were gradually robbed of every thing 
they had in the world, even to the baby -linen which 
Mrs. Page had prepared for an expected infant. Some- 
times, indeed, when Captain Page refused to yield to 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 157 

the su]tan*8 demands, their provisions were stopped^till 
they could no longer hold out ; and in this way they 
were compelled to sign bonds for considerable sums, 
with the understanding that, till these were procured 
and paid, they should be detained. 

'*In this «ad situation Mrs^ Page was confined of a 
daughter, on the 31 st of March; and this miserable lifb 
continued .from the 4th of January, 1841, to August of 
the same year. Their first ray of hope was the Roy- 
alist coming to fetch them : the steamer followed, and 
they wer« released. 

** After a stay of two or three days, the steamer once 
more sailed ; though I would fain have pwsuaded Cap- 
tain Con^eton to search for the piratical fleet, of which 
I had excellent information ; but he considered himself 
not authorized, or, in other words, he declined the re- 
sponsibility. 

" As there was a chance that Mr. Gill and the De 
Sonzas were either at Sirhassan or Tambel^n, the 
steamer decided to touch at the latter place, and a na- 
tive chuliah brig was directed to call at the former. I 
afterward learned that the pirates were then at Sirhas- 
san ; but as the brig knew nothing about Sirhassan, it is 
probable she never went there. In the evening die Di- 
ana sailed, and I reached Sar&wak about two o'clock in 
the morning. ^ 

** I now return to my concerns. The Chinese hadjr, 
whom I had protected, continued to reside with my 
servants, till one evening we were alarmed at an attempt 
to poison my interpreter, a native of the name of Mia. 
Arsenic had certainly been put into his rice ; but as the 
servants endeavored to point suspicion on this hadji, and 
as I learned, at the same time, that they did not agree 
with the old man, I cleared him in my own mind, and 
rather leaned to the opinion of Mia having placed the 
arsenic in the plate himself, for the express purpose of 
accusing the hadji. Connecting this event with all Ma- 
cota's former intrigues, I determined to bring matters to 
a crisis, and test at once the strength of the respective 
parties. Accordingly, after complaining of the matter 
previously mentioned to the rajah, I landed a party of 
men, fully armed, and loaded the ship's guns with grape 
5 O 



158 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

and canister; after which I once more proceeded to 
Muda Hassim, and, while I protested my kindness to- 
ward him, exposed Macota's machinations and crimes, 
his oppression and his deceit, and threatened him with 
an attack, as neither Muda Hassim nor myself were safe 
while he continued practicing these arts. Muda Has- 
sim was frightened ; but how Macota felt I can not say, 
as he never, moved out of his house, and it was long af- 
terward before he was seen. From my knowl^ge, 
however, of his temperament, I can well conceive that 
he was reduced to a pitiable state of terror. The Sini- 
awans took my part directly ; and their chiefs came to 
me to say that 200 men were all ready whenever I 
pleased to call for them. The Chinese and the rest of 
the inhabitants took no side ; and Macota did not get a 
single foUpwer besides his immediate slaves, perhaps 
about twenty in number. After this demonstration af- 
fairs proceeded cheerily to a conclusion. The rajah 
was active in settling ; the agreement was drawn out, 
sealed, and signed ; guns fired, flags waved ; and on the 
24th of September, 1841, 1 became the Governor of Sa- 
rawak, with the fullest powers." 

Being now regularly established in His government, 
Mr. Brooke, with his usual activity and circumspection, 
applied himself to the discharge of the onerous duties it 
imposed upon him ; and hjs first acts were such as equal- 
ly displayed his wisdom, firmness, and hiunanity. His 
journal runs thus : 

^' Nov, 3d, — I have a country; but, oh! how beset 
with difficulties, how ravaged by war, torn by dissen- 
sions, and ruined 6y duplicity, weakness, and mtrieue I 
Macota's underhand deidings, after the conclusion of my 
agreement with Muda Hieissim had been ratified, soon 
brought letters from his Sambas friends, i. e., one from 
the sultan, one from the Tumangong, and one from an- 
other Pangeran — an immense effort of conspiracy and 
correspondence! Of these letters the sultanas alone 
was curious ; for the rest only dealt in professions of 
devoted attachment to the person and interests of Muda 
Hassim. But the sultan, for want of some better plea, 
made use of the following singular specimen of reason- 
ing, viz., that the Chinese Kimsi were indebted to him a 



EXPEDITION TO BOBNEO. 159 

sum of money, which they had agreed to pay him in an- 
timony ore ; the agreement was not to pay him in gold* 
or money, or other commodity— only in antimony ore j 
therefore he wanted antimony ore. To this it was prop^ 
eriy replied, that an arrangement had been made with 
me, and that the Chinese could not agree to give anti- 
mony ore without his (Muda Hassim's) consent. 

'* My first object, on holding the reins of goVemmenty 
was to release the unfortunate women confined for a 
whole year by the rajah. This, indeed, was not oDty 
necessary to inspire confidence in my just intentions, 
but was dictated by humanity. I found Muda Hassim 
not averse to take the measure, now that he had realty 
resolved to adhere to my advice, and consequently I had 
the sincere satisfaction, within a few days, of liberating 
upward of a hundred females and young children, and 
of restoring them to their husbands and fathers; this 
act being somewhat alloyed by Muda Hassim detaining 
twelve females, and among them two wives, I urged as 
strongly as I could, but without success, the advisability 
of releasing the whole ; and I was obliged, at last, to con- 
tent myself with the mass, and yield the few whom I 
could only have got by force or the utter abrogation of 
our infant treaty. When I pressed the affair, it was 
answered that, except for me, none would have regain- 
ed their liberty ; and that the release was an act of great 
kindness and unexampled confidence toward me ; that 
what had been done was perfectly accordant with their 
customs ; and that the women detained were for the ra- 
jah's brothers — so far, indeed, from being intended as an 
injury to the women, it was a great honor and advan- 
tage. I explained the circumstances to the Patingi and 
Tumangong, and they acquiesced in the decision — allow- 
ing the custom — and said they had gained so much more 
than they had ever hoped for, that they could submit to 
the rest. 

** The next step was to assemble the Siniawans, who, 
since the close of the war, would run away, and whom 
it was found impossible to keep here. Some had retired 
to Sambas ; some (among them Patingi Ali) had £one to 
Sariki ; and others had built a village on the borders of 
the Sambas territory. The whole aim and object of 



160 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

Macota*s government was to get these people back; and 
those who were already here were constantly plying 
backward and forward to recall their companions ; but 
as soon as they succeeded in getting one family, another 
absconded^ Confidence alone could restore them ; and 
I therefore intimated to the Patingi and Tumangong 
that there was no occasion for their seeking them ; that 
I by no means desired their return ; and that any of 
their people who wished to leave the country were at 
liberty to do so whenever they felt inclined. This had 
the desired effect, in a short time, of bringing back the 
fugitives from Pankalon Nibong; and they continued 
daily to arrive from Sambas. 

** My next measure was to inquire into the state of 
the DyakSf'to gain their confidence, and, as much as it 
was within my power, prevent the oppressions of the 
Mala3rs. It was necessary, likewise, to fix a rate of tax 
to be levied yearly; and the prospect seemed fair, as 
the chief people of the following tribes had come in, and 
agreed that such a tax on ricie, amounting to sixteen 
gantongs, would be required from each man, and that 
for the rest they would be obliged to labor; that they 
could trade at pleasure ; that no man could demand any 
thing from them ; that their wives and children were 
safe; and that, in case any trouble arose, they were to 
let me know, and I would myself come to their assist- 
ance. The tribes were, Lundu, Sarambo, Bombak, 
Paninjow, and Sow. The only other tribe on the right- 
hand river were the Singd, a powerful and stiff-necked 
people, with good reason to be shy; but when once 
they are treated justly, thebr strength will be advanta- 
geous, and give them confidence to resist oppression. 

** The story told me by the three heads of the Sow 
Dyaks brought tears into my eyes, as they each in turn 
related their grievances. One of them, a remarkably 
intelligent person, addressed me nearly in the following 
terms : ' From former times we have been the subjects 
of the Patek of Borneo. The Bomeons are the elder 
brothers, we the younger ; and the custom of old was, 
that we should pay revenue and find protection. But 
they forgot what was right, and departed from the cus- 
tom, and robbed the Dyaks, and oppressed them. We 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 161 

have done no wrong : we listened to die eomniands of 
the Patingi who was put over us by the Patek. If he 
did wrong, he should be punished ; but we have suffer- 
ed because we obeyed the commands of the officer le- 
gally appointed. You might, sir, a few years agb, have 
souglit in this river, and not have found a happier tribe 
than ours. Our children were collected around us ; we 
had rice in plenty, and fruit-trees ; our hogs and fowls 
were in abundance ; we could afford to give what was 
demanded of us^ and yet live happily. Now we have 
nothing left. The Sadong people and the Sakarran 
Dyaks attacked us : they burned our houses, destroyed 
our property, cut down our fruit-trees, killed many of 
our people, and led away our wives and young children 
mto slavery. We could build another house ; we could 
plant fruit-trees and cultivate rice ; but where can we 
find wives ? Can we forget our young children ? We 
have asked the Patek to restore them ; we have asked 
Pangeran Macota to restore them : they have told us 
they Would, but have not ; we can not trust them ; their 
words are fair, but in their hearts they do not mean to 
help us. We have now no one to trust but you — ^wiB 
you help us ? Will you restore our wives and children ? 
If we get our families, you will never repent it: you 
will find us true.' 

" What could I answer ? I could not deceive thenif 
as I knew not how to obtain their object; I therefore 
told them I feared it was impossible ; but I would try, 
and they themselves should go and try at the same tfane. 
Poor, unhappy people, Who suffer for the crimes of 
others ! God knows, I will aid yon to the utmost of my 
power. 

** Nov, Stk' — To-day the greatest, and I hope the final, 
struggle of the opposing faction was developed by the ar- 
rival of a brig from Sambas, with two of the sultan's sons 
on board ; Macota in high spirits, and my party looking 
rather desponding ; and, in fact, I' can not trust them 
against Sambas. For good or for bad, for success or for 
failure, for life or for death, I will act justly, and pre- 
serve the high hand over Macota. 

'* After the steps I have mentioned, I determined to 
open a court for ^e administratioii of justice, wherein I 
11 02 



162 EXP£^DlTION TO BORNEO. 

should preside, together with such of the rajah's brothers 
as liked to assist me. As for a jury, or any machineiy 
of form or law, it was rejected, because it must be ineffi- 
cient, if not corrupt ; and the only object I aimed at was, 
keeping witnesses out of ear-shot of each other, hearing 
the evidence, deciding as -appeared best,^and in future 
punishing. This simpje plan insured substantial re- 
dress ; and it gave all the people conjQdence in me, and 
a notion of what was right. 

** The first case was a foUower of the rajah's, of the 
name of Sunudeen ; and a greater villain could not exist 
either in this or any other land. It was as follows : A 
man from Samarahan, named Bujong, had undertaken 
to marry his daughter to a Sarawak man called Abdul- 
lah; but Abdullah proving a dissolute character) and 
greatly in debt, Bujong broke off the engagement before 
the proper authorities, and returned the presents which 
Abdullsdi, according to custom, had made. Abdullah, it 
appeared', was indebted a small sum to INfatassim (Mo- 
hammed Orsin), and^ between Sunudeen and Matassim, 
they resolved to lay the debt on Bi:yong's shoulders ; in 
other words, to plunder Bujong under false pretenses. 
Accordingly, Sunudeen, widi ms comrade, wept to Sa- 
marahan ; and, in his capacity of follower or the rajah, 
demanded the debt due by Abdullah to. Matassim. Bu- 
jong having no money, Sunudeen proceeded and seized 
(lis nephew, a boy, and a slave-man belonging to him, as 
his slaves. Poor Bujong resisted, and recovered his 
nephew, but yielded his slave ; hb appealed, however, to 
the Orang Kaya de Gadong's sons, and they failing, a 
Nakodah stated the case secretly to me. I investigated 
it, and c^rdered the return of the slave in my presence^ 
which tiras obeyed. This may give an idea of the state 
of the country, and the power of every petty scoundrel 
hanging about the rajah to rob and plunder at pleasure. 

**■ 7th. — I have before mentioned that the Dyaks of 
Sibnow bury their dead ; but I always found a reluct- 
ance on their part to show me their place of sepulture. 
Once, indeed, chance led me to the burial-ground of part 
of that tribe settled at Simunjstog ; but, as they seemed 
restless to get away, I only took a hasty survey. The 
reason, I have lately learned, for this is, that in their 



BXPBDITION TO BORNEO. 163 

graves they deposit the golden oraainents and other 
property of the person deceased, amounting frequently 
to a considerable value in the priecious metals, brass 
swivels, gongs, dpc. 

" The tribe now at Lundu were formerly settled on 
the Samarahan river for many years ; and tiieir burial- 
place there contained the ashes of the parents and grand- 
parents of the present chief, who, with his followers, 
were not long ago driven to Lundu ; and their former 
settlement being deserted, it has been the employment 
of some of the rascals here to rob these graves of their 
contents, and to desecrate the repose of the dead. The 
Orang Kaya of Lundu complained to me sadly, but 
mournfully, on this uccount, and said that if he could not 
find redress from the rajah, he must obtain it himself by 
taking the heads of those who had disinterred the bones 
of his ancestors. His whole manner convinced me that 
they hold the burying -places in great respect; and my 
advice, to remove the wealth and bones to a place of se- 
curity at Lundu, was rejected on the ground that they 
could not disturb the remains of those whom they had 
once deposited in the earth. 

** While there is so much of right feeling and manly 
principle in the actions of these Dyaks, the miserable 
race who pretend to be their superiors have' no single 
virtue or good intention. I do not, however, mean to 
confound the inhabitants of Sarftwak, or the other rivers, 
with those of Bomeo'^Proper. The latter are thoroughly 
corrupt and profligate. The former are Malays, but 
have their good qualities, and certainly are not possessed 
with the spirit of intrigue which seems die life, the only 
moving principle of the Bomeons. It may truly be said 
of the latter, that they would tell a lie when the truth 
would serve them better. They will employ duplicity 
and treachery on every slight dccasion ; defeat their own 
purpose by their meanness, and yet continue in the 
same crooked paths. They will conspire without any' 
object, or one too mjsterious to arrive at ; and, while 
they raise a cloud of doubts io the mind of the poor, 
their own equals look on and detect the game. Yet, 
after all, they gain but little individually; because so 
many are pmcticing the same arts at the same time with' 



164 EXPEDITION TO BOBNEO. 

equal skifl ; and the country is js</exliaasted by their op- 
pressions and rapacity, that in the end there is notliing 
to be got by their tricks and manoeuvers. It is a strange 
state of society, and it is only wonderful how it can ex- 
ist ; but they have their reward in being poor and ill- 
provided, diough living in the midst of « inarvetously fer- 
tile and luxurious country. 

" Deceraher ^laL — The last day of the year, in which 
I Doiust bring up the arrears of my account. 

** The SamlMis brig -left quly yesterday, after exhaust- 
ing every effort of 4ntrigue, and every artifice which Ma- 
lays can invent,, to: compass their ends. 

** With the Sambas brig came Seriff Hussein, a rela- 
tion of the Sxdtan of Pontiana, and half Arab half Bugis 
by descent. He came with the avowed purpose of en- 
tering into the most friendly communication with me, 
and residing here, provided I gaye him any encourage- 
ment. His real motive (if he haa one) not being obvi- 
ous, I, in the mean ^me,'treated him with all kindness; 
and he is an intelligent and pleading person, ^and, more- 
over, connected with the Siniawans, w}io have a .good 
opinion of him.*' ^ 



CHAPTER XII. 

Reflections on the new vear. — The plandered village, and other 
wrongs. — Means for their suppression.— The new government 
proceeds to act. — The constitution.^ — Preparations for an expe- 
dition against the Sea Dyaks.— Form of a treaty. — Wreck of 
the Viscount Melbourne. — Administration of justice. — Difficul- 
ties and dangers. — Dyak troubles.-^Views and arrangements 
of the Chinese.— Judicial fonn8.rT-Wrongs and sufferings of the 
LunduSi 

** Jan. l«i, 1842.— The past year is in the bosom of 
eternity, into which bourne we are all hurrying. Here 
we have no merry-making, no reunion of families, no 
bright fires or merry games, to mark the advent of 1842 ; 
but we have geiiial weather, and are not pinched by cold 
or frost. This is a year which to me must be eventful ; 
for at its close I shall be able to judge whether I can 
maintam myself against all the circumstances and diffi- 



ES^PEDITION TO BORT^TEO. 165 

culties which beset me, or whether I must retreat, 
broken in fortune, to some retireibent in my native 
land. I look with calmness on the alternative, and. God 
knows no selfish motives weigh on me ; and if I fail, my 
chief regret will be for the natives of this unhappy coun- 
try. Let the year roU on, let the months piass ; "and 
whatever they bring — ^whetiier it be life or death, for- 
tune or poverty — ^I am prepared ; and in the deep soli- 
tude of my present existence I can safely say that I 
believe I could bear misfortune better than prosperity. 
In this, probably, I am not singular ; for there ie some- 
thing in prosperity which, if it does not make us "worse, 
makes us more foolish and more worldly — ^which decks 
passing time with vrreaths of gay flowers, and gilds the 
things of this life with tinsel hopes and wish^, to the 
exclusion of the pure goki of reflection for the life to 
come. What are all these gewgaws, these artificial 
flowers, these momentary joys,^he8e pleasures of the 
sense, before the war of time ? Nothing ! And yet, if 
exertion can benefit our race, or even our own country 
— if the sum of human misery can be alleviated — if these 
suffering people can be raised in the scale of civilization 
and happiness — ^it is a cause in which I could suffer, 
it is a cause in which I hatx suffered and do suffer ; 
hemmed in, beset, anxious, perplexed, and the good in- 
tent marred by false agents — surrounded by weakness, 
treachery, fitlsehood, and folly, is sufifering enough ; and 
to feel myself on the threshokl of success, and only 
withheld by the want of adequate means, .increases this 
suffering. Hail, however, 1842 ! Come good, come ill, 
still hail ! and many as are the light hearts which have 
already greeted thee, mine will be more ready to bow 
to the decrees of Providence which thy twelve months 
will develop. 

^'Jan. ^. — I have mentioned that the Sanpro had 
been attacked from Sadong; and I now learn that, at 
the time, the men were out of the village, and thus the 
women and children alone suffered ; twenty«two have 
been carried away into slavery. The village was burned 
after being plundered, and the unfortunate people have 
since been living in the^ungle, with only such food as 
they couki get there. The head of the tribe and abottt 



166 EXPEDITION TO BOllNEO. 

six of his followers came down the river on a raft to ask 
assistance fit)m me, and I had the ^tory fi-om them. 
They were relieved as far as my means admitted, and 
returned &r happier than they came. The very same 
day arrived news that six men of the Sows were cut off 
by a wandering party of the Sakarrans. 

^* This leads me naturally to consider the means by 
which these atrocities may be prevented. I propose 
first to send letters to Seriff Sahib of ^adong,. Seriff 
Muller of Sakarran, and Seriff Jaffer of Singd, stating 
that I wish to be on good terms with my neighbors, but 
am determined to attack any place which sends I^aks 
to rob in my country; and that I call on them to re- 
strain their subjects from making incursions here. In 
case thi^ warning is neglected, I must strike one blow 
suddenly, as a Luther warning, and keep a good look- 
out at sea to destroy any Dyak fleet that may be prowl- 
ing outside. A good-sized boat,^ with a six-pounder and 
a swivel or two, will effect the latter object, backed by 
two or four light, fast-pulling boats, with musketiy, 
which, when the Dyak prahus fly, may keep pace with 
them and thin their, pullers, till the heavier boat 6an 
come up. To carry one of their campongs, I must 
have twenty-five Europeans, and from some thirty to 
fifty Bugis, who, coming from Singapore, may proceed 
at once to Sadong, or, rather, tihe campong Tangi. 
Seriff Sahib is a great freebooter, and dispatches his 
retainers to i^ttack the weak tribes here for the sake of 
the slaves, calculating, on the rajah's presumed weak- 
ness, that he can do so with impunity. He may find 
himself mistaken. 

** Seriff Muller is a brother of Seriff Sahib, and lives 
at Sakarran, which powerful Dyak tribe are always 
willing to be sent by either brother on a forage for heads 
and. slaves. It is certain, ];iowever, that they could never 
come from the Sadong side without Seriff Sahib's per- 
mission ; and on the late attack on Sanpro they were 
accompanied by ^ party of Malays. 

" Seiiff Jaffer is by no means mixed up with these 
brothers, and there is no love lost between them ; nor 
would he, I think, do anything to annoy me. This is 
the foreign policy. 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 167 

'* The domestic policy is as disturbed as the foi'eign. 
The rajah weak, Macota iotriguingf and my ministers — 
viz., the Patingi (Abong Mia), the Bandar, and Tuman- 
gong — all false and foolish, and Macota^s men ; with me, 
however, are the Siniawans. " - 

** Jan, 6th, — The Sambas brig returned, having been 
baffled and beat about, and nearly lost at sea, unable to 
weather Tanjong Datu. The crew say she was one 
hour under water, ^e now' remains here to wait the 
change of the monsoon, and her intriguing Pangerons 
return by land. 

** Sth, — Seriff Hussein returned from Sambas, having 
been nearly stabbed while there. The assassins^ it was 
understood, were here, and I endeavored to apprehend 
them ; but, having heard of the serifTs arrival, they 
made off. 

** 10^. — This day the first laws and regulations are to 
be promulgated in Sar&wak ; and as the event is a rare 
one, I here inscribe a copy for the benefit of future le- 
gislators, observing that there is an absolute necessity 
for mildness and patience, and that an opposite course 
would raise such a host of enemies as to crush every 
good seed ; for, as it is, the gentlest course' of justice 
brings down much odium, and arouses intense dislike 
among a people who have had no law but their own vile 
intrigues to guide or control them. 

**■ Two cases have lately come to notice, which will 
serve as examples of their singular crimes. 

** One poor man owed another sixteen reals, iand the 
debtor was away trading for a few days, wl^en the cred- 
itor sold the daughter (a free woman) for thirty reals, 
to a person of influence. 

** The second case, a respectable man, or a respect- 
ably born man, owed a Pangeran fifty peculs of ore, 
and proposed to make over to him in payment, a slave 
woman and her four children. The woman had been a 
slave of his grandfather's, but was adopted as his daugh- 
ter, and enfranchised publicly; yet by mtmiidatioD, 
they were near getting her and her offspring. Here 
the Pangerans and Nakodas bully a man into silence 
and acquiescence ; and the people dare not, as yet, 
bring their complaints to me. But I hear these tliiSbgs, 



168 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

call the parties together, and often prevent the commia- 
sion of a premeditated crime ; by which means I save 
myself from the odium of punishing. 

** There is great difficulty in acting at once with 
temper «nd firmness, so as to appeiir the benefiictor 
rather than the tyrant. It . is, indeed, an arduous and 
troublesome task ; but J Qivnk I siee a ray of light to en- 
courage me. ^ 

^* I&re are the regulations, which I had priu^e^ at 
Singapore in the Malayan language : — 

" * James Brooke, esquire, governor (rajaM of the 
country of Sar&wak, makes known to all men the IbUow- 
ing regulations : — 

** * 1st. That murder, robbery, and. other heinous 
crimes will be punished according to the ondong-ondong 
(i.e. the written law of Borneo) ; and no person com>- 
mitting such offences will escape, if, after fiur inqniiy, 
he be proved guilty. 

** * 2d. In order to insure the good of the conntiy, all 
men, whether Malays, Chinese, or Dyaks, are pemutted 
to trade or labor according to their pleasure, andto-enjoy 
their gains. 

** *• 3d. All roads will be open, that the inhabitants at 
large may seek profit both by sea or by land ;' and aU boats 
coming from others are free to enter the -river and de- 
part, without let or hinderance. 

** * 4th. Trade, in aU its branches, will be free, ivith 
the exception of antimony ore, which the>eovem6r holds 
in his own hands, but which no person is forced to work, 
and which will be paid for at a proper price when ob- 
tained. The people are encouraged to trade and labor, 
and to enjoy the profits which are to be made by fair and 
honest dealing. 

^^ ^ 5th. It is ordered that no person going among the 
Dyaks shall disturb them, qr gain their goods under fiilse 
pretences. It must be clearly expkuned to the different 
Dyak tribes, that, the revenue will be collected by the 
three Datus, bearing the seal of the governor; anq (ex* 
cept this yearly demand from the government) they ar^ 
to give nothing to any person; nor are they obUge4 
to sell their goods except they please and at tiieir own 
prices. 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 1^ 

" * 6th. The governor will.diortly inquire into the rev- 
enue, and fix it at a proper i^te ; so that eve^ one may 
know certainly how much he has to contribute yearly to 
support the government. 

** * 7th. It will be necessary, likewise, to settle the 
weights, measures, and money current in the country, 
and to introduce doits, that the poor niay purchase food 
cheaply. 

*^ *' 8th. The governor issues these commands, and will 
enforce obedience to them; and while he gives all pro- 
tection and assistance to the persons who act rightly, he 
will not fail to punish those who seek to disturb the pub- 
lip peace or commit crimes; and he warns all such 
persons to seek their safety, and find some other country 
where they may be permitted to break the laws of 
God and man.' - 

** Jan. 11^.— I have frequently said that all law and 
custom have been long banished from this country ; but 
I may here retire t£e customs which once obtained, 
the best of which I wish to restore. 

** The inhabitants were all considered the property of 
the sultan — serfs rather than slaves — and were divided 
into four classes. Imprimis, the Dyaks (the aborigines) ; 
the Bruni, or people of the soil, probably the descend* 
ants of the first Malay Emigrants ; the Awang-Awang, 
the meaning of which I am ignorant of; and .the, Ham£i 
Rajah, or rajah^s slavey. There is every reason to be- 
lieve the Dyaks are an aboriginal people ; but between 
the Bruni and Awang-Awang it is difi&cult to decide the 
priority. The Hamba Rajah speaks for itself. 

** These three distinctions have been long confounded 
by intermarriage ; and the names rather than the reality 
are retained. The governors of the country are the 
Patingi, a Bandar, ana a Tumangpng, who are appointed 
from Borneo. Each of the classes was formerly ruled 
by its particular officer, and the Dyaks were appropria- 
ted likewise among them ; the Patingi holding the tribes 
on the light-hand river, the Bandar to the left, and 
the Tumangong on the sea-coast. > The annual revenue 
paid to Borneo was 300 reals ; but they were subject to 
extra demands, and to the extortions of the powerful 
chiefis. r 

P 



170 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

" The government of the Dyaks I have already de- 
tailed ; and though we might hope that in vl more settled 
^ate of things they would have been more secure from 
foreign pillage, yet they were annually deprived of the 
proceeds of their labor, debarred from trade, aiid de- 
prived of eveYy motive to encourage industry. The 
character of their rulers for humanity alone fixed the 
measure of their suffering, and bad was the best ; but 
it seems to bb a maxim among all classes of Malays, 
that force alone can keep the Dyaks in proper sub- 
jection ; which is so far true, that force alone, and the 
hopelessness of resistance, could induce a wild people to 
part with the food on which they depend for subsistence. 
At a distance I have heard of aild pitied the sufferings 
of the negroes and the races of New Holland — yet 
it was the cold feeling dictated by reason and humanity; 
but now, having witnessed the miseries of a race supe- 
rior to either, the feeling glows with the fervor of per- 
sonal commiseration : so true is it that visible misery %viil 
raise us to exertion, which the picture, however power- 
fully delineated, can never produce. The thousands daily 
knelled out of the world, who lie in gorgeous sepulchres, 
or rot unburied on the surface of the earth, excite no 
emotion compared to that conjured up by the meanest 
dead at our feet. We read of tens of thousands killed 
ancL wounded in battle, and the glory of their deeds, or 
the sense of their defeat attracts our sympathy ; but if 
a single mangled warrior, ghastly with wounds and 
writhing with pain, solicited our aid, we should deplore 
his fate with tenfold emotion, aiid curse the strife which 
led to such a result. Among tlie thousands starving for 
want of food we trouble not ourselves to seek one ; but 
if the object is presented before our eyes, how certain a 
compassion is aroused ! To assist is a duty ; but in the 
performance of this duty, to be gentle and feeling is god- 
like; and probably between individuals, there is no 
greater distinction than in this tender sympathy toward 
distress. Poor, poor Dyaks! exposed to starvation, 
slavery, death ! you may well nuse the warmest feelings 
of compassion — enthusiasm awakes at witnesisiog your 
sufferings! To save men frt)m death has its merit; but 
to alleviate suffering, to ameliorate all the ills of skveiy, 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 171 

to protect these tribes from pillage and yearly scarcity, 
is far nobler ; and if, in th6 endeavor to do so, one poor 
life is sacrificed, how little is it in the vast amount of 
human existence! 

*^lhth. — A Chinese boat with four men was chased 
into the river by four T>yak prahus, and escaped vrith 
difficulty. On the inteUigence reaching me, I, with 
some trouble, mustered three canoes, and we proceeded 
down, about one o'clock in the moraing, in search of 
the enemy. After rowing in the dark for some hours, 
we discovered a light gliding up the river, an^ gave 
chase, but did not succeed ; and at daybreak returned, 
wet and tired, without seeing anything more, when we 
learnt that the ^hase was a Sarawak boat, which, mis- 
taking us for Dyaks, as we did them, pulled with all> 
speed home, and gave the alarm of being nearly captured. 

** In the evening I ordered a fine boat to be prepared 
for the war with Sarebus aud Sakarran, which appears 
to me inevitable ; as it is impossible, laying all motives 
of humanity aside, to allow these piratical tribes td con- 
tinue their depredations, which are inconsistent with 
safety, and a bar to all trade along the coast. Eighty 
pn^ius of Sarebus and Sakarran are reported to be 
ready, and waiting for further reinforcements beifore 
putting to sea. 

** 19^. — Information of three more of my Dyaks 
being cut off in the interior by the predatory tribes. 

**■ 20th. — Opened the subject of restoring the old Pa- 
tingi. Bandar, and Tumangong, and found Muda Has- 
sim quite willing, but wishing to wait till he hears from 
Borneo ; at the same time telling me that I might em- 
ploy them in their respective situations. This matter I 
consider, therefore, settled ; and as these men $ure na- 
tives, and have the command of all the common people, 
and are, moreover, willing to serve under me, I con- 
ceive it a great advance in my government. Since my 
return here diey have proved themselves faithful and 
ready ; but though true in adversity, will they continue 
equally so in prosperity ? I hope the best from them, 
especially as theii^ circumstances will be easy ; and- 1 
will endeavor to pay them as mdch as I can. Pay well, 
and men may be trusted. Either way, it is a great' 



172 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

advaiice ; for every change wtQ Dot occur immediately ; 
and, in the mean time, I shall be streogthened by in- 
comerSf especially Chinese, so that the parties may be 
balanced, and each look to me as the link which hokk 
them together. The government must be a patchwork 
between good and evil, abolishing only so much of the 
latter as is consistent with safety. But never must I 
appear in the light of a reformer, political or religious; 
for to the introduction af new customs, apparently trivial, 
and the institution of new forms, however beneficial, 
the disgust of the semi-barbarous races mqy be traced. 
People settled like myself too often try to create.-a Uto- 
pia, i^nd end with a general confusion. The feeling of 
the native which binds him to his chief is destroyed, 
and no other principle is substituted in its dtead ; and as 
the human mind more easily learns ill than good, they 
pick up the vicei^ of their governors without their vir- 
tues, and their own good qu^dities disappear, .the bad of 
both races remaining without the good of eidier. 

** We are in active preparation to fit out a fleet to 
meet the piratical Dyaks. The rajah has a fine prahu, 
which I have taken in hand to repair, and I have pur- 
chased a second ; and the ttvo, with three or four small 
canoes, will be able to cope with a hundred or a hundred 
and fifty Dyak boats. The largest of these boats is worth 
a description. Fifty-six feet in length and eight in 
breadth ; built with a great sheer, so as to raise the bow 
and stern out of the water, and pulling thirty paddles, 
she is a dangerous customer when mounting four swivels 
and carrying a crew of twenty men. with small arms. 
She is called the * Snake,' or * Ular.' The second boat, 
somewhat shorter and less fast, is named the * Dragon ;* 
her complement of paddles twenty, and her fighting- 
men twenty, make one hundred and forty in. two boats. 
The long canoes carry fifteen men each* which will 
bring the force up to one hundred and eighty-five ; and 
one boat of the rajah^s will complete two hundred men, 
of whom nearly one hundred are armed with muskets. 

'* To show t^e system of these people, I may men- 
tion that one of the principal men proposed to me to 
send to Sakarran and Sarebus, and intimate that I was 
about to attack Siquong (a large interior tribe), and in- 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO^ 178 

vite them to assist. *■ They wiU^ all come,* he said : *■ noth- 
ing they will like so weU; and when they are up the 
Samarahan river, we will sally fordi, attack; and destroy 
them at one bk>w.* My answer was, that I could not 
deceive ; but if they did come, I would attack them. . 

** Feb, UL — Matari, or * the S^n,* the Sakarran chief 
I have aheady mentioned, arrived with two boats, and 
paid roe several visits. He assured me he wanted to 
enter into an agreement, to the effect that neither should 
injure the other. To this treaty I was obliged to add 
the stipulation, that he was neither to pirate by sea i^r 
by land, and not to go, under any priBtence, into the in- 
terior of the country. His shrewdness and cunning 
were remarkably displayed. He began by inquiring, if 
a tribe, either Sakarran or Sarebus, pirated on ray ter- 
ritory, what I intended to do. My answer was, * To 
enter their country and lay it waste.* Bnt he asked me 
again, * You will give me, your friepd, leave to ste^ a 
few heads occasionally?' *No,' I replied, * you cannot 
take a single head ; you cannot 'enter the country : and 
if you or your countrymen do^ I will have a hundred 
Sakarran heads for every one you take here.* He re- 
curred to this request several times : * just to steal one 
or two !* as a schoolboy would ask for apples. There is 
DO doubt that the two tribes of Sakarran and Sarebus 
are greatly addicted to head-hunting, and consider the 
possession as indispensable. The more a ma^ has; the 
greater his honor and rank ; nor is there anything with- 
out to check or ameliorate this barbarous habit ; for the 
Malays of all classes, on this coast, take the same pride 
in heads as the Dyaks themselves^ with the exception 
that they do not place them in their houses, or attach 
any superstitious ideas to them. 

*^ I asked Matari what was the solemn form of agree- 
ment among his tribes ; and he assured me the most 
solemn was drinking each other's blood, in which case it 
was considered they were brothers ; but pledging the 
blood of fowls was another and less solemn form. " 

*^ On the 2€th of January the Royalist's boat, with 
Captain Hart and Mr. Penfold, second mate, of the 
Viscount Melbourne, arrived here. The reason, it ap- 
pears, of the Royalist coming was, to seek &e missing 

p2 



174 eJlpgdition to Borneo. 

crew of the Viscount Melbourne, a large ship wrecked 
on the Luconia shoal. The captain in tha launch, with 
some Coolies ; the first and third mates, with Colonel 
Campbell of the 37th, M.N.I., in a cutter ; the second 
mate, Mr. Penfold, and the surgeon, in the second cut- 
ter; a fourth boat with twenty-five Lascars, and the 
jolly-boat, making in all five boats, left the vessel well 
provisioned, and steered in company for the coast, which 
they made somewhere between Borneo and Tanjoog 
Barram. The fourth boat was missed the night they 
made the land ; and being all at anchor, and the weather 
fine, it was strongly suspected that the twenty-five Las- 
cars deserted with her. 

** The other four boats proceeded a day or two, when 
the first cutter, with Colonel Campbell on boerdf went 
in the evening in search of water ; and thoi^ the rest 
showed lights all night, returned no more. They were, 
on the following day, attacked by a praho, which fired 
into them and severely wounded one man, and succeeded 
in capturing the jolly-boat ; but finding nothing in her» 
set her on fire — Lascars and all. The crew, however, 
was rescued, and she was abandoned ; and the two re- 
maining boats, in course of time, arrived' at Singapore. 
The Koyalist was taken up by government to seek the 
missing boats, and just touched here for an hour or two, 
the boat coming up while the vessel kept the sea. 

" Feb, 9th — Mr. Williamson returned from Sanpro, 
where I sent him to watch a party of natives who nad 
gone among the Dyaks ; the Panglima Sadome,- of the 
tribe of Sanpro, came with him, and broo^t the la- 
mentable account of the death of eight more Dyaks, eat 
off by the Sakarrans. It frets me dreadfully ; however, 
on the whole I see a vast improvement, and a degree of 
confidence in me arising among the Dyaks, greater than 
I expected. 

** I4th, — I have now entered on the most difiicalt 
task, and the one most likely to cause an ultimate failure 
in uiy undertaking, but which is indispensably necessary. 
1 mean, the administration of justice. As long as my 
laws are applied to the people of the country, there is 
no trouble ; but directly equal justice is administered, it 
causes heartburn and evasion ; the rajahs and Pango* 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 175 

rans are surrounded by a gang of followers who hereto- 
fore have robbed, plundered, and even juurdered, with- 
out inquhy being made. It was enough that a follower 
of the rajui was concerned, to hush up all wrongs ; and 
any of the oppressed, who were bold enough t6 lodge a 
complaint, were sure to rue it. All the rascals and ruf- 
fians who foUow the great men find this species of pro- 
tection die best lUid die only reward ; and as the slaves 
are looked upon as personal property, any punishment 
inflicted upon them is likewise inflicted upon their mas- 
ters. I have all along foreseen these obstacles, and the 
necessity of at once combating them — whether success- 
fully or not signifies little ; but they must be encountered, 
and the result left to the Almighty. 

** £qual justice is the groundwork of society ; and 
imless it can be administered, there can be no hope of 
ultimate improvement. The country may have bad 
laws ; but such laws as it has must be enforced, gently 
and mildly as may be toward the superiors, but strictly 
towaiHl the guilty; and all crimes coming under my 
cognizance must meet with their punishment. These 
remarks are preliminary to two cases, in which the 
rajah^s followers have been concerned. 

** The first of these was a man stealing sago, which 
is stored without the houses at the water's edge ; he 
was convicted. The other occurred some time since, 
but has only just been traced. A party at night gutted 
a house, getting a booty of upward a£ 20O reals ; the 
goods have been discovered ; but the three foUowers of 
the rajah have absconded since tiie affair has been 
blown ; whether to return or not is uncertain. Tjiere 
can be no doubt, however, that they have been sent 
away to keep clear of the consequences, by one of the 
rajah's brothers named Abdul Khadir, who, when they 
were off, accused two accomplices, people of the 
country ! 

^* Another nuMt shameful mode of exaction and tyr- 
anny is practiced by these Borneo people, particularly 
their Nakodas. It consists in lending small sums oi 
money to the natives (that is, Sarawak people), and de- 
manding interest at the rate of fifty per cent per month; 
by this means a small som is quickly eonverted into oao 



176 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

which is quite out of the power of the poor man to pay ; 
and he, his wife, and children, are taken to the faoitte 
of the creditor to work for him, while the debt still ac^ 
cumulates, and the labor is endless., I intend to strike 
at this slavery in disguise, but not just yet; the sup- 
pression of robbery, the criminal department of juiAice, 
being more immediately important. 

^^* 15th, — I may, in continuation of yesterday, mentum 
another instance in illustration of this oppressive syatoni. 
Si Pata (a Siniawan), son of the Tumangimg, lost in 
gambling to Nakoda Ursat eighteen reals, which in 
eighteen months has now arisen to a debt of 170 reals; 
but all prospect of payment of such an accumulated, stun 
being impossible from a po(^ man, Nakoda Uraat con- 
signs the debt to Pangeran Abdul Khadir,.who can de- 
mand it by fair means or by foul; and if Si Pata cannot 
pay, make his father pay: Thus a gambling transaction 
is run up to ten times its original amount^ and a whole 
family involved in distress by the§e iniquitous proceed- 
ings. Such things must- not be; and odious as they 
seem to a European, and indignant as they make him, 
yet he must not proceed with the strong -hand. Re- 
i^ection, too, teaches us that vice is comparative; and in 
forming a judgment, we must not forget a man's educa- 
tion, the society in which he lives, 3ie absence of re- 
straint, and the force of exaniple from childhood ; so 
that what would be heinous in a Christian long under a 
settled government, is light by comparison in a Malay, 
who is a nominal professor of Islami, and brought up with 
the idea that might makes right, and has no one external 
cause to deter him from crime. 

^^ March I2th, — On the whole getting on very well, 
but with many reasons^for vexation,' and more for anxi- 
ety. The chief of these is, whether Mr. Bonham will 
come here, as I have suggested, or ratlier pressed. 
Another feature of inquietude is from the Chinese of 
Sipang, who certainly aim at greater power than I shall 
allow them, and perhaps, some day or other, it will come 
to a struggle, 

" Petty troubles I do not reckon, though there are 
enow on all sides, and for the last few days I have felt 
as if sinking under them ; but that is not my usual torn- 



AfEDITION to BORNEO. 177 

perament. I now look impatiently-^ for intelligence. 
Blow, fair breezes, and waft Royalist here ! 

** 25th» — A period of wearing uncertainty since my 
last, having news neither of the Koyalist nbr of Mr. 
Bonham, and kept on the qui vive by a schooner or two 
at the entrance of the river. The plot thickens in and 
ai'ound ; and for the sake of keeping up a register of 
events in son^etiiing Hke order, I will here mention the 
leading features. Seriff Sahib, of Sadong, pretends to 
be friendly, but is treacherous in his heart, as is his 
brother, Seriff Muller of Sak^rran. We have been 
quite clear of Dyaks, and our own. tribes enjoying rest 
and peace ; and one tribe from without, namely Serang, 
has come in and claimed ray protection. The only 
tribe at all troublesbme is the Singe, the chieif of which 
(the Orang Kaya Parembam) is decidedly opposed to 
me, and swears by Macota. I am given to believe, 
however, that the majority of his people do not agree 
with him ; and I shall dispossess him of his dignity, and 
substitute a friendly chief. The Singd Dyaks are the 
most powerful and numerous in my territory, and the 
only ones who have not been attacked and plundered by 
the Sakarrans. 

**At Lundu are the Sibnowan Dyaks, under the 
Orang Kaya Tumangong ; and the Lundu Dyaks, once 
a flourishing tribe, now, by ill-treatment of all sorts, 
reduced to twenty persons. I may mention among my 
other difficulties, that many, nay most, of the Dyak tribes 
are held as private property : any rascally Borneon mak- 
ing a present to the sultan, gets a grant of a Dyak tribe, 
originally to rule, now to plunder or sell ; and in this 
way the portion of the Sibnowans settled at Lundu are 
under Bandar Sumsu ; but, being a resolute people, he 
cannot do them much wrong. This Bandar Sumsu has 
lately been disturbing the Lundu Dyaks in the follow- 
ing manner : a Sibnowan Dyak lived widi the Lundu 
Dyaks, which gave him an opening to demand of the 
Lundus the sum of fifty reals (100 rupees), which was 
paid; but unluckily the Sibnowan died in the course 
of a few months, still with the Lundus, and a farther 
sum of eighty reals, or 160 rupees, was demandedi 
which not being raised, tho daughter of one of the 
12 



178 EXFCDinoN TO BonrEOk 



head pec^ple was seized, and wM far that sain to a 

Chinamaii ! 

** PaDgeran Macota has Ekewise been iajanttf tbescr 
poor people^ thoogh I shall find it diffieok to bfing- it 
home to him. FSs agent. Bandar Downd (a man m- 
Tolved in debt), took fineen Djak ekidia and said Atem, 
or rather forced them to take them, at an exorhitoBt 
rate ; in a month or two after, he retmms and demands 
200 reals oyer and abore the large price idreadjpud 
for articles wor^ seren or ei^t reab ; tfie poor Dyaks 
not being aUe to pay, he seizes the chieTs danghtor (• 
married woman), and demands fonf ether women id 
lien of the sam. Happihr for the poor Dyaka* tiilb 
news came to mj ears, and I sent to Landa in haste. 
They had all fled, having 5^a^en their two wonieo, one 
from each Bandar,, and carried them awayir On> the 
Patingi and Tvmangong reaching L»ondu, they foand 
two of the tribe, one the Pangeran^ the other the father 
of the girl sold to the dunanHui, af^r a long search in 
Ihe jungle. These two men I hare now with me, and 
wait for the Orang Kaya Tumangpng before going inta 
the case. The Pangeran is the same Dyak whose 
conyersation I have detailed at large on my first Tisit to 
the place. He is a man of inteO^nce; and this tribe 
(if it may yet be so called) has always heme the 
character of being the most hospitable and generons 
among the Dyaks. I may at some fiitnre time rerert to 
them. 

** There is a mmor of war between the Sarebns and 
Sakarran Dyaks, in consequence ef the former tribe 
seizing a Balow woman on the territory of the latter, 
and refusing to restore her. Let these two predatory 
tribes employ and weaken one another, and it will be 
well for ns and all the other people of this country, and 
they will afterward be the more easily bron^t into sub- 
jection. 

'-^From Borneo we hare news, but as uncertain as 
everything else regarAng the Capital. A hundred yes- 
sels, it is reported, are coming to attack them; and 
they, in consequence, are building aJbrU The Royalist 
had been there and departed. 

** Pangeran Usop, it is said, was about to eome here. 



EXPBDITI09 TO BOBIVEO« 179 

when the arrival of fiie Royalist mdnced bim to post- 
pone his design. 

"There is every reason to believe that the Chinese 
of Sambas, particularly those of Montrado, are extremely 
dissatisfied ; and a report yesterday states that a man 
sent by the sultan to demand gold had be^n kUled by 
them, and that the sultan's letter to the Kunsi, after 
being defHed, was publicly burned. Our oif^ Chinese 
of Sipang are certainly intriguing witli Sambas; and, as 
the rajah weH expresses it, Hheir clothes-box is here, 
but their treasure-chest is at Sambas.' 

" It is impossible to say what qfuantity of gold the 
' Kunsi may get ; but their pretence that they get none 
must be false, when every common Malay obtains from 
half to one bunkal per month. 

** To counteract the chance of evil, I have intimated 
that the Simbock Kunsi are to come here ; and on the 
whole, they (of Sipang) have taken it more quietly than 
I expected. They are not in a state for war ;- but they 
have vague notions and intentions provided they can keep 
ont opposition, to make this place subservient to them, 
as it would indeed be, provided they were allowed to 
strengthen themselves while the other parties remained 
stationary. But * divide and rule' is a good motto in my 
case ; and the Chinese have overlooked the difference 
between this country and Sambas. There they have 
numerous rivers in the vicinity of their settlements — 
here but one ; and, the Dyak population being against 
them, starvation would soon reduce them to terms. The 
Royalist arrived about the end of March, and sailed 
again on the 9th April. 

*' I have before mentioned the difficulty of adminis- 
tering justice ; and experience teaches me that the risk 
to myself, on this score, is more to be apprehended than 
on any odier. The forms I have not much alluded to ; 
and the folk>wing is as nearly as possible the Malay cus- 
tom : — The rajah's brothers and myself sit at one end of 
the long room in my house ; at the siderare the Patin- 
gis and Tumangong, and other respectable people; in 
die center the parties concerned ; and, behind them, any-s 
body who wishes to be present We hear both par- 
ties ; questioof if necOssary ; and decide — and from this 



180 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

decision there is no appeal. One only condition I in* 
sist upon ; and that is, that in any intricate case, or 
whenever I dread confederacy, I do not allow the wit- 
nesses to hear each other. The laws of evidence, in a 
Jrtt country^ prohibit any leading questioiis. being put to 
witnesses : here, for the purposes of justice, it is indis- 
pensable ; for the people, being ruled by fear, and ap- 
prehensive of consequences, often falter before the fiice 
of the accused, and their testimony has to be wrong firom 
them. To decide also according to the technicalities of 
construction would be here ridiculous, and defeat the 
ends of justice. The people are rude and uncivilized; 
their oppressors. crafty and bold, who have no hesitation 
about lying, and biinging others to lie for th^m. Oaths 
are a farce to them. The aggrieved are timid, vacilla- 
ting, and simple, and cannot readily procure even ne- 
cessary evidence ; for their witnesses are afraid to speak. 
Under these circumstances, I look at the leading fea^ 
tures of the case, the probability, the characters, the 
position of parties, and determine according to my judg- 
ment. It is not, indeed, a very difficult task ; for the 
disputes are generally glaring, and, when bolstered up, 
usually fail in their most important links; and at a 
touch of cross-questioning, the witnesses, resolved to 
tell the same story, fall into opposite ones. In one case, 
about a slave, three witnesses had resolved on the sex ; 
but, questioned separately as to size and age, all disa- 
greed. They were not prepared. One represented 
her a woman grown and marriageable ; another, as hi^ 
as my walking-stick ; the third, a little child. 

'''• 1 have now on hand a serious matter, of robbery to 
a large extent, and three of the rajah*8 followers are 
implicated. Would it were over and well! — but done 
it must be. How little can those at a distance know 
my difficulties — alone, unaided, the unceasing attention 
by day, the anxiety and sleeplessness by night, the 
mountain of doubt upon mountain piled, and the uncer- 
tainty of necessary support or assistance ! 

'* The Pangeran of the Lundu Dyaks lived with me 
tliree weeks, and I was able to do him substantial jus- 
tice ; and hope for the future that his life, and that of the 
remnant of his tribe, may be rendered more endurable. 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 161 

"His residence with tne was doubly advantageous, 
as it enabled me to ascertain his character, and him to 
see something of our habits and manners. The impres- 
sion on my part was highly favorable ; for I found him 
a quiet, intelligent man, and a keen observer ; and I 
believe the impression he received was equally favora- 
ble. The poetry of the Dyak expressions is ren^rk- 
able ; and, like most wild people, they seem to delight 
in oi-atory, and to be a good deal swayed by it. For 
hours \ have 'talked with the Pangeran, listened to his 
history, heard his complaints, sympathized in the mis- 
fortunes of his tribe, and shuddered at the wrongs and 
sufferings they have endured. * We are few,* he ex- 
claimed, ' and therefore our oppressions are aggravated ; 
the sam^ demands are ipade upon us as though we 
were many, and we have not the means of resisting or 
complying. We fly tb the jungle ; we are like deer — 
we have no home, no perch. Our wives and children 
ar6 taken firora us ; our sufferings are very great.' On 
another occasion he said, *I have felt my sufferings to 
be so great, that I wished to die, if Jovata would permit 
it. ' '~\ wished to die ; for I remembered how happy we 
were once, and how miserable now.' I could dwell 
largely on these and suchlike language and descrip- 
tions, which appear to me highly pathetic and touching 
— at least I found them so in reality; and I cannot 
forbear adding one Or two more such, highly charac- 
teristic' 

*^* Our home,' said the Pangeran, * was a happy one; 
none who come to us wanted. The fruit on the trees 
was saved ; tl>e fish in the river near us was never de- 
stroyed. Rice was plenty ; ' if it was scarce, we kept it, 
and fed ourselves upon vegetables, that we might give it 
to those who' visited our habitation. The fish, the fruit, 
and the rice were preserved,* that the men of the seas 
(Malays) might eat of them ; yet they had no pity on 
us. We were free men, yet they treated us worse than 
slaves. We are now but few ; and unless you protect 
us, we shall soon cease to be.' Again : * Tne Tuman- 

* This I found on inquiry, to be strictly true — a most amiable 
trait !-^B. 

Q 



182 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

gong was severe to us ; and when Macota came, he said 
the TumangoDg was a bad man, and he would shield 
us; but he was much worse than the Tnmangong. 
Now, you say you will cherish us ; we believe you ; 
but you are at a distance, and perhaps may not be able.' 
Further : * Pangeran Macota kept me nine months in 
his house, and wanted to make me a slave ; but I es- 
caped, and traveled through the woods, and swam the 
rivers, till I came to my own country. He thou^t the 
Dyak had no eyes except in the jungle ; hethoughthe had 
no ears- except to listen to the bird of omen ; he thought 
he had no wit except to grow rice ; but the Dyak saw, 
and heard, and understood, that while his words were 
sweet, his heart was crooked, and that, whether they 
were men of the sea or Dyaks, he deceived them wim 
fair sayings ; he said one thing to one man, and another 
to a second ; he deceived with a honied mouth. I Raw 
and understood it all while I lived .in his house. How 
could I trust him afterward ?' These expressions were 
concluded by significantly twisting his two fore-fingers 
round each other,' to show the intrigues tha^ were car- 
ried on. I grew very fond of this poor naked savage ; 
for if honesty and a kind heart entitle a man to our 
esteem, he is worthy of it. 

** I had a long conference with Si Nimook, the Sow 
Dyak, and hope to recover his wife. Amid a]} the 
wealth and all the charity of England, how well be- 
stowed would a small portion be for the purpose of re- 
storing one hundred and fifty women and children to 
their husbands and parents, and releasing them from 
slavery ! A small rill Irom the plenteous river would 
cheer this distant misery, and bestow the blessing of 
fertility on the now barren soil of these poor Dyaks. 
Oh, that I had the brass to beg — ^to draw dut a piteous 
tale so as to touch the heart T' 



EXPEDITION TO BORVEO. 18S 



CHAPTER Xni. 

kactmt of tlM leii>hand rivQr to the Stabad. — Renarkable caya 
in tke Tubbang. — Dianiond works at Suntah. — Return. — In- 
fested by Dyak pirates. — A, meeting of prahus, and light — Se- 
riff Sahib's treatment of the S^untah Dyaks. — Expedition 
against the Sing^. — Their invasion of the Sigos, ana taking 
headt.^— The triumph over these trophies.^Arms and modes 
of war. — Hot and cold council-houses. — Ceremonies in the 
installation of the Orang Kaya Steer R^jsh. — Meetijig of 
various Dyak tribes. — Hostile plans of- Serin Sahib, and their 
issue. — Resolves to proceed to Borneo Proper. 

The next portion of Mr. Brooke's Joonial detaila 
another excursion up the country, and then proceeds 
to describe the early incidents of his infant government. 
As \ke advanced on his way, affairs began to assume mora 
important aspects ; and yet they could hardly be painted 
with greater force or interest than in his simple notes. 

** April 25th, — Ascended the left-hand river, in order 
to introduce the Kunsi Simbock to their new territory ; 
passed the night on a pebbly bank ; moon at full, brighk 
and unclouded, tinging the luxuriant foliage, and glan- 
cing on the clear rapid stream. Four distinct and dis-i 
tant races met on this lonely and lovely spot — English, 
Chinese, Malays, and Dyaks ! What a scope for 
poetry and reflection — ^the time, the clime, the spot* 
and the company ! 

*' 26^. — After our morning meal and bath, entered 
the small river Stabad, which, according to report, rum 
from a source two or three days' journey further into 
the interior. At present Kt is. so obstructed by fallen 
trees, that we were forced to return, after ascending 
about four miles. We left our boats near its entrance, 
and walked to the small but steep mountiun, Tubbang. 
Its length may be about 400 feet. After mounting, hj 
a winding path, about half-way up toward the top, we 
arrived at the entrance of a cave, into which we de- 
scended through a hole. It is fifty or sixty feet long, 
and the far end if supported on a colonnade of stalae- 
tites, and opens on a sheer precipice of 100 or 150 feet. 
Hence the spectator can overlook the distant scene; 
the forest lies at his feet, and only a few trees growiag 



184 EXPEDrriox to Borneo. 

from the rock reach oearly to the lerel tii the grotto. 
The effect is striking and paDonunic ; the grotto cheer- 
ful ; floored with fioe sand ; the roof groined like Gothic, 
whence the few clear drops which filter tfarough form 
here and there the fantastic stalactites commob to such 
k)calities. The natives report the care to be the resi- 
dence of a &iry queen ; and they show her bed, piDow, 
and other of her household furniture. Within the cave 
we found a few remnants of human bones; probeUy 
some poor Dyak who had crawled there to die. 

** Having finished our survey of the place, and wan- 
dered sufficiently about the mount, we re^mbarked, 
and dropped a short way down the river, and started 
again into t^e jun^e to look for antimony ore, but 
without success, our guide having forgotten the road. 
After a couple of hours* wandering, the latter put in a 
heavy storm of rain, we reach^ the boats; and I 
thence ascended to Suntah, where we were all ^ad to 
house ourselves, as the deluge continued. 

** 27tk. — I will say nothing of my works at Snntah, 
except that they run away with my money, are badly 
conducted by my Chinese hadji, and, above all, that I 
have great reason to suspect the integrity and steadi- 
ness of this said hadji. I must therefore make up my 
mind either to change him when the business is finished, 
or to watch him very narrowly ; for the honesty of a 
diamond-worker, like the virtue of Caesar's wife, must 
be above suspicion, or he must be watched closel|y; 
but how ? 

** 28th — ^Descended the river, and, arriving at Sarft- 
wak, found both work and cause for inquietude. The 
rajah had heard of Dyak pirates, and dispatched four 
boats, two large and two small: the Snake, wea^y 
manned by the Tumangong's people, and the rest led 
by Pangerans (who neither work nor fight) and a 
wretched crew, chiefly Borneons. Mr. Crimole, tak- 
ing my servant Peter and four Javanese, went most 
imprudently in the second of the large boats. The 
whole, being dispatched in haste (foolish haste), insuf- 
ficiently provided in every respect, may fall into trouUe, 
and involve me in very unpleasant circumstances. 

** The other cause for uneasiness is the attack of a 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 185 

Chinese boat at the mouth of the river. The boat that 
attacked her is a small ooe, with eight or ten men, 
which came out of Sadong, and had been lying here for 
a week or more. She is commanded by a Pangeran 
named Badrudeen, has some lUanuns on board, and is 
bound on a piratical cruise. As she descended the 
river, she met with the small China boat, likewise froip 
Sambas, with eight men, which she treacherously as- 
sailed, desperately wounding one man ' and severely 
another ; but the China boat^s consort heaving in sight, 
the pirate pulled away. I must redress this, if it be in 
my power ; and have ordered the Datus to gather men 
to follaw the rascals, as it is probable they will be lurk- 
ing not far from hence. In the mean time it gave me 
great pain dressing the hurts of these poor Chinese, 
one of whom I think mjist die, being cut along the back 
and side — across the body from the side nearly to the 
backbone, a ghastly gaping wound, beside having his 
arm slashed through. The other man is very severely, 
and perhaps, without medical attendance, mortally, 
hurt, having his arm half cut through at the muscular 
development between the shoulder and elbow-^poor 
fellow ! I must say for the Chinese, they seem very 
grateful for any attention shown them. 

" 29/A. — My birtl;iday. Men coUected, and to-morrow 
we start for Telang Telang, This moming, much to 
my relief, our fleet returned, after an encounter with 
thirteen Dyak boats. About one o'clock on the 28th, 
puUing into a bay between Morotaba and Tanjong Poe, 
they came unexpectedly on them. One Borneon boat 
had lagged behind ; the Pangeran who commanded de- 
serted the second, and sought refuge with thd Tuman- 
gong, trying to induce him to fly ; and the crew of the 
third, a large boat with my two Europeans on board, 
was, by their account, in a state of fear, which totally 
incapacitated them from acting. All rose, none would 
pull ; all shouted, none would serve the guns ; all com- 
manded, none obeyed ; most were screaming out to run ; 
all bellowing out, in hopes of fiightening the enemy ; 
none to direct the helm. The Tumangong, with only 
seventeen men in all, insisted oa advance ; and the Bor- 
neons, encouraged by threats from the Europeans, and 

q2 



186 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO, 

the good example of the Javanese, did not fly. The 
two boats opened their fire; the Dyakfi retreated Id 
confusion and alarm : but from the tumult, the noise» 
and the rocking of the boat, Mr. Crimble could only fire 
three times with the bow six-pounder carronade, and 
from other guns loaded with grape and canister, while 
the rascally Boriraons never fired at all. .The Dyak# 
suffered loss, and left behind them clothes, rice, fi^h, 
cooking-pots, swords, 6ce. ; and, considering the state of 
the Bprneons, it was lucky the dread, of our prowess .put 
them to flight so easily. Crimble assured me that, with 
a Siniawan crew, he could , have destroyed half their 
force. The Dyaks behaved very well, piilling off with 
great steadiness and without noise. 

^^June 2(kh. — The events of the month may be com- 
pressed into a narrative comprising the interne^ and ex- 
ternal. 

*^ The internal state of the country is decidedly im- 
proving and flourishing, and bears the aspect of ^nda- 
ally increasing prosperity. - Justice has been strictly 
administered. Robberies, wjiich a few months ago were 
of nightly occurrence, are now rarely heard of; and that 
vile intriguing to make poor people stares, from debt or 
false claims, is entirely stopped. 

** The people who had scattered at the close of the 
war have been collected, and are building their houses a 
short way up the river at the Campong Jekiso, which, 
when finished, will be a neat-looking village. 

*^The Pangeran Macota is intriguing; but as he is 
euro to do that, it need not be insisted upon. . ^ 

** Muda Hassim is true and agreeable, and entirely 
reconciled to the Patingi and Tumangongs; so far, 
indeed, nothing can be better than our internal state : 
there is peace, there is plenty ; the poor) are not harassed, 
and justice is done to all. 

" The Dyaks of the interior are improving and con- 
tent, and gaining courage daily to complain of any wrong 
that may be offered them. To the aena, or forced 
trade, I have almost put a stop, by confiscating the gooda 
wherever met with ; and this plan once acted on, the 
Dyaks have not been slow to bring me bundles of bidonga 
(Dyak cloths), iron, and the like. 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO, IBT 

^ The tribes that continue unsettled are t^e Suntah 
and Smgd : the affairs oi the latter I will ipention here- 
after. 

** Suntah has been for a long time nnder the govern- 
ment of Seriif Sahib of Sadong, and through his pcUer- 
nal charge has dwindled away frond four hundred to 
fifty or sixty families. Shortly after my assuming the 
reins, of government^ he dispatched (according to cus- 
tom) a mixed party of Malays and Dyaks, and falling on 
my helpless tribe of Sanpro, kiUed some, and carried 
away twenty women and children into captivity. I was 
not strong endogh to resent the injury ; but wrote him 
a strong letter, demanding the women, and telling him he 
was not to send, under any pretext, into my country. The 
women I did not get ; but I heard that the communica- 
tion frightened him : for, of course, they deem I am 
backed by all the power of my country. While the 
Royalist still lay here, I heard that his people were 
raising the revenue from the Suntah Dyaks; but it 
must be remarked, that the Suntah are on the edge of 
my territory, having left the former location. As this 
waa done in thb face of my caution not to intermeddle 
without my consent, I resolved at once to put the matter 
to the issue ; and having armed four boats, went up and 
seized aH the rice and padi collected for my neighbors* 
use. The Suntah Dyaks were and are alarmed to a 
pitiable degree ; for tiiey fear Seriff Sahib with good 
reason ; and yet my being on the spot gave them no op- 
tion of evading my demand. Thus the matter was 
brought to a crisis ; and having taken the revenue (as it 
was called) for the poor Dyaks themselves, I shall be 
able to keep them from starvation, to the verge of which, 
BO early in the season, they are already reduced. The 
Dyaks remain unsettled; but I ana noW in hopes of 
bringing them, to^e interior of the Quop, which is fur- 
ther within our own territory. Muda Hassim wrote to 
Seriff Sahib to tell him the Dyaks were no longer his, 
but mine; and Seriff Sahib, sore-hearted, conspb*ed 
against us, and held for some time a higher tone than 
his wont. 

** I shaU now narrate ray proceedings at the mountain 
of 9ing)^, fi«>m which I have just returned. The moun* 



188 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

tain, with its groves of fruit-trees, has been already de- 
scribed ; and as a preface to my present description, I 
must particularize the circumstances of the Dyak tribe 
of §ing^. The tribe consists of at least 800 males, the 
most ignorant, and therefore the most wild, of the Dyaks 
of my country ; and, from dieir position, they have never 
been overcome or ruined, and iEu-e therefore a rich com- 
munity, and proportionately independent. Their old 
chief is by name Parembam, and the Panglima, or head- 
warrior, his younger brother, by name Si, Tummo. 
These men have for a very long time ruled this tribe ; 
and the elder has certainly acquired from the Malays a 
portion of cunning and intrigue, and lost the general 
simplicity of the native Dyak character. Ha js unques- 
tionably a man of ability. His sway, however* on the 
mountain has for a long time been unpopular; and a 
large proportion of the people, dissatisfied with his ex- 
tortions, have been attached to a younger chief, by name 
Bibit. Some time past, finding it impossible to manage 
this old chief, Parembam, and being convinced that the 
change might readily he made, I called Bibit, and made 
him chief, or Orang Kaya of the tribe. Parembam nei- 
ther was nor is inclined to give up his authority without 
a struggle ; and though the mass adhere to the new 
chief, by title * Steer Rajah,^ yet Parembam's long- 
established customs, his gi*eat wealth,' and his taleiitSy 
render him a dangerous old man to the younger leader. 
One quality, however, Parembam is deficient in. as well 
as his brother the Panglima, and that is bravery ; and 
on this much depends in a Dyak tribe. Steer Rajah, 
on the contrary, has always been renowned in war, and 
is the envied possessor of many heads. The I>^aks 
have among them a fashion which they call bunkit, or 
vaunting ; for instance, in the present case Steer Rajah 
and Parembam dared each other to go on excursions to 
procure heads, i. e, against their enemies-^this is bun- 
kit. One of Steer Rajah's followers went accordingly, 
and quickly procured the head of a hostile warrior far 
out of my territory ; and on the return of the party, 
Parembam in turn sent forty men to Simpoke, which is 
a tribe attached to Samarahan, and on our immediate 
border. Close to the Dyaks of Simpoke live a party ai 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 180 

tbe Sigo Dyaks, who belong to me; and this party of 
Pareinbam's, confounding friends and enemies, killed 
some of the Sigo Djaks — how many is not certain. The 
Sigos, taking l£e alarm, cut off their retreat, and killed 
two of the Singe Dyaks ; and many beside were wound- 
ed by sudas and ranjows, and, all broken, fled back to 
their own country. Thus, though they obtained five 
heads, they lost two, and those belonging to their prin- 
cipal warriors. This news reaching me, I hurried up to 
the hill, and arrived just after part of the war-party had 
brought the. heads. 

** I may here remark, that I have positively forbidden 
the Dyak tribes within my teiTitory to war one upon 
the other; and this, therefor^, was a serious offence 
against me on the part of Parembam. At once to aim 
at more than this restriction would be fruitless, and even 
risk my ability to effect this first stop on the road to im- 
provement. I likewise came up here to go through the 
ceremony of installing the Orang Kaya Stoer Rajah in 
his office ; and thus I have had an excellent opportunity 
of seeing their customs and manners. What follows will 
be a personal narration, or nearly so, of what I have 
seen ; and it applies, with sUght difference, to almost all 
the intorior tribes. 

** On our ascending the mountain, we found the five 
heads carefuUy watohed, about half a mile from the 
town, in consequence of the non-arrival of spme of the 
war-party. They had erected a temporary shed close 
to the place where these miserable remnants of noisome 
mortality were depositod ; and they were guarded by 
about thirty young men in their finest dresses, cmnposed 
principally of scarlet jackets ornamented with shells, 
turbans of the native bark-cloth dyed bright yellow, and 
spread on the head, and decked with an occasional fea- 
ther, flower, or twig of leaves. Nothing can exceed 
their partiality for these trophies ; and in retiring from 
the * war-path,' the man who has been so fortunate as 
to obtain a head hangs it about his neck, and instantly 
commences his return to his tribe. If he sleep on the 
way, the precious burden, though decaying and ofien- 
sive, is not loosened, but rests on his lap, while his head 
(and nose !) reclines on his knees. The retreat is al- 



190 EXPEDiriON TO BOftNSO* 

ways silently made nntil close to home, when they set 
up a wild yell, which amiouoces their victory and the 
possession of its proofs. It must, therefore, be consid- 
ered, that these bloody trophies are the evidetices of 
victory— the banner of the European, the flesh-pot of 
the Turk, the scalp of the North American Indian — and 
that they are torn from enemies, for taking heads is the 
effect and not the cause of war. On our reaching liie 
Balei, or public hall, of the Orang Kaya Steer Rajah, I 
immediately called a number of their chiefs togethcTf 
and opened a conference with them on the subject of 
Parembam having attacked and killed the ' Dyaks of 
Sigo. They all disapproved of it most highly, asserting 
that the Sigos were their younger bromers; that no 
sufficient cause had ever existed ; that Parembam had 
acted badly, and must pay to purchase peace. Were 
they, I asked, willing to force Parembam into payment 7 
They were. Would they insist on the heads being re- 
stored to the Sigos, and receive those of their own 
people ? They would ! 

"It may be observed, that their causes for war, as 
well as its progress and termination, are exactly the same 
as those of other people. They dispute about the limits 
of their respective lands ; about theft committed by one 
tribe upon another ; about occasional murders ; the 
crossing each other on the war-path; and about a 
thousand other subjects. 

" When a tribe is on a warlike excursion, it often 
happens that their track (or ♦ trail') is crossed by another 
tribe. Those who strike the trail guard it at some con- 
venient spot, apprehending the party to be enemies.; 
they plant ranjows in the path, and wait till the retom- 
ing party are involved among them to make an attack. 
If enemies, and they succeed, all is well ; but if friends, 
though no attack be made, it is a serious offence, and 
mostly gives occasion to wai- if not paid for. The pro- 
gress of the contest consists in attacking each other by 
these surprises, particularly about the time of sowing, 
weeding, and cutting the rice-crops. When one party 
is weaker, or less active, or less warlike than the other, 
they solicit a peace through some tribe friendly to both« 
and pay for the lives they have taken : the price is about 



CXPEDinoK TO BOtTTEO. IM 

two goDgs, yalne 33| reals, for each life : thns peace itt 
concluded. This is the custom with these Dyaks uui- 
▼ersally; hut it is otherwise with the Sarebus and 
Sakerran. 3ut Sarebus and Sakarran are not fair 
examples of Dyak life, as they are pirates as well bb 
head-hunters, and do not hesitate to q^stroy all persons 
they meet with. " ' 

'* Parembam, haying b^en called before me, declared 
that these heads belonged to the Sirapoke Dyaks, and 
that they had not attacked the Sigos. As 1 was, not 
quite certain of the fact, I thought it unjust to proceed 
against him till I had stronger proof. 

** On the following morning the hea(fe were brought 
up to the village, attended by a number of young men 
all dressed in their best, and were carried to Parembam*s 
house amid the beating of gongs and the firing of one or 
two guns. They were then disposed of in a conspicuous 
place in the public hall of Parembam. The music 
sounded and the men danced the greaterpart of the day; 
and toward eyenii^ carried them away in procession 
through all the campongs except three or four just about 
me. The women, in these processions, crowd round 
the heads as they proceed from housei to house, and put 
Birih and betel-nut in the mouths of the ghastly dead, 
and welcome them ! After this they are carried back 
in the same triumph, deposited in an airy place, and left 
to dry. During this process, for ^even, eight, or ten 
days, they are watched by the boys of the age of six to 
ten years ; and during this time they never stir from the 
public hall — they are not permitted to put their foot out 
of it while engaged in this sacred trust. Thus are the 
youths initiated. 

**For a long time after the heads are hung up, the 
men nightly meet and beat their g6ngs, and chant ad* 
dresses to them, which were rendered thus to me : 
* Your head is in our dwelling, but your spirit wanders 
to your own country.' * Your head and your spirit are 
now ours : persuade, therefore, your countrymen to be 
slain by us.* * Speak to the spirits of your tribe : let 
them wander in the fields, that when we come again to 
their country we may get more heads, and that we may 
bring the heads of your brethren, and hang them by your 



102 SXPEOflTION TO BORKBO. 

head,' 6icc. The tone of this chant is lond and monoto- 
nous, and I am not able to say how long it is sung ; bitt 
certainly for a month after the arrival of the heads, u 
one party here had had a head for that time, and were 
still exhorting it. 

