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LIBRARY 

UNIVERSITY OF 
CALIFORNIA 
SANTA CRUZ 



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' UNIVERSITY OF 
CALIFORNIA 
SANTA CRUZ 



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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 
STATES RELATIONS SERVICE 

A. C TRDB. DBBCTM 



EXPERIMENT 

STATION 

RECORD 



VOLUME XL 

JANUARY-JUNE, 1919 



WASHIMOTON 

OOVBRNBfZNT PUNTIMO OfflCI 

1920 



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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTUIE, 

8cientifi4: Bwreaut. 

Weathbb Bureau— O. F. Marvin, Ckitf. 

BuBEAU OF Animal Industry— J. R. Mohler, Chief, 

Bureau op Plant Industry— W. A. Taylor, ChArf, 

Forest Service — H. S. Graves, Foreiter. 

Bureau op Soils— Milton Whitney, Ckief. 

Bureau op Chemistry — C. L. Alsberg, CkUf. 

Bureau op Crop Estimates— L. M. Estabrook, StatiBtkian^ 

Bureau of Entomology — ^L. 0. Howard, Entomologist. 

Bureau op Biological Survey— B. W. Nelson, Chitf, 

Bureau op Public Roads— T. H. McDonald, Director. 

Bureau of Markets — George Livingston, Acting Chief. 



States Relations Service — ^A. C. True, Director. 

Office op Experiment Stations— E. W. Allen, 



THE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS. 



fE.H. Jenkins.! 



AULBAXA— 

College Station: Atklmm: J. F. Dnggar.^ 

Canebrake Station: UnUnUown; 7. M. Bnrges8.i 

Tttskegee Station: Tutkegee InttltuU; O. W. 
Carrer.i 
AiJJSEA—SUka: C. C. Oeorgeson.* 
Abizona— Tttcton.' D. W. Working.! 
AvKASSAB—FayeUeviUe: M. Nelson.^ 
CAuroBJXU.— Berkeley: H. J. Webber.^ 
Cojjoiujyo—Fort OoOint: C. P. 0111ette.i 
CosnracncxjT — 

State Station: New Havens 

Storrs Station: 5(orrfl; | 
Delaware— iVtfwark.' H. Hayward.i 
VhOWDA—QaineeviUe: P. H. RoU8.> 
Qkqboix— Experiment: H. P. Stuckey.i 
Guam— fttofid ofQwim: C. W. Edwards.' 
Hawaq^ 

Federal Station: ffonotolu; J. M. Westgate.* 

Sugar Planters' Station: HomAul^; H. P. 
Agee.i 
Idaho— ifofeow: E. J. Iddlngs.^ 
Illinois— Vrtana: E. Dayenport.i 
Induna— Za Fayette: C. O. Woodbory.i 
Iowa— -i TOM.* C. F. Curtiss.^ 
KAJXBAS^ManhattafL' F. D. FaRell.> 
KKKTVCSY—LexingUm: T. P. Coqper.i 
LouiaiA»A— 

State Station: BaUm Rouge; 

Sugar Station: Audvbon Park, 
New Orleane; 

North La. Station: CaJhoun: 

Rioe Station: Crowley; 
Maine— Orono: C. D. Woods.* 
Maetland— Cbfle^ePork; H. J. Patterson.i 
MAflSACSUSBTTS— ilmft«r«t' F.W. Morae.4 
Michxoam— JSSMt Lantlng: R. S. Shaw.i 
MniNEaoTA— Dhioertfly Farm, St. Pavl- R. 

Tbatdier.i 
ytamumm —A yrietdtoral OoOeye: J. R. Ricks.l 

1 Director. * AgrooonUst in cbaige. < 



>W. R. Dodsoa.1 



MiQBOuni— 

Codege Station: CbtemMo; F. B. Miii]ifoid.> 
Fruit Station: Ifouiitete Orooe: F. W. Fawoti 
Montana- Bofeman: F. B. Unfleld.' 
NEBBAfiKA— JDineoIfL* E. A. Banett.* 
Nevada- £eno.' S. B. Doten.^ 
New Hampshibe— DttfAam.- J. C. EendalLi 
New Tbbsbt— 5h0 Bruntwkk: 7. G. Lipin«ii.i 
New MEZX00-i9(at< OolUye: Fabian Gaicla.i 
New York— 

State Station: Oet^eva: W. H. 7ordan.> 
Cornell Station: Ithaca; A. R. Mann.^ 
North Carolina— JZote^^A and Weei RaUlgk: B. 

W. Kilgore.! 
North Dakota— AgrknUwal OaOtye: P. F. Trow* 

bridge.1 
Omo— Wootter: C. B. Thorae.> 
Obllahoua— SliZtiMter.' H. G. Kni^t.> 
Oregon— Omwtttt: A. B. Cocdley.> 

PSNN8TLTAMIA— 

State College: R. L. Watt8.i 
State OoBege: Institute of Animal Nutrltioo; 
H. P. Annsby.> 
Porto Rioo— 

Federal Stotltm: MayagueK D. W. ICay.* 
Insular Station: Bio Piedrae; E. D. Coldn.1 
Rhode Island— fin^tton: B. L. Hartwell.> 
South Carolou— Clenwon CoOege: H. W. Bairei> 
South Dakota— JBroofclivr J. W. WUsoa.! 
Tennessee— JrnosdOe: H. A. Morgan.^ 
Texas— Cb0«9« Station: B. Yoongblood.i 
VuBr-Logan: F. S. Harris.* 
Vermont— Bttrlifvfon.- J. L. HUls.* 
VmoiNiA— 

Blacketurg: A. W. Drinkardjr.i 
Norfolk: Truck Station: T. C. Johnson.^ 
Vmam Islands— A. {>oiz: Longfleld SmitlLS 
Wabbinoton— Pufiman.' E. C. Johnson.^ 
Wbbc "VntmoL—Morgantown: 7. L. Coulter.* 
WxacoNBiN— Ifodifoii; H. L. Russell.* 
Wtoionq— Xaromie; A. D. Faville.* 
Animal husbandman in charge. < Aeting direetor. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

Kditor: E. W. AI^LEN, Ph. D., Chief, Office of Experiment Stations. 
AABOciate Editor : H. L. KmoHT. 

EDITOBIAL DEPABTMENTB. 

Aj^caltnral Chemistry and Agrotechny — Sybil L. Smith. 

{W. H. Beal. 
J, D. LUCKBIT. 

•. •. ^ , fW. H. Evans, Ph. D. 
Agricalturol Botany, Bacteriology, and Plant Pathology <^^ ^ Botd. 

Field C?P0i»— J. D. LucKBTT. 

Horticulture and Forestry — ^E. J. Glasson. 

Eoooomic Zoology and Entomology— W. A. Hooksb, D. V. M. 

IC. F. LanOwobtht, Ph. D., D. Sc 
Sybil L. Smith. 
KTJr.ABETH B. BoWEB. 

Animal Husbandry, Dairying, and Dairy Farming— F. J. Kelley. 

{W. Ai HOOKEB. 
Sybil L. Skith. 
Boral Ibslneering— B. W. Tbdixirosb.* 

fB. Mebbitt. 
Bnral Bconomlcs jj^^^ Mabbiit. 

{A. DlLLE. 
MiJOE T. Spithmanr. 
Indexea — Amw.ta B. Dears. 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME XL. 



EDITORIAL NOTES. 

Tlie present position and outlook of the stations 1 

Some effects of association 2 

The need for safeguarding agricultural Investigation 6 

The Rothamsted Station in war time 101 

Suggestions for agricultural education and research in Victoria 105 

Birmingham meeting of the Southern Agricultural Workers 801 

Abstract journals after the war 804 

The return of station workers from war service 401 

The influence of the war on station work in the future 408 

Tlie organization of agricultural research in India 601 

Science and prophecy 701 

Btanents of progress in research 702 

long-continned projects 706 

^On leave of abeenee for military service. 

zn 



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IV EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. CToI.40 

STATION PUBLICATIONS ABSTRACTED. 

AI.ABAHA College Station : Pac% 

Bulletin 202, June, 1918 ^ 829 

Bulletin 203^ November, 1918 828 

Bulletin 204, June, 1918 24 

Bulletin 205, September, 1918 141 

Bulletin 20e, December, 1918 ^ 667 

Circular 39, December, 1918 655 

Thirty-first Annual Report, 1918 728, 752, 772, 778, 796 

Alabama Tuskegeb Station : 

Bulletin 87, 1918 287 

Arkansas Station: 

BuUetin 150, June, 1918 166 

BuUetln 154, July, 1918 165 

Bulletin 156, August, 1918 18 

BuUetin 157, December, 1918 437 

Bulletin 158, December, 1918 726, 742, 772, 796 

Circular 44, September, 1918 488 

Circular 45, October, 1918 279 

arcular 46, October, 1918 245 

Caufobnia Station: 

BuUetin 299, September, 1918 90 

BuUetin 800, November, 1918 222 

BuUetin 801, November, 1918 875 

Bulletin 802, December, 1918 850 

Bulletin 803, January, 1919 414 

Bulletin 804, January, 1919 539 

BuUetin 805, February, 1919 878 

Circular 204, August, 1918 54S 

Circular 205, August, 1918 84 

Circular 206, February, 1919 676 

Circular 207, February, 1919 675 

Circular 208, February, 1919 789 

Report, 1918 , 500 

Colorado Station: 

Bulletin 247, July, 1918 39 

Bulletin 248, November, 1918 536 

BuUetin 549, October, 1918 524 

Con nec t icu t State Station : 

Bulletin 207, September, 1918 323 

Bulletin 208, October, 1918 758 

BuUetin 209, December, 1918 726 

CoNNBcnctrr Stobbs Station : 

BuUetin 96, June, 1918 670 

BuUetin 97, November, 1918 651 

Bulletin 98, January, 1918 673 

Bulletin 99, August, 1918 675 

Flobida Station: 

Bulletin 150, August, 1918 158 



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1W91 CONTENTS. V 

Guam Station: Pace^ 

Report, lftl7 . 327, 839, 344, 3e6» 372, 396 

Hawaiiai? St7gab Pxanters' Station : 

Report Experiment StaUcm CJommittee, 1918 634, 854 

Idaho Station: 

Bolletiii no, June 1918 17 

Bnlletin 111, Septwnber, 1918 90 

BuUetln 112. December, 1918 854 

Carcular 7, March, 1919 786 

luiNois Station: 

Bnlletin 212, January, 1919 . 423 

BuUeUn 213, January, 1919 450 

BnUetin 214, February, 1919 443 

BuUetin 215. February, 1919 773 

BuUetln 216, April, 1919 878 

Circular 230, September 1918 90 

Circular 231, September, 1918 44 

Circular 232, October, 1918 44 

Orcular 238, March, 1919 742 

Circular 234, March. 1919 879 

SoU Report 18. November, 1918 514 

Thirtieth Annual Report, 1917 198 

Indiana Station: 

BuUetin 217, August, 1918 72 

, BuUetin 218, August, 1918 76 

Bulletin 219, September, 1918 668 

Bulletin 222, September, 1918 514 

Bulletin 224, September. 1918 526 

Bulletin 225, January, 1919 735 

Circular 84, October, 1918 292 

Circular 85, December, 1918 788 

Circular 87, November, 1918 834 

Circular 89, January, 1919 788 

Thirty-first Annual Report, 1918 738, 752, 773, 783, 796 

Iowa Station: 

Bulletin 178, May, 1918 77 

Bulletin 179. November, 1918 755 

Bulletin 179 (abridged), April, 1918 755 

Bulletin 180. May, 1918 1 81 

Bulletin 181, October, 1918 367 

Bulletin 182, October, 1918 369 

Bulletin 183, January, 1919 717 

Bulletin 184, December, 1918 593 

Bulletin 185, January, 1919 874 

Research Bulletin 45, February, 1918 617 

Research Bulletin 46, February, 1918 71 

Research Bulletin 47. March, 1918 775 

Research Bulletin 48, August, 1918 767 

Circular 53, September, 1918 36 

Circular 54, September, 1918 379 

Soil Survey Report 2, January, 1918 216 

Soil Survey Report 3, April, 1918 216 

Annual Report, 1917 328,341,388,897 



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YI EXPERIMENT STATION BECORD. [Vol.40 

Kansas Station: Pac«. 

Circular 69, Angost, 1918 86 

Inspection Circular 8, December, 1918 472 

Report, 1917 319,329,340,344,352,361.369,371,372,388.397 

Kentucky Station: 

Bulletin 217, July. 1918 78 

Circular 22, July, 1918 635 

Circular 23. November. 1918 573 

Mains Station : 

Bulletin 272, August, 1918 867 

Bulletin 273, October, 1918 357 

Bulletin 274. December, 1918 i 872 

Official Inspection 87, January. 1918 461 

Official Inspection 88, July 1918 443 

Official Inspection 89, August, 1918 470 

Official Inspection 90, October, 1918 424 

Mabtland Station: 

Bulletin 217, June, 1918 178 

Bulletin 218, June, 1918 150 

Bulletin 219, August, 1918 146 

Bulletin 220. September, 1918 535 

Bulletin 221, September, 1918 571 

Bulletin 222, September, 1918 741 

Bulletin 223, October, 1918 756 

Bulletin 224, December, 1918 831* 

Thirty-first Annual Report, 1918 494 

Massachusetts Station: 

Bulletin 184, July, 1918 549 

Bulletin 185, July, 1918 536 

Control Series Bulletin 9, October, 1918 517 

Control Series Bulletin 10, October, 1918 571,574 

Meteorological Bulletins 359-360, November-December, 1918 210 

Meteorological Bulletins 361-362, January-February, 1919 511 

Michigan Station: 

Bulletin 282. September, 1918 571 

Technical Bulletin 42, March, 1918 20 

Technical Bulletin 43, November, 1918 512 

Special Bulletin 90, October, 1918 731,788,796 

Special Bulletin 91, December, 1918 517 

Quarterly Bulletin, vol. 1 — 

No. 1, August, 1918 39,49,64,72,75,76,88,97 

No. 2, November, 1918 768,789,797 

Minnesota Station: 

Bulletin 175, July, 1918 338 

BuUetin 176, July, 1918 339 

Bulletin 177, September, 1918 377 

Twenty-sixth Annual Report, 1918 715, 

731, 732, 734, 740, 742, 745. 761, 771. 784, 797 
Mississippi Station: 

Bulletin 184, February, 1918 234 

Technical Bulletin 8, June, 1918 285 



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1«W3 COKTBNTS. Vn 

Miaaousi Station: Page. 

Bulletin 15e, July. 1918 281 

Bulletin 157, July, 1918 218 

Bulletin 159, October, 1918 574 

Bulletin 160, January, 1919 022 

Research Bulletin 28, June, 1918 567 

Research Bulletin 29, July, 1918 455 

Research Bulletin SI, August, 1918 877 

Research Bulletin 32, September, 1918 836 

MusoTTsi Fbtht Station : 

Circular 10, December, 1917 341 

Circular 11, May, 1918 842 

Circular 12, October, 1918 841 

Circular 18, November, 1918 _* 341 

Montana Station: 

BuUetin 123, February, 1918 452,459 

Bulletin 124, February, 1918 452 

BuUetin 125, March, 1918 443 

Circular 77, February, 1918 452,459 

Circular 78, March, 1918 447 

Circular 79. March, 1918 473, 485 

Twenty-fourth Annual Report, 1917 417, 

419, 429, 444, 449, 452, 470, 472, 488, 494 

Nbbaska Station: 

Bulletin 169, December. 1918 521 

Bulletin 170, October, 1918 569 

Kkw Haicpshibb Station : 

Scientific Contribution 1 277 

Nkw Jkbsbt Stations: 

BuUetin 317 (Report, 1917), November, 1917 125,187.162,177,198 

BuUetin 820, July, 1917 473 

BuUetin 327, May, 1918 665 

BuUetin 828, February, 1918 649 

Bulletin 329, March, 1918 570 

Bulletin 380, August, 1918 797 

Circular 92. October, 1917 856 

Circular 97, March, 1918 645 

arcular 98, March, 1918 645 

Circular 99, September, 1918 638 

Circular 100, January, 1918 753 

Circular 101, November, 1918 772 

Circular 102, November, 1918 747 

Circular 103, February, 1919 742 

Circular 104, Decend)er, 1918 748 

ClTcnlar 105, January, 1919 747 

Hints to Poultrym^, voL 7— 

Na 1, October, 1918 78 

No. 2, November, 1918 280 

No. 8, December, 1918 372 

Nbw Mmco Station: 

Bulletin 111, April, 1918 86 

BuUetin 112, May, 1918 '^4 



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Vni EXPEBIME17T STATION BBCOBD. [Vol.40 

Nsw Mezioo Station— Oontinued. Paca 

Bulletin 113, June, 1918 18 

Bulletin 114, July. 1918 277 

BuUetin 115, August, 1918 888 

Nsw YoBK Cornell Station : 

Memoir 16, November, 1918 496 

Memoir 17, December, 1918 719 

Memoir 18, January, 1919 777 

Memoir 19, February, 1919 820 

Thlrty-flrst Annual Report, 1918 694 

New Yobk State Station : 

Bulletin 444, December, 1917 68 

Bulletin 445, December, 1917 97 

Thirty-sixth Annual Report, 1917 511, 599 

Nobth Oabouna Station: 

Farmers* Market Bulletin, voL 5, No. 25, November 7, 1918 294 

Nobth Dakota Station: 

Bulletin 127. July, 1918 75 

Special Bulletin, voL 5 — 

No. 5, July, 1918 961 

Na 6, August, 1918 145 

No. 7, December. 1918 559, 588 

Ohio Station: 

BuUetin 325 (Thirty-seventh Annual Report, 1918), June, 1918 198 

Bulletin 829, September, 1918 167 

Bulletin 830, September, 1918 878 

Bulletin 831, November, 1918 592 

Monthly Bulletin— 
Volume 8— 

No. 10, October, 1918 126, 149, 158, 172, 173, 196 

No. 11, Nov«nber, 1918 278. 292, 296 

No. 12, December, 1918 334,342,375,879,997 

Volume 4 — 

No. 1, January, 1919 341, 342, 375, 397 

No. 2, February, 1910 639,640,658,694 

No. 3, March, 1919 724, 736, 788, 744. 747, 754. 772, 797 

Oklahoma Station: 

Bulletin 119, July, 1918 290 

Bulletin 120, October, 1918 278 

Bulletin 121, December, 1918 366 

Bulletin 122, March, 1919 804 

Circular 44, January, 1918 76 

Twenty-sixth Annual Report, 1917 19,82,42,65,74,75,81,97 

Twenty-seventh Annual Report, 1918 608,617,624,638,644,676,683,694 

Obegon Station: 

Bulletin 149, January, 1918 40 

Bulletin 153, June, 1918 54 

Bulletin 156, December, 1918 576 

Bulletin 157, January, 1919 687 

Bulletin 158, Biarcfa, 1919 838 



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PnvNSTLVAiaA Station: Page. 

Bulletin 154, January, 1919 038 

Bulletin 155, February, 1919 723 

BuDetln ISe, March, 1919 848 

Bulletin 157, Ajwll, 1919 816 

Iteio Rico Station : 

Circular 16 (Spanish edition), October, 1918 66 

Report, 1917 42,44.47,51,62,66.97 

Shodb Island Station : 

Bulletinl74, May, 1918 685 

BuUetin 175, June, 1918 628 

Inspection Bulletin, October, 1918 617 

Thirtieth Annual Beport, 1917 198 

South Cj^hmuna Station: 

BuUetin 197, July, 1918 26 

Thirty-first Annual Report, 1918 624,643,647,672,694 

South Dakota Station: 

Bulletin 180, Mardi, 1918 82 

Bulletin 181, March, 1918 84 

TammsKK Station: 

Bulletin 120, July, 1918 * 662 

IkxAB Station: 

Bulletin 229, May, 1918 728 

Bulletin 280, June, 1918 736 

Bulletin 231, June, 1918 766 

Bulletin 232, August, 1918 769 

Bulletin 233, September, 1918 726 

Bulletin 234, September, 1918 571 

BuUetin 285, September, 1918 515 

BuUetin 236, November, 1918 787 

Utah Station: 

BuUetin 164, September, 1918 227 

Bulletin 166^ October, 1918 - 888 

Circular 82, September, 1918 71 

Circular 33, September, 1918 278 

dreolar 84, December, 1918 - 633 

Circular 85, December, 1918 473 

Circular 36, January, 1919 785 

Clrciilar 37, January, 1919 435 

Circular 38, December, 1918 483 

Circolar 39, December, 1918 599 

VnoiNu Station: 

Bulletin 220, Noyember, 1918 845 

Washihoton Station: 

BuUetin 151, December, 1918 642 

BuUetin 158 (Twenty-eighth Annual Report, 1918), January, 1919. 719, 

730, 740, 745. 753, 762, 770, 771, 797 

Popular Bulletin 115. August, 1918 ^ 

Popular BuUetin 116, January, 1919 636 



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X EXPEBIMENT STATXOH BEGOBD. [VoL^O 

Washington Station— Continued. 

Weetem Washington Station Monthly Bulletin^ vol. 6— Page. 

No. 7, October, 1918 »7 

No. 8, November, 1918 245,280.296 

No. 9, December, 1918 340, 37d» 387, 397 

No. 10, January, 1919 422,485.^4 

No. 11, February, 1919 094 

No. 12, March. 1919 742,743,764,797 

West Yibginia Station: 

Bulletin 167, November, 1918 446 

Bulletin 168, December, 1918 420 

Circular 29, September, 1918 484 

Wisconsin Station: 

BuUetln 295, August, 1918 90 

BuUetln 296, September, 1918 290 

Bulletin 297, September, 1918 185 

Bulletin 298, March, 1919 742 

Research Bulletin 43, January, 1919 761 

Research Bulletin 44, February, 1919 892 

Wyoming Station: 

Bulletin 118, December, 1918 630 

Bulletin 119, December, 1918 636 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PUBLICATIONS 

ABSTRACTED. 

Annual Reports, 1917 493 

Bulletin 391, Accuracy In Commercial Grading of Opened Eggs, M. K. 

Jenkins and N. Hendrlckson 872 

Bulletin 669, The Manufitcture of Neufchatel and Cream Cheese in the 

Factory, K. J. Matheson and F. R. Cammack 79 

BuUetln 677, Soils of Southern New Jersey and Their Uses, J. A. BonsteeL. Id 

Bulletin 703, Miscellaneous Truck Crop Insects in Louisiana, T. H. Jones. 67 

Bulletin 709, Reports of Storage Holdings of Certain Food Products, J. O. 

Bell and I. C. Franklin 68 

BuUeUn 711, Logging in the Douglas Fir B^on, W. H. QfbboDS.^ 152 

Bulletin 718, Small Sawmills: Their Equipment, Construction, and Op- 
eration, D. F. Seerey 291 

Bulletin 719, Women's Rural Organizations and Their AcUTities, Anne 

M. Evans 93 

Bulletin 720, Food Habits of the Mallard Ducks of tbd United States, 

W. L. McAtee 254 

BuUetin 721, The Beet-sugar Industry in the United States, C. O. Towns- 
end 13« 

Bulletin 722, A Study of Heart-rot in Western Hemlock, J. R. Weir and 

B. E. Hubert 159 

Bulletin 724, Drainage Methods and Foundations for County Roads, K 

W. James, V. M. Pierce, and C. H. Moorefield 291 

Bulletin 725, A Preliminary Study of the Bleaching of Oats with Sulphur 

Diozid, G. H. Baston JB5 

Bulletin 726, Farm Practice in Growing Sugar Beets for Three Districts 
in Colorado, 1914-15, L. A. Moorhouse, R. S. Washburn, T. H. Sum- 

metB, and S. B. Nuckols 188 



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M9} CONTENTS. XI 

Pac*. 

Biilletin 727, AnthracQOse of Cucurbits, M. W. Gardner 2oO 

Balletin 728, Certain Desert Plants as Emergency Stock Feed, B. O. 
Wooton , 27ej 

Bulletin 730, Papers on Dedduons Fruit Insects : I, The Grape Curcullo, 
and II, The Grape Root Borer, F. E. Brooks ; III, Experiments In the 
Control of the Boot Form of the WooUy Apple Aphis, B. B. Leach 256 

Bulletin 732, Smyrna Fig Culture, O. P. Elxford 149 

BuUetin 733, Length of Cotton Lint, Crops 1916 and 1917, W. L. Pryor.. 34 

Bulletin 734, Nematode Galls as a Factor in the Marketing and Milling of 
Wheat, D. A- Coleman and S. A. Regan 144 

Balletin 735, Farm Practice in Growing Sugar Beets in the Billings Re- 
gions of Montana, S. B. Nuckols and E. L. Currier 139 

Bulletin 736, The Open Shed Compared with the Closed Barn for Dairy 
Cows, T. E. Woodward, W. F. Turner, W. R. Hale, and J. B. McNulty. 177 

Bulletin 737, The Tobacco Beetle : An Important Pest in Tobacco Prod- 
ucts, G. A. Runner 758 

Bulletin 738, Effect of Grazing upon Western Yellow Pine Reproduction 
to Central Idaho, W. N. Sparhawk 343 

Bulletin 739, The Significance of the Colon Count in Raw Milk, S. U. 
Ayers and P. W. Clemmer 376 

Bulletin 740, A Study of the Chemical Changes which Occur in Oysters 
during Thehr Preparation for the Market, E. E. Smith 459 

Bulletin 741, Effect of Grazing upon Aspen Reproduction, A* W. Sampson. 448 

BuUetin 742, Production of American Egyptian Cotton, C. S. ScoHeld, 
T. H. Kearney, C. J. Brand, O. F. Cook, and W. T. Swingle 438 

Bulletin 744, Cooling Milk and Storing and Shipping It at Low Tempera- 
tures, J. A. Gamble and J. T. Bowen 475 

Bulletin 745, Chopped Soapweed as Emergency Feed for Cattle on South- 
western Ranges, C. L. Forsling 471 

Bulletin 747, The Economical Use of Fuel in Milk Plants and Creameries, 
J. T. Bowen 476 

Bulletin 748, Farm Practice in Growing Sugar Beets In Michigan and 
Ohio, R. S. Washburn, L, A. Moorhouse, T. H. Summers, and 
C 0. Townsend 440 

Bullettn 750, A Method for Preparing a Commercial Grade of Calcium 
Arsenate, J. K. Haywood and C. M. Smith 10 

Bulletin 758, The Use of Wood for Fuel 641 

Bulletin 756, Pecan Rosette In Relation to Soil Deficiencies, S. M. Me- 
Murran 544 

Bulletin 757, Farm Practices in Grain Farming in North Dakota, 0. M. 
Hennis and R. E. Wlllard 735 

Bulletin 758, Pulp-wood Consumption and Wood-pulp Production in 1917, 
P. H. Smith 543 

Bulletin 760, Farm Practices in Growing Sugar Beets in Three California 
Districts, T. H. Summers, L. A. Moorhouse, R. S. Washburn, and 
C. O. Townsend 737 

Bulletin 761, A Comparison of Concentrates for Fattening Steers in the 
South, W. F. Ward, S. S. Jerdan, and E. R. Lloyd : 873 

Bulletin 762, A Comparison of Roughages for Fattening Steers in the 
South, W. F. Ward, D. T. Gray, and B. R. Lloyd 665 

BuUetin 768, Production of Lumber, Lath, and Shingles in 1917, F. H. 
Smith and A. H. Pierson 848 



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Xn EXPEBIMEKT STATION BECOBD. [Vol 40 

Bulletin 709, The Production and Conservation of Fats and Oils in the 

United States, H. S. Bailey and B. B. Renter (J14 

Bulletin 771, A Study of the Effect of Storage, Heat, and Moisture on 

Pyrethrum, W. S. Abbott 752 

Farmers' Bulletin 941, Water Systems for Farm Homes, 6. M. Warren— 91 

Fanners' Bulletin 959, The Spotted Garden Slug, W. H White 55 

Farmers' Bulletin 980, The Splnose Ear Tick and Methods of Treating 

Infested Animals, M. Imes 682 

Farmers' Bulletin 961, Farm Practices that Increase Crop Yields in Ken- 
tucky and Tennessee, J. H Arnold 133 

Farmers' Bulletin 988, Bean and Pea Weevils, E. A« Back and A. B. 

Duckett 64 

Farmers^ Bulletin 986, Farm Practices that Increase Crop Yields in the 

Gulf Coast Region, M. A. Crosby 138 

Farmers' Bulletin 998, Cooperative Bull Associations, J. G. Winkjer 79 

Farmers' Bulletin 994, Commercial Bordeaux Mixtures. — ^How to Calcu- 
late Their Values, B. Wallace and L. H. Evans 45 

Farmers' Bulletin 995, Preventing Wood Rot in Pecan Trees, S. M. Mc- 

Murran 158 

Farmers' Bulletin 990, Steam Sterilization of Seed Beds for Tobacco 

and other Crops, C. G. Belnhart 135 

Farmers' Bulletin 997, Terracing Farm Lands, C. B. Ramser 188 

Farmers' Bulletin 998, Culture of the Logan Blackberry and Related 

Varieties, G. M. Darrow 150 

Farmers' Bulletin 999, Sweet Potato Growing; F. B. Miller 738 

Farmers' Bulletin 1000, Crop Systems for Arkansas, A. D. McNair 183 

Farmers' Bulletin 1001, Growing Fruit for Home CTse, H. P. Gould and 

G. M. Darrow 742 

Farmers' Bulletin 1002, Canada Thistle and Methods of Eradication, 

A. A. Hansen 839 

Farmers' Bulletin 1003, How to Control Billbugs Destructive to Cereal 

and Forage Crops, A* F. Satterthwait 666 

Farmers' Bulletin 10O4, The Gas Tractor in Eastern Farming, A. P. 

Yerkes and L. M. Church 89 

Farmers* Bulletin 1005, Sweet Clover on Com Belt Farms, J. A. Drake 

and J. C. Rundles 242 

Farmers' Bulletin 1006, The Wheat Jointworm and Its Control, W. J. 

Phillips 170 

Farmers' Bulletin 1007, Control of the Onion Thrlps, F. H. Chittenden 548 

Farmers' Bulletin 1008, Saving Farm Labor by Harvesting Crops with 

Live Stock, J. A. Drake 73 

Fanners' Bulletin 1009, Hay Stackers, H. B. McClure . 788 

Farmers' Bulletin 1010, Game Laws for 1918, G. A. Lawyer and F. L. 

Eamshaw 54 

Farmers' Bulletin 1011, The Woolly White Fly in Florida Citrus Groves, 

W. W. Yothers 856 

Farmers' Bulletin 1012, The Preparation of Bees for Outdoor Wintering, 

B. F. Phillips and G. S. Demuth 64 

Farmers' Bulletin 1018, Practical Hints on Running a Gas Engine, A. 

P. Yerkes 291 

Farmers' Bulletin 1014, Wintering Bees in Cellars, E. F. Phillips and 
G. S. Demuth - 64 



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^W OONTBHTS. Zm 

Fanners' BnlletiD 1015, Prodndng Family and Farm SnppUes on the Cot- 
ton Farm, C. L, Goodrich • 292 

Farmers' Bulletin 1016, Propagation and Culture of the Date Palm, B. 

I>rammond 540 

Farmers' Bulletin 1017, CatUe Scab and Methods of Control and Eradlca- 

ti<m, M. Imes 290 

Farmers' Bulletin 1018, Hemorrhagic Septicemia: Stockyards Fever, 

Swine Plague, Fowl Cholera, Etc., H. J. Washburn 188 

Farmers' BuUetin 1019, Straining Milk, E. Kelly and J. A. Gamble 475 

Farmers' Bulletin 1020, The Sweet Potato Weevil and Its Ccmtrol, F. H. 

Chittenden 357 

Fanners' Bulletin 1022, Laws Relating to Fur-bearing Animals, 1918, 

D. K Lantz 850 

Farmers' Bulletin 1023, Machinery for Cutting Firewood, H. R. ToUey.. 588 

Farmers' Bulletin 1025, The Larger Com Stalk Borer, G. G. Ainslie 856 

Farmers* Bulletin 1026, Strawberry Culture: South Atlantic and Gulf 

Coast Regions, G. M. Darrow 838 

Farmers' Bulletin 1027, Strawberry Culture: Western United States, G. 

M. Darrow 838 

Fanners' Bulletin 1028, Strawberry Culture: Eastern United States^ 

G. M. Darrow .* 838 

Farmers' Bulletin 1029, Conserving Com from Weevils in the Gulf Coast 

States, B. A. Back 861 

Farmers' Bulletin 1030, Feeding Horses, .G. A. Bell and J. O. Williams 875 

Farmers' Bulletin 1031, Fig Growing in the South Atlantic and Gulf 

States, H. P. Gould 838 

Farmers' Bulletin 1032, Operating a Cooperative Motor Truck Route, 

H. S. Yohe 803 

Farmers' Bulletin 1033, Muscadine Grape Paste, C. Dearing 808 

Farmers' Bulletin 1034, Growing Sugar Cane for Simp, P. A. Toder 830 

Farmers' Bulletin 1036, Care and Repair of Farm Implements. — ^V. Grain 

Separators, E. Johnson 880 

Farmers' Bulletin 1040, Illustrated Poultry Primer, H. M. Lamon and 

J. W. KJngfaome . 876 

Farmers' Bulletin 1041, The Eelworm Disease of Wheat and Its Control, 

L. P. Byars 848 

Farmers' Bulletin 1043, Strawberry Varieties in the United States, G. 

M. Darrow -, 838 

Farmers' BuUetin 1044, The City Home Garden, W. R. Beattie 833 

Report of Agricultural Commission to Europe, W. O. Thompson et aL.422, 487, 403 

Weekly News Letter, voL 6, No. 80, Fdt). 26, 1018 422 

OmcE or THS Secbetabt : 

arcular 120, October, 1918 02 

Qrcular 121, October, 1918 92 

Circular 122, October, 1918 73 

Circular 123, October, 1918 276 

Circular 124, February, 1919 786 

Circular 125, January, 1919 421,487 

Circular 126, January, 1919 414 

Circular 127, February, 1919 754 

Circular 128, 1910 778 

Gizeoiar 120, Mardi 1919 744 



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XIV EXPBBIMENT STATION BECOBD. [Vol.40 

OmcE OF THE Secbetaby — Continued. Paget 

Circular 130, March, 1919 780 

Circular 131, March, 1919 890 

Circular 132, March, 1919 890 

A Method of Testing Farms in the South for Effldency In Manage- 
ment, C. L. Goodrich 788 

BUBEAU OP AnIKAL INDUSTRY : 

The Ophthalmic and Intradermic Tests for Glanders 885 

BuBEAu OP BiouraicAL Subivby: 

Annual Report of the Governor of Alaska on the Alaska Game Law, 

1918 761 

BuBEAu OF Crop Estimates : 
Monthly Crop Report — 

Volume 4 — 

No. 10, October, 1918 93 

No. 11, November, 1918 293 

No. 12, December, 1918 391 

Volume 5 — 

No. 1, January, 1919 490 

No. 2, February, 1919 594 

No. 3, March, 1919 792 

No. 4, April, 1919 894 

Forest Service: 

A Plan for the Development of the Village of Grand Canyon, Ariz., 

F. A. Waugh 248 

Landscape Engineering In the National Forests, F. A. Waugh 248 

Tree Distribution under the Kinkald Act, 1911 248 

National Forest Areas, June 30, 1918 447 

Recreation Uses on the National Forests, F. A. Waugh 542 

What the National Forests Mean to the Water User, S. T. Dana 743 

Bttbeau op Markets : 

Document 17, October, 1918 188 

Food Surveys, vol. 2 — 

No. 11, October 1, 1918 68 

No. 12, October 5, 1918 68 

No. 13, October 26. 1918 178 

No* 14, November 25, 1918 269 

No. 15, December 23. 1918 361 

No. 16, January 25, 1919 462 

No. 17, February 20, 1919 659 

No. 18, February 25, 1919 659 

No. 19, February 26, 1919 659 

No. 20, March 12, 1919 765 

No. 21, March 13. 1919 765 

No. 22, March 17, 1919 865 

No. 23, March 25, 1919 865 

No. 24, March 28, 1919 865 

Seed Reporter, vol. 2— 

No. 4, October, 1918 245 

No. 5. November, 1918 146 

No. 6, December, 1918 838 



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ItWJ OOKTBKTS. XV 

BuBAU 09 Mabkstb — Coiitiiined. 

Seed R^wrter, yoL 2— Continued. Page. 

No. 7, January, 1919 338 

No. 8, rebniaiy, 1919 535 

No. 9, liarcb, 1919 585 

No. 10, AiBil. 1919 881 

Handbook Official Grain Standards for Wheat and Shelled Corn, 

September, 1918 39 

Service and Regalatory Announcements — 

No. 88, April. 1918 89 

No. 34, May, 1918 144 

No. 88, June, 1918 144 

BuiKAu or Plant ImyusTBT : 

Tangelos: What They Are — ^Xhe Value in Florida of the Sampson 

and Thornton Tangelos, W. T. Swingle and T. R. Robinson 247 

Varieties of the Satsuma Orange Group in Japan, T. Tanaka 342 

Varieties of the Satsuma Orange Group in the United States, L. B. 

Scott 842 

Washington Asparagus: Information and Suggestions for Growers 

of New Pedigreed Bust-resistant Strains, J. B. Norton 538 

Wart of Potatoes : A Disease New to the United States, L. O. KunkeU 548 

Conifer Additions to Shelter Belts on the Northern Great Plains 841 

Oare of Gooperatiye Shelter Belts on the Northern Great Plains 842 

Inventory of Seeds and Plants Imported, October 1 to December 

31, 1915 827 

Work of Belle Fourche Experiment Farm, 1917> 314, 831» 340, 371, 374, 391 

Work of ScottBblufl Experiment Farm, 1917 430, 470, 493 

Work of Truckee-Oarson Experiment Farm, 1917 31, 44, 51, 72 

Work of Umatilla Experiment Farm, 1917 431, 444. 484, 494 

Work of Yuma Experiment Farm, 1917 433, 444, 472, 484, 494 

Plant Disease Bulletin, voL 2— 

No. 11, October, 1918 157 

No. 13, November, 1918 157 

BuBAu or Public Boads : 
Public Roads, vol. 1— 

No. 4, August, 1918 90 

No. 5, September, 1918 188, 189 

Na 6-8, December, 1918 485 

No. 9, January, 1919 788 

No. 10, February, 1919 888, 889 

BxTiKAu OF Soils: 

Field Operations, 1915— 

Soil Survey in California, Lower San Joaquin Valley .« 118 

Field Operations, 1916— 

Bq;x)rt of Beconnaissance of Soils, Agriculture^ and Other Be- 

sources of Kenai Poiinsula Begion, Alaska 818 

Soil Survey in Alabama, Lowndes County 216 

Soil Surv^ in Alabama, Monroe County 419 

Soil Survey in Indiana, Porter County 420 

Soli Survey in Iowa* Clay County 216 

Son Survey in Minnesota, Anoka County 217 



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rvi EXFEBIMElirF 8IAXI0H SBCX>BD. [▼•1.46 

Btjsbau of Soils— Ck>ntlnued. 

Field OperatioDS, 1916— Contiiiued. Pact. 

Soil Survey in Missouri, Barry County . 119 

Soil Survey in North Carolina, Cleveland County 420 

Soil Survey in Nortli Carolina, Halifax County 217 

Soil Survey in North Carolina, Stanly County 217 

Soil Survey in Oklahoma, Payne County 420 

Soil Survey in Ohio, Marion County i 217 

Sou Survey in Ohio, Miami County 119 

Soil Survey in Pennsylvania, Clearfield County 814 

Soil Survey in South Carolina, Berkeley County 119 

Soil Survey in Tennessee, Shelby County 814 

Soil Survey in Texas, Bell County 120 

Soil Survey in Vermont, Windsor County 814 

Soil Survey in Wisconsin, Door County 120 

Soil Survey in Wisconsin, Milwaukee County 120 

Field Operations, 1917— 

Soil Survey in Mississippi, Covington County 813 

Soil Survey in Nebraska, Phelps County 813 

Soil Survey In N^raska, Wayne County 814 

iNSBcncznB and FxmoicnnB Boabd: 

Service and Regulatory Announcements, No. 21, October, 1918 45 

OmcE OF Fabm Mana obmen t : 

Atlas of American Agriculture: II, Climate. — I, Frost and the Grow- 
ing Season, W. G. Reed 209 

Atlas of American Agriculture: V, The Crops. — A, Cotton, O. C. 

Stine, O. B. Baker, et al {S26 

States Reiatxons Service : 

Syllabus 35, January, 1919 609 

Weathbb BuBEAtr: 

National Weather and Crop BulleUn 18, July, 1918 116 

National Weather and Crop Bulletin 21, August, 1918 118 

National Weather and Crop Bulletin 83, 1918 511 

National Weather and Crop Bulletin 2, 1919 616 

U. S. Monthly Weather Review — 
Volume 46— 

Nos. 7-8. July-August, 1918 117 

Nos. 9-10, Septemher-October, 1918 416 

No. 11, November, 1918 016, 617 

No. 12, December, 1918 615,616,617 

Supplement 11, October 1, 1918 19 

Supplement 12, October 26, 1918 19 

Supplement 18, November, 1918 209 

Supplement 14, March, 1919 715 

Climatological Data, vol. 5 — 

Nos. 5-6, May-June, 1918 19 

Nos. 7-8, July-August, 1918 117 

Nos. 9-10, S^tember-October, 1918 511 

Nos. 11-12, November-December, 1918 716 

Daily River Stages, voL 15, 1917 209 



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IMA] OQHTBHTS. XVII 
SCTENTIFIO CONTRIBUTIONS.* 

Alnslie, 0. K.« A Note on the Economic Importance of Bamia cecropia 754 

AliiBlie, G. O^ Oontrlbations to a Knowledge of the Orambinse of North 

America, I 168 

Alnslie, O. O., Ck>lor Variation in Pupffi of Teria$ nidppe 263 

Aidrich, J. M., Seasonal and Climatic Variation in Oerodonta 169 

Aldrich, J. M., Two New HydrotKaa 268 

Aldridi, J. M., The Ke^^ Flies of North America (Genus Fucellia, Family 

Anthomylds) 268 

Aldrich, J. M., New and Little>known Canadian Osdnide 263 

Aldricfa, J. M«, The Anthomyld Genus Pegonomyia 357 

AUaid, H. A., AbnormaUties in Nicotiana 226 

AUard, EL A., Some Studies in Blossom Color Inheritance in Tobacco, 

with Special Reference to NiooUana sylifeHris and N. tabacum 442 

Andrews, C. E., Para Cymene. — I, Nitration, Mononitrocymene 710 

Armsby, H. P., and J. A. Fries, Net Energy Values of Alfalfa Hay and 

Stardi ■- 365 

ArtKhwager, E. F., Histological Studies on Potato Leaf Roll 543 

Ayen, S. H., and P. Rupp, A Synthetic Medium for the Direct Enumera- 
tion of Organisms of the Colon-Krogenes Group 381 

Bad[, E. A., Clytus dev(utatar^ a New Pest of the Florida Orange 169 

Bailey, H. S^ and J. M. Johnson, The Determination of the Hezabromid 
and lodin Numbers of Salmon Oil as a Means of Identifying the Species 

of Canned Salmon 205 

Bailey, V^ Wild Animals [of the Yellowstone National Park] 850 

Baker, A. C^ The Dimorphs of Species of Chaltophorus 165 

Baker, A. C, Our Birch Symydobius Distinct from the European 262 

Baker, A. O., The Identity of Aphis circezandis 754 

Barber, H. S., Notes and Descriptions of Some Orchid Weevils 655 

Baasett, a E., The Extent and Possibilities of Cooperation 489 

Beattie, W. R^ Extension Work in Horticulture 833 

Benscm, O. H., Junior Farmers* Institute Work 595 

Benson, O. H., and G. H. Betts, Agriculture.^Southern Edition 897 

Blggar, H. H., Primitive Methods of Maize Seed Preparation 137 

Biahopp, F. C The Distribution of the Nose Fly and Other Species of 

Gastrophilus in the United States 458 

Boyee, J. S^ Perennial Mycelium of Oymnosparangiunu blasdaleanum 845 

Boyce, J. S., Advance Rot and Latent Defects in Aeroplane Timber 349 

Boyee, J. S., Imbedding and Staining of Diseased Wood 843 

Brand, C. J., The Effective Use of the Panama Canal in the Distribution 

of Products 489 

Brand, C. J., The Distribution of Agricultural Products and the Func- 
tion of Produce Exchanges... — 791 

Brewster, J. F., and C. L. Alsberg, Determination of the Distribution of 

Nitrogen in Certain Seeds 502 

Brooks, C, J. S. Cooley, and D. F. Fisher, Apple Scald 849 

Burke, H. E., Oryssus is Parasitic - 656 

Carpenter, C. W., A New Disease of the Irish Potato 644 

Canmer, E., Angular Leaf Spot of Cucumber: Dissemination, Overwinter- 
ing and Control 250 

* PriBtcd lA fcleiitiflc and technical pabUcations outside the Department. 
146069'*— 20 2 



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XVni EXPERIMBNT STATION RECOBD. I Vol.40 

Pwu 

Gandell, A* N., Zorotypus huhbardi, a New Species of the Order Zorap- 

tera from the United States 2i0 

Caudell^ A. N., Regarding Diapheromera veUei and Manomera bimickieyi^^ Ml 
Caudell, A. N., On a Collection of Orthoptera (Exclusive of the LoonatidA) 

Made in Central Peru by N. Iconnicoff and C. Schunke 35S 

Caudell, A. N., Two New Species of the Blattid Genua Arenivaga 7M 

Ohace, B. M., The Detection and Elimination of Frosted Fruit 448 

Chapln, R. M., Arsenious Oxid as a Standard Substance In lodtmetry.. 009 

Chittenden, F. H., The Lotus Borer 756 

Clapp» E. H., Forest Research and the War 74ft 

Clark, F. G., Appraisal of Fire Damage to Immature Timber f6r Statisti- 
cal Purposes 848 

Clark, W. B., Volumetric Determination of Reducing Sugars 114 

Close, C. P., Extension Service In Pomology in the U. S. Department of 

Agriculture 884 

Coe, H. S., Origin of the Georgia and Alabama Varieties of the Velvet 

Bean . 141 

Cole, F. R., The Dipterous Family Cyrtidje in North America 787 

Collins, W. D., and W. F. Clark, Lead in Pharmaceutical Zinc Oxid 410 

Conant, J. B., The Preparation of Sodium p^Hydroxyphenylarsenate 609 

Connor, L. G., Labor Costs and Seasonal Distribution of Labor on Irri- 
gated Crops in Utah Valley 888 

Cook, F. C, and B. LeFevre, Chemical Analysis of Bacteriological 

Bouillons 810 

Cook, O. F., Meade Cotton 287 

Cook, O. F., The Size of Maya Farms 688 

Cooley, B. H., Parasitism, Morphology, and Cytology of Cronartium 

ribicola 646 

Crocker, W., and G. T. Harrington, Catalase and Oxidase Content of Seeds 

in Relation to Their Dormancy, Age, Vitality, and Respiration 222 

Crosby, D. J., Report on Movable Schools of Agriculture under War Con- 
ditions— 696 

Cushman, R. A., Notes on the Biology of 8chiz<motus sieboldii 649 

Cushman, R. A., Two New Chalcids from the Seeds of Amelanchier 656 

Cushman, R. A., A Much Described Ichneumonid and Its Systematic 

Position 606 

Cushman, R. A., A Convenient Method of Handling Large Numbers of 

Individuals in Life History Studies of Insects 752 

Cushman, R. A., The Correct Names for Some of Our Common Ichneu- 
monid Parasites 760 

Cushman, R. A., Notes on the Cocoon-spinning Habits of Two Species 

of Braconids 761 

Cushman, R. A., and S. A. Rohwer, The Genus Bphialtes First Proposed 

by Schrank 760 

Dana, S. T., Forestry Pursuits : Foresters, Rangers, Forest Guards 898 

Davidson, J., and J. A. LeClerc, The Effect of Sodium Nitrate Applied 
at Different Stages of Growth on Yield, Composition, and Quality 

of Wheat, II 244 

Davidson, W. M., The California Pistol Case-bearer (ColeopKora Bocra-' 

menta) 757 

Denton, M. C, Kitchen Tests for Pectin in Jelly Making 558 



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18191 CONTENTS. XIX 

Page. 
EdwardeB, Y. P^ Pu^ and Paper Investigations of the Forest Products 
Laboratory In 1918 641 

Erans, Alice C* Farther Studies on Bacterium abortu9 and Related 
Bacteria.— Ill, Bacterium aborim and Related Bacteria in Cow's 
Mlk 184 

Brans, Alice C, A Streptothrix (Nocardia) Infection of Cow's Udders — 185 

Fairchild, D^ The Testing of a New Tree Crop for Hardiness 538 

fUrchild, D., The Palate of Civilized Man and Its Influence on Agri- 

coltuoe : . 656 

Fisher, W. S., A New Species of Longhorn Beetle Infesting Cowpeas 

from Mexico 654 

Fteher, W. S., A New Species of Agrilus from Florida 750 

ForsUng, C. L., Collection, Preparation, and Feeding of Soapweed under 

Practical Range Conditions on the Jornada Range Reserve 277 

Fritz, E., A Combined Map and Panorama for Orientation from Lookout 

Stations 640 

Gabrielson, I. N., Some Notes on Connecticut Birds 351 

Gahan, A. B., Four New African Parasitic Hymenoptera Belonging to the 

Subfamily Microgasterinse 458 

Gahan, A. B., A Synopsis of the Species Belonging to the Chalcidoid 

Genus Rileya 760 

Gahan, A. B., Three New Chalcidoid Egg Parasites 760 

Gahan, A. B., Propachyneuron Girault 760 

Gahan, A- B., Description of a New Hymenopterous Parasite 761 

Gallagher, B. A., Experiments on Avian Toxicology 587 

Galloway, B. T., Relation of the Government to the Marketing Problem— 293 
Galloway, B. T., Some of the Broader Phytopathological Problems in 

Their Relation to Foreign Seed and Plant Introduction 343 

Gardiner, R. F., Solubility of Lime, Magnesia, and Potash in Such Min- 
erals as Epidote Chrysolite, and Muscovite, Especially in Regard to 

Soil Relationships ^ 812 

Gibbsy a D., The Color Laboratory of the Bureau of Chemistry.— A Brief 

Statement of Its Objects and Problems 16 

Gilbert, W. W., and Gardner, M. W., Seed Treatment Control and Over- 
wintering of Cucumber Angular Leaf Spot 449 

Gillespie, L. J., The Growth of the Potato Scab Organism at Various 
Hydrogen Ion Concentrations as Related to the Comparative Freedom 

of Acid Soils from the.Potato Scab 644 

Glltner, L. T., Occurrence of Coccidioidal Granuloma (Oidiomycosis) In 

Cattle ^ 88 

Glaser, B. W., A Systematic Study of the Organisms Distributed under 

the Name of Coccohacillua acHdiorum 164 

Glaser, R. W., The Polyhedral Virus of Insects with a Theoretical Con- 

aideration of Filterable Viruses Generally 255 

Gould, H. P., Peach Growing 149 

Graves, A. H., Resistance in the American Chestnut to the Bark Disease. 349 

Graves, H. S., Effect of the War on Forests of France 152 

Graves, H. S^ Use of Airplanes in Forest Patrol Work 641 

Graves, H. S., Thunder Mountain ®^ 

Greene, C. T., A Contribution to the Biology of North American Dlptera. 653 
Greene, C. T., Three New Species of Dlptera ^^^ 



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XX EXPERIMENT STATION REOOBD. [Vol. 40 

PacQi 
Greene, C. T., A Note on the Habit of Pegomyia aHMt and Other Antfao- 

myld Genera 758 

Griffiths, D., Decorative Materials In the Prickly Pears and Th^r Allies.. 640 

Hall, li. D., Great Central Markets for Live Stock and Meats 488 

Hall, W. L., Infinences of the National Forests in the Southern Appa- 
lachians 841 

Harger, R. N., The Preparation of Metol (n-Methyl-fhamidophenol Snl- 

phate) 504 

Harrington, G. T., and W. Crocker, Resistance of Seeds to Desiccation 39 

Harter, L. L., J. L. Weimer, and J. M. R. Adams, Sweet Potato Storage 

Rots 347 

Hartley, C, Stem Lesions Caused by Excessive Heat i-L__ 53 

Hartley, C, T. C. Merrill, and A. S. Rhoads, Seedling Diseases of 

Conifers 545 

Harvey, R. B., Hardening Process in Plants and Developments from 

Frost Injury 26 

Heald, F. B., The Home Project as a Phase of Vocational Agricultural 

Education 295 

Heinrich, C, a Note on the Tortridd Genitalia 264 

Heinrich, C, A New Coleophora Injurious to Apple in California 652 

Heinridi, C, A New Genus of Lepidoptera Allied to Leucoptera 757 

Heinrich, C, On the Lepidopterous Genus Opostega and Its Larval 

AfQnities 757 

Hill, C. E., A Drill for Seeding Nursery Rows 1. 22d 

Hitchcock, A. S., and Agnes Chase, Grasses of the West Indies 32 

Hodson, E. R., Some Present-day Problems in Forestry 151 

Hoffer, G. N., and J. R. Holbert, Selection of Disease-free Seed Com 526 

Hoffer, G. N., A. G. Johnson, and D. Atanasoff, Corn Root Rot and 

Wheat Scab 49 

Hough, G. J., An Improved Automatic Burette 505 

Houston, D. F., Production and Consumption of Potash [in the United 

States] 516 

Howard, B. J., Factory Investigation on the Manufacture of Tomato Pulp 

and Paste 17 

Howard, L, O., ScMstocerca tartarica Taken at Sea 649 

Howard, L. 0., Two New Instances of Polyembryony among the Bn- 

cyrtidfiB 653 

Howell, A. H., Description of a New Seaside Sparrow from Florida 547 

Hubert, B. E., A Type of Winterkilling Known as the Red-belt Injury of 

Forest Trees Occurring in the Vicinity of Helena, Mont 542 

Hudson, C. S., and T. S. Harding, The Preparation of Xylose from Corn- 
cobs 17 

Humphreys, W. J., Some Recent Contributions to the Physics of the Air__ 616 

Hunt, Caroline L., Changing a Peace Time Ration for War Time 173 

Hunt, H. R., and S. Wright, Pigmentation in Guinea Pig Hair 177 

Husmann, G. C, Developing New Grade Industries 839 

Hutchinson, R. H., A Note on the Life Cycle and Fertility of the Body 

Louse (PedUmVus corporis) 355 

Hyslop, J. A., A New Genus (Perlssarthron) of Blaterid® and a Revision 

of the American Elateridse of the Genus Pyrophorus, with Descriptions 

of New Species 655 

Hyslop, J. A., The Elaterid Genus Oistus of Candeze • 655 



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m91 CONTENTS. XXI 

Jackgon» H. H. T^ Two New Shrews from Oregon 351 

Jackson, EL H. T., The Wisconsin Napseozapus 646 

Jamieson, Q. S., The Grayimetric and Volumetric Determination of Zinc 

Precipitated as Zinc Mercury Tlilocyanate 610 

Jamieson, Q. S.« The Gravimetric and Volumetric Determination of Mer- 
cury Precipitated as Mercury Thiocyanate 712 

Jamieson, G. S^ The Determination of Zinc and Copper in Gelatin 712 

Jenkins, A. EL, Brown Canker of Roses Caused by Diaporthe unibri/tui 544 

Jensen, C A., Relation of Inorganic Soil Colloids to Plowsole in Citrus 

Groves In Southern California 417 

Johns, O. O^ A. J. Finks, and C. E. F. Gersdorf, Globulin of the Coconut 
{CoooB nudfera).^!. Preparation of Coconut Globulin. Distribution 

of the Basic Nitrogen in Coconut Globulin 502 

Johns, C C, and D. B. Jones, The Proteins of the Peanut, ArachU 

hypogmi. — ^III, The Hydrolysis of Aradiln 109 

Johns, C C, and D. B. Jones, The Determination of Tyrosln in Proteins. 113 

Johnscm, F. R., Planting In Relation to the Future of National Forests*. 748 

Jones, D. B., and C. O. Johns, The Hydrolysis of Kafirin 110 

Jones L. R., and W. W. Gilbert, Lightning Injury to Herbaceous Plants.. 645 

Jones^ T. H., life History of Pen^^higua popuU-tranwersus 60 

Kearney, T. H., A Plant Industry Based upon Mutation 237 

Kearney, T. H., Plant Life on Saline Soils ^ 424 

Kearney, T. H., and W. G. Wells, A Study of Hybrids In Egyptian Cotton. 527 

Ktiley, R. W.f Insects Associated with Winter Injury 884 

Kelly, B., Dairy Farm Score Card 476 

Kiernan, J. A., Tuberculosis Eradication 681 

Kloman, J. A^ Tuberculosis and Our Live Stock Industry 681 

Kohman, B. F., A Rapid and Accurate Method for Butter Analysis, Suit- 

able for Factory Control Worife 811 

Korstlan, C. F., Value of Scientific Research in Forestry 161 

Kunkel, L. O^ Tissue Invasion by PUufnodiophwra bra%9UxB 60 

Lacy, M. G-, Sources of Agricultural Statistics 604 

LaFOrge, F. B., Note on the Preparation of Gulonlc Lactone 110 

lAForse, F. B., and C. S. Hudson, The Preparation of Several Useful 

Substances from Corncobs 17 

I^onb, G. N., Marketing Farm Timber in South Carolina 343 

Lane, C. H., Agricultural Instruction in the High Schools of Six East- 
em States 93 

Langworthy, C. F., Teaching Food Values 96 

LeClerc, J. A., L. H. Bailey, and Hannah L. Wessllng, Milling and Baking 

Tests of Einkom, Emmer, Spelt, and Polish Wheat 234 

Lee, H. A., Further Data on the Susceptibility of Rutaceoua Plants to 

Citrus Canker 544 

Lee, H. A., and B. D. Merrill, The Susceptibility of a Nonrutaceoua 

Host to Citrus Canker 851 

Leonard, L. T., and C. F. Turner, Influence of Cerotoma trifureata on the 

Nitrogen Gathering Functioiis of the Oowpea 860 

Lintner, J. J^ Methods of Detecting Tuberculosis in Cattie 782 

Lcmg, W. H., and R. M, Harsch, JBdM Stage of PuoeUiia oxalidia 155 

Lore, H. H., and W. T. Craig, Methods Used and Results Obtained in 

Cereal luTOStigations at the Cornell Station 232 

Lore, H. H., and W. T. Craig, Small Grain Investigations 283 



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XXn EXPERIMENT STATION BECORD. [VoL40 



Love, EL H., and W. T. Craig. The Relation between Color and Other 
Characters in Certain Avena Crosses 239 

Lubs, H. A., A Method for the Purification of Certain Azo Dyes 808 

Lund, C. H., and L. E. Wise, Intermediates Used in the Preparation of 

Photo-sensitlzlng Dyes. — ^11, Quaternary Halids 711 

Lyman, G. R., The Relation of Phytopathologists to Plant Disease Sur- 
vey Work 449 

Lyman, G. R., The Unification of American Botany 817 

Lyman, G. R., et al., Report of the Conference on Diseases of Potatoes 

and Seed Certification 846 

McAtee, W. L., A SIcetch of the Natural History of the District of Co- 
lumbia, together with an Indexed Edition of the U. S. Geologcal Sur- 
vey's 1917 Map of Washington and Vicinity 160 

McAtee, W. L., Cause of the " Fishy *' Flavor of the Flesh of Wild Ducks- 265 
McAtee, W. L., Notes on Nova Scotian Eupteryid Leaf Hoppers, Includ- 
ing Descriptions of Two New Species 261 

McAtee, W. L., Genera of the Eupterygldie 354 

McAtee, W. L., Psyllidae of the Vichilty of Washington, D. C, with De- 
scription of a New Species of Aphalara. 854 

McAtee, W. L., and A. N. Caudell, First List of the Dermaptera and Or- 

thoptera of Plummers Island, Md., and Vicinity 649 

McAtee, W. L., and W. R. Walton, District of Columbia Dlptera: Taban- 

id» 757 

McClelland, T. B., Influence of Foreign Pollen on the Development of 

Vanilla Fruits 840 

McCulloch, L., A Morphological and Cultural Note on the Organism Caus- 
ing Stewart's Disease of Sweet Corn 846 

McGregor, B. A., A New Host Plant of the Boll Weevil 750 

MacKaye, B., Suggestions for Marketing Small Timber in Wisconsin 154 

McKee, R., Glandular Pubescence in Various Medlcago Species 187 

MacMlllan, H. G., Fusarium Blight of Potatoes under Irrigation 847 

Marlatt, C. L., The Origin of the Pink Bollworm 456 

Meigs, E. B., The Quantitative Determination of Phosphorus by the 

Nephelometric Method 112 

Meinecke, E. P., The White Pine Blister Rust and the Chestnut Bark 

Disease 159 

Merill, E. C^ and C. O. Ewing, Laboratory Apparatus for Rapid Evapo- 
ration 505 

Merz, A. R., Russia's Production of Platinum 12 

Middleton, W., Notes on the LarvBB of Some Cephidn 655 

Mikeska L. A., J. K. Stewart, and L. B. Wise, Intermediates Used in 

the Preparation of Photo-sensitizing Dyes. — ^I, Quinolln Bases 710 

Mitchell, J. A., Bear Clover, Chamwhatia foUolosa (Mountain Misery, 

Bearmat, Tarweed) 842 

Mohler, J. R., The Bureau of Animal Industry as a War Auxiliary 577 

Mohler, J. R., Maintaining Animal Health on Farms 577 

Mohler, J. R., The Control of Animal Diseases 778 

Mohler, J. R., Erroneous Impressions of Certain Federal Activities 778 

More, C. T., Uniform Grades and Standard Packages 293 

Mosier, C. A., and T. E. Snyder, Notes on Gadflies in the Florida Ever- 
glades 757 

Munns, E. N., Some Biological and Economic Aspects of the Chaparral.. 842 



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M»} o oJ c rKj a x s, xxin 

Pagtt. 
Ndflon, J. A^ The Segmentation of the Abdomen of the Honeybee (Apis 

melUfica) 170 

NeiaoD, J. A^ An Eyetees Drone Honeybee 759 

Ndaon, SL W., Wild Animals of North America 646 

Helaon, B. W.. WIW Ufe in Our National Parka 646 

N6ugaret» B. L., The Grape Mealy Bog (PaeiMioooooM^ bakeri) 650 

Obeiholser, H. C, Swan Lake^ NlcoHet County, Minn., as a Breeding 

Groond Ibr Waterfowl ^^ 55 

Oberhelser, H. O., AiMonetta, a Good Genoa 161 

Oberholaer, H. C, Bierofalca rtutioolus candioans in North Dakota 161 

Oberhidaer, H. G., Olor oolMmMatMM on the Potomac River 161 

Oberholaer, H. G., BpUetta nuMticaiat the Correct Name for the North 

American Tree Sparrow 161 

Oberbolser, H. C, Bquaterola cpnosurw near Washington, D. C 161 

Oberbolaer, H. C, The Criterion of Subspeciflc Intergradatton in Verte- 
brate Zoology 254 

Oberbolaer, H. a. The Migration of North American Birds, lY-VI 254 

Obertiolser, H. C^ Diagnosis of a New Genns of Anatldie from South 

America 254 

Oberholser, H. C^ The Subspecies of Larus hyperboreus 254 

Oberhirfser, H. O, Mutanda Ornithologica, IV 850 

Oberholatft H. C.» Notes on North American Birds, IV-VII 254 

Obertiolaer, H. C^ A Sync^isis of the Baoes of BombycUla parrula 851 

OberhofeMfr, H. C, Description of a New lole from the Anamba Islands— 851 

Oberholser, H. C, The MigraUon of North American Birds, VII 646 

Oberiioiaer, H. C, A Second Bird Survey at Washington, D. C 646 

Oberholser, H. C^ The Status of the Genus Orchilus Cabanis 646 

Oberholser, H. C, Mutanda Ornithologica, V 646 

Obst, M. M^ A Bacterologic Study of Sardines 555 

Oosley, C Farming Plans for IdlD 789 

Palmer, T. S., Ceata's Hummingbirds— Its Type Locality, Barly History 

and Name 646 

Pemberton, C. EL, and H. W. Willard, Work and Parasitism of the Med- 
iterranean Fruit-fly in Hawaii during 1917 62 

PembertOD, C. E., and H. F. Willard, A Contribution to the Biology of 

Fruit-fly Parasites in Hawaii 459 

Peten, J. G.» A Program of Forest Conservation for the South 841 

Pierce^ B. G., Notes on Peridermiums from Ohio 645 

Pierce, B. G., Additional List of State and National Quarantines Against 

the White Pine Blister Bust 852 

Ptaoep W. D^ Notes w Insects of the Order Strepsiptera, with Descrip* 

tl4»i8 of New Species 266 

Pierce, W. D., The OoraparaUve Morphology of the Order Strepsiptera, 

together with Beoords and Descriptions of Insects 266 

Pierce, W. D^ Medical Sntomology a Vital Factor in the Prosecution of 

the War '^54 

Pierce, W. D^ The Case of the Genera Bhina and Magdalis "^59 

Pierce, W. D„ B. H. Hutchhison, and A. Moecowitz, Government Beport 
€0 Laundry Machinery.— Its AdaptabUity to Various Bequlrements 

and DJalnfudtoi and Disinsection ----- ^^ 

Piper, a Yn The Most Pressing Agricultural Development Problem in the 

United SUtes ^ 



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XXIV EXPEBIMBNT STATIOK BECOBB. [Tol.40 



Piper, C. Vn Cutthroat Qtbbb, Fa$i4eum combM 157 

Popenoe, W., Agricultural Bzplorationa in Mexico 24d^d42 

Potter, A. A., and G. W. Coons, Diflereuces between tbe Species of 
Tllletla on Wheat 846 

Potter, G. M., Abortion in Cattle: Some of the Causes and PraventiTea.. 665 
Potts, B. O^ Statistics of Production and Marketing of Dairy Products.. 476 
PoweU, T. F^ Opportunities Afforded the Ballroads of the United States 

for Profitable Agricultural Deyelopm^t Work 488 

Power, F. B., The Distribution and Characters of Some of the Odorous 

Principles of Plants 710 

Preston, J. F., Economic Use of the Forests of Montana 642 

Bansom, B. H., Notes on Stomach Worms, Btc 782 

Bedfield, H. W., Benflade Milk and Cream 802 

Beynolds, F. H., A Multiple-pipette Holder for the Distribution of Serum 

for the Complement Fixation Test 681 

Beynolds,. F. H., and H. W. Schoening, An Improved Method for Becover- 
ing Trypanosomes from the Blood of Bats for Antigen Purposes in Con- 
nection with Complement Fixation 86 

Bhoads, A. S., Some New or Little-known Hosts for Wood-destrc^ying 

Fungi, II 880 

Bhoads, A. S., G. G. Hedgcock, B. Bethel, and C. Hartley, Host Belation- 
ships of the North American Busts, Other than Gymno^porangiums, 

Which Attack Conifers 846 

Bicker, P. L., A Sketch of Botanical Activity In the District of Columbia 

and Vicinity 726 

Bidgway, C. S., A Promising Chenflcal Photometer for Plant Physiologi- 
cal Besearch 621 

Blxford, G. P., Early Establishment of Blastophaga in California 264 

Bogers, J. S., and B. W. Frey, A Volum^iometar . 206 

Bohwer, S. A^ Helping to Stabilize Nomenclature 254 

Bohwer, S. A., Descriptions and Notes on Sonfe Ichneumon Flies from 

Java — 458 

Bohwer, S. A., Notes on and Descriptions of Some Sawflies from the 

Australian Begion 400 

Bohwer, S. A., The American Species of the Genus Cephus 065 

Bohwer, S. A., A Note on Chalcis abiewB 700 

Bohwer, S. A., Notes on and Descriptions of Sawflies B^onging to the 

Tenthredinld Tribe Henflchroini 701 

Bohwer, S. A., The North American Species of the Sawfly Genus Lau- 

rentia - : ~ — — .»> — 701 

Bohwer, S. A., New Sawflies of the Subfamily Diprioninie 701 

Bohwer, S. A., and B. A. Cushman, Idiogastra* a New Suborder of Hy- 

menoptera, with Notes on the Immature Stages of Oryssus 205 

Bohwer, S. A., and M. M. Fagan, Addltlmis and Corrections to *' The Type 
Species of the Genera of the Oynipoidea or the Gall Wasps and Par- 

aMtic Cynipoids" 882 

Safford, W. E., Chenopodium muttaUiw, a Food Plant of the Aztecs T28 

Salant, W., The Importance of Diet as a Factor in the Production of 

Pathologic Changes 405 

Salant, W., and Helene Connet, Experiments with an Isomer of Caffeln 202 
Salant, W., and A. E. Livingston, The Influence of lodln and Sodium 
lodid on the Circulation ^w,,^-,,^.^,^-,,,,,,,— >,«>.^, 274 



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M9} OONTEirrS. XXV 

Salant, W^ and A. M. Swanaon, The Protectiye Action of Diet against 
Tartrate NephriUs 286 

Stlant, W.» and A. M. Swanson, The Infloenoe of Diet on the Toxicity 
of Sodiom Tartrate 286 

flaiant, W^ and A« K. Swanson, Diet and Benal Activity in Tartrate 
Nephritis 888 

Salant» W., and A. M. Sivanaon, Observations on the Action of Tartrates, 
Citrates, and Oxalatea— A Study in Toleranost Onmulation, and the 
Bifect of Diet 466 

SasBcer, E. R., and H. F. Diets, mmigation of Gattleya Orchids with 
Hydrocyanic Add Qas 862 

Sassoer, £2. B., and H. L. Sanford, Effect of Hydrocyanic Acid Gas under 

Tacmun Conditions on Subterranean Larvffi 266 

Schreiner, O^ and J. J. Skinner, The Triangle System for Fertilizer Ex* 

perimoits : 126 

Schroeder, E. C, and G. W. Brett, The Method of the Bureau of Animal 

Industry for Testing the Potency of Tuberculin.. 680 

Schwartz, Bh Observations and Experiments on Intestinal Trichins 476 

Schwarz, E. A^ and H. S. Barber, Two New Hydrophllid Beetles 266 

Soofleld, C S^ Effect of Farm Manure in Stimulating the Yields of Irri- 
gated Field Crops 421 

Sham^ A. D^ Lemon Orchard from Buds of Single Selected Tree 151 

Sham^ A. D^ Furrow-manure Method of Feeding Orange Trees 246 

Shamel, A. D^ Successful Grapefruit Production in California 842 

Shamel, A. D., Bud Variation in Dahlias 447 

Shamel, A. D., and C. S. Pomeroy, A Fruiting Orange Thorn 151 

Sfaamel, A. D^ L. B. Scott, and C. S. Pomeroy, A Test of the Efficiency 

of Orchard Heating 640 

Shaw, H. B., Climatic Control of the Morphology and Physiology of Beets. 631 

Shear, CL L^ Spoilage of Cranberries after Picking 262 

Shear, C. Ik, Pathological Aspects of the Federal Fruit and VegetaUe 

Inspection Service 844 

Skinner, J. J., SoU Aldehydes 22 

Skinner, W. W^ and J. W. Sale^ Sugar Substitutes in Bottied Soft 

Drinks, n-UI 68 

Slocmn, R. B^ Breeding Poultry for Standard and Utility Values 876 

Smith, C. B^ Agrtcultural Extension Work in the United States 896 

Smith, H. E., Notes on North American Taddnidse, Including the De- 
scription of One New Genus 653 

Smith, J. W., Agricultural Meteorology 19 

Smith, B. S^ Calculation of the Nutritive Value of Milk from Rou- 
tine Teats 676 

Skiyder, T. E., A Peculiar Habit of a Horsefly (TalKmus americanuM) in 

the Florida Everglades 268 

Snyder, T. E., Injury to Cassaurina Trees in Southern Florida by the 

Mangrove Borer 860 

Spauldlng, P., The White Pine BUster Rust 542 

SfrtUman, W. J^ How Farmers Acquire Their Farms ®2 

SpiUman, W. J^ Farm Science 209 

Stakman. E. C^ and M. N. Levine, Effect of Certain Ecological Factors 

on the Morpiiology of the Uredhiospores of PuccMa gramkUs 641 

Stakman, E. a, M. N. Levine, and J. G. Leadi, New Biologic Forms 
of PuockUa fframMs •" 



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XXVI EXPEBIMBOT' STiOTON BECOBB. tV^M 



Stakman, E. 0., F. J. Piemeisel, and M. N. Lerlne, Plasticity of Bioiosic 

Forms of Puccinia gramiMia — 249 

Stedman, J. M., Fanners' Institutes in the United States in 1917 595 

Stevens, N. B., Keeping Quality of Strawberries in BaUtisn to Ttaair 

Temperature wfaoi Picked 639 

Steyens, N. E., and R. B. Wilcox, Temperatures of Small Fruits 

when Picked 150 

Surface, H. B., and F. H. Smith, Pulp Mills of the United States 641 

Tanaka, T., Notes on Some Fungus Diseases and a New Codling Moth 

Attacking the Persimmon in J^pan 52 

Tanaka, T., A New Oodling Moth Attacking the Persimmon [in Japan].. Ii67 
TillotBon, G. R., The Possibilities of Farm Woodland Deyelopment undi^ 

the Smith-Lever Act - 641 

Tlsdale, W. EL, Physoderma Disease of CJom 846 

Townsend, G. H. T., A New Muacoid Genus from the Chiricahau Moun- 
tains, Arte 857 

Townsend, G. H. T., Some Muscoid Synonymy, with One New Genus 758 

Townsend, G. EL T., New Muscoid Genera, Species, and Synonymy 869 

Townsend, G. O., An Immune Variety of Sugar Gane 848 

Tracy, W. W., sr.. Adaptation of Vegetables. 147 

Tracy, W. W., sr., Report of the Gommittee on Score Gards for Vegetables. 196 

True, A. G., Some Timely Topics of Interest to Farmers' Institute Workenu 095 
True, A. G., Gooperative Agricultural Extensicm Work under the 

Smith-Lever Act -*. 892 

True, R. EL, O. F. Black, and J. W. Kelly, Ash Absorption by Spinach 

from Goncentrated Soil Solutions 002 

True, R. H., and F. W. Oeise, Expwim^its on the Value of Greensand 

as a Source of Potassium for Plant Gulture 423 

True, R. H., et aL, Physiological Studies of Normal and Blighted Spinadi. 450 
Urbahns, T. D., life History Obsenrations on Four Recently Described 

Parasites of Bruchophagns funebri$ 882 

Valgren, V. N., Obligations and Opportunities of Mutual Insurance Com- 
panies In the Gonservation of Property : 098 

Van Eseltine, 6. P., The Allies of Selagineaa rupeBtrU in the South- 
eastern United States 138 

Van Fleet W., New Everbearing Strawberries 689 

Vlereck, H. L., Notes on the Bee Oaius Andrena (Hymenoptera) 65 

Vlereck, H. L., A List of Families and Subfamilies of Ichneumon Flies 

of the Superfamlly Ichneumonoldea (Hymenoptera) 65 

Walton, W. R., Three New Tachinid Parasites of Meodee 663 

Warburton, G. W., The Occurrence of Dwarfness in Oats 827 

Washburn, H. J., Eradication of Disease from the Farm 880 

Weber, F. G., and J. B. Wilson, The Formation of Ammonia and Amins in 

Ganned Sardines during Storage 411 

Weir, J. R^ Experimental Investigations on the Genus Rasoumo&kya 253 

Weir, J. R., and E. E. Hubert, Notes on Forest Tree Rusts 349 

Weir, J. R., and E. E. Hubert, The Influence of Thinning on Western 

Hemlock and Grand Fir Infteted with Eohmodar^iUMi Mfiotori«m__ 842 

Wells, R. W., Eradication of Poultry Lice 764 

Wetmore, A., A New Guckoo from New Zealand 55 

Wetmore, A., A Note on the Tracheal Air Sac in the Ruddy Duck,,^. 351 

Wetmore, A., Birds Observed near Minoo, Gentral Oklahoma 646 



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1W»1 CONTENTS. XXVH 

Page. 
Wetmore, A., and F. Harper, A Note on the Hibernation of Kinoitemon 

pennsytvanUmm 260 

Wherry, E. T., Crystallography and Opticai Properties of Three Aldopen- 

toees 202 

Wheny, B. T., The Reactions of the Soils Supporting the Growth of 

Certain Native Orchids 812 

Wherry, B. T., and E. Q. Adams, The Classification of Mimetic Crystals. 609 

White, G. C, Improved Transportation Service for Perishable Products. 488 
White, G. F., A Note on the Muscular Coat of the Ventriculus of the 

Honeybee {Apis tnelUfioa) 760 

WUcox, B. v.. City Troops Take a Food Salient 389 

Willett, G., Bird Notes from Forrester Island, Alaska 351 

WiUiams, R. R., Some General Aspects of the " Vitamin " Problem 465 

Wilson, A. D., and C. W. Warburton, Field Crops 622 

Wllson» H. F., and J. J. Davis, A New Genus and Species of Aphid 355 

WIndiell, A. N., and E. R. Miller, The Dustfall of March 9, 1918 616 

Wise, L. B., and E. Q. Adams, Photographic Sensitizing Dyes: Their 

Synthesis and Absorption Spectra 16 

Wise, L. EL, E. Q. Adams, J. K. Stewart, and C. H. Lund, Synthesis of 

Photosensitizing Dyes, Pinaverdol and Pinacyanol 711 

Wood, W. B., The Oriental Peach Moth: A Japanese Fruit Insect Re- 
cently Introduced into the United States 652 

Wright, R. C, Nitrogen Relations of Certain Crop Plants when Grown 

Alone and in Association 821 

Wright, S., Color Inheritance in Mammals, VI-XI 869 

Yothers, W. W., The Mixing of Oil Emulsions with Lime-sulphur 

Solutions 454 

Young, A. W., The Development of a Portable Insectary 752 



ILLUSTRATION. 



Pags. 
Fm. 1. — ^Diagram of life history of the strawberry leaf roller, showing 
the proper times during the season for spraying 755 



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INDEX OF NAMES. 



A]MdinA»R.A.»244. 
AMwtt,W.B.,7S2. 
AbelovB, J. £.. 580. 581. 
Adtert;B.W..49S. 
AdEert, J. E., 359.685. 
Adftsd, F. D.. 894. 
Acree, 8. F., 202. 
Adtmes, H. B., 210. 
A., 610. 

ec.soo. 

K. Q., 16, 609. 711. 

Adams, H. S., 199. 

Adams, J. F., 349, 698. 

Adams, J. M. R., 847. 

Adams, L.W., 558. 

Adams, R. L., 695. 890. 

Adamson, H., 195. 

Addams, J.. 178. 

AM£a,E.M.,751. 

Agw.H.P.,51,684,854. 

Al]islSe,C.M..754. 

AlnsUe, O. O., 168, 268, 856. 

Alta,A.,725. 

Altlwiliead.W.,788. 

Ikerman, 1., 138, 534, 880. 

Alberts, H. W., 624. 

Anwo, F. W., 763, 808. 

Alboqncrqiie, J. P., d*. 688. 

Alcock,A.W.,687. 

AIeock.W.B.,579. 

Alder, B., 599. 

Aldridi, J. M., 169, 263, 367. 

Aldrich,T.B.,409. 

AUncastre, C, 410. 

AOao, R. G., 523. 

A]]ard,H.A.,226,442. 

Allen, 711. 

ADea, B. C, 57. 

Anen. B. R., 119, 609. 

A]]eD,J.A.,585. 

Allem R. McD., 460. 

Anen, R.T., 814. 

Anen, R. W., 431, 444. 484. 
494. 
^. AIIeB,W.J.,848. 

Alter, A. O., 661. 

Allison, J. R., 342. 
* A]07,1.,580. 

Alabers,C.L.,502. 
W Alway. F. J.. 211, 820, 811. 

Amandni, N., 561. 

Amberger, C. 608, 666. 

Ames, C. T., 284. 

AmMS, H. L., 85. 

Amsbangh, A. E., 668. 

Ander««K,L.T.,498. 

Aodcis,C.B.,696. 



Anderson, A. C, 97. 
Anderson, A. L., 297. 
Anderson, B. O.. 298. 
Anderson. C. E.. 664. 
Anderson. C. W.. 542. 
Anderson, J.. 264. 
Anderson. J. S., 380. 
Andrews, B. F., 195. 
Andrews, C. C, 45. 
Andrews, C. B.. 710. 
Andrews, B. A., 250. 
Andrews, F., 93. 
Angelld, G., 680. 
Angll, J., 615. 
Ankeney, W. N., 495. 
Anstead, R. D., 448, 041, 851. 
Anthony, E. L., 608. 
Anthony, R. D.. 149, 698. 
Anthony, S. A., 39. 
Antonladis, 640. 
App. F., 137, 299. 473. 670. 
Arana y Franco, M. de., 538. 
Arena, P., 46. 
Arms, J. R., 557. 
Armsby, H. P., 365. 
Armstrong, S. F., 525. 
Amal, A., 656. 
Amand, G.. 844, 845. 
Amd, T., 811. 
Amett, C. N., 199. 
Arnold, C. P., 99. 
Arnold, J. H.. 133, 299. 
Arnold, J. P., 116. 
Arnold, W. W., 351. 
Arny. A. C, 35, 226, 623. 
Arrow, G. J., 63. 
Arthur, J. C, 133, 327. 
Arthns, M., 109. 
Artman, C. E., 96. 
Artschwager, E. F., 543. 
ArtslzoTsky, V., 443. 
Ashby, A. W., 887. 
Ashby, R, C, 770. 
Ashby, S. F., 750. 
Ashenhurst, J. O., 486. 
Ashman, R., 364. 
Asmis, W., 801. 
Atanasoff, D., 49. 
Atkinson, A., 443. 
Anbry, V. G., 280. 
Anchinleck. G. G., 442. 680. 
Andas. J. W., 32. 
Andebert. O.. 750. 
Aognstln, 287. 
Anne, B., 314, 881, 840, 871, 

874, 391. 
Ayery, a T., 677. 



Ayers, 8. H., 376, 881. 
Ayres, B., 199, 200. 
Ayres, W. B., 437, 438. 
Ayyangar, G. N. R., 631. 
Ayyangar, P. A. R., 808. 
Ayyar, T. V. R., 553. 854. 

Babcock, D. C, 807. 

Babcock, E. B., 693. 798. 

Back, EL A., 64, 169, 861. 

Backhouse, W. O., 140. 

Bacon, P. E., 878. 

Bacot, A. W., 61. 

Baer, A. C, 81. 675. 

Baglionl, S., 560. 

Bagnall, R. S., 59, 647. 

Bahr, P. H., 262. 

Bailey, E. M., 726. 

BaUey, B. W., 196. 

BaUey, H. L., 855. 

Bailey, H.8.. 205, 614. 

BaUey. L.H.. 284. 

Bailey. V., 850. 

Bain, S. M., 200. 

Baird, A. B., 62. 

Baird, H. 8., 576, 675. 

Bajda. J. J., 808. 

Baker. A. C. 165. 262. 754. 

Baker, A. W., 648. 

Baker, C. F., 260. 

Baker, H. P., 743. 

Baker, O. E., 526. 

Baker, 8. M., 524. 

Bakke, A. L., 427. 

Baldwin, M. E., 504. 

Balfour. B.. 541. 

Ball. B. D.. 353. 

Ball, H. W., 715. 

Balland, 66, 268, 379, 556, 

557, 864. 
Ballard, C. W,. 509. 
Ballard, W. R., 840. 
Ballhausen, O. C, 79. 
Ballon, F. H., 841. 
Ballon, H. A.. 261, 265, 048. 
Balls, A. K.. 880. 
Balls. W.Ii.. 524. 
Bancroft. C. K., 241. 844. 
Bandl, E., 814. 
BarbarA, B.. 164. 
Barb€,E.,6l9. 
Barber, C. A., 635, 829, 830. 
Barber, H. S., 265, 655. 
Barker, B. T. P.. 414, 747, 

844. 
Barker, P. B.. 297. 
Barkman, J. O., 799. 

901 



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902 



EXFEBIMENT STATIOK BBOOBB. 



[yoL40 



Barnes, J. H., 685. 
Barnett, O. M., 697. 
Barnett, R. C, 387. 
Barnett, R. J., 898. 
Barnum, M. G.» 896. 
Barr, D. P., 868. 
Barre, H. W., 648, 699 
Barrett, 337. 
Barrett, J. T.. 696. 
Barrett, W., 420. 
Barrows, E. I^., 298. 
Barss, H. P., 699. 
Barthe, A. B., 334. 
Bartlett, H. H., 823. 
Bartram, H. E., 50. 
Bartsch, P., 56. 
Bashambar Das, 650. 
Basseches, S., 289. 
Bassett, C. E., 489. 
Basaett. S. C, 826. 
Bastln, S. L., 847. 
Baston,. G. H., 35. 
Batchelor, L. D., 696. 
Bates, L. I., 857. 
Batten, E. T., 298. 
Baomann, E. J., 712. 
Bantista. B. B., 627. 
Banzil, 113, 409. 
Bansil, L., 206. 
Bawlf, W. R., 390. 
Bayla, A. M., 538. 
Bazett, H. C, 806. 
Baay, L., 779. 
Beach, B. A., 483. 
Beach, G. W., 173. 
Bean, R. P., 698. 
Bear, F. E., 897. 
Bearce, B., 379. 
Beath, O. A., 300. 
Beattie, J. M., 360, 855. 
Bcattle, W. R., 833. 
Beaamont, A. E., 183. 
Beanverie, J., 819. 
Beck, (Mrs.) G. W., 864. 
Becker, G. Q., 165. 166, 054. 
Beckerlch, A., 686. 
Beckett, B.,342. 
Beckwith, C. S., 356. 
Beckwlth, T. B., 799. 
Becraft, R. J., 200. 
Bedford, O. A. H., 656. 
Beeson, C. F. C, 259. 260. 
BeesoD, M. A., 32, 624. 
BelDhart, B. G., 135* 
Belin, 186. 
BeliDi M., 579. 
Bell, G. A. 875. 
Bell, J. O., 68. 
Bellamy, A. W., 367. 
Belli, C. M., 561. 
Beltrami, P., 582. 
Beltzer, F. J. G., 415. 
Benedict C. G., 269. 
Benedict, F. G., 269, 270, 465, 

561. 
Benedict, S. R., 13, 67, 713. 



Bengtsson, N., 723. 
Bennett, H. H.. 813, 814. 
Benson* H F., 20flL 
Benson, O. H., 595, 897. 
BenUey, G. M., 553. 
Bentley. W. A., 117. 
Benton, R., 798. 
Benton, T. H., 216. 
Berczeller, I*, 113. 
Bergeim, O., 269. 
Berger, E. W., 260. 
Bergh, O. I., 734. 
Bergman, A. M., 585. 
Bergtold, W. H.,853. 
Berkeley, C, 882. 
Berman, H., 210. 
Bernard, C, 656. 
Bernard, F., 194, 791. 
Bernstein, H. S., 79. 
Berry, A. H., 288. 
Berry, J. B.. 447. 
Berthel, C, 723. 
Berthelot, D., 325, 619. 
Berthey, Gw, 284. 
Bertrand, A., 46. 
Bertrand, G., 556. 
Bealcy,.F.W.>744. 
Besredka, A., 83, 289. 
Bessey, B. A., 797. 
Bethel, E., 645. 
Betts, G. H., 897. 
Beuzeyllle. W. A. W. de, 153. 
Bevan, W., 243, 648. 
Bezell,J.A.,894. 
Beyro, A. F., 86. 
Beythien, A^ 658. 
Bianchini, B., 783. 
Biazzo, R., 808. 
Bieling, R., 478. 
Blerry, H., 863, 464, 563. 
Bigelow, W. D., 14, 864. 
Biggar, H. H., 137. 
Biggie, J., 177. 
BUi, P. A. Tan der, 160, 848. 
Bilham, B. G., 187. 
Billeter, H.. 892. 
Bniing8,G.A..298. 
Billings, W. A.. 181, 885. 
BIng, P. C, 297. 
Blolettl, F. T.. 414. 
Birch, R. R., 279, 778 
Birchard, F. J., 637. 
Bird, H. g., 138. 
Bisby, G. R., 450. 
Bishopp, F. C, 458. 
Bjerre, M., 238. 
Black, C. C, 589. 
Black, O. F., 450, 502. 
Blackman. M. W., 453, 547. 
Blackwell, C. P., 624. 
Blackwell,J.D.,492. 
Blair, A. W., 300, 321. 
Blair, R. B., 433, 444, 472, 

484, 494. 
Blair, W. 8., 246, 768. 
Blake, J. C.» 460. 



Blake, M. A., 885. 

BUkealee, A. F., 876. 

Blanchard, 847. 

Blanchard. O., 92. 

BUnck, B., 728. 

Bleyne, A. de, 246. 

Blodgett,F.H.,154. 

BlokseUl, K. B. F., 488. 

Blood, A. F., 68, 

Bloor, W. R., 16, 17C 

Bliimentlua.P.,798. 

Blumenthal, P. J^ 199, 

Blnnt,]L^795. 

Boae, H. M., 81, 225. 

Bobilioff, W., 158, 44& 

Bock, J. C, 609. 

Bodinna, F., 50& 

Bodkin, G. B., 163, 261. 859. 

Boeck, W. C, 884. 

Boemer, B. G., 89. 

Bolin,P.,135,626. 

BoUey, H. L., 299. 

Bolten, J., 79. 

Bondzynakl, 412. 

Bonis, A., 618. 

Bonjour, P. B., 892. 

Bonney, V., 285, 882. 

Bonna, W. W.* 589. 

Bonorino Cuenca, J., 580. 

Bonsteel, J. A^ 19. 

Bontrager, W. B, 296, 640. 

Boomgaard, W. H., 628. 

Bo4uet.885. 

Boquet,A.,586. 

Borden, J. B., 200. 

Bordner, J. 8., 599. 

Boring, A. M., 400, 664, 665. 

Borland, A. A., 698. 

Bornand, M., 862. 

Bos, H., 716. 

Boshnakian, a, 244. 

Boss, A., 839, 890. 

Boss, W., 696. 

Bosworth, A. W., 501, 661, 

869. 
Botto, A., 442. 
Bottomley, W. B., 524. 
Bondet, J., 109. 
Bouma, A., 11. 
Bonqnet, A. G. B.. 883. 
Bonrdarie, P., 438. 
Bonyier, B. L., 647. 
Bonyoncos, G. J., 20, 815. 
Bovell, J. R., 56, 484, 688, 
Buying, A. G., 769. 
Bowdltch, H. I., 661, 869. 
Bowen,J.T.,475,476. 
Bowerman, E. A., 826. 
Bowers, "W. G., 657, 
Boyack, B., 524. 
Boyce, J. 8., 345, 849, 843. 
Boyd, W. L., 181, 885. 
Boyer, 409. 
Boyer, L., 180. 
Bracken, J., 588. 
Brackett, B. N., 26. 



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m»l 



IKDBX OF NAMES. 



90S 



l^dle7,F.S.,892. 

Bndley. H., 68S. 

Bndle7.J.a.697. 

Bradley. L., 128. 

Bradley. W.W.,7«. 

6nlik,CK.,854. 

BralUar, F.. 795. 

Brand, C. J., 144, 438, 489, 

791. 
Branford, R., 076. 
Bravn, EL L., 224. 
Biaaler,C.EL,715. 
Brcakwell, K. 524. 638. 
Bfcaseale, J. F., 861. 
Bnaiealc, J. Y., 298. 
Bleed, B.&. 476. 
Bregger, T., 83. 
Breltenbecher, J. K.. 860. 
Brenchley. W. E., 520. 688. 

738, 882. 
Bresiler, R. G., 492. 
Brtt)iefl,J.,61,62,855. 
Bi^tigni^re. L:, 24. 
BiPtt,G.W..680. 
Breirater, J. F., 502. 
BrldiveU, J. C, 269, 261. 206. 
Bri«ss,G.,827,339. 
Biishtman, C. L., 202. 
Brin. H. C, 410. 
Brtiik]ey.L.K,217. 
Brinton, D. G., 688. 
Briosi, G., 160. 
Brtonx.C.127. 
Brittaln, W. H., 57, 854, 648. 
Brittlebank, G. C, 749. 
Britton. W. B., 259, 753. 
Broadhunt, J., 694, 866. 
BrociE,W.&,837. 
Brocknnier, 8. H., 862. 
Brodle,F.J.,211. 
BrodiD,P..71,880. 
Broek. P. W., Tan den, 668. 
Brokaw,W.H.,398. 
Bromley, J. H., 498. 
Brooks, A., 646. 
Brooks, C, 849. 
Brooks, a F., 417, 617. 
Brooks, F.E., 257. 
Brooks, S. C, 400. 
BroMard, E. B., 799. 
Brou^too-Alcoa:. W., 579. 
Brown, B. S., 195. 
Brown. C R, 177. 
Brown, R, 499, 881. 
Brown, G. A., 97, 768, 797. 
Brown, H. B., 284. 
Brown, J. G., 226. 
Brawn, J. H., 881. 
Brown. I^, 886. 
Brown, L. P., 864, 865. 
Brown, N. C, 841. 
Bjdwd,P.EL,216. 
Brown, T. W., IBX, 
Brown, W. H., 458, 746. 
Brown, W. JL, B42. 



Brown, W. S., 298. 
Browne, T. K, 897. 
Browning, C. H., 285, 577, 

883. 
Bmce, D., 798. 
Bnieckner. A. L.. 497. 
Brn^re, M. B., 196. 
Bines, C. T., 459. 
Bmett, B. M.. 813. 
Bnincr, L., 697. 
Brflnnich, J. C, 814, 415. 
Bmno, A., 128. 
Bryan. W. E., 284. 
Bryant, H. C, 646. 
Bryant, T. R., 799. 
Bryce, P. H., 68, 864. 
Bryce, P. I., 259. 
Buchanan, R. B., 521, 583. 
Bnck. J. L. B.. 99. 
Bulger. H. A., 880. 
Bollard, W. I.. 626. 
Bnnsell, H. H.. 450. 
Burd, J. B., 120. 350, 505. 
Bnrden, H., 864. 
Barge. W. B., 364, 365, 766, 

864. 
Bargess, C. H.. 797. 
Burgess. J. L., 299. 
Burke, B., 417, 419, 429, 470. 
Burke, G. S., 558. 
Burke, H. E., 656. 
Burke. R. T. A., 216. 
Bnrkholder, C. L., 838. 
Burkholder, W. H., 643. 
Btlrki, F., 385. 
Burkill, I. H., 260. 687. 
Burlison, W. L., 443. 
Burnett, B. A.. 808. 
Burnett, J. B., 97. 
Burr, W. W., 398. 
BurrUl, 354. 
Burri]l,A.C..168,650. 
Burritt, M. C. 299. 
Burrows, M. T., 179. 
Burruss. J. A., 800. 
Burt, B. C, 832. 
Burt, B. A., 48. 
Burton. A. M., 228. 
BushneU,T.M..420. 
Buss, W. J., 772. 
Bussy, L. P. de, 170. 
Butler, B. F., 182. 
Butler. B. J.. 47, 844. 
Butler. T.. 301. 
Butt, N. I., 683. 
Buttenberg. P., 657. 
Butterfleld, K. L., 396, 889. 
Byam, W., 550. 
Byars, L. P., 849. 

Cadoret, A., 750. 
Cady, L.. 640. 
Caesar, L., 263, 648. 654. 
Cain, J. C, 109. 
Cajorl, F. A., 178. 
CaldweU, D. W., 881. 



OaldweU, G. T.. 584. 
Callaway. B. C, 575. 
CaWin, H. W., 67. 
Camacho, C. 646, 661. 
Camb6, F., 890. 
Cameron. A. B., 169, 259, 

547. 684, 858. 
Cameron, L. C. R., 860. 
Cameron. P. C., 177. 
Cammack. F. R., 70. 
Camp.W. R., 294. 
Campbell, J. A.. 851. 
Campbell, W. H., 895. 
Cannon, W. A., 30. 180, 426. 
Cannon. W. B., 767. 
Capmau, 289. 
Caporn, A. St. C, 525, 528, 

629. 
CapuB, G.. 241. 
Capus, J., 158, 259, 850. 
Card, L. B., 495, 670. 
Cardln, P., 453. 
Cardfn, P. O.. 458. 
Cardot, H., 12, 581. 
Carlde Massini, P., 61, 62, 

855. 
Carlson, A. J., 270. 
Carlson, F. W., 698. 
Carnes, N. K., 696. 
Camot P., 779. 
Carpano, M., 680. 
Carpenter, C. W., 644. 
Carpenter. P. A., 117. 
Carpenter, Q. H.. 62. 260. 
Carpenter, T. M., 270. 
Carr, M. B., 110. 
Carr, R. H.. 16, 316. 
Carrero, J. O., 51. 
Carrier, L., 100, 800. 
Carroll, W. B., 71, 278. 478, 

799. 
Carsner, E., 250. 
Carter, E. G., 722. 
Carter, H. P., 856. 
Carter, H. R. 168, 827. 
Carter. J., 697. 
Carter, W. T., jr., 120. 
Carver. O. W.. 267. 
Carver, T. N.. 294. 
Cary, C. A, 778. 
Casagrandl, O.. 584. 
Oisalls. T.. 779. 
Cassidy, L., 552. 
Castella, F. de, 750. 
castle. W. B., 274. 
Cate, C. C. 848. 
Catbcart, C. S., 665. 
Cathcart,P.H., 116,863. 
CaudeU. A. N., 260, 858, 649, 

754. 
Cftuthen, Bl F., 141, 728, 828. 

829. 
Caiin, M., 779. 
Gasiot, P., 892. 
Chace, B. M., 446. 
Cbamberlain, A. H., 895. 



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904 



EXFEBIMBKT STATIOISr KECOBB. 



[Vol. 40 



Chamberlain, B. B., 887. 
Champlln, M., 82, 84. 
Chan, 8. W., 500. 
Chandler, A. K, 511. 
Chandler, 8. E., 524. 
Chandler, W. H., 886. 
ChanUer, W. L., 88. 148, 190. 
Chandra Nag, N., 15. 
Chanej, A. U., 489. 
Chanier, G. A., 285. 
ChapaiB, J. C, 259. 
Chapln, A. 8., 199. 
Chapln, C L., 488. 
Chapin, B. 8., 18. 
Chapln, B. M., 609. 
Chapman, F. M., 254. 
Chapman, B. N., 59. 
Chappell, J., 247. 
Chaptal, L., 750. 
Charmoy, D. d'B. de, 648. 
Charron. A. T., 570, 864. 
Chaie, A., 82. 
Chase, F., 447. 
Chaadhnrl,N.C.,288. 
Chansaln, J., 66. 
Cheel, Em 849. 
Cheney, A. B., 808. 
Cherlngton, P. T.. 875. 
Chick. H., 272, 868. 
Chllllot, J., 849. 
Chittenden, A. K., 97. 
Chittenden, F. H., 857, 548, 

756. 
Chrifltensen, C. J., 622. 
Christensen, F. W., 669. 
Christensen. H. B., 821. 
Chrlstlansoi, J., 681. 
Christie. A. W., 124, 495. 
Christie, G. I.. 299, 890. 
Chrystal, E. M., 862. 
Chrystal, B. N., 861. 
Chnrch, L. M., 89. 
Claassen, H., 615. 
Claassen, P. W., 169. 
Claghom, K. H., 890« 
Claiborne, N., 116. 
Clapp, E. H., 748. 
Clark, A. H., 88. 
aark, F., 196. 
Clark, F. G., 848. 
aark, J. B.. 210. 
Clark. W. B., 114. 
Clarke, B. B., 67. 
Clarke, T. L. B., 868. 
Clarke, W. F., 418. 
Clatworthy, L. M., 569. 
Clansen, B. E., 695. 
Clansen. 8. W., 116. 
Clay, C. li., 461. 
Cleare, L. D., jr.. 168. 
Cleland, J. B., 849, 851, 562. 
Clemente, F. E,, 129. 
Clements, L. 8., 567. 
Clemmer, P. W., 876. 
Close. C. P., 834. 
aothier, B. W., 800. 



Clonaton, D., 528. 
Cobb, N. A. 157. 
Cobb, W. Bm 420. 
Co-Ching Cho, 417. 
Cockayne, A. H., 289. 
Cockbnrn, T., 567. 
CockereU, T. D. A., 728. 827. 
Coe, H. 8.. 141. 
Cogan, Eb 8., 98. 
Coghlan, H. L., 247. 
Cohen, B., 172, 478. 
Cohen, J. B., 700. 
Cohen, M. 8., 286. 
Cohen. S.8., 286. 
Cohn. B. J., 116. 171, 868. 
Colt, J. E., 246, 889. 
Coker. D. B.. 422. 
Colby. F. H.. 46. 
Cole. F. B., 757. 
Cole, G. N., 417. 
Coleman. D. A., 144. 
Coleman, Lb C. 661. 
Colin, H., 114, 802. 
ColUrd, J. W.. 749. 
Collatz, F. A., 668. 
CoUey, B. H., 645. 
CoUin, J. B., 860. 
Colllnge, W. E., 647. 
Collins, E. J., 619. 
CoUins, J. L.. 698. 826. 
Collins, an., 421. 
ColUns, W. D.. 418. 
Comandncd. J., 666. 
Combe, A,, 462. 
Combes, B., 289. 
Cominotti, L., 782. 
Comstock, J. H., 861. 
Conant. J. B., 609. 
Condra, G. E., 820. 
Conner. A. B., 800. 736, 737. 
Conner, 8. D., 22, 316, 322, 

620. 816. 
Connet, H.. 202. 
Connor, A. J., 716. 
Connor. L. G., 888. 
Conradi. A. F., 647. 
Convert, F., 891. 
Cook. A. A., 410. 
Cook. F. C 810. 
Cook, L. EL, 897. 
Cook. M. T.. 646, 747. 748. 
Cook. O. F., 237, 327. 438, 

688. 
Cooley, A. M., 296. 
Cooley, J. 8., 849. 
Cooley, B. A.. 462. 
Cooley, B. B.. 497. 
Coombs. G. E.. 336, 629. 
Coons. G. H,. 49. 797. 847. 
Coons. G. W.. 345. 
Cooper. B.. 799. 
Cooper. E. H., 263. 
Cooper, H. P., 814. 
Cooper, J. B., 246. 
Cooper. T. P., 799. 
CDifoOQld, M., 172. 



Corbonld,M.K.,658. 
Corcoran, J. A., 648. 
C6rdoTa, B. G., 890. 
Comer, G. W., 668. 
Corradine, B. G., 268; 
Cort, W. W., 654. 
Cortelessi, 688. 
Corwln, B. W.. 900. 
Cory. B. N., 549. 
Coasette, J. B., 841. 
Cotton, B.T., 854. 
CoQlter,J.M.,817. 
Coulter, M. C. 817. 
Conper, T., 528. 
Conpin. H., 826. 
Courtney, A. M.. 207, 661. 
Courty, F., 118. 
Courty, M. F., 611. 
Conston, F., 234, 334. 
CoQtant, H. W., 728. 
Coutt8,F. J. H.,379. 
Cowdry, N. H.. 726. 
Cbwgill, H. B., 241, 634. 
Cowie. G. A.. 724. 
Cowles, H. C, 616. 617. 
Cox, J. F., 97. 
Craib, W. G.. 641. 
Craig, B. A., 778, 783. 
Craig, W. T.. 232, 233. 289. 
Crandell. J. C. 669. 
CrandeU. M. F.. 669. 
Crane, D. B., 640. 
Craven. F. H., 190. 
Crawford, D. L., 262. 
Crawford, H. L., 191. 
Crawley, J. T., 337. 633. 
Creelman, G. C. 606. 
Cregor, N. M., 497, 799. 
Crerar. T. A., 284. 
Crevost, C, 333. 
Cridd]e,N.,466. 
Crigler, N. B., 197, 698. 
Crocheron. B. H., 695, 789. 
Crocker. W.. 89, 222, 826. 
Croft, B. D., 99. 
Cromer, C. O., 216, 736. 
Cromwell, A. D., 196w 
Crookes, W.. 244. 
Crosby, C. B., 649, 697. 
Crosby, D. J., 596. 
Crosby, M. A.. 133. 
Cross, W. E., 634. 
Crow. J. W., 883. 
Cmchet, D., 166. 
Cmess, W. V., 110, 414. 
Crum, B. W„ 787. 
Crumley, J. J., 744. 
Crutchfleld, J. 8.. 489. 
Cuenca, J. B., 580. 
Cullen, G. E.. 284. 677, 709, 

710. 
Curler, B. F., 398. 
Currier, El J., 298. 
Currier. B. L., 92. 139, 488. 
Currin, B. E., 624. 
Curtis, B. H., 117, 810. 



Digitized by 



Google 



1919] 



I2in>EX OF NAMES. 



905 



D,I..J.,16. 

OmuBan, R. A^ 266, «49, 

CBtler. a H., 831. 

Dtcfcwefler, H., 311. 

Dtdlsman, H. 8., <I00. 

DthIberg,A.a,377. 

DiUberg. R. C, 338. 

l>ald]wH.D..611. 

d'Albaqnergne, J. P^ 638. 

Dtlenconrt, F., 690. 

DilUmore.W.,248. 

DKlmas,D.^610. 

Dalrymple* 86. 

Dmlrrmple Ilay. B., 640. 

Dud, W. Tmn, 11. 

I1IUMII.&C.623. 

DUM, & T., 743, 89& 

DtiideiN>,J.B.,196. 

Duseard,P. A.,223. 

DaBiel,H.B.,804. 

DaBiel,L.,628. 

Dul€]g,A.Ii.,71,865. 

DaiiielMii.B.B.,194. 

DuiBfelt. H. J.. 827. 

Dtpperen. J. W. tah, 87. 

DarUaston. B. B., 187. 

DameU-Smltb, O. P., 626. 

Diirow, Q. M.. 160, 742, 83& 

Dirtoii.N.H.,291. 

Dai, R, 660. 

Duii,J.S.,47,700. 

da8aTaNeT«i,A.,626. 

Dtnde,611. 

Du^ertj, (Mra.) L. S., 390. 

DtTenport, C. B., 275. 

DtreDport, E., 700. 

Divej, H. W., 748. 

DiTid,F.,92. 

D«vkl0oii.J.,244. 

DiTidaon,J.B.,686. 

DiTidM>ii,P.,131. 

Dtiidwii,W.M.,757. 

DiTla,D.J.,180.478. 

DiYto, B. P., 98. 

DtTli,KB.,808. 

DKi1fl,H.P..496. 

DktI8,H.Y..636. 

Dills, J. J., 836. 

DiTli,K.C.,492. 

Davis, L., 604. 

DiTis,L.y.,814. 

Davis, M. A., 180. 

DaTiB^M.H..Jr.,861. 

Davis, B.K., 798. 

Davis, W. A., 620. 

Davis, W.T.» 866. 

DftvlssoB, B. 8., 600, 711, 806. 

Day. H. A., 840, 626. 

Day,IiwB.,186. 

Day, P. C, 617. 

Dasa,G.A..462. 

Dean. H. H., 774. 

DM]|,H.K.,431. 

Dwi,lC.I..,340. 

14Q06D*— 20 8 



de Arana y Franco, M., 638. 
Dearing, C, 808. 
Deatrick, B. P.. 820. 
DetMUns, B., 881. 
DeBann, R. W., 208, 638, 742, 

834. 
de BenseviUe, W. A W., 163. 
da Bleyne^ A., 245. 
de Bossy, L^ P., 170. 
de GasteUa, F., 750. 
Dechambre, 556. 
de Charmoy, D. d*B.. 64S. 
Dederlck, F. V., 778. 
de DomlnldB, A., 212. 
DeUnt, A., 715. 
Degrully, L., 850. 
de Jong, A. W. K., 620, 843. 
Dekker,J..435,443. 
Delaney, C R., 16. 
De LaiqiMurent, 35^ 
De Laieinty-Tholozan, 883. 
de la Rosa, G. F., 487. 
de L'ficluse, A., 820. 
del Gnercio, G., 864. 
DeUentMiagh, A. G., 609. 
Delort. M., 606. 
de Ifattos, A. T., 265, 652. 
Demlng, W. C, 99. 
d'Bmmen^s de Charmoy, D., 

648. 
Demonssy, B., 807. 
Dempeey, C. H., 894. 
Demnth, G. S., 64. 
Dendy, A., 866. 
Dengler, A., 780. 
Denis, W., 11, 609. 765. 775. 
Dennis, L. H., 692. 
Denny, 447. 
Denny, F. B., 446. 
Denton, M. C, 267, 558. 
de Ong, B. B., 66. 
deRopp,A.,jr., 128. 
Derr, H., 98. 
Desmonllns, A., 838. 
de8oQsa.J.y.G.,446. 
des Rocheties, A. M., 400. 
de8treel,B. Dq V.,500. 
deyerteail,J.,634. 
de Yllmorin, P. L., 652. 
Devise, a J., 163. 
DeVries,H..182. 
de Tries, C 442. 
DeVnyst, P., 699. 
De Weever, P. M., 858. 
Dewlts, J., 650. 
Dickenon, B. L.. 864, 754. 
Dickson, B. C.» 176. 
Dickson, J. C, 324. 
di Domlsio, G., 782. 
I>lenert,F.,809. 
Dietrich, W., 177. 
Diets, H.F., 862. 
Diffloth, P., 689. 
DUkstim, L., 879. 
Dimo^ W. W., 606. 
Dobble,J.J.,879. 



Dodge, B. O., 840. 
Dodge, F. D., 202. 
Dodson, A. T., 865. 
Dodson, W. R., 303. 
Doelter, C, 320. 
Doldge, B. M.. 132, 847. 
Doisy, B. A., 176. 
DoI6rl8,M.,460. 
Dominlcia, A. de, 212. 
Domisio, G. dl, 782. 
Donaldson, H.H., 546. 
Donaldson, B., 678, 679. 
Donard, 779. 
Doneghne. R. C, 498. 
Donk, P. J., 14. 
Donleavy, J. J., 714. 
Donnel, C. A., 617. 
Dorph-Petersen, K., 832. 
Dorrance, R. L., 800. 
Dorset, M., 84. 
Dorsey, M. J., 196, 837. 
Dory land, B. D.. 231. 
Doughty, W. F., 508. 
Douglass, H. P., 892. 
DouYille, 84. 

Dov^ell, C. T..'366, 412, 804. 
Downes, W., 654. • 
Downing, B. R., 898. 
Downs, P. A.. 675. 
Dox. A. W., 832, 900.* 
Drake, J. A., 73, 242. 
Drieberg, C, 811. 
Drobish, H. B., 495. 
Dmmmond, B., 640. 
Drnmmond, J. C, 66, 269, 

271. 
Dabard, M., 234. 
DqBoIs, B. F., 868. 
Dubois, R., 461. 
Dnboec, A., 46. 
Dnckett, A. B., 64. 
Dndgeon, G. C, 438, 628. 
Dndley, F. H., 168. 
Dnff, G. H., 646. 
Diifr4noy. J., 169, 728. 779, 

819, 820. 
Dnggar, B. M.. 806. 
Dnggar, J. P., 801, 492. 
Dnley, F. L., 218. 
Dnmont. J., 779. 
Dnmont, P., 389. 
Duncan, C. S., 888. 
Dunham, B. K., 181, 182. 
Dnnlap, F., 697. 
Dnnloce, 862. 
Dunn, L. H., 62. 850, 663. 
Dann, M. 8., 175. 
Dann, R., S69, 874. 
Dunnewald, T. J.. 120, 718. 
DmxBtan, W. R., 883. 
Darant, A. 1., 498. 
Dasserre, C* 72, 638. 
Datcfaer, R. A., 568, 664. 
DnTeit,H. e..624. 
Dntt, H. I/., 57, 167. 
dTtra, G., 262. 



Digitized by 



Google 



906 



EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 



[yoL40 



Duval, P., 770. 

Duvall, H. M.. 850. 

Du Vivier de Streel, E., 690. 

Dvorachek, H. B., 279. 

Dyer, B., 610. 

DykBtra, R. R., 497. 

I^mond, J. R., 627. 

Earoshaw, F. L., 54. 
Earp, E. L., S90. 
Easterby. H. T.. 524, 634. 
Eastman, E. E., 717. 
Eaton, B. J., 449, 54G, 863. 
Eaton. T. H., 196, 394. 
Eberhardt, P., 234. 
Eckenroth, H., 864. 
Eckles, C. H., 297, 877. 
Eckmann, E. C, 118. 
Eckstein, H. C., 510. 
Edrozo, L. B., 62. 
Edwardes, V. P., 641. 
Edwards, C. W., 866, 372. 
Edwards, W. E. J., 97, 797. 
Effiatoun, H. C, 64. 
Egerer, G., 203, 806. 
Egglnton, G. E., 536. 
Eggleston, E. H., 280. 
Eggleeton, J. D., 799. 
Ehrenberg, P., 620. 
Ekblaw, K. J. T., 798. 
Ekpoth, C. v., 864. 
Eider, C, 499. 
EUot, H. M., 299. 
Ellzando, A. E., 24. 
Elkington, H. D., 855. 
Ellcnberger, H. B., 777. 
Ellenwood, C. W., 639. 
Elliott, C, 846. 
Ely. C. R., 652. 
Ely, R. T., 102, 298. 
Emerson. 537. 
Emerson, P., 617, 730. 
Emerson. R. A., 436. 
Emerton, J. H., 648. 
Emery, EL C, 293. 
Emmerez de Charmoy, D.d% 

648. 
Enders, H. E.. 554. 
Erb, E. S.. 25. 
Erculisse, P., 811. 
Erdman, H. E.. 592. 
Erdos, T., 566. 
Eredla. P., 810. 
Erf, O.. 774. 
Ervin, O., 786. 
Escherich, K., 547. 
Bsslg, E. O., 262. 543, 798. 
Etke8,P.W.,417. 
Evans, A. C, 184, 185. 
Evans, A. M.. 93. 
Evans, A. T., 496. 
Evans, G., 528. 
Evans, L B. P.. 238. 849. 
Evans, L. H., 45. 
Everest, A. E.. 810. 
Evermann, B. W.. 160. 



Evershed. A. F. C.-H., 254. 
Eward. J. M.. 36, 807, 369, 

567, 874. 
Ewing. C. C, 505. 
Ewing, Ew C, 235. 
Ewing, H. E., 168. 
Eyer, J. R., 799. 

Faber, H., 689. 
Fabre. J. H., 255, 552. 
Faes, H., 151. 456. 
Pagan. F. N., 150. 
Fagan, M. M., 862. 
Fain, J. R., 299. 
Fairchild, D.. 538, 656. 
Falconer, J. I., 389, 890. 
Fales, H. L., 207, 601. 
Falk, K. G.. 712, 713. 
Fallon, F., 890, 392. 
Farmer, J., 676. 
Former, J. B., 821. 
Farneti, R.. 160. 
Farr, C. H., 517, 518. 
Farrar, A., 865. 
Farrell, H. W., 493. 
Farrer, W., 828. 
Farrow, B. P., 424. 
Fassig, O. L., 617. 
Fateh-nd-din, 230, 825. 
Fauchfere, A., 622. 
Fanll, J. H., 160. 
Faulwetter, R. C, 846. 
Faur4-Fremlet, 779. 
Faurot, F. W., 341. 
Fawcett, G. L., 634. 
Fawcett, H. S., 158. 
Fearon, "W. R,, 114. 
Feigl, J., 274, 766. 
Feilltzen. H. von, 229, 822. 
Felde, L., 831. 
Pellenberg, T. von, 18, 14, 

15, 115, 202, 204, 205. 
Fellers, C. R., 214, 215, 439. 
Felt, B. P., 162, 554, 648. 
Felton, L. D., 88. 
Fenton, F. A., 265. 
Fenzi, B. O., 221. 
Ferdinandsen, C, 832. 
Ferguson, M. I. H., 862. 
Pernald. H. T., 54. 
Fern&ndoz de la Rosa, G., 

487. 
Ferris, G. F., 262. 
Ferry, E. L., 765. 
Feurtes, L. A., 646. 
Feytoud, J., 167, 170. 
Filfp, N., 875. 
Filippi, B., 611. 
Filippo, J. D., 807. 
Findlay, A., 801. 
Finks, A. J., 502. 
Finlow,R. 8.,847. 
Finney, J. H. V., 191. 
Fippin, B. O., 697. 
Fischer, 810. 
Flsclier, A. P., 352, 745. 



Fischer, G., 078, 679. 

FUcher, M. H., 408. 

Fish, P. A^ 077. 

Fisher, D. P., 849. 

Fisher, EL L., 202. 

Fisher, K., 810. 

Fisher. U C, 117. 

Fisher, M. L., 800. 

Fisher, W. 8., 664, 759. 

Fisk, W. W., 288. 

Fitch, C. P., 181, 778. 885. 

Pitzpatrlck, H. M., 226, 452. 

Fitzpatrick, W. W., 672. 

Flack, B. v., 621. 

Flammarion, C, 511. 

Fleiscluier, E. C, 383. 

Fleisher, M. S., 678. 

Fletcher, H. G„ 500. 

Fletcher, S. W., 196. 

Fletcher, T. B.. 260. 

Fliaksberger, K. A., 535. 

Flint, B. R,, 798. 

Flint, W. P., 165. 

Flora, S. D., 210. 

Flower, 86. 

Floyd, B. v., 492, 696. 

Floyd, O. F., 199. 

Folin, O., 775. 

Fontanel, P., 259. 

Pontes, A. C, 86. 

Foord, J. A., 299, 890. 

Foot, N. C, 781. 

Foote, P. D.. 617. 

Forbes, D., 862. 

Forbes, B. B., 873. 

Forbes, W. T. M., 697. 

Forbush, Bi H., 647. 

Forchh^mer, P., 187. 

Ford, P., 806. 

Fordyce, L., 19. 

Forsling, C. L.. 277. 471. 

Foss, J. C Jr., 787. 

Foster, L„ 86, 74, 277. 

Foster, M. H., 651. 

Foster, S. W., 163. 

Fonmeau, K., 779. 

Fox, D. S., 299. 

Franc, 888. 

France, L. V., 665. 

Franck, W. J., 39. 

Franco, M. de A. y, 688. 

Frandsen, J. H., 777. 

Frank, A., 97, 245. 296. 897, 

694. 742, 797. 
Franklin, I. C, 68. 
Franklin. W. 8., 416, 417. 
Praps, G. 8., 615, 726, 769. 
Eraser, W. J.. 90. 
Eraser, W. P., 699. 
Frazee, O. E., 490. 
Frear, W., 26, 695. 816. 
Free, B. B., 29, 818. 
Free, M., 147. 
Freeborn. 8. B.. 798. 
FreeIand,RC12. 
Freeman, G. P.. 142. 148. 



Digitized by 



Google 



19101 



IKDEX OF NAMES. 



907 



VReman, W. G., 802, 763, 

Fraiilet,F.,779. 

Fre7,B.W^208. 

Frlckhingtf , H. W., 047. 

Friedemann, W. G., 866,412. 

Frlediiiui,G.A..548. 

Fries, J. A., 866. 

FHe8e,F.A..608. 

FrfMn, T. H., 170. 

Frits, K, 640. 

FnoBtt, W. W.. 261, 356. 

458,654,857. 
FHShner, S., 885. 
Fhimne, F. D., 647. 846. 848. 
Fran, G., 848. 
Fn»t,J.N.,778. 
Frort. 8. W., 859. 
Frofhfngham, L.. 584. 
Frjer, P. jr., 113, 804. 
FiiJil,H.,84. 
Fnllawajr, D. T., 266. 
FuOer, F. D., 671. 
Fuller, M.O.. 786. 
Fulton, B. a, 165, 709. 
Fnn^e8i,]CJ.,728. 
Fnik.GL,466. 
Fmklioiuer, S. A., 795. 
Fnrnea, W. H., 181. 182. 
FKBe»]L.848. 

GabridMii, I. N.. 851. 
Geeeelcr. W. G., 71, 458. 774. 
Gtlian,A.B.,760,761. 
GilBee»S.F^846,636. 
Gslne7,P.L..513. 
Galbnith, A. J.. 600. 
Gale, H. &, 725. 
GillM^ier. B. A., 587. 
€em-yalerio,B.,200. 
Galloway, B. T., 293, 843. 
GalplB, C J^ 485. 890, 892. 
Gamble, J. A^ 475. 
Gaxber,B.J..35,623. 
Garbowakt, K, 155. 
Garcia, F., 18, 833. 
GaidlneU, H. A.. 498. 
Gardiner, B. F., 812. 
Gardner, F.D., 299. 
Gardner,!. &• 638. 
Gardner, IC. W., 250, 449, 

496. 
Gardner, T.W., 899. 
Gardner, V. B., 298. 
Gardner, W. A., 728. 
Garin,C.,662. 

,H.,63,636. 

pP^766. 
Gamett,R.T.,861. 
Ganlft,CY..656. 
Garrett, F.W., 514. 
Garrey, W. B., 400. 
GUt,W.K.,816. 
Gaitlaver, J., 892. 
Gatenby,J.B.,266. 
Gandii^eaa,A.,461. 



Gantier, C, 263. 
Gay, F. P., 184. 
Gayle, H. K., 98, 408. 
Gaylord, H. P., 68. 
Gaylord,J.M.,188. 
Geary, B., 560. 
Geerts,J.M.,441,532. 
Gelb, H. v., 120. 
Gelb.W.J.,120. 
Gelser,J.C,857,858. 
Geiken, D. J., 75. 
Gelse,F.W.423. 
George. D. C, 642. 
Gericke. W. F., 223. 
Ger8dorff,C.E.F..502. 
Gerstenberger, H. J., 303. 
GesUn, B., 825, 727. 
Getman, A. K., 692. 
Gtee.J.B.,443. 
Ghosh, A. C, 231. 
Gibbons, W.H., 152. 
Gibbs, H. D., 16. 
Glblln,L.A.,661,869. 
Gibson, A., 456, 648. 
Gibson. B. P., 196. 
GIddlngs, N. J., 446. 
Gide, C, 98. 
Gidley, J. W.. 54. 
Gleseker, L. F., 429. 
Glfford, W. I., 900. 
GiglioU, I., 116. 
Gilbert, W.W., 449, 645. 
GUchrist, D. A., 624. 
GUe,P.L.,51. 
Giles, A. W., 417. 
GiU. W., 448. 
GUlespie, L. J., 644. 
Gillett, L. H., 174. 559. 
GUlette, C. P., 61, 161, 300, 

649. 
Gilmer, G. B., 627. 
GUtner, L. T., 88. 
GUtner,W.,797. 
Glmlngham, C. T., 747. 
Ginsbnrg, H., 270. 
Glrola, a D., 558, 630. 
Girons, F. S., 71, 880. 
Githen8,T.S.,182. 
Given, G. C, 199. 
Giyens. M. H., 172. 363. 762. 
Glahn, W. C tod, 885. 
Glaser, O. C, 193. 
Glaser, B. W.. 164, 255. 
Glass, J. S.. 717. 
Gloyer, G. H., 482. 
GmeUn, H. M.. 524, 526. 
Goddard, H. N., 895. 
Godet, C, 538. 
Gofl, E. B., 897. 
Goff, B. A., 695. 
Gokhale,V.G.,623. 
Goldbeck, A. T., 189, 888, 

889. 
Goldberg, 8. A.. 778. 
Goidberger, B., 190. 
Goldberger, J., 69, 274, 863. 



Goldthorpe, H. C, 722. 
Goncalves de Sonsa, J. V., 

446. 
Gonstles Bios, P., 684. 
Gooderham, C. B., 57. 
Goodling, a L., 816. 
Goodrich, C. U, 292, 789. 
Goodspeed, T. H., 181. 
Goot, P. van der, 650. 
Gordon, L. 8., 91. 591. 
Goes. L. W., 381, 798. 
Goss, B. B.. 900. 
GoBsard, H. A., 167. 259. 754. 
Gossard, O., 119. 217. 
Gould, H. P.. 149, 742, 838. 
Goulding. B., 338. 
Gonrley. J. H., 884. 
Gowen, J. W.. 78, 867, 672, 

872. 
Graber, L, F., 526. 
Grady, B. I., 126. 
Grageda, G. F., 682. 
Graham, C.K., 99. 
Graham. J. C, 497. 
Graham. 8. A., 256, 359. 
Gramlich, H. J.. 569. 
Grant, A. A., 685. 
Grantham, A. B, 98 
Grantham. J., 46. 
Gravea, A. H., 849. 
Graves, H. 8., 152, 641, 744, 

841. 
Gray, C. E., 67. 
Gray, D. T., 665. 
Gray. F. J., 499. 
Gray, G. P., 52. 59. 548. 
GraybiU, H. W., 185. 
Greathonse. C. A.. 496. 
Greaves, J. E., 722. 
Greeley, H., 488. 
Green. F. E.. 889. 
Green, B. M., 281. 574. 
Green. W. H., 523. 
Green, W. J.. 173, 639, 640. 
Greenaway, A. J.. 109. 
Greene. C. T., 658, 757, 758. 
Greene, C. W.. 798. 
Greene, J. H., 96. 
Greene, L., 788. 
Greenfield, E. ¥., 709. 
Greenwald, I., 71. 
Greenwood, 174. 
Greenwood, M., 862. 
Greer, C. C, 899. 
Greer, A R., 190. 
Gregg, W. R., 19, 117, 20D 

416,417,715. 
Grelg-Smith, B., 208. 
Grempe, P. M., 615. 
Grey, B. G., 284. 
Griebel, C. 508. 
Griebel. (Mrs.) C, 697. 
Griffln, A. A., 117. 
Griffln, O. B., 264. 
Griffith, J. P. C, 877. 
1 Griffiths, D., 640. 



Digitized by 



Google 



908 



EXPEBIMENT STATION BECOBD. 



[VoLiO 



OrUlltta,T.H.D..467. 
Grimes, A. M., 188. 
Grimes, J. C, 799. 
Grimwade, W. B., 624. 
Grlndley, H. S., 610. 
Grinnell, H. W.. 868. 
GrlnneU, J., 946. 
Grisdale, J. H., 792. 
Grist, D. H., 886. 
Griswold, D. J., 498. 
Groenewold, B., 179. 
GroU, B., 891. 
Gross, B. Q., 866. 
Grossfeld, jr.,612. 
Grossfield, J., 607. 
Groth, B. H. A., 697. 
Gro7e,0.,414r749. 
Grover, O. L., 90. 
Gmlee, C. G., 660. 
Gnenaiiz, 666. 
Guercio, G. del, 864. 
Guernsey, J. B., 118. 
GaiUiermond, A., 823, 825, 

426, 818. 
Goliiness, B., 600. 
GoDderson, A. J., 886. 
Gnnn, D., 648. 
Gunnels, C. B., 898. 
Gonther, B. T., 266. 
Gurney, W. B., 463, 626. 
Gnry, B., 204, 206. 
Gttssow, H. T., 847, 849. 
Gntbrie, BL 8., 288. 
Guthrie, F. B., 820. 636. 
Gntierres, M. B., 886. 
Guy, J. H., 892. 
Gnyer, M. P., 276. 

Haag,J.B.,^8. 

Haas, A. B., 199. 

Haas, A. B. C, 223, 400. 

Habermann, B. E., 696. 

Hadley, C. H., 698. 

Hadley, F. B., 290. 

Hadley, P. [B.], 686, 881. 

Hadwen, 8., 868. 

Hagan,W.A.,778. 

Hager, G., 622. 

Hahn, B., 620. 

Haigh, L. D., 667, 622. 

Haji, B. G., 284. 

HaUsi, P., 608. 

Hale, A. J., 109. 

Hale, W. B., 177. 

Hall, A. D., 104, 614, 516. 

Han, C J. J. Tan, 68. 

Hall, I. C, 14. 

HaU,I.W.,201. 

Hall, I«.D., 488. 

HaU, H. C, 89, 184, 186, 482, 

686,684. 
HaU, B. W., 297. 
HaU, W. L., 841. 
HaUenbeck, C, 117. 
HaUer, C, 199. 
HaUer, F. L., 898. 



HalUgan, C. P., 97, 797. 
HaUman, B. T., 97, 797. 
Halpln, J. C, 488. 
Halsted, B. D., 521, 697. 
HalYerson, J. C, 373, 614. 
Halverson, W. V., 496. 
Hammarsten, C, 607. 
Hammer, B. W., 379, 776, 

776. 
Hammett, F. 8., 666. 
Hammond, G., 689. 
Hamrick, A. M., 417. 
Hance, B. T., 662. 
Uanlklrsch, W., 658. 
Uankins, O. G., 799. 
Hanley, J. A., 128. 
Hanna, J. C, 794. 
Hansen, J., 229. 
Hansen, W. 8., 200. 
Hanson, A. A., 839. 
Hanson, 8., 600. 
Haralson, C, 148, 742. 
Harden, A.. 271, 272, 864, 

464, 869. 
Harding, T. 8., 17. 
Harding, V. J„ 666. 
Hardison, B. B., 217. 
Hardy, J. I., 40. 
Hare, B. F., 785. 
Harger, B. N., 604. 
Harland, 8. C, 627. 
Harmer, P. M., 121. 
Harper, F., 260. 
Harraca, J. M., 828. 
Harreyeld, van, 87. 
Harreveld, J. van, 87, 685. 
Harrington, O. T., 89, 222. 
Harris, 130, 157. 
Harris. B. P., 691. 
Harris, F. 8., 227, 300, 816, 

633, 828. 
Harris, F. W., 657. 
Harris, J. A., 130, 662, 870, 

876. 
Harris, L. J., 412. 
Harris, W.. 880. 
Harris, W. O., 298. 
Harrison, A. H., 168. 
Harrison, J. B., 98, 241, 242, 

487, 688. 
Harsch, B. M., 166. 
Hart, B. B., 72, 186, 672. 
Hart, G. H., 84. 
Hftrtel. F., 763. 
Barter, L. L., 847. 
UarUey, C, 53, 645, 646. 
Hartley, B. F., 891. 
HartweU, B. L., 300, 628. 
HartweU, J. A., 182. 
HartieU, F. Z., 68. 
Harrey, Bw N., 618. 
Harvey, L. H., 228, 226. 
Haryey, B. B., 26. 
Harvey, W. F., 678. 
Haselbaner, P., 85. 
Haseman, L., 466. 



Haaenfratz, V., 14. 
Haskins, H. D., 413, 617. 
Haslam, T. P., 884. 
Hastings, L. M., 716. 
Hathaway, C. L., 686. 
Hatschek, B., 408. 
Hanghwoiit, F. O., 186. 
Hauman, I&, 234. 
Hauser, A. J., 879, 775. 776. 
HavenhUU M., 79& 
Hayiland, W. A., 790. 
Hawk, P. B., 808. 
Hawker, H. W., 120, 420. 
Hawkins, L. A., 450. 
Hawkins, L. 8., 400, 691» 

692. 
Hawthorn, H. W., 299. 
Hay, B^ D., 640. 
Hayden, C C, 778. 
Hayes, D. G., 698. 
Hayes, F. IC, 686. 
Hayes, H. K., 83, 142, 226, 

828. 
Hayes, W. P., 496. 
Hayward, P. 8., 748. 
Haywood, J. K., 10. 
Headden, W. P., 89, 800. 
Headlesk T. J., 150, 866, 648, 

649. 
Headley, F. R, 81, 44. 51, 72. 
Heald, F. D., 49, 642. 
Heald, F. B., 295, 400. 
Heath, B. M., 881. 
Hechler, W. B., 86. 
Hedgcock, G. G., 646. 
Hedges, A. C, 697. 
Hedrick, U. P., 699. 
Hegner, B. W., 555. 
Heldenhain, H., 712. 
Heimlich. L. F., 152. 
Heine, A. C, 497. 
Heinricfa, C, 264, 662, 767. 
H<dns, A. U., 660. 
Heist, G. D., 286. 
HeUmann, G., 117, 814, 716. 
Helm, C. A., 297. 
Helyar, J. P., 747. 
Hempsall, W. H., 888. 
Henderson, L. Jr., 66, 115, 171, 

868. 
Henderson, M. P.. 846. 
Henderson, N., 560. 
HendricJ.,429. 
Hendrick, H. B., 699. 
Hendrickson, A. H.. 836. 
Hendrickson, N., 872. 
Hendry, G. W., 484. 
Henke, L. A., 828. 
Hennlg, H., 827. 
Hennis,aH.,786. 
Henny, D. C, 188. 
Henry, 586. 
Henry, A J., 117, 200. 
Henry, G. M., 355. 
Henry, M. F.. 762. 
Hensel, B. F., 818, 814. 



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m9i 



IKDBX OF NAMES. 



909 



BtBMd, R. L., 798. 

Henahaw, 647. 

Hen-Toh, 172. 

Bcpbiini.K.W.,879. 

Heribcrt-NllBwn, N., 529. 

Heniuui.Y. B.,835. 

Henni, W. B., 495. 

Hemnaiuiy G. R., 882. 

BurrmMBn, 8. F., 180. 

Henod-HcmpMll, W., 868. 

Hertel, H., 689. 

Hcnfeld, A^ 607. 

Hcn;feld,B^201,207. 

H«tler,L.R.,52. 

Hen, A. F.. 70, 863, 56(W 684. 

HfMrtnMm,H.,418. 

Hettenchy, C W. 6., 111. 

HeaUeiii, O., 608. 

Henrn, F. C van, 116. 

Heiriiis, H. P., 791. 

Heyl,F.W..607. 

H]bliard,P.L.,222. 

Hibbard. R. P., 97. 

mckok (Mrs.), H. M., 196. 

Hicks, W.B., 617, 726. 

Bldl,A.J.,780. 

Hlcsliii, C A., 128. 

HUdt,S^607. 

Hnceiidorf, F. W., 182. 

Hm,aJ.,208. 

HI]],CS.,99.228. 

HI11,C.L.,179. 

Hm,H.H.,99. 

HUUL. 2^866. 

HflUR.L.,799. 

HilUard, C. M., 180, 864. 

IIIIs,K.,658. 

HntBer, L., 811. 

Hinckley. J. W.. 247. 

Hinds, W. B^ 762. 

Hlrayama, 8., 117. 

Rltckcock,A.8.,82. 

Hitler, H.. 690. 

Hlxson, A. W., 110. 

Hoag. E. F., 892. 

Hoagland, D. R.. 124, 824, 

817. 
HodgUnaon, 8. S., 40a 
Hodgkl88,H.fiL,698. 
Hodgson, R. £., 497. 
HodgMn, R. W., 62, 839. 
Hodflon, B. A., 98, 798. 
Hodson.B.R.,161. 
Hoemer, G. R.. 846. 
Hoffer,G.N.,49,626. 
Hogg, T.. 624. 
Hohenkerk, L. 8., 642. 
BoIbert,J.R.,626. 
Holden, J. A., 430, 470, 493. 
Holding, W. A., 499. 
Hole, B. 8., 243, 718, 848. 
HoDande, D., 816. 
Hollister, H. A., 197. . 
Holm, G. EL, 297. 696. 
Holmes, J. 8., 248. 



Holt, L. E^ 207, 660, 661. 

866. 
Homana, G. M., 744. 
Homer, A., 287, 288. 
Homer, P. F., 666. 
Honing, J. A., 88, 636. 
Hood (Mrs.), W. H., 898. 
Hooper, C. BL, 638. 
Hooper, J. J., 678, 878. 
HooTer, JT. M., 17. 
Hope, G. D., 20. 
HopfleM, J. J., 202. 
Hopkins, C.G., 614. 
Hopkins, F. G., 664. 
Hopt, B., 826. 
Hornby, H. B., 781. 
Home, F. A., 864. 
Home, W. T., 249. 
Homsey, J. W., 128. 
Horsch, 711. 
Horton, B. B., 716. 
Hosklns, H. P., 186,782,886. 
Hoskins, R. G., 866. 
Hosmer,B.S.,743^744. 
Hough, G. J., 606. 
Hooser, J. 8., 866. 
HoQsbolder, B. W., 781, 788, 

796. 
Houston, A. C, 786. 
Hooston, D., 283. 
Houston, D. F., 39, 616, 890. 
Hoversten, A., 497. 
Howard, A., 629, 716, 718. 
Howard, B. J., 17. 
Howard, C. D., 461. 
Howard, G. L. C, 629. 
Howard, U H., 183. 
Howard, U O., 36, 649, 663. 
Howard, 8., 46. 
Howard, W. L., 195, 444. 
Howarth, W. J., 677. 
Howden, B., 409. 
Howe, C. D., 743. 
Howe, M. A., 541. 
Howell, A. H., 647. 
Howltt. J. B., 182, 638, 699. 
Huard, V. A., 269. 
HQbbard,R.S..709,710. 
Huber, H. F., 298. 
Hubert, B. B., 159, 349, 642. 

842. 
Hndelson, R. R.. 498, 697. 
Hudson, C 8., 17. 
Huoppe, 462. 
Huffel, G., 248. 
Huggenberg. W., 200. 
Hughes, D. M., 96. 
Hughes, B. H., 297. 
Hughes, F., 488. 
Iluie, L. H., 167, 366. 
Hulbert, R., 688. 
Hulme,W.,208. 
Hults, F., 698. 
Humble, C. W., 277, 208. 
Hume, E. M., 272. 808. 
Hummel, W. G., 400. 



Humphrey, G. C, 672. 
Humphreys, W. J., 616, 617. 
Humphries, A. B., 687, 667, 

866. 
Hungerf ord, C. W., 98, 496. 
Hunt, C. L., 178. 
Hunt, H. R., 177. 
Hunt, L.W., 669. 
Hunt, T.F.. 422, 487. 
Hunter, F. R., 298. 
Hunter, J. M., 298, 772. 
Hunter, O. W., 603. 
Hunter, 8. J., 462. 
Hunter, W., 466. 
Hunter, W. D., 867. 
Hunsiker, O. F., 288. 
Hurd, W. D., 199, 294. 
Hurley, D. J., 386. 
Husain, M, A., 69, 60. 
Husmann, O. C, 839. 
HuBsey, J., 90. 
Hutcheson, J. R., 800. 
Hutcheeon, T. B., 436. 
Hutchinson, A. H., 162. 
Hutchinson, C. M., 620, 662. 
Hutchinson, H. B., 23, 121. 
Hutchison, R. H., 365, 551. 
Hutson, J. B., 78. 
Huteon, J. C, 165, 260, 453. 
Hutton, F. Z., 119. 
Hyman, C. H., 682. 
Hyslop, J. A., 656. 

