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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

OFFICE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS 
A. C. TRUE, DIRECTOR 



EXPERIMENT STATION 
RECORD 



Volume XII, 1900-1901 




WASHII^GTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
1901 



U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

Scientific Bureaus and Divisions. 

Weather Bureau — Willis L. Moore, Chief. 
Bureau of Animal Industry — D. E. Salmon, Chief. 
Bureau of Plant Industry — B. T. Galloway, Chief. 
Bureau of Forestry — Gifford Pinchot, Forester. 
Bureau of Soils — INI. Whitney, Chief. 
Bureau of Chemistry — H. W. Wiley, Chemint. 
Division of Statistics — J. Hyde, Statistician. 
Division of Entomology — L. O. Howard, Entomologist. 
Division of Biological Survey — C. Hart Meniam, Chief. 
Section of Foreign Markets — F. H. Hitchcock, Chief. 



Office of Experiment Stations — A. C. True, Director. 



THE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS. 



Alabama — 

College Station: ^uftMni; P. H.Mell.* 
Canebrake Station: Uniontoum: H. Benton.* 
Tuskegee Station: Tuskegee; G. W. Carver.* 
Alaska— Sitka: C. C. Georgeson.f 
Aeizo.ma— Tftcson.- R. H. Forbes.* 
Arkansas— Fayetleville : R. L. Bennett.* 
California— ^crfcefcy.- E. W. Hilgard.* 
Colorado— Fort Collins : L. G. Carpenter.* 
Connecticut — 

State Station: Netv Haven ; E. H. Jenkins.* 
Storrs Station: Storrs; W. O. Atwater.* 
Delaware— iV'cii'arfc.- A. T. Neale.* 
Florida— ioAr City : T. H. Taliaferro.* 
Geougia— Experiment : K. J. Redding.* 
Hawaii— 

Federal Station: Honolulu; J. G. Smith. f 
Sugar Planters' Station: Honolulu; R. E. 
Blouin.* 
Idaho— .l/o«o»'.- J. A. McLean.* 
Illinois— Vrbaiia : K. Davenport.* 
Indiana— ia/aydte.- C. S. Plumb.* 
Iowa— .Intes .• C. F. Curtiss.* 
KA^SAS—Manliattaii : J. T. Willard.* 
Kentucky— Lexj'H^tojj; M. A. Scovcll.* 
Louisiana — 

State Station: Baton Rouge; 
Sugar Station: Audubon Park, Xcw Orleans; 
North Louisiana Station: Caltioun; W. C. 
Stubbs.* 
Maine— Orono ; C. D. Vk^oods.* 
Maryland— Co«ef/e Park: H. .T. Patterson.* 
Massachusetts— Yl;rt/iers^- H. H. Goodell.* 
^ICHIG AH— Agricultural College: C. D. Smith.* 
UiSiiF^oiA—St. AiUlumy Park, HI. Paul: VV. M. 
Liggett.* 



Mississippi— ^i/;(C((««ra/ College: W. L. Hutchin- 

.son.* 
Missouri- 

College Station: Columbia; H. J. Waters.* 
Fruit Station: Mountain Grove; J. T. Stinson.* 
Montana— /)'o2em.a»i .• S. Fortier.* 
Nebraska— iincoZw.- E. A. Burnett.* 
Nevada— iJeno .■ J. E. Stubbs.* 
New Hampshire— Z)H)7iani.- C. S. Murkland.* 
New Jersey— A'eM' Brunswick: E. B. Voorhees.* 
New UKxico—Mesilla Park: J. D. Tinsley.t 
New York — 

State Station : Geneva; W. H. Jordan.* 
Cornell Station : Ithaca; I. P. Roberts.* 
North CAROhm a— Raleigh : B. W. Kilgore.* 
North Dakota — Agricultural College: J. H. 

Worst.* 
Ohio— irooster.- C. E. Thornc.* 
OKLAnmiA—Stillwaier : J. PHelds.* 
Oregon— rorca/&.- T. M. Gatch.* 
Pennsylvania— S/«fc College: H. P. Arrasby.* 
Porto Rico— gan Juan: F. D. Gardner.f 
Rhode ISLAyiy— Kingston : H. J. Wheeler.* 
South Carolina— C'femAoji College: H. S. Ilart- 

zog.* 
South Makot a— Brookings : John W. Heston.§ 
Texnesske— yv'Ho.ci>(7te; A. M. Soule.J 
Texas— College Station : J. H. Connell.* 
Utah— Logati : J. A. Widtsoe.* 
Veruost— Burlington : J. L. Hills.* 
Virginia— y//arA-s6M7-fir.- J. M. McBryde.* 
Washington— P««7na?t; E. A. Bryan.* 
WE.ST \iRGit;iA—3rorgantown: J. H. Stewart.* 
W1SCON.SIN— J/ttrf/wn .• W. A. Henry.* 
Wyoming — Laramie: E. E. Smilev.* 



♦Director. 
II 



t Special agent in charge. 



I Vice-dircetor. 



§ Acting director. 



EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

Editor: E. W. ALLEN, Ph. D., Assistant Director. 

EDITORIAL DEPARTMENTS. 

Chemistry, Dairy Farming, and Dairying — The Editor and H. W. Lawson. 
Meteorology, Fertilizers and Soils (including methods of analysis), and Agricultural 

Engineering — W. H. Beal. 
Botany and Diseases of Plants — Walter H. Evans, Ph. D. 
Foods and Animal Production — C. F. Langworthy, Ph. D. 
Field Crops — J. I. Schulte. 

Entomology and Veterinary Science — E. V. Wilcox, Ph. D. 
Horticulture — C. B. Smith. 
With the cooperation of the scientific divisions of the Department and the Abstract 

Committee of the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists. 



EDITORIAL NOTES. 

Page 

The promotion of agriculture in Russia 1 

Agricultural experiment stations for Hawaii and Porto Rico 2 

International congresses of agricultural experiment stations and of agricul- 
tural education at Paris 101 

The late Sir John Bennet Lawes 201 

The influence of the Rothamsted Experiment Station 203 

Experiment stations' exhibits at the Paris Exposition 301 

Need of more perfect organization of the experiment stations 401 

Differentiation of the investigator from the teacher . 403 

Some recent bibliographic helps 501 

Protection of crops from hail 502 

The scope and management of the veterinary work of the experiment stations. 601 

Investigation of soils in Russia 701 

Variety testing at Woburn Experimental Fruit Farm 703 

Cheese curing in the light of the enzyni theory 801 

The agricultural appropriation act 803 

Experiment-station farms, and the movement for their establishment in Ger- 
many 901 

The Hawaii Experiment Station 1001 

Maxime Cornu, botanist, horticulturist, and agriculturist -. 1002 

SPECIAL ARTICLES. 

Notes on horse feeding, E. Lavalard 4 

New agricultural building at Kansas State Agricultural College 103 

International congresses of horticulture, viticulture, and agriculture at Paris, 

W. H. Evans, Ph. D 205 

Fourteenth annual convention of the Association of American Agricultural 

Colleges and Experiment Stations, E. AV. Allen 404 

III 



IV EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

Page. 
Convention of Association of Official Agricultural Chemists, 1900, D. W. May. 503 

New building for the College of Agriculture at the University of Illinois 604 

Russian soil investigations 704, 807 

LIST OF STATION PUBLICATIONS ABSTRACTED. 

Alabama College Station: 

Bulletin 107, December, 1899 433 

108, April, 1900 551, 569 

109, July, 1900 854 

Index to Vol. VII, Bulletins 101-107 and Twelfth .\nnual Report, January- 
December, 1899 498 

Twelfth Annual Report, 1899 97 

Alabama Tuskegee Station: 

Bulletin 3, November, 1899 331 

Akizona Station: 

Bulletin 31, December, 1899 334 

32, December, 1899 364 

33, April 13, 1900 458 

34, June 30, 1900 798 

35, August 15, 1900 : 753 

Eleventh Annual Report, 1900. . 1019, 1031, 1038, 1042, 1043, 1049, 1055, 1074, 1097 

Arkansas Station: 

Bulletin 59, December, 1899 136 

60, December, 1899 151 

61, July, 1900 634 

62, November, 1900 1034 

63, December, 1900 1084 

Twelfth Annual Report, 1899 296 

California Station: 

Bulletin 126, 1899 64 

127, 1900 241 

128, March, 1900 221 

129, May, 1900 643 

130, August, 1900 794 

Circular, September, 1898 350 

Exchange Seed List No. 5, December, 1900 1014 

Annual Report, 1898 906, 912, 914, 921, 923, 

926, 936, 942, 943, 945, 946, 954, 961, 965, 975, 980, 981, 991, 995, 996 
Colorado Station: 

Bulletin 53, .March, 1900 246 

54, Mav, 1900 658 

Twelfth Annual Report, 1899. . . . 220, 222, 229, 244, 248, 261, 265, 275, 294, 296, 297 
CoNNEcmci'T State Station: 

Bulletin 130, January, 1900 70 

131, Novemi)er, 1900 957 

Twenty-third Annual Rpi>ort, 1 899, Part 1 128 

Twenty-third Annual Report, 1899, Part II 213, 214, 279, 280, 281, 282 

Twenty-third Annual Reiiort, 1899, Part III 512, 513, 514, 527, 528, 

542, 544, 547, 549, 557, 558, 563, 565, 567, 568, 570, 571, 580, 581 , 599 

Annual Report, 1900, Part 1 931 

Connecticut Storrs Station: 

Bulletin 20, March, 1900 3S0 

21, March, 1900 387 

Twelfth Annual Report, 1899 lOKi, 

1025, 1028, 1069, 1071, 1075, 1076, 1077, 1083, 1086, 1097 



PUBLICATIONS ABSTEACTED. V 

Delaware Station: Page. 

Bulletin 46, May, 1900 435, 481 

47, September, 1900 894 

48, October, 1900 852 

49, December, 1900 970 

Eleventh Annual Report, 1899 721, 724, 729, 739, 753, 761, 771, 775, 787, 797 

Florida Station: 

Bulletin 51, January, 1900 68 

52, February, 1900 477 

53, March, 1900 463 

54, August, 1900 751 

55, September, 1900 778 

Report for 1899 and 1900 1015, 1036, 1045, 1056, 1057, 1097 

Georgia Station: 

Bulletin 47, December, 1899 137 

48, January, 1900 148 

49, September, 1900 982, 986, 992 

50, October, 1900 - 962 

Twelfth Annual Report, 1899 50, 61, 62, 97 

Idaho Station: 

Bulletin 21, February, 1900 156 

22, 1900 . . .'. 342 

23, April, 1900 314, 316, 320 

24, May, 1900 641, 670 

25, January, 1901 1066 

Illinois Station: 

Bulletin 57, March, 1900 '. 355 

58, April, 1900 370 

59, April, 1900 345 

60, August, 1900 868 

Twelfth Annual Report, 1899 97 

Indiana Station: 

Bulletin 80, September, 1899 189 

81, December, 1899 126 

82, March, 1900 876 

83, August, 1900 854 

84, September, 1900 1040 

85, October, 1900 1054 

86, December, 1900 1075 

Twelfth Annual Report, 1899 21, 

22, 41, 44, 45, 47, 53, 54, 57, 70, 78, 80, 94, 95, 96, 97 
Iowa Station: 

Bulletin 44, February, 1900 147 

45, February, 1900 134 

46, March, 1900 240 

47, March, 1900 ". 340 

48, June, 1900 671, 673 

49, June, 1900 664 

50, June, 1900 665 

51, August, 1900 639 

52, September, 1900 881, 882, 883 

53, November, 1900 962 

Biennial Report, 1898-99 97 



VT EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

Kansas Station: Page. 

Bulletin 91, February, 1900 190 

92, March, 1900 142 

93, March, 1900 332 

94, April, 1900 334, 399 

95, April, 1900 375 

96, May, 1900 333 

97, May, 1900 472 

98, May, 1900 466 

99, October, 1900 898 

Twelfth Annual Report, 1899 197 

Thirteenth Annual Report, 1900 897 

Kentucky Station: 

Bulletin 84, November, 1889 157 

85, December, 1899 130 

86, January 1, 1900 585 

87, May, 1900 ■ 547 

88, August, 1900 1026 

89, September, 1900 1035 

Eleventh Annual Report, 1898 516, 521, 526, 530, 547, 593, 599 

Louisiana Stations: 

P>ulletin 57 (second series), 1899 186 

58 (second series), 1899 130, 168 

59 (second series), February, 1900 438 

60 (second series), 1900 787 

61 (second series), 1900 ., 741, 760 

62 (second series) , 1900 .' S34, 841, 878 

Special Report, Part V, Geology and Agriculture 221 

Twelfth Annual Report, 1899 398 

Maine Station: 

Bulletin 54, October, 1899 78 

55, November, 1899 69 

56, December, 1899 68 

57, December, 1899 140 

58, December, 1899 399 

59, February, 1900 377 

60, March, 1900 324 

61, Marcli, 1900 312, 367 

62, April, 1900 599 

63, April, 1900 587 

64, June, 1900 585, 586 

65, June, 1900 516, 565, 586, 587 

66, August, 1900 737 

67, September, 1900 873 

68, October, 1900 863 

Fifteenth Annual Report, 1899 297 

Maryland Station: 

Bulletin 63, December, 1899 174 

64, January, 1900 182 

65, March, 1900 572, 581 

66, May, 1900 624 

67, June, 1900 637 

68, September, 1900 930 

69, October, 1900 1078 

Thirti'cnth Annual Report, 1900 834, 897 



IMTHLTOATIONS ABSTRACTED. VIT 

Massachusetts HaI'ch Station: Page. 

Bulletin 64, February, 1900 281 

05, March, 1900 225 

66, March, 1900 344 

67, May, 1900 468 

68, July, 1900 626 

69, September, 1900 856 

70, November, 1900 933 

Meteorological Bulletin 133, January, 190U 28 

134, February, 1900 28 

135, March, 1900 28 

136, April, 1900 316 

137, May, 1900 316 

138, June, 1900 316 

139, July, 1900 619 

140, August, 1900. 619 

141, September, 1900 619 

142, October, 1900 918 

143, Noveml)er, 1900 918 

144, December, 1900 918 

Twelfth Annual Report, 1899 220, 226, 253, 257, 271, 279, 281, 297 

Michigan Station: 

Bulletin 177, December, 1899 236 

178, January, 1900 275 

179, February, 1900 540 

180, March, 1900 575 

181, April, 1900 620, 623, 631, 636, 639 

182, May, 1900 986 

183, June, 1900 984 

184, June, 1900 987 

185, June, 1900 933 

Special Bulletin 13, December, 1899 293 

Twelfth Annual Report, 1899 121, 143, 197 

Minnesota Station: 

Bulletin 66, December, 1899 166 

67, April, 1900 479, 484 

68, June, 1900 627 

Class Bulletin 8, December 19, 1900 1039 

Annual Report, 1899 - 425, 496 

1900 1017, 1097 

Mississippi Station : 

Bulletin 61, January 15, 1900 38 

62, April, 1900 844 

63, June, 1900 843 

64, August 15, 1900 841 

65, June, 1900 1022 

Twelfth Annual Report, 1899 . . . 213, 218, 220, 222, 229, 234, 244, 256, 282, 288, 297 
Thirteenth Annual Report, 1900 849, 867, 878, 883, 890, 897 

Missouri Station: 

Bulletin 49, January, 1900 553 

50, April, 1900 578 

Montana Station: 

Bulletin 21, May, 1899 72 

22, June, 1899 827, 854, 859, 868, 891, 894 

23, May, 1900 869 

24 (Sixth Annual Report, 1899) , July, 1899 849, 853, 897 

25, April, 1900 ." 822 



VIII EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

Nebraska Station: Page. 

Bulletin 62, March 18, 1900 274 

63, April 16, 1900 486 

64, May 7, 1900 " 442, 497 

65, Jnne 4, 1900 691 

66, August 29, 1900 875 

67, August 29, 1900 846 

Thirteenth Annual Report, 1899 419, 

426, 430, 436, 442, 449, 468, 478, 487, 488, 491, 496, 498 
Nevada Station: 

Bulletin 40, December, 1898 174 

41, December, 1898 173 

42, December, 1898 593 

43, December, 1898 541 

44, December, 1898 542 

45, December, 1898 519 

46 (Nature Studies, II), Jime, 1900 827 

47, August, 1900 959 

48 (Educational Series, 111), June, 1900 1014 

New Hampshire Station: 

Bulletin 67, October, 1899 , 167 

68 (Eleventh Annual Report, 1899), November, 1899. . 117, 120, 185, 198 

69, January, 1900 274 

70, January, 1900 341 

71, February, 1900 432 

72, February, 1900 468 

73, March, 1900 449 

74, April, 1900 450 

75, May, 1900 466 

76, June, 1900 1039 

77, September, 1900 1095 

New Jersey Stations: 

Bulletin 141, December 31, 1899 144 

142, January 20, 1900 146 

143, March 8, 1900 268 

144, June 30, 1900 754 

145, October 1, 1900 840 

146, November 1, 1900 971 

147, December 10, 1900 1062 

Special Bulletin S, February 22, 1900 360 

Annual Report, 1899 312, 

321, 322, 324, 330, 331, 344, 347, 350, 351, 365, 378, 382, 390, 398 
New Mexico Station: 

Bulletin 31, December, 1899 425 

32, December, 1899 ., 538 

33, April, 1900 526, 538, 539, 570, 580, 587 

34, June, 1900 834 

35, October, 1900 974 

36, October, 1900 997 

New York Cornell Station: 

Bulletin 1 7(), December, 1899 63 

177, January, 1900 163 

178, January, 1900 184 

179, Fel)niary, 1900 125 

180, March, 1900 259 



PUBLICATIONS ABSTRACTED. IX 

New Yokk Cornell Station — Continued. Page. 

Bulletin 181, March, 1900 237 

182, April, 1900 335 

183, September, 1900 878 

184, November, 1900 974 

185, November, 1900 973 

Thirteenth Annual Report, 1900 797 

New York State Station: 

Bulletin 163, December, 1899 59 

164, December, 1899 55 

165, December, 1899 67 

166, December, 1899 169 

167, December, 1899 154 

168, December, 1899 198 

169, December, 1899 240 

170, December, 1899 271 

171, December, 1899 276 

172, December, 1899 287 

173, December, 1899 - . . 226 

174, March, 1900 273 

175, April, 1900 - 358 

176, September, 1900 877 

177, November, 1900 ; 1026 

178, November, 1900 1083 

179, November, 1900 _ . 1055 

Seventeenth Annual Report, 1898 28, 36, 97 

Eighteenth Annual Report, 1899 921, 996 

North Carolina Station: 

Bulletin 170, March, 1900 444 

171, May, 1900 538 

172, May, 1900 611, 667 

173, June, 1900 841 

174, June, 1900 819 

175, August, 1900 827 

North Dakota Station: 

Bulletin 41, September, 1899 55 

42, December, 1899 51 

43, March, 1900 516 

44, June, 1900 780, 791 

45, September, 1900 978 

Tenth Annual Report, 1899 214, 

215, 220, 222, 233, 234, 235, 236, 245, 248, 255, 273, 297 
Ohio Station: 

Bulletin 109, July 1, 1899 120 

110, December, 1899 127 

111, December, 1899 359 

112, December, 1899 576 

113, December, 1899 557 

114, January, 1900 580 

115, January, 1900 636 

116, February, 1900 662 

117, April, 1900 688 

118, June, 1900 848 

119, June, 1900 862 

120, June, 1900 919, 997 



X EXPERIMENT STATIOlSr RECORD. 

Ohio Station — Continued. Page. 

Special Bulletin 4, April 23, 1900 .S49 

Ei<rhteenth Annual Report, 1899 198 

Nineteenth Annual Report, 1900 975, 997 

Oklahoma Station: 

Bulletin 44, December, 1899 230 

45, March, 1900 312 

46, May, 1900 872 

47, Septem])er, 1900 846, 850 

Annual Report, 1900 . . . 622, 623, 640, ()48, 652, 657, 664, 670, 677, 691, t)92, 693, 697 

Oregon Station: 

Bulletin 60, January, 1900 58 

61, March, 1900 343 

62, June, 1900 : . . 419, 443, 445, 471, 476 

63, November, 1900 1052 

64, December, 1900 1092 

Annual Report, 1896 997 

1898 906, 997 

1899 907, 997 

1900 942, 997 

Pennsylvania Station: 

Bulletin 47, November, 1899 44 

48, December, 1899 71 

49, February, 1900 339 

50, February, 1900 378 

51, April, 1900 645 

52, June, 1900 678 

53, September, 1900 875 

54, November, 1900 927 

Annual Report, 1899 618, 632, 649, 651, 669, 678, 697 

Rhode Island Station: 

Bulletin 60, November, 1899 39 

61, December, 1899 192 

62, February, 1900 222 

63, February, 1900 282 

64, March, 1900 378 

65, April, 1900 333 

66, April, 1900 634 

67, May, 1900 626 

68, June, 1900 621 

69, June, 1900 735 

70, July, 1900 737 

71, August, 1900 935 

72, September, 1900 982 

73, October, 1900 933 

74, November, 1900 1030 

75, December, 1900 1030 

Twelfth Annual Report, 1899 717, 

724, 727, 732, 735, 737, 740, 746, 760, 763, 781, 798 

Thirteenth Annual Report, 1900 907, 919, 927, 944, 952, 966, 974, 982, 990, 997 

South Carolina Station: 

Bulletin 48, December, 1899 196 

49, January, 1900 151 

50, January, 1900 291 



PUBLICATIONS ABSTRACTED. XT 

South Carolina Station — Continued. Vuge. 

Bulletin 51, April, 1900 296 

52, April, 1900 475 

53, April, 1900 430 

54, June, 1900 626 

55, October, 1900 982 

56, October, 1900 943 

Annual Report, 1899 39, 61, 97 

South Dakota Station: 

Bulletin 66, March, 1900 547 

67, April, 1900 552 

Annual Eeport, 1899 1097 

1900 1097 

Tennessee Station: 

Bulletin Vol. XIII, No. 1, January, 1900 316, 317 

2, July, 1900 1035 

3, October, 1900 1029 

Twelfth Annual Report, 1899 (with Bulletins Vol. XII, Nos. 1-4) 312, 

319, 320, 324, 330, 337, 345, 349, 379, 388, 389, 396, 398 
Texas Station: 

Bulletin 52, July, 1899 150 

53, October, 1899 194 

54, November, 1899 139 

55, December, 1899 473 

56, Nf)vember, 1899 446 

57, July, 1900 850 

Utah Station: 

Bulletin 62, May, 1899 152 

63, November, 1899 144 

64, December, 1899 , 245, 246, 267 

65, February, 1900 271 

66, April, 1900 631 

67, April, 1900 674 

68, June, 1900 781 

69, June, 1900 740, 778 

Vermont Station: 

Bulletin 73, October, 1899 153 

74, December, 1899 151 

75, January, 1900 151 

76, March, 1900 269 

77, April, 1900 226 

78, April, 1900 472 

79, April, 1900 430 

80, May, 1900 429 

81, September, 1900 877 

82, September, 1900 877 

Special Bulletin, October, 1899 185 

March, 1900 470 

Twelfth Annual Report, 1899 214, 222, 224, 

226, 234, 235, 238, 249, 255, 258, 259, 261 , 273, 282, 283, 285, 286, 288, 297 
Virginia Station: 

Bulletin 97, February, 1899 164 

98, March, 1899 122, 151 

y9, April, 1899 • 245 



XII EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

Virginia Station — Continued. Page. 

Bulletin 100, May, 1899 270 

101, June, 1899 445 

102, July, 1899 467 

103, August, 1899 597 

104, September, 1899 597 

105, October, 1899 672 

106, November, 1899 695 

Annual Eeport, 1899 121, 198 

1900 1017, 1098 

Washington Station: 

Bulletin 40, December, 1899 225 

41, 1900 234 

42, 1900 - 265 

West Virginia Station: 

Bulletin 61, September, 1899 73 

62, October, 1899 47 

63, January 1, 1900 226 

64, January 1, 1900 , 437 

65, April 15, 1900 430 

66, February, 1900 573 

67, August, 1900 - 863 

68, September, 1900 1063 

69, October, 1900 1062 

70, November, 1900 1064 

Twelfth Annual Report, 1899 558, 580, 599 

Thirteenth Annual Report, 1900 1098 

Wisconsin Station: 

Bulletin 80, January, 1900 32 

81, April, 1900 226 

82, April, 1900 492 

83, May, 1900 495 

Sixteenth Annual Report, 1899 19, 22, 23, 28, 34. 36, 39, 40, 42, 43, 

45, 49, 51, 53, 71, 74, 75, 76, 77, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 98 
Wyoming Station: 

Bulletin 42, December, 1899 138 

43, March, 1900 430 

44, April, 1900 427 

45, June, 1900 1019 

Tenth Annual Report, 1900 .... 1008, lOlo, 1016, 1021, 1037, 1039, 1050, 1095, 1098 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PUBLICATIONS 

ABSTRACTED. 

Annual Reports, 1900 997 

Farmers' Bulletin 110 235 

111 251 

112 279 

113 245 

114 298 

115 838 

116 345 

117 „ 380 

118 346 

119 798 



PUBLICATIONS ABSTKACTED. XIII 

Page. 

Farmers' Bulletin V20 774 

121 876 

129 898 

i23\'.'.'.y^'.\y^'.'.'.'.'..-.'. 1051 

235 

_[//__ 522 

'!!!'!! 545 

781 



ReiJort 63. 
64. 



65. 

66. 



Yearbook, 1899 418, 

421, 423, 424, 426, 442, 443, 449, 455, 458, 460, 467, 476, 478, 484, 488, 496, 497 

Division of Agrostology: 

Bulletin 2 (revised) - ^15 

14 (revised) - "^^l 

20 - ■- 24 

21 219 

22 332 

23 615 

24!!!;!!''!!!"-!!-""' 1013 



Circular 23. 



230 



24 232 

25 329 

26 : 442 

27 911 

28 1037 

Bureau of Animal Industry: 

Bulletin 24 89 

25 789 

26 986 

27! "!!!!'"!!!! !! 1077 

Circular 27 T "0 

28 95 

29 92 

30. '.'.'.'.'.'.. '.V. 395 

31 597 

Division of Biological Survey-: 

Bulletin 12 616 

13 828 

iC^.^.^.^........ 831 

Circular 28 617 

29 617 

30!^-!!"^-^----"-----^--'' - 830 

31 830 

North American Fauna No. 17, June 6, 1900 - 422 

18, September 20, 1900 617 

19, October 6, 1900 - - - 830 

Division of Botany: 

Bulletin 22 -■ 46 

23 - - 45 

24 347 

Circular 18 (revised) 758 

23 --■ 248 

24 - -- 251 

25 251 

26 231 



XIV EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

Division of Botany — Continued. Page. 

Circular 27 458 

28 646 

29 941 

Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, Vol. V, No. 4, 

Oi-toberSl, 1899 24 

Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, Vol. V, No. 5, 

August 1, 1900 720 

Inventory 7 911 

Division op Chemistry: 

Bulletin 58 994 

59 994 

Circular 6 745 

Division of Entomology: 

Bulletin 4 (new series, revised) 67 

21 ( new series) 64 

22 (new series) 160 

23 (new series) 361 

24 (new series) 774 

25 (new series) 768 

26 (new series) 860 

8 (technical series) 469 

Circular 40 (second series) - - 68 

41 (second series) 775 

42 (second series) 869 

Office of Experiment Stations: 

Bulletin 74 198 

75 - 168 

76 198 

77 : 275 

78. . . 298 

79 298 

80 . 297 

81 295 

82 630 

83 697 

84 677 

85 776 

86 895 

87 895 

Circular 44 497 

vSEcrioN OF Foreign Markets: 

Bulletin 9 1098 

Ki 98 

17 98 

18 98 

19 497 

20 798 

21 798 

(Jircular 22 298 

Division ok Forestry: 

Bulletin 27 452 

28 754 

29 956 



PUBLICATIONS ABSTEACTED. XV 

Division of Publications: Page. 

Bulletin 5 878 

Office of Public Road Inquiries: 

Circular 34 --- 296 

35 697 

Office of the Secketary: 

Circular 8 935 

9 - 941 

Section of Seed and Plant Introduction: 

Circular 1 1044 

2 1043 

Division of Soils: 

Bulletin 16 36 

Circular 4 - 317 

5 335 

6 320 

7 527 

Division of Statistics: 

Bulletin 17 (miscellaneous series) 399 

Circular 12 698 

13 - - - - 798 

Crop Circular for April, 1900 298 

Crop Eeporter, Vol. II, Nos. 1-3 398 

4-6 698 

7-9 1098 

Division of Vegetable Physiology and Pathology: 

Bulletin 19 460 

20 762 

21 765 

22 717 

23 963 

24 - 939 

Weather Bureau: 

Bulletin 28 27 

29 314 

G - 723 

H 920 

Anemometer tests 425 

Anemonietry 1018 

Daily River Stages at River Gage Stations on the Principal Rivers of the 

United States, Part VI 1096 

Monthly Weather Review, Vol. XXVII, No. 13 25 

XXVIII, Nos. 1-3, January-March, 1900. 118 

XXVIII, Nos. 4-6, April-June, 1900.... 520 

XXVIII, No. 7, July, 1900 831 

XXVIII, No. 8, August, 1900 831, 834 

XXVIII, No. 9, September, 1900 831 

XXVIII, Nos. 10-12, October-December, 

1900 - 1015 

Report of the Chief of the Weather Bureau, 1898-99, Vol. II 831 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Page 

Fig. 1. Agricultural Hall, Kansas State Agricultural College 103 

2. Plan of tirst floor, Agricultural Hall 104 

3. Plan of i^econd floor. Agricultural Hall ... 105 

4. Electrical apparatus for frost warning 815 

5. New Agricultural Building, University of Illinois 604 

6. First-floor plan, Illinois Agricultural Building 605 

7. Second-floor i:)lan, Illinois Agricultural Building _ 606 

8. Third-fioor plan, Illinois Agricultural Building 607 

XVI 



EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

Editor: E. W. ALLEN, Ph. I)., Assistant Director. 

EJHTORIAL UEPARTMENTH. 

Chemistry, Dairy Farming, and Dairying — The Editor and H. \V. Lawson. 
Meteorology, Fertilizers and Soils (including methods of analysis), and Agricultural 

Engineering — W. H. Beai^. 
Botany and Diseases of Plants — Walter H. Evans, Ph. D. 
Foods and Animal Production — C F. Langwortiiy, Ph. D. 
Field Crops — J. L Sciiulte.' 

Entomology and Veterinary Science- — E. V. Wilcox, Ph. I). 
Horticulture — C. B. Sjiith and V. A. Clark. 
With the cooperation of the scientific divisions of the Department and the Aljstract 

Committee of the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists. 



CONTENTS OF Vol. XII, No. i. 



Editorial notes: Page. 

The promotion of agriculture in Russia 1 

Agricultural experiment stations for Hawaii and Portf) Rico 2 

Notes on horse feeding, E. I^avalard 4 

Recent work in agricultural science 18 

Notes 99 

SUBJECT LIST OF ABSTRACTS. 

chemistry. 

The volumetric determination of potash, R. H. Adie and T. B. Wood 18 

A new reagent for detecting and estimating nitrites in water, H. Erdmann. . . 18 
Methods for the detection of "process" or "renovated" butter, W. H. Hess 

and R. E. Doolittle 18 

A comparison of reagents for milk proteids with some notes on the Kjeldahl 

method for nitrogen determination, A. Vivian 19 

Tests for the strength of solutions of formaldehyde, H. A. Huston 21 

Reducing power of taka-diastase, H. A. Huston and A. H. Bryan 22 

BOTANY. 

American grasses — III, F. Ijamson-Scribner 24 

Notes on useful plants of Mexico, J. N. Rose 24 

Studies of Mexican and Central American plants — No. 2, J. N. Rose 24 

1 Absent on leave. 

I 



II CONTENTS. 

Page. 

Two new speciesof plants from the Northwestern United States, Ij. F. Henderson. 24 
Hesperogenia, a new genus of UmbelUferje from Mount Kainicr, J. M. Coulter 

and J. N. Rose 24 

Three new species of Tradeseantia in the United States, J. N. Rose 24 

Treleasea, a new genus of Conunelinacea?, J. N. Rose 24 

Lists of trees and shrnl)s on the grounds of Purdue University 24 

The origin and early development of the flowers of the cherry, plum, apple, 

and pear, E. S. Goff 22 

Comparative hardiness of flower buds in the cherry, E. S. Goff 2:5 

Yellow coloring matters accompanying chlorophyll and their spectroscopic 

relations, C. A. Schunck 23 

METEOROLOGY. 

Annual summary of meteorological observations in the United States, 1899 ... 25 

The climate of San Francisco, Cal., A. G. McAdie and G. H. Willson 27 

The meteorology of Ben Nevis in clear and in foggy weather, J. Y. Buchanan. 27 

Meteorological observations, J. E. Ostrander and A. C. Monahan 28 

Meteorological record 28 

SOILS. 

The soluble salts of cultivated soils, F. H. King and J. A. Jeffery 28 

The character and treatment of swamp or humus soil, F. H. King and J. A. 

Jeffery 32 

Percolation and evaporation from long columns of soil, F. H. King 34 

The utilization by plants of the potash dissolved in soil water, T. Schloesing. . 36 
Catalogue of the tirst four thousand samples in the soil collection of the Divi- 
sion of Soils, M. Whitney 36 

Treatment of swamp or humus soil, F. H. King and J. A. Jeffery 36 

Readings of soil thermometers 36 

FERTILIZERS. 

The utilization of stable waste, AV. H. Birchmore 37 

Investigations on the influence of nitric nitrogen and ammoniacal nitrogen on 

the growth of maize, P. Maze 37 

Analyses of commercial fertilizers, W. F. Hand et al 38 

Analyses of commercial fertilizers, H. J. Wheeler and B. L. Hartwell 39 

Rei)ort of fertilizer department, J. P. Smith 39 

Rejiort of chemist, M. B. Hardin 39 

Analyses of licensed commercial fertilizers, 1899, F. W. WoU and A. Vivian.. 39 

FIELD CROPS. 

The influence of the right amount and right distril)ution of water in crop pro- 
duction, F. H. King 40 

Continued effects of fertilizing the soil, W. C. Latta 41 

Variety tests of grains, R. A. Moore 42 

Machine and hand-threshed cereals f(jr seed, H. C. Schellenlterg 42 

Russian cereals adapted for cultivation in the United States, M. A. Carlcton. . . -4.5 

The nitrogen fertilization of barley for brewing, T, Remy 42 

Report on culture ex])eriments with barley at the Berlin Experimental Insti- 
tute for Brewers, von Eckenbrecher 43 

Forage crops, W. B. Anderson 4.5 

The influence of heredity upon vigor in the potato, E. S. Goff 43 



CONTENTS. Ill 

I'age. 

The ])res(Mit status of rice culture in tlie United .States, S. A. Kna])]) 46 

Tests of the su^ar beet in Pennsylvania, II. P. Armsby and E. H. Hess -l-i 

Field tests of varieties of wheat, covering nineteen years, W. C. Latta 47 

Test of corn-cultural inii)lenients, W. C. Latta 44 

HORTICULTURE. 

A study of the effect of incandescent gaslight on ])lant growth, L. C. Corbett. . 47 

The use of clieniical fertilizers in the forcing house, W. Stuart 48 

Experiments in forcing vegetables, J. Troop 54 

The effect of transplanting on time of maturity, F. Cranefield 49 

Report of the horticulturist, A. L. Quaintance 50 

Field notes of horticultural department, C. B. Waldron 51 

Russian apples in Indiana, J. Troop 54 

Preliminary rejiort on experiments in pinching raspberry shoots, E. 8. Goff 51 

Preserving fruit for exhibition, F. Cranefield 53 

Rose growing with chemical fertilizers, W. Stuart 53 

Some hints on ornamental planting, C. B. Waldron 55 

DISEASES OF PLANTS. 

Notes on various plant diseases, F. C. Stewart 55 

Plant diseases, A. L. Quaintance 61 

Corn smut, J. C. Arthur and W. Stuart 57 

Asparagus rust, P. H. Rolfs 61 

Clul) root, W. Hawk 57 

Apple-tree anthracnose, A. B. Cordley 58 

The New York apple-tree canker, W. Paddock 59 

ENTOMOLOGY. 

How to distinguish the different mosquitoes of Nortli America, I^. (). Howard 

and D. W. Coquillett 68 

Insect notes for 1899, A. L. Quaintance 62 

Apple insects of Maine, F. L. Harvey and W. M. Munson 68 

The peach-tree borer, M. V. Slingerland 63 

Some common Florida scales, H. A. Gossard 68 

Preliminary report on the insect enemies of forests in the Northwest, A. D. 

Hopkins 64 

Paris green for the codling moth, C. W. Woodworth and G. E. Colby 64 

Report of analyses of Paris green and other insecticides, L. L. Van Slyke 67 

FOODS ANIMAL PRODUCTION. 

Nuts as food, C. D. AVoods and L. H. Merrill 78 

Cereal breakfast foods, C. D. Woods and L. H. Merrill 69 

Analyses of maple sugar, H. A. Huston and A. H. Bryan 78 

Commercial feeding stuffs in the Connecticut market, E. H. Jenkins, A. L. 

Winton, et al 70 

Analyses of feeding stuffs, H. A. Huston and A. H. Bryan 70 

Analyses of feeding stuffs, F. W. Woll 71 

Winter v. spring bran, W. Frear and W. A. Hutchison 71 

Contribution to the study of the energy content of human urine, M. Tangl ... 72 

Sheep feeding, R. T. Shaw 72 

Sheep-feeding experiments, J. H. Stewart and H. Atwood 73 



IV CONTENTS. 

PHge. 
Feeding j^roiiiid corn v. jjrronml peass to lambs iK'fore and after weaning, ^V. Jj. 

Carlyle 74 

The influence of manures on the production of nuitton, W. 8omer\alle 7o 

Whole com compared with corn meal for fattening swine, W. A. Henry 7-") 

Rape V. clover for young pigs, W. L. Carly k* 7(j 

On the food requirements! of the pig for maintenance and fi>r gain, W. Dietrich, 

reported by F. W. AVoll 77 

DAIRY KAK.MINCi UAIKYINli. 

The nianunary gland, A. AV. Bitting <S0 

On the economy of heavy grain feeding of dairy cows, 1". W. \Voll and W. L. 

Carlyle '. 81 

Protecting cows from flies, W. L. Carlyle 82 

The effect on dairy cows of changing milkers, W. L. Carlyle 8;^ 

Dairy herd record, W. L. Carlyle 88 

Tests of dairy cows, 1898-99, J. W. Decker 90 

The composition of sow's milk, F. W. "Woll 84 

Examination of milk for tubercle bacilli, Y . H. Bassett 90 

Pasteurization of milk and cream at 140° F., E. H. Farrington and H. L. 

Russell 84 

Pasteurization of skim milk, E. H. Farrington 85 

Effect of salt on the water in butter, E. H. Farrington 86 

White spots on butter, E. H. Farrington 87 

Coating cheese with paraffin to preA^ent mold, J. W. Decker 91 

The action of proteolytic ferments on milk with special reference to galactase, 

the cheese-ripenmg enzym, S. M. Babcock, H. L. Russell, et al 87 

Influence of galactase in the ripening of cottage cheese, S. M. Babcock, H. L. 

Russell, and A. Vivian 88 

Effect of digesting bacteria on cheese solids of milk, H. L. Russell and V. H. 

Bassett 89 

Notes upon dairying in California and the export of California Initter to the 

Orient, R. A. Pearson 89 

A composite milk-sami:)ling pipette, J. W. Decker 91 

OflScials, associations, and educational institutions connected with the dairy 

interests of the United States for the year 1900 92 

VETERINARY SCIENCE AND PRACTICE. 

Report of the cattle quarantines in Canada from November 1, 1897, to October 

31, 1898, D. McEachran 92 

Effect of different influences on normal temperatures of cattle, and relation of 

same to tuberculin test, II. L. Russell and V. 1 1. Bassett 92 

Letters relating to the distriVjution of vaccine 95 

Psendoscabies, A. W. Bitting 95 

The effects of eating moldy corn, A. W. Bitting 94 

Composition of bones of sound horse and of bones of horse suffering with 

osteoi)erosis, H. A. Huston and A. H. Bryan 96 

Material for ])acking horses' hoofs, H. A. Huston and A. H. Bryan 96 

An experimental investigation of adermatomycosis of fowls, L. Matruchot and 

C. Dassonville 94 

AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERINCl . 

Des(Ti})tion of experiment station piggery, H. E. Van Norman 96 



CONTENTS. 



STATISTICS MISCELLANEOUS. 



Twelfth Animal Report of Alabama College Station, 1899 97 

Twelfth Annual Rejjort of Georgia Station, 1899 97 

Twelfth Annual Report of Illinois Station, 1899 97 

Twelfth Annual Report of Indiana Station, 1899 97 

Biennial Report of Iowa Station, 1898-99 97 

Seventeenth Annual Report of New York State Station, 1898 97 

Annual Report of South Carolina Station, 1899 97 

Sixteenth Annual Report of Wisconsin Station, 1899 98 

Distribution of the agricultural exports of the United States, 1894-1898, F. PI. 

Hitchcock 98 

Sources of the agricultural imports of the United States, 1894-1898, F. H. 

Hitchcock 98 

Our trade with Japan, China, and Hongkong, 1889-1899, F. H. Hitchcock 98 

LIST OF PUBLICATIONS ABSTRACTED. 

Experiment stations in the United States: 

Alabama College Station: 

Twelfth Annual Report, 1899 97 

California Station: 

Bulletin 126, 1899 64 

Connecticut State Station: 

Bulletin l.'JO, January, 1900 70 

Florida Station : 

Bulletin 51, January, 1900 68 

Georgia Station : 

Twelfth Annual Report, 1899 50, (U , 62, 97 

Illinois Station: 

Twelfth Annual Report, 1899 97 

Indiana Station : 

Twelfth Annual Report, 1899 21, 

22, 41, 44, 45, 47, 53, 54, 57, 70, 78, SO, 94, 95, 96, 97 

Iowa Station: 

Biennial Report, 1898-99 97 

Maine Station: 

Bulletin 54, October, 1899 78 

Bulletin 55, November, 1899 69 

Bulletin 56, December, 1899 68 

Massachusetts Hatch Station: 

Meteorological Bulletin 133, January, 1900 28 

Meteorological Bulletin 134, February, 1900 28 

Meteorological Bulletin 135, March, 1900 28 

Mississippi Station: 

Bulletin 61, January 15, 1900 38 

Montana Station : 

Bulletin 21, May, 1899 72 

New York Cornell Station: 

Bulletin 176, December, 1899 63 

New York State Station: 

Bulletin 163, December, 1899 59 

Bulletin 164, December, 1899 55 

Bulletin 165, December, 1899 67 

Seventeenth Annual Report, 1898 28, 36, 97 



VI CONTENTS. 

Experiment stations* in the T'nited States^('i)n1iiiiic(l. 

North Dakota Station: Page. 

Bulletin 41, September, 1899 55 

Bulletin 42, December, 1899 51 

Oregon Station: 

Bulletin 60, January, 1900 58 

Pennsylvania Station: 

Bulletin 47, November, 1899 44 

Bulletin 48, December, 1899 71 

Rhode Ifiland Station: 

Bulletin 60, November, 1899 39 

South Carolina Station: 

Annual Report, 1899 .'W, 61, 97 

West Virginia Station: 

Bulletin 61, September, 1899 73 

Bulletin 62, October, 1899 47 

Wisconsin Station: 

Bulletin.80, January, 1900 32 

Sixteenth Annual Report, 1891) 19, 22, 23, 28, 34, 36, 35 40, 42, 43, 

45, 49, 51, 53, 71, 74, 75, 76, 77, 81, 82, S3, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 9i-, 91 , 92, '98 
United States Department of Agricultui-e: 

Division of Agrostology: 

Bulletin 20 24 

Bureau of Animal Industry: 

Bulletin 24 89 

Circular 27 90 

Circular 28 95 

Circular 29 92 

Division of Botany : 

Bulletin 22 46 

Bulletin 23 45 

Contributions from the U. S. National Herbarium, Vol. V, No. 4, 

October 31, 1899 24 

Division of Entomology: 

Bulletin 4 (new series, revised ) 67 

Bulletin 21 (new series) 64 

Circular 40 (second series ) 68 

Section of Foreign Markets: 

Bulletin 16 98 

Bulletin 17 98 

Bulletin 18 98 

Division of Soils: 

Bulletin 16 36 

Weather Bureau: 

Bulletin 28 27 

Monthly Weather Review, Vol. XXVII, No. 13 25 



EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

Vol. Xll. No. 1. 



An interesting step looking to the advancement of agriculture in 
the Russian Empire has recently been taken, on the recommendation 
of the Ministry of Agriculture and Imperial Estates, in the inaugura- 
tion of a system of conmiissioners of agriculture to preside over the 
agricultural affairs in their respective provinces or governments, and 
to seek to promote and improve the agricultural conditions in general. 
Provision has l)een made for such commissioners in 20 different gov- 
ernments of the Empire, and the appropriation for their maintenance 
became available with the beginning of the present yeav. These com- 
missioners will correspond in a general way to our State commissioners 
of agriculture or secretaries of State boards of agriculture. They will 
have charge of all public measures relating to agriculture and rural 
affairs, and will exercise supervision over all local agricultural insti- 
tutions maintained by the government. They will inquire into the 
agricultural needs of their respective governments, and will recom- 
mend government aid for such local or private enterprises as merit 
special encouragement. 

The commissioners will likewise be charged with the administration 
of the system of government loans on agricultural improvements and 
bounties for the encouragement of farm industries. They are expected 
to take an actiAC part in provincial and municipal agricultural meet- 
ings, and to maintain close relations with all societies and conventions 
of agriculturists. 

Connected with the commissioners' offices will be corps of agricul- 
tural specialists and instructors, who will be assigned to the work by 
the Ministry of Agriculture and Imperial Estates. They will go out 
among the landowners and peasants for the purpose of collecting 
data regarding the actual conditions of various branches of agricul- 
ture, to diffiise general information on agricultural topics, and endeavor 
to improve the methods and practices in vogue. At the request of 
farmers they will visit their farms to give expert advice on questions 
of management, and they will take active measures for the repression 
of insects, injurious animals, and plant diseases. 

The Ministry of Agricultui-e will cooperate with these various 
agencies by the issue of manuals and other publications, and the com- 

1 



2 EXPEKIMENT STATION "RECORD. 

missioners will recommend to the ministry such measures for the pro- 
motion of agriculture and the improvement of the ag'ricultural condi- 
tions in their respective governments as seem to them desirable. 

The inauguration of this system would seem to be a distinct mark 
of progress. Taken in connection with the recent decrees regarding 
the establishment of additional agricultural experiment stations and 
systems of agricultui'al education, alread}^ referred to, it should mate- 
rially impi'OA'c and modernize the practice of agriculture in Russia. 

The last appropriation act for this Department carried provisions 
for the inauguration of experiment stations in the islands of Hawaii 
and Porto Rico. In accordance with this the preliminary steps have 
been taken to determine the best plan of operation in each case and the 
subjects which are in most need of immediate attention. 

Prof. S. A. Knapp, of Louisiana, who for a considerable number of 
vears has been engaged in subtropical agriculture on an extensive 
scale, was selected to investigate the agricultural conditions and possi- 
biKties of Porto Rico. Professor Knapp went to the island early in 
June. In general he will study the present agricultural conditions 
existing in Porto Rico, the lines of experimental investigation which 
should be undertaken there, especialty in the immediate future, and 
the locations suitable for stations, together with the approximate 
expense of inaugurating and maintaining the work of the stations. 
He will also look into the feasibility of undertaking cooperative exper- 
iments with the residents of Porto Rico, and the best means of reach- 
ing the people through difierent classes of publications, demonstration 
experiments, and otherwise. 

For the preliminary survey of the conditions in the Hawaiian 
Islands. Dr. W. C. Stubbs, director of the Louisiana Experiment Sta- 
tions, has been selected as especially fitted b}^ experience. Dr. Stubbs 
sailed for Hawaii a1)out the middle of July, and will spend the month 
of August in the islands. The conditions there with reference to 
station work are different from those in Porto Rico, as a station for 
experiments in sugar production has been maintained by private benef- 
icence for a number of years. In connection with his investigation of 
the location of a station, Dr. Stubbs will consider the feasibility of 
combining the Federal station with the Hawaiian Experiment Station 
or the agricultural department of the Kamehameha Manual Training 
School at Honolulu. Here also the lines in which inv(«tigation is 
most needed, the possibility of greater diversification of the agriculture, 
the expense of inaugurating and maintaining experiment station work, 
and the means of disseminating information among the people will be 
carefully inquired into. This will pr()bal)ly i)rove a profitable field 
for investigations on the use and economy of water in irrigation, since 
according to reports received from authentic sources, in no other place 



EDITORIAL. S 

is SO much money expended for pumping water for irrigation. Some 
of the pumps are said to be raising- 30,000,000 gallons of water per day 
from a depth of 500 feet, using coal that costs $10 a ton. The expense 
of irrigating in some cases reaches as high as $125 per acre annually. 
Preliminary reports will be rendered by Professor Knapp and Dr. 
Stubbs early in September, in order that the necessary steps may be 
taken for inaugurating the work as far as the appropriations for this 
year will allow, and the estimates made for another year. Detailed 
reports will be presented later in the fall. It is hoped that these 
reports, by two men so well qualified to judge of the situation, will 
enable the Department to institute station work in these new posses- 
sions on a basis which will secure the greatest direct benetit to their 
agriculture. 



NOTES ON HORSE FEEDING. 

E. Lavalari). 

Superinteiidi')it of Coiiffreiices <tt tJw Natloiuil Ai/roimmic Institute. 

For many years the writer has conducted investigations on the feed- 
ing- of horses for the Compar/nie generale des omnihuH de Paris^ with 
the object of establishing a rational basis for the feeding of horses 
under different conditions of work. The investigations have covered 
.saddle horses and light draft horses traveling at a rapid gait, horses 
hauling light loads, and finally heavy draft horses hauling heav}' loads 
at a slow pace. Some years since, the author's earlier work along 
these lines was included in a treatise on horse feeding.^ 

Ill these notes no attempt will be made to discuss the principles 
which regulate the nutrition of horses. This suljject has been well 
treated b}- Chauveau and his pupil Laulanie; by Duclaux, director of 
the Pasteur Institute; by A. Gautier, and others in France; and by 
von Mering, Zuiitz, and Wolff, in Germany. All who are interested 
in investigations on horse feeding are familiar with the experiments 
of Boussingault; of Baudement, on the horses of the Versailles garri- 
son; of Hoft'meister at the experiment station of Weende, and of E. 
Wolff, W. Finke. and O. Kellner; and also with the late experiments 
made in France ])y Grandeau and Leclerc for the Compagnie genera- 
ale des petites voitures^ and those undertaken by the author for the 
Cornjxignie generale des omirihuH de Paris^ with the cooperation of 
A. Miintz,- director of the laboratories of the National Agronomic 
Institute. The special purpose of the present paper is to discuss the 
practical side of horse feeding, especially the methods employed to 
maintain, in a satisfactory state of efficiency and health, horses which 
are required for any definite kind of work — methods which the author 
has tested repeatedly with army horses and others. No reference can 
be made to the analytical side of these investigations.'' 

*Le Cheval. Dans ses Rapports avec I'Economie Rurale et les Industries de Trans- 
port. 2 vols. Paris: Firniin-Didot et Cie. Some of the author's recent work is 
summarized in C'ompt. Rend. Congres Hoc. Aliment. Rat. Retail, 1 (1897), p. 60. 

'^ The greater part of the recent investigations on feeding of horses has been noted 
in tlie volumes of the Experiment Station Record. The earlier work in which a 
Ijalance of income and outgo was made is summarized in Ottice of Experiment Sta- 
tions Bui. 45. 

^ For details of this phase of the investigation see articles by Miintz, Ann. Inst. 
Nat. Agron., 1877-78, No. 2, p. 51; 1878-79, No. 3, p. 23; No. 4, p. 75; 1879-80, No. 
5, p. 195; 1883-84, No. 9, p. 71. 
4 



HORSE FEEDING. 5 

MEASUREMENT OF THE WORK PERFORMED BY HORSES. 

The chief aim in horse-feeding experiments is to learn the amount 
of nutrients which the animal body, considered as a machine, requires 
for work. This requires an estimate or measurement of the amount 
of work performed. Such measurements in the case of draft horses 
can readily be made with a dynamometer. The measurement of the 
energy expended by a saddle horse, however, is a different matter. In 
the opinion of cavalry officers who have studied this question, meas- 
uring the distance covered and the rate of speed is practically the only 
method available. According to Marcy, who has devoted considerable 
attention to the subject, the work accomplished in a given time is pro- 
portionate to the square of the velocity. His coefficients were 3.42 
for walking or pacing, 10 for trotting, 28.62 for cantering, and 68.39 
for a full gallop. That is to say, -ii times as much work is performed 
when trotting as when walking. If times as much when cantering as 
when trotting, and 2^ times as much when on a full gallop as on an 
ordinary gallop or canter. These are only general statements, and it 
is impossible as yet to calculate the actual energy expended by saddle 
horses carrying their riders at different gaits. 

It has been suggested that it may l)e possible to gain an idea of the 
energy expended by noting the number of pulsations of the flank, 
which has been found to vary with the gait and with the grade and 
character of the surface passed over. It is evident that in the case of 
saddle horses, useful work depends largel}' upon the speed, since the 
quantity of work of which the animal is capable diminishes with 
increased speed. In the same way it has been found with draft horses 
that the period for which work can be continued diminishes as the 
speed increases. The conditions under which the work is done are also 
of importance. External temperature may be mentioned, as well as 
the conditions of the surface traveled over, the skill of the driver, the 
methods of harnessing, and the load which must be drawn. Poncelet 
estimates that a horse carrying a weight of 120 kg. and traveling at a 
speed of 1.1 meters per second for 10 hours per day performs 4,752,000 
kilogrammeters of work. When the weight borne equals 80 kg., the 
same horse trotting at the rate of 2.2 meters per second for 7 hours 
per day performs 4,435,000 kilogrammeters of work. 

Ellenberger estimates that the Prussian cavalry horse performs 
1,500,000 kilogrammeters of useful work daily during the winter 
«nonths, when less is required of horses than at other seasons. In the 
spring and summer the preparation for the military maneuvers 
increases this quantity 200,000 kilogrammeters daih\ According to 
the same author, when a horse travels from 24 to 34 kilometers per 
day and carries a load of 110 to 125 kg., the energy expended is equiv- 
alent to from 300,000 to 500,000 kilogrammeters of work. These 



6 



EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD, 



values are naturally still further in('r(>as('<l duriuo- the military maneu- 
vers. Poncelet's liuures are almost the same as Ellenl)erger\s. 

In order to determine the distance traveled, the data furnished by 
Colin are used. A saddle horse walking a kilometer in 10 minutes 
travels at a speed of 1.66 meters per second. Trotting a kilometer in 
■li minutes, an average speed in the opinion of cavalry officers, he 
travels 3.02 meters per second. Colin found that the average speed 
of a trotting horse was 2.72 meters per second. The first value must 
refer to a full gallop, and the latter value seems to be a fairer estimate. 
Using this and following Poncelet's method, the amount of work per- 
formed l)y a horse in a day is expressed by the following formula: 
P X V X T = PVT kilogrammeters, in which V = mean velocity in 
meters, P = mean exertion in kilograms, and T = time. Of course 
these values necessarily have limits. Thus the limit for T is estimated 
by Poncelet at 18 hours; that for P, 3 to 5 times that which produces 
a maximum of etfectiveness, and V at 12 to 15 times the velocity best 
suited to the production of work with the horse under consideration. 
These values are worth noting, but can not be accepted as final, and 
there is much disagreement concerning the proper values. It is, how- 
ever, generally admitted that T is diminished in proportion as P X V 
is increased. Race horses furnish a striking illustration of this. 
Applying the above values to the arm}^ horse, which travels more 
regularly than the others, and assuming that the average rider weighs 
approximate!}^ 80 kg. without a pack and weighs 120 kg. with, the 
calculated amount of work performed would be as follows: 

Work performed daily by an army horse. 



Weight 
carried. 



Velocity 

per 
second. 



Work 
per sec- 
ond. 



Sdr'«f^-°^kat 
work different 
^^^'^- gaits. 



Total daily 
work. 



Ordinary work: 

Walking , 

Trotting 

Road work: 

Walking 

Trotting 

Military maneuvers 

Walking , 

Trotting 



A7/. 



T20 
120 



Meters. 
1.66 
2.75 

1.66 
2.75 

1.66 
2.75 



Kgm. 
132.8 
216. 

199.2 
322. 

149.4 
247.5 



Hrs. Mill. 
2 30 
1 30 



Kgm. 
1, 195, 200 
1, 166, 400 

1,074,000 
1,792,800 

1,072,800 
2, 667, 600 



Kgm. 
2,361,000 



807,400 



I 3,740,^ 



It will be seen that using Poncelet's formula we do not obtain his 
values, namely, 4.752,000 kilogrammeters for a horse walking 10 
hours, carrying a load of 120 kg., and ■1,435,000 kilogrammeters for a 
horse carrying a load of 80 kg. and trotting 7 hours. 

The values noted above undoubtedly show something of the labor 
expended, but are far less exact than results o])tained with a dyna- 
mometer. With artillery horses and those in the train, the prol)lem 
becomes much more complicated, since these horses draw a load and 



HOKSE FEEDING. 7 

also cany a rider. Further, the traction is not performed under the 
.same conditions as with ordinary vehicles. The artillery horse travels 
over such varied surfaces that the rate of speed can not be calculated 
even approximately. According to some of the writer's experiments, 
the coefficient of speed of gun carriages and caissons is 2 per cent on 
roads, 6 to 8 per cent on fallow lands, and 12 per cent on wet, plowed 
fields. 

In view of these difficulties, it is evident that the only means of 
obtaining at all satisfactory results is to estimate the load carried and 
hauled per horse over the total distance. The writer's observations 
on this subject were made with 16,000 horses of the (JomjKignie gen- 
erale des oiiDilhas de Paris^ 17,000 army horses, and about 1,000 
horses used for hauling heavy wagons. The experiments have 
extended over a number of years. The horses of the Ooinjjagiiie 
generate des omnibtis were of nearly uniform size and weight. Those 
in the army differed in size and weight. In all these tests the weight 
of the horse has been relied upon as showing whether the ration was 
satisfactory for the work performed. 

The 20,000 or 30,000 horses experimented upon were maintained in 
good condition, and performed the required work without any notice- 
al)le loss of weight, and further the horses still possessed great reserve 
energy. The numerous weighings which have been made in the 
progress of these investigations have enabled the author to determine 
(juite accurately what should be the weight of a good horse in perfect 
health under various conditions of work or rest, taking into account, 
of course, age and size. In the present paper it is necessary to omit 
details, but the table below shows the average weights of different 
kinds of horses in our experiments: 

Average weight of horses. 

Kilograms. 

Heavy draft horses 700-800 

Light draft horses 500-600 

Fancy horses, reserve cavah-y horses, and horses of the hne. . . 450-510 

Carriage horses and Ught cavalry horses 380-400 

Artillery and train horses 480-495 

Mules 430 

It is on the basis of such data that the rations have been varied, 
according as the horses gained or lost weight. 

FOOD REQUIREMENTS OF HORSES. 

In connection with the experiments a large luunber of analyses 
have been made of food, urine, and feces, and the coefficients of 
digestibility of many feeding stuffs were determined. The object of 
our experiments has l)een to determine the quantity of protein, fat, 
carbohydrates, and mineral matter necessary for maintaining a horse 



8 



EXPEEIMENT STATION RECORD. 



of any given woight wlu'u no work was required except that for 
motion of forward prouressioii. and also when work was performed. 
It was also necessary to measure the amount of work as accurately as 
possible. 

It is interesting to note that as shown by the experiments the longer 
the period of proper feeding the more satisfactory the production of 
work. This explains whj^ it is better to depend on rations which build 
up the body and put the animal in good training, rather than on those 
fed at the time when the work nuist be performed. In connection 
with the investigation of army horses attention has frequently been 
called to the false economy practiced during periods when the horses 
had little work to do. 

As a result of our investigations, we conclude that a horse perform- 
ing ordinar}^ work requires 115 gm. of digestible protein and 1,100 
gm. of digestible carbohydrates per 100 kg. live weight. When 
severe work is performed, as during military maneuvers, marching, 
or in time of actual war, the protein should be increased to 135 gm., 
the carbohydrates remaining the same. In arriving at this deduction 
it has been necessary to proceed slowl}^ and make many tests, for the 
figures given by Boussingault, Baudement, and Wolfi' did not furnish 
sufficient data for calculating the necessary standard rations. On the 
other hand, the rations finally adopted do not differ very greatly from 
those which have been suggested bj' experience. It is not surprising 
that the published statement of the results of our latest investigations 
differ somewhat from those conducted in 1888, since experimental and 
analytical methods have been greatly improved, and in all the later 
calculations digestible nutrients only have been considered. 

If the weight of the horse and the chemical composition and digesti- 
l)ility of the feeding stuff's are known it is an easj^ matter to compute 
standard rations. The following table, showing the maintenance ration 
foi" army horses and mules, is an illustration of such calculations: 

Mainlcnanrc nilioii for (iniiy liorses <tud nudes. 



Cavalry horses, reserve 

Cavalry horses, line 

Light cavalry horses 

Horses of artillery and train 
Mules 



Peace footing. 



Oats. Hay. 



War footing. 



0at,s 



Cframs. 
.5.900 

5, 200 
■1,700 
5,(500 
4,900 



Grams. 
4,000 
3, .500 
3,000 
3,850 
3,400 



Hay. 



Grams. Ch'ams. 
6,670 I 4,000 



6, MO 
5, 335 
6,440 



3,500 
3,000 
3,850 



The calculation w'as found (>ven more satisfactory with h(\i\v draft 
horses, since the weight of individual horses differs less from the average 
weight than in the case of the smaller animals. For instance, a dray 
horse weighing about TOO kg. Avould rtnpiire, for ordinary work, 805 
gm. digestible protein on the basis of 115 gm. per 100 kg. of live 



HOKSE FEEDING. 9 

weight, or '.♦45 oiii. for inorc severe svork on a l)!i,sis of 135 gin. })(M- 
100 kg. live weight. The same amount of earbohydrates woukl be 
required in both cases. At the rate of 1,100 gm. digestibk^ earbo 
hydrates per 100 kg. of live weight the necessar}^ amount would l)e 
7,700 gm. The amounts of protein and carbohydrates called for in 
these two cases would require 9 to 9,5 kg. of oats and 5 kg. of hay. 
No account is taken of the straw supplied for bedding, though the 
little that would be eaten would, of course, supply a small amount of 
nutrients. The digesti])l(> protein and carbohydrates in 9 kg. of oats 
and 5 kg, of hay is shown in the following ta])le: 

Digestible hutrientx in a r<tHon af uaix (dkI hay. 



Oats (9 kg.) 
Hay (5 kg.) 



Total. 



Digestible 
protein. 



Grams. 
675 
210 



Digestible 

carbo- 
hydrates. 



Crrams. 
5, 780 
2, 2C)8 



As has been stated, one of the principal objects of our investigation 
has been to establish the ration of grain and coarse fodder on the basis 
of the amount of work required. The owners of post horses in early 
times increased the ration of oats whenever the relay's were less 
frequent, and hence the distance traveled was greater than usual. 
While such changes were empirical, it may be said that in general all 
the post horses used on the mail and stage coaches before the opening 
of railroads were fed rations proportionate to the amount of work 
required of them. It was found necessary to allow these horses to 
rest at intervals, not on account of the ration fed, but from the fact 
that they were usually driven beyond their normal speed. A possible 
reason for this may have been that they were not as highlj^ bred as 
draft horses of the present time. During these periods of rest the 
horses were worked on farms at a slow gait. No scientific estimate 
had been made of the work expended in hauling a heavy stage or mail 
coach at a rapid gait. 

The difficulties in the way of accurately estimating the WT)rk per- 
formed l)y horses constitute the chief reason why we adopted the plan 
of proportioning the amount of nutrients fed to the w'eight of the 
animal. If the weight diminishes it is because the food supplied is 
not sufficient for the energ}^ expended. It was stated above that the 
weight of large horses of uniform size was less variable than that of 
3mall horses. In 1851 Baudement noted that the largest and heaviest 
horses apparently derived the greatest benefit from a uniform ration. 
According to his explanation this was not because they made better use 
of a uniform ration than smaller horses, but because their losses in 



10 EXPEKIMENT STATION RECORD. 

weight wore actiuiUy less in propcjrtion to their size. The physiolog- 
ical reason for this. Baudeinent believed, is that large horses, other 
things being equal, aetuall}' change in weight less readil)' than small 
horses, since the organs of secretion and the surface area (which serves 
for the radiation of heat) do not vary regularly in proportion to size, 
but are relatively larger in animals of small size, and do not perform 
their functions as economically in small as in large animals. The 
writer's observations have led to the same conclusions. This theor}^ 
shows why somewhat larger amounts of protein and carbohydrates 
are considered necessar}^ per 100 kg. live weight with small horses 
than with large ones, and also wh\^ small animals are often given 
rations especialh^ rich in protein. 

Although the standard rations suggested are based on a very large 
number of estimates, they should be considered the minimum amounts 
which will keep horses in condition and prevent premature wearing 
out. Chardin, an army veterinarian and the author of a recent work 
on army horses,^ gives estimates which are smaller than ours. They 
are in effect as follows: It is probable that the average daily work 
performed by army horses is about 700,000 kilogrammeters. Accord- 
ing to the investigations of A. Sanson, 1 kg. of protein combined, as 
it should be in a satisfactory ration, with 5 to 6.5 kg. of carboh^-drates, 
would supply 1,600,000 kilogrammeters of energy; hence 700,000 
kilogrammeters would require the consumption of -137.5 gm. of protein. 
Oats contain on an average 12 per cent of protein. Therefore 3,645 
gm. of oats would be required in order to furnish the necessary 437.5 
gm. of protein. As a general rule, the rations of French army horses 
contain about 800 gm. in excess of this amount, as is shown by the 
official statistics published by the French Government in 1887. On 
the other hand, the quantity of hay supplied is about 2 kg., or one- 
third less than it should be. It must be remembered that so far only 
external work has been considered. The internal muscular work must 
also be provided for. The surplus amount of oats mentioned serves 
for this but is not quite sufficient, and the deficiency is made up by the 
straw consumed. This also serves a useful purpose in another way. 
It increases the bulk of the ration. It is not certain, however, that 
sufficient straw is consumed. 

This summary shows the difficulties of the problem under considera- 
tion. It is the writer's opinion that his values are more nearly pro- 
portional to the actual requirements than those of Chardin. 

Turning to the investigations which have been made on this subject 
in Germany, we find that Ellcnberger's researches led to an increase in 
the grain ration supplied to the army horse. The author recently had 
the opportunity of personally becoming familiar with the investiga- 

^ Hygiene du cheval de guerre. Paris: Asselin & Houzeau, 1898. 



HOKSE FEEDING. 11 

tions of Zttiitz and Lehmanu (E. S. R., 7, p. 545). In experiments 
with the light cavalry horses of the German army (estimated to weigh, 
on an average, 450 kg.) these investigators arrived at results identical 
with those obtained in our experiments with horses of the line. The 
principal object of Zuntz and Lehmann's investigations, which were 
made with horses at rest and performing muscular work, was the 
determination of the amount of oxygen consumed and carbon dioxid 
produced in a unit of time, /. t., the respiratory quotient. In their 
calculations these authors have assumed that in general cavahy horses 
perform tAvo-thirds of their work trotting and one-third walking, and 
that in ordinary weather the ground passed over is fairl}- even, firm, 
and springy. They divide the year into three periods: The first of 
150 da3's of work and 31 of rest, the second of 05 da3's of work and 29 
of rest, and the third of 67 days of work and 23 of rest. The first 
period corresponds to the winter season, during which the horses travel 
on an average a))out 15 kilometers per day; the second to a period 
devoted to drilling, during which they travel about 80 kilometers per 
day; and the third period to the time of the militar}' maneuvers, when 
they travel about 60 kilometers per day. The corresponding amoiuits 
of work are calculated on the supposition that in the first period the 
horses each carry a weight of 82 kg. ; in the second, of 90 kg. ; and in the 
third, of 110 kg. Zuntz and Lehmann compared the rations supplied 
in the German army with the work required in the third period, and 
came to the conclusion that they were quite insufficient. The}^ believe 
that in order to make good the loss entailed by this work, 1,718 gm. 
of oats should be added to the daily ration, which at present consists 
of 5,100 gm., and that it Avould be profitable to make this addition 
throughout the entire year and not simply during the time of the 
maneuvers. 

It is interesting to note that these German scientists, using labora- 
tory methods, obtained practicall}" the same results as the author with 
experiments of a difi'erent character, but made upon a very large 
number of horses. 

PKErARATION OF FEED FOR HORSES. 

Some of our recent experiments hav(^ had to do with the methods 
of feeding. They covqr a number of points. The first and perhaps 
the most important is the advantage of cleaning the grain. Grandeau 
showed in his experiments at the laV)oratory of the Oniipagnie 
generaJe des t)oiturej<. that oats could ])e satisfactorily freed of foreign 
grains and impurities by some of the well-known screening devices. 
He studied the composition of the impurities, and found that some 
of them were injurious to the health of horses. 

The importance of proper cleaning is illustrated by a point in our 
own experience. A few years ago, after a very severe drought, we 
8809— No. 1 2 



12 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

were compelled to feed outs containing tares and leguminous seeds, 
some of which were those of species of Lath yrus. Symptoms of Lathy- 
rus poisoning were noted in a number of horses. The attacks Avere 
frequentl}'^ severe and sometimes fatal. When the oats were properly 
cleaned this trouble was entirely obviated. Cleaning also increases the 
density of the oats ])y removing mineral matter and dust, which ma}' 
sometimes induce attacks of intestinal obstruction, colic, etc. 

Contrary to the opinion of some experts, the writer believes it is 
not necessary to grind grain for horses. This is especially true in the 
case of oats. It does not appear that the advantages gained by grind- 
ing are siifhcient to cover the cost of the operation. In some of our 
earlier experiments, where ground grain was fed, it was noticed after 
a few months that the horses preferred to crush it themselves. Of 
course this does not refer to old horges. They can be fed ground 
grain to advantage. 

For the past four or live years we have chopped coarse fodders, 
using a ration of equal parts of hay and straw, and have found this 
practice the most profitable for several reasons: Straw may thus be 
made to form an integral part of the ration, and the proportion of hav 
and straw may be accuratel}' regulated. Furthermor(% horses waste 
nnich less of such fodder, especially if some material other than straw 
is used for bedding. Experiments are now in progress under the 
author's direction with whole and chopped fodders, to study the com- 
parative cost, the most favorable conditions, and the nutritive value 
of chopped fodder. As yet somewhat contradictory results have been 
obtained and the experiments must be continued l)efore definite con- 
clusions can be drawn. It ma}' be said with certainty, however, that 
the feeding of chopped fodder has brought about a considerable sav- 
ing and permitted greater uniformity than was previously the case in 
our experiments. 

GRAIN FEED FOR HORSES. 

In all that has been said above only oats, hay, and straw have been 
considered, and there are many who maintain that a ration nuist be 
made of these articles, especially for army horses. In Europe this 
prejudice is deep seated. Even if other grains are used for draft 
horses, oats are regarded as indispensable for saddle horses, carriage 
horses, etc. Of course in America corn is abundant and ideas and 
practice concerning its use are different from those which i)revail in 
Europe. 

Many analyses, made in connection witli our investigations extend- 
ing over 30 years, have shown that native French oats and foreign 
oats, with few exceptions, contain about 10 per cent of protein and 
this value is used in all our calculations. Smaller variations have been 
observed in the fat and carbohydrate content of oats, and 4.7 per cent 



HORSE FEEDING. 13 

represents about the averaji'e for fats and ♦>!> per cent foi- tho carbo- 
hydrates (including- celhilose). 

The Avriter will endeavor to show that it is i)()ssi))le to substitute 
other o-rains for oats and at the same time maintain horses of all kinds 
in proper condition. 

It is frequently said that oats contain a stimulating principle, which 
has been given the name "avenine," and the energy which race horses 
manifest has been attributed to this. We do not believe in this theory, 
and our attempts to discover this body have been fruitless. 

The oat kernel is surrounded by a tough hull, and owing to its 
physical condition is, weight for weight, less nutritious than other 
grains. The oat hull constitutes from 26 to 30 per cent of the total 
weight of the grain, and is not very digestible or nutritious. A proof 
of this is the fact that hulls are almost always recovered whole in the 
feces. In the digestion experiments published in full in a previous 
article, the weight of the hulls is noted, and it appears that only about 
two-thirds of the total weight of the oats is digested. 

Formerly other grains were seldom substituted for oats, especially 
in France, except when oats were very high in price. To-day such 
sul)stitutions are much more common. 

Not onlv may single grains and other single foods be substituted for 
oats, Init more or less complex mixtures may be used as well. We 
believe that both from a hygienic and an economic standpoint our 
experiments have settled this matter, which has provoked so much 
discussion. An examination of the statistics we have gathered in the 
last 35 years shows that although a great saving has l>een effected, it 
has not been at the expense of the productive power of the horses. 
The Germans have also begun to substitute diflerent feeding stuffs 
for oats, and in some cases they have gone so far as to use mixtures 
of peat and molasses. 

Boussingault was perhaps the lirst to suggest the idea of su])stitut- 
ing other materials for oats in the ration of farm horses. With this 
end in view he devised a table of nutritive equivalents, using hay as 
a unit. However, since the composition of hay varies within such 
wide limits, this method is hardly practicable. More recently tables 
showing the average composition of feeding stuff's have been provided 
from which the amounts of protein and carbohydrates in any given 
ration can be calculated. Analyses of the locally grown feeding stuffs 
are considered preferable. Other materials should be substituted for 
hay or oats on the basis of their composition, otherwise too much 
protein may be given, with injurious results, as, for instance, when 
alfalfa is substituted for ordinary hay, pound for pound. 

The principal substitutes for oats are Indian corn or maize, barle}^ 
horse beans or other beans, rye, and wheat. The special characters 
of each deserve some attention. 



14 EXFEKIMENT STATION RECORD. 

Indian corn. — Our tirst pxporiinents in this lino were made with 
Indian corn. The}^ were undertaken with all Icinds of horse.s and 
gave most satisfactory results. The Comjmgnie generale des voitures 
and the Compagnie generale des omnlhus began about 1870 to feed 
Indian corn, and the results Avere so satisfactory^ that since that time 
the first-named company has almost entirely ceased to feed oats. The 
latter company has continued to feed both oats and corn, effecting a 
saving of from 1,000,000 to 1,500,000 francs per year. In view of 
these facts the opponents of corn have been forced to admit that it is 
a suitable feed for draft horses. They have insisted, however, that 
sijice it does not contain the so-called stimulating principle "avenine" 
it should not be used for saddle horses and others where speed is 
required. Examples of the successful use of corn were cited in the 
author's earlier pu))lications. The horses of the French expedition 
in Mexico were fed exclusively on corn. Our recent experiments on 
cavalry and artiller}^ horses have shown that Indian corn maj' gener- 
ally replace oats without in any way causing the horses to deteriorate. 
The horses fed the corn ration were used the same number of hours 
in the military drill and in the maneuvers, and were ridden at the 
same gait as those fed exclusively on oats, and it was practically^ 
impossible to perceive the least difference between the two classes. 
The arm}" officers, prejudiced as they naturally were, were forced to 
admit that all the horses showed the same energy and vigor. A care- 
ful record showed that the sickness and mortality were the same with 
horses on the two rations. 

Corn and oats are quite similar in composition. In experiments 
made at the laboratory of the Compagnie generale des omnibus in 
cooperation with Miintz the author found very high coefficients of 
digestibility for corn, as shown by the following results: Protein 
86.1, fat 93.9, sugar and starch 100, crude fiber 82.8, saccharifiable 
fiber 86.9, undetermined substances 85.2 per cent. These coefficients 
show that the nutritive ingredients of corn are much more assimilable 
than has been generally believed in Europe. As regards physical 
character, oats contain on an average TO to 75 per cent of kernel and 
25 to 80 per cent of indigestible hull, which resembles straw in com- 
position. The skin or hull of maize amounts to practicality nothing. 
These facts show why horses thrive better and are more apt to main- 
tain their weight on corn than on oats. Our recent experiments have 
(hnnonstrated that corn can r(>pluce oats in the ration of both cavalry 
and artillery horses, and if substituted weight for weight it increases 
the nutritive value of the ration. This is the same deduction which 
was drawn from the experiments, now more than 25 j^ears old, made 
for the two great cab companies of Paris. 

Barley. — Although it is well known that barley can replace oats and 
indeed is a staple feeding stuff for horses in Italy, Algeria, Spain, and 
other countries where oats can not be raised profitably, experiments 



HORSE FEEDING. 15 

were undertaken in the hibonitoi-y of t\w ('oiiiiHKjnie (/enerah' dex 
omnihuK, and espeeiiUly in connection with the investioation.s conducted 
with army horses, to study the circinnstances under which the substi- 
tution can best bo made. It hasl)ccn ot't(Mi asserted that l)arh\y is not 
as rich in protein as other cei-eal g-rains. Our most recent analyses 
seem to establish this fact. However, l)arley is one of the j^-rains whose 
composition is very variable, being noticeably influenced by the system 
of cultivation followed. 

For ^0 years we have been feeding barley to horses. In the experi- 
ments with saddle horses and draft horses we use the following- values 
as representing the average composition of barley : Water 12. 93, protein 
8.83^ fat 1.43, carbohydrates 73.06, and ash 3. 1 per cent. Certain kinds 
of barlev of good quality showed on analysis from 9.37 to 11.87 per cent 
of protein. The coefficient of digestibility of the protein of French 
barley is 80.13, of African 71.07. The coefficient of digestibility of 
carbohydrates of French barley is 66.2-1, of African 62.14. The gen- 
eral practice is to substitute Imrlej^ for oats, weight for weight. In 
our experiments we followed this custom, but soon observed that the 
horses fed ])arley lost weight. It was therefore necessary to increase 
the quantity of barley in order to supply the same amount of protein 
and carbohydrates as in the oat ration. When this change was made, 
the horses regained and preserved the same physical condition as those 
fed oats. In general it ma}^ l)e said that only barley of good quality 
should be fed. The barley bran is very tough, and we have noticed 
that when barley of poor quality is fed the feces contain as much as 
4.2 per cent of undigested material, while the feces of horses fed ])arley 
of good quality contain scarcely any undigested grain. 

In conclusion, barley can replace oats, l)uta slightly greater amount 
must be fed. This is especially true when rations are calculated as 
closely as is the case with army horses. 

Ilorae heans and other leans. — The experiments made many years 
ago for the Paris cab companies warrant the statement that when 
beans replace oats only half the quantity should be used. Tests made 
with army horses have coniirmed this conclusion. The chemical com- 
position of beans shows why they are regarded as more nutritious 
than oats alone. Beans may be advantageously fed to horses required 
to perform long continued, sudden, or severe labor. The opinion is 
prevalent in England that in hunting it is always possible to recognize 
horses fed beans b}^ their great endurance. In accord with the practice 
of the leading racing stables, we used a large proportion of beans in 
the ration of young horses which were being trained. The results 
obtained were most satisfactory. 

As shown by our numerous analyses, beans have the following aver- 
age percentage composition: Water 18.07, protein 24.44, fat 1.06, nit- 
rogeu-free extract 48.20, ci'ude fiber 6.0.5, and ash 2.7. The average 



16 EXPERIMENT STATION EECORD. 

coefficient of digestibility of protein of beans was found to be 89.8 
and of the extractives, cellulose, and fat, taken tooether, 73.3 per cent. 

In our experiments with draft horses and saddle horses, we have not 
replaced more than 1 to 2 kg. of oats l)y an amount of beans supplying 
an equivalent amount of digestible protein and carbohydrates. It 
should be said that when beans replace oats there is usuall}^ an excess 
of protein and a deficiency of car}>ohydrates. This furnishes a reason 
for the common pi'actice of adding straw or other coarse fodder con- 
taining little protein to such rations. 

Bye. — The Paris cab companies have always fed some rye, especially 
when this grain was cheap. We tested it also in experiments with 
army horses. Rye was substituted for oats, weight for weight, and 
the amount gradually increased until the horses maintained a constant 
weight. In tests with draft horses, greater latitude was possible in 
substituting rye for oats, weight for weight, since the ration is always 
sufficiently large to cover any discrepancies. The utmost precautions 
were taken to prevent the introduction of ergotized rye, which, as is 
well known, may cause serious disturbances. 

The average percentage composition of rye is: Water 14.5, protein 
9.90, fat 1.29, nitrogen-free extract 70.88, crude tiber 1.38, and ash 
1.95; the average coefficients of digestibility are: Protein 73.97, fat 
54.05, and nitrogen-free extract and crude liber together 75 per cent. 

Our experiments with rye have furnished less definite results than 
with other grains. We believe this is due to the fact that the value 
of rye is more influenced by the variation in composition of the grain 
and by individual peculiarities of the subject. In former times the 
feeders of post horses obtained contradictory results with tliis grain, 
which they usually attributed to the methods of feeding it. In some 
countries rye is fed cooked and this method proves entirely satisfactory. 
It is mixed with oats in the proportion of 1 of rye to 3 of oats, or when 
cooked, in the proportion of 1 to 3 or 1 to 2 Several j^ears ago we 
fed rye and oats to the horses of the Compagnie generate des omnibus 
in the proportion of 1 to 4, with entirely satisfactory results, and with 
an important saving in cost. 

Wheat. — Experiments were also made in which wheat was substi- 
tuted for part of the oats in the daily ration of horses. It is well 
known that such a mixture is fed by horse breeders when unusual 
service is required of the stallions. In view of the accidents which 
have been known to follow feeding wheat, we have taken the utmost 
precautions in our experiments. It may cause an irritation or itching 
of the skin so that the horses suffer greatly. This is similar to the 
effect produced by buckwheat. 

A complete surve,y of the subject of substituting other materials 
for oats in the ration of horses would necessitate the discussion of 
such concentrated feeds as bran, bade}' meal, carob beans, linseed 
cake, sesame cake, palm cake, cocoa cake, starch cake, maize cake, 



HOKSE FEEDING. 



17 



cakes from distillery refuse, and other commercial cakes. Our recent 
tests have added nothing to the deductions drawn from our earlier 
experiments with these nmterials. It may be positively stated, how- 
ever, that the chemical composition and digestibility of any of these 
feeding stuffs determines the proportion which may be substituted for 
oats, and that the composition and digestibility of all of them may vary 
within wide limits. Following the methods that we have used, we 
believe it is quite possible to devise successful rations for maintenance, 
transportation, and work. 

coarsp: fodders. 

Before closing it seems desirable to add a few words concerning the 
coarse fodders usually fed with the different grains. In discussing 
the standard ration it was explained that hay was the principal coarse 
fodder used, and that straw figured only in an incidental manner. 
The average composition of hay and straw as shown bv our analyses 
of samples grown in many regions of France is as follows: 

Average coinpofilHon of Frencli, Jiaij and draw. 





Water. 


Protein. 


Fat. 


Nitrogen- 
free 
extract. 


Crude 
fiber. 


Ash. 


Hay 


Per cent. 
12.8 
13.22 


Per cent. 
C.68 
2.86 


Per cent. 
1.51 
1.39 


Per cent. 
47.76 
41.88 


Per cent. 
24.76 
34.74 


Per cent. 
6 89 




6.20 







These coarse fodders may be replaced in the ration of horses by 
other fodder plants, such as alfalfa, sainfoin, red clover, etc. This 
statement is borne out by the recent experiments of Miintz and 
Girard^ made with the horses of the Ooivpag/i/e generale des voitures. 

The statement is often made that horses can not do without straw. 
This is an error, for we have fed horses hay and oats during very long 
periods and have never noticed that they suffered any inconvenience 
or detriment. This is a matter of importance, since it is often incon- 
venient to obtain straw, and in such cases peat, sawdust, sand, etc., 
may be profitably used as bedding in place of straw. 

Nothing has been said of the use of green fodders. Such feed, 
however, is more suited to special conditions and is very dependent 
upon the fertilizer used for the crop, the method of harvesting, and 
the condition of the animal fed. Green fodder does not contain suffi- 
cient nutritive material to make it in any real sense a feeding stuff for 
horses performing much work. The same may be said of certain 
plants which have been much advertised from time to time, such as 
furze, couch grass, etc. 

In an earlier publication the feeding value of carrots, parsnips, ruta- 
bagas, beetle and potatoes was discussed. The use of these materials 
has been attempted from time to time with varying success. 

'Ann. Agron., 24 (1898), p. 5. 



RECENT WORK IN AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE. 



CHEMISTRY. 



The volumetric determination of potash, 11. H. Adie and T. B. 