** These are their customs and modes -of.warfim; 
and I may conclude by saying that, thoagfa their trophies 
are more dis^sting, yet their wars are neither so bloody, 
nor their cruelties so great, as those of the Ncnth Amer- 
ican Indian. They slay all they meet with of thmr 
enemies — men, women, and children ; ji»ut this is Qpm- 
mon to all wild tribes. They haye an implacable spirit 
of revenge as long as the war lasts, retort btU for evil, 
and retaliate life for life ; and, as I have before said, 
the heads are the trophies, as the scalps are to the red 
men. But, on the contrary, they never tortore their 
enemies, nor do they devour them ; and peace can 
always be restored among them by a very modeivte 
payment. In short, there is nothing new in their feel- 
ings, or in their mode of showing theni; no trait re- 
inarkable for -cruelty ; no head-hunting for the sake of 
head -hunting. They act precisely on the same im- 
pulses as other wild men : war arises firom passkm or 
interest; peace from defeat or fear. As friends, they 
are faithful, just, and honest ; as enemies, blood-thin^ 
and cunning, patient on the war-path, and enduring 
fatigue, hunger, and want of sleep, with, cheerfiilneas 
and resolution. As woodmen they are . remarkahjy 
acute ; and on all their excursions cany with them a 
number of ranjows, which, when they retreat, they 
stick in behind them, at intervals, at a distance of twenty, 
fifty, or a hundred yards, so that a hotly-pursoingener 
my gets checked, and many severely wounded. Their 
arms consist of a sword, an iron-headed spear, a few 
wooden spears, a knife worn at the ri^t side, ^th a 
sirih-pouch, or small basket. Their provision is &jpv~ 
ticular kind of sticky rice, boiled in bamboos. When 
once they have struck their enemies, or fiuled, they re- 
turn, without pausing, to their homes. 

*'To proceed with my journal. My principal olnect 
in coming up the hill was, to appoint the Orang Kaya 
Steer Rujah as the chief, beside Pagise as Panglima, 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. IBS 

or head warrior, and Pa Bobot as PaDgeran, or reveime 
o0icer. It was deemed by these worthy personages 
quite unfit that this ceremony should take place in the 
public hall or circular house, as that was the place 
wherein the heads are deposited, and where they hold 
councils of war. 

^ With the Dyaks, all council is divided into hot and 
cold ; peace, friendship, good intentions, are all included 
under the latter head — ^war, 6cc^ are under the former. 
Hot is represented by red, and cold by white* So in 
everYthing they make this distinction ; and as the public 
hall 18 the place for war-councils and war-trophies, it is 
hot in the extreme, unfit for friendly conference. A 
shed was therefore erected close to the Orang Kaya*8 
house, wherein the cereitiony was to take place. About 
nine in the evening we repaired to the scene ; loud mu- 
sic, barbarous but not unpleasing, resounded, and we 
took our seats on mats in the midst of our Dyak friends. 
A feast was in preparation ; and each guest (if I may 
^ali them such) brought his share of rice in bamboos, 
and laid it on the generalstocl^ As one party came up 
after another, carrying their burning logs, the effect was 
very good ; and they kept arriving until the place and 
its vicinity was literally cranuned with human beings. 
A large antique sirih-box was placed in the midst; and 
I contributed that greatest of luxuries, tobacco. 

'* The feast, in the mean time, was in preparation, some 
of the principal people being employed in counting die 
number who were to eat, and dividing the bamboos into 
exactly equal portions for each person. About six inches 
were allotted to every man ; and it took a very long 
time to divide it, for they are remarkably particular as 
to the proper size and quantity to each share. The 
bamboos of rice being, however, at length satisfactorily 
disposed, the Orang Kaya produced as his share a large 
basin full of sauce, composed of salt and chilis, and a small 
stock of sweetmeats ; and then the ceremony of his in- 
stallation commenced as follows : 

" A jacket, a turban, a cloth for the loins, and a kris 

(all of white) were presented to the chief as a token of 

sejiek dingin, or eokl, t. e. flood. The chief then rose, 

And, taking« white fowl and waving it ofer the eal iMe i^ 

13 K 



194 EXPEDITION TO BOENEO. 

repeated nearly the following words : — (The connneDce- 
ment, however, is curious enough to dwell upon : the 
opening is a sort of invocation, beginning with the 
phrase, * Samungut, Simungi.' Samungut is a Malay 
word, Simungi signifying the sanie in D^ak ; the exact 
meaning it is difficult to comprehend; but it is here 
understood as some principle, spirit, or fortune^ which 
is in men and things. Thus the Dyaks, in stowing their 
rice aft harvest, do it with great care, from a superstitioiui 
feeling that the Simungi of the padi will escape. They 
now call *this principle to be present — ^that of men, of 
pigs (their favorite animal), of jmdi, and of fruits. They 
particularly named my Simungi, that of my ancestors, 
of the Pangeran from Borneo, of the Dstos and cvf their 
ancestors, and of the ancestors of their own tribe. They 
call them — ^that is, their Simungi — to be present. They 
then call upon Jovata to grant their prayer, thiit . ih» 
great man from Europe, and the Datus, might hold the 
government for a length of time^ — * May the govern- 
ment be cold* (good) ; * May there be rice in our 
houses ;* *■ May many pigs be killed ;' ' May male chil- 
dren be bom to us ;* * May fruit ripen ;' * May we be 
happy, and our goods abundant ;' * We declare ourselves 
to be true to the great man and the Datus : what they 
wish we will do, what they conuuand is our law*' 
Having said this and much more, the fowl was taken 
by a leading Malay, who repeated the latter words, 
while others bound strips of white cloth round the heads 
of the multitude. The fowl was then kifled, the blood 
shed in a bamboo, and each man dipping his finger in 
the blood, touched his forehead and breast, in attesta- 
tion of his fidelity. The fowl was now carried away to 
be cooked : and when brought back, placed with the 
rest of the feast, and the dancing conmienoed. The 
chief, coming forward, uttered a loud yell ending in 
* ish,* which was oftentimes repeated during the dance. 
He raised his hands to his forehead, and t&ing a dish, 
commenced dancing to lively music. Three other old 
chief men followed his example ; each uttering the yell 
and making the salute, but without taking die dish. 
They danced with arms extended, turning the body 
frequently, taking very small steps, and little more than 



EXPfiDlTJOir TO BOENEO* 105 

lifting their feet from the ground. Thfiis they tamed 
backward and forward, passed in and oat of the inner 
rooms, and frequently repeating the yell, and n^aking 
the sahitatioB to me* The dish, ui the mean time, was 
changed from one to the other : there was little variety, 
no gesticulation, no yiolenee ; and, though not deficient 
in natiFe grace, yet the movements were by n6 means 
interesting. The dance over, the feast commenced; 
and everything was carried on with great gravity and 
propriety. I left them shortly after they began to eat, 
and retired, very fagged, to my bed, or rather, to my 
boai*d ; for sitting cross-legged for several hours is surely 
a great infliction. 

** I nsay add to this account that, while writing it, dM 
Dyak land-tribes of Siquoog, Sibaduh, and Goon, sent 
their deputies to me. These people are not under any 
Malay government, and it is now for the first time they 
have trusted themselves as for as Sarawak. They have 
an objection to drinking the river-water, and expressed 
great surprise "at the flood-tide. Their confiff^oce is 
cheering to me, and will, I trust, be advantageous to 
themselves. Their trade in rice is very considerable t 
and toward Sambas they exchange eight or ten pasus of 
rice for one of salt* 

** Our conference was pleasing. They desired pro* 
tection, they desnred trade. * They had all heard, the 
whole toorid had heard, that a son rf Europe was a fiiend 
to the Dyaks.' M^ visitors drank Batavia arrack widi 
great gusto, declaring all the time it was not half so 
good as their own ; however, at a pinch anything will 
do. Some other Dyaks met these strangmrs; they 
were not adversaries, and so they chewed sirih, and 
drank grog in company ; but among enemies this may 
not be: they can neither eat nor drink in comfiany 
without desiring a reconciliation. I may add, that the 
Siquong tribe consists of at least four hundred fomilies, 
with forty public halts, or baleis, for heads. A Djrak 
family cannot be estimated at fewer than twelve people, 
which will give four thousand ei^ht hupdred or five 
thousand people. Sibaduh and Goon may be about 
seventy-five fomilies : beside these, 8i Paajong and Sam 
Penex want to come in to ma» 'Vfhiph will give one hvn* 



106 EXPEDITION TO BOENEO'. 

dred and one more families. What might be done witU 
these people, if I had a little more power and a little 
assistance ! 

** I was going to close my account of the Dyaks ; bat 
I had scarcely penned the last sentence when a lai^ 
party of Singd I)yaks and five Dyaks of Sigo arrived-- 
thus all these enemies meeting. In the conference 
which followed, the Singd allowed they were wroiig in 
attacking Sigo, and Ifud all the blame on the old chie^ 
Parembam. They likewise allowed it to be just that 
Parembam should be forced to pay, aqd conchide s 
peace. With the Goon and Sibaduh Dyaks they had 
long been at enmity ; but they agreed to make peace if 
Sibaduh would pay two gongs, formerly demanded, as 
the price of peace. -The Sibaduh, however, did not al- 
low the justice of the demand ; but the parlSea were 
reconciled so far as that each promised to maintain a 
truce and to eat together : and the Singes declared they 
would not attacks the Sibaduhs on account of the two 
gongs, but obtain them in a friendly conference. I have 
(being hurried) briefly mentioned these circnm8tancet« 
which took a long time to settle, as the Dyaks are very 
fond of speechifying, which they do sitting, without ac- 
tion or vivacity, but with great fluency, and using often 
highly metaphysical and elegant language. It was a 
great nuisance having fifty naked savages in the house 
all night, extended in the hall and the anterooms. They 
finished a bottle of gin, and then slept ; and I could not 
avoid remarking that their sleep was light, such as tem- 
perance, health, and exercise bestow. Daring many 
hours I heard but one man snore, while half the num- 
ber of Europeans would have fiivored me wiCh a concert 
sufficient to banish rest. 

'* I shall now briefly mention our foreign, jpolicy for 
the last few months. 

** For a time we were^annoyed with incessant reports 
of their coming to attack us in force ; but, though scarce- 
ly believing they would be bold enough, I took precau- 
tions, pushed on the completion of our boats, built a fort, 
and made a fence round the village. These precautions 
taken, and fifteen boats in the water ready foi action, I 
cared very little, though the news reached me that By- 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 197 

,ong, the' Sarefoii3 chief, had huog a ba9ket on a high 
tree which was to contain mj head. 

'* Sadang. — Our relations with Seriff Sahib were 
very unsettled ; and by the bullying tone of the people 
of Sing^ I thought it probable he might be induced to 
measure his strength, backed. by the Sakarran Dyaka, 
against us. - I have afaready mentioned his attack upon 
my Dyaks of Sanpro, and the second dispute about the 
Suntah Dyaks ; in the first of these he came off with 
impunity ; in the second I met him with success, and 
out-manoeuvered him, and vn*ested the Dyaks from him. 
Shortly after the transactions at Suntah, a boat of Sa- 
karran Dyaks came to Sarawak nommally to trader, hut 
in reality to tamper with the fidelitv of the Datus and 
others. They proposed to the Tumangong to join 
Seriff Sahib, stating that they were sent by £m to try 
all the people here. * They had been ruined here ; 
Seriff Sahib would restore them their property ; and if 
they left Muda Hassim, James Brooke, and the Chi- 
nese, they could afterward easily make a prey of the 
Dyaks and Chinese, with Seriff Sahib's assistance, and 
get plenty of slaves.' 

** The plan proposed for the removal was as follows ; 
— Seriff Sidiib, with forty Malay boats, and the Sakar- 
rans with one hundred boats, were to request permia- 
sion from Muda Hassim to attack the Dyak tribe of 
Siquong, and under this pretence were to come up the 
river, when the Datus were to join, with their wives 
and children, and all were to take flight together. The 
Tumangong told me this as soon as he heard it himself; 
and, to make sure, I sent Fatinei Gapoor to fish their 
story out of them, which he did most succesafolly. 
Being assured of the fact, I called the Dyaks, and, be- 
fore some dozens of our people and one or two persons 
from Singd, taxed them with their guilt. '^^^J '^^^re 
obliged to confess, and insisted upon it that Serin Sahib 
had sent them, &c. Many urged me to put these 
Dyaks to death; but the reluctance we all have to 
shedding blood withheld me, and I had no desire to 
strike at a wren when a foul vulture was at hand. I 
dismissed the emissaries scot-free, and then both Muda 
Hassim and myself indited letters to Seriff Sahib, tfaa|; 

a2 



198 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

of Muda Hassim being severe but dignified. Be&re 
they were dispatched, an atnbassador arrived from 
Singe with letters both to the rajah and myself, dis- 
claiming warmly all knowledge of the treachery, swear- 
ing the mvst' solemn oaths in proof of his troth, and 
declaring that, so far from having committed so shame- 
ful an action, he had never even dreamed of^sach a 
thing in his worst dreams, as he hoped that God Would 
save him. Our letters were sent before his ambitoslHiea: 
was received', and a second disclaimer, Vke the first, 
quickly reached us. Of course it was my poKcy, what- 
ever my opinion might be, to receive his offers of 
friendship and to believe all he said ; and, therefore, 
the matter ended, and ended so far well, that Seriff 
Sahib lowered his former tone ; and, certainly, what- 
ever he may desire in his heart, or dream of, he wants 
to be well with us here, and, I can see, fears' us. I am 
content,- because I reaUy wish for peace, and not war ; 
Muda Hassim is content, because he has humbled Seriff 
Sahib, and acted decisively ; and the seriff ia content as 
the fiend in the infernal regions. I leave it to aU gentle 
readers to form their own opinion of his truth or treach- 
ery ; but I must hint to them my private opinion that he 
did send agents to tempt, and would have gained the 
Datus if he could ; and as fi>r his oaths, my belief is, 
he would swear a basketful of the most sacred before 
breakfast to support a lie, and yet not lose his iwpetite ! 
The Datus were too old, and knew him too well, to bo 
caught in his trap. 

** Seriff Sahib has now sent a fleet of boats up the 
Sarebus river ; but the result I do not yet Itnow. 

** To conclude our foreign policy, I nrast mention 
Borneo Proper. 

" My great object is to reconcile Muda Hassim and 
the sultan, and to restore the former to Borneo, be- 
fore the coming of Mr. Bonham on his diplomatic mis- 
sion. To effect this, I have resolved to proceed my- 
self ; and Muda Hassim, equally anxious, has letters 
and two of his brothers ready to accompany me. If 
we can gain this object, I shall be firmfy established, 
and relieved from the intriguing, mean, base Bomeons. 
And it will be an advantage to the government measure, 



ExraniTioir TO bowkwo. 1§9 

in as fiu* as they win be ettsbled to form their armiige- 
mentB with all instead of a^sitogle faction of the Borneo 
Pangerans. From all I hear, Miida fiaaaim ia more 
po'werful than either the saltan or Pangeran Uaop ; ani 
if he appeals fe anna, I am aaanred he will cany \m 
point, and become the aeveveign of Borneo Thtnally, if 
not nomnially. ^ ' • 

^ The Royalist now widla ftr ua at die- moodi 
of the river, which I hope to reach on 1h€> 14di, liui 
beii^'tfae 12th July. He^ for the sea cince more ! 
But yet, tlMrai^ I go, I liake my cares witli meT and 
but for die necessHy, the abapinte necesshy, of bringinc 
the Borneo qiuestion to m crisis, good or bed, I ' wbnld 
foin stop wh«^ I am. For -eren daring one short 
month's absence I fear my poor people wUl waStr fiom' 
the intrignes of die rascally Borneo Pangerana. In 
diia I do not inchide Mnda Hassim, who, with s: moat- 
amiable priTate character, and with integ^ily and good 
fiudi, desires to do r^;^ as for as his education and 
prejudices will permk. It is sad to reflect diat tfait 
rery prince, who really wishes to do good, and to con* 
duce to the comfort of his peoj^e, should, from want of 
energy, haTe been so fearful an oppressor, dlroo|^ Iha 
agency of others; and it is not here alone tfai^ vfla 
agents for Tile ptoposes are plentifol.* 



«» 



CHAPTER XIV. 

• ■ 

Visit of Captain JBUiott.— Mr. Brooke sails for Bonao Propte.— 
Arrivml^Vistted by leading men.— Condition of the comrtrj.— 
Reception hj the Saltan.— Objects in viaw.— The difli*eat 
cbiefe, and coenniniicatioBs wiu them.-- The Saltan and hia 
Pangersns.— Oi^U of the Tint accomplished;— Betitm la 
Sartwak^— Oenmonies of the cession.— Sail for Siagapore. . 

Arrm Mr. Brooke'a return from hia ezpedidiMi 
againat the Singd S^rak chief Paremibam, he waa yim^ 
ited by hia fHend Captain Elhott, of the Madras eft^ 
gineers, whose acquaintaaoe I had tiie pieaanze -of 
subsequent^ making at Sing^nrct. He Is, aa Mr* 
Brooke deacribea him, **a man of adaiioe and edneftp 
tion, and the beat of good fottoira.'* DiMng Us aUgr i«; 



200 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO^ 

Sarftwak, he established his observatory, and a& its 
apparatus; and a shed (now converted into a goat- 
house) will always retain the appellation of ** the Ol^- 
servatory." ]Vf r. Brooke and Captain Elliott appear to 
have made some very amusing and agreeable equsaraioiis 
up the different rivers, an account of which is given in 
the journal ; but I shall pass it over, as I am anxioas to 
follow my friend through with his government up to the 
time of my meeting him at Singapore. 

** Thursday, July lith. — We were to Imve started on 
this most lucky day at ten o'clock, but what with innu- 
merable preparations and delays, it was near six before 
the rajah was ready to dismiss the procession ; and my 
alarm became considerable that, Friday (an unlucky day^ 
having commenced by the native reckoning, we sboula 
again be postponed till Sunday. However, by making 
six o'clock five, and keeping back the watches to suit 
our purpose, our departure was achieved. The state 
spears and swords were brought forth. The letters 
for the sultan, in their brass tray covered with em- 
broidered cloth, were duly mounted, with the greatest 
reverence, on the head of Bandar Sumsu ; and nothing 
remained but to take leave. The rajah addressed a 
few words to his brothers, requesting them to tell die 
sultan that his heart was always with him; that he 
could never separate from him, whether far or near ; 
and that he was, and always had been, true to his son. 
Budrudeen then rose, and approaching die rajah, seated 
himself close to him, bending his head to die ground 
over his hand, which he had grasped. The rajah 
hastily withdrew his hand, and clasping him round, 
embraced, kissing his neck. Both were greatly agitated 
and both wept, and I could have wept for company, for 
it was no display of state ceremony, but genuine feel- 
ing. It is seldom, very seldom, they show their feel- 
ings ; and the effect was the more touching from being 
unexpected; beside, it is a part of our nature (one's 
better nature) to feel when we see others feel. Pan- 
geran Marsale followed ; both brothers hkewise parted 
with Muda Mahammed in the same way, and they cer- 
tainly rose in my opinion from this token of affection 
toward each other. My adieus foUowed ; we all rose ; 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 801 

the rajab accompanied us to the wharf; and as we em- 
barked, I could see the tears slowly steal from his eyes. 
I could not help taking his hand, and bidding him be of 
good cheer; he smiled in a friendly manner, pressed 
zny hand, and I stepped into my boat. Our gongs 
struck up ; the barge, decorated with dags and stream- 
ers, was towed slowly along against the dood-tide ; the 
guns fired from the wharf, from the Chinese houses, 
and from our l^ort, and we passed along m all the pomp 
and pride of Sarawak state. It was dusk when we got 
down to the first reach, and there we brought up to 
"wait for the ebb." 

I shall omit that part of my friend^s journal containing 
his remarks aud observations along the coast between 
Sarawak and the entrance of the Borneo river. On the 
2l8t July his narration continues thus : 

*^ I must now leave geography, and turn to politics. 
On casting, anchor we acted on a plan previously formed, 
and sent ofiT the gig, with Serifif Hussein and Nakoda 
Ahmed, to the city, to intimate my arrival, and that of 
the raJ9h*s brothers, with letters from Muda Hassim. I 
trusted to their dread of and curiosity about the English 
expedition to msure ray reception; but I gave particular 
directions, in case the sultan asked about me, that my 
ambassadors were to say I was here ; that I had been 
corresponding about the English coming ; that I was not 
a man in authority, or belonging to the East India Com- 
pany ; and that they were sure I should not land unless 
he invited me to come and see him. To show eager- 
ness would have raised suspicion ; backwardness excites 
the contrary feeUng, and a desire to entertain some in- 
tercourse. 

** July22d. — ^At the unconscionable hour of 2 a.m., a 
mob of "Pangerans came on board, in number not fewer 
than fifty, and with a multitude of followers. They 
awoke us out of our first sleep, and crowded the vessel 
above and below, so that we could scarce find room to 
make our toilet in public, while the heat was suffocating us. 
However, we did manage it, and sat talking till daylight. 
Our visitors were chiefly relations or adherents of Muda 
Hassim, and some of the first men in the country. Pan- 
geran Badmdeen and Pangeran Marsale were in their 



202 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

glory, and happy ; and it was evident at ohce tEat onr 
affairs were likely to succeed to our heart's content. 
All were anxious and eager in inquiries about Muda 
Hassim, and wishing -his return. The sultan, Pangeran 
Usop, Pangeran Mumin, and others declared, 'Borneo 
could never be well till he came back.' In short, it was 
clear that the country Was in distress and difficulty from 
within : trade ruined, piracy abounding, the moulih .of 
the river unsafe, their forts insulted by the' pirates, llie 
communication with their dependencies cut off, food 
dear, and the tobacco, which comes from the northward, 
not to be had. Everything conspires to forward Muda 
Hassim's views and mine ; and during this co^versadon, 
it was evident they were looking to me as a fiiiend. 

** At daylight a boat from the sultan arrived to cany 
up the letters ; but Budrudeen and his brother resolved 
to proceed first, in order to make sure of an honorable 
reception for the chop. At 7 o'clock there was a stir. I 
saw them over the side with delighit, and gave them a 
salute with pleasure. Breakfast done, I was too happy 
to lie down, and slept till past midday, having then only 
to wait for Budrudeen's return. 

" 23d. — ^Budrudeen came at 3 p.m., bringing with him 
good news of the most fisivorable reception from aB par- 
ties, all wishing for reconciliation and the returirof Muda 
Hassim. To-morrow, boats are to come for the letters, 
which are to be conveyed in state. The day foUowing 
I am to go up, and am likewise to be received in all hon- 
orable form. 

" 24th. — At 7 A.M. the state-boat, a shabby concern, 

decorated with yellow flags, arrived, and at eight the 

\ letters were borne away under a salute. Thus we had 

a second time the satisfaction of getting rid of the mob 

at an early hour. 

** 25th, — At 9^ A.M. I started with Williamson in the 
gig, with the long-boat in company, carrying the presents. 
On approaching the town, before the ebb nad run long, 
it appeared to be a very Venice of hovels, a river Cybele 
rising from the water. For those who like it, the locality 
is not ill chosen. The hills recede from the river, and 
form &n /Knphitheatre ;- and several other rivers or 
streams (lowing in, cause a muddy deposit, on'wluch 



BXlPEDITION TO BORNEO. S03 

the houses are bnilt. At high water they are surround- 
ed ; at lo'vir water stand on a sheet of mud. On nearing 
it, we were encompassed by boats which preceded 
and Allowed us, and we passed the floating market, 
where women^ wearing immense hats of pcdm-Ieeves, 
sen all sorts of edibles, balanced in their little canoes, 
now giving a paddle, now making a bargain, and dropping 
down with the tide, and again regaining their place when 
the bargun is finished. The first impression of the 
town is iiuseral|)]e. The houses are crowded and nu- 
merous, and eren the palace does not present a more 
captivating aspect, for, though large, it is as ineomuMy- 
dious ai the worst. Our presentation was exactly sim- 
ilar to that of our first meeting with Muda Hassim at 
Sarftwak, only the crowd was much greater. We had 
been seated but a few minutes when Pangeran Usop 
arrived, and direptly afterward the sultan. He gave us 
tea, leaf-cigars, and sirih, and, in short, showed us every 
attention; and what was best of all did not keep us 
Tery long. Our apartment was partitioned off from the 
public hall, a dark-looking place, but furnished with a 
table brou^t by us, and three rickety chairs, beside 
xnatres^es and plenty of mats. We were kept up nearly 
all nig^t, whksh, after the fatigues of the day, was haitl 
upon us, 

*' Further ohservation confirmed us in the opinion 
that the town itself is miserable, and its locality on the 
mud fitted only for frogs or natives ; but there is a level 
dry plain above the entrance of the Kiangi river, admi- 
rably suited for a European settlement ; and across the 
Kiangi is swelling ground, where the residents might 
find delightful spots for their country-houses. The 
greatest alnnoyance to a stranger is the noisome smell 
of the mud when uncovered ; and all plated or silver 
articles, even in the course of one night, get black and 
discolored. The inhabitants I shall estimate moderately 
at 10,000, and the Kadien population are numerous 
amid the hills. 

" 27 ih — Our objects in coming to Borneo were three- 
fold. Firstly, to effect a reconciliation between the sul- 
tan and Muda Hassim ; secondly, to gain the sultan's 
approval and sigUature to my holding Sar&wak; and 



204 EXPEDITION TO BOftNEO. 

thirdly, to release the Kleeses [Hindoostaneesl of tb^ 
shipwrecked vessels, the Sultana and Lord Melbourne* 
The first object was gained at once, as the sultao seem- 
ed really overjoyed at being good friends with his ancle ; 
and Pangeran Usop, from whom we anticipated diffi- 
culty, stepped forward directly to aid us^ w:hile Pange- 
ran Mumin was not averse. I will not now sftop to 
sketch the characters of these worthies, as I shall here- 
after have a better knowledge of them ; but % may Te- 
mark, en passant, that it was evident, even to my inex- 
perience, that no two of them were on good terms, and 
all probably united in a feeling that Muda Hassim's re- 
turn would be a personal as well as pubKc advantage. 
The odier principal Pangerans, namely, Tizudeen (&e 
sultan's natural brother), Kurmaindar (the fathej of the 
country), Bahar (the rajah's brother-in-law), Tizudeeo 
second (the rajah's natural brother), were all for Muda 
Hassim ; and the population, as far as I could learn, d^ 
cidedly desirous of his being restored to them. 

^* Each day I had several interviews with the sultan, 
in his surow or private room ; and he assured me c^ his 
fondness for Muda Hassim, his wish to have him near 
him again, and the great benefit it would be. Moreover, 
he was pleased to express great personal regard for me ; 
and every five minutes I had to swear ' eternal firiend- 
ship,' while he, clasping my hand, kept repeating, ^amigo 
suya,^ * amigo suya,^ meaning, my friend, my friend. At 
the same time he professed great readiness to give me 
Sarawak — inquired the amount of revenue — seemed sat- 
isfied, and said, * I wish you to be there ; I do not wish 
any body else ; you are my amigo, and it is nobody's 
business but mine ; the country is mine, and if I please 
to give you all, I can.' His majesty is very proud of 
displaying his very small smattering of Spanish or Por- 
tuguese ; and almost all the higher people having ac- 
quired a few words, shows there must have been a 
communication at no very distant date. I was also 
warned not to cai'e for any of the other Pangerans, — 
not, indeed, to have anything to say to them. 

** With this advice I took the liberty to dispense ; and 
aent to Pangerans Mumin and Usop to intimate my wish 
to visit them. The former pleaded that his house was 



EXPBDITIOlf TO BOmVEO. 205 

iMifit to receive me ; but the latter immediately sent a 
most polite message, that any time, either by day or 
night, he should be happy to see me ; and accordingly 
I went. The house and style are the best in Borneo. 
I was politely and kindly greeted ; and I soon found that 
I was with a man of sense and quickness. There was 
a little diplomacy at first on his part ; but as I proceeded 
direct to my object, he at once laid it aside. In fact, 
candor is the basis of our right influence with the na- 
tives; and as I desired to make Pangeran Usop my 
friend, I went candidly to work, and inmiediately told 
him all that I had already told the sultan. The amount 
of my conversation was as follows : The first topic being 
the anticipated visit of the English, ' Were the English 
coming?* * Was Mr. Bonham coming?' w^re the first 
•uestions ; and *■ With what intent ?' I replied, that the 
English were certainly coming, but with no evil inten- 
tions ; that it Mras true they were offended by the ill 
usage the captain and people of the Sultana had met 
with ; yet that I had endeavored to put it in the best 
light, and had urged that a friendly communication for 
the future was better than a retrospect which might 
give rise to unpleasant feelings : I was sure that the 
English desired a friendly intercourse; and I hoped^ 
though I could not say, that they would look to the fu- 
ture, and not to the past. I had, I added, no authority ; 
but my friendship for the sultan induced me to inform 
htm what I had heard abroad. When Mr. Bonham 
came, he would be able to tell them all ; but I could say 
now that I thought he would denoand a treaty between 
Singapore and Borneo for the mutual protection of trade, 
and the care of individuals of each nation who were 
shipwrecked or otherwise sou^t protection at either 
place. 

** On the whole, it is certain that the feelings of Bor- 
neo are decidedly friendly, and equally certain that the 
persons of influence will receive us in their warmest 
manner, and grant us every thing, if we resort only to 
measures of conciliation. It never can be too often re- 
peated, that conciliation is the only policy with Malays, 
and particularly the Bomeons, who have very vague and 
Qoniu86d ideas pf.our power. A- btrdi troth, a peis. 

S " 



206 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

emptory demand, they have Dever heard in llieir lires, 
and they will not hear it for the first time and remain 
friendly ; for all who haire the least acqoaintance with 
the native character know their acute sense of false 
^ame. To demand, therefore, of the chief here to ac- 
knowledge our superiority would, I am sure, be met 
with a haughty refusal. In a few years, if we proceed 
ntiildly to establish a beneficial influence, ^ley w31 fiill 
into our views without reserve ; for, as I have of^n be« 
fore stated, their government is in the last stage of de- 
struction and decay. 

** The reconciliation of Muda Hassim was soon com- 
plete ; and' as to the Kleeses of the Lord Melboiime, 
twenty in number, they were at once surrendered to 
me, with a request that I would forward them to Sin- 
gapore as quick]y as I could. The boat of the Lord 
Melbourne was likewise given to me. I bad some 
scruples about three Kleeses of the Sultana, who httd 
been sold at Malludu Bay, bought there by an Arab 
seriff, and brought here. By all their laws and customs 
they were his slaves, purchased at a distance, and, as I 
had no right to claim them (supposing even that to be 
just^, and was resolved not to leave them in captivity, I 
paia a fair price for them at the rate of twen^-fiVe 
dollars per man. I regret to add, there is one other 
man not in the place; and one is gone to Tutorga^ 
about a day's journey hence. 

** 28th. — I may here draw a brief sketch (rf the prin- 
cipal personages of this most p^mitive court, beginning 
with its worthy head, the sultan. 

** The sultan is a man past fifty years <^ age, short 
and pufiy in person, with a countenance which ex- 
presses very obviously the imbecility of his mind. His 
right hand is garnished with an extra diminutive thumb, 
the natural member being crooked and distorted. His 
mind, indexed by his face, seems to be a chaos of con- 
fusion ; without acuteness, without dignity, and without 
good sense. He can neither read nor write ; is guided 
by the last speaker ; and his advisers, as might be ex- 
pected, are of the lower order, and mischievous from 
their ignorance and theur greediness. He is always 
talking, and generally joking; and the most serious 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO* 207 

subjects, never meet with five minutes' consecutive 
attention. The fiiyorable side of his character is, that 
he is good-tempered and good-natured.; by no means 
cruel; and, in a certain way, generous, though rapa- 
cious to & hi^ degree. His rapacity, indeed, is carried 
to such an excess as to astonish a European, and i| 
evinced in a thousand mean ways. The presents I 
made him were unquestionably handsome ; but he was 
not oQDteid; without begging firom n>e the share I had 
reserved for the other Pasgerans; and afterward, 
through M.t» Williamson, solicited more trifles, sUch as 
sugar, .penknives, and the like. To crown all, he was 
incessandy asking what was left ia the vessel ; and 
when told the truth, — that I was stripi^ed as bare as a 
tree in wintw, — he frequently returned to the charge. 
In the middle of the night, when our boat came up with 
some gifts for him, he slipped out his royal person, 
that he might see what packages there were. I must 
say, however^ that this was not intended for me to 
know ; and, personally, he did not behave ^rery ill to> 
ward me, only dunning me occasionally. In regard to 
the Sar&wak revenue, ho was eager in his inquiries; 
and was very ready, on the strength Of his thousand 
dollars, and my generosity, to give me a list of things 
which amounted to 10,000 dollars in value. I may 
note one other feature which marks the man. He re-* 
quested, as the greatest favor,-r-he urged, with the 
earnestness of a child, — that I would send back the 
schooner before the month Ramban (Ramadan of the 
Turks) ; remarking, * What shall I do during the fast 
without soft sugar and dates V What effect the exag- 
gerated promises of Mr. de Souza must have had on 
such a temper, may readily be imagined ; and what 
the evil influence of such a prince on the country, needs 
not be stated; for, like odier fiiols, he is diffii^t to 
guide where the object is ri^t, and facile i^«)never il 
promises any immediate advantage. I will only add^ ^ 
that during my intercourse of six days, he has given 
me tiie impression that he is not in his right mind ; and; 
at any rate, that flattery and bad counsel have deprived 
him of the little wit he might probably orig^olly havo 
posaesaed. 



208 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

**Of Pangeran Mumin, the Be Gadong and fiie 
8ultan*8 son-m-law, I know little; and he is, in seeret, 
a most determined opposer of mine ; but I believe he, 
as well as most, is desirous of being good friends with 
the English, and will readily listen to any overtmes 
which promise increase of trade* He seemed to me a 
shrewd, cunning man, fit for a Nakoda. 

** Pangeran Usop is a man of middle ag^ shorty 
active, and intelligent, and, I may add, amlHtioiis. 
Pangeran Muda Hassim wUl throw himself into Ae 
arms of the English, from his partiality, and from Ae 
hope of a better order of things, and the eventual suc- 
cession to the throne, to which he stands next, — the 
present sultan having no legitimate children. 

** Two of my objects were thus achieved at once ; 
and the Kleeses (twenty-three) were, much to their 
satisfaction, dispatched to the vessel in the Melbourne's 
gig. My own affair of Sarawak meets with some oppo- 
sition from Mumin, who is decidedly friendly to MacoCa. 
The sultan, however, is steady to me, gabbles dai^ and 
hourly of his intentions ; and Pangeran Usop likewise 
pushes on my suit with his influence, at the same time 
giving me this one piece of good advice, viz. that Muda 
Hassim must be induced to return to- Borneo, for that 
two persons (Muda Hassim and myselfy cannot govern 
together; and he added, *If Muda Hassim retnmSf 
you will have a fine trade at Sarawak ; but while he is 
there, no native prahus will visit the place.* This is 
true : I have no fear of ultimate success in my suit ; 
but delay is formidable, and I have already inti- 
mated that I propose making my congS on the 2d of 
August. 

** 30^. — ^I have little more to add about Borneo, save 
my plaint against our dungeon, though the said dungeon 
be honorably situated behind the throne, and within the 
royal apartments. Just below the town are several rills 
of the finest water ; and the natives report that they 
issue from a small but deep lake at a very short distance. 
Beneath one of these spouts we each evening took a 
most delicious bath in water as cold as it is limpid. I 
am no great bustler at any time ; but since being here, 
I have purposely abstained from all manifestatkA of cu- 



y 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 1^(09 

riosily, and never desired or requested to see much ; it 
rouses suspicion, and suspicion rouses distrust, and dis- 
trust draws tiie kris. On the contrary, by being back- 
ward at first, you become subsequently a sort of domes- 
ticated fmimfd, and privileged to use your eyes and 
limbs. Most Europeans do themselves great injury by 
searofaing the mountains and the waters, breaking the 
rocks, shooting the birds, and gathering the plants. The 
natives can never believe they would take so much 
trouble without being well paid by the value of the 
treasures found, or employed by the East India Com- 
pany to espy their land, in order that the said company 
might seize it at their convenience. 

** 31«^.~:A conclave of Pangerans, when it was finaUy 
resolved to grant the country of Sarawak to me as rajah 
or governor. 

' ^^ August l«i, 1842. — An important day in my his- 
tory, and I hope one Which will be marked with a white 
stone in the annals of Sarawak. The letters to Muda 
Hassim being finished and signed, the contract giving me 
the govemnient of Sarawak came under discussion, and 
was likewise completed by ten at night, signed, sealed, 
and witnessed. ' Thus I have gained every object for 
which I came to B(nmeo ; and to-morrow, God willing, 
I take my leave. 

" The miserable state of Borneo I have already men- 
tioned ; and it is now a saying of the Balagnini pirates, 
that * it is difficult to catch fish, but easy to catch Bor- 
neons.' Externally and internally they are equally 
wretched, and torn b^ factions ; yet, on the whole, I am 
not inclined to judge harshly of the poorer order of them. 
They tire a good-tempered, very hospitable, and unwar- 
like people, the victims of their rajahs ; the oppressed, 
but not the oppressors. In this character, however, I 
do not reckon the Pangerans and their followers. It is 
from these latter that Europeans take their estimate of 
the people generally ,^ and consequently truly account 
them, from that standard, to be a wretched sample of 
humanity— mean, thievish, arrogant, insolent, and ready 
for any wickedness. The Pangerans themselves are 
only a step better : . but even here I must make a little 
allowance ; for I believe their crimes arise more from 
14 s2 



210 XXrEDITION TO BCfRWEO, 

their poverty and impunity thao from way iBhcrmt ▼!- 
ciousness. 

t( 3^. — The Pangerans BudrudeeD and Marsale, and 
a host more, came on board this night, and kept ns iq> 
as usual. 

<^ 4th ^Another mob arrived th» mid^ ef last night. 

1 retreated from them, being far from well, and gcyt some 
sleep. At 2 p.m. the letters came on boeird ; wmre re- 
ceived with honors ; and as soon as we could rid imr' 
selves of our troublesome visitors, we dropped oatakle 
Tanjong Sapo, and sailed the following day. - 

^ The Kleeses sold at Malludu were brought from 
Ambun, and reported to the authoriticfs that a £ttropean 
woman was detained there. I made particulpr inquiries 
of the Borneon Patngei'ans, and they said they had always 
understood that such was the case. Unhappy lady, if 
she be a lady ! Is it a compassionate part ta raJaase 
her after many years of captivity ? 

^* 14^.— Anchored c^ the Morotaba, having had nolli- 
ing but calms, light winds, and squaUs. 

<^ Idtk, — Got part of the way up the river, and at 9 
P.M. dropped our anchor; and in about an hour later 
two boats started for Sarawak. The mght was moon- 
light, with a cold breeze ; and, after a pleasant pull, we 
arrived, and created as much sensation aa we eould de»- 
sire. But it was better, and I was gratified with the 
intelligence that everything had gone on well during our 
absence. At break of day I went, fagged, to bad. Se 
ended our mission to Borneo. 

^ On the evening of the 18th the suftan's fetters were 
produced in all the state which could possibly be attained. 
On their arrival they were received and brought up 
amid large wax torches, and the person who was to read 
them was stationed on a raised platform ; standing below 
him was the rajah, with a saber in his hand ; in front of 
the rajah was his brother, Pangeran Jafifer, with a tre- 
mendous kempilan drawn ; and around were the other 
brothers and myself, all standing — the rest of the com* 
pany being seated. The letters were then read, the 
last one appointing me to hold the government of Sara- 
wak. After this the rajah descended, and said ak)ud, 
* If any one present disowns or contests the suhan's ap- 



BXf£DITIQN TO BOENBO. 211 

pointauent, let him now declare.* All were silent. He 
next turned to the Patingis, and asked them ; they were 
obedient JU> the will of the sultan. Then came the other 
Pangerans — * Is there any Pangeran or any young rajah 
that contests the question? Pangeran Der Macota, 
what do you say V Maoota expressed his willingness to 
obey. One or two other obnoxious Pangerans 1^0 had 
always opposed themselves to me were each in torn 
challenged, and forced to promise obedience. The ra- 
jah then waved his sword, and with a loud voice ex- 
claimed, ^Whoever he is that disobeys the sultan's 
mandate now received, I will separate his skuU ;* at the 
moment some ten of his brothers jumped from the ve- 
randah, add, drawing their long krisses, began to flourish 
and dance about^ thrusting close to Macota^ striking the 
pillar above his head* pointing their weapons at his 
breast. This amusement, the violence of motion, the 
freedom from restraint, this explosion of a long pent-up 
animosi^, roused all theii^ passions ; and had Macota, 
through an'excess of fear or an excess of bravery, started 
up, he would h&ve been slain, and other blood would 
have, been i^inlt. But he was quiet, with his face pale 
and subdued, and, as shortly as decency would permit 
after the riot had subsided, took his leave. This scene 
is a custom with them; the only exception to which 
was, that it was. pointed so directly at Macota. I was 
glad, at any rate, that all had gone off without bkx>dshed. 

** 22d.^-'l /ound that though matters had been l]uiet 
during my absence, repeated efforts had been made to 
disturb the countary. First, it was positively stated and 
industriously circulated that I was certain to be killed in 
Borneo ; and next a report was propagated that 6000 
Chinese were on their march from Sambas, with evil 
intentions. These rumors did not serve any object, and 
my return has .set them at rest ; but I regretted to hear 
that the Singd Dyaks had, contrary to my positive pro- 
hibition, killed a Byak of Sanpro. 

** Other afiairs are (nx>sperous. Macota is to be sent 
ont.of the countiy, and the rajah himself talks of return- 
ing to Borneo ; and botli ^ese events will please me 
greatly. 

** January Ut, 1843^ — ^Another year passed and gone ; 



312 EXPEDITION TO BOftNEO. 

a year, with all its anxieties, its. troubles, its dangenSf 
upon which I can look back with satisfaction — a year in 
which I have been usefully employed in doing good to 
others. 

** Since I last wrote, the Dyaks have been quiet, set- 
tled, and improving; the Chinese advancing tow&rd 
prosperity; and the Sarawak people, 'wonderfully con- 
tented and industrious, relieved from oppression, and 
fields of labor allowed them. 

** Justice I have executed with an unflinching hand ; 
and the amount of crime is certainly smaU— the petty 
swindling very great. 

♦* The month of January was a dreary month. A 
sick man in the house, and very little medicine ; and 
what was worse, the Royalist did not make her ap- 
pearance. Yet both these troubles disappeared neariy 
together; for M^Kenzie got well, and the schooner, 
bringing with her Dr. Treacher, arrived. She had 
been detained undergoing some necessary repairs. The 
accession of'a iHedical man is particulariy valuable. . 

" I have nothing to say about the country, except 
that I have given Pangeran Macota orders to leave, 
which he is obeying in as far as preparing his boat ; and 
I hope that in six weeks we shall be rid of his ennning 
and diabolically inti'iguing presence. 

** The Rajah Muda Hassim, his brothers, and the 
tag-rag following, I also hope soon to be rid of; for al- 
though they behave far better than they did at first, it 
is an evil to have wheel within wheel ; and these young 
rajahs of course expect, and are accustomed to, a license 
which I will not allow. 

*^Budrudeen is an exception — a striking and won- 
derful instance of the force of good sense over evil edu- 
cation. 

♦* The rest of the people go on well ; the time re- 
volves quietly ; and the Dyaks, as well as \he Malays 
and Chinese, enjoy the inestimable blessing of peace and 
security. At intervals a cloud threatens the serenity 
of our political atmosphere ; but it speedily blows over. 
However, all is well and safe ; and so safe that I have 
resolved to proceed in person to Singapore. 

** My motives for going are various ; but I hope to do 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 213 

good, to excite interest, aod make friends; and I can 
find no season like the present for my absence. It is 
now two years since I left Singapore, * the boundary of 
civilization.' I have been out of the civilized world, 
living in a demi-civilized state, peaceably, innocendy, 
and usefully. 

*^ Feb, 8th, — ^After ten days' delay Bt tiie mouth of 
the river, got out." 



CHAPTER XV. 

Captain KeppePs voyage in the Dido With Mr. Brooke to S^art- 
wak.— Chase of three piratical prahus. — Boat expedition.— Ac- 
tion with the pirates, and capture of a prahu. — Arrival at Sari- 
wak. — Mr. Brooke*8 reception.— Captain Keppel and his officers 
visit the Rajah. — The palace and tne audience. — Return royal 
visit to the Dido. — Mr. Brooke's residence and household. — Dr. 
Treacher's adventure with one of the ladies of Macota's harem. 
— Another boat affair with the pirates, and death of their chief. 

I HAV^ now foUowed Mr. Brooke's journal up to the 
time of our first meeting at Singapore, and his accompa- 
nying me to Sarawak, and have no remarks of my owii 
to offer that could add in the slightest decree to its in- 
terest ; happily, none auch are needed. 1 had not yet 
seen my friend's journal when I arrived at Sar&wak, nor 
was it until some time after that I by degrees learned 
the progress of his infant government from its com- 
mencement. It was with unfeigned pleasure I then 
found that* while performing my duty in the suppression 
of pu'acy, I was, at the same time, rendering the great- 
est assistance and support to an individual in his praise- 
worthy, novel, and important position. 

I had long felt a desire to explore the Island of Bor- 
neo, which the few travelers who have called there de- 
scribe as not only one of the llU*gest and most fertile in 
the world, but one of the most productive in gold and dia- 
monds, and other rich minerab and ores ; one from which 
the finest camphor known is brought into merchandise, 
and which is undoubtedly capable of supplying every kind 
of valuable spice, and articles of univeraal traffic and con- 
sumption. Vet, with all these capabilities and induce- 
ments to tempt the energetic spirit of tnule, the ioternal 



214 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

condition of the country, and the dangers which beset ito 
coasts, have hitherto prevented the interior from being 
explored by Europeans ; and to prove how Kttle we are 
acquainted even with its shores, I actually sailed by the 
best Admiralty chart eighty miles inland, and over tfas 
tops of mountains ! 

May '4th, 1843.--'Pas6ed through the Tambekns, a 
beautiful group of between 100 and 150 small irianng. 
They are very extensive, and but thinly inhabited. 
There is good anchorage near some of them; but we 
had nothing less dian twenty fathoms. They are 
placed so close together that, after passing the first, 
we were to all appearance completely laiid-locked in a 
magnificent and capacious harbor. The followiDg mom- 
ing we anchored off the mouth of the Sambas river, and 
sent die boats away to examine the creeks, islands, and 
rivers along the coast for traces of pirates — ^which were 
discovered by the remains of their fires on difierent parts, 
although no clew could be obtained as to the direction in 
which they had gone. On the morning of. the ^h I 
again sent the pinnace and two cutters, Mr. Partridge, 
Messrs. D*Aeth and Jenkins, with a week's provisions, 
the whole under the command of Lieuteniint Wilipot 
Horton, Mr. Brooke kindly offering his assistance, whidi, 
from his knowledge of the Malay language, as well as of 
the kind of vessels used by the pirates, was thankfuUy 
accepted. I directed them to proceed to the Island ef Ma- 
rundum, and, after visiting the South Natunas, to rejoin 
the Dido at Sar&wak. In the mean time I proceeded 
leisurely along the coast, anchoring where convenient, and 
finding regular soundings all the way in from four to ten 
fathoms: weather remarkably fine, and water smooth. 
On the morning of the 9th, on rounding Tanjong Datn, 
we opened suddenly on a suspicious-looking boat, which, 
on making us out, ran for a small, deep bay formed by 
Cape Datu and the next point to the eastward.. Stand- 
ing a little furdier on, we discovered a second large boat 
in the ofiing, which likewise stood in shore, and after- 
ward a third at the bottom of the bay. From ^e de- 
scription I had received, I easily made these out to be 
Illanuns, an enterprising tribe of pirates, of whose daring 
adventures I had hesanl much. They inhabit a snudl 



BXPEDITIOV TO BORNEO. 215 

^iiutBr ef'idpAidfl off the n.e. coast of Borneo, and go out 
in large fleets etery year to look for prahus bomid to 
Singappca or tliA Straits; and, after capturing the ves- 
sels, reduce their crews to slavery. It is of a cruel na- 
ture ; for Mr. Brooke observes ^ ** Nor is the slavery of 
that mild description which is often attributed to the 
Asiatics; fen: these victims are bound fof months, and 
cxoijrded in tlie bottom of the pirate vessels, where they 
sufibr all the miseries which could be inflicted on board 
an Ai^can' slaver.'* - Having fairiy pinned these wor- 
thiessinto a conisr, a^ knowing that the only two small 
boats I ImuI left on board would stand no chance with 
them in pulling, fo make sure of my prizes I loaded die 
two f<»emoit gqns on each side, and, having no proper 
chart of 1^ coast, proceeded under easy sail, feeling my 
way into die bay with the lead. When just within 
musket-iADge, I let go the anchor, which was no sooner 
Aaob than die diree boats commenced making a move. 
I tlM>u|^t at first diey ^yrere coming alongside to sue for 
pardon and peace ; and my astonishment was great when 
I diseovered diat nothing was further from dieir inten- 
tion. One pulled away, close in shore, to the eastward, 
«iid dM^ odidr two to die westward* They were rowed 
by about forty oars each, and appeared, from their swift- 
ness, to be flying, and that, too, from under my very nose ; 
and whftt rendered it still more ridiculous and disagree- 
ables-owing to a strong obb tide, the ship remained ex- 
acdy in. a posidon diat no gun could be brought to bear 
on either side. The dingy and joUy-boat gave chase ; 
but die j^rates had the start, and it was useless ; for al- 
tfaou^ a few Hien were seen to drop from their oars in 
conseqaence of our fire of musketry from the forecasde, 
sdH their pace never slackened; and when they did 
eome within the bearing of our guns, which they were 
obUged to do for a minute or two while rounding the 
points diat fanned the bay, though our thirty-two pound 
ahot fell thickly about their heads, frequendy dashing the 
spray all over diem, not a man flinched from his oar. We 
ooukl hot help admiring their plan of escape, and the gal- 
knt manner in which it was eflected. I saw that it would 
be quite unavailing to attempt to catch the boats diat had 
pufled to windward ; but we bst no dme in slipping our 



21% 



EXPEDITION TO BOElTBa 



cable and making all sail in chase of the one that had gone 
to leeward. But the ** artful dodger" was still too But for 
us : we lost sight of him at dusk, close off the mouth of a 
river, up which, however, 1 do not think he went ; for our 
two boats were there very shortly after him ; and al- 
though they searched all night and next morning, they 
could discover no traces of the fugitive. . Bendes, these 
pirates have no friends among the inhabitants of the prov- 
ince of Sarawak who would have screened them finom 
us ; on the contraiy, they would have put them to death 
if once in their power. I certainly never' made ao sore 
of any thing in my life as of capturing the tliree prahns 
after I had seen them safe at the bottom of the little bay 
at Tanjong Datu : but " there is many a slip between 
the cup and the lip.** We returned the following day 
to pick up the anchor and cable, and observed that it was 
a place weU adapted as a rendezvous for pirates. The 
bay is studded with rocks ; and, to my hoiror, I foiudd 
that I had run her majesty's ship Dido inside two that 
were a-wash at low water ! A mountain stream of most 
delicious water runs into the bay between two rocks, 
and the coast abounds with oysters. 

On the 13th the Dido anchored off Tanjong Poe, oat- 
side the bar at the entrance of the river leadms to Mr. 
Brooke's residence and seat of government, at uie town 
of Sarawak, situated about twenty-four iniles up. At 
half-tide on the following morning we crossed the bar, 
carrying no less than three and a half fathoncis, and en- 
tered the beautiful river of Morotaba, which we ran up 
for the first fifteen miles under all sail, with a fresh, 
leading breeze. The Dido was the first souare-rigied 
vessel that had ever entered those waters. We came to 
at the junction river which unites the two principal en- 
trances to the Sarawak. 

In the evening our boats retumjed on board from their 
expedition, having reached Sar&wak the day previons by 
the western enti'ance. On leaving the Diido, on the 
morning of the 8th, they proceeded to the Island of Ma- 
rundum, a favorite rendezvous for pirates, Y^ere they 
came on a fleet of the Illanum tribe, who, however, d& 
not give them an opportunity of closing; but, catting 
their sampans adrift, made a precipitate fli|^t, opemng 



EXPBDITION TO BORNEO. 217 

fire as they ran out on the opposite side of a small bay, 
in which they had been watering and refitting. This, 
of course, led to a very exciting chase, with a running 
fire kept up on both sides ; but the distance was too great 
for the range of the guns on either side ; and the pirates, 
who, in addition to sailing well, were propelled by from 
forty to sixty oars each, made their escape. It was not 
until nearly hi:^-down that they (probably out of brava- 
do) ceased to fire their stem guns. As they went in 
the direction of the Natunas, our boats steered for those 
islands, and anchored under the south end of one of 
them. At daylight next morning, although in three 
fathoms water, the pinnace, owing to the great rise and 
fJEdl of tide, grounded on a coral reef, and Lieutenant 
Horton and Mr. Brooke proceeded in one of the cutters 
to reconnoiter. As they neared the ^.w. point, they 
were met by six prahus, beating their tom-toms as they 
advanced, and milking every demonstration of fighting. 
Lieutenant Horton judiciously turned to rejoin the oth- 
er boats^ and the pinnace having, foitunately, just then 
floated, he formed his little squadron into line abreast, 
cleared for action, and prepared to meet his formidable- 
looking antagonists. Mr. Brooke, however, whose eye 
)iad been accustomed to the cut and rig of all the boats 
m these seas, discovered^ that those advancing were not 
lUanuns, and &ncied there must be some mistake. The 
Natunas people had been trading with Sarawak, and he 
was intimately acqiiainted with a rich and powerful chief 
wjio resided on the island ; he therefore raided a white 
flag of truce, on his spy-glass, and from the bow of the 
pinnace hailed, waved, and made all the signs he could to 
warn them of the danger into which they were running ; 
but a discharge of smsdl arms was the only reply he got. « 
They then detached their three smallest vessels inshore, 
BO as to command a cross-fire, and cut off the retreat of 
our boats ; and the rest advanced, yelling, beating their 
tom-toms, and blazing away with all the confidence of 
victory, their shot cutting through the rigging, and splash- 
ing in the water all around. It was an anxious moment 
for the Dido's little party. Not a word was spoken. 
The only gun of the pinnace was loaded with grape and 
canister, wd kept pointed on the largest prahu. The 

T 



218 EXPEDITION TO BORNEa 

men waited, with their muskets in hand, for pemikwioii 
to fire ; but it was not until within pistol-ranga that 
Lieutenant Horton poured into the enemy his well-inre- 
pared dose. It instantly brought them to a halt; yet 
they had the temerity to exchange shots for a few min- 
utes longer, when the largest cried for quarter, and ths 
other five made for the shore, chased by the twocutten, 
and keeping up a fire to the last. 

The prize taken possession of by the pmnace proved 
to be a prahu mounting three brass guns, with a crew 
of thirty-six men, belonging to the Rajah of Rhio, and 
which had been dispatched by that chief to collect trib- 
ute at and about the Natunas islands. They had on 
board ten men killed, and eleven (four of them mortally) 
wounded. They affected the greatest aatonwhment oo 
discovering that our boats belonged to a British man-of- 
war, and protested that it was all a mistake ; that the 
island had lately been plundered by the IDanmi ptratet, 
for whom they had taken us ; that the rising sun was in 
their eyes, and that they coidd not make out the cokm, 
&c. Lieutenant Horton, thinking that their atorr might 
possibly have some foundation in truth, and takmg into 
consideration the severe lesson they had received, di- 
rected Dr. Simpson, the assistant-surgeon, to dreaa liieir 
wounds ; and ^ter admonishing them to be more cir- 
cumspect in future, restored them their boat, as well ai 
the others which belonged to the island, two of them be- 
ing a trifle smaller, but of the same armament as tlie one 
from Rhio, and the remaining three still smaller, cany- 
ing twelve men each, armed with spears and mnakets. 
These had been taken possession of by the euttera after 
they had reached the shore and landed their killed and 
wounded, who were borne away from the beach so 
smartly by the natives that our people had not time to 
ascertain the number hurt^ The sureeon went aahore, 
and dressed the wounds of several of them, an act of 
kindness and civilization far beyond their comprehension. 
The natives, however, appeared to bear us no malice for 
the injury we had inflicted on their countrymen, but 
loaded our boats with fruit, goats, and every thing we 
required. It afforded some amusement to find that 
among the slightly wounded was Mr. Brooke's okU 



eXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 210 

wealthy, and respectable friend already alluded to, who 
was not a little ashamed at being recognized ; but piracy 
is so inherent in a Malay, that few can resist the temp- 
tation when a good opportunity for plunder presents it- 
self. The &ct, which I afterward ascertained, was, that 
they took our boats for some coining from a wreck with 
whatever valuables they could collect ; and their not hav- 
ing seen any thing of the ship rather strengthened this 
conjecture ; the excuse they made for continuing the 
£gl{t after diey had discovered their mistake being that 
they expected no quarter.* 

May'tGth. — ^We proceeded up the river twelve miles 
further into the interior of this interesting country, and 
with ¥ny friend Mr. Brooke on boaixl, approached Sarft- 
wak, his seat of government ; in the riBach before yoa 
near which, and off the right bank of the river, is a long 
and dangerous shelf of rocks. The deep channel which 
lies between the . bank and the rocks is not more than 
sixty or seventy feet wide, and required some little care 
in passing ; but, with the exception of the flying jib- 
boom, wmch got nipped off in the branch of a magnifi- 
cent overhanging tree, we anchored without accident in 
six fathoms water, and greatly astonished the natives 
with a royal >salute in honor of Muda Hassira, the Rajah 
of Borneo. During the whole morning large boats, some 
carrying as many as two hundred- people, had been com- 
ing down die river to hail Mr. Brooko's return ; and one 
of the greatest gratifications I had was in witnessing the 
undisguised delight, mingled with gratitude and respect, 
with which each head man welcomed their newly-elect- 
ed ruler back to his adopted country. Although many 
of the Malay chiefs had every reason to expect that in 
the Dido they saw the means by which their misdeeds 
were to be punished, they showed their confidence in 
Mr. Brooke by bringing their children with them — a 
sign peculiar to the Malay. The. scene was both novel 
wad exciting ; presenting to us, just anchored in a kirge 
fresh-water river, and surrounded by a densely-wooded 

* I am happy to say that the Lords of the Adminltv have since 
been pleased to promote Lieut. Wilmot Uorton and Mr. W. L. 
Partridge, mate^ who commanded the pinnace, for Oieir gallant- 
ry on this occasion. — H. K. 



220 EXPEDITION TO BOKNEO. 

jungle, the whole surface of the water covered with 
canoes and boats dressed out with theii* various-colored 
silken flags, filled with natives beating their tom-toms, 
and playing on their wild and not unpleasant-sounding 
wind-instruments, with the occasional discharge of fire- 
arms. To them it must have been equally striking and 
extraordinary (as few of them had ever seen any larger 
vessel than their own war-boats, or a European, until 
Mr. Brooke^s arrival) to vdtness the Dido anchored al- 
most in the center of their town, her masTt-heads tow- 
ering above the highest trees of their jungle ; Uie loud 
repoit of her heavy two-and-thirty pounder guns, and 
the running aloft, to furl sails, of 150 seamen, in then: 
clean white dresses, and with the band playing, aU which 
helped to make an impression that will not easily be for- 
gotten at Sarawak. I was anxious that Mr. Brooke 
should land with all the honors due to so important a 
personage, which he accordingly did, under a salute. 
The next business was my visit of ceremony- to the ra- 
jah, which was great fun, though conducted in^lhe moat 
imposing manner. The band, and the marines, af a 
guard, having landed, we (the officers) all assembled at 
Mr. Brooke's house, where, having made ourselves as 
formidable as we could with swords and cocked hats, 
we marched in procession to the royal residence, his 
majesty having sent one of his brothers, who led me by 
the hand into his presence. The palace was a long, low 
shed, built on piles, to which we ascended by a li^der. 
The audience-chamber was hung with red and yellow 
silk curtains, and round the back and one side of the 
platform occupied by the rajah were ranged his min- 
isters, warriors, and men-at-arms, bearing spears, swords, 
shields, and other warlike weapons. Opposite to them 
were drawn up our royal marines, the contrast between 
the two body-guards being very amusing. Muda Has- 
sim is a wretched-looking, little man ; still there was a 
courteous and gentle manner about him that prepossess- 
ed us in his favor, and made us feel that we were before 
an individual who had been accustomed to conunand. 
We took our seats in a semicircle, on chairs provided 
for the occasion, and smoked cigars and drank tea. His 
majesty chewed his sirih-leaf and betel-nut, seated with 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 221 

one leg crossed under him, and playing with his toes. 
Very little is ever said during these audiences, so we 
aat staring at one another for'hatf an hour with mutual as- 
touishment ; and, after the usual compliments of wishing 
our friendship might last as long as the moon, and my hay- 
ing offered him the Dido and every tiling else tjiat did not 
belong to me in exchange for his house, we took our leave. 
May 19t^. — This was the day fixed for the rajah's 
visit to the Dido, about which he appeared very anxious, 
although he had seldom been known tb go beyond his 
own threshold For this ceremony all the boats, guns, 
tom-toms, flags, and population were put in requisition ; 
and the procession to the ship was a very gorgeous and 
amusing spectacle. We received him on boutl with a 
royal salute. He brought in his train a Whole tribe of 
natural brothers. His guards and followers were strange 
enough, and fiur too numerous to be admitted on the 
Dido's deck, so that as soon as a sufficient number had 
scrambled on board, the sentry had orders to prevent 
any more from crowding in ; but whether, in so doing, 
the most important personages j^f the realm were kept 
out, we did not ascertain. One fellow succeeded in ob- 
taining a footing with a large yellow silk canopy, a com- 
er of which having run into the eye of one of the mid- 
shipmen, the bearer missed his footing, and down came 
the whole concern — as I was informed, by accident! 
The party assembled in my cabin, and the remarks were 
few, nor did they manifest great astonishment at any 
thing. In fact, a Malay never allows himself to be tak- 
en by surprise. I believe, however, the rajah did not 
think much of my veracity, when I informed him that 
this was not the largest ship belonging to her Britannic 
majesty, and that she had several mounting upward of 
100 guns, though he adnutted that he had seen a grand- 
er sight than any of his ancestors. There was much 
distress depicted in the royal countenance during his 
visit which I afterward ascertained was owing to his 
having been informed that he must not spit in my cabin. 
On leaving the ship, whether the cherry brandy he had 
taken made htm forget the directions he had received, 
I do not know, but he squirted a mouthful of red betel- 
nut juice over the white deck, and then had the teiiier- 

T2 



332 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

ity to hold out his hand to the first lieutisiiaiit, who has- 
tily applied to him the style (not royal) of " a dirty b^ast,** 
which not understanding, he smiled graciously, taJdiig 
it as some compliment peculiar to the English. 

This farce over, I had now some tiitie to look about 
me, and to refit my ship in one of the prettiest spots on 
earth, and as unlike a dock-yard as -any thing could be. 

Mr. Brooked then residence, although equally mde 
in structure with the abodes of the natives, was not with- 
out its English comforts of so&s, chairs, and bedsteads. 
It was larger than any of- the others, but being, like 
them, built on piles, we . had to mount a ladder -to get 
into it. It was situated on the same side of the river 
(the right bank), next to, but rather in the rear of^ liie 
rajah's palace, with a clear space of about 150 yards bcv 
tween the back and the edge of the jungle. • It Was sar- 
rounded by palisades and a diteh, forming a protection 
to sheep, goats, pigeons, cats, poultry, geese, monkeys, 
dogs, ducks, and, occasionally, buQocks. The houae con- 
sisted of but one floor. A large room in the center, neat- 
ly ornamented with every description of firearms, in 
admirable order and ready for use, served as an audi- 
ence and mess-room ; and the various apartments round 
it as bed-rooms, most of them comfortably furnished 
with mattod floors, easy chairs, pictures, and books, with 
much more taste and attention to comfort than bachelon 
usuaUy display. In one comer of the square formed by 
the palisades were the kitehen and offices. The Euro- 
peans with Mr. Brooke consisted of Mr. Douglas, for- 
merly in the navy, a clever young surgeon, and. a gen- 
tleman of the name of Williamson, who, being master 
of the native language, as well as active and intelligent, 
made an excellent pnme nainistor. Besides these were 
two others, who came out in the yacht, one an old man- 
of-war's man, who kept the arms in first-rato condition, 
and another worthy character, who answered to the^ 
name of Charley, and took. care of the accounts ju^* 
charge of every thing. These were attended by sepr-' 
ants of different nations. The cooking establishmfift 
was perfect, and the utmost harmony prevailed. The 
great feeding-tune was at sunset, when Mr. Brooke took 
his seat at me head of the table, and all the establish* 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 233 

ment, as in days of yore, seated themselyes Hccording 
to their respective grades. This hospitable board was 
open to all the officers of the Dido ; and many a joYial 
evening we spent there. AU Mr. Brooke's party were 
characters — all had traveled ; and never did a minuta 
flag for want of some entertaining anecdote, good story* 
or song, to pass away the time ; and it was while smok- 
ing our cigars in the evenii^ that the natives, as well as 
the Chinese who had become settlers, used to drop in* 
and, after creeping up according to their custom, and 
touching the hand of dieir European nuah, retire to the 
further end of the room, and squat down upon their 
haunches, remain a couple of hours without uttering a 
word, and then creep out again. I have seen nxty or 
seventy of an evening come in and make this sort of sa- 
laam. AU the A^alays were armed ; and it is reckoned 
an insult for one of item to appear before a rajah with- 
out his kris. I could not help remarking the manly, in* 
dependent bearing of the hidf-savage and nearly naked 
mountain Dyak compared with the sneaking deport- 
ment of the Malay. 

The following little adventure was told me during my 
stay at Sai'awak, by Dr. Treacher, who had lately join- 
ed Mr. Brooke, his former medical attendant having re-^ 
turned to England. It appears that Dr. Treacher re- 
ceived a message by a confidential slave that one of the 
ladies of Macota^s harem desired an interview, appoint- 
ing a secluded spot in the jungle as the rendezvous. 
The doctor, being aware of his own good looks, fancied 
he had made a conauest, and, havins got himself up as 
showily as he could, was there jit me appointed time. 
He described the poor giri as Ix^th young and pretty* 
but with a. dignified and determined look, which at once 
convinced him that she was moved to take so c|angeroua 
a step by some deeper feeing than that of a mere fancy 
for hjs person. She complained of the ill treatment she 
had received from Macota, and the miserable life she led* 
and avowed that her firm resolve was to destroy (not her- 
self, gentle creature ! buQ him ; for which purpose she 
wanted a small portion ot arsenic. It was a disappoint- 
ment that he could not comply with her request ; so 
they parted — he full df pity and tove &)t her, and she, in 



224 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

all probability, full of contempt for a man who fell; for her 
wrongs, but would not aid in the very simile means she 
had proposed for redressing them. 

While at Singapore, Mr. Whitehead bad kindly offer- 
ed to allow his yacht, the Emily, a schooner of about 
fifty tons, with a native crew, to bring our letters to Bor- 
neo, on the arrival at Singapore of ue mail &om Eng- 
land. About the time she was expected, I thought It 
advisable to send a boat to cruise in the vicimty of Ci^ 
Datu, in case of her falling in with any of these ]^Fatical 
gentry. The Dido's largest boat, the pinnace, being un- 
der repair, Mr. Brooke lent a kirge boat which he had 
had built by the natives at Sarawak, and called the JoDy 
Bachelor. Having fitted her with a brass uz-pomidin: 
long gun, with a volunteer crew of a mate, two mid- 
shipmen, six marines, and twelve seamen, and a fort- 
night's provisions, I dispatched her under the command 
of the second lieutenant, Mr. Hunt ; Mr. Dou^ktt, speak- 
ing the Malayan language, likewise volunteered his serv- 
ices. One evemng, after they had been about six days 
absent, while we were at dinner, young Douj^as nttde 
his appearance, bearing in his arms die captured colors 
of an Illanun pirate. It appears that the day after they 
had got outside they observed three boats a long way in 
the offing, to which they gave chase, but so<m lost 8i||^t 
of them, owing to their superior sailing. They, how- 
ever, appeared a second and a third time, after dark, 
but without the Jolly Bachelor being aUe to get near 
them; and it now being late, cmd the crew both fatigued 
and hungry, they pulled inshore, lighted a fire, cooked 
their provisions, and then hauled die boat out to her 
grapnel, near some rocks, for the night ; lying down to 
rest with their arms by their sides, and muskets round 
the mast, ready loaded. Having also jdaced sentries and 
look-out men, and appointed an officer of the watch, 
they one and all (sentries included, I suppose), owing 
to the fatigues of the day, fell asleep ! At about three 
o'clock the following morning, the moon being just about 
to rise, Lieut. Hunt happening to be awake, observed a 
savage brandishing a kris, and performing his war-dance 
on the bit of deck, in an ecstasy of delight, thinking, in 
all probability, of the ease with which he had got pos- 



^ EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 325 

Session of a fine tradihg4x>at, and calculating the cargo 
of slaves he had to sell, but little dreaming of the horn- 
ets' nest into which he had faflen. Lieut. Hunt's round 
fiBu;e meeting. the light of the rising moon, without a tur- 
ban surmounting it, was the first notice the pirate had 
of his mistake. He iran^ediately plunged overboard; 
and before Lieut. Hunt had sufficiently recovered his 
astonishment to know whether he was dreaming or not, 
or to rouse his crew \ip, a discharge from three or four 
cannon within a few yards, and the cutting through the 
rigging by the various missiles with whjch die guns 
were loaded, soon convinced him there was no misteke. 
It was as well the men were still lying down when this 
discharge took j)lace, as not one of liiem was hurt; but 
on jumping to Iheir legs, they found themselves closely 
pressed by two large war-prahus, one on each bow. 
To return the fire,- cat the cable, man the oars, and 
back astern to gain room, was the work of a minute ; 
but now came the tug of war ; it was a case of life and 
death. * Our men fought as British sailors ought to do ; 
quarter was not expected on either side ; and the quick 
and deadly aim of the mai'ines prevented the pirates 
from reloading their guns. The lUanun prahus are 
built with strong bulwarks or barricades, grape-shot 
proof, across the fore part of the boat, through which 
ports are formed for woildng the guns ; these bulwarks 
had to be, cut away by round shot from the JoDy Bach- 
elor before the musketry could bear effectuflDy. This 
done, the grape and canister told with fearful execution. 
In the mean time, the prahus had been pressing forward 
to board, while the Jolly Bachelor backed astern ; but, 
as soon as this service was achieved, our men dropped 
their oars, and, seiz'mg their muskats, dashed on : the 
work was sharp, but short, and the slaughter great. 
While one pirate boat wai sinking, and an effort made 
to secure her, the other effected her escape by round- 
ing the point of rocks, where a third and larger {nrahn, 
hitherto unseen, came to her assistance, and putting 
fresh hands on board, and taking her in tow, succeeded 
in getting off, although chased by the Jolly Bachelor, 
after setting fire to £e crippled prize, which blew up 
and sunk before the conquertMrs got back to die scenb 
15 



226 EXPEDITION TO BOBNEO. 

of action. While there, a man swam off to them from 
the shore, who proved to be one of the ciqptiired slaves, 
and had made his escape by leaping overboard dmiag 
the fight The three prahus were the same lUamm pi- 
rates we had so suddenly come upon off Cape Data in 
the Dido, and they belonged to the same fleet that 
Lieut. Horton had chased off the Islaiid of MamndunL 
The slave prisoner had been seized, with a compatuflo, 
in a small fishing canoe, off Borneo Proper; his conqiaii- 
ion suffered in the general slaughter. The aigljit that 
presented itself on our people boutUng the captvured boat 
must indeed have been a frightful one. None of the 
pii-ates waited on board for even the chanee of recehring 
either quarter or mercy, but all those capable of moving 
had thrown themselves into the water. In addition to 
the killed, some lying across the thwarta, with their 
oars in their hands, at the bottom of the prafau, in wludi 
there was about three feet of blood and water, were i6ett 
protruding the mangled remains of ei^teen or twen^ 
bodies. During my last expedition I fell in with a dave 
belonging to a Malay chief, one of our aDies, who infom^ 
ed us that he likewise haid been a prisoner, and pa&ed 
an oar in one of the two prahus that attacked the JcBij 
Bachelor ; that none of the crew of the ci^Anred pr^hn 
reached the shore alive, with the exception of the kd 
that swam off to our people; and thatthete were to 
few who survived in the second pHahu, that, bavui|^ sep- 
arated from then: consort during the m^t, the uaves, 
fifteen in number, rose and put to death the remainiog 
pirates, and then ran the vessel into the first TiTer Ifaay 
reached, which proved to be the Kaleka, where they 
were seized, and became the property of the g o v e r n ing 
Datu ; and my informant was again sold to my compan- 
ion, while on a visit to his friend the Data. Each of 
the attacking prahus had between fifty and taty men, 
including slaves, and the laiger one between nine^ and 
a hundred. The result might have been veiy different 
to our gallant but dosy Jolly Bachelors. 

