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EXPERIENCES AND IMPRESSIONS OF JAMAICAN 

STUDENTS STUDYING AT THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, 

1981-1932 



BY 



OTILIA SALMON 



A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIJ 
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN 
PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS 
FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY 



UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 
1982 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

PAGE 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS iv 

ABSTPACT vi 

CHAPTER 

I. INTRODUCTION 1 

Statement of the Problem 3 

Null Hypotheses 4 

Justification 6 

Delimitations 10 

Limitations 10 

Assumptions 10 

Definition of Terms . 11 

Organization of the Research Report .... 13 

II. REVIEW OF RELATED BACKGROUND INFORMATION. . 14 

Geography of the Caribbean Region 14 

Sociocultural Description of the 

Caribbean 15 

United States Immigration Policy, and 

the Culturally Different Immigrant 

in the United States 21 

International Students in the U.S 2 5 

Florida 30 

Foreign Student Orientation and 
•Adaptation to U.S. Culture and 

, Educational System 3 7 

Adaptation 41 

• Culture Shock 51 

Applicability of U.S. Education to the 

Third World Countries 63 

Reentry Problems the Students Can 

Anticipate Encountering on Their 

Return to Their Native Land 69 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 
(continued) 



CHAPTER PAGE 

III. METHODOLOGY 75 

Subjects 75 

Content Validity and Reliability 

of the Instrument 77 

Pilot Study 77 

Design 80 

Development of the Questionnaire 8 

Theoretical Foundation 81 

Collection of Data 87 

IV. PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA ... 90 

Presentation and Interpretation of Data ... 90 
Presentation and Discussion of the 

Analysis of Data 110 

V. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS, 

AND RECOMMENDATIONS 139 

Summary and Conclusions 139 

Implications and Recommendations 144 

, Recommendations for Future Research 146 

APPENDIX 147 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 158 

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 179 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

I am sincerely grateful and deeply indebted to 
Dr. Clemens Hallman, chairman of my doctoral committee, 
for his encouragement and continued support in the 
direction of my doctoral program. 

My sincere appreciation to the members of my doc- 
toral committee, Dr. Doyle Casteel, Dr. Robert Wright, 
Dr. Elroy Bolduc, Jr., and Dr. Allan Burns, who so 
generously provided their intellectual guidance and 
assistance in the research project. 

I would also like to recognize the panel of experts 
Dr. Allan Burns, Dr. Paul Magnarella, Dr. Mary Mack, and 
Dr. Clemens Hallman, who so devotedly gave of their time 
and guidance in the development of the questionnaire. 

Thanks are expressed to the staff of the Division 
of Sponsored Research and the Graduate School for their 
moral support and encouragement, and to the Jamaican 
student body, without whom this study would not have 
been possible. 

To my dear friends, Masuma Downie, Patricia Schmidt, 
Katharina Phillips, Sheri and Charlie Rein, Priscilla 
DeBose, Marcelle Kinney, Lauri Benson, Tanya Streeter, 



Esther Oteiza, and my other numerous friends, for being 
there when I needed them. 

Gratitude is expressed to Tommy Lue Green and Ronald 
Johnson who opened their home and their hearts to me 
during my sojourn in Gainesville. 

There is throughout this study the reflection of the 
love and devotion of my dearest mother Cleopatra, my sister 
Olga, and my brother Franklin, for their constant kindness 
and understanding which made the seemingly endless hours of 
toil possible and ultimately fruitful. To them and to the 
memory of my father, Alfred, I dedicate this study. 



Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the 
Graduate Council of the University of Florida 
in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements 
for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy 



EXPERIENCES AND IMPRESSIONS OF JAMAICAN 

STUDENTS STUDYING AT THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 

1981-1982 



By 



OTILIA SALMON 



December 19 8 2 



Chairman: Clemens Hallman 

Major Department: Curriculum and Instruction 



The purpose of this study was to determine the 
academic, social and cultural needs of the Jamaican 
students at the University of Florida. Certain hypoth- 
eses related to these needs and concerning the students' 
adaptation and anticipated reentry problems were rested. 

The need for the study was determined by the increase 
in the number of Jamaican students at the University of 



Florida. To be able to accomplish what was proposed, 
two different approaches were employed in collecting 
the data: experimental and observational. The research 
methodology selected for gathering the data was that of 
an interview and questionnaire for which an instrument 
was developed by the researcher. Content validity and 
reliability were established with the aid of a panel of 
experts in the field and refined through the use of a 
pilot study. 

Statistical manipulation of the responses on the 
questionnaire indicated the following results: The 
international students ' orientation program at the 
University of Florida does have a positive effect on 
the students' academic achievement but does not help 
them in the adaptation to the United States' culture. 
The education obtained in Jamaica made a significant 
difference in the students' academic performance. 

Another variable investigated was the type of visa 
held by the students. Although this variable seemed 
not to have had any significant effect on the students' 
adaptation, it did have a positive relationship with 
their academic performance and their anticipated reentry 
problems. In response to the questions asked in the 
interview, the researcher concluded that for the most 
part, the students in the sample were able to acquaint 



themselves sufficiently well with their new environment 
to alleviate the discouraging adjustment situation that 
could have affected their academic and personal adjustment. 

It was recommended that the study be replicated with 
the same population two years hence to determine any major 
changes in their perceptions of their problems. In addi- 
tion, the study should also be replicated involving all 
the Caribbean students that basically have the same culture 
academic, and adaptation problems. 



CHAPTER I 



INTRODUCTION 



The Caribbean, the eldest colonial sphere of Western 
European expansion (London, 1978), has taken on renewed 
world importance and other nations are carefully watching 
its development. 

The United States (U.S.) is finding that traditional 
policies toward its neighbors to the South no longer fit 
the changes that have swept through Mexico and Central 
America and across the Caribbean (Ford Foundation, 1982). 

Mexico, for example, has now become a major source 
of oil and natural gas. Its potential oil reserves rival 
those of the Persian Gulf, and it is a rising "middle pow- 
er" in Latin American affairs. Still, the crossing of 
thousands of Mexicans into the U.S. each year looking for 
work is a source of continuing friction between the two 
countries . 

Today, parts of Central America are engulfed in vio- 
lence, with the remaining countries caught in the cross- 
fire and desperately trying to cope with an influx of 



refugees. Throughout the region, endemic economic and so- 
cial problems persist. As some U.S. observers see it, 
Central America's troubles are being exploited by the 
Soviet Union and Cuba, thus threatening U.S. influence in 
the area (Ford Foundation, 1982) . 

Most of the Caribbean, once dominated by foreign pow- 
ers, has become a collection of independent mini-states 
with limited experience in the international arena and 
severe economic problems. As these island nations gain 
independence from European colonialism, the United States 
becomes the focal point for educational options inasmuch 
as there is no longer any compelling reason to patronize 
the educational institutions of the metropolitan Mother 
Countries (London, 1978). 

United States relations with Cuba have been hostile 
for 20 years. No relations with Puerto Rico are becoming 
strained, due to increased pressure by Puerto Ricans for 
a change in the island's commonwealth status. For the 
U.S., the Caribbean is a strategic area as well as a 
modest source of raw materials, trade, and investment op- 
portunities. The region is also tied to the U.S. through 
migration. According to a report published by Ford 
Foundation (1982), one-fifth of all Caribbean-born people 
now live in the United States. 



Combined with the political turmoil and the economic 
disadvantages of the island nations of the Caribbean are 
other factors which will continue to create great pressure 
for large streams of immigrants to continue flowing to 
Florida. Among these factors are the established presence 
of latin culture, similar subtropical climate, economic 
viability, and the geographical proximity of places like 
South Florida (McCoy and Gonzales, 1981) . 

In addition to the geographical proximity, there are 
other long-standing relationships of socioeconomic and 
political proportions which tie the Caribbean to the United 
States (Graham, 1981) . Such factors have facilitated the 
flow of immigrants and account for the large Caribbean pres- 
ence here. However, despite these relationships, relative- 
ly little is known about the Caribbean and still less about 
the background of the student who carries his own particular 
needs to the U.S. university campus and grapples with the 
problems of adjustment and acculturation. 

Statement of the Problem 
The purposes of this study were six-fold. The first 
was to explore the experiences and impressions of Jamaicans 
who are undergraduate students at the University of Florida 
in order to evaluate the extent to which their stay has 



been educationally rewarding and the degree to which they 
perceived the course of studies they were pursuing as be- 
ing relevant to the needs of the developing nation of 
Jamaica. The second was to identify problems confronted 
by Jamaican students who have matriculated at the University 
of Florida. The third was to determine the extent to which 
these students' programs of studies in Jamaica prepared 
them to pursue their educational goals at the University of 
Florida. The fourth was to explore the ways in which the 
Jamaican students have modified their culture in order to 
get along socially in the United States. The fifth was to 
identify the problems of adjustment that students expect 
to experience when they return to Jamaica. The final pur- 
pose was to suggest procedures that might be employed at 
the University of Florida in order to assist students in 
transferring the knowledge gained in the United States to 
Jamaica. 

Null Hypotheses 

One of the main purposes of this study was to test the 

following null hypotheses: 

1. There is no statistically significant difference be- 
tween the students' level of orientation (orienta- 
tion, or no orientation) and their achievement as 
measured by their grade point average. 



2. There is no statistically significant difference be- 
tween the students' level of orientation and their 
adaptation to the United States. 

3. There is no statistically significant difference be- 
tween the students' level of education (0 Levels, A 
Levels, below Levels) on arriving in the United 
States and their academic achievement as measured 

by their grade point average, after one year at the 
University of Florida. 

4. There is no statistically significant difference be- 
tween the type of visa (J, F, Resident) held by the 
students and their adaptation to the United States. 

5. There is no statistically significant difference be- 
tween the type of visa held by the student and their 
academic achievement. 

6. There is no statistically significant interaction 
between the students' age, their length of stay in 
the United States, and their adaptation. 

7. There is no statistically significant relationship 
between the adaptation of the students and their 
length of stay in the United States. 

8. There is no statistically significant difference be- 
tween the adaptation of older students (ages 25-38) 
to the adaptation of younger students (ages 17-24) 
at the University of Florida. 

9. There is no statistically significant relationship 
between the students ' grade point average and their 
anticipated reentry problems. 

10. There is no statistically significant relationship 
between the level of adaptation to problems in the 
United States and the set of independent variables 
"X" ("X" representing age, length of sojourn in the 
USA, and type of visa: J, F, R) . 

11. There is no statistically significant relationship 
between the degree of problems encountered in the 
United States and the set of independent variables 
"X. " 



12. There is no statistically significant relationship 
between the degree of problems expected when the 
student reenters his/her country and the set of in- 
dependent variables "X. " 

13. There is no statistically significant relationship 
between the students' GPA and the set of independ- 
ent variables "X." 



in addition to the statistical analysis, the research- 
er analyzed descriptively the responses given by the 25 
subjects during their interviews, in order to identify 
some indications with regard to the following questions: 

1. How do the Jamaican students feel about 
their Jamaican identity? 

2. What are some of the experiences the 
students from Jamaica have had at the 
University of Florida? 

3. What are some of the impressions the 
students from Jamaica have of their 
course of study and its relevance to 
their future and to the needs of 
Jamaica? 



Justification 
Every facet of society in the State of Florida, and 
indirectly the other states around the nation, is being 
affected favorably or adversely by the inflow of English, 
French, and Spanish immigrants from the Caribbean. Al- 
though in this study a general overview of the Caribbean 
sociocultural , geographical, and immigration problems 



will be discussed, it will be dealt with only as far as it 
may throw light on the background of the study which is 
based on the Jamican students at the University of Florida. 

According to Enarson (1982), international education 
has been the banner under which educators of many persua- 
sions have marched: the devotees of area and language 
studies, using foreign languages as a liberating force; 
the exports in overseas development; the scholarly commun- 
ity enamored with the exchange of senior scholars; and 
finally, faculty members, deans, and presidents, and the 
"globally aware" in the community, who believe that it is 
a very good thing to invite foreign students to partake 
of the cultural and intellectual resources of the United 
States' campuses and communities. 

Institutions of higher learning in the United States 
are attracting a tremendous number of foreign students on 
their campuses. According to Bowles (1962), in 1961, 
60,000 foreign students were enrolled in this country in 
1,666 institutions in all 50 states and in the District 
of Columbia. Since then, the foreign student population 
has expanded greatly. During the seventies for example, 
the population grew from 135,000 or 1.7 percent of the 
total enrollment (Joshi, 1981) in 1979, to 286,600 or 2.4 
percent in 1980. 



Another study conducted by Jacobs (1980-31) in New York 
reported that there were 311,882 foreign students in 1981 
studying in the United States in institutions of higher 
learning, and Enarson (19 82) has predicted that there will 
be one million foreign students by the end of the decade. 
Of the number of foreign students reported in 19 80-81 in the 
United States, 11,919 were to be found in the state of 
Florida with 8,910 of these from the Caribbean Islands. This 
figure excluded the Spanish-speaking islands of Cuba, Santo 
Domingo, and Puerto Rico. Of the 8,910 students from the 
Caribbean, 2,290 were from the Island of Jamaica ( Open Door 
1980/1981) . 

This growth of foreign student population has been per- 
ceived by many schools as an opportunity during a period of 
stagnating enrollment by the U.S. students ( Open Door 
1980/1981). But growth has also presented new issues; for- 
eign students require special services, which necessitate 
additional investment by institutions in facilities and 
staff. In addition, institutions face choices in deter- 
mining optimum levels of enrollment in relation to the ser- 
vices they can afford to provide. 

A few schools have relied excessively on student 
enrollment as a panacea for financial problems, 
with concomitant recruitment abuses and negative 
impact on institution and community. These few 
schools were typically unprepared to provide ap- 
propriate special services to such students, 
with predictable negative results. . . . Parti- 
cularly large growth in the number of students 



from certain countries has occasioned campus de- 
bates on the appropriate level and distribution 
of foreign students required to maintain diver- 
sity and balance. (Joshi, 1981, p. 2) 

Although overall many American public colleges and 
universities feel comfortable with their existing policies 
towards foreign students, and have not modified their poli- 
cies in the light of recent public attention to foreign 
student issues (Joshi, 1981) , there has been recent interest 
and concern in the higher education community with regard to 
changes in institutional policy toward foreign students 
(Strain, 1962) . 

The greatest pressure these schools face is in keeping 
international student services abreast of foreign student 
enrollment. In the survey taken by the International 
Institute of Education, 30 percent of the schools reported 
that foreign student services have not expanded to keep 
pace with enrollment, or have been reduced ( Open Door 1981) . 
The study presently being conducted entitled "Experiences 
and Impressions of Jamaican Students Studying at the 
University of Florida 1981-1982" is designed to fill the 
gap by providing normative baseline data on the Jamaican 
students in the United States and relevant information with 
regard to foreign students' need with recommendations on 
how best to meet them. 



10 



Delimitations 
This study will be confined to eighty undergraduate 
students from Jamaica enrolled at the University of Florida 
during the academic year 1981-82. 

Limitations 

This study relied on a researcher developed instrument 
consisting of 56 questions and on an informal taped inter- 
view conducted by the researcher. Since events, attitudes, 
and perceptions constantly change, the perceptions and atti- 
tudes that were identified at the end of this study were 
only reflective of the time period during which this study 
was conducted. 

The extent to which this study can be generalized is 
limited to a population similar to that from which the 
sample was drawn. 

Assumption s 
This study is designed using the following assumptions: 

1. The responses to the questionnaire accurately re- 
flected the opinions of the sample. 

2. Content and face validity of the questionnaire 
was sufficient for the purpose of this study. 

3. Participants in the study constituted a repre- 
sentative sample of the true population. 

4. Because the sample was randomly selected, initial 
differences would be controlled. 



11 



Definitions of Terms 

Foreian (International) Student: 

(1) "A person who enrolls in a recognized education- 
al institution in a country other than his own and 
who plans to return to his home country upon com- 
pletion of his academic objectives" (Putnam, 1971, 
p. 491-92). (2) A non-immigrant student enrolled 
in an educational institution in the United States 
on an "F" or "J" visa. 

F-Visa (Student Status) : 

"An F-l and an F-l student status may be granted 
to an alien who is a bona fide student qualified 
to pursue a full course of study at an academic 
institution authorized to admit foreign students. 
When applying for an F-l visa, the individual 
must prove to a U.S. consular official that he 
wishes to enter the U.S. temporarily and solely 
for purposes of study and that he has a permanent 
residence in a foreign country which he has no 
intention of abandoning" ( Advisor's Manual of 
Federal Regulations Affecting Foreign Students 
and Scholars , 1975, p. 11). 

J-Visa (Exchange Visitor) : 

"An alien having a residence in a foreign country 
which he had no intention of abandoning, who is a 
bona fide student, scholar, trainee, teacher, 
professor, research assistant, specialist, or 
leader in a field of specialized knowledge or 
skill, or other person of similar description, 
who is coming temporarily to the United States 
as a participant in a program designated by the 
Secretary of State for the purpose of teaching, 
instructing or lecturing, studying, observing, 
conducting research, consulting, demonstrating 
special skills or receiving training, and the 



12 



alien spouse and minor children of any such alien 
if accompanying him or following to join him" 
( Advisor's Manual of Federal Regulations Affecting 
Foreign Students and Scholars , 1975, p. 21). 

Permanent Resident (Immigrant Status or Resdient Alien) : 

"An immigrant is an alien who has been lawfully 
admitted for permanent residence in the United 
States. In common usage, the word 'immigrant' 
is interchangeable with permanent resident or 
'PR'. Acquiring immigrant status gives an alien 
the right to stay in the U.S. for an indefinite 
period of time without any need to request exten- 
sions of stay, work permits, etc. An immigrant 
is never compelled to become a naturalized citi- 
zen. The immigrant of good moral character may 
elect to become naturalized at any five years or 
more after he becomes a permanent resident (three 
years for the immigrant with a U.S. citizen 
spouse) " ( Advisor's Manual of Federal Regulations 
Affecting Foreign Students and Scholars , 1975, 
p. 45) . 

Level or Ordinary Level is the General Certificate 
of Education examination taken after the student 
has completed a course of study in secondary 
school. This examination measure the results of 
5 years of study in from four to twelve subjects 
or the Certificate of Secondary Education given 
to those who are in an academic track and normal- 
ly do not continue after age sixteen ( College and 
University , The Journal of the American Association 
of Collegiate Registrars and Admission Officers , 
1980, p. 345-46) . 



13 



A Level Examination or Advance L evel are the examinations 
taken after spending 2 more years in the high school 
after satisfactory completion of Level. This ex- 
amination measures the results of two years of study 
in two to five subjects ( College and Universit y, The 
Journal of the American Association of Collegi ate 
Registrars and Admission Officers , 1980, p. 345-46). 

Attitude is defined by Sherif and Sherif as the set of 
subject-object relationships that the individual 
builds up in repeated encounters with objects, per- 
sons, groups, social values, and institutions 
(Sherif and Sherif, 1969) . 

Adjustment is viewed in this paper as subjective phenome- 
non! — a personal reaction to the social-cultural en- 
vironment. 

Organization of the Research Report 
Chapter II contains a review of related background in- 
formation. Chapter III describes the methodology used in 
the study. In Chapter IV, the data will be presented and 
analyzed. Chapter V includes the summary, conclusions, and 
recommendations for further research. 



CHAPTER II 

REVIEW OF RELATED BACKGROUND INFORMATION 

To be able to set the framework of this investigation, 
literature and research studies relating to the problem are 
reviewed in the following areas: 

a) geography of the Caribbean, 

b) sociocultural description of the Caribbean, 

c) U.S. Immigration policy, and the culturally 
different immigrant in the United States, 

d) international students in the United States, 

e) foreign student orientation, and adaptation 
to U.S. culture and educational system, 

f) applicability of United States education to 
third world countries, and 

g) re-entry problems that students can antici- 
pate encountering on their return to their 
native land. 

Geography of the Caribbean Region 
The Caribbean region is commonly referred to as the 
West Indies, the Islands, or the Antilles. The very name 
West Indies is a misnomer which arose out of confusion and 
ignorance (London, 1978). It was Christopher Columbus who 
named the region, believing it to have been the shores of 

the Orient which he had hoped to reach by sailing west. 