Wood {Proe. Chem. Soc. London, 16^ pj). 17, 18; ah.s. In Chem. Centhl.^ 
1900, /, Xo. 10, J)- -'''^S). — In the method proposed the potash is pre- 
cipitated 1\Y means of col)alt nitrite, the precipitate usually having the 
formula KgCo2(N02)io.3H20. The method is carried out as follows: 
The potash solution is freed as far as possible from other leases, acidi- 
fied with acetic acid, and an excess of sodium-colxdt nitrite is added. 
After 24 hours the precipitate is collected on an asbestus filter, washed 
with 10 per cent acetic acid, and final!}" with ^vater. The filter with 
the precipitate is then boiled in dilute soda solution, filtered, and dilu- 
ted to 100 cc. Twenty cubic centimeters of this solution is acidified 
with dilute sulphuric acid and immediate])^ titrated with permang-anate 
solution. It is reconnnended to add an excess of permang-anate and 
titrate l)a('k with potassium iodid and thiosulphate solution. 

A new reagent for detecting and estimating nitrites in water, 
H. Ekdmanx {Brr. I),„t. Chrin. GcxelL, .13 {1000), pp. iilO-;U5; 
Ztschr. Angew. Chem., 1900, No. 2, p. 33; abs. in Analyst, 26 {1900), 
Mar., pp. 81, 82; Bui. Soc. Ohiin. Paris, 3. ser., 2J^ {1900), No. 9, p. 
JfiS). — The reagent used is amidonaphtholdisul phonic acid (1:8: -l-C)), 
prepared by nitrating, reducing, and heating with sodium hydroxid 
the naphthalene trisulphonic acid recently described by the author.^ 
The method of procedure is as follows: Mix 60 cc. of the water with 
5 cc. of a hydrochloric-acid solution of sodium sulphanilate (2 gni. per 
liter), and after 10 minutes add 0.5 gm. of the amidonaphtholdisul- 
phonic acid in the form of its acid alkali-metal salt. In presence of 
nitrous acid a brilliant Bordeaux-red color appears, which attains its 
maximiun intensity in 1 hour. To determine the amount of nitrites 
present the color is compared with that produced l)y solution of 
sodium iiitrit(> of known strengtii or with a colored pa])(M' scale. 

Methods for the detection of " process " or " renovated " but- 
ter, W. H. Hkss and li. E. Doolittle {Jour. Aiiicr. Ohein. Soc, 
22 {1900), No. 3, pp. 150-152).— The methods employed consist of tests 
of the curd, which in the case of renovated l)utter is ditterent from 

iBer. Deut. Chem. Gesell., 32 (1899), p. 3186. 
18 



CHEMISTEY. 19 

that of normal 'huttor. These tests of the curd consist of the appear- 
ance of th(> batter on heating, the comparison of the separated curd 
freed from fat with the curd from normal l)utter, and tests for albu- 
min in the filtered butter. The ratio of casein to albumins may also 
be determined. In the process butter this has been found to be about 
8.6 pai'ts of casein to 1 of albumins. This ratio is determined in the 
curd which has been thoroughly freed from fat. For determining 
this ratio 50 giu. of butter is dissolved in ether to a clear solution, the 
ether solution of fat decanted as far as possible, and the remainder 
filtered tlirough a separatory funnel. The casein remaining on the 
filter is washed with water and (\stimated by the Kjeldahl method. 
The filtrate is macU' slightly acid with acetic acid, brought to a lK)il, 
and the albumins filtered out and estimated by the same method. 

"These tests serve to diflerentiate between genuine butter and proc- 
ess butter as it is now found on the market," 

A comparison of reagents for milk proteids ^vith some notes 
on the Kjeldahl method for nitrogen determination, A. \ ivian 
(Wisco/isin iSttf. Bpf. 1S99, j>p. 170-lSG). — A comparative study was 
made of a long list of reagents for separating the nitrogenous com- 
pounds of milk and their decomposition products into distinct groups. 
The following method of analysis was adopted and used in investiga- 
tions on the action of ferments on the proteids of milk: 

In preparing the extracts for analysis cheese was emulsified l)y rub- 
bing with warm water, acidified with acetic acid, and boiled. Milk 
was also acidified with acetic acid and boiled. The same quantities of 
the filtrates in each case were taken for the different reagents. Deter- 
minations were made of the total nitrogen and of the total soluble 
nitrogen (nitrogen not precipitated by acetic acid and heat). Por- 
tions of the extracts were treated with zinc sulphate, tannic acid and 
sodium chlorid, and phosphotungstic acid, and determinations were 
made of the nitrogen in the filtrates, the nitrogen in the precipitates 
l)eing calculated by difference. The nitrogen as ammonia was deter- 
mined by distilling with magnesium oxid. 

In designating the groups of proteids obtained by this method of 
analysis the following nomenclature was adopted: Nitrogen in insolu- 
ble portion (casein, globulin, and albumin — difference between total 
nitrogen and soluble nitrogen), nitrogen in albumoses (difference 
between nitrogen in filtrate from zinc sulphate and total soluble nitro- 
gen), nitrogen in peptones by tannin (difference between nitrogen in 
filtrates from tannic acid and sodium chlorid and from phosphotungstic 
acid), nitrogen in peptones by phosphotungstic acid (difference between 
nitrogen in filtrates from phosphotungstic acid and from tannic acid 
and sodium chlorid), nitrogen in amids (difference between nitrogen in 
filtrate from phosphotungstic acid and in ammonia), and nitrogen in 
ammonia. 



20 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

The distribution of nitrogen in a Cheddar cheese 6 months old was 
found b)' this method of analysis as follows: Insoluble portion 3.18, 
an)umoses 0.06, peptones by tannin O.K!, peptones by phosphotung-- 
stic acid 0.13, amids 0.86, and ammonia 0.01) per cent. 

The following notes are given on the Kjeldahl method as applied to 
milk and cheese: 

"(1) In determining the total nitrogen in milk or cheese it is necessary to boil with 
sulphuric acid a considerable time after the solution is clear, as it will otherwise 
froth badly when distilling. With 2 gm. of cheese 3 hours' digestion is none too 
long. 

"(2) In digesting the filtrates from milk in the methods described in this article, 
they must be watched closely, or they will froth badly when the water has nearly 
boiled off, and the flame must be turned very low for from a quarter to half an h(jur. 

"(3) The filtrate from zinc sulphate bumi^s during dige.stion with sulphuric acid 
until the water has been driven off. About half a gram of zinc dust added as the 
flasks are placed over the flame will prevent it. 

"(4) In the opinion of the writer, the use of potassium permanganate and potas- 
sium sulphid is unnecessary in nitrogen determinations m milk and cheese, and 
their use has for some time been abandoned. . . . 

"(5) [The use of potassium sulphate and mercury for digestion as recommended 
by Atterberg (E. S. R., 10, p. 605) was tested.] The writer made 50 determinations 
in which 10 gm. of potassium sulphate and 0.7 gm. of mercury were used in one of 
the duplicate samples, and the plain Kjeldahl, or Gunning, method in the other. 
In every case the employment of both reagents shortened the time of digestion from 
20 minutes to Ih hours, according to the substance used." 

Chemists' guide for the examination of foods, condiments, commercial 
products, etc., F. Elsnek (Die Praxii^ des Clu'iidkers bei Vnti'miicliuiuj con Xdhrungs- 
mitteln, Gmussmitteln and Gebrauchxyegenstdndeii, etc. Hainburg and Leipsic: Leopold 
Voi<s, 1900, fgK. 182). 

Phosphotung-stic acid as a reag'ent for potash, E. Worker {Ber. Deut. Farm. 
GeaelL, 10 {1899), pp. 4-0; nbs. in Chem. Centbl., 1900, I, No. 9, p. 517). — The use of 
a 10 per cent solution of commercial crystallized phosphotungstic acid is recom- 
mended for the detection of small amounts of potash. In neutral or acid solutions 
of potash salts this reagent produces a white precipitate. 

Substitutes for hydrochloric acid in testing carbonates, J. W. Rich.\rds and 
N. 8. PowELi. {.Tour. Aiuer. Clteut. Soc, 2 J {1900), No. ■), pp. 117-121). — Acid potas- 
sium sulphate, oxalic acid, citric acid, and tartaric acid were tried as substitutes for 
hydrochloric acid in ])roducing effervescence with natural carl)onates in the field. 
Tartaric acid was found to be the best of the reagents tried, and citric acid nearly as 
good, both giving satisfactory results. 

The volumetric determination of magnesia, J. 0. Handy {Jour. Amer. Chem. 
Soc, 22 {1900), No. 1, pp. 31-39). 

On the determination of carbon and hydrogen by combustion in oxygen, 
using copper oxid, C. F. M.\behy and W. R. Clymek {.Jour. Amer. CJiem. Hoc, 22 
{1900), No. 4, PP- 213-218). 

On the determination of ammonia and nitrogen, A. Villiers and E. Du.mes- 
NH. {Vinitpt. Rend. Arad. Scl. P(trh, 130 {1900), No. 9, pp. 573-576; Bui. Soc. CIrhn. 
Parh, 3. scr., 23 {1900), No. 7, pp. 253-256; abs. in Chem. Centbl. , 1900, I, No. 13, p. 
733). — The organic nitrogen is converted into ammonia and the ammonia expelled 
by boiling with alkali as in the Kjeldahl method. Instead of titrating to determine 
nitrogen, h(jwever, the acid solution is evaporated to dryness and the ammonium 
chlorid weighed. 



CHEMISTRY. 21 

On the detection of nitrous acid in water by means of amidonaplitholsul- 
phonic acid according to Erdmann, II. ]Mexxicke [ZLscIu: Aiujfw. Chein., 1900, pp. 
'235, '236; ahx. In ('hern. Centbl., 1900, I, No. 13, p. 733). — Tests are reported which 
indicate that ]'>(lmann's method (see above) is a delicate and rehable means of 
detectiuj,^ and determining nitrites in water. Some precautious to l>e observed in 
manipulatinii ai'e ex])lained. 

The value of methods for detecting nitrites in drinking water, L. {Spiegel 
{Ber. Deut. Cheni. Gesell., 33 {1900), pp. 639-644; aba. in Cheiii. Ztg., 24 {1900), No. 32, 
liepevt. , p. 113; Jour. Chem. Soc \_London'\ , 78 { 1900) , No. 450, II, p. 318) .—The author 
tested Erdmaim's method (see above) in comparison with various other methfxls 
for the same i)urpose and found it less sensitive than the potassium iodid starch 
inetliod (If tlic Lunge-Elosvay reagent. The author considers determinations of 
nitrites in drinking water as of little value, since the nitrites represent a transition 
stage and their determination may be misleading as to normal conditions. Their 
detection, however, may be of a negative value, and for this purpose the author rec- 
ommenils the use of guaiacol or creosote, which, in presence of nitrites in dilute solu- 
tion, give an orange and a yellow coloration respectively. These reactions are not 
interfered with by the presence of oxidizing agents, such as nitrates, chlorates, and 
hydrogen peroxid, or Ijy ferric salts in amounts usually met with inpotable. waters. 

On a simple method for determining phosphoric acid in connection w^ith 
metabolism experiments, A. Neumanx {Ardi. Anat. v. Plu/slol., Phiisial. Ahl., 1900, 
l>/>. 159-105; (lbs. in Chem. Centbl., 1900, I, No. 10, p. 571). 

Estimating the w^ater in cereals — practical methods, J. F. Hoffmann 
{]Vclin.'<rhr. Bnin., 16 (1899), jip. 569-574, 585-588, 605). 

The determination of the sugar content of molasses feeding stuffs, A. >1en- 
ZEi. {Di'iit. Znckeriad., 25 {1900), No. 14, pp. 552, 553). 

The preparation of a nonsugar from beet juice, A. Ri'mpleh {Dent. Znckerind., 
25 {1900), No. 15, pp. 592, 593). - 

A comparison of some formaldehyde tests, B. M. Pilhashv {Jonr. Ann'r. ('hem. 
Soc, 22 {1900), No. 3, pp. 132-135). — Several tests for small quantities were com- 
pared. Phenylhydrazin hydrochlorid seemed to be the best reagent. A solution of 
1 gm. of phenylhydrazin hydrochlorid with 1.5 gm. sodium acetate in 10 cc. of water 
was used. To 1 cc. of the liquid to be tested 2 drops of the reagent and 2 dro])S of 
sulphuric acid are added, giving a green coloration if formaldehyde is present. In 
weak solutions (1: 10,000 to 1 : 250,000) take 3 cc. of the liquid and 4 or 5 drops of the 
reagent and of sulphuric acid, heating if necessary. 

Tests for the strength of solutions of formaldehyde, H. A. Huston {Indiana 
Sia. Rpt. 1899, pp. 76, 77). — The formaldehyde content of 5 samples of commercial 
formalin was determined from the specific gravity and ])y the ammonia and the 
potassium cyanid methods. The results are tabulated. Brief notes are given on 
different methods of analysis. The table in Allen's Commercial Organic Analysis 
used in calculating the formaldehyde content from the specific gravity was not con- 
sidered appliral)le to the sanq)les examined. 

On Hubl's iodin method for oil analysis, A. H. Gili, and "\V. (). Adams {.Tone. 
Amer. Cliem. So<:, 22 {1900), No. 1, ]>p. 12-14). 

A new^ method for the determination of fat in dairy products, Lixdet { lud. 
Lait., 25 {1900), No. 23, pp. 177, 178, Jig. 1). — The method depends upon the solubilit}' 
of casein in a concentrated solution of resorcin. The sample of milk or cheese is treated 
with a strong solution of resorcin with the addition of a few drops of alkali. This is 
heated in a water bath until the separation of the fat is completed. The apparatus 
devised for the purpose consists in part of a graduated cylinder from which the 
reading for fat is taken. The addititm of some coloring matter for clearly differ- 
entiating the fat layer is recommended. 



22 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

Determination of the fat content of milk by the Wollny refractometer, 
Naitmann (Milch Zty., ,.'9 [I'JOO), Xox. 4, J'P- oO-oJ, Jiijs. 7; o, pp. 6G-/JS, Jiyx. 4; 6, pjt. 
84-86, jiijx. ..-*). — A description of the apparatus and necessary reagents and detailed 
dircctiniis for making the test. 

Reducing- power of taka-diastase, H. A. Huston and A. H. Bkyan {Ind'Ktiin 
,Sia. Rjit. 1899, p. 77). — "A sam{)le of taka-diastase . . . was examined by dissolving 
50 nig. of it in 50 cc. of water, adding 20 or. hydrochloric acid, sp. gr. 1.125, and 
boiling imder return condenser for 2 hours, iiy this nietliod it was found that 50 
mg. of taka-diastase reduced to cuprous oxid a (juantity of copper solution yielding 
17.2 nig. of metallic; copper." 

A new method of standardizing: weig-hts, T. W. Rich akds (Jour. A)nn-. Chnn. 
Soc, ;.-';.-' (J90(/), Xo. ^i, pp. 144-149). 

Regulations for the testing- of thermometers {Jmir. Amcr. i'luin. Soc, i!2 
(1900), -Vo. o, pp. I„n-lii9). 

BOTANY. 

The origin and early development of the flo^wers of the cherry, 
pluni, apple, and pear, E. S. (toff ( Wisconsin Sta. lipi. /.S'.W, 
pp. 289-303., Jigs. 23). — On account of the lack of siccurate knowlcdo-e 
as to the formation and early development of the flowers in fruit 
plants, the authoi" undertook an investig-ation to ascertain the time oi 
orioiii and the rate of ])rooTess in the flowers of 4 of the most common 
fi-uit trees, namely, the cherry, plum, a])ple, and pear. 

The methods of study are desci'ilx'd at some length. It appear.s 
lliat the earliest indications of flower in the cherr}' were in buds taken 
July 11. Tn the ])luni the Hower ])uds appeared as early as ^\\\\ S. 
in the :i])])h' the first clear e\'idence of flowers was found in ])uds 
taken fJiuie ;}(). and in the pear in buds taken July 21. 

The order of developiuent of the various parts of the Mower in dif- 
ferent fruits seems to be identical. The calvx and receptacle were 
the tii-st to appe^ir, ])eino- developed at about the same time. Next, 
the stamens and the petals Avere also formed at nearly the same time, 
and these were evidently developed as outgrowths from the calyx or 
from the receptacle. The last to appear was the pistil, and its de\'elop- 
ment was extremely slow. It was noted that the flowers commenced 
their growth at about the same time that the wood growth ceased. 
The l)earing of this fact upon the production of fruit ma}" be readily 
understood, since un al)undant fruit crop would exhaust the tree to 
such an extent that the preparation of flowers for the next season 
would be retarded. 

The morphology of the flower bud is described at some length. It 
Avas foiuid that an inule\('l<)ped l)ud scale subtends the flower just as 
the leaf subtends the bud; in other woi'ds. the tlowei' occupiers the 
])lace of a gfowing bnmcli in the axil of a bud scale. In the a])ple and 
j)ear the terminal flower of the flower bud- is most rapidly developed 
and expands first. The a])ple-flowei- elustei-, therefore, is a (^'iiie. In 



BOTANY. 28 

the plum iind chcrrv tho proxinuil ilowci- is developed slightly iii 
advance of the others, and the flower cluster in this case corresponds 
to the usual definition of a corvnib. 

Comparative hardiness of flo^ver buds in the cherry, E. S. Goff 
( Wiscons'iii Sta. Rpt. 1899^ JW- ^83-288^ figs. i3). — A rather protracted 
cold period occurred in P^ebruary, 1899, and on account of the low tem- 
perature the effect on flower buds of cherry trees was investigated with 
considerable interest. Early in April a large numlier of buds of each 
variety of cherry grown in the orchard were examined and several 
important facts brought out. It was found that the central flower 
buds contained a larger percentage of live cmbr3^o flowers than those 
near the ends of the })ranches, and the percentage of live embr3^o 
flowers increased as the number of flowers in the bud diminished. 
This was true ))oth on the same tree and in different varieties. But 
little difference was noted between the hardiness of the basal and 
terminal buds on the fruit spur. 

It is stated that windbreaks would doul)tl(\ss prevent the destruction 
of many flowers from the injurious efi'ects of prevailing winds in severe 
weather, and varieties of Morello species of cherrj^, in which the num- 
ber of em])ryo flowers in the flower ])ud is comparatively small, are 
more likely to prove hardy than those in which the number is com- 
parativelv large. 

Yello-w coloring matters accompanying chlorophyll and their 
spectroscopic relations, C A. Sciiunck (I'/vc. Roij. Sue. [Loii- 
d(m\, 65 {1899), No. UG.jyp. 177-185, pi. i).— The author reports on 
studies made of tho 3'ellow coloring matters which are extracted by 
means of alcohol along with the chlorophyll in healthy green leaves. 
He concludes that in all crude alcoholic extracts from healthy green 
leaves 2 yellow coloring matters accompany the chlorophyll; one, 
chrysophyll, which deposits out of the extracts on standing in lus- 
trous red cr^'stals, often in very small (piantity; the other obtained l)y 
treating the extract with animal charcoal, the charcoal taking up the 
chlorophyll and leaving the yellow solution, which deposits on spon- 
taneous evaporation an amorphous substance containing much fatty 
matter, to which the author has restricted the name xanthophyll. 
Another yt^low coloring matter is sometimes found along with xan- 
thophyll which gives no absorption bands, onl}^ an obscuration in 
the ultraviolet region of the spectrum being noticed. There is also 
evidence of still other coloring matters which have not yet been 
separated. 

The author believes that xanthophyll is the predominating yellow 
coloring matter accompanying chlorophyll in the healthy green leaf, 
and that it is identical with the principal yellow coloring matter occur- 
ring in autunm leaves. The absorption bands of the different color- 
ing matters are described at some length. 



24 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

American grasses — III, F. Lamson-Scribner f ('. S. Dept. Aijr., Divhion ofAgrox- 
iohxjii, Bui. 'JO, pj). 197, figa. 1.17). — Thin bulletin is in continuation of Bulletins 7 and 
17 (E. 8. R., 9, p. 327; 11, p. 219) of the Division. It contains descriptions of the 
tribes and genera of North American grasses, with analytical ke\\s. Each genus is 
illustrated and reference is made to all other species of the genus illustrated in the 
bulletins just referred to. A bibliography of all the authorities cited in the 3 bulle- 
tins has bet'u a<lded. 

Notes on useful plants of Mexico, J. N. Rose {U. S. Dcpl. A</r., Division of 
Hotaii;/, Cuiih-ihnliinm front llic l'. S. Xational Jlerharinm, vol. '>, Xo. ■'/, pp. 209-259, 
pis. 16). — The author records his observations relative to the utilization by the people 
of Mexico of a innnber of species of plants. 

Studies of Mexican and Central American plants — No. 2, J. N. Rose ( U. S. 
J)epl. A(j>:, lJicisio)i of BoUwij, Contributions from the U. S. National Herbarium, vol. 5, 
No. 4, pp. 145-200, pis. S, Jif/s. 30) . — Descriptions of new and notes on little-known 
species are given, together with a synopsis of the North American species of several 
groups. 

T-wo ne'w species of plants from the North-western United States, L. E. 
IIendkhson {('. S. Ikj/t. At/r., Dirision of Botain/, < 'nnlribiiliansfriini /lie f. S. National 
Herbarium, vol. 5, No. 4, pp. 201, 202, pi. 1). — Descriptions are gi\cii (if Aster latahen- 
sis and Anf/elica roseana. 

Hesperogenia, a new genus of XJmbelliferse from Mount Rainier, J. M. 
CoL'LTEK and J. N. Rose {V. !<. Dept. Agr., Division of Bolanij, (hntrihuf ions from the 
U. S. National Herbarium, vol. 5, No. 4, p- 203, pi. 1). — Descriptions are given of a 
new genus of Umbellifene, to which the specific name strirJdanfli is given the one 
species. 

Three new species of Tradescantia in the United States, J. N. Rose ( U. S. 
Dept. Agr., Dirision of Botami, (h)itributions frotn the U. /S'. Nati<j)inl Herbarium, vol. 5, 
No. 4, jip. :.'O4-206). — Tradescaittia humilis, T. gigantea, and T. scopnlorum are described. 

Treleasea, a new genus of Commelinacese, J. N. Rose {U. S. Dept. Agr., 
Divi.von <f Botany, Co)dributi<ms from the V. S. National Herbaritim, vol. 5, No. 4, pp- 
207, 208). — This new genus is separated out of some of the confused material grouped 
under Tradesrantia brerifoUa, and o species are described, Treleasea brerifolia, T. 
leiamlra, and T. tumida. 

List of trees and shrubs on the grounds of Purdue University ( IniHana Sta. 
Rpt. 1899, ]>]>. l.iP>-l.!9). 

New species of fungi from various localities with notes on some published 
species, J. B. Ellis and B. M. Evekhaht {Bid. Torrey Dot. Clnb, 27 {1900), No. 2, 
pp. 49-64). — Notes and descriptions on a number of species of fungi, some of which 
may prove of economic importance, though most are sa))ropliytes or upon plants of 
little importance from an economic stan(li)()iiit. 

The poisonous and edible fungi of Hungary, G. von Istvanffi {Die ungar- 
ixclicii essburiii und gifligcn Pilze. Biidajxxl, 1899, pp. 20-^ 361, pis. 42, figs. 150). 

The position of the fungi in the plant kingdom, II. L. Bolley {Cenibl. Bakt. 
u. Par., .i. Abt., .-, [1S99), No. 25, pp. <S'57-<SV>,9).— The author argues that if nitrifying 
organisms are capable of subsisting wholly on inorganic materials, in classification 
algji' should l)e derived from fungi and not vice versa by degeneration. 

Studies on the biology of Penicillium glaucum, F. P. Gueguen ( T exis, Lons- 
li-Saulnier, 1899, pj>. 83, pis. .5). 

The mechanism of root curvature, J. B. Pollock {Bot. Gaz., 29 {1900), No. 1, 
pp. 1-63, fig. 1). 

Observations on seasonal dimorphism among plants, Wettstein {Bot. Centbl., 
81{1900): No. 1, pp. 15, 16). 



METEOROLOGY CLIMATOLOGY, 25 

On the evolution of carbon and nitrogen in the living world, I\ Ma/.k 

{Enru.r: Hhif^i^cy, 1S99, pp. 111). 

Evaporation from the young wood of apple trees during winter, A. 
Tkuelle {Dc rcmporatioii dtijeune bow dcs pormniers a ridrc jtmiddut ritirer. A/ntrim: 
E. Renaut-de Broise, 1899, pp. U). 

METEOROLOGY— CLIMATOLOGY. 

Annual summary of meteorological observations in the United 
States, 1899 (^'. S. Dcpt. A(jr., Weather Bureau, Moaflihj Weaf],,r 
Eeview, 27 {1899), No. 13, m^. IX+ 577-597, figs. 5, charts J).— This 
number of the Review gives a table of contents, list of corrections, 
additions, and changes; an index for Volume 2T; and a sununary of 
observations on atmospheric pressure, temperature, precipitation, 
wind movement, cloudiness, and other meteorological phenomena 
"based essentialh" upon data received from about 150 regular stations 
[in the United States], 28 regular Canadian stations, and a number of 
voluntar}' stations." It also includes the following special articles: 
Remarkable aurora at Braidentown, Fla. , November, 1899, by H. Ten 
Broeck; Small seismic changes caused l)y building operations, by C. F. 
Marvin; Notes on the climate of Missouri, by A. E. Hackett; Clima- 
tology of St. Kitts, by W. H. Alexander (illus.); Rainfall in central 
and western Nicarauga, l\y E. Flint; Tables of dew-point obserxed at 
Honolulu, by C. J. Lyons; The weather and the live stock industry, 
by F. H. Brandenbiu'g; and The barograph on ship})()ard, ])\ J. Page 
(illus.), and a note b}^ the editor on the meteorological century. 

The general climatic conditions of the year 1899 were as follows: 

'^Atmo.^phrr(r pn-eK-mrc. — In general, the pressure distrilnition for the year 1.S99 dif- 
fers but slightly from that of 1898. Pressure was generally aV)ove the normal east of 
the Mississippi River in both years. It was markedly above the normal over Nova 
iScot.ia and the Maritime Provinces of Canada in 1898, and also in 1899, although in a 
less degree. In the latter year the Atlantic high, as traced by the isobar of 30.0.5 
mean annual pressure, extended several hundred miles farther to the northwestward 
than was the case in 1898. Pressure on the Pacific coast and Plateau region was 
slightly lower in 1899 than in 1898. 

"On the immediate Gulf coast of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama pressure was 
from 0.02 to 0.04 in. above normal in both years, while less than 200 miles inland, 
viz, at Vicksburg, Meridian, and Montgomery pressure was from 0.01 to 0.04 in. 
below normal. In both years pres.sure was also below normal from the Texas coast 
westward to Arizona and southern California. The rainfall of both years was like- 
wise less than the normal amount. In mentioning these facts the writer does not 
intend to convey the impression that they stand in the relation of cause and effect. 
The fact that there was an average difference of 0.07 in. in pressure between Vicksburg 
and New Orleans, 0.04 between Mobile and Montgomery, and the same amount 
between Atlanta and Jacksonville would seem to suggest rather marked changes in 
the normal air motions along the Gulf coast. 

"In the annual summary for 1898 attention was called to a trough of low pressure 
which apparently paralleled the foothills of the Rocky Mountains in that year. A 
similar trough appears on the pressure chart for the current year and the precijiita- 
tion generally throughout the axis of the trough was above normal as in 1898. 



26 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

'"Tf'iiijnndiirr. — Altlimiirli tlu' year was charai'tcri/A'd liy some of llic coldest 
-vvoather exi)erieiife(l witliiii the last 20 or :!0 years, tlie avera<,'e teiiiiieiature on the 
wliole was above noniial. 

" During the greater part of January there were no severe cold waves, lint, begin- 
ning with tlie first wi'ek in February, the most remarkable cold wave, or series of 
cold waves, in the history of the Weather Bureau traversed the United States from 
the North Pacific to the South Atlantic coasts, damaging crops and fruits in the 
Southern States to a very great extent. The lowest temperatures on record since the 
beginning of observations were recorded at a number of points in the North Pacific 
coast States during the first 8 days of the month. From the 9th to the 12th of tlie 
month the coldest weather on record was reported at a number of jjoints in tin; Cen- 
tral, Western, and Northwestern States. During the Kith and 14tli a cold wave 
overspread the Southern and Eastern States, attended on the 13th liy tlie lowest 
teniperatures ever recorded at many points in the Southern and Gulf States. March 
was a cold, wintry month, and the spring was generally backward, with much snow 
and nnseasonal)le weather east of the Rocky INIountains. 

"In Idaho, ^Montana, and Wyoming, the western portions of the Dakotiis, and 
Nebraska temperature was T)elow normal for 4 (•onsecutive months, vi/, during Felj- 
ruary, March, April, and May, and also, but in a less degree, during the months of 
June, July, August, October, and December. 

"The summer was marked by an absence of periods of continued liigh tempera- 
ture. Very nearly normal conditions prevailed in all parts of the country. 

"The fall of the year was generally mild and fi'ee from sharj) and decided tem- 
perature changes. 

"Interlake navigation began al)out the first of May and ende<l about Decend)er 17. 
The weather in the closing months was quite free from severe storms. . . . 

'^Precipitation. — The precipitation of the year just ended was not evenly distributed. 
There were 7 separate regions, of greater or less extent, in which more than the nor- 
mal quantity of rain and snow fell, viz: (1) The Pacific coast from central California 
to British Colund^ia, including part of the central and all of the northern Plateau; 
(2) eastern Wyoming and the Black Hills region of South Dakota; (3) eastern Colo- 
rado, Kansas, Oklahoma, and the Panhandle of Texas; (4) northern Wisconsin and 
the Lake Superior region; (5) southeastern Iowa and central Illinois; ((5) a narnjw 
strip of countr)' east of the Appalachians, extending from Augusta, Ga., to ^^'aslling- 
ton, D. C. ; (7) the western portion of the Peninsula of Florida. 

"Precipitation was markedly deficient in the lower Mississippi Valley, the deficits 
at the 2 regular Weather Bureau stations in Louisiana being 25 and 29 in., respec- 
tively. The rainfall of the Gulf States in 1898 was almost normal, and it seemed at 
tlie end of that year that the droughty conditions which had prevailed for a number 
of years were about to come to an end. The year just closed, however, ^jresents the 
same marked deficiency in precipitation throughout the Gulf States and Texas that 
has characterized so many years within the hust decade. The cause of the deficiency 
is not at present known. 

"' Metrorolxxpi of the (Ireal Jjih'.s. — The season of navigation was remarkably free 
from severe storms. . . . The most .severe storm of the season occurred on Decem- 
ber 11 and 12, at a time, however, M'hen a large number of vessels had gone out of 
c<)nniiissi(in. 

"The rainfall in the Lake Superioi- basin was above normal. The snowfall of the 
winter and spring months was rather lieavy not only in the Superior basin but also 
on the northern shore of Lake Huron, jiarticularly in the Georgian Bay region. On 
the (jther hand, precipitation was generally below normal in the basins of Lakes Erie 
and Michigan, and also over those portions of the watersheds of Lakes Huron and 
Ontario lying within the boundaries of tlie ITnited States. 

"There was less fog reported during the season of 1899 than during the previous 
season. The most fog was observed over the central portion of Lake Superior. 



METEOEOLOGY CLIMATOLOGY. 27 

"A larpre amount of ice formed on the lakes during the winter of 1898-99, but 
winter navigation on Lake Michigan was not suspended except during the severe 
cold in the early part of February. . . . 

" Tliunderstorms. — The greatest number of thunderstorms occurs in the South 
Atlantic and Gulf States and the Mississippi Valley. The number diminishes 
toward the northward and westward, although there seems to be a second region of 
maximum frequency along the eastern foothills of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado, 
Wyoming, and northern New Mexico. West of the Rockies, except possibly in 
Idaho, the number diminishes to less than 20 per annum. In California, Oregon, 
and AVashington they rarely occur on the immediate coast, but are not infrequent 
in the interior valleys and mountains back of the coast range. In Arizona they are 
most frequent in July and August, the rainy season in the mountainous part of that 
Territory. 

"There seem to have been more thunderstorms in 1899 than in the preceding year, 
although the difference is not very great. The greatest increase in the number of 
thunderstorms in 1899, as compared with 1898, occtirred in the States of Florida, 
Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, and Nebraska. In a number of States, 
particularly those bordering on the Gulf of Mexico, there were fewer thunderstorms 
in 1899 than in 1898." 

The climate of San Francisco, Cal., A. G. McAdie and G. H. 

WiLLSON {[/. iS. Dept. Agr., Weather Bureau Bui. 28, pj). 30, charts 
4). — Data relating- especially to temperature and rainfall, accumulated 
at the San Francisco Station during the last 30 years, are reported in 
detail. 

"The mean annual temperature, as determined from the records of the Weather 
Bureau for 28 years, is 56.2°. May and November have practically the same 
temperature. The warmest month is September, 60.9°; the coldest January, 
50.1°; the other months have mean temperatures as follows: February, 52°; March, 
54°; April, 55°; May, 57°; June, 59°; August, 59°; October, 60°; November, 56°; 
December, 52°. 

"The highest temperature ever recorded in San Francisco was 100° on June 29, 
1891, and the lowest 29° on January 15, 1888. Abnormally warm and cold periods 
last, as a rule, about 3 days. The mean of the 3 consecutive warmest days at San 
Francisco has never exceeded 76.3°. A period of warm weather during the summer 
months is, as a rule, brought to a close about the evening of the third day with 
strong west winds, dense fog, and temperatures ranging from 49 to 54°. The mean 
of the 3 consecutive coldest days was 40.7°. The greatest daily range of temperature 
was 43°, on June 29, 1891. . . . 

"July and August are practically without rain, while December and January 
together have nearly 10 in. The annual rainfall is 23 in. 

" By comparing tlie seasonal rainfall with the crop yield it would appear that in 
years when the rain falls generously in March and April the yield is largest, other 
things ])eing equal. In other words, it is the time distribution of the rain, more 
than the intensity or total rainfall, which benefits vegetation. . . . 

"The summer fogs of San Francisco result from a chilling of the upper warm air, 
descending to the ocean surface, and particularly over the cold current close to the 
shore. There is a great difference of temperature between the valley and the ocean, 
often 50° within as many miles, and this is probably the prime factor in establishing 
a marked air movement, shown by the strong indraft through the Gate on summer 
afternoons." 

The meteorology of Ben Nevis in clear and in foggy weather, 

J. Y. Buchanan {Trans. Boy. Soc. Edlnhurgh, SO {1899), pt. 3, JVo.31, 
pp. 48, pis. 8). — In this paper observations ou pressure, temperature, 
3809— No. 1 3 



28 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

rainfall, tension of aqueous vapor, wind, cloud, and sunshine at the 
summit of Ben Nevis during 13 years, January, 1885, to December, 

1897, inclusive, have been grouped in periods of clear weather (S-l or 
more hours during which no fog was recorded), and of foggy weather 
(3 or more consecutive days during which fog was recorded at ever}^ 
hour). The tabular data show that the maximum rainfall during any 
one day of the 13-}' ear period was 7.29 in.; the maximum for any one 
hour 0.85 in. There was a large and continuous excess of atmospheric 
pressure in clear w^eather over that in foggy weather, the mean yearly 
excess being 0.456 in. In foggy weather the vapor tension was that 
of saturation at the temperature of the air, and the variations were 
slight. In clear weather the variations were considerable. The mean 
yearl}^ temperature was 3.57° F. higher in clear than in foggy weather, 
the maximum monthly excess being greatest in June, when it reached 
10.11°. In the first 3 months of the vear, however, the temperature 
was higher in fogg}- w^eather than in clear weather, the excess being 
2.92° F. in February. The range of mean hourly temperature was 
much greater in clear than in foggy weather in every month. A noc- 
turnal heating during the winter months was ol)served l)oth in clear 
and in foggy weather, though it was more pronounced in the clear 
weather. 

The climate of New York, E. T. Ti-rner {Bui. Atiicr. Geoffr. Soc, 1900, No. 2).— 
It is stated in Science, n. ser., 11 {1900) , N^o. 285, p. 955, that tliis article " is largely 
a reprint of a report upon the same snljject by Mr. Turner, originally published in the 
Fiftli Annual Rejiort of the Meteorological Bureau and Weather Service of the State 
of New York (Albany, 1894, pp. 347-457). Several new charts have, however, been 
added, including some typical barograph and thermograph curves, and two thunder- 
storm charts." 

Meteorological observations, J. E. OsTRANDERand A. Oslo's x's^x-i^ {Massachusetts 
Hatch Sta. Met. JjuIs. 1S.3, 134, 135, pp. 4 each). — Daily and riionthly summaries of 
observations at Amherst, Mass., on pressure, temperature, humidity, precipitation, 
wind, sunshine, cloudiness, and casual phenomena during January, February, and 
March, 1900, with notes on the general characteristics of the weather of those months. 

Meteorological record ( Xe^r York State Sta. Rpt. 1898, pp. 569-577). — This includes 
a niontiily summary (if precii)itation at Geneva, N. Y., during 17 years, 1SS2-1S98; 
and daily and monthly records of the direction of the wind during 1898 and of tlie 
temperature during 1898 and during 5 years, 1894-1898. 

The weather {Ontario Bureau Ind. Rpt. 1898, pp. 1-4). — Monthly summaries of 
observations at different points in Ontario (with averages for the Province) during 
the growing season (April to September) of 1897 and 1898, with averages for 1892- 

1898, on temperature, precipitation, sunshine, etc. 

SOILS. 

The soluble salts of cultivated soils, F. H. King and J. A. 
Jeffery {Wiscomin Sta. Rpt. 1899, pp. ^19-^J^3,figs. 3).— In order 
to study the influence of tillage on the soluble salt content of soils 
determinations were made of soil moisture and solu])le salts in 1 ft. 



SOILS. 



29 



sections to a depth of -i ft. on plats of medium ela}' loam soil having 
clay subsoil changing to sand at a depth of 4: ft. The soil had been 
in pasture during- 1800 and 1897 and bore a crop of rape in 1898, no 
fertilizers or manure having been used during this interval. The soil 
was plowed, rolled, and harrowed on May 23 and was cultivated 
weekly thereafter until September 1.5. It was kept fallow and free 
from weeds. 

The methods used in making the determinations are described. For 
the soluble salts Whitney's electrical apparatus was employed (E. S. R., 
9, p. 535). In every case, however, "the amount of dry soil and of 
moisture in the cell was determined by weighing the cell full before 
each determination, and then, after measuring the resistance, emptying 
the contents into the trays, drying the soil, and from the percentage 
of water calculating the amount of water and of dr^^ soil which occupied 
the cell when eaeh resistance was measured." 

The formula used with the electrolytic soil in these observations was 

W^ 



A = 0.00 



R S 



where A is the per cent of soluble salts in the dry soil expressed as 
sodium chlorid, W the amount of water in the cell, li is the observed 
resistance at 00" F., S is the amount of dry soil in the cell, and 0.00 is 
a consta t whose logarithm is 0.782501. 

Observations were made at 4 different dates to determine the changes 
in the solul)le salts in the soil with the following results: 

Tlicmcan cJidnyc in. mtlnlilc nalt.i conijiided af< sodium chlorid in. fallow yround between 
May 24 and September 15. 





1st foot. 


2d foot. 


3d foot. 


4tli foot. 




Lbs. per acre. 
447.5 
2n.9 


Lb». per acre. 
347.1 
240.2 


Lbs. per acre. 
200.1 
164.7 


Lbs. 2)cr acre. 
78.8 
59 6 


Amount Mav 24 






Gain 


235.6 


10G.9 


35.4 


19 '' 







"The mean gain of soluble salts, and presumably of plant food also, has taken place 
most rapidly in the surface foot, the increase being more than double that in the 
second foot, nearly 7 times that in the third, and 12 times that in the fourth foot. 

"The total mean gain in soluble salts per acre in the upper 4 ft., as indicated by 
tlio method, was 397.1 lbs., and tlie total amount at the end of the season in the root 
zone was 1,073.5 lbs. per acre." 

Observations on th(» influence of different depths and frequencies of 
tillage on soluble salts of the soil indicate "that the largest increase 
in the amount of soluble salts occurred in the surface foot of the fal- 
low plat not cultivated, the final gain between May 24 and September 
15 being 533 lbs. per acre, which is 2.6 times the mean gain which 
occurred in the surface foot of the cultivated soil." The surface foot 
of plats cultivated once in 2 weeks gained more than that of plats 



30 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

cultivated once each week. Apparently the methods emplo3^ed were 
not sufficiently delicate to show with certainty whether either the 
frequency or depth of cultivation made any marked difference in the 
amoxmt of available plant food. 

"The mean change in the sohible salt content in the cuhivated fallow plats, as 
indicated by the Whitney method, between May 24 and September 15, was 361.1 
lbs. gain, while the increase on the fallow plat not cultivated was 692.2 lbs. per acre. 
The mean gain in nitric acid (HNO3) was 830.56 lbs. per acre on the cultivated plats 
and 371.39 on the ground not cultivated up to August 22." 

Similar observations made May 12 and 13 and August 7 oit plats on 
which crops were growing showed that the soluble salts remained 
nearly constant in the upper -1 ft. of soil, there being a tendency to 
decrease on the whole rather than to increase. The average decrease 
observed was 174.2 lbs. per acre, while on the fallow plats the mean 
gain during the period of observations was, as stated above, 397.1 lbs. 

The value of determinations of soluble salts as an index of evapo- 
ration from the soil is discussed at some length. 

The electrical resistance by Whitney's method, computed as sodium 
chlorid, the amount of nominal alkalis, partly and p()ssi>)ly largely 
sodium carbonate, as indicated by Ililgard's method for detecting black 
alkali, and the amount of nitric acid were determined August U in 
plats of productive and improductive humus soils planted to potatoes 
and treated with sodium and potassium car})onates and Avood ashes. 

"The method of detecting the nominal alkalis in the soil whicli lias been used 
consisted in weighing into a small muslin sack 50 gm. of the fre.sh soil and wash- 
ing this during 2 minutes with 255 cc. of distilled water poured into the sack in a 
mortar. By holding tlie sack closed and on its side and working it with the pestle, 
turning it from time to time, the soluble salts are quickly taken up by the water. 
The water is then wrung from the sack and the solution poured into a mug to settle. 
When clear 25 cc. of the filtered solution is evaporated to dryness and then redis- 
solved and titrated against deci-normal hydrochloric acid. The balance of the soil 
sample is dried to determine the water content and the percentage obtained used in 
calculating the alkalinity of the soil. . . 

"In [determining nitric acid] a weighed fresh sample [of soil], usually 50 gm., 
was ])laced in a small nmslin sack in a mortar. Into the sack was poured 250 cc. of 
distilled water. Holding the sack closed in one hand and the pestle in the other the 
soil was worked by pestling and turning during 2 minutes, when the sack was removed 
an<l drained by wringing and squeezing. 

"The turl)id solution was transferred to mugs and allowe<l to stand for from (i to 
12 hours to settle. It was found, however, that long standing was not i>eriiiissil)le, 
especially with humus soils, on account of a tendency to denitrification. 

"Corrections were made, in the calculations, for the moisture in the fresh sample 
used by determining the water content in the balance of the sample. This plan was 
followed to avoid the danger of increasing the nitrogen content by drying and to 
avoid changing the solubility of the soil by heating, our object being to get the total 
soluble salts l)y the Whitney method and the amount of nitric; acid by the phenyl 
sulphate m('tho<l of Ticffmann and Beam." 

The largest amount of nominal alkalis was found in the surface 6 in. 
of the soil treated with sodium carlxniate. In general the amount of 



SOILS. 31 

soluble salts was higher in the poorer soil than in the better soil, but 
the ditierence was not so great as to make it probable that the unpro- 
ductiveness was due purel^^ to overconeentration of salts. The sum of 
the alkalis and nitric acid found ))y chemical methods usually exceeded 
the total soluble salts indicated by the electrical method. 

kSimilar observations on a humus soil near Hanover Junction showed 
that plats of this soil planted to onions and treated with land plaster 
contained 1,043.3 lbs. of alkali per million of dry soil, while untreated 
plats contained l,026.4i lbs. 

" Samples taken from a wild marsh, where the wild iris grows, showed 682.03 lbs. 
])er million, but where the grass was much shorter and where from previous experi- 
ence the largest amount of alkalis would be expected if poor crops were due to its 
presence, the analysis showed a little less, or 639.6 lbs. per million of dry soil." 

Determinations of the amount of nitric acid in fallow plats May 2-i 
and August 22 show that the average amount of nitric acid in the sur- 
face 4 ft. of soil at the first date was 111.42 ll)s. per acre. At the latter 
date the nitric acid had increased to 430.11 lbs. One series of these 
plats was cultivated e\'ery week, the other once in 2 weeks, but it does 
not appear that the cultivation had any notable influence on nitrification. 

The total gains per acre in nitric acid imder the different treatments 
were as follows: 

Galiiff of nitric add in soils from Mai/ 34 fo August 23. 

Pounds. 

Cultivated 2 in. deep once per week 315. 49 

Cultivated 2 in. deep once in 2 weeks 307. 44 

Cultivated 3 in. deep once per week 321. 80 

Cultivated 3 in. deep once in 2 weeks 377. 52 

Not cultivated 371. 39 

"It is clear in regard to the fallow plats under consideration that if the porosity of 
the soil on the plat not cultivated was such as to give the nitrifying germs all of the 
air they could use to advantage, then no amount of cultivation would have increased 
the rate of niter forming. Indeed, it might be true that frequent shallow cultivation 
in a wet season, especially on a heavy soil, might so much reduce the amount of air 
which could enter the unstirred soil below the mulch as to act as a positive check, 
the excess of moisture retained acting to exclude the air and thus retard nitrification 
or even bring about the reverse process. Then, too, with the soil moisture held to a 
high point smaller amounts of rain would be able to produce leaching and in this 
way cause a greater loss of the nitrates formed than would be the case in a less nearly 
saturated soil. It is not inijiossible that these conditions may have operated to lessen 
the nitrate content in the cultivated fallow plats this season." 

In the experiments on the influence of early tillage in conserving 
moisture, reported elsewhere (E S. R. , 11, p. 520), the nitric acid was 
determined April 30, 18 days after the soil had been plowed. The 
results show that the plowing sensibly increased the nitrogen in that 
time. Determinations of nitrates were again attempted on May 16. 
While the results were unsatisfactory, they indicated that the amount 
of nitric acid had been greatly reduced in that time, due to rains, the 
loss being greatest on the soil in the most open condition. 



32 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

Nitric acid and total soluble salts computed as sodium chlorid were 
determined in soil nuilch and unstirred soil immediately below the 
mulch on September 22. The results indicate some difference due to 
the different depths of cultivation (2 and 3 in.), the nitric acid being 
higher in the mulches formed by cultivating 2 in, deep than in those 
formed by cultivating 8 in. deep. There appeared, however, to be 
no such evident relation between cultivation once a week and cultiva- 
tion once in 2 weeks. 

"The loose mulch develoi)ed in the cultivation of the several plats was measured 
by collecting, weighing, samjiling, and determining the water content of the samples, 
anil tlic results showed that about 42 per cent more loose soil was developed on the 
:> in. cultivation than on the (Uiltivation 2 in. deep. The amount of nitric acid shown 
to be in this mulch was a little more than 200 lbs. per acre." 

Determinations of nitric acid made April 15 in irrigated and unirri- 
gated soil to a depth of 3 ft. showed, with one exception, "that the 
ground which had been irrigated and which produced the largest 
amount of dry matter showed a larger percentage of nitric nitrogen 
in the soil." 

"It should be said in regard to irrigation that only so much water has been applied 
a« it was thought the crop could use to advantage, and no water had been applied to 
the irrigated ground since the preceding August; further, the plat has been in corn 
continuously without fertilizers, since 1894." 

The character and treatment of s"wanip or humus soil, F. H. 
King and J. A. Jeffeky {AVisconsiu Sta. Bui. 80, pp. 39.,ji(jH. H). — 
Th(^ extent and character of swamp or humus soils in Wisconsin are 
described, and experiments on their management, in continuation of 
similar work in previous years (E. S. K., 10, p. 72S), are reported. 
Accounts are given of plat and of pot experiments on soil of produc- 
tive and unproductive areas of a reclaimed marsh with coarse, rotted, 
and licjuid manure; cut and ground straw, ground oats, corn, and rye 
(with and without addition of carl)onate of potash); green manure 
(oats); gypsiun, sand, and ckw; magnesium carbonate and sulphate; 
wood ashes; muriate, sulphate, nitrate, and carbonate of potash; and 
nitrate of soda. The amount of soluble salts present (nitrates and 
alkalis) and the effects of leaching, drainage, and adding drainage 
water from hunuis soils were also studied. The crop grown was corn. 

Notwithstanding the presence of large amounts of nitrates in the 
soil on May •!, barnyard manure produced a marked increase in the 
crop, thus indicating that its benelicial effect was not due to increased 
nitritication. 

Applications of sand and clay produced no benefit. Land plaster 
reduced the amount of alkali present (see p. 31) but did not increase 
the yield. 

In the pot experiments with magnesium salts the carbonate was used 
in saturated solution at the rate of 511.1 lbs. per acre, the sulphate at 



SOILS. 33 

rates of 3,082 tind 3,727 lbs., corn being the crop grown. The car- 
bonate decreased the yield on both the poorer and the better soil; the 
sulphate reduced the 3dcld on the better soil. These experiments were 
repeated on the same pots with increased applications of the magnesium 
salts. Similar but more decided results were obtained. Both salts 
reduced the jaeld, but the action of the carbonate was more marked 
than that of the sulphate. 

The use of water from the tile drains under hunms soil for watering 
corn grown in pots was not attended with any injurious effect as com- 
pared with rain water. 

Leaching the soil very materially decreased the yield. Magnesium 
carbonate was very injurious on leached soils, while the sulphate 
appeared to be beneficial. There was no indication that the reduced 
yield was due to the loss of nitrogen by leaching, which was quite 
large. The ploAving under of green oats increased the yield on the 
poor soil but decreased it on the good soil. 

Other general conclusions from this work are thus summarized in 
the bulletin: 

"(1) There are in Wisconsin alone in the neighborhood of 4,000 square miles of 
hunuis soils, most of which may readily l)e drained and put iji condition for tillage. 

"(2) So far as the elements of plant food are concerned they contain a higher 
percentage than most of the best upland soils. 

"(3) The soil when drained is easy to work and maintains an excellent tilth. 

"(4) But when reclaimed they are often found relatively unproductive, especially 
after 2 or 3 years. 

"(5) Their productiveness frequently varies to a marked degree in different sea- 
sons and without an evident cause for it. 

"(6) Coarse farmyard manure, in almost all cases, greatly improves even the best 
of these lands, enabling them to give large yields. 

"(7) Liquid farmyard manure has not been found to have an apprecialjle influ- 
ence on the yield. 

"(8) Potassium carbonate, sulphate and nitrate and wood ashes have been fuund 
to greatly improve these soils for corn. Kainit improves the yield, but to a less 
degree. [The beneficial effect of the potash salt is apparently exerted near the 
surface of the soil.] 

"(9) Potassium chlorid in one-half the (piantity of other salts killed the c<jrn. 

"(10) Land plaster, lime, marl, phosphates, bone meal, and Thomas slag have 
been tried with little benefit. 

"(11) Coarse litter, like straw, plowed in is often very helpful. 

"(12) A good dressing of manure may materially increase the yield for 4 con- 
secutive years. 

"(13) Heavy crops of oat hay can often be grown upon the lands, but the i)lants 
are liable to lodge and not fill well if left to mature. 

"(14) It is difficult to get a good stand of clover, and winterkilling is very 
common. 

"(15) Timothy and red top appear to do best among the grasses, but it is often 
very difficult to get a stand of these if the field has been cultivated several years. 

"(16) Almost any crop may be grown ui>ou these soils, if they are manured, and 
very heavy crops of corn. 

"(17) As pastures these lands only give a moderate amount of feed, 



34 



EXPEEIMENT STATION RECORD. 



"(18) When undrained and kept in the native wild grass, and cut continuously, 
these lands in some known cases greatly decrease in productiveness, so much so as to 
hardly pay for cutting. 

"(19) In sowing to grain and seeding after corn, which has been kept clean, it 
will generally be best not to plow, on account of the naturally loose character of the 
soil. If plowing must be done and tin" ground is dry enough to do so, it will be best 
to roll to increase the firnniess. 

"(20) When clover has winterkilled, leaving the timothy standing, the ground 
may be seeded to clover very early in the spring by sowing on the surface and har- 
rowing lightly." 

Percolation and evaporation from long columns of soil, F. H. 
Ki\(! ( H7.srv>//.sv'/^ Sfa. Rpt. 7<S',9/>, j^>p. JIJ^-JIS). — In continuation of 
prcviou.s studies (E. S. R., 10, p. 727), the author made observations 
(1) on the rate of percolation from saturated sandy loam and cla}' loam 
soil in brass cylinders 7 ft. long- and 3 in. in diameter, and (2) on loss 
of water by evaporation from similar soils, mulched and not mulched, 
in galvanized-iron cylinders 10 ft. lonjj;, having a cross section of 
0.01011 sq. ft. 

In the first case the cylinder was made in sections 6 in. long, which 
could be screwed together, forming water-tight joints. The top of the 
cjdinder was provided with a closely titling screw cap and the bottom 
with devices for collecting, maintaining at a uniform level, and remov- 
ing the percolating water, with the minimum of evaporation. 

"The apparatus was filled with soil containing a good working amount of moistui-e, 
and was introduced in small, uniform quantities at a time, tamping each quantity 
added with the same number of strokes. When filled, the soil was completely sat- 
urated with water by filling from the bottom under pressure until the water over- 
flowed at the top. 

' ' The rate of percolation and the amount of it was obtained by weighing at 7 a. m. 
each morning after the first rapid discharge had taken place, and the table below 
gives the distribution of moisture by 6-in. sections, as found 60 days after percolation 
was started." 

IHstribution of moisture in soil at different distances above standhuj ivatcr after 60 days of 
percolation tmthout evaporation. 



Above standing water. 


Sandy 
loam. 


Clay 
loam. 


84 in. to 7S in 


Per cent. 
16.16 
16.08 
16.55 
16.97 
17.59 
17.99 
18.70 
19.44 
20. 90 
21. 71 
21.46 
22.17 
22.68 
27.69 


Per cent. 
31.16 
30 70 


78 in. to 72 in 


72 in. to 66 in 


31.05 
31 11 


66 in . to 60 in 


60 in. to 54 in 


31 21 


64 in. to 48 in 


31 94 


48 in. to 42 in 


31 99 


42 in. to 36 in 


30 18 


36 in. to 30 in 




32.45 
33 31 


30 in. to 24 in 




24 in. to ]S in 


34 40 


18 in. to 12 in 


35 54 


12 in. to 6 in 


35 97 


6 in. to Oin 


37.16 





There were several da3's during the course of the experiment in 
which there was no percolation. These were usually days of lower 
temperature and of higher barometer. 



SOILS. 



35 



"The sandy loam contained in t\w 7 ft. of soil when completely filled with water, 
29.61 in. ; it lost by percolation 6.339 in. and retained 23.271 in. The clay soil began 
the trial with 37.17 in.; it lost during the (30 days 3.147 in. and still retained 34.023 
in. in the 7 ft. The sandy loam could retain in its surface foot after 60 days, percola- 
tion without evaporation 2.83 in. and the clay soil 4.565 in. of water." 

For the observations on evaporation 2 sets of cylinders of 2 each 
were tiUed with sandy loam and clay soil in the manner described 
above. "The sandy loam contained, when put in, 18.88 per cent of 
water and the clay soil 82.63 percent. After the -i tubes had been 
tilled the soil was removed from one of each set to a depth of 8 in. and 
as much returned as a loose mulch as was required to again till the 
tubes level full." 

The tul)es were placed in a ventilating- shaft and a continuous draft 
of air was maintained across their surfaces from November 26, 1808, 
to October 6, 1899. At the end of that period the tubes were saw^ed 
off in 6 in. sections and the distribution of moisture in the colunms 
determined with the following results: 

Loss of water by surface evaporation from columns of soil 10 feet loinj, ninlcjnd and not 

nrnlched. 



Surface 6 in . . . 
6 in. to 12 in 
12 in. to 18 in 
18 in. to 2-1 in 
24 in. to 30 in 
30 in. to 36 in 
36 in. to 42 in 
42 in. to 48 in 
48 in. to 54 in 
54 in. to 60 in 
60 in. to 66 in 
66 in. to 72 in 
72 in. to 78 in 
78 in. to 84 in 
84 in. to 90 in 
90 in. to 96 in 
96 in. to 102 in 
102 in. to 108 in 
108 in. to 114 in 
114 in. to 120 in 



Sandy loam 
Mulched 



Not 
mulched. 



r cent. 
8.83 
12. 97 
14. 59 

15. 25 
15.55 
15.89 
16. 22 
16. 29 
16. 58 
17.07 
17.05 

17. 26 
17.56 
17.78 
17.94 
17.96 
18. 25 
18.67 
18. 53 
19. 21 



Per cent. 
7.41 
14.48 
14.70 
14.96 
15. 53 
16. 17 
16. 33 
16.33 
16. 10 
16. 76 
17.31 
17. 43 
17.79 
17.88 
17.85 
17.67 
18. 05 
18.09 
18.63 
19.95 



Clay soil. 



Mulched Not 
3 in. mulched. 



Per cent. 
17.66 
24. 59 
26.58 
26.95 

27. 45 
27.92 
27.94 
28. 24 

28. 46 

28. 47 
28. 87 
28.70 
29.24 
29.28 
29. 35 
29.79 
30. 32 
31.15 
30.47 
31.25 



Per cent. 
7.79 
18.30 
21. 46 
26.26 
26.89 
27. 16 
27.61 
27. 64 
27. 28 
28. 23 

27. 79 
28. 05 
28. 93 
28.31 
28.32 

28. 80 
29.14 
29. 16 
29. 33 
29. 46 



" It is clear from this table that there has been an upward movement of water and 
loss through the surface even from the bottom layers of soil in the case of the medium 
clay, and probably also from the sandy loam. . . . 

"It is certain that a drying of these soils has taken place through a depth of 10 ft., 
and hence that moisture 10 ft. below the surface of the ground may become available 
for vegetation purposes at or near the surface." 

It is not certain, however, that this upward movement of water is 
due entirel}^ to capillarity. It is suggested that "'it may be found 
that internal evaporation takes place in soils allowing water to pass 
up through the soil pores of drier soils by gaseous difl'usion and con- 
dense on the colder soil grains higher up. If this is true, then these 
observations do not prove that there is danger of capillary rise of 



36 EXPEKIMENT STATION EECORD. 

alkalis from depths as great as 10 ft." It is the author's belief, 
however, ''that the ehanoes observed and recorded for the 10 ft. 
columns were largely if not wholly due to capillarity." 

The utilization by plants of the potash dissolved in soil -water, 
T. SciiLOEsiNu {Conqjt. Etnd. Acad. ScL I\(ris, IJO {1000), pp. 1^22- 
^^J^; ahs. in Clmn. Centhl., 1900, /, JSfo. m,p. 686).— The studies on soil- 
soluble potash reported in this article were of the same character as 
previous investigations on soil-soluble phosphoric acid (E. S. R., 11, 
p. S-IV). It is shown that the soil potash is dissolved only in very small 
amounts l)v the water of the soil, even when present in large amouuis. 
It is stated that in a soil containing from '6^)()() to •1,0()0 kg. of potash 
per hectare there will be only from 1 to 5 kg. of potash soluble in 
water at any given time. However, this potash gradually becomes 
availal)le as required by the plant, and the author's experiments with 
corn showed that this plant was at)le during its growing period to 
obtain a sufficient amount of potash for a very large growth from a 
soil A\hich showed only a very small amount of potash at any given 
time. 

Catalogue of the first four thousand samples in the soil collec- 
tion of the Division of Soils, ^1. AVhitney {C S. D(pt. Jf//'., Divi- 
sion of Soils Bnl . 16, pp. llfJ')). — The bulletin explains the agencies 
through which the collection Avas obtained, describes the t^^pical areas 
and formations represented, and gi^es reference to mechanical or 
chemical analysis. The collection includes samples from all of the 
States and Territories of the United States, except Maine and Wyo- 
ming, and from Bermuda, China. Cuba, England. Germany. Mexico, 
Russia, and Sumatra. The main object of the catalogue is stated to be 
to call attention to the large number of samples at present in the 
possession of the Division of Soils with a view to extending the 
collection In' cooperation or exchange with indi\'iduals, organizations, 
and institutions interested in the subject. 

"In order to call attention still more forcibly to the importance and value of the 
soil collection, and to extend this educational work, collections of representative soils 
are being put up in small glass bottles, arranged in boxes with 22 compartments in 
each. These sets are to be distributed to the agricultural colleges and experiment 
stations, with explanatory text regarding the origin, the chemical and physical 
peculiarities, and the agricultural value of the samples, together Avith a statement of 
the ])hysical and chemical analysis of each." 

Treatment of swamp or humus soil, F. H. King and J. A. Jkkfekv [Wisconsin 
Sta. Rpt. 1S99, pp. 244, 245, fig. 1). — This is a brief summary of results of investiga- 
tion on this subject which are reported in detail elsewhere (p. 32). 

A method of ascertaining the fertility of different parts of an experimen- 
tal field by the use of control plats, J. P. d'Albiqukrque ( }yest Italian BuL, 1 
(1900), No. 2, pj). 1S7-193). 

Readings of soil thermometers {Xew York State Sta. Rpt. 1S9S, pp. 578-584). — 
This is a talmlar record of tridaily readings of soil thermometers during 1898 at 
dex^ths of 1 to 18 in. 



FEETILIZERS. 87 

New problems in soil inoculation, J. Stoklasa {Deut. Landw. Pressc, .?7 {1900), 
Nu. 17, pp. 1S9-191; abs. in Chem. Zlij., '24 {1900), No. 24, Repert.,}!. .96').— The author 
found that the Alinit bacteria assiuiilated the free nitrogen of the air, but only in 
the presence of an excels of (larbohydratea and witli the assistance of a T)aeillus 
which occurs particularly in humus soils. The latter organism was isolated and 
studied. 

FERTILIZERS. 

The utilization of stable waste, W. H. Birciimoke {Jour. Soc. 
Ohein. IjuL, 10 {1000), No. 2, pp. llS-l'Jl).^The author eonclud(>,s 
from his observations and experiments that the fertilizing valuer of 
stable waste depends largely if not entirely upon the activity of the 
micro-organisms in the manure or in the soil to which it is applied. 
It was found that "an average sample of sta))le waste lost 40 pei' cent 
of its contained nitrogen in the first 2 hours after it was swept into 
the pit. Of this loss full three-tiuarters was in the fourth half hour." 
The author succeeded in preparing cultures which on l)eing introduced 
into the manure heap set up an acid fermentation which prevented the 
loss of ammonia. The method of procedure was as follows: 

"The stable waste, solid and fluid, as it accuumlated, was collected in a closed and 
acidulated receptacle. Into this was turned a certain amount of a culture,' which 
in a very short time reduced the whole to a mud containing nitrates, ammoniacal 
salts, and phosphates, together with a relatively pure culture of certain organisms. 

"This material, which has a peculiar sour smell, may be mixed with ashes and 
allowed to ferment with free access of air, a jjure culture or a quasi-pure culture of 
other organisms being added, or in place of this some well-advanced material from 
a i^ortion of waste already well 'worked.' 

"If a relatively pure culture be used, the entire mass is reduced to a black loam 
within a very short time, and this loam I have used for cultivating plants with great 
success. Plants grown in it show reproductive bodies of exaggerated size as com- 
pared with the size of the plants by which they are produced." 

The author isolated from soils difi'erent groups of organisms which 
it is claimed are essential, one for the growth of cereals, another for 
potatoes, a third for grass. Unless the particular organisms favoring 
the growth of the crop under cultivation are present in the soil the 
application of stal)le waste will not be eti'ective in increasing the yield. 

Investigations on the influence of nitric nitrogen and ammo- 
niacal nitrogen on the growth of maize, P. Maze {A/in. Inst. Pas- 
teur, IJfilOOO), No. l,p}p. m-JiG; ahs. iiiJmur. Agr. Fmt.,1000, /, No. 11, 
pp. 382-388; Chem. Centbl., 1000, /, No. m,p. 687).~\\\ these inves- 
tigations it was found that corn assimilated these 2 forms of nitrogen 
with equal facility, if furnished in suitable proportions. The best 
results were obtained with a 0.2 per cent solution of nitrate and a 0.05 
per cent solution of ammonium sulphate. A 0.2 per cent solution of 
ammonium sulphate killed the plants. The injurious effect of ammo- 

^ The nature and method of preparation of this culture is not explained. 



38 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

nium sulphate sometimes obser\ed in practice is believed by the author 
to be due to the use of too large aiuoutits of the salt. Damp weather 
favors the benelicial effect of ammonium salts ])y diluting the soil solu- 
tions, and dry weather increases its injurious effects by concentrating 
them. The general conchision is drawn that ammonia is just as effect- 
ive as a fertilizer as nitric nitrogen, hut that it nuist be used with 
caution. 

Experiments on the preservation of barnyard manure, ^NI. Hoffmann {Dent. 
LiDidir. rnxxc, ..'7 {I'JOO), Xo. ■.'!>, i>)). ■)■')-}, ■I'lo). — An aci'Diuit is given of tests of Sul- 
farin, a commercial preiiaratinn in wliicli the preservative agent is snlplmric acid 
(15 to 18 per cent). 

The question of the preservation of barnyard manure, J. Koemg {Fiililhig's 
Landw. Ztcj., 49 {1900), Nos. 7, i)p- 373-276; 8, pp. 290-295).— This is a popular dis- 
cussion of this subject, based upon investigations by the author and others, in which 
it is (;laimed that the best results will be obtained in the numagenient of manure by 
protection from access of air, rain, and sun, and by thorough rotting. 

On the construction of practical manure pits, II. Stru\ve {Deut. Landw. 
i'msw, 27 (1900), No. 37, pp. 454, 455, fig>t. 10). — Plans and instructions for the con- 
struction of different kinds of pits are given. 

Practical results of experiments in sew^ag-e treatment, T. W. H. Garstang 
{Public Health, 12 {1900), Xo. 8, pp. 612-622). 

Report on the Government guano islands for the year 1899, C H. Jackson 
{Agr. Jour. Cape Good Hope, 16 {1900), No. 8, pp. ^5-^5).— Statistics of collection 
and shipments of guano from the Colonial and Ichaboe Islands are given, and the 
price, extent of use, and possible future output are discussed. In 1899 the Colonial 
Islands i)roduced 2,801 tons of guano, the Ieha1)oe Islands 2,211 tons. 

Commercial fertilizer calendar for the year 1900, M. Ullmann, editor {Notiz- 
Kalender ilher die Anwendung kunstlkher Dungemittel far da.'i Jahr 1900. Hamlmrg: ,T. 
H. Koch & Co., 1900, pp. 43). 

The composition and use of fertilizers, L. L. Van Slyke {Pennsijlvania Dept. 
Agr. Bid. 55, pp. 132) . — A revised edition of Bulletin 94, new series, of the New York 
State Station (E. S. R., 7, p. 853). 

Analysis of commercial fertilizers sold in Maryland, H. B. McDonnell et 
al. {Mari/land Agr. Col. Quart., 1900, No. 7, pp. 67). — This bulletin discusses the 
composition of plants, the nature and source of various fertilizing materials, the value 
of plant and soil analysis for determining the fertilizer requirements of soils, the 
market price and valuation of fertilizers, and home mixing of fertilizers; and gives 
tables showing the census statistics (1860-1890) of fertilizer production in the United 
States, the average composition of the more important fertilizing materials and of 
farm manures, the fertilizing constituents of feeding stuffs and farm products, the 
amount of plant food remaining in different kinds of soil 6 years after the application 
of various fertilizers, the amount of fertilizing materials contained in different crops 
grown on 1 acre, and analyses and valuations of 328 samples of fertilizing materials 
examined at the college from August, 1899, to January, 1900, inclusive. There are 
also given the text of the State fertilizer law and a supplementary list of fertilizers 
licensed for sale in Maryland for the year ended February 1, 1900. 

Analyses of commercial fertilizers, W. F. Hand et al. {Mississippi Sta. Bui. 
61, pp. 15). — This ])ulletin reports analyses and valuations of 48 samples of fertilizers 
collected during Deceml)er, 1899, with some incidental explanation. 

Fertilizer analyses, B. W. Kilgoke {Bui. North Carolina >itaie Bd. Agr., 21 
{1900), No. 4, pp. „V).— This bulletin gives notes on valuation, freight rates from the 
seaboard to interior points of North Carolina, a list of fertilizers registered during 



FERTILIZERS. 



39 



1900 (with guaranteed composition), and analyses and valuations of 181 samples of 
fertilizers examined by State chemist during the spring of 1900. 

Analyses of commercial fertilizers, J. HajMILTON and W. Freak {Pennsylvania 
Dept. Agr. Bui. 54, pp- 163). — This includes the text of the State fertilizer law, notes 
on valuations, a list of manufacturers securing licenses for the sale of fertilizers in 
Pennsylvania in 1899, and tabulated analyses and valuations of 716 samples of fertili- 
zers examined during the year 1899. 

Analyses of commercial fertilizers, H. J. Wheeler and B. L. Hartwell 
(Rhode Island Sta. Bui. 60, pp. 39-48). — This is the third of the bulletins of this 
station dealing with the inspection of fertilizers in Rhode Island during 1899. It 
includes analyses and valuations of 47 samples of mixed fertilizers and 9 samples of 
wood ashes. The comparative quality of the complete fertilizers sold in the State 
from 1891 to 1896 and in 1899 was as follows: 



(Jompnrative quality of fertilizers sold in Rhode Island. 





1891. 


1892. 


1893. 


1894. 


1895. 


189(5. 


1899. 




Per ct. 
71.1 
10.0 
18.3 


Per ct. 
80.7 
9.0 
10.3 


Per ct. 
75.7 
13.8 
10.5 


Per ct. 
80.9 
8.0 
11.1 


Per ct. 

89.0 

5.0 

6.0 


Per ct. 

90.7 

4.8 

4.5 


Per ct. 
84.9 


Less than 0.3 pur cent below the guaranty.. 
More than 0.3 per cent below the guaranty. 


G.9 

8.4 



Report of fertilizer department, J. P. Smith {South Carolina Sta. Rpt. 1899, 
pp. 32-34). — A brief account is given of the work of sampling and inspecting fertilizers 
during the year ended December 31, 1899. According to the reports of the official 
inspectors, the amount of fertilizers sold in the State during 1899 was 241,299 tons as 
compared with 257,393 tons sold in 1898. Analyses of the 336 samples of fertilizers 
examined during the year have been published in bulletins of the station (E. S. R., 
11, pp. 438, 831). 

Report of chemist, M. B. Hardin {South Carolina Sta. Rpt. 1899, jjp. 9-16). — 
This is a Itrief statement of the work of this department of the station during the year 
ended November 30, 1899. It includes notes on farmers' institutes, fertilizer insjDec- 
tion, examination of water, and miscellaneous analytical work. 

"Of the 336 samples [of fertilizers] analyzed this year only 6 were deficient under 
the law, which requires that the commercial value based upon analysis shall not fall 
3 per cent below the commercial value based upon guaranty. Besides these 6 
deficients, however, there were 56 samples, including 1 cotton-seed meal, which fell 
below guaranty in one or more constituents." 

Analyses of licensed commercial fertilizers, 1899, F. W. Woll and A.Vivian 
( Winrnnsin^ Sta. Rpt. 1899, pp. 263-266, 316, 317). — A l)rief account of fertilizer inspec- 
tion in Wisconsin during 1899, analyses of 5 fertilizers being reported. The text of 
the fertilizer law is given. 

Analyses of commercial fertilizers obtainable in New South Wales, E. 11. 
GuRNEY and T. II. Labv {Ayr. Gaz. New Simih Wales, 11 {1900), No. 4, pp. 290-294).— 
This article discusses the valuations of fertilizers in New South Wales and gives 
analyses and valuations of 110 samples of fertilizing materials, including various 
mixed fertilizers, and deposit from wool-scouring tanks, wool waste, "skutch" from 
limed pelts, decomposed hair and lime, lanyard refuse, sheep manure, bat guano, 
filter-press muck from cane mills, megass, megass ash, bloodwood ash, ironbark, 
blackbutt ash, red gum ash, spotted gum ash, boxwood ash, seawood ash, ash oi 
kerosene shale, cave deposit, gypsum, flue deposit from furnaces, niglit soil, fowl 
manure, ash of vine cuttings, and seaweed. 

Recent researches on nitrification, R. Warington {Chem. News, 81 {1900), 
No. 2105, p. 151). — This is an abstract of a lecture reviewing recent work on this 
subject, especially that of Winogradsky and Omeliansky. 



40 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

FIELD CROPS. 

The influence of the right amount and right distribution of v^ater 
in crop production, F. II. KiN(f ( ]f7.sYv>/^s//? Sta. Rpt. 1899, pp. 206- 
21-i.ji(js. .J). — This is a continuation of woi'k alroad\" reported (E. S. R., 
11, p. 537). — An introductory statement is made of the rainfall at the 
station durinij; the growing- season of 1899. The season was not as 
favorable for crop production as the preceding- one as regards distri- 
bution of rainfall, although in general excellent results were o])tained. 

The clover of the experimental plats having l)een winterkilled, 
reseeding became necessar}-. Oats were used as the first crop and 
clover as the second. The total yield per acre for the 2 crops is 
tabulated, and the results obtained are compared with those of the 3 
preceding years. 

Corn w^as thickly planted for the sixth successive 3^ear on the same 
plat with irrigation, but without application of fertilizers, the aim 
being to exhaust the soil h\ cropping as rapidly as possible. The 
yields for the 3^ears 1891-1899, inclusive, are tabulated. 

"The yield on the unirrigated ground is the smallest of any hut the very dry year 
of 189.5, and that on tiie irrigated ground is on the average the smallest of any year 
and only barely ecjual to that not watered. The corn was very yellow compared 
with that on other plats and evidently starved, although in the spring the soil 
showed more nitric acid than was found [in the plat referred to in the next para- 
graph], and the physical condition of the soil is if anything better than it was in 
1894. It appears (;lear that the feeding capacity of the soil has very much decreased, 
and yet by standard methods of chemic il analysis of soil for available plant food we 
started in 1894 with enough for heavy crops for more than half a century." 

Dent corn was grown in alternate plats, irrigated and unirrigated. 
The irrigated plats were watered twice. They yielded 10,990 lbs. of 
dry matter per acre, while the unirrigated plats yielded but 7,985 lbs., 
showing a difi'erence of 3,005 lbs. or 37 per cent in favor of irrigation. 

In the woi-k with potatoes, 1 methods of culture were used: liidge 
culture with irrigation, ridge culture without irrigation, ridge culture 
with straw nuilch l)ctwccn the rows, and level culture without ii-riga- 
tion. With Salzer Harvest King, irrigation produced 111.3 bu. per 
acre, nuilcliiiig without irrigation produced 313.3 bu., and ordinary 
ridge culture, 316.7 bu. 

"Watering the potatoes twit-e increased the yield per acre (il. 1 bu. of merchanlable 
tubers over the not watered and 59.4 bu. over those mulched with straw. In this 
ca.se it is clear that the potatoes needed more water than the rainfall of the season, 
but that the straw nnik^h did not materially increase the yield over that of the 
unirrigated subplats. ' ' 

Determinations of the amount of moisture in {\n\ soil of each i)lat 
made before the first irrigation showed little dift'erence between the 
plats in this respect. Similar determinations made 3 days after the 
last irrimition oave results as follows: 



FIELD CROPS. 



41 



Moiniurc in soil of polaio j^lats. 





Irrigated. 


Unirrigated. 


Mulched. 




Moisture. 


Soluble 

salts 
per acre. 


Moisture. 


Soluble 

salts 
per acre. 


Soluble 
Moisture. salts 
per acre. 


Fir.st foot 


Per rrnf. 
17.30 
]3.<s0 
14.29 
13.42 


Pounds. 
34. 37 
49.33 
2.5. 81 
18.03 


Per cent. 
10. .51 
,12.38 
11.98 
13.15 


Pounds. 
39. 69 
52. 33 
29. 01 
19.23 


Per cent. \ Pounds. 
10.17 35.28 




12.13 41.12 


Third foot 


14. (i8 I 32.34 




13.07 24.42 







"Onthisdato tlie irrigated soil was markedly more moist than the other 2, l)ut 
there was not much difference between the unirrigated and mulched soils. It will 
be seen that the irrigated soils contain the least amount of soluble salts and the 
mulched most, except in the bottom foot." 

Comparisons were made of hill culture with irrigation with hill and 
level culture without irrigation. As between hill and level culture 
without irrigation, there was relatively little ditierence in the yield, 
the latter giving 9.1 bu. of largo tubers per acre more than the for- 
mer, but more of the potatoes being greened in level culture. In the 
case of the irrigated potatoes there was an increased 3neld of 111 bu. 
of large tu))ers per acre over the hilled potatoes not irrigated and 108 
bu. per acre over those receiving level culture without irrigation. 

Seven days after the last irrigation determinations were again made 
of the amount of moisture in the soil of each plat, this time of the 
amount in and between the rows respectively. The irrigated plat con- 
tained about per cent more water in the surface foot of soil under the 
hills and S per cent more between the rows. The second foot of soil 
contained about 2 per cent more water than the unirrigated plats. 
With this increase in amount of soil Avater is associated an increased 
yield of about 100 bu. of merchantable potatoes to the acre. "This 
relation makes it very clear that the right amount of water at the 
right time is a very important factor in determining the 3deld. The 
amount of water which was added to the soil this year to secure this 
increase in yield was only al)out 2 acre-inches, divided ))etween 2 irri- 
gations." 

Continued effects of fertilizing the soil, W. C. Latta {Ind'iana 
Sfd. jRj)t. 1899, pp. Jfi-fJO). — Corn has l^een grown continuously since 
1880 on plats fertilized with either horse manure, gas lime, or ammo- 
niated phosphate to study the residual effects of these manures. The 
yields of grain and stover on the different plats are given for 10 years 
for the gas lime and phosphate plats, and for 16 3'ears for the horse- 
manure plats. 

The results show the effects of the lime and ammoniated phosphate 
on grain yield to be slight and transient. The aggregate increase of 
corn due to the residual effects of the horse manure has amounted to 
131.8 l)u. of grain and 0,212 l])s. of stover, estimated to be worth $.55.11. 



42 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

The average increase of grain in 1898 attributed to the original appli- 
cation of horse manure was 3,17 bu. per acre. 

Variety tests of grains, R. A. Moore ( Wisconsin Sta. Rpt. 1899, 
2)p. ^Ji.6-248). — Tests were made of several varieties of oats and barley 
and one varietj" each of Russian spelt and Russian millet. A part of 
the oats and barley were from Canada, All others were imported from 
Russia by this Department. Wisconsin Mandscheuri barley was com- 
pared with the same variety as grown in Canada, to determine whether 
the seed had lost any of its vitality since being grown in Wisconsin, 
and also to compare it with some of the newer varieties. The results 
of this and some other parts of the test were as follows: 

"The test shows that the Mandscheuri barley is reliable seed and is especially 
adapted to our soil and climate. 

"The Oderbruker barley, which, like the Mandscheuri, is a six-rowed barley, gave 
the largest yield per acre, but was somewhat lighter in weight per measured l)ushel. 
These two varieties grew more vigorous and the straw was brighter and stronger 
than in other varieties tested. 

"Of the oats tested, the Siberian and Daubeney gave the best yield per acre of 
grain, and the Russian No. 2800 the best yield of straw. The Daubeney oats ripened 
earlier and more evenly than the other varieties, and while the yield of straw was 
less, it was of an extra tine quality. 

"The Russian spelt did not thrive well, and did not produce a good crop of either 
grain or straw. It does not seem to be well adapted to our conditions, as the warm 
weather in summer materially affects it." 

The growth of the millet was rapid, and a large amount of hay could 
have been secured if it had been cut at the proper time. The o})ject 
of the test, however, was to secure seed. Russian vetches were found 
to be a promising crop, growing luxuriantly^ and producing a large 
amount of line green forage. 

Machine and hand-threshed cereals for seed, H. C. Schellen- 
'RYM(}{Laiid(v. Jahrb. iScJuoclz., IS {1899), pj^- 152-168). — The author's 
experiments along this line with rye, wheat, spelt, and barley show 
that the losses for seed purposes due to threshing b}" machiner}^ were 
t\ with rye, i with wheat, and \ with barle}^ of the total grain yield. 
With rye and wheat this was 3 times as great a loss as resulted from 
the use of the flail, and with barle}^ twice as great. These losses were 
consideral)ly increased in each case when the seed was treated with a 
solution of copper sulphate before planting. In general the larger 
seeds were the ones most injured by threshing. With spelt, only one- 
fourth of the machine-threshed grain was available for seed purposes. 

The nitrogen fertilization of barley for bre-wing, T. Reimy (/>V. 
GeMen- llopftm- H. KdrtofrlJxdi, 1 (1899), Ao. 1, pp. .9-.i6').— Pot ex- 
periments in fertilizing ])arley with different forms and amounts of 
nitrogen are reported. The moisture content of the pots was varied 
in some instances. From the results obtained it is shown that nitrate 
of soda and sulphate of ammonia are more conipletcl}' used up by the 



FIELD CROPS. 43 

barley crop than more slowly acting organic forms of nitrogen, as 
guano and poudrettc, since the taking up of nitrogen b}' this crop is 
largely contined to the earlier stages of growth. The use of the former 
compounds of nitrogen, especially nitrate of soda, tends toward an 
increase of the nitrogen content of the grain, an undesira])le feature 
in barley intended for brewing purposes. When nitrate of soda is 
used instead of guano, it should be applied in smaller amounts. 
Nitrate of soda was found especially valuable, as compared with other 
nitrogen fertilizers, in dry soils. As to the time of application of 
fertilizers, the author believes that nitrate of soda should be given in 
2 applications and not later than the beginning of the stooling of the 
barley. Sulphate of ammonia and all other forms of organic nitrogen 
should be applied shortly before the seeding of the barle}^ 

Report on culture experiments with barley at the Berlin Exper- 
imental Institute for Brewers, vox EcKENBRECiiEii (/>/. G</r.sf,)t- 
IIoj>fen- n. Kartoffelhau, 1 {1S99), No. 5,pj>- 133-lJtD).—The details of 
cooperative field experiments in fertilizing barlev with different forms 
of nitrogen are reported. The data given show the fertilizers applied, 
yield of grain and straw, weight of 1,000 grains, protein content of 
the grain, and the comparative value of the grain grown with the dif- 
ferent fertilizers. The best barley as regards quality was grown with- 
out any nitrogenous fertilizer, and the poorest with guano. The yields 
of grain and straw and weight of the grain averag(>d highest on the 
plats receiving nitrate of soda. The protein content of the grain did 
not seem to 1)e materially affected b}' the difl'iM-ent fertilizers. 

The influence of heredity upon vigor in the potato, E. S. Goff 
{Wisconsin Sta. B^d. 1S90, jjj?. 304--308, jig. 1). — A report is made 
on experiments liegun by the author in the spring of 1884 while he 
was connected with the New York State Station,^ in the selection of 
seed potatoes for prolificac3\ Comparisons were made year after 
year of the pi'olilicacy of tubers selected from the most productive 
and least productiv(^. hills. The method of preparing the tul)ers for 
planting was to cut the larger tubers to single eyes just before plant- 
ing in order to eliminate to a large degree the inequalit}" of size in the 
two lots of tubers. In 1898 the method was somewhat moditied in 
order to further eliminate the inequality that arises from the fact that 
the tubers from the most productive hill almost always average larger 
than those from the least productive hUl. 

The total }■ ield of the most productive hill of Old Long Mercer for 
2 3'ears was 63} | oz. ; that of the least productive hill, 4116 oz, 
Similarl}^, the total yield of the most productive hill of Snowflake for 
2 years was 332^ oz., and the yield of the least productive hill for the 
same time 100^ oz. 

1 New York State Sta. Rpt. 1887, p. 85. 
3809— No. 1 4 



44 EXPERIMENT STATIOI^J^ RECORD. 

"Adding the total yields of the most productive hill of the vurieties together, and 
suhtracting from tliis sum the same total for the least i)roductive liill, it appears that 
the actual excess in yield of the seed from the most productive hills was a trifle over 
180 per cent. It is difficult to explain this difference in yield on any other hypoth- 
esis than the difference in the inherent vigor of the samples of seed planted. It 
must be rememl^ered that the weight of the seed i)lanted was the same, that the con- 
ditions of growth were the same, and that the method of selection was rather against 
the most productive hills, because while the largest tubers from the least productive 
hills were used for seed, the majority of the largest tubers from the most productive 
hills were rejected. 

"This experiment has not tended to increase the yield of the varieties used, 
because the most productive hills were continually hampered by having the seed 
tubers cut up fine to keep them comparable to the least productive hills. It demon- 
strates the increased vigor of the most productive hills and nothing more. 

"It is believed that these experiments, reaching as they do through 14 years, are 
sufficient to demonstrate the principle that vigor in the potato plant, as in other 
plants, may be maintained and increased by selection. The potato grower may 
doubtless prevent the failure of his varieties Ijy the method of seed selection indi- 
cated in this article. Where the digging machine is employed, the best way to carry 
out the plan would be to grow a plat of potatoes each year on the best soil, to be 
used expressly for seed selection, and to dig this i)lat by hand. The selected tubers 
from this plat could be used the next season to produce the seed for the main crop 
the following year. This is substantially the method practiced by seed grow-ers in 
maintaining tlie vigor and purity of their seeds." 