I have already mentioned the slanghter conunitted by 
the fire of the pinnace, under Lieutenant Horton, intu 
the largest Malay prahu ; and the account given df the 
scene which presented itself on the deck of uie defeatec* 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 227 

pirate, when takea possession of, affords a striking proof 
of the character of these fierce rovers ; resembling 
greatly what we read of the Norsemen and Scandina- 
vians of early ages. Among the mortally wounded lay 
the young commander of the prahu, one of the most no- 
ble forms of the human race ; his countenance handsome 
a»lhe hero of Oriental romance, and his whole bearing 
wonderfully impressive and. touching. . He was shot in 
front and mrough the lungs, and his last moments were 
rapidly approai^ng. He endeavored to speak, but the 
blood gushed from his mouth with the voice he vainly 
essayed to utter in words. Again and again he tried, 
but again Bjad again .the vital fluid drowned the dying 
effort. JEIe looked as if he had something of in^rtance 
which he desired to-eommunicate, and a shade of disap- 
pointment and regret passed over his brow when he felt 
that every essay was unavailing, dnd that his manly 
strength and-danng spirit were dissolving into the dai^ 
night of death. The pityiqg conquerors raised him 
gently tip, and he was seated in comparative ease, for 
die welling out of the blood was less distressing ; but the 
end speedily came : he fended his arms heroically across 
his wounded breast, fixed his eyes upon the British sea- 
men around, and, casting one last glance at the ocean — 
the theater of h^ daring exploits, on which he had so 
often fou^t and triumphed — expired without a sigh. 

The speclktoni, though not unused to tragical and 
sanguinary sights, were unanimous in speaking of the 
death of die pirate chief as the most affecting spectacle 
they had ever witnessed. A sculptor might have carved 
him as an Antinous in the moital agonies of a Dying 
Gladiator. " 

The leaders of the piratical prahus are sometimes 
poeticaDy addressed by their followers b/s Matari, i. e., 
the sun ; or Bulan, the moOn ; and from his superiority 
in every respect, {^ysical and intellectual, the chief 
whose course was here so fatally closed seemed to be 
worthy of either celestial name. 



228 EXPEDITION TO BORNBCK 



CHAPTER XVI. 

The Rajah*8 letter to Captain Keppel, and bis TenHf.^^'Pnpnm 
for an expedition against the Sarebaa piratet.-^PIea8ore eicui^ 
sion up tne river. — ^The Chinese settlement. — ^Tbe Siogd monii' 
tain. — Interior of the residences. — Dvak festival of Mauffat— 
Relics. — Sporting. -^ Return to Sarawak. — The • expeditioD 
against Sarebus.-^State and number of the assdilibg force.-* 
Ascent of the river. — Beauty of the scenery. 

May 2lst. — ^I received intimation that the rajah hid 
written a letter, and wished me to appoint a time and 
place, that it might be presented in due form. Accord- 
ingly I attended in Mr. Brooke's hall of audience on the 
following day, where I found collected all the chie&i 
and a crowd of natives, many of them having already 
been informed that the said letter was a requiaitioD rar 
me to assist in putting down the hordes of pirates who 
had so long infested the coast. I believe many of those 
present, especially the Bomeons, to have been, carnally 
concerned, if not deeply implicated, in some of their 
transactions. After I bad taken my seat ivitli Mr. 
Brooke at the head of the table, the rajah's sword-bearen 
entered, clearing the way for the huge yeQow. canopy, 
under the shade of which, on a large brass tray, and 
carefully sewn up in a yellow silk bag, Was "die letter, 
from which it was removed, and placed in my hands by 
the Pangeran Budrudeen. I opened the bajK with my 
knife, and giving it to an interpreter, he read it ekrad in 
the Malayan tongue. It was variously received by die 
audience, many of whose coutatenances were far fiom 
prepossessing. 

The following is a copy of the letter, to which was 
affixed the rajah's seal : 

" This friendly epistle, having its sooroe in a pace ninfl, 
comes from Rajah Muda Hassim. next in snofwasion. to die 
royal throne of the kingdom of Borneo, and who now holds 
his court at the trading city of Sarawak, to our friend Heniy 
Keppel, head captain of the war-frigate belonging to hw 
Britannic Majesty, renowned throughout all countnes— i«iio 
is valiant and discreet, and endowea with a mild and gentle 
nature: 



EXPIBDITION TO BORNEO. 229 

" This is to infonn oar friend that there are certam great 
pirates, of the people of Sarebu3 and Sakarran, in oar neigh- 
Dorhoody. seizdng goods and murdering people on the high 
seas. The^ have more than three hundred war-^rahus, and 
extend their ravages even to Banjarmassim ; they are not 
sabject to the government of Bruni (Borneo^ ; they take 
mttch phmder worn, vessels trading between Smgapore and 
the good people of our coontiy. 

" It would be a great service if our friend would adopt 
measores to put-«n end to these piratical outsrages. 

V We can present Nothing better to our friem than a kris, 
suciiasitis. 

«" 9pth ctoiy of Ealilal Akhir» 1357.*' 

To which I sent the foUowing reply : — 

-' "Captain Keppel begs to acknowledge the receipt of the 
Bi^ah Mudft Hasskn's tetter, representing that the Dyaks of 
Sarebus and Sakarran are the puates who infest the coast of 
Borneo, and do materiiad damage to the trade of Singapore. 

^ ** Captain Kero^ will take speedy measures to suppress 
these and- all other pirates, and feels confident that her 
britannic M^esty will be glad to leam that the Rajah Muda 
Hassim is ready to cooperate in so laudable an undertaking." 

. Not Toeing prepared ibr the oriental fashion of ex- 
dianging presents, I had nothing to offer to his rajah- 
ship ; but I found out* afterward that Mr. Brooke had 
(unknown to. me) Bent him a dock in my name. The 
royal kris was handsome, the handle x>f carved ivory, 
with a good deal of gold about it. 

This information about the pirates gave me good 
ground to make a beginning ; and having arranged with 
Mr. Brooke to obtain all necessary inteUigence relative 
to their position, strength, and numbers,* I determined 
on attacking them in their strongholds, commencing with 
the Sarebus, who,, from all accounts, were by far the 

* Piratical habits are so interwoven with the character of these 
Sarebus people^ that the capture at sea of a few prahus would 
have but small effect in curing the evil ; while a harassing duty 
is encountered, the result is only to drive the pirates from one 
craising-ground to another ; but, on the contrary, a system which 
joins conciliation with severity, aiming at the correction of the 
native character as well as the suppression of piracy, and carry- 
ing punishment to the doors of the offenders, is the only one which 
can effectually eradicate an evil almost as disgraceful to those 
who permit it as to the native states engaged in it. 

u 



S30 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

most Strongly fortified. Mr. Brooke accepted mj invi* 
tation to accompany us, as well as to. supply a native 
force of about three hundred men, who, should we suc- 
ceed in the destruction of the pirate forts, wooki be 
useful in the jungle. Mr. Brooke's going to join per 
sonaliy in a war against (in the opinion o£ the Datus) 
such formidable opponents as the Sakarran and Sarebos 
pirates — ^who had never yet been conquered, altfaoni^ 
repeatedly attacked by the united forces of the surround- 
ing rajahs^^ — ^was strongly opposed by the chieft. Od his 
informing them that he should go, but leavine it optional 
whether they would accompany him or not, meir simple 
reply was, ** What is the use of our remaining? If ycm 
die, we die ; and if you live, we live ; we will go with 
you.*' Preparations for the expedition were aceord- 
ingly commenced. 

No place could have suited us better for a refit. Within 
a few yards of the ship was a Chinese workshop. Our 
boats were hauled up to repair under sheds, and we 
drew our fresh water alongside ; and while the Dido was 
at Sarawak, Mr. Jago, the carpenter, built a very beau- 
tiful thirty-foot gig, having cut the pkmk up in the Chi- 
naman's sawpit. r 

While these works were in progress, I accompanied 
Mr. Brooke up the river. The Royalist having been 
dispatched to Singapore with our letters, we started on 
our pleasure-excursion. With the officers irom the 
Dido and the chiefs, who always accompany the '^ Tuan 
Besar," we mustered about sixty persons ; and with our 
guns, walking-sticks, cigars, and a weU-supptied.com- 
missariat, determined to enjoy ourselves. 

We were not long in making the acquaintances of the 
chiefs. Men who had formerly rebelled, who were 
conquered by Mr. Brooke, and had their (forfeited) lives 
saved, their families restored to them, and tliemsehres 
finally reinstated in the offices they had previously heki 
— these men were veiy naturally and faithfully attached. 
Our young gentlemen found their Malayan names diffi- 
cult to remember, so that the gallant old Patingi Ali was 
seldom called any other nanve than that of ** Three- 
Fingered Jack," from his having lost part of his right 
hand ; the Tumangong was spoken of as the ** Father of 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 2Sl 

Hopefai," from one of his children, a fine litde fellow, 
whom he was fbofishly attached to, and seldom seen 
without. 

De^ Macota, who had sometime before received the 
appellation of ** the Serpent,** had, ever since he got his 
orders to qdit, some six months before, been preparing 
his boats, but which were ready in an incredibly short 
time after the Dido's arrival ; and thos Mr. Brooke got 
rid of that most intriguing and troublesome rascal; a 
persou who had, from the commencement, been trying 
to supplant and ruin him. He it was that gave the Sa- 
karran pirates permission to ascend the river for the 
purpose of attacking the comparatively defenceless moun- 
tain Dyakrt and he it was that persecuted the unfortu- 
nate young nianun chief, Si Tundo, even to his assassi- 
nation. He was at last got rid of from Sarawak, but 
only to join and plan mischief with that noted piratical 
chief, Seriff Sahib ; he, however, met his deserts. 

We ascended the river in eight or ten boats. The 
scene to us was most novel, and particularly fresh and 
beautifuL We stopped at an empty house ou a cleared 
spot on tiie left bank during the ebb-tide, to cook our 
dinner ; in the cool of the afternoon we proceeded with 
the flood ; and kte in the evening brought up for the 
night in a snug little creek close to the Chinese settle- 
liient. We slept in native boats, which were nicely and 
comfortably fitted for the purpose. At an early hour 
Mr. Brooke was waited on by the chief of the Kunsi ; 
and on visiting their settlement he was received with a 
salute of three guns. We found it kept in theirv usual 
neat and clean ord^r, particularly their extensive vege- 
table gardens ; but being rjLther pressed for time, we did 
not risit the mines, but proceeded to the villages of dif- 
ferent tribes of Dyaks living on the Sarambo mountain, 
numbers of whom had been down to welcome us, very 
gorgeously dressed in feathers and scarlet. 

The foot of the mountain was about four miles from 
the landing-place ; and a number of these kind savages 
voluntarily shouldered our provisions, beds, bags, and 
baggage, and we proceeded on our march. We did not 
expect to find quite a turnpike-road ; but, at the same 
tinie, It for one, was not prepared for the dance led u$ 



232 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

by our wild cat-like guides through thick jangle, and 
alternately over rocky hills, or up to our middles in the 
soft marshes we had to cross. Our only means of doing 
so was by feeling on the surface of the mud (it being 
covered in most places abont a foot deep with grass or 
discolored water) for light spars thrown along length- 
wise and quite unconnected, while our only support 
was an occasional stake at irregular distancest at which 
we used to rest, as the spars invariably sunk into the 
mud if we attempted to stop ; and there being a long 
string of us, many a fall and flounder in the :mud (gon 
and all) was the consequence. 

The ascent of the hill, although as steep as the side 
of a house, was strikingly beautiful. Our resting-pku^ 
unluckily, were but few; but when we did reach one, 
the cool, fresh breeze, and the increasing - extent and 
variety of scene — our view embracing, as it did, all iha 
varieties of river, mountain, wood, and sea — amply re- 
paid us for the exertion of the lower walk; and, on 
either hand, we were sure to have a pure cool rivulet 
tumbUng over the rocks. "While going up, however, our 
whole care and attention were requisite to secure our 
own safety ; for it is not only one continued climb up lad- 
ders, but such ladders ! They are made of the single trunk 
of a tree in its rough and rounded state, with notches, not 
cut at the reasonable distance apart of the ratfins of oar 
rigging, but requiring the knee to be brought up to the 
level of the chin before the feet are sufficiently 'parted 
to reach from one step to another ; and that,, when the 
muscles of the thigh begin to ache, and the wind is 
pumped out of the body, is distressing work. 

We mounted, in this manner, some 500 feet ; and it 
was up this steep that Mr. Brooke had ascended only a 
few mouths before, with two hundred followers, to at- 
tack the Singe Dyaks. He has already described the 
circular halls of these Dyaks, in one of which we were 
received, hung round, as the interior of. it is, with hun- 
dreds of human heads, most of them dried with the slun 
and hair on ; and to give them, if possible, a more ^astly 
appearance, small shells (the cowry) are inserted where 
the eyes once were, and tufts of dried grass protrude 
from the ears. But my eyes soon grew accostomed to 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 233 

the sight ; and by the time dinner was ready (I think I 
may say ti;e) thought no more about them than if they 
had been as many cocoa-nuts. 

Of course the natives crowded round us ; and I no- 
ticed that with these simple people it was much the 
same as with the more civilized, and that curiosity was 
strongest in the gentler sex ; and again, that the young 
niei) came in more gorgeously dressed, wearing feath- 
ers, necklsLces, armlets, ear-rings, bracelets, beside 
jackets of various'-colored silks, and other vanities— than 
the older and wiser chiefs, who encumbered themselves 
with no more dress than what decency actually re- 
quired, and were, moreover, treated with the greatest 
respect. 

we strolled about from house to house without cau»- 
ing the slightest alarm : in all we were welcomed, and 
invited to squat ourselves on their mats with the fam- 
ily. The women, who were some of them very good- 
looking, did not run from us as the plain-headed 
Malays would have done ; but laughed and chatted 
to us by signs in all the consciousness of innocence and 
virtue. 

We were fortunate in visiting these Dyaks during one 
of their grand festivals (called Maugut) ; and in the 
evening, dancing, singing, and drinking were going on in 
vanous parts of the village. In one house there was a 
grand /et«, in which the women danced with the men. 
The dre9s of the women was simple and curious — a 
light jacket open in front, and a short petticoat not com- 
ing below the knees, fitting close, was hung round with 
jingling bits of Jbrass, which kept ** making music ^ 
wherever they went. The movement was like all 
other native dances — ^graceful, but monotonous. There 
were four men, two of them bearing human sculls, and 
two the fresh heads of pigs; the women bore wax-lights, 
or yellow rice on brass dishes. They danced in line, moving 
backward and forward, and carrying the heads and dishes 
in both hands ; the graceful part was the manner in 
which they half turned the body to the right and left, 
looking over their shoulders and holding the heads in the 
opposite direction, as if they were in momentary expec- 
tation of some one coming up behind to snatch the nasty 

V2 



234 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

relic from them. At times the women knelt down in t 
group, with the men leaning over them. After all, the 
music was not the only thing wanting to make one imagine 
oneself at the opera. The necklaces of the wonrien were 
chiefly of teeth — bears' the most common — hanten the 
most prized. 

In an* interior house at one end were coHected Ae 
relics of the tribe. These consisted of several roond- 
looking stones, two deer's heads, and other inferior tniin- 
pery. The stones turn black if the tribe is to be beaten 
in war, and red if to be yictorions s any one tonehing 
them would be sure to die ; if k>st, the tribe would be 
ruined. 

The account of the deer's heads is still more eorioiu: 
A young Dyak having dreamed the previous ni^t that 
he should become a great warrior, observed two .deer 
swimming across the river, and killed diem ; a atorm 
came on with thunder and lightning, and darkiieaa caine 
over the face of the earth ; he died inmiediataly, but 
came to life again, and became a mmah gnna (fiteral^ 
a useful house) and chief of his tribe ; the two deer atffl 
live, and remain to watch over the affairs of the^ tribe. 
These heads have descended from thnr ancestors from 
the time when they first became a tribe and inhabited 
the mountain. Food is always kept placed before itiem, 
and renewed from time to time. While in the drcobr 
building, which our party named *^the scuHery,** ayonng 
chief (Meta^ seemed to take great pride in answering oar 
interrogatories respecting different sknfls which we took 
down from their hooks : two belonged to chiefs of a taribe 
who had made a desperate defence ; and jndsing from 
the incisions on the heads, each of which must have been 
mortal, it must have been a desperate affiilr. Among 
other trophies was half a head, the skull separated from 
across between the eyes, in the same manner that 
you would divide that of a hare or rabbit to get at the 
brain — this was their division of the head of an old wo- 
man, which was taken when another (a friendly) tribe 
was present, who likewise claimed their lulf. 1 after 
ward saw these tribes share a head. But the sknHi, 
the account of which our informant ^jpeared to dwel' 
on with the greatest delight, were moM which 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 235 

taken while the Qwners were asleep^— cnnning ^ith them 
being the perfection of war&re. We slept in their 
** scullery ;** and my servant Aahford, who happened 
to be a sleep-walker, that night jumped out of the win- 
dow, and unluckily on the steep side; and had not the 
ground been well turned up by the numerous pigs, and 
softened by rain, he must have been hurt. 

May 25th, — Having returned to our boats, We moved 
up another branch of the river, for the pmrpose of deer- 
shooting, and landed under some large shady tree^. 
The sportsmen divided into two sm^ parties, and, 
nnder the guidance of the natives, went in search of 
game, leaving the remainder of the paity to prepare 
dinner against our return. 

The distance we had to vralk to get to our ground 
was what our guides considered v nothing — some five 
milea through jungle ; and one of the most distressing 
parts in jungle-walking is the having to climb over Uie 
fiUlen trunks of immense trees. 

A short time before sunset we came to a part of the 
jangle that opened on to' a large swamp, with long rank 
grass about six feet high, across which was a sort of 
Dyak bridge. The guide having made siens for me to 
advance, I cautiously crept to the edge of the jungle'; 
and after some little trouble, and watching the direction 
of his finger, I observed the heads of two deer, male 
and fem^, protruding just above the grass at about 
sixty yards* distance. From the manner the doe was 
moving about her long ears, it had, to my view, all the 
appearance of a rabbit. Shooting for the pot, I selected 
her. As soon as I fired, some of my boat's crew made 
a dash into the grass ; and in an instant three of them 
were nearly up to their chins in mud and water, and 
we had some difficulty in dragging them out: Our 
Malay guide more knowingly crossed the bridge; and 
being acquainted with the locality, reached the deer 
from the opposite side, taking care to utter a pray 6r and 
cut the throat with the head in the directipn of the 
Prophet* s tomb at Mecca, without which ceremony no 
true foIk>wer of Islam could partake of ttke meat. The 
doe was struck iust below the ear ; and my native oora* 
panion appeared much astonished at the distance and 



230 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

deadly efTect with which my smooth-bored Wesdiy 
Richards had conveyed the ball. 

The buck had got off before the smoke had cleared 
sufficieDtly for me to see him. From what I had 
heard, I was disappointed at not seeing more game. 
The other party had not killed anything, akhouf^ 
they caught a little fawn, having frightened away £e 
mother. 

My time was so occupied during my stay in Borneo^ 
that I am unable to give any account of the sport to be 
found in the island. Neither had Mr. Brooke seen 
much of it ; unless an excursion or two he had made 
in search of new specimens of the ourapg-outaog, or 
mias, may be brought under that head. This excaiwa 
he performed not only virith the permission and under 
the protection, but as the guest, of the piratical chief 
Seriff Sahib ; little thinking that, in four years after- 
ward, he would himself, as a powerful rajah,' be the 
cause of destroying his town, and driving him firom die 
country. 

So much for sporting. The pleasure, I believe, in- 
creases in proportion to the risk. But, while on die 
subject, I may mention that of pig-shooting, which I 
found an amusement not to be despised, especial^ if 
you approach your game before life is extinct. ^The 
jaws are long, tusks also, and sharp as a raaor; and 
when once wounded, the animals evince a strong incli- 
nation to return the compliment : they are active, enn- 
ning, and very fast. I shot several at different times. 
The natives also describe a very formidable beast, the 
size of a large bullock, found farther to the northward, 
which they appear to hold in great dread; This I eon- 
ceive to be a sort of bison ; and if so, the sporting in 
Borneo altogether is not so bad. 

The following day we went to other ground for deer; 
but the Dyaks had now enjoyed peace so long that the 
whole country was in a state of cultivation ; and after 
scrambling over tracts of wild-looking countnr, in which 
Mr. Brooke, two years before, had seen the deer in 
hundreds, we returned to our boats, and down the 
river to Sarawak. 

We now began to iH*epare in earnest iot week of an- 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 237 

«]il;her sort. The news of our intended attack on the 
Sarebus pirates had soon reached them, and spread all 
over the country ; and we had daily accounts of the for- 
midaUe resistance they intended to make. By the 4th 
July our preparations were complete, and the ship had 
dropped' down to the mouth of the river. I forgot to 
mentk>n that att the. adjoining serifis had, in the greatest 
consternation, sent ine assurances of their future good 
intentians. Seriff Jaffer, who lived with an industrious 
but warlike race of Dyaks up the Liuga river, a branch 
of the Batang Lupar, had never been known to commit 
piracy, and had been frequently at war with both the 
Sarebus and Sakarrans, offered to join our expedition. 
From Seriff Sahib, who lived up a river at Sadong, ad- 
joining the -Sarebus territoiy, and to whom the " Ser- 
pent" MaciDta had gone, Mr. Brooke and myself had 
uivitations to partake of a feast on our way to the Sare- 
bus river. This was accompanied with a present of a 
cou{>]e of handsome spears and a porcupine, and also an 
offer to give up the women and children he had, with 
the assistance of the Sakarran pirates, captured from 
the poor Sow Dyak» up the Sarawak. 

Farther to the eastward, and up the Batang Lupar, 
into which the Sakarran runs, lived another powerful 
seriff by the name of Muller, elder brother and coadjutor 
of Seriff Sahib. These all, howiever, through fear at 
die moment^ sent in submissive messages; but their 
turn had not yet come, and we proceeded toward the 
Sarebus. 

The island of Burong, off which the Dido was to re- 
main at am^r, wb made the first place of rendezvous. 
The force fromtfae Dido consisted of her pinnace, two 
cutters, and a gig ; beside which Mr. Brooke lent us his 
native-built boat, the Jolly Bachelor, canying a long six- 
pounder brass gun and thirty of our men ; also a large 
tope of thirty-nve tons, which carried a well-supplied 
commissariat,, as well as ammunition. 

The native force was extensive ; but I need only 
mention the names of those from Sarawak. The three 
chiefs (the Tumangpng and two Patingis, Gapoor and 
Ali) had two large boats, each canying about 180 men. 
Then there waa the rajah's large, heavy boat, with the 



238 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO; 

rascally Boineons and about 40 men, uod sundry other 
Sarawak boats ; and, beside, a Dyak force of about- 400 
men from the different tribes of Lundu, Sow, Siiis^, 
&c. Of com*se, it caused some trouble to eo^ect um 
wild, undisciplined armament, and two or three succes- 
sive pomts of rendezvous were necessBiy-;^ and it was 
the morning of the 8th before we entered the mer. 
Lieutenant Wilmot Horton was to command the expe- 
dition; with him, in the pinnace, were Mr. W. L. 
Partridge, mate ; Dr. Simpson, assistaot-snrgeon ; Mr. 
Hallowes, midshipman.; 14 seamen, and 5 marines. In 
the first cutter was Mr. D'Aeth, Mr. DoughiB, from 
Sarawak, and Mr. Collins, the boatswain ; in die second 
cutter, Mr. Elliott, the master, and Mr. Jenkins, mid- 
shipman. The Jolly Bachelor was consmanded bj 
Lieutenant Tottenham, and Mr. Comber, midatupinaD, 
with Mr. Brooke's medical friend, Dr. Treacher^ and 
an amateur gentleman, Mr. Ruppel, from Sar&wsk. 
The force from the Dido was about 80, officers and 
men. The command of the boats, when sent away 
from a man-of-war, is the perquisite of the first lienteo- 
ant. My curiosity, however, would not allow me -to 
resist the temptation of attending the party in my gu;; 
and I had my friend Mr. Brooke as a companion, who 
was likewise attended by a sampan and crew he had 
taken with him to Sarawak from Singapore. His cos- 
swain, Seboo, we shall all long remember : he wt« civil 
only to his master, and, I believe, brave in^ile in his 
company. He was a stupid-looking and poweriiil(^- 
built sort of savage, always praying, eating, smiling, or 
sleeping. When going into action, he always went 
down on his knees to pray, holding his load^ mmiket 
before him. He was, however, a curious characte<» 
and afforded us great amusement — took gocfd'eare of 
himself and his master, but cared for no one else. 

In the second gig Was Lieutenant £. GunndQI, whose 
troublesome duty it was to {Nreserve order dnonf^hooft 
this extensive musketoe fleet, and to keep the natires 
from pressing too closely on the rear of our boats— an 
office which became less troublesome as we approaebed 
the scene of danger. The whole formed a novels pio- 
turesque, and exciting scene ^ and it was cwioas to 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO^ 239 

contemplate the different feelings that actuated the sep- 
arate and distinct parties^ — the odd mixture of Euro- 
peanS) Malays, and Dyaks, the different religions, and 
the eager and anxioud manner in which all pressed for- 
ward. The novelty of the thing was quite sufficient to 
excite oar Jacks, after having been co(4)ed up so long 
on board ship^ to ^say nothing of the chance of a broken 
head.. 

Of the Malays and Dyaks who accompanied vs, some 
came from curiosity, some from attachment to Mr. 
firook0, and many for plunder, but I think the majority 
to gratify revenge, as there were but few of the inhabi- 
taats on the nordi coast of Borneo who had not suffered 
more or less from the atrocities of the Sarebus and Sa- 
karranT pirates — either their houses burned, their rela- 
tioqs murdered, or their wives and childreu captured 
and sold itito slavery. 

We. did not get far up the river the first day, as the 
tope was very slow, anc( carried that most essential part 
of all expclditions, the commissariat. Patingi Ali, who 
had been sent the day before to await the force in the 
mouth of the Sarebus, fell in with five or six native 
boats, probably ob the look-out for us, to which he gave 
chase, and captured one, the rest retreating up the 
river. . 

On the 9th June, 184^ we had got some thirty miles 
in the same direction ; every thing was in order ; and, 
as we advanced, I pulled from one end of my little fleet 
to the -other, and felt much the same sort of pride as 
Sir William Parker must have experienced when lead- 
ing seven^rfive sail of British ships up the Yeang-tse 
Keang nfet into the very heart of the Celestial Empire. 
It rained hard ; bu^ we were well supplied with kajans, 
a mat admirably adapted to keep out the wet ; and se- 
curely covered in, my gig had all the appearance of a 
native boat, especiaUy as I had substituted paddles for 
oars. In this manner I frequently went a little in ad- 
vance of the force: and on the 9th I came on a couple 
of boats, hauled close in under the jungle, apparently 
perfectly unconscious of my approach. I concluded 
them to- be part of the small fleet of boats that had been 
chased, Uie praviooa day, in the mouth of the river ; a&d 



240 EXPEDITION TO BOSNIO. 

when abreast of them, and within range, I fired from 
mj rifle. The crews of each boat immediately predm- 
tated themselves into the water, and escaped into m 
jungle. They were so closely covered uif; that I did 
not see any one at first; bat-f found that n^'bafl had 
passed through both sides of an iron kettle, in whioh 
they were boiling some rice. How jastonished the cook 
must have been ! On coming Up, our Dyak folfewan 
dashed into the jungle in pursuit of the ini^tivea, but 
without success. 

We moved on leisurely with the flood-tide, anchcmng 
always on the ebl^ by which means we managed to col- 
lect our stragglers and keep the force together. Toward 
the evening, by the incessant sound of distant aongB,we 
were aware that our approach was known, and uiat prep- 
arations were making to repel us. These noiaee were 
kept up all night ; and we occasionally heard the distaot 
report of ordnance, which was fired, of course, to intim- 
idate us. During the day, several deserted boats were 
taken from the banks of the river and destroyed, some 
of them containing spears, shields, and anunumtion, with 
a few fire-arms. 

The place we brought up at for the night waa caUed 
Boling ; but here the river presented a troableaome and 
dangerous obstacle in what is caHed the bore, caused fay 
the tide coming ;n with a tremendous rush, as if an 
immense wave of the sea had suddenly rolled up the 
stream, and, finding itself confined on either aide, ex- 
tended across, like a high bank of water, curfing wad 
breaking as it went, and, from the frightfdl velocily wiA 
which it passes up, carrying all before it. There are, 
however, certain bends of the river wHere^the bore does 
not break across : it was now our business to Mk out 
for and gain these spots between the times of its activ- 
ity. The natives hold them in great dread. 

From Boling the river becomes less deep,' and not safe 
for large boats ; so that here we were obliged to leave 
our tope with the commissariat, and a sufficient force 
for her protection, as we had received information that 
thirteen piratical boats had been some time cruising out- 
side, and were daily expected up the river on tibeir re- 
turn, when our unguarded tope would have made them 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. Qi4l 

jem acceptable prize. In additioii to this, we were now 
fidrly ia the^ enemy's country: and for all we knew, 
hundreds of canoes might have been hid in the jungle, 
ready to lanch. Just below Boling, the river branches 
off to the right aiid left; that to the left leading to 
another nest of pirates at Pakoo, who are (by land) in 
communication with tiiose of Paddi, the place it was otir 
intention to attack first. 

Havipg provisioned our boats for six days, and provi- 
ded a strong guard to remain with the tope, the native 
force not feeling themselves safe separated from the 
main body, — ^we started, a smaller and more select party 
than before, but, in my opinion, equally formidable, leav- 
ing about 150 men. This arrangement gave but little 
satisfaction to those left behind, our men not liking to 
exchange an expeditwn where a fight was certain, for a 
service in which it was doubtful, although their position 
was one of danger, being open to attack from three dif- 
ferent parts of the river. Our party now consisted of 
the Dido's boats, the three Datus from Sarawak, and 
some Sow Dyaks, eager for beads and plunder. We 
arrived at our first resting-place early in the afternoon, 
and took up a position in as good order as the small 
space would admit. 

I secured my gig close to the bank, under the shade 
of a large tree, at some, little distance from the fleet of 
boats ; and, by myself, contemplated my novel position 
— ^in command of a mixed force of 500 men, some sev- 
enty miles up a river in the interior of Borneo ; on the 
morrow about to carry all the horrors of war among a 
race of savage pirates, whose country no force had ever 
yet dared to invade, and who had been inflicting with 
impunity ev^iy sort of cruelty on all whom they en-^ 
countered, for more than a century. 

As the sun went down, the scene was beautiful, ani- 
mated by th^ variety and picturesque appearance of the 
native prahus, and flie praying of the Mussulman, with 
his fiause in the direction of the Prophet's tomb, bowing 
his head to the deck of his boat, and absorbed in devo- 
tions from whieh nothing couki withdraw his attention. 
For a time— it being that for preparing the evenmg 
meal — no noise was made : it was a perfect calm ; and 
16 X 



342 EXPEDITION TO BOKNEO. 

the rich foliage was reflected in the water as in a mirror, 
while a small clond of smoke ascended from each bon^ 
to say nothing of that from my cigar, which added nrach 
to the charm I then experienced. 

Late in the evening, when the song aiid joke passed 
from boat to boat, and the lights from the different fires 
were reflected in the water, the scenery was equally 
pleasing ; but later still, when the lights were ont, there 
being no moon, and the banks overhung with trees, it 
was so dark that no one could see beyond his own boat. 

A little after midnight, a small boat was heard passing 
up the river, and was regularly hailed by us in succes- 
sion ; to which they replied, " We belong to your party." 
And it was not until the yell of triumph, given by six or 
eight voices, after they had (with a strong flood-tide in 
their favor) shot past the last of our boats, that we found 
how we had been imposed on. 



CHAPTER XVII. 

Ascent of the river to Paddi.— Town taken and burnt. — ^Narrow 
escape of a reinforcement of friendly Dyaks. — ^Night-attack 
by the pirates. — Conference : thev submit. — Proceed against 
Pakoo.^Dvak treatment of dead enemies. — Destruction of 
Pakoo, and submission of the pirates. — Advance upon Rem- 
bas. — ^The town destroyed : the inhabitants yield! — Satisfoctory 
effects of the expedition. — Death of Dr. Simpson.— Triamph- 
ant return to Sarawak. 

June 11th. — We moved on immediately after the pass- 
ing up of the bore, the dangers of which appeared to 
have been greatly exaggerated. The beating of gongs 
and discharge of cannon had been going on the whole 
of the previous night. 

The scenery improved in beauty every yard that we 
advanced ; but our attention was drawn from it by the 
increase of yelling as we approached the scene of action. 
Although as yet we had only heard our enemies, our 
rapid advance with a strong tide must have been seen 
by them from the jungle on the various hills which now 
rose to our view. 

Being in my gig, somewhat ahead of the bouts, I had 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 243 

the advantage of obsenring aU that occurred. The scene 
was the most exciting I ever experienced. We had no 
time for delay or consideration : the tide was sweeping 
us rapidly up ; and had w# been inclined to retreat then, 
we should have found it difficult. A sudden turn in the 
river brought us (Mr. Brooke was by my side^ in front 
of a steep hiU which rose from the bank. It nad been 
cleared of jui^le, and long grass grew in its place. As 
we hove -in sight, several hundred savages rose up, and 
gave one of their war-yells : it was the first I had heard. 
No report from musketry or ordnance could ever make 
a man's heart feel so ^mall as .mine did at that horrid 
yell : but I had no leisure to think. I had only time for 
a shot at them with my double barrel, as they rushed 
down -the steep, while I was carried past. I soon after 
heard the report of our large boat's heavy gun, which 
must have convinced them tdiat we likewise were pre- 
pared. 

On the roof of a long building, on the summit of the 
hin, were several warriors performing a war-dance, 
which i| would be difficult to imitate on such a stage. 
As these- were not the forts we were in search of, we 
did not delay longer than to exchange a fev^ shots in 
sweeping along. 

Our next obeteusle was more troublesome, being a strong 
baarrxer ri^t across the river, formed of two rows of 
trees placed firmly in the mud, with their tops crossed 
and secured together ~by ratans; and along the fork, 
formed by the crossing d the tops of these stakes, were 
other trees firmly secured. Rapidly approaching this 
banier^ I observed a small opening that might probably 
adniit a canoe ; and gathering, good way, and putting my 
^g's head straight at it, I squeezed through. On pass- 
ing it the scene again changed, and 1 had before me three 
formidaUe-lookii^ forts, which lost not a moment in 
opening a discharge of cannon on my unfortunate gig. 
Luckily their guns were properly elevated for the range 
of the barrier ; and, with the exception of a few strag- 
gUng grape-shot that splashed the Water round us, the 
whole went 4>ver our heads. For a moment I found my- 
self cut off from n^ companions, and drifting fast upon 
the enemy. The banks of the river were covered with 



244 BXPEDITION TO BO&NEO. 

warriors, yelling and rushing down tx> poMess themselvDt 
of my- boat and its crew. I had some difficulty in get- 
ting my long gig round, and paddling up against the 
stream ; but, while my fHend Brooke steered the boat, 
my cockswain and myself kept up a fire with tc^nUe 
aim on the embrasures, to prevent, if possible, their re- 
loading before the pinnace, our leading boat, could bring 
her twelve-pound carronade to bear. I was too late to 
prevent the pinnace falling athwart the barrier, in which 
position she had three men wounded. With the assist- 
ance of some of our native followers, the ratan-laahiogi 
which secured the heads of the stakes were soon cut 
through ; and I was not sorry when I found the Dido's 
first cutter on the same side with myself. The other 
boats soon followed ; and while the pinnace kept up • 
destructive fire on the fort, Mr. D'Aeth, who was the 
first to land, jumped on shore, with his crew, at the fiMit 
of the hill on the top of which the nearest fort st^Mxi, and 
at once rushed for the summit. -This mode of warfiure 
— this dashing at once in the very face of- their fort- 
was so novel and incomprehensible to our enemies, that 
they fied, panic-struck, into the jungle ; and it was with 
the greatest difficulty that our leading men could get 
even a snap-shot at the rascals as they went. 

That evening the country was illuminated for miles by 
the burning of the capital, Paddi, and adjacent villages; 
at which work, and plundering, our native foUowera were 
most expert. 

At Paddi the river branches off to the right and left; 
and it was on the tongue of land formed by them that 
the forts were very cleverly placed. We took aH their 
guns, and burned the stockades level with the ground. 

The banks of the river were here so confin^ that a 
man might with ease throw a spear across ; and, as the 
jungle was close, it was necessary to keep pretty weH 
on the alert. For the greater part of the night, the 
burning of the houses made it as bright as day. In the 
evening, Drs. Simpson and Treacher amputated a poor 
fellow's arm close to tlie shoulder, which, in the cramp- 
vA space of the boat, was no easy operation. He was 
one of our best men, and captain of the forecastle on 
board the Dido. 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 245 

Early on the following morning (12th) our boats, with 
the exception of the Jolly Bachelor, now become the 
hospital, proceeded up the two branches of the river ; 
almost aH ^e native force remaining to complete the 
work of destruction. 

An accident had nearly occurred at this period. A re- 
port had reached us that several large boats — supposed 
to be ti fleet of Sarebus pirates returning from a cruise — 
were in the river ; and knowing that they could not well 
attack and pass our fmrce at Boling without our hearing 
of it, I took no further notice of the rumor, intending to 
go dovfii in my gig afterward and have a look at them. 
While we we^e at breakfast in the Jolly Bachelor, a 
loud chattering of mat>y voices was heard, attended by a 
great bearing of tom-toms ; and suddenly a large prahu, 
crowded with savages, came sweeping round the bend 
of the river, rapidly nearing tis with a strong flood-tide. 
As she advanced, others hove in sight. In a moment 
pots and spoons were thrown down, arms seized, and 
the ^ brass six-pounder, loaded with grape and canister, 
was on the point of being fired, when Williamson, the 
only person who understood their character, made us 
aWare that they were a friendly tribe of Dyaks, from the 
River Linga, conung to our Assistance, or, more likely, 
coming to seek lor plunder and the heads of their ene- 
mies, witirwhom they had for many years been at war. 
Those in the leadiiig boat had, however, a narrow escape. 
I had already given the order to fire ; but luckily the 
priming had been blown off from the six-pounder. Had 
it not been so, fifty at ieast out of the first hundred 
would have been sent to their long homes. They were 
between ei^t and nine hundred strong. The scene to 
me was indeed curious and exciting : for the wild ap- 
pearance of these fellows exceeded any thing I had yet 
witnessed. Their war-dresses — each decorating him- 
self according to his own peculiar fancy, in a costume 
the most likely at once to adorn the wearer and strike 
terror into the enemy — made a remarkable show. Each 
had a shield and a handful of spears ; about one in ten 
was furnished with some sort of firearm, which was 
of more danger to hiniself or bis neighbor than to any 

X 2 



246 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO^ 

one else. They wore short i)added jacket8« capable of 
resisting the point of a wooden spear. 

The first thing necessary was to supply eacli with a 
strip of white calico, to be worn in the head-dress as a 
distinguishing mark, to prevent our people knocking them 
over if met by accident while prowUng about the jun^e.- 
We also established a watchword, *^ Datu,*' which many 
of them, who had great dread of the white men, never 
ceased to call out. Sheriff Jatfer, m command of their 
force, had promised to join us from the besinning ; but 
as they did not make their appearance off me mouth of 
the river, we thought no more of them. It.waa neces- 
sary to dispatch messengera up the rivers to inform onr 
boats of this re-enforcement, as in all probability an attack 
would have been made immediately on the appearing in 
sight of so formidable a force. 

At 10 A.M. our boats returned, having gone up die 
right-hand branch as far as it was practioible. That to 
the left having been obstinicted by trees felled across the 
stream, was considered, from the trouble taken to pre- 
vent our progi'ess, to be the branch up which the ene- 
my had retreated, and not being provisioned for more 
than the day, they came back, and started again in the 
afternoon with the first of the flood-tide. Oi tbis party 
Lieutenant Horton took charge, accompanied by Mr. 
Brooke. It was a small, but an effective, and detennined, 
and well-appointed little body, not -likely to be deterred 
by difficulties. A small native force of about forty men 
accompanied them, making, with our own, between 
eighty and ninety people. The forts having beeu de- 
stroyed, no further obstacles were expected to our ad- 
vance beyond the felling of trees and the vast odds as to 
numbers in case of attack, the pirates beiiu; reckoned to 
be about six thousand Dyaks and five hum&ed Malays. 

The evening set in with raip and hazy weather. Our 
native skirmishing parties were returning to their boats 
and evening meeds ; our advancing party had been ab- 
sent about an hour and a half, and I had just commenced 
a supper in the Jolly Bachelor on ham and poached eggs, 
when the sound of the pinnace's twelve-pounder car- 
ronade broke through the stillness of the night. This 
was responded to by one of those simultaneous war- 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 247 

yells apparently from eveiy part of the country. My 
immediate idea was that our friends had been surround- 
ed. It was impossible to move so large a boat as the 
Jolly Bachel(Mr up to their assistance ; nor would it be 
right to leave our wounded without a sufficient force for 
their protection. I immediately jumped into my gig, 
taidng with me a bugler, whom I placed in the bow, and 
seeing mac arms in as perfect readiness as the i*ain would 
allow OS to keep them in, I proceeded to join the com- 
batwits. 

Daylight had disappeared, as it does in tropical cli- 
mates, immediately after the setting of the sun. The 
tide had jadt turned against me ; and as 1 advanced up 
the river, the trees hung over many parts, nearly meet- 
ing across ; at the same time the occasional firing that 
was kept up assured me that the enemy were on the 
alert, and with aH the advantages of local knowledge and 
darkness on their side. From the winding of the stream, 
too, the yeDs appeared to come from every direction, 
sometimes ahead and sometimes astern. I had pulled, 
feeling my way, for nearly two hours, when a sudden 
and quick discharge of musketry, well on my left hand, 
intimated to me that I was approaching the scene of ac- 
tion ; and, at the same time, passing several large canoes 
hauled up on the bank, I felt convinced that my antici- 
pation was right, that^our party were surrounded, and 
that we riionld have to fight our way to each other. My 
plan was to make it appear as if I was bringing up a 
strong re-en£>rcement ; and the moment the firing ceased, 
I made the bugler strike up " Rory O'More," which 
was immediately responded to by thi*ee British cheers, 
and then foMowed a death-like stillness— if any thing, 
more uni^eMant than the war-yell — and I could not he^ 
feeling eertam that the enemy lay between us. 

The stream now ran rapidly over loose stones. Against 
the sky^ where the jungle had been cleared, I could dis- 
tinctly see the outlines of human beings. I laid my 
doaUe-barrel across my knees, and we pulled on. \Vhen 
within shot-range, I hailed, to make certain, and receiv- 
ing no answer, after a second time, I fired, keeping the 
muskets of the gig's crew ready to repel the first attack 
in case the enemy did not decamp. My fire was an- 



248 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

swered by Lieutenant Horton, ^* We. are here, mr.** 
At first I was much distressed from the fear that I mif^ 
have hurt any one. They had not heard me hail, ow- 
ing, I suppose, to the noise of' the water roshhig over 
the stones ; and they had not hailed noe, thinking- that I 
must of course know that it was them, and the enemy 
being in the jungle all round, they did not Uke to attnct 
attention to where they were. I found they hid taken 
up a very clever position. The running stream. had 
washed the ground away oh the ri^t bank, leaving a 
sort of little, deep bay, just big enough to hold the bo^ 
from which the bank rose quite perpertdiciilariy. On 
the top of this bank the jungle had been cleared for about 
thirty yards, and on this Lieutenant Gunnel, with seveO' 
royal marines, was posted as a rear-guard* Thia waa 
an important position, and one of danger, aB..the jung^ 
itself was alive with the enemy ; and although the spears 
were hurled from it continually during Sie nig^ no 
shot was thrown away unless the figure of the pirate 
could be distinctly seen. 

It continued to rain : the men wore their great-ooatt 
for the purpose of keeping their pieces diy ; and sever- 
al times, during that long night, I observed the mnskets 
of these steady and good men brought to the ahoiilder 
and again lowered without firing, as that part of the. 
jungle whence a spear had been hurled to "within a 
few feet of where they stopd did not show a ^stinet 
form of any thing living. The hours were little less in- 
teresting for those who, in the boats below, stood fiMcing 
the opposite bank of the river with their arms in th^ir 
hands. It appears that the enemy had come doiwn in 
great force to attack the boats from that side ; and aatha 
river was there very shallow, and tdie bottom hard, th^ 
could, by wading not more than knee-deepi hove ap- 
proached to within five or six yards of them ; but in the 
fii-st attack they had lost a great many men, and it is 
supposed that their repeated advances throoghout die 
night were more to recover their dead and woqnded 
than to make any fresh attack on our compact little fiuree, 
whose deadly aim and rapid firing must have astonished 
them, and who certainly were, one and all, prepared tn 
sell their lives as dearly as possible. 



EXPIU>ITION TO BORNEO. 249 

To the left of our position, and about 200 yards up 
the river, large trees were being feUed during the night ; 
and by the torch-lights showing the spot, the officer of 
the boat, Mr. Partridge, kept up a very fair ball-practice 
with the pionace^s gun. Toward morning a shot fell 
apparently just where they were at work ; and that being 
accompanied by what we afterward ascertained caused 
more horror and consternation among the enemy than 
any tilling else, a common signal sky-rocket, made them 
resi^ the ground entirely to us. The last shot, too, 
that was fired from the pinnace had kiQed three men. 

As daylight bi*oke I found that most of our party had 
squatted down with their guns between their knees, and, 
being completely exhausted, had fallen asleep in spite of 
the rain. Few will ever forget that night. There were 
two natives and one marine only of our party badly 
wounded ; the latter was struck by a rifle shot, which 
entered his chest and Ipdged in his shoulder ; and this 
poor fellow, a gallant young officer named Jenkins, al- 
ready distinguished in the Chinese war, volunteered to 
convey in the second gig, with four boys only, down to 
the Jolly Bachelor. He performed this duty, and was 
again up with the parly before daylight. 

At daylight we found the pirates collecting in some 
force above us; and several shots were fired, as if to try 
the range of their rifles ; but they took good care not to 
come within reach of our muskets. Shortly after, the 
tide beginning to rise, we made preparations for ascendr 
ing further up the river. This was more than they bar- 
gained for, as we were close to where they had removed 
their families, with such little valuables as they could 
collect, when we so imexpectedly carried their forts and 
took possession of their town ; and we were not sorry on 
observing, at that moment, a flag of truce advance from 
their party down the stream, and halt half way to our 
position. We inmiediately sent an unarmed Malay to 
meet them; and after a little talk, they came to our 
boats. The message was, that they were ready to abide 
by any terms We might dictate. I promised that hos- 
tUities should cease for two hours ; but told them we 
could treat only with the chiefs, whose persons should 
be protected} and I invited them to a conference at 1 p.m. 



250 EXPEDITION TO BORRfeO. 

In the mean while, having first sent notice by the mes- 
sengers, I took advantage of the time, and aeceiided m 
my gig, without any great difficulty, above the obMme- 
tion they had been so busy throwing across the river dur- 
ing the night. The news that hostUittes were to cease 
was not long in being communicated ; and, by the thne 
I had got up, the greatest confidence appeared to be es- 
tablished. Having pulled up into shpel water, and where 
the river widened, the banks were soon covered witfa na- 
tives ; and some seventy or eighty immediatelj laid aside 
their spears and walked off to my boat, the whole of 
which, together with its crew, they examined witib the 
greatest curiosity. 

In the heat of the day we indulged in a most refresh- 
ing bath under the shade of overhanging trees, the bot- 
tom of the river being fine sand and pebbles worn smoodi 
by the running stream. 

At the appointed hour the chiefs made their appear- 
ance, dressed in their best, but looking haggard and de- 
jected. Mr. Brooke, the ** Tuan Besar," or greaC man, 
officiated as spokesman. 

He fully explained that our invasion b( their countiy, 
and destruction of their forts and town, was not for the 
purposes of pillage or gain to ourselves, but as a ponish- 
ment for their repeated and aggravated acts of piracy ; 
that they had been fully wamcHd, for two years befon* 
that the British nation would no longer allow the native 
trade between the adjacent islands and Singapore U^ be 
cut off and plundered, and the crews of the vessels cra- 
elly put to death, as they had been. 

They were very humble and submissive; admitted 
that their lives were forfeited, and if we said they ^ers 
to die, they were prepared ; although, they ex^Uuned, 
they were equally willing to live. They promised to re- 
frain forever from piracy, and offered hostages for their 
good behavior. 

Mr. Brooke then explained how much more advan- 
tageous trade would be than piracy, and invited them to 
a further conference at Ssr&wak, where they mig^t wit- 
ness all the blessings resulting from the line of condoet 
he had advised them to follow. If, on the other band, 
we heard of a single act of piracy being committed by 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 251 

them, their country should be again invaded and occu- 
pied ; and their enemies, the whole tribe of Linga Dyaks, 
let loose upon them, until they were rooted out and utter- 
ly destroyed. 

To other questions they replied, that although the chief 
held eommunication, and was in the habit of cruising with 
the people of the odier settlements of Pakoo and Rem- 
bas, still they could not hold themselves responsible for 
their good conduct; and as both held strongly fortified 
positions (of course supposed by themselves to be im- 
pregnable), they did not think tiiat they would abstain 
altogether from piracy unless we visited and inflicted 
a similar chastisement to that they themselves had suf- 
fered. They also stated that, although they never would 
again submit to the orders of the great and powerful 
chiefi, Seriln'^ahib and Muller, still they could not join 
in any expedition against them or their old allies, their 
blood-thirsty ai^ formidable neighbors in the Sakarran 
river. 

On our return to the still smoking ruins of the once 
picturesque town of Paddi, we found that Seriff Jaffer, 
with his 800 warriors, had not been idle. The country 
round had been laid waste. All had been desolated, to- 
gether with llieir extensive winter-stores of rice. It was 
a melanchofy- si^t ; and, for a moment, I forgot the hor- 
rid acts of {Mracy and cruel murders of these people, and 
my heart relented at what I had done— it was but for a 
few minutlBs; 

Collecting, our forces, we dropped leisurely down the 
river, but not without a parting yell of triumph from our 
Dyak force— a yell that must have made the hearts of 
those quail whose wives and children lay concealed in 
the jungle near to where we had held our conference. 

We arrived at Boling soon after midnight, where we 
found the tope, with our provision, quite safe.' Several 
shots had been fired at her the night before ; and large 
parties had repeatedly come down to the banks, and en- 
deavored to throw spears on board. 

At daylight (Wednesday, 14th) we lost no time in 
completing to four days' provisions, and starting, with 
the flood-tide, for Pakoo. It took us until late in the 
evening before we appeared in sight of two newly-built 



252 EXPEDITION TO BORNEa 

Stockades, from which the pirates ded, ponie-stniciE^ 
without firing a shot, on our first discharge. We had 
evidently come on them before they were prepared, •• 
we found some of the guns in the forts with die dingi 
still on by which they had been carried. 

The positions of the forts here, as at Paddi, were se- 
lected with great judgment ; and had their gone beea 
properly served, it would have been shbrp work for boats. 
The same work of destruction was carried on; but the 
town was larger than at Paddi, and night setting in, the 
conflagration had a grand effect. 

Although the greater part of their ▼alosUes had beeo 
removed, the place was alive with goats and poultry, the 
catching of which afforded great dport for ' oor man. 
Some of the Singd Dyaks succeeded in taking the heads 
of a few pirates, who probably were kiQed or wounded 
in the forts on our first discharge i I saw ono body af- 
terward without its head, in which each pasains Dyak 
had thought proper to stick a spear, so that it had aU the 
appearance of a huge porcupine. 

The operation of extracting the brains from the lower 
part of the skull, with a bit of bamboo sh^ied like a 
spoon, preparatory to preserving, is -not a {^easing one. 
The head is then dried, with the flesh and hair od it, 
suspended over a slow fire, during which process the 
chiefs and elders of the tribe perform a sortof war-dance. 

Soon after daylight the following moniing (Thnrsdi^, 
15th) the chiefs of the tribe came down with a fl^g of 
ti'uce, when much the same sortof conferenoe took^ice 
as at Paddi. They were equally submissive, offMine 
their own lives, but begging those of their wives aod 
children might be spared. After promising to accede to 
all we desired, they agreed to attend the oonfocenee 
about to assemble at Sarawak, where the ooly terms on 
which they could expect lasting peace and mntoalgood 
understanding would be fiilly explained and diacnssed. 

Like their friends at Paddi, they were of opinion that 
their neighbors at Rembas would not abstain from pira- 
cy until they had received convincing proof that the pow- 
er existed which was capable and determined to put 
down piracy. All these misguided people appeared not 
only to listen to reaaoA, but to be open to conviction ; and 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 253 

I am far from imputiiig to them that treachery so com- 
monly attributed to all classes of Malays. The higher 
grades, I admit, are canning and deceitful; but subse- 
quent events during the last two years have proved the 
truth and honesty of the intentions of these people. They 
have strictly adhered to their promises ; and have since, 
although surrounded Inr piratical tribes, been carrying on 
a friendly trade with Sarawak. 

Our next point of attack was Rembas. Although 
there was a nearer overland communication between 
those places, the distance by water was upward of sixty 
miles ; but the strong tides were of great assistance, as 
we could always rest when they were against us. High 
water was the only time, however, tluU; suited us for 
landing, as the -fall-of tide left a considerable space of soft 
mud to wade through before reaching terra firma : this 
was sufficiently unpleasant to our men, without the ad- 
ditiona] trouble of having to load and fire when in that 
position ; besides, when stuck fast in the mud, you be- 
coHie a much easier object to be fired at. At Rembas 
the tide was hot up until just before dayUght ; and, hav- 
ing no moon to light us, a night attack was not consider- 
ed advisable ; so that we brought up about a quarter tide 
below the town, on the evening of the 16th. As Rem- 
bas contained a larger proportion of Malays (who are al- 
ways well sapi^ed with firearms) than Aie other settle- 
ments, though we had not experienced any opposition at 
Pakoo, we luOy expected they would here make a bet- 
ter stand. 

We advanced early in the morning, and soon came up 
with a succession of formidable barriers, more trouble- 
some to cut through than any we had before encounter- 
ed. About a mile below the town we kinded 700 of the 
Linga Dyaks on the left bank of the river, who were to 
separateinto two divisions — commanded by SerifF Jaffer 
and his son, a remarkably fine and spirited youth — and 
creep stealthily through the jungle, for which the coun- 
try was weU adapted, so as to get to the rear of the town 
and forts, and make a simultaneous attack on the first 
shot being fired from our boats. The last barrier (and 
there were four of them) was placed just within point- 
blank range ; the gig heing a hght boat, 1 managed to 

Y 



254 XXPEOITION TO BOBNSa 

haul her over, close to the bank, and adtaooed so as to 
be both out of sight and out of range; and just as our 
first boat came up with the barriw, I pushcid out from 
under the bank, and opened a fire of tnusketary on tlw 
stockade, which was full of men. This, with tfae-^wir- 
yell that followed from their rear (both unexpe^tvd), to- 
gether with their fears having been already worked upon 
by the destruction of Paddi and defeat of Pakoo, throw 
them into the greatest confusion. They fled in all di- 
rections, without provoking us by firing a shot, ahihoii^ 
we found the guns loaded. Seniff Jafier and hit Dyaks 
were gratified by having ail the fitting to themselves, 
and by some very pretty hand-to-hand eocoant«ra. We 
were much amused, afterward, by their own acooont 
of the heroic deeds they had perfcMided. Liires were 
lost on both sides, and heads taken. This Rembas was 
by far the largest and strongest place we had aaaaulted. 
We found some very large war-boats, both fitted and 
building ; one measured ninety-two feet in knigtfa, with 
fourteen beam ; and in addition to the usual good supply 
of fruit, goats, and poultry, our men were gratified by 
finding several bullocks. The plunder was great ; and 
although, with the exception of the guns, of no value to 
us, it was very much so to our native foQowera. 

After we had destroyed every thing, we rece i v e d a 
flag of truce, when similar explanations and promisea 
were made, as at Paddi and Pakoo; and here ended, 
for the present, the warlike part of our expedition. 
The punishment we had inflicted was severe, bat not 
more than the crime of their horrid piraciea deeerved. 
A few heads were brought away by our Dyak fbUow- 
ers, as trophies ; but there was no unnecessary sacrifice 
of life, and I do not believe there was a woman or child 
hurt. The destruction of these places astoniahed the 
whole country beyond description. In addition to the 
distance and difficulty of access to their stnmg^y-ftrtified 
positions, they looked for protection from the bore that 
usually ran up the Sarelnis, and which tfaey imagined 
none but their own boats could manage. Aa the differ- 
ent Malay chiefs heard that, in ten days, a handful of 
white men had totally destroyed their stroo^bolda, they 
shook their heads, and exclaimed, '^ God is great!" and 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 255 

the Dyaks declared that the Tuan Besar (Mr. Brooke) 
had chained the river to quiet the bore,* and that th6 
"whites were invuhierable. Although tlus expedition 
would have a great moral effect on all the more respect- 
able and thinking natives, inasmuch as the inhabitants 
of the places destroyed were looked upon, from the 
large proportion of Malays, as more civilized than their 
formidable and savage neighbors, the Dyaks inhalnting 
the Sakarran river; still, it was not to be supposed, 
when the setdements of Paddi, Pakoo, and Kembaa 
could not be responsible^ for the good behavior of one 
another, that it was probable the severe lesson taught 
them would have any great effect on the Sakarrans. 

On regaining the tope at Bohng, we found our assist- 
ant surgeon, I>r. Simpson, who had been Idft in charge 
of the sick, laid up witii fever and ague. For convenien- 
cy's sake, the wounded men had been removed to a 
largie native boat ; and while the doctor was passing 
akmg the edge of the boat, his foot slipped, he feU over- 
board, and not beiBg much of a swimmer, and a strong 
tide running, he was a good while in the water, though 
a native went after him. He had, for some time past, 
been in bad heahh ; but the cold he then caught brought 
on inflanmiatioo in the lungs, under the effects of which 
he sank soon after our return to Singapore. P oor Simp- 
son ! he was not only clever in his profession, but en- 
deared to us aH % his kind and gentle manner, so grate- 
ful to the sick.. There were few of us, while in China, 
who had not come under his hands, and experienced his 
tender, soothing, and unremitting attention. 

We now gave oxir native foDowers permission to de- 
part to their respective homes, which they did loaded 
with plunder, usually, in India, called loot ; oiirselves 

getting under weigh to rejoin the Dido off the Island of 
urong, and from thence we proceeded to the mouth of 
the Morotaba, where, leaving the ship, Mr. Brooke and 
I went in my boat, with two others in attendance, to 
take leave of the rajah, prior to my return to Singapore 
and China. Altliough the greater part of the native 
boats attached to the expedition had already arrived at 

♦ It Md never been known so quiet as during the days we 
were up their river. 



256 EXPEDITION TO BOENSO. 

Sarawak, the rajah had sent them back, aome tnilea 
down the river, with as many others as he cofuld collectv 
gorgeously dressed out with flags, to meet Mr. Brooke 
and myself, the heroes of the grandest expedition that 
had ever been known in the annals of Malayan history. 
Our approach to the grand city was, to them, most tri- 
umphant, although to us a nuisance. From the mo- 
ment we entered the last reach, the saluting from every 
gun in the capital that could be fired without burstiiig 
was incessant ; and as we neared the royal residence, 
the yells, meant for cheers, and the beatin]g of gongs, in- 
tended to be a sort of "See, the conquering hero conaesr* 
were quite deafening. The most minute particalars of 
our deeds, of course greatly exaggerated, had been de- 
tailed, long before our arrival, by the native chiefs, who 
were eye-witnesses ; and when we were seated in the 
rajah's presence, the royal countenance relaxed into a 
smile of real pleasure as he turned his wondering eyes 
from Mr. Brooke to myself and back again. I suppose 
he thought a great deal of us, as he said little or noth- 
ing ; and, as we were rather hungry after our pull, we 
were very glad to get away once more to Mr. Brooke's 
hospitable board, to which we did ample justice. 

My stay at Sar&wak was but of short duration, as, 
before I had time to carry out the arrangements I had 
made to put down this horrid traffic, the Dido was, .ow- 
ing to some changes in the distribution of the fleet, re-r 
called to China. 

As the tide would not suit for my return to the Dido 
until two o'clock the following morning, we sat up until 
that hour, when, with mutual regret, we parted. I had 
just seen enough of Borneo and my enterprising friend, 
Mr. Brooke, to feel the deepest interest in boSh. No 
description of mine can in any way give my readers a 
proper idea of the chai'acter of the man I had just then 
left ; and however interesting his journal may appear in 
the reading, it is only by being in his company, and by 
hearing him advocate the cause of the persecuted inland 
natives, and listening to his vivid and fair description of 
the beautiful country he has adopted, tliat one can be 
made to enter fully into and feel what I would fain de- 
scribe, but can not. 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 257 

We parted; and I did not then expect to be able so 
soon to return and- finish what I had intended, viz., the 
comalete destruction of the strongholds belonging tp the 
wonft among the pirate hordes, so long tiie terror of the 
coast, either by capturing or driving from the fx)untiy 
the |nratical Seriffs Sajub and MiiUer, by whose evil influ- 
ence they had been chiefly kept up. From all that I had 
seen,, the wliole cot^itry appeared to be a large garden, 
with a rich and varied soil, capable of producing any- 
thing.' Thev natives, especially the mountain Dye^, are 
industrious, willing, tnoflensive, although a persecuted 
race; and the only things wanted to make the country 
the mostproduetive and happiest in the world were, the 
suppressioQ.of piracy^ good government, and opening a 
trade with the interior, which could not fail of success. 
All these I saw partially begun ; and I felt assured that 
with the assistanee of a veissel of war, and the counte- 
nance only* of die government, Mr. Brooke weuld, al- 
though slowly, yet surely, bring about their happy con- 
snmntatJoa. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

Captain Eeppel sails for China. — Calcutta. — Thd Dido ordered to 
Borneo again.— Arrival at Sarawak. — Effect of her presence 
at 'Sarawak. — Great improvements visible. —: Atrocities of 
the Sakarran pirates. — Mr. Brooke's letter.— Captain Sir E. 
Belcher's previous visit to Sarawak in the Samarang. — Coal 
found. — Second letter from the Rajah Muda Hassim. — Ezpe- 

^ ditipn against the Sakarran pirates. — Patosen destroyed.-r- 
Macota rempmbered, and his retreat burnt. — Further fighting,- 
and advance.-^Lodicrous midnight alaniL 

June 34^.^*-I reached the Pido at 8 o'clock, and 
immediate^ got under weigh. After remaining twenty- 
four hours to water at Singapore, I sailed for Hong 
Kong. My. time, during the year that I'was absent 
from Bomldb, if not quite so usefully, was not unpleas- 
antly passed. We lay a few months in the Canton 
river. In addition to having good opportunities of seeing 
the natives of China in theii* domestic state, Iwitnessed 
one of those most curious and extraordinary sights that 
oeeasiooaUy occur during the winter months in the city 
17 t2 



358 EXPEDITION TO BQBNSO. 

of Canton, namely, a fire. The one I aaw was about 
the most extensive that had ever been experienced; 
and the Didoes crew had the gratification of being of 
some assistance in the protection of British prc^>erty. 
From China the Dido accompanied the conamander-in- 
chief, in the Cornwallis, to the Spanish colony at 
Manilla, which is a place that few forget ; and a short 
description of our visit there has been given in an inter- 
esting htde work, written by Captain Cunyng^ame. 
On my return to Hong Kong, I had the gratification of 
receiving on board die Dido, Major-General Lord 
Saltoun and his staff, consisting of two old and esteemed 
fiiends of mine, Captain, now M^or Arthur Cunyng- 
hame, his lordship's aid-de-oamp, and Major Ghrant, oi 
the 9th Lancers, who had been adjutant-general to the 
forces. A more agreeable cruise at sea I never espe- 
rienced. We called at the island of Pinang, in tibe 
Malacca straits, on our way, where we again fell in 
with the admiral ; and I was most agreea^y surprised 
at meeting my friend Mr. Brooke, who had come on to 
Singapore to meet Sir William Parker, and had fol- 
lowed him up in the Wanderer, conunanded by my 
friend Captain Henry Seymour, — ^that vessel, in com- 
pany with the Harlequin, Captain the Hon. George 
Hastings, and the H.C. steamer Diana, having just 
returned from an expedition to Acheen, whither they 
had been dispatched by the commander-iiL-chief^ to 
inquire into and demand redress for an act of piracy, 
committed on an English merchant-vessel. An account 
of the expedition has already been published. The 
pirates had made a desperate resistance, and several 
lives were lost, and many severely wounded on our 
side; among the latter was my mend Mr. Brooke 
(in the head and arm), for which I took the liberty of 
giving him a lecture on his rashness, he having quite 
sufficient ground for fighting over in bds newly-i^opted 
country. He was mudi pleased at the admiral's having 
promised that the Dido should return again to the 
Straits station as soon as she had completed her voyage 
to Calcutta. 

On the 11th March, 1844, we anchored off the grand 
Ci^ of Palaces, and well does it merit the name* We 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 350 

ooald not have, timed our Tisit better. The governor- 
seneraU the Earl of EUenborough, was being filed on 
bi» return from the frontiers, v^ch fkes were con- 
tinned on idie arrival, a few days aft^r ourselves, of the 
CoriiWttUis «t Kjsdgeree, when the flag of Sir William 
Pafker waa shifted to the Dido. The admiral experi- 
enced Ihe ADie style of hospitable entertainment that 
hadj^i«noiis^, been given to General Sir Hugh Gough 
oa his rdtam from 3ie Chinese expedition. At Cal- 
jputta I. WB# kindiiy invited by the *« Tent Clnb," and 
introdocad Co tiiatsoble and most exciting of all field- 
sports, ** Ho^hnnting in India ;" bat wiSi iRiiich the 
lileasiires of the day did not cease. The subsequent 
convivial meeting was a thing not easily to be forgotten. 
Afttioii^h under a tent.pitched by the edge of the jungle, 
thirty, mile9 from the city, none of the comforts of the 
house, were wanting ; there were the punkah and the 
hookf^ those luxuries of the East, to say nothing of 
heaps of ice frtMB the far West, which aided considerably 
-the consumption of champagne and ciaret; and to better 
all these good tlungs, every man brought with him the 
will and tite power to please and to be pleased. 

A few days before my departure from Calcutta, the 
governor-geaeral finding it necessary to send treasure 
to China, the admiral desired me to receive it on board. 
Although A wekooie cargo, it delayed for a couple of 
months iny retwm to &meo. I found Mr. Brooke 
awi^ting my airiva} at Singapore ; but as I could not 
tiien receive hint on beard, Captun Hastings took him 
oyer to Sar&Wafc in the Hariequin. 

On arriving' at Hong Kong, Kear-Admiral Sir T. 
Ccx^Lmne appointed Mr. Frederick Wade as first lieu- 
tenant, Lieop^anant WilmoC Horton having been pro- 
moted to the rank of commander for his gafiant defonce 
when the Dido's boats were attacked by the very supe- 
rior force of pirates oif the island of Sirhassan. 

Having landed the treasure at Hong Kong, and com- 
pleted i^toTes and provisions, I sailed from Macao on 
the v^lst June, and working down sgainst the monsoon, 
aSrrived at Singapore on the 1 8th July. I here found 
letters from Mr. Brooke, stating that the Sakarrans^had 
beenxint in great force ; and although he was not ainrare 



360 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

of ^ny danger to himself or his settlement, still, by com- 
ing over quickly, I might havQ a fair chance of catching 
and crushing them in the very act of piracy* 'I lost no 
time in preparing for another expedition^ The govern- 
ment at Calcutta had become fully sensible of the ne- 
cessity of protecting the native trade to Singapore, and 
had sent down the Phlegethon steamier, of light druigfat 
of water, and better adapted to senrice in the straits or 
rivers than any of her majesty's larger vessek/ She 
was, moreovei^, fitted in every way for the peculiar ser- 
vice on which she was to be employed, with a zealons, 
experienced, and active commander, F. Scott,* as well 
as. a fine enterprising set of young officers. I lost no 
time in making application for her to the resident coun- 
selor, Mr. Church (in the absence of Colonel Butter- 
worth, the -Governor of the Straits), who immediately 
placed her at my disposal ; and with. such means, I was 
anxious to commence operations as speedily as possible, 
leaving the Vi^en antl Wolverine to perform the other 
duties of the station. 

Thursday, 25th July, — Sailed from Singapore, having 
dispatohed the Phlegethon the previous night, with 
orders to rendezvous at the entrance to the Morotaba, 
which we entered in the evening of th6 29th; and 
anchoring the ship inside the river, I went on in the 
steamer to within four miles of Sar&wak, when I pulled 
up in my gig, accompanied by the Dido*s pinnace, that 
I might, by firing her carronade as a signal^ be enabled 
to give notice of our approach, not feeling myself quite 
secure from a shot from the forts, which were very 
judiciously placed so as to command the last reach ap- 
proaching the town, as I knew that before Mr. Brooke's 
return they had been put in a. state of defence, and a 
regular watch kept, by self-appointod officers, sleeping 
on their arms. I, however, got up without accident^ in 
time to receive a hearty welcome, about dajiight.' 

Not expecting to revisit Borneo during me period 
that the ship had to run before completing her usual 
time of commission, it was gratifying for me to read in 
my friend's journal, alluding to my former visit ; '* I 

* I have lately heard, with much regret, of the death of this val- 
uable officer. 



EXPEDITION TO BOINSO. 2W 

came myself' in the Dido ; and I may say that her 
appearance was the consummation of my enterpiise/' 
**The natives saw directly that there was a force to 
protect and to punish ; and most of the dbiefs, conscious 
of their evil ways, trembled ; Muda Hassim was grati- 
fied, and felt that this power would exalt his authority 
both in Borneo and along the coast, and he was- not 
slow in magnifying the force of the Dido. The state 
in which Captain Keppel and his officers visited llie ra- 
jah all heightened the effect ; and the marines and the 
band excited the admiration and the fears of the natives. 
I felt ^e rajah^s hand tremble at the 'first interview ; 
and not all die weU*knowQ ^command of countenance, 
of which the natives are masters,^ could conceal his 
emotion." 