14 



15 



Geographically speaking, the Antillean archipelago 
forms a curved 1500-mile chain extending from the peninsula 
of Florida in North America, to the Peninsula of Paria on 
the northeast coast of South America (London, 19 78) (see 
map, Fig. 1). The English-speaking Caribbean Islands, to 
which Jamaica belongs, consist of Jamaica, the Leeward 
Islands of St. Kitts, Nevis, Antigua, Montserrat, the 
Virgin Islands, and the Windward Islands of St. Vincent, 
St. Lucia, Dominica, and Grenada. In addition, there are 
the islands of Barbados, Trinidad and Tobago, Belize in 
Central America, and Guyana in South America (see map, 
Fig. 2) . - 

Sociocultural Description of the Caribbean 
Within 50 years after Columbus' visit to the West 
Indies in 1494, the Spaniards had established their first 
bases in the Caribbean and had annihilated both the people 
and the culture of the Arawaks and the Caribs (Augier and 
Gordon, 1971) . Since then, the Caribeean has experienced 
more than three hundred years of slavery, colonialism, and 
exploitation (Mintz, 1968) . Thus the heritage of the 
Caribbean is one of contact and clash, amalgamation and 
accommodation, and resistance to change (Augier and 
Gordon, 1971). In addition, the Islands' social history 



16 




17 




may be conceptualized as one that includes colonialism, 
massive migrations, plantations, and extensive use of 
slaves and contract labor from Africa, India, Asia, and 
Europe (Piatt, 1978) . 

The merger of these African and Asian ancestors, 
coupled with the Western traditions of the colonial pow- 
ers, led to the evolution of the distinctive cultures 
that one finds today within the Caribbean. Some of the 
most complex societies in the world can be found there, 
each of which is unique (Parry and Sherlock, 1971) . The 
complexity of the societies in the Caribbean is not a 
result of the size of the islands, or to their internal 
differentiation or technological developments, but to the 
dependent and fragmented nature of their cultures. This 
factor has been compounded by the ethnic diversity of 
their populations, the special nature of their dependent 
economics, the peculiarities of their political develop- 
ment, and the apparent incoherence of their social in- 
stitutions (Smith, 1965) . 

The peoples of the Caribbean, therefore, cannot be 
classified as Africans, Asians, or Westerners. They are 
an unusual and complex racial and ethnic combination of 
Amerindians, Europeans, Africans, and Asians (Horowitz, 
1971) . Yet, within the framework of this synthesis lies 



19 



lies the peculiarity of dissimilarity which arises among 
peoples strung out over more than a thousand miles of 
islands, who are inheritors of varied historical back- 
grounds and diverse cultural norms (Piatt, 1978). 

The Caribbean Islands, with few exceptions, have sev- 
eral major characteristics of island ecosystems (Fushberg, 
1963). They are limited in size and stand in relative 
isolation. With the exception of Haiti, which won its in- 
dependence in 1803, all the islands held colonial status 
well into the 20th century. They share a history of change 
of colonial leadership several times (see Fig. 3). Accord- 
ing to Horowitz (1971) there is a tendency towards a sec- 
tor stratification consisting of a dominant plantocracy and 
subordinate agricultural proletariat. 

Today, the rise of nationalism and cultural autonomy 
and the transition of many of the islands from dependent to 
independent status have brought with it many unfulfilled ex- 
pectations: expectations of being able to overcome their 
economic problems on their own and achieve self-sufficiency 
and true independence . 



20 



OWNERSHIP OF THE WEST INDIES 
1623 TO PRESENT 



& 



[Spanish* 






] t •t$*4s§ ; SGt ■• - 

."|S^y'...":.."" """■' :: :"': 

'•y.'^.^J^ij - - . 



1775 




Present fmm 




Figure 3. European Colonial Ownership of the West Indies 
between 1623-1814. Adapted from F.R. Augier 
and S.C. Gordon, The Making of the West Indies . 
London: Longmans Green and Co., Ltd., 19 64, 
p. 180. 



21 



U.S. Immigration Policy, 

and the Culturally Different 

Immigrant in the United States 

The government of the United States has recently be- 
come more involved in the development and problems of the 
Caribbean Basin. This renewed interest on the part of the 
United States has been given impetus by the growing left- 
ist movement in the Caribbean area, coupled with grave 
economic conditions that the developing nations, worldwide, 
are facing. In addition, these factors seem to have in- 
fluenced and accelerated the massive flow of migration in- 
to South Florida resulting in an increase of foreign stu- 
dents from the Caribbean into the educational institutions 
around the nation and, in particular, Florida. 

Migration from the Caribbean, especially from Jamaica 
from 1975 to 1980, was estimated at 14,000 to 20,000 (McCoy 
and Gonzales, 1981). This can be seen as one country's 
loss and another country's gain. Because of the United 
States policy regarding who should or can receive a visa 
to sojourn here, only the wealthy and the educated have had 
the opportunity to migrate. This has created a tremendous 
problem for Jamaica because this policy has contributed to 
the economic slump the country is now facing. This "brain 
drain" and transfer of funds, nevertheless, is not unique 
to Jamaica; it is happening all over the world (Beiger, 



22 



1967). If United States' policy is in truth geared toward 
helping the developing nations advance and be truly inde- 
pendent, then according to Bob Graham, Governor of Florida 
(1981) 

The United States government is in a particu- 
larly advantageous position to reach out and 
to offer assistance to those countries which 
are their nearest neighbors and to establish 
economic plans that will be the foundation 
for stable political systems, (p. 5) 

Graham further stated that agriculture in the Caribbean 
Basin was in a shambles. As recently as the mid-1950' s 
the Caribbean Islands were more than self-sufficient in 
terms of agriculture. Today Trinidad produces less than 
28 percent of the food its people eat. The situation in 
Trinidad is typical of what has happened to the agricul- 
tural economy in the Caribbean and in Central America. 

According to Strain (1962), the United States as a 
part of national policy, committed herself to educational 
assistance to developing nations. Florida, therefore, 
can give to those countries through its higher education- 
al institutions, a tremendous wealth of experience and 
knowledge in the practical application of agricultural 
techniques developed for climate and soil conditions which 
are very similar to those conditions that exist in many 
Caribbean nations (Graham, 1981) . 



23 



In 1980, the different consulates from Latin America 
and the Caribbean in South Florida were contacted for their 
estimate of the immigrant population from their countries 
in South Florida (McCoy and Gonzales, 1981). The following 
demographic picture emerged for the various countries: 
Haiti, 30,000; Colombia, 35,000-40,000; Puerto Rico, 40,000; 
Jamaica, 14,000-20,000; Venezuela, 22,000; Nicaragua, 25,000 
Peru, 12,000; and Argentina, 6,000. These very imprecise 
estimates should highlight the drama in South Florida with 
regard to recent Latin and Caribbean immigration. 

Because of the similarity of the physical environment 
to that of Latin America and of the Caribbean, the South 
Florida area appears to be very attractive to the people 
from these countries. For this reason, not only have 
Cubans been attracted to Miami and the rest of South 
Florida, but also other Latins, and in particular the 
Caribbean population, who see Miami as a cultural center 
that offers great opportunities for them in the American 
land of political and economic promise (McCoy and Gonzales, 
1981) . 

This attraction is reflected in the growth of the pop- 
ulation from Latin American and Caribbean, according to 
the United States census of 1970. The population increased 
from less than 5 percent in 1960 to a little less than 25 



24 



percent in 1970, and it is expected that both legal and 
illegal immigration will continue from all the Latin 
countries to the United States, mostly to the South 
Florida area (Graham, 1981) . 

Although the Cuban and the Haitian immigrants are 
the most publicized and offer the best examples of dif- 
ferentiated treatment given two separate Latin groups, 
other less-known and publicized immigrants from countries 
like Colombia and Jamaica are examples of additional im- 
migration that can be expected to continue regardless of 
policy (McCoy and Gonzales, 1981). 

This exodus could have stemmed from the political 
and economical situation in Jamaica in the last deacde , 
which created economic conditions that could have rival- 
ed those that lead to the Cuban exodus. After the re- 
election of Prime Minister Manly in 1975, Jamaicans 
arrived almost daily in Dade County; they preferred South 
Florida because of the reception and success of the Cubans 
(McCoy and Gonzales, 1981). Today, with a change of 
government, the migration of the Jamaicans may seem to 
have subsided. However, it has only taken on a different 
characteristic. The young people are being sent here in 
a large number to study. This is portrayed in the in- 
crease in numbers over the past years at the University 



25 



of Florida. In 1978, there were five Caribbean students 
enrolled and in 1981-82, there are more than 150. 

Although the present-day immigration problem in the 
United States seem to be an unsurmountable one to the 
Floridians, precedents have been set by the Cuban migra- 
tion of the 1960's to show that it depends to a large 
extent on the quality of the migrants. Miami's economic 
development today owes part of its success to that group 
of Cubans who came to these shores with money, skill, 
and determination to succeed. According to Graham (1981), 

we have benefited throughout our state's 
history through waves of refugees. In the 
past twenty years the new arrivals parti- 
cularly from Cuba, have contributed great- 
ly to the economic boom that we are now 
experiencing. . . . But as we have bene- 
fited by these waves of refugees—Miami 
for instance has now supplanted New 
Orleans as the capitol of the Caribbean 
Basin--we are also discovering as New 
Orleans did several decades ago that 
there is a price tag attached to such 
honors .... I have no fear what-so- 
ever of overstating the situation when 
I say that immigration in the United 
States, both legal and illegal, will be 
one of the most pressing and most vola- 
tile issues facing our nation and the 
state of Florida in the next decade, (p. 16) 

International Students in the United States 
International students comprise an important and 
significant minority of the college and university student 



26 



population in the United States (Blankenship , 1980). For 
the purpose of this study, the term international student 
will be used in reference to students on "F" or "J" visas 
and at times in reference to other categories of foreign- 
born individuals, such as resident aliens (permanent resi- 
dents) . 

One outstanding characteristic of the international 
student flow into this country is its phenomenal growth 
rate over the years. In 1930, approximately 9,600 stu- 
dents from foreign countries studied in the United States 
(DuBois, 1956). The records that the HE has been keeping 
since 1954, demonstrated that the number of the inter- 
national students in the United States has increased from 
23,232 to more than 235,000. Although the growth rate has 
been continuous, it has varied during different time periods. 
When the Institute published its first issue of Open Doors 
(1955), it reported that there were 23,232 international 
students attending colleges and universities in this coun- 
try. Although there was a substantial increase in the 
number of international students between 1957-58, the rate 
of growth in 1962-63 was 50 percent greater ( Open Doors , 
1963) . 

In 1966, President Lyndon Johnson supported the es- 
tablishment of the International Education Act which 
authorized the creation of centers for advanced 



27 



international studies and grants for students to study at 
those centers (Blankenship , 1980) . Although the legisla- 
tion was passed, Congress did not appropriate any federal 
funds for its implementation. In spite of this limitation, 
national attention was focused on the importance of inter- 
national education. The number of international students 
surpassed 100,000 in 1966 (Open Doors, 1967), representing 
more than 170 countries. 

In 1978, there were approximately 235,000 internation- 
al students in institutions of higher education in the 
United States (Julian, Lowenstein and Slattery, 1979) . 
The annual rate of increase of international student en- 
rollment nationally for 1977-78 was 16 percent (Julian et 
al. , 1979) . 

International developments clearly indicate that the 
dimensions of this movement will grow rather than diminish. 
Particularly, more and more young people from the newer 
nations and the developing areas will seek in the United 
States knowledge to enable them to contribute to their 
countries' thrusts toward economic growth and political 
stability (Houlihan, 1961) . 

Many factors have contributed to this growth. Factors 
which are external to American educational institutions in- 
clude the expanding European Common Market, multinational 
corporations' participation in international relationships, 



28 



and the increased involvement of developing countries in 
international affairs (Hood and Reardon-Anderson, 1979). 
Institutional factors include a decline in domestic stu- 
dent enrollment, a need for additional financial re- 
sources, and expansion of international programs. 

According to the annual census of foreign students 
conducted by the Institute of International Education 
(HE), there was a total of 311,882 foreign students in 
higher education in the United States in 1981; this fig- 
ure represents the largest total foreign students ever to 
study in the United States. To carry out the survey, HE 
polled 3,250 academic institutions, of which 3,030 or 95 
percent responded (Boyan, 1981). 

The following table shows the annual rates of in- 
crease for selected years for both the number of foreign 
students and the number of institutions reporting (see 
Table 1) . 

According to Boyan (1981) , Florida ranked among the 
10 states with the largest numbers of reported foreign 
students (see Table 2). Because of Florida's large inter- 
national student population, and the rapid growth of in- 
ternational education among institutions in the southern 
region of the United States, there is a need for research 
to be conducted on these students' adaptation and cultural- 
ization problems (see Table 2) . 



29 



Table 1 



Reported Foreign Students and Number of 
Reporting Institutions with Average Annual 
Rates of Increase During Selected Years, 
1954/55-1970/80 







Average 


Number of 


Average 




Reported 


Annual 


Reporting 


Annual 




Foreign 


Rate of 


Institu- 


Rate of 


Year 


Students 


Increase 


tions 


Increase 


1954/55 


34,232 




1,629 




1959/60 


48,486 


8.3 


1,712 


1.0% 


1964/65 


82,045 


13.8 


1,859 


1.7% 


1969/70 


134,959 


12.9 


1,734 


1.3% 


1974/75 


154,580 


2.9 


1,908 


2.0% 


1975/76 


179,344 


16.0 


2,261 


18.5% 


1976/77 


203,068 


13.0 


2,524 


11.6% 


1977/78 


235,509 


16.0 


2,738 


8.5% 


1978/79 


263,938 


12.1 


2,752 


0.5% 


1979/80 


286,343 


8.5 


2,950 


7.2% 



Source: Institute of International Education, Open Doors 
(New York: Institute of International Education, 
1980). Reprinted by permission, (p. 2). 



30 



Table 2 



State with the Largest Number 
of Foreiqn Students 



California 


47,621 


Texas 


24,416 


New York: 


23,569 


Massachusetts 


12,607 


Illinois 


12,213 


FLORIDA* 


11,919 


Michigan 


10,559 


Pennsylvania 


8,919 


Ohio 


8,672 


District of Columbia 


8,499 



Compiled from Open Doors 1979-80 , 1981, pp.43 & 45 



Florida 

The number of international students is continuing to 
increase not only in Florida but in the entire U.S. of 
America. According to Villa (1970), the first two inter- 
national students to study in Florida were two Russian 
students who enrolled in the College of Agriculture at the 
University of Florida in 1889. In 1963, Florida ranked 
15th nationally with a total international student 



31 



population of 1,076. Most of these students attended the 
University of Miami, University of Florida, and Barry 
College . 

In 1978 there were 9,209 international students en- 
rolled in institutions of higher education in Florida 
(Julian et al., 1979). This total represents 3.9 percent 
of the total student enrollment in Florida. As reported 
to the HE (Julian et al . , 1979), 76.3 percent (7,030) of 
the international students are enrolled in two- and four- 
year public institutions of higher education in Florida. 
Approximately 51 percent (4,707) of the international stu- 
dents are enrolled in two-year colleges in Florida. 

In 1980, Florida ranked seventh nationally behind 
California, New York, Texas, Massachusetts, Illinois, and 
Michigan in the total number of international students 
attending post-secondary institutions (Julian et al . , 1979). 

Kaplan (1973) reported that, of the international 
students enrolling in Florida's State University System (SUS) 
institutions, 58 percent were undergraduate and 40 percent 
were graduate students. These students represented 3 per- 
cent of the total enrollment of SUS. The median age for 
these students was 25. The distribution by sex was 70 per- 
cent male, 14 percent female, and 16 percent unreported. 
More current demographic data regarding SUS international 
student characteristics were not available for this report. 



32 



Presently, Florida ranks sixth nationally behind California, 
Texas, New York, Massachusetts, and Illinois, in the total 
number of international students attending institutions of 
higher education in the U.S. (Boyan et al., 1981) (see 
Table 2.) 

More and more as the United States asserts a leader- 
ship role in the world community, her functions as a global 
facilitator become increasingly evident as different 
nations reach out for her technology. Part of this out- 
reach involves bridging gaps of social and cultural distance 
and discord. One way in which this bridging can be accom- 
plished is through education. 

Today, the United States has the opportunity to help 
educate the people of the developing nations. This help is 
not, however, in relationship to finance (Diener, 1978; 
Kaplan, 1973) . Statistics show that few students that are 
here from other countries are in need of financial aid. 
This is illustrated in the following figure (4) . 

Almost two-thirds of the students surveyed in a study 
conducted by the Institute of International Education (HE) 
in 1979/80 (Boyan, et al., 1981) paid for their education 
with personal and family funds. The second largest source 
of funding came from foreign students' home governments, 
followed by the students' colleges or universities which 
provided 9.2 percent of all funds. Together, these sources 



33 



Percentage Distribution of Foreign Students by 
Primary Source of Funds, 1979/80 




Personal and 
Foreign Funds 

r— I Funds from 
LJ U.S. Sources 



Employment •— * 
US. Private Sponsor • — 'J 
U.S. Government • — ' 
Other • 



Figure 4 . Percentage Distribution of Foreign Students by 
Primary Source of Funds, 1979/80 

Source: Institute of International Education, Open 

Doors (New York: Institute of International 
Education, 1980) . Reprinted by permission. 



of funds accounted for 87.6 percent of all foreign student 
financial support. The remaining 12.4 percent of student 
funding reported included foreign private sponsors (3.0%), 
employment (2.7%), the U.S. Government (2.0%), and U.S. 
private sponsors (1.9%). 



34 



Figure also identifies and separates two categories 
of funding sources: (1) funds that are clearly identified 
as being from the United States and (2) funds that are 
clearly from foreign sources, or are identified as coming 
from the student or his family. This categorization sug- 
gests that 15.8 percent of foreign students' support comes 
from U.S. sources, while as much as 81.4 percent may orig- 
inate from outside the United States. 

In addition, the following table (3) lists the number 
and percentage of students that received each of the major 
sources of funds for the academic years 1977/78-1979/80. 

It can also be seen that support from U.S. sources 
declined substantially. While 18.2 percent of foreign 
students' funding came from U.S. sources in 1977/78, only 
15 percent came from the same sources in 1979/80. It is 
worth noting that the largest reduction occurred in U.S. 
government support and in employment. To counterbalance 
this drop in support from the United States, students 
have been relying more heavily on their personal and fam- 
ily funds and, where possible, on other sources. (See 
Figure 5) 



35 



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36 



Percentage Distribution of Reported 

Primary Sources of Funds 

for Foreign Students, 1977/78-1979/80 



1977/78 E3 
1978/79 M 
1979/80 E3 




Figure 5. Percentage Distribution of Reported Primary Sources of 
Funds for Foreign Students, 1977/78-1979/80 

Source: Institute of International Education, Open Doors 
(New York: Institute of International Education, 
1980). Reprinted by permission. 



37 



Foreign Student Orientation and Adapta ti o n 
to U.S. Culture and Educational System 



What the foreign student needs from an orien- 
tation is an awareness of himself and his own 
culture. (Cormack, 19 63, p.l) 



Despite the great number of foreign students entering 
United States' institutions of higher education each year, 
very little is done by the universities and colleges to 
orient these newcomers to life and study in these institu- 
tions (Smith, 1965) . The majority of students from the 
developing world arrive in the United States with very 
little idea of the organization of American institutions 
of higher education, let alone with an understanding of 
the cultural adjustment problems they will face (Cormack, 
1963) . 

Although a number of orientation programs for foreign 
students have been in operation for several years now, to 
date, the most extensive orientation program has consisted 
largely of essential information about the United States, 
English-language study programs, and the counseling and 
guidance programs in colleges and universities (Gullahorn 
and Gullahorn, 1962) . 

Unfortunately, many of the formal orientation programs 
are still limited to students coming to America on special 



38 



grants (Cormack, 1963) . The need for orientation for all 
foreign students is great, and it is very important that 
it precedes, as far as possible, the beginning of registra- 
tion and classes (Kline, 1953) . 

The first problem area that is usually dealt with in 
an orientation program can be labeled academic. This in- 
cludes such problems as understanding the requirements of 
the American institution, registration procedures, class 
assignments, difficulties in taking examinations, in writ- 
ing research papers, difficulty in accepting degree require- 
ments which have little relation to the student's needs, 
and a host of associated problems. 

In addition, there are two practical needs of every 
foreign student that could be served by a proper orienta- 
tion: 1) learning "American" English, and 2) learning how 
to take an objective test. This is not suggesting that 
these areas can be thoroughly taught in an orientation 
program, but much frustration from trial-and-error learning 
could be eliminated through a brief introduction to some 
points of "American" style in English expression and 
through the opportunity to take a few objective tests, 
especially of the multiple-choice type, with some tips on 
methods of studying for this type of test (Cormack, 1963). 
While this information is necessary and useful, it is 
also important to focus on the second problem which is the 



39 



students' need to understand an alien culture and live 
effectively within it without damaging their loyalty to 
their home and culture and their ability to live in it 
when they return. "Understanding" the U.S. culture 
involves communication between two cultures, and living 
effectively involves personal adaptation to a new culture. 