Tests of the sugar beet in Pennsylvania, H. P. Armsby and E.H. 
Hess {Pennsylvama Sta. Bid. Ji-7, pJ^. 8).— A. continuation of work 
with sugar beets previously reported (E. S. R., 10, p. 40). Eleven 
varieties were tested. Tabulated data as to average size of beets, 
sugar content, and percentage of purity are given for beets grown in 
33 counties, and these data are summarized for the more important 
sugar-beet districts of the State. A study was made of the best time 
of harvesting. The average weight of the beets grown in the entire 
State was 1.33 lbs.; average sugar content, 12.66 per cent; and aver- 
age percentage purity, 81.8. About the last of October or first of 
November is considered the most suitable time for harvesting sugar 
beets in Pennsylvania. Original Kleinwanzlebener and Troensegaard 
Elite were the 2 best varieties grown. 

Test of corn-cultural implements, W. C. Latta {Luluuia St<t. 
Bjjt. 1890, ]_>p. ol-oo). — The relative value of a number of different 
makes of cultivators for corn have been tested at the station contiiui- 
ously for 11 seasons. The results thus fai- ol)tained, in the opinion of 
the author, seem to justify the following conclusions: "'(1) The kind 
of implement is not so important as thoroughness and carefulness in 
using the same. (2) In well-drained soils, deeply broken and well 
filled with hunms, deep culture of the corn crop does not seem neces- 
sary at any stage of its growth.-' 

Report on experiments in 1899, J. R. Dunstan iAijr. I>ept. Univ. Col, Notting- 
ham landl MUUand Dnivij Jn.^t., 1S99, pp. 35).— Report on cooperative manure and 
variety experiments with potatoes, barley, and grass; on spraying charlock; and on 
rotation, manure, and cropping experiments. 



FrELD CROPS. 45 

New contribution to the question of the influence of the water content of 
the soil on the development of the plant, C. von Seelhorst {Jour. Landw., 48 
{1900), No. 2, pp. 165-177, ph. i?). — A study of the influence on the form and com- 
position of oats and spring wheat of varying amounts of water in the soil and of 
increasing and decreasing the water content of the soil at different stages of growth. 

Action of sulphuric acid employed in watering clover and sugar beets, A. 
Damseaux {Bui. Agr. \_Brusseh'], 15 {189D), No. 7, pp. 619, 6"20).—ln these experi- 
ments the plants were watered with a solution containing 24 gm. of sulphuric acid 
to each liter of water. The results were positive. The production of stems and 
leaves was diminished and the constitution of the plants modified. In the case of 
the clover the yield was much reduced by the use of the acid. With sugar beets the 
total yield and the percentage of sugar were both reduced. The quotient of purity 
was slightly raised and the i)er('entage of suljihuric acid in tlie asli almost doubled. 

Russian cereals adapted for cultivation in the United States, M. A. Carleton 
( U. S. Dept. Agr., Division of Botany Bui. 23, pp. 42, pis. 2, figs. 2). — A general dis- 
cussion is given of the characteristics of Russian and American grain soils, climatic 
conditions of the grain belts of the two countries, etc., with notes showing the cultural 
methods followed in Russia, and other data on each of 7 varieties of wheat, .3 of oats, 
2 of barley, 2 of emmer, 6 of millet, and 1 each of Indian corn, buckwheat, Tanibof 
flat pea, and Polygonum iveyrichii, recently secured from Russia for trial in this country, 
and similar data on a number of other varieties of wheat and oats now being intro- 
duced. Descriptive notes as to Russian methods of harvesting, threshing, cleaning, 
and milling wheat are included in the bulletin, as is also a list of Russian cereals 
already grown in this country, notes on the preparation of cereal foods in Russia, 
and suggestions regarding the requirements of a proper test of new cereals. 

Cotton, H. Lecomte {Le colon. Paris: J. B. Bailliere & Sons, 1900, pp. 496, figs. 37). 

The manuring of cotton, G. P. Foaden {Jour. Khediv. Agr. Soc. and School of 
Agr., 2 {1900) , No. 2, pp. 87-91).— The use of barnyard manure increased the yield 
of cotton, but decreased the quality of the staple. Medium api)lications of poudrette 
gave profitable returns, yielded a higher proportion of fiber in ginning, and produced 
superior cotton. Experiments in the use of guano did not give conclusive results. 

Culture experiments with German, English, and French fodder beets 
{Landw. Wchnscltr. Sachsen, 2 {1900), No. 18, pp. 159, 160).— Tents of 10 German, 6 
French, and 4 English varieties of fodder beets are reported. Yellow Eckendorfer, 
Yellow Tannenkriiger, and Red Eckendorfer of the German varieties, in the order 
named, have given the best results. 

Experiments with fodder beets, P. Thiele {Filhling's Landw. Ztg., 49 {1900), 
Nos. 4, pp- 143-146; 5, pp. 1S5-187; 6, pp. 207-209). — Variety and distance experi- 
ments are reported. Yellow Tannenkriiger and Yellow Eckendorfer gave the best 
yield of 11 varieties grown. Rows 14 in. apart gave better results than rows 12 
in. apart. 

Forage crops, W. B. Anderson {Indiana Sta. RjU. 1899, pp. 59-66). — Notes on the 
culture and yield of the following forage plants grown at the station during the sea- 
son: Corn, Kafir corn, sweet sorghum, Dwarf Essex rape, soy beans, cowpeas, field 
peas, vetches, and combinations of Canada field peas and oats. Cooperative experi- 
ments with some of these plants were carried out by farmers in different parts of the 
State, the results of which are briefly noted. 

Forage crops other than grasses; how to cultivate, harvest, and use them, 
T. SuAW {New York : Orange Judd Co., 1900, j)p- 287, figs. 29).— The author tells how 
to cultivate, harvest, and use for the purposes of forage, corn, sorghum, non-saccha- 
rine sorghums, plants of the clover family, other leguminous plants, rape, cabbage, 
the common cereals, millet, root crops, and miscellaneous plants. Chapters are 
given on successions of crops for continuous forage throughout the season in each of 
the different sections of the United States, and on sheep pastures at the Minnesota 
University Experiment Farm. 



4G EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

Fertilizer experiments with hops (/>/. (h-n^icn- ITopfcn-v. Kartoffdhau, 1 {1899), 
No. 9, p2). 323-330). — Summarized iVHults oljtaincd 1)y the (lorinaii Hoj) Culture 
Association in 1898. 

Fertilizer experiments with hops, T. Remy {Bl. Gerden- Ilopfcn- u. Kartofi'clhaii, 
1 {1S99), Xo. 10, pp. 341-362). — Report on the use of different nitrogenous fertilizers 
for hops. The exjieriments were made at the Experimental Institute for Brewers in 
Berlin and, in cooperation with the institute, by growers in different hop districts in 
Germany. Barnyard manure was one of the ]>est fertilizers used. Suljihate of 
ammonia and nitrate of soda proved good substitutes for this manure. Large amounts 
of potash in one experiment seemed to increase the total ether extract and resin 
content of the hops grown. 

Notes on five years' experiments on hop manuring, B. Dyer {London: Yin- 
ton & Co., Ltd., 1900, pp. 21, figs. 12). — The ol)ject of these experiments has been 
" to ascertain how far nitrate of soda in the presence of an abundant supply of phos- 
phates and potash can be advantageously used as a source of nitrogenous food for 
hops." Increasing amounts from 200 up to 400 lbs. per acre were used. The hops 
grown were examined independently by a brewing chemist and a commercial hop 
dealer, and their relative values judged. In no instance did the use of nitrate affect 
the quality of the hops injuriously. On the other hand, it considerably increased 
the total yield of hops, and had a decidedly beneficial effect on their quality as com- 
pared with hops grown on plats which received no nitrate. The author believes 
that on soils otherwise liberally manured 400 lbs. per acre of nitrate of soda is a per- 
fectly safe dressing for hops. In the author's experience 600 lbs. per acre has given 
the best results in a dry year. 

Culture of legumes, C. Fruwirth {Anhcm do- TU'dsenfruchtc. Berlin: Paul Parey, 
1S9S, pp. 274, figs. 69). — This is another contribution to the series of Thaer-Bibliothek 
agricultural books. The work is confined to podded plants such as beans, peas, and 
the like. The general part of the book treats of the botany of legumes, structure and 
development of the plant and seed, requirements as regards soil and fertilizers, basic 
principles in the culture of legumes, statistics of legume cultui'e, uses of legumes, and 
place of legumes in a syi^tem of rotation, and as a salable seed crop. The special 
part, occupying little more than half of the book, is devoted to considerations of the 
botany, characteristics, culture, and uses of 24 species and varieties of legumes. 

The present status of rice culture in the TJnited States, S. A. Knapp ( U. S. 
Dept. Agr., Division of Botawj Bui. 22, 2>p. 56, pis. 5).— This bulletin notes briefly the 
history of rice and its introduction into the United States, and gives in detail 
methods of rice culture in South Carolina, Georgia, Louisiana, and southeast Texas, 
dealing especially with systems of irrigation and the use of the gang plow, disk har- 
row, drill and broadcast seeder, and twine binder as applied to rice culture in south- 
west Loiiisiana and southeast Texas. 

Historic and modern methods of milling rice are discussed, as well as the uses of 
rice and its by-products, soils adapted to rice culture, prospects for the extension of 
the industry in the United States, and the culture of rice in Asia and the Pacific 
Islands. Much statistical matter relative to imports of rice, production in the United 
States, etc., is also intruded in the bulletin. 

Wild rice in Minnesota and Wisconsin, A. E. Jenks {Amer. Thresherman, 3 
{1900), Xo. 2, pp. lS-54,figs. ,9).— Methods followed by the native Indians in sowing 
and harvesting wild rice in these States are given. 

Sugar-beet investigations in Wisconsin during 1898, F. W. Woll ( Wiscon- 
sin Std. Rpt. 1S99, pp. 249-262, fig. 1). — The data of this article have already appeared 
in Bulletin 71 of the station (E. S. R., 11, p. 143). 

Culture of sugar beets in Egypt, G. P. Foaden {Jour. Khediv. Agr. S'oc. and 
School Agr., 2 {1900), Xo. 2, pp. 76-82). — Brief review of the sugar-beet industry in 
Germany and France, with notes on the present status of the industry in Egypt. 



HOETICULTURE. 47 

Applying' phosphatic manure to sugar beets in the row (Deal. Lamhr. Presse, 
27 {1900), No. 38, p. 472). — The yields of sugar beets -were considerably increased 
when fertilizers were applied in the seed row over applications made broadcast. 

Influence of increasing quantities of phosphoric acid and nitrogen in the 
culture of sugar beets, A. Damseaux [Bal. A(jr. [7>)v'.w'/.s-], 15 (ISPO), Xo. 7, pp. 010- 
618). — Applying more than 700 kg. of superphosphate or 500 kg. of nitrate of soda in 
tliese tests was not iirotitable. 

Sugar cane: Culture, manufacture, and statistics, W. Tiemann (Zuckerrohr: 
Knit ai;Fabrikat tun, unci Stati.'iiik. BcrUn: DeutscJier kolotikd Verlug, 1899, pp. 58). 

Deep and shallow cultivation of cane in Audubon Park {Louisiana Planter, 
24 {1900), No. IS, p. 285). — Shallow cultivation has given the best results. The 
author believes that this method of cultivation of cane in Louisiana would increase 
the yield of cane from 5 to 10 tons per acre. 

The judging and culture of wheat for brewing purposes, T. Remy {Bl. 
Ger.'<ten-JIojifen,- a. Kartoffdhau, 1 {1899), No. 9, pp. 305-316). 

Field tests of varieties of w^heat, covering nineteen years, W. C. Latia 
{Indiana Sta. Rpt. 1899, pp. 54-58). — -Tabulated data showing the average yield and 
the characteristics of the grain and straw of 178 vaiieties of winter wheat and 11 
varieties of si)riug wheat tested at the station during the preceding 19 years, with 
notes and comments. 

HORTICULTURE. 

A study of the effect of incandescent gaslight on plant grovrth, 

L. C. (JoiiKETT ( lf(.s/ Vliyljua iSta. Bui. Gi2, j/jk 79-llU, j^/.s. />, jj'tj.^. 
4, charts 7). — This bulletin reports the results obtained in a series of 
greenhouse experiments carried on during the years 1895 to 1899 with 
lettuce, radishes, spinach, tomatoes, sugar beets, and seedling cabbage, 
mainly from an economic standpoint. Eight Welsbach incandescent 
burners were used in the experiments, and these were so alternated in 
position from time to time as to overcome local temperature and light 
diti'erences. Plans of the greenhouse used and photographic, diagram- 
matic, and auxanometer records of the growth and development of 
the ditierent crops form an important part of the bulletin. Weighings 
of the crops were made and the sugar beets grown analyzed. The 
character and quality of the arc and incandescent electric lights and 
Welsbach gaslight as compared with suidight are discussed by the 
aid of ligures. 

The experiments with lettuce involved 12 distinct crops and nearly 
10,000 plants. Transplanting the young plants from pots and using 
an artiticial light only during the period the plant occupied the per- 
manent greenhouse bench was adopted after comparative trials as being 
the best method for the growing of lettuce on a commercial scale. 
The plants grown in artificial light v/ere taller, heavier, grew faster, 
and matured quicker than plants grown from the same lot of seed 
under normal conditions. In one experiment 400 plants exposed to 
the stimulating influences of the artificial light for 46 nights weighed 
68.50 lbs., while a similar lot grown under normal conditions weighed 
•±9.13 lbs., an increase in favor of the former of 38.7 per cent. 



48 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

Radishes were grown between the rows of lettuce, as is commonly 
practiced in commercial houses. The artificial light notal)ly increased 
the development of the tops of the radishes and slightly increased the 
size of the roots. The heliotropic eflfect of the incandescent light was 
greater with radishes than with any of the other plants grown. The 
stimulating influence of the incandescent light, on the other hand, was 
greatest with spinach. It caused the production of seed shoots in the 
row to a distance of nearly 8 ft. from the light. Spinach plants sub- 
ject to the influence of the light grew faster and completed their 
growth in less time than plants grown normally. 

The records of the yield and date of first bloom of tomatoes grown 
from seed and also from cuttings show no increase in weight of the 
fruit grown in the light, though the blossoming period was from 8 to 
18 days earlier and the individual fruits were generally larger than 
when grown imder normal conditions. 

With sugar beets the tops, sugar content of the roots, and percent- 
age of purity were considerably increased by the use of the incandes- 
cent gaslight. The largest and heaviest roots, however, were grown 
under normal conditions. 

The range of stimulating influence of the incandescent light was 
studied. 

"The range of light is somewhat varia])le for different crops. In general the max- 
imum growth was attained at 12 to 16 ft. from the light, while a perceptible increase 
was noted at 24 ft. 

"The stimulating influence of the light as indicated by the growth of plants used in 
the various tests is shown by the order in which the the sorts are named, the first 
being the most susceptible: Spinach, cabbage, radish, lettuce, tomato." 

In a study of the periodicity of plant growth as modified by the 
influence of the artificial light it was found that the most active period 
of growth of lettuce subject to the influence of the incandescent gas- 
light began at 11 p. m. and continued until 9 a. m., while with the 
plants grown under normal conditions the most active period of 
growth began at la. m. and continued until 11 a. m. In the first 
instance the period of growth was 10 hours and in the second 7. 

In these experiments no injurious effects resulted from the use of 
incandescent gaslight. 

The use of chemical fertilizers in the forcing house, W. Stuart 
{Ame/: Gard., 21 {1900), iVvA 268, 'p. 94)- — This article summarizes the 
experience of the Indiana Station in the use of commercial fertilizers 
for forcing lettuce under glass. The results are at variance with those 
reported ))y A. T. Jordan (E. S. R., 11, p. 1030). the statement there 
made that '* chemical fertilizers are of little use in the forcing house" 
being criticised. 

In one test at the Indiana Station the soil used was composed of a 
black loam sod composted with one-fourth of its ])ulk of manure. The 
soil to which the commercial fertilizers were applied for comparison 



HOKTICULTURE. 49 

was taken from underneath the sod used in the prepared soil just noted, 
"and was, therefore, poorer both in plant food and mechanical mix- 
ture." The author states that the leaves of the plants grown in the 
rotted sod and manure were softer, more leather}', and therefore less 
crisp and tender than those grown in the pots fertilized with the com- 
mercial fertilizers, and did not keep so well when marketed. " Plants 
grown in the prepared soil and manure averaged 157.7 gm. in weight, 
while those grown in the poorer soil with the addition of a liberal 
dressing of raw bone meal averaged^ 169.3 gm. per plant, an increase 
in favor of the latter of over 7 per cent." 

In another experiment a pot of the same soil to which commercial 
fertilizers were added was mixed with an equal bulk of well-rotted 
manure. The average weights of plants grown under the different con- 
ditions are as follows: 

"Soil and manure, 323 gm. ; raw bone meal, 286 gm. ; raw bone meal, nitrate of 
soda, and muriate of potash, 334 gm. The increased product from the third lot over 
that of the iirst, while only slight, is yet sufficiently marked to show the value of 
chemical fertilizers in the forcing house. . . . Our best results have been obtained 
with raw bone meal, nitrate of soda, and muriate of potash. The last 2 ingredients, 
because of their immediate availability, should be used in moderate amounts, and, in 
the case of nitrate of soda at least, should be applied in from 2 to 4 installments." 

The effect of transplanting on time of maturity, F. Cranefield 

( Wtscvnahi Sta. Rpt. 1S90, j>2^- '^12-315). — Tests were made to deter- 
mine the correctness of the commonly accepted opinion that transplant- 
ing promotes earliness and increases yield. Trials were made with a 
number of vegetables both in the greenhouse and in the open field. 
Seeds of Grand Rapids lettuce were sown in a greenhouse on January 
15. February 5 one-half of the plants were taken up and reset in the 
same places in the usual manner of transplanting seedlings. March 23 
the entire crop was cut and weighed. The average weight of the 
plants not transplanted was 42.4 gm., while the average weight of the 
transplanted plants was only 36.4 gm., showing a gain of 16f per cent 
in favor of the plants that were not transplanted. 

In another trial cabbage seed was sown February 5. February 28 
two-thirds of the plants were transplanted as in the previous trial, and 
March 8 one-half of the transplanted plants were again transplanted. 
May 3, 8 plants from each lot were cut and weighed. The plants that 
had not been transplanted weighed 4,214 gm. Those that had been 
transplanted once weighed 2,993.5 gm. and those that had been trans- 
planted twice weighed 2,241.7 gm. " In this case the once-transplanted 
plants fell 28.9 per cent behind the not transplanted, and those twice 
transplanted fell 46 per cent behind the not transplanted. Several 
other trials were made in the greenhouse with lettuce and radishes, and 
all gave similar results." 

In a similar way 3 crops of tomatoes were grown. In each case 
seeds were planted singly in flowerpots in the greenhouse, As in the 



50 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

case of the cabbage, one-third of the plants were not transplanted, one- 
third transplanted once, and one-third transplanted twice. As soon as 
the weather permitted, 10 plants from each lot were taken from the 
pots and transferred to the open ground, every precaution being taken 
to avoid injurv to the roots. The total jneld of fruit in 3 years by the 
plants that had not been transplanted was 1,174.8 lbs. Those that had 
been transplanted once yielded 1,131.2 lbs. and those that had been 
transplanted twice 1,001.2 lbs. 

In order to judge of the influence of transplanting on earliness, the 
ripening season was divided into 3 parts and the yield calculated sep- 
arately for each part. During the first period the jdeld of the plants 
that had not l^^en transplanted was 105.2 lbs. Those that had been 
transplanted once yielded during the same period 109.7 lbs., while 
those that had been transplanted twice yielded l)ut 88.1 lbs. 

Experiments were also made in the open field with cauliflower, kale, 
collards, and two varieties of cabbage, the results showing a gain in 
every case in favor of those plants that were not transplanted. 

The conclusions, based on 3 years of experiment, are stated as 
follows: 

' ' Lettuce and other plants in the greenhouse, when given sufficient room to develop 
and not transplanted, matured quicker and produced a greater yield than similar 
plants that had been transplanted. In the case of tomatoes there was a slight gain 
in earliness and yield in favor of the not transplanted plants, while those twice trans- 
planted were very evidently injured. Cabbage and allied plants when grown wholly 
in the open ground were perceptibly injured by transjilanting. 

' ' The general conclusion drawn from this work is that transplanting does not pro- 
mote earliness nor an increased yield. Once transplanting, as of cabbage plants, 
from the seed bed to the field, or 'pricking off,' as commonly practiced in the green- 
house, is necessary in order to economize room, but repeated transplanting of vege- 
table plants is not advisable." 

Report of the horticulturist, A. L. Quaintance ( Georgia Sta. Ri^t. 
ISOO.pj). mj-130).—n\(i effects of the freeze of February 13, 1899, 
on orchard fruits are discussed, and tables are given showing the 
results on 15 varieties of Japanese plums. As a whole, these suffered 
more than peaches, some being entirely killed. Figs and Japanese 
persimmons were killed to the ground. The injury to grapes was 
light, though the varieties Eden and Scuppernong were seriousl}' 
injured. Apples, cherries, quinces, and native plums were not per- 
ceptibl}" injured by the freeze. 

Tables are given showing the effect of ringing on 195 varieties of 
grapes, especially with reference to earliness and keeping ([ualities. 
The results for the season show that the time of keeping of 22 varie- 
ties was somewhat prolonged by ringing; with (JO varieties it was 
shortened from 1 to 7 da3's. 

Brief notes are given on the growth of onions, sweet corn, celerj^, 
and asparagus. Applications of common salt did not increase the 



HOETICULTUKE. 51 

yield of asparagus, and when 5 tons of kainit were applied per acre 
the yield was only slightly increased. The variety Palmetto gave the 
best yield of 4 varieties tested. The greatest yields with asparagus 
were obtained from plants set 18 in. apart in 4-foot rows. The shoots 
of these plants, however, were small, and for choice cuttings it is sug- 
gested that plants should not be set closer than 4 by 4 ft. 

Field notes of horticultural department, C. B. Waldron [North 
Dakota Sta. Bui. -4^, /;/». JiDS-53J). — The influence of different fertili- 
zers on the total yield and time of maturity of vegetables in the Red 
River Valley are reported for the years 1898 and 1899. The soil 
selected was t3^pical of the whole valle3\ Different varieties of beets, 
onions, cucumbers, cabbage, lettuce, tomatoes, Vjeans, radishes, peas, 
and carrots were grown, each being fertilized with a complete fertili- 
zer, superphosphate, kainit, nitrate of soda, salt, lime, and stable 
manure, respectively. The results are recorded in 54 tables. In no 
case was there sufficient increase due to the fertilizers to warrant their 
application, and it is thought that the method of handling the soil has 
more to do with the production of vegetables in this valley than the 
application of fertilizers. Transplanting onions, even the ordinary 
sorts, proved prolitable. 

Preliminary report on experiments in pinching raspberry shoots, 
E. 8. GoFF ( Wisconsin Sta. RjA. 1899, jyp. 275-28^, jd. i).— Experi- 
ments made to ascertain to what extent the pinching of the tips 
of raspberry shoots promotes productiveness and increases the size of 
fruit are reported. In the first experiment 6 rows each of Cuthbert 
{Euhas strigosus) and Gregg [R. occidentaUs) raspberries were used. 
"Two rows of each variety were left unpinched; two other rows had 
the shoots pinched as they attained the height of about 12 in.; the 
remaining two rows of each variety had the shoots pinched at about 
12 in. high; and in addition the branches were pinched as they attained 
the length of al)out 12 in. from the main shoot." The result of the 
experiment was that the canes which were not pinched at all yielded 
slightly more than those that were pinched, the difference being rather 
the more noticcal)le with the Cuthbert variety. 

To ascertain the effect of pinching the shoots on the size of the 
berry, 100 were taken by chance from each plat and weighed. 

"The pinching appeared to increase the size of the fruit a little, especially in the 
Cuth])ert variety. 

"No difference could be observed in the different methods of jiinching as to the 
susceptibility of the plants to disease. It wa.s oljserved, however, that the shoots that 
were not pinched at all were killed back a little farther in winter than those that 
were pinched. The shoots appeared to be more numerous in the pinched than in 
the unpinched rows, and most numerous in the rows in which both the shoots and 
laterals were pinched. This indication was fully confirmed when one of the planta- 
tions was rooted out. The stumps from the unpinched rows showed the fewest stubs 
of caues, and those from the twice-pinched rows showed the most." 



52 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

This experiment was not satisfactoiy for several reasons, and a 
second and more extended one was undertaken. Two-thirds of an 
acre was divided into 2 equal parts, one of which Avas planted to Greg'g 
and the other to Cuthbert raspberries. Each of these plats was further 
subdivided into 3 plats. 

"Each of these 3 plats was again subdivided into 3 smaller plats, containing 3 
rows each. Each of these 3-row plats had 1 row that was left unpinched, 1 row 
of which the shoots only were pinched, and 1 row in which both the shoots and 
laterals were pinched. In the first plat of each variety, the shoots in the pinched 
rows were pinched at 12 in. high; in the second plat they were pinched at 18 in. 
high; and in the third plat at 24 in. high. Four shoots only were permitted to 
grow to each plant. The plantation was carefully gone over at frequent intervals 
and every shoot in the pinched rows was pinched at nearly the designated height. 
The superfluous shoots and suckers were removed from each row and either counted 
or weighed. ' ' 

The results of the experiment indicated: "(1) That the high-pinched 
rows A^elded more fruit than the low-pinched rows; (2) that the high- 
pinched rows yielded more fruit than the rows that were not pinched; 
(3) that twice pinching gave no advantage in ^deld over once pinching; 
(■1) that the influence of the pinching is quite as marked in the Cuth- 
bert variet}^ as in the Gregg, and it seems to have been exerted in the 
same direction." 

Observations were made on the effect of pinching on growth of 
superfluous shoots and suckers. The results are shown in tabular 
form. 

"The data clearly indicate that pinching the shoots stimulates the growth of 
superfluous shoots and suckers. Pinching both the shoots and laterals api^ears to 
stimulate the superfluous growth less than pinching the shoots only. This is prob- 
ably because the second pinching, coming later in the season than the first, and 
being made on a larger number of shoots, is a much more effectual check to growth 
than is the first pinching. ' ' 

Observations were also made on the effect of pinching upon the 
height and stockiness of the stems and upon the labor of covering 
them for winter. As a result of these experiments the author is of 
the opinion that the importance of pinching as a means of keeping 
the growth of stems within bounds has probably been overestimated. 

In the experiments there was but little difference as regards height 
of canes and spread of branches between the plants pinched and those 
unpinched; but the labor of covering the former was full}" one-third 
greater. The stems were decidedl}' more brittle and the branches 
were more numerous in the pinched rows. 

The experiments are to Ije continued. The following conclusions 
are drawn from the data obtained up to the present time: 

"In young plantations of the Gregg and Cuthbert raspberries grown under the 
conditions noted for these experiments, pinching the shoots high, (. e., when about 
2-4 in. tall, is beneficial to the yield, but that pinching at 12 in. high is of very doubt- 



HORTICULTURE. 53 

fill value, as is shown in both experiments; also, that pinching the lateral shoots is 
not beneficial to the yield, and that pinching increases the growth of superfluous 
shoots, and, in the Cuthbert variety, of suckers. Pinching also increases the cost of 
covering for winter protection." 

Preserving fruit for exhibition, F. Cranefield ( Wlsco?isin Sta. 
Bj>f. 1809, pp. 309-311., jigs. 2).- — Trials were made with a view to 
fiiuling- a method of preserving fruit for exhibition purposes that 
would preserve the color of the fruit as far as possible and at the same 
time the form. Sulphur fumes, corrosive sublimate, salicylic acid, and 
solutions of formalin in Avater were tried and found to be of little value. 
Mixtures of formalin and alcohol were tried, however, as prescr^a- 
tives for plums Avith considerable success. A formula containing- 2 
per cent of formalin, 20 per cent of alcohol, and 78 per cent of water 
was found to l)e l)est suited to the purpose. 

"Plums put in the above mixture one year ago are at jiresentwell preserved. The 
fruit remains firm, and in the case of the lighter colored varieties the color is well 
preserved and the liquid remains clear. The color was not so well preserved in the 
case of the dark-pur])le varieties. The Jaj^an plums are especially well preserved 
both in color and form. . . . Plums that were put in the mixture slightly immature 
cracked badly in every case, while those put in fully ripe remained without crack- 
ing. Currants, raspberries, and blackberries placed in the formalin and alcohol 
mixture mentioned above remained firm, but the color was not well preserved." 

Rose grooving with chemical fertilizers, W. Stuart {Indiana Sta. 
Rpt. 1S99, pp. 10-35., pis. Jf). — Extensive pot experiments covering a. 
period of 3 years were made in fertilizing Kaiserin Augusta Victoria 
and Perle des Jardins roses with dissolved boneblack, rock phosphate, 
raw l)one meal, acidulated ground bone, superphosphate, nitrate of 
soda, and muriate of potash, for the purpose of studying the relative 
effects of different forms of phosphoric acid alone and conjointly with 
nitrate of soda and muriate of potash, on growing roses. A cla3'ey 
soil was generally employed. In some instances black loam was used 
for comparison. The detailed results obtained with the different fer- 
tilizers and soils are reported exhaustively in a series of 20 tables. 
The author summarizes his conclusions as regards the results obtained 
as follows: 

" There is every reason to believe from the results obtained in the several experi- 
ments, that chemical fertilizers when jjroperly used may be made to serve every need 
of the rose plant so far as food is concerned. 

' ' The use of raw bone meal in every instance gave an increased yield over that of 
the control plants, as well as giving a greater percentage of gain than did those 
receiving other forms of phosjjhoric acid. 

" Pure bone meal is not injurious to rose plants, even when applied in amounts 
largely in excess of the requirements of the plant. 

"The acidulated bone meal, which has been used by florists and suj^posed to be 
harmful, did not produce any noticeable injury, even when used in large amounts. 

"As a rule, a coml)ination of phosphoric acid and nitrate of soda gave better results 
than one of phosphoric acid and muriate of potash. 



54 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

"Two or three applicati(jns of potash during the season was found to be preferable 
to a single application, although in some instances no injury from the single applica- 
tion was apparent. 

"A larger number of I'erle roses were produced from i)lantH grown in a l)lack than 
in a clay loam, while the Kaiserin gave reverse results. 

"The subwatering method proved an eflicient means of supplying the plants with 
moisture." 

Rose thrips were eontrolled in these experiments by frequent spray- 
ing with a sohition of Rose Leaf Extract of Tobaceo, 1 part of the 
extract to 75 parts of water. 

Our gardens, 8. R. Hole {London: -J. M. Dent (0 Co., ISO'J, pp. 304, pl>!. S).— 
Dea,ls with the history and development of English gardens, the formation of a 
garden, its constituent parts, herbaceous borders, and containing chapters on each of 
the subjects, rose, rock, -water, wild, cottage, children's, town, and other gardens. 
8uital)le plants are suggested in each instance and their characters given. 

Variations produced by grafting, and their inheritance {Gard. Chron., 27 
{1900), Nos. 680, pp. 12, 13; 682, pp. 35, 36; 685, pp. 85, 86; 687, p. i^tf).— Showing 
variations in growth, form, flowering, and chemical constitution. The article is Ijased 
on work l)y b. Daniel (E. S. E., 11, p. 343). 

Preservation of fruits, vegetables, seeds, and bulbs, II. C!oi:pin {La confterva- 
tion desfruit.'i drs legumes, dcs graines, et den racines halheuses. L'aris: Octare Doin, 1890, 
pp. 172, figs. 6). — A chapter is devoted to each of the above subjects, and the mate- 
rial in each cha])ter arranged alphabetically. With the fruits and vegetables most 
attention is given to their preservation in the fresh and in the dried state. Under- 
seeds, duration of vitality and preservation against insect enemies are considered. 
The chapter on bulbs gives directions for keeping a number of flowering sorts. 

Experiments in forcing vegetables, J. Troop {Indiana Sta. Rpt. 1899, pp. 82, 
83).- — These consisted of subwatering v. surface- watering experiments with tomatoes 
and lettuce, and of fertilizing expjeriments with lettuce and peas. The results of the 
tests are given but no conclusions are drawn. 

The new asparagus culture, G. M. Hay {Ainer. Gard., 21 {1900), No. 282, p. 
344) ■ — The details of growing asparagus from seed suitable for cutting 2 years from 
date of sowing are given. 

An experiment in pruning old trees, 11. A. Aldricii {Trans. Illinois State 
I fort. Sor., 1899, pp. 4S-54). — (>1<1 trees which had l)een subject to nonbearing for 
years were given over to thorough pruning, the whole top being headed in from 1 to 
3 ft. A yield of 20 to 30 bu. of ajoples per tree was obtained the first season, besides 
a good growth of new wood. 

Seaweed for fruit trees {Agr. Jour. Cape Good Hope, 16 {1900), Xo. 4, pp. 331, 
?32). — A brief note on the successful use of seaweed as a fertilizer and as a nudch for 
fruit trees. 

New varieties of fruit not yet generally introduced, S. A. Beach {Proc. West. 
New York Iloit. Soe., 1900, pp. 34-41)- — Notes on the (juality and cliaracter of 12 
varieties of ai)i)le.'», 2 of Jajjanese plums, 2 of gra])es, and 2 of Domcstica jilums, as 
yet Httle grown. 

Note on the cider fruits of Germany — apples and pears, .V. Tkuelle {Note 
sur les fruits de j)resdon Allemand — pjomnnes et poires. liennes: V. L. Caillot, 1899, -pp. 
44) ■ — The varieties of apples and pears most used for cider in Germany are described 
and ta))les given showing their composition. 

Russian apples in Indiana, J. Troop {Indiana Sta. Rpt. 1899, pp. 78-81). — Notes 
on 43 varieties of Russian apjjles which fruited at the station during the season. "Not 
one \;u'iety in the whole list can be classed as a winter apple in Indiana." 



DISEASES OF PLANTS. 55 

Investig-ations made by the State Board of Horticulture of the California 
olive industry (Sucrfonento, 1900, pp. S-3,_figs. SO). — The history of ohve growing 
in California, methods of pro])agation, soils, canses of nnfrnitfulness, pruning, graft- 
ing, V)n(l(ling, varieties, methods of extracting the oil, packing, apparatus, pickling, 
processing, grading, and pests affecting olives are popularly considered. The woi'k 
is based wholly on California conditic^ns, methods, and practices. 

Culture of the olive, N. Minangoin [Bui. Dir. Agr. et Com., 5 {1900), No. 15, 
pp. 4G-GS). — Systems and methods of culture of the olive employed in Tunis. 

The Russian olive, C. S. U.vrrlson {Amer. Card., 21 {1900), No. 2SG, p. .jO.'j, jhj. 
1). — History and description of this ornamental tree in Nebraska. 

The peach, C. Tkeiugxaku {llev. IIoH. el V'd., 32 {1900), No. 6, ]>]>. 110-1 IS, Jhjx. 
2). — Tyjies of fruit liranches and pruning are considered. 

The service tree and its fruits, A. Truelle {Du sorbus domestica et de ses fruits. 
Alen<;on: E. Renaidl de Braise, 1S9S, pp. 23). — This discusses the varieties and uses of 
this fruit in the different countries of Europe and gives directions for its propagation 
and culture. 

Culture of tree and bush fruits, A. Du Breuil {Culture des arbres el arJirisseaux 
a fruits de table. Furls: (J. Massov, ]>p. 693, figs. 53). — In the general part of this 
work all the operations of the orchard are considered. The special part takes up all 
the more important orchard fruits, including citrus fruits, figs, ap])les, pears, cherries, 
and the like, table grapes, nuts, etc., and gives complete cultural directions for each. 

Analysis of prickly pear, C. F. Jtritz {Bpt. Senior Avahjst, Cape Good Ilojie, 
1S9S, pp. 63-60). — The composition of the young and older leaves, stalk, and inner 
portion of the stalk of the prickly pear is reported. 

The culture of coffee {Bol. Agr. Miv. e Iiid. [Me.vico'}, 9 {1399), No. 3, pp. 4-172, 
figs. 23). — A comprehensive article on the history, botany, chemistry, culture, and 
manufacture of coffee. 

The establishment of a coffee plantation, F. W. Morren {Beiliefte Tropenpflan- 
zrr, 1 {1900), Nos. 2, pjp. 39-71, figs. S; 3, pj). 75-118, figs. 6). — Directions for prepar- 
ing the land, planting, manuring, cultivating, and pruning the trees, and harvesting 
the crop, with notes on injurious insects and diseases affecting the trees. 

Present status of coffee culture in Brazil, F. W. Dafert ( Ueber die gegenu-iirtige 
Lcige des Kafi)rlnnis In Brasilien. Amsterdam: J. H. de Bussy, 1898, pp. 63, charts 4). 

A cocoanut analysis, F. Bachofen {Queensland. Agr. Jonr., 6 {1900), No. 4, pt- 
297). — The draft of the cocoanut on the soil is shown by the ash analyses reported of 
the husk, shell, kernel, and milk of the fruit. 

Manual of practical viticulture, E. Durand {Manuel de viticulture pratique. 
Paris: J. B. Bnilliere & Sons, 1900, pp. 4-4, fig!^- 147). — Chapters are given on the 
organography and physiology of the vine, biological cycle, climate and soils, pro])a- 
gation, cultivation, pruning, training, manuring, pests, and like subjects, making the 
work a very complete treatise on practical viticulture. 

Some hints on ornamental planting, C. B. Waldron {North DaJcota Sta. Bui. 
41, i>p. 471-491, figs. 3). — Popular suggestions to the farmers of the Northwest on the 
planting of ornamental and economic trees and shrubs, with notes on some of the 
more essential principles of landsca])e gardening. There is appended a jtaper on 
"Locating shruljs for effect," by F. H. Nutter, and a table of hardiness of deciduous 
trees and ornamental shrubs and vines taken from jNIinnesota Station Bui. 24 (E. S. 
R., 4, p. 653). 

DISEASES OF PLANTS. 

Notes on various plant diseases, F. C. Stewart {N'evi Ym'k State 
Sta. Bui. 16 If.., pp. Wl-'B'Bl., pis. 4-)- — Notes are given on a bacterial 
rot of onions, powdery mildew on field-g-rown cucumbers, dodder on 
cucumbers under glass, on the possible cause of the Baldwin fruit spot, 



56 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

a fusarium leaf spot of carnations, and CJia'fomhnii coiiiorfuiii on bar- 
ley seedlings. 

In the summer of 1898 it was reported to the station that in the 
onion region of Orange County, N. Y., the bulVjs were rotting badly, 
and upon investigation it was found that in nearly all the fields there 
was a considerable amount of rot. Two forms were recognized, one 
which starts at the bottom of the onion and the second which starts at 
the top or neck. The latter kind was much moi'e common and consti- 
tuted probably 80 per cent of the total amount of rot. Upon cutting 
open the affected bulbs, it was generally found that 2 or 3 of the outer 
scales were perfectlj^ sound, while the remainder of the bulb was a 
rotten mass. Microscopic examinations of the rotten tissues showed 
the absence of fungi, but there were swarms of a medium-sized motile 
bacillus which doubtless causes the rot. Bulbs so affected showed in 
addition a growth of fusarium, which aids materially in destroying the 
onions, and in some cases this may be the primary" cause. As yet no 
attempt has been made to determine the identity of the organism caus- 
ing the disease. Experiments were conducted in the laljoratory which 
showed the necessity of an abundant water supply for the production 
of the disease, and as the onion ffelds had been frequently inundated 
on account of the heavy rainfall during the season, the conditions 
were favorable for the presence and rapid spread of the disease. 

The powdery mildew on field-grown cucumbers is reported by the 
station, although the identity of the fungus is a matter of some 
conjecture. While powdery mildew has been known to occur on 
cucumbers grown under glass, this is probably the first report of its 
occurrence in the field. There seems to be little likelihood of its 
becoming epidemic, and should it do so, it probably would not be 
diflicult to control. 

The author reports the occurrence of dodder, probably Cuscuta gro- 
nov'u, on cucumber plants grown in the station hothouse. 

Investigations were conducted to determine whether the Baldwin 
fruit spot is caused l)y fungi or bacteria. This disease, which is quite 
characteristic on the Baldwin apple, occurs in the form of conspicuous 
spots on the surface of the fruit. The spots vary in color from light 
to dark brown, are generally' circular in outliiie, although sometimes 
quite irregular, but always with the corners well rounded and sharph^ 
delimited from healthy tissue. Underneath the surface spots the tissue 
is light brown, dry, and spongy for a distance of ^ to yV hi. This 
spongy tissue is not bitter to the taste, or at least but slightly so. 
Microscopic examination of the tissue revealed no fungi or bacteria 
which could be definitely demonstrated. From the results of the 
author's study, he concludes that this form of apple fruit spot is not 
caused by fungi or bacteria and that the real cause is unknown. 

A report is given of a fusarium occurring on the carnation, result- 
ing in leaf spot. The plants had been growing under conditions espe- 



DISEASES OF PLANTS. 57 

cially favorable to fungi, being situated so that the direct sunlight 
never reached them. The spots varied in length from i to 1 in. and 
were covered by a pinkish-gray mold dotted in the center with yellow 
spore masses of the fusarium. The fungus wa.s evidently parasitic on 
the leaves, but careful examination revealed the fact that in every case 
the spots originated in a rust sorus. It appeared that the fungus was 
unable to attack the uninjured leaf, but when the epidermis was broken 
by rust, it was able to enter and bring about the decay. Inoculation 
experiments, it is thought, will show that this fungus is identical with 
that causing carnation stem rot. 

A report is given of the occurrence on barley seedlings of the peri- 
thecia of Chcetomium contortum. This fungus was previously noted 
as occurring on lily bulbs in a greenhouse on Long Island, where it 
was discovered by the author in 1895. No report had been made of 
the occurrence of this fungus from that time until the present, when 
it was found on barley. The indications are that it is not parasitic, 
but that the spores had become attached to the barley seeds before 
they were planted. 

Corn smut, J. C. Arthur and W. Stuart {Indiana Sta. Bpt. 1S99, 
pp. 8If,-135^ j)l^' -^5 c^^vrt 1). — A detailed report is given on corn smut, 
the investigations of the authors and others being drawn upon. Corn- 
smut experiments have been conducted at the station for about 10 
years, in which the life history of the fungus has been studied, together 
with possibilities of discovering methods for prevention. An histor- 
ical resume is given of the experiments with corn smut, the proper 
scientific name of which the author claims is Ustilago zem. The life 
history of the fungus, as shown by the development of the spores, etc. , 
is described at considerable length. The influence of weather and 
maturity on infection, the distribution of the smut pustules over the 
plant, and prevention by spraying are discussed at some length. 
Details of some of these investigations have been previously reported 
(E. S. R., 8, p. 317). 

Experiments in which corn plants were spraj^ed with Bordeaux mix- 
ture and other fungicides showed that the disease can be controlled, 
but the economic consideration places such treatment out of the possi- 
bility of utilization. It is recommended that all smut masses be 
destroyed by burning or putting in boiling water. The effect of smut 
on animals, as shown by a careful review of literature, is given, 
together with notes on the digestibility of the smut fungus. A sum- 
mary is given by the authors of their investigations, and an extensive 
bibliography on the subject completes the report. 

Club root, W. Hawk {Rpt. Agr. ExpU. Cornwall County Council 
1898., 2^P- ^^7-lt2., ph. 7). — Experiments in the treatment of club root 
of turnips are reported. Lime was applied in different quantities at 
various depths and at different seasons. A plat of land receiving 6 



58 EXPEKIMENT STATION RECORD. 

tons of limo per acre and frequentl}^ cultivated to a depth of about 3 
in. yielded, with a basic slag fertilizer, 18 tons, 952 lbs. of roots per 
acre, and with superphosphate, 11 tons, 308 lbs. of roots per acre. On 
the basic slag the number of sound roots per pole was 156, and of dis- 
eased roots, 126. On the superphosi^hate the number of sound roots 
was 51, and of diseased roots 132. 

Another plat similarly treated in all respects, with the single excep- 
tion that it was cultivated onh^ occasionally and then to the depth of 
onl}^ i in., yielded, with slag, 13 tons, 6i4: lbs. of roots per acre, and 
with superphosphate, 9 tons, 1,901 lbs. On the slag in this case the 
number of sound roots per pole was 102 and the number of diseased 
roots 186. On the superphosphate there were only 60 sound roots 
per pole, Imt 114 diseased roots. "It will be seen that both on the 
slag and superphosphate halves of the plats the figures are conclusively 
favorable to the thorough incorporation of the lime with the soil." 

In stuchdng the quantity of lime that should be applied, the plats 
just referred to, receiving 6 tons of lime per acre, were compared with 
similar plats receiving 8 tons per acre. The turnips on slag receiving 
6 tons of lime per acre yielded 18 tons, 952 lbs. of roots per acre, 
while the plat treated with 8 tons of lime produced only 18 tons; but 
on the plat receiving 8 tons of lime, more than 5 out of every 6 roots 
were sound, while on the other plat nearly one-half of the roots were 
more or less diseased. The figures for the plats receiving superphos- 
phate were very different, but the general results were the same. The 
jdelds of turnips on the plats receiving basic slag and those receiving 
superphosphate, as reported in the first experiment above, are, as 
already indicated, highly favorable to slag; but when the lime was 
applied in June instead of in the autumn, as in that case, the amount 
of 3'ield on the respective plats was reversed, but was in each case 
nuu'h less than when lime was applied in the fall. 

Tests of kainit and sulphate of iron showed that both were equally 
powerless to check the disease. Sulphate of copper checked the dis- 
ease to a small extent. Experiments are now in progress to determine 
whether the micro-organism causing the disease can survive passage 
through an animal. 

Apple-tree anthracnose, A. B, Cokdley {Oregon Sta. Bui. GO., 
pp. S, jjIs. J.) — For several years there has been known in the apple 
orchards of western Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia a 
more or less serious disease which is locally known as canker, dead 
spot, or })lack spot. Investigations on the part of the author have led 
him to the conclusion that this is an undescribed disease caused by a 
species of Glceosporium, to which the name G. onalicorticis has been 
given. In order to avoid confusion, he proposes for this disease the 
common name apple-tree anthracnose. 



DISEASES OF PLANTS. 59 

The disease principall}^ attacks the smaller })raiiches, although occur- 
ring- soinetinies on the larger ones and often on the trunks of young 
trees. It appears in the fall, soon after the autumn rains begin, as 
small, irregular, slightly depressed brown areas of the bark. During 
the fall and winter its spread is very slow, but with the recurrence of 
spring it spreads rapidly, until an area of several inches in diameter is 
infected. Occasionally a single area completely girdles a branch, kill- 
ing at once its distal portion, but more commonly a dead spot occurs, 
from which, in the course of a few months, the bark sloughs off, leav- 
ing an ugly wound, which heals very slowly. The cause of the disease 
is mentioned and the fungus briefly characterized. The fungus has 
been isolated and grown on various cultures and inoculation experi- 
ments successfully made. 

As possible remedies, the author suggests the use of Bordeaux mix- 
ture or ammoniacal copper carljonate, together with pruning of badly 
infested trees. 

The New York apple-tree canker, W. Paddock {New York State 
Sta. BhJ. 163, pp. 179-206, ph. 6). -In 1898 the station authorities 
were requested to investigate the cause of the dying of trees in an 
orchard in East Bloomfield, N. Y. The orchard in question originally 
consisted of 125 acres. The trees on 30 of the 80 acres in one part 
were ruined by the canker and had been taken out, and one-half of 
the trees on the remaining 50 acres are now of little value. 

The owners have noticed the disease for at least 6 or 8 years, but it 
has increased rapidly only in the last 3 or 4 years. It showed a 
decided preference for certain varieties, the Twenty Ounce being the 
most susceptible, followed by Baldwin, Wagener, Greening, and King, 
in the order named. Tallman Sweet appears to be practically free 
from the disease. 

Investigations as to the possible cause of the disease resulted in the 
discovery that it was due to the same cause as the black rot of the 
apple {Sp/ia'i'opf<i.s malorum). More than 50 successful inoculations 
were made in 1898, and in 1899 the experiments were repeated many 
times with the same result. 

The geographical distribution of the fungus, as determined from 
circular letters sent to various stations, is as follows: Connecticut, 
Indiana, Maryland, Michigan, Pennsylvania, and Vermont, and proba- 
bly in Illinois, Maine, Massachusetts, Minnesota, New Jersey, AVest 
Virginia, and portions of Canada. 

The author thinks it probable that when the disease becomes more 
generally known it will be found in many of the apple-growing sec- 
tions of the Northern, Central, and New England States. 

The appearance of the disease may be recognized by the occurrence 
of dark enlarged sections on the larger limbs which, upon closer exami- 
3809— No. 1 5 



60 EXPERIMENT STATION RECUKD. 

nation, show a much roughened and thickened bark, and in many 
instances a portion of the wood is laid bare. The dead bark on many 
diseased limbs clings tenaciously to the decaying wood, which is a 
feature that distinguishes this canker from sun scald. The area of 
bare wood is often small as compared with the extent of swollen bark. 
The progress of the disease is marked hy numerous pits and scars, 
showing M'here the fungus was al)le to live until it gained entrance to 
the caml)ium through some injury. The scars are usualW circular in 
form and ma}" be outlined by 2 or more concentric lines. The fungus 
shows a preference for the larger limbs of mature trees, although the 
trunks and branches of young trees, as well as the small limbs and 
twigs of a current season's growth, suffer from its attack. While the 
extent of injury done to the orchards can scarcely be estimated, it is 
the author's belief that it is one of the worst diseases which the 
orchardist will have to contend with, since it attacks the tree directly 
instead of the foliage. 

Infection, it is stated, takes place in the spring of the year, and the 
presence of the fungus is indicated in a newly-infected limb by the 
appearance of a small area of discolored bark. This area extends 
slowly as the fungus grows outward until midsummer, when a definite 
boundary forms l)etween the dead and living bark. The season's 
growth is stopped by the 1st of August, and in some instances pyc- 
nidia containing mature spores were found at that time. The myce- 
lium was unable to penetrate to the caml)ium through the living l)ark, 
but those spores which chanced to fall and germinate in a wound pro- 
duced the cankers. There is some evidence that the mycelium lives 
over winter and continues its growth the following spring. 

Among preventive measures, the author recommends that special 
attention should be paid to the sanitary condition of the trees. The 
practice of scraping and whitewashing the trunks, now largely in dis- 
favor, is recommended for adoption in localities where canker is severe; 
also washing the trees with a whale-oil soap mixture, spraying with 
Bordeaux mixture, cutting out cankered limbs, and covering the 
wounds witli Bordeaux mixture or some other fungicide. The time 
for spra3dng is given, the first application to be made at the time that 
the leaf buds begin to open, a second a week before the blossom buds 
open, a third as soon as all the blossoms have fallen, and a fourth 10 
da3^s or 2 Aveeks later. 

The investigations of this disease were continued in 1899, and it was 
found that a numb.er of fruit trees are attacked l)y species of Sphte- 
ropsis. The author's investigation would seem to indicate that the 
number of species can bo materially reduced, since there is great proba- 
bility of the same species occurring in a slightly modified form upon 
a numbci- of hosts. 



DISEASES OF PLANTS. 61 

In 1SU8, while preliminary studies in apple canker were being con- 
ducted, a body blight of pear trees was discovered in which a Spha3- 
ropsis w^as found abundant, commonly associated with Macrophoma 
malorum. 

Notes are given on a Pacific-coast apple-tree anthracnose, which is 
described elsewhere (E. S. R., 12, p. 58), and a European canker due 
to species of Nectria. 

Plant diseases, A. L. Quaintance {Georgia Sta. Rpt. 1899, pp. 139-141). -^Br'iei 
notes are given on the occnrrence of a number of diseases, with suggestions for their 
prevention. Among those enumerated are the Macrosporium disease of tomato plants 
and eggplants, Sclerotium disease of Irish potatoes and tomatoes, a rot of tomatoes, 
the black rot of grapes, the brown rot of grapes, celery blight, and soft rot of sweet 
potatoes. 

Divers diseases discussed, F. H. Hall {New York Slate Sta. Bui. 164, popular ed., 
pp. 5) — A popular edition of Bulletin 164 of this station, in which a number of plant 
diseases are discusseil (see p. 55). 

Report of the botanist, C. E. Bessey {Rpt. Nebraska Slate Bd. Agr. 1898, pp. 
139-161). — A preliminary account of the diseases of the farm crops of Nebraska. 

The diseases of the potato, E. Gain {Sta.Agron. Nancy Bui. 1, 1899, pp. 40-51). — 
The author divides the diseases of the j^otato into 2 categories based upon their 
importance. In the first are placed the dry rot, wet rot, Phytophthora, and a spot 
disease called frizolee. In the second class are considered potato scab, Rhizoctonia, 
a disease due to Spongospora solani, and the greening of the tubers. The causes of 
these various diseases are described, together with their effects upon the host plants, 
and suggestions are given wherever known for the prevention of the diseases. 

Smut in wheat {Agr. Jour. Cape Good Hope, 16 {1900), No. 3, pp. 147-152). 

Gumming disease in cane {Internal. Sugar Jour., 3 {1900), No. 14, p>p. 97, 98). 

Asparagus rust, P. H. Rolfs {South Carolina Sta. Rpt. 1899, p. 17). — Asparagus 
seed from a field of rusted asparagus carried many spores, although the berries did 
not appear to be diseased. " Though direct evidence is wanting, it seems altogether 
probable that seedlings raised from such seeds would contract the disease." Uredo 
spores were found on stocks of two-year-old plants in a diseased field two or three 
inches below the surface of the ground. In such cases burning over the beds, which 
has sometimes been recommended, would not eradicate the disease. It is not consid- 
ered advisable to plant seed gathered from a rusted field, nor to set out a plantation 
with plants from such a source. 

Fruit tree enemies, E. H. Potter {Gard. Citron., 3. ser., 27 {1900), No. 681, p. 
20). — Notes are given on canker, mildew, gumming, and luimerous insect enemies, 
with suggestions for their suppression. 

Canker — an enemy of the apple, F. H. Hall and AV. Paddock {Neiv York 
Stale Sta. Bid. 163, popular ed., pp. 6, pjh. 2). — A popular edition of Bulletin 163 of 
the station (see p. 59). 

Diseases of the olive, L. Navarro {Bol. Agr. 3£in. e Ind. [ilft'.deo], 9 {1899), No. 
2, pp. 3-115, ph. 12) . — This article is in the nature of a general treatise on olive 
diseases. The diseases of the olive are considered under the following five heads: 
Influences of the soil, influences of the atmosphere, diseases caused by vegetable 
parasites, injuries caused by insects, and diseases produced by faulty systems of 
cultivation. 

Fumagine and its treatment, L. Degrully {Prog. Agr. et Vit. {Ed. L'Est), 21 
{1900), No. 6, pj). 165, 168). — Notes are given on fumagine, or sooty mold, occurring 
on the foliage of the grapes. As the fungus follows attacks tjf plant lice, the use of 



(32 EXPEEIMENT STATION RECORD. 

insecticides is advised, the petroleum soap or similar mixtures being recommended. 
Another formula highly commended is water 100 liters, (quicklime 20 kg., and heavy 
coal oil 8 kg. Winter washes are also advised. 

Fungi occurring in the greenhouses of the Berlin Botanic Gardens, 1'. Hen 
KINGS ( Verhaiidl. Bat. Yer. Brandenburg, 40 [1898), p. 109; abs. hi Ceidbl. Bukt. u. Par., 
2. Abi.,0 {1899), No. SO,pp. 687-G89) .—An extensive list of fungi and their host plants 
is given. 

The nematode and ammonia salts, C. Schkeiber {Rev. Gen. Ayron. Louvain, 9 
{1900), Xo. .), jip. 97-10..'). — This is an account of experiments during 1897, 1898, and 
1899 on tlie use of ammonia salts to destroy nematodes in the soil. Annnonium 
chlorid and nitrate proved effective for this jwrpose. 

Notes on Bordeaux mixture ( Wiener III us. Gart. Zt(j.,24 {1900), No. l,pp. 13-15) . 

Potassium permanganate as a fungicide, A. Chevallier {Prog. Agr. el Vit. 
{Ed. L' Est.), 21 {1900), No. 4,PP- 113, ii-^).— Potassium permanganate 100 gni., soap 
200, and water 100 liters, is said to make a convenient and efficient fungicide for 
combating black rot and grape mildew. 

On the use of calcium carhid as a fungicide, F. Galuet {Prog. Agr. el Vit. 
{Ed. UEst.), 21 {1900), No. 4, PP- 1^6, i^7).— Notes the successful use of tliis 
substance for the prevention of oidium. 

ENTOMOLOGY. 

Insect notes for 1899, A, L. Quaixtance {Georgia Sta. Ept. 1899, 
pp. lJi,l-lIfJj). — Some experiments were conducted in the destruction 
of Ajjhls mail. A 10 per cent mechanical mixture of kerosene and 
water killed 50 per cent and a 15 per cent mixture killed 90 per cent 
of the insect.s without injur}' to the trees, while a 20 per cent mechani- 
cal mixture killed 92 per cent of the insects, Ijut killed the tree. 

Rose Leaf, 1 part to 48 parts of water, killed 98 per cent of the 
insects. Nikoteen in the same proportion killed from 99 to 100 per 
cent of the insects, while whale-oil soap, 1 lb. to 6 gai. of water, killed 
9(j per cent of the insects. These 3 remedies caused no injuries to the 
trees. Rose Leaf proved almost as effective as Nikoteen, and is much 
cheaper. 

The harlequin cabbage bug {Murgantia histrionica) was unusuall}^ 
abundant during the year. A 10 per cent mechanical mixture of kero- 
sene and water killed about 15 per cent of this insect, a 15 per cent 
mixture killed from 35 to 40 per cent, while a 20 per cent mixture 
killed about 85 per cent of the bugs, but the latter mixture injured 
the plants considerably. Nikoteen, 1 part to 32 parts of water, killed 
about 45 per cent of the insects, and Rose Leaf, 1 part to 32 parts of 
water, killed none of the insects, although it seemed to act as a 
repellent. 

The author states that despite the severity of the winter of 1898-91>. 
injurious insects caused more than the usual amount of damage through- 
out the State during the year. 

The latter part of the report is a reprint of an article already noted 
(E. S. R., 11, p. 952). 



ENTOMOLOGY. 63 

The peach-tree borer, M. V. Slingerland {JVeio York Cornell Sta. 
Bid. 176, pp. 165-233, figs. 16; ahridgeded.^pp. 16, figs, i^).— The chief 
purpose of this bulletin is to present the results of an extended series 
of experiments with various remedies for the destruction of the peach- 
tree borer. Besides the discussion of remedies, however, the author 
presents an account of the ha))its and life history of the insect, so that 
the bulletin is considered a sort of compendium of knowledge concern- 
ing" the peach-tree borer. 

The insect lives only a short time in the adult stage and the larvte are 
not known to leave the peach tree during their development. The dis- 
tribution of this insect is, therefore, brought about for the most part 
by means of infested nursery stock. The author describes the appear- 
ance of infested trees, with an account of the gummy exudations. 

The insect is probably single brooded everywhere in the United 
States. In New York the moths appear from June until Septeml)er. 
The eggs are laid within a few hours after emerging, on the trunks of 
trees from 6 to IS in. from the ground. They hatch in about a week 
and the young larvae inuuediately make their wa}" into the bark. At 
the beginning of winter the larva prepares for hibernation, either in 
its burrow or in a thin case on the surface of the bark near the soil. 
The larvae begin spring feeding about May 1^ and most of them become 
full grown by June. The author presents an account of the natural 
enemies of the peach borer, of which one species {Ep>hiaUes irritator) 
was bred by him for the first time. 

The author\s experiments with remedies against the peach borer 
extended over a period of about 4 years. An orchard of nearly 400 
peach trees of 5 varieties was planted near the insectary for experi- 
mental purposes. The author considers the following substances 
injurious to the trees, and therefore dangerous: Paris green and glue, 
Raupenleim, Dendrolene, white paint, white paint and Paris green, 
and printer's ink. 

Among effective remedies the following arc mentioned: Hale's 
wash (2 applications), mounding, tarred paper, tobacco stems, gas tar, 
and digging out. In general it may be stated that remedies against 
the peach borer are not very successful. 

Experiments in growing tansy about peach trees showed that this 
plant had very slight efi'ect in repelling the borer, l)ut tobacco stems 
tied about the liase of the tree had a noticeable efi'ect. In experi- 
ments with the mounding method the soil was usually heaped up to a 
height of from 6 to 10 in. about the base of the trees. The results 
indicate that from one-half to seven-tenths of the borers were kept 
out by this method. In experiments with tarred paper, which was 
wrapped about the base of the tree, the results indicate that from one- 
half to seven-eighths of the borers were kept out. It is suggested that 
probably ordinary paper if carefully applied would prove as eflfective 



64 EXPERIMENT STATION EECORD. 

as tarred paper. Quite extensive experiments were carried on with 
wire cao'es placed aV)()ut the trees, and it was found that although this 
method seemed promising from a theoretical standpoint, it proved 
useless in its practical application. An asafoetida and aloes wash was 
applied to some of the trees for the purpose of determining whether 
oti'ensive-smelling substances had any efi'ect in deterring the adult 
insects from laying their eggs upon the trees. The results were 
negative. Various soap washes, whitewash, and lime-sulphur-salt 
wash proved to be practically ineffective, as did also hydraulic cement 
wash. The Paris green and glue wash killed the trees within a few 
weeks. With regard to the digging-out method, the author states 
that this is the "only thoroughly successful and safe way of killing 
the peach-tree borer." He recommends, however, that it be com- 
bined with one or another of the methods classified as efi'eetive, the 
particular combination to be made depending on the special circum- 
stances of each case. 

An extended bibliograph}^ is given of the peach-tree borer from 
1749 to the present time. 

Preliminary report on the insect enemies of forests in the 
North-west, A. D. Hopkins {U. S. Dept. Agr.^ Division of Entomol- 
ogy Bui. 2U n- se?\, pp. 27). — This preliminary bulletin contains a 
detailed itinerary of a trip by the author through the Northwest and 
a general account of observations made upon this trip. Especial 
attention was given to the study of the Scolytid enemies of forests of 
the Northwest. Among the trees of which the insect enemies were 
studied, the following may be mentioned: Redwood, western yellow 
pine, sugar pine, silver pine, red fir, tideland spruce, red cedar, west- 
ern hemlock, lowland fir, noble fir, and western larch. 

Popular notes are given on the infiuence of farming methods and 
lumbering methods upon forests and upon the relation of forest fires 
to depredations by insects. Brief notes are also presented upon the 
relation of insect enemies of trees to forest fires, the relation of the 
diseases of trees to insect enemies, and the interrelations of forest 
fires, insects, and fungus diseases. 

Among forest insects of the Northwest which are considered of the 
greatest economic importance, the following may be mentioned: 
Dendroctoiius h'revicornis., D. ahnilis., Scolytiis prwcej^s, Melaiiopldla 
drumniondi, and Neophasia menapia. 

Paris green for the codling moth, C. W. Woodworth and G. E. 
Colby {California iSta. Bui. IJV.pp. JtO,jigs. 2). — During the past 3 
or 4 years complaints have been made of the uncertain results 
obtained from spraying with Paris green. A circular letter was sent 
to entomologists and editors of agricultural newspapers for the pur- 
pose of obtaining statistics upon the question of the quality of Paris 
green. The answers to this circulai' letter indicated that in some cases 



ENTOMOLOGY. 65 

g'ood and rather uniform results have been obtained Ijy the use of 
Paris i>reen, while in an equally large nuniljer of cases the Paris green 
was found to be unreliable. 

The author recognizes 3 classes of unsatisfactory Paris green — 
l)ogus, adulterated, and low grade. In bogus Paris green, substances 
are substituted for the copper and arsenic of the ordinary Paris green. 
In adulterated Paris green, white powders, such as gypsuni or flour, 
are added to increase its weight. In the low-grade Paris green there 
is a low percentage of arsenious oxid in combination, and the requi- 
site percentage of arsenic is secured by the addition of free or soluble 
arsenious oxid. White arsenic has long been known to be injurious 
to foliage. The chief feature of Paris green which has made it a 
standard insecticide is its insolubility, and the addition of free 
arsenious oxid renders the substance dangerous and worthless as an 
insecticide. Two forms of poisoning from this substance may be 
recognized — the acute and chronic. In acute poisoning the leaves 
stow a ))lackening within 24 hours after the application of the insecti- 
cide. In chronic poisoning the leaves become prematurely yellow and 
drop oli' wdthin 3 or 3 weeks after the application is made. 

A sample of Paris green manufactured in New York City, upon 
analysis, was found to contain 23.6 per cent of its weight of free 
arsenious oxid which was soluble in water. Another sample sent to 
the station contained 29.4 per cent of soluble arsenious oxid. Such 
grades of Paris green must, of course, be condemned, as they would 
cause excessive injury to the foliage of fruit trees. A sample of 
barium arsenite which was analyzed at the station contained 27.64 per 
cent of free arsenious oxid. One sample of "pink arsenoid," or lead 
arsenite, contained only 3.24 per cent of free arsenious oxid, while the 
content of combined arsenious oxid was 40.02 per cent. This sample 
would not be dangerous to foliage and could be recommended. A 
sample of copper arsenite contained 7.82 per cent of arsenious oxid, 
and is, therefore, to be considered as dangerous. A sample of pro- 
prietary arsenical spray known as Paragrene was examined under the 
microscope. It was seen that the sample contained a considerable 
quantity of gypsum and also crystals of white arsenic. An analysis 
disclosed the fact that the sample contained 23.08 per cent of free 
arsenious oxid, and was, therefore, dangerous. 

Considerable quantities of lime have been added to the water in 
which Paris green is mixed in order to render insoluble the free 
arsenic or other soluble arsenites which are present in Paris green. 
This method is unsuccessful, however, in cases where the quantity of 
free arsenic is large. 

Several tests may be applied for the purpose of determining the 
purity of Paris green. Paris green dissolves freel}' in ammonia, 
while the majority of substances which have been used for adulterating 



66 EXPERIMENT STATION KECOKD. 

it are insoluble in ammonia. This test is valuable, but can not be 
depended upon in all cases. If a small quantity of the Paris green 
])e placed upon a glass slide and the glass jarred so as to cause the 
Paris green to slide down the surface of the glass, a bright green track 
will be left behind if the sample is pure, whereas the track will he 
white or pale green in case it is impure. The most satisfactory test, 
however, is the microscopic one. Under the microscope Paris green 
appears in the form of clean round masses. In impure samples one 
readih" observes in addition to these regular spheres quantities of mate- 
rial of irregular crystalline shape, usuall}^ of paler color. 

In New York, Louisiana, Texas, and Oregon laws have been enacted 
recjuiring Paris green to contain 50 per cent of arsenious oxid. A 
great defect of these laws is that no attempt is made to distinguish 
between soluble and insoluble arsenious oxid. A very low grade of 
Paris green may, therefore, be made to contain a sufficient quantitj^ 
of arsenic ])y simply adding arsenious oxid, which is cheaper than 
Paris green. The standard which has been adopted by the station 
makes the following requirements: "(1) The sample will be expected 
to contain, as seen under the microscope, only a trace of foreign mat- 
ter; (2) the total arsenious oxid shall exceed 50 per cent; (3) the sam 
pies shall contain practically no free arsenic or other soluble arsenical 
compound.'" 

Paris green has proved a satisfactory insecticide against the codling 
moth when a standard quality is used. The substance has, howev^er, 
become so unreliable that it seems advisable in the opinion of the 
author to use some substitute. Arsenite of copper has been used in 
various localities with considerable success. Barium arsenite was 
found unsatisfactory, being easily soluble and injurious to the foliage. 
London purple is the oldest substitute for Paris green, but it often 
contains considerable free arsenic so as to make it injurious to the 
foliage. Arsenite of lime has been used in several States with good 
results. Arsenite and arsenate of lead have been used by the Gj'ps}" 
Moth Conmiission as a substitute for Paris green. The arsenate of 
lead is decidedly the better substance for the gypsy moth and is per- 
haps to be preferred. Practical directions are given for preparing 
arsenate of lead, arsenic and lime, and arsenic, soda, and Ijme. 

The authoi' gives a brief discussion of various other methods for 
fighting the codling moth, among which mention may be made of the 
})and treatment, the destruction of windfall a})[)les, destruction of the 
codling moth in storage houses, the use of traps for the destruction of 
the moth, scraping the bark, and th(; application of winter sprays. 
Attention is called to the fact that one application of an insecticide is 
not sufficient. The spraying should be repeated during the summer 
at intervals of 3 or 4 weeks. It is necessary to take account of dif- 
ferences in the habits of the moth in different localities and during 



ENTOMOLOGY. 67 

different seasons in the same locality. The first application in most 
localities should 1)e made soon after the flowerino- period, and an effort 
should be made to wet every part of the plant, since the eggs are 
deposited indiscriminately on the leaves or upon the young fruit. 

Report of analyses of Paris green and other insecticides, L. L. 
Van Slyke (^V^//' Yorh State St<i. Bui. l(J'>,pp.'2'21-2Sli). — On account 
of frequent complaints of the inefficiency of Paris green, the station 
undertook a chemical investigation of this and other insecticides. 
Tables are givcni showing the percentage composition of chemically 
pure Paris green or copper aceto-arsenite. 

In 24 samples of Paris green which were analyzed, the quantity of 
arsenious oxid varied from 55.34 to 60.16 per cent and averaged 56.48 
per cent. The amount of copper oxid in these samples varied from 
27.7 to 30.9 per cent, and averaged 29.97 per cent. In pure Paris 
green, the ratio of arsenious oxid to copper oxid should be 1.87 : 1. 
In the samples of Paris green which were analyzed, this ratio varied 
from 1.82 to 2.17 : 1, and averaged 1.88 : 1. The ammonia test indicated 
the samples to be for the most part free from white arsenic. In all 
samples the amount of arsenious oxid exceeded the legal requirements. 
The only adulterant w^hich was found was white arsenic, and this in 
only 2 cases. 

Brief notes are given on analyses made of the following insecticides: 
Paragrene, Black Death, Slug Shot, London purple, Laurel Green, 
Smith's Electric Vermin Exterminator, and Bug Death. In the New 
York law regarding Paris green there is nothing to prevent the addi- 
tion of anj^ quantit}' of white arsenic to Paris green. This is consid- 
ered a decided defect in the law, but from the samples which were 
analyzed it would appear that it has not been taken advantage of to 
any considerable extent. The text of the New York law is appended 
to the l)ulletin. 

The queen bee, A. Gale {Agr. Qaz. Neto South Wale.% 11 {1900), Nos. 1, pp. 
28-:U; :i, p)>. 127-130). — Popular notes on the life history and habits of the queen 
bee. 

Care of bees in February, L. Wolff (Devi. Lanclw. Precise, 21 {1900), No. 9, 
}). 84). — On account of the small honey flow during the previous season, spring feed- 
ing is recommended. 

The histolysis of the adipose body in the bee, L. Terre ( Compt. Rend. Sac. 
Biol. Paris, 5£ {1900), No. 7, pp. 160-162). — In young larvfe of bees the adipose body 
consists of a numl)er of more or less rounded cells inclosing large, clear vacuoles. 
The nucleus of these cells is conspicuous and sharply outlined. The histolysis of 
this body takes place by a sort of digestion and does not depend upon leucocyte 
phagocytosis. 

The principal household insects of the United States, L. O. Howard, C. L. 
Marlatt, and F. H. Chittenden {U. S. Dept. Agr., Division of Entomology Bui. 4, 
n. s., rev. ed., jtp. 131, figs. 64). — This is a reprint of Bulletin 4 of this Division with 
slight changes (E. S. R., 9, pp. 62-66). 

Notes on the part played by insects as carriers of infection, P. Sonsino 
{British Med. Jour., 1900, No. "2041, pp. 328, 329). — This paper reports a study on the 



68 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

life history of Filarla hancrnfli in the body of the mosquito. The Filaria was found 
infesting Ctikx jxipien.'i and ('. (iliaris. 

A novel trap for cockroaches {Sd. Amer. Sup., 49 [1900), No. 1255, p. 20125, fig^. 
3; from La Nature) . — A descrii:)tion of a hox trap which is said to catch both young 
and adult cockroaches. 

How to distinguish the diflferent mosquitoes of North America, L. O. How- 
AHi) and D. W. Coqttllett ( T' ,S'. Depi. Agr., T)iri.<<lo)i of Erilornnlogn Circ. 40, 2. ftcr., 
pp. 7,JigK. 3). — A synoptic table for the identification of North American species of 
Anopheles, Culex, Psorophora, Megarhinns, and Aedes. 

Insect bites and the effects thereof, C P. Lounsbury {Canad. Enl., 32 {1900), 
No. 1, pp. 17-34). — The author discusses at some length the reported cases of injurious 
effects from the bite of Argas persiats. The author believes that A. pcrsicus, A. colum- 
hse, A. americanus, and A. reflexus probably represent only 1 species. The bite of 
this tick can hardly be dangerous except under peculiar conditions, but there is 
always the possibility of the transmission of contagious disease. 

Notes are given on bites caused by Onithodoros savignyi. 

Apple insects of Maine, F. L. Harvey and W. M. Munson {Maine Sta. Bui. 56, 
pp. 105-144, ph. 8). — This bulletin contains a description and an account of the life 
history, the vulnerable points, and remedies for the following insects which are 
injurious to the apple: Anisopteryx pornetaria. Aphis mall, Bucculatrix pomifoliella, 
Caccecia rosana, Carpocapsa pomonella, Chrysobothris femorata, Clisiocampa americana, 
C. disstria, Conotrachelus 7ienuphar, Hyphantria cunea, Hybernia tillaria, Mytllaspis 
pomorum, (Edemasia concinna, Platysamia cecropia, Saperda Candida, Schizoneura lani- 
gera, Teras minuta, Tmetocera ocellana, Trypeta pomonella, Xyleborus jnjri, and Nololo- 
2)lms leucostigma. 

Reports on injurious insects in Finland — I-IV, E. Reuter {Heldngfors, 
1S95-1899). 

Some common Florida scales, H. A. Gossard {Florida Sta. Bid. 51, pp. 105-128, 
figs. 8). — This bulletin contains notes on the appearance, habits, life history, natural 
enemies, artificial remedies, and host plants of the following insects: Mytilaspis cit- 
ricola, M. gloverii, Lec.anium hesperidxim, L. olex, L. hemisphiericum, Ceroplastes flori- 
densis, C. drripediformis, and Dadylopius dtri. 

General observations are made on the advisability of spraying at the proper time 
and in the proper manner. Brief notes are given on the use of kerosene, resin wash, 
and whale-oil soap. 

Notes on Australian Coccidae, W. W. Froggatt {Agr. Gaz. Nev) South Wales, 
11 {1900), No. 2, jjp. 99-107, pi. 1). — Notes on the life history and economic relation- 
ship of the following species of the genus Eriococcus: E. araucarias, E. araucarix var. 
minor, E. capitata, E. buxi, E. conspersus, E. coriaceus, E. confusus, E. eucalypti, E. 
leptospermi, E. multispinosus, E. parado.vus, E. spiniger, E. tepperi, and E. turgipes. 

Inspection of American fruit for San Jose scale in Hamburg-, J. Kochs 
{Druf. Lundw. Pre^se, 27 {1900), No. 9, p. 84, figs, i?).— Brief popular notes. 

Truth about the San Jose scale, J. P. Smith {Amer. Agr., 65 {1900), No. 1, pp. 
2, 8). — Popular notes on the efficiency of various remedies against this insect. 

German echoes of the commercial inspection {Sci. Amer. Sup., 49 {1900), No. 
1259, p>p. 20189, 20190). — Brief notes on the dangers from San Jos^ scale in Ger- 
many. 

The codling moth {Jour. Agr. and Ind. South Australia, 3 {1900), No. 6, pp. 507- 
509). — Report of a special committee concerning the extent of infestation of South 
Australia by the codling moth and means for its eradication. 

The strawberry sawfly and the gooseberry fruit worm, J. P. Chapais {Nat. 
Canad., 27 {1900), No. 2, pp. 17-20). — Brief notes on Emphylus maculatus and Dakruma 
convolutella. 



FOODS— ANIMAL PRODUCTION. 69 

Fruit fly notes, C. P. Lounsbury (Agr. Jovr. Cape Good Hope, 16 (1900), No. 1, 
pp. 4.3-45). — Experiments by the author indicate that the insect probalily does not 
hibernate in the aduh stage, but as pupse. The remedies recommended are the 
destruction of infested wiiidfalls, covering the trees with nets, and allowing fowls to 
run in the orchard. 

Notes on some micro-lepidoptera, Schutze {Stettin. Ent. Ztg., 60 (1899), No, 
7-8, pp. 163-179). — Notes on a species of Tinea, Prays, Argyresthia, Galechia, and 
Braclimia. 

On 2Rga\evis bechuana, a ne-w species of Cimicidse reported to injure coffee 
berries in British Central Africa, G. W. Kirkaldy {Entomologist, 3.3 {1900), No. 
442, jyp. 77, 78). — Si^ecimens of this insect were sent to the author from Central 
Africa by Mr. Green with the statement that they were puncturing coffee l)erries. 
The species is described as new. 

Fruit-feeding habit of the cotton worm moth, C. E. Brown {Bui. Wii^conftin 
Nat. Ilisl. Sot:, n. ser., 1 (1900), No 1, pyp. 67) . — Alet'ta argUlacea is reported as feeding 
upon grapes in jNIilwaukee. 

Caterpillars and maple sugar {Nat. Canad., 27 {1900), No. 2, pp. 26-28).- -A 
Ijrief account of the effects of depredatimi by Clisiocampa dkstria upon the (jualit\- of 
maple sugar. 

A gall-making Coleophora, Walsixgham {Ent. Mo. Mag., 2. ser., 11 {1900), No. 
123, pj). 59, 60). — C. atcfanii is reported as producing galls on the stems of ^^n/>fer 
liallmus. The author gives brief notes on the appearance and habits of this insect. 

Swarming of the milkweed butterfly (Danais arcMppus), P. H. Dernehl 
{Bid. Wisconsin Nat. Hi.st. Soc, n. ser., 1 {1900), No. 1, pp. 64, 65). 

Gadfly and botfly, C. J. Valentine {Jour Agr. and Ind. South Australia, 3 (1900), 
No. 6, pp. 516, 517). — Notes on the life history of Gastrophilus equi. 

The breathing of Hydrophilus, H. J. Kolbe {Illus. Ztschr.-Ent, 5 {1900), No. 
3, pp. 38, 39). — The author's ol )servations were made on Hydropkilus piceus. The 
beetles were ol)served to come frequently to the surface of the water to obtain air. 

Lethrus apterus, J. Taenani {Illus. Ztschr. Ent., 5 {1900), No. 4, pp. 49, 50). — 
Brief notes on the habits, life history, and food plants of this insect, which is especi- 
ally injurious to grape vines. 

On the larvae, habits, and structure of Lithocolletis concomitella and its 
nearest allies, J. H. Wood (Ent. Mo. Mag., 2. ser., 11 (1900), No. 122, pp. 30-34).— 
A description of the larv?e, with notes on the mining habits of this and other species 
in the leaves of Primus avium, Pyrus aucuparia, etc. 



FOODS— ANIMAL PRODUCTION. 

Cereal breakfast foods, C. D. Woods and L. H. Merrhx (Maine 
Sta. Bui. 55^ jjp. 9S-10(J). — The authors report the anal^ysis of a con- 
siderable number of commercial cereal breakfast foods. These include 
4 corn preparations, 3 uncooked oatmeals, 11 cooked oat preparations, 
16 wheat preparations, 3 gluten preparations, and 1 miscellaneous 
articles. 

The different articles and classes are discussed at some length. The 
authors note that many of these cereal foods have been thoroughly 
cooked during the process of manufacture and then dried, so they will 
keep indefinitely. 

"The process of manufacture is hygienic and cleanly and will bear the closest 
inspection. Starting from the elevator, the goods are cleaned, milled, cooked, evaj)- 
orated, and j^acked by machinery. It is very gratifying to find that this class of 
goods is free from adulteration and careless preparation. . . . 



70 EXPERIMENT STATION EECORD. 

"Protein is furnished more cheaply by oat preparations than by those of corn or 
wheat. The oats also supply fat 10 times as cheaply as the corn products and 5 
times as cheaply as the wheat foods. The carbohydrates are supplied most econom- 
ically by the corn preparations, oats ranking second. In fuel value, oats again rank 
first. 

"If wheat flour be included in the comparison, it will be found to be the cheapest 
source of protein and carbohydrates. With the exception of one sample of rolled 
oats, it also leads in fuel value." 

Commercial feeding stuffs in the Connecticut market, E. H. 

Jenkins, A. L. Wixton, et al. {Connect leaf State Std. Bui. 130^ 
fj). Ifi). — Commercial feeding stuffs and their uses are briefly dis- 
cussed, and the anal^yses of a large number of such materials reported. 
These were made in compliance with the Connecticut law regulating 
the sale of these goods and include cotton-seed meal, linseed meal, 
ground wheat, bran, middlings, mixed wheat feed, corn meal, gluten 
meal and gluten feeds, hominy chop, ground oats, provender, corn and 
oat feeds, oat feeds, corn, oats, and barley, rye bran and rye feed, 
malt hulls, starch feeds. Champion Bell Fodder, H, O. dairy feed, 
H. O. horse feed, H. O. poultry feed, American Cereal Company's 
Quaker Dairy Feed and Poultry Food, Blatchford's Calf Meal, Pioneer 
Clover Meal, carob bean, carob liean pods, carob beans and pods, 
Barnes's Horse and Stock Feed, Bowker's Animal Meal, and Lederer's 
Poultry Food, 

"No cases of actual adulteration have been found among the samples examined. 
A considerable number of these 'feeds,' notably most of the so-called 'oat feeds,' 
are, however, of such inferior quality that they can not be used to any profit. 

"It appears that the three most concentrated feeds, the three which, pound for 
pound, will go farther in 'balancing' or piecing out the ration made from home- 
grown feed, viz, cotton seed, linseed, and Atlantic gluten meal are the most costly. 
This is as it should be. Yet of these, the one which contains the most protein, 
'Atlantic gluten meal,' is the cheapest. It does not follow that it should be bought 
to the exclusion of the others. Linseed meal, though a ver}' expensive feed, is greatly 
relished by cattle, flavors the food and is generally regarded as an excellent thing to 
keep cows 'in condition.' But evidently the wise feeder will endeavor to use the 
cheaper forms of protein as far as possible. 

"An examination of the prices and analyses of the feeds given in the table also 
shows that the market prices bear very little if any relation to their feeding value. 
That is, 'feed' costs from $17 to $20 per ton at retail, whether it is concentrated, 
rich in protein, and well suited to supplement the home-grown feed, or whether it is 
a starchy food and of much less \'alue in compounding suitable cattle rations. In 
this condition of the market, special care in the purchase of feeds and some knowl- 
edge of their chemical composition will be found highly advantageous in keejiing 
the cost of milk production down to a point which will admit of profit in the 
business. ' ' 

Analyses of feeding stuffs, H. A. Huston and A. H. Bryan {Indi- 
ana Sta. Rpt. 1899., pp. 67-72). — Analyses are reported of large green 
okra seed, buckwheat, Rauh's stock food, distillery slop, and a num- 
ber of samples of mangel-wurzels and sugar beets. The protein con- 



I 



FOODS ANIMAL PRODUCTION. 



71 



tent of 2 samples of corn was also studied. Several of the analj^ses 
follow: 

Cvvijjusiflon of okra .vcd, huckivlwat, and distUleri/ slop. 





Water. 


Pro- 
tein. 


Fat. 


Nitro- 
gen- 
free 
ex- 
tract. 


Crude 
fiber. 


Ash. 


Albu- 
mi- 
noid 
nitro- 
gen. 


Amid 
nitro- 
gen. 


Starch, a 


Carbo- 

hy- 
drates. 


Pento- 
sans. 


Large green okra seed . 


Per ct. 
6.4.5 
9.22 

95.78 


Per ct. 

22.18 

13.62 

1.22 


Per ct. 

15.98 

2.72 

.3h 


Per ct. 

27. 20 

62. 43 

2.31 


Per ct. 

23. 99 

10.25 

.29 


Per ct. 

4.20 

1.76 

.02 


Per ct. 
3. .350 
1.65 
.144 


Per ct. 

0.192 
.53 
.048 


Per ct. 

14.06 

53. 28 

.63 


Per ct. 

613. 15 

c6. 01 

C.38 


Per ct. 
6 8'' 


Distillery slop 





a Diastase method, b Extracted by 1^ per cent sodium liydrate. e Extracted by dilute sodium hydrate. 

Analyses of feeding stuffs, F. W. Woll ( Wisconsin Sta. Bpt. 
1899, pp. 271-'27If). — The author reports the composition of the fol- 
lowing" feedino- stufi's: Blood-molasses feed (sample manufactured in 
Denmark), flour middlings, bibra cake (from the Hawaiian Islands), 
condimental food, broom-corn millet seed, yellow corn germ, white 
corn germ, wild rice, Zlzania aquattcd^ parched and sun dried. A 
number of these are quoted in the following table: 

Composition of (t> number of feeding stuffs. 



Moisture 



Ether 
extract. 



Nitrogen- 
free 
extract. 



Crude 
fiber. 