Gentle reader, excuse my vanity if 1 eontinue a little 
further with my friend's journal, although it gets rather 
personal : 

** I believe the first emotion was anything but pleas- 
urable; but Captain Keppel's conciliatory apd Idnd 
manner soon removed any feeling of fear^ and was all 
along of the greatest use to me in our subsequent doings. 
The first qualification, in dealing with a Malay, is a kind 
and gentle manner ; for their habitual politeness is such 
that they are hurt by the ordinary krusquerifi of the 
European. 

** I sliall not go over the chase of the three boats of 
the Balagnini pirates, or the attack made on the Dido's 
boats by the Sirhassan, people, except to remark, that in 
the latter case, I am sure Lieutenant Jlorton acted 
rightly in sparing their lives and property ; for, with 
these occasional pirktes, a severe lesson-, followed by 
that degree of conciliation and pardon which shall best 
insure a correction of their vices, is far wiser and pref- 
erable to a course of undistinguishing severity." 

I found Sarawak much altered for the better, and the 
population considerably increased. Mr. Brooke had es- 
tablished himself in a new house built on a beautiful and. 
elevated mound, from which the intriguing Macota had 
just been ejected on my first visit. Neat and pretty- 
looking little Swiss cottages had sprung up on all the 
most picturesque spots, which gave it ^uite it European 



262 EXPEDITION TO BOKNEO* 

look. He had also made an agreeable addition to his 
English society; and a magazine of English merchan- 
dise had been opened to trade with the natives, together 
with many other improvements. 

On the other hand, Seriif Sahib, not deterred, as I 
had anticipated he would be, by the example I made of 
his neighbors in the Sarebus, had taken measures for 
withdrawing from the adjoining river of Sadong, where 
he had been living in a comparatively unguarded state, 
and had, during the last nine months, been making busy 
preparations for fortifying himself at a place called Pa- 
tusen, up the Batang Lupar. He had lately got things 
in a forward state, had called out a large fleet of Sakar^ 
rans as an escort; and being puffed up with his own 
power and importance, had thought proper to prolong 
the performance of his voyage, of about 100 miles, from 
his residence in Sadong to Ms fortified position at Pata- 
sen, for three weeks or a month, during which time he 
had dispatched small parties of his fleet, which consisted, 
of upward of 150 war-prahus, on piratical excursions. 
These robbers had, in addition to tlieir piracies on the 
high seas, scoured the coast in all directions, and com- 
mitted the greatest atrocities, attended with some of the 
most cruel murders. One sample will be sufficient to 
show their brutal character : — A detachment of three q£ 
their boats, having obtained information that a poor 
Dyak family, belonging to a tribe in Mr. Brooke's terri- 
tory, had come down from their mountain to cultivate a 
small portion of land nearer the coast, and, fcH* their 
better security, had made their dweUing in the upper 
branches of a large tree on the outskirts of the forest, 
determined to destroy them. Their little children 
were playing in the jungle when the pirates were seen 
approaching the tree with their diabolical war-yells. 
As the poor man did not descend immediately on being 
summoned, he was shot; when other ruffians, to save 
their ammunition, mounted the tree, murdered the wo- 
man, and returned in triumph to their boats with the 
heads of both victims. The children, who had wit- 
nessed this from their hiding-places, succeeded in get- 
ting to Sarftwak. 

Taking advantage of Mr. Brooke's nnusuaOy tong 



EXPEDITION TO BORNIO. 20ft: 

absence, Sur&wiik itself was threateaed, and open defi- 
ance hnrled at any European force that shoold dare ap- 
proach Patusen. Reports, too, had been industriously 
sfNread that Mr. Brooke never intended to return ; and 
when he did get back to his home, he found the town 
guarded and watched like a besieged city. With his 
usual nerve and decision he withdrew his men from 
the forts,^ and sent to Seriif Sahib to inform him that ho 
should suffer for his temerity. 

A letter I received from him is so chcuracteristic, and 
gives so liv^y a description of these events, t^t I am 
tempted to printifc 

"^ Saiftwak, S6th May, 1844. 
,^Mr Dxiim Keppxi,, 

** It is nsalets apj^yin^ a ipur to a willing horse ; so I will 
only toll yba that £ere is plentY to do here, and the sooner 
yoa caa cone the better tor all of us, egpecially your poor 
fiends, the Dyaks. v Bring with you as much force as you 
can to .attack oakarran. 

" The case stands thus : — Seriff Sahib, quite (Hghtened at 
Sadoz^ since last yeai', enraged likewise at his loss of power 
and his incapabSity d' doing mischief^ collected all the Sa- 
karran Dyaks,' and was joined by many of the Dyaka of 
SarebuS' and some Balows. He likewise had a good many 
Malays, and bullied every one in his vicinity. This force 
met at the entrance of the Sadong Delta, and committed 
depredations. They were not less than 200 Dyak boats, and 
some 1^ (n: 20 armed Malay prahus, beside others. Just as 
they were coUectM, the Harlequin appeared off the coas^ 
and had the Dido been with us, we might have had them all; 
but the opportunity will never again occur; Seriff Sahib, with 
this force, has started to-day for Sakarran, and I was not 
strong enough with my eight native boats to attack him. It 
is really greatly to \yd lamented, because we should most 
eompletefy have crushed the head of the snake. We must; 
however, make the best of it. It is his intention, on his 
arrival at Sakwran, to fortify and wait for our attack, and in 
the mean time to send out his Dyaks along the coast and 
inland to such places as they dare venture to attack. 

[* Came then, my deaj: Keppel, for there is plenty to do fop 
all hands. I have ordered a gun-boat from Mr. 6k>ldie, to 
make our force stronger ; and had I possessed such a one the 
day before ye8terd&y» I would have pulled away for the Ssk 
doflog to-day. 



264 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

** Mj regards to all. I still propose Fepper-Fot Hall fiir 
your residence. I only wisb I felt quite sure that Fortune 
had it in store that you would be here on your return from 
China. That dame, however, seems to delight' in playing 
me slippery tricks just at present ; and never was tne time 
and tide so missed oefore, which would have led to &itane, 
as the other day. All the queen's ships and all the queen's 
men could not bring such a chance together again. 

** Ever, my dear Keppel, your sincere friend, 

"J. BSOOKK. 

*' Captain the Hon. Henry Keppel.** 

/ 

No one could have been more disappointed or havei 
regretted more than my gallant friend Captain Hastings, 
that his orders did not admit of any delay, or of his at- 
tacking that redoubtable pirate Seriff Sahib, especially 
as he had a small score to settle with that kind of 
gentry, having had his first lieutenant, H. Chads, se- 
verely wounded in two places, and several men killed, 
in the affair at Acheen Head. It was, however, all 
for the best, as the few boats that the Harlequin could 
have sent would have stood but a poor chance against 
upward of 200 war-prahus, all fitted and prepared for 
fight. 

On the 1st of August, with the Dido and Phlegethon 
at anchor off Sarawak, the warlike preparations were 
going on rapidly. I had saluted and paid my visit to 
Muda Hassim ; he was delighted to see me again, and 
we went through the form of holding several confer- 
ences of war in his divan. He appears to be a good 
well-meaning man, well inclined toward the English, 
moderately honest, and, if roused, I daresay not with- 
out animal coui-age ; and altogether, with the assistance 
of his clever younger brother, Budrudeen, a very fit 
person to govern that part of Borneo of which he is 
rajah. 

During my absence, Sar&wak had been visited by 
H.M.S. Samarang, Captain Sir Edward Belcher, who 
had received directions to call on and communicate 
"With Mr. Brooke. In dropping down the river the 
Samarang grounded on a long shelf of rocks, at the top 
of high water, and with the ebb-tide rolled over, filhng 
■'*•*• ♦*»« succeeding flood. She was nearly a fortnight 



BXP£i>ITION TO BOBNEO. 2d6 

in this position, but was ultimately saved by th& ^ill 
and almost unparalleled pei-severance (aided by such 
assistance of men and spars as Mr. Brooke could 
aflbrdVdf her captain, officers, and crew — a feat that 
must have given the natives a good idea of what British 
.seamen are- capable of. This accident delayed for a 
' short time a visit that was afterward made by Sir Ed- 
ward Belcher, accompanied by Mr. Brooke, to Borneo 
Proper. A harried inspection of the capab'ihties of that 
part of the coast took place ; and the fact of there being 
coal on the island was ascertained. 

I received a second letter from Muda Hassim, of 
which llie fi^wing is a translation :. 

''This comes from Fangeran Muda Hassim, Rajah of 
Borneo, to our friend Captain Keppel, in command of 
her Britannic Majesty's snip. 

(AD»r the usual compliments) : 

■ ** We beg to let our friend Captain Keppel know, that the 
pjbrates of Sakarrany whom we meutionea last year, still con- 
tinue th^jpiradtes by sea and land ; and that many Malays, 
under Sella Sahil^who have been accustomed to send or to 
accompany the jpiiates and to share in their spoils, have gone 
to the Saluuran river, with a resolve of defending themselves 
rather than accede to our virisfaes that they should abandon 
piragr. 

** Last year Captain Belcher told the saltan and myself, 
that it Mfould be> pleasing ta the Queen of England that we 
should repress piracy ; uid we signed an agreement, at his 
request, in whK^ we promised to do so ; and we tell our 
Mend of the piracies and evil actions of the Sakarran people, 
"who have, for many years past, done much mischief to trade, 
and make it dangerous for boats to sail along the coast ; and 
tiiis year raanyprahus, wrhich wanted to sail to Singapore, 
have beeii afraid. We inform our friend Captain Keppel of 
this, as we desire to end all the piracy, and to perform our 
agreement with the Queen of England." 

** Monday, 5ih August, 1844, being the morning fixed 
for the departure of our expedition against the Sakarran 
pirates, the Phlegethon steamer weighed at d o'clock, aud 
procef^ed down the river to await at the mouth the col- 
lection of our fbrce. ' Among those who accompanied us 
from Sarftwak was the Pangeran Budrudeen^ the intel- 

Z 



206 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

ligent brother of the rajah already noticed. This was a 
great &nd unusual event in the royal family ; and the 
departure from the rajah*s whaif, which I viewed from 
Mr. Brockets house, on the opposite bank of the river, 
was intended to be very imposing. The barge of state 
was decked out with banners and canopies; all the 
chiefs attended, with the Arab priest Modlana at their 
head, and liie barge pushed off amid the firing of can- 
non, and a general screech, invokiikg the blessing of 
Mahomet. 

Having seen the last boat off, Mr. Brooki^ and myself 
took our departure in the gig, when another and last 
farewell salute was fired from the rajah*s wharf. 

Three hours brought us to the steamer, anchored off 
the fishing huts at the mouth of the river. Here we 
heard that a small boat from the enemy's conntry had, 
under the pretence of trading, just been in to spy into 
our force, but decamped again on the appearance of the 
steamer. We now all got fairly away together, the 
smaller boats keeping near the shoals in shore, while 
the steamer was obliged to make an offing some miles 
from the coast. From the masthead we distinctly made 
out the small boat that had left the mouth of the river 
before, both pulling and sailing in the direction of the 
Batang Lupar, up which the Sakarran coontzy lies; 
and as it was desirable that the pirates should not get 
information of our approach, at dusk, being weU in ad- 
vance, and our auxiliary force following, I dispatdhed 
Mr. Brooke's Singapore sampan and one of the Didoes 
cutters in chase. At half-past nine we anchored in tfao 
stream within the entrance. 

We were fortunate at Sarawak in picking np two 
excellent and intelligent pilots, who had long known the 
whole river, and ha4 themselves been several timea 
forced to serve in the boats while on their piratical ex- 
cursions. 

Tuesday 6th — ^With the flood-tide arrived all the 
well appointed and imposing little fleet, and with them 
the cutter and sampan with two out d the three men 
belonging to the boat of which they had been in chase ; 
the tfaard having been speared by Seboo, on ahowing a 
strong inclination to mn a-muck in his owB.boat, ». e. to 



EXPEDITION TO BOEIBfEO. 267 

s»U his Ufe as dearly as he could. Fn>m liiese men we 
obtained information that Seriff Sahib was folly pre- 
pared'fbr defenoa-^that his harem had been removed — 
and liat he would fight to the last. We also learned 
that Maoota^ better known among us by the name of 
the ** Serpent," and often mentioned in Mr. Brooke'at 
journal, was the principal adviser, in whose house the 
conneils of war were generaUy hekL 

We an<^ored, in tl^ afternoon, off the month of the 
river Linga ; and 'viHbile there we dispatched a messen-* 
ger to Seriff Jafier to caution him against giving any 
countenance or support to either of the Senfis Sahib 
and Muller; on whose punishment and destruction we 
were determined. 

The Betang' Lupar, as far as this, is a magnificent 
river, from ^iSree to four miles wide, and, in most parts, 
from fkve to seven fiuhoms water. 

Wkdn^sda^ltk, — ^We weighed at daylight, but were 
obliged to anchor again before appearing in sig^t of Pa- 
tusen, until the tide shoukl rise sufficiently to enable us 
to pass a long fiat shoals oyer whidi, during the spring- 
tides, a bore iroshes with fright&l velocity. 

We >now collected our boats, and made our arrange- 
ments 19 weil M we could, for attacking a place we bid 
not yet seen. We had now a little niore difficulty in 
keeping our native force back, as many of those who 
had aocompanied the expedition last year had- gained 
80 miuch confidence that the desire of plunder exceeided 
the feeling of fear. 

After weighing at 11, with a strong tide sweeping us 
up, we were not many minutes in coming in sight of the 
fortifications of Patusen ; and indeed they were not to 
be despised. There were five of them, two not quite 
finished: Getting suddenly into six feet water, we 
anchored ih» steanier ; not so formidable a berth, al- 
though well within musket-range, as we might have 
taken up had I been aware of the increasing depth of 
water nearer the town ; but we approached so rapidly 
there was no time to wait the interinretation of the 
{ttlot'n inibmu^tUMi. 

The Bido and Phlegethon's boats were not long in 
forming alongside. They were directed to pull in shore. 



268 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

and then attack the forts in succession ; but my gallaiit 
first-lieutenant, Wade, who had the conHnand, was the 
first to break the hne, and pull directly in the face of 
the largest fort. His example was followed by the 
others ; and dividing, each boat pulled for that which 
appeared to the officer in command to be the one most 
likely to make a good fight. The forts were the firsito 
open fire on both steamer and boats, which was quickly 
and smartly returned. It is impossible to imagine a pret- 
tier sight than it was from the top of the Phlegethon's 
paddle-box. It was my intention to have fired on the 
enemy from the steamietr, so as to draw their attention 
off the boats ; but owing to the defective state of the 
detonating priming-tubes, the guns from the vessel did 
not go off, and the boats had all the glory to themselves. 

They never once checked in their advance ; but the 
moment they touched the shore the crevi^ mshed up, 
entering the forts at the embrasures, while the pirates 
fled by the rear. 

In this sharp and short affair we had but one man 
killed, poor John Ellis, a fine young man, and captain of 
the main-top in the Dido. He was cut in two by a 
cannon-shot while in the act of ramming home a car- 
tridge in the bow-gun of the Jolly Bachelor. Standing 
close to poor Ellis at the fatal moment was a fine prom- 
ising young middy, Charles Johnson, a nephew of Mr. 
Brooke's, who fortunately escaped unhurt. This, and 
two others badly wounded, were the only accidents on 
our side. 

Our native allies were not long in following our men 
on shore. The killed and wounded on the part of the 
pirates must have been considerable. Our followers 
got several heads. There were no fewer than sixty- 
four brass guns of different sizes, beside many iron, 
found in and about the forts : the latter we spiked and 
threw into the river. The town was very extensive ; 
and after being well looted, made a glorious blaze. 

Our Sarawak followers, both Malays and Dyaks, be- 
haved with the greatest gaUantry, and dashed in under 
the fire of the forts. In fact, like their country, anything 
might be made of them under a good government ; and 
such is their confidence in Mr. Brooke*s judgment, and 



BXPSDITION TO BOftNEO. 269 

their attaehment to his person, that he might safely 
defy in his own stronghold the attacks of any foreign 
power. 

After our men had dined, and had a short rest during 
the heat of the day, we landed our whole force in two 
divisions —-and a strange but formidable-looking force 
they made — ^to attack a town . situated about two miles 
op, on the left bank of a small river called the Grahan, 
the entrance to which had been guarded by the forts ; 
and immediately after their capture the tide had fallen 
too low for our boats to get up. Facing the stream, too, 
was a tong stockade ; so that we determined on attacking 
the place in the rear, which, had the pirates only waited 
tf) receive us, would have caused a very interesting 
flktrmish. They, however, decamped, leaving every- 
thing behind them. In this town we found Seriff Sa- 
hib's residence, and, among other things, all his curious 
and. extensive wardrobe. It was ridiculous to see our 
Dyaks dressed out in all the finery and plunder of this 
Doted pirate, whose very name, a few days previous, 
would have, qaade them tremble. Goats and poultry 
there were in abundance. We likewise found a maga- 
zine in the rear of the serifTs house, containing about 
two tons of gunpowder ; also a number of small barrels of 
fine powder, branded *' Dartford,*' in exactly the same 
state aa it had left the manufactory in England. It 
being too troublesome and heavy to convey on board the 
steamer, and each of our native followers staiggering up 
to his knees in mud, under a heavy load of plunder, I 
had it thrown into the river. It was evident how deter^- 
mined the chief had beiui to defend himself, as, beside 
the defences already completed, eight others, in different 
states of forwardness, were in the course of erection ; 
and had the attack been delayed a few weeks, Patus^ 
would not have been carried by boats without consider- 
able lo^s of life. It was the key to this extensive river ; 
the resort of the worst of pirates ; and each chief had 
contributed his share of guns and ammunition toward 
its fortification and defence. 

We returned to our boats and evening meal rather 
fiitigued, but mueh pleased with our da^s work, after 
«9cending neariy seventy miles from the mouth of the 

z2 



270 BXPfiDITION TO BORNEO. 

river^ The habitations of 5000 pirates had been bonkt 
to the ground ; four strong fort9 destroyed, together wiUi 
seyeral hundred boats ; upward of sixty brass cannons 
captured, and about a fourth that nnmbeir of iron spiked 
and thrown into the river, beside vast quantities of other 
arms and ammunition ; and the powerful Seriff Sahib, 
the great pirate-patron for the last twenty yeam, nuned 
past recovery, and driven to hide his diminuhod head ia 
the jungle. 

The 8th and 9th were passed in bnminff and deatray- 
ing the rest of the straggling town, and a nuriely of 
smaller boats, which were very numeroaa. I had abo 
an account to settle with that cunning rascal Maeota, ibr 
his aiding and abetting Seriff Sahib in his pirtHAO^ He 
had locatod himself very pleasantly near a bend in the 
river, about a mile above Seriff Sahib's settJemont^ and 
was in the act of building extensive forlifieatiODfl, when 
I had the satisfaction of anticipating the viait and some 
of the compliments he would have conferred on my 
friend Mr. Brooke at Sar&wak. Budrudeen, the;njah'i 
brother, had likewise been duped l^ this fellow, and 
was exceedingly anxious to insert the blade of a tHT 
sharp and beautiful kris into the body of hia late friMu. 
Mr. Brooke, however, was anxious to Mtre hk life, 
which he afterward had the satisfaction of donu^ I 
shall never forget the tiger-like look of the yoni^ran- 
geran when we landed together in the hopes 'of rarpii- 
sing the " Serpent " in his den ; but he was too qaiek 
for us, having decamped with his foUowora, and in m 
great a hurry as to leave all his valuables hfrhhid- swHtfig 
them a Turkish pipe, some chairs once, bolonginffjjo the 
Royalist, and other presents from Mr.Brook^ Ifivety- 
thing belonging to him was burnt or destroyed savo sobm 
handsome brass guns. There was one ofaboot 19 ewU 
that had been lent by the sultan when Maeota was is 
favor,, and which I returned to Budrndeea fat hii 
brother. 

We were here joined by a large munber of die 
Linga Dyaks, the same force that had ioined ns the 
year previous, while up the Sarebus, but nnooooin- 
panied by Seriff Jaffer, of whom it was not quite dear 
that he had not been secretly aiding .the piistes. I 



vxr^mrioN TO BcmifEo. 871 

sent them bAck with assurances to their chiefs that 
ibej should not \^ molested unless they gave shelter or 
protection to ei^er Senff Sahib or Muller. Seriff 
Sali^b, with a considerable bcxiy of followers, escaped 
inland in the direction of^the mountains, from the other 
«ide of which he would be able to communicate ¥rith 
the riyer Linga. Macota was obliged to fly up the 
river toward the Undopj on whidi the viUafie and resi- 
dence of Seriff Sahib^s brother, Senff Muller, was 
fiituated. 

Having destroyed every boat and sampan, as well as 
house or hut, on the.lOth, as soon, as the tide had risen 
eufficientiy. to take us over the shoals, we weighed, in 
the steamer, for the country of the Sakarran Dyaks, 
having seat the boats on before with the first of the 
flood. 

About, fifteen miles above Patusen is the branch of 
the river called -the Undop : up this rivw I dispatched 
Lieutenant Tumour, with Mr. Comber, in the JoUy 
Bachelor, and a division of our native boats, while we 
proceeded to where the river again branches off to the 
ri|^ and left, as ^n the tongue of la^d so formed we 
understood'We should find a strong fort ; beside,^ it was 
the highest point to which we couM attempt to take the 
steamer. The branch to the left is called the Sakarran ; 
that to the right -retains the name of Lupar, inhabited 
chiefly by Sakarrlms. We found the place deserted 
and tiie houses tmpty. Knowing that these people 
depended almost entirely for protection on the strongly 
fortified position at Patusen, I did not expect any 
similar opposition from either Seriff A^uUer or the des- 
perate bloodfhi|rsty Sakarrans, and consequently divided 
my force into three diviBionih*-^o <^^» already men- 
tioned, under Lieutenant Tumour, up the Undop; 
another, under Mr. D'Aeth, up die Lupar; while 
Lieutenant Wade, accompanied by Mr. Brooke, as- 
cended t^e Sakarran. I had not calculated on the dis- 
turbed and excited state in which I found the country ; 
and two wounded men having been sent badi from the 
Undop branch with accounts of the pirates, chiefly 
Malays who were collected in great numbers, both 
Jbefore and in the rear of our small force; and an at- 



272 EXPEDITION TO BORNBO, 

tempt having been made to cat off the bearer of diis 
information, Nakoda Bahar, who had hod a Teiy nar- 
row escape, and had no idea of taking back an answer 
unless attended by a European -force, — ^I determined 
on sending assistance. But I had some difficulty in 
mustering another crew from- the steamer^ and was 
obliged to leave my friend Capt. Scott, with onJIy the 
idlers, rather critically situated. 

I deemed it advisable to re-collect my whole force; 
and before proceeding to the punishment of the Sakar- 
rans, to destroy the power and influence of Seriff 
Muller, whose town was situated about twenty miles 
up, and was said to contain a population of 1500 Ma- 
lays, independently of the surrounding Dyak tribes. 
Having dispatched boats with directions to Lieutepant 
Wade and Mr. D'Aeth to join us in the Undop, I pro- 
ceeded in my gig to the scene of action, leaving the 
steamer to maintain as strict a blockade of the Snkarran 
and Lupar branches as, with their reduced force, they 
were capable of. On my joining Lieutenant Tnmonr, 
I found him just returned from a very spirited attack 
which he had made, assisted by Mr. Comber, on a 
stockade situated on the summit of a steep hill ; fifr. 
Allen, the master, being still absent on % sinular ser- 
vice, on the opposite side of the river. The gallant old 
chief Patingi Ali was likewise absent, in pmnsait of the 
enemy thut had been driven from the stockades, inth 
whom he had had a hand-to-hand fight, the Whole of 
which — being on the rising ground — was witnessed by 
our boats' crews, who couB not resist hailing hit return 
from his gallant achievement with three heairt^ British 
cheers. This had the effect of giving such an impulse 
to his courage, that, in a subsequent affiur, it unfaappi^ 
caused a serious loss among this active and usefol branch 
of our force. 

We had now to unite in cutting our way throng a 
barrier across the river similar to that described in the 
attack on the Sarebus, which having passed, we brou^ 
up for the night close to a still more serious obstacle, 
being a number of huge trees felled, the branches of 
which meeting midway in the river, formed appanotly 
an insurmountable obstacle to our progress. But 



BXPBmriOltf TO BORNEO. 273 

*' piUienee and perseveraBce oyercome all difficulties ;*' 
and by night -only three of the trees remained to be 
cleared away. We were now within a short distance 
of ^eir town, so that we could distinctly hear the noise 
and confusion which our ^vance had occasioned. On 
Ae right bank, and about My yards in advance of the 
barrier, stood a farm-house, which we considered it 
prudent to occupy fin* the night, for which advanced 
post we collected about fifty volunteers. These con- 
sisted of Messrs. Steward, Williamson, and Comber ; m 
corporal and four marines ; my gig's crew ; and a med- 
ley of picked men from our Dyak and Malay foUowers; 
not forgetting my usuftl and trusty attendant John 
Eager ^^th his bugle, the sounding of which was to be 
the signal for tiie whole force to come to the rescue, in 
the event' of surprise-^not at all improbable from the 
nature <^ our warfare and our proximity to the enemy's 
town. 

And here u most ludicrous scene occurred during the 
night. Having pl^ed our sentries and look-out men, 
and given- *' Tiga" as the watchword, we were, shortly 
^after midnight, suddenly aroused from sound sleep by a 
X>yak war-yell, which was immediately responded to by 
the whole rorce. It was pitch dark : the interior of our 
faroihouse, the partitions of which had been removed 
for the convenience of stowage, was crowded to excess. 
In a moment every man was on his legs : swords, spears, 
and krisses dim^ glittered over our heads. It is impos- 
sible to describe the excitement and confusion of the 
succeejiing ten minutes : oi^e and all believed that we 
had ^en stirrounded by the enemy, and cut off from 
our main party. I had already thrust the muzzle of my 
pistol close to the heads of several natives, whom, in the 
confusion,^! had mistaken for Sakarrans; and as each 
in hia tum;called out " Tiga," I withdrew my weapon 
to apply it to somebody else ; until, at last, we found 
that- we were all "Tigas." I had prevented Eager, 
ttiore than once, from sounding the alarm, which, from 
the first, he had not ceased to press me for permission 
to do. The Dj^k yell had, however, succeeded in 
throwing the whole force afloat into a similar confusion, 
and not hearing the signal, they concluded that they, 
18 



274 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

and not we, were the party attacked. The feal cause 
we afterward ascertained to have^ arisen from the alunn 
of a Dyak, who dreamt, or imagined, that he felt aapeir 
thrust Upward through the bamboo-flopiing of onr boiM- 
ing, and immediately gave his diabolical yelL The con- 
fusion was ten times as much as it woaki liaTe been hid 
the enemy really been there. So ended die adyentims 
of the night in the wild jungle of Borneo. 



CHAPTER XIX, 

SeiiffMuUer's town sacked.— Ascond the mar in ponait of tte 
enemy. — Gallant exploil of Lieatenant Wade. — His death tod 
funeral. — Interesting anecdote of him. — ^Ascend the Sakanan 
branch. — Native boats hemmed in by pirates, and thidr cram 
slaughtered to a man. — Karangan destroyed. — CapCaia Sir £. 
Belcher arrives in the Samarang's boats. — Return to Shnt* 
wak. — New expedition against Seriff Sahib uid Jafibr. — BIs- 
cota captured. — Flight of Seriflf Sahib. — Conferences. — Seriff 
Jaffer deposed. — Mr. Brooke's speech in. the native tOtagoiB.— 
End of the expedition, and return to Sarawak. — ^Thfei iMdo sails 
for England. 

At daylight we were joined by Lientenant Wade 
and Mr. Brooke — their divisioa making a Teiy accepti- 
ble increase to our force — and by 8 o'clock ifae fast bar- 
rier was cut through between ns and Seriff Mnller'i 
devoted town. With the exception of lus own house, 
from which some eight or nine Malays were enAMTifr- 
ing to move his effects, the whole place was deseited. 
They made no fight ; and an hour afterward the town 
had been plundered and burnt. The only litea lost 
were a few unfortunates, who happened to come witUn 
range of our musketry in their exertions to saTe some 
of their master's property. A handsome large boat, 
belonging to that chief, was the only thing sayed ; and 
this I presented to Budrudeen. After a short deky in 
catching our usual Supply of goats and poultry, 'vnth 
which the place abounded, we proceeded up the river 
in chase of the chief and his people ; and here again w^ 
had to encounter the same obstacle presented by tb- 
felled trees thrown across the river — if possible of if^ 
creased difficulty, owing to their greater size and tb* 



B^PSDITION TO BO&NEO. 275 

narrow inreadth of the stream ; bat akhough delayed we 
were oot to be beaten. We ascemdned that the pirates 
had retreated to a Dyak, village, situated on the sumnut 
of a hiU, some tweoty-five miles higher up the Undop, 
five or six miles only of which we Iwd succeeded in as- 
cending, as a most dreary and rainy night closed in, 
daring which we^were joined by Mr. I)*Aeth and his 
divisioa from the Lupar river. 

The fc^owing morning, the 13th of A.ugust, at day- 
break,< we again commenced our toilsome work. With 
the gig and the lifter boats we succeeded better ; and 
I should have despaired of the heavier boats ever getting 
up, had they not^ been assisted by an opportune and 
«addea rise of the tide, to the extent of twelve or four- 
teen ieet, though with this we had to contend against a 
considerably increased strength of current. It was on 
this day thatqoy ever active and zealous ^rst lieutenant, 
Charles Wade, jealous of the advanced position of our 
I^lht boats, obtained a place in my gig. That evening 
die Phlegelihon's first and second cuttmrs, the Dido's 
two cutters, and tbeir gigs, were fortunate enough to 
pa33 a barrielr composed of trees evidently but recently 
felled ; i^m ¥^iid» "^e concluded ourselves to be so 
nea ' e enemy, that, by pushing forward as long as we 
ooiild posubhr see, we might prevent further impedi- 
ments from jbejng thrown in our way. This we did<; 
font at 9 P.M. arriving at a byroad expanse oi the river, 
and being utterly unable to trace our course, we anchored 
our adVB^eisd force for the night. 

On Wednesday, 14th, we again pushed on at daylight;. 
We had gained infonnation of two ]ahding-[^ces leading 
to the Dyak vlHage oq tifcie hillt round three-fourths ci 
the foot of which the Undop flowed. The first land- 
ing-place we had no trouble in discovering, from the 
number of deserted boats collected near it. Leaving 
these to be looted by our . followers, we proceeded in 
search of the second, which we understood was situated 
more immediately under the villag^B, and which^ having 
advanced without our guides, we had much difficulty in 
finding. The circuit of the base of the hffl was above 
five milea. In traversing this distance, we had repeated 
skirmishing wit^ atrag^ng boats of the enemy, upon 



12?6 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

whom we came unexpectedly. Datina; this wiirfiire, 
Patingi Ali, who, with his usual zeal, had here come 
up, briuging a considerable native force of both Malayi 
and Dy^s, was particularly on the alert ; and while we 
in the gig attacked the large war-prahu of Seriff Mulfar 
himsel^— the resistance of whose foUowerq was only the 
discharge of their muskets, after which they threw 
themselves into the river, pert only efiectiDg their es- 
cape — the Patingi nearly succeeded in capturing that 
chief in person. He had escaped from hie prahn intO't 
remarkably beautiful and fast-pulling sampan, in whidb 
he was chased by old Ali, and afterward onty SBfed hii 
life by throwing himself into the water, and swimming 
to the jungle ; and it was with no smaU prid^ that the 
gallant old chief appropriated the boat to his own nse. 
In the prahu were captured two large brass gans« two 
smaller ones, a variety of smaU arms, ammunition^ pro* 
visions, colors and personal property, among which- wen 
also two pair of handsome jars of English manufiactore. 
After this, having proceeded some considerable distance 
without finding the second landing-place, we pntin close 
to a dear green spot, with the intention of gettmg oar 
breakfasts, and of waiting the arrival of. the other boSt 
with the guides. 

While our crew were busily empbyed cooking Lien* 
tenant Wade and myself fancied we. heard me sup- 
pressed voices of many people not fSaur distant, and takiog 
up our guns we crept into the jun^e. We had not 
penetrated many yards before I came in si^t of atnais 
of boats concealed in a snug little inlet, the entrance to 
which had escaped our notice. These were filled widi 
the piratical Dyaks and Malays, and on shore at vatioui 
points were placed armed sentinels. My first iippnl— 
was tp conceal ourselves until the arrival of onr lorca; 
but my rash, though gallant friend deemed otherwise; 
and without noticing the caution of my upheld hand, 
dashed in advance, discharging his gun, and calling npon 
our men to follow. It is impossible to conceive the con- 
sternation and confusion this our sudden sally occasioned 
among tlie pirates. The confused noise and scrambling 
from their boats I can only Uken to that of a suddenly- 
roused flock of wild ducks. Our attack from the point 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 277 

whencidjt came was evidently unexpected ; and it is my 
opiilion that they calculated on our attacking the hill, i 
we did ^o at all, from the nearest landing-place, without 
pulling round the other five miles, as the whole attention 
of their scouts appeared to be directed toward ti)at 
quarter. A short distance above them was a small 
encampment, probably erected ~for the convenience of 
their chiefs, as in it we found writing materials, two or 
three desks of £nglish manufacture, on the brass plate 
of one of which, I afterward noticed, was engraved the 
mu^e of ** Mr* Wilson*^* To return to the pirates : 
with our force, suclh as it was — nine in number^- and 
headed by Lieutenant Wade, we pursued our terriied 
enemy, who had not the. sense or courage to rally in 
their judiciously selected and naturally protected en- 
campment, but continued their retreat (firing on us from 
the jungle) toward the Dyak village on the summit of 
thehilL 

W^ here collected our force, reloaded our fire-arnis ; 
and Lieutmiant Wade, seeing from this spot the arrival 
at the landing-place of the other boats, a^n rushed On 
in pursuit. Before arriving at the foot of the steep as- 
cent on the snnmiit of which the before-mentioned Dyak 
▼iUage stood, we had to cross a small open space of 
about sixty -yards, exposed to the fire from the village as 
well as the smrrounding jungle. It was before crossing 
this plain that I agiun cautioned ray gallant friend to 
await the arrival oi, his men, of whom he was fat in ad- 
vance ; and almost immediately afterward he fell mor- 
tally wounded at my feet, having been struck by two 
rifle-shotSi and died instantaneously. I remained with 
the body untihour men came up, and giving it in charge,^ 
we earned the place on the height withput a check or 
turner accident. The Dyak village we now occupied 
I would have spared, as on no occasion had we noticed 
any of the tribe fighting against us ; but it was by shot 
fired from it that poor Wade was killed, and the work 
of destruction commenced simultiineously with the am-i 
vai of our men. It was most gratifying to me through- 
out the expedition to observe the friendly rivalry and 
emulation between the crews of the Phlegethon and the 
Dido's boalSr On this occasion the former had the glory 

Aa 



278 EXPEDITION' TO BORNEO. 

of first gaining the height ; and one of the officers of the 
former, Mr. Simpson, wounded, with a pistol-shot, a 
man armed with a rifle, supposed to have been the per- 
son who had slain our first-lieutenant. 

I may here narrate a circumstance, from which one 
may judge of the natural kind-heartedness of my 
lamented friend. During the heat of the parsnit, 
although too anxious to adrance to await the arrival of 
his men, he nevertheless found time lo conooal in a 
place of security a poor terrified Malay girl whom he 
overtook, and who, by an imploring look, touched hm 
heart. The village and the piratical boots destroyed, 
and the excitement over, we had time to reflect on the 
loss we had sustained of one so generally beloved as the 
leader of the expedition had been among us att. Hav- 
ing laid the body in a canoe, with the British unkm-jack 
for a pall, we commenced our descent of the lifer with 
very different spirits from those with which we had as- 
cended only a few hours before. In the evenmg, widi 
our whole force assembled, we performed the last sad 
ceremony of committing the body to the deep, with sU 
the honors that time and circumstance wohld alloiw. I 
read that beautiful, impressive service from a praver- 
book„ the only one, by the by, in the expedition, which 
he himself had brought, as he said, '*in case of acci- 
deut." 

Before we again got under weigh, several Mahq^ fiun- 
Hies, no tonger in dread of their piratical chiel^ Seriff 
Muller, who had fled nobody knew whither, gave them- 
selves up to us as prisoners, trusting to the mercy of a 
white man ; the first instance of any of them having 
done so. We heard, also, that Macota had retieataa 
with the seriff ; and on examination we found llie papers 
captured in the encampment belonged to them, exposinc 
several deep intrigues and fake statements addreased 
to the sultan, the purport of which was to impress lus 
mind with the belief of a hostile intention on the part of 
the British goverment toward his country. We bron^t- 
up for the night off the stUl-buming ruins of Seriff Mai- 
ler's town. 

On Thursday the 15th we again reached the ataamer. 
We found her prepared for action, having been mooh 



EXPEDITION TO BCttNBO. 279 

annoyed during the night by the continued Dyak war- 
yells — sounds, to lininitiated ears, as unpleasant as those 
of musketry. Having driven away the two principal 
instigators and abettors of all the piracies committed 
along the coast of Borneo and elsewhere, and destroyed 
their strongholds, it now remained for us to punish the 
pirates themselves as fu* as lay in our power. The 
Sakarran Dyaks being the only ones now remaining who 
had not received convincing proofs that their brutal and 
inhuman trade would be no longer alk)wed, the 15th and 
16th Were passed on board the steamer, to rest the men 
after the severe fiiUague encountered up the Undop, and 
in making preparations for an advance up the Sakarran. 
Dinitig the night of th^ 16th, several of our native fol- 
lowers were wounded. Their boats not being furnished 
with anchors, and the river being deep, they were obliged 
to make fast to the bank, ¥4uch in the dark afforded 
great fisuulity for the enemy to creep down through the 
jungl^^ unperceived, so close as to fire a shot and even 
Uurust their spears through the thin mat covering of the 
boats. One "poor fellow received a shot in his lungs, 
frdm which he died the following day ; a Dyak likewise 
died from a «pear-wound ; and in the morning we wit^ 
nesse4 the pile forming for burning the Dyak, and the 
coffin making for conveying the l:^y of the Malay to 
Sarftwak, his native place ; both parties having an equal 
horror of their dead fidling into the hands of the enemy, 
altlioagh differing in their mode of disposing of them.< 

On Satni^ay, the 17tb, the expedition, consisting of 
the Dido*s pinnace, her two cutters and gig, the Jolly 
Bachelor* apd the Phlegethon*s first and second cutters 
and gig, started up the Sakarran. A small division of 
light native boatSt under the command of the brave old 
Patingi Alii were selected to keep as a reconnoitering 
parQr with our leading boats, while the remaining native 
fi^poe, of above tliirty boats, followed as a reserve. We 
advanced the firat day some twen^ miles without so 
much as teeing a native, although our progress was con-- 
siderably delayed by stopping to bum. farm>-houses, and 
a number of war-prahus found concealed in the jungle 
or )fmg grass on either side of the river. We brought 
up earjly in the afternoon, fi)r the purpose of strongly 



280 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

foitifyiog ourselves, both ashore and afloat, agunst sur- 
prise before the night set in, by which time it woold 
have taken a well-disciplined and poweifal force to have 
dislodged us. 

This evening we had unusually fine weather; and we 
squatted down to our meal of curry and rice with better 
appetites and higher spirits than we had dcme for some 
days. We advanced the following day: and ahlifMi|^ 
we reached several villages, the grain luid been removed 
from them all ; which, in all probability, waa done im- 
mediately upon their hearing of the fall of their snppoeed 
impregnable Patusen. In the evening we took the same 
precautions as on the preceding night, conaideriiie that 
our enemies were not to be despised. Owing to heavy 
rains which fell during the night, and caused a. strong 
current, our progress was considerably retarded. The 
scenery was beautiful — ^more so than in any of the rivers 
we had yet visited. We likewise now repeatedly feD 
in with small detachments of the enemy, and spears 
were thrown from the banks, which added considerably 
to our excitement and amusement. On every point we 
found the remains of the preceding night* a waich-ftres, 
so that news of our approach would have been conveyed 
rapidly along. While leading in the gig with a select 
few of our followers, we came suddenly on "a boat foil 
of warriors, all gorgeously dressed, and apparently per- 
fectly unconscious of our approach. The discharge of 
our muskets and the capsizing of their war-boat was die 
work of an instant ; but most of their crew saved tiiebr 
lives by escapiog into the jungle. 

This evening, Sunday, the 18th, we teperieneed 
some difficulty in finding a suitable place for our btrooM^ 
While examining the most eligible-lookine spot on tibe 
bank of the river, the crew of one of the Fhlegethon'i 
boats, having crept up the opposite bank, came snddei^y 
on a party of Dyaks, who saluted them with a war-yel 
and a shower of spears ; and it was absurd to see the 
way in which they precipitated themselves into the wa- 
ter again to escape from this unexpected danger. The 
Dyaks, too, appear to have been equally sorprised. The 
place we selected for the night was a large house about 
forty yards from the edge of tiie ri?er; and for a mai* 



EXPBDmON TO BORNEO. 381 

ket-range around which we had not much difficulty in 
clearing the ground. Here we all united our different 
messes, and passed a jovial evening. . The night, how- 
ever, set in with a most fearful thunder-storm, accom- 
panied by the most vivid flashes of lightning I ever wit- 
nessed. The rain continued to fall in torrents ; it cleared 
up at daylight, when we proceeded. As yet the banks 
of the rivdr had been a continued garden, with sugar- 
cane plantations and banana-trees in abundance. As we 
advanced, the scenery assumed a wilder and still more 
beautiful appearanee, presenting high steep points, with 
large overhanging trees, and occasionally forming into 
pretty .picturesque bays, with sloping banks. At other 
times we approached narrow gorges, looking so dark 
that, until past, jovl almost doubted there being a pas- 
sage through* We were in hopes that this morning 
we should have reached their capital, a place called Ka- 
rangan, supposed to be a^out ten miles farther on. At 9 
o*clock Mr. ^rooke, who was with me in the gig, stopped 
t^ break&st vhih young Jenkins in the second cutter. 
Not eiLpecting to meet with any opposition for some 
mUes, I gave permission to Patingi Ali to advance cau- 
tiously with hu light division, and with positive instruc- 
tions t(>faUt back upon the first appearance of any natives. 
As the stream was. running down very strong, we held 
on to the bank, waiting for the arrival of the second cut- 
ter. Our {Mnnace and second gig having both passed 
up, we had renmined about a quarter of an hour, when 
the report of a few musket-shots told us that the pirates 
had been fallen in with. We immediately pushed on ; 
and f^i we advanced, the increased firing from our boats, 
and the ijrar^yella of some thousand Dyaks, let us know 
that an engagement had really commenced. It would 
be difficult to describe the scene as I found it. About 
twenty boats were jammed together, forming one con- 
fused ^mass; some bottom up; the bows or sterns of 
others only visible; mixed up, pell-mell, with huge 
rafU;.and anionig which were nearly all our advanced 
little division. Headless trunks, as well as heads with- 
out bodies, were lying about in all directions; parties 
were engaged hand to hand, spearing and juissing each 
other; others were sioving to swim for their lives j 

aa2 



282 EXPEDITION TO BORNBO. 

entangled in the common melee were our advanced 
boats ; while on both banks thousands of Dyaju were 
rushing down to join in the slau^ter, hurling their 
spears and stones on the boats below. .. For a moment 
I was at a loss what steps to take for rescninff our peo- 
ple from the embarrassed position in which they were, 
as the whole mass (through whicli there was no pas- 
sage) were floating down &e stream, and the addition 
of fresh boats arriving only increased -the oonfnaion. 
Fortunately, at this critical moment one of the rada, 
catching the stump of a tree, broke this floating bridge, 
making a passage, tlirough which (my gig being pro- 
pelled by paddles instead of oars) I was enabled to pass. 

It occurred to Mr. Brooke and myself sUnoltaneoiisI^, 
that, by advancing in the gig, we diouU draw the atten- 
tion of the pirates toward us, so as to give time for the 
other boats to clear themselves. This had the desired 
effect. The whole force on shore turned, as If to secure 
what they rashly conceived to be their prise. 

We now advanced mid-channel : spears and stones 
assailed us from both banks. My ^end Brooke's gon 
would not go off; so giving him the yoke-lines, he stemd 
the boat while I kept up a rapid fire.. Mr. ABen, in tlie 
second gig, quickly coming up, opened upon them, horn 
a congreve-rocket tube, such a destructive fire as caused 
them to retire panic-struck behind the temponuy bar* 
riers where they had concealed themselves previoas to 
the attack upon Patingi Ali, and from whence tfaey 
continued, for some twenty minutes, to hurl their spears 
and other missiles. Among the latter may be men- 
tioned short lengths of bamboo, one end heavily loaded 
with stone, and thrown with great force and precision; 
the few fire-arms of which they were possessed were 
of but little use to them after the first discharge, die 
operation of reloading, in their inexperienced ha^s, re- 
quiring a longer time than the hurling of some twenty 
spears. The sumpitan was likewise froely employed by 
these pirates; but although several of our men belong- 
ing to the pinnace were struck, no fiital results ensued, 
from the dextrous and expeditious manner in which 
the wounded parts were excised by Mr. Beith, the as- 
sistant-surgeon ; any poison that might remain being 



BXPEDITIOI^ TO BORNEO. 383 

afterward sucked out by one of the comrades of the 
woanded moii.' 

As our force increased, the ph'ates retreated from 
their position, and could not again muster courage to 
ratty. Their loss must have been considerable; oura 
might ha?e been light, had poor old Patingi Ali attended 
to orders. - 

It appears that the Patingi (over-eonfident, and pro- 
bably urged on by Mr. Steward, who, unknown to me, 
was concealed in All's beat when application was made 
by that chief for permission to proceed in advance for 
the purpose of reconnoitering), instead of falling hack, as 
particufairly directed, on the first appearance of any of 
^e enemy, made a dash, followed by his little division 
of boats, through the narrow pass above described. As, 
soon as he had done so, huge rafts of bamboo were 
laQched across the river, so as to cut off his retreat. 
Six large war-prahus, probably carrying 100 men each, 
then b^e down-r-three on eidier side — on his devoted 
followers; and one only of a crew of seventeen that 
tsanned his boat escaped to tell the tale. When last 
seen by oar advanced boats, Mr. Steward and Patingi 
A^li were in the act (their own boats sinking) of boarding 
the enemy. They- were doubtless overpowered and 
killed, wiUi twenly-'nine others, who lest their lives 
on this oceaaion. Omr wounded in all amounted to 
fifty-six. 

A few miles higher up was the town and capital of 
Karangan, which place it was their business to defend, 
and ours to destroyt and this we succeeded in effecting 
without fur&er opposition. We ascended a short 
distance above diis, but found the river impracticable 
for the further progress of the boats; but our object 
haying^ been achieved, the expedition may be said to 
have closed, as no more resistance was offered ; so we 
dropped leisurely down the river, aiid that evening 
reached our resting-place of tiie previous night: but 
having burnt the house in the morning, we were 
obliged to sleep in our boats, with a strong guard on 
shore. 

Attempts were made to molest the native boats by 
burfing spears into them from the jungle under cover of 



284 EX^DITION TO boRifsa 

the night ; bnt after a few discharges cf musketry ihm 
enemy retired, leaving us to enjoy another tkanaj and 
rainy night as we best could. 

On -the 20th we reached the steamer, where we re- 
mained quiet all the next day, attending to the wound- 
ed, and ascertaining the exact ^tentbf our Iqm. Od 
the 22d we again reached Patusen. We found eveiy-a 
thing in the same wretched state as when we left ; and 
a pile of firewood, previously, cut for the use of the 
steamer, had not been removed. After dark a eterm 
of thunder, lightning, and heavy nun, came on as vsoal, 
and with it a few mishaps. A. boat belonnng to She oU 
Tumangong was capsized by the bore, lij wl^idi his 
plunder, including a large brass gun, wae loflt, and the 
crew with difficulty saved their Uvea. At ei|^ we 
heard the report of a gun, which was again repeated 
much nearer at nine ; and before a signu-rocket oookl 
be fired, or a hght shown, we were astonished bj;; being 
hailed by the boats of a British num-of-war; and the 
next moment Captain Sir £. Belcher, having been as* 
sisted by A rapid tide, came alongside the steamer with 
the welcome news of having brought our May letten 
from £ngland. On the arrival of the Samarang off die 
Morotaba, Sir £dward heard of the lots we had soa- 
tained ; and, with his usual zeal and activity^ eame at 
once to our assistance, having brought his boato no leas 
than 120 miles in about thirty hours. At the momeBt 
of his joining us, our second mishap occurred. The 
night, as previously mentioned, was pitch dark, and e 
rapid current running, when the cry of *^a man orer- 
board" caused a sensation difficult to describe. AS 
available boats were immediately dispatched- in aearcb; 
and soon afterward we were cheered by the aoand ^ 
"all righf It appears that the news of the arrifal it 
the mail was not long in spreading throughout oor Uttla 
fleet, when Mr. D' Aeth, leaving the first cottar in a amaB 
aampan, capsized in coming alongside the steamer;- die 
man in the bow (who composed the ttew) saved him- 
self by catching hold of the nearest boat; Mr. D'Aetk 
would have been drowned had he not been an ezcelleot 
swimmer. This was not the last of our ir^wlmpa ; for 
we had no aooner arranged ourselves and new^-ai^fe^ 



BXPSDITION TO BOENSO. 966 

Visitors from the Samsnuig comtNtably on board the 
steamer from the pelting ram, than tlie accustomed 
and quick ear of Mr. Brooke heajrd the cry of natives in 
distress. Jumping into his Singaporie sampan, he pushed 
off to their asabtance, and returned shwtly afterward, 
. haring picked up three, . half drowned, of our Dyak 
Ibllowers, whom he had found clinging to the floating 
trunk of a tree. They too had been capsized by the 
bore ; when, out of eleven composing the crew, only 
these three were saved — although the Dyaks are in- 
variably^ expert svirimmers. 

On me 23d, after waiting to obtain meridian observa- 
tions, we moved down as far as the mouth of the river 
Linga, and then dispatched one of our Malay chie& to 
the town of Bunting to summon Seriff Jaffer to a con- 
ference. This, however, he declined on a plea of ill 
health, sending assurance, at the same time, of his good- 
will and inclination to assist us in our endeavors to sup- 
press piracy/ 

On t)ie ni^t of the, 24th, we once again reached 
Sar&wak, where the rejoicings of the previous year, 
when we returned from a successful expedition, were 
repeated. On l!he third evening after our return, we 
were just settling down to enjoy a little rest, having got 
our sick and wounded into comfortable quarters, and 
were beginning heartily to indulge in the comforts of a 
bed aft^r our utigue and harassing duties in open boats 
during the previous three weeks, when information ar- 
rived that Seriff Sahib had taken refuge in the Linga 
river, where, assisted by Seriff Jaffer, he was again 
collecting his followers. No time was to be lost ; and 
on the 28th,t with the addition of the Samarang's boats, 
we once morp started, to crush, if possible, this per- 
severing and desperate pirate ; and, in the middle of 
the night, came to an anchor inside the Linga river. 

When our expedition had been watched safely out- 
side the Batang Lupar,.on its return to Sar&wak, all 
those .unfortunate families that had concealed them- 
selves in the jungle, after the destruction of the dif- 
ferent towns of Patusen and Undop; had emerged from 
their hiding-places, and, embarking on rafts, h^-ruined 
boats, or, in short, anything that would float, were in 



286 EXPEDITION TO BOEREO. 

the act of tiding and working their paisaga towaRJ tfa« 
extensive and flourishing town of Bunting. Their 
dismay can well be imagined, when, at daylight on the 
morning of the 29th, they found themselves carried by 
the tide close alongside the kmg, black, terror-spread- 
ing steamer, and in the midst oi our augmented fleet* 
Escape to them was next to hopeless;' nor did the 
BC^er sex seem much to mind the change — orobablj 
thinking that to be swaUowed up by the white man 
was not much worse than dying in the jon^ of atwa^ 
tion. I need not say that, instead of being moleBted, 
they were supplied witii such provisions and aaaistsnee 
as our means would permit us to afibrd, and then al- 
lowed to pass quietly on; in addition to wfaicb we 
dispatched several of our native foDowera into the 
Batang Lupar, to inform the poor fugitives tibmt oar 
business was with the cluefe and instigatoiv of piracy 
and not to molest the misguided natives. 

With the ebb tide a large number of boat* came 
down from the town— the news of our arrival having 
reached them during the night— contaimng the prindpd 
chiefs, with assurances of their pacific intont^na, and 
welcoming us with presents of poultry, Roata, fivit, 6ce>f 
which we received, paying the fair market-priee fiir 
them, either by way of beater or in hard drilara. They 
assured us that Seriff Sahib should not be received 
among them ; but that they had heard of hda haTing ar- 
rived at Pontranini, on a small tributary stream some 
fifty miles above their town. We immediatelfy derided 
on proceeding in pursuit before he coukl have time to 
establish himself in any force. It was else evident 
that the Balow Dyaks, who inhaMt this part f^the 
country, werd decidedly in favor of ocir opentions 
against Seriff Sahib, akhou^ afraid— on account of 
Seriff Jaffer and his Malays — to express theor opinions 
openly. We also ascertained that Maoota, with a rem- 
nant of his followers, was hourly expected in the mouth 
of the river, from the jungle, into which he had been 
driven during the fi^t on the Undop hei^ta. Knowing 
that it would fare badly with this treacherous and cun- 
ning, although now harmless chief, should he &II Into 
the hands of any of our native followers, I dispatched 



EXPBmriON TO BORNEO. 287 

two boats to look out for anol bring him to ua aliTo. 
This they succeeded in doing, security him in a de^ 
-muddy jungle, into which he had thrown himself upon 
perceiving the approach of our men% Leaving him a 
prisoner on boani the Phlegethon, we, with the flood- 
tide,, pushed forward in pursuit of Seriff Sahib. 

For two days we persevered in dragging our bqatSy 
for ijb» distance of twenty miles, up a small jun^ 
ereek, which, to all appeurance, was impassable for any- 
thing but canoes. But it had the desired effect, provii^ 
to the natives what determination could aclueve in ac- 
complishing our object, even beyond the hopes of our 
'Sanguine Balow Dyak guides. The consequence was, 
that Seiiff Sahib made a final and precipitate retreat, 
across the mountains, in the diirection of the Pohtiana 
river. ' So dose were we on his rear — ^harassed as he 
was by the Balow Dyaks,. who had refused him com- 
mou means of snlraiBtenbe— that he threw away his 
sword, and left behind him a child whom he had hitherto 
carried in the jungle ; and tins once dreaded chief was 
now driven, single and unattended, out of the readi of 
doing any tortlier mischief. 

The boats returned; ai^d took up a formidable position 
off the town of Btmting, where we smnmoned Seriff 
Jaffer to « conference. To this he was obliged to 
attend, as the natives had learnt that we were not to be 
trifled with, tfud would have forced him on board rather 
than hove permitted their village to be destroyed . With 
Pangeran Budrudeen, acting as the representative of 
the sultan, SiBriff Jaffer was obliged to resign all pre- 
tensions to the government of the province over which 
he had hitherto held sway, since it was considered, from 
his being a Malay and from his relationship to Seriff 
Sahib,' that he was an unsafe person to be intrusted 
With so important a post. 

A second conference on shore took place, at which 
the chiefs of all the surrounding country attended, when 
the above sentence was confirmed. On this occasion I 
had the satisfaction of witnessing what must have been 
— from the effoct I observed it to have produced on the 
hearers-^ fine piece of oratory, delivered by Mr. 
Brooke in the native tongue, with a degree of fluency I 



288 EXPEDITION TO BOXNEO. 

had never witnessed before, even in tt Malay. The 
purport of it, as I understood, was, to point out em- 
phaticaUy the horrors of piracy on the one hand, whieb 
it v^as the determination of the Britiah government to 
suppress, and on the other hand, the blessings ariuDg 
from peace and trade, which it vnis eqiuJly oar wish to 
cultivate^ and it concluded by fiilly explaining, that the 
measures lately adopted by us against pinu^ wcone ftr 
the protection of aU the peaceinil oominiinities akwg 
the coast. So great was the attention bestowed during 
the delivery of this speech that the dropping of a pin 
might have been heard. 

From these people many assurances were recoved «f 
their anxiety and willingness to coflpente witfa na in 
Qur laudable undertaking ; and one and all were alike 
urgent that the government of their river should be 
transferred to the English. 

On the 4th September the force again reached Sari- 
wak, and thus terminated a most successfnl expedition 
against the worst pirates on the coast of Borneo. 

We found the Samarang off the Morotaba entranoe, 
when Mr. Brooke and myself became the gnests of Sir 
£dward Belcher for several days, during which time we 
made excursions to all the small islands io that nei^- 
borhood, discovered large quantities of excellent oysten, 
and had some very good hog-shooting. Afterward, ac- 
companied by the boats of the Samarang, we paid a visit 
to the.Lundu Dyaks, which gave them great . delight 
They entertained us at a large feast, when the whole 
of the late expedition was fought over again, juid a war- 
dance with the newly-acquired heads of the Saksn^an 
pirates was performed for our edification. Later in the 
evening, two of the elder chiefs got up, and, walking 
up and down the long gallery, commenced a dialogoe, 
for the information, as they said, of the women, chil- 
dren, and poorer people who Were obliged to remain at 
home. It consisted in putting such questions to one 
another as should elicit all the particulars of the late 
expedition, such as, what had become of different cele- 
brated Sakarran chiefs (whom they named) 7 how had 
they been destroyed ? how did they die i by whom 
had they been slain ? &c. All these ioqairiea received 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 289 

ti)e most satisfkctoiy replies, 'in which the heroic con- 
dnct of themselves and the whitb men was largely 
dwelt upon. ' While this whs performing, the two old 
warnors, with the heads of their enemies suspended 
from their shoulders like a soldier's cartouch-box, 
stumped up and down, striking the floor with their 
clubs, and getting very excited. How long it lasted 
none of our party-could tell, as one and all dropped off 
to sleep during tibe recital. Mr. Brooke has given so 
good a description of these kind and simple people that 
I need not here farther notice them. 

Shortly after our return to the Samarang, she, get- 
ting short of provisions, sailed for Singapore, and Mr. 
Brooke and myself went up to Sarawak, where the 
Dido was still lying. Great rejoicings and firing of ean- 
non,^ as on a former occasion,' announced our return; 
and, after paying our respects to the rajah, we vbited 
the Tumangong and Patingis; 

A curious ceremony is generally performed on the 
return of the chiefs from a fortunate war expedition, 
which is not only done by way of a welcome back, but 
is supposed to insure equal success on the next excur- 
sion. This" ceremony was better performed at the old 
TumsLngong*s thian at the other houses. After entering 
the principal room we seated ourselves in a semicircle 
on the mat floor, when the old chief's three wives ad- 
vanced to w'elcome us, with their female relatives, all 
richly and prettily dressed' in sarongs suspended horn 
the waist, and silken scarfs worn gracefully over on'e 
shoulder, just hiding or exposing as much of their well- 
shaped persons as they thought most becoming. Each 
of ^ese ladies in succession taking a handful of yellow 
rice, threw it over us, repeating some mystical words, 
and dilating on our heroic deeds, and then they sprinkled 
our heads with gold-dust. This is generally done' by 
grating a lump of gold against a dried piece of shark's 
skin. Two of these ladies bore the pretty names of 
Inda and Amina. Inda was young, pretty, and grace- 
ful; and although she had borne her husband no chil- 
dren, she was supposed to have much greater influence 
ovef him than the other two. Report said that she had 
a temper, and that the Tumangong was much afraid of 
19 Bb 



290 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

her; but this may have been only Sar&wak scandal. 
She brought her portion of gold-dust already grated, 
and wrapped up in a piece of paper, from which she 
took a pinch ; and in reaching to sprinkle some over my 
head, she, by accident, put the prettiest little foot on to 
my hand, which, as she wore neither^shoes dcmt stock- 
ings, she did not hurt sufficiently to cause me to with- 
draw it. After this ceremony we (the warriors) feasted 
and smoked together, attended on by the ladies. 

Another conference with Muda Hassim took place, 
and I subsequently quitted Sarawak for Singapore, in- 
tending to re-provision the Dido at that port, and then 
return to Sarawak, in order to convey the raiah and his 
suite to Borneo Proper. At Singapore^ however, I 
found orders for England, and sailed accordingly; but 
the service aUuded to was readily performed by Sir 
Edward Belcher, in H.M.S. Samarang, accompanied by 
the H. C.'s steamer Phlegethon. 

On my return to England I had the gratification to 
learn that Mr. Brooke had b^en appointed agent for the 
British government in Borneo, and that Captain Bethnne, 
K.N., C.B., had been dispatched on special service to 
that island : events I cannot but consider of great im- 
poitance to the best interests of humanity, and to the 
extension of British commerce throughout the Malayan 
Archipelago. 



CHAPTER XX. 

Later portion of Mr. Brooke's Journal.— Departure of Captain 
Keppel, and arrlTal of Sir £. Belcher. — Mr. Brooke proceeds, 
with Muda Hassim, in the Samarang to Borneo. — ^Labusn ex- 
amined. — Returns to Sarawak. — Visit of Lingire, a Sarebus 
chief. — The Dyaks of Tumma and Bandar Cassim.*— Meets an 
assembly of Malays and Dyaks. — Arrival of Lingi, as a deputa- 
tion from the Sakarran chiefs. — ^The Malay character. — Excur- 
sion up the country. — Miserable effects of exc^ in opium- 
smoking. — Picturesque situation of the Sow village of Ka-at 
— ^Nawang. — Feast at Ra-at. — Returns home. — Coaferences 
with Dyak chiefs. 

The return to £ngland of Captain Bethnqe« C.B.« 
hriAging with him a further portion of Mr. Brooke's 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 29$ 

ately fond of their children, and indulgent even to a 
fault ; and the ties of family relationship and good feeK 
ing continue in force for several generations. The 
feeling of the Malay, fostered by education, is acute, 
and his passions are roused if shame be put upon him ; 
indeed, this dread of shame amounts to a disease ; and 
the evil iis, that it has taken a wrong direction, being 
more the dread of exposure or abuse, than shame or 
contrition for any offence. 

** I have always fi>und them good-tempered and obli- 
ging, wonderfully amenable to authority, and quite as 
sehsible of benefits conferred, and as grateful, as other 
pieople of more favored countiies. Of course there is a 
reverse to this picture. The worst feature of the Ma- 
lay character is~ the want of all candor or openness, and 
tba restiess spirit of cunning intrigue which animates 
them, from thei hi^est to the lowest. Like other Asia- 
tics, truth is a rare quality among them. They are 
superstitious, somewhat /inclined to deceit in the ordi- 
nary concerns of Kfe, and they have neither principle 
Dor conscience when they have the means of oppressing 
an infidel, and a D^ak who is their inferior in civiUzatioa 
aad intellect. 

^* If this ehaxabter of the Malay be«ummed up, it Will 
be anything -but a bad one on the whole ; it will present 
a striking centrist to the conduct and character of the 
rajahs "and their followers, and I think wiU convince any 
impartial inquirer, that it is easily susceptible of improve- 
ment. One of the most fertile sources of confusion is, 
classing at one time all the various nations of the Archi- 
pelago under the general name of Malay, and at another 
restricting the same term to one people, not more an- 
cient, not the fountain-head of the others, who issued 
from tho center of Sumatra, and spread themselves in a 
few parts of the Archipelago. 

*^ The French, the German, the English, Scotch, and 
Irish are not more different in national character than 
the Malay, the Javanese, the Bugis, the Illanun,^ and 
the Dyak ; and yet all these are indiscriminately called 
Malay, and a common character bestowed upon them. 
It would be as wise and as sensible to speak of a Euro- 
pean character. ' ^ 



1?92 EXPEDITION TO BOENfiO. 

first he was shy and somewhat suspicious ; hot a little 
attention soon put him at his ease. He is an intelFigent 
man ; and I luiil with pleasure his advent to Sarftwak, 
as the dawn of a friendship with the two pirate tribes. 
It is not alone for the benefit of these tribes tiiat I desire 
to cultivate their friendship, but for the gpeater object 
of penetrating the interior through theur mdans. There 
are no Malays there to impede our progfess by their 
lies and their intrigues; and, God willing, theae riven 
shall be the great arteries by which civilization shall be 
circulated to the heart of Borneo. 

t« lilh. — The Dyaks of Tumma, a runaway tribe from 
Sadong, came down last night, as Bandar Cassim of Sa- 
dong wishes still to extract property from them. Bandar 
Cassim I believe to be a weak man, swayed by stronger- 
headed and worse rascals ; but, now that Seriff Sahib 
and Muda Eassim are no longer in the country, he re- 
tains no excuse for oppressing the poor Dyaks.. Si 
Nankan and Tumma have already flown, and most of 
the other tribes are ready to follow theh^ example, and 
take refuge in Sar&wak. I have fully explained to the 
Bandar that he will lose all his Dyaks if he contittQes 
his system of oppression, and more especially if he con- 
tinues to resort to that most hateful system of seising 
the women and children. 

** I had a large assembly of natives, Malay and Dyaks, 
and held forth many good maxims to them. Aft present, 
in Sarawak, we have Balows and Sarebos, mortal ene- 
mies ; Lenaar, our extreme tribe, and our new Sadong 
tribe of Tumma. Lately we had Kantoss, from nesr 
Sarambow, in the interior of Pontiana ; UndopSa from 
that river; and Badjows, from near Lantang — tribes 
which had never thought of Sar&wak befiire, and per- 
haps never heard the name. Oh, for power to pnrsne 
the course pointed out ! 

^* 16^. — The Julia arrived, much to my relief; and 
Mr. Low, a botanist and naturalist, arrived in her. He 
will be a great acquisition to our society, if devoted to 
these pursuits. The same day that the Julia entered, 
the Ariel left the river. I dismissed the Tumma 
Dyaks ; re-warned Bandar Cassim of the consequences 
of his oppression ; and had a parting interview with 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 29S 

LiDgira^ I had another long talk with Lingire, and did 
him honor by presenting him with a spear and flag, fbr 
I believe he is true, and will be useful; and this Orang 
Kaya Pa-muncha, the most powerful of these Dyaks, 
must be mine* ~ Lingire described to me a great fight 
he once had with the Kayans, on which occasion he got 
ninety -one heads, and forced a large body of them to 
retire with inferior numbers. I asked him whether the 
Kayans used the sumpitan ? he answered, * Yes.' * Did 
nmny of your men die from the wounds ?* ^ No; we 
can cure them.' This is one more proof in favor of Mr. 
Crawiurd's opinion that this poison is not suflUciently 
virulent to destroy fife when the arrow is (as it most^ 
is) plucked instantly from the wound. 

** 26^. — liinsi, a Sakarran chief, arrived, deputed (as 
he asserted, and I befieve truly) by the other chiefs of 
Sakamirto assure me of their submission and desire for 
peace. He likewise stated, that false rumors spread 
by the Malays agitated the Dyaks ; and the principal 
ruDoor was, that they would be shortly attacked again 
by the white mep. These rumors are spread by the 
Sariki people, to induce the Sakairans to quit their 
river and take refuge in the interior of the Rejong ; and 
once there, ^be Sakarrans would be in a veiy great 
measure at the mercy of the Sariki people. This is a 
perfect instance of Malay dealing with ^e Dyaks ; but 
in this case it has £ftiled, as the Sakarrans are too much 
attached to their country to quit it. I am inclined to 
believe their professions ; and at any rate it is convenient 
to do so and to give them a fair trial. 

** 28^ — ^How is it to be accounted for, that the Ma- 
lays have so bad a character with the public, and yet that 
the few who have had opportunities of knowing them 
well speak of them as a simple and not unamiable peo- 

Sle ? With the vulgar, the idea of a Malay — and by the 
lalay they mean the entire Polynesian race, with the 
exception of the Javanese — is that-of a treacherous, blood- 
thirsty villain ; and I believe the reason to be, that from 
our first intercourse to the present time, it is the Pan- 
gerans or rajahs of the country, with their followers, 
who are made the standard of Malay character. These 
njahs, bom in the purple; bred amid slaves and fighting- 

bb2 



294 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

cocks, inheriting cm undisputed power over their subjectfl* 
and under all circumstances, whether of riches or pov- 
erty, receiving the abject submission of those around 
their |>ersons, are naturally the slaves of their pasnons 
— ^haughty, rapacious, vindictive, weak, and tenacious 
unto death of the paltry punctilio of their court. The 
followers of such rajahs it is needless to describe ; Ihey 
are the tools of the rajah*s will, and inore readiFjr dis- 
posed for evil than for good ; unscrupulons, duming, in- 
triguing, they are prepared for any act of tioleiice. We 
must next contrast these with a burly, independent 
trader, eager after gain, probably not over-scmpukras 
about the means of obtaining it, ignorant of natiTe charac- 
ter, and heedless of native customs and natire etiqnet 
The result of such a combination of ingredients causes 
an explosion on the slightest occasion. The European 
is loud, contemptuous, and abusive ; the Malay cool and 
vindictive. The regal dignity has been insolted; the 
rajah has received "shame** before his ooort; evfl 
counselors are at hand to whisper the facility of rerenge, 
and the advantages to be derived from it. The conse- 
quence too frequently follows — the captain and crew are 
krissed, and their vessel seized and appropriated. The 
repeated tragedy shocks the Europesu mind ; and the 
Malay has received, and continues to this day to receive» 
a character for treachery and bloodthiifstineflUB. £v0n io 
these common cases an allowance must be made fiir the 
insults received, which doubtless on numerous ff ftfUM ftBT 
were very gross, and such dagrant violations of nathro 
customs as to merit death in native eyes ; and we must 
bear in mind, that we never hear but one side of fhe 
tale, or only judge upon a bloody fact. It u from such 
samples of Malays that the general character is g^ven 
by those who have only the limited means of trade for 
forming a judgment ; but those who have known the 
people of the interior and lived among them, far r^ 
moved from the influence of their rajahs, have given 
them a very different character. Simple in their habits, 
they are neither treacherous nor bloodthirsty ; cheerful, 
polite, hospitable, gentle in their manners, they live in 
communities with fewer crimes and fewer punishments 
than most other people of the globe. They are passioii- 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 29S 

ately fond of tfaeir children, and indulgent even to a 
fault ; and the ties of family relationship and good feeK 
ing continue in force for several generations. The 
feeling of the Malay, fostered by education, is acute, 
and his passions are roused if shame be put upon him ; 
indeed, this dread of shame amounts to a disease ; and 
the evil iis, that it has taiken a wrong direction, being 
more the dread of exposure or abuse, than shame or 
contrition for any offence. 

** I have always found them good-tempered and oUi-' 
ging, wonderfully amenable to authority, and quite as 
sehsible of benefits conferred, and as grateful, as other 
people of more favored countries. Of course there is a 
reverse to this picture. The worst feature of the Ma- 
lay character is the want of all candor or openness, and 
the restless spirit of cunning intrigue which animates 
them, from the highest to the lowest. Like other Asia- 
tics, truth is a rare quality among them. They are 
superstitious, somewhat /inclined to deceit in the ordi- 
nary concerns of life, and they have neither principle 
Dor conscience when they have the means of oppressing 
an infidel, and a Dyak who is their inferior in civilizatioa 
and intellect. 

** If this character of the Malay be«ummed up, it Will 
be anything hut a bad one on the whole ; it will present 
a striking eontrftst to the conduct and character of the 
rajahs and their followers, and I think will convince any 
impartial inquirer, that it is easily susceptible of improve- 
ment. One of the most fertile sources of confusion is« 
classing at one time all the various nations of the Archi- 
pelago under the general name of Malay, and at another 
restricting die same term to one people, not more an- 
cient, not the fountain-head of the others, who issued 
from the center of Sumatra, and spread themselves in a 
few parts of the Archipelago. 