Cultural information is sometimes offered along with 
the standard orientation services. But the quality, quan- 
tity and timing of this material assumes increasing impor- 
tance. According to Gullahorn and Gullahorn (1963), many 
students either experience culture shock, cultural rejection, 
or at least some form of personal culture crisis on their 
arrival in a foreign country, and it is rarely resolved in 
less than two years. 

Since most students may stay in the United States 
about three years, it is valid to seek orientation pro- 
grams that shorten the acculturation period. 

There are of course, numerous cultural subtleties 
about which foreign students should learn (Altscher, 
1976) . The American college campus is in many ways a 
culture of its own. The relationships with professors 
and students, the social events and rituals, the grading 
systems, all this will be strange and new to these stu- 
dents. It seems a basic obligation, therefore, of any 
American university that is interested and willing to have 



4 



foreign students on campus to ease their adjustment and 
help them through the "culture shock" by means of an 
orientation (Cormack, 1963). 

The third general area may be called sociopersonal . 
These are the kinds of problems which belong to foreign 
students largely because they are human beings away from 
home. They range from financial difficulties to homesickness 
and everything in between. Problems which could be easily 
solved for an American may require considerable ingenuity 
when the foreign student faces them. 

The orientation program, therefore, should address all 
these areas so as to sensitize the students to the many 
difficulties they may anticipate during their sojourn in 
the United States. Brislin (1981) argues that worrying 
about potentially stressful events is helpful as it forces 
the person to learn as much as possible about the event, to 
prepare for its negative effects so as not to be surprised 
by them, and to envisage what he might do if any of the 
negative effects indeed occurred. 

The orientation concern in this study is related to 
the students from Jamaica who are likely to be ill-tuned 
to residing and studying in a highly industrialized and 
bureaucratized society. There is the tough aspect of 
finance, but there is also the more tender consideration 
of the human beings whose lives are being altered. Higher 



41 



education abroad should result in more effective profes- 
sional service and in happier personal lives. If improved 
orientation programs, even if more costly, can aid in 
these aims, they are worth it. 

Solutions may be as simple as an explanation or, if 
the problem requires it and the university is sensitive to 
its responsibility, as difficult as the substitutions of 
relevant course work for requirements that may have little 
meaning in the students' home country. 

According to Higbee (1962), a given university must 
appraise the extent of its own collective knowledge about 
progessional, vocational, and skilled manpower needs of 
those foreign countries and its knowledge about its appli- 
cability of a given American curriculum to the practice of 
a profession or vocation in the students' home country. 

If a university possesses an acceptably high level of 
knowledge in all the above areas, it must still determine 
whether it has the time and willingness to practice a sys- 
tem of academic advising which by its very special nature 
will be time-consuming, administratively irregular, and 
expensive . 

Adaptation 
Foreign students go through a transitional process on 
entering the American educational system. This process 



42 



involves personality growth and development along a number 
of dimensions. Unfortunately, a number of students fail 
to complete this process because hostile elements in their 
environment become too strong for them to handle. 

Bryce-Laport (1978) discussed the implications of 
the migration of Caribbean students to the United States 
for educators in both areas. He reported that Caribbean 
students were highly motivated and mobile. These men and 
women were willing to take risks, make sacrifices, and use 
novel methods in order to achieve their goals. Yet, the 
Caribbean experience in the United States has been accen- 
tuated by a pattern of invisibility and inequality. Amer- 
icans perceive the Caribbeans as they do low-status indi- 
viduals. This lack of acceptance leads to alienation and 
antagonism according to Bryce-Laporte (19 78) and further 
acts as an additional barrier in the students ' adaptation 
as is demonstrated in a student's out-cry "It hurts so much 
to feel so alone where not a soul seems to care if you live 
or die . . . these students are not friendly." This out- 
cry illustrates some of the problems of alienation, anomie, 
and rejection frequently encountered in cross-cultural ad- 
justment. 

Colleges and universities in the United States have 
admitted foreign students for many years. These students 



43 



come to the United States because institutions of higher 

learning in their countries do not offer the programs they 

seek (Lee et al . , 1981) and because they may consider it 

more prestigious to study in a foreign country. Apart 

from academic pressures, foreign students may encounter 

problems in making adjustments to a novel culture and 

on return home, may find it difficult to readjust to their 

own culture. These issues have been examined by a number 

of investigators. 

Putman (1971) defined a foreign student as 

A person who enrolls in a recognized educational 
institution in a country other than his own and 
who plans to return to his home country upon com- 
pletion of his academic objectives. (pp. 491-492) 

In numbers, Putman reported that more than 120,200 students 
were enrolled in American colleges and universities in 1970. 
According to Houlihan (1961), the most important single 
experience in the foreign students' life in the United States 
is their first one. The research claims that if someone who 
is friendly and helpful is waiting for the international stu- 
dent as he/she arrives in the country, future misunderstand- 
ings and frustrations may be understood and accepted be- 
cause "after all, Americans do want to be friendly, but 
some misunderstandings are inevitable." Houlihan further 
states that if the first experience in America is one of 
confusion, misunderstanding, and loneliness, the inevitable 



44 



future frustrations reinforce a picture of an American who 
does not care. 

Post-admission adjustment of foreign students must 
deal with a bewildering variety of individuals who have 
little in common beyond the fact that they are foreign to 
America. The problems the international students face 
can be separated into three general areas for orientation. 
First is the problem of communication; second is cultural 
adjustment; and third is the sociopersonal area. For 
some students the problem of communication involves the 
need to learn to think, talk, read, and write in a dif- 
ferent language from their own. 

For all foreign students including Canadians, it 
involves learning new vocabulary, new pronunciation, new 
inflections, and much new slang and local usage (Porter, 
196 3). English instruction should be provided for foreign 
students by taking them at the level of English language 
competence they have achieved and, with as little wasted 
time as possible, enable them to compete with American 
students. 

For the universities to be able to help the foreign 
students, it is not enough to look at the academic problems 
The students, on the other hand, to be able to take 



45 



advantage of their stay in the United States, need to be 
socially and culturally satisfied. One way this could be 
done is for the universities to help students with their 
problem of adjustment. 

Hull (1978) examined the foreign student's experience 
through a series of questionnaires and interviews with 
about 950 foreign students at three major universities. 
Answers were sought to the question "What variables contrib- 
ute to successful coping in a U.S. educational environment 
for a foreign student?" (p. 14) . Many variables were found 
to be significant factors in student coping behavior. With 
regard to teachers the relationship between satisfied and 
dissatisfied students centered on variables like discrim- 
ination and prejudice. In general, foreign students were 
pleased with the teaching staff academically, but negative 
cultural attitudes quite naturally presented obstacles in 
the classroom. 

During previous decades many researchers have recorded 
the adjustment process of foreign students in their host 
cultures (Lysgaard, 1955; DuBois, 1956; Gullahorn and 
Gullahorn, 1963; Coelho, 1958; Sewell, Morris and Davidsen, 
1961; Useem and Useem, 1955). According to Freese (1977) 
and Bowlby (1961) the transition from one culture to 
another experienced by an immigrant involves a grieving 
process that occurs in stages. 



46 



Researchers postulated four stages of adjustment for 
foreign students (DuBois, 1956; Oberg, 1960). The first 
stage is called the spectator stage. in this stage, 
foreign students find their new environment to be exciting 
and uplifting and report feelings of elation and optimism 
associated with positive expectations regarding interaction 
with their hosts. The students' morale is high at this 
stage, due to the fact that they are more observers than 
active participants. Gullahorn and Gullahorn (1963) adds 
that during this stage there is initial excitement or 
elation over new ideas or skills and fascination with the 
food, people, and surroundings. But this is just a 
temporary pnase which Oberg (19 72) and Kimball (1980) 
refer to as the Honeymoon period. Bowlby (1961) and 
Freese (1977) propose that for those who are here as 
immigrants the experience is reversed. Their first stage 
is grieving and during this process the immigrant 
experiences numbness, shock and disbelief. Their 
enthusiasm is slowly tempered by hardship, disappc 
discrimination and in many instances poverty. 

The first stage slowly evolves into the second 
as they accept rhe reality that they are no longer « 
to see familiar faces and sights. This feeling of e 
trangement heightened by the new environment causes one 
to assume a minority status in a majority culture, wherein 



47 



one once was a member of the majority culture. Thus one 
frequently hears such questions as "Why did I ever come here? 
Why don't they like newcomers?" 

According to Gullahorn and Gullahorn (1963) and DuBois 
(1956) , after a three to six month period, or the first 
stage, the students enter the second stage. In this second 
phase they become more involved in their new environment 
bit encounter some problems in making the necessary adjust- 
ments. The Honeymoon phase is soon replaced according to 
Kimball (1980) by a more traumatic period of feelings of 
depression and perhaps decrement in output as one encounters 
difficulties and complexities. Typically, morale declines 
in this stage while hostility and resentment tend to develop 
and rise. This stage may continue for as long as 18 months 
(DuBois, 1956) . 

As the students actually become involved in role 
relationships and encounter frustrations in trying to 
achieve certain goals when the proper means are unclear 
or unacceptable, they become confused and depressed and 
express negative attitudes regarding the host culture. 
If they are able to resolve the difficulties encountered 
during this crucial phase of the acculturation process, 
they then achieve a modus vivendi enabling them to work 
effectively and to interact positively with their hosts 
(Gullahorn and Gullahorn, 19 63) . 



43 



For the immigrant student the second stage is charac- 
terized by feelings of pain, despair and disorganization. 
Homesickness sets in as persons experience their emotional 
losses. In many instances, individuals who previously 
had criticized their homeland tend now to idealize it. 
Defense mechanisms such as displacement, projection and 
reaction formation tend to be used frequently. Feelings 
of confusion, loneliness and a sense of isolation are 
common as they deeply feel the loss of familial and 
support network. 

In the third stage, as postulated by DuBois, the 
foreign student develops strategies designed to deal with 
the state of affairs. Language skills improve, friends 
are made, and cultural adjustments take place. Finally, 
there is a sense of satisfaction and perhaps even of 
personal growth as they emerge from the plateau, restruc- 
ture the problems, and begin to work effectively (DuBois, 
1956, p. 35) . 

Essentially, the acculturation process may be 
interpreted as a cycle of adult socialization 
occurring under conditions where previous 
socialization offers varying degrees of faci- 
litation and interference in the new learning 
context. As a consequence of previous social- 
ization, sojourners learn value orientations 
which provide a framework for evaluating be- 
havior in role interactions. The result is 
that when two members of a particular social 
system are interacting each can anticipate 
the other's responses with sufficient accu- 
racy so that his behavior is likely to elicit 
the results he desires (Parson, 1951) . Al- 
though certain aspects of the American culture 



49 



may not be taken favorably, the foreign stu- 
dent tends to remain reticent. (DuBois, 1956 
p. 35) 

The non-immigrant student, during this third phase 

also faces reality as expressed in the notion, "I guess 

we are here to stay." There is a resolution to reorganize 

one's life, start anew and build new relationships. It 

appears as if during this stage the immigrant ceases to 

grieve over his losses and begins to accept a new role 

in a new environment (Toomer, 1981). 

The fourth stage is called the predepartive stage. 

At this time, the foreign student tends to withdraw from 

the American culture and develop anxieties about returning 

home. It is to be expected that the cross-cultural 

sojourner in the new environment generally behaves almost 

automatically in a manner compatible with his primary 

reference group in his home culture, because they do not 

bring with them the psychological support of familiar 

people, situations, and conditions. Novel cultural cues 

may not be perceived and actions may be inappropriate. 

Although socialization begins with the family form, 

educational institutions have their effect. Consequently, 

an individual participating in another country's educational 

program must be familiar with that country's culture. This 

familiarity alone is not sufficient for academic success. 

The foreign student must also identify, comply with and 



5 



internalize a set of different values, attitudes and 
social behaviors. As adjustments are made by the foreign 
student, his own cultural concepts tend to erode. Yet 
Pool (1965) declared that "in many cases the most profound 
effect of the foreign students' stay in a strange land is 
a better appreciation and understanding of their home 
country" (p. 77). Tamar (1971) claims that "commitment 
to the home country's cultural values is the least vulner- 
able to erosion through prolonged sojourn" (p. 468). 

The process through which foreign students adjust to 
their lives in the United States may be called minoritiza- 
tion (Gullahorn and Gullahorn, 1962, p. 131), and includes 
the social interactions which occur between the student and 
American society. The foreign students are socialized into 
American society by learning its mores, and they assume the 
behaviors which maximize their adjustment on their own terms. 
The literature on race relations and minority treatment in 
the United States suggests interesting parallels: Minorities 
are perceived as groups which are apart from the mainstream. 
Thus they are seen as politically, socially, and economi- 
cally different than typical Americans. Therefore, the 
foreign students find a lack of consensus between their 
own and their hosts' expectations regarding appropriate 
role behavior. This cultural shock will vary according 



51 



to the character of the individual and the difference 
between his/her home culture and the American culture. 

Depending upon certain personality variables the 
individual, in an attempt to adapt to the American 
society, may experience a form of what he referred to 
as "identity diffusion" where there is an inner experi- 
ence of internal sense of evaluation. A second reaction 
is the "defensive narrowness" (DeVos, 1980). These 
intellectual processes are not developed as a means of 
coping with the external world; instead the individual 
creates psychological barriers against possible enriching 
experiences from the host culture. A third reaction 
consists of a more flexible maintenance of our identity by 
emphasizing thought over feeling. (Toomer, 1981) 

Culture Shock 

Culture shock is a function of the individual's re- 
sponse to a given situation (Kimball, 1980) . According to 
Oberg (1960), Culture Shock is an occupational disease of 
people who have been suddenly transported abroad. He 
claims that it is precipitated by the anxiety that results 
from losing all their familiar signs and symbols of social 
intercourse. Oberg lists the kinds of thoughts and be- 
havior manifested by those who are so afflicted 

Some of the symptoms of culture shock are: ex- 
cessive washing of the hands; excessive concern 
over drinking water, food, dishes, and bedding; 



52 



fear of physical contact with attendants or ser- 
vants; the absent-minded, far-away stare (some- 
times called the tropical stare), -'a feeling of 
helplessness and a desire for dependence on 
long-term residents of one's own nationality; 
fits of anger over delays and other minor fru- 
strations; delay and outright refusal to learn 
the language of the host country; excessive 
fear of being cheated, robbed, or injured; 
great concern over minor pains and erruptions 
of the skin; and finally, the terrible longing 
to be back home, to be able to have a good cup 
of coffee and a piece of apple pie, to walk in- 
to that corner drugstore, to visit one's rela- 
tives, and in general, to talk to people who 
really make sense. (Oberg, I960, p. 178) 

Other aspects of culture shock were also listed by Oberg. 
He observed that the degree of stress varies from one 
individual to another. One may experience either a 
severe or a mild case of the "disease," as he labels 
it. He added that there are some people who cannot live 
in an alien culture. In addition he noted some regularity 
in the sequence of stages through which an individual 
passes. These are the euphoric delight of an initial 
honeymoon period followed by a state of aggressive hos- 
tility toward all aspects of the host country. In extreme 
cases the individual may suffer a nervous breakdown which 
is caused by structural imbalance (Heider, 19 58) . When 
the individual can move about easily and comfortably in 
the new environment, then adjustment has been realized. 
Oberg (1960) advises that the cure is hastened if one 
gets to know the new culture and the people. 

According to Kimball (1980), there are usually two 
avenues opened for those in a state of culture shock to 



53 



restore their equilibrium. They can retreat to the situa- 
tions where the correspondence between the outside and the 
inside is familiar, and hence normal, or they can learn 
new criteria by which one identifies and responds to the 
outside . 

Traditionally, culture shock has been looked on as a 
form of anxiety. This anxiety leads to misperceptions of 
common signs and symbols of social interaction. Individuals 
may react to culture shock along a continuum ranging from 
mild irritability to panic. Those who are experiencing 
culture shock may demonstrate their discomfort by feeling 
helpless, annoyed, cheated, or disregarded. 

Confronting the realities of living in a new country 
always arouses feelings of sadness and disorientation. 
Namias (1978) and Sowell (1978) suggest that dislocation 
places individuals in the midst of a crisis, and the reac- 
tions expressed are described as similar to that of "grief." 
Fried (1977) described the process of dislocation evolving 
into feelings of pain, loss, a sense of helplessness, di- 
rect and displaced anger, and idealization of the lost 
place . 

Although it is a negative concept, culture shock may 
also be looked upon in a positive sense because men and 
women who go through the experience become more mature 
psychologically. Adler (1975) feels that the frustration 



54 



met in the culture shock experience and the individual's 
responses are important in understanding personality 
changes. These changes can lead to higher levels of 
personality development. Or, transitional experiences 
of this type contain the potential for personality growth. 
Adler stated 4 assumptions before he prepared a model 
designed to depict these transitional experiences. 

First, the individual is forced into a situation 
characterized by tension. In order to resolve this ten- 
sion, the individual must redefine his psychological posi- 
tion. Second, each person defines his world through cul- 
turally influenced notions. Third, most individuals are 
not aware of their own beliefs and values, and transition- 
al experiences tend to illuminate them. Fourth, psycholog- 
ical adjustments tend to bring out novel personality forms, 
forms which allow the individual to identify and cope with 
the adjustments in his environment. 

The Culture Shock story is told of an American lec- 
turer who encountered an unexpected difference in role 
behavior in a foreign institution and found that he had 
to change his usualpractice of arriving early for class 
meetings . 

I started out early one day and my assistant . . . 
grabbed me by the arm and said, "You mustn't go 
early." I didn't understand this and told him 
that I often did because I liked to write things 
on the blackboard and liked to chat with students. 



55 



He said, "But don't you see what happens?" I told 
him no I couldn't see that anything was happening. 
He said, "Well, if you come early, not a student 
may come into the classroom after you have enter- 
ed." It occurred to me that this was true. After 
I came in, not a single student did. They consid- 
ered themselves late if they arrived after the 
professor, and so they would not enter, because to 
arrive late would be a mark of disrespect. Conse- 
quently, thereafter the professor never went to 
class until fifteen minutes after the hour. 
(Gullahorn and Gullahorn, 1963, p. 243) 

Aside from variations in classroom behavior in differ- 
ent universities' social systems, there is considerable 
variance in the degree of social distance characteristic 
of faculty-student relations in different cultures. In 
commenting on his overseas experience, for example, one 
American professor noted 

Another thing I did that proved extremely dis- 
turbing to the faculty was to invite the stu- 
dents to my home . . . All in all, I think the 
faculty . . . considered that the Americans 
have still remained rebels, and that the 
revolution is aimed at the educational insti- 
tutions .... (Gullahorn and Gullahorn, 
1962) 

Conversely, foreign students at American institutions are 
at first confused and disturbed by what they perceive to 
be the lack of deference their American peers exhibit to- 
ward their professor. 

Closely related to the issue of differing patterns 
of faculty-student relations is the general area of cul- 
tural divergences in definitions regarding the rights and 
obligations involved in friendship relationships (Lewin, 
1948). There is considerable variance across cultures in 



56 



the length of acquaintance preceding the establishment of 
first-name relationships as well as in the introduction of 
a stranger into one's home; furthermore, there are differ- 
ences in the degree of intimacy of friendship implied by 
such behavior. In the United States, foreign sojourners 
often initially feel overwhelmed by the apparent openness 
and "friendliness" of their hosts; however, when they find 
that an invitation to an American's home does not neces- 
sarily indicate strong affective sentiments, they tend to 
characterize American friendship relationships as "super- 
ficial. " 

Aside from cultural differences in role expectations, 
a more covert source of potential misunderstanding among 
those involved in cross-cultural contact situations arises 
from the subtle expectations developed in the very process 
of learning a particular language. In the Japanese langu- 
age, for example, the honorifics, syntax, and choice of 
lexical items. are clustered for use depending upon the 
relative prestige of the interaction partners; consequently 
the language presents built-in status cues for its users. 
Such cues are absent in the relatively egalitarian structure 
of the English language, a factor contributing to what 
Bennett and Associates (1958) characterize as "status-cue 
confusing" among Japanese sojourners in the United States. 
Thus the verbal cues occurring during a conversation with 



57 



an American professor may lead a Japanese student to 
feel he/she is receiving what he/she perceives as peer 
treatment from someone he/she considers a superior status 
person. In the new cultural context, therefore, the 
Japanese sojourner can no longer depend largely upon 
language as an index of status but must learn to discrim- 
inate cues from other behaviors of his hosts. 

Even in the area of non-verbal communication, oppor- 
tunities for misinterpretation are legion. There are 
marked differences across cultures concerning such simple 
behavior as the spatial placement of partners. In normal 
social interaction, partners are close to the physical 
proximity that evokes either sexual or hostile feelings 
in the North American (Hall, 1959) . 