Blood-molasscs feed 

Bibra cake 

Broom-corn millet seed {Paniciim milia- 

crum ) 

Wild rice, parched 

Wild rice, sun dried 



Per cent. 
5.72 
5.31 

11.30 
9.54 
9.99 



Per cent. 

20.74 

a 20. 25 

&9.44 
13.00 
13.65 



Per cent. 
3.22 

4.82 

3.81 
.86 



Per cent. Per cent. 

65.27 

50. 41 10. 61 



61.14 
74.04 
72.68 



10.70 
1.12 
1.22 



rrii.t. 
5. 05 
8.60 

3.55 
1.44 
1.58 



a Containing 0.14 per cent amid nitrogen, b Containing 0.8 per cent amid nitrogen. 

"[The blood molasses] shows a medium content of protein. A good share of this 
component is moat likely in the form of amids and lower nitrogenous compounds, 
wliich possesses an inferior feeding value as compared with protein substances 
proper. The feed is, however, made up of foods of high nutritive value. . . . 

" Bibra cake is one of the cattle foods used in the Hawaiian Islands. Its price is 
given as $40 per ton. A comparison with our standard protein foods will show tliat 
it is much lower in protein than these and its crude liber content is rather high, 
making it a less valuable feed than, for example, any of our oil meals. . . . 

"The 2 samples of wild rice were obtained from Lac Courte Oreille Indian Reser- 
vation in Wisconsin. . . . Wild rice grows to a large extent in lakes and streams in 
the northern part of our State, and is used extensively by the Indians as a cereal 
crop. We notice that it ranks higher than any of our leading cereals in chemical 
composition, its contents of protein and nitrogen-free extract (mainly starch) being 
greater than those found in any of these. So far as can l)e judged from chemical 
analysis alone, wild rice has, therefore, a high food value." 

Winter v. spring bran, W. Frear and W. A. Hutchison (Pennsyl- 
v<(nia Sta. Bid. 1^.8^ pp. 8). — Analyses are reported of 10 samples of bran 
from winter wheat and a like number of samples from spring- wheat. 



72 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

On the basis of theso analyses, the 2 sorts of l)ran are compared, other 
American work on the subject being quoted. The authors' conclusions 
follow : 

"On the average, despite the higher market price, winter bran furnishes a smaller 
quantity of nitrogenous nutrients to the animal because of its inferiority in compo- 
sition, and, possibly, of its lower digestil^ility. The composition of these brans is 
not at all constant in regard to the more important constituent, protein. In the case 
of winter bran, the best contained one-tenth more than the poorest; in the case of 
spring bran, the best contained over one-fifth more than the poorest. In other 
words, 9 tons of the best winter bran would furnish as much protein as 10 tons of 
the poorest; while among spring brans, 8 tons of the best would supply as much 
protein as 10 tons of the poorest. 

"As represented by these analyses, Maine and Massachusetts, maintaining an 
official control over the sale of cattle foods, secure a somewhat less variable article, 
and, especially in case of winter bran, a better average article than is obtained 
in Pennsylvania. The number of analyses represents too small a part of the trade in 
these foods to justify sweeping conclusions. By reason of its great variability in 
food value as indicated by analysis, bran should not be bought in large quantities 
except under guaranty of composition. ' ' 

Contribution to the study of the energy content of human 
urine, M. Tangl {Arch. Anat. a. Pht/sioL, Physiol. AM., 1899., iS>/j}. 
ft. 1., 'pjp. 251-^66). — The author reports a number of experiments on 
the nitrogen and carbon content and fuel value of human urine when 
different diets were consumed. The balance of income and outgo of 
nitrogen was also determined. The principal concliisions follow: 

The ratio of the heat of combitstion to nitrogen and that of carbon 
to nitrogen in the urine is much greater when the diet consists largely 
of carbohydrates than when it consists principally of fat. In other 
words, these ratios can be markedly influenced by diet. Under the 
conditions of the author's investigations, these quotients varied cor- 
respondingly. The 2 ratios did not change when work was performed. 
This is in harmony with the results of experiments in which the res- 
piration quotient was determined and the theory of Zuntz and his fol- 
lowers, that during rest and work the same proportion of nutrients is 
metal)olized — that is, the proportion of those nutrient materials which 
the organism has available in sufficient quantit3^ The article contains 
a bibliography of the subject. 

Sheep feeding, R. T. Shaw {Montana Sta. Bid. 21, pp. 13).— The 
author discusses the possibility of profitably fattening lambs in Montana 
instead of shipping them for this purpose to other regions, and believes 
it is possible to raise an abundance of suitable forage crops for the 
purpose. The comparative value of alfalfa, red clover, and alsike hay 
was tested with 3 lots, each containing at the beginning of the test 16 
grade Merino lambs showing Cotswold blood, weighing on an average 
42^ lbs. All the lambs were fed pulped turnips and a grain ration, 
which at first consisted of li lbs. of oats per head daily. The amount 



( 



FOODS ANIMAL PRODUCTIOlSr, 



73 



of oats was afterwards increased and a little flaxseed and cracked peas 
(pea screenings) added. In addition lot 1 was fed alsike hay; lot 2, 
red clover hay; and lot 3, alfalfa hay. Both the alfalfa and red clover 
hay were from second cuttings, and the alsike from the first cutting. 
One of the lambs in lot 3 was dropped on account of l)loating. 
. The test proper began January 2, 18i)8, and continued 84 days. 

The financial statement is based on oats at $1, pea screenings 50 cts., 
flaxseed $1.50, and roots at 9 cts. per hundredweight, and hay at $6 
per ton. The following table summarizes the residts of the tests: 

Alfalfa, red clover, and alsike hay for lainhs. 





Feed consumed. 


, Total 
gain. 


Feed consumed 

per pound of 

gain. 


Cost 

per 
pound 
of gain. 




Hay. 


Turnips 


Oats. 


Flax- 
seed. 


Peas. 


Hay. 


Grain. 


Lot 1 (16 lambs; alsike hay) . 

Lot 2 (16 lambs; red clover 

hay) 


Lbs. 
2,562 

2, 588 
2,484 


Lbs. 
1,340 

1,340 
1,340 


Lbs. 
780 

780 
780 


Lbs. 
42 

42 

42 


Lbs. 

241 

241 
241 


Lbs. 
405 

402 
377 


Lbs. 
6.32 

6.43 
6. .58 


Lbs. 
2.62 

2.64 
2.81 


Cents. 
4.51 

4 62 


Lots (15 lambs; alfalfa hay) 


4.82 



" (1) With the great abundance of leguminous crops and the ease with which they 
can be produced in Montana, we believe it would be of great advantage to the Mon- 
tana fanner to fatten at least a few sheep each winter season. 

"(2) Under the very favorable climatic conditions the amount of food required 
and cost of production per pound gain are relatively small. 

"(3) Careful comparison has shown that alsike, the red clovers, and alfalfa have 
given results for feeding value in the order named. 

" (4) Food materials which would otherwise be wasted can be utilized with profit 
where sheep are kept on the average farm." 

Slieep-feeding experiments, J. H. Stewart and H. Atwood 
( ITe'.S'^ Virginia Sta. Bui. 61^ pp. 67-75). — The usual practice in West 
Virginia, according to the authors, is to market in the fall lam))s 
raised for mutton. The possibility of profitable winter fattening of 
lambs was tested in 2 trials. The first trial was made with 2 lots of 
Southdown and Shropshire grade lambs and "natives, such as could 
be found in an\^ section of the State," and 1 lot of native yearling- 
wethers. Lot 1 (8 ewe lambs and 2 wethers) and lot 3 (5 yearling- 
wethers) were fed a grain ration consisting- of ecjual parts of linseed 
meal, wheat bran, and hominy feed. Lot 2 (8 ewe lambs and 2 weth- 
ers) was fed whole corn. All 3 lots were fed, ad libitum^ mixed clover 
and timothy hay which was not thought to be of extra quality. The 
test covered 8 weeks. The average gain per lamb in the difierent 
lots was 14.5, 15.4, and 8.8 lbs., respectively; and the cost of feed per 
pound of gain was 4.9, 3.7, and 10.7 cts. The wether lambs gained on 
an average 18.4 lbs., while the ewe lambs gained only 14.1 lbs. The 
value of the manure is taken into account. 



74 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

"Although definite conclusions should not be drawn from one experiment, yet this 
feeding test indicates that lambs can be fattened more profitably than yearling weth- 
ers, and that under favorable conditions it may be better for farmers who have an 
abundance of coarse fodder to fefed their lambs heavily for 8 or 10 weeks, instead of 
selling them at the usual time in the fall. It also indicates that forage and grain 
produced upon the farm may be sold at home for a higher price than the market 
offers. ' ' 

A second test in the fall of 1898, with 60 lambs, was discontinued 
on account of many of the lambs being seriously affected with an inter- 
nal parasite. The indications were that cowpea hay was superior to 
timothy hay, although the gains were unsatisfactory in all of the lots. 

Feeding ground corn v, ground peas to lambs before and 
after weaning, W. L. Carlyle ( Wi^mn^ui .St((. Rj>f. 1S99, pp. M-ol, 
Jigs. 2). — For the past 10 years the station has studied the feeding value 
of different grains for lambs before and after weaning (E. S. R., 11, 
p. 5(37). In the present test, coarsel}" ground corn and ground peas 
were tested with 2 lots of 17 lambs each, before and after weaning. 
The dams (11 Shropshire ewes per lot) were with the lambs until 
weaned. The lambs and ewes were pastured on blue grass during the 
day and housed during the night. Lot 1 was fed ground corn and lot 
2 ground peas. Until weaning the grain was fed ad Ilhltum; after 
weaning it was fed at the rate of about i lb. per day. The ewes were 
not fed grain. The test began May 24, 1898, and was divided into 2 
periods of 10 weeks each, the lambs being weaned at the close of the 
first period. In discussing the financial returns, corn is rated at 30 
and peas at 45 cts. per bushel. Previous to weaning, the average dailj^ 
gain of lot ] was 8.7 lbs., and of lot 2, 8.9 lbs., the grain required per 
pound of gain with the 2 lots being 0.883 lb. and 0.889 lb. After 
weaning, the average daily gain of the 2 lots was 6 and 5.1 lbs., respec- 
tivel}^; the corresponding amounts of grain required per pound of gain 
being 2.11 and 2.41 lbs. During the whole test the cost of a pound of 
gain with lot 1 was 0.752 ct., and with lot 2, 1.085 cts. ""Ground corn 
is a better feed than ground peas, pound for poiuid, when fed to }■ oung 
lambs, and is much the more economical feed when the average ruling 
prices of the 2 grains are considered." 

At the close of the test, the carcasses of 2 lambs from each lot were 
compared. "The proportion of lean to fat and the character of the 
fat as to solidity, color, etc. , appeared to be exactly the same in the 
carcasses of lambs from both the lots." 

In connection with the above test, the comparative effect upon the 
ewe of nursing single and twin lambs, as well as the gains made by 
single and twin lambs and the comparative gains made b}^ ewe and 
wether lambs, were also studied. 

"A ewe can raise twins without losing any more weight than when raising a single 
lamb. The ewes losing the most flesh while suckling lambs are not necessarily the 
best mothers. Wether lambs gain more rapidly than the ewe lambs while nursing. 
Twin lambs nursing one mother gain as rapidly as when there is but one lamb 
nursing." 



FOODS ANIMAL PRODUCTION. 



75 



The influence of manures on the production of mutton, W. Som- 
ERViLLE {Jour. Bd. Ay J'. [Lo}id(jii\ 6" {1899), ^Yo. o\ jjj). 29S-.U0). — In 
continuation of work previousl^y reported (E. S. R., 10, p. 108-i), the 
value of different fertilizers on poor pasture was tested by comparing 
the 3'ield of ha}- and the growth made by sheep pastured on plats fer- 
tilized w4th cotton-seed cake, lime, Thomas slag, dissolved bone, and 
superphosphate, alone and in combination with potash, with lime, and 
with ammonia. One plat (No. 6) served for purposes of comparison 
and was not fertilized. The following table summarizes the results 
obtained in 1899: 



Arerdfje results of different methods of manuring pasti 

of hay and mutton. 



: shown in 1899 htj production 



Plats. 



Treatment. 



Cotton-seed cake 

Lime 

Full dressing of slag 

One-half dressing of slag 

Superphosphate 

Nothing 

Superiihdsphate and potash 

Superphiisphate and lime 

Superphosphate and ammonia 
Dissolved bone 



Hay in ex- Mutton in 

cess of excess of 

amount i amount 

produced ! produced 

by plat 6. | by plat 6. 



Per cent. 
46 
14 

97 
68 
47 



Per cent. 

139 

4 

233 

96 

91 



117 
119 
104 
104 



Hay con- 
sumed per ' Average 
pound of. I live 
gain in livci weight 
weight of ^ of sheep, 
sheep. 



Pounds. 
21.4 
38.8 
20.8 
30.1 
27.0 
35.1 
20.6 
23.6 
26.7 
26.7 



Pounds. 
115.5 



127.0 
117. 5 
114.0 



120. 5 
122.5 
126.0 
122. 5 



Average 
dressed 
weight 

of sheep. 



Pounds. 
53.5 



.57. 5 
.53. 5 
53.0 



53.5 
54.5 
.57.0 
57.0 



The effect of the different manures is discussed at some length and 
the results of this test are compared with those obtained earlier. 
When slaughtered the sheep were judged b}^ an expert. Those pas- 
tured on plat 6 were considered the best mutton. Those on plats 1, 3, 
and 1: next in order, followed by those on plats 10, 5, 7, 8, and 9, which 
were much alike. The sheep Were said to be much like others slaugh- 
tered the same season, which was very dry. They showed a lack of kidney 
fat and made small gains. In the author's opinion, grazing the sheep 
is the best method of testing the comparative value of the different 
fertilizers. However, it should be remembered that after the sheep 
were taken from the plats there still remained a considerable amount 
of fodder, the amount varying in the different plats. 

"This feed ha.s been utilized by cattle with which the plats were stocked in pro- 
portion to apparent requirements, a note being kept of the duration of the respective 
periods of grazing. The 30j acres have each autumn maintained 18 1)reeding cattle 
for fully 2 months, and that they found enough to eat is proved by the fact that they 
came off in excellent condition. Allowing 24 cts. per head per week for grazing, the 
plats are credited with sums varying between $2.40 (i:)lat 6) and $4.85 (plat 3) per 
acre." 

Whole corn compared with corn meal for fattening s-wine, 

W. A. Heniiy ( Wlsconsm Sta. Rpt. 1899, pp. 19-2Jf). — Continuing 
previous work (E. S. R., 11, p. 571), the comparative value of whole 
and ground corn Avas tested with 2 lots of 19 pigs each, containing 9 
3809— No. 1 6 



76 EXPERIMENT STATION REOORD. 

SOWS and 10 barrows. Five pigs in each lot were pure-bred Poland 
China, the others Berkshire-Poland Chinas. These were the same pigs 
used in the experiment with rape and clover mentioned below. After 
a preliminary period of 1 week, the test began November 19 and 
covered 84 days. Lot 1 was fed whole corn and middlings; lot 2, corn 
meal and middlings. The total weight of lot 1 at the beginning of the 
test was 3,543 lbs. and of lot 2, 3,538 lbs. During the test lot 1 con- 
sumed 7,084 lbs. of shelled corn and 3,542 lbs. of wheat middlings, 
and gained 2,132 lbs. That is, 4.97 lbs. of corn meal and middlings 
were required for a pound of gain. Lot 2 consumed 7,196 lbs. of 
corn meal and 3,598 lbs. of middlings, and gained 2,132 lbs., the grain 
required per pound of gain being 5.07 lbs. Discussing this test and 
previous trials, the author says: 

" It is evident from otir work as conducted to the present time tliat the gains from 
grinding corn as a food for swine are not very large in most cases and negative 
results may be obtained. It is expected that the work will be continued for some 
time to come or until we shall know more definitely what the real advantages are, 
if any, of grinding corn for fattening swine." 

Rape V. clover for young pigs, W. L. Carlyle ( Wisconsin Sfa. 
Rpt. 1899, pp. 25-30, tigs. 2). — The comparative value of rape and 
clover for young growing pigs was tested with 2 lots, each containing 
21 pure-bred and high-grade Berkshires and Poland Chinas, averaging 
a little over 100 lbs. in weight when the test began. (For earlier work 
see E. S. R., 11, p. 571.) The 2 lots were fed a grain ration of 
middlings and corn meal 1:2 mixed with water into a thick slop 12 
hours before feeding. In addition lot 1 was fed rape. The pigs were 
confined by a portable fence, being moved as required. They were 
somewhat slow in acquiring a taste for the rape, but at the end of a 
week of the preliminary feeding the}^ ate it greedily. In addition to 
grain lot 2 was pastured on about 8 acres of second growth clover. 
The test covered 4 periods of 2 weeks each. During this time the pigs 
in lot 1 ate the rape from about f acre. At the beginning of the test 
the pigs in the 2 lots weighed 2,139 and 2,138 lbs., respectively. The 
corresponding average daily gains of the 2 lots during the test were 
1.27 and 1.22 lbs. The results are compared with those obtained in 
previous years. In discussing this year's tests the author remarks 
that — 

"The pigs fed on the rape appeared more paunchy as a whole at the close of the 
experiment than were those fed on clover, though they were all of the same breed- 
ing and very uniform as to conformation when the experiment l)egan. 

"Another year's experience in pasturing pigs on rape serves to strengthen the con- 
clusion of last year, viz., that farmers feeding any number of pigs can not provide a 
better pasture for them than to sow small plats of rape at successive periods about 3 
weeks apart during the spring and early summer months to be used for pasturage 
for their sows and young pigs. ' ' 



FOODS ANIMAL PRODUCTION. 77 

On the food requirements of the pig for maintenance and for 
gain, W. Dietrich, reported l)y F. W. VVoll ( Wi.<icon.sm Sta. Rpt. 
ISOO, pp. 31-10). — The amount of food required at diiferent weights 
for maintenance and for growth was tested with -i pigs weighing about 
50 lbs. each at the beginning of the trial. The general plan was to 
diminish the ration until the smallest quantit}^ which would maintain 
the pigs at a constant weight was ascertained. Feeding was con- 
tinued until it was certain that the ration was sufficient for main- 
tenance. The ration was then increased and the pigs fed until they 
weighed 100 lbs. each, when the amount necessary for maintenance at 
that weight was determined. In this wa}^ the maintenance ration was 
also determined for pigs at 150 and 200 lbs. live weight. 

The pigs used were 2 barrows and 2 sows, all from the same litter, 
and were a cross between a pure-bred Berkshire sire and a Poland 
China-Chester White sow. They were 81 days old at the beginning 
of the trial, which began July 13, 1898, and closed April 1, 1899. 
It was divided into 1 periods of 56, 58, 71, and 74 days, respectively. 
During the lirst period the ration consisted of corn meal and wheat 
bran, 1:2, mixed with buttermilk and a little water, the nutritive ratio 
being 1 : 4. During a part of the time skim milk was used in place 
of buttermilk. During the second period the ration consisted of 
corn meal, middlings, and skim milk, 1:1:4, with a little rape in addi- 
tion. The nutritive ratio was 1:5. During the third period the nutri- 
tive ratio was changed to 1:5:7, the food consisting of corn meal, 
middlings, and skim milk, 1:1:2. During the fourth period the feed 
was changed to corn meal and middlings, 1:2, the nutritive ratio being 
1:6. The pigs did not eat as much after this change as they had done 
previously and the feed was therefore reduced from the allowance 
during the third period. The feeding stuffs used were anal3^zed. 
" The fifty -pound pigs were each maintained on a ration containing 
0.15 lb. of corn meal, 0.15 lb. of middlings, and 1.2 lbs. of skim milk; 
at 100 lbs. weight it took 0.4 lb. of corn meal, 0.4 lb. of middlings, 
and 1.6 lbs. of skim milk; at 150 lbs. weight it took 0.8 lb. of corn 
meal, 0.8 lb. of middlings, and 1.6 lbs. of skim milk; and finally at 
200 lbs. the pigs required 0.67 lb. of corn meal and 1.33 lbs. of mid- 
dlings each for maintenance." The dry matter required daily for 
maintenance in the 4 periods was 0.37, 0.87, 1.54, and 1.76 lbs., 
respectively. The dry matter required per pound of gain in the 4 
periods was 2.24, 2.08, 3.12, and 3.96 lbs., respectively, and the aver- 
age daily gain in the 4 periods was 0.93, 1.66, 1.85, and 1.22 lbs. The 
number of days required for 50 lbs. of gain by the pigs at diflerent 
weights was also computed. The pigs weighing 50 lbs. required 64 
days; at 100 lbs., 30 days; at 150 lbs., 27 days, and at 200 lbs., 41 days. 



78 EXPEKIMENT STATION RECORD. 

" We observe that the older the pig grows the greater becomes the [relative amount 
of food required for maintainance] and the greater the amount of food required to 
produce 100 lbs. of gain. But considering that the percentage of the food is small in 
proportion to the total food eaten at the 150-pound stage and that here the pig con- 
sumes a large quantity of food per day and makes a large gain, it would seem that 
the 150-pound pig is the most profitable one to feed. The large percentage of food 
for maintenance to live weight is counterbalanced by these other facts. This appears 
all the more evident when we consider what a small quantity of food was con- 
sumed per day by the 200-pound pig. When we consider that the 200-pound pig ate 
only 2.41 lbs. of dry matter per 100 lbs. of live weight and that 36 per cent of this 
goes to sustain the life of the animal, we can easily see why the daily gain dropped 
from 1.85 lbs. per day with the 150-pound pig to 1.22 lbs. per day with the 200-pound 
pig. ... 

"During the maintenance period the pigs did not show much greater signs of 
hunger than when on full feed, but a few days, when they were given less than 
maintenance allowance, they appeared to suffer from hunger. They seemed to feel 
well during the maintenance feeding and would sometimes run about and play like 
young dogs; when on full feed they were lazy and would lie about in the pen. . . . 

"It was noticed that some pigs were slower eaters than others, and this may 
explain why better results are not obtained when the animals are fed together in 
large numbers. It was also noticed that the best results were obtained when the 
pigs were on a feed increased uniformly from day to day." 

During all periods of gain the tails were curled. During mainte- 
nance periods the tails of the pigs hung straight down. "The curl 
in the tail appeared and disappeared as the change was made from 
maintenance to full feed and vice versa.'''' 

In connection with the above experiment the digestibility of the 
maintenance ration and the ration for growth was tested with 2 pigs 
for 2 periods of 3 days each. "It appears that a pig will digest a 
little more food when on a maintenance ration than when supplied 
with as much food as will be eaten." These results are compared with 
those obtained at the Minnesota Station (E. S. R., -i, p. 733). 

Nuts as food, C. D. Woods and L. H. Merrill {Maine Sta. Bui. 54, pp. 71-92).— 
Statistics of the amount of nuts imported into the United States are quoted and the 
composition of a number of nuts analyzed at the station reported. These include 
Brazil nuts [Bertholletia excelsa), filberts, hickory nuts, pecans, peanuts, peanut but- 
ter, edible acorns called "biotes" {Quercus emoriji), acorn meal, acorn bread, beech- 
nuts, butternuts [Juglans cinerea), cocoanut, cocoanut milk, litchi nuts [Nephelium 
litchi), pine nuts {Pinus monopJnjlla, P. edulis, P. sabiniana), and pistachio nuts. 
The authors also quote a considerable number of American analyses of nuts made by 
other investigators. The characteristics of the different nuts are discussed as well 
as their preparation and use as articles of diet. 

Analyses of maple sugar, H. A. Huston and A. H. Bryan {Indiana Sta. Rpt. 
1899, pp. 74, 75). — The composition of 4 samjiles of maple sugar and a sample of 
what is known to maple-sugar makers as "niter" or "sugar sand" is reported. The 
sugar sand had the following percentage composition: Water, 6.11; insoluble matter, 
9.13; reducing sugars, 12.74; sucrose, 26.88; calcium, 12.89; mahc acid, 20.86; pot- 
ash, 0.72; protein, 0.40; and magnesium, a trace. According to the authors, this 
material is sometimes known as " malate of lime." It is suggested that it might be 
of some value as a source of malic acid. 



FOODS ANIMAL PRODUCTIOlSr. 79 

Liebig Company's extract of meat {Scl. Siftmg.% 17 {1900), No. 343, p. 230).~ 
The food value of this meat extract is discussed and an analysis reported. 

Indian edible oils, W. E. Dunstan {Agr. Ledger, 1899, No. 12, Veg. Prod. .ser. No. 
52, pp. 1-34). — A report on the chemical and physical examination of a large num- 
ber of vegetable oils used for culinary purposes in India. 

State of Michigan Dairy and Food Department Bulletin 55 {pp. 27). — This 
bulletin contains a discussion of process butter, an article entitled "Method for the 
detection of process or renovated butter" by W. H. Hess and R. E. Doolittle, a 
report of the inspections made by the department, a report by the department 
chemist of the examination of a number of samples of butter, cinnamon, flavoring 
extracts, ginger, jelly, fruit butter, molasses, mustard, pepper, sirup, and vinegar. 
An abstract of the Micliigan pure-food laws and a number of court decisions under 
them are also given. 

State of Micliigan Dairy and Food Department Bulletin 56 {jyp. IS). — This 
bulletin discusses the work of the dairy and food department, reports legal proceed- 
ings, dairy inspections, analyses of samples of beans, buckwheat flour, butter, flavor- 
ing extracts, ginger, honey, jelly, mustard, peas, pepper, rice, sugar, and wine. The 
Michigan food laws are noted, together with a digest and rulings. 

Character and extent of food and drug adulteration in Massachusetts, 
and the system of inspection of the State board of health, A. E. Leach ( Teclt. 
Quart., IS {1900), No. 1, pp. S2-40, figs. 2, pis. 3). — A paper read before the Boston 
Society of Arts, December, 1899, describing the common forms of adulteration and 
the methods followed in combating adulteration and sophistication of food and 
drugs. 

Bacteriology applied to the canning and preserving of food products, E. W. 
DucKWALL {Baltimore: The Trade, 1899, pp. 112, figs. 24). — The major portion of this 
publication treats of the nature and character of bacteria, including pathogenic spe- 
cies, methods of propagating, kinds commonly found in decomposing fruits and vege- 
tables, methods of studying bacteria, summary of the characteristics of the various 
organisms found in food products, and the scientific principles involved in canning 
and preserving. 

Chapters are also given on antiseptics and germicides, history of canning, methods 
of canning corn, peas, tomatoes, tomato i^roducts, oysters, meats and tish in general, 
pickles, kraut, and soup. Some results of sterilizing experiments are included in 
the work and a chapter given on sterilization in canning. 

The food rations in Ladysmith, J. C. Dunlop {British Med. Jour., 1900, No. 
2046, pp. 6G7, 668). — The food value of the rations issued to the soldiers and other 
inhabitants of Ladysmith during the latter part of the recent siege is calculated to be 
73.4 gm. protein and 1,527 calories per man per day. 

The feeding of prisoners, F. Hirschpeld {Ztschr. Bidtet. u. Phys. Ther., 4 
{1900-1901), No. 1, pp. 37-53). — The dietary in a Berlin prison was studied, and in 
addition 4 nitrogen metabolism exi:)eriments were made. 

Concerning the metabolism of a vegetarian, T. Rumpp and 0. Schumm {Ztschr. 
Biol, 39 {1899), No. 1, pp. 153-158) .—Th^ subject of this investigation was a strict 
vegetarian. During his youth he had eaten eggs, butter, milk, and cheese, but since 
his eighteenth year vegetable food only. His parents were also vegetarians. During 
8 days the amount of food consumed was recorded and the urine and feces were 
analyzed. The food consisted of Graham bread, aj^ples, dates, Quaker oats, rice, 
sugar, and walnuts. The diet furnished 73.88 gm. of protein, 28.64 gm. of fat, 698.21 
gm. of carbohydrates, and 3,431.92 calories. The daily income of nitrogen was 11.82 
gm. ; 6.91 gm. was excreted in the urine and 4.01 gm. in the feces. There was, there- 
fore, on an average, a gain of 0.9 gm. per day. The food contained 28.64 gm. of fat, 
and the feces 7.58. The subject weighed 62.5 kg. at the beginning, and gained 1.7 



80 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

kg. during the experimental period. In the authors' opinion, tlie vegetable diet 
somewhat more than sufRced for maintenance. 

Ensilage without pressure, Ross {Agr. Gaz. New South Itote, 11 {1900), No. 1, 
pp. 36, 37). — The author's experience, extending over a number of years, in ensiling 
maize in stacks without pressure is given. This method of preserving maize is 
regarded as entirely satisfactory. ' ' The stack is an absolute success except for the 
slight loss at the top and sides." 

The foundation principles in determining feeding standards for farm ani- 
mals, L. Gkandeau {Jour. Agr. Pntt.. 1900. I, No. 10, pp. 344-346; 11, pp. 381,382). — 
A general discussion. 

Feeding experiments with diflferent quantities of the same foods at the 
college farm, T. Winter {Bd. Agr. \_London] Rpt. Distrih. Grants for Agr. Ed. 
Great Britain, 1898-99, pp. 48-52). — A feeding experiment conducted at the Univer- 
sity College of North Wales with 2 lots of 4 steers each, averaging about 1,100 lbs., 
is briefly reported. The object was to compare a ration of 3 lbs. of maize meal and 
3 lbs. of decorticated cotton-seed cake with one containing 5 lbs. of each of these, 
feeding pulped Swedish turnips, chaffed hay and straw in addition. 

The test began November 29, 1898, and closed February 8, 1899. The steers receiv- 
ing 6 lbs. of grain made an average daily gain of 1.92 lbs., and those receiving 10 lbs. 
made an average daily gain of 1.65 lbs. The steers were slaughtered at the close of 
the test. The average percentage of dressed to live weight in the 2 lots was 53.2 
and 55.7 respectively. 

Feeding experiments with root crops, L. Helweg {Landtmannm, 10 {1899), 
Nu.^. 47, pp. 774-777; 48, pp. 790, 791; 60, ppj. 820-824)- 

Cost of feeding steers, L. McKiii ( Wallace's Farmer, 25 {1900), No. 15, p. 410). — 
A general discussion which includes some statistics. 



DAIRY FARMING— DAIRYING. 

The mammary gland, A. W. Bitting {Indiana Sta. Rpt. 1899^ 
l)p. 36-If3., p>ls. 5). — An account is given of the anatomy and physiol- 
ogy of the mammary gland and its development in different tvpes of 
Mammalia, particular attention being paid to the form, structure, and 
vascular supply of the cow's udder. 

"The udder of the cow consists of a variable number of mammary glands, usually 
4 that are functional (the quarters) and from 1 to 4 that are rudimentary. They are 
arranged in pairs, being on opposite sides of the median line of the body, and occupy 
the inguinal region (groin). . . . 

"The shape and size of the organ as a whole differs in the different breeds and in 
individuals of the same breed. In some breeds the aim has been to develop a large 
secretory function, and an enormous glandular development has been the result. 
In other breeds the quality of the milk has been the prime consideration, and the 
gland is smaller. In the beef breeds the gland is often invaded with fatty tissue and 
the udder appears large, but the quantity of glandular tissue is small. . . . 

"The weight of the dissected udders, as found in our investigations, varied from 
2 lbs. and 3 oz. to 41 lbs. and 6 oz. . . . 

"A dissection of the udder shows that each half is enveloped in a strong fibrous 
capsule, and that the fibers intermingle on the inner side and are prolonged upward 
to act as ligamentous support for the gland. The halves are distinct, as they may 
be easily separated throughout their inner aspect. The individual glands in each 
half of the udder are not so distinctly separated. . . . 



DAIRY FARMING DAIRYING. 81 

"The structure of the mammary glands can be studied to advantage by injecting 
each teat and the arteries and veins with different colored injection masses. Each 
gland is enveloped in an elastic, fibrous capsule or membrane, to which externally 
the skin is loosely adherent; internally the fibers intermingle with those of the 
gland from the opposite side and become prolonged upward as a suspensory 
ligament. . . . 

"Above the teat is a large cavernous opening, the reservoir or milk cistern. This 
cistern is divided by constrictions into pockets of various sizes, into which the larger 
milk ducts empty. At the point of entrance of these ducts is a constriction due to a 
sphincter muscle. These sphincters can not close the entire opening, but it seems 
possible that they may partially do so, and this may thus account for the ('ondition 
known to all dairymen as 'holding up the milk.' 

' ' The large ducts ramify in an irregular manner to all parts of the gland. They 
subdivide into smaller ducts, and these in turn into smaller ones, until they terminate 
in a simple duct with its alveolus or pocket. The large ducts anastomose ver\^ freely, 
but do not in the smaller subdivisions. The canal in the teat, the reservoir, and ducts 
are lined with columnar epithelium, but just what part the epithelial cells lining 
these ducts have in the production of milk is not known. 

' ' The alveolus is the sacculated distension on the end of the minute milk duct. It 
is the essential part of the gland. It is lined by a single layer of epithelial cells, 
which are especially concerned in milk secretion. The cavity of the alveolus in the 
cow is from -^jo to t^o of an inch in length, and from 0.13 to 0.08 of an inch in diam- 
eter. The lining cells vary from almost a flattened form to a columnar form during 
the different stages of rest and activity. 

"The mammary glands are abundantly supplied with blood. . . . The manunary 
artery has 4 principal branches, 2 going to the posterior gland, 1 branch between 
the glancis, with nearly all its subdivisions entering the anterior gland. There is 
also a small branch for each rudimentary gland. The large branches subdivide 
within the gland tissue. . . . The larger volume of blood passes forward through 
the subcutaneous veins, thus bringing them into great prominence and giving rise to 
the popular name of milk veins. These abdominal veins enter the thoracic cavity 
just behind the sternum on each side of the cartilage, the point of entrance into the 
body being known as the 'milk well.' As the blood may pass to the heart through 
the posterior vessels as well as the anterior, it would seem that undue j^rominence is 
attached to these veins in judging the milking qualities of cows. If a large volume 
of blood should return by way of the posterior vessels, the abdominal veins \\ ill 
appear less prominent. One of the factors tending to increase the size of these veins 
is pressure upon the iliacs, as a gravid uterus. . . . 

"The nerve center controlling secretion has not been located, but it is supposed to 
be in the spinal cord. It is possible that the will can exercise some influence, but 
the evidence is not sufficiently clear to warrant drawing a positive conclusion." 

On the economy of heavy grain feeding of dairy govts, F. W. 

WoLL iind W. L. C'arlyle ( Tr7.sYV>/^s/// Sfa. Bpf. 1S9D^ pp. o'2-67). — 
The proportion of grain feed to coarse fodder best adapted for the 
economical production of milk and butter was studied in an experiment 
with y lots of -J: cows each, lasting- 3 months. A ration consisting of 
8 lbs. of a mixture of ground oats, ground corn, wheat bran, and old- 
process linseed meal, 4 lbs. of mixed clover and timoth}^ hay, and 
silage ad lih'd/mn. was fed to lot A during the tirst and third periods, 
and to lot B during all 3 periods. During the second period lot A 
received the same ration except that the amount of grain was increased 



82 



EXPEEIMENT STATION RECOKD. 



to 12 lbs. In other respects the conditions of the experiment were 
uniform. The following table summarizes the principal data: 

liesults of feeding different <imou)its of grain to milcli cow.^. 



Lot A: 

Period I {8 lbs. grain) 

Period II (12 lbs. grain) 

Period III (8 lbs. grain) 

Average of periods I and III 
Lot B: 

Period I (8 lbs. grain) 

Period II (8 lbs. grain) 

Period III (8 lbs. grain ) 

Average of periods I and III 



Food consumed. 



Silage. Hay. Grain 



Lbs. 

3,666 

3,754 

3,573 

3,620 

3,876 
4,294 
4,180 
4,028 



Lbs. 
500 
336 
336 

418 

500 
336 
336 

418 



Lbs. 
672 

1,008 
672 
672 



Total production. 



Lbs. 
1,811.3 
1,739.7 
1,654.5 
1,732.9 



672 2,135.1 

672 1,976.3 

672 1, 991. 6 

672 2,063.4 



Pat. 



Lbs. 

86.91 

85.83 

83.10 

85.01 

92.70 
87.27 
93.18 
92.94 



Cost of Cost of 

food per food per 

100 lbs. pound of 

milk. fat. 



Cent<. 
54. 
67. 
56. 
55. 

47. 
50. 
49. 



Cents. 
11.3 
13.8 

n.2 

11.3 

10.9 
11.4 
10.6 
10.8 



The results are discussed at some length. The ration containing 12 
lbs. of grain was considered as fed at a considerable loss as compared 
with the ration containing 8 lbs. of grain. No increase in the live 
weight of the animals nor favorable after effects on the production of 
miilk and butter could be attributed to the additional amount of grain 
fed lot A during the second period. The work is considered as 
preliminary. 

Protecting co^vs from flies, W. L. Carlyle ( Wisconsin Sta. Rpt. 
1899, 2)]j. 92-96). — A brief account is given of the appearance and life 
history of 2 species of flies troublesome to cattle, the common stable 
fl}^ {Stomoxys calcitrans) and the horn fly {Tlicmatobia semtta). Pro- 
tection from the horn fly ma}^ be secured by spraying cows with various 
substances for this purpose, or bv rubbing into their hair some greasy 
substance, such as fish oil with some oil of tar and sulphur added. 
Means of this kind and also blanketing were found useless against the 
more numerous stable flies. 

An experiment was conducted to determine the relief from flies by 
stabling. Fourteen cows were divided into 2 lots as nearly equal in 
every respect as possible. During the daytime lot 1 was kept in a 
small paddock having an abundance of shade, and lot 2 in a comfortable 
stable provided with screen doors and windows. In other respects the 
2 lots received the same treatment. The cows in lot 1 were constantl}' 
on the move fighting flies, while those in lot 2 were practically free 
from them. During the 4 weeks which the experiment lasted lot 2 
(stabled) consumed 835 lbs. more of green sorghum and sweet corn 
than lot 1 and lost on an average 19 lbs. more in live weight per cow. 
Comparing the results of the first 2 weeks of the experiment with the 
results of the 2 weeks preceding, the yields of milk and butter fat of 
lot 1 decreased respectively 40.4 and 2.16 lbs., and of lot 2, 50. T and 
0.81 lbs. Similar results were obtained in comparing the first and 
fourth weeks of the experiment. 



DAIRY FARMING DAIRYING. 83 

"This experiment can not be accepted as in any way conclusive, and yet it would 
seem to indicate that while the cows in the Htal)le increased slightly more in the 
percentage of l)utter fat in their milk than did the lot in the paddock, yet they ate 
more of the feed and fell off more in the amount of milk given, though they decreased 
much less in total fat production. It is easily seen, however, that the increase in the 
total amount of butter fat given in the one lot over the other in this experiment was 
not sufficiently great to pay for the increased trouble and expense entailed in the 
stabling of the cows during the greater part of every day." 

The effect on dairy cows of changing milkers, W. L. Carlyle 

( ]f7.svY/;;.sv'/;. ^Sta. Rpt. 1S99, pp. S9-9t).—Y\\Q effect of the constant 
changing- of milkers was studied with 8 cows in advanced stages of 
lactation. The experiment covered 5 periods of 4 days each. During 
the first, third, and fifth periods and for several days preceding each, 
the milking was done by the regular milkers. During the second and 
fourth periods each cow was milked bv a different person at each 
successive milking. None of the milkers were strange to the cows. 
The data for the experiment are tabulated. With the regular milkers 
the average yield of all the cows for 4 days was 69.29 lbs. of milk, with 
an average fat content of 4.75 per cent. With changing milkers the 
yield of milk was 73.73 lbs, and the fat content 4.85 per cent. 

"While the results would seem to show that there is a slightly increased production, 
on the average, from the constant changing of milkers, yet the increase is so slight 
that very little importance can be attached to it. The results of this experiment are 
important, however, in that they go to show that when all the cows in a herd are 
kindly treated by all the milkers, a changing of the milkers of the individual cows 
in the herd has no appreciable effect upon the milk and butter produced and it 
appears as if the cows appreciated a change. ' ' 

Dairy herd record, W. L. Carlyle ( Wiscotisin Sta. Rpt. 1899.^ 
fp. 68-88., fig a. II/). — A dairj^ herd comprising 6 grade Jerseys, 6 grade 
Guernsej^s, and 6 grade Shorthorns was purchased to compare the cost 
of the milk and butter production of cows of the special -purpose dairy 
type, represented hy the Jersey and Guernsey grades, and cows of the 
dual-purpose type, represented by the Shorthorn grades. The ani- 
mals were of the highest dairy type of the breed and class to which 
they belonged. They were given the same care and treatment. Tables 
show the breed, age, and weight of cows; kind, amount, and cost of 
food eaten; number of daj^s in milk; yields of milk and butter; and 
the value of products and total profit for each of 14 cows which were 
in the herd during the entire year. Of this number 3 were grade Jer- 
seys, 5 grade Shorthorns, and 6 grade Guernseys. The average profit 
over cost of feed from each of these breeds was, respectively, 159.05, 
$50.71, and $55.47 per cow. A grade Shorthorn gave the largest 
yield of milk and butter. The results of this preliminary work, while 
not considered conclusive, show a favorable comparison of the Short- 
horn grades with the Jersey and Guernsey grades in the cheapness of 
butter production. An illustration is given of each of the 14 cows, 



84 



EXPEKIMENT STATION RECORD. 



accompanied l)v descriptive and historical notes and a snniniarv of Iku* 
production and profit. 

The composition of sow's milk, F. W. Woll ( Wi.sconsin /Sta. 
B])t. 1899, j^P- ^67-^7(^).— One sample of milk from each of 2 pure- 
bred Poland China, 1 pure-bred Berkshire, and 2 grade Berkshire 
sows was secured in a manner similar to that desci'ibed in an earlier 
report (E. S. R., 10, p. 782), and analyzed. The results of the 5 
analyses, together with those of 7 analyses reported before, are sum- 
marized in the following table: 

Composition of soir's milk. 



Average. 



Water 

Fat 

Casein and albumen 

Milk sugar 

Ash 

Solids-not-fat 



Lowest. 


Highest. 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 


79.46 


83.13 


3.89 


8.53 


4.55 


7.28 


3.07 


6.20 


.74 


1.32 


10.76 


13.23 



Per cent. 
81.49 
6.60 
5.75 
5.19 
.97 
11.91 



The I'esults of 74 analyses made by the author and other investi- 
gators give 6.61 per cent as an average fat content of sow's milk. 
This is considered nearl}^ 3 per cent higher than the average fat con - 
tent of cow's milk produced in the United States. "Chemical anal 3^- 
ses and microscopic examinations of the two kinds of milk show that 
sow's milk is more like the milk of strippers than that of cow^ in full 
flow of milk.'' 

Pasteurization of milk and cream at 140^ F., E. H. Farrington 
and H. L. Russell {Wisconsin Sta. Rpt. 1899, pp. 129-139, figs. 3).— 
The conditions of efficient pasteurization, thermal death point of the 
tubercle bacillus, and the cause of diminished consistent'}' of pasteur- 
ized products are discussed, and studies on pasteurization at 140° F. 
are reported. 

Samples of unpasteurized milk, and milk pasteurized at 140 F. for 
periods varying from 15 to 60 min., and at 155° for 15 min., were kept 
in cold running water, and the thickness of the cream layer formed in 
each case was determined at diffierent intervals. The creaming prop- 
ert}^ of the milk pasteurized at 140° was practically the same as that 
of the unpasteurized milk. As compared with normal milk the cream- 
ing of the milk pasteurized at 155° was retarded and lessened in 
quantity. 

A number of tests were made to determine the keeping quality of 
milk pasteurized at 140° F. On the average unpasteurized milk 
remained sweet about 2 days. Milk pasteurized at 155° F. for 15 min. 
and at 140° for 15 and 30 min. remained sweet over 6 days with prac- 
tically no ditfercnce in the 3 cases. 

Determinations were made of the number of bacteria in samples of 



DAIRY FARMING DAIRYING. 85 

milk heated for 20 min. at temperatures ranging from -io to 7(» C. 
Over 91» per cent of the bacteria present in the unpasteurized milk 
was destro^^ed by pasteurization at 140 F. 

Viscometer tests made according to the method previousl}'^ described 
(E, S. R., 9, p. 181) showed practically no difference in the consistency 
of raw cream and cream pasteurized at 140° F. for 30 min. 

The following summary is given: 

"The temperature recommended for the pasteurization of milk and cream in tlie 
past has been 155° F. for a period of 15 to 20 minuten. This limit was chosen 
because it had been regarded as the point at which the tubercle bacillus is destroyed 
in a moist medium. When, however, cream or milk is heated to a temperature of 
140° F. or above, the physical condition of the fat globules is changed so that cream 
appears much thinner and milk loses its i)roi3erty of rapid creaming. This objection 
can be overcome, as is shown by the preceding experiments, if milk or cream is not 
heated above this temperature. 

' ' Not only is the creaming property of the milk, and the ' body ' or consistency of 
cream unaffected, but the keeping quality is practically as good as it is where the 
product is heated to a temperature of 155° F. All that is necessary to secure good 
keeping quality is to destroy the vegetative bacteria, and as this is accomplished at 
the temperature of 140° F. if the exposure is made for a sufficient period of time, no 
advantage in this respect is to be gained by heating to a higher temperature. This 
being true, it only remains to determine with certainty how long an exposure must 
be made to destroy the tubercle bacillus. The temperature limit that has heretofore 
been considered necessary where the exposure was made at 140° F. was 1 hour, but 
recent extensive experiments by Theobald Smith, in which all conditions have been 
most carefully controlled, show that this time can be materially shortened where 
milk is agitated during pasteurizing. A thorough retest of this point is now being 
made under factory conditions and the exact time period will be determined on the 
Imsis of these trials." 

Pasteurization of skim milk, E. H. Farrington ( Wisconsin Sta. 
Rpt. ISdd^'jjp. l'£l-l'28^Jigs. 2). — The methods and advantages of pas- 
teurizing skim milk at creameries are discussed, and a device for 
heating skim milk by means of exhaust steam, constructed by J. C. 
Fortiner of the University creamery, is described. 

This skim-milk heater consists of an ordinary tin pail which is sus- 
pended over the storage vat, and into which the pipe conveying the 
skim milk from the separator and the one conducting the exhaust steam 
from the creamery engine empty. The skim-milk pipe extends about 
18 in. up into the steam pipe, which arrangement is thought to aid in 
utilizing all the heat of the exhaust steam and to prevent the skim 
milk from being blown from the pail by the steam. The skim milk is 
thus heated as it comes from the separator and flows over the top of 
the pail into the large vat from which the patrons of the creamer}^ are 
supplied. In practice about 2,500 lbs. of skim milk per hour was 
heated to 160° F. and 4,000 lbs. to 140°. It was found that skim 
milk heated in this way remained sweet about 1 day longer than 
skim milk not heated. Only perfectly sweet milk can be used where 
this method of pasteurizing the skim milk is employed. 



86 



EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 



A valve for turnino- aside the exhaust steam when not needed for 
pasteurizing" is illustrated. Brief mention is also made of an arrange- 
ment in practical use in a creamery by which the skim milk was heated 
in a similar manner at the separator. 

Effect of salt on the -water in butter, E. H. Farrington ( TT7.s- 
Ciynalii Sti(. Rpt. lS9'J^pp. 97-107 , fig. 1). — Reference is made to results 
of similar work reported previously (E. S. R., 11, p. 586). 

In each of 18 experimental churnings the butter was divided into 2 
lots, one of which was salted and the other not salted. In other 
respects the 2 lots in each case received as nearly identical treatment 
as possible. In a numljer of these trials both lots were worked once, 
and in the other trials the lots were worked twice, the 2 workings 
being separated by an interval of about 21 hours. Analyses of 36 
samples of butter made in these trials are given in full and sum- 
marized in the following table: 

Average of (inahjse>< of salted and nnsalted hutter. 



Num- 
ber of 
churn- 
ings. 



Salted butter. 



Butter worked once . , 
Butter worked twice , 



Butter 
fat. 



Per ct. 
83.80 
84.59 



Curd. 



Per ct. 
0.93 
1.08 



Ash 
(salt). 



Per ct. 
2.74 
3.80 



Per ct. 
12.74 
10.53 



Unsalted butter. 



Butter 
fat. 



Curd. 



Per ct. 

0.90 

.90 



Ash 
(salt). 



Per ct. 

0.27 

.36 



Water. 



Per ct. 
15.12 
14.33 



While the unsalted butter always had a dry appearance it was found 
in eveiy comparison to contain more water than the salted butter. 

"Taken as a whole, the analyses show that the higher the salt content, the less 
water the butter will contain. . . . The amount of water or brine that shows on the 
fresh-cut surface of butter is a better indication of its salt content than of the amount 
of water it holds. . . . The color of the salted butter was a darker shade of yellow 
than the unsalted. This was very noticeable." 

To observe the effect of the size of butter granules on the water 
content of butter, about 300 lbs. of ripened cream was divided into 2 
lots, one of which was churned in a box churn until the butter gran- 
ules were about the size of clover seed, while the other lot was churned 
in a combined churn and worker until the butter granules were 
about the size of corn grains. Both lots were salted and worked to 
the same extent except that one was worked on a table worker and the 
other in the combined churn and worker. Eleven trials of this kind 
were made. The average water content of the butter churned to 
large granules was 13.89 per cent, and of the butter churned to small 
granules 12.15 per cent. 

In 10 comparative tests granular butter was divided into 2 portions, 
one of which was worked in a combined churn and worker and the 
other on a table worker. The average water content of the butter 
worked by the 2 methods was, respectivelv, 13.09 and 13.31 per cent. 



DAIRY FAEMING^ — DAIRYING. 87 

"These results give practically the same average percentage of water in the butter 
worked by the 2 methods, showing in connection with the above experiment tliat 
the size of the granules of Imtter when churning stops has more influence on the 
amount of water left in the finished butter than does either of these 2 methods of 
working the butter." 

White spots on butter, E. H. Farrington ( Wisconsin Sta. Rpt. 
1899^ pp. 118-1'20^ Jig. <F).^Te.sts were made to demonstrate the cause 
of white crystals entirely unlike mottles or white curd spots appear- 
ing on the surface of butter, especially on prints or bricks of butter 
in a refrigerator. Two 1-pound bricks from the same churning were 
kept at 50" F. in glass jars, one of which contained about 1 in. of 
water and the other the same quantity of sulphuric acid. The ])utter 
was raised above the liquid in each case. In the dry atmosphere of 
the jar containing the sulphuric acid crystals began to form on the 
surface of the butter within a few hours and nearly covered it in a few 
days. In the moist atmosphere of the jar containing the water no 
crystals formed on the surface of the butter, which, however, was 
covered with drops of brine. A second trial at 70° F. gave the same 
results. "Such spots are not an indication of defective salt, that the 
workmanship is poor, or the butter bad; they simply show that the 
liutter has been kept in a cold place which at the same time was so 
dry that the water of the brine evaporated, leaving the salt on the 
surface." 

The action of proteolytic ferments on milk with special refer- 
ence to galactase, the cheese-ripening enzym, S. M. Babcock, H. 
L. Russell, et al. ( Wisconsin Sta. Rp>t. 1899^ pp. 157-17 J}.., figs. 11). — 
In the investigations here reported, the object of which was the difl'er- 
entiation of galactase from trypsin and other ferments, quantitative 
determinations were made of the different decomposition products 
formed by various ferments in sterilized milk. The ferments used 
were the enzyms galactase, trj^psin, pancreatin, pepsin, and rennin, 
and the bacteria Bacillus suhtllls, 2 species isolated from imperfectly 
sterilized milk and designated B. 299 and B. 83, B. acldl lactlcl and 
B. eoli communis. Samples of fresh separator milk which had been 
sterilized were inoculated with these ferments and inculcated at 37 
to 38° C, for periods ranging from 1 to 16 weeks. Two per cent 
of chloroform was added to the samples inoculated with enzyms to 
prevent the growth of any bacteria present through possible contam- 
ination. The chemical analyses, which were performed in two inde- 
pendent series, involved determinations of the albumins and casein 
(precipitated by heat and acetic acid), albumoses (precipitated by zinc 
sulphate), peptones (preciptated by tannic and phosphotungstic acids), 
amids (not precipitated by reagents), and ammonia. The analytical 
methods employed are briefly described, a detailed account being given 
in a separate article (see p. 19). The results in detail are given in 
tables and are also shown graphically in a series of diagrams. 



88 EXPERIMENT STATION EECORD. 

The progressive formation of soluble nitrogenous products by 
galactase, trypsin, and panereatin differentiated these enzyms from 
pepsin and rennin, digestion with the latter enzyms and with commer- 
cial rennet extract taking place only in milk acidified with 0,2 per 
cent hydrochloric acid. The action of Bacillus subtilis, JB. 299, and 
B. 83 as regards the conversion of nitrogen into soluble form was 
similar to that of galactase. The amount of soluble nitrogen was not 
increased by B. acldi lactici or B. coll communis. Proteolytic 
changes in all cases were more rapid in the earlier than in the later 
stages of digestion, from 30 to 85 per cent of the total nitrogen being 
digested during the first 7 days. A difierentiation of the proteolytic 
ferments was also shown by the character of the decomposition prod- 
ucts. No ammonia was produced by trypsin, panereatin, and pep- 
sin. In samples of milk acted upon by galactase. Bacillus sitbtilis, B. 
299, and B. 83 for 112 days the nitrogen in the form of ammonia was 
respectively 0.04, 0.21, 0.11, and 0.15 per cent. In cheese 120 days 
old the ammonia was 0.17 per cent. Tryptic digestion was more 
rapid than that of galactase. The absence therefore of ammonia, 
together with the total disappearance of albumoses, and the presence 
of large quantities of amids and peptones in digestion with trypsin, 
and the presence of both ammonia and albumoses in digestion with 
galactase at the end of 112 days strengthened the conclusion that these 
two enzyms are not identical, although allied in some of their proper- 
ties. The relative quantities of different end products of digestion, 
especially amids and ammonia, differentiated galactase from the bac- 
terial enzyms. 

The relation of galactase to other enzyms is considered in connec- 
tion with the cause of the changes taking place in the ripening of 
cheese. " The similarity of products formed in the normal ripening 
of Cheddar cheese with those produced by galactase where all other 
factors are controlled, shows beyond all question that the main causal 
agent in the proteolytic changes that occur in these cheeses is due to 
this enzym." 

Influence of galactase in the ripening of cottage cheese, S. M. 
Babcock, II. L, Russell, and A. Vivian ( W!sco)isl)i St<(. Rpt. 1899, 
P2>' 175-178). — Several experiments were made in a study of this ques- 
tion. In 2 experiments cottage cheese was made from normal milk, 
the acid being developed naturally by bacterial fermentation. In 1 
of the experiments the curd was washed with warm water to remove 
as much acid as possible. In 2 other experiments cottage cheese was 
made from milk which had been heated to 192° F. for 20 minutes in order 
to destro}'^ the inhei'cnt galactase. The acid was developed in one case 
by means of a buttermilk starter and in the other 0.5 per cent of com- 
mercial lactic acid was added. In each of the 1 experiments one por- 
tion of the curd was kept under chloroform. Determinations of the 



DAIRY FARMING DAIRYING. 89 

total and soluble nitrogen at different periods during ripening are 
tabulated. The results are ]>riefl3^ discussed and the following con- 
clusions are drawn: 

"This seric'r^ of experiments leads us to eonsider that tlie digestion of casein in cot- 
tage cheese is due, not so much to the action of vital ferments, in and on the curd 
masses as has hitherto been supposed, but to the effect of inherent milk enzyms, of 
which galactase is undoubtedly the most important. They also indicate that the 
lactic-acid group of bai;teria have no appreciable effect on digestion. 

"Furthermore, it is shown in these instances that the casein of milk, when pre- 
cipitated l)y acid instead of rennet, undergoes a proteolytic or digestive change, in a 
manner comparable to that which occurs in normal milk." 

Effect of digesting bacteria on cheese solids of milk, H. L. 

Kussp^LL and V. IL Bassett ( ir/.s-roz/.v/y/ Sfx. Ilpf. 1S90. 2n>- 1S7- 
193). — Experiments were conducted to determine if losses occurring 
in the manufacture of cheese from tainted milks are due to the diges- 
tion of the casein of the milk by bacteria. Samples of raAv and sterile 
milk inoculated with pure cultures of various species of digesting and 
gas-producing bacteria were incubated for 14 to 24 hours at temper- 
atures ranging from 82 to 99° F. Determinations of the soluble nitro- 
gen and the total solids of the milk and whey at the beginning and 
end of the experiments are tabulated. The results are considered as 
showing that the casein of the milk suffers no appreciable loss through 
tiie action of digesting bacteria during the tirst 24 hours after milking. 

"It is therefore fair to assume that the losses sustained are attributable, in the 
main, if not wholly, to the manufacturing methods that are used in the handling of 
such tainted milks. This being the case, it is possible that improvements may be 
made in these methods whereby some, at least, of these losses may be prevented, a 
condition which would not in any way be possiljle if the insoluble casein was dis- 
solved by these digesting organisms during the period before the milk is ordinarily 
made into cheese. 

"It is more than likely that the digesting microbes attack the albumen in milk 
first, and so have in this already soluble material sufficient food to sustain them for 
a considerable period. Later, the insoluble casein molecule is rendered soluT^le 
through the continued activity of this type of ferment action." 

Notes upon dairying in California and the export of California 
butter to the Orient, K. A. Pearson {U. S. Dept. A(/r., BuTeau of 
Animal Lidx-sti'ij Bnl. '21^.^ pp. 29, jyh. Jt-./fig. 1). — A brief account is 
giyen of the dairy exhibit at the California State fair, held at Sacra- 
mento September 4-16, 1899. Scores on the butter exhibited are 
tabulated. A resume is giyen of the principal points brought out in 
a general discussion on the export of dairy products from the Pacific 
coast at a meeting of the California State Dairymen's Association, 
held at Sacramento during the fair. Among the phases of the subject 
discussed were causes affecting hardness of butter, making and pack- 
ing butter for warm climates, and the use of preseryatives. Some 
purposes of the experimental exports of butter to foreign markets by 
the Department are noted, and statistics are given of the exports of 



90 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

butter and cheese from the United States to trans-Pacific countries 
from 1893 to 1890. The author discusses, with reference to conditions 
and practices observed in California, the use of sugar-beet pulp and 
sugar-beet tops for dairy cows, method of payment for milk at 
creameries, handling of milk from cows fed alfalfa hay, butter pack- 
ages, cheese making, milk supply of cities, and dairy education in the 
State, offering suggestions for improvement along various lines. 

Tlie possibilities of dairying in Cuba, D. R. Rankin {Hoar'Ta Dairyman, 31 
{1900), No. 17, pp. 336, 337). 

T-welfth. annual report of the dairy school at RUtti-Zollikofen, Bern, 1899 
[XII. JahrcsbericJil di:r BerniacJien MolkcrelscJinle in. I'ntti-ZoUikofrn pro 1S9S-99. Bern, 
1S99, pp. 44). 

Summary of results of tests of ne-wr feeding stuffs at Poppelsdorf during 
the winter of 1898-99, E. Ramm {Milch Ztg., 28 [1899), No. 62, pp. 817-819).— 
This is a .summary account with tabulated data of a series of feeding experiments 
with milch cows, previously reported in detail (E. S. R., 11, pp. 81, 86, 885), com- 
paring peanut cake with the following feeding stuffs: Tropon residue, brewery resi- 
due (Brauerschlempe), Illipe cake, palm-nut cake and Illipe cake, Tropon, English 
cake (consisting mainly of cotton-seed meal and molasses), malt-sprouts-molasses, 
gluten meal, and raw sugar. 

Tests of dairy cows, 1898-99, J. W. Decker ( Wisconsin Sta. Rpt. 1899, pp. 
140-152, fig. 1). — Official tests were made by representatives of the station during the 
year of 73 Holstein cows for the Holstein-Friesian Association, 7 Brown Swiss cows 
for the Brown Swiss Cattle Breeders' Association, and 2 Guernsey cows for the 
American Guernsey Cattle Club. The manner of conducting the tests is described 
and the results are tabulated and discussed. In tests of 5 Holstein cows a record 
was also kept of the amount and cost of food eaten during the 7 days. 

Scale of points in use in the United States for judging the dairy breeds of 
cattle ( f7. S. Dept. Agr., Bureau of Animal Industry Circ. 27, pp. 16). — Reprinted 
from the Annual Report of the Bureau of Animal Industry for 1898 (E. S. R., 11, 
p. 983). 

Eccentricities of the cow, C. D. Smith {Farm Students^ liev., 5 {1900), No. 6, p. 
85). — Variations in the composition of milk during the same and succeeding periods 
of lactation are discussed. 

Examination of milk for tubercle bacilli, V. II. Bassett ( Wisconsin Sta. Rpt. 
1899, p. 205). — Thorner's method (E. S. R., 4, p. 214) was used in examining 4 sam- 
ples of separator slime and 30 samples of milk coming from cows reacting to the 
tuberculin test. 

"The result of these examinations showed that in no case were tubercle bacilli 
demonstrated in the milk from reacting cows that had no evident udder lesions of 
the disease. The accuracy of the method of examination is checked by the fact that 
in every instance where tuberculous si^utum was added a positive microscopic result 
was noted." 

Investigations on lactic acid fermentation and its practical use, S. Epstein 
{Arch. Ilyg., 37 (1900), No. 4, pp- 329-359). 

Testing cream {Hoard's Dairyman, 31 {1900), No. IS, p. 355). — ^The use of the 
Babcock test in determining the fat content of cream is hrit'fly discussed. 

On the composition of Norwegian creamery butter, F. H. Werenskiold 
{Norsk Landmandshlad, 18 {1899), No. 50, pp. 607-611). — Gives the results of peri- 
odical examinations of the butter from nine creameries during 1899. Determinations 
of specific gravity (at 100° C. ), refractive index, and Reichert number were made. — 

F. W. AVOLL. 



DAIRY FARMING DAIRYING. 91 

Renovated butter and its identification, J. A. Hummel (Fanit ,'>lii'!nit.s^ Ri'c, 5 
{19- 0), X<>. t:, pp. S'!, S7, ;!;/■". .i). 

Annual report of tho experiment station for cheese making at Lodi, 1898 
{A)ui. J\. Sta-. Sper. Cascif. Lud'i, 1S90, pp. lOS). — The lines uf investigation reported 
upon include the manufacture of several kinds of cheese, the influence of light on 
the souring of milk, the yield of cheese as affected by the use of soluble lime salts, 
a chemical study of the alluvial soils of Lodi, and the composition of various fl<jurs 
used in brea<l making. 

Cheese factories of Roquefort, F. Donati {Ind. L((it.,2,5 {1900), Xo. 20, pp. 153, 
154) . — A descriptive account of the production of Roquefort cheese. 

Coating: cheese with paraffin to prevent mold, J. W. Decker ( TF/.scovw/h Sta. 
Rpt. 1899, pp. 153,154, fig. 1). — A number of trials of coating cheeses of different 
ages with paraffin were made by the author. When properly done the coating was 
a complete protection against the growth of mold. AVhen the cheese was not care- 
fully handled the paralfin would break away froni the cheese and mold would grow 
beneath it. The coating of new cheese was thought to impair the flavor, while the 
coating of cheese 3 months old or older seemed to cause no injury in flavor. AVhen 
cheese had been covered with a double bandage and 2)aratfined, the outer bandage 
could be stripped off, leaving a fairly Ijright cheese. The cost of coating a 10-p<jund 
cheese was /^ of a cent. 

Examination of dairy salts, F. W. Woll ( Winvoimn Sta. Rpt. 1899, pp. 
108-117). — A reprint cf the main original data given in Bulletin 74 of the station 
(E. 8. R., 11, p. 585). 

Danish butter exports, 1898-99, B. Boggild {Tidsukr.Laudbkuii., 1899, Xo. 12, 
pp. 540-548). — The exports of butter during the year October 1, 1898, to September 
30, 1899, were as follows: To England, 140,894,253 lbs.; to Germany, 2,811,887 lbs.; 
to other countries, 662,794 lbs.; total, 144,368,934 lbs. Danish (1 lb. Danish=l.l lbs. 
avoirdujiois) . The imports during the same period aggregated 34,289,831 1V)S., mak- 
ing the net exports 110,079,103 lbs. 16,752,853 lbs. of butter was imported from 
Sweden, and 15,170,051 lbs. from Russia (Finland). About 3,500,000 lbs. of the 
butter exported was canne<l. The average price received for the export butter dur- 
ing the year was 25.8 cts. per pound Danish (23.5 cents per pound avoirdupois). — 

F. W. WOLL. * 

Denmark's production of milk and butter, 1897, B. Boggild ( Ugeskr. Landm., 
45 {1899), Xo. 47, pp. 585-587). — The author calculates on the basis of the latest 
official statistics that the total i:)roduction of butter in Denmark in 1896 was about 
129,030,000 lbs. Danish, and the total milk production, 4,502,780,000 lbs. The 1,145 
cooperative and proprietary creameries in the country in 1897 made 116,126,000 lbs. 
butter and 19,048,000 lbs. (skim-milk) cheese, the average value received for the 
products at the factory being 23.9 cts. and 3.5 cts., respectively, per jiound. The 
number of milch cows in the country, according to the census of 1898, Avas 
1,067,138. — p. w. woll. 

A new Belgian butyrometer, A. Theunis {Ind. LalL, 25 {1900), Ao.s. 21, pp. 
161, 162; 22, pp. 169-171, figs. 3; Rev. Gen. Agron., 9 {1900), Xo. 2, pp. 50-60, figs. 
3). — A new form of centrifugal fat tester devised by Mercier is figured and described. 
The test bottle is provided with a thistle tube through which the milk and the amyl 
alcohol and sulphuric acid used in the test are introduced. In comparison Mith the 
Gerber method the test gave closely corresponding results. 

A composite milk-sampling- pipette, J. W. Decker ( Wiscoiisiii Sta. Rpt. 1899, 
pji. 155, 156, fig. 1). — A pipette designed by the author for taking composite milk 
samples is essentially a glass tube 5 in. in diameter and about 12 in. long, graduated 
in i in. spaces, the ends of the tube being somewhat constricted. In using the 
pipette a sample of milk is taken of as many spaces in the tul)e as there are pounds 
of milk to be sampled. The individual samples are then in i)roportion to the yields 
3809— No. 1 7 



92 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

of luilk for the several inilkiugn reijrefiented in tlie test. The average fat content of 
10 comjiosite samples, each representing 21 niilkiugs during 7 days, taken in this way 
was 3.245 per cent, while the calculated average j^er cent was 3.27. 

Officials, associations, and educational institutions connected -with the 
dairy interests of the United States for the year 1900 ( ('. .s. Dept. Agr., 
Buremi- of Anhnul Iii<hjstrii ' V;v. 29, jip. 9). — A list of eacli. 



VETERINARY SCIENCE AND PRACTICE. 

Report of the cattle quarantines in Canada from November 1, 
1897, to October 31, 1898, D. McEachran {Ottawa: 1899, 2>P- 
56). — A report is uiven on the exportation and importation of animals 
and upon the di.sea.ses which were studied during the time covered by 
the report. These studies included work on tuberculosis, sporadic 
aphtha, a disease affecting the mouths and feet of cattle, resembling 
foot-and-mouth disease, Texas itch, hog cholera, swine plague, anthrax, 
glanders, actinomycosis, sheep seal), and enzootic ophthalmia in cattle 
and sheep. 

The greater portion of the report is occupied with the report by 
J. G. Adami and C F. Martin upon the cattle at the Experimental 
Farm at Outremont. Quebec, including studies upon the tuberculin 
test, the detection of tubercle bacilli in milk of suspected animals, the 
inoculation of guinea pigs and rabbits with milk from these animals, 
feeding calves with the milk of suspected animals, and a ^>o.y?'-;y;6'/'^t;;y/ 
examination of the cows. The results of these studies ma}' be stated 
as follows: The 10 cows which reacted to the tuberculin test presented 
good evidences of tubercidosis upon jMist-nu^rtem examination. The 
disease was not generalized in any of the cows, and there were only -i 
cases of pulmonary lesions. Nine of the cows gave distinct evidence 
of the infection of the peri-tracheal lymph glands. In no case was 
there any infection of the mammaiy glands, although in one cow the 
supramammarv lymph glands contained tubercles. It is possible that 
re^Deated large doses of tuberculin exercise a slight ciu'ative effect. 
Although the cows were free from tuberculosis of the udder the milk 
of several contained tubercle bacilli at times. Out of -i-i guinea pigs 
and 42 rabbits inoculated with such milk only 2 guinea pigs and 1 uab- 
bit died of generalized tuberculosis. Young calves fed entirely upon 
the milk of these infected cows for a period of several months remained 
wholly free from the disease, did not react to tuberculin, and showed 
no trace of tuberculosis upon po^t-aio/'tcm. 

During the experimental period, the number of tubercle bacilli 
present in the milk increased greatly at times Avithout any obvious 
cause. And it is therefore evident that the milk of such cows although 
usually not infectious may become so at any tune. 

Effect of different influences on normal temperatures of cattle 
and relation of same to tuberculin test, II. L. Hussell and V. H. 



VETERINARY SCIENCE AND PRACTICE. 93 

Bassett (Wlseonsin Sta. Rpt. 1899^ j>P- 19Jr-20^). — The authors con- 
ducted experiments for the purpose of determining- the effect of inges- 
tion of cold water upon the temperature of cattle. In a herd of 45 
cows, 30 were allowed to remain out of doors for from 20 to 60 min- 
utes where they had access to cold w^ater. The other 6 cows of the 
herd were kept in the barn and were not watered. The cows were 
watered at 9 a. m. At 10 a. m. the average temperature of the cows 
which were watered was 100.19^ F., and the average temperature of 
the cows which were not watered was 102.12^ F. The average differ- 
ence in temperature before and after watering was 2.17^, a fall of 
temperatui-e being noticed in ever}' case except two. The individual 
variation ranged from 0.9 to 5.1°. In order to determine the influence 
of the size of the animal upon the fall of temperature after drinking 
cold water, the herd was divided into 2 sections, the one composed of 
animals weighing 900 lbs. or more and the other of animals weighing 
less than 900 lbs. The average fall of temperature after watering in 
the first section was 2.02 and in the second section 2.3-'. 

An experiment was conducted with 15 cows for the purpose of 
determining whether the observed fall in temperature after watering 
could be attributed to exposure to the cold outside atmosphere. Eight 
of these 15 cows were watered in the barn and 7 were watered out of 
doors, the temperature of water in both cases ])eing the same. The 
average fall of temperature in the cows which were watered in the 
barn was 1.66^ and of those which were watered out of doors, 1.5°. 
It appears from this experiment that the fall in temperature is to be 
attiibuted solely to the ingestion of cold water. 

In order to approach the problem from another side, an experiment 
was conducted in watering cows with water heated to a temperature of 
101- F. The results showed that the variation in temperature after 
drinking this water was practically nothing. It is thus apparent that 
the ingestion of a large quantity of cold water during the reaction 
fever to the tuberculin test might lower the temperature of the animal 
to such an extent as to obscure the reaction and lead to a faulty 
diagnosis. 

Experiments were conducted for the purpose of determining what 
influence, if an}", thirst has upon the temperature of cattle. Obser- 
vations on this point were made both in the winter and summer. The 
animals were allowed to thirst for 2-4 hours and their temperatures 
were then taken. The variation in temperature was so slight that it 
could be safely neglected in making tuberculin tests. Oestrum and 
parturition were observed to have only a A'eiy slight effect in elevat- 
ing the temperature of cows. Dehorning caused a general rise in 
temperature in all the animals observed. 

The general results of these experiments may l>e stated as follows: 
The ingestion of large quantities of cold water may produce a marked 



94 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

fall ill temperature. Where, however, the water is given frequently 
and in small quantities, the accuracT of the tuberculin test would 
probably not be affected. The observations which were made b}" the 
authors indicate that parturition, advanced gestation, and oestrum pro- 
duce very slight fluctuations in temperature. The internal physio- 
logical conditions of the animals seem, therefore, to have less influence 
upon tlic temperatui'c of the animal than external conditions. 

The effects of eating moldy corn, A. W. Bitting {Indiana Sta. 
B2>t. 1899^ 2>P- -^-^' ¥')• — -^ study of samples of moldv corn from 
different sources disclosed the presence of 3 organisms — 1 bacterial 
organism and 2 molds. 

Two horses were used for inoculation experiments, each receiving 
6 cc. of an active growth of the Ixicteria hypodermically, and after 36 
hours 10 cc. more. No ])athological effects were produced. All 3 of 
the organisms were cultivated upon sterilized corn meal, which was 
then fed to the horses as a mash. The l)acterial organism and one of 
the molds produced no effects. The other mold, a species of Fusarium, 
produced redness of the gums and some salivation. The animals had 
eaten about 5 lbs. per day for 5 days. On the fifth day one of the 
horses showed occasional pains and diarrhea. On the seventh day 
there were some muscidar incoordination and stupor. The second 
horse exhibited some irritation of the mucus membranes of the mouth, 
but did not develop any nervous symptoms. The 2 horses together 
ate about -t bu. of th(> moldy corn. 

An experimental investigation of a dermatomycosis of fo-wls, 
L. Matruchot and C. Dassonville {R<-v. Gen. Bat.. 11 {1899)., No. 
132., jyp- Jt29-Jt.It.li.. i"^^- ^)- — The authors conclude from a study of this 
disease that the dermatonn'cosis, which heretofore has been called 
favus of fowls, and white comb, a comb disease, is quite distinct from 
favus and should be called by a special name. The organism which 
causes the disease is Lophophyton galJlna^ The disease occurs spon- 
taneoush' among gallinaceous birds, but not among mammals, and is 
quite different from the dermatomycosis of the hair of mammals. The 
organism of this disease produces only superficial lesions and in this 
respect is also different from favus. The organism in the lesions is 
characterized by a persistent mycelium of short joints of 3 to -i cells. 

Tn cultures no lateral chlamydospores appear. As regards the sys- 
tematic position of Laphophyi(n\ (/all!na\ it seems to stand near the 
Gynfjecia. 

The science of operations (Operationslehre), J. Bayer ( T7e)iMrt and Leipfsic: 
W. lirtnuiiiiUer, 1S99, ]q>. '>J.J, Jhjs. 4-il). — Tlii^ CDiistitntes volume 1 of a handbook 
of veterinary surgery and ol)!^tetrics and presents a general discussion of surgical 
methods together with descriptions of the special technicpie of various oi^erations. 

The defense of the organism ag-ainst the morbific properties of the 
glandular secretions, ("iiakkin and Lkvaditi {Coinpt. RemL Sue Biol. Paris, 52 



VETERINARY SCIENCE AND PRACTICE. 95 

{1900), No. 4, pp. 83-86). — The author's investigations indicate that the organism is 
jirotected against injurious properties of certain digestive secretions, especially the 
])ancreatic juice, hy substances Mhich apjiear to be produced by the epithelial cells 
of the ileum. 

Subcutaneous injections, F. Eschbaum {Berlin. Tieriirztl. Wchnschr., 1900, Xo. 4, 
pp. 39-41) ■ — The author l^elieves that the hypodermic injection syringe should be 
constructed with 2 or 3 rulings measured with special care, in order that the size of 
the dose may be accurately known. It is necessary to take into account the siiecific 
weight of the substances which are to be used in these syringes. The author recom- 
mends State inspection of hypodermic syringes. 

Tuberculosis, McFadyeax {Dair;/, 12 {1900), No. 134, p. 40). — Notes on the means 
of distril)utii)n of tuberculosis with special reference to tuberculosis of the udder. 

On the frequency of tuberculosis, Gutbrod ( Wchnschr. TlerheUk. v. Viehzucht, 
44 {1900), No. 5, pp. 41-4^3)- — Statistics of tuberculosis as found in slaughterhouses 
and an account of tuberculin tests in suspected cases. 

Failures in the diagnosis by means of tuberculin, S wicker (Berlin Tifri'irztl. 
Wclinsehr., 1900, No. 5, pp. 5.2-54)- — Tlie author l)elieves that a considerable propor- 
tion of the causes of alleged failure of tuberculin is due to simple carelessness in 
labeling the animals during the tuberculin test. Where the test is applied simul- 
taneously to a large number of cattle, the greatest care must be exercised to prevent 
mistakes in the identity of the records before and after injection. 

Letters relating- to the distribution of vaccine ( T'. S. Dept. Agr., Bureau of Ani- 
mal Indufitry Circ. '28, pp. 9). — This circular contains a copy of a letter of the Secre- 
tary of Agriculture to Mr. H. R. Strong, a letter of Parke, Davis & Co. to the Hon. 
Jas. McMillan, a letter of the Secretary of Agriculture in reply to this last-named 
letter, and a letter from the H. K. Mulford Company to the Secretaiy of Agriculture, 
together with a reply to the same. These letters have to do with the question of the 
free distribut'on of vaccine b}' the Bureau of Animal Industry. 

Pseudoscabies, A. W. Bittixg {Indiana Sta. Rpt. 1899, pp. 43, .^^).— Upon inves- 
tigating an allege<l outbreak of sheep scab, it was found that the trouble was due to 
the awns of Siij^a uparlea. These awns had evidently penetrated the skin of the sheep 
in the Southwestern States, from which they had been imported. 

The so-called air-bladder mesentery of swine, Sch.mutzek {Ztsclir. Fleiscli u. 
Milchhiig. , 10 { 1900) , No. 5, pp. 89-95) . — The author discusses the Avell-known ajjpear- 
ance of small air bladders in the mesentery, especially of the small intestine in healthy 
pigs. From a careful study of a large number of cases, the author concludes that the 
gas contained in these bladders is not the jiroduet of micro-organisms and does not 
come from tlie intestine, but that it comes from the outside air. 

Glanders and the sanitary law, O. Lebrun {Rec. Med. Yet. Paris, 8. .svr. , 7 (1900), 
No. 1, pp. 32, 33). 

The diagnostic value of mallein, E. Isepponi {Schweiz. Arch. Thierh., 42 (1900), 
No. 1, 2)p- 1-20). — In a drove of 60 horses, 2 were suspected of having glanders, and 
mallein tests were given to these horses. The post-mortem examinations in these 
two cases furnished confirmation of the reaction which was obtained by the use of 
mallein. Mallein tests were made upon a number of other horses, and the details of 
the temperature conditions are given. 

The author concludes that glanders often exists in a hidden form and tliat, there- 
fore, mallein is a necessary agent in the eradication of the disease from a drove of 
horses. It is recommended that mallein tests be given at once to suspected horses, 
and that such as fail to react should be at once removed from quarantine. 

The reliability of the Strauss method, C. Tro ester {Zfschr. Yeterinurk., 12 
{1900), No. 2, pip. 69, 70). — As a result of considerable experience in diagnosing 
suspected cases of glanders, the author states that the Strauss method of inoculating 
male guinea pigs is jierhaps the most reliable one for making correct diagnoses. 



96 EXPEEIMENT STATION RECORD. 

In order that this method may give the best results, however, it is necessary to 
make inoculations with material as fresh as possible. The glanders bacillus soon 
loses its vitality in material wliich is kejit about the la])oratory. 

Statistical notes on periodical ophthalmia of horses, I. Shilzhexko (Arch. 
Vit. Xauk, St. Petersburg, 29 {1899), No. 12, II, pp. 570-555).— Tabulated statements 
with a discussion on the frequency of this disease in different governments of Russia. 

Composition of bones of sound horse and of bones of horse suffering with 
osteoperosis, H. H. Huston and A. H. Bkyax [Indiana Sta. Rpt. 1899, pp. 7S, 74). — 
The humerus of each animal was taken for analj'sis. The bone of the normal horse 
was yellowish, while that of the diseased animal was gray and brittle. In the dis- 
eased horse a small gain of ossein was noticed. The most conspicuous changes in 
the bone of the horse suffering with osteoperosis were a re<luction in the amounts of 
fat, phosphoric acitl, lime, soda, and nitrogen-free organic matter. 

Material for packing horses' hoofs, H. A. Htston and A. H. Bryan {Indiana 
Sl<(. apt. 1899, p. 72). — A taV)le is given showing the composition of substances to be 
used for th's purpose. 

On pseudotuberculosis, with special reference to pseudotuberculosis in 
birds, R; Mrm {.lour. Path, and Bart., 5 {1898), Xn. 2, pp. 160-181, ph. «>).— The 
author conducted feeding experiments with guinea pigs. The article contains a 
discussion of the literature f)f the subject, with a bi1)liography. 



AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING. 

Description of experiment station piggery, H. PI Van Norman 
{LuHana St,(. R^jf. lSOO,^>p. llf-O-U-i, 2''- ^-Mih i)-— The building is 
described and a general view and floor plan are given. The main part 
of the building is 22 by 46 ft. outside. On each side is a wing 12 by 
14 ft. The front part only of the main building, 22 by 32 ft. , is two 
stories high. The first floor contains 8 feeding pens, 4 of which com- 
municate with sleeping pens in the wings of the building. The 
remainder of the floor space is occupied b}" a brood-sow pen, storage 
and attendant's room, scales, mixing vats, feed chutes, water hydrant, 
etc. The upper story of the building affords storage room for bed- 
ding, crates, and bin room for feed. '"The building is so placed as to 
be centrally located among a series of feeding lots, all of which are 
connected to the building by lanes leading up to it. Each lot contains 
a small house for sleeping quarters." 

Irrigation, L. Jastremski {Ijouimma Planter, 24 {1900), No. 2,5, pp. 394-397) . — A 
paper read before the Central Louisiana Agricultural Society. 

An electric-recording river gauge, W. ]\I. Filton ( Univ. Tennes.'^ee Record, 1899, 
No. 11, pp. 232-24S,fi(j. 7) . — This is a description of a river gauge devised by A. Wade 
in the mechanical shops of the University fif Tennessee. 

Petroleum motors and their employment in agriculture, K. (tagey {Bnl. 
Dir. Acjr. it (hrn., .', {1900), Xn. 15, pp. 63-81, fig. 3). 

Tests of manure spreaders, Brctschke {Mitt. Deut. Landw. Gesell., 15 {1900), 
No. 15, pp. 101, 102). 



STATISTICS MISCELLANEOUS. 97 

STATISTICS— MISCELLANEOUS. 

Twelfth Annual Report of Alabama College Station, 1899 {Alabama Sla. 
E])t.l899,pp.o^). — This eontainy the organization list of the station; report of the 
treasurer for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1899; and reports of tlie director and 
botanist, chemist, associate chemist, veterinarian, agriculturist, and biologist and 
horticulturist, giving a general review of the station work during the year ended 
December 31, 1899. The report of the director contains in addition a summary of 
the contents of Bulletins 101-107 of the station, a list of bulletins now available for 
distribution, an excliange list of periodicals received at the station library, a list of 
seeds of trees furnished l>y this Department, and notes on the exhibit of cotton pre- 
pared by the station for the Paris Exjiosition. 

Twelfth. Annual Report of Georgia Station, 1899(r7Voc(//« Sta. lij)t. 1S99, pp. 
111-145) . — This embraces a brief account of the organization and work of the station 
during the year, a financial statement for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1899, and a 
report of the biologist and horticulturist containing an account of work with plums, 
grajH's, and vegetables, and notes on plant diseases and insects. 

Twelfth Annual Report of Illinois Station, 1899 [Illhiois Sta. lipt. 1S99, pp. 
16). — This includes a brief statement of the principal lines of station work, subject 
list of bulletins published since 1888, a detailed financial statement for the fiscal year 
ended June 30, 1899, and the organization list of the station. 

Twelfth Annual Report of Indiana Station, 1899 (LuKana Sta. Itpt. 1899, pp. 
150). — This includes the organization list of the station; a report by the director on 
the station work, staff, publications, and mailing list; miscellaneous articles noted 
elsewhere; acknowledgments; li.st of periodicals received at the station; and a finan- 
cial statement for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1899. 

Biennial Report of Iowa Station, 1898-99 {Iowa Sta. Rpt. 1898-99, pp. 33-37, 
77, 78). — Notes on the work of- the station, abstracts of Bulletins 37-43 of the station, 
and a financial statement for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1899, are included in 
these pages. 

Seventeenth Annual Report of New York State Station, 1898 {Neiv York 
State Sta. Rpt. 1898, pp. 598) . — This contains the organization list of the station, the 
report of the treasurer for the year ended September 30, 1898, a meteorological record 
for the year, reprint of a station circular on the name of a new variety of cherry, and 
reprints of Bulletins 143-157 on the following subjects: Cottonwood-leaf beetle; green 
arsenite (E. S. R., 10, p. 467) ; a spraying mixture for cauliflower and cabbage worms 
(E. S. R., 10, p. 869) ; report of analyses of commercial fertilizers for the spring of 1898 
(E. S. R., 10, p. 833); some experiments in forcing head lettuce (E. S. R., 10, p. 957); 
variety tests of strawberries, raspberries, and blackberries (E. S. R., 10, p. 961) ; report 
of analyses of commercial fertilizers for the fall of 1898 (E. S. R., 10, p. 1033); the 
economy of using animal food in poultry feeding (E. S. R., 11, p. 76); the raspberry 
sawfly, and preliminary notes on the grapevine flea-beetle (E. S. R., 11, p. 63) ; exi^eri- 
ments in ringing grapevines (E. S. R., 11, p. 49); two destructive orchard insects 
(E. S. R., 11, p. 170) ; director's report for 1898 (E. S. R., 11, y). 295) ; commercial fer- 
tilizers for potatoes, II (E. S. R., 11, p. 235) ; sugar-beet investigations in 1898 (E. S. R., 
11, p. 238) ; spraying cucumbers in the season of 1898 (E. S. R., 11, p. 257); and self- 
fertility f)f the grape (E. S. R., 11, p. 248) . 