^« The French, the German, the English, Scoteh, and 
Irish are not more differctnt in national character th^ 
the Malay, the Javanese, the Bugis, the Illanun,, and 
the Dyak ; and yet all these are indiscriminately called 
Malay, and a common character bestowed upon them. 
It would be as wise and as sensible to speak of a Euro- 
pean pharacter. «^ • 



296 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

^^ ZUt. — Started on a short excursioii up the country, 
and slept at Siniawan. Here I found a young Pangeran 
(who came from Sambas with Mr. Hup6, a German 
missionary) enchained in the delights of opiuni. He 
left Sarawak for Sambas two months siqce, proceeded 
five hours' journey, and has since been smoking the drug 
and sleeping alternately. His life passes thus : between 
four and five he wakes,. yawns, and snookes a pipe or 
two, which fits him for the labors of taking his guitar 
and playing for an hour. Then follows a slightly tasted 
meal, a pipe or two succeeds, and content and merri- 
ment for another hour or tvvo. About eight o'clock the 
gentleman reclines, and pipe succeeds pipe till, toward 
daylight, he sinks intoxicated and stupid- on his pillow, 
to wake up again in due course to play again the same 
part. Poor wretch ! two months of this life of dissipa- 
tion have reduced him to a shadow — two. more months 
will consign him to his grave. 

*^ Feb. IsL — Started after breakfast, and paddled 
against a strong current past Tundong, and, some dis- 
tance above, left the main stream and entered the branch 
to the right, which is narrower, and 'rendered difficult 
of navigation by the number of fallen trees which block 
up the bed, and which sometimes obliged us to quit our 
boat, and remove all the kajang coders, so as to enable 
us to haul the boat under the huge truaks. The main 
stream was rapid and turbid, swollen by a fresh, and its 
increase of volume blocked up the waters of the tribu- 
tary, so as to render the current inconsiderable. . The 
Dyaks have thrown several bridges across the rivers, 
which they effect with great ingenuity ; but I was sur- 
prised on one of these bridges to observe the traces of 
the severe flood which we had about a fortnight since. 
I'he water on that occasion must have risen twenty feet 
perpendicularly, and many of the trees evidently but re- 
cently fallen, are the effects of its might. The wiJk to 
K&t, or Ra-at, is about two miles along a decent path. 
Nothing can be more picturesque than the hill and the 
village. The former is a huge lump (I think of granite), 
almost inaccessible, with bold bare sides, rising out of a 
rich yegefiation at the base, and crowned with trees. 
The height is about 500 feet ; and about a hundred feet 



EXPEDITION 1*0 BOBlfSO. S97 

lower 18 a shoulder of the hill on which stands the eagle- 
uest-like village of Ka-at, the ascent to which is like 
climbing by a ladder up the side of a house. This is one 
of. the. dwelling-places of the Sow Djaks, a numerous 
bttt dispersed tribe. Their chief, or Orang Kaya, is ah 
imbecile old man, and the virtual headship is in the hands 
of Nimok, of whom more hereafter. Our friends seem- 
ed pleased to see us, and Nimok apologized for so few 
of his peo{^ being present,, as the harvest was approach- 
ing; but being anxioiis to give a feast on the occasion of 
mj first visit to their tribe, it was arranged that to-mor- 
row I should shoot deer, and the day following return to 
the mountain; The views on either side from the vil- 
lage are beautifal— one view enchanting from its variety 
aiMl depth, more especially when lighted up by the gleam 
of a showery sunshine, as I first saw it. Soon, how- 
ever, after our arrival, the prospect was shut out by 
douds, and a soaking rain descended, which lasted for 
the greater part of the night. 

^* 2d, — Started after break&st, and after a quiet walk 
of abQut three Jiours through a pleasant country of alter- 
nate hill and valley, we saw the valley of Nawang bek>w 
us. Nawang is the property of the Singd Dyaks, and is 
cultivated by poor families, at the head of which is Niarak. 
iThe house contained three families, and our party was 
distributed among them, ourselves, i. e. Low, Crookshank, 
and myself^ occupying one small apartment with a man. 
his wife, and dau^ter. The valley presented one of 
the most charming scenes to be imagined — a clearing 
amid hills of moderate elevation, with the distant moun- 
tains in the background ; a small stream rah through it, 
which, being danmed in several placesy enables the, cul- 
tivator to fiwd his padi-fields. The padi looked beauti- 
fully green. A few palms and plantains fringed the 
farm at intervals, while the surrounding hills were clothed 
in their native jungle. Here and there a few workmen 
in the fields heightened the eflfect ; and the scene, as 
evening closed, was one of calm repose, and, I may say, 
of peace. The cocoa-nut, the betel, the sago, and the 
gno or gomati, are the four favorite palms of the Dyaks. 
In their simple mode of life, these four trees supply 
them many necessaries and luxuries. The sago fur- 



208 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

nishes food ; and afber the pith has been extracted, the 
outer part forms a rough covering for the rougher floor, 
on which the fiirmer sleeps. The' leaf of me sago is 
preferable for the i*oofing of houses to 'the nilxkiig. 
The gomati, or gno, gives the black fibre which enables 
the owner to manufacture rope or cord for his own 
use ; and over and above, the toddy of this pohn is a 
luxury daily enjoyed. When we entered, this toddy 
was produced in large bamboos, both for our use and that 
of our attendant Dyaks ; I thought it, howev^, Teiy 
bad. In the evening we were out looking finr deer, and 
passed many a pleasant spot which once was a &nn, 
and which will become a farm again. These the Dytks 
called rapack, and they are the favorite feeding-gronnds 
of the deer. To our disappointment we did not get a 
deer, which we had reckoned on as an improvement to 
our ordinary dinner-fare. A sound sleep soon descended 
on our party, and the night passed in quiet; but it is 
remarkable how vigilant their mode of life renders ihs 
Dyaks. Their sleep is short and interrupted ; they con- 
stantly rise, blow up the fire, and look out on the night: 
it is rarely that some or other of them are not on tte 
move. 

** Yearly the Dyaks take new ground for then" &rm ; 
yearly they fence it in, and undergo the labor of redum-' 
ing new land ; for seven years the land lies frllow, and 
then may be used again. What a waste of IdxMr ! moro 
especially in these rich and watered valleys, which, in 
the hands of the Chinese, might produce two crops 
yearly. 

tt Sd. — Took leave of this pleasant valley, and by An- 
other, and shorter road than we came reaped M-at 
We arrived in good time on the hill, and foand eveir- 
thing prepared for a feast. There was nothing new m 
this feast. A fowl was killed with the usual ceremony; 
afterward a hog. The hog is paid for by the company 
at a price commensurate with its size : a split bamboo 
is passed round the largest part of the body, and knots 
tied on it at given distances ; and according to the num- 
ber of these knots are the number of pasns or pedi jfoif- 
the price. 

'* Our host of Nawang, Niarak, airived to ^s feM( 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 299 

ynih a plentiful supply of todcly ; and before the dance 
commenced, we were requested to take our seats. The 
circumstances of the tribe, and the ability of Nirook, 
rendered this ceremony interesting to me. The Sow 
tribe .has long been split into four parties,, residing at dif- 
ferent places. Gunong Sow, the original locality, was 
attacked by the Sakarran Dyaks, and Qience Nimok and 
his party retired to Ka-at. A second smaller paity subse- 
quently located at or near Bow, as being preferable ; while 
tibe older divisions of Jaguen and Ahuss lived at the places 
so named; Nimi>k*s great desire was to gather together 
his scattered tdbe, and to become de facto its head. 
My presence and the Datus* was a good opportunity for 
githeriag the tribe ; and Nimok hoped to give them the 
impression that we countenanced his proposition. The 
dances over, Nimok pronounced an oration : he dwelt on 
the advantages of union ; how desirous he was to benefit 
his tribe ; how constantly it was his custom to visit Sa- 
rawak in order to watch over the interests of -the4xibe— 
the U'ouble was his, the advantage theirs; but how, 
without union, could they hope to gain any advantage— ^ 
whether the ret^im of their remaining captive women, or 
any other t He proposed this union ; and that, afier 
the padi was ripe, they should all live at Ra-at, where, 
as a body, th^ were always ready to obey the com- 
mands of the Tuan Besar or the Datu. 

** This was the substance of Nimok's speech. But 
the effect of his oratory was not gi*eat ; for the Bow, 
and other portions of tlie tribe, heard coldly hie prop- 
osition, though they only opposed it in a few words. 
It was evident they had no orator at all a match for 
Nimok : a few words from Niana drew forth a second 
oration. He glanced at their former state; he spoke 
with animation of their enemies, and dwelt on their 
great misfortune at Sow ; he attacked the Sing^ as the 
cause of these misfortunes: and spoke long and elo- 
quently of things past, of things present, and things to 
come. He was seated the whole time ; his voice varied 
with bis subject, and was sweet and expressive ; ' his ac- 
tion was always moderate, principally laying down the 
law with his finger on the mats. Niarak, our Singd 
friend, attemi^d a defence of his tribe ; but he had 



300 SXPEDITION TO BORNEO* 

drunk too freely of his own arrack ; and his speech wu 
received with much laughter, in which he joined. At 
this juncture I retired, ailer saying a few words; bat 
the talk was kept up for several hours after, amid feast- 
ing and drinking. 

** 4th, — After breakfast, vralked to our boats, and at 
six P.M. reached home, just in time; weather Tory 
rainy. 

*' lOth. — ^Nothing to remark in these days, except die 
ordinary course of business and of life. 

** 13th,-— The Tumangong returned from SadiUDg, sod 
brought me a far better account of that [dace thanl had 
hoped for. It appears that they really are deairoos to 
govern well, and to protect the Dyaks ; aiid faUy ina- 
pressed with the caution I gave them, that unless diey 
protect and foster their tribes, they will sooa lose Aem 
from their removal to Sar&wak. 

** One large tribe, the Maluku, a branch of the Sib- 
nowans, are, it appears, very desirous of bemg ander 
my protection. It is a tempting offer, and I shixild like 
to have them ; but I must not deprive the rolers of Sa- 
doDg of the means of living comfortably, and the power 
of paying revenue. Protect them I both can ana wilL 
There are great numbers of Sarawak people at Sadong, 
all looking out for birds' -nests ; new cavea have been ex- 
plored; mountains ascended for the first time in the 
search. It shows the progress of good government and 
security, and, at the same time, is characteristis of the 
Malay character. They will endure fatigue, and rnn 
risks, on the chance of finding this valuable commoditj ; 
but they will not labor steadily, or engage in porsmti 
which would lead to fortune by a slew priMzreas. 

**' I5th. — Panglima Laksa, the chief of die Undop 
tiibe, arrived, to request, as the Badjows and Sakarrans 
had recently killed his people, that 1 would permit him 
to retort. At the seme time came Abong Kapi, the Sa- 
karran Malay, with eight Sakarran chiefs, named Si 
Miow, one of the heads, and the rest Tadong, Leneang, 
Barunda, Badendang, Si Bunie, Si Ludum, and Kim& 
the representatives of other heads. Nothing could 
more satisfactory than the interview, just over. Tho 
denied any knowledge or connection with the BadjoWp 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 301 

who had killed some Dyaks at Undop, and said all that 
I could desire. They promised to obey me, and look 
upon me as their chief: they desired to trade, and 
would guaranty any Sarawak people who came to 
their nver; but they could not answer for all the I)y- 
aks in the Batang Lupar. It is well known, however, 
that the batang Lupar Dyaks are more peaceable than 
those of Sakarran, and will be easily managed ; and as 
for the breaking out of these old feuds, it is compara- 
tively of slight Importance, compared to the grand settle- 
ment ; for as our influence increases w6 can easily put 
down the separate sticks of the bundle. There is a no- 
ble chance, if properly used ! It may be remarked that 
many of their names are from some peculiarity of per- 
son, or from some quality. Tadong is a poisonous snake ; 
but, on- inquiry, I found the young chief so named had 
got the name from being black. They are certainly a 
fine-looking race. 

" I7tk, — Plenty of conferences with the Sakaraan 
chiefs ; and, as &r as I can judge, they are sincere in 
the main, though some reserves there may be. Treach- 
ery I do not' apprehend from them ; but, of course, it 
wUl be in^iosstble, over a very ntimerous, pX)Werful, and 
warlike tribe^ to gain such an ascendency of a sudden 
as at once to correct their evil habits." 

Here again Mr. Brooke appears to have been placed 
on the horns of a dilemma by his ignorance of the 
views of the British Government. Had his position in 
Borneo been ciertain — had he either been supported or 
deserted — hifl| path of policy would have been clear; 
whereas he evidently did not know what the morrow 
would brings fordi ; whether it would find him With an 
£nglbh force at his back, or abandoned to his own re- 
sources. 

Co ^ 



302 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 



CHAPTER XXI. 

Mr. Brooke's memorandam on the piracy of the Malayan Archi- 
pelago. — The measures requisite for its suppression, and for 
the consequent extension of British commerce in that important 
locality. 

I CANNOT afford my readers a more accurate idea of 
the present state of piracy in the Malayan Archipelago, 
of the best mode of suppressing it, and of the vast field 
which the island of Borneo offers for the extension of 
British commerce, than by quoting a few of Mr. Brooke's 
observations on these important subjects, written before 
the operations of the squadron under command of Rear- 
Admiral Sir Thomas Cochrane took place, of which an 
account will be given in Chapter XXII. With refereopce 
to the first topic, piracy, Mr. Brooke remariu : — 

** The piracy of the Eastern Archipelago is entirely 
distinct from piracy in the Western world; for, from 
the condition of the various governments, the faciHties 
offered by natural situation, and the total absence of all 
restraint from European nations, the pirate communities 
have attained an importance on the coasts and islands 
most removed from foreign settlements. Thence they 
issue forth and commit depredations on the native trade, 
enslave the inhabitants at the entrance of rirers, and 
attack ill-armed or stranded European vessels ; and rov- 
ing from place to place, they find markets for their slaves 
and plunder. 

"The old-established Malay governments (such as 
Borneo and Sooloo), weak and distracted, are, probably 
without exception, participators in or victims to piracy ; 
and in many cases both — ^purchasing from one set of 
pirates, and enslaved and plundered by another; and 
while their dependencies are abandoned, the unpro- 
tected trade languishes from the natural dread of the 
better-disposed natives to undertake a coasting voyage. 

"It is needless to dwell upon the evil effects of pira- 
cy ; but before venturing an opinion on the most effect- 
ual means of suppression, I propose briefly to give an 
account of such pirate communities as I am acquainted 
with. 



EXPEDITION TO BQRNEO. 303 

" The pirates on the coast of Bomeo may be classed 
into those who make long voyages in large heavy-armed 
prahus, such as the Illanuns, Balignini, &c., and the 
lighter Dyak fleets, which make short but destructive 
excursions in swift prahus, and seek to surprise rather 
than openly to attack their prey. A third, and probably 
the worst class, are usuaUy half-bred Arab seriffs, who, 
possessing themselves o£ the territory of some Malay 
state, form a. nucleus for piracy, a rendezvous and mar- 
ket for all th6 roving fleets ; and although occasionally 
sending out their own followers, they more frequently 
seek profit by making advances, in food, arms, and gun- 
powder, to all who will agree to repay them at; an exor- 
bitant rate in slav^. 

**The Dyaks of-Sarebus and Sakarran were under 
tlie influence of two Arab seriifs, who employed them 
on piratical excursions, and shared in equal parts the 
plui^d^ obtained. I had once the opportunity of count- 
ing ninety-eight boats about to start on a cruise^ and 
reckoning the crew of each boat at the moderate aver- 
age of twdnty-five men, it gives a body of 2450 men on 
a piratical excursion. The piracies of these Arab se- 
ries aiid their Dyaka were so notorious, that it is Beed- 
less to detaO them here ; but one curious feature, which 
throws a li^t on the state of society, I cannot forbear 
mentioning. . On all occasions of a Dyak fleet being 
about to make- a {uratical excursion, a gtog was beat 
roun^ the tpwn ordering a particular numbjsr of Malays 
to embark ; and in case any one failed to obey, he was 
fined the sum of thirty rupees by the seriff of the 
place. 

** The blow struck by Captain Keppel of her majesty's 
ship Dido on these two communities was so decisive as 
to haive put an entire end to their piracies ; the leaders 
Seriff Sahib and Seriff MuUer have fled, the Malay 
population has been dispersed, and the Dyaks so far 
humbled, as to sue for protection; and in future, by 
substituting local Malay rulers of good character in Ueu 
of the piratical seriffs,^ a check will, be placed on the 
Dyaks, and they may be broken of their piratical habits, 
in as fkr as interferes with the trade of the coast. 

** The next pirate horde we meet with is a mixed 



304 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO* 

community of lUanuns and Badjows (or sea-gipsys) 
located at Tampasuk, a few miles up a smaO riTer ; they 
are not formidable in number, and their depredatxms 
are chiefly committed on the Spanish terntory ; their 
market, until recently, being Bruni, or Borneo Proper. 
They might readily be dispersed and driven back to 
their own country ; and the Dusnns, or villagers (as the 
name signifies), might be protected and encouraged. 
Seriff Houseman, a half-bred Arab, is located in MaOn- 
du Bay, and has, by account, from fifteen hundred to 
two thousand men with him. He is beyond jdoubt a 
pirate direct and indirect, and occasionally comniands 
excursions in persoa, or employs the Illanuns of Tarn- 
pasnk, and others to the e^tward, who for their own 
convenience make common cause with him. He has 
no pretension to the territory he occupies ; and the ra- 
thority he exerts (by means of his piratical force) over 
the interior tribes in his vicinity, and on the iaknd of 
Palawan, is of the worst and most oppreasive deacrip- 
tion. This seriff has probably never come in contut 
with any Europeans, and consequently openly proiiteset 
to hold their power in scorn. 

** To my own knowledge Seriff Houseman seised vid 
sold into slavery a boat's crew (about tv^enty men) of 
the Sultana, a merchant ship, which was burned in the 
Palawan passage. Within the last few months he has 
plundered and burned a European vessel stranded near 
the Mangsi Isles ; and to show his entire independence 
of control, his contempt for European power, and hii de- 
termination to continue in his present course, he has 
threatened to attack the city of Bruni, in conseqqeufe 
of the Bruni government having entered. into a treaty 
with her majesty's government for the discooragemeot 
and suppression of piracy. This fact speaks ▼cmimes; 
an old-established and recognized Malay goyemment is 
to be attacked by a lawless adventurer, ymo has seised 
on a portion of its territory, and lives by piracy, for ven- 
turing to treat with a foreign power for the best par- 
poses. If any further proof of piracy were requisite, it 
would readily be established by numerons witnesses 
(themselves the victims), and by the roost solemn dec- 
laration of the Bruni authorities, that peaceful tisden 



EXPEDITION TO BOBKEO. 805 

on the high seas have been stopped by the prahus of 
this seriff and his allies, their vessel seized, their prop« 
erty [^ndered, and 4heir persons enslaved ; numerous 
witnesses could attest their having been reduced to 
akveiy and detained in the very household of Seriif 
Houseman ! When, however, die fiicts of his having 
sold into dbvery the crew of a British vessel (which has 
been established before the Singapore authorities) come 
to be known, I conceive every other proof of the char* 
acter of this person is completely superfltious. 

** The indirect piracy of Seriff Houseman is even 
more mischievous tiban what is directly conunitted ; for 
he supplies the Baiagnini (a restless picatical tribe, 
hereafter to be mentioned) with food, powder,, arms, 
salt, ^. under the agreement that they pay him on 
their return from the cruise, at the rate of fire slaves 
for every 100 rupees' worth of goods. The Baiagnini 
are in consequence enabled, through his assistance, to 
pirate effectively, which otherwise they vrould not be 
able to do ; as, firom their locality, they would find it 
diflficult to obtain fire-arms and gunpowder. The most 
detestable part of this trafi&c, however, is Serifif House- 
man selling, in cold blood, such of these slaves as are 
Bomeons, to Pangeran Usop, of Bruni, for 100 rupees 
for each slave, and Pangeran Usop re-selling each for 
200 rupees to their relations in Bruni. Thus, this vile 
seriff (without taking into account die enormous prices 
charged for his goods in the first instance) gains 500 
per cent for every slave, and Pangeran Usop clears 100 
per cent on the flesh of his own countrymen, thereby de 
facto becoming a party to piracy, thou^ doubtless veiled 
under the guise of compasskm. 

** More might be added on the subject of the piracies 
committed by this serifif; and it could easily be shown 
that the evils accruing from them aflR»ct, not only the 
peaceful trader, but extend to the peaceful agricultu- 
rist ; but, for the sake of brevity, I deem it sufficient to 
add, that he exercises the same malign influence on the 
north coast as Serifif Sahib exercised on the northwest; 
and that, having surrounded himself by a body of pirates, 
he arrogates tlM rights of sovereignty, defies European 
power, contomns ev«iy right priDdiple, and threatens 
20 cc 2 



806 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

the recognized and legitimate go? enimentB of the Ar- 
chipelago. 

<* The Balagnini inhabit a cluster of small islands 
somewhere in the vicinity of Sooloo ; they aire of the 
Badjow or sea-gipsy tribe, a wandering race, whose 
original country has never been ascertained. At pres- 
ent, as far as I can learn, they are not dependent oo 
Sooloo, though it is probable tliey may be oDcoanged 
by some of the rajahs of that place, and that they find 
a slave market there. 

** The Balagnini cruise in large prahns, and to each 
prahu a fleet sampan is attached, which, on occasiOD, 
can carry from ten to fifteen men. They seldom cany 
large guns, like the Illanuns, but in addition to their 
other arms, big lelas (brass pieces, canying from a ooe 
to a three pound ball), spears, swords, ificc. They use 
long poles with barbed iron points, with wfalcht during 
an engagement or flight, they hook their prey. By 
means of the fleet sampans already mentioned, they are 
able to capture aD small boats ; and it is a fiiTorite de- 
vice with them to disguise one or two men, while the 
rest lie concealed in the bottom of the boat, and thns to 
surprise prahus at sea, and fishermen or others at the 
mouths of rivers. By being disguised as Chinese they 
have carried off numbers of that nation from die Sambas 
and Pontiana rivers. The cruising-grounda of these 
pirates are very extensive ; they frequency make the 
circuit of Borneo, proceed as ^ as the south of Ce- 
lebes, and in the other direction have been met off Trin- 
ganu, Calantan, and Patani. Gillolo and the Mohiocas 
lie within easy range, and it is probable that Papna is 
occasionally visited by them. It will readily be con- 
ceived how harassing to trade must be the conttnned 
depredations of the Balagnini pirates, and more eqie- 
cially to the trade of Bruni, which seems, from the ud- 
warlike habits of the natives, the chosen field of their 
operations. The number of Bomeona yearly taken 
into slavery is very considerable, as a fleet of six or 
eight boats usually hangs about the island of Labuan, to 
cut off the trade, and to catch the inhabitants of the 
city. The Borneons, from being so harassed by these 
pirates, call the easterly wind * the pirata wind.* The 



£XP£DITI01f TO BORNEO. 307 

Balagnini commeDce cruisiDg on tiie northwest coast 
about the middle of March, an^d return, or remove 
to the eastern side of the island^ about the end of No- 
vember. ' 

" Qf Magindano, or Mindanao, we are at the present 
time very ignorant ; but we know that the inhabitants 
are warlike and numerous, and that that part of the 
island called Illanun Bay sends forth the most daring 
pirates of the Archipelago. The first step requisite is 
to gain more information concerning them, to form an 
acquaintance with some of their better-disposed chiefs, 
and subsequently we might act against them with a suit- 
able force ; but it would be rash and premature, in the 
present state of our knowledge, to come in contact with 
them in ^their own country. On one occasion I met 
eighteen Illanun boats' on neutral ground, and learned 
from tiieir two chiefs that they had been two years ab- 
sent from home ; and from the Papuan negro-slaves on 
boai'd it was evident that their cruise had extended from 
the most eastern islands of the Archipelago to the north- 
western coast of Borneo. 

/* Having^ now enumerated the pirates I have become 
acquainted^ with since my residence in Sarawak, I shall 
proceed to offer an opinion of the best mode for the sup- 
pression of piracy in these seas. 

** In the first place, a blow should be struck at the 
piratical comoaunities with which we are already ac- 
quainted, and strucVwith a force which should convince 
all other pirates of the hopelessness of resistance ; sub- 
sequently the recognized Malay governments may be 
detached from all communication with pirates; and, 
joining conciliation with punishment, laying down the 
broad distinction of piracy and no piracy, we may foster 
those who abandon their evil habits, and punish those 
who adhere to them. 

- ** A system of supervision will, however, be necessary 
to carry out these measures : our knowledge of the na- 
tive states must be improved ; and as we become able to 
discriminate between the good and the bad, our sphere 
of action may be enlarged, and we may act with decision 
against all descriptions of pirates ; against the indbrect 
as ^well as the direct . pirate ; against the receiver of 



806 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

Stolen goods as well as the thief; afid aminat the pro- 
moter as well as the actual perpetrator of piracy. 

<* I would especially urge that, to eradicate the eTil, 
the pirate-haunts must be burned and destroyed, and 
the communities dispersed ; for merely to cmise agidnit 
pirate-prahns, and to forbear attacking thein until we 
see them commit a piracy, is a hopeless and an endlen 
task, harassing to our men, and can be attended with 
but very partial and occasional snccess; whereas, on 
the contrary principle, what pirate woold ventare to par- 
sue his vocation if his home be endangered — if he be 
made to feel in his own person the veiry ills be infliefs 
upon others 7 

<* A question may arise as to what constitateB pincj; 
and whether, in our efforts to suppress it, we may not 
be interfer'mg with the right of native' states to war one 
upon another. On the first point, it appears dear te 
me, that the plunder or seizure of a peaceful and lawfid 
trader on the high seas constitutes an act of pincyi 
without any reference to the nation or cedar of the in- 
jured party ; for if we limit our con s truction of pincy, 
we shall, in most cases, be in want of sufficient evidence 
to convict, and the whole native trade of the Archipelago 
will be left at the mercy of pirates, mnch to the injniy 
of our own commerce and of our settlement of Siiiga- 
pore. 

*' On the second point, we can only coneede die rij^ 
of war to recognized states; and even then we most 
carefully avoid introducing the refinements of European 
international law among a rude and semi-civiliEed people, 
who will make our delicacy a cloak for crime, and de- 
clare war merely for the sake of committing piraqr with 
impunity. On itie contrary, all chieft who haw aeiied 
on territory and arrogate independence (mokiaig drii in- 
dependence a plea for piracy) can never be allowed the 
right of declaring war, or entering on hoatiKties with 
their neighbors ; for, as I have before remarked, all na- 
tive trade must in that case be at an end, as the piratical 
chiefs, no longer in dread of punishment from Enropean 
powen, would doubtless declare war against eveiy nn- 
warlike native state which they did not need as a mar- 
ket for the sale of their slaves and phmder. 



EXPEDITION TO BORIfCO. 309" 

** Practically acting, however, on the broad principle, 
that the seizure of any lawfal trader constitutes piracy, 
I consider no injustice could be done to the native states, 
and no interference occur with their acknowledged 
ri^l» ; for in practice it would be easy to discriniinate a 
war between native nations j&om the piracies g£ lawless 
hordes of men ; and without some such general princi'. 
pie, no executive officer could act with the requisit-e de- 
cision and proQiptitude to insure the eradication of thia 
great evil. ^ / 

*' With a post such as is proposed to be estaUished, 
our measuros for tibe suppression of piracy (after the 
punishment of Seriff^ Houseman and the Babtgnini) 
would advance step by step, as our knowledge increa^d^ 
and with alternate conciliation and severity, as the case 
might require. By detaching the recognised goverur 
ments from the practice, and gradually forming among 
the chief men a friendly and £ng]ish party opposed to 
piracy, we should, I doubt not, speedily obtain our prin- 
cipal object of clearing, die sea of marauders, and ulti- 
BEuUely correct the natural propensity of the natives for 
piracy; 

** In order lo extend our commerce in these seas gen- 
eral^, and more particularly on the N<rW. coast of Bor* 
neo, it Ib requisito* lat, that piracy be suppressed ; 2dly, 
that the native governments be settled, so as to afford 
protection to the poorer and producing classes; and» 
3dly, that our knowledge of the interior should be ex- 
tended and our intercourse with the various tribes more 
frequent. 

'* That oiur commerce may be largely extended is so 
dear that I shall not stop to detail the productions of 
the island of Borneo, as it will suffice here to state gen- 
^nilly.tbat all authorities agree in representing i( as one 
of the riches'' portions of tibe globe, and in climate, soil, 
and mineral and ^vegetable productions, inferior to no 
portion of the same extent. 

^' If theae^ opinions be true— and from my experience 
J believe them to be so— it follows that the materials for 
an extensive and extended trade exist, and only require 
development, while a numerous and industriouSf though 
wild popiUatioBy which iohabita the interior, ii debarred 



310 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

from all intercourse with Europeans from the badness of 
Malay government. 

" On the first requisite for the development of com- 
merce I need add nothing further, as it is a doty incum- 
bent on all governments to eradicate piracy at any cost; 
and in the present case it would not be found a difficult 
or tedious task. 

** A post like Labuan or Balambangan would, beyond 
doubtf give an impetus to trade, merely from the free- 
dom from all restrictions, and the absence of all exac- 
tions, which the natives would enjoy ; and (piracy being 
checked) countries which now be fallow would, from 
their proximity, be induced to bring their produce into 
market. 

** This limited extension is, however, of little moment 
when compared with the results which must attend our 
exerting a beneficial influence over the native govern- 
ments for the purposes of affording protection to the 
poorer classes, insuring safety to the trader, and opening 
a field for the planter or the miner. 

** The slightest acquaintance with the northwest coast 
of Borneo would convince any observer of the ease with 
which these objects might be eflfected ; for the native 
government, being in a state of decadence, requires pro- 
tection, and would willingly act justly toward traders and 
capitalists, and encourage their enterprises, in order to 
continue on friendly terms with any European power 
located in their vicinity. The numerous nvera on the 
coast, with their local rulers, are harasscnl by the de- 
mands of every petty Pangeran ; and while the sovereign 
is defrauded of his revenue, which the people would 
cheerfully pay, and his territory ruined, this host of 
useless retainers (acting always in his name) eain but 
very slight personal profits to counterbalance all me mis- 
chief they do. 

** The principal feature is the weakness of the govern- 
ments, both of the capital and its dependencies ; and in 
consequence of this weakness there is a strong desire 
for European protection, for European enterprise, and 
for any change effected by Europeans. Supposinfj^ La- 
buan to be taken as a naval post, I consider that Euro- 
pean capital might with safety be employed in Broni. 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 311 

** Ih the rivers contiguous to Sar&wak the presence of 
Europeans would be hailed with joy, not only by the 
Dyaks, but by the Malays ^ and subsequently it Would 
depend on their own conduct to what degree they re- 
tained the good-will of the natives ; but with ordinary 
conciliation, and a decent moral restraint on their ac- 
tions, I feel assured that their persons and property 
wpuld be safe, and no obstruction offered to fair trade or 
to mining operations.. 
• *' Supposing, as I have before said, the occupation of 
Labuan by the Esglbh, our influence over the govern- 
ment of Bruni would be complete ; and one of our prin- 
cipal objects would be to maintain this ascendency, as a 
means of extending our trade. 

** Our position at Labuan would, it must be borne in 
mind, differ ^j&om the position we occupied in relation 
to Jthe native princes in Singapore. In the latter case, 
the native princes were without means, without foUoW- 
er», and with a paltry and useless territory, and became 
our pensioners. In the case of Labuan, we shall have 
an acknowledged independent state in our vicinity ; and 
for the prosperity of our settlement we must retain our 
ascendency by the support of the government of Muda 
Hassim. . Let oar influence be of the mildest kind ; let 
us, by supporting the legitimate government, ameliorate 
the condition of the people by this influence ; let us pay 
every honor te the native princes ; let us .convince them 
of our entirefreedom from all selfish views of territorial 
a^randizement on the mainland of Borneo, and we shall 
enjoy so entire a confidence that virtually the coast will 
become our own without the trouble or expense of pos- 
session. I have impressed it on the Rajah Muda Hassim 
and Pangeran Budrudeen, that the readiest and most 
direct way of obtaining revenues from their various pos- 
sessions will be by .commuting all their demands for a 
stated yearly sum of money from each; and by this 
direct taxation, to which Muda Hassim. and his brother 
seena ready to accede, the system of fraud and exaction 
would ,be abolished, the native mind tranquillized, and 
the legitimate government would become the protector 
rather than the oppressor of its dependencies. By this 
meatfure^ Ukewi^^y » tone might be imparted to tho 



312 EZCPEBITIOX TO BORNEO. 

native chiefs and rulers of riTers, and the p^aplm st large 
taught to feel that, after the payment of a specified ram, 
a r^t existed to resist all extra demands. Beside ttoA, 
these rajahs are convinced that a certain yearly -rerenae 
is what they require, and is the only means by nHiich 
they can retain their independence; and I haTe im- 
pressed it on their minds dmt, to gain a revenue, they 
must foster trade and protect Emt>peans in dieir deal- 
ings. 

'* If Labuan were English, and if the sea were dear 
of pirates, I see no obstacle to bringing these and other 
measures into immediate operation ; and I am aasoFBd 
we should have the sincere and hearty ooAperation of 
the Borneon govern inent. 

•' Since the advent of Europeans in the Archipela0>, 
the tendency of the Polynesian governments generuly 
has been to decay ; here the experiment may be fur^ 
tried on the smallest scale of expense, whether a bene- 
ficial European influence may not reanimate -a falling 
state, and at the same time extend our own commerce. 
We are here devoid of the stimulus which has Qi^^ us 
on to conquest in India. We incur no risk of the collision 
of the two races : we occupy a small station in the vi- 
cinity of a friendly and unwarlike people ; and we aim 
at the development of native countries throu^ native 
agency. 

*' If this tendency to decay and extinction be inevita- 
ble ; if this adaptation of European policy to a native state 
be found unable to arrest the fall of the Borneon govern- 
ment, yet we shall retain a people already habituated to 
European manners, industrious interior races, and at a 
future ])eriod, if deemed necessary, settlements grada- 
slly devek)ped in a rich and fertile country. We shall 
have a post in time of war highly advantageous as com- 
manding a favorable position relative to China, we shall 
extend our commerce, suppress piracy, and prevent the 

{)resentand prospective advantages from falling into other 
lands ; and we shall do this at a small expense. 

^* I own the native development through their own 
exortions is but a favorite theory; but whatever may be 
the fate of the government of Borneo, the people will 
still remain ; and if tliey be protected and enabled to live 



«XrcmTION TO BOJi^SO. ZIZ 

in quiet (lecurity^ I cannot entertain a donbt of die conui- 
tiy*a becoming a highly productive one, emin^tly cal- 
culated as a iield for British enterpnse and capital. 

** If the development of the resources of the country 
can be effected by its native rulers it will be a noble task 
performed ; but if it &il, the people of the coast will still 
advance and form goyernments for themselves under 
Bhtish influence. 

**In concluding this hasty and general view of the 
subject, I may remark that commerce might be ex- 
tended and capital laid out on the northwest coast of 
Borneo, to an amount to which it is difficult to fix Umits, as 
the country is ci^wble of producing uiost articles of com- 
merce in demand from diis quarter of the world, and 
the natives (who, as far as we know them, are an un- 
warlike, mild, and industrious race) would receive our 
manufiBM^res, from which they are now in a great 
measure debarred. I have not alluded to any other 
eountries of the Archipelago : for we must first become 
acquainted with them ; we must become intimate, cul- 
tivate an En^ish. party, and accustom them to our 
manners; ana probably the same conciliatory policy, 
the same freedom from design, which has succeeded ia 
Borneo, will succeed elsewhere, if pushed with temper 
and patience. 

**The general principle ought to be — to encourage 
established governments, such as those of Borneo and 
Sooloo, provided they will with all sincerity abandon 
yiFBcy* and assist in its suppression ; but at the same 
time, by supervision to convince ourselves, of the fret, 
and keep them in die right path ; for all treaties with 
these native states (and we have had several) are but so 
much waste paper, unless we see them carried into ex- 
ecution. 

^ I have now only to mention the third means for the 
extension of commerce. Our intercourse with the na- 
tives of the interior should be frequent and indmate : 
these people (beyond where I am acquainted with 
them) are represented as very numerous, hospitable, 
and industrious ; and a friendly intercourse would de- 
velop the resources of their country, draw its produce 
to tHur mavketi^Aad givQ the nadves a taste for British 

Do 



314 EXPEDITION TO BORNEa 

manufactures. This intercourse, howeyer, must be 
prudently introduced and carefully advanced; for to 
bring these wild people into contact with ignorant and 
arrogant Europeans would produce bloodshed and con- 
fusion in a month. In Borneo, it is an advantage that 
the two races can not come in coUision ; for from it» cli- 
mate it precludes all idea of colonization; and that 
which is next to an impossibility, the maintaimng a good 
understanding between ignorant civilized men and igno- 
rant savages. It is a field for commerce and capital, but 
no violent change of native customs should be attempted; 
and in this way alone, by gradual means, can we really 
benefit the natives and ourselves. When we consider 
the amount of produce obtained from the countries^ of 
the Archipelago, and their consumption of British manu- 
factures, under the worst forms of government, living 
in a state of distraction and insecurity, and exposed to 
the depredations of pirates at sea, we may form some 
idea how vast may be the increase, should peace and se- 
curity be introduced among them ; and- judging of the 
future by the past — by the limited experiment made at 
Sarawak — we may hope that the task is neither so diffi- 
cult nor so uncertain as was formerly supposed.?' 



CHAPTER XXII. 

Arrival of Captain Bethune and Mr. Wise. — Mn Brooke appoint- 
ed her Majesty's Agent in Borneo. — Sails for Borneo Prop- 
er. — Miida Hassim's measures for the sirppressicHi of piracy.— 
Defied by Seriff Houseman. — Audience of the Sultan, Muda 
Hassim, and the Pangerans. — Visit to Labuan.— Comparative 
eligibility of Labuan and Balambangan for settlement. — Coal 
discovered in Labuan. — Mr. Brooke goe? to Singapore and vis- 
its Admiral Sir T. Cochrane. — The upas-tree. — Proceeds with 
the Admiral to Borneo Proper. — Punishment of Pangeran Usop. 
— The battle of Malludu. — Seriff Houseman obliged to fly. — Visit 
to Balambangan. — Mr. Brooke parts with the Admiral, and goes 
to Borneo Proper. — An attempt of Pangeran Usop defeated.— 
His flight, and pursuit by Pangeran Budnideen. — Triumphant 
reception of Mr. Brooke in Borneo. — Returns to Sarawak. 

** February 25th. — Borneo River, H.M.S. Driver. 
Scarcely, on the 17th, had I finished writing, when a 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 315 

boat from her majesty's steamer Driver, bringing Cap- 
tain Bethune and my friend Wise, arrived. How strange, 
the same day, and almost the same hour; I was penning 
my doubts and difficulties, when a letter arrives from 
Xiord Aberdeen appointing me confidential agent in Bor- 
neo to her majesty, and directing me to proceed to the 
capital, with a letter addressed to the sultan and the Ra- 
jah Muda Hassim, in reply to the documents requesting 
the assistaiace of the British govemmant to effect the 
suppression of ph^cy. v 

*♦ My friend Wise I was glad to see, and a few hours' 
cony ersati<in convinced me how greatly I have been in- 
debted to his* exertions for success and my present po- 
sition. His knowleclge of trade, his cheerfulness regard- 
ing our pecuniary future^ all impart confidence. Thus 
I may say, tyithout much self-flattery,* that the first 
wedge has been driven which may rive Borneo open to 
commerce and civilization, which may bestow happiness 
on its inhabitants. Captmn Bethune is commissioned to 
report on the best locality for a settlement or station on 
the N.w. coast. I will only say here that no other per- 
son's appointment would have pleased me so well : he 
is intelligent, educated, and Uberal, and in concert with 
him I am top happy to work. 

" On the 18th of February the Driver arrived ; on 
the 2l9t left Sar&wak, and at noon of the 24th arrived 
. at the anchorage in Borneo river, having towed the gun- 
boat against the n.e. monsoon. Mr. Williamson was 
dispatched to Borneo, and found all right. They were 
delighted with our coming* and our mission, and the sul- 
tan himself has laid aside his fears. A few presents 
have been sent, which will delight the natives, and all 
will prosper. 

** 26^ — ^Budrudeen iBurived, and £rom him I learned 
the politics of Boi*neo since my last visit, when Muda 
Hassira was reinstated in authority. 

"As my mission refers more especially to piracy, I 
may here notice Muda Hassim's measures relative to 
that subject. Shortly after his iarrival he addressed a 
letter to the lUanuns of Tampasuk, informing them of 
the engagement with the English to discourage eiad swp' 
press piracy, advising them to desist, and ordering them 



316 EXPEDITION TO BOBNEO. 

not to visit Borneo until he (Muda Hassim) was conviiH 
ced they were pirates no longer. This is good and can- 
did. Muda Hassim at the same time requested Seriff 
Schaik to address a communication to Senif Housemsn 
of Malludu, acquainting him with his engagemedts, and 
the resolve of the Europeans to suppress piracy* adding 
that he was friends with the English, and no man could 
be friends with the English who encoui^ed pirac7* 
The answer to this letter of Seriff Schaik, as fiyr as' I 
have yet learned, is a positive defiance. - Three mcmths 
since, I am informed, a brig or schooner was wrecked 
at a place called Mangsi, and she has been completely 
plundered and burned by Seriff Housenum : her cargQ 
consisted of red woolens, fine white cloths, Turkey red 
cotton handkerchiefs, tin, pepper, Malacca canes, n/tr 
ans, &c., due. This evidently is a vessel bound to Chi- 
na, whether English or not is doubtful : the crew hayo 
not been heard of or seen here, and it is to be hqied 
may have reached Manilla. 

*' 2&th. — Borneo, or Bruni city. Left the Ihtrar at 
9 A.M. in the gun-boat, with the pinnace and cutter in 
company : a Sne breeae carried us to Puk> Chennin* 
and nearly the whole way to Pulo Combonf^ where we 
met with the state-boat bearing the letter. We enter- 
ed the town straggling, and the Utter having been receiv- 
ed with firing of guns, banners cUsplayed, and all the re- 
spect due to a royal communication, we were dragged 
in haste to the audience ; the sultan on his throne, Bfoda 
Hassim and every principal Pangeran waiting for us-* 
Pangerau Usop to boot. The letter was read ; twenty- 
one guns fired. I told them in aU civility that I was de- 
puted by her majesty the queen to express her ieelingi 
of good will, and to offer every assistance in renressing 
piracy in these seas. The sultan stared. Muda Has- 
sim said, *We are greatly indebted; it is good, veiy 
good.* Then, heated, and sunburned, and tired, we took 
leave, and retired to the house prepared for ust 

^^ March 1st. — A long Conference with Budrudeeot 
when, I believe, we exhausted all the important topics 
of Borneo politics : subsequently we visited Muda Has- 
sim and the sultan. The latter was profuse' in his lund 
expressions, and inquired of the interpreter uriiea the 



KXPEDITION TO BOENXO. SV! 

fingUsli would come to Labuan, adding, ' I want to hava 
the Europeans near me.' On this head, however, he 
gained no information. The presents were given to the 
sultan and tajah. 

** dth.-rln the evening visited Mnda Hainm, and heard 
news firom MaUudu, which, divested of exaggerations, 
amounted to this : tiiat Seriff Houseman was ready to 
receive us ; was fortified, and had collected a fleet oi 
boats t imd tliat if the En^sh did not come and attack 
him, he Would come and attack Borneo, because they 
wei^'in treaty with Europeans. After leaving Miida 
Hasaim, p^d the sultan a visit. 

** 1 Ot^.-r-i hsve nothing to say of our departure. Bo^ 
dmd^n accompanied us to the Mooarra, and tiience, on 
Fridi^Ovening, we crossed to tiie anchorage of Labuan. 

** I2ih. — Lf^tttn. An island of about fifty feet high ; 
t:wenty-five miles in circumference; woody; tiniber 
good ; Wator from wells and a few small streams, which, 
after a drou^t, are dry ; natives say water never fiuls. 
Anchorage good for the climato ; well protected from 
the ir.E. ; not extensive ; situation of contemplated town 
low ; climate healthy, i. e., the same as Borneo ; soil, 
as ifu'as'seen, sandy or light sandy loam. Coal found 
near the extreme n.e. point : by native reports it is like- 
wise to be found in many ot^er places ; traces of coal 
are frequent in the sandstone sttmta^ Anchorage not 
difficuH; of defense against a European enemy ; en- 
trance suffidentfy^ broad and deep between two islands. 
With a shoal;: vide chart. The island of Labuan, for the 
purposes of refiige for shipwrecked vessels, of a wind- 
ward post relative to China, for the suppression of pira- 
cy, aiid the extonsion-of our trade, is well suited ; it ia 
no paradise, a^ any other island, witH good climate, 
wood, and wat^r, would suit as weU. Its powerful rec- 
ommendation is its being in the neighboihood of an un- 
wadike and friendly peppiew There is no other island 
on t^ N.W. coast, and the abandoned Balambangan, to 
the nortlrward of Borneo, is the only other place which 
could by possibility answer. The comparison bet>veen 
Balamlmngan and Labuan may be stated as follows: 
Balambangan, as, a windwaid post relative to China, is 
superknr, and It commands in time of war the inner paM- 

d2 



318 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO* 

age to Manilla, and the eastern passages to China hf 
the Straits of Makassar. Of its capabitities of defense 
we know nothing. It was surprised by the Sooktos. 
Its climate was not well spoken of. The island is larger 
than that of Labuan, and, as far as we know, has no c^. 
The great, and to me conclusive considcfratioo against 
Balambangan is, that it is in the Yery nept of pirmtea, and 
surrounded by warlike and hostile peofdo ; and that to 
render it secure and effective, at least doable llie fiurce 
would be necessary there that would suffice at Laboan. 
If Labuan succeeds and pays its own expenses, we might 
then take Balambangan ; for the next best thing to a k>- 
cation on the main is to influence the people thereon by 
a succession of insular establishments. Yesterday we 
made an agreeable excursion to the if .E. point of Laba* 
an ; near the point it is picturesque, the clifis are bold 
and cave-worn ; the trees hang over the diffs, or en- 
croach on the intermediate sands, till they kiss- the wave. 
Near a small cavern we discovered a seam of co^ iniiieh 
afforded us employment while Captain Bethune and Mr. 
Wise walked to obtain a view of the soothem coast of 
the island. 

** Bruni, 2l8t May, 1845. — ^After a longer time passed 
in Singapore than I wished, we at length atartedy in tiie 
Phlegethon steamer, for this city. At Sing^HKire I had 
several interviews with Sir Thomas Coohrafae. 

** 22d, — On the authority of Sulerman, an in^alligBnt 
Meri man, I am told that the tree below the Uiwn it tibe 
real upas, caUedby the Meri men tojtTn— the BorneoDseall 
it upas. ' Bina (the name we formerly got firom a Bor- 
neon for upas) is, by Sulerroan*s statement, a thin creep- 
er, the root or stem of which, being steeped in water, ia 
added to the upas, to increase the poisonous qnafitj ; il 
is not, however, poisonous in itself. There is another 
creeper, likewise caDed bina, the leaves of which are 
steeped and mixed with the upas, instead of the stem 
of the fu'St sort. This information may be relied on (in 
the absence of personal knowledge), as the man ia of a 
tribe which uses the sumpitan, and is conatantity in the 
habit of preparing the poison. 

** August 8th. — Off Ujong Sapo, at the entninoe of 
Borneo river. The time since I last added to my most 



EXPEDITION TO <BORNEO« 310 

desultory jourDal is easily accounted for. I have been 
at Singapore and Malacca, and am now anchored off 
Borneo Proper, with seven vessels, and an eighth is 
hourly expected!. It is difficult, with such a force, to be 
moderate ; and, with Su* Thomas Cochrane's other du- 
ties and engagements, it is probably impossible to devote 
any length of time on this coast ; yet moderation and 
time are the key-stones of our policy. I have settled all 
the ceremonial fpr a meeting between the sultan and the 
admiral. 

** The Pangeran Budrudeen came on board H.M.S. 
Agincourt, with every circumstance of state and cere- 
mony, and met the admiral, I acting as interpreter. It 
was leasing -to witness his demeanor and bearing, 
which proved that, in minds of a certain quality, the 
power of command, though over savages; gives ease and 
freedom. The ship^ the baud, the marines, the guns, 
all excited Budrudeen*s attention. On the 9th, it is ar- 
ranged-that the adiniral shall meet the sultan and the 
raji^* 

^*9th* — ^In the course of the day, after the audience 
had terminated, the admiral made his demand of repara- 
tion on the svdtan and Muda Hassim for the detention 
and Qonfinement of two British subjects subsequent to 
their agreement with the British government. Of course, 
the sultan and the rajah replied that they were not in 
fault; that the: act was Pangeran Usop*s, and that he 
was too powerful for them to control by force. If Sir 
Thomas Cochrane would punish him, they should be 
mucl^ obliged, as t^ey desired to keep the treaty invio- 
late. 

** 10^.— Pangeran Usop had to be summoned; come 
he would not, and yet I was in hopes that, when he 
: saw the overwhelming force opposed to him, his pride 
would yield to necessity. About 2 p.m. the steamers 
took up their position; the marines were landed, ev- 
ery thing was prepared, yet no symptom of obedience. 
At length a single shot was fired from the Vixen, by the 
admiraPs order, through the roof of Usop's house, which 
was instantly returned, thus proving the foUy and the 
temper of the man. In a few minutes his house was 
tenanUess, having been overwhelmed with shot. tJsop 



820 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO^ 

was a fiigitiye ; the amount of mischief done incoiiiide^ 
able, and no damage except to the guilty party. Twen- 
ty captured guns the admiral presented to the sultan 
and the rajah ; two he kept, from which to reranneTttte 
the two detained men. So far nothing could be more 
Mtisfactory. Usop has been punished sever^, tfa« 
treaty strictly enforced, and our supremacy mlaintsined. 
No evil has been done except to die guihy ; his house 
«nd his property alone have suffered, and the inuneditte 
flight has prevented the shedding of blood. 

*' 11^. — At mid-day the admiral, with the Vixen and 
Nemesis, went down the river, leaving the Plnlo to me, 
to follow in next day. 

** I2th, — This morning I visited the sultan in compa- 
ny with Muda Hassim. By twelve at nidit the Pluto 
was anchored in the creek at Labuan, and on the 13th 
I once more took up my quarters aboard the flag-diip. 

** 14<;i.— Woodmg. 

** 16^. — Last evening anchored within the point call- 
ed in the chart Sampormangio, or, properly, Sampong 
Mengayu, which, being translated, signifies {MFOticid or 
cruising waiting-place. The weather was thick and 
squally, and it was late before the Daedalus and Vestal 
aiTived with their tows, liie Nemesis and Phito, the for- 
mer frigate having carried away her nussen top-mast. 

** nth, — Squadron under weigh pretty early, getting 
into Malludu Bay. After breauast, had a very heavy 
squall. Agincourt heeled to it, and sails of various sorts 
and si2MS were blowing about in ribbons aboard some of 
the ships : afterward brought up nearly off the Melow 
river. 

** 18^. — Vixen, Nemesis, Pluto, and IxMits, proceeded 
up the bay, and anchored as near as possible to the en- 
trance of the Marudu, or Malludu river. The charac^ 
ter of Malludu bay generally may be described as clear 
of danger, with high, wooded banks on either side, till 
in the bight, when the land gets flat and mangroyy, and 
the water shaUow, and where the mouths of several 
small rivers are seen, one of which is Malludu. 

** 19^. — On the 19th of August was fought the cele- 
brated battle of Malludu ; the boats, 24 in number, and 
containing 550 marines and blue-jackets, having left the 



EXPEDITION TO BOKNEO. 321 

previous afternoon. As I w&snot present, I can say only 
what I beard from others, and from what I know from 
subsequently viewing the position. A narrow river with 
two forts mounting eleven or twelve heavy guns (and de- 
fended by from 500 to 1000 fighting men^, protected by 
a strong and well-contrived boom, was tne position of 
the enemy. - Our boats took die bull by the horns, and 
indeed had little other choice ; cut away part of the boom 
under a heavy fire ; advanced, and carried the place in 
a fight protracted for fifty minutes. The enemy fought 
well and stood manfully to their guns ; and a loss of six 
killed, two mortally and fifteen severely wounded, on 
our side, was repaid by a very heavy loss of killed and 
wounded on theirs. Gallant Gibbard, * of the Wolverine, 
fell mortaUy wounded while working at the boom, ax in 
hand. In short, the engagement was severe and trying 
to our men from the fire they were exposed to. At two 
minutes to nine, aboard the Vixen, we heard the report 
of the first heavy gun, and it was a time of anxiety and 
uneasiness till the first colunm of black smoke proclaimed 
that the village was fired. 

** I may he^ mention that before the fight commenced 
a flag of truce came from the enemy, and asked for me. 
Captain Talbot (in command) ofifered to meet Seriff 
Houseman either within or without the boom, provided 
his whole force' was with him. Seriflf Houseman de- 
clined ; but ofifered (kind man !) to admit two gigs to be 
hauled over the boom. No sooner was this ofifer de- 
clined, and the flag returned the second time with a 
young Seriff, son of Serifif Layak of Bruni, than the en- 
emy opened fire, which was promptly returned. Had 
Captain Talbot entered as proposed, I deem it certain he 
would never have quitted the place alive ; for tiie Seriff 
and his followers had made themselves up to fight, and 
nothing but fight. Many chiefs were killed ; two or 
three Seriffs in their large turbans and flowing robes ; 
many lUanuns in their gay dresses and golden charms; 

* Leonard Gibbard made his first trip to sea under my charge 
in 1834, when I commanded the Childe^ in the Mediterranean, and 
at that early age gave promise of what he afterward proved him- 
self to be— a gallant omcer and thorough seaman. Poor fellow ! 
oe was always a genend favorite wherever he went — ^H. K. 
21 



322 EXPEDITION TO BOIMEO. 

many Badjaws ; many slayes — among them a captiva 
Chinaman ; many were wounded ; many carried away ; 
and many left on the ground dead or dying. 

<* 20/A.— On the evening of the 19th a detacbmept o£ 
ten boats, with fresh men and officers, quitted the Vix- 
en, and arrived at the forts shordy after day li([^t. I ac- 
companied this party ; and the work of destrtictioD, well 
began yesterday, was this day completed. Numerans 
proofs of the piracies of this Seriff came to hfjaU The 
boom was ingeniously fastened with the chain cable of a 
vessel of 300 or 400 tons ; other chains were Ibiuid in 
the town ; a ship's long-boat ; two ship's beOa, oneoraa- 
mented with grapes and vine leaves, and marked *' Wil- 
helm Ludwig, Bremen ;' and every other deacripCion of 
ship's furniture. Some half-[Mratical boats* Uanan- and 
Balagnini, were burned; twenty-four or twenty-five 
brass guns captured; the iron guns, likeime atatod to 
have been got out of a ship, were spiked and othmrwiM 
destroyed. Thus has Malluda ceased to exbt; and 
Seriff Houseman's power received a &Q from wl^ah it 
will never recover. 

** Amid this scene of war and devastation waa ooe epi- 
sode which moved even harder hearts than mine. .Twaa- 
ty-four hours after the action, a poor woman^ mth her 
child of two years of age, was discovered in a aa^ ca- 
noe ; her arm was shattered at the elbow by a grap^ 
shot; and the poor creature lay d^g for want of water 
in an agony of pain, with her child playing rojond her 
and endeavoring to derive the sustenance which the modi^ 
er could no longer give. This poor woman was takaa 
on board the Vixen, and in the evening her ann waa am- 
putated. To have left her would have bean certua 
death ; so I was strongly for the measure of takhu; her 
to Sar&wak, where she can be protected. To alT my 
inquiries she answered, * If you please to take me, I ihaD 
go. I am a woman, and not a man ; I am « ateve, and 
not a free woman : do as you Uke.' She stated too, poe- 
itively, that she herself had seen Seriff Houseman woand- 
ed in the neck, and carried off; and her teatimooy is 
corroborated by two Manilla men, who, among oUien, 
ran away on the occasion, and sou|^ protection fhMn ns, 
who likewise say that they saw the Seriff atretched out 



EXPEDITION TO BOBNEO* 823 

in the juAglet but they cannot say whether dead orwonnd-* 
ed. The proof how great a number innat have been 
killed and wounded on their part is, that on the folloW'^ 
ing day ten dead men were counted lying where they 
feU ; among them was Seriff Mahomed, the bearer of 
the flag of truce, who, though offered our protection, 
fought to the last, and in the agonies of death threw a 
spear at his advancing foes. 

*' The remnant of the enemy retired to Bungnn ; and 
it win be some. time before we learn tlieir real loss and po* 
sition. It is needless here to say any thing on the politknil 
effects to be expected from the estaUishment of a gov- 
ernment in Bruni, and the destruction ofvthis worst of 
piratical communities. When I return t4> Bmni, and 
s^e how measures iulvance, I may mention the subject 
again ; but I will venture here to reurge, that mere mil- 
itary forcOf however necessary, can not do what it is de- 
sinwle should be done. Supervision and conciliation 
must go hand in hand with punishment ; and we must 
walch that the snake does not again rear his head through 
our neglect. The key -stone is wanting as yet, and must 
be supplied if possible ; we must, to back the gallant 
deeds of the admiral and fleet, continue to pursue a 
steady course of measures. In the evening returned to 
the Vixen. 

** 21st.-^The nioming quiet. After breakfast, mkler 
weigh ; proceeded pff;^ the river Bankoka, where we 
found the Cruiser at anchor. As thi^re was nothing to 
detain us, crossed over to the squadron — remained an 
hour aboard Agiacourt ; then rejoined Sir Thomas Coch- 
rane aboard vixen, and before dinner-time were at an- 
chor in the northeast ude of Balambangan. Our wom- 
an prisoner doing well, and pleased wi&i the attention 
paid her. 

** 23c^.-*Southwestem harbor of Balambangan. Yes- 
terday examined the n.e. harbor; a dreary-looking 
place, sandy and mangrovy, and the harbor itself filled 
witii coral patches ; here the remains of our f(Hrmer set- 
tlement were found : it is a melancholy and ineligible 
spot. The S.W. harbor is very narrow and cramped, with 
no fitting aite for a town, on account of the rugged and 
imequal natiiro 6f the groiuid ; and if the ttywn were^ 



834 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

crammed in between two eminences, it would be do* 
prived of all free circulation of air. Water is, I hear, in 
sufficient quantity, and good. On tlie whole* I am 
wretchedly disappointed with this island ; it has one, and 
only one recommendation, viz., that it is well situated in 
the Straits for trading and political purposes ; iQ every 
other requisite it is inferior to Labuan. Balambangsn 
is commercially and politically well placed. Labium, 
though inferior, is not greatly inferior in these pointi; 
the harbor, the aspect, the soil, are superior: it may 
probably be added, that the climate is superior likewise ; 
and we must remember that those who had an opportu- 
nity of trying both places give the preference to Labuan. 

*' Then, on other points, Labuan has a clear advan- 
tage. It commands the coal ; it is in the Ticimty of a 
friendly people, and settlement may be formed wltti cer- 
tainty and at a moderate expense, and with smaD estib- 
lishments. Can this be done at Balambangan ? I own 
I doubt it ; the people in the vicinity we know nothing 
of, but we shall find them, in all probability, hostile. The 
Sooloos we are already too well acquainted with. The 
Illanuns are in the vicinity. In the case of Labuan, the 
details of the first establishment (no small step)^ can be 
clearly seen and arranged ; but I do not see nty way re- 
garding Balambangan. The matter is of secondaiy im- 
portance, but a languishing settlement at lint if to-be 
dreaded; food will be scarce, and houses iHflnff ^fc to 
build ; while at Labuan the population of Bmni are at 
our disposal, and the government our own. I leave oth- 
ers to judge whether a superior (but somewhat nmilar) 
position, commercially and politically, will outwmA, die 
other disadvantages mentioned, and repi^ us for tin ex- 
tra expenses of die establishment ; but, ror mjfself, I can 
give a clear verdict in favor of Labuan. 

** 24^. — Buried poor Mr. East, of the Aginconrt, on 
Balambangan. Gibbard, poor, gallant fellow, was con- 
signed to &e deep a day or two before. 

** 25th. — A day of disaster and parting : the morning 
blowy, with an unpleasant sea. V estal ran ashore on a 
coral-patch, but soon swung off. I was very sorry to 
part with the Agincourt. Farewell, gallant Aginconrts! 
fsreweli, kind admiral! ftrewell, the pride, pomp, and 



EXPEDITION TO BO&NEO. 825 

panoply of a flag-ship liner ! My occnpation^s oyer fpr 
the present, and I retire with content to solitude and the 
jungle of Sarawak. I step down the huge side, wave m 
parting adieu, jump on the Cruiser^s deck — ^the anchcnr 
is weighed, and away we fly. 

" 30^. — Conaing down in her majesty's ship Cruber, 
and now off Ujong Sapo. On our passage we had some 
good views of Kina Balow, and from various points; 
judging the distance by the chart, the angle of elevation 
gives the mountain not less than 12,000 feet and up to 
14,000 ; the latter result agreeing with the computation 
of the master of the Dasdalus. 

** 31«^— Started for Bruni, and half way met a boat 
with Pi(ngeran Illudeen, bringing the news of the place. 
Two days after the admiral and his steamers left. Pan- 
geran Usop seized the hiU behind his late house with 
300 Kadiens, and commenced an attack on the town. 
Pangeran Budrudeen on this mustered about the like 
number and mounted the hill, and by a fire of musketry 
dblodg^d the enemy, who retired, stood again, were 
again defeated, ana finally dispersed. This victory 
raised the courage of the Brunions, and a counter-attack 
was planned, when the arrival of her majesty's ship £s- 
piegle delayed them. As the officers of the Espiegle 
and the rajah could not speak a word of each other's lan- 
guage, the boat only stayed a few hours, and went away 
hi ignorance of the condition of the town. After her de- 
parture, Budrudeen gathered about a thousand men of 
all arms, with some hundred muskets ; and learing Bru- 
ni at three o'clock in the morning, reached the Ianding<> 
place at 6 A.m., and at eight marched for Barukas, where 
they arrived at one o'clock. On the way the Kadiens 
humbled themselves, and begged their houses might be 
spared, which were spared accordingly. On reaching 
Barukas, they found Pangeran Usop had been deserted 
by the Kadiens, and was in no way expecting their com- 
ing. The few persons who remained ^ed ignominious- 
ly, Pangeran Usop showing them the example ; and his 
women, children, gold, and other property, fell into the 
hands of his victors; The same evening Budrudeen re- 
tui-ned to the city in triumph ; and there can be no doubt 
these vigorous measures have not only settled them iq 

Ee 



/ 
/ 

/ 



396 J BXPEDITION TO JBOENfiO* 

Sower, bnt htve Ukewise raised the spirits of their ad* 
erents, and awed the few who remain adrerse. * Ner* 
er/ the Brunions exclaim, * was such a war in Bruni. 
Pangeran Budrudeen fights hke a European ; the Terj 
spirit of the Englishman is in him ; he has learned this 
at Sar&wak.* Fortune favored Usop*s escape. He fled 
to the sea-shore iiear Pulo Badukan, and there met a 
boat of his entering from lUmanis : he took possession 
and put out to sea, and returned with her to that place* 

*« Budrudeen we found in active preparation for pur- 
suit. A dozen war-prahus were nearfy ready for sea, 
and this force starts directly we depart. 

** Budrudeeu's vigor has given a stimuhis to liiis un- 
warlike people, and he has gained so gi^at a characteiv— 
victory sits so lightly on hisplum«-*-diat his andiority 
wiM now be obeyed ; while Usop, in consequence of his 
cowardly fli^t (for so they deem it^, from the want of 
enei^ he has displayed, has lost cnaracter ^ Well as 
wealth, and would scaroe find ten men in Brum to follow 
him. Unluckily for himself, he was a great boaster in 
the days of his prosperity ; and now the contrast of his 
past boasting with his present cowardice is drawn with 
a sneer. 'His mouth was brave,* they excteim, 'but 
his heart timid.* *• He should haVe died as other great 
men have died, and not have received such shame ; he 
should have amoked,* or else given himself up for exe- 
cution.* This seems to be the general impression in die 
city. 

** My mmd is now at rest about the fate of my friends ; 
but 1 1^1 consider a man-of-war brig coming here every 
month or two as of great importance ; for it wiU be nec- 
essary for the next six months to consolidate the power 
of Muda Hassim and Budrudeen ; and if, with the new 
order of things, they constantly see white faces, and find 
that they are quiet and inoffensive, the ignorant terror 
which now prevails will abate* Besides uiis, we might 
find the opportunity a favorable one for becoming ac- 
quainted with the Kadiens and the Marats, and giving 
them just impressions of ourselves ; for I have no doubt 
that on the late occasion the Kadiens were worked upoi^ 

^ Anf^i, ran-a-muck. 



\ 

V 



BXPrauTKm TO B(MtNBa( tm 

by all kinds of fiilse reports of the pale &ees taking tlieir 
IfiiDdSf burning iheir houses, &c., dee., &c. We only 
see the effects ; we do not see (until we beeome very 
well acquainted with them) the strings which move the 
passions of these people. The Kadiens are, however, 
an unwarlike and gentle race, and have now given ia 
their submission to Muda Hassim. I do not mention 
the sultan, because, as I before said, he is so imbecile 
that, as regarda public affairs, he is a cipher : he will 
some day cease to be sukajgi, and give plice to a better 



^* Our ieterview with the rajidi, with Budrudeen, and 
aH tiie etber host of our aequaintance, was quite a tri* 
umpk — ^ej hot with t^ir success, and we bringing die 
aeeomiit ef Mattodu's sanguinary fight. Happy Sicea 
•ad wroalsfaed smfles suppued tia!b place of the aniuouf 
and doubtful OKpressioB which I had left them wearing. 
AU vied in their atteotaons ; fruit enough to fill a room t 
the kiseiotts duriao, the delicate mangosteen and lousch, 
the grateful rombusteen, the baluna, pitabu, mowha, 
plaatain, &e., &».,. were showered upon us from all quar*- 
ters. The rajah daily sent a dinner ; all was rejoicings 
and few er 90 deuds lowered in the distance. I was 
Breud aod happy ; to I felt and feel that much of this 
has been ewiag fte ny eiLertiens. I will 90t stop to say 
how or why ; but I first taught them to respect and te 
eenfide 'm Englishaiett, and no one else has yet untaught 
them this lesson. 

*^ September 3^.-»-After parting interviews we quitted 
the city at two, and arrived aboard her majesty's ship 
cruiser at eight f.m . To-morrow morning we saU for 
Sarawak, where, at any rate, I hope for rest for a month 
or two. 

'< 19lib.^Sarftwidc. Thus eonekides a large voinme* 
Captaia BedHuae and myself, with Commander Fan*- 
shawe and a party of Cruisers, returned from a five day4^ 
excursion among the Dyaks, having visited the Suntah, 
Stang, Sigd, and Sanpro tribes. It was a progress ; at 
each tribe there was dancing, and a number of cere- 
monies. White fowls were waved as I have before 
described, slaughtered, and the blood mixed with kuny- 
it, a yeUow root, kc., dec., which delightful mixture wa» 






828 EiPEDITfON TO BORNEO. 

freely scattered over them and their goods by me, hold- 
ing in my hand a dozen or two yiromen^s necklaces. Cap- 
tain Bemune has seen and can appreciate the Dyaks : 
to-morrow he leaves me, and most sorry shaD I be to 
lose him. A better man or a better public servant is 
not to be found. 

** Among my Dyak inquiries, I found oot diafe the 
name of their god is Tuppa, and not Jovata, which they 
before gave me, and wluch they use, but do not ae- 
knowledge. Tuppa is the great god ; eight other gods 
were in heaven ; one fell or descended into Java — seven 
remained above ; one of these is named Sakarra, who, 
with his companions and followers, is (pr is in)the con- 
stellation of a cluster of stars, doubtless the Pleiades ; 
and by the position of this constellation the Djralui can 
judge good and bad fortune. If this dus^r of stars be 
high in the heavens, success will attend the Dyak; when 
it sinks below the horizon, ill luck follows ; firoit and 
crops will not ripen; war and famine are dreaded. 
Probably originally this was but a simple and natond di- 
vision of the seasons, which has now become a gross su- 
perstition. 

*^ The progress is ended ; to-morrow I shall be left m 
the solitude and the quiet of the jungle : but, after wit- 
nessing the happiness, the plenty, the growing prosperity 
of the Dyak tribes, I can scarcely believe that I conld 
devote my life to better purpose, and I dread that a re- 
moval might destroy what I have already done. 

** We must now wait the decision of government with 
patience. Captain Bethune, in making his report, will 
have the advantage of real substantial personal knowl- 
edge. I esteem him highly, and regard him as a man 
of the most upright principles, who is not, and wiU not 
be swayed in his duty by any considerations whatever. 
I am glad we are to stand the ordeal of aneh a man's in- 
quiry." 



BXPI^DITION TO BOSlfSO. 829 



CHAPTER XXIIL ^ y 

Borneo, its geographical bounds and leading divisions. — British 
. settlements in 1775.-!-The province of Sar&wak formally ceded 
by the sultan in perpetuity to Mr. Brooke its present ruler. — 
General view of the Dyaks, the aborigines of Borneo.— The 
Dyaks of Sarfiwak, and adjoining tribes ; their past oppression 
and present position. 

I WII.L now endeavor to make the reader better ac* 
qiiainted with the nature of a country and people so 
imperfectly known, by offering that general view of ks 
past events and present condition which will make the 
information respecting them more inteUigible, as well as 
applicable to new circumstaiices and future measures. 

%y looking at the map, it wiU be seen that the island 
of Borneo .extends over 11 degrees of latitude and as 
many of longitude, from 4° N. to 7° S., and 108° to 
119° £. The N.W. coast is but thinly populated ; and 
the natives who inhabit the banks of some of the beauti- 
ful rivers ^differ, as has been already stated, from each 
other in mannera and customs, and have but little com- 
muniealion atnong themselves. The S., £., and N.£. 
coasts of Borneo are also but thinly inhabited, and very 
little known.' There are various divisions of Malays, as 
well as different tribes of Dyaks, who live in an unset- 
tled state, and occasionally make war on one another : 
their principal occupation, however, is piracy. The 
north part of the island was once in the possession of 
the Bast India Company, who had a settlement and 
&ctory on the island of Balambangan, which was at- 
tacked in 1775, when in a weak and unguarded state, 
by a powerful piratical tribe of Sooloos, who surprised 
the fort, put the sentries to death, and turned the guns 
on the troops, who were chiefly Buguese (or Bugis) 
Malays. Those who escaped got on board l^e vessels 
in the harbor, and reached the island of Labuan, near 
the mouth of the Borneo river ; while the boo^ ob- 
tained by the pirates was estimated at 375,0002. From 
that time to this these atrocious pirates have never been 
punished, and still continue their depredations. 