With so many potential sources of confusion and 
frustration for the sojourner attempting to adjust to 
an alien social system, it is not surprising that this 
phase of adjustment is sometimes termed "cultural shock" 
to designate the psychological impact of the distortion 
or absence of familiar cues. Of course, individual 
personality differences account for some of the variance 
in the severity and duration of this anomic period. In 
addition, however, data from the Social Science Research 
Council (SSRC) studies of foreign students in the United 



58 



States suggest that there are cultural patternings in 
the defense mechanisms exhibited at this time. For 
example, Indian and Pakistani students tend to display 
hypersensitive hostility in responding to the ego threat 
inherent in their perception of a derogatory American 
image of their homelands (Lambert and Bressier, 1955) . 
Following Ichheiser's terminology, Coelho (1958) charac- 
terizes this reaction as the "motebean" mechanism of 
projection wherein the Indian student who is asked, for 
example, about the caste situation responds by attacking 
the American handling of Negroes. According to Bennett 
and Associates (1958) , Japanese students, on the other 
hand, respond to situations of threat to their national 
esteem by withdrawing, a reaction apparently consonant 
with their cultural norm of "emryo," or reserve. 

In addition, we may note that the problems encounter- 
ed by the cross-cultural sojourner are those of marked 
cognitive reorientation involving changes in feelings as 
well as overt behavior. For many years industry has been 
experimenting with such a restraining of relatively normal 
persons in stressful situations. Various labels are ap- 
plied to this endeavor, such as sensitivity training or 
human relations in industry. 

Foreign students who are studying in the United States 
are considered to be high risks (Walter, 19 78) . These 



59 



students are under a great deal of tension, and counseling 
services designed for them have not been effective. Addi- 
tionally, American counselors have not been trained to deal 
with individuals whose cultural values differ from their 
own. Consequently, counseling services for foreign students 
must be improved if their needs are going to be met. 

When a foreign student needs help, he/she will turn 
to other foreign students rather than trained counselors. 
This strategy limits the foreign student's adaptation to 
his/her host culture and, in turn, his independence. 
Walter added that though cross-cultural counseling may 
be a difficult process, it is not impossible. This type 
of counseling will be effective if counselors will consider 
all the characteristics of the foreign student including 
his/her cultural background. While other counseling 
skills are necessary, formal training is necessary to 
acquire them. 

Senner (1978) studied the problems experienced by 
foreign students, assessed their intensity and attempted 
to link this intensity to 7 demographic variables. The 
investigator selected 166 foreign students who were enrolled 
at a single university and asked them to complete a ques- 
tionnaire titled "Concerns of International Students." 
This instrument was constructed with statements taken from 
the literature at large. A Likert-type scale was used to 
rank the responses in line with the respondent's intensity. 



60 



Senner found differences in the concerns of students 
at the graduate and undergraduate levels with regard to 
curriculum and instruction. Senner also found relationships 
for age and "personal and psychological relations," grade- 
point average and "adjustment to college work," and the 
number of years a student spent studying English and "the 
future: vocational and educational." 

Foreign students perceived their education in the 
United States as a period in which they could improve their 
minds and travel through the country. Working on a part- 
time basis during the school year or during vacations was 
looked on as a way of showing financial concern. The stu- 
dents did not appear to be too disturbed about activities 
which disrupted their long-term goals momentarily. Some 
students did exhibit needs for cultural accomodations, 
communication, and coping ability. 

Senner concluded his study by stating that future 
research activities should be directed toward examining 
the differences between foreign and American students in 
the problems they encounter during their academic careers. 
Differences in the perceptions of graduate and undergraduate 
students toward curriculum and instruction would also be 
a fruitful area of research activity. 

Carey and Maram (1980) reviewed the literature on in- 
ternational education and reported that little information 



61 



has appeared on the dynamics of the socialization and ac- 
culturation processes. The influence of the foreign stu- 
dent on the host country has also been ignored. Therefore, 
Carey and Maram investigated these issues and proposed a 
theory which could be used to study the adjustment of 
foreign students in the United States. 

According to Carey and Maram, foreign students tend 
to form cliques and avoid the mainstream of American life. 
These students form cliques because they lack language 
command, are unable to define reference groups, tend to 
be disoriented and have financial problems. Carey and 
Maram considered these points and proposed a socialization 
model based on studies of minority groups in the United 
States . 

Although socialization begins with the family form, 
educational institutions have their effect. Consequently, 
an individual participating in another country's educational 
program must be familiar with that country's culture. Alone, 
this familiarity is not sufficient for academic success. 
The foreign student must also identify, comply with, and 
internalize a set of different values, attitudes, and 
social behaviors. 

While the number of foreign students enrolled in 
American colleges and universities may exceed one million 
by 1990, they tend to major in a limited number of areas 



62 



(Bradshaw and McKinnon, 1980). Engineering, business, 
science, and mathematics attract roughly two-thirds of 
the foreign students in the United States. The foreign 
students who remained in the United States after gradu- 
ation had no problems with job placements, but those who 
decided to return home posed a challenge to school 
placement officials. Most foreign students will probably 
choose to return home in the future because of improving 
economic conditions and the placement problems must there- 
fore be recognized and attended to by responsible officials 

Bradshaw and McKinnon found that faculty members held 
two incorrect assumptions about foreign students. First, 
many faculty members were not aware that a problem existed. 
They assumed that opportunities were available in the 
United States and that students would prefer to remain 
rather than return to a less developed country. The as- 
sumption was that foreign students came from wealthy fami- 
lies and had no placement problems. To learn how to put 
training into action may be of even greater urgency; the 
application of newly acquired skills in an old environ- 
ment can sometimes present more problems than the actual 
learning process (Kline, 1953). 



63 



Applicability of United States 
Education to the Third World Countries 

The geometric burgeoning of the number of foreign 
students studying in the United States' institutions of 
higher education has created certain unresolved academic 
and administrative dilemmas for their host institutions. 
These dilemmas, in part, are the result of an effort to 
answer the philosophical question posed constantly: 
"toward what end are the American institutions of higher 
education, educating the foreign students?" 

Perhaps it can also be fairly asked, why American 
educators should be overly concerned with the education 
of foreigners seeing that they represent only 1.5 percent 
of the total enrollment in institutions of higher education. 
Moreover, one could assume that if the international stu- 
dents chose to study here it is because they have decided 
that the American curricular offerings satisfy their edu- 
cation and training needs (Higbee, 1962) . 3ased on these 
assumptions, one could argue that the American institution 
of higher education is not obligated to change its program 
to meet the international students' need. But if any uni- 
versity should take that line of action, then it is morally 
and ethically wrong in admitting these students (Blankenship , 
1980) . According to Parrish (1977) , in accepting foreign 
students, a United States institution should constantly be 
aware of its responsibilities to the students and provide 



6 4 



the education programs that these students will be able 
to utilize on returning to their countries (Blankenship , 
1980) . 

A number of recent surveys give a disturbing picture 
of the difficulty experienced by foreign specialists and 
professional people trained in the United States in adapting 
their training to the needs of their own peoples. Profes- 
sional divisions, schools, and colleges should develop pro- 
grams designed specifically to help foreign students to 
acquire skills which will be relevant when they attack 
poverty, hunger, disease, and ignorance at home (Caldwell, 
1969) . 

Kerr (1975) states that 

"an educational institution which accepts foreign 
students must assume certain continuing obligations 
to them. Students from other cultures present 
special needs related to their own cultures. Ed- 
ucational institutions, therefore, must be mindful 
of their capabilities and make suitable provision 
to meet them." (p.l) 

Fuller (1978) has depicted a future scenario of the 
U.S. as the higher education factory of the world which 
he refers to as the "educationalization of America" (p. 40). 
The basic premise is that American higher education can 
be compared to other American exports. As America becomes 
more dependent on imported natural resources, higher edu- 
cation can become a major export in the balance of inter- 
national trade (Blankenship, 1980) . 



65 



Although Fuller's "educationalization of America" is 
possible, there are other obstacles that have to be over- 
come by educational planners before it can be considered 
probable. Martorana (1978) categorized these obstacles 
or constraints into the following taxonomy: (a) education- 
al and philosophical, (b) fiscal, (c) political, and (d) 
logistical . 

These constraints or obstacles are not insurmountable 
in light of the growing need to improve American foreign 
policy. If international students return to their coun- 
tries to assume a leadership role, it is conceivable that 
the spillover effect will provide improved communications 
between respective countries. It can be contended that 
these obstacles or constraints can be overcome considering 
the importance of international education to American for- 
eign policy. 

There are American universities which send their pro- 
fessors on exchange programs and on AID missions to many 
nations. Yet these institutions, with thousands of foreign 
students from all over the world, may remain virtually un- 
changed in the basic academic orientation. 

The following assumptions are basic to a rationale 
for including international education as part of the pro- 
gram of higher education: 



56 



(1) Unless national public policy is changed 
to restrict the entry of international 
students, the number of international 
students entering the universities will 
continue to increase; 

(2) The American system of higher education 
will remain competitive (in terms of 
direct/indirect educational costs, 
quality of programs/services), with 
other countries' educational systems; 

(3) The obstacles or constraints to imple- 
menting programs for international 
students are resolvable; 

(4) The disparity between industrialized 
countries and third-world countries 
could accelerate if human resources 
are not shared. 

Through her different agencies and foundation's schol- 
arship program, America has given numerous opportunities to 
international students to study here in the U.S. However, 
not only have U.S. institutions of higher education been 
indifferent to the adjustment problems of foreign stu- 
dents, but they have also given little attention to such 
problems of foreign students as the relevancy of American 
educational programs for the developing world. 

Today, many developing countries are themselves ques- 
tioning the suitability of western technology, education, 
and culture for their countries (Lee et al., 1981) since 
degree requirements are narrowly prescribed and foreign 
students have little opportunity to mold their programs 
to fit their own needs. Theoretically, North American 



67 



professors who advise and teach foreign students might 

help students to relate their course work to the needs 

and realities of their particular countries. This would 

give students the information needed to return to their 

country and to be able to perform with confidence as a 

professional on their return. This sort of help is what 

the "Third World" needs: students educated to translate 

the educational technology they have received in the 

United States to their countries' realities so as to be 

able to help in the process of social change and economic 

development . 

According to Brislin and Van Buren (1974) Benjamin 

Franklin (1734) once related an experience he had with 

people from one culture to another 

At the Treaty of Lancaster, in Pennsylvania, anno 
1744, between the Government of Virginia and the 
6 Nations, the commissioners from Virginia ac- 
quainted the Indians by speech, that there was at 
Williamsburg College a fund for educating Indian 
youths . . . and if the chiefs of the 6 Nations 
would send down half a dozen of their sons to 
that college, the government would take care that 
they be well provided for, and instructed in all 
the learning of the white people. 

The Indian's spokesman replied 

We are convinced . . . that you mean to do us good 
by your proposal and we thank you heartily. But 
you, who are wise, must know that different nations 
have different conceptions of things; and you will 
not therefore take it amiss, if our ideas of this 
kind of education happen not to be the same as yours. 
We have had some experience of it; several of our 
young people were formerly brought up at the college 



68 



of northern provinces; they were instructed in 
all your sciences; but, when they came back to 
us, they were bad runners, ignorant of every 
means of living in the woods, unable to bear 
either cold or hunger, knew neither hew to 
build a cabin, take a deer, nor kill an enemy, 
spoke our language imperfectly, were therefore 
neither fit for hunters, warriors, nor counsel- 
ors; they were totally good for nothing. 

We are however not the less obligated by your 
kind offer, though we decline accepting it; 
and, to show our grateful sense of it, if the 
gentlemen of Virginia will send us a dozen of 
their sons, we will take care of their educa- 
tion, instruct them in all we know, and make 
men of them. (p. 10) 

International education and foreign affairs involve 
the university in benefolent over-seas and on-campus ac- 
tivities, but the academic structure may remain without 
genuine awareness of the breadth and depth of the changes 
in the human condition, and in the body of learning 
(Caldwell, 1969) . 

American universities have the opportunity and the 
obligation, according to Caldwell, to work with the devel- 
oping nations in technical assistance programs. This, he 
claims has generally involved the application of American 
solutions to the problems of the developing countries. 
It is becoming increasingly apparent that American solutions 
are not necessarily valid outside the United States according 
to the literature. If the university is to serve effect- 
ively as a partner to universities and governments in other 
lands, then American technology must be modified to make 
it relevant to the needs of societies quite different from 
the United States (Caldwell, 1969). 



69 



Reentry Problems that Students Can 

Anticipate Encountering on 
Their Return to Their Native Lands 

When a person lives in a culture other than his own 
for a significant length of time, his attitudes and out- 
look change (Bochner, 1973; Useem and Useem, 1955; Cleveland 
et al . , 1968) . Many aspects of his home country will also 
have changed, for instance, the attitudes of his friends 
and family and the physical elements of the environment 
that he/she remembers. 

Perhaps the university can play a very important role 
in helping students to become aware of the reentry prob- 
lem that they will face so that they will not be trauma- 
tized on reaching their country and abandon the ship pre- 
maturely. To look homeward with a sense of security and 
confidence in family, community, and national relationships 
is surely just as important to the foreign student as his/ 
her social and academic adjustment while away from his/her 
homeland. 

Orr (1971) reviewed the research on foreign students 
who studied in American colleges and universities and tried 
to identify patterns and factors in their experiences on 
their return to their home countries. Orr emphasized four 
points in his study: (1) personal changes which occurred 
as a result of the student's American experience, (2) use 
of the skills learned in America, (3) readjustments made 



70 



on returning home, and (4) the student's effectiveness as 
a cultural change agent. 

Most of the research Orr examined was funded by the 
federal government. Married males from urban areas who 
were sponsored by a foreign government served as the focus 
for a majority of the studies. Most foreign students re- 
ported that they were changed by their educational exper- 
iences in America. Specifically, they described themselves 
as more flexible, more insightful, and more sensitive to 
others' concerns. These students said that they gained 
self-confidence, self-discipline, social responsibility, 
and better work habits. Additionally, the foreign students 
were more socially and politically discriminating and dev- 
eloped understandings as to the unity of mankind and poli- 
tical realities. The time a foreign student spent in the 
United States seemed to be a strong factor here because 
the younger men and women who spent more time in America 
appeared to show the most change. 

When they returned home, many students reported that 
they had adjustment problems. The returnees had to control 
the mannerisms they learned in America and limited their 
criticisms of their home countries. Most of the problems 
encountered by the students were described as slight. 
Stronger problems were experienced by younger students, 
more alienated men and women, those who were from countries 



71 



which were at odds with the United States, students from 
rigid societies, and those who felt that they had no in- 
fluence in their home cultures. 

Most of the returnees were able to use the knowledge 
they acquired but the extent of this use was dependent on 
the returnee's field of interest. Surprisingly, most of 
the returnees reported that their American experience had 
no major influence on their careers. Orr concluded his 
study by stating that stronger predeparture programs for 
returning foreign students should be planned. Closer 
governmental ties should be developed and further research 
on foreign alumni ought to be conducted in order to deter- 
mine the effectiveness of these programs. 

According to Jones (1972), little research has been 
conducted as to how foreign students use the feel toward 
the education they received in the United States. With 
these points in mind, Jones prepared a questionnaire to 
collect information from foreign-born graduates of American 
universities who returned to their home countries. Jones 
was interested in their vocations, attitudes towards others, 
personal lives, contributions to their countries, use of 
English, and perceptions of their American education. The 
foreign students' advisors were also questioned on the 
final point. Various comparisons were made in the analyti- 
cal component of the study. 



72 



A number of significant findings emerged in the ana- 
lyses. Generally, the foreign students were satisfied 
with their American education. They rose to responsible 
positions, enjoyed high salaries, and contributed in a 
number of ways to their countries' welfare. Moreover, 
the value of their American education was not limited to 
their academic experiences as comments were made on their 
stay in America as well. Jones reported that the percep- 
tions of the students' advisors were not in total agree- 
ment with the students' perceptions. The differences, 
however, were not strong. 

United States government assistance programs, such 
as those funded by the United States Agencies for Inter- 
national Development (USAID) , have brought more than 
13 0,000 students and scholars from developing countries to 
be trained in the areas of agriculture, health, and nutri- 
tion to the United States (McLaughlin, 1978) . Currently, 
there are some 7,000 participants sponsored by USAID 
receiving academic or technical training in the United 
States and approximately 3,000 are new arrivals (Lee 
et al. , 1981) . 

When these participants come to the United States, 
they bring with them a desire for education to provide 
them with the professional, social, and personal skills 
required for a meaningful role in their society. While 



73 



pursuing this goal they must also become involved in 
the daily life of the United States, their host country. 
It is at this point that they are exposed to new and 
different societal values, roles, rights, and responsibil- 
ities. In short, they are suddenly in an alien culture 
which requires a significant adaptation. 

The international students are required to compare 
these new and different cultural factors with those of 
their own culture and decide hew best to cope with them. 
Depending upon the individual, the length of his sojourn, 
and the cultural differences and similarities, the level 
of adaptation will be determined. While there is not suf- 
ficient research on the adaptation of the Caribbean student 
to make any generalizations, research on foreign students 
in the United States indicates that many students either 
do not adapt or return home without having attained their 
educational goals. If, on the other hand, they are able 
to complete their academic programs, they still do not 
enter into meaningful participation in American culture. 
Research on the problems of foreign students indicates 
that some nationalities experience greater and different 
adaptation difficulties than others. 

An interesting and important fact that has emerged 
from research in recent years is that a person who is most 
successful at adjusting to a new culture is often the worst 



74 



at readjusting to his old culture (Bochner, 1973) . 
According to Brislin and Van Buren (1974) , the explanation 
is that a person who adjusts readily is one who can accept 
new ideas, meet and talk intelligently with people from 
many countries, and be happy with the stimulation that he 
finds everyday. This same person may readjust poorly 
when he goes home since his new ideas conflict with tra- 
dition. He may not find any internationally minded 
person with whom to interact, and so find that he is no 
longer stimulated in the country he already knows so well. 
Training to prepare people for such reverse culture shock 
problems is uncommon, but the need to look at the reentry 
problems according to the research is extremely necessary. 

The literature and research cited in this chapter 
have supported the need for additional research in inter- 
national students' adaptation, acculturation and reentry 
problems . 



CHAPTER III 



METHODOLOGY 



The purpose of this study was to explore the experi- 
ences and impressions of Jamaicans who are undergraduate 
students at the University of Florida. This chapter will 
provide information on the subjects, the design, and the 
procedures followed for the main study and the pilot study 
which includes (1) theoretical foundation of the ques- 
tionnaire, (2) development of the questionnaire aimed 
at obtaining pertinent information concerning the Jamaican 
students' experiences and impressions at the University 
of Florida, (3) establishment of the content validity of 
that questionnaire, (4) obtaining a stratified random 
sample from the Jamaican student population for the infor- 
mal interview, and (5) field study and data collection. 

Subjects 
The subjects in this study were the Jamaican stu- 
dents who met with the criteria set by the researcher. 
These criteria were (1) subjects could not be graduate 



75 



76 



students, (2) subjects could not hold dual citizenship, 

(3) subjects could not be married to a U.S. citizen and 

(4) subjects could not be classified as seniors at the 
University of Florida. 

A student coining from Jamaica to the University of 
Florida may fall into three categories: (1) students that 
have their high school diploma, (2) students that have 
taken the Level examination, and (3) students that have 
taken the A Level examination. According to the impression 
of the interviewees, 9 5 percent felt that the student who 
came with A Levels were coping academically better than 
the others. Five percent of the students felt that there 
was no difference between the Level and A Level students 
in their academic achievement, but that there was an 
obvious difference with those that came and finished high 
school in the United States in relation to their academic 
achievement . 

Based on the students choice of subjects and careers 
they are pursuing at the University of Florida, it seems 
as if they have continued the Jamaican elitist trend of 
choosing the sciences over liberal arts, even though they 
might not be coping in those areas . 

Of the 80 students enrolled for the academic year 
1981-1982, 47 or 58.75 percent were enrolled in the 



77 



sciences. Five (5) or 6.25 percent were enrolled in 
architecture and business management, 2 or 2.5 percent 
in foreign language, 5 or 6.2 5 percent in education, and 
4 or 5 percent in psychology. This is illustrated in 
Figure 6. 

Content Validity and Reliability 
of the Instrument 

"One way of conceptualizing content validity is to 

consider it an estimate of the representativeness of the 

content of the instrument as a sample of all possible 

content" (Fox, 1969, p. 370). In this study, therfore, 

content validity was established through independent 

judgments obtained from the three experts on the panel. 

Pilot Study 

The names of the Jamaican student population at the 
University of Florida during the academic year 1981-1982 
were obtained from the International Student Center and 
from the Caribbean Student Association Organization at 
the University of Florida. 