Annual Report of South Carolina Station, 1899 {South Carolina Sta. lipt. 1899, 
pp. 37). — This includes a general report on the work of the station by the vice director 
and more detailed reports by the agriculturist, chemist, botanist, veterinarian, hor- 
ticulturist, entomologist, and assistant agriculturist. The departmental reports give 
in some cases brief statements of the results obtained during the year. A financial 
statement for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1899, and a subject list of station publi- 
cations are ap{)ended. 



98 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

Sixteenth Annual Report of "Wisconsin Station, 1899 (Wisconsin Sta. Rpl. 
1899, pp. 332, figs. 79). — This includes the organization hst of the station, a detailed 
account of the history and present status of the station, numerous articles noted else- 
where, lists of exchanges and acknowledgments, and a tinancial statement for the 
fiscal year ended June 30, 1899. 

Distribution of tlie agricultural exports of the United States, 1894-1898, 
F. H. Hitchcock {U. S. Dcpt. Agr., Section of Foreign Markets Bui. 16, pp. 153). — 
Statistical tables are given showing the quantities and values of all the various agri- 
cultural products exported from the United States to each country of destination 
during each of the 5 fiscal years 1894-1898. A sunnnary is given showing the total 
values of agricultural exports by countries. The average annual value of the agri- 
cultural exports during the 5 years was $663,536,201. The United Kingdom received 
54.62, Germany 13.01, and France 6.63 per cent of the total exports. The United 
Kingdom also showed the greatest increase during the 5 years. A marked falling off 
in demands for American agricultural products was shown in case of Spain, Portugal, 
and European Russia. A summary of the distribution of agricultural exports by 
continents showed that Europe received 88.46 per cent. 

Sources of the agricultural imports of the United States, 1894-1898, 
F. H. Hitchcock ( T. S. Dept. Agr., Section of Foreign Markets Bui. 17, jjp. 118). — 
This is supplementary to Bulletin 16 of the Section (see above) and contains tables 
showing in detail the quantities and values of all the agricultural products imported 
into the United States from the several countries of supply during each of the 5 fis- 
cal years 1894-1898. The average annual value of the agricultural imports during 
the 5 years was 1{!368,748,457. The articles most extensively imported were sugar 
and coffee. Of the total imports 16.17 per cent was supplied by Brazil, 10.14 by 
Cuba, and 8.97 by the United Kingdom. The imports from Japan, China, and the 
Hawaiian Islands showed the greatest increase and thase from Cuba the most marked 
decrease during the 5 years. A classification of the agricultural imports by conti- 
nents showed that aliout 30 per cent came from Europe, 23 per cent from South 
America, 23 per cent from North America, 16 per cent from Asia, 5.5 per cent from 
Oceania, and less than 2 per cent from Africa. 

Our trade with Japan, China, and Hongkong, 1889-1899, F. H. Hitch- 
cock ( U. S. Dept. Agr., Section of Foreign Markets Bui. IS, pp. 168). — Tables show the 
nature, quantity, and value of agricultural and nonagricultural products imported 
and exported by the United States in the trade with Japan, China, and Hongkong. 
The principal exports from the United States to these 3 destinations have been cot- 
ton, cotton manufactures, kerosene oil, wheat flour, and manufactures of iron and 
steel. These constituted nearly 80 per cent of the total exports in 1898. Silk and 
tea formed about 70 per cent of the total imports in 1898. The total value of exports 
have advanced from $11,097,497 in 1889 to $39,490,653 in 1899, and the total value 
of imports from $35,196,670 in 1889 to $47,815,035 in 1899. 

Agriculture and animal husbandry in Denmark, Germany, and Great 
Britain, G. vox Zweigbergk (A'. Landt. Akad. Handl, 38 (1899), No. 5-6, pp. 261- 
343) . — A report on the characteristic features of agriculture, with special reference to 
animal husbandry in the countries mentioned. The paper is accompanied by numer- 
ous half-tone reproductions of noted farm animals of different breeds. — f. w. woll. 



NOTES. 



Colorado College and Station.— J. D. Stannard, assistant in the deixirtnient of 
civil engineering, has severed his connection -with the institution to accept a position 
in the irrigation investigations condm-ted l)y this Office. J. A. Stump has heen 
appointed his successor, and the duties assigned to him will be principally in connec- 
tion with the college. B. C. Buffum, formerly professor of agriculture and horti- 
culture at the Wyoming Experiment Station, has been elected professor of agricul- 
ture and agriculturist of the experiment station. He will begin his duties Septeml^er 
1. Miss Virginia Corbett, of the Montana Agricultural College, has been elected 
professor of English literature, to succeed Miss Jennie E. McLain. C. S. Crandall, 
who has been botanist and horticulturist of the station since 1890, resigned that posi- 
tion July 1 to enter the service of the Division of Forestry of the U. S. Department 
of Agriculture. Mr. J. H. Cowen, a graduate of the Colorado Agricultural C^ollege 
and for several years botanist and horticulturist, was appointed to succeed him. 
Mr. Cowen's sudden death at Ithaca, N. Y., is just announced. The station has 
begun the publication of press Indletins, which will be distributed to papers in the 
State and to a limited number of individuals. The mailing list of the station is being 
revised so as to give more attention to the needs of individuals and exchanges. Field 
■- work was carried on during the summer in irrigation and other related questions; also 
investigations on injurious insects and the adaptability of grains to high altitudes. 

Nebraska Station.— W. D. Hunter resigned his position as assistant entomologist 
July 1 to accept a similar position with the experiment station at Ames, Iowa. 

New Mexico College and Station.— W. M. Reed has been appointed engineer 
of the station and professor of civil and irrigation engineering in the college. Fabian 
Garcia, formerly assistant in the department of agriculture and horticulture, has 
been made horticulturist of the station and assistant professor of horticulture in the 
college. R. F. Hare, first assistant chemist of the station and instructor in the col- 
lege, has been promoted to the assistant professorship of chemistry in the college. 
J. J. A'ernon has been recently appointed agriculturist. A small herd of well- 
selected cattle has been purchased, and in the future animal husbandry will be made 
an important part of the work of the college and station. T. D. A. Cockerell has 
resigned his professorship in the college to accept the chair of biology in the New 
Mexico Normal University at Las Vegas. His services are retained as consulting 
entomologist of the station. E. O. Wooten, botanist of the station, will henceforth 
have charge of all the biological work of the college. The agricultural course in the 
college has been greatly strengthened, and it is thought in the future will he one of 
the best proportioned and strongest courses offered in the agricultural colleges of the 
lomitry. In addition to his duties as soil physicist and meteorologist, J. D. Tinsley 
will superintend the Roswell Substation, where drainage problems will have special 
importance. 

Tennessee College and Station.— The designs for the new dairy hall, mention 
of which was made in E. S. R. 11, p. 800, have been enlarged so that with its equip- 
ment it will cost something more than $10,000. On the plats of the station favoraljle 
results have been secured with Canadian field peas and with rape. The experiments 
3801)— No. 1 8 99 



100 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

with wheat, which liave been conducted at the station, have proved very satisfactory, 
and the possibility of growing winter cereals seems well established. 

Texas Collecje and Station. — At the annual meeting of the l)oard of directors, 
July 6, P. S. Tilson, associate in chemistry, was relieved irom duty in connection 
with the station, in order that he might devote his entire time to State fertilizer and 
college work. A station council has been provided for, to consist of the direct(jr, 
president, and chemist, with duties as yet undefined. The position of farm superin- 
tendent has been created in order that the care f(jr the live-stock interests and field 
crops might be removed from the agriculturist and director. The determination of 
the exact duties of the position, together with a selection of a candidate, were 
assigned to a committee which has not yet made a report. This action has caused 
the name of H. C. Kyle to be dropped from the station rolls as foreman of the farm. 
The Texas Farmers' Congress held its third annual session at this place July 3-6, 
with 400 people in attendance. The proceedings will be published and distributed 
among the farmers, stockmen, and horticulturists of the State. The State Truck 
Growers' Association, State Floral Society, Central Texas Beekeepers' Association, 
and Texas Poultry and Pet Stock Association have become affiliated with the con- 
gress, and each is represented by a member on the general committee. The congress 
enthusiastically commends the work done on the several farms in connection with 
the station and college. 

Miscellaneous. — F. B. Smith, professor of agriculture in Wye College, England, 
is visiting this country for the purpose of making a study of the agricultural experi- 
ment station system and of seeing the various typical farm sections. He expects to 
visit a number of experiment stations before returning to England. A week was 
spent by him at the Department of Agriculture in familiarizing himself with the 
work of the different bureaus, divisions, and sections. 

The Franklin Institute, of Philadelphia, has awarded the Elliott Cresson medal 
to Profs. W. 0. Atwater and E. B. R(jsa for their respiration calorimeter. 

o 



EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

Editor: E. AV. ALLEN, Ph. D., As-vstmH Director. 

EDITORIAL PEPAETMENTS. 

Chemistry, Dairy Farming, and Dairying — The Editor and H. W. Lawsox. 
Meteorology, Fertihzers and Soils (including methods of analysis), and Agricultural 

Engineering — W. H. Beal. 
Botany and Diseases of Plants — Walter H. Evans, Ph. D. 
Foods and Animal Production — C. F. Langworthy, Ph. D. 
Field Crops — J. I. Schulte. ^ 

Entomology and Veterinary Science — E. V. "Wilcox, Ph. D. 
Horticulture — C. B. Smith and V. A. Clark. 
With the cooperation of the scientific divisions of the Department and the Abstract 

Committee of the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists. 



CONTENTS OF Vol. XII, No. 2. 



Page. 
Editorial note: International Congresses of Agricultural Experiment Stations 

and of Agricultural Education at Paris 101 

New agricultural building at Kansas State Agricultural College 103 

Recent work in agricultural science 106 

Notes 200 

SUBJECT LIST OF ABSTRACTS. 

CHEMISTRY. 

New method for the gravimetric determination of reducing sugars based upon 
the use of the centrifuge, P. Chapelle 106 

Simple and rapid method for the determination of the iodin number of fats, 
J. Bellier 106 

The determination of glycogen, and relative quantities of glycogen in different 
parts of the flesh of a horse, J. K. Haywood 107 

BOTANY. 

On biastrepsis in its relation to cultivation, H. de Tries 109 

The influence of carbon dioxid on the form and structure of plants, E. C. 

Teodoresco 109 

The influence of different kinds of light on the form and structure of plants, 

E. Teodoresco 110 

1 Absent on leave. 

I 



II CONTENTS. 

Page. 
The influence of changes of temperature on tlie respiration of plants, W. Pal- 

ladin 112 

On the influence of ansesthetics on the respiration of plants, N. Morkowine... 112 

Experiments on floral colors, P. Q. Keegan 113 

FERMENTATION — BACTERIOLOGY. 

Re^wrt of the bacteriologist, H. H. Lamson 117 

Variability in the power of liquefying gelatin possessed by bacteria, H. W. 

Conn 114 

Permanent forms of nitric and nitrous organisms, A. Beddies 114 

On the nitrification of organic nitrogen, V. Omelianski 11.5 

Denitrification and fermentation, K. Wolff 115 

Recent investigations on the development of aromatic principles by alcoholic 

fermentation in the presence of certain leaves, G. Jacquemin 1 1.5 

Investigations concerning bacteria in the fermentation of tobacco, J. H. Vern- 

hout 116 

On the chemical nature of enzyms, O. Loew 117 

METEOROLOGY. 

Monthly Weather Review, Vol. XXVIII, Nos. 1-3 118 

Maryland Weather Service, Vol. 1 119 

Meteorological observations at Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station for 

the year 1898, R. C. Kedzie 121 

Meteorology, C. H. Pettee 120 

Meteorological summary for Ohio, 1898, C. A. Patton 120 

Meteorological observations, W. B. Al wood 121 

Relations between the annual variations of temperature and the successive 

phases of vegetation, A. Desmoulins 120 

WATER — SOILS. 

The fruit soils of Virginia, W. B. Alwood 122 

Analyses of soils, C. F. Juritz 1 22 

The behavior of water-soluble phosphoric acid in the soil, M. Ullmanu 123 

Cultivation and weeding, P. P. Deherain 123 

A new method for the mechanical analysis of soils, G. Scarlata 123 

FERTILIZERS. 

Denitrification and the decomposition of animal excrement in the soil, C. 

Rogoyski 1 24 

Ground bone compared with superphosphate and Thomas phosphate as sources 

of phosphoric acid, U. J. Mansholt 125 

Introduction to field experiments with fertilizers, A. L. Knisely 125 

Field tests with fertilizers on heavy clay lands, H. A. Huston 126 

The maintenance of fertility, C. E. Thorne 127 

Commercial fertilizers, S. W. Johnson, E. H. Jenkins, et al 128 

Commercial fertilizers, M. A. Scovell, A. M. Peter, and H. E. Curtis 130 

Analyses of commercial fertilizers, W. C. Stubbs 130 

The production of the Stassfurt deposits in 1899, Maizieres 1 30 

FIELD CROPS. 

The influence of distance on the growth and chemical composition of plants, 

C. von Seelhorst and Panaotovic 1 -^2 

The Woburn field experiments, 1898, J. A. Voelcker 132 



CONTENTS. Ill 



Field experiments, J. Atkinson 134 

Eesults obtained in 1899 from trial plats of grain, fodder corn, field roots, and 

potatoes, W. Saunders 134 

Woody beets 135 

Distance experiment with corn, C. D. Smith 143 

The comparative yield of corn from seed of the same variety grown in differ- 
ent latitudes 1 36 

Fertilizer, culture, and \ariety experiments on cotton, R. J. Redding 137 

Some native forage plants for alkali soils, A. Nelson 138 

Effect of orchards in meadows, Burki 138 

The produce of old and new varieties of oats, J. Speir 138 

The Irish potato, R. H. Price and H. Ness 139 

Experiments with potatoes, C. D. Woods and J. ISI. Bartlett 140 

Fertilizer experiments with potatoes, B. Sjollema 141 

Soy beans — a new drought-resisting crop, H. M. Cottrell, D. H. Otis, and J. C. 

Haney 142 

Sugar beets in Sanpete and Sevier counties, L. Foster 144 

HORTICL'LTUKE. 

Rejiort of Beeville Station on cabbage and cauliflower, B. C. Pittuck and S. A. 

]\IcHenry 150 

Forcing tomatoes, A. T. Jordan 1 44 

The home fruit garden, F. A. Waugh 151 

Second report on Arkansas seedling apples, J. T. Stinson 151 

Pear growing in New Jersey, A. T. Jordan 146 

Check list of hybrid plums, F. A. Waugh 151 

Fruit list for Virginia, W. B. Alwood 151 

Observations and suggestions on the root killing of fruit trees, J. Craig 147 

Coffee grafting — some results heretofore obtained and its future importance, 

J. G. Kramers 147 

Strawl)erry notes for 1S99, A. L. Quaintance 148 

Strawberries, C. C. Newman 151 

The absorption of water by orchids, R. G. Leavitt and R. M. Gray 149 

FORESTRV. 

Tree planting in Utah, V. P. Hedrick 152 

The trees of Vermont, Anna M. Clark et al 153 

Fertilizers in the culture of osier willows, P. Wagner 153 

DISEASES OF PLANTS. 

A fruit-disease survey of the Hudson Valley in 1899, F. C. Stewart and F. G. 

Blodgett 154 

A sugar-cane pest in Madras, C. A. Benson 155 

Gummosis of Primus japonica, G. Massee 156 

ENTOMOLOGY. 

Beetles injurious to fruit-producing plants, O. Lugger 166 

The codhng moth, J. M. Aldrich 156 

The elms and their diseases, H. Garman 157 

The spiny elm caterpillar, C. M. AVeed 167 

Insect attacks in 1899, R. S. MacDougall 158 

Some miscellaneous results of the work of the Division of Entomology 160 

The choice < )f colors by insects, F. Plateau 163 

Spraying notes, L. H. Bailey et al 163 



IV CONTENTS. 

Page. 

The nature and use of certain insecticides, J. L. Phillips and H. L. Price 164 

Inspection of Paris green, W. C. Stubbs and W. T. Jones 168 

FOODS ANIMAL PRODUOTIOX. 

Dietary studies of university boat crews, W. O. Atwater and A. P. Bryant... 168 

Milk protein as a food, Backhaus and E. Braun 169 

Commercial feeding stuffs in New York, W. H. Jordan and C. G. Jeuter 169 

On the influence which the kind and amount of food exercises upon the 

amount of metabolism and the power to perform work, E. Pfliiger 171 

Concerning direct and indirect calorimetric measurements with animals in a 

study of nitrogen equilibrium when fasting and fed after fasting, P. P. 

Avrorov 1"2 

Steer feeding, R. PI. McDowell 1T3 

Sheep-feeding experiments at Leswalt, A. P. Aitken 1 73 

Pig feeding, R. H. McDowell 174 

Experiments in feeding pigs for the productioia of pork, H. J. Patterson 174 

DAIRY FARMING DAIRYING. 

Effect of a number of oil cakes on the yield and composition of milk and the 

live weight of milch cows, C. Moser and J. Kiippeli 179 

The college herd, C. W. Burkett 185 

Notes on sour milk, H. D. Richmond and J. B. P. Harrison 179 

Changes in the constants of butter fat as a result of feeding, A. Ruffin 181 

Butters from various countries compared, C. Estcourt 181 

A study of the cause of mottled butter, C. F. Doane 182 

Bacteria content of Finnish milk, O. v. Hellens 183 

The invasion of the udder by bacteria, A. R. Ward 184 

Lessons from a milk record, R. Shanks 185 

Sampling milk and cream 185 

VETERINARY SCIENCE AND PRACTICE. 

Immunization against Texas fever by blood inoculation, W. H. Dalrymple, 

W. R. Dodson, and H. A. Morgan 186 

Texas fever, M. Francis and J. W. Connaway 194 

Studies on cattle plague, M. Nencki et al 188- 

Results of recent investigations on foot-and-mouth disease and their practical 

application, C. Ebertz 189 

Sheep scab, A. W. Bitting 189 

Scab in sheep — suggestions for its eradication, Wallace 189 

Swine plague, P. Fischer and A. T. Kinsley 190 

jSTew investigations on Trichophyton minimum, LeCalve and H. ^Nlalherbe 191 

Notes on the mortality of incubator chicks, G. W. Field et al 192 

TECHNOLOGY. 

Chloroform in wine making, L. E. Moline 195 

AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING. 

Br< lad and narrow tires, C. 31. Conner 196 

STATISTICS — MISCELLANEOUS. 

Twelfth Annual Report of Kansas Station, 1899 197 

Twelfth Annual Report of Michigan Station, 1899 197 

Eleventh Annual Report of New Hampshire Station, 1899 198 

Director's report for 1899, W. H. Jordan 198 

Eighteenth Annual Report of Ohio Station, 1899 198 

Annual Report of Virginia Station, 1899 198 



CONTENTS, V 

Page. 

Proceedings of the thirteenth annual convention of the Association of Ameri- 
can Agricultural Colleges and Experiment Stations, A. C. True, W. H. Beal, 
andH. H. Goodell 198 

Organization lists of the agricultural colleges and experiment stations in the 
United States, with a list of agricultural experiment stations in foreign 
countries ^^^ 

LIST OF PUBLICATIONS ABSTRACTED. 

Experiment stations in the United States: 
Arkansas Station: 

Bulletin 59, December, 1899 136 

Bulletin 60, December, 1899 151 

Connecticut State Station: 

Twenty-third Annual Report, 1899, Part I 128 

Georgia Station: 

Bulletin 47, Deceiiiber, 1899 137 

Bulletin 48, January, 1900 148 

Idaho Station: 

Bulletin 21, February, 1900 156 

Indiana Station: 

Bulletin 80, September, 1899 189 

Bulletin 81, December, 1899 126 

Iowa Station : 

Bulletin 44, February, 1900 ■ - - - 147 

Bulletin 45, February, 1900 134 

Kansas Station: 

Bulletin 91, February, 1900 190 

Bulletin 92, March, 1900 142 

Twelfth Annual Report, 1899 197 

Kentucky Station: 

Bulletin 84, November, 1899 157 

Bulletin 85, December, 1899 130 

Louisiana Stations: 

Bulletin 57 (second series), 1899 186 

Bulletin 58 (second series), 1899 130, 168 

Maine Station: 

Bulletin 57, December, 1899 140 

Maryland Station: 

Bulletin 63, December, 1899 - 174 

Bulletin 64, January, 1900 182 

]\Iichigan Station: 

Twelfth Annual Report, 1899 121, 143, 197 

Minnesota Station: 

Bulletin 66, December, 1899 166 

Nevada Station: 

Bulletin 40, December, 1898 1"4 

Bulletin 41, December, 1898 1 ''S 

New Hampshii'e Station: 

Bulletin 67, October, 1899 167 

Bulletin 68, November, 1899 (Eleventh Annual Report, 1899) 117, 

120, 185, 198 
New Jersey Stations: 

Bulletin 141, December 31, 1899 144 

Bulletin 142, January 20, 1900 146 



VI CONTENTS. 

Experiment stations in the United States — Continued. 

New York Cornell Station: Page. 

Bulletin 177, January, 1900 163 

Bulletin 178, January, 1900 184 

Bulletin 179, February, 1900 125 

New York State Station: 

Bulletin 166, December, 1899 169 

Bulletin 167, December, 1899 154 

Bulletin 168, December, 1899 198 

Ohio Station: 

Bulletin 109, July 1, 1899 120 

Bulletin 110, December, 1899 127 

Eighteenth Annual Eeport, 1899 198 

Khode Island Station: 

Bulletin 61, December, 1899 192 

South Carolina Station: 

Bulletin 48, December, 1899 196 

Bulletin 49, January, 1900 151 

Texas Station: 

Bulletin 52, July, 1 899 150 

Bulletin 53, October, 1899 194 

Bulletin 54, November, 1899 139 

Utah Station: 

Bulletin 62, May, 1899 152 

Bulletin 63, November, 1899 144 

Vermont Station: 

Bulletin 73, October, 1899 153 

Bulletin 74, December, 1899 151 

Bulletin 75, January, 1900 151 

Special Bulletin, October, 1899 185 

Virginia Station: 

Bulletin 97, February, 1899 164 

Bulletin 98, March, 1899 122, 151 

Annual Report, 1899 121, 198 

Wyoming Stati(jn: 

' Bulletin 42, December, 1899 138 

United States Department of Agriculture: 

Division of Entomology: 

Bulletin 22 (new series) - 160 

Office of Experiment Stations: 

Bulletin 74 198 

Bulletin 75 168 

Bulletin 76 198 

"Weather Bureau: 

Monthly Weather Review, Vol. XXVIII, Nos. 1-3, January-:\Iarch, 

1900 118 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Fui. 1. Agricultural Hall, Kansas State Agricultural College 103 

2. Plan of first floor. Agricultural Hall 104 

3. Plan of second floor, Agricultural Hall 105 



EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

Vol. XII. No. ± 



The International Congress of Experiment Stations, held in Paris 
in connection with the exposition, was the third of its kind, although 
less of international interest has attached to the two previous ones. 
All three of these international congresses have been held at or near 
Paris. The first convened at Versailles, in June, 1881, following the 
marked activity in the organization of experiment stations which 
occurred throughout Europe a few years previous to that time. The 
second congress was held at Paris in connection with the Universal 
Exposition of 1889. The third, which in point of attendance at least 
was to a greater extent international than the two preceding, met 
June 18 to 22, 1900. Seventeen countries in which experiment stations 
are maintained were represented by delegates, although in some cases the 
representation was smaller than would have been expected. No dele- 
gates were present from Russia, Norway, Sweden, Spain, or Canada. 
The enrolled membership was nearly two hundred, of whom sixty 
were directors of stations. Only accredited delegates were admitted 
to the congress, and cards of admission were issued upon registration. 

The congress was presided over by Casimir-Perier, president of the 
Societe nationale d'' encouragement a Vacjricidture^ whose linguistic 
attainments specially fitted him for the position. The secretary of 
the congress was Louis Grandeau, director of the Station agrono- 
mique de VEst. After an opening address by the president, M. Gran- 
deau addressed the congress upon the history and development of the 
experiment station idea throughout the world. He gave particular 
attention to the stations of the United States, and highly connnended 
their scope, facilities, and the character of their work. The provisional 
programme which had been sent out early in the year was then pre- 
sented. The first day's sessions were taken up with the reading and 
discussion of papers relating to soils, fertilizers, and field tests. The 
sessions of the second day were occupied with papers on feeding ani- 
mals, anal}^ses of wine, cider, dairy products, seeds, etc. The closing 
session was devoted principally to questions of station organization 
and methods of investigation. The desirability of uniformity in 
methods of analysis, and where practicable in agricultural investiga- 
tion, formed a quite prominent feature of the discussion, and upon the 
recommendation of the directory a resolution was introduced, which was 

101 



102 EXPEEIMENT STATION EECORD. 

unanimousl}' adopted, looking to the establishment of an international 
commission to secure uniformity of methods of investigation in all the 
experiment stations of the world. The plan of organization of this 
commission will be announced later. 

The desirability of international methods is thoroughly appreciated 
in this country, where for a number of years past the Association of 
Official Agricultural Chemists has used its efforts to that end. Some 
success has followed the attempts to secure international cooperation 
in testing the methods adopted by the Association and those in use in 
foreign countries, but it has been impossible to get the work upon a 
satisfactory basis or make it official in an international sense. The 
establishment of a commission for this purpose will accordingly meet 
with approval in this country, and if it fulfills its mission this will be an 
important outcome of the congress. 

The experiment station congress was preceded by the International 
Congress of Agricultural Instruction under the same presidenc}', with 
M. Lagorsse as secretary. In many instances the same delegates rep- 
resented their countries at both conferences. The topic given princi- 
pal consideration at the Congress of Agricultural Instruction was the 
teaching of agriculture in France, and the congress adopted resolutions 
looking to the better organization and coordination of agricultural 
education in the various sections of the countrj-. 

The two congresses were terminated by a banquet at Hotel Conti- 
nental on the evening of June 21, at which about 150 persons were 
present. Several excursions were arranged for the benefit and pleas- 
ure of those in attendance at the congresses, and visits were paid to 
the laboratory of the Compagnie generaJe des I'oitares, where extensive 
experiments have for years been conducted upon the feeding of horses, 
to the experimental fields of the Station ac/ronomique de VEst at Pare 
des princes^ and to t\\e hutitid national agrono/aique^ where the various 
laboratories were inspected. 



I 



NEW AGRICULTURAL BUILDING AT KANSAS STATE AGRI- 
CULTURAL COLLEGE. 

Agricultural Hall, the new ag-ricultural building recently completed 
at the Kan.sas State Agricultural College, is a handsome structure of 
white Manhattan limestone, 90 by 95 feet. {Fig. 1.) It contains two 
stories and a basement, and cost, with equipment, ^31,000. It stands 




Fig. 1.— Agricultural Hall, Kansas State Agricultural College. 

upon the former site of the president's residence, which was destroyed 
in 1895. 

The first floor contains two good-sized offices, an agricultural library, 
cheese room, milk room, l)utter room, testing room, and cold-storage 
rooms. (Fig. 2.) The sides and ceilings of all the working rooms on 
this floor are covered with white opalite tiling, and the floors are laid 
with monolith tiling. The opalite tiling is made of tempered glass, 

103 



lOi 



EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 



and i.s much cheaper than the ordinary porcelain tiling. If it proves 
satisfactor}^ in the dairy rooms of this building, it is cheap enough 
for general use in creameries. 

The second story contains three large lecture rooms for agricultural 
classes, two offices for instructors, and a cloak room. (Fig. 3.) The 
largest of the lecture rooms has a seating capacity of about' 200, and 
may be used for institutes or other agricultural meetings. 




Fig. 2. — Plan of first floor, Agricultural Hall. 

The basement contains a boiler room, engine and refrigerating room, 
lavatories and bathrooms, three insulated cheese cellars, and a hirge 
storage room. The refrigerating apparatus is planned to be available 
in all workrooms, in the cold-storage rooms, and in the cheese cellars, 
the arrangement in the cheese cellars being designed to maintain any 
degree of temperature at will. 



AGRICULTURAL HALL 



105 



All the workrooms are furnished with hot and cold water and steam, 
and the entire building- is lighted by electricity. Power is supplied 
both by electric motor and steam. The refrigerating plant has not 3^et 




Fig. 8. — Plan of second floor, Agricultural Hall. 



been installed, on account of lack of funds. With this exception the 
building is equipped with all the modern apparatus for factory and 
farm butter making, cheese making, testing and handling milk. 



RECENT WORK IN AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE. 



CHEMISTRY. 



Ne-w method for the gravimetric determination of reducing 
sugars, based upon the use of the centrifuge, P. CHArELLE {Rev. 

Chun. Analyt. et Appl., o {1000), No. 2, pp. J4-lf.J^).—\t is stated that 
the quantit}^ of oxid of copper precipitated by Fehling's solution is 
not exactly proportional to the sugar used, but is a function of the 
dilution of the solution and excess of copper. When working with 
constant dilution, the only cause of trouble is the excess of copper, 
and it is easy to determine the value of that. A measured quant it}' 
of sugar solution insufficient to obtain complete reduction and 25 cc. 
of Fehling's solution are used. The total volume is then made up to 
37i cc. 

The tubes containing the mixed solution are heated for 3 or -i minutes 
in a calcium chlorid Imth at 108 to 110^. They are then whirled in a 
centrifuge, and the copper adheres to the sides. The liquid is decanted 
and the copper precipitate washed with water, dried and weighed. 
It is stated that when 250 mg. of copper precipitate are obtained 
duplicates agree within \ mg. A table is given, showing the amounts 
of glucose, lactose, sucrose, etc., corresponding to different weights of 
cuprous oxid. 

In the succeeding numl)er of the journal (No. 3) the application of 
this method to the determination of the sugars in milk, blood, wine, 
urine, etc., is considered. — h. snyder. 

Simple and rapid method for the determination of the iodin 
number of fats, J. Bellier {Rei\ Chhii. Analyt. d Apj)I.. o {1900), 
No. J4., pp. 128-13Ji). — Hiibrs method is considered as requiring too 
much time. The attempts to simplify the method by Wys and others, 
are noted. The author uses a solution containing both iodin and bro- 
min dissolved in 'acetic acid; 50 gm. of iodin and 32 gm. of bromin are 
dissolved in 950 cc. of acetic acid. The solvent for the fatty bodv is 
composed of chloroform, mercuric chlorid, acetic acid, and potassium 
iodid. One gram of material is dissolved and the bromin-iodin solu- 
tion added until a permanent coloration for 5 minutes is secured, and 
the number of cc. of solution used gives directly the iodin number. It 
is claimed that the results ol)tained are practically the same as those, 
b}^ the Hiibl method. The iodin number of a few oils as obtained by 
this method is given. — h. snydek. 
106 



CHEMISTRY. 107 

The determination of glycogen, and relative quantities of glyco- 
gen in different parts of the flesh of a horse, J. K. Haywood {Jour. 
Amer. Chem. Soc, 22 {1900), M. 2, pj). 85-93).— Mt^v testing a num- 
ber of different methods for gh^cogen the author worked out the fol- 
lowing, which is a modification of the Briicke method: From 50 to GO 
gm. of ground meat is treated with 300 (;c. of 1 per cent potassium 
hydroxid and heated on a steam hath for about 6 hours, water being 
added from time to time. The solution is evaporated to about 150 cc, 
made slightly acid with h3Tlrochloric acid, and hydrochloric acid and 
double iodid of potassium and mercury added alternately until all pro- 
teid matter is precipitated. The solution is made to a volume of 500 
cc. and an aliquot filtered and exactly neutralized with concentrated 
potassium h3'droxid. Three or four drops of concentrated hydrochlo- 
ric acid is added and twice the volume of 93 to 95 per cent alcohol, the 
precipitated glycogen filtered off after standing 2 or 3 hours, washed 
with alcohol and ether, dried at 80 to 100° C, then at 115° C, and 
weighed. After weighing, the filter is thoroughly extracted with boil- 
ing water, dried at 115° C, and again weighed, the difference in weight 
re pr esen ti ng gly coge n , 

The author believes the method to be an improvement over the orig- 
inal Briicke method and sufficiently accurate for distinguishing horse 
meat from other meats. 

Analyses are given of the chuck, rib, and flank of 3 different horses, 
and of the different cuts of meat from another horse. 

The oxid of iron and alumina in mineral phosphates and superphos- 
phates, MoRiMOXT {Bul. Assoc. Beige Chim., 14 {1900), No. l,pp. 16-18). — Known 
amounts of iron and alumina oxids, when present in superphosphates, were deter- 
mined by the method based upon Kroker's reaction (insolubility of iron and alumin- 
ium phosphates in acetic acid). The amount found exceeded the calculated and 
known amounts. It was the opinion of the author that the difference was caused 
l:)y the presence of large amounts of lime. — h. sxyder. 

Resume of the most important investigations in sugar chemistry during 
the last half of the year 1899 [Deut. Zackerind., 25 {1900), No. 5, pp. 177-181). 

A new gravimetric method of determining reducing sugars, Chapelle 
{Jour. Pharm. et Chim., 6. ser., 10 {1899), No. 9, pp. 395-398). 

Weighing the precipitated cuprous oxid as cupric oxid in the gravimetric 
examination of sugar, F. Bolm {Ztschr. Untersuch. Nahr. u. Genussmtl., 2 {1899), 
No. 9, pp. 689-692). 

The determination of sugar in beets, J. WEisBERCi {Bul. Assoc. Chim. Sucr. el 
Distill, 17 {1899), No. 3, pp. 237, 238, fig. 1). 

Observations on the electrolysis of cane-sugar solutions, K. Ulsch {Ztschr. 
Eleclroclicm., 5 {1900), p. 539; abs. iii Jour. Phijs. Chem., 4 {1900), No. 2, p. 157). 

Analyses of sugar-cane molasses and various products in the manufacture 
of sugar from cane, H. Pellet {Sucr. Indig. et Coloniale, 55 {1900), No. 9, 2'>P- 
275-278). 

The analysis of golden sirup, N. Leonard {Ancdyst, 25 {1900), Apr., pp. 85-87). — 
A controversial article based on a previous paper by the author (E. S. R., 11, 
p. 705). 



108 EXPEEIMENT STATION EECORD. 

Treacle, or golden sirup, E. W. T. Jones {Analyst, 25 {1900), Apr., pp. 87-S9). — 
The method of analysis employed by the author is described. 

Analysis of a sample of treacle and of so-called golden sirup, C. W. 
Matthews and A. H. Parker {Analyst, 25 {1900), Apr., pp. 89-94). — The methods 
employed and the results are discussed. 

Accurate ash determination in molasses {Deut. Zuckerind., 25 {1900), No. 2, 
p. 62). 

Detection of saccharin in articles of food, R. Truchon {Ann. Chim. Analyt. 
et Appl., 5 {1900), pp. 48, 49; ahx. in Chem. Cenibl., 1900, I, p. 691; Jour. Chem. Soc. 
{London'], 78 (1900), No. 451, II, p. 377). 

On the analysis of milk, L. Gallien {Jour. Pliarm. ef Chim., 6. set., 11 {1900), 
No. 2, pp. 61-64). 

A new process for the determination of fatty materials in dairy products, 
LixDET {Bid. Soc. Chim. Paris, 3. ser., 23 {1900), No. 10, pp. 409-413, fig. 1). 

The so-called ferment-reaction of milk, R. W. Raudnitz {Cenibl. Fliysiol., 12 
{1898), pp. 790-793; ahs. in Ztschr. Untersuch. Nahr. u. Genussmtl., 3 {1900), No. 5, 
p. 329) . 

Determination of fat in butter by the Gerber acid butyrom.etric method, 
J. Wekdek {Chem. Ztg., 23 {1899), No. 97, p. 1028). 

A means of recognizing margarin and cocoa butter in butter, Cotton {Abs. 
in .Tour. Pharrn. et CJiini., 6. ser., 9 {1899), No 10, ]>j>. 505, 506). 

Studies on the color reactions of Becchi and Halphen for the identification 
of cotton-seed oil, P. N. Raikow and N. Tscherweniwanow {Chem. Ztg., 23 {1899), 
No. 97, pp. 1025-1028). 

Concerning butter produced on sesame feeding and the official recognition 
of margarin, G. Baumert {Ztschr. Naiurw. \_Jena'\, 71 {1899), No. 6, pp. 425-434). — 
The German law requires the addition of sesame oil to margarin to aid in its detec- 
tion. The article discusses the reliability of this reaction for margarin when sesame 
cake has been fed. 

The effect of formic aldehyde on proteid bodies. The change of peptones 
and albumoses into primary proteids, C. Lepierre {.lour. Phunn. et Cliim., 6. 
ser., 9 {1899), j)p. 449-451; abs. in Ztschr. Untersuch. Nahr. v. Genussmtl, 2 {1899), 
No. 12, p. 924) . 

The solubility of proteoses and peptones in alcohol, J. Effront {Bui. Soc. 
Cliim. Paris, 3. ser., 21 {1899), prp. 676-680; abs. in Ztschr. Untersuch. Nahr. u. Genussmtl., 
3 {1900), No. 1, pp. 38, 39). 

The solvent power of pepsins, J. Effront {Bui. Soc. Chim. Paris, 3. ser., 21 
{1899), pp. 683-691; abs. in Ztschr. Untersuch. Nahr. u. Genussmtl, 2 {1899), No. 12, 
pp. 924, 925) . 

Chemical changes in wheat and rye w^hen moldy and sprouted, R. Scherpe 
{Ztschr. Untcrsuclt. Naltr. u. Genussmtl, 2 {1899), pp. 550-559). 

The adulteration of nutmegs, J. Vanderplanken {Briti.^]i Food Jour., 2 {1900), 
No. 15, ]). 65). — Brief directions for detecting nutmegs made from an inferior quality 
of ground nutmeg and clay. 

A general method for the determination of various simple substances con- 
tained in organic compounds, M. Berthelot {Co)npt. Bend. Acad. Sri. Pirris, 129 
{1899), No. 24, pp. 1002-1005). 

Studies on the progressive development of the essence of bergamot, E. 
Charabot {Compt. Bend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 129 {1899), No. 19, pp. 728-731). 

On the determination of pentosans, W. L. A. Warxier {Bui. Soc. Chim. Paris, 
3. ser., 21 {1899), No. 10, p. 527). 

Automatic apparatus for the estimation of pentosans, V. Staxeck {B'ohm. 
Ztschr. Zurl-erind., 24 {1899), j>j>. 227-230; abs.in Jour. Chem. Soc. [London], 78 {1900), 
No. 451, II, p. 373). 



BOTANY. 109 

An apparatus for washing and absorbing gas, A. Gautier {Bnl. Sar. Chim. 
Paris, 3. ser., 23 {1900), No. 5, pp. 14I-IU, fiu- -?)• 

A simple gas generator, C. E. Wait ( Univ. Tennessee Record, 1899, No. 11, pp. 
259, 260, fig. 1). — A simjjle, cheaii, and effective apparatus is briefly described and 
illustrated. 

A rubber mortar-cap for pulverizing -with, exclusion of air, R. Scholl ( Chem. 
Ztg., 24 {1900), No. 3, p. 15, fig. 1). — A flexible rubber sheet which fits securely over 
the to}) of the mortar, with a hole in the center for the pestle. — .i. t. axdersox. 

A universal pipe-stem triangle, L. Martius {Chem. Ztg., 24 {1900), No. 3, p. 
15, fig. 1). — Two of the sides of the triangle are fixed in the usual way, while the 
third arm is hinged at one point with the other end free, thus allowing the size of 
the triangle to be shifted at pleasure. A notched wire, running parallel to one of the 
sides of the triangle, holds the free end of the movable side securely in any desired 

position. .T. T. ANDERSON". 

New triangles for crucibles and dishes, A. Hebebraxd {Chem. Ztg., 24 {1900), 
No. 5, p. 37, figs. 2). — The crucible or dish is supported on three platinum pegs 
screwed into the side of an iron triangle vertically to these sides, and at angles of 
45° to their plane. — .t. t. anderson. 

BOTANY. 

On biastrepsis in its relation to cultivation, H. de Vries {Ann. 
Hot.., 13 [1890), JVo. itl., p}>. 395-1^:20). — -The author designates under 
the term biastrepsis the twisting of the stem which sometimes occurs 
in plants, the normal shoots of which have opposite or whorled leaves. 
By this twisting the ph3ilotaxis becomes spiral instead of verticillate, 
and the successive leaves of the spiral are connected hy their bases. 

A large number of experiments with Dipsacim sylvestris torsus are 
reported, from which it is concluded that under proper cultivation the 
seeds of this plant will 3'ield about one-third twisted stems. This 
proportion was first attained in the fourth generation, and since then 
the proportion has increased. 

The phenomena of biastrepsis depend not only upon the hereditary 
properties of the seed, but also upon the external conditions under 
which the individual develops. The more favorable the conditions of 
life the richer is the progeny obtained from any given seed in indi- 
viduals with twisted stems, and the more marked is the twisting in 
individuals. The importance of plenty of space, time of sowing, and 
character of soil are pointed out. 

From these experiments the general statement is made that with a 
given hereditar}' tendency, an}- monstrosit}" becomes more marked the 
more favorable the conditions of life, and, therefore, the more vigorous 
the growth. This is true not only of DipmciM sylvestris^ but is estab- 
lished for most various plants and different monstrosities by observa- 
tions made by the author during the past 10 years. 

The influence of carbon dioxid on the form and structure of 
plants, E. C. Teodoresco {Eev. Gen. Bof., 11 {1899), ^^o. 132, 2>p. 
If-I^D-I^jO, pi. l^Jigs. 18). — ^A report is given of a series of experiments 
in which a number of plants were grown with and without carbon 



110 EXPEEIMENT STATION KECOED. 

dioxid. An apparatus was devised l\v which air free from carhon 
dioxid could he supplied to one bell jar, and to another an atmosphere 
containing approxiuiately 2 per cent of carbon dioxid. B3" means of 
an aspirator the atmosphere was constantly changed. The plants used 
were Marchantia lyolymorphi^ Lumdaria vulgaris, Luphvwi alhus^ 
PJuiseolus midtiflorus, Faha wilgaris, Pisum sativum, Asparagus offici- 
nalis, CucuThita p€p>o, Borrago officinalis, and Datura stramonmrn. 

The morphology of thallus, stem, and leaves is fully described. In 
the case of the hepatics, the thallus was less developed, less branched, 
and no asexual reproductive organs were produced when grown in an 
atmosphere free from carbon dioxid. The assimilative tissues, usually 
present in the large air cavities, were wholly absent in the case of Mar- 
chantia and greatly reduced in Lunularia. The air spaces were like- 
wise either wholly or nearly obliterated. 

Where plants were cultivated from seed, the stems for a time grew 
best in an atmosphere which did not contain carbon dioxid, the pres- 
ence of that gas retarding the consumption of the reserve material. 
However, after the plant had used up its reserves and chlorophyll 
assimilation begun, the best growth was obtained in an atmosphere 
containing carbon dioxid. Those plants which were not cultivated 
from seed, but were already in an advanced stage of growth, did not 
show the preliminary phase just described, but continued their growth 
best in the atmosphere charged with carbon dioxid. The leaves of the 
plants were smaller when grown without carbon dioxid. In the case 
of the Datura leaves, those already formed, when placed in an atmos- 
phere lacking in carbon dioxid, became 3'ellow and fell oil'. In nearly 
every case the leaves were thicker and the palisade parenchyma longer 
and larger, the air spaces more developed, with all plants which grew 
in the atmosphere charged with carbon dioxid. The internodes in 
general section were larger, the number of fibro-vascular bundles 
greater, and the individual bundles developed to a greater extent. 

The influence of different kinds of light on the form and struc- 
ture of plants, E. Teodoresco {Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., 8. ser., 10(1899), 
jVos. 3-4., pp. 14.1-256; 5-6, pp. 257-264, pis. U,figs. 20).—\\\ order to 
study the effect of rays of different refrangibility on the form and 
structure of plants, the author made use of the spectrum and colored 
screens, the colors used being red, blue, and green, and comparisons 
were made with plants grown in light and darkness. The effect of 
these different lights, as shown by the morphology and anatom}^ of leaf, 
stem, and root, were studied, the experiments being described in detail. 
The following plants were used: Horse beans, white lupines, buck- 
wheat, castor beans, peony, evening primrose, Buhus fruticosus, live- 
forever, peanut, vetch, white beans, pepper grass, chick-pea, gourd, 
sunflower, hemp, horse-chestnut, potato, ash tree, maple, oak, and 
syringa. 



BOTANY. Ill 

The principal results are summarized as follows: 

The greatest expanse of leaf blade was in those plants under blue 
light, the least under the green light, with the red intermediate. Those 
under the blue light approached most nearly to the total illumination 
and the green to darkness. The effect on the petioles varied but in 
two ways. In one series the green rays produced the longest petioles, 
with the shortest under the blue, and intermediate under red illumina- 
tion. In the other the order was reversed. With those plants having 
a rosette of root leaves the longest leaves grew under the green screen 
and the shortest under the blue, with red intermediate. At the same 
time the longest leaves were not always the largest. All the different 
colored lights were less favorable to the development of the tissues of 
the leaves than the white light. 

The amount and development of the palisade tissue, parenchyma, 
and air spaces were least under green light, greater under red, and 
most highly developed under blue light. The chloroleucites, so far as 
number, size, and disposition were concerned, were similar in develop- 
ment to the assimilative tissues. Under the green light they were 
small, fewer, of indefinite shape, and distributed without any order in 
the cell and did not contain as much chlorophyll as either under the 
red or blue. The number of stomata per unit of leaf surface was 
greatest under the green light, less under the red, and least under the 
blue. The development of wood, liber, and cambium of the veins, as 
well as the lignification of the cell walls of the leaves, was the same as 
in the stems and roots. 

The studies of roots showed that for plants whose roots are retarded 
by white light, blue light retarded them still more, while under green 
light they attained greater length, although the maximum development 
was in darkness. When roots developed better in light than in dark- 
ness they showed increased growth under blue screens and made little 
increase under green. When growing equally as well in light and 
darkness the different colored lights made no appreciable difference. 
The maximum diameter of the central cylinder and thickness of cortex 
of roots was shown in the plants grown under red and Uue light, with 
green as the minimum. Under the green light the primary wood 
presented few vessels and the differentiation of secondary tissues was 
less advanced. The same was true for the lignification of cell walls 
and supporting tissues. Under the green light the structure of roots 
approached those grown in darkness, while those under blue light 
were more nearly like those grown under white light. 

The investigations showed that the green light gave the greatest 

growth of stem, followed by red and blue when the experiment was 

not continued beyond the consumption of the reserve materials of the 

plant. When conducted longer the plants under green light perished. 

4740— No. 2- 2 



112 EXPEKIMENT STATION RECORD. 

The development of the primary and secondary conductive tissue and 
lignification of cell walls was the same as for the roots. The central 
C3'linder of the stem increased most rapidly under blue light and least 
under green, with red as intermediate. The periderm of the stem 
was least developed under green light, most under blue, and red inter- 
mediate. 

The influence of changes of temperature on the respiration of 
plants, W. Palladin {Rev. Gen. Bot., 11 {1899), No. 127, pp. 21^1- 
257). — The extremities of etiolated seedlings of Viciafaha with a few 
leaves were cut off and placed in vessels containing a 10 per cent solu- 
tion of saccharose. One lot Avas kept in the laboratory at an average 
temperature ranging from 17 to 20^ C. A second lot was placed in a 
vestibule where a lower temperature, 7 to 12° C, was experienced, 
and the third lot was placed in a thermostat in which a temperature of 
from 36 to 37.5° C. was maintained. After from 3 to 7 days in these 
temperatures equal lots were brought together and kept at a medium 
temperature of from 18 to 22°, and the amount of carbon dioxid liber- 
ated per gram of plants was ascertained. 

It was found that the plants which had lieen kept in the medium 
temperature gave off 55.8 mg. per gram; those removed from the 
low temperature to the medium gave off 78.1 mg. ; and those from 
the highest to the medium temperature, 85.4 mg. per gram of plant 
weight. The change from a lower to a higher or a higher to a lower 
temperature resulted in an increased respiration. The cause for this 
phenomenon was not ascertained. 

On the influence of anaesthetics on the respiration of plants, 
N. MoRKOWiNE {Rev. Gen. Bot, 11 {1899), JVoh. 128, pyp- ^89-303; 
129, p>p. 3Jf.l-352). — The author experimented with the etiolated leaves 
and leaf buds of Vicia faha and Lupj'inus luteus and the green leaves 
of Ficus elastica and Phylodendroii sp. ; also upon the embryos of 
sprouted wheat. As anesthetics, alcohol, ether, hydrochlorate of 
morphine, and hydrochlorate of solanin were used. The plants were 
placed in a Pettenkofer apparatus and the I'espiration determined. 
The experiments are described in detail. 

Contrary to the conclusions of Bonnier and jNIangin,' the author 
found that if the exposure to anaesthetics be prolonged for quite a 
number of hours, or even for several davs, the intensity of respira- 
tion was considerably increased. Under the influence of alcohol, the 
intensity of the respiration of etiolated plants was increased 1^ times. 
With ether, the respiration of etiolated leaves of Vicia faha was 
more than doubled. It Avas found that the hj^drochlorate of morphine, 
1:2,000, did not in any way affect the respiration of plants. When, 
however, the quantity or morphine was 1:500, the respiration of the 
plants was increased \\ times. 

lAnn. Sci. Nat. Bot., 7. ser., 1886, p. 5. 



BOTANY. 113 

In general, the author states, his experiments show that anaesthetics 
increase the respiration not only in etiolated but in green plants. 
Incidentally, the effect of anesthetics on chlorophj^l was investigated, 
and it was found that a 5 per cent solution of alcohol checked the 
chlorophyll production and growth of the wheat germ. The dimiim- 
tion in the respiration in the case of the plantlets Avas in proportion 
to their growth. 

Experiments on floral colors, P. Q. Keegan {Nature^ 61 {1899)^ 
Ho. 1570, PI'- ^^^■> 106). — The author conducted a series of experi- 
ments to determine the true color of anthocyan — that is, the blue and 
red pigment of flowers. The opinions of Berzelius and Wiesner are 
stated, in which diametrically opposite conclusions are given. 

The author observed the effect produced by immersion of fresh 
petals of a number of flowers into ether saturated with ammonia. 
The petals of the peony, pink, campion, deep-red rose, sweet pea, 
vetch, mallow, balsam, geranium, fuchsia, scarlet rhododendron, 
crimson flax, and blue centaurea became blue; of the red daisy, peri- 
winkle, and lady's smock, bluish green; while the petals of anemone, 
larkspur, violet, willow herb, scarlet Tropteolum, red rhododendron, 
flowering currant, scabious, wild thyme, potato, and forget-me-not 
became green. 

Later the coloring matter was withdrawn from the petals by macer- 
ating them for 2 days in methyl alcohol, after which the solution was 
drawn off, evaporated to dryness, the residue dissolved in warm water, 
and after filtering was tested with hydrochloric acid, ammonia, lead 
acetate, and magnesium acetate, the color reaction in each case being 
given. 

The author's conclusion is that there are different stages in the 
development of floral pigments. In the lower stages the natural color 
is red, whatever the chromogen maj^ be. In the higher stages the 
natural color of the anthocyan is blue, or is capable of forming blue 
compounds with alkalis and certain metallic salts. 

On the presence of vanadium, molybdenum, and chromium in plants, E. 

Demarcay {Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 130 {1900), No. 2, pp. 91, 92; abs. in Rev. 
Sri. [Paris'], 4. ser., IS {1900), No. 3, p. 88). 

On the presence of dextrose and levulose in the leaves of beets, L. Lindet 
{Ann. Agron., 26 {1900), No. 2, pp. 103-113). 

On the composition of the leaves of the plane tree from the standpoint of 
nutritive material and on the migration of this material during- growth and 
after the death of the leaves, G. M. Tucker and B. Tollexs {Ber. Deut. Chem. 
GeselL, 32 {1899), pp. 25-75; abs. in Bid. Soc. Chim. Paris, 3. ser., 24 {1900), No. 10, 
J). 480). 

On the modifications which oil of lavender undergoes during the grow^th 
of the plant, E. Chakabot {Bid. Soc. Chim. Paris, 3. ser., 23 {1900), No. 5, jip. 
183-189). 

Behavior of leguminous tubercles in water culture, F. Nobbe and L. Hiltner 
{Landxo. Vers. Stat., 52 {1899), Nos. 5-6, pp. 455-465). — In experiments with seed- 
lings of Robinia pseudacacia grown in water cultures, the root tubercles functioned 



114 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

normally in air, but under water almost none at all. The authors believe that the 
results obtained in these experiments demonstrate that nitrogen assimilation takes 
place within the root tubercles and not in the leaves. 

Further observations on Nitragin and on the nature and functions of the 
nodules of leguminous plants, M. Dawsox {Proc. Roy. Soc. [London], 66 {1900), 
Xo. 435, pp. 63-63). 

A new departure in cytology {Xature, 61 {1900), Xo. 1582, pp.385-3S7). — A 
review of a recent work by A. Fischer, of Leipsic. 



FERMENTATION— BACTERIOLOGY. 

Variability in the power of liquefying gelatin possessed by 
bacteria, H. W. Conn {CentU. Bald. a. Par., J. Aht., 5 {1899), ^^o. 
20^ pp. 665-669). — On examining specimens of milk from a neighboring- 
dairy, the author discovered 2 rather constant organisms in his cul- 
tures. The lirst was a Micrococcus and seemed to be almost univer- 
sally found in all the specimens of milk. Its morphology is described 
at some length. With it, and almost equally abundant, was found a 
bacterium which differed from the first in having no power of liquefy- 
ing gelatin. As experiments with the organisms were continued, it 
was found that intermediate grades existed between the two, and after 
continuing the experiments for several months, the author arrived at 
the conclusion that he had one organism which showed a wide varia- 
bility. Subsequent study of the culture proved that with the excep- 
tion of the power of liquefying gelatin the organisms were absolutely 
identical. 

Permanent forms of nitric and nitrous organisms, A. Beddies 
{Chem. Zt(/., 23 (1899), JTo. 63, pp. 61^0-61^1 ; ahx. In Jour. Chem. Soc. 
[London], 78 {1900), No. ^,6, II, p. SJf). — From manure, .sewage, etc., 
the author prepared nutritive solutions containing about 2 gm. each of 
organic and inorganic matter per liter. These were mixed with 1 to 

2 per cent of meat juice and the nitrogen content was raised to about 

3 per cent by the addition of ammonium sulphate. The alkalinity 
was raised or lowered as desired hx the addition of sodium carbonate 
or phosphoric acid, and, after sterilizing, the solutions were inoculated 
with 0.1 to 0.2 gm. of soil containing the nitrif jdng organisms. The 
cultures were kept in diffused light at 20 to 25° until nitrification was 
complete (2 to 3 months). Material from these cultures was used for 
inoculating sterilized solutions containing 1 per cent of a cold water 
extract of a soil rich in humus and 0.25 per cent of water glass. 

By this means nitrifying organisms were obtained which were less 
sensitive than those obtained b}^ Winogradsk}^ in inorganic media. 
Four stable forms of nitric and 3 of nitrous bacteria were isolated. 
One of the nitric forms was capable of resisting the action of steam at 
100° for 2 minutes, and one of the nitrous bacteria lived for 1 minute 
in steam at the same temperature. The other two nitrous bacteria 
could not withstand steam, but survived for several minutes in a dry 



FEKMENTATION BACTERIOLOGY. 115 

heat of 80 to 100° C. Nitric and nitrous bacteria grew in the same 
medium without interference, and inoculating- material was prepared 
by drying previously sterilized calcareous soil to which both forms of 
nitrifying organisms had been added. 

Pot experiments are reported in which grasses and cereals grown on 
sterilized sand, to which sterilized humus, ammonium sulphate, and 
minerals were added, were much benefited by inoculation with the 
nitrifying organisms. 

The results obtained indicate that denitritication is hindered and loss 
of free nitrogen prevented by the presence of an abundance of nitrify- 
ing organisms. When, however, denitrifying organisms predominate, 
the action of the nitrifying bacteria is interfered with, especially if 
the supply of oxygen is limited. 

On the nitrification of organic nitrogen, V. Omelianski {Cenibl. 
Bait. u. Par., 2. Alt., 5 {1899), No. 13, pp. 4,73-490).— An account is 
given of various culture experiments, the results of which led to the 
conclusion that pure cultures of nitrifying bacteria are incapable of 
nitrifj'ing organic nitrogen. Nitrogen in this form must first be con- 
verted into ammonia by the action of other nitro-organisms before the 
nitrifying organisms can utilize it. It is claimed that the opposite 
conclusions reached by Frankland, Warington, and Stutzer and his 
associates were based upon inaccurate observations. 

Denitrification and fermentation, K. Wolff {Ilyg. Hundschau, 9 
{1899), x>P' 1169-1172; ahs. in Ohem. Cenibl., 1900, T,'j>p. 52, 53; Jour. 
Chem. Soc. [London], 78 {1900), M. 450, II, p. 298).— hx experiments 
with typhus-like bacilli, including B. coll commune and others, and 2 
hay bacilli, one apparentlv B.fitzlanus from ginger root and the other 
from meal, it was found that while all the organisms reduced nitrates 
to nitrites in 1 per cent dextrose broth containing 0.05 to 0.23 per 
cent of potassium nitrate, the hay bacilli were much more active in 
this respect than the others, although only one of the bacilli can be 
compared with the real denitrifying organisms. The activity of the 
organisms was not affected by the strength of the sugar solution, but 
was decidedly influenced by the amount of nitrate present, an excess 
of the latter checking fermentation without otherwise disturbing the 
functions of the organisms. Complete disappearance of nitric nitro- 
gen took place simultaneoush' with fermentation. The author concludes 
that denitrification is not due to the direct action of the organisms, 
but that the products of fermentation reduce nitrates to nitrites and 
eventual!}' convert them into carbonates. 

Recent investigations on the development of aromatic princi- 
ples by alcoholic fermentation in the presence of certain leaves, 
G. Jacquemin ( 6'om^.>z!. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 128 {1899), No. 6, 
2J2>. 369-371). — In a previous number of this publication^ the author 

'Compt. Kend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 125 (1897), No. 2, p. 114. 



116 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

has given an account of his investigations in which he claims the 
development of aromatic principles through the alcoholic fermentation 
of wine in the presence of the leaves of the apple, pear, or grape, pro- 
ducing the characteristic odor and flavor of the individual fruit. This, 
he says, is brought about by the splitting up of certain glucosids con- 
tained in the leaves through the action of a diastase secreted by the 
yeast used in the fermentation. Subsequent investigations have shown 
that the leaves of difi^erent varieties of grapes placed in the must give 
to the wine different flavors and bouquets. If instead of the leaves an 
extract containing the glucosids of the leaves be used in connection 
with the pure j'east, the same result is secured. 

The author states that during the past season numerous experiments 
were carried on in different parts of France with Ijoth white and red 
wines which confirm his statement. One experiment is quoted in 
which the must of an ordinary red wine was pasteurized and divided 
into equal portions, one of which received an extract of the leaves from 
a St. Emillion grapevine which had been prepared by mixing them 
with a pure yeast 2 days before adding to the must; the second was 
given a pure j^east, while a third lot was allowed to ferment in the 
ordinaiy manner. The products of the fermentation were submitted 
to various experts. That resulting from the fermentation in the pres- 
ence of the extract of the leaves was pronounced far superior to the 
others. 

In conclusion the author claims that his experiments show that by 
the use of grape leaves from varieties of superior excellence, or of 
extracts containing the glucosids from these leaves, even in a quantity 
as small as 1:1000, the quality of the wine may be greatl}^ improved. 

Investigations concerning bacteria in the fermentation of 
tobacco, J. H. Vernhout {2Ieded. S'Lands Phodentuhu olf. (1899), 
pp. Ifit ])ls. 2). — The author has investigated the fermentation of 
tobacco and concludes that (1) the fermentation of tobacco is due in 
whole or in part to the chemical action of bacteria, and (2) a ther- 
mophile bacterium plays an important role in the process of fermenta- 
tion. In support of these conclusions he gives a detailed account of 
his work. Germs that could flourish at SO-" C. were first isolated from 
tobacco leaves in which the process of fermentation had been completed. 
Two germs which he studied under the designations A and B were 
thus isolated. Inoculation experiments were made by cutting into 
small pieces or b}^ folding tobacco leaves in which fermentation 
had just commenced. The pieces or folded leaves were placed in 
petri dishes and sterilized at 120° C. for 15 minutes to 1 hour, after 
which one dish was inoculated with a pure culture of germ A. Seven 
experiments are recorded, of which 1 gave positive results, 4 doubtful, 
and 2 negative. In the last-mentioned experiments fermentation took 
place equally well in the check and in the inoculated dish. Two 



FERMENTATION BACTERIOLOGY. 117 

experiments were also made in which some dishes were sterilized 
while the check was left unsterilized. In both cases fermentation 
took place in the check but not in the sterilized dish. 

One chapter is devoted to a description of germ A on different cul- 
ture media. This germ is related to Bacillus subtills and the author 
proposes for it the name Bacillus tahaci-ferinentationis. Germ B is 
also described and said to belong to the genus Bacterium. The name 
Bacterium. tah(ci-fermtntati(mis is proposed. — h. m. meters. 

On the chemical nature of enzyms, O. Loew {Science, n. s., 10 
{1899), No. 2G1, pp. 9oo-961). — The author states that enzyms may be 
physiologically classified into 3 groups, those which are intimatel}^ 
connected with mitrition, such as diastase, pepsin, trypsin, lipase; those 
causing oxidation, as the oxidases; and those producing coagulations, 
such as rennet, thrombase, and pectase. 

in considering the chemical nature of enzyms, 3 important questions 
have received attention: (1) Are the enzyms proteins or not? (2) how 
is the fact to be explained that a very small amount of the enzyms can 
transform a relatively large amount of another compound? and (3) 
what is the cause of their specific action, that is, why can enzyms 
attack only a specific compound and not others closely related? The 
different investigations bearing upon these subjects are reviewed at 
some length. The author believes that the tendenc}^ on the part of 
some authors to infer from the nature of one enzym the nature of all 
others is not justified. He believes there may exist enzyms in every 
group of proteins, and that there may be some that are not proteins 
but which are derived therefrom. 

The action of small quantities of enzyms on large quantities of other 
substances is explained by the close connection existing between lability 
and activity, and further by the principle of intensity of energy by 
which their chemical energy may be transferred to other compounds. 
In explaining the specific action of enzjaiis, the principle of configu- 
ration of molecules comes in, and the closer the contact the more per- 
fect transmission of energy is possible. 

Report of the bacteriologist, H. H. Lamson {New Hampshire Ski. Bui. 68, pp. 
158-164, fig. 1) . — A statement is made of the lines of work followed in the depart- 
ment of bacteriology during the year and a popular account is given of bacteria, their 
morphology, physiology, and relations to agriculture. 

Bacteria and their place in systems of fung-i, W. Winkler ( Centhl. Bakt. u. 
Bur., -2. Alt., 5 {1899), Nos. 16-17, pp. 569-579; 18-19, pp. 617-630, pis. 2). 

The classification of bacteria, W. Migula {System der Bakierien. Jena: G. 
Ti.'^chcr, 1900, vol. 2, pp. 1068, ph. 18, figs. 35). — A systematic classification of bacteria. 

Bacteria as related to economy of nature, industrial processes, and public 
health, G. Newman {New York: G. B. Batnwn' s Sons ; London: Jolm J/arro//, 1899, 
pp. 348; rev. in Science, n. ser., 11 {1900), No. 263, p. 70). 

Micro-organisms useful in agriculture, F. Cavara {Bui. So/: Bot. lud., 1899, 
No. 7-8, pp. 241-243). 



118 EXPEEIMENT STATION KECORD. 

Bacteria jn milk products and other food materials, Bloch (Berlin. Klin. 
Wchmchr., 37 (1900), No. 4, l^P- ^0,86).— The author found numbers of bacterial 
colonies in cultures from plasmon, but an equally large number fi'om nutrose and 
other rnilk products. 

Contribution to the morphology of the organism described as Bacterium 
radicicola, A. Sti-tzek {Mitt. Landw. Inst. Breslau, 1900, No. 3, pp. 57-71). 

The influence of sunlight on bacteria, L. Kedzior {Arch. Hyg., 36 {1899), No. 
4, pp. 323-334). 

Gypsum plates for the cultivation of nitrification bacteria, Y. Omelianski 
{Centhl. Bukt. u. Par., 2. Abt., 5 {1899), No. 18-19, pp. 652-655). 

On the multiplication of yeasts -without fermentation in presence of a 
limited quantity of air, A. Rosextiehl {Compt. Bend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 130 {1900), 
No. 4, pp. 195-198). 

The length of generations in certain yeasts, D. P. Hoyer {Centhl. Baki. v.. 
Par., 2. Abt., 5 {1899), No. 21, ])p. 703-705). — A large number of species of yeast 
were studied and under the conditions of experiments the time elapsing between one 
generation and another determined. It ranged from 3.5 hours to about 10 hours, 
depending upon the temperature. 

On the duration of the vitality of dried yeast, H. "Will {Ztschr. Gesam. 
Brauu'., 1899, No. 4, P- 43; abs. in Centhl. Bakt. u. Par., 2. Abt., 6 {1899), No. 14, p. 
527) . — Yeast is said to have grown readily after having been kept in a dried state for 
12 years and 2 months. 

Soluble ferments produced during germination of seeds having a corneous 
endosperm, E. Bouequelot and H. Herissey {Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 130 
{1900), No. 1, pj-). 42-44). 

The oxy-ferments of milk and saliva, R. Di'pouy {Jour. Pharm. et Chim., 6. 
ser., 8 {1898), 'pp- 551-553). 

On the secretion of diastases, Dienert {Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 129 
{1899), No. 1, pp. 63, 64). 

On the so-called indigo fermentation and new indigo plants, H. Molisch 
{Sitzher. Math. Naturw. CI. K. Akad. Wiss. [Vienna'\, 107 (1898), No. 7, pp. 747-776. 
pi 1). 

The action of formaldehyde on enzyms and certain proteids, C. L. Bliss and 
F. G. Novy (Jour. Expt. Med., 4 (1899), No. 1, pp. 47-80). 



METEOROLOGY. 

Monthly Weather Review ( U. jS. Dept. Agr. , Weather Bureau, 
Montldij Weather lieview, 2S (1900), Has. i, pp. 1-^8, charts 10; 2. 2n'>' 
51-93, pi. 1, Jigs. 5, charts 11; 3, pp. 95-139, charts 10). — In addition 
to the usual reports on forecasts, warnings, weather and crop condi- 
tions, meteorological tables and charts, these numbers contain the 
following articles and notes: 

No. 1, a special contribution on Some of the results of the international cloud work 
for the United States, by F. H. Bigelow; and notes by the editor on wireless teleg- 
raphy, lightning rods, a kite and balloon station near Berlin, Germany, South Afri- 
can meteorology, fro.st work in South Africa, Prof. Henry Allen Hazen, winterkilling 
of fruit trees, farmers' bulletins, the soil and the crops, errors in school books, fruit 
protection in Florida, historical events in meteorology, irrigation in winter, the 
Weather Bureau and commerce on the Great Lakes, the high stations of Wyoming, 
winter thunderstorms in Mississippi, snowfall in the Rocky Mountains, the relation 
of temperature to color, Meteorological Congress at Paris, September 10-16, 1900, 



METEOKOLOGl . 119 

meteorology at the Paris Exposition, lectures in the schools, long dry spells, lectures 
at farmers' institutes, climatology of San Diego, Cal., wind-roses for Oklahoma, 
Charles G. Boerner, artificial rain, and the weather maker. 

No. 2, special contributions on Anemometer tests (illus. ), by C. F. Marvin; Kite 
observations at Bayonne, N. J., by the Bayonne Kite Club; and notes by the editor 
on climatology of St. Kitts, lectures at farmers' institutes, a change at Kew observa- 
tory, the London meteorological office, maximum pressure of wind, and George 
James Symons. 

No. 3, special contributions on Comparative thermometer readings at New Yoi-k, 
by A. J. Henry; Loss of life in 1899 by lightning, by A. J. Henry; Hurricanes uf 
1895 and 1896 in the Philippine Archipelago, by F. 0. Stetson; Notes on climate in 
the Philippines, by I. N. Brewer; A partial explanation of some of the principal 
ocean tides (illus.), by R, A. Harris; and notes by the editor on the measurement of 
radiant heat, the use of the divining rod in the search for water, tides in the ocean 
and the atmosphere, solar spots and terrestrial phenomena, the storms of ^larch, 
1888 and 1900, frost protection by hot water, the total eclipse of the sun May 28, 
1900, stations of the Mexican Telegraph Company, influence of the wind and of 
rythmic gusts on the level of Lake Erie, long balloon voyages, wireless telegraphy, 
storms of sleet, the cold waves of January and February, 1864, a Black River thaw, 
sudden disappearance of ice in the lakes, benefits and injuries due to storms, water- 
spout, objectionable meteorological terms, danger lines on gages and contour lines on 
city maps, the legal value of "Weather Bureau records, and sudden temperature 
changes in INIontana. 

Maryland Weather Service {Maryland Weather Service^ 1 {1899)^ 
fp. 566^ _^i/.y. '5^, Jigs. Gl). — This is the first of a proposed series of 
reports dealing with the climatic features of Maryland, including the 
physiography, meteorology, h3"drograph3', medical climatology, agri- 
cultural soils, foresty, crop conditions, and flora and fauna of the 
State. The present volume is confined to a discussion of physiograplw 
and meteorology, and includes the following articles: Introduction, by 
W. B. Clark, explaining the establishment of the State weather service 
and the lines of investigations pursued; A general report on the phys- 
iography of Maryland, and The aims and methods of meteorological 
work, by C. Abbe; A sketch of the progress of meteorolog}^ in Mary- 
land and Delaware, by O. L. Fassig; and An outline of the present 
knowledge of the meteorolog}" and climatology of Maryland, bv 
F. J. Walz. 

A summar^^ of the main results of meteorological observations in 
Maryland is as follows: 

Normal annual temperature 53 to 54° F. ; normal annual maximum 63°; normal 
annual minimum 45°; highest normal monthly temjierature 75.5° in August; lowest 
normal monthly 31° in January; absolute maximum temperature for the State since 
1891, 109° at Boettcherville in July, 1898; minimum for the State since 1891, —26 at 
Sunnyside in February, 1899; average date of last killing frost in spring April 5 to 15; 
first killing frost in fall October 5 to 15; advent of sjiring (average temperature 43.8°) 
March 7 in southern ilaryland, Xim\ 1 in northern Maryland, and April 15 in north- 
western Maryland; average barometric pressure for 28 years at Baltimore 30.7 in., 
highest 30.98 in., low'est 29 in. ; normal annual precipitation (rain, melted snow, etc. ) 
43 in. (of this 23 to 24 hi. falls in the spring and summer and 19 to 20 in. in fall and 
winter); rainy days 168; cloudiness 50 to 60 jier cent; average humidity 68 j^er cent; 
direction of the wind northwest in winter, south and southwest in summer. 



120 



EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 



Meteorology, C. H. Pettee (JVew Hampshire Sta. Bui. 68, pp. 161f.^ 
165, 168-192). — This gives brief notes on additions to equipment of the 
meteorological department and on the weather of the year, and a 
monthlj^ and annual summary for the period from July, 1898, to 
June, 1899, inclusive, of observations at Durham, N. H., on tem- 
perature, precipitation, cloudiness, and prevailing winds. The mean 
temperature for the year was 45.9°, for 1 years ending June 30, 1899^ 
■45.8°; total precipitation for the year 43.6 in., average for 4 3'ears 45.5; 
snowfall 82 in., average for 4 j^ears 67; number of da3^s on which 
there was precipitation of 0.01 of an iiich during 1898 to 1899, lo7, 
average for 4 years 105; prevailing direction of the wind, northwest; 
clear days 114, partly cloud}' days 161, cloud}" days 80. 

"The last 3 months of the year [1898-99] were abnormally dry, with a total precip- 
itation of only 3.6 in. Indeed this lack of rain was the chief feature of the weather 
for the year, and had a marked effect upon farm crops, especially grass, the amount 
of hay harvested in this vicinity being about one-half of that of the previous year. 
Hoed crops on heavy soil did not suffer seriously." 

Meteorological summary for Ohio, 1898, C. A. Patton {Ohio 
Sta. Bid. 109, pp. 37S-386). — Notes on the weather and tabulated 
daily and monthl}' summaries of observations at the station on temper- 
ature, precipitation, cloudiness, direction of the wind, etc., are given, 
and for comparison similar data for previous years and for other parts 
of the State. The following is a summary of results: 

Summary of mt'teorologicul observations in Ohio. 



For the experiment station. 



Average for 11 years. 



For the State. 



Averagefor IGyears. 



Temperature (°F.): 

Mean 

Highest 

Lowest 

Range 

Mean daily range 
Greatest daily 
range. 

Least daily range 

Clear days 

Fair days 

Cloudy "days 

Days rain fell 

Rainfall (in.): 

Greatest monthly 
Least monthly ... 
!Mean yearly 

Prevailing direction 
of wind. 



50.4 

(Julv 3) 96 

(Feb. 2) -9 

105 

•20.3 

(Nov. 11) 50 

f(Jan.21,Mar.\ - 
1 2, Dec. 18.) J ° 
133 
104 
128 
134 

6.79 

2.15 

47. So 



(Julv) 
(Sept.) 



(Aug. 8, 1891) 
(Jan.20,1892) 



(Oct. 0,1895) 
(Feb. 6,1897) 



(Julv, 1896) 
(Sept., 1897) 



49.0 
99 
-20 
119 
20. 3 



120 
122 
118 
126 



8.05 

.29 

39. 75 



52.0 
(Julyl) 105 
(Feb. 3) -20 
125 



(Julvl, 
(Jan.25 



50.7 
1897) 113 
,1884) -34 
117.1 



130 
110 
125 
121 



118 
122. 5 
124.7 
123.6 



Relations betv^een the annual variations of temperature and 
the successive phases of vegetation, A. Desmoulins (^1;^//. A^n/Ze 
Xat. Agr. IfontpelUer, 11 {1899-1900), ;pp. 9-51).— Thm is a very full 
discussion of this subject, based upon observations ))y the author and 
others at Montpellier, and Ijy other investigators in different parts of 



METEOROLOGY. 



121 



France, and includes (1) the duration of the stages of growtli of differ- 
ent plants and their relation to temperature, and (2) the sums of tem- 
perature necessary for the maturing of different plants. The different 
stages of plant growth from seeding to harvest are treated in detail. 
The main results of observations at Montpellier are summarized in the 
following table: 

Stages of growth and sums of temperature required for the inaturing of different plahts. 



Wheat (Noe).. 

Spring wheat . 
Rye 



Barley 

Winter oats 

Corn (from the Landes) 

Com (Caragua) 

Corn (Cinquantin) 

Sorghum (saccharine).. 

Buckwheat 

Flax 

Beans ( haricot) 

Beets 

Jerusalem artichokes. . . 
Potatoes 



Date of planting. 



End of October or begin- 
ning of November. 

March 15 

End of October or begin- 
ning of November. 

do 

do 



.\pril 10 

do 

do 

April 1 

do 

March 3 

April 15 

March 15 

Beginning of March. 
do 



Time required for- 



Germi- 
nation. 



Days. Days. 
13 195 



91 
174 



185 
201 



Bloom- 
ing. 



199 



190 
205 

80 

110 

8G 

120 

29 

(13 

49 

11 

191 

92 



Matu- 
rity. 



Sums of 
tempera- 
ture re- 
quired for 
growth 
and ma- 
turity. o 



Days. 
237 

124 
230 

223 
231 
150 
167 
136 
165 
136 
105 
89 
205 
221 
135 



Deg. r. 
2398 



1760 
2240 



2100 
2220 
2730 



2894 



1.555 
1611 
3470 
3665 
2287 



aCalculated according to the Herve-Mangon method from the sums of the daily temperatures (aver- 
age of the maxima and minima) received by the plant from the time of planting to the time of 
harvest, discarding all average temperatures below those required for the growth of plants, i. e., e"* 
C. for wheat, 9° for corn, etc. 

Meteorolog-ical observations at Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station 
for the year 1898, R. C. Kedzie {Michigan Sta. Ept. 1S99, pp. 79-ia?).— Tab- 
ulated daily and monthly summaries of observations during 1898 on temperature, 
pressure, precipitation, humidity, cloudiness, wind movement, etc. 

The summary for the year is as follows: Mean temperature, 48.17° F. ; humidity, 
89.6 per cent; atmospheric pressure (reduced to 32° F. ), 29.12 in.; cloudiness, 48 per 
cent; amount of rain or melted snow, 31.72 in.; snowfall, 44.25 in.; number of thun- 
derstorms, 10. 

Meteorological observations, W. B. Alwood {Virginia Sta. Rpt. 1899, p. 10). — 
A tabulated monthly summary is given of observations at Blacksburg, Va., during 
the year ended June 30, 1899, on temperature, precipitation, snowfall, and ck)udi- 
ness, and for 7 years (1893-1899) on temperature and rainfall. The mean tempera- 
ture of the year ended June 30, 1899, was 50.8° F., the rainfall 50.9 in.; average 
temperature for 7 years was 51.7°, and rainfall 37.78 in. 

Meteorological summary for the year 1899, H. Dufour and D. Valet 
{Chron. Agr. Canton Vand, IS {1900), No. 7, pp. 149-152).— This is a summary of 
ol)servations on temperature, precipitation, sunshine, and temperature of the soil at 
the Agricultural Institute at Lausanne. 

A comparative study of variations in temperature and of rainfall at 
Aigoual and Montpellier, F. Houdaxlle {Ann. Ecole Nat. Agr. Montpellier, 11 
{1S99-1900), pp. 52-97, figs. 7, charts i^).— Comparative observations during 3 years 
(1896-1898) at these two points, one in the Pyrenees, the other in the plain, 65 kilo- 
meters apart and differing in altitude ))y 1,525 meters, are reported and discussed. 



122 EXPEEIMENT STATION BECORD. 

Numei'ous correlations between both temperature variations and rainfall at the two 
places are shown. The utilization of observations at the more elevated point in local 
forecasts is explained. 

The dirurnal range of rain at the seven observatories in connection with 
the meteorolog-ical office, Great Britain, 1871-1890, R. H. ^cott [Loit'Ion : 
TJarlhig ct- Son, Ltd., 1900, pp. 4S). 

A severe sleet storm, H. von Schrenk {Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louh, 10 {1900), 
No. 5, pp. 143-150, ph. 2). — An account is given of a sleet storm of unusual severity 
which occurred February 27, 1900, over a large tract of country, including parts (>l 
Missouri, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio. 

Prevention of hailstorms by the use of cannon, J. M. Pernter {Nat. Geogr. 
Mag., 11 {1900), No. 6, pp. 239-241). 

The average and maximum velocity of the wind at Montpellier, F. Houd- 
AiLLE {Arm. Ecole Nat. Agr. Montpellier, 11 {1899-1900), pp. 9S- 110, figs. 3, charts 
12) . — The methods and apparatus used are descril^ed and the results obtained during 
1898 reported. 

Frost and hot water protection ( California Fruit Grower, 25 {1900) , No. 613, 
p. 1). — This is an account of an experiment at Riverside, Cal., in which water was 
heated to 85° in a tubular boiler and allowed to flow through the irrigating ditches 
between the rows of trees. A short distance from the ditches the temperature was 
36° while the normal was 32° or freezing temperature. 

Artificial clouds as a means of protection against frost, F. Sisgne {Prog. 
Agr. et Vit., 17 {1900), No. 12, pp. 322-325).— A popular article. 

The applications of meteorology to agriculture, J. Vandervaeren {Rei\ Gen. 
Agron. Lourain, 9 (1900), Nos. 2, pp. 60-70; 3, pp. 102, 103, pi. 1; 4, PP- 156-162).— A 
genera] article. 

The telegraphic weather service for German agriculture {Mitt. Dcut. Landiv. 
GeseU., 15 {1900), No. 16, pp. 104-106). 

The periods of plant growth and the eflfects of climatic conditions on 
plants, A. Desmoulixs {Ann. Ecole Nat. Agr. Montpellier, 11 {1899-1900), pp. 6-8). — A 
continuation of observations of previous years (E. S. R., 9, p. 1035). 



WATER— SOILS. 

The fruit soils of Virginia, W. B. Alwood ( Virgima Sta. Bui. 
98,2>p- ^9-1^,1, map 1). — This is a compilation of available information 
on this subject, including the author's observations, and deals mainly 
with the economic phases of the question. In discussing the subject 
the State is divided into 6 natural divisions, viz: Tidewater, middle 
Virginia, Piedmont, the Blue Ridge section, the valley, and Appalachia. 
A map showing the extent of these different divisions, and the location 
of areas known to be adapted to pippin orchards, accompanies the 
article. "It is hoped that this publication will mark the beginning 
in the near future of a more critical study of certain phases of this 
all-important subject to fruit growers." 

Analyses of soils, C. F. Juritz {Agr. Jour. Caj)e Good Hope^ 16 
{1900), jVo. 5, pp. £71-288).— In continuation of the soil survey of 
Cape of Good Hope, previously referred to (E. S. R., 11, p. 823). the 
author collected and analyzed 60 samples of soil at different points in 
the George, Knysna, Uniondale, and Oudtshoorn Divisions of the 



WATER SOILS. 



123 



Province. Descriptions and analyses of these samples, with a discus- 
sion of their comparative agricultural value, are given. The average 
composition of the soils examined is as follows: 

Average composition of v:e.stern Cape of Good Hope soils. 





Number 
of analy- 
ses. 


Fine earth 
(passing 
i mm. 
sieve). 


In fine earth. 




Division. 


Lime. 


Potash. 


Phosphoric 
acid. 


Nitrogen, a 




16 
13 
12 
19 


Per cent. 
81.0 
87.6 
69.2 
79.0 


Per cent. 

0.040 

.100 

.0.57 

.678 


Per cent. 

0.055 

.035 

.099 

.145 


Per cent. 

0.047 

.041 

.064 

.091 


Per cent. 
0. 1.57 
.213 
135 








.131 





a In soil passing 1 mm. sieve. 

"The soils of the George district are, generally speaking, poor in lime and phos- 
phates, and on the whole contain a fair amount of potash, while they are rich in 
nitrogen. The Knysna soils contain an even larger percentage of nitrogenous mate- 
rial, but are poor in potash and phosphoric oxid, lime being little better. Coming 
to Uniondale, there i^ also a general lack of lime, but potash and jahosphates are 
present in fair quantity, together with a good percentage of nitrogen. The Oudt- 
shoorn division shows a good quantity of lime and nitrogenous matter in the soil, 
and is also fairly satisfactory as regards potash and phosphoric oxid." 

The behavior of ^vater-soluble phosphoric acid in the soil, M, 

Ullmann ( J.J.S. m Chem. Ztg., 2J^ {1900), No. 20, Bepert., ^y. 65; 
Chem. Centbl., 1900^ /, No. 15, p. 830). — In experiments on this subject 
it was found that the phosphoric acid of superphosphate applied as a 
top-dressing circulated in the soil, but remained soluble in water for 
months after application. The rapidity of reversion of course depends 
upon the amount of lime, magnesia, iron oxid, alumina, etc., present, 
but according to the author the rate of reversion in artificial soil mix- 
tures may be misleading as to this action in natural soils. 

Cultivation and weeding, P. P. Deherain {Ann. Agron., 26 {1900), 
No. 5, pp. 257-261). — Pot and field experiments made b}^ the author 
showed no benefits resulting from the cultivation of bare soil as regards 
moisture preservation by the formation of a top soil mulch. Irrigated 
soils in vetch contained considerably larger percentages of soil mois- 
ture than unirrigated soils in vetch, but both soils showed from 25 to 
50 per cent less moisture than soils on which no plants whatever were 
growing. Weeds allowed to grow in crops have an effect similar to 
the vetch in evaporating .soil moisture. The author believes the results 
of his experiments show that " cultivation " and "weeding" are words 
of equal value, both being beneficial in preserving soil moisture in so 
far as they destroy weeds. 

A new method for the mechanical analysis of soils, G. Scarlata 
{Staz. Sper. Agr. ltal.,32 {1899), pp. 631^-637; ahs. hi Chem. Cenihl., 
1900, I, No. 10, p. 571). — The apparatus used in the proposed method 
consists of a narrow 500 cc. beaker having a siphon with stopcock on 



124 EXPERIMENT STATION EECORD. 

one side and a tube with stopcock communicating with a water reser- 
voir on the other. Five grams of soil is placed in the beaker, acidified 
with hydrochloric acid, and water added to within 2 cm. of the rim of 
the beaker. B}^ careful heating and stirring the lighter cla}^ particles 
are carried off through the siphon by means of a current of water which 
is made to flow through the beaker. This operation is repeated until 
the water passing off from the beaker becomes clear and remains clear 
when the contents of the beaker are heated to boiling. The method 
was compared with that of Schloesing, and it is claimed that it is fully 
as accurate and requires less time. 

Pollution of natural ■waters and of cultivated soils by the products of gas 
factories, A. Lemoine {L'Imj. Agr. Gembloux, 10 {1900), No. 9, pp. 559-572). — This 
in mainly a review of investigations on the composition of the by-products (gas lime 
and gas liquor) of gas making and on their action on soils and natural waters. 