Ibsen, H. K, 798. 
Ickert. F.. 408. 
Ido, Y., 86. 

Igaravldes, P. G., 662. 
Iguchl, K., 276. 
Ikeno. 8., 640. 
Illlck, J. 8., 744, 
niingwortb, J. F., 263, 266, 

648. 
Imal, Y., 826. 
Imes, M., 290, 682. 
Imms, A. D., 65, 651. 
Inglis, J. K. H., 18. 
lorns, JSL B., 478. 
Isenbarger, JT. C, 197. 
Ishikawa, M.. 621. 
Israelsen, O. W., 386, 488, 

699, 698, 786. 
Iterson, G. ran, Jr., 436. 
Iti4, G., 161. 
Ito. H., 86. 
Iturbe, jr., 683. 
lYens, F., 381. 
Ives, F. W., 600. 
Ivy, A, C, 766. 

Jaccard, P.,744. 
Jackson, C. B., 896. 
Jackson, F. A., 659. 
Jackson, F. H., 888, 889. 
Jackaon, H. H. T., 361, 646. 
Jackson, H. 8., 165, 699. 
Jacobaoi, H. C, 714. 



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910 



EXPERIMBNT STATION RECORD. 



[Vol 40 



Jacobflon, C A., <K>7. 
Jal&i,M.B.,7e8. 
Jaluike,B,W.,44S. 
Jakl, y. B., 19, 209. 
James, B. W., 291. 
Jamlcflon, G. 8., 010, 712. 
Jandesek, J., 189. 
Janney, N. W., 662. 
Jardine, N. K., 458. 
Jarvis, C. D., 400, 690. 
JarvlB, B., 87. 
Jasper (Madame), 280. 
Jas8cbke,V.J.,459. 
Jatlndra, Nath Sen, 24„ 806. 
Jeanpretre^ J., 811. 
Jeffreys, H., 118. 
Jegen, O., 060. 
JenUns, A. B., 644. 
Jenkins, B. H., 720. 
Jenkins, M. K., 872. 
Jensen, C, 247. 
Jensen, C. A,, 417. 
Jensen, I. J., 200. 
Jensen, K., 801. 
Jerdan, 8. 8.,878. 
Jesseman, L. D., 098. 
Jeswlet, J., 87. 
Jlflon. J. M. r, 682. 
Jodidl, 8. li., 460. 
Joffe. J.. 776. 
Johann, H., 498. 
Johansson, H., 880. 
Johns, a O., 109, 110, 118, 

002. 
Johnson, A. G., 49. 
Johnson, A. K., 669. 
Johnson, A. T., 876. 
Johnson, E., 889. 
Johnson, E. C, 92. 
Johnson, F. R., 748. 
Johnson, H. W., 216. 
Johnson, J. M., 205. 
Johnson, O. R., 574. 
Johnson, W. B., 99. 
Johnson, W. H., 542. 
Johnson, W. O., 798. 
Johnson, W. T., 296, 897. 

494. 
Johnston, A. McA., 725. 
Johnston, B. 8., 150, 715. 
Johnston, J. R., 157. 
Johnston, W. L., 840, 483. 
Jolly, N. W.. 152. 
Jones, C. H., 612. 
Jones, D. B., 109, 110, 118. 
Jones, D. F., 226, 823. 
Jones, D. H., 284. 
Jones, E. M., 813. 
Jones, B. R., 90. 
Jones, F. M., 653. 
Jones, F. 8., 87. 
Jones, G. B., 814. 
Jones, G. H., 180. 
Jones, H. I., 98. 
Jones, J. P., 199. 
Jones, J. M., 800. 



Jones, li. H., 097. 
Jones, L. R., 156, 645. 
Jones, P. R., 69, 453. 454. 
Jones, R., 199. 
Jones, 8. C, 614. 
Jones, T. H., 57, 60. 
Jon«r, A. W. K. de, 626, 843. 
Jordan, D. &, 160. 
Jordan, B. O., 478. 
Jordan, W. H., 97. 
Joret, G., 709. 
JOrgensen, I., 424, 429. 
Joseph. W. B., 199, 472. 
Josserand, B. W., 96. 
Joyce, J. L., 678. 
Jiidkins,H.F.,078,675. 
JndsoD, F. W., 898. 
JnUen, L., 888. 
Junge, G., 866. 
Jnrney, R. C, 217. 
Justin-Mueller, B., 018. 

Kahn, R. Ii., 286. 
Kajanns, B., 686. 
Kaltenhach, R., 867. 
Eantor, L., 679. 
Rftppeli, 790. 
Karper, R. B., 787. 
Karr, W. G., 278. 
Kasai, K., 781. 
Kanpp, B. F., 483. 
Keane, C, 778. 
Kearney, A. T., 698. 
Kearney, T. H., 287, 424, 

438, 527. 
Keitt, T. B.. 112. 
Kelley, R. W., 834. 
Kellner, 866. 
Kellogf , B. H., 450. 
KeUogg, R., 264. 
Kelly, B., 475, 476. 
Kelly, F. L., 595. 
Kelly, H. A., 869. 
Kelly, J. W., 450, 502. 
Kelsall, A., 57. 
Kelsey, R. W., 100. 
Kelsick, R. B., 827. 
Kemner, N. A., 260, 358, 551. 
Kennedy, C, 608. 
Kennedy, C. N., 177. 
Kenney, F. R., 98. 
Kenyon, A. M., 796. 
Kerbosch, M., 656. 
Kern, C. A., 816. 
Kern, F. D., 848. 
Kernkamp, H. C. H., 684. 
Kerr, J. A., 814. 
Kestner, P., 320. 
Keuchenlns, P. B., 448, 852, 

854. 
Kezer, A., 428, 524. 
Kidd, F., 727. 
Kidder, A. F., 900. 
Klenb5ck, V.,,866. 
Klernan, J. A., 681. 
Kiesselbach, T. A., 521, 826. 



Kiknchi, A., 246. 
Kilian, J., 826. 
Kimball, H. H., 117, 410. 
King, C. L., 280. 
King, C. M.. 47. 
King, F. G., 498. 
King, H. D., 408, 409. 
King, H. H., 250, 208. 
King, J. Ii., 107. 
King, T. B., 798. 
Klnfl^ome, J. W.. 870. 
Kingman, F. C, 231. 
Klngsley, J. 8.. 777. 
Klnman, C. F., 44. 
Kinne, H., 296. 
Kinnison, A. F., 98. 
Kirby, R. 8., 148. 
Kirch, T. E., 686. 
Kirk, H. B., 458. 
Kirkbride, M. B., 480. 
Klrkham, W. B., 469. 
KlrUand, B. P., 743. 
Kirkland, J., 792. 
Kirkpatrlck, W. P.. 670, 87a 
Klrwan, B. B., 653. 
Kissen, M. L., 899. 
Kleine, R., 547. 
Klelnschmldt, L. 8., 098. 
Klinger, R., 201, 207. 
Kloefller, R. G., 559. 
Kloot, A., 608. 
Kloss, A., 692. 
Knapp, A. W., 612. 
Knapp, M. D., 46. 
Kneeland, P. D., 46. 
Knetemann, A., 319. 
Knibbs, G. H., 393. 
Knight, H. n., 853, 690. 
Knight, J. W., 200. 
Knobel, B. W., 119. 
Knowles, C. H., 231. 
Knowles, R. H., 886. 
Knox, G. D., 875. 
Knudson, A., 566. 
Kobayashl, R., 781. 
Koch, A., 497. 
Koch, J., 550. 
Koch, L., 628. 
Kofold, C. A., 884. 
Kohman, B., 267. 
Kohman, B. F., 811. 
Kohn, L. A., 780. 
Kolner, G. W., 888. 
Koller, T., 415. 
Kolmer, J. A.. 280, 287, 477. 
Kolthoff, I. M., 410. 
Kondo, M., 626. 
Kondo, T., 167. 
Kopaczewski, W., 880. 
Korns, J. H., 380. 
Korstian, C. P., 151, 
Kottnr, G. L., 287, 385. 
Krakover, L. J., 156. 
Kranold, H., 891. 
Krants, B. A., 631. 
Kraus, B. J., 40, 147. 



Digitized by 



Google 



1919] 



IKDEX OF ITAMES. 



911 



KiaoB. R., 680, 582. 

Knnm, P. Q„ 696. 

Kim7bfll,H.B.,40. 

Kreto,aO«. 

Krcii,H^14. 

i:Rtaelimar,C.,64«. 

Kraft, M. a, 799. 

Kroaffold-YlnaTer, S., 779. 

KnMby,P^e2S. 

KnMcer,7.,178. 

Kni]itwlede»CJr.,780 

Kaciviuld,K.726. 

Endows., 266. 

Knhlman. A. H.. 99. 

Kfihr, a A. H. Ton W., Jr., 

114. 
Kii]aslii,N.[M.hl68. 
KiiIkanil,M. 1^686. 
KonJii KiuuiaA, K., 661. 
Knnkel, L. O.. 50, 157, 54S. 
Kilppen,]a.,814. 
Knriyama, &, 171. 
Kiirk,F.W..66& 
Kiiaiiift,&,781. 
Kowana, S. L, 262. 
Kiuiziui,8.B.,809. 
Kvadslielm, L. IL, 536. 

L'AlAte,0..26. 

Ucrolx.A.,326. 

Uc7.1f.G..594. 

Ladd,B.F.,559. 

Ladd,G.B.,188. 

Uffer, H. SL. 860. 

UFDiie, F. B., 17, 110. 

UUtte^ K., 792. 

Uidlaw,W.,749. 

LiidU!r,H.W.,688. 

Ulrd,J.8.,610. 

liitaihnnnii Bow, T., 808. 

Lai, P., 15. 

LtmarMuz, H., 798. 

lAab,aG.,860. 

iuOk, O. N., 848. 

UMer,y.K.,665. 

Umon, EL H., 876. 

LiBwm, O. H., Jr.. 661, 671. 

Ludenberger, L. L., 67. 

Uadolt, 811. 

Uae,aH.,98.96. 

Uae, F. K., 889. 

Use, IL 8., 298. 

Laii£ruicliI,A.,188. 

U]igiloii,Ul£..168. 

Uiige,UB^886. 

UBceiler,O.A.,776. 

U]|gBtrotli,Ii.,Ul. 

Ungwortliy, C. F., 96. 

LiBler,L.,92. 

UatB, D. B., 860. 

Lavievie, B., 619. 

Upteqne^ U, 66, 267, 460, 

461. 
Upparent, De, 86. 
Iiuu.cr, O., 66. 
Urelnty-Tholosan, De, 883. 
Unwr.F.M.,888. 



Larsen, C, 774. 
Laaaabllftre, P., 655. 
Latarjet. A., 779. 
Lathrop, F. H., 298, 599. 
Latitoe, H., 845. 
Latimer, W. J., 119. 
Laack, W. J.. 178. 
Lande, H. H., 99. 
Lawrance, C. F., 296. 
Lawrence, 180, 583. 
Lawrie, H. N., 559. 
Lawyer, O. A., 54. 
Laymond, J. B., 750. 
Layosa y Makallndong, P., 

632. 
Leach, B.B., 258. 
Leach, J. G., 642. 
Leake, H. H., 601. 
Leary, T., 582. 
Leayltt, C, 841. 
Leayitt, V. E., 298. 
Lebert, M., 80Z 
LeOerc, J. A., 234, 244. 
L'ficloae,A.de.320. 
Lecompte, D., 186. 
Lecoa,460. 
Ledeboer, F., 87. 
Lee, H. A., 644, 851. 
Lee,W.Bw,181, 182. 
Leea, A. H., 265, 266, 746. 
LeFeyre, E., 310. 
Leeat,CB.,448. 
Lege&dre, 267. 
Legendre, B., 461. 
Lehrmaii, A., 16. 
Leiby, B. W., 263. 
Lelgbton, J., 527. 
Deitch, B. H., 879, 880. 
Lelth,B.D.,761. 
Lemaire, P., 264, 461. 
Lenart, G., 507, 618. 
Leneyen, 89. 
Lensl, F., 183. 
Leonard, L. T., 860. 
Leonard, L. Y., 340, 397. 
Leonard, M. D., 199, 649. 
Lfonardon. F., 594. 
Leone, G., 861. 
Leonia, C. O., 208. 
Leopold, A., 743. 
Leprince, 460. 
Le Boy, O. A., 115, 460. 
Leane,P..256. 
L'Batrange, W. W., 208. 
L6y4que de Vllmorin, P., 652. 
Leyl, L. B., 714. 
Leyine, M. N., 249, 641, 642. 
LeWall, C. H., 558. 
Lewis, A. C, 237. 
Lewis, a I., 808. 
Lewis, B. W., 46. 
Lewis, F. a, 860, 900. 
Lewis, H. B., 175, 273. 
Lewis, H. G., 120. 
Lewis, H. B., 78. 872, 670, 

608. 
Lewis, H. T., 896. 



Lewis, I. P., 639. 

Lewis, J. H., 579. 

Lewis. L. L., 290, 683. 

Lewis, B. D., 199. 

Llacre, A., 267. 

Llaatard, 843. 

Lieber, B., 46. 

Uebert, F., 806. 

Liechti, P., 22. 

Li4yin, O., 114. 

Ligniferes. J., 587. 

LUlie,F.B.,466. 

Lincoln, M. J., 899. 

Lind, a, 138. 

Linden, T. yan der, 206. 

Undet. 128. 

Lindet, L.. 269, 326. 

Lindfors, T., 155. 

Lindbard, B., 130, 232, 534. 

Lindner, P., 714. 

Lindsay. J. W., 190. 

Lindsey, J. B., 574. 

Linfleld, F. B., 242, 300. 

Unklater, W. A., 97, 694, 

797. 
Linney, C B., 18. 
Linossier, G., 518. 
Lintner.J. J.;782. 
Linton. R. G., 670. 
Lionnet, F. E., 680. 
Upkin, L J.. 382. 
Lipman, 128. 
Lipman, C. B., 317. 
Lipman, J. G., 198, 298, 300, 

321, 797. 
Llppincott,W. A.,499. 
List, G. M., 161. 300. 
LitUe. C. C. 275. 
LltUer, F. M.. 763. 
Livingston, A. E., 274. 
Liyingeton, B. E., 130, 520. 
Llyingston, C, 90. 
Livingston, L. F., 90. 
Liser, C, 165. 

LJnng, E. W., 529. 530, 624. 
Lloyd, E. B.,6G5. 878. 
Uoyd.P.E.,28.818,819. 
Lloyd. F. J., 610. 
Lloyd. J. W., 44. 
Lloyd, L., 61. 
Lobo, B., 167. 

Lochhead, W., 182, 259, 648. 
Lodcr, A. E., 90. 
Lodge, 0. C, 869. 
Loeb, J., 224. 400. 
Loeb, L., 467. 
Loew, O., 767. 
LOffler, W.. 866. 
Loflin, E., 558. 
Long. E. B., 29, 223. 
Long, J.. 68. 
Long, J. A., 663. 
Long. W. H., 166. 
Long, W. S., 114. 
Longwell, J. H., 498. 
Longwell, J. S., 187. 
Loos, K.. 647. 



Digitized by 



Google 



912 



EXPEBIME27T STATION BEGOBD. 



(Tot 40 



Louis, A., 186. 
Loansbury, C, 119. 
Lonnsbury, C. P., 648. 
Love, H. H., 2S2, 238, 230, 

488, 828. 
Loveland, G. A., 826. 
Lovell, J. H.. 264, 666. 
Lovitt, W. V.,796. 
Lube, H. A., 808. 
Lucas, J. B., 674. 
Lucas, P. 8., 675. 
Luckey, D. F„ 677. 
Luden, G., 767. 
Lulthly, J., 777. 
Lumb, J. W., 884. 
Lumsdeu, L. L., 693. 
Lund, B. L., 466. 
Lund, C. H., 711. 
Lundquist, G. A., 696. 
Lusk, W. F., 399. 
Luttringer, A., 46. 
Lutz, A., 468. 
Lutz, F. E., 269. 
Lyford, C. A., 67. 
Lyford, V. G., 398. 
Lyle, G. T.. 459. 862. 
Lyman, C. A., 298. 
Lyman, G. R., 449, 698, 817, 

846. 
Lyman, H., 617. 
Lyman, J. F., 179, 667. 
Lynde, C. J., 720. 
Lyon, T. L., 299, 618. 
Lyons, G. W., 842. 

Maas, J. G. J. A., 46. 
Maass. O., 202. 
Macaigne, A., 686. 
Macallum, A. B., 466, 664. 
McAlpine. D., 623. 746. 
McAtee. W. L.. 160, 254, 266, 

261, 364, 649, 757. 
McBeth, I. G.. 342. 
McCalg, J., 94. 
McCaU, A. G., 199. 
M'Callum, A., 192. 
McCampbell, C. W., 472. 
McCandlisb, A. C, 71, 767, 

774, 872. 
McCann, W. I., 498. 
McCarthy, B. F., 841. 
MacCaughey, V., 336, 629, 

657. 
McClelland, C. K., 236. 
McClelland, T. B., 42, 840. 
McClugage, H. B., 762. 
McClure, H, B., 788. 
McClure, B. W., 814. 
McClurg, N. L., 666. 
McCollum, B. v., 69, TO, 172, 

463, 554, 563, 661, 700, 

762, 864. 
McConnie, R. C, 632. 
McCool, M. M., 315, 512. 517. 
McCoy, G. W., 79. 
McCabbin, W. A., 699. 



McCue, C. A., 888. 
McCulloch, I/.. 846. 
McCnne, B. C, 200. 
McDanlel, A. B., 786. 
McDole, G. B., 211. 
McDonald, B.M., 498. 
MacDonald, P., 660. 
MacDonald, T. H., 189 
McDonald* W., 652. 
Macdonald, W., 600. 
MacDougal, D. T., 28, 29, 30, 
31, 181, 233, 241, 520, 817. 
McDougall, W. B., 167. 
McDowell, F.N., 420. 
McElheny, V. K., Jr., 489. 
McElroy, C H., 290, 683. 
McBh^en, G. F., 617. 
McFarland, C. M., 788. 
Macfarlane, W., 696. 
McGinni8,F.W.,696. 
McGowan, H. 3., 696. 
McGregor, B. A., 769. 
McGuire,G.,712,713. 
McHargue, J. &, 819. 
Macht, D. I., 884. 
Mclnroy, J., 782. 
McIntlre,R.,691. 
Maclntire, W. H., 40. 
Mcintosh, C. F., 496. 
M'Intosh, W., 182. 
McKay, J. W., 623. 
McKay, M. B., 844. 
Mackay, L. G., 178. 
MacKaye, B., 164. 
McKee, R., 137. 
McKee, R. H.. 110. 
McKeever. W. A., 196. 
Mackenna, J., 48. 
McKerral, A., 632. 
Mackie. D. B., 246. 646. 
Mackle, W. W., 346. 
MacKinnon, J., 798. 
McLaine, L. 8., 67. 
McLean, H. a, 298. 
McLean, W. A., 387. 
McLellan, B. G., 612. 
McLendon, C. A., 237. 
Madeod, J. J. R., 677, 865. 
McMaster, P. D., 882. 
MacMillan, H. G., 847. 
McMurran, S. M., 168, 644. 
McNair, A. D., 133. 
McNeil, A., 286. 
McNeil, J. H.. 89. 
McNulty, J. B., 177. 
McNutt, J. C, 497. 
Macoun, W. T.. 741. 835. 
Mcpherson, W., 109. 
McRae, J., 508. 
McRae, W., 846, 852. 
McRostie, G. P.. 438. 
McSwiney, J., 261. 
Macy, P. A., 600. 
Maffei, L., 160. 
Mabeux, G., 648. 
Malgnon, B., 464. 



MalgBon, F., 463, 662. 
MakAllndong , P. L. y, 63S. 
Hakl, H., 163. 
Malet, A. H., 163. 
Malloch, J. B.t 268. 
Mallory, F. a, 676. 
MaUy, C W., 65. 
Halone, J. 8., 76, 278. 
Malone» P. O., 99. 
Maltby. B. D., 400. 
Mangin, L., 851. 
Mann, A. R., 696. 
Maqnenne, L., 807. 
Marcarelli, B., 614. 
Marchal, P., 845. 
Marchand, J. L., 82. 
Marchand, W., 767. 
Marchlsotti, A. C, 6SS. 
Mardell, B. L., 16. 
Marlnl, C, 409. 
Marlatt, C. L., 456. 
Harriott, R. A., 811. 
Marsden, B., 45, 168. 
ICarsh, P., 476. 
Marshall, C. J., 183. 
Marshall, G. A., 840. 
Marshall, G. A. K., 68. 
Marshall, R. B.. 149, 24e. 
Martin, D. B., 317. 
Martin, Q., 408. 
Martin, Q. W., 461. 
Martin, H. H., 117. 
Martin, J. C, 124. 
Martin, J. H., 332. 
Martin, J. N.. 246. 
Martin, W. H., 298, 644, T4a 
Martineau, A., 640. 
Martini, B., 647. 
Mary, A., 201. 
Mary, Alexandre. 201. 
Mason, A. F.. 498. 
Mason, A. W.. 836. 
Mason, F. B., 86. 
Massey, L. M., 169. 751. 
Massinl, P. C. 61, 62, 858. 
Masson, O., 337. 
Masters, fi., 360. 
Matchett, B. P., 765. 
Matheson, K. J., 79. 
Mathewson, A., 90. 
Matthews, C. D., 540. 
Matthews, D. W., 841. 
Mattos, A. T. de. 266, 552. 
Matsui, H., 110, 171. 
Matsumura, 8., 60. 
MattUI, H. A., 798. 
Maue, Q., 413. 
Maughan, H. J., 227. 
Maurel, B., 556. 
Mayer. B., 385. 
Mayer, K. M., 479. 
MayUnder. A.. 660. 
Maynard. B. J., 74. 
Maynard, L. A., 802. 
Mayne. D. D., 897. 
Mayo, N. 8., 181. 



Digitized by 



Google 



i^m 



IKDEX OF NAMES. 



91S 



MMdiam, M. R., 202, 360. 
Mnde. B. M., 34, 237, 458. 
Metdtn, H., 782, 863. 
Mtggitt, A. A., 023. 
Mdcr. F. C 62. 
IMgB, B. B., 112. 
MefBecke, K. P., 159. 
Ifdiiaer, O. B.» 484, 785. 
Metatf , a, 314. 
Mdxell. H., Jr., 490. 
Melander, A. J^ 163, 698. 
Mddmin, A. N., 801. 
Melhiu, I. B., 50. 
Metier. S. J., 182. 
Mendel, 275^ 
Mendel, L. B., 70, 861, 463, 

664, 765, 876. 
Mendlola, N. B., 682. 
Mendj. J. B.. 458. 
Mercer, J. H., 778. 
Merker, H. M., 504. 
Mcrkle, F. O., 213. 
Mcrrffl, E. C, 505. 
Merrill, E. D., 851. 
MerrOl, M. C, 599. 
Merrill, T. a, 545. 
Men, A E., 12. 
MemU. F., 649. 

Meetreast, W., 112, 779. 

Metcalfe, D. A., 900. 

Meter, J. tao, 14. 

Meti.C.W.,652. 

Meyer, A H., 119. 

M«7er,A.W.,663. 

Meyer, K.F., 383. 

Mla]l,B.,256. 

lOckeUC.E.,653. 

Mlddklffook, W., 783. 

Mkldleton,W.,666. 

M1%ge,B.,628. 

M!keika,L.A.,710. 

M!lei,G.F.,199. 

MIle8,W.R.,561. 

Mill, a B., 314. 

Mfflir, a E.. 512, 517, 797. 

Mlfleii, F. a, 252. 

Miller, CO, 298. 

Miner, a, 265, 356. 

Miller, B. R., 616. 617. 

Miner. F.B., 788. 

Mmer,F.W.,799. 

Miller. O. 8., jr.. 54. 

Miller, H. F.. 218. 497, 607. 

Miller, ILR., 56. 

fflller,E.C697. 

MlIlikeii.C.S.»247,5d9. 

Mnton.a.,199. 

MlDdling, G. W., 617. 

lil]nildi,D.E^884. 

MlBot. A. &, 11, 509. 765, 
775. 

H1riadl7Jison.J.,632. 

M]in,a8.,550. 

IQtebell, H. H.. 662. 

M!teliell,J.A..842. 

10tckeil,P.H.,4fi9. 



Mlyasawa, B.. 541, 825. 

Mice, B.C., 617. 

MohIer,J.R..577,778. 

Monnler, A., 726. 

Montemartini, L.. 253. 

Montgomery, S. G.. 238. 

Monxiols, 779. 

Mooen, C. A., 299. 

Moon, y.H., 481. 

Moore, A. B., 400. 

Moore^ B., 248. 425, 426. 

Moore, J. G.. 835. 

Moore^ J. J.. 180. 

Moore» P., 670. 

Moore, W., 165. 355. 752, 880. 

Moon^eld, C. H., 291. 

Moorhoiue. H., 688. 

Moorbonae, K A.. 138. 299, 

440, 737. 
More, a T.. 293. 
Moreira. C, 170. 
Morel, A., 36. 
Morgan, A. F., 660. 
Morgan, B. L.. 480. 
Morgan, G., 799. 
Morgan, H. A., 698. 
Morgan. L. B., 373. 
Morgan, T. H.. 275. 400. 665. 
Mori. N.. 888. 
Morlson. C. B.. 398. 
Moritx. BL A.. 187. 
Morley. C, 65. 
Morley, L. W., 498. 
Morrill, A. W.. 649.853,855. 
Morrla, H. B., 452. 459. 
Morrts, J. li., 413. 
Morrison. T. M.. 217. 
Mor«e, W.. 67. 
Morse. W. J.. 335. 836. 599. 
Mortensen, M., 81, 470. 
Mortenaen. M. P.. 377. 
Mortbensen, B., 649. 
Moscowitz. A«, 651. 
Moster, C A., 757. 
Mosler. J. G.. 514. 
Mo8le7.F.O.,747. 
Moss, B. G., 243. 
Mosserl, v., 857. 
Mothes. J. M.. 446. 
Moulton, C. B., 567. 
Monrlquand, G.. 268. 273. 

566. 
Monssu. 488. 
MonssQ, G., 88. 
Mowry, J. L.. 190. 
MuckenfDS8,A.M.,271. 
Mueller. B. J.. 618. 
Maello. A. C. 392. 
Muir. 854. 
Mukerji. N. G.. 823. 
Muldon. W. B., 778. 
Mulford. W.. 694. 
Mailer. C. 813. 
Mflller-Tburgao. H.. 249. 
MnUett, H. A., 337. 
Mnmford, F. B., 297. 497. 



Mumford. H. W., 299. 
Munce, T. W., 89. 
Munns. B. N., 842. 
Mufios Xim6nei. B., 183. 
Mnnroe, H. D., 498. 
Monroe. J. P.. 692. 
Mnnson. T. V., 342. 
MOntx, 800. 

Mnrdock, H. B.. 386. 600. 
Mnrlln. J. B.. 68. 
Mnrpby, F. T., 496. 
Mnrpby, L., 671. 
Mnrpby, P. A.. 347, 699. 
Murray, C. 882. 
Murray, T. J., 848. 
Musselman, H. H.. 97. 
Mosser, K. B., 774. 
Mutcbler. F. B., 497. 
Myers, C. B.. 638, 833. 
Myers, C. N., 67. 
Myers, J. A., 467. 
Myers, V. C, 12. 16, 609. 

Nabours, B. K., 367. 
NafsIger.T.E.,241. 
Nagendra Cbandra Nag. 15. 
Nakano, H.. 130. 
Narain, B.. 426. 
Nasb. G. v.. 253. 
Natb8en.J..366. 
Neal. D. C, 843. 
NHire, L.. 586. 885. 
Nebf. R. A.. 98. 
Nelll. A. J.. 864. 365, 766. 
Neill, J. W.. 254. 
Neller. J. B., 811. 
Nelson, D. B., 884. 
Nelson, B. W., 646. 
Nelson, I. C, 298. 
Nelson. J. A.. 170. 759. 
Nelson, J. W.. 118. 
Nelson, M., 796. 
Nelson. O. M.. 177.. 
Nelson, T. C, 697. 
Nelson, V. B.. 72. 
Nesom. G. U., 217. 
Ness, H., 47. 492. 
Nenman, L.. 887. 
Neves. A. da 8., 625. 
Newcomb. W. H.. 560. 
Newcombe, F. C, 326. 
Newcomer, B. J., 698. 
Newdlck, B. L., 335. 
Newman. C. C, 245. 
Newman, C. L., 900. 
Newsom, L. B., 482. 
Newstead, R.. 855. 
Newton, J. O.. 361, 696. 
NIcbolls, W. D., 78. 
Nlcbols, G. B., 162. 
Nicolardot, P., 109. 
Nicolas, B.. 881. 
Nicolay, A. S., 266. 357. 664, 

754, 758. 
Nicolon. M., 777. 
Nicolsoa, J. W., 797. 



Digitized by 



Google 



914 



EXPERIMENT STATION RECOBD. 



[yoL40 



NUsson, N. Hm 529. 
Nishlkado, Y., 156. 
Nlshimura. M., 251. 
Nobbs, E. A.. 280. 
Noel. L. von, 657. 
Nohara, 8., 147. 
Nolan, A. W.. 96, 794, 796. 
Nolechek, W. F., 186. 
NoUet, 429. 
Volte, O., 620. 
Nordby, J.B.,600. 
Norrla, D.. 677. 
North, C. B., 864. 
North, M. B., S98. 
Northmp, Z., 97. 
Norton, A. P.. 695. 
Norton, H. W., Jr., 75, 76. 
Norton, J. B., 536, 538. 
Norton, J. B. 8., 168, 886. 
Norton, J. F., 68, 805. 
Norton* W. D., 495. 
Nougaret, R. L., 660. 
Nouree, SL G., 589, 891. 
Nowell, W., 166, 348, 760, 

761. 
Noyes, A. A., 26. 
Noyes, H. A.. 216, 606, 620, 

720, 820. 
Nuckols, 8. B., 138. 139. 
NuttaU. J. 8. W., 275. 
Nntter, J. W., 573. 
NystrOm, B., 211. 

Oakley, R. A., 800. 
Oberholser, H. C, 56, 161, 

254, 350, 861, 646. 
Obst, M. M., 656. 
Od6n, 8., 804, 
O'Donnell, I. D.. 687. 
Oelsner, A., 819. 
O'Gara, P. J., 60, 859. 
Ogbnm, W, F., 659. 
OgK, F. A., 589. 
Okuda, Y., 171. 
OUv&n, N. F., 808. 
Oliver, A. W., 799. 
Oliver, B. W., 284. 
Oliver, F. W.. 524. 
Oliver, J., 678. 
Olmstead. H. W., 868. 
Olney, J. F., 199. 
Olney, R., 600. 
Onada, R., 700. 
Ong, E. R. de, 56. 
Oppenhelm, C. J., 806. 
Oppenbeimer, C, 866. 
Opperman, C. L., 199. 
Orelll, O. 8., 249. 
Ormerod, F., 875. 
Orr, J., 690. 
Orton, C. R., 698, 848. 
Orton, W. A., 185, 344. 
Orwln, C. 8., 192. 
Osbon, a C, 221. 
Osborn, B., 496. 
Osborn, H., 260, 800. 



Osborn, T. O. B., 51, 440. 
Osborne, T. B., 70, 463, 564, 

765, 876. 
Oskamp. J., 834, 886. 
Osman, B. G., 294. 
Oamaston, B. B., 640. 
Osterhont, W. J. Y., 223.400. 
Osterwalder, A., 249, 251. 
Ostrander, J. B., 210, 611. 
Oatrander, W. A., 488. 
O8twald,W.,408. 
Oangl, 8., 128. 
Osvald, H., 211, 212. 
Oswald, W. L., 838, 839. 
Otanes y Qaesales, F., 457. 
Otis, D.H., 200. 
Otlet. P., 806. 
Otten, L., 160, 161. 
Onsley, C, 789. 
Overholaer, E. L., 798, 838. 
Owen, B. J., 697. 
Owens, J. 8., 199. 200. 
Owen-Smith, G., 661. 
Oyama, K., 171. 

Pacella, 683. 
Pachano, A., 158. 
Pack, C. L., 838. 
Packard, C, 400. 
Packard, W., 600. 
Packard, W. B., 835. 
Paddock, F. B., 765. 
Paddock, W., 348. 886. 
Page, L. W., 486. 
Palllard, G., 892. 
Paillot, A., 65, 264. 
Paine, G. P., 117. 
Paine, 8. G., 844, 848. 
Palm, B., 249. 
Palmer, A. H., 416, 
Palmer, L. 8., 501, 696. 
Palmer, T.G., 441. 
Palmer, T. 8., 646. 
Pammel, L. H., 47, 832. 
Panna Lai, 15. 
Pannwitz. P.. 668. 
Pantanelli,B.,563. 
Papanicolaou, G. N., 467. 
Paqnito Rebello, J. A., 83. 
Parascandolo, A., 153. 
Parker, J. B., 264. 
Parkinson, M., 196. 
Parks, 354. 
Parks, A. W., 67. 
Parks, T. H., 296. 638. 
ParnGll, F. R., 523, 631. 
Parr, R., 619. 
Parshley, H. M., 260, 754. 
Parsons, H. T., 69, 172, 668, 

762. 
Parsons, J. T., 711. 
Parsons, T. 8., 630, 686. 
Partington, J. R., 816. 
Paterson, J. W., 25. 
Paterson, W. G. R.. 239. 
Patten, A. J., 72, 671. 



Patrick, A. L., 419. 

Pattee, A. F., 661. 

Patten, C. G., 341, 446. 

Patton, C A., 897. 

PattOB,D.N.,462. 

Paul, 688. 

Pavarino, G. L., 168. 

Pavarino, L., 167. 

Payne, H. G., 67. 

Peacey, B., 783. 

Pearce, B. G., 677. 

Pearl, R., 268, 470, 499, 604, 

766, 879. 
Pearson, C, 900. 
PearwB, F. A., 280, 282, 299. 

876, 878. 
Pearson, R. A., 422, 487. 
Pearson, R. 8., 46, 248, 848. 
Pease, H. T., 67a 
Peck, F. W., 299, 696. 
Peck, & 8., 610. 
Peek, L., 197. 
Peglion, v., 116. 
Peirce, V. M., 291. 
Pellet, H., 813, 412. 
Pellett, F. C. 264. 
Peltier, Q. L., 843. 
Peltrisot. C. N., 207. 
Pemberton, C. B., 62, 469. 
Penna, J., 686, 682. 
Penney, H. J., 798. 
Perisho, B. C, 99. 
Perkins. A. B., 379. 
Perkins, A. J., 837. 
Perkins, 8. 0., 217. 
Pfironnet, 666. 
Perotti, R., 666. 
Perret, 347. 
Perry, A C, 692. 
Perry, L., 197. 
Perry, M. W.. 286. 
Perry, W., 246. 
P^msset, 782. 
Fetch, T.. 449. 
Peters, C A., 801. 
Peters, J. G„ 841. 
Peters, L. H., 866. 
Peters, W. H., 75. 
Petersen,, K B., 832. 
Peterson, V., 899. 
Petherbridge, F. R., 69, 60. 
Petrie. W. 8., 670. 
Petroir, 8. A., 886, 
Petry, U C. 826. 
Pettey. F. W., 168. 858. 
Pettlt, R. H., 64, 97. 650. 
Pew, W. H., 867, 369. 
Pesard, A., 871. 
Pfeller, W., 680. 
Pfnlb, 779. 
Phelps, B. B., 84. 
Phllardeao, P., 779. 
Philibert, M., 809. 
Philips, A. C, 76, 292, 671. 

778. 
PhUUps,B.F..64« 



Digitized by 



Google 



191d] 



IKDEX OP NAMES. 



916 



PhUUp8,]S.]C,696. 

Phmipc,K^194. 

PMUIiM.W.J^170. 

PldteBs,B.lC.77& 

Plckaliis;&,747. 

Pickering, W. H., 617. 

Pickett, B. a^ 196, 742. 

Pictet.A.,110. 

P1idaIlii,A^129,444. 

Pieiiielsel,F.J.,249. 

Fierce, H.B., 517. 

Pierce, B. O., 645, 852. 

Pierce, W. D., 266, 551, 754, 

759. 
Plerottl.L.14. 
PlerB,H.,856. 
Plemn,A.H.,843. 
Pleten,A.J.,8Sl. 
PUicliot,a,280. 
PlBcknej, K. U^ 199. 
Planey, W. B., 496. 
Plpal, P. J., 339, 577. 738. 
Piper, a v., 91, 137, 
Plttmaii,D.W.,815. 
PlttiiMii.M.8.,560. 
PltJ, W., 72, 272. 
PUtlwO.B..647. 
Platon, B., 830. 
Pollard, F. J. CL, 62. 
Pomeroy, C. &, 151. 540. 
PonUiu, A. W., 863. 
PonttiM, R. li., 199. 
Pool, y.W., 344. 
P(9e,A.S.,659. 
Pope, H.M., 174. 
Pope* T. H., 10. 
Popenoe, W., 246, 342. 
Popp.M.,816. 
Porcher, C, 613. 
Porteyln, M. H.. 688. 
Portler, P., 363, 464, 563. 
Potter, A. A., 345. 
Potter, BL L.. 176. 
Potter, O. M., 585. 
Potter. R. S., 122. 
Potts, R.G., 476. 
Poaltnejr, R., 697. 
Poyltik7,O.R.,583. 
Powdermaker, F., 795. 
Powell, T.F., 488. 
Power, F. B., 710. 
Powers, W, L., 587. 
Prmmd, G.. 230. 825. 
Pratt, a R., 361. 
Pmtt, H. C. 54. 
Pratt, M. a, 90. 
Pratt, W. »., 898. 
PraKher, J., 412. 
PreM!ott,&C,414. 
Pieston. J. Fn 542. 
Price, 1^288. 
PrMham, J. T., 523, 524. 
IMnce, A. H., 99. 
Prince, O. H., 841. 
Proescber, F., 788. 
Profelt, W. J., 828. 



Prouiay, O.. 779. 
Proolx, B. Q.. 72. 
Prndhomme, B., 627. 
Pmnet, A., 850. 
Pryor, L. L, 692. 
Pryor. W. L„ 34. 
Pnnnett. R. C, 541. 
Piiran Singh, 248. 
Pnrdy, W. C 857, 858. 
Pye, H., 523. 

Qnesalea, F. O. y, 457. 
Qaesenberry, O. R., 298. 
Qaick, EU 595. 
Onlnlan, D., 183. 
Quintanllla, Q., 434. 
Qulsno, J. B., 663. 

Race, J., 876. 
Radder. N. J„ 696. 
Rader. F. W., 876, 397. 
Radford, G., 790. 
RaffiaeUl, A. O., 558. 
Ragbonatliaswaml Ayyangar. 

P. A., 808. 
Ragland, F., 96. 
Ragsdale, A. C, 281, 297. 
Ralford, L. C. 98. 
RaUUet, 586. 
Ramakrishna Ayyar, T. V., 

553, 854. 
Bamlab. K., 681. 
Ramlres, R., 57. 
Ramsay, J. G., 559. 
Ramsay, J. M., 194. 
Ramsay, J. T., 240. 
Ramsden, W., 382. 
Ramser, C. B., 188. 
Ramsey, W. R., 661. 
Randall, B. W., 742. 
Randall, R. C, 26. 
Rane, P. W., 800, 744. 
Rangaswaml Ayyangar. G. 

N., 631. 
Rankin. W. H., 53. 
Ransom, B. H., 782. 
Rasmuson, H., 538. 
Rasmnssen, F., 199. 
Rast, L. B.. 238, 437. 
Rathbnn, A. B., 852. 
Ratber, J. B., 18. 
Ran, N., 553. 
Ran, P., 553. 
Ransch, M. F., 895. 
Ravai, L., 252, 640. 850. 
Rayenblll, A., 895. 
Razzautl, A., 553. 
Rebello, J. A. P., 33. 
Record, 8. J., 843. 
Reddick, D., 645. 
Redfleld, H. W.. 802. 
Reed, H. J., 696. 
Reed. J. H., 86. 
Reed, W. G., 209, 617. 
Reely. H. K., 292. 
Rees, R. W., 834. 



Reese, A. M., 555. 
Reese. C. A.. 170. 
Reeser, H. B., 84. 
Regan, S. A., 144. 
Regan, W. M.. 298. 
Regan, W. S., 549. 
Regand, C, 779. 
Regelsperger, G.. 390. 
Relcbard, A., 611. 
Relcbard, J. W., 741. 
Reid. B. B.. 18. 
Relble, J. A., 715. 
Rells. H. F., 267. 
Remllnger, P., 183. 
Renard, G., 590. 
Renand, A., 202, 206. 
Reno, G.. 194. 
Retlef, J., 93. 
Kettle. T., 413. 
Renter, B. B., 614. 
Row, R. H., 244, 891. 
Rey, B., 833. 
Reynolds, F. H., 85, 581. 
Ubo, F., 560. 
Uboades, V.. 117. 
Rboads, A. 8., 350, 54S. 645. 
Rbodln, S., 231, 243. 533. 
Rhondda (Lord), 244. 
Rice, F. B.. 123. 
Rich, J. K., 71. 
Richards, B. L., 799. 
Richards, D. B., 799. 
Richards, B. H., 68. 
Richards, H. M.. 29. 223. 
Richards. P. B., 260. 
Richards, P. B., 199. 
Richardson, 108. 
Richardson, A. B. V., 105, 

523. 
Richardson, C, 617. 
Richardson, M. W.. 546. 
Richardson, W. D.. 812. 
Rlchet, C. 581, 880. 
Richmond, T. B.. 203. 
Ricker, P. L., 726. 
Ridden, J. D., 662. 
Riddle, O., 664, 666. 
Rldeal, 8.. 421. 
Ridge, W. H., 782. 
Ridgway,C.8.,621. 
Rlggs,T.,Jr.,761. 
Rtos, P. G.. 634. 
Rist, F. jr., 826. 
Ritchie, A. H.. 264, 250. 
Ritchie. J., 413. 
Ritchie. J. H., 523. 
Rltter, B., 22. 
Rltter, W. B., 617. 
Ritzman, B. G.. 277. 
Rixford, G. P.. 149, 264. 
Robbins, W. J., 24. 325. 
Robbins. W. W.. 636. 
Robert. H.. 590. 
Roberts, G. A., 900. 
Roberts, H. F., 826. 
Roberts, R. H., 742. 



Digitized by 



Google 



916 



EXPEEIMEKT STATION BECORD. 



[VoLiO 



Roberta, W., 280. 826. 

Robertsoo, O., 194. 

RobertaOB, O. H.. 678. 

Robertaon, W. C, 240. 

Robey,O.lL,780. 

Robinson, G. H., 806. 

Robinson, T.R., 247. 

Robison, B., 106. 

Robison, W. L., 278. 

Rocbeb606. 

Rochettes, A. M. des, 400. 

Rockwood, B. W., 268. 604. 

Rodda.T.B.,861. 

Rodes, W., 109. 

Roe, M., 700. 

Roepke, W., 240. 

Rogers, J. H., 884. 

Rogers, J. B., 208. 

Robde» A., 116. 

Rohrbeck, W., 804. 

Rohwer, 8. A.. 254, 266, 458, 

450,666,760,761,862. 
Rolfs, F. M., 42, 688, 644. 
Roper, L M., 630. 
Ropp, A. de, Jr., 128. 
Rorer, J. B., 158, 851. 
Rosa, O. F. de la, 487. 
Rose, D. H., 841, 342. 
Rose^ J. N., 188. 
Rose^CMra) J.N.,133. 
Rose, M. &, 173, 361. 
Rosen, H. H., 648. 
Rosenfeld, A. H., 441, 442, 

682. 
Ross, H., 624. 
Robs, W. A., 261, 648, 668, 

664. 
Ross, W. D., 806. 
Rossati, O., 823. 
RosseUo, H. J., 682. 
Rossem, C. van, 626. 
Rossi, G., 866. 
Rotb, B. G., 217. 
Roth, P., 661. 
Rothte, 803. 
Rothenfusser, 8., 658. 
Rooband, B., 168, 640. 
Rons, P., 678. 
Rovner, J. W.. 308. 777. 
Row, T. L., 808. 
Rowlee, W. W., 642. 
Rowley, H. T., 403. 
Ruehe, H, A., 802, 870. 
Ruehle, O. L. A., 707. 
Rufl, 412. 

Ruggles, A. G., 266. 
Randies, J. C, 242. 
Runner, G. A., 768. 
Rnpp, G., 412. 
Rnpp, P., 881. 
RnsseU, 104. 
Rnssell, B. J., 24, 408. 614, 

515, 622. 
Rnssell, H. L., 208. 
Rnssell, J., 202. 
Rost, B. W., 767, 768. 



Ruth, W. A.. 848. 
Ryan, J. B., 900. 
Ryd,8.,710. 
Ryder, H.M., 111. 

Sackett,W.O.,681. 

Sadltf,W.,864. 

Safford, W, B., 728. 

Saba, P., 866. 

SaiUard, B., 86. 

8aint-Girons, F., 71, 880. 

Sakolskl, A. M., 602. 

Salant, W.. 202, 274, 286, 388, 

466. 
Sale, J. W., 68. 
Salisbury, B. J., 624. 
Salmon, B. 8., 156, 748. 
Salmon, 8. C. 821, 828. 
Salomon, C, 810. 
Salter, C, 314. 
Salter»B.M.,420. 
Salthe,0.,864. 
Sammon% T.. 667. 
Samonte^ C C, 632. 
Sampson, A. W., 448. 
Sampson, H. C, 826. 
Sampson, H. O., 06. 
Samson, O. B., 177. 
Sanborn, C B., 66. 
Sanders, G. B., 57. 164. 
Sanders^ J. G., 643. 
Sanders, T. W., 36. 
Sanderson, T., 146. 
Sandbonse, H. A.. 270. 
Sands, W.N., 166. 
Sanford, H. U, 266. 
Sangbi, B. P., 208. 
Sarasin, J., 110. 
Sargent, CS., 248, 542. 
Sarra,B.,561,663. 
Sarti, a, 186, 782. 
Sasscer, B. B., 266, 862. 
Batterthwait. A. F., 666. 
Saunders, !«. G., 67. 
SauTageau, C, 725. 
Savage, W. G., 862. 
Savery, H. M., 182. 
SayUle, C, 823. 
Saxby, F. W., 637. 
Sayer, H. D., 601. 
Scarratt, A. W.. 100. 
Schaefec, C. T., 101. 
Scbaffer, F., 204, 205. 
Schecker, G., 510. 
Schellbach, H., 508. 
Soberer, R. W., 180. 
Scbereschewsky, J.. 805. 
Scherret, J. R, 190. 
Rcberffius, W. H., 624. 
Scblick, W. J., 787. 
Scbloesing, J. J. T., 800. 
Schmidt, J., 627. 
Scbneider-OrelU. O., 240. 
Schneldewlnd, 725. 
Schneidewind, W., 621. 
Schodiet 8. 8., 467. 



8choene,W.J.,647. 
Bchoening, H. W., 86. 
Seboenmann, L. R., 216. 
Sdioll, B. BL, 264. 
Schoorl, N., 11. 
M^iPPek W. F., 478, 486. 
Schreincr, O., 126. 
8chribaitt.24,8S. 
8cliroeder,416. 
Sdiroeder, B. C, 680. 
8cbnael,0.,812. 
8chQer,H.W.,408. 
8cbQlti,A.R.,725. 
8dinIi,A.,629.682. 
8chula,J.A.,614. 
SchQster, G. L., 718. 
8chflta«bP.,614. 
Schwab, W.G., 848. 
Schwarta, B., 476, 880. 
Schwars, B. A., 169, 265. 
Sehwan, B. H. L., 717. 
Scbwennesoi, A. T.. 484, 7S& 
8oofleld.C.8.,421,488. 
Seott, B. K., 127. 
8eott,J.P.,881. 
8eott,J.W..686. 
Scott. L. B., 342, 640. 
Scott, P. R., 66. 
Scott. R.G., 601. 
Scott, W., 107. 
Scott, W.B., 298. 606. 
Seaton, L. F., 500. 
SeaTer,F.J.,240. 
Seaver, H. B., 208. 
Secrest, HL, 153. 206. 694. 
Se^, B., 668, 807. 
Seelhorst, C ron, 820, 630. 
Seerey, D. F., 201. 
Seifert, EL, 887. 
Sekignchi, R., 416, 417. 
Selbome (Barl of), 700. 
Selby, A« D., 108. 
SelTig, C. G., 732. 
Semple, B. C, 617. 
Sen, J. N., 366. 
Severance, G., 608. 
Severtn, H. C, 864. 
Severin, H. H. P., 56. ICO. 
Sbamel, A. D., 151. 246, 342, 

447, 640. 
Sharma, L. C.»230, 825. 
Sharp, D., 861. 
Sharpies, A., 610. 
Shaw, H. B., 531. 
Shaw, J. K., 536. 
Shaw, B. 8., 707. 
Shaw, W. G., 600. 
Shear, C. L., 262. 844. 
Sheehan. B. F., 606. 
Shepard. J. H., 32. 
Shepherd, J. F.. 840. 
Sheppard. J. H.. 299. 300. 
Sherbakoff, C. D.. 168. 
Sherman. F., 263. 
Sherman, R. C, 174, 859, 

604,608. 



Digitized by 



Google 



1919] 



Ilfn)EX OF NAMES. 



917 



Sberwood, R., 499. 

8liew«d.T.J..247. 

6liidiuK,700. 

Shimamiiza, T., 84. 

8UiiJI,aO.,45e. 

8lilplej,A.B.,63. 

8Upley,J.W..809,812. 

Shlppee, y. C.» 19. 

8kImB,O.F.,793,894. 

Shiver J. W., 425. 

8lilTer,H.]fi.,112. 

Shoois G. R., 97, 280, 296, 

887,897,485,494,694. 
Bhoop, (Mrs.) G. R., 97, 485, 

494.694. 
ShRTe, B. B., 27. 
Bhrevc, F., 129, 130. 
Bliiill,A.F..456. 
Shntt, F. T., 221, 719, 768, 

809. 
ndenk7.D.,812. 
8iegler,E.A.,499. 
8iftOD,H.B.,637. 
Slgetoml, K., 417. 
8U,8.N.,836. 
SOayaii, H. S., 239. 
Sllni Keres, A. da, 625. 
ammoods. K., 69. 172, 563, 

661,762. 
NnuDoiu, J. S., 885; 
Slmiwon, T. C, 610. 
8iii«lt,D.,230,825. 
Bliifh, P., 248. 
Sfamott, B. W., 425. 
BIrot, IL, 709. 
8lTullaii,G.K.,217. 
8li1cken,F.B.,268. 
8lTori,P.,688. 
Q^Uema, B., 111. 
8katfe,&H..861. 
Skard,O.M.,810. 
Bkeny,W.C.,697. 
Sketton, R. F., 272. 
Skerrttt, B. G., 487. 
8kJdiiiore,G.W.,200. 
8k)mer, J. H., 668. 
BUmicr, J. J., 22, 126. 
Sktimer, W. W., 68. 
Sladen, F. 191 L*. 264, 750. 
Slocqin, R. B., 876. 
8»«I1,J.C..812,478. 
SmtrtW. A.,799. 
te]M,B.H..216. 
Siiifflle,B.W.,479. 
tetH^ A. O., 299. 
Smith, (Mrs.) A. W., 280. 
bBlt]i,CB.,299,396. 
8iBtth,CH.,661,662. 
8mftli,C.L.,742. 
•■itIi,C,ldL.10. 
8aiai,C.O.,589. 
>Bitli,CP.,146,B85,831. 
smth. B.A^ 719. 
SbHIi.B.B.,459. 
*«iai.F.,a67. 
finiili, F. a, 548, 641. 843. 



Smltb, F. L., 866. 
Smith, G. C, 561. 
Smltb, G. P. D., 526. 
Smith. H.C., 419. 
Smith, H. BL, 653. 
Smfth. H. H., 686. 
Smith, H. M., 561. 
Smith, H. P., 663. 
Smith, H. S., 56. 
Smith, J. B., 199. 
Smith, J. L., 413. 
Smith. J. W., 19, 617. 
Smith, h, B., 647. 
Smith, li. H., 82, 241. 
Smith. P. H., 571. 
Smith, P. R., 199. 
Smith, R. B., 456, 543. 
Smith, R. G., 208. 
Smith, R. H.. 854. 
Smith, R. M., 68. 
Smith. R. 8., 576. 
Smith, T., 185, 883. 
Smith, T. A. J., 524. 
Smith, W.G., 217. 
Smith. W. H., 196. 
Smith, Z. M., 692. 
Smith-Gordon, L., 91, 501. 
Smoll, A. B.. 806. 
Smnl jan. M. T.. 647. 
Smythe. R. H., 84. 
Smythlea, B. A., 47. 
Snyder. H., 88. 
Snyder, R. S., 122. 
Snyder. T. B., 263, 757, 860. 
86, M., 826. 

Soderstrom, G. F.. 868. 
Sohns, J. C. F.. 682. 
Soils-Cohen, M., 286. 
Soils-Cohen. 8., 286. 
soiling, J.. 768. 
Sollmann, T., 187, 883. 
S51mgen, N. Lu. 319. 
Somerville, W.. 248. 
Bomm&t, H. J,, 866. 
Sordelll, A., 578, 580. 
Sorenson, J., 877. 
Sonrsac, L.. 749. 
8oii8a,J.y.G.de,446. 
Ronth, F. W.. 849. 
Spafford, W. J.. 231, 332 

524. 
Spaid, A. R., 894. 
Sparfaawk, W. N., 843. 
Bpanlding, P.. 54Z 
Spears, H. D., 410. 
Speed. J., 199. 
Speight, R., 169. 
Spencer, C. L.. 588. 
Spencer, D. A., 74. 
Spencer, K. 8., 864, 
Speyer, B. R.. 266, 468. 
SpUlman. W. J., 92, 295, 

298, 687. 
Spinks, G. T., 748. 
Spitser, G.. 877. 
Spoehr, H. A.. 80. 



Spooner, C. S.. 848. 
Spooner, H. J., 589. 
Spragg, F. A., 238, 797. 
Sprague, B., 360. 
Spragne, B. C, 795. 
Spragne, P. W., 500. 
Sprlggs, B. I., 360. 
Spring, F. G., 449. 
Spnier, A., 698. 
Spnrway, C. H., 39. 
Stabler, W. H., 708. 
Stackhonse. H. M., 26. 
Stadler, L. J., 297. 
Stage, H. H., 453. 
Stabel, G., 252. 
Stahl, J. L., 97, 296, 494, 

694, 748, 797. 
Stakman, B. C, 249, 345, 

641, 642. 
Stalder, G., 615. 
Staples, L. C, 91. 
Stark, M. B., 860. 
Stark, W. R.. 443. 
Starling, C. C, 447. 
Starling, E. H., 170. 
Starr, C. G., 668. 
Stazzl, P., 887. 
Steams, T. C, 561. 
Stebblns, M. G., 883. 
Stedman, J. M., 595. 
Steenbergen. H. D., 114. 
Steenbock, H., 185, 3G3, 

865. 
Steeres, R. P., 94. 
StefAnsBon, V., 273. 
Steinberg, R. A., 222. 
Stenins, J. A., 506. 
Stephenson, R. E.. 213. 
Stepp, W,, 308. 
Steven, H. H., 262. 
Stevens, F. L., 249, 848, 

450. 
Stevens, H. E., 158, 045. 
Stevens, N. m. 150, 630. 
Stevens, O. A., 145. 
Stevens, R. B., 188. 
Stevenson, J. A., 52, 844, 

848, 897. 
Stevenson, W. H., 216. 
Steward, W. G., 188. 
Stewart, A. W., 801. 
Stewart, F. B., 693. 
Stewart, G., 238, 299, 435. 
Stewart, G. R., 350, 495, 

505. 
Stewart. J. K.. 710, 711. 
Stewart, H.N., 416, 617. 
Stewart, R., 423. 
Stewart, R. L., 86. 
Stewart V. B., 199, 645. 
Btlles, P. a, 468, 
Stiles, W.. 424, 429. 
Still, G. F., 869. 
Stlllwell, (Mrs.) W. B., 197. 
Stimson, R. W^ 196, 899, 

691. 



Digitized by 



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918 



EXPERIMENT STATION *fiECOBt>. 



IToCw 



Btlne. O. C, 100, 626. 

fitiner, A. J., 99. 

Stlnson» L., 297. 

RUrlinff, F., 358. 

Btltz, H., 647. 

BtlTelman, B.. 887. 

Stockard, C. R., 467. 

Stockman, S., 383, 676. 

»Stode], O., 83, 84. 884. 

Stoll. H. P., 887. 

Stom, L, 443. 

Stone, J. I/., 498. 

Stone, R. E., 699, 852. 

Stoner, D., 646. 

Stookey, E. B., 97, 340, 397, 

422, 494, 797. 
Stopes, M. C, 524. 
Stoppel, R., 424. 
Storer, T. I., 646. 
Stotsenbnrg, J. M., 662. 
Stotz, G. J., 487. 
Stout, A. B., 225, 427. 
Stover, W. G.. 638. 
Strecker, W., 309. 
Streel. E. Da V. de, 590. 
Street, J. P., 182. 
Strickland, C F., 592. 
Strong, L. J., 12, 408. 
Stroud, J. F., 419. 
Stuart, G. A. D., 48, 845. 
Stubbs, C, 379. 
Suglura, K., 67, 174. 
Sullins, D. 6.. 495. 
Sullivan, J. W., 280. 
Sullivan, B.H.. 117. 
Summer, J. B., 308. 
Summers, T. H., 138, 440, 

737. 
Surface, H. B., 641. 
Sutton, F. J., 538. 
Sutton, G. L., 623. 
Sutton, I., 148. 
Sutton. J. W., 798. 
Suzuki, Y., 179. 
Swain, A. F., 798. 
Swaine, J. M., 259, 552. 
Swanson, A. M., 2S5, 383, 

465, 867. 
Swanson, C. O., 10, 507, 722. 
Sweeney, M., 116. 
Sweeny, M. B.. 799. 
Sweet, A. T., 119, 813. 
Swenehart, J., 200. 
Swenk, M. H., 697. 
Swett, W. W., 877. 
Swezey, 854. 
Swigart, C. H., 188. 
Swingle, D. B., 429, 449, 452, 

469. 
Swingle, W. T., 247, 438. 
Swynnerton, C. F. M., 152. 
Sydenstricker, E., 69. 
8zeg5, E., 113. 
Szili, A., 268. 

Tabpr, C. W., 462, 796. 
Tagawa, K., 778. 



Tague, E. L., 10. 607. 
Talbot, F. B.. 68. 
Tanaka, T., 52, 167, 842. 
Tannehill, I. B., 617. 
Tansley, A. G., 424. 
Tarbett, R. B., 868. 
Tate, A., 197. 
Taubenhaus, J. J., 648. 
Taverner, P. A,, 256. 
Taylor, A. E., 659. 
Taylor, F. E., 288. 
Taylor, G., 716. 
Taylor, H. C, 200, 299, 890. 
Taylor, H. D., 284, 883. 
Taylor, H. W., 242. 
Taylor, K. P. A., 888. 
Taylor, R., 71. 
Taylor, R. H., 838. 
Taylor, T. H.. 457. 
Taylor, W. A.. 487. 
Tedin, H., 136. 
Teixeira de Mattos. A., 266, 

652. 
Templeton, G. S., 667, 772. 
TenBroeck, C, 480. 
Teodoro, G., 654. 
Terry, B. I., 843. 
Tex, M. C, 897. 
Thatcher, L. E., 736. 
Thatcher, R. W.. 300. 
Thayer. P., 149, 342, 640. 
Thaysen, A. C, 23. 
Theller, A., 290. 
Tholozan, De L., 883. 
Thorn, C, 283. 
Thomas, A. W., 604. 
Thomas, E. B., 539. 
Thomas, B. N., 624, 891. 
Thomas. F. L., 656. 
Thomas, H. B., 47, 344. 
Thomas, H. H., ^44, 638. 
Thomas, I*. M., 144. 
Thomas, M. C, 98. 
Thompson, C, 120. 
Thompson, C. M., 174. 
Thompson, D'A.. W., 566. 
Thompson. E. ET., 500. 
Thompson, E. W., 661. 
Thompson, H., 660. 
Thompson, W. C, 298. 
Thompson, W. O., 800, 422, 

493. 
Thompson, W. P., 830. 
Thomson, W. W., 489. 
Thome, C..B., 292, 376, 724. 
Thorpe, E., 109, 506. 
Thurgau, H. M., 249. 
Tibbetts. H. A. M., 298. 
Tifbiny. R. K., 188. 
Tillman, B. W., 813, 814. 
Tillmans, J., 608. 
TiUotson. C. R., 641. 
Tlmberlake, P. H., 263, 205, 

359. 
Tingley. F. 0.,617. 
Tlnsley, J., 65. 
Tiadale, W. H., 846. 



Todd, O.W.. 007. 
Todd, J. A.. 835. 
Tolaas, A. O., 460. 
ToUey, H. R., 688. 
Tomlinson, Q. H., 17. 
Tompkin,J.L.,498. 
Tonnellor^ A. C, 633, 625w 
TopU8,W.G.,310. 
Torrcy,J.a,666,8G7. 
Tottingham, W. E., 620, 727. 
Toumcy, J. W», 393, 743, 842. 
Tower. W. L., 129, 860. 
Towles, R. C, 178. 
Townsend, C O., 139, 440, 

737, 848. 
Townsend, C H. T., 357» 758» 

859. 
Townsley, T. S., 876. 
Townsley, T. W., 671. 
Toyama, I., 287. 
Tracy, W. W.. sr., 147, 196. 
Trftgftrdh, 1.463, 164. 
Trannoy, R.. 326. 619. 
Transeau, B. N., 898. 
Treheme, R, C, 647. 
Trelease, W., 163. 
Trimble, W., 890. 
Trimble, W.J„ 100. 
Troop, J., 752. 
Trost, J. F., 820. 
Trowbridge, P. F., 667. 
True. A. C, 695, 692. 
True, G. H., 774. 
True, R. H., 100, 299, 423, 

460, 602. 
Truelle, A., 116, 268. 611, 

864. 
Truffaut, G., 619. 
Trumbull, R.S., 211. 
Tsakalotos, D. E., 610. 
Tubbs. D. W.. 798. 
Tucker, B. S., 866. 
Tufts, W. P., 446. 
Tullgren, A., 163. 
TuUoch, W. J., 82. 
Tumpowsky, I., 270. 
Tungeln, G. H. von, 693. 
Tunnicllff, R., 479. 
Tun8taIl,A.C.,53,d49. 
Tupper, W. W.. 823. 
Turconi, M., 157. 160. 
Turner. C. C, 417. 
Turner, C. F., 860. 
Turner, C. H., 362. 
Turner, C. W., 774. 
Turner, R. B., 654. 
Turner, "W. F., 177. 
Turpin, O. M., 77. 
Tustin. P. B., 879. 
Tylor.A.R..539. 

Uhlenhnth, B., 400. 
XTlander, A., 832. 
Umbeiser, H., 98. 
Unna, B., 411. 
Urbahns, T. D., 862. 
Urich, F. W., 170, 362, 866. 



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m9] 



rEn>£X OF KAMES. 



919 



Tacber,H.,686L 

TtIle.lL 8., 695. 

Taleiitl]ie,E.,T80. 

Talerfo, a G.. 290. 

Ta]sK]i,V.N..593. 

TiliqiKtte, CU 373. 

Tilkfta.W.D..838. 

Vil'teia, O. A.. 111. 

Tu Alftine, K, 308, 614. 

Taoatta, B. 8.. 420. 

run'Dua,W.,ll. 

Tu Dapperen, J. "W^ 87. 

van den Broek, P. W., 658. 

Tander Bm, P. A.. 160, 848. 

Iran der Ooot, P., 650. 

Ta]iderleck,J.,513. 

Tan der Linden, T., 206. 

van der Veen, B., 245. 

Van Dyke, £.C, 170. 

yanenti,0.,891. 

TanEseltine,O.P.,183. 

Tan Fleet, W., 639. 

van Hall, C. J. J., 63. 

Tan Harrereld, 87. 

fan Harrereld, J., 87. 635. 

TanHelten,W.lC.,46. 

Tan Heam, F. C, 115. 

Tan HIM, C.R., 894, 896. 

Tan Hook, J. C, 542. 

Taaltenon, O., Jr.. 435. 

Tan Meter, A. B., 658. 

Tttt Meter, J., 14. 

TanNlekerk,M.,624. 

Tan Pelt, W., 747. 

Tan Benndaer, M., 498. 

TBBE08aem,C., 626. 

Tan Sacegkcm, B., 586, 780. 

Tan Slyke, D. D., 113, 714. 

Tan8l7ke.L.L.,501. 

Taaiteenberghe, 113. 

Taa Zwalawenbiirg, B. H., 

06.66. 
Tarne7.aM.,716. 
Tanghitn, H. W., 497. 
Tantler,B.,115. 
TeaIl,J.O.,748. 
Tedder. ILB., 868. 
Teen. B.. Tan der, 246. 
Tda,89.784. 
Terdl«.H.,446. 
Termeil,P.,694. 
TCroniiet,A.,U7. 
TerteiilI,J.de,634. 
Tickers, O. &, 29& 
TUaU B., 65. 
TIercck. H. !«.. 65. 
Tlgreoz. H., 12, 700. 
TIk.K.,626.631. 
T|]]ani,T.,838. 
TQlaTccchIa, V., 10. 
TOnorln, P. V. de, 662. 
TtnaTcr, 8. K., 779. 
Tincent. C C, 17. 
Tlneent, C O., 698. 
Tincent, H.. 83. 84. 779, 884. 
Tlawanfttli, B., 808. 



TlTian, A. 399, 400. 
VlTier de Strecl. R Du, 690. 
VoegtUn, C, 67. 
Voelcker. J. A., 126.515.824. 
Voinenet, S., 507. 
Tolpino, G.. 869. 
Voorhlea, E. C, 878. 
Vrlea, H. De, 132. 
VHes. O. de, 442. 
yrijbarg. A.. 587. 
Vrooman, C, 605. 
Yttrtheim. A.. 13. 

T?adaworth, A. B.. 480. 784. 
Wadsworth. H. A.. 798. 
T?aite, B. H., 571. 
Waksman. S. A., 214, 318. 

478. 721. 
Waldman. L., 462. 
Walker, E. W. A., 872. 
Walker, G. P., 496. 
Walker, L. S., 617. 
Walker, 8. 8.. 297. 
WaUace, R, 45. 
Wallace. B., 667. 
Waller, A. D.. 561. 
Waller, A G., 570. 
Walling. W. B.. 688. 
Wallia. B. L. 31. 268. 
Walshes F. M. B.. 565. 
Waists. H. L., 498. 
Walter, B. v., 853, 
Walters, J. A. T., 388, 526, 

825. 
Walton, W. B., 653, 757. 
Walworth. E. H., 82. 
Wanl, H., 86. 
Wank, W.BL, 798. 
Warburton, C, 254. 
Warburton. C. W., 622, 827. 
Ward, B., 241, 683. 
Ward, B. DeC., 417, 617, 808. 
Ward, W. F., 665. 878. 
Warden, It. L., 15. 
Warden, C. C, 880, 676. 
Waring, G. A., 484. 
Warren, G. F., 280, 298, 376, 

890. 
Warren, G. M., 91. 
Waskburn, F. L., 254, 255. 
Washbnm, H. J., 183, 880. 
Washburn, B. M., 377. 
Washburn, B. 8., 138, 440, 

787. 
Washington. H. L., 428. 
Wason, B., 590. 
Watanabe, C. K., 12. 
Waterman, W. G., 226. 
Waters, H. J., 196, 667. 
Wathelet,J.,688. 
Watkins, C. B.. Jr., 814. 
Watson, E. B., 505. 
Watson, J. B., 858. 
Watts, F., 522. 
Watts, G. B., 99. 
Watts, H. B., 652. 



Waugh, F. A.. 248, 542. 
Waxberg, H., 685. 
Weathemrax, P., 627, 728. 
Webb. C. H. S.. 681. 
Webb. W., 695. 
Webber. H. J., 247, 294, 539, 

695. 
Weber, F. C, 411. 
Webster, A. D., 447. 
Webster, J. B., 898. 
Webster, B. L., 755. 
Webster, T. A., 426. 
Wedel, H. von, 481. 
Weeter, H. M., 377. 
Wehrle, L. P.. 267. 
Welgart, (Mrs.) A. A., 695. 
Weigle, G. J., 462. 
WeUl, E., 268, 273, 565. 
Weimer, B. B.. 672. 
Welmer, J. L., 347. 
Weinrlch, W., 836. 
Welnzirl, J., 764. 
Weir, A. B.. 360. 
Weir, J. B., 159. 258, 349, 

842. 
Weiss, H. B.. 268, 354, 357, 

654. 753. 754, 758, 864. 
Welch, P. S., 267. 
Welch. B. B.. 799. 
Weldon, G. P.. 251. 252. 
Wellington, J. W., 599. 
Wellington, B., 98. 
Wellman, M. T., 796. 
Wells, A. H., 557. 
Wells, C. F., 420. 
Wells, B. W., 600, 754, 797. 
WeUs, 8. B., 561. 
Wells, W. G.. 527. 
Welton, F. A.. 834. 
Wenhols, H.. 523, 526. 
Wenner, J. J., 479. 
Wennink. C. B.. 251. 
Wery. G., 892. 
Westcott, N. P., 488. 
Wessels, P. H., 517. 
Wessling, H. L., 234. 
Wesson, D., 68. 
West, C, 727. 
West, (Mrs.) M.,59n. 
Wester. P. J., 234, 259. 
Westley, B. O., 900. 
Weston, F. E.. 113. 804. 
Weston, W. H., Jr., 344. 
Wetmore, A., 55, 260, 351, 

646. 
Wharton, L. D., 587. 
Wheeler, G. A., 69. 
TV heeler, J. T., 899, 400. 
Wheeler. W., 595. 
Wheeler. W. A., 831. 
Wheeler, W. M., 553. 
Whellens, W. H., 151. 
Wherry, B. T.. 202, 609, 812. 
Whetsel, H. H., 249, 251. 
Whipple, O. B., 429, 444, 447. 
Whltchcr, G. H., 296. 



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920 



EXPERIMENT STATION BEOOBD. 



[Vol 40 



White, A^ 1«9. 741. 
White, B. D., 476. 
White, B. A., 189. 
White. E. N., 658. 
White, F. M., 90. 
White, G. C, 488. 
White. G. F., 760. 
White, J. W.. 728. 
White, O. E.. 225, 435. 
White, T. H.. 741. 
White. W. H., 55. 
Whitfoid, H. N., 745. 
Whltiey, B., 382. 
Whitten. J. C. 148. 
Wiancko, A. T., 514. 735, 

823 
Wibberley, T., 589, 590. 790 
WlckB, W. H., 149. 
WiclEson, B. J., 599. 
Widtsoe, J. A., 823. 
Wiegand, B. H., 799. 
Wieringa, G., 89. 
Wieringa, K. T.. 319. 
Wigdor, M.. 89, 184, 186- 

187, 477, 482, 686. 684. 
Wlggans, C. C, 798, 836^ 
Wight, H. M., 54. 799. 
Wilcox. B. v., 299, 389. 
Wilcox. L. P., 799 
Wilcox, B. B., 150. 
Wileman, A. B., 456. 
Wiley, H. W., 459. 
Wilder, H. J., 300. 
WUkes, C, 298. 
Wlllard, H. F., 62, 469. 
WiUard, J. D., 98. 
Wlllard, B. B., 735. 
Willcocks, F. C, 856. 
WUlett, G., 361. 
Williams, A. D., 485. 
Williams. C. B.. 649, 856. 
WUliams, C. G., 198, 397, 738, 

797. 
Williams, J. O., 875. 
WiUlams, B. O., 763, 863. 
Williams, B. B.. 465. 
WiUlams, W. L., 778. 
Williamson, J.. 637. 
WUliamson. M. A., 892. 
WilUs, J. C, 624. 
WiUooghby, W. G., 552. 
WUlcox, W. H.. 564. 
WUls, J. G., 188. 
Willstatter, R.. 312. 
Willaon, C. A., 200. 
Wilson, A. D., 622. 



Wilson, B. D., 719. 
Wilson, B. B., 805. 
Wilson, G. M.. 692. 
Wilson, G. W., 898. 
Wilson, H. F., 356, 661. 
Wilson, J., 667. 
Wilson, J. B.. 411. 
Wilson, J. F., 798. 
Wilson, L. v., 297. 
Wilson, M. A.. l81. 
Wilson. B. H., 586. 894. 
WUson, W. A., 879. 
Wimar, D. C, 814. 
Winchell, A. N., 616, 617. 
Winchester, H. B., 98. 
Wlnfleld, G., 879. 
Wing, H. H., 774. 
Wing, li. W., 298. 799. 
Wlngard, S. A.. 845. 
Wlng^e, 5., 817. 
Winkenwerder. H., 898. 
Winkjer, J. C, 79. 
Winright, G.. 82, 84. 
Winslow. C. B, A., 269. 
Wlnslow. F. G. B., 66. 
Winsor, L. M., 200. 
Winston, R. A., 814. 
Winters, N. B., 728. 
Winters, B. Y., 885. 
Wirs, jr., 526. 
Wise, L. B., 16, 710. 711. 
WohnUch,B^,412. 
Wolbach, S. B., 868. 
Wolcott, (Mrs.) H. B., 199. 
Wolf, C. G. L.. 677. 
Wolf, F. A., 248. 900. 
Wolfe, H., 791. 
Wolfe, T. K., 435. 
WoUr. H. W.. 589. 
Wolir, J., 325. 727. 
Wolkoff, M. I.. 30. 218. 
WolI,F.W.,875,599,878. 
Wolsogen Ktthr. C. A. H., von, 

Jr.. 214. 
Wood, D. C. 281. 
Wood, J. T., 408. 
Wood, W. W., 799. 
Woodman, A. G., 410. 
Woods, a D., 424, 448, 461, 

470. 
Woods, W. B., 662. 
Woods, W. C, 357. 
Woodward, T. B., 177. 
Woodworth, C. M., 900. 
Wooley, J. C. 90. 
Woolmvif M. 8., 692, 895. 



Wooton, IL O., 276. 
Working, D. W., 98, 800. 
Works, G. A., 898, 400, 691, 

692. 
Wormald, H., 156, 850. 
Worsham, B. L., 56. 
Wortley,B.J.,847. 
Wright, J. BL. 676. 
Wright. 0. B., 221. 
Wright, B. C, 821. 
Wright, S., 177. 869. 
Wright, W. P.. 340. 
Wulfl./.V..842. 
Worth, T., 252. 258. 
Wyatt, F. A.. 423. 
Wyer, 8. S., 658. 
Wyeth,F. J. 8..881. 
Wylie. C. B., 200. 
Wyllle, J.. 192. 

Ximtoes. B. M., 188. 

Yamagnchl, T., 632. 
Tano, M., 552. 
Yapp, W. W.. 778. 
Yeager, A. F., 199. 498. 
Yeary, W. B., 890. 
YerkeB, A. P., 89, 291, 299. 
Yoder, L., 820. 
Yoder, P. A., 830. 
Yohe, H. 8., 803. 
Yothers, W. W., 454, 856. 
Young, A. J., sr., 439. 
Yonng, A. W., 762. 
Yoong, B. P., 263. 
Yonng, B. G., 566. 
Yonng, H. C, 263. 
Yonng, H. D., 639. 
Young. I. F., 899. 
Yonng, V. H., 618. 
Ynasa, H., 853. 

Zander, E., 547. 

Zavlts, a A., 333, 386. 624. 

Zeasman, O. B.. 200. 

Zei68ler,J.,677. 

ZeUer,8.M..799. 

Zellner, J., 710. 

Zerban, F. W., 12. 

ZUva, 8. 8., 271, 272, 864. 

464, 869. 
Zimm, L. A., 495. 
Zimmerman, J. G.. 190. 
Zitkowskl. H. B.. 208. 
Zook,I«.U,826. 



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INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



Page. 

AhtOa perHtriw n^sp., description.- 760 
▲bortioii— 

badUas, isolating and recover- 
ing 479 

contagious, blood tests 885 

contagions, in cattle 290, 782 

contagions^ in cattle, Kans 86 

contagions. In cattle, Wis 290 

contagious, notes 778 

contagions, studies 184,883 

contagions, treatment 782,885 

in catUe 586 

Abscission in Ooleu9 liHumei 825 

Absorption test, CastelUni's 288, 579 

Abstract Journals after the war 304 

AeuithaiAls n.^., description 60 

AooHMofeeKdM obteeiU9 — 

Temediee 558 

studies ^ 653 

Aorina of Barbados 56 

AcQtophtnaa irihoUi n.g. and n-sp., 

notes 856 

Aefnphagu9 n.spp., descriptions 859 

Acetic add, preparation from corn- 
cobs 17 

iefc€roiitia laeheaia, studies 62 

AeftoffoN — 

fukKikeanum infection, studies. 683 

mshinleinU, studies 483 

Add phosphate. (fTee Superphos- * 
phate.) 

Acidosis and creatinurla 765 

Adds— 

amino. {See Amino adds.) 

" redair bleu " test 311 

of agricultural products, idcnti- 

flcation, Ark 18 

iooiMfa Mwta, studies 754 

AcriflsTin, antiseptic value 182 

ioiotesit caryw, notes 269 

Acrocerids of North America 757 

Atiiinomt/ee9-^ 

t^rwmogenut as affected by 

acidity 644 

dkrono^eMiM, notes 844,847* 

feMeOUAdet n.q>., studies 721 

spp.. proteolytic activity 721 



Page. 
Actinomyces in limed cranberry 

soils 214 

Actlnomycetes, pathogenic, studies- 478 
Aoifthapeus-^ 

gilvonotatus n.sp., description- 655 

orchivora, notes, N.J 754 

Adenin, antineuritic properties 271 

Advisory Board of American Plant 

Pathologists 698 

Adzukl bean, studies 131 

XiMium — 

encelUB n.sp. from the Andes 133 

0M9ffpii, notes 154 

tubulosum and 2B. pasBifloriicola, 

studies 344 

JSgeria HpuHformU, (See Currant 

borer.) 
Aerological observations, U.S. 

DLA 19, 200, 716 

Afforestation. (See Porestatlon.) 
Agalazy, contagious, in goats and 

sheep . 782s 783 

Agar-agar, Japanese, chemical 

studies of alg» used in. 110 

Agar platea^ 

filling and inoculation 805 

photographic records 881 

Agave americana, composition 710 

Agaves, use in feeding, U.S.D.A 270 

Age, relation to fertility in the rat— 468 
Agglutination — 

influence of sodium chlorid on — 778 

studies 82 

Agricultural — 

accident insurance 198 

chemistry. (See Chemistry.) 

college of Philippines 499 

colleges, administrative organi- 
zation 690 

colleges and the farmer 896 

colleges, war emergency work— 294 
(See also Alabama, Ari- 
zona, eto.) 
Commission to Europe, report, 

U.S.D.A 498 

communities, eugenics in 193 



Not!.— The abbreviations "Ala.College," " Conn.State," "Mass.," etc.. after entries 
Kfer to the publications of the respective State experiment stations ; "Alaska," " Guam," 
" Hawaii," and " Porto Rico," to those of the experiment stations in Alas^ka. Guam, 
Hawaii, and Porto Bico ; *' Can^* to those of the experiment stations in Canada ; and 
** Uil.D.A.," to thoae of this Department. 

146069^—20 4 »21 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



022 



EXPERIME27T STATION REOOBD. 



[Vol.40 



AgricQltoral — Continued. 

coopenition — Pacs* 

In Australia 502 

in Belgium 688 

in Bihar and Oriaaa 898 

In Canada 193,489,688 

in Denmark 689 

In France 92,98 

in Ireland 91 

in Italy 889 

in New Jersey 592 

in Punjab 592 

in South Africa 98 

in Suffolk 692 

in Texas 898 

in United States 489,691 

laws in New York 889 

treatise 691 

credit- 
in Prance 92 

in relation to state social- 
ism 688 

in South Africa 791 

In Spain 389,800,892 

in Switzerland 892 

societies of St. Lucia 489 

statement 889 

treatises 892 

development problem of south- 
eastern coastal plain 91 

development work by railroads. 488 

economics, (iffee Bural econom- 
ics.) 

education — 

and research in Victoria, 

suggestions for 105 

in California, Cal 689 

in Scotland 893 

in Western Australia 96 

supervised practice in 795 

vocational, four-year cur- 
riculum 795 

vocational, home project in. 296 
vocational, reference ma- 
terial for 95 

vocational, secondary 897 

vocational, State super- 
vision 690 

vocational, teacher train- 
ing- 899 

vocational, year's work 492 

(See also Agricultural in- 
struction atid Vocational 
education.) 

experiment stations. (See Ex- 
periment stations.) 

extension. (See Extension 
work.) 

federation in New York 689 

history, manual 890 

History Society, notes 100 

institute in Spain, project for_- 890 

instruction — 

courses 492 

for soldiers and sailors 691 

for the farm boy 196 

in Atlantic Co., New Jersey. 296 



Agricultural — Continued. 

instruction — continued. Page. 

in Canada 896 

in Haiti 690 

in high schools 93,197 

in lUinois 794 

in Ireland 94 

in Los Angeles 197 

In New Brunswick 94 

in New Hampshire 296 

in New York 2»5 

In PhUlppines 898 

in Prince Edward Island— 197 

in San Francisco 295 

in State normal schools 490 

lessons 198 

secondary 895 

textbook 95 

(See aUo Agricultural edu- 
cation.)- 
investigatlon, need for safe- 
guarding 6 

investigations in French col- 
onies 890 

journals, abstract 306 

journals, new 297. 400, 699 

labor by children 591 

labor by school boys 698 

labor camp for boys 96 

labor, city men for 389 

labor for 1918 wheat harvest in 

Kansas, U.S.D.A 92 

labor requirements, meeting 691 

labor, women for 891 

(See ai9o Labor.) 

laborers in Italy 790 

laborers, minimum wages 192, 

691, 687, 891 

laborers, wages, U.S.D.A 391 

ladder to land ownership.. 687 

laws in New York 390 

legislation, yearbook 890 

machinery census in Nebraska 194 

machinery Bltuation, 1918 189 

meteorology. (See Meteorol- 
ogy.) 

organisations of Massachusetts. 689 
organisations, official, in 

France 689 

pastoral colonies in Argentina 392 

policy in Germany 891 

policy in Great Britain 01, 790 

policy of British Empire in In- 
dia, Latin America, etc 086 

policy, suggestions for 790, 889 

production for 1919, n.S.D.A.. 487 

production in Swltserland 790 

products, marketing 298, 

488, 489. 791, 792 

products, marketing, N.C 294 

products, perishable, transporta- 
tion 488 

reconstruction. {See Becon- 
struction.) 

research, elements of progress 701 

research in California, Cal 599 

research in Scotland 898 



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m9] 



IITDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



923 



Agricaltaral — Continued. 

KKarch, organization in India. 601 

retoorces of Alaska, U.S.D.A 813 

Rtoorces of Burma 195 

rwo ur eca of Cnba 194 

rcMorcM of Montana 92 

■diool in Lyon, France 499 

tdioola, clYle and social training 

to 94 

■odetiea, joint-stock, share-Ieas- 

tog basis 490 

«tatl8tiC9— 

to Argentina 792 

In Anstralla 840,898 

to Brittoh Qalana 93 

to Califoniia 194 

to Canada 594 

to Chile 894 

to England and Wales 594 

to Finland 892 

to France 793 

in Idaho 689 

in Indto 793,894 

to Italy 194 

to Kansas 690 

to Nebraska 194 

in Netherlands 894 

to Scotland 194 

to Spain 894 

to Sweden 294 

to Switzerland 793 

to Trinidad and Tobago 392 

Bonroes 694 

teachers, traintog 304,895, 

899, 491, 695. 696, 598, COl, 692 

tenancy, stadies 890 

tenancy, stodies. Wis 892 

Wages Board of Great Britain.. 591 
Agricnltnr^— 

address to bankeri^ commit- 
tee, U.8.D.A 890 

after the war, papers on 298 

as affected by new international 

leUtlonships, U.S.D.A 487 

British, as a business proposi- 
tion 392 

CQllectiviBm in 688 

Department ofL (See United 
States Department of Agrlcnl- 
tare.) 

development to Eorope 689 

directors of. In New York 295 

elementary, mannal 796 

to Algerta 487 

to Algeria and Tunis 594 

to Belgton Kongo 390,892 

to Berkshire 590 

in British Gnlana 93, 487 

In France after the war 590, 686 

to France as affected by the war, 

U.S.D^ 487 

to French colonies 590, 622 

to Great Britain, treatises 387, 

589, 889 

in Indto, handbook 823 

to Itoly 891 

to Italy, IT.ai>.A 487 



Agricnltnre — Continued. PagB. 

in Macedonto 590 

in Morocco 194, 791 

in New York 889 

in New Zealand 196 

in Porto Rico 690, 890 

In Scottond 590 

in South Africs 791 

in Spain 487 

in Sudan 791 

in the South, textbook 897 

in United Kingdom as affected 

by the war, U.S.D.A 487 

to Virgin Istonds 891 

prevention of waste in 689 

Prusston boards of 891 

rOle of state in, treatise 790 

textbooks 492, 897 

tropical. Pacific coast institute. 294 

tropical, treatise 622 

AgrQuB — 

anmius, notes 552 

dosfieri n. sp., description 759 

AffHotea manous torvsc, fumigation. 256 

Affromyga — 

destructor, studies 467 

latereUa, studies 169 

spp. retoted to eimplev 263 

Agromyza, key 263 

JLffrotis ypeUon. {See Cutworm, 
black.) 

Ali^— 

cooling near the ground at 

night 814 

humidity, retotion to nocturnal 

cooltog 715 

physics of, U.S.D.A 616 

{Bee also Atmosphere.) 

Alabama College Station, report 796 

Albumin, egg, toxicity and nutritive 

value 463, 464, 562 

Alcohol — 

estimation in spirituous liquors. 16 

determination in vinegar 712 

disinfection, theory and prac- 
tice 581 

effect on catalase of blood 864 

power, crops for production 624 

production by yeast 326 

recovery from potash determina- 
tion 806 

{See also Ethyl alcohol and 
Methyl alcohol.) 

Alcoholized fowls and eggs, studies. 470 

Alcohols, determination 804 

Aldehydes — 

color test for 114 

of soil 22 

Alder wood disease 844 

Aldopentoses, crystallography and 

optical properties 202 

AleuroUus farina, notes 866 

Aleurothriwua hoioardi in Florida, 

U.S.D.A 856 

Alfalfa— 

as hog pasture, Minn-. 771 

as hog pasture^ N. Dak.....— 76 

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924 



EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 



[Vol. 40 



Alfalfa — Continned. Pags. 

as hog pasture, U.S.D.A-. 72,471,472 

as boney-prodncinir plant, Okla. 65 

as orchard crop, Kans 840 

as pasture crop, TJ.S.D.A 871,470 

as winter cover crop 133 

breeding experiments, Can 735 

continuous culture, Mont 419 

crown gall, notes 844 

culture experiments, Can 735 

culture experiments, Guam 828 

culture experiments, Iowa 328 

culture experiments, Okla 32,624 

culture experiments, U.S.D.A 430 

culture experiments In Canada. 228 

culture, handbook 526 

culture In New Jersey 137 

culture in New Mexico, N.Mex- 18 

culture in Texas, Tex 729 

culture in Washington, Wash 731 

decomposition in soil 214 

dodder in Colorado, Colo 636 

effect on nitrogen and carbon 

content of soils. Wash 719 

effect on nitrogen content of 

soils 722 

effect on nitrogen content of 

soils, Kans 319 

effect on succeeding crops, 

U.S.D.A 331, 430, 482 

feeding value, Iowa 870 

fertility experiments, Okla 82 

fertilizer experiments, Kans 319 

fertilizer experiments, Okla 624 

flour, studies, Wash 762 

. hay, energy values 366 

hay, feeding value, N. Dak 75 

hay for milk production 673 

hay, green, brown, and black, 

Kans 369 

hay, manurial value, Ohio 127 

hay, mineral constituents, di- 
gestibility, Tex 769 

irrigation experiments, n.S.D.A- 431 

land plaster for, Wash 730 

liming experiments 134, 322 

liming experiments, N.J 126 

manuring experiments, U.S. 

D.A 430, 432 

meadow culture experiments 136 

meal, analyses, Ind 72 

meal, analyses. Mass 671 

meal, analyses. Me 470 

meal, analyses, Mich 571 

meal, analyses, N.J 666 

meal, analyses, Tex 671 

on alkali soils, U.S.D.A 82 

on reclaimed swamp 231 

pasturing off, U.S.D.A 430 

pollination by bees 264 

pollination by bees. Can 760 

rotation experiments, U.S.D.A- 331 

saponin, studies 607 

seed, clover seed chalcid para- 
sites in 862 

seed, investigations 89 

seeding depths, Utah 227 



Alfalfa — Continued. Page. 

seeding experiments, U.S.D.A. 488 

seeding time, U.S.D.A. 832,430 

silage, studies 10, 508 

soil moisture removal by, Mont- 480 
Turkestan, as hog pasture, 

U.S.D..A 471 

utilizing waste land for, N.J..^ 187 

variety tests 228,828 

variety tests, Minn 788 

variety tests, U.S.D.A 430,438 

weevil, notes 101, 858 

white spot disease 50 

yield as affected by number of 

cuttings, Nebr 522 

yields, Minn 786 

yields, U.S.D.A 81 

AlgSB 

control in canals 188 

development and nutritional 

physiology 180 

marine, chemical analyses 725 

marine, used in Japanese agar- 
agar, chemical studies 110 

new races and species 180 

Algic acids, studies 804 

Alkali- 
content of soils as related to 

crop growth 719 

determination In hypochlorite 

solutions 809 

distribution by irrigation 710 

effect on nitric-nitrogen accu- 
mulation in soils . 722 

salts, toxicity, soil factors af- 
fecting 816 

soils, durability of cement 

draintile and concrete in 886 

soils, gypsum for 61 

soils, plants tolerant to 221 

soils, treatment, U.S.D.A 82 

Alkaline- 
carbonates, determination 112 

solutions, dilute, determining 

alkalinity 610 

Alkaloids, cinchona, disinfectiug 

action 478 

Almond nitrogen, biological value — 660 

Almonds, stocks for 446 

Alsophila pontefarto. (See Canker- 
worm, falL) 
Altemaria — 

dtri on the navel orange 889 

BOlani, dissemination by insects. 646 

sp. on cotton « ^ 846 

sp. on sweet potato _. 847 

Altica spp., biology, Me 857 

Alum solution, chlorinated, anti- 
septic value 779 

Aluminum — 

relation to soil acidity 126 

sulphate. Injury to barley 220 

^Vlunite as source of potash 128 

AmblyomnM di89im4le, studies 869 

American-^ 

Association for Advancement of 

Agricultural Teaching 398 

uigitizea Dy vjOOQIC 



1919] 



Iin)£X OF SUBJECTS. 



925 



American — ContliiiietL Pfti^ 
Association for . Agricultural 

Legislation 298,789 

Association of Agricultural En- 
gineers 600 

Association of Farmers* Insti- 
tute Workers 595 

Fkrm Economics Association 299 

Fsrm Management Association. 298 

Society of Agronomy 299 

Amino— 

acid content of nutrient media 201 

add, new. Isolation . 611 

adds, effect on uric acid me- 

taboUam 175 

adds, extraction 611 

adds in tissue as affected by 

protein feeding.. 562 

aldehyde, significance in inter- 
mediary metabolism 71 

nitrogen, determination in milk. 509 
Aaunonia — 

concentration in the tissues 662 

determination, apparatus for 700 

distillation, scrubber for 806 

extraction from soil 208 

in rainwater . .« 809 

oxidation 815 

physical and diemical data 607 

"superphosphate" of 127 

Aflunonlfication as affected by sul- 
phur 128 

Ammonium — 

magnesium phosphate from 

urine 820 

nitrate, fertilising value 022 

phosphate, effect on decomposi- 
tion of soy bean fodder 214 

sulphate — 

andhdrfllty, N.J 125 

efltet on decomposition of 

soy bean fodder 214 

effect on germination and 

growth of barley 218 

effect on growth of soy 

beans 30 

fertilising value 134. 824 

for lawn grasses 125 

for sugar cane 242. 533 

preparation 801 

production in Natal 127 

storage on the farm 25 

Amylases, studies 504.608 

Anaerobes, pathogenic — 

biochemistry 577 

cnltuie 677 

Anaphylactic shock, prevention 579 

Anaphylatozins, studies 579 

Anaphylaxis— 

hcnatie phenomena 880 

rdation to coagulation of blood. 380 

rOIe of enxyms in 579 

Aaanto U m eutel la, (See Peadi twig- 
moth.) 

Aa«M spp., notes 754 



Anoairepha fraiereultu — Fagti 

notes, P.R 56 

studies 757, 758 

Anatlds, new genus 254 

AnoyliB oompfofio. (See Strawberry 
leaf-roller.) 

Andrena, notes. 65 

AndropogoH sorghum — 

malting capadty .. 808 

seed position in planting 635 

Angoumols grain moth — 

on corn, U.8.D.A 861 

popular account, N.J 356 

Animal — 

breeding. {See Cattle. Sheep, 

etc.) 
diseases — 

control 778 

control on the farm 380,577 

in Baluchistan 284 

In California 778 

in Canada 284 

in Great Britain 676 

in India 183,284,380,676 

In Kansas 778 

in Louisiana 86 

in Maine 879 

in Massachusetts 183 

in Nebraska 880 

in North Carolina 880 

In Pennsylvania 188 

in South Dakota 188 

In Uruguay 188 

infectious, bacteria of 180, 284 

treatise 778 

(Bee also apeoifto diseases. ) 

genetics and eugenics, treatise. 274 

husbandry coorses, outlines 492,699 

Animala— 

destructlTe, control 254 

of District of Columbia 160 

of Yellowstone Park 860 

wild, of North America 646 

wild, restocking ranges 646 

(Bee also Mammals, Live stock, 
Cattle, Sheep, eio,) 

Anisandrvks dispar, remedies 647 

Anobium dotnesticum, notes 169 

Anomala beetle in Hawaii 854 

AnopA^lst— 

oruoiane, studies 552 

puneHpennie, relation to ma- 

Uria 168 

quadfimaoittatue, breeding in 

deep water 168 

quadfimaeulatus, breeding in 
rice fields and flight dis- 
tance 857, 868 

Anopheles — 

Egyptian, as malaria carriers— 262 

larve, bacillary parasite 662 

larve, winter hibernation 467 

Anophelines, malarial, studies 108 

Anoplocephala spp., notes 180 

Anteonine, studies 266 

Anthelmintic investigations.. 477,482.684 

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926 



EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 



[Vol. 40 



Anthelmintics, testing on earth- 
worms 187 

Antbocyanln, studies 819 

Anthonomus — 

ffrandU. (See Cotton-boll weevil.) 
pofMtrum, iMirasite of C5 

Anthrax — 

bacilli, agglutination 779 

bacilli, disinfection by cinchona 

alkaloids 478 

immnnity of fowls and pigeons — 186 
infection through wool and 

hair 783 

notes 80, 670. 778 

serum, review of literature 84 

symptomatic (See Blackleg.) 

treatment 582 

vaccination 582 

Anthrothripe dozieri n.sp., descrip- 
tion 353 

Antibodies — 

hemolytic, preparation and ac- 

tioii in vitro 380 

liberation on injection of for- 
eign protehi 180 

Antibody production, effect of ar- 
sphenamin and mercuric chlorid 
on 287 

Antigens — 

bacterial, dried 678 

bacterial, preparation 478 

tuberculous 481, 880, 887 

Antlneuritic vitamin. (See Vitamin.) 

Antipolyneuritic substances from 

carrots and yeast 174 

(See also Polyneuritis.) 

Antiscorbutic — 

factor, studies 209.272 

property of vegetables 172, 762 

Antiscorbutics. rOle in the diet 70 

(See aieo Scurvy.) 

Antiseptic — 

solution of crystal ylolet and 

brlUUnt green 285 

solutions, bleaching powder for. 414 
use of brilliant green for 581 

Antiseptics — 

mixtures of. action.. 581 

oil, germicidal power 882 

papers on 779 

(See also Chlorin antiseptics.) 

Antisera, specific, for Infections of 
unknown cause 078 

Antitoxic— 

rOle of oxhydridase 680 

sera, concentration 287,288 

sera, production 580 

substances, studies 179 

Ants— 

Argentine, Ala.College 655 

Argentine, natural enemies 65 

economic importance 647 

larvae, studies 553 

notes 259 

white. (See Termites.) 

ApanMe9 ^lomeroltts, oviposition.. 263 



P»0e. 

ApKaiara n.Bp., description 354 

ApKelopue dihranewri n.sp., studies. 265 

Aphidids— 

of Japan 262 

of Lahore — - 660 

Aphidinn of Japan, new.. 60 

Aphidolysin In plant lice 650 

Aphids— 

papers on 259 

wing development 456 

Aphie^ 

avefUB, notes 648 

bakeri, notes 650 

bakeri, studies, Idaho 854 

brossioiF. (See Cabbage aphis.) 

ehenopodU, new genus for 650 

eiroezandis, identity 754 

goetypii, synonym of 764 

pomi. (See Apple aphis.) 

rumicie on artichoke, U.S.D.A 68 

eorhi, notes 648 

earhi, studies. N.J 649 

Aphis — 

rosy, control, Ohio 754 

rosy, notes 648 

rosy, studies, N.J 649 

woolly 266, 647 

woolly, control, U.S.D.A 258 

woolly, studies. Ark 166 

Aphycue melanoetomatue, studies 661 

Apion hibieei, studies 754 

Aplanohaoter eteuHirti n.comb., stud- 
ies 846 

Ai^aratus — 

absorption 808 

automatic burette 606 

condensing^ 808, 709 

digestion 410 

Extraction . 806 

filtration 409 

for ammonia distillation 709, 806 

for ammonia oxidation 815 

for analysis of gases 111 

for determining nitrates and ni- 
trites 809 

for determining urea in blood 207 

for determining water in food 

materials 204 

for distributing Dakin's solu- 
tion 12 

for filling and inoculating agar 

plates 806 

for measuring leather 208 

for rapid evaporation 605 

for serum distribution 681 

for tubing culture media 12 

glass safety valve 709 

mechanical pipette 806 

nitrogen, all-glass 609, 806 

respiration, portable . 466 

special stopcock 202 

Apple— 

aphids, control ... 16S 

aphids, control, Mass . 549 

aphids, control, N.J 162, 649 

aphids, control, Ohio 754 



uigitizea Dy 



Google 



1919] 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



927 



Apple— ConttniMd. Pfti^ 

aphlds, notes . , 647 

apblB, remedies 161 

aphis, studies, N.J 649 

aphis, wooUy 647 

aphis, woolHy, control, U.8.D.A 258 

aphis, woolly, stodies. Ark..... 166 

b]a<* spot, notes 748, 749 

blossom weevil, parasite of . 65 

Mossom wilt, notes 850 

blotch, control, Okla 689 

hug, green, remedies... 854 

eapaids, studies .. 69, 60 

diseases in New York 249, 251 

diseases, notes ....... — . 68 

drop cansed by Ume-solphnr — . 57 

ilour, studies. Wash ...... 762 

ftuit spot disease, notes....... 844 

^lly, manufacture-...^ — . — ... 414 

juice, analyses.. ........ 764 

leaf-hoppers on potato — . .. 858 

. leaf jassid, description 261 

leaf scorch, notes . — ........ 844 

macKot, control....* .. 168, 654 

maggot, notes ..... 67, 169, 654 

mildew, treatment.......... 251, 849 

ordiards, soil management, lUL 742 

scahb notes ............. . 748 

scab treatment 841, 647 

scab, treatment, Can....*^.... 154 

scald, studies 849 

seeds, oil from — ............ 511 

ek^toniaer, notes 648 

tree borer, loond-lieadedy stod- 

654 



as aifected by positio n In 

ter, Mont 444 

breeding esperiments — . — ..-- 148 

breeding eiperlments, Iowa.. — 841 

breeding experiments, Minn,... 742 
bod formaUon as aifected by 

soil management — . .... 148 

culture experiments. Mo . 887 

culture experlmentB, U.&D.A 444 

culture in New Mexico, N JHex. 18 

cutinisation of Ains.... .. 246 

disease resistance. Ark .. 742 

dusting experiments 841 

dusting experiments, W.Va — .. 445 

Jfmpossoo unieolar on ... 57 

etherisation. Mo 887 

fertiliser experiments. ..... 149 

fertUixer experiments, Mo..... 887 

frnitfulness, factors in. Mo... 886 

girdling; Mo 887 

hardiness on dilferent stocks... 887 

household use • .... 178 

household nee, Ohio 178 

Industry in Viiginia, census... 149 

keeping quality.. , .,— . 246 

keeping quality, relation to soil 

moisture. Wash ..... — 741 

lead arsenate Injury, OUs 689 

Lepldoptera infesting, Md 756 

Mcintosh, drought li^jury 849 

pear blight on 848 



Apples— Cbntinued. Pagi. 

polllnaUon 148. 149. 638 

pollination. Wash 740 

pruning, Ohio 639 

pruning experiments, Mo.... 837 

pruning wounds. Mo ... 841 

spraying . 162, 887 

spraying with Bordeaux ... 746 

spraying with lime arsenate.. 164 

tree census in Washington . 840 

Tarieties for home orchard. Mo. 841 

varieties for Minnesota. . 148 

winter injury, Ind . 836 

winter injury in Minnesota... 887 
Apricot- 
brown rot, treatment 851 

buds, spray Injury 62 

rust, treatment 851 

thrips, new species 858 

Apricots- 
pruning experiments 446 

stocks for . ... 445 

tree census in Washington..... 840 

Arachin. hydrolysis ... 109 

Arachls oil. germicidal action 14 

Arauoaria araucana {imlricata) and 

its resins 615 

Arch4p9 cerasivorana, natural con- 
trol 62 

Areca palm diseases, notes 48,845 

Arenivaga. new species . 754 

Arffoa minUUus, notes . .. 267 

Argyroploce duplew, notes 466 

Aristonetta, a ^ood genus — .. — ... 161 
Arisona — 

Station, notes 98,297 

University, notes 98,297,495,695 

Arkansas — 

Station, report 796 

University and Station, notes 297 

ArmUlaria meilea on pear . 252 

ArmUlaria root rot, notes 748 

Army — 

rations 68, 862, 660, 664 

worm, fall 263 

worm, polyhedral virus 255 

Arrowroot, culture In Philippines 231 

Arsenates for oriental peach moth 

control, Md 756 

Arsenic-copper sprays, preparation.. 843 

Arsenlcals. root injury by, Mont 449 

(See aleo Oaldum arsenate and 
Lead arsenate.) 
Arsenlous oxid as standard in lodlm- 

etry 609 

Arsenobensol in giardiasis treatment. 884 
Aisphenamin, effect on complement 

and antibody production 287 

Arthritis, suppurative, treatment 181 

Artichoke — 

globe, insects affecting, U.8.D.A. 67 

Jerusalem, in France. ..... 85 

sclerotinia diseases 49 

Artichokes, culture and use 708 

AscariasLs, equine, treatment 586 

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928 



EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 



[Vol 40 



Ascarlds — Pa^s. 

of the dog. studies 186, 187 

toxic product, studies 84 

AsoarU lumbriooides, bloodnlestroy- 

log substance in 880 

Ash-leaf bug, notes, N.J 763 

Ashes — 

corncob, analyses 621 

utilisation in agriculture 120 

(Bee al80 Wood ashes.) 

Asiphonaphi8 jkruni n.g. and n.8p., 

description 856 

Askaron, studies 84 

Asparagu^^- 

culture 588 

growing in New Jersey, N.J — 638 

growth on add soil 324 

Rhizoctonla disease 747,844 

rust-resUtant strains, U.S.D.A.. 638 

Aspen — 

reproduction as affected by gras- 

Ing. U.S.D.A 448 

tortrlx, notes 466 

A9perQiau&^ 

nidulang In canned foods 764 

niffer, action of cine sulphate on. 222 

tUffer, inulase formation in 618 

orysKe, amylase of 504 

spp., proteolytlo activities — 721 

AspidiotM— 

hartU, notes 259 

n.sp. and n.subsp., descriptions. 865 
pemioio9U9. (See San Jos^ 
scale) 
Association of Southern Agricultural 

Workers 801 

Atmometer mounting, nonabsorbing. 715 
Atmosphere, meteorological ele- 
ments, as affected by wind 716 

(See also Air.) 

Atmospheric pollution, measurement. 209 

Atractotomua mdU, notes — . 00 

Auction marketing 489 

Augomonootenue UhooedrU n.g. and 

n.sp., description 761 

Autoclave for use In field labora- 
tories 848 

Autovacclnes In wound treatment 883 

Avocado tea, recipe 864 

Avocados — 

analyses — 70a 

culture experiments, Guam 330 

new variety 151 

of Mexico 246, 842 

oil of, chemical constants 803 

Ayres, B., biographical sketch 199 

Azalea lace bug, notes, N.J 753 

Azotobacter — 

as affected by carbon dlsulphld 

and toluol 618 

In limed cranberry soils 214 

soil inoculation with 832 

soil inoculation with, Iowa 617 

symbiotic relation with algiB 180 

Baheeia hofHe in Netherlands 687. 

Baby beef. (See Cattle, baby beef.) 



Pagfc. 

Bacilli, pathogenic, dlBinfeettoii by 

cinchona alkaloids 478 

BaeOiue — 

abofiuM and related bacteria, 

studies 184 

ebortue hovimme, pathogenicity- 888 

ohiHrtue, cultivation 870 

amylavorue, note* 63,251, 848 

amwUwerue, stndtoa. Wash. 746 

atroeepHeue, notes 844 

mHeeptie^, studies 882 

avieepticue, studies, R.I 686 

Mpolarie eepUeue, U.8.D.A 188 

hoUMnut, effect of beat on 658 

hotuUttue, studies 176 

capsiei n.sp., studies 157 

earotovorue, notes 844 

olo4io0 on green vegetables 668 

ooH as affected by acids 881 

eoU eommufUe In swine 784 

eoli, freesing 181 

eoU on green vegetables 668 

ffollinarum, studies, R.I 685 

HpolytUme, studies 184 

n.spp. on orchids, descriptions 159 

neoropherue in swine 784 

emtUvorue, notes 844 

pwratyphoeue B in swine 784 

phytophtharue, notes 847 

ponoei n.form, description 164 

pyocyimeue in swine 784 

•uipeet^er, notes 788 

tf/phosue, culture media for 677 

typhoeue, destmctioB In sour 

milk 476 

typhoeiu vaccines, studies 286 

vieco9u9^an4», studies 860 

Bacillua— 

Brldr4-Sivorl, affecting pigs 688 

de Loutras, studies ^ 652 

Reading, In wounds... 679 

Bacteria — 

action on of blood from diifer- 

ent species 286 

as affected by freezing 180 

classification and nomenclature. 621 
colon-typhoid, affcjcting birds, 

R.I 685 

hemorrhagic septicemia group, 

R.I 685 

in mUk, sou, etc (See Milk, 
Soil, etc 

Intestinal, reUtlon to diet 867 

of infectious diseases 180, 284 

on green vegetables — .., 668 

Bacteria] — 

antigens, dried 678 

antigens, preparati<H] 478 

cultures, mass, on solid media 805 

cultures, system of notes 881 

species, recognition 288 

Bacteriologie culture media. (See 
Culture media.) 

Bacteriology — 

applied, treatise 677 

of canned foods 764 



Digitized by 



Google 



1919] 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



929 



•m4fmimimm n-sp., deacriptlon — 849 
iMti* «to0M»»> occomnce In 

■oO 214 

■fOoMat, proteolytle actlTlty.. 721 
n. ipii. on orchids, descrip- 

IBfll 

Okla 688 

Waflmwm Infections, R.I 686 

pwUormm, Btodles 882 

•Uwarti, studies 846 

tmw^efaeient, notes 158, 761 

; kOoHa In Soutli Africa 648 

control by iMirasites 866 

Btin, S. IL, biographical sketch 200 

Bakm, mannal and record book for. 863 

l^iHfig — 

industry 460 

powders, examination 412, 

508. 658, 712 

BtiamimuM spp., notes 269 

Balsa wood surrey In Central Amer- 
ica 642 

BaiBboos, Philippine 746 

Banana — 

borer, investigations 266,463 

eehronn disease, notes 760 

floor, notes . 863 

meal* analyses - 178 

Rawanas 

coltDve experiments, Guam 830 

culture, notes- 868 

tnsacts affecting 463 

aotritlTe Taloe 67 

Bartgea water, sulphur In 779 

BarMisf sroMMTV, notes, N^ 764 

Barium— 

eCact on plant growth 819 

effect on wheat 616 

Bark beetka, Canadian 662 

Bariey— 

and oats, comparatlye growth 

in nutrient solutions 184 

and oats, comparatiTo yields — 136 
and oats, comparative yields, 

Iowa 328 

as affected by aluminum 126 

as affected by cyanamld and 

dleranodlamld 724 

Asplund variety 626 

breeding 528 

breeding experiments 233, 524 

breeding experiments, Colo 624 

chop, analyses, Tex 671 

eontlnuons culture . 824 

culture experiments. Can 736 

culture experiments, Mich 781 

culture experiments, Minn 734 

culture experiments in Canada- 228 
culture experiments in India — 332, 
623,826 
culture experiments In Queens- 
land 230 

culture experiments In Rhodesia. 826 

enltnre In Indiana, Ind .. 736 

culture In New Mexico, NJIex. 18 



Barley— Continued. Page, 
culture In North Dakota, U.S. 

D.A 786 

culture on moor soils 623 

decomposition In soil 214 

effect on milk secretion, Cal 878 

estimation of acidity in 611 

feed, analyses. Mass 671 

feed and screenings, analyses, 

Mich 671 

feed, description, Mich 72 

feeding value, n.S.D.A 72 

feeding value. Wash 771 

fertiliser experiments 615, 

623, 621, 824, 826 

fertiliser experiments, Minn 738 

fields, weed control in 686 

flour for bread making 67, 

360. 666, 667 

flour, recipes 67 

Oeo<ca avMHiMwa on, Ind 762 

germination and growth as af- 
fected by ammonium sul- 
phate 218 

germination at different dates 

after thrashing, Mont 443 

growing with legumes.. 822 

growth as affected by calcium 

oxld 124 

growth on add son 324 

humin nitrogen content 610 

hybrid, mosaic-like splitting in. 826 
Integumentary system in rela- 
tion to permeability 619 

lime and marl for 822 

liming experiments 134 

meal, analyses, Mass 671 

measure of ensymic strength 612 

Michigan Winter 288 

milling experiments 666 

pedigreed, In Wisconsin 624 

phonological observations 811 

plant, relation to reaction of nu- 
trient solution 824 

plat tests, technique 227 

relative yielding capacity 626 

rotation experiments, Minn 733 

rotation experiments, t7.S.D.A.. 881 

secondary rootiets 82 

seed, resistance to desiccation — 89 

seeding depths, Utah 227 

seeding experiments 228 

selection experiments 233 

smut, treatment 156,346 

soli moisture removal by, Mont- 430 

statistical notes 626 

substitute in malting opera- 
tions 808 

V, spring wheat. III 448 

varieties in Argentina 234,626 

variety tests 228, 

280, 238, 882, 628. 626, 826 

variety tests, Ala. College 728 

variety tests, Ind 736 

variety tests, Mich 731 

variety tests, Minn 731, 782, 733 

variety tests, Okia 82 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



930 



EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 



CVoL40 



Barley— €oDtiniied. Pa^re. 
variety testa, U.S.D.A— - 31. 332, 431 

variety testa, Wash 730, 781 

xenla In 826 

yields, Minn 735 

Barns, round. 111 90 

Barnyard manure. (See Manure.) 
Basic slag. (See Phosphatlc slag.) 

Batocera rubra, notes G55 

Batraohedra rOeya, notes 453 

Bats of California 853 

Bay trees, culture experiments, Guam. 889 
Bean — 

anthracnose, resistant strains 648 

aphis on artichoke, U.S.D.A 68 

diseases In Vermont 50 

diseases, notes, P.R 47 

fly, Philippine, studies 457 

leaf-beetle, effect on cowpeas 860 

maggot in Chile 648 

plant, relation to reaction of nu- 
trient solution 324 

pods, indiylduality as compared 

with that of the plant 81 

rust, control, Va 845 

sclerotlnia diseases 49 

slug, notes, P.R 56 

weevil, studios 553 

weevils, U.S.D.A 64 

weevils, notes 50, 266, 861 

weevils, remedies 558 

Beans — 

adsuU, studies 181 

breeding experiments 524 

breeding experiments, Minn 740 

color inheritance In, Mass 536 

cull, for fattening steers, Mich. 768 

culture and use in Trinidad 763 

culture in New Mexico. N. Mex. 18 

effect on intestinal flora 867 

fertilizer experiments 134 

field, Utah 485 

field tests in Montserrat 228 

fodder, of India 231 

from various countries, analyses. 557 

growth on acid soil 324 

haricot, field tesU in Fiji 231 

liming experiments 184 

membradd attacking, Ind 753 

milling experiments 556 

mungo. (See Mungo beans.) 
native, substitutes for in food 

of French Army 557 

seed treatment 443 

soaking seed , 727 

string, response to carbon dioxid. 820 

use in bread making 66 

varieties for Texas, Tex 729 

varieties tolerant to salt 435 

variety tests, U.S.D.A 431 

variety tests, Wash 730 

velvet. (Bee Velvet beans.) 

white wax, seeding depths, Utah. 227 
Bear — 

clover, effect on forest reproduc- 
tion 842 

grass as feeding stuff, U.S.D.A- 277 



Bedbugs— 

destmctloii by 

relation to influenza 

Bedding plants, propagation 

Bee — 

genus Andrena, notes 

moth, fumigation, Tex 

moth, parasite, studies 

pastures, tests, Okla 

Beef, ratio of bone to meat 

(See aleo CatUe.) 

Beehive, Nicolson observatory 

Beehives, heat insulators, Mich 

Beekeeping — 

experiments. Can 

for West Virginia 

handbooks 

in British Guiana 

in Florida 

in Maine 

in Ontario 

in war time 

Beer, home mannfacture 

Bees — 

eyeless drone 

foul brood in South Africa 

Isle of Wight disease 

muscular coat of ventriculns 

pollinating alfalfa 

pollinating alfalfa, Can 

pollinating cotton—'..' ' 

Queen, mating 

Queen, rearing 

Queen, rearing, P.R 

rtle In pollination 63{ 

segmentation of abdomen 

shipment. Can 

wintering 

wintering. Can 

wintering, U.S.D.A 

Beet- 
pulp, dried, analyses, Ind 

pulp, dried, analyses. Mass 

pulp, dried, analyses. Mich 

pulp, dried, analyses, "SJ 

pulp, dried, analyses, Tex 

root gummosls, notes 

Beetle larva, fumigation 

Beetles — 

hydrophilid, new 

treatise 

Beets — 

effect on following crop, R.I 

field or fodder. (See Mangels.) 

liming experiments 

muck and lime for 

relative yielding capacity 

sugar. (See Sugar beets.) 

BeUuearie mmrginaia, studies 

Belgian League of Family Education. 

Belladonna root disease 

Belle Fonrche project In 1917, 

U.S.D.A 

Bembldnl, revision 

Benzyl alcohol, antiseptic value 

Beriberi- 
notes 

studies 278, 868, 565, 662, 



Pace. 
456 
648 
247 



755 
S59 

665 

264 
64 

766 
170 
264 
858 
858 
264 
264 
858 
116 

759 
648 

66 
760 
264 
760 
458 
666 
264 

65 
^656 
170 
760 
547 
760 

64 

72 
571 
571 
666 
571 
844 
266 

266 
562 

624 

184 
134 
626 

186 
690 
844 

891 
264 
884 

665 
868 



uigitizea Dy ' 



j^vy 



1919] 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



931 



breedlair experiments, Okla. 

kay* nliiexal coostitnenta, dl- 

WtmOJamtf, Tex 

psatnre experiments, OUa 

seed, sulphuric add treatment 



624 

769 

82 

284 



and Tinegan, liomemade « — 116 

bottled, sosar aalwtitBtea In 68 

Bkriagl, descrlptloB. and ealtine 281 

BIbllosimplilcal nedlnma, adeatiflc, 

as affected by the war 804 

RIKtUyn ph y of— 

asricaltmral statistics B94 

ammonlnm sulphate 221 

Anteonlae 266 

anthrax serum 84 

ants 647 

Aaotobacter, Iowa 619 

bats of OalUomla 868 

birds, game^ of Calif or nln 646 

Boprestls ■»— .— — ... 266 

Chermeidds 262 

dcarette beeUe. U.8.D.A 769 

eolor In rdatlon to chemical con- 

Btitatlon S06 

eonlfer msts 646 

cotton bollworm, pink 867 

Cntlte 767 

Add experiments, standnrdiza- 

tkm 828 

food economy 669 

foods, dehydrated 864 

gills, insect..^ 664 

grape carcnlio, U.S.D.A 267 

gronnd water 785 

insect wings 862 

, aodal habit 668 

416 

larch insects 468 

Lnmbridds 267 

Ifaasachnsetts College 696 

■Ok, dried 879 

nataral history of District of 

Colombia 160 

Ophidia, wonnds and diseases — 66 

PMitosans, determination 114 

physiology. .^..^ 869 

Phtpla jNHRoni8»— . 66 

plant diseases • 47 

potash from blast furnaces and 

cement works.* 128 

potash, production in 1917 726 

protoooa, intestinal.. 187 

railroads, agricultural develop- 
ment work.. 488 

rats 646 

rural chnrcbt community serv- 
ice 890 

BuiHation -. 694 

silage, methods of treatment — 116 

soQ aldehydes 22 

soils, sugar inverting activity — 124 

Btrepslptera 266 

streptococci 184, 881 

167 



Blbliograpby of— Continued. Page. 

Taphrina eommunia and T, 

pruni, Mont . 462 

Tfaysanoptera of Florida 358 

transportation of periahable 

products.. 489 

Tropics, magasine articles on 687 

vocational education 196 

weed growth . 882 

wheat, Russian 535 

Bicarbonates — 

determination 112 

determination in hypocblorlte 

solutions 309 

Bile, food accessories in 271 

Billbugs, control, U.S.D.A 656 

BiocoUoids. {See Colloidal mix- 
tures.) 

Biological survey of Wasbiogton, 

"Wjash 763 

Biomyia eteodUfora n.sp., descrip- 
tion .... 653 

Birch- 
borer, hronse, on white birch.. 552 

case-bearer, notes 651 

gray, relation to white pine re- 
generation 842 

leaf-hopper, yellow, notes 57 

Bird enemies of white grubs 647 

Birds- 
destructive, control 254 

game, of California 646 

injurious In Norfolk and Ox- 
fordshire 256 

maggot-infested 861 

migration 254, 646 

nestling, parasitism by fly 

larvro 647 

nomenclature 350, 646 

observed near Mlnco, Oklahoma. 646 

of Australia, food habits 851 

of British Guiana Botanic Oar- 
dens 163 

of Connecticut, notes 851 

of Forrester Island, notes 861 

of Massachusetts, notes 647 

of North America, notes 851 

reproduction in, physiology 664 

secondary sexual characters 871 

survey at Washington, D.C 646 

useful, of Minnesota 254 

useful, textbook and guide 266 

winter, handbook. . 254 

Black medic- 
culture experiments 136 

liming exi>eriments 322 

variety tests 282 

Blackberries- 
breeding and testing in Minne- 
sota 148 

breeding experiments, Minn 742 

breeding experiments. Wash 740 

training. Wash . 748 

utilisation 268 

Blackberry — 

diseases, notes... ....... 168 

uigitizea Dy vjiOOQlC 



932 



EXPERIMENT STATION BEGOBD. 



tVoL 40 



Blackberry — C6ntiniied. Page. 

root borer, giant, notes 158 

rust, notes 68 

Blackhead flreworm» studies. Wash. 768 

BUckleaf 40, tests 161 

Blacklegs 

and Its treatment, Cal 84 

notes 86, 778 

toxin, studies 884 

yaccine, standardisation 881 

Blast furnaces, by-product potash — 128 

Blastophaga In California 264 

BUutothriw Ifitanntca, studios 651 

Bleaching powder — 

for use in hot countries 418 

stabilisation 801 

Bli8au8 leucopterua Say. {See 

Chinch-buff.) 
Blood— 

agar for streptococci 881 

bactericidal action 286 

catalase» studies 364, 865, 766 

cholesterol, determination. 16 

cholesterol, studies 767 

circulation, influence of iodin 

and sodium iodld on 274 

creatin and creatinin in 274, 765 

determination of phosphoric 

acid in 16 

determination of potassium in — 116 

determination of urea in 207 

determination of uric acid in.. 16 
distribution of phosphoric acid 

in 176 

dried, availability, NJT 125 

fermented, use in bread making. 461 

meal, analyses, Ind 72 

plasma chlorids, determination. 714 
serum, determination of non- 
protein nitrogen in 810 

sugar, determination — .. 116, 810, 718 
Blue grass — 

billbug, control, U.S.D.A 655 

culture in Kansas, Kans 830 

fertilizer experiments. Pa 728 

pasture for lambs, Nebr 669 

seed, resistance to desiccation 40 

yields, Minn 788 

Blue lettuce, eradication, Mont 430 

Blueberry flea-beetle, studies, Me 867 

Body weight and length, rdatlon 872 

Bog waters, efPect on plants and bio- 
colloids 620 

Boll weeylL ( See Cotton-boll weevlL) 
Bollworm. (See Cotton boll worm.) 

Bolly refuse, feeding value, Okla 866 

Bomhu9 aurioomut, life history 170 

Bombus, nesting habits 665 

Bomhycilla gatrula, synopsis of races. 851 
Bomltyo mwri, (See Silkworms.) 
Bone — 

ash, feeding value, E^ans 371 

ground, for pig feeding. Ark 772 

meal, analyses. Mass 671 

meal, steamed, fertilising value. 

Mo 218 



Books on- 
agricultural cooperation in Den- 



Pas«. 



689 



agricultural development policy 

of British Empire 886 

agriculture 897 

agriculture, elementary 795 

agriculture in Belgian Kongo. 890, 892 

agriculture In Berkshire 590 

agriculture In Cuba 194 

agriculture in France 690 

agriculture In French colonies.- 690 
agriculture In Great Britain.. 689, 790 

agriculture In India 828 

agriculture in Morocco 791 

agriculture, substances impor- 
tant in 801 

agriculture, tropical 622 

alfftlfa culture 626 

animal diseases 778 

animals, wild, of North America. 646 

apples, household use 178 

bacteriology, applied 677 

beekeeping 264, 858 

beettes 652 

birds 264, 255 

birds, game, of California 646 

botany, hi^-school 898 

butter 288 

cassava 485 

castor on plant 234 

cheese making 288 

chemical German 709 

chemical industry, electrolysis 

in 109 

chemistry .. 10, 109, 308, 408, 709, 801 

children, care and feeding 660 

chrysanthemums 640 

cloth making 899 

coconut culture 247 

color in relation to chemical 

constitution 605 

cooking 698,899 

cooking, Chinese 660 

cost of living 173 

cotton bollworm, pink 866 

country homes 486 

dairy farming 690 

diet 68, 661, 669, 866, 866 

dietaries for Institutions 866 

domestie science 899 

dry farming 823 

farm science 296 

farmers, organisation 193 

farming 96, 193, 689, 690 

farming costs, determination — 192 

fertnisen 421 

fibers 838. 436 

field crops 622 

flax, culture and preparation.. 827 

food conservation 669 

food preservation 808 

food statistics 766 

food supply of Germany 661 

foods 178, 861, 469, 669, 796 

foods, wild, of Great Britain — 360 
forestry .. 161 



Digitized by 



Google 



1919] 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



933 



Books €D— Continned. Pafe. 

fowls, anatomy 483 

fnr-bearins animals 646 

Sarden Insects 649 

CUdenlng-. 245, 340. 444, 636, 688, 640 

genetics and easenlcs 274 

cenetics, laboratory course 693 

grain production in Switxer- 

land 526 

grasses, British 625 

growth and form - — 666 

Goemsey cattle 179 

heather burning for grouse and 

sheep 667 

home economics 296 

hortlcnlture, elementary 795 

household accounting 659 

household chemistry 493 

household finance 796 

household thrift 96 

hygiene 694. 866, 899 

Infant feeding ' 560 

insecU 255, 351. 647, 795 

lactose, industrial manufacture 415 

Lamclllcomia of British India. 63 

land ralues in France 892 

little towns 892 

ttre-stock management 176. 177 

mathematics, agricultural 796 

meat inspection 677 

medicine 577 

milk, condensed, and milk pow- 
der 283 

milk, examination 376 

milling and baking 863 

nature study 898 

nutrition 554 

nutritional physiology 463 

oils, Cats, and waxes 804 

osmotic pressure 801 

patent and proprietary medi- 

dnea 182 

pathological technique 676 

peach growing 149 

pig dubs 96 

pig diseases 88,783 

plant diseases 47 

plant exploitation ^ 524 

plant genetics 817 

poUlnatlon by Insects 665 

potato culture .- 36, 439, 828 

poultry 177, 280, 693 

laU 546 

remedies, new and nonofficial — 284 

roses 342 

Bothamsted experiments 514 

robber 46 

raial chnrch 390, 486 

rural credit 892 

nnal life 292, 485, 687, 889 

nml reconstruction In Ireland. 91 

sdiool gardening . 296 

seaside planting 447 

small-holdings system 880 

sidl management .. 396 

soy bean casein 415 

stoab ciatare 280 



Books on— Continued. Fa^e. 

sugar beet seed 441 

sugar cane, botany of 632 

sugar situation 638 

tobacco 442 

tree diseases 63 

vertebrates, comparative anat- 
omy 777 

vocational education 196 

wasps - - 563 

waste products, utilisation 415 

water supplies, rural ? 786 

wheat, flour, and brcSad, prices. 792 

wheat, Russian 831 

wheat, world's supply 244 

wool industry 876 

wounds of animals 84 

Borax in fertilisers, effect on corn 322 

Bordeaux mixture — 

calculating values, U.S.D.A. 45 

fungicidal value 747 

neutral and alkaline 252 

preparation 746, 748, 801 

spraying celery with, Can 155 

use 748, 750 

Bordorite mixture, fungicidal value. 747 

Doswcllia serrata, gum-oleo-resin 248 

Botanical activity in District of 

Columbia 726 

Botany — 

American, unification 817 

textbook 898 

Botflies — 

paper on 259 

studies 458. 858 

BotrptU — 

cinerea, notes 347, 847 

oincrea on peony 844 

sp. on geranium 249 

Botulism — 

in relation to canning methods. 558 

studies 176 

Bouillon, bacteriological, new 180 

Bouillons, bacteriological, analyses — 810 

Boxwood leaf-miner, notes N.J 754 

Boys — 

high-school, in agriculture 698 

in a farm labor camp 96 

metaboUsm of 868 

Boys* — 

clubs in Canada 396 

Working Reserve In New York.. 591 
Broohyunffuia n.g. and n^spp.. descrip- 
tions 650 

Bracken fern as source of potash — 321 

Braconid», British, notes 862 

Braconids, cocoon-spinning habits — 761 

Bran, manurial value, Ohio 127 

Brans, analyses. Can 768 

(See also Com, Wheat, Rye. etc) 

Btassica of Japan, key 626 

Bread — 

aleurone cells In. digestion 267 

and the baking industry 460 

barley, reaction and salt effect.. 67 

dechlorinated 461 

digestibility 460 

uigiiizea Dy vjjOOQIC 



934 



EXPERIMEKT STATION BECOBD. 



[▼0I.M 



aes 



828 

867 



Bread — Oontiiraed. Patfk 

effect on intestinal flora 807 

from different flours, digestibil- 
ity 860, 556, 657 

from sweet potatoes, Ala.Tnske- 

gee 267 

making — 

Ohio 172 

direct ntilization of nn- 

miUed wheat for 460 

physical chemistry 171 

use of calcium carbonate in 461 

use of calcium giucosates in 460 
use of fermented blood and 

Tiscera In 461 

use of Umewater in — 66, 267, 461 

use of potatoes in 566 

nse of rye and barley in — 556 
nse of substitute flours In 860, 657 

measurement of acidity 66, 115 

ropy 66, 172, 860, 566. 868 

situation In Switzerland 625 

three centuries of prices 792 

(See also Flour.) 
Breakfast, small, effect on heat pro- 
duction 

Breeding — 

cross, and inbreeding, studies, 

Conn.State 

experiments with grasshoppers- 
experiments with rats 468 

{See aiso Animal breeding and 
Plant breeding.) 

Brevicorvne ItraasUxs, hemolysin in.. 650 

Brevlcoryne n.g., erection 650 

Brevipalpue ohovatua, on tea 656 

Brewers* grains — 

analyses, Ind 72 

analyses, Mass 571 

analyses, Mich 571 

dried, analyses. Me 470 

dried, analyses, N.J 665 

Brick pavements in Middle West, 

U.S.D.ii 888 

Bridge building as affected by the 

war, V.BJ>,A 90 

Bridges, concrete slab, design, 

U.S.D.A 189 

Brilliant green as an antiseptic— 286, 581 

Brisket disease, studies 482 

Bromacetophenone as a reagent. Ark. 18 
Brome grass — 

continuous culture, Mont 419 

field, culture experiments 186 

field, variety tests 282 

soil moisture removal by, Mont- 480 
Bromue — 

erectue, fungus parasites 156 

inermU, yields, Minn 786 

Bronthispa froggattU, notes 260 

Broom com — 

culture in New Mexico, N.Mex 18 

yields of stover. Wash 781 

Brown-tail moth — 

control by starlings -_ 647 

parasites in Canada 57 

Bruchee hibieoi, studies 764 



Bmchlde — T9WL 

In Hawmiian Islands 206 

in South Africa 861 

Bruehaphoffua /Wfli«5rCa. (8ee Clover 
seed chaldd fly.) 

Bruehue — 

ehineneie. (Bee Gowpea weevfL) 
ohteetus, {Bee Bean-weevil.) 
ptoofiMi. (See Pea-weeviL) 
qwidrimaeuULiue, notes 170 

BnfephtfUum oaHyMnum, regeneration 224 

Buckeye, red, toxicity, Ala.CoIIege.. 778 

Buckwheat — 

as affected by preceding crop, 

B.I 628 

as green manure 229 

as green manure, Minn 784 

bran, analyses, Mich 571 

culture experiments 825 

culture experiments. Can 736 

decomposition in soil 214 

effect on following crop, BJ 628 

feed, middlings, and oflai, an- 
alyses N.J 666 

hulls, analyses, Ind 72 

ndlling experiments 556 

rotation experiments 229 

young and mature^ salt require- 
ments 426 

Bud- 
mite, remedies 266 

moth, eye-spotted, notes^ Md 756 

Buddleia, notes 844 

Buffalo— 

grass hay, mineral constituents, 

digestlbiUty. Tex 769 

tree-hopper, notes, Kans 840 

Bull associations, cooperative, U.S. 

D.A 79 

Buprestis in North America 206 

Bureau of — 

Animal Industry as a war anx- 

Ulary 6n 

Chemistry, color laboratory — 16 
Plant Industry, forest pathol- 
ogy laboratory 600 

Plant Industry, reclamation 

project farms 498, 494 

Burette, automatic, description 606 

Burgundy mixture — 

combining with soap 746 

fungicidal value 747 

preparation 262 

use — 760 

Bums-— 

dressing for 883 

treatment by paraflln 780 

Butter — 

brands. State and National 476 

dairy and creamery, water con- 
tent. Me 461 

educational scoring. Conn. 

Storrs 673 

fat. (Bee Milk fat.) 

legal limits 476 

manufacture 79, 416 

manufacture, Okla . 81 



Digitized by 



Google 



ISi9] 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



935 



Bvttcf^-CoBtUiiKd. 

owtlfeodi of aaaljrtB Sll 

textbook 2S3 

BottciBlIk — 

checR, murafactnre, Obto S79 

ft o cdom from typbold bacilli 476 

■OBufiictiire and nae, Iowa. 379 

ptvrldsv, Jodglnsr S07 

tntlBs for fkt, Minn 878 

notes 265 

apbU, bemoljstn in 6G0 

aphis, new generic name 660 

a* affected by sterHixatlon of 

soil 619 

Mack rot, notes 844 

Mack rot. notes, P.B 47 

Mackiec disease, studies 846 

botterQj, stndleSi..^ — . . — 606 

diibroot, studies 60 

^Bect on following crop, RJ 623 

hardening by cxposore to cold.. 26 

variety tests. Pa 638 

yeliowsk studies 106 

Ckcto^ 

abnormal growths 240 

algsl disease, notes 801 

and woodpeckers .^ 204 

cereopid peat - 860 

cnltorei 108 

culture cfqwrimenta, Qoam 339 

diseases and pests in Ecuador— 158 

diseases, notes 150,202 

sheU, estimation 612 

thrips, notes 856 

yield data, P.R 43 

CsoBOia cos/lirfaiMi, notes 456 

tus— 
caztMhydrate metabolism — 29,30,223 

fruits, analyses ' 763 

rate and coarse of gtowtb 30 

{Bee sito Opontla.) 

I sQlphate, antiseptic Taluc- 779 
CsMM kUeretiHaU and Puceinia 

feefelsss, reUtion 155 

Otfeterias, handbook 060 

Gtfein— 

determination in coffee 110 

isomer of 202 

Gilsdlum, culture experiments 434 

C Ws sdrs orrss. (See Rlce-weeyll.) 

Ctiaieras Dam slide 188 

Gileareoos marl, use in agriculture. 816 

Cddte, fertilising Talue 810 

^Irinm 

arsenate, insecticidal ralue 164 

arsenate, preparation, T7.B.D.A- 10 

cublde, fungicidal value 750 

culwnate, chemical effects on 

soQ 124 

ctriMoate, effect on nitriflcation . 723 

csrbosAte, effect on soil molds. 123 
cjaaamid, effect on decomposi> 

tloii of soy bean fodder 214 

cyanamid, spoiled, effect on oats. 810 

defidency, efliect on oat plant.. 324 



Calcium— 0>ntinDed. Ps0k 

hypochlorite, effect on glanders 

bacUlus 478 

in nutrition of plants, animals, 

and man 767 

metabolism of women 174 

of cow's milk, effects in infant 

feeding 661, 869 

oxid, chemical effects on soils 124 

ozid, conversion in soil 622 

oxid, influence on physical char- 
acter of soils 622 

oxid treatment of wheat 337 

oxid V, calcium carbonate 610 

phosphates, solubility and as- 

simiUbility 128 

salts, influence on nibric-nitro- 

gen accumulation 722 

salts, rOle in nutrition 273 

sulphate. (Bee Gypsum.) 

sulpbid, soil treatment with 619 

translocation in soils, N.T.Coi^ 

nell 719 

(Bee aleo Lime.) 
Calf meals, analyses — 

Mass 671 

Ificb 071 

N.J 660 

California— 

Station, notes 490, 690, 798 

SUtion, publications 099 

Station, report . 099 

University, agricultural educa- 
tion at, Cal 599 

University, notes 400, 600, 690, 798 

University, School of Tropical 

Agriculture 294 

Caliper, chest contour, N.H 277 

Calipers for measuring cattle 872 

OaMophya nigripennie, life history. 754 

Calorimetry, dinical 868 

Calves — 

feeding experiments, Kans 369 

milk as sole diet, Iowa 767 

newborn, infection of 887 

wintering, Mont 472 

Camphor — 

analyses, N. Dak . 009 

trees, culture experiments, Guam 839 

Canada Experiment Farms, report.. 797 

Canadian Phytopathological Society. 699 
Canal — 

banks, blanketing 188 

measurement 188 

Canals, algs control in.. 188 

Canary grass on bog and moss soils. 212 

Canavalin, studies 308 

Cankerworm — 

fall, notes 07 

spring, notes 263,402 

Canned — 

foods, bacteriology 764 

foods, production and distribu- 
tion 461 

foods, vitamin content 060 

fruit, " springing " of tins 208 



Digitized by 



Google 



936 



EXPERIMENT STATION REOORD. 



[▼0L4C 



Canned — Oontlniied. Pa^B. 
vegetables, analyses and water 

content 864 

Canning — 

and drying 18,67 

metboda In relation to B. totu- 

mu8 568 

papers on - 864 

ntUity of blanching In 313 

Cannonading as a protection against 

haU 118 

Cantaloups. (Bee Muskmelons.) 