The pilot study was conducted to determine: (1) 
the appropriateness of the questionnaire in securing the 
data, (2) to insure clarity of instruction of items on 
the questionnaire, (3) to set a time frame for completion 
of the questionnaire, and (4) to determine potential 
response rate. 



73 



Distribution of Students by 
Different Subject Areas 




^ *s$ 









tfW&AWS 



&'& 



^ 



x\- ^ xy ^- ,u 



if <? 






C U 



^ 



.c 

^ 



•^ 

^ 



9> <* 



> 



Figure 6 . Distribution of Students by 
Different Subject Areas. 



79 



The questionnaires and a self-addressed stamped en- 
velope to facilitate return of the questionnaires were 
personally delivered to each of the 20 Jamaican students 
who were randomly selected from the pilot study from a 
population of 86. 

Each questionnaire was pre-coded to facilitate the 
follow-up with the non-respondents who were instructed to 
respond within ten days. The respondents were asked to 
answer the questionnaire and to indicate the length of 
time it required for its completion. Participants were 
further asked to indicate the items they considered 
unclear. Finally, they were asked to comment on areas 
which they felt needed to be pursued in the interview. 

Participants were also asked to indicate any changes 
or additions they deemed necessary to improve the format 
and or general comprehensiveness of the items. 

A total of 20 pilot questionnaires were distributed, 
twenty students completed and returned the questionnaires 
making it a 100 percent returned, but only 18 were thor- 
oughly completed making the rate of usage return 9 per- 
cent for the pilot study. 

From the responses received with reference to the 
time needed to complete the questionnaire, there was a 
98 percent agreement that it required one hour. The 
time, therefore, was set for one hour for the completion 
of the questionnaire for the principal study. 



80 



Furthermore, 75 percent of the subjects in the pilot 
study suggested that item numbers 31, 32, 38, 39, 40, and 
41 should be verbally discussed. This suggestion was 
taken into consideration, and followed through in the 
taped interviews. 

Design 
The questionnaire was administered to the entire 
Jamaican student population enrolled at the University 
of Florida during the academic year 1981-1982, who met 
with the criteria set by the researcher. Of the 150 
students, 86 met with the criteria to be eligible to 
participate in the study. Of the 8 6 students who par- 
ticipated 80 completed the questionnaires to the satis- 
faction of the researcher. Of these N=80 subjects, a 
stratified random sample of 25 students were further 
selected to be interviewed. 

Development of the Questionnaire 
The instrument that was used was one developed by 
the researcher. The questionnaire (Appendix, p. 150) 
was constructed on the sequential topic basis. The 
first sequence solicited background data. The second 
sequence solicited answers on their pre-university 



orientation. The third sequence solicited answers on 
their cultural adaptation, experiences and impressions 
of the United States and fourth, solicited reentry 
considerations to their home. 

Theoretical Foundation 

The theoretical foundation on which the question- 
naire was constructed is based on "A Model of Man in 
Change" in The Peasant Venture by Paul Magnarella (1979) . 
This model helps one to understand the problems encoun- 
tered by foreign students and alerts the reader to the 
problems the students are likely to face on their return 
to their homeland. According to Magnarella "the basic 
model's components were derived from a number of dif- 
ferent social and behavior science paradigms was found 
to be partially congruent, complementary, and/or 
mutually supporting" (p. 128). Magnarella attributes 
some of the components of his model to the theories of 
Charles Eramus, and to the humanistic psychology of 
Alfred Adlers' learning theory, modeling theory, and 
reference group theories, among others. 

According to Lee et al. (1981) , a common understand- 
ing of human beings is that they have various needs and 
that they tend to behave in a certain manner in order to 
satisfy those needs. There are two categories into which 



82 



needs can be classified: physiological needs and social- 
psychological needs. Physiological needs are basic to 
human beings and there seems to be a consensus as to the 
nature of these needs within the literature (e.g. 
Seidenberg and Snadowski, 1976; Berkowitz, 1969; Maslow, 
1943; Lee et al . , 1981; and Magnarella, 1979). Social- 
psychological needs are those which an individual has 
by virtue of the fact that he or she resides in a social 
environment and lives in relation to other human beings 
(Lee et al., 1981). Those needs, therefore, are princi- 
pally the result of social learning (Lindgren, 1973; 
Magnarella, 1979) which reflects one's past experience 
as a member of a socity and one's present social milieu. 
With regard to social-psychological needs there seems to 
be less consensus found in the literature. 

While physiological needs can be modified, in their 
intensity by social learning, social-psychological needs 
are even more responsible to such modification (Lindgren, 
1973) . In order to identify specific needs of the subjects 
one ought to examine aspects of their cultural background 
and social system in which they functioned as members 
(Parsons and Shils, 1965; Magnarella, 1979) . Maslow (1943) 
ranked basic human needs (e.g. hunger, thirst) , safety 
needs (e.g. affection, identification), esteem needs (e.g. 
prestige, success self-respect) and need for self- 
actualization (i.e. desire for self-fulfillment). 



83 



The literature search presented the following needs 
of foreign students as identified or implied by previous 
studies: (1) academic needs, (2) linguistic needs, (3) 
cultural related needs, (4) interpersonal needs, (5) 
daily-living material needs, (6) post return needs, (7) 
and reentry needs. The social system in which the foreign 
students were situated was analyzed with the focal point 
on the students. Merton's (1957) concepts of "status-set" 
and "role-set" were used to identify the components of 
the social system of concern to the researcher at the 
University of Florida. The "status-set" is the complexity 
of status (i.e. positions) a person occupies by virtue of 
being a member of a social system, and the "role-set" 
is a set of roles a person is to play when occupying a 
position (Lee et al . , 1981). 

Upon this general theoretical perspective the general 
needs of the students were set. In this section we will 
discuss how we. arrived at the need items used in the ques- 
tionnaire. It was felt that it would not have been a 
feasible approach to ask open-ended questions to assess 
the needs of the student, but to formulate "need items" 
to which the respondents could react. The objective in 
formulating need items were: (1) to touch on the cogent 
needs of the Jamaican students and (2) to include among 



34 



others, the area of needs that would be relevant to the 
needs of the government of Jamaica and to the University 
of Florida. 

The items on the questionnaire were developed from 
several sources. The study of international students by 
(Lee et al . , 1981) provided an overview of the various 
areas that needed investigating. Other publications 
providing information on international education included 
the published reports and recommendations of the Wingspread 
conferences on foreign students (Diener and Kerr, 1979) and 
internationalizing the curriculum (Yarrington, 1978). Two 
hundred and sixty items were developed and grouped under 
appropriate headings. Through a process of elimination 
items that were repetitious, redundant, or obscure in 
meaning based on the reseacher's judgment, were excluded. 

Through this process, the number of items were re- 
duced from 2 60 to 156. Contact was then made with one 
bilingual bicultural expert and two anthropology experts 
in their field. Each expert was individually visited 
or spoken to over the phone to procure his/her participation 
on an evaluation panel. The purpose of this panel was to 
provide feedback and to evaluate the items on the research- 
er's questionnaire. 

An initial list of 156 items were given to each panel 
member with instruction for judging each item and item 



85 



categorization (see Appendix 1 for questionnaire) . 
The panel was instructed to consider each item according 
to the following criteria: (1) simplicity of language, 
(2) clarity, (3) ambiguity and (4) relevancy of items to 
the purpose of the study. 

After analyzing the experts' reactions, the instru- 
ment was further refined as suggestions and recommenda- 
tions were accomodated. The decision-rule for retaining 
an item required that two of the three members validated 
the relevancy of the items. The final questionnaire, 
therefore, contained 156 items, each having received 100 
percent agreement for relevancy as well as 100 percent 
agreement of the categorization of items from the panel 
after the minor changes were accomplished. 

Responses were recorded through the use of a Likert 
type scale with the following ranges: a. (1) very much, 
(2) much, (3) very little, (4) not at all; b. (1) not 
important to very important (4); c. (1) not at all to 
very much (4 ) . 

Of the 80 students whose completed questionnaires 
were accepted for this study, 70 or 87.5 percent considered 
Jamaica their home, and ten had mixed feelings. Those 
with mixed feelings clarified their statement by informing 
the researcher that "home is where one is living at a 



36 



given point in time." Nevertheless, as the interview 
progressed they clearly stated that they had intention 
of returning "home to Jamaica in the not far distant 
future . " 

The mean age of the students in the study was 21.8; 
the mean grade point average of subjects was 2.6; the 
mean length of stay in the country was 3.5; the mean 
length of stay at the University of Florida was 1.6; and 
the mean anticipated reentry problems was 2.6 (see Table 4 

TABLE 4 



Siographical Data 







Standard 


Variable 


Mean 


Deviation 


USTAY 


3.5 


1.8 


CSTAY 


1.6 


.6 


GPA 


2.6 


.6 


REENTP 


2.6 


1.2 


AGE 


21.8 


3.5 



Of these 8 students, 38 were male and 42 were female, 
79 were sinqle and one was married. The students' 



87 



University classification was as follows: 51 or 63.75 
percent freshmen, to 22 or 27.3 percent juniors, and 
to 7 or 8.25 percent sophomores. No seniors or graduate 
students were accepted for the study. 

The primary source of funding for these students is 
illustrated in the following Figure 7 . This figure shows 
that 83.75 percent of the students 1 finance came from 
their parents, personal savings or from their home 
country's government. 

Collection of the Data 
The collection of data was conducted in five stages: 
(1) a list containing the names and addresses of the 86 
Jamaican undergraduate students was obtained from the 
International Student Center and from the Caribbean Stu- 
dent Association at the University of Florida, (2) a 
telephone call was made to each student soliciting their 
aid in the study and advising them that a questionnaire 
would be sent to them if they consented to participate, 
(3) a cover letter and questionnaire was hand delivered 
to those students at the University of Florida who agreed 
to participate in the study. The cover letter attached 
to the questionnaire explained the intent of the study 
and requested each participant to complete and return 
the questionnaire in 10 days (see Appendix, p. 147), 



Percentage Distribution of 

Jamaican Students' Primary Source of Funds 

1981-1982 at the University of Florida 




Employment •- 
U.S. Private Sponsor •- 
U.S. Government •- 



Figure 7. Percentage Distribution of Jamaican 
Students' Primary Source of Funds. 



39 



(4) at the end of the ten day period a follow-up tele- 
phone call was made to those participants who had not 
responded. Participants were again informed to return 
the questionnaire within ten days. No additional follow- 
ups were necessary as there was a 100 percent return. Of 
the 36 questionnaires received for a 100 percent response 
rate, only 8 were usable for analysis; rendering a usable 
response rate of 93 percent. (5) A stratified random 
sample of 25 students were then selected from the popu- 
lation that met with the criteria set by the researcher. 
Each of the selected students were then telephoned to set 
an appointment time for the interview. 



CHAPTER IV 

PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE DATA 

Presentation and Interpretation of Data 
The main purposes of this study were six-fold. The 
first was to explore the experiences and impressions of 
Jamaicans who are undergraduate students at the University 
of Florida in order to evaluate the extent to which their 
stay has been educationally rewarding and the degree to 
which they perceived the course of studies they were pur- 
suing as being relevant to the needs of the developing 
nation of Jamaica. The second was to identify problems 
confronted by Jamaican students who have matriculated 
at the University of Florida. The third was to determine 
the extent to which these students' programs of studies 
in Jamaica prepared them to pursue their educational goals 
at the University of Florida. The fourth was to explore 
the ways in which Jamaican students have modified their 
culture in order to get along socially in the United States. 
The fifth was to identify the problems of adjustment that 
students expect to experience when they return to Jamaica. 
The final and sixth purpose was to suggest procedures that 



90 



91 



might be employed at the University of Florida in order 
to assist students in transferring the knowledge gained 
in the United States to Jamaica. 

In this chapter, the analysis and findings of the 
study and the result of the significance testing of the 
hypotheses which provided specific direction for the 
investigator will be presented. 

The two data collection instruments used in the study 
were a questionnaire and an interview guide which were de- 
veloped by the researcher (see Appendix) . A pilot study 
was conducted and the data obtained was used to determine 
necessary revisions, additions and deletions of the items 
developed by the researcher. Reliability was established 
for each scale with the aid of the pilot study. 

One variable considered was age, which was examined 
at two levels - younger student represented the age group 
17-24 and older students the age group 25-38. Length of 
stay in the United States, was another variable under 
consideration; and three levels of education obtained in 
Jamaica were the other variables being examined. The 
levels of education ranged from those students who did 
not take the Level examination to those who took the 
Level examination and to those who went beyond the 
Levels and took the A Levels. Other variables that were 
examined were adaptation, and anticipated reentry problems. 



92 



These variables were measured by using a four scale 
Likert type measurement which ranged from "did not adapt" 
to "greatly adapted", and from "anticipates no problems" 
to "anticipates a great deal of problems." 

In addition, through the interviews, the researcher 
was able to delve deeper into areas that could not be accu- 
rately measured on a questionnaire. The areas investigated 
were cultural changes, experiences and impressions of the 
Jamaican students at the University of Florida. The 
interviews, therefore, provided the data that were used 
for the qualitative analyses of these questions. 

The hypotheses and questions that the study proposed 
to test are as follows: 



1. There is no statistically significant difference 
between the students' level of orientation (orien- 
tation or no orientation) and their achievement 

as measured by their grade point average. 

2. There is no statistically significant difference 
between the students' level of orientation and their 
adaptation to the United States. 

3. There is no statistically significant difference 
between the students' level of education (0 Levels, 
A Levels and below Levels) on arriving in the 
United States and their academic achievement as 
measured by their grade point average after one 
year at the University of Florida. 

4. There is no statistically significant difference 
between the type of visa (J, F, R) held by the 
student and their adaptation to the United States. 

5. There is no statistically significant difference 
between the type of visa held by the student and 
their academic achievement. 



93 



6. There is no statistically significant interaction 
between the students' age, their length of stay in 
the United States, and their adaptation. 

7. There is no statistically significant relationship 
between the adaptation of the students and their 
length of stay in the United States. 

8. There is no statistically significant relationship 
between the adaptation of older students (ages 25-38] 
and younger students (ages 17-24) at the University 
of Florida. 

9. There is no statistically significant relationship 
between the students' grade point average and their 
anticipated reentry problems. 

10. There is no statistically significant relationship 
between the level of adaptation to problems in the 
United States and the set of independent variables 
"X" ("X" representing age, length of sojourn in the 
U.S.A. and type of visa: J, F, R) . 

11. There is no statistically significant relationship 
between the degree of problems encountered in the 
United States and the set of independent variables 
"X". 

12. There is no statistically significant relationship 
between the degree of problems expected when the 
student reenters his/her country and the set of 
independent variables "X". 

13. There is no statistically significant relationship 
between the students' GPA and the set of independent 
variables "X" . 



The questions for which the researcher sought answers, 
and which were descriptively presented are the following: 



1. How do the Jamaican students feel about their Jamaican 
identity? 

2. What are some of the experiences the students from 
Jamaica have had at the University of Florida? 



94 



3. What are some of the impressions the students from 
Jamaica have of their course of study, its relevance 
to their future, and to the needs of Jamaica? 

4 . To what degree has the value structure and modus 
operandi of the students from Jamaics changed to fit 
into the U.S. culture? 

5. What are some of the problems the Jamaican students 
anticipate facing on their return home? 



Hypothesis 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6, which read to the 

effect that there would be no significant difference 

between the dependent and the independent variables, was 

analyzed using an analysis of variance (ANOVA) at a .05 

alpha level of confidence. The findings for each one of 

these six hypotheses were as follows: 

Hypothesis 1 which stated that: 

There is no statistically significant difference 
between the students' level of orientation (orien- 
tation or no orientation) and their academic 
achievement as is measured by their grade point 
average 

was analyzed using an analysis of variance (ANOVA) . This 
hypothesis was rejected at the .05 alpha level of confi- 
dence, illustrating that the orientation program did make 
a difference in the students' academic achievement. The 
students who did not attend the orientation program had a 
significantly smaller mean of 2.49 and a standard devi- 
ation of .566 as is reported in Table (5). 



95 



Results of the statistical analysis for Hypothesis 1. 



TABLE 5 



GPA by Orientation 







Standard 


Variables 


Mean 


Deviation 


Dependent GPA 






Indeoendent 






Orientation 


2.78 


6.26 


No Orientation 


2.49 


.566 



F = 4.53 

Pr. F = .0365 



Hypothesis 2 which stated that: 

There is no statistically significant difference 
between the students' level of orientation and 
their adaptation to the United States 

was analyzed using an analysis of variance (ANOVA) statis- 
tical technique. The results show that the null hypothesis 
was not rejected at the .05 alpha level of confidence (see 
Table (6) . 



96 



TABLE 6 



Adaptation by Orientation 







Standard 


Variables 


Mean 


Deviation 


No Orientation 






Adaptation 


2.500 


1.055 


Orientation 






Adaptation 


2.931 


.420 



F = 2.29 

Pr. F = 0.1343 



Interpretation 

According to the result of the analysis, adaptation 
to the United State's culture is not affected by the 
students attending or not attending the orientation pro- 
gram. This result leads one to conclude that the orien- 
tation program is not geared toward helping the students 
with their adjustment problems. Bearing the results 
of hypothesis one, the information that the students 
obtained during the orientation program does seem to 
hel them, to fit in academically and to achieve, as is 
reflected in their GPA mean which was 2.78. 



97 



Hypothesis 3 which stated: 

There is no statistically significant difference 
between the students' level of education (0 Levels, 
A Levels, below Levels) on arriving in the United 
States and their grade point average after one year 
at the University of Florida 

was analyzed using an analysis of variance (ANOVA) statis- 
tical technique and was followed up by the use of a 
Bonfferroni analysis to determine which of the three edu- 
cational levels was significant. The null hypothesis was 
rejected at a .05 alpha level of confidence as the educa- 
tion obtained in Jamaica seemed to have made a difference 
statistically in the students' academic achievement at 
the University of Florida. 

Three levels of education were measured to determine 
the students' academic achievement. These levels were: 
Level 1, which referred to those students who came before 
taking the Level examination. Level 2, referred to 
those who had taken the Level examination, and level 3, 
to those who took the A Level examination. 

According to the statistical results, those students 
who took the A Level examination before coming to the 
University of Florida, had a significantly higher GPA 
(3.095) than level 1 2.371 or level 2, whose GPA was 
2.271 (see Table 7 ) . 



93 



TABLE 7 



GPA bv Education 







Standard 




Probability 


Variables 


Mean 


Deviation 


F. 


of Obtained F 


Below Level 










Group 1 . GPA 


2.371 


0.629 


12.13 


0.0001 


Levels 










Group 2 . GPA 


2.271 


0.529 






A Levels 










Group 3 . GPA 


3.095 


0.554 







Hypothesis 4 which stated that: 

There is no statistically significant difference 
between the type of visa (J, F, R) held by the 
students and their adaptation to the United States 

was analyzed using an analysis of variance (ANOVA) statis- 
tical technique and the results show no significant differ- 
ence between the three types of visa (F, J. R) held by the 
students and their adaptation to the United States. The 
null hypothesis was not rejected at the .05 alpha level of 
confidence, F = i.il probability of obtaining F = 0.3358 
as is demonstrated in Table (3 ) . 



9 9 



TABLE 3 



Visa by Adaptation 



Variables 


Mean 


Standard 
Deviation 


J. Visa Adaptation 
F. Visa Adaptation 
R. Visa Adaptation 


3.30 
2.66 
2.65 


1.494 
0.605 
1.25 



F = 1.11 

Pr. F - 0.3355 



Interpretatio n 

Although statistically the variables demonstrated no 
significant difference, this result in itself is significant 
as it backs up the cultural fact that Jamaicans travel all 
over the world but never sever the ties that bind them to 
their home country. Wherever they go they are always plan- 
ning for that day, 'which may never arrive 1 , when they will 
return home. 

On a grant obtained from the Organization of the Ameri- 
can States in 1975, the researcher conducted a pilot study 
in Costa Rica 'Puerto Limon' among the Jamaican decendants 
who have been residing there for the past 8 5 years. When 



100 



a sample of this group (n = 45) was asked, "What nationality 

do you consider yourself?" There was a 100 percent response 

that they considered themselves Jamaicans. The group the 

researcher interviewed was the third generation of Jamaicans 

born in Costa Rica and who had never been to Jamaica. Bearing 

this in mind, the type of visa, therefore, would not have 

made a psychological difference in their adaptation. 

Hypothesis 5 which stated that: 

There is no statistically significant difference 
between the type of visa held by the students and 
their academic achievement 

was tested by an analysis of variance (ANOVA) statistical 

technique at the .05 alpha level of confidence. The results 

indicate that the type of visa the students had did make 

a difference in their academic achievement as was measured 

by their GPA. In order to know whether it was the J. 

visa, F. visa, or Resident visa which made the difference, 

a Bonnferroni statistical follow-up was performed. The 

results indicated that the null hypothesis was to be 

rejected as there was a significant difference. 