The kaolinizing' action of roots on feldspar, F. Sestixi {Landiv. Vers. Stat., 54 
(1900), No. 1-2, pp. 147-153). — The author concludes that the formation of the clay 
of soils is not entirely due to the natural agencies to which it has heretofore been 
attributed, but is in part due to the decomposing action of roots and of numerous 
minute organisms which are found in the soil. 

Some Queensland soils, J . C. BntiNNicH {Queensland Agr. Jour., 6 {1900), No. 5, 
pp. 403-418). — Mechanical and chemical analyses are reported of 21 samples of soil 
(with subsoil) from different parts of the various state farms of the Province. The 
soils examined are described and their reaction, weight, capacity for water, and cap- 
illary power are also stated. 

Report of the geologist, E. H. Barbour {Rpt. Nebraska State Bd. Agr. 1S98, pp. 
287-320, figs. 87). — Mechanical analyses of 85 samples of Nebraska subsoils in con- 
tinuation of previous work (E. S. R., 9, p. 737) are reported. These analyses were 
m£,de by the Division of Soils of the U. S. Department of Agriculture. 



FERTILIZERS. 

Denitrification and the decomposition of animal excrement in 
the soil, C. KoGOYSKi {Ann. Agron., 26 {1900), No. 3, JU^- Bl-1^0).— 
Previous work on this subject is briefl}^ reviewed and laboratory exper- 
iments with small amounts of various mixtures of soil (200 to 233 gm.), 
horse manure (40 to 41 gm.), urine (10 cc), straw (11 gm.), and nitrate 
of soda (0.9 to 9 gm.) are reported. The changes which the nitrogen 
underwent from January 21 to June 19 and from May 13 to July 5 are 
recorded. The author concludes from the results that in the presence 
of a large amovuit of manure there was denitrification of the nitrates, 
the liberated nitrogen either escaping in the free state or being con- 
verted partiallj^ or completely into insoluble compounds. The same 
changes occurred when soil containing large quantities of manure or 
straw was fertilized with urine (or ammonia salts). The insoluble 
nitrogen compounds formed under these circumstances seemed to be 
readil}' nitrifiable. 



FERTILIZEES. 125 

The above changes did not occur when manure was added in amounts 
usually employed in practice, or even when added in considerabl}^ larger 
amounts than are usuall}^ applied, but only when excessive amounts 
were used. When excessive amounts are not used the author claims 
that the nitrates are not decomposed and the urine is nitrified. 

G-round bone compared -with superphosphate and Thomas 
phosphate as sources of phosphoric acid, U. J. Mansholt 
{Orgaan Ver. Oudlcer. Bijl's. LandhomcscJiOoI, I'B (1900), No. lIt3.,2W' 
108^ 109). — Notwithstanding the claims of investigators that ground 
bone is inferior to other sources of phosphoric acid for fertilizers, 
the former remains popular with farmers, especially in England. The 
author thought it desirable that field experiments extending over more 
than one year should be undertaken in order to determine the efi'ect of 
the bone meal during the second j-ear. For such an experiment a piece 
of sandy loam was selected and divided into 10 parts, each 50 square 
meters in size. The entire field was fertilized with 250 kg. of sulphate 
of ammonia (20 per cent nitrogen) per hectare and 200 kg. of sulphate 
of potash (50 per cent KgO) per hectare, in order to insure the presence 
of an abundance of nitrogen and potash. In the spring of 1898 the 
whole field received nitrate of soda at the rate of 300 kg. per hectare. 
Two of the plats received no phosphate, while to the others were 
applied superphosphate, Thomas slag, bone meal with the fat removed, 
and bone meal with the gelatin removed. In each case enough of the 
phosphatic fertilizer was used to make 100 kg. of phosphoric acid per 
hectare. 

Rj^e was planted on all the plats in November, 1897, and in the spring 
of 1898 the stand was very satisfactory. The rye was harvested in 
August, 1898, and peas planted for the following crop. For this crop 
no fertilizers were used. The increase in grain for the plats receiving 
phosphates over those receiving no phosphates was for the 2 years as 
follows: 

Increase in yield due to different 2^hosphates. 



Superphosphates 

Thomas phosphates 

Bone meal (fat removed) 

Bone meal (gelatin removed). 



Rye. 


Peas. 


Kg. 


Kg. 


475 


950 


600 


550 


375 


1,250 


750 


1,000 



In every case the results showed that on light soils the bone meal is 
in the long run equal ai least co superphosphate and Thomas slag. — 

H. M. PIETERS. 

Introduction to field experiments -with fertilizers, A. L. Knisely 

{JSfeiu York Cornell Sta. Bui. 179., pp. '285-318, Jigs. 8). — This bulletin 
gives the plan and object of cooperative field experiments with ferti- 
lizers commenced under State appropriation in 1897. During the 3 



126 ■ EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

years experiments have been made on 371 different "farms in the State. 
The general results of this work are briefl}' discussed and the character 
of the work is illustrated by accounts of a few of the experiments 
made. 

"A study of all the experiments for 3 years recorded shows that of the 3 plant 
foods, when used alone, nitrogen gave the largest increased yield in 26 experiments, 
phosphoric acid in 58 experiments, and potash in 36 experiments. This would seem 
to indicate that when one plant food is used alone, phosphoric acid will in most cases 
give the best results. When a mixture of 2 plant foods was applied, nitrogen and 
potash gave best results in 24 experiments, phosphoric acid and potash in 48 experi- 
ments, and nitrogen and phosphoric acid in 52 experiments. A comparison of a 
complete fertilizer and stable manure shows in 38 experiments the complete fertilizer 
gave better results, while in 54 cases stable manure produced the larger crops. These 
good results accompanying the use of stable manure may not be due so much to the 
plant food it contains as to an improvement in the physical conditions of the soil. 

"In only 40 cases out of a total of 126 recorded did the complete fertilizer, a mix- 
ture of nitrate of soda, phosphate and muriate of potash, give better results than 
fertilizers containing one or two of the plant foods. 

"These results tend to show that more often it is some especially prepared rather 
than a complete fertilizer that a soil requires, and that when a farmer uses commer- 
cial fertilizers he is often not following the wisest policy; he is simply 'going it blind' 
and possibly throwing away money." 

Field tests with fertilizers on heavy clay lands, H. A. Huston 

{Indiana Sta. Bui. SI, pp. 77-92.) — This is an account of fertilizer 
experiments on tenth-acre or twentieth-acre plats on 3 farms in the 
State, 2 in Orange County and 1 in Monroe County. In the first two 
cases the soil was oak clay resting on red clay subsoil, and in the third 
case the soil was cold, badly drained upland oXaj. Mechanical analyses 
of one of the Orange County soils, the jNIonroe County soil, and the 
soil of the experiment station farm at Lafa^vette, a dark, productive 
loam, are given. . Corn was grown on all of the farms in 1896. The 
fertilizers used were nitrate of soda, 60 lbs. per acre; muriate of pot- 
ash, 60 and 120 lbs., and dissolved boneblack, 230 and 250 lbs., 2 by 
2 and all 3 combined; and on 1 plat in each experiment (except one) 
lime (1,100 and 2,800 lbs. per acre) was used in addition to the com- 
plete fertilizer. Wheat followed corn on 2 of the farms (one in 
Orange County and the other in Monroe County). The fertilizers 
used on the wheat were nitrate of soda, 71 and 118 lbs. per acre; dis- 
solved boneblack, 121 and 218 lbs.; muriate of potash, 21 and 16 lbs., 
and lime, 2,800 lbs. In addition to these fertilizers, bone alone, at the 
rate of 200 lbs. per acre, broadcast and drilled in, and acidulated bone 
acid phosphate, raw bone, and steamed bone, combined with dried 
blood and potash, were used in the experiments in Monroe County. 

The yields of the crops with the different fertilizers are reported, 
and the results are discussed "as illustrating how such a test may be 
conducted. " ' ' On all 8 farms a mixture of acid phosphate and muriate 
of potash in the proportion of 1 lbs. of phosphate to 1 of muriate gives 



FERTILIZERS. 127 

practicall}" as good results as a mixture containing nitrate of soda in 
addition to these." In one experiment phosphoric acid and nitrogen 
appeared to be the fertilizing constituents most needed for wheat. 
The results of the other wheat experiment were inconclusive. Lime 
was in general beneficial. 

The maintenance of fertility, C. E. Thorne {Ohio Sta. Bui. 110., 
pj). 91., pU. 11., (Igms. 8). — This is a detailed account of field experi- 
ments with fertilizers carried on by the station from 1888 to 1899. 
These experiments have been reported on from time to time in the 
reports and bulletins of the station (E. S. R., 10, p. 919). 

Nearly 900 permanent plats, mainly one-tenth acre in size, have been 
used. The work has been conducted at 5 different points in Ohio, viz, 
(1) at the experiment station at Wooster, where the soil is a yellow 
and somewhat sandy clay of glacial drift origin but largely modified 
b}^ the soft sandy shales upon which it lies; (2) on the farm of the 
Ohio State University at Columbus, where the soil is a much heavier 
clay than that at Wooster, lying in part upon the Huron shale and in 
part upon alluvial gravels; (3) near East Liverpool, Columbiana County, 
on a thin clay underlaid by porous shale; (1) at the substation at 
Neapolis, about 20 miles west of Toledo, on the yellow dune sands 
which mark the ancient beach of Lake Erie, and (5) at a substation 
near Strongsville, about 13 miles southwest of Cleveland, on a cold, 
heavy, tenacious, white clay, underlaid by an impervious argillaceous 
shale (Cuyahoga shale). Mechanical and chemical anal3^ses of 1 of 
these soils are reported, the mechanical structure being shown graph- 
ically. The fertilizers used have included dissolved Ijoneblack and 
South Carolina and Tennessee acid phosphate, wheat bran, phosphatic 
slag, and bone meal being also used to some extent as sources of phos- 
phoric acid; nitrate of soda, sulphate of ammonia, dried blood, tank- 
age, linseed meal, muriate of potash, and barnyard manure. 

"The crops employed in these tests are corn, oats, wheat, clover, timothy, and 
p(3tatoes, soy beans being sometimes substituted for clover in case of failure to secure 
a stand of the latter crop. The cereal crops — corn, oats, and wheat — are grown both 
continuously and in rotation. Three rotations are in progress, one of com, oats, and 
wheat, 1 year each, followed by clover and timothy, 2 years; one of potatoes, wheat,, 
and clover, 1 year each; and one of corn, wheat, and clover, 1 year each. The 
fertilizers are applied altogether upon the cereal and potato crops; the clover and 
timothy follow as gleaners." 

To secure uniformity, machinery is used wherever possible for plant- 
ing, distributing fertilizer, cultivating, harvesting, etc. 

The following summary of results of these experiments is given : 

"On soils formed chiefly from the argillaceous shales of the "Waverly series 
phosphoric acid is found to be the constituent of fertility first required by corn, oats, 
wheat, and potatoes; but the maximum yield has not been obtained until both 
nitrogen and potash were also added. 

1710— No. 2 3 



128 EXPEKIMENT STATION EECOKD. 

"When used alone, or in combination with each otlier only, nitrogen and potash 
have produced but a very small increase, and have always been thus used at a heavy 
financial loss. 

"The complete fertilizer, containing all three constituents, has produced a much 
larger total increase than the sum of the increase jjroduced by the constituents used 
separately. 

"When the cereal crops have been grown continuously on the same land the 
maximum increase of crop per pound of fertilizing constituents applied has been 
obtained when these constituents were used in approximately the same ratio to each 
other in which they are found in the crop; but the total recovery of fertilizing con- 
stituents in increase of crop, under continuous cropping, has never exceeded 60 per 
cent of the quantity applied in the fertilizer. 

"When the cereals have been grown in rotation with clover the recovery of nitro- 
gen has, under favorable conditions, exceeded the amount applied in the fertilizer; 
but even under these conditions the recovery of phosphoric acid and jwtash has 
remained far below the quantity applied in the fertilizer, when maxinunn yields 
were reached. 

"Thus far in these experiments the surplus nitrogen accumulated by a crop of 
clover, the roots only being left in the ground, has not been more than sufhcient to 
satisfy the demands of the one crop immediately following the clover. 

"At the prices at which mixed fertilizers are sold in Ohio the attempt to furnish 
all the nitrogen as well as all the phosphoric acid and potash required to produce 
increase in cereal crops grown in continuous culture, has invariably resulted in 
pecuniary loss, although very large increase of crop has been thus produced. 

"The rotation of cereals with nitrogen-gathering crops, therefore, has been shown 
to be absolutely essential to the profitable use of conunercial fertilizers in any form. 

"The increase of crop per pomid of fertilizing constituents applied has generally 
been smaller when l)arnyard manure was used as the carrier of fertility than when 
chemical carriers were used; but the lower cost of barnyard manure has made it 
possible to use this material with profit when the use of commercial fertilizers 
resulted in loss. 

"A marked superiority is indicated from manure which has been kept under 
cover until required for use over that which has been exposed, even for but a short 
time, in an open barnyard, and it seems possible to materially increase the effective- 
ness of manure by treating it with nitrogen-fixing materials. 

"Nitrate of soda has shown itself to be the most effective of the carriers of nitro- 
gen employed in these experiments, with sulphate of ammonia, dried blood and 
linseed-oil meal following in the order named. 

"Of the four carriers of phosphoric acid used, basic slag and dissolved boneblack 
show the highest effectiveness, with raw bone meal and acid phosphate not far 
below. 

"The tendency to excessive production of straw in wheat and oats is apparently 
due in part to climatic and in part to soil conditions, and the remedy apparently 
lies in systematic rotation, combined with judicious selection and distribution of 
fertilizing materials." 

Commercial fertilizers, S. W. Johnson, E. H. Jenkins, et al. 

{Connecticut State Sta. Rj^t. 1899, 2>t- ^^ PP- ^9^)-— This includes a 
statement of fertilizer sales in Connecticut in ISOO, the text and an 
abstract of the State laws relating to fertilizers, a list of manufacturers 
complying with the laws, notes on the sampling- and collecting of fertil- 
izers, explanations concerning the analysis and valuation of fertilizers, 
a review of the fertilizer market for the year ended October 31, 1899, 



FERTILIZERS. 129 

and tubulated analyses and valuations of 459 samples of fertilizing 
materials, including- nitrate of soda, dried blood, cotton-seed meal, cas- 
tor pomace, dry ground fish, tankage, bone, dissolyed boneblack, dis- 
solved rock phosphate, sulphate of potash, sulphate of potash and 
magnesia, muriate of potash, kainit, cotton-hull ashes, wood ashes, and 
home-mixed and factory-mixed compound fertilizers. 

In 8 samples of nitrate of soda examined the nitrogen ranged from 
15.52 to 16 per cent. The cost of the nitrogen per pound varied from 
12.6 to 14.5 cts., averaging 13.9 cts., "a fraction of a cent higher than 
in the previous year." The 1 sample of dried blood examined con- 
tained 13.68 per cent of nitrogen, the nitrogen costing 13.1 cts, per 
pound. In 32 samples of cotton-seed meal the percentage of nitrogen 
ranged from 6.72 to 7.63, averaging 7.14, and the price per pound of 
nitrogen from 11.9 to 14.6 cts., averaging 12.9 cts., "nearly a cent 
and a half per pound more than last year, but still the cheapest form 
of quickly available organic nitrogen in our market." Seven samples 
of castor pomace were examined. In these the percentage of nitrogen 
ranged from 5 to 6.19, and the price per pound of nitrogen from 13.5 
to 16.3 cts. This "is the most expensive form of organic nitrogen in 
the market." 

The cost of available phosphoric acid in the 5 samples of dissolyed 
boneblack analyzed ranged from 5.9 to 7 cts. per pound, averaging 
6.58 cts. In 8 samples of dissolved rock phosphate the cost of avail- 
able phosphoric acid ranged from 3.7 to 6.1 cts. per pound, the average 
being 4.6 cts. 

The cost of potash in 2 samples of high-grade sulphate was about 5 
cts. per pound. In 3 samples of low-grade or double sulphate of pot- 
ash and magnesia the cost ranged from 5.2 to 5.9 cts. per pound. "In 
7 samples of muriate of potash the cost per pound of potash ranged 
from 3.8 to 4.9 cts., and averaged 4.2 cts., this being the cheapest 
source of water-soluble potash in the market. The cost of potash in 
the 1 sample of kainit examined was 5.1 cts. per pound." 

"Of the 117 analyses of nitrogenous superphosphates, 18 were below the manu- 
facturer's minimum guarantee in respect of 1 ingredient and 10 in respect of 2 ingre- 
dients. Nearly one-fourth of the whole number therefore failed in some respect to 
come up to the claims of the manufacturer. It should be said, however, that a defi- 
ciency of 1 ingredient was sometimes attended with a marked excess of another. . . . 
The average cost of the nitrogenous superphosphates was 129.54; the average valu- 
ation was $19.55, and the percentage difference 51.1. . . . 

"Of the 108 samples [of special manures] analyzed, 21 did not fulfill the manufac- 
turer's minimum guarantee in respect of 1 ingredient, and 9 were each deficient in 
respect of 2 ingredients. Six were deficient in nitrogen, 24 in potash, and 9 in phos- 
phoric acid. The average cost per ton of the 108 samples examined was 5'32.64, the 
valuation $21.76, and the percentage difference 50. . . . 

" The average cost of the bone manures [31 samples] was $29.84 per ton; the aver- 
age valuation, $22.36; showing that the station valuation was lower than was justified 
by the average selling price of ground raw bone in Connecticut. It must, however, 



130 



EXPERIMENT STATIOIf RECORD. 



be remembered that boiled and steamed bone, qnite finely ground, are put on our 
Connecticut market by large manufacturing establishments at prices much lower than 
can be quoted by our small local manufacturers for ground raw bone. ' ' 

In 36 samples of cotton-hull ashes the highest percentage of water- 
soluble potash found was 30.94, the lowest 11.1, and the average 22.62. 
""Allowing 4i, 1, and 2 cts. per pound, respective!}', for water-soluble, 
citrate-soluble, and insoluble phosphoric acid, the water-soluble pot- 
ash cost from 4.2 cts. to 7.3 cts. per pound, or 6.7 cts. per pound on the 
average — a little less than in the previous j-ear (7.1)." 

The total and water-soluble potash were determined in 7 samples of 
cotton-hull ashes, with the following results: 

Water-soluble and total j)Otasli in cotton-hull ashes. 



station 


Water-soluble 


Total potash. 


Potash insolu- 


No. 


potash. 


ble in water. 




Per cent. 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 


12444 


24.34 


26.92 


2.58 


12381 


21.98 


25.02 


3.04 


12187 


21.18 


24.20 


3.02 


12358 


19.70 


22. 20 


2. .50 


12319 


22.90 


24.18 


1.28 


12185 


19.14 


22.48 


3.34 


12317 


20. 58 


25.82 


5.24 



Eleven samples of unleached ashes and 1 sample of leached ashes 
were examined. The unleached ashes included 8 samples of '' Canada 
ashes " in which the average per cent of water-soluble potash was 4.63, 
of phosphoric acid 1.54, and lime 33.57. 

The production of the Stassfurt deposits in 1899, Maizieres 
{VEngrais, 15 {1900), No. 23, pp. 51fi, 5^i).— The production in 1899 
is given as follows (in tons of 2,200 lbs.): 

Production of Stassfurt potash salts in 1899. 

Tons. 

Potassium chlorid (80 per cent) 167,432 

Potassium sulphate (90 per cent) 24, 655 

Double sulphate of potassium and magnesium (48 per cent). 8,459 

Potash salts for use only as fertilizers 67, 481 

Kainit 1,032,506 

Carnalite 63,287 

The consumption of potash .salts in 1899 exceeded that of the pre- 
vious year by 22,000 tons of actual potash. 

Commercial fertilizers, 'SI. A. Scovell, A. M. Peter, and H. E. Curtis {Kentucky 
Sta. Bui. 8.5, jip. 79-129).— A brief account is given of the inspection of fertilizers in 
Kentucky during the year 1899, with a list of fertilizer dealers complying with the 
law, and analyses and valuations of 406 samples of fertilizers. 

"The results of the analyses show that of the 406 samples analyzed, 94, represent- 
ing 56 brands and 24 firms, fell so far below the guaranteed analyses of the manu- 
facturers in phosphoric acid, nitrogen, or potash, or any two or all three of these 
constituents, as to be unaeeounted for ))y variations in sampling or analysis." 

Analyses of commercial fertilizers, W. C. Stubbs (Louisiana Stas. Bui. 58, pp. 
189-264).— Th'i^ Inilletin gives the text of the State fertilizer law; discusses the vari- 



FEETILIZERS. 131 

ous commercial sources of nitrogen, phosphoric acid, and potash, and the valuation 
of fertilizers; and reports analyses of 528 samples of fertilizing materials, including, 
besides various mixed fertilizers, acid phosphate, cotton-seed meal, tankage, dried 
blood, ammonium sulphate, nitrate of soda, bone meal, kainit, sulphate of potash, 
potassium carbonate, muriate of potash, and silicate of potash. 

The treatment of dead animals and abattoir refuse with sulphuric acid, A. 
Pagnoul {IJEngrais, 15 {1900), 'So. S5, jyp. 589-591). — The process first described by 
Miintz and Girard^ is discussed with reference to its sanitary value and as a means 
of preserving a large amount of valuable fertilizing material which now goes to 
waste. 

Results of fertilizer experiments with sulphate of ammonia, Kloepfer 
{Fithling's Landiv. ZUj., 49 {1900), Nos. 10, pp. 376-384, figs. 3; 11, pp. 396-406, figs. 3; 
12, pp. 436-445, figs. 2). — For notes on. previous articles by the author on this subject 
see E. S. R., 10, pp. 533, 848. 

Fertilizer experiments with sulphate of ammonia and nitrate of soda, 
Kraus {FuhUng's Landw. Ztg., 49 {1900), Nos. 6, jjp. 232-237; 7, pp. 256-259).— In 
2 years' experiments with barley grown on loam soils, sulphate of ammonia and 
nitrate of soda gave the same increase when applied at the same time (incorporated 
in the soil or applied as a top-dressing at time of planting), but Avhen the nitrate was 
applied at a later date it gave a greater increase than the earlier application of 
sulphate of ammonia. 

The nitrate of soda industry in Chile, AV. Newton {Jour. Soc. Chem. Ind., 19 
{1900), No. 5, pp. 408-417, figs. 8). — This article describes the region in which the 
nitrate is found; discusses the causes of its formation, its composition, exploitation, 
and preparation for the market; and gives statistics of exportations. The exporta- 
tions amounted to 1,355,360 tons in 1899, as against 1,003,340 in 1890. 

Liime and its uses in agriculture, A. P. Aitken {Jour. Jamaica Agr. Soc, 4 
{1900), No. 2, pp. 87-98). — A study of the action of lime in the soil and as a factor in 
plant growth. 

The ashes of olive residues and their fertilizing value A. Devarda {L' Engrais, 
15 {1900), No. 22, pp. 516, 517). 

On the reversion of phosphates and notes on improvements in the fertil- 
izer industry, W. Paysan {Chem. Ztg., 24 {1900), No. IS, pp. 185, ii^;).— Examina- 
tions of superj^hosphate made from Tennessee phosphate containing 79 per cent of 
calcium phosphate, 2.36 per cent of iron oxid, and 2.24 per cent of alumina, showed 
that there was practically no reversion of the phosphoric acid from the time that the 
sui:)erphosphate was prepared (September 2) to the time of the last examination 
(January 17). 

On the question of the reversion of phosphates and remarks on recent 
progress in the fertilizer industry, vox Grueber {Chem. Ztg., 24 {1900), No. 
22, pp. 227, 228). — This article consists mainly of comments on the above article by 
Paysan. 

The reversion of water-soluble phosphoric acid in superphosphates, C. 
Elschner {Chem. Ztg., 24 {1900), No. 24, p. 252). — Remarks on the above articles 
by Paysan and von Grueber. The author claims that sesquioxids combined with 
phosphoric acid cause reversion in superphosphates only when present in very large 
amounts and when the suj^erphosphate is quickly dried. A very rapid reversion 
occurs, however, when the oxids are combined with silica. It is therefore combined 
silica and not oxids of iron and alumina which should be guarded against in the 
selection of phosphates for the manufacture of superphosphates. 

Observations on the reversion of superphosphates, Klippert {Chem. Ztg., 
24 {1900), No. 25, pp. 265, ^66).— Remarks on the above articles. 

^Les Engrais, vol. 2, p. 234. 



132 EXPERIMENT STATION EECORD. 

FIELD CROPS. 

The influence of distance on the gro-wth and chemical compo- 
sition of plants, C. VON Seelhorst and Panaotovic {Jour. Lancho.^ 
4.7 {1S90), JTo. 4-1 JW- 379-389). — The known effect of distance between 
sugar beets on their composition suggested a similar study of other 
plants. Oats and spring wheat were used. One, live, and eight plants, 
respectively, were grown in pots and observations made on the devel- 
opment and composition of each lot. A decrease of the ground space 
allotted to each plant increased the number of internodes and lessened 
the thickness of the culm, but increased its length. The uppermost 
internode was relatively and absolutel}' shorter, but the lowermost was 
longer as the thickness of the plants was increased. The length and 
weight of the head and the weight of the grain decreased with the 
reduction of ground space per plant. The spread, however, of the 
head increased. 

The most striking change in composition was in the nitrogen con- 
tent. Representing the nitrogen content of oat plants grown 1 in a 
pot by 100 per cent, the content of those grown 5 m a pot was 80.5 
per cent, and when grown 8 in a pot, 70.1 per cent. The change in 
content of total ash, phosphoric acid, potash, and lime was not so great, 
but was nevertheless ver}^ marked. 

The nutritive value of plants grown 5 in a pot was furthermore only 
85.12 per cent as great as when grown 1 in a pot, and when grown 8 in 
a pot the nutritive value was only 76.91 per cent. The proportion 
of straw to grain was also increased as the distance between plants was 
decreased, as is a matter of common experience. 

The Woburn field experiments, 1898, J. A. Voelcker {Jour. 
Boy. Agr. Sac. EixjJand, 3. .sv/-., 10 {1899). pt. J,,, j^P- 585-607). —D^ti\. 
in continuation of that previously noted (E. S. R., 10, p. 719) are 
tabulated for the yields of wheat and barley grown continuously for 
22 years on the same plats, with and without manures, and of rotation 
experiments with barley, roots, red clover, and wheat; together with 
brief accounts of experiments with rye grass, alfalfa, Latliyrus syl- 
vestrls, pasture plats, green manuring, prevention of potato disease, 
and the curing of ''finger-and-toe" in turnips. 

Lime has proven especialh' valuable on the soils of the experimental 
lields where continuous application of fertilizers with ammonia salts 
has been practiced. Another effect of the lime has been to destroy 
spurry, a weed which was very prevalent on the unlimed plats and 
especially on plats fertilized with ammonia salts. The largest yield of 
wheat in ls;».S, 51.8 bu. per acre, was obtained on a plat fertilized 
3'early with 350 lbs. of superphosphate, and in alternate 3'ears with 
200 lbs. of potash and 100 lbs. of ammonia salts (equal quantities of 
sulphate and muriate of ammonia). As to the influence of the manures 



FIELD CEOPS. 133 

on the qiialitj" of wheat, nitrate of soda seemed to have the most inju- 
rious effects, much of the wheat being small and shriveled. Wheat 
from plats fertilized with ammonia salts was the best of all the series, 
being- "exceedingly well grown and of good color." 

The use of lime with nitrogenous fertilizers on barley had the effect 
of more than doubling the yield in some cases and greatly increasing 
it in others. It had the greatest effect when used with nitrate of soda 
and mineral fertilizers. The best looking crops and 1)rightest grains 
w^ere obtained where no nitrogenous manures were used. The poorest 
yields were obtained from plats fertilized with nitrate of soda alone. 

In the rotation experiments the relative manurial value of decorti- 
cated cotton cake and maize meal was studied. With the barley crop, 
cotton cake gave better results than maize meal, the yield in the former 
case being at the rate of 33.4: bu. per acre as against 26.7 bu. in the 
latter. The artificial equivalent of cotton cake gave a yield of 30.4 bu. 
per acre as against 28.4 bu. with the artificial equivalent of maize 
used. The introduction of clover in the rotation had the effect of pro- 
ducing a very uniform stand of wheat on all the plats, and of entirely 
obliterating the effects of the decorticated cotton cake and maize meal. 
This latter fact has rendered necessary the exclusion of clover from 
the rotation. 

Small-seeded, perennial, Italian, and annual rye grasses were sown 
separately in 1893 on different plats and fertilized yearly with 500 lbs, 
of damaged decorticated cotton-cake meal. The object of the experi- 
ment was to see how long each variety would keep its character. By 
1898 the annual and perennial varieties had entirely disappeared. 
Considerable quantities of the Small-seeded and Italian varieties could 
still be found, but the plats had become so impure through the intru- 
sion of other grasses that the experiment was discontinued. 

Alfalfa was planted in 1889 on plats which had become "clover sick" 
through frequent seeding of clover. Annual applications of differ- 
ent combinations of superphosphate, sulphate of potash and ammonia, 
bone dust, and nitrate of soda have been made. Three or four cut- 
tings have been obtained annually. For the first 7 years of the test 
the fertilizers showed no benefits, and sulphate of ammonia distinctly 
reduced the yield. For the years 1896-1898 a marked increase in yield 
occurred on plats receiving applications of sulphate of potash. 

Lathyrm sylvestris, sown in 1890, has given good yields continuously, 
but the crop has been found useless as a feeding material, since stock 
do not care for it. Lime has proved a valuable fertilizer on permanent 
pasture lots. Tares have not been superior to mustard or rape when 
used as green manures. Potatoes were benefited by applications 
of Bordeaux mixture, even in seasons when little or no disease was 
present. 



134 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

Field experiments, J. Atkinson {Iowa Sta. Bui. JfS, ijp. 216-229, 
■figs. If). — This Is a preliminaiy report on a s^^stem of experiments with 
field crops begun in 1898. Variety tests cover corn, spring wheat, oats, 
and barley. Shallow cultivation gave the largest 3neld of corn. Win- 
ter wheat is unprofitable on account of the severe winters. On mellow 
ground spring wheat gave a larger 3neld bv disking corn stubble than 
by plowing 1 and 8 in. deep. Good results were obtained bv sowing 
1 lb. of rape seed per acre with oats for pasture after the oats are 
harvested. In order to avoid interference in harvesting the oats, it is 
advised to sow the rape 2 or 3 weeks later. Sowing a mixture of 
wheat and oats gave an increase in the total 3'ield. Cutting back oats 
lessened the loss from lodging but lengthened the time of ripening. 
Sov beans and cowpeas, when grown at the station, did not form root 
nodules and the cowpeas did not ripen seed. Sorghum as a fodder 
plant is recommended for the State, and methods of seeding and cur- 
ing and the feeding value are discussed. Brome grass {Bi'omus iner- 
mls) is considered valuable to the section, but further experiments arc 
necessary before a detinite report can be made. 

In an experiment to test the shrinking of ear corn, a crib holding 
7,000 lbs. of husked corn was built upon a pair of scales and weekly 
weighings made during 1 3'ear. For 3 months, October to January, 
the loss in weight was 9 per cent; from January to April, 5f per cent: 
April to July, 3^ per cent; July to October, 2f per cent. Total loss 
for the 3'ear, a fraction over 20 per cent. 

Experiments in growing sugar beets covering 10 3'ears indicate that 
the conditions in Iowa are favorable for the production of beets of 
superior qualit3^ for sugar making. 

Results obtained in 1899 from trial plats of grain, fodder corn, 
field roots, and potatoes, W. Saunders {Canada Ctnt. Expt. Farm 
But. Slf.^ -pi?. 52, figs. 2). — Cooperative variet3' tests in continuation of 
those previously reported (E. S. R., 10, p. 1031) are recorded. The 
plan of the experiments has remained as heretofore. The 3"ields of 
each crop obtained at the different experimental farms are tabulated. 
The varieties giving the largest yields at the different stations were as 
follows: 

Oats. — American Beauty, Banner, ]\Iiller, New Zealand, Holstein Prolific, Dunifih 
Island, Black Tartarian, California Prolific, Wide Awake, Salines, Early Maine, ami 
Poland. Average yield per acre, 81 bu. 22 lbs. Two-rowed barley. — French Chevalier. 
Danish Chevalier, Sidney, Dunham, Beaver, and Canadian Thorpe. Average yield 
per acre, 49 bu. 41 lbs. Siv-rowed barley. — Argyle, Claude, Mansfield, Maushury, 
Trooper, and Baxter. Average yield i^er acre, 52 bu. 16 lbs. Spring wheat. — Rou- 
manian, Wellman Fife, Hungarian, Goose, Huron, Monarch, Preston, Rio Grande, 
Pringle Champlain, White Fife, Laurel, and Red Fife. Average yield per acre, 35 
bu. 17 lbs. Peax. — Elder, German White, Picton, Carleton, White Wonder, Archer, 
Macoun, Chelsea, Victoria, Chancellor, King, and Nelson. Average yield per acre, 35 
bu. 56 lbs. Indian corn. — Red Cob Ensilage, Champion White Pearl, Early Mastodon, 



FIELD CROPS. 135 

Angel of Midnight, Cloud Early Yellow, and Compton Early. Average yield per acre, 
18 tons 485 lbs. Turnips. — Bangholm Selected, Perfection Swede, Halewood Bronze 
Top, Mammoth Clyde, Prize Purple Top, and Purj^le Top Swede. Average vield per 
acre, 32 tons 1,909 lbs. Mangels. — Yellow Intermediate, Ward Large Oval Shaped, 
Giant Yellow Intermediate, Giant Yellow Half Long, Gate Post (2nd sowing), and 
Lion Yellow Intermediate. Average yield per acre, 34 tons 767 lbs. Carrots. — Half 
Long White, Giant White Vosges, Improved Short White, Iverson Champion, Mam- 
moth White Intermediate, and New White Intermediate. Average yield per acre, 24 
tons 917 lbs. Sugar beets. — Danish Improved, Wanzlebener, Danish Red Top, and 
Vilmorin Improved. Average yield per acre, 24 tons 821 lbs. Potatoes. — American 
Wonder, Burnaby Seedling, Seedling No. 230, Holborn Abundance, Everett, Vanier, 
Em]3ire State, Bovee, Seattle, Carman No. 1, American Giant, and Polaris. Average 
yield per acre, 386 bu. 40 lbs. 

The aterage results obtained for the different crops for 4 and 5 years 
are also tabulated, and these data are considered to be the more valu- 
able guide to the farmer in the selection of seed. The varieties which 
have given the highest averages during this period of years are as 
follows: 

Oats. — Banner, American Beauty, Columbus, Golden Giant, Bavarian, Golden 
Beauty, Holstein Prolific, Early Golden Prolific, American Triumph, Abundance, 
White Schonen, and Wallis. Average yield per acre, 70 Iju. 13 lbs. Two-rowed 
barley. — French Chevalier, Danish Chevalier, Beaver, Canadian Thorpe, Sidney, 
and Newton. Average yield per acre, 42 bu. 39 lbs. Six-rowcd-barley . — Manshury, 
Trooper, Odessa, Oderbruch, Common, and Royal. Average yield per acre, 47 ))u. 4 
lbs. Spring wheat. — Preston, Wellman Fife, Monarch, Goose, White Fife, Rio Grande, 
White Connell, Red Fife, Huron, White Russian, Pringle Champlain, and Red Fern. 
Average yield per acre, 31 bu. 7 lbs. Peas. — Crown, Carleton, Pride, New Potter, 
King (3 years). Paragon, Mummy, Archer (3 years). Trilby, Duke, Prince Albert, 
and Centennial. Average yield per acre, 34 bu. 2 lbs. Indian corn. — Red Cob Ensilage, 
Selected Learning, Thoroughbred White Flint, Giant Prolific Ensilage, Angel of 
Midnight, and Champion White Pearl. Average yield per acre, 17 tons 1,392 lbs. 
Turnips. — Selected Purple Top, Perfection Swede, Bangholm Selected, East Lothian, 
Hartley Bronze, and Jumbo. Average yield per acre, 30 tons 1,104 lbs. Mangels. — 
Yellow Intermediate, Gate Post, Giant Yellow Intermediate, Mammoth Long Red, 
Giant Yellow Glol)e, and Prize IMammoth Long Re(^. Average yield per acre, 31 
tons 427 lbs. Carrots. — Improved Short White, Half Long White, Giant White 
Yosges, Mammoth White Intermediate, Iverson Champion, and White Belgian. 
Average yield per acre, 19 tons 1,719 lbs. Sugar beets. — Danish Improved, Red Top 
Sugar, Wanzlebener, and Improved Imperial. Average yield per acre, 21 tons 
611 lbs. Potatoes. — Seedling No. 230, Irish Daisy, American Giant, American Won- 
der, Late Puritan, Empire State, Carman No. 1, State of Maine, Clarke .No. 1, Clay 
Rose, New Variety No. 1, and Dreer Standard. Average yield per acre, 347 Ini. 
21 lbs. 

Woody beets [Deut Landw. Fresse, 36 {1899), Xo. 103, p- 117o).— 
This article summarizes the observations made bj^ different sugar-beet 
grow'ers on the frequent occurrence of abnormal seed-bearing speci- 
mens of beets grow^n the same season from spring planted seed. These 
seed-bearing beets usually have hardwoodv roots of low sugar content. 
Freezing the 3'oung plants seems to favor the growth of the seed-bearing 
specimens. Rimpau experimented with 2 beds of sugar beets planted 
in March. One was protected at night bv a light covering and the 



136 EXPERIMENT STATION EECORD. 

other left exposed to frosts. In the protected bed 3.8 per cent of the 
plants developed into seed-bearing- specimens, and in the exposed bed 
7.5 per cent. Experiments with two-year-old and one-year-old seed 
gave 14.8 per cent of seed-bearing beets with the two-year-old seed and 
9.81 per cent with the one-year-old seed. Again, 100 large seed bolls 
which weighed 1.23 gm. produced 6.3 per cent of seed-bearing plants 
while 100 small seed bolls, having a total weight of 1.12 gm., produced 
16.1 per cent of seed-bearing plants. Other experiments by Rimpau 
showed that the deeply planted seed produced more seed-bearing 
plants than seed planted normally in a similarly prepared seed bed. 
A period of drought, excessive rain, or any weather condition which 
checks the growth of the beets during any stage of growth, in the 
opinion of the same experimenter, tends to further the development 
of seed-bearing specimens. 

Relative to the means of reducing the number of precocious seed- 
bearing plants to a minimum, it is suggested that seedsmen persistently 
discard strains of sugar beets which tend to produce these abnormali- 
ties, notwithstanding that the form, yield, and sugar content of the 
beets may be all that is desired. Growers should guard against plant- 
ing too early in the season and thus subjecting the 3'oung plants to the 
effects of frost. Deep planting should be avoided and at the last 
hoeing all beets growing seed should be pulled out by the roots. 

The comparative yield of corn from seed of the same variety 
grown in different latitudes {ArJianxus Sta. Bui. 59, pj). 109-122). — 
Samples of seed corn were obtained from 18 different States in 1898 
and 20 in 1899 and planted in comparative plats at the station. For 
the purposes of the expei-iment seed collected north of the thirty- 
eighth parallel was designated as "'northern grown," that collected 
between the thirty -eighth and thirty-fifth as "middle grown," and 
that south of the thirty -fifth parallel as "southern grown." Ten 
Northern, 7 Middle, and 3 Southern States were thus represented by 
the different varieties of seed. In all, 11 varieties were compared, 
many samples being procured of each variety. The yields obtained 
in the different latitudes with Leaming, Golden Beauty, Hickory 
King, Golden Dent, Champion White Pearl, Early Mastodon, and 
White Dent are tabulated and averaged. With these varieties the 
difference between yields of the same variety from different sources 
in the same latitude was sometimes greater than the average difference 
between varieties from different latitudes. The yields from seed of 
Golden Dent grown in the north latitude varied from 15.9 to 18.8 bu. 
per acre. Similar variations, though to a less extent, occurred with 
other varieties. 

The average yields for two j^ears from seed obtained from the dif- 
ferent latitudes are shown for the varieties most uniformly repre- 
sented in the different sections In' the following table: 



FIELD CKOPS. 



137 



Average yields for two years of corn from different latitudes. 



Name of variety. 



From 


From 


northern- 


middle- 


grown 


grown 


seed. 


seed. 


Bushels. 


Bushels. 


20. 98 


26.20 


32. 81 


45. 775 


24. 855 


31.81 


21. .52 


25. 09 


22. 62 


32.00 


33.54 


33. 75 


24. 175 


34. 695 



From 

soutliern- 

grown 

seed. 



Learning 

Golden Beauty 

Hiekorv King 

Golden' Dent 

cliaiuiiidn White Pearl. 

Earl V Mastodon 

White Dent 



Bushels. 
17.20 
50. 475 
29.10 
•25.30 
30.10 
33. 45 
34.775 



Average . 



25. 785 



31.485 



"Thus it is seen that 75 samples of 7 varieties of corn from seed grown north of 
thirty-eighth parallel of latitude yielded an average of 25.78 bu. per acre; 49 samples 
of the same varieties from seed grown between the thirty-eighth and thirty-fifth j)ar- 
allel of latitude yielded an average of 32.76 bu. per acre, and 3i samples of the same 
varieties from seed grown south of the thirty-fifth parallel yielded an average of 31.48 
bu. per acre. The middle section averaged 6.98 bu. per acre more than the north- 
ern and 1.28 bu. more than the southern section. . . . 

"The results of the two years' experiments indicate that seed corn grown in the 
same or nearly the same latitude as that in which it is to be planted will give the 
best results, and that seed grown in the neighborhood where they are to be planted 
are preferable to those grown farther north or farther south." 

Tables showing the weather conditions from March 1 to September 
30, both years of the test, are appended. 

Fertilizer, culture, and variety experiments on cotton, R. J. 
Redding {Georgia Sta. Bui. Ifj^pp. 79-110). — Work in continuation 
of that previously' reported (E. S. R., 11, p. 138). The author states 
that the season for cotton was the most unfavorable in many years. 

In 1899 25 varieties were tested. Arranged according to rank in 
value of 3'ield and seed produced, Culpepper Improved stood first, fol- 
lowed by Texas Bur, Moss Improved, Schley, Russell Big Boll, Prize, 
Lee Improved No. 2, etc. Jackson Limbless stood twenty-third in 
the list. Moss Improved produced the largest percentage of lint, 38.8, 
and the smallest seeds, with the exception of one variety. Shire and 
King were the earliest varieties grown. The results of 6 years' tests 
show that early varieties are not, as a rule, the most productive. 

The results obtained in the composite seed test, begun in 1898 (E. 
S. R., 11, p. 138), lead to the conclusion that if the seeds of two 
equally productive varieties, one an early and the other a late cotton, 
be mixed, the resulting yield will be greater than that of either planted 
alone. 

In the distance experiments it was found that with rows 1 ft. apart 
the yield of cotton was greater with 1 plant every 18 in. than with 2 
plants ever}^ 36 in. ; also that single plants every 12 in. in the row gave 
larger 3delds than at greater distance. In rows of varying width and 
with plants planted at different distances in the row the yields increased 
in proportion as the space between plants more nearly approached a 
square. 



138 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

The plats used in the general fertilizer tests were located on typi- 
cal old upland soil. The jdelds obtained with different fertilizers lead 
to the conclusion that a formula consisting of 3^ parts phosphoric acid. 
1 part potash, and 1 part nitrogen, all in an available form, is the most 
suitable for middle Georgia conditions. 

Fractional applications of fertilizers have not been found profitable. 

Some native forage plants for alkali soils, A. Nelson {Wi/o})iui(/ 
Sta. Bid. 4^,j)p. 23-4-5^ Jigs. 12). — This bulletin discusses the forage 
areas of Wyoming, dividing them into 3 classes — mountain, hill, 
and plain. The two former areas, being well drained, are reasonably 
free from alkali. The latter area is divided into normal plains and 
alkali plains. The native i^lants found upon the alkali plains are 
described and discussed. These plants are found to have a greater or 
less value for forage, and it is the object of this bulletin to point out 
the more valuable ones, and to suggest measures for increasing their 
3deld. The salt sages are found to be the most suitable for the Wyom- 
ing lands, and 4 perennials and 3 annuals are illustrated and described. 
Winter Fat, related to the salt sages, Indian Millet. Slender Wheat 
grass, and Alkali Meadow grass, are found on the alkali plains and 
are of value as forage. Tuber Bulrush is found in alkali marshes and 
is much relished by cattle. These plants are also described. 

Effect of orchards in meadcws, Burki {Landtv. Jahrh. Schweiz. , 
13 {1899)., 2)2^' 135-151). — Investigations were made b}^ the author to 
determine what effect on the yield and quality of grass would follow 
from the growing of orchard trees in meadows. Shade was the chief 
factor considered. The composition and yield of a large number of 
species of grass grown both in shade and in sunshine are tabulated. The 
data show that the first cutting of meadow hay was decreased on the 
average 32 per cent b}- the shade from the orchard trees, and the second 
cutting 59 per cent b}' the same cause. The decrease in yield was in gen- 
eral directly proportional to the nearness together of the orchard trees. 
Grass grown under fruit trees averaged 0.76 per cent less dry matter 
and 0.96 per cent less nitrogen-free extract than grass grown in the 
open sunlight. No marked influence of the shade on the protein con- 
tent of the grass was observable except where comparatively large 
amounts of fertilizers were used, and then the protein content was 
greater in the grass grown in shade. The crude fiber and fat content 
was slightly higher in the grass grown in the sunshine, while the ash 
content was somewhat lower. Shade tended to promote the growth of 
orchard grass and a number of undesirable grasses, and to decrease 
the growth of French and P>nglish rye grass and red and white clover. 

The produce of old and ne^w varieties of oats, J. Speir {Trans. 
Highland and Agr. Soc. Scotlaiid. 5. ser., 12 {1899), pj). 225-238). — 
In 1898, 3 new varieties of cross-bred oats were tested in comparison 
with the Potato oat, an old variety grown quite extensively' through- 
out Scotland. The yields o])tain('d from the different varieties were 



FIELD CROPS. 139 

as follows: Potato, 61^; cross-bred varieties — Waverly 09, Tartar 
King- 92, Pioneer 86 bu. per acre. The same varieties of oats Avere 
grown in 1899 and several other varieties, including American Beauty, 
were also tested. The yield of the grain and straw and the analyses 
Avith reference to the food constituents of the straw of the different 
varieties tested are tabulated. In general the fields in 1899 were 
considerably less than for the preceding year. The yields of the new 
cross-bred varieties fell off in amount from 57 to 58 per cent and the 
Potato oat 36.5 per cent. In 1899, American Beauty, with a yield of 
11 bu. per acre, was the best variety grown, followed by Yellow oat 
13, "Waverly 12, and Aliundance 10 bu. per acre. 

The Irish potato, R. H. Price and H. Ness {Texas Sta. Bui. BJ^.^ 
pp. 109-l'28.,figs. 10). — A continuation of the fertilizer, variety, and 
storage tests with potatoes previously noted (E. S. R.., 9, p. 830). In 
addition data are given of tests made to determine the relative merits 
of northern and southern grown potatoes for seed and the value of 
different-sized pieces for planting. Potato machinery is discussed and 
suggestions given regarding the growing of a second crop of potatoes 
during the season. 

Of the 33 varieties of potatoes tested Triumph has proven the best 
early variety grown during a period of 1 j^ears. Red Triumph has 
sold better in the market than White Triumph. By planting second- 
crop potatoes grown in Virginia better yields were secured than with 
potatoes grown in New York. Tubers averaging 2i oz. each, planted 
whole, gave larger returns than 2 or 1 oz, tubers cut to i or ^ oz. 
pieces. 

In the fertilizer test the use of chip dirt, rotten sawdust, unfer- 
mentcd cotton-seed hulls, or muriate of potash has resulted in a loss 
in both wet and dry seasons. Both cotton-seed meal and sulphate of 
potash have been used with profit but the best results have been secured 
by the use of stall manure from cattle fed almost exclusively on cotton- 
seed meal and cotton-seed hulls. Scab was most abundant on the plats 
receiving the largest amount of nitrogenous fertilizers. It increased 
from 19 per cent in the case of cotton-seed meal applied broadcast to 
30 per cent when the meal was applied in the furrow directly on the 
seed. In these experiments both cowpeas and sorghum have immedi- 
ately preceded the potato crop. The different fertilizers used in these 
tests and the results obtained in the two seasons of 1898 and 1899 are 
recorded in detail. No definite conclusions are drawn and the work 
is considered in the nature of a report of progress. 

No entirely satisfactory method has as yet been found for storing 
large crops of potatoes for any considerable length of time. The 
authors' conclusions from the results of 1 j'ears' work along this line 
are as follows: 

"Plant very early varieties and ship the crop just as early as it will do to harvest. 
If the season be dry and the markets crowded, let the crop stay in the ground about 



140 



EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 



4 weeks after maturing . . . and then harvest and market at once. . . . Some 
risk is run of losing the crop if a heavy soaking rain should come after the tubers 
mature. Grow a second cj-op whenever it can be grown. By spreading the tubers 
out on the floor of a cellar or even under the house where some light covering of 
straw or leaves can be placed over them, enough can be stored for family use until 
Christmas. Potatoes grown on well-drained sandy loam soils will keep better than 
those grown on stiff, heavy clay soils." 

Notes on marketing potatoes and illustrated descriptions of a potato 
cutter, digger, spraj'er, and smoothing harrovr are given, together 
with suggestions regarding the management of first-crop potatoes for 
second-crop seed. 

Experiments -with potatoes, C. D. Woods and J. M. Bartlett 
{Maine Sta. Bid. 57, j/j). 11^5-158). — Investigations were undertaken 
to determine the "effect of spraying potato vines with Bordeaux 
mixture on the starch content of the tubers. As starch accumulates 
most rapidly when the plant is maturing, it seemed reasonable to pre- 
sume that if spraying prevented blight and prolonged the life of the 
plant to its natural period of growth, the tubers would be of better 
qualit}" with a larger proportion of starch than those from immature 
plants." 

Arrangements were made with growers in Aroostook County, where 
large starch factories are located, for samples of potatoes from sprayed 
and unsprayed fields. Only merchantable tubers were used. The 
spraying was begun late, and none of the potatoes completely escaped 
the attack of blight. Sixteen samples, made up of 4 varieties, were 
analyzed and the data with reference to both mineral and food con- 
stituents were tabulated and compared with similar data obtained from 
other sources. The ayerage starch content of 3 yarieties of sprayed and 
unsprayed potatoes is shown in the following table: 

Starch conienl of sprayed and unsprai/ed potatoes. 





Sprayed. 


Not sprayed. 


Variety. 


Number 

of 
samples. 


Average 

starch 

content. 


Number 

of 
samples. 


Average 

starch 

content. 


White Elephant 


5 
■2 
1 


Per cent. 
19.32 
18. 92 
18.03 


3 
2 

i 


Per cent. 
17. 52 


Delaware 


17.45 


Carmen No. 1 


17 (17 






Average 




19. OG 




17..3 









These results indicate an ayerage increase in starch of 1.G3 per cent, 
seemingly due to spraying with Bordeaux mixture. With the Hebron 
yariety the larger starch content was found in the unspra^'ed potatoes. 
This variation Avas attributed to the soil differences of the fields in 
which the 2 samples were grown. 

The starch content shown h\ chemical anah'sis is compared with the 
estimated starch content based upon specific grayit}*. The figures 



FIELD CROPS. 141 

*'show in a striking manner the unreliability of the specific gravity 
method of determining starch in potatoes." 

A summary is given of considerable literature on fertilizing pota- 
toes. On the basis of the chemical aualj'sis of potatoes, the fertiliz- 
ing constituents removed by a crop of 200 bu. per acre is calculated 
to be 37 lbs. of nitrogen, 16 lbs. of phosphoric acid, and 58 lbs. of 
potash. Twentj^-six brands of so-called potato fertilizers were exam- 
ined, and only 8 were found to resemble the above in proportion of 
constituents, and these contained much more phosphoric acid. 

Fertilizer experiments with potatoes, B. Sjollema {Jour. 
JjCOidw., J^7 {1S99), JVo. '2.^ 2U*- lOo-lJfO). — This is a report on a series 
of fertilizer experiments which have extended over a period of 17 
years. In a comparison of barnyard manure and chemical fertilizers, 
the 3'ield was about the same on each, but the starch content of the 
tubers was noticeabl}^ lower in the former case, being onh' 11,25 per 
cent as against 16.15 per cent in the latter. Barn3"ard manure was 
plainlj" unfavorable to the fullest development of starch. This con- 
clusion, based on experiments in which the barnyard manure and chem- 
ical fertilizers were applied to different plats, was confirmed by other 
experiments in which each was applied to the same plat in different 
seasons. 

In a comparison of sulphate of ammonia and nitrate of soda as 
sources of nitrogen for potatoes, the yield of tubers with the former was 
7.3 per cent less than with the latter. At the same time their starch 
content was less by 0.5 per cent. As a result, the amount of starch 
produced was 11 per cent less on sulphate of ammonia than on nitrate 
of soda. This result may probably be explained, the author suggests, 
bv the fact that nitrate of soda is a more readily availal)le plant food. 

In a stud}' of the influence of different kinds of manures on starch 
content, a complete chemical fertilizei- was compared with other ferti- 
lizers identical except that either nitrogen or phosphoric acid was 
omitted. The complete fertilizer applied in the usual quantities pro- 
duced 31,500 kg. of tubers with a starch content of 16.15 per cent. 
The fertilizer containing no phosphoric acid produced 28,500 kg. of 
tubers with a starch content of 15.05 per cent ; and the fertilizer con- 
taining no nitrogen produced 27,800 kg. with a starch content of 16.15 
per cent. It appears that either phosphoric acid favors the formation 
of starch, or that nitrogen is unfavorable to it. It was shown by other 
experiments that both inferences are correct; but when the application 
of fertilizer was doubled in each case, the complete chemical fertilizer 
produced a starch content of 19 per cent, the fertilizer containing no 
phosphoric acid 18.1 per cent, and that containing no nitrogen 18.6 
per cent — that is, nitrate of soda does not materially hinder the for- 
mation of starch provided all other elements of plant food are present 
in sufficient quantities. 



14! 



EXPEKIMEJS^T STATION RECORD. 



Experiments are reported which appear to lead to the conclusion 
that a heavy application of potash neutralizes the detrimental effect 
of barnyard maiuirc on the formation of starch. 

In experiments on the effect of barnyard manure and chemical fer- 
tilizers, respectively, on succeeding crops of potatoes, the effect of an 
application of barnyard manure was almost as marked the second 
season as the tirst, but in the third season it was very much less, and 
in the fourth had practicall}' disappeared. The effect of chemical 
fertilizers on succeeding- crops was much less marked, but when the 
application of commercial fertilizers was double the amount usualh^ 
applied the effect on the second crop was almost as great as in the case 
of barnyard manure. Other considerations in the course of the exper- 
iments, however, indicate that if the application of potash alone is 
doubled the same result would be reached. 

The effect of different elements of plant food on yield and starch 
content of potatoes is shown in the following table: 

The effect of different fertilizing constituents on yield and starch content of potatoes. 



Applied alone 

With potash 

With nitrogen 

With phosphoric acid 

With phosphoric acid and nitrogen. 
With potash and phosphoric acid... 
With potash and nitrogen 



Increase due to 
potash. 



In yield 
per hec- 
tare. 



Kg. 
15, 250 



18, 850 
18, 320 
19, 510 



In starch 
content. 



Per cent. 
1.4 



1.2 
1.5 
1.6 



Increase due to 
nitrogen. 



In yield 
per hec- 
tare. 



Kg. 

550 
4,150 



2, 970 



In starch 
content. 



Per cent. 
aO.3 
a .5 



a .3 
a ".2 



Increase due to 
phosphoric acid. 



In yield 
per hec- 
tare. 



Kg. 

260 
3,330 
2,680 



3,340 



In starch 
content. 



Per cent. 

0.7 

.8 

.7 



Potash is seen to be the most important ingredient of a potato fer- 
tilizer. Nitrogen and phosphoric acid with potash gave only a small 
increase in yield over potash alone, and if potash is not included in 
the formula there is almost no increase. Nevertheless, nitrogen and 
phosphoric acid are necessary complements of potash, though in small 
amounts or less frequent applications, for a continued application of 
potash alone was found to result in a decreased yield. 

Soy beans, a new drought-resisting crop, H. IVI. Cottrell, D. H. 
Otis, and J. G. Haney {Kansas Sta. Bui. 92, pp. 19-28, figs. 5).— A 
description is given of the plant, with directions for planting, cultiva- 
ting, and harvesting. The early yellow soy bean is recommended for 
planting in Kansas, and it is pointed out that some reported failures 
have been by reason of planting a late-maturing kind. Planting should 
be done after danger of fro.st is past, and cultivation should be shallow 
and level. The crop should be harvested when the pods turn brown 
and before the beans are wholly ripe. In harvesting, a knife attached 
to a cultivator and running just below the surface is recommended. 



FIELD CKOPS. 143 

The threshing may be done with an ordinary grain separator by using 
blank concaves. The yield in Kansas is from 10 to 20 bu. per acre, 
and the cost of production varies from 40 to 55 cts. per bu. 

The feeding value of soy beans is discussed, and 5 tests with pigs 
are briefly reported in which soy beans were compared with Katir corn 
and corn meal. The experiments made show a saving by a mixed ration 
with corn or Kalir corn in fattening hogs of from 13 to 37 per cent per 
100 lbs. of gain. 

From the results of 10 years' experience at the station the author 
concludes that the soy bean is a profitable crop for the Kansas farmer. 
"It stands drought as well as Kafir corn or sorghum; it is not touched 
by chinch bugs; the grain is a richer feed than linseed meal, and the 
plant enriches the soil in which it is grown." 

Alfalfa, G. L. Clothier {Kansas State Bd. Agr. Quart. Ept. 1900, Mar. 31, pp. 7-39, 
tigs. 11) . — The history, culture, and feeding value of the plant, compiled from the 
work of the agricultural experiment stations are given. 

Distance experiment with corn, C. D. Smith {Michigan Sta. Rpt. 1S99, p. 58). — 
In a test of growing corn in drills and hills in rows different distances apart, the best 
results were obtained when the rows were fully 3^ ft. ajiart, "either in hills equally 
distant or in continuous rows, the kernels being between 6 and 9 in. apart in the row," 

Cotton, K. Supp ( Tropenpflanzer, 4 {1900), No. 6, pp. «'65-^7e).— Statistics of growth 
and manufacture of cotton, with colored maps showing area of world's production. 

Kafir corn, J. G. Haxey {Kansas State Bd. Agr. Quart. Rpt. 1900, Mar. 31, pj). 
52-65, figs. 2). — History, cultural notes, and feeding value, compiled from various 
sources. 

Culture of white lupines, P. P. Deherain and E. Demoussy {Ann. Agron., 26 
( 1900), No. 2, pp>. 57-77, figs. 4)- — White lupines were grown in pot and field experi- 
ments on calcareous soils well supplied with mineral elements. The results are 
given in detail and seem to demonstrate that without the presence of nodules on the 
roots of these plants growth is feeble and uncertain and premature death is frequent. 
At least 4 different sorts of bacteria form nodules on the roots of white lupines, but 
not all are equally efficient in furnishing nitrogen to the plant. It is owing to this 
difference in efficiency, rather than to the composition of the soil, that white lupines 
do not flourish in different districts e(iually well. 

Tests of the value of seeds of first and second flowering, E. Gain {Sta. Agron. 
Nancy, Bui. 2, 1900, pp. 42-46). — AVhite lupine seed were selected from pods of the 
first and second flowering periods, respectively, and planted under similar conditions 
of soil and culture. From 33 to 50 per cent of the seeds from the second flowering 
failed to grow, and those that did live made a weak growth, the yield of pods and 
seed and total weight of the plants being scarce 50 per cent of that of the seeds 
obtained from the pods of the first flowering. Ordinarily the seeds of the different 
flowering periods are all harvested together. The undesirability of using such mixed 
seeds, as shown in this experiment, is conunented upon. 

Meadows of the lower course of the Saone, H. Cornet and E. Delokme {Ann. 
Agron., 26 {1000), Nk 3, pp. 140-155). 

When and how potatoes were introduced into Norway, O. Olafsen {TidssJcr. 
Norske Landhr., 6 {1S99), No. 11, pp. 504-506). 

Cultivation of the potato, A. C. Toxxelier {El cuUivo de la papa. Buenos Ayres: 
J. Peuser, 1899, pp. 22). 

4740— No. 2 4 



14:4 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

' The starch, yield of different varieties of potatoes {Deut. Landw. Presse, 27 
{1900), Xo. 36, J)- 44^)- — The total starch content and the yield of first and second 
class product oljtainable from each of 11 varieties of potatoes are reported. 

Influence of the size of the potato vines on the yield, C. von Seelhorst {Jour. 
Landw., 4S {1900), No. 2, pp. 97-10.3; Deut. Landw. Presse, 27 {1900), No. 40, pp. 
500, 601). — The author's experiments in the selection of potatoes for seed show that 
large vines tend to give large yields, and that this character is to a certain degree 
inhei'ited. 

Trials with potatoes, F. Desprez {Semaine Agr., 20 {1900), Nos. 9S1, pp. 68, 69; 
988, pp. 126, 127). — Blue Giant and Richter Imperator have proven the hardiest and 
most satisfactory varieties tested for 9 years. Notes on a number of other varieties 
grown are given, together with tabular matter as to yield, etc. 

Report on experiments at the German potato culture station in 1899 
{Siirhs. Landw. Ztscln:, 48 {1900), No. 9, pp. 88-93).— liMitev Imperator and Daber- 
sche have given the most satisfactory results of a number of varieties tested for a 
period of years. 

Monograph on rice, C. D. Girola {Monografla del arroz. Buenos Ayres: J. Peuser, 
1899, pp. 63, Jigs. 6). 

Rice, C. D. Girola {Bol. Soc. Nac. Agr. [Lima] 4. ser., 1900, No. 8, pp. 373-411, 
figs. 2). — A popular article on varieties, culture, enemies, etc. 

Sugar beets in Sanpete and Sevier counties, L. Foster ( Utah Sla. Bui. 63, j)p- 
22). — Results of cooperative experiments in these counties, with cultural suggestions 
and a discussion of factory conditions. The average sugar content of the beets grown 
in the 2 counties in 1899 was 15.72 per cent; purity, 82.01 per cent. Tables of 
analyses of l)eets grown in the years 1897 to 1899 in Sanpete, Sevier, Utah, and 
"Welier counties are included in the bulletin. 

Wholesale sugar-beet seed production in Germany, E. Schaaf {Bl. Zucl-erril- 
henhav, 7 {1900), Nos. 3, p>p. 33-37; 4, PP- 49-57; 5, pp. 65-71; 6, pp. 81-88). 

The -wheat crop of California {Sd. Amer., 83 {1900), No. 1, p. 9). — A description 
of the lands, culture, and storing, with especial reference to the machinery operated 
by steam power. 

Macaroni wheats, G. Valder {Agr. Gaz. New South Wales, 11 {1900), No. 3, pp. 
210-212, figs. 5). — Several varieties of these wheats have been successfully grown at 
the Hawkesbury Agricultural College. The uses of these wheats for green fodder, 
hay, and for macaroni are noted. 



HORTICULTURE. 

Forcing tomatoes, A. T. Jordan {New Jersey Stcis. Bui. IJ).!., jyp. 
18). — Tlic iiuthor describes the methods g'enerally observed in New Jer- 
sey in growing tomatoes under glass, and presents the detailed results 
of his investigations of problems connected with forcing tomatoes. 

Thickness of sett hig (pp. G-S). — Tomato plants were allowed li, 2, 2^, 
3, and 3i sq. ft. of bench surface per plant. Four crops were grown. 
In order to admit light and permit of a better circulation of air about 
the plants, it was found necessary to clip the leaves of plants given 1\., 
2, and 2^ sq. ft. of space. Watering with liquid manure was practiced. 
The best results were obtained from the plants given the greatest num- 
ber of applications. The maximum yield per plant was from the plants 
having 2^ sq. ft. of surface, but the maximum 3neld per square foot of 



HORTICULTURE. 145 

bench space (28. 5 oz.) was obtained when the plants occupied 2 sq. ft. 
of bench. Plants given li sq. ft. of bench stood second in yield, but 
when thus closel}^ crowded together too severe pruning was required 
to give satisfactory results. 

Fertilizers with surface v. sidnoatering (pp. 8-10). — The soil used was 
a chw loam, to which 3 per cent of peat moss was added. In two 
instances regular forcing soil was used for comparison, and in two 
others sifted coal ashes, to which 3 per cent of peat moss was added. 
Like amounts of mineral fertilizers (a mixture of 200 lbs. muriate of 
potash and 350 lbs. acid phosphate per acre) were used on each plat. 
Liquid manure was applied to the plats in some instances. Plats were 
duplicated, one series being surface-watered and the other subwatered. 
The yields obtained on the different soils b}- the different methods 
of manuring and watering are shown in tabular form. The results 
obtained are summarized by the author as follows: 

"In 5 of 7 plats sub watering has increased the yield — in one case nearly 50 per 
€ent (49.22), and averaging for the 5, 31.13 jser cent. 

"Relatively, the increase caused by subwatering has been greater upon the nitrate 
plat, the percentages of increase being for the nitrate 49.22, as against 46 for the sul- 
phate, 39.15 for blood, .36.79 on the forcing soil, and 4.7 on the ashes. Upon the soils 
used yard manure as a source of nitrogen is superior to the commercial forms applied, 
\. €., nitrate of soda, sulphate of ammonia, and dried blood. The increase over nitrate 
of soda under identical conditions was 5.11 oz. per square foot. 

"As a result of 4 crops without renewal of soil, sifted coal ashes with 3 per cent 
peat, fed with a comjilete chemical fertilizer, has given, where surface watered, a 
yield exceeding any other by 3.89 oz. per square foot, and under subwatering is 
second only to the regular forcing soil." 

The effect of varying amounts of nitrogen on different soils (pp. 
10-13). — Tomato plants were grown in boxes 18 in. square and 12 in. 
deep, filled with cither nearl}^ pure sand, sandy soil, or clay soil. Three 
boxes of each soil received mineral fertilizers (potash and phosphoric 
acid) onl}", 3 mineral fertilizers plus IGO lbs. of nitrate of soda, and 3 
mineral fertilizers plus 320 lbs. of nitrate of soda. 

Lorillard and Chemin varieties of tomatoes were grown. With nearly 
pure sand the jdeld obtained with the smaller application of nitrate 
was nearly .5 times as great as that obtained where minerals only were 
emploj-ed. On the sand}^ soil the yield was nearly double, and on the 
clay soil a little more than double as great. The increase in yield per 
box due to the larger application of the nitrate on the different soils 
was as follows: Nearly pure sand, 43.18 per cent; sandy soil, 58 per 
cent, and clay soil, 19.7 per cent. These results are considered as 
varying in ever}^ respect from the results previously obtained under 
field conditions. 

Boxes and pots v. henches for forcing tomatoes (pp. 13, 14). — The 
boxes used were similar to those described above. The pots were ordi- 
nary 10-inch pots, holding approximately^ 0.3 cu. ft. of soil. Plants 



146 EXPEEIMENT STATION EECORD. 

on the benches had approximately 1^ sq. ft. of bench space. The soil, 
varieties, methods of training, handling, pruning, manuring, etc., were 
the same in each case. 

"The lot grown on benches has given the largest total yield and yield for space 
occupied, but has given the lowest average weight per truit. Those grown in pots 
have given almost as large a yield for the space occupied and the largest average 
weight per fruit. This large yield is probably due, in part at least, to the fact that 
the pots were set in the extreme south end of the bench, and thus had the full 
advantage of the light. Placing each lot upon the same basis as to amount of soil, 
these results might be changed. However, the smaller quantities of soil dry out 
quickly, and consequently require very close attention. We much prefer the use of 
benches. ' ' 

Shigle-stem v. three-stem training (pp. 1-4, 15). — Nine plants were 
grown under similar conditions. Six were trained to single stems and 
3 to 3 stems. The average weight of fruits grown on the single stems 
was 3.98 oz., and the yield per square foot of bench space 18.77 oz. 
With plants trained to 3 stems the average weight of the fruits was 
4.07 oz., and the yield per square foot of bench space 38.77 oz. The 
claim that 1 plant trained to 3 stems will occupy no more room than 2 
plants trained to single stems was not liorne out in these experiments. 
The results lead the author to recommend the single-stem method of 
training for forcing tomatoes. 

Financial considerations involved in forcing tomatoes are considered. 
Based on the yields per square foot of bench in these experiments 
(21.23 oz. salable fruit) and the prices obtained for tomatoes during the 
2 seasons 1898 and 1899 (67.5 cts. per square foot of bench for 2 crops), 
the author calculates the value of the crops from a house 20 by 100 ft. 
to be $972 a year, which, after deducting the cost of coal and labor, 
leaves a profit of $693.50. 

In these experiments tomato blight {Cladosporlumfulvum) was held 
in check by a mixture of 6 lbs. of copper sulphate, 1 lbs. of lime, and 
90 gal. of water. Tobacco smoke was successfully used in controlling 
the white llv {AJeyrodes vaporarlorum). 

Pear grooving in Nevr Jersey, A. T. Jordan {Neio Jeirsey Stas. 
Bui. lJf2, p2>- H)- — The discussion of this subject is based largelj^ on 
data obtained from the fruit surve}^ of the State made in 1895 (E. S. R., 
8, p. 887). The subjects concerned are soils, varieties, purchasing 
stock, planting, cultivating, manuring, pruning, thinning, life of pear 
orchards, insects and diseases, picking and marketing, yields, expenses, 
and profits. 

At the present time pears in New Jersey rank third in commercial 
importance among orchard fruits. Keillor and Bartlett are the lead- 
ing varieties. The average jdeld of orchards in 1898 was 68.2, and in 
1899, 99.1 bbls. per acre. Some 5,650 acres in the State are devoted to 
pear culture. The net receipts vary from $25 to §950 per acre, and 
average $256.15 per acre. 



HORTICULTURE. 147 

"Plowing early in May and keeping the soil well stirred through the season, end- 
ing with the sowing of crimson clover in August for the winter cover crop, is the 
practice of the best growers. Two good mixtures of fertilizers to apply are (1) equal 
parts of ground bone, muriate of potash, and acid phosphate; and (2) Ik parts of 
ground bone and 1 part of muriate of potash; 500 lbs. per acre is usually applied. 
"Where nitrogen is needed, nitrate of soda is one of the Ijest forms, but may be omitted 
when crimson clover is grown. 

" [Pruning before the buds start and later thinning of the fruit is recommended.] 
Fire blight and leaf blight are the two worst diseases. In the early stages of the 
first, cut well below the injury and burn. If Well started or into the body of the 
tree, destroy it completely. Spraying will control the second. 

"With good trees and proper varieties to begin with and careful attention to details, 
as outlined, good returns may be confidently expected from the culture of the pear." 

Observations and suggestions on the root killing of fruit trees, 

J. Craig (Iowa Sta. Bid. I^Ii-^i^P- l'79-213,figs. 9). — This bulletin gives 
a review of the root killing- of fruit trees in the State and the work of 
the station thereon, supplemented with notes from nurserymen and 
others. The work covers especially the freeze of February, 1899, 
when the losses were very heavy. Young- apple trees under 5 years 
suffered more than older stock. The effect was worse on sandy soils 
not covered with vegetation. The losses with plums emphasized the 
value of American stocks. The only grapes exempt from injury were 
the pure or half blood natives. 

To overcome injury to nursery stock severe heading back with 
apples gave the best results, and with plums cutting trees back to 
straight sticks 2 or 3 ft. in height. It was noticed that there was an 
effort on the part of trees to recover h\ throwing out roots from the 
scion, especially where the stock had been killed. It was found that 
banking young apple trees with earth aided this effort. In the case of 
nursery stock, however, it is advised in cases out of 10 to dig up 
and burn injured trees. Nurserymen are advised to use hardy stock 
in grafting. 

There is appended a table of information from 62 leading fruit 
growers of the State on the subject of root killing by cold. From a 
canvass of the whole field, the writer concludes that the lack of a pro- 
tecting blanket of snow coincident with unusually severe cold was the 
chief cause of the great losses by root killing, and that the amount of 
loss bore a direct relation to the severity of the frost. Trees suffered 
most on clean soils and on exposed dr}" knolls with northern aspects. 
To obviate root killing the writer recommends cover crops, preferably 
mammoth red clover or hairy vetch; the use of congenial and hardy 
stocks for grafts; and, on soil well drained, deep planting. 

Coffee grafting — some results heretofore obtained and its future 
importance, J. G. Kramers {Teysmannia, 10 {1899), No. 11., jyp-oSo- 
668). — The author gives an outline of the history of efforts made to 
graft Java coffee on hardy Liberia stocks for the purpose of resisting 
the attacks of nematodes, points out some reasons for success or 



148 EXPERIMENT STATION EECORD. 

failure, and describes the 2 methods that have so far been most suc- 
cessful. The coffee tree is difficult to graft. It wilts easily, and if all 
the conditions are not favorable a good union is not formed. Although 
some of the scions usually live, the percentage by the old method has 
been too small to make such grafting an economic success. 

The system of grafting by approach of 2 seedlings in the cotjdedon- 
ary method has given good results. By this method one cotyledon 
with a portion of the epidermis of the hypocotyl is cut away from the 
Liberia seedling and a portion of the epidermis between the 2 coty- 
ledons is removed from the Java seedling. The two are then brought 
together at the cut surfaces, carefully tied up, and replanted. After 
a few weeks the remaining cotyledon and the plumule are cut away 
from the Liberia seedling, and later the hypocot}^ of the Java seedling 
is severed. 

The other method recommended is similar to that often used in 
grafting conifers. The scion of the Java or other desirable variety is 
inserted into the terminal bud on a branch of the Liberia. The wound 
is carefully covered and the young shoot protected so as to prevent 
transpiration as far as possible during the time that the union between 
scion and stock is taking place. 

In the course of his work the author had occasion to examine the 
roots of a number of grafted Liberias of different ages, and in almost 
all cases found them free from nematodes. The few cases in which 
nematodes were found were on diseased trees, and it seemed probable 
that the parasite had effected a lodging on account of the diseased con- 
dition rather than that it had caused the disease. — h. m. pieters. 

Strawberry notes for 1899, A. L. Quaixtance ( Georgia Sta, Bui. 
J^S,2>2^- 11^7-173.^ ]jiU. 6^ Jigs. 5). — Details of tests of varieties, methods 
of treatment in the row, and trials of fertilizers form the basis of these 
notes. Similar w'ork at the station has been previously reported 
(E. S. R.,8, p. 785). 

Tables showing the 3'ield at different dates of picking are given for 
60 varieties tested in 1899. Beder Wood stood tirst in total vield of 
early fruit; Lady Thompson second in the amount of earl}^ fruit. 
Lady Thompson is considered a good variety for either local or distant 
markets. Seventeen of the varieties not previously tested at the 
station are described. 

In a comparative test of growing strawberries in hills and in matted 
rows 12, 18, and 2-1 in. wide and 4 ft. apart, it was found that the 
yields increased with the width of the matted rows. The yield ob- 
tained on the plats planted in hills was scarcely more than one-third 
of that obtained in matted-row culture. The 18 in. matted rows gave 
a yield of 134.5 qts. per acre over the 12 in. rows, and the 24 in. mat- 
ted rows 282 qts. per acre over the 18 in. rows. The author believes, 
however, that the 18 in. matted rows will give the maximum 3^ield 



HOETICULTUEE. 149 

consistent with cheapness of cultivation since the space left between 
the 2-i in. rows is too narrow for cultivation with the ordinary im- 
plements. 

The effects of doubling and in some instances quadrupling- the essen- 
tial fertilizer elements in a normal formula, anah'zing 8 per cent of 
phosphoric acid, 8 per cent of potash, and 4 per cent of nitrogen, and 
in substituting cotton-seed meal for nitrate of soda, and kainit for 
muriate of potash in the normal formula were studied. The results 
are given in tabular form. Substitution of kainit for muriate of pot- 
ash resulted in an increased yield of oDJ: qts. per acre. Doubling or 
quadrupling the amount of kainit used in the normal formula de- 
creased the jnelds. Doubling the amount of nitrate of soda in the 
normal fornmla was not tinancialh^ profitable. When the normal 
formula was supplemented in the spring by a dressing of nitrate of 
soda, the yield was increased l^y about 200 qts. per acre. The substi- 
tution of cotton-seed meal for nitrate of soda resulted in considerably 
decreased j^ields. 

Cultural directions reprinted from Bulletin 32 of the Station (E. S. 
R., 8, p. 785) are appended. 

The absorption of -water by orchids, R. G. Leavitt and R. M. 
Gray {Amer. Gard., 21 {1900), Nos. 271, jyp. US, U9; 272, ;pp. 168, 
1G9; 273, jK 186; 27J^,p]}- ^06, 207, fig. i).— The authors made inves- 
tigations to determine which of the vegetative parts of orchids — leaves, 
bulbs, stems, bulb scales and roots — are capable of absorbing water, 
and whether in liquid or gaseous form. 

Leaves of 20 species of orchids were plunged under both warm and 
cold water and also sprayed in imitation of rain. The experiments 
were performed in light and in darkness and the submergence lasted 
from 2 to 6 da3^s. Change in weight was determined by weighing on 
delicate scales. With thick -leaved species, absolutely no absorption 
of water took place, however long the submergence. With 6 of the 
more herbaceous sorts, a slight increase took place after 2 days' sub- 
mergence, but this was thought to be due to imperfections, such as 
fungus spots, since when these perforations were sealed with vaseline 
no further increase in weight took place. Pseudo-bulbs and bulb 
scales surrounded by wet wrappings of filter paper or cotton or 
plunged under water failed to absorb appreciable amounts of water. 
In a similar manner when leaves, pseudo-bulbs, and bulbous stems 
were exposed in a closed receptacle having an atmosphere nearly sat- 
urated with water vapor, no increase whatever but instead a decrease 
in weight followed in every instance. From these results the authors 
conclude that "leaves and stems do not function as organs for the 
absorption of water in an}^ form." 

Theories of well-known botanists regarding the absorption of water 
by orchids are noted in some detail. 



150 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

Ill one experiment with orcliid roots the roots were kept in a box 
where the atmosphere had a nearl}" constant water-vapor-saturation 
content of 95 per cent. "The cut ends of the roots were g'enerally 
sealed. The roots were sometimes partiall}^ dried out before exposure 
in the box, and sometimes taken from unwatcred plants and put 
into the box directly. The trials lasted from 2 to 4 da3's, but in sev- 
eral cases much longer." Roots from 24 species were used in the test. 
The roots continuallv decreased in weight and finally shriveled and 
died, thus showing that water vapor was not taken up, though present 
in more copious amounts than usuall}' occur in nature. "Other roots 
taken from the same plants at the same time and kept in the same box 
but supplied with liquid water remained green, plump, and vigorous, 
long after the first were quite dead. This shows that death came from 
lack of water, not from being severed from the plant." 

Plants hung in the greenhouse, where the humidity' rarely if ever 
went below 80 per cent, and not watered for 2 months, produced new 
shoots and new roots but steadily decreased in weight. In another 
test, where the water evaporated by the leaves and stem of an orchid 
was absorbed by calcium chlorid wtile the roots were kept in a damp 
box having a humidit}^ saturation of 95 per cent, the orchids constantly 
lost in weight through the roots, and the plants drooped for want of 
water. 

The results obtained in these experiments are believed to show that 
if water absorption by aerial roots takes place at all the function is of 
minor importance. 

Report of Beeville Station on cabbage and cauliflower, B. C. Pittuck and 
S. A. McHexry {Tc.raaStd. Bui. 52, }>p. 42-52). — Notes on the germination, growth, 
yield, character, and quality of 35 varieties of caljbage and 8 varieties of canliflower. 
From the results of repeated tests the following varieties of cabbage are recom- 
mended, in the decreasing order of their importance: 

Early varieties. — Early Jersey Wakefield, Early Winningstadt, Maule Winningstadt. 
Medium early varieties. — Improved Early Summer, Chase Early, Stein Early Flat 
Dutch, Fottler Short Stem, Danish Ball Head. Late varieties. — Lauderback All Year, 
Autumn King, Burpee Sure Head, Frotscher Superior Large Late Flat Dutch, St. 
Denis (small), French Market (medium size). Crescent City Large Flat Dutch. 

The following early varieties of cauliflower, suited to the southwest section of 
Texas, are recommended: Le Normand Short Stem, and Henderson Early Snowljall; 
for late planting. Late Italian Giant. 

Bermuda onions {Amer. Garcl, 21 {1900), No. 282, p. 343, fig. i).— Descriptive of 
the growing and marketing of Bermuda onions. The land is enriched with well 
rotted cow or pig manure. The seed is sown in September and the crop harvested 
from January to May. A rigid system of inspection covers all shipments to the 
United States. 

Nitrate of soda in vegetable culture, RoMnAi'T and Simon {Belg. Horl. e' 
Ayr., 12 {WOO), Nos. 2, pp. 21, 22; 3, pp. 3S, .S'5).— Effect of nitrate of soda on the pro- 
duction of potatocH, rhubarb, and tomatoes. 

Market gardening, H. R. Kinxev {Massachvsetis State Bd. Ayr. Rpt. 1899, pp. 
86-112). — Suggestive and i)ractical paper on market gardening, dealing with hotl)eds, 
vegetable-storage cellar, soils, manures, and the culture of different vegetables. 



HORTICULTUEE . 151 

The home fruit garden, F. A. Waugh {Vermont Sta. Bui. 74, pp- 89-97). — 
Popular (lirei'tiony for the location, preparation of the soil, planting, and tending of 
the various oi'chard and small fruits which go to make up a home fruit garden. 

Second report on Arkansas seedling apples, J. T. Stinson {Arkansas Sta. 
Bui. 60, jyp. 123-134, figs. 4)- — The writer gives the results of further study of Arkan- 
sas seedlings, a continuation of Avork jjreviously reported (E. S. E., 10, j). 48). 
Twenty-five varieties are described and characteristics noted. An effort is made to 
straighten the nomenclature of the apples noted and their value as new economic 
varieties is discussed. 

The curing of apricots, J. B. 'i!i eff {California Fruit Grower, 26 {1900), No. 629, 
2>. 4)- — A pajier read before the Pomological Society of Southern California. 

Check list of hybrid plums, F. A. Waugh ( Yernumt Sta. Bui. 75, pp. 101- 
110). — This check list has been prepared particularly for the use of nurserymen and 
cataloguers. It contains as far as possible the following data resj^ecting each of the 
65 varieties noted: Name, original publication of the same, Vermont publications 
concerning it, certain facts relative to its origin and introduction, and its parentage. 

Fruit list for Virginia, W. B. Alwood {Virginia Sta. Bui. 98, pp. 41-49). — This 
is a compiled list based on the personal observations of the author, and supplemented 
by a consensus of the Ijest experience gathered from State growers. It includes such 
old standard varieties and promising newer sorts as it is thought will be of value for 
planting orchards throughout the State. The list includes 17 varieties of apples, 11 
pears, 4 quinces, 21 peaches, 12 plums, 10 cherries, 3 blackberries, 6 raspberries, 5 
currants, 3 gooseberries, 11 strawl:)erries, and 12 varieties of grapes. 

Strawberries, C. C. Newman {South Carolina Sta. Bui. 49,j)p. 27, 2)ls. 7). — This is 
a popular bulletin on growing strawberries. The questions discussed are sexuality, 
selection, planting, cultivation, and mulching. Ninety-five varietes were tested at 
the station during the season. A list is given of varieties suited to the locality and a 
list of the varieties not promising for the section. Photographic reproductions are 
given of the berries of 36 varieties. The following 6 have proven the best all-round 
berries tested: Haverland, Brandywine, West Lawn, Lady Thompson, Bismarck, and 
Bubach. 

Resistant vines and vineyards in California, G. Hussmanx {California Fruit 
Grower, 25 {1900), No. 633, p. 5). — A consideration of varieties least affected by 
phylloxera and of vineyard and bench grafting. Vineyard grafting is considered 
cheaper and more satisfactory than bench grafting. 

The wholesale grape nursery; complete directions for the w^ork connected 
therewith, R. Sporr {Die liebenscJiuIe im Grosshetriebe, eine ausfahrliche Besehreihung 
siimmtlicher in der Eebensehule vorkommenden Arbeiten. Vienna and Leipsic: A. Hurtle- 
ben, 1900, pp. 1-39, figs. 55). — The author describes in a thorough manner all the details 
involved in the growing of grape nursery stock on a wholesale scale. Discussions as 
to the theory of grafting, methods of grafting and the growing of vines by grafts, 
roots, and American cuttings occupy the larger part of the work. Chapters on grape 
houses, grafting and packing rooms, and on grape nursery bookkeeping conclude the 
book. 

American vines; their adaptation, culture, grafting, and propagation, P. 
ViALA and L. Ravaz {Melhonmr: F. W. Xlirn ct- Co., 1S99, pp. c^").— This is a trans- 
lated abridgment of the second French edition Ijy W. P. Wilkinson and Joseph 
Gassies. 