CapiUaria strumoBa, notes .. 587 

Carbide waste, fertilislttg value 726 

Carbohydrates—; 

effect on nntritlTe value of pro- 
teins 562 

effects on intestinal flora 867 

Isodynamic substitution of fats 

for 663 

relation to protein synthesis — 562 
Carbon — 

bisulphid as a fumlgant, Cal — 350 
bisulpbid, combination products 505 
bisulphid, effect on soil organ- 
Isms 518 

bisulphid, insecticidal value 162 

bisulphid, soil treatment with.. 619 

determination 206, 308 

dloxid, analysis, apparatus for. Ill 
dioxid as affecting root growth 80, 820 
dioxid, determination in baking 

powders 412, 608 

dioxid, determination in carbo- 
nates 113 

dioxid treatment of soils, Ind.. 739 

monoxid, analysis, apparatus for 111 
organic, direct assimilation by 

Ceratodon purpureus -« — 325 

tetrachlorid as deiousing agent. 651 
Carbonate, determination in hypo- 
chlorite solutions 309 

Carbonates, mixture of, analysis — 112 
Carburetors, adaptation to low vola- 
tile fuels 191 

Carcinoma, treatment 767 

Carnations, fertilizer experiments, 

Md 741 

Carpenter worm on pear 858 

Carpocapea — 

pomofielki. (Bee Codling moth.) 

tplendana, notes 854 

OarpophU»9 hemipteruB, notes 853 

Carrots — 

antipolyneurltlc substances 

from 174 

culture experiments 625 

culture experiments, Can 735 

culture in South Dakota, S.Dak. 32 

culture on moor soils 623 

effect on following crop, R.I 624 

Influence on toxicity of sodium 

tartrate 286 

liming experiments 134 

raw and boiled, nutritive value. 267 

relative yielding capacity 625 



Carrota— <3DiitlniBed. Pace. 

sclerotinia diseases . 49 

stock, yields, Minn 734 

Carvacrol, manufacture 110 

Carya of North America 248 

OarifoboruB ffonagrd in Hawaiian 

Islands 266 

Casaurina trees, borer Injury 860 

Casein — 

nutritive value 468, 464 

solubility In dUute salt solu- 

aons 710 

studies 802 

Caselnogen, separation of hydrolysis 

products 611 

Cassava — 

culture and use 763 

culture experiments 231,484 

culture in Philippines 231 

fertiliser experiments 626 

handbook 435 

red mite of 606 

variety tests 622 

Cassia oil, constituents 202 

Castor — 

beans, breeding experiments 485 

beans in northern Africa 284, 334 

beans In Rhodesia 626 

beans, Insects affecting 453,640 

beans of Indo-China, analyses 627 

beans, production and exploita- 
tion 334 

oil plant, treatise 234 

oil, production in United Statea, 

U.8.D.A 614 

Castration in birds 871 

Catalase— 

activity of tissues in avian poly- 
neuritis 563 

of blood as affected by acetone 

and certain acids 766 

of blood as affected by alcohol 364 

of blood as afflicted by food in- 

gesUon 364, 366» 766 

production, action of vitamin 

on 503 

Caterpillars — 

surface-feeding, locomotions « 362 

{Bee aleo Tent caterpillar and 
Zebra caterpillar.) 

Catoehrpaope pandava^ notes....^.. 260 

Cats, color inheritance in . ... 870 

Cat's milk, composition ...... 776 

Cattle- 
baby beef, production, Iowa.... 867 

baby beef, production, N.Mex 74 

beef, growth on limited ration. 

Mo 667 

beef, raising in the West . 177 

beef, ratio of bone to meat 555 

beef, wintering, Mont.. .. 472 

birth weights. Me 873 

breeding, community.. ...... 800 

breeding, diseases of.......... 778 

breeding experimenta.....— . 877 

breeding experiments, M6 ., , , » 873 

breeding records, Me....,,— „ 678 

uigiiizea Dy vjiOOQlC 



1919] 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



937 



GatUe— CSoBtlniiBd. Page. 

caUpera 872 

color inlieritaiiee in . 870 

dairy and beef, croae-breeding 78 

dairy and beef, for baby beef 

production, N.Mex . 74 

dl ac a aca of digestlye organs .. 86 

feeding experiments, Iowa 809 

feeding experiments, Kans 889 

Inheritance of characters, Me 807 

lalMritanee of characters In 

dairy and beef crosses 78 

Japanese, craniometry 276 

judging for selecting dairy cows. 

Me 872 

length of gesUtlon. Me 878 

Ue^ control, Conn.8torrs 601 

loan companies, treatise 889 

of dUEerent ages, feeding experi- 
ments, M.Mex 74 

paatwe graaaea for, n.8J).A 72 

range, emergency feed for, U.S. 

DJI 276, 471 

range, maintenance on yncca and 

sotol, N.Mex 277 

Romnanlan, Improrement 870 

acab and its control, U.S.D.A — 290 

ticfc in Argentina 409 

tick, stadles, P.B 06 

{Bee also Ticks.) 

twinning in. Me 878 

<8e« also Cows amd Steers.) 

Cattleya orchids, fumigation 802 

OoDi d oB U fia eerakmlim, notes 648 

Cecrapia-moth, notea 704 

Gedar, Inoenae, reprodnction as af- 
fected by bear clover 842 

Gedrmts, coltore In California 946 

Ceieiy— 

lertlllier experiments... . 184 

lly, OTlpoaltlon 467 

late bUght, atndles. Can 100 

prenrntnre seeding, Mont 444 

rot, notes 844 

Cdl dlTlBlon, stodics . 017. 018 

Cellar aoeietles 898 

CeDa. {Bee Plant cella.) 
GeBnloae— 

determination, apparatus for 410 

determinatioin In meal 206 

determination in wheat 14 

distillation under reduced prea- 

110 



mortar aa affected by lime 786 

warta» by-product potash • 128 

{Bee also Concrete.) 

.. 801 

.- 267 

C spJh ato spo r iiisi eacohari, notea. 47 

Oephldm larrs, notes 600 

Gephaa, American apades.. . 600 

Oetambycidm of Callfomla 861 

Cmwmiea pteta^ notes........ .. 648 

OsraNMt o^pOffto— 

In HawaU . 62 

tnpping and poiaoiOog..— ..^. 806 

140969*— 20 5 



Page. 

Oengtodom pgfp a rwi^, direct assimi- 
lation of organic carbon 820 

Oeratotna trifurcaia. {Bee Bean 
leaf-beette.) 

Cervofpora— 

beMoola, atudiea 844 

aaoehari, notea 01 

vaglma, notea......... ... 47 

Cereal — 

diseases, notes, Kans 344 

diaeaaea, notes, N.J 747 

improTcment at Svalof 823 

mildew, notea 844 

rust, studies 240, 641 

rusts, resistance to, Minn 740 

amuts, notea 840 

Cereals — 

breeding experiments, methods. 282 
consumption, 1902-1911, U.S. 

D.A 93 

culture experiments, Okia 624 

fertiliser experiments, Okla 624 

green manuring experiments — 24 

in the diet 762 

investigations 232, 288 

irrigation experiments, Kans — 831 

of India, malting capacity 808 

prices in Prance for 1919 390 

production in arid districts 023 

production in Nebraska 194 

production in Spain 484, 793 

production In Spain, U.S.D.A— 694 

selection experiments, IBCans 830 

statistical notes 626 

variety tests, Kans 330 

winterkining, Kans 829 

(Bee aieo Qraln <ind epecific 

Cerebrospinal fever organism, ag- 
glutination test 82 

Oereea babolaa. {Bee Buffalo tree- 
hopper.) 

Oerodonta donaUB, studies 169 

OeropUuiee grimdie in Argentina — 166 

Cerotrloaa n.g., erection 262 

CKigtoceratoetoma hiepidum, n.g. 

and n.sp., notes 160 

cnuetoenewia ^UGdrioolUe, studies... 764 
Ohaitophame — 

iaponioiM n.sp., description 166 

spp., dimorphs 166 

Chalcidoidea, phoresy in 469 

OhoMe oibieew, notes 760 

Ohaiepua rubra, notes 367 

Chalk— 

fertlliaing value and use 822 

ground, for grassland 824 

Chdlogvnue oebomi n.sp., studies — 266 
Chammhatia foUoloea, effect on forest 

reproduction 842 

Chamber of Horticulture for Great 

Britain *^^ 

Chaparral, biologic and economic 

aspects ^l 

CtuuritopodlBW I1.0*' 6r«ctloiu ^^^ 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



938 



EXPERIMBirr STATION REGOBD. 



[Vol. 40 



brands. State and National 476 

Bulgarian, manufacture and 

composition 777 

Cheddar, analyses 866 

C3ieddar, manufacture 880 

from buttermUli. Ohio 879 

Jack, manufacture, Cal 576 

mailing, homogenised cream 

for 576, 866 

making on the farm 675, 879 

making, treatise 283 

Neufchfttel and cream U.S.D.A.. 79 
Neufchfttel, manufacture, Cal — 675 
schools, cooperative, in Eng- 
land 896 

soft, cold storage 777 

Oheimatohia hrumata, notes 647 

Chemical — 

German, introduction to 709 

industry, electrolysis in 109 

Chemistry — 

applied analytical, treatise 10 

colloid, handbook 408 

household, textbook 498 

inorganic, treatise 801 

organic industrial, treatise 408 

organic, treatise 709 

physiological, progress in 654 

physiological, treatise 109.808 

progress in 109, 801 

Chenopodium, effect on defecation — 477 

Chenopodium nuttaiUiiB n.sp., de- 
scription 728 

Chermes of spruce and larch 262 

Cherries — 

culture in New Mexico, N.Mex — 18 

oriental peach moth injury, Md- 766 

pollination 148, 638 

pruning, Wis 742 

stocks for 445 

tree census in Washington 840 

Taileties for home orchard, Mo. 341 

winter Injury, Ind 885 

Cherry — 

aphis, black, notes 648 

brown rot, treatment, Can 154 

leaf beetle, food plant 170 

leaf beetle, studies, N.Y.State.. 63 

leaf blight, notes 249, 251 

mildew, notes 53 

"stop-back," relation to tar- 
nished plant bug, Mo 455 

tree ugly nest tortrlcld, nat- 
ural control — ^ 62 

Chestnut — 

bark disease 53, 159, 349 

black canker, studies 160 

black rot, studies 851 

bur borer, notes 854 

Chestnuts, food value 173 

CheyUius eruditw, notes 856 

Chick embryo as affected by sub- 
normal temperature 671 

Chicken — 

sarcoma, serum treatment 678 

tick, notes 267 



Chickens^ ?■«•. 

anthelmintics for, Ala-CoUege.. 778 

brooders for, Guam 872 

brooders for. Wash 485 

growth in confinement 876 

nematodes in crop 587 

outline for laboratory study 483 

rearing, Conn.8torrs 670 

Rhode Island Red, rate of 

growth, Conn.8torrs 670 

shipping boxes, N.J 78 

White Leghorn, rate of growth. 

Conn. 8torrs 670 

{See aUo Fowls and Poultry.) 

Chick-pea*^ 

analyses 657 

culture in Washington, Wash 780 

use In bread making 66 

Chicory — 

adulteration 658 

root, inulln In 325, 727 

substitute for 508 

Child labor In agriculture.. 691 

Children — 

care and feeding . 660 

creatln and ereatln of blood 274 

feeding 68,861 

{See eiso Infants, feeding.) 

food value of milk for 179 

growth and nutrition standards- 866 

malnutrition . 862 

rural, survey in North Carolina. 892 
undernourished, nutrition class 

for 661 

use of milk for, statistics 868 

Children's gardens. {See School 
gardening.) 

Chilies. (Bee Pepper.) 

OhUo simpler, studies 167 

Chinch-bug — 

insect enemies ..... . 165 

nymphal stages .. — . 858 

Chlnin, new variety of avocado 161 

Ohiriedkuia eavieola n.g. and n.8p., 
description 867 

Chlamydobacterialesy subgroups and 
genera 521 

Chloramin-T — 

antiseptic value 182,284 

preparation . .. IS 

(See also Dichloramin-T.) 

Chlorates — 

alkaline, pharmacodynamics 681 

determination in hypochlorite 

solution.. .. 410 

Chlorid, lodln, antiseptic value 779 

Ghloridea ossntto^ studies 62 

(OMoridea) ffeliothie dbeoUUt. (See 
Cotton bollworm.) 

Chlorin— 

absorption by soils 619 

antiseptics 181, 284 

antiseptics, action on blood clot- 883 
(See olso Chloramln-T, Da- 
kin's solution, Eusoly <Hid 
Hypochlorite.) 

uigitizea Dy vjiOOQlC 



1919] 



IKDEX OP SUBJECTS. 



939 



PftflB. 

GUi^naM alom aolntloii, anttsep- 

tlc TSlue 779 

Chlorophycee, development and bq- 

trltloiial physiology 180 

Chocolate, milk, determUiatloii of lac- 
tose and sacrose in 14 

Cholsm in malting operations 608 

Cholcra-Uke diseases of birds, B.I 685 

Cholesterol — 

determination in blood IB 

in milk 11 

■todies 767 

Choiss eattl^ytg, notes, N.J 754 

Chondriomes, studies 228, 828 



817 
662 

640 
741 
860 
812 
166 
263 



Id relation to hybridisation in 

plants - — 

mammalian, fizatioB 

Chrysanthemums — 

book on 

fertiliser experiments, lid • 

Cknf9ohothrU trmmfiu^mriea, studies. 

Chrysolite, solnbility of mafl^iesia In. 

CftnrwMiphalM pwMHub in Brasll.- 

Ohrvsos»y<a ruftfaeteB in Hawaii 

Chrysophlyetis endoMofioo — 

life history. Ps 848 

notes — ._.-^. ««— — 848 

notes, V.SJyJL 157, 543 

drysops, collecting larrm 767 

Clkrysofo«m» colOrsdeiisto n.sp., de- 
scription 757 

Chafas, culture experiments, U.8. 
D.A 434 

Cicada, periodical — 
In 1919, U.8.D.A. 



764 
549 

856 



I 



popolar account .....^.. 

Cicadas of Mississippi 

dehwiwm 4ntv^m9 — 

fertility in 427 

flower mnnber per head..^-.^- 225 

Cider— 

def^ctiye, utflisatlon 116 

manufacture 116, 808 

studies^ 414 

Cigarette beetle- 
in Dutch Bast Indies 170,864 

studies, V.BJ>,A 758 

ۤmem Udmlarhu, (Bee Bedbugs.) 



478 
656 

15 
859 
465 

721 



notes 849 

canker, resistance of tangelos to, 

V.BJ},A 247 

cankar, studies^ 544,851 

eoDar rot, notes . 748 

in Florida, Flo 158 

( In Porto Rico .^— 52 



alkaloids, disinfecting action 

red mite of 

Chifiamle aldahyde, determination in 



Cbrhoicyrtus n.g., erection 

Citrates, toxic action 

Carompcf fflaber proteolytic a^ 
twty 



Citrus— Continued. Pags. 

diseases in Porto Rico, P.R 47 

diseases, notes 155 

groTOs, lli^tning injury 645 

grores, plowsole in 417 

melanose, description and his- 
tory 158 

scab, treatment, P.R 52 

scale, gray, remedies 454 

scale parasites as affected by 

sprays, P.R 52 

thrips, summary of information. 649 
white fly. (iSfee White fly.) 
Citrus fruits — 

Argentine fly on 758 

as affected by freesing 247 

as affected by freesing, Cal 589 

cotton stainer injury 858 

fertUiser needs in Porto Rico, 

P.R 44 

fumigation 855 

insects affecting 858 

(Bee al90 Oranges, Ijemons, etc.) 
Citrus mediei, culture in California. 246 
Oladoeporimm — 

earpophUum, notes 58 

oUri, notes, P.R 47,52 

Olavioeps purpurea on Manitoba 

wheat 849 

Clemeon College, notes 898 

Cleptomyees lagerheimianus n.comb. 183 
Cleptomyces n.g. from the Andes — 188 
Climate— 

and sun spots, correlations 

U.8.D.A 416 

and types of farming, U.S.D.A. 116 
in relation to crop adaptation in 

New Mexico, N.Mex 

of Belle Fourche reclamation 

project U.8.D.A 814 

relation to plant distribution in 

United States 130 

{Bee also Meteorology.) 
Climates, past and present, of crop 

plants, U.8.D.A 

dlmatological data. {See Meteoro- 
logical obseryations.) 

aoth making, textbook 899 

Clothes louse. {Bee Lice.) 
Clouds, significance in weather fore- 
casting, U.8.D.A 416 

Closer — 
alBlke— 

as meadow crop ^- 

effect on following crop, 

R.I 

following different crops — 
following different crops, 

B.I 

for irrigated pastures, U.S. 
D. 



18 



616 



186 

623 
135 

624 

432 



Tsrlety tests 2JJ 

and grass mixtures, tests, Minn. 782 
and timothy, ffertillser experi- 
ments ■" 

and timothy, seeding experi- 



184 



331 



uigitizea Dy 



Google 



940 



EXPERIMENT STATI037 BBGOBD. 



[T<d.iO 



CloTer— Contimied. PaC6> 

and timothy, yields, Minn 785 

aphis, notes • . 600 

aphis, studies, Idaho .^ 864 

as green manure .. ... 24 

as hog pasture, Minn — . ... 771 

as source of humus, Can ... 724 

bird-foot, as meadow crop 186 

bur, mineral constituents, diges- 
tibility, Tex 769 

crimson, as green manure .. 24 

crimson, as winter cover crop — 133 
crimson, following various crops, 

Ala.College 829 

culture experiments. Can 735 

cut, analyses. Mass .. — 571 

effect on acid soils 620 

feldspar for 615 

fertiliser experiments, Minn 733 

fertiliser experiments, Mo 218 

fertiliser experiments. Pa. 723 

hay for mill[ production 672 

hay, manurial value, Ohio 127 

insects affecting 163,650 

liming experiments... 822, 816 

mammoth, as winter cover crop. 138 

on bog and moss soils...... 212 

red— 

as meadow crop 136 

breeding experiments, Can. 735 

culture experimenta 526 

culture experiments, Iowa. 328- 

decomposition in soil 214 

effect on Asotobacter, Iowa. 618 
effect on following crop, 

B.I 628 

growing with grain....... 822 

insects affecting 650 

leaf-spot disease 166 

relative yielding capacity — 626 

seed of, and Its impurities. 627 

seed production. Wash . 730 

sulphur requirement 727 

yields, Minn 782 

seed chalcld fly, notes 853 

seed chaldd fly, parasites of 862 

seed, investigations .. 89 

sweet. (Bee Sweet clover.) 

varieties for Texas, Tex 729 

white, as meadow crop 136 

white, for irrigated pastures, 

U.S.D.A 482 

white, honey production Okla 65 

white, variety tests 282 

winter kllUng, U.8.D.A 881 

Clyiue devastator in Florida. 169 

Cnaphalodes, studies ....... 262 

Coat color. (Bee Color.) 
Cocdde — 

insect parasites ...........M... 661 

of Cuba 866 

" ^ddian dysentery of cattle...... 290 

idMdee iwmitis, studies 88 

Idiosis in young calves 186 

Ids on coffee in India 661 

ohaoiUue aeridiorum in locust 

ontrol.,... .—.—.. 104 



O ocetie ' 

ettrimla, remedies 464 

10000 industry in India. 6S0 

Cockroaches — 

control . .-.-^ 868 

of Nova Scotia 866 

parasite of . ............... 864 

Coeoa, fat content, determination 206 

Coconut — 

bleeding disease, treatment 845 

bud rot, notes 155,760.761 

globulin, studies 602 

meal, analyses, N.J 665 

meal and cake, analyses, T«c 671 

meal, feeding value, 8.C 672 

oil meal, analyses, Ind 72 

oil meal, analyses. Mass 671 

oU, production in United States, 

U.SJ>^ 614 

'oil, specific heat . — ..... 68 

root dlaease, notes .. 48, 166 

Coconuts — 

culture and plantatloB machin- 
ery 247 

culture experiments, Guam 889 

fertiliser experiments, PJI 44 

food value . — ... 173 

insects affecting 268, 260 

leaf-bitten i^enomena. 761 

Codling moth — 

life history studies 800 

new, attacking persimmon.... 62, 167 

notes 648. 763 

notes, Md 766 

remedies 162, 647 

variety on walnuts .... 467 

Coffee- 
abnormal growths .. 249 

culture experiments, Guam 889 

diseases and pests, notes .. 262 

diseases, notes 48 

fertiliser experiments. P.E 48 

leaf disease in Porto Blco, P.R. 43 

leaf rust, studies 761 

Murta, studies, P.R 42 

preparations, descriptions and 

analyses 808 

scale Insect pests in India 651 

SclerotUim disease 262 

substitutes 608,668,864 

Coiw laoryma foJki as food 658 

Cold storage- 
its capabUitles 864 

plants. Government opemtion 688 

<7aleophoro— 

fueoediiuna, notes 661 

maUvoreUtk (Bee Pistol case- 
bearer.) 

eaeram0nta, biology 767 

volokei n.sp., description 682 

Coleosporiaoett of Guatemala 827 

Oolme blitsie^ absdssloB In 825 

Coilbadllosis In newborn calves 887 

CoUegM. (Bee Agricoltaral col- 
leges.) 

€f^Uetotriohiim-^ 

fahatum, Botep— — ~. 47 

uigitizea Dy vjiOOQlC 



IMS] 



nn)EX OF SUBJECTS. 



941 



CWIe«ofrie*M»— OmtiniMd. Pace. 

gltBot^orioidw, notes, P.B. . 47 

knfettarkm, itodles, U.8.D.A 260 

Umdemmthiawum, resUtance to- 643 

CoUold eliemlBtry, handbook 408 

Colloidal^ 

^els, water absorption and eyap- 

oratlon 27 

lijpothesis of permeability 818 

mixture ahowingr water relations 

of plants, constraction 28 

mixtures, imbibition In 20 

mlxtnres, swelling, effect of bog 

and swamp waters on S20 

phenomena in poUen>tnbe proto- 
plasm 28, 818 

properties of plant mvcllages— 818 
Colon-aerofenes organisms, cnltare 

medium for enumeration 881 

ColoDintion in Punjab 595 

Colon-typhoid intermediates In bird 

diseases, BJ 685 

Color^ 

alenrone. Inheritance in maize, 

N.T.Oomell 486 

In relation to chemical constitu- 
tion 606 

inheritance 666 

inheritance in barley 826, 826 

Inheritance In beans. Mass 586 

Inheritance in cattle 73 

inheritance in cattle, Me 867 

inheritance in Convolvulus 641 

inheritance In mammals 869 

Inheritance in mice 276 

inheritance in oats 230 

inheritance In pigeons 275 

inheritance in tobacco blossoms. 442 

inheritance in wheat 525 

(See also Pigmentation.) 
laboratory of Bureau of Chem- 
istry 16 

tests, biochemical, studies 114 

Colorado College, notes 900 

Coiorimetric determination of or- 
ganic substances 712 

CoouDunlty and national life, lessons 

iB 197 

OMsplcment — 

effect of arsphenamin and mer^ 

curie chlorld on 287 

fixation in tuberculosis.. 481, 886, 887 
Hxation test, pipette holder for. 581 
flxatloii with protein sub- 
stances 286 

Coneaaavalin, studies 808 



draintHe, reinforced, 
dnrabUlty in alkali soils — 
freestng and thawing. 



787 
886 
786 

fldztures, proportioning—... — 787 
reinforced, as affected by salt in 

warm climate 787 

road, hydrated lime in 788 

dab bridge design, U.S.D.ih 189 

preventing drip from 806 

descriptions 808,709 



Psge. 

Conifer rusts, host relationshlpt. 646 

Conifers — 

for re-afforestation 248 

for shelter belts, U.S.D.A 841 

red heart rot, studies 160 

seedling diseases 546 

stem lesions due to heat 68 

Ooniophora eerebella, studies 860 

Connecticut — 

State Station, notes 398. 696 

Storrs Station, notes 496,695 

Oonotelu9 mewicanus on cucumber.. 853 

OonotraeheiuB — 

flMunffuU, studies 764 

iuglcmdU, notes 269 

Convolvulus, Inheritance in 641 

Cooking — 

appliances, electric 559 

Chinese, recipes 660,866 

cost of fuels 668 

low-temperature 865 

textbooks 698, 899 

Cooperation. (Bee Agricultural co- 
operation.) 

Cooperative storage and marketing in 

France 688 

CopidoBoma sp., polyembryony 658 

Copper — 

acetate and carbonate, fungi- 
cidal coelficlent 253 

determination In gelatin 712 

reaction, sensitive 807 

Sprays, basic and acid 158 

Sprays, preparation 848 

stearate, fungicidal value 746 

sulphate as potato disinfectant. 460 

sulphate, preparation 801 

Copperas. {See Iron sulphate.) 

Copra — 

cake meal, analyses, N^ .*.. 666 

IndUn trade In 281 

Coprosterol, determination in feces. 15 

Coquina, use in agriculture 816 

(7ores»4«s» sp. on coffee . 262 

Corn — 

aleurone color factors, N.T.Cor- 
nell 436 

and cob meal, analyses, N.J 666 

and oats, analyses, N.J 666 

and soy beans as silage crop — 185 
as affected by barium and stron- 
tium 819 

as affected by borax In fertilizer. 822 
as affected by maturity and har- 
vesting methods, Kans 830 

as silage crop . ... 184 

as silage crop. Can 785 

as silage crop, Kans 880, 881 

as silage crop, Mich ... — 731 

as silage crop, Minn 783 

as silage crop, U.S.D.A 382, 431 

barren, composition, Kans. — .. 830 

barrenness, studies, S.C 624 

biUbug, control, U.S.D.A 656 

bran, analyses, Ind — .. 72 

bran, analyses, N.J...— ...... 666 

uigitizea Dy vjiOOQlC 



942 



EXFEBIMBKT STATIOK RECORD. 



[yoL40 



Corn— OBDtiimed. Pafa 

bran, analyses, Tex 571 

bran, description, Mich 72 

bran, mineral consUtnents, dl- 

geatlbUity, To 769 

breeding 528 

breeding experimenta 88, 826 

breeding experiments. Conn. State 828 

breeding experiments, 8.C 624 

chop, analyses, Tex 571 

composition as affected by fer- 
tilisers 484 

continuous cultore, Mont 419 

cost of prodnction, Ohio 292 

cover crops for 188 

culture experiments, Kans — 819,329 

culture experiments in Canada 228 

culture experiments in India- 230, 528 
culture experiments in Queens- 
land 280 

culture in New Mexico, N.Mex — 18 

culture in New South Wales 526 

culture in PhUippines — 228, 281, 627 

culture in RhodesU 230, 333, 825 

culture in South Dakota, S.Dak. 84 

daily course of growth .. 81 

determining proper stand 299 

different types, water absorption 187 

dipteran pest, P.R 56 

direct paniflcation .. 460 

diseases in West Indies 155 

ear characters, relation to yield. 486 

earworm, control, Kans . 852 

effect on f(dlowing crop, R.I 623 

evolution of 728 

experiments, contradictory re- 
sults 300 

feed meal, analyses, Mich 571 

feed meal, analyses, N.J 665 

feed meal, analyses, Tex 671 

feed meal, description, Mich 72 

feed meals, feeding value, Ind — 668 

fertiliser experiments 230, 

823, 832, 434, 523, 524, 825 
fertiliser experiments, Ala.Col- 

lege 728 

fertiliser experiments, Kans 819 

fertiliser experiments, Minn 733 

fertiliser experiments. Mo. 218 

fertiliser experiments, N.J 126 

' fertiliser experiments. Pa 728 

fertiliser experiments, 8.C 624 

fwtiliser experiments, Tex 515 

fertiliser experiments, U.S. 

D.A 422,431 

field tests in Fiji 281 

flint, seeding depths, Utah 227 

flour, digestibility 860,657 

flour, recipes 67 

fodder, mineral constituents, di- 
gestibility, Tex 769 

for forage, seeding rate, Nebr 522 

for steers in the South, n.S.D.A. 873 

germ meal, analyses, Mass 571 

germ meals, starch and hominy, 

feeding value, Ind 668 

gluten feed, analyses, Mich.... 571 



Com — Oontinued. 

gluten feed, analyses, VJ 665 

gluten feed for lambs, Iowa. 874 

gluten meal, analyses, Mich 571 

gluten meal, analyses, N.J 665 

grasing off, U.S.D.A 871 

green manuring experiments, 

N.J 126 

growing with legumes 627 

growing with legumes, Tex 729 

glowing with oats and millet — 822 

growing with pumpkins 280 

growing with soy beans 185 

growing with tobacco for shade. 229 
growth in relation to tempera- 
ture and moisture 19 

growth of, studies 238 

growth on acid soil 824 

Guinea, smut of, treatment 48 

heterosis in, bearing on double 

fertilisation 226 

high-protein strains, isolation, 

Minn 782 

hogging-off, Minn 771 

hogging-off, N.Dak 75 

hogging-off. U.S.D.A 371,471 

humin nitrogen content 510 

hybrid strains, Kans 329 

hybrids, chimeras in 826 

improvement, Guam 827 

Improvers* Association of Ne- 
braska, proceedings 826 

inbreeding experiments. Conn. 

State 828 

Indian recipes 172 

insect pests in New South Wales 458 

irrigation experiments 230 

linkage in 88 

malting capacity 808 

manurial value, Ohio 127 

meal, analyses, Mass 671 

meal, analyses, Me 470 

meal, use in sweet clover silage. 10 

milling experiments 556 

"Moro," origin 234 

oil cake meal, analyses, Mich 671 

oil cake meal, description, Mich- 72 

oil, digestibility and usee 268 

oil, production in United States, 

U.S.D.A 614 

pedigreed, in Wisconsin 624 

Physoderma disease, studies 846 

pollination, technique 627 

press cake, analsrses 72 

Production Act of Great Brit- 
ain 589. 891 

production and prices in United 

States, 1908-1918, U.S.D.A.. 93 

production in Brasil 826 

products, growth-promoting 

properties 67 

raw, sterilised, and decorticated, 

food value 268 

root rot and wheat scab, rela- 
tion 49 

rotation experiments, Ala.Col- 

lege 829 



Digitized by 



Google 



mo] 



nn)£X OF SUBJECTS. 



943 



Cm— CdntlBoed. Pai(lB. 
rotfttlon experiments, t7.S.D.A- 831, 431 
■JBipHng and gradln^f, U.S.D.A. 89 
Med, dlseafle-free, selection, Ind. 626 
seed, local v. Imported, U.8.D.A. 481 
seed, primitive methods of prepa- 
ration 187 

seed, selection 185 

seed, selection and storage, S. 

Dak 84 

seed, storage, Obio 884 

seed treatment 443 

seeding rate. Wash 780 

sdection experiments 622,628 

self-fertilisation 88 

shelled, official standards, U.S. 

D.A 89 

silage. (See Silage.) 

smut, studies, Kans 844 

spacing experiments, Tex 786 

statisUcal notes 626 

stoTer, feeding Tslne, U.S.D.A.. 666 

snbstitntes in pig feeding, Ind — 668 
sweet. (See Sweet com.) 

V. barley for pigs, U.8.D^ 72 

Tsrieties, acdlmated, Kans 829 

▼arieties for silage 184 

Tarietiea for silage, U.S.D.A. 832, 431 

Tarieties, taxonomy 627 

variety tests 228, 230, 528. 524, 823 

variety tests, Iowa 328 

Tarlcty teats, 8.C— ^ 624 

variety tests, Tex 729 

variety tests, U.S.D.A 31, 831, 481 

weeTils on Ovlf Coast, U.S.D.A- 801 

worm, pink, in New Sonth Wales. 463 

yields. Wash 731 

yields of fodder, Kans 330, 881 

yields per acre, 1866-1917, U.S. 

D.A. 490 

yields, relation to nitrogen and 

phoaphoras content of soil 816 

Corncob ashes, analyses 621 

CSncobs. utillaatlon 17 

GonieU University, notes 199, 498,697 

Conistftik borer — 

Snropcan, notes 756 

larger, U.SJ>.A 856 

Otntoma trifmrcata, effect on cow- 

pess 860 

Oorpos Intenm — 

of pregnancy In swine.. 668 

•f the fowl, studies 664 

Condatlon coefficients, compnta- 

tion V 870 

CwW rt a s i 

tuhm tm t c otor, notes... 165 

stevensU n.n., description 49 

VQffm^, studies 645 

Ctotldnms, studies 48 

g w y ess i perMoio9um, notes 160 

Oofypto sp., notes, P.B 44 

go$MV^ on castor bean 463 

parshleyi, notes 354 

perifondet, notes 354 

OMMopoNtst sardUa, studlfia 266, 468 



Cost of living — Pa0i. 

and the war 173 

and wages, measurements 650 

In Scandinavia 561 

in State institutions 173 

in Union of South Africa 561 

In Washington State 861 

studies 462 

Cost of production studies, U.8.D.A- 890 

Ootinu9 Mti&a larva, fumigation.. 256 
Cotton — 

anthracnose, investigations, S.C. 643 

anthracnose, relation to weather 154 

as ratoon crop, Guam 328 

bacterial spot, notes 154 

boll weevil, control 237 

boll weevil, lead arsenate for, 

Ahi.CoUege 762 

boll weevil, new host plant 759 

boll weevil, notes 56, 553, 853 

boU-weevll problem, Miss 235 

bollworm and pink bollworm, re- 
lation 857 

bollworm, pink, notes 56, 167, 256, 268 

bollworm, pink, origin . 466 

bollworm, pink, treatise . 856 

boUworms, control 256 

boUy refuse, Okla 366 

breeding experiments 228, 527 

breeding experiments, Okla 624 

breeding experiments, S.C 624 

breeding for drought resistance- 523 

budding incompatible varieties. 34 

cost of production 335, 390, 527 

cost of production, U.S.D.A 483 

culture experiments, Miss 234 

culture experiments In Barbados 434 

culture experiments In FIJI 231 

culture experiments in India— 230, 
332, 523, 625 
culture experiments in Queens- 
land 230 

culture experiments In South 

Africa 524 

culture in southern California 335 

culture on Tuma project* 

U.S.D.A 433 

depth of plowing tests, Okla 624 

diseases In Texas 164 

diseases, notes 165 

Egyptian, culture experiments, 

U.S.D.A 488 

Egyptian, in America, U.S.D.A-. 488 
Egyptian, maintenance of qual- 
ity 628 

Egyptian, mutation in 287, 527, 628 

farm, producing home supplies 

on, U.S.D.A 292 

farms, management.. 299 

fertilizer experiments 228, 

230, 231, 323, 528, 625, 627 
fertiliser experiments, Ala.Col- 

lege 728 

fertilizer experiments. Miss 286 

fertilizer experiments, S.C 624 

fertilizer experiments, Tex 616 

flowering and boiling records — 628 

uigitizea Dy vjOOQIC 



944 



EXPERIMENT 8TATI017 BBGOBD. 



[ToLM 



Cotton — OontlBiwd. 

following legnmes and corn, Ala. 

CoUege 829 

fruiting processes, Miss 236 

insects affecting 165, 256, 854 

irrigation experiments 280 

leaf spot, angular, S.C 643 

leaf spot, studies 846 

lightning injury 646 

liming experiments, Tex 616 

lint, length of, crops 1016 and 

1917, U.S.D.A 34 

long-staple 626 

long-staple, fertilisation by bees. 468 

Meade 287, 487 

picking, prices paid for, n.S.D. A. 98 

prevention of cross-pollination — 836 

production and distribution 238 

production and prices in United 

States, 1908-1918, U.S.D.A.. 98 

production and utilization 888 

production in Egypt 886 

production in Louisiana 627 

production in United States 891 

Research Association, British.. 284 

resources of French colonies 488 

root rot, notes 48 

seed from dry sections, Tex 729 

Sea Island, fertiliser experi- 
ments 627 

Sea Island, relation of lint 

length to rainfall 827 

Sea Island, spacing 628 

seed from dry sections, Tex 729 

seed position in planting 686 

selecting heavy seeds 287 

selection experiments 622 

shortage of the world 886 

snapped and bolly, U.S.D.A 98 

spacing experiments, Miss 286 

spacing experiments, n.S.D.A.. 438 

spinning tests 228 

stainer on citrus 368 

stainers, notes 165,261,864 

stem weevil, notes 563 

thinning tests, n.S.D.A 438 

treatise, U.S.D.A 626 

varieties, Ark 437, 438 

variety, relation to oil content 

of seed 238 

variety tests 280, 

281, 237, 382, 836, 437, 623, 626 

variety tests, Ouam 828 

variety tests, Miss 284 

variety tests, Okla 624 

variety tests, S.C 624 

variety tests, U.S.D.A 488 

water requirement 286 

wilt-resistant strains 237 

wilt-resistant strains. Miss 286 

yields in relation to potash 

scarcity 836 

Cottonseed — 

cake, analyses, Tex 671 

cold-pressed, analyses, Ind ' 72 

cold-pressed, analyses, Tex 671 

delinted, Okla 82 



PtffiL 

'feed, analyses, Ind 72 

feed, analyses. Mass 671 

feed, analyses. Mich 571 

feed analyses, N.J 666 

feed, analyses, Tex 671 

heavy, selecting 2S7 

hulls, feeding value, U.SJ>.il 606 

meal — 

analyses, Ind 72 

analyses. Mass 671 

analyses. Me 470 

analyses, Mich 671 

analyses, N.J 665 

analyses, Tex 671 

feeding value, Okla 75. 278 

fertilising value, Tex 615 

for milk production 572 

manurtal value, Ohio 127 

phosphorus compounds in. 

Ark 772 

oil content, relation to variety. 288 

oil, digestibility 268 

oil, production in United States, 

U.S.D.A 614 

oil, specific heat 68 

products for steers, U.S.D.A 87S 

products, mineral constituents. 

digestibiUty, Tex 760 

products, nutritional value 4€f3 

Country — 

church, social service 194,890,486 

home, book on 486 

(See also Rural.) 

Cover crop experiments 183 

Cover crops — 

field tests in PhlUppines 229 

f6r Guam, Quam 828 

Cow — 

manure for greenhouse crops, 

Md 741 

manure under open-shed system, 

U,S.D.A 178 

testing asBOCiationfl in Ireland.. 673 
Cowpea — 

and sorghum silage, mineral con- 

stitoeiits, Tex 769 

beetle, longieorn 654 

Blackeye, as affected by salt 485 

hay, feeding value, U.S.D.A 667 

hay, mineral constituents, di- 

geatibiUty, Tex 769 

weevil in Hawaiian Islands 266 

Cowpeaa— 

as affected by barium and stron- 

tlunn 819 

as affected by bean leaf beetle.- 860 

culture experiments, OUa 624 

culture experiments in Hawaii.. 823 

culture in Guam, Guam 828 

culture in Philippines 281 

fertiliser experiments 828 

fertiliaer experiments. Mo 218 

fertiliser experiments, Okla 624 

field tests in Fiji 281 

growing with com 627 

growing with com, Tex ..... 729 

uigitizea Dy vjjOOQIC 



ttl»] 



IKDBX OF SUBJEOTS. 



945 



inociilatioii «. 215 

Irrlsatkm expeiimenta, Kans— S81 

Umiag ezperfmentSp N.J 126 

rotmtkm cxpertioenti, Ala.O»l- 

kfe 829 

rotatton earperlmeDts, Tez 729 

mtStag with moiy beam, AIa.Col- 

Icce 829 

TsrIeCj tMta, OUa..II 82. 624 

wlety testa» Ter 729 

ra — 

adrmneed reststry testB, HI 778 

tge at flnt ealf , relation to milk 

TteM. Md 178 

barley for. Cat 878 

dairy, eompetitioii, Cal 876 

feedEbig ezperlments, Ky 678 

feeding eqpcrtments, 8.C 672 

gnin rations, Maes 674 

Goemaey, blatory 179 

Gveioaey, milk recorda. He 872 

beat period and milk production. 878 
bigb milk producing, sterility, 

Obio 874 

Holatein-FMeaian, offldal testa, 

m 778 

Hoistein-Fricaian, 7-day testa.. 774 
■Ok production. (Bee UUk pro- 

daction.) 

mineral metabolism, Obio 873 

OB general farms. Mo 674 

on Para graas pasture, Onam.- 866 

«n pasture^ concentrate feeding. 877 
open abed v. dosed bam for, 

U.BJ>.A,^ 177 

pasturing. Mo 575 

pasturing esiperimenta, U.S.D.A. 874 

proteins fOr 572 

recordi, Oa] 875 

reeorda, analyses, Me 872 

salt reqidrenient 775 

selecting by score card totals. 

Me 872 

nddeia. {See Udders.) 

vater reqolremeDta 774 

uUd onion poisoning 677 

Wisconsin Begist^ of Produc- 
tion 774 

(809 also Galres, Cattle, and 

Heites.) 
Crtb— 

grass as affected by soQ addlty. 126 

tarabaguii, c om posit i on 171 

OaaiUn»— 

of Nortk America 168 

of Nora Scotia 67 

kew^lotihrtam^, studies 168 

keiimenme, notes, Wasb 768 

Cnatterries— 

bueefes aflectiag, Wasb 758 

•poflage after piddng 262 

snbstitotes in 67 

taivestlgatlons 160 

soOa, limed, Asotobaetsr in A14 



Crane fly, leaf-eating, Mfe bistory 

Orapoiils« iw ff S S I H!, (See Orape 
cnrculio.) 



169 



ing 676,865 

pasteoriaation 79 

pastenriaatlon, Okla 81 

pastenrlntion and aging, effects 

on Tiscoslty, Iowa 81 

recehrlng atatlons. 111 879 

remade . 802 

Creameries— 

Ooyemment operation 688 

milk fat losses in, Minn 877 

use of fnel In, U.8.D.A 476 

Creamery waste snlpbnrlc add, nse 

in saperpbospbate mannfactnre — 16 
Creatin and creatlnin — 

determination In milk. ...... 609 

in blood 274,766 

Creatlnorla — 

and acidosis ..•«...«.•..•..... 766 

stndles ....... 866 

Cricfceto of Nom Scotia 866 

Crfmartium KMoola. {See Wblte 

pine blister rast> 
Crop- 
adaptation in rtiatlon to climate, 

N.Mez 18 

estimates, yaloe and accnracy. 692 

improrensnt In India 823 

^ast and pressnt eXk' 

U.aD.A 616 

production, cost in Obio, Obio. 292 

prodoction for 1919, U.8.D.A.. 487 

production in Algeria and Tunis 694 

reports, U.8.D.A 93, 

298, 891, 490, 594, 792. 894 
rotations. {See Botation of 

crops.) 
ytelds, ftncreaalttg In Golf Coast 

region, U.&D.A 188 

yields. Increasing in Kentucky 

and Tennessee, U.S.D.A 133 

yields per acre, cbange from 

year to year. U.8.D.A 490 

yields per acre in India 894 

Cropping system, continuous 589, 590 

Cropping aystems — 

adaptation to soils in New Jer* 

sey, U.8.D.A 19 

eflDsct on soil moisture, Mont — 429 
effect on soil nitrate content, 

Mont 419 

for Arkansas, U.8.DJk 183 

drougbt-resistant and water tol- 
erant . 891 

efftets on eacb otber 185 

effects on following crops, B.I- 628 
for sandy, alkali, and bill lands 891 
Irrigated, costs and seasonal dis- 
tribution of labor, Utab 888 

new, for Bbodesia 838, 825 

uigiiizea Dy vjjOOQIC 



946 



EXPEMBCEKT STATION BECX>BD. 



[YoL40 



Crops — Coudaued. Pata. 

of India and tlie Bast, diseases 47 

plant food remoyed by, Mont... 429 
(Bee aUto Field crops.) 
Orololaria-- 

juneea, seed position in plant- 
ing 686 

taUiatM, notes, P.R 44 

Crow, subspecies in. Colorado.. — ... 853 

Crown gall, notes . ... 844 

Cmcifer rots, notes ... 844 

Cmcifers, root loose injury .. 60 

Crude fiber. {See Cellulose.) 
Cryptoeoccue farciminosus Infection, 

association of bacteria in.. 680 

Cryptothrtpa eUri n.8p., descrip- 
tion 358 

Crystal violet, antiseptic value 285 

Cuckoo, new, from New Zealand 55 

Cucumber blossoms, beetle on 853 

Cucumbers- 
angular leaf spot, studies — 250, 440 

growing under glass 147 

llgfatning injury 645 

sderotinla diseases 40 

seed treatment 450 

Cucurbit anthracnose, studies, 

U.S.D.A 250 

Culex, breeding in rice fields 867 

Culture media — 

amino-acid content ... 201 

bouillon, new 180 

bouillon, studies 810 

for enumerating colon-aerogenes 

organisms . 881 

for pathogenic anaerobes 677 

for soil organisms, Ind 739 

for streptococci 180, 881 

for Taccine organisms 677 

pipette for tubing 12 

preparation 408 

reactions^ notes .. 805 

Cultures — 

bacterial, system of notes. 881 

mass, on solid media 805 

Currant — 

borer, notes.. . .. 758 

clearwing moth, notes 763 

fruit fly, notes . 66,169 

leaf spot, notes, Can 154 

seeds, oil and press cake from — 808 

Currants, variety tests, U.8.D^ 840 

Cuterebra n.8pp., descriptions ... 458 

Cut-over lands — 

in Adirondacks ....... 841 

re-afforesting 248 

utilisation 91 

Cutthroat grass in Florida 187 

Cutworm, black, biology 167 

Cutworms in Louisiana, U.8.D.A 58 

Cyanamid, decomposition in soil 724 

Ciflae fomUoaHua — 

notes ........... 269, 260 

studies, V.B.UA 857 

^costomum, notes ... 686 

fidrocladiufn «ooparitim, control. 761 

ndrotoma aplendens, life history. 169 



OyUene pieto. (See Hickory borNr.) 

Cynipoidea, type species 862 

CyrtidflB of N<H>th America 757 

Cytisus, notes 844 

Daeus tryotU, control 856 

DahUas— 

and their tmifnry , 541 

bud variation .-.....- 447 

Dairy- 
cows. (See Cows.) 

farm cost accounting^ Ohio. 875 

Cum aoora card ... 476 

farming, crop rotation in, Ohio. 876 
farming for small farmers, book 

on 680 

farming in Kentucky, Ky 78 

farming In Sussex Co., N.J 478 

farming, papers on.... 299 

herd records, Cal 876 

herds on general farms. Mo 674 

inspection In Rhode Island 668 

laws In Wisconsin 462 

products, educational scoring, 

Conn.Storr8 678 

products, statistics 476 

{See also Creameries, Milk, et4K) 

Dairying, course in 492 

Daisy, y^ow. inheritance studies. 181 

Dakiu's solution — 

automatic distributor for 12 

notes 182, 888 

preparation.. 13 

{Bee aXeo Chloramln-T and Hy- 
pochlorite.) 

Dams, hydraulic flU, sliding factor.. 188 
Darso— 

chemistry of, OUa 608 

feeding value, Okla 278 

Dftdieen meal, analyses ^ 178 

Dasheens— 

culture and use . ..... 768 

culture in Philippines 245 

' seeding experiments, Tex 730 

D€uylli8 thomcioa larv», notes 658 

Datana iniegerrima, notes 269 

Date palms, culture, U.S.D.A. 640 

Datwra etrtimymktm, inheritance 

studies 181 

Davainea- eeetieflMu, life cycle 359 

Dawn, " warmth of '• 314 

Deaminlsation in the animal body 866 

Dehydration. {Bee Drying.) 

Delaware College and Station, notes. 98, 798 

Dendrograph, description 817 

Dengue fever in Australia 652 

Denudation, problems of 118 

Department of agriculture. {See 
United States Department of Agri- 
culture.) 
Dermaptera of Plummers Island, 

Maryland — ■■» ^ 649 

Dermatitis — 

granular, studies 686 

pustular, notes . 288 

Dermatohia hominie, relation to ticks. 62 

Dermatobia, summary of Information. 268 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



m»] 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



947 



Dermenes vuipitm9, la Hawaii 266 

DoraiSftdera, treatment... 588 



hftbltat, experimental erolntion 

in 120 

lakes as sonree of potasb . 128 

HUNUtalna, plant dlatribntion on 129 



plants 
U.aDJ^ 



onergency feed. 



27« 

plants. Tltal staUstics 129 

IMeeatlon of Africa 717 

Dtsmonydnc of British India 63 

Bevtaffiles, breeding experiments. 

Minn 742 

Dextrin, oxidation with bromln 618 

IMabetes--r 

eBtet of alcohol In ...... — 364 

Increased oxidation in.. 766 

Diabetic coma* cause 463 

Diabetics, foods for 284 

Dtachasma as fmit-fly parasite 469 

JHaarttmM mmiiebria, systematic po- 
sition 656 

JMspkerMners v^MH, notes ..... 858 

JHsportte— 

^aiotaiU, stodles 



parosllioa^ notes ... 

s Bi briw fl nap. on rosea ..... 

Diarrhea, bacterial white. In fowls, 
lU 

Diastase^ oxIdo-Rdiicing .- — ... 



847 
68 

644 

686 
580 



aooeMroJIs. (Bee Sugar cane 

borer.) 
sraesWIa, sommary of Informa- 

UoB, n.8J>.A 866 

iXbrvcftyt oKtiooamiKS, stndlee 859 

DtdOommbi-T — 

and petrolatum dressing for 

boms 888 

antiseptic yalne and nse- 181, 182, 284 

notes 882,888 

Dktwmt n.gpp., descriptions 263 

Dk*9oph9rod€lpham Moeseyi n^sp., 

description 261 

Dloaadiamld — 

decomposition In son 724 

inlnring barley and mnstard — 616 
DidlniiDD, resistance to potassium 
Cjanid 456 



acc e ssory factors. (Bee Vitamin.) 

books on 68, 178, 861, 661, 865, 866 

cereals in 762 

cfflect on feces 477 

effect on toxicity of sodlam tar- 

tiate 286 

effect on toxicity of tartrate, 

citrate, and oxalate 465 

Cat! In, significance . . 170 

in borne for Incurables, T<Hronto- 660 

in bouse of industry, Toronto.- 660 

In DUUtary hospitals 866 

to war time 178 

of armies 862, 660 



ZMet—- Oontinued. Page, 
of British and Indian troops in 

relation to disease 664 

of children. {Bee Children.) 

of Italian Army « 660 

of Italian Navy 661 

of laboring class in Glasgow 862 

of munition workers In England 865 
of soldiers in the training 

camps 68 

of working class, " man yalue *'. 174 

planning . 403 

protective action against drugs 

and poisons.. 465 

reduced, effects 260,661 

relation to blood cholesterol and 

"lymphoid defense" 767 

relation to intestinal flora 867 

value of milk and vegetables in. 369 

value of milk In 179, 281 

(Bee al8o Food and Nutrition.) 
Dietaries— 

for institutions 866 

statistics 862 

Dietary — 

computer « ^. 659 

diseases, nature of active agents. 466 
(Bee dUo Beriberi, PeUagra, 
and Scurvy.) 

for miners 362 

properties of the pea 762 

properties of the potato 172 

Dietetics, fundamental principles 866 

DIgesUon— 

apparatus, description 410 

studies, first American report.. 869 

Digestive leucocytosis, studies 71 

Dilatometer method for wilting co- 

efllclent, Mich 22 

Dmdymu9 verHoolor, notes 763 

Diorymellua Iwvimargo, notes, N.J.. 754 

Dioaoorea spp., descriptions 637 

DIoscorea, studies 667 

DiparopHa oaatanea, control 256 

Diphtheria — 

badlU, disinfectants for 478 

immunity studies 179 

milk as source of infection 79 

toxin-antitoxin mixtures, Immu- 

nisaUon with 680 

IHploearpon rosw, control 169,761 

Diplodia tuberUxHa, studies 347 

Diploffoater aerivora, studies 267 

Diprion tkaOe, notes, N.J 754 

Diprionins, new species 761 

Diptera of North America, biology.. 658 
Diseases—- 

of animals. (Bee Animal dis- 
eases.)' 
of plants. (Bee Plant diseases.) 
Disinfectanta— 

bacteriological testing 780 

chlorln-containing 181 

methods of examining 84 

Disinfection, alcohol, theory and 

practice 581 

Disking experiments, Minn 788 

uigiTizea Dy vjjOOQIC 



J I 



948 



EXPERIMENT STATION RECX)RI>. 



[Vol. 40 



DlrtUlert' grains— Fage. 

analysea, Ind 72 

analyses, Mass 671 

analyses, Mich 571 

dried, analyses. Me 470 

dried, analyses, N.J «65 

for milk production 572 

Distilling apparatus, descriptions. 709, 800 
Distributor, automatic, for Dakln*B 

solution 12 

DJall bias as food 058 

Dodder In West Indies 156 

Dogs — 

color Inheritance In 870 

composition of milk 775 

Dohrtiiphcra vmtU8t<h studies 068 

Dolichos — 

analyses .. 657 

weevil In Hawaiian Islands r 200 

Dolichurus stantotU In Hawaii 864 

Dolomite, fertilizing value 815 

Dolomltlc medium, growth of sorrel 

In 40 

Domestic science^ textbook 800 

Douglas flp — 

Razoumofskya Infection — .».- 268 

region, logging in, U.S.DJL. 162 

rots of 849 

Dourlae In South Dakota 188 

Drainage- 
effect OIL soil addlty 22 

of marshlands, Oreg 587 

of roadbeds, U.SJ>Jk 291 

tile system, Oreg 587 

waters of AfHca, barrages for — 717 

Dralntile— 

cement, In alkali soils 888 

mixtures and mixing for 787 

reinforced, tests 787 

Dried- 
blood, availability, N.J 126 

grains In ration, effect on bulk 

of manure 120 

Drosophila, hereditary tumor in 800 

Dro8ophUa paradaxa n.8p., descrip- 
tion 800 

Drought of 1918 In the Qlrqnde 511 

Drug plants, descriptive account — 247 

Drug»— 

control of hunger by 270 

inspection .. 401, 559 

new and nonofflclal 284 

Dry farming- 
experiments.. ...^.^.. 524 

experiments, Kans . 880 

in Colorado *. 428 

In New Mexico, N.Mex 18 

treatise - 828 

Dry land tillage methods, effect on 

nitrate content. Wash.. 719 

Drying— 

of foods 804 

of foods, U.S.D.A 414 

{See aUo Fruits, Vegetables, an4 
Canning and drying.) 



Ducks— PagOk 

mallard, food habits, U.S.D.A.. 254 

management - — 177 

ovarian transplantation in 867 

ruddy, tracheal air sse 351 

runner, as farm layers 870 

wild, "flshy- flavor 256 

Durra, culture experiments, U.S.D.A. 48S 

Dnstfail of March 0, 1918 016 

DustfUls of March, 1918, n.8.D.A. 616 

Dusting — 

experiments S41 

experiments, Can 164 

r. spraying 240, 251, 648 

V. spraying, Kans 880 

V. qiraylng, W.Va 445 

Dyes— 

azo, purification 808 

photosensltislng 18. 710, 711 

Dyestufl^, natural 16 

Dystferma — 

dehumeyi, notes 165 

9Cas9eUaiU, notes 804 

tutur^ut. (Bee Cotton 
stalner.) 

Dysentery, red, of cattle 296 

Bar tick, splnose — 

notes 656 

remedies, U.S.D.A 682 

JVoriM ineukmu — 

control 256 

relation to pink boUworra 807 

Earthworms of North America 267 

Earwig, common, notes 753 

Echlnocactus, desiccation and respi- 
ration 29, 223 

EoMnodontium Unotorium — 

control 842 

on hemlock, U.B.D.A 159 

Ecology — 

of Michigan dunes 226 

studies 129 

IkTonomic conditions in Serbia 791 

Economics, rural. (Bee Bural.) 

Eddoes — 

culture and use 763 

variety tests 622 

Bde88a medUahunda, notes 160 

Education — 

agricultural. (Bee Agricultural 

education.) 
vocational. (Bee Vocational 
education.) 

Egir— 

abnormality, peculiar 672 

albumin, toxicity and nutritive 

value 408, 404, 562 

lajring contests, f^rm-flock, In 

Missouri 876 

laying contests, Irish 071 

production as affMted by hatch- 
ing date, Ohio 772 

production, computation of cor- 
relation coefficients 871 

production, diurnal time, Iowa. 77 
production in relation to molt- 
ing, Ind . 77 

uigiiizea Dy vjiOOQlC 



1»1«] 



INDEX OF 8UBJE0T8« 



949 



fumen'. In Ohio, Ohio. 
Govemment operation.. 



Dtlnned. 

prodocCion, BtndleB .... ..... 876 

{Bee Qif Hena, U7lii9>) 
ntaUtirtea* descrl^tiont and 

analyseo 608 

SgniUiiti, breeding experiments...- 588 

alcoholized, mortality of chlcki 

from .-.- 470 

as afltected by qnlnln feeding... 664 

detection in pastes.. . ... 260 

hatcfaabllily, Ind 77 

tnoiliatlon . 671 

incnbation, Gnam 872 

opened, grading, U.S.D.A 872 

photographic examination .. 115 

MbmHo mnU-rivoUm, studies 290 

■akom, milling and baking tests.. 284 

Bectric cooking appliances. . 559 

Bectrlcltyt atmospheric, as affecting 

plants 424 

■iectrocaltiire experiments.. 147,428,429 

■ectreljsU in chemical ladnatry 109 

B&ectrolytic apparatus, platinum sob- 

stttnte for 109 

Ekoiiph^aa n.g. and n.sppw, deacrip- 

tioos .-.-..^......-.- 658 



592 



cQltnre and variety tests 888 

coltore at Belle Fonr^e, 

U.8 J[>JL 832 

cnltnre in Indiana, Ind — .. 785 

milling and baking tests 284 

mmatrtUa n.sp., description 261 

smM. (See Apple leaf-hopper.) 

imieolor as apple pest 57 

B mpyaa la of facial sinuses, treat- 
ment «.« 181. 

iMrmonto pyriooloiio^ notes, Md 756 

iBcyrtlde, polyembryony 653 

Eocyrtina, new genera and species 859 

Endlre, liming experiments 134 

BBdocaidial lesions in horses during 

pneomococcas infection 784 

JhidoCMa porMMoa^ diacnssion. 159 

content of extra foods . 269 

transformationsi relation to food 

Ingested 270 

Sngbie, antomobile, for power pump- 
lag 188 

Ssgines, tractor-^- 

foels for ^ 190 

magneto ignition 190 

(See also Oas englnss.) 

Sastatlte, fertilising Talne 815 

Snteiltls in swine 784 

Intanologlcal education in United 

SiBteo 98 

BstOBOlogy, medical, as factor in 

the war 754 

latemophthora la Hawaii 804 



method of dialysis .... ... 

method of purifying 

rOle in immunity .. 

Boetonartimm mmteicoUt, studies . 

Ephestia km^nieOtL (£fae Flour 
moth, Mediterranean.) 

Bphialtes, notes 

EpUsanta atamaria, notes 

EpioMoe typhina on Bromua ereotus 

Bpieocoum sp. on sweet potato 

Epidote, solubility of lime in 

Bpoehra eantBdenuis, (See Currant 

fruit-fly.) 
Brifferon imfMitfs and its control, Ind. 
Brioeampoidee Umaelnn, (See Pear- 
alug.) 

Briophyes, effect on maples 

Erioph^ee — 

pmal, remedies, Mont..... 

sp. on poplar 

Brioeoma lanitfera, studies. Ark 

Brythrodextrin in starch hydrolysis. 
Brifthrofieura adar n.sp., description 

BtHffeOa pini n.8p., description 

Ethyl alcohol, wood waste as source 

of 

EtrogSk culture in California ... 

Bucactophaoue n.spp., descriptions.. 
Buchirlnm of British India 



Ill 

408 
579 
452 



760 
170 
166 
847 
812 



788 



654 

450 
850 
165 
460 
261 
651 

17 
246 
655 

68 



bottiBiio, remedies 167 

nmvama, studies 167,856 

(Kudemie) Rhopoboto vaeolniana, 

(Bee Blackhead fireworm.) 
Bulaehtme thunhergii n.sp., descrip- 
tion 651 

Bumerue atrioatue in New Jersey — 654 
Bupatorimm wrtiemfoHmm, toxicity.. 681 

Euphorbia of Hawaii 261 

Buproetie ekrpeorrhwa, (Bee Brown- 
taUmoth.) 

Bupterygids, genera of... — . .- — 864 

Bueeepee paroeUus, notes.......... 259 

Eusol — 

antiseptic yalue 182 

preparation 414 

Butelue bruehophoffi, studies 862 

Buthripe—- 

pprL (See Peer thHps.) 
trttioL (See Flower thrips.) 
Byaporatlon apparstus, description.. 505 
Brergreens, injury In winter of 1918. 258 

BveMa huoUana, notes 662 

Ewe's milk, composition 775 



749 
845 

48 

700 
294 
800 
409 
708 

401 



defarMOHB, treatment 

pruai, notes . — 

BmoJxuidlmm vemane, notes 

Experiment station — 

at Guadeloupe, publications 

citrus, at Blrerslde 

forest biological, in New York.. 

in Philippines 

projects, long-continued .. ...... 

workers, return from war serr- 
ice..... — — — — ..———— 



uigitizea Dy 



Google 



950 



EXPEBIMEl!rr STATIOK BECOBD. 



[ToL40 



Bzperlment station! — Pagii 
EDd laboratorleB in France, Su- 
perior Council 99 

future work, influence of war 

on 408 

present position and outlook — 1 

(See also Alabama, Arizona, etc) 

Siztension work — 

in horticulture 888 

In pomology 884 

in United States 896 

Extraction— 

apparatus, drip protection 806 

by partially mlsdble soWents— 611 

Fallowing experiments 229 

Farine, analyses 178 

Farm — 

account of South Dakota fanner. 488 

accounting 192,687 

adyisers, reports, Cal 789 

animals. (See Live stock.) 

arithmetic, type problems 493 

census in Nebraska 194 

homes, water systems, t7.S.D.A. 91 
implements, care and repair, 

U.S.D.A 889 

labor. (Bee Agricultural labor.) 

land ▼alue, U.8.D.A 792 

land yalues in France, treatise. 892 

lands of Japan, redlTlsion 892 

lands, terracing, U.S.D.A 188 

loans, Federal 595 

loans, short-term 889 

machinery. (See Agricultural 

machinery.) 
management in the South, test- 
ing efficiency, U.S.D.A 789 

management investigations, 

Kans 888 

management, papers on 298 

management, research projects, 

U.8.D.A 890 

management survey, Iowa 888 

mechanics, projects in 796 

organisation in Montana, Mont. 488 
ownership, stages of advance- 
ment to 92,687 

products. (8e0 Agricultural 
products.) 

science, textbook . 205 

survey of Montana 92 

tenancy. (See Agricultural 
tenancy.) 

Farmers — 

and the new day, treatise 889 

income tax 192 

Minnesota, handbook for 198 

organisation 198 

Farmers* — 

buying and selling agencies in 

New Jersey 592 

elevator movement, Ohio 692 

Fund, Patriotic, in New Jersey. 490 
Institutes, papers on..... 695 

Farming — 

costs, determination.... 192 

cosU in Ohio, Ohio 292 

dairy. (See Dairy farming.) 



inufliinc— Continued. PacsL 

evolution of . 589 

for disabled service men 790 

grain, in North Dakota, U.S. 

D.A 786 

in Arkansas, U.aD.ik 188 

in Colorado 428 

in Gulf Coast region, U.8.D.A.. 183 
in Kentucky and Tennessee, U.S. 

D.A 133 

in New Brunswick 680 

in New Mexico, rriation to cli- 
mate, N.Mex 18 

in southern New Jersey, U.S. 

D.jl 19 

In Utah Valley, Utah 888 

iotenslve method, books on — 689, 690 

plans for 1919 in Texas 789 

Specially adapted lines 891 

textbook 95 

timctor, in Idaho, Idaho.. 90 

timetor, in Indiana, Ind 788 

tractor, in the Bast, U.S.D.A — 89 
types «Kf, in relation to cUmate, 

U.S.D.ih 116 

war-time, in England 790 

(See mlee Agriculture^) 

Farml- 
and farm lands of California — 194 

collective, in Italy 889, 898 

cotton, producing home euppUes 

on, U.S.D.il 292 

general, cows on. Mo 674 

State Institntlon, in New Jersey 692 

use of lumber on, Cial . 90 

Farmsteads^ attractive.. .. .. 640 

Fat- 
constituents, action of symbiotes 

on 464 

determination in cocoa . — 206 

determination in feces 207 

stored, utilisation for growth. 

Mo 667 

Fat-soluble A. (See Vitamins.) 

Fats- 
digestion and absorption in in- 

ftint feeding 661 

in the diet, relation to intestinal 

flora 867 

isodynamic substitution for car- 
bohydrates 568 

methods of analysis 811 

rancid, reactions 412 

rOle in Immune processes 380, 676 

rOle in utilisation of proteins. 464, 662 

significance In the diet 170 

(See eOeo OUs.) 

Fatty adds, determination 804 

Fauna— 

of British India 63 

of New England 260 

Favus — 

in poultry, studies 488 

relation to Australian wheat 683 

Feces — 

as affected by diet 477 

determining coprosterol in 16 

fat content, determination 207 

uigitizea Dy vji\^\^*^iv. 



VHP] 



IKDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



951 



IMerml acttritiet, erroneoiis Impres- 

Jtoni 7T8 

fWentloB of Women'! InttttDtes of 

700 

ezperlraentB. {See Cows. Pigs, 
eie.) 

term mnlmals, Uteh 71 

QtillsitloB of wild vegetatloD 

for 665 

Titamlo factor in 677 

Feeding atnffs — 

analyses 72 

Aimflbj's table, U.8.D.ik 875 

determination of nltrogenona 

constituents 510 

Indian, composition 866 

Inspection and analyses, Ind — 72 

inspection and analyses, Mass.. 671 

Inspection and analyses. Me 470 

inflection and analyses, Mich 571 

Inflection and analyses, VJ 666 

InspectioB and analyses, Tex... 671 

law In Indiana, Ind 72 

law in Texas, Tex 672 

manorial yalues, Ohio .. 126 

mineral constituents, digesti- 

Mlity, Tex 769 

new, Iflcb 72 

phytia phosphoroB of. Ark 772 

silica of; estimation 610 

weed seeds In 687 

(8;00 alto epeeifle Muds.) 

VeQoa, analyses 768 

Feldspar, fertllislag yalne 184, 616 

FeUte qn»- te liouiidana, T7.8.D.A 58 

Fence posta^ tamaiack for, Ohio... 744 

as green manure ..«» .. 84 

«M iB bread making... ..... 66 

Ferric solphate, fertilising value 440 

FcrtUlty In tlie lat, reUtion to age-. 468 



228,821 

operlmenta. Can 724 

experiments, Tex . .. 616 

experiments, Wash 422 

operlments on DeKalb soil. Pa. 728 

experiments on moor soils..... 280 

experiments, triangle system 126 

{Bee aUo ej^eeial oropa,) 

Industry In Great Britain 816 

law In Massachvsetts, Mass 617 

levHrements in England, France, 

and Italy, U.8.D.A 422 

reqidranents In Great Britain 24 

w qiUiem ents in Norway 127 

reqidrementa of soils. (Bee Soils.) 

Bitaatkm in Rhodesia 621 

Bltoation In Sonth Africa 127 

sopply of United States fOr 1919, 

UJB.D.A 421 

Fertniieri 

analyaes 415 

ctemical, book on 421 



Fertilisers— Oontlnned. Page, 
commercial, insoluble nitrogen 

in 184 

cost and returns, Ohio 724 

effect on decomposition of or- 
ganic matter 214 

Inspection, Cal 222 

inspection and analyses. Conn. 

State 726 

inspection and analyses, Mass.. 617 

Inspection and analyses. Me 424 

inspection and analyses, Mo — 622 

Inflection and analyses, B.I 617 

inspection and analyses, Tex 726 

nitrogenous. (Bee Nitrogenous 

fertUisers.) 
phosphatic (See Phosphates.) 
potash. (Bee Potash.) 

unbalanced, effects 621 

(Bee o<«o epeaifio materiale.) 

FegCQO " 

hard, culture experiments 186 

meadow, and clover, yields, 

Minn 782 

meadow, culture experiments 186 

meadow, for irrigated pastures, 

U.8.D.A 482 

meadow, on bog and moss soils- 212 

meadow, variety tests 282 

Feterita— 

chemistry of, Okla 608 

culture experiments, U.S.D.A. 482, 488 

Improvement, Tex 787 

Fever, relapsing, transmission 660 

Fiber — 

crude. (Bee Cellulose.) 

olona 620 

plants, culture in Australia 524 

plants for Bhodesla 888 

plants of Cape Province 527 

plants of I>utcb Bast Indies 486 

plants of South Africa 288 

Fibers, production and utilization 888 

Fibrin, nutritive value 463 

Field crops — 

comparative yielding capacities- 624 

home projects in 296 

in Canada in 1916, Can 792 

inspection . 299 

manual.. 622 

pedigreed, in Michigan 288 

pedigreed, in Wisconsin 624 

pedigreed seed, value 228 

southern, course of study...— 492 

at Bothamsted 828 

cooperative, in Ontario — 624 

in Antigua 622 

In Australia 280,524,826 

In Barbados 434 

In BritUh Qulana 242 

In Burma..... 528 

In Canada 228 

In FUi - 281 

in Hawaii 828 

uigiiizea Dy vjiOOQlC 



952 



EXPEBIMBNT STATION RECORD. 



rVoL40 



Field crop»— <^oiitliiiied. 

work— continued. Vugd, 
in India— 280,882,628,626,828 

in Montterrat • ... 228 

In Nigeria 280 

in Northumberland .•..^.. 624 

In Philippine* 228 

In Rhodesia 230 

In Union of South Africa 624 

(See atso Crops, Forage crops. 
Root crops, etc.) 

Field experiments, standardisation.. 823 

Pig- 
black smut, notes 62 

Blastophaga in California 264 

borer, notes 863 

Pigs, culture, U.8.D.A 149, 838 

Filtration funnel, description 400 

Fir- 
balsam, clearing out 842 

grand, Bchinodontium-infected, 

thinning 842 

Fire— 

blight, studies. Wash 746 

insurance, farmers' mutual..— 603 

Fires, forest (Bee Forest Ores.) 

Firewood. (See Wood.) 

Fish- 
canning Industry............. 864 

diet, effect on intestinal flora... 867 

dried, pest in Hawaii 266 

fresh-water, food value..... 665 

gelatin, composition — ......... 171 

muscle, composition........ 171 

nomenclature ........ 160 

nutritive value . 66 

oils, determination of hezabro- 

mid value . 205 

oils, production in United States, 

U.S.D.A 614 

poisoning in Virgin Islands 863 

scrap, analyses. Mass 671 

scrap, analyses, N.J 665 

scrap, fertilixing value. Can 724 

Fisheries, State administration and 

control 688 

Fishery problems, research on 469 

Flavin, antiseptic value . 182 

Fiax— 

culture . 827 

culture experiments 882, 438 

culture experiments. Can 735 

culture in Ireland 827 

culture in North Dakota, U.S. 

DJL 786 

Fusarium resistance, Minn 745 

grub of New Zealand 266 

preparation... .. — 827 

rotation experiments, U.S.D.A.. 881 

seed treatment . 443 

seeding experiments, V.BJ>,A — 483 

variety tests 882 

variety tests, Minn 782 

variety teats, U.S.D..A 832 

variety tests. Wash 780 

Flaxseed press cake, analyses — . — 72 

Flea-beettes, studies, Me 867 



Fliea— 

house. (Bee House fly.) Paga 

manure-breeding, control 856 

relation to summer sores . — 586 

sense reactions 859 

white. {Bee White fij.) 

Florida — 

Station, notes 495,600,798 

University, notes 798 

Flour — 

baking qualities. Wash 762 

cereal, as feeds, analyses T2 

color reaction for examination — 411 
degree of bolting in relation to 

nutritive value 66, 460, 556, 657 

determination of acidity in 13 

insects affecting 865 

low-grade, analyses, Ind 72 

mites, studies 856 

moth, Mediterranean, remedies- 547 

of Queensland, analyses 314 

red dog, analyses, Ind 72 

red dog, analyses. Mass 571 

red dog, analyses. Me 470 

" strength " of, Minn 761 

three centuries of prices . — 792 

trade in Foochow District 868 

whole wheat, nutritive value 66, 

67.460 

whole wheat, recipes 67 

(Bee also Bread and Wheat flour 
aubstltutes.) 

Flower thrips Injuring peaches . 650 

Fodder crops. (Bee Forage crops.) 

FOM«»— 

cpplamatue, studies 160 

auetraUe, studies — . .....^. 48 

iffHiafiua on alder 844 

lueldus, notes 48 

o/MmU*^ studies 160 

roeeuM, studies 350 

Food — 

adulteration, treatise 459 

and nutrition, papers on 864 

and the war, textbooks 796,899 

budgets 173,462 

charts 68,569,865 

conservation 173,894 

conservation, bibliography 559 

conservation, menus 559 

conservation, teaching 197 

cost chart 68 

cost, treatise 68 

dehydration 864 

dehydration, U.8J).A 4U 

economy, books on 861,669,706 

economy, lessons in 698 

effect in increasing oxidation — 864, 

365,766 

gastric response to 269 

ingestion and energy transfor- 
mations 2T0 

law in New Hampshire 462 

law in Wisconsin 462 

likes and dislikes of peoples 696 

materials, Florida, menus and 

recipes 560 

uigiiizea Dy vjiOOQlC 



101S] 



INDEX 07 SUBJECTS. 



958 



1 



Food— Oontlnaed. Paga, 
Mlnlfltry of Great Britain, work 

of 866 

plant of tlie Aitecs 728 

poiaonlnff from Gaertner-gionp 

organisms 862 

prcfiaTation, laboratory guide.. 96 

Itreeerration 18 

preaerratlon Industry 808 

price Indexes 269 

prices daring the war 766 

primer for the home 669 

prodnctlon in Scotland 690 

production In Swltaerland .. 790 

prodnctlon, papers on ... 894 

prodncts, inspection . 461, 669 

prodDcts, inspection. Me 461 

products inspection, regnlaUons, 

U.SJ>.A 92 

products, reports of storage 

holdings. U.8.D.ik 68 

purehase of a family, weekly 669 

quantities, effects on human life. 661 

relatton to health. 866 

reqiuirements and the menu 660 

requirements of a working-elaas 

family 660 

aring and sharing, book on 669 

situation in Canada 68 

altuation in Germany 661,660,866 

situation, review .. 661 

itatistlcs, handbook 766 

statistics, index 462 

stored, insects affecting in 

Hawaii 260 

supply and aTaHabtUty, factors- 861 
supply in families of limited 

means 361 

sapply in war time 462, 669 

supply of Great Britain 462 

supply of man, relation to plants 

and #wtnw t |fy . ._ 665 

BOpply of United Kingdom 892, 669 

soTFeys, U.8.D.A 68, 

178, 269, S61. 462, 659, 766, 866 

tables for use in institutions 669 

topics, NJ)ak 669 

Tshws, teaching 96 

wastes, causes and remedies 866 

{See oUo Diet) 
Poods— 

antiDcuritlc value as affected by 

beat and alkalis 666 

camied. (See Canned foods.) 

extra, energy content 269 

green, vitamins In 664 

treatise 469 

wHd, of Great Britain 860 

'oodstuflifr-* 

alkalinity of ash, determination. 204 

content of purin bases 205 

Dominican, analyses 173 

dynamic actloo... 866 

production in Brazil 892 

production in BCauritius 690 

water content 204 

146W9*— 20 6 



Foot-and-mouth disease — Page, 

differential diagnosis ..... 283 

in Mauritius 680 

Forage — 

poisoning by wild onion 677 

poisoning in California 778 

(Bee aUo Poisonous plants.) 

use of wild vegetation for 666 

Forage crops — 

diseases, notes, N.J 747 

field tesU in PhUippines 228 

for dry lands, Mont 429 

for western Kansas, Kans 380 

in Nebraska, Nebr 621 

miscellaneous, in Barbados 434 

miscellaneous, in Indis 230, 

332, 523, 626 
miscellaneous, in New South 

Wales 524 

miscellaneous, in Nigeria 230 

miscellaneous, in Queensland 230 

miscellaneous, in Rhodesia 230 

miscellaneous, in South Aus- 
tralia 524 

native, of Australia 624 

of BrasU 626 

of Philippines 231 

on reclaimed swamp 231 

(Bee also specfot cnip«.) 

Farda spp., notes . 649 

Forest — 

administration. {Bee Forestry.) 

conservation for the South 841 

conservation, relation to for- 
estry education 393 

fire control, use of airplanes In. 641 
fire detection, map and pano- 
rama for 640 

fires, appraising damage to im- 
mature timber 843 

fires in North Carolina 248 

industry, finance organisation in. 743 

insects in India 269, 260 

insects, notes 163 

laws in New Hampshire 643 

management in relation to dis- 
ease control 252 

nursery soils, fungus flora 862 

planting, pamphlet 542 

policy. State 743 

products statistics 154 

products, utilization in Massa- 
chusetts ... 45 

reconnaissance in Philippines 

and Borneo 841 

research, after-the-war 841 

research in Europe 45 

research program, unified 743 

research, value 151 

Service, research activities, 

war-time 743 

survey of New Brunswick 

Crown Lands 841 

trees. (Bee Trees.) 

Forestation in Great Britain 248 



uigitizea Dy 



Google 



954 



EXPERIMENT STATIOUT BEGOBD. 



[Vol 40 



FoMtry— Ptie. 

and recoostmetioii 743 

edacation 398 

elementary treatise 151 

in Anstralia 46 

in California 744 

in India 343. 640 

in Indiana 45 

in Italy 841 

In Maine 45 

in Massachnsetts 744 

in Montana 642 

in Netherlands Indies 45 

in New Hampshire 548 

in New South Wales 640 

in New York 343 

in New Zealand 152 

In Pennsylvania 744 

in Philippines 152 

In South Australia 448 

In Uganda 343 

in Union of Soath Africa 448 

mnsenm at Kew 248 

present-day problems 151 

private, U.S.D.A 744 

problems, Canadian 743 

pursuits, monograph 898 

scientiflc, for Latin America 248 

Forests — 

climatic formations In Cape Bre- 
ton Island 152 

community, development 744 

grasing in, U.S.D.A 848,448 

National, as hunting grounds.. 748 
National, in southern Appala- 
chians, influences 841 

National, landscape engineering 

in, U.S.D»A 248 

National, planting policy in 743 

National, recreation uses, U.S. 

D.A 642 

National, roads in, U.8.D.A 90 

National, statistical report, U.S. 

D.A 447 

National, water supply from, 

U.S.D.A 743 

nitrification of soils 418 

of Alsace-Lorraine 248 

of Bast Aflrica 152 

of France, effect of war on 152 

of Virginia 343 

State administration 688 

tolerance studies 152 

Forftcula tmrieuUuHa, notes 758 

Formaldehyde, detection In milk 418 

Foul brood, European, in South 

Africa 648 

Fowl — 

cestode, life cycle 359 

cholera, U.S.D.A 183 

cholera and fowl typhoid, B.I — 685 

Fowls — 

alcoholized, progeny 470 

anatomy 483 

chromosomes of, studies 276 

lutear cells and hen-feathering 

in 665 



F<nrls — C6ntlnind« 

mating habits .. •....^. 671 

ovaries, studies 664 

secondary sexual characCen-... 871 

tozloology experiments 687 

(806 oteo Poultry.) 

Foxtail, bacterial disease, studies — 648 

FranJUinieUt^^ 

floridima n.Bp., deaerfptioii 868 

morrUU n.sp. on apricot^.... 858 

Freemartins — 

notes, Me 878 

studies 466 

FHt fly, summary of information 860 

Frog' tongue, notes 288 

Froflt Injuz]^^ 

mechanism 26 

to jdants and firulta. Wash 741 

Frosts — 

forecasting, U.S.D.A IIT 

in United States. U.S.DJI 209 

Fructose — 

antiscorbutic potency 464 

bromlnation as affected by cata- 
lyzers 618 

determinatl<tt in presence of al- 
doses 507, 618 

Fruit- 
bark spot, brown, studies, Mont. 449 

blossom bacillus, notes 749 

blossoms, bacterial blight. 844 

blossoms, frost In^ry, Wash 741 

bug, harlequin, notes 768 

bug, Rutherglen, notes 768 

crown gall, notes 58 

diseases and enemies in Switaer- 

land 249 

diseases in New York 249, 251 

diseases, notes 158,748 

farm, cost accounts 192 

flies, control . 169,856 

flies In California 56, 169 

fly, hereditary tumor in 860 

fly, Mediterranean, in Hawaii 62 

fly, Mediterranean, notes 259,648 

fly of Argentina 757,758 

fly parasites in Hawaii 459 

growing in Oelderland 245 

growing in New Mexico, N.Mex. 18 
growing in New York, Influence 

of low temperature on 148 

growing in Utah Valley, Utah.. 888 

Inspection service. Federal 844 

Juices, studies 768 

production, extension work in 884 

seedlings. Index of hardiness, 

Minn 740 

tree bark beetles, remedies 647 

tree borers, protection against. 446 

tree leaf-roller, notes 162, 263 

trees, asphaltum treatment 445 

trees, silver leaf 748 

trees, winter Injury 848,835 

trees, winter injury, Ind 834 

Fruits — 

acclimatisation and breeding in 

446 

uigiiizea Dy vjjOOQIC 



Itl9] 



IKDBX OF SUBJECTS. 



066 



ftiiit»— <!ontiaiied. PaiiL 
acrage and Tallies la Caltfor- 

nia 688 

acreage in Waahlngton 840 

aa affected by rainfall In Nor- 
way 810 

aoetlon aalea 489 

bloaaomlnff periods, U.S.D.A 44 

cnmied, prodnetlon and dtetrl- 

Imtlon 461 

canned. " springing " of tlna 208 

canned, sw^lng of tins 764 

car-lot distribution 489 

dtms. (Bee Cltras f raits.) 

culture ezperineats. Can 741 

enltiire experiments, Mont 444 

odtore experiments, TT.8.D.A 444 

cnltare for home ase, U.8.D.A.. 742 

caltare la the garden ... 444 

dried, ase 67 

drying 616, 808, 864 

drying and nerving to the iMnne, 

Idaho 17 

drying, vtiliaatlon of breweries 

for 615 

dnsting experiments 246 

hardy, breeding . 148 

hardy, breeding, Minn 742 

honsehold vtllliatlon withoat 

■J. I, I AAA 

Inaecta affectlag 168, 161, 163, 256 

insects afl^tlng, Kans 862 

Icpidopteran pest In Italy 661, 668 

of Mexico 246,842 

poQIaatioa 148. 638 

pome, factors In f^nlt-settlag, 

Oreg 41 

pome, hypochnose 48 

legalatlng bearing habit 148 

ripe and anripe, pectins of 202 

amall, dise a s fs 168 

tmaU, insecto affecting 168, 256 

ssmll, temperatures whea 

picked 160 

ftocks, tests 444 

ttorage 160, 864 

snbtroplcal, stadles 763 

Tsrletles for Minnesota 148 

Tsrieties for Mianesota. Mino. 740,742 

varieties for Nebraska 840 

variety collections .. 884 

variety tests. Mont 444 

variety tests, XJ.8.D.A 444 

(8!ee also Orchards^ Apples, 
Peaches, e#e.> 

Pocellia of North Anmlca 263 

Fade acids, stadles 804 

Fsmlgation, stndies, Ala.(Mlege 752 

Poagl— 

cultivated by termHea 453 

growth on culture media aad 

trees 208 

of Porto HIco 844 

parasitic, of Podolla, Bussla — 156 

wood-destroying, studies 850 

fugiddes— 

copper sulphate eoelBdent 268 



Vnnglddes— 0>ntlnued. 

formulas, Cai .. 

laws, U.8.DJ^ 



preparation- 



648 

46 

746 



amd apsoijio 



(8€€ aUo Sprays 
form;) 

Funnel, laboratory, description.. — . 409 

Far-bearing animals- 
book on 646 

laws, U.8.D.A . 860 

Wnr farming with mink 878 

Fs^ofiella popaM n.sp., description 169 



oon^laMaaas, studies 186 

UtU, resistance to, Minn 746 

matU n.sp. on onion 648 

Bpp. on conifer seedlings — . — 646 

spp. on potato, Mont... 440 

spp. on sweet potato 84T 

wu^feetum, notes — . 846 

Fuaicladium dendrUimum, (Soe Ap- 
ple scab.) 

FuBiooccum perHicio9um, notes 160 

Qabi, culture in PbUippines 281, 244 

Gadflies in Florida B^rerglades 757 

<aalbralth, A. J., necrologlcal notice-. 600 

OiMierueelUh^ 

eaviootm, food plant 170 

caiXooIUf, studies. N.Y.8tate 68 

^cnelto, notes 64 

OoUasi spp., competition on different 

soil types 424 

Gall:— 

mldgea, studies . 168 

wasps, type spedes 868 

Oalleria m^fUoneUa, destruction by 

cold. Can. 760 

Galls, insect, of America, key 654 

Game laws, U.S.D.A 64, 751 

Gangr^ie, gas, serum therapy 88, 

84, 881, 884 

Garbage- 
tankage, nitrogen of 134 

use in pig feeding 279. 778 

Garbanxos as affected by sodium 

chlorid 486 

Garden- 
insects and diseases, control 638 

insects in Louisiana, U.8.D.A.. 67 

Insects, manual . — 649 

Insects, notes 168, 256 

insects, overwintering and con- 
trol. Wash 246 

plants, diseases and enemies in 

Switserland 249 

alug, spotted, C.8.D.A 66 

Gardening — 

fall preparation for. 111 44 

herbaceous, treatise.... ... 640 

arsiiidr ..... 447 

treatisesimm 246, 840, 444, 586, 688 
(See al9o School gardening and 
Vegetable gardening.) 

Gardens, home, on cotton terms, 

U.S.D.A 298 

Garget {Sw Mammltls.) 

Garlic, culture, N.Mex 888 

uigitizea Dy vjjOOQIC 



966 



EXPEBIMENT STATION BEOOBD. 



[YoL40 



Om enginefl — Pate. 

andfreese solutions 191 

carburetors, adaptation to low 

▼olatile fuels 191 

running, tJ.8J>JI 291 

{Bee also Engines.) 

G9m, mustard, i»atliolog7 of poison- 
ing by 882 

Gases-* 

analysis, api»antu8 tor 111 

measuring density 202 

Qasometric determinations, tedi- 

nlque 202 

Qastric— 

juice. Young's studies in 1808.. 809 

response to foods 269 

secretion and urine ammonia. 766 

secretion during fasting 270 

secretion in infants' stomachs — 71 
secretion, relation to salivary 

l^ands.. . 867 

Gastrointestinal layage In dogs 482 

eaatrophUiu — 

4mo4enaU$, studies 458 

naaaHt, oTlposition 684 

spp., studies 458, 858 

Geese, management . 177 

€feleehia — 

^ostypMtaw (See Cotton boll- 
worm, pink.) 

MbieeeOa, studies 754 

Genetics, laboratory manual 693 

Genital glands, endocrine rOle 871 

Geoderoee inoomptue, notes. Wash — 753 

€feoiea equamota, notes, Ind .... 752 

Geological map of Montana, Mont-. 419 

Georgia — 

College, notes ; 495.600 

Station, notes 495 

Geranium leaf spot, notes . 841 

Geraniums, breeding experiments 840 

Gestation, prolonged, in suckling 

mice 469 

Giardiasis in rats, treatment 884 

OibhereOa^ 

eauUnettU, studies 847 

sp. on Sophora 844 

spp. on cornstalks 49 

Ginger, culture in Philippines 231 

Gipsy moth — 

destruction by starlings 647 

parasites in Canada 57 

polyhedral yirus . 255 

portable insectary for ... 752 

Girls' clubs In Canada 896 

Girls, Tocational training in New 

York 697 

Glanders- 
bacillus as affected by calcium 

hypochlorite .. — . 478 

diagnosis 84, 

186, 288, 583, 680, 779, 885 

diagnosis, U.SJ>.A 885 

notes 86, 676. 778, 880 

s»— 

ground, effect of ingestion 885 

vessels, permanent marking 609 



Globulins of the Jack bean 80ft 

Otmoeporium — 

rufamaotilasu, notes, P.E. 47 

vefieiwm, notes . 5S 

OiomereUa goewypH, relation to 

weather ^ 154 

Glucose — 

bromination as afleeted by cats- 

lysers 618 

determinatioa 812 

preparation from comoobs 17 

Gluten — 

feed for milk production 572 

meal and feed, analyses, Ind 72 

meal and feed, analyses, Mass.. 571 

meal and teed, analyses. Me — 570 

physical propcoties. Wash 762 

Glutooe and glutocose in molasses.. 813 

Olycerids of butter fftt 608 

Glycerin, determination 804 

Glycerol, determination in soap lyea. 712 
Glycin, significance in intermediary 

metabolism . .. 71 

(!Hife*phaffU9 oadoverum, notes 855 

Glyoxylic acid, transformation into 

formaldehyde . 607 

Onotimoechefma htUopa, studies — 62, 854 

Goat's milk, composition.. 775 

OatuUocerua omatue n-sp., descrip- 
tion 760 

Oonatopue spp., studies.. ... 265 

OomgifUmema inffli^9iookh notes 687 

Gooseberries — 

breeding and testing in Minne- 
sota 148 

variety tests, Ohio 842 

variety tests, U.aD..A 840 

Gooseberry mtldew, notes..... 63 

Gopher, pocket — 

in Iowa . 646 

life history and control, Oreg 64 

Gortyna mioaoea, notes .. 648 

Gracilariidn of North America, re- 
vision 652 

Grain- 
aphis, European, control, Ohio. 754 
aphis, European, studies, N.J.. 649 

aphis, notes .. 648 

aphis, spring, in Texas 866 

ash, copper determination in. 807 

borer, lesser, notes 468 

Canadian, marketing under war 

conditions 890 

crops, winterkiUing 821 

farmtag In North Dakota, U.8. 

D.i 786 

fertHiser experiments, Mont — 420 

growers* organisation In Canada. 688 

prices and supplies in Scotland. 194 

productiim in Switierland 525 

separators, care and repair, U.S. 

D.A 888 

spring, culture in Indiana, Ind- 785 

spring, seeding dates, U.S.D.A.. 882 
sprouted, antiscorbutic value. 565, 809 

statistics in United States 294 

uigitizea Dy 'kjxjkjwik^ 



tm$] 



IKBEX OF SUBJECTS. 



957 



GnJn — Oftnttaiied. 

itozcd, liuecta alleetiiiff.. 
trade oonferenoe ^ 



YarietleB of Utah 

Jidda in nlatton to nlafUl, 

Moot...... « .«.. 

(Bee olaa Cereals and 9peeial 



855 
1»8 
299 

429 



Oialaa, aaall, culture In Texas, Tes. 729 



cnltnre experiments 882, 528, 826 

■eed position In planting 685 

Giaaarles In rdatlon to reral credit 
Id Spain 8S9,890 

OiainiloBa, coccidioidal, in cattle^. 88 

Giape — 

aathracnose, studies 850 

black rot, studies 860 

cnrenliOk studies, U.8.D.^ 257 

diseases, fungus, eontrd 760, 845 

downy aOidew, notes^ — 58,760,845 

downy mUdew, studies .. 650 

downy mildew, treatment 262, 760 

induBtrlcs, deyeloping^^. 889 

BMaly bug, studies — ^ .«_ 660 

mildew, notea 860 

mildew, treatment .. 848 

ddlum, notes ..^ 860 

Oldinm, treatment 252,750 

phylloxera, notes .. 262 

root-borer, studies, U.8.D.A. 257 

■imp, iuTestlgations, Cal 414 

Gnpefmit production in Galitomia. 842 

Gapes— 

acreage and Talues in California. 688 
breeding and testing in Minne- 
sota 148 

breeding for phylloxera reslst- 

688 

carbide spraying... — 760 
CaiifOmian, fermentation or- 
ganisms • • .... 110 

cBltme 246 

culture In cordon 588 

colture In Ohio, Ohio 640 

culture in South Australia 840 

cnrculionld enemies 170 

direct-bearing hybrids 638, 640, 838 

fertiliser experiments 638 

fertHisers in relation to mildew- 860 

grafting, new method 446 

Hemito, Ohio 842 

i nse ct enemies, cultural control- 269 

Hghtulng Injury 645 

muscadine, culture 246 

muscadine^ paste fl!om, U.8 JO.A. 808 

■pray schedule. Mo 842 

storage, Ohio 149 

yarlety tests, U.S.D.A 444 

fierine— 

cochyUs, control 456 

BBOtfa, white-Uned 648 

crop% lerHllser e^wimente — 184 

I In Nebraska, Nebr 621 

notes 163 

■dxtoies, Umiag experlmente-.. 822 



Grass— Continued. Page, 

mixtures, tests, Minn . 782, 733 

root aphids, notes 649 

Grasses — 

breeding experiments, Can 785 

British, treatise 525 

culture experiments, Can 735 

for reclaimed swamp lands 281 

germination 222 

lawn, as affected by soil addlty. 126 

of AustraUa 524 

of Victoria 32 

of West Indies 32 

on bog and moss soils 212 

tropical, for paper making 828 

(See also Pasture, Meadow, oMd 
epeeUU prosses.) 

Grasshoppers — 

breeding experiments 867 

notes 468, 853, 866 

notes, Mont 462, 468 

(See also Locusts.) 

Grasslands— 

fertiliJBer experiments 626 

harresting for hay and graa- 

ing 824 

liming experiments 824 

Greasy surface caterpillar, biology- 167 

Green — 

bug in Texas 856 

bug on coffee in India 661 

manures, insect pests 269 

manuring experiments 24, 229, 321 

manuring experiments, N.J 126 

soldier bug, notes . 165 

Greenhouse — 

crops, fertiliser experiments, 

Ind 789 

crops, fertiliser experiments, 

Md 741 

insects, new, N.J 758 

insects, notes 168 

plants, effect of low tempera- 
tures on 147 

Greenhousee, construction 247 

Greensand as source of potash 299, 428 

Ground squirrels, control, Cal 860 

Grouse, heather and moor burning 

for 667 

Growing season in United States, 

U.S.D.A 209 

Growth — 

and form, treatise 566 

and nutrition, standards for 865 

as afl^ted by Inorganic elements 

in diet 70 

as affected by isolated ovaries 662 

of infants as affected by ma- 
ternal ingestion of placenta.. 566 
of steers on limited rations. Mo. 667 

of the body In man 872 

postnatal, of undersised rats 469 

Growth-promoting accessory. (Set 
Vitamin.) 

Guaiacol in oil, germicidal power 882 

Guam Station, report 896 

Guanos, cave, analyses ..... 621 

uigiiizea Dy vjiOOQlC 



958 



EXPERIMENT STATION RECOBD. 



[Vol.40 



Pact. 
763 

851 

177 
231 
479 
775 
467 
177 
557 
110 



Giiam, analyses 

Ouiowtrdda hid¥>ellH, studies 

Guinea — 

fowls, management 

grass, culture In Philippines — 

pigs, bleeding 

pigs, composition of milk 

pigs, oestrous cycle 

pigs, pigmentation-. 

Gulaman dagat, use as food 

Gulonic lactone, preparation 

adbestye, prepaiation from corn- 
cobs 17 

motb in Australia 857 

resins of Arauemia armteana — 615 
tragacanth bassorin, conversion 

into bassoric acid 202 

Guffi-oleo-resin from Boswellia ser- 

rvta 248 

pums, yegetable^ detection in food 

products 410 

Gur manufacture In United Proy- 

inces „ 208 

Gtw^nooonio peckiana, notes.- 58 

OifNMiosporaniHttM — 

Waadoieaitum, studies 845 

macnpua, notes 53 

Gypsum— 

as corrector of soil acidity 815 

fertilizing value 440 

for alfalfa Wash 780 

Habronema larvs Infestation 586 

HwmatolHa 8erra*«k {Bee Horn- 
fly.) 
Hwmatopin»9-~ 

spp. on cattle, Conn.Btorrs 651 

•wis, studies, Tenn 652 

Homanehu$ eontortut, notes, Mich. 88 
Hail- 
insurance, statistics 804 

protection experiments 118 

Hailstorm, remarkable, In region of 

Provins 512 

Hair and wool, disinfection ^ — 783 

Halrlessness in pigs. Wis 185 

Halophytes, physiology 424 

Hampton Institute, notes 00 

I£aplooimaUnkU8 amerioanu*, studies. 266 

Hardback grubs, parasites of 265 

Hardwoodo, clearing out 842 

Harvest hands, city volunteer 389 

BargleHa eoBianem, studies 861 

Hauling, wa0on and motor, cost, 

U.S.D.A 03 

Hawaii Federal Station, notes 605 

Hawks of Canadian Prairie Prov- 
inces •.••.••.^.•«. 265 

Hay- 
consumption, bulk of manure 

produced by 126 

ops, cost of production, Ohio-. 292 

fever, relation to agmantln. 608 

stackers, U.SJ>.A 788 

{Bee aUo Meadows, Grass, and 
Alfalfa, Clover, etc.) 



Heat production of the body, studies- 868 
Heather, burning for grouse and 

sheep 667 

Hegarl, culture ezperlmants, U.8i. 

D.A 438 

Heifers- 
breeding, development. Kins , 869 
dairy, ffeetors affecting growth 

and sise. Mo «77 

French Canadian, cost of raisins. 

Can 775 

pasturing experiments, U.8J0JL. 471 
{Bee alto Cows.) 
BeUmimm tetmifoHuwh toxicity, Ala. 

CoUege .— 778 



ofMMiiis, water rdattons.... 427 

tuberotme varieties 827 

Belianthus, inheritance studies 181 

ffelio^Jkls oftMls«a. <See Oottsa boll- 
worm.) 

Helioihfipt mhroclnetme, notes 856 

HHmin t h^tporimm ooratheeMdee 

n.sp., description 165 

Helminths, toxic product, studies — 84 

BHodrUu9 weMU n.sp., description.. 267 
Bemeroeampa lemooeUffma. {B9e 
Tussock moth, white-matted.) 

Betnerophtia portan*, notes..... 648 

Hemichroini, notes 761 

BemUHa vattmtrim, control 751 

Hemipten-Heteroptets of New Eng- 
land w.... . 260 

Hemlock, western— 

Echinodontium - infected, thin- 
ning — . 842 

heart rot. U.8.D.A 169 

Hemoglobin solution, proagglutinold- 

like reaction 770 

Hemogloblnenda of cattle In Sweden- 585 
Hemoglobinuria of cattle In Italy — 782 
Hemolysins and proteolysins, rela- 
tion -^ 286 

Hemorrhagic septicemia. {Bee Septi- 
cemia.) 
Hemp- 
culture experiments 231 

Deccan, production in Africa 238 

effect on following crop, Minn. 734 

old treatise on 628 

pulp, fertillxing value 620 

Hens, laying — 

feeding experiments.. . 670 

feeding experiments, Ind 76, 773 

loss of pigment 671 

method for determining, Md 571 

nesting habits, Iowa 77 

(Bee also Egg production.) 
Heredity — 

in barley — 825, 826 

in cattle 78 

in cattle, Me^...... 367 

in Cfiohorium intybu* 225, 427 

in fantail pigeons ^ 275 

la niAiio— ^•— ...M^— — — 826 

uigiiizea Dy vjjOOQIC 



1919] 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



dsd 



Heredity — ContiDiied. Pail. 

la maiae. N.Y.Conidl . 480 

la oats 280. 488, 528, 629 

la (Etoothera 182 

ta Ortboptera 867 

la Pimm 147, 225 

la poaltry 177 

In rice 681, 682 

la angar cane 241 

In tobacco, Uoesom color 442 

in wbeat 140,148,625,636,880 

Mendellan, studies, Colo 524 

adlk production factors in 672 

of color. {See CSolor Inberlt- 



In 



181 
275 

860 
878 

852 



) 
of fertUltj In 
of germinal pecolisritles 

Rndbeckla, Datnra, etc 

of statnre 

of tnmor In DrosophUa 

of twinning In cattle. Me 

{See eleo MnUtlon.) 

Bemlan fly, notes, Kans 

VtUroooeeue n.g. and n.spp., de- 
scriptions 262 

BeUredera— 

redMeola^ on potatoes 847 

fmH e Uso ia on sugar cane, U.S. 

D.A 157 

■p. on peas 845 

Hetsroiysins, stadias 078 

Hetcffosis— 

bearing on double fertilisation. 
Mendellan Interpretation, Conn, 

State 

i70Ms hroedtmele. {See Bnbber.) 



226 



828 



eemmmbie, prodnetlon in Africa. 288 

moeehemtoa, insects affecting 754 

Hickory borers, notes 259 

Bierofeieo rssfiooiss etmdican9 In 

Nortb Dakota 161 

Highway — 

eni^neerlng, traflic laws in rela- 
tion to 887 

transportation, economic 887 

Highways. {See Bonds.) 

VisMSlis eMUfera, notes 848 

ff^ppofion celerio In South AfHca 648 

Hipparlc add, determination in 

Qiine 611 

Bogduilem— 

cases, paratyphoid badlll from. 480 

control 89,577 

determining In the herd 888 

laumnlsation, Okla 290,688 

notes 86.676,778,880 

studies 788 

stDdles, Ind 788 

ttodles, Minn 784 

▼Iros, effect on laboratory ani- 
mals 480 

Hog loose, studies, Tenn 652 

Begs. {See Pigs.) 

HsQy tortriz SMth, stndlet 167, 856 



Home — Page. 

grounds, beautifying 247 

grounds, planning and planting, 

Mont 447 

project in agricultural educa- 
tion 295 

projecta for New Hampshire 

schools 296 

Home economics— r 

course for Texas homemakers 197 

handbook 861 

instruction In Atlantic Co., New 

Jersey 295 

instruction in 1917 794 

instruction in San Flrancisco 294 

Instruction in Texas 598 

Instruction, papers on 894 

lessens in 197,198 

manual and course of study 896 

textbooks 296,796 

{See aUo Household anci Voca- 
tional education.) 

Hominy — 

feed, analyses, Ind 72 

feed, analyses. Mass 071 

feed, analyses, Mich 571 

feed, analyses, N.J 665 

feed, analyses, Tex 571 

feed, feeding Talue, Ind 668 

meal, analyses, Me 470 

HoeMna coftearia, studies 458 

Honey — 

Argentinfl, analyses 558 

examination 14 

producing plants, tests, Okla — 65 

recipes 461 

Tltamin content 564 

yields in 1916, Can 759 

Honeybees. {See Bees.) 

Hookworm oya, . destruction by low 

temperatures 685 

Hops, marginal teeth of leaves from 

different clones 527 

Horn-fly as affecting milk produc- 

Uon 648 

Horse— 

bote. (See Botflies.) 

flesh, analyses 656 

mange, notes 89,676 

serum, utilization in human nu- 

trlUon 269 

Horsefly of Erorglades, peculiar 

habit 263 

Horses — 

breeding 188 

color inheritance in 870 

diseases of dlgestlYe organa 86 

feeding, tJ.S.D.A 875 

immunized, cause of death in — 881 

lice control on 684 

Para grass for, Guam 866 

pneumococcus immunization — 784 
poisoning by HeieiUum tenui- 

folium, Ala.College 778 

raising and handling, Okla 76 

raising in the West 177 

uigitizea Dy vjjOOQIC 



960 



EXPERIMEirr STATION RECORD. 



[Vol 40 



Horses — Oontlnned. PafB, 

■Ick, Bodiam chlorid yariatlons 

Id senim 287 

typhoid infections 289 

wbeat bran for 670 

Horticultaral — 

Instruction, papers on 195 

InvestigatlonB, notes, Okla 42 

practice, nutrition basis for 147 

Horticulture — 

and tbe war 838 

elementary, manual 796 

extension work 838 

home projects in 296 

teaching 898 

House fly — 

as carrier of Davaktea ee9tieUlu»- 399 

sense reactions 859 

Household — 

accounts, manual 659 

business of, treatise 796 

chemistry, textbook 498 

physics, teaching 492 

thrift in 96 

(See also Home economics.) 

Rumln nitrogen, determination In 

feeding stuffs 510 

Hummingbird, Costa's 646 

Humogen. {See Peat, bacterlsed.) 

Humus, chlorin index 619 

Hunger, studies 270 

Hyacinth, yellow disease, notes 844 

Jfyalopterue arunditUe, remedies 161 

Hydrochloric acid estimation, colori- 

metrlc scale for . .. 505 

Hydrocyanic acid — 

determining, Okla 804 

effect on plants, Minn 745 

gas, effect on leaf -roller oggs 162 

gas, effect on subterranean 

larysB 256 

in sotghum, Okla 804 

Hydrogen — 

analysis, apparatus for 111 

preparation and purification 607 

Hydrophobia. {See Rabies.) 

Hydrotieas, new 268 

^-Hydroxyglutamic acid, structure.. 611 

a-Hydroxypyridln, antlnenritic prop- 
erties 271 

Hygiene, treatises 694,866.899 

Hylemyia — 

ontiQua, notes 648 

coarotatti, notes 647 

Hpmenoehwte notHa, notes 53, 249, 340 

Hymenoptera, parasitic — 

immigrant in Hawaii 265 

new 61. 458, 761 

polyembryony— — ™— 265 

Hymenopterous egg parasites, adult 

habits 459 

Byphantria ounea, (See Webworm, 
fall.) 

Hypochlorite, calcium, effect on glan- 
ders bacillus..........-^... 478 



Hypochlorite solutions — 

alkaline, methods of analysts^ US, 309 

antiseptic value 182,284 

preparation 709 

prevention of blood clotting by 182 

stabilisation 710 

(See alao Dakln's solution.) 

Hypochlorites — 

and hypochlorite substitatea 284 

determinatloD in solutions 410 

Hypoderma larra, latoal splrades 

in 62 

Hypophosphltes, determlaation 400 

Ice-age qqestlon,,,,,,^ 811 

Ice cream — 

bacteria In doring storage, N.T. 

Cornell 777 

manufactove, Iowa — ^. 81 

manufacture, Okla 81, 675 

sugar subatitntea la 777,802 

testing for butter f^t, Okla 81 

Ichneumon flies finun Jats 458 

Idineumonid paraaltea^ correct names 760 

Ichneumonoidea, families and sub- 

ftunUles 65 

Idaho- 
Station, notes 98, 495, 600 

Uniyerslty, notes .« 495, 696 

Idiogastra, new suborder ..... 265 

IlUnols— 

Station, report 198 

University, notes 496 

Immune processes, rOle of fats in. 380, 676 

Immunity — 

and tissue transplantation 578 

and tolerance 82 

relation to fermentative reac- 
tion 882 

rOle in the war 477 

rOle of ensyms in 579 

studies by tissue culture method 176 
to infections of unknown cause, 

absorption method • — ^ 678 

Immunisation — 

of horses, cause of death in 881 

pneumococcus. of horses ... 784 

products and their use 882 

(See also Anthrax, Hog cholera, 
etc.) 

Inbreeding and crossbreeding, effects 

on development. Conn. State 823 

Inclosure movement In England 688 

Indiana Station — 

notes 496. 696, 900 

report ... 796 

Indicator from myrtle berries 409 

Ind icators, qulnone phenolate theory . 202 

Indigo- 
culture experiments 332,626 

pruning experiments 629 

root development 629 

soils of Bihar 620 

Infantile- 
paralysis. (See Poliomyelitis.) 

scurvy, studies . 368,666 

scurvy, treatment............. 869 

uigitizea Dy vjjOOQIC 



1819) 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



961 



feediaff 68, 269. 

272. 864, 879, 462, 665, 560, 661, 869 
growth, as affected by maternal 

Jnseatlon of placenta ^. 666 

BcwiMni, ButritloB and growth. 661 
(Bee olao ChUdren.) 
laluiti' atimiarha, gastric seeretioa. 71 
iBfecttoiM 

Blzed, seroaiagnosta.. 



of uikiiowii cause, apedflc an- 
tor 



678 



evBlne^ semm dJagaosIs 889 

relatloB ta bedbogB 848 

laberltance. iBee Heredity.) 
iDseet'— 

galls, American, k^ 564 

larvK, BQbterranean, fumigation. 256 
panislliea> determining relations 

In mixed Infestattons 164 

TisltoTS of aplxea and blackberry. 547 

iBMcU of Bartiadoe 56 

iBKctaiy, portable 752 

iBMcticides— 

and their application 452 

contact, mode of action 752 

feramlasb Cal 548 

law^ U.8J>.A 45 

sdectlon 59 

161 

758 

{Bee alto Sprays Sfi4 epedfio 
Amvm.) 



affecting storad food In Hawaii. 259 

affpfttng stared grain 855 

control by birds 255 

ecology, notes 648 

eeonondc; la Hawaii 854 

foreat {See Forest Insecta) 
garden. (8'ss Garden insects.) 

IsuBsnIty principles . ^— 164 

InJinlOM — 

In Ariiona 858 

in BarlMdos — 648 

In Bihar and Orlsia 57 

in British Golana 168 

in Ceylon 453 

In Colorado 161 

inCypros 648 

in Bn^and and Wales 648 

In France 845 

hi India 260 

In Indlana,Ind 752 

In Ireland 260 

in Jamaica 259 

In Kansas 452 

In Kansas, Kane 852 

In Madras 854 

In Ifalay States 260 

In ManritlQS 648 

In Montana, Mont 452 

In New York :, 168 

In Nova Scotia 57 

In Ontarto 648 



Insects — Continued. 

Injurious— <:ontlnned. Page. 

In Porto Blco, P.B 66 

In Quebec 259, 648 

In Buasia 163 

In South Carolina, 8.C 647 

In South Dakota 854 

In St LucU 453 

In Straits Settlements 260 

In Sweden 168 

In Tasmania 753 

In Trinidad and Tobago 852 

In West Indies 

to cotton, sugar cane, etc. 
(See Cbtton, Sugar cane, 
sfe.) 

life history studies, method 752 

nature book on.... — . 795 

of New Jersey 854 

of spruce and pine cones 168, 164 

of the mulberry In Formoea 168 

on greoihouse and ornamental 

plants, N.J 758 

on Imported orchids, fumigation. 352 

orchard, notes 161,168,256 

orchard, notes, Kans 852 

polyhedral Tims ...... 255 

protecting wheat flour substi- 
tutes frm —.—.—.—— 59 

psychic llfe^ handbook 647 

reUtlon to disease 259, 649 

social habit among 568 

taxonomy, Wash 758 

wings of, treatise 851 

wonders of instinct 255 

(See alao epeoifle ineeete,) 

Insurance — 

companies, mntoal 598 

han 894 

International — 

Association of Poultry In- 
structors and InTcetigators.. 499 

catalogue of physiology 869 

Intestinal — 

flora, regulation through diet.. 867 

parasites of the dog 778 

protosoa, flagellated 186 

trichlne, studies 476 

Inulase formation tn Aeperffillue 

niffer 518 

Inulln In chicory root 825, 727 

Inyert activity, determination 12 

lodlmetry, use of arsenlous oxid in. 609 
lodlo— 

action on hypophosphorous and 

phosphorous acids 409 

chlorid, antiseptic yalue 779 

In oil, germicidal power 882 

Influence on the circulation — 274 

lodotannlc reagent 610 

lole, new, description 851 

lonlsatlon In war wounds 779 

Iowa — 

CoUege. notes 696, 900 

Station, notes 900 

Station, report 397 

uigitizea Dy vjiOOQlC 



962 



BXPESniBHT 8TATIOK BBOOBD. 



(y«L40 



Ipobraeo m ■ ■ 

grenaden&U, notes..-.. 664 

aaoeharQlt9 ii.sp., deacrtptlOB — 664 

Iridomurmem hmmiUfp natiml ene- 
mies • 66 

Iris rot, notes .. ...,«- .■■. 844 

Iron — 

agrlcoltnial etody ......... 7S6 

salts, inflnence on nltrle-nltro- 

sen accnmolation 722 

sulphate, preparation and nse 748 

Ironwood, Mack, fungns disease 160 

Irrigation — 

slkall dlstribntlon bj 719 

border experiments, U.8.DJL. 484 

ditches, pasturing sheep on, 

U.8.D.A 472 

(8e0 4080 Canals.) 

experiments, Kans 830 

(See aim> tpeoial ervps.) 

farming in Utah Valley. Utah.. 388 
lyslmeter InTestlgatlons, 

U.8JD.A 482 

projects, pumping on 188 

projects, use of water on 187 

requirements of Yoma project, 

UJU>.i 484 

scheme, Gesira, in Sudan 791 

under Carey Act, U.8.DJk 786 

water rights leglsUtlon, Utah.. 483 

water, use 886 

l9aria arachnaphUa, notes . 469 

Isoleucylvalln anhydrid, structure 611 

Isopoda, terrestrial, check-list 647 

lihyoerus navetwrocenHe. (Bee Wee- 
tU, New York.) 

Itty$ penMtrto n.sp., description... 760 

Isode$ HotoiM — 

notes ^ 686. 687 

relation to louplng-Ul .. 884 

Jack beans — 

culture in Guam, Quam 828 

globulins of 806 

Jacks — 

in Oklahoma, Okla 76 

in Utoh. Utah 473 

Japanese cane. {See Sugar cane.) 

Jelly- 
making, pectin test 668 

making with sugar savers 668 

manufacture 414 

pectins forming 202 

Johnson grass — 

germination 222 

hay, mineral constituents, di- 
gestibility. Tex 769 

seed, resistance to desiccation — 39 

Jowar, seed position In planting 686 

Jute — 

culture in Pumea 288 

Bhlsoctonia disease 48, 347 

Kafir com — 

as silage crop, Kans 330 

chop, analyses. Tex 671 

culture experiments, Okla 32, 624 

culture in Guam, Guam 327 

feeding value, Okla 76, 278 



fVtUlaer experlBMnts, Okla.. 

grawing with legumes 

iBproTenwnt, Tex . 



624 
822 
787 

sei 



760 
022 



relatlDa «s 



■Uncial conatitDsntB, 

Ity, Tto 

seeding rates, Nehr.. 
weight of heads, 
of whori 

830, SSI 

Kaflrin, hydrolysis llO 

Ko M ps H a Iftw f aso i a t a on perslsi- 

tt. 167 



root-louse Injury . 60 

seed, growing; Waah «» 84(0 

saK— 

College, notes 06, 497. 600. 7»8 

Stetion, notes 96,497,798 

Station, report 3«7 

Kaoliang, culture experlaMOts, U.8. 

Djk 488 

Ksir and keOr whey, Iowa 879 

Kelp— 

as source of potadh 128 

decolorising eaiban fhmi 12 

files of North America 263 

Kentucky — 

Station, notes 98.199.497.798 

Unlyersity, notes. 98, 199, 497, 696, 798 

Keratitis, Infectioas, studies 685 

Ketonic function in metabolism 464 

KUioHermm pcfmsykHuileiMn,, notes. 260 

Kitchen economy . 361 

Kitchens, ftom, water aystem for. 

Mich 789 

Kohl-rabl— 

culture on moor soils.... 628 

fields^ weed control In.. . .. 636 

Labor — 

costs and seasonal dlstribuUoii 

In Utah VaUey, Utah 388 

saving In live-stock production, 

U.8.DJI 78 

(Bee also Agricultural labar.) 

Lac Industry In India 660 

Lachnosterna larvieb fumigation.. 266 

Laehnme — 

/siMpeKvora n.sp., description. 661 

panme, new genus for........ 661 

Lactade, manufacture and use, Iowh. 379 

Lactic— 

acid starters, preparation and 

propagation .. 79 

add, thlophene test for.. 114 

fermentation, action of mixtures 

of salts on. ..«.^.»^. 681 

Lactose — 

antiscorbutic potency 464 

determination . 607 

determination after heattaig and 

addition of sodium bicarbonate 618 
determination in milk choco- 
late 14 

Industrial manuCacture 416 

uigitizea Dy vjOOQIC 



1919] 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



968 



JLambfl — Page. 

tan cUpping. Nebr 569 

fan feeding, Nebr 569 

feeding experimezitB, lawa 874 

orphan, feeding, Utah 378 

paataring ezperimenta, U.8J>Jk. 471 
(See «Iao Sheep.) 

Lamemcomin of British India 68 

lilBd— 

clearing, Mich 788 

credit. (£ree Agricultural credit.) 
grai-t colleges. (See Agricul- 
tural colleges.) 

grant of 1862 195 

Indosare movement In England. 688 
plaster. (See Gsrpsum.) 

prtyate colonisation 192 

settlement 198,688 

settlement and tenure In New 

Zealand 106 

settlement for ez-servlce men 389, 

591» 687, 790 
settlement In CaUfomla. 194, 389, 591 

settlement In Canada 790 

settlement in the Punjab 505 

settlement on Irrigation projects 687 

tenancy, social aspects 890 

tenancy, studies. Wis 892 

▼slues in France^ treatise 892 

UTee also CQtK>ver land.) 

Unds of Japan, redlvlslon 892 

haphpifma frugiperda. {See Army 
worm, faU.) 



Chermes, studies 262 

Inaeets of bark and wood 453 

Kaioiimofaliya Infection ^ 253 

LsTd— 

as affected by feeding stuffs, 

Ala.Ooll«e 772 

digestfliillty 268 

production in United States, 

VJSJDJk 014 

LmnB hyperiHtreus, subspecies of 254 

Latlodenma aenrioome. iS^e dgar^ 

ettebeeOe.) 
L9»iod4pU>dia tlieobroma, notes... 155, 252 

liislopterlarlaB, studies 168 

LatuMina n.spp., descriptions 263 

Latp€irreH^-~ 

aiolestai, brief aeconnt 652 

moiegta, studies, Md 756 

prufttvora, notes, Md 756 

latb, production in 1917, U.S.D.A-. 848 
Laandry machinery, use in disinfec- 
tion and disinsection 551 

lAoieatia, North American species.. 761 
l4wn grasses as aflEected by soil 

addlty 126 

I«ad arsenate— 

costs and eflBclency 168 

effect on apples, Okla 689 

for boU weevil, Ala.Conege 752 

preparation 801 

Uad nitrate, preparation 801 



Leaf-hoppers — Page, 

notes « 864 

of Nova Scotia 261 

parasites of 266 

Leather — 

beetle in Hawaii 266 

chemistry 714 

volumenometer 208 

Leaves, nitrite assimilation in sun- 
light 426 

LcooMium oaprem, dialcid parasites. 651 
Lecithin phosphoric acid content of 

peas 508 

"L*ec]alr bleu" reaction, studies 311 

Legume anthracnose, notes 48 

Legumes — 

abortive seeds, position in pod.. 621 
and nonlegnmes, associative 

growth 821 

as alfected by sodium ehlorid 434 

culture 89 

decomposition in soil 214 

dried, cooking 860 

fertiliser experiments, Mont 429 

fangoid and insect pests 747 

inoculation 216, 822 

inoculation, Idaho 736 

inoculation. Wash 719 

production in Spain 798 

(See also Green manures and 
Alfalfa, Clover, ete,} 

Legumlns in peas ^ 607 

Lemon — > 

groves, damage by cold 842 

groves, heating, Oal 540 

Juice, antiscorbutic faetor 864,869 

tree, orange-like fruit 151 

Lemons— 

bud selection 161 

culture experiments, Guam 839 

frosen, changes in, Cal 589 

Lenzites sepiaria, studies 360 

Lepidiota frenoM, control . 648 

Lepidoptera — 

new genas allied to Leucoptera. 757 

of Japan, larv» 456 

L9pido$aphes heokU, (Bee Purple 
scale.) 

LepidoeeeUo viatrim, notes 459 

LeptinotarsadecemHneata. (Bee Po- 
tato beetle, Colorado.) 

Leptinotarsa, evolution In 860 

Leptohyrso rhodendri, notes, N.J 758 

Leptooeriea varioomie, notes 261 

Leptoi^lossiis h^ateatue, notes 165 

Leptoephcfria — 

herpotrichoidee, notes 846 

•oocAoH, notes 848 

Lepturgee epermaphaifue n.sp., de- 
scription -- . 664 

Lstbico— 

fertilizer experiments, Ind 740 

response to carbon dloxid 820 

Leococytosls, digestive, studies 71 

Leucoptera, new genus allied to 757 

Leukemia, radium treatment of, 

effect on metabolism 666 

uigiiizea Dy vjjOOQIC 



964 



BXPEBIMBNT STATION BEOOBD. 



[VoL^ 



Leroglncosane, powllile fonnnlas — 110 

Ltce— 

as affected by heat 547 

control by laundryinff — . — . 865, 551 

disease transmission by 550 

of cattle^ Conn.StorP8 661 

of bogs. Tenn 652 

on horses, control 684 

on poultry, control. Wash 754 

remedies 61,165,651,752 

studies 855 

Lice-borne diseases, prevention 466 

Ldght, action on organic com- 
pounds 425,426 

Lightning injury — 

to citrus trees - 646 

to grapevines 646 

to herbaceous plants 645 

lAgniera i8oeti€ n.8p., description — 249 

Lignum vltBj substitutes 640 

ZAnuuf mawimus, biology and reme- 
dies, U.S.D.A 56 

Limber neck in fowls 176 

Lime— 

agricultural, determining value. 816 

analyses, RJ -. 617 

and marl, comparison 821 

arsenate. {Bee Calcium axae- 
nate.) 

as factor in soil fertUity 800 

compounds, analyses, Mass. — 617 

cost of burning, Pa 816 

different forms, comparison*. 125, 322 

effect on cement mortar.. — .. 786 

effect on soil reaction 124 

effect on water-soluble nutrients 

In soils 124 

forms for grassland .«. 824 

In road concrete ..— — — . 788 

nitrogen. iSee Calcium cyana- 

mid.) 
of feeding stufBs, digestibility, 

Tex 769 

production in 1917 —-.- 26 

requirement of soils. (See SoUfl.) 

solubUlty in epldote 812 

uses and functions in solla, 

Mich 517 

waste, from acetylene mnnufae- 

ture .— _ 726 

(See aUo Calcium.) 

Limes — 

antiscorbutic value .— ^ — — 565 

insects affecting •...._....• 458 

Limestone — 

action on add soils, lU ». 428 

magnesium v. calcium ..— - 125 

media, growth of sorrel In..... 40 

resources of Pennsylvania, ¥au^ 816 

Limestones, inspection, Mo........ 622 

Lime-sulphur mixtu re s 

causing apple drop........... 67 

fungicidal coefficient.....——. 258 

fungicidal value . — 251 

insectlddal value 162, 168 

preparation.. — ......4... 801 



Ume-euliAar mizturee— Oontinued. 

use in seed treatsMOt..... 846 

use with nleoUn, N.J 162 

use with oil emulsions 458, 454 

Umlng^— 

efleete in cylinder eip et lm e n ts.. 821 

experiments 184,S21,61» 

experiments. Can ...... 724 

experiments on moor soils .,■■ 229 

(See also apeotal ervps.) 
Torkshlre soils 18B 



meal, analyses, Ind .... 72 

meal, analyses. Mass 671 

meal, analyses. Me 470 

meal, analyses, Mich . 071 

meal, analyses, N.J 065 

meal, feeding value, Iowa 874 

meal, feeding value, Ohio 278 

meal for milk production . 072 

meal, manurial value, Ohio 127 

oU, production In United States, 

U.8.D.A 614 

Uodontamerue spp., studies.. — .... 862 

Lip sores, spreading 283 

Lita wlaneOa, studies 864 

Litchi nut, food value. .. 178 

Live stock — 

diseases. {Bee Animal dlseaaee.) 

feeding, Utah 71 

great central markets 488 

in Canada In 1916, Can 792 

Industry In Bavarian Alps 891 

management In the West 176 

production, books on 176, 177 

production for 1919, U.S.D.A. 276,487 
production, labor saving In, 

U.8.D.^ 78 

statistics. U.S.D.A 594 

statistics in Bng^and and Wales. 694 

statistics In Finland 392 

statistics In India 793 

statistics in Nebraska 194 

statistics In New Zealand 19S 

statistics in Scotland 194 

(800 aUo Animals, Cattle, She^ 
etc,) 

Lohoptera emtranea, parasite oC... 864 

Locust, seventeen-year — 

in 1919, VSJ>.A 754 

popular account .. .. 549 

Locusts — 

control by parasites . 164 

of Nova Scotia 87, 856 

(Bee aUo Grasshoppers.) 

LoemopeVlUt eheopU, infectloasneM. 161 

Loganberries — 

culture, U.8.D.A . 160 

trelnlng. Wash ... 74S 

Loganberry beetle, notes 966 

Iiogwood as factor in dyeetofl Mtiia- 

tion .. 16 

Lotus borer, studies.............. 766 

Louisiana-* 

Stations, notes 897,900 

University, notes 900 

Lonplng-ill, studies 888 

uigitizea Dy vjiOOQlC 



1029] 



INVEX OF SUBJECTS. 



965 



LicenL (Bw Alfalfk.) 

of PMlippines 152 

IPradQctioxi In 1917, U.8.D.A 848 

nae on California Cftrms, Gal 90 

(See aiao Timber amd Wood.) 

LBBbrlddB of Nortb America 267 

LopiDw— 

as coffee sobatitiitea 864 

as green manure 229 

culture experiments 288 

growth on Tolcanic asb 812 

inocolation experiments 822 

Lutsar cells and lien-featliering 666 

oommmnis novcsootiengis, reme- 
dies 364 

nforms, descriptions 863 

protensis. (See Tarnisbed plant 
bug.) 

IjgBs, stodlea 863 

Ljrmpfaangitis — 

epiiootic 85, 289. 686, 886 

stapbjlo-strepto-cryptococGic 680 

vkeiatlve 85. 780. 886 

" lumphoid defense/' relation to diet 

and blood cholesterol 767 

Ijslmetcr inTestigations, U.S.D.A.. 431 
I^sla, synthesis by mammary gland. 72 
Uaearonl wheat. {See Wheat, 

domm.) 
Maodonak) Institute of Agriculture 

and Plant Bxperlment Station — 600 
Machinery. {See Agricultural ma- 
chinery.) 



miMUfom, studies 466 

wpp,, wing development .. 466 



eanttugforme on red clover.... 166 

nmniferi n.6p., description 165 

9ophortg n^p., notes 160 

JTsdisa ctmicola n.sp., description 757 

Xsgdalis, notes 769 

fertilising value 726, 824 

of feeding stuffs, digestibility, 

Tex 769 

solubility in dirysoUte 812 

ICsgnesite, fertUlsing value 815 



cariionate, effect on i^ants 826 

deficiency, effect on oat plant.. 824 

Ifaaestone, fertilising value 126 

nutrition of plants. Ark 726 

potasrinm sulphate, prepara- 
tion 801 

sdts, indnenoe on nltrle-nitro- 

gen accumulation 722 

MsgDoUa, eeU division tai 618 

Mshogaay and its substitutes 843 

Mslae— 

AgilcBltnral and Industrial 

League, demonstration ferm. 600 

Station, notes . 497 

Hrise. (tresCoiB.) 



JTslOoososio osierloaiMk (See Tent 
caterpillar.) 

Malaria — Page. 

control in rice districts 867, 868 

studies 866 

transmission by Anopheles 662 

transmission by Egyptian Ano- 
pheles . 262 

Ifalarlal— 

anophelines, studies 168 

fever, metabolism In 868 

Hal-de-caderas, treatment 688 

MaUard ducks, food habits, U.S.D.A. 264 

Malt— 

amylase, studies 604 

culms in ration, effect on bulk 

of manure 126 

sprouts, analyses, N.J 666 

Malting operations, barley substi- 
tute In 808 

JfiMiOfim picta. (See Zebra-cater^ 
pillar.) 

Mammalian chromosomes, fixation.. 662 

Mammals — 

inheritance of color 869 

inheritance of fertility 662 

Mammary gland—' 

secretion as factor of safety for 

the suckling 661 

studies 467 

synthetic capacity 72 

Mammitis— 

studies 87 

treatment 778 

Man— 

colw Inheritance in 870 

growth of the body 872 

Manatee — 

grass, analyses 862 

use as food 862 

Manganese — 

effect on soils and plants, N.T. 

Cornell 820 

in acid soils, Ala.College 728 

salts, influence on nltric-nltrogen 

accumulation 722 

sulphate, fertilising value 440 

Mange, parasitic 683 

(See also Scabies and Cattle, 
Horse, and Sheep mange wr 
scab.) 

Mangel juice, thickened, carbon dl- 
oxld formation in 616 

Mangels— 

and sugar beets, comparative 

ytaidfl, U.8.D,A 481 

culture experiments 626 

culture experiments. Can 736 

culture in Antigua 622 

culture In South Dakota, S.Dak. 32 

culture on moor soils 623 

effect on following crop, R.I — 623 

fertiliser experiments 622 

home-grown seed, WsKh 340 

liming experiments 822 

sUoing, U.S.D.A 431 

uigitizea Dy vjiOOQlC 



966 



EXPEBIMBNT STATION BBCOBD. 



[V<d.40 



Mangels — Cdntlnued. 

variety tests, U.8.D.A 481 

yields, Minn 784 

Manffinia ampeUna, studies 850 

Mango — 

diseases* algal 48 

fruit fly, notes, P.B 56 

tree borer, notes 055 

Mangoes — 

culture experiments, Guam 389 

in Porto Elco. P.B 44 

Mangrove — 

borer on casaurina 800 

forests of British India 40 

Mangroves, sap concentration 130 

Manomera hlatohleyi, notes 853 

M€M9onia tUilUJBM in Canal Zone 058 

Manure — 

and nitrification in the soli 728 

fertilizing value 135, 228, 229, 338 

fertillBlng value, Kans 819 

fertilizing value, Mont 429 

fertilising value, Tex 510 

fertilizing value, U.S.D.A 881, 

480, 481, 432 

fertilising value, Wash 422 

fertilizing value, Wyo 030, 036 

for greenhouse crops, Ind 789 

for greenhouse crops, Md 741 

for moor soils 230 

for wheat. Wash 730, 731 

heap, caring for 24 

kraal, analyses 021 

liquid, preservation 723 

nitrogen availability, N.J 125 

produced by steers on different 

rations ^ 120 

rock rabbit, analyses 021 

stable, 17. green manures* N.J 120 

substitutes for. Can 724 

treatment for fly control 350 

V. clover as source of humus, 

Can 724 

value on Indiana soils, Ind 514 

(See also Cow, Poultry, eic.) 

Manures, secondary effects on soil — 515 

Manurial values of dairy feeds, Ohio. 120 

Manuring experiments with irrigated 

crops 421 

Maple products — 

adulteration 012 

standards and analyses 864 

Maples, insects affecting 554, 855 

Mamsmius aacchari, notes 47, 155, 848 

Margarin, vegetable, rancidity 714 

Morgaropu9 — 

annulatua. (See Cattle tick.) 

mioroplus in Argentina 459 

Marine alg«. (Bee AlgSB, marine.) 

Markets- 
garden crops, organic matter for 184 

gardens of South Australia 840 

iSee aiao Truck crops.) 

Marketing — 

agricultural products 293, 791, 792 

agricultural products, N.C 294 

auction..*- . 469 



Marketing— Coatlnned. 

car-lot distribution in 

collegiate courses on 294 

cooperfttfre 488. 489 

cooperative. In France 088 

county. In Bngland and Wales.. 890 

govemmeBt, of Australian wheat 001 

improvement 489 

in Idaho 089 

in Louisiana 92 

in New Jersey 592 

in Washington 089 

laws in New York 390 

live stock 488 

perishable products 488,489 

relation of Government to 298 

Markets, municipal terminal 298 

Marl- 
calcareous, use in agriculture 810 

fertilizing value 321 

Marsh soils, vegetation as indicator 

of quality 718 

Marshlands, improvement, Greg 587 

Maryland — 

College and Station, notes 98, 199 

Station, rnwrt 494 

Mashyem kalal, description and cul- 
ture 231 

Massachusetts — 

College, bibliography of 595 

CoUege, notes 98,109,497 

Station, notes 98, 199, 497, 900 

Massecultes — 

frothy fermentation 615 

tables for purity 110 

treatment 510 

Mastitis. (See Mammitis.) 

Mathematics for agricultural stu- 
dents 796 

May beetle, bird enemies 547 

Maya farms, alse of 088 

Meadow — 

culture tests in Jutland 180 

fescue. {Bee FMcne.) 

foxtail on bog and moss soils 212 

land, index to phosphorus and 

potash requirements 22 

plant bug, studies 200 

Meadows — 

fertUiaer experiments 180 

seeding experiments 281 

swampy, water table 211 

(Bee iOto Hay and Grass.) 

Meal, crud« fiber in, determination.. 200 

Mealy bugs — 

Califomian species 202 

paraattes of 859 

Meat- 
cooking 050,805 

dishes from wa«te, recipes 058 

great central markets 488 

hygiene, data on 188 

inspection, treatise 577 

meal, analyses, Ind . 72 

. powder, nutritive value 408, 404 

production in United States, 

U.8.D.A 792 

uigiiizea Dy vjjOOQIC 



Ifti*] 



n^DBX OP SUBJECTS. 



967 



Mcftt — Oontfoned. Page, 
products, crttuwitliig wfttBr con- 
tent -— 807 

wenp, analyws, Ind 72 

9cnpt tJudjw&B, Man . 671 

■eram analyiM, Me 470 

•cnp, msal^aes, N.J 066 

soap for laytnir bens 070 

icrap for laying bens, Ind 70, 773 

shrinkage In cooklnir 066 

spoiled, ^emlcal stndies 712, 718 

supply of Franco 488 

Media. (Be0 Ciiltore media.) 
Medicago spedes, glandular pubes- 

ence 187 

Medicinal herlM, descrlptlTe aceonnt. 247 
Medldne^ physiology and biochem- 
istry In 677 

Medidnes, patent and proprietary — 182 
]fegtchlle— 

poDlnatinff alfalfa 204 

poUinating alfklfa. Can 700 

Mtgattigmm$ ameftm&MerU n.sp.i^ de- 
scription 060 

ireloiiosnis spp., notes ..._ 100 

MOmoomkum tmoehmri, notes 166 

Mdanln pigment, formation 006 

M^ltmophtM spp^ parasitic infections. 104 

MeUgeikm mmeu9 (WoBHcm), notes. 200 

Mdilot, white, as green mannre 24 

Mcilolas and associated fnngi 249 

Melon fly, parasites of 460 

Meloos, oU and piesi cake from 

seeds 808 

Memifthnu poHsWforsit s . (ffw Grape 

root4M»er.) 
Ueadellan inheritance and probable 

error of class frequencies, Colo 624 

Mealsgltis organisms, agglutination 

test 88 

Memnle florid— 

asUs^tlc value ^. 182 

effect on cosDpleBMnt and anti- 
body production.- 287 

Hercory, determination 712 

MmMmt IflonrsiSfis, stndies 850 

Mesembryantbemum, gas in- 
terchange 29 

Mem management, military hospiul. 800 
MettboUsm— 

following food ingestion 270, 808 

In a case of leukemia during 

radium treatment 600 

Id malafial ferer 808 

intermediary, giydn and amino- 

aldehyde in 71 

ketoalc Ainetlon in 404 

mineral, of milch cow, Ohio 873 

of boys 808 

of women 174 

treatise 408 

uric add, studies 176 

Mctaiftreaiatln in the vegetable cdl. 826 

JfetamsHiM riMUH, notes 269 

Metaphls n.g^ description 00 



Meteorological — 

observations — Page. 

Bfass 210, 611 

Mont 417 

N.Y.State 511 

Okla 19, 017 

n.8.D.^ 19, 

117, 209, 410, 611, 017, 716. 710 

at Berkeley, California 710 

at Manila 19 

at Wisley 117, 810 

in Ceylon.. 811 

in Quebec 718 

research, statistical method, 

U.8.D.A 410 

research, subjects for, n.8.D.A-. 016 

review for Paris region 611 

Meteorology — 

agricultural 19 

papers on, U.8.I>.A 117, 410, 017 

(Bee also Climate, Bainfau, 
Weather, oto.) 

Meth, description and culture : 231 

Methane, analysts, ai^azatus for., ill 
Methyl alcohol— 

determination 16, 204, 310, 418 

occurrence in foodstuffs and be- 

harior in the body 204 

Methylene-blue-milk method for oxy- 
gen determination . 013 

Metol, preparation 604 

Mice- 
color Inheritance . 275 

field, relation to seven-day fever 86 

meadow, studies ..... 264 

ovulation In ._ 003 

suckling, gestation in 409 

(See also Mouse oiid Bodenta.) 
Midiigan — 

Station, quarterly bulletin 07, 797 

Upper Peninsular Station, re- 
port 790 

Jfiorobrocow eephi n.q^, description. 701 

Micrococd in udder Infections 87 

Jflorodat diatram n.sp., description. 664 

Microgaeterid», notes 802 

Mlcrogasterinn, new African 468 

Jflsrotiis ooWomioiis, revision 264 

Middlings, analyses. Me 470 

(See Also Wheat, Bye, etc.) 

Milk— 

acidity, effect on inactlvation 

of peroxidase XI 

action of heat on after addition 

of sodium bicarbonate 013 

aod whey, acidity 11 

antiscorbutic value 272 

as sole diet of ruminants, Iowa. 707 

as source of diphtheria infection 79 
B, abartrnt and related bacterid 

In 184 

Babcock test, Minn 378 

bacteria, action on proteins 877 

bacterial count, Conn.Storrs 078 

boiled and unboiled, effect on in- 
testinal flora 807 

uigiiizea Dy VJiOOQlC 



968 



EXPERIMENT 8TATI0K BEGOBD. 



[V0L40 



Milk— Contlniied. 

calculation of added water In 

calculation of nutritive value 

from routine tests 

cholesterol In 

daiiflcatlon, Conn.StorT8. 



412 

676 

11 

676 



clarification, Iowa . 775 

colon counl^ 17.S.D.it 876 

condensed, analyses. 879 

condensed, remade milk ftom — 808 

condensed, sweetened 565 

condensed, treatise 288 

contests, rOIe in Improving milk 

sapplj, Oreg 675 

cooling, Conn.Storrs 676 

cooling, U.S.D.i^ 475 

cost of production 282 

cost of production. 111 878 

cost of production, N.J 474 

cost of production, Ohio 875 

cost of production, Wash 876 

cost of production and prices. 