The remaiader of the coast on the N.W. 'ib now caQed 

B B 2 



330 EXPEDITION TO BO&lfEO. 

Borneo Proper, to distinguish it from the name that 
custom has given to the whole island, the original name 
of which was Kalamantan, and Bruni that of the town 
now called Borneo. The latter was probably the first 
part of the coast ever visited by Europeans, who conse- 
quently extended the appellation to the island itsel£ 
The town of Borneo, situated on the river of that name, 
was, until the last few years, a port of some wealth, and 
carrying on an extensive trade, which has been rained 
entirely by the rapacity of the Malay chiefs, who have 
now but little control over that part of Borneo Proper 
which lies to the northward of the river. The province 
of Sarftwak is situated at the S. W. end of Borneo Proper, 
and was formally ceded in perpetuity by the saltan in 
1643 to Mr. Brooke, who, indeed, had possessed the al- 
most entire management of the district for the two pre- 
vious years. '* It extends from Taniong Data (I qaote 
from Mr. Brooke^s description of his teiritoryj to the 
entrance of the Samarahan river, a distance along the 
coast of about sixty miles in an E.S.E. direction, with an 
average breadth of fifty miles. It is bonnded to the 
westward by the Sambas territory, to the southward 
by a range of mountains which separate it from the 
Pontiana river, and to the eastwaiti by the Borneoii 
territory of Sadong. Within this space there are sev- 
eral rivers and islands, which it is needless here to 
describe at length, as the account of the river of Sari- 
wak will answer alike for the rest. There are two 
navigable entrances to this river, and numerous smaller 
branches for boats, both to the westward and eastward; 
the two principal entrances combine at about twehra 
miles from the sea, and the river flows for twenty milsf 
into the interior in a southerly and westerly direc^oik 
when it again forms two branches — ono runnilig to the 
right, the other to the left hand, as far as the moontain 
range. Beside these facilities for water-commanioa- 
tion, there exist three other branches from the eastern- 
most entrance, called Morotaba, one of which joins the 
Samarahan river, aqd the two others flow from diflfer- 
ent points of the mountain range already mentioned. 
The country is diversified by detached mountains, and 
the mountain range has an elevation of aboat three 



SXPEDITION TO BORNEO. dSl 

tbousand feet. The aspect of the country may be gen- 
erally described- as low and woody at the entrance of 
the rivers, except a few high mountains; but in the 
mterior undulating in parts, and part presenting fine 
loTeV i^ins. The climate may be pronounced healthy 
and cool, though for the six months from September to 
March a great quantity of rain falls. During my three 
visits to this place, which have been prolonged to eight 
months, and since residing here, we have been clear of 
sickness, and during -the entire period not one of three 
deaths ^eouid be attributed to the effects of climate. 
The more scfrious maladies of tropical climates are very 
infrequent; from fever and dysentery we have been 
quite free, and the only complaints have been rheuma- 
tism, coids, and ague ; the latter, however, attacked us 
in the interior, ai^ no one has yet had it at Sar&wak, 
which is situated alM>ut twenty-five miles from the 
month of the river. 

** The soil and productions of this country are of the 
richest description, and it is not too much to say, that, 
within the same given space, there are not to be found 
tlie same mineral and vegetable riches in any land m 
the woild. I ]^pose to give a brief detail of them,. be- 
ginning with the soil of the pliuns, which is moist and 
rich, and calculated for the growdi of rice, for which 
purpose it Was formerly cleared and used, until the dis- 
tractions of the country commenced. From ^e knows 
industry of the Dyaks, and their partiality to rice-cul- 
tivation, there can be little doubt tiiat it would become 
an article of extensive export, provided security were 
giveu to the cultivator and a proper remuneratioii for 
his produce. The lower grounds, beside rice, are well 
adapted for the growth of sago, and produce canes, rat- 
tans, and forest-timber of the finest description for ship- 
building and other useful purposes. The Chinese ex- 
port considerf^le quantities of timber from Sambas and 
Pontiana, particulariy of the kind Called Balean by the 
nat^es, or the lion-wood of the Europeans ; and at this 
place it is to be had in far greater quantity and nearer 
the place of sale. The undulating ground differs in 
soil, some portions of it being a yeUowish day, while 
the raSit is a rich mold; &ete grounds, gonerafly 



332 BXPEDITION TO BOSlfEO* 

speaking, as well as the slopes of the higher monatainitr 
are admirably calculated for the growth of nutmegi, 
coffee, pepper, or any of the more yaluable vegetable 
productions of the tropics. Beside tho above men- 
tioned articles, there are birds' -nests, bees-wix, and 
several kinds of scented wood, in demand at Singapore, 
which are all collected by the Dyaks, and would be 
gathered in far greater quantity provided the Dyak was 
allowed to sell them. 

«( Turning from the vegetable to the mineral riches 
of the country, we have diamonds, gold, tin, iron, and 
antimony ore certain ; I have lately sent what I believe 
to be a specimen of lead ore to Calcutta ; and copper is 
reported. It must be remembered, in reading thu list^ 
that the country is as yet unexplored by a scientific 
person, and that the inquiries of a geolo^st and a mine- 
ralogist would throw further light on. the minerals of 
the mountains, and the spots where they are .to be 
found in the greatest plenty. The diamonds are stated 
to be found in considerable numbers, and 6£ a irmkI 
water ; and I judge the statement to be correct mm 
the fact that the diamond-workers firom Sandak come 
here and work secretly, and the people from Banja- 
massim, who are likewise clever at this, trade, are most 
desirous to be allowed to work for the precioos stone. 
Grold of a good quality certainly is to be found in hxm 
quantities. The eagerness and perseverance of t£e 
Chinese to establish themselves is a convincing proof of 
the fact ; and ten years since a body of about 3000 of 
them had great success in procuring gold by thur 
ordinary mode of trenching the ground. 

** The quantity of gold yearly procured at Sambas is 
moderately stated at 130,000 bunkals, which, reckoned 
at the low rate of 20 Spanish dollars a bunkal, ffVM 
2,600,000 Spanish doUars, or upward of hidf a mufion 
sterling. The most intelligent Chinese are of opinion, 
that the quantity here exceeds that at Sambas; and 
there is no good reason to suppose it would ftdl short 
of it were once a sufficient Chinese population settled 
in the country. 

** Antimony ore is a staple commodity, which is to bo 
procured in any quantity. Tin is said to be pleatifUi 



EXPEDITION TO BOBNEO. 333 

&nd the Chinese propose working it; but I have had 
lio opportunity, of visiting the spot where it is found. 
Copper, though reported, has not been brought; and 
the iron ore I have examined is of inferior quality. 
The specimen of what 1 supposed to be lead ore has 
been forwarded^ to Calcutta, and it remains to be seen 
what its value may be. And beside the above-men- 
tioned minerals, there can be little doubt of many others 
being discovered, if the mountain range was property 
explored by any man of science. Many other articles 
of minor importance might be mentioned ; but it is 
needless to add to a list which contains articles of such 
value, and which would prove the country equal in 
vegetable and mineral productions to any in the world. 

^* From the productions (continues Mr. Brooke^ I 
turn to the inhabitants, and I feel sure that in describmg 
their sufferings and miseries I shall command the in- 
terest and sympathy of every person of humanity, and 
that the claims of the virtuous and most unhappy Dyaks 
will nleet with the same attention as those of the Af- 
rican. And these claims have the advantage, that 
much good may be done without the vast expenditure 
of lives and money which the exertions on the African 
coast yearly demand, and that the people would readily 
appreciate the good ^at was conferred upon them, and 
rapidly rjse in Sie scale of civiFization." 

The inhabitants may be divided into three different 
classes, viz. the Malays, the Chinese, and the Dyaks ; 
of the two former little ^eed be said^ as they are so 
well known. 

The Dyaks (or more properly Dyak) of Borneo offer 
to our view a primitive state of society ; and their near 
resemblance to the Taraiahs of Celebes,* to the inland 
people of Sumatra, and probably to the Arafuras of 
Papua, f in customs, manners, and language, affords 

* See Prichard's Researches. 1826, which, meager as they must 
have been from the want of data, tell us in two or three pages 
nearly all we know on the subject. 'That able investigator states 
that the Dyaks of Borneo resemble the Taraj of Celebes. 

t With regard to the Arafuras, or Haraforas, it is statetl that 
ttiey are termed in some districts Idaan, in others Murut, and in 
others Dayaks. See Haffles' Java. And Leyden assures as that 
ail thiese varieties wero cnriginally called Idaan. 



334 EXPEDITION TO BOKNEO. 

reason for the conclusion that these are the 
race of the Eastern Archipelago, nearly^ ttaticHiary io 
their original condition. W1& SQCceaaiTe waves of 
civiluBation have swept onward the rest of the inhab- 
itants, while tribes as wild haye arisen to power* floer- 
ished, and decayed, the Dyak in his natiTe jnnglM still 
retains the feelings of earlier times, and abowa the 
features of society as it existed before ibm iBflaz of 
foreign races either improved or corrupted the native 
character. 

The name ** Djrak" has been indiscrimimitely appfiad 
to all the wild people on the iskuid of Borneo ; bat aa 
the term is never so used by themselves, and as tfaej 
differ greatly, not only in name, but in their coatoma 
and manners, we will briefly, in the first instance^ men- 
tion the various distinct nations, the general loeaMtgr of 
each, and some of their distinguishing peeoharitiea. 

Ist. The Dusun, or villagers of the northern eKtrem- 
ity of the island, are a race of which Mr. Brooke knowa 
nothing personally ; but the name implies timt tiiflgr ara 
an agricultural people : they are represented aa not 
being tattooed, as using the sumpitan, and aa ha^ng a 
peculiar dialect.* 

2d. The Murut. They inhabit the intarior af Bonao 
Proper. They are not tattooed, always use the anmpi- 
tan, and have a peculiar dialect. In the same fcwa lii j t 
and resembling the Murut, are some tribaa callad the 
Basaya. 

3d. The Kadians (or Idaans of Toyagara) naa tlia 
sumpitan, and have likewise a peculiar malect; bnt in 
other respects they nowise differ from the Bomeans, 
either in religion, dress, or mode of life. Ther ara» 
however, an industrious, peacefol people, who eaitiTata 
the ground in the vicinity of Borneo Proper, and navrhf 
as & as Taniong Barram. The wretched capilBl ■ 
greatly dependent upon them, and, from their nnmbera 
and industnr, they form a valuable population. In the 
interior, and on the Balyet river, whidi disdiaii^ itself 

* A singular contrast to preceding accooDts, which w p f ssept 
the north and northeastern population not only as pirates, callsd 
Tiran or Zedong, but even as cannibala. Near tDsm tfeMa ^ 
pear to be the piratical nesU of Magindanis 800I0O1 dM. - 



BXr EDITION TO BORNEO. 335 

near Tanjoog Barram, is a race likewise called Kadian, 
not converted to Islam, and which still reti^ns the prac- 
tice of ** taking heads.'* 

4th. The I^yan. The Kayans are the most numer- 
ous, the most powerful, and the most warlike people in 
Borneo. They are an inland race, and their locality 
extends from about vxty miles up the country from 
Tanjong Barram to the same extent farther into the 
interior, in latitude 3° 30^ N., and thence across the island 
to probably a similar distance from the eastern shore. 
Their customs* manners, and dress are peculiar, and 
present most of th^ characteristic features of a wild and 
independent people^ The Malays of the N.W. coast fear 
the Kayana, and rarely enter their country ; but the 
Millanows are familiar with them, and there have thence 
been obtained many particulars respecting themi* They 
are represented as extremely hospitable, generous, and 
kind to strangers, strictly faithful to their word, and 
honest in their dealings ; but on the other hand, they 
«re fierce and bloodthirsty, and when on an expedition, 
^ughter without sparing. The Kayans are partially 
tattooed, use the sumpitan, have many dialects, and fire 
remarkable for the strange and apparently mutilating 
custom adopted by^the males, and mentioned by Sur 
Stamf<Mrd Kafflea- 

5th. To the southward and westward of Barram are 
the Millanows,* who inhabit the rivers not far from the 
sea. They are, generally speaking, an intelligent, in- 
dustrious, and active race, the principal cultivators of 
sago, and gatherers of the famous camphor barus. Their 
lo^ity extends from Tanjong Barram to Tanjong Sirak. 
In person they are stout and well-made, of middling 
height, h)UQd good-tempered countienances, and fairer 
than, the Malays. They have several dialects among 
them, use the sumpitan, and are not tattooed. They 
retain the practice of taking heads, but they s^dom seek 
them, and have little of the ferocity of the Kayan. 

* Tb^re ars several rivers, Meri» Bentulu, ^., tlie inhabitants 
of which, sa^s Mr. Brooke, I class under the general term Miila- 
now, as their dialects show a very close connection, and their 
habits are the same. Evidently from language thej are civilized 
tribes of Kayaas. 



336 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

6th. In the vicinity of the KayanB and Millanows are 
some wild tribes, cfUAed the Tatows, Balanian, Kanovr- 
it, &c. They are probably only a branch of Kayana, 
though differing from them in being elaborate^ tattooed 
over the entire body. They have peculiar dialectal use 
the sumpitan, and are a wild and fierce people*' 

7th. The Dyak. They are divided into ^ak Dar- 
rat and Dyak Laut, or land and sea Dyaks. The Dyak 
Lauts, as their name implies, frequent the aea'; and it 
is needless to say much of them, as their difference 
from the Dyak Darrat is a difference of circumstancea 
only. The tribes of Sarebus and Sakarran, whose riven 
are situated in the deep bay between Tanjong Sipans 
and Tanjong Sirak, are powerful conimnnitiea, and 
dreadful pirates, who ravage the coast in krge fleeti, 
and murder and rob indiscriminately ; but thia ia by no 
means to be esteemed a standard of Dyak character. 
In these expeditions the Malays often join them, and 
they are likewise made the instruments for oppreoing 
the Laut tribes. The Sarebus and Sakarran are. fine 
men, fairer than the Malays, with sharp keen eyes, 
thin lips, and handsome countenances, though frequently 
marked by an expression of cunning. The Bakiwa and 
Sibnowans are amiable tribes, decidedljy wa^ke, hat 
not predatoiy ; and the latter combines the virtaea of 
the Dyak character with much of the civilization of the 
Malays. The Dyak Laut do not- tattoo, nor do tiiey 
use the sumpitan ; their language assimilates closely to 
the Malay, and was doubtless originally identical widi 
that of the inland tribes. The name of Qod among 
them is Battara (the Avatara of the Hindoos). Thej 
bury their dead, and in the graves deposit a ttirga por- 
tion of the property of the deceased, often to a consid- 
erable value in gold ornaments, brass guns, jar% and 
arms. Their marriage ceremony consists in two fiyvris 
being killed, and the forehead and breast of the joang 
couple being touched witk the blood; after wfaidi>the 
chief, or an old man, knocks their heads together several 
times, and the ceremony is completed with mirth and 
feasting. In these two instances they differ from the 
Dyak Darrat. 

It must be observed that the Dyak also diflbn from 



JSXPBDlTlOir TO BORNEO. S37 

ther K«y«ii in not being tattooed ; and from the Kayah 
MiUanows, &;c«, in not iisip^ the national weapon — ^the 
aumpitan. The Kayan and the Dyak, as general dis- 
tinctions, though they differ in dialect, in dress, in 
weaponry and probably in religion, agree in their belief 
of similar omens, and, above all', in their practice of taking 
the heads of their enemies ; bat with the Kayan this 
practice assumes the aspect of an indiseriminats desire 
of slaughter, ^ile with the Dyak it is but the trophy 
aequirra in legitimate warfare. The Kadians form the 
only exception to this rule, in consequence of their con-^ 
irei^ion to Islaiii ;r and it is but reasonable to suppose, 
that with a slight exerdoif^in favor of Christianity, 
others might be induced to lay aside this barbarous 
custom. ^ 

With respect to the dialects, though the difference is 
considerable, they are evidently derived from a common 
source ; but it is remarkable that some words in the 
Millimow and Kayaki ar^ similar to the Bugis and Bad- 
jow language. This intermixture of dialects, which 
can be Unked together, appears to be more conclusive 
of the ooramoii origin of the \^ld tribes and civilized na- 
tions of the Archipelago than most other arguments ; 
and if Marsd^n's position be correct (which uiere can 
be little or no roason to doubt), that the Polynesian is 
an originfd race With an original kmguage,* it must like- 
wise be conceded that the wild tribes ropresent the 
jnrimitive state of society, in these islands. 

We knovi^ little of the wild tribes of Celebes beyond 
their general resemblance to the Kayans of the east coast 
of Borneo ; and it is probable that the Kayans are the 
people of Celebes, who crossing the Strait of Makassar, 
have in time by their superior prowess possessed them- 
selves of the country of the Dyaks. Mr. Brooke (from 
whom I >am co{^ng this Glketch) is led to entertain this 
opinion from a slight resemblance in their dialects with 
those used in Celebes, from the difference in so many 
of their customs from those of the Dyaks, and from the 
Kayans of the northwest coast of Borneo having one 

* Leyden concluded that the language was allied to the Batta 
and Tagala, and the whole derived from and varieties of the 
primitive-tongue of the Philippine Islands. 
22 Fr 



888 EXPEOITIOlf TOBOBHVCK 

cuBtom in common with the wild tribe of Minhnfce a 
the Bay of Boni. Both the Kayans woA MiokokM w 
the death of a relative seek for a head; and on the 
death of their chief many human heads innat Jbe pra* 
cured : which practice is unknown to the I^ak. It 
may farther be remarked, that thehr probable imaaig^^ 
tion from Celebes. is supported by the •tatemml of die 
Millanows, diat die Murut and Dyak giv« place .to the 
Kfetyan whenever Ihey come in contact,- ud thaft tiie 
latter people have depopulated large traeta in lb into* 
rrior, which were once occupied by the furiuor* 

Having thus briefly noticed the different wild poopb 
of the island, I proceed with the morepartioiikr ftuk of 
describing the Dyak Darrats. 

The legality of these Dyaks may be marked aa ftl- 
lows : — The Pontiana river, from its movtli, k traced 
into the interior toward the northward and.WijMtwanb 
until it approaches at the farthest within 100 miloa of 
the northwest coast ; a line drawn in latitndii 3^ N* til It 
intersects the course of the Pontiana river will poiat oot 
the limit of the country inhaUted by the !P7ak« . '^ntfaki 
this inconsiderable portion of the i^and, iduoh iBdadaa 
Sambas, Landak, Pontiana, Sangow, Sarftwakt te«tOn 
numerous tribes, all of which agree in thiur iTiaiWng ow- 
toms, and make use of nearly the same diploet- Far- 
sonally (writes our sole authority far any iatalfisHieo 
respecting them), I am acquunted on^ wu| th* triboa 
of Sarawak and some tribes furiJier ini the mtarltr be- 
yond the government of the Malays, idm kdiililK die 
countiy between Sar&wak and Landak ;- Mid dw- de- 
scription of one tribe will serve as a daecriplMe of aik 
so little do they vaiy. 

Before, however, I say anything of th* clmMtw of 
the Dyaks, or their temper, it will be neoeomj to de- 
scribe briefly the government under ^diichth^lveiaiid 
the influence it has upon them ; and if af i e i w aid in tbm 
recital there appear some nnamiable pointa io tlieir 
character, an allowance will be made for their ^'^18% 
which those who rule them would not deaorre. 

The Dyaks have from time immemorial been looked 
upon as the bondsnien of the Malays, tod the rajahs 
consider them much in the same ligj^t aa tiiay imid a 



BXFfleiTlOM TO BORNEO. S8t 

drovd of oxen— i, €. as peraoatl aBd-dui|iPMble property* 
They were governed in SaHlwakJby three local officen^ 
called the Pattngi, the Bandar, and the Tumangong. To 
the Patingi they paid a amall yearly revenue of riee, but 
this deficiency of reTenae was made np by sending thenr 
a quantity of goods— chiefly salt, Dyak cloths, and iron— 
and denuiBding a price for them aix or eight times mor^ 
than^eir ralne. The produce collected by the Dyaka 
was also monopolised, and the edible birds'-nests, bees* 
wax, iio. &a< were taken at a price fixed by the Patingi^ 
who moraorer claimed mats, fowls, fruits, and every other 
necessary at his pleasure, and could likewise make the 
DynkB work lor liim lor merely a nominal remuneratiott. 
This aysteta, not badly devised, had it been limited within 
the bounda of moderation, would have left the Pyaka 
plenty for all their wants; or had the local officer* 
known thek own interest, they would Imivo protected 
those upon whom they depended for revenue, and under 
the worst oppression of one^ man the Dyaks would have 
deemed themselves happy. Such unfortunately was 
not the cf^ ; for the love of immediate gain overcame 
every otlM censidersftion, and by degrees old-established 
eustoroa wflir^ thrown aside, and new ones substituted in 
thejr pl s ce* Wb<te the Patingi had received all^ he 
tlMH]^[ht proper to extuft, his re&tivM first claimed the 
right of arbitrMry trade, and gradually it was extended as 
the [xrivilege of every respe^able person in the country 
to serra* the !Dyaks. The poor Dyak, thus at the mercy 
of half the Miday population, was never allowed to refuse 
compbance with tliese demands ; he could [dead neither 
poverty, inability, nor even hunger, as an excuse, for 
th» answer was ever ready : ^ Uive me your wife or, 
one of ycfir children ;'' and in case be couid not supply 
what wias required^ the wife or the chikl was taken, and 
became a slave. Many modes of extortion were resorted 
to ;^ a fav<Hrite one was convicting the Dyak of a fault and 
imposing a ^ne upon him. Some ingenuity and much 
trickety were shown in this game, and new offences 
were invented as soon as the M pleas would serve no 
longer; ibr instance, if a Matey met a Dyak in a boat 

* Probrtflv a Dyak phrase for levying exsctiODS on tb^ op' 
pressed peqple. It is not Malay. 



MD BXPEDITIOM TO BOEHSa 

which pleased him, he notched it, as a token that it' 
his property ; in one day, if the boat was a new one, 
perhaps three or more would place their marks on it; 
and as only one could get it, the Dyak to whom the boat 
really belonged had to pay the otbenfor hUfindU Tbu^ 
however, was only ^* a fault ;'* whereas, for a Dyak to 
injure a Malay, directhr or indirectly, parpoaely or odi- 
erwise, was a high dffence, and punished by a propor- 
tionate fine. If a Dyak's house was in bad repair, and 
a Malay fell in consequence and was hurt, at pretended 
to be hurt, a fine was imposed ; if a Malay in the jungle 
•was wounded by the springs set for a wild boar, or oy 
the wooden spikes which the Dyaks for protection pot 
about their village, or scratched himself and said he was 
injured, the penally was heavy ; if the Malay wea radly 
hurt, ever so accidentally, it was the ruin of the I>yak. 
A.nd these numerous and uninvited guests came and 
went at pleasure, lived in free quartera* made Aeir 
requisitions, and then forced th^ Dyak to eanr awi^ 
for them the very property of whksh he had been 
robbed. 

This is a fair picture of the govemmenta under which 
the Dyaks tive ; and although they were often nmsed to 
resistance, it vms always fruitless, and only involved them 
in deeper troubles ; for the Malays could qoiekly. gather a 
large force of sea Dyaks from Sakairran, vi^o were read- 
ily attracted by hope of plunder, and who, supported by 
the fire-arms of their allies, were certain to overcome 
any single tribe that held out. The misfortunes oF die 
Dyaks of Sar&wak did not stop here. Antiinony ore 
was discovered ; the cupidity of the Bomeona was roused; 
then Pangerans struggled for the prize ; intriguea and 
dissensions ensued ; and the inhabitants of Sarthvak in 
turn felt the very evil they had inflicted on ib» Dyaks ; 
while the Dyaks vt^ere compelled, amid llieir odier 
wrongs, to labor at the ore vnthout any recompense, and 
to the neglect of their rice-cultivation. Many diiid in 
consequence of this compulsory labor, so contrary to 
their habits and inclinations ; and more would doubtless 
have fallen victims, had not civil war rescued them from 
this evil, to inflict upon them others^ a diouaand timea 
worse. 



EXPEDITION TO BOKNBO. 9^1 

Extortion had before been carried on by indrndvals, 
but now it was systematized;. and Pangerans of rank, 
for the sake of plunder, sent bodies oi Malays and 
Sakarran Dyaks to attack the different tnbes. The 
men were slaughtered," the women and children carried 
off into slavery^ the Tillages burned, the fruit-treea cut 
down,* an^d all their property destroyed or seized. 

The Dyaks could no longer live in tribes, but souf^t 
refuge in the mountains or the jungle, a few together; 
and as one of them pathetically describecl itr— *« We do 
not live,** he sud, *^ like inen ; we are like monkeys ; 
we are hunted fioom place to place ; we h|ive no houses ; 
and when we light a fire, we fear the smoke will draw 
our enemies upon us." 

In the eoilFse of ten years, under the circumstances 
detailed — ^from enforced labor, from famine, from slavery, 
from sickness, from the sword — one half of the. Dyak 
populationf disappeared; and the work of extirpation 
Would have gone on at an accelerated pace, had the 
remmmtrbeen left to the tender mercies of the Pange- 
rans ; but chance (we may much more truly say Provi- 

« , ' 

* The utter destruction of a village or town is nothing to the 
innictioQ of cutting down the fruit-trees. The former cau be 
rebuilt, with its rude and ready materials, in a few weeks ; but 
the latter, from which the principal subsistence of the natives is 
gathered, cannot be toddenty restored, and thus they are reduced 
to starvation. ^ . 

t The grounds. for this opinion are an estimate personally made 
among the tribes, compared with the estimate kept by the local 
officers before the distnrbance arose ; and the vesolt is, that only 
two out of twenty tribes bave not suffered, while some tribes have 
been reduced from 330 families to 50 ; about ten tribes have lost 
more than half their nun^r ; one tribe of 100 families has lost 
all its women and children made slaves ; and one tribe, more 
wretched, has been reduced from 120 families to 2, that is, 16 
persons ; while two tribes have entirely disappeared. The list of 
the tribes and their numbers formerly and now are as follows : — 
Suntah, 330-^9a; Sanpro, 100—69; Sigo, 80—28; Sabungo, 60 
—33 ; Brang, 50—22 ; Sinnar, 80—34 ; Slang, 80—30 ; Samban, 
60—34 ; Tnbbia, 80—30 ; Goon, 40—25 ; Bang, 40—12 ; KuHUSs, 
3&-^ ; Londo, 80—2 ; Sow, 200—100 ; Sarambo, 100—60 ; Bom- 
bak, 35—35 ; Paniniow, 80—40 ; Sing^, 220-220 ; Pons. 20—0; 
Sibaduh, 25—25. Total, fonnerlv. 1795— now, 849 families ; and 
reckoning eight persons to each mml% the amount of population 
will be, formerly, 14,360— now, 6792 : giving a decrease of popo- 
lation in ten years of 846 famiuet', or 7568 persons ! 

ff3 



342 EXPEDmON TO BOSNEO. 

deuce) led our conntryinaii Mr« Brooke to thif Mene oC 
miseiy, and enabled him, by circnmttances far romoTed 
beyond the grounds of calcalationy to put a atop to the 
sutferings of an amiable people. 

There are twenty tribei in Sarftwak, on about tAy 
square miles of land. The appearance of tlie Dyaks is 
prepossessing: they have good-natured fuses, with a 
mild and subdued expression ; eyes set fiur apart, and 
features sometimes well formed. In parson ttwy are 
active, of middling height, and not distingnishable from 
the Malays in complexion. The women are neither so 
good-looking war well-formed as the men, hot tber have 
the same expression, and are dieerfiil and klnd-tein- 
pered. The dress of the men consists of a pieee of 
ck)th about fifteen feet long, passed between the legs 
and fastened round the loins, with the ends banging be- 
fore and behind ; the head-dress is composed of bark- 
cloth, dyed bright yellow, and stuck up in front so as to 
resemble a tuft of feathers. The arms and legs are 
often ornamented with rings of silver, brass, or shefi; 
and necklaces are worn, made of human teeth, or those 
of bears or dogs, or of white beads, in such numerous 
strings as to conceal the throat. A sword on one skie, 
a knue and small betel-basket on the other, oQoiplete 
the ordinary equipment of the males ; bat whan tbsj 
travel they cany a basket slung fron» the fofohend, on 
which is a palm-mat, to protect the owner and his 
property from the weather. The women wear a abort 
and scanty petticoat, reaching from the knns to tlio 
knees, and a pair of black bamlnw stays, which are never 
removed except the wearer be enceinte* Ther have 
rings of brass or red bamboo about the loins* and some- 
times ornaments on the arms; the hair is worn kmg; 
the ears of both sexes are pierced, and earrings of bnus 
inserted occasionally ; the teeth of the joitng people 
are sometimes filed to a point and discoured^ as tfa^ 
say that ** Dogs have white teelli.^ They frsqnontly 
dye their feet and hands of a bright red oryo to wcoier; 
and the young people, like those of other countries, af- 
fect a degree of finery and foppbhness, whi^ the etden 
invariably lay aside all ornaments, as unfit for a wise 
person or one advanced in years. 



BXPBDITIOll TO BORNEO. 843 

In ehsraeter the Pyak is mild ^nd tractable, hospitable 
when he is well used, grateful for kindness, industrious, 
honest, and simple ; neither treacherous nor cunning, 
and so truthful that die word of one of diem might safely 
be taken before the oath of half-a-dozetl Borheons. In 
their deafings diey are very straightforward and correct, 
and so trustworthy that they rarely attempt, even after 
a lapse of years, to evade payment of a just debt, On 
the reverse of< this picture there is little unfavorable to 
be s»d ; and the wonder is, they have learned so little 
deceit or fidsefaood where the examples before them 
have been so rife. The temper of the Dyak inclines to 
befluDen ; and they oppose a dogged and stupid obstinacy 
when set to a task which displeases them, and support 
with immovable apathy torrents of abuse or entreaty. 
They are likewise distrustful, fickle, apt to be led away, 
an4 evasivjD in concealing the amount of their property ; 
but these are the vices rather of situation than oi char- 
acter, for they have been taught by bitter experience 
that their rulers set no limits to their exactions, and that 
hiding is tlieir cHoAj chatice of retaining a portion of the 
grain they have raised. They are, at the same time, 
rally aware of the customs by which their ancestors 
were governed, and are constantly appealing to them as 
a jmle of right, and i^equently arguing with the Malav 
on l&e subject. Upon these occasions they are silenced, 
but not convinced ; and the Malay, while he evades or 
buHies when it is needftil, is sure to appeal to these 
very much-abused customs whenever it serves his pur- 
pose. The manners of the Dyaks with strangers are 
reserved to an extent rarely seen among rude or half, 
civilii:^ people ; but on a better acquaintance (which is 
not readily acquired), thtoy are open and talkative, and, 
when heated with their fevorite beverage, lively, and 
eiancing more shrewdness and observation than they 
h^ve gained credit for possessing. Then* ideas, as mav 
wel' be supposed, are very limited ; they reckon widi 
liteir fingers and toes, and few are clever enough to 
eovmt beyond twenty ; but when they repeat the opera* 
tkm, dMT record each twenty by making a knot on a 
string. 

Like oQier wild people, die sHghtest restr^at is irk- 



344 £XPm)ITlON TO bornbo, 

some, and do temptatioii will induce them to stay long 
from their favorite jangle. It is there fhej Miek die 
excitement of war, the pleasures of the chase, the la- 
bors of the field, and the abundance of fruit in the rich 
produce which assists in supporting their &naLitieB« The 
pathless jungle is endeared to them by eyeiy ■Mocitttaon 
which influences the human mind, and they langauh 
when prevented from roaming there as ipctinitian dicr 
tates. 

With reference to the gradual advance of the Dyaks, 
Mr. Brooke observes in an early part of his journal :— 
^* The peaceful and gentle aborigines — ^how can I speak 
too favorably of their improved condition 1 These peo- 
ple, who, a few years since, suffered evexy extreme of 
misery from war, slavery, and starvation, are now com- 
fortably lodged, and comparatively i^ch. A stranger 
might now pass from village to village, and be would 
receive their hospitality, and see their padi stored in 
their houses. He would hear them proclaim their hap- 
piness, and praise the white man as their fi^end and 
protector. Since the death of Parembam, no Dyak of 
Sarawak lost his life by violence, until a month since, 
when two were cut off by the Sakatran Dyaks. None 
of the tribes have warred among themselves ; and I be- 
lieve their war excursions to a distance in tfaa ioterior 
have been very few, and those imdertaken by the 8ar- 
ambos. What punishment ia sufficient for uie wretdl 
who finds this state of things so baleful as to ilttempt to 
destroy it? Yet such a wretch is Seriff Sahib. In de- 
scribing the condition of the Dyaks, I do not say that it 
is perfect, or that it may not be still further improved; 
but with people in their state of society imiQTatioiis 
ought not rashly or hastily to be made ; as the civifiped 
being ought constantly to bear in mind, that wfafit Is 
clear to him is not clear to a salvage ; that intended ben* 
efits may be regarded as positive injuries.; and ibat lus 
motives are not, and scarcely can be, apOTeciatad ! The 
greatest evil, perhaps, from which the Dyaks snfibr, Is 
die influence of the Datus or chiefs ; bat this lnfltteno» 
is never carried to oppression, and is only used to obtain 
the expensive luxury of * birds'-nests* at a eheap nfts. 
In short, the Dyaks are happy and content; una ttieir 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 845 

gradual dev^pment must now be left to the work of 
time, aided by the gentlest persuasion, and advanced 
(if attainable) bj the education of their children." 

The latest accounts from Sar&wak describe the iu- 
creasing pros^^rity of that interesting settlement. Ampn^ 
other recent intelligence I have heard from Mr. Brooke 
that Seriff Sahib died of a broken hoart, shortly after 
his arrival at the Pontiana river. 



CHAPTER XXIV. 

Propoeed British settlement (m the northwest, coast of Bortieo, 
?uid occupation of the island of Labuan.— Governor Crawfurd's 
opiniims thereon. 

The establishment of a British settlement on the 
northwest coast of Borneo, and the occupation of the 
island of Labuan, are measures that have for some time 
past been under consideration by her majesty's govern- 
ment ; and I am courteously enabled , to lay before my 
readers the valuable opinions of Mr. Crawfurd (late 
Governor of Singapore) on this subject : 

*' I am of opinion (Mr. Crawford writes) that a set- 
tlement on the ncnrthwest coast of Borneo— 4hat is, at 
a convenient point on the southern shore of the .China 
Sea— -would be hi^i^ advantageous to this country, as 
a coal dep6t fpr steam navigation ; as a means of sup- 
pressing Malayan ^aey ; as a harbor of refuge for ^ships 
disabled in the China Sea ; and finally, as a command- 
ing position during a naval war. 

M The island of (ifUiuan has been pointed out for this 
purpose ; and as far as our present limited knowledge 
of it will allow me to judge, it appears to possess all the 
necessary (qualities for such a settlement. 

** The requisite properties are, salubrity of climate, 
a g6od harbor, a position in the track of steam-navigation, 
conveniency of portion for ships disabled in typtioons, 
coBveniency of position for our cruisers during war, and 
a locality strone and circumscribed by nature, so as to 
be readily qapable of cheap defence. 

** Labuan lies In about 6° of north latitude, and eon- 



346 EXPEDITION TO BORNBa 

seqnently die arerage heat will be abont d3® of Filirai 
heit; the ntmost rtaige of the thermotnet«r ^rill not 
exceed ten degrees. In short, the year if ft perpetoai 
hot summer. It is, at the same tnne, well TeBtiltfed by 
both monsoons ; and being near twenty milea firom the 
marshy shores of the Borneo riTer, there » fittle ponnd 
to apprehend that it will be found onhealtbT, even if 
those shores themselves had been aseettadaed tv be «o, 
which, however, is not the case ; fot, in proof of their 
salubrity, it may be stated, that the town of Borneo is 
healthy, although it stands, and has stood for ceiitiiries, 
on the flooded banks of thetiver ; the houses being bnilt 
on posts, and chiefly accessible by boat. 

** With respect to harbor, a most essential poiafi, I da 
not perceive that the island iis indented by any bay or 
inlet that would answer the purpose of one**^ The 
channel, however, which lies between it anl the bmib- 
land of Borneo is but seven miles broad, and wil probsp 
bly constitute a spacious and convenient harborr The 
name of the island itself, which means anchonga, I faawa 
no doubt is derived from the place aflMUog sliallsr tn 
native shipping, and those probably, in most eases, fleets 
of pirate prahus. This channel is again tetiier re- 
stricted by four islets, and these, with finir mare lying 
to the southwest, will afibrd shelter in the sonflnltost or 
mild monsoon ; protection is given in ^e nertliaast^ IImi 
severest monsoon, by Labuan itsey: and I nsy add, 
that the island is, by four degrees of htitiMlei iMysnd 
the extreme southern limit of the tyi^MKins of dM CM- 
nese Sea. 

** In the channel between Labuan and die naste, or 
rather between Labuan and the islets already aaentfaH 
ed, the soundings on the Admiralty chart shoiir Aat Tea* 
sels drawing as much as eighteen nset water asi^ andior 
within a mile of the shore, and the largest T s s s w i witf^n 
a mile and a half; a convenience for shipping n^ich 
greatly exceeds that of Singapore. One m the tfdtan- 
tages of Labuan will be that it will prove a port of veAige 
for shipping disabled in the storms of the uUneaa Bess. 

* Sir Edward Belcher has since surveyed Lsbosa ia bsr 
ty's ship Samaran^ and filling an * ^ f?ftHi ff nt bavbor. 
Victoria Bay.— H. K. • ' 



BXPEBTFION Ik} BOR1CEO. 847 

Many examples, indeed flome of reeent 4Wscarrenoe, 
might be adduced to show the need there k of such a 
port. 

<* Labnan lies nearly in the direct track both of steam 
and sailing navigation from India to China, during the 
northeast, the worst and severest of the two monsoons ; 
and is as intermediate a position between Singapore and 
Hong Kong as can be foand, being 700 miles from the 
former and 1000 from the lattor. 

^ The insular character and narrow limits of Labuaa 
wilt make it easilj and cheaply defensible. The ex- 
treme length ef tlw island appears to be about six miles, 
Its greatest breadth about four and a hal^ and probably 
kb whole area wiU not be found to exceed thniy square 
miles* ' 

^ From the mde tribes of the immediate vicinity no 
hostile attack is to be apprehended that would make the 
present erection ef forts or batteries necessary. No 
Asiatic enemy is at any time to be feared that would 
make such defences requisite. In five-and-twenty years 
it has not been found imperative to have recourse to 
them «f Singapore. It is onfy in ease of war with a 
naval power tkat fortifications would be required ; but I 
am not infcurmed what local advantages Labuaa possess* 
es for their erection. A principal object of such fortifi- 
cations would be the defence of the shipping in the har- 
bor from the inroads' of an enemy's cruisers. At one 
point ^e soundings, as given in the Admiralty chart, are 
stated nine fathoms, within three quarters of a mile of 
the shore : and I presume that battefies widlin this dis- 
tance woirid afford protection to the largest class of mer- 
chantmen. In Singapore Roads no class of shtpfnnff 
above mere native cri&ft can lie nearer than two miles of 
the shore ; «o that in a war with a European naval 
power, the merchant shipping there can only be defend- 
ed by her niajesty's navy. 

** One of the most striking national advantages to be 
expected from the possession of Labuan would consist 
hi its use in d^ending our own commerce, and attacking 
that of opponents,^ in 3ie event of a naval war. Between 
the' eastern extremity of the Stnuts of Malacca and 
f long Kong, a distance of 1700 miles, there is ne Britith 



848 EXPEDITION TO BOSKEOb 

harboFf and no safe and acccMeible port of refuge ; Hooc 
KoDg is, indeed, the only spot within the wide lUoita of 
the Chinese Sea for such a purpose, althoui^ oar le|pti- 
mate commercial intercourse witlun it extande over a 
length of 2000 miles. £ver3n»diere else, JBdaniDa and 
the newly opened ports of China exceptedi CNir (crippled 
vessels or our merchantmen pursued by the eneiny't 
cruisers, are met by the exclusion or eiLtortiiiB of eemi- 
barbarous nations, or in danger of £iUiiig inlD the power 
of robbers and savages. 

'* Labuan fortified, and supposing the BcHmeon eoel ft* 
be as productive and valuable in quality as it is repre- 
sented, would give Great .Britain in a naval war the en- 
tire command of the China Sea. Thia WQuld be the 
result of our possessing or commanding the on^y ftvaikr 
ble supply of coal, that of Bengal and AaatEalia eace^it- 
ed, to be found in the wide limits whidi extend eaat of 
the continents of Europe and America. 

** The position of Labuan will render it the moat qoiiv»- 
nient possible for the suppressing of pirai^. . ThoLiDOit 
desperate and active pirates of the whole Indian Arehi* 
pelago are the tribes of the Sooloo group of ialanda hriag 
close to the north shore of Borneo, and the people o( the 
north and northeastern coast of Borneo itaelf ; dieae 
have of late years proved extremely troaUeaome both to 
the English and Dutch traders ; both natioqa are bound 
by the Convention of 1824 to use their beat endeavon 
for the suppression of piracy, and many ellbrta have 
cortainly been made for this purpose, al£boii£^ aa yet 
without material effect in diminishing the eTiL 

" From Labuan, these pirates might certaii^J be in* 
tercepted by armed steamers far more coovenien^y and 
cheaply than from any other position that coold be eaailly 
pointed out : indeed, the very existence of a Britiah aet- 
tlement would tend to the suppression of piraey. 

*' As a commercial dep6t, Labuan would hare coniid- 
erable advantages by position ; the native tnde of Cfae 
vicinity would of course resort to it, and so would that 
of the north coast of Borneo, qf the Sooloo laknda, and 
of a considerable portion ai the ^pice lalands. Even for 
the trade of the Philippines and Cluna, it would have 
the advantage over Singapore of a voyage by 700 milea 



EXFSDITIOll TO BCMtlTEO. M8 

riioiter ; a matter ci most material' ootiseqaence to na- 
tive commerce. 

** With all the countries of the neighborhood lying 
west of Labuan I presome that a communication across 
both monsoons might be maintained throughout the 
year. This would include a portion of the east coast 
of the Malay peninsula, Siam, and pert of Cochin 
China. 

** Labuan belongs to that portion of the coast of Bor- 
neo which b the rudest. The Bomeons themselves are 
of the Malay nation, originally emigrants from Sumatra, 
and settled here for about six centuries. They are the 
most distant from their original seat of all the colonies 
which have sprung from this nation. The people from 
the interior diffor from them in language, manners, and 
religion, and are divided into tribes as numerous and as 
rude as the Americans when first seen by Europeans. 

**From such a people we are not to expect any valu- 
able products of art or manufacture, for a British 
mercantile dep6t. Pepper^ is, however, produced in 
considerable quantity, and the products of the forests 
are very varioos, as bees-wax, gum-benjamin, fine cam- 
phor, camphor oil, esculent swallows* nests, canes and 
rattans, which naod to form the staple articles of Bor- 
neon import into Singapore. The Bomeon territory 
opposite to Labuan idbounds also, I believe, in the palm 
which yielda sago, and indeed the chief part of the man- 
ufactured article was thirty years ago brought from 
this country. The Chinese settlers would, no doubt, 
as in Singapore tlUd Malacca, establish fiictories for its 
{H*eparation according to the improved processes which 
they now practice at tiiose places. 

** There may be reason to expect, however, that the 
timber of the portion of Borneo referred to may be 
found of value for ship-building ; for Mr. Dalrymple 
states tiiat in histime^ above seventy years ago, Chinese 
junks of 500 tons burden used to be built in the river of 
Borneo. As to timber well-suited for boats and house- 
building, it is hardly necessary to add that the northwest 
coast S Borneo, in common with almost every other 
part of the Archipelago, contains a supply amounting to 
superfluity. 

Gg 



350 EXPEDITION TO BOUISO* 

«« I may take due opportuiiitgr ^f stalUigt «• «rid0iie9 
of the conveniency of this portion of Borneo Hdt ■ eooH 
merctal 'iDtercoiurse with Chioiy that down to whim Ae 
last half centuiy a considerable nomber of ChiaoM janlDi 
were engaged in trading regolarij with BerMo^ and 
that trade ceaaed only when 3ie natiTe gavemmeDt be« 
oame too bed and weak to afford it protedkiii. ■ Widi- 
out the least donbt this trade would again spring ap on 
the ereetion of the British flag at Labnaii. JNkit a aing^ 
Chinese junk had resorted to the StnifcB.ef .MKkeea 
before the establishment of Singapore, aiid tlMir number 
is now, of one size or another, and ezdnaiTe of tho joake 
of Slam and Cochin China, not less than 100.. 

«> From the cultiTation of the land I ahooU net bo 
disposed to expect anything beyond tho pro^netioB fl£ 
fresh fruito and esculent Tegetables, and n^ieo ^bim land 
is cleared, of grass for pasture. The aoaa in tfaia part 
of the world are prolific in fish of great varioty and groat 
excellence ; and the Chinese setUen are fcmad oveiy^ 
where skillful and industrioua in taking them. 

*^ Some difficulty will, in U*e beginning, bo ogperionaed 
with respect to milk, butter, and fineah meat : Ada wai 
the case at first in Singapore, but tho difficniQr has in 
a good measure been ovei^come. The ooantrisa of.tibo 
Anshipelago are generally not suited to pastpra^.aoad it 
is only in a few of them that die ox aiid bnflUo am 
abundant. The sheep is so nowhere^ and ftr Ae flnsl 
part is wanting altogether ; cattle^ therefioro^ nwt bo 
imported. 

**As to com, it will unquestionabh^ bo fimnd lar 
cheaper to import than to iwse it. JRioo wiM bo tfio 
chief bread-corn, and will oome in great abondonoB sad 
cheapness from Siam and Codiin China. No coontiy 
within 700 miles of Singapore is abundant in eon, and 
none is grown in the island : yet from tho first ostain 
lishment of the settlement to the present thno» oom hos 
been both dieap and abundant, there has been wondor* 
fully little fluctuation, there are always stocks, and lor 
many years a considerable exportatioo. A mio^ of 
pulses, vegetable oil, and cnlinaiy salt, wiU bo dmivod 
from the same countries, as is now done hi 
by Singapore. 



BXFBDITIOlf TO lOftUBCX 851 

«• The mkiM of aotimoiiy vre 300 miles to the eonlb- 
west c^ Labaan, and thme of gold on the west and tibie 
Boadi coasts; and I am not aware that any mineral 
wealth has been discovered in the pcnrtlon of Bomee 
immediately connected with Iiaboaiit except that of 
coal — ^far moue in^iortant and YalaaUev indeed, thaa 
gold or antimon^. The exiatenee of a coal-field has 
been traced from Labnan to the islands of Kayn-aranc 
— whidi words, in &ct, mean coal island — ^to ti^e islaBa 
of Cbermm, and from thence to the mainhmd ower a 
distance of thirty miles. With respect to the coal of 
Labuan itseK I ^od no distinct statement beyond the 
simple fact. of the existence of the mineral:; but the 
ooal of the two islands in the river, and of die main« is 
proved to be— from ana^sis and trial in steam-navign* 
tioo — superior to neariy att the coal which Intiba has 
hitherto yielded, and e^uai to some of our best EogUsh 
coals* This, is the more remariLable, aa it is known that 
most smr&ce-minerals, abd especially coals, are inferior 
to the portions of the same veins or beds more deep*- 
seated. 

^ Nearly as eoiiy as the British flag is erected, and, 
at all events, as soon «a it is permanently known to be 
so, there may be reckoned upon with certainty a large 
influx of' settlers. The -best and most nmnecous of 
these will be the Chinese. They were settled oti the 
Borneo river when the Borneo government, never very 
good, or otiierwise than comparatively violent and* dis- 
orderly, vras most enduraUe. 

** Borneo is, of all the great itdands of the western 
portion of the Archipelago, the nearest to China, and 
Labuan and* its nei^birarhood the nearest point of this 
island. The distance ci Hong Kong is about 1000 milee» 
and that of the island of Hainan, a great place for emi* 
gratioD, not above 800 ; distances which to the Clunese 
junks— -last sailers before the strong and ftvorable winds 
of the monsoons — do not make voyages exceeding four 
or five days. The coasts of the provinces of Canton 
and f^okien have hitherto been the great hives froin 
v^idi Chinese emigration has proceeded; and even 
Fokien is not above 1400 miles from Labuan, a voyage 
of seven or eight days. Chinese trade and immigriiikm 



863 BXPBDITION to BOftNW^ 

will come together. The northwest coMt t»f Boniieo 
produces an unusual supply of those raW articles ftr 
which there is always a demand in the mmrkets of 
China; and Labuan, it may be reckoned open with 
certainty, will soon become the seat of a larger trade 
with China dian the river of Borneo ever possessed. 

** I by no means anticipate the same amomit of rapid 
ndTance in population, commerce, or tinaneial resourees 
for Labuan, that has distinguished the histoiy of SingSF 
pore, a far more centrical position for general com- 
merce; still I think its prospect of sticcess undoubted; 
while it win have some advantages which SiogBpofe 
t»mnot, from its nature, possess. Its coal-mines, and 
the command of the coal-fields on the river of Borneo, 
are the most remarkable of these ; and its saperiority 
as a post-office* station necessarily follows. Then it is 
far more convenient as a port of refuge ; and, m far m 
our present knowledge will enable us to jndge, infinitely 
more valuable for mihtary purposes, more especially for 
affording protection to the commerce which passes 
through the Chinese Sea, amounting at present to prob- 
ably not less than 300,000 tons of shipping, carrying 
cargoes certainly not under the vahie of 15iOOO,000£ 
sterling. 

**Labuan ought, like Singapore, to be ia free port; 
and assuredly will not prosper if it is not. Its revenue 
should not be derived from customs, but, as in that set- 
tlement, from excise duties : upon tiie nature of these, 
as it is well known, it is unnecessary to enlarge. They 
covered during my time, near twen^ years ago, and 
within five years of the establishment of the settlement, 
the whole charges of a small but sufficient gazriwa 
(100 Sepoys), and a moderate but competent civil 
establishment. 

**The military and civil estaUishments have been 
greatly increased of late years ; but the revenue, still 
in its nature the same, has kept pace with .thenu 



* Vide Mr. Wise's Plan (p. 362, 3) f<Mr accelerating the ^ 
munication between Great Britain and ChiOA, vis. the convey- 
ance of the mails from Hong Kong to Suez (md Ceyloo) direct 
Submitted to her majesty's Ooverment, 14tn September, 1648; 
adopted 20th June, 1845. 



BXPfSUTION TO BOBN&O. 8M 

During my administrttioo of Singapore, the mttnieipal 
charges fell on the general £and ; imt tfaey are at present 
amp^ provided ibr from a dlMinct aonrce, chiefly an 
assessment on house-property* 

"K the military and civil charges of LiabiiaQ are 
kept within moderate bounds, I make no doubt but that 
a similar excise revenue will be adequate to cover the 
charges of bpthr and &at in peace at least the atate 
need not be caUed on to make any disbursement on 
its account; while daring a naval war, if the state 
make any expenditure, it will be fully compensated fay 
the additioogal aecurMy which the settlement will affnii 
to British commerpe, and the annoyance it will cause to 
the enevpj, 

. "As to the disposal of the land, always a difficult 
4|Bettioa in a new and unoccupied colony, the result ef 
my own inquiries and personal experience lead me to 
o&r it as mj decided conviction diat the most expe- 
dient plan — that which is least troublesome to the gov- 
erbment, most satia&ctory to the aettler, and ultimate^ 
moat GonducBve to the public prosperity — is to dispose 
of it f(» a term «f yeara, that is, on knag leases of 1000 
years, or virtually in perpetuity; the object in this case 
of adopting the leasehold tenure being, by making the 
land a chattel interest, to get rid of the difficulties in the 
matter of inheritance and tranter, which, under the 
administration of English law, and in reference more 
particularly to the Asiatic people who will be the prin- 
cipal landowners, are incident to real property. Town 
allotments might be sold -subject to a considerable quit- 
rent, but aUotments in the country for -one entirely 
nominal, l^hose of the latter description should be 
small, proportionate , with the extent of the island, and 
the time and difficulty required in such a climate to 
clear the land, now overgrown for the most part with a 
stupendous foresL>of evergreen trees, and the wood of 
which is too abundant to be of any value, certainly for 
the most part not worth the land-carriage of a couple of 
furlongs. 

** A charter for the administration of justice should be 
as nearly as possible contemporaneous with the cession. 
Great inconvenience has resulted in all our Eastern set- 
23 ee2 



854 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

tlements of the same nature with that speculated on at 
Labuao, from the want of all legal provision for the ad- 
ministration of justice ; and remembering this, it onght 
to be guarded against in the case of Labuan. 

** Whether in preparing for the establishmeDt of a 
British settlement on the coast of Borneo, or in actually 
making one, her majesty's ministers, I am satisfied, will 
advert to tlie merits and peculiar qualificadona of Mr. 
Brooke. That gentleman is unknown to me, except 
by his acts and writings; but, judging by these, I con- 
sider him as possessing all the qualities which have dis- 
tinguished the successful \,founders of nelw colonies; 
intrepidity, firmness, and enthusiasm, with the art of 
governing and leading the masses. He poesesses some, 
moreover, which have not always belonged to such 
men, however otherwise distinguished; a knowledgs 
of the language, manners, customs, and inatitntions of 
the natives by whom the colony is to be aurrounded; 
with benevolence and an independent fortune, . things 
still more unusual with the projectors of colonies. To- 
ward the formation of a new coloBy, indeed, the avail- 
able services of such a man, presuming they are availa- 
ble, may be considered a piece of good fortune.** 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 355 



CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS. 

[First Edition.] 

The recent proceedings of Govemraetit in following 
up the impression made upon Malay piracy, as reflated 
m these pages; the appointment of Mr. Brooke as 
British A.gent in Borneo, armed with the inorai and 
physical JMJwer of His country ; the cession of the iftland 
of Lalman to the British crown ; and the great advance 
iilready made by the English ruler of Sarawak, in lay- 
ing broad foundations for native prosperity, while ejc- 
tending general security apd commerce ; all combine t6 
add an interest to the early individual steps which have 
led' to measure's of so much national cons^uence. 

Deeply as I felt the influence of that individual on 
the condition of Borneo, and the Malayan Archipelago 
generally, while employed there, and much as I an- 
ticipated from his energetic character, extraordinary 
exertions, and enlarged views for the future, I confess 
that my expectations have been greatly increased by 
the progress of events since that period. It needed 
nothing, to confirm my faith in the results that were 
sure to follow from his enlightened acts — ^from his pru- 
dence and humanity in the treatment of his Dyak sub- 
jects, and the neighboring and interior independent 
tribes— from his firm resistance to the Malay tyranny 
exercised upon the aborigines, and his punishment of 
Malay aggression, wherever perpetrated. ' But when I 
see these elements of good wisely seconded by the highest 
authorities of England, I cannot but look for the consum- 
mation of every benefit desired, much more rapidly 
and effectively than if left to the efforts of a private 
person, even though that person were a Brooke ! If 
the appearance of H.M.S. Dido on the coast and at 
Sar&wak produced a salutary effect upob all our rela- 
tions with the inhabitants, it may well be presumed 
that the mission of Captain Bethune, and the expedi- 
tion under Rear- Admiral Sir Thomas Cochrane, must 
have greatly improved and extended that wholesome 
state of affairs. Indeed, it is evident, by the complete 



856 EXPEDITION TO BOKinfiO. 

success which attended Mr. Brooke's officml Tisit to 
Borneo Proper in H.M.S. Driver, after receiving dis- 
patches from Lord Aberdeen uppointiDg bm& British 
agent in the island, carried oat by Captain Bethune in 
November, 1844, that the presence of a British force in 
those seas was alone necessary to enable lum to rap- 
press piracy, and perfect his plans for the ertaMiihwient 
of a native government whiui should not oppress the 
country, and which should cultivate tiie most ^endl|y 
intercourse with us. Thus we find the pirvdcal Pan- 
geran Usop put down, and Muda Hassim eKerasing 
die sovereign power in the name of his imbedle ne- 
phew, who still retains the title of saltan. Thh prin- 
cipal chiefs, and men distinguished by talent and some 
acquaintance with foreign affairs, are now en oor.side; 
and it only requires to support them in order tfasfc civ3- 
ization may rapidly spread over the land, and -Borneo 
become again, as it was one or tvfo ^ntarios ago, the 
abode of an industrious, rich, pacific, and mercantile 
people, interchanging products with aE the tradiqg na- 
tions of the world, and conferring and reaping umss 
blessings which follow in the train of just and honcorsUe 
trade wheresoever its enterprising spirit- leads in the 
pursuit of honest gain. As the vain seardi fiir the 
philosopher's stone conducted to many a nsefiil and val- 
uable discovery, so may we be asstired that the real 
seeking for gold through the profitaUe medinm ^ oom- 
merce has been, is, and will be the grand sooree of fill- 
ing the earth with comfort and happiness. 

Among the numerous visions of this kind which open 
to our sense while reflecting on the new prospeeti of 
this vast island — so little known, yet known to possess 
almost unbounded means to inrite and return omnmer- 
cial activity — is the contemplation of the field it p re se nts 
to missionary labors. When we read Mr. Brocdie's de- 
scription of the aboriginal Dyak, and observe w^at he 
has himself done in one locality. within the spaea of fonr 
or five short years, what may we not expect to be ac- 
complished by the zeal of Christian missions judicroiuly 
directed to reclaim such a people from utter barbarism, 
and induce them to become true members of a &itfa 
which teaches forbearance and charity between man 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 857 

and man, and incukatos, with the love and hope of 
heav0n, an abhorrence of despotism and blood, and a 
disposition to live in good-will and peace with all our 
fellow-creatures? There are here no prejudices of 
caste, as in India, to impede the missionaries* progress. 
Mr. Brooke has pointed out what may be effected in 
this way, and we have only to say amen to his prayer, 
with an earnest aspiration that it may be speedily ful- 
fiUed. 

Having enjc^ed the pleasure of communicating to the 
miblic tlus sati^&ctory description of the status quo in 
bomeo to the latest period (September, 1845), I ven- 
ture to congratulate them upon it. Thus^r all is well 
and as it s£>ukl be, and promising the happiest issue ; 
but I hope I may not be charged with presumption in 
offering an ojnnion from my experience, in thb quarter, 
and respectfully suggesting that, in addition to a perma- 
nent British settlement jat Labuan, it wiH be absolutely 
necessary to proceed with the suppression of Malay 
pintcy, by steadily acting against every pirate-hola. 
Without a continued and determined iseries of opera- 
ttona oi this sqrt, it is my conviction that even the most 
sanguipaxy aii4 fatal onslaughts will achieve nothing 
beyond a present and temporary good. The impression 
on the native mind is not sufficiently lasting : dieir old 
impulses and habits return with fresh force ; they forget 
their heavy retribution ; and in two or three years me 
memory of them is almost entirely effoced. Till piracy 
be completely suppressed there mu^t be no relaxation ; 
and well wortli tine perseverance is the ^nd in view, the 
welfare of one of the richest and most improvable por- 
tions of the globe, and the incalculable extension of the 
blessings of Britain's prosperous commerce and human- 
izing dominion. 

In looking forward to the certain realization of these 
prospects, i may me'ntion the important circumstance, of 
tha ^seovf 17 (» ooel^ in abundance for the purposes of 
steam navigation. Tlie surveys already made afford 
assurances of this fact, and the requisite arrangements 
are in progress for opening and working the mines. It 
is generally known that the Dutch assert very wide 
pretensions to cobnies and monopolies in those seas. A 



358 EXPEDITION TO BORNEO. 

treaty has been concluded between the Netherlands 
government and England; and although that important 
document contains no reference whatever to Borneo, it 
is most desirable for the general extension of commerce 
that no national jealousies, no ideas of conflicting inter- 
ests, no encroaching and ambitioas . projects, may be 
allowed to interfere with or prevent the beneficial prog- 
ress of this important region. With such a man as Mr. 
Brooke to advise the course most becoming, disinterest- 
ed, and humane for the British empire to pursne, it is 
not too much to say that, if the well-being of these races 
of our fellow-creatures is defeated or postponed, the 
crime will not lie at our door. The sacnfices wq have 
made to extinguish slavery throughout the world are a 
sure and unquestionable pledge that we will do our ut- 
most to extirpate the horrid traffic in those parts, and to 
uproot the system of piracy that feeds it. It is the 
bounden duty of both Holland and Great Britain to unite 
cordially in this righteous cause. The cry. of natore is 
addressed to them ; and if rejected, as sorely as there 
is justice and mercy in the Providence which oyermles 
the iate of nations, no blessing will prosper tliein, but 
wealth, and dominion, and happiness will pass aw«y from 
them forever. Mr. Brooke invokes their coOpentioiit 
and his noble appeal cannot be withstood. 

The central position of Labuan is truly remariuUe. 
That island is distant from 

Hong Kong ..... 1009 miles. 

Singapore 707 „ 

Siam 984 ,-, 

Manilla 650 „ 

On the other hand, Mr. Brooke's terriUny of Saztwak 

is distant from 

Singapore 427 miles. 

Labuan 304 „ 

Hong Kong 1199 „ 

How direct and central are these valnable 
for the universal trade of the East ! 



SXPSPITION TO BORNEO. S^ 



POSTSCRIPT 

TO THE SECOND EDITION; 



June 6th, 1846. 
In the foregoing remarks with which T closed the first 
edition of this book, I ventured to congratulate the pub- 
lic on the cheerful aspect of affairs in Borneo at the 
latest period of whicli accounts had then reached me. I 
could then say, with a joyful heart, ** Thus far all is 
well and as it should be, and promising the happiest 
issue." But now I must write in a different strain. The 
mischiefs I pointed out above as likely to ensue from a 
desultory and intermittent mode of dealing with Malay 
piracy have reVealed themselves even sooner and in a 
more formidable manner than I had anticipated. The 
weak and covetous sultan of Borneo has, with more than 
the usual fickleness of Asiatics, already forgotten the 
lessons we gave him and the engagements he splemnly 
and voluntarily contriEUsted with-us. Mr. Brooke's faith- 
ful friends, Muda Hassim and the Pangeraii Budrudeen, 
with numbers of their families and retainers, have been 
basely murdered by their treacherous kinsman, because 
of their attachment to the English and their unswerving 
determination to put down piracy; and what is worst of 
all, Mr. Brooke's arch-enemy, the subtle and indefati- 
gable villain Macota, the man whose accursed head was. 
thrice saved by my too-generous friend, has now returned 
triumphantly to the scene of his former crimes, and is 
commissioned by the sultan to take Mr. Brooke's life by 
poison, or by any other of those treacherous arts in 
which there is no more consummate adept than Macota. 
I could trust securely to Mr. Brooke's gallantry and 
skill for the protection of his life against me attacks of 
open foes ; and my only fears arise when I reflect on his 
utter insensibility to danger, and think how the admira'- 



360 EXPEDITION TO BOftWBO* 

ble qualities of his own guUeless, confiding nature may 
facilitate the designs of his enemies. 

H.M.S. Hazard, from Hong Kong, having touched at 
Bruni. about the end of March last, was boarded by a 
native, who gave the captain soch information as indneed 
him to sail with all speed for Sar&wak ; and diere this 
man made tibe foOowing depositien : — 

Japper, a native of Bnini^ deposes that he was sent aboard 
H.M.S. Hazud by the Pangenm Muda Mahomed, to warn 
the oaptain against treachery, and to commmiicate tibe fiiUow- 
ingdetaiU to Mr. Brooke at Sarawak. 

The Biuah Muda Haasim was raised by the snltan to die 
title of Sultan Muda (or yoon^ soltaii}, ana, togetiier widi his 
brothers and followers, was living in security, when he wss 
attacked by orders of the sultan at night, aiiil togetiier with 
thirteen of his &mily , kiUed in different jdaoes. Four bKOtfaeB% 
viz. Paneeran Muda Mahomed, Pangeran Abdul gader»yMH 
geran Abdnlznman, and Pangeran Mesahat, toge^er widi 
several youn£ children of the Biyah Muda ITaisim, alone sur- 
vive. The deponent Japper was in attendanoe on his loid, 
the Pangeran Budrudeen, at the time of the attack. Hie 
Pangeran, though surprised by his enemies, finiglit fiir some 
time, and when desperately wounded, rethred oatside bis 
house with his sister and another womian named Koor Balem. 
The deponent was there and was wounded, as wwe bodi 
the women. The Panseran Budrudeen ordered deponent to 
open a ke^ or cask of gunpowder, which he didt and te 
last thin^ his lord did was to take his ring finm his ^Bgar 
and desue the deponent to cany it to Mr. Brooke ; fooid 
Mr. Brooke not to forget him, and not to forget to hij Ids 
case before the Queen of England. The depcment then 

Suitted his lord, who was with the two women, and'imme- 
iately after his lord fired the powder, and the Aree were 
blovtm up. The deponent escaped with difficulty ; and a few 
days afterward, the ring intrusted to his charge, was taken 
from him by the sultan. The sultan, and those widi him, 
killed the Rajah Muda Hassim and his family,. becaasa he 
was the friend of the English and wanted toscqpfpvess pinoy. 
The sultan has now built forts and defied the English. He- 
talked openly of cutting out any vessel that anived ; and two 
Pangerans went down, bearing the Ba£ of the B^|ah Muda 
Hassim. to look at the vessel, and to li^ the captam if they 
could get him ashore. The deponent had great diftcnlly in 
getting to the ship; and should his flight to discovered, he 
considers the lives of the siurviying portioa of the Biigah 



EXPEDITION TO Bb&NEO. 3(^1 

Muda Hassim's fiunily will be indfuiger. The deponent did 
what he was ordered, and what his late lord, the Pangeraa 
Budnideen, desired him to do. Hie sultan had a man ready 
to send, named Nakoda Kolala, to Kaluka, to request iha^ 
Pangeran Macota would kill Mr. Bitx^e by treacheiy or 
poison. 

^Signed) J. Brooke. 

Having put Mr. Brooke on his guard, the Hazard 
proceeded to Singapore, whence £e H.E.I.C. war- 
steamer Phlegethon would be immediately dispatched 
to Sarawak. 

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KXPEDITIOK TO.BOKHBO. 



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APPENDIX. 



No. I. 

NATURAL HISTORY. 

Mr. Brockets Re^port on the Mias. (From the Tramh 
aetioBB of the Zoological Society.) 

iAMJSa B&0(»a; BsQ^ TO Mr. WATERHOUSE. 

Mt 9XAR Sir : — Singapore, 25th March, 1841. 

I AM happy to announce the departure of five live ouraag- 
outangs by the ship Martin Luther, Captain Swan ; and I trust 
they will reach you alive. In case they die, I faAve directed 
Captain Swan to put them into spirits, that you may still have an 
opportunity of seeing them. The whole of the five are from 
fiomeo : one large female adult from Qambas ; two, with slight 
cheek-callosities, from Pontiana ; a small male, without any sign 
of callosities, from Pontiana likewise ; and the smallest of^all, a 
yery young male with callosities, from Sadung. I will shortly 
forward a fine collection of skulls and skeletons from the northwest 
coast of Borneo, either shot by myself or brought by the natives ; 
and I beg you will do me the favor to present the live ourangs 
and this collection to the Zoological Society. I have made many 
inquiries and gained some information regarding these animalo, 
and I can, beyond a doubt, prove the existence of two, if not three, 
distinct species in Borneo. 

First, I will re-state the native account : secondly, give you my 
own observations ; and thirdly, enter into a brief detail of the 
specimens hereafter to be forwarded. 

1st. The natives of the northwest coast of Borneo are all poei* 
tive as to the existence of two distinct species, which I formerly 

EjjftB you by the names of the Mia» pappan and Muu rombi ; but I 
ave since received infcnrmation from a few natives of intelligence 
that there are three sorts, and what is vulg;arl]r called the Mias 
Tombi is in reality the Mias haatar^ the rombi being a distinct and 
third species. The Mias pappan is the Simia Wwrmbu of Mr. 
Owen, having callosities on the sides of the face : the nativea 
treat with derision the idea of the Mias kassar, or Simia morML 
bein^ the female of the Mias pappan or Simia Wurmbii ; and t 
consider the fact can be established so clearly that I will not 

hh2 



366 APPENDIX. 

trouble you with their statements : both Malaya and Dyaks are 
positive that the female of the Mias {lappan has cheek-callosities 
the same as the male ; and if on inquiry it prove to be ao, the ex- 
istence of three distinct species in Borneo will be eatabliabed. 
The existence of the Mias rombi is vouched by a few natives 
only, but they were men of intelligence, and well acquainted wiUi 
the animals in the wild state. They represent the Miaa rombi to 
be as tall as the pappan, or even taller, but not so stout, with 
longer hair, a smaller face, and no callosities eithei m the male 
or female ; and they always insisted that it wom not the female of 
the pappan. 

Tne Mias kassar or Simla morio is of the same color as the Mias 
pappan, but altogether smaller, and devoid of callosities either on 
the male or female adults. 

By the native statements, therefore, we find three distinct spe- 
cies, viz. the Mias pappan or Simia Wumibii, the ^ias kassar or 
Simla morio, and the Mias rombi, which is eiUier the Sfumm Abe- 
Hit or a fourth species. The existence of the Samatimn ouraof 
in Borneo is by no means impossible ; and I have already com- 
pared so many of the native statements/ that I place more confi- 
deuce in them than I did formerly, more especially as their 
account is in a great measure borne out by tne skulls fa my 
possession. I had an opportunity of seeing the Mias pappan and 
the Mias kassar in their native woods, and killing one of the 
former and several of the latter species. The distribatidi of these 
animals is worthy of notice, as they are found both at Pontiana 
and Sambas in considerable numbers, and a.t Sadong on the 
northwest coast, but are unknown in the intermecUate cornitry 
which includes the rivers of Sar&wak and Samarahan. I confess 
myself at a loss to account for their absence on the SarKwak and 
Samarahan rivers, which abound with fruit, and have forests 
similar and contiguous to the Sadung, Linga» and txher rivers. 
The distance from Samarahan to Sadung does not exceed twenty- 
five miles ; and though pretty abundant on the latter, they are 
unknown on the former river. From Sadung, proceedmg to the 
northward and eastward, they are found for lUXHit 100 rnues, bat 
beyond that distance do not inhabit the forests. The Mias psppan 
and Mias kassar inhabit the same woods, but I never met tnam 
on the same day ; both species, according to the natiTes, are 
equally common, but from my own experience the Mias kassar ii 
the most plentiful. The Mias rombi is represented as uafreqiiepl 
and rarely to be met with. The papoan is justlynamed &tfynif, 
from the ugly face and disgusting callosities. The adult male I 
killed was seated lazily on a tree, and when approached only iotik 
the trouble to interpose the trunk between us, peeping at me, and 
dodging as 1 dodged. I hit him on the wrist, and he was afte^ 
ward dispatched. I send you his proportions, enormoiia relatife 
to his height ; and until I came to actual measnrement mr im- 
pression was that he was nearly six feet in stature. The follow- 
ing is an extract from my journal relating -to him, noted down 
directly after he was killed : — 

*' Great was our triumph as we gazed oa the huge animal dead 



APPENDIX. te7 

at our feet, and proud were we of having shot the first ourang we 
had seen, and shot him in his native woods, in a Borneo forest, 
hitherto untrodden by European feet. The animal was adult, 
having four incisors, two canines, and ten molars in each jew ; 
but by his general appearance he was not old. We were struck 
by the length of his arms, the enormous neck, and the expanse 
of face, which altogether gave the impression of great height, 
whereas it was only great power. The hair was long, reddish, 
and thin ; the face remarkably broad and fleshy, and on each side, 
in the place of a man's whiskers, were the callosities or rather 
fleshy protuberances, which I was so desirous to see, and which 
were nearly two inches in thickness. The ears were^mall and 
well shaped, the noae auite flat, mouth prominent, Ups thick, 
teeth large and discolored, eyes small and roundish, face and hands 
black, the latter being very powerful. The following are the 
dimensions ; 

ft in. 