The influence of precipitation and fertilizers on the yield of grapes, B. 
Chauzit {Messnger Agr. Midi, 1900, T, No. 2, pp. 50,51). 

5'uture of our wine industry and the results of manuring vineyards in 
Europe and Australia, F. E. H. W. Krichauff {Adelaide, 1S99, pp. 36). 

Reconstruction of vineyards, L. Ravaz {Reconstitution du vignoble. PariK: G. 
Masson, ]iji. 148, figs. 31). — Chapters are given on conditions which influence the 
growth of vines, as climate and soil; the species and varieties of American vines. 



d 



152 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

descriptions of all the more important being given; methods of vine reproduction as 
by buds, cuttings, grafts, etc., with notes on grape-nursery management; and on the 
establishment of a vineyard. 

Culture of vanilla {Bol. Soc. A(jr. Mexicana, £4 [1900), No. 21, pp. 415-417).— A 
description of the plant, its culture, and preparation for market. 

Vanilla {Bid. Bot. Dept. Jamaica, n. ser., 7 {1900), No. 3-5, pp. 45-51). — Cultural 
instructions with outlines of the methods of curing the fruit followed in Guiana, Peru, 
Mexico, and Reunion. 

The cultivation and uses of rosella, D. Jones {Queensland Agr. Jour., 6 {1900)^ 
No. 5, pp. S71--)7o, figx. 2). — Popular directions for the culture and utilization of this 
fruit [Illblsciis .mhdoriffa). 

Gutta-percha, E. Obach {Die Guttapercha. Dresden: Stelnkopff & Springer', 1899, 
pp. 114, .figs. 61). — The author discusses the history, botany, culture, geographical 
distribution, and composition of gutta-percha; describes the processes employed in the 
purification of the raw material ; and gives the chemical composition, physical and 
mechanical properties, uses, consumption in England, substitutes, relation to oxygen 
and ozone, and methods of preservation of purified gutta-percha. 

Florists' manual, W. Scott ( Chicago: Floris.ts' Pub. Co., 1S99, pp. 335, figs. 225). — 
This is a reference book for commercial florists. It treats alphabetically of the char- 
acter, culture, and handling of all greenhouse plants of commercial importance and 
of all subjects, such as greenhouse building, packing plants, decorations, fungicides 
and insecticides, soils, potting, etc., pertaining thereto. The book is well illustrated, 
and is intended as a reference book and guide for all florists not specialists. 

Comparative study of 34 varieties of Italian cannas, E. Andre {Rev. Hort., 
72 {1900), No. 10, pp. 25S-261, fig!<. 2). 

Origin and amelioration of the garden gladioli {Florists' Exchange, 12 {1900), 
No. 25, pp. 62S, 629). — History of the plant and of its improvement. 

Culture of water lilies and aquatics, P. Henderson {New YorL- P. Henderson 
& Co., [». (?.], pp. 41, figs. '-^1). — This is a reprint from the author's "Gardening for 
Pleasure. ' ' 

Nomenclature of all the known roses w^ith indications as to their race, 
originator, year of production, color, and synonyms, L. Simon and P. Cochet 
{Nomenclature de tous les nonis de roses connus, avec indications de leurs race, ohtenneur, 
annee de production, couleur, et synonymes. Mefz: A. Beha, 1899, jyp- 187). 

American greenhouse construction and cut-flow^er production {MoUer's 
Deut. Gart. Ztg., 13 {1900), No^. 3,pjp. 28-32, figs. 8; 5,}>p. 50, 51, figs. 8; 6, p. 62, figs. 
4; 7, pp. 88-90, figs. 4; 10, pp. 108-110, figs. 7). 

Ornamental shrubs, L. D. Davis {Neiv York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1899, pp. 338, 
figs. 107). — This book discusses "ornamental shrubs for garden, lawn, and park 
planting, with an account of the origin, capabilities, and adaptations of the numerous 
species and varieties, native and foreign, and especially of the new and rarer sorta 
suited to cultivation in the United States." It is not designed as a scientific treatise, 
but is written more especially for those interested in plants and flowers who may 
have no knowledge of botany. 

FORESTRY. 

Tree planting in Utah, U. P. Hedrick {Utah Sta. Bui. 62, pp. 
215-260, ph. 2, Jigs 12). — In this bulletin an account is given of the 
behavior of -iO species of timber and shade trees now growing on the 
grounds of the station. The experiment was begun in the spring of 
1890, with the object of testing the adaptability of various species of 
trees to that region, and of demonstrating the best method of planting 



FORESTEY. 



153 



and caring for them. In addition to this experiment the station is con- 
ducting-, in cooperation with the Division of Forestr}- of this Depart- 
ment, experiments in tree planting to ascertain the adaptability of the 
principal economic species to the plains. 

The annual precipitation and temperatures are given for the State, 
and a general statement made concerning the method of planting and 
the condition of trees of each of the forest species. The planting, cul- 
tivation, and irrigation was about the same as would be given an 
orchard, except that the cultivation ceased with the sixth summer. 

The species tested are described at length, and their relative adapta- 
])ility and l)ehavior are described. Among the more promising trees 
for that region (as shown by the results of 9 years' experiments), with 
their height and circumference, are the following: 

Average growth offoreat trees for nine years. 



Height. 



Circum- 
ference. 



Popiihiit ilrlinUlra 

P,q,l,llls,lll„l l,nll,,liin. 

Pi,j,iiliis iiiarii itnlii-a 

P,-,p„l,l.<,ll'li,l iiir.n 

Pojnih^'lniiuilui,!,, 

PiijiiitiiK liiilsiiiiiii'i ni intermedia 

P\,,„iln>^l„nfii,,iia 

Snli.r/'ll,fifn/ill 

Sali.rfra,//!!.^ 

Juijhnis iiiijrit 

Ji(i/I(iiis chii rid 

Ailiintliiia iihtiiihilosa 

Cotnl,,„.,„ri„.a 

Bit II III iiiiiii/nli ra 

Allium ii/,i/i,insi[ 

VI III II. < II nil r in inn 

Plntilliii.^ iirriilintaliS 

Anrsiirrliiiriim 

All r .«iri-liiiriiilim 

Ai'ir iii:jiiii'Iii 

Riihiii ill lis, iiilncacin 

Gliiliisriiiii Iriitcantlios 

Tiliniiiri,,,.-in 

Mi,riis,ill„i tininrica 

Pi„ii.<.<li;,liii.- 

Piiiii.<.-i/ln.<lri.'< 

Piri'i,"'!':""^ 

Pirn, i.rnha 

Pircu canadensis 



Feet. 
39 
43 
46 
30 
36 
37 
40 
25 
20 
20 
18 
16 
IS 
18 
22 
24 
17 
23 
24 
35 
23 
21. 
19 
22 
14 
18 
15 
13 
8 



Inches. 
40 
29 
40 
40 
23. .5 
29 
41.5 
18 
18 
15 
13.5 
14.5 
22 

13.25 
21.5 
21.75 
13 
15 
13 
40 
22 
19 
15 
18 
12 
16 
12 

11.5 
10.5 



Fertilizers in the culture of osier willovrs, P.Wagner {V Engrais^ 
lo (1900), iV^A 11, pp. 254, '^oo). — K series of experiments with various 
fertilizers is reported, showing that the growth of osiers can be greatly 
promoted by means of liberal manuring. The product was trebled by 
the application of 1,650 lbs. of phosphatic slag and 550 lbs. of nitrate 
of soda per acre. With the same amounts of slag and nitrate of soda 
combined with 660 lbs. of a 40 per cent potash salt the yield was 
quadrupled. 

The trees of Vermont, Anna M. Clark et al. ( Vermont Sta. Bui. 73, pp. 33-86, 
Jigs. 58). — This bulletin i.s introduced by the following statements: 

" The following account aims to include the native and spontaneous trees of the 
State, together with brief mention of such others as are commonly cultivated. It 



154 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

is primarily addressed to readers wlio liave little or no botanical training, but who 
may wish to learn the names of the trees and the characters by which they may be 
recognized, as well as the main facts as to their occurrence and distribution in the 
State. ... It is especially to the children of Vermont, and to the teachers of these 
children, either at home or in school, that it is hoped this publication will prove 
most interesting and most useful." 

The bulletin contains descriptions of 97 species, representing 18 families. Each 
species is illustrated by original drawings. 

Drawing's of the forest trees of Japan, H. Shirasawa {Iconographie des essences 
forestieres du Jupon. Tokyo: Minister of At/riadture and Commerce, 1900, ph. 88). — This 
is a collection of carefully drawn colored plates of about 150 arborescent species of 
Japan, showing the flowering and fruiting branches, dissections of flowers and seeds, 
bark, transverse, radial, and tangential sections and magnified specimens of the wood. 

The identification of timber, D. F. Mackenzie {Trans. Highland and A gr. Soc. 
Scotland, 5. ser., 12 {1900), pp. 183-224, figs. <?,?).— Illustrated descriptive notes are 
given upon the timber of 63 species of trees. Photomicrographs of transverse and 
tangential sections of most of the species are given, and the principal structural and 
physical characters of each kind of timber are described. 



DISEASES OF PLANTS. 

A fruit-disease survey of the Hudson Valley in 1899, F. C. 

Stewart and F. G. Blodgett {N'ew York State Sta. Bui. 167^ j^P- 
275-308^ pis. If).- — A report is given on the distribution and amount of 
damage done by fungus diseases in the Hudson Valley during 1899. 
The season was an unfavorable one for the development of parasites, 
and on this account diseases usual 1}^ ver}^ common and destructive did 
little or no damage. The data presented in this bulletin were secured 
bv circulars of inquiry and personal observations b}' the authors. 

The diseases mentioned are: Apple diseases — scab, leaf spot, twig 
blight, canker, sooty blotch, russeting of fruit, rust, and sun crack. 
While all these diseases were observed, the apple crop was in no way 
injured by anj" of them. Blackberry diseases — orange rust and leaf 
spot, the orange rust having been rather destructive. Cherry dis- 
eases — fruit spot, leaf spot, black knot, witches- brooms, powdery 
mildew, and winter injury. Currant diseases — leaf spot and cane 
blight, both of which were somewhat destructive. The statement is 
made that the currant-cane blight occurring in the Hudson Valley is 
not caused b}- Nedrui cinnalxirlna but l\y a sterile fungus. The exact 
proof of this fact by inoculation experiments is lacking, but the occur- 
rence in a large number of cases of sterile fungus with the disease 
is considered sufficient proof. Gooseberrv diseases — powdery mil- 
dew, root rot, and a dwarfed condition of the foliage which is not 
ascribed to any particular cause. The root rot has been known for a 
numl)er of years in one locality and is graduallv spreading. It is said 
to be due to Dematophora. Grape diseases — black rot, downy mil- 
dew, root rot, chlorosis, and black knot. The latter disease, while 
somewhat resembling the black knot of plum and cherr}' due to 



DISEASES OF PLANTS. 155 

PlowrUjld'ia morhosa^ was of an entirely different orig-in. It has been 
considei-ed in Europe to be due to the action of frost, and has re- 
ceived little attention in this country. Peach diseases — winter injury, 
leaf curl, yellows, fruit rot, leaf-tip burn, powder}" mildew, and scab. 
Pear diseases — scab, leaf blig-ht, fire blight, bod}' blight or rough 
bark, and winter injury. The body blight or rough bark is generally 
considered to be a form of fire blight due to Bacillus aniylovorus^ but 
according to recent investigations of the station it is now thought to 
be caused b}^ the apple canker {Sj^JireropsiH inaloram)^ an account of 
which is given in Bulletin 163 of this station (E. S. R., 12, p. 61). Plum 
diseases — black knot, fruit rot, leaf blight, and leaf curl. Quince dis- 
eases — fruit spot, leaf blight, and fire blight. Raspberry diseases — • 
anthracnose, rust, root galls, winter injury, cane blight, and leaf spot. 
The cane blight is apparently due to some species of Phoma, but as 
yet no inoculations have been made. Notes on the leaf blight and 
sun scald of strawberries complete the bulletin. 

A sugar-cane pest in Madras, C. A. Benson {Indian Agr., 25 
{1900), X<>. 1,2>I>- 1^~I^)- — Notes are given on an investigation begun 
toward the end of 1897 to determine the cause of a disease of sugar 
cane. The disease was found not to be of recent origin, and was dis- 
tributed rather generally throughout the region in which sugar cane 
was produced. The disease exhibited all the symptoms characteristic 
of an attack by Tricliosplimria saccJiari, different stages in its life his- 
tory l)eing known as root fungus, rind fungus, etc. Canes but slightly 
affected show no external signs of disease, but transverse sections 
show one or more bright red spots in some of the internodes, and if 
these are followed by longitudinal sections they appear as red streaks 
which branch at the nodes. Where the disease is more advanced, the 
coloration extends to the ground tissue, so that any section may show 
red patches. When the disease is still further advanced, the nodes 
and later other portions become black, the leaves wither, and the 
entire cane dries up. 

The methods adopted in India for growing sugar cane seem to be 
such as to foster the spread and continued presence of this disease. 
Some attention was paid to the extent in which different varieties were 
affected, and it is stated that a comparatively slender cane known as 
Yerra seems to suffer less than others. It probably owes its partial 
immunity to the thick rind and to the fact that it does not crack to 
any great extent. 

The author believes that although the disease at present is epidemic 
in Madras, there is no occasion for alarm, as it has been known there 
for at least 30 years, sometimes severe and at other times ahnost dis- 
appearing. Attention to cultivation, destruction of litter, and aban- 
doning the growth of cane for a few years, together with giving up 
the practice of ratooning altogether would probably check the disease. 



156 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

Gummosis of Pninus japonica, G. Massee {Keii; Misc. Bui. 11^.1^..^ 
j}p. 321-326., pi. 1). — For several 3'ears a considerable number of speci- 
mens of Prunus japonica have been killed or disfigured by parasitic 
fungi. The disease is first indicated l)y the appearance of tear-like 
drops on the branches. These are sometimes solitarj^ and in other 
instances luuuerous and more or less crowded. During damp or 
rainy Aveather the masses of gum are quite soft and gelatinous. In 
warm, dry weather the masses shrink and become horny, expanding 
again when moistened. At first the mass of gum is nearly colorless, 
but finally becomes black. When the masses are removed, irregular 
canker-like wounds, which sometimes extend to the pith, are present 
on the branches, and if such wounds are numerous the branch 
speedily dies. 

The cause of this disease is a species of Cladosporium, morphologic- 
ally indistinguishable from C. epiphyllum. The characteristics of the 
fungus and its growth are described at some length, and as preventive 
measures the author recommends spraying with a solution of potas- 
sium sulphid. Diseased branches should be removed, and lime thickly 
strewn on the soil under diseased plants. 

Fruit diseases found along the Hudson, F. H. Hall, F. C. Stewart, and F. 
H. Blodgett {New York State Sta. Bui. 167, popular cd., pp. 6).— This is a popular 
summary of Bulletin 167 of the station (see p. 154). 

ENTOMOLOGY. 

The codling moth, J. M. Aldrich {Idaho Sta. Bui. 21., p>j). 97- 
112^ Jigs. 6). — The codling moth has been known in the Clearwater 
Valley since 1887, and in an untreated orchard near Moscow 21 per 
cent of the fruit was found to be infested. The length of the pupa 
stage of this insect in south Idaho is said to be about a week. In the 
region about Boise and Weiser there are at least 3 broods and a part 
of a fourth, while in Latah County there are 2 broods and a part of a 
third. Only a small portion of the late brood seems to survive. 

Of 121 apples having the small marks of the third brood, selected in 
an orchard in Moscow in the month of Noveml)er, only 20 were found 
to contain living larvit?. 

The author conducted experiments in spraying, during which Paris 
green was applied in the Bordeaux mixture. The application was made 
within a week after the blossoms fell. On July Tan examination was 
made to determine the eflfectof spraying. It was found that most of the 
worms which were destroyed were entering the calyx. On unsprayed 
trees an average of 16.7 worms entered the side of the apple, while on 
sprayed trees an average of 14.2 worms entered the apple in the same 
manner. There was a total saving of 12.8 apples per tree, and of 
these 9.7 were saved from worms which would have entered the calyx. 



ENTOMOLOGY. 157 

while only 2.5 per cent were saved from worms which would have 
entered the side of the apple. It therefore appears that 1.5 per cent 
of the worms entering from the side and S3 per cent of those attempting 
to enter the calyx were killed. It would seem, therefore, that the spray 
must be applied while it is still possible for the poison to enter the 
cah'x cup in order to be most effective. 

Observations were made upon the variation in the length of time 
during which the calyx remains open in different varieties of apples. 
This period varied from 6 to 10 days. The results o))tained in Idaho 
would indicate that later applications of Paris green would be less 
effective than the first one, since only a small proportion of worms 
which attempted to enter the sides of apples were destroyed. 

The author conducted experiments in banding trees for the purpose 
of catching the larvte of the codling moth. Two bands of Canton 
flannel were placed 8 inches apart on the trunk of each tree. A table 
is given showing the number of worms caught during the different 
parts of the season. The highest record for a tree was 101 worms, 
and the average number of worms caught on 10 trees was about 215. 

On one tree 5 bands were placed for the purpose of determining the 
relative proportion between worms which crawl down the trunk and 
those which fall to the ground and crawl up the trunk. Worms were 
caught under all the bands, and the experiment was therefore unsuc- 
cessful in keeping the worms .separate. The upper band caught about 
twice as many worms as either of the intermediate ones and almost 
twice as many as the lower one, indicating that the great majority of 
worms crawl down the tree. 

It would appear from these experiments that the majorit}^ of wormy 
apples which fall have no worms in them at the time, and that possi- 
bly the advantage derived from having hogs in the orchard for the 
purpose of eating windfalls has been overestimated. 

The elms and their diseases, H. Garman {Kentucky Sta. Bid. 
8Jf-^ l^p. 51-75, 2>^-^- l-^)- — The author gives brief notes on the appearance 
and distribution in the State of the following species of elms: Vlmus 
amerlcana, U. fulva, U. racemosa, U. alata, U. camjJestris, and ZL 
montana. 

Among the white elms a serious disease has been observed since 
1892. The first symptom of the disease is a loss of the leaves at the 
end of the twigs. As the disease progresses the foliage graduall}" 
falls from other parts of the tree until the tree is bare. Small, red, 
warty pustules, Avhich represent a fungus, are often to be observed on 
the bark of these trees, l)ut this fungus docs not invade the wood of 
vigorous trees. The twigs are frequently attacked hy the buffalo tree 
hopper, and the inner layer of bark Avas found to be eaten by a flat- 
headed grub which resembled the grub of the flat-headed apple-tree 
borer. In August, 1809, two white elm trees on the college grounds 



158 EXPERIMENT STATION EECORD. 

■were dug up and examined. One was dead, the other still alive. 
Under the bark of the living tree were found the grubs of Magdalis 
aiinicollis, Saperda tridentaia^ and the adults of Hylesinus opaeid'^is 
were found making burrows preparatory- to depositing their eggs. 

The author believes, however, that insects are not the tirst cause of 
the disease. Attention is called to the fact that the habit of elm roots 
is to remain in the superficial layers of the soil, oftentimes mingling 
with the grass roots. From this fact it is apparent that any condi- 
tions w-hich tend to impoverish the soil about the trunks of elm trees 
will gradually bring about a weakened condition of the trees. The 
trees will then be less able to resist the attacks of various insects and 
fungi. 

The remedies suggested by the author are such as will help to replace 
the soil elements which are needed by the trees. A mulch of humus 
composed of dead leaves or other nutrient materials might supply the 
needed food and protect the soil from rapid evaporation and sudden 
changes in temperature. If it should be found that the beetles attack 
living- and vigorous trees, it is recommended that the bark be coated 
with a whitewash containing Paris green or arsenate of lead. Dead 
and dying elm trees should be cut down and burned, in order to pre- 
A'ent the spread of injurious beetles. 

The imported elm-leaf beetle {GaleruceUa luteola) is reported as 
occurring in large numbers and injuring English elms. American elms 
w'ere comparatively free from the attacks of this insect. A brief 
description is given of the beetle in its various stages, together with 
notes on its habits and life history. For the attacks of this beetle the 
author recommends spraying with Paris green or arsenate of lead. 
The application should be made in the early spring as soon as the leaves 
unfold, and usually 3 sprayings should be sufficient. The larv?e and 
pupa3 which accumulate at the base of the tree may be easily destroyed. 
Among the natural enemies of this beetle the author mentions the 
praying mantis and Podisus sjylnosus. 

The elm-leaf ^'keX^tomx^v {Canars la ulmlarrosorella) is reported as 
injurious to the white elm. Larva? kept in breeding cages pupated 
either about the leaves or in the earth. The adults emerge during the 
latter part of March and in early April. Spraying with Paris green 
or arsenate of lead is recommended against this insect. 

The elm-bark beetle {IlyJeshius ojkichIus) was found in all diseased 
elms. The adults emerged from September 14 until October 15. The 
form of the burrows of this insect is described. The insect attacks 
elms only wlien they are badly diseased. 

Insect attacks in 1899, R. S. McDougall {Trans. Highland and 
Agr. Soc. Scotland, J. ser., 12 {IdOO^iny- 295-307, figs. d).—Cossns lig- 
n'lperda is reported as injurious to birches and poplars. A brief 
description of the insect in its various stages is given. The female 



ENTOMOLOGY. 159 

deposits its eggs in clustors in the craclvs of the bark at the base of the 
tree. Isolated trees, or those along the edge of a woodland or an 
avenue, are most severely attacked. The complete life cj^cle of this 
insect extends over about 2 years. Protection against the deposition 
of the eggs may be afforded by the use of repellant substances painted 
upon the trunk of the tree. 

The author gives notes on the habits, life history, and appearance of 
a number of species of the genus Chermes. Experiments were con- 
ducted on a plantation in Dunbar in the destruction of Chermes. The 
plantation consisted chiefl}" of larch, spruce, and pine. It was formed 
in 1893, and thej^oung trees grew well until 1808, when they became 
badly infested with Chermes. Pure paraffin applied in a fine spray upon 
bright, clear days gave the following results: On April 1,5, 21 infested 
trees, chiefly larch and Scots pine, were sprayed with pure paraffin. On 
]\Iay 5 it was found that the aphides on the pine had been nearly all 
killed. The adult Chermes were destroyed, but the eggs were not mvich 
affected. On June 1.5. the eggs on the larch having already hatched, 
21 trees were sprayed, and on June 30 it was found that they were 
effectively cleared of the pests. The young needles of the larch and 
spruce were slightly scorched by the spra}', but during the season they 
grew fairly well. On June 9, a quarter of an acre of larch and spruce 
was sprayed with a solution of soft soap in the proportion of 1 lb. to a gal- 
lon of water. On June 30 the trees were found to be almost entirely 
free from insects. Some of the young shoots of the spruce were badly 
injured, but the larch escaped all damage. 

An experiment with paraffin and sour milk dissolved in water gave 
results too irregular to be detailed. A paraffin emulsion was made of 
i lb. of hard soap, 1 gal. of soft water and 2 gals, of paraffin, and this 
stock material was then diluted with 8, 10, 12, and 15 times its bulk 
of water. The strongest solution was found most effective. 

Notes are given on the habits and injurious action of Abraxas gross- 
nlariata. This insect is injurious to the gooseberry, currant, apricot, 
plum, bramble, and blackthorn. The complete life cycle occupies 1 
year. As remedies against this insect, the author recommends prun- 
ing the infested twigs and burning the parts removed as well as leaves 
and other rubbish upon the ground which might afford shelter for 
the caterpillars. The caterpillars ma}^ be destroyed by hellebore 
and paraffin enuilsion. A solution of soft soap and quassia chips is 
also recommended with the following composition: Soft soap, 6 lbs.; 
quassia chips, 7 lbs.; and water, loO gal. 

The turnip flea-beetle {PhyUotreta nemorum) is described, and notes 
are given on its injurious habits. In combating this insect, the author 
recommends that the plants be well fertilized and that the ground l)e 
thoroughly cultivated. Cruciferous weeds in the neighborhood of 
cultivated plants should be destroyed. 
1710— No. 2 5 



160 EXPEKIMEIS'T STATION KECOED. 

Some miscellaneous results of the Tvork of the Division of 
Entomology ( U. S. Dept. Agr. , Divisioti of Entomology Bui. 22, n. 
ser..pp. 109, Jigs. 28). — This bulletin contains the following articles: 

The tiro most abundant Pulvinarias on maple, L. 0. Iloioard (pp. 7- 
23). — Pulvinaria innwnerahilis is native to the United States and is 
found in all parts of the country. Its food plants are the silver-leaf 
maple, sugar maple, box elder, red mulberry, etc. In the latitude of 
Washington, D. C, the lice hatch the latter part of May and the early 
part of July. From young larvpe, which hatch July first, the first 
adult males issued on August 18. The females take up their winter 
station upon the twigs earl}" in October. Formation of the ^^^ sac 
begins about the middle of April. There is one annual generation. 

Among the natural enemies of this insect the author mentions the 
English sparrow, Chilocorus hivulnerus, Hyperaspis signata, Dahruma 
coccidivora, Coccojjhagus lecanii, C. jlavoscutelluni, Atrop)ates collinsi, 
JEunotus lividus., Aphycus jmlvinarice, and Comys fusca. Severe prun- 
ing is recommended soon after the hatching of the larvfe. and also 
spraying with kerosene soap emulsion or whale-oil soap. 

Pulvinaria acericola is a native of the United States and has been 
reported from Indiana, Iowa, Tennessee, New" York, Alabama. New 
Jersey, and Washington, D. C. Its food plant is Acer saceharhnim. 
The eggs hatch in June. The larvas molt twice, and late in October 
crawl upon the twigs where they hibernate. Toward the end of Ma_v 
the females migrate to the leaves and extrude their Qgg sac. 

The natural enemies of this insect are Hyperaspis signata, Aphycus 
Jirdrraceus., A. flavus, Coccop)hagus fratermis, Pachyneuron altiscuta, 
CJitloneiirus alhicornis, and Leucopis nigricornis. 

TJte insects to which the name ^''kissing hug'''' hecame applied during 
the summer of 1899, L. 0. Hoivard (pp. 24—30). — ^This article is essen- 
tially the same as that previously noted (E. S. R., 11, p. 561). 

An investigation to determine whether Melanoplus spretus hreeds 
permanently in the Turtle Mountains (f North Dakota. W. D. Hunter 
(pp. 30-37). — This article contains the itinerary of a trip made to 
investigate this subject. The author states that there are no places 
upon Turtle Mountains suitable for breeding groimds of this insect. 
The Rocky Mountain locusts, which have trout)led the surrounding 
country, probably originated in the territory lying northeast of Regma 
toward the Big Touchwood Mountains. The observed locusts mcluded 
Melanoplus spretus, M. Invittatus, and M. paeXrarli. At New Rock- 
ford, N. Dak., M. spretus hatched out in consideralilo numliers, but 
gang plows were operated with such effect as to destroy the greater 
portion of them. The native species which have caused more or less 
serious losses in this region are M. atlanis, M. blvittatus, M. packardi, 
and D'lssosteira long ipennis. 



ENTOMOLOGY. 161 

The hronze apple-tree weevil,, F. II. Chittenden (pp. 37-44). — Mag- 
dalis oenescens is reported as having attacked apple trees in the State 
of Washington. The varieties most injured are the Baldwin and Ben 
Davis; King of Tompkins, Northern Spy, and Bellilower being nearly- 
free from infestation. This insect was found b}- A. D. Hopkins at 
Corvallis, Oregon, and has been reported bj^ Jas. Fletcher from Brit- 
ish Columbia. Notes are given on the life histor}" and habits of the 
insect by C. V. Piper, who believes that the attack of this insect is 
made subsequent to injury caused by the fungus disease known as 
canker. 

Tv^o new Cecidomyians destructive to hvds of roses, D. W. Coquil- 
Jett (pp. 44-48).— These insects, which are described as new species 
under the names of Diplosis rosivora and Neocerata rhodophaga, have 
been reported from Washington, D. C, New York, and New Jersey. 
The life histor}' of the species is not known to the author. Rose 
growers have had considerable success in combating these insects with 
Persian insect powder, buhach, and refuse tobacco stems. 

A nevj vioh4 p>est, D. W. CoquiUett (pp. 48-51). — This insect is 
reported as attacking the leaves of sweet violets in Washington, D. C. 
The species has also been received from New York and Virginia. It is 
described under the name Diplosis violicola. The remedies which 
have been tried against the insect are hand picking of infested leaves 
and fumigation with hydrocyanic-acid gas. 

Insects and the u^cather; observations during the season of 1899^ F. 
II. Chittenden (pp. 51-64). — The author made observations on the 
eli'ect of the cold winter of 1898-99 upon insects. He believes that 
the unusual severit}' of the weather was favorable to Northern insects 
but unfavorable to insects of Southern range. Notes are given on the 
apparent influence of the weather upon a considerable number of 
species of insects. The author concludes that the mean winter tem- 
perature has more effect in determining the rarit}' or abundance of 
insect species than has the mean summer temperature. 

Food plants and w\jury of Worth American sjyecies of Agrihis^ F. II. 
Chittenden (pp. 64-68). — Five species of this genus have been reported 
as injurious to birch, poplar, chestnut, oak, Lombard}' poplar, rasp- 
berry, blackberry, and pear trees. Agrilus anxius caused considerable 
damage in parts of Buffalo, and Mr. M. F. Adams reported that the 
attacks of this insect were made subsequent to injuries produced by 
Dryoljates pvhescens. The insect has also been reported from Ann 
Arbor, Mich. One parasite {Phasgonophora sulcata) has been reared 
from this species. Agrilus otiosus feeds upon dogwood, butternut, 
and redbud. A. hilineatus is reported as injuring wild chestnut 
trees in Georgia. A list of 32 species of this genus is given, together 
with brief notes on their distribution and food plants. 



162 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

ExperiraenU v:lth hydrocyanic-acid gas as a means of exterminating 
mealy hugs and other itisect pests in greenhouses, 11. D. Ilemenway 
(pp. 69-7S). — The author condacted a number of experiments with 
this gas in a wooden box and also greenhouse rooms. The cacti of the 
greenhouse were infested with Diaspis cacti. The room contained 
cacti, begonias, passifloras, bananas in fruit, etc. The meah^ ^nigs, 
scales, and aphides w^ere destroyed as well as a large percentage of the 
sow-bugs and earthworms. 

In a house which contained carnations, smilax, violets, chrysanthe- 
mums, etc., and was infested with Dactylop>iw< destructor and Orthezia 
insignis, 1 oz. of potassium eyanid was used to every 285 cubic 
feet. The insects were killed, but some of the plants were badly 
injured. The so-called "dilute method" of fumigation was tried in 
a camellia room, 1 oz. of potassium eyanid being used to every 3,0UO 
cubic feet. It was fumigated at 6 o'clock p. m. The room was 
infested with green fly, mealy bug, and Fuller's rose beetle, and the 
plants in the room included coleus, azaleas, heliotropes, ferns, orange 
trees, etc. The insects were uninjured except part of the green flies. 
Xo damage was done to the plants. A number of other experiments 
were conducted, and the results are stated in tabular form. 

Sccde insects on Ameidcan fruit imported into Germany (pp. 79-83). — 
An abstract of a paper b}^ L. Reh, previously abstracted (E, S. R., 
11, p. 6.5.5). 

Insect control in Bive7\side, Cal.^ F. G. Havens (pp. 83-88). — The 
orange-growing section of Riverside comprises 12,500 acres of citrus 
orchards, and this region is one of the 3 divisions of Riverside County. 
This division is subdivided into 6 districts, and a local inspector has 
charge of each district. Each orchard is examined tree by tree, and 
a permanent record is kept by means of cross-lined paper. Besides 
inspection, the work of the insect-pest control includes eradication and 
quarantine. Very efficient methods of eradication have been devised 
and put into practice at Riverside. In 1898, 1,609 trees on 315 acres 
were infested with red scale. In 1899 the same orchards contained only 
433 infested trees. The quarantine work has been so efficient that no 
insect pests have been introduced and become established since the 
existence of the horticultural commission. 

Xotes on a Irief trip to Porto Rico in January and Fehrimry of 
1899, A. Busck (pp. 88-93).-— A brief account of a trip to Porto Rico 
for the purpose of investigating the insect conditions of that colony. 
Notes are given on insects injurious to sugar cane, coflee, and tobacco. 
Gryllotcdpa hexadactyla is report(>d as being exceedingly injurious to 
young tobacco plants. Large colonies of bees were frequentl}' met 
with in hollow trees, and a considerable honey product is obtained 
from them. The article contains a list of the Coccid» collected by 
the author and identified by T. Pergande and T. D. A. Cockerell. 



ENTOMOLOGY. 163 

Under the caption "General Notes" are given observations of an 
economic character upon a considerable number of injurious and other 
insects, as well as man}^ notes from the various correspondents of the 
Division in different parts of the country. 

The choice of colors by insects, F. Plateau {Mem. Soc. Zooh 
France, 12 {1S09), JVo. 4, pj>. 330-370).— A. critical review is given of 
the literature of the subject. In investigating the question whether 
insects are guided in their choice of flowers by colors, the author made 
observations upon a considerable variety of insects, including, among 
others, species of Megachile, Boinhus tei^restris, B. musconmi, the 
honeybee, EristaJis tenax, Papilio machaon., etc. 

To this question he makes a negative reply. It is admitted that 
insects may recognize at a distance the presence of flowers, but it is 
uncertain whether this recognition is due to the contrast between an 
area of flowers and their surroundings or to the odor of the flowers, . 
or both. As soon as insects arrive among a group of flowers they 
seem to exercise no choice in the matter of color, but visit indiffer- 
ently blue, red, yellow, white, or green flowers. • If in a given species 
of plants the different floral variations in color exist in equal quanti- 
ties, insects pass from flowers of one color to those of another without 
any discrimination. Occasionally the insects seem to prefer plants 
of one color for a short time and then pay more visits to flowers of 
another color. If in a group of flowers of a given species the floral 
variations in color are represented in unequal quantities, the number 
of insect visits to flowers of the different colors will be proportional 
to the number of flowers of these various colors. 

Spraying notes, L. H. Bailey et al. {Neio York Cornell Sta. Bui. 
177, j)})- 235-253). — Experiments were conducted in fighting San Jose 
scale on apple, pear, plum, almond, and willow trees. A 20 per cent 
mechanical mixture of kerosene and water was sprayed upon one lot 
of trees on April 10 and 11. Another lot of trees was sprayed on 
June 6, and all the trees were sprayed a second time on June 24. 3 
especially dense trees receiving a third application on June 29. The 
young scale insects were abundant on young unspra^-ed currants by 
June 23. On examining the sprayed trees on December 11, few live 
scales could l)e found. On the smooth-barked willows all the scales 
were killed. 

The authors believe that while fumigation may be a more thorough 
method than spraying, the San Jose scale may be held in check hj 
spra3nng with kerosene. Fumigation will perhaps be found more 
desirable in nurser}' rows, but for use on growing trees spraying is 
belived to be "cheaper, simpler, and perhaps ecjualh' effective." 

Some experiments were conducted with Paris green, Paragrene, 
Green Arsenite, XX, Pink Arseuoid, Green Arsenoid, Green Arsenoid 



164 EXPERIMENT STATION EECORD. 

No. 53, and arsenite of lime. These insecticides were used in four dif- 
ferent strengths, i lb., i; lb., 1 lb., and 1^ lbs. per barrel of 48 gals. 
Orchard application of these sul)stances was made on June 10, while 
potatoes were sprayed on Jul}" K) and 17. 

Tables are presented showing the comparative effects of the 4 dif- 
ferent strengths of the different insecticides upon foliage. A test 
was made of the insecticide value of these materials on potatoes. 
Two strengths of the substances were used, i lb. and ^ lb. to a bar- 
rel of 48 gals. Both strengths of Paris green, Paragrene, XX, and 
Green Arsenoid killed all the potato beetles, and nearh' all the beetles 
were killed b}" both strengths of Pink Arsenoid, Green Arsenoid No. 
53, and Green Arsenite. 

Brief notes are given on the composition of various arsenical poisons. 
The authors find that no damage is done to foliage in spraying with 
i lb. of the ordinary arsenites to the barrel, provided less than 3i per 
cent of soluble arsenic is present in the insecticide. 

Attention is called to the importance of the specific gravit}' of vari- 
ous arsenical poisons in spraying. Considering the specific gravity of 
Paris green to be 10, other insecticides compare in weight as follows: 
Green Arsenite 10, Pink Arsenoid 9, Paragrene 7, Green Arsenoid 7, 
XX 4, Green Arsenoid No. 53, 4. Equal amounts of these arsenites 
shaken in water follow nearly the same order in settling, Paris green 
being first, and Green Arsenoid No. 53 last. Paragrene, Green Arsen- 
ite, Green Arsenoid, and arsenite of lime are all recommended as 
arsenical sprays. The comparatively high percentage of soluble arsenic 
in Green Arsenoid No. 53 makes this substance objectionable. 

Experiments were conducted to determine the effect of copper car- 
bonate and potassium sulphid on the foliage of Japanese plums, cop- 
per carbonate being used at the usual strength and potassium sulphid 
at the rate of 1 oz. to a gallon of water. Both substances were rather 
more injurious to the foliage than Bordeaux mixture. Where these 
substances were used too freely, the shot-hole effect upon the foliage 
was very noticeable. 

The general conclusions of the authors may be stated as follows: 
The mechanical mixture of kerosene and water will probably displace 
kerosene and soap emulsion. In spraying with kerosene and water, 
earl}' spring or late fall seem to be the preferable seasons. Paragreiie, 
Green Arsenite, Green Arsenoid, and arsenite of lime are equal if not 
superior to Paris green. Unless lime is added, the simple solution of 
capper sulphate, 4 oz. to the barrel, can not be used without injury to 
the foliage. 

The nature and use of certain insecticides, J. L. Phillips and 
H. L. Pkice {Vuyinia Sta. Bui. 97., pp. 7-26). — The authors describe 
and give brief notes on the common arsenical, contact, and tracheal 
insecticides and on the methods of their application. Experiments 



ENTOMOLOGY. 



165 



Wv^re tried upon 25 plats of potatoes with various arsenical poisons in 
aqueous solution, for the purpose of determining the effectiveness of 
these insecticides in killing- the potato beetle, and also their effect upon 
the foliage of the potato. The results of these tests may be tabulated 
as follows: 

Effect of insecticides on potato beetle and foliage. 



Insecticide. 


Amount per 100 
gal. of water. 


Effect on beetles. 


Effect on foli 


ige. 


London purple 

Paris green 

Paragrene 

Do 


1 lb 


Killed nearly all the beetles . . . 
do 


No damage. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Foliage badly 

aged. 
No damage. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Slight damage. 
No damage. 

Do. 

Slight damage. 
No damage. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 




1 lb 




2 lbs 


do 




1 lb 


do 




Do 


i lb 


Some beetles escaped 




Special laurel green 

Do 


G lbs 


Killed all the larvae 




A lbs 


do 




Do 


1 lb 








2 lbs 


Killed all the beetles 




Do 


1 lb 


Killed nearly all the beetles... 




Do 


lib 






2 lbs 


Killed nearly all the beetles ... 

Many beetles escaped 

A large proportion of the bee- 
tles escaped. 




Do 


1 lb 




Do 


ilb 




Pink Arsenoid 


2 lbs 




Do 


1 lb 


do. 




Do 


lib 


Several larvse escaped 

Killed only a few beetles 

do . 




White Arsenate 


2 lbs 




Do 


1 lb 




Swift's Arsenate of Lead 


81bs 






Do 


4 lbs 


do 




Do 


2 lbs 


Small proportion of beetles es- 
caped. 

Killed all larvae 

do 




Panne green 


2 lbs 




Do 


1 lb 




Do 


ilb 


Small proportion of larvse es- 
caped. 











Experiments were tried in spraying fruit trees with pure kerosene 
and with the kerosene-water mixture. The results which were obtained 
indicate that "pure kerosene can be used on all our fruit trees in the 
dormant season and with proper precaution during the growing season 
also, except on peach. Water mixtures have with us proved as dan- 
gerous as pure kerosene. This substance should be used on trees only 
in cases of necessity." 

The pea louse {Nectarophora destTiictor) is reported as having caused 
considerable damage in various parts of the State. A number of 
experiments were conducted with different insecticides in combating 
this insect. The insecticides which were used were Good's No. 6 
tobacco-potash soap and a kerosene-water mixture. From these exper- 
iments it was found that soap solutions in the proportion of 1 lb. to 6 
or 8 gal. of water, although very effective in killing the lice, caused 
injury to the foliage. Soap solutions at the rate of 1 lb. to 10 or 12 
gal. of water were not so destructive to the lice but caused no injury 
to the plants. In their experiments the authors found that consider- 
able damage was done to the foliage by the kerosene- water mixture, 
and this substance is, therefore, not recommended for spraying peas. 



166 EXPERIMENT STATION EECORD. 

The queen bee, A. Gale {Agr. Gaz. Xeiv South Wales, 11 {1900), No. 3, pp. 
204-206, figs. G). — The author gives descriptions of the method of formation and 
appearance of queen cells, and illustrations are given of these cells as built under 
different conditions. 

Sericulture in Austria during the last 50 years, G. Bolle {Atti e Mem. Ital. 
a. Sue. Agr. Gorlzki, 40 {1900), Xo. 1-2, ]>]>. 29-39, figs. 7). 

Beetles injurious to fruit-producing- plants, O. Lugger {Minnesota Sta. Bui. 
66, pp. 8.i-S32, figs. 249). — This Ijulletin contains a brief classification of the various 
families of beetles and a general account of a large number of species which are 
known to be injurious to fruit trees and small fruits. In most cases the approved 
remedies are suggested for treatment of these insects. 

Insect damage to spruce timber in Maine and New Hampshire, A. Carey 
{Forester, 6 {1900), No. 3, pp. 52-54)- — In northern Vermont and New Hampsliire 
outbreaks of forest insects occurred about 30 years ago, and also about 15 years ag<i. 
During investigations which were carried on to determine the cause of the unusual 
death of spruce timber at the present time, it was found that the damage was due tn 
the attacks of Dendroctonus polygrapJms var. rufipennis. 

Wood-boring caterpillars, H. Faes {Chron. Agr. Canton Vaiid, 13 {1900), No. 5, 
2ip. 104-110, figs. 2). — Notes on the habits and life history of Cossus ligniperela, 
Zeuzera sesculi, and TrocMlium apiforme. 

Some insect notes, F. M. Webster {Ent. News, 11 {1900), No. 4, pp. 436-439).— 
Notes on Halticus uhleri, Crioceris l£-punctata, Oberea bhnaculata, and Cecidomgia 
destructor. 

The forest tent caterpillar, E. P. Felt {Country Gent., 65 {1900), No. 2459, 
p. 217). — Brief notes on the effect of the depredations of these insects upon the 
quality of maple sugar. 

The occurrence of a plant louse on the roots of sugar beets, P. Doerstlixg 
{Ztsrlu-. Pflanzerikrank., 10 {1900), No. 1, pp. 21, «',^).— The author reports that a 
species of aphis appeared in large numbers on the roots of sugar beets during the 
autumn of 1899. The plant lice were also observed on the under side of the leaves. 
The damage to sugar beets is estimated at from 30 to 40 per cent in different fields. 
The species of plant lice was not identified. 

Aspidiotus diffinis, C. L. Marlatt {Ent. News, 11 {1900), No. 4, pp. 425-427).— 
This scale insect was probably introduced from Europe. It has been reported as 
infesting basswood in Canada, and it apj^ears that ^-1. fittrophx is a synonym of this 
species. The insect is found in large numbers on basswoods in Ontario and may 
perhaps become a species of considerable economic im])ortance. A brief bibliography 
is added t(j the article. 

A new genus of Atropidae, N. Banks {Ent. News, 11 {1900), No. 4, pp. 431, 
432). — Psocmella slossonee is described as a new genus and species of this family. The 
species is reported as attacking butterflies in a collection and may prove to be a 
museum jjest. 

Cytodites nudus in the common fowl, E. V. Wilcox {Centbl. Bali. u. Par., 2. 
Abt., 6 {1900), No. 5, pp. 147-153, fig. 9). — A Ijrief discussion of the literature con- 
cerning this mite, together with notes on its occurrence in Montana. 

The species of the orthopteran genus Derotmena, 8. H. Scidder {Proc. Amer. 
Acad. Arts and ScL, 35 {1900), No. 19, pp. 385-395). — A monographic account of this 
genus. 

Metzneria lappella, T. W. Fvles {Canad. Ent., 32 {1900), No. 1, pp. 15, 16). — 
This European species is reported as feeding on the heads of burdock. 

Phylloxera and the diseases of the vine, V. Thiebaut {Prog. Agr. et Vit., 17 
{1900), No. J 2, pp. 365-.-J67). 

Phylloxera in Switzerland, B. H. Ridgely ( U. S. Comidar Rpts., 62 {1900), No. 
S34, pp- 298, 299). — Attention is called to the seriousness of the phylloxera jDroblem 



ENTOMOLOGY. IGT 

in the Canton of Vaud and a brief report is given of tlie action of tlie Canton Council 
of State at Lausanne in reconnnending the extensive use of American vines. 

A ne^w remedy for phylloxera, J. Dufour (Chron. Ayr. Canton Vaud, 13 {1900), 
No. 2, ]jp. 29-34). — Soot has recently been proposed as a new remedy for this insect. 
The author calls attention t(3 the fact that many previous experiments have 1>een 
made with this substance without success. 

Phytoptus vitis {Afjr. Jour. Cape Good Hope, 16 {1900), No. 2, p. 103). — It is 
recommended that in infested vineyards all dry leaves and rough bark be burned at 
the end of the season. 

A peculiar organ -which, occurs in Poecilocerus socotranus, H. A. Kr.\u.ss 
[ZooJ. Anz., 23 {1900), No. 610, jjp. 155-167, fig. 4-) — The author has discovered an 
organ in the pronotum of this grasshopper which seems to have a phosphorescent 
function, or at least to l)e analogous to phosphorescent organs of other insects. 

The gypsy moth (Porthetria dispar), S. Lampa {Ent. Tidsh:, 21 {1900), No. 1, 
pp. 34-46, i>l. 1). — Descriptions are given of the eggs, larvte, jjup*, and adult males 
and females of this species, together with notes on its habits and life history. Brief 
reference is made to the work which was carried out in the southeastern part of 
Sweden in fighting the gypsy moth. The government appropriated $2,800 for this 
purpose. A brief note is also given on the natural enemies of the gypsy moth. 

On the molt of pupee in Pterophorus, T. A. Chapman {Entomologist, 33 {1900), 
No. 442, pp. 82-85). — The author made observations especially on the pupation of 
P. galactodactylus. The species pupates beneath a leaf. The molt took place in 3 
observed examples about 1 o'clock p. m., after 2 days of quiescence. The larvae 
holds on to the leaf by the anal prolegs only. Molting takes place rapidl}- and is 
accomplished in about 15 minutes. 

Depredations of the cottony maple scale, C. E. Brown {Bui. Wisco^isin Nat. 
Ifi-t. Soc, n. scr., 1 (1900), No. 1, }ip. 05-67). — Pulvinaria innumerahilis occurred in 
unusual numbers in Wisconsin notwithstanding the severity of the previous winter. 
In ^Milwaukee the trees were subsequently attacked by the tussock moth. 

The pear and cherry tree slug, A. M. Lea {Agr. Gaz. Tasmania, 7 {1900), No. 
8, p. 176). — Brief notes on the haliits, life history, and means of combating Selandria 
cenm. 

The deposition of the eggs of Tortrix ambiguella, J. Perraud {Prog. Agr. el 
Tit. {Ed. L'Est) , 21 {1900), No. 3, jip. 80-83).— The female lays about 4 or 5 eggs on 
each grajie. 

The action of environment on the development of Tortrix ambiguella, J. 
Perraud {Frog. Agr. et Vit., 17 {1900), No. 13, i^p. 391-393).— The author discusses 
the influence of climatic and other conditions upon the observed alternation of 
periods of relative abundance and scarcity of this insect. With the present knowl- 
edge of the proljlem, it seems to be impossible to indicate accurately the determining 
factoi's of the variation in numljers. 

The spiny elm caterpillar, C. M. Weed {New Ilarnpshire Sta. Bui. 67, pp. 123- 
141, figs. 13). — A popular account of the habits, life history, and natural enemies of 
Vanessa antiopa, with brief notes on remedies to be applied against this insect. The 
species is said to have been unusually abundant on elm trees during the past 3 years 
in New IIami)shire. It is believed to l)e single-brooded in the State. 

Spraying tall trees, P. MacMahon {Queensland Agr. Jour., 6 {1900), No. 2, pp. 
lis, 119, pd. 1). — The author gives brief notes on kerosene emulsion, resin wash, 
London purple, Bordeaux mixture, and Eau celeste. Experiments Avere made in 
spraying tall trees which were infested with Ceroplastes rubra. An upright post was 
securely fixed in the spray wagon, and to this post a long bamljoo rod which sup- 
ported the hose was so attached that it could be i-eadily directed toward the desired 
part of the tree. 



168 



EXPERIMENT STATION RECUKD. 



The application of Sanatol, E. Kruger {Zischr. Vet., U {1900), Xu. J, pp. 124, 
125). — Sanatol has been recommended for gross disinfection and as a deodorizer and 
repellant of flies. Experiments were conducted in which stalls were sprayed with 
a 1 per cent aqueous solution of Sanatol. This application had a striking effect in 
repelling the flies fi-om the stable. 

Carbon bisulphid, E. Perroxcito {Glor. R. Soc. Accad. Vet. Ilal., 49 {1900), No. 
4, pp. 75-79). — The author calls attention to the great value of this substance in fight- 
ing phylloxera and states that its antiseptic power is not very great. Spores of the 
anthrax bacillus survived an exposure to this substance of 49 days' duration. 

Treatment with bisulphid of carbon, J. Dufolr {Chron. Agr. Canton Vaud, 13 
{1900), Xo. 5, pjp. 89-101, fi(js. 2). — A general account of the nature and action of 
carbon bisulphid, together with detailed directions for its use in combating i)hyl- 
loxera. 

The use of arsenical salts as insecticides, H. Grosjeax {Prog. Agr. et VH., 17 
{1900), Xo. 14, p>p- 410-414). 

Inspection of Paris green, W. C. Stubbs and AV. T. Jones {Louisiana Stas. Bui. 
58, pp. 265-276). — This includes the text of the State law providing for the inspec- 
tion of Paris green, and a brief report on the operation of the law, with analyses of 
38 samples ot Pans green. 

The entomolog-ists' directory, H. Skixner {Philadelphia: American Entomological 
Societij, 1000, 2>p- S4). — This directory contains the names, addresses, and special 
departments of study of the entomologists in the United States and Canada, together 
with a geographical arrangement of the names, a list of entomological societies, their 
secretaries, and the official entomologists of the agricultural colleges and experiment 
stations. 



FOODS— ANIMAL PRODUCTION. 

Dietary studies of university boat cre^ws, W. O. Atwater and 

A. V. Bryant {U. S. Dtpt. Agr.., Office of Experiment Stations Bui. 
75., pp. 7iT). — With a view to studying the effects of muscular work on 
food consumption, dietaiy studies were made with the Harvard Uni- 
versity and Freshman boat crews when training at Cambridge and 
before the races at Gales Ferr}- with the Yale University crew at 
New Haven and Gales Ferrj^, and with the captain of the Harvard 
Freshman crew at Gales Ferry. The results of the studies are sum- 
marized in the following table: 

Summary of results of dietary studies of university boat crews. 
[Nutrients in lood actually eaten per man per day.] 



Harvard T'nivcrsity crew at Cambridge 
Harvard Freshman crew at Cambridge. 
Yale University crew at New Haven ... 
Harvard University crew at Gales Ferry 
Harvard Freshman crew at Gales Ferry 

Yale University crew at Gales Ferry 

Captain of Harvard Freshman crew 

Average 



Protein. 



Orams. 
162 
153 
145 
1(!0 
135 
171 
155 



155 



Grams. 
175 
223 
170 
170 
152 
171 
181 



177 



Carbo- Fuel 
hvdrates. value. 



Grams. 
449 

468 
375 
418 
416 
434 
487 



440 



Calories. 
4,130 
4,620 
3,705 
4,075 
3, 675 
4,070 
4,315 



4,085 



FOODS ANIMAL PRODUCTION. 1G9 

The results arc discussed and compared with the results of dietary 
studies with athletes, college clubs, mechanics, farmers, and profes- 
sional men, and with the commonl}' accepted dietary standards. 

Milk protein as a food, Backhaus and R. Braun {Ber. Landw. Inst. 
Lnii\ KoiiMjxhrrg., 5 {l'S9S-99), j)j). 34--60). — A number of feeding 
experiments with dog's and rabbits and digestion and metabolism exper- 
iments with rabbits on the value of the casein of skim milk are reported. 
Casein was precipitated in different ways. The authors' principal con- 
clusions were in effect as follows: Protein is supplied more cheaply by 
milk than by almost any animal or vegetabk^ food material. The feed- 
ing experiments reported show that milk protein is almost completely 
digested, and that it is capable of supplying the protein requirements 
of animals for long periods. The insoluble casein possessed the same 
nutritive value for this purpose as the soluble casein salts. Neverthe- 
less, the preparation of such soluble salts is of importance, since they 
may be conveniently used for many purposes. Judging by the exper- 
iments carried on a simple method, which at the same time gives good 
results, consists in precipitating the milk protein with hydrochloric 
acid, having previouslv warmed the milk, caref ulh' washing the precip- 
itate, and drying it at a low temperature, and mixing the finely ground 
powder with salts, which render it soluble. For this latter purpose 
sodium citrate is especially valuable, since it has no taste, while sodium 
phosphate is valuable from a phj^siological standpoint on account of the 
phosphorus with which it supplies the body. Sodium borate is valu- 
able on account of its antiseptic properties. A mixture of these salts 
is regarded as preferable to either alone. 

Commercial feeding stuffs in Nevsr York, AV. H. Jordan and 
C. G. J ENTER (xVe^/j ro7'k State Sta. Bui. 106, j)j). 233-273).— The 
New York law regarding the sale and analysis of commercial feeding 
stuffs is quoted, the value of such feeding stuff's discussed, a classifica- 
tion suggested, and a report made of a large number of anah^ses of 
samples collected in 1898 and 1899, including the following: 

Cotton-seed meal, cotton-seed feed, linseed meal (old and new process), gluten 
meal ('M' and Chicago), gluten feeds (Buffalo, Climax, Davenport, Diamond, Joliet, 
'R,' Peoria, Empire, Waukegan, Davenport corn feed, and 2 gluten feeds without 
special name), malt sprouts, brewers' grains from lager beer and from ale, distillery 
waste, buckwheat middlings, buckwheat feed, buckwheat ships, wheat bran, ship 
stuff, wheat feeds (Roj'al, Buckeye, King "Winter Wheat, New England mixed, and 
middUngs from different grades of flour and wheat), hominy feed, hominy meal, hud- 
nuts, H-0 standard dairy food, H-0 standard horse food, H-0 feed, Quaker oats, Victor 
feed, Victor corn and oats, corn and oat feed, chop feed, H-0 defi feed, X oat feed, 
Schumaker's stock food, corn, oat, and barley feed, wheat feed, pea meal, malt 
skimmings, rye feed, scorched wheat' sugar-corn feed, starch feed (wet and air dry), 
gluten feed (wet and air dry), and Clover meal. 

The carboh3'drates of mixed feeds and other feeding stuffs are dis- 
cussed, special attention being called to the superiority of the dry 



170 



EXPERIMENT STATION KECORD. 



matter of cereal grains over that of coarse fodders. The carbohydrates 
in a number of different feeding stuffs is reported: 

CarbohyJirates in dry matter of several feeding stuffs. 



Sugars 

and 

starch in 1 



Digesti- 
bility of 

tract. t-xtract. 




Cotton-seed meal 

Linseed meal (old process) . 
Linseed meal (new process). 

Gluten meal 

Buffalo gluten feed 

Davenport gluten feed 

Diamond gluten feed 

Joliet gluten feed 

Peoria gluten feed 

Malt sprouts 

Buckwheat middlings 

Wheat bran 

Wheat middlings 

Hominy feeds 

HO dairy feed 

Oat feed 

Victor feed 

Chop feeds 

X oat feed 



" ]Many of the materials mentioned above when compared with the grains from 
which they are derived show a depletion of sugars and starch and a corresponding 
relative increase in the nitrogen-free extract of the less valuable compounds. This 
is especially true of the wheat offals, the gluten feeds, and the oat feed mixtures. In 
the case of the one sample of gluten meal examined the starch still constituted a 
large proportion of the nitrogen-free extract. The chop feeds and other similar 
combinations contain as a rule qtiite a proportion of corn, that furnishes nearly all 
the starch which is found in these mixtures. . . . 

"These facts are in harmony with the outcome of digestion experiments, from 
which we learn that the nitrogen-free extract of the whole grains is much more digest- 
ible than that of most of the manufacturing wastes which come from them. . . . 

" Some 'mixed feeds' apparently are compounded and advertised on the assump- 
tion that feeding stuffs are to be compared in value solely on the basis of their 
percentage of protein and fat. This is a false basis. The quality of the accompany- 
ing carbohydrates must always be considered. For instance, it would not be difficult 
to simulate the composition of corn meal or of wheat middlings by mixing oat hulls 
with some of the old-style linseed meal, adding a little crushed linseed to make up 
the deficiency (if fat. But would the mixture equal corn meal in value? By no 
means. In one case the protein and fat would be associated with woody fiber in 
large proportion, and in the other case with little else than starch. The net value of 
the corn meal would be much above that of the mixture as measured liy the extent 
and labor of digestion. ' ' 

The various oat feeds, proprietar3% and other mixed feeds are dis- 
cussed at some length and appear, in the authors' opinion, to contain 
an undue proportion of crude fiber, the proportion of oat hulls being 
larger than the oat kernels present. 

"Some of them must contain not less than 50 lbs. of oat hulls per 100 ll)s. . . . 

"In certain brands an amount of some highly nitrogenous feeding stuff like cotton- 
seed meal or gluten meal is found, the object of its use being to bring up the protein 
content to the standard of wheat bran. This certainly improves the feed, ):)ut at the 



FOODS ANIMAL PRODUCTION. 171 

game time the presence of high-quality ingredients adds nothing to the value of the 
inferior constituents. Grinding corn with oat hulls, for instance, may not injure 
the corn, but it does not improve the hulls. They are still hulls and retain all their 
characteristics as a feeding stuff. ' ' 

In order to study the effect of introducing- oat feeds into grain 
rations, a digestion experiment was made with sheep, one of the com- 
mercial oat feeds sold in New York being used. The average coeffi- 
cients of digestibilit}'^ obtained were as follows: Dry matter 58, organic 
matter 59.5, protein 82.5, fat 92, nitrogen-free extract 60.5, and crude 
liber 33 per cent. 

This result was compared with the average coefficients of digestibility 
of whole oats and maize, the comparison showing in the authors' opinion 
that whole oats furnished about 12 per cent and maize 31 per cent more 
total nutritive material than the oat feed. Besides the material includ- 
ing the entire grain is of better quality, being made up more usually 
of protein and the easily digested carbohydrates. 

The authors also report the analysis of a number of condimental 
feeding stuffs. 

"In these mixtures were found, as the principal constituent, some common feeding 
stuff like bran or other wheat offals, corn offals, linseed meal, and so on. The 
special ingredients added ostensibly for medicinal effect, were found to include char- 
coal, fenugreek, gentian, sulphur, salt, saltpeter, sodium sulphate, iron compounds, 
and pepi:)er. 

"Particular attention is called to the prices at which these 'foods' are sold. The 
range is from $100 to $500 per ton, which is at least from .?70 to $470 per ton more 
than the materials are worth for food purposes. It may be claimed, as some of the 
manufacturers urge, that these mixtures should be regarded as medicines. Even if 
this is true the farmer who wishes to administer any of these common substances to 
his animals can do so at a small fraction of their cost in condimental foods by pur- 
chasing them as drugs and then mixing them with the grain ration as he wishes. 
For the promoters of these mixtures to claim that they have an}' knowledge of com- 
pounds and compounding not common to veterinary medicine is charlatanism in its 
most offensive form." 

On the influence ■which the kind and amount of food exercises 
upon the amount of metabolism and the po-wer to perform w^ork, 

E. Pfluger {Arch. Phjxiol. {Pfng.i\ 77 {1S99), Xn. 9-10, pp. 1^25- 
It.82). — The author reports a number of experiments with cats and dogs. 
In some cases the balance of income and outgo of nitrogen was deter- 
mined, as well as the respirator}^ quotient. Experiments were made 
under different conditions of feeding and fasting. 

The experiments are discussed in relation to the early work of Bid- 
der and Schmidt,^ and the theories of nutrition and the production of 
energy promulgated by Voit and his followers. The author's principal 
deductions folloAv: 

The addition of protein to a maintenance ration caused an increase in 
metabolism and the productive power. Further, it caused an increase 

' Abstracted in U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bui. 45. 



172 EXPERIMENT STATION KECORD. 

in the body weight due to an increase in cell substances. This increase 
of cell substance under favorable conditions can be induced until the 
body weight is doubled. Metabolism and productive power of the 
body increased in direct proportion to the increase in body weight 
induced by protein. The highest metabolism and the greatest produc- 
tive power can therefore be induced onl}" bv the most abundant supply 
of nitrogen in the food. Each diminution of the daily supply of protein 
caused a decrease in the metabolism and productive power, even if the 
protein omitted was replaced hy an amount of fat and carbohydrates 
calculated to supply the same amount of energy. An increase in the 
amount of fat or carbohydrates in the diet did not cause an increase in 
metabolism or in the power of the body considered as a machine. Pro- 
tein added to the diet replaces in the metabolism of the body a quan- 
tity of fat possessing the same force value, provided, of course, that 
the diet to which the protein is added contains fat, etc., as well as pro- 
tein. The laws of the metabolism of protein are the same in dogs and 
cats. No formation of fat from protein in the animal body, as insisted 
upon by Voit and Cramer, was observed. Man can not be nourished 
b}" protein alone, since it would l)e impossible to digest the amount 
which would be required. According to the investigations of the 
author and his pupils, a 3"Oung man instinctively uses an amount of 
protein which is .sufficient for about one-fifth of the total productive 
power of the body. Man can digest much more protein, but it seems 
necessary to assume that for omnivora the protein consumed should 
not exceed a certain limit. This is not proven, but man instinctively 
refrains from an exclusive meat diet. 

Concerning direct and indirect calorimetric measurements 
vrith animals in a study of nitrogen equilibrium -when fasting and 
fed after fasting, P. P. Avrorov {Buss. Arch. Patol. Klin, i Bcikt.., 
7 {lS90),j>. 4.JO; abs. in PMjsiologiste Russe, 1 {1899), No. 15-W, 2'>P- 
304-306). — A number of experiments with dogs are reported. Some 
of the principal conclusions follow. The metabolism of matter and the 
production of heat takes place in animals with remarkable regularity 
and uniformity when the experimental conditions are as uniform as 
possible. The intensity of the metabolism of matter and the produc- 
tion of heat in dogs is inversel}' proportional to the size of the animal 
and directly proportional to the surface area. On an average during 
the period of fasting the cleavage of fat was greatly diminished, while 
the cleavage of proteids was reduced to a minimum. The heat pro- 
duced was diminished 15 or 16 per cent and the production of carbon 
dioxid was diminished from 21 to 22 per cent. Gains in protein were 
made after fasting with little or no efi'ect upon the production of heat. 
The all)umin of the living tissues of the body did not differ as regards 
its }K)tential energy from the albumin of the meat fed. The pro- 
duction of heat was found to be closelv connected with the excretion 



FOODS ANIMAL PRODUCTION. 



173 



of cai'bon dioxid. As shown by comparison, the results obtained 
directly with the calorimeter and those ol^tained indirectly b}^ calcula- 
tion from the data of metabolism experiments agreed veiy closel3\ 
Other conclusions are drawn which have to do with feeding- after fasting. 
Steer feeding, 11. H. McDowell {Nevada Sta. Bui. ^i, pl>- ^, 2^^^- 
G). — With a view to learning the amount of alfalfa hay required for a 
pound of gain, 4 steers were fed from December 11, 1897, to May 9, 
1898. From the beginning of the test to March 2 thej" were given 
alfalfa hay only, and from that date until May 9 cracked corn was fed 
in addition to the hay. The steers had been on pasture without grain 
previous to the test. During the test they were fed in box stalls. The 
average results for the 2 periods follow: 

Results of feeding steers alfalfa hay ivHh and v'ithovt grain. 





Weight 
at begin- 
ning of 
test. 


Period No. 1. 


Period No. 2. 




Gain in 
weight. 


Alfalfa 
hay eaten 

per 

pound of 

gain. 


Alfalfa hay 
eaten. 


Cracked 
corn 
eaten. 


Gain in 
weight. 


Steer No. 1 


Pounds. 
1,3.50 
1,160 
1,230 
1,090 


Pounds. 

9.5.0 

102.5 

112. 5 

145.0 


Pounds. 
21.7 
23.2 
20.3 
15.1 


Pounds. 
1,928.25 
1,97,5.40 
1,229.90 
2, 006. 00 


Pounds. 

27.2 

140.0 

13.3 

20.3 


Pounds. 
120.0 


Steer No 2 


137. 5 




37.5 


Steer No. 4 


74.0 







Two days after the close of the test steers Nos. 3 and 4 were slaugh- 
tered, the dressed w^eight being .56.6 and 56.49 per cent, respectively, 
of the live weight. Steer No. 1 was fed until December 2, gaining in 
this time 247.5 lbs. and consuming 6,262.25 lbs. of alfalfa hay, 174.5 
lbs. of cracked corn, and 655.3 lbs. of bran. The dressed weight was 
then found to be 61.7 per cent of the live weight. The feeding was 
continued with steer No. 2 until May 7. In this time there was a gain 
of 50 lbs., 473.9 lbs. of haj- and 104.5 lbs. of cracked corn being con- 
sumed. The dressed weight of this steer was found to be 55.9 per 
cent of the live weight. 

Sheep-feeding experiments at Lesvralt, A. P. Aitken {Trans. 
IligMand and Agr. Soc. Scotland, 5. ser., 12 {1900), j^P- 23-J^6).— 
Continuing previous work, the author reports a test, conducted at Les- 
"walt, of the value of turnips alone and supplemented by different con- 
centrated feeds for sheep. The test, which was made with 6 lots of 
20 .sheep each, began November 19, 1898, and covered 19 weeks. It 
was divided into 2 periods of 9 and 10 weeks, respectively. All the 
lots were fed turnips. In addition, lot 2 w^as fed maize, lot 3 oats, lot 
4 equal parts of oats, dried distilleiy grains, and linseed cake, lot 5 
dried distillery grains, and lot 6 linseed cake. During the first half 
of the test half a pound per head daily of the concentrated feeding 
stuffs was fed. Durino- the latter half of the test the oats and maize 



174 



EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 



were increased to about f lb. and the other feeds in proportion to their 
cost. At the close of the test the sheep were slaug-htered and judged 
])}' an expert. The average results for the whole test follow: 

Turnips icith and icitliout concentrated feeds for sheep. 



Average 
weight 
of skins. 



Lot 1 (fed turnips) 

Lot 2 (fed turnips and maize) 

Ldt 3 I fed turnips and oats) 

Lot-1 (fed turnips, oats, dried distillery grains, and 

linseed cake, 1 : 1:1) 

Lot 5 (fed turnips and dried distillery grains) 

Lot 6 (fed turnips and linseed cake) '. 



Weight 
of lot at 


Average 


Average 


Average 


begin- 
ning of 
test. 


gain per 


weight 


weight 


head per 
week. 


of car- 
cass. 


of tal- 
low. 


Pounds. 


Pounds. 


Pounds. 


Pounds. 


1,387 


1.31 


48.9 


4.5 


1,397 


1.80 


58.3 


5.6 


1,423 


1.3.5 


53.2 


5.6 


1,405 


2.01 


58.4 


5.3 


1,438 


2.33 


62.8 


6.7 


1,377 


1.78 


58.4 


5.0 



Pounds. 
13.1 
14.7 
14.1 

1.5.0 
16.6 
1.5.0 



According to the author, the most satisfactory gains were made by- 
lots 5, 4, and 6, in the order named. Lot 3 ranked fifth, the results 
not being veiy diflerent from those obtained with lot 1, which received 
no concentrated feeding stuff. In the opinion of the expert who 
judged the carcasses, lot 2 was the most satisfactory and lot 6 next. 

Pig feeding, R. H. McDoavell {Ntvada Sta. Bid. Jf-O.j^p- i^).— The 
value of alfalfa ha}' when fed alone and when fed with turnips and 
with roots, corn, and peas was tested with 4 grade Poland-China pigs 
divided into 2 lots of 2 each. 

From December 12 to January 2 both lots were fed alfalfa hay 
only, consuming a little over 99.1 lbs. per lot. Lot 1 weighed 262.5 
lbs. at the beginning of the test and lot 2, 297. .5 lbs. Lot 1 lost 32.25 
lbs. and lot 2, 51 lbs. 

From January 2 to January 23 both lots were fed turnips and alfalfa 
hay, consuming 266 lbs. of turnips per lot in addition to some 90 lbs. 
of alfalfa hav. During this time lot 1 gained 15.25 lbs. and lot 2, 
13.75 lbs. From January 23 to March 6 lot 1 was given 121.1 lbs. of 
peas in addition to 86.4 lbs. of alfalfa hay and 863.5 lbs. of turnips and 
lot 2 121.1 lbs. of corn in addition to 90.9 lbs. of alfalfa hay and 
S%% lbs. of turnips. The gains of the 2 lots were 94.75 and 82.75 lbs., 
respectively. 

From March 6 to March 16 lot 1 consumed 5.8 lbs. of hay, 19 lbs. of 
sugar beets, and 102 lbs. of peas and gained 19.75 l))s. From March 
6 to March 22 lot 2 consumed 5.9 lbs. of alfalfa hay, 163 lbs. of sugar 
beets, and 187 lbs. of corn, gaining 62.5 lbs. 

An appendix to the bulletin contains answers received from farmers 
to a luimlxn' of questions regarding the feeding of alfalfa to pigs. 

Experiments in feeding pigs for the production of pork, H. J. 
Patteksox {Maryland Sta. Bui. OJ. pP- ^^^ J'^-"'- -^^' dgins. 2). — Sta- 
tistics of the pig-raising industry in Maryland are given, and 12 tests 
with pigs are reported in which different feeding stuffs were compared. 



FOODS ANIMAL PRODUCTION. 175 

Two lots of pigs about 8 weeks old were fed for 165 days to compare 
separator skim milk with a (juantity of green clover furnishing 
approximately the same amount of protein. Both lots had a basal 
ration of corn and cowpea meal, linseed and gluten meal, 8:1:1. The 
average daily gain per pig in the lot fed skim milk was 1.26 lbs., and 
in the lot on clover, 0.6 lb., the cost of a pound of gain in the 2 cases 
being 4.09 and 3.7 cts., respectively. The pigs were slaughtered at 
the close of the test, the heaviest weighing over 200 lbs. dressed. On 
the basis of his results the author calculates that green clover is worth 
$2 per ton, and separator skim milk 11 cts. per hundredweight. 

Separator skim milk was compared with gluten and linseed meal for 
balancing a grain ration, using 2 lots of 6 pigs each. Both lots were 
fed a basal ration of homin}- chop and ground-corn shives during the 
test which covered 121 days. The average daily gain of the pigs fed 
the ration containing skim milk was 1.54 lbs., and of the pigs fed the 
ration containing gluten and linseed meal, 1.12 lbs. The cost of a 
pound of gain in the 2 cases was estimated at 3.5 and 2.51 cts., 
respectively. 

Four tests are reported with young pigs weighing from 36 to 61 
lbs. each on the value of ground -corn shives, /. e. "new corn product." 
This material was fed as a partial substitute for hominy chop in the 
first test, as a substitute for part of the mixed-grain ration in the 
second test, as an addition to grain and skim milk in the third test, and 
in the fourth test as a partial substitute for hominy chop, with linseed 
meal and gluten meal during the last 3 months of a 5 months' trial. 
Skim milk formed part of the ration in every case. In the tirst of 
these tests the average daily gain per pig on the ration with corn 
shives was 1.37 lbs.; on the ration without corn shives, 1.13 lbs. The 
author calculates that the ground-corn shives were worth from $3.10 
to $6.58 per ton, as shown by the returns in pork. The cost of this 
material is stated to be $11 per ton. In the second test the average 
daily gain per pig on the ration containing corn shives was 1.3 lbs. ; on 
the ration without corn shives, 1.63 lbs.; the cost of a pound of gain 
in the 2 cases being 2.96 and 2.57 cts. In the third test the average 
daily gain per pig of the lot fed the ration without corn shives was 
0.81 lb.; the cost of a pound of gain, 3.21 cts. The average daily 
gain per pig in the lots fed corn shives varied from 0.87 to 0.94 lb. 
and the cost of a pound of gain from 3.26 to 3.36 cts., the largest 
gain but at the greatest cost being made on the ration containing the 
least amount of corn shives. 

In the foui-th trial the average daily gain per pig in the 2 lots fed a 
ration with linseed meal during the first period was 0.99 and 0.98 lb., 
respectively, the cost of a pound of gain being 2.7 cts. The average 
daih' gain of the 2 lots fed during the same time a ration with gluten 
meal was 0.8 and 0.85 lb., respectively, the cost of a pound of gain 
4740— No. 2 6 



176 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

in each case being 2.13 cts. When corn shives was substituted for part 
of the hominy chop in the linseed-meal ration durino- the second 
period, the average daily gain was 0.73 lb. per pig, as compared with 
0.53 lb. in the lot receiving no corn shives. The cost of a pound of 
gain in each case was 4.56 cts. When corn shives were substituted 
for part of the hominy chop in the gluten-meal ration in the second 
period, the average daily gain per pig was 0.78 lb, as compared with 
0.85 lb. for the lot receiving no corn shives, the cost of a pound of 
gain being 2.91 cts. in both cases. 

Though the method is not explained, the author makes the following 
calculation : 

" With the linseed ration the fodder [ground-corn shives] showed an estimated 
value of $28 per ton, and with the gluten ration an estimated value of $20 per ton. 
If the fodder is not taken into consideration, the average cost for producing 100 lbs. 
of gain with the linseed ration was S4.18, and with the gluten ration $2.70." 

The value of cowpea pasture, artichoke pasture, and sweet potatoes 
in addition to a ration of grain and skim milk with and without corn 
shives was tested with 6 lots of 5 pigs each. Lot 1 was fed ground-corn 
shives, grain, and during the last -1 months of the test skim milk also; 
lot 2 was fed the same ration except that for the last 2 months of the 
trial sweet potatoes and sweet-potato strings were fed. Lots 3 and 1 
were fed the same ration as lot 1 for part of the test, and were then 
pastured on cowpeas from 2 to 1 weeks, and finally were given the 
run of a plat of artichokes. Lots 5 and 6 were fed at first a ration of 
grain and skim milk; later lot 6 was turned into a cowpea pasture, 
and. during the last month of the test, was fed sweet potatoes in addi- 
tion to gluten meal and skim milk. Lots 1 and 2 were fed 5 months, 
lots 3 and 4, 4 months, and lots 5 and 6, 3 months. The average gain 
of the pigs in lot 1 was 108.8 lbs., and the cost of a pound of gain, 
3.32 cts. The pigs in lot 2 gained on an average 71.6 lbs., the cost of 
a pound of gain being 3.24 cts. when fed milk and grain. When fed 
sweet potatoes, over 100 lbs. were required per pound of gain, which 
would make the potatoes worth about !$1.60 per ton. In the author's 
opinion, sweet potatoes were not an economical feed, possibly because 
the pigs were too large. With the pigs in lot 6, which were some- 
what younger than those in lot 2, they were found to have a value of 
^2.40 per ton. On cowpeas, the pigs in lots 3, 4, and 6 gained on 
an average 6, 31, and 49 lbs. respectively. In the author's opinion, 
cowpeas are better adapted to young pigs than to older pigs. The 
composition of the artichokes fed is reported, but the results obtained 
are not spoken of at length. 

The results of the individual tests are discussed in considcral)le 
detail. Some of the deductions follow: 

"It would seem to be desirable to mix with hog rations some material as a substitute 
for grazing when feeding pigs in confinement, or if it is not possible to have a material 



FOODS ANIMAL PRODUCTION. 177 

that will mix well with the grain ration, finely cut fodder or other vegetable material 
may serve equally well as a substitute. Finely cut or ground clover or pea-vine hay 
would possibly be a better coarse feed for pigs than the ground food [/. e. corn 
shives] used in these tests, as they contain more nitrogenous food matter and are 
also more easily digestible. ' ' 

The dietetics of bread and butter, J. Hemmkter {Dieiet. and Hyrj. Gaz., 16 
(1900), No. 4, pp. 207, 208). — An al)straet of an article published in the Maryland 
Medical Journal. The digestil)ility of bread and butter in combination is discussed 
as well as other points. 

Nutritious bread [British Food Jour., 2 {1900), No. 15, jjp. 6S, 69). — A note on a 
special process of grinding grain and making bread which has been successfully 
■employed in Paris. 

The nutritive value of margarin as compared with, that of butter, P. 
MoKEAU [Jour. Hijg., 25 {1900), No. 1218, p. 27).— A summary of the work of E. 
Bertarelli (E. S. R., 11, p. 375). 

"What chemistry finds in feeds, F. H. Hall, W. H. Jordan, and C. G. Jenter 
{New York State Stn. Bui. 166, popular ed., p. 6). — A popular bulletin on the composi- 
tion and analysis of feeding stuffs (see p. 169). 

How far can sugar be recommended as a feeding stuff, F. Lehmaxx [Fi'ihl- 
ing's Landu: Ztg.,49 {1900), Nos. l,pp. 17-22; 2, pp. 57-61; 3, pp. 88-90).— The author 
summarizes a number of feeding experiments which have ])een made with sugar. 

Feeding animals on wheat, M. Vacher {Eev. Sci. [Parix'], 4-ser., 13 {1900), No. 
3, p}>. 93, 94)- — A l)rit'f statement before the Society d' Agriculture on the value of 
wheat as food for animals, with discussion. 

Advantages of compressing fodders, M. Rixgelmaxn {SemaineAgr., 20 {1900), 
No. 974, l^P- 14, 15). — The author discusses the advantages of pressing hay and straw, 
giving statistics regarding cost of transportation, etc. 

A review of the methods of utilizing yeast as a nutritive material, L. ]\Iar- 
CAS {L'Ing. Agr. Gembloux, 10 {1900), No. 6, jjp. 429-438; abs. in Belg. Hort. et Agr., 
12 {1900), No. 4,P-58). — The different methods proposed for utilizing waste yeast 
from breweries as a food for man and animals are reviewed. 

Contribution to the stud>;of the behavior of milk sugar in the body, espe- 
cially in the intestines, E. Weixland {Zlschr. Biol., 38 {1899), pp. 16-62). — Experi- 
ments are reported with yoxing and old domestic animals and a newborn child. In 
some of the experiments the respiratory quotient is reported. From his investiga- 
tions the author concludes that in the small intestine of newborn mammals, includ- 
ing man, lactase is present. The lactase was also found in the intestine of the adult 
•dog, pig, and horse, but not in the small intestine of the adult steer, sheep, rabbit, or 
chicken. Other conclusions regarding the experiments are also drawn. 

The value of milk protein for the formation of muscular tissue, W. Caspari 
{ZlsrJir. DiHtet. u. Phijx. Ther., 3 {1899), No. 5, pp. .JS.:?-^!.?).— Experiments with dogs 
and man are reported, iu which the balance of income and outgo of nitrogen was 
determined to learn the food value of plasmon, a prepared food made from casein. 

Concerning plasmon (caseon) as a substitute for albumen, together with 
notes on the metabolism of protein, E. Plocii {Ztsclir. Dii'ttet. v. Phyi<. Tlier., 3 
{1899), No. 6, pp. 482-505). — The balance of income aaid outgo of nitrogen was deter- 
mined in a number of cases. 

Fat diet and stomach motility, H. Straus {Ztschr. Didtet. u. Phyg. Ther., 3 
{1899), No. 3, pp. 198-210, fig. 1 ; 4, pp. 279-289, fig. i).— Experiments in which the 
balance of income and outgo of nitrogen was determined. The conclusion was reached 
that giving large quantities of milk fat did not harm in any way the stomach motility. 

The influence on metabolism and circulation of omitting w^ater from the 
diet, W. Stral-b {Ztschr. Biol., 38 {1899), No. 4, pp. 557-56(?).— Experiments with 



178 EXPEKIMENT STATION RECORD. 

dogs are reported, in which the lialance of income and outgo of nitrogen was deter- 
mined. In one case the carbon dioxid and water in the respired air were also deter- 
mined. The principal conclusions follows: Omitting water from the diet increased 
the cleavage of protein in the body and had no effect on the cleavage of fat. When 
it does not produce pathological symptoms it is without effect on the blood pressure. 
The effect on protein of the withdrawal of water from the tissues is noticeable until 
the body regains its normal water content. Omitting water from the diet affects in a 
sHght degree the amount of water excreted through the lungs and skin. 

The physiological action of electric currents of high tension and great fre- 
quency, N. >^i'\sf<Ki {PIti/siolofjiste Russe, 1 (1899), Xo. 15-20, pp. -235-341, pJ. 1).— 
A form of apparatus for measuring and analyzing the respiratory products, devised in 
connection with the investigation, is described and experiments with guinea i>igs 
reported. 

The heat of combustion of meat of different animals, Studensky {Russ. Arch, 
Patol. Klin, i BakL, 7 [1899), p. 305; abs. in Physnologiste Russe, 1 {1899), No. 15-20, 
pp. 303, 304). — Experiments showed that the heat of combustion of the flesh of 
horses, sheep, and foxes varied very little and was on an average 5,738 calories per 
gram ash-free flesh. 

The determination of animal heat by direct calorimetric methods and by- 
means of the metabolism of material, P. P. Avrorov {Russk. Arch. Patol. Klin, i 
Bakt., 7 [1S99), ]>. 207; aU. in Pln/.^iologiste Russe, 1 (1899), No. 15-20, pp. 301,302).— 
A water calorimeter is described which measures directly the heat produced by an 
animal. Devices are also described for the measurement and analysis of the respira- 
tory products. 

Improvement of pasture as determined by the eflPects on the stock, \V. Som- 
ERViLLE (Trans. HigMand and Agr. Soc. Scotland, 5. ser., 12 (1900), pp. 75-97). — A dis- 
cussion of experiments abstracted from another source (E. S. R., 12, p. 75). 

Canadian experiments in animal growth and dairy products, W. Brown 
( Trans. Highland and Agr. Soc. Scotland, 5. ser., 12 (1900), pp. 137-161, fig. 1).—A gen- 
eral discussion based on the experiments of the Canadian experiment stations in 
animal feeding and dairying. 

Contributions to our knowledge of the physical properties of Swedish wool, 
G. Sellergrex (K. Landt. Akad. Handl. Tidskr., 38 (1^99), Nos. 5-6, pp. 344-390, figs. 
30). — The author gives a historical account of Swedish sheep raising, a description 
of the various breeds of sheep with reference to the quality of the wool, methods and 
aiJi^aratus used in wool examinations, and the results of the investigation. Sixty 
samples of wool were examined in all, according to crimp, fineness, length, elasticity, 
.strength, color, and microscopic appearance. Among the breeds represented were 
i\Ierinos, Cheviots, Southdowns, Dishleys, Oxfordshire Downs, and native sheep. 

The value of succulent foods for swine, C. S. Plumb ( Reprint from Breeders' 
Gaz., 1899, Dec. 20 and 27; 1900, Jan. 3, pp. 16). — The author summarizes briefly the 
results of a large number of experiments on the value of roots, etc., for swine. 

The preparation of feed and the feeding of swine, J. Kappeli (Jahresber, 
Landv. Schule Riitti, 1898-99, pp. 61-67).— From a feeding and slaughter experiment 
with 2 lots of 3 pigs each, the conclusion was drawn that animals fed uncooked whole 
grain (barley and corn) in the first month of the test consumed less feed than those 
receiving meal ground from the same grains moistened with hot water. Pigs fed 
whole and raw grain increased much more rapidly until they were 9 months old than 
those fed soaked meal, while during the last six weeks of the test the increase was 
somewhat less. 

Pig raising in Tunis, J. A. Tournieroux (Bui. Dir. Agr. etCom., 5 (1900), No. 
14, pp. 68-74, fig. 1)- — Pigs and pig raising under local conditions in Tunis are dis- 
cussed. 

Zebra hybrids (Trans. Highland and Agr. Soc. Scotland, 5. ser., 12 (1900), pp. 385- 
388). — A brief summary of J. C. Ewart's experiments. 



DAIRY FARMING DAIRYING. 179 

Poultry raising- in connection with fruit culture, 'SI. Aamot {Tidsskr. Xorske 
Landhr., 7 {1900), Xo. 1, pp. 27-37). 

Poultry at Geneva Experiment Station, S. F. YIxxto^ {Reliable Poidiry Jour., 
7 {J 900) , No. 1, pp. 46-49, figs. 7). — A description of the station poultry house and of 
a number of experiments. 

Oyster culture in France {Sci. Amer. Sup., 49 {1900), No. 1258, p. 20169).— 
Quoted from the Journal of the Society of Arts. 