Mo 281 

detection in pastry 612 

distribution 280 

dried, studies and analyses 379 

examination, handbook 876 

fat content, variations In Arl- 

sona - — — 800 

fat, glycerids of 608 

fat losses In creameries, Minn — 877 
fat percentage, inheritance In 

"cattle 74 

fat, Beichert-Melssl number, de- 
termination 412 

fermented, Iowa 879 

for Inftuits, calcium csntent— 661, 869 

hemolytic streptococci in 478 

human, cholesterol in . 11 

human, composition 775 

human, nonprotein nitrogen in, 

determination 509 

human, reaction of ft68 

industrial treatments 415 

industry, history of 879 

malted, microanalysis 609 

methods of analysis 876, 476 

methylene blue reduction, rela- 
tion to oxygen concentration. 618 

mixtures, calculation card 877 

nonprotein nitrogenous constitu- 
ents, determination 509 

of various animals, composition 775 

pasteurization 776 

pasteurization, Conn.Storrs 675 

pasteurised, for cheese making, 

U.S^D.A 80 

pasteurized, for infants — « — 864 

plants, use of fuel in, U.S.D..A — 476 

powder, remade milk from 

powder, treatise..... — .. — .. 
price fixing 



processing, studies, Conn.Storrs- 
producers' and consumers' price, 
production — 

and distribution 

and handling, Conn.8torr8- 



803 
288 
299 
676 
879 



280 
678 



MUk—OontiBiied. 

productidi— contimisd. Pave, 

and percentage of solids, 

hereditary factors 672 

during heat period 878 

in United States, U.8J[>.A- 594 

inheritance in cattle 74 

mineral metabolism daring, 

Ohio 878 

proteins tor .. 572 

relation to age at first calf, 

Md 178 

water requirements for 774 

products, methods of analysis 507 

protein-free 463, 608 

proteins, physiochemical state.. 601 

records, analyses. Me 872 

relation to health 806 

reoiade .. 802 

secretion as affected by barley, 

Cal 878 

secretion, lysln synthesis in 72 

serum, preparation 11 

sickn«B8, relation to white snake- 
root 681 

skimmed. (^Tm Bkim milk.) 

solids, variations and secretioa. 672 

solids, variations and secretion, 

Me 872 

sour, destruction of B. tp^o9U9 

in 476 

standards 864 

storing and shipping, U.8.D.A.. 47S 

straining, U.S.DJk 475 

streptothrix in 184,185 

supply and public health 179 

supply of cities in Canada 879 

supply of Dublin 288 

supply of Paris in 1917 674 

supply of Portland, Oreg 576 

use by families having little 

children 863 

utensils, Conn.Storr8.. 674 

value in the diet 179, 280, 859 

Milking, machine, Conn.8torrs 674 

Millers, manual and record book for> 868 
Millet— 

and Sudan grass, comparative 

yields, Iowa 828 

culture experiments in India — 832 

effect on following crop, Minn 734 

effect on following crop, R.I 628 

fertiliser experiments . 332 

growing with corn . 822 

irrigation experiments, Kans 881 

milling experiments.. 556 

mineral constituents, digestibil- 
ity, Tex 769 

seeding experiments, Kans — ... 831 

smut, treatment..... . — 48 

Striga lutea on . — 48 

variety tests 332 

variety tests, Nebr 523 

yields. Minn 733, 786 

MUo maise — 

chemistry of, Okia . 608 

chop, analyses, Tex..... — ... 671 

uigiiizea Dy vjjOOQIC 



&il9] 



INDEX OF ST7BJECTS. 



969 



MO* BMlae— ObBtfaiaed. T$m» 

cnltore experiments, U.SJ).A.. 488 

cidtare In Kansas, Kans 881 

hogglng^oit, U.aDJk 472 

Improrement, Tex 787 

Inrlgatlott experiments, Kans — 880 
stover yields, Kans 880 

ICiinetle crystals, classification 609 

raising for for.! 878 

isot a 

BtaUon. notes 297,497.686 

Station, report 797 

Unlrersltyi notes.. 297, 497, 600, 606 
.JTMv doUOhratM, studies 260 

Mlnsfsstppl Station, notes 98,696 

lUasonrl Unlrenlty and Station, 

notes 297, 497. 696 

Mistletoe— 

In Wert Indies! 155 

parasitic on mistletoe . .. 226 

Mistletoes, ftOse, studies 253 

Mites of BarlMidos 56 



726 

828,425,818 



m 

in plant cells. 



beet palp. {See Beet pulp.) 

detvminlnir «aerose content — 206 

feed, feeding yalue, B.C 6T2 

feeds, analyses^ Mass 571 

of analyils 412 

^ 818 



Molds, actlTlty In soil 122, 818, 721 

MtmmratroMiif huM^ notes, N J_ 754 
JfoneepAoro Weincta, notes 458, 856 



d ns w a , notf — ,— — • 845 

850 

749 

jwfssoaws, stndiss 847 

JTsnoAMMMS fUttOmtm', notes 654 

Monophaftem, vtndlss 869 

Montana-— 

Ocrfleffs and Station, notes 199 

Station, report 494 

Moor cohnre experiments 229, 522 

Moor soils— 

hog and moss, fertilizer experi- 
ments . . — 185 

bog and moss, water table and 

root development In .. 211 

Inoculation experiments 822 

nitrate formation in 811 

{Bee also Feat soils.) 

Moors, bomlng for grouse and sbeep. 667 

Mosaic disease, carrier 251 

Mosqnlto bites, pallUtlTea for 168 

MiMvnitoes — 

control 652, 648, 658 

lake, in Canal Zone... 688 

lanrleldes 458 

(iBos also AnofAelet, Cnlex, and 
Stsgomyla.) 
Mothers, nm^lng, as factor of safety 

ta nutrition of tbe yoong; • — 661 

14«d9'— 20 7 



Motor — Page, 

and wagon hanllng, costs, 

I7.S.D.A 98 

tmck efficiency 887 

tmck roQte, cooperative, 

U.8.D.A 898 

Mouse — 

bite causing sporotrichosis 180 

fsTUs, relation to Australian 

wheat 683 

(See eXeo Mice.) 

Mucilages, plant, studies 818,819 

Muck— 

fertilising yalue 184 

soils of Washington, potash re- 
quirement. Wash 422 

ifocor racemoeue, studies 847 

Mulberry pests in Formosa 168 

Mung beans as poultry pasture, Tex. 729 

Mungobeang^ 

culture in Philippines 281 

field tests in Pljl 281 

intercropping com with 627 

Muriate of potash. (See Potassium 
chlorid.) 

Mueea domeeUea, (fiee House-fly.) 

Muscle, hydrogen-ion concentration 

during work 274 

Muscold— 

genera and species, new. 
•ynonymy , 



MvscoYlte, solubility of potash in — 
Mushrooms, fungus diseases. 



869 
768 
812 
157 
260 
657 



Muskmelons, anthracnose, 17.8J>.A.. 

Mussels as food........-.-.-- 

MostarA— 

as alleeted by cyanamid and 

dicyanodiamld 724 

as green manure . 24,228 

fertiliser experiments 516 

gas poisoning ' 882 

Mutation— 

in sweet peas 541 

mass, in CEnothera 182 

Mutational characters, relation to 

cell size 828 

Mycoidea paraeitioa, notes, P.B 47 

MyooephmreUa fragariw, notes 158 

Mydae olovatue larvn, notes 653 

Myriapoda, British, check-list 647 

Myrtle-berry extract aa an indicator* 409 

Myxonycetes, cytology of 726 

Mymoeargue migrioo r m U n.sp., de- 

scription..*..-......-. . 757 

Myzosporidla, filament extrusion.- 255 

Mysopsis n.g;, description 60 

Jf yj os 

In'oggii in Louisiana, X7.8.D.A.. 58 
oeraei, {Bee Cherry aphis, 

bUck.) 
pereiem, {Bee Peach aphis, 
green.) 
2fap9O0apue ineignie fruteeiatme 

n.subsp^ deoeription.— 646 

Narcosis and anssthesla 778 

National Orange of Patrons of Hus- 
bandry 592 



uigiiizea Dy 



Google 



970 



EXPERIMENT STATION REGOBD. 



[Vol. 40 



Nature Btndy— PMPe. 

courses 493, 898 

guide 898 

Nayel-lU, treatment 181 

Kebraeka University and Station. 

notes 898, Wf 

Necrobadllosis — 

in hogs, Ind 788 

to horses and males 186 

Necrotic ulcers of the tongue 283 

Nectarine brown rot, treatment 861 

Neotria spp. on pear 251 

VeetrieUa mUHtta on Agave 844 

Nematode parasi te s of the dog 89 

Nematodes-^ 

in crop of chickens 987 

reproduction In artificial media. 26T 

Veohorus amoemu; notes, N.7 753 

Veoooimospora vasfnfeota, notes 845 

Jieodiprion n.g. and n.8pp., descrip- 
tions 761 

VeolaHoptera Mbiwt, studies 754 

KeohfffUB fiys«0 n.sp., description — 858 
JieoMiara n.g. and n.spp., descrip- 
tions 858 

Nephritis, tartrate. (See Tartrate 
nephritis.) 

Nesting habits of the hen, Iowa 77 

Nettie as a textile 85 

Nevada — 

Station, notes.- 898, 600 

University, notes 898 

New Hampshire College, notes 600 

New Jersey — 

College and Stations, notes.. 297, 697 

Stations, reports . . 198,797 

New Mexico College and Station, 

notes — . .... .... .. 298 

New York— 

Cprnell Station, notes 199 

Cornell Station, report ... 694 

State Station, reports.. 97,599 

ymfara viridmkh notes .. 169 

Nicotiana— 

abnormalities in . .... 296 

blossom color inheritance .. 442 

controlled pollination in .. 181 

Ifieotiano tahaonm, cytokinesis of 

pollen mother cells...... ... 518 

Nicotin— 

sprays, use with eoap... ... 762 

sulphate sprays, tests 161*162 

Night temperature- 
increase with height 814 

relation to humidity . 715 

studies in Eoswell fruit district, 

U.S.D.ik 117 

NUe silt 620 

yi90tra ufUformiB on ootton 266 

Niter cake- 
effect on barley . 516 

in superphosphate manufacture. 221 
Nitrate- 
content of soils as affected by 

tillage methods. Wash 719 

content of soils, rdatkm to 

wheat yield. Wash 719 



Nitrate— Conttnued. 

of potash, preparation 801 

of soda. (Bee Sodium nitrate.) 
reductlOB in cultivated soUs SIB 

Nitrate*— 

and nitrites, determination M9 

loss from boU as affected by 

plant residues 121 

of soUt determination 506 

Nitric— 

acid, physical and chemical 

data 607 

nitrogen In soil, influence of salts 

on T22 

Nitrification— 

as affected by calcium carbonate. 728 
as affected by carbon disulphld 

and toluol Bit 

as affected by soil moisture. 

Wash 719 

as affected by straw. Wash 719 

In add soil, studies 699 

in Indian alluvium as sJDseted 

in moor soils — .. — ........i.* — 811 

in natural soils ... 418 

Nitrifying organisms as affected by 

cyanamid and dicyanodlamid.. — 724 
Nitrites— 

determination 309, 610 

formation in aqueous soluttoB 

by sunlight 425 

Nitrogen — 

accumulation and uttUiatlon, 

N.J 129 

analysis, apparatus for 111 

apparatus, aU-gtass 609, 806 

availabUity experiiMnts, N^ — 129 
compounds, physical and chemi- 
cal data.... — ..... — ...... 607 

content of rain and snow......^ 809 

content of rain and snow, Osu ■■ 724 
content of soils as affected by 

alfalfk «- 722 

content of soils as affected by 

alfalfa, Kans 819 

content of soils as affected by 

alfUfa, Wash 719 

content of soils as affected by 

molds 128. 818 

content of volcanic ash 812 

deficiency, effect on oat plant — 824 

determination 111. 711, 806 

determination In feeding stuffs. 510 

detennlnation in wheat 507 

distribution In seeds, determina- 
tion 602 

fixation as affected by carbon di- 
sulphld and toluol 518 

fixation as affected by plaht resi- 
dues . 121 

fixation, dectrlc 127 

fixation, recent advances In 801 

from ollve-oll residue 26 

In proteln-fkee milk 008 

In rainwater of Alaska 809 

uigitizea Dy vjOOQIC 



1919] 



IKDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



971 



NItTotrn Cunti lined, 

IntozlGatlon, aeaaonal chaimcter. 
line. (See CKldam cyanamtd.) 

metaboUsm of women... 

■etlioda of manufacture .. 

Bonprotelo, detennlnatlon in 

blood temm 

■ooproteln, determination in 

Billk — . . •_ _^ . , ■ . ., 

ozlda, utilisation....... — .... 

problem in relation to tbe war., 
rdationa of crop plants.*..— . 



Pag*. 
463 

174 
25 

810 

609 

815 

26 

881 



tetlllaer, Behmadorfer 820 

fertilisers* ooraparison 242,824 

tetUisera, comparison, Can 724 

fertilisers^ eomparison, N.J 126 

NitroUm, grannlar p, ordinary^ 616 

Kltroos add, determination 610 

Kocardia infection of vddera . 186 

Koctnmal cooling studies 814,716 

Kodnle-formlnff organisms^ alkali tol- 
erance — . — - 486 

JTols siefollopa^ notes 867 

Noaendatare, sUbllUing 264 

JTesonria trum e ata, notes.... — ... 468 
Korth CaxoUna— 

College, notes 900 

Station, notes 888,900 

Nortb Dakota College and Station, 

Botes 498 

Neee fly, distzibatioa in United 

States 468 

spis^ relation to Isle of Wight 

66 

spores, filament ex- 

tmslon 266 

Notodontlan larvab notes 648 

JTstolopJMM antiqua, notes..*— «... 67 

Ksebe, studies , — 268 

Ifsrsery Btotk — 

d is e ases in Kentucky.......... 68 

exdusion legUUtkm — ........ 646 

fumigation . .... 266 

"stop-back," relatios to tar- 

nisiied plant bug. Mo . 466 

Htt-grass, eradication 828 

Kutrient media. <S€e Culture media.) 
KatEle&t solution — 

experiments, technique ........ 817 

for plant cultures .. 620 

reaction, relation of i^ant to... 824 

studies, trlani^e system 126 

Rstrients, sttmolatlng effect on me- 

tiJwIism 270 

NutrltioB— 

and growth, standards for 866 

caldum and phosphorus requlie- 

for undernourished chil* 

661 

importance of caldum in...... 767 

inorganic elements in......M». 70 

inorganic sulphates In «... 71 

Laboratory of Carnegie Institu- 
tion 465 



Mntrltion — Continued. Page, 
limited, effect on growing steers, 

Mo 66t 

newer knowledge of 654 

papers on . — . — .- — 864 

study, national laboratories for. 664 
(iSfee al80 Diet) 

Nutritional physiology, treatise 468 

NutritlTe elements, effects on oat 

plant 324 

Nuts — 

acreage and values in California 638 

as food 178 

Insects affecting 269 

iDvestigatftons, Md 160 

Tariety collections . .. 834 

NyHus fHnitor, notes.... ... 768 



fossil, of America a. 168 

germination studies .. 47 

hybridisation experiments . 47 

resistance to OTdium 253 

white, polyembryony in . 226 

white, ray system.. ..... 168 

Oat- 
aphis, notes .... 648 

blights, bacterial, notes 846 

diet, effect on phenol excretion. 278 

feed, analyses, Mass 571 

Adds, weed control in 636 

grass, tall, culture experiments. 186 
grass, tall, for irrigated pas- 
tures, U.8.D.A 482 

grass, tall meadow, yldds, 

Minn 788 

hay, mineral constituents, diges- 
tibility, Tex 769 

hulls, analyses, Bfich 671 

hulls, analyses, N.J 666 

plan^ nutritive dements 324 

smut, treatment 166 

smut, treatment. Can 166 

smut, treatment, Ind 736 

smut, treatment, Mich 49 

smut, treatment, Ohio 747 

smut, treatment, Wyo 630 

stem rust, spore morphology 642 

straw, feeding yalue, U.8.D.A-. 666 

stripe blight, notes 846 

Oatmeal—- 

by-products for feeding, Mich-. 72 

flour, recipes 67 

in bread making 860 

Oats— 

allcali tolerance 719 

and barley, comparative growth 

in nutrient solutions 184 

and barley, oomparatlve yields 186 

and barley, comparative yields, 

Iowa 828 

and clover following various 

crops, Ala.College 829 

and com, analyses, N.J — . — . 666 
and cowpeas, liming experimrats, 

N.J 126 

and peas as -"age .c^cy^yMJch^-^x^?? 



972 



EXFEBIMEKT STATION RECOBD. 



rvol.40 



Oats — Continued. PagiB, 

and peas for hay, Ohio 786 

and peas, yields, Minn 785 

• and vetch, fotUlser experi- 
ments 184 

and vetch for green fallow 229 

ae a nnrse crop, Iowa 829 

as affected by barlnm and stron- 

tlmn 819 

as affected by soil acidity 184, 824 

as meadow cover crop 187 

bleaching with solphur dlozid, 

U.8.D..A 85 

breeding 628 

breeding experiments 288, 624 

color and other characters, rela- 
tions 289 

common and bearded, origin and 

early habitat 4129 

cost of production, Ohio 292 

culture experiments .. 228,825 

'nilture experiments. Can 786 

culture experiments, Mich 781 

culture in Indiana, Ind.. 786 

culture In New Mexico, N.Mex. 18 
culture In North Dakota, 

U.S.D.A - 786 

culture in Wyoming, Wyo 680 

culture on moor aoUs — .. 280,622 

decomposition in soil 214 

depths of plowing tests, Okla 624 

dwarfness In - 827 

effect on Azotobacter, Iowa 618 

effect on following crop, B.I.« 623 

fertiliser experiments.. . 185, 

229,289,825 

fertiUaer experiments, Minn 784 

fertilizer experiments. Mo 21S 

germination at different dates 

after thrashing, Mont 443 

green manuring experiments 24 

ground, analyses. Mass 671 

ground, analyses, Tex 671 

ground seaweed for, Can 724 

growing with com 822 

growing with legumes 822 

humln nitrogen content 510 

inheritance of early and late 

ripening - 628 

inheritance of huU-lessness « 438 

inheritance of tight and loose 

palee 629 

Introduced and acclimated, 

Mont 429 

kernel - percentage determina- 
tions 85 

liming experiments 822 

manurial value, Ohio 127 

new strain, Kans 829 

pedigreed. In Wisconsin 624 

plat tests, technique 227,628 

primary, secondary, and double 

kernels for seed, Minn 731 

relative yielding caiMtcity 62S 

rotation experiments 229 

rotation experiments, Ala.Col* 

lege 829 



Oats— Continued. 

rotation experiments, Minn 738 

rotation experiments, 17.8.D.A. 331, 431 

secondary rootlets 82 

seeding depths, Utah 227 

seeding experiments 228 

seeding experim«its, Minn 731 

seeding time, Ala.CoIlege 728 

selection experiments 238,628 

selection experiments, Mont 429 

soil moisture removal by, Mont. 430 

statistical notes 626 

use in bread making 860, 86S 

V, spring wheat. III 443 

varieties, identification 238 

varieties in Argentina 680 

variety tests 138, 228, 283 

variety tests, Ala.CoIlege 728 

variety tests, Ind 735 

variety tests, Iowa 828 

variety tests, Mich 781 

variety tests, Minn 731, 732, 738 

variety tests, OMa 82,624 

variety tests, Tex 729 

variety tests, U.8.D.A 882,431 

variety tests. Wash 730,731 

varied tests, rod-row method 233 

water requirements 680 

water requironents, Wyo 630 

wild, eradication, Wyo 630 

yields, Minn 736 

Ochroma, synopsis and new species. 642 

OdowHa MoohoHooki, notes 848 

0€O9tieH» y la ftw s te , control by para- 
sites 865 

Oenothera — 

embryo aae and fertiliBatien 621 

mass mutations aad twin hy- 

brtds 182 

mutational diaractsrs, relation 

to eeU sise.. • - - 828 

OBstrintt of Brastl 468 

Oestrous cycle in the guinea pig 467 

Oestrus in swine.. ... . 668 

Office of Vmxm Management-* 

notes . ...... 600 

organintlon and work, tJ.SJ[> JL. 890 
Ohio- 
State University, notes 408,698 

Station, monOily bulletin 198, 

296,897,694,797 

Station, report 198 

Oidiomycosis in cattle 88 

Old<tH» lMlfo» Uology 618 

OU— 

antSsepties, germicidal power 882 

avocado, digesHbiUty 768 

emulsions, use with lime sul- 
phur 468,454 

from aleurone cells of grain 714 

from fruit seeds 611, 614, 803 

from manatee blubber 862 

from Mgongo nuts 803 

of cassia, constituents 202 

palm, notes • 449, 542 

plants of Indo-China 838 

seed crops for Bhodesla 883 

uigitizea Dy vjOOQIC 



1919] 



TI7DEX OF SUBJECTS. 



973 



00— Obntfmied. 

Ktdm, determining oil content.- 808 

seeds, Indian trade In 231 

OOt and tets — 

for the diet 863 

baadbMk 804 

methods of analysis 812 

optical dispersion 118 

prodnctlon and conserratlon in 

United mates. U.S.D.A 614 

Vedfle heat 68 

{See also Fats.) 

(HMtee e&menetoni n.8p., description. 655 

Otmogana viriOie n.sp., description- 856 
OUahoma — 

Cblleffe, notes 98,498 

Station, notes 98 

Ststlon, reports 9T, 694 

OlefJhreaies vfuriegana, studies 551, 653 

OUTe— 

oil, production In United States, 

U.8.D.A 614 

on resldne, fertilizing value 26 

scale, black. In Chile 651 

OHrts, Insects affecting 854 

Okma S0 fiber plant 620 

Olor eoknMamme on the Potomac.- 161 

Osoofsit so^rlvs, notes 57 

Onion- 
bacterial rot, notes .... 155 

dtoeases in Ohio, Ohio 747 

fly, Innate, In New Jersey 654 

■Aggot. Imported, notes .. 64S 

pink root, studies 648 

thrlps, control, U.S.D.A 548 

Ostans— 

alkali tolerance ^•.. 719 

as affected by preceding crop^ 

B.I 628 

esrbon blsulphld for 619 

culture, N.Mex 888 

effect on following crop, ILI — 623 

growth on acid soli 824 

liming experiments 184 

variety tests, U.S.D.A 44 

wild, stock poisoning by 577 

Oaopfallns n.g., description 61 

Oofpora seoMes. {See Potato scab.) 

Ootetiasticfaus In Hawaii 854 

Ofetrwm depressum, studies 854 

Ophldis, wounds and diseases 55 

OHm hmmai e, studies 459 

OiMstega and Ha larral afflnities — 767 
Opimtla— 

root growth in relation to oxy- 
gen 80 

Bpedca as ornamentals 640 

water absorption and erapora- 

HoA 27 

Oyaalte sppi. wound perldorm In — 728 



889 

272 

62 

70 

169 



black rort, notes 

Juice, anttoeorbntle actlrity — 
papillo and Its natural enemy.. 
ped as an antiscorbutic ... 



Orange— Continued. Page. 

root rot in Tripoli 851 

Tlnegar, manufacture 715 

Oranges — 

culture experlm^its, Guam 839 

frosted* detection and elimina- 
tion 446 

ftrosen, diangee in, Cal 639 

fruit reeembllng, on lemon 151 

fruiting thorn 151 

manuring, Bahlan method — .. 246 

oil and press cake from seeds — 808 

Satsuma, navel yarlety 246 

Satsuma. varieties, U.S.D.A 842 

Washington navel, fruit shed- 
ding 839 

Orchard— 

grass, culture experiments 136 

grass for irrigated pastures, 

U.8.D.A 432 

grass on bog and moss soils — - 212 

grass, variety tests 232 

grass, yields, Minn 733 

plant Uce, studies. N.J 649 

planting, explosive-fertilizer shell 

for 444 

Orchards — 

cover crops for, Ind 739 

cover crops for, U.S.D.A .. 444 

cover crops for. Wash 741 

heating 842 

heating, Cal 640 

in South Australia 840 

pruning experiments, Ind 730 

pruning experiments, Kans 840 

rejuvenation, Ohio 841 

soil management 148 

soil management, Ind 788 

soil management, Kans 840 

qpray gun for, Ohio 689 

spraying program for. Wash 742 

{Be9 aleo Fruits, Apples, 
Peaches, efo.) 

Orchid weevils, notes 655 

Orchids— 

bacterial diseases 158 

fumigation 852 

insects afBecting, N.J 754 

leaf spot, notes 844 

soils supporting, reaction 812 

Orchilus Cabanis, status 646 

Oregon College and Station, notes. 298, 799 

Organic — 

compounds, photosynthesis from 

inorganic 426 

matter, decomposition in soils.. 213 
matter, decomposition, relation 

to plant nutrition, Ind 789 

matter, effect on soil moisture — 811 
substances, colorlmetric determi- 
nation 712 

Ornamental plants or shrubs. {Bee 
Plants mid Shrubs.) 

(hmithadwroe w^gnini^ 

notes 666 

remedies, U.S.D.A 682 

Orebemehe sp., notes 48 

uigiTizea Dy vjjOOQIC 



974 



EXPERIMENT STATION BECORD. 



(Vol 40 



Fags. 

Ortalids, trapping !«• 

Orthoptera — 

Inheritance and eyolutlon In — 887 

of NoTa Scotta 866 

of Peru 858 

of Plummers Island, Maryland. 649 

Orthotylu9 morffinaiia on apple 60 

Oryssuih— 

immature etages, notes 266 

parasitic on BnprestiB 656 

Otoitiia n.spp., descriptions 268 

Osmia, nesting habits 666 

Osmotic pressure, treatise 801 

(See also Sap concentration.) 

Ostertagia eircumoincta, notes, Mich. 88 

Otiorhvnehus spp., colored plate 170 

Oya, intrauterine absorption 663 

Oyarian transplantation in dnckn 867 

Ovaries, isolated, effect on growth.. 662 

Ovariotomy in fowls 871 

Ovary of the fowl, corpus luteum — 664 
Ovulation— 

and ovarian cyst formation 467 

in swine 668 

period In rats and mice 663 

Ox warbles, notes 259 

Oxalates, toxic action 466 

Oxhydrldase, antitoxic rOle 680 

Oxidase reaction for detection of 

rancid fats 412 

Oxidases of sugar cane 426 

Oxidation as affected by food inges- 
tion 364, 365, 766 

Omycarenus hyaHnipennAs, notes.. 256, 854 
Oxygen — 

analysis, apparatus for 111 

concentration, relation to methy- 
lene blue reduction by milk.. 613 

Oxyuriasis, equine, treatment 586 

Oyster propagation, NJT 177 

Oysters, studies, 17.S.DJ1 459 

Padhymeru9 — 

gonagm in Hawaiian Islands 266 

q^adrimwoulaiUB, notes.. 170 

Palate of civilized man, relatlcm to 

agriculture 656 

PaleaorUa vemata. (Bee Oanker- 

worm, spring.) 
Palm — 

butter, testing and manufkcture. 115 

diseases, notes 48, 845 

kernel meal, feeding value, Ky 578 

nut cake in ration, effect on bulk 

of manure 126 

oil, production In United States, 

U.8.D.A 614 

Palmo Midds, feeding value, Ind 668 

Palms — 

culture experiments, Ouam 889 

date, culture, U.S.D.A 540 

oil 449, 542 

sugar, notes, P.R 44 

(See also Coconuts.) 

Pancreatic amylase, studies 504 



eomhsH In Florida 187 

numtdianum, cercopid enemy... 856 

Papaya, culture experiments, Goam. 880 
Paper — 

Investlcatlons at Forest Prod* 

nets Laboratory, 1918 041 

pulp materials 248,740,823 

(Bee olao Polpwood.) 

FafWo thoae thoamUeidm, notea..^ 02 

Para cymene, nltrntlftn 710 

Para grass — 

culture in Guam, Guam. .... 827 

feeding value, Guam 866 

hay, mineral constituents, di- 
gestibility, Tex 760 

Paracolon Infecticms in fowls, R.I.. 685 

Paracresol In oil, germicidal power.. 882 

Paraffin, treatment of burns by .. 780 

Paraffined dressings, action on 

wounds . « 770 

Pturalepiowuietiw abnormie, notes 860 

Paramecium, resistance to potasaium 

cyanld , . 455 

Parana grass, cercoptd enemy ... 860 

Parasitic Infestation, effect of cold 

on 684 

Paratettlx, breeding experiments 867 

PanUrioM ooekeretti, remediea 162 

Paratyphoid — 

B. studies 88 

bacilli from hog-cholera cases.. 480 

bacilli, vaccination with 280 

bacillus, equine, agglutination 

test 280 

bacteria as causative agents of 

disease in birds, E.I 686 

bacteria In swine 788 

enteritidis group, studies 478,780 

ParemorUta eoridei n.Bp.. descrip- 
tion 850 

Paris green, preparation 801 

Paspdlum dilatatum — 

as pasture grass, Guam 827 

in New Zealand 239 

Passion-vine beetle, notes 664 

Pasteurlxation. (Bee Milk and 
Cream.) 

Pastry, detection of milk in 612 

Pasture- 
experiments, Okia 32 

for cows on general Carms, Mo.. 576 

grasses, testa, U.8.D.A 72,874,432 

land, old. Improvement 824 

management experiments, Kans. 830 

problems, papers on 800 

Pastures, Irrigated, notes, TJ.S.D.A. 874 

(Bee also Grass.) 
Pasturing experiments on irrigated 

fields, U.8.D.A 871 

Patent medicines, composition 182 

Pathological technique, treatise 676 

Pavements, brick, U.8J).A.. . 888 

Pea- 
bran, analyses, Mich 671 

chink, notes . . 166 

uigiTizea Dy vjjOOQIC 



1919] 



IKDBX OF SUBJECTS. 



976 



Feft-^ontlniied. Pftgi. 

difleaae, notes 845 

floor bread, studies. Wash 762 

sltonld, notes 858 

weeril In Hawaiian Islands 266 

ireerll, snmmary of Information. 170 
weerila, descriptions and reme- 
dies, U.S.DJi 64 

weerfls In Sooth Africa 861 

Peach- 
aphis, green, wing development- 456 

borer, remedies, N.J 162 

borer, studies. Ark 166 

borer, stodies, Ohio 167 

brown rot, control 749,861 

brown rot, dostlng, W.Va 445 

corl, notes 748 

diseases, notes 249,251 

leaf corl, treatment 48, 848, 749 

moth, oriental, brief account — 662 

moth, oriental, studies, Md 756 

rosette and its control 158 

ro«t treatment 848 

scab, treatment, W.Va 445 

spot, notes 68 

"stop-back," relation to tar- 
nished plant bug, Mo 455 

twig moth, notes, Md 756 

twig moth, stodies-- 858 

yellows and its control 158 

Peaches— 

Bacterium pruni on, Okla 638 

blooming and ripening periods — 886 

culture experiments, U.S.D.A.. 444 

culture, treatise 149 

dry fig beetle on *. 858 

dusting experiments, W.Va 445 

Lepidoptera infesting, Md 756 

thrips Injuring 650 

tree census in Washington 840 

Tsrietles for home orchard, Mo- 841 

winter-injured, pruning 886 

winter injury 848 

winter injury, Ind 885 

Peanot— 

hotter, bacteriology of 14 

floor, manufacture and compo- 
sition 268 

hay and hulls, mineral con- 
stituents, dlgestiblUty, Tex.. 769 

hay, ground, analyses, Tex 671 

kaf mat, notes 155 

meal, analyses, N.J 665 

meal, analyses, Tex 571 

J, effect on lard, AUuCollege- 772 

feeding value, Ark 279 

meal, feeding value, Iowa 874 

meal, feeding Talue, Okla 75, 278 

oil cake feed, analyses, Mass 571 

oil, production and consumption 

in United States, TT.S.D.A 614 

oil, specific beat 68 

press cake, analyses 72 

proteins, chemistry of 109 

tlkka disease, notes 48 

wilt, notes .« 348 



Peanuts — Page. 

breeding experiments, Okla 624 

breeding experiments, 8.C 624 

culture experiments 239 

culture experiments in Fiji 231 

culture experiments in India — 882, 
626, 825 
culture experiments in Rho- 
desia 280, 825 

culture in Philippines 281 

culture in southern France 86 

fertilizer experiments 280, 

231, 289, 828, 625, 826 

fertiliser experiments, 8.C 624 

food value and recipes 557 

graxing-off v. marketing, Ala. 

College 667 

oil content 289 

seeding experiments 86 

seeding experiments, Tex 729 

selection exi»erlments .. ^ 623 

variety tests 228, 

280, 289, 882, 625, 828, 825 

variety tests, Okla 624 

variety tests, 8.C 624 

variety tests, Tex 729 

whole-pressed, analyses, Tex — 671 

Pear- 
black spot, treatment 748, 849 

blight, control. Can 154 

blight in mountain countries 252 

blight, studies 348 

blossom bacillus, notes 749 

blotch, brown, studies 461 

diseases, notes 63, 251 

moth borer, studies 863 

psylla, notes 261 

psylla, remedies, N.J 162 

seeds, oil from 511 

slug in ChUe 648 

"stop-back,** relation to tar- 
nished plant bug, Mo 455 

thrips, remedies ^ 163 

thrips, stodies 647 

■• — 

Bartlett, storage 888 

hardy and blight - resistant, 

breeding 446 

oriental peach moth injury, Md- 756 

pollination 688 

spraying with lime arsenate 164 

stocks for 444 

tree census in Washington 840 

varieties for Missouri, Mo 841 

winter injury, Ind 885 

Alaska, breeding experiments, 

Minn 740 

analyses 657 

and oats as silage crop, Mich— 781 

and oats for hay, Ohio 786 

and oats, yields, Minn 785 

as affected by niter cake super- 
phosphate 515 

dietary properties 762 

uigiiizea Dy vjiOOQlC 



976 



BXPERIMEKT STATION RECOBD, 



[Vol. 40 



PeaB — ContiJiiied. 

field — Paflb. 

as hog iMisture, N.Dak 76 

culture experiments. Can 785 

culture in New Mexico, 

N.Mex 18 

effect of position in pod 521 

feedinfc ralue, Wash 771 

growing with grain 822 

liming experiments, N.J 126 

pedigreed, in Wisconsin 624 

seeding depths, Utah 227 

tests in Montserrat 228 

Yariety tests, Minn 732 

variety tests, Wash 780, 731 

jririds. Wash 781 

legnmins in 607 

phosphoric add content 608 

seed treatment 448 

variety tests, U.8.D.A- 484 

(£^09 also Pisom.) 

Pe^t 

hacterlaad 222 

production and use in United 

States 221 

soils, vegetation as Indicator of 

quality 718 

(See also Moor soils.) 
Pecan rosette In relation to soil defi- 
ciencies, U.S.D.A 644 

Pecans — 

culture in Maryland, Md 150 

insects affecting « 56,259 

Investigations 640 

wood rot, U.S.D.A 168 

Pectin — 

bodies, constitution - 202 

determination in apices 115 

methyl alcohol, studies 204 

studies 804 

test in jelly making 668 

Pectinophora gossypieUa, (See Cot- 
ton bollworm, pink.) 
Pediculus. {See Lice.) 
Pegomjfia — 

afflnis, notes 758 

efUlensis, notes 648 

spp. mining dodk leaves. 850 

Pellagra — 

and the vitamin hypothesis 70 

studies 60, 863, 869 

Peilicularia disease of coffee 48 

Pempheres afflnis, notes 553 

Pemphigus populi-irainsver9%is, stud- 
ies 60 

PenicilUum — 

ohrysogenum, proteolytic activ- 
ity 721 

sp. on sweet potato . 847 

Pennsylvania — 

College, notes 199, 498, 698. 799 

Station, notes 199, 698 

Pentosans, determination 114 

Peonies, Botrytls disease 844 

Pepper — 

anthracnose, notes 48 

wilt, studies 157 



Peppers, response to carbon dioxid.. 820 

Pepsin — 

as rennet substitute, U.S.D.A 80 

studies 504 

Peptid, new, isolation 611 

Perchloric acid, preparation from 
perchlorates 18 

Perewia — 

legeri n.sp., description .- 204 

mesniU n.sp., description 65 

Peridermium — 

eerehrum, studies 849 

stroU, (See White pine blister 
rust) 

Ptoridermiums ft^m Ohio 645 

Perisporiacee of South Africa 132 

Perissarthron, n.g., notes 666 

Permeability — 

of barley grain S19 

protoplasmic, colloidal hypothe- 
sis 818 

Perries, single-variety 414 

Perry- 
defective, utilisatioa 116 

home manufacture . 116 

Persimmon codling moth in Japan. 62, 167 

Persimmons, diseases in Japan 62 

Petrolatum dressing for burns 883 

Phalaria bmSbosa, production and 

use 442 

Fhaseolue angularia, studies 181 

Pheasants — 

food habits 864 

secondary sex characters 871 

PhemwoooHi n.snp^ descriptiona 962 

Phenol- 
antiseptic value 182 

excretion on exclusive oat diet.^ 278 
in oil, germicidal power 862 

Phenological observations — 

in British Isles 210 

in Holland . .. 716 

on cereals 811 

Phenols, action on plants 620 

Phenolsulphophthalein 1 n d 1 c a tors, 

studies a02 

Phom^ — 

Ungam, studies. .» 846 

sp. on potatoes 61 

Phomopsie oitri, description and hia- 
tory 168 

Phoradendron parasitic on Phoraden- 

dron . . .. 226 

Phorbae mirabUis, studies 266 

Phormia atmrea, sense reactions.. 860 

Phosphate — 

ammonium-magnesium, from 

urine 820 

deposits of Australia, utlUsa- 

tion 26 

deposits of Idaho and Wyoming. 726 

deposits of South Africa 127 

deposits of the Ukraine 820 

of lime. (See Calcium phoa- 
phate.) 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



1919] 



n!n)£X OF SUBJECTS. 



977 



Pboipliate — CODtlnaed. Page, 
rock, action of citric and nitric 

adds on 506 

rock, as corrector of soil addlty. 816 

rock for pi^ feeding. Ark 772 

rodL, flolphnr-treated, Bolnbllity 

la calcareous soil 128 

9, potaA ferttlfaera 824 

Fkoipbatea— 

calctom. Iron, and alumlnam, 

comparison 26 

comparfaon IM, 230, 242 

eomparlaOD, Ata-College 828 

eomparlaon. Can 724 

comparison, Minn 734 

comparison. Pa 728 

comparison, Tex 616 

ezperiments with In Minnesota. 820 

Insolnble, conversion 726 

soil bacteria in relation to 620 

{See aUo Saperphoephate.) 

nosphatic slay — 

as son nentrallzer 126 

sohibllity in weak organic acids. 700 

Pbo^hites, determination 400 

Pboapborle acid — 

content of peaa 608 

detenaination In blood 16 

dlstrHmtion in blood 176 

of feeding stnfEs, digestibility, 

Tex 760 

dcflctency, efBect on oat plant — 824 

determination 112 

determination in wheat 607 

BPtabollam of women 174 

phytin, of feeding stnffs. Ark.- 772 

Photometer, cbemical 621 

Photosynthesis — 

<l|aamlc -aspects—.— — _.— .. 228 

itndles 826. 436. 426 

Fkngm&HphOa trmncmta, notes 463 

Pkthia pleta, notes 165 

PfcyltediowJs hierofflyphioain 

Hawaii 864 

FhOowHctm MoUttnia, control, OUa.. 680 
Phylloxera — 

notes 262 

resistance, breeding for 638 

Plkiwoloptefv rara n.sp., description. 80 

Physiology, International catalogue.. 869 

PkfaadcrMa ge<e mcydis, studies 846 

PhyaolAHpa »etiventri9 xxjbq. and 

P. le/royf on tea 69 

Phftolsj Hnitlii, parasite of 265 

Phytin phosphoma of feeding stuffs, 

Alt 772 

ttberi, notes 165,262 

faberl, studies 64 

kifettans, notes, P.R 47 

(See dUo Potato late 
Ulght.) 
Sis s dg n.8p. on Herea 846, 862 

•p. on coconut 761 

9. on cotton 166 



Page. 

Pbytophthoia on tomato and bella- 
donna 844 

PIcramic acid — 

In nitrogen determination .. 806 

preparation 208 

Picric acid in blood sugar determina- 
tions, source of error 116, 718 

Pierit— 

lra99ico, parasites of. . 65,264 

lra»9iecs, studies 268, 666 

r<rp<s, studies 263 

Pig dubs, manual 96 

Pigeon peaa^ 

culture and nse 768 

culture in Guam, Guam 828 

Pigeons- 
color Inheritance tn 275 

fantail. Inheritance In 275 

management 177 

Pigment formation, post-mortem, In 

eye of white ringdove 665 

Pigmentation in guinea pigs 177 

{Bee ol«o Color inheritance.) 

Pigs— 

buckeye poisoning, Ala.College. 778 

composition of milk . 776 

cottonseed meal for, Okla 278 

disease, new, in Argentina 683 

diseases, handbook 88, 783 

feeding 177 

feeding experiments, Ind 668 

feeding experiments, Minn 771 

feeding experiments, N.Dak 76 

feeding experiments, Ohio 278 

feeding experiments, Okla 75, 278 

feeding experiments, U.S.D.A— 72, 871 

feeding experiments. Wash 771 

garbage feeding 270, 778 

grain ration for, Mass 674 

gracing experiments, Minn 771 

grazing experiments, N.Dak 76 

grazing experiments, U.B.D.A 72, 

371, 471. 472 

hairless, Wis 185 

hogging-ofl corn, Minn 771 

hogglntM>ff com, n.8.D.A 471 

Indiyidual, self-balanced rations 770 
indlTldnal, self-balanced rations, 

Minn 771 

melting point of fat as affected 

by feeding, Ala.Cbllege 772 

mineral requirements, Elans 871 

on Para grass pasture. Guam 866 

peanut meal for. Ark . 270 

peannt meal for, Okla ... 278 

peanut pasture for, Ala.College. 667 
phosphate rock or ground bone 

for, Ark 77« 

poisoning by tent caterpillar 596 

raising in North Dakota, N.Dak. 76 

raising In the West 177 

self-feeder for 770 

self-feeder for, Okla 76 

self-feeder for. U.S.D.A 73 

skim mnk for, Mich 76 

uigitizea Dy vjiOOQlC 



978 



EXPERIMENT STATIOK RECORD. 



(Tot 40 



Pigi Conttooed. Pafs. 

▼elvet bean meal for. Ark . 279 

velyet beans for, Mich.. 76 

(See af«o Swine.) 

PHobolua, response to light.. — .... 619 

PUoorociB tripunotata, notes — .— . 269 

PUophorue ^oiOshU, notes 166 

Pimplo— 

pomorum, stndles ....... 65 

robortUor, stadles ....,—.... 867 

Plnacyanol and plnayerdol* syntbesto 711 

Pine— 

Anstrallan, borer injnrjr 860 

hllster mat, Introdnctlon into 

the West 64 

{See also White pine hUster 
mat.) 

forest soils, nitrification stndlea 418 

forests of Brazil .. .. 746 

growth In relation to altitude.. 129 

maritime, tumors of . 169 

needles, significance and history. 819 
reproduction as affected by bear 

cloTcr ..-.....- .... 842 

rusts, notes .... 849,646 

•awfly, European, notes, N.J 764 

seed beds, fungus flora 852 

seedlings, white spot injury 68 

twig borer, notes 662 

western yellow, reproduction as 

affected by graslng, U.S.D.A — 848 
(See alto Pinus and White pine.) 

Pineapple — 

fungus on coconut .. 761 

weevil, notes .... 269 

Pineapples, composition and fertiliser 

requirements . 446 

Pink boUworm. (See Cotton boll- 
worm, pink.) 

Pfnif*— 

ineiffnia, potash content ..... 821 

spp., Rasonmofskya infection... 268 
eylvettrU, tube development in 

microspore — .. ... ... 228 

Pipette— 

absorption, description........ 808 

capillary, description ...... 286 

for measurement of small toI- 

nmes.. ......... . 806 

for tubing culture media....... 12 

holder, description....... ... 681 

Pifieutaria — 

n.8pp., descriptions . 166 

oryme, notes 846 

Piricularia, studies 166 

Piroplasmosis of cattle— 

in Italy 782 

in Sweden 685 

Pistol case-bearer, biology 767 

Pisum, inheritance studies 147,226 

MHeum ea^vum, bacterial disease 844 

Placenta — 

action of enxyms on 666 

growth-promoting substance in. 566 

Plagiodera vereieolora, notes, N.J — 764 

Plague, relation to rats.. . . — 161 



broadlttg— 

and seed control ,m— — ■ 246 

experiments. (See Apples, 
Corn. Wheat» ete.) 

textbook 81T 

{See oCio Heredity.) 
eel]% chromosome nnmber,. ,. -. SIT 

cells, metachromatin in 825 

cd]% mitochondilA In... 426, 818 

cells, rOle of chondrlome in 228»828 

ceUs, sise In relation to muta- 
tional characters 82S 

competition, studies.... 424 

disease problems in relation to 

plant introduction . . 848 

disease surrey work* relation of 
phytopatfaoloflsts to 449 



and enemies in Switaerland. 249 

and immunity............. 844 

and pests, handbook, Cal.. 648 
and weather conditiona In 

Texas . ........ 154 

bacterial, la Britiah Isles.. 844 
biochemistry of realstance, 

Minn 745 

breeding for resistance.... 844 

in Britiah Gniana 844 

In Franco 844,845 

in Guam, Guam . 844 

in Italy j 845 

in Madras 845 

In Porto EIco 844 

relation to soil fungi 818 

treatise 47 

{See aUo Hlferent ftoff 
ploato.) 
distribution in ^dal plaage 

basin 826 

distribution on desert mountains 129 

distribution, studiea.. 180 

genetics, textbook ..... 817 

growth, critical periods.. .. 19 

growth, relation to altitude.^.. 129 

lice, jumping, of Hawaii... .. 262 

metabolism, pentose sugars in 80 

mucilages, studies 818, 819 

parasites, phanerogamic, osmotic 

pressure * 180 

poisons, organic . 620 

populations in Denmark, studies. 882 

production, course of study 492 

residues, influence on nitrogen 
fixation and nitrate loss in 

soUs 121 

tissues, determination of acidity 

in 228 

Plantain meal, analyses . «.. 178 

Plantains, insects affecting 45ft 

Plants- 
adjustment to desert habitat.. 120 
as affected by barium and stron- 
tium 810 

as affected by electricity 147, 

424,428,429 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



1M91 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



979 



Pljuitt— OMitliioedL Page. 
BM affected by mafnftrfiim car^ 

bonate 926 

as affected by manganeee* N.Y. 

CtoraeU 820 

bebaylor In vxnrentUated cham- 
bers «26 

eropp past and present cUmatea, 

V.BJ>.A 616 

dceert. {Bee Desert) 

economic, of Mexico....— — . — 246 

edible^ of prickly-pear scmbs 415 

OEploltattoii, treatise 524 

fcrtmty, problems 427 

hardening process and derelop- 

ments from frost injory 26 

imports* 17.SJ>J^ 827 

inheritance of germinal peculiar 1- 

methods of sugar analysis 80 

nitrogen percentage require- 
ment 425 

nutrient solution for 620 

odorous principles 710 

of British Guiana 542 

of District of Columbia 160 

on saline soils 424 

ornamental, culture experiments, 

Cuk 741 

ornamental, diseases, N.J 645 

ornamental, for Nebraska 840 

otnamental, new Insect enemies, 

VJ 753 

ornamental, variety tests, U.S. 

D.A 444 

pectin substances In 804 

poisonous. {Bee Poisonous.) 

regeneration, law of 224 

relation to reaction of nutrient 

solntlon 824 

response to ll^t 519 

rest periods, TJ.8.DJ1 511 

solution culture experiments, 

technique 817 

starch-yielding, Guam 889 

succulent, chemistry of 710 

snccBlent desiccation and respi- 
ration 29. 228 

succulent, gas interchange 29 

snccalent, rate and course of 

growth 80 

swelling in, as afl^ted by bog 

and swamp waters 520 

tolerating salt 221 

transpiration 27, 427, 820 

woody, food reserve in 425 

Ilamedlephora brsMictf. (Bee Cab- 
bage dubroot) 

nuwtopara vitieota, notes 53 

^t experiments — 

Held technique 226, 628 

ttindardisation .. 828 

Phitlnle chlorid, potassium, rapid 

reduction - 711 

r^xyrery ftom potash determi- 

mitlon 806 

Bussta*8 production of_. . 12 



Page. 

Plenodosms ^lesfnreas, studies 847 

Pleeiooofie ruffiooUia, studies 60 

Pleeiapa reichei, notes 260 

Pleuropneomonla, exudative, in 

goats 888 

Plowing-^ 

depths, tests, Okla 82, 624 

experiments, Minn 738 

PlowrighUa morboea, notes 58 

Plowsole in citrus groves 417 

Plum — 

black knot, notes 68 

black spot, notes, Okla 638 

diseases, notes 749,844,845 

fruit gumming, notes.. 249, 251 

leaf gall, control, Mont 459 

louse, mealy, remedies 161 

pocket, studies, Mont 452 

pocket, treatment, Mont 449 

silver leaf, notes 844 

wither tip, studies 860 

Plums — 

breeding and testing in Mlnne* 

sota 148 

breeding experiments, Minn 742 

culture In New Mexico, N.Mex. 18 

dropping periods, Minn 740 

poUinatton 148, 688. 886 

spray injury to foliage.. 161 

sterility studies, Minn 740 

stocks for . .. 445 

tree census in Washington 840 

varieties for home orchard. Mo. 841 

winter injury, Ind ...... 886 

PImeia erioaoma, studies . 62 

Pneumococcus — 

action on of blood from different 

species .. 286 

immunity, studies 676 

infection in horses 784 

studies 480 

Pododermatitis, suppurative, treat- 
ment 181 

Podoaphwra — 

leucotrieha, notes.. 251 

owyaeaniha, notes _. 68 

Pogonomsria, anthomyid genus 857 

Poisonous plants 182,800 

(See aleo Forage poisoning.) 

Poisons — 

economic, consumption and cost 

In California 69 

organic, effect on plants.. . 520 

FollomyeUtIa— 

bodies, action of human and rab- 
bit blood on 287 

In dogs 488 

relation to rats 85, 646 

Pollen- 
extract preparations 284 

mother cells, cytokinesis 517 

tube development In microspore 

of PiHU8 gylveatrie 228 

tube protoplasm, studies — .— S8, 818 

^water-soluble B in .. 664 

uigitizea Dy vjiOOQlC 



980 



EXPERIMENT STATION BEOOBD. 



(VoL40 



PolUmitloii— Paoau 

controlled, in Nicotlana 131 

improved technique 627 

rOIe of Insects in 655 

PolydhroHB hotr<tna, remedies 167 

Polynema imitaMm n.8p., descrip- 
tion 760 

Polyneuritis, studies 563,564 

{Bee aUo AntlpolTneuritic sub- 
stances.) 

Polyporus sulphureut on alder 844 

Pomological instruction 196 

PopiUia japonioa larys, fumigation- 266 
Poplar — 

borer, studies 861 

leaf-miner in New Jersey 758 

Poria hifpoUUerita, notes 53, 340 

Pork, home butchering and curing, 

N.J 772 

Porihetria dlapar. {See Gipsy 
moth«) 

Porto Rico Station, report 97 

Portulaca, Inheritance studies 131 

Potash — 

deposits of Alsace 320 

determination 112, 809, 806 

dcrtermlnation, preparation of 

perchloric acid for 13 

fertilizers, unbalanced, effects — 621 
from blast furnaces and cement 

works 128 

from bracken fern 821 

from desert lakes and alunltes. 128 

from feldspar 134 

from greensand 299, 423 

from hemp pulp 629 

from kelp 128 

from olive-oil residue 20 

from Pinue ineiffnie 321 

from Searles Lake 128 

from sunflower stems 242 

from water hyacinth 847 

from wood ashes 820 

growing wheat without 184 

mines and works of Alsace 128 

of feeding stuffto, digestibility, 

Tex 769 

production In California — 725 

production in Nebraska 820 

production In 1917 725 

production in United States 26, 

516, 517 
residues in Hagerstown soil, 

condition 25 

scarcity, relation to cotton 

yields 835 

eoil, utUlsing 800 

solubility in muscorlte 812 

use on cotton, com and pota- 
toes, Tex 616 

V. phosphate fertllixera 824 

Potassium — 

chlorld, eifect on wheats. 244 

chlorid, fertilizing value, Tex 616 

chlorld, preparation 801 

content of spinach 451 

cyanid, toxic action on Parame- 
cium and Didinlum *i55 



Potassium — Continued. Paca, 

deficiency, effect on oat plant 824 

determination In blood 116 

effect on hydration and growth. 818 

ferrocyanid, toxicity In ■oOa.. 726 

nitrate, preparation 801 

platlnic chlorld, rapid reduction 711 
salts, influence on nltrtc-nltn>- 

gen accumulation 722 

sulphate, fertilizing value 515, 725 

sulphate, fertilising value, Tex. 616 

sulphate, preparation 801 

Potato- 
Association of America, proceed- 
ings 529 

beetle, behavior in deserts 860 

beetle, Colorado, remedies, Kans. 330 

beetle, remedies, Minn 734 

black canker or wart 848 

black scurf, treatment 847 

black scurf, treatment, Minn 784 

bUckleg, notes, Mont 449 

disease, new, In Hawaii 644 

diseases, conference on 846 

diseases in New Jersey, NJT 747 

diseases, notes 50, 844, 847 

diseases, notes. Can 154 

diseases, notes, Kans 844 

diseases, notes, Mont 449 

diseases, notes, Wash 746 

early blight, remedies, Kans 830 

early blight, studies 847 

farms In New Jersey 299 

fields, weed control in 686 

Fusarium blight under Irriga- 
tion 847 

late blight, notes 748, 646, 847 

late blight, notes. Can 154 

leaf burn, relation to leaf- 
hopper 868 

leaf roll, effect on product 251 

leaf roll, studies 347, 548 

mosaic disease, notes 847 

plant, composition at various 

stages 240 

plant louse, pink and green 456 

products, feeding value, U.S.D.A- 875 

Rhizoctonla, treatment 847 

rust spot, internal... 848 

scab, notes 48 

scab organism as affected by 

acidity 644 

scab, treatment . 847 

scab, treatment, Minn 784 

stalk disease, studies 49 

starch, color reaction 411 

tuber moth in California 56 

vrart, black, notes 848 

wart in Pennsylvania, Pa 848 

wart in Pennsylvania, tJ.S.D.A- 157. 

548 

wart, resistant strains 630 

wilt, studies 51 

Potatoes- 
culture, books on 36, 439, 828 

culture experiments 434, 625, 630 

culture experiments. Can 735 

culture experiments, Minn 732 

uigitizea Dy vjv^v_7'^i\^ 



inoj 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



981 



FMatoeB— Contlniied. Pace. 

ciiltim experiments, Mont .. 429 

cnltnre In Maine 835 

coltnre In New Mexico, N.Mex.. 18 

coltare on moor aolls 628 

dietary properties 172 

drying 116 

eeiworm-infeoted, n.S.D.A 61 

effect on following crop, B.I 628 

effect on intestinal flora. 867 

fertlllMr ezperlmoits 184, 

229. 882, 421, 434, 624, 621, 622, 726 

fertlHier experiments, Kans 880 

fertWier experiments, Minn 784, 785 

fertHlaer experiments, N.J 126 

ftrtfUaer experiments, Tex. 616 

flower-stalk position 631 

for recropping sugar-beet land, 

U.8.D.A 481 

ground seaweed for. Can ... 724 

growth in relation to tempera- 
ture and moisture 19 

growth on add soil . 824 

insects alBecting, Conn.8tate — 768 
Irrigated, mannrlng experiments 421 
irrigation experiments, Kans — 881 

liability to disease 167 

lightning injury 646 

lining and loading cars, U. 8.D. A. 188 

planting dates, U.8.D.A 81, 431 

planting dates, and distances.. 680 
raw, antlscorbntic value — ... 666 

rcjnrenation, Minn 732 

relatlTe yielding capacity 626 

removal of blossoms 188 

rest periods 224 

rotation experiments 229 

rotation experiments, Mino 784 

rotation experiments, tJ.8.D.A. 881, 480 

seed certiflcatlon 846 

seed, from sprayed plants, Minn. 782 
seed» Goremment farm in India. 626 
seed, local v, imported, U.S.D.A. 484 
seed, peelings and cuttings for.. 188 

seed, preparation 186,680 

seed, treatment 460, 847 

seed, treatment, Minn 784 

seed, treatment, U.S.D.A 61 

seed, treatment. Wash 746 

seeding experiments, Minn 782, 734 

idectlon experiments ... 628 

selection experiments, Mont — 429 

spraying 747,748 

^praying with lime arsenate 164 

sprouted, food poisoning by — 657 

storage cellars 191 

use In bread making 666, 863 

use tn bread making, recipe 864 

varieties for Washington, Wash. 741 

variety tests 184, 484, 623, 624, 681 

variety tests, Kans 830 

variety tests, Minn 784 

variety tests. Mont 429 

variety tests, U.8.D.A 81,481 

wild, of Arlsona, breeding ex- 
periments 181, 241 

TMds, Minn 786 



Page. 

Potsherds, effects on nitrification.. 24 
Poultry — 

artificial light for. Wash 280 

breeding for standard and util- 
ity values 876 

diseases, cholera-like and ty- 

phold-llke, E.I 686 

forming in New Jersey, N.J 670 

feeding, N.J 872 

feeds, analyses. Mass 571 

feeds, analyses, Mich 571 

feeds, analyses, N.J 665 

flock, backyard, feeding, Mont 478 

house, roller curtain. Wash 887 

housing, Ind 292 

housing, Mont 486 

husbandry, courses 492, 699 

Industry, present conditions, N.J. 78 

inheritance studies 177 

keeping, business methods, N.J. 280 

laboratory manual 698 

lice, eradication. Wash 764 

management 177 

management, handbook, U.S. 

D.A 876 

manure, average yearly produc- 
tion, Ind 77 

marketing by parcel post, Kans. 872 

mnng bean pasture for, Tex 729 

rearing, Flemish system 280 

world's congress 499 

(See aUo Chickens, Chicks, 
Ducks, Fowls, and Hens.) 

Poverty weed, eradication, Mont 480 

Prairie- 
grass, alkali tolerance 719 

hay, mineral constituents, dlges- 

tibUlty, Tex 769 

Praon cocoons, fungus growing from. 459 
Precipitation — 

in central Ohio, U.S.D.A 117 

relation to run-off and evapora- 
tion 810 

seasonal, TJ.8.D.A 616 

(See olso Balnfall, Snow, etc.) 
Pregnancy, corpus luteum of, in 

swine . 668 

Price fixing in England, U.S.D.A... 487 
Prickly pear. {See Cactus.) 

Prianowyetue rotitUw on pear...... 653 

Progenia litura, studies 62 

Produce exchanges, function....... 791 

Proflavin oleate in wound treatment. 882 

Project method in science teaching. 897 

Premecotheca euminffli, notes 260 

Propachyneuron Qirault, notes 760 

Propyl alcohol as a disinfectant 681 

Prosopis, root growth in relation to 

oxygen 80 

Protein — 

chemistry as basis of the life 

process 201 

dynamic action 866 

feeding, effect on amino acids 

in tissue 662 

free milk, nitrogen in.... 608 

uigitizea Dy vjiOOQlC 



982 



EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 



[YoL40 



Proteins — Continued. Pagv. 

free milk, eubstltutes for 469 

quotient, constancy during di- 
gestion and starvation 660 

substances, c<»nplement fixation 

with 286 

synthesis, relation of carbo- 
hydrates to ............. 662 

Proteins — 

Adamkiewicz reaction ........ 607 

effect on intestinal flora ...^. 867 

effect on nric acid metabolism 176 

foreign, liberation of antibodies 

on injection of.. . — ... 180 

growth-promoting Talue, ex- 
pressing numerically . 765 

in milk, pbyslochemical state.. 601 
nutrltiye yalne as affected by 

starch and fats.. ... 662 

of seeds, studies 69, 663 

of wheat and almond, studies — 660 
pure, toxicity and nntritive 

▼alue 463, 464 

utilisation by different animal 

species ... ... — .- 464 

yegetable, studies..... . 468 

(See also Specific proteins.) 
Proteolysins and hemolysins, rela- 
tion 286 

Protocalliphora lary» parasitizing 

nestling birds ..... . • 647 

Pratompeea n.8pp., descriptions 156 

Protozoa, flagellated and ciliated, 

tissue-invasiye powers 186 

Provancher, Abb^, biographical 

sketch _. 269 

Prones — 

bud injury 62 

pollination 886 

sodium nitrate for, Wash 741 

tree census in Washington 340 

P9anu9 ambiffuue on apple 60 

Pseudapbelinus n.g., description 61 

PeeudocoeooUua — 

ehrhomi, notes . 869 

n.spp., descriptions 869 

Pteudoooccus — 

bakeri, studies 660 

n.8pp., descriptions .. 262 

Peeudomana^^^ 

avenm, notes 648 

campeeiria, notes 844 

oitrk (See Citrus canker.) 

temUnum, notes 844 

spp. on iris and hyacinth 844 

etewBTti, studies 846 

tumefaoieiis, notes 68, 262 

P»eHdi>pt€roptri0 4mit0irl0 n.g. and 

n.sp., description 265 

P^ohoda spp. on sewage Alters 866 

Psylto pyri. (See Pear psylla.) 
PsyUid»— 

of Hawaiian Islands 262 

of Ticinity of Washington, D.C- 864 
Pteramalus caridei tor control of 
orange paplUo.......... 62 



Ptyalin as affected by neutral salU.. M4 
Puecinia — 

iMmbuearum and P. mag4^hani$ 

n. combs lit 

gramifUs, studies 249,641,641 

fframinie, studies, Minn 748^ 

fframUiis trUioi oompocH, notes. S4S 
fframinia trUioi^ resistance to, 

Kans 844 

itUerttUialiB, notes 168 

n.spp. from the Andes 13S 

owaUdU, Acial stage 15§ 

peckiana and CtBoma intereti- 

tiatU, reUtion 153 

Puecinia, carduaceous species 155 

Pullets. {Bee Hens.) 

Pulp mills of United States 641 

Pulpwood consumption in 1917, 

U.8.D.A 543 

(See aUo Paper pulp.) 
pMlvittaria^ 

n.spp., descriptions and para- 
sites 61 

p9idii, notes 651 

Pumping — 

from wells 188 

on irrigation projects 188 

Pumpkins—- 

growing with com 280 

seed treatment. 443 

Purdue Uniyersity, notes 496,686,900 

Purin bases in food materials 205 

Purple scale, remedies 455 

Pyemia due to Bridr4-Sfyori bacillus. 683 

Pyotherapy, studies 285.883 

Pyoyaccination, studies . 289 

Pyrauata penittiUa and P. nubUalia, 

notes 756 

Pyrethrum— 

and its culture 161 

studies, I7.S.DJI 763 

Pyrophorus of America, revision 655 

PytMum dedoryomifli. on conifer 

seedlings 546 

Quack grass, eradication, Minn.. 734 

Quaternary halids in dye making 711 

Queroue alba. (See Oaks, white.) 
Quicklime. {See Calcium oxid.) 
Quinin — 

effects on production of egg yolk 

and albumin 664 

in animal tissues and liquids 382 

Qulnolin bases in dye making. . 710 

Rabbit's milk, composition 775 

Rabies- 
notes 86 

studies 183 

Radio-active emanations, ration to 

weather 314 

Radioactivity, recent advances In 801 

Radishes, response to carbon dioxid. 820 
Radium — 

effect on blood . 767 

treatment of leukemia, effect on 

metabolism 566 

Raflla, production.......... 241 

uigitizea Dy %jkjkjwi\^ 



1919J 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS 



983 



Faee. 

bromliiatlon m» affected by cata- 

lyaera 613 

detennlnatlon 813 

phyaiolosical bchaTlor 171 

Raswe«d pollen, protein extract 607 

Haia — 

nitrogen content 800 

nitrogen content. Can 724 

problem of denudation by 118 

rabetancee dissolved In 10 

water, aolplinrle add content — 814 

dlndavtlon with height above 

the ground 814 

effect on fmit crop In Norway — 810 

neasorement 71Q 

of AnstraIJa 716 

of Biitiah Islea, 1017 814 

of Italy 810 

of aovtfawestem Alaska 800 

of United Statea 808 

records, nae by waterworks engi- 
neers 715 

SBbnormaly frequency In August, 

U.8 J>Jk 1 18 

(009 also Precipitation.) 

oU and press cake from 
808 

cows, maintenance on yucca and 

sotoU NJCex 277 

grasses In North Dakota 200 

stock, emergency feeds, tJ.8. 

D.A 276.471 

Sannla, notes 288 

Bape — 

as hog pasture, Minn 771 

bug. notes 260 

caltvre and pasturing Talue, 

Iowa 86 

tor fattening lambs, Nebr 660 

TOot-lonse injury 60 

tops, decomposition in soil 214 

la s pber ric s 

breeding and testing in Minne- 
sota 148 

breeding experiments, Minn 742 

breedlnir experiments. Wash — 740 

Insects affecting 158 

training. Wash 748 

variety tests. Minn 740 

variety tests, tJ.8.D.A ^_ 340 

aathracBOse, notes 58 

beetle, notes 265 

diseases, notes 158 

Jniees, preparation and preserva- 
tion 768 

ydlows. Immune variety. Can — 154 

Bat-bite fever^ 

qiirochete 781 

studies 470 

Sat-flea, Indian, infectiousness 161 

Sation»— 

Army 362, 560 

of British and Indian troops in 

relation to disease 564 



Rations — Continued. Page, 

of Italian Navy 501 

of soldiers in the training 

camps 68 

Rats— 

albino and Norway, treatise — 546 

fertility in relation to age 468 

field, relation to plague 161 

mammary gland, studies 467 

ovulation period 663 

relation to hog cholera. 480 

relation to poliomyelitis 85,646 

small house, biology 160 

spiny, in Philippines 646 

undersized, post-natal growth — 460 
iSee aUo Rodents.) 

Rasoumofskya, studies 258 

Reclamation — 

of marshlands, Oreg 587 

projects, U.S.D.A 301,786 

projects, hints to settlers 687 

Reconstruction — 

agricultural, in Great Britain 01 

and reeducation of disabled sol- 
diers and sailors 501 

rural. In Ireland 01 



dog flour. (See Flour, red dog.) 

spiders, remedies 453 

*' Red weevil " in Ontario, identity.. 663 
Redtop — 

effect on following crop 185 

effect on following crop, R.I 623 

Refrigeration in transportation of 

perishable products . . 488 

Reichert-Meissl number, determina- 
tion 412 

Remedies, new and nonoffidal 284 

Reproduction in birds, physiology 664 

Reptiles as food ^ 555 

Resins of ArauctMria wqmcwm 615 

Respiration apparatus, portable 466 

Rhail>09oeH9 tenuU, studies 764 

BhagoletiB pomontXla, {See Apple 
maggot.) 

Rhlna, notes « , ^_ 760 

Bhinanthiu oristOrffolU, eradication. 883 

Rhinoceros beetle on coconut 751 

Rhigims. undulata, sexuality in 226 

Rhizoctonia — 

disease, notes. . 48 

diseases, studies, Wash 746 

* on Jute as affected by potash de- 
ficiency 48, 847 

BhUfopertha dominica, notes 458 

Rhieatms rUffricans, studies 847 

Rbode Island Station — 

notes 208 

report . 108 

Rhodes grass — 

culture in Texas, Tex 780 

hay, mineral constituents, di- 
gestibility, Tex 760 

Rhododendron — 

lace bug, notes, N.J 768 

new species 641 

Bhopohota vaooiniana, (Bee Black- 
head flreworm.) LJgmzea Dy ^OOglC 



984 



EXPEBIMBNT STATIOK BBCOBD. 



[VoL40 



Rhubarb dlBeasefl, studies, 111 460 

Rice- 
blast, notes 845 

blast, studies 166 

borers, studies 107 

bran, analyses, Tex 571 

bran, preservation as press cake. 614 

bran silica, estimation 610 

breeding, notes 628 

bug. notes 26* 

by-products, feeding value, U.S. 

Djk 875 

by-products, mineral constitu- 
ents, digestibUity, Tex 769 

culture experiments 228, 

231, 332, 836. 628, 626, 826 

culture in Burma 632 

culture in Guam, Guam 828 

culture in Indo-Chlna 241 

dry-land, production 629 

dry-land, variety tests 823 

effect on intestinal flora 807 

fertilizer experiments 228, 

231, 386, 528, 626, 626, 825 

green manuring 886 

bay and straw, mineral constitu- 
ents, digestibility, Tex 769 

Ilocano and Tagalog, selection. 830 

inheritance of characters 681 

inhibitor in 632 

liming experiments 229 

malting capacity 808 

on Yuma project, notes, U.S. 

D.A 484 

plats for breeding 836 

polish, analyses, Tex 671 

popped, production in China 657 

BClerotlal diseases 48 

seed selection tests 623 

selection experiments 836,623,623 

straw as mulch for sugar cane — 688 

transplanting 629 

ufra disease, studies 48 

use in bread making 860,667 

varieties in Madras 523 

variety tests 228, 

242, 882, 836, 623, 625. 828, 826 

weevil on stored corn, U.8.D.A. 861 

weevil, studies, AUuGoUege 762 

xenla in 682 

Rileya, synopsis of species 760 

River stages, daily, U.S.D.A 209 

Road concrete, hydra ted lime in 788 

Roads — 

brick, in Middle West, U.S.D.A. 888 

construction and maintenance 887 

construction and maintenance, 

U.S.D.A 90. 188, 485. 788, 889 

drainage methods and founda- 
tions, U.S.D.A 291 

in the National Forests, U.S. 

D.A 90 

State administration and con- 
trol 688 

Rohinia pseudaeaoia as coffee substi- 
tute 508,658 

Rock phofphate. (See Photiphate.) 



Rodents— Pa^k 

in California 56 

of Iowa 546 

Bupergeneric groups ..^. 54 

i8m aUo Mice oihI Rats.) 

Roentgen rays — 

effect on blood .- 767 

effect on cigarette beetle, U.S. 

D.A 758 

effect on tubercle bacilli 887 

Roosevelt Wlld-Ufe Forest Bxptfl- 

ment Station _« — 800 

Root erop»— 

breeding experiments. Can.. 735 

culture experiments 228,625 

culture in Nebraska, Nebr 521 

culture in South Australia 840 

culture in South Dakota, 8.Dak. 82 

culture on moor soils ^. 230, 628 

feeding value, S.Dak 82 

field tests in PhUippines 228 

of PhiUppines 281 

variety tests 228 

variety tests, Mich 731 

(See olto «peoto< crops.) 

Root growth-^ 

as affected by carbon diozid 820 

as affected by oxygen supply 80 

in swampy meadows 211 

methods for studying .. 629 

soil temperature factor 180, 426 

Root-knot nematodes in Hawaiian 

Islands 51 

Roots, injury by arsenicals, Mont 449 

R ose 

canker, brown, studies 544 

diseases, studies 159,761 

foliage, spray injnry^. 161 

midge in Ontario 668 

mildew, notes... .. .... 68 

RoselMnlo^ 

hothrlna, notes. . ... 48 

spp., notes 58,155 



fertiliser experiments, Md 741 

handbook. ,.«. 842 

Rosin — 

from Bo9wellia semOa . 248 

testing and analysis « .. 804 

Rotation — 

of crops 229, 680, 622 

of crops. Ala.College 829 

of crops, Minn 788,784 

of crops, Mont 419 

of crops, R.I ^ 628 

of crops, U.8.DJk 881,480,481 

of crops in dairy farming, CNdo. 875 
plats, cake and com feeding on. 824 

Rothamsted — 

experiments, book of 614 

Library, notes 600 

Station in war time 101 

Roup, chromogenic bacillus from 488 

Rubber- 
black thread disease, notes 48. 64 

budding 46.448 

canker, notcB^..^^ ^^ 448,852 

uigitizea Dy vjjOOQIC 



lU*] 



INDBX OF SUB JB0T8. 



985 



Bobber — Contiaiied. Pmgs. 

culture ezperimcntB, Gaam.. 830 

dl ao M C B, notoi .. 156, 

249»26S»849,845 

field expertnent^ i«lUI»Ult7 46 

handbook ... 46 

insects affecting ... 360 

latex rlncB, studies 448 

latex, sugar as ooagnlant for.. 641 

leaf-Utex reUtlons 168 

manuring experiments.. 448 

new Phytophthora parasite.. 845,862 

preparation . .. 46 

protectlTe function of latidfer- 

oos system ..._ — 510 

renewed bark of different ages, 

jlelds 440 

seed selection 158 

qM>t disease, studies .. — 546 

tapping experiments 848 

Tariabiiity. etadies 646 

MmObeckia hirta. Inheritance stvdies- 181 



admtnlstratlon in Franoe.-.- — 891 

and mercantile economics 888 

children* surrey in North Caro- 
line 802 

commnnities, engenlcs in 103 

commnnity, mobilising 486 

credit. {Be9 Agricnltnral 
credit) 

derelopment in Canada 700 

economic and social reforms, 

U.8.D.A 780 

life, treatises 202,887,485,880 

New Tork. jorenlle d^nqnency 

in 800 

organixatlon in Porto Blco 800 

orguilxations of women, 17J3. 

DJL OS 

problems in England 887, 687 

rMonstmction. {8^ Becon- 
stmctlon.) 

rehitions of the Uttte town 802 

Rsearch, standardisation 800 

nnltation, inrestigations 603 

Bdioels. (See Schools, mral.) 

sseial snrrey, Iowa — .. — . — 503 

•odal sonrey, studies. . — 896 

(^ee also Coimtry.) 
BiMs, tropical grass or sedge...... 344 

(8e0 eUo Cereal, Wheat, etc) 
Sstibagaa (See Swedes.) 
KstcUaft of British India 68 

and rape as hog pastare, Minn. 771 
and wheat, comparatlTe yields.. 625 

as affected by aluminum 125 

as affected by cyanamid and di- 

cTanodiamid .. 724 

as green manure for orchards, 

led 730 

as meadow corer crop.. — . 187 

bran, analyses, JfJ 605 

breeding experiments 238,624 

continuoas culture, N.J 125 

culture experiments 833, 520 

146Q0I»*— 20 8 



Bye— -Continued. Page. 

culture experiments. Can.. 735 

culture in Indiana, Ind 786 

culture in Texas, Tex 720 

culture on moor soils 522 

effect on following crop 135 

effect on following crop, B.I 628 

feed, analyses. Mass 571 

feed, analyses, Mich . 571 

feed, description, Mich 72 

fertiliser experiments 229 

following alfhlfa and feterita, 

t7.S.D.A 482 

following millet, Minn 734 

Oeoioa 9quamoBa on, Ind . 753 

grass, culture experiments 136 

grass for irrigated pastures, 

V.8J>.A 482 

grass, perennial, yarlety tests 232 

grass, western, alkali tolerance. 719 

growing with legumes 822 

liming experiments 822 

manuring experiments, n.S.D.A. 482 

middlings, analyses, Ind 72 

middlings, analyses, Mass 571 

middlings, analyses, N.J 665 

middlings, analyses, Tex 571 

origin and early habitat 632 

pedigreed, in Wisconsin . 624 

phenologlcal observations 811 

pollen contamination 529 

Bosen 238 

rotation experiments 229 

selection experiments 233, 524 

sowing with TCtcb 248 

starch, color reaction 411 

statistical notes 626 

STal5f Improved Wasa 580 

use in bread making 556 

Tarieties In Argentina 625 

variety tests 233, 833, 529, 530 

variety tests, Ala.ColIege 728 

vaHety tests, Minn 732 

variety tests, U.S.D.A 332 

variety tests. Wash 730, 731 

yields, Minn 735 

Saccharin — 

as sugar substitute 864 

determination in compressed 

tablete 613 

Safety valve, glass, demountable — 709 

Sagrotan, disinfecting value 780 

Sailors. {See Soldiers and sailors.) 

Sal- 
forests, regeneration 848 

girth increment in even-aged 

crops p 158 

seedlings, dying back . 47 

tree disease, notes 48 

SaUcylie aldehyde in soils 22 

Saliva- 
food accessories In 271 

horse, orokinase and ptyalin in. 778 

human, amylolytlc activity 609 

Salivary glands— 

in relation to gastric secretion. 867 

in relation to thirst 767 



Digitized by 



Google 



986 



EXPEBIMEirr STATIOK BBOOBD. 



[Vol. 40 



Salix, hybrldintion experiments — 640 

Salmon, canned, examination 205 

Salt' 

content of a B^ameinn plant 826 

effect in agglntination.. 778 

effect on legnmes 484 

fertiUxing valne 184 

flgnres In serum of sick hones 287 

Importance in rations 775 

poisoning In swine 084 

"sickness/' rOIe of PoHiomm 

oombHi In 187 

Saltpeter, Chile. {See Sodimn ni- 
trate.) 

Salts, plants tolerating 221 

Samia oecropia, {Bee Cecropla- 

moth.) 
San Jos6 scale — 

immnnity to sprays, Wash 758 

notes 103 

Sandal spike disease, notes 48 

Sanitation, textbook 084 

Sanninoidea ettiHoea, {Bee Peach 
borer.) 

Sap concentration, studies 130 

Baperda — 

oalearata, studies 801 

eandida, {Bee Apple-tree borer, 
round-headed.) 

Sapote, analyses 763 

Sappaphls n.g., description 00 

Baroooyetie iewtUa, studies 585 

Sarcophaga, Hawaiian, key 263 

Sardines — 

ammonia and amins in 411 

bacteriology 556, 704, 864 

Sausages, estimating water content. 807 

Sawflies, notes 450,006,701 

Sawmills, small, U.S.D.A 291 

Scabies, notes 188,778 

{Bee aiao Mange.) 

Scales, Argentine, new^ 01 

Bchietocercfk tariarica taken at sea. 049 
Behistoeoma faponicum, cercaria of. 554 
Bchieoneura laniffer€k {Bee Apple 
aphis, woolly.) 

Bchieonotus eieboldU, biology 049 

SchloBsing, J. J. T., biographical 

sketch 800 

Bohoenohiue incertellue, studies 187 

School — 

and home gardening 493,898 

and home gardening course for 

Philippines-. -4 898 

and home gardening in San 

Francisco 294 

fair exhibits, receptacles for 90 

gardening, book on 290 

gardening in Los Angeles 197 

kitchen textbook 899 

Schools — 

agricultural. {See Agricultural 
schools.) 

rural, paper on 895 

rural, relation to social survey. 896 
Sdara, rcyision. 858 



BekH^ trifeUt n.sp., description 108 

SctontiJlc Besearch Association is 

Great Britain 500 

Seieroderwn^ t m rn ig t^m e n.q;ft., de- 
scription 260 

Bcl€rQtim4a^ 

dmerea, ensyma ot» Mbm 745 

fferwM n.sp., description 249 

eohrotlonim, notes 847 

spp., fundamental nvtrttioni^ 

Minn 746 

SderotinU diseases, studies 49 

BderoHmm hmUOieola, studies 847 

Sclerotium disease of coffee 252 

BeolUt manUm in Hawaii 864 

Beoiytue ^maOriepimoaue, notes 259 

Scottish Station for Testing and 
Registration of Agricultural 

Plants 700 

Scottsbluff Bxperiment B%rm, re- 
port, U.8.D.A 498 

Screw-worm fly in Hawaii 203 

Scrubber for ammonia distillation 806 

Scurvy — 

notes 565 

sprouted grains for 566 

studies 272, 

273, 363, 304, 404, 666, 868, 869 
{See aUo Antiscorbutic.) 

Seaside planting, treatise 447 

Seaweed — 

chemical analyses 725 

fertilising value. Can 734 

Philippine, use as food 567 

Seed- 
association in Sweden 828 

control and plant breeding 245 

Inspection, Md 535, 831 

inspection. Me 448 

inspection, Minn 338 

inspection, Mont 448 

inspection in Denmark 832 

inspection in Bni^nd and 

Wales 889, 637 

inspection in New South Wales. 638 
inspection in North Carolina. 838, 443 

inspection in Queensland 814,416 

law in Maryland, Md 146 

production in Switserland 888 

protons, studies 69,563 

reports, U.S.D.A 146, 

245, 338, 536, 831 

tests, variations In 146 

treatment with bromin 443 

Seedinfi; drill for nursery rows 228 

Seeds- 
abortive, position in pod 621 

catalase and oxidase content 222 

cleaning 40 

copper determination in 807 

crop tests in Norrland 882 

effects of soaking in water 727 

imports, U.S.D.A 827 

garden, disinfection and fumiga- 
tion 038 

uigiiizea Dy vjjOOQIC 



1«19] 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



987 



8 €< 8 d i — ConttniKd. Pmi«. 

Stmin, afl aflected by eoTlroii- 

Bwnt — 233 

legone, iiiTMtlgatlons .. 89 

loncevitj tests, Guam 889 

nltrocen distrllmtloii In, determl« 

Batfon 002 

oIL (See OD seeds.) 
pedigreed, inspectliig and dis- 

tribating _.......... - 238 

pedigreed, Talne .. 228 

Ranting depths, Utah 227 

poaitlOB Id planting 685 

resistance to desiccation 89 

sampling 145 

■aYing 147 

Te^etable, breeding work 888 

▼labiUty 299 

weed. (£ree Weed seeds.) 
Aels^iNella mpeHrU, allies In Sonth- 

eaBtem United States 183 

Self-feeden. (fifes Pigs, self-feeder 

for.) 
Ssuitnlferona tubules, relation to 

secondary eez characters 467 

Ssspfsm colon, trapping 169 

8cptlcenila~- 

group of bacteria, B.I 685 

henorrhagie 86, 778 

hemorrhagic, U.8.D..A . 183 

hemorrhagle, immnnlsatlon 183 

hemorrhagic, in sheep 782 

hemorrhagic, in swine 783 

hemorrhagic, in swine, Ind 783 

fitplorto— 

lyeopervioi, dissemination 644 

pyrioola^ notes 63 

ScTodiagBOsis, Qasetellani test in___ 288 

terpentine, fertilising valoe 815 

Serpholdea, phoresy in 459 

flcRaddla. seeds, mierooooplc charac- 
teristics 508 

bovine^ for treatment of infee- 

tioos diseases 588 

dlstribntion, pipette holder for.. 081 

from old horses 580 

of sl^ horses, sodium chlorid 

flgores 287 

of the sea eel 880 

physiology, international cata- 

logae 869 

stcfcness, prophylazia 580 

therapy, antlgangrenoas 83, 

84, 881, 884 

therapy in trichinosis 184 

nuns — 

antitozic, concentration 287, 288 

antltoxle, production 580 

tanmnne, selectiTe absorption 678 



65 

72 

632 

753 

854 

85 



as honey-produdng plant, OUa. 

press cake, analyses .^ 

culture in Philippines 

8f«is HpuUformU, notes 

SetoiBorpfaa on tobacco 

tetea-day ferer, causative agent.... 



Pago. 

fertilising yalne 135 

filter flies, studies 856 

Sex- 
characters, secondary, in birds. 871 

characters, studies 467 

studies 664 

Share leasing, adaptation to Joint- 
stock agricultural societies 490 

Shaw, W. O., biographical sketch — 600 

Sheep- 
blowfly, control by birds 851 

breeding experiments, Okla 74 

chest contour caliper, N.H 277 

dips, soda-sulphur 208 

fly, Australian, in Hawaii 663 

forest grasing, U.S.D.A 848,448 

heather and moor burning for 667 

mineral requirements, Tex 769 

parasites affecting 778 

pasturing experiments, U.S.D.A- 871 
pasturing on irrigation ditches, 

U.S.D.A 472 

raising in the West 177 

range, emergency feed for, 

U.S.D.A 277 

scab, notes 676,778 

(See ai90 Lambs.) 

Sheep's erythrocytes, preservation — 479 

Shelter belts on the Great Plains, 

U.S.D.A 841, 842 

Shingles, production In 1917, 

U.S.D.A 848 

Shtvaphif n.g. and n.sp., descrip- 
tion 650 

Shorea ro1>u8ta. (See Sal.) 

Shorts- 
analyses, Can 768 

analyses, Ind 72 

analyses. Mass 571 

analyses, Tex 071 

Shote pox, studies 89 

Shrews, new, from Oregon 851 

Shrubs— 

and trees on the farm, Mont 447 

ornamental, at forest nursery in 

Rhodesia 6*1 

ornamental, solecting. Ohio 640 

propagation by cuttings, Wash_ 840 

water conductivity of wood 821 

Silage- ^ , 
alfalfa and sweet clover, chemis- 
try of J^l 

alfiilfa, studies ^^^ 

com and soy beans, seeding 136 

corn and sunflowers, yields 

TTgT) A B<SA4ol 

com; cuitu;;'experiments. Can. 735 

corn, varieties. Minn 788 

com, yields, Kans----- o^ 

crops in Nebrnska. Nebr 621 

crops, variety test^;"^;;::::: 330 

crops, variety tesr 

crops* variety tests, mic ^^^ 

feeding value, ^^^'^ 666 

feeding vaiaet v.»-^-^ 

Digitized hv LjOOQLC 



988 



EXPEBIMBNT STATIOK BBCOBD. 



[Vol 40 



aUage— CoDtlnued. Pttf«. 

methods of treatment 116 

notes. U.8.D.A 881 

preserratlon and ripening in 

warm climates .. 116 

sorghum, acetylmethylcari^inol 

in 412 

Borghnm and cowpea, mineral 

constituents, Tex 769 

sorghnm, feeding Talue, U.S. 

D.A 6M 

sunflower, U.S.DJ1 831 

sunflower, analyses, Mont 470 

SUica— 

of feeding stufb, digestibiUty, 

Tex 769 

plant, and sand, differentiating. 610 

Silkworms, pebrine disease • 662 

BUvanus MurinamenaU, studies -. 865 

Silver leaf disease 748 

SIncamas, culture in Philippines.. 281 

Biphocoryne averug, {See Grain 
aphis, European.) 

Sirup making, U.S.D.i& 830 

Sirups, frothy fermentation 615 

Sisal in Hawaiian Islands ... 836 

Bitona lineatUB, notes .. 868 

Bitoiroffa cerealeUa^ (Bee Angonmols 

grain-moth.) 
Skim milk — 

feeding value, Mich 75 

feeding value, Ohio 278,279 

for laying hens, Ind 76, 773 

testing for fiit, Minn 878 

Skin, sterilization 285 

Skulls of Japanese cattle 276 

Slag, solubility in weak organic 

adds 709 

Sludge- 
activated, experiments 386 

Imhoff-tank, fertilising value 823 

Small-holdings system in British 

Isles 889 

Smallpox, complement flxation test 684 

Snakeroot, white, toxicity 681 

Snakes, wounds and diseases 66 

Snapdragon rust, control, Can 165 

Snow — 

measurement 715 

nitrogen content 809 

nitrogen content. Can 724 

substances dissolved in 19 

sulphuric acid content 814 

Soap — 

glycerin determination in 804 

lyes, glycerol determination in 712 

methods of analysis 811 

use with Burgundy mixture 746 

use with nicotin sprays 762 

Soapweed — 

as feeding stuff, N.Mex 277 

as feeding stuff, U.S.D.A 277, 471 

Society for Promotion of Agricul- 
tural Science 299,800 

Soda-sulphur dips, methods of 

analysis . ^ 208 



Sodium— 

chlortd. (Bee Bolt.) 

citrate, toxicity as affected by 

dlot 466 

effect on hydcation and growth. 818 

fluorld, «nttaeptle Talne 779 

hypochlorite. {Bee Hypociilo- 
rite.) 

lodate for potoonlag flies 880 

iodid, effect on the dreulatloii. 274 
nitrate, effect on decomposition 

of soy bean fodder 214 

nitrate, effect on legmne Inocu- 
lation 215 

nitrate, effect on wlieat 244 

nitrate, ftftillalng value, N. J. 126, 126 
nitrate for com In the South, 

U.SJ).A 422 

nitrate v. eottonaeed meal, Tex. 616 
oxalate, toxicity as affected by 

diet 466 

p-hydroxyphenylaraonate, prepa- 
ration 609 

rOlo in plant nutritloa 4M 

salts, influence on nitric-nitro- 
gen accumulation.. 782 

•alts, toxicity, soil factors af- 
fecting 816 

tartrate, toxicity as affected by 

diet 286,466 

Soft drinks, sugar sabatitutes In 68 

Sou— 

acidity- 
aluminum aa factor in 125 

as affected by drainage . 22 

as affected by moisture... 816 

determination . . . 213 

effect on lawn grasses..... 126 
effect on vetch and oats... 134 

limestone action on. 111 428 

measuring by sugar invar- 

alon 123 

nature 128 

neutrallsittg 126, 815 

relation to crop growth... 824 
relation to growth of 

orchids 812 

relation to lime and potash 

content 812 

relation to mold action 319 

studies 819, 620 

aeration experiments, use of 

pits in 629 

aeration investigations... .. 718 

aeration, relation to root 

growth 30i 820 

air, composition 619 

aldehydes, studies . . 22 

bacteria as affected by cyanamld 

and dieyanodiamid 724 

bacteria in acid soils, studies.. 620 
bacteria of froaen soils in 

Quebec 613 

bacteria, rOle In relation to 

phosphates ... .. 620 

bacteria, vaniUin-destroylng, 

Ala.CoU«ge .. 24 

uigiiizea Dy vjiOOQlC 



Iftl9l 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



989 



Sou — Obntlinied. 

bacteriology, stodiefl, VJ 125 

blologj stDdlet, Bltiogai deter- 

mljiatlon in 711 

cliemlstry, studies, N^T 125 

colloids, relation to plowsole 417 

erosion, coast, Spartina for 680 

crofllon in Iowa, Iowa . 717 

erosion, preventloB, U.8.D.i^ 188 

fertility experiments, standardi- 
sation 828 

fertlUty investlsations, Kont 419 

fertUIty investigations, Okla 624 

fertlUty InTestigatlonB, Wash.. 719 

fertflity work in India 825 

fertility worlc in Kansas, Kans. 819 

fungi, actlTlty 122, 818, 721 

ftiBci in a fbrest nursery 852 

ftingi, patliosenic, eontrol 747 

inoculation — 

with Asotobacter 882 

with Asotobacter, Iowa 817 

(See also Legomea, inocula* 
tlon.) 
moisture as aflected by organie 

matter 811 

moisture as affected by tillage 

methods. Wash 719 

moisture content, effect on 

growth of barley 219 

moisture, effect on acidity.^ 816 

moisture of surface foot, effect 

on nitrification. Wash.. 719 

moisture under different crop- 
ping systoaSk Mont.. — ..... 429 
oioisture^ unfree, and heat of 

wetting, reUtlon, Mich 20 

organisms as affected by carbon 

dlsulphld and toluol .. 618 

organisms, culture media for, 

739 

proteolytic actiyi- 

721 

protoaoa as reduction index 214 

reaction as affected by lime... 124 
reaction, relation to weed 

growth 832 

" sicknesses " in Netheriaads 319 

solution as related to growth 

of barley 218 

solution, studies 718 

solution, studies, Mich 612 

solutions, membrane for study^ 

inc 718 

specialists, training 800 

■ospensions, layer formation in. 620 
temperature factor, evalua- 
tion 180, 426 

Son 



Alsbsms. Lowndes Co^ n.S.0jU 216 

Alabama. Monroe GOb, U.8J>^. 419 
Alaska, Kenai Peninsula region, 

U.aDJk 818 

GtUfomla, Lower San Joaquin 

Valley, I7.8.D.A 118 

iDdiana, Porter Co., U.8.D.A 420 

Iowa, Clay Co., VS.l>Jk 216 



Soa survey in — Continued. Pa^s. 

Iowa, Muscatine Co., Iowa 216 

Iowa, Pottawattamie Co., Iowa. 216 

Minnesota, Anoka Co., U.8.D.A- 217 
Mississippi, Covington Co., U.S. 

D.A 813 

Missouri, Barry Co., U.S.D.A.. 119 

Nebraska, Phelps Co., U.S.D.A. 818 

Nebraska, Wayne Co., U.S.D.A.. 814 
North Carolina, Cleveland Co., 

U.S.D.i^ 420 

North Carolina, Halitez Co., 

U.8.D,A 217 

North Carolina, Stanly Co., U.S. 

D.A 217 

Ohio, MaHon Co., U.8.D.A 217 

Ohio, Miami Co., U.8.D.A 119 

Oklahoma, Payne Co., U.S.D.A. 420 
Pennsylvania, Clearfield Co., 

U.S.D.A 814 

South Csrolina, Berkeley Co., 

U.8.D.A 119 

Tenn es se e , Shelby Co., U.S.D.A. 814 

Texas, Bell Co., U.S.D.A 120 

Yemont, Windsor Co., U.S.D.A- 814 

Wisconsin, Door Co., U.S.D.A 120 

Wisconsin, Milwaukee Co., U.S. 

DJL 120 

Soils— 

absorption and coagulation In.. 212 

acid, manganese In, Ala.College- 728 
add, nitrification and bacterial 

content 620 

alkali. (See Alkali.) 

as affected by alfalfa 722 

as affect«l by alfalfa. Kans 319 

as affected by alfalfa, Wash 719 

as aifected by manganese, N.Y. 

Cornell 820 

as affected by plant residues 

and sugars 121 

bacterial activity as affected by 

osmotic pressure 722 

bacterial activity as affMted by 

pbuits 299, 513 

bacteriologic tests 817 

bacterio-tozins, nonperslstence 28 

Baoterium lactie-viacoeum in 214 

biochemical processes 616 

bog and moss, fertiilier experi- 
ments 186 

bog and moss, water table and 

root growth In 211 

carbon diozid treatment 820 

carbon diozid treatment, Ind 789 

chemical criteria of productivity. 120 

chlorin absorption 619 

copper determination in 807 

cranberry, limed, Asotobacter in. 214 

cultivated, nitrate reduction In. 819 
decomposition of organic matter 

in 213 

DeEalb, fertiliser experiments.. 299 
DeKalb, fertiliser ezperiments. 

Pa 723 

determination of carbon and car- 

bonatcs in .. ............. 308 

uigitizea Dy vjjv^v^^i\^ 



990 



EXPERIMENT STATION BECOBD. 



rVol.40 



Soils — Continued. Pifft. 
effect on nitrogen relations of 

crops 822 

evaporation and run-olT 810 

extraction of ammonia from 203 

forest, nitrification in 418 

granitic and gneiss, of the Corso. S16 

bnmas content, chlorin index... 610 
Indian alluvium, nitrification as 

affected by potsherds 24 

indigo, of Bihar 620 

iron in, studies 726 

lime requirement, determina- 
tion 218,720 

lime requirement, effect of heat 

on 720 

meadow, index to phosphonw 

and potash requirements 22 

moistness, interpretation of field 

observations on 211 

mold action in i. 122,818,721 

moor. {Bee Peat and Moor.) 
muck, of Washington, potash re^ 

quirement, Wash 422 

nitric-nitrogen accumulation In, 

influence of salts on 722 

of Champaign Co., HI 514 

of Fulton Co., Indiana 810 

of Guam, analyses, Guam 828 

of Indiana, manure for, Ind..- 514 
of Minnesota, phosphate require- 
ments 820 

of Montgomery Co., Kans 820 

of Muscatine Co., Iowa 216 

of New Mexico, analyses 785 

of northeast Indian tea dis- 
tricts 20 

of Pottawattamie Co., lowa-.^ 216 

of Queensland, analyses 814,416 

of southern New Jersey and their 

uses, U.S.D.A 19 

of West Virginia, analyses, 

W.Va 420 

of Yorkshire, lime Requirements- 128 
osmotic pressure, effect on bac- 
terial activity 722 

peat (See Peat.) 

physical character as affected by 

calcium oxid 622 

physical classification, chemical 

criteria, and productivity 120 

quicklime conversion in 622 

rawness of humid subsoils 121 

reduction phenomena 214 

relation between nnftee water 

and heat of wetting, Mich 20 

saline, plant life on 221, 424 

salt content, determining by 

freezing-point method 816 

sampling 817 

shrinkage 410 

soluble salt content, Mich 612 

sterilisation experiments 147 

stertlisation, partial.^ 28, 619 

sugar inversion by 128 

textbook 896 

toxicity due to aldehydes. 22 



Soils — Continued. 

toxins of, bactorlal 23 

toxins of, organic, AUuColIege — 728 
translocation of calclom in, N.T. 

Cornell 719 

vanillin In, Ala.CoUege 24 

water-soluble nutrients in as af- 
fected by lime 124 

wilting coefltdent, dilatometer 

method, Mich 22 

B^kmum femdleH hybrid, studies.. 131, 241 

Solanum, rest perlcids 228 

Soldiers and sailors— 

agricultural instruction for 591 

disabled, openings Id agriculture 

for 790 

forestry pursuits for 898 

land settlement for. 889, 591, 687, 790 

Yocationai rehabUitatioa 793 

Swrem n. forms, descriptions 861 

Sorghum — 

Amber, yields, Guam 827 

Amber, yields, Minn 738 

and cowpea silage, mineral con- 
stituents, digestibUity, Tto.. 769 

as siUge crop, Kans 330 

as Bugar-produdng plant 825 

black Amber, seeding experi- 
ments, Nebr 522 

breeding experiments, technique. 241 

feeding value, U.S.D.A 876 

fodder, mineral constituents, dl- 

gestibiliy, Tex 769 

for sirup production, tT.S.D.A 434 

maturity In relation to composi- 
tion, Kans 830 

seeding depths, Utah 227 

silage, acetylmethylcarbinol In- 412 

silage, feeding value, U.SJ>.A — 666 

sugar content, studies 325 

sweet, seeding rates, Tex 729 

Sorghum vutgare, cyanogeneels In, 

Okla 804 

Sorghums — 

culture experiments 230 

culture in Kansas, Kans 331 

culture in New Mexico, N.Mex 18 

culture in Washington, Wash 730 

forage, varieties for Hawaii 823 

grain and forage, Irrigation 

experiments, Kans 330 

grain and forage, variety tests, 

Okla 32.624 

grain, breeding experiments, 

Okla 624 

grain, chemistry of, Okla 608 

grain, culture in Guam, Guam 827 

grain, variety tests, U.S.D.A — 433 
nonsaccharln, culture in Philip- 
pines 231 

use In bread making 66 

variety tests 230 

{See al9o Kafir corn, MUo malse, 
etc.) 

Sorrel, growth In alkaline media 40 

Sotol as feeding stuff, N.Mex 277 

South Carolina Station, report 694 

uigitizea Dy %j\jkjwi\^ 



1919] 



nn)EX OF SUBJECTS. 



991 



Soath Dal»ta — Pa^s. 

GoUege, notes 99,409 

Btatioii, notes 499 

8ov8» brood — 

alfalfa hay for, N.Dak 75 

goitrous condiUon, Wis « 180 

mineral reqolrements, Kana 872 

Soy bean — 

easein, manufacture • 41Q 

00, production and consumption 

In United States, U.S.D.A 614 

oil, specific heat 68 

proteins, nutritional value 463 

urease, preserylng 800 

8oy beans — 

and corn as silage crop 186 . 

and cowpeaa» comparative yields, 

Kans 830 

as affected by ammonium sul- 
phate - 80 

as affected by harium and stron- 
tium 819 

as affected by magnesia. Ark 726 

as human food 66, 657 

as human food. Wash 762 

culture in Alabama, Ala.Col- 

lege 828, 829 

culture in Philippines 632 

culture in Texas, Tex 729 

culture in Washington, Wash 730 

decomposition in soil 214 

effect on succeeding crop, Ala. 

College 829 

effect on succeeding wheat crop, 

N.J 126 

fertUiaer experiments 489 

fertniaer experiments, Ala.Col- 

lege 828 

field tests in Fiji 281 

growing with com * 136, 627 

growing with grain 822 

illustrated lecture, U.S.D.A 699 

immature seeds, oil content 439 

inoculation * 216.' 439 

inoculation, Iowa 328 

liming experiments 439 

liming experiments, N.J 126 

pedigreed, in Wisconsin 624 

selection experiments 623 

strains for rainy and dry sea- 
sons 632 

Tsrletiea for silage 184 

variety tests, A]a.Colle8e 828 

variety tests^ Mino 733 

Sparrow — 

American tree, correct name — 161 

new seaside, description 647 

IBfpartlBa for coast erosion control.. 680 

Spavin, pathology of 778 

Spelt- 

and wheat, hybridisation 624 

culture and variety testa • 883 

ndtore at Belle Fourche, U.S. 

DJk 332 

milling and baking tests 234 

fifermophoffu* •mhfasGiatus, reme- 
dies . ... 563 



Page. 

Sph€oronema fitnbrUUum, studies 347 

8phmrop9is malorum, summary of In- 
formation . 261 

8ph€Bro$t{lbe^ 

repens, notes — 68 

sp. on citrus.. . . 166 

q>. on tea roots . . 48 

8ph49roih€oa— 

pannoaa, control 761 

spp., notes 63 

Sphecoidea of Nebraska 668 

Sphenophorus spp., control, U.S.D.A- 666 

6pheno9p<>re<i' herheridis n.sp., from 

the Andes 138 

Spices, examination 116, 204, 206 

Spider mites on cinchona, tea, etc.. 656 

Spiders — 

red, remedies 458 

transcanadian ^ 648 

SpUoch&etosoma calif ornka n.g. and 

n.sp., description 668 

Spinach — 

ash absorption from concentrated 

soil solutions 602 

blight, studies 450, 648 

culture, N.Mex 838 

Bpiro^UBta — 

hebdomadis n.sp., studies 86 

recurrens, lice as hosts 561 

Spirochete of rat-bite fever 781 

BpUtella monticolQ, correct name for 

tree sparrow 161 

Spongoapora auhterranea, notes 48,847 

Spores, cnldesporidian, filament ex- 
trusion 266 

Sporotrichosis following mouse bite. 180 

Spotted fever, Bocky Mountain, in 

rabbits 781 

Spray— 

gun for orchards, Ohio ... 630 

noszle for tall trees. Can.. 154 

schedule for grapes. Mo . 342 

Spraying — 

dust. (Bee Dusting.) 

for fungus diseases 746 

formulas for the garden 638 

injury to foliage, Mont 449 

notes 256 

program for orchards. Wash 742 

{See aUo Apples, Potatoes, etc.) 

Sprays- 
copper, basic and acid 158 

oil-lime-sulphur 453, 454 

preparation 801, 848 

sulphur, preparation and use 69 

(See al9o Insecticides, Fungi- 
cides, and tpeciflo forms.) 

Spruce — 

Chermes, studies 262 

cones, Insects affecting 163, 164 

Sitka, rots of 349 

Spnrry as coffee substitute 508 

Squab culture 280 

Squash — 

effect on following crop 136 

effect on following crop,B.I.-.. 623 
uigitizea Dy y^jv^y^wis^ 



992 



EXPEBIMBNT ^TATIOK BBOOBD. 



(ToL4e 



Sqaaali — Oontlnned. Pace. 
Habbard, selection experimeBti, 

Minn T40 

Bclerotinia diseases 49 

Bquatarola 99uatarola evnotura near 

Washington 1«1 

Sqnirrels, ground, control, Cal 850 

Stable fly as affecting milk produce 

tlon 648 

Staggers, notes 86 

Stallions — 

in Kansas, E^ans 4T2 

in Oklahoma, Okla T6 

in Utah, Utah 4T8 

Standard packages and uniform 

grades 293 

Staphylococcus pyogenes Invading 

Crvpiococcus farciminotuB lesions. 680 
Starch — 

determination 114, 204, 812 

distillation under reduced pres- 
sure 110 

effect on nutritive value of pro- 
teins 662 

energy values 866 

hydrolysis, erythrodeztrin in 460 

soluble, detwmination 812 

soluble, preparation 812 

Starfish, ground, fertilizing value — 126 

Stature, inheritance of 276 

Steers — 

bolly refuse for, Okla 366 

concentrates for, in the South, 

U.S.D.A 878 

cull becms for, Mich 768 

feeding experiments. Can 768 

limiting grain ration, Iowa 869 

on different rations, manure pro- 
duced by 126 

"optimum age*' for fattening 

off 667 

respiration experiments 866 

roughages for, in the South, 

U.S.D.A 666 

Stegomyia fasdata as dengue carrier. 662 
Btemmatosteres €tpteru8 n.g. and n.sp., 

description 869 

BtephanitU pyrioidee, notes, N.J 763 

Stephenaonia n.g. and n.sp., descrip- 
tion 660 

8terigmatocv8ti8 sp. on iig 62 

Sterilising outfit for field laboratory. 848 

Stewart, V.6., biographical sketch.. 199 

Stlctiella n.g., description 264 

BtilheUa fiavida, control, P.R 42 

Stock. (Bee Live stock.) 
Stockyards fever. (Bee Septicemia, 

hemorrhagic) 
Stomach — 

physiology of 270, 766. 867 

worms, notes 782 

worms of sheep, Mich 88 

Stomatitis — 

differential diagnosis 288 

infectious 183 

Btomowys caMtrans, ( Bee Stable fly. ) 

Stopcock, special, description — - — 202 



Storage, central cooperatiTe^ in 
France 

Btmiteous sp. on coconut 751 

filrsiMSto Umgiptnu U s, notes 109 

Straw, effect on nitrttcation, Wash. 719 

Strawber ri e s 

breeding and testing in Minne- 
sota 148 

breeding experiments, Minn 742 

breeding experiments in Alaska. 446 

culture, U.S.D.A 838 

everbearing, new 6S9 

fmlt setting in 838 

labor costs . 192 

temperature when picked, rela- 
tion to keeping quality 639 

varieties, U.S.D.A 840, 888 

Strawberry — 

leaf beetle, notes 64 

leaf roller, studies, Iowa 766 

leaf spot, notes 168 

Strepsiptera, studies 266 

Streptococci — 

hemolytic, filterable toxic prod- 
uct 88 

hemolytic, m milk 478 

invading Orjfptoeoccus far^mi- 

nosus lesions 680 

studies 881 

Btreptoooooous 

hewMfyHcus, human and bovine, 

differentiation 677 

pyogenes, culture medium for 180 

Streptococeos — 

immunity, studies 676 

infection of udders 87, 184 

infection, review of investiga- 
tions 184 

Streptothrloes, metabolism 478 

Streptothrix — 

infection of udders 184, 186 

of rat-bite fever 479 

Btriga lute€t, notes 48 

Btromatinia geranii n.8p., descrip- 
tion 249 

Strongylidosis, equine, treatment 686 

Strongylus, notes 782 

Strontium, effect on plant growth 819 

Stumps, removing, Wis 90 

Subsoils — 

hundd, rawness 121 

moistness, interpretation of 

field observations on 211 

Sucrose — 

bromination as affected by cata^ 

lyaen 618 

content of molasses^ determina- 
tion 966 

determination 607 

determination in milk chocolate 14 

Sudan grass — 

and millet, comparative yields, 

Iowa 828 

as pasture crop, Tex 729 

breeding experiments, Okla 82 

uigitizea Dy k^jvjkjwlk^ 



lftl»] 



nrrax op subjeois. 



993 



gnas — Contliined. Pifa^ 

composltleii, relatton to yield 

and BAtnrtty, Kans 8S0 

culture experiments, OUa 82 

culture expertmeiitt, Tex 729 

GQltsre experiments In Hawaii. 823 

CQltnre in Goam, Guam 827 

CQlhire In New Mexico, N.Mex. 18, 86 

culture in Philippines 281 

teradnation 222 

hay, composition and digestibil- 
ity, Iowa 71 

pasture experiments, N.Mex 86 

pasture experiments, Okla 82 

seed, resistance to desiccation 80 

seeding and harresting experi- 
ments, Okla 624 

secdiniT experiments, Kans 881 

seeding experiments, N.Mex — .. 86 

seeding experiments, Nebr 522 

yldds, Kansi 331 

yields, Minn 733 

LT 

u coagulant for HcTea latex 641 

Mttteat of sorghnm, studies 826 

dccolsrteing carlMiBs, new 12, 510 

determination in blood.. 116, 810, 713 

detersslnation In urine . — 418 

determination of rafflnose in — 313 

industry in Australia 524 

Industry In Cuba 702 

industry In Gurdaspur District. 685 

industry In Queensland 87 

inTerslOB by acids, action of neu- 
tral salta on 802 

inYsnlon by colloidal silica 201 

inversion by soils and allied Bid>- 

stances . 128 

(See also Invert activity.) 

invert, msnnfscture . 802 

manufsctnre in United Prov- 
inces 208 

maple (See Maple.) 

ma ssccoi te, purity tables 116 

masseculte^ treatment 510 

massecultes and sirups, frodiy 

fermentation 615 

minimum In nutrition . . 563 

palm. East Indian, P.R 44 

poriflcatlon, carbon filters for.. 511 
raw, from various esuntrles, 

composltloo 208 

refining 208 

seeding method of graining 208 

situation, bo<»k on 633 

substitutes la ice cream 777, 802 

substitutes in Jelly making 668 

substitutes, redpes^ NJDak 861 

sobstltntss, use 67, 68, 864 

(8ee sZio Sugars.) 



208 

488 



areas, entetprise studies 

farms, organisation. Mont... 

land, Mown-out, recropplag, 

TJJBJXA , 

leaf spot, studies 



431 
844 



Su0ir beet — Continued. Pace, 

louse in relation to Irrigation, 

Mont 462 

molasses, raiSnose in 818 

powder to replace refined sugar, 

Minn 715 

pulp. (Bee Beet pulp.) 

roots, decompoctitlon in soil 214 

seed in France 86 

seed Industry, book on 441 

soils, nitrates in 800 

Sugar beets — 

and mangels, comparative yields, 

I7.S.D.A 431 

and sorghum, comparison 325 

continuous culture, Mont 419 

cost of production, U.8.D.A-. 180, 440 

culture experiments 886 

culture experiments. Can 785 

culture in California, U.8.D.A.. 737 

culture in Colorado, t7.8.D.A — 138 
culture in Michigan and Ohio, 

I7.S.D.A 440 

culture in Montana, U.S.D.A 139 

culture in South Dakota, S.Dak. 82 

culture in Utah, Utah 633 

determination of fructose in 507 

feeding value, 8.Dak 32 

fertiliser exp^lments 421,621 

industry in Australia 337 

industry in Ontario 886 

industry in United States, U.S. 

D.A 139 

irrigated, manuring experiments. 421 

irrigation experiments, IQtns 331 

liming experiments 134 

morphology and physiology, re- 
lation to climate 631 

rotation experiments, U.S.D.A. 881, 430 

seeding depths, Utah 227 

thinning dates, U.S.D.A 430 

variety tests 836 

yields, Minn 734 

Sugar cane — 

ammonium sulphate for 633 

borer on maize 453 

borer, parasites of 654 

botany of 532 

breeding experiments 241, 

242, 683, 634 

chlorosis, P.R 61 

culture experiments 38, 230, 

281, 832. 484, 441, 628, 625. 684, 826 

culture in Cuba 337 

culture in Gurdaspur District — 635 

culture In Queensland 37 

diseases In tropical and sub- 
tropical America 157 

diseases, notes 47, 

48, 61, 165, 844, 848 

drainage experiments 441 

evolution and origin. 829 

eye-spot, notes 864 

fertilizer experiments 38, 

230, 231, 241, 242. 441, 

523, 682, 625, 633, 826 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



994 



SXPSRIMBNT STATION BXOOBD. 



[Vol 40 



Sugar cane — Oontlniied. Faffti 

trogboppeTf notes ^•..^.. 201, 856 

frost protection and firoat dam- 
age 442 

frosted, preyentlng decomposi- 
tion 684 

growing for slnip» U.8.D.A- — 830 

growth measurements 326 

Indian, cUsaiflcation 635,820,830 

inheritance In 241 

insects affecting 67, 854 

irrigation experiments 230 

Japanese, cnltore experiments, 

Tex 720 

Japanese, culture In Phlllppinea. 231 

Joice, clariflcation 610 

juice, rOle of oxidases and Iron 

in color changes 12 

leaf-hoppers in Hawaii 854 

leaf spot, studies 848 

liming experiments.. .... 88 

mottling disease, resistant va- 
riety 848 

mutation in......... ..... 634 

nematode injury, U.S.DJL. 157 

oxidases of 426 

planting dates in Argentina. — 441 
planting experiments. 88, 582, 634, 635 

ratooning experiments^. . 38 

seed, from different sources.... 87 

selection experimenta.. 523 

thick V, thin, for planting.... 532 

varieties 88, 632 

yarleties In Dutch Bast Indies. 87, 635 
varieties in HawaUan Islands.. 634 

varieties, IndUn 635, 820, 880 

varieties, Philippine ..... 220 

variety, disease-resistant. .. 848 

variety tests 87, 

228. 230, 231, 242, 832, 441, 
523, 625, 638, 684, 828. 825 
Sugars — 

aldehyde, determination . 114 

aotooxidation . . .. 118 

nonfermentable, of molasses... 313 
preparation from other sugars of 

fewer carbon atoms ... .. 110 

reducing, determination. 114, 312, 613 
{See aiao Glucose, Sucrose, 
eta) 
Sulphate — 

of ammonia. {See Ammonium 

sulphate.) 
of potash. (See Potassium sul- 
phate.) 
Sulphates- 
determination..... 113 

inorganic, rOle in nutrition 71 

Sulphlon, volumetric estimation. 400 

Sulphur — 

effect on rock phoq^hate^... 128 

fertilizing value 128, 440 

mixtures. (Bee lime^ulphur 
mixtures.) 

nutrition of plants. Ark 726 

requirement of red clover 727 

sprays, preparation and use 50 



Bolphui^-CHwtiniiad. Paaa. 
trioxid of feeding stuffs. di^esU- 

bility, Tex 770 

Solphnric acid — 

content of snow and rain 814 

ereaaieiy-waate, superphosphate 

from 16 

determination in presenoa of 

phosphates..... 18 

industry in Great Britain 816 

manufacture .... . .- 815 

Summer sores, etiology and treat- 
ment 586 

Summers, warm and cold. .. 716 

Sun spots and dimate, oomUtioD% 

U.S.D.A 416 

Sunflower — 

ily, notes 160 

seed, Swedish, studies 533 

silage, analyses and use, Mont — 470 

silage, studies, U.S.D.A 881 

stems, utUisation 242 

Sunflowers — 

as forage crop.. ...... 242 

as silage crop, U.S.D.A- 882, 481 

as soiling and sUage crop, Mont. 420 

culture experiments 280 

hybrid 728 

sderotlnia diseases^ .. .... 48 

yield of stovw. Wash 781 

Sunlight, formation of nitrites by in 

aaueous solution. 425 

Superior Council of Agronomic Sta- 
tions and Laboratories in Franoe. 99 
Superphosphate — 

effect on deoonpoaition of soy 

bean fodder.... 214 

fertilising value. Mo 218 

fertilising valoeb Mont 429 

fertilising value, Pa 728 

fertilising value, Tex 515 

(See aUo Phosphates, conk- 
parlson.) 

niter cake 221,515 

of ammonia, new fertiliser..... 127 

preparation.. — . 725, 801 

preparation with creamery waste 

sulphuric add. 16 

Swamp — 

reclaimed, fodder crops on . 281 

rose mallow, insects affecting.. 754 
soils, vegetation as Indicator of 

quality 718 

waters, effect on plants and bio- 

colloids 520 

Swan4»y meadows, water table 211 

Swedes — 

culture experlmettt&....... .. 625 

culture experiments, Mich. 731 

culture In Antigua 622 

culture in South Dakota, S.Dak. 82 

^Eect on following crop, B.I 623 

feeding value, Can 768 

relative yldding capacity 625 

roots, decomposition in soil 214 

yields, Minn 784, 735 

yields. Wash.. • .. .. 730 

uigitizea Dy vjx^v^v i%^ 



1919] 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



995 



as bog pftstnra^ NJDAk........ 7S 

' M hog pasture, I7.S.D.A...... 72 

as pastnvs crop, Kans S30 

as pastnre crop^ OUa 82 

as paatace crop, I7.8.D.i^ 470 

as winter eoTer crop * 188 

adtare In Washington, Wash — 781 

haj, feodlAg YalQa» Kans 869 

inoculation 216 

on Goni belt farms, U.8.D.A 242 

dlage, chemistry of 10 

8 wet com— 

Stewart's disease, studies 846 

mrlety tests 184 

Sweet pea, mutation In.... 641 

Sweet potato- 
diseases 168 

floor, fltarch, and sogar, mak- 
ing and uses, Ala. Tuskegee. 267 

wecril, notes .,- 269, 260 

weevil, studies, U.8.DJI 867 

Sweet potatoes — 

coltnre, I7.8.D.A 788 

cnltnre and oae 768 

coltnre experiments 280, 231, 484 

coltore In Philippines 281 

fertlUaer experiments 280 

fertiliser experiments, Tex 616 

insects affecting . 269 

storage 864 

storage rots . 847 

tennlte Injury 260 

varieties for Porto Rico, P.R... 44 

variety tests 228, 622 

Sweet tosBock, production and nse.. 442 
Swtaifr~ 

avian tnbercnlosls In 186 

bacterial Infections in 788 

color Inheritance In 870 

corpos Inteom of pregnancy 668 

erysipelas, Immnnixation 886 

fever, semm treatment 788 

ocBtros and ovulation In 663 

plagne, U.B.D.A 188 

plagoe, notes 783 

rdatton of breed and age to 

prolificacy. Wash 770 

salt poisoning tn 684 

{Bee ulto Pigs.) 
Symbfotes — 

action on constHnents of fat — 464 

and vitamins, similarity . 368 

as agents of ketonlsatlon 464 

Symptomatic anthrax. {See Black- 
teg.) 
KyaiydoMw am e r i e am u e n^., de- 
scription 262 

BtmekgUimm endobiothmm, notas — 847 
Swu t tmo ap U am^eltmoMerie n.sp., de- 
scription 656 

Bjrphld flies, economic Importance.. 856 

llUianldm of District of Oohimbla 767 

foftoaiK amcrioofMis, notes 268 

Tibanus, collecting larvn 757 

UheU rt m epe et mMUe, BOtes» PA. 44 



Page. 

Tabosa grass hay, mineral constitu- 
ents, digestibility, Tex 769 

Tacblnid» of North America, notes. 658 

Twnia piHfomUe in the cat 686 

Trnniothfipe inooneequene, studies 647 

Tallow, production In United States, 

U.S.D.A 614 

Tamarack for fence posts, Ohio 744 

Tan extracts from mangrove 47 

TanaemaeUm n.g. and n.Bp., descrip- 
tion 859 

Tangelos, descriptions and value in 

Florida, n.8.D.A 247 

Tankage — 

analyses, Ind 72 

analyses, Iflch 571 

digester, analyses, N.J 666 

feeding value, Ark 279 

feeding value, Ohio 278 

feeding value, Okla _ 75, 278 

feeding value, U.8.D.A 72 

{See eteo Garbage tankage.) 

Tannla meal, analyses 173 

Tannine — 

culture and use 763 

variety tests 622 

Tanning materials, methods of anal- 
ysis 714 

Tapeworms of the horse 186 

Taphrina — 

communie, treatment, Mont 449 

spp. on plum, Mont 452 

Tarache delecia, studies 754 

Tarnished plant bug — 

biology 67 

studies, Mo 455 

Taro, Hawaiian, as food 557 

Tareenymua tnmeluoeHe on tea 666 

Tartar emetic, use In treatment of 

trypanosomiasis 781 

Tartrate nephritis, studies 286, 388 

Tartrates — 

determination in baking powder. 712 

toxic action 466 

Tea — 

commercial, composition 14 

diseases, control... 849 

diseases, notes 48, 58, 851 

Insects affecting 269 

mites of 666 

shot-hole borer, notes 266,453 

thrips, notes 69 

tortrix, studies 463 

Temperature minimum and sunrise, 

difference in timex 814 

{See aleo Night temperature.) 

Tennessee — 

Station, notes 199,499,600,900 

University, notes 199,698 

Tent caterpillar — 

cocoons poisoning bogs 686 

polyhedral virus 266 

Tentheeorie hiooler, notes, N.J 764 

TephrUes onopordiiUa, ovipositlon— 457 

Teriae wMppe pap«, color variation. 26r 

uigitizea Dy vjv/v^v i%^ 



096 



EXPERIMSlSrr STinOK BBOOBD. 



[Toi.40 



Termitei — Pate* 

fnngi cultivmted by 408 

in Cuba, notes 4Q3 

injuring sweet potatoes-. 280 

notes, Kans 862 

Terracins farm lands, U.8.D.A 188 

Testicle, interstitial gland, reUtion to 

secondary sex characters 467 

Tetanus — 

badlli, disinfeetion 478 

inununlaation . 179, 680 

treatment 186, 779 

Tetrany&hua — 

spp. on cinchona and tea 656 

t€lariu8, remedies 458 

Tetrastiohua ffiffardianus, atndies 459 

Tettigidea, breeding experiments 867 

Texas Station, notes ^ 99 

Thanerodlerua girodi larva, descrip- 
tion, n.S.D.A ^ 759 

Thea^diplosia moBcUana in Ontvio.. 653 

Thlelaviopai9 paradowa, notes ^ 47,761 

Thiophene test for lactic add 114 

Thirst, physiological basis ,_ T67 

Thistle, Canada — 

control, Mont —. 480 

control, U.S.D.A — 839 

Thomas slag. {See Phoephatic slag.) 
Thrashing machines, exhaust fans 

for. Wash 49, 746 

Thrips— 

of British Guiana 163 

of Trinidad, notes -. 649 

Thripa iahaci, (Bee Onion thrips.) 
Thunder Mountain, devastated con- 
dition 841 

Thymol-chloroform, effect on chlorin 

content of urine 614 

Tbysanoptera — 

of Cuba 453 

of Florida 858 

Tihioen eeptendeoim, (See Cicada, 

periodical.) 
Ticks— 

as carriers of DermtUohia Komi- 
nig 62 

control in Dutch Bast Indies 682 

diseases transmitted by 587 

eradication 880 

iguana, studies 859 

of Barbados 56 

relation to louping-ill 884 

spinose ear, notes 666 

splnose ear, remedies, U.S.D.A.. 682 
(See aUo Cattle tick aaid Chicken 
tick.) 
Tile, drainage. (Bee llhilntile.) 

Tllia of North America 248 

Tllletla on wheat, studies 845 

Timber — 

aeroplane, rots and defects. 849 

borer in New Zealand 169 

estimating, formula method 843 

immature, appraising fire dam- 
age 848 

small, marketing in Wisconsin. 164 

supply of Union of South Africa. 448 
(See also X^umber and Wood.) 



Timberlands. re&rcitatioii, U.8.D^. 744 

Timbers — 

Indian, seasoalag tests.. — ... 848 

of New South Wales, testa 640 

TUneromicrue mmouiatiu, studies 862 

Timothy — 

and clover^ fHrtUlaer experi- 
ments..... . . 184 

and clover, seeding experiieats 231 

and clover, yields, Minn 782,735 

culture exper1ni#nf ■ - 186 

effect on following crop, R.I 628 

for irrigated pastures, U.8J>JU 482 

liming experiments, N.J 125 

meadow plant bug, stndlea. 260 

on bog and moss soils .. 212 

relative yielding capacity 625 

variety tests. . 282 

yields, Minn 733 

Tiphia paraUela, feeding habits 266 

Tissue- 
culture method in immnalty 

studies 179 

invasion by PUumadfiOphora 

6msi09 66 

transplantation and immunity 578 

Tmetooera oeeUamm^ {B^e Bad-aet^ 
eye-spotted.) 

Tobacco—^ 

aphis, notes 856 

beetle, studies, U.S.D.A 758 

blossom color inheritance 442 

" carotting " 442 

coleopteran pest . 170 

culture experijnents 280, 888, 624 

culture experiments. Can 785 

culture in Cyprus . ... ©43 

culture in Guam, Guam 827 

cytokinesis of pollen mother 

cells 618 

Deli, selection experiments 635 

Dell, sterUe dwarf form 88 

diseases, notes ... 48 

fertilizer experiments 280.882 

growing with corn for shade 229 

handbook 442 

hybridization studies 88 

industry in Australia. 624 

industry, statistics 683 

Insects in Dutch East Indies 854 

"Latakia," production 243 

leaf spot, angular 848 

lightning injury 645 

mosaic, carrier 251 

B6anlon, in Mauritius 442 

seed beds 242 

seed beds, steam atcrilisins, 

U.S.D.A 135 

slug, notes, P.B 66 

variety tests 229,280,382 

waste, analyses 621 

wilt, control 243 

worms, studies 6B 

Tokras, notes 48 

Tolerance and immunity 82 

Toluol, effect on nltrofafrilxing and 

nitrifying organisms ^^.V:^^k\^- 618 



1D19] 



IKDBX OF SUBJECTS. 



997 



M>9iUtera^i 



bloaMMn-drop, stadlet, Okla 

Wowom-end TOt^ aotes. 



bloioin md vot, aolet, Can—.. 
IniSBt notes ....«......•....«.«. 

coUnr rot^ notes ^ 

dtmping-off disease . 



— 468 

— 644 

^ 46 
154 
.. 166 
844,748 

— 748 



and 



troi» Na. 



748 




late bUskt, nstes, P.B. 
leaf sv 

BMSsie, carrier, 
paynid.] 



pulp and pcute* msnwftirtare.,. 
p«ilp, mlcnweopie examination.. 

Rhlsoctonia bUght, Wash 

sderotlnia 
wllt» notes- 



834 

47 
644 
261 
162 

17 

14 
746 

49 
848 



antlseorimtlc property — ...... 762 

breeding ezperlments» lllnn.. 740 

fanning, prodnctlon in United 

BUtes, U.8.D.ik 094 

CDltore experiments 147 

early, coltnre, N.J 742 

fertniaer experiments 184, 147 

bardeaing by exposara to cold 26 

li^tning Injnry ^-. 646 

oil and press cake from seeds.. 803 

ponination, Md 741 

poninatton, Greg . — . 883 

selection experiments, Mont.... 444 

TSrIety tests, V.SJ>^ 44 

Tegetatlon and reprodnction, 

Oreg 40 

winter, disease of. Can 155 

Tortridd genitalia, notes 264 

Tortiim a i igyi'o spi ls, notes 263 

Ttowns, little, raral relationships..- 892 

roMSMris Um^^ta, stndles 186, 187 

Toxlodogy, arian, experiments in 587 

TSsopters i t f ibsiIs ms i In T^exas 866 

Titctor— 

endnring, design of 190 

engines, fuels for 190 

gu. In eastern farming, U.S.D.A. 89 

in Idabo fanning, Idalio 90 

in Indiana farming, Ind 788 

plowing and. disking, Minn 788 

190 

190 

999 

189 

gears • ....... — ...... 190 

msgneto ignition 190 

Thuisplration of plants 27, 427, 820 

ThuMiNvrtatlon of perirtmbla prod- 

acta _.., ^ • 488 



crop^ new, testing for bardlnese. 588 

diaoa a c a , control.... 262 

diseaaes due to tbe larger fangi. 849 

diseases, manual.......... — — 63 

boppers of Nova Scotia 67 

planting, explosiye - fsrtUlaer 

sheU for ... 444 

rnsts, notes . ... .. 849 

Tolnmes, grapbic calcnlation 168 

and sbmbs for seaside planting. 447 

and sbnibs on tbe farm, Mont.. 447 

at forest nnrsery in Bbodesia 641 

determination of increment by 

stem analysis 153 

diameter growtb, causes.... 744 

distribntion nnder Kinkaid Act» 

n.SJ>.A 248 

growtb-measorlng device.. 817 

Indian, stand meaanrementa... 46 

insects affecting 163 

insects affecting in India,. 269, 260 

of Britisb Onlana 642 

of California, descriptions 744 

of Nortb America, notes- 248, 642 

of Wblte Co., Indiana 152 

propagating by cattings, Wasb. 340 

red-belt injury 542 

regional spread of molstnre in 641 

sbade and ornamental, diseases, 

N.J 646 

sbade, coarse of study 96 

sbade, insects affecting.. 161, 163, 259 

sbade, insects affecting, Kans — 862 

street, roadside, and farm . 447 

tests at Belle Fourcbe, U.S.D.A. 340 

timber, of Philippines 162 

tolerance ranges, limiting fac- 
tors 162 

water oondnctiTity of wood 821 

Trefoil— 

as green manure .. 24 

blrd's-foot, liming experiments — 322 
Trembles. (See Milk sickness.) 
Trencb — 

diarrbea, carriers .. 884 

fever, studies . 660 

TriboUum catttmeum, studies 855 

Tricblna, intestinal, studies . — 476 

Trichinosis, serum therapy in...... 184 

TriohodeoteB acalari^, control. Conn. 

Storra — A 662 

Triehodwma tBtmingi^ studies .. 847 

Triohogramma evanescens, studies 266 

Trictunnontu inteaiinaiU, studies . 186 

Tfkmymm n.spp., descriptions 262 

Trombidium akamu^i, studies...... 664 

Truck — 

crop apbids, control 163 

crop insects In Louisiana, 

U.S.D.A 67 

crop saed bads, staam sterilis- 
ing, U.S.D.A 135 

farms in New Jersey.. — . 299 

marketing, cooperatlTe ... 488 

(^es also Market gaidens.) 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



998 



EXPBBIBCBNT STATION RECOBD. 



(Vol. 40 



nt 

blood 86 

TrypanowwniMli 

of the bone In Morocco 784 

trattment 088,781 

TrypetUte, tntppins 1<I9 

Trypstn, note* 408 

Taberde badUl— 

as affected tiy Boentgen nys 887 

ind(caton for S84 

Tnbercalin, testing potoncy of 680 

Tabercolosis-^ 

and onr liTe^tock Industry 681 

ayian, In swine 186 

bovine, in Argentina 86 

boyine, studies 86 

complement fixation In.. 481, 886, 887 

control 880, 677, 681. 778 

diagnosis 680 

in catUe, detecting 782 

in dogs - 782 

in eqaines 778 

in infants and children 684 

In sheep — 885 

In the camel 86 

notes 778, 880 

problem in relation to meat in- 
spection 677 

treatment by transfaslon of im- 
mune and normal blood 886 

Tnbercalons tissues, chemical 

changes in 684 

Turkeys, management 177 

Turnip shoots, use in salads 864 

Turnips — 

culture experiments 626 

culture experiments. Can 786 

culture in South Dakota, S.Dak. 82 

culture on moor soils 230, 623 

effect on following crop, R.I 624 

liming experiments 822 

relative yielding capacity 625 

root-louse injury 60 

sclerotinia diseases 49 

weed control in fields of 686 

yields. Wash 780 

Turpentine — 

from BosipetUa ^errata 248 

testing and analysis 804 

Tussock moths — 

in Nova Scotia, notes 67 

white-marked, notes 269 

Twinning in cattle,. Me 873 

Tylen6hu9 — 

an0uatu9, studies 48 

tntici on wheat, tJ.8.D..A 144,849 

Typha, culture and utilisation 443 

Typhloeyha eymba n.sp., description. 261 

Typhoid — 

bacnii, destruction in sour milk. 476 

infections of horses 289 

Typhoid-like diseases of birds, R.I-. 686 

Tyrosin, determination 113,207 

Udder infections, studies 87 

Udders, bacterial fioia 184,186 

UUa grass, production.. 243 



Umatilla BxptrlaieBt Ftooi, report, 
U.8J>.A 494 

Uniform grades and standard pack- 
ages 298 

UnHachnus n.g., erection.. 681 

United States Department of Agri- 
culture — 
Agricultoral Commission to Bu- 

rope 4M 

Bureau of Animal Industry. 
(See Bureau of Animal Indus- 
try.) 
Bureau of Chemistry. (See Bu- 
reau of Chemistry.) 
Bureau of Plant Industry. (See 

Bureau of Plant Industry.) 
Ofllce of Farm Management. 
(See Ofllce of Farm Manage- 
ment) 

reports 493 

work of 688 

Urea — 

concentration in the tissues. 662 

determination in blood.. 207 

determination in urine 202 

formation In the animal body 866 

Uredlnales— 

of Guatemala 827 

of the Andes 138 

Uredlnee, new species 327 

Uredo— 

araehidie, notes 155 

eoneore, notes, P.B 47 

Uremia of acarlan origin In horses.. 89 
Urtc acid — 

determination 207 

determination in blood 16 

determination In milk 600 

determination in urine 418 

metabolism, studies 176 

Urinary — 

carbon, determination 206 

creatin, exogenous origin.. 866 

Urines- 
ammonia and gastric secretion 766 

chlorln content, as affected by 

thymol-chloroform 614 

determination of hippuric add 

in 611 

determination of sugar in.. 418 

fertilising material from .. 820 

food accessories in. ... . 271 

Urocyetie QffrojMfri on Brownue ereo- 

tM 166 

UrodynamUe toitensie pheletee 

n.subsp., description .... 65 

Urompeee appetidiculatua, control, 

Va 845 

Vropy»i9 qmiteiuU n.sp. from the 

Andes 188 

UetUaffo hordei, treatment 166 

UetuHna aonata, notes 63 

Utah^ 

College, notes 200,799 

SUtlon, notes 200, 499, 698, 799 

uigiiizea Dy vjiOOQlC 



101»] 



rEn>BZ OF STJB JBOTS. 



999 



StaUon, piil»Ucmti0BB» Hat 6M 

Station, work of, Utali 599 

Vacctmtten with paratTPbold badUl. 289 

▼aediie organlmiB, culture media Dor. 077 

Tacclaea, baeterial, etodlae 286 

TaBlUA— 

aa aJllBcted by tonUp^ poUen — 840 

€Hmeh^9pU omgraol on, PJt 66 

d l e e i B i ca , notes, PJt .... 47 

production, stadfea, P.K 48 

YaaJlllB — 

determination In TanfUa. IS 

In aolla 22 

In aoUa, Ala.CoUege 24 

TarieCy testa, technique 227 

(B^e alee voHomB orope, frwUw, 
etc) 
Vegetablfr— 

> and thdr control 747 

, Of et wintering and cot^ 

trol, Waeh 245 

gardfiiing in 8onth Carolina 246 

Sftidenlns In the city, U.8.D.A.. 888 

CUdenlnff. treatlaea 840, 686 

(See eleo Gardening.) 

loapeetion aerrioe, Fedeiml 844 

prodQctlon, sttanOlatlon during 

the war 888 

iota, notes 844 

seedi, breeding work....... — 888 

BMda, longevity tests, Qoam — 889 
aeeds, prodoction in Switser- 

land 888 

?cgetable»— 



tent 864 

eaoned, production and distriba- 

tlon 461 

canned, sw^ling of tins 764 

cooked, anttscorbntic p r op er ty 172 

enltore experiments, Gan . 741 

cnltore czperlmente, Mont .. 444 

coltnre eaperlments, Tez 780 

CBltnre ezperimente, U.8.D^.. 444 

caltnre In New Mexico, N.Mex. 18 
cutworms affecting in I^nrisl- 

ana, UJLDJI 68 

dried, analyaes 864 

dried, antiscorbntic property. 172, 762 

dried, cooking 360 

dried, nse 67 

drying 808. 864 

drying, V.B.J>JL 414 

drying and seiTlng In the home, 

Idaho 17 

diyfaig, ntttlsatlon of breweries 

for 615 

fertfllxer experiments, Onam — 889 

creen, bacterial count ...... 668 

ireen, yalne in the diet 664 

beating, efllect on Titamln con- 
tent 666 

luecta alfecting 649, T47, 864 

tauects affecting. Wash 245 

taaecta affecting In Porte Blcet.. 864 

insects affecting in Trinidad — 352 



TegeUbles— Continued. Pi^i^ 

of Trinidad, culture and use 768 

of Trinidad, meals from 868 

Philippine, Titamln content 410 

preparation and preservation 67 

Bcore cards for .. 196 

storage 160,864 

storage. Ark 845 

storage^ 111 44 

value in the diet 869,664 

varietal adaptation 147 

(Bee aleo epeoific kUtda.) 

Vegetation — 

distribution In United States 130 

of Australia, climatic factors.. 716 

of Breckland, ecology 424 

of Cape Breton Island 162 

of glacial plunge basin In New 

York 826 

Velvet bean- 
feed, analyses, Ind 72 

feed, analyses, Masa 671 

feed, description, Mich 72 

feed, flaked, analysea, Tex 571 

meal, analyses, Mich 671 

meal, feeding value. Ark...... 279 

meal, feeding value, Iowa 874 

meal, feeding value, 8.C 672 

Velvet beans — 

culture experiments 280 

culture In Guam, Quam 828 

feeding value, Ala.CoUege 772 

feeding value, Ky 678 

feeding value, Mich 76 

fertiliser experiments ..-- 280 

Georgia and Alabama varieties, 

origin 141 

growing with com, Tex 729 

varieties, Tex..... . 729 

iniequQlie, treatment...... 740 

Plfrinu^ summary of information 262 

Verbena, inheritance studies 181 

Vermin Injurious in Norfolk and Ox- 
fordshire 266 

Vertebrates, comparative anatomy.- 777 

VerHMImm dtboairum, studies 61 

Vetch— 

and oats, fertiliser experiments. 184 

and oats for green fallow 229 

as affected by soil acidity 184 

as green manure 24 

as winter cover crop 183 

culture experiments. Can 786 

growing with grain 822 

hairy, culture in Texas, Tex — 729 
hairy, sowing with fall crops at 

different rates 248 

hay, mineral constituents, dl- 

gesttblllty. Tex 769 

inoculation — 216, 822 

kidney, as meadow crop 186 

kidney, liming experiments 822 

kidney, variety tests 282 

on moor soils, Inoculation 822 

seed production, U.S.D.A 481 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



1000 



EXFEBIMBNT STAHOZT BEOOBD. 



[ToL4» 



Veterlnary-lnipector »Tainln«tton, 

U.S.D..A 778 

Vi:Mon eeptifue, blocbemlsCry..^^ 577 

Vieiafaba^ 

as affected by sodiun cfalortd..-- 486 

•eed, Boaklng » 737 

TUlage— 

life after the war ........^ 687 

of Grand Canyon, development; 

U.S.D.A — — 248 

Vinegar — 

alcohol determination In...—.. 712 

grains, analyses, Mass....—... 671 

grains, analyses, Mich........ 671 

•TecUlr bleu" test 811 

mannfacture 116, 414, 808 

orange, mannfacture.......... 715 

Vineyards. (See Grapes.) 

Virginia- 
College, notes ....... 799 

Station, notes! .... — .«. 298 

Truck Station, notes 99 

Viruses, filterable 255 

Viscera, fermented, use in bread mak- 
ing 461 

Vitamin — 

anUberi-berl, distribution 868 

antineurltic, studies 271,272 

antiscorbutic, studies 272,869 

hypothesis and deficiency dis- 
eases 70 

water-soluble, studies — . 271 

Vitamins— 

and symbiotes, similarity 868 

determination in vegetables 410 

In animal nutrition 577 

In infant feeding 269 

of Philippine yegetables 410 

studies 863, 466, 568. 664, 566 

Vlticulturists, cooperatiye associa- 
tions 893 

Voandseia, analyses ..... 557 

Vocational education — 

administrative problems ..... 692 

evening courses for girls and 

women . 692 

In Arizona . . 894,896 

in California 894 

in Connecticut ... 394 

in Delaware . ....... 394 

in Georgia .. ...... 394 

in Illinois 696 

in Indiana. . ......... 395 

in Iowa . .......... 396 

in Kansas .... .... 396 

in Kentucky ........ — .. 895 

in B£aine 396 

in Maryland .. — ....... 896 

in Massachusetts.. — ....... 696 

in Michigan ,„i.. 396 

in Minnesota ........... 696 

in Mississippi ............. 395 

in Missouri ... 395,896 

in Nebraska............—... 597 

in Nevada 597 

In New Mwico 697 



VMStlonal edocatloB — Conthmed. 

In North OuroHM 

In North Dakota 

in OSaahOdM 

In Dtnb 

In Washington , — .......... 