Group one which referred to the students with the 

J. visa had a significantly higher mean, 3.006, over 

group two or students that had an F. visa whose mean was 

2.96. The students in the third group or those who 

had their resident visa had a mean of 2.456 (see Table 9 ) . 

The following table illustrates the statistical results. 



F = 7.95 

Pr. F = 0. 0007 



101 



TABLE 9 



GPA by Visa 



Variables 


J. Visa 


F. Visa 


R. Visa 


Mean GPA 

Standard 
Deviation 


3.006 
0.463 


2.960 
0.510 


2.456 

1 
0.606 



Interpretation 

The difference that the type of visa seemed to have 
made may have stemmed from the psychological fear of 
failure felt by the Jamaican students, as they indicated 
in the interview. This fear seemed to have been produced 
from the educational system in Jamaica and the publicity 
afforded the results of each examination, making their 
failure or success a public matter. 

The educational system in Jamaica stemmed from the 
British who colonized the island for over three hundred 
years. Although Jamaica has been independent for over 24 
years, this system still continues with very little mod- 
ification. 



102 



In Jamaica, it was required that at the age of 10 or 
11, the child in the elementary school took what is known 
as the Common Entrance Examination. 

After the correction of the Eleven plus or Common 
Entrance Examination as it was called, the results were 
published in the leading newspaper on the Island. The 
child's name and the school which he would attend appeared 
in the press. The child is therefore branded at the tender 
age of 10 or 11, if he should fail, as incompetent by the 
teachers and parents and as stupid by his peers. The 
result of this examination was used by the government to 
decide which child was placed in the grammar schools, 
which ones in the technical schools and which ones had 
to remain in the elementary schools and then sent perhaps, 
to a vocational school. 

The students that scored highly in the examination 
were automatically given a place in the secondary school. 
The others had the choice of the technical school or the 
vocational school. The more affluent who did not want 
these choices for their children sent them to the private 
grammar schools. 

After this first dramatic experience, those who were 
spared the ridicule of failure attended the secondary 
school and pursued a four or five year course of study. 
At the end of this four or five years in the secondary 



103 



school, the students took what is commonly referred to as 
the Level examination or the General Certificate of 
Examination set by the University of Cambridge. Once more, 
the child's name appears in the press. If he/she manages 
to survive the educational system, he continues in the 
high school for two years, at the end of which, his course 
of study is evaluated by the A Level examination set by 
the University of London. The successful few are the 
prime candidates for the University. The University of 
the West Indies has now modified their entrance require- 
ments to admit students who scored highly at the Level 
standard. ' 

Therefore, a parent who is economically able and 
realizes that his/her child will not survive academically 
in that system, will try to send them to the universities 
abroad which only requires the high school diploma and 
the entrance examination. There are many such students 
at present at the University of Florida. These students 
know that they have to succeed in order to return home 
in favor and not in disgrace. This of course is not 
saying that those other students who are scholars did not 
choose to come to an American university, but their motive 
for being here is different. It is usually for the 
experience of being in a foreign country, or because the 
University of the West Indies does not offer the course 



104 



of study to which they are aspiring. In addition to 

these students, there are also the elitist group who 

considered it prestigious to have a degree from a more 

'recognized' university abroad. 

These and other subtle cultural reasons could be 

some of the confounding variables that come into play 

why the students with special J, or F visas, which are 

visas given to students who are expected to return home, 

are statistically significantly better than those who 

have the R visa or residency in the United States. The 

holder of the resident visa does not have to face the 

critical Jamaican society if he should fail, as he has 

the option of making the United States his permanent 

residence. 

Hypothesis 6 which stated that: 

There is no statistically significant interaction 
between the students' age, their length of stay in 
the United States and their adaptation 

was tested using a multiple regression analysis at a 

.05 alpha level of confidence. The results demonstrated 

that there was not an overall significant difference 

between the independent variable, adaptation, and the 

dependent variable, age and length of stay, in the United 

States as resorted in Table (10) . 



105 



TABLE 10 



Adaptation by U.S. Stay , 
Reentry and Age 



Variables 


Mean 


Standard 
Deviation 


ADAPT 
USTAY 
REENTP 
AGE 


3.51 
2.73 
2.60 
21.8 


1.807 
1.280 
1.248 
3.552 



F = 2.03 

Pr. F = 0.1153 



Hypothesis 7 stated that: 

There is no statistically significant relationship 
between the students' adaptation and their length 
of stay in the United States. 

To test this hypothesis, the Pearson Product-Moment 

Correlation Coefficient was calculated. 

The result was $=-.11620, and an alpha level of .03047 

This relationship was not significant at the .05 alpha 

level implying that the students ' length of stay does 

not affect his adaptation to the United States. 



106 



Interpretation 

This result could be explained by the argument used 

for hypothesis 4. That a Jamaican will make him/herself 

comfortable in a foreign country but never loses sight 

of his/her goals. And those are to achieve and return 

home to Jamaica as confirmed by 9 5 percent of the students 

interviewed for this study. This result makes the argument 

stronger in favor of the statistical result. 

Hypothesis 8 which stated that: 

There is no statistically significant relationship 
between the adaptation of older students (ages 25-38) 
and younger students (ages 17-24) at the University 
of Florida 

was analyzed by the use of an analysis of variance statis- 
tical techniques. The results indicated that age had no 
effect on the students' ability to adapt to the United 
States. Therefore, we cannot reject the hypothesis as 
there is no statistical difference in the students' 
adaptation as a consequence of their age, as is reported 
in Table (11) . 



107 



TABLE 11 



Adaptation by Age 



Variance 
Adaptation 


Age 
17-24 


Age 
25-38 


Mean 

Standard 
Deviation 


2.707 
1.259 


2.866 
1.407 



F = .01 

Pr. F = .9432 



Hypothesis 9 stated: 

There is no statistically significant relationship 
between the students' grade point average and their 
anticipated reentry problem. 

To test this hypothesis, Pearson Product-Moment Correlation 

Coefficient was calculated. The results implied that there 

was a relationship between the students' GPA and their 

anticipated reentry problems R=-.3099 P .0051 therefore 

the null hypothesis was rejected. 

Hypothesis 10 which stated that: 

There is no statistically significant relationship 
between the level of adaptation tc problems in the 
United States and the set of independent variables 
"X", ("X" representing age, length of sojourn in 
the USA, and type of visa J, F, R) 

was analyzed by the use of a multiple regression statis- 
tical technique. The results showed an F value equal to 



108 



.80 and the probability of obtaining the F was .4991. 
Therefore hypothesis 10 was not rejected. The result 
was as reported in Table (12) . 

TABLE 12 

Adaptation by Age, U.S. Stay and Visa 



Dependent 
Variance 


Independent 
Variance 


F Value 


PR. F 


ADAPT 


AGE 

USTAY 

VISA 


.80 


.4991* 



Hypothesis 11 which stated that: 

There is no statistically significant relationship 
between the degree of problems encountered in the 
United States and the set of independent variables 
"X"? 

was tested using a multiple regression statistical analysis 

technique, the result of which implied that there was no 

statistically significant relationship. Therefore, the 

null hypothesis was not rejected. The F value - .77 and 

the probability of obtaining that F was .5146. 

Hypothesis 12 which stated that: 

There is no statistically significant relationship 
between the degree of problems expected when the 
student reenters his/her country and the set of 
independent variables "X" 



109 



was tested using a multiple regression statistical 
technique. Since the result indicated no relationship, 
it was not considered sufficient evidence to reject 
this hypothesis. The F was equal to .36 and the probabil- 
ity of obtaining that F was .4675. 
Hypothesis 13 which stated that: 

There is no statistically significant relationship 
between the students' GPA and the set of independent 
variables "X" 

was analyzed using a multiple regression statistical 
technique to test this hypothesis. The results obtained 
suggested that the students' GPA was significantly 
affected by the visa which they had but showed no sig- 
nificant effect because of their length of stay as re- 
ported in Table (13). 

TABLE 13 

GPA by Age, U.S. Stay and Visa 



GPA 


F. 


Pr. F 


5.56 


.0018 


AGE 


1.41 


.2386 


USTAY 


2.15 


.1471 


VISA 


6.06 


.0161* 



110 



Presentation and Discussion of the 
Analysis of Data 

In addition to the statistical analysis, part "C" of 

the questionnaire entitled Cultural Adaptation, Experiences 

and Impressions , provided the researcher with answers to the 

following questions: 



How do the jamaican students feel about their Jamaican 
identity? 

What are some of the experiences the students from 
Jamaica have had at the University of Florida? 

What are some of the impressions the students from 
Jamaica have of their course of study and its rele- 
vance to their future and the needs of Jamaica? 

To what degree has the value structure and modus 
operandi of the students from Jamaica changed to 
fit into the U.S. culture? 

What are some of the problems the Jamaican students 
anticipate facing on their return home? 



The answers to these questions stemmed not only from 
the questionnaire but also from the interview data which 
were collected several weeks after the survey data. The 
interviews, which were conducted, served to probe deeper 
into the area tapped by the scales and offer the data for 
qualitative analysis. Elaboration of the survey data, as 
well as a validity check, was the purpose of the interviews 
These answers are descriptively presented in this section. 



Ill 



To be able to place the students' answers in a 
meaningful context, one needs to explain the ethnic 
makeup of a Jamaican and the manner in which they 
identify themselves. 

According to Braithwaite (1974) , no individual 
exists entirely in space. He exists, anchored in a 
social group, and a cultural context. In the case of 
the West Indies, they find themselves in groups that 
came from different places, and therefore there is not 
a sense of group identity. All of the groups in the West 
Indies, European, African, and Asian, are immigrant groups 
of some sort, all sharing emotional loyalties in some 
way with the world outside themselves, and they have 
blended into an integral whole, so that the individual 
growing up in the West Indies, becomes conscious of 
himself, not so much as a West Indian, or a Trinidadian, 
or a Jamaican, but as a member of a racial group who is 
also a West Indian. 

The Jamaican students at the University of Florida 
are true representatives of that ethnic blend portrayed 
by Braithwaite which also typifies the Jamaican motto 
"out of many one people." The meaning of the motto can 
best be explained by quoting part of an interview conducted 
by Dennis and Dennis (1977) of a dark-skinned, green-eyed, 



112 



auburn haired West Indian who said that her father was 

half black, half Chinese and her mother was three-quarters 

English and one quarter Spanish. One, therefore, can 

observe that genealogy has been transferred to mathematical 

abstraction in the West Indies (Piatt, 1978). 

Similarity, in this study, is seen in the response 

given by one of the intervewees. 

"My mother is half -black, and half -German. My 
father is 100 percent white. He is French. I 
am registered at the law school as black which 
surprises a lot of people. I am not phenotypi- 
cally black. A lot of people say that it is not 
something to be proud of if you are black in the 
United States. To me it makes no difference. 
I am genotypically black and I am comfortable. 
I have black American friends which I consider a 
different group from the Jamaicans. At first, 
I guess, I was an outsider to the black American 
group because I am phenotypically white. But now 
I am a member of the Black American Law School 
Association and I do feel that I belong and that 
they have accepted me." 

According to Braithwaite (19 74) , 

"phenotypically or in terms of appearance, a person 
may look completely African but he may bear genes 
of many different races within him and vice versa 
so that phenotypically, a person of one colour may 
produce offspring of a somewhat varied range and 
shade of colour, so there is not the enduring 
physical stability that you get in terms of what 
we call racial inheritance in the West Indies." 
(p. 2-3) 

This complexity is also revealed in the following quote. 

"Because of my racial mixture, Americans don't 
think that I am from Jamaica. They always 
confuse me for some other nationality. In fact 
they think that I am trying to hide my true 
identity. That does not bother me, I think that 



113 



it is all very flattering. I take it as a 
compliment when they place me in a different 
ethnic or national group, as it says a lot 
in favour of a truly multicultural, multi- 
racial nation like Jamaica." 

If one should ask some of the Jamaican students 
on their first day in the United States, their colour, 
they would stop to think before answering because of the 
colour gradation resulting from the ethnic mixture. This 
strong colour gradation in the West Indies goes back to 
the days of slavery when there were distinctions of colour 
among the general class of free black and coloured people 
ranging from the mustifino, who was fifteen-sixteenths 
white, through the raustee, quadroon, and mulatto to the 
sambo, who was only one fourth white (Alleyne, 19 74) . 

According to Ellis (1957), even the categorization 
which he himself used in his research, "white, fair, 
light, light brown, brown, dark brown, and black" over 
simplified the complex system of colour evaluation 
actually used by the Jamaicans. 

Based on these observations one can better understand 
where the Jamaican students are coming from and can attrib- 
ute their answers to the complexity of the West Indies. 
The qualitative data collected through the interview and 
the questionnaire were quantified under the following 
headings: cultural identity, academic relevance, social 
adaptation and reentry. 



114 



In order to quantify the data, the researcher read 
the qualitative answers the subjects gave to each question 
concurrently, and further listened to the taped interviews 
for more indepth answers to the questions. Recurring 
themes were then identified and presented as statements 
under the appropriate headings. The number of times the 
students gave similar answers to the specific issues was 
then manually counted and recorded as quantitative data. 
The first question for which answers were sought under the 
heading of cultural identity read: 

How do the Jamaican students feel about their identity? 
Of the 80 students who participated in the study, 78 or 97.5 
percent considered their identity very important and further 
expressed more awareness of their identity since being in 
the United States. This awareness is expressed in a state- 
ment made by one of the students. 

"I have grown up over the year in Florida, and I 
find myself making an effort now to stand out as 
a Jamaican inspite of my colour (white) because 
most Americans think that all West Indians have 
to be black. I am proud of my Jamaican identity 
(97.5%). In fact, I wear Jamaican t-shirts (50%), 
which I never did at home. And I listen mostly 
to reggae music (98.7%) which in Jamaica I would 
have been told, 'that is not music. ' I speak 
Jamaican patois (75%) among my friends which I 
was not permitted to do at home (Jamaica) as that 
was classed as the language of the illiterates" 
(see Table 14 ) . 



115 



TABLE 14 



Cultural Identity 





Raw 




Considered identity important 


Score 


Percentage 


78 


97.5 


More aware of identity in the 






U.S. than in Jamaica 


78 


97.5 


To identify with their culture, 






the students: 






Speak their dialect 


60 


75 


Wear Jamaican T-shirts 


40 


50 


Play Jamaican music 


79 


98.7 


Cook ethnic food 


17 


21.2 



Because Jamaica was a British colony for over 300 
years, the British way was used as a model and as the 
yardstick by which a 'cultured' person was measured. 
Jamaica has an elite language 'English' inherited from 
the British and used in all formal communication. 
English, therefore, is associated with progress, 
'culture 1 , and intelligence. On the other hand, the 
mass language "Patois" derived in part from the native 
language of Africans used in the non-formal, non-official 
traditional communication system is associated with 



116 



backwardness and lack of 'culture' (Alleyne, 1940). 

Although the educators in Jamaica have tried to break 

down this distinction it still persists. 

Another complex area that was voiced strongly by 

the students was the matter of colour and how they were 

classified in the United States. 

"I resent this rigid cast system of the United 
States, and I suppose they cannot understand 
our genealogy which we have transformed to 
mathematical abstraction. It took coming to 
the United States for me to realize what it is 
that sets us apart as a people, and I am really 
proud of it. " 

In answering question two: 

What are some of the experiences the students from 
Jamaica have had at the University of Florida? 

78.7 percent of the students expressed resentment of being 

identified as black when they first came to the United 

States and 53.7 percent reported to have even tried hiding 

their identity as Jamaicans and 43.7 percent seemed to 

have changed after being in the country for one year. 

Nevertheless, even though there was a change, in numbers 

of students that felt that it mattered to them whether 

they were classified as blacks or not, 7G.2 percent 

felt that it made a difference whether people classified 

them as Jamaicans (see Table 15) • 



117 



TABLE 15 



Social Attitudes 



Tried to hide identity ini- 
tially in the U.S. 


Raw 
Score 


Percentage 


43 


53.7 


When they came to the U.S. 
they initially resented 
being identified as 
blacks 


35 


43.7 


It does make a difference 
whether people think 
they are from Jamaica 


61 


76.2 



"It is a fact", said one student, "that in 
Jamaica some of us would not be classified as 
black, as we do not posess the rigidity of the 
American caste structure of black and white. 
I had to come to the United States to start 
looking at people not as an individual but as 
a black person or a white one. 

This does not really exist in Jamaica. Most of 
my American friends are confused when I say that 
I am black, but to deny my blackness is to deny 
my mother who is one half black, and my mother is 
what I am today. My ethnic colouration springs 
from a Chinese father, and a half-white, half- 
black mother . " 

During the latter part of the 70s, Jamaica was 

constantly in the media. The publicity was not very 

flattering to the nation as the country underwent a 

change of government. This, in addition to other racial 



113 



overtones, caused many students (53.7%) to try and hide 

their identity as Jamaicans (see Table 15) . As one 

student recalled: 

"When I came to the United States, I was ashamed 
to say that I was from Jamaica. At that time the 
news media was only showing negative things about 
the country. I tried to be more like an American. 
I had not met any members of the Jamaican commu- 
nity, so the people with whom I interacted were 
Americans. I felt at that time that in order for 
the Americans to accept me, I had to be more like 
them. I did try to change to a certain degree 
(see Table ) . I did not adapt the American 
'Twang' (accent) but I did try to change my 
speech which was particularly disappointing to 
my parents. My mother was very hurt as she 
realized that I was trying to hide my identity 
as a Jamaican. But I just wanted to belong and 
I thought that that would have helped me . " 

In addition, 75 percent of the students interviewed 
felt that it was necessary for them to change their mode 
of dressing and speaking so as to be able to blend in 
as far as was possible in the American society and to 
be able to communicate with the people. Forty three 
point seven percent (43.7%) of the students felt that 
although they had heard of the social problems in the 
United States that it would not affect them. One stu- 
dent tried summing up his/her feeling by saying: 

"Most of us came here confident of fitting into 
the society, as we had enjoyed the best of all 
the worlds in Jamaica; the world of the white, 
light skin, brown, and black. But after being 
here one year, I realized that we do not fit 
anywhere in the American caste system. We were 
outcasts . " 



119 



Although some of the students have tried to form 
relationships with the Americans, 32 percent expressed 
concern of the frustration felt in trying to establish 
friendship with Americans (see Table 16) while 52 percent 
felt that they had no trouble relating to the Americans. 
This was expressed in the interviews. 

TABLE 16 

Social Acceotance 





Raw 




We do not fit into the 


Score 


Percentage 






American caste system 


15 


60% 


I have no trouble rela- 






ting to Americans 


13 


52% 


Most of us came here con- 






fident of fitting in 


8 


32% 



"One of the otehr experiences that I have 
encountered is on the social level, trying 
to relate to some of the blacks here. Some 
of them cannot fully accept me because of the 
way that I relate to white Americans, so they 
classify me as different. They feel that I 
have not understood what they have been through 
and in some cases are seemingly still experienc- 
ing . 

But what they cannot understand is that I can- 
not react to the racial situation. Fortunately 
or unfortunately, I have not lived it. We are 
from a society whose social prejudices far out- 



120 



weighs our racial differences. 'But how can 
we be racially prejudice without being divided 
against ourselves?" 

Another area in which the students express concern 
was with the race relationship in the United States. One 
student stated that he resented race discrimination in 
the United States, more than he would in any other part of 
the world. 

"It seems so absurd in a society that has such simple, 

logical, humanitarian beliefs", he concluded. This was 

followed up by another student who explained that the race 

problem was by far not unique to the United States and 

hastened to explain. 

"In Jamaica, there are race problems also but 
they are so insignificant compared to our social 
prejudices. But we have come to realize that 
opportunity, not ancestry, is the breeder of 
quality . " 

Another student continued by saying that "the shielded 

classes cannot stand the competition of the masses without 

the hollowness of those who depend on ancestry alone 

becoming apparent." Jamaica has had its racial problems 

but to the extent that the schools permitted association 

among its young people, caste and class barriers tended 

to vanish as values shifted from ascribed ones to achieved 



121 



Another area of concern for the students was their 
experience with pre-orientation at the University of 
Florida. Ninety-six point two percent felt that it was 
very important for them to know the registration pro- 
cedure; 9 percent felt it very necessary to know the 
procedure to find and begin their degree program and 
all or 100 percent felt it was very important to know 
from the beginning the requirements and regulations for 
a degree. Other areas of concern were the efficient 
use of the library, 75 percent felt that this was very 
important; 3 7.5 percent considered the role of the 
academic advisor important and 62.5 perdent felt that it 
was not. On the role of the foreign student advisor 
on the other hand, 30 or 37.5 percent agreed that the role 
was very important. This 37.5 percent of the students are 
the only ones that were admitted to the university through 
the International Student Center. 