Height from head to heel 4 1 

Length of foot 10 

Ditto hand 104 

Length of arm from shoulder-blade to finger-end . . 2l 5} 

Shoulder-blade to elbow 16 

Elbow to wrist 1 1^ 

Hip to beel 19 

Head to oe coccygia - . ^ ^ 

Across the shoulders 1 4 

Circumference of neck 2 4 

Ditto below the ribs 3 3^ 

Ditto under the arms 3 

From forehead to chin . . . . . . . 9| 

Across the fnoe, below the eyes, including calloritieB . 1 f 

From ear to ear across the top of the head . . . M 

From ear to ear behhid the head 91 

The natives asserted the animal to be a small one; but I am 
skeptical of their ever attaining the growth of a tall man, though 
I bear in mind that full-grown animals will probably differ as 
much in height as man.*' 

Some days after this, and about thirty miles distant, I was for- 
tunate enough to kill two adult females (one with her young), 
and a male nearly adult, all the Mias kassar. The young male 
was not measured, owing to my having waded up to my neck in 
pursuit of him, and thereby destroyed my paper and Tost my mea- 
sure ; but he certainly did not exceed 3 feet, while the two 
females were about 3 ft. 1 in. and 3 ft. 2 in. in height. The male 
was just cutting his two posterior molars : the color of all resem- 
bled that of the Mias pappan, but the difference between the two 
animals was apparent even to our seamen. The kassar has no 
callosities either on the male or female, whereas the young pap- 
pans dispatched by the Martin Luther (one of them not a year 
old, with two first molars) show them prominently. The great 
difference between the kassar and the pappan in size would prove 
at once the distinction of the two ^ecies ; the kassar being a 
small, slight animal, by no means formidable in his appearance, 
with hands and feet proportioned to the body, and thef do rot 



368 AttMnrnx. 

approach the gigantic extremities of the pappm either In rite or 
power ; and, in short, a moderately strong man would readily 
overpower ene, when he would not stand the shadow of m chenoe 
with Uie pappan. Beside these decisiye diffnences may be 
mentioned the appearance of the lace, which in the Bites' kassar 
is more prominent in the lower part, and the eyee exteriorly 
larger, in proportion to the size of the animal, then m the eeppeUi 
Tt^ color of the skin in the adolt pappan is Ueck, wnUe the 
kassar, in his face and hands, has the oirty color ceeuneD to the 
yoang of both species. If further eridence whs wanted, the akaUs 
will &Uy prove the distinction of species ; for the ekvUe of two 
adult ammals compared will show a difierenee m tts* «Imm whidi 
must preclude all supposition of their being ene wpe am . Mr. 
Owen's remarks are, however, so conclusive, thet I noed not dwell 
on this point ; end with a suite of skulls, maie end ieaaale, froei 
the adult to the infant, of the Mias kassar, which I shnli hevetfae 
pleasure to forward, there can remain, I should think, little Ibr- 
ther room for discussion. I may mention, however, Aat two 
young animals I had in my possession alive,-<Mie a keaaer, the 
other a pappan, fiilly bore out these remarks by their proporiieoate 
size. The pappan, with two molars, showed the fielleeitiae dis- 
tinctly, and was as tall and far stouter than the kaaeer with three 
molars, while the kassar had no vestige of the ceUoeitiee. Their 
mode oi progression likewise was di£ferent, as ttie fceeeerdedUfd 
his fists and dra|;ged his hind quarters after him, v^Ule the p«»- 
pan supported himself on the open hands eideweyB plaoed on the 
ground, and moved one leg before the other in the erect Mtting 
attitude ; but this was only observed in the two yooQf eMe» ana 
cannot be considered ss certainly applicable to aU. 

On the habits of the ourangs, as sir as I have been able to ob- 
serve them, I may remark, that they are as doll and ae iloifafid 
as can well be conceived, and on no occaak>n when pm a u ing then 
did they move so fast as to preclude my keeping pace wkntheai 
easily through a moderately clear forest ; ana even wlwnehBlino- 
tions below (such as wading up to the neck) allowed Ihen to gal 
way some distance, they were sure to stop and allow ae to come 
up. I never observed the slightest attempt at deleoee ; and the 



wood, which sometimes rattled about oar eere» vrae beekei kf 



their weight, and not thrown, as some persoos 
pushed to extremity, however, the pappan coold not bis otheiwiw 
than formidable ; and one unfortunate man, who wUii a party ' 
trjing to catch a large one alive, lost two of hae InigerB, ' 
being severely bitten on the face, while the animal finally I 
his pursuers and escaped. When thev vrish to eetcli an adal^ 
they cut down a circle of trees rouna the one on which be ie 
seated, and then fell tliat also, and cioee befoie be caa noofer 
himself, and endeavor to bind him. 

In a small work entitled '* The Manageriee," ijobliahed in lOB^ 
there is a good account of the Bomeon onrang, with abiief estraet 
from Mr. Owen's valuable paper on the Simia mono; bat, efter 
dwelling on the lazy and apathetic disposition of the enimal, it 
states in the same page that they can nuke their way amid the 



APPENDIX. 869 

branches of the trees with sarprising agility ; whereas they are 
the slowest and least active ot all thtf monkey tribe, and their 
motions are surprisingly awkward and uncouth. The natives fm 
the northwest coast entertain no dread, and always represent the 
ourangs as harmless and inoffensive animals; and from what I saw, 
they would never attack a man unless brought to the ground. 
The rude hut which they are stated to build in the trees would 
be more properly called a seat or nest, for it has no roof or cover 
of any sort. The facility with which (hey form this seat is jcuri- 
ous, and I had an opportunity of seeing a wounded female weave 
the branches togetiier, and seat herself within a minute ^ she 
afterward received our fire without moving, and expired in her 
lofty abode, whence it cost us much tremble to dislodge her. I 
have isecRi some individtials with nails on the posterior thumbs, 
but generally speaking, they are devoid of them : of the five ani- 
taale sent h<M)e, two have the nails, and three are without them ; 
one has tlM imil well formed, and in the other it is merely rudi- 
mentary. Thi» length of my letter precludes my dwelling on 
tnany prartieulars which, as I have not seen the recent publics- 
tkms on the subject, might be mere repetitions ; and I will only 
mention, as briefly as I can, the skulls of these animals in my 
possession. From my late sad experience I am induced to this, 
that some brief record may be preserved from shipwreck. These 
skulls may be divided into three distinct sorts. I'he first presents 
two ridges, one rising from each frontal bone, which, joming on 
the top of the head, form an elevated crest, which runs backwaxd 
to the cerebral portion of the skull. 

The eeeond variety is the Simla morio;-and nothing need be 
added to Mr. Owen's account, save that it presents no ndge what- 
ever beyond the frontal part of the head. No. 9 in the collection 
is the skull of an adult male : No. 2 the male, nearly adult, killed 
by myself: Mos. 11 and 3 adult females, kflled by myself: No. 12 
a yoang male, with threi^ molars, killed by myself: No. 21 a 
young male, died aboaid, with three molars: No. 19, young male, 
died aboard, with two molars. There are many other skulls or 
the Simia morio which exactly coincide with thjs. suite, and this 
suite so restwrktMiy coincidsa through the different stages of age, 
one with another, that no doubt can exist of the Simia morio be- 
ing a distinct species. The different character of the skull, its 
small size and small teeth, put the matter beyond doubt, and 
completely establish Mr. Owen*s acute and triumphant argument, 
drawn from a single specimen. 

The third distinction of the skuUtf is, that the ridges rising from 
the frontal bones do not meet, but converge toward the top of the 
head, and again diverge toward the posterior portion of the skulL 
These ridges are less elevated than in the first-mentioned skulls, 
but the size of the adult skulls is equal, and both prsaent speci- 
mens of aged animals. For a long time I was inclined to tnitdt 
ihn skulls with the double ridge were the fiemales of the anitnala 
with the single and more prominent ridge ; but No. 1 (alfeady 
described as killed by myselO will show that the double ridce be* 
longs to an adult ana not young mtle animal, and that it bowBgi 
94 



370 APPENDIX. 

to the Simia Warmbii with the huge callosities. The distnactioii 
therefore cannot be a distinction pf sex, iHiIess we suppose the 
skulls with the greater development of the single ridge to belong 
to the female, which is improbable in the highest degree. The 
skulls with the double and less elevated ridges belong, as proved 
by Mo. 1, to the Simia Wurmbii ; and I am of opimbn the single 
and higher ridge must be referred to another ana distinct species, 
unless we can account for this difference on the score of age. 
This, I conceive, will be found impossible, as Nos. 7 and 20 are 
specimens similar to No. 1, with the double and lets elevated 
ridges decidedly old, and Nos. 4 and 5 are specimena of tlia single 
high ridge, likewise decidedly old. 

These three characters in the skulls coincide with the native 
statements of there being three distinct species in Boniee, and 
this third Bomeon species may probably be found to be the Simia 
Abelii, or Sumatran ourang. Tnis probability is strengthened br 
the adult female on her way home : her color is dark brown, with 
black face and hands ; and in color of hair, ccmtonr, and expres- 
sion, she differs from the male ourangs with the calloeitiet to a 
degree that makes me doubt her being the female of the same 
species. I offer you these remarks for war of accident ; YfQt should 
the specimens, living and dead, arrive in safety, they will give a 
fresh impetus to the inquiry, and on my next return to Borneo I 
shall, in all probability, be able to set the question at rest, whether 
there be two or three species in that country. Believe me, my 
dear sir, with best wishes, to remain, 

Yours very truly, 

J. BmooKB. 

Borneo, like Celebes, teems with Natural History ooknown to 
European science ; and Mr. Brooke has sent- some remarkable 
specimens to Englsnd, though his own large collectioD was, nn* 
fortunatel;^, wrecked on its voyage hcHneward. £very anival, 
however, is now adding to the stores we already posaesa. The 
British Museum has been much enriched, even within the laat 
year, with rare specimens of zoology and botany ; and at die Ento- 
mological Society there have been exhibited and deaexibed maoy 
curious insects hitherto strange and unclassified. 



No. II. 

PHILOLOGY. 

It was intended in this work to convey to the stndioDa in phi- 
lology, — upon which science, rationally investigated, ao much dfr> 
pcnds of our ability to ascertain the origin and trace the eariiest 
relations of mankind, — as copious a vocabulary of the Dyak lan- 
guage, with definitions of meaning and cognate references, aa 
might be considered a useful contribation to that im|>oitaut bnnch 



APPITNDIX. 87 1 

of learning. But various considerations Have induced us to forego 
the design ; and not the least of them has been, not the difficulty, 
but the impossibility of reducing the whole collection to a system, 
or of laying down any ceriain rule of orthography in this Oriental 
confusion, Nearly all the vowels, for example, have been found 
of equal value ; and as they have but one general Malay name, so 
it happens that (for instance) the consonants b d might be pro** 
nounced with the intervening sound, bad^ hed^ hidy bod, bud, and 
sundry variations beside, unknown to the English tongue. This 
will in a great degree account for the universally vexatious, be- 
cause puzzling, spelling, inflections, and pronunciation of East- 
em names, which is so injurious to the literature and knowledge 
of those countries among Euiropeans. 

The vowel-flounde adopted are : 

a like a in father. 

e „ a in /on. ^ 

t „ Italian t, or m in ihe^. 

i „ i in pin. 

o „ in spoke, 

u „ 00 in cool. 

U „ u in rvn. 

y occasionally Hke i. 

oto (ott) like 010 in cow. 

The final k in Malayan is frequently route : thus Dyak is pfonomieed 
DyaA, with the slightest possible aspiration. 
£nia9, liquid sotuid. 

We add an alphabetical list of some of the w.ords which haTe 
occurred in the preceding pages. 

Jirafuras, or Haraforas, natives of JPapua. 

Balanian, wild tribes in Borneo^ 

Bandar, or Bandkara^ treasurer, high steward, high officer of state. 

Basayat tribes in the interior of Borneo Proper, locating near apd resench 

bling the Munit. 
Battara, one of the Dyak names of God (the Hindu Avatara). , 
Borneo, the island of, written ** BrC^ir* by the inha^^nts. 
Borneo Proper, the northern and fiorth western part of the island ; an 

independent Malay state. 
Borneons, the Malay inhabitants of B<mieo Proper 
Brnni, the native name for Borneo. 
Bugis, natives of Celebes. 

Butan, the Moon, a poetical title of honor to a pirate-chief. 
Campong, a native village, or town. 

Datu, a cape or point of land to the northwest of the river Banjamasfiini. 
Dat^ns, strictly, native chiefs, beads of tribes. 

Duaun, agricultural villagers on the northern extremity of B^^^^^^^iL-u 
Dyaks, or Dyak, aborigines of Borneo, and generally pronounced Dyaa. 
Dyak Darrat, Land Dyaks. 

Dyak Lout, Sea Dyaks. . . 

Oantottg, a Malay measure for rice. 
Gunong, a mountain. 

Badji, a Mahomedan who has made a pilgrimage to Mecca. 
J^arfl/oro*, dr\/Jra/itro*, natives of Papoa. 



S7S APPENDIX. 

Jd^ama [KadientJ, Bomeon tribes, and the bum lenenDy gli 

of the varieties of the Indian Archipelago. 
lUanunt, or Lanunt, pirates inhabiting the small diMler of ittaiidi beCineB 

Borneo and Mngindano. 
JnmUt a Dyak name of God, of Hindu origlii. 
ITs^MM, Bomeon tribes, Mahomedana^ the IdMB of pnMdlag mjwffn 

and writers. See Idaama. 
KulamaaUoMt an original name of Borneo. 
JTaiunetC, wild tribes in Borneo. 

Kayo, a title of authority, Orang Kaya de €tado«L clriof ana of Tlaini^ 
Kayans^ the most powerful and warlike peo|4e of Borneo^ Uvlng UlawL 
Kicking, the fhrmer name of the town of Sartwak. 
l^mhuoi^ the island off Borneo river, ceded by the soltui to tha BiitUk 

cruwn. 
IMaa^ guns. 
Magindatio^ an island off ttie northeast of Borneo, the Baflvw of which 

are pirates. 
Makassar^ the straits of, usually written Maeanar, bat move aeeoialily 

M&ngfcassar. 
Malays, settled on the Mala3^an peninsula, coasts of Bonieo, Ise. IkCn tk 

nee of seafaring character, oHen piratioal, and cntigtieioni of Tarioos 

native tribes in the Indian Archipelago. 
Malukus, pirates from a bay in GUlolo, whose coontiy ii in the fommtkm. 

of the Dutch. 
MarMftdum, an island off Borneo. 
Jtfatari, or JtfaCa-Aort (the eye of day), the Bun, a poetiGal tide of honor 

to a pirate-chief. 
JtfirVM Rtmbi and M. Pappan^ two qwcies oi oaranf-oatnngi ilmwiiiliswl 

by Mr. Brooke. 
MUlanows, a tribe resemblinc the Kayans. Uving near tte rlw Msi^ 

river Bentulu, tolerably dviliaed, and fairer than the MalnyB. 
Minkokas, a wild tribe near the Bay of BonL 
Marviaba river, one of the mouths of the SaitwalL 
Montr ado, a very large and populous Chinese settlemoKtnaar FolBt Diti. 
JlfurKt, inhabitants of the interior of Bnmeo Propir. 
J^at*na9, islands off Borneo. 
Ondong-endong, the written law oi Borneo. 
Orang, a man. 
Orang <ntang, a wild man. 

Pangeran^ or Pangiran, the tide of a high Malay aathoitQ^. 
Pavglivia, the bead wairrior of a Dyak tribe. 
Pattjigi, or Patingua, a high local office. 
Patobong, the name of the ranjows and sudas, deftneeo ti war. 
Patakan Dyakt, said by the Malays to be canalbalSL 
Pontiana, one of the finest rivers in Borneo; also tha BnaM of gaflfil 

on its banks. The Dutch have a settlement on this rifor. 
Ranjow0, bamboo-spikes stuck in the ground towoond the fhit of attack' 

ing enemies, or concealed in pits to wound or daflroj thMD. 
Rhio, a Malay settlement, under Dutch controL 
Sadung, a river adjoining the Sarftwak. 
Sakarra, a DyKk gnd, residing in the Pleiades. 
Sakarran, a river like the Sarebus (which see), with E almilir notlvt 

population on its banks. 
Satlgi, a wooden spear, or dart. 
Sampan, a small prahu. 
Sarebus, a river nowing into the deep bay between Toi^QBS fllpong and 

Tanjong Sirak. 
Sarebut, powerful Dyak tribes and pirates, located on ifaa above, and 

other rivers flowing into the bay. Thoy have Chrowm off the Malay 

yoke, and plunder as far as Oelebes. 



or Marif, a blgli Mslv Me, paenliv to yiMoQfi of Anib ienrai 
Siiwwatu, or SUti^ma*, Mr. Brooke> ftwritt trite of Dy»k9, oTMpMriar 

cbuiycter. " . 

i8fi^, Dyak tribes. 
fiMijri Beser, large river. 
Smȣw, on the nottheaet of Borneo, a powerfU pftradeal nesti Uie nattvw 

of whieh masencrad the garriano of wyamtei^i^ la 177S. 
8mdak»t defeooea to wooiid the feet of Attaekiuf e^eiDiea. 
Smmf4ta$trat SimpaU^m lute aevea or eight feet in length, tiMmi^ #1ddl 

ite BomiBOoB blow amall aharp-ixiUrfed poiaoned^uwwa. 

Ttr^^ or 7wijah»t nativte of Celebes. 
Tki^m^ wild tribes in the interior of Borneo. 

Tinm, aaHves on the north -of Bomiki, lieporfed (qh doliblAil koUicfily) 
'tote piraiea and cannttehii 
,7Wm air, an exda^Mtian of aaaant to am. MpfMveA i^^eaker, InsKM of 

** hear, hear,** or '^jrea.** 
TWm Betar, sir, gree% greftt chief, )iigher tpplmuM aad d < lhiui ca . 
TMa4«|vVt s )<^ Malay uffioer. 
TVnaMAifw, a beaatlMcrpap ofaboitt UO amall iatoBda betweoi 

and Stnnpore. 
!PiiM«, a Djfiak god. . 
ITaii/, a depiMgr. 
Ztdbiyr* UOlB the TtaB, vriMi 



No. m. 



PropoMd Exploring Expedition to the AnaHe Anki-' 
pdago, hy James Brooke, EsQ/. 1838. 

Thb voyage I made to China opened aSa enli^Iy new scencL' 
•nd showed me wliat I had never seen befoflB, nvage Hfe and 
tavage nature. I inquired, and I read, and I became more and 
more aseured that there was a large field oTdiscovery and adve^ 
ture open to any man daring enough |o enter npon it Just take a 
map and trace a line over the Indian Ardu^ago, wit|i its thousand 
unknown islands and tribes. Cast your eyb over the vaift island 
of New Guinea, where tbe foot ci European has scateefy, if ever, 
trod. Look at the northerh coast pi Au8tralia,vwith its mysterious 
Gulf of Carpentaria ; a survey of Which, it is supposedf would 
solve the great geographical question respectinjgt the rivers of thd 
mimic continent. jPlaee your finger on Japan, vrith its ezilusive 
and civilized people ; it lies an 'unknown tump jon our «irtfa, and 
an nndefined fine on our charts ! Think of the northern coast of 
China, willing, as is reported, to open an intercourse and trad« 
vrith Europeans, spite of their arbitrary government. Stretch yoar 
pencil over the Pacific Ocean, Which Cook himself declares a field 
of discovery for ages to come ! Proceed to the coast of South Amer- 
ica, from the region of gold*dust to the region of furs— the land rav* 
aged by the cruel Spaniard and the no less cruel Eucaneer— the 
scene of the adventures of Drake and the deseTi|»tions of Dampier, 
The placet I have enimierated are mere munee, with no speciflp 

Ii 



874 APPENDIX. 

ideas attached to them : lands and seas where the boldest naTi^alora 
gained a reputation* and where hundredi may yet do so, it they 
have the same courage and the same perseverance. Imagination 
whispers to ambition that there are yet lands unknown which 
might be discovered. Tell me, would not a man's life be well 
spent — tell me, would it not be well sacrificed, in an endeavor to 
explore these regions? When I think on dangers and. death, I 
think of them only because they would remove me from such a 
field for ambition, for energy, and for knowledge. 

Borneo, Celebes, Sooloo, the Moluccas, and the islands of the 
Straits of Sunda and Banka, compose what is called the Malayan 
group ; and the Malays located on the sen-ahores of these and 
other islands may with certainty be classed as belonging to one 
people. It is well known, however, that the interior of these 
countries is inhabited by various tribes, differing fromthe Malays 
and each other, and presenting numerous gradations of early civ- 
ilization : the Dyaks of Borneo, the Papuans of New Guinea, and 
others, beside the black race scattered over the islands. Objects 
of traffic here as elsewhere present interesting subjects (tf inquiry ; 
and while our acquaintance with every other portion oi the gkoe, 
from the passage of the Pole to the navigation of the Euphrates, 
has greatly extended, it is matter of surprise that we know scarcely 
anything of these people beyond the bare fact of their existence, 
and remain altogether ignorant of the geographical features of 
the countries they inhabit. Countries which present an extended 
field for Christianity and commerce, which none surpass in fu- 
tility, rich beyond the Americas iii mineral productions, and unri- 
valed in natural beauty, continue unexplored to the present day ; 
and, spite of \he advantages which would prot)ably result, have 
failed to attract the attention they so well deserve. The diffi- 
culty of the undertaking will scarcely account for its non-per- 
formance, if we consider the voluntary sacrifices made on the riirine 
of African research, or the energy diaplayed and the suffiMfings 
encountered by the explorers of the Polar regions : yet tbe neces- 
sity of prosecuting the voyage in an armecT.vessel, the wildness 
of the interior tribes, the lawless ferocity of the Malajrs, and oUier 
dangers, would prevent most individuals from fixing on this fieki 
for exertion, ana points it out as one which cmild beet sod most 
fully be accomplished by Government or some influential body. 

It is not my object to enter into any detail of the past history 
of the Malayan nations, but I may refer to the undoubted facts 
that they have been in a state of deterioration aiuoe we first be- 
came acquainted with them ; and the records of our early voy- 
agers, together with the remains of antiquity still visible in Java 
and Sumatra, prove that once flourishing, nations have now ceased 
to exist, and that countries once teeming with human life sre 
now tenantless and deserted. The causes of such lamentable 
change need only be alluded to ; but it is fit to romariL, that while 
the standard of education is unfurled, and dreams are propagated 
of the progressive advancement of the human race, a large part 
of the globe has been gradually relapsing and allowed to relapse 
Into barbarism. Whether the early decay of the Malay staftea. 



APPENDIX. 375 

and their consequent •demoralization, arose from the introduction 
of Mahommedism, or resulted from the intrigues of European 
ambition, it were useless to discuss ; but we are very certain that 
this *' Eden of the Eastern wave " has beenToduced to a state of 
anarchy and confusion, as repugnant to every dictate of humanity 
as it is to the prospect of commercial advantage. 

Borneo and Celebes, and indeed the greater portion of tho 
islands of the Malayan Archipelago, are siill unknown, and the 
apathy of two centuries still reii^s supreme with the enlightened 
people of England ; while they willingly make the most expensive 
efibrts favorable to science, commerce, or Christianity in other 
quarters, the locaUty which eminently comlwies these three ob- 
jects is alone neglected and alone uncaied for. It has unfortu- 
nately been the fate of our Indian possessions' to have labored 
under the prejudice and contempt of a large portion of the well- 
bred community. While the folly of fashion requires ui acquain- 
tance with the deserts of Africa, and a most ardent thirst for a 
knowledge of the usages of Timbuctoo, it at the same time justi- 
fies the uKwt pi'ofound ignorance of all matters connected with 
the government and geography of x>ur vast acquisitions in Hin- 
doostan. The Indian Archipelago has fully shared this neglect; 
and even the tender philanthropy o( the present day, which ori- 
ginates such multifarious schemes for the amelioration of doubt- 
ful evils, which shudders at the prolongation of apprenticeship 
for a single year in the West, is blind to the existence of slavery 
Bi its worst and most aggravated form in the East. Not a single 
prospectus is spread Abroad; not a single voice is upraised to 
relieve the darkness of Paganism, and the horrors of the Eastern 
slave-trade. While the trumpet-tongue of many an orator excites 
thousands to the rational and charitable objects of converting the 
Jews and reclaiming the Gipsys ; while the admirable exertiona 
of missionary enterprise in the Ausonian climes of the South Sea 
have invested them with worldly power as well as reli^ous inHa- 
ence ; while we admire the torrent of devotional and philosophical 
exertion, we cannot help deploring that the zeal and attention of 
the leaden of these charitable crusades have never been directed 
to the countries under consideration. These unhappy countries 
have failed to rouse attention or excite commiseration ; and aa 
they sink lower and lower, they afford a striking proof how civil- 
ization may be dashed, and how the purest and richest lands 
under the sun may be degraded and brutalized by a continued 
course of oppression and misrule. It is under these circumstances 
that I have considered individual exertion may be usefullv applied 
to rouse the zeal of slumbering philanthropy, and to lead the way 
to an increased knowledge of the Indian Archipelaga Such aa 
exertion will be made at some cost and some sacrifice ; and I shall 
here quit the general topic, and confine myself to the specifie * 
objects of my intended voyage. 

It must be premised, however, that any plan previously decided 
on must always be subject during its execution to great modifies^ 
tions in countries where the population is alwaya rude and often 
hostile, and where the influence of climate is sometimes so fiitaUj 



376 AFPSMDIX. 

opposed to the progress of inquiry. Local i nfo im tt ioa, Hk«wiM» 
frequently renders such a cnange both advisaWe and adraata- 
geous ; ^d circuroslances, as they spring up, too often ihflnenca 
us beyond the power of foresight, more. especially in ny own 
case, where the utmost care would still leave the means very 
inadeauate to the full accomplishment of the proposed aodertak- 
ing. With a small vessel properly equipped, and provided with 
the necessary instruments for observation, and the maana for col- 
lecting specmiens in natural history, it is prepoeed in the firrt 
instance to proceed to Singapore, which may be bonsadeied aa 
head-quarters for the necessary intervals of refreshment and re- 
pose, and for keeping open a certain communication vrith Europe. 
Here the best local information can be obtained, interprators pro- 
cured, the crew augmented for any particular service ; uid here, 
if needful, a small vessel of native construction may ba added to 
the expedition, to facilitate the objects in view. An acqaaintance 
may likewise be formed with the more reapectable Bagia mer- 
chants, and their good-will conciliated in the usual mode, viiL, 
by civility and presents, so as to remove any miaconcaived jeal- 
ousy on the score of trading rivalry, and to iadpce a fiivoiable 
report of our friendly intentions in their own countryt uid at the 
places where they may touch. The Royalist will probably reach 
Singapore in the month of March, 1839, at the latter ana«f the 
norUiwest, or rainy monsoon. The delajr consequent all alfectinff 
the objects above mentioned, beside gaining a general acquain- 
tance with the natural history and trade of th^ settlemiMt, and 
some knowledge of the Malay language, will usefully occupy the 
time until the setting in of the southeast, or dry monaoon. It 
may be incidentally mentioned, however, that in the vicinity of 
Singapore there are many islands imperfectly known, and which, 
during the intervals of the rainy season, will aflfbrd interesting 
occupation. 1 allude, more especially, to the apace betwasn tha 
Straits of Rhio and those of Duryan, and likewise to tha ialand 
called Bintang, which, although laid down aa one laraa island, 
is probably composed of small ones, divided by navigable straita ; 
a better acquaintance with which might facilitate tha vojaaa 
from Singapore to the more eastern islanda, by bringina to ugnt 
other passages beside those of Rhio and Duryan ; ana, at any 
rate, would add something to our geographical knowledge in the 
immediate vicinity of our settlement. On the commenoament of 
the healthy season I propose sailing from Singapdre, md procaed- 
ing without loss of time to Malludu Bay, at the north ana of Bor- 
neo. This spot has been chosen for the first eseav ; and in a 
country every part of which is highly interesting, and almoat nn- 
known, the mere fact of its being a Britiah poaseasiaD fivaa it a 
prior claim to attention. 

The objects in view may be briefly -mentioned. 1. A general 
knowledge of the bay, and the correct position of varioQa pointa— 
more especially the two principal headlands at ita entrance, so 
as to determine its outline. The westernmost of these headlands, 
called Sampanmange, will likewise determine the eitrema noitb 
point of Borneo. 2. Inquiries for the aettlement of Codhin Chi- 



APPENDIX* y77 

S»8e, reported, on EarPs authorityj to be fixed in tbe vicinity of 
ankoka : an intercoarse will, if possible, be opened with this set- 
tlement, if in existence. 3. The rivers which flow inttf the bay 
will be carefully and minutely explored, and an attempt will be 
made to penetrate into the intenor as far -as the lake of Kini 
Ballu. 4. For the same purpose, every endeavor will be u«9d to 
open a communication with the aboriginal inhabitants of the coun- 
try, and every means employed to conciliate their good opinifm ; 
and (if the ceremony exists in this part of the island) to enter into 
tbe bonds of fraternity (described by Mr. Dalton) with some of 
the chiefe. 

I speak with great diffidence about penetrating into the interior 
of this country, for I am well aware of the insurmountable dtfl- 
culties which the hard reality often presents, which are previously 
overlooked and easily overcome in the smoothness or paper, or 
tEe luxury of a drawing-room. The two points to be chiefly re- 
^ed u|ion for this purpose are, a friendly intercourse with the 
natives, and the existence of nisvigable nvers. It is mentioned 
by Sir Stamford Raflte8,'0n native authority, that a land commu- 
nication, of not more than forty miles, exists between Malludu 
Bay and Lake Kini Ballu ; but neither this computation, nor any 
other derived from the natiyes, however intelligent otherwise, can 
be relied on ; for the inhabitants of these countries are generally 
ignorant of any measure for distance ; and their reckoningby time 
is so vague, as to defy a moderately-certain conclusion. The fact, 
however, of the vicinity of tbe lake to the bay may be concluded ; 
and it follows, as a reasonable inference, that the river or rivers 
flowing into the bay communicate with the lake. The existence 
of such rivers, which were from the locality to have been ex- 
pected, is vouched for by Captain Forrest. ** Most of this north 
part of Borneo (he says), granted to the English East India Com- 
pany by the Sooloos, is watered by noble rivers : those that dis- 
charge themselves into Malludu Bay are not birred." It4s by 
one or other of these rivers that I should hope to penistrate as far 
as the lake and mountun of Kini Ballu, and into the country of 
the Idaan. I have not been able to leam that any Malay towns 
of importance are situated in the bight of Malludu Bay, and their 
absence will render a friendly communication with the aborigines 
a matter of comparative ease. The advantages likely to result 
from such friendly relations are so evident, that I need not dwell 
upon them ; though the mode of efiecting such an intercoarse 
must be left to the thousand contingencies which govern all, and 
act so capriciously on the tempers of the savage races. The ut- 
most forbearance, and a hberality glided by prudence, so as not 
to excite too great a degree of cupidity, appear the fiindamental 
rules for mana^ng men in a low state ot civilization. The re- 
sults of an amicable understanding are as uncertain as its com- 
mencement ; for they depend on the enterprise of the individual, 
and the power of the native tribe into whose hands he may have 
lallen. l will, not, therefore, enter into a visionarv field of discov- 
ery ; but it appeara to me certain that, without the assistance ef 
the nativea, no anall party can expect to pMMtrate ftr into a com- 

ii3 



378 APPENDIX. 

try populous by report, and in many parts tbtckfy conered with 
wood. Without entertaining any exaggerated expectation, I trast 
that something may be add^ to our geographical knowledge of 
the sea-coast ol' this bay, its leading features, productions, rivers, 
anchorages, and inhabitants, the prospect of trade, and the means 
of navigation ; and although my wishes lead me strongly to pen- 
etrate as far as the lake of Kini Ballu, yet the obstacles wnich 
may be found to exist to the fulfillment of Uiis desire will induce 
me to rest satisfied with the more moderate and reascmable re- 
sults. 

It may not be superfluous to notice here, that a forraone con- 
clusion appeare to be spread abroad regarding the abonginal (so 
called) inhabitants of Borneo, and thst they are usually consid- 
ered and mentioned under the somewhat vague appellatton of 
Dyaks. They are likewise commonly Dronounced as originating 
from the same stock as the Arafuras of JCelebes and New Guinea, 
and radicall^r identical with the Polynesian race. The coodii- 
sion is not m itself highly improbable, but certftinly premature, 
as the facts upon which it is built are so scanty and ooobtful as 
to authorize no such structure. On an island of the vast siie of 
Borneo, races radically distinct mi^ht exist ; and at any retej the 
opposite conclusion is hardly justifiabley from the specimens of 
language or the physical appearance of the tribm oi the soothem 
portion of the country. We have Malay aothotity for believing 
that there are many large tribes in the mtericHr, diflering greatly 
in their degree of civilization, though all alike removed from the 
vicinity of a superior people. We have the Dyaks of the sooth ; 
the Idaan of the north ; the Kagins ; and a race little better than 
monkeys, who live in trees, eat without cooking, are hunted by 
the other tribes, and would seem to exist in the lowest conceiv- 
able grade of humanity. If we may trust these accounts, these 
latter people resemble in many particulara the Orang fienua, or 
aborigines of the peninsula ; but the Dyaks and Iduns are far 
superior, living in villages, cultivating the ground, and possessing 
cattle. Beside these, likewise, we have the names of several 
other tribes or people ; and, in all probability, many exist in the 
interior with whom we are unacquainted. 

There are strong reasons for believing that the Hindoo retigion, 
which obtained so extensively in Java and Sumatra, and yet sur- 
vives at Bali and Lombock, was likewise extended to Borneo ; 
and some authors have conceived grounds for sapoosing a religion 
anterior even to this. If only a portion of these nesting opinions 
should be true, and the truth can only be tested by inquiry, we 
may fairly look for the descendants of the Hindoo dynasty as well 
as an aboriginal people. It never seems to have occurred to any 
one to compare the Dyaks with the people of Bali and Lombock. 
We know indeed but little of the former ; but both races are fisir, 
good-looking, and gentle. Again, respecting the concluded iden- 
tity of the Dyaks and the Arafuras, it is clear, we have a very lim- 
ited knowledge indeed of the former ; and, I may ask, wlut do 
we know of the Arafuras ? 

In short, I fesl as reluctant to embrace any preconceived tbeoiy 



APPENIUX. 879 

as I am to adqpt the prevailing notion on this subject ; for it re- 
quires a mass of facts, of whicn we are wholly deficient, to arrive 
at anything approaching a reasonable conclusion. To return, 
however, to the proceedings of the Royalist, I would remark, that 
it depends greatly on the time passed in Malludu Bay whether 
our next endeavor be prosecutea at Abai on the western, or Tu- 
san Abai on the eastern coast. The object in visiting Abai would 
be chiefly to penetrate to the lake, which, on the authority of Dal- 
r^^mple and Burton, is ilot far distant thence, by a water comrou- 
nication ; but should any success have attended similar eflforts 
from Malludu Bay, this project will be needless, as in that case 
the enterprise will have been prosecuted to the westwaid, and 
reach to tne vicinity of Abai. As Kaminis is the limit of the Brit- 
ish territory to the westward, so Point Kaniungan, situated to the 
southward of the bay of Sandakan, forms the eastern boundary ; 
and a line drawn from coast to coast between these pmnts is rep- 
resented as including our possessions. A r^erence to the chart 
will show the extent to be considerable ; and the eastern coast 
from Maltudu Bay to Point Kaniungan is so very little known, 
that it is highly desirable tp become acquunted with its general 
feattfres and conformation, and to seek^thence the means of fil- 
ing an inlet into the interior, should it be denied at Malludu Bay. 
. The reported proximity of ^ni Ballu to Malludu Bay, and like- 
wise to Abai would (supposing it is anything like the size it is 
affirmed to be) lead us to expect that it cannot be far distant from 
the eastern coast ; and it is but reasonable to conclude that some 
rivers or streams discharge themselves into the sea in the numer- 
ous indentations that abound on this shore. However this may 
be, the coast, with its bays and islands and bold headlands, is one 
of great interest, and almost unknown ; and the careful inspec- 
tion of it as far as Point Kaniungan will, I trust, add something 
to our knowledge. The longitude df Point Kaniun^n and Point 
Unsang will likewise determine the eastern extremity of Borneo. 

Much more mi^ht be added on this topic, especially of the 
reported communication by a line of lakes trom Malludu Bay to 
Banjarmassim, which, if true, would in all probability place some 
of these lakes near particular |x>int8 of the east coast, as the 
whole line, from the relative position of the two extremes, nmei 
be on the eastern side of the island. These reports, and the vari- 
ous surmises which arise from them, are rather matters for verifi- 
cation than discussion ; and i will therefore only add that, tempted 
by success, I shall not devote leiss than a year and a half to this 
object ; but. in case of finding a sickly climate, or meeting With a 
decidedly hostile population, I shall more easily abandon the field, 
and turn to others of not less interest, and perhaps of less risk. 

Equal to Borneo in riches, and superior in picturesque beauty 
to any part of the Archipelago, is the large and eccentric country 
of the B.ugis, called Celebes. So deep are the indentations of its 
coasts, that the island may be pronounced as being composed of 
a succession of peninsulas, nearly uniting in a common center in 
the district of Palos ; and thus, by the proximitjr of every part to 
the sea, ofl!ering great facilities for brief and decisive interior ex- 



880 APPENDIX. 

cursions. The Dutch are in possession of Mnkassar, and hid 
formerly settlements on the northwest coast and in the bay of 
Sawa. Their power appears, however, never to have been very 
extensively acknowledged ; and at present I have not been able 
to meet with anv account of the condition of their factories. This 
information will probably be sained at Singapore. Avoiding the 
Dutch settlements, I propose limiting my inqniries to the northern 
and northeastern portion of the island, more especially the great 
bay of Gonong Telia. It is impossible to state here the direction 
of these inquiries, or any definite object to which thev should 
be turned, as I am acquamted with no author who apeaka Of the 
country, save in a general and vague manner. It ia reported as 
rich, fertile, mountainous, strikinp^ly beautiful, and posseaaed ot 
rivers ; abounding in birds, and inhabited, like Borneo, by vrild 
tribes in the interior, and by the Bugis on the sea-shores and en- 
trance of rivers. The character of the Bngis, though so variously 
represented, gives me strong hopes of rendering them, by care 
and kindness, useful instruments in the prosecution of these re- 
searches ; for all writers agree that they are active, hardy, enter- 
prising, and commercial ; and it is seldom that a people poaaeasing 
such characteristics are deaf to the suggestions (^ self-mtereat or 
kindly feeling. The arrogance, and especially the indolence, of 
the Malays, counteracts the influence of these rtrong incentives; 
and the impulse which governs such rude tribes as the Dyaks 
and Arafiiras is a dangerous weapon, which cuts all .ways, and 
often when least anticipated. Tne Badjows, or aea-gipsvs, are 
another race on whom some dependence ma^r be placed. Mr. 
Earl, who had a personal acquaintance with this tribe, and coaki 
speak their language, always expressed to me a d^ree ci confi- 
dence in their good faith, which must have had some grounds. 

1 may here conclude the first stage of the expedition, dorhig 
the progress of which the head-quartera will be fixed at Singapore. 
During some of the intervals I hope to see Manilla, and to acquire 
a cursory knowledge of the unexplored tract at the southern ex- 
tremity of Celebes, called in Norie's general chart the Tiger 
Islands. 

The time devoted to the objects above mentioned roust, as I 
have before said, be regulated by the degree of fortune which 
attends them ; for, cheered by success, I should not readily a^n- 
don the field ; jret, if persecuted by climate, or other serious det- 
riments, I shall frequently shift the ground, to remove myself 
beyond such evil innuence. It is scarcely needful to continue a 
detail of projects so distant, having already carved out for myaelf 
a work which I should be proud to perform, and which is already 
as extended as the chances of human life and human resolves 
will warrant. The continuation of the vojage would lead me to 
take the Royalist to Timor or Port Essmgton, thence making 
excursions to the Ami Isles, Timor Laut, and the southern shores 
of New Guinea. That part of the coast contiguous to Toms 
Straits I am particularly desirous of visiting ; as it has been sug- 
gested to me by Mr. Earl, and I think with reason, that a belter 
channel than the one we are at present acquainted with may be 



APPENDIX. 387 

lishment on the sickly island of Balamban^n (lying north of 
Borneo, near Maludu) ; and in 1775, the Honorable Company's 
ship Bridge water was sent to Pasir with similar views* 

The failure of these British attempts, as well as the exclusicm 
of all other powers from the ports of Borneo, may be principally 
attributed to the sordid desire of the Dutch of monopolizing the 
whole produce of the Eastern Archipelago, and their rooted jeal- 
ous)' in opposing the establishment of every other power in the 
vicinity of Java, or that of the Spice Islands. 

These considerations and feelings have induced them to commit 
the most flagrant crimes, not oruy against the natives of these 
regions, but against every European power. Their infamous 
massacres at Amboyna, Banda, Bantam, &c., have been histori- 
cally recorded to their eternal disgrace. By their intrigues at 
Benjarmasing, the British attenipts at a settlement twice failed ; 
and Forrest, in his Voyage to New Guinea, says, that the. Solos 
were by Dutch instigation induced to cut off the infant establish' 
ment of Balambangan, in 1775. They frustrated the attempts of 
the Bridgewater at Pasii* ; and even the massacre of the garrison 
of Pulo Condore was effected by Javanese soldiers supplied by 
the governor of Batavia. The English, from their strong desire 
of having a port in the China seas, hastily pitched upon the most 
unhealthy spots for that purpose, viz. Balambangan and Pulo 
Condore. 

The father of the present Sultan of Pontiana was the descend- 
ant of an Arab, resiuing at Simpan, near Matan. By the advice 
and concurrence of the Dutch ne was induced, about forty^two 
years ago, to settle on the unfrequented shores of the river Pon- 
tiana, or Quallo Londa, with promises of esrly cooperation and 
assistance, as well as of rendering it the mart of tbo trade and 
capital of all Sukadana. As soon as Abdul Ramman (the name 
of the first sultan) had succeeded in attracting around him several 
Chinese, Buguese, and Malay settlers, and in building a town, 
the Dutch (in 1786) came with two armed brigs and fifty troops 
to establish their factory. To make good their promises to Abdul 
Ramman (the treaty I have never seen), they immediately over- 
threw the chief of Mompava, and gave his country in trust to this 
ally : they shortly after invested the ancient city of Sukadana, 
burned it to the ground, transferred the inhabitants to Pontiana, 
or dispersed them and their chief into the interior. The Dutch 
likewise placed the present rajas on the musnuds o( Songo, Landa, 
&c., and kept up a force at the former, with the express stipula- 
tion that the whole of their produce should be sent from each of 
their respective districU to the Dutch factory of Pontiana. They 
had it in contemplation, in 1795, to take repossession of Santbas, 
and wrote to Abdul Ramman as to the preparatory measures re- 
quisite, when the English war, as before observed, obliged them 
to abandon Pontiana. 

This Abdul Ramman, the first sulUnorchiefof Pontiana, reigned 
thirty-five years, and died in 1807, leaving his eldest son, the prea« 
ent Sultan Kasim, now forty-six years of age, his saccessor ; who 
has a second brother, called Pangeran Marko, ^ged thirty-«i^tt 



382 APPENDIX. 

seven hundred, and in circumference three thousand. It is 
bounded on the north by the Solo seas, on the east by the Straits 
of Macassar, on the south by the Java, and on the west bv the 
China seas. Situated in the track of the most extensive ana val- 
uable commerce, intersected on all sides with deep and navigable 
rivers, indented with safe and capacious hart>ors, possessing one 
of the richest soils on the globe, abounding in all tne necessaries 
of human life, and boasting commercial products that have in all 
ages excited the avarice and stimulated the desires of mankind, — 
wiih the exception of New Holland, it is the largest island 
known. Of the existence of this extensive territory, to bii^hly 
favored by Providence, and enriched by the choicest productions 
of nature, there remains scarce a vestige in the geographical de- 
scriptions of the day ; and its rich products and fertile shores, by 
one tacit and universal consent, appear abandcHied k>y all the 
European nations of the present age, and handed over to the rav- 
ages of extensive hordes of piratical banditti, solely intent on 
plunder and desolation. 

The natives and the Malays, formeriy, and even at this day, 
call this large island by the exclusive name of Polo Kalamantan, 
from a sour and indigenous fruit so called. Borneo was the name 
only of a citv, the capital of one of the three distinct kingdoms 
on the island. When Magalhaens visited it in the year l^iO, he 
saw"a rich and populous city, a luxuriant and feflile country, a 
powerful prince, and a magnificent court : hence the Spaniards 
nastily concluded that the whole island not only belonged to this 
prince, but that it was likewise named Borneo, in this error 
they have been followed by all other European nations. The 
charts, however, mark this capital *' Borneo Proper," or in other 
words, the only place properly Borneo : this is the only confessioa 
of this misnomer that 1 have met with amongf Europeans. The 
natives pronounce Borneo, Bruni, and say it is derived from the 
word Brani, courageous ; the aboriginal natives within this district 
having ever remained unconquered. 

The aborigines of Borneo, or Pulo Kalamantan, still exist in 
the interior in considerable numbers ; there are various tribes of 
them, speaking diflferent dialects. Some of them acknowledge 
Malay chiefs, as at Landa, Songo, Mantan, &c. Several com- 
munities of them still remain under independent chiefs of their 
own nation ; and everywhere their origin, their language, their 
religion, their manners and customs, are totally distmct and ap- 
parent from those of the Islams, or Malays, who have settled on 
the island. About Pontiana and Sambas they are called Dayers ; 
at Benjarmasing, Biajus; at Borneo Proper, Momts; farther 
northward, Orang Idan. Their original history is as much envel- 
oped in obscurity as that of the Monocaboes of Malaya, the 
Rejangs and Battas of Sumatra, or the Togals of the Philippines. 
On a nearer acquaintance with their language, customs, traaitions, 
&c., perhaps an affinity in origin may be discovered among all 
the original possessors of the Eastern isles. The Morots and 
Orang Idan are much fairer and better featured than the Malays, 
of a more strong and robust frame, and have the credit of beiiig • 



APPENDIX. 888 

brfiye race of people. The Dayer is much darker, and approaches 
nearer in resemblance to the Malay. The Biajus I never, saw. 
The few particirlars which 1 have been able to collect of these 
people I shall briefly state: They live in miserable small huts; 
their sole dress consists of a. slight wrapper round their waists, 
sometimes made of bark, at others from skins of animals, or per- 
haps of blue or white cloth ; they eat rice or roots, and inoeed 
any description of food, whether beast, reptile, or rermin : they 
are extremely filthy ; this and bad food give them a cutaneous 
disorder, with which they are very generally afflicted. Several 
tribes of them smear themselves with oil and pigments, which 
^ves them the appearance of being tattooed. Whether this is 
intended to defena them against the bites of insects, to operate as 
a cure or prevention of this epidemic, or to adorn their persons, I 
cannot take upon me to decide. They believe, it is said, in a Sti- 
preme Being, and offer sacrifices of gratituae to a beneficent 
Deity. Polygamy is not allowed among them ; no man has more 
than one wife ; they bum their dead. They are said to shoot pois- 
oned balls or arrows through hollow tubes ; and whenever they kill 
a man, thev preserve the skull to exhibit as a trophy to commemo- 
rate the achievement of their arms. They are said to have no mode 
of communicating their ideas by characters or writing, like the 
Battas. Driven Irom the sea-coast of Borneo into the mountains 
and fastnesses in the interior, they are more occupied in the chase 
and the pursuits of husbandry than in commerce. They, however, 
barter ttieir inland produce of camphor, gold, diamonds, birds'- 
neats, wax, and cattle, for salt (which they hold in the highest 
decree of estimation, eating it with as much goUt as we do sugar), 
china, porcelain, brass^ndiron cooking utensils, brass bracelets, 
coarse blue and white c)oth, Java tobacco, arrack (which they 
also like), parangs, hardware, beads, &c. Some tribes of them 
are said to pull out their front teeth and substitute othera of gold, 
and others adorn themselves with tigers' teeth. The greatest 
numbers and most considerable lK)dies of these men are found 
near Kinoy Balu and about Borneo Proper. 

The Malays represent them as the most savage and ferocious 
of men ; but to be more savage or ferocious than a Malay is a 
thing utterly impossible. Their representations may be account* 
ed for. These aborigines have always evinced a strong disposi* 
tion and predilection for liberty and freedom ; they have either 
resisted the yoke of the Malay, or have retired to their mountains 
to enjoy this greatest of all human blessings. The Malay, unable 
to conquer them, lays plans for kidnapping as many as he can 
fall in with. Every Dyak so taken is made a slaye of, his chil- 
dren sold, and his women violated. The Malay, hence, is justly 
considered by them as the violator of every law, human and djvine ; 
and whenever any of these people meet with one, they satiate 
their vengeance, and destroy him as the enemy of their race, and 
as a monster of the human kind. The Portuguese missionaries 
found these people very tractable converts, and very large bodies 
of them are very easily governed by^ single Malay chief, as at 
Xjanda, Soogo, and Matan. I have seen very large bodies of iham 



384 APPENDIX. 

at Kimanis and Maludu, but none of them posseasing Uie hioaij 
of a Malay. 

The islams, or Malayans, who now posaesa the aea-coaata of 
Borneo (m well as the aea-coaats of all the Eastern ialanda), an 
said to oe colonies from Malacca, Johore, dec, planted in the 
fourteenth century ; at this period, according to Mr. Poivre, ** Ma* 
lacca was a country well peopled, and waa conaeqoently well 
cultivated. This nation was once one of the greatest powen in 
the Eastern seas, and made a very considerable figure in the thea- 
ter of Asia ; they colonized Borneo, Celebea, Macaaaar, Molaccas, 
&c." The Malays on Borneo are like the Malaya everywhere 
else, the most atrocious race of beings on the earth ; mm from 
their general character, and imprudent institotiODa, bolb political 
and religious, are fast moldering in self-decay, or mntval destruc- 
tion. 

From the earliest date that I have been able to trace, the iateod 
of Borneo was always divided into three distinct kingdoma. The 
kingdom of Borneo, properly so called, extended from Tanjong 
Dato, in latitude 3^ 15' north, to Kanukungan point, in the Straits 
of Macassar, P 15' north, which included the whole norUi part 
of the island. The kingdom of Sukadana (from smka, hawiness, 
and dunia, the world, or earthly paradise), eztendmg from Tanjong 
Dato to Tanjong Sambar, which belonged to the King of Bantam 
(when or how acquired 1 have not learned) : and the remahider 
of the island from Tanjong Sambar to Kanukungan Point afore- 
said, to the kingdom of Benjarmasing (from bendar, m. port of 
trade, and mtuing, usual, or the ordinary port of trade). 

When the Portuguese first visited Borneo, in 1520, the whde 
island was in a most flourishing state, liie nnmben df Chinese 
that had settled on her shores were immense ; the products of 
their industry, and an extensive commerce with Chinar in junks, 
gave her land and cities a far different aspect from her ornry 
appearance at this day, and their princes and courta exhibited 
a splendor and displayed a magnificence which haa Img since 
vanished. 

Pigofetta says there were twenty-fiVe thousand hooaea in the 
city of Borneo Proper, and that it was rich and pc^uloua. Much 
later accounts describe the numbers of Chinese and Japanese 
junks frequenting her ports as great ; but in 1809 there were not 
three thousand houses in the whole city, nor six thouaand Chi- 
nese throughout that kingdom, and not a jonk that had viaited 
it for years. But the ports of Borneo have n<A dwindled awaT 
more than Acheen, Johore, Malacca, Bantam, Temate, dec AU 
these places likewise cut a splendid figure in the eyea of oor 
first navigators, and have since equally shared a proportioiiate 
obscurity. 

Were the causes required which have eclipsed the proaperity 
of Borneo and the other great emporiums of Eaatern trade that 
once existed, it might be readily answered— a decay of com- 
merce. They have suffered the same vicissitudes aa T^ra, Sidoo, 
or Alexandria ; and like Carthage—for a^s the emporium of the 
wealth and commerce of the world, which now exhibita oo ita 



APPENDIX. 385 

site a piratical race of descendants in the modem Tunisians and 
their neighbors the Algerifies — the commerciai ports of Borneo 
have become a nest ot banditti, and the original inhabitants of 
both, from similar causes — the decay of commerce — have degen- 
erated to the modern pirates of the present day. 

In exact proportion as>the intercourse of the Europeans with 
China has mcreased, in precise ratio has the decrease of their 
direct trade in joniis become apparent. The Portuguese first, 
and subsequently the Dutch, mistress of the Eastern seas, exacted 
by treaties and other ways the Malay produce at their own rates, 
and were consequently enabled to unaersell the junks in China. 
But these powers went further ; by settling at ports on Borneo, 
or by their guardas de costas, they compelled the ports of Borneo 
to send their produce, calculated for the China market, to Ma- 
lacca and Batavia, which at length completely cut up the direct 
trade by means of the Chinese junks. 

The loss of their direct intercourse with China affected their 
I>ro8perity in a variety of ways. First, by this circuitous direc- 
tion of their trade, the gruff goods, as rattans, sago, cassia, pep- 
per, ebony, wax, &c., became too expensive to fetch the value 
of this double carriage and the attendant charges, and in course 
of time were neglected ; the loss of these extensive branches of 
industry must have thrown numbers out of employment. But 
the loss of the direct intercourse with China had more fatal 
ejects ; it prevented large bodies of annual emigrants from China 
settling upon her shores ; it deprived them of an opportunity of 
▼isitiiig the Bomeon ports, and exercising their mechanical arts 
and productive industry ;, and of thus keeping up the prosperity 
of the country in the tillage of the ground, as well as in the com- 
merce of her ports. The old Chinese settlers by degrees deserted 
these shores ; and to fill up the chasms in their revenues by so 
fotal a change, the rajahs have been tempted to turn their vieWg 
to predatory habits, and have permitted their lauds to run to 
jiingle, by dragging their wretched laborers from agricultural 
employments to maritime and piratical enterprises. 

The first material alteration in the sovereignty of the territorial 

Eossession took place in the kingdom of Borneo Proper, when 
er rajah was obliged to call in ihe aid of the Solos to defend him 
against an insurrection of the Maruts and Chinese. In consider- 
ation of this im(K)rtant aid, the Rajah of Borneo Proper ceded 
to the Sultan of Solo all that portion of Borneo then belonging 
to him, from Kimanis, in latitude 5P 30' north, to Tapean-duriaoj 
in the Straits of Macassar, which includes the whole north of 
Borneo. After this period, the power and fortunes of the Sultan 
of Solo rapidly declined. The Spaniards succeeded in conquer- 
ing all their islands. Solo, the capital, was taken and fortified ; 
the sultan and his court made prisoners. When the English 
captured Manilla, they found this sultan incarcerated. They 
agreed to relieve him from prison; and reinstate him on the mus- 
nud of his forefathers unaer the express stipulation that the 
whole of the aforesaid territorv of Bomeot ceded to Solo by the 
Tajtih of that kingdom, should be transferred to the English East 

25 JILk 



386 APPENDIX. 

India Company, together with the south of Palawan, and the 
intermediate islands. These terms were joyfully acceded to by 
the Sultan of Solo, and signed, sealed, and delivered by him to 
the late Alexander Dairy mple, in the year 1763. 

The kingdom of Sukadana was ceded by the Rajah oi Bantam 
(in what year 1 know not) to the Dutch East India Company. 
Whether the kingdom of Benjarmasing was ever actnally ceded 
to the Dutch or not, I have not been able to learn. But the oc- 
cupancy of her capital, the military government of the CHHrntry, 
by the erection of forts, and a permanent standing force, since 
transferred to the English arms, give to the East India Company, 
actually or virtually, the entire sovereignty and rale over the 
whole of this large island, with the exception of the piratical 
port of Borneo Proper, and the portion of territory yet annexed 
thereto. 

The Portuguese, at a very early period, established themselTes 
at Benjarmasmg : at Borneo Proper there still remain two bas- 
tions and a curtain of a regular stone fort buUt by them: they 
had also one on the island of Laboan, since destroyed. They 
fixed themselves at old Sambas, from which they were driven hv 
the Dutch in the year 1600, and nearly about this period from aU 
their establishments on Borneo. 

When, or from what causes, the Dutch were indaced to evac- 
uate Sambas, 1 know not, nor have I learned the period wh«ii 
they fortihed themselves at Benjarmasing and Pasir, bat believe 
it could not have taken place before the middle of the last cen- 
tury. They, however, settled at Pontiana in 1786, and boiit a 
fortified wall round the palace and factory, but were compelled 
to withdraw from it when the war broke out with the English in 
1796. The ports at Benjarmasing, when evacuated, were aold 
by the Dutch to the sultan, and are since said to have been re- 
purchased from him by the English. The Dutch obtaining the 
cession of the kingdom of Sukadana from the Rajah of Bantam, 
and their subsequent measures in different parts ch this terhtorj, 
will show that they had extensive views of firmly establishing 
themselves on this island ; and waking from an age of lethargy, 
at last began to see the great advantages and unbounded resources 
these rich possessions were capable of aflfording them, without 
any cost or expense whatever. The year they withdrew from 
Pod liana they had it in contemplaticm to take repoesession of 
Samhas, and to unite all the ports, as well as the interior, under 
the Rajah of Pontiana, in trust for them. Some letters to this 
eU'ect were written by the Dutch government to the late rajah. 

That the English were not insensible to the value arkl impor- 
tance of the once valuable commerce of Borneo may be inferred 
not only from the number of the Honorable Company^s regular 
ships annually dispatched to her ports prior to the year 1760 (vide 
Hard>'s Shipping Register), but from the efforts they have re- 
peatedly made to establish themselves on her shores. There still 
exist the remains of a British factory at Borneo Proper. Before 
the year 1706, they had made two successive attempts to fortify 
themselves at Benjannasiog ; twice they have attempted an estab- 



APPENDIX. 387 

lishment on the sickly island of Balambangan (lying north of 
Borneo, near Maludu) ; and in 1775, the Honorable Company's 
ship Bridge water was sent to Pasir with similar views* 

The failure of these British attempts, as well as the exclusion 
of all other powers from the ports of Borneo, may be principally 
attributed to the sordid desire of the Dutch of monopolizing the 
whole produce of the Eastern Archipelago, and their rooted jeal- 
ousy in opposing the establishment of every other power in the 
vicinity of Java, or that of the Spice Islands. 

These considerations and feelings have induced them to commit 
the most flagrant crimes, not only against the, natives of these 
regions, but against every European power. Their infamous 
massacres at AmbOyna, Banda, Bantam, &c., have been histori- 
cally recorded to their eternal disgrace. By their intrigues at 
Benjarmasing, the British attenipts at a settlement twice failed ; 
and Forrest, in his Voyage to New Guinea, says, that the. Solos 
were by Dutch Instigation induced to cut off the infant estabti8h-> 
ment of Balambangan, in 1775. They frustrated the attempts of 
the Bridgewater at Pasir ; and even the massacre of the garrison 
of Pulo Condore was effected by Javanese soldiers supplied by 
the governor of Batatia. The English, from their strong desire 
of having a port in the China seas, hastily pitched upon the most 
unhealthy spots for that purpose, viz. Balambangan and Pulo 
Condore. 

The father of the present Sultan of Pontiana was the descend- 
ant of an Arab, resiJing at Simpan, near Matan. By the advice 
and concurrence of the Dutch ne was induced, about forty*two 
years ago, to settle on the unfrequented shores of the river Pon- 
tiana, or Quallo Londa, with promises of early cooperation and 
assistance, as well as of rendering it the mart of tho trade and 
capital of all Sukadana. As soon as Abdul Ramman (the name 
of the first sultan) had succeeded in attracting around him several 
Chinese, Buguese, and Malay settlers, and m building a town, 
the Dutch (in 1786) came with two armed brigs and nfty troops 
to establish their factory. To make good their promises to Abdul 
Ramman (the treaty I have never seen), they immediately over- 
threw the chief of Mompava, and gave his country in trust to this 
ally : they shortly after invested the ancient city of Sukadana, 
burned it to the ground, transferred the inhabitants to Pontiana, 
or dispersed them and their chief into the interior. The Dutch 
likewise placed the present rajas on the musnuds oS Songo, Landa, 
&c., and kept up a force at the former, with „the express stipula- 
tion. that the wiiole of their produce should be sent from each of 
their respective districts to the Dutch factory of Pontiana. They 
had it in contemplation, in 1795, to take repossession of Sambas, 
and wrote to Abdul Ramman as to the preparatory measures re- 
quisite, when the English war, as before ooserved, obliged them 
to abandon Pontiana. 

This Abdul Ramman, the firstsultanorchief of Pontiana, reigned 
thirty-hve years, and died in 1807, leaving his eldest son, the pres- 
ent Sultan Kasim, now forty-six years of age, his successor ; who 
has a second brother, called Pangeran Marko, ^gsd thiitj-si^tt 



888 APPENDIX. 

and Pangeran Hosman, thirty-six years, beside four sisters, one 
ot whom married the present Uajah of Matan, and about eeyentr 
half brothers and sisters, the natural children of his father, with 
an extensive sub-progeny. The present sultan has three sons 
(Abibuker, heir- apparent, twenty-one years old, Ali, and Abdul 
Ramman), and four daughters, lawfully begotten. None of the 
royal family make use of either opium, betel, or tobacco, in any 
shape whatever ; and the present sultan has much the appearance 
of an Arab. The grandfather of the present sultan was from 
Arabia, a Sayed Surifif ; one of his relations was fixed at Palim- 
hzng, whose name is unknown to me, and the other, Shad Fud- 
yel, at Acheen, who has been long dead. 

The wet season commences from September, and ends in April, 
when heavy rain, hard squalls, and much thunder and lightning 
are experienced. From April till September is called the dry 
season, but even in this portion of the year seldom a day elapses 
without a smart shower or two. The monsoons on the northerly 
shores of Borneo are found to correspond with those prevalent in 
the China seas, viz. from the N.E. from October to April, and 
from the S.W. the rest of the year. To the south ward, about 
Benjarmasing, the monsoons are the same as in the Java seas, 
t. e. westerly from October to April, and easterly the rest of the 
year. Those parts of Borneo near or upon the equator have vari- 
able winds all the year, and land and sea breezes close in shore. 

This country is by no means so warm as one would he led to 
imagine by its proximity everywhere to the line : this arises from 
the perpetual refreshing showers and the land and sea breexes, 
the former being wafted over innumerable rivers. In the month 
of November, the thermometer at Pontiana ranges from TSOto^SP. 

During the wet season, the rivers swell and overflow the adja- 
cent shores, and run down with such continued rapidity, that Uie 
water may be tasted fresh at sea at the distance of six or seven 
miles from the mouths: these overflowings fertilize the banks 
and adjacent country, and render the shores of Borneo, like the 
plains of Egypt, luxuriantly rich. Susceptible of the highest pos- 
sible culture, particularly in wet grain, in the dry season the cmst, 
from these overflowings, presents to the eye the lichest enameled 
fields of full grown grass for miles around. It is at this season 
thai whole herds of wild cattle range down from the mountains 
in the interior to fatten on the plains, but during the wet season 
they ascend to their hills. 

The whole of the north, the northwest, and the center of Bor> 
neo is extremely mountainous. The greatest portira of the 
ancient kingdom of Borneo Proper is extremely elevated. That 
of Kiney Baulu, or St. Peter's Mount, in latitude &> north, is 
perhaps one of the highest mountains known. The country about 
Sambas, Pontiana, and Sukadana is occasionally interepersed 
with a few ranges of hills, otherwise the land here might be 
deemed low. But to the southward, and more particularly to the 
east, in the Straits of Macassar, it is very low. The shore in 
these latter places is extremely moist and swampy, but the inte- 
rior is said to be dry. 



APPENDIX. 8&9 

' The common cbaris of Borneo will show the innumerable rivers 
that water this vast island m every possible direction ; but it is 
worthy of remark, that all the principal rivers on this island have 
their main source in a large lake in the vicinity of that stupendous 
mountain before mentioned, Kiney Baulu. The river Benjarma- 
sing takes its rise from thence, and after traversing in all its 
windings a distance of 1500 miles, intersecting the island into two 
parts, falls into the Java sea. Its rise and fall is said to be twelve 
feet, and it has only nine feet at low water on the bar. It is said 
to have numberless villages scattered on its banks ; but I have 
obtained no particular accounts of them, or their produce. 

The great river of Borneo Proper is certainly the finest on the 
island. It is a deep, navigable, and majestic stream ; it has three 
fathoms upon the bar at low water ; the rise and fall is, I believe, 
fifteen feet ; there are docks here for Chinese iunks of five or six 
hundred tons, and a first-rate ship of war mignt ^et up far ab«)ve 
the town. Tne country, too, is populous,^ productive, and healthy. 
The southern branch of this river has been well surveyed, but the 
branch leading to the Marut country is little known.; it has its 
source in Kiney Baulu. 

In the ajicient kingdom of Sukadana, the five principal rivers 
are the Sukadana, the Lavaj the Pogore, the Pontiana, and the 
Sambas. The former rivers communicate inland, and their main 
source is in Kiney Baulu. The whole of these rivers are deep 
and navigable for seventy or eighty miles ; but have all of them 
mud flats at their mouths, which would not admit of the entry of 
▼easels exceeding fourteen feet at high water springs. 

The third most considerable river on Borneo is the Kinabatan- 
gan, lying in the north of the island, and emptying itself into the 
Sulo seas. It is said to be deep and navigable much farther than 
the Benjarmasing river ; it has several mouths, hut it has never 
been surveyed. The rivers Kuran, Pasir, and a variety of others 
that fall into the Straits of Macassar, are said to be lioble streams, 
navigable for vessels of large burthen ; but I have no accurate in- 
formation of them. The harbor of Sandakan is one of the finest 
in the world : a correct chart of the same is published. The har- 
bor of Tambisan, near Cape Unsing, is equal to Pulo Pinang, and 
calculated for careening and building ships ; a tolerable chart of 
these is also published. The harbors of Pulo Laut, Punangan, 
Maludu, and several others in the Straits x>f Mscassar, afifordgood 
anchorage and complete shelter for shipping. 

Situated as Borneo is, immediately under the equator, everything 
that can be produced in vegetation by the combined influence of 
heat and moisture is hosi displayed in the highest luxuriance and 
super-excellence. All the Oriental palms, as the cocoa-hut, the 
areca, the sago, &c., abound here. The larger grasses, as the 
bamboo, the canna, the nardus. assume a statelv growth, and 
thrive in peculiar luxuriance. Pepper is foon^ wild everywhere, 
and largely cultivated about Benjarmasing and the districts of 
Borneo Proper. The laurua cinnamomum and easaia odortferaU^yj^re 
pr«i(iuced in abundance about Kimanis. In no part of the world 
iiotrs the camphor-tree flourish in equal perfection «« ip tlie di»r 

kk2 



390 APPENHIX. 

tricts of Maludu and Pay ton, in the north Of Borneo. The ebony, 
the dammar, the tree that yields the finest dragon's btood in the 
world, all al)Ound here. The cotton and coflfee trees are found in 
all parts of Borneo, though not much attended to. The chocolate 
nut of Sulo is preferred at Manilla to that from South America. 
The tree that yields the clove-bark, and the nutmeg, and clor^, 
thrive iuzuriantiy, though never tried to any extent. 

The woods ab^)Ut Pontiana for carpentry and joinery, are kaya 
bulean, chena, mintangore, laban, ebony, iron-wood, dammar, and 
dammar laut, &c. &c. The pine abounds in the bay of Maludu, 
teak at Sulo. The fruit-bearing trees which enrico and adorn 
the Indian continent, offer, on the Bomeon shore, all their kin- 
dred varieties, nurtured by the bountiful hand of luxuriant nature. 
The durian, mangustin, rambutan, proya, chabi, kachang, tiroon, 
jambu, kniban, beside the nanka or jack, tamarind, pomplemose, 
orange, lemon, and citron, all the kmdred varieties of the plan- 
tain, banana, melon, annanas, pomegranate, &c., are fouM on 
Borneo. 

The garden-stuffs met with are onions, garlic, yams, pumpkins. 
brinjals, greens, beans, cucumbers ; and turnips, cabbages, anu 
potatoes would succeed, were there Europeans to attend to Uiem. 

The elephant was said to be seen about Cape TJnsing, where 
several teeth are still found ; but it is conceived this animal is 
extinct on the island. There are no dromedaries nor camels ; 
nor are horses, asses, or mules met with on Borneo (the former 
are seen at Sulo). None of the larger breed of the feline species 
are found here, as the lion, tiger, leopard ; nor the bear, the wolf, 
the fox, nor even a jackal, or dog, that 1 ever saw. The oartoig- 
outang, or the man of the woc^s, is the most singular aninmi 
found in these regions. The rivers swarm with allinttors, and 
the woods with every variety of the monkey tribe. The names 
of other animals on Borneo are the bodok or rhinoceros, pelando 
or rabbit, rusa or stag, kijang or doe, minjagon, babi utan or wiUd 
hog, tingileng, bintangan, &c. There are buffiiloes, goato, boll- 
ocks, hogs, beside the rat and mouse species ; a dog 1 never saw 
on Borneo. 

There are few snakes on the sea-coast, owing to the moistnre ; 
plenty, however, are found in the interior. The musketoe, the 
Hy, the frog, and the noisy beetle, with other insects and Termin 
found in Malay countries, abound here. 

The coasts and rivers abound with excellent and wholesome 
fish in the greatest variety, and of the most delicious flavors ; but 
such is the miserable state of society, that few Malays have either 
the inchnation or the inducement to venture beyond the mouths 
of their rivers in quest of them ; and even there they are more in- 
debted to the industry of the Chinese with their fishing-stakes 
than to their own labor for the supply of (heir markets. The 
names of their fish are, the kakab, klabaw, jilawat, lai-is, pattain, 
udang or prawn, shrimp, talang, sinangin^, bawan, rowan, tay- 
laon, duri, bleda, tingairy, alu-alu, pako, jumpul, pari or skait, 
boli ayam, tamban or shad, belut or eel, iyu or shark, lida or sole, 
batu batu, kabab batu, klaoi, krang or. cockle, tiram or oyster. 



V 



APPENDIX. 391 

tipy and lapis pearl oysters, cupang or muscle, all the varieties of 
the turtle, with several other sorts. 

The omiihoiogy of Borneo is somewhat limited. There are 
the bayan, nuri^ dara, pepit or sparrow, tukukur or turtle-dove, 
berkey, kandang, kiridi, gogaw or crow, seyrindit, layang or 8wal> 
low, kalila wan. The Chinese rear ducks ; the tame fowl abounds ; 
but the turkey, goose, and peafowl are seldom met with. 

The principal gold mines on Borneo are in the vicinity of Sam- 
bas. There is a mountain called Guning Pandan, about eighty 
miles inland ; from this branch out three rivers — one leads to 
Mompava, one to Batu Bulat near Tanjong Mora, and one to 
Landa ; the whole intermediate area between the above rivers is 
of ti firm yellow argillaceous schistus, or ferruginous quartz^inter- 
spersed with horn and vitreous ores, of a remarkable dark reddish 
color, abounding with the richest veins of gold, and equal if not 
superior to any mine extant. There are only fifty parets or mines 
now wrought in the whole kingdom of Sukadana, thirty of which 
are in the Sambas district, each mine having at least three hun* 
dred men, Chinese, employed in them. Their pay, one with afi* 
other, is four dollars per mensem. 

The mines are rented from the rajah at the rate of fifty bunkals 
of gold per mine per aimum, beside a capitation tax of three doU 
krs per head on every Chinaman. There are thirty thousand 
Chinese in the Sambas districts, and they feel themselves strong 
enough to oppose or evade this tax ; it hence becomes a perpetuid 
contest between greedy extortion on the one side, and avaricious 
chicane on the other ; there are beside about twelve thousand 
Malays and Oayers. 