In West Virginia- 

In 

notes 1 



of girls in New York. 



report of Fedenl Beard 

statlsUcs 

treatise ... . — .— . — 



697 



692 

692 
400 
697 
793 
095 
196 



r 



alto Agrlcoltoral edaca- 



{8ee 
tion.) 
Volcanic ash, Katmal. 



812 
691 
456 



Wages Board of Great Britai n . — 
Walnnt worm In Oallfomla.. — ... 
Walnuts — 

Insects aflectlBg. 

Persian, enltvra 1& 

Md 160 



Washington— 

Collate, notes.... 

Station* notes... 

Station, repovt 

Substation, Western, 



99, 698, 900 

99, 698 

797 



montklj 
boUatln.. 97, 296^ 897, 494, 694. 797 



264 
862 
568 



bemhldne, of North 

gall, type qtedea.. ....... 

Waste prodQcta, atUlaatlon, treatise. 

Water — 

artesian, in Black Hills vicinity. 

South Dakota 

determination In food materials. 

drinking, studies . 

ground, bibliography ..... 

ground. In New Mexico. 

ground. In Qulncy Valley 

ground, in Keese Blver 

region — . ... — 

ground, movements. 

hot, as Insecticide 



416 



291 
204 

766 

785 
786 
484 

484 
187 
162 

hyacinth as source of potash 847 

Irrlgatloii, use 187, 886 

level near a tidal river.. 187 

measurement .. 187, 188 

raeosiirement, Utah .. 785 

measuring flow, bibliography 785 

needs of body in relation to 

•allvary glands ...■,. 767 

power. State administration and 

purification ■ ■■ ,., . 

rain. (See Rain.) 



relation to health. 



rights, legislation, Utah 
softening, aeollte 
Dak .. 



688 

785 

866 

488 



N. 



688 
786 
291 



supplies, ruxttl, treatise 

supply of Hawaii . ... 

Bspply of Pacific slope basins In 
California 786 

supply of United States 290, 291 

system for turn Iritchene, Midi. 789 



Digitized by 



Google 



1«191 



IHDEX OF 8UNE0TS. 



1001 



«7>teiii8 for fiurm liomes, U.S. 

J>.A 91 

QM on Irrifatkm f rejects 187 

vapor, analjslB, apparatas for_ 111 
Waterfowl 9t Swaa Lake^ Hlime- 

aota .• 66 



anthracnoo^ itodles, U.B.D.A— 260 
d l wa w and their tieatment... 52 

Wateta of Qoeenslaiid, analyses 814 

Water^lnble B and C iSee Vita- 
Bias.) 

Waw-vaw meal, analjnwii, , 178 

Wsx— 



moths, dastmetlon by oold. Can. 760 

wvnm, Andcatlon, Tez 766 

Waxes, handbook !.. 804 

Weatheiv- 

asaflwtlttriHieatyieid in India. 716 

forecaatins, tJ.8.D.A 416 

indexes, prepaiatloB 716 

of Bngland and Wales, 1017 211 

of Kanaas, connnon fallacies.-. 210 
rehition t» crop diseases in 

Texaa 164 

relatloii to ladlo-actliro enuma- 

tlons 814 

(8ee also Meterologleal obsemt- 
tlons omd Metaorology.) 

Webworm, Call, notas 269 

Weed seeds — 

baried 688 

descriptions and dassification.. 89 

in feeding stiliEs 687 

in grass and clo^ef 883 

in the soil 889 

protein content and microcheml- 

cal tests 882 

suryival -^ 788 



eradication 686,622,638,888 

cfadieatlon» Guam 828 

eradication* Mont 429 

growth aa related to mineral 

soils in Denmarl^ 882 

Identifying... . 688 

of Argentine wheat flrids. ■... 687 

of Minaeaota, m»" 889 

of weatem Pennsylvania*.. 686 

«Kfa] 682 

(Bee Qiao upeMfie pUmU.) 

WaerU, New York, studies 861 

WesvUs, attraction by water 866 

WdlB, pnmping from.... 168 

West yirglnla Station, pnbUcations. 494 
Wheat— 

and doTer following Tarions 

erspa, Ala.OoUegB.. 829 

and spelt, hybddlsatioa 624 

anomaly of anthers.. 89 

aa aflected by alkaU salto 815, 719 

as afleeted by barinis 616 

•M aflectsd by bariam and 

strontinm .—..... 819 



Wheat — Continued. Vrnm* 
as affected by manganese^ N.Y. 

Cornell..... 820 

as affected by potassium chlorid. 244 

aa affected by sodium nitrate 244 

as silage crop. Wash . 780 

Australian, government market- 
ing 602 

Australian, milling and baking 

qualities .. 66 

braa, analyses, Ind 72 

bran, analyses. Mass 671 

bran, analyses. Me ^.. 470 

bran, analyses, Mich ... 671 

brsn, analyses, N.J 666 

bran, analyses, Tex 571 

bran, feeding value 670 

bran, feeding value, 8.C 672 

bread-making, for warm cli- 
mates, breeding experiments. 148 

breeding w 88, 528 

breeding experiments 140, 

233, 524, 525, 636, 686 

breeding experiments, Colo 524 

breeding experiments, Kans . 880 

bulb fly, notes . 647 

bunt, wind dissemination, 

Wash 642 

committee of India 804 

composition as affected by fez^ 

tilixers 484 

continuous culture . 824 

continuous culture, Mont 419 

continuous culture, Okla 82 

cost of production, Mont 488 

cost of production, Ohio . 292 

culture experiments. Can 786 

culture experiments^ Kans 819, 

329,880 

culture experiments, Mo 218 

culture experiments, N.J 126 

culture experiments, Wash... 730,781 
culture experiments in Argen- 
tina 588 

culture experiments in Aus- 
tralia 230,882 

culture experiments In Can- 
ada 228, 888, 688 

culture experiments in In- 
dia 230, 332, 523, 826 

culture experiments in Rho- 
desia 280, 826 

culture experiments In South 

Africa 881 

culture in Alabama, Ala.CoI- 

lege . . 142 

culture in arid region of Por- 
tugal.... 88 

culture in New Mexico, NJCex.. 18 
culture In North Dakota, 

U.d.l>A 786 

culture in Saskatchewan 688 

determluation of acidity and 

titrable nitrogen in . 607 

determination of cellulose in.. 14 

direct paniflcStion 1. 460 

durum, culture in Arlsona 14'' 

uigitizea Dy vjiV7\^^i%^ 



1002 



EXPERIMEinr STATION RECOBD. 



[Vol. 40 



Wheat— Oontinaed. Paaa. 

dwarfness in 828,831 

eelworm disease, U.8.D.A 144,849 

emascnlatlngr 233 

EngliBh, storage 637 

ergot, notes 849 

farms, studies, Mont 488 

feed, analyses, N.J 665 

feeding floar, analyses, N.J 666 

fertiliser experiments 280, 281, 

882, 888, 484, 528. 524, 
588, 621, 622, 824, 826 

fertiliser experiments, Kans 819 

fertilizer experiments, Mich 89 

fertilizer experiments, Minn 734 

fertilizer expertmoits, Mo 218 

fields, weed control In 586,687. 

floor. (See Floor.) 

floor sobstltotes 66, 

67, 173, 860, 657, 863 

floor sobstltotes. Wash ^ 762 

floor sobstltotes, mining experi- 
ments 556 

floor sobstltotes, protecting firom 

insects 59 

floor sobstltotes, recipes, N.Dak. 861 

foot disease, notes — . 845 

frosted, germination, Mont 448 

germination at different dates 

after thrashing, Mont 443 

grading, N.Dak 145 

grading, U.S.D.A 89,144 

grass, slender, yields, Minn 783 

green manoring exp^ments 824 

growing wlthoot potash 184 

growth in relation to tempera- 
tore and moistore 19 

growth of, stodles 81,283 

hard, softening in Arizona 142 

harvest, 1918, handling In Kan- 
sas, U.S.D.A 92 

harvesting at different stages.. 838 

homln nitrogen content 610 

Improvement in Aostralia 685 

Inheritance in 140, 525 

Inheritance of flowering and 

ripening periods 830 

Inheritance of grain textore — 148 

Irrigation experiments 280 

Jolntworm and Its control, 

tJ.RD.A 170 

kernel, factors affecting shape.. 244 

liming experiments 815 

magnesia for 824 

manoring experiments, Wash. 730, 731 

middlings, analyses, Ind 72 

middlings, analyses, Mass 671 

middlings, analjrses, Mich 571 

middlings, analyses, N.J 665 

middlings, feeding valoe, Ind 668 

middlings, feeding valoe, Ohio-. 278 

midge in Ontario, identity 658 

mites, stodles 856 

natoral crossing in •. 142 

nematode disease, U.S.D.A — 144, 849 

nitrates In 300 

nitrogen, biological valoe 660 



Wlieat— Coottnoed. 

of Colorado, stodles, Colo 

of Qoeensland, analyses 314 

of west-central liinnesota, phos- 
phates for S20 

of Wisconsin, milling and bak- 
ing 'qoalities. Wis 761 

oflldal standards, V.S.B,A 89, 144 

pedigreed, in Wisconsin 624 

pbenologlcal observations 811 

plat tests, technlqoe 227,023 

Polish, Inheritance in 140,625 

Polish, milling and baking tests. 284 

prices, three centories of 792 

prodoctlon and prices in United 

BUiUm, 1908-1918, U.8 J>^ _ 98 

prodoctlon In the Tropica 687 

prodocts, growth-promotiiig 

properties « .« OT 

qoickllme treatment . .^. 837 

Bed Bodi 233 

relative yielding capacity.— 625 

reqolrements and prodoctioB of 

the AUIes. U.8.D.i^ 487 

rotation experiments, Minn. 788 

rotation experiments, U.S. 

D.A 831, 431 

rotation experiments, Wash 781 

Rosslan 636, 881 

rost, effect on feeding valoe of 

straw. Can « 768 

rost, new strain.—.. ... 845 

rost, resistance to, Minn 745 

rost, resistant varieties, Kans. 844 

rost, stodles.. 642 

sampling and grading, U.S.D.A. 80 
scab and com root rot, rela- 
tion 49 

secondary rootlets 82 

seed position in planting 635 

seed, resistance to desiccation 89 

seed selection tests.. 834 

seed treatment 448 

seeding depths, Utah 227 

seeding experiments. 228, 833, 884, 387 

seeding experiments, Minn 731, 738 

seeding experiments, Mont 429 

seeding experiments. Wash.. 730^781 

selection experiments 233 

shipment via Panama Canal 637 

smot in Washington, Wash 49 

smot, resistant varieties 346 

smot, stodles 346,346 

smot, stodles. Wash 642,746 

smot, treatment 384,346 

smot, treatment, Ky 685 

smot, treatment, Mich 49 

smot, treatment, Wyo 636 

soU molstore removal by, Mont. 480 

sowing with vetch 243 

spring, coltore in Illinois, 111.. 443 
spring, coltore in Indiana, Ind. 735 

spring, coltore in Ohio, Ohio 738 

spring, coltore in Wyoming, 

Wyo 636 

spring, of Ohio, gloten proper- 
ties, Ohio.. ... 658 

uigitizea Dy vjv^v_7'^iv^ 



1»1»1 



INDEX OF SUBJEOTS. 



1008 



WlMat-^ootiiniBd. 

sterch, oolor naetloii 411 

statlstloal notes e26 

stoni«e ^ 8*7, 687 

•toTCd. insects affecting 468, 855. 

straw, mated, feeding yalne. 

Can 768 

tlmshing^ ezliaiist ftuis for. 

Wash 49. 746 

Tsrietlea, emmer and spelt series 636 

Tarietlee in Aifsntina 625 

varieties, new Swediah 534 

Tarietj tests... 228, 230, 231, 233. 832, 
883, 887. 484. 528. 524. 533. 534, 825 

Tsrlety tests, Ala.College 141, 728 

yarletj tests. 111 448 

Ttriety tests, Ind 735 

variety tests. Kans 329, 331 

Tsrietj tests. Minn 731, 732 

Tsrlety tests, Mont 429 

variety tests. Okla 32, 624 

Tsrlety tests, U.8.DJ^ 32, 832, 431 

Tirietj tests, Wasb 730. 731 

Tarlety tests, "Wis 761 

TBTletr tests, Wyo 636 

Tsriety tests, rod-row method.. 288 
winter, culture at Crookston, 

Minn 783 

winter, sugar content 880 

winter. Tarletles, Wash 686 

winterkUllng 821 

wlreworm. larrtt, ftimigatlon 256 

world's snpply. treatise 244 

yield in India as affected by 

weather 716 

yield, relation to soil nitrate con- 
tent. Wash 719 

yields, Minn 786 

yields in Europe, 1890-1916, 

I7.S.D..A 98 

Whcj, acidity 11 

White- 
ants. (8eo Termites.) 

«y, remedies 456 

fly. woolly, in Florida. n.S.D.A. 866 

gmhs. bird enemies 647 

grabs, insect enemies « 662 

grabs, Tacmun ftamlgatlon 266 

pine blister rost— 

control 45. 343, 648. 862 

dlscossion 169 

notes 68 

notes. Can 155 

studies 646, 646, 862 

pine regeneration 842 

scours of calTos 778 

Whltetop and its control, Ind 788 

Willow beetle. Imported, notes, N. J., 764 

Wnt Tirus^ studies 255 

Wilting 

coefflclent of soils, dllatometer 

method, Mich «. 22 

determination. 427 

Wind Ttiocity, effect on meteorologi- 

cal elements in atmosphere 716 

WlDdbreak plsnts, yariety tests, 

VAJDJl 444 



Paga. 
Windbreaks for Montana. Mont 447 

Wine — 

home manufacture 116 

•* recUlr bleu " test 811 

making, grapes for, fermentation 

organisms 110 

Wireworms — 

studies, 8.C 647 

twisted. In sheep, Mich 88 

Wisconsin UnlTersity and Station, 

notes 200, 900 

Witches' brooms, false, in ericaceous 

plants . 728 

Wltgatboom as chicory substitute 508 

Wollastonite. fertilizing value 816 

Women — 

metaboUsm ..... — .. 174 

peasant, in agricultural societies 

In Italy 790 

workers in agriculture 891 

Women's rural organizations. 



U.S.D.A.- 



98 

Wood- 
ashes, analyses 621 

ashes, analyses. Mass 517 

ashes, analyses, BJ 517 

ashes as source of potash 320 

ashes, fertilizing yalne.. 129, 134, 289 

crop of the farm, n.S.D.A 792 

destroying fungi, studies 350 

diseased, Imbedding and staining 848 

fuel situation, Ohio 153 

fuel, use 300 

fuel, use. U.S.D.A 641 

lice, check-list 547 

of trees, regional spread of mois- 
ture in 541 

pulp mUls of United States 641 

pulp production in 1917, 

U.S.D.A 548 

sawing rigs, U.S.D.A 588 

waste as source of ethyl alcohol- 17 

water condoctlyity 821 

(See also Lumber and Timber.) 

Woodland surreys, graphic calcula- 
tion in 163 

Woodlands, farm, development under 

Smith-Lever Act 641 

Woodlot products, marketing 848, 744 

Woodpecker. Jamaica, economic 

status 254 

Woods of Indo-Chlna 46 

Wool- 
disinfection 788 

industry, treatises 876 

production and prices in United 

States, 1908-1918, U.8.DJL-. 93 

Woolly aphis. (Bee Aphis, woolly.) 

Worms, removing — *82 

Wounds — 

bacteriological examination 180 

of animals and their treatment- 84 

treatment 18,83.84,181.182. 

286, 681. 678, 679, 779. 882. 883. 88 
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1004 



EXFERIMBNT STATIOK BECOBD. 



[y«L40 



WjomlBff — Pflft* 

SUtion, BO*M ^ 99,499.900 

Unlyendtj, notes • — 99,900 

XmUhofiM>€ prmfeeMtm, itodies 266 

Xanthcrrhaoa qiM4iromo%UUa, resin 

fonnation .... _«•.........«. 449 

Xanthosoma, cultoro experiments — 484 
XyUmia spp^ relation to black root 

Xylehanf fomioahu, notes 200,468 

S^ylose, preparation ffom corncobs.. 17 

Yacca gnm, notes 449 

Yam scale, notes 269 



analyses and cooking tests 667 

beetle attacking 200 

cQltnre and use 703 

coltnre experiments 4M 

coltnre In PUllpplnes 281 

yarielies 281, 822, 687 

Yam makings textbook 899 

Yantla, coltnre In FMUpptnes 244 

Yeast — 

alcohol prodnetlon by—.—... 828 
antlpolynenrltlc substances 

from 174 

as source of food hormones 403 

Food, Arkady, effects, Wash 702 

grains, analyses, Ind 72 

grains, analyses, liass .. 671 



Tes0t— Continued. 

grains, analyses, Mich 571 

grains, analyses, NJT . 006 

making; oU-tlme method 804 

mse in preparation of media 408 

YeUow mtUOb evadlcatton 83S 

Ycrba matO, adolteration 688 

Yesoslphom A.gi, description .. 60 

Yofong, J. B^ biographical notes 88& 

YUCfflS t 

use In fsadtai, N.Mex 277 

use in feeding; U.&IXA 270,471 

Yuma project - 

experiment farm report. tT.8.D.A- 494 

Irrigation requirements, n.8.0. A. 484 

Zebra-csterptllar, notes 57 

Zeolites, commercial, analyses, 

N.Dak 688 

Xeugaphora tOHt^tkirts, notes 768 

Zinc — 

determination... 610 

determination In gelatin 712 

oxld, pharmacentlcal, lead in 411 

sulphate, fertilisiag yalae 440 

Zoology, yert^rate^ sabspedfic intsr- 

gradation in 264 

^orvtyptM huhbardi n.sp., notes.. — 200 

Znider Zee, draining... . . 487 

Zfffmna ampelo f h^ g a , notes-. 048 



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EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

Editor: E. W. ALLEN, Ph. D., Chief, Office of Experiment Stations. 
Associate Editor: H. L. Knight. 

EDITORIAL DEFABTMENTS. 

Agrlcoltiiral Chemistry and Agrotecliny — Sybil L. Smith. 

Meteorology, Soils, and Fertilizers { j^d^lu^ot. 

Agricultural Botany, Bacteriology, and Plant Pathology f^' ^ ^^^' ^^ ^' 

Field Grope — J. D. Luckett. 

HortlcQltnre and Forestry — R J. Glasson. 

Economic Zoology and Entomology — W. A. Hookeb, D. V. M. 

{C. P. Langwobthy, Ph. D., D. Sc. 
Elizabeth B. Boweb. 
Sybil L. Smith. 

Animal Hnshandry, Dairying, and Dairy Farming {j^'i^'sott^L 
veterinary Medicine {f^^ ^^^^^ 
Rural Engineering — ^R. W. Tbullinoeb.^ 
Bural Economic {^S^-^,,,, 

AgrknUtn«l Edncatlon {^^^ Spkthma«i,. 
Indexes — ^Amelia B. Deans. 



CONTENTS OF VOL. 40, No. 1. 



Editorial notes: Page. 

The present position and outlook of the stations 1 

Some effects of association 2 

The need for safeguarding agricultural investigation 6 

Recent work in agricultural science 10 

Notes 98 

SUBJECT LIST OF ABSTRACTS. 

AGBICULTUBAL CHBBCISTBY — ^AOBOTBCHNY. 

Treatise on applied analytical chemistry, Villavecchia, trans, by Pope 10 

Method for preparing commercial calcium arsenate, Haywood and Smith 10 

Siveet-cbver suage in comparison with alfalfa silage, Swanson and Tague 10 

Cholesterol in mrUc, Denis and Minot 11 

Influence of prejMiration on weight and refraction of milk serum, Schoorl 11 

"Hie acidity of milk and whey, van Dam 11 

Influence of acidity of milk on velocity of inactivation, Bouma and Van Dam. 1 1 

A delicate method of determining invert activity, Watanabe and Myers 12 

R^e of oxidases and iron in color changes of sugar cane juice, Zerban 12 

Preparation of active decolorizing carbon from kelp, Zerban and Fieeland 12 

Boada's production of platinum, Merz 12 

An uitomatic pipette for the tubing of culture media, Cardot and Yigreux 12 

* On leave of absence for military service. 

I 



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coirrEirrs. [voi. 40 



An automatic distributor for Dakin'0 solution, Strong 12 

Preparation of Dakin's solution fxx>m liquid chlorin, fienedict 13 

The manu&cture of chloramin-T, Inghs 13 

Preparation of perchloric acid from perchlorates, VOrtheim 13 

H^O^ determination in presence of phosphoric acid, von Fellenbeiv 13 

The identification of acios of agricultural products, Bather and Reia 13 

Determinationof acidity in flour, von FeUenberg 13 

The determination of cellulose in wheat, Hasenfnitz 14 

The bacteriology of i>eanut butter and arachis oil, Hall and Van Meter 14 

Contribution to examination of hone)r by precipitin method, Kreis 14 

Determination of lactose and sucrose in milk chocolate, von FeUenberg 14 

Microscopic examination of tomato pulp, Bigelow and Donk 14 

Contribution to the study of commercial teas, Pierotti 14 

Cinnamon of inferior quality. — ^A colorimetric method, von FeUenberg 15 

Colorimetric method for vanillin in vanilla, von Fellenbeig. 15 

Method for alcohol in Uquors. Nagendra Chandra New and ranna Lai 15 

The detection of methyl alconol bv the D6ni^^ method, von FeUenberg 15 

The colorimetric estimation of cholesterol in blood. Myers and WardeU 15 

Methods for phosphoric acid in small amounts of blood, Bloor 16 

New volumetric method for uric acid in blood, Curtman and Lehrman 16 

Color laboratory of Bureau of Chemistry. — Objects and problems, Gibbs 16 

Photographic sensitizing dyes, Wiseand Adams 16 

Natural ayestuffs : An important factor in dyestuff situation , Chapin 16 

Manufacture, use, and newer developments of natural dyestuffs, Delaney 16 

Production of acid phosphate from creamei^ waste sulphuric acid, Carr 16 

The prepKaration of xylose from corncobs, Hudson and Harding 17 

Preparation of several useful substances from corncobs, LaForge and Hudson. . 17 

Wood waste as a source of ethyl alcohol, Tomlinson 17 

Factory investigation on manufacture of tomato pulp and paste, Howard 17 

Drying and serving fruits and vegetables in th^ home, Vincent and Hoover. . . 17 

Preservation of food 18 

MBTBROLOOT. 

Climate in relation to crop adaptation in New Mexico, Linney and Garcia 18 

Agricultural meterology. Smith , 19 

Cumatological data for tne United States by sections 19 

Free-air data at Drexel Aerological Station, July-December, 1917, Gr^;g 19 

rObservations on aerology] 19 

Meterological summary, 1916 19 

Annual report of the (PhiUppine] Weather Bureau, 1916 19 

Substances dissolved in rain and snow, Shippee and Fordyce 19 

BOILS — ^FERTILIZERS. 

Soils of southern New Jersey and their uses, Bonsteel 19 

Observations about the soils of the northeast Indian tea districts, Hope 20 

Relationship between unfree water and heat of wetting of soils, Bouyoucos 20 

The effect oi drainage on soil acidity, Conner 22 

Phosphoric acid and potash requirements of meadow land, Liechti and Hitter. 22 

Soil aldehydes, Skinner 22 

Non-persistence of bacterio- toxins in the soil, Hutehinson and Thaysen 23 

The aestruction of vanillin b}r soil bacteria. Bobbins and Elizando 24 

Influence of potsherds on nitrification in alluvium^ Jatindra Nath Sen 24 

The use of green manures, Schribaux and Br^tigm^re 24 

The fanner and the dung heap 24 

Fertilizers after the war, Russell 24 

The nitrogen problem in relation to the war, Noyes 25 

Storage of sulphate of ammonia on farms 25 

Utilization of phosphate deposits of Australia, Paterson 25 

Fertilizer potash residues in Hagerstown silty loam soil, Frear and £rb 25 

Potash situation growing serious, Randall 26 

The potassium problem and the utilization of olive oil residue, L' Abage 26 

Production of lime in 1917 26 

Analyses of commercial fertilizers, Brackett and S tackhouse 26 



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m«l CONTENTS. m 

AORICULTURAL BOTANY. 

Paw. 

Httdening proceBB in plants and developments fxx>m frost injury, Harvey 26 

The tnmspiring power of plants, Shreve 27 

Water loss by evaporation and gain by absorption in colloidal gels, Shreve 27 

Colloidal phenomena in the protoplaon of pollen tubes, Lloyd 28 

Effect of acids and alkalis on ^wth of protoplasm in pollen tubes, Lloyd 28 

Gonstnictaon of biocoUoid exlubiting relations of plants, MacDougal 28 

Imbibition in biocoUoids. MacDou^ 29 

Imbibition of gelatin ana agar gels in sucrose and dextrose, Free 29 

Gas interchange in Mesembiyanthemum and other succulents, Richards 29 

Desiccation and respiration in succulent plants. Long 29 

Rate and course of growth of succulents, MacDougal 30 

The carbohydrate economy of cacti, Sjpoehr 30 

Root growth of Prosopis vehdma and Opuntia versicolor^ Gannon 30 

Effect of ammonium sulphate on soy beans in sand cultures, Wolkoff 30 

Growth of wheat (Triticum) and com (Zea), MacDougal 31 

The individuality of the bean pod as compared with the bean plant. Boas 31 

FIELD CROPS. 

iWork with field crops on the Truckee-CarBon farm in 1917], Headley 31 

Report of agronomy department, Beeeon 32 

Root crop culture in South Dakota, Champlin and Winright 32 

Giassee of the West Indies, Hitchcock and Chase 32 

Victorian grasses, Audas 32 

Variatioiis in secondarv rootlets in cereals, Walworth and Smith 32 

Cereal culture in the Province of Alemtejo, Portugal 33 

Normal self-fertilization in com, Hayes 33 

Linkage in maize: The C aleim>ne fsictor and waxy endosperm, Bregger 33 

Com culture in South Dakota, Champlin and Winright 34 

Budding incompatible cottons 34 

Length of cotton lint, crops 1916 and 1917, Pryor 34 

fJerusalem artichoke in Ixance], Schribaux 35 

The Jerusalem artichoke as a war plant, Howard 35 

Nettle as a textile, de Lapparent 35 

Relation of size of sample to kernel-percentage in oats, Garber and Amy 35 

A preliminary study of the bleaching of oats with sulphur dioxid, Baston 35 

S^anut culture in southern Prance], Morel 36 

le book of the potato, Sanders 36 

Grow more rape, E ward and Hechler 36 

Sudan grass, Stewart and Foster 36 

Sugar beet seed [in France], Saillard 36 

[Value of seed cane from different sources], Ledeboer and van Dapperen 37 

StatisticB on sugar cane varieties in Java in 1912, van Harreveld 37 

Statistics on su^ cane varieties in Java in 1913, van Harreveld 37 

Sugv cane varieties, Jeswiet 37 

Sugar cane variety tests in west Java, 1915-16, Ledeboer 37 

Observations of sugar cane varietv tests, van Harreveld 37 

[Annual report of uie Bureau of Sugar Experiment Stations], Jarvis 37 

A sterile dwarf form of Deli tobacco orieinated as a hybrid^ Honing 38 

Tbe first Mendelian example of Deli tobacco, Honing 38 

Wheat breeding idei^ Snyder 38 

An anomaly of wheat anthers. Anthony 39 

A study of Colorado wheat, Headden 39 

Effect of fertilizers on wheat, 1917-18 crop. Spurway 39 

Official grain standards for wneat {and shelled com], Houston 39 

Handbook official standards for wheat and com, compiled by Boomer 39 

[Clover and alfal& seed investigations], Franck and Wieringa 39 

Kenstance of seeds to desiccation, Hairingtonand Crocker 39 

Cleaning seed •- 40 

the growth of sheep sorrel in calcareous and dolomitic media, Maclntire 40 

HORTIGUiyrURB . 

Vegetation and reproduction with reference to tomato, Kraus and Eraybill — 40 

fHorticultural investigations], Rolfs 42 

Beport of the aflsiatant horticulturist, McClelland 42 



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IV OOKTEinS. [Vol 40 

Paci. 

Report of the horticulturist, Kimnan ; 44 

[Work with vegetables and fruit on the Truckee-Oarson Project], Headley 44 

Storage of ve^tables for winter use, Lloyd 44 

Fall preparations for spring gardening, Lloyd 44 

Notice relative to State insecticide and fungicide laws 45 

Commercial Bordeaux mixtures: How to calculate values, Wallace and Evans. 45 

FORBSTRT. 

Report of the State Board of forestry of Indiana for 1917, lieber et al 45 

Forest protection and conservation m Maine, 1917, Colby 45 

The utilization of forest products in Massachusetts, Eneeland 45 

Notes on European forest research, Howard 45 

Report of interstate conference on forestry at Perth, November, 1917 45 

Report of the forest service in Netherlands India for the year 1916 45 

Statistics compiled in Forest Institute, Dehra Dun, 1916-17, Marsden 45 

Some forest species of Indo-China suitable for national defense, Bertrand 46 

Field experimentation with Eevea brasilierms. Grantham and Enapp 46 

Reliability of field experiments with Hevea, Maas 46 

The building of Hevea, van Helten 46 

Guide to the preparation of rubber, Arens 46 

Rubber: Its production, chemistry^ and synthesis, Dubosc and Luttringer 46 

Note on the mangrove forests of British India, Pearson 46 

The germination and juvenile forms of some oaks, Pammel and King 47 

Hybrids of the live oak and overcup oak, Ness 47 

Note on the dying back of sal seedlings, Smythies 47 

DISEAeES OP PLANTS. 

Fungi and disease in plants, Butler 47 

g Report of the plant pathologiBt, Thomas 47 

^lant] diseases, Dadi 47 

ycolQgy and plant patholc^, Mackenna 48 

Operations against (plant] disease, Stuart 48 

Corticiums causing rellicularia disease, hjrpochnose, and Rhizoctonia, Burt. . . 48 

Sclerotinia diseases 49 

The use of formaldehyde to control cereal smuts, Coons 49 

The stinking smut of wheat, Heald 49 

Com root rot and wheat scab, Hoffer, Johnson, and Atanasoff 49 

The white spot disease of alfalfa, O'Gara 50 

Bean diseases in Vermont. Bartram 50 

Important potato foliage aiseases, Melhus 50 

Tissue invasion by PUuTnodiophara brassicaR, Kunkel 50 

Potato wilt, Osbom 51 

Experiments with eelworm-infested potatoes, Headley 51 

[Sugar cane diseases in the Hawaiian Islands], Agee 51 

Chlorosis of sugar cane, Gile and Cairero 51 

Relationship oi fun^ diseases to the watermelon industry, Meier 52 

Report of investigation of allied spray injury to apricot buds. Gray 52 

Fungus diseases and new codling moth attacking persimmon in Japan, Tanaka 52 

Black smut of fies, Hodeson 52 

Citrus diseases of Porto Rico, Stevenson 52 

Progress report on citrus scab. Healer 52 

Fungus diseases of tea, van Hall 53 

Tea roots [diseases], II, Tunstall 53 

Fungus diseases [of nursery stock in Kentucky], Garman 53 

Manual of tree diseases, Rankin 53 

Stem lesions caused by excessive heat. Hartley 53 

The pine blister rust, Femald 54 

Preventive measures against black thread (PhytopfUhorafaben), Pratt 54 

ECONOMIC ZOOLOGY — ENTOMOLOGY. 

Game laws for 1918, Lawyer and Eamshaw 54 

Synopsis of the supergeneric groups of rodents, Miller, jr., and Gidlev 54 

Life history and control of pocket gopher in Willamette Valley, Wight 54 

A new cuckoo from New Zealand, Wetmore 55 



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19191 CONTENTS. V 

Page. 

Swan Lake, Minn., as a breeding mnnd for waterfowl, Oberholaer 55 

Wounds and diseaseB of the Ophidia: Snakee and serpents, Larcher 55 

The spotted garden slug. White 55 

(Economic insects and rodents in Oalifomia] 56 

Acarina and Insecta of Barbados, Bovell 56 

Twentieth annual report of the State entomologist for 1917, Worsham 56 

Report of the entomologist. Van Zwaluwenbuig 56 

Proceedings of the Entomological Socie^ of Nova Scotia for 1917 57 

Annual report of entomologiad section during 1917, Dutt 57 

Sugar cane insects, Ramirez 57 

Miscellaneoua truck crop insects in Louisiana, Jones 57 

Measures fw protecting wheat-flour substitutes from insects, Chapman 59 

Gtmsamption and cost of the economic poisons in CaUfomia, 1916, Gray 59 

Selection of petroleum insecticides from commercial point of view, Jones 59 

Wettable sufphurs. Gray 59 

On two species of rhysothrips injurious to tea in India, Bagnall 59 

A study of capsid bu^ found on apple trees, Petherbridee and Husain 59 

Obeervationa on capeids which attack apples, Fetherbridge and Husain 60 

New Aphidinse of Japan, Ifatsumura 60 

Life history of Pemphigus populi'traneversus^ Jones 60 

Three new Argentine scales and their parasites, Garide Massini and Br^thes 61 

Destructionof nits of the clothes louae^ Bacotand Llo3rd 61 

The orange papilio and PUromalus eandeif Guide Massini and Br^thes 62 

Natural control of the cherry tree ugly nest tortridd, Baird 62 

A study of tobacco worms and metiiods of control^ Edrozo 62 

Thetiac as agent in collocation of eggs of Dermatobia hominia, Dunn 62 

Presence of lateral spiracles in larva of Hypoderma, Garpenter and Pollard 62 

The Mediterranean truit fly in Hawaii during 1917. Pemberton and Willard 62 

The fauna of British India, edited by Shipley and Marehall 63 

The cherry leaf beetle, Hartzell 63 

Notes on Uie strawberry leaf beetle {GaUruceUa tenella), Efflatoun ^ 64 

Bean and pea weevils. Back and Duckett 64 

The preparation of bees for outdoor wintering, Phillips and Demuth 64 

Wintering bees in cellars, Phillips and Demuth 64 

Heat insulators for beehives. Petti t 64 

Rearing queen bees in Porto Rico, Van Zwaluwenbui:g and Vidal 65 

Report of entomology department, Sanborn 65 

Preliminary repcnrt on Isle of Wight bee disease, Tinsley 65 

Notes on the bee genus Andr^ia (Hymenoptera), Yiereck 65 

Natural enemies of the Aigentine ant (IritwmyrnUx htmiilis), Mally 65 

A listof fomilies and subfamilies of ichneumon flies. Yiereck 65 

Observations on PimpUi pomcrumf a parasite of apple blossom weevil, Imms. . 65 

Two new microflporiaian parasites of larvee of Puna hnusicsSy PaiUot 65 

POODS— HUMAN NTTTRrnON. 

The nutritive value of certain fish, Drummond 66 

The milling and baking Qualities of Australian wheat, Scott and Winslow 66 

Value of wnole wheat ana 85 per cent flour, Lapicque and Ghaussin 66 

The use of limewater in the preparation of war oread , Balluid 66 

The prevention of rope in bread, Henderson 66 

Wheat substitutes in war bread, Balland 66 

War flouiB as an entire substitute for white flour, Clarke 67 

Some experiments with wheat substitutes, Gray 67 

Barley bread, optimum reaction and salt effect, Landenberger and Morse 67 

Growth-promotmg properties of com and wheat, Voegtlin and Myers 67 

The preparation and the preservation of vegetables, Calvin and Lyford 67 

Use of dried fruits and vegetables. Parks 67 

The nutritive value of the banana, Sugiura and Benedict 67 

How to sweeten cranberries ^7 

Sugar substitutes in bottled soft drinks, II-III, Sldnner and Sale 68 

^wdfic heat of fais and oils. Wesson and Gaylord 68 

rood Surveys 68 

HeportB of storage holding of certain food products, Bell and Franklin eg 

Fmuction and ineservation of food supplies, Bryce 68 

^CQst of food. — ^A study in dietaries, JfUchards 68 

Charts showing relative cost of equivalent fuel portions of foods, Blood . - ^- . . fg 

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VI CONTENTS. [Vol.40 

Food and fitness, or diet in relation to health, Long 68 

Infant feeding, Smith 68 

Diet of older children, Talbot 68 

Diet of the United States Army soldier in the training camp, Murlin 68 

Biological analysis of pellagra-producing diets, IV, McGollum and SimmondB. . 69 

Biological analysis of pellagra-produdng diets, V, McCoUum et al 69 

Diet of nonpellagrous and pellagrous households, Goldberger et al 69 

The rdle of antiscorbutics in our dietary, Hess 70 

The ''vitamin " hypothesis and diseases referable to faulty diet, McOoUum — 70 

The inorganic elements in nutrition, Osborne. Mendel, et al 70 

The rdle of inorganic sulphates in nutrition, Daniels and Rich 71 

Glycolic acid, ^yoxal, glycol aldehyde, and amino-aldehyde, Greenwald 71 

Hunger and appetite secretion of gastric juice in in&mts, Taylor 71 

•Contribution to study of digestive leucocytosis, Brodin and Saint-Girons. . 71 

ANIMAL PRODUCTION. 

Feeding; farm animals, Carroll 71 

Composition and digestibility of Sudan grass hay, Gaessler and McCandlish ... 71 

Commercial feeding stuffs, ftoulx et al 72 

New feeds, Patten 72 

[Analyses of feeding stuffs], Dusserre 72 

Synthetic capacity of the mammary gland, I, Hart et al 72 

[Pasturing and feeding experiments], Headley 72 

Labor saving in live stock production 73 

Saving farm labor by harvesting crops with live stock, Drake 73 

Studies in inheritance of certain characters of crosses of cattie, Gowen 73 

Baby beef, Foster and Maynard 74 

Sheep investigations, Spencer 74 

Pork production in North Dakota, Peters and Geiken 75 

Fattening hogs by the use of the self-feeder, Malone 75 

Feeding value of skim milk, Norton, jr 75 

Velvet bean feed for pigs, Norton, jr 76 

Second annual report by Oklahoma State Livestock Registry Board 76 

Value of skim milk and meat scraps for W^te Plymouth Rocks, Philips 76 

The nesting habits of the hen, Turpin 77 

Seasonable facts of special interest to poultrymen, Lewis 78 

DAIBY FARMING — DAIRYINQ. 

Profitable dairy-farm organization in Kentucky, Nicholls and Hutson 78 

Cooperative bull associations, Winkjer 79 

Tv:_i.xv._^^ McCoy. Bolten, and Bernstein 79 

ion. Ballhausen 79 

9 of Neufch&tel and cream cheese, Matheson and Cammack 79 

js in dairy products manufacture, Baer 81 

ch influence yield and consistency of ice cream, Mortensen 81 

VBTKRINARY MEDICINE. 

nd immunity, Marchand 82 

of agglutination and absorption of agglutinin reaction, Tulloch — S2 

tal }>aratyphoid B fever, Besredka 83 

toxic product of hemolytic streptococcus, Clark and Felton 83 

lous serum therapy by a multivalent senun, Vincent and Stodel ... 83 

of antigangrenous serum therapy, Vincent and Stodel 84 

inimals and their treatment, Sm^rthe 84 

^mmittee on methods of examining disinfectantSj Phelps et al 84 

toxic product of helminths, Shimamura and Fuju 84 

, control, and action of anthrax serum, Reeser 84 

ith new methods for its prevention and treatment, Hart 84 

lalleinization, Douville, trans, by Doreet 84 

onphangitis 85 

ymphangitis 85 

poliomyelitis. — An experimental study, Amoss and Haselbauer. . . 85 

iebdoTnadis, causative agent of 7-day fever, I, Ido et al 85 

trypanoeomes from blood of rats, Keynolos and Schoening 85 



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1W»1 CONTENTS. VII 

Page. 

Bovine tuberculosis, Pontes 86 

Prophylaxis of bovine tuberculosis in Azgentina, Beyro 86 

Tubercuiosifl in the camel, Mason 86 

Pive stock diseases in Louisiana] 86 

ConuDon diseases of the digestive organs of horses and cattle, Reed 86 

Gantagious abortion of cattle 86 

Stodies in bovine mastitis, II-IV, Jones 87 

Occuirence of coccidioidalsranuloma (oidiomycosis) in cattle, Giltner 88 

Stomach worms of sheep, Chandler 88 

Diseases of swine, Moussu 88 

The prevention and treatment of hog cholera, McNeil and Munce 89 

Shote pox, Velu 89 

Uremia of acarian origin in horses, Leneveu 89 

A Fhyssloptera from the dog, with note on neknatodes, Hall and Wigdor 89 

RUUAL BNGINEBRINO. 

The gas tractor in eastern fanning, Yerkes and Church 89 

Power fanning in Idaho, Wooley 90 

Getting rid of the stumps 90 

Public Roads 90 

The use of lumber on California farms, Ftatt 90 

The round bam, Fraser 90 

Water Bystems for farm homes, Warren 91 

RURAL ECONOMICS. 

Rural reconstruction in Ireland, Smith-Gordon and Staples 91 

Report of Agricultural Policy Subcommittee of Reconstruction Committee 91 

Most pressing agricultural development problem in United States, Piper 91 

A farm survey of Montana, Ciurier 92 

How fanners acquire their fanns, Spillman 92 

Handling the 1918 wheat harvest in Kansas, Johnson 92 

Aumal report of Bureau of Marketing, 1918, Lanier 92 

Rules and resnolations under food products inspection law of 1918 92 

The bank of France and rural credit, David 92 

Agricultural cooperation in France, Blanchard 92 

TEe cooperative movement in France before and during the war, Gide 93 

[Report of cooperative societies! Retief 93 

Women's rural organizations and their activities, Evans 93 

Monthly Crop R^rt 93 

[Agiicultoral statistics of British Guiana], Harrison 93 

AGRICUI^URAL EDUCATIOK. 

Agricultural instruction in Ijhe high schools of six eastern States, Lane 93 

fiitomological education in the United States, Cogan 93 

Civic and social training in the agricultural schoofi, McCaig 94 

Report of the director of elementary agricultural education, Steeves 94 

Report of Department of A^culture and Tedmical Instruction for Ireland. ... 94 

Report of committee on agncultural education [in Western Australia] 95 

Reteience material for vocational agricultural instruction, Lane 95 

Effective fanning, Sampson 95 

Teaching food values. Langworthy 96 

Food preparation: A laboratory guide and notebook, Josserand 96 

Thrift in the household, Hughes 96 

Pigraisinff: A manual for pig clubs, Nolan and Greene 96 

A study of shade trees for graides seven and eight, Ragland 96 

Receptacles for school fair exhibits 96 

Camp Liberty .~An analysis of city boys in a farm labor camp, Artman 96 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Jiroctor'a report for 1917, Jordan 97 

Twenty-eixth Annual Report of Oklahoma StaUon, 1917 97 

Report of Porto Rico Station, 1917 97 

Quarterly bulletin of the Michigan Experiment Station 97 

MOttthly bulletin of the Western Washington Substation uigitred By GoO^fe 



LIST OF EXPERIMENT STATION AND DEPARTMENT 
PUBLICATIONS REVIEWED. 



Stations in the United States. 

Alabama Station: Paca- 

Bui. 204, June, 1918 24 

Ar^<>.Ti»»fm Station: 

Bui. 156, Aug., 1918 13 

Calif omia Station: 

Bui. 299, Sept., 1918 90 

Circ. 205, Aug., 1918 84 

Colorado Station: 

Bui. 247, July, 1918 39 

Idaho Station: 

Bui. 110, June, 1918 17 

Bui. Ill, Sept., 1918 90 

IllinoiB Station: 

Circ. 230, Sept., 1918 90 

Circ. 231, Sept., 1918 44 

Circ. 232, Oct., 1918 44 

Indiana Station: 

Bui. 217, Aug., 1918 72 

Bui. 218, Aug., 1918 76 

Iowa Station: 

Bui. 178, May, 1918 77 

Bui. 180, May, 1918 81 

Research Bui. 46, Feb., 1918. . 71 
Circ. 53^ Sept., 1918 36 

Kansas Station: 

Circ. 69, Aug., 1918 86 

Kentucky Station: 

Bui. 217, July, 1918 78 

Michigan Station: 

Tech. Bui. 42, Mar., 1918. ... 20 
Quart Bui., vol. 1, No. 1, Aug., 
1918 ... 39, 49, 64, 72, 75, 76, 88, 97 

New Jersey Stations: 

Hints to Poultrymen, vol. 7, 
No. 1, Oct., 1918 78 

New Mexico Station: 

Bui. Ill, Apr., 1918 36 

Bui. 112, May, 1918 74 

Bui. 113, June, 1918 18 

New York State Station: 

Bui. 444, Dec., 1917 ;.... 63 

Bui. 445, Dec.. 1917 97 

North Dakota Station: 

Bui. 127, July, 1918 75 

Oklahoma Station: 

Circ. 44, Jan., 1918 76 

Twenty-sixth An. Rpt., 1917. 19, 
32,42,66,74,75,81,97 

Oregon Station: 

Bui. 149, Jan., 1918 40 

Bui. 153, June, 1918 54 

Porto Rico Station: 

Circ. 16 (Spanish Ed.), Oct. 18, 

1918 65 

Rpt. , 1917 42, 44, 47, 51, 52, 56, 97 

Tin 



Stations in the United States — Continued. 

South Carolina Station: P*C«< 

Bui. 197, July, 1918 26 

South Dakota Station: 

Bui. 180, Mar., 1918 32 

Bui. 181, Mar., 1918 34 

Utah Station: 

Circ. 32, Sept., 1918 71 

Washington Station: 

Popukr Bui. 115, Aug., 1918. . 49 
West. Wash. 8ta. Mo. Bui., 
vol. 6, No. 7, Oct, 1918. ... W 

Wisconsin Station: 

Bui. 295, Aug., 1918 90 

U S, Department of AgrieuUtare, 

Bui. 669, The Manufacture of Neuf- 
ch&tel and Cream Cheese in the 
Factory, K. J. Matheson and F. 
R. Cammack 79 

Bui. 677, Soils of Southern New 
Jersey and Their Uses, J. A. 
Bonsteel 19 

Bui. 703, Miscellaneous Truck- 
crop Insects in Louisiana, T. H. 
Jones 57 

Bui. 709, Reports of Stor^ Hold- 
ings of Certain Food Aoducts, 
J. O. Bell and 1. 0. Franklin 68 

Bui. 719, Women's Rural Organi- 
zations and Their Activities, 
Anne M. Evans 93 

Bui. 725, A Preliminary Study of 
the Bleaching of Oats with Sul- 
phur Dioxid, G. H. Baston 85 

Bui. 733, Length of Cotton lint. 
Crops 1916 and 1917, W. L. 
Pryor S4 

Bui. 750, A Method for Preparing, 
a Commercial Grade of Calcium 
Arsenate, J. K. Haywood and 
CM. Smith 10 

Farmers' Bui. 941, Water Svstems 
for Farm Homes, G. M. Wairen. 91 

Fanners' Bui. 959, The Spotted 
Garden Slug, W. fi. White 55 

Fanners' Bui. 983, Bean and Pea 
Weevils, E. A. Back and A. B. 
Duckett 64 

Farmers' Bui. 993, Cooperative 
Bull Associations, J. G. Winkjer. 79 



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1A19] 



LIST OP PUBLICATIONS. 



IX 



U, S. Department of AffrieuUur^—<jOii. U, 8, Department of Agriculture— <^n. 

FarmerB* Bui. 994, Gommercia] ^^9^ 
Bcndeaux Mixtures. — ^How to 
Calculate Their Values, E. Wal- 
lace and L. H. Evaus 45 

FkrmeiB' Bui. 1004, The Gas 
Tractor in Eastern Fanning, A. 

P. Yerkea and L. M. Church 89 

Flumere' Bui. 1008, Saving Farm 
Labor by Harvesting Crops with 

livestock. J. A. Drake. 73 

Farmers' Bui. 1010, Game Laws 
for 1918, G. A. Lawyer and F. L. 

Eamshaw 54 

Farmos' Bui. 1012, The Prepara- 
tion of Bees for Outdoor Winter- 
ing, £. F. Phillips and G. 8. 

Demuth 64 

Farmers' Bui. 1014, Wintering 
Bees in Cellars, E. F. Phillips 

aod G. S. Demuth 64 

Office of the Secretary: 

Circ. 120, Rules and Regula- 
tions of the Secretary of 
Agriculture under the Food 
Products Inspection Law of 

October 1,1918 92 

Circ. 121, Handling the 1918 
Wheat Harvest in Kansas, E. 

C.Johnson 92 

Cac. 122, Labor Saving in 

live Stock Production 73 

Bureau of Crop Estimates: 

Mo. Crop Rpt., vol. 4, No. 10, 

Oct, 1918. 93 

Bureau of Markets: 

Food Surveys, vol. 2— 

No. 11, Oct. 1, 1918 68 

No. 12, Oct. 5, 1918 68 

Handbook Official Grain 
Standards for Wheat and 
Shelled Com, Sept. , 1918 ... 39 
Service and R^matory An- 
nouncements 33, Apr. 15, 

1918 1 39 

Bureau of Plant Industry: 

The Work of the Truckee- 
CaiBon Reclamation Pro- 
ject Experiment Farm in 
1917, F. B. Headley.. 31, 44, 51, 72 
Bureau of Public Roads: 

Public Roads, vol. 1, No. 4, 

Aug.,1918 90 

Iwecticide and Fungicide Board: 
Service and Regulatory An- 
nouncements 21, Oct 18, 

1918 45 

Weather Bureau: 

Mo. Weather Rev.— 

Sup. 11, Oct. 1, 1918 19 

Sup. 12, Oct. 26, 1918 19 

Chmat. Data, vol. 5, Noe. 5-6, 
May-June, 1918 19 



Scientific Contributions:^ F«ffo- 

Russia's Production of Plati- 
num, A. R.Merz 12 

The Color Laboratory of the 
Bureau of Chemistry. — ^A 
Brief Statement of Its Ob- 
jects and Problems, H. D. 
Gibbs 16 

Photomphic Sensitizing Dyes: 
Their Synthesis and Absorp- 
tion Spectra, L. E. Wise and 
E.Q. Adams 16 

The Preparation of Xylose 
from Corncobs, C. S. Hudson 
T.S.Harding 17 

The Preparation of Several 
Useful Substances from 
Corncobs, F. B. LaForge 
and C. S. Hudson 17 

Factqry Investigation on the 
Manufacture of Tomato Pulp 
and Paste, B. J. Howard. . . 17 

Amcultural Meteorology, J. 
W.Smith 19 

Soil Aldehydes, J. J. Skinner. 22 

Hardening Process in Plants 
and Developmentsfrom Frost 
Injury, R. B . Harvey 26 

Grasses of the West Indies, A. 
8. Hitchcock and Agnes 
Chase 82 

Resistance of Seeds to Desicca- 
tion, G. T. Harrington and 
W.Crocker 39 

Com Root Rot and Wheat 
Scab, G. N. Hofifer, A. G. 
Johnson, and D. Atanasoff . . 49 

Tissue Invasion by Plasmodio- 
phora broMsicx, L. O. Kunkel . 50 

Notes on Some Fungus Dis- 
eases and a New Codling 
Moth Attacking the Persim- 
mon in Japan, T. Tanaka. . . 52 

Stem Lesions Caused by Ex- 
cessive Heat, C. Hartley 53 

A New Cuckoo from New 
Zealand, A. Wetmore 55 

Swan Lake, Nicollet County, 
Minn., as a Breeding Ground 
for Waterfowl, H. C. Ober- 
holser 55 

Life History of Peniphigu* 
papulirtraneversuat T. H. 
Jones 60 

Work and ParaaitiBm of the 
Mediterranean Fruit Fly in 
Hawaii during 1917, C. E. 
Pemberton and H. F. Wil- 
laid 62 

Notes on the Bee Genus 



Andrena rHymenoptera), H. 

!CK 



L. Viereck 
1 Printed In sdmttfic and tedmioal pablioations oatside the Depurtment . 



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UST OF PUBLICATIONS. 



[ToL40 



U. 8. Department of AgricuUur&-<^ii, 

Scientific Contributions — Com. P>se. 

A List of Families and Subfam- 
ilies of Ichneumon Flies of 
the Superfamily Ichneu- 
monoidea (Hymenoptera), 
H.L.Viereck 65 

Sugar Substitutes in Bottled 
Soft Drinks. II-III, W. W. 
SkinnerandJ. W. Sale 68 

An Improved Method for Re- 
covering Trypanosomes from 
the Blood of Kats for Anti^n 
Purposes in Connection with 
Complement Fixation, F. H. 
Reynolds and H. W. Schoen- 
ing 85 



U, S. Department ofAgrieuUure—Coia. 

Scientific Contributionft— Con. ^'ifi- 

Occurrence of Coccidioidal 
Granuloma (Oidiomycosis) 
in Cattle, L. T. Giltner 88 

The Most Pressing Agricxdtural 
Development Problem in 
the United States, O. V. 
Piper 91 

How Fanners Acquire Their 
Farms, W. J. Spfllman 92 

Asricultural Instruction in the 
mfjb. Schools of Six EaeUarn 
States, C. H. Lane 93 

Teaching Food Values, C. F. 
Langworthy 96 



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EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

Vol. 40. Jaiojaby, 1919. No. 1. 



There was a perceptible vein of foreboding at the recent Baltimore 
meeting of the association over the position and future outlook of 
the experiment stations. It was especially noticeable in the station 
section, where certain conditions and tendencies were discussed. 
The question was frankly raised whether the stations would be able 
to maintain their accustomed position and standards imless there is 
a change. A variety of circumstances have contributed to bring 
about this situation, most of which have been in operation in greater 
or less degree for some time but have gradually come to assume the 
proportions of a tendency which is looked upon as threatening. 

Some of this misapprehension rests in the financial condition in 
which the stations find themselves. With no general increase in 
revenues, while the cost of supplies and all other expenses have 
gradually increased, they now have to meet a shortage of .funds 
which not only precludes desirable expansion but often makes neces- 
sary a restriction of lines already established. Even more serious 
than the decreased purchasing power of their funds is the tendency 
to impose fiscal regulations and other restrictions which hamper the 
free use of funds and affect the progress of station work. This has 
become a source of much annoyance, if not indeed a menace in some 
instances. 

The difficulty of attracting and holding men of sufficient training 
and ability for research in the stations is likewise a handicap which 
is being felt in many institutions, especially in connection with 
advanced lines of research. There is also a feeling on the part of 
some that the importance of the station is being overshadowed in 
some degree by other rapidly growing agencies of large means. 

While there is no real ground to question the future security and 
continued progress of the experiment stations, it can not be denied 
that there are some features in the situation which give cause for 
apprehension. They need to be frankly recognized, and to be faced 
and overcome or modified as far as possible. They do not represent 
an antagonism to the station or a lack of general appreciation; 
rather they represent a failure to take special account of it and its 

1 



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2 EXPEBIMENT STATION BECOBD. [Vol.40 

requirements. But they are neveilheless to be taken account of and 
need to be corrected in the interest of the welfare of the whole 
agricultural system. 

The general movement started several years ago looking to the 
standardization of public business on a new basis of economy and 
efficiency has become one of the sources of difficulty in several States. 
The legislation enacted as a result of this movement has been general 
in character and thus has applied to all classes of institutions, penal, 
charitable, educational, and administrative alike. In some cases it has 
evidently been drawn with little or no consideration of the peculiar 
requirements of educational institutions. While not directed spe- 
cifically at the stations, in some respects the requirements rest par- 
ticularly hard on them because of the nature and conditions of their 
work. 

These control measures take the form of requiring a rigid budget 
'system, the fixing of salaries by statutory enactment, the purchasing 
of supplies on State contracts, the securing of requisitions and au- 
thorizations through sources outside the station organization, the 
installing of standard methods of accounting with frequent reports 
and returns to officers at the State capitol, and the like. They fre- 
quently involve the personnel of the station, including their appoint- 
ment and removal as well as promotion and salary. A result is to 
subject certain important features of the station administration to 
boards or officers not connected with the station organization who 
are unfamiliar with its requirements, and thus to divide the respon- 
sibility of the governing board for the general management of the 
station. 

In some cases easements have been provided the stations in such 
matters as strict application of State civil-service laws, while in 
others conditions have made it quite difficult to secure the type of 
men they need for their special work or to hold them against offers 
of larger salaries from the outside. The latter has been true regard- 
less of how indispensable the services of such employees had become 
to the progress of special lines of inquiry. The disadvantage of the 
station is freely admitted when a case arises, but the laws or regula- 
tions are inflexible and stand in the way of making any adjustment 
of funds to meet the difficulty. 

This, of course, is diametrically opposed to true economy, for the 
best use a station can make of its funds is to develop a strong, thor- 
oughly trained and experienced staff of workers and to hold them to 
their problems. As the investigation becomes more highly specialized 
its success depends increasingly upon such continuity. A change of 
investigator not only delays the progress of study but it very often 
results in loss of ground and frequently may cause the temporary 



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1919] EDITORIAIi. 3 

suspension or abandonment of the line of work because it can not be 
profitably carried on. Siich a result may come from inability to 
make relatively small advances in salary. A case in point is a sta- 
tion which has Had special apparatus constructed and installed at 
much expense for an advanced line of investigation, but has been 
obliged to let this equipment lie idle for two years and defer entering 
upon the study because of the loss of its specialist in that line on 
account of a matter of a few hundred dollars salary. The director 
and the board were willing to make the advance and the specialist 
was willing to remain for considerably less than offered elsewhere, 
but limitations of the budget system blocked the way. 

One thing which is not always fully appreciated, even among 
higher administrative officers, is that in the advanced grades of 
investigation the result is an individual product. It is an outcome 
of the ability, the insight^ and the acumen of the man who is guiding 
it. He acquires a knowledge of the problem, theories and ideas for 
its study, and an understanding in interpreting the results which are 
a part of himself and are not passed on to another. Investigators are 
not interchangeable, as teachers may be or workers of lower grade. 
Individuality is the prime essential to continuous research; and a 
large proportion of the real problems are now of the kind that are con- 
tinuous over a considerable period, the study leading on from point 
to point in the same general field. From the standpoint of both the 
worker and the station a change is ordinarily disadvantageous, at 
least temporarily, and there should be every reasonable encourage- 
ment and opportunity for assuring continuity and permanence. 

On the other hand, institutions may find their powers limited in 
making changes believed to be in the interest of the station. In one 
State an attempt at dismissal was followed by an appeal to the State 
civil service commission, with a hearing participated in by counsel 
for the discharged man, and a published report reflecting upon 
the station and ordering reinstatement. This precipitated a situation 
which has become a serious one for a research institution, leading to 
appeals to the commission by employees not recommended for salary 
mcreases, and even a resort to injunction proceedings to prevent the 
station from carrying out its plan of organization. 

The inevitable effect upon the station of such a disturbance in its 
administration, extending over nearly a year and not yet concluded, 
can be imagined. It illustrates how far control may pass beyond the 
governing board into the hands of other State agencies if there is 
not a sympathetic appreciation of the difference between the condi- 
tions and requirements of an experiment station and those of other 
classes of public institutions. 

The above is an extreme case, for fortunately those stations affected 
have generally been relieved from the strict operations of the State 



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4 EXPEBIMBirr 8TATI0K BEOOBD. CVoL M 

civil service laws, or the way made easy by cooperation to secure men 
of the type needed. Many men of advanced position are, of course, 
reluctant to take competitive examinations, as they are to become 
candidates or applicants for positions, so that as* far as such are 
concerned the stations may be placed at a disadvantage. In any 
event, the selection of persons for special lines of investigation in- 
volves qualities not brought out in the ordinary examination. 

Everything considered, there is a quite widespread feeling of doubt 
whether the experiment stations are attracting to themselves in suf- 
ficient numbers the highest type of investigators, commensurate with 
the nature of the station requirements and the general opportunity 
offered for research. The operations of the regulations and restric- 
tions mentioned above are in some measure against this, but internal 
conditions and financial rewards are looked upon as the greatest 
drawbacks and the most potent cause of shifting. 

The opportunity for a research career in the stations has steadily 
improved, especially for persons freed of administrative duties. 
There is a far larger and more attractive place than ever before for 
the specialist who is thoroughly trained and wishes to devote himself 
mainly to a definite and restricted field of inquiry. He no longer 
has to do farmers' institute work, participates in extension work to 
only a limited and incidental extent, if at all, and he may even be 
entirely relieved of teaching. He is protected from a time-consuming 
correspondence on general information topics, and is not called upon 
to compile popular bulletins or information circulars. He is relieved 
of routine work and inspection duties, and is left free to follow his 
particular lines of investigation. 

In other words, the work of the stations has been organized; it 
has been more sharply differentiated from other college functions, and 
it has more largely taken shape as a department for experiment and 
investigation. There are still many combination men, but there are 
far more workers than formerly who are devoting themselves prin- 
cipally to the station activities, and there are an increasing number 
whose duties are limited to their investigations. Much progress has 
been made in this respect, as there has been also in providing facili- 
ties for investigation, which are now often of a high order rarely 
surpassed elsewhere. A larger belief in investigation has been de- 
veloped on the part of the public, and patience with that which is not 
seen to be immediately applicable. These things have given greater 
freedom, greater opportunity for the exercise of individual initiative 
and choice, greater security, and a larger measure of the elements 
which go to make satisfaction with one's work. The result is hearten- 
ing to those who are in the work and who remember the change from 
the past, but the failure to build up the station staff more rapidly on 



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1919] EDITOBIAU 5 

the basis of genuine research ability indicates that there is still 
something lacking. 

The rewards in the more advanced research positions have hardly 
kept pace with the requirements of the positions, especially when the 
rapid advance in all living expenses is considered. In many cases 
the salaries have not kept abreast of those in extension work, for ex- 
ample, where the qualifications usually call for less rigid training and 
no greater skill, although of different kind. Neither are the salaries 
as attractive as in administrative positions. The impression is often 
acquired by workers after a few years that salary advancement be- 
yond a certain point can only be looked for in the administrative 
field, as head of a large department or a division of the agricultural 
work, or as dean. The realization of this situation is felt to limit 
the opportunity and may deter men from entering the field, or else 
it diverts them from their research after a few years by leading 
them to strive for the administrative positions. If they attain these 
their opportunity as investigators is almost inevitably restricted if 
not eliminated. 

Furthermore, positions of authority are not only a step to salary 
but to standing in the organization. The matter of rank is one of 
importance to a mature specialist, as it carries the suggestion of suc- 
cess and advancement. In some instances, however, existing college 
organizations subordinate the station specialist in relationship and 
authority to a degree which is out of harmony with the grade and 
high requirements of his duties and indirectly reflects upon his stand- 
ing. There seems often to be no provision in the scheme of college 
departments and divisions for recognizing the advanced character of 
his work or the position it entitles him to. 

The more comprehensive the organization the more likely this is 
uiless the station has a quite definite organization of its own With 
positions of recognized grade. It may happen, for example, that a 
station specialist is not only subordinate to the head of the depart- 
ment in which his work lies, as horticulture, but is also under a divi- 
sion head of that department, e. g., pomology, thus grouping him in 
that respect along with assistants and instructors. This is not at- 
tractive to the type of trained investigators the stations need, and 
even a generous salary does not overcome the disadvantage. 

Another factor in the situation is the standard or grade of require- 
ments maintained by some of the stations as indicated by their ap- 
pointments. Through various considerations they are led to appoint 
men to positions of rank because of practical ability or some other 
qualifications than advanced training and success in investigation. 
Such persons, while they may be useful to the institution as a whole, 
are capable of doing only an ordinary grade of experimental work 
and are not suited to advance beyond a certain point because of their 



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6 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. [Vol.40 

limitations. Appointments of this kind, if common, aifcct the desira- 
bility and general standing of positions in an institution. They de- 
termine the associations of station work, and to a considerable extent 
they affect its atmosphere. 

The tendency to combine the directorship of the station with the 
oflice of dean of the college of agriculture likewise has had its effect 
in this connection. Such a combination does not necessarily insure 
the selection of a director who is qualified by training or tempera- 
ment to exercise leadership in research or to develop the ideals of 
research in the station activity. The kind of administration a sta- 
tion needs is that which gives aim and direction to its work as a 
whole, supplies counsel and support to individual workers, encour- 
ages deliberation and thoroughness, exercises restraint where neces- 
sary, and justifies the station work and needs to those higher in 
authority and to the public. Appreciation, encouragement, and the 
feeling that their efforts are understood mean very much to most 
station workers. With many deans there is little time for this, or at 
least for its expression. The interests of the office are too diverse 
and insistent, and very frequently leave little time for station mat- 
ters beyond those of routine nature. 

Despite the obstacles arising from State laws, budget systems, and 
outside regulation, these internal conditions may prove in the long 
run to be quite as serious a danger to the maintenance of the high 
position and ideals of the stations. In the development of the sys- 
tem of agricultural education and research the research department 
frequently is not receiving proportionate attention. Within the in- 
stitution as well as outside, other branches like the extension work 
are being given major attention ; and there is a danger that the pub- 
lic, in its satisfaction with these branches and carried away with the 
idea that the great aim and effort should be the dissemination of 
what is already known, may overlook the source of this knowledge 
and may neglect the agency which makes these efforts possible and 
gives them effectiveness. Evidently some steps will need to be taken 
to avoid this. The means for it lie first of all in the institutions. 
There should be no indication of failure to recognize the fundamental 
position of the station, or to impress upon those going out from it 
and its representatives in the field a proper realization of the fact 
that 'but for the work which has been done in agricultural investiga- 
tion and experiment in the past, their own opportunity would be 
relatively small and their chance for growth would soon come to an 
end. 

In how large a measure the teachings of experiment are responsi- 
ble for the success of the recent food production campaigns may be 
illustrated by the efforts to meet the world's deficiency in bread. The 



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1919) EDITOBIAL. 7 

securing of a largely increased wheat crop was not merely the result 
of seeding a larger area to that crop. It was not simply a question 
of land and machinery and labor, vital as these were. The degree of 
success attained did not follow simply because people had been grow- 
ing wheat for generations, but because the practice had been steadily 
improved through experiment and investigation, and the greater skill 
thus developed was ready for wider application when an emergency 
came. 

The question of varieties, their adaptation to localities, the value 
of improved sorts, the relative safety of spring and winter grain, 
the treatment of seed for smut, the amount to be sown to the acre, 
the time when it should be planted in different localities to avoid 
the Hessian fly, the advantage of thorough seed bed preparation, the 
kind of fertilizers for certain sections — all these things had been 
worked out to a practical point through years of patient study and 
experiment After the crop was harvested there was the question of 
protecting it from loss by proper storage and control of insects, and 
finally its conservation by the use of substitutes and admixtures. It 
is impossible to estimate how much this knowledge of ways and means 
counted for. But if wheat growing had not been placed on this 
efficient basis by the incorporation of results of inquiry into practice 
it is not reasonable to suppose the country could have made the 
contribution it did. No amount of stimulation could have accom- 
plished it 

At one time there might have been a tendency, when the supply 
of a great staple commodity was in danger, to encourage farmers to 
grow it to the utmost extent without due regard to the effects. But 
a conspicuous feature of the recent programs and campaigns for 
production was an intelligent consideration of the welfare of agri- 
culture as a whole and a safeguarding of its various interests in 
maintaining a proper balance. These programs recognized that 
more scientifically planned systems of farming are now in operation 
which take account of the production of food for man and beast, the 
maintenance of fertility of the land, the economy and adjustment of 
labor, and many other considerations which must not be unduly dis- 
turbed. They were therefore allowed for in making the plans, allot- 
ting the areas, and conducting the campaigns. This made the effort 
something more than a patriotic movement, for it was guided and 
directed by intelligence, The latter rested, of course, in considerable 
loeasure on accumulated experience, but this had been weighed and 
tested and was correlated with the results of thorough-going funda- 
mental study. 

Next to bread the greatest need and the most urgent call was for 
auimal products, and for these this country was very largely looked 

104e28'— 19 2 



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8 BXPBBIMENT 8TATI0K BECOBD. tVoL40 

to. Pork production constitutes more than half of all the meat pro- 
duction in the United States, and such large increases were made that 
the emergency was fully met, the export of pork products being 
nearly doubled. This again is an indirect result of investigation 
which has in many respects revolutionized the practice of hog raising. 

There is hardly a phase of pork production that has not been sub- 
jected to extensive and long continued experiments covering the type 
of hog, the value of different feeds, the place of supplements in ad- 
dition to com, the use of hog pastures to supply a succession of 
feed, the size at which the pig should be profitably marketed, and 
many other practical and economic points. Disease had become the 
great bane of hog production on a large scale, but the long and 
searching investigations, resulting in successful methods of inocula- 
tion, enabled extensive campaigns to be conducted in the interest of 
greater security. The organization and instruction of pig clubs was 
one of the means for extending pork production, and in these clubs 
the fund of information resulting from experiment found especially 
wide application. 

No new crop or line of production can be suggested for a locality 
without at once raising the questions of how and when and why. In 
such cases the influence of experimental inquiry stands out with 
special clarity. This is illustrated by the case of the grain sorghums, 
soy bean, velvet bean, peanuts, and many other crops. 

The spread of the grain sorghums in the regions to which they 
are particularly adapted is a direct result of years of experiment in 
which different kinds were tested as to their adaptation to localities, 
were improved as to yield, drought resistance and other qualities, 
their culture studied, their feeding value determined and their utiliza- 
tion as food developed. They are not native but are introduced 
species, and without this background of experiment there is little 
reason to believe that farmers or seedsmen would have introduced 
them and given them an important place in the agriculture of large 
regions; and without this fund of information on which to rest their 
teachings the extension forces would not have had the basis for ad- 
vising their wider culture. The same is true of the otlier crops men- 
tioned, which have long been the subject of extensive experiments and 
have become features of cropping and feeding systems. 

The first silos for experimental purposes in this country were con- 
structed in 1881, soon after the idea was introduced. From this be- 
ginning followed an uninterrupted chain of experiments and inten- 
sive investigations which have resulted in the development of an 
intelligent system of preserving and using green feeds, now a factor 
of vast importance in American agriculture. Throughout this de- 
velopment the American stations have led the way, concerning them- 



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1919] SDITORIAU 9 

selves with every phase of the theory and practice of silage produc- 
tion, its value as feed for different classes of live stock, and its 
economic importance. 

These are only a few examples drawn from the common things, 
but they show how largely dependent agricultural development and 
teaching have been on the results of investigation, principally under 
the Department of Agriculture and the experiment stations, which 
has extended to every agricultural section of the country. And they 
point to the underlying source of success in extension teaching. 
This source will be just as essential to future growth and success. 

The stations will need and require more ample funds for investi- 
gation, and in preparing the way for these they need the support 
which comes of a full realization and acknowledgment of the part 
they have played and must continue to play in no undiminished 
degree. Their task has increased with the phenomenally rapid appli- 
cation of their teachings in the past few years. This in itself will 
make enlarged demands upon them, and the status which has been 
reached makes the present problems more complex and difficult. 

The proper development of the system of agricultural research and 
instruction must of necessity be symmetrical and proportioned. Con- 
tacts and organization need to be maintained to further this end, and 
within the institutions the attitude should be one fully recognizing 
and exemplifying the mutual dependence of the several parts. 



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AOBICnLTTTBAL CHEMISTBY— AOKOTECHirr. 

Treatise on applied analytical chemistiTt V. Vilulveochia, trans, by T. H. 
Pope {Philadelphia: P. BlakUton^B Son d Co,, 1918, vol$. 1, pp. XF/+^75, pi. i, 
figs. 52; 2, pp. X/F-f55(J, pi; 11, figs. 59).— This treatise consists of two vol- 
umes. The first deals with the analysis of potable waters, chemical products, 
fertilizers, cement materials, metals and alloys, fuels, tar and Its derivatives, 
and mineral oils and fatty substances and the Industrial products derived there- 
from. The second treats of flesh foods, milk products, flour and starches, 
sugars and saccharin products, beer, wine, spirits and liqueurs, essential oils, 
turpentine, varnishes, rubber, tanning materials, inks, leather, coloring matters, 
textile fibers, yarns, and fabrlca 

A method for preparing a commercial grade of calcium arsenate, J. K. Hat- 
wood and O. M. Smfth {U. fif. Depi. Agr. Bui, 750 (1918), pp. 10),— The authors' 
studies have led to the conclusion that the most desirable procedure for making 
calcium arsenate from lime and arsenic add is as follows : 

*' Use a good grade of lime, containing a high percentage of CaO. Slake the 
lime to as smooth a paste as possible, for upon this depends the smoothness of 
the final product, as well as the readiness with which the lime and acid react 
Use from three to three and one-half times as much water, by weight, as lime, 
and have it, preferably, warm. Let stand for a while, then thoroughly mix, 
after which add twice as much hot water as used for slaking, and mix again. 

" The lime and arsenic should be in such proportion that the weight of actual 
GaO used will equal that of the AsiOt used. This gives a product with a 
molecular ratio slightly over 4, which is necessary if the soluble AsiOi is to be 
kept down to desirable limits. Add the acid at room temperature to the lime 
as quickly as possible, and stir well until the liquid becomes alkaline to phe- 
nolphthalein. Filter to as dry a state as possible, do not wash, and if a dry 
product is desired dry directly in any suitable manner. Crush in a suitable dis- 
integrator, or grind if necessary. 

''To produce 100 lbs. of a commercial grade of calcium arsenate by this 
process will require 45 lbs. of GaO (approximately 50 lbs. of a high-grade 
lime) to be slaked with 18 gal. of water, the addition of 36 gal. more of water, 
and then 45 gal. of a solution containing 1 lb. of AssOs per gallon. Slight de- 
parture from the figures given for water will probably have little efPect" 

Chemistry of sweet-clover silage in comparison with alfalfa silage, O. O. 
SwANSON and B. L. Tague (Jour. Agr, Research iU. S.], 15 (1918), No. 2, pp. 
11S-1S2, flga, 5), — ^In continuation of investigations made at the Kansas E2x- 
periment Station, previously noted (B. S. R., 37, p. 709), a comparative study 
is reported of the chemistry of silage made from alfalfa alone, from sweet clover 
alone, and from sweet clover and corn meal. Quart milk bottles were used as 
containers for the silage. Several bottles of each kind of silage were made and 
opened at Increasingly longer intervals of time, and the progressive chemical 

10 



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m*l . A6BICT7LTURAL 0HBMI8TRT — ^AGROTECHI^T. 11 

changes were thus traced. DeterminatioDs were made by the colorimetric and 
dectrometrlc methods In the water and alcoholic extracts of. the silage. 

The acidity of the alcoholic extracts of the three kinds of silage was greater 
than that of the water extract when the titration was made to the point of color 
diange for phenolphthalein. With the electrometric method there was no sig- 
nificant difference between the results obtained on the water extract and on 
t|ie alcoholic extract. l%e differences in the colorimetric method are considered 
to be due to colored matter extracted by the alcohol which masks the end point 
Most of the acidity was found to develop in the first 15 daya The maximnm 
acidity was reached in from 40 to 60 days. The acidity of the alfalfa was greater 
than that of the sweet clover silage. The addition of com meal to sweet clover 
increased the acidity of the silage. 

The amonnt of amino nitrogen was found to be practically the same in the 
water and in the alcoholic extracts. The amount of amino nitrogen in silage 
made from alfalfa alone was larger than in that made from sweet clover alone. 
The addition of com meal to sweet clover did not influence the amount of amino 
nitrogen developed. The amount of nitrogen in amid form as determined by 
Stntzer's method was slightly larger than the amount of nitrogen in amino form 
as determined by the formaldehyde method. The nitrogen in amid form was 
appjroximately one-half of the total nitrogen. Approximately two-thirds of the 
total nitrogen in silage was soluble in water and in 60 per cent alcohol, the 
K^vent action of the two being nearly the same. 

From the data reported the authors conclude that silage can be made from 
sweet clover alone with less difficulty than from alfalfa alone. 

Caiolesterol in ndlk, W. Denis and A. S. Minot {Jour. Biol. Chem,, 96 (1918), 
iVo. 1, pp. 59^1; ab$. in Chem. Aha., 12 (1918), No, 2S, p, 2916).— Determina- 
tions of cholesterol in cow's milk and in human milk by Bloor's colorimetric 
method are reported, together with corresponding fat determinations, using the 
Babcock method for cow's milk and Bloor's nephelometric method (B. S. R., 82, 
p. 312) for human milk. 

The results show a direct and proportional variation of the cholesterol with 
the total fat content of cow's milk. This proportionality is also noted in human 
milk, but with many exceptions. 

The authors suggest that the regular results obtained with cow's milk, in 
distinction to the variations occurring in human milk, are perhaps due to 
the fkct that the samples of cow's milk were obtaftied from a single dairy and 
from animals fed on exactly the same ration, while the human milk was taken 
from women living under a great variety of conditions and with a corresponding 
lack of uniformity in food intake. It is pointed out that the higher level of 
cholesterol in the human milk may be attributed to the higher cholesterol con- 
tent of the food of nursing mothers as compared with that of cows. 

Inihienoe of the preparation on the specific weigrht and refraction of milk 
•eram, N. Schoobi. (Pharm. Weekbl., 55 (1918), No, S6, pp. 1222-1B30; Chem, 
Weekbl, 15 (1918), No. S6, pp. 108^1057).— This is a criticism of the conclusions 
of Van der Harst and Koers previously noted (E. S. R., 39, p. 805), with a reply 
to the criticism by these authors. 

The acidity of milk and whey, W. van Daic (Verslag. Landbouwk. Onder- 
soelc Rijkalandbouwproefatat. {Netherlandsh No. 22 {1918), pp. 1-24, fitf- 1)-— 
The apparent difference in the acidity of the milk seram from spontaneously 
soared milk and of sour whey is explained by the buffer action of the constituents 
of the milk and whey. A table is given of the hydrogen-ion concentration of 
*bey, p^tonlsed whey, and peptonized milk at different dilutions. 

da inflnence of tlie acidity of milk on the velocity of the inactivatlon of 
pvozidaae hy heat, A. Bouma and W. van Dam {Verilag. Landbouwk. Onder* 



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12 BXPEfilMENT STATIOK EBGOB0. . [ToLM 

goek. RijkslamdhomoproefBtat, [Ketherlandsh No. 22 {1918), pp. 186-198, flffi 
1), — ^A study of the Influence of hydrogen and hydroxy 1 ions on the speed of in- 
activation of peroxidase in milk showed that the addition of a small amount of 
acid had almost no effect, while the addition of so small an amount of sodium 
hydroxid that phenolphthalein still remained colorless increased to a marked 
degree the rate of inactiyation of the ensym. 

A delicate method of determininir invert acttvity, O. K. Watanabb anjl 
V. O. Mtebs {Proc. Soc. Expt. BM. and Med., 16 (1918), No. 8, pp. 14$, 14S).— 
The technique of the method is as follows : 

To 8 cc. of water in a 50-cc centrifuge tuhe is added 1 cc of the extract to be 
examined and the solution warmed to just 40° G. in a water bath with thermo- 
stat attachment One cc. of 1 per cent cane sugar is added and incubation 
carried out for 30 minutes. This solution is rapidly cooled in cold water and 
0.5 to 1 gm. of dry picric add added, thoroughly mixed* centrifuged, and? 
filtered. The inverted sugar is then estimated colorimetrically in 3 cc. portionai 

The rdle of oxidases and of iron in the color changes of sucrar cane juicey 
F. W. Zebban {Jour, Indus, and Engin. Chem., 10 (1918), No. 10, pp. 81^-811; La. 
Planter t 61 {1918), No. 19, pp. 299, SOO). — ^Experiments are reported from the 
Louisiana Sugar Experiment Station which prove the presence in young cane 
shoots of a laccase, of tyrosinase, and of peroxidase. The color of raw Juice 
is shown to depend on the presence or absence of oxidizing ensyms, the presence 
or absence of iron salts, and the nature of the latter if present The dark 
brown color of cane Juice obtained in the absence of iron is considered to be 
due to the action of laccase, the polyphenols present in the cane, and to a small 
extent to that of the tyrosinase upon the tyrosln of the cane. The dark green 
color of the cane Juice from the factory mill is due to the interaction of the 
laccase, the polyphenols of the cane, and the ferrous salts formed by the action 
of the organic acids of the cane upon the iron of the mill. 

On the preparation of an active decolozlsing carbon from kelp, F. W. Zee- 
ban and E. G. Fbeeland {Jour. Indus, and Enffin. Chem,, 10 {1918), No, 10, pp, 
812-814). — ^Experiments conducted at the Louisiana Sugar Experiment Station 
are reported which show that a carbon which has a much greater decolorizing 
power than Norit can be prepared in the laboratory by quickly carbonizing dried 
Pacific coast kelp in such a way that the fumes can freely escape, after which 
the char is transferred to a closed iron receptacle and heated to red heat for 
about two hours. The carbob is boiled with successive portions of water, dilute 
hydrochloric acid, and water and then dried. 

The authors consider that the decolorizing power of the kelp carbon is 
largely due to its nitrogen content 

Bussla's production of platinum, A. R. Mebz {Jour. Indus, and Engin. Chem., 
10 {1918), No. 11, pp. 920-925, figs. 3). —A statistical report 

An automatic pipette for the tubing of culture media, M. uabdot and H. 
ViQBEUx {Compt Rend. Soc. Biol. {Paris}, 81 {1918), No. S, pp. 140-U2, fig. 1).— 
An all-glass automatic pipette suitable for use in tubing culture media is de- 
scribed and illustrated. The apparatus can be readily sterilized and is said to 
be of easy manipulation. 

An automatic distributor for neutral solution of chlorinated soda (Dakln's 
solution), L. J. Stbono {Jour. Amer. Med. Assoc., 11 {1918), No. 19, p. 1556). — 
The apparatus, which is described and illustrated, consists of an irrigating can, 
with a rubber delivery tube provided with a screw clamp so that the rate of 
fiow through the dripping apparatus can be controlled, and a drop tube con- 
nected by a U tube with a large inverted test tube serving as a reservoir to 
collect the solution. This is connected by means of rubber tubing with a sec- 
ond U tube, which can be raised or lowered and thus act as a siphon to dis- 

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1M»1 AGMCULTTJKAL CHBMISTBY — ^AGROTECHNY. 13 

charge the proper amount of fluid Into the tubes planted in the infected wound. 
The apparatus is said to be easily made and to operate with uniform regularity. 

Preparation of Dakin's solution from liquid chlorln by the srravimetric 
method, S. R. Bxnedict (Surg., OynecoL, and Ohatet., S7 {1918), No. 4* PP- 986, 
M7).— Weighing the chlorln used in the preparation of Dakin's solution is said 
to be preferable to measuring its volume on account of greater accuracy, 
cheaper and less complicated apparatus, and more rapid manipulation. The 
procedure for the preparation of 10 liters of the solution by the gravimetric 
method is described in detail. 

The manufacture of chloramin-T, J. K. H. Inous {Jour, 8oo. Chem. Indus., 
57 {1918), No. 18, pp. 288T, t89T; aba. in CJiem. Abi., 12 {1918), No. 2S, pp. t65S, 
2654).— A method for the preparation of chloramin-T from the starting point 
of toluene is described in detail. 

Preparation of perchloric add from perchlorates, A. VthiTHEiic {VerBlag. 
Landbouwk. Onderzoek. RijkalandbouioproefsiaU INeiherlandal, No. 22 {1918), 
pp. 171-175). — ^The following method is described for the preparation of per- 
chloric acid from alcoholic perchlorate residues consisting principally of cal- 
dum, magnesium, and sodium perchlorate: 

After removal of the alcohol by distillation, the calcium and magnesium are 
precipitated as carbonates by sodium carbonate and removed by filtration. 
The filtrate is dried and an excess of hydrochloric add added which predpltates 
most of the sodium as sodium chlorld, leaving in solution a mixture of per- 
chloric add, sodium perchlorate, and hydrochloric acid. After the hydro- 
chloric add is removed by evaporation, the perchloric add which remains is 
considered satisfactory for potash determinations. 

Sulphuric add determination in the presence of phosphoric add, T. von 
FBurBEBO {Mitt LebeMm. Untersuch. u. Hyg., Schweiz. OandhUamt., 6 
{191$), No. 4-^, pp. 191yl95). — ^Experimental evidence is given to prove that In 
the presence of phosphates the determination of sulphuric add gives too high 
results. It is stated that this error can be reduced to a minimum by adding the 
hot barium chlorld solution drop by drop to the boiling, weakly add solution 
(about O.IB cc concentrated hydrochloric add or 13 to 14 cc N. hydrochloric 
add hi 100 cc.). 

The identification of adds of agrricultural products, J. B. Ratheb and E. E. 
Rxn> {ArkanMoa 8ta. Bui. 156 {1918), pp. SS2).—A method is described for the 
identification of acids of agricultural products, both singly and in mixtures, by 
melting-point determinations of the phenacyl esters formed by the action of 
hromacetophenone on the alkali salts of the acids in dilute alcoholic solution. 
Many of these esters were found to be solids easily purified by recrystalUzation 
from alcohol and with convenient melting points. Formic, butyric, valeric, and 
oleic adds gave liquid phenacyl esters, and asparaginic and gallic acids gave 
gnmmy products with no definite melting points. Attempts to form satisfactory 
solid derivatives of the liquid phenacyl esters were unsuccessful in the case 
of the phenylhydrazones and oxlmes. The reagent has been successfully applied 
in the Identification of many acids in mixtures with other acids. Tables are 
flven of the results obtained. 

The authors conclude that the use of bromacetophenone as a reagent for the 
identification of acids should prove especially valuable In the study of the 
adds of fruits and other agricultural products. 

Betennination of addity in flour, T. von Fxllbnberg {Mitt. Lebep^sm. Unter- 
tscft. «. Hyg., Schioeiz. Oandhtaamt., 6 {1915), No. S, pp. 145-150).— A modifica- 
tion of the kreis-Aragon method (E. S. R., 12, p. 823) is described, which differs 
from the original method as follows: (1) The titration is conducted in the cold 



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14 EZFESIMBKT STATION RBGOBD. [VoL 40 

to prevent the action of acid-forming; ensyms, (2) caldnm dilorld Is added to 
completely change the phoeqphates to triphosphate, and (3) sodium hydroxld Is 
added In excess and the excess titrated back with hydrochloric acid. 

The determination of cellulose in wheat, V. Hassnfsatz {Compi. Rend. 8oa, 
Biol. [Parish 81 (1918), No. 9, pp. J^l, 4^8).^It is shown that the determina- 
tion of cellulose should be made with acids and bases accurately standardlaed 
and under precisely determined conditions. The results obtained are compara- 
ble only when the same adds or bases are employed, thus avoiding variation in 
the volume of the reagents used. 

The bacteriologry of peanut butter and the germicidal action of aitichis oil, 
I. O. Haix and Juanita van Meter {Amer. Food Jour., IS (1918) ^ No. 9, pp. 
46S-467) . — ^Examination of commercial peanut butter manufactured and packed 
under poor sanitary conditions showed a surprising absence of colon bacilli. 
The explanation advanced by the authors as a result of bacteriological studies 
is that the germicidal property resides in the oil of the peanut, the organisnoa 
dying out merely because the oil makes the proteins and carbohydrates sus- 
pended in it inaccessible for bacterial grovTth. Moistened peanut meal from 
which the oil has been extracted is said to permit BaoiUut ooU and other organ- 
Isms to multiply rapidly, as does also peanut butter to which more than from 10 
to 20 per cent of water has been added. 

A contribution to the examination of honey by the precipitin method, 
H. Kbeis {Miti. Lehensm. Untersuch. a. Hyff., Schweiz. GsndhtMtnt., 6 {1915), 
No. 2, pp. 5S-S2). — ^The precipitin method for the detection of adulteration In 
honey, previously noted (B. S. R., 28, p. 22), is discussed, and the results are 
reported of the examination of samples of honey adulterated in various ways. 

The author concludes that the precipitin method, if used in conjunction with 
other tests, gives in most cases a clear proof as to whether the honey has been 
adulterated, overheated, or spoiled. It is not consi^red to give conclusive 
proof as to the detection of sugar feeding of the bees. 

Determination of lactose and sucrose in milk chocolate, T. von B^ellbnbero 
(Mitt. Lebensm. Untersuch. u. Hyg., Schtoeig. Osndhtsami., 6 (WIS), No. 2, pp^ 
45S2). — ^A method is described for the quantitative determination of lactose and 
sucrose in milk chocolate by reduction of Fehling's solution before and after 
inversion. The limits of error for the lactose by this method are said to be 
within ± 0.6 per cent Analyses of several brands of milk chocolate are 
reported. 

Microscopic examination of tomato pulp, W. D. Bioelow and P. J. Donk 
{Canner, 47 {1918), No. 14, pp. 86, 88, 40, 4^, if)-— This is a general discussion 
of the value of a microscopic count in the examination of tomato pulp, together 
with a description of the microscopic equipment required for the Howard 
method and a reprint of this method from the bulletin previously noted (E. S. 
R., 38, p. 166). 

Contribution to the study of commerdal teas, I. Piesotti {An. 8oc. Quint. 
Argentina, 6 {1918), No. 26, pp. S29-S4S).—Aa the result of analyses of 41 
samples of tea the following limiting percentage values for unadulterated tea 
are given : Moisture 6.699 to 9.974, ash 5.421 to 6.091, water extract 24.046 to 
88.993, total nitrogen 3.501 to 4.399, substances soluble in carbon tetrachlorid 
0.502 to 2.546, substances soluble in chloroform 1.11 to 5.881, substances soluble 
In ethyl alcohol 3.314 to 15.186, thein 2.071 to 3.646, dextrins and gums 4.044 to 
6.967, protein material 22.568 to 27.493, cellulose 11.944 to 14.983, and tannin 
9.092 to 14.553. 

The author states that in order to judge a tea fully the chemical analyses 
should be supplemented by histological studies. 



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19191 AGRICXTLTURAIi OHEMISTBT — ^AGBOTBGHNY. 15 

Cinnamon of inferior qoalitr.— A colorimotrie method for the determina- 
tion of dnnamic aldehyde in cinnamon, T. von Feixenbero {Mitt. Lebenwi. 
Vntenmch, u. Hyg., Schweiz, Omdhtsamt,, 6 (1915), No. 6, pp. jB5|-2^6).— True 
dnnamon of inferior quality has been found to be lacking in dnnamic aldehyde. 
A colorimetric method for determining cinnamic aldehyde is described which 
depmds upon the color which the aldehyde produces with isobutyl alcohol and 
concentrated sulphuric acid. 

A colorimetric method for the determination of ▼anillin in ▼anilla» T. voh 
FBixxvBEBO (Mitt. Lebenim, Untertuch. «. Hyg,, SohweUf, QmdKtsamt, 6 {1916) ^ 
If 9. 6, pp, £67-^4).— The method is similar to the one noted above for the de- 
termination of cinnamic aldehyde in cinnamon. It is suggested that the 
Tanillin determination should be made separately in the inner and outer layers 
of the bean. Normal vanilla shows no great difference in the amounts of va- 
nilllD, inasmuch as the outer layer makes up about 80 per cent of the whole. 

A simple and rapid method for the estimation of aloohol in spirituous 
Uquors, Nagendba Chandba Nao and Pahna Lal {Jour, 8oo, Chem, Indus., S7 
{1918), No. 18, p. t90T). — ^The method consists of treating a known weight of 
the liquid to be examined in a glass tube graduated in tenths of a cubic centl- 
meter with an excess of anhydrous potassium carbonate, adding about 6 to 10 
per cent of water if the p^centage of alcohol is above 00. The mixture is 
thcH^ughly shakoi or centrifuged and allowed to settle. The volumes of the 
layer of saturated potassium carbonate and of the alcohol hydrate are read and 
the temperature taken. The percentage of alcohol is calculated from the follow- 
ing formula, the constants of which have been determined by experiment: 
Percentage of alcohol=(V+vX 0.00275) [1—0.001068 (t^-15.6)]X0.7988X 
9106-5-W. V=the volume of alcohol hydrate, v=the volume of saturated po- 
tassium cart>onate solution, t^temperature, and W=the weight of the sample 
ingramsw 

The method is said to be quite accurate, even though not more than 5 cc. of 
the liquor under examination be used, and to have the advantages that solids 
in solution do not affect the results, that loss by evaporation is prevented, and 
that ice is not required even if the temperature be high. 

The detection of methyl alcohol by the D^niiST^ method and its application 
in the quantitative determination of methyl alcohol in water solution, T. von 
Fellenbebg {Mitt. Lebensm. Untersuch. u, Hyg., Schweiz, Gmdhtaamt, 6 {1915), 
No. 1, pp, 1-24, figs. S). — ^An application of the D^nig^s test for methyl alcohol 
to a quantitative determination of the same is described. 

The colorimetric estimation of cholesterol in blood, with a note on the 
estimation of coprosterol in feces, V. O. Mters and Bmma L. Wabdell {Jour. 
BUa. Chem., S6 {1918), No. 1, pp. W-ISS, fig. 1).— A method is described for 
the colorimetric estimation of cholesterol in blood, in which the blood, plasma, 
or serum is dried with plaster of Paris and the cholesterol extracted from it with 
the solvent (chloroform) employed in the development of the color reaction. 
The extract of cholesterol treated as described by Bloor (E. Sr R., 35, p. 13) is 
compared with a standardized aqueous solution of naphtbol green B in a 
Ihihoscq or Kober colorimeter. 

The plaster of Paris is considered by the authors to hold the blood in a finely 
divided and readily extractable condition and also to hold back substances 
which add to the color development with the Bloor technique. The aqueous 
naphthol green B is considered superior to chloroform solutions of cholesterol 
as a standard, as it is moreititable than the cholesterol in chloroform and does 
not evaporate so readily. Data are given showing that estimations by this 
method agree closely with those by the Windaus gravimetric method, but are 
lower than those obtained by the Bloor method. 



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16 BX^BBtMfiNT StATtOir SBCOBD. CVoU40 

A modification of the method la described for detenninliig the coprosterol in 
feces. 

Methods for the detarmliuttiQii of i^iosphorie sdd in smsll amoonts of 
blood, W. R. Bloob (Jour. BioL CAesk, S6 {1918)\ No. 1, pp. 55-43).— The meth- 
ods described consist of extensions of a method previously reported (E. S. R.« 
85, p. 166), and are based on the n^helometric Tise of Kober and Bgerer's modi- 
fication (E. S. R., 84, p. 409) of the strychnin molybdate reagent of Ponset 
and Choncha^L In the work reported this reagent is modified with the object 
of making it stronger and lessening the manipnlation required tot producing the 
precipitation. Detailed descriptions are given of the reagents employed and 
the manipulation of the method as applied to the determination of total phos- 
phates, lipoid phosphoric add (lecithin), and add-solnble phosphoric add in 
whole blood, plasma, and corpuscles. 

A new volumetric method for the determination of uric add in blood, L*. J. 
GuBTUAN and A. Lebsman {Jour. Biol. Chem,, S6 (1918), No. 1, pp. ISl-ilO}. — 
The method described consists essentially of the predpitation of the uric add by 
means of nickel acetate in a solution made alkaline with sodium carbonate and 
the estimation of the uric acid in the precipitate by means of a dilute solntUm 
of iodln. 

The method is said to have given good results with aqueous solutions of uric 
acid as well as with blood serum to which known amounts of uric acid were 
added. It is considered to be fully as accurate as the colorimetric method and 
to possess the advantage of requiring no cq;>ecial apparatus. 

The color laboratory of the Bureau of Chemistry. A brief statement of its 
objects and problems, H. D. Gibbs {Jour. Indus, and Engin. Chem., 10 {1918), 
No. 10, pp. 602, 80S).— A brief statement is given of the objects and problems 
of the color laboratory of the Bureau of Chemistry of the U. S. Department of 
Agriculture. The laboratory studies are divided into five classes — ^processes, 
dye intermediates, dyes, medicinals, and analytical methods. Plant operations 
include the development of a process of manufacture of phthalic anhydrid, the 
chlorination of toluene, and investigations for the manufacture of various 
alcohols and acetone. 

Photographic sensitising dyes: Their synthesis and absorption spectra, 
L. E. Wise and E. Q. Adams {Jour. Indus, and Engin. Chem., 10 {1918), No. 10, 
pp. 801, 802). 

Natural dyestuffs: An important factor in the dyestufP situation, E. S. 
Chapin {Jour. Indus, and Engin. Chem., 10 {1918), No. 10, pp. 795-798) .—ThiB 
is a brief review of fundamental facts relating to natural dyestuffs, with particu- 
lar reference to logwood. 

The manufacture, use, and newer developments of the natural dyestuffs, 
C. R. Dklaney {Jour. Indus, and Engin. Chem., 10 {1918), No. 10, pp. 798S01}. — 
This is a general discussion of the subject 

Production of add phosphate from creamery waste sulphuric add, R. H. 
Oabb {Jour. Dairy 8ci., 1 {1918), No. 6, pp. 508^11).— The author suggests the 
utilization of creamery waste sulphuric acid for the manufacture of add phos- 
phate. The waste acid from the mixture of cream and acid, after the comple- 
tion of the tests and the removal of fat, had approximately the following com- 
position by weight: Sulphuric acid (sp. gr. 1.2) 27.32 percent, nitrogen (amino 
acids, peptones, etc.) 0.054, ash (potassium, caldum, etc.) 0.11. volatile organic 
matter 0.56, and sugar (lactose) 0.525. It is suggested that the acid be con- 
centrated to 60 per cent acid and mixed with an equal weight of ground rock 
phosphate. An add phosphate prepared in this way had the following percent- 
age composition: Potassium sulphate 0.357, add phosphate 14, and nitrogen 
as ammonia 0.232. The principal Impurities present in the acid are compounds 



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mij AGRICrOLTUKAL CHEMISTEY— AGBOTBOHinr. . 17 

of nitrogen, caldum, potaasliim, and phosphorus which are In water-soluble 
form and are an advantage to the fertilizer. The carbon formed from the sugar 
in the concentration of the add is also considered to be of advantage in that 
it tends to keep the mass granular and porous. 

The preparatioxi of xylose from oomoobs, G. S. Hudson and T. S. Habdino 
Wowr. Amer. Chem, Soc, 40 (1918), No. 10, pp. 1601, 1602).— A method for pre- 
paring xylose from corncobs is described which is similar to the method pre- 
viously noted (B. S. R., 87, p. 410) for preparing xylose from cottonseed hulls. 
The corncobs are said to be a better source of xylose in that the jrield (about 
12 per cent) is higher and the solutions throughout the course of preparation are 
less colored. 

The preparation of several useful substances from comoobs, F. B. LaFobqb 
tnd G. S. HI7D80N (Jour. Indfis. and Engin. Chem., 10 (1918)^ No. 11, pp. 925- 
^f7).— Methods are described for the preparation from corncobs of adhesive 
gum, xylose (noted above), acetic acid, and glucose. The yields of the various 
products constitute the following percentages of the weight of the dry corncobs : 
Adhesive gum SO, crystalline xylose 6, acetic add 2.5 to S, and crystalline 
glucose 37. 

The authors believe that these methods of utilizing corncobs may eventually 
render them a valuable source of raw material for manufacturing. 

Wood waate as a source of ethyl alcohol, G. H. Toiclinson (Jour. Indus, and 
Snifin. Chem., 10 (1918). No. 10, pp. 859^61; a6«. in Chem. Abs., 12 (19i8), No. 
22, p. 24S7). — Some of the problems involved in the commercial utilization 
of wood waste as a source of ethyl alcohol are discussed and suggestions given 
for extending the scope of the industry. On the basis of estimates at a manu- 
fftctDring plant the author states that every ton of wood waste is capable of 
yielding over 30 gal. of wood molasses, suitable for alcohol production, without 
disturbing existing methods of operation, and that, allowing 3 cts. per gallon 
profit on the molasses, this would represent an additional profit of almost 
|2 per 1,000 ft of lumber. 

Factory investigation on the manufacture of tomato pulp and paste, B. J. 
HowABD (Canner, 47 (1918), Nos. 11, pp. S6, S8, 40, 42; 12, pp. S4, 36, S8, 40, 
fios. «).— This is a report of studies at the Bureau of Chemistry of the U. S. 
Department of Agriculture of the influence of various technical processes 
on the diaracter of tomato pulp and paste, including the influence of tempera- 
ture <m the color and flavor of the product relation of temperature of process- 
ing and length of heating to the keeping power of the product, the rate of heat 
penetration, occurrence of copper in the paste, comparison of open kettle and 
▼acQiun pan products, efficiency tests on various outfits, and laboratory tests 
on the influence of size of mesh of sieve used on the consistency of the product 

Drying and serving fruits and vegetables in the home, C. O. Vincent and 
Jkssis M. Hoover (Idaho 8ta. Bui 110 (1918), pp. 28, figs. i7).— This bulletin 
contains reports of investigations in regard to the successful drying of fruits 
and vegetables, with particular reference to conditions in Idaho. These in- 
clude a study of the relative merits of sun drying and drying by means of 
cookstove, hot-air, and steam evaporators as determined by local conditions, by 
the time and temperature required to evaporate different products, and by the 
moisture content of the dried product 

A homemade sun drier of pyramidal form is described, three sides of which 
are of glass. The air enters through small holes at the base, passes up through 
a perforated frame of wooden slats containing the food to be dried, and together 
with the moisture from the evaporating fruit, passes out through a 1-in. hole in 
the apex. If placed in the sun the temperature in the drier can be maintained 



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18 EXPBBIMEKT 8TATI0K BBCOBD. [Tol. 40 

at a much higher degree than on the outside, and prodncta of Tarions kinds 
will dry in a shorter time than when exposed to the direct rays of the smL 

Directions for preparing fmits and vegetables for drying, and tested recipes 
in which dried products are employed, are given. 

Preservation of food {Agr. Col. Ext, Bui, [OhJlo State UMv.J, U {191^19), 
No, 1, pp, 20, figs, 2), — ^A detailed discussion of the preservation of food tiy 
storing, canning, drying, and fermentation. 

METEOBOLOO^. 

Climate in relation to crop adaptation in Kew Xezico, O. E. Ltnnkt and 
F. Gabcia (New Mexico Sta, Bui, US (1918), pp. 1S2, figs, -J).— The available 
data for temperature and precipitation, secured in cooperation with the 
Weather Bureau of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, are given for dliferent 
parts of the State, with brief accounts of the agricultural possibilities of each 
county. 

There Is great range In altitude and dlmatlc conditions in the State. Agri- 
culture is carried on under Irrigation or by dry-farming methods, the latter 
being done at altitudes varying from 3,000 to 8,000 ft, under a normal pre- 
cipitation varying from about 10 to 20 in., with a long growing season in the 
lower altitudes and a very short one in the high altitudes. There is a large 
portion of the State which can not be used for the growing of crops, but can be 
profitably utilized in the raising of live stock. Crops adapted to dry farming 
at any altitude are comparatively limited In number. 

" The amount of moisture and length of the growing season are two Important 
limiting factors for many crops in New Mexico. The 5,000-ft. elevation is 
probably about the limit in altitude for many of the sorghums, which are 
among the best crops for the dry farmers below this altitude; however, up to 
this altitude Sudan grass, beans, Indian com, broom corn, and wheat are also 
dependable crops. In the higher dry-land districts short season com, wheat, 
barley, oats, field peas, beans, and, in some districts, Irish potatoes are among 
the leading crops to grow. In the irrigated valleys, where the moisture factor 
is largely under the control of the farmer, a much larger variety of crops can 
be successfully raised under good farm management In addition to a large 
variety of vegetables and fruits, practically all of the crops that can be raised 
by dry farming can be grown in these Irrigated districts of lower altitude. 
In the high altitude, mountainous, irrigated districts, aside from the dry- 
farming crops that are grown under these conditions, alfalfa, many of the 
cool season vegetables, and a number of fmits, principally apples, cherries, and 
plums, are usually grown successfully, except that the late spring frosts 
occasionally partly or wholly destroy the fruit crop." The State is restricted 
to Temperate Zone crops and fmits. Tropical or even semitroplcal fmits can 
not be raised there. 

Since moisture is probably the principal factor In crop production in New 
Mexico it should be kept in mind that the lower valleys are dry, averaging from 
6 to 10 in. annually, and that agriculture there is precarious without irrigation. 
Precipitation Increases with altitude, and also somewhat from west to east, 
especally east of the Rio Grande. The precipitation Increases rapidly with 
altitude, amounting to 18, 20, 25, and even 30 in. annually over the highest 
peaks. A second controlling factor is temperature, which decreases with alti- 
tude and thus limits the number of crops that can be grown at the higher 
altitudes. 

Particular care should be taken to select late-blooming varieties of fruits 
which are least susceptible to frost injury in the spring. The data presented 

uigitizea Dy ^^jxjkj^vk^ 



1919] SOILS — ^FEBTILIZEBS. 19 

Indicate In general that frosta cease in the spring abont April 1 below 4,000 
ft, aboat May 1 below 6,000 ft, and by June 1 below 8,000 ft " The San Juan 
Bashi, howerert will be found to be somewhat later; and, on the other hand, 
many of the mountain valleys will be earlier than their altitude would in- 
dicate." 

Agricultural meteorology, J. W. Smith (Proc. Ohio Acad. 8cL, 6 {1916), No, 
5, pp. iS9-264, figt. 5). — ^Agricultural "meteorology is defined, and observations 
and investigations which may be classed in the subject are reviewed. The 
critical periods of plant growth and the relation of temperature and moisture^ 
especially to the growth of com, wheat, and potatoes, are discussed. A few 
of tbe problems needing investigation are enumerated, and the value of a service 
to investigate such problems is briefly explained. 

Climatological data for the United States by sections (17. 8, Dept. Agr,y 
y^eather Bur. Climat. Data, 5 (1918), No8. 5, pp. 207, pis. 4, figs. 2; 6, pp. 206, pl8. 
iffkfs. 2).— These volumes contain brief summaries and detailed tabular state- 
ments of climatological data for each State for May and June, 1918, re- 
vectively. 

Tree-air data at Brezel Aerological Station, July to' December, 1917, W. R. 
Gbbgq (17. 8. Mo. Weather Rev. Sup. 11 (1918), pp. 108, pla. 6).— This records 
in detail data obtained in 256 observations at an average altitude of 2,991 
meters. 

[Observations on aerology] (C7. 8. Mo. Weather Rev. 8up. 12 (1918), pp. 82, 
pis. 5, fig. 1). — This supplement contains the following articles: Free-air Data 
at Drexel, Nebr., and Ellendale, N. Dak., Aerological Stations, January to 
March, 1918, inclusive, and Free-air Temperatures During the Cold Winter of 
1917-18, by W. R. Gr^g; and The Ellendale Aerological Station, by Y. E. Jakl. 

Meteorological sununary, 1916 {Oklahoma 8ta. Rpt. 1917, p. 40).— This is 
a condensed tabular summary of observations at Stillwater, Olcla., on temper- 
ature, precipitation, cloudiness, and wind for each month and for the year. 

Annual report of the [Philippine] Weather Bureau, 1916 {Ann. Rpt. 
[PhiUppine} Weather Bur., 1916, pt. 1-2, pp. i-M).— This contains a report of 
the work of the weather bureau and a record of hourly meteorological observa- 
tions made at the central observatory of Manilla during the calendar year 
19ia 

Sabstances dissolved in rain and snow, V. C. Shippee and Ltjgia Fobotcs 
{CKem. News, 117 (1918), No. S058, pp. S22, 325 )^— Continuing previous work of 
Peck (E. S. R., 38, p. 416), analyses were made of 41 different precipitations, 
28 of rain and 13 of snow, that fell between September 29, 1917, and June 1, 
1918, the total precipitation for the period being the equivalent of*17.9 in. of 
ndn. 

The data are considered insufficient to establish any relation between length 
of time between precipitations and the amount of dissolved substances or be- 
tween electrical disturbances and the amount of nitrates present. Sulphates 
were found to be most abundant during the winter, but this is considered de- 
pendent upon the amount of coal consumed in the community. Phosphates 
were found to be present but no carbon dioxid. 

sons— FEBTILIZEBS. 

Soils of southern Kew Jersey and their uses, J. A. Bonsteel (U. 8. Dept. 
Agr. Bui. 677 {1918), pp. 78, pis. 6, figs. 27).— The author discusses in detail the 
Adaptation of cropping and agricultural systems to local soil conditions in an 
«wa of 2333340 acres situated In southern New Jersey, embracing Monmouth, 
Ocean, BurUngton, Camden, Atlantic, Gloucester, Salem, Cumberland, and 



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20 EXPEBIMEHT STATION RBCOBD. (ToL 40 

Gape May CJountlea and the southeastern portions of Middlesex and Meroer 
Counties. The work is based npon comprehensiye soil and crop soryeys of the 
region and npon soil preferences expressed by about 1,000 r^resentatlve 
farmers located cliiefly in the sections where the soil and crop soireys were 
made. For purposes of study and c(«nparison, the region has been divided into 
areas designated as Freehold, Hartford, Thoroftoe, and Swedesboro, and the 
discussions are supplemented by tabulated statistics, numerous illustrations, 
and detailed soil and CDop maps. The soils of the region have already been 
dealt with in the following surveys: Salem area (E. S. R., 14, p. 640), Trenton 
area (E. S. R., 15, p. 058), Freehold area (E. S. R., 84, p. 616), and Camden 
area (E. S. R., 37, p. 123). 

The geographical location and transportation facilities of southern New 
Jersey are said to be such that the largest markets on the continent for both 
staple and special farm products lie within easy reach of even the most remote 
localities. The rainfall and temperature also favor the production of all the 
most important staple and special crops suited to the latitude. 

It is concluded that *'the more than two centuries of agricultural develop- 
ment In the region have brought about a thorough comprehension of the fact 
that crops do not all thrive equally well upon all soils. There has been a con- 
stant tendency to adapt the cropping and the agricultural systems of the regions 
to local soil conditions in such a way that the most paying crops may be grown 
upon each soil of marked characteristics. This selective cropping has resulted 
in the avoidance of excessively drained soils, like those of the Lakewood series, 
for any agricultural use; a failure to utilize wet soils for any but the most 
extensive systems of cropping, such as the growing of grass for pasture and 
hay upon the tidal marsh areas; the utilization of the more sandy soils, irre- 
spective of their relative distance from market, for the growing of the early 
vegetables, commonly called truck crops; the use of intermediate types of 
soils, such as the sandy loams, for the growing of a wide variety of truck crops, 
general farm crops, and, where altitude favors, of commercial orchard crops; 
a decided specialization toward the grain and grass crops upon the fine sandy 
loam and loam soils, with the more recent use of the loam soils for the growing 
of Irish potatoes and of tomatoes for canning purposes ; the utilization of every 
reasonably level acre of good upland soil for crop production of some kind; 
[and] the utilization of small areas of overflow or of undralned land for graz- 
ing purposes in connection with the special tillage of all upland areas. Other 
things being reasonably equal, the farmers of southern New Jersey have a very 
decided and well-founded preference for the utilization of each specific soil 
type for the growing of the special crop or group of crops which is best suited 
to that soil." 

Some observations about the soils of the northeast Indian tea districts, 
G. D. Hope (Agr. Jour. India, Indian 8oi. Cong. No,, 1918, pp. lOB-llS, pla. 2).— 
The author presents a general description of the prevailing soils of the four 
principal tea districts in northeastern India, with particular reference to their 
origin. With the exception of the mountain areas, the soils of the whole region 
are said to be alluvial in character. 

Belationship between the unf ree water and the heat of wetting of soils and 
its significance, G. J. Botrroircos {Michigan 8ta, Tech, BuL 42 (1918), pp. 23).— 
This reports the results of investigational work dealing with the relationship 
between the heat of wetting of oven-dry soils and other substances and the 
amount of so-called combined water that fidled to freeze at —78* C. as measured 
by the dllatometer method (B. S. R., 89, p. 18)^ and with the heat of wetting 
of various materials in different liquids, including water, ligroin, toluene, and 



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1919] SOILS — ^FERTILIZEBS. 21 

benzliie. The possible nature of the combined water, whether chemical or 
physical, is discussed. 

A real relationship was found to exist between the combined water and the 
heat of wetting of soils, both factors tending to vary in the same order in most 
of the soils examined. The heat produced ranged from calories for quartz 
sand to 10.8 calories for Norfolk sand, 402.3 calories for black clay loam, and 
1409^ calories for peat for the 50 gm. of material used. The corresponding per- 
centage of water that failed to freeze in the respective substances amounted to 0, 
L59, 13.85, and 70 per cent. ** This comparatively tremendous amount of heat 
represents energy expenditure on the part of one or both of the reacting mate- 
rials. Evidences are deduced, however, which prove that all this energy expendi- 
ture is at the expense of the water only and not at all at the expense of the soil, 
[andl ... is the result of the water undergoing a transformation from its 
liquid state of aggregation to a solid state of aggregation. This transformation 
is caused or brought about by the chemical affinity or capillary affinity or both 
that the soils have for water. The total heat of wetting is due partly to the 
latoit heat of water, partly to the affinity or attraction that the soils have for 
water, and partly to the condition of the solid to which the water is trans- 
formed. 

*'In attempting to ascertain the exact nature of this solid water by deter- 
mining the heat of wetting of soils and various artificial materials in water and 
llgroin, it was found that with the exception of silica, lampblack, and tricalclum 
phosphate the heat of wetting of the solid materials in llgroin was either 
enth^ly absent or comparatively very small. If to the solid materials was added 
water while they were still immersed in the llgroin, heat was evolved. This 
evolation of heat took place in all the agricultural soils except in the peat and 
in all of artificial materials except in the quartz sand, lampblack, and barium 
sulphate. The rapidity and magnitude of this heat evolution were almost the 
same as in water alone, or as if the llgroin were not present at all. In water 
almie, all the solid materials except lampblack gave more heat of wetting than 
in llgroin alone. Lampblack, however, gave more heat of wetting in llgroin 
than in water. 

**The difference in the heat of wetting of the various solid materials in the 
different liquids indicates that the attraction or affinity of the different solid 
materials for the different liquids is specific or selective. This specific or 
selective attraction or affinity of the solid materials for different liquids is 
not due entirely to the magnitude of the surface of the solid materials, but prin- 
cipally to the chemical nature of the materials. The heat of wetting of mate- 
rials by the addition of water when they are stlU immersed in llgroin indicates 
that the specific or selective attraction or affinity of the solid materials for 
water is not destroyed or satisfied by the substitution or presence of llgroin ; and 
that this attraction or affinity of the solid materials for water will go through 
a solid film or continuous membrane of llgroin to reach the water and thus 
satisfy itself. The distance to which this force will be felt, even through an 
intervening solid film or continuous membrane of another liquid, is considerable. 

" It appears to hold generally true that when a solid material is immersed in 
a liquid for which it has only a small attraction or affinity and then a second 
liquid is added for which the solid material has a great attraction or affinity, 
the second liquid will be attracted by the solid material with as much force or 
manifestation of heat as though the first liquid were not present at alL The 
oonverse of this is not true The remarkable phenomenon of the attraction or 
affinity of a solid material being exerted for a liquid through an enveloping 
solid or highijr compressed film of another liquid throws an abundance of light 



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22 BXPEBIMENT STATION BEOOBD. iY9L40 

In ond^stancUng the poaalble mechantmn in the reaction between soils and 
soluble salts or their lon& 

** Considering all the evidence as a wb<Ae and from every angle, it i^ipeara 
that the water which refuses to freeze at the temperature of —78* and has 
been termed combined water, and which bears a close relationship to the heat 
of wetting, exists partly as water of hydration and partly as water of solid 
solution, with probably the former predominating. It may exist all as water 
of solid solution but not all as water of hydration. On the other hand, if we 
accept the recent theory that all interatomic or intermolecular forces should 
be regarded as strictly chemical, which includes such forces or phenomoia 
as surface tension, evaporation, cohesion, absorption, condensation, etc, then 
all the combined water is chemically combined. 

*' The results obtained by the dilatometer method and those in the present 
investigation seem to necessitate a complete and radical change of many of the 
present conceptions regarding soil moisture. The present ideas regarding the 
forms of water in the soils, the movement of moisture in the sc^s, the rate of 
evaporation of the soil water, the available and nonavailable moisture In the 
soil, must all be changed. The necessary changes proposed in the present paper 
appear very reasonable and sound. It is now confidently believed that the dila- 
tometer method is able to give a very accurate and true value of the wilting co- 
efficient of soils. It accomplishes this with great rapidity and facility. And 
the value it yields is more definite and more comparable than that obtained by 
the use of plants." 

The effect of drainage on soil acidity, S. D. €k>NREB {Science, n. <er., 46 
{1917), No, 1188, p. S46). — Examinations of samples of silt loam soil very low 
in organic matter and quite acid, from contiguous drained and undrained areas, 
showed that acidity as determined by the potassium nitrate method had been 
distinctly reduced by drainage. 

The phosphoric add and potash requirements of meadow land as indicated 
by analyses of the harvested material, P. Liechti and E. Ritteb {Landw. 
Jahrb. Schweig, SI {1917), No, 5, pp, 5SS-^5S). — Ck>nsiderable tabulated data are 
presented showing the phosphoric add and potash content of dried material cut 
at three different times during the year fnHn numerous meadows in an effort 
to ascertain the needs of the soil with respect to these two elements of plant 
food. Analyses of the first cutting appeared to give better results than those of 
dther the total dry matter produced per year, or the second and third cuttings. 

It was concluded that an index to the soil requirements could be obtained 
by determinations similar to those described, espedally if the harvested 
material was particularly rich or particularly defldent in either potash or 
phosphoric acid, or both. 

Soil aldehydes, J. J. Skirnxb {Jour. Franklin Inst,, 186 {1918), Noi. 2, pp. 
les-ise; S, pp, 289^16; 4, pp. 449-480; 5, pp. 6/7^84; 6, pp, 729-741, pL 1, figs. 
70), — ^This article reports the results of "a scientific study of a new class of 
soil constituents unfavorable to crops, their occurrence, properties, and elimina- 
tion in practical agriculture." 

It is shown that aldehydes form an Important group of the organic com- 
pounds in soils and that they are harmful in varying degree to plant growth as 
shown by water cultures, pot tests, and field experiments. Their harmfulness 
is variously modified by the character and condlti<Hi of the soil and by drainage 
and fertilising. Salicylic aldehyde and vanillin are common, particularly in 
unproductive soils. Their harmfulness is rapidly overcome or destroyed in 
fertile, biologically active, and strongly oxidizing soils. Drainage, liming, and 
certain fertilizers are effective correctives of toxicity due to aldehydes. 

An extensive bibliography of the subject is appended. 



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1»1»1 SOILS — FERTILIZERS. 23 

The non-perslBienoe of bacterio-toxins in the soil, H. B. Hutchikson and 
A. a Thatsen (Jour, Affr. 8ci. [England], 9 (1918), No. 1, pp. 4S-^2, figs, ^).— 
Investigattons are described which were undertaken at Rothamsted with seven 
different soils in an effort to ascertain the validity of Qreig-Smlth*s claim that 
the effect of partial sterilization may be due to the destruction of bacterial toxins 
in the soil (E. S. R., 25, p. 214). The studies embraced observations on the 
rate of growth of Bacillus prodigiosus, and also, in the case of two soils, of B. 
fluorescens liquefaciens in the treated and untreated extracts of the different 
Mils as compared with the rate of growth in a standard physiological salt 
wlotion. The treatments included heating the extracts to 94** G. for one hour, 
partially sterilizing the soil with toluene, and adding peptone representing six 
parts of nitrogen per million of extract to untreated soil extract which had been 
boiled. Bacterial counts were made directly after inoculation and 4, 8, 24, 48, 
and 72 hours later. The behavior of B, prodigiosus toward its own growth 
products was also studied. The results obtained have been summarized as 
f oilowB : 

The untreated extracts of the soils varied widely in their suitability for the 
growth of B. prodigio9U8. In some instances vigorous growth occurred, while 
hi others the numbers of introduced organisms fell to a minimum. Treatment of 
the extracts by heat (supposed to result In the destruction of ** toxins ") invaria- 
bly led to still further bacterial decreases, while extracts of soils treated with 
antiseptics (which are not supposed to destroy toxins) were on the whole more 
farorable for growth than those of untreated soils. Such extracts were found 
to have appreciably more organic nitrogen compounds than extracts of untreated 
soils. The addition of minute quantities of peptone to unsuitable extracts 
lofficed to convert them into favorable media. 

Extracts of the two poorest untreated soils were tested with B, fiuorescens 
Uquefadens, but no evidence of toxicity could be obtained, growth being very 
abundant It is concluded that results obtained by the use of an extraneous 
organism, such as B. prodigiosus, must be accepted with reserve. The curve of 
diminished numbers of bacteria in poor untreated soil extracts was practically 
identical with that obtained when bacteria were introduced into pure salt 
aolutions, the decreases being symptomatic of starvation. 

The only soil which gave extracts similar in behavior to those reported by 
Greig-Smith was an acid heath soil. The value of the extract of this soil was 
distinctly increased after the extract had been subjected to heat The acid iron 
ani alumina compounds which were removed from the soil by the action of the 
saline solution were also thrown out of action. The "toxicity" of this soil was 
Ibuid to be rapidly (within 24 hours) and effectively removed by treatment with 
calcium carbonate. 

Alternate inoculation and removal of the bacterial growth by filtration 
npidly produced an extract unfavorable for the growth of B. prodigioaua, due 
in part to the impoverishment of the extract in food material and also to the 
fonnation of some substance inimical to growth. This body was capable of 
passage through a porcelain filter and was heat stable, and therefore appeared 
to have little in common with the inhibitory bodies described by Rahn as occur- 
ring in cultures of organisms, such as B, fluoresceM liquefaoiena or B, coli, nor 
did it resemble in its relations to heat the toxins which are alleged to occur in 
file soil. 

Although It is deemed possible under well-defined conditions to induce the 
fomiation of bacterio-toxins in culture solutions, it is stated that there is no 
eridence to show that these are likely to possess importance in the phenomena 
of partial sterilization of soil 

104e28'— 19 3 



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24 EXPERIMENT STATION BECOBD. [VoL40 

The destruction of ▼anillin in the soil by the action of soil bacteria, W. J. 
Bobbins and A. E. Euzakdo {Alabama CoL Sta. Bui, 204 U918), pp. 125-181), — 
In connection with earlier investigations (E. S. B., 38, p. 129), farther evidence 
is presented to show that vanillin-destroying hacttf ia occur in those soils to 
which the addition of vanillin was observed to have little bad effect on the growth 
of plants. In the case of a quartz sand, no organism destroying vanillin oould 
be demonstrated, while in soU obtained from the Arlington (Va.) Farm the 
vanillin was found to persist in a toxic state, even though vanillin-destroying 
bacteria were present in the solL Assuming that conditions in this soil were 
not suitable for the growth and action of the vanlUin-destroying organisms^ a 
study was made of the effect of the addition of vanillin to Arlington soil upon 
the number of microorganisms developing in It 

Soil treated with vanillin and with vanUlin and vanillin-destroying bacteria 
showed 0.96 and 0.32 million microorganisms per gram of air-dry soU, respec- 
tively, 67 days after treatment, while untreated soil showed 2.66 million. Un- 
treated Alabama soil showed 3.76 million, and Alabama soil treated with va- 
nillin showed 18.12 million for the same length of time. Vanillin was observed 
in crystals on the surface of the Arlington soil more than 40 days after treatment. 

Soil extracts of Alabama and Arlington soils to which vanillin was added 
failed to show any differenee in the rate of vanillin destruction by a pure 
culture of the vanillin-destroying bacterium. 

l%e acidity of the Arlington soil, represented by a lime requirement of 4,740 
lbs. per acre, is not thought to be responsible for this condition, due to the 
fact that in an Alabama acid sandy loam soil having a lime requirement of 
8,400 lbs. per acre, vanillin has been entirely destroyed in less than 57 daya 

Evidence has been obtained which is held to indicate that poor aeration may 
be responsible for the persistence of vanlUin in the Arlington soil, although 
no definite conclusion has been reached. 

The influence of potsherds on nitriflcatlon in the Indian alluvium, Jatindba 
Nath Sen {Jour, Agr, 8ci [England}, 9 {1918), No. i, ftp. $2-42, figs, 4), — ^The 
author describes pot and lysimeter experiments in which a study was made 
of the effect upon nitrification of aeration produced by the addition of dif- 
ferent quantities of potsherds to the fine-textured Pusa soil. Small, roundish 
pieces of brick from i to i in. in diameter were added in amounts r^re- 
senting 0, 10, 20, and 80 per cent of the soil, and the percolate from the pots 
and soil samples from tbe lysimeters examined for nitrates. Increased nitri- 
fication followed the use of postherds in both experiments, the 30 per cent appli- 
cation generally giving the highest results. 

The use of green manures, Schbibattx and L. BaAnGNifcBB {Oompt. Rend, 
Acad, Agr, France, 4 {1918), No, 10, pp, S5Jh857, S60-S65; abi. in Intemat. Inst. 
Agr, IRamel, IntemaU Rev, 8oi, and Pract. Agr,, 9 {1918), No. 6, pp. 667, 668; 
Jour, Bd, Agr, [London], 25 {1918), No, 7, p. 864), — In experiments at Orignon 
during 1913 to 1916, oats after trefoil produced 8.95 cwt. of grain per acre, 
after clover 6.27, vetches 4.32, and white mustard 0.42 cwt. Qood results 
were obtained by sowing the legumes with the cereals. By this means it was 
possible to grow successfully three successive crops of cereals without other 
nitrogenous fertilizer. The use of crimson clover, fenugreek, and white melilot 
for this purpose Is also suggested. 

The farmer and the dung heap {Jour, Bd, Agr. [London], 25 {1918) No. 6, 
pp. 705, 706). — ^Brief directions for caring for the manure heap are given. 

Fertilizers after the war, E. J. Bussell {Nature [London], 102 {1918)^ No. 
2549, pp. 5, 6).— Beferrlng to previous reports and estimates relating to the 
postwar use of fertilizers in Great Britain, the author submits an estimate 
based on a total cultivated area of 46,700,000 acres, 22,000,000 of which ac« 



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19191 SOILS — ^FERTILIZERS. 25 

fertHized. This leads to the condnsion that there will be required 1,730,000 
tons of superphosphate and basic slag and 470,000 tons of sulphate of ammonia 
or its equivalent. No estimate of the amount of potash required is given. 

The nltrog'en problem in relation to the war, A. A. Notes {Jour, WasTu 
Acad. ScL, 8 {19 J8), No. IB, pp. S81-S94; ahs. in Nature {Londonh 102 {1918), 
Vo. 2550, pp. 26, 27). — This article, by the chairman of the Committee on Ni- 
trate Investigations of the National Research Council, gives a general view of 
the nitrogen situation with brief descriptions of sources of supply and methods 
of meeting the demands for nitrogen compounds. 

It is pointed out that the Chilean nitrate supply is at best precarious, and 
tliat the utmost possible supply from by-product coke ovens is wholly inade- 
quate. It is, therefore, necessary to develop methods of manufacture. The 
most promising of these so far developed are the cyanamid, cyanld, arc (nitric 
add), and synthetic (ammonia) processes. 

It is stated tliat the nitrate division of the Ordnance Department has greatly 
simplified the process of absorption of nitric vapors and that the Bureau of 
Mines has brought the oxidation process to a high state of perfection. « 

Storage of sulphate of ammonia on farms {Jour. Bd. Agr. [London^, 25 
{1918), No. 6, pp. 109-105). — Directions are given for storage either in bags or 
loose in a heap. It is essential that the sulphate should be kept dry. 

Utilization of phosphate deposits of Australia, J. W. Paterson {Aunt. Ad- 
visory Council 8oi. and Indus. Bui. 1 {1918), pp. 96-101, fig. i).— This article 
reviews the results of various investigations on the amount and availability of 
phosphoric add in soils and the relative availability of different kinds of phos- 
phates, and notes briefly the results of examinations of 24 soils from different 
parts of Australia which show them to be low In total phosphoric acid but 
specially so in available phosphoric acid as determined by Dyer's method. The 
total phosphoric acid varied from 50 to 68 parts per 100,000 of soil, of which 
only from 5.3 to 15 per cent was available. 

In pot tests with wheat, comparing calcium rock phosphate, aluminum phos- 
phate, and iron phosphate, it was found that the calcium phosphate was de- 
cidedly superior to aluminum and iron phosphates when no lime was used, but 
that when Ume was used iron phosphate was nearly as effective and aluminum 
phosphate apparently fully as effective as calcium phosphate. It is stated that 
the native phosphate deposits are of two kinds, calcium phosphates of low grade 
and iron and aluminum phosphates of various kinds. Various methods of utlliz- 
hig these phosphates are suggested, and a plan for studying them by means of 
chemical investigations, pot tests, and field experiments is outlined. 

Condition of fertilizer potash residues in Hagerstown sllty loam soil, W. 
FiEAa and B. S. Ebb {Jour. Agr. Research [V. £f.], 15 {1918), No. 2, pp. 59-81).— 
This is a report in detail of studies made at the Pennsylvania Experiment Sta- 
tion of the solubility of the potash of Hagerstown sllty loam soil in hot, strong 
(1.115 sp. gr. ) hydrochloric acid, fifth-normal hydrochloric acid» distilled water, 
carbenated water, and approximately third-normal ammonium-chlorid solution. 

A comparative study was made of the solubility of the potash in a soil which 
has in the past 36 years received in 18 equal biennial applications 1,800 lbs. of 
ftftiUzer potash and that in a neighboring portion of the same soil which has 
been unfertilized but has been tilled and cropped in the same manner. Hot, 
strong add dissolved somewhat larger amounts of potash from the fertilized 
solL The remaining solvents dissolved In a short time at moderate tempera- 
tares twice as much potash from the fertilized soil as from the unfertilized. 
Of the weak solvents used fifth-normal hydrochloric acid dissolved the largest 
amount of potash. The clays separated by sedimentation in water contained 
leas potash than the nonclays. 



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26 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. [Vol. 40 

The soil Is naturally rich In potash and applications of potash resalt in little 
or no crop increase, but there is an increase in the amounts of potash taken up 
by the crops. It was found that on the average for a 5-crop rotation the crops 
harvested from the soil treated with potash removed "in a given weight of 
harvest, 40 per cent more potash than a like harvest weight from the unfer- 
tilized land contains — that is, both chemical solvent and plant agree in indi- 
cating a higher availability for at least part of the potash in the potash-dressed 
soil. Moreover, the crops grown the second year after the application show a 
greater potash excess than those to which the potash fertilizer is directly ap- 
plied. Crediting the fertilizer potash with the excess only of the potash in tbe 
crops from the fertilized soil, the crops have used not more than one-fourth of 
the potash dressings applied.'* 

The general conclusion reached is that *' much of the potash applied as fer- 
tilizer remains in the surface soil in a state highly available to crops, that most 
of it remains there in a condition of lower availability, and that the losses by 
drainage have probably not been great." 

Potash situation growing seiiouSy R. C. Randaix (Chem. Engin., 26 {1918), 
No. 12, pp. 459-462). — ^Thls article reviews the present situation with reference 
to the extent, development, and possibilities of a domestic supply of potash in 
the United States. 

It is shown that the present production Is far short of the 250,000 tons of 
pure potash which is estimated to be the annual need of the United States. 
Data are given for the production from the Nebraska lakes, Searles Lake, 
alunite, cement works and blast furnaces, and kelp. 

The potassium problem and the utilization of olive oil residue in Italy, 
G. L* Abate (Ahs, in Intemat, IttBt. Agr. [Rome], Intemat Rev. 8ci, and Pract, 
Agr., 9 {1918), No. 8, p. 9S1).— It is shown in this article that the 16,500,000 
bu. of olive oil residue produced annually in Italy contains about 141,320 cwt. 
of potash obtainable by extraction, besides a considerable amount of nitrogen. 

Production of lime in 1917 (U. 8. Geol. Survey Press Bui. S84 {1918), p. 4). — 
According to revised figures, the total production of lime in the United States 
in 1917 was 3,786,364 short tons, the output bf 595 plants, as compared with 
4,073,433 tons, the output of 778 plants in 1916. The average price increased 
from about $4 in 1916 to $6.29 in 1917. The amount of lime used in agriculture 
in 1917 was 488,297 tons. 

Analyses of commercial fertilizers, R. N. Brackett and H. M. Stackhoitsk 
(South Carolina Sta. But. 191 {1918), pp. 5-62).— This reports the actual and 
guarantied analyses of 1,474 official samples of commercial fertilizers and 
fertilizing materials inspected during the season of 1917-18. A total of 236 
samples fell below the commercial value based on the guaranty. 

AOBICTJLTTTEAL BOTANT. 

Hardening process in plants and developments from frost injury, R. B. 
Habvey {Jour. Agr. Research [TJ. S.], 15 {1918), No. 2, pp. 8S-112, pis, 6, figs, 
S). — ^A study was made of the practice of hardening plants to determine, if pos- 
sible, the physiological basis of this practice and the mechanism of frost injury. 
The investigations, which were carried on in the Bureau of Plant Industry, 
U. S. Department of Agriculture, were made on the effect of hardening by 
exposure to cold in case of cabbage, tomatoes, and a number of other plants. 
Plants were kept in constant temperature chambers at 3 and 5* C, using 
18 and 25* as controls. After 5 days' exposure to 3", cabbages were not injured 
by 30 minutes' exposure to —3**, although frozen stiff. The maturity of tissues 
was found to be an important factor in frost resistance, although during the 



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19191 AGBI0T7LTURAL BOTANY. 27 

procefls of hardening young leaves seem to pass rapidly through some sort of 
matoxation process. 

Frozen cells in the leaves of cabbage, Bryophyllum, salvia, and lettuce were 
found to be stimulated to growth and to produce tumors similar to those in 
pathological conditions but without the presence of bacteria. Frozen spots 
on the leaves of tomato, coleus, geranium, and a number of other plants did not 
receive a growth stimulus but were killed by the freezing. The peroxidase 
content of the intumescences in the case of cabbage was found to be much 
greater than for the normal tissue. A decrease of hydrogen-ion concentraUon 
may occur in such cells, and this condition is believed to allow greater activity 
or accumulation of the respiratory enzyms, particularly peroxidase. 

The principal effect of the hardening process on cabbage is believed to be a 
change in the constituents of the protoplasm which prevents their precipitation 
as a result of the physical changes incident upon freezing. The proteins are 
changed to forms which are less easily precipitated, as indicated by an increase 
in the amino-acid content of cabbage plants on hardening. Cabbage plants 
which had become resistant to freezing through the hardening process showed 
only slight changes In carbohydrates, and it is considered that the prevention 
of protein precipitation by sugar accumulation during hardening is not suffi- 
cient to account for the resistance of hardened plants to freezing. The pro- 
teins of the midrib of cabbage leaves were precipitated more rapidly than those 
of the rest of the leaf, and this is considered to be due to physiological differ- 
ences between vascular and other tissues of the leaf. In the Juices of non- 
hardened leaves of cabbages, the proteins were found to be pretcipitated to a 
greater degree by freezing than In those of hardened cabbages, the percentage 
of precipitation on freezing being closely paralleled by the relative precipitation 
on the addition of acid. The effects of desiccation, freezing, and plasmolysis 
are considered to be similar, in that all these processes cause changes in the 
hydrogen-ion and salt concentrations. 

The transplriner power of plants, Edith B. Shbeve {Carnegie Inst. Washing- 
ton Year Book, 16 (1917), pp. 66-^3).— Studies reported so far as carried in 
comparing the Index of transpiring power as determined with cobalt tripartite 
Blips of standardized paper with the transpiring power as determined by the 
rate of loss of weight from the plant to that from an atmometer showed the same 
general curve except that the time of beginning of incipient drying can be de- 
tected sooner by the cobalt slips than by the weighing methods, and as accu- 
rately and more reliably, as the cobalt method can be used with plants naturally 
rooted in the earth. An attempt is being made to lessen the largest source of 
error, which lies in the assumption that the leaf temperatures agree with air 
temperatures. 

It has become evident that a comparison of the transpiring power of different 
species or strains necessitates finding the whole daily march of transpiring 
power, isolated readings by either method having but little value It is neces- 
sary also to test several leaves of the ages and sizes represented. 

The relation between water loss by evaporation and water grain by absorp- 
tion in colloidal irels, Edith B. Shbeve {Carnegie Inst Washington Year Book, 
16 [1917), pp. 68-7i).— Preliminary experiments (E. S. R., 35, p. 733) on Opuntia 
versicolor showing the probability of a direct relation between the power to ab- 
sorb water and the power to withhold water against atmospheric evaporative 
fbices have been confirmed by further experimentation on this species and O. 
^keoM (t). Work testing this relation for colloidal gels has been planned, 
and tests have been made with gelatin, the absorption rate of which proves to be 
inflnenced greatly by its history in ways which are detailed, so that certain pre- 
cautions must be observed In order to obtain comparable results. The conclu- 



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28 EXPERIMENT STATION REGOBa tVol. 40 

sions derived are believed to throw light on the problem of water absorption by 
gels and at the same time to give a new view of the complexity of the factors 
which may operate to determine the rate and direction of growth, as well as 
absorption and transpiration in the highly complex colloids of the plant 

Colloidal phenomena in the protoplasm of pollen tubes, F. E. Lloyd iCar- 
neffie Inat. Wiuhingtan Tear Book, 16 {1917), pp. 6S, 64). — In continuance of 
reports on previous work (E. S. R., 86, p. 526), the author gives details of studies 
intended to throw light on the behavior of pollen tubes grown in acids and 
alkalis in the presence* of high concentrations of cane sugar, the results of 
which are summarized. 

Within the limits of concentration 1/10 to 1/2,560-normal of the reagent, add 
or alkali, the maximum swelling rates and maximum total swelling in acids 
occur at 1/10-normal, malic add, to 1/820-normal, hydrochloric add, and for 
alkalis at about 1/80-normal. Organic adds cause maximum swelling at higher 
concentrations than do mineral adds, apparently in direct relation to the degree 
of dissodation. At lower concentrations of adds and alkalis, there is a repres- 
sion of swelling rates, espedally in hydrochloric acid, this being generally greater 
for adds, while for alkalis the rates are about equal to or slightly less than for 
water. 

The author has sought to determine how tUT parallelism exists between the be- 
havior of protoplasm in pollen and that of gelatin. The effects of a series of 
adds, hydrochloric, acetic, malic, dtric, formic, and oxalic, have been determined 
for concentrations 1/200 to 1/25,600-normal in assodatlon with cane sugar at 16 
per cent concentration. It was found that no growth occurs at or above l/3»200- 
normal of the add. Below that limit growth rate varies inversely as the con- 
centration. Rate (also, total) of growth for any concentration varies with the 
add. 

There is evidence that pollen tube growth rates are limited by their ability to 
utilize the swelling effects of the acids. The tubes may burst at high concen- 
trations. 