In addition, 100 percent of the students voluntarily 
informed the researcher that it was very important to 
orient students coming to the university of the cost 
of housing, telephone installation and utilities, for 
in Jamaica, a house or apartment is always rented with 
these amenities. Seventy percent of the students, 
however, did not consider it very important to know 
about cost of transportation in the U.S. (see Table 17) . 



122 



:able 17 



Pre-Universitv Orientation 



The 


importance of knowing the 
entering college. 


f ollowi 


ng information 


on 


a . 


The registration proce- 
dure 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Very 
Imp . 


Quite 

Imp. 


Little 
Imp. 


Not 
Imp. 


65% 


31.2% 


3.7% 




b. 


The procedure to find 
and begin your degree 
program 


50% 


40% 


10% 




c . 


Examination require- 
ments and regulations 
for a degree 


87.5% 


12.5% 






d. 


Efficient use of library 


56.2% 


18.7% 


25% 




e. 


The role of the acade- 
mic student advisor 


78.7% 


15% 


6.2% 




f . 


The role of the foreign 
student advisor 


26.2% 


11.2% 


26.2% 


36.2% 


g. 


The cost of transporta- 
tion in the U.S. 




30% 


16.2% 


53.7% 


h. 


Other (please specify) 
Cost of housing, 
utilities, telephone 


87.5% 


12.5% 







After one year at the University of Florida, most 
of the students seemed quite satisfied with the knowledge 
of the items in Table 18. One hundred percent (100%) were 



123 



satisfied with the registration procedure, with the 

procedure to find and begin their academic program, 

with examination requirements, with regulations for a 

degree, with cost of transportation, and with housing. 

Sixty two point two percent (62.2%) were satisfied 

with their knowledge of the use of the library and 55 or 

68.7 percent were satisfied with the role of the academic 

advisor. For the students that were admitted through the 

International Student Center, there was a 100% satisfaction 

with the role of the International Student Advisor (see 

Table 18) . 

In answering question three: 

What are some of the impressions the students from 
Jamaica have of their course of study and its 
relevance to their future and the needs of Jamaica 

twenty five or 100 percent of the students interviewed 

expressed satisfaction with their course of studies as 

they felt that it satisfied their immediate goals. 

Eighty percent volunteered the information, however, 

that they were not quite sure as to their future career 

choices. 

Although 100 percent expressed satisfaction with 

their courses, 48 percent felt that they would have 

rathered a certain amount of flexibility with regards to 

choosing their courses. As one student said: 



124 



TABLE 18 



Changes in Knowledge of 
Pre-University Orientation 



Sat 


isfaction with the knowledge of the following items 
after a year at the University of Florida. 


a. 


The registration proce- 
dure 


1 2 3 


4 


Very 
Imp . 


Quite 
Imp. 


Little 
Imp. 


Not 
Imp. 


93.7% 


6.2% 






b. 


The procedure to find 
and begin your degree 
program 


100% 








c . 


Examination require- 
ments and regulations 
for a degree 


87.5% 


12.5% 






d. 


Efficient use of library 


51.2% 


11.2% 


25% 


12.5% 


e . 


The role of the academic 
student advisor 


52.1% 


18.7% 


28 .7% 




f . 


The role of the foreign 
student advisor 


37.5% 








g. 


The cost of transporta- 
tion in the U.S. 


100% 








h. 


Other (please specify) 
Cost of housing, 
utilities, telephone 


100% 
100% 









125 



"This system does not allow me to be free to 
select or reject courses as seem best suited 
for me. I do not feel that as a foreign stu- 
dent I should have to disperse my attention 
and waste time taking courses that have no 
relationship with my specific field of study. 
In addition, I think that the students in 
Engineering, Administration, Agriculture, and 
even in Education should be given a chance to 
do their field work in Jamaica (see Table 19) 
as we could then start with the professors' 
guidance to learn to transfer the technology 
that we are learning to the reality and neces- 
sity of our country." 

Question four: 

To what degree has the value structure and 
modus operandi of the students from Jamaica 
changed? 

Although Americans are always going to Jamaica, 

particularly as tourists, most of the nationals do 

not have the opportunity to make their acquantance. 

Therefore, the only knowledge that 20 or 80 percent 

of these students had of the United States and its 

people was that projected by the media. This point is 

further supported by the students who said: 

"I had not known the Americans before I came 
to the United States. Now that I have been here 
for one year, living among them, I realize that 
my idea of the American was based on false 
conceptions. " 

This was reenforced by the statement given in parts by 

15 or 60 percent of the students: 

"My impression of the United States of America 
and of its people was all the fairy tale which 
is exported through the media. I, for example, 
thought that everyone was wealthy, that the men 



126 



TABLE 19 



Academic Concerns 









1 








■H T3 "44 T3 









£ CD 






-P en 


XI 3 






0) 


O O 0) 4-1 





si 


3 QJ en 


0) X O Q, 





4-> 


O CO U 


4J en -h cu -h 


•H 


•H 


H M 3 


O S X 


4-1 


3 


-H M-l O 


C en x O en 


o x 




03 CJ 


•H T3 O X C 


o 


t3 


CU 


iH S-l 


<u 


cu en 


4-> .Q 4-1 


en 0) tr> cr> O) 


M H 


■H d) 


o 


4-> -H C £ 4-1 


3 GJ 


4-t en 


COO) 


C 4-1 -H -H C 


en dJ 


en s-t 


4-1 .-! 


QJ > -H 


M 


•H 3 


en cu 


T3 ^H (fl C7> 


4-1 (0 


-p 


<D O) en 


3 <fl X 


o 


rcj o 


S 


4-1 O 


2 


Cfl 


Q 


cn 


H-H 


-H-H 




^7V 


t t t I 










: It t 


lilt 


tilt 
ill 


tilt 


fill 


till 


/III 


-H-H 


1 1 1 1 
H-H 




III 


20 or 


25 or 


12 or 


18 or 


80% 


100% 


48% 


72% 



127 



were weak, and the women strong; that the head 
of the household was the woman, who was always 
dressed-up waiting for her family to come home 
so that they could go out to dine. Today, one 
year after, I would challenge anyone who makes 
such generalization" concluded one of the stu- 
dents, (see Table 20). 

From the comments the students made during the inter- 
views it can be gathered that they have undergone a 
certain change in regards to their initial impressions 
of the United States and its people. Different students, 
for example observed and volunteered the following 
descriptions of the Americans. 

"After one year at the University of Florida, 
my impression of the United States and its people 
have changed. They are unconventional, but 
dignified, candid but kind and friendly but firm. 
In spite of a few prejudices, Americans are 
credible and sincere people. They are lovers 
of sport and humor and are very independent 
and self-reliant. Americans know just how to 
mix pleasure with work while they seek the 
dollars to spend in pursuit of leisure. Amer- 
icans are an extremely kind and generous people, 
especially to strangers from other countries. 
I also feel that there is a lack of genuineness 
about the characteristically open and informal 
way in which friendliness is expressed in the 
United States." As one student said: "Don't 
think that the American wants to be your friend 
just because he/she invites you to her home." 
(see Table 21 ) . 

According to Rogg (1978): 

When people are in a new environment and see 
themselves surrounded by a culture different 
from their own, they find that they must adapt 



128 



TABLE 2 



Cultural Knowledge of U.S. 



<d 

• CD T3 
W 4-> CD 

• u g 

D 0J 
■r-i <D 

O M -P 

Q. 

d) x; 
Cn+J &> 

TS (0 3 
DiO 
-H +J M 
5 -C 
O CO 4-> 
C -H 



>1 


<u 


-C 


4-1 


4J 


id 


rH 


4J 


id 


CO 


0) 




3 V 




0) 


I) 


+J 


C 


■H 





c 


>iD 


l-i 




CD 


g 


> 


■H 


W 





01 

>i a 

id c 

£ -H 

r-H T3 
03 

O 

m 4-1 

fd -P 

O 3 

•H O 
H 

Q) O 

< 



/// 



13 or 
62% 






20 or 
80% 



-wy 



10 or 
40% 



-H-H 

1 1 1 1 



9 or 
36% 



129 



TABLE 21 



Attitudes on America and Its People 





Raw 




Americans are unconventional 


Score 


Percentage 


15 


60% 


Americans are dignified 


10 


4 0% 


Americans are kind and 






generous 


25 


100% 


Americans are friendly 


12 


48% 


Americans are prejudice 


15 


60% 


Americans are credible 


5 


20% 


Americans are sincere 


6 


24% 


Americans are lovers of sport 


15 


60% 


Americans know how to mis 






pleasure with work 


20 


80% 


There is a lack of genuineness 






in which friendliness is 






expressed 


6 


24% 


Invitation to their home does 






not signify desire to be 






your friend 


20 


80% 



to a new way of perceiving themselves and 
others. (p. 77) 

This is demonstrated in the following table (22). 

The students felt that there were certain factors 

impeding their establishing a good relationship with more 



130 



Americans. These perceived factors which prevented 
students from establishing good relationships with 
U.S. nationals are listed in Table 22. 

TABLE 2 2 



Relationship Barriers 





1 


2 


3 


4 




Very 
Much 


Much 


Very 
Little 


Not at 
all 


Jamaican accent 


41% 


38% 


15% 


19% 


Religious background 


100% 








Racial background 


3 0% 


16% 


20% 


34% 


Cultural background 


20% 


29% 


13% 


38% 


Political views 


100% 








Being a foreigner 


41% 


9% 


13% 


38% 


Attitude toward others 


33% 


25 % 


20% 


23% 


Attitude toward you 


43% 


15% 


18% 


25% 



Sixty-six of the students felt that one of the 
great impediments was their Jamaican accent. Thirty- 
seven or forty-six percent blamed it on their racial 
background, 39 or 49 percent on their cultural back- 
ground. Forty or fifty percent of the students felt 
that this inability to establish what they perceived as 



131 



a good relationship with the Americans was the fact that 
they are foreigners. Forty-six or fifty-eight percent 
felt that it was their attitude towards the Americans 
and 46 or 58 percent felt that it was the Americans' 
attitude towards them that formed the barrier. 

In addition the students showed that they had changed 
in their social outlook as is demonstrated in Table 23. 

TABLE 2 3 



Social Adaotation 











How much have you changed in your outlook in the 

following areas since coming to the United States? 


Dress code 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Very 
Much 


Much 


Very 
Little 


Not at 

all 


44% 


25% 


21% 


4% 


Dating pattern 


14% 


11% 


25% 


50% 


Friend selection 


41% 


46% 


13% 




Eating habits 


69% 


13% 


16% 


3% 


Social graces 


25% 


4% 


34% 


38% 


Speech pattern 


20% 


25% 


24% 


31% 



The reason for changing their speech pattern was voluntarily 
injected in the interview. Thirty-five or forty-four 
percent of the students said basically the same thing: 



132 



"I was tired of hearing people ask me to repeat 
what I had said so I did change my speech to a certain 
degree." One further commented on problems in speech 
patterns experienced by both foreign students and Amer- 
icans . 

"Then there were those professors with the 
Southern drawl which was very difficult for 
me to understand. I taped their lectures and 
sat for hours trying to decipher them. That 
was not bad. What was terrible was my fear 
of asking questions in class. Everytime that 
I tried I would hear the professors say 'could 
you repeat that'. Sometimes a student would 
interpret what they thought that I should have 
been saying. That was frightening. I came 
here thinking that at least communication would 
not have been a problem as both countries spoke 
English, but I was wrong" 

Question five: 

What are some of the problems the Jamaican students 
anticipate facing on their return home? 

The following quotes were taken from the students' 
questionnaire and interview which expresses their appre- 
hension of going back home. 

"When I return to Jamaica I know that I will 
have the problem of readjusting to its small- 
ness, to the enclosed yards around the houses 
and most of all to a less tolerant and pro- 
vincial society. Here, I am absolutely in- 
dependent, I am not obligated to anyone, I 
don't worry about what people say or think 
about me. It is a special feeling of free- 
dom because no one really knows me. 

But all this ends, to a great degree, on my 
return to Jamaica. No longer will I have my 
privacy to which I have grown accustomed in 
the United States. I cannot as a single per- 
son get an apartment by myself or even with 



133 



friends if my parents live in the same area in 
which I will be working. What I will need to 
do, so as not to offend, is to get a job at the 
other end of the island. Apart from living 
with my family and playing the role of dutiful 
child, there is the problem of my friends coming 
unannounced to visit me. I think I rather like 
the American way of telephoning your friends 
before appearing on their doorsteps. 

Another concern is my mode of dressing. Jamaica 
has a similar climate to Florida. But I cannot 
go home (Jamaica) and think that I can wear these 
shorts and tops on the streets, not even on the 
playing field. I suppose they would accept me 
wearing it on the beach. "As to my blue jeans', 
if I do not want to be branded hippie, then I 
will wear them only to work in the garden, to go 
on a picnic or to go hiking. 

Although I have tried to change my way of speak- 
ing, it has really been only in my pronunciation 
or diction, but in spite of that, I have tried 
desperately to sound like a Jamaican. A fellow 
Jamaican student who was here on year before me 
gave me this advice when I was having trouble 
communicating with my American friends. 'Speak 
clearly and slowly, and avoid using Jamaican 
terms'. This slowed me down tremendously. I 
did not feel like speaking in class anymore. 
I now know, that even though I have tried to 
maintain my Jamaican accent, I must have changed, 
because Americans are understanding me. When I 
am about to go home, I will have to spend more 
time with the Jamaicans making sure I sound 
authentic. I definitely would not want to be 
ridiculed as one 'putting on an act to impress' 
as some Jamaicans may interpret the American 
influence in my speech. 

Another area in which I have changed is in my 
choice of meals. I will never be in the kitchen 
for two or three hours preparing Jamaican meals 
anymore. In the first place I do not have the 
time. And secondly, I have acquired the taste 
for the American food. Can you imagine my 
family's face when I inform them that all I 
want for dinner is a plate of salad? Or can 
you imagine how they will feel when they pre- 
pare all those Jamaican special cuisine only 
for me to take a small portion through polite- 
ness? 



134 



Apart from the cuisine, there is the area of the 
type of work that a man can do around the house 
and the type that are definitely a woman's job. 
I have learnt to do everything for myself through 
necessity. And even if I wanted to contribute 
I would literally have to hide for fear of of- 
fending my parents as they consider certain jobs 
effeminate . " 

When the students were asked what advice they would 
give a Jamaican coming to the university, 50 or 63 percent 
felt that they should be aware of objective test taking 
so as to be able to compete better in an American institu- 
tion. Forty or 50 percent considered it important based 
on their experience to inform them not to waste time at 
the beginning of the term. Seventy-five or 94 percent 
felt that they should learn to type before coming be- 
cause this is a most valuable skill and 64 or 80 per- 
cent would like to encourage them to come to orientation 
program and to get to know the campus before starting 
classes (see Table 24). 

Another student added that his fear was job related 

as was expressed in his statement. 

"Because I have maintained contact with Jamaica 
by going home once per year, I do not see myself 
having a great deal of problem adjusting to the 
society. My fear is with my colleagues at work 
as I know that everyone will be observing me 
and waiting for me to make a mistake. I will 
constantly have to be proving myself and that 
scares me . " 

In concluding the interviews, the researcher so- 
licited five areas in rank order, that the students 



135 



TABLE 2 4 



Information Jamaicans Should Know 
Before Coming to America 



+J 










03 










O 


<D CD 






c 


+J 


4-> £ tj> 







0) 




(/) 4-J C 


+J 




-C -H 


o 


03 -H 






-P -P S 


> 


J+Jfi 


5 




03 03 


■H D^ 


its c 







04J U 


4-1 C 


-H 


X! 




■PC Di 


U -H 


4-> cu tr> 







(D 


<U X 


e <u 


3 


Cb 


<D -H U 


•i—i rc( 


■P -H .Q 





>1 


£ u a, 


ja +j 


-p 


c 


+J 





o 


Z 


W 




u 



N=8 



N=25 





50 


or 


63 




15 


or 


60 



40 
or 50 ; 



or 32^ 



75 
or 94 ! 



10 
or 4 ! 



64 
or 80 ! 



20 
or 80' 



136 



considered important for an American going to Jamaica to 

know. Seventy or eighty-eight percent of the students 

felt that Americans should know that segregation does 

not exist in Jamaica; sixty or seventy-five percent 

considered that it was important to explain the social 

class structure; forty-seven or fifty-nine percent 

felt that they should be told that one ' s colour of 

skin was insignificant; also, thirty or thirty-eight 

percent felt that they should know what is considered 

as 'indecent' attire; ten or thirteen percent considered 

that they should be warned that Jamaicans also speak a 

dialect (see Table 25) . 

Another question posited by the researcher was the 

following: 

Suppose you are in a group of Americans who would 
like some information about your country. What 
five things would you consider most important for 
them to know? 

The following answers were recorded in rank order: 



1. Segregation does not exist . This was stated by 
eighty-eight percent of the students interviewed. 

2. Social class is important . Seventy-five percent 
of the students felt that it was very important 
for their American friends to know the social 
class structure. 

3. That the colour of one's skin was insignificant , 
was suggested by fifty-nine percent of the inter- 
viewees . 



137 



TABLE 2 5 



Information Americans Should Know 
Before Going to Jamaica 



■H 


+J 


4-> 






X 


en c 


4-> 






c aj 


en to 


c c 









rd 4J 


rd 


D 




■H -P 


rH S-l 


en o 


-a 




-u 





•H -H 







rd C 


a 


M-l 


u 




cn 


H £ 


U -H 




x: 


aj en 


fa -h 


D C 


tn 





V-i 0) 


•H 


cn 


en 


0) 


tr> o 


u en 


H -H 


■v 


1) 


<u TJ 


-H 


o tn 


u 


a, 


en 


Cfl 


u 


o 


Cfl 



AAA/ 
AW 

AW 

AAtA' 
AAA/ 

+f+i 
-444-1 

AAA/ 
-U+4- 
++++ 

70 or 



-H-hf 
AAA/ 
AAA/ 



+H-. 



++++ 



60 or 
75% 



-H-H- 
4-N4 
AAA/ 

-H-hf- 
-H-hf 
■fffi 

-H-H- 
-hhH- 

aaa/ 
ii 



47 or 
59% 



AAA/ 
-H-H 
+hH 
AA/A 
-fffi 



30 or 
38% 



-H-H 
AAA/ 



10 or 
13% 



133 



4. Thirty-eight percent of the students considered 
it important for their American friends to know 
about Jamaican middle class dress code so that 
their attire would not create a social barrier. 

5. Thirteen percent of the students felt that they 
should warn their American friends that they 
might not understand some of the Jamaicans as 
they speak a dialect. 



CHAPTER V 



SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS, 
AND RECOMMENDATIONS 



Summary and Conclusions 
This study sought to explore the experiences and 
impressions of Jamaican undergraduate students at the 
University of Florida, in order to evaluate the extent 
to which their stay had been educationally rewarding, 
and the degree to which they perceived the course of 
studies they were pursuing as being relevant to the needs 
of the developing nation of Jamaica. The second was to 
identify problems confronted by Jamaican students who 
had matriculated at the University of Florida. The third 
was to determine the extent to which these students' pro- 
grams of studies in Jamaica prepared them to pursue their 
educational goals at the University of Florida. The 
fourth was to explore the ways in which the Jamaican 
students had modified their culture in order to get 
along socially in the United States. The fifth was to 
identify the problems of adjustment that students expect 
to experience when they return to Jamaica. The final 
purpose was to suggest procedures that might be employed 



139 



140 



at the University of Florida in order to assist stu- 
dents in transferring the knowledge gained in the United 
States to Jamaica. 

To be able to accomplish what the researcher pro- 
posed, two different approaches were employed in collect- 
ing the data: (1) an experimental approach, and (2) an 
observational approach. 

The research methodology selected for gathering the 
data was that of an interview and questionnaire for which 
an instrument was developed by the researcher. Content 
validity and reliability were established by the help of 
a panel of experts in the field and refined through the 
use of a pilot study. 

Thirteen hypotheses relating to experiences and im- 
pressions in a crosscultural situation were drawn from 
the literature and submitted to test using 8 students 
from Jamaica at the University of Florida. Past research 
provided the basis for predicting that (1) there would 
be no statistically significant difference between the 
students' level of orientation and their achievement; 
(2) that there would be no statistically significant 
difference between the students' level of orientation 
and their adaptation to the United States; (3) that there 
would be no statistically significant difference between 
the students' level of education on arrivina in the 



141 



United States and their academic achievement as measured 
by their grade point average after one year at the 
University of Florida; (4) that there would be no statis- 
tically significant difference between the type of visa 
(J, F, R) , held by the students and their adaptation 
to the United States; (5) that there would be no statis- 
tically significant difference between the type of visa 
held by the student and their academic achievement; (6) 
that there would be no statistically significant inter- 
action between the students' age, their length of stay 
in the United States and their adaptation; (7) that there 
would be no statistically significant relationship 
between the adaptation of the students and their length 
of stay in the United States; (8) that there would be 
no statistically significant relationship between the 
adaptation of older students (ages 25-38) and younger 
students (17-24) at the University of Florida; (9) that 
there would be no statistically significant relationship 
between the students' grade point average and their 
anticipated reentry problems. 