The Laurat gold mines are situated to the eastward of the town 
of Sambas, and are particularly rich and productive. The mines 
of Siminis ane one day's journey from Sambas, up a small creek 
leading from Sambas river, below the town ; and the mines are 
abundant. Salako is up a river fifteen miles south of the Sambas 
river ; it lies nearly forty miles up, but communicates with Sam- 
bas by another river: here the metal is found more abundant than 
anywhere else ; and twenty thousand Chinese are found in this 
district. Mantrado is three days' journey up the Mompava river ; 
it is under an independent Malay prince. Some accounts make 
the population of this district great, near fifty thousand Dayers, 
Malays, and Chinese ; but perhaps half the number may. be nearer 
the truth ; these are chiefly employed on the gold inines, and in 
producing food for the miners ; these mines, however, do not pro- 
duce that quantity which they might under Chinese management. 
Mandore is about a day's journey from Pontiana, and belongs to 
the sultan ; it is reckoned a very rich mine, though but recently- 
wrought. There are as yet only twelve parets of about two hun- 
dred men each, but it is capable of extension. Likewise are 
. found in this district some very rich specimens of copper ore ; it 
has not as yet been wrought, gold being deemed a much more 
productive article. The sultan wishes, however, he had some 
Doring utensils and an experienced miner, to enable him to decide 
whether it .would be worth working under the peculiar circuxnr 



392 APPENDIX. 

Btances above mentioned. Numbers of Chinese are settled in this 
district, and the population is annually increasing. 

About three days' journey up the Pongole river lies the district 
of Songo, with a population ot twenty-five thousand souls, Day- 
ers, and a few Chmese, under a Malay and an independent prince. 
The population is chiefly employed on the rich mines of gold in 
the neighborhood, which is particularly pure and abundant; but 
the mines are not wrought with the same industry as those under 
Chinese management. The Dutch thought it of so much conse- 
quence as to keep a force at Songo, and to place the present raiah 
on that musnud. About two daysMoumey farther up liea.another 
gold district, called Santam. the inhabitants of which are princi- 

{ tally Dayers. Beyond Santam, and higher up on the same river, 
ies the town of Sukadow, abounding in gold, the inhabitants of 
which are also Dayers. 

Matan belongs to the njah of that name : he hisd the title of 
Rajah of Sukadana, until driven out of the latter place by the 
Dutch, seventeen years ago. There are ten thousand Dayers in 
this district, and a few Chinese and Malays. The mines <^ gold 
are abundant, and capable of becoming highly productive, as well 
as the mines of iron and unwrought tin ; but the sultan is much 
addicted to the use of opium, and hence neglects a valuable coon- 
try, capable, under better management, of becoming the most iradu- 
able district on all Borneo. 

About three days* journey from Pontiana lies the celebrated 
mountain of Landa, which, after Golconda, is the most Taluabls 
diamond mine in the world. There are at least thirty thousand 
people, principally Dayers, employed on the mines uxkd agricul- 
ture ; it belongs to a Malay prince, raised to that musnud twenty- 
five years ago by the Dutch, through the agency of the present 
Sultan of Pontiana : here also much gold is produced ; and much 
more might be had under proper management. 

There is a very valuable gold mine in the north of Boneo, at 
a place called Tampasuk, situated in the district (Msded to the 
English by the Sultan of Sulo ; but having become the principal 
pirate port on the coast, the working of the mines has been ous- 
continued. 

The whole produce of the gold mines of Sukadana is said to 
be annually about twenty piculs, or a million of dollars, at twentr- 
five dollars a bunkal ; but no calculation of this sort can possibly 
be correct. Living, as the Chinese do, under the rapacity of 
despotic and ferocious freebooters, who are actuated by no one 
principle of honor, justice, or good faith, it is their interest to con- 
ceal the riches they amass, not only to preserve themselves from 
the clutches of these tyrants, but as the most compact substance 
to transport to their native shores, to which they repair with the 
fruits of their industry, by the annual junks that arrive at Pon- 
tiana, leaving the mines to new settlers : from two to three hun-. 
dred leave Pontiana every year. 

The standard of Slakow gold at Pontiana is aflixed at twenty- 
three Spanish dollars the bunkal, of two dollars weisht. The 
^ongo and Laurat is twenty-five dolhitrs the 9aid bunkiu. 



APPENDIX. 808 

Not having had an opportunity to inspect any of the gold mine* 
personally, 1 know not if the ores readily melt of themselves, or 
whether they require the aid of any fluxes before they yield the 
metal ; but 1 believe the principal attention of the miners is direct- 
ed to the rich veins of pure native gold, and that no operation 19 
performed beyond that of pulverizing, and simple washing ; all 
the gold about Pontiana being in dust, though some I have met 
with in Borneo Proper was run into bars. About Landa, where 
the diamonds are found, the whole of the stratum is observed to 
be a clay of a red burnt, appearance, nearly to the same de^ee as 
that of burnt bricks, which gives to the rivers berealK)ut8 a pecu- 
liar tinge. Whether this has been formed by the action of sub- 
terraneous fires, or is the effect of volcanoes or earthquakes, I 
cannot decide ; the latter are said to be frequently felt at Pontiana 
and at Sambas ; and the former are said to exist in the central 
mountains of Borneo. 

From the slovenlv manner in which the diamonds are sought 
for by the Dayers, they seldom collect them of a size exceeding 
three or four carats weight each. When rough, the Landa dia- 
mond haa4 white or yellow hue ; but none are found of that inky 
and flinty tinge, so valuable iti some of the Golconda diamonds. 
But that Landa does produce them of a. very considerable siz^ 
the extensive and valuable specimens in Java, as well as the 

Juantities annually sent to Batavia, virill evince. The King of 
(atan is at this instatit in possession of a diamond weighing 367 
carats : the value of which, according to the old mode of calcu- 
lation, would be (367 x 367 x 2 = 269,378/.) The Sultan of Pon- 
tiana says, however, that a much larger price was offered for it 
by the Dutch government of Java. He refused, it is said, twenty- 
five laks of dollars, two sloops of rice, fifty pieces of cannon, and 
a hundred muskets. Several from twenty to thirty carats have 
been dug up. At Mompava there are said to be very rich copper 
mines ; but from want of population j a vigorous government, and 
scientific mineralogists, little is to be hoped from them at the 
present day. At Pulo Bongorong, near Borneo Proper, there is 
plenty of loadstone found. 

About one degree north of Sambas there is a country called 
Sarftwak, belonging to the Rajah of Borneo Proper ; there is a 
vast district abounding in tin, in veins as rich ana as plentiful as 
those wrought on Banca : but they have been neglected for a se- 
ries of years ; they were partially wrought before those of the 
latter were discovered, in the beginning of the last century. The 
tyranny of that government, the want of hands, and the contiguity 
of rich and valuable gold-mines, have together caused their utter 
neglect ; and there is little probability of more favorable results, 
except under a change of government, and a happier order ol 
things. 

In the Matan districts there is an extensive and most valuable 
iron-mine, producing pure metal without anv admixture of ore: it 
is fully equal in quality to the best Swedish iron. They run it 
into shot, and much of it is exported ; but the gold-mines in its 
vicinity, and the want of a proper government, are obMscles to its 



894 APPENDIX. 

further productiveness and utility. At Maday, on the northeast 
coast of Borneo, in the province of Mangidara, there is a very rich 
mine of gold. Pasir and Coti, in the Straits of Macassar, produce 
considerable quantities of gold ; and gold and diannonds are 
brought down l)y the river to Benjarmasing. 1 have, however, 
no accurate infornnation on the subject, and can simply note the 
general fact. 

I'here are several fine specimens of crystal found at Kimanis 
and Sulo ; they call them water diamonds. To give fall efifocl to 
the mines in the kingdom of Sukadana, says thelSultan of Ponti- 
ana, and to raise the excess of food required for the additional 
hands, would together give employment to at least a million ol 
Chinese. Under the British flag, he thinks thousands of new 
settlers will find their way in the amiualjunks. 

All that extensive range, from Cape Unsing, passing by thfl 
Tawi Tawi islands and Sulo, as far as Baselan, i» one vast con- 
tinued bed of pearl-oysters, priiicipallv of the- Behoren or mother- 
of-pearl-shell species ; these are called by the natives imL There 
is likewise an extensive bed of the Ceylon oyster, called by the 
Malays kapis ; the principal banks of the latter are found in Ma- 
ludu Bay. The Sulo pearls have, from time immemorial, been 
the most celebrated, and praised as the most valuable of any in 
the known world. Pigofetta, the companion of Magalhaens, 
mentions having seen in 1520 two Sulo pearls in the possession of 
the Rajah of Borneo as large as pullet eggs. Very large one*, 
from one to two hundred chaw weight, are at all times to be pur- 
chased at Sulo ; and there are altogether sold here to the China 
junks, the Spaniards, &c. more than two laks of dollars worth annu- 
ally. The quantity of mother-of-pearl-shell, commtmibua anniaf sold 
there is two thousand piculs, at six dollars a picul. The fishery it 

f>artly carried on by the Malays, and partly by the Chinese ; the 
arge pearls they endeavor to conceal as much as possible, from 
a law that all pearls above a certain size of right belong to the 
sultan. ** The small narrow guts," says Dalrymple in his account 
of the Sulo seas, '* about Tawi Tawi, are the most rich and valu- 
able fishery in the world." I have had an opportunitv of inspect* 
ing the hanks about Manar and Tutafcoryn, as well as all Uie 
banks in the Sulo seas ; but the former have not iMoks near aa 
extensive, equaling in the quantity of oysters, in productiveneM, 
size, or richness, the Sulo pearl, nor are they to be compared in 
any way to the Sulo ^eds. Still the Ceylon fishery has netted 
the British Government from one to two lake of pa^odaa for 
permitting it to be fished fourteen days annually. As this portion 
of Borneo belongs to the English, a much greater revenue might 
he drawn from these vast sources of wealth, under proper man- 
agement. 

As there are no people of sufficient opulence to contract for so 
vast a fishery, the Company might undertake it themaelvea ; three 
or four gun-boats would be necessary to protect the fishermen; 
and a small fort should be erected at Tambisan or Tawi Tawi 
But it is necessary to observe, the Sulo people do not practice 
diving at all, as is the case at Beharen and Ceylon, but oiuy com- 



/ 



Appendix. 395' 

etehend the slow method of dredging for the tipy with a thing 
like the fluke of a wooden anchor. It would be a desirable thing, 
in the event of prosecuting this valuable fiAery as a national 
concern, to obtain forty or ^fly Arab divers from Beharen, and 
perhaps an equal number of Chuiias from Nagore and Negapa- 
tam, rrom the number-employed annually on the Ceylon fishery^ 
These men would teach the Malay the superiority of diving, 
which can, in fourteen days' fishing, bring into, government a rev- 
enue of two laks of pagodas, pay the expenses of the fishery, and 
enrich all parties concerned ; wnil&the Malayan^ operose piaA of 
dredgmg perhaps affords but a precarious subsistence. But had 
they divers, from the extent of the banks, instead of fourteen days 
in the year, they might, one after another, be fished the whole 
year nxind, and never be exhausted. The Chinese fishermei^ 
though laborious, possess no enterprise, and can never be pre- 
Tailed on to dive, from apprehension of the sharks. The Caffrii 
from New Guinea and the Arroes woi^ld be superior to them. 

The Sultan of Sulo, in. 1810, proposed to me to bring over one 
hunted Chulia divers from Negapatam on our joint expense and 

Srofit : and the divers agreed to go over on receivin jt eacn tweiily- 
ve rupees advance, their victuals being found, and one-fourth of 
the produce of oysters allowed them, as at -Ceylon. Circum^- 
atances, however, occurred to prevent an undertaking which I 
think must have turned out highly lucrative. They dredge the 
banks all the year round. Tho water on the Tahow, MalqdiH 
and Tawi Tawi lMnks,.is from seven to ten fathcHns deep; in 
other places they l(sh in fifteen fathoms water. 

The Malays of Borneo understand the art of cutting, polishing^ 
and setting their diamonds. Oold and silver filagree works they 
excel in ; gunpowder is manufactured at Pontiana ; brass cannon 
is cast at Borneo Propet; ; iron-shot is run from their mine. Thej 
can manufacture and repair krises, and clean their arms. Their 
carpentry extends to the building and repairing of prows, and th* 
erecting of a hut. Their industry is fiirtner exerted in eollecliog 
birds'-nests and wax ; in cutting rattan^and felling tiiinber ; in 
the pearl aind tripan fisheries ; or as mariners in commercial or 
piratical pursuits. The tillage of the ground and theedible fish-' 
enes are often left to the more indefatigable industry of the Clii*, 
nese. For the exercise of every other uaeful occupation also, the 
mechanical and scientific arts, and the labor of the mines, these 
indolent savages are indebted solely to the superior industry and 
civili^tion of the Chinamen. 

The amusemcmts of the Malays in other parts are rnipractiQed 
on the shores of Borneo : the only ones I eve^ saw were flyhig 
the kite, swimming, and the songs of their women ; this latter is 
confined to the rajahs. 

Wherever a water-communication on^ Borneo presents, the 
indolence of the Malay will not permit him to thiuK of the Con>> 
etruction of a road. In the interior, however, there are pathways 
in aU directions ; about Mompava, where the river is narrow and 
dballow, they have constructed several roads. Being a people 
much occufued in maritime pursuits, they pcefer, like tlie emr 



306 APPENDIX. 

phibious Dutch, traveling by rivers, or the innamerable cQti^ 
canals, and creeks, which everywhere intersect the coantry : be* 
side, their prows afford more protection from surprise, and they 
conceive their town as safer by being surrounded by a jungle and 
situated in a swamp ; nor have they any conception beyond water* 
carriage. 

Their laws neither depend upon the Koran nor any written 
code, human or divine, beyond the whim and caprice of the chief 
(assassin) and his gang of desperadoes. The Sultan of Pontiana 
has, however, established the following regulations : 

Punishments for murder -.—Life for life, exc^t when the par* 

ties can commute the same by fine. 

• ♦♦♦*• *• 

A proclamation is publicly affixed announcing the law, that if 
any person be found adulterating gold-dust, or uttering it, so de- 
preciated, with a view to defraud, the perpetrator ahall loae hit 
right arm, and the adulterated gold shall be confiscated. 

For theft : — Five dollars per head is given bjr the aoltan to any 
one bringing in the head of a thief : if brought in tliTe, be is sua* 
pended by the heels and flogged as far as nature can brar ahoit of 
death, and the punishment repeated ad libitwn. 

Prisoners taken from an enemy, whether fonnd in arma or not, 
are made slaves of, or suffer death, at the option ci the capCcnr. 

The Malay government is said to exhibit the feudal ayatem in 
its most perfect form. The chief, or rajah, issuea hia orders to the 
Pangerans, or princes of the blood ; to the Datos, or noblea of 
royal descent ; or to the Orang Kayas, or wealthy vaaaala. All 
these obey and follow him to war, free of expense, when the ^mw 
is sufhcientlv powerful to enforce it ; but whenever the vaaau 
feels himseu strong enough to throw off the yoke, and to assert 
his independence, he sets up for himself. These vasaals exact 
the same obedience from their slaves or villains, who pay the like 
deference only so long as they are compelled to obaerve and obi^ 
them. The property acquired by a slave he is often allowed to 
enjoy unmolested during nis lifetmie ; but at his death, hia master 
administers lo the estate as heir, executor, and sole legatee. 
• in fact, it is a government that inspires on all sidc^a one univer- 
sal distrust — that rules by precedents of oppression without a 
view to protection. The chiefs dread the power of th^r vassals, 
who, in return, apprehend everything from the rapacity of the 
governing power; while the bulk of the people, having no prop- 
erty to lose, are still compelled to appear abroad annea to defend 
their very persons from the outrage and violence of the next as- 
sassin they meet. 

Where governments not only tolerate murder, rapine, thefts, 
piracies, conflagrations, with every outrage violating the happi- 
ness and safety of society, but are the first to set the exam|^ 
and to consecrate the atrocity — where the people are taught no 
one principle of morality or religion — where the arts uxi sciencea 
are wholly unknown or despised — ^where the amuaeoients and 
sociabilities of human life are totally disiegardedr— where the 
bounties and comforts of nature are rather dispenaed with than 



APPENDIX. 397 

enjoyed, and w^here the absolute necessaries to existence and the 
decorations of life are more scanty and wretched than yet dis^ 
covered among the rudest eet of barbarians extant ; if, from the 
experience of the past, expectations of the future are to be formed, 
we may safeiy infer that every vestige of Malay government and 
dommion will be ingulfed in the vortex of self and mutual de- 
struction. Such a system of society has in itself the seeds of 
dissolution, and is rapidly verging to an inherent decay and gen- 
eral oblivion, which it will doubtless meet, unless some benefit 
cent power arrest its baneful impetus, and direct its feverish 
energies through channels calculated to promote the happiness 
end to consolidate the welfare of the inhabitants of these scattered 
regions. 

Should so fortunate an occurrence ever fall to the lot of Borneo 
—should a strong and a wise government ever be established on 
her shores— a government that will religiously respect property 
and secure to industry the fruits of her labor — that will, by a wise 
system of laws, protect the peaceable and punish the violator of 
the lawe of a well-organized society — that will direct their indue- 
try to useful purposes, and check their propensities to violence 
and plunder — such a gu^nnnent, in a short series of years, would 
behold, as if by magic, a paradise burst from her wilds, see culti- 
vation smile upon her jungles, and hail a vast and increasing 
population, blessing the hand that awoke them' to life, to happi- 
ness, and to prosperity. That so felicitous a change is not the 
mere reverie of a glowing imagination, or the sheer effusion of 
benevolence alone, is easily demonstrable. 

Whoever has seen the Egyptian fertility of the soil, from the 
moistness of the climate, the numberless rivers meandering around 
and intersecting the country in all directions, with the mild tem- 
perature of the climate, from similar calises — whoever considers 
the vast extent and inexhaustible wealth of her innumerable 
mines of pure native gold, her block-tin, her copper, her iron, her 
diamonds, &c., her various valuable fisheries of peart and tripan 
— whoever views her ports, her harbors, and her productive 
shores, at the threshold of the over-teeming population of China, 
and at the same mpmeut recollects that the country abounds in 
various valuable products in the highest possible estimation, and 
of increasing demand in the empire of China, must easily conceive 
what a tempting fiekl and rich harvest this land of promise holds 
out to their industry and cupidity under such a system of laws 
and government as we have deemed a sine qu& rum. 

If, under the present codes of tyranny, oppression, and general 
ferocity, where nothing is permanent hilt violence and desolation 
— if, under such a system of barbarism, a hundred thousand Chi- 
nese (which is the fact) have found inducements sufficiently 
siroftg to settle on her shores, what might we not hope and expect 
from the overburdened population of that vast empire under a 
happier order of thmgs? The astonishing number of Chinese 
settled within a few years at Fulo Pinang, on a contracted soil, 
possessing no peculiar advantages but from a free trade and eqoir 
able laws impartially administered, is both a fiict and an iliuatr^ 

L L 



308 APPENDIX. 

tion ; and what might not Borneo hope for from a happier soil^ 
greater inducements, and other physical advantages? Java, un- 
der the despotism of the Dutch, with the character of a sickly 
climate, and the remembrance of the cruel massacre of sixty 
thousand innocent Chinese, could still boast a hundred thousand 
of these people at the period it fell to the British arms ; and withal, 
let it be remembered that these shores were ooce blessed with 
the industry of these people to a far greater extent under a hap 
pier period of her historjr. 

whatever, indeed, might prove the work of ages in varioua 
other parts of the globe would, under the present circamstances 
of the Chinese empire, be instantaneous on these shores ; and 
their habits of industry and civilization, when once rooted to the 
soil, would soon spread their genial influence to the extensive 
population of the interior, unite them in the bonds of social life, 
cement them in the general prosperity, and render these exten- 
sive shores a valuable appendage and an increasing resource to 
the wealth and power that brought about so happy a revolutioD 
in their afiairs. 

For a considerable series of years past, the piratical ports of 
Borneo, &c., have been in the habit of committing depredation* 
upon the commerce of British India, in the capture of her ahipe, 
the insulting of her flag, the offering of outrageous vidence to toe 
persons and lives of her mariners, merchants, &c., and this, too^ 
with the most perfect impunity ; no retribution having been ex- 
acted, no reprisals made, no remonstrance presented, »m1, in fact, 
no notice taken of their atrocious depredations. H«ace these 
desperadoes, from inference and experience of the past, have been 
led to conclude, that whatever was practicable would be tolerated ; 
that wherever they had the means or opportunity of overpowering, 
it was their duty, as it was to their advantiig^ to seize it to their 
own use, without any other apprehensiMis or the consequences 
than what might arise in the attempt. 

Under this discouraging aspect of affidrs, there was but little 
more left to the commercial. community of India than either to 
abandon the valuable commerce of Borneo wholly ; or, if allured 
to it by a prospect of gain, to proceed in armed vessels at an 
increased expense and high insurance, so as to cover the extra- 
ordinarjr risks. These enhanced prices either operated as a 
prohibition to the trade, or circumscribed it so much, that an oc- 
casional capture excited no surprise, and was frigidly diamissed 
as a matter of course. 

But, from the prodieious accession (^territorial poesessifMi, in- 
cluding the whole of the vast Dutch empire in the East, the com- 
munications between these and Britiw India have necessarily 
increased a thousand fold ; consequently, the recent alarming 
depredations upon our commerce, the serious obstacles to a safe 
communication, alnrast tantamount to a blockade of our Eastern 
ports by these pirates, imperiously call upon the British Grovem- 
roent to adopt the most energetic means «nd decisive measures 
to crush their power and aniuhilate their resources, either t^ ex- 
tirpating them wholly, or placing them and their 



APPENDIX. 899 

under such future control and checks, as shall preTent the possi- 
bility of a revival of a power capable of recurring' to enormities 
that have so long outraged and. disgraced the British flag in the 
Eastern seas. 

The idea of extirpating whole hordes of piratical states, were it 
possible, must, from its cruelty, be incompatible with the liberal 
principles and humane policv of a British government. The 
simple burning down of a Malay town can prove no serious im- 
pediment to future piratical enterprises : constructed, as they are, 
of tMimboos, mats, and atap leaves, a town is almost rebuilt in the 
same period of time as it takes to destroy it. The Dutch, who 
had centuries of dear-bought experience, knew there was nu other 
mode of prevention and radical cure than building small redoubts 
at the principal towns, and keeping up an adequate force to check 
piratical enterprises, and to turn their restless minds to exertions 
of industry ; satisfied if, with the attainment of these objects, 
they covered the expenses of the establishment. This is the true 
history of the iundmerable little forts on Celebes, Borneo, Timor, 
and all the Eastern isles. 

The principal piratical ports that still exist, beside those of 
Lingin, Rhio, and Billiton, are — 1st, Pangeran AnnanXi at Sam- 
bas ; 2d, Port Borneo Proper, and four hundred prows at Tampa- 
suk, both under the Rajah of Borneo Proper; 3d, the Pasir 
pirates ; 4th, the Sulo pirates ; 5th, the lllano, or pirates on the 
Isle of Magindano. 

I shall, from memory, cite such few of their depredations as I 
recollect. 

In 1774, says Forrest, the British were expelled from their 
infant settlement of Balambangan by an insurrection of the Sulos, 
who, finding the garrison weak and sickly, unprepared and off 
their guard, murdered and plundered them, ano set fire to their 
settlement: — this was in return for having released their sultan 
from prison, and reestablished him on the musnud of his ances- 
tors. In 1800, Captain Pavin and a boat's crew were cruelly 
murdered in the palace of the Sultan of Sulo while the command* 
er was drinking a cup of chocolate : they fired upon the ship 
Ruby, but did not succeed in capturing her. In 1810, they pli^ix- 
dered the wreck of the ship Harrier of a valuable cargo: several 
of her crew are still in slavery at Bagayan Sulo. In 1788, the 
ship May of Calcutta, 450 tons burden. Captain Dixon, was cut 
oflf at Borneo Proper : they were invited up to the town with the 
ship, and while at dinner, the sultan and his people fell upon 
them, and murdered Captain Dixon, three officers, and ten Euro- 
peans ; the lascars were retained in slavery, the valuable cargo 
plundered, and the ship burnt. In 1803 the ship Susanna of Cal- 
cutta, Captain Drysdale, was cut off near Pontiana by the Sam- 
bas and Borneo pirates ; the Europeans were all massacred, and 
the. vessel taken. In 1769, Captain Sadler, with his boat's crew» 
was murdered by the Sambas pirates off Mompava, having a pro- 
digious quantity of gold-dust : they did not succeed in cutting o^f 
the ship. Id 1806, Mr. Hopkins and crew, of the Commerce, 
were murdered by the pirates of Borneo Proper: Uie ship «M 



400 APPENDIX. 

plundered by them and the Sambas pirates. Ill 1810, Captain 
Rotfswascut off. In 181 1, Captain Graves was cot oflfbythe 
Pasir pirates with a rich cargo. In 1612, the euormities or Pan* 
geran Annain have outheroded Herod : these are too recent to 
require recapitulation. Independent of his depredations on the 
Coromandel, a Portuguese ship, &c., nine Europeans of the Hec- 
ate have been seized and made slaves ; two have .benn since 
murdered ; two have escaped ; and five are hamstrung and other- 
wise maimed. Mrs. Ross and her son are still in slavery there. 

The Tampasuk pirates, belonging to the Rajah of Borneo Prop- 
er, aiding and abetting Pangeran Annam against the English, are 
Datu Akop, Datu Aragut, and Datu Jumbarang, with ten large 
men-of-war prows : there is also there the Rajah Endut, a Siut 
chief. 

Matan is under an independent rajah, who was formerly styled 
Sultan ofSukadana; but about seventeen years ago the Dutch 
burnt down his city. At length, by some pecuniary aid received 
from the late Sultan of Pontiana, he was enabled to reestablish 
his affairs as Rajah of Malan ; and, in consideration of this aid, 
entered into a treaty of alliance, which stipulated, that on his 
daughter's marriage with the grandson of the late, and son of the 
present. Sultan of Pontiana, he would cede his kingdom and lafge 
diamond as a marriage-portion: the parties yet remain singfo. 
Under the head mineralogy we have pointed out how valuable a 
country this might become under better management. Iron, goM, 
tin, and diamonds abound here ; also much wax, pepper, rattans. 
garu, and about two piculs of the finest birds'-neats, wluch sell 
at twenty-eight dollars the catty at Pontiana. Most of the trade 
finds its way to Pontiana, Benjar, or Java, in prows. Tlie popu- 
lation is about ten thousand Dayers, &c. 

Sukadana, once the most celebrated cit^ on Borneo, as the 
name implies, a terrestrial paradise, the capital of a kingdom and 
a great mart of trade, since burnt down and deatroyol by the 
Dutch, exhibits nothing but ruins. There still remain namber- 
less delicious fruit-trees, and a country still susceptible of general 
cultivation, being yet clear of jungle and morass. It is utterly 
abandoned : that it has not been rebuilt is owing to the Rajiah (X 
Pontiana, at whose suggestion it was destroyed, and whose niter- 
est it was to keep it down, having himself nsen upon its ashes. 

There are no towns of any importance between Matan and 
Pontiana. The rise of this dynasty of sultans has been noted in 
another place ; it is, however, almost the only -power that has 
been expressly raised, supported, and that stiU exists, by com- 
merce. It is situated in latitude 49 north of the equator. The 
river has two mouths to it ; the northern mouth is the deepest, 
the most direct, and of the greatest breadth ; there are in this 
branch only two reaches up to the town. The city is no more 
than fifteen miles from the mouth of the rivere; its site is on the 
junction of the Matan and Landa rivers. About two-thirds of the 
way up it is fortified ; first, with a battery on piles in the center 
of the stream, mounting five guns ; on the left bank is another 
with wooden pales, mounting luewise five guns ; on the oppoaiCe 



APPENDIX. 401 

bank is a third, similar to the foregoing, with a hke number of 
cannpn; and, lastly, on the same bank is their grand battery, 
constructed of stone, mounting five eighteen-pounders, at the 
batu, t)r rock. Here the mausoleum of the royal family is erected, 
containing the tomb of the late sultan. The whole of this side 
of the river exhibits the marks of infant cultivation. The jungle 
has been, in part, cleared away, and here and there a solitary hut 
greets the eye. The sultan's palace has a battery of eleven guns 
of all sizes ; none of these are calculated to make any serious 
resistance. Sq sensible is the sultan of this that he has com- 
menced stakmg round with piles a low, swampy island, just 
detached from the palace. On this stands the grand mosk. He 
proposes throwing mud and stones within the ranges of piles, 
and planting upon them the heaviest-calibered cannon : it is a 
commanding site, and capable of being rendered formidable. 
There are no roads about Pontiana ; the town is situated in the 
midst of a swamp, so low that the tide at high water overflows 
the lower p^rts of the houses, and this, with the additiop of a 
country overrun with impenetrable jungle, renders it ^xtremeiy 
unhealthy, and a most disagreeable residence. 

The campo China contains about two thousand souls, and lies 
on the left bank of the Matan river, abreast of the palace ; the 
campo Bu^ese, on the right bank of the Landa ; and the campo 
Malayu adjoins the palace. The whole population is about seven 
thousand souls: no Dayers are found hereabout. The whole of 
the districts under Pontiana produce about three hundred coyans 
erf rice, the average selling price of which is from fifty-five to 
seventy Spanish dollars the coyan. The king's revenue is forty 
thousand dollars per annum. The' Chinese plead poverty, but 
some of the Buguese are pointed out as wealthy. The quantity 
of gold that finds its way to Pontiana is annually from three to 
four piculs. The imports there consist of opium, iron, steel, salt, 
rice, hardware, cutlery, blue and white gurras, salampories, Java 
cloths, gunpowder, beside China produce of all possible descrip- 
tions. They make their returns m gold, diamonds, birds'-nests, 
wax, rattans, garu, ebony, agar-agar ; beside pepper, sago, caiti* 
phor, cassia, tripan, &c. brought here by the prow;s : five Chinese 
junks annually visit Pontiana, bringing down produce amounting to 
about fifty thousand dollars. The depredations of the Pangeran 
Annam prevent an extension of this most useful of bll trades to 
this country. One or two Siamese junks arrive annually. The 
Tringanu, Timbilan, Karimata, and Borneo Proper prbws trade 
here ; and before Java fell to the British arms, the Buguese from 
the eastward traded here to a considerable amount. 

The stone walls built by the Dutch still encompass the palace. 
The piles on which their factory stood are yet discernible, but 
the buildings have been pulled down. Should the English hoist 
their flag here, a new factory must be erected ; the most eligible 
situation for which would be where the mosk now «tands, or the 
mosk itself might be converted into one, and another rebuilt else- 
where : but to this the sultan has insuperable objections. In an 
English fort, to think to have a mosk open to the ingrew'-of a 
26 ll2 



402 APPENDIX. 

large body of Malavs at all times is wholly incompatible with a 
certain reser^'e and security required from it. Beside, as the 
island is small, and soldiers at times inconsiderate, they mi^ht 
profane or defile its holy precincts, and thus lay the foundatiOQ 
of perpetual disputes, or even a serious rupture. The fort and 
factory, if built at all at Pontiana, must hence be fixed ia some 
detached place. The sultan is building a new palace and corer- 
ing it with tiles ; a novelty in this quarter. There ia but a scanty 
supply of fowls and buffaloes, and the necessaries of life are 
scarce and dear. It is altogether the most uncouth and dreary 
spot under the sun, though the sultan prefers it to Sambas and 
Mompava. 

I'heir naval force consists of two small ships, two brigs, fif^ 
prows large and small, and about one thousand men. Tnere is 
water on the bar to admit vessels drawing nine feet water. The 
roadstead, with seven fathoms water on it, lies seven miles from 
the river's mouth. Care must be taken not to mistake the Pon- 
gole river seen from the offing, and which lies ten miles farther 
southward. The only stock procurable here were hogs at ten 
dollars the picul, and water snipped off in China tank-boats at 
four and a half dollars the ton. 

The next port is Mompava, about sixteen miles to the ncMtb' 
ward of Pontiana, and the second port belonging to the saltan. 
The river is shallow, narrow, extremely serpentine, and con- 
stantly running down with great rapidity. The country around 
is a paradise in comparison with Pontiana. It is upon an ele- 
vated site, and, wherever the eye reaches, it is clear of jungle, 
and of fine rich mold, susceptible of the highest culture. There 
is a walk up to the town about eight miles from the month of 
the river ; here the fishing-stakes nearly extend across the river, 
beside two miserable forts, mounting each five or six poQikderB, 
to defend the river. The population is seven thousand men, 
Malays, Buguese, and Dayers, and about two thousand Chinese. 
Formerly the territory of Mompava extendi as far as 1° north 
latitude. This territory belonged to a chief or rajah, reduced bf 
the Dutch twenty- five years ago, shortly after they settled at 
Pontiana ; the territory thus conquered was delegate in trust to 
the Rajah of Pontiana. The Sambas rajah has forcibly taken 
possession of a part of it. Sultan Kassim, of Pontiana, governed 
this district during his father's lifetime. On hip acceasion to the 
musnud, five years ago, he placed a half-brother there, a itopid 
fellow, about twenty-iive years of age. This man, about eight 
months ago, was trying to establish his independence, which he 
found be could not maintain. It has the same trade as Pontiana, 
but the regulations of the sultan do not admit of any vessel's 
touching here for that puroose. The palace is extensive, paled 
round with a sort of a fortincation. The campo China, in Octo- 
ber last, was in part burnt down by the people of Sambas, to the 
number of four hundred houses. There is a variety of roads 
hereabout ; one leading to Sambas, one to Landa, <Hie to Min- 
trada, &;c. Groves of cocoanut-trees mark the site of ancient 
villages, since demolished ; and indicate that it once enjoyed a 



•upariDtilT aiv) prMmincRc*, of whicb it h>i boBo decpoilvd. Ui 
Bunt of lasceptibiliLj of cultiratiou, it ia ■ lull h«lf coatorj ba> 
KHehwid with PoDliuia ; it is capable ol great imiHOiankeiit, ud 
BBOh gnin might be nlaed with very hitis tRMible. 

There ia a, cwiaiderablB in.ud-aat al the ntoutb of Ibe eu»bat 
liTar, BUendiDf four or Ctb milei out. but do regqlat bat. Va»> 
■els drewJDg thirteen feet may gel in gt high wstet apiiiigs ; aia^ 
fiet i* the least i»t», aod Ikers is ihirtecB at the Sood. Is lbs 
offing t&are is • rise and fall of aeten leet. At the eotnocs <f 
Lite river Deiihej- aho re muBt ba too cloaeli hogged, haTing ladnf 
□frockaneaiihem. TweliemilaealiaTethebsrlberiTerbraiKEw 
into two psrta \ the brnad or nortbem bfiDcbis nailed the BwBaa 
river, hnving its source in Kmaj BsalD;1he otker,J«silJDg to Iha 
tawB or Sambas, is nameil th? Lu>da nvei, bariDg its souica ta 
Ihe diamond mines ; where these two ODila baloK ^te was far. 
merl; a lort. The Lsndii iivfr 1* eilremel; seTpeiiliDe, deep I* 
the iBiy liueheioD both aides, and quite clear itf^gei as la tbf 
town, eicept ueai Siminia creak, lAout ten BiikabeMW the b«|f 
here a reef of rocka nina Rcrosa the atnam,ai^'M tha fail WH 
nvRrEhem i.~ ^i'iii.'v% h,u mi rii Lite, the chaoBel oBght tobaboond 
e passed. The Bairacouta, dnvriog tUl< 



iboOl'fiTe ■-- '— ' 



About fire or Ki le^nes up the Landa brsBoh, aad abant Wax- 
tMo fnm the sea, sI«b(Iis tbs town aad paiaca of Sambas, ra th« 
•aD&eiueofthsIjMKteaBdSalBkotisom The fb^.w tb* risU 
hank of the Landa ie about a league betow the lOKB, built of l«* 
raws oT laife pilee, the intantieerba^ filled Dp with aud aod 
MoDee, appanoti; mnwiint St* fujw, eighleeiu aiid tw«lMe hi 
Ihe lower liar, aad as eqa^ wmbA- of amaUw calibsi ob Aa 
aaeandotmMealeraladltaiiu. AboiiiDai'dawof fisUni-^hef 
vaaeAurtdicledaeranthenaerope-aghtliad^atMe bafam. the 
fort, a large armed prow woa moorad iu the .ceDI«r oT the mar, 
noDDIisg too ton! twelTsei >ih1 a nuaked better} i^ipoaita lo tha 
liglrt. the noitiber of guns nekoma. The laaeh which thine 
Cute cDmoMnt is a mile and a ha" -~ ■ ■ ' 
where (teee forte are, which a 

athwart the riTei.lo get ber bri-. .— 

tbie Ltuide liiar ia Ten omow, bat Deer tb* fort* lut oM-thM 
additiiHul to her leagtb. Bolbifdee^flbi'ri'er wwaid tbeterl 
Ippear tderabiT elear from ibe diMt-haad, mMnpsiBed wltb plea*, 
•ot hills inhabited by tbs Cbinese. The tides anprMtirisgaU^ 
■ibounandaiifaours,ninaiii(BkDa(aBdaUfpeihgtii. Thia 



le cDmoMnt is a mile and a half. The )«Bd nwkea ao elbov 
..jBn Iheee forte are, which abliMd lbs BeinKoute to hast 
athwart the riTei. lo get ber broa&da lo beat. The «' ' 



««IM TampBaan Titer, the other sliU Tstaiiffu tbe mme of Bot. 
••0. Ite Tampaseo biaqdi leads Id old gin bes i-it ie btm. 
hMce thar get their mnUaa of rice and prvrioiaiisw V 1^ *<■<* 
cote abose the town of Sambaa, wUeh TOOBitea tba Leod* rad 
BonuvBlraaiW. llwreaie N<id« Erata tbi <-•'-- 

to tbe torn, Ibtt, end patoce. SinselbaD 



404 APPENDIX. 

ban, three saltans have reigned on this mnsniid (withiti fiitTyeany 
or thereabout). There are toar Pangerans, Annam being the most 
daring of the whole. His naval force consists of the Portuguese 
ship of 400 tons, one brig, and eight or ten large fighting prows, 
beside his allies from Borneo Proper, with ten large prows. The 
population amounts to twelve thousand Dayers tad Malays, and 
thirty thousand Chinese. 

Under the head mineralogy we have given a detailed acconnt 
of the principal sources of its industry. Sambas produces, be- 
side gold, ten piculs of birds'-nests annually (of an inferior qual- 
ity), much ebony, rattans, wsx. && The trade here is much the 
same as at Pontiana, and susceptible of a tenfold increase: it is 
every way superior to the latter for the capital of a large mart 
The country is better cleared, and hence susceptible of more easy 
cultivation ; the land more elevated and less swampy, conse- 
quently healthier ; the river deeper and farther navigable ; die 
population more dense, and, the land being clear of jungle, mors 
capable of being increased. Beside, it is the vicinage of the most 
considerable gold-mines on all Borneo. The Sultan of Pontiana 
would make it his capital if desired ; his apprehenaiona of the 
power of the Sambas princes lead him to give the preference to 
Pontiana. 

The town of Calaca. belonging to the Rajah of Borneo Proper, 
lies north of TsQJong Datu ; it is the principal port of trade sooth 
of the capital, and the mart of the Sedang country. Here maeh 
grain is produced, one hundred piculs of black birda*-neats, two 
hundred piculs of wax, some gold, pepper, camphor, itc, but the 
tin-mines, before mentioned, are utterly neglected. There are 
seversl other towns upon esch of the rivers along this coast ; the 
principal ones are Salat, Bacalo, Pasir, and Baram. They pro- 
duce nearly the same srticles as the shove, which are, however, 
sent on to the capital as fast as collected. 

It iH here necessary to observe, that all the rocks and sihoala 
laid down on this coast do not exist at aU ; such as Volcano 
Island, the Byhors, Krenpel, the whole Slykenburgh, five Coma- 
dss, &c. Having beat up this coast twice, and cannolly surveyed 
the whole, 1 can declare a finer and clearer coast does not any- 
where exist. The old chart, published by A. D^rymple, is much 
more correct than the recent ones. The numbera of immwif 
drifts and floating isles hereabout must have giv«i birth to all 
these imaginary dangers. 

The town of"^ Borneo Proper, the capital of the kin^om of the 
same nsme, lies in latitude 5^ T north ; it is situated hfteen miles 
up one of the finest rivers in the world, with three fathoms low 
water on the bar, and a rise and fall of fifteen feet. A correct 
plan of the river and town is published by Mr. Dalrymple. Here 
are mud docks for vessels of 500 or 600 tons. The town eoisists 
of about three thousand houses, built on stakes, in the middle of 
the river, with a population altogether of fifteen thooaand souls, 
Chinese, Malays, Moruts, &c. 

The palace is slightly fortified ; but the Rajah of Pontiana says, 
the Rajah of Borneo Proper is preparing toe means of defence. 



APPENDIX. 4QB* 

tpprefaending the reaentment of the English in vindicating the 
lightN of their flag, so frei^uently insulted by them with imponky ; 
liOTveVer^as there is sufiicient water for a iine-of<battle ship to 
the city, nothing need be appreliended from them. The remains 
of a stone fort up the river are still seen, bat the pfse on -Pnio 
Laboan is destroyed. Both bapks of the riyer are planted with 
peppet, which formerly produced sixty thousand picula annually ; 
Cbeae are now running to decay from want of commerce. liSb 
0)iineee junks, for years past, have ceased touching here, from 
tiie numberless piratical depredations commuted upon them ; and 
the Poitogoeae Trom Macao have attempted to renew the trade 
fiqm time, to time, but at length, in 1808, their agent withdrew to 
Macao, a large shq» having been cut off and the crew murdered 
the year preceding. They now have no other resource batpiracy ; 
and the produce, such as it is, .finds its way in prows toTrin|[an, 
dambas^ Pibnttana, Lingin, and Malacca. Very large quantitiea 
of the finest camphor in the world are procurable here ; it comer 
down from the Morot couptry, by the great river ; a gi^at.deal of 
iNrax, some gold, much b^rds'-nests of an infiBrior quality, any 
quantity of sagOj cassia, dove^rk, pepper^ betei-nut, rattans, 
eamphor-oil, dcc4, tripan, tortdise-shell, &c. 

The biHs hereabout are clear of jungle, and wear a beautifol 
appeahmce, and, without the aid . of nistory, bear..,evident marks 
ot a more extensive populatioii and culture. There are plenty of 
Mack- cattle, buffiikws, goats, fruits and vegetables of all kinds, 
at>Qndance and variety of fish, turtle, &c. The articles best 
suited fcnr this market are^ course China, white cangyans, brase 
plates, China crockery, brass wire, tea, Sugar<>candy, coarse Chtna 
silks and satins, blue and white coarse guras and satampories, 
coarse venttpa.Uam handkerchiefa, aroot chintxes, iron and steel, 
quallies, cooking utensils, and other articles suited to a Malay 
market — all coarsiB ; no opium. The . Borneo catty ^ two and a 
half lbs. 

The English have been very desirous of a port in the Chinm 
seas for ages past, but have generally appeared to stumble on the 
most unhealthy and iU-adaiHed places possible, sUch as Balam* 
bangan, Pulo Condore, dec; and even the prineiiMl object of 
Lord Macartney's embassy was the obtaming of a eesskm pf ibis 
nature. But if'^a capital harbor, a navigable and majestid nvcnr, a 
productive oountry, a healthy site, tk>pulation ready formed, and 
a commerce all sufficient to pay the expenses of an establishmenik 

i within one hundred miles of Balambapgan) is required, the EasI 
ndia Company ought to have pitched upon Borneo Proper. II 
was once a most flourishing country, and a very short period un- 
der British auspices would render it the first mart, in tlie East ibr 
China-Halavan commerce. There aire large^ populous towns of 
Moruts, and Orang Idan, who abhor the Malays, nUt who would 
be soon reconciled to a milder and leas traitorooa government. 

Kimanis lies in latitude 5° Bf north ; this is the firat port on 
this coast ceded to the English by the Saltan of 8ulo. The 
town lies ten miles uj^ the river, at the foot of some-df the nost 
beautiful hills I ever saw, and is inhabited by thiHy-fifa ' 



406 APPENDIX. 

Orang Jdan. The nver is small, and almost choked up at the 
mouth. This province has the following sea-porta in it, viz., 
Kimanis, Beoome, Papal, and Pangalat, each governed by Orang 
Kayas, which still contiime to send their produce to Borneo Proper, 
consisting of ten piculs of birds'-nests annually, two handi^pi- 
culs of wax, two piculs of camphor, and cassia, sago, betel-nut, 
and pepper, as much as required ; tripan, campbor-oil, and rice ; 
with fruit, fish, and provisions, of sorts which are cheap and pien- 
tifuL The articles mentioned as fit for Borneo answer here, only 
their produce is had about fifty per cent cheaper. 

The province of Kiney Baulu has t^ following ■auxjrta : — 
Putatan, Mangatal, Innanam, Labatuan, Mangabong, Tawarao, 
Sulamau, Ambung, Abai, Tampasok, and PadMao. The whoto 
of this province is tremendously high. The stupendous moun- 
tain of Kiney is about fifteen miles frcHU Tampaeuk, which at 
present is the most considerable pirate-port in the Malay seaa, 
and belongs to the Rajah of Borneo Pronei. The pirates' frequent- 
ing this place have committed such depredations hereabout as 
to have induced the English to call the north of Borneo Pirates' 
Point. These desperate banditti originally resided at Tawaran, 
but were compelled to leave it from the resentment of whole 
tribes of Orang Idan. The whole of this province is veiv fertile ; 
it is the source of all the great rivers on the island, and is nx>rB 
populous with the aborigines of the country than perhaps the 
rest of the island put together. The ^Id mines of Tampasuk 
have been mentioned ; there are also mmes of rock-crystal. Ta- 
waran and several other places abound in goata and cattle. Abai 
has a small harbor, and the whole of this coast is accuratdy lakl 
down by Lieutenant James Burton, in the sloop Endesvor. 
There are produced in this province much wax, tcMtoise-shell, 
very fine camphor, sago, rattans, imd a red biids'-nest (which 
comes from Mantanane isle to Pandasan). They send their prod- 
uce to Borneo Proper. The pirates are commanded by Datus 
from Borneo Proper. The lake in the vidnitjr of Kiney Baulu is 
said to be delightful ; it is many miles in circamference, well 
cultivated, populous, and productive, it is said to be very cold, 
from the extreme elevation, and the inhabitanta are almost as fair 
as Europeans. There is a valuable coral-tree somewhere here- 
about. 

The Bay of Maludo, on the north of Borneo, is thirty miles in 
length, and from four to six in breadth, with numberless rivers 
flowing into it. There is no danger on the right-hand shore going 
up, but what is seen ; on the larboani shore considerable coral- 
reefs are met with. Laurie and Whittle's chart of it is tolerably 
correct. The principal towns are, Sungy Bassar, nearly at the 
head of the bay, and Bankaka, en the left ; the former, under 
Sheriff Mahomed, sends its produce to 8ulo ; the latter, under 
Orang Kayas, trades with Borneo Proper. The British, when last 
at Balanibangan, threw up a small redoubt on the Bankaka siile, 
with a view to supplies of rice and provisions ; and this part is 
tranquil and a good roatlstead, being sheltered from the swell 
brought in by the sea>breese. 



APPENDIX. 40T 

The rich and valuable fishery of copis or Ceylon oyster in thii 
bay has been mentioned ; it might be rendered of considerable 
▼alne. The' whole of the rivers formiles up aboond in rattans^ 
Mr. A. Dairymple thinks four thousand tons might be easily cut 
down every ye^ without exhausting it, an^l sent by junks to 
China. There are forests of beautiAiI pines of stately growth, 
well calculated for the largest masts, and in high esteem at China. 
There is no quarter of tne world which abounds more in that 
species of the sea-turtle (called by. the Malays pakayan) which 
yields the shell ; any quantity may be' had on all the shores and 
ntoaofihisbay. ^ 

-^ The intetior abounds in camphor, which 'can be had in^ any 

J[uantities; so vastly abundant is it^and so little does the Orang 
dan know of the extreme value of this commodity, that a bamboo, 
of camphor tnay be procured in exchange for a. bamboo of salt 
The petty towns are Sandeck, 'Bowengun, Patasan, Pone, and 
Milawi. It produces in one year two iiundred picuis of wax, 
iUty picQh» of tortoise-shell, ten picuis of best camphor,, and aa 
much inferior ; ten picuts of birdsVnests, at ten dollars the catty; 
1st caibphor, twenty-five ; rattans, one doilaf per picul ; tortoise- 
ahell, one dollar tbb catty ; wax, twenty the picul. Articles re- 
quired are the same ais at Borneo Proper. Rice, provisions, fish, 
and fruits are abundant and cheap , the sugar-ctoe also. 

The province of Paytan is the principal district for camphor pf 
any in the ^orld. Whole forests for miles everywhere meet the 
'eye, and the produce firomthetn is the finest that can be conceived, 
large and transpatent as Cbin-cheW sugar-candy. The principal 
towns aiiB Pitan, Kfnambatan, Kulepan, and the famous toWn of 
Su^t. The \eoast is no foil of corsl^reefs, and has been so veiry 
indifierently surveyed, that it is only frequented by prows : there 
is a road from Su^t to Bankaka m Maluda Bay. Much wax, 
tripan, sago, dec, la^proddced here. ' 

Labuk has the tbwns of Camburcan. Labuk, and Songsohi ; iti 
produce is somewhat similar to that ot Paytan, wfth the additioA 
of clove-bark arid birds*-nests. 

Sattdakkti. This celebrated faaibor has been already mentidbed 
as one of the finest in the worid. The toWnli within it are Tow"- 
sam, Duybta, Lu, J3ukean, Dom nr Dounf, Sei^ly-hbod^and 
Tong luly hiku ; all these are governed by Oatns from dnlo^ wb^ 
have expressly settled here to collect thieprodigfottt qaantitiefl of 
birds'-nests abounding Sn ihiB district. They are ]^rocdred het^ 
at ten doll&rs the ciatty; and sisnt to SUh), with tripkn, yrn±, Sec. 
The Sulo^ are very jealous df any sMpk gointi: in hefe,-atid wltt 
leave no attempt untried in cutting ctfa veteeT going in, althoogk 
an English port. 

In the province of Mangidora lies the 'great river Kinnabatin- 

Sm, which is navigable a vast wsy up, with several towns oi 
rang Idan on its shores. The other towns are Salasany Supa^ 
buscul, Tambesan, which forms also an eilegant harbor, Laboan 
or Saboan, Tuncu, Salurong, Giong, and Maday, which has a 
- gold-mine, before mentioned. The whole of this province, tt ia 
■aid, will produce above one hundred piculi of the finest binU** 



408 APPENDIX. 

nests, much black ditto, some camphor, tripan» honey^ wax, dam- 
mer, Buru mats, fine spar»; sago and pepper were formerly largely 
cultivated here. The pearl-banks of Tawi Tawi haye been men- 
tioned. 

Tirun. The sea-ports of this last mentioned and valuable pror 
ince, ceded to the English by the Sulos, are chiefly inhabitM by 
Buguese people. The towns are Sibuku» Sambakung, Leo fx 
Leuong, Sikatak, Sabellar, Kuran or Barrow, 'Talysuin Dumaung, 
Tapeandurian. The principal ports are Kuran and Sibuku ; they 
produce a large quantity of very fine white birds'-nesta, a quantity 
of black ditto, much dammer, sago, tripan, wax, rattans, cam- 
phor, honey, Buru mats, gold, &c. The neople of Ti^wandurian 
are represented as very ferocious,, and the sea-coaat hereaboat 
requires surveying. 

The ports of Pasir and Coti originally belonged to the King of 
Benjarmasing ; very fine birds'-nests are procuiiBd here at twenty 
dollars the catty; much gold, tripan, wax, &c. 

Were Borneo to be settled, I think the principal ftctory ought 
to be at Borneo Proper ; the second at Sambaa ; the third at Ben> 
jarmasing ; the fourth at Pasir ; the fifth at Tabeaan or Sandakan. 

In looking over the map of the world, it is a melancholy reflec> 
tion to view so large a portion of the habitable globe aa all Bor- 
neo abandoned to barbarism and desolation ; that, with all her 
productive wealth and advantages of physical situaticm. her valu- 
able and interesting shores should nave been overlooked by all 
Europeans ; that neither the Dutch nor the Portoguese, with cen- 
turies of uncontrolled power in these seas, should. have shed a 
ray of civilization on shores bordering upon their principal tetUe- 
ments ; that her ports and rivers, instead of afibrding a shelter lo 
the extensive commerce of China, should at this euBghtensd pe- 
riod of the world hold out only terror and dismay to the manner ; 
and that ail that she should have acquired from the deadly vicin- 
age and withering grasp of Dutch power and dominion has been 
the art of more speedily destroying each other, and renderiog 
themselves obnoxious to the rest of mankind. Now that herdei- 
tinies are transferred to the enlightened heads and liberal hearts 
of Englishmen, — now that her fortunes are embarked under the 
administration of a wise and liberal government, — ^we may confi- 
dently hope that a happier order of things will, under the bless- 
ing of an all-ruling Providence, speedily restore theae esteasive 
shores to peace, to plenty, and to commerce ; and vie ardently 
trust that another age may not be suffered to pass away without 
exhibiting something consolatory to the statesman, the philoao- 
pher, and the philanthropist. 



No. V. 

Extracts from the late Mr. WiUiamtim'a Journal. 
Ih October, 1S45, Mr. Brooke commiesioned some or Ihe Euro- 
pean gentlemen oT bia party to make a tour of iiupection thiougb 
the oullying Dyek tribes dependent on SaAwab, for the purpoiia 
of aacert^ning tbeir condition and pros p«c is, atid taking elepsfor 
the ledress of any grievances of which Ihej might have Id com- 
pbia. A fesr extracts from Ihe rough joumst kept on that occb- 

to tha poor persecuted Dyaks; what incessant vigilance on bia 
put wai still lequisite to check the inveieraie propanaity of the 
knavish Malays (o plunder and opprasi them ; and with what 
well^lirBcted activity be pursues his labors for the physical viiel- 
tsre and the moral regeneration of his subjects and neighbors, 

" Wtdmidag, Oct. Sih.—JLI li i.H. srtived St Pankalum Bunt- 
ing, where we found about thirty Dysks in e small but ready to 

xk Blarted for the 
ling place, at the fa 

" " '"" ■--" - --- "liin, ibe .11- 

recently that the Dyafs haie TentUKd 'to store their padl in 

ne saw the woioea dancing { they appeared very bsppy, and 

"9rA.— This morning we had all tbe Oiang Eayas of the four 
villagoa, who inroimed ma they were very comfortable and happy. 
I told them the abject of my mission, at which they all aeemed 

S leased, and said that if Ihev were oppressed they would come to 
aruwak and complain to the Tuan Besar. When 1 aaked them 
about tbe Sadong Dyahs. tbey said I shoold hear all nhen I uwt 
them, as they will hidK nothing from me. 

"The only thing tbesa Dysli* complain .of ii, that Nakodah 
Habomed told them he bad tbe Tuan Besar's chop, and gate 
them to understand that the powder, musketa, &c., in hia pa>- 
session, belonged to the Toan Besar ; in consequence of which 
they carried these goods for Nakodah Mahomed without receiT- 
ing any payment for their labor, I told tham that in future they 
need not carry goods (or any man coming from Sarawak, or else- 
where, without due pajnient in ready money ; and that should 
traders at any time leave their goods in the Dyak houses, they 
need not bo alarmed, but bring the goods to the Tuan Besar and 
tell him how they were left behind. They further told me that 
the Siringi wish to claim their airi eave, where they get their 
birda'-ttesta, which is close to Kumpung, and baa belonged to them 



410 APPENDIX. 

journey from Siring— how, then, can it belong to the SiringiT 
answered, that on my return the Tuan Besar would set the mat 
ter right, and give the cave to its proper owners. 

** Sanu day. — Proceeded to Jinan, about eight mile* disfant 
There are here fifteen houses, and the Dyaks are ^erj comforta- 
ble, having plenty of ^nm, and being well off for sugar-cane, 
sweet potatoes, plantams, betel-nut, beside varioas other fhait- 
trees. The houses here, as at Mungu Babi, are ^ery shaU^. 

*' lOth. — This morning met Orang Kaya Kusunan, who told me 
the Toup Dyaks were waiting half way to receiTe as. At i p.m. 
1 had the Orang Kaya Tumangong of Toup, and the Orang Kaya 
of Kurran, Si Labi, Si Mabong, Daah, Bugu tSadongiribeft), and 
the Orang Kava Pasunan, beside other Dyaks, the Baodte Cs»> 
sim, with his Sadong Malays, and our own people, at the house 
where I was staying. I explained my mission to them, and made 
them understand that, at the Bandar's exprese wish, the Tuan 
Besar had sent me to them to ascertain then- conditioD. The 
Bandar then told them it was his wish to institute the same laws 
and customs as at Sarftwak ; after which. I informed ti|^ Dyaks 
that there will be no more forcing of goods b& them at ezoilHtant 
prices, and that for the future, should any one * serra' them, they 
must complain to the Bandar, and subsequently lay thei^ cass 
before Mr. Brooke. The conference, I am glad to aay, ended to 
every one's satisfaction. 

*' At 8 P.M. the Orang Kaya Rlh^nd twd jotho^ 'of the sune 
tribe complained to me of their grievances, and told me that Si 
Tore, a Sadong man, had forced 10 pieces of iron, weighmg Ifi 
catties, on them about two years and a half ago, and that h» now 
demanded 100 pasus of padi for it. (This is serra with a ven- 
geance : 100 pasus are equal to 2^ tons weight !)' They had paid 
10 pasus ; should they, they asked me, pay the'xest f Itoid tfiem 
I would settle the business at Bandar Cassim's Tillagflir 

"lUA. — The Dyaks gave us a feast last night; the women 
danced and the merriment was kept up till morahig. At \i start- 
ed in boats with Bandar Cassim, and at 2 p.m. arnved arfaii til- 
lage* called * * ♦, where every thing had been got ready for cor 
reception ; a house was well fitted with gay curtains and mate, 
and after a salute of three guns as we approached, we took np our 
residence and made ourselves very comfortable. At 7 in the 
evening we met all the respectable part of the community of this 
little Malay village. 1 told them what I was sent for, the Bandar 
as usual giving way to our wishes, and repeating that Sarawak 
and Sadong, and Sadong and Sar&wak, were as one country. I 
told Si Tore, Sebi Gani, and Sirdeen, that they must maae no 
further demands on the Rih Dyaks, and that neither they nor any- 
body else could serra the Dyaks any longer — not even the Bandar 
himself; for they must recollect that the Sadong Dj^Jts would 
take refuge in Sarawak if oppressed. 

" After the Bandar had left, the brother-in-law of the Orang 

* The MS. having been under water in the wreck of the Givat Ltvsr 
pool ateomer, this name and some others are lllegUde. 



Appendix. 411 

Kaya of Sinktru, together with the Orang Kiiya of Si Nankan 
Kujang, and Orang Kaya Knrang, came to me. The fofther of 
these complained that Abang Tahar (the pld Patingi's son-iii- 
law), about two years ago, forcod a small tatawak* and one brass 
dish on them, for Which he demanded three Dyaks as slaves, 
whom he seized at the time and took away, and tnat now he de- 
lAanded another Dyak boy. I replied they Were on no accoant to 
comply, that they must complain to the Bandar ; and if he took 
no notice of it, to go to Sar&wak to the Tuan Besar. 

" The Orang Kaya likewise told me that formerly there were 
twenty-fire famihes in his tribe, but now they were reduced to 
fifteen, the rest having been seized and sold into slavery ! (Here 
follow other complaints. The day's joomal concludes thus :)~~ 
The Sinkara Dyaks have not yet returned to their former Tum- 
bawoBg,! but are scattered about in the jungle and very podiiy 
off. I tokl ^m to lietom to their former place of residenee, and 
Co collect the tribes there. 

" SuHdavt 12f A.--Oran^ Kaya Si Rubin and Orang Kaya Sigtaa 
Mautay,CH Robin, likewise came to me to say tbat they w^re 
scattered, some at * * *, some at Bedope, and some at KvMb, 
lind all badly off for ^m. 'When collected, they have about 
thirty families ; fomterly they had about fifty. Thdse missinr 
had qoostly been seized and made slaves. At \l^ 90^ we started 
for * ♦ * (part of Rubin tribe), where we arrived about half- 
]^8t two. we fbiond one house with (ve families in it, and a 
Pangaht attached. Pa Rigtm, the * * * of this tribe, told tee 
that Abang Tahar, Abang Ally, Abang dakar, &c. &c. (all of 
Gadon^^ under Patingi Muel), dtemattd from the Dyaks old serraa. 
which have b^eo paid Ic^g a^. Dan^, a Sirkaru Dyiak, tola 
jne that Abang Tahar, e stioit time smce, demanded from his 
tribe a Dvak boy, ahd four t)yak boys from the Eir Shigi Dyaks. 
fiandair Casaim fmt a stop to these demands -it the timej but he 
has revived them sin6e. Th6 Malava of Sadong, Wheitever tJMf 
go amfmg the. Dyaks, s^te theit fowls, eggs, rici6, cocoa-nuts, 
and alf sorts of property. The Bandar tells tee be never permits 
these people to go among the D3raks,'but that they do it bystealCh 
over land, and that the Tuan Besar must do something to prevent 
them from oppressing and frightehi^g the Dyaks. (Here follow 
other complamts against the Gadon^ peopn, after which Um 
^nial continues.) : 

** 13rA.— GHrang, a Bedope Dyak of the Ru^ tribe, toM me 
how very much he is bullied end troubled by the Giidito^ people^ 
who are constantly threatenins[ to attack him. 1 iidvised nimto 
collect the tribe at Rubin, their old Tumbawoog. At i staTtbd 
back for the Bandar's village, where we airiveid at 10 o'clock. 
After a bath and breakfast, the Bandar's mother came tome With 
a present of two sarongs, one for the Tbto Besar and one for 
myself, and begged that I ^ould urge the Tuan Besar to take 
> " ,' 

* A sort of gong. 

t Tosuba^oiif Is a pisee they lutvs ds s e rt sd, or besn foiesd toqatt. 

X Ahead-house 



412 APPENDIX. 

care of the Bandar aa it he were bis own son, and not to eaflt 
him off. I told her that Mr. Brooke would support the Bandar 
as long as he conducted himself properly. The Orang Kaya 
Baga, Orang Kaya Sinching of xMilikin, ♦ ♦ * of En Tayen, 
Orang Kaya Laja of Rahmone, Orang Kaya Rinjoa of Sirkam, 
Orang Kava Mior Muntah, Pangara Liili of Bunan, Orang Kaya 
Nijou of Mapuh, Orang Kaya Ganggong of En Kelaa, and Pan- 
gara Achong ot £n Singi, all met me. I told them the object of 
my mission in presence of the Bandar and several other Malaya, 
and they were highly delighted. They asked me to allow the 
Bandar to govern them, as they are much troubled by the Ga- 
dong people. Abang Tahar latelv demanded four l>yu boys of 
Pangara Achong, and two from the Orang Kaya of Sirkam ; be- 
side which, the Sadong people seize their propert]r whenever they 
go among them. They are very poorly on for grain. They asked 
me for a letter which should prevent people from annoying them. 
I told them I should represent the matter to the Tuan BeMr, and 
that no doubt be will give his chop to each tribe. They all speak 
well of Bandar Cassim; but his people are bad, and those at 
Gadong* are worse. 

" lAth.—At &^ 30™ started up the river Kayan toward Tumma, 
having left Talip with nineteen men to return to Sariwak b^ way 
of Samarahan. At 8 we stopped at Mang-gariit, where the Dyalw 
presented us with a deer tney had caught. These Dyaks are 
oadly off for grain, and it is the same tribe Bandar Caesim attacked 
in the Goa Sir! (siri cave) some few years ago. Oran^ Kaya Pa 
Jampat told me, that on that occasion the Bandar seized eight 
DyaKs and took them with him.f The river here begins to be 
narrow and shallow, with pebbly banks, and clear water. At 
noon we stopped at Muara Rubin, where we intended to stay a 
day to inquire fur coal, which was stated to have be«B Iband in 
this neighborhood ; but as nobody knew the whereabout, and as 
the Hindoo remains (said to consist of one stone in the ^ape of 
a Af alay hat) were five hours out of our way, we continuea our 
route till evening, having parted company with the Bandar at 
Muara Rubin, as I well knew the Tumma Dyaks woold be afraid 
of his approach. 

'* I5th. — At daylight started toward Tumma, and at 9 stopped 
below Muura Sangan, where we breakfasted, after whidi we 
pushed up again, and at 1 arrived at Si Sijack, where the Tumma 
are. Orang Kaya Pa Muany, the chief, told -me they were very 
much bullied, as a Sarawak man, named Pakar, and Biarrat, the 
father-in-law of Bandar Mulana of Sarawak, forced upon them a 
quantity of goods in the name of the Tuan Besar and the Bandar 
Mulana. (Here follows a list of things, such as gongs, tataWaks, 
jackets, handkerchiefs, and the like, with the most exorbitant 
prices affixed to them. The rice and padi had not, however, 
been paid lor.) There are three villages of this tribe ; two akxuit 

* Gadong is a fimnll Malay village on the Sadong, eonsiderebly nearer 
the sea than the Bandar's village. 

t This occurred during SeriASaUib's time ; the Dyaks weie firightlbUy 
oppressed. 



APPENPIJL, 418 

250 yards apart ; one of which, containing about ten families, is 
ruled by the Orang Kaya Pa Muany, and the other, with about 
thirty famiiiesj by the Orang Kaya Mayo and the Orang Kaya Pa 
Baiet. In the other village, about three reaches above, is the 
Orang Kaya Pa Magong, with ten families. They said they were 
very comfortable under the Patingi Ali (father of the present 
Bandar Mulana), but that since Bandar Mulana has succeeded^ 
they have been oppressed. They told me they had run away 
from 3adong because they heard the Tuan Besar was a just and 
good rajah, and that all his Dyaks were comfortable, but now 
they are oppressed. Pakar told them that if they did not take 
his tatawaks they must not remain here, but run away ! 

^ There are forty families of the Si Nangkan Soyar tribe, and 
thirteen families of the Tibader tribe. The Orang Kay as told 
me that, had ( not arrived, the rice in payment of the goods forced 
on them would have been taken down, as Pakar was here hurry<^ 
ing them to carry it to Sanar ; but Uiat when he heard oi my 
coming be could not be persuaded to wait and meet me. The 
following goods have just been returned by the Gregan Dyaks 
(here foUows a long list of goods and prices). Pangara Achong 
of the En Singi tribe told me that he has oi^e fomily of his tribe 
at Gregan, ana he wanted them to return with him. I asked the 
Pangara of Gregan whether this family wished to return, but be 
did not know. I then told them no one could force them, but 
that they might do just as they pleased. The Orang Kaya Pa 
Jampat goes down with me to Kuching to lay before tbe Tuan 
Besar a claim made up<Mi him by the Malay Pangeran of Samar- 
ahan. Beside which, I take down the Orang Kava and Pangara 
of Tuouna, Si Markan Singan and Tebadu, together with all the 
floods forced on them, th&t the case may foe judged by the Tuan 
Besar. 

« Bandar Oassim demands a debt of the Orang Kaya Pa Muany 
c^ Tumma ; he originally sold them (t. e. forced on them, of 
ciaurso) a gong for 150 pasus of padi, 100 of which was paid ; and 
the question 4s, whether they were to pay the rest. This wai 
four years ago. I left, it for th& Tuan Besar*s decision.*' (Here 
follows a list of goods forced on the Tebadu Dyaks.)* 

* The good* brought down by Mr. WUIiunson were on a pulilie trial 
confiscated, and the parties concenied fined. These Dyaks, fhim th^ 
distance and timidity, were afraid to complain, bat will in future not be 
Imposed upon. It would be a hopeless task trying to invent the Malavs 
{paying their tricks on, the Dyaks ; aod the only chance ^f Dreeing the 
f^aks from these exactions is by inspiring them with confidence. la 
Sariwak this has been done, and may easily be extended ; /or the Dyak 
though greatly depressed by a course of persecution, I have always found 
ready to state his complaints whenever he has a hope of redress. Tlw 
Orong Kaya Pa Jampat of Mang-garikt was freed of the debt claimed by 
the Samarahaa Pangara ; and the other «omirfaints referred to my de* 
cMon have been either rectified, or steps taken to do justice, and to rsadar . 
the Dyak tribes of Sadong happy and easy.— AVid if Mr. Brooke, 



THB END. 



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true philosophy of all sach delusions. He is a medical man of cunsider- 
able eminence, and^has spared no pains in his reaeaiches, giving a great 
number of facts and cases to illustrate his philosophy. The ▼iJame will be 
roach sought for, as it is realljr a desideratum in tibe world of literature. 
We know of no work on this subject which lays the eame just elaira tn pnblie 
attention, or the study of the philosopher. — Christum Advocmte and JotmtaL 

The volume before us is both instructive and amusing, and at this partie- 
ular time, when the (extremes of superstition and philo#nphy have shaken 
hands, it will- be likely to effect an inconceivable amount of good, if prop- 
erly studied. It is one of the most remarkable prodoctiooe of the da/, and 
must create an extraonlinary degree of iaterest ia the p«Uie aund^— iftr- 
chanfs MagaziHe, ' 

It belongs to that class of writings which you can take up and put down 
at pleasure, and ^hich may be subjected to repeated readings. The wotk 
is pleasant, however, in spite of this— pleasant becaoae of its facts. Ma no- 
mernns details of mystery, its vast collection of anecdote, its developtneata 
of diablerie^ its tidings from the spiritual world, and the many cases which 
ii brings together of the curious and the wonderfal in nature and art, which 
former ages, and ignorance and superstition, haVe concluded to consider sn- 
pemntural. Where science and modem speculation famMi the emotion to 
the mystery, Mr. Deudy couples it with the ttatementa, and the book is 
thus e(|UHily valuable and amusing.— CA«rie«toi» TVwueript. 

Here lies a remarkable work ; beautifnl.in its style, and wondroos ia ite 
matter. The work is strictly philosophical in itt tendencj, yet more aaoa- 
iog than a novel. — True American. 

This is a bonk for the lovers of marvels and of mysteries. It contains an 
immense collection of anecdotes of spectral apparitions, of illasions of risiott 
or of hearing, of striking phenomena ezhibfted in dreams, in insanitjr, ia 
trance, or in magnetism, and fumishee many very valuable hinta to aid ia 
the solution of these mysteries, by which so many have keen bewildered 
or affrighted. It is written in a style of great ease and elegance, and can 
not fail to fiud a very wide circle of welcoming readers. — Awum. 

This unique and remarkable book has just been placed on oar taUe ; we 
know its reputation of old ; it is an admirable disoourse on the aoli^ect of 
supernaturalisms, sach as mental illusions, dreams, ghoets, mesmeric phe- 
nomena, d&c. If any one will but read the first hall doxen pagee, we will 
vouch fur it he will not neglect the rest of the volume: it is one of the beet 
written books on one of the most curious range o£ topics that coald Mmg* 
the pen of a writer, or the attention of a reiser. It is, in fact, one of the 
most curious volumes ever perused, upon a series of the most singular sob- 
jects, and, in this new and neat form, it will qommand a vast aamber oC 
readers. — Sunday 7Vme«. 

** The Philosophy of Mystery** is an exceedingly able work ; for better, 
w« think, than the '* Natural Magic*' of Brewster, a book of identioal par- 
pose, carried out in a totjilly different way. The ** Natural Magic" ia tha 

more ratiocinative, Mr. Dendy*s essay the more poetical, the mora * ' — 

tive, and to us the more interesting.— iVaftoiurf Pnas. 



OF POPULAE STERLING LITBEATURE. 9 

TV. 

Th0 Ulb of BIcMEart: 

INCLUDING HIS. CORRESPONDENCE. 
BY EDWARD HOLMES, 

AUTHOR OP " A RAMBUI AMOff O THE XD8ZCIAN8 OP OXRMAIIT,*' Ac 

12010, Muslin, extra gilt, 50 cents. 

It ii written ia a beaucifal, namtiT