The parallelism of behavior between gelatin and the protoplasm of pollen 
tubes, when expressed in terms of accomplished growth, is more apparent in the 
case of alkaline than in that of acid media. 

The effect of adds and alkalis on the growth of the protoplasm in pollen 
tubes, F. E. Lloyd (Mem. Torrey Bot. Club, 11 U918), pp. 8JhS9).—A study of 
the pollen of Phaseolus odoratu$ in hanging drops of various reagents at different 
concentrations, associated with cane sugar in constant concentration, is said to 
indicate that the protoplasm of pollen grains is affected by adds and alkalis as 
is gelatin, and that the increased swelling caused by the reagents can be utilized 
in growth. This protoplasm is extremely sensitive to low concentrations of both 
adds and alkalis. 

The construction of a biocolloid exhibiting some of the water relations of 
living plants, D. T. MacDougal (Carnegie Intt. Washington Tear Book, 16 
(1917), pp. 59, 60). — It is stated that the systematic endeavor to construd, by 
methods which are described, a colloidal mixture displaying some of the funda- 
mental physical properties of protoplasm in plants has resulted in finding that a 
mixture of substances of two of the three more important groups of constituents, 
carbohydrates and proteins, shows the imblbitional behavior of tissues and 
tracts of protoplasts of the plant. The differential action of such blocoUolds in 
solutions yields striking parallels with growth. The general identity as to con- 
stitution of these colloidal mixtures and of cell masses and the similarity of 
their behavior are thought to make it possible to correlate more closely the 
processes of imbibition, metabolism, and growth, and on tlie basis of their inter- 



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1919] AQBIOULTURAL BOTAKY. 29 

relation to interpret growth enlargement and incidental variations in the volume 
and size of plant organs. It is also suggested that the differential action which 
might follow a change in the quantity of a nitrogenous compound in the carbo- 
hydrate body of protoplasts in special tracts, changing the imbibition capacity of 
chromosomes, of spindles or cell plates, etc., may play an important part in 
mitosis and cell division. 

Imbibition in biocoUoids as affected by acidosis, alkalo8lB» and neutraliza- 
tion, D. T. MacDougal (Carnegie In8t. Wathingtim Tear Book, 16 (1917), pp. 
60-02).— Some systematic information as to the swelling of agar and gelatin 
in water, acids, alkalis, and salts with regard to concentration of the reagents 
has become available as the result of the work in the physics of simple colloids. 

The reactions of sections of living plants to similar solutions demonstrated 
that protoplasm shows a characteristic behavior which may be simulated fairly 
well by a mixture consisting of a base of an inert carbohydrate like agar and 
albumin or its derivatives, which for convenience is designated as a biocoUoid. 
Tbe swelling of dried sections of biocolloids gives data which can not be antici- 
pated by a consideration of the known laws of Imbibition of its components 
separately, but it is confidently predicted that with wider evidence the general 
behavior of a biocolloid may be foretold. Preliminary tests of imbibition by 
biocolloids were made clilefly with a single concentration of the reagent, which 
is taken to lie within the possibilities of conditions in the c^l. 

The data obtained are tabulated, and show some of the more obvious features 
of imbibition in a biocolloid as affected by conditions similar to those supposedly 
prevalent in living plants. 

Imbibition of gelatin and agar gels in solutions of sucrose and deztrose, 
E. E. Free (Carnegie Inai. Washington Year Book, 16 (1917), p. 66). — From a 
comprehensive series of swelling tests made with sucrose and dextrose under 
guarded conditions upon the swelling of biocolloids consisting of varying propor- 
tions of agar and gelatin, it appears that for sugar solutions of less than 25 per 
cent concentration the results do not differ from those for distilled water more 
than is explainable by the accidental variation normal to the method when the 
temperature is not precisely controlled. It is thought that neither sucrose nor 
dextrose in concentrations under 25 per cent exercises any effect on the sw^ling 
of gelatin-agar gels in water so Important as that of acids or alkalis. No 
specific effect of sugar was noted either on the swelling or imbibition capacity 
of the gela 

Oas interchange in Mesembryanthemum and other succulents, H. M. Rich- 
hXDB (Carnegie Inst, Washington Year Book, 16 (1917), pp. 79, 8(?).— This is a 
study of Mesembryanthemum, Dudleya, and Abronia under various conditions 
of temperature and illumination as related to the acidity conditions of their 
juices, most of the tests being carried out in darkness, a number in diffuse 
Uglit or direct sunlight The gas samples collected, over 200 in number, await 
•nalysisby methods previously described (E. S. R., 35, p. 225). 

Desiccation and respiration in succulent plants, E. R. Long (Carnegie Inst, 
Wiuhington Year Book, 16 (1917), pp. 80-82). — Some results of earlier work 

(£. S. R., 34, p. 430) are referred to as having shown that Echinocactus exposed 
to thr accumulates carbohydrate (a large portion of the increase being that of 
lolQble nonreducing sugar) , and that during prolonged desiccation in diffuse light 
oxidation of storage sugars keeps the relative dry weight of the plant tissue 
•t a constant figure. An attempt has been made by the author to combine these 
effects in one plant in order to gain Insight on the course of katabolism in carbo- 
bydrate types and on the time element involved. 

An Echinocactus which had been loaded with carbohydrate, by being desiccated 
in the open air for eight months, was placed in a ventilated dark chamber. It 

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80 EXFEBIMBKT STATION BBOOBD. [Tol.40 

was found that in darkness the rate of water loss tends to become constant, 
that acidity Increases in darkness, and that soluble sugars are broken up» 
although but little change takes place in the insoluble polysaccharida. These 
polysaccharids do break down in the course of long confinement, this fact to- 
gether with that of the resistance of Bchinocactus to desiccation helping in a 
large measure to explain the Ylabillty of these plants in spite of long starvation. 

Bate and course of growth of saccolents, D. T. MacDottoai. {Cameffie In$t. 
WasMnffton Tear Book, 16 {1917), pp. 83-85). — By employing auxographs of im- 
proved pattern, the author collected much information regarding the growth of 
plants, more particularly certain cacti, including Bchinocactus, Opuntia, Gar- 
negiea, and Mesembryanthemum. These data are briefly discussed. 

The carbohydrate economy of cacti, H. A. Spoehb {Cameffie Inst. Washiti^ 
ton Tear Book, 16 {1917), pp. 78-79).— A continuation of studies (B. S. R., 39, 
p. 224) on the carbohydrate metabolism of the cacti, platyopuntias and OpwUia 
versicolor^ has yielded an insight into various phases of this subject which 
could not be gained from work with thin-leaved plants. The purpose of the 
work as a whole is primarily to secure facts bearing upon the problems of 
photosynthesis, in particular at this stage to secure facts leading to a clearer 
understanding of the conditions governing the equilibria and mutual trans- 
formations of the groups of carbohydrates in the leaf and of the fate of these 
substances in the general metabolism. The data obtained are briefly discussed. 

The present report deals with the methods of sugar analysis applicable to 
plants, seasonal variations in the carbohydrate content of cacti, the effect of 
temperature and of water content on carbohydrate eQuilibrlum, carbohydrate 
equilibrium during starvation, and the rOle of pentose sugars in plant metab- 
olism. 

Boot growth of Prosopls velutina and Opuntia versicolor under conditions 
of a small oxygen supply in the soil, W. A. Gannon {Carnegie Inst. Washing- 
ton Tear Book, 16 {1917), pp. 8t, 8S). — ^The work here described confirms and 
extends that previously noted (B. S. R., 84, p. 834; 86, p. 525; 37, p. 218) as 
employing carbon dioxid with or without atmospheric air, the present work 
employing carbon dioxid, commercial oxygen, and commercial nitrogen. 

The rootlets of seedling Prosopls show a variable reaction to small amounts 
of oxygen, depending apparently in the main on the length of the root It 
appears probable that after germination has started root growth may continue 
for some time under practically anaerobic conditions, the time possibly being 
related to the duration of the cotyledonary food supply. In O. versicolor 
growth in all cases stopped promptly in 2.67 per cent oxygen. Roots 8 to 7 mm. 
long stopped growth in 4.56 per cent oxygen, although roots 11 cm. long grew 
for 48 hours in the same atmosphere. It appears, therefore, that at least the 
shorter roots of Opuntia cuttings have a greater oxygen requirement than the 
longer roots of Prosopls seedlings, but that a differential result may also occur 
which may be associated with the well-known differential development of the 
roots of the species Into shallow absorbing and more deeply placed anchoring 
roots. 

Effect of ammonium sulphate in nutrient solution on the growth of soy 
beans in sand cultures, M. I. Wolkoff {Soil 8ci., 5 {1918), No. t, pp. 123-150, 
figs. 7). — Bmploying soy beans grown in sand cultures, the author has studied 
the behavior of ammonium sulphate In the nutrient solution used by Shlve 
(B. S. R., 36, p. 828) as his simplification (E. S. R., 84, p. 333) of that employed 
by Tottlngham. The osmotic concentration of the solutions was in most cases 
belew the calculated 2.5 atmospheres. 



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1W»3 FIELD CROPS. 81 

The sabstitution of ammonium sulphate for potassium nitrate improved the 
yield in certain proportions, but caused injury when added in excess. The 
foliage, on the whole, showed a greener color than did the plants in tbe Tot- 
tingham series, which it also exceeded in 3'ield of dry weight of tops at optimum 
concentrations, though great variations appeared. A close relation was noted 
between top yield, root yield, and total transpiration. The water pequirement 
was less in these experiments than in the Tottingham series. 

Growth of wheat (Triticum) and com (Zea), D. T. MacDouoal (Carnegie 
Inst. Washington Year Book, 16 {1911), pp. 85-57).— The facts here discussed 
as significant were obtained by analyses of the daily course of growth of corn 
and wheat 

Retardation of growth of Zea and of Triticum occurred at more than one place 
in the temperature scale and at different hours of the day. An uneven growth 
rate was particularly noticeable in Triticum. Temperature may be a cause of 
arrested growth. The highest growth rate maintained for some time by Zea 
ranged between 27 and 30° G. (80.6 and 86*" F.). No retardations occurred 
except after 11 a. m. Zea alone showed acceleration late in the day after re- 
tardation at high temperatures. Wheat probably reaches its upper limit near 
the temperatures given above. 

The individuality of the bean pod as compared with that of the bean 
plant, Hkixne M. Boas (Ifem. Torrey Bot. Club, 11 (1918), pp. 207-209).— It is 
concluded from this study that in case of a variety of string bean the pods 
exhibited an individuality of almost the same order as that of the plants bear- 
ing them. It remains to be seen whether the individuality of the pods is due 
to purely chance differentiation, as in nutrition, or to definite morphological 
differentiation according to position on the plant 

FIELD CEOFS. 

[Work with field crops on the Tmckee-Garson reclamation project ezpezi- 
BMQt fazm in 1017]» F. B. EUcaduct (U. 8. Dept. Agr., Bur. Plant Indus., Work 
Truekee-Carson Expt. Farm, 1917, pp. 1-12, 19-17, fig. i).— This reports the con- 
tinnation of work «dong the same general lines as previously noted (E. S. R., 89, 
p. 226), including observations on weather and agricultural conditions on the 
project, together with a temperature survey of the area. The summer tempera- 
tures for lj917 are said to have been very favorable for the growth of corn, 
sorghum, melons, and tomatoes. 

The average yield of alfalfa on the project for 1917 was 3.6 tons per acre, 
and the average yield on the experiment farm 8.2 tons per acre for an area of 
S.4 acres. 

In a test with 15 varieties of com, Minnesota No. 18 was first with a yield 
of 31 bu. of shelled corn per acre. Held Yellow Dent was first in yield of com 
and stover, with 5.05 tons per acre, and Minnesota No. 18 second, with 4.04 tons. 
Of the com varieties grown two or more years, Australian White Flint was 
first with an averiage yield of 85 bu. per acre. 

In variety tests with barley, Trebi gave the highest yield, 28.6 bu., followed by 
a local sort with a yield of 20.5 bu. For the three years 1915 to 1917, inclusive. 
Coast was highest with 88.8 bu. per acre and the local variety was next with 
90.3 bu. 

Potatoes planted at weekly intervals from April 19 to May 24, inclusive, gave 
the hii^iest yield from plantings made May 8. Tests were also made with 14 
vtrietiefl or strains of potatoes, but owing to lack of uniformity in the soil, the 
Mtoal yields obtained are not deemed of great value. The varieties appearing 



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82 EXPERIMENT STATIOK REOOBD. [ToL^O 

to be most desirable with respect to productivity and smootlmeBs Included 
Netted Gem, American Wonder, Earliest of All, and Colorado Pearl. 

Based on relative values, Little Club, Marquis, and Sonora proved to be the 
leading wheat varieties grown on the experiment farm in 1917, while for the 
three years 1915 to 1917, inclusive, Little Club, Rleti, and Dlcklow were highest, 
based on corrected yields eliminating Irregularities in the experimental flield. 

Various treatments for the improvement of alkali land, including appllcatloiiB 
of gypsum, manure, and sulphuric acid and tile drainage, begun in 1914 have 
resulted in average yields of alfalfa for all treated plats of 34292 lbs. per acre 
and for all untreated plats of 2,292 lb& It is stated, however, that the increased 
yields have not yet reached the point of profitable production. 

Beport of agronom7 department, M. A. Beeson {Oklahoma 8ta. Rpt. 1917, 
pp. 9-19, fig. i).— This notes the progress of work with fl^d crops for the year 
ended June 30, 1917, including data as to variety tests with wheat, oats, cow- 
peas, grain and forage sorghums, and barley; continuous culture tests with 
wheat; plant breeding work with Sudan grass; fertility experiments with 
alfalfa ; depth of plowing tests ; cultural experiments with Kafir corn, alfalfa, 
and Sudan grass; a pasture experiment with sweet clover, Sudan grass, and 
Bermuda grass; and tests with dellnted cotton seed. 

Boot crop culture in South Dakota, M. Ghaicflin and G. Winbiqht (South 
Dakota 8ta. Bui. ISO {1918), pp. 824-^S, figs. 2i).— Cultural methods and field 
practices deemed best for growing root crops in South Dakota are described. 
Sugar beets, mangels, carrots, rutabagas, and turnips are considered. Mangels 
are said to produce the highest tonnage per acre, while sugar beets produce the 
greatest feed value per acre. Rather limited variety tests with the different 
crops, conducted at Brookings, Eureka, Cottonwood, and Highmore, are noted. 
Diseases affecting sugar beets are indicated. Brief notes by J. H. Shepard on 
sugar beets and other roots as stock feed are included. 

Grasses of the West Indies, A. S. Hitchcock and Aqnes Chase (17. S. Nat. 
Mus., Contrib. Nat. Herbarium, 18 {1917), pt. 7, pp. XVIII +261-471). —This 
publication, previously noted (E. S. R., 89, p. 440) as dealing with the grasses 
of Bermuda, the Bahamas, Trinidad, and Tobago, covers all of the West Indies. 

Victorian grasses, J. W. Audas {Jour. Dept. Agr. Victoria, 15 {1917), No. 12, 
pp. 711-72S, fig: 5).— The distribution throughout Australia of grasses in- 
digenous to Victoria is indicated by States in tabular form showing the genera 
with their relative strength in species. A further grouping of indigenous species 
indicates those grasses deemed undesirable and those suitable for pasture, moist 
soil, dry soil, and coast sand binders. Exotic grasses and forage plants other 
than grasses found in Victoria are briefly mentioned. 

Variations in the development of secondary rootlets in cereals, E. H. Wait 
WOBTH and L. H. Sicrrn {Jour, Amcr. 8oc. Agron., 10 {1918), No. 1, pp. 55- 
S5). — ^This paper, a contribution from the plant breeding division of the Uni- 
versity of Illinois, reports the results of experiments with certain miscellaneous 
varieties of wheat, oats, and barley and with selected strains of wheat and 
oats with respect to variations in the number of secondary rootlets. The term 
" secondary rootlets " is here applied to temporary roots of the seedling other 
than the radicle. Representative samples consisting of 100 or more kernels 
from each lot were sown in pure quartz sand In the greenhouse, and the counts 
made when the plumules had attained a length of from 1 to 2 in. The results 
are tabulated. 

The number of secondary rootlets in the 21 oat varieties examined ranged 
from to 5, in the 11 wheat varieties from 1 to 5, and in the 4 barley varieties 
from 1 to 7. In the selected strains of both wheat and oats the number varied 
from 1 to 4. The authors maintain that their observations in general confirm 



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1919] FIELD CROPS. 33 

those of Wlggans (B3. S. "SL, 35, p. 135), in that the number of secondary root- 
lets was by no means constant for any given variety, but varied among indi- 
Yldnals so that counts made on a random sample usually gave a frequency 
distribution represented by a fairly normal curve. Furthermore, they con- 
clude that different varieties of a given cereal show characteristic tendencies 
in the production of rootlets, and that of the cereals observed this tendency 
was greater in barley than in either wheat or oats, as indicated by varietal 
averages, modal numbers, and highest extremes. 

Cereal culture in the Province of Alemtejo, Portugal (Rev, in Compt Rend. 
Aead. Agr. France, S {1917), Not. 36, pp. 1049-1051; 41, PP- 1156-1161, figs, 3).— 
A system of wheat culture known as the " integral method *' employed in the 
arid regions of southern Portugal has been described by J. A. Paquito Rebello. 
The method is essentially as follows : 

Wheat is sown In the fall (September) in rows 80 cm. (8.15 in.) apart and 
abont 3 cm. deep, at the bottom of a furrow which is allowed to remain open. 
Before winter a double plow is employed to throw the soil into a rather 
hl^ ridge in the interspaces, at the same time allowing a little soil to fall 
back around the wheat plant This practice is said to afford the wheat greater 
protection in the winter, with shallow drainage, and less compacting of the soil 
from rain, and also favors the development of adventitious roots and tillering. 
At the dose of the winter the* field is reduced to one level by harrowing. The 
grain can be harvested sufficiently early to permit the reseeding of the field to 
wheat, thus eliminating the fallow year. 

This method is reported to have given average annual yields of 10 hectoliters 
per hectare (about 11.5 bu. per acre) as compared with a yield of only 8 hecto- 
Uten per hectare every other year under the ordinary methods of cultivation. 

Vormal self -fertilisation in com, H. K. Hates (Jour, Amer, 80c, Agron,, 10 
(1918), No, 5, pp. 12S-126), — ^This paper, a contribution from the Minnesota Ex- 
periment Station, describes rather limited observations upon the effects of self- 
fertilixation on yield in corn and upon the relative frequency of self-fertilization 
hi (he field. 

Normally pollinated Minnesota No. 13 yellow dent com gave a yield of 48.3 
bo. per acre, while 15 Fx self-fertilized lines showed an average yield of 24 bu. 
Staigie seeds of Rustler white dent planted in hills some distance apart in a 
field of Minnesota No. 13 produced 6 ears, the seeds of which were carefully 
examined and separated into groups composed of 1,911 yellows, 229 doubtful 
ydlows, and 09 whites. The following year a number of hills of the doubtful 
j«Qow and of the white groups were grown, and about 25 ears from each group 
artiflcially self-fertilized. All of these ears contained a considerable percentage 
of yellow seeds. 

It is concluded that the first year of self-fertilization in maize causes a 
redaction of about 50 per cent in vigor, as determined by the yields of shelled 
con from normally pollinated and from self -fertilized strains ; that if normally 
5 per cent of the com in the field was self -fertilized, as indicated by Waller 
(E. S. R., 37, p. 537), it might be profitable to use seed from detasseled stalks 
only; but that the amount of normal self-pollination observed in these tests was 
fooDd to be less than 5 per cent. 

Unkage in maise: The C alenrone factor and waxy endosperm, T. Bubgoeb 
{Amer, Nat,, 5t (1918), No. 61S, pp. 57-61).— This paper, a contribution from the 
department of plant breeding of Ck)rnell University, presents data on observa- 
tloDs made by the author in back crosses of maize plants heterozygous for 
one aleurone factor and for waziness with double recessive plants. With ref- 
erence to the work of Ck)llins (E. S. R., 27, p. 769), containing conclusive evi- 



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34 EXPEBIMBKT STATION BEGOBD. [ToLM 

dence of linkage between waxy endosperm and aleurone color In oertaln hybrids 
of Chinese and American corn, the author states that he " has presented addi- 
tional evidence from back crosses, which shows the intensity of the linkage in 
the material at his disposal to be equivalent to 26.7 per coit of crossing over. 
It has been shown directly, by means of crosses between colorless individuals in 
a linkage family and aleurone testers and indirectly by means of aleurone tests 
with a nonllnkage family where the A factor and not the G factor is hetero- 
zygous, that the G factor for aleurone is linked with the factor for waxy 
endosperm." 

Com culture in South Dakota, M. Champlin and G. Winbioht (South Da- 
kota Sta, BuL 181 {1918), pp. 85Z-911, figs. 5^).— The results of variety, crop 
rotation, and cultural tests with com conducted on the Brookings, Cotton- 
wood, Eureka, and Highmore experiment farms are noted, and the cultural 
methods and field practices deemed best for growing the crop in the State 
outlined. A number of corn varieties grown in the State are illustrated and 
briefly described. 

South Dakota is said to be peculiarly adapted to growing seed com for the 
States to the north and west, where com is grown for roughage but does not 
as a rule mature seed. Adapted varieties for different sections of the State are 
recommended. Fall plowing for corn at a depth of from 6 to 8 in. is held to be 
desirable, while subsolling was not warranted by the results obtained. Sys- 
tematic crop rotation, preferably including a legume, is deemed essential to 
successful com production. The selection and storage of seed com is de- 
scribed, and some of the diseases affecting the crop are indicated. 

Budding incompatible cottons {Jour. Heredity, 9 {1918), No, 4, p. 181)^ — ^A. 
brief description is given of experimental work conducted by B. M. Meade in 
budding American upland cotton {Oossypium hirauum) on two Asiatic species 
(G. herbaceum and G. indicum), in an effort to overcome a seeming chemical 
incompatibility which caused the shedding of the young bolls when the osaal 
methods of cross-pollination were employed. Several successfully budded plants 
were secured, but they were obtained so late in the season that only one budded 
branch produced flowers, and that at a time when no flowers were open on the 
stock plant. 

That the sap of the stock may alter the chemical composition of the budded 
branches is thought to have been indicated by an experiment in budding two 
distinct upland varieties. Willet Red Leaf, which has dark red foliage and 
stems, was employed for the bud wood, and Trice, a normal green variety, -wbb 
used for stock. The first leaves on the budded branches were red in color like 
the bud parent, but succeeding leaves grew lighter in shade until at the end 
of the season they were only half as dark. 

Length of cotton lint, crops 1916 and 1917, W. L. Pbtob {U. 8. Dept. Agr, 
Bui. 7SS {1918), pp. 8).— statistical data relating to the production, distribu- 
tion, yield, and price per pound of long staple cotton during 1916 and 1917 
are presented and discussed as the result of an inquiry made in December, 
1917. The principal areas of production of extra-length cotton are said to in- 
clude the alluvial sections of Mississippi and Arkansas, eastern and north- 
western Louisiana, northeastern Texas, eastern Oklahoma, and northeastern 
South Carolina. In addition, Sea Island, Egyptian, and Durango cotton were 
grown In certain sections of Georgia, Florida, South Carolina, Arizona, and 
California. The damage done to the cotton crop by weather and insects during 
1917 is briefly noted. The qualities required for spinning and difterences in 
classiflcation of cotton according to length of staple in both American and 
English markets are indicated. 



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1M»1 FIELD CROPS. 85 

[Jtrnsalem artichoke in France], ScHsiBAirs {Compt Rend. Acad, Aqt, 
Frtmce, S {1917), No. 40, pp. 1119-1191; Vie Agr. et Rurale, 8 {1918), No. 7, pp. 
116^118, fig. 1). — Jemsalem artichoke is recommended as an excellent plant for 
use en fields overrun by weeds after three years of neglect due to a scarcity of 
hand labor and to insufficient tillage during the war. The advantages and dis- 
advantages of the crop are briefly discussed and its uses indicated. Tabulated 
data are presented showing the relative yields of this crop and of potatoes to 
have been 17.4 tons and 7.9 tons per hectare (2.47 acres), respectively, In 1914. 

The Jenualem artichoke aa a war plant, L. O. Howabit {Science, n. »er., 47 
{1918), No. 12H, p. 544).— This Is a brief review of the article noted above. 

Kettle aa a textile, De Lappabekt {Compt. Rend. Acad, Agr, France, S 
{1917), No. 41, pp. 1161-1 IBS). — ^The author presents a brief note concerning the 
use of fiber from nettle as a substitute for flax and cotton. * 

Belation of size of sample to kemel-i>ercentage determinations In oats, 
B.J.GABBEB and A. C. Abnt {Jour. Amer. 8oc. Agron.,10 {1918), No. S, pp.lS4- 
H2).—This paper, a contribution from the Minnesota Experiment Station, 
presents data collected in studies of the relation of size of sample to accuracy 
in kernel-percentage determinations, in an effort to minimize the labor and ex- 
pense attendant upon hulling oats by hand. Thirteen varieties, grown on Uni- 
versity Farm in 1917, and representing wide differences in size and shape of 
grain, in percentage of kernel, and in other characteristics, were employed in the 
investigation. A range from 62.16 to 76.7 in percentage of kernel was obtained, 
which was deemed greater than that found for any one variety over a period of 
jrears, and consequently obviated the necessity of using the crop from more than 
one year. 

Oomposlte samples of a pound or more were made for each variety by taking 
portions from various places within the bags of bulk oats. Each sample was 
thoroughly mixed and poured into a conical pile, and the samples used in the 
determinations taken from one side of the piles. No selection was made beyond 
tlie rejection of broken or diseased kernels. Twenty 50-kernel samples of each 
variety were selected, and the frequency distributions of kernel percentages 
of the 13 varieties as shown by the determinations Indicated. From these 
data tables were prepared for each variety showing the variability of kernel per- 
centage for samples of from 50 to 500 kernels, based upon replications of the 
ISO-kernel samples. The coefficients of variability for the samples and the dif- 
ferent replications for each variety studied, together with the statistical con- 
itants of these coefficients, are also indicated. All data are tabulated and fully 
dlflCQSsed. 

It Is concluded that for ordinary purposes a 200-grain sample of odts taken 
as described gives sufficiently accurate determinations of kernel percentage. The 
weight of this size of sample varied from 3 gm. in early to 5 gm. in midseason 
and late varieties. When more than ordinary accuracy is demanded, the sample 
flfaonld be increased to at least 300 grains, and with some varieties even larger 
samples are deemed desirable. 

A preliminary study of the bleaching of oats with snlphur dioxld, Q. H. 
Bastok (17. 8. Dept, Agr. Bui. 725 {1918), pp. 11, jigs. 3).— This bulletin reports 
tile results of laboratory tests made in connection with investigations begun in 
1915 In a study of the commercial methods most commonly employed in bleach- 
ing oats, the results obtained by these methods, and the effects of bleaching upon 
the grain itself. Samples of oats were obtained from representative sections in 
which the commercial bleaching of the crop is practiced to a considerable extent, 
and an examination of the grain was made before and after treatment. Data 
ihowing tlie sulphur reaction, percentage of germination, moisture content. 



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36 EXPEBIMENT STATION REGOBD. [VoL 40 

weight per bushel, and percentage of sound and damaged oats are presetted in 
tabular form and briefly discussed. 

Bleaching weather-stained, discolored, and damaged oats is said to give them 
the appearance of natural oats of good quality and to improve slightly the ap- 
pearance of badly bin-burned and ground-damaged oats. In practically every 
case the viability of the oats was materially reduced by the bleaching process* 
the greatest reduction being observed in a sample which germinated 97.5 p^ 
cent before treatment as compared with 9.5 per cent after treatment Tlie 
methods employed were found to be practically uniform throughout the oat- 
bleaching section. The character of the harvest season is said to have a direct 
influence upon the subsequent handling of the crop, oats harvested in a dry 
season rarely showing any damage and hence seldom being bleached. 

[Peanut culture in southern France], A. Mobel {Compi, Rend. Ao€td. Agr^ 
France, S (iW7), No. 40, pp. 11S1~11S6) .—Fe&nnt growing in the Department of 
Gironde is briefly described. Reviewing results obtained from field tests, it 
is found that the highest yields of mature peanuts and of vine were secured 
from plantings made on or before June 1, and at a seeding rate of from 25 to 
SO kg. per hectare (from 22.2 to 26.7 lbs. per acre) with the plants spaced 
from 50 to 60 cm. (from 19.7 to 23.6 in.) apart in all directions. 

The book of the potato, T. W. Sandebs {London: W. H. d L. CoUingridge^ S. 
ed., rev., 119171, pp. 110, pis. 11, figs. 30). —This is the third edition of a work 
previously noted (E. S. R., 17, p. 132), revised and brought up to date in re- 
gard to cultural and manurial methods, the treatment of disease and insect 
pests, and the selection of suitable varieties. 

Grow more rape, J. M. Eward and W. R. Hechleb (/oi^a Sta. Ore. S3 
(1918), pp. S-12, figs. 4). — The value of rape as pasturage for sheep and hogs is 
indicated, and an increased acreage is recommended. Methods employed in 
growing the crop are briefly described. 

Sudan grass, R. L. Stewabt and L. Foster (New Mexico Sta. Bui. Ill {1918}, 
pp. S-13, figs. 2). — Date, rate, and method of seeding tests and pasture experi- 
ments with Sudan grass made during the period 1915 to 1917, inclusive, are 
briefly described, and the suitability of the crop for both hay and pasture in 
the irrigated valleys of New Mexico discussed. 

Yields of from 3 to 7i tons of hay per acre have been obtained under irriga- 
tion. Early plantings (the latter part of April) gave the highest yields, wliile 
broadcasting seed at the rate of from 20 to 25 lbs. per acre was found best. 
Slightly higher yields were obtained from seedings made in 32-in. rows, but 
the resulting hay crop was of inferior quality. 

Pastufe tests indicated that Sudan grass will make a good supplementary 
pasture for dairy cows during the latter part of the summer. 

Sugar beet seed [in France], fi. Saillabd {Compi. Rend. Aoad, Sci. [Parisi, 
165 {1917), No. 16, pp. 508-^10).— Stating that approximately 5,000,000 kg. 
(about 5,500 tons) of sugar beet seed was used annually in France before the 
war and that approximately four-fifths of this seed was of foreign origin, tbe 
author briefiy reviews experiments begun in 1904 to compare French-grown 
seed with German-grown seed. During the war the seed was practically all of 
Russian and French origin. For the 10-year period of 1904 to 1913, inclusive, 
weekly analyses of the beets grown in the comparative tests were made at 
14 sugar beet factories beginning about August 1. In 1905 French seed pro- 
duced approximately 140 kg. per hectare (125 lbs. per acre) less sugar than 
German seed and the beets showed approximately 0.9 per cent less sucrose. 
At the present time it is claimed that production is practically the same, al- 
though beets from French seed analyze from 0.3 to 0.4 per cent less sucrose 
than those from German seed. Further observations were made of the sugar 



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ltl»l FIELD CROPS, 37 

beet crop during 1016 and 1917 by means of analyses made at nine factories, 
althoni^ the variety tests had to be discontinued. The average weekly results 
obtained from these two sets of analyses are presented in tabular form, showing 
tbe weight of roots lifted, the percentage of sucrose, amount of sugar in roots 
lifted, and sugar produced per hectare and per root per week. 

It is concluded that the beet crop was practically as rich in sugar in 1916 
tnd 1917 as for the 10 years preceding the war. For the 10-year period a 
marlinnm production of sugar of 569 kg. per hectare and 7.95 gm. per root 
was obtained the first week in September, while in 1916 and 1917 the maximum 
production was reached about the third week In September and amounted to 
658 kg. per hectare and 9.92 gm. per root 

[A study of the relative value of seed cane from different sources], F. Ljede- 
Boa and J. W. van Daffkrxn {AroK Suikerindus. Nederland. IndiS, 25 (1917), 
No, 2S, pp. 989-1004; Meded. Proefstat. Java-Suikerindus., Landbouiok, 8er., No. 
9 (1917), pp. 16). — ^This reports the results of plant cane tests with first-genera- 
tion and introduced cane of 247 B for the period of 1918 to 1916, inclusive. 
The experiments were conducted on several fields representing two distinct 
BOil types. The results are held to indicate that imported cane was superior 
to first-generation cane in point of yield of both cane and sugar. 

Statistics on the distribution and production of sugar cane varieties in 
Java in 1912, van Habbxveld (Arch. Suik^rindua. Nederland. Indie, 25 (1917), 
No. 4f, pp. 158^1654, flg8. 2; Meded. Proefstat. Java-Suikerindus., Landboutok. 
5er., No. 15 (1917), pp. 46, ftgt. )?).— Tabulated data are presented showing the 
distribution and yield of sugar cane varieties grown in Java during 1912. 

Black Gheribon, 100 P. O. J., and 247 B occupied 8, 82, and 54 per cent, re- 
^ectively, of the total area planted to sugar cane while 56 other varieties occu- 
pied the remaining 6 per cent The average yields in standard muscovado, or 
rtw sugar, for the three principal varieties amounted to 115.6, 123.4, and 124.3 
pikols per hectare (from about 8.1 to 3.3 tons per acre), respectively. The aver- 
age yield for the 56 other varieties was 113.3 pikols per hectare. 

Statistics on the distribution and production of sugar cane varietieB in 
Java in 1913, J. van Habbeteld (Arch. Suikerindua. Nederland. Indie, 26 
(1918), No. 28, pp. 1241-1289, figM. 2). —This presets statisUcs for 1913 similar 
to those noted above. 

Sugar cane varieties, J. Jeswixt (Arch. Suikerindus. Nederland. Indie, 26 
(1917), No$. 10, pp. 661'-352, figs. 12; 21, pp. 916-946, figs. 15; 64, pp. 1669- 
1411, flg$. 20; Meded. Proefstat. Java-Suikerindus., Landboutok. 8er., 1917 N08. 
S, pp. 22, figs. 12; 8, pp. 64, figs. 15; 12, pp. 45, figs. 20). — In a continuation of 
WOTk i^eviously noted (B. S. R., 37, p. 443), numerous other sugar cane varie- 
ties grown in the Dutch East Indies are described in considerable detail. 

Sugar cane varietsr tests In west Java, 1915-16, F. Ledeboee (Arch. Buiker- 
Mus. Nederland. IndiS, 25 (1917), No. 16, pp. 451-462; Meded. Proefstat. Java- 
S^kerindus., Landboutok. Ber., 4 (1917), pp. 12).— The results of extensive tests 
are reported for the season indicated. 

Observationa of sugar cane variety testa, van Hasbxvxld (Arch. Buiker- 
Mms. Nederland. IndiS, 25 (1917), No. 41, pp. 1576-1584; Meded. Proefstat. 
^ava^uikerindus., Landboutok. fifer., No. 14 {1917), pp. 12). —This presents a 
statistical study of variety tests with sugar cane to determine the effect of new 
wieties on the total yield in Java. 

[Annual report of the Bureau of Sugar Szperlment Stations], E. Jabvis 
(Ami. Rpt. Bur. Sugar Expt. Btas. [Otteentftond], 17 (1917), pp. i-2d).— This 
report reviews the progress of the cane sugar industry in Queensland and the 
production of cane and sugar during 1917. Gonsiderable tabulated data are 



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88 EXPERIMENT STATTOBT RECORD. rVol. 40 

also presented, showing the composition of new and introduced yarletieB of sugar 
cane and the results of fertilizer and cultural experiments with sugar cane con- 
ducted at Mackay and Bundaberg In a continuation of work previously noted 
(B. S. I^.,37, p. 540). 

Tests of different methods of ratooning at Bundaberg resulted in yields 
amounting to 38.76 tons of cane per acre for cane ratooned by plowing foar 
furrows between rows 9 inches deep, 41.d3 tons where three furrows were plowed 
(the usual practice in the region), and 86.94 tons where the cane was allowed 
to volunteer through trash. A fertilizer mixture of 1 cwt. each of sulphate of 
ammonia and nitrate of soda, and 2 cwt. of tankage resulted in a yield of 55.37 
tons of cane per acre as compared with a yield of 48.74 tons from unfertilized 
plats. A yield of 57.56 tons of cane was obtained on plats subsoiled and receiv- 
ing 1 ton of lime per acre applied before the plant-cane crop, while a yi^d of 
58.54 tons per acre was obtained from limed plats not subsoiled. Applications 
of lime alone resulted In a yield of 64.5 tons of cane per acre, while lime and 
a mixed fertilizer consisting of 1 cwt. each of nitrate of soda, sulphate of am- 
monia, sulphate of potash, and tankage resulted in a yield of 77.63 tons. This 
fertilizer mixture without lime yielded 80.75 tons of cane per acre as c(Mnpared 
with 60.54 tons from untreated plats. 

Badila cane planted in rows 5, 6, and 7 ft. apart showed average yields of 64.5, 
53.88, and 49.06 tons of cane per acre, re^)ectively. The use of tops, middles, 
and bottoms and middles of Badila cane for seed resulted in yields of 50.52, 
42.47, and 42.18 tons of cane per acre, respectively. 

A sterile dwarf form of Deli tobacco originated as a hybrid, J. A. Honino 
{Bui Deli Proefstat. Medan, No, 10 {1917), pp. 24, pis. ^).— The author de- 
scribes a tobacco plant found in a field of Dell tobacco (E. S. R., 33, p. 486) 
having a zigzag form of stem, small, long-stalked, diamond-shaped leaves with 
small appendages on the underside of the leaves and on the corolla (kroepoek 
disease), and with so-called "drip tips" on the leaves. When self -fertilized 
this plant produced 2,896 individuals, one-fourth being like normal Deli tobacco, 
one-half hybrid like the mother plant, and one-fourth sterile dwarfs 30 to 40 
cm. (about 11.8 to 15.75 in.) in height, having as young plants long-stalked. 
Irregularly shaped leaves with drip tips and many appendages on the underside. 
The progeny of nine selfed Fi hybrids consisting of 4,655 individuals, segre- 
gated in about the same ratio, namely, 1:2:1. Two crossings of liybrid X 
normal and one reciprocal cross gave a ratio of 1 : 1. 

Five self-pollinated normal Fi plants gave 855 normal individuals, 2 hybrids, 
and 3 dwarfs. With this single exception a large number of dlfterences in ap- 
pearance were distributed over the offspring according to Medelian inlieritance 
as if there existed but one factorial difference. The dwarf type is regarded 
as neither dominant nor recessive. 

Observations of 555 individuals, the progeny of a second hybrid plant ob- 
tained in the field, showed them to be without exception entirely normal 
although, owing to the low viability of the seed, the author suggests that these 
individuals may be only the normal fourth iMirt of the offspring, the hybrids 
and abnormal dwarfs having failed to develop. 

A bibliography of 18 titles is appended comprising literature relating to ex- 
perimental work in tobacco breeding. 

The first Mendelian example of Deli tobacco, J. A, Honino {Meded. Deii 
Proefstat, Medan, 10 {1917), No. 8, pp. 185-189, pis. -♦).— A brief discussion of 
the experimental work and the results obtained in the hybridization studies 
noted above. 

Wheat breeding ideals, H. Swydes {Jour, Atner. Boc. Agron., 10 {1918), No, 
5, pp. ii5-iiP).— This is a general discussion of the ends sought by the wheat 



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»»] FTRTiP OBOPS. 89 

breeder, with special reference to maintaining and improying the bread-making 
qualities and the food value of wheat. 

An anomaly of wheat anthers, S. A. Anthony {Jour. Heredity, 9 (1918), No. 
4, pp, 16S-168, figs. 2). — ^Thls reports observations in a greenhouse of the U. S. 
Department of Apiculture at Arlington, Va., of an anomaly of the anthers on 
a head of wheat In which one-half of the sporophyll was transformed into a 
process bearing stigma hairs. That an organ-forming substance of a different 
organ may have influenced the prlmordlum of the sporophyll is deemed possible, 
as suggested by Sachs and Loele, while Ooebel has considered hormones and 
changes of the concentration of the protoplasmic fluids as possible explanations 
of such phenomena. Abnormal physical factors of temperature or molstare are 
thought to have been possible contributing factors, since the anomaly occurred 
In the greenhouse. 

A study of Colorado wheat, W. P. Headdsn {Colorado 8ta. Bid. 2^7 (1918), 
pp- S-15). — ^This bulletin presents a brief recapitulation of the results obtained 
in BuUetins 205, 20S, 21T, 219. 237, and 244, previously noted (E. S. R., 83, pp. 
41, 637; 35, p. 832; 37, p. 38; 39, pp. 238, 448). 

Effect of fertilizers on wheat, 1917-18 crop, G. H. Sfubwat (Michigan 
Bta^ Quart. Bui,, 1 (1918), No. 1, pp. S4'-S6, fig. i).— The results of demonstra- 
tion experiments with fertilizers for four varieties of wheat grown under 
different aoil and cropping conditions are held to Indicate that fertilizers high 
in phoq>horic acid had a marked effect in increasing the yelds of both grain 
and straw. 

Offldal grain standards of the United States for wheat [and shelled com], 

D. F. Houston (U. 8. Dept. Agr., Bur. Markets Serv, and Regulatory Announce^ 
ment iS (1918), pp. 50 ) .—Modifications effective July 15, 1918, are presented of 
the previous oflacial standards for wheat and shelled corn tmder the United 
States Grain Standards Act (E. S. R., 36, p. 442). 

Handbook official grain standards for wheat and shelled com, compiled by 

E. G. B0E31NEB (U. S. Dept. Agr., Bur. Markets, 1918, pp. ^7, flgi. 7).— This com- 
prises a tabulated and abridged description of the official grain standards of 
the United States for wheat and shelled corn, as set forth in the publication 
noted above, together with a brief discussion of methods of sampling and 
grading thereunder. 

[Clover and alfalfa seed investigations], W. J. Fbanck and O. Wiebinoa 
{Verslag. Landhouwk. Onderzoek. Rijkslandbouwproefstat. [Netherlands], No. 
ti (1917), pp. 29-120, pis. 19, figs. 4). — ^This is a comprehensive account of exten- 
sive germination and purity tests of clover and alfalfa seed, and of field 
practices employed in growing leguminous crops for seed, forage, and soil 
Improvement Numerous illustrations and brief descriptions of weed seeds 
encoontered in the tests are given, together with groupings of the weed seeds 
for purposes of identifying the origin of the sample. On this basis a classifi- 
cation is presented, designed to identify seeds from North and South America 
and southern, eastern, or western Europe. Seeds of different clovers and 
alfalffetf are also described and Illustrated, together with various related plants, 
Ridi as sweet clover, vetch, etc 

Bedatance of seeds to desiccation, €1. T. Habbington and W. Gbockeb (Jour. 
Agr. Research {U. B.}, 14 (1918), No. 12, pp. 5«5-532).— This paper, a contrlbu- 
tloD from the Bureau of Plant Industry of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, 
describes experimental work made in an effort to determine the effect on the 
vitality of barley, wheat, Sudan grass, and Johnson grass seed when dried 
' varying conditions and for different lengths of time. The Investigations 
! begun in January, 1917, and continued throughout 10} months, the seeds 
104e28*— 19 4 



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40 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD* [Tol. 40 

being stored at room temperature In evacuated desiccators over calcium ozid 
and concentrated sulphuric acid, and in an open vessel. Samples were with- 
drawn at various times for moisture determinations and serminatlcMi testa 
Observations were also made upon tlie rapidity of germination and the vigor 
of the seedlings. Similar studies with Kentucky blue-grass seed, made In 1913, 
are briefly noted. The data are presented in tabular form, and the results 
are said to corroborate those of Plcldiolz (B. S. R., 25, p. 431) and Waggoner 
(E. S. R., 38. p. 127). 

The percentage of germination was not materially changed when the seeds 
of the different plants were dried to less than 1 per cent of moisture. The 
percentage of germination of Kentucky blue grass and Johnson grass seed was 
not affected when the moisture content was further reduced to 0.1 per cent, 
although the vigor of the Kentucky blue grass seedlings was greatly reduced. 
Further drying of Kentucky blue grass seed in a vacuum oven for 6 hours at 
100"* G. caused a further reduction in the vigor of the seedlings, but did not 
materially affect the percentage of germination. With respect to the seeds 
used in these studies, the results are said to controvert Ewart*8 statements 
(E. S. R.. 9, p. 454) as to the degree of drying which seeds are capable of 
withstanding and remaining viable. 

Cleaning seed {Canada Dept, Agr., Seed Branch Pamphlet 1 {1918), pp. IS, 
figs, 10). — ^Thls is a rather detailed description of riddles and screens suited to 
the cleaning of clover and grass seed and of wheat, barley, oats, and flax, 
together with directions for the operation and care of the fanning mill. 

The growth of sheep sorrel in calcareous and dolomltic media. W. H. Mao- 
Intire {Jour. Amer. Soc. Agron., 10 {1918), No. i, pp. 29S1, pi. 1). — ^Thls paper, 
a contribution from the Tennessee Experiment Station, describes pot tests 
conducted during 1913 and 1914 by J. I. Hardy under the author's direction. 
Rumex acetoseUa was grown in a medium of limestone having a lime-magnesia 
ratio of 184 : 1. and of dolomite with a ratio of 10 : 7. The limestone and 
dolomite percentages were 100. 75, 50. 25. 15, 5, 2.5, 1, 0.5. and 0. respectively, 
the remainder In each case being clean river sand. Sorrel seed was first used, 
but owing to the slow rate of growth was replaced by 8 stolons of equal size 
per pot. A growing period of 101 days was allowed for the limestone series, 
and 99 days for the dolomite series. The air-dry weight of the entire plants 
of sorrel grown In each pot was determined and the results tabulated. 

Since the limestone pots were harvested in 1913 before seed formed, and the 
dolomite pots in 1914 after fructification, it was deemed inadvisable to make 
deductions as to the influence of the lime-magnesia ratios. The results are 
held to indicate, however, that sorrel is capable of making a good growth In 
strongly alkaline media when not subjected to competition with clover or other 
llme-lovlng plants, thus confirming the observations of White (E. S. R., 35. 
p. 529) and Pipal (E. S. R.. 87, p. 239). The heavy root development obtained 
is said to demonstrate the fact that an abundance of the earthy alkali car- 
bonates in no way inhibits the subsurface development of the plant 

HOKTICTrLTUBE. 

Vegetation and reproduction with special reference to the tomato (Iiyco* 
persicum esc^lentum), E. J. Kbaus and H. R. Kbatbhx {Oregon Sta. Bui. H9 
{1918), pp. 6-90, figs. 22). — ^This bulletin reports a physiological and biochemi- 
cal investigation of tomato plants grown under different conditions of nutrient 
and moisture supply in order to compare the internal conditions in fruiting and 
nonfrulting plants, with particular reference to the presence of total nitrog^i, 
nitrates, moisture, and carbohydrates and the relations between them. It com- 



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Ml»l HOBTICTTLTUBB. 41 

prises one of a series of studies conducted by the senior author and others at 
tlie station to determine the fat:tors InrolTed in fruit setting among pomaceous 
trees (B. S. R., 38, p. 42). The work was carried on at the University of Chl- 
caipo in partial fulfillment of doctorate requirements. The tomato was selected 
for study because of the nonavailability of fruit trees and because in ite( 
general responses in vegetation and fruit setting it accords very closely to those 
observed in apple and pear trees. Several series of pot experiments were 
started at different periods during the year. Various parts of the plants were 
analyzed and studied with reference to variations in content of moisture, dry 
matter, total nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, free-reducing substances, sucrose, and 
starch, as well as to related changes in plant structure and plant functioning. 
The results are presented in a series of tables and diagrams and fully discussed. 
Some related work of other investigators is briefly reviewed and a bibliography 
of literature cited is appended. 

The authors found that four general conditions existed in the relation of 
nitrates, carbohydrates, and moisture within the plant itself and the responses 
apparently correlated therewith. These are as fallows : **{!) Though there be 
present an abundance of moisture and mineral nutrients, induding nitrates, 
yet without an available carbohydrate supply vegetation is weakened and the 
plants are nonfriiitful. (2) An abundance of moisture and mineral nutrients, 
especially nitrates, coupled with an available carbohydrate supply, makes for 
increased vegetation, barrenness, and sterility. (3) A relative decrease of 
nitrates in proportion to the carbohydrates makes for an accumulation of the 
latter, and also for fruitfulness, fertility, and lessened vegetation. (4) A fur- 
ther reduction of nitrates without inhibiting a possible increase of carbohydrates 
makes for a suppression both of vegetation and fruitfulness." 

Whatever the conditions under which a plant has been grown, increased total 
nitrogen and more particularly increased nitrate nitrogen are associated with 
increased moisture and decreased free-reducing substances, sucrose, polysac- 
charids, and total dry matter. " Microchemical tests indicate very little differ- 
ence in potassium content of individual cells whatever the condition of the plant. 
Withholding moisture from plants grown under conditions of relative abundance 
of available nitrogen results in much the same condition of fruitfulness and 
carbohydrate storage as the limiting of the supply of available nitrogen Itself." 

" In general, within the plant Itself, in the stem from the top to bottom, there 
is a descending gradient of* total nitrogen and moisture, and an ascending grad- 
ient in total dry matter, polysaccharids, and sucrose. The proportion of f ree- 
reducing substances to other carbohydrates, total nitrogen, and nitrate nitrogen 
is variable. The great variations in the amount of carbohydrates in plants 
grown under different nutrient conditions and in different parts of the same 
plant indicate that in studying problems concerned with plant metabolism it is 
necessary to know the specific environment of the plant as a whole and of its 
several parts." 

Fmitfalness was found to be associated neither with highest nitrates nor 
blgtat carbohydrates but with a condition of balance between them. "The 
ctMiditions for the initiation of floral primordia and even blooming are probably 
different from those accompanying fruit setting. The greatest number of 
flowers are produced neither by conditions favoring highest vegetation nor by 
conditions markedly suppressing vegetation. Lack of fruit development is not 
alone due to the lack of pollination or fertilization. The flowers may fall soon 
after pollination (markedly vegetative plants) or remain attached for many 
days without development of the fruit (markedly nonvegetative plants)." 

The following deductions dealing with the nitrate, carbohydrate, and mois- 
ture rations of the plant and various cultural practices were made : " Parts 



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42 EXPERIMENT STATION BEGOBD. [Tol. 40 

of the stems or cnttings of plants with a large amount of storage carbohydrates 
and particularly those parts where such storage is localized, when supplied 
with moisture or moist conditions, produce roots abundantly. This would be 
of particular interest in vegetative propagation. . . . Fertilizers containing 
available nitrogen or that which may be made available are eiainly effective 
in producing vegetative response. They may either increase or decrease fruit- 
fulness, according to the relative available carbohydrate supply. 

" Irrigation or moisture supply is effective in increasing growth or fruitful- 
ness only when accompanied by an available nitrogen supply and vice versa. 
The effectiveness of the nitrog^i value of leguminous cover crops is dependent 
upon the accompanying moisture supply. Cultivation is largely effective in con- 
serving moisture and in promoting the supply of available nitrogen. If in any 
given soil, moisture and available nitrogen are already present in quantities 
such that the plants growing upon it are largely vegetative, a decrease in culti- 
vation will tend toward frultfulness. 

" Nonleguminous companion crops or cover crops remove from the soil both 
available nitrogen and moisture. In regulating vegetation and frultfulness by 
this means the relations of the available moisture, nitrogen, and carbohydrates 
largely determine the result Pruning is largely effective in promoting or 
retarding frultfulness by its effects in balancing the carbohydrate supply within 
the plant, or the means for its manufacture, with the available moisture and 
nitrogen supply. Girdling or ringing of the cortex or bark is effective through a 
modification of the carbohydrate-nitrate relationship. In practice the entire 
range of effects due to such a relationship may be expected from its application. 

"Fruit production is seemingly a specialized vegetative function usually more 
or less closely associated with the function of gametic reproduction. Parts con- 
cerned in reproduction range from but little modified vegetative parts to those 
highly modified portions classified as fruits. The degree in which such modifi- 
cation is expressed is dependent upon physiological changes within any specific 
plant, and may vary widely within the same variety or even the same IndividuaL 
At least some of the instances of sterility considered to be the result of physio- 
logical incompatibility may be due to the state or condition of nutrition of the 
plant itself. 

"Until more exact information is available, both environmental and hereditary 
factors must be considered in any attempted explanation of the r^roductive 
or vegetative behavior of plants." • 

[Horticultural investigations], F. M. Rolfs (Oklahoma Sta. Rpt. 1917, pp. 
32^5). — ^Notes are given on the present status of various Adams and Hatch 
fund projects under way at the station. 

Beport of the assistant horticulturist, T. B. McClellanb {Porto Rico Sta. 
Rpt. 1917 f pp. 24-28, pis. S). — ^During the year an experiment was undertaken in 
the restoration of coffee plantations seriously Infested with a leaf disease, 
Btilhella flavidat which is more prevalent at the higher altitudes in Porto Rico, 
where climatic conditions are much more favorable for the growth of coffee than 
nearer the coast. In many places the trees have been so debilitated through 
long-continued defoliation that the crop is greatly reduced and the plantation 
made unprofitable. In addition to improvements in cultural practices different 
species of introduced coffee have been set in patches of Coffea arabioa affected 
with Stilbella in an attempt to find a resistant species. 

In continuance of the work with Murta coffee (E. S. R., S8, p. 740), 700 seeds 
were planted from blossoms which had been protected from foreign i>ollen. The 
resulting progeny gave evidence that the Murta form is inherited along Men- 
delian lines. The grains of the Murta coffee are similar in size and appearance 
to the typical Arabian coffee. The very short Intemodes of this type allow the 



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1919] HOBTICULTUBB. 48 

prodnctioD ckf a large number of cherries on a short length of branch. Xhe trees 
are small and the indications are that to make this variety profitable two or three 
times as many trees shonid be set per acre as of the typical Arabian coffee. 

In a fertilizer experiment conducted with 40 plats of S young coffee trees each, 
the first crop aA three years from seed showed a large increase in yield from 
the plats which have received nitrogen. Of the 12 plats which gave the highest 
production nitrogen had been used in the fertilizer applied to 10 of them. In a 
fertilizer test with older trees, in which applications of a complete chemical 
fertilizer and stable manure had been made twice annually for a number of 
years the fertilized plat produced 78.4 per cent more than the check, whereas in 
the preceding season their yields were nearly uniform. 

In a lime and nitrogen test with coffee trees grown for two years in 5-gal. 
cans, 18 plants grown in limed soil differed from the 8 check plants in average 
weight by only a very small fraction of 1 per cent. The lime was applied in *a 
aeries of amounts ranging in rate ftom 0.5 ton to 16 tons per acre. In the 
division which had received nitrogen there had' been made at intervals of six 
months three applications of 8 gm. each per tree of ammonium sulphate to one 
group and to the others sodium nitrate ranging in amount from 4 to 16 gm. per 
tree per application. The weight of the trees fertilized with ammonium sulphate 
aTeraged 22.1 per cent greater than the check, and those fertilized with sodium 
nitrate averaged 22.9 per cent greater than the check. The trees which had 
received 4, 8, and 10 gm. of sodium nitrate fell below, while those which had 
received 12 and 16 gm. of sodium nitrate surpassed, those which had received 
8 gm. of ammonium sulphate, 16 gm. of sodium nitrate producing an increased 
weight of 50.3 per cent over the check. The production of coffee cherries 
a?eraged 87 per cent greater for the nitrogen-fertilized trees than for the check. 

The work with cacao consisted chiefly in the collection of data as to the 
product of individual trees. From the older orchard set in 1903, the yield for 
the calendar year 1916 exceeded that of any preceding year, though more than 
ooe-fifth of the trees produced nothing. 

Cultural experiments with vanilla were continued. In a planting test with 
48 tip cuttings of 10 nodes each, half were left to wilt in a fairly well-shaded 
place for an interval of 12 days between cutting and planting, the others being 
set immediately. Half were planted in a mixture of equal parts of clay and 
river sand and half in leaf mold. Cuttings which had been wilted for 12 days 
before planting gave equally good root development when grown for the same 
length of time as cuttings planted without wilting. Root development was 85 
per cent greater in leaf mold than in soil. Since both the wilted and unwilted 
cuttings gave vigorous and highly satisfactory growth, it is suggested that the 
planter's convenience should determine which method to follow. 

Blossoms were observed to open in the spring on vine growth made as late as 
the preceding autumn. A period of approximately two months was observed to 
elapse from the pushing out of the infiorescence bud and the opening of the first 
blossom. After blossoming the pods attained full length in six to eight weeks, 
though seven to nine months were required for maturing. Fruit set from more 
than 90 per cent of the hand-pollinated blossoms in a recorded series and from 
IS per cent of the blossoms in a series not hand-pollinated. Working steadily 
the author pollinated in one hour 237 blossoms, indicating that hand-pollination 
need not be costly as to time required for the operation. 

In curing small quantities of vanilla, blistering was found to result from 
sweating the pods between scalding and drying. Sometimes 20 to 50 per cent 
of the pods developed watery blisters. The omission of this sweating reduced 
the proportion of blistered pods to less than 2 per cent, but an extract expert 
reported the quality of the unsweated pods as inferior to that of the sweated 

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44 EXPERIMENT STATION REOOBD. [VoL40 

pods. The yield from a small planting of 4-year-old vines averaged slightly 
more than 0.5 lb. of cured beans per vine, with an approved valuation of from 
|3 to $4 a pound. 

Beport of the hortiLcultarist, O. F. Kinmait {Porto Rico Bta. Rpt. 1917, pp. 
20-Hf P^' 2).-— A brief report cm progress made with various lines of work 
during the year (E. S. R., 88, p. 748). 

In the fertilizer experiments with coconuts that have been conducted for 
several years the last application of fertilizer was given in June, 1916. The 
number of nuts collected from the plats given a complete fertilizer fell off 
somewhat at the last harvest, as compared with the check plats, thus indicating 
very little permanent benefit from the fertilization. A survey of the cooonnt 
plantations of the island was inaugurated during the year with a view to deter- 
mining the most profitable practices. 

* Seedling trees of several varieties of East Indian mangoes fruited during 
the year. Among these, none except seedlings of the Gambodiana variety bore 
fruit which resembled the parent variety at all closely. All except the Gam- 
bodiana seedlings had a high content of long, tough fiber, while the parent fruits 
were practically free from fiber. A survey made during the fruiting season 
showed that along the north side of the island and through the higher interior, 
where there is considerable rain during the blossoming season, the mango crop 
was small, as is usually the case in these sections. Through the western and 
southwestern sections, where the winter drought continues well into the ^ring, 
there was usually a good crop of fruit This survey indicates the necessity of 
selecting locations with reference to fruitfulness. 

During recent inspections through the citrus sections of the island It was 
observed that the effect of the lack of fertilizer was already apparent on the 
trees of certain groves. The author points out that the need of a fertilizer 
rich in potash in these sections has been well established by experiments. 

In December, 1916, 16 varieties of sweet potatoes received from the Bureau of 
Plant Industry, U. S. Department of Agriculture, were grown simultaneously 
with plantings of the same varieties received from the same source in 1911, 
the latter having been in cultivation in Porto Rico for nearly six years. The 
quantity and appearance of the potatoes produced from plants of one importa- 
tion did not vary to any great extent from those of the others, but all were 
markedly inferior in texture and flavor to the seed material received from the 
Bureau. A thorough study is to be made of the apparent deterioration of 
northern types when grown in Porto Rico. In continued tests made with Porto 
Rican types, a variety locally known as Blanca has been found to produce roots 
which are superior to any of the lately introduced northern varieties both in 
texture and flavor. 

Notes are given on the behavior of miscellaneous introductions under observa- 
tion, including Crotalaria 8<Utiana, Tabehuia apectabilis, Corypha sp., and 
plants of the East India sugar palm (Saguerus saccharifer) , 

[Work with vegetables and fruit on the Truckee-Carson Beclamatlon 
Project], F. B. Headlet (17. B. Dept. Affr., Bur, Plant Indus,, Work Truckee- 
Carson Expt. Farm, 1917, pp. 12, IS, 17, 18, flg. 1). — ^Brief notes and data are 
given on variety tests of onions and tomatoes, together with data showing the 
blossoming period of fruit trees on the farm in 1916 and 1917. 

Storage of vegetables for winter use, J. W. Llotd {lUinois Sta. Ore, t$l 
{1918), pp. 4)* — '^^9 circular containi^ practical instructions for storing vege- 
tables in house cellars, outdoor pits, and permanent outdoor cellars. 

Fall preparations for spring gardening, J. W. Ijlotd, {Illinois Sta, Ore. 292 
{1918), pp. 4, fig. 1). — Practical suggestions are given for preparing the next 



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im] FOEESTBY. 45 

• 

flet80D*8 garden plat in the fall, with special reference to improving the soil 
fertOity. 

Notice relative to State insecticide and funcridde laws (U. 8. DepL Agr., 
Imectidde and Fungicide Bd, 8erv. and Regulatory Announcement 21 {1918), 
pp. iS5-450). — ^Thls announcement supplements a previous compilation of State 
laws dealing with the manufacture and sale of insecticides and fungicides 
(E. S. R., 36, p. 39). The laws of the following States are presented : Colorado, 
Connecticut, Iowa, Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin. 

CoDBanerclal Bordeaux mixtures: How to calculate their values, E. Waixaci 
and U H. Evans {U. 8. Dept. Agr., Farmer^ Bui. 994 (1918), pp. 11, fig. I).— 
This publication describes methods of calculating the strength values and 
money values of Bordeaux mixtures, and also gives tables for determining 
approximate values without calculation. 

Various factors entering into the efficiency of Bordeaux mixtures are 
discussed. 

FOEESTEY. 

Beport of the State board of forestry and of the State park committee of 
the State of Indiana for the year 1917, R. Liebeb et al. {Yearbook State Ind., 
1917, pp. 489-499; Reprint, 1918, pp. IS),— A brief synopsis of the work being 
done by the State board of forestry, and also by the State park committee 
shice its appointment in 1916, including financial statements for the year 1917. 

Forest protection and conservation in Maine, 1917, F. H. Colby {{Augusta, 
Me.]: Dept. of Forestry, 1917, pp. 202, pis. 2, figs. 57).— An account of forest 
flre protective work in Maine, including a discussion of forestry methods and 
measures needed for conserving the timberland. An account is also given of 
white pine blister rust work conducted in the State in 1917 in cooperation 
with the U. S. Department of Agriculture, together with an article by G. G. 
Andrews entitled What Thirty-nine States Are Doing in Forestry (pp. 189- 
202). This article summarizes the important forest legislation and forest 
activities in the different States. 

The utilization of forest products in Massachusetts as affected by the war, 
P. D. Kneeland {Boston: State, 1918, pp. 14)- — ^A popular bulletin of informa- 
tion to woodland owners relative to the present commercial utilization of 
various species of trees. 

Hotes on European forest research, S. Howasd {Indian Forester, 4^ {1918), 
^0. 9, pp, S94-401). — ^A brief discussion of methods of organizing and carrying 
on forest research, especially in France and Grermany. 

Beport of the resolutions, proceedings, and debates of the interstate con- 
ference on forestry held at Perth, Kovember, 1917 {Rpt. Interstate Conf. 
Forestry [Aust.], 1918, pp. 114, P^- ^).-— This report contains a number of 
papers relating to the forests and various phases of forestry in Australia, 
iodndlng such subjects as forest policy, working plans, forest statistics, forestry 
education and research, and timber tests. 

Beport of the forest service in Ketherlands India for the year 1916 {Yer- 
<% Dienst Boschw. Nederland.'Indie, 1916, pp. 117, pi. 1, fig. i).— A statistical 
report relative to the administration and management of the forests in Java, 
Hadoera, and outlying possessions of the Netherlands Indies for the year 1916. 
Information is given relative to the condition of the forests, and work in 
regeneration, exploitation, protection, and investigations. A progress report 
of the rubber plantation of the forest service is also included. 

Btatistica compiled In the office of the silviculturisty Forest Besearch In- 
rtitate, Dehra Ihin, during 1916-17, E. Mabsden {Indian Forest Rec., 6 

{1918), 2fo. 5, pp. /y+-^^).-7-The statistics herein presented comprise a summary 



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46 EXPEBIMSNT STATION BECORD. [YoL40 

of results of stand measurements of several Indian tree species that have 
been made for varying periods of years either in divisional sample plats or tn 
Forest Research Instituter sample plats. The data presented for each species 
deal with one or more of the following measurements : Girth, volume, and height 
increments; yield, stem analysis, and comparative growth of natural and 
plantation saplings ; and effect of thinnings. 

Some forest spedes of Indo-Ghina suitable for national defense, A. Bkbt> 
BAND {Bid, £!c4m. Indochine, n. «er., 21 {1918), No. ISO, pp. 498-44^). — ^This com- 
prises an extract from the author's report to the Colonial Congress of Agricul- 
ture at Pari& Information is given relative to the mechanical properties of 
a number of Indo-China woods, including data on mechanical tests conducted 
with these woods. 

Field experimentation with Hevea brasiliensis, J. Graktham and* M. D. 
Knapp {Arch. Bubbercult. Nederland. Indie, 2 {1918), No. 8, pp. 614-^6, Ag9. 
S). — ^The authors present additional data substantiating evidence previously 
reported that natural variations may occur among carefully chosen experimental 
plats (E. S. R., 87, p. 837). The value of applying the probable error method 
to field experimentation is emphasized by showing the application of the rule 
that "the weights (or relative reliability) of observations (or results) vary 
Inversely as the squares of their probable errors." Additional data recording 
the probable error of rubber yield are given from which is ascertained the 
probable error that should be used in field experimentation with Hevea for 
plats of varying sizes. 

Beliability of field experiments with Hevea, J. G. J. A. Maas {Arch. Ruth 
hercult. Nederland. Indi^, 2 {1918), No. 8, pp. 561-€1S, pis. 4, figs. 5).— The ob- 
ject of the investigations here reported was to collect figures on the natural 
variation In the yield of rubber fields under estate conditions to show the limits 
up to which differences in yield in field experiments may be due to natural 
variation and how such limits can be altered by alterations in the experiments. 

As a result of this study it is concluded that in order to fix the relation be- 
tween the yield of the experimental plats a preliminary experiment of three 
months is sufficient for practical purposea In a well-planned experiment the 
standard deviation for this period need not exceed 5 per cent. The plats should 
not be smaller than 100 treea 
• The budding of Hevea, W. M. Yait Heltsn {Teysmannia, 29 {1918), No. 5, 
pp. 276^84, pi. 1). — Comparative results are given of experiments in which 
three different forms of shield budding were used for propagating Hevea 
rubber trees. 

Qiiide to the preparation of rubber, P. Abens (ifaton^, Java: Expt. 8ta, 
Malang, 1918, pp. 50; trans, from Meded. Proefstai. Malang, No. 11 {1917), pp. 
61). — A practical guide to the plantation preparation of various types of rub- 
ber, with special reference to the acetic-acid process, translated from the sec- 
ond Dutch edition. 

Rubber: Its production, chemistry, and synthesis, A. Dubosg and A. Lxnv 
T&iNGEB {London: Charles Oriffln d Co., Ltd., 1918, pp. XI'\-S83; rev. in Chem. 
News, 117 {1918), No. S059, p. W8).— This is an English translation by E. W. 
Lewis of a practical handbook for the use of rubber growers, chemists, and 
economists. The subject is discussed under the following general headings: 
Natural rubber, its production, present position, and cost of production; the 
formation, physical and mechanical properties, analysis, and constitution of 
crude rubber ; and the synthesis of caoutchouc 

Kote on the mangrove forests of British India, R. S.' Pkabson {Trans. S. 
Intemat. Cong. Trop, Agr. 1914, vol. 2, pp, 625'€S3).—A short account of the 



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»1»] DISEASES OF PLANTS. 47 

mangrove forests of British India, with special reference to the utilization of 
mangrove barks for the preparation of tan extracts. 

The germination and juvenile forms of some oaks, L. H. Pammel and 
C. M. King {Proc. Iowa Acad. ScL, B4 {1917), pp. 367-391, figs. 66).— This com- 
prises preliminary notes on germination studies of a number of Iowa species 
of oak. 

Hybrids of the live oak and overcup oak, H. Ness (Jour, Heredity, 9 {1918) ^ 
No. 6, pp. t&S-268, figs. 3).— The author briefly describes and gives illustrations 
of some young hybrid oak trees growing on the Texas Experiment Station 
grounds that were produced by using the overcup oak {Querctu Ijirata) as 
father and the live oak (Q. virginiana) as mother. 

Note on the dying back of sal seedlings, B. A. Smtthies {Indian Forester, 
U {1918), No. 9, pp. 420-422, pL I).— The results of a preliminary experiment 
here reported indicate that the rather severe dying back of seedlings of sal 
{Shorea rohusta), due to heavy clearing operations, is not a detriment to the 
seedlings as large numbers of them throw up new shoots and appear better able 
to withstand hot weather than seedlings continually growing under shade. 

DISEASES OF PLANTS. 

Pongi and disease In plants, E. J. Butleb {Calcutta: TMcker, Spink d Co., 
1918, pp. VI-\-547, pis, 5, figs. 201 ) . — ^Thls book is presented as an introduction 
to the diseases of field and plantation crops, especially those of India and the 
East About 200 diseases of crops are included, nearly all of which have been 
studied by the author in the laboratory and in the field. Fruit and forest tree 
diseases are not treated, and vegetable diseases are only incidentally mentioned. 

After chapters dealing with fungi as a cause of plant diseases, the author 
describes the principles upon which control measures are based and gives 
cbapters on special diseases, the arrangement being according to the host plants. 
Where definite means of control are known, they are given under the different 
diseases. The book is designed primarily for planjters and those interested in 
the crops, and all the more technical matter is printed in smaller type than the 
body of the work, so that this information will be available for use by students 
and Investigators. 

An extensive bibliography of plant disease literature is given. 

Beport of the plant pathologist, H. E. Tqomas {Porto Rico Sta. Rpt, 1917, 
pp. 28-30). — ^A brief report is given on diseases observed on vegetables, vanilla, 
and citrus trees. 

A wilt disease of beans caused by an undetermined Phycomycete, a rust of 
Lima beans caused by Uredo concors, and a powderly mildew of kidney beans 
are said to have been abundant during the past season. Tomatoes are reported 
to have been badly Infected with Phytophthora infestans, and cabbage with 
the black rot caused by an organism resembling Pseudomonae campestris. 

Among the parasites attacking vanilla, the common leaf spotting alga {My- 
ooidea parasitica), OkBOsporium rufomaoulans, and a species of Fusarium on the 
roots were observed. 

Some attention has been paid to the withertip fungus {Colletotrichum glw- 
oiporUAdes) of citrus trees, and also to citrus scab {Cladosporium citri). 

[Plant] diseases, J. S. Dash {Rpt Dept. Agr. Barbados, 191&-17, pp. 59, 
69).— During 1916-17, the most troublesome disease of sugar cane, particularly 
young ratoon canes, was Marasmius saooTiari, Colletotrichum falcatum oc- 
curred in a few places. Thielaviopsis paradoxa continues to be a troublesome 
disease of cane cuttings. Cercospora vagina was fairly common. Cephalo- 



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48 EXPERIMENT STATIOK BECOBD. [YoL40 

sporium saechari was very restricted in extent this year, generally following 
attack by M. saechari or other injury. 

Tobacco showed the presence of wilt due to attack by bacteria just above the 
ground, also a disease which withers and kills the plants and which is sup- 
posedly caused by a Fusarium. A case of blossom-end rot of tomatoes was 
examined. Mango leaves were' Injured by an alga, supposedly a Oephaleuros, 
and mango branches and trunks showed what is thought to be another species 
of alga. 

Mycology and plant pathology, J. Mackknna {Rpt. Frog. Agr. India, 1916-11, 
pp, 6^r-7Z). — It is now known that Tylenohus angusius, the cause of ufra dis- 
ease, though not able to reach the tender portions of the rice plant when the air 
is dry, is able to do so when the point of saturation of the air with moisture is 
approached. Nematodes retain their vitality in dry air for eis^t months, in 
moist air for four months, and in water for one or two montlis. They do not 
reproduce in water or dry air. 

Tokras {Orohanche sp.) were not controlled by the use of sodium nitrate. 
Striga lutea, a pest of millet which germinates only in the pres^ice of a host, 
can be counteracted in large part by the method of trap crops. Striga appears 
to be controllable in case of EleuMne coracana by employment of early-maturing 
varieties. Rhizoctonia on jute appears to be greatly favored by deficiency of 
potash. Cotton root rot appears to be due to some soil deficiency of a chemical 
nature. Peanut was heavily attacked by tikka disease, supposedly due to 
deficiency of phosphates. 

Bud rot of palmyra palms has been reduced considerably by systematic ob- 
servations and other operations. Koleroga disease of areca palm is being suc- 
cessfully controlled by spraying, and the anaberoga disease, caused by Fomes 
lueiduSt is being successfully combated by eradication, liming, and trenching. 
Root disease of coconut palm, though still important, has been checked. 

Rubber black thread disease is said to be caused by a fungus which is a wound 
parasite and which develops only in moist conditions. A serious root disease of 
tea has been identified as Rosellinia boihrina, SphwrostUbe sp. was found on 
living tea roots in stiff acid soils. A sickly growth of tea bushes was thought to 
be due to Nectria cancri. An outbreak of blister blight {Exobasidium vewans) 
was investigated. 

A coffee root disease {F, auatraUs) was studied. Black rot and leaf disease 
of coffee were controlled with Bordeaux mixture. Spike disease of sandal has 
been shown to be infectious, although it may be infiuenced by external factors. 
A similar or Identical disease attacks a number of wild plants in southern 
India. 

Scab of potatoes {Spongospora subterranea) is reported from Bombay Presi- 
dency. Experiments in the treatment of peach leaf curl with Burgundy mix- 
ture and lime-sulptuir are in progress. Other diseases under investigation at 
Pusa are sal tree disease, anthracnose of chilies and legumes, and sclerotial 
diseases of sugar cane and rice. 

Operations against [plant] disease, O. A. D. Stuabt {Rpt. DepL Agr. 
Madras, 1916-17, pp. IS, H), — ^The system of examination and treatment for 
protection against palmyra disease is said to have reduced greatly the percent- 
age of infection in spite of conditions most favorable to the disease. Favorable 
results are reported of the spray treatment for mahali disease of areca nuts. 
Copper sulphate solution as a seed treatment was found to be effective against 
smut in case of Italian millet, Guinea com, etc 

Gortidums causing Fellicularia disease of the coffee plant, hypochnose of 
pomaceous fruits, and Bhisoctonia disease, B. A. Bxntr (Ann, Missouri Bot, 
Oard., 5 {1918), No. 2, pp. 119-1S2, figs. 5).— This Is an account of study by 



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m»] DISEASES OF FLAIinS. 49 

the author on the morphology, probable relationshipB, and habits of specimens 
of fongi collected on coffee leaves at Mayaguez, P. R., In August, 1915, and May, 
1B17. The author describes C. koleroga on coffee, C, vagum on various plants 
(also on other bodies), and C. ttevenHi (which is newly named) on apple, pear, 
quince, and Ckidiaeum. It is stated that many fungi in the Tropics have the 
thread blight habit of growth. 

flderotinia diseases (Jour, Bd. Agr, [London], 2S {1917), No, 11, pp. 1095- 
1998, pl$, 2). — The causes of loss here discussed as due to Sclerotmia aclero- 
thrum are stalk disease of potato (said to be widely distributed and destructive 
in England and Scotland and to cause serious damage In the western part of 
Ireland), and diseases of tomato, artichoke, sunflower, bean, squash, cucumber, 
carrot, and turnip. In all cases the sclerotla, which are produced in abundance, 
fall to the ground or remain dormant in the dead tissues until spring. The 
disease seldom appears before midsummer, being favored by warm, damp 
weather. Preventive measures Include sterilization of the soil with steam, a 
^year rotation, late planting, and in case of potato, careful selection of tubers 
to be stored for seed. 

The use of formaldehyde to control cereal smuts, G. H. Coons {Michigan 
8ta, Quart. Bui., 1 {1918), No. 1, pp. 11-14).— The concentrated and dilute 
methods of treating oats and wheat with formaldehyde for the control of smut 
are briefly described, and the necessity of care in their use is emphasized. 

The stinkinir smut of wheat, F. D. Hjcau) {Washington 8ta. Popular Bui. 
115 {1918), pp. 3--H, fig. 1). — ^A popular account is given of the wheat smut 
▼iilch occurs in the Palouse region of eastern Washington with suggestions 
for its control. 

Under present conditions it is considered impossible to produce absolutely 
SDut-fi'ee wheat, since wind-blown spores reach uninfected fields. Seed treat- 
ment alone is not effective on account of the general and wide dissemination of 
smut spores during the thrashing season. Seed treatment is generally ef- 
fective for firing wheat, since wind-blown spores do not survive the winter. 
Experimental seedings have shown that either early or late plantings are 
either entirely free from smut or show a low percentage of infection. 

The Installation of exhaust fans in connection with thrashing machines is 
recommended as a means of preventing fires in separators, improving the quality 
of the wheat, and reducing the amount of wind-blown smut 

Com root rot and wheat scab, O. N. Hoffsb, A. G. Johnson, and D. Atana- 
fioir {Jour. Agr. Research [U. 8.1, U {1918), No. IS, pp. 611, 612).—ln a pre- 
liminary contribution from the Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Department of 
Agricnlture, the authors call attention to Investigations of rots of the root, 
stalk, and ear of Indian com, from which there appears to be a relation be- 
tween the occurrence of these rots and the scab of wheat. Field observa- 
tions have shown a conspicuously greater abundance of wheat scab in fields 
where wheat was grown immediately following corn which had been affected 
with the Fusarium rot of root and stalk. This was specially true in Indiana, 
and a similar condition was noted in Wisconsin. In both States, where spring 
wheat was grown inunediately following a corn crop, an abundant development 
of perltheda of CHbhereUa spp. was found on the old cornstalks remaining in 
the field. Water suspensions of the ascospores found on the cornstalks gave 
positive results when inoculated on wheat heads, the appearance of the heads 
infected artificially being identical with that of those naturally infected with 
scab. 

The authors suggest that, in view of their preliminary findings, a crop rota- 
tion should be adopted in which wheat foUowlng diseased com should be avoided. 



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50 ' BXPEBIMEKT STATION RECORD. [Vol. 40 

The white spot disease of alfalfa, P. J. O'Oaba (Soience, fk aer., |8 {1918), 
No. 12S8, pp. 299-801). — While carrying on experiments <m the treatmoit ct 
sous with various water soluble substances, the author observed that white 
spot of alfalfa appeared in two or three days after treatment of the soiL No 
injury to the crowns could be found and no parasites were present White spot 
of alfalfa did not appear where the concentration of the water soluble sub- 
stance was below a certain amount. Further experiments are said to have in- 
dicated that the soil solution alone did not produce white spot but that the 
coincidence of several environmental factors, as soil temperature, atmospheric 
temperature, relative humidity, and light, is necessary. 

The investigation is said to have progressed to the point where the author 
believes that the osmotic pressure of the soil solution is one of the important 
factors in the production of white spot, not only under experimental condi- 
tions but under field conditions as well. In the intermountain coimtry where 
these investigations were carried on, it was noted that fields showing a con- 
siderable incrustation of alkali when irrigated exhibited white spot in more or 
less amount, depending upon the other environmental factors above mentioned* 
A sudden rise of the water table in irrigated districts is also said to have brought 
about the same condition of the plants in the field. 

An extended report on these investigations is to be published later. 

Bean diseases in Vermont, H. E. Babtram {Ann. Rpt. Vt. State Hort. 8oe^ 
15 {1917), pp. 2S-SS).—Th\a discussion deals with an insect pest (the bean 
weevil) and with bean diseases causing serious trouble in Vermont, including 
pod spot (anthracnose), dry rot (a new but serious trouble ascribed to a Pusa- 
rium), the true bean rust, and bean blight (bact^ial). 

Important potato foliage diseases, I. E. Melhus {lotoa Agr., 18 {1917), No. 
4, pp. 170-172). — ^A brief discussion is given of potato blackleg, curly dwarf, 
and tipburn, also of appropriate control measures. 

Tissue invasion by Flasmodiophora brassic8B, L. O. Kunkxl (Jo«r. Agr, 
Research [U. S.], U {1918), No. 12, pp. 543-^72, pl«. 20, figs. 2).— In a previous 
publication (E. S. R., 88, p. 346), the author described the tissue penetration 
of Spongospora auhterranea on the potato. In the present paper, which is a 
contribution from the Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Department of Agri- 
culture, an account is given of a study of clubroot, in which is presented in- 
formation regarding the method of tissue invasion by P. brassUxB. 

The author found that cabbage plants of all ages up to one year are suscep- 
tible to clubroot, provided they are actively growing. The typical club la a 
morphological unit, usually the result of a single primary infection, but by the 
coalescence of several swellings a compound club may be produced. The spread 
of the disease from points of primary infection is accomplished through direct 
invasion of cells by Infecting Plasmodia. Host cell divisions increase the number 
of infected cells, but have a very small part in distributing the parasite through- 
out the tissues. The infection of a given cell may be either permanent or 
temporary, and if permanent it stimulates the cell to abnormal growth and 
division. The growth stimulus is diffuse and seems to travel in advance of In- 
fection. The mass of parasitic protoplasm in a given volume of diseased tissue 
was found to be remarkably constant in different clubs and in the clubs of differ- 
ent plants. The average volume relation between host and parasite in the tis- 
sues studied is approximately given by the ratio 28 : 72. 

As a result of this study, it is claimed that the method by which P, hrastiotB 
infects host tissues differs from that of 8. suhterranea, but if Judged by the kind 
of galls produced and by the position of diseased tissues, it is believed that the 
method of infection for Soroaphwra veronica, Sorodiscus caXUtrichU, and Tetra- 
myxa palustre may be similar to that found for P. brasHas, 



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MI»1 DISEASES OP FLAlffTS. 51 

Potato wilt, T. O. B. Osbobn (Jcur. Dept. Affr. 80. AtMt, 20 {1911), No. 11, pp. 
864t ^^^.— The author, inspecting several areas in the Mount Gambler district 
where diseased potatoes had been reported, found a wilted condition prominent 
among the symptoms associated with various fungi, among which were Verti- 
dUkm atboatrum and Phoma sp. These fungi are being studied and will be 
reported upon later. 

Ezperiments with eelworm-infested potatoes, F. B. Headlet {U. 8. Dept 
Agr., Bur, Plant Indus,, Work Truckee-Carson Expi, Farm, 1917, pp. 18^1).^ 
Preliminary Investigations at the Nevada Experiment Station having indicated 
tbat eelworms and their eggs in potatoes are killed at a temperature between 
35 and 40"" C. (05 to 104° F.), the author was led to test the efficacy and prac- 
ticability of this method of treating seed. A lot of badly Infested potatoes was 
secnred and different portions were heated at 80, 35, and 40** for various periods 
fr^ 6 to 24 hours. After treatment with heat, the potatoes were soaked in a 
eorrosive sublimate solution for 2 hours before planting. 

It was found that germination was apparently stimulated by treatment at 
30^ and was decidedly decreased by that at 40"*, regardless of the length of time 
they were treated. At the time of harvesting, a careful examination was 
made of the tubers to determine the amount of eelworm Infestation, and it ap- 
peared that treatment at either 85 or 40"" resulted hi a marked reduction of 
the infestation in the crop. The original seed used was very heavily infested, 
and it is thought probable that with lightly infested seed the percentage of eel- 
worms surviving treatment would have been somewhat less. 

[Sugar cane diseases in the Hawaiian Islands], H. P. Ages (Proo. Hoioaii. 
Sugar Planters' Assoc, 57 {1917), pp. 38, S9, 42, 4S, 6&-76, 77, 78).— In a report 
of wider scope, it is stated that the eye-spot fungus (Cercospora sacchari) 
caoaed considerable damage in certain varieties of cane, being epidemic on 
OahiL Yellow-stripe disease was epidemic In parts of Hawaii, and Infectious 
top rot occurred on Maui An undetermined fungus attacked leaf sheaths of 
different cane varieties when below the normal as regards vigor of growth. 
Boot-knot nematodes are reported to be on the increase in the islands, and 
threaten soon to l>ecome a serious pest, as they are able to eliminate susceptible 
varieties completely. Lahalna disease, supposedly due to toxic concentrations of 
black alkali in the soil, was much less prevalent on Oahu following the excesslvf 
rainfall of the last two winters. Experimentation has indicated the possibility 
of correcting, in part, the effects of black alkali by the use of gypsum. 

The r^wrt is followed by a discussion of these diseases. 

Chlorosis of sugrar cane, P. L. Gile and J. O. Oarbero {Porto Rico 8ta. Bpt. 
iM, pp. 10-20). — ^The results are given of a study of the chlorosis of sugar cane 
which occurs in restricted areas In various portions of the southern part of 
Porto Rico. Studies were made of the soils in connection with this condition 
of diseased plants, and of various treatments for the prevention of the trouble. 

It was found that llme-lnduccd chlorosis occurs on some but not all calcareous 
nils, and that it is probably caused by a lack of iron in the plant due to the 
fact that the carbonate of lime depresses the availability of the iron in the soil. 
On those calcareous soils where chlorosis occurred the availability of iron 
appeared less than where chlorosis did not occur, but Just what conditions served 
to lower the availability of the iron was not determined. 

Ash analyses of greei> and chlorotic leaves showed that there is no more lime 
in the ash of the chlorotic leaves than in the green ones. Apparently, there- 
fore, chlorosis can not be attributed to an increased assimilation of lime. 

In attempting to correct the trouble, the authors found that chlorosis can 
be prevented to some extent by the application of stable manure containing 
ferrous sulphate and stable manure alone, although large applications did not 



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52 BXPEMMBNT STAHOK BEGORD. tVoL^O 

oyercome the chlorosis completely. The applicatioii of Iron to the plants by 
bnishing or spraying the leayes with solutions of iron componnds was found 
effective but apparently not commercially feasible. 

Belationship of fungus diseases to the watermelon Industry, F. G. ICxdeb 
(Olf. Minutes Melon DUtributors* Assoc., 4 {1918), pp. /iM58).— This is In tlie 
main a discussion of watermelon diseases and means to minimise losses there- 
from, dealing specifically with anthracnose, wilt, and stem-end decay, and em- 
phasizing the employment of systematic and thorough treatment both in tbe 
field and at the car in ways which are outlined. 

Beport of investigation of alleged spray injury to apricot buds, G. P. Grat 
{Mo, But. Col. Com. Hort., 7 {1918), No. 7, p. 45^).^As a result of the frequent 
failure of apricot and the less extended failure of prune orchards to set frnlt 
normally during the spriag of 1918, an investigation was undertaken, the main 
conclusion from which is to the effect that the crude petroleum emulsion^p- 
plied to apricot trees in January and February may have been a secondary, 
though not the primary, cause. It is recommended that the application of this 
treatment to apricots be delayed until there is an indication of a swelling of 
the buds. The primary cause of bud injury is still regarded as unsettled. 

Notes on some fungus diseases and a new codling moth attacking the per- 
simmon in Japan, T. Tanaka {Mo. BuL CoL Com, Hort,, 7 {1918), No. 7, pp. 
^ei-iSS), — ^This very condensed account includes the fungi GUeosporium^ Maid, 
Myxosporium kaJd, Phoma lutU, MyoosphwreUa diospyri {Ceroospora Jfcofci), 
Fusidadium diospyroB, Pestalozzia kaM, StypineUa mom/pa {SeptoboHdium 
mompa, Helioobasidium mompa), and Botrytis diospiri, also a new codling moth 
{Kakivoria flavofasciata) attacking persimmon. 

Black smut of figs, R. W. Hcmmson {Mo. Bui. Cai. Com. Hort., 7 {1918), Ifo. 
4, pp. 188, 189, /Iff. 1). — Giving briefly the results to date of an incomplete and 
now discontinued investigation of the black smut of fig, which has caused loss 
to growers for a number of years, the author states that the associated fungus 
(Sterigmatocystis sp.), said to be identical with the organism causing internal 
rot of pomegranates, may considerably discolor the fig outwardly or may gire 
little or no external Indication of its presence. The rate of infection varies 
with locality and weather and from season to season, ranging from 3 to 15 
per cent. 

Citrus diseases of Porto Bico, J. A. Stevenson {Jour. Dept. Agr. P. A., 2 
{1918), No. 2, pp. 43-128, figs. 23). — This number contains in condensed form the 
results of work done by the author and others during about four years on 
citrus diseases, some of which began to be noted as early as 1901 and to be 
serious about 1913. A gradual spread of diseases is apparent, also an increase 
in the virulence of some of them. Recommendations which proved practicable 
elsewhere were often found to fail under the conditions existing in Porto Rico. 

After a general statement regarding the relation of cultural practices to 
health and disease in citrus groves and a general account of methods of pre- 
vention and control, specific diseases are treated in some detail. 

Progress report on citrus scab, L. R. Hesleb {Porto Rico Sta. Rpt. 1917, pp. 
SO, 31). — ^A preliminary accQunt is given of experiments for the control of cit- 
rus scab due to Cladosporium citri, the work having been started in February, 
1917. This work consisted in comparing sprays and dusting materials in two 
groves on the island. 

In general, Bordeaux mixture was found more efficient in the control of 
scab, but it also destroyed the scale parasitic fungi. On the other hand, the 
sulphur fungicides were less effective tor scab control but also less injurious 
to the scale parasites. The author suggests that applications of a standard 



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1919) DISEASES OF PLANTS. 53 

liquid sulphur fungicide, such as lime-sulphur, with occasional applications of 
Bordeaux mixture, will give fair control of both scale and scab. 

JhmguB diseases of tea, 0. J. J. van Haix {Dept Landb,, Nijv. en Handel 
[Dutch East Indies}, Meded. Proefstat. Thee, No. 58 (1918), pp. 26, 27).— The 
author lists as causes of tea root diseases recently examined at the station 
BoseOinia hothrina O), R, Imnodes (?), RosellirUa sp., Ustulina zonata, Poria 
hypolateritia, HymenocTicBte nowia, and ArmiUarla (?). 

Tea roots [diseases] , H, A. C. Tunstall {Indian Tea Assoc. [Pamphletl 1 
{1918), pp. 17, pis, 7). — ^BesidTes a brief discussion of the general situation in 
northeast India as regards tea diseases, which is said to be very satisfactory, par- 
ticular diseases are dealt with in some detail, omitting some of those previously 
mentioned (E. S. R., 87, p. 52) and including some not specifically mentioned 
in the previous pamphlet, as RoseUinia hothrina and Sphcerostilbe repens. 

Fungus diseases [of nursery stock in Kentucky], H. Gabman (Bien, Rpt. 
Bur, Affr,, Lal>or, and Statis, Ky,, 22 {1916-17), pp. 417-^9),— In this portion 
of ED inspection report dealing also with insect pests and other matters, the 
author lists, with brief comment, nursery twig blight {Bacillus amylovorus). 
crown gall of various fruits {Pseudomonas tumefaoiens) , apple and crab apple 
nut {Oymnosporangium maoropus), mildew of apple and cherry {Podosphcsra 
oxyacantha), pear and apple blight (Bacillus amylovorus), pear leaf spot 
iSeptoria pyricola), peach spot {Cladosporium carpophUum), plum black knot 
{Phwrightia morhosa), grape downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola), gooseberry 
mildew (Sphtgrotheca more-«iH0), rose mildew (B, pawnosa), raepberry anthrac- 
nose {Glososporium venetum), blackberry rust (Oymnoconia peckiana), white 
pine blister rust (Cronartium ril>icola or PendemUufn strobi), and chestnut 
bark disease (Diaporthe parasitica), 

Manual of tree diseases, W. H. Rankin (New York: The MacmUlan Co,, 
1918, pp. XX-\-398, fiffs, 70), — ^The object of this book is to describe and suggest 
means for the control of the diseases of forest, shade, and ornamental trees 
that have been most studied. The general and specific diseases are treated 
separately, the common diseases in the first four chapters, followed by the 
flpedflc diseases grouped alphabetically according to the common names of 
their hosts. The diseases are arranged according to the part of the tree 
affected, as leaf, twig, branch, trunk, and root diseases. The plan of the 
book is to facilitate the diagnosis of tree diseases and, where control measures 
are known, to state them. Unfortunately no means other than eradication is 
known or is applicable to many diseases. 

Stem lesions caused by excessive beat, C. Habtlet (Jour, Affr, Research 
[V, S,h U (1918), No, IS, pp. 595-^04, ftg, 1),-—In a contribution from the Bu- 
reau of Plant Industry, U. S. Department of Agriculture, a description is given 
of white spot injury to pine seedlings noticed in the forest nursery in the 
land hills of Nebraska. This disease, which was previously described (E. S. 
K, 30, p. 151), attacks very young seedlings, causing characteristic lesions which 
have been termed white spot The disease is distinct from the common damping- 
off disease, although it resembles it so closely as to be often confused with it. 

From a study of the lesions and their relation to insolation, to dry surface 
800, and to the production of typical lesions by artificial heating, the author 
has been led to the conclusion that excessive heat is the cause of most of the 
white spot trouble. Observations on the soil of seed beds have shown tempera- 
tores well above 50"* C, with reported maxima as high as es"*. In addition 
to young seedlings, older conifers ranging in age from several months to 
ieveral years have shown killing lesions which are attributed to the effect of 
heat 



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64 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. [VoL^O 

The pine blister mst, H. T. Fernald {Mo. Bui. Cal Com, Hort., 7 (1918), No. 
7, pp. iSl-^SSf figs. 2). — ^This is a discussion of tlie possibilities connected with 
tbe introduction to the western five-leaved pines of the blister rust, which has 
not yet been found west of the Federal quarantine line established along the 
western boundaries of Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Arkansas^ and Louisiana. 

Preventive measures against black thread (Phytophthora faberi), H. O. 
Pratt (Trop. Agr. [Ceylon], iS {1917), No. 5. pp. S0Jh906) .—This is a short 
preHminary note on black thread of Hevea as to its causal fungus (P. /a5erl), 
its effects, its progress, factors affecting it, and remedial measures. 

Wet weather favors the progress of the disease, as do also poor drainage, 
thick shade, and a low tap cut. Daily disinfection decreases the severity of the 
attack. Izal, which is available, is said to be an effective fungicide. While 
a strength of 1 : 5 is said to burn the delicate tissue on the tapping surface, a 
strength of 1 : 10 has proved satisfactory. 

ECONOMIC ZOOLOOT— ENTOKOLOGT. 

Game laws for 1918, G. A. Lawyeb and F. L. Eabnshaw {U. 8. Dept. Agr^ 
Farmers' Bui. 1010 {1918) , pp. 70). — ^This is the nineteenth annual summary 
of the provisions of Federal, State, and Provincial statutes. 

Synopsis of the supergeneric grroups of rodents, G. S. Muxes, jb., and J. W. 
GiDLET {Jour. Wash. Acad. Sci., 8 {1918), No. IS, pp. 4S1-JU8) .—This is a brief 
synopsis of the results of a 4-year study of the taxonomy of living and extinct 
rodenta 

The life history and control of the pocket gopher in the Willamette Valley, 
H. M. Wight {Oregon Sta. Bui. 153 {1918), pp. 55, figs. 20).— The author first 
presents a description of Thomomys Imlbivorus and a discussion of its dia- 
tribution, together with an account of its life history and habita 

It appears that every crop raised on the farm Is injured in one way or another 
by this gopher. Clover, alfalfa, and vetch are eaten in large quantities, while 
a greater amount is undermined or dried out from below. The grains, espe- 
cially when first sprouted, suffer greatly because of mounds and underground 
burrowing. In some sections the grazing on the hillsides is nearly ruined, the 
dirt being brought out in such quantities that the grass becomes covered. All 
root crops are attacked, potatoes, carrots, parsnips, and other garden crops being 
carried off in large quantities and placed in their store piles. It is also a very 
severe menace to the fruit industry, the roots of apple, cherry, nut, and many 
other trees affording the gopher an opportunity to gather a large amount of 
material without extending his burrow very far. Data, based on a questionnaire, 
show an estimated total annual loss from this source in the Willamette Valley 
of a million and a half dollars. 

During the course of control work particular attention was given to the 
determination of the preferred food, the results of which are given in tabular 
form. In feeding experiments carried on with 60 different foods, dandelion was 
the food chosen most frequently, regardless of any habits the gopher may have 
previously formed ; a consistent study has shown the dandelion to be most fre- 
quently found in the nest, in the runways, or being gathered at the surface. 

In the selection of a spreader for the preparation of dandelion as a gopher 
bait Irish moss was chosen, since it is taken readily by the pocket gopher, has 
excellent spreading power, possesses strong adhesiveness, is readily soluble in 
water, dries quickly, is very inexpensive, and is kept in stock by nearly every 
standard drug store. In search for a poison 8 gm. of strychnin sulphate in 1,000 
cc. of water proved to be the best concentration of the poison, for while in 
individual cases it is stronger than is necessary, it was found that weaker solu- 



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l»l»l £CX)NOMIG ZOOLOGY — ^ENTOMOLOGY. 55 

t!oii8 were not always successful. In attempts to disguise the taste of the 
poison it was found that when saccharin was added In small amounts to a 
Bolntion composed of 3 gm. of strychnhi to 1,000 cc of Irish moss sirup until a 
pleasant hut still hitter flavor was reached, the gopher took the poisoned dan- 
delion readily, and it is helieved that dandelion prepared in this way forms a 
palatable bait, which will be taken in preference to any other food, even that 
which has not been poisoned. 

The author finds it possible to place poison carefully for 250 gophers in one 
day. Tl)e gopher may be poisoned at any season of the year, but the best time 
is daring the months when jwwing or planting is being done, thus preventing 
the damage that is certain to follow. Attention is called to the fact that com- 
munity cooperation in gopher poisoning is eminently advisable. 

A new cuckoo from New Zealand, A. Wetmobe (Proc, Biol. 8oc. Wash., SO 
(X917), pp. i, 2). — ^A new subspecies is here described under the name Urodyna- 
fliit taiientiB pheletet. 

Swan Lake, Nicollet County, Minn., as a breedinfr ground for waterfowl, 
H. 0. Obebholseb {Fins, Feathers, and Fur, No, IS (1918), pp. 1-4, figs. 5). — 
A list of birds observed by the author at Swan Lake, Minn., from July 25 to 27, 
1917, is included. 

Wounds and diseases of the Ophidia: Snakes and serpents, O. Lascheb 
(Hal. Soc Cent. Mid. Vit., 94 (1918), No. 8, pp. 18Z-221).—A summary of in- 
formation on the subject with references to the literature and a 5-page bib- 
liography. 

The spotted garden slug, W. H. White (U. S. Dept. Agr., Farmers' But. 959 
(191B), pp. 8, figs. S). — Limax maximus has attracted considerable attention in 
tecent years In tills country and abroad by its depredations in gardens, green- 
houses, and mushroom beds, being more abundant in the United States along the 
Atlantic and Pacific coasts than in the interior. 

This slug is one of the largest land moUusks of Its kind, often attaining 
a length of 7 in. when fully extended, but more generally ranging in length from 
1.5 to 4 in. It attacks plants of many kinds, in the greenhouse usually confining 
its attack to young tender seedlings, but ornamentals are rendered unsightly 
and unsalable by the trail of mucus which exudes from the animal's body. In 
the garden It often causes serious injury to such plants as celery, lettuce, peas, 
and beans. It lias t)een recorded as also feeding on tomato, parsnip, carrots, 
strawberry, beet, turnip, cabbage, onion, leek, melon, white potato, sweet potato, 
and common grasses. Its fondness for fungi make it a serious pest when once 
it has gained access to a mushroom house. Fungi and stored tubers appear to be 
Its favorite food. 

The eggs are deposited in masses of from 50 to 7<f^n moist places, especially 
under decaying boards, flower pots, and refuse, from spring until fall. At a 
tonperatare of 60 to 70* F. they hatch in about 28 days and the young slugs 
attain a length of about an inch in 30 days. Slugs held in captivity and reared 
from e^^ made a growth of 2 in. in six months, though the exact time required 
by the animal to attain full growth is not known. The winter is passed below 
the frost line in the ground, in drain pipes, cellars, greenhouses, and pits, on 
well walls, and along foundations. 

The common toad is said to be the principal enemy of this slug. 

The application of arsenicals to the plant as a control measure is said to be 
impractical, principally because its attack is local and it avoids most poisonous 
nibstancea The use of poison baits is also not entirely satisfactory because 
of the slowness of the slug to change its diet, though where large plants are being 
injured poisoned baits may be employed with fair results. Cleanliness is said 
104628*— 19 5 



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56 EXPEBIMEKT STATION BEGOBD. [ToL 40 

to accomplish much toward its riddance. In greenhouses where the slugs have 
become established, they may be collected at night with the aid of a lanton or 
po<^et flashlight and destroyed. Lime is said to be a standard remedy and 
salt and soot are efficient. 

In a footnote by P. Bartsch it is pointed out that there are 32 sq;>ede8 of 
garden slugs reported from the United States of which four are introdaoed 
forms. Most of the native species are comparatively harmless so far as their 
ravages on crops and gardens are concerned. The real pests of gardens, cellars, 
and walls are three introduced species, namely, the spotted garden slug {L. 
maximiis), here considered by the author; the tawny gardeit slug (L. /lartM), 
which rarely attains a length of over 4 in. ; and the true garden slug {AffrioUmax 
agrestia), which is the smallest q[>ecies, scarcely exceeding 1.5 In. in length, and 
which is probably the greatest pest of all the slugs In this country. 

[Economic Insects and rodents In Calif omla] (Mo. Bui, Col. Com, Hori,, 7 
{1918) y No. 4, pp. 196-209, 211-215, figs. 15).— The several papers here presented 
include the following: The Pink BoUworm of Cotton, by H. S. Smith (pp. 
196-198) ; The Potato Tuber Moth, by E. R. de Ong (pp. 198-201) ; Fruit Files 
of Economic Importance in California ; Currant Fruit Fly (Epochra oana- 
detiHs), by H. H. P. Severin (pp. 201-206) ; Poisoned Grain Baits for Rodents, 
by M. R. Miller (pp. 206-209) ; and Pest Control for AprU (pp. 211-215). 

Acarlna and Insecta of Barbados, J. R. Bovell (Rpt. Dept. Agr. BarbadoM^ 
191&-17, pp. 45-55). — This is a preliminary annotated list of the ticks, mites, 
and insects of Barbados, exclusive of the Cocdds, which has been previously 
noted (E. S. R., 36,p. 252). 

Twentieth annual report of the State entomologist for 1917, B. L. Wobshak 
(Oa. Bd. Ent. Bui. 51 {1918), pp. U* P^- 1* fiff^- S). — Included In this report are 
accounts of the boll weevil in Creorgia, where it now occurs in the greater part 
of the State ; of pecan Insects, a report upon which by Turner has been previ- 
ously noted (B. S. R., 88, p. 762) ; etc. 

Report of the entomologist, R. H. Vait Zwaluwenbubq {Porto Rico 8ta. 
Rpt. 1917, pp. S1-S4). — The author first reports upon biological studies of the 
cattle tick, the results of which are presented in tabular form and include the 
preoviposltion and oviposition periods of female ticks kept In closed tins In 
weather shelter compared with the same period under natural conditions and the 
incubation period of the eggs in weather shelter and under natural conditions. 
Of 130 engorged ticks passed through a dip containing 0.16 per cent arseaious 
oxid only 80 (23 per cent) died without laying. 

The larva of an undetermined phorid fly, first noted during the year, Is said 
to be largely responsible for the failure of a large percentage of the ears of 
com to set kernels. TH^ dipteran deposits eggs in clusters of 25 or more 
among the strands of the new silk, several clusters often being placed in the tuft 
of a single ear. Upon emerging from the egg the larvae feed on the silk strands 
and follow them downward. Often practically all of the strands will be de- 
stroyed in this way before the silk has been pollinated, thus preventing the set- 
ting of kernels. In June over 75 per cent of the ears in a field at the station 
were found either infested with larvse or with eggs in the silk tuft 

Miscellaneous notes include mention of the noctuid moth Noropais hiero- 
glyphica which feeds commonly on the foliage of Waltheria americana and has 
also been reared upon Morongia leptoclada; a heavy infestation of rose ai^le 
fruits {Eugenia jamhos) by the mango fruit fly {Anastrepha fraterculus)^ 
which is the first record of this plant as its host in Porto Rico ; a general out- 
break of the noctuid Meliopotis januarU on guam& {Inga laurina) in the vicin- 
ity of Mayaguez ; serious attacks by the slug YeroniceUa occidentalia on beans 
and tobacco; and the occurrence of Conchaspia angnxoi upon vanilla. 



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1W»1 EGONOHIG ZOOLOGT — ^BNTOMOLOGT. 67 

Proeeedlngs of the Bntomological Society of Nova Sootia for 1917 (Proc. 
Bnt. Soc Nova Scotia, 1917, pp. 96, pU. 10, figs. iS), — ^The papers here presented 
iDdode the following: The Tree Hoppers of Nova Scotia, by W. H. Brlttain 
(pp. 7-14) ; The Work of the Dominion Entomological Laboratory in Nova 
Scotia, by G. E. Sanders (pp. 15-17) ; Notes on the Yellow Leaf Hopper of the 
Birch {OncopsU sobrim), by W. H. Brlttain (pp. 18-22) ; The Locustid« of 
Noya Scotia, by G. B. Gooderham (pp. 23-36) ; Misc^laneons Notes on the 
Apple Faggot (1917), by W. H. Brittain (pp. 87-41) ;^he Zebra Gaterpillar 
(PPl 44-49), The Fall Gankerworm (pp. 40-68), The Rusty Tossock Moth 
[NoMophua antiqtM) (pp. 64-ei), and The WMte-Marked Tussock Moth 
(H). 62-e8), all by H G. Payne; Empoaaca unicolor as an Apple Pest, by W. H. 
Brittain and L. G. Saunders (pp, 89-73) ; The Introduction of the Parasites 
of the Brown-Tail and Gipsy Moths into Ganada, by L. S. McLaine (pp. 74-76) ; 
The Dropping of Apples Gaused by Spraying with Lime-sulphur, by G. E. 
Sanders and A. Kelsall (pp. 77-84) ; Notes on the Biology of Lygus pratenaU 
in Nova Scotia, by W. H. Brlttain and L. G. Saunders (pp. 85-91) ; and Some 
Notes on the Grambinse of Nova Scotia, by E. G. Allen (pp. 92-94). 

The papers presented include morphological and biological notes on the apple 
maggot, zebra caterpillar, fall cankerworm, rusty tussock moth, white-marked 
tiusock moth, and E, unicolor, respectively, much of the data being given in 
tabular form. Technical descriptions of the instars of these pests are in- 
duded. E, unicolor, the injury of which to apple foliage resembles that of 
Empoa rottB, has proved to be a conunon leaf hopper on apple in Nova Scotia 
although it has not as yet appeared in sufficient numbers to warrant special 
treatment 

Investigations of the dropping of apples caused by lime-sulphur have shown 
that the injury may be influenced by a number of factors. Of first importance 
is the direction in which the spray is applied, the application of lime-sulphur 
to the underside of the leaf causing the damage. As regards period of appli- 
cation the least injury is caused by the early sprays, the damage increasing 
with each successive spraying period. At a specific gravity of 1.005 lime- 
SDlphur wUl do more damage when wrongly applied than will lime-sulphur with 
a spedflc gravity of 1.01, properly applied. Some varieties, such as Mcintosh, 
will stand a very strong solution, while Baldwin and Rlbston injure very easily. 
It vraa found that the longer the solution is on the leaves before evaporating, 
and the more frequently the dry spray material is brought into solution, the 
greater will be the injury. A tree loaded with fruit will not stand as much 
or u strong a spray as one of the same variety that is not full of fruit The 
more thrifty a tree is, the greater its resistance to injury. 

Annual report of work done in the entomological section during the year 
ended June 80, 1917, H. L. Durr {Rpt Agr. Activ. Govt, Bihar and Oriasa, 
1911, pp, 11-^lS). — ^A brief report of the occurrence of and control work with 
crop pests. 

Sugar cane insects, It RamIbez {Boh Dir. Agr. {Mex.^, S {1917), No. 1-2, pp. 
4^-44* figs. 5). — ^A brief account of the more important sugar cane insects of 
Mexico, including the sugar cane beetle, sugar cane borer, Sphenophorus oh- 
wurus, Caatnia Uoua, Schiatocerca americana, {Daciylopiua) Paeudococcus aac- 
cAari, D. destructor, D. Umgiapinua, and army worm. 

Xiacellaneoas truck crop insects in Louisiana, T. H. Joitss (U. 8. Dept. Agr, 
Bui 705 (1918), pp. 19, pU. 5, figa. 5).— This bulletin consists of three parts 
which deal with the subject as follows : 

L /iM6C^« iniurioua to the globe artichoke in Louiaiana (pp. 1-5).— The author 
first calls attention to the fact that apparently little attention has been given to 
the insect injury to globe or burr artichoke (Cynara aoolymua) in this country. 



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58 EXPEBIMEKT STATION RECORD. [Vol. 40 

tbe increasing demand for edible heads of which led to the studies here reported. 
The most serious injury to this vegetable In Louisiana Is said to be caused by 
two species of plant lice, namely, the artichoke aphis {Mysnu braggU) and the 
bean aphis {Aphia rumicia), both of which usually occur In the same field and 
are most numerous during the late winter and In the spring. The artichoke 
aphis is the most common and the most injurious insect enemy of the globe arti- 
choke in Louisiana. No parasites have been found to attack this ^)ecles but 
several predators have been observed, a list of which is here presented. At 
Baton Rouge Scymnut punctioollU appears to be the most effidenL If. bragffU 
also Infests the yellow thistle (Carduua 8pinosi89imu8=Cir9ium horridulum) , a 
common weed In Louisiana. 

A, rumicia, while not as common as M, braggU, is more difficult to control by 
spraying, largely because of the fact that infested leaves become distorted In 
such a manner that the aphlds can be reached only with difficulty with a contact 
Insecticide. In work during 1917 both species were satisfactorily controlled by 
spraying with one part, by weight, of nlcotln solution (40 per cent nlcotln sul- 
phate) to 1,000 parts of water, with laundry soap added at the rate of 1 lb. to 
25 gal. of water. A company in Plaquemines Parish, which annually grows from 
10 to 15 acres of globe artichokes^ has found that the aphlds are killed success- 
fully by a nlcotln spray, consisting of tobacco extract containing 40 per cent 
nlcotln as sulphate, 8 oz. ; fish-oil soap, 8 lbs. ; and water, 50 gaL 

Other Insects mentioned as attacking globe artichoke in Louisiana include 
the banded leaf-footed plant bug (Leptoglaaaua phyUofma), the boUworm, a plant 
bug {Thyreocoria jmUcariua), Nezara viridtUa, a scarabseid beetle (Euphoria 
sepulchralia) , cutworms (particularly FeUia annexa and the black cutworm), 
the larvse of two agromyzld flies {Agromyza plaiyptera jucunda and Agromyza 
sp.), a membradd {EtUylia ainuaia), the larva of the cabbage looper, and the 
adult of the southern corn rootworm (Diabrotica duodecimpunctata). 

II. The granulated cuiioorm, an important enemy of vegetable cropa in Lour 
iaiana (pp. 7-14). — Observations by the author indicate that the granulated cut- 
worm (F. annexa) is the principal cutworm which attacks vegetable crops in 
Louisiana. Of 1,431 cutworms collected from April to December in 1915, 1910, 
and 1917, 1,345 (94 per cent) were identified as F. annexa, the black cutworm 
being second in number (3.2 per cent) and F. male/Ida third (2.5 per cent). 

The most serious damage caused by the granulated cutworm is that due to 
its habit of cutting off small plants near the surface of the ground. Irish pota- 
toes, beets, and Brussels sprouts have been observed to be defoliated, while the 
fruit of tomato and eggplant resting on the ground are sometimes bored into and 
made unsalable. 

Technical descriptions of the several stages of this species are reproduced, 
followed by a report of studies of its life history and habits. A list of crops 
observed by the author to have been injured Include bean, beet, Brussels sprouts, 
cabbage, cauliflower, eggplant, Irish potato, pepper, tomato, and turnip. Records 
of ovipositlon of individual females show from 311 to 1,374 eggs to have been 
deposited, as many as 307 having been deposited during a single night During 
December eggs were deposited on a night when the thermograph registered as 
low as 19"" F. In the locality of Baton Rouge, there are apparently five and 
possibly six generations a year, these so overlapping that at certain times all 
stages are present in the field simultaneously. The length of the egg stage 
varied from 4 days in July to 54 in December and January. Pupation may take 
place in August as soon as 24 days after emergence from the egg and the pupal 
stage is passed during August within 16 days. The minimum period for egg, 
larva, and pupa stages combined was as low as 38 days during July and August 



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»191 ECONOMIC ZOOLOGY — ^ENTOMOLOGY. 59 

A tachlnid (Linnaemyia comia) and an ichneumonld {EtUoosftUus purgatu9) 
were reared from larvie collected at Baton Rouge, and Saroophaga heliois is 
thought to have been so reared. Dead larrse infested with the fungus En- 
iomophihom virescens were found in rearing cages. Experiments with methods 
of control indicate that the use of poisoned baits and the treatment of attacked 
Idants with arsenicals will prove satisfactory. A mixture made of bran 10 
lh&, molasses 1 qt., Paris green 0.5 lb., water 7 qt, and the Juice and finely 
chopped rind and pulp of two oranges is said to have given satisfactory results. 

Ill Experiments in cowtroUinff the tomato fruit worm with arsenicals (pp. 
15-19).— Th6 details of dusting and spraying experiments at Baton Rouge for 
the control of the tomato fruit worm or bollworm extending over a period of 
two years are presented in tabular form. The results show considerable varia- 
tion, and none of the treatments reduced the injury profitably. Arsenate of lead 
applied undiluted as a dust gave the best results. 

lUasnres for protectinfir wheat-floor substitutes from insects, R. N. Ghap- 
HAiv (£fcience, n. ser., Jft (1918), No. 1224, PP- 579-581).— This is a discussion of 
work being done by the University of Minnesota in cooperation with the State 
Food Administration to prevent the loss of wheat flour substitutes from insect 
attack. Attention is called to the fact that the amount of embryo included in 
Uie floor and the coarseness of the product are usually taken as an index of 
susceptibility to insect attack, coarse flours with the most embryo being the 
most susceptible. The wheat flour substitutes and other cereals contain em- 
bryo, are relatively coarse, and are known to be highly susceptible to insect 
attadL 

The measures recommended, which are preventive, consist in subjecting the 
aealed packages to a temperature of about 85"" 0. (ISS** F.) at the time of 
packing, which will kill all stages of insects, rapid handling of cereals and 
proper sanitation of stores by retail dealers, and the subjecting of the cereal 
in the home to temperatures such that the minimum in any part of the cereal 
la well above the fatal temperature of insects, or about 45'' O. (118* F.) at 
24 per cent of relative humidity. 

The consomption and cost of the economic poisons in California, 1016, 
G. P. Geay (Mo. Bui. CaU Com. Hort., 1 (1918), No. 5, pp. 1-^0-144).— A table 
lowing the consumption and cost of economic poisons in 1916 in 28 counties 
n^ottAng is included in this paper. 

The selection of petroleum insecticides from the commercial point of view, 
P. R. Jones (Mo. Bui. Cal. Com. Hort., 7 (1918), No. 4f PP- 189-191).— A brief 
discussion. 

Wettable sulphurs, G. P. Gray (Mo. BuL Cal. Com. Hort., 7 (1918), No. 4, 
pp. 191, 192). — ^Attention is called to the fbct that a number of substances, such 
as soap, flour paste, oleic acid, glue, dextrin, diatomaceous earth, etc., when 
mixed with sulphur commonly counteract its aversion to water but do not 
otherwise modify its properties. The author recommends the following formula 
In the preparation of wettable sulphur: Powdered glue 1.6 oz., hot water 3 
gaL, sublimed or powdered sulphur 10 lbs., and water to make 200 gal. Since 
sulphur is apt to cause foliage injury during hot, dry weather, it is generally 
advised not to apply sulphur or sulphur pastes to plants when the temperature 
exceeds 100* F. 

On two species of Physothrips injurious to tea in India, R. S. Baonall 
{BuL Bnt. Research, 9 (1918), No. 1, pp. 61-64, fi09. 8).— Two species of thrlps 
foond on tea in sufficient numbers to be regarded as pests are P. setiventris n. 
ap. and P. lefroyi. 

A study of the capsid buffs found on apple trees, F. R. Pethebbbidgb and 
H. A. HusAiN (Ann. Appl Biol., 4 (1918), No. 4, pp. 179-205, pU. 5).— This is a 



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60 EXPERIMENT STATION RECOBD. IVoL 40 

report of investigations conducted in continuation of those previously noted 
(E. S. R., 88, p. 57; SO. p. 768). 

The authors find that PleHocoris rugiooUis causes marked damage to the 
leaves* shoots, and fruit and is responsible for most of, if not all, the damage 
in the Wisbech district of England. **Atraciot<nMU mali, Orthotylus nuurffi- 
nalis, and PsaUus ambiguuB, although they feed on the Juices of the apple, do 
not cause any apparent damage to the varieties badly marked by P. ruificolU^ 
In no case have we found either of these three species causing any visible 
damage to apples.*' Studies of P. rugicolVU are reported upon at some length 
and brief accounts are given of O. fnarginaUs, P. amhiguus, and A. nuUL 

Further observations on the capsids which attack apples, F. R. Pvtheb- 
BsiDOE and M. A. HusAnv (Jour. Bd. Agr. [Lofulon], 25 (1918), No, 1, pp. 5ir-S8, 
ph 1). — ^A report of work, a more detailed account of which is above noted. 

New Aphldinn of Japan, S. Matsuicuba (Trans. Sapporo Nat. HisU Soe., 
7 (1918), No. U PP' 1-22, pi. 1).— This paper, which supplementar that previously 
noted (E. S. R., 88, p. 468), gives descriptions of five new genera (Metaphis* 
Yezosiphum, Acanthaphis» Sappaphis, and MysopsLs) and 22 new species. 

Life history of Pemphigus populi-transrersus, T. EL Jones (Jour. Agr, R&- 
search lU. £f.], U (1918), No. IS, pp. 577-^94, pis. 6, fig. 1).— This is a report of 
studies conducted by the Bureau of Entomology of the U. S. Department of 
Agriculture in Louisiana. 

It is first i)Ointed out that prior to the publication of the present article there 
was no published record of any species of Pemphigus as occurring on crucifers in 
the United States, although collected from turnip roots in Texas by Paddock 
in 1914, from watercress in Colorado by Bragg, and from curly turnip (Brassiea 
rapa) in Mississippi. The species which causes galls on the leaf petioles of some 
of the poplars or cottonwoods was first described by Riley in 1879. Its first 
collection from the roots of Grudfera in Louisiana was made by Tucker of the 
Louisiana Stations in November, 1914, having been taken on cabbage roots in 
Tangipahoa Parish. Shortly afterwards it was collected by the author at 
Baton Rouge. The experiments here described led to the conclusion that t)ie 
form which causes galls on the leaf petioles of some of the poplars or cotton- 
woods (Populus spp.) and that which feeds on the roots of crucifers r^resoit 
the same species. This species has been recorded as occurring on poplar in 
California, Texas, Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, Missouri, Iowa, Minnesota, 
Illinois, Indiana, New York, and Massachusetts, and has also been collected in 
Wyoming, Arizona, Wisconsin, Michigan, Ohio, and Florida. Four q[>ecies of 
the genus Populus (P. halsanUfera, P. monUiferot P. trichocarpa, and P. fre- 
montU) have been mentioned as hosts. 

The formation of galls, dates when galls are found at Baton Rouge, percentage 
of leaf petioles showing galls, dates when winged migrants are found in galls, 
dates when winged migrants leave galls, and number of wingless viviparous 
females to which winged migrants give birth are considered by the author. 

As regards the effect upon the plant, it is stated that a slight or moderate 
infestation of the roots of crucifers does not usually affect the appearance of 
the plant, but a severe infestation of the roots is manifested by a wilted condition 
of the leaves. Colonies may be found upon any portion of the root system but 
the small rootlets appear to be preferred. At Baton Rouge the subterranean 
forms apparently cause more severe injury to turnip than to any other cultivated 
cruciferous crop that has been under observation. The planting of rape and 
kale at the live-stock experiment farm ai Jeanerette, La., is said to have been 
abandoned on account of this root louse. 

*' Wingless specimens of the genus Pemphigus have been taken in Louisiana 
from the roots of the following Crucifera: Cabbage, turnip, mustard (B. fUgra)^ 



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EOOKOMIC ZOOLOGY — ^ENTOMOLOGY. 



61 



cauliflower, and broccoli (B. oleraoea hotrytia), Brussels sprouts (B. oleracea 
ifemmifera), rape {B, napua), Oaronopus didymua, Lepidivm virginioum, and 
Bonpa sp. . . . Winged migrants (fandatrlgenla) of the species of Pemplilgus 
ander consideration have been found at the roots of cabbage, turnip, Brussels 
Bpronts, rape, C. didffmuB, and RoHjhi sp. It is quite possible that further obser- 
Tations will disclose the fact that the species occurs also at the roots of plants 
not belonging to the family Gruciferse." 

Winged females have been found in the soil as early as December 12 and as 
late as April 9. Six was the greatest number of sexed individuals to which a 
winged migrant from crucifers was observed to give birth. Only a single egg is 
deposited by the true sex. 

The seasonal history of this aphid at Baton Rouge is illustrated by the fol- 
lowing diagram : 

Seasoned history o/P, poptUi'transversus at Baton Rougs^ La, 




June. 



July. 



Aug. 



Sept. 



Winged female mlgrMits 

' ^ IbgaUs.!^ ' 



Colonies (atem motheni 
in galls on leal peUoi( 



and 



i their progeny) 
01 poplar. 



Oct. 



Nov. 



Winged femMemin^^j[fromgaUs 
on poplar) on crueller leaves. 



Deo. 



Above ground. 



Be] 



ow ground. 



Winged female mi- 
I grants in soil. 



ringed 1 



I 



Colonies (progeny of winged female mi grants 



from galls on poplar) on crucifer roots. 



Jan. Feb. liar. Apr. llay. June. July. Aug. Bept. Oct. Not. Dec. 



Descriptions of Stages of P. populi-transveraus and Its Gall, by C. P. Gillette 
(pp. 589-G92), and a list of 23 references to the literature cited are appended. 

Hew pests and their natural enemies: Three new Argentine scales and their 
Pttttites, P. Gabide Massini and J. Bb^thes {An. Sac. Rural Argentina, 52 
(1918), No. S, pp. U8-158, pU. 8, figs. JTO).— The three new Argentine scales, 
P^iivinaria platensis, P, fiaveacens, and P. minuta, are described, together with 
five hymenopterous parasites reared from them which represent two new 
^senera (Onophilus and Pseudaphellnus) and five new forms. 

Bttstniction of nits of the clothes louse by solutions of cresol soap emul- 
■fan and lysol, A. W. Bacot and L. Lloyd {Brit. Med. Jour., No. 2991 {1918), 
P9. 479, 480). — ^The authors have found that lysol (crude phenol and soft soap 
emuUion) solutions are decidedly more effective than the cresol soap emulsion 



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62 fiXFEBIMBKT STATION BBOOBD. [Vol. 40 

solution at the higher temperatures bnt leas ao at 82* F. The eridence accmp 
to establish the fact that steeping for 20 mhrntes in a 2 per cent aolntioii, eitb^ 
of lysol or the cresol soap, is quite effective provided the tonperature Is not 
below 50'. 

The orange papilio and its nAtoral enemj, Pteromalns caridei, P. Gasidb 
Massini and J. BairrHss {An, Soc. Rur<U Argentina, 62 (1918), No. 2, pp. 75~7tf, 
pis. t). — ^A brief account of PapUio ihoas thoaniiades, which attacks dtms 
foliage, and the value of P. oaridel in its controL 

Some notes on the natural control of the cherry- tree nglj nest tortrlcid 
(Archips cerasivorana), A. B. Baibd (Agr. Qiu. Canada, 5 (1918), No. 8, |»p. 
766-Tfl, figs. 6). — This tortrlcid is said to occasionally become very aboiMlant 
over large areas in eastern and western CSanada during June and July on the 
choke cherry (Pruntu virgimiana), making the trees very unsightly by spinnliis 
its large tentlike web. The present paper deals largely with measures of con- 
trol, especially by insect parasiteSi based upon studies largely at Frederic- 
ton. N. B. 

A studj of tobacco worms and methods of control, L. B. Bdboso (PhiUpplne 
Agr. and Forester, 6 {1918), No. 7, pp. 195-209) .—The author here outlines the 
life history of several tobacco worms occurring in the Philippines, together 
with remedial measures. The pests considered are the tobacco cutworm 
(Prodenia Utura), CMoridea assiUta, the tobacco stem borer (Onorimoschema 
Jieliopa), Plusia eriosoma, and the tobacco homworm {AcJ^ertrntia lacheHs}, 

The tick as a possible agent in the collocation of the eggs of Dermatobla 
homlnis, L. H. Dunw (Jour. Parasitology, ^ (1918), No. 4, pp. 154-158). — The 
author presents evidence obtained in the Canal Zone, Panama, which leads him 
to consider that a tick, probably Amhylomma oafennense, not only acts as the 
carrier of the eggs of D. JumUnis but is also instrumental in assisting the larvae 
to penetrate the skin. 

The presence of lateral spiracles in the larva of Hypoderma, Q. H. Oab- 
PENTKB and F. J. S. Poixabd (Proc. Roy. Irish Acad., S4 (1918), No. 4, Sect. B^ 
pp, 73-84, P^. 6).— A report of anatomical studies. 

Work and parasitism of the Hediterranean fruit fly in Hawaii durizier 
1017, .C. E. Peicbebton and H. F. Wzixabd (Jour, Agr. Research [17. S.J, 14 
(1918), No. IS, pp. 605-610),— ThlB is a report of work by the Bureau of 
Entomology of the U. S. Department of Agriculture conducted In 1917 in con- 
tinuation of that carried on since 1918 as previously noted (E. S. R., 38, p. 659.) 

During the year there was a rather heavy infestation of several varieties of 
fruits, some of which were badly infested. Details relating to these are pre- 
sented in tabular form, as is information on the percentage of larval parasltison 
of Ceratitis capitata and total parasitism by months of all larvn of 0. oapitaia 
collected In Hawaii during 1917. 

There was a 47 per cent reduction in the abundance of the fruit fly during 
the year, and this was entirely due to parasitic importation. This reduction 
in the numbers of the fly brings little relief to its favored host fruits, but thoee 
fruits classed as unfavored hosts show a marked Improvement In the degree 
of Infestation and some may become almost wholly free from larvse. The propa- 
gation of such fruits and the encouragement of the parasitic method of control 
is thought to be the most favorable method of contending with this pest in 
Hawaii. It Is also considered of Importance in contributing toward reducing 
the chances of introduction to the mainland. ' 

The total parasitism by all species during 1917 was 14.8 per cent higher than 
In 1916. The average infestation of all fruits combined was, however, not strik- 
ingly different from that of 1916. The parasitism by Opius hAtmUis was 4.5 per 



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1919] ECONOHIC ZOOLOGY — ^BNTOMOLOOY. 63 

cent less than in 1016» while that of DiadhoBma tryani, D. fuUawayi, and Tetrad 
itichui ffiffardianus was 7, 5.2, and 6.6 per cent greater, respectively. 

The fanna of British India, includingr Ceylon and Burma» edited by A. B. 
Shipuet and G. A. K. Mabshaix. {London: Taylor d Franoia, 1917, pp. X///+ 
M7, pis, 5, figs, 77). — ^This second part of the Lamellicomia by G. J. Arrow 
deals with the Rutelince, Desmonycins, and BnchirinA and includes descriptions 
of 4(3 forms. 

The cherry leaf beetle, F. Z. Habtzbix (New York Btate Bta. BuL m 
(1917), pp. 749-820, pis, 8, figs, 8).— This is a report of stndies for three con- 
secative seasons, principally at Fredonia in the Lake Erie Valley, N. Y., with 
QQleruceUa cavicoUis, studies of which by Herrick and Matheson (E. S. R., 84, 
p. 756) and Cushmanand Isley (E. S. R., 85, p. 260) have been previously noted. 

** Daring 1915 the adults emerged from August 28 to September 18, but during 
the sununer of 1016, which was warmer, the adults appeared in the breeding 
cages from July 81 to September 2. The adults are rather sluggish, feeding very 
little daring the late summer and fall. By September 15 some show a tendency 
to seek hibernating quarters, at least on cooler days, although most of the 
beetles will emerge and feed on warm, sunny days. By October 1 all beetles 
entered hibernation, from which they did not emerge during the warm weather 
of early October. 

"The hibernation period of the insect in western New York is nearly eight 
months, emergence occurring during the latter part of May. In 1916 the first 
beetles emerged on May 27 at Fredonia. During 1017 at Lily Dale, 8 miles from 
Fredonia and at an elevation 500 ft greater, the first beetle emerged on May 80. 
The time of the appearance of the beetles was about one week after the bird 
cherry was in full bloom. The most extensive feeding by the adults occurs dur* 
ing the early part of June. It is at this time that practically all injury by the 
Vedes to cultivated trees is inflicted. The greatest natural dissemination of the 
beetles occurs during the latter part of May and early June, when they may 
fly considerable distances to new feeding grounds. 

" £gg laying in 1916 began on June 5, under natural conditions, and on June 
10 In observation cages, reaching the maximum in the first week of July and 
ending in the cages on August 9. The eggs are deposited on or near the trunk of 
the tree upon which the adults are feeding, usually not more than 6 in. 
above the surface of the soil, the majority being placed at the Junction of the 
sarface of the soil and the trunk. Some of the eggs are scattered loosely on the 
•oa, bat most of them are glued to rootlets, small stones, or the tree trunk. 
They are found to a depth of about 1 in. in the soiL The number of eggs laid 
In breeding cages by an individual varied from 10 to 294, with an average of 98. 
The normal life of the beetles appears to vary from 11 to 1Z5 months, although 
srane individuals may reach an age of nearly 14 months. 

" The length of the incubation period during 1916 averaged 18 days, with a 
nwTlTrmm of 28 days and a minimum of 9 days. These difTerences are ascribed 
largely to variation in temperature, although there is individual variation in the 
Incubation period of eggs deposited on the same day. In 1916 hatching began on 
Jane 23 and ended August 20, the emerging larv» being most numerous during 
the latter part of July. 

*'Upon hatching, the larvs dimb and feed upon foliage. They are able to 
resch maturity only on the leaves of the bird cherry, and when compelled to 
nbaist on the foliage of other species of cherry they invariably succumbed. The 
total feeding period of the larva varied from 8 to 24 days, with an average 
daring 1916 of 123 days. Wh^ the larvse have reached full growth they 
barrow into the leaf mold or a short distance into the soil and form cells in 
which to pupate. The time spent in these cells was found to average 15 days, 



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64 BXPBBIMBNT STATIOK BEOOBD. (Vol. 40 

the shortest period being 12 days and the longest period 23 days. The total 
developmental period from hatching to emergence as adnlt averaged 27.2 days 
at Fredonla during 1916. 

'*The chief factors In the natural control of the beetles are drowning of 
adults, reforestation which decreases the amount of the bird cherry, a carabid 
beetle (Lebia omata) which attacks the beetles, and the cedar waxwins 
(BombyoiUa cedrorum) which was observed feeding on the adults. The cherry 
leaf-beetle Is effectively controlled by arsenlcala, preferably combined witn 
Bordeaux mixture, and nlcotln sulphate ; for the proper employment of whlcb 
directions are given." 

Notes on the strawberry leaf beetle (Galemcella tenella), H. C. I&rwi^Toxnx 
{Ann. Appl. Biol, 4 {1918), No. 4, pp. tOS-tlO, fig: d).— Both the larva and 
adult damage the leaves of strawberries In England In the same way by eatin^^ 
the lower and upper epidermis and the soft underlying tissue, leaving the 
opposite layer of epidermis intact Technical descriptions are given of the 
larva, pupa, and adult 

Bean and pea weevils, E. A« Back and A« B. Duckxtt (17. 8. Depi. Affr^ 
Farmers* BtU. 989 {1918), pp. 24, figs. 25). — A description is given of the prin- 
cipal pea and bean weevils, and methods for the prevention of loss therefrom 
are outlined. 

The preparation of bees for outdoor wintering, E. F. Philejps and Q. S. 
Dbitdth (17. 8. Dept. Afpr., Farmers^ Buk 1012 {1918), pp. 20, figs. 6).— It Is 
pointed out that the preparation of bees for outdoor wintering is of most vital 
Importance, no other phase of beekeeping having so direct an Influence on the 
honey crop of the following season. The apiary should be located In a pro- 
tected place and the colonies should not be moved at the time of packing. 

Directions are given In this publication for the proper arrangement of the 
apiary to prevent confusion due to the shifting of hlvea The amount and 
character of the packing materials and the most economical type of packing 
cases are discussed. A schedule of dates for packing and unpacking the hives 
is presented for all parts of the United States, and the amount and character 
of winter stores are indicated. It Is deemed imi>ortant that none of the factors 
of good wintering be omitted, and several tests are given by means of which 
the beekeeper can determine whether his bees are wintering properly. 

Wintering bees in cellars, E. F. Phillips and G. S. Deicttth {U. 8. Dept. 
Agr., Farmers* Bid. 1014 {1918), pp. 21, figs. 3). — dJellar wintering is said to be 
practicable where the average outdoor temperature during the winter months is 
as low as 25* F. Bees should be put into the cellar after a good flight in late 
November, or earlier in the more northern localities, and should be removed 
when fresh pollen and nectar are available. 

**The cellar should be arranged so that the ceiling is below the frost line, 
and so that the ceiling and side walls are thoroughly protected at all points. 
The cellar should be kept so that the lowest temperature within, the Hives is 
at least 52*. At this temperature there will be little need of special, ventilating 
arrangements There should be no condensation of moisture within the hives, 
and the cellar should be well drained." 

Heat insulators for beehives, R. H. PEXTrr {Michigan 8ta., Quart. Bul^ 1 
{1918), No. 1, pp. 20, 21). — ^Tests made of the comparative value of a number of 
materials as Insulators gave the following results: Dead air space 18, corru- 
gated cardboard 83, planer shavings 34.6, mineral wool 35.5, and forest leaves 
41. Thus it appears that corrugated cardboard, the most expensive material 
used, is the least effective and that ordinary leaves, raked up, dried, and 
firmly packed, give the best results. A 2-in. layer was tested with each 
materlaL 



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19191 ECONOMIC ZOOLOGY — ^EKTOMOLOGY. 65 

In tests made to determine the relative rates of heat loss when one surface 
of the chamber was left unprotected, it was found that there was a loss ol 
3.5* F. when the nndersurface was unprotected, a loss of 4^ when one side was 
left unprotected, and a loss of 5* when the top surface alone was left unpro- 
tected. 

Bearing queen bees In Porto Bico, R. H. Van Zwaluwenbttbg and R. Vidal 
{Porto Rico 8ta. Circ, 16 (1918), Spanish Ed., pp, 12, figs. 5).— A Spanish edi- 
tion of the circular previously noted (E. S. R., 88, p. 865). 

Beport of entomology department, O. E. Sanborn {OKLdhotna Bia. RpU 
^^J7, pp, 30, SI). — This consists of a brief statement relating to the equipment 
of the department and tests made of honey-producing plants. It is stated that 
sesame has proved to be drought-resistant and very hardy. White clover 
yields well about once In every three years, while alfalfa yields nectar only 
when the weather is favorable. 

Preliminary report on Isle of Wight bee disease, J. Tinsuet {West of Boot. 
Agr. Col. Bui 85 (1918), pp. 27-40). — In investigations conducted by the author, 
In the course of which a thorough examination was made of bodies of thou- 
sands of bees which had undoubtedly perished from Isle of Wight disease or at 
least from a disease the diagnostic features of which are the same as those of 
Isle of Wight disease, Nosema apis was rarely found, even after a minute ex- 
amination of the chyle stomach and feces. '* It certainly does not appear to us 
that N. apis is the universal cause of the disease familiarly known as the 
Isle of Wight bee disease. ... On the other hand, the stomach contents and 
the excrement of diseased bees have shown the unfailing presence of masses 
of hacterla, and we are of the opinion that these are not without special sig- 
nificance." 

The subject is discussed under the headings of cause of the disease, spread 
of the disease, symptoms, infection experiments, preventive and remedial 
measures, and breeding to produce immunity. 

Notes on the bee genus Andrena (Hymenoptera), H. L. Viebeck (Proc. Biok 
8oc. Wash., 31 {1918), pp. 59, 60). 

Natural enemies of the Argentine ant (Iridomyrmez humilis), G. W. Mallt 
{8o. African Jour. 8ci., U (1911), No. 5, pp. 245-247).— It is pointed out that 
In South Africa the Argentine ant is practically immune from attack by insect 
enemies. 

A list of families and subfamilies of ichneumon flies of the superf amlly 
Idmenmonoidea (Hymenoptera), H. L. Viebeck {Proc. Biol. Boo, Wash., 31 
{1918), pp, 69-74). 

Observations on Pimpla pomorum, a parasite of the apple blossom weevil 
(indnding a description of the male by C. Horley), A D. Iififs {Ann. Appl. 
Biol„ 4 {1918), Vo. -♦, pp. 211-227, pi. 1, figs. 5).— P. pomorum in its larval stage 
is an ecto-parasite of the apple blossom weevil {Anth^onomus pomorum), attack- 
ing both the larva and pupa. Pupation takes place within a slight silken cocoon 
within the, cavity of the unopened apple buds. The adult ichneumons com- 
mence to emerge on June 17, an average of 23 days from the time of spinning 
the cocooa From among 1,270 apple buds gathered at Chatteris in Oambrldge- 
shlre Infested with A. pomorum, P. pomorum was found to effectively parasitize 
27 per cent 

A bibliography of 28 titles is appended. 

Two new mlcrosporidian parasites of the larvas of Pieris brasslcss, A. 
Pauxot {Compt. Rend. Boo. Biol. [Porte], 81 {1918), No. 2, pp. 66-68, fig. 1; 
odt. in Rev. Appl. Ent., Ber. A, 6 {1918), No. 5, p. 177). —The first of two new 
Microsporidia, Perezia mesnili, which parasitized the Malpighian tubes and 
Bilk glands of the larvae of P. brassicw in the Sathonay-BiUieux region, is here 
described. 