Hypotheses 10, 11, 12, and 13 measured the relation- 
ships of the following dependent variables, adaptation 
problems encountered in the United States, anticipated 
reentry problems and GPA with relationship to the set 
of independent variables "X" which represented age, length 
of sojourn in the United States, and type of visa (J, F, R) 



142 



The researcher further sought answers to the following 
questions: (1) How did Jamaican students feel about their 
identity? (2) What were some of the experiences the stu- 
dents from Jamaica have had at the University of Florida? 
(3) What are some of the impressions the students from 
Jamaica have of their course of study and its relevance 
to their needs and to the needs of Jamaica? (4) To what 
degree has the value structure and modus operandi of the 
students from Jamaica changed to fit into the U.S. culture? 
(5) What are some of the problems the students from Jamaica 
anticipated facing on their return home? 

Statistical manipulation of the responses on the 
questionnaire, indicated the following results: The 
students' orientation program at the University of Florida, 
does have a positive effect on the Jamaican students' 
academic achievement but does not seem to influence their 
adaptation to the United States. 

The education obtained in Jamaica makes a significant 
difference on the students' academic performance at the 
University of Florida. The statistical test showed that 
those students that had attained the A Levels before 
coming to the University of Florida are doing academically 
better than the students that only reached the Level 
standard, or than those who came to the United States to 



143 



complete their high school diploma. The latter two 
groups are coping at the same academic level as was 
demonstrated by their GPA mean. 

Although the type of visa held by the student seemed 
not to have had any significant effect on the students' 
adaptation, it did have a positive effect on their aca- 
demic performance. Of the three levels of visa that 
were tested, the result demonstrated that the holders of 
the J visa had a significantly higher GPA mean than the 
holders of F or Resident visas. 

There was also a significant relationship between 
the students' GPA and their anticipated reentry problems. 
The students who were statistically achieving academically 
were anticipating less reentry problems and therefore less 
fear of readjustment to their home country. Those with a 
lower GPA expressed doubt of returning home, skepticism 
of readjusting and fear of not adjusting at all. 

Other variables such as age and length of stay in 
the United States, which would appear to make a difference 
in the students' adaptation problems and type of visa 
(J, F, R) , did not seem to have an effect on the stu- 
dents' adaptation problems as was indicated by the negli- 
gible correlation. 

In response to the questions asked in the interview, 
the researcher concluded that for the most part, the 



144 



students in the sample were able to acquaint themselves 
sufficiently well with their new environment to encounter 
relatively few discouraging adjustment situations that 
did have an effect on their academic or personal adjustment. 

The researcher gathered from the students 1 responses 
that they were fairly satisfied with their course of study 
even though they felt that some of the courses were irrele- 
vant to what they considered their personal goals. On the 
other hand the students felt that the stage of development 
in Jamaica should constitute a direct influence on the 
educational needs of its students. With this in mind, 
therefore, the students felt that it did not seem unrea- 
sonable for the University of Florida to make some mod- 
ifications in their requirements to more adequately meet 
such special needs of those returning nationals. Foreign 
admission, therefore, must involve so much more than the 
equating of academic certificates to requirements. It 
should involve the ability on the part of the admissions 
officer to evaluate personal factors and to understand 
them in the light of the problems and needs of the stu- 
dent's home country. 

Implications and Recommendations 
In order for the University to do what is possible 
to help the foreign students maximize their educational 



145 



sojourn at the University of Florida, the researcher 
recommends that: 



An extensive academic counseling program during the 
students' early months so as to assist them in the 
selection of the most appropriate courses for their 
own needs and the needs of their country should be 
conducted. (In this manner the developing country 
may be able to absorb their returning graduates) . 

Based on the statistical results and en the inter- 
views conducted by the researcher, the University of 
Florida needs to re-evaluate its orientation program 
to include cultural information. 

In addition, Student Services, should make an effort 
to involve the international students more in campus 
life. 

The international center should make an effort to 
make the incoming international student meet the 
American students at time of arrival or during 
the first few weeks of their arrival. 

An American student should play the role of big 
sister/brother to an international student for 
one week. 

The University should re-evaluate the A Level exam- 
ination and exempt students who have done exceeding- 
ly well at that level before coming to the University 
of Florida. 

The Student Services should initiate a black 
American/black international student encounter 
so as to dispel certain misconceptions that both 
groups seem to have of each other. 

The services for students' affairs should collaborate 
with the international center in conducting reentry 
seminars to include all international students. The 
interest of the adjustment changes to the United 
States and to the home country on the part of the 
foreign students, both from a theoretical and policy- 
oriented standpoint, must extend beyond the cutoff 



146 



point of departure from the United States. Of 
particular interest to the government and the 
returning students is the period of reabsorption 
into the home country's social and economic milieu. 

Since the length of time the students have been 
in the United States does not seem to affect their 
adjustment (correlation between adjustment problem 
score and length of stay) , a definite program 
should be initiated to help these students. Ad- 
justment difficulties do not seem to be solved 
merely by a long residency. 



Recommendations for Future Research 

The following recommendations are suggested as a 

result of the findings and conclusions of this study: 

Future studies should attempt to use a large sample 
involving all the universities of Florida to pre- 
vent statistical inadequacies and limitations. 

The variables found to have a significant relation- 
ship and effect within the criterion of this study 
should be further investigated. 

The predictive validity of national examination 
scores of other countries for academic success 
should be investigated. 

It is further suggested that the study be replicated 
in a couple of years with the same population as 
seniors at the University of Florida. 

Ultimately it is suggested that a similar study be 
conducted involving all the English speaking islands 
in the Caribbean. 



APPENDIX 



SUBJECT INFORMED CONSENT 
QUESTIONNAIRE GUIDE 



APPENDIX 



SUBJECT INFORMED CONSENT 



I, Otilia Salmon, am a graduate student in the 
Department of Curriculum and Instruction, College of 
Education at the University of Florida, and would like 
your participation in a study which I am conducting. 

The study is to find out to what degree Jamaican 
students have modified their culture upon coming in 
contact with U.S. society, the experiences and impres- 
sions they have had during their sojourn here, and the 
aspects of the American culture they have adopted in 
order to survive in the United States. In addition, we 
would like to know some of their needs so that American 
universities that are interested may know what adjust- 
ments could be made in order to make the Jamaican stu- 
dents' stay here a more pleasant and rewarding one, 
and their education more relevant to the needs of their 
country. 

You will need about one hour to complete the question- 
naire, and if you are selected, we will require an add- 
itional thirty minutes of your time for the interview. 
Your assistance will be of great value to us. By helping 
us, you will be helping students from your country who 
are yet to come to the University of Florida. 

The information obtained will be kept confidential 
to the extent provided by law. There is absolutely 
no risk or discomfort expected, and there will be no 
monetary compensation awarded. You have a right to 
withdraw if you deem it necessary any time prior to the 
end of the project. 

If vou have any questions about this study, please 
contact me at home (378-3885) or at work (392-1582) . 
I will be happy to discuss it with you. 



148 



149 



Please sign the following section and detach and 
return to me in the enclosed self addressed stamped 
envelope. Thanks for your cooperation. 



I have read and understood the procedure described 
above, and I agree to participate in the study. 



Subject's Name Date 

Principal Investigator: Otilia Salmon 
2640 S.W. 35th PI. , Gainesville, FL 32608 , 
378-3885 or 392-1582 



.50 



APPENDIX 



QUESTIONNAIRE GUIDE 
(Confidential — Student's Name Not Required) 

We would like to find out to what degree Jamaican 
students have modified their culture upon coming in 
contact with U.S. society, the experiences and impres- 
sions they have had during their sojourn here, and the 
aspects of the American culture they have adopted in 
order to survive in the U.S.A. In addition, we would 
like to know some of their needs so that American 
universities that are interested may know what adjust- 
ments could be made in order to make the Jamaican stu- 
dents' stay here a more pleasant and rewarding one, and 
their education more relevant to the needs of their 
country. Questions pertaining to anticipated reentry 
problems will complete the questionnaire. 

You will need about one hour to answer the question- 
naire. Your assistance will be of great value to us. By 
helping us, you will be helping students from your 
country who are yet to come to the University of Florida. 

The researcher would be most grateful if the 
questionnaire could be returned within 10 days. A 



151 



self addressed stamped envelope for your convenience 
has been enclosed. 

Thank you for your participation in this study. 



INTERVIEW GUIDE 



Date: 
Time : 



Part A. Biographical Information 



1. Sex? 

Male Female 



2. Age at nearest birthday? 

3. Where do you consider your home country? 



4. What is your present status? 

Married Single 

Divorced Other (please 

specify) 



5. What is your present university classification'; 

Freshman Sophomore 

Junior Senior 



How do you finance your studies? 

Scholarship Student Loan 

Employment Savings 

Parents Home Govt. Loan 

Family 



A student coming from Jamaica to a university in the 
United States can fall into these categories: (1) 
High School diploma, (2) Levels, (3) A Levels. 
Under which category do you fall? 

(1) (2) (3) 



152 



153 



APPENDIX 



What is your area of study? 
Undeclared 
Accounting 

Agriculture & Natural Resources 
Architecture & Environmental Design 
Area Studies 
Biological Sciences 
Business & Management 
Computer & Information Services 
Education 
Engineering 
Fine and Applied Arts 
Foreign Languages 
Health Professions 
Home Economics 
Law 

Letters 

Library Sciences 
Mathematics 
Physical Sciences 
Psychology 

Public Affairs & Services 
Social Sciences 
Theology 

Interdisciplinary Studies 
Other (please specify) 



What is your grade point average? 



Under 2 


or 


) 








Between 


l 


99 


and 


2 


00 


Between 


2 


00 


ana 


2 


44 


Between 


2 


45 


and 


2 


84 


Between 


2 


35 


ana 


3 


24 


Between 


3 


25 


and 


4 


00 



10. With whom do you live? 
U.S. family" 
U.S. students 

Foreign students from another country 
Foreign students from your country 
Spouse and children 
Alone 
Other (please specify) 



154 



APPENDIX 



11. How long have you been in the United States' 

12. How long have you been at this university? 



13. How many foreign countries besides the United States 
have you visited or lived in? 



14. How many months in total were you in those countries? 



15. Before coming to study here, did you spend any time 

in the United States on visits? If so, how many 

months in total? 

No Yes Months 



16. Are your parents now residing in the United States? 

No Yes Months 

17. Do you have other relatives in the United States? 

No Yes Months 



How likely is it that you might remain permanently in 
the United States? 

Definitely not Somewhat likely 

Very unlikely "__~ Very likely 

Somewhat unlikely Definitely will 

Undecided 



155 



APPENDIX 



19 . Which of the following might make you stay permanently 
in the United States? 

Political climate at home 

Not being able to find a job at home 

A good job offer in the United States 

Marriage to a U.S. citizen 

Family member ' s advice 

Other situation (please specify) 



Nothing would make me stay permanently 
in the United States 



156 



APPENDIX 



Part B. Preuniversity Orientation. 
(Ask respondents to be concrete) 



20. When you came to the United States 

a. What aspect of coming to the United States 
and of entering college presented you with 
the severest problem? 

b. What were the problems you encountered? 

c. Did you anticipate them? Yes No 



d. What has enabled you to meet these problems? 

e. How did you overcome these problems? 



21. How important was it for you to know the following 
information when you came to college? Information 
about 



Not Little Quite Very 
Imp . Imp . Imp . Imp . 



a. The registra- 
tion procedure 

b . The procedure 
to find and be- 
gin your degree 
program 

c. Examination re- 
quirements and 
regulations for 
a degree 

d. Efficient use of 
the library 

e. The role of the 
academic advisor 



157 



APPENDIX 



Not Little Quite Very 
Imp . Imp . Imp . Imp . 



f. The role of the 
foreign student 
advisor 

g. The cost of 
transportation 
in the United 
States 

h. Other (please 
specify) 



22. How satisfied are you now with the knowledge of the 
items? 



Not Little Quite Very 
Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. 



The registra- 
tion procedure 

The procedure 
to find and be- 
gin your degree 
program 

Examination re- 
quirements and 
regulations for 
a degree 

Efficient use of 
the library 

The role of the 
academic advisor 

The role of the 
foreign student 
advisor 



15! 



APPENDIX 



Not Little Quite Very 
Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. 



The cost of 
transportation 
in the United 
States 

Other (please 
specify) 



23. What things would you advise a close friend from 
Jamaica to know before entering the university? 



24. The Jamaican system of education is different from 
the American system. Was the transition easy for 
you? Please elaborate. 



25. Did you find that your high school preparation has 
been helping you in your undergraduate work? In 
which particular area(s)? 



No 



26. From speaking with your fellow Jamaicans, would you 
say that the students that came with A Levels are 
doing better than those with Levels or just the 
high school diploma? 

Yes No 



159 



APPENDIX 



27. In relationship to this educational preparation, what 
advice would you give a Jamaican planning to come to 
the United States to study? 



28. How do students in classrooms behave differently here 
than in Jamaica? 



160 



APPENDIX 



Part C. Cultural Adaptation, Experiences and Impressions 



29. How much have you changed in your outlook, in the 

following areas since coming to the United States? 

Not Very Very 
at all Little Much Much 

Dress Code 
Dating Pattern 
Friend Selection 
Eating Habits 
Social Graces 
Speech Pattern 



30. The following factors may prevent you from establish- 
ing good relationships with U.S. nationals. How much 
do you believe these factors are preventing you from 
having a better relationship with your American peers? 

Not Very Very 
at all Little Much Much 

Your Jamaican Accent 

Your Religious Back- 
ground 

Your Racial Back- 
ground 

Your Cultural Back- 
ground 

Your Political View 

Your Being a Foreigner 

Your Attitude Toward 
Others 

Their Attitude Toward 
You 

Please specify other possible factors. 



161 



APPENDIX 



31. Do you consider your cultural identity important? If 
you do, why do you consider it important? If your 
answer is in the negative, why do you consider that 
it is not? 

Yes No 



32. Did you feel the same way about your identity when 

you were in Jamaica or is there a difference now that 
you are in the United States? 

Yes No 



33. What language were you permitted to speak in your home 
in Jamaica? 



34. What language do you use to communicate with your 
Jamaican friends here? 



35. Do you find yourself using patois as a form of identi- 
fication when you are with other Caribbean students? 

Yes No 



36. Do you make an effort to change your accent when 

speaking to an American, or just your pronunciation' 



37. Do you find that when you are speaking to an American 
you tend to sound like them unconsciously? 

Yes No 



162 



APPENDIX 



38. Some students claim that when they first came to the 
United States they tried to hide their identity. Did 
you go through this change? 

Yes No 



39. Suppose you wanted to hide your identity as a Jamaican. 
How would you go about it? 



40. Do you still feel this way? If not, why did you change? 



41. A number of Jamaican students have suggested that there 
is a tendency by the white Americans to identify them 
with the black Americans. They have indicated that 
they object. How do you avoid this? Culturally? 
Linguistically? Other? 



42. What is your reaction now when you are identified as 
(1) a black American? (2) a West Indian? 



163 



APPENDIX 



43. You have just met a newly arrived student from Jamaica. 
As you have been here over a period of time, you feel 
that you can give him/her some pointers to make his/her 
adjustment easier. What five things would you stress 
to him/her? 



2. 

3. 

4. 



44. Suppose you are in a group of Americans who would like 
some information about your country. What are five 
things you consider most important for them to know? 



45. Does it make a difference to you where people think 
you are from? 

Yes No 



46. Whenever you want to identify with your culture, what 
are some of the things that you find yourself doing? 



164 



APPENDIX 



Part D. Reentry Considerations 

47. Are you planning to return to your home country? 

Yes No 

48. When do you anticipate returning home? 



49. What do you anticipate about returning home? 



50. Where or from whom do you obtain your information about 
your homeland while you are here? 



51. Are you returning home alone , with your family 

with others (please specify) 



52. How do you feel about the prospect of returning home? 

53. What problems do you anticipate facing in your job? 

in your social life? 
in your family? 
in your home? 



165 



APPENDIX 



54. When was your last trip home? 

55. How often have you been able to go back? 



56. On your last trip home, what was your reaction to the 
country? 



to the people? 

of relatives to you? 

to your relatives 

to events in your country at the time of your return? 

of other people to your overseas experience? 



166 



APPENDIX 



The following questions were included in the inte: 
view: 

1. On a scale from 1-5 (five being the gravest) 
how would you rate the problems you have en- 
countered? Circle the appropriate one below. 



On a scale from 1-5 (five being complete 
adaptation) how would you rate your adapta- 
tion to the U.S. culture? Circle the appro- 
priate one below. 



On a scale from 1-5 (five being the severest) 
how would you rate your anticipated reentry 
problems? Circle the appropriate one below. 



167 



APPENDIX 



209 Grinter Hall 
University of Florida 
Gainesville, Florida 32611 



Dear Student: 

You have been randomly selected to be interviewed for 
the study on the experiences and impressions of the Jamaican 
students at the University of Florida. 

The researcher will be getting in touch with you to set 
up an appointment at your convenience. The interview is 
scheduled to take no more than thirty minutes. 

Thank you for your cooperation. 



Otilia Salmon 



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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 

Otilia Salmon was born in Tela, Honduras, of 
Jamaican parents. She was raised in Jamaica and at- 
tended Happy Grove Secondary School. After graduating 
from high school, Otilia worked as a Pupil Teacher 
(Teacher's Aid) at Mount Vernon Elementary School. 

In 19 60 she was admitted to St. Joseph's Teachers 
College from which she graduated in 1961 and obtained 
her Secondary School Teacher Certificate with honors. 

From 1962 to 1964, Otilia worked as a Spanish 
language teacher at Holy Childhood Secondary School and 
at the same time, as a Television studio teacher pres- 
enter of Spanish programs for the Educational Broadcasting 
Service . 

In 19 64 she was granted a Jamaican Government Teachers 
Scholarship to the University of the West Indies. 

Otilia was the recipient of the Abraham Lincoln 
and Benito Juares Scholarship in 1967 to Mexico and 
received her Licenturate in 1970 and Master of Letters 
in 1971 from the University of Veracruz, Mexico. 

From 1972 to 1974 she worked as a Spanish language 
and literature tutor at Calabar High School and as an 



179 



adjunct lecturer at the University of the West Indies 
in Jamaica. 

As an education officer with Spanish language as 
her special responsibility, Otilia worked for the Govern- 
ment of Jamaica from 1974 to 1975. And soon after, she 
was awarded a fellowship by UNESCO to study communication 
at the UNESCO School of Communication in Mexico. After 
one year she obtained a certificate in educational commu- 
nication and technology. 

Otilia returned to Jamaica and resumed her respon- 
sibilities as an education officer with the Government 
and was given an added responsibility in 1975 as Director 
of the Teacher Training Spanish Project sponsored by 
the Organization of the American States. 

In 19 78 she was granted a fellowship by the 
Organization of the American States to pursue her 
doctoral degree at the University of Florida, during 
which time Otilia has worked as a graduate teaching 
assistant in the Department of Romance Languages and 
as a research assistant at the Graduate School and 
Sponsored Research. 



180 



I certify that I have read this study and that in my 
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly 
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, 
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. 



Clemens L. Hallman, Chairman 
Associate Professor of Subject 

Specialization Teacher 

Education 



I certify that I have read this study and that in my 
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly 
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, 
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. 



Allan F. Burns 
Associate Professor of 
Anthropology 



I certify that I have read this study and that in my 
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly 
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, 
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. 







Elroy J. Bolduc, Jr. 
Professor of Subject 

Specialization Teacher 

Education 



I certify that I have read this study and that in my 
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly 
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, 
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. 



JMtl 



Fames D. Casteel 
/Professor of Subject 

Specialization Teacher 
Education 



I certify that I have read this study and that in my 
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly 
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, 
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor .af Philosophy. 

/? / 




iAyf 



f 

Robert G. Wright 

Associate Professor of Subject 

Specialization Teacher 

Education 



This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty 
of the Division of Curriculum and Instruction in the College 
of Education and to the Graduate Council and was accepted as 
partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of 
Doctor of Philosophy. 

December 1982 



Dean for Graduate 
Studies and 
Research 



r 



UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 



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