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66 EXFBfiIH£KT STATION B£CX)Ba [Vol 40 

FOODS— HUKAH HITIBITIOH. 

The nutrlttve -value of certain fish, J. O. Dbui£1£0ND {J(mr, PhyHoL, 5$ 
{1918), No. Z^, pp. 95-109, figs. 8). — ^From feeding experiments using laboratocy 
animals as subjects the following conclusions are deduced : 

''The coagulable proteins of the muscle tissue of cod, herring, and csnoed 
salmon possess a nutritive value as high as those derived from beet 

"The so-called 'fatty' fish, which contain considerable quantities of fat 
distributed throughout their muscle tissue, may serve as valuable sources of 
the important dietary essential, the fat-soluble 'A.' Certain flsh-liver oils are 
particularly rich in the fat-soluble accessory. 

"No appreciable amounts of the water-soluble or antineuritic factor wen 
detected in the muscle tissues of the fish examined* Small amounts were, 
however, present in extracts prepared from the whole herring, having originated 
in all probability from the reproductive organs, or other glandular organs. 

The milling and baking qualities of Australian wheat» P. R. Soqtt and 
F. G. B. WiwsLOW (Jour, Dept. Agr. Yictoria, 15 {1917), No. 8, pp. 47t-481, figi. 
5). — ^The amount of wheat produced in New South Wales, South Australia, 
Western Australia, and Victoria is approximately four and one-half timea 
greater than the amount required for local consumption. To regulate the quality 
of wheat exported, the following tests are made : Determination of the amount 
of impurities ; grading into different sizes ; the bushel weights of original and 
cleaned wheat ; a milling test ; the gluten content ; and a baking test 

NutritlTe value of whole wheat and of 85 per cent flour compared with 
white flouir, L. Lapicque and J. Chaussin {Compt. Rend. Acad. 8oi, [PaHf], 
166 {1918), No. 7, pp. 30(^02). — From metabolism experiments with a dog fed 
a ration of casein, fat, and bread made from whole wheat flour, the nutritive 
value of the whole wheat was calculated at 90 per cent of its weight of white 
flour. In metabolism experiments on man practically no difference was found 
in the nutritive value of white bread and of breads made from flour containing 
85 per cent of the grain. 

The use of limewater in the preparation of war bread, Baixand {Compt. 
Rend, Acad. 8ci. [PaH«], 167 {1918), No. 5, pp. 198-201), — Observations are re- 
ported on the effects of the use of limewater in making bread from flour of 85 
per cent extraction. 

The author concludes that r^;K>rts on the quality of the bread made with lime- 
water are contradictory. It is often impossible to detect the least dlffereuee, 
although with very dark flour the odor and taste appear slightly bettered by 
the use of limewater. 

The prevention of rope in bread, L. J. Hbndsbsoh {Science, n. aer., k8 
{1918), No. 1236, pp. 247, 248).— -It is stated that the growth of BacUUu mese^ 
tericus, which seems to be the common cause of rope in bread, can not take 
place at a greater hydrogen Ion concentration than 10~*N. A method of meas- 
uring the hydrogen ion concentration of bread is outlined, which consists of 
adding to the freshly cut surface of the loaf three or four drops of an ordinary 
solution of methyl red (0.02 per cent in 60 per cent alcohol). If after five 
minutes the color is a full red without an orange tinge, the hydrogen ion con- 
centration is approximately 10~*N or more. If an orange tinge develops, greater 
amounts of acid should be added to successive batches of dough until the test 
with bread Just gives the desired color. 

Wheat substitutes in war bread, Balland {Compt. Rend. Acad. 8eL [Parii], 
166 {1918), No. 21, pp. 846-849; aba. in Chem. Ahs., 12 {1918), No. 21, p. «217).— 
A number of substances suitable for substitution of wheat in war bread, includ- 
ing the common grains, beans, soy beans, chick peas, sorghums, and feuugreelc, 



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m91 FOODS — ^HUMAN NTJTRITIOIS'. 67 

are noted, and the proportions in wlilcli tliey can be nsed and their general effect 
npoD the quality of the bread are dlscnssed. * 

War flours as an entire substitute for white flour, Ethel B. Clabks {Cam- 
bridffet {Enff.}: W. Heffer d Sons, Ltd., 1917, pp. 4). — ^A brief discussion of 
whole wheat flour, barley flour, oatmeal flour, and maize flour, with recipes for 
their use in cakes and puddings. 

Some experiments with wheat substitutes, Coba E. Gbat (Jour, Home Boon., 
10 (1918), No, 8, pp. 348-^52, pis. 2), — ^An illustrated article showing the results 
obtained by the use of different substitutes In Tarying proportions in the mAking 
of cakes and muffins. 

Barley bread, optimum reaction and salt effect, Lobbainb L. Landenbebgeb 
and W. MoBSB (Science, n. ser,, 48 (1918), No. 12S7 pp. 269, 270).— The authors 
report that by maintaining a reaction at approximately pH=5 and an added 
sodium chlorid content of 2 per cent, barley flour may be utilized by itself to 
make an acceptable war bread. 

The growth-promoting properties of foods derived from com and wheat, 0. 
VoEOTLnr and G. N. Mtebs. (Pub. Health Rpts. [U. S.I, S3 (1918), No. 22, pp. 
IV-\-843-868, figs. SO). — ^The purpose of the present investigation was to deter- 
mine by means of feeding experiments with squabs, young albino mice, and a 
few hogs, whether the com and wheat products used in human nutrition ex- 
hibit dietary deficiencies similar to those of the whole grains, as previously 
noted (E. S. R., 88, p. 869). 

From the experimental data the authors conclude that ** bread made from 
'whole wheat' flour or old-fashioned commeal should be used in preference 
to ^hite' bread and 'highly milled' com foods, whenever the diet is re- 
stricted to those cereal foods to the more or less complete exclusion of other 
foods possessing greater dietary values." 

The preparation and the preservation of Teflretables, Henrietta W. Calvin 
and Gakeie A. Lytobd (U. S. Bur. Ed. Bui. 41 (1911), pp. £^).>-This includes 
recipes for the preparation of vegetables for the table, directions for storage of 
those which can be kept in their natural fresh condition, and methods of can- 
ning; salting, and drying others. 

XTse of dried fruits and vegetables, Mas. A. W. Pabks (iUnio. Nehr., Col. 
Affr,], Ext. Serv. Emergency BvX. 33 (1918), pp. 12). — ^This pamphlet gives a 
list of fruits and vegetables for drying, directions for drying them, and meth- 
ods of cooking the dried products. Special recipes illustrating the various uses 
are also included. 

The nutritiTe value of the banana, K. Suoixtba and S. R. Benedict (Jour. 
Biol. Chem., 36 (1918), No. 1, pp. 171-189, pis. 2, figs. 14; abs. in Jour. Amer. 
Med. Assoc., 71 (1918), No. 20, p. 1694).— 'Th\s is a study of the nutritive value 
of the banana as determined by the maintenance and growth of albino rats when 
placed upon a diet of bananas alone or together with certain supplementary 
substances. 

As a result of the experiments reported, the authors conclude that the banana 
is deficient in protein and in the water-soluble vitamin as a foodstuff for the 
growth or maintenance of albino rats. A diet of bananas, purified casein, and 
yeast or carrot extract was found to be sufficient for growth and reproduction 
of the rat, but was not, however, adequate for the production of proper milk 
by the mother. This deficiency was qualitative rather than quantitative 
in nature. 

How to sweeten cranberries (Washington: V. 8. Food Admin., 1918, pp. 2). — 
Recipes illustrating the use of simps and sweet fruits in place of sugar in the 
prqiaration of various cranberry dishes are given. 



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68 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. [Tol40 

Sugar substitutes in bottled soft drinks, H-HI, W. W. Skinner and J. W. 
Sale (N at, • Bottlers* Oaz,, 37 (1918), No. 4S6, pp. 7^, 75. 76-7S).— Contlnning 
work previously noted (E. S. R., 39, p. 709), the second paper of the series 
takes up nonacid beverages. Formulas for using part sugar substitutes are 
included, as well as analyses of commercial sugars and a table giving tbe 
relative sweetness of sucrose and sugar substitutes. 

In the third paper the use of sugar substitutes in certain acid beverages with 
imitation flavors, namely, cherry, raspberry, strawberry, pineapple, lemon, 
orange, and grape, is discussed. It is concluded that " the investigatioDs up 
to the present time on the keeping quality of the finished products indicate 
that combinations of ordinary sugar with glucose, corn sugar, and maltose 
sirups and honey can be used satisfactorily in carbonated bottled bevera^ 
when the precautions suggested are carefully observed." 

Specific heat of fats and oils, D. Wesson and H. P. Gaylobd (Cotton OH 
Press, 2 {1918), No. 6, pp. 40, 41). — ^Thls article records specific heats of various 
fats and oils, including cottonseed oil and hydrogenlzed cotton-seed oil ; peanut 
oil (plain and hydrogenissed) ; liquid, solid, and hydrogenlzed coconut oil; and 
plain and hydrogenlzed soy-bean oil. 

Food Surveys (f7. 8. Dcpt. Agr,, Food Surveys, t (1918), Nos. 11, pp. 12, figt, 
IS; 12, pp. 16, figs. 21). — ^These numbers deal, respectively, with conmierdal 
stocks (not including retail stocks) on July 1, 1918, of beans, peas, grain 
sorghums, rice, and buckwheat flour, and of dried fruits, nuts, and peannta 

Reports of storage holdings of certain food products, J. O. Bell and L C 
Franklin (17. B. Dept. Agr. Bui, 109 (1918), pp. -M, figs. 25) .—Statistics are 
given showing the actual quantities of different commodities held in storajce in 
1916-17, as reported from the warehouses, comparison being made with reports 
of other months and years. 

Production and preservation of food supplies, P. H. Bbtce (Com. Conserv. 
Canada Rpt., 8 (1917), pp. i£3-i54).— A discussion of the food situation in 
Canada, with suggestions for the solution of the most pressing problems. 

The cost of food.— A study in dietaries, Ellen H. Righabds (New York: 
John Wiley d Sons, Inc., S. ed., rev., 1917, pp. IX-\-148). — ^A revision by J. F. 
Norton of the work previously noted (E. S. R., 18, p. 877). 

Charts showing the relative cost of equivalent fuel portions of foods, 
Alice F. Blood ([Boston]: Simmons Col., 1917). — A cost chart is given. 

Food and fitness, or diet in relation to health, J. Long (London: Chapman 
and Hall, Ltd., 1917, pp. IX +208). —A treatise on diet In relation to health, 
which emphasizes the importance of fnilts and vegetables and deprecates the 
use of large quantities of meat 

Infant feeding, R. M. Sicith (Mo. Bui. Bd. Eealth Mass., 5 (1918), No. 9-10, 
pp. 260-^65). — Specific directions for the feeding of infants are given. Sample 
diets for use after the first year are also included. 

Diet of older children, F. B. Talbot (Mo. Bui. Bd. Health Mass., 5 (191S), 
No. 9-10, pp. 266-^0). — ^The author states that nine out of ten of the diseases 
of infancy and childhood are due to a faulty diet He discusses the time of 
meals and the foods they should include, and warns against overfeeding in fats 
and in sugars. 

Diet of the United States Army soldier in the training camp, J. R. MusLf 
(Jour. Amer. Med. Assoc., 71 (1918), No. 12, pp. 950, 951; abs. in Chem. Abs., It 
(1918), No. 2S, p. 2603).— The messing system of the United States Army is 
described briefly, and an account is given of the nutrition investigations con- 
ducted by tlie food division of the Surgeon Qenerars Ofiice at more than 40 
training camps in this country. A statistical summary is included of the nutri- 
tional surveys in respect to nutrients supplied and wasted, the distribution of 



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m»l FOODS — HUMAN KXTrBITIOK'. 69 

fuel yafne consumed and wasted, and the cost per man per day, and a table 
shows the average dally consumption of the different articles of food. Differ- 
ences between these results and the regular garrison ration are pointed out, 
and the advisability Is suggested of the readjustment of the ration to a basis 
more nearly approaching the basis of choice, as shown by the surveys. It Is 
considered that this would result In (1) " reduction of waste by obliging organi- 
zations to secure their luxuries by exercising rigid economy, (2) guarantying 
a satisfactory distribution of nutrients, (8) the possibility of centralized pur- 
chasing and consequent reduction in cost to the Qovemment, and (4) training 
the men on a ration basis much more nearly approaching the requirements of 
field conditions.'' 

A biolo^cal analysis of pellafirra-producinff diet8.-~-IV, The causes of 
failure of mixtures of seeds to promote growth in youn^r animals, E. V. Mo- 
CofLLXTM and Nina SiificoNDS {Jour. Biol, Chem., SS (1918), No, 2, pp, SOS^ll, 
pU. 7). — ^In continuation of the investigations previously noted (E. S. R., 39, 
p. 666), this paper discusses the supplementary relationships for nutrition of 
mixtures of seeds as determined by feeding experiments on growing rats. 

The results indicate that seeds of plants can be classed together without 
exception in their dietary properties in that they must be combined with other 
foods which carry a much greater amount of calcium, sodium, and chlorin in 
order to render them complete from the dietary standpoint. In lesser degree 
the poor quality of the proteins of seeds and seed mixtures and the low con- 
tent, with few exceptions, of fat-soluble A seem to be contributing factors in 
causing the stunting of animals fed too largely on this class of vegetable foods. 

The authors are of the opinion that the poor quality of the protein content 
of the diet is in all probability one of the factors in lowering the vitality of 
those peoples who live during the winter season on a diet restricted to a few 
articles, the chief one being com or wheat bread. * 

A biological analysis of pellagrra-producing diets. — ^V, The nature of the 
dietary deficiencies of a diet derived from peas, wheat flour, and cottonseed 
oil, E. V. McCk>Li.TJM, Nina SiififONOs, and H. T. Pabsons {Jour. Biol. Chem,, 
SS (1918), A'o. S, pp. J^ll-m* fios. 5; abs. in Chem. Abs., 12 (1918), No. 19, p. 
2(M?4).— Continuing the investigation noted above, the authors have studied the 
deficiencies o{ the diet with which Chittenden and Underbill (E. S. R., 36, 
p. 764) produced in dogs the condition said to be similar to pellagra in man. 

As the result of experimental evidence, the authors conclude that this diet '* Is 
not deficient in the sense that it falls to furnish a sufficient amount of another 
spedfie substance which when present protects against the development of the 
ayndrome of pellagra. The deficiencies of this diet are all dependent upon the 
dx>rtage of the fat-soluble A, the character of the inorganic moiety, and the 
idatively poor quality of Its protein mixture. The experimental demonstra- 
tion of this fact, provided the interpretation be accepted that the dogs were 
soffering from a disease analogous to pellagra in man, eliminates a second syn- 
drome, pellagra, from the list of supposed ' deficiency ' diseases." 

A stady of the diet of nonpellaerrous and of pellagrous households in tex- 
tile mill communities in South Carolina in 1016, J. Goldbebgeb, 6. A. 
Wheclxb, and E. Stdenstbickeb (Jour. Amer. Med. Assoc, 71 (1918), No. 12, 
pp. 9U-949, figs. 2; ahs. in Chem. Abs., 12 (1918), No. 2S, pp. 2610, 2611).— In 
continuation of the investigations on pellagra previously noted (E. S. R., 36, 
p. 363), this paper gives a brief report of the results of a study of the relation- 
ship of household diet to pellagra incidence in some cotton-mill village com- 
munities in South Carolina. 

A comparison of the diets of pellagrous with those of nonpellagrous house- 
bolds led to the conclusion that the pellagra-producing dietary fault is the re- 



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70 BXPERIMEKT STATION BEGOBD. [Vol. 40 

suit of some one or more, or probably a combination of two or more, of the fol- 
lowing factors : A physiologically defective protein supply, a low or Inadequate 
supply of fat-soluble vitamin, a low or inadequate supply of water-soluble 
vitamin, and a defective mineral supply. This is in accord with the condusloiia 
of Mc€k>llum and others noted above. 

" The somewhat lower plane of supply, both of energy and of protein, of the 
pellagrous households, though apparently not an essential factor, may, never- 
theless, be contributory by favoring the occurrence of a deficiency in intake 
of some one or more of the essential dietary factors, particularly with diets 
having only a narrow margin of safety. 

''The pellagra-producing dietary fault may be oorrected and the disease 
prevented by including in the diet an adequate supply of the animal protein 
foods particularly milk, Including butter and lean meat*' 

The rOle of antiscorbutics in our dietary, A. F. Bebb {Jour, Amer, Med. 
Assoc, 71 {1918), No. 12, pp. 941-943, /Iff, 1; abs. in Chem, Abs,, 12 {1918), No. 
23, p. 2610), — ^This is a general discussion of the subject based on investigations 
previously noted (E. S. R., 39, p. 771). 

The author suggests the practicability of using orange peel in place of orange 
Juice as an antiscorbutic An infusion made by adding to washed and grated 
orange peel twice its volume of boiling water, allowing to stand over night and 
then straining, has been found to be entirely satisfactory in antiscorbutic 
proi>erties. 

The " vitamin '' hypothesis and the diseases referable to faulty diet, E. V. 
McCoLLUU {Jour, Amer, Med. Assoc, 71 {1918), No. 12, pp. 937-941* o5«. in 
Chem. Abs., 12 {1918), No. 23, p. £610).— Investigations leadhig to the present 
conception of an adequate diet are reviewed, and, « the deficiency diseases- 
scurvy and pellagra — are discussed in the light of recent studies conducted 
by the author and other Investigators. 

The Inorganic elements in nutrition, T. B. Osborne, L. B. Mendel, et au 
{Jour. Biol. Chem., 34 {1918), No. 1, pp. 131-139, pis. 3).— The rdle in nutrition 
of the inorganic elements, individually and collectively, has been studied by the 
use of salt mixtures in which one or more of the elements has been omitted 
and replaced by Increments of the remaining ones so as to maintain as nearly as 
possible the balance of acids and bases. These were used in the customary 
feeding experiments with rats to replace the complete mixtures of inorganic 
salts, which have been shown to be adequate. 

It was found that good growth took place when magnesium, sodium, and 
calcium were all present in traces only. With less than 0.04 per cent of either 
chlorln or sodium, slightly more than 0.01 per cent magnesium, and only 0.08 
per cent of potassium, respectively, the usual growth was attained. When 
both sodium and potassium were simultaneously decreased, growth ceased. The 
subsequent addition of sodium alone caused only a slight gain, but later sub- 
stitution of potassium for sodium caused rapid recovery. Cessation or re- 
striction of growth followed rapidly as a result of feeding diets low in calcium 
or pho^horus. This was promptly remedied by the introduction of either in 
organic form. 

The authors discuss the significance of the results obtained, and conclude 
that in the long run much smaller quantities of those inorganic elements which 
can be husbanded will be required for well-being than of those which are needed 
for the maintenance of neutrality and are continuously eliminated. This is 
wholly apart from any quantity necessary for the construction of special tissues 
like bone or for the production of milk. Attention ia called to the fftct that any 
shortage of an essential inorganic element can be suitably remedied under or- 
dinary conditions by the use of its salts. 



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Wl«l ANIMAL PBODUCnON. 71 

The r61e of inorgaziic sulphates in nutrition, Amy L. Daniels and Jean K. 
Rich {Jour. Biol. Chem,, S6 (1918), No. 1, pp. i7-S2, figs. S; aba. in Chem. Abs., 
It (1918), No. 23, p. 2605).— Feeding experiments with rats to determine 
whether the. young animal is able to synthesize cystin from inorganic sulphates 
are reported. Evidence is furnished that the inorganic sulphates can not be 
used to replace the organically combined sulphur of cystin. 

Observations on the significance of glycolic acid, gljoxal, glycol aldehyde, 
and amino-aldehyde in intermediary metabolism, I. Gbeenwalo {Jour. BioU 
Chem., S5 (1918), No. S, pp. J^l-ilt; aba. in Chem. Aba., 12 (1918), No. 23 pp. 
2608, 2609). — ^From experiments with phlorhizinlEed dogs the author concludes 
that it is highly improbable that glycolic acid and glyoxal are converted into 
glucose In the body, but that it is probable, but not established, that glycol alde- 
hyde may be converted into glucose. In regard to the significance of glycin and 
amlno-aldehyde in intermediary metabolism, the possible sequence is suggested 
of glycin ^amino-aldehyde ?:±glycol aldehyde ;p±glucose. 

Hunger and appetite secretion of gastric Juice in infants' stomachs, R. 
Tatlob (Amer. Jour. Diaeaaea ChUdren, U {1911), No. 4, pp. 258-266, fig. i).— 
An apparatus is described by which sham feeding can be carried out and gastric 
juice collected under conditions which are said to give positive evidence of the 
amount secreted. Experimental evidence obtained with this apparatus tends 
to prove that there is no appetite or psychic secretion of gastric Juice in the 
hifant The empty stomach of the hungry infant was found to secrete a pepsin- 
containing gastric Juice which is often as acid as that found In the adult 
stomach. The more profuse this secretion the higher Is its acidity. 

Contribution to the study of digestive lencocytosis, P. Bbodin and F. Saint- 
GnoNS {Compt Rend. Acad. Soi. [Pariah, 166 {1918), No. 7, pp. S02-305).—A 
study of digestive lencocytosis was conducted by means of the determination 
of the number of leucocytes in the blood every half hour for six or seven hours 
after the ingestion of different food materials. The results are summarized as 
follows : 

In the normal subject digestion is constantly accompanied by modlfl^feitions in 
leacocytic equilibrium bearing upon the number of white corpuscles and the 
proportion of polynudears. The number of leucocytes decreases at first and then 
hicreases, the largest number being found from two to three hours and again 
from four to six hours after the meaL The proportion of polynudears follows 
a course almost parallel with that of the number of leucocytes. The modifica- 
tions of the leucocytic equilibrium vary with each individual and, above all, 
with the nature of the food, being most pronounced on a meat diet. This is 
caused by the passage into the blood of ingested products. 

AHIMAL PBODXTCTIOH. 

Feeding farm animals, W. E. Gabboix (Utah Bta. Giro. 32 {1918), pp. 3-23).-^ 
This circular constitutes a brief popular treatise on the feeding of farm animals, 
. discussing in particular the function of food nutrients, the digestion of feeds, 
rations, and the relative value of feeding stuffs. Ck>mpiled tables are presented 
showing the nutrient requirements for growth, fattening, milk production, and 
work production, and the relative values of different feeding stuffs as based on 
their content of digestible matter, net energy, and feed units, and also as em- 
ployed in the feeding of the more common farm animals. 

Gomposition and digestibility of Sudan grass hay, W. O. Gakssleb and 
A. C MoCAnnusH {Iowa 8ta. Reaearch Bui. 46 {1918), pp. 66-75),— Thla has 
been abstracted from another source (E. S. R., 88, p. 672). 
10«28'— 19 6 

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72 EXPBRIMEKT STATION BEGOBD. CVol.40 

Commercial feeding stulfa, E. G. Pboxtlx vr al. (Indiana Sia. Bui. 217 
(1918), pp. 3-152)'. — ^Thls bulletin contains the usual data regarding the In- 
diana feedings stuffs control law and its enforcement, including a discussion of 
tlie findings in the inspection during the year. Analyses are reported of wheat 
bran, wheat middlings, shorts, red dog flour, low-grade flour, rye middlings, 
buckwheat hulls, alfalfa meal, blood meal, meat scrap, meat meal, tankage, 
dried beet pulp, coconut-oil meal, com bran, gluten feed, gluten meal, hominy 
feed, Telvet bean feed, cottonseed feed, cottonseed meal, cold pressed cotton 
seed, brewers* grains, distillers* grains, yeast grains, linseed meal, and proprie- 
tary and mixed feeds. 

New feeds, A. J. Patten (Michigan Sta., Quart, Bui., 1 (1918), No. 1, pp. IS, 
16). — ^Brief descriptions of the following feeds which have appeared recently to 
a greater or less extent on the markets are given: Barley feed, oatmeal by- 
products, corn feed meal, corn bran, com oil cake meal, velvet bean feed, and 
rye feed. The description in some instances includes the gross composition. 

[Analyses of feeding stuffs], O. Dusserbe (Ann. Aqt. Suisse, 19 (1918), No. 
1, pp. ii5-ii9).— Analyses are reported of samples of feeding stuflts, including 
press cakes of sesame, peanuts, corn, and flaxseed; cereal flours; and fodder 
mixtures of various materials. 

Synthetic capacity of the mammary gland. — 1, Can this gland synthesize 
lysinP B. B. Habt, V. B. Nelson, and W. Pits (Jour. Biol Chem., S6 (1918), 
No. 2, pp. 291-S07, figs. 13; abs. in Jour. Amer, Med. Assoc., 72 (1919), No. 1, 
p. 70). — ^Feeding experiments similar to those of Osborne, Mendel, and Ferry 
(E. S. R., 28, p. 864), in which gliadin was used as a basal protein, have been 
conducted by the authors with rats as experimental animals and zein as the 
basal protein. 

The results indicate that it is very probable that the mammary gland has 
not the capacity to synthesize lysin, and that lysin is not dispensable for normal 
maintenance. The evidence is considered to support the view that, as far as 
the proteins are considered, milk secretion, like growth, is ultimately dependent 
upon th^quality and quantity of amino acids ingested with the food. 

[Pasturing and feeding experiments], F. B. Hsadley (U. 8. Dept. Agr., 
Bur. Plant Indus., Work Truckee-Carson Expt. Farm, 1917, pp. 21-24), — ^Three 
tests with pasture grasses for cattle are briefly described. On two acres of 
mixed grasses planted in June, 1917, and including in the seed mixture 2 lbs. 
alsike clover, 2 lbs. meadow fescue, 7 lbs. brome grass, 6 lbs. oat grass, 5 lbs. 
orchard grass, 8 lbs. rye grasji, and 3 lbs. Kentucky blue grass, per acre, all 
varieties, except possibly Kentucky blue grass, made a rank growth the flrst 
year. The field produced some hay and was used for fall pasture. In another 
test a mixed grass pasture had made sufficient growth for pasturing by May 1 
and continued to supply pasture until in October. It was estimated that on 
this pasture one and one-half acres would have provided continuous pasture 
sufficient for two cows. 

Pigs on sweet clover pasture were fed a daily ration of 101 lbs. of rolled 
barley for four weeks, when during the next four weeks 1 lb. of tankage was 
substituted for 1 lb. of the grain. At the end of this period the tankage was 
increased to 1^ lbs. daily. The quantity of grain per pound of gain was re- 
duced from 6.55 lbs. when no tankage was fed to 2.8 lbs., including the tankage 
when this was added to the ration. In 1917 pigs on a 2 per cent grain ration 
required per pound of gain 8.1 lbs. of feed when on sweet clover pasture, while 
pigs on alfalfa pasture required 8.5 lbs. In 1916, however, pigs on alfalfa 
pasture required only 2.4 lbs. of feed to produce 1 lb. of gain. The results of 
a feeding test indicated com to be more economical than barley for fattening 
pigs when the price per pound is the same. A comparison of hand feeding and 

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m9i ANiMAii PRODXJonoir. 73 

self feedfnff pigs reBnlted in more rapid gains from self feeding but at a small 
financial loss, while with hand feeding there was a small margin of profit. 

Labor-savinfiT in Uve-stoek production (U, B. Dept, Agr., Off, Sec. Circ. 122 
{1918) y pp, 14, figs, 7). — ^This circular presents a number of brief articles, each 
by a different author, on the production of live stock as a means of saying labor, 
and the possible saving of labor by the use of work stock and in the raising of 
hogs, sheep, beef cattle, and poultry. 

Saving farm labor by harvestins: crops with live stock, J. A. Drake (U. £f. 
Dept. Affr.f Farmer8* Bui. 1008 (1918), pp. 16, figs. 23). —This points out, largely 
by pictures of actual farm practices, some of the advantages of keeping live 
stock and of using hogs, sheep, and beef cattle to help harvest and market 
farm crops. 

Studies in inheritance of certain characters of crosses between dairy and 
beef breeds of cattle, J. W. Ck>WEN (Jour. Agr. Research [U. 8.], IS {1918), 
No. 1, pp. €3, pis. 6, figs. 2). — This paper presents a preliminary analysis of the 
inheritance of the more prominent characters in the first generation crosses of 
the principal dairy breeds, Holstein-Frlesian, Guernsey, Jersey, and Ayrshire, 
on the Aberdeen-Angus, forming part of the crossbred herd being brought to- 
gether by the Maine Experiment Station for the purpose of studying some 
of the outstanding problems of dairy husbandry. Individual descriptions of the 
animals in the parental and in the crossbred herd, and the individual records 
of the animals composing both the parental generation and the first and second 
filial generations are given. A list of cited literature is appended. 

A study of the inbreeding In the foundation herd is reported as showing that 
the inbreeding as measured by the best mathematical methods is no greater 
than would be exi)ected to occur in any of the modern breeds when the animals 
were selected at random. It is considered safe to assume, therefore, that the 
results of the study are not due to the width of the crosses, as a number of the 
animals famous in their breed have been far more inbred than any of the 
parental stock voted in these experiments. 

Black body color was found dominant to the other color in the first genera- 
tion. The appearance in the second year of an orange-coated bull is explained 
on the basis of a recessive dllutor in the Guernsey segregated out along with 
the black color, and the appearance of a dark Jersey dun-coated heifer is 
regarded as showing that the Jersey does not normally possess this factor. 

Of the white body markings the white in the inguinal region alone appeared 
dominant All other white markings were in general suppressed in the off- 
q>ring when such animals were mated to solid color. The pigmented muzzle was 
foimd dominant to the one not pigmented, and in accordance with previous 
results it was shown that a pigmented tongue is dominant to a nonpigmented 
one. 

A black switch appeared to cause the suppression of the other switch colors 
in the offspring, and this together with the fact that all the matings had at least 
one animal with a black switch as parent made it impossible to study the 
b^avior of the other colors. A deep red-orange switch was segregated out 
from a back cross of a black animal carrying an orange coat and white switch, 
geietically, thus showing the segregation of the factor for orange switch from 
that for both white and black. 

With regard to the character of poUedness, it is stated that two-horned 
animals resulted from crosses of polled with horned parents. It is pointed out 
that on the basis of the other results these could not have resulted from a 
heterozygous polled condition. These cases, one with the horns tight and the 
other loose, are looked upon as exceptions to the previously accepted hypoth- 
esis of simple dominance for Uie polled character, and it is suggested that the 

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74 



EXPERIMENT STATION BEOOBD. 



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testes have some action on the presence or absence of horns. This hypothesis 
is considered as partially proved by the fact that of the polled animals 10 
were females, 2 males, and 1 doubtfully polled, and of the animals with scors 
1 female and 7 males had loose scurs and 8 males had tight scurs, while those 
with horns (only 2) were also males. The author suggests this difference as 
apparently due to a hormone secreted by the germ cells. 

It was observed that the type of head and heavy, deep-fleshed forequarters 
were transmitted when either parent was Aberdeen-Angus, while the body and 
hind quarters appeared intermediate but resembled most the dairy parents. 
The results further indicated that high milk producticm is dominant to low pro- 
duction, but that high taX percentage is recessive to a low fat percentage in the 
milk. 

Baby beef, L. Foster and E. J. Maynabd (New Uewioo 8ta. Bui, 112 {1918), 
pp. 15, fiffs, 9). — ^An experiment is reported in which the value of beef and 
dairy types for baby beef production was compared. The four steers used in the 
test included a Shorthorn-Hereford cross, an Angus-Hereford cross, a high- 
grade Holstein, and a high-grade Jersey. The Jersey steer weighed approxi- 
mately 60 lbs. and the others each 00 Iba at birth. One of the beef steers 
ran with his dam until 260 and the other until 830 days old, when they were 
given a full feed of grain and hay or grain and pasture, while the dairy 
calves we're taken from their dams when a few days old and were put gradually 
on liberal rations of sldm milk and grain. The steers were all slaughtered at 
the age of 688 days. The results of the test are summarized in the following 
table: 

Comparison of heef and dairy types for J>ahy heef production. 





Final 

weight. 


Dally 
gain. 


Grain 
con- 
sumed. 


Hay 

somed. 


Cost of 
produc- 
tion. 


U^e weight. 


Dratsed 

meat. 


Typeolrteer. 


Cost per 
pound. 


Value at 
13 cents. 


Amna-Hereford 

Grade Holstein 

Grade Jersey 


Pounds. 

1,140 

1.120 

984 

860 


Pounds. 
1.80 
1.76 
l.<3 
1.37 


Pounds. 
1,863 
2; 606 
3,333 
3,332 


Pounds. 
2,823 

3 166 

4 387 
4,387 


883.67 
97.78 
81.45 
81.45 


Cents. 
7.3 
8.7 
8.2 
10.1 


1148.20 
145.60 
127.92 
111.80 


Per cent, 
69.57 
60.54 
63.00 
60.81 







In estimating the cost of production grain was valued at $1.50, and skim milk 
at 15 cts. per hundredweight, alfalfii hay at $10 per ton, and pastmre at $1 
per month. The cost of raising the beef calves by their dams was placed at 
$36 each. 

In this connection attention is called to certain results from other experi- 
ments conducted at the station. In. a trial with cattle of different ages the 
average dally gains were as follows : Calves 8.18 lbs., yearlings 2.22 lbs., two- 
year-olds 2.15 lbs., and three-year-olds 0.06 lb. In a second trial the corre- 
sponding gains were 2.7, 2.21, 2.25, and 1.52 lbs. In the first test the calves 
consumed 7.77 lbs. of feed for each pound of grain, the yearlings 11.11 lb&, the 
two-year-olds 11.46 lbs., and the three-year-olds 20.84 lbs., while In the second 
trial the corresponding figures were 6.96, 9.57, 9.63, and 12.6 lbs. 

Sheep Investigations, D. A. Spenckb {Oklahoma Bta. Rpi, 1917, pp. t3-26).^ 
A preliminary report on sheep breeding investigations in progress since 1910 
is presented, in which the methods of procedure for each year are summarized, 
and the studies of characters with some of the results are briefly described. 

It is pointed out that the numerous cross-bred individuals show that it has 
been possible to maintain a dominance of the desirable mutton conformation 

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1M»1 ANIMAL PBODtJOnOK. 75 

with as much as 50 per cent of the Inheritance of Shropshire or Dorset blood. 
Satisfactory size was dominant in all crosses except in those having from 25 to 
50 per cent American Merino Inheritance combined with as much as 25 to 50 
per cent of Shropshire Inheritance. The resnlts of crossing also indicated that 
the hornless character of the Shropshire is dominant in the female offspring. 
The absence of folded skin in the mutton breeds appears to be dominant over 
the presence of folds in the fine-wool breeds. 

The Merinos and Ramboulllets transmitted satisfactorily their density and 
flneness of fleece. The fine-wool breeds stood first in fall and winter lambing, 
followed closely by the Dorsets, but most of the Shropshlres lambed in March 
and April. In several of the simple crosses the lambing time was about midway 
between the periods of lambing for the two breeds represented. The prolificacy 
of the different breeds and crosses was as follows : Merinos 114 per cent, Ram- 
honillets 114, Mefino-Dorsets 188, Shropshire-Dorseta 139, Shropshlres 139, and 
Dorsets 148 per cent. 

Pork production in North Dakota, W. H. Peters and D. J. Geiken (North 
Dakota Sta. Buh irt {1918), pp/U^-TtS, flgs. 15).— This bulletin discusses 
briefly some of the more important phases of swine management, points out the 
value of certain crops for pasturing swine, and reports the results of a number 
of feeding trials, giving numerical data In tabular form. 

The average results of all the station's trials with feeding grain alone to hogs 
in the dry lot are considered as indicating that under these conditions of feeding 
it takes about 4i lbs. of grain to make 1 lb. of pork. It was shown also that it 
is more difficult to keep pigs in good health and to produce a good firm quality 
of pork under these conditions than when the pigs are kept on pasture. 

From the results of feeding experiments in 1916 and 1917 with pigs on alfalfa 
pasture it Is concluded that alfalfa is the most successful pasture crop for hogs, 
and that a ration of 3) lbs. of grain per 100 lbs. of live weight of pigs per day 
fed to young growing animals on alfalfa pasture produces better and more uni- 
form hogs, and also gives a larger profit than either a lighter or a heavier grain 
ration. In a trial in which the pigs were pastured on sweet clover, it was found 
that this crop did not prove very palatable to them. Canada field peas at the 
station were not found satisfactory for providing summer pasture. At the 
Bdgeley Substation in 1917 four acres of field peas pastured by 100 pigs during 
the greater part of August produced a gain of 1,750 lbs., which, at 12 cts. per 
pound, gave the field an acre value of about $62.50. Hogging off Canada field 
peas when mature proved practical and profitable. Hogging off the early 
maturing varieties of com through the fall months was also found advantageous. 

Feeding good alfalfa hay to brood sows in winter made possible a saving of 
from i to I of the grain that otherwise would have been required. 

Fattening ho^ by the ase of the self-feeder, J. S. Maijons {Olctahoma 8ta, 
Rpt. 1911, p. 22). — ^A feeding test was conducted from November 29. 1916, to 
F^mary 28, 1917, to study the value of self-feeders, of Kaflr corn for the fat- 
tening feed, and of tankage, peanut meal, and cottonseed meal as protein sup- 
plements. Kafir com was fed through a self-feeder with each one of the sup- 
plements, and in one instance with the three supplements together. The net 
profit per lot of 7 hogs from Kafir com and tankage was $121.10, from Kafir com 
and peanut meal $9a85, from Kafir com and cottonseed meal $96.08, and from 
Kafir com combined with the three supplements, $180.34. In the calculation 
the values per 100 lbs. of the differ^iit feeds were as follows : Kafir com, $1, 
tankage $3, peanut meal $2, and cottonseed meal $1.50. 

Feeding value of skim milk, H. W. Nobton, jb. (Michigan 8ta,, Quart, But,, 
I (191%), No. 1, pp. 17, 18).— A summary of the results of a lifirge number of 
IMing trials by different experiment stations throughout the country was 



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76 EXPERIMENT STATION REGOBD. [Vol. 40 

made to determine the valne of akim milk as a supplement to com and other 
cereal grains when fed to pigs. It Is pointed out that 415 pigs fed cereal grains 
only made an average gain of 100 lbs. from 486.5 lbs. of grain and that 325 
pigs fed cereal grains supplemented by skim milk made an average gain of 100 
Iba from 266.9 lbs. of grain and 785.1 lbs. of skim milk. This indicates that 
100 lbs. of skim milk replaced 28 lbs. of grain. Calculated on the basis of 
$50 to $80 per ton for the different grains used, which included com, wheat, 
rye, and barley, the value of the skim milk ranged from 0.7 to 1.2 cents per 
pound. Attention is also called to the fact that this summary showed much 
greater returns from the skim milk when 2 to 3 lbs. of milk was fed per pound 
of grain than when the milk was fed in larger quantities. 

Velvet bean feed for piffs, H. W. Norton, jx. (Michiffan Sta., Quart. Bui., 1 
{1918), No, J, pp. 7, 8).— Seven lots of thrifty pigs weighing from 90 to 125 
lbs. at the beginning of the test were fed velvet beans In the pods and velvet 
bean feed consisting of the ground beans and pods. These feeds were used 
singly and in combinations with middlings, com, and tankage. The first lot 
was fed the velvet beans in the pods dr^ through a self-feeder, while the 
other lots received the feed as slop. On the basis of $37.50 per ton for un- 
ground velvet beans and pods, $40 per ton for velvet bean feed, $40 per ton 
for wheat middlings, $60 per ton for com, and $100 per ton for tankage, the 
feed cost per pound of gain in the first lot amounted to 41.73 cts., and in the 
lot receiving velvet bean feed alone to 39.88 cts. The cheaptest gain by far, 
the feed cost per pound of gain being 10.86 cts., was made by the check lot 
fed 10 parts of corn and 1 part tankage. 

Second annual report for the year 1917 by the Oklahoma State Livestock 
Begistry Board {Oklahoma 8ta, Circ, U {1918), pp. Ill, fiff$. 7).— This report 
contains the text of the State live stock registration law and rules and regula- 
tions adopted by the board for its enforcement, and gives lists by breeds and 
counties of the stallions and jacks licensed in the State in 1917. Lists of the 
horse and Jack registry associations recognized and not recognized in Oklahoma 
and a list of the States having stallion laws are also given. A number of popu- 
lar articles on raising and handling horses are included. 

The value of skim milk and meat scraps for White Plymouth Bocks, A. O. 
Philips {Indiana 8ta. Bui, tl8 {1918), pp. 20, figs. 4).— The results are re- 
ported of feeding experiments with pullets and with hens. The experiments 
wit}i pullets, conducted for three consecutive years beginning in December, 1914, 
included an annual series of three pens, each receiving a mixed grain ration 
made up of corn and wheat, 10 lbs. each, and oats 5 lbs. with a mash consist- 
ing of 5 lbs. each of bran and shorts. In addition to this allowance one pen 
received 50 lbs. of skim milk and another pen 3.5 lbs. of meat scrap, these 
quantities furnishing approximately the same amount of protein. During the 
winter the com was increased to 15 lbs., the wheat reduced to 5 lbs., and in 
the fall 1 lb. of oil meal was added. Grit, oyster shell, and dry bone were 
always available as was also water, except in the skim milk pen. When not on 
range the birds were fed mangels. The bran and shorts were fed together as a 
dry mash. The skim milk was fed in an open pan and the meat scrap was 
mixed with the mash. ' 

The average annual consumption of feed per fowl was 97.63 lbs. fbr the 
meat scrap pen, 83.24 lbs. for the check pen, and 201.82 lbs., including 115.74 
lbs. of milk, for the skim milk pen, the cost being $1.69, $1.37, and $1.79, 
respectively. The cost of feeding a pullet on a good ration averaged about 
$1.75 in 1916 and nearly $2.50 in 1917. No difference in feeding capacity 
between good and poor layers was observed. The use of skim milk and meat 
scrap increased the efficiency of the grain. The average cost of producing 1 



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MWl ANIMAL PBODUOnOJT. 77 

dozen eggs was 15.5 cts. in the skim milk pen, 15.2 cts. in the meat scrap pen, 
and 27.5 cts. in the pen receiving no food from animal sources. For the pro- 
duction of 1 lb. of eggs the skim milk pen required 4.9 lbs. of dry matter » the 
meat scrap pen 5.14 lbs., and the check pen 9.57 lb&, while the egg production 
per pallet averaged 140.2, 135.9, and 61.2 eggs, req;>ectively. All the pullets in 
the tests tended to lay the most eggs in or about the month of April. 

The profit over feed per pullet in the skim milk pen was $1.59, in the meat 
scrap pen $1.62, and in the check pen 5 ct& The feeding value per 100 lbs. of 
skim milk was $1.60 and of meat scrap $20.03. The meat scrap pen produced 
better fertility but not so good hatching power of eggs as was produced by the 
skim milk pen, while the check pen produced the best fertility. It was found 
that the average yearly manure production per pullet at night was about 27 
lbs. The method of feeding appeared to have no influence on health or 
mortality. 

At the dose of the first and the second years of the experiments above de- 
scribed the check pens were retained and placed on the skim milk ration, while 
the skim milk pens were also retained and continued on their ration another 
year. This was done to determine whether or not the poor egg production in 
the check pens had been due to the lack of animal protein or to poor laying 
powers in the particular birds. The results secured in this test showed that 
the hens consumed nearly as much food as when they were pullets, the feed 
cost being only slightly less, and that pullets fed no animal protein increased 
thdr consumption of everything as hens when given skim milk in abundance. 
The fowls which had had suificient animal protein all their lives normally laid 
leas eggs as hens than as pullets, but fowls not receiving sufficient protein as 
pullets when given skim milk as hens laid at least as many eggs as pullets nor- 
mally did. 

The pullets from the check pens molted early, were in full new feathers by 
October, and when skim milk feeding was begun In November they laid more 
winter eggs as hens than any fowls did as piUlets. It is pointed out that early 
molting indicates poor laying but may not indicate poor laying capacity. The 
hens not fed milk as pallets produced a greater profit over feed as hens than 
did the milk-fed pullets. While hens seemed to produce better fertility than 
pallets they showed little improvement in the hatching power of the eggs. 

The nesting habits of the hen, G. M. Tubpin {loica 8ta. Bui. 178 (1918), pp. 
tOB-^^t flffg, 6), — ^This bulletin reports the results of experiments and obser- 
vations made to determine the Important factors influencing hens in selecting 
the place for laying their egg& Data for March and April, and April and May, 
showing the regularity in time of nesting are presented in tables, together with 
other records. 

Of the hens under observation as to the diurnal time of laying 17.7 per cent 
laid before 9 a. m., 28.5 per cent from 9 to 11 a. m., 27.8 per cent from 11 a. m. 
to 1 p. m., 19.5 per cent from 1 to 8 p. m., and 7 per cent from 8 to 5 p. m. 
Nesting records showed that a large percentage of hens adhere closely to a 
oniform -schedule of daily egg production and the time of day of laying. Hens 
laying regularly every other day were found to lay at about the same hour 
each day, and those laying two days in succession in every three-day period as 
a role laid the first ^^g of the cycle at a certain definite hour of the forenoon 
and the second egg during a definite period in the afternoon. Most of the hens 
laying three e|^ in a cycle laid the first egg comparatively early in the fore- 
oooD, the second somewhat later in the forenoon, and the third at a definite 

period in the afternoon. In general hens laying more than three eggs in a cycle 

laid a larger proportion of their eggs in the forenoon than those laying a 



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78 BXPBRIMENT STATIOK BECOKD. lVoL40 

smaller number In a cyde. It was observed that hens usually visited a number 
of nests and spent some time on them before selecting the nest In which they 
finally laid. 

The average time spent on the nest in laying was found to be 1 hour and 35 
minutes for each of two tests with White Leghorns, 1 hour and 45 minutes and 

1 hour and 49 minutes, respectively, for two tests with Rhode Island Reds, and 

2 hours and 16 minutes in one test with White Plymouth Rocks. The time the 
bens spent on nests when not laying brought the average per egg produced up 
to about two hours. The proportion of the total time spent on the nest before 
and after the egg was actually delivered varied greatly, but no correlation was 
apparent between the rate of egg production and the average length of time 
spent on the nest in laying. Hens frequently visited the nests and spent con- 
siderable time there on days when they did not lay. 

Nests appeared much more attractive to the hens when they contained at 
least one egg, and to become less attractive as the number of eggs was Increased 
to more than three or four. In three tests to determine the value of nest eggs, 
the numbers of eggs laid in the first test in nests furnished, respectively, with 
no nest egg, china egg, and hen's egg were in the ratio 100 : 198 : 209 ; in the 
second test with no nest egg, glass egg, hen's egg, and wooden egg in the ratio 
was 100 : 160 : 184 : 233 ; and in the third test with no nest egg, hen's egg, 
wooden egg, and plaster of Paris egg, 100 : 194 : 208 : 221. 

The relative number of eggs laid in concealed and exposed nests was ^re- 
spectively, 113 and 100. In one test 91.7 per cent and In another 87.6 per cent 
of all eggs produced were laid in concealed nests with nest eggs, compared with 
exposed nests without nest eggs. Habit did not appear as a strong factor in 
determining the particular nest in which the hen chose to lay from day to 
day. It is stated that at least one nest for each four or five hens is required 
to meet the needs of the average farm flock. 

Seasonable facts of special interest to poultrymen, H. R. Lewis {New Jer- 
sey Stas., Hints to Poidtrymenf 7 {1918), No. 1, pp, 4). — ^Present conditions of 
the poultry industry, the feed, fuel, and poultry supply situation, and recent 
rulings of interest to the egg trade are briefly noted, and the standard shipping 
boxes adapted by the International Baby Chick Association are described. 

DAIBT FAXMnrO^DAIETINa. 

Profitable dairy-farm organization in Kentncky, W. D. Nichozxs and J. B. 
HuTSON (Kentucky 8ta, Bui, tit {1918), pp. 95-H6, figs. 9).— Studies by the 
farm management survey method were made of 162 dairy farms situated in the 
district furnishing the bulk of the milk supply of Louisville^ and the average 
results as well as the data pertaining to a number of individual farms on which 
noteworthy results were secured are reported in detail and discussed. On 
the farms studied 46 per cent of the total receipts were secured from dairy 
products, 8.2 per cent from dairy cattle, 10 per cent from hogs, 4.5 per ooit 
from beef cattle, 1.4 per cent from sheep, 8.4 per cent from tobacco, 4.3 per cent 
from wheat, 4 per cent from feed crops, 2 per cent from poultry, and 1L2 per 
cent from other sources. 

As based on the average results, the relation to labor income of the receipts 
per cow, crop yields, the receipts per cow and crop yields combined, size of farm, 
crop acreage, size of herd, capital, rate of stocking the farm, pasture utilization, 
amount of live stock kept on crop yield, proportion of farm animals in cows 
and receipts per cow, receipts from hogs, receipts from crops, and receipts per 
$100 worth of feed is shown in tables. The average for the most profitable 10 
farms showed a production of milk to the value of $208 per $100 worth of feed 



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1M»1 DAIBY FARMIKG — ^DAIRYlKa. 79 

as comimrcd with $163, the average for all the farms. These 10 farms had four 
times the labor Income, twice the capital and crop area, 40 per cent greater total 
area, were twice as heavily stocked, had 21 per cent better crop yields, 26 per 
cent greater receipts per cow, and carried 70 per cent more cows per unit of 
pasture than did the average farm. 

A large production per cow was shown to be a fundamental factor in profitable 
dairy farming. The profitable proportion of dairy cows to farm animals was 
determined mainly by the quality of the cows. With poor cows profits decreased 
ts their proportionate number increased, while with high-producing cows the 
IirofitB Increased until their number reached 60 to 65 per cent of the farm stock, 
beyond which the percentage of profits decreased. The profits also increased with 
the crop yields, and the farms having both crop yields and herd production 
better than the average made profits six times greater than those made on the 
farms with crop yields and herd production under the average. In general the 
farms with the larger acreage and herds and employin^the larger amounts of 
capital gave the better returns. The most profitable farms had about three- 
fourths of their total capital in real estate and one-fourth in operating capital. 

The well-stocked farms produced much the larger crop yields. Pastures 
fomlahed by far the cheapest feed for milk production. The farms with pastures 
carrying one cow to 1.3 acres made labor Incomes 20 times as great as the farms 
with pastures carrying only one cow to 4.4 acres. A few hogs on dairy farms 
proved profitable, but sheep were kept to advantage only on the larger farms 
where the sheep and cattle could be kept separate. Gash crops to a certain 
extent were found profitable, but too large a proportion of the receipts from 
this source caused profits to decline. 

Cooperative bull associations, J. G. Winkjbe (U. 8. Dept. Agr,, Farmer^ 
Btd, 99S {1918) f pp. 55, flfft, 7).— The history of the movement is briefly noted 
and some of its advantages, including the keeping of better and fewer bulls, the 
low cost of cooperation, the quick returns of the investment, the possibility of 
line breeding, the elimination of the scrub, and the encouragement of community 
breeding, are discussed. The influence of heredity and the sire as a factor in 
herd Improvement are set forth, and the educational value of bull associations 
is pointed out Advice is presented regarding the eradication of disease and 
nggestlons, including the form of constitution and by-laws, are given on how 
to organize an association of this kind. The selection of bulls is also briefly 
eoDsidered. 

Diphtheria, G. W. McGot, J. Bolten, and H. S. BKBNSTEiif {Puh. Health 
RpU. [U. S.], 5« {1917), No. 4S, pp. llBn-im. Affs. 7).— This is the history of 
•an epidemic of diphtheria, probably of milk origin, occurring at Newport, R. I., 
and vicinity in the sununer of 1917. The source of Infection was evidently con- 
ta mla ate d milk used in making ice cream. It is pointed out that the epidemic 
ooold have been averted by proper pasteurization of the milk supply. 

Pasteurization, O. G. Baixbaussn {Agr. Gag. V. 8. WiOes, 29 {1918), No. 8, 
9p. S85-591). — ^The methods in use in New South Wales for pasteurizing cream 
fm butter manufacture and for the preparation and propagation of lactic add 
itarters are described, and a critical discussion is given of the value of both 
processes in the manufacture of butter of the first quality. 

The manufacture of Keuf ch&tel and cream cheese in the factory, K. J. 
Xatrbson and F. R. Gammack (17. 8. Dept. Agr. But 669 {1918), pp. 28, figs. 
4).— TUs bulletin discusses important factors in successful production, the 
process of making these types of cheese, and the methods of packing best 
adapted to the product, and reports the results of experimental work on the 
manufacturing process and the keeping qualities of the cheese. Statements 
lesanling the yield of cheese per 100 lbs. of milk are also presented. 



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80 BXPSBIICBNT STATIOK BEOOBO. [VoL^O 

The results of tests with different quantities of rennet indicated that from 
0.5 to 2 oc. per 100 lbs. is most satisfactory for NenfchAtei and from 1 to 2 cc 
for cream cheesa In experiments with pepsin as a substltnte for rennet, pepsin 
was used in making cream cheese in qnantities of i to A gm. per 100 lbs. of 
milk, and fat determinations were made of the whey. The nse of about A gm. 
gave the best results. The fat losses in the whey were practically the same for 
both the pepsin-made and rennet-made cheese. 

In studies of the effect of temperature on the making process, temperatures 
ranging from 15 to 84i* G. (58 to 94.1** F.) were used. A degree or two of 
variation betwe^i the temperature of setting and that of pouring was ob- 
served, and a temperature below 25* or much above 30* did not prove desir- 
able. It was noticed that the losses of fat increased with the higher per- 
centages of fat and that the losses with the low setting temperatures wore 
somewhat high. 

To determine the effect of the starter on the making process, samples of 
Neufch&tel and cream cheese were made with 0, 1, 10, 50, 250, and 1,250 cc of 
starter per 90-lb. unit The loss of tat showed the desirability of using a 
starter instead of depending upon the normal fermentation. The use of a 
heavy starter and of milk ripened to a high degree before setting had a ten- 
dency to check drainage. The best results were secured with setting the milk 
at 28.5* and using rennet at the rate of 1 cc. per 100 lbs. The use of dif- 
ferent quantities of starter up to 250 cc. per unit of 30 lbs. showed very little 
difference in the flavor of the cheese. 

Several trials were made to study the effects of pasteurization on fat loss 
and drainage. No marked difference in the fat losses was observed when pas- 
teurized and nonpasteurlzed milk were used In making the cheese. With 
Neufch&tel cheese the curd from pasteurized milk showed a tendency to retain 
more of the whey than the curd from unpasteurized milk. When the pas- 
teurized and the raw product were handled under the same conditions the 
pasteurized cream cheese contained an average of 49.46 per cent of moisture 
as compared with 47 per cent for the cheese from the unpasteurized milk. A 
study of the effect of homogenization on fat losses in cream cheese Indicated 
a slight advantage due to tfie process but hardly sufllclent to make it profitable. 

In a study of the influence of yield on quality, samples of cream cheese were 
pressed to yield from 15 to 24 Iba per 100 lbs. of milk and judged at intervals 
of a few days during storing periods of 15, 18, and 25 days. The samples yield- 
ing highest were found slightly more add than those of the lower yields which 
ranked lower in texture. The cheese giving a yield of 18 lbs. per 100 lbs. of milk 
stood first In preference and that with a yield of 21 lbs. stood second. Samples 
containing 0.75 and 1.25 per cent of salt seemed to keep equally well, but the 
proportion of 0.75 to 1 per cent is recommended, as a higher percentage t^ids 
to hide the finer fiavors. 

The influence of the holding system of pasteurization was studied in cream 
cheese from milk unpasteurized and from milk initially heated by running It 
through a pasteurizer at about 62* for 35 minutes or longer. The samples 
were stored at 20, 15, and 10 and 5*. The results seemed to indicate that 
for about the flrst 10 days the preference was in favor of the pasteurized product 
for all temperatures. From 10 to 15 days the preference was for the pas- 
teurized cheese held at 15 and 5*, and for the unpasteurized cheese at 10 
and 20*. In nearly every case the texture of the pasteurized product was 
Judged superior to the unpasteurized. 

Other results secured showed that homogenization of milk for making these 
types of cheese can not be recommended, and that there was very little differ- 
ence In the keeping qualities of cream cheese from milk pasteurized either by 



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1919] DAIBY FABMIKQ — ^DAIBTINO. 81 

the flash or the holding system. Practically no difference was observed in the 
keeping qualities of cheese made with powdered or scale pepsin. The addition 
of pimento peppers at the rate of 1 part to 10 or 20 parts of cream cheese 
greatly prolonged the keeping quality. 

Experiments in dairy products manufacture, A. G. Baeb iOkia?u>ma 8ta» 
Rpt. 1917, pp. fn, £8). — ^The results of experiments showed that a satisfactory 
product can be made from sweet butter and milk, skim milk, or skim milk powder 
and water if these Ingredients are of good quality and are properly emulsified. 
Pasteurization of the mixed ingredients gave uniformly a better ice cream with 
a higher overrun and a lower bacterial count than when the cream and milk 
were pasteurized separately. The overrun from the enrulsified product was 
on the average 5 per cent higher than that from pasteurized natural cream 
not emulsified. It was found further that emulsification of cream and ice cream 
lowered the bacterial count, and that the addition to milk and cream, emulsified 
or not, of 2 per cent of solids, either in the form of skim milk iwwder or con- 
densed milk, improves the quality of the product. Directions are given for 
testing ice cream for butter fat, and the very successful use in this connection of 
equal parts of sulphuric acid and glacial acetic acid is reported. 

In connection with tests in the manufacture of butter, a product made from 
cream of dean flavor and under 0.4 per cent acidity brought from 1 to 3 cts. 
per pound more on the wholesale market than was secured for butter churned 
from cream with slightly undesirable flavors or odors and above 0.4 per cent in 
acidity. Pasteurization of cream by the holding method at 145* for 80 minutes 
produced a marked improvement in the butter from both kinds of cream. 

Factors which influence the yield and consistency of ice cream, M. Mok- 
n58EN (/otca 8ta. Bvl. 180 {1918), pp. 259-^8S, ftff9' 2). — Results are given of 
tests of the influence that pasteurization, aging, and homogenization of cream, 
use of binders, temperature of circulating brine, and amount of mix in the 
freezer have upon the yield and texture of ice cream. A comparison is also 
made of the results obtained in figuring the daily ice^^ream yield by weight and 
by volume, as well as the influence of holding ice cream on uniformity in fat 
content The bulletin closes with a discussion of some of the cost items in ice- 
cream manufacture. 

Testa of the effects of pasteurization and aging of cream on its viscosity 
show in general that the viscosity of the cream decreases with pasteurization 
find increases as the fat content of the cream Increases with aging. The influence 
of aging the cream on the body and texture of ice cream was studied with raw, 
pasteurized, and homogenized cream. With raw cream the texture of Ice cream 
made from fresh cream was slightly inferior to that made from aged cream. 
The yield from 24-hour and 48-hour old cream was about 6.5 per cent higher 
than that from fresh raw cream. With pasteurized cream the average yield was 
172 per cent higher from cream 24 hours old than from fresh cream, and there 
was a further increase of 8.58 per cent when the cream was aged to 48 hours. 
The body of the ice cream made from fresh cream was weak and coarse, that 
from 24-hour-old cream was fairly satisfactory, and that from the 48-hour-old 
cream was a trifle light In the tests with homogenized cream the yield of 
ice cream was 8.99 per cent higher from 24-bour-old than from fresh cream, 
and a further gain of 2.09 per cent was obtained when 48-hour-old cream was 
used. The body of ice cream made from both fresh and aged homogenized cream 
was very good. 

Gelatin, milk powder, starch, and two commercial powders were tested as 
fillers or binders for ice cream. The amount of flUer used apparently did not 
ftffect the yield of ice cream. 



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82 EXPERIMENT STATIOK BBOOKD. [Vol. 40 

In tests of the effect of temperature of circulating brine on the yield of tee 
cream it was found that a temperature of about 6* F. for the circulating brine 
is the most desirable when using a 20 per cent raw cream. For pasteurized 
cream a temperature of from 8 to 10"* gave the best results, while fbr emulsified 
cream about 10" and for homogenized cream 14* proved the most satisfactory. 
The amount of mix in the freezer influenced the yield obtained. The most 
satisfactory results were obtained ttom a horizontal freezer when it wa« about 
half full of mix. 

It is stated that the daily overrun should be figured by volume, but as a 
check the overrun should occasionally be determined by weight The holdingr of 
ice cream was found not to influence the distribution of fat in the cream. With 
ice at $8 and salt at $7 per ton, the cost of salt and ice used for freezing In 
these tests was 0.58 ct per gallon of ice cream frozen to 27* and 0.75 ct for that 
frozen to 26°. For paclcing the cost was 1.44 cts. per gallon for 5-gal. containers. 
It is suggested that in factories where ice and salt are used for freezing pur* 
poses the waste brine should be collected in a cooling tank and used to cool the 
milk and cream handled. 

VETEKDrABT MEDICINE. 

Tolerance and immunity* J. L. Mabchand {Jour, Lah. and CUn, Med^ S 
(1919), No. 10, pp. SJl'-eOl, flg9. t: o6«. in Yet. Rev,, 2 (1918), No. -», pp. 481. 
482). — ^This is a general discussion of the subject, with clinical cases cited. 

A study of the mechanism of the agglutination and absorption of agsrlu«- 
t^nin reaction, together with an examination of the efficacy of these tests for 
identifying specimens of the meningococcus Isolated from 854 cases of 
cerebrospinal fever, W. J. TuixocH {Jour. Hyg. {Cambridffeh 17 (1918), No. 
2-3, pp. 916-^49).— Thin is a theoretical discussion of the problem of aggluti- 
nation from the standpoint of Bordet that in the process three separate sy»> 
terns react with one another, the antigen, the antibody, and the menstruum in 
which these are suspended, and that the reaction is divisible into two phases, 
the union of antigen with antibody and the flocculation of the antibody-anti- 
gen complex. 

The points discussed under the first phase are (1) the Influence of the re- 
action of the menstruum in which the reagents are suspended: If the reaction 
be too acid or too alkaline, union of antigen with antibody is inhibited, and, 
no complex being formed, the system is not susceptible to the flocculating 
action of electrolytes. (2) Influence of the electrolytes of tt^ menstruum : Evi- 
dence that formation of the "antibody-antigen couple" Is conditioned by the 
presence of dissolved salts in the m^iistruum, and that results obtained depend 
largely upon the nature of the electrolytes in the fluids employed for suspend- 
ing the reagents. <3) Influence of the presumably inactive constituents of 
the antigen and antibody colloids upon the process of sensitization : It is con- 
sidered that presumably inactive substances may be present in such quantity or 
in such a physical state that they protect the united antibody-antig^i complex 
from flocculation. (4) Quantitative relationship between antigen and antibody 
in the process of agglutination : The relationship is considered to obey the same 
laws as those governing the phenomenon of adsorption or surface condensation. 
(5) Analogies between the union of antibody with antigen and certain experi- 
ments of colloidal chemistry : The complexity X>t the reaction is pointed out and 
the consequent necessity of observing special care in carrying out agglutination 
tests. (6) Influence of the physical state of the reacting systems upon the union 
of antibody with antigen : If either of the reaction colloids be denatured by heat 
prior to being mixed, agglutination may not take place. It is considered that 



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1919] VETERINARY MEDICINE. 83 

it is the process of flocculation and not that of the union of antigen with anti- 
body which Is thus inhibited. 

In the discussion of the second phase of the agglutination test, the demon- 
stration of the formation of a complex by its flocculation, the following points 
are considered: (1) Influence of the reaction of the suspending fluid in which 
the interacting bodies are dispersed, upon the process of flocculation, and in- 
fluence of the Talency of the electrolytes upon the process in presence of add 
and alluili. Experiments are reported which show that hydroxld ion interferes 
with the process of flocculation, a relatively small concentration having a 
marked inhibitory effect If replaceable hydrogen ion be present, this inhibi- 
tory effect is negatived. (2) The relation which exists between the degree of 
sensitization and the precipitating value of the electrolytes present in the 
menstruum: An organism can form, along with its own antibody, a variety 
of complexes differing inter se in their susceptibility to flocculation. These 
complexes are probably not different in kind but only in degree. (3) Effect 
of other physical factors upon the second phase of agglutination : The surface 
tension and viscosity of the menstruum have been found to liave little effect 
on flocculation. The temperature affects the flocculation by producing a con- 
tinnons movement of the interacting bodies in the suspension and by encour- 
aging or inhibiting, owing to its altering the physical state of certain com- 
plexes» their precipitation by electrolytes. 

The theoretical discussion is followed by practical suggestions for carrying 
out the agglutination test, and by a summary of results obtained in applying 
the test to the investigation of the organisms which produce primary men- 
ingitis in man. 

Experimental paratyphoid B fever. The mechanism of immunity In para- 
typhoid B by ingestion. Vaccination by ingestion, A. Besbedka (Oompt. 
Rmd. Acad, 8ci. [ParU], 167 (1918), No. 5, pp. 21B-2U) .—The author has 
fonnd it possible to produce human paratyphoid B in laboratory animals (rab- 
bits) by ingestion of the organism after sensitization of the alimentary tract 
with ox bile. The ingestion of heated cultures after sensitization with bile 
renders the animal refractory to paratyphoid infection. This acquired im- 
munity, as well as that possessed naturally by the animal, depends upon local 
intestinal inmiunity. 

A iilterable toxic product of the hemolytic streptococcus, A. H. Clabk and 
L. b. FfeXTON {Jour. Amer. Med. Asaoo., 71 {1918), No. IS, pp. 10i8, 1049).—** It 
has been found that hemolytic streptococci grown in rabbit's blood diluted with 
Lock's solution yield a flltrate that is toxic ior rabbits occasionally in doses as 
low as 0J5 cc. per kilogram. The formation of this toxic material is dependent on 
the presence of hemoglobin. It is destroyed by heating to 50* 0. for 80 minutes, 
it is dlalyzable, it requires a certain incubation period in the animal before ex- 
erting its toxic effects, it is nonhemolytic in vivo or in vitro, and it slowly loses 
its toxicity on standing at ice-box temperature. An immunity can be rapidly 
established against it, and the blood of immune rabbits when injected with the 
toxin has the power of neutralizing its toxic effects. Rabbits immune against 
the toxic substance are resistant to living streptococci." 

AntiiTftngrenouB serum therapy by a multivalent serum, H. Vincxnt and G. 
Stodkl {Campt. Rend. Acad. Soi. [ParWi, 167 {1918), No. 6, pp. 245-«^7).— The 
theory of the action of the multiple serum for gas gangrene previously noted 
(£. S. R., 89, p. 885) is discussed, and the method employed by the authors in 
the preparation of the serum is described. 

The method consists essentially of cultivating each pathogenic organism on 
agar and then making a mixed emulsion in physiological salt solution. Flasks 
containing the microbial Buq>enslon8 are kept in the incubator at 88"* G. for 

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84 EXPERIMENT STATION RECX}BD. [VoL 40 

from two to fonr days or more. The culture is then Injected Into the veins of 
horses in increasing doses from an initial dose of 10 cc. At the end of three 
months these horses can furnish a serum which has been shown to be very sac- 
cessful In serious cases of gas gangrene. 

The results of antigangrenons serum therapy, H. VnfCBNT and G. Stoimcl 
(Compt. Rend. Acad. S6i. [ParU], 167 (1918), No. 8, pp. S05-S08) .—CsLse reports 
are given of the successful use of serum therapy, noted above. In severe cases of 
gas gangrene. 

Wounds of animals and their treatment, R. H. Smtthe {London: Bailli^re^ 
Tindall d Cox, 1918, pp. X/+i9^, pis. 16, ftga. i^).— The several chapters of 
this work deal with the pathology of wounds, wound infection, general treat- 
ment of wounds, surgical treatment of wounds, some complications and sequelae 
of wounds, wounds of the head and neck, wounds of the trunk, open joint and 
wounds of bursffi and tendon sheaths, wounds of the limbs, wounds of the feet 
among horses and cattle, fistulse and sinuses, castration wounds, uterine and 
vaginal wounds, wounds involving bone tissue, war wounds, remarlts on the use 
of vaccines in wound treatment, and dietetics and hygiene. 

Beport of the committee on standard methods of examining disinf ectazLts, 
B. B. Phelps et al. {Amcr. Jour, Pub, Health, 8 (1918), No. 7. pp. 506-521, fig. 
1; Jour, Amer. Leather Chem. Assoc., IS {1918), No. 10, pp. J^Tt-50ft, fig. i). — 
This report was presented before the laboratory section of the The American 
Public Health Association, October 20, 1917, accepted, and ordered publlalied, 
pending final adoption. 

Askaron, a toxic product of helminths, particularly of ascaridSy and its 
biological action, T. Shimamusa and H. Fujn {Jour. Col. Agr. Imp. Uwiv. 
Tokyo, S {1917), No. 4, pp. 189-258, figs. i).—A detailed report of studies of a 
highly toxic, albuminous peptone which the authors have isolated from fluid 
from the body cavity and the pulverized ascarids {Asoaris lutnl^ricoides froni 
man and swine, and A. megalocephala) , to which is given the name askaron. It 
also appears to occur in other helminths, including FUaria immitis, Gastrophilns 
larvse, Bclerostomum vulgare, O^gw-is curvula, and Trichocephalus depressius-^ 
cuius. Of the experimental animals, horses are the most resistant to the askaron, 
followed by guinea pigs, dogs, and rabbits, while rats and mice are refractory. 
The symptoms and anatomical changes and resistance to askaron poisoning 
are similar to those of anaphylactic shock. 

Preparation, control, and action of anthrax serum, H. B. IUsbsee {Meded. 
Rijksseruminricht., 1 {1917), No. 5-6, pp. 206-507, fig. i).— This is an historical 
review of the literature on the subject. A bibliography of 137 titles is appended. 

Blackleg, with new methods for its prevention and treatment, G. H. Hast 
{Calif omia Sta, Circ. 205 {1918), pp. 8, fig. i).— This circular gives general in- 
formation on the subject of blackleg, Indudtng cause and method of infection, 
symptoms, post-mortem appearance, differential diagnosis, treatment, and pre- 
vention. 

Palpebral malleinization, Dottville, trana by M. I>0BSKr {Jour. Amer. Vet. 
Med. Assoc., 55 {1918), No. 5, pp. 587-596) .—The method of Intradermal mal- 
leinization described is a combination of the procedure of Lanfranchi for 
glanders (E. S. R., 82, p. 374) and of Moussu for tuberculosis (E. S. R., 32, 
p. 477). The technique to be followed is outlined, and the phenomena fol- 
lowing the injection, including doubtful reactions, are described. 

The author concludes that at the present time intradermal malleinization 
is the most simple, the most expeditious, the surest, and the most practical 
method to use in checking glanders. Experimental evidence has shown that 
tolerance to malleln does not exist, that consequ^itly a palpebral mallein test 
may be followed without delay by a subcutaneous injection, and that after a 



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m*] VBTERINABY MBDIOINB. 85 

rabcataneons test, efven though positive, the sabject remains sensitive to the 
Intndermal test. 

Epizootic lymphan^ritis (Vet. Rev., t (1918), No. S, pp. 800-S0S).—A review 
of nine recent papers on the subject, two of which have been previously noted 
(E. S. R., 38, p. 689; 89, p. 185). 

TTIcerative lymphangitlB (Vet. Rev., $ (1918), No. 5, pp. 1^9, 500).— A re- 
view of recent literature on the subjeot 

The rat and poliomyelitis.— An experimental study, H. L. Aicoss and P. 
Hasklbauer (Jour. Estpt. Med., 28 (1918), No. 4, pp. -Jft^^-J).— The authors' 
eoDdnsions, baaed upon the investigations here reported, are as follows : 

"The central nervous organs and other viscera of 6 rats, collected in a district 
in Greater New York in which many cases of epidemic poliomyelitis occurred, 
have been proved incapable of inciting, on inoculation, experimental poliomye- 
litis in Maoacus rJiesut monkeys. The virus of poliomyelitis injected into the 
brain of white rats does not survive there as long as four days in a form or in 
UDoonts sufBcIent to cause infection when inoculated intracerebrally into 
monkeys. 

''The failure of the virus injected into the brain of rats to incite infection in 
monkeys is not due to the quantity introduced, since at the expiration of 1.5 
boors after the Injection the excised inoculation site, when injected into the 
monkey, caused typical experimental poliomyelitis. It does not appear prob- 
able, therefore, that the rat acts in nature as the reservoir of the virus of 
poUomyelltis." 

Spiioclueta hebdomadis, the causative agent of seven-day fever (nanu* 
kayami), I, Y. Ino, H. Ito, and H. Wanx (Jour. Expt. Med., t8 (1918), No. 4, 
9p. 4S5-448y pi. 1, figs. 4). — "A new species of spirochete which we have called 
ft htMomadU bas been described as the specific etiological agent of seven-day 
fever, a disease prevailing in the autumn in Fukuoka and other parts of Japan. 
This q>irochete is distinguishable from B. icteroliasmorrgKagUB, to which it 
presents certain similarities. Toung guinea pigs are susceptible to inoculation 
with the blood of patients and to pure cultures of the spirochete, and those 
dertioping infection exhibit definite symptoms suggestive of those of seven-day 
fwer in man. 

"The blood serum of convalescents from seven-day fever contains specific 
hnmnne bodies acting spirochetolytically and splrochetlcidally against the 
•pedflc spirochetes, but not against 8. icteroh(tmorrJtagUg. 

"The field mouse (Microtus monteheUi) is the normal host of the spirochetes, 
which have been detected in the kidneys and urine of 8.8 per cent of the 
Ai^hDals examined. The endemic area of prevalence of seven-day fever cor- 
responds with the region in which field mice abound." 

An improved method for recovering trypanosomes from the blood of rats 
for antigen purposes in connection with complement fixation, F. H. Ret- 
»ou» and H. W. Schoewino (Jour. Agr. Research {U. fif.], U (1918), No. IS, pp. 
57M7ff).— The authors, of the Bureau of Animal Industry, V. S. Department 
<rf Agriculture, point out the undesirable features of the Watson method, previ- 
^"^7 noted (E. S. R, 84, p. 186), for recovering trypanosomes from the blood 
of infected rats, and describe a new method which is said to have given good 
'csoHs. The technique of the method is as follows : 

Blood from infected rats collected in a 1 per cent sodium-citrate solution in 
I^sloiogical salt solution to prevent coagulation is filtered through cheesecloth 
to remove dots, fibrin, etc., poured into tubes, and centrifuged for about 20 
^ntes at 2,100 revolutions per minute. This precipitates all the corpuscles 
*^ most of the trypanosomes, leaving an upper stratum of blood serum and 
'^trate solution containing some of the organisms. This fiuid is drawn off and 

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86 EXPEEIMBKT STATION BBOOBD. [Vol. 40 

again centrifuged to recover the remaining organiams. To the precipitate of 
corpuscles and trypanosomes is added sufficient distilled water to produce oom- 
plete hemolysis of the rat erythrocytes. After about 20 minutes the mixture is 
centrifuged for about half an hour. The supernatant liquid is th«a discarded, 
physiological salt solution is added to the mass of trypanosomes, and the ma- 
terial vigorously shaken to disintegrate and distribute the trypanosomes eyenly 
through the solution. After centrlfuging again, tlie salt solution is poured ofC, 
and an amount of preserving fluid (physiological salt solution and glycerin) 
equal to about twice the amount of trypanosomes is added. The mixture is tlien 
agitated until a uniform suspension is acquired, when it is stored at a low tem- 
perature until used. 

Experimental evidence is given indicating that the use of distilled water in 
laklng the red blood cells has no detrimental effect on the antigenic value of the 
trypanosomes. The following advantages of the new method are pointed oat : 

" The antigen is freed of all erythrocytes, all the trypanosomes present in tbe 
blood are recovered, the keying quality is improved, the time consumed is about 
1^ hours, with practically no effort, as compared with 4 or 5 hours, and the 
antigenic power is increased and the anticomplementary action diminished.*' 

Bovine tuberculosiSy A. C. Fontes (TuberculOMe Bovina. Rio de Janeiro: 
Author, 1917, pp. S2). — ^Thls is a report presented to the executive committee of 
the Live Stock Ck)ngress in Rio de Janeiro, May, 1917. A review of literature 
on the subject of bovine tuberculosis is given, together with statistical data col- 
lected at slaughterhouses in regard to the relative localization of the lesions. 

Prophylaxis of bovine tuberculosis in Argentina, A. F. Beybo {An. Soc. 
Rural Argentina, 52 (1918), Noa, 1, pp. 12-21; 2, pp. 80-87; 5, pp. 175-188; Rev, 
Soc. Med. Vet. [BuenoM AireaJi, S (1918), No. 5, pp. 1S9-181; abe. in Yet. Rev., t 
(1918), No. 4, p. 487). — ^The author discusses the extent of bovine tuberculosis in 
Argentina, the economic loss caused by the disease, and plans to serve as a basis 
for an efficient prophylaxis of the disease. From available figures for the year 
1915 and later, it is estimated that about 3.2 per cent of the cattle in Argentina 
are tubercular and that the percentage is increasing. The prophylactic meas- 
ures suggested are similar to those in use in the United States. 

Tuberculosis in the camel, F. E. Mason (Jour, Compar. Path, and Ther., SI 
(1918), No. 2, pp. 100-102; abs. in Vet. Rev., 2 (1918), No. 4, p. 489) .—Continu- 
ing the work previously noted (E. S. R., 87, p. 690), the author has reported a 
case of congenital tuberculosis in the camel. Tubercular lesions were found in 
an aborted fetus from which typical tubercle bacilli were isolated. The tuber- 
culin test gave a positive reaction with the cow camel which had aborted. A 
case of tuberculosis in an Algerian camel is also noted. 

[Live stock diseases in Louisiana] (Bien. Rpt. Live Stock Sanit. Bd. XrO., 5 
(1917-18), pp. 1^-60, figs. IS). — Descriptions are given of several of the more 
important infectious live-stock diseases in Louisiana, indudlug anthrax, black- 
leg, staggers, glanders, hog cholera, hemorrhagic septicemia, and rabies. In- 
formation in regard to anthrax is given in the form of a popular questionnaire 
by Dalrymple and Flower. 

Common diseases of th.e digestive organs of horses and cattle, J. H. Reed 
(Ontario Dept. Agr. Bui. 264 (i918), pp. 89).— A practical discussion for the 
stock owner. 

Contagious abortion of cattle (KansoM Sta. Circ. 69 (1918), pp. 16). — This 
circular summarizes available information on the subject of contagious abortion 
of cattle. The nature, cause, sypiptoms, complications, and methods of spread of 
the disease are outlined. The control of the disease is discussed fully under 
the three principles of preventing the dissefoiination of infection, developing herd 
immunity, and treating affected anlmfUs. 



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1910] VETEBINAB7 MEDICINE. 87 

Stadies in bo^pine ma8tltis.^II-IV, F. S. Jones {Jour, Expt, Med., 28 
(1918), Nos, S, pp. ftSS-ten; 6. pp. 721-738, 755-748).— In continuation of studies 
preTlously noted (E. S. R., 89, p. 890), the author first takes up the relation of 
hemolytic streptococci to udder infections. He finds that "hemolytic strep- 
tococci produce more or less severe inflammations of the udders of cows. Fre- 
qnoitly infected quarters are swollen, firm, hot, and tender. In a number of 
instances it has not been possible to detect gross changes in the mammary gland. 
The streptoccod isolated from the invaded quarters have produced clear zones 
of hemolysis immediately surrounding the colonies when cultivated in horse 
blood agar plate cultures. The hemolytic zone has varied from a clear, narrow 
band up to zones 1.7 to 2 mm. wide. 

*'When the streptococci are classified according to their action upon carbo- 
hydrates, they fall into two broad groups; the larger consists of 10 strains 
fermenting dextrose, lactose, saccharose, maltose, and sallcin, and a smaller 
onmber, comprising 10 species, produces acid in dextrose, lactose, saccharose, 
and maltose and fails to ferment salldn. One of the nonsalicin fermenting 
strains did not attack saccharose. In no instance was acid production noted in 
ralBnose, inulin, or mannite. 

"All streptococci except three were agglutinated by an antiserum obtained 
from a rabbit immimized with a single strain. 

"Freshly Isolated cultures when fnjected intravenously Into rabbits possess 
but alight pathogenicity. Localizations in the joints occurred in two instances. 
The others either failed to affect the general condition of the animals or pro- 
duced only a slight febrile reaction." 

Discussing infection of the udder with micrococci and other microorganisms, the 
author finds that ^ aside from the streptococci, micrococci have been the next most 
frequent group of organisms isolated from infiamed udders. They produce va- 
rious types of disease. Some give rise to only a mild catarrh of the larger milk 
ducts and dstem, while others produce more or less severe parenchymatous in- 
flanunation. On the whole, the prognosis is more favorable with micrococci in- 
fection than with that associated with streptococci. Oases of considerable se- 
verity have, however, been attributed to staphylococci. 

"Micrococci similar in many respects to those associated with mastitis have 
been found to occur in the normal udder. This has led Savage to question their 
true etiological significance. In many Instances micrococci may gain acces.s 
to the udder and produce slight disturbances that are entirely overlooked. Even 
more severe changes may follow infection. After recovery the organisms still 
remain in the milk. This was observed in the case of cow 00 infected with 
staphylococci. 

"One frequently observes the elimination of streptococci from the udder 
even after apparent recovery from an attack of streptococci mastitis. Doubtless 
■trq>tococci and micrococci observed in these udders would be classed as belong- 
ing to the normal flora. Bven though micrococci do occur in supposedly normal 
udders, Evans has shown that many are pathogenic for rabbits. The introduc- 
tion of these organisms into the udders of nonresistant individuals might well 
give rise to more or less intense inflammation. The multiplication would doubt- 
less be rapid until resistance had been established. 

"In addition to the micrococci two dther groups of rod-shaped organisms have 
been fbund associated with udder inflammation. In two instances Bacillus coli 
has heea isolated from cases of mastitis and In another B, lactU wrogenea. In 
four, tiny motile Gram-staining microorganisms have been obtained in pure 
culture. Two of these strains • • . have been identifled as B. pyogenes." 

104G28*— 19 7 



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88 EXPEBIBIENT STATIOK RECORD. [¥01.40 

Taking up the sources of Infection In streptococcic mastitis, the author finds 
that '* the principal sources of streptococci infection, aside from clinical cases, 
are apparently normal cows which carry the virus in the udder. These carriers 
may be grouped as follows: (a) Those that have been infected recently and 
have not yet developed symptoms; (b) those that have suffered from inflam- 
mation of the udder and after recovery still harbor streptococci; and (c) those 
that have had no clinical history of mastltla. There is some evidence to lead 
one to regard the latter group as naturally immune. 

"A milker may readily carry streptococci on his hands from an infiected 
to an uninfected cow. 

" The vaginft of S4 of the 64 cows examined contained nonhemolytic strepto- 
cocci. Of the d4 strains Isolated 32 differed in their cultural characters and 
agglutination affinities from those associated with mastitla The other two 
strains may be regarded as of etiological significance. In no instance have 
hemolytic streptococci been isolated from the vagina." 

Occurrence of coccidioidal granuloma (oidiomyeosiB) in cattle, L. T. Oiltztib 
(Jour. Agr. Research [U. £1.], U {1918), No, 12, pp. 533^4^, pU. 2).— In this re- 
port of work by the Bureau of Animal Industry of the U. S. Departmoit of 
Agriculture, reference is first made to the occurence of coccidioidal granuloma, 
due to Coccidioides immiiis, in man. This disease does not appear to be widely 
distributed, nearly all cases reported having been in patients living in the San 
Joaquin Valley, Cal. 

In the present paper the author records its occurrence in the bovine, it having 
been encountered in the bronchial and mediastinal lymph glands at an abattoir 
at San Diego, Gal. The parasite observed in pus from the glands appears to 
be identical with that found in the lesions of human cases. The lesions ob- 
served in cattle at the time of slaughter in the abattoir appear to be confined 
largely to the bronchial and mediastinal lymph glands. "These tissues may 
be the seat of large areas of suppuration or several smaller purulent foci, all 
of which are usually surrounded by considerable granulation tissue and a 
fibrous capsule. Upon incising an affected gland there may be squeezed out a 
thick yellowish and tenacious pus which at once suggests actinomycosia In 
ftict, the similarity of the lesions produced in the lymph glands by C. immUis and 
Actinomyces is so striking that the one affection may be easily mistaken for the 
other upon gross inspection alone. However, microscopic examination of fresh 
smears of pus at once establishes a diagnosis ; in the one case spheres in various 
stages of development are present in quite large number, and in the other the 
colonies of the ray fungus are detected." 

Studies of its cultural characteristics and the results of inoculation of experi- 
mental animals are reported. It was found that the infection may be trans- 
mitted experimentally to guinea pigs, rabbits, dogs, cattle, she^, and swine. 
Cattle affected with this disease showed no re^)onse to subcutaneous allergic 
tests. Neither specific complement-fixing bodies nor agglutinins were detectable 
in the serums of affected animals. 

A list of 16 titles to the literature cited is appended. 

Stomach worms of sheep, W. L. Chandler (Michigan 8ta,, Quart. Buk, 1 
(1918), No, 1, pp. 19, 20). — Preliminary investigations in Michigan indicate a 
high percentage of stomach worm infestation in sheep. All of the animals exam- 
ined were found to be quite heavily infested with both the twisted wlreworm 
(Haemonchus oorUortu$) and one of the smaller stomach worms (Ostertagia 
oiroumcincta) , while a number of other species were present in the stomach. 

Diseases of swine, O. Moussu (Maladies du Poro. Paris: AsseUn d Houzeau. 
1917, pp, 249, pis. 9, figs. 76; rev. in Jour. Amer. Vet. Med. Assoc, 5S (1918), No. 
S, pp. SIO, 511; Vet. Rev., 2 (1918), No. 2, p. 212). —A small handbook. 



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1919] BUBAL ENGII7EEBINO. 89 

The prevention and treatment of hog cholera, J. H. McNeil and T. W. 
MuscE (N. J, Dept, Agr. Bid, IS {1918), pp. 573-594) -—Thia is a general dls- 
CDBSion of the subject. 

Shote pox, Velu (Rev, Q&%. M^d. V^t, 27 (1918), No. $l%Sn, pp. 136-145, 
flgt. 4; ab9. in Vet. Rev., 2 {1918), No. 4. PP- 450, 45i).— The etiology, sympto- 
matology, pathologic anatomy, diagnosis, prognosis, and prophylaxis of shote pox 
are discussed. Inoculation by scarification of variolitlc pulp has been ased for 
two years by the author with excellent results. 

Uremia of acarian origin in horses, Lenevsu {Rec M4d. V4t., 93 (1917), 
So. 17, pp. 477-481; trans, in Yet. Jour., 7-} {1918), No. 512, pp. 69-72; Vet, Rec., 
SO {1917), No. 1532, pp. 200, 201).— A report upon a condition observed In 
horses affected with generalized mange. In studies of 20 animals affected with 
generalized mange, albuminuria was found in eight. 

A Physaloptera from the dog, with a note on the nematode parasites of 
the dog in North America, M. G. Hall and M. Wiqoob {Jour. Amer. Vet. Med. 
Atioc., 53 {1918), No. 6, pp. 733-744* Aff^- ^)* — A new species taken from the dog 
at Detroit, Mich., is described as Physaloptera rara. 

ETTEAL ENOINEESING. 

The gas tractor in eastern farming, A. P. Yebkes aud L. M. Chubgh (U. 8. 
Dept. Agr., Farmers' Bui. 1004 {1918), pp. 27, figs. 5).— This pubUcation sum- 
marizes detaUed reports received from over 250 experienced tractor owners in 
Kew York State during 1917 and the spring of 1918. The operating conditions 
iqioii which the reports were based were rolling country with a comparatively 
heavy stony loam soil and heavy clay subsoil. Very diversified fanning was 
practiced on all fanns reporting, at least half a dozen different field crops being 
grown. More than one-third of the entire acreage was devoted to hay. 

The reports indicated that the greatest advantage of the tractor lies in its 
ability to perfonn the work in a shorter time than when horses are employed. 
The savlDg in man labor was considered next In importance, and the ability to 
do better work in plowing and preparing the soil was placed third. Under dis- 
advantages the reports indicated the inability to use the tractor satisfactorily 
imtil the top soil is well dried. On heavy soil packing of moist soil resulted, 
aad unsatisfactory work on hilly and rough land, especially in stony fields, was 
freqnenOy the case. It is noted that 84 per cent of the cases reporting indicated 
that the tractor was a profitable investment, and of this number over one-third 
Increased the acreage farmed. 

With reference to size of outfit the general conclusion is drawn that the 
2-plow tractor does not possess in an adequate degree the greatest advantage of 
tractors in general, and that the 8-plow tractor Is distinctly the favorite among 
owners of farms of 151 or more crop acres. The reports indicated an annual 
repair charge during the first three years of use of a tractor on New York farms 
of nearly 4 per cent of the first cost It is thought that this will Increase 
daring later years of operation. 

The area covered per day of ten net working hours In plowing with the 
tractors used on New York farms was 4.5 and 6.25 acres for the 2- and 3-plow 
outfits, respectively. The average cost per acre plowed for gasoline, oil, and 
grease was about 99.5 cts. where gasoline was used, and 49 cts. where kerosene 
was used, with an allowance of 2 cts. per acre for gasoline used in warming up. 
The approximate costs of plowing an acre with 2- and 8-plow tractors, based on 
average costs of $775 and $1,050, respectively, and a life of 8i years of 54 
working days per year, are given as $2.26 and $2.06, respectively, for gasoline 
and $1.76 and $1.56 for kerosene. 



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90 EXPERIMENT STATION RECOBD. [ToL# 



The average life of a tractor is estimated to be not longer than 8i 
from the practical standpoint. Other general data are reported. 

Power farming in Idaho, J. C. Woouey (Idaho 8ta. Bui, 111 {1918), pp. 11,] 
ftgs. 4). — Data from reports of 127 tractor owners in Idaho on tractor opent^ 
tion are sommarized. These Indicate that when selected to suit the farm mi 
intelligently and carefally operated the tractor is a profitable investment la 
Idaho. To realize this the farmer must be able to make all minor repairs kte^ 
self and to get repairs and expert help quickly for larger installations. Dqtcsfr; 
ability is considered the largest factor in the success of the tractor. The 3-pI«C 
size is favored by a majority of Idaho owners. The reports indicate that props | 
care of lubrication will prolong the life of the tractor and that the best qruLntrj 
of oil is the cheapest The tractor motor should pull its rated load the greattri 
portion of the time, but overloading causes trouble. Taking oif a plow iBiy| 
enable the tractor to operate at its rated speed and increase the season's acconi*; 
plishment. 

The tractor that displaces half its value in horses is considered a profitablft 
investment in Idaho. 

Getting rid of the stamps (WisoanHn 8ta. Bui. 295 {1918), pp. SS, figs. 50).— 
This is a compilation of data by F. M. White and B. R. Jones from notes by Cl 
Livingston, L. F. Livingston, A. Mathewson, and J. Hussey on stump removal ! 
practice in Wisconsin. 

The stump puller and dynamite used together are considered to give the moflt 
successful and economical results in Wisconsin. It is noted that in blastiDCi 
stumps it is rarely necessary to use a dynamite of higher grade than 20 per 
cent. 

With reference to expense, it is noted that the stump and not the acre is Dm 
unit of measure and that the cost varies with the kind, number, and conditloa of 
the stumps, the type of soil, and the skill of the workmen. Types of puHen 
and pliers used are described. 

Public Boads (17. S. Dept. Agr., Public Roads, 1 {1918), No. 4, pp. 5f. figi. 
39). — This number presents several articles and notes dealing with vario«l 
phases of road construction and maintenance, including the following: The Loca- 
tion and Building of Roads in the National Forests, by A. E. Loder, and War 
Brings Bridge Building Back to Early Practices, by O. L. Grover. 

The use of lumber on California farms, M. B. Pratt (California Sta. M. 
299 {1918), pp. 89-121, figs, 10).— This bulletin gives popular information ifr 
garding the properties of different woods available in California and the relatloa 
of these properties to different uses made of lumber on the farm. It is introda^ 
tory to plans for farm structures designed to meet the demands made for fun 
buildings in the State. A key for identification of woods commonly used Its 
California farmers is included, together with a list of publications on tbe 
subject. 

The round bam, W. J. Fraseb {Illinois Sta. Circ. 2S0 {1918), pp. 3-62, figi 
52). —This is a revision of Bulletin 148 of the station (E. S. R.. 23, p. 190), 
The advantages and disadvantages of the round barn are enumerated and i 
comparison is made of round and rectangular bams based on Illinois conditions 
It is shown that a 100-cow rectangular bam requires one-fourth to over one 
half greater expenditure for lumber than is required by a comparable roun^ 
bam and that there is a saving in the necessary carpenter work in favor & 
the round bam. 

General' data on the arrangement and construction of round bams are alsi 
given. 



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l»lft] BUBAL ECONOMICS. 91 

It is the conclusion that the round barn means economy of building ezpendi- 
ture, increased mow capacity, greater conyenience, and an attendant lessening 
of bam labor. 

Water systems for farm homes, 6. M. Wabben (U. 8, Depi. Aqt,, Farmers' 
Bui $41 (1918), pp, 68, figs, 50).—Th\a is a rather extensive compilation of data 
presented in easily usable form, covering practically every detail of the subject 
of farm home water supply systems. Information is given regarding water 
sources and supplies and water purification, and also regarding the mechanical 
features of practical water-supply apparatus, including power equipment for 
pomping. A specially noteworthy feature is the number of diagrammatic iUua- 
tration& 

EXTSAL ECONOMICS. 

Bural reconstruction in Ireland, L. Smith-Goboor and L. C. Staples {Lon- 
d(m: P. 8. King d 8on, Ltd., 1917, pp. X///-fg75).— This is an account of the 
forces at work since 1880 for the agrarian reorganization of Ireland. There 
are now cooperative creameries, producers' cooperative societies, credit socie- 
ties to overcome the evils of former money-lending methods, and societies for 
the collective purchase of farmers' supplies. They are all organized on the 
principle that farmers can act collectively through the local neighborhood unit 
with individual protection through the one-man-one-vote manner of control. 
The business is done with one another instead of with customers, and profits 
are divided among the members. 

The Irish Agricultural Organization Society, established in 1894, finds its 
chief work in the supervision of all existing cooperative societies. Experts 
are assigned from this society to give tedmical advice on the various types of 
wori[, such as banks, poultry, and home industries. Cooperation has been most 
ncoessful in Ireland in those districts in the north and west which are said 
to have suffered most severely from an unfair tenant system and unjust taxa- 
tion. The movement has resulted in the development of social consciousness 
and the recognition of common interests and capacities for a social program, 
as well as in the development of greater individual powers as wealth producers 
and business men. 

The future of the movement is deemed to lie in the policies to be adopted 
by the society, and the authors believe that it will accomplish most if it con- 
ducts an educational program to teach true cooperation to the existing socie- 
ties instead of confining its energies to organizing new branches. They feel 
that "the changes in economic organization brought about by the cooperative 
movement herald a day of returning prosperity in Ireland." 

Beport of the Agricultural Policy Subcommittee of the Beconstruction 
Committee (London: Min, Reconstruction, 1918, pp. 186), — This report has been 
discussed editorially (E. S. R., 39, p. 402). 

The most pressing agricultural development problem in the United States, 
C V. PiFEB {Proc. Soc. Prom. Agr. 8oi., 38 {1917), pp. 75-78).— This problem 
attcems the vast area of undeveloped coastal plain land from Norfolk, Ya., 
to Galveston, Tex., excluding the great alluvial land of the Mississippi Valley. 
The soils of this area are predominantly sands or sandy loams, and except 
tor 30,445,000 acres of swamp were covered largely with pine timber. The 
•uthor states that four general tjHP^ of farming have been developed on the 
ent-over pine land, but that profitable utilization of these lands in the im- 
mediate future is possible only by either reforestation or cattle-raising. He 
discusses these two solutions, and concludes that reforestation is the less 
feasible and that these great areas can not be developed unless the pasture 
problem is solved. 



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92 EXPEBIMBNT STATIOJfT BECOBD. [Vol. 40 

A farm survey of Montana, E. L. OuBBnER (Jfon^. Col. Agr, Ext, 8crv„ 
[Ptt6.], No. 25 (1918) t pp. [i83). — ^Thls survey of the agricultural resources of 
Montana was prepared under tbe direction of teachers and county superin- 
tendents following a personal canvass of 30,964 farms. A series of tables 
shows, by counties, the acreage and production in 1917 and the acreage planted 
in 1918. The ftirm labor situation is discussed, and a table gives statistics for 
live stock on the farms in 1917 and 1918. 

How farmers acquire their farms, W. J. Spilluan (Proc. 8oc. Prom. Agr. 
Soi„ S8 {1911), pp. 87-90, figs. 2). — ^This article gives tables and comments re- 
garding the history of the methods pursued by the present farm owners in vari- 
ous sections of the middle West in acquiring ownership of their farms. 

Of 417 farm boys in Illinois, 24 per cent went through four stages before be- 
coming farm owners — ^laborer on father's farm, hired man, tenant, and owner. 
Thirty-six per cent. omitted the hired-man stage; these remained at home about 
three years longer and the father provided them with working capital to become 
tenants ; they saved a year and a half, as compared with the first group, in time 
required to pass through these stages. Thirty-two per cent remained on the 
father's farm until they could become farm owners. 

Other tables show that in Kansas 72 owners worked as hired men an average 
of 7.56 years before becoming tenants, 4 to 5 years being the most frequent length 
of service in this capacity. In Nebraska 195 owners averaged 10.4 years as 
tenants before becoming owners, the major portion of them from 4 to 10 years. 

Handling the 1918 wheat harvest in Kansas, E. O. Johnson (17. 8. Dept. 
Agr., Off' See Circ. 121 {1918), pp. 7). — ^The methods employed for meeting the 
labor shortage in harvesting the 1918 wheat crop in Kansas are described. 

Annual report of Bureau of Marketing, 1918, L. Lanieb {Bien. Rpt. Comr, 
Agr. and Immigr. [La.], 18 {1916-17), pp. 5-i8).— This is the initial report of 
a newly inaugurated division of the Department of Agriculture and Immigration 
of Louisiana. Its purpose is announced as, by means of the Weekly Market 
Bulletin and In other ways, to get the producer and the consumer together for 
the exchange of farm products raised in the State. The report shows that the 
offerings listed during the first year amounted to $2,145,707. 

Brules and regulations of the Secretary of Agriculture under the food 
products inspection law of October 1, 1918 ( U. S. Dept. Agr., Off. Sec. Circ 
120 {1918), pp. 8). — ^The text is given of the rules and regulations promulgated 
under the food products inspection provisions of the 1919 agricultural appropria- 
tion act (E. S. R., 39, p. 308). 

The bank of France and rural credit, F. David {Vie Agr, et Rurale, 8 
{1918), No. 29, pp. 41-44) ' — This article discusses various French laws enacted 
In times of peace providing funds for the promotion of agriculture, and the need 
for further modification of the laws to supply increased rural credit, specially 
for farmers in the invaded territory. 

Agricultural cooperation in France, 6. Blanchard {Egypte Contemporaine, 
No. 40 {1918), pp. S61S87) .—This is a discussion of the agricultural cooperative 
movement in France, with a comparison of its early aims and its present com- 
mercial functions. While at first " le syndicat agrlcole " was a purely academic 
body, there are now In France cooperative societies for purchase, sale, produc- 
tion, credit, and insurance. It is stated that the cooperative purchase societies 
have attained brilliant success, due to Government aid, and that the credit and 
insurance societies have made satisfactory progress, but that the other types 
although fairly well developed have been surpassed by similar societies in Ger- 
many, Italy, Belgium, and Russia. It is estimated that in France in 1914 there 
were 28,000 agricultural cooperative associations, with a total of 120,000 in tbe 
world. 



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19191 A6RICTJLTT7RAL. EDUCATION, 93 

The cooperative moTement in France before and during the war, C. Gidb 
(Cooper, Consumer, 4 {1918), No, 8, pp. 116-118). — The article summarizes 
Eome of the accomplishments of cooperatiye societies In France, with special 
reference to their status since the outbreak of the war. 

[Report of cooperative societies], J. Retdef (Union So, Africa Dept, Agr^ 
Rpt. 1916-17, pp. 117-129).— This reports detailed Information with regard to 
the 20 co(^)eratiye agricultural societies registered in South Africa. Seventeen 
of these are in the Transvaal, and devote their efforts chiefly to the sale of 
produce — ^nM)stly maize — and the supply of farming requisites. A summary of 
the transactions for the last three years is given for each society, and a finan- 
cial and administrative report for the year ended December 81, 1916. 

Women's rural orgranizations and their activities, Anne M. Bvans (17. 8, 
Dept, Agr, Bui, 719 (1918), pp. 15, flga, S). — ^The success of organized farm 
women in developing home life and agricultural opportunities and in promot- 
ing community life In the country is here discussed. The author illustrates the 
extent to which parts of certain national women's organizations have become 
established in rural districts, and describes many specific cases to show the work 
that is being done throughout the United States by farm women's clubs. 

Konthly Crop Report (U, 8. Dept, Agr., Mo, Crop Rpt,, 4 (1918), No. 10, pp. 
m-lS2, fig, 1), — Contained in this report are the usual data concerning pro- 
duction, farm value, and acreage of principal crops ; estimated crop conditions 
Oct 1, 1918, with comparisons ; average prices received by producers ; and range 
of prices of agricultural products at Important markets. It records a tribute 
to the American farmers' service in the war crisis, and has special articles on 
snapped and boUy cotton ; cotton condition Sept. 25, 1918 ; prices paid for picking 
eotton ; normal crop condition and its interpretation ; cost of estimates of hauling 
by wagon and motor truck, 1918, by F. Andrews, as to distance, round trips per 
day, load, and cost per ton per mile of wagon and motor truck hauls from farms 
to shipping points ; statistics on the hay crop baled ; data on the estimated wheat 
lorplus and deficiency, by States ; yearly average, total, and per capita consump- 
tion of specified cereals by leading countries 1902 to 1911 ; production and farm 
prices of cotton, wheat, com, and wool in the United States 1908 to 1918 ; average 
yield of wheat in leading European countries, 1890 to 1915 ; commercial produc- 
tion of cabbage; kraut and cucumbers contracted for by manufacturers; and 
miscellaneous data. 

[Agrlcoltoral statistics of British Oulana], J. B. Habbison (Rpt. Dept. Soi. 
and Agr. Brit. Chtiana, 1916, pp. £&-29) ,— Thin report continues data previously 
Boted (E. S. R., 37, p. 291), adding statistics for the year 1916. 

AOBICVLTTTBAL EBXJCATION. 

Agrlcultnral instruction in the high schools of six Eastern States, G. H. 
Lake (17. S. Bur. Ed, Bui. S (1918), pp. 7S, figs. 7).— This is a report of a study 
made, by agreement between the Bureau of Eklucation and the States Relations 
Service, on the character and methods of administration, In the classroom and 
laboratory and out of doors, of agricultural instruction in the high schools of 
Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, and 
Vermont 

Bntomologrical education in the United States, E. S. Coqan (8o. African 
Jour, gci., 14 (1918), No. 8, pp. S45-949) .—The aim of this article is to give a 
Seneral idea of the courses offered In entomology in this country and where they 
may be best obtained. Particular reference is made to the work of the Massa- 
dmsetts Agricultural College, Ck)rnell University, Ohio State University, Uni- 
versity of Oalifomia, and University of Illinois. 



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94 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. [Vol.40 

Civic and social trainincr in fhe afirricultoral schools, J. McCaio (Affr. Oaz. 
Canada, 5 (1918), No. 6, pp. 618-620). — ^At a meeting of the Instructors of the 
proYincial schools of agriculture and officials of the DeiMirtment of Agriculture 
of Alberta, held in Edmonton on March 30 and April 1, 1918, it was decided to 
make some additions to the courses for these schools so that they will take 
account of the conjunctive and community needs of the student, as well as 
personal efficiency. The subject of dvics has been introduced into the first year 
of the courses for both boys and girls. This will be a brief study of such mat- 
ters as the community idea, the services furnished by such organizations as the 
Local Improvement District, the municipality, the provincial government, the 
Federal Government, and also the duties and privileges of citizenship in r^a- 
tion to these. The object is to inculcate in students the realization of the 
character of the State as a vital organism. The method of approach will be 
wholly through concrete materials and critical "close-to-home" discussion. 
The training of the second year boys is to be broadened by the addition of a 
very elementary type of rural economics, including such matters as a study of 
the setting of agriculture among the great industries, the returns from agri- 
culture as a business, its independence through being partly self-sufficing and its 
dependence on seasonal changes, agriculture as a mode of life, the factors of 
production, the special types of farm enterprises, different kinds of tenure, etc 

The new interest being established on behalf of the girls is called rural organ- 
ization, but the method of approach is intended to be quite concrete and the 
teaching will deal with the phenomena of country life and constitutions, both 
as they are found and as they should be. The course as laid out is for the pur- 
pose of discussing ways of realizing on the institutional and social resources 
of the country, to develop a broader human and social sense, and to develop 
leadership in improving organizations. The topics Include the study of the 
resources of the school in relation to attendance, consolidation, sanitation, 
medical inspection, children's clubs, and the church ; also a discussion of volun- 
tary organizations, such as the institutes, Red Gross, mothers* clubs, etc, as 
well as cooperative associations for production, buying, and selling, etc. 

Beport of the director of elementary agricultural education, R. P. Stebvbb 
{Rpt. Agr. New Bninstoick, 1917, pp. 65-^0, pU. 2, fig. i).— This is a report on the 
work of this division of the New Brunswick Department of Agriculture for the 
year ended October 31, 1917, including school gardens and their summer super- 
vision, rural science schools for the training of teachers, school fairs, home 
project work with potatoes and poultry, and food production. 

It is noted that nature stury and agriculture as a study in the schools, with 
practical methods of instruction and requiring a garden, is optional by boards 
of trustees even though their teachers have special qualifications for it. In- 
struction in agriculture was given in 87 districts in the school year ended June 
80, 1917, and since then 20 schools have reported taking up nature study and 
agriculture with school gardening as a permanent feature of their work. The 
total amount of grants paid to teachers and trustees for agricultural instruc- 
tion was $4,494. It is advocated that every school, whether consolidated, 
graded, or ungraded, have a garden at least one acre in extent, as it is believed 
that the educational feature of the work logically makes the garden at school 
a necessity, and the garden at home may then be an expansion and applica- 
tion of the training given in the school garden. 

Seventeenth annual general report of the Department of Agriculture and 
Technical Instruction for Ireland, 191d-17 {Dept. Agr. and TecK Instr. Ire- 
land, Ann. Oen. Rpt., 11 {1916-17) ,^p. FZ-h^^^).— This is the usual annual re- 



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m»l AGRICULTURAL BDUCATIOlSr. 95 

port of the department's administration and fahds, and details of operations 
during tbe year 1916-17, including agricultural and technical instruction. 

Beport of the joint committee of the university, agricultoral department, 
and education department on agricultural education [in Western Aastralia] 
{Perth: Oovt,, 1918, pp. 27). — ^This report of a Joint committee appointed in 
May, 1917, deals with what is being done at the present time by the different 
agencies concerned with agricultural education in Western Australia and what 
farther developments are needed in order to establish a well coordinated sys- 
tem of agricultural education. Among the principal findings of the commit- 
tee are the following : 

Courses in elementary agricultural science should be provided In primary 
sdiools, with special attention given to the subject in rural centers. In sec- 
<mdary schools there should be more advanced courses in agriculture. A school 
of agriculture, such as that situated near Narrogin, is a useful type of institu- 
tion for giving Instruction in the practice as well as the science of agriculture 
to junior students, and the number should be enlarged as the demand increases. 
Protrision should be made for the training of teachers in agricultural science 
for such schools. An agricultural college affiliated with the University of 
Western Australia should be established as soon as circumstances will per- 
mit, when the two-year university diploma course in agriculture should be dis- 
continued. Tbe university should continue to grant degrees in agriculture, and 
scholarships or cadetships should be established to encourage students to take 
the degree. There should be a standing committee for agricultural education 
to coordinate the efforts of all institutions dealing with the subject 

It is further recommended that the State activities in agricultural research 
should be centered at the agricultural college, and that the existing Oovem- 
ment farms should cooperate as branch stations. The control of agricultural 
research should be entrusted to a special committee. There should be a sys- 
tem of country lectures to farmers under tbe joint control of the department of 
agriculture and the university, as well as a system of regular instruction by 
correspondence in various subjects connected with agriculture. Associations of 
ftinners to discuss technical and practical subjects should be encouraged and 
organized on similar lines to those adopted in South Australia. In order to 
Improve agricultural methods cultural and cropping competitions in local 
centers should be encouraged by the department of agriculture. The publica- 
tion of an official journal by the department should be resumed, and the Fed- 
eral Government should be urged to give financial assistance to the States for 
the purpose of higher education in agriculture. 

Notes supplied the committee on (1) nature study and elementary agrlcul- 
tare in the schools of the education department, (2) agricultural science in the 
primary school, (3) the Narrogin school of agriculture, (4) the University of 
Western Australia and agricultural education, (5) the education of the farmer 
<m the farm, (6) agricultural lectures and demonstrations, (7) agricultural re- 
learch, and (8) federal grants for agricultural education In Canada and the 
United States are appended. 

Reference material for vocational agricultural instruction, G. H. Lanb 
{Fed, Bd. Voeai. Ed. Bui. U {1918), pp. 25, figs. 5).— This bulletin gives direc- 
tions for cataloguing and filing publications in building up worldng libraries of 
reference material for vocational agricultural instruction In secondary schools 
•nd discusses the teaching material available from the U. S. Departments of 
Agriculture, Interior, Treasury, and Labor, and the U. S. Food Administration. 

Sffective farming, H. O. Sampson {New York: The MaomiUan Co., 1918, pp. 
IXIII-\-^90, pi i, ftgs. 210).— 'The aims of this text are to " present Instruction 



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96 EXPEKIMBKT STATION RECORD. IVol. 40 

In practical agriculture in sucli a way as to be readily understood by both 
pupil and general reader, and to be directly adaptable at the same time to the 
needs of the classroom and laboratory." The introductory chapter gives a 
general view, including agriculture a fundamental, agriculture as art. science^ 
and business, divisions of agriculture, and farm possibilities. The succeeding 
chapters deal respectively with plant study, soils, soil fertility, Indian com or 
maize, small grains, grasses and sorghums, legumes, potatoes, sugar cane, cotton, 
and tobacco, fruit growing, vegetable growing, feeding farm animals, horses, 
beef and dual-purpose cattle, dairy cattle, dairying, sheep, swine, poultry, farm 
machinery, and farm management. Each chapter is followed by review quee- 
tlons, practical exercises, and references to literature. A directory and classi- 
fication of the publications of the U. S. Department of Agriculture and the 
addresses of the experiment stations and of publishers of agricultural books 
are appended. 

TeachinfiT food values, C. F. Langwortht {Jour, Home Econ., 10 {1918), No. 
7, pp. 295-^02). — ^The author presents a food group generalization made by the 
U. S. Department of Agriculture, based upon an extended study of dietary and 
other data. This has proved convenient for popular instruction, and in addi- 
tion offers an easy way of introducing the subject of food and nutrition in more 
formal teaching. 

Food preparation: A laboratory guide and note-book for high school 
classes in domestic science, Beth W. Jobseband (Peoria, nU: The Manual Arts 
Press, 1917, rev. ed., pt8. i, pp. U8, ftgs. S; 2, pp. 142, ftgs, «).— This loose-leaf 
laboratory guide is stated to be the result of years of study of the problem 
of successful presentation of subject matter to classes and of the most* eco- 
nomical use of the^time of students. Part 1 contains chapters on equipment 
and rules, the body and its foods, and introductory work in manipulation of 
materials, water, mineral matter, proteins, and fats. Part 2 deals with 
carbohydrates, menus and serving, and preservation and canning. 

Thrift in the household, Dora M. Hughies {Boston: Lothrop, Lee d Shcpard 
Co., 1918, pp. 288). — A discussion of thrift as applied to food and clothing, with 
many suggestions for the economical and efficient use of the resources of the 
ordinary home. 

Fig raising: A manual for pig clubs, A. W. Nolan and J. H. Greene {Chi- 
cago and New York: Row, Peterson d Co., 1918, pp. 79, jigs. 16). — ^This book 
contains a pig raising calendar, practical exercises, class work in swine rais- 
ing, and an outline for a home project notebook. A model constitution for boys' 
and girls* clubs, parliamentary practice hints and suggestions, suggestive pro- 
grams for agricultural clubs, and references to books are appended. 

A study of shade trees for grades seven and eight, Fannie Ragland { Na- 
ture-Study Rev., H {1918), No. S, pp. 110-120, fig. 1).— The author suggests 
questions, references to literature, and conclusions for working out a course of 
study on shade trees. 

Receptacles for school fair exhibits {Agr. Oaz. Canada, 5 {1918), No, 6, pp. 
599-607, figs. S). — In this series of articles, by agricultural education officials, 
are described receptacles for school fair exhibits in use in the Provinces 
of Nova Scotia, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and British 
Columbia. 

Camp Liberty.— An analysis of the social adjustments of city boys in a 
farm labor camp, C. E. Astman {Survey, 40 {1918), No. 6, pp. 149-154, figs. 7). — 
The organization, motives, and work of this camp, previously noted (B. S. R., 
a9, p. 698), are described by its director, who also briefly states the results 
and ends attained. 



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1919] EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 97 

MISCELLANEOrS. 

Director's report for 1917, W. H. Jobdan (New York State 8ta, Bui, 4iS 
(1917), pp. 821-844). — This contains the organization list and a review of the 
work and publications of the station during the year. 

Twenty-sixth Annual Report of Oklahoma Station, 1917 {OklaJioina 8ta. 
RpU 1911 1 pp. 40, fig. i). — ^This contains the organization list, reports by the 
director and heads of departments, a meteorological summary, and a financial 
statement for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1917. The experimental worls re- 
ported is for the most part abstracted elsewhere in this issue. 

Report of Porto Bico Station, 1917 {Porto Rico Sta, Rpt. 1917, pp. 40, pis. 
4).-— This contains the organization list, a summary by the agronomist in 
charge as to th^ general conditions and lines of work conducted at the station 
(lurlDg the year, and reports of the chemist and assistant chemist, horticul- 
turist, assistant horticulturist, plant pathologist, entomologist, assistant In 
plant breeding, specialist in farm management, and agricultural technologist, 
and a progress report on citrus scab. The experimental work reported is for 
the most part abstracted elsewhere in this issue. 

Quarterly bulletin of the Kichigan Experiment Station (Michigan Sta.,. 
Quart. Bui,, 1 (1918), No. 1, pp. 40, fiffs. 7). —-This contains several articles ab- 
Ftracted elsewhere in this issue, together with the following: Fall Care of the 
Flodc, by G. A. Brown; Care of Fall Litter and Sow, by W. B. J. Edwards; 
Relation of Farm Wells to Typhoid Fever, and Vinegar, both by Zae Northrup ; 
Plant Physiological Investigations, by R. P. Hlbbard ; Sealing the Silo, by A. G» 
Anderson ; Methods of Combating Flies, by J. E. Burnett ; Entomological Notes, 
by H. R. Pettlt ; Fuel Conservation and Taxation of Farm Woodlots, both by 
A. K. Chittenden ; Grow Rosen Rye, Plant Wheat on Time, Select Seed Corn 
Early, and Select Seed Beans in Fall, all by J. F. Cox ; An Emergency Silo, by 
H. H. Musselman; Horticultural Notes and Laws Governing the Packing and 
Labeling of Fruits and Vegetables for State and Interstate Shipments, both 
by C P. Halligan; Infectious Abortion in Cattle, by E. T. Hallman; and a 
list of available bulletins. 

Monthly Bulletin of the Western Washington Substation (Washington 
8ta^ West Wash. Sta. Mo. Bui., 6 (1918), No. 7, pp. 90-104) .—Thla number con- 
tains brief articles on the following subjects: Are Dairymen Prosperous? by 
W. A. Linklater ; Hotbeds and Cold Frames, by J. L. Stahl ; Seeding Down to 
Glover and Grass, by E. B. Stookey ; How Some of our Common Plant Diseases 
and Insect Pests Pass Through the Winter, and What Can be Done Toward 
Controlling Them at That Time, by A. Frank; Males that Head the Breeding 
Pens, by Mr. and Mrs. G. R. Shoup; Bringing War Pullets into Laying, by 
6. R. Shoup; and The Washington Egg Advertising Campaign, by Mrs. G. R. 
Shoup. 



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NOTES. 



▲rlzona TJnlversity and Station.— D. W. Working, agrlcQlturlst In the Office 
of Extension Work in the North and West, States Relations Service, U. S. 
Department of Agriculture, has been appointed dean of the college of agri- 
culture and director of the station, to enter upon his duties March 1. 

Homer Derr has been appointed supervisor of agricultural education under 
the Smith-Hughes Act; F. R. Kenney, formerly associate professor of poultry 
in the extension service of the Iowa CJollege, as associate professor of poultry 
husbandry ; and A. F. Klnnison as assistant horticulturist in the station. 

Delaware College and Station. — ^A. B. Grantham, agronomist, has been ap- 
pointed acting director of the station during the absence in France of Director 
Hayward. E. A. Hodson has been appointed assistant professor of agronomy 
beginning February 15; R. A. Nehf assistant horticulturist in the station 
beginning February 15, and M. G. Thomas assistant animal husbandman begin- 
ning February 1. 

Idaho Station. — Charles W. Hungerford has accepted a position in the de- 
partment of plant pathology, banning February 15. 

Kansas College and Station. — Harry Umberger, State leader of county 
agents, has been appointed acting dean of agriculture. H. B. Winchester, for- 
merly assistant in animal husbandry in the Iowa Station, has been appointed 
assistant in feeding investigations and has entered upon his dutiea 

Kentucky University and Station. — ^The station has purchased a small 
foundation herd of Hereford cattle and has taken steps to begin a herd of 
Shorthorns. A refrigerating plant, abattoir, and incinerator, for teaching and 
experimental work in meats and meat curing, have been erected on the station 
farm. 

Maryland College and Station. — Richard Wellington, head of the section of 
fruit and vegetable investigations In the Minnesota University and Station, 
has been appointed in charge of vegetable work, beginning March 15. 

Kassachusetts College and Station. — The entire personnel of the college, 
station, and extension staff have been made members of the State Retirement 
Association. Each member contributes five per cent of his salary up to a maxi- 
mum salary of $30 per week until reaching the retiring age, which may be at 
60 and must occur at 70 years of age. Upon retirement the State duplicates his 
accumulations and makes payment in the form of a monthly pension. Should a 
member sever connection with the service before retirement his accumulated 
savings are returned to him. 

John D. Willard has been appointed extension professor of agricultural 
economics vice E. Famham Davis, resigned to resume commercial work in 
California. 

Mississippi Station. — H. K. Gayle, animal husbandman, resigned January 15 
to become manager of a syndicate farm in north Louisiana. 

Oklahoma College and Station. — ^Dr. Hilton I. Jones, head of the depart- 
ment of chemistry at Dakota Wesleyan University, has been appointed head of 
the department of chemistry vice Dr. L. Charles Raiford, whose resignation has 
98 



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Yol. 40, 19191 KOTES. 99 

been previously noted. Dr. A. J. Stiner has been appointed assistant yeterl- 
narian, and P. G. Malone, college editor. 

South Dakota CoUegre. — Dr. E. G. Perisho has resigned as president to accept 
t position with the Y. M. C. A. in reconstruction work in Europe. W. B. John- 
son, president of the Northern Normal School at Aberdeen, has been appointed 
to succeed him A. H. Kuhlman has been appointed associate professor of 
animal husbandry. 

Texas Station. — ^The' new station building, to be Isnown as the research ad- 
ministration building, is nearing completion and will be occupied this spring. 
This is a modem building for laboratory and office purposes, and with the 
present building will provide ample space for the present needs. 

H. H. Laude, superintendent of the Beaumont Substation, was transferred 
January 28 to the main station as agronomist to take charge of rice investiga- 
tions, and has been succeeded by A. H. Prince. 

Virginia Truck Station. — Gilbert S. Watts, a 1918 graduate of the Pennsyl- 
vania College, has been appointed assistant horticulturist beginning January 1. 

Hampton Institute. — Charles K. Graham, director of the agricultural de- 
partment and agricultural extension work, has resigned because of ill health. 
J. L. B. Buck has been designated as acting director. 

Washingrton College and Station. — ^The legislature has appropriated $175,000 
for a new dairy building and equipment, $55,000 for the completion of the agri- 
cultural building, $75,000 for a new dormitory, $35,000 for buildings and equip- 
ment and other expenses at the new irrigation substation at Prosser, $80,000 
for land, stock, and a new dairy bam at the Puyallup substation, and $61,963.34 
as an offset to the Federal funds for extension work. These appropriations are 
in addition to the college funds derived from the miUage tax. 

Harry H. Hill, of the University of Minnesota, has been appointed instructor 
in dairy manufactures. C. Edwin Hill, assistant in forage crop work at the 
SDbstation at Moro, Greg., has been appointed superintendent of the substation 
at Waterville. 

Wyoming University and Station.— -The farm at Lander leased by the uni- 
versity for the past 10 years to the State Horticultural Society has been taken 
over, and is to be developed in cooperation with the society as a substation. 
Tbe horticultural work will be continued, and agronomy and animal husbandry 
studies will be undertaken. 

A recent act of the legislature brings the farms formerly controlled by the 
State farm board under the administration of the director of the station, as- 
dsted by an advisory committee appointed by the governor. This will make 
possible substation work in various sections of the State. Provision has also 
been made for organizing the extension club work and the work in home 
economics on the basis of county agent work, with State appropriations to aid 
tbe counties in their extension programs. 

A new hog house costing $3,500 has been erected at the stock farm for ex- 
perimental work with swine. Considerable farm machinery has also been 
added. 

G. P. Arnold of Laramie, W. C. Deming of Cheyenne, and B. D. Croft of 
Cowley, have been appointed to the board of trustees. 

Superior Council of Agronomic Stations and Laboratories in France.^ 
Under a decree of the French Minister of Agriculture of August 12, 1918, a 
Superior Council of Agronomic Stations and Agricultural Laboratories has been 
established. This council consists of 25 members chosen for terms of from one 
to three years, 9 being selected by the Academy of Sciences, 6 by the Academy 



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100 EXPERIMENT STATION BECOED. [Vol. 40. 1910 

of Agriculture, 6 by the council itself, aud 4 by the Minister of Agriculture to 
represent his department The Inspector general of stations and laboratories 
is to meet with the council In an advisory capacity. 

The council is to look after the proper operation of the stations and labora- 
tories, guiding and directing their efforts with a view to obtaining their great- 
est possible usefulness. It considers all questons relating to scientific investi- 
gations carried on in these institutions, and above all stimulates and promotes 
the formulation of general and specific research plans. It studies and points 
out the improvements and reforms which may be introduced and gives its 
opinion on the organization of the institutions now existing, on the foundation 
of new stations and laboratories, and on the assistance that may be obtained 
from the departments, towns, and individuals. It coordinates the yearly re- 
ports Issued by the institutions on the investigations performed by them and 
decides as to the papers and results to be published. It examines the accounts 
of the institutions as well as their projects and the ways and means to execute 
them, and also passes upon the budget of expenditures and receipts. It pro- 
vides the mode of selection of the personnel, draws up lists of available candi- 
dates, and suggests promotions, compensations, changes, and dismissals. It 
calls stated meetings for the directors of the stations and laboratories, and 
the various specialists. It examines the projects of private institutions and 
investigators and proposes grants and allowances. It is to direct the publica- 
tion of a quarterly bulletin, pamphlets for popular use, and reviews of memoirs, 
brochures, or documents published in all countries, the knowledge of which 
would be likely to enlighten the personnel of the stations and laboratories re- 
garding new methods of investigations and thus promote new studies and re- 
searches. It also will issue an annual summary of its work. 

Agricultural History Society. — ^An association to be known as the Agricul- 
tural History Society was organized at Washington, D. G., February 14, 1919. 
The object of this society is to " stimulate interest, promote study, and facili- 
tate publication of researches in agricultural history." . This affords a wide 
field for a line of study not heretofore covered, including the history and de- 
velopment of various agricultural crops, of methods and practices employed in 
agriculture, various agricultural movements, the relations and effects of condi- 
tions of production, and the like. An interesting and profitable field for study 
is believed to l)e open. It is desip:ned to make the society national in scope, with 
provision for local sections or meetings as interest grows. Membership is open 
to persons interested in the field covered by the society, and correspondence 
with the secretary to that end is invited. 

The officers of this society are as follows: Dr. Rodney H. True, Bureau of 
Plant Industry, Washington, D. C, president; Wm. J. Trimble, Agricultural 
College, North Dakota, vice president; Lyman Carrier, Bureau of Plant In- 
dustry, Washington, D. C, secretary-treasurer; and R. W. Kelsey, Haverford, 
Pa., and O. C. Stine, Office of Farm Management, Washington, D. C, additional 
members of the executive conunittee. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

Bdltor : B. W. ALLEN, Ph. D., Chief, Offce of BxperitnetU StationM. 
Asaociate Editor: H. L. Knight. 

EDITORIAL DEPABTMEITTS. 



A^cnltural Chemistry and Agrotechny— Sybil L. Smith. 
Meteorology, Soils, and Fertilizers {^-jH-^Beal^^ 

Agricultural Botany, Bacteriology, and Plant Pathology}^; EBom*' ^^' ^* 

Field Crops— J. D. Luckbtt. 

Horticulture and Forestry— B. J. Glasson. 

Economic Zoology and Entomology — W. A. Hookeb, D. V. M. 

iC. F. Lanowobtht, Ph. D., D. Sa 
Stbil L. Smith. 
BuaUkBETH B. BOWEB. 

Animal Husbandry, Dairying, and Dairy Farming jp^^j^^^^^^^ 

veterinary Medicine {J^ 1%^^ 

Rural Engineering-— R. W. TauLUNesB.^ 

{R Meebitt. 
M. Lenobb FuifT. 
Louise Mabbut. 

A«ricnltural Education {^-^^^ Sp,™ma»h. 
Indexes — ^Ameua B. Deakb. 



CONTENTS OF VOL. 40, No. 2. 



Editorial notes: Page. 

The Rothamsted Station in war time 101 

Suggestions for agricultural education and research in Victoria 105 

Recent work in agricultural science— 109 

Notes 199 

SUBJECrr LIST OF ABSTRACTS. 

aobicultubal chemistbt — agbotechnt. 

Progress of chemistry during the last quarter of a century, McPherson.. 109 

Progress of chemistry for 1917, edited by Cain and Greenaway 109 

Compendium of physiological chemistry, Arthus 100 

The application of electrolysis in chemical industry, Hale 109 

Replacement of platinum in electrolytic apparatus, Nicolardot and Boudet. lOD 

The proteins of the peanut, ArachU hypogcea. III, Johns and Jones 109 

The bydrolyals of kafirin, Jones and Johns 110 

Note on the preparation of gulonlc lactone, La Forge 110 

The distillation of cellulose and starch, Plctet and Sarasln 110 

Chemical studies in some marine algse, Matsui 110 

*0n lesTe of atwence for military serTlce, 

X 



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n CONTENTS, [ToL40 

Put 

Conditions essential for manufacture of carvacrol, Hixson and McKee 110 

The fermentation organisms of California gr&pes, Cruess lH 

A method of dialysis of enzyms, Val'tera lU : 

The quantitative analysis of small quantities of gases, Ryder 111 . 

Notes on Folin's direct nesslerization method for nitrogen, Langstrotb 111 

Mlcrochemical nitrogen determination, SJollema and Hetterschy HI ; 

Sources of error Incident to Lindo-Gladding method, Keitt and Shiver — 118 

Determination of phosphorus by nephelometric method, Meigs US 

Determination of alkaline carbonates and bicarbonatea, Mestrezat US 

The determination of carbon dloxid in carbonate, Van Slyke US 

Volumetric determination of sulphates, Vansteenberghe and Bauzil US 

The determination of tyrosin in proteins, Johns and Jones US 

Optical dispersion of oils from analytical viewpoint, Fryer and Weston US 

The autooxidation of sugars, Berczeller and SzegO s— 113 

Volumetric determination of reducing sugars, Clark U4 

Determination of aldehyde sugars by iodln, Colin and Li6vin .• Hi 

A method for the determination of starch, Long 114 

The determinatlo.n of pentosans, Steenbergen 114 

A study of some biochemical color tests, I, Fearon . 114 

The measurement of the acidity of bread, Cohn et al 11$ 

Determination of pectins in spices, von Fellenberg U5 

The photographic examination of fresh and preserved eggs, Le Roy US 

Determination of caffein in coffee, Vautler 11$ 

The testing of palm butter with some hints for manufacture. Tan Heum — US 

New tables for finding purity of massecuite, Claiborne US 

A source of error in the use of picric acid, Rohde and Sweeney US 

A method for the estimation of potassium in blood, Clausen US 

Homemade beverages and vinegars, Arnold US 

Utilization of defective or acid ciders, perries, and lees, Tnielle US 

Preservation and ripening of forage in silo in warm climates, Giglioli— US 

Potato drying, Peglion 116 

METE0B0IX)0T. 

Climate and types of farming '. US 

Monthly Weather Review UT 

Climatological data for the United States by sections UT 

Meteorological observations at Wisley, 1916, Curtis UT 

Night-temperature studies in the Roswell fruit district, Hallenbeck UT 

Hourly frequency of precipitation in central Ohio, Martin UT 

Frequency of subnormal rainfall In August 118 

Problems of denudation, Jeffreys 118 

Hail protection, Courty 1^ 

SOILS — ^FERTILIZERS 

Reconnolssance soil sur^-ey of Lower San Joaquin Valley, Nelson et al U8 

Soil survey of Barry County, Mo., Sweet and Knobel US 

Soil survey of Miami County, Ohio, Allen and Gossard US 

Soil survey of Berkeley County, S. C, Latimer et al US 

Soil survey of Bell County, Tex., Carter, Jr., Lewis, and Hawker 120 

Soil survey of Milwaukee County, Wis., Geib and Dunnewald laS 

Soil survey of Door County, Wis., Geib et al 120 

Chemical criteria, production, and classification in two soils, Burd 120 

The relative " rawness " of some humid subsoils, Harmer 121 

The influence of plant residues on nitrogen fixation, Hutchinson 121 

Production of CO2 by molds In sterile soil, Potter and Snyder 12S 

Inversion of sugar by soils and nature of soil acidity, Rice and Osugi 123 

The chemical effects of CaO and CaCOi on the soil, I, II 124 

Neutralization of sour soils 125 

[Work in soil chemistry and bacteriology at New Jersey Stations, 1917] 125 

What is the bulk of manure produced by consumption of hay? Voelcker^ 126 

The triangle system for fertilizer experiments, Schreiner and Skinner 125 

Manurial values of dairy feeds, Grady 126 

[Fertilizers required for food production In Norway] 127 

Fertilizers in South Africa 127 



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IWO] CONTENTS. HI 

Electric power for nitrogen fixation, Scott 127 

A new fertilizer, " superphosphate of ammonia/' Briouz 127 

Solubility and assimllability of calcium phosphates, Lindet and Bruno 128 

BecoYery of potash from iron blast furnaces and cement kilns, Bradley.. 128 

Recovery of potash from kelp, Higgins 128 

Potash from desert lakes and jilunlte, Hornsey 128 

Potash from Searles Lake, de ^pp, Jr 128 

The Alsatian potash mines and works 128 

Lime, and the liming of soils, Hanley ^ 128 

The recoTery of ashes and their utilization in agriculture, Pi6dallu 129 

AOBICULTU&AL BOTANY. 

Ecology, Clements 129 

Experimental evolution in a desert habitat, Tower 129 

Vital statistics of desert plants, Shi-eve 129 

Plant distribution on desert mountains, Shreve 129 

Bate of growth in relation to altitudinal conditions, Shreve 129 

Bdle of climatic conditions as to vegetation, Livingston and Shreve 130 

Evaluation of temperature of soil as an environmental factor, Cannon 130 

Osmotic concentration of fluids and geographical distribution, Harris 130 

Vegetable saps 130 

Developmental and nutritional physiology of some Chlorophyceae, Nakano. 130 

Controlled pollination in Nicotlana, Goodspeed and Davidson 131 

The inheritance of germinal peculiarities. Flowering plants 131 

Analysis of a potato hybrid, Solanum fendleriXS, tuberosum, MacDougal 131 

liass mutations and twin hybrids of (Enothera grandi/lora, DeVries 132 

South African Perisporiales. — I, Perisporiacese, Doidge 132 

Uredinales of Andes, based on collections by Dr. and Mrs. Rose, Arthur 133 

Allies of Selaginella rupestris in United States, Van Eseltine 1*33 

FIELD CBOPB. 

Farm practices that increase yields in Kentucky and Tennessee, Arnolds. 133 

Farm practices that increase crop yields in Gulf Coast region, Crosby 133 

Crop systems for Arkansas, McNair 133 

[Testa with field crops and vegetables at the Rhode Island Station] 133 

Effect of crops on each other 135 

Plant propagation 135 

Steam sterilization of seed beds for tobacco and other crops, Beinhart 135 

Belative yields of oats and two-rowed barley in middle Sweden, Tedin 135 

Gomparatlve test with fertilizers, manure, and sewage, 1910-1916, Bolin.. 135 

Meadow culture tests in Jutland, 1905-1910, Lindhard 136 

Alfalfa, App 137 

(Utilizing waste land in New Jersey for alfalfa] 137 

Primitive methods of maize seed preparation, Biggar 137 

Cutthroat grass, Panicum comhsii. Piper 137 

Glandular pubescence in various Medicago species, ItfcKee 137 

Variety tests with oats in southern and middle Sweden, Akerman 138 

Potato culture tests hi 1917, Lind 138 

Lbiing and loading cars of potatoes against cold. Bird and Grimes 138 

Farm practice in growing sugar beets in Colorado, Moorhouse et al 138 

Ftirm practice in growing sugar beets in Montana, Kuckols and Currier.. 139 

The beet-sugar industry in the United States, Townsend 139 

The inheritance of glume length in Triticum polonioum. Backhouse 140 

Origin of the Georgia and Alabama varieties of velvet bean, Coe 141 

Variety tests of wheat, Cauthen 141 

Natural cross-pollination in wheat, Hayes 142 

Natural crossing in wheat, Hayes 142 

ilzplanation of changes in proportions of hard and soft kernels. Freeman. 142 

Ptodudng bread-making wheats for warm climates. Freeman 143 

Nematode galls In marketing and milling wheat, Coleman and Regan 141 

Have farmers been given a square deal in the Federal standards? Brand. 144 

Federal grain supervision and standards for wheat applied to 1917 crop. 144 

A oompariaon of the Federal t;. Minnesota grading system, Sanderson 145 



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IV OONTEIffTS. (VdL 40 

Variations in seed tests resulting from errors in sampling, Stevens 145 

Seed Reporter 146 

The revised agricultural seed law, Smith 146 

HOBTICULTUBB. 

A nutrition basis for horticultural practice, Kraus 147 

Effect of electricity on plants 147 

Effect of low temperatures on greenhouse plants. Free 147 

[Third report of nursery and market garden experimental station] 147 

Adaptation of vegetables, Tracy, sr 147 

Genetic studies of some characters in Pisum« Nohara 147 

Regulating the bearing habit of fruit trees, Whltten 148 

Influence of low temperature on fruit growing in New York, Chandler— 148 

Report on tests of self-sterility in plums, cherries, and apples, Sutton 148 

Minnesota State Fruit-Breeding Farm in 1918, Haralson 148 

Influence of soil management on fruit bud development, Kirby 148 

Twenty years of fertilizers in an apple orchard, Anthony 14© 

The effect of cross-pollination on the apple. Wicks 1^ 

Status of commercial apple growing in Virginia, Marshall 149 

Peach growing, Oould 14» 

Storage of grapes, Thayer 148 

Smyrna flg culture, Rlxford 149 

Culture of the Logan blackberry and related varieties, Darrow 150 

Cranberry investigations, Headlee 150 

Temperatures of small fruits when picked, Stevens and Wilcox 150 

Home storage houses for fruit, Fagan_- 150 

Home vegetable and fruit storage 130 

Import of nut tree investigations in Maryland, Johnston 150 

A new variety of avocado, the "Chlnln," Itifi 151 

Lemon orchard from buds of single selected tree, Shamel 151 

Orange-like fruit from a lemon tree, Brown 151 

A fruiting orange thorn, Shamel and Pomeroy 151 

Pyrethrum and its culture, Faes 151 

FOBBSTBT. 

Value of scientific research In forestry, Korstian 151 

Some present-day problems in forestry, Hodson 151 

Forestry work, Whellens 151 

Effect of the war on forests of France, Graves 152 

Report of director of forestry of Philippine Islands for 1917, Fischer 152 

Annual report of the director of forests, Jolly 152 

The trees of White County, Indiana, Heimlich 1S2 

The vegetation of northern Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia, Nichols 152 

Replacement of East African forest by wooded pasture land, Swynnerton. 152 

Limiting factors in relation to tolerance of forest trees, Hutchinson 152 

Logging in the Douglas fir region, Gibbons 152 

The ancient oaks of America, Trelease 153 

The ray system of Quercus alha, Langdon 158 

Relationship between leaves and latex of Hevea hrasilientiSt BobUioff 153 

Rubber seed selection, Malet 153 

Girth-increment of sal in tjie United Provinces, Marsden 153 

Determination of increment by stem analysis 158 

The application of the graphic calculation, I, Parascandolo 153 

Meeting the wood fuel situation, Secrest 163 

Suggestions for marketing small timber in Wisconsin, MacKaye 154. 

Forest products statistics Issued by the Statistical Clearing House 154 

DISEASES or PLANTS. 

Weather conditions and crop diseases in Texas, Blodgett 164 

[Plant diseases in Ontario] 154 

Diseases of economic plants, Nowell 155 

Parasitic fungi collected In Podolia, Russia, Garbowski 155 

Mycological notices, Lindfors 165 



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tM9] OOKTBlirrS* Y 

pftft. 

Ctrdaaceons spedes of Puodnla. — I, Species on Vemonls, Jackson 155 

£cSal stage of Puccima oxalidis. Long and Harsch 155 

Tbe treatment of covered smut of barley, Salmon and Wormald 15B 

Snmt In oats and barley 156 

Studies on the rice blast fungus, I, Nishikado 156 

Fungus parasites of Bromus erectus, Gruchet 156 

Disease resistance in cabbage, Jones 156 

Leaf spot disease of clover, Krakover 156 | 

[Fungus diseases of mushrooms], McDougall 157 

A wilt of CapHcum animum, Pavarino and Turconl 157 

(Liability of potatoes to disease] 157 

Black wart caused by Chrysophlyctia endobiotica, Kunkel 157 

Diseases of cane in tropical and subtropical America, Johnston et al 157 ' 

nematode injury [to sugar cane] by Heterodera radicicola, Cobb 157 | 

Some important diseases of sweet potato, Sherbakoff 158 j 

Feach yellows and peach rosette, Norton 138 j 

A few insects and diseases common to small fruits, Dudley 158 j 

Comparisons between effects of basic and of acid copper sprays, Capus 158 

Diseases and enemies of cacao in Ecuador, Rorer, trans, by Pachano 158 

Jitianose of citrus, Fawcett 158 | 

Florida citrus diseases, Stevens 158 i 

Prevoiting wood rot in pecan trees, McMurran 158 

Some bacterial diseases of orchids, Pavarino 158 

More about rose diseases, Massey 159 

A study of heart rot in western hemlock, Weir and Hubert 159 

Tamors of the maritime pine, Dufr6noy 159 

l%e white pine blister rust and the chestnut bark disease, Melnecke 159 

Btock canker of chestnut, Brlosi and Fametl 160 

Uycological and pathological notes, II, Turconl and Maffei 160 ! 

Fwies applanatus In South Africa, and effect on ironwood, van der Bijl.. 160 

fames officintUU, a timber-destroying fungus, Faull 160 

ECONOMIC ZOOLOOT— BNTOMOLOGT. 

A sketch of the natural history of the District of Columbia, McAtee 160 

Genera of fishes from Linnseus to Cuvler, Jordan and Evermann 160 

About the biology of Mu8 concolcr, Otten 160 

The r51e of the field rat in the epidemiology of plague, Otten 161 

The duration of infectiousness of the Indian rat flea, Otten 161 

Aristonetta, a good genus, Oberholser 161 

Bierofalco rugticolua candicans In North Dakota, Oberholser 161 

Olor columffianu8 on the Potomac River, Oberholser 161 

BpizeJla tnanticola, correct name for American tree sparrow, Oberholser— 161 

Squatarola squatarola synoairas near Washington, D. C, Oberholser 161 

Khith annual report of the State entomologist, Gillette and List 161 

Entomology 162 

Tliirty-second report of the State entomologist, 1916, Pelt 162 

(Control of Insect pests in Washington] 163 

lA report on economic insects in British Guiana in 1916], Bodkin 163 

Injurious Insects in Sweden during 1912-1916, Tullgren 163 

Insect pests of plants cultivated in European Russia in 1914, Kulagin 163 

Seport on injurious Insects of the mulberry tree in Formosa, Mak! 163 

Investigations on Insects injurious to spruce and pine cones, Trfigftrdh— 163 

Ascertaining parasites of respective host Insects, Trftgftrdh 164 

Axsenate of lime, Sanders 164 

Present status of investigations of CoccobaciUua acridiorum, Barbara — 164 

A systematic study of Coccohadtlus acridiorum, Glaser 164 

Botes on certain plant bugs connected with cotton in St. Vincent, Hutson. 165 

Some effects of cotton stainer control in S. Vincent, Sands 165 

Kbtes on trapping the cotton stainer in St Vincent, Sands 165 

j haect aiemies of the chinch bug, Flint 16o 

Observations on life history and habits of PilopJiorua walshii, Fulton 165 

The dimorphs of species of Ohaitophorus, Baker 165 

I Ihe apple woolly aphis (Eriogoma laniffera) , Becker 165 

\ CovplMfea grandU new to Argentine fauna, Llzer 165 

Oecurrence of ChryMomphaXus paulistua in the Parana Delta, Llzer 165 ^ , 



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VI CWKTBinS. CVol. 4« 

Pr«B. 

Impregnation of underwear as means of controlling clothes lonse. Moore. 165 

The peach tree borer (Sanninoidea exitiosa), Becker 166 

The peach tree borer {Sanninoidea exitiosa), Gossard and King 167 

The pink bollworm In Brazil, Bruno Lobo 167 

The two- and three-brooded rice borers, Kondo 167 

The greasy surface caterpillar : Life history and seasonal history. Dutt-^ 167 

A new codling moth attacking the persimmon [in Japan], Tanaka 167 

Action of insecticides on eggs of Polychrotit botrana, Feytaud 167 

Budemis naevana, the holly tortrlx moth, Huie 168 

Contributions to a knowledge of Cramblne of North America. I, Alnslie— 1^ 

Breeding of Anopheles quadrimaculatus in deep water, Carter 168 

Effect of Anopheles punctipennis on conveyance of malarial fever. Carter. 168 

Loss during hibernation of infective power of anophellnes, Roubaud 168 

The use of palliatives for mosquito bites, Ewing 168 

A new species of Sciari bred from red clover crowns, Pettey 168 

Life history of leaf-eating crane fly, Cylindrotoma splendens, Cameron 169 

Oils tested to trap Trypetidse and Ortalid». Severin 160 

Fruit flies of economic importance in California, Severin 16U 

Seasonal and climatic variations in Cerodonta, Aldrlch 109 

Observations on life history and biology of Affromyza latereUa, Ciaassen.. 169 

Clytus devastator, a new pest of the Florida orange. Back 169 

New Zealand timbers and the borer, Speight 169 

A pest of plantations. Moreira 170 

A second food plant for the cherry leaf beetle, Van Dyke 170 

Lasioderma serricome, de Bussy 170 

The black-eye pea weevil, Urlch 170 

Curculionid enemies of the vine, Feytaud 170 

Beekeeping for West Virginia, Reese 170 

Segmentation of the abdomen of the honeybee (Apis meUiflca), Nelson 170 

Additional notes on the life history of Bomhus auricomus, Frison 170 

The wheat Jointworm and its control, Phillips 170 

TOODS — HUMAN NUTRITION. 

The significance of fats In the diet, Starling 170 

The physiological behavior of rafllnose, II, Kuriyama _, 171 

Chemical composition of " tarabagani,'* Matsui 171 

Hydrolysis of fish muscle, Okuda and Oyama 171 

Hydrolysis of fish gelatin, Okuda 171 

The physical chemistry of bread making, Cohn and Henderson 171 

" Over the top " in baking, Corbould 172 

The Red Man's world-old uses of Indian corn as food, Hen-Toh 1T2 

Antiscorbutic property of vegetables, Givens and Cohen 172 

The dietary properties of the potato, McCollum et al 172 

Household use of Ohio apples. Green 173 

The housekeeper's apple book, Mackay 173 

The utilization of some nuts as food, Cajorl 173 

Analysis of local foodstuffs 173 

Commercial stocks of grain, fiour, and miscellaneous food products 173 

Conservation and the food budget Krueger 173 

The world's food supply and woman's obligation, Addams 178 

Changing a peace time ration for war time, Hunt 173 

Everyday foods in war time. Rose - 173 

Cost of living and the war, Lauck 173 

High cost of living in State institutions, Beach 173 

The " man value " of working class diets. Greenwood and Thompson 174 

Antlpolyneuritic substances from carrots and yeast, Suglura 174 

Metabolism of ni4:rogen, phosphorus, and calcium in women, Sherman et al. 174 

Studies in uric acid metabolism 175 

The distribution of phosphoric acid in normal human blood, Bloor 176 

Botulism, Dickson 176 

ANIMAL FBODUCnON. 

Western live stock management, edited by Potter 176 

Live stock on the farm, Dietrich 177 

Biggie poultry book. Biggie 177 



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Idld) 00KTEKT3* Vn 

Page. 

Inheritance studies with poultry [at Rhode laland Experiment Station]-. 177 

Pigmentation In guinea pig hair. Hunt and Wright 177 

Oyster propagation 177 

DAIBT TABMING — ^DAIRYING. 

Open shed compared with closed barn for dairy cows, Woodward et al — 177 

The relation of milk yield to age at first calf, Towles 178 

The Guernsey breed. Hill 179 

Milk supply and public health, Qroenewold 179 

Why liberal use of milk Insures good health and long life, Lyman 179 

VXTSBINABT MEDICINE. 

The study of problems of Immunity by the tissue culture method, I. II.-. 179 

A new culture bouillon favorable to Streptococcus pyogenes, Boyer 180 

Liberation of antibodies on injection of foreign proteins, Herrmann 180 

Sporotrichosis following mouse bite, Moore and Davis 180 

Bacteria of infectious diseases of man and animals, Jones 180 

Germicidal action of freezing upon bacteria, HUliard and Davis 180 

The chloramln antiseptics and disinfectants. Mayo 181 

The use of dlchloramln-T in veterinary practice. Fitch et al 181 

Use of dichloramin-T in treatmoit of wounds, Lee and Fumess 181 

Use of dichloramin-T in surgical infection, Lee and Fumess 181 

Treatment of Infections wiUi dichloramln-T, Lee and Fumess 181 

Remarks on dlchloramin-T, Dunham 181 

Application of war surgery to dvil hospitals, Hartwell and Butler 182 

Prevention of blood clotting by Dakin's solution, Githens and Meltzer— 182 

The value of flavine. A dinical appreciation, Savery 182 

The composition of certain patent and proprietary medicines, Street 182 

Plants poisonous to domestic animals 182 

PUmts poisonous to stock, Hilgendorf 182 

Sixth report of commissioner of animal industry, 1917, Howard 183 

Report of State veterinarian and live stock sanitary board, Marshall— 183 

R^rt of State Live Stock Sanitary Board of South Dakota, Beaumont- 183 

Report on live stock Inspection in Uraguay, 1917, Mufion Xim^nez 183 

Report of civil veterinary department, Bihar and Orissa, 1917-18, Quinlan 183 

Hemorrhagie septicemia: Stockyards fever, etc, Washburn 183 

Rabies, Remlinger 18S 

Rabies and its control in New York State, Wills 183 

Is coDceptional rabies possible? Remlinger 183 

Passage of rabic virus from mother to fetus, Lanfrancbl and Lenzi 183 

Recent aspects of streptoccocus infection, Gay 184 

Experimental study of serum therapy in trichinonis. Hall and Wlgdor 184 

Bocterium ahortus and related bacteria. — III, In cow's milk. Evans 184 

A streptothrix (Nocardia) infection of cows' udders, Eivans 185 

Goccidiosis in young calves. Smith and Graybill 185 

Hairless pigs. — ^The cause and remedy, Hart and Steenbock 185 

Avian tuberculosis in swine. Day 183 

Intradermal palpebral mallelnization In glanders, Louis and Lecompte 186 

Ozidotherapy in the treatment of tetanus, Belin 186 

Necrobaclllosis in horses and mules, Nolechek 186 

Occurrence of Anoplocephala spp. in the United States, Hall and Hoskins 180 

Iinmunity of fowhi and pigeons to anthrax, Sarti 186 

Some studies on Bekuoaris marginata and Toxascaris limhataf Wigdor.. 186 

Tissue-invasive powers of flagellated and ciliated protozoa, Haughwout-. 183 

Some studies on the resistance of the ova of Toxaacaris limhata, Wigdor 187 

Anthelmintics: Their efficiency as tested on earthworms, Sollmann 187 

BUBAL BNGINEEBING. 

Ueasureraent of water to fkrms, Longwell ««. 187 

Use of water on projects of United States Reclamation Service, Moritz.. 187 

Tables showing water on the Salmon River tract, Darlington 187 

Ground-water movements according to Isothermal curves, Forchhelmer. 187 

Variation of underground water level near a tidal river, Bilham 187 



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vm ooirrENTS. (Voiio 

Graduated slope gauge and movable stilling box, Steward 188 

Calaveras Dam slide. — Failure of liydraulic fill dam, Heuny and Swigart. 188 

Hydraulic sluicing for blanketing porous canal banks, Stevens 188 

Pumping on irrigation projects, Gaylord 188 

Pumping from wells, Gaylord 188 

Control of algae by copper sulphate, Tiflfany 188 

Terracing farm lands, Ramser 188 

Public Roads 188 

Reinforced concrete slab bridge design based on full-sized tests, Goldbeck. 18d 

Farm machinery problems under war conditions. White 189 

Farm tractor engineering charts, Jandesek 189 

£kx)nomic size of farm tractor, Goldberger 190 

Design of an enduring tractor, Craven 190 

Gears for tractors, Scarratt 190 

Tractor transmissions, Greer 190 

Magneto ignition for farm tractors. Zimmerman 190 

Fuels for tractor engines, Mowry 190 

Adaptation of carbureters to low volatile fuels, Finney 191 

Antifreeze solutions, Schaefer 191 

Potato storage cellars, Minidoka project, Crawford 191 

BUBAI. ECONOlflCB. 

The determination of farming costs, Orwin 192 

Cost accounts on a fruit farm, WyiUe 192 

Minimum wages for agricultural workers 192 

Farmers and income tax, M'Callum 192 

Private colonization of the land, Ely 192 

The agricultural accident insurance at Baden 193 

Cooperation and markets branch 198 

Conference of representatives of the grain trade of the United States 198 

Facts for the farmer 193 

Facts kept from the farmer 193 

Eugenics and the agricultural community, Glaser 193 

The future of the country church, Phillips 194 

Area, farms, and farm lands [of California], Robertson 194 

[Census of farms, live stock, and agricultural production], Danielson 194 

Cuba, what she has to offer to the investor or the homeseeker, Reno 1^ 

Acreage and live stock returns of Scotland, Ramsay 194 

Prices and supplies of agricultural produce in Scotland, Ramsay 194 

Agricultural statistics of Italy 194 

[Agricultural exploitation and production of Morocco], Bernard 194 

The material resources of Burma, Adamson 195 

[Land tenure and settlement : Agriculture and live stock In New Zealand] . 195 

AGBICULTUBAL EDUCATION. 

The land grant of 1862 and the land-grant colleges, Andrews 195 

[Papers on horticultural instruction] 195 

Agricultural education, Eaton 1^ 

Vocational education, compiled by Roblson l^o 

[Instruction in rural science In Prince Edward Island] 1^ 

Proceedings of the high school conference of 1017, compiled by Holllster.- 197 

An outline of Instruction for school gardening and agriculture *— 19^ 

A course of study for homemakers, Crlgler and Peek 1^ 

A course In food economics for the housekeeper 19'. 

Home economics outline for teaching food conservation 19jj 

Lessons in community and national life 1^' 

HI8GBLLANE0U8. 

Thirtieth Annual Report of Illinois Station, 1917 19g 

Report of the director for 1917, Llpman 1^ 

Thirty-seventh Annual Report of Ohio Station, 1918 1^ 

Thirtieth Annual Report of Rhode Island Station, 1917 1^ 

Monthly Bulletin of the Ohio Experiment Station 1^ 



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LIST OF EXPERIMENT STATION AND DEPARTMENT 
PUBLICATIONS REVIEWED. 



Siationt in the United States. 

Fags. 
Alabama College Station: 

Bui. 205, Sept, 1918 141 

Arkansas Station: 

Bui. 150, June, 1918 166 

Bui. 154, July, 1918 165 

Florida StatloB : 

Bui. 150, Aug., 1918 158 

niinoia Station : 

Thirtieth An. Rpt 1917 198 

Maryland Station : 

Bui. 217, June, 1918 178 

Bui. 218, June, 1918 150 

Bui. 219, Aug., 1918 146 

N«w Jersey Stations: 

Bui. 317 (Rpt 1917), Nov. 

1, 1917 125,137,162,177.198 

North Dakota Station : 

Spec. Bui., vol. 5, No. 6, Aug., 

1918 145 

Ohio Station : 

Bui. 325 (Thirty-seventh An. 
Rpt 1918) , June. 1918 198 

Bui. 329. Sept, 1918 167 

Mo. BuL, vol. 3, No. 10, Oct, 
1918- 126, 149. 153, 172, 173. 198 
Rhode Island Station : 

Thirtieth An. Rpt 1917, 

Feb., 1918 198 

Wisconsin Station: 

BuL 297, Sbpt, 1918 ^ 185 

17. 8, Department of Affriculture. 

Bui 711, Logging in the Douglas 
Fir Region, W. H. Gibbons 152 

Bui. 721, The Beet-sugar Indus- 
try in the United States, C. O. 
Townsend 133 

Bui. 722, A Study of Heart-rot 
in Western Hemlock, J. R. 
Weir and B. B. Hubert 159 

Bui. 726, Farm PracUce in 
Growing Sugar Beets for 
Three Districts in (Colorado, 
1914-15, L, A. Moorhouse, R. S. 
Washburn, T. H. Summers, 
and S. B. Nuckcto 138 

Bui. 732, Smyrna Fig Culture, 
G. P. Rixford 149 

Bui 734, Nematode Galls as a 
Factor hi the Marketing and 
Milling of Wheat D. A. CJole- 
man, and & A. Regan 144 



17. 8, Department of Agriculture — CJontd. 

Pact. 

Bui. 735, Farm Practice in 

Growing Sugar Beets in the 

Billings Regions of Montana, 

S. B. Nuckols and B. L. Cur- 

rter 189 

Bui. 736, The Open Shed Com- 
pared with the CJlosed Barn 
for Dairy Cows, T. B. Wood- 
ward, W. F. Turner, W. R. 

Hale, and J. B. McNulty 177 

Farmers' Bui. 981, Farm Prac- 
tices that Increase Crop 
Yields in Kentucky and Ten- 
nessee, J. H. Arnold 133 

Farmers* Bui. 986, Farm Prac- 
tices that Increase Crop 
Yields in the Gulf Coast Re- 
gion, M. A. Crosby 133 

Farmers* BuK 995, Preventing 
Wood Rot in Pecan Trees, S. 

M. McMurran 158 

Farmers* Bui 996, Steam Steri- 
lization of Seed Beds for To- 
bacco and Other Crops, C. G. 

Beinhart 135 

Farmers* Bui 997, Terracing 

Farm Lands, C. B. Ramser 188 

Farmers* Bui. 998, CJulture of 
the Logan Blackberry and Re- 
lated Varieties, G. M. Darrow- 150 
Farmers' Bui 1000, Crop Sys- 
tems for Arkansas, A. D. Mc- 

Nair 133 

Farmers* Bui 1006, The Wheat 
Jointworm and Its Control, 

W. J. Phillips 170 

Farmers* Bui 1018, Hemor- 
rhagic Septicemia : Stockyards 
Fever, Swine Plague, Fowl 
Cholera, etc., H. J. Washburn. 183 
Bureau of Markets : 

Doc. 17, Oct, 1918 138 

Food Surveys, vol. 2, No. 13, 

Oct 26. 1918 173 

Seed Rptr., vol 2, No. 5. 

Nov. 9, 1918 146 

Serv. and Regulatory An- 
nouncements — 

No. 34, May 21, 1918 144 

No. 36, June 21, 1918 144 

Bureau of Plant Industry: 

Plant Disease Bui, vol 2— 

No. 11, Oct. 1, 1918 157 

No. IS, Nov. 1, 1918 157 

IX 



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X 



List o^ ]?tJBUcATioNfi. 



tVol.40 



U. 8. Department of Agriculture — Contd. 

Bureau of Public Roads : ^*»««. 

Public Roads, vol. 1, No. 5, 

Sept, 1918 188. 189 

Bureau of Soils: 

Field Operations, 1915— 
Reconnolssance Soil Sur- 
vey of Lower San Joa- 
quin Valley, Cal., J. 

W. Nelson et al 118 

Field Operations, 1916— 
Soil Survey of Barry 
County, Mo., A. T. 
Sweet and E. W. Kno- 

bel 119 

Soil Survey of Miami 

County, Ohio, E. R. 

Allen and O. Gossard. 119 

Soil Survey of Berkeley 

County, S. C, W. J. 

Latimer et al 119 

Soil Survey of Bell 
County, Tex., W. T. 

Carter, jr., et al 120 

Soil Survey of Door 
County, Wis., W. J. 

Gelb et al 120 

Soil Survey of Milwau- 
kee County, Wis., W. 
J. Geib and T. J. 

Dunnewald 120 

Weather Bureau: 

Mo. Weather Rev., vol. 46, 

Nos. 7-8, July-Aug., 1918. 117 
Ciimat. Data, vol. 5, Nos. 

7-8, July-Aug., 1918 117 

Nat. Weather and Crop Bui. 

18, July 16, 1918 116 

Nat. Weather and Crop Bui. 

21, Aug. 6, 1918 118 

Scientific Contributions :* 

The Proteins of the Peanut, 
Aravhis hypogasa, — III, 
The Hydrolysis of Ara- 
chln, C. O. Johns and 

D. B. Jones 109 

The Hydrolysis of Kafirln, 

D. B. Jones and C. O. 
Johns 110 

Note on the Preparation of 
Gulonic Lactone, F. B. La 
Forge 110 

The Quantitative Determi- 
nation of Phosphorus by 
the Nephelometric Method, 

E. B. Meigs 112 

The Determination of Tyro- 
sin in Proteins, C. O. 
Johns and D. B. Jones 113 

Volumetric Determination of 
Reducing Sugars, W. B. 
Clark 114 



U, 8, Department of A|rteuW«re— CJontd. 

Scientific Contribntlon8--Contd. Pace. 

The Triangle System for 
Fertilizer Experiments, O. 
Schreiner and J. J. Skin- 
ner 126 

The Allies of 8elaginella 
rupeetris In the Southeast- 
ern United States, 6. P. 
Van Eseltine 133 

Primitive Methods of Maize 
Seed Preparation, H. BL 
Blggar 137 

Cutthroat Grass, Panicum 
combsii, C. V. Piper 137 

Glandular Pubesoance in 
Various Medleago Species, 
R. McKee 137 

Origin of the Georgia an-J 
Alabama Varieties of Vel- 
vet Bean, H. S. Coe 141 

Adaptation of Vegetables, 
W. W. Tracy, sr 147 

Peach Growing, H. P. Gould- 149 

Temperatures of Small 
Fruits when Picked, N. B. 
Stevens and R. B. WUcox- 150 

Lemon Orchard from Buds 
of Single Selected Tree, A. 
D. Shamel 151 

A Fruiting Orange Thorn, 
A. D. Shamel and C. S. 
Pomeroy 151 

Value of Scientific Re- 
search in Forestry, C. F. 
Korstian 151 

Some Present-day Problems 
In Foi^stry, E. R. Hodaon. 151 

Effect of the War on Forests 
of France, H. S. Graves.. 152 

iBuggestlons for Marketing 
Small Timber In Wlscon- 
sln,.B. MacKaye 154 

.Scial Stage of Puccinia 
oxalidU, W. H. Long and 
R. M. Harsch^ 155 

The White Pine Blister Rust 
and the Chestnut Bark 
Disease, E. P. Meinecke.. 159 

A Sketch of the Natural His- 
tory of the District of Co- 
lumbia, together with an 
Indexed Edition of the 
TJ. S. Geological Survey's 
1917 Map of Washington 
and Vicinity, W. L. Mc- 
Atee 160 

Arlstonetta, a Good Genus, 
H, C. Oberholser 

Hierofalco rutticolM candi- 161 
cans in North Dakota, H. 
C. Oberholser 161 



^ Printed in scientlflc and technical publicationa outside the Department, 



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1919J 



LIST Otf PXSBUCA!noit^. 



Xt 



V, 8, Department ofAffricuUure—Contd. U. 8. Department of Affriculture~-Contd, 



Scientific Oontribntions— Gontd. F«kS«- 

Olor columbianus on the 
Potomac Riyer, H. G. 
Oberholser 161 

Bpizella tnanticola, the Cor- 
rect Name for the North 
American Tree SxMurrow, 
EL C. Oberholaer lei 

Squatarola squatarola cyno- 
9uriE near Washington, D. 
C, H. C. Oberholser 161 

A Systematic Study of the 
Organisms Distributed un- 
der the Name of Cocco- 
fHtcUlu* atfridiorum, R. W. 
Glaser 164 

The DImorphs of Species of 
Chaitophorus, A. G. Baker. 165 

A New CkMiling Moth At- 
tacking the Persimmon 
[in Japan!, T. Tanaka — 167 

Contributions to a Knowl- 
edge of tbe Crambine of 
North America, I, Q. O. 
AinsUe 1C8 

Seasonal and Climatic 
Variation in Cerodonta, 
J. M. Aldrich 169 



Scientific Contributions— <>)ntd. ?»«•• 

Clytus devastator, a New 
Pest of the Florida 
Orange, B. A. Back 169 

The Segmentation of the Ab- 
domen of the Honeybee 
(Apia meUiflca), J. A. 
Nelson 170 

Changing a Peace Time Ra- 
tion for War Time, Caro- 
line L. Hunt 173 

Pigmentation In Guinea Pig 
Hair, H. R. Hunt and S. 
Wright 177 

Further Studies on Bacte- 
rium abortus and Related 
Bacteria. — III, Bacterium 
abortus and Related Bac- 
teria in Cow's Milk, Alice 
C. Evans 184 

A Streptothrlx (Nocardla) 
Infection of Cows' Udders, 
Alice C. Evans 185 

Report of the Committee on 
Score Cards for Vegeta- 
bles, W, W. Tracy, sr 196 



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EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

Vol.40. Februart, 1919. No. 2. 



Two reports have recently come to hand which are worthy of 
special mention. One of these is an account of the Rothamsted Ex- 
periment Station in war time, covering the three years 1915 to 1917, 
It is the first report of the kind to come from any of the stations in 
the war zone beyond occasional references to their activity, and hence 
it is of unusual interest in reflecting the effects of the war and the 
response to its demands. The very brevity and condensation of the . 
report suggests the war's influence, but it does not prevent reflection 
of the aggressive attitude of the station and its readiness to meet new 
problems, or the manner in which it was turned to for aid in the great 
crisis. As a reviewer has said, it " is a striking record of triumph 
over war-time diflSculties and of adaptability to the circumstances 
and needs of the times.'' 

We learn that at the outset the station's staff was rapidly depleted, 
two-thirds of its members joining the military forces or entering 
Government work for which their experience especially qualified 
them. Two of the former lost their lives and four of those who 
remained with the station died, so that of the band of workers col- 
lected and trained by Lawes and Gilbert only two are now left. 
Women were brought in to take the places of the men who left the 
station, and in this way the more important lines of inquiry were 
continued and new problem^s arising with the shifting conditions 
were cared for. 

At an early stage the staff was called upon by the Board of Agri- 
culture to carry on a considerable amount of advisory work, and later 
by the Ministry of Munitions. As the food problem became more 
urgent the demand for help increased, and when the Board of 
Agriculture was enlarged in 1917 the Food Production Department 
called the director of the station into service for a definite portion 
of his time. He was also engaged on various other committees, such 
as the Electro-culture Committee of the Board of Agriculture, the 
National Salvage Council, the Munitions Inventions Panel, and the 
Advisory Committee on Agricultural Science. 

The list of inquiries conducted at the request of the various 
branches of the Government is a long and varied one. The subjects 

101 

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102 EXPERIMENT STATION BEGOBD. [ToL40 

fall mainly under the heads of reclamation schemes, fertilizer prob- 
lems, utilization of waste materials, and food problems. There were 
naturally a large number of tests of fertilizing materials, some new 
and many old. There was a search for sources of potash, studies of 
methods of conserving and utilizing army stable manure, of saving 
drainings from farmyard manure, and of employing urine for fertil- 
izing purposes. The possibility of using peat in the manufacture of 
ammonia and of niter cake in making superphosphate was inquired 
into, and the value of sulphate of anmionia made by the use of niter 
cake was tested. Monthly notes to farmers on fertilizers were pre- 
pared for the Journal of the Board of Agriculture, and numerous 
popular articles on the subject were contributed. 

A large number of waste products from manufacturing establish- 
ments were tested for the Board of Agriculture and the Food Produc- 
tion Department, and experiments were made on the fertilizing value 
^of city wastes and by-products from munitions factories. Another 
line of food production problems assigned to the station related to 
the question of cultivating the royal parks, the possibility of utiliz- 
ing other areas, the causes of infertility of certain tracts of land, and 
the soils of Foulness Island. 

It is evident, therefore, that the station served in the capacity 
of consulting expert to the Government on a wide variety of questions 
important to the time. But fortunately it was not necessary to re- 
strict its activity to this field. It was found possible to keep up the 
long-time experiments for which it is famous, and, in addition to 
undertake several special lines of investigation on topics arising out 
of the emergencj^or changed conditions. 

It is especially interesting to read of the progress of these more 
intensive investigations at Kothamsted, and to note the manner in 
which its program was modified to meet conditions in those trying 
times. The efforts in that direction indicate no change of attitude on 
the importance of thorough and fundamental inquiry or the need of 
looking to the future in planning investigations. Normally the sta- 
tion concerns itself mainly with investigations of the soil and the 
growing crop. During the war its lines resolved themselves into four 
groups — ^the economical use of manure, the plowing up of grassland, 
the control of soil organisms, and the nutrition of plants. 

The organization of research around definite problems and the con- 
centration of attack upon them from various sides is well illustrated 
in the studies bearing on the breaking up of grassland. When it be- 
came evident that the policy of plowing up these lands must ulti- 
mately be adopted, the station broke up a field which had been in 
grass for ten years and sowed a variety of crops. This developed a 



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^m BDITOBIAIi. 103 

series of problems, such as the depredations of birds and insects 
which had been harbored by the hedge rows, the coming in of weeds, 
and the liability to loss of the elements of stored-up fertility. Wire- 
worms began to appear in numbers which caused apprehension, and 
provision was made for studying their life history, morphology, and 
control, especially hpr means of sterilization — an old subject at Roth- 
amsted in soil investigation. A further set of difficulties arose out 
of the weed flora, and with characteristic thoroughness the observa- 
tions on the viability of weed seeds in grassland were extended to 
other fields which had been in grass for 30, 60, and up to 200 years. 
It is interesting to note that soil from fields 30 years old gave a 
copious weed flora, that firom fields 60 years old showed less, while 
none developed in the soil of fields which had been in grass for 200 
years. 

An important feature of this problem of plowed up grassland was 
the rate at which the stored-up fertility was utilized or became dis- 
sipated. This fertility was found to be liberated by exposure to the 
tir, the decomposition of the organic matter proceeding more rapidly 
than the crops were able to take up the nitrogen compounds set free. 
The result was waste, the nature and cause of which was studied from 
both the chemical and bacteriological sides. 

So long as the land lies in grass the soil contains considerable car- 
bonic acid and a reduced percentage of oxygen, so that conditions are 
not particularly favorable for aerobic organisms ; but as soon as it is 
plowed up the conditions become more favorable. The nitrogen 
compounds are broken down in the first instance to anmionia, but 
the evidence is that the process is not a simple bacteriosis as formerly 
believed. The loss of nitrogen is thought to be partly due to a definite 
evolution of gaseous nitrogen which occurs neither in entire absence 
of air nor in complete access of it, but only under intermediate con- 
ditions of aeration. This indicates that it is due neither to a 
simple oxidation nor to a simple reduction, but to some more complex 
action. The application of the findings to the soil problem under 
consideration is not simple and will require further investigation. 

Another line of study centered on the handling of barnyard manure, 
on which the above findings have a direct bearing. These studies re- 
lated especially to the nature of the loss and how it arises. This was 
an appropriate war time problem in view of the need of conserving 
all sources of fertilizing material, and some hnportant progress was 
made upon it Attention was not confined to nitrogen but was di- 
rected to other constituents, notably the cellulose furnished by straw. 
Experiments showed that when this straw was applied unchanged to 
the soil, it might in large measure neutralize the effect of other com- 
ponents of the manure. But straw mixed with soil, chalk, and certain 
organisms living free in the soil resulted in a decomposition of the 

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104 EXPERIMENT STATION BEGOB0. IVoL 40 

cellulose and the fixation of nitrogen from the air, so that a manure 
was finally obtained which contained considerably more nitrogen than 
the original components. Horse manure was found to contain some- 
thing suitable for the process of nitrogen fixation, and also to yield an 
organism which works in conjunction with the nitrogen fixers, so that 
with straw and the appropriate organisms a considerable enrichment 
of the manure in nitrogen may be obtained. 

These results are largely in the laboratory stage, but as pointed 
out, ^^ if the plowing up of grassland continues, the country will be 
faced with a large production of straw for which an ouUet must be 
found ; considerable quantities of bulky, organic manure will also be 
required. If the nitrogen fixation plan prove feasible in practice it 
will afford a convenient solution of both problems." 

In connection with study of the biochemical decomposition in the 
soil, the relation of rain, and especially of oxygen dissolved in rain 
water, was given attention. It is suggested that this dissolved oxygen 
accoimts for a part of the favorable influence of summer showers in 
starting up the decomposition. Whether the depressing effect of the 
growing crop is due to its taking up the dissolved oxygen giving out 
carbonic acid or some other action is not yet clear. 

Accounts of these and other investigations are published elsewhere 
in more detail, and many of them have been noted in abstract, but 
they are briefly referred to here as showing the activity of the sta- 
tion in the period covered and some of its outcome. 

Reference to the future plans of the station illustrates the close 
relation it sustains to practical problems of British agriculture. Dr. 
Russell points out that since the farmer's task in the future will be to 
increase his yield, the problems connected with this will necessarily 
determine the program for future research work. Some of these 
questions as they relate to wheat production are now being faced 
by the station. " We must strengthen the straw, improve the tiller- 
ing, regulate to some extent the development of grain, and control 
the pests. Until these are all solved we can not hope to get much 
further with increased wheat yields." 

In spite of the new and special duties whidi the war brought to 
the station, time was found to prepare and publish an imposing list 
of papers, some 50 in niunber, together with several books. Among 
the latter was a revision of ^^ The Book of the Rothamsted Experi- 
ments," published in 1905 under the authorship of Mr. A. D. Hall. 
In the new edition, issued in 1917, Dr. Russell brought down the data 
for a further decade and made the necessary alterations in the text. 

The hope is expressed that when conditions become more normal 
it will be possible to arrange for a. proper statistical survey of the 
mass of available data accumulated at Rothamsted. This, it is be- 
lieved, would yield further information of high value to science and 

uigitizea Dy K.jyjKJWi\^ 



W193 BDITORIAIi. 105 

to practical agriculture, for " we have not yet learnt anything like 
all the lessons the Bothamsted fields can teach us." 

The esteem and admiration in which this Nestor of the stations 
has long been held will be further heightened by its war time record. 
It has added to the debt of the Empire, and has shown anew its in- 
tensely practical character and its value as a national asset 

The increased interest in agricultural education and research 
which has been manifest in the midst of the war and following it 
has been referred to in previous issues. This has not been confined 
to the war-stricken countries of Europe, but has extended among 
others to Australia where, as already mentioned in .these pages, an 
advisory council of science and industry appointed by the Governor 
General has submitted recommendations which include a program 
for enlarging investigation in agriculture. And now comes a report 
from the Department of Agriculture of Victoria dealing with agri- 
cultural education and agricultural development in America, with 
applications to that country. 

The report is by Mr. A. E. V. Bichardson, agricultural superin- 
tendent in the Victorian Department of Agriculture, and records the 
results of a personal study of agricultural institutions in this country 
and Canada on a six-months' mission. It is a highly intelligent and 
accurate exposition of the American view of agricultural education 
and the spirit and motive of agricultural institutions. It is appre- 
ciative not only of what has been accomplished but of what has been 
passed through in the process of development. 

Mr. Richardson writes as one who has seen and understands, and 
who has weighed the results as now exhibited in full light of their 
evolution. This gives him advantage in making applications to his 
own country and adds force and conviction to his recommendations. 
Incidentally the comparisons he makes throw an interesting light on 
conditions at present prevailing in Victoria, which in many respects 
parallel in opportunity the situation in this country before our sys- 
tem for agricultural advancement had been put well under way. 

Special interest naturally centers in the applications of his studies 
to Victoria. He explains that one great advantage which has come 
in America is a strong National sentiment toward agricultural edu- 
cation and agricultural development, which is lacking as yet in his 
country. He lays very strong emphasis on agricultural education, 
considered broadly, as an essential basis for development. He says: 
**The only way to secure a genuine and permanent increase in output 
from the land is to improve the farming methods of the country and 
apply the teachings of science to its agricultural production. In 
other words, the problem of agricultural development resolves itself 
ultimately into the problem of agricultural education. That is the 
107338^—19 2 

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106 EXPERIMENT STATION BEOORD. [VoL40 

clear lesson of experience in all the great agricultural countries of the 
world." But he cautions that a long time is required to realize on 
educational work, especially when the necessary force and the means 
for training such a force are lacking. 

There is declared to be no State in the commonwealth so dependent 
on the development of intensive agriculture as Victoria; hence it is 
argued that education in agriculture is of prime importance to it. 
Unlike the adjoining States it has no large area of crown lands to 
dispose of for the settlers of the future. It is by far the most densely 
populated State, and land values are relatively higher than in any 
other. Hence intensive culture and diversification are pointed to as 
the chief avenues of progress, and these naturally lend special im- 
portance to education. 

A lesson cited from American experience is that " no matter from 
what angle the problem of agricultural education be viewed, it re- 
solves itself ultimately into the problem of providing a sufficiency of 
trained teachers, agricultural specialists, and extension workers, and 
using them as units in an organized scheme of instruction, investiga- 
tion, and extension." It took this country a generation or more to 
learn this, but it is one of the most fundamental lessons out of our 
experience, and it will be a saving of time and disappointment if it 
can be profited by in newer countries. 

With a view to training such a corps of workers, suggestions are 
offered for modifying and strengthening the course and facilities 
in agriculture of the university at Melbourne. The provision at 
present is held to be wholly inadequate to the modem ideas of college 
teaching, and until it can be enlarged the suggestion is offered that 
the staff of the Department of Agriculture be used and the facilities 
of the Werribee Research Farm or the Dookie Agricultural College 
employed for the necessary practical work. Scholarships in Amer- 
ican institutions are advocated to provide trained specialists in tech- 
nical subjects; and to encourage more men to prepare for this field 
the insurance of larger emoluments for services is urged. In this 
connection it is noted that the university council has asked that the 
Government appoint six graduates annually for a period of five 
years at a salary of fifteen hundred dollars a year. 

Comparing the two agricultural colleges of Victoria with those 
in this country, it is shown that they differ fundamentally and that 
the former are really vocational schools giving as much attention to 
acquiring manual skill and dexterity as to technical and scientific 
training. The writer explains that 'Hhe Americans emphasize the 
fact that the true function of a college is to teach why things are* 
done rather than how they should be done; " and that in the American 
colleges " practically the whole time is devoted to technical and scien- 
tific training and subjects which make for good citizenship." 



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1919] EDITOBIAL. 107 

The two existing colleges attract few fann boys, but might, it is 
urged, if the type of instruction were provided which is adapted to 
their needs. A strong plea is made for liberalizing their courses, for 
increasing and strengthening the staffs, and for enlarging the facili- 
ties for instruction. Citing the success of short courses in the United 
States and Canada, the encouragement of these in every possible way 
IB advocated. 

The plan does not end with the university and the agricultural 
ooUeges, but includes instruction of lower grades. A State supervisor 
of agricultural instruction is recommended for the high and ele- 
mentary school work, and central district schools for preparing 
teachers for the elementary grades. 

The report has much to say on the subject of experiment stations 
and agricultural investigation, which are regarded as absolutely fun- 
damental to other educational development. The author holds that 
"the building up of a body of systematic knowledge by careful inves- 
tigation and experiment is essential for the sound development of 
agriculture in any country," and that a comprehensive system for this 
must run parallel with the work of instruction and extension. 

"The field for agricultural investigation in a new country such 
as ours is vast, and at the present time we are largely dependent for 
what may be termed the scientific basis for agriculture on principles 
established under climatic and economic conditions unlike our own. 

"There is a wide field of work in the confirmation of what are 
supposed to be the basic principles of our great national industry. It 
was the systematic tests conducted by the American experiment 
stations on the growing of crops, management of soils, feeding of 
animals, which played such a large part in developing American agri- 
culture. These stations demonstrated the practicability of very largely 
increasing the existing crop yields by measures within the reach of 
men of average intelligence, and at a cost which could be recovered 
with large dividends in increased crop production. The American 
stations played a large part in the development of American agricul- 
ture, and in creating sentiment towards agricultural education." 

Unlike this country, the experiment stations in Australia are 
under the State departments of agriculture along with the inspec- 
tion and other administrative functions. While this is not com- 
mented upon, attention is drawn to the association of research with 
teadiing and extension in the agricultural colleges of this country. 
Experimental work in Victoria is centered in the research farm at 
Werribee, established some 6 years ago, which, in addition to being 
young, has felt the shortage of skilled assistance. Hence a vast 
amount of experimental and research work remains to be done, 



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108 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. [Vot40 

which it is felt should be begun at the earliest possible moment Al- 
though the future progress of agriculture in Victoria lies in the inten- 
sification and diversification of agriculture, and particularly in the 
development of systematic stock feisding, it is explained that prac- 
tically no local information is available on the merits or costs of 
different feeding systems, or of the available feeds. Similarly, lack 
of information is felt on the proper use of water in irrigation, crop 
rotation, fertilizers and their effects, and in many other directions. 
This leads the author to " plead for generous support for extending 
the scope of our agricultural investigations and providing facilities 
in the way of staff and equipment to carry out a vigorous policy of 
investigation." 

Provision for farm surveys and for agricultural extension work is 
also advocated, but here again the lack of trained and experienced 
men is recognized as a practical difficulty at the present time. 

Mr. Richardson has caught the idea that in America agriculture is 
regarded as both a business and a mode of life, and that the develop- 
ment of agriculture is a public concern ; hence money spent upon it 
is not an outlay but an investment. This, he explains, is the reason 
why State and Federal Governments are content to make large ap- 
propriations for agricultural education as an underlying means of 
development. Based on this idea and the returns from it, he argues 
for a long-range policy which will look beyond the present and map 
out the requirements of the State, making provision for the steady 
realization of these plans in the future. 

It does not necessarily follow that what is good policy for one 
country will be equally good for another, but the value of agricul- 
tural education and investigation has been given such wide and 
convincing demonstration as to show their soundness for new regions 
quite as surely as for the older settled ones. This excellent report 
will furnish a reliable basis for agricultural development through 
education and research. 



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RECENT WORK IN AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE. 



AGSICirLTUEAL CHEUISTET— AGEOTECHNT. 

The progress of chemistry during the last quarter of a century, W. McPhbb- 
BON [Proc. Ohio Acad. ScL, 6 (1916), No. 5, pp. S70-387).—Thia is a discussion 
of a few of the branches of chemical science in which remarkable developments 
have taken place during the past 25 years. Among the topics treated are the 
constitution of matter— radioactivity, solutions, colloids, the i^nthesis of or- 
ganic compounds, asymmetrical syntheses, and fermentation. A few examples 
are given of the progress made in the application of chemistry to the Industrial 
development of the Nation. 

Annual report on the progress of chemistry for 1917, edited by J. C. Cain 
and A. J. Gkeenawat (Ann. RpU. Prog. Cheni, [London], U {1911), pp. /JC+ 
2^4, U' 1).— This is the usual annual report (E. S. R., 37, p. 409). 

Compendium of physiological chemistry, M. Abthus (Precis de Chimie 
Physiologique. Paris: Masson d Co., 1918, 8. ed., rev., pp. XI+451, pU. 5, figs. 
i/5).— This book is intended to fill a place intermediate between treatises on 
cbemical physiology and physiology. The chemical facts necessary for the study 
of physiology are presented in a concise form. Ck)lored plates are included on 
the Q>ectra of the hemoglobin of the blood under different conditions, on the 
nutritive value of different food materials, and on various tests of physiological 
chemistry. 

The application of electrolyslB in chemical industry, A. J. Halx {London 
0^ New York: Longmans, Oreen d Co., 1918, pp. /X-|-i^8, pis. S, figs. 57).— This 
volume, in the series of monographs on industrial chemistry edited by E. Thorpe, 
indudes sections on the general principles of electrolysis and methods of gen- 
oating currents, the electrolytic refining of metals, the electrolytic production of 
hydrogen and oxygen, electrolysis of alkali chlorids, and the production of 
Inorganic and organic compounds. 

Contribution to the study of the replacement of platinum in electrolytic 
apparatus, P. Nicoi:.asdot and J. Boudet {BuL 8oc. Chim. France, 4. ser., 2S-24 
{1918), Jfo. 9, pp. 387-^91). — ^As a result of investigations as to a proper substi- 
tute for platinum in electrolytic apparatus, the authors recommend a gold alloy 
fiot attacked by nitric acid. It consists of 92 parts of gold, 5 parts of silver, 
and 30 parts of copper. For the anode the surface of the alloy should be coated 
with a very thin layer of platinum to protect against oxidation. This covering 
is not necessary for the cathode. 

The proteins of the i>eanut, Aracfais hypogaaa. — HI, The hydrolysis of 
axadiin, CS. O. Johns and D. B. Jones {Jour, Biol. Chem., S6 {1918), No. S, pp. 
191-^00).— In continuation of previous work (E. S. R., 87, p. 501), the authors 
nport from the Bureau of Chemistry of the U. S. Department of Agriculture 
the following data on the hydrolysis of arachin, the principal protein of the 
peanut: Glydn none, alanin 4.11 per cent, valin 1.13, leucin 3.88, prolin 1.37, 

109 



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110 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. [VoL 40 

phenylalanln 2.0, aspartic acid 5.25, glutaminic acid 16.69, tyrosin 5.5, cystln 
0.85, arginin 13.51, histidin 1.88, lysin 4.08, tryptophan preBent, and ammonia 
2.03. 

The hydrolysis of kaflrln, D. B. Jones and G. O. Johns {Jour, Bioh Chem^ 
S6 (1918), No. 2, pp, 323-^34) ,— The hydrolysis of kaflrin, the alcohol-soluble 
portion of Kafir com, previously noted (E. S. R., 37, p. 8), resulted in the 
following percentage of amino acids: Glycin 0, alanin 8.08, valhi 4.26, lendn 
15.44, i)rollu 7.8, phenylalanln 2.34, aspartic acid 2.27, glutaminic acid 21.28, 
tyrosin 5.49, cystln 0.84, arginin 1.59, histidin 1.12, lysin 0.95, tryptophan pres- 
ent, and ammonia 3.46, malting a total of 74.87 per cent Certain modifications 
of the usual methods of hydrolysis are noted. 

Note on the preparation of gulonic lactone, F. B. La Forge (Jour. BioL 
Chem,, 36 (1918), No, 2, pp, 347-^49), — ^The cyanhydrin method of preparing one 
sugar from another having a lower number of carbon atoms has been simplified 
by the author at the Bureau of Chemistry of the U. S. Department of Agricnl- 
ture in the preparation of gulonic lactone from xylose. The simplified method 
as described makes possible the elimination of the operation of boiling with 
barium hydroxid, the saponification of the nitrile of gulonic acid being effected 
with a slight excess of sulphuric acid. The resulting ammonium sulphate is 
allowed to remain in the solution as it does not interfere with the crystalliza- 
tion of the lactone on concentration. 

The yield of chemically pure, recrystallized gulonic lactone from pure xylose 
amounted to 55 per cent of the weight of the xylose employed. It is considered 
that the method, with proper modifications, may be applied to the preparation 
of other sugars. 

The distillation of cellulose and starch under reduced pressure, A. Pictet 
and J. Sarasin (Helvetica Chim, Acta, 1 {1918), No, 1, pp, 87-95).— This has 
been essentially noted from another source (E. S. R., 38, p. 708). Additional 
studies are reported leading to the conclusion that the grouping of atoms in 
levoglucosane preexists in the molecule of starch and of cellulose. The possible 
formulas for levoglucosane and their bearing on the structure of cellulose and 
of starch are discussed. 

Chemical studies in some marine algn, chief material of ''kanten,'' S. 
Matsui {Jour, Col, Agr. Imp. Univ. Tokyo, 5 {1916), No. 4, pp. 413-417), — Chemi- 
ical studies are reported of tengusa, yegonori, and ogonori, three algie used 
in the manufacture of kanten, or Japanese agar-agar. The studies include 
qualitative tests showing that the itlgse contain hexosans, pentosan, and methyl 
pentosan, but neither starch, mannitol, nor reducing sugars. 

A study of the conditions essential for the commercial manufacture of 
carvacrol, A. W. Hixson and R. H. McKee {Jour, Indus, and Engin, Chem., 10 
{1918), No, 12, pp. 982-992, figs. 6; ahs. in Chem, Abs., 13 {1919), No, 2, p, 162). — 
A process for the manufacture of carvacrol from cymdne is described in which 
spruce turpentine is used as a source of cymene. The method has been found 
practical on a large scale and is considered of commercial importance in view 
of the possibility of utilizing carvacrol as a substitute for thymol. 

The fermentation organisms of California grapes, W. V. Cbuess {Univ. Cal. 
Pubs, Agr, Sd,, 4 {1918), No, 1, pp. 1^6, pis, 2, figs. J5).— This publication re- 
ports a study conducted at the California Experiment Station of the microor^ 
ganisms occurring on California grapes. The report includes a general discus- 
sion of grape organisms and the results of laboratory studies on the properties 
of molds, bacteria, and yeasts from California grapes; on the influence of lo- 
cality, degree of ripeness, and shipment from vineyard to winery upon the type 
and number of microorganisms; on the character and number of microorgan- 



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19193 AGBICULTUIIAL CHEMISTRY — ^AQROTECHNY. Ill 

iams on grapes as received at the winery during the seasons of 1911 and 1912 ; 
and on methods for the control of microorganlsmil on grapes for wine making. 

Nineteen different organisms were Isolated from California grapes, the ma- 
jority of which were found to be types that are harmful In wine making. On 
the sorface of the green grapes examined were found mostly molds, while as 
the grapes ripened wild yeasts made their appearance, the true wine yeasts be- 
ing the last to appear. During storage and shipment, the organisms (particu- 
larly molds and wild yeasts) increased rapidly. It was found that this could 
be checked by crushing the grapes at the winery and adding moderate amounts 
of sQlphurous acid (about 1 gal. of 6 per cent sulphurous acid solution per ton 
of crushed grapes). 

The method, previously noted (B. S. R., 84, p. 207), of adding moderate 
amounts of sulphurous acid to the grapes after arrival at the cellar, with sub- 
sequent application of pure yeast, is again recommended as giving uniformly 
good fermentations and sound wines. 

A method of dialysia of enz3rms, O. A. Val'tera (Izv. Ross, Akad. Nauk 
{Bid, Acad. Sci. Russ,), 6. ser.. No. IS {1917), pp. 1015-1088, fig. J).— A new 
method of dialysis is described in which a specially constructed apparatus with 
collodion sacks is employed. Experiments with the tryptase of yeast indicate 
that by the use of this method preparations may be obtained with a consider- 
ably higher activity at a diminished volume. The activity of the enzym is 
somewhat lowered in the process of dialysis, but the passage of either the enzym 
or the coenzym through the membrane is prevented. 

The quantitative analysis of snmll quantities of gases, H. M. Rydeb {Jour. 
Amer, Chem. Soc., 40 {1918), No. 11, pp. 1666-1662, figs. S; abs. in Chem. Abs., 
IS {1919), No. 1, p. 11). — ^A description is given of an apparatus designed for 
the quantitative analysis of small quantities of gases, of its manipulation, and 
of the results of tests made to determine its accuracy. The gases which can be 
handled in this way are water vapor, carbon dioxid, carbon monoxid, oxygen, 
hydrogen, nitrogen, and methane. The apparatus is designed to handle quanti- 
ties varying from a few cubic millimeters to about 1 cc. 

Votes on Folin's direct nesslerisation method for the determination of 
nitrogen, L. Lanqstboth {Jour. Biol. Chem., S6 {1918), No. B, pp. S77-S80, fig. 
1).— Two difficulties encountered by the author in the use of the Folin-Denis 
direct nesslerization method for nitrogen determinations (B. S. R., 36, p. 316) 
are pointed out. The first was in making known solutions of pure ammonium 
sulphate check with the standard when run through as in the procedure for 
total urinary nitrogen, and the second in boiling down the filtrate after pre- 
cipitation of the blood proteins with m^phosphoric add without loss from bump- 
ing. The first difficulty was found to be due to impurities in the sulphuric 
acid, and can be remedied by a preliminary digestion of the standard solution. 
It was found that the second difficulty can be avoided by heating with a micro- 
burner the filtrate in a hard glass tube held just far enough from the horizontal 
to bring the surface of the liquid half way between the bottom and the mouth 
of the tube. 

Ucrochemical nitrogen determination, B. Sjolleica and C. W. 6. Het- 
mscHY {Biochem. Zischr., 84 {1917), No. 5-6, pp, S59-S70, fig. 1; abs. in Chem. 
Ahs., It {1918), No. H, p. 1^75).— This is a criUcal discussion of the mlcro- 
KJeldahl method for the determination of nitrogen and the direct nessleriza- 
tion methods of Folin and Denis (B. S. R., 36, p. 316), together with suggestions 
tor certain modifications in both methods. 

The conclusion is drawn that in the authors' experience the micro-KJeldahl 
Is to be preferred to the direct nesslerization method, although good results can 
be obtained by both methods. 

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112 EXPERIMENT STATION BECOBD. [VoL 40 

A study of sources of error incident to tlie Lindo-Gladding method for 
determining potash, T. E. Keitt and H. E. Shiveb {Jour, Itidu9, and Engm. 
Chem,, 10 {1918), No. 12, pp. 994-^96). —A criUcal examination of the Lindo- 
Gladding method for determining potash is reported from the South Caro- 
lina Experiment Station, which indicates that there are two sources of error in 
this method: (1) The volume of the solution is decreased by the buUc of tbe 
precipitate formed on addition of ammonia and ammonium oxalate, which 
makes a plus error, and (2) the potash in solution is decreased by occlusion of 
potash by the heavy gelatinous precipitate formed. These two sources of error 
are partially compensating. 

It was found impossible to wash out with hot water the potash occluded 
within the precipitates. It may, however, be separated to a certain extent by 
repeatedly dissolving the precipitate in hydrochloric acid, diluting to a large 
volume, precipitating with ammonia and ammonium oxalate, filtering, and de-* 
termining the potash in the filtrates and washinga Both iron and calcium 
phosphate when precipitated with ammonia were found to occlude potash. 

The quantitative determination of phosphorus by the nephelometric 
method, E. B. Meios {Jour. Biol Chem., S6 {1918), No, t, pp. 9^5-^i6). — ^Tfae 
author has made a study at the Bureau of Chemistry of the U. S. Department 
of Agriculture of sources of error in the nephleometric det^mlnation of phos- 
phorus, the results of which are summarized as follows : 

**The greater the concentration of hydrochloric add present when the 
strychnin sulphate is added, the greater will be the amount of material pre- 
cipitated at that time and the greater will be the stability of the reasent. 
Reagents made up with strong hydrochloric add, however, tend to minimize 
the differences in nephelometric value as between phosphate solutions of differ- 
ent densities. None of the reagents that are serviceable when used in the 
procedure described by Bloor [in the article previously noted (B. S. R., 35, p. 
166)] are entirely stable; they all tend to form a spontaneous predpitate and 
to reach a state in which they show no difference in nephelometric value as 
between phosphate suspensions of different densities. The temperature at 
which the strychnin sulphate is added to the Naa MoO«-HGl solution in making 
up the reagent may have a considerable effect on its character." 

The temperature at which the phosphate suspensions are predpltated is also 
considered to be a factor which may cause a lack of proportionality between 
differences In the densities of suspensions and the differences In their n^helo- 
metric values. 

Determination of alkaline carbonates and Mcarbonates in the cold in the 
presence of litmus and phenolphthalein. Analysis of a mixture of carbo- 
nates, W. MssTRBZAT {Ann, Chim. Analyt,, 2S {1918), No, 10, pp. tOl-^tOe}, — 
Certain modifications in technique are described, by means of which it is said 
to be possible to analyze with accuracy a mixture of alkaline carbonates and 
Mcarbonates by titration in the cold, using litmus and phenolphthalein as in- 
dicators. 

To determine bicarbonates with accuracy it is recommended that the solution 
be diluted with boiled water to bring the proportion of alkaline carbonates to a 
figure below 0.07 per cent calculated as sodium carbonate. In titrating with 

litmus, it Is suggested that when the addition of ^^ add to the alkaline liquid 

begins to produce a color change the liquid should be divided into two parts, 
one of which recdves the acid and the other serves as a comparison. If the 
add added brings about a change in color the operation Is continued, the 
contents of the two flasks being mixed and then again divided into two portions. 



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m9] AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTRY — ^AGROTECHNY. 118 

The method, which is described in detail, is said to have given results in 
tiie analysis of alkaline hypochlorid solutions in which the chlorin has been 
combined with hyposulphite, as previously suggested (E. S. R., 39, p. 506). 
The total carbonic acid can be verified by the gasometrlc method (£. S. R., 39, 
p. 205). 

The determination of carbon dioxid in carbonates, D. D. Van Sltke {Jour. 
BioL Chem,, S6 (1918), No, 2, pp. S51-S54, fig. i).— The method described was 
devised primarily for use in determining carbonate in bones which had been 
dried and pulverized but not ashed. It is considered to be applicable to all 
carbonates, soluble or insoluble, in the absence of acids, such as hydrogen 
solphid, that are highly volatile from water solution. The principle of rapid 
extraction of carbon dioxid from solution by means of reduced pressure, 
previously noted (E. S. R., 37, p. 804), has been combined with the precipi- 
tation of carbonic acid by standard barium hydroxid solution and titration of 
the excess of hydroxid. 

Volumetric determination of sulphates, Vansteenbekghe and Bauzil (Ann, 
CMm, Analyt., 2S (1918), No. 10, pp. B10-2i 4). —Tlie method consists essentially 
of a preliminary precipitation of the alkaline earth bases, a part of the phos- 
phates, etc., by an excess of sodium carbonata The sulphates are then pre- 
cipitated in acid solution by a known volume of barium chlorid. The excess 
of barium chlorid is precipitated as barium carbonate with sodium carbonate 

N 
and determined by alkalimetry with the use of -^ hydrochloric acid. 

The method is said to be rapid and accurate and applicable to solutions of 
metallic sulphates, as well as to the various body fluids (urine, blood, etc.). 

The determination of tyrosin in proteins, C. O. Johns and D. B. Jones 
{Jour. Biol. Chem., SS {1918) ^ No. 2, pp. S19S22).—An investigation of the 
method of Folin and Denis for the determination of tyrosin (E. S. R., 28. p. 
806) is reported from the Bureau of Chemistry of the U. S. Department of 
Agriculture. 

It has been found that tryptophan is completely decomposed during the hydro- 
lysis of proteins with hydrochloric acid and that the decomposition products 
do not interfere with the determination of tyrosin. It has also been shown that 
oxyprolin does not interfere with the determination. Since tyrosin is decom- 
posed to some extent during hydrolysis, it is not considered of advantage to 
continue the hydrolysis more than 12 hours. 

The optical dispersion of oils from an analytical point of view, P. J. Fkyeb 
and P. E. Weston {Analyst, 4$ {1918), No. 510, pp. Sll-317) .-—TahleB are given 
of the dispersion values at 40"* O. of various oils and a few hydrocarbons, and of 
the effect of free acidity upon the dispersion of drying oils and of heat upon the 
refraction and dispersion of drying oils. 

The dispersive power of fatty oils and fats was found to be inferior in dis- 
criminative value to the refractive index, practically all the oils and fats, with 
the exertion of coconut, linseed, and tung oils, giving very similar dispersions. 
Coconut oil gave a distinctly lower, and linseed a higher, dispersion than the 
average. Free fatty acidity had little effect on the dispersive power. Oxidation 
Increased both the refractive index and the dispersion, and polyiperization in 
seneral increased the activity and lowered the dispersion. 

The aatooxid&tion of sugars, L. Bebczelzjs and E. Szeo5 {Biochem. Ztsohr., 
Si {1917), No. 1-2, pp. 1-96). — ^A study is reported of the autooxidation of 
logars in alkaline solutions in the presence of air, with and without the addi- 
tion of various substances. Analogies are drawn between the oxidation of 
sugars in vitro and in vivo. 



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114 EXPERIMENT STATION BEOOBD. CVoL 40 

Volmnetric determination of reducincr sugars, W. B. Clabk {Jour. Amer. 
Chem, fifoc, 40 {1918), No. It, pp. 1759-1772, fig, 1).— The method, contributed 
from the Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Department of Agriculture, is a sim- 
plification of Scales's method, previously noted (E. S. R., S4, p. 611), for titrating 
the reduced copper without removing it from the residual copper solution. The 
entire process is carried out in a single vessel with practical exclusion of the 
air from the time the reduction takes place until after the oxidation by the 
lodin. Concentrations of the solutions used and a definite method of procedure 
are described for quantities of reducing sugars up to 75 mg., and principles are 
pointed out for adapting the process to larger quantities of such sugars. 

The accuracy of the method is said to be such that with care the results of 
duplicate determinations should not differ by more tlian 0.25 mg. of reducing 
sugar. The ratio of reducing sugar to copper is nearly constant, the greatest 
variation occurring in low values. Instead of using tables it is advised that each 
observer standardize his own procedure and then determine the ratio for that 
procedure. 

Determination of aldehyde sugars by iodin in an alkaline medium: Appli- 
cations, H. CJoLiN and O. LiJfeviw {Bui, 8oc, Chim. Prance, 4, ser., 23-24 {1918)^ 
No, 9, pp. 403-405; ab9, in Jour, 800. Chem. Indus., S7 {1918), No. 23, p. 745A).— 
Suggestions are given for slight modifications in tlie Bougault method for the 
determination of aldehyde sugars by means of iodin (E. S. R., 37, p. 714), and 
comparative results are reported on tubercles, roots, and leaves obtained by the 
use of this method and the polarimetric method. The results in general vrere 
concordant, although with leaves the results are considered uncertain and always 
too high. 

A method for the determination of starch, W. S. Long {Trans, Kans. Acad. 
fifci., 28 {1916-17), pp, 172-174),— The method is described as follows: 

To 5 cc. of starch solution in a 100 cc. fiask are added 5 cc. of a 5 per cent 

solution of potassium iodid and 20 cc. of ^solution of iodin in a 5 per cent 

potassium iodid solution. The flask is stoppered, shaken, and allowed to stand 
over night The precipitated starch iodid is then filtered and washed thor- 
oughly with a 5 per cent potassium iodid solution. The filtrate and washings 

N 
are titrated with ^^ sodium thiosulphate solution, using starch solution as 

Indicator. 

The method is thought to be sufficiently accurate to be applicable to the de- 
termination of starch when occurring in snutU amounts, as in various food 
products. 

The determination of pentosans, H. D. Steenbebqen {Chem. WeekbL, 15 
{1918), No. 25, pp. 784-808).— This is a review and critical discussl6n of various 
methods for determining pentosans. An extensive bibliography is given. 

A study of some biochemical color tests. — 1, The thiophone test for lactic 
acid. A color test for aldehydes, W. R. Feason {Biochem. Jour., 12 {1918} ^ 
No. 3, pp. 179-183). — ^The author proposes the term " hydrocnic " for biochemical 
color reactions, the products of which are decolorized by the addition of small 
quantities of water, and describes the thlophene test for lactic acid as a typi- 
cal hydrocnic reaction. The reaction is due to the production from lactic acid 
of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, which react with the thlophene in the pres- 
ence of excess of sulphuric add to give a cherry-red color. On the basis of 
this reaction a new color test for aldehydes is described as follows: 

Two drops of a 0.2 per cent alcoholic solution of thlophene are added to 
5 cc. of concentrated sulphuric acid (free from nitrous and nitric contamina- 
tions) and mixed. If a drop of a weak solution of an aldehyde be added, a 



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l»m AQRICULTUBAL OHEMISTBY — ^AGROTECHKY. 115 

red color develops and spreads through the acid. This color is discharged by 
a few drops of water but returns on the addition of more sulphuric acid. 

The test is said to be very delicate with most aldehydes and to be given 
Bl£o with the substituted aldehydes such as chloral. The color varies slightly 
with the aldehyde. Formaldehyde gives a purple-red, acetaldehyde a cherry- 
red, and acrolein a rose-carmine color. 

The measurement of the acidity of bread, E. J. Cohn, P. H. Cathcabt, and 
L. J. Hendebsor (Jour, Biol. Chem,, S6 (1918), No. 5, pp. 581-586, fig. i).— A 
simple method for determining the H-ion concentration of bread is described, 
which consists essentially of applying four drops of a 0.02 per cent solution of 
methyl orange in 60 per cent alcohol to the freshly cut surface of the bread 
near the center of the loaf. The color is observed after five minutes, and is 
compared with a color chart or with that produced in a loaf of bread of known 
acidity. Baking experiments upon dough of known but graduated acidities 
have shown that the range from orange to red corresponds to initial values 
of pH ranging from approximately 6 to 4.5. 

Determination of pectins in spices, T. von Fbixenbebg {Mitt. Lebenam. 
Vnteriuch. u. Hyg., Schtceiz. Osndhtsamt., 7 (1916) , No. i-£, pp. 42-61). -^A 
method for the determination of pectins is described which consists essentially 
in renaovlng the methyl esters other than the pectins by extraction with ether 
and distillation with steam. The pectins are then saponified with sodium 
hydroxid, and the methyl alcohol is obtained by distillation from the acidified 
solution. 

Tables are given of the methyl alcohol and pectin content of spices and of 
materials used in their adulteration. 

The photographic examination of fresh and preserved eggs, G. A. Le Roy 
{Compt. Rend. Acad. Sol. [ParU^, 165 {1917), No. 25, pp. 1026^1028, fig. 1; 
Ann. FaUif., 11 {1918), No. 111-112, pp. 10-18, fig*. 4; aha. in Chem. Aba., 12 
{1918), No. 10, p. 1086). — ^The author describes the construction and operation 
of an apparatus for photographing eggs in such a way that the size of the air 
chamber may be accurately measured. 

Determination of caffein in coffee, E. Vaxttieb {Ann. Chim. Analyt., 28 
(1918), No. 10, pp. 207-210). —The method consists in extracting 5 gm. of the 
findy ground sample, to which 5 cc. of ammonium hydroxid has been added, 
with ether for four hours in a SoxUet apparatus. After removal of the ether by 
distillation, the caffein is separated from the fat by treatment with boiling 
water, and is then filtered, washed, and sublimed, and the sublimate heated in 
an oven at 100 C. for about 20 minutes. 

A table is given showing the similarity in results obtained by this method 
and by the chloroform extraction method with samples of ordinary and de- 
caffeinated coffee. 

The testing of palm butter in the laboratory of the General Experimental 
Station of the A. V. B. O. 8., with some hints for the manufacture of palm 
batter, F. G. van Hkubn {Meded. Alg. Proefatat. Alg, Ver. Rubberplantera Ooai- 
hutt Sumatra, Alg. Ser., No. 2 {1918), pp. 57).— An examination of various 
methods for determining the analytical constants of palm butter is reported. 

For determining the moisture content, distillation with kerosene is considered 
the best method if the moisture content is higher than 4 per cent, while if less 
than 4 per cent heating at 105* 0. for two hours Is recommended. Kerosene is 
considered preferable to alcohol as a solvent for the fat in the separation of in- 
soluble impurities. In determining the acid number, it was found necessary to 
Qse a very dilute solution of the fat in alcohol on account of the deep color 
of the concentrated solution. The author states that it is possible to produce 



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116 EXPERIMEKT STATION BEOOHD. [YoL 40 

a palm butter with a low acid number by Immediately heating the fmlt above 
100' in the melted tat before the separation of the stones and by heatingr tbe 
fat to lOO"" before the final packing. 

New tables for finding purity of massecoite, N. Claiboknk {Sugar {Kew 
York^, 20 {1918), No. 11, pp. 454, ^5).— Tables based upcm the total soUds In 
the material used are given for finding the percentage of sirup or molasses 
required to give a massecuite of any desired purity, the purity of the molasses 
and sirup being known. 

On a source of error In the use of picrie acid in eolorimetrie estimatloxifl in 
biological fluids, Alice Rohde and Mabion Sweenet {Jour. Biol, Chem., S6 
{1918), No. 2, pp. 475-477). — ^The authors conclude from blood sugar determi- 
nations with different samples of picric acid that a chromogenic substance 
other than sugar is presoit in the blood which certain picric acids fail to pre- 
cipitate. Solid picric acid, after purification, may undergo a change in Its 
precipitating value for chromogenic substances in the blood. It is, therefore, 
considered necessary to determine the precipitating value of picric acid before 
reliance can be placed upon color production In quantitative procedures for 
blood sugar. 

A method for the estimation of potassliun in blood, S. W. Clausen {Jour* 
Biol. Chem., S6 {1918), No. 2, pp. 479-484).— An adaptation of the cobaltlc 
nitrite method of Drushel (E. S. R., 19, p. 808) to the determination of potas- 
sium in small quantities of organic material is described. The modification 
consists essentially in heating potassium sodium cobaltlc nitrite with dilute 
sodium hydroxid and estimating the nitrites thus formed by titration with 
dilute potassium permanganate. 

Homemade beverages and vin^ars, J. P. Abnold {Chicago: North Chicago 
Printing Co., 1918, pp. 72). — ^The theoretical principles involved in fermentation 
are discussed briefly, and recipes are i^ven for the home manufacture of 
wines, cider, perry, beers, and vinegars. 

The utilization without distillation of defective or acid ciders, perries, and 
lees, A. Truelle {Vie. Agr. et Rurale, 8 {1918), No. 37, pp. 189-191) .-—The 
author suggests the utilization of defective ciders and perries In animal feed- 
ing and in vinegar making. The manufacture of vinegar is discussed in detail. 

The use of hydrochloric or other mineral acids and special reagents for 
the preservation and ripening of forage in silo in warm climates, I. Qiqlioci 
{Trans. S. Intemat. Cong. Trop. Agr. 1914, w>l. 2. pp. 662S90). — This Is a com- 
pilation of the results of many investigations in different countries in regard 
to methods of treatment of silage. The methods considered in detail are treat- 
ment of the silage with steam. Inoculation with lactic add ferments, addition 
of molasses or sugar, treatment with special antiseptics, and treatment with 
special mineral acids or salts. * An extensive bibliography is appended. 

Potato drying, V. Peolion {Pub. R. Accad. Lincei, Comitato 8oi, Aliment, 
[Rome], No. 5 {1918), pp. 11, flgs. S). — ^This is a circular of information In re- 
gard to the potato-drying industry in various countries, together with descrip- 
tions of methods and machinery for the process. 

HETEOBOLOOT. 

Climate and types of farming {U. 8. Dept. Agr., Nat. Weather and Crop 
Bui., No. 18 {1918), pp. 2, 5).— The influaice of climate on types of farming in 
different parts of the United States is discussed, and the characteristic cUmatlc 
features of five agricultural provinces east of the Rocky Mountains are noted. 

''East of the Rockies the agricultural provinces have more or less d^nite 
climatic boundaries, extending in a general way in an east-west direction. 



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1M»1 METBOBOLOGY. 117 

cofiforming to the isothermal trend. In those regions there are five general 
proFinces, as follows: The subtropical coast, the cotton belt, the corn and 
winter wheat belt, the spring wheat belt, and the hay and pasture region.** 

IConthly Weather Review (U, B. Mo, Weather Rev,, 46 {1918), No8. 7, pp. 
S07-S52, pU. 12, flgs. 8; 8. pp. 358^400, pU. H, figs. IS),— Jn addition to weather 
forecasts, river and flood observations, and seismologlcal reports for July and 
August, 1918; lists of additions to the Weather Bureau Library and of recent 
papers on meteorology and seismology; notes on the weather of the months; 
solar and sky radiation measurements at Washington, D. C, during July and 
August, 1918; condensed climatological summaries; and the usual climato- 
loglcal tables and charts, these numbers contain the following articles : 

No, 7. — ^Absoption and Radiation of the Solar Atmosphere, by S. Hirayama 
(reprinted abs.) ; Internal Temperatures of the Sun, by A. V^ronnet (reprinted 
aba) ; Halo Phenomena Observed During July, 1918, by W. R. Gregg; Report 
on Modes of Air Motion and the Equations of the (j^eral Circulation of the 
Earth's Atmosphere (iUus.), by G. P. Paine; Influence of Forests Upon the 
MeltiDg Snow in the Oascade Range (illus.), by A. A. Griffin; Snowfall on 
Mount Rainier, Wash. (Illus.), by L. G. Fisher; and On Severe Winters, by G. 
Hellmann (reprinted abs.). 

No, &— Volcanic Eruptions and Solar Radiation Intensities (illus.), by H. H. 
Kimball; Halo Phenomena Observed During August, 1918, by W. R. Gregg; 
South Carolina Meteor of April 23, 1918, by R. H. Sullivan ; Photomicrographs 
of Snow Crystals, and Methods of Reproduction (illus.), by W. A. Bentley; 
Hot Spell of August, 1918, by A. J. Henry ; Night-Temperature Studies in the 
Roswell Fruit District (illus.), by C. Hallenbeck (see below) ; Ice Storms in 
the Southern Appalachians, by V. Rhoades ; Hourly Frequency of Precipitation 
in Central Ohio and Its Relation to Agricultural Pursuits (illus.), by H. H. 
Martin (see below) ; and Alleged Maniifacture of Rain in Southern California, 
by P. A Carpenter. 

(Himatological data for the United States by sections {U, 8, Dept, Agr,, 
Weather Bur. Climat, Data, 5 (1918), No8, 7, pp. 208, pU. 4, figs, 2; 8, pp. 204, 
pU. 4, f(g8, 2). — These volumes contain brief summaries and detailed tabular 
statements of climatological data for each State for July and August, 1918, 
respectively. 

ICeteorological observations at Wisley, 1916, R. H. Curtis (Jour. Roy, 
Hort. 8oc., 43 (1918), No. 1, pp. 94''10S, figs, 4),— The meteorological conditions, 
eflpedally temperature and rainfall, of each month of the year are summarized 
and compared with conditions in other parts of the tJnited Kingdom, with par- 
ticular reference to horticultural work. 

The weather of the year was in general cold and wet, with a marked defi- 
ciency of bright sunshine and with more strong winds and gales than are 
usually experienced. 

Hight-temperatare studies in the Boswell fruit district, C. Haixenbeck 
{U. 8. Mo. Weather Rev., 46 (1918), No. 8, pp. S64-S7S, figs. 8). —The discussion 
hi this article deals with an Irregular area of about 1,200 square miles lying 
almost entirely west of the Pecos River. The influence of five factors is con- 
sidered, eq)ecia11y in relation to the forecasting of frosts: "(1) The importation 
of warmer or colder air, (2) topographical influences, (3) air drainage, (4) mix- 
ture of the lower air with the air of higher levels, and (5) local inequalities 
hi the heating and cooling of the ground and lower air.** 

Hourly frequency of precipitation in central Ohio and its relation to agrricul- 
tural pursuits, H. H. Mabtik (U, 8, Mo, Weather Rev., 46 (1918), No, 8, pp. 875, 
S76, figs. ^).— This article presents by months and seasons the peculiarities of 



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118 EXPERIMBirr STATIOK BEOOBD. [ToL 40 

the diurnal rainfall distribution at Clolumbas, Ohio, which is assumed to be 
typical of central Ohio, and a comparison Is made with the rainfall distribution 
at Lincoln, Nebr., as reported by Kincer (B. S. R., 80, p. 717). 

It is shown In general that the precipitation as measured at Oolumbus occurs 
for the most part In the form of light beneficial showers, and that the greatest 
amount falls between about noon and 7 p. m., with the actual maximum between 
4 and p. m. It is thought that this fact lessens evaporation and tends to 
Increase the efficiency of the rainfall. 

Frequency of subnormal rainfall in Aucrust ( 17. fif. Dept, Agr,^ Nat, Weather 
and Crop BuL, No. 21 (1918), pp. «, S, 7, ftff. 1).— A chart is given and briefly 
discussed which Indicates for dilferent sections of the United States the per> 
centage of times in the 20-year period from 1895 to 1914 that the total rainfall 
in August was less than half the normal. The chart shows that "from tlie 
Rocky Mountalim westward and in southwestern Texas deficiencies of tliis 
amount In the August rainfall are of frequent occurrence, except in most of 
Arizona and portions of the adjoining States, where the rainy season continues 
during this month. The large percentages of subnormal rainfall shown on the 
chart for this area are due to the fact that the amounts in this month are 
usually very small, but occasionally comparatively heavy falls occur which nn- 
duly magnify the monthly averages computed for a period of years. In portions 
of Arizona, the central Rocky Mountain area, the central Bflssisslppl Valley. 
eastern Kansas, and from eastern Nebraska northeastward to central Wiscon- 
sin, and also along the central and east Oulf coast, as well as in parts of 
Georgia, the Carollnas, Virginia and Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Massa- 
chusetts, the August rainfall was less than half the normal only twice dnrlns^ 
the 20-year period under consideration; while locally In some of these areas 
deficiencies of this amount were not recorded during the entire period. E^st 
of the Rockies rather large percentages are found from Oklahoma southward. 
In northeastern Mississippi, southern Iowa, the western portions of the Dakotas. 
and In Montana ; while in California, Oregon, and much of Nevada and eastern 
Washington the rainfall in August was less than half the normal from 50 to 
so per cent of the years comprising this period.'* 

Problems of denudation, H. Jxffbeys (Phil, Mag. and Jour. £fci., 6. ser., S6 
(1918), No. 212. pp. 179-190; aba. in 8ci. Abs., Sect. A-Phy$., 21 {1918), No. 250, 
pp. 410, ill). — " The problem of denudation by rain freely running off a surface 
Is treated dynamically. The movement of surface water Is controlled by gravity 
and friction ; hydrostatic pressure and inertia are negligible. Water, therefore, 
always moves along the lines of greatest slope. In mountainous regions tbe 
friction may be due to turbulence, but usually to viscosity. The motion Is 
completely determinable given the form of the land and the rain distribution* 
In the case of viscous flow the rate of denudation is proportional to the product 
of the depth of water and the tangent of the slope. If this is constant the sur- 
face will sink at a uniform rate.*' 

Hail protection, F. CJoubty (Prog. Agr. et Vit. (Ed, VEat-Centre), S9 (1918), 
No. 45, pp. 444-44S)- — This is a summary of results of experiments from 1912 
to 1017. The general conclusion from this review is that the evidence Is not 
conclusive as to the effectiveness of cannonading as a protection against hail. 

SOILS— FEBTIIIZEBS. 

Beconnoissance soil survey of the Lower San Joaquin Valley, GaL, J. W. 
Nelson, J. E. Guernsey, L. C. Holmes, and E. G. Egkmann (17. 8. Dept, Agr., 
Adv. Sheets Field Oper. Bur, SoUa, 1915, pp, 157, pU. S, fig, 1, map I).— This 
survey, made in cooperation with the Oallfomla Experiment Station^ deals 



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1W9] SOILS — FERTILIZERS, 119 

with the soils of an area of 3,046,400 acres lying in the northern part of the 
San Joaquin Valley, in the physiographic division know as the Great Interior 
Vall^ of California, and occupying the central part Of the State. The region 
consists chiefly of a broad basin-like valley, the slopes being for the most part 
less than 250 ft in elevation. In the lower foothills along the margins of the 
survey, elevations of 1,000 ft or more occur, while some of the northwestern 
part is below tide level. In general, the area is fairly well drained by the San 
Joaquin River and its tributaries. 

With respect to their origin, the soils of the region have been grouped as 
residual from consolidated rocks, old valley-filling material from unconsolidated 
water-laid deposits, recent alluvial, wind-laid deposits, and miscellaneous mate- 
rials. Old valley-filling material and recent alluvial soils comprise the greater 
part of the area. In addition to muck and peat, rough broken and stony lands, 
and riverwash and tailings, 51 soil types of 27 series are mapped. 

Soil survey of Barry County, Ma, A. T. Sweet and E. W. Knobel (17. 8. 
Dept, AffT; Adv. SheetB Field Oper. Bur, Soils, 1916, pp. 44* Pls- 5, fig. 1, map 
/).— This survey, made in cooperation with the University of Missouri, deals 
with the soils of an area of 506,240 acres situated near the southwestern comer 
of the State adjacent to the State of Arkansas. Topographically the county is 
a dissected plain sloping northwestward, the surface ranging from undulating 
and rolling in the northwestern part to rough and broken in the eastern and 
southern parts. The uplands attain a maximum elevation of from 1,300 to 
1,550 ft above sea level, while the depth of stream cutting ranges from 150 to 
000 ft Natural drainage is well established. 

The upland soils of the county are residual in origin, those occupying the 
first bottoms and terraces of the larger streams alluvial, and those occupying 
the small, narrow valleys and strips along the outer edge of the main valley 
largely of colluvial origin. In addition to rough stony land, 16 soil types of 8 
series are mapped. Baxter gravelly loam, Baxter stony loam, rough stony land, 
and Lebanon gravelly loam predominate, occupying 28.9, 15.5, 14.1, and 13.1 per 
cent of the total area, respectively. 

Soil survey of Miami County, Ohio, E. R. Allen and O. Gossard (U. 8, 
Dept. Agr.j Adv. Sheets Field Oper. Bur. Soils, 1916, pp. 50, pis. 2, fig, 1, map 
/).— This survey, made in cooperation with the Ohio Experiment Station, deals 
with the soils of an area of 261,120 acres situated in the southwestern part of 
the State. The topography of the area varies from an undulating to rolling 
terminal moraine in the eastern part of the county to a flat ground moraine 
hi the western portion. Natural drainage is inadequate in the western part 

The soils of the county are chiefly of glacial origin and were formed largely 
from the underlying limestone formation and from Niagara limestone. Sixteen 
soil types of 12 series are mapped. Miami silt loam, Crosby silt loam, and 
Brookston silty clay loam, occupying 23.5, 18.2, and 14.8 per cent, respectively, 
of the total araa, predominate. 

SoU survey of Berkeley County, S. C, W. J. Latimeb, F. Z. Hutton, O. 
LouivsBUBT, A. H. Meyeb, and M. E. Gabb {U. S, Dept, Agr,, Adv, Sheets Field 
Oper. Bur, Soils, 1916^ pp. 42, fl^gs, 2, map 1). — ^This survey deals with the soils 
of an area of 792^20 acres lying near the central part of the eastern boundary 
of the State in the Lower Pine Belt region of the Coastal Plain. The topography 
in general is level to gently undulating, the elevation ranging from tide level to 
150 ft above. Along the bluffs of the larger streams and their tributaries the 
upland is well drained, while back from the bluffs occur more or less extensive 
flat poorly-drained areas. 

The upland soils of the county are sedimentary in origin, having been de- 
rived from unconsolidated sands and clays. The soils of the first-bottom lands 



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120 BXPERIMENT STATIOK SEGOBD. [Tol. 40 

are of alluylal origin. Exclusive of tidal marsh, 20 soil types of 6 series are 
mapped. Cozvllle fine sandy loam and Norfolk fine sandy loam predominate; 
occupying 18.4 and 11.9 per cent of the total area, respectively. 

Soil survey of Bell County, Tex., W. T. Gabivb, jb., H. G. Lewis, and H. W. 
Hawkeb {U. S. Dept. Agr., Adv. Sheets Field Oper. Bur. £foifo, 1916, pp. 46, fig. 
h fnap 1), — ^This survey deals with the soils of an area of 603,120 acres situated 
in the east-central part of the State and lying in the soK^iUed Black Prairie 
and Grand Prairie regions of Texas. Although hilly, rough areas occur in cer- 
tain sections of the county, the topography in general is gently rolling and is 
said to be representative of an area of about 17,000 square miles. Ehrainage 
Is well established. 

The upland soils of the area are residual in origin, being derived from cal- 
careous clays and marls, soft and hard chalks, and hard limestones. Deposits 
of alluvial soils occur along the streams. Exclusive of rough stony land, 19 soU 
types of 12 series are mapped. Houston black day, occupying 24.3 per cent of 
the total area, predominates. 

Soil survey of Milwaukee County, Wis., W. J. Gkib and T. J. DimNEWAiJD 
(U. S. Dept Agr., Adv, BheeU Field Oper. Bur. 8oiU, 1916, pp. St, fig. 1, map 
1). — ^This survey, made in cooperation with the Wisconsin Geological and 
Natural History Survey, deals with the soils of an area of 154,240 acres lying 
in the southeastern part of the State and adjoining Lake Michigan. The topog- 
raphy of the county consists of a series of three broad, elongated ridges sepa- 
rated by two shallow, narrow lowland belts and running parallel to the lake 
shore. The surface in general is undulating to rolling, and an elevation of 840 
ft. above sea level Is attained in the western part Natural surface drainage of 
the area is very incomplete. 

The soils of the county consist of glacial deposits ranging in thickness from 
a few feet to almost 200 ft, about 90 per cent of the soil being heavier than 
loam. In addition to peat, 16 soil types representing 9 series are mapped. 
Miami silty clay loam occupying 87.7 per cent of the total area, Miami day loam 
occupying 30^3 per cent, and Clyde clay loam occupying 12.6 per cent are the 
predominating types. 

Soil survey of Door County, Wis., W. J. Geib, 0. Thompson, and H. Y. Geib 
{U. S. Dept. Agr., Adv. Sheete Field Oper. Bur. Soils, 1916, pp. 44, fig- U fnap 
/).>_Thls survey, made in cooperation with the Wisconsin Geological and 
Natural History Survey, deals with the soils of an area of 300,160 acres situ- 
ated in the eastern part of the State and forming part of the peninsula separat- 
ing Green Bay from Lake Michigan proper. The county lies In the glaciated 
limestone region, and the topography in general is undulating to gently rolling, 
while a line of rugged bluffs occurs along the western border, attaining an 
elevation of from 20 to 200 ft above the lake. The mainland has an elevation 
of from 100 to 150 ft. above Lake Michigan. Owing to the heavy nature of 
the soil and subsoil, drainage is said to be deficient in many places. 

The soils of the county are all derived from glacial or lacustrine material 
or both, and over a large part of the area they are shallow and quite stony. 
The surface formation consists of the late Wisconsin drift. Excluding rough 
stony land, peat, muck, and beach sand, 16 soil types of 7 series are mapped. 
Miami loam, Ke^\ nunee loam, and Miami fine sandy loam, occupying 31.5, 17.9, 
and 10.2 per cent of the total area, respectively, are the prevailing soil types. 
Peat occupies 13.8 per cent of the total area. 

Chemical criteria, crop production, and physical classification in two soil 
classes, J. S. Bubo {SoU Set., 5 (1918), No. 6, pp. 405-^19).— Investigations con- 
ducted at the California Experiment Station by Burd, Hoagland, and Stewart, 



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1M»] SOILS — ^FEBTIIilZEBS. 121 

dealing with chemical analyses of water extracts of several eropped and nn* 
CRH^ped soils as a measure of their relative productivity, have been previously 
noted (E. S. R., 38, pp. 812, 813). These studies also Included analyses of the 
soils by the so-called complete, or fusion, method, and by the hydrochlorlc- 
add and dtrlc-acld extraction methods, the results of which are here reported 
for purposes of comparison. The conclusions reached may be summarized as 
follows : 

Low figures for the lmi)ortant plant food elements (Including potash, calcium 
odd, magnesium oxid, phosphoric acid, and nitrogen), by water extraction and 
to a lesser extent by citrlc-add extraction, were found to be in general accord 
with the crop-producing power of the solL Except In the case of highly 
slUdous soils, the complete analysis and hydrochlorlc-add extraction methods 
are held to be worthless as criteria of the present productivity or probable 
endurance of the soU. Individual soils of a given series and class (Yolo sllty 
day loams) showed less variation In chemical composition than did repre- 
sentatives of different series of another physical class (fine sandy loams). The 
wide variation in crop yields and in the figures for water extractions within 
a given series and soil type are held to Indicate that physical classification Into 
types Is Inadequate as a means of predicting probable yields or determining 
fertilizer requirements. 

The relative '' rawness " of some humid subsoils, P. M. Habmeb (Soil 8eL, 
S {1918), No. 5, pp. S9S-40S, figs. 2). —The author describes vegetative experi- 
ments made in the greenhouse at the Minnesota Experiment Station with both 
sorface soils and subsoils taken from three prairie fields and four forested 
areas in the State in a study of the relative " rawness " of the subsoils of 
hnmld regions. The soils are said never to have been plowed. The prairie 
snbsoils were found to be quite calcareous. 

Experiments were made in 1915-16, employing only one soil sample from 
each region, the surface 12 in. of the prairie soil and 6 in. of the forested area 
being used, together with the corresponding subsoil from the third and fifth 
foot levels. The soils were placed in wooden boxes 12 in. square and 8 in. deep 
and cropped to both barley and alfalfa, the latter being well inoculated. The 
barley made a normal growth on the surface soil, producing well-filled heads, 
while that grown on the subsoil was stunted, yellowish-green in color, and 
produced very little seed. Three crops of alfalfa were obtained and Indicated 
that the subsoils were as unproductive of alfalfa as of barley. 

In the fall of 1916 more extensive experiments were begun with the seven 
dUferent soils, the surface 6 in. and the corresponding subsoil from the third 
foot level being employed. These soils were placed in galvanized-iron pots and 
cropped with well-inoculated alfUfa plants transferred from a field sown five 
months before. Two subsoils, both low in carbonates and from forested areas, 
yielded as well as both the corresponding and other surface soils, while the 
remaining subsoils produced only from one-sixth to one-half as much as the 
corresponding surface soils. The nitrogen content of the productive subsoils 
did not exceed that of the unproductive subsoils. 

It is concluded, therefore, that *' In the humid State of Minnesota some of the 
Kladal subsoils are as productive of alfalfa as surface soils when hioculation 
is assured, but others are quite unproductive, and the rawness is not associated 
with an espedally low nitrogen content or with a lack of carbonates.** 

See also a previous note (E. S. R., 39, p. 620). 

The influence of plant residues on nitrogen fixation and on losses of nitrate 
in the soil, H. B. HxrrcaiNSON {Jour. Agr. 8oi. [England^ 9 {1918), No, 1, pp. 
9i^lll, flgn, d). — The author describes field, laboratory, and pot experiments 

107338*— 19 ^8 



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122 EXPERIMEKT 8TATIOK BEGORD. [Tot 4« 

made at Rothamsted during the period of 190&-1911, inclnsiTe, In a stady of 
the influence of sugar and plant residues upon nitrogen fixation in both sand 
and soil and upon the loss of nitrates in the soiL The results are summailEed 
as follows: 

'*The foregoing experiments give definite evidence, corroborative of the 
work of Koch, Remy, and others, that the nitrogen content of sand or soil 
may be appreciably increased by the activity of Azotobacter when some suitable 
source of energy is supplied. For this purpose sugars, such as dextrose and 
saccharose, are suitable, but distinct gains have also been obtained by the use 
of plant residues. In laboratory experiments an increment of upward of 6 
mg. of nitrogen per gram of plant residues occurred, but in pot experiments 
gains of 9 mg. per gram of substance were obtained. It is also shown that 
on the field scale, and in spite of the entrance of complicating factors, definite 
increases of crop (equal to 20 to 54 per cent) resulted from the application 
of carbonaceous compounds (sugar) when the soil conditions were favorable. 

"Since the difference between the action of sugar and plant residues is 
largely one of degree and not of type, it is reasonable to suppose that such 
substances as stubble, leaves, and other complex organic materials may also 
serve to contribute indirectly to the reserves of soil nitrogen. The general 
soil conditions making for the successful operation of nitrogen fixation pro- 
cesses are, in addition to the supply of some source of energy, a suitable tem- 
perature, the presence of phosphates, and a supply of basic material, such as 
calcium carbonate. Even under the most favorable circumstances for nitrogen 
fixation there occurs a period during which adverse processes come into play, 
and it is not advisable that a crop be introduced before these have run to 
completion. Under unfavorable conditions, and particularly during periods of 
low temperature, these adverse changes may persist without any subsequent 
entrance of soil gaina" 

The production of carbon diozid by molds inoculated into sterile soil, 
R. S. PoTTXB and R. S. Snydeb {Sail 8ci., 6 (1918), No. 5, pp. $59-877, figs. 5).— 
This paper, a contribution from the Iowa Bxperiment Station, describes in- 
vestigations planned to determine the physiological activity of certain molds 
when inoculated into sterile soil. A clay loam soil with a lime requirement of 
1,540 lbs. of calcium carbonate per acre of 2,000,000 lbs. (Yeitch) was em- 
ployed. Sterilization was accomplished in the autoclave, and also in the 
Arnold sterilizer, in an effort to render the soil sterile without radically 
altering its composition. Inoculations were made from pure cultures of the 
different molds studied, including Mucor, Rhizopus, Aspergillus, Trichodemuu 
and Chaetomium, and from a soil emulsion, and the relative activity of die 
organisms was measured by the amount of carbon dioxid produced. The cul- 
tures were made both with and without 1 per cent of dextrose and with and 
without sufficient calcium carbonate to supply an excess of 1.6 tons of lime 
per acre over the lime requirement of the soil. The data are presented in 
tabular form and fully discussed. 

Although the results of these experiments are not regarded as having defi- 
nitely shown that molds are active in normal soils, the fact that in some 
cases more, and in all cases nearly as much, carbon dioxfd was evolved from 
sterilized soils inoi^lated with molds as from similar soils inoculated with 
soil emulsions is held to indicate that they may be. 

It has been definitely concluded that typical soil molds inoculated into 
sterilized soil grow with a vigor equal to or nearly equal to the growth induced 
by an inoculation with the entire soil flora, the evolution of carbon dioxid 
being the measure of the vigor of growth. Where dextrose was added to the 



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»»J SOILS — FERTILIZBRS. 128 

Mil the results were in general similar to those for tbe soil alone, except for 
the larger amounts of carbon dioxid given off. Oaldam carbonate in this 
soil caused no marked increase or decrease In the growth of molds. Steriliza- 
tion in the autoclave increased the nitrate, ammonia, and soluble nonprotein 
nitrogen, while sterilization in the Arnold sterilizer, increased the ammonia 
and soluble nonprotein nitrogen to a less extent and decreased the amount of 
nitrate. Molds in all cases caused a diminution in the amount of nitrates, 
while anunonia was not much changed in amount In nearly every case there 
was a decrease in the amounts of soluble nonprotein nitrogen. 

The Inversion of cane sa^rar by soils and allied substances and the nature 
of soil acidity, F. El RiCB and S. Osuoi {SoU ScL, 6 {1918), No. 5, pp. SSS- 
i58).— The authors describe a method for measuring acidity in soils through 
tbe inversion of sucrose in 60 cc. of a solution of cane sugar to which has been 
added from 5 to 10 gm. of the soil to be examined. They also present the re- 
sults of considerable experimental work done at Ck)rnell University upon the 
inversion of cane sugar by several different soils, the character of the soil 
extracts, the acidity due to the solid phase of the soil, inversion by other solid 
inbstances, the effect of hydrous oxids on cane sugar, and upon inversion and 
adective adsorption. Their conclusions may be summarized as follows: 

Soils of many kinds and other Insoluble materials can be made to invert 
sucrose. With soils this power is deemed to be a property of the mineral por- 
tion as well as of the organic matter. Furthermore, it is believed that this effect 
is due to acid and that this acid may occur in four different forms as follows : 
(1) A slight quantity in a few soils is soluble in the sugar solution. The prin- 
cipal portion, however, is bound to the soil particles in the nature of (2) acids 
whidi would otherwise be easily soluble, but are here strongly adsorbed on the 
sdU particle surfaces, or (3) an insoluble acid such as silicic acid. Also (4) a 
neutral salt present in the soil solution in even small quantities may be broken 
down whUe in contact with the soil mass, the basic part being more strongly 
adsorbed than the acid, and the latter left free to exert its characteristic 
influence in inverting cane sugar. 

That the inverting activity of soils is chiefly a property of the insoluble part 
is said to have been indicated in several ways. Many soils showed inverting 
action on sugar in a solution which remained neutral after contact with the 
soil or in some instances became alkaline. Also, when soil was allowed to 
adsorb some base, then digested with cane sugar solution, it showed inverting 
action and also yielded up sufficient base to make the extract distinctly alkaline. 
Very little, if any, inverting power was found in water extracts from soils. 
Inversion did not continue in sugar extracts after the soils were removed. In- 
version increased with increasing amounts of soil in contact with the sugar 
solnti<», while there was no measurable change in the hydrogen-ion concentra- 
tion hk the extract Greater inversion was produced by shaking soils with 
sugar solutions than by allowing the mixtures to stand quiet Long continued 
and repeated extractions of soils with water and with cane sugar solution did 
not greatly reduce their inverting power. 

Faller*s earth, cotton, charcoal, and other substances sometimes described as 
similar to add soils were found not to invert cane sugar. Otherwise soluble 
adds 80 strongly adsorbed by solids as not to be removed by washing in any 
measurable quantity inverted sugar in such condition. Silicate minerals were 
given inverting power by treating suspensions with direct current, the base 
splitting off and passing into solution and to the cathode and insoluble silicic 
add remaining with the mass. Soil acidity is said to be increased by a similar 
treatment of solla Contrary to previous conclusions, hydrous oxids of lead, 



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124 EZPEBIMEI7T STATION BBOOBD. (ToL40 

copper, bismuth, aluminum, iron, and zinc were not found to have any iuTert- 
Ing power. Many suspended substances having no inverting power alone were 
found to produce inversion when a neutral salt was present, through selective 
adsorption of the base, thus setting a small amount of add free. 

" 'Soil acidity * is the term customarily applied when infertility of soil can be 
corrected by the use of a free base, such as lime. There are many factors in- 
volved in causing this condition in soils, the presence of real adds being only 
one of them. Methods used for detecting or determining ' soil addity ' generally 
do not measure the add there but may dep^id upon many properties of soil 
mass in no way related to addity. The power of a soil to catalyze the reaction 
of cane sugar Inversion is a measure of its add, and is probably the only method 
which can measure the acid bound up with the soil solid phase." 

A bibliography of 106 titles is appended. 

The chemical effects of CaO and CaCO» on the soiL — ^I, H (Soil ScL, S 
(1918), No, 5, pp. S79^9t), — Investigations with water extracts (B. S. R., 38, 
pp. 812, 813), osmotic pressures (E. S. R., 38, p. 813), and soil reactions 
(E. S. R., 36, p. 117), made at the California Experiment Station, led to further 
observations concerning the effects of lime upon the soil as evidenced by these 
methods of study. The experimental work has been divided, into two parts as 
follows : 

I. TJie effect on soU reaction, by D. R. Hoagland and A. W. Christie (pp. 
379-382). — Clay adobe, sandy loam, and silty clay loam soils were used in this 
investigation in addition to beach sand. Two 20-lb. lots of each soil were placed 
in earthenware pots and commercial quicklime added in the proportions of 
0.07 and 0.28 per cent, respectively, calculated in terms of pure calcium oxid. 
The soils were maintained at approximately an optimum moisture content for 
six months. Samples were taken at intervals during this period and the H-ion 
concentration determined by the hydrogen electrode method. 

The initial effect of both low and high percentages of caldum oxid was to 
increase greatly the OH-ion concentration In all the soils examined, the reaction 
of the clay adobe being least affected and that of the beach sand most affected. 
The Influence decreased with time, but was more marked than In the case of the 
untreated soil or that treated with calcium carbonate even after 10 months. 

Growing barley on soil in contact with caldum oxid for six months failed to 
produce any significant change in the OH-ion concentration, and no Inhibition 
of plant growth was observed. 

With the addition of an excess of calcium oxid to an acid fine sandy loam soil, 
nitrification was practically inhibited due to the high concentration of OH-ion, 
while similar soil treated with calcium carbonate gave 100 per cent nitrification. 

II. The effect on ioater-soluhle nutrients in toilSt by A. W. Christie and J. C 
Martin (pp. 383-^392).— The direct chemical effects of calcium oxid and calcium 
carbonate on the water-soluble calcium, magnesium, potassium, phosphate, sul- 
phate, and nitrate in seven different soils, induding sandy loam, fine sandy 
loam, silty clay loam, and day adobe, were studied. Previous soil treatm^its 
induded either leaching, storing, cropping, or fallowing. Data on the osmotic 
pressure of the soil solutions as determined by the freezing-point method are 
also presented. 

Six 500-gm. portions of each air-dry soil were used and duplicate applica- 
tions made of 0.5 gm. of caldum carbonate and 0.28 gm. of calcium oxid. The 
soils were maintained at an optimum moisture content for one week and then . 
analyzed. In order to demonstrate more fully the direct effect of lime, 0.4 per 
cent caldum oxid was added to a silty clay loam soil and allowed to stand 
only 24 hours before analysis. The results obtained indicated the immediate 
chemical effects of quicklime. 



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i»io] eoTLB—mxLTnjzBM. 125 

The effects of calcium oxld were more pronounced than those of calcium car- 
bonate. Water-soluble potassium was increased in two soils and decreased in 
two, soluble magnesium Increased In four cases and decreased In one, soluble 
Milphate Increased In four soils, and soluble phosphates Increased In two, while 
In only one case was a significant Increase in nitrate observed. 

The authors state that ** It Is evident from the data considered that all soils 
do not react chemically with lime In the same manner. Furthermore, even the 
same soil under different concentrations of soil solution, due to cropping or 
fallowing, may react differently. No attempt is made to explain the reasons for 
the changes observed. Evidently, the addition of lime compounds changes the 
equilibrium in the complex soil solution, and the resultant effects are varied 
and impossible to predict. Further study involving determinations of all the 
elements concerned would be necessary before even a plausible hy];)othesis could 
be advanced.'* 

Heatralization of sour soiU {Bui. R. L State Col, IS {1918), J^o. 4, p. S9).— 
In a comparison at the Rhode Island Experiment Station of the different forms 
of lime it is stated that "no positive crop differences developed where high 
magnesium limestone, high calcium limestone, or the burned and hydrated 
products produced from them were added In quantities sufficient to neutralize 
the same amount of add in the laboratory. There appears to be no reason 
f6r avoiding the magneslan products." The lime In Thomas slag phosphate 
is said to be about one-third as efficient as that in the finest carbonate (E. S. 
R., 87, p. 815). 

Largely through the continued use of sulphate of ammonia Instead of nitrate 
of soda for top-dressing lawn grasses, the soil acidity was maintained to such 
an extent that weeds were eliminated. This being especially marked in the case 
of crab grass. See also a previous note (E. S. R., S7, p. 446). 

Much of the benefit derived from liming is thought to be due to the precipitation 
of aluminum from the soil solution. Laboratory and solution experiments have 
shown that aluminum Itself, aside from the acidity of its salts, was much more 
toxic to barley than to rye, affecting the two plants in the same manner as do 
so-called acid soils. See also a previous note (E. S. R., 89, p. 114). 

An analysis of dry ground starfish showed it to contain approximately 5 per 
cent of nitrogen and 27 per cent of calcium oxld. 

[Work in soil chemistry and bacteriology at the New Jersey Stations, 
1917] {New Jersey Stat. Bui. 817 {1917), pp. 28-^^). -/This notes the progress 
of field and cylinder experiments on nitrogen availability and nitrogen accumu- 
lation and utilization, and describes new work undertaken to determine the fer- 
tilizer requirements of com and potatoes. 

The average yield of timothy on the nitrogen availability plats was 2,562 lbs. 
per acre for the unlimed plats and 2,472 lbs. for the limed plats. It is suggested 
that the reduced yield on the limed 'plats may have been due to a more rapid de- 
pletion of the nitrogen in the absence of legumes in the rotation. Rotation 
experiments in which clover supplied part of the nitrogen resulted in higher 
yields of timothy on the limed plats. Nitrate of soda, sulphate of ammonia, 
farm manure, and dried blood added to Penn loam soil in cylinders resulted in 
a recovery of 55.77, 41.75, 29.85, and 29.41 per cent of the applied nitrogen, re- 
flectively. In cylinders containing soils of varying mechanical composition, 
61 per cent of the nitrogen applied as nitrate of soda was recovered as compared 
with 80 per cent from dried blood. 

Wheat and rye grown continuously on the nitrogen accumulation and utiliza- 
tion plats are said to have given unusually low yields. Wheat grown on plats 
seeded to soy beans immediately after the wheat harvest yielded 5 bu. per acre 



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EXPEBIKENT STATION B£CX>BB, 



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more than wheat grown on wheat stubble. Liming the plats resulted In in- 
creased yields of soy beans, cowpeas and oats, Canada field peas, and alfalfiu 
Counts of the number of nodules on the roots of soy bean plants grown on both 
limed and unlimed plats showed an average of 85 nodules per plant for t^ 
former and 87 for the latter. The result obtained in cylinder experiments are 
held to indicate that in most cases larger yields were obtained where nitrogen 
was secured from leguminous green manure crops (grown between the main 
crops) than from either nitrate of soda or stable manure. This was specially 
noticeable in the case of com. 

The potato fertilizer experiments were conducted cooperatively at Mt Holly 
and Elmer. The results of the first season's worlc Indicate that an application 
of 14200 Iba of a standard 4:8:8 fertiliser was as efficient in increasing yields 
as the use of 1,600 lbs., and that a 8 per cent potash mixture gave better re- 
sults than a 10 per cent mixture. 

What is the bulk of manure produced by the consumption of hayf J. A. 
VoELCKSB {Jour, Ray. Agr. 8oc, England, 78 {1917), pp, 24jh248; ahs. in Ch&n. 
Abs., 12 {1918), No. 20, p. 2105). — ^Experiments are reported in wlilch eii^t 
steers divided into four lots of two each were fed from December 29 to April 2, 
as follows : Lot 1, a standard ration of bean meal 190 lbs., maize 190 lbs., roots 
8,971 Iba, chopped straw 757 lbs., and hay 752 lbs. Lots 2, 8, and 4 were fed 
the standard ration with the addition of 1420 lbs. of hay for lot 2, 1,099 lbs. of 
palm-nut cake for lot 3, and 1,101 lbs. of malt culms for lot 4. All lots received 
the same amount of bedding, 1,907 lbs. The more Important results obtained are 
given in the following table: 

Manure produced J>y steers on different rations. 



Lot. 


Balk of 


Weight of 
ma&im. 


Ifinenl 
matter. 


Nitrocn. 


1 


fi.72 
5.67 
7.00 


Xte. 
8,830 
9723 
8^401 


Per end. 
4.22 
4. S3 
4.20 
S.70 


PerctnL 
0.467 


2 


486 


8 


.750 


4 


.665 







The conclusion drawn from these figures Is that a ton of hay consumed in the 
yards will give 2.38 cu. yds. of extra bullc of manure, but that while cake fed in 
the same way produces little Increase in bulk of manure, namely, about 0.25 
cu. yd. for every ton consumed, *' foods of bulky nature, like malt culms, dried 
grains, etc., produce an even greater bulk of manure than hay does (nearly 
8 cu. yds. for each ton consumed). Feeding with malt culms or dried grains 
calls for more water to be given to bullocks than when hay is fed. The amount 
of water taken with cake and with hay is about the same in either case." 

The triangle system for fertilizer experiments, O. ScHBEmEB and J. J. 
Skinnes {Jour, Amer. 80c. Agron., 10 {1918), No. 6, pp. 225-246, pis. S, figs. 
H). — In this paper, a contribution from the Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. 
Department of Agriculture, a triangle system for representing different fertiliser 
treatments, first employed by the authors in nutrient solution studies (E. S. R., 
28, p. 624), is fully described and its application to experimental work both with 
nutrient solutions and in the field discussed and illustrated. With proper care 
in planning the work, the method is thought to present a comprehensive basis 
for the interpretation and the easy presentation and handling of the results. 

Manurlal values of dairy feeds, R. I. Osadt {Mo. Bui. Ohio Sta., S {1918), 
No. 10, pp. S17, S18), — ^The author presents a table showing the amounts of 

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t»m SOILS — PEETILIZEBd. 127 

nitrate of soda, 16 per cent acid phosphate, and muriate of potash which would 
be, reflpectively, eQulvalent In nitrogen, phosphoric acid, and potash to the 
amounts contained in 1 ton each of com, oats, bran, oil meal, cottonseed meal, 
doTer hay, and alf alfft hay, as Indicated by data given in Henry and Morrison's 
P^eds and Feeding (E. S. R., 34, p. 261). At the present high prices of fer- 
tillxers, the manurial value of these feeds has been calculated as $18.90, $17.80. 
$33.23, $48.63, $56.95, $26.02, and $82.76 per ton, respectively. 

[Fertilisers required for food production in Norway] (Tidtskr. Nortke 
Ltmdhr,, 24 {1917), No. 5, pp. 208^11; abs. in Internet, Ifut. Agr. IRomel, 
IntenuU. Rev. SoL and Pract, Agr., 9 {1918), No, 9, p. 1041). — Summarizing data 
which are given in detail, it is estimated that per annum *' the total fertilizer 
required in Norway to provide for food production is 70,862 tons of 15 per ixsxt 
calcium nitrate, 91,581 tons of 16 per cent superphosphate, and 41,886 tons of 37 
ptf eeat potash salta" 

Fertiliaers in South Africa {8o. African Jour. /ndiM., 1 {1918), No. 5, pp. 
4S!h467; Iniemai. Inst. Agr. [Aome], Intemat. Rev. Bci. and Fraot. Agr„ 9 
{1918), No. e, pp. 668-470). —It is pointed out that the fertilizer requiremenU 
of South Africa are, in descending order of importance, phosphoric oxid, nitro- 
gen, and potash. Statistics are given of the imports of manures and fertilizers 
into South Africa from 1913 to 1916, and the results of a survey, by the Sclen- 
tlflc and Technical Committee, of the fertilizer situation are briefly reviewed. 

The domestic sources of fertilizing materials Include ** South African guano 
supplies, the increased employment of green manuring, the use of ground lime- 
etone, the possible utilization of wool-wash^ y and sawdust waste and of kelp 
for sai^lies of potash, cottonseed by-products, locally produced ammonium sul- 
phate, the supply of phosphates from the Seychelles and elsewhere, and the pos- 
sible utilization of Saldanha Bay and other local phosphate rocks." In addition 
there is a considerable amount of abattoir and fishery refuse which might be 
used for fertilizing purposes. 

Efforts are being made to convert the large deposits of Iron-alumlna phos- 
phates of South Africa into a form suitable for agricultural use. About 200 tons 
per month of ammonium sulphate is being produced from coal in Natal, prac- 
tically all of which is exported to Mauritius for use in growing sugar cane. 

Electric power for nltrogren fixation, B. K. Scott {Proc. Amer. Inst. Bled. 
Ai^iM., 97 {1918), No. 7, pp. 779-792, fig- H a6«. in 8ci. Abe., Sect. BSlect. 
BngiiL, 21 {1918), No. 250, pp. 869, 870).—Ttke author compares the direct arc 
process for making nitric acid with the indirect cyanamid process. 

It is shown that the arc process is much simpler, and the suggestion is 
made that a number of plants making nitrates by this process should be erected 
ftt existing power houses, working with off-peak power. A plant of 10,000 kw. 
is considered suitable. Transportation would thus be reduced. **A diagram 
Is given showing the layout of a battery of by-product coke ovens with an elec- 
tric power house worked by the surplus gas and a nitrate-from-air plant to use 
the tiectridty. Figures are given showing that the nitric acid made by such 
t plant is about the right amount to combine with the anmionla to form am- 
monium nitrate, a compound in great demand at the present time for explo- 
rt^es." 

A new fertiliser, ** superphosphate of ammonia,'^ 0. Bbioux (Compl. Rend. 
Acad. Agr. France, 4 {1918), No. 21, pp. 6S2-6S8; abs. in Chem. Abs., 12 {1918), 
Vo, 20, p. 2104). — ^A method of using superphosphate to absorb ammonia is de- 
Kribed, and the fertilizing value of the neutral product thus obtained is dis- 
CQtsed. The product obtained by this process in the experiments here re- 
ported contained 15.8 per c^it of phosphoric acid, 14.1 per cent of which was 
■olnble in 2 per cent citric acid, and 4.97 per cent of ammonlacal nitrogen. j 

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128 BXPEBIMEITT STATIOK BEOOBD. IV&L46 

Th« solubilitT and mnixnilability of caldom phosphates, Lenixit and A. 
Bbtxno {Compt. Rend, Acad. Agr. France, 4 {1918), No, 24, pp. 692-694, 705-708; 
ab9. in Ohetn. Abt., 12 (1918), No. 20, p. 2104). —The auestion as to whether rock 
phosphate mixed with sulphur, as proposed by Llpman and others, would be- 
come dtrate-soluble In a calcareous soil. Is discussed, and yarious investlca- 
tions indicating that sulphur in the soil aids ammonifying bacteria and is 
oxidized to sulphuric acid are reviewed. 

Beoovery of potash from iron blast furnaces and cement kilns by ^eetrl- 
cal precipitation, L. Braduct {Jour Indus, and Engin. Chem., 10 {1918}, No. 
10, pp. 8S4--8S8). — ^Among the conclusions drawn in this article are that ** while 
the largest Immediate tonnage [of potash] may be obtained from desert lakes, 
kelp, alunite, and a few other sources, nevertheless a study of the economic 
problems will show that the surest way of making our potash industry a per- 
manent and enduring one, able to supply all of our requirements, even against 
German competition, is to develop and rely upon the by-product potash.** The 
present development and possibilities of recovery of potash as a by-product 
from blast furnaces and cement works are discussed. In the author's opinioxi, 
the potentialities of recovery from blast furnaces apparently surpass those of 
the cement industry. 

A classified bibliography of the subject is given. 

Recovery of potash from kelp, C. A. Higoins {Jour. Indus, and Bngin. 
Chem., 10 {1918), No. 10, pp. 8S2, 8SS, fig. 1; abs. in Amer. Jour. ScL, 4. ser.^ 4s 
{1918), No. 276, pp. 764* 7(75).— This article describes especially improvements 
iu methods of harvesting kelp and recovery of by-products by a company op- 
erating near San Diego, Cal. 

In the author's opinion, the domestic demands for potash can not be supplied 
from the Pacific Coast kelps. "Kelp, solely as a source of potash, will never 
compete with unrestricted supplies from Europe or even with the potash re- 
covered in modern cement or blast-furnace practice. The utilization of kelp 
in such a way, however, as to realize on all the other possible values of kelp 
may help to render the users of high-grade potash for chemical purposes out- 
side of the fertilizer trade independent of foreign supplies.'* 

Potash from desert lakes and alnnlte, J. W. Hobnbey {Jour. Indus, and 
Bngin. Chem., 10 {1918), No. 10, pp. 8S8, 8S9).— This article briefly reviews Gov- 
ernment and private investigation of sources of potash in the United States, 
including Searles Lake, Great Salt Lake, and other American lakes, the Pin- 
tados deposit in Chile, and alunite. 

In the author's opinion these investigations have definitely resulted in the 
development of a permanent potash industry in this country, since some of the 
plants now in operation " will, undoubtedly, be able to continue after the ^var.** 

Potash from Searles Lake, A. de Ropp, jil {Jour. Indus, and Engin. Chem^ 
10 {1918), No. 10, pp. 8S9-844* fkf9. i^).— A description is given of the Searles 
Lake deposits and of the works established there to recover potash and other 
products. It is stated that one plant in operation there is now producing about 
1,800 tons of crude potash salts per month. 

The Alsatisn potash mines and works {Chem. Trade Jour., 63 {1918}^ N'o. 
1646, pp. 4^0, 42O). — Statements from both the German and the French points 
of view are given regarding the capacities and present and possible develop- 
ment of these mines and works. 

Lime, and the liming of soils, J. A. Hanxet {Jour. 8oc. Chem, Indus.^ S7 
{1918), No. 12, pp. 185T-'190T; abs. in Chem. Abs., 12 {1918), No. 20, p. 2106). -^ 
Results of tests of the lime requirements of Torkshire soils of different kinds 
by the Hutchinson and MacLennan method (E. 8. R., 38, p. 622) are reported 
and discussed. 

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IWdJ AGMOULTURAL BOTAlrt. 12d 

The author concludes that the " sournees '* observed in these tests ** Is due 
to the neglect of liming soils either originally deficient in lime, e. g., coal meas- 
ures or millstone grit, or from which the lime has been washed out by rain, 
e. g., limestone soils and many of the drift soils," and that " the inevitable 
loss of lime by leaching is augmented (1) by the continuous use of acid fer- 
tilizers, particularly sulphate of ammonia, and (2) by the presence of a smoky 
a^d add atmosphere." Methods of correcting the conditions observed by lim- 
ing and the relative value of different forms of lime for the purpose are dls- 
CQSsed. 

The recovery of ashes and their utilization in agriculture, A. Pi^dalltt 
(Compt. Rend. Acad, Agr. France, 4 {1918), No, 28, pp, 781-784; ahs, in Chem, 
Ab^, 12 {1918), No, 20, pp. 2104, 2105), —The value of the ashes from French 
army and Paris bakeries is discussed. It is stated that the ashes from the 
army bakeries are used in the military gardens, but it is estimated that 3 
metric tons of ashes containing 660 lbs. of potash salts from the bakeries of 
Paris are daily wasted. A table showing the ash, potash, phosphoric acid, and 
manganese content of different kinds of wood is given. 

AGMCTTlTimAl BOTAFT. 

Ecology, F. B. Clements {Carnegie Inst, Washinffton Year Book, 16 {1917), 
pp. SOS-^06), — ^Ecological studies during 1917 have centered mainly upon the 
problems of grazing research, indicator plants, climatic cycles, climatic cycles 
and succession in bad lands, and a system of permanent quadrates. 

Experimental evolution in a desert habitat, W. L. Toweb {Carnegie Inst, 
'WaMngiim Year Book, 16 {1917), pp. 95-98). — It is stated that since any desert 
eiivUt>nic complex ^presents probably the most diversified and variable set of 
conditions that organisms are called upon to meet, none of the introduced spe- 
cies could breed or survive without some aid in meeting such desert condi- 
tions. The cultures of introduced species now at Tucson, Ariz., have achieved 
a safe degree of adjustment to the problems they have met. Data are given 
regarding adjustment tests to which plants were subjected and the genetic be- 
havior of plants under observation and experiment. 

^tal statistics of desert plants, F. Srseve {Carnegie Inst, Washington Year 
Book, 16 {1917), pp. 93^5), — ^A record has been carried on for seven years in 
regard to the germinations and the fate of the seedlings of several species of 
desert perennials on an area near the Desert Laboratory. Qrowth curves es- 
tablished indicate that the largest individuals of Camegiea gigantea are from 
125 to 175 years old. Notes are given on germinations and survivals of the 
various species which were planted in the observational area in question. 

It appears that the establishment of new individuals in the plant populations 
of the desert Is an extremely slow process, even for plants which are abundant 
and characteristic. This fact leads to a striking conservatism as regards cer- 
tain forms, this conservatism contrasting sharply with the rapid and abundant 
development of annual forms during periods favorable thereto. 

Flant distrihfution on desert mountains, F. Shbeve {Carnegie Inst, Washing- 
tos Year Book, 16 {1917), pp. 92, 95).— An attempt is being made to study the 
eaases of the presence or absence of different species of plants in various 
moiutain regions. 

Bate of growth in relation to altltudinal conditions, F. Shbeve {Carnegie 
Inst. Washington Year Book, 16 {1917), pp, 89, 90).— rrom work prosecuted for 
ieveral years, mainly on the Santa Oatalina Mountains, it appears that the 
rnunber of pine trees more than 10 cm. in diameter increases with an altitude 



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ISO fiXl^E^MBKT dTATlOK R&COBD. ^n^L40 

of from Q»000 to 9,000 ft, marking approximately the limits of yeUow pine. 
Ollmatlc condltioiiB and soil molstnre are dlacossed In this connection. 

The rOle of climatie conditions in determining the dlstribntion of vegeta- 
tion in the United States, B. B. Livutoston and F. Shbbtk {Carnegie Intt. 
WMhington Tear Book, 16 {1917), p. j^).— This investigation Is said to have 
shown condnsively that the principal types of vegetation in the United States 
are controlled as to distribution by those moisture conditions which are related 
most directly to the maintenance of equilibrium between absorption and trans- 
piration in individual plants. 

Evaluation of the temperature of the soil as an environmental factor, 
W. A. Cannon {Cameffie Inat. Wiuhington Year Book, 16 {1917), pp. 91, 92).-- 
A study of the Influence of soil temperature on growth, employing as an indi- 
cator the development of CovUlea triderUata, which Is said to be very sensitive 
in this respect. Is claimed to show that the soil temperature at a depth of 30 
cm. (11.8 in.) at Tucson, Ariz., Is about eight times as effective for root growth 
of Ck>vlllea as at the same depth at OarmeL This is a dlfferoice sufficient to 
account for the survival of a species In one locality and its failure In another. 

Osmotic concentration of tissue fluids in relation to geographical distribu- 
tion, J. A. Habbis {Carnegie Inti. Washington Tear Book, 16 {1917), pp. 88, 
8P).— Studies previously reported (B. S. R.. 37, pp. 47. 632; 38, p. 125; SO, p. 
29) and In progress on sap concentration have at present for their ultimate 
object the completion of a reconnolssance of the sap properties of the vegeta- 
tions of typical phytogeographlcat regions, a list of which Is given. 

Vegetable saps {Carnegie Inst. WoBhington Tear Book, 16 {1917), pp. ISl, 
ISB). — ^The director of the department of experimental evolution states that 
studies by Harris and Lawrence have shown that sap concentration in trees in- 
creases from lower to higher levels, and It is considered pjpbable that this in- 
crease of concentration with elevation is a cause of sap ascent A correspond- 
ence appears to exist also between sap concentration and environmental con- 
ditions and between concentration and the successive terms of the series trees, 
shrubs, half shrubs, perennial herbs, and winter annuals. Phanerogamic para- 
sites (Loranthacee) have in general higher osmotic pressures in their saps than 
their hosts. 

Some marine mangroves show, as regards sap concentration, osmotic pres- 
sures at least as high as 50 atmospheres. Certain mangroves growing in neaiiy 
fresh water show not over half that concentration. These fftcts, it Is thought, 
may possibly be connected with the adaptation of mangroves to growth in salt 
water. 

Studies on the development and nutritional physiology of some Ghloro- 
phycett, H. Najlano {Jour. CoU 8ci., Imp, Univ. Tokyo, 40 {1917), Art. 2, pp. 
2U, pl8, S, flgB. 9).— A study has been made involving pure cultures of three 
new physiological races and two new morphological qpecles of alge. All of 
these are said to be able to give, when cultivated with Azotobacter, a larger 
amount of nitrogen than is given by Azotobacter alone. This fact is held to 
point to a symbiotic relation between Azotobacter and the algee in question. 

Yellowing in these algie is said to result from the diminution of chlorophyll 
while the yellow coloring matters persist, the yellowed cells being richly sup- 
plied with fat or grains of amylodextrln. The factors involved are a plentiful 
supply of assimilable carbon, deficiency of nitrogen, intense^ illumination (red 
rays), optimal temperature, and alternate presence and absence of air. The 
conditions for restoration of normal green color are renewed supply of nitrogen 
compounds (several forms named), moderate light intensity (blue rays) or 
even darkness, optimum temperature, and sufficient oxygen supply. 



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19191 AGRICULTURAIi BOTAKY. 131 

In full light, the principal factor In etiolation is saprophytism, the secondary 
factors being the influence of light, air, and temperature. Bleaching is a result 
of the formation of formic acid, this phenomenon indicating death, while yel- 
lowlDg is characteristic of living plants. 

Studies on the poisonous effects of organic and inorganic acids show that the 
Injury is due to the presence of undissociated acid molecules. 

Yellowing is regarded as of ecological significance. Increase of carbon 
sources checks chlorophyll formation, and as a result nitrogen may be utilized. 

Controlled ]>ollination in Nicotiana, T. H. Goodspexd and Pisie Davidson 
(Unir. Col. Pubs. Bot., 5 {1918), No. IS, pp. J^9-4S4) .—The authors indicate the 
results of controlled pollination experiments carried out with N. langadorffli 
grandi/lora in a greenhouse, the temperature of which ranged around 30"* G. 
(80^ F.). While the data are regarded as too fragmentary to Justify sweeping 
conclusions, it appears that fertilization of an extremely small percentage of 
the ovules is sufficient to prevent abscission of the flower, and it is emphasized 
that this fact apparently does not depend upon the normality of the embryo 
sacs and their capability for fertilization. 

It was found that there is in Nlcotiana a certain stage of development of the 
seed capsule beyond which automatic abscission does not occur and spontaneous 
abscission can not be induced. This is explained by the fact that mechanical 
tissue is rapidly developed in the pedicel of the flower after anthesis in suffl- 
cent amount to retain the flower upon the plant. It appears also that no 
normal pollen is produced by the Fi tahacum'Sylve^tria hybrida Apparently, 
also, there is no selective fertilization from the point of view of position on the 
placentse, the particular embryo sacs reached by the pollen tubes being a mat- 
ter of chance. 

The inheritance of germinal peculiarities. Howeringr plants {Carnegie 
In»t, Washington Year Book, 16 (1911), pp. 125-121) .—An account by the di- 
rector of the department of experimental evolution is given of inheritance 
studies by Blakeslee (£. S. R., 32, p. 726; 36, p. 522; 37, p. 831), which are 
being continued. 

In case of the yellow daisy {Rudheckia hiria), added evidence has been 
accumulated in regard to the inheritance of self-fertility and seff-sterility and 
the effects of inbreeding. The work on Jimson weeds {Datura Btranwnium) 
has been extended, and a number of new mutants have been discovered. Results 
of similar work previously done suggest that the mutant character is trans- 
mitted through the female and not through the male parent In Portulaca a 
dwarf mutant has been found which appears to act as a Mendelian recessive, 
but which occasionally produces branches reverting to the normal type, which 
are heterozygous for the dwarf character. Other vegetative segregations as well 
as doubling and color types of flowers in this species are being studied. Dou- 
bling in Portulaca seems to be a Mendelian dominant Helianthus is under in- 
Testigation as regards doubling and self-fertility. Verbena is being investigated 
regarding color characters and self -fertility. The adzuki bean {Phaseolus angu- 
larii) has been grown for a number of years. Its qualities, some of which are 
valuable, are discussed. Other studies of adzuki bean and other beans are men- 
tioned. 

Analysis of a potato hybrid, Solanum fendleriXS. tuberosum (" Sa- 
linas 'Of O. T. MacDouoal {Carnegie Inst. Washington Year Book, 1$ {1917), 
p. 98).— The wild potato of Arizona {8, fendleri), growing abqve an elevation of 
5,000 ft, producing a small tuber, and enduring the climatic extremes of that 
habitat has been carried through acclimatization cultures at Tucson and at the 
Goastal Laboratory. The cross was obtained in 1914 and the second genera- 
tion, of about 1,000 plants, was brought to maturity in 1917. ^ . 

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Id2 i&XlȣillUENT dtAtlOtr ItfiCOltfK ^ tyoL40 

The Fi generation proves to be intermediate between the two parents, pro- 
ducing tubers two or three times as large as the wild parent The Fs includes a 
number of individuals apparently identical with the wild parent Intermediate 
forms were also obtained, and it may appear that the domestic parent is also 
represented. The hybrid has been grown at various points, and this material is 
to be used in further genetic studies. 

Uass mutations and twin hybrids of <Bnothera grandiflora, H. Dk Vans 
(Bot. Oaz„ 65 {1918), No. 5, pp. 877-422, figs, G).— The author has given atten- 
tion to the phenomenon reported with discussion by Bartlett (E. S. R., 35, p. 128) 
under the name mass mutation, which is said to give rise to offspring deviating 
in large numbers from type in a particular direction and appearing in the some 
sowings with normal mutations in other directions. Oulded by the fact pointed 
out by Bartlett that the phenomenon bears some resemblance to Mendelian 
segregation, and proceeding on the assumption that the fundamental mutation 
possibly occurred in only one of the two gametes in a generation preceding the 
one in which the diversity becomes manifest, the author has studied the phe- 
nomenon of mass mutation in (E, ffrandiflora in connection with its ability to 
produce twin hybrids in certain crosses. He claims to have found that the twin 
hybrids may be considered as a consequence of mass mutation, the mutated 
gametes producing one of the twins and the typical sexual cells the other. This 
conception is considered as applicable to CB. lamarckiana, rendering superfluous 
certain hypotheses previously proposed. 

It has been found that (B. grandi/lora from Castleberry, Ala., splits into 
two types in every generation, one of these consisting of strong, green plants of 
the parent type, the other of weak, yellow individuals, only a few of which 
flower and ripen seeds. The latter type is called (E, grandifiora ochracea. 
Besides these, It produces other mutants in the ordinary proportions of 0.1 to 1 
per cent, namely, <E. lorea, with almost linear leaves, and (E, gigas, with 28 
chromosomes and the corresponding stoutness of all its organs. These two 
types are constant from seed, but CB. gig€L$ mutates into (E, lorea and (E. 
ochracea. Crosses among (E. grandiftora, (E. ochracea, and CB. lorea show that 
these forms are isogamlc, the pollen carrying the same hereditary qualities as 
the egg cells. ' Other observations are indicated with discussion. 

The observed facts and the occurrence of about 25 per cent of barren grains 
among the seeds led to the conclusion that the yearly production of (E. ochracea 
is a phenomenon of mass mutation analogous to the Instances reported by 
Bartlett, and due to an initial mutation of the ordinary rare type followed by 
secondary mutation in the succeeding generations. This Initial mutability of 
(E. grandi/lora is thought to have yielded, besides the ordinary mutants, hybrid 
mutants produced by the combination of a mutated sexual cell with a normal 
one. Assuming the offspring of this fecundation to split in a manner analogous 
to Mendel's formula for monohybrids, three types are supposed to result. One 
of these is the mutant CB. ochracea, which is now a secondary mutant ; the sec- 
ond is a mutant hybrid of the type of the species, which will repeat the split- 
ting; and the third must be a constant form of the same type. This last does 
not appear, and a lethal factor is assumed to account for this gap. It must be 
linked to the otherwise pure (E. grandiflora gametea It is supposed to explain 
the absence of the constant type, together with the presence of a corresponding 
percentage of empty seeds. In this way, the mass mutation as well as the empty 
grains can be explained by the assumption of two initial mutations of the 
ordinary type. One Is that into (E. ochracea, the other is the origin of a lethal 
factor linked to the gametes which are not mutated into a weak, yellow form. 

South African Perisporiales.— I, Perisporiaceie, Ethel M. Doidok (Trans. 
Roy. Soc. So. Africa, 6 {1917), pt. 6, pp. 71S-750, pU. iO).— The author presents 

uigitizea Dy vjv/^^v i\^ 



'm FIELD CROPS. 133 

a Ust of Perisporlaceffi, representing collections from different parts of South 
Africa, Indicating a number of what are claimed to be new species. 

Uredinales of the Andes, based on collections by Dr. and Mrs. Bose, J. C. 
AwHUi {Bot. Qaz,, 65 (1918), No, 5, pp. ^«M7^).— The present contribution to 
the fongi of the Andes comprises mainly material secured by Dr. and Mrs. J. N. 
Rose In 1914, including the new genus Cleptomyces ; the new species Urapyxit 
quUensis^ SphenoMporea berberidU, PuccMa roseanw, P. rUcotiana, P, oonisfi, 
P. csroocnm, P. wUoolor^ and ^cidium encelia; also the new combinations 
C. lofferheimianuB, P. hambu^arum, and P. moifiphafU». 

Tbe allies of Selaginella rupeetrls in the southeastern United States, G. P. 
Tan Eselttne (U. 8, Nat. Mu»,^ Contrih. Nat Herbarium, 20 {19 i8), pt. 5, pp. 
711+159-172, pU. 8, fl0S. 8). 

FIELD CBOPS. 

Farm practices that increase crop yields in Kentucky and Tennessee, J. H. 
AxNOLO (17. 5. Dept. Affr., Farmers* BtU. 981 (1918), pp. 58, figs. i2).— Measures 
are described for building up run-down land in the limestone and mountain 
districts south of the Ohio River, embracing Kentucky, Tennessee, southern 
West Virginia, and the western and more mountainous parts of Virginia and 
North Carolina. The establishment of suitable crop rotation systems, Including 
legumes and grasses, and the Judicious use of manure, crop refuse, lime, and 
commercial fertilizers, is recommended. Good farm practices employed on sev- 
eral rejuvenated farms are outlined, and some practical suggestions made on 
farming in this region. 

Farm practices that increase crop yields in the Gulf Coast region, M. A. 
Cbosbt {U. S. Dept. Agr., Farmers* BuL 986 {1918), pp. 28, figs. 10). — Changes 
in the cropping systems of the Gulf Coast region of Alabama, Mississippi, and 
West Florida are recommended, consisting chiefly in the introduction of one 
or more legumes. The relative value for soil improvement of velvet beans, 
cowpeas, soy beans, bur clover, vetch, peanuts, crimson clover, beggar weed, 
Lespedeza, oats, and rye is briefly discussed. Intercropping com and cotton 
with a legume and the use of commercial fertilizers and winter cover crops 
as means of increasing soil fertility are described. Crop rotations for various 
iystems of farming are outlined. 

Crop systems for Arkansas, A. D. McNaib ( U. 8. Dept. Agr., Farmers* Bui. 
1000 {1918), pp. 24, fig. 1). — Crop systems said to make for increased food pro- 
duction and increased efficiency in both man and horse labor are described 
wbich are deemed applicable to all of Arkansas except the northwestern part, 
to northern Louisiana, northeastern Texas, southeastern Oklahoma, western 
Tennessee, and the northern half of Mississippi. The crop acreages for each 
cropidng system suggested are calculated on the basis of two men and a team 
and for light, medium, and heavy soils. It is stated that two men with a 
team, who under a system of cotton and com could farm but 33 acres of land, 
can handle 50 acres and raise 62 acres of crops under a system providing a 
four-year rotation of cotton with a winter cover crop, cowpeas, oats, or wheat 
followed by cowpeas, and com. 

[Tests with field crops and vegetables at the Bhode Island Station] {Bui. 
R. I. State Col., IS {1918), No. 4, pp. S6, 87, 88, 39, 4^.— Alfalfa and sweet and 
mammoth clover survived the winter when sown as a winter cover crop after 
early potatoes, while winter vetch again died out In a mixture of crimson 
dover, winter vetch, and sweet clover sown as a cover crop In corn, sweet clover 
ilone survived the winter. Com after a legume cover crop produced 51 bu. per 
lUTe, after rye as a cover crop 46 bu., and with no cover crop 40 bu. 



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134 EXPERIMEKT STATION BECOBD. [VoL40 

Raw muck again proved Inferior to stable manure as a source of organic 
matter in connection with chemical fertillserB. Muck composted with hydrated 
lime at the rate of 10 cords of muck to 1 ton of lime is said to have given quite 
satisfactory results with early table beets. Tests with celery, early tomatoes, 
and beans again demonstrated that ^'when the ground is used each year for 
market-garden crops, and no special provision made for the introduction of 
organic matter, success can not continue with the use of only fertilizer chemi- 
cals." 

In rotations without farm manure and including com and potatoes, the sec- 
ond year of grass after rye and rowen produced 3.6 tons of hay, the yield re- 
maining practically unchanged with an application of 50 lbs. each of phosphoric 
acid and potash instead of 100 lbs. The third year of grass produced 1.6 tons 
of hay without nitrogen and 4.1 and 4.4 tons with 360 and 480 lbs. of nitrate 
of soda, respectively. It is thought that maximum yields of mixed timothy 
and redtop may be secured from an annual application of about 350 lbs. of 
nitrate of soda, 500 lbs. of acid phosphate, and 100 lbs. of high-grade potash 
salt 

Oats and summer vetch used as a nurse crop produced about the same 
amount of hay, 3.4 tons, with sulphate of ammonia as with nitrate of soda. 

Pot experiments are said to have shown that the insoluble nitrogen in certain 
brands of fertilizers was practically useless, and that the nitrogen of garbage 
tankage was of low grade. 

Although the after effect upon a crop of hay of different phosphates applied 
to corn in the preceding year was not sufficient to produce a maximum crop, 
there was no difference observed whether a given amount of money had been 
invested in raw rock phosphate or in acid phosphate, nor whether the same 
amount of phosphoric acid contained In the latter was supplied in bone, Thomas 
slag, or double superphosphate. 

Mixed timothy and clovers sown In silage com the preceding year yielded 
about 3.5 tons of hay, regardless of whether top-dressed with fertilizer or with 
4 cords of cow manure containing either straw or planer shavings. 

The addition of 240 lbs. of common salt per acre to soil from which potash 
was withheld to the extent of producing only half a crop of grass resulted in an 
increase in yield of about one-third. Potatoes grown on soil containing sufficient 
available potash were not benefited by the addition of salt. About as much 
winter wheat and rowen were obtained where no potash had been added for 7 
years as where it had been applied in different combinations. So-called Ameri- 
can rock potash (prepared by fusing ground feldspar with calcium chlorid) 
produced a slightly larger crop of potatoes than sulphate of potash. An ap- 
plication of 2 tons of wood ashes per acre resulted In a very scabby crop of 
potatoes. 

In variety tests with silage corn, the leading kinds were Eureka with 28.7 tons 
and Leaming with 21.5 tons. The best soy bean varieties grown for silage 
were Wilson with 11.8, Virginia with 10.6, and Hollybrook with 10.2 tons. The 
best varieties of potatoes, each yielding over 300 bu. of marketable tubers per 
acre. Included Cuban Multiplier, Pride of Vermont, Gold Coin, Norcross, and 
Lowell Green Mountain. Tests with early sweet com are also noted. 

The degree of benefit derived from liming different crops increased In the 
following order : Broad-leafed Batavlan endive, beans, onions, and sugar beets, 
and in another comparison barley, carrots, alfalfa, and beets. 

In a mixture of spring vetch and oats used as a nurse crop the vetch was 
much more depressed than the oats by soil acidity. In a comparison of barley 
and oats grown to maturity in nutrient solutions the oats matured more slowly 



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1»19) FIELD CROPS. 185 

than the barley and produced sllshtly more straw and grain with a limited 
amount of phosphorus. 

Street of crops on each other (Buk R. I. State Col,, IS {1918), No. 4, pp. 40, 
il). — ^In a contlnaatlon of work at the Rhode Island Experiment Station pie- 
Tlooslj noted (K S. R., 88, p. 837), a second crop of alslke clover following dlf- 
f^roit crops was harvested In 1917 with results similar to those obtained In 1918. 
In both years the best yields follo