Oyster culture in France, A. W. Tourgee ( U. S. Consular Rpts., 62 {1900), No. 
^33, pp. 182, 183). — Oyster raising and greening in France are described. 



DAIRY FARMING— DAIRYING. 

Effect of a number of oil cakes on the yield and composition of 
milk and the live -weight of milch cotvs, C. Moser and J. Kappeli 

{Jaki'esber. Landtr. SeJiuh' Riitti^ 189S-99, pp. I{8~60). — This experi- 
ment was made Avith 7 cows and covered 6 periods of about 15 days 
each. Two of the cows were regarded as checks and received a uni- 
form ration throughout the experiment. The others received in dif- 
ferent periods 2 kg. each of sesame cake, peanut cake, and linseed 
cake, and 1^ kg. of cotton-seed meal. The authors conclude that a 
beneficial effect was quite uniform with all of the oil cakes, the fluctu- 
ation in milk jneld and live weight in different periods being greater 
than in the case of the control cows. While there was a small increase 
in live weight on sesame cake, linseed meal, and cotton-seed meal, there 
was an average loss of 5 kg. per cow on peanut cake. It is suggested 
that this may possibly have been due in part to a too narrow ration 
being fed during that period. With respect to the effect on the yield 
of milk the cotton-seed meal exceeded all others. 

The authors believe that the experiment shows an undoubted superi- 
ority of cotton-seed meal over the other oil cakes in common use, and 
state that this conclusion is in accord with the experience of many 
extensive feeders in Germany. 

Notes on sour milk, H. D. Richmond and J. B. P. Harrison 
{Analyst, 25 {1900), May, pj?. 116-12 Jf). — Determiiiatimi of the .pecijio 
gravity of sour milk. — The authors have employed a slight modifica- 
tion of WeibulFs method (E. S. R., 5, p. 644) of adding a known vol- 
ume of ammonia and correcting the reading for the ammonia added. 
Thej' tested the use of caustic soda in the place of ammonia, as suggested 
by De Koningh (E. S. R., 11, p. 211). It was found in experiments 
with different acids that ''although neutralization of an acid by soda 
always produces a loss of density, the figure varies not only with the 
acid, but also with the hydrogen atom neutralized by a polybasic 
acid. For this reason it is useless to apply any theoretical correction 
for milk. . . . With strong acids the change of density on neutraliz- 
ing with ammonia is very much smaller than with soda, and in the 
opposite direction, and our results with milk indicate that it may 
practically l>e neglected." 



180 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

The 2>olnt at which ni'dk may he cotisldered sour and the rate of i<our- 
iiKi in the presence or ahsence of jyreservatives. — Stokes (E. S. R., 3, p. 
l'.'.")) states that milk which has not reached an acidity of 0.8 per cent 
of lactic acid (33.3°), or near it, will coagulate on boiling. The 
authors made a series of experiments, the results confirming almost 
absolutely the figures of Stokes. They found that milk tastes sour, 
on an average, when it has an acidity of 45°, although the variations 
are fairly wide. Fresh milk is stated to have an acidity of 20°; when 
the acidity reaches 33° the milk curdles on boiling. 

"It is quite certain that the 'acidity' of milk is not wholly due to lactic acid; 

indeed, the 'acidity' of fresh milk is due to the mono- and di-basic phosphates, and 

N 
not to free acid at all. Seeing that 9.7 cc. ^ lactic acid will curdle milk on boiling, 

while it requires a development of about 13° 'acidity,' it is highly probable that 
another acid very much weaker than lactic is produced, and we venture to think 
that carbonic acid is responsible for a portion of the acidity of sour milk; we know 
that carbonic acid is produced, and we have found that when milk is sufficiently 
sour to develop gas about half the acidity, as indicated by phenolphthalein, is 
shown to litmus (to which both milk and carbonic acid are approximately neutral). 

"We have based a hypothesis on the facts that different acids do not give the 
same result, that salts of polybasic acids are present in milk, that both casein and 
alV)umin have acidic functions, and that the coagulation of milk at temperatures 
between 17 and .35° does not appreciably vary with the temi^erature; it appears to 
us that curdling of milk is due to an amount of acid being present to set up an equi- 
librium between the acids and bases present, such that certain acids, e. g., casein and 
albumin, are liberated. At a boiling temperature we are inclined to think that the 
curdling is determined by the coagulation of the albumin, the equilibrium being 
destroyed by the removal of one acid (albumin) from solution, and fresh amounts of 
allHimin, and finally perhaps casein, are liberated. 

"When milk tastes sour, it would appear that the equilibrium is such that a sour- 
tasting free acid exists in solution; while when milk curdles spontaneously the 
equilibrium is such that the insoluble acid casein is produced." 

Experiments were made to determine the rate of souring of milk 
with and without the addition of preservatives (boric acid or formal- 
dehyde). 

"At high temperatures (say 80° hot summer weather) preservatives are compara- 
tively useless unless added in relatively large quantities; the minimum quantities 
used by us, and also by Kideal, only increase the life of milk a few hours, and are 
equivalent only to a lowering of temperature of about 5° F. Unless milk can be 
made to keep at least 12 hours longer than without preservatives, we do not think 
much is gained by their use, and to do this in summer we think that the nunimum 
amounts are 0.09 per cent boric preservative and 0.004 per cent formaldehyde. 

"We would also draw attention to the increased rate of souring as time goes on, 
when preservatives are added. This indicates a possible danger in using preserva- 
tives in milk, as it seems far from improbable that succeeding generations of micro- 
organisms become in the presence of preservatives more active and more virulent, 
and if the use of preservatives were universal, there is a probability that they would 
cease to act. The work of Effront on yeast grown in the presence of sodium fluorid 
shows that this view is not a mere hypothesis." « 



DAIRY FARMING DAIRYING. 



181 



Changes in the constants of butter fat as a result of feeding, 

A. KuFFiN {Ann. t'li'nn. Arialyt. et Appl., 4- {1899)^ pp. 383-385,' ahs. 
in Chem. Centbl.., 1900, /, Ho. 1, ^y. 69). — The author discusses the 
inve.stigation of Baumert and Falke (E. S. R., 10, p. 685), in which he 
finds numerous analytical anomalies. He reports the following results 
from feeding- experiments with dili'erent kinds of oil cakes: 

Physical constants of hiMcr on different feeding stuffs. 



Index of 
j refrac- 
tion. 



Saponifica- 
tion num- 
ber. 



Volatile 
fatty 
acids. 



Normal ration, hay, and alfalfa 

Cotton-seed cake ." 

Cotton-seed cake and normal ration 

Peanut cake 

Peanut cake and normal ration 

Cocoanut cake 



30 -33 
28.&-30 
29. 5-30 
30 -31 
28 -30 
32 -33 



224 -232 
222 -228 
221 -229 

225 -228 
221. 9-229 
231 -240 



27.6-34.9 
26. 4-29 
28. 4-30 
26. 9-29 
28 -32 
25. .5-31 



The author remarks that in practice the effects of the different feed- 
ing stuffs used largely neutralize each other, so that butter made from 
feeds which produce an abnormal product is rarely found on the 
market. 

Butters from various countries compared, C. Estcourt {Analyst., 
25 {1900), May, p)P- 113-116).— The. author has examined within the 
past year 250 samples of butter from different countries which were 
received direct from the importers. The water content was found as 
follows: 

Water content of butter from different countries. 



Origin of samples. 


Number 
of sam- 
ples. 


Water content. 


Average. 


Highest. 


Lowest. 


Finnish 


S5 
89 
39 
14 
10 
8 


Per cent. 
12.3 
13.5 
14.1 
13.75 
13.2 
13.5 


Per cent. 
18.0 
18.0 
20.0 
17.8 
19.4 
14.8 


Per cent. 
8 


Danish 


9.0 


Irish 


9.0 


Swedish 


11.8 




10.0 


German 


11.4 







Only 9 of the Danish samples and 3 of the Finnish samples con- 
tained more than 15 per cent of water. Nearly all of the samples 
were examined for preservatives. None of the German or Swedish 
samples contained preservatives, and only one sample from Canada, 
one from Finland, and 3 from Denmark. The preservative in these 
cases was boric acid, which did not exceed 9 gr. per pound. All of 
the 37 samples of Irish butter examined contained boric acid in quan- 
tities varying from 5 to 46 gr. to the pound. 

The volatile acids were determined by the Reichert process. Onl}^ 
8 of the Finnish butters gave a Reichert figure of 16 or over, and 21 
samples showed less than 13, 2 o.f these being 11.9. Onl}^ 1 of the 
Irish and Canadian butters were below 13. Of the Danish samples, 



182 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

22 were above 16 and only 3 were below 13. The lowest samples of 
Swedish and German butter showed 13.7 and 13.5, respectively. 

A study of the cause of mottled butter, C. F. Doane {Maryland 
Sta. Bui. GJi^jyp. ^i-J^)- — Experiments were conducted to test various 
theories as to the cause of mottled butter. 

The butter from each of 5 churnings was divided into 2 lots, one of 
which was washed with water at 50- and the other with water at 35 to 
40°. The washing occupied about 1 minute. A portion of each lot 
was worked 3 minutes and the remaining portion 4 minutes. Of the 
5 lots washed with water at 50° and worked 3 minutes one was slightly 
mottled. Of the 5 lots washed with cold water and worked the same 
time 1 were mottled. The more frequent occurrence of mottled butter 
in the latter case is attributed to the less thorough working of the 
harder butter resulting from washing in ice water. None of the butter 
worked -1 minutes was mottled. In 4 additional experiments to deter- 
mine the effect of using cold water the butter was allowed to remain 
in water at 40° for 15 minutes, after which one-half of each churning 
was worked 3 minutes and the other half 4 minutes. The butter worked 

4 minutes was free from mottles in every case; that worked 3 minutes 
was slightly mottled in 2 of the tests. No material difference was 
observed between washing 1 minute and 15 minutes. 

To determine the effect of the uneven distribution of salt the butter 
from each of 20 churnings was divided into 2 lots immediately after 
washing. One lot in each case was salted and the other left unsalted. 
Both lots were worked one minute and then set in the refrigerator. 
"Not one of the unsalted lots was at all mottled, while in every case 
the salted lots were very distinctl}' mottled." It was found by tasting 
that the light portions of the mottled butter contained very much less 
salt than the more deeply colored portions. The same difference was 
observed in a large number of samples of unevenly colored butter from 
commercial sources. The author therefore concludes that the uneven 
distribution of salt is the cause of mottles. 

The effect of salt on the appearance of butter was further tested in 

5 experiments, in each of which 2 lots of butter from the same churn- 
ing were thoroughly worked and otherwise treated alike except that 
only 1 lot in each case was salted. The salted butter had a darker 
color than the unsalted butter, the difference being distinguishable 
immediately after working and very marked after 21 hours. 

To determine if the more pronounced color of the salted butter was 
brought about by the action of salt in driving out more of the butter- 
miik, the content of casein in the samples of butter made in the experi- 
ments last noted was determined. In 3 churnings the salted butter 
had less casein than the unsalted butter, and in the other 2 compari- 
sons the results were reversed. In each of 10 experiments 1 lot of 
butter was salted and worked without being washed and another lot 



DAIRY FARMING DAIRYING. 183 

from the same churning was washed thoroughly to remove as much of 
the buttermilk as possible. In each case the l)utter was worked 1 
minute. At the end of 24 hours all the lots were mottled alike. The 
results are considered as showing that a relative excess of casein is not 
the cause of the lighter color of unsalted butter as compared with 
salted butter, nor of the lighter portions of mottled butter. 

Butter worked under different conditions sufficiently to secure an 
even distribution of the salt was scored by an expert as to grain. One 
churning was washed with water at 50° and another with water at 38 
to 40°, both churnings being worked immediately after washing. Two 
other churnings were washed with water at 45°, one receiving 2 par- 
tial workings separated by an interval of 24 hours and the other being 
kept in a refrigerator 24 hours before being worked. The average 
score for grain in 3 repetitions of this experiment was highest for the 
butter washed with water at about 40° and worked immediately and 
lowest for the butter worked after 24 hours. Butter washed with 
water at 50° and worked immediately scored practically the same as 
that given 2 partial workings. 

The effect of cold wash water on the solidity of the butter was also 
tested. The butter from each of 10 churnings was divided into 2 lots, 
1 lot in each case being washed with water at 50 to 52°, and the 
other lot with water at 35 to 40°. Samples of the butter from both 
lots in each experiment were kept at 70° and also at 48° for 24 hours. 
All samples were then kept at 60° for 4 hours, when they were grad- 
ually heated to 80°. There was on the whole no practical difference 
in the 2 lots of samples as regards the time of becoming soft or the 
consistency of thej^utter at the end of the experiment. 

Bacteria content of Finnish milk, O. v. Hellens {Nord. Jfejtri 
Thin., IJp {1899), Nos. 1^3-1^6, pp. 587-589, ef seq.).~-T\ie milk supply 
of the city of Helsiugfors was studied \>j the author from a bacterio- 
logical standpoint. Samples of market milk and that sold at retail 
stores were taken in the summer and in the winter. The samples taken 
during summer contained from 20,000 to 34,300,000 bacteria per cubic 
centimeter, the average being 4,745,000; while in the winter the bacte- 
ria content ranged from 70,000 to 18,630,000, and averaged 2,111,000. 
About 60 per cent of the summer samples contained over 1,000,000 
bacteria per cubic centimeter against 35 per cent in the winter sam- 
ples. The qualitative bacteriological examinations were restricted to 
pathogenic forms of bacteria, injections of new milk or cream and 
separator slime being made in guinea pigs. Of 34 samples, 24 were 
found to contain one or more forms of pathogenic bacteria. Seven 
different forms were identified, viz, BaciUus tuhercidosis, B. sti'epto- 
cocciwi 2)yogenes, B. staphylococcus p)yogenes cmreiLS, B. alhics, B. citt'eus, 
B. hovis, and Bdcferiuvi coli commune. 



184 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

The examinations of the quantities of dirt in the milk showed that 
35 samples out of a hundred contained less than 0.5 mg. per liter, and 
the average amount for 65 samples was 2.44 mg. The maximum con- 
tent obtained was 10.6 mg. This favorable result is explained by the 
fact that on most Finnish dairy farms strict attention is paid to clean- 
liness in the stables and grooming the cows. The samples of milk 
examined were found to contain a very low percentage of fat; in the 
case of 100 samples only 68 came above 2.7 per cent. This is due to 
skimming or admixture of skim milk. — f. w. woll. 

The invasion of the udder by bacteria, A. R. Ward [Neio York 
Cornell Sta. Bui. 178, pp. 260-280, pi. l^figs. 2, dgm. 7).— The views 
of several investigators regarding the presence or absence of bacteria 
in the normal udder are noted, and investigations conducted by the 
author in continuation of earlier work (E. S. R., 10, p. 1094) are 
reported. 

Bacteriological examination was made of the udders of 19 cows, 
slaughtered on account of tuberculosis. None of the udders examined 
showed tubercular or other lesions. Plate cultures were made from 
the fore milk drawMi just before the cows were killed and from gland- 
ular tissue of different portions of the udder, great care being taken 
to prevent contamination. Bacteria, for the most part micrococci, 
wTre found in nearly all cases, and summaries are given of the mor- 
phology, staining reactions, and cultural characteristics of the several 
kinds. The same kinds of bacteria were frequently found in the fore 
milk and in the glandular tissue. The germs isolated from the udders 
did not usually cause the souring of milk in cultures. Tables and dia- 
grams show the sources of the different germs and. their distribution 
in a number of the udders examined. 

A study of the structure of the udder revealed no obstruction sepa- 
rating the milk cistern from that of the teat sufficient to prevent the 
invasion of bacteria. 

"The free communication of the milk cistern with the more minute lactiferous 
ducts is at times interrupted by the sphincter muscles described by anatomists as 
present in those ducts. There is little ground, however, for considering them as 
serious barriers to the progress of micro-organisms 25000 of an inch in diameter. 

"That the milk ducts of the teat normally harbor bacteria is admitted l>y ail. 
Some few, with whom the writer agrees, assert that the milk cistern normally har- 
bors bacteria. Such being true, there is little reason to doulit that bacteria may find 
their way through the fine ramifications of the milk cistern (lactiferous ducts) to 
regions remote from the teat. Pathogenic organisms certainly do so when the udder 
is diseased, and to couceive that harmless ones do so in health is not difficult." 

The author briefly discusses the practical bearing of the results of 
the investigation. 

"Judged from the standpoint of the dairyman, who considers that souring is the 
one and only harmful change in milk, the contamination of milk from the interior 
of the udder, so far as has been shown in this work, might be disregarded as unim- 
portant. Until more is known of the ordinary and of the occasional bacterial 



DAIRY FARMING DAIRYING. 185 

iiilialiitants of the udder and of their aljihty to elaborate enzyms and toxic sub- 
stances, the writer urges the recognition of that source of the contamination of 
milk." 

Lessons from a milk record, R. Shanks {Trans. Highland and 
Agr. Soe. Scotland, 5. .sv/-., 19. {1900), 2>P- 99-112).— The author dis- 
cusses the keepini^' of milk records, giving- suggestions for weighing 
the milk, taking samples, and testing. The average yields of milk and 
fat of a herd of 25 to 30 cows for 5 j^ears are given, together with 
notes on the system of feeding. Deductions are drawn from the 
record concerning the 3'ield and (juality of milk as affected by the age 
of the cows, abortion, character of food, and manner of milking. 
Young cows gave the richest milk and old cows the largest yield. 
Abortion lowered the yield of milk very decidedly and decreased the 
fat content over 0.2 per cent. Food is considered as having little or 
no permanent influence on the quality of the milk. The average 
results with 7 cows indicated that a good milker obtained a higher 
percentage of fat in the luilk than a poor milker. Notes are given on 
the selection of a profitable cow. 

Winter feeding for dairy cows, W. Somerville ( County Councils Cumberland, 
Durham, and Northumberland, Tech. Education, RpL 8 {lS99),pp. 95, 96). — A brief 
note on the rations fed dairy cows at Newton Eigg Penrith. 

The college herd, C. W. Burkett {New Hampshire Sta. Bui. 68, p. 156). — A tab- 
ulated summary of the herd record from November 1, 1898, to October 31, 1899. 

"The herd has been equivalent to 323 milch cows and 65 dry cows for one month, 
and has produced 166,728 lbs. of milk and 8,864.57 lbs. of butter, making an average 
monthly yield per head for 388 cows, 429 lbs. of milk and 22.8 lbs. of butter, or 
5,148 lbs. of milk and 273.6 lbs. of butter for the year." 

On the influence of the milking on the production of the cows and the 
quality of the butter, K. N. Kristensen {Norsk Landnuindsblad, 18 {1899), No. 44, 
pp. 536-539). 

The milk supply of large cities, Bovsen {Milch Ztg., 29 {1900), No. 6, pp. 
81-83). — A discussion of the milk supply of Copenhagen based on observations made 
by the author. 

Experiments in the purification of milk, Dunbar and I. Kister {Milch Ztg., 
■28 {1899), Nos. 48, pp. 753-756, figs. 3; 49, pp. 771-773; 50, pp. 787-789).— Compara- 
tive tests of a centrifuge and a Danish sand filter with especial reference to the 
removal of dirt and bacteria and changes in the character of the milk are reported 
in detail. 

Preservation of milk samples for the purpose of investigation, H. Schrott 
{Milch Ztg., 29 {1900), No. 12, p. 180). — The method of pasteurization practiced by the 
author in preserving a series of samples of milk for a composite test is described. 
The milk was kept at a temperature of 70 to 82° C. for 1 to 2 hours. Each day 
an equal portion was adde<l to the first sample |ind the pasteurization repeated. 
Composite samples covering 14 days were secured without difficulty in this way. 

Sampling milk and cream ( Vermont Sta. Hpec. Bui., Oct., 1899, pp. 4)- — Detailed 
directions are given for taking samples of milk to test individual cows and the entire 
dairy as a whole, to test cream and skim milk from the dairy, to test buttermilk or 
Avhey, and to check correctne.-^s of test at creamery or cheese factory. 

A modification of the Babcock milk test, ]\I. Siegfeld {Dairy World, 20 {1900), 
No. 6, p. IS). — The milk and sulphuric acid are mixed as u.sual and 2 cc. of amyl 



186 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

alcohol and a sufficient quantity of hot diluted sulphuric acid (temperature 90-100° 
C. and sp. gr. 1.5) to fill the test bottle to the upper part of the graduated neck are 
added. The samples are whirled 3 minutes and the reading taken. Only one whirl- 
ing is required. Determinations made by this method agreed closely with those 
made by the GerV)er test and the Adams gravimetric method. 

The relation between specific gravity, fat, and solids-not-fat in milk, N. 
Leonard {Analyst, 25 [1900), Mar., pp. 67-69).— The author worked out the average 
error in the calculation according to a formula, and found that the error varied with 
the season. 

On the payment for milk according: to the content of solids, H. Schrott 
{Milch Zfg., 29 {1900), No. 5, pp. 68-7 1) .—This, subject is discussed at some length. 

Bitter milk for infants, Uhl and 0. Henzold {Milch Ztg., 29 {1900), No. 5, pp. 65, 
66,Ji(j. 1). — The cause of a bitter taste in samples of prepared milk from 2 factories 
was traced to a sjiecies of Clostridium present in the milk sugar which was added in 
the process of manufacture. The bacterium is illustrated and described. It was not 
found in a sample of milk sugar containing no all)uminous substances. 

Notes on the control of the manufacture of butter {Bcl(/. Horl. et Agr., 12 
{1900), No. 2, pp. 28, 29). 

Some contributions on the rancidity of butter, J. Hanus {Ztschr. Unler.ntch. 
Nahr. II. Geiius.^infL, 3 {1900), No. 5, j)p. 324-328). 

Stilton cheese making, M. Benson {Agr. Jour, and Min. Rec, 2 {1900), No. 24 
pp. 749-754)- 

VETERINARY SCIENCE AND PRACTICE. 

Immunization against Texas fever by blood inoculation, W. H. 
Dalrymple, W. R. Dodson, and H. A. Morgan {Louisiana Stas. Bid. 
57, 3. se?\,2)p. l]^3-18o,fi(ji<. 6). — In experiments in blood inoculation, 
9 susceptible heifers were divided into 3 groups and each group was 
inoculated with the blood of a diti'erent animal. The animals from 
which blood was taken for inoculation were an immunized steer from 
north of the quarantine line, a native animal, and a Jersey calf born 
on the college grounds. Five cubic centimeters of blood from these 
animals was inoculated into each of the 9 animals to be immunized. 
The blood from the Jerse}^ calf produced fever in the 3 heifers into 
which it was inoculated and caused a decrease in the number of blood 
corpuscles. The 3 heifers were afterwards exposed to natural infesta- 
tion Avith ticks without developing acute cases of Texas fever. The 
other 2 animals from which blood was taken for inoculation were 
believed to have recovered from more severe attacks of Texas fever 
and to possess, therefore, blood of greater immunizing power. The 
3 heifers which were inocidated with blood from the native animal 
developed high temperatures and showed a decrease in the number of 
blood corpuscles, as usual under such conditions. During the inocula- 
tion fever, one of the animals was attacked by 2 healthy animals and 
died as a result. Similar results were obtained from the blood of the 
immune Northern steer. It was observed, however, that the blood of 
this steer was less virulent than that of the native steer, but that its 
immunizing properties were fully as satisfactorj\ Two Herefords 



VETEKINAKY SCIENCE AND PEACTICE. 187 

were each inoculated with 2^ cc. of blood from a recently immunized 
animal, with entirely satisfactory results. Mr. J. T. Bryant success- 
fully inmuinized '2 Hereford j-earlings (imported from Iowa) by inocula- 
tion with 2 cc. of blood from a native yearling. 

The authors give a description of the method to be used in securing 
the blood for inoculation and in making the inoculation in animals to 
be immunized. Experiments were conducted for the purpose of deter- 
mining whether the blood in ticks could be used for inoculation pur- 
poses. Ticks were collected and carefully washed in a solution of 
corrosive sublimate and sterilized water. The blood from these ticks 
was then used in inoculating 4 animals. The first animal (a grade 
Shorthorn) was inoculated with blood obtained from 3 large cattle ticks 
which had been removed from native cattle. The temperature of this 
animal showed an elevation one week after the injection, then returned 
to the normal, and became high again 15 days after the injection. The 
highest recorded temperature was 104.6^ and the blood corpuscles 
were diminished by about one-third. The animal was placed on a tick- 
infested pasture in the following spring without showing any evidence 
of fever. The second animal (a grade Shorthorn) was inoculated on 
August 29. Its temperature was quite high during the 2 following 
days, but returned to the normal on the fourth day. Since it seemed 
doubtful whether the animal had really become immune, a further 
inoculation was made with blood taken from ticks which had been main- 
tained for 7 hours at a temperature of — 12° C. After this second 
inoculation, the number of blood corpuscles diminished, but there was 
no temperature reaction except for one day. Later, a single tick was 
found on the animal, so that this case was considered too complicated 
for drawing definite conclusions. The third animal was a common 
2-year-old steer which was inoculated with blood from ticks which had 
been kept for 7 hours at a temperature ranging from — 10 to — 12° C. 
The animal developed no symptoms of Texas fever for 18 days after 
the inoculation, and was then inoculated with blood from a native 
cow. One week later a good case of inoculation fever developed. It 
appears from this experiment that the organism of Texas fever ma}^ be 
destroyed or attenuated while in the body of the ticks, and this ma}' be 
the explanation of the fact that tick infestation in late fall or early 
spring produces a milder form of the disease than that of midsummer. 
The fourth case was a heifer which was inoculated with the blood from 
ticks and developed a high fever on the nineteenth day after inocula- 
tion, the blood corpuscles being also reduced by about 50 per cent. 
Recovery then began to take place, but the animal became deeply mired 
during this time and died. 

An experiment was tried in the preservation of blood for inocula- 
tion purposes. One-tenth per cent of potassium oxalate was added to 
blood and this blood was then sent to Ann Arbor and tried at home 



188 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

after 4 days' preservation, with negative results in both cases. No 
bacterial growth had taken place in the blood, but the organism of 
Texas fever was destro3^ed. A cross Hereford and Shorthorn bull, 2 
years of age, was imported from Missouri and inoculated in the ordi- 
nary way, but died on the third day after inoculation. It was supposed 
that in this case death resulted from scptica?niia. 

The general results of these experiments may be summarized as 
follows: Blood from recenth^ immunized animals gave a milder and 
less protracted form of inoculation fever than a similar aniovuit of 
blood from a native animal. If animals were allowed a sufficient time 
to recover completely from the inoculation fever, they did not suffer 
when exposed to tick infestation. The experiments indicate that it is 
possible to take engorged ticks from recently inmiunized animals and 
ship them to considerable distances, thus using them as receptacles for 
containing the virulent blood. It appears also that although the inocu- 
lation fever which results from the use of such blood is mild, the immu- 
nity produced is complete. 

Studies on cattle plague, M. Nencki et al. {Arc/t. Sci. Biol. [St. 
Fetersbunj], 7 {1S09), Xo. 4, 2>2)- 303-336).— The authors' researches 
upon cattle plague were begun in the province of Kouban in 1895. It 
was soon discovered that the blood of animals which had recovered 
from this disease contained a substance which confers immunity on 
other animals. Considerable progress has been made in perfecting 
means for the preparation of the antitoxin and in taking blood from 
experimental animals. The animals which are to be immunized receive 
a dose of 0.2 cc. of virulent blood. After about 2 days, when it 
appears that the disease has invaded the organism, the animal receives 
a dose of therapeutic serum. Immunization has been accomplished 
In' the authors hy 2 methods, which they have called rapid and slow, 
respectiyel3^ 

The benefits derived from immunization are stated by the authors as 
follows: The danger of contagion from the excrement of the animals is 
avoided and abortion in pregnant cows prevented. The injection of 
immunizing serum has no influence upon the secretion of milk. Ani- 
mals which are susceptible to cattle plague may be immunized in 3 
ways, b}^ the serum alone, b}' the serum and ^'irulent blood, and by 
inoculating the animal with virulent l)l()()d and then giving an injection 
of serum after the disease has shoAvn its first symptoms, which occurs 
usualW in from 1 to 8 days. 

In experiments which were conducted to determine the value of bile 
in the production of immunity, the authors came to the following con- 
clusions: The green bile of animals killed by severing the jugular vein 
from 5 to 7 days after the beginning of the fever is most effective in 
producing immunity. The liile of animals which have died of cattle 
plague is yellowish in color and is not suitable for use in preventive 



VETERINARY SCIENCE AND PRACTICE. 189 

inoculation. Immunization b_v means of bile is a method ^Yhicll in 
general is too uncertain in its results to be recommended. 

Results of recent investigations on foot-and-mouth disease 
and their practical application, C Ebertz {Arch. ]V!ss. a. l*r(i]d. 
Thierh., '26 {1900), No. 2-3, pp. 155-20 }^).—T\iQ author presents an 
elaborate critical review of the literature of this subject. A com- 
mission which was appointed for investigating vaccination methods 
against this disease did not carefully determine the virulence of the 
l3'mph which was used for this purpose, its value, nor the varying 
susceptibility of the animals which were to be inoculated. 

The author considers in a critical manner the results obtained from 
the application of Lofler's seraphthin method and Hecker's inocula- 
tion experiments against foot-and-mouth disease. The author believes 
that the reports which have hitherto been made on the A^alue of 
various methods in controlling this disease are to some extent vitiated 
by the failure to make allowance for the large number of exceed- 
ingly mild cases which are nearl}- always to be observed in extensive 
outbreaks of the disease. The author states that numerous experi- 
ments carried out under government control according to Hecker's 
inoculation method show that in its present form it is not adapted to 
the production of such results as have been claimed for it. 

Sheep scab, A. W. Bitting {Indiana Sta. Bui. 80, p>p. 63-76, 
fcjH. 8). — The author gives a general account of the nature of this 
disease and a description of the parasitic mite which causes the dis- 
ease. Brief notes are presented on the dips to be used for the 
destruction of the scab mite and on the methods of applying such 
dips, together with a description of dipping tanks. The State statisti- 
cian secured reports from sheep owners which indicate that sheep 
scab existed in 320 localities in the State and that 9,338 sheep w^ere 
affected. Further inquirj- developed the fact that some other condi- 
tions which caused roughness in the fleece had been mistaken for seal). 

The bulletin contains a copy of the live-stock law of Indiana afl'ecting 
the spread of sheep scab and the regulations of this Department con- 
cerning the dipping of sheep which are afi'ected with scab. 

Scab in sheep — suggestions for its eradication, AVallace {Trans. 
HigJiland and Agr. Sac. Scotland, 5. ser., 12 {1900), pj). 117-137). — 
The author gives statistics compiled from circulars of inquirj^ which 
show that the most serious outbreaks of sheep scab occur during the 
winter months. A brief outline of the life history of the scab mite is 
presented. On the subject of dipping, the author gives a general dis- 
cussion of the peculiar local conditions which must be considered in 
this operation throughout Scotland and Wales. In the mountainous 
regions of Wales about 45,000 sheep belonging to 300 ownei>s are 
grazed. These sheep are in herds of from 5 or 6 up to 2,000. These 



190 EXPEEIMENT STATION RECORD. 

regions are not isolated by division fences into separate areas, and it is 
therefore necessar}- that dipping should be regulated by some central 
authority. 

Among the dipping materials considered by this author, the follow- 
ing may be mentioned: A white arsenic dip made b}^ boiling 4.5 lbs. 
of arsenic and 45 lbs. of carbonate of soda crystals in 2i gal. of water. 
This to be dissolved in water at the rate of 2 lbs. to 100 gal. Sulphur 
in the insoluble form of flowers of sulphur is recommended as an 
effective dip. In order that sulphur may be more evenly distributed 
in the dip, it is reconunended that an equal weight of soft soap be added. 
Tobacco is recommended in a dip made as follows: 100 lbs. of drj" leaf- 
tobacco, 10 lbs. of blue vitriol, 15 lbs. of common salt, and 2 lbs. of oil 
of turpentine. Carbolic acid has also been found effective in killing 
living parasites, but it is dangerous if used in a strength sufficient to 
kill the eggs. Pitch oil is not recommended on account of the injurious 
effects which it has upon the wool. 

The author makes the following recommendations regarding dip- 
ping: The dipping- season should be from the first of June to the mid- 
dle of November. Counties should be subdivided into areas in which 
all sheep may be dipped within a period of 15 days, a second dipping- 
to take place between the fifth and fourteenth day after the first dip- 
ping. Inspectors should be appointed by the Board of Agriculture 
and no sheep should be removed from one area to another during the 
dipping season without being dipped immediately before removal. 
All railway trucks and pens in public markets should be thoroughly 
disinfected. Dipping tanks should be provided, the total cost being 
met by the sheep owners. Late autumn dipping is more generally 
practiced than spring dipping and is most effective. It is especially 
desirable also from the fact that Melophagns ovrnvs is killed along 
with the scab mite. Spring dipping is desirable where the fall dip- 
ping has not proved successful, and is usually more or less effective 
in destroying the grass ticks of the genus Ixodes, and thereby pre- 
venting louping-ill. 

Swine plague, P. Fischer and A, T. Kinsley {Kansas Sta. Bui. 
9L pp. 18). — The veterinary department of the station is conducting 
experiments in protective inoculation against swine plague. At- 
tenuated cultures of Bacillus suis were used as prepared by H. J. 
Detmers. 

A college herd of ISl pigs had been bought from different localities 
and was divided into 2 lots containing 114 and 320 respectively. Lot 
1 was inoculated July 11, 1899. Lot 2 was inoculated August 11 of 
the same vear. On July 24, or 13 days after the inoculation of lot 1, 
the pigs began to die of swine plague and continued to die until Octo- 
ber 8, when only 7 pigs remained out of the 114. On August 19, or 8 



VETERINARY SCIENCE AND PRACTICE. 191 

dnya after the inoculation of lot 2, the pigs of this lot began to die, 
and at the end of 45 days onl}^ 56 were left of the 320. 

In order to determine whether the inoculation with Detmers' virus 
was the cause of the outbreak of the disease, 10 average pigs were 
selected from lot 2 for special experiment. The temperatures of these 
pigs were taken and were found to range from 101. 1 to 109° F. Only- 
one of the pigs had a normal temperature. Each of these 10 pigs 
received 5 cc. (10 full doses) of a check culture of Bacilhbs suis. In 
some of them a slight rise in temperature was noticed on the second 
da}', as a possible effect of the lymph. In others no effect whatever 
was noticed. The pig which had the normal temperature at the 
beginning of the experiment was the only one which survived. The 
authors believe that all those which died were infected with swine 
plague before the beginning of the experiment. The observation of 
temperature of pigs seems to be a valuable method of diagnosing swine 
plague before other symptoms are manifested. 

The regular dose of the virus is from 0. 1 to 1 cc. , but the authors 
found by experiment that pigs could receive 25 times this amount 
without permanent bad effects. It was concluded, therefore, that pro- 
tective inoculation when carefully performed can not cause an outbreak 
of swine plague. Notes are given on an outbreak of swine plague in 
a herd of a farmer, from which it is apparent that pigs may be infected 
Avith swine plague for a period of 33 days before deaths begin to 
occur. 

Nine hundred and fifty-five pigs belonging to farmers in the State 
have been inoculated with the Detmers virus and not one of this num- 
ber has died of swine plague, although many of them have been 
exposed. The authors believe that the method can be so perfected as 
to be of considerable practical value but do not recommend its general 
adoption until further experiments have been conducted. 

Ne-w investigations on Trichophyton minimum, Le CalviS and H. 
Malherbe {Arch. Parasit., 2 (1899), jVo. J^, pp. J^89-503, Jig.l).— The 
authors give a detailed description of the dermatomj^cosis produced by 
this organism. From a study of the circumstances under which out- 
breaks of the disease were observed it is concluded that the fungus 
lives during the winter in a vegetative condition in the soil or filth of 
stables. 

The mycelium of this organism secretes about itself a sort of sub- 
stance of a mucoid nature. Some experiments were conducted to 
determine the chemical nature of this substance. Boiling water, dilute 
mineral acids, dilute bases, and dilute organic acids had no effect at all 
upon the mucoid matter, except in the case of acetic and hydrochloric 
acids, which seemed to clarify the substance. Numerous other tests 
were made, with the result that the substance is believed to be of a 
1710— No. 2 7 



192 EXPERIMENT STATION RECOED. 

proteid nature. The organism not onl}" produces a disease of the skin 
and hair in the horse, but may be transmitted to dogs and guinea pigs. 
It was not observed on man and no experiments were conducted to 
determine the possibility of transmitting it to man. 

T. minimuiH has a delicate, branched m3'celium, with ver}' small 
spores. The vegetative portions are inclosed by an external secretion 
of a proteid substance, which constitutes a source of reserve nutriment 
for the fungus. The culture media which are best adapted for grow- 
ing this organism are such as contain albuminoid substances. The 
organism is believed to live in 2 conditions — as a parasite in the skin 
of the horse and dog, and in a vegetative condition during cold weather 
in the soil or in filth. 

Notes on the mortality of incubator chicks, (i. W. Field et al. 
{Bhodt Mand Sta. Bui. 61^ })p. Ji9-60). — One of the most serious 
sources of loss in poultry raising is the death of incubator chicks, and 
the experiment station undertook an investigation to determine the pro- 
portion of chicks that died and the causes of death. 

In the summer of 1899, S'i'd dead chickens from incubators were exam- 
ined. Fewer males died than females, the proportion being 387 to 139. 
Post-mortem examinations indicated that the diseases of inculjator 
chickens vasij be classified under 1 heads: Diseases due to heredity or 
environment, to mechanical causes, to imperfect sanitation, and to 
improperly balanced ration. 

Alternate periods of heat and cold during incubation bring about a 
considerable percentage of abnormalities, 33 per cent of the chickens 
examined indicating a trouble of this origin. Diseases due to heredity 
may be the result of congenital weakness resulting in special suscepti- 
bility to sickness or in malformations. Tuberculosis among chickens 
was in several cases contracted after hatching through the infected 
brooder. Another sort of constitutional weakness is a failure to absorb 
the 3'olk at the proper time. Poultry raisers frequently complain of 
"bowel trouble" as an important cause of death among incubator 
chickens, and this trouble was found to ])e caused by the nonabsorption 
of the yolk, which happened in a hirge proportion of the chicks which 
died before hatching, and in 13.3 per cent of the hatched chicks abnor- 
malities of the yolk sac were noticed. 

Many deaths occurred from overcrowding or trampling and suffoca- 
tion in the brooders. The fatalities due to imperfect sanitation are 
more important. Tuberculosis, according to the observations of the 
authors, was found in 15.1 per cent of the dead chicks, tubercles being 
found in the lungs of 113 cases, on the walls of the heart in 5 cases, on 
the walls of the gizzard in 5 cases, and on the intestine in 1 case. It 
was found that removing the "hovers" and setting them out of doors 
in full sunlight reduced the presence of tuberculosis to a considerable 
extent. The lungs were found to be congested in 213 cases or 29.1 
per cent. The greatest number of deaths resulted from improper feed- 



VETERINARY SCIENCE AND PRACTICE. 193 

itig", 75.6 per cent numi testing abnormality in the gull bladder. In such 
oases the green gall stains the adjacent organs, or even the adboniinal 
wall, and a green area is to be seen on the outside of the abdomen, 
close to the posterior edge of the breast ]>one. 

Experiments were conducted to determine the hygienic effects of 
different rations, 219 chicks being placed in -1 pens under similar con- 
ditions. All pens were fed as much as they would eat for 30 da^js. 
One pen was fed a diet of ecjual parts of egg, liver, and grain, boiled 
together and chopped ffne, with an addition of sliced onion, oat sprouts, 
etc. The mortality was 3.9 per cent. The second pen was fed on 
grain and green stuff, all animal proteid being omitted. The mortality 
was 9.5 per cent. The third pen was fed on grain alone, with a result- 
ing mortality of 32.7 per cent. The fourth pen was fed on egg, liver, 
and green stuff, all grain being omitted. The mortalit}" yvaH 63.7 per 
cent. 

The general conclusions of the bulletin may be stated as follows: 
Careful examination of dead chicks will usually disclose the cause of 
death. Death from overcrowding can be easily corrected. In order 
to reduce the amount of tuberculosis, the brooder should be given as 
much sunlight and air as possible. Disorders of the liver and gall 
bladder may be recognized from the green stain. In order to prevent 
this, more animal food should be given. Diari'hea is frequently the 
result of feeding a too large proportion of animal food. 

The dangers of water drinking, "W. 0. Williams ( Trans. Highland and Agr. 
Soc. Scotland, 5. ser., 12 {1900)', pp. 112-117). — The source of some of the principal 
dangers to Uve stock in contaminated water is pointed out and the importance of 
clean water insisted upon. 

The micro-organisms in tumors, N. Sjobrixc; {Centhl. Bakt.n. Par., 1. Aht.,27 
{1900), Xo. 4, pp. 129-140, fgs. 4). — The author made a study of 30 kinds of tumors, 
including carcinomata, sarcomata, and myomata. A number of experiments were 
conducted in transplanting these tumors from man to animals. The author concludes 
that the organisms which are concerned in the production of tumors have heretofore 
been improperly classified and belong to the Rhizopods. 

On infections produced by coli bacilli, E. Zschokke {Schireiz. Arch. Thkrh., 
42 {1900), Xo. 1, pp. 20-29). — The author reviews the literature upon this group of 
bacilli and relates the evidence which he collected from personal observations to 
indicate that polyarthritis of calves and croupous enteritis of cats is due to the patho- 
genic action of organisms belonging to this group. 

Combating tuberculosis in domestic animals, B. Banct {Maanedsskr. Dyrlx- 
ger, 11 {1900), Xo. 10, p]>. 35.5-388). — An elaborate discussion of the literature of the 
problem, with a critical account of the various methods which have been adopted in 
different countries. 

Treatment of anthrax with creolin, Yordal {Berlin. Tierdrztl. Wchnschr., 1900, 
Xo. 6, pp. 6S, 64). — The disease was not checked by doses of 25 gm. creolin. 

Anthrax in the dog, H. Martel {Ann. Inst. Pasteur, 14 {1900), Xo. 1, j^P- 13- 
25). — Phlorizine and pyrogallol diminished the natural resisting power of the dog to 
anthrax. The rabid dog is very susceptible to anthrax. Anthrax bacilli by fre- 
quent passing through dogs become more virulent and undergo morphological 
changes, becoming shorter and thicker. 



194 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

Contribution to the study of Texas fever, T. Carrasqcilla {Bol. Soc. Agr. 
Me.ricana, 24 {1900), No. 5, pp. 89-94). — An account of the symptoms, pathological 
anatomy, treatment, and prophylaxis l)y serum inoculations. 

Texas fever, M. Fraxcis and J. W. Coxnaway ( Texas Sta. Bid. 53, pp. 53-106, 
figs. 13) . — This is a report upon the cooperative work of the Texas and Missouri 
exi>eriment stations and the iMissouri State Board of Agriculture, published also as 
Missouri Station Bulletin 48 (E. S. R., 11, p. 988). 

Experimental inoculation against foot-and-mouth disease according to 
Hecker's method {Deut. Thierarztl. Wchmchr., 8 {1900), No. 3, pp. 11-23).— 
Extensive experiments with this method indicate that it is ineffective in protecting 
animals against the disease and in influencing the course of the disease. 

Combating foot-and-mouth disease, Schutz {Deut. Landw. Presse, 21 {1900), 
No. 7, pp. 63, 64). — A general discussion of the symptoms of this disease, w'ith recom- 
mendations of preventive measures. 

Bacteriological conditions in mastitis of cows, C. O. Jexsex {Maanedsskr. 
Dyrlceger, 11 {1900), No. 10, j)p. 337-354). — The forms of mastitis are classified in 3 
groups — lymphogenic, hajmatogenic, and galactogenic. The bacteria which are most 
often found in connection with mastitis are Streptococci, Staphylococci, and Coli 
bacilli. 

Omphalo-phlebitis of calves, Bitard and P. Leblaxc {Jour. Med. Vet. et 
Zootech., 5. ser., 4 {1900), pp. 10-12, fig. 1). — A discussion of the etiology and symp- 
toms of this disease is given, together with various treatments which are recom- 
mended. The treatment should be preventive, and consists for the most part in a 
careful antiseptic treatment of the umbilical cord. 

Dehorning {Agr. Jour. Cape Good Hope, 16 {1900), No. 1, jyp. 10-12).— \ table is 
given showing the amount of milk and butter fat before and after dehorning. Only 
a slight decrease was noted. 

Determining the age of slaughtered cattle, BrxoE {Deut. Landiv. Presse, 26 
{1899), No. 94, p. 1062). — Quoted from the Deut.^che ThierarztUche Wochensclirift. 
The author bases his determinations of the age of cattle on changes in the spinal 
process. 

Protective inoculation against hog cholera, H. Jost {Berlin. TIerarztJ. 
Wchmchr. {1900), No. 4, pp. 37-39). — A discussion of the methods to be adopted in 
making the inoculation. 

Manifestations of disease in horses which are kept in badly ventilated 
stalls, Seegert {Ztschr. Veterinark., 12 {1900), No. 2, pp. 65-68).— In badly venti- 
lated stalls horses manifest not only a generally unsatisfactory condition, but show a 
special tendency toward congestion of the brain and catarrh of the respiratory 
organs. 

The horse's foot and how to shoe it, Dewar {Trans. Highland and Agr. Soc. 
Scotland, 5. ser., 12 {1900), pp. 239-294, fig><. S2).—Th\s article contains detailed 
directions for the preparation of the hoof and the shaping of the shoe, with reference 
to special purposes or the correction of defects in the foot or gait. 

Babies and its prevention, Loir {Bui. Dir. Agr. et Com., 5 {1900), No. 14, 
pp. 74-78). — A general discussion. 

Caponizing cockerels ( Queensland Agr. Jour., 6 {1900), No. l,pp. 25-27, figs. 4)-— 
A description of the operation and of the necessary instruments. 

Bacillol, Protargol, and Tannoform, C. Avgkksteis {Berlin. Tierarztl. Wchnschr., 
1900, No. 6, pp. 61,62). — This article reports results which were obtained in anti- 
septic treatment. Bacillol in a 2 per cent solution gave excellent results. Protargol 
is expensive, but is so effective even in weak solutions that its cost is no great disad- 
vantage. The author believes that tannoform is a better remedy than iodoform in 
cases where the latter would be used. 



TECHNOLOGY. 195 

TECHNOLOGY. 

Chloroform in -wine making, L. E. Moline {Reprint from V Agri- 
culture Moderne in BoJ. /Soc. Agr. Mexicana, '25 {1900)^ iV^'. 12, 
■pp. 236, 237).— This article gives the method of controlling fermenta- 
tion in wine making bj^ the use of chloroform. For this purpose the 
chloroform is incorporated with 5 times its volume of alcohol and 
added to the nnxst in the proportion of 4 or 5 cc. per liter. After 
some days, when the must is sufficiently colored, the wine is decanted 
and the pomace pressed as usual. The wine may then be pasteurized 
at 80° C. when the excess of alcohol and chloroform will pass off. It 
is claimed that this method is uniform in its action and leaves no 
undesirable odor or product behind, as in the use of sulphuric acid. 
Even if the chloroform should remain, it would produce no undesira- 
ble results. This method was found especially valuable in the treat- 
ment of champagne, as the product Avas of better quality and the time 
of maturing shortened at least one vear. 

On a new process for extracting sugar from low products, P. Lkcomte 
{Compt. Keud. Acad. Sci. Farix, 130 {1900), No. 20, pp- 1336, 1337). 

Ozone for the purification of sugar-beet juices {Sugar, 11 {1899), Xo. 12, pp. 
182, 183). — Notes on the use of electrically prepared ozone in improved methods of 
beet-sugar manufacture. 

Verley's method of treating sirup with ozone {Tnd. Eledrochim. , 3 {1899), pp. 
^5-29; ahs. in Sci. Abs., 2 {1899), No. 21, p. 630). 

Practical data for the use of sulphurous acid in beet-sugar extraction 
{Sugar Bed, 21 {1900), No. 1, pp. 2-4). 

Russian electrical methods for beet juice and sirup epuration {Sugar Beet, 
21 {1900), No. 1, p. 9). 

Abnormally high polarization of some mill juices, H. C. Prinsen-Geerligs 
{Meded. Proefstat. Sidkerrlef We.sf Java, No. 39, pp. 19). 

Annual report of the enological station of Haro, Spain, Victor C. Manso de 
ZuNiGA {Memoria Anual Entacion Enologica de Haro, July, 1899, pp. 35, map 1). — 
This gives an account of the work at this station during 1899 in the following lines: 
Correspondence, field, and laboratory investigations on grape growing and wine 
making, and meteorological observations. 

The manufacture of white w^ine from red grapes, A. Bouffard and L. 8emi- 
CHOX {Ann. Ecoh' Nat. Agr. MoutpcNUr, 11 {1899-1900), pp. 155-170, Jig. 1). 

New process of wine making {Sci. Amer., 82 {1900), No. 6, j). 92). — Methods 
tested in France and Tunis ])y which the grapes are sul^jected to heat and jsressure 
instead of using them cold and allowing the juice to exude naturally. The result is 
claimed to be more juice, l)etter color and "Ijody." 

Investigations on wine ferments and the use of pure cultures in wine 
making, V. Pegliox {Staz. Sper. Agr. ItuL, 31 {1898), No. 12, jjp. 81-110, p)ls. 2). 

The use of selected yeasts in wine making, E. Kayser {Ann. Sci. Agron., 1899, 
II, No. 1, pp. 130-158). 

Yeasts in viticulture, M. E. Pozzi-Escot {Jovr. Agr. Prat., 1900, I, No. 6, j>p. 
212-217). 

The sterilization of grape juice the solution of wine making in hot cli- 
mates, C. Mayer {Agr. Jour. Cape Good Hope, 15 {1899), No. 10, pp. 651-653). 



190 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

Wine making- in Oran, G. Loevi {La rinlfcatlon en Omnie. Paris: G. Mast-o)i, 
JS99, pp. 300, ill.). — Thi.s work treats of the methods employed in making wine in 
the Province of Oran, Algeria. 

Wine making in Russia: IV, Northern Caucasus, M. Ballas {St. Peter-sbui-fj: 
Department of Agriculture, 1898, pp. XII -\- 256; rev. in SeM. Khoz. i Lyesov., 192 
{1899), March, pp. 701, 702). — The total area of vineyards in the whole Caucasus is 
291,000 acres, from which there are annually obtained 7,610,000 hucketfuls of wine 
and more than 230,000,000 lbs. of grapes. The annual export of Caucasian wine 
amomits to about 20,000,000 lbs. — p. firemax. 

Wine making- in warm countries — Algeria and Tunis, J. Ducjast ( Vinificatio)i 
dans lespai/s cltmuh — Ahjerie et Tunisie. Paris: G. Carre ct- C Naud, 1900, pp. ^81+48, 
Jigs. 58). 

Report on the salted wines of Tunis, A. Girard and M. Fleurent {BvI. Min. 
Agr. [France'l, 18 {1899), Ko. 6, pp. 1157-1161). — A number of analyses of samples 
of wine, including proximate and ash constituents, are reported. 

Cider, X. Rocques {Le cidre. Paris: Masson et Cie, 1899, pp. 171, figs. 22). — This 
is a volume of Encyclopedie scientifique des aide-memoire. 

Cider making in Devonshire, E. A. 'fi.{Agr. Students'' Gaz., n. scr., 9 {1900), No. 
6, pp. 168-173). — This is a brief description of the machinery and methods employed. 

Cider making, 0. Cuisset {Jour. Agr. et Hort, 3 {1899), No. 8, 2yp. 153-155). 

Investigations into the manufacture of cider, F. J. Lloyd {Bd. Agr. \^Lon- 
donl, apt. Agr. Ed. and Research, Great Britain, 1898-99, pp. 158-161).— These inves- 
tigations have extended over a number of years. The present article deals with 
composition of the fresh juice, manipulation of cider, fermentation, filtering, and 
preservatives for checking fermentation. 

The manufacture and consumption of cider in Paris during 24 years {Rer\ 
Sci. [Paris'], 4. »er., 12 {1899), No. 15, p. 479). 

Tests of the freezing of cider, Descours-Desacres ( Compt. Bend. Acad. Sci. 
Pari.% 130 {1900), No. 1, pp. 51, 52). 

Norwegian barley for malting purposes, F. H. Werexskiold {Tidsskr. Norske 
Lnndhr., 7 {1900), No. 1, pp. 20-26). 

The preparation of casein for use in the industries, C. Besaxa {Staz. Sper. 
Agr. Ital, 32 {1899), No. 6, pp. 628-633). 

Apparatus for steaming and drying the cocoons of silkw^orms, E. Verson 
{Ann. n. Staz. Bacnl. Padora, 27 {1899), pp. 97-104). 



AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING. 

Broad and narro-w tires, C. M. Conner {South Carolina Sta. Bui. 
JfS, pp. 16). — An account is given of two tests (August 17 and October 
3, 1899) on wet and dry sandy roads of the draft, as measured with the 
dynamometer, of wagons with metal wheels of standard height having 
tires 6 in. and 1^ in. wide. The load in each case was 2,000 lbs., the 
length of run 200 ft. The results were as follows: 

" In all conditions of sand roads the draft of the broad tire Avas from 7.49 to 28.6 
per cent less than that of the narrow tire. 

"There was little difference in the draft of the l)road tire on wet or dry sand. 
The narrow tire pulls a little more than 5 percent lighter in wet sand. 

"The condition of the road was not improved by the use of the broad tire except 
for Ijroad tires. 



STATISTICS MISCELLANEOUS. 197 

" The draft of the narrow tire was 5.7.3 per cent less iu loose sand than in a well- 
formed rut of the broad tire." 

The results of tests of a similar character at other stations are 
briefly summarized. 

Report of the engineer, 0. V. P. Stoct {Rpi. Xehrnshi t'^tale Bd. Agr. 1S9S, pp. 
211-231). — A record of the rates of discharge of the principal streams of Nebraska. 
A previous report is noted in E. S. R., 9, p. 798. 

Note on the prospects of the Nile summer water supply in 1900, W. E. 
Gaestix {Millers' Gaz., 23 {1900), No. 44, p. 544)-— The discharge of the river in 
years of low supply (1878 and 1889) is compared with its present condition, and 
means of meeting the prospective low supply are suggested. 

Irrigation in the Belgian Campine, M. Beau {Jour. Agr. Prat., 1899, II, No. 42, 
pp. 55S-5G1). 

A gaging apparatus for testing pumps, P. Fekrocillat {Ann. Ecole Nat. Agr. 
MonipeUkr, 11 {1899-1900), pp. 1-4, fig. 1). 

Trial of oil engines, R. Stanfield et al. ( Trans. Highland and Agr. Sac. Scotland, 
5. srr., 12 {1900), pp. 388-408, figs. 14). — Descriptions and tests of ten machines are 
reported. 

The future of the petroleum motor, J. Gobiet {L'Ing. Agr., 10 {1900), No. 8, 
pp. 515-527). 

Compend of mechanical refrigeration, J. E. Siebel {Chicago: H. S. Rich ct- Co., 
1899, 3. ed., pp. XI-^ 420). —This is stated to be "a comiirehensive digest of applied 
energetics and thermodynamics for the practical use of ice manufacturers, cold-storage 
men, contractors, engineers, l^rewers, packers, and others interested in the application 
of refrigeration." The book discusses in detail the principles of refrigeration and 
their practical application in ice making and storing; cold storage; refrigeration of 
packing houses, breweries, etc. An appendix gives the literature of the subject. 



STATISTICS— MISCELLANEOUS. 

Twelfth Annual Report of Kansas Station, 1899 {Kansas Sta. Rpt. 1899, 
pp. XX). — This includes the organization list of the station, reports of the treasurer 
and secretary on the receipts and expenditures of the station for the fiscal year ended 
June 30, 1899; summaries of Bulletins 81-89 of the station, with an index to the 
bulletins; subject lists of regular and press bulletins issued by the station, and a 
general review of work in the different deiiartments. 

Twelfth Annual Report of Michigan Station, 1899 {Michigan Sta. Rpt. 1899, 
pjp. 4, 5, 63-73, 79-367). — Contains the organization list of the station, a report of the 
secretary and treasurer for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1899, a report of the di- 
rector, and departmental reports reviewing the different lines of station work during 
the year, a meteorological summary noted elsewhere, and reprints of Bulletins 161- 
174 of the station on the following subjects: Fertilizer analyses (E. S. R, 10, p. 734).; 
relation of meteorology to forestry in ^Michigan, sketch of the original distribution 
of white pine in the lower peninsula, the present condition of Michigan forest and 
stump lands, forestry legislation, and methods of reforesting pine stump lands 
(E. S. R., 10, pp. 1020, 1045, 1046) ; strawberry culture (E. S. R., 10, p. 1043) ; methods 
and results of tillage (E. S. R., 11, p. 40) ; draft of farm implements (E. S. R., 11, p. 96) ; 
a grade dairy herd (E. S. R., 11, p. 188) ; a discussion of farm dairy methods (E. S. R., 
11, p. 186); Michigan fruit list (E. S. R., 11, p. 153); notes from the South Haven 
Substation (E. S. R., 11, p. 252); vegetable tests for 1898 (E. S. R., ll,p.250); bush 



198 EXPERIMENT STATION RECOED. 

fruits for 1898 (E. S. R., 11, p. 252); combating disease-producing germs (E. S. R., 11, 
p. 390); killing the tubercle bacillus in milk f E. S. R., 11, p. 386); fertilizer analyses 
(E. S. R.,ll,p.528). 

Eleventh Annual Report of New Hampshire Station, 1899 {Xetv Hampshire 
Ski. Bnl. 6S, pp. 143-194, .%.s. ;?). — This contains the organization list of the station, 
a financial statement for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1899, reports of the vice- 
director and chemist, horticulturist, agriculturist, entomologist, bacteriologist, and 
meteorologist, parts of which are noted elsewhere, and a list of station publications 
available for distribution. The report of the vice-director and chemist gives the 
results of analyses of several i^amples of city stable manure, spring water, and wood 
ashes. 

Director's report for 1899, W. H. Jordan {Xew York State Sta. Bui 168, pp. 
307-330). — The different lines of station work with the results obtained are reviewed 
at some length, and notes are given on the station staff, student assistants, needed 
changes and additions, inspection of fertilizers and feeding stuffs, and the publica- 
tions of the station. Lists of bulletins published in 1899, and periodicals received 
by the station library are appended. 

Eighteenth Annual Report of Ohio Station, 1899 {Ohio Sta. Rpt. 1899, pp. 
XXV^SS7-395, map 1). — The report contains an announcement relative to the 
character of the work undertaken at the station, the organization list of the station, 
a report of the treasurer for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1899, and a report of the 
director reviewing the different lines of station work and giving a list of acknowl- 
edgments. An index to the publications issued during the year and a subject list 
of station publications are appended. 

Annual Report of Virg-inia Station, 1899 ( Virginia Sta. Ept. 1899, pp. U).— 
This includes the organization list of the station, summaries of Bulletins 77-88 issued 
by the station during the year; a financial statement for the fiscal year ended June 
30, 1899, and brief outlines of work in horticulture, entomology, mycology, biology, 
chemistry, veterinary science, and agriculture by the heads of departments. 

Report of the agricultural experiment station at Kiel, 1899, A. Emmerling 
{.Jaltres-Berieht dcr agrihiUin-chemiM-hm Vn:<<iic] testation in Kiel fiir 1899. Kiel: Vollbehr 
ct- Elepen, 1900, j)p- 33). — This is a summary account of investigations carried out at 
this institution during 1899, including fertilizer and feeding stuff inspections, miscel- 
laneous analyses, and accounts of cooperative field experiments. 

Proceedings of the thirteenth annual convention of the Association of 
American Agricultural Colleges and Experiment Stations, A. C. Trce, W. H. 
Beal, and H. H. Goodell ( U. S. Dept. Age., Office of Experiment Stations Bui. 76, pp. 
11£).— This is a detailed account of the proceedings of the convention. For a sum- 
mary see E. S. R., 11, p. 405. 

Organization lists of the agricultural colleges and experiment stations in 
the United States, with a list of agricultural experiment stations in foreign 
countries ( f '. S. Dejit. .Igr., Office of Exjieriment Stations Bui. 74, PP- 121).— The 
bulletin contains in addition to the organization lists a subject list of the publications 
of the experiment stations received by this Office during 1899, Federal legislation 
affecting agricultural colleges and experiment stations, and the rulings of the Post- 
Office, Treasury, and Agricultural Departments as to the construction of the act of 
Congress of :March 2, 1887, establishing the stations. 

Agricultural education in Austria {Jour. Bd. Agr. [London], 7 {1900), Xo. 1, 
pp. 84-87) .—(M\Wme of the agricultural educational system in Austria. 

Cotton-trade schools in the South, J. A. Stewart {Sci. Amer., 82 {1900), Xo. 22, 
p. 342, Jigs. 7).— A description of the schools established at Atlanta, Ga., and Clemson 
College, S. C, for the practical teaching of cotton manufacturing. 



STATISTICS MISCELLANEOUS 199 

Observations and experiments to illustrate the principles of agriculture 
in elementary schools, W. Fawcett ( West India a Bul.,1 {1900), No. S,2yp- 240-259). 

Elementary agricultural education, R. Harper {Agr. Gaz. New South Wales, 
11 {1900), No. 4, pp. 293-300, fg.s. 2). — An account is given of the author's experience 
in teaching agriculture and horticulture in a public school. 

Norway; the agriculture of Norway in relation to the general develop- 
ment of the country, X. A. Kryukov {Norngh/a, selskoe kJiozyalstro v Norregii, v 
svyazi s obshcMm razvitiem stranui. St. Petershnrg: Bttssian Ministry of Agriculture and 
Crown Lands, 1899, pp. 246). 

Agriculture in Bosnia and Herzegovina ( Die Jjandwirthschaft in Bosnien und 
der Herzegovina. Sarajero: 1899, pp. 12^897, maps 21, pis. 20, dgms. 14)- — The topo- 
graphical features of these provinces, their resources, population, crop production, 
animal production, etc., are discussed. The system of agricultural education adopted 
and the experiment stations and model farm are describeil at considerable length. 

Australian agriculture {Mitt. Deut. Landir. Gesell., 15 {1900), Sup. to No. 3, pp. 
22,33). 

Colonial experiment stations, J. Dybowski {Les jardins d'essai coloniaux. Paris: 
Hachette d: Co., pp. 40, Jigs. 13). — Outline of the work of the French tropical colonial 
agricultural exjieriment stations, with illustrations and descriptions of some of the 
more agriculturally important plants of these regions. 

Australian experimental farms {Nature, 61 {1900), No. 1587, p. 528). — A list of 
the experimental farms in New South "Wales and their principal lines of work. 

Explanation of some scientific terms met w^ith in agricultural literature, 
E. H. GuRNEY {Agr. Gaz. New South Wales, 10 {1899), Nos. l,pp. 54-63; 2, pp. 171- 
185; 5, pp. 427-439) . 

Manual of a bibliographical repertory of the sciences related to agricul- 
ture arranged according to a decimal classification, V. Vekmorel {Manuel da 
repertoire hihliographique des sciences agricoles etabli d'a2)res la cl '.'isification decinmle. 
MontpelUer: Coulet & Sons; Paris: Ch. Beranger; Paris, Bruxelles, and Zurich: Institut 
Intcrnationid. de Bd,Hographie, 1900, pp. 239, jigs. 2). 

The modern farmer in his business relations, E. F. Adams {San Irancisco: N. 
,T. Stone tt* Co., 1899, j^p. 662). — This is " a study of some of the principles underlying 
the art of profitable farming and marketing and of the interests of farmers as affected 
by modern social and economic conditions and forces. ' ' Tlae different sections treat 
of the education of the farmer; the farmer as a business man and as a cooperator; 
the relations of the farmer to questions of tariff, export bounty, single-tax system, 
currency, labor questions, referendum, and socialism; and the character, object, and 
organization of the cooperative fruit-marketing societies of California. 

The appendix contains considerable information in small compass concerning the 
Morrill and Hatch acts, agricultural courses and agricultural extension, books of 
interest to farmers, statistics relating to banks and to currency. Interstate Commerce 
Commission rulings, cooperation among farmers and others, etc. 

ttTiO— No. 2 8 



NOTES. 



Colorado College and Station. — W. Paddock, of the New York State Station, 
hab been elected to the jjosition of botanist and horticuUurist, made vacant )>y the 
death of Mr. J. H. Cowen. 

Maryland College and Station. — Guy L. Stewart has resigned as assistant in 
plant pathology to accept a position as assistant industrial agent in charge of the 
agricultural interests of a prominent railroad line. 

New Yoek State Station. — Andrew J. Patten Ijegan his duties as assistant chem- 
ist of the station August 1, and P. J. Parrot as assistant entomologist August 15. 

Oklahoma Station. — A. G. Ford has resigned as assistant chemist of the station 
in order to pursue graduate work in chemistry at the Pennsylvania State College. 

Washington College and Station. — S. W. Fletcher, assistant in horticulture at 
the New York Cornell Station, has been elected horticulturist. 

Wyoming Station. — Luther Foster, of the Utah Station, has been elected pro- 
fessor of agriculture and horticulture. 

Personal Mention. — M. G. Kains, special crop culturist of the division of botany 
of this Department, has resigned to accept the position of horticulturist in the School 
of Practical Agriculture and Horticulture at Briarcliff Manor, N. Y. 

Necrology.— J. Kjeldahl, director of the Carlsberg laboratory, born August 16, 
1849, died at Bader July 18, 1900. His best-known contriljution to science is the 
method of determuiing nitrogen which bears his name. 
200 

o 



EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

Editoh: K. W. ALLEN, Pit. T>., Asxi.^(<i,il DirMnr. 

KDITdKIAL DEPARTMENTS. 

Chemistry, Dairy Farniiiig, and Dairying — The Editor and IL W. Lawson. 
Meteorology, Fertilizern and Soils (including methods of analysis), and Agricultural 

Engineering — W. H. Beal. 
Botany and Diseases of Plants — Walter H. Evans, Ph. D. 
Foods and Animal Production — C. F. Langworthy, Ph. D. 
Field Crops — J. I. Schulte. ' 

Entomology and Veterinary Science — E. V. Wilcox, Ph. D. 
Horticulture — C. B. Smith and V. A. Clark. 
With the cooperation of the scientific divisions of the Department and the Abstract 

Committee of the Association of Ofhcial Agricultural Chemists. 



CONTENTS OF Vol. XII, No. 3. 



Editorial notes: Page. 

The late Sir John Bennet Lawes 201 

The influence of the Rothamsted Experiment Station 203 

International congresses of horticulture, viticulture, and agriculture at Paris, 

W. H. Evans, Ph. D 205 

Recent "work in agricultural science , 211 

Notes 299 

SUBJECT LIST OF ABSTRACTS. 

CHEMISTRY. 

Report of the chemists, W. R. Perkins and E. B. Ferris 21.3 

Determination of phosphoric acid available as plant food in soils and ferti- 
lizers, J. Plot 211 

Determination of cane sugar in condensed milk, L. Griinhut and S. II. Riil)er. 211 

The adulteration of cane-sugar siruj) Avith glucose, H. D. Richmond 212 

On the determination of the acidity of milk, M. Siegfeld 212 

On testing food products for boric acid and borates with turmeric paper, E. II. 

Jenkins and A. W. Ogden 213 

Analyses of borax, A. W. Ogden 21 4 

Analyses of formaldehyde or formalin, A. W. Ogden 214 

Miscellane<jus analyses, E. F. Ladd 214 

A new indicator, J. Formaiiek 2] 3 

1 Ab.scTit on ]oiive. 



II CONTENTS. 

BOTANY. 

I'nffo. 

Till' Xiirtli Aiiifricaii sjH'cics of ('lui^tocliloa, F. l.aiiison-Scriliiier aixl E. J). 

Mt-rrill :^H» 

Studies of the time and rate of development of the potato tul)er, L. Iv. Jones 

and W. A. Ortoii 214 

Development of the buds of the wild plum, L. K. Waldron 215 

The effect of centrifugal force upon the cell, D. M. Mottier 215 

The destruction of chlorophyll by oxidizing enzyms, A. F. Woods 216 

On the formation of proteids during the germination of wheat in <larkness, 

J. Goldberg 216 

Concerning the physiological functions of solanin, (J. Albo 217 

The inhibiting action of oxidases upon diastase, A. F. AVoods 217 

The inoculation of soil, G. W. Herrick 218 

Annual report of the consulting botanist for 1899, W. Garruthers 218 

METEOHOI.()(;V. 

Report ( )f the meteorologist, J . E. Ostrander 220 

Appendix to report of meteorologist, R. E. Triiul >](■ 220 

Meteorological summary, J. S. Moore 220 

Summary of temperature, rainfall, and sunshine, E. F. La<ld 220 

WATER — SOII.S. 

Nature, value, and utilization of alkali lands, E. W. Hilgard. 221 

The geology of Louisiana, G. D. Harris and A. C. Veatch 221 

Analyses of artesian well waters, AV. R. Perkins and E. B. Ferris 222 

Drinking water, C. H. Jones and B. 0. AVhite 222 

Distilled water for drinking purposes, H. L. Bolley 222 

Analyses of soils, W. R. Perkins and E. B. Ferris 222 

Chemical methods for ascertaining the lime requirements of soils, H. J. Wheeler, 

B. L. Hartwell, and C. L. Sargent 222 

Soil temperatures, R. E. Trimble 222 

FEKTILIZEHS. 

On the importance of different green-manuring jtlants in the economy of soil 

nitrogen during the fall months, H. C. Larsen 22:; 

Further notes on organic nitrogen availability, C. H. Jones and B. O. White. . . 224 
Contribution to the knowledge of the injurious effect of nitrate of soda on 

vegetation, J. Stoklasa 225 

Fertilizers, E. Fulmer and W. H. Heileman 225 

Analyses of commercial fertilizers and manurial substances, C. A. Goessniann. 225 

Report of the chemist, C. A. Goessniann et al 226 

Fertilizers, F. W. Morse - 226 

Report of analysesof conunercial fertilizers for the fall of 1899, L. L. Van Slyke. 226 

Analyses of commercial fertilizers, J. L. Hills, C. H. Jones, and B. O. White .... 226 

Fertilizers and fertilizing materials, C. H. Jones and B. O. White 226 

Commercial fertilizers, J. II. Stewart and B. II. Hite 226 

Analyses of licensed comniercial fertilizers, 1900, F. W. W<.11 an<l A. A'ivian . . . 226 

FIELD CUOl'S. 

Report of the agriculturist, W. P. Brooks and H. :M. Tlu)ms()n 226 

Report of the agricultural department, J. H. Shepperd 233 

Report on experiments conducted by the Ontario Agricultural and l-:xperi- 

mental T'nion, 1899 228 



CONTKNTS. HI 

l';ige. 

Kei)()rt of tlie Arkansas Valley Suhstatioii, ?I. 11. ( Jriflin 229 

I'^ield experiint'iits, E. R. Lloyd - 229 

Meld cropH, 1899, F. C. Burtia et al 230 

i'rogress of exijerimentH in forage crops and range improvement at Abilene, 

Tex., H. L. Bentley 2.30 

Forage crops, J. S. Moore 234 

Analyses of sorghum and forage j)lants, W. li. Perkins ami E. B. Ferris 234 

Sundry forage crops, J. L. Hills 234 

Forage plants in Washington, W. J. Spilhnan 234 

Egyptian cotton in the United States, L. II. Dewey ....'. 231 

Cowpeas and corn for silage and fodder, W. Gettys 232 

Influence of the time of harvesting on the yield and quality of ho|)s, W. 

Behrend 232 

Influence of size of seed tubers on the yield of potatoes, Clausen '. . . 232 

The selection of potatoes for seed jjurposes, H. L. Bolley 234 

Rice culture in the United States, S. A. Knapp 235 

Sugar beets, C. H. Jones and B. 0. White 235 

Sugar-beet experiments, E. F. Ladd 235 

The work of the agricultural experiment stations on tobacco, J. I. Scliulte and 

M. Whitney 235 

Culture of wheat and oats on the experimental lields at (Mrignon in 1899, P. P. 

Deherain 233 

Observations on the growth and products of wheat plants of known selected 

pedigree, H. L. Bolley 2.36 

HORTICULTURE. 

The fertilizer reijuirements of asparagus, J. Honig and E. Hasellioff 2.36 

The South Haven report for 1899, L. R. Taft and S. H. Fulton 236 

Report of the section of botany and horticulture, C. S. Crandall 244 

Report of the horticulturist, A. B. McKay 244 

Report of the horticulturist, C. B. Waldron 245 

Pollination in orchards, S. W. Fletcher 237 

The apple and how to grow it, G. B. Brackett 245 

Orchard technique: III. Growing the apple orchard, W. B. Alwood 245 

Varieties of sour cherries, U. P. Hedrick : 245 

Report of the horticulturist, F. A. Waugli 238 

Facts and opinions about plums and jilum growing in Iowa, J. Craig 240 

Strawberries, C. S. Crandall and C. H. Potter 246 

The Oregon evergreen blackberry, U. P. Hedrick 246 

Fertilizing self-sterile grapes, S. A. Beach 240 

Bench grafting resistant vines, F. T. Bioletti and A. M. dal Piaz 241 

The forcing of plants by ether, ,T. Fischer 243 

FOIIESTRV. 

Experiments in forestry, C. S. C'randall 248 

The density of forest crops, W. Schlich 247 

The lebbek or siris tree, D. G. Fairchild 248 

SEEDS AVEEDS. 

The fanner's interest in good seed, A. J. Pieters 251 

Red clover seed, A. J. Pieters 251 

The seed of smooth brome grass, A. J. Pieters 251 

Investigations on weeds, H. U. Bolley , 248 



IV CONTENTS. 

I -ago. 

Killing weeds with clieiiiicals, ].. K. Jones and AV. A. Orton 249 

The use uf solutions of sulphate of ammonia and superphospliate for destioy- 

ing weeds, Maizieres 249 

Results of experiments on the spraying of charlock, P. H. Foulkes 250 

Spraying of charlock 250 

Eradication of moss in ])astures 251 

DISEASES OF PLANTS. 

Report of the l)otanists, G. E. Stone and R. PI Smith 253 

A second partial list of the parasitic fungi of Vermont, L. R. Jones and AV. A. 

Orton 261 

Report on various cryptoganiic diseases, 1"! Marchal 254 

Smut of cereals, H. L. Bolley 255 

Potato diseases and their remedies, L. R. Jones and W. A. Orton 255 

A new phoma disease of swedes, M. C. Potter 256 

Tomato blight, G. "\V. Herrick 256 

The relationship existing between the asparagus rust and the jihysical proper- 
ties of the soil, G. E. Stone and R. E. Smith 257 

Notes on a cantaloupe disease, C. S. Crandall 261 

Fungus diseases of the roots of fruit trees 257 

The brown spot of the api^le, L. R. Jones and W. A. Orton 258 

Spraying for the prevention of apple scab, L. R. Jones and W. A. Orton 259 

The prevention of peach-leaf (;url, W. A. Murrill 259 

Investigations on the lirunissure of plants, V. Ducomet 260 

A stunted growth of vines, L. Ravaz 260 

The parasitism of Phoma reniformis, L. Ravaz and A. Bonnet 260 

Two hitherto unknown diseases of PIdo.r (Jecussata, J. Ritzema-Bos 260 

ENTOMOLOCiY. 

Report of the State entomologist, E. P. Felt 263 

Thirtieth annual report of the Entomological Society of Ontario, 1899. 264 

Report of the entomologist, C. H. Fernald 271 

Report of the entomological section, C. P. Gillette 265 

A new sugar-beet pest and other insects attacking the beet, R. W. Doane 265 

Notes on a new sugar-beet pest, with a description of the species, R. W. Doane. 266 

The grass thrips, W. E. Hinds 266 

Common diseases and insects injurious to fruits, S. A. 15eacli, V. II. Lowe, 

and F. C. Stewart 271 

Plant diseases and insect pests, C. P. Close 271 

Codling moth; a wasp that destroys the apple worm, U. P. Hedrick 267 

The apple plant louse, J. B. Smith 268 

The forest caterpillar, G. H. Perkins 269 

Caterpillar plague, II. Tryon 270 

Plague locusts, W. W. Froggatt 270 

Orchard technique: IV. Spraying the orchard, W. P>. Alwood 270 

Fumigation of nursery stock, S. A. Beach 273 

Insecticides, C. H. Jones and B. O. AVhiti' 273 

FOODS — ANIMA I- ]'H()J)UCTION. 

Bread and tiie princ-ijjles oi bread making, nelen AV. Atuater - - 279 

Food products examined, E. F. Ladd -73 

Sampli's examined by the Connecticut State Station 279 

Food products examinetl for the dairy conunissioner in the twelve montlis 

ended Julv 31, 1899 280 



CONTENTS. V 

Page. 

The chemical coiiipo.sitiou of authentic j^aiiijjles of spice.s and spice adulter- 
ants, A. L. Winton, A. W. O^den, and W. L. Mitchell 280 

Coffee, A. L. AVinton 280 

Carbonated nonalcoholic beverages ("temperance drinks," "summer 
drinks,") and fruit flavors, A. L. Winton, A. W. Ogden, and W. L. 

Mitchell 280 

Peanut butter and peanolia, A. L. Winton 280 

Banana flour, vinegar, milk, and cream 280 

Chemical preservatives, E. H. Jenkins, W. L. Mitchell, and A. W. Ogden 280 

The relative digestibility of several sorts of fat by man: IV. On artificial cul- 
inary fats and their digestibility as compared with lard, H. Liihrig _ . . 274 

Report of the chemist (division of foods and feeding), J. B. Lindsey et a! 281 

Concentrated feed stuffs, J. B. Lindsey et al 281 

Concentrated feeding stuffs, C. H. Jones and B. 0. White 282 

Feeding stuff inspection, H. J. Wheeler and B. L. Hartwell 282 

The feeding value of sorghum as shown by chemical analysis, R. W. Thatcher. 274 

The digestibility of American feeding stuffs, W. H. Jordan and F. H. Hall 275 

Feeding young cattle, II. H. Griffin 275 

Beef herd, E. R. Lloyd 282 

The production and marketing of wool, H. W. Mumford 275 

Sheep in the coastal district, G. Valdar 276 

Animal food for poultry, W. P. Wheeler 276 

Poultry experiments, AV. P. Brooks and II. M. Thomson 279 

DAIRY FARMING DAIRYI.N'G. 

Dairy work, J. 8. Moore 288 

Feeding tests and their methods, J. L. Hills 283 

The effect of fatigue upon the quantity and quality of milk, J. L. Hills 285 

The effect of food upon the quality of butter, J. L. Hills 285 

Record of the station herd for 1897-98, J. L. Hills 286 

Laws of the composition of cows' milk, and the detection of adulteration, H. 

Timpe 286 

The efficiency of a continuous pasteurizer at different temperatures, H. A. 

Harding and L. A. Rogers 287 

On the manufacture of cheese from pasteurized milk, G. Hamilton 288 

Milk test inspection law, C. H. Jones and B. O. White 288 

VETERINARY SCIENCE AND PRACTICE. 

Fourteenth annual report of the State board of live stock commissioners, C. I*. 

Johnson et al 289 

Actinomycosis of man and animals, B. Schiirmayer 290 

Tuberculosis- of cattle, G. E. Nesom 291 

Review of Professor Bang's work with contagious abortion, C. E. Marshall 293 

Observations concerning the significance of streptococci in comparative pathol- 
ogy, V. A. Moore 292 

The curability of glanders, J. McFadyean 292 

ACiRIClTLTURAL ENGINEERING. 

Report of the meteorologist and irrigation engineer, L. G. Carpenter 294 

The use of w'ater in irrigation in Wyoming, B. C. Buffum 295 

Silo construction and sil^e, C. M. Conner 296 

The social, commercial, and economic phases of the road subject, AV. II. Aloore. 296 

STATISTICS MISCELLANEOUS. 

Twelfth Annual Report of Arkansas Station, 1899 296 

Twelfth Annual Report of Colorado Station, 1899 296 



VI CONTENTS, 

Page. 

Fifteenth Annual Keport of Maine Station, 1S99 297 

Twelfth Annual Report (jf INIassachusetts Hateh Station, ISQO 297 

Twelfth Annual Report of Mississippi Station, 1899 297 

Tenth Annual Report of North Dakota Station, 1899 297 

Twelfth Annual Report of Vermont Station, 1899 297 

Record of six years' work at the Plains Substation, J. ]']. Payne 297 

Report of the Rainbelt Substation, J. E. Payne 297 

The agrieultural experiment stations in the United States, A. C. True and 

V. A. Clark 297 

Statistics of the land-grant colleges and agricultural experiment stations in the 

United States for the year ended June 30, 1899 _ 298 

Farmers' institutes: History and status in the Ignited States an<l Canada, 

L. H. Bailey 298 

Experiment Station Work— XIV 298 

Crop circular for April, 1900, J. Hyde 298 

Agricultural imports and exports, 1895-1899 298 

LIST OF PUBLICATIONS ABSTRACTED. 

Experiment stations in the United States: 
Arkansas Station: 

Twelfth Annual Report, 1899 296 

California Station: 

Bulletin 127, 1900 241 

Bulletin 128, March, 1900 221 

Colorado Station: 

Bulletin 53, March, 1900 246 

Twelfth Annual Report, 1899 220, 

222, 229, 244, 248, 261, 265, 275, 279, 280, 281, 282, 294, 296, 297 
Connecticut State Station: 

Twenty-third Annual Report, 1899, Part I ! 213, 214 

Iowa Station : 

Bulletin 4ti, March, 1900 240 

Louisiana Stations: 

Special Report, Part V, Geology and Agriculture 221 

Maine Station: 

Fifteenth Annual Report, 1899 297 

Massachusetts Hatch Station: 

Bulletin 64, February, 1900 281 

Bulletin 65, ISIarch, 1900 225 

Twelfth Annual Report, 1899 220, 226, 253, 257, 271, 279, 281, 297 

Michigan Station: 

Bulletin 177, Decendjer, 1899 236 

Bulletin 178, January, 1900 275 

Special Bulletin 13, December, 1899 293 

Mississippi Station: 

Twelfth Annual Report, 1899. 213, 218, 220, 222, 229,234, 244, 256, 282, 288, 297 
Nebraska Station : 

15ulletin 62, March 18, 1900 274 

New Hampshire Station: 

Bulletin 69, January, 1900 22(i 

New Jersey Stati<jn: 

Bulletin 143. March 8, 1900 268 



CONTENTS. VII 

Experiment stations in tlie United States— C'ontiiuie.l. Page. 

New York Cornell Station: 

Bulletin 180, March, 1900 -'59 

Bulletin 181, March, 1900. - 237 

New York State Station: 

Bulletin 169, December, 18^)9 240 

Bulletin 170, December, 1899 271 

Bulletin 171, December, 1899 276 

Bulletin 172, December, 1899 " - 387 

Bulletin 173, December, 1899 - 226 

Bulletin 174, March, 1900 273 

North Dakota Station: 

Tenth Annual Report, 1899 - 214, 

215, 220, 222, 233, 234, 235, 236, 245, 248, 255, 273, 297 

Oklahoma Station : 

Bulletin 44, December, 1899 - - - - 230 

Rhode Island Station: 

Bulletin 62, February, 1900 222 

Bulletin 63, February, 1900 - 282 

South Carolina Station: 

Bulletin 50, January, 1900 291 

Bulletin 51, April, 1900 296 

Utah Station: 

Bulletin 64, December, 1899 245, 246, 267 

Bulletin 65, February, 1900 271 

Vermont Station : 

Bulletin 76, March, 1900 - - - 269 

Bulletin 77, April, 1900 226 

Twelfth Annual Report, 1899 214, 222, 224, 

226, 234, 235, 238, 249, 255, 258, 259, 261, 273, 282, 283, 285-, 286, 288, 297 

Virginia Station: 

Bulletin 99, April, 1899 245 

Bulletin 100, May, 1899 270 

Washington Station : 

Bulletin 40, December, 1899 225 

Bulletin 41, 1900 234 

Bulletin 42, 1900 265 

West Virginia Station: 

Bulletin 63, January 1, 1900 - - - - 226 

Wisconsin Station : 

Bulletin 81, April, 1900 226 

United States Department of Agriculture: 

Report No. 63 : 235 

Farmers' Bulletin 110 235 

Farmers' Bulletin 111 - - 251 

Farmers' Bulletin 112 279 

Farmers' Bulletin 113 - 245 

Farmers' Bulletin 114 298 

Division of Agrostology : 

Bulletin 21 '. 219 

Circular 23 230 

Circular 24 .- - - - 232 



YiTi cuntp:nts 

United States Department of Agriculture — ("ontinucd. I'm^v. 

Division of Botany: 

Circular 2o 248 

Circular 24 251 

Circular 25 25 1 

Circular 26 _ _ • 2:51 

Office of Experiment Stations: 

Bulletin 77 275 

Bulletin 78 298 

Bulletin 79 _ 298 

Bulletin 80 297 

Bvilletin 81 295 

Section (jf Foreign .\iari<ets: 

Circular 22 298 

Office of Public Road In(iuiries: 

Circular 84. 296 

Division of Statistics: 

Crop Circular for April, UiUO 298 



EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

Vol. XII. No. 3. 



The life of the hite Sir John Rennet Liiwes furnishes a remarkable 
example of individual zeal and niuniticence, directed to the promotion 
of agriculture and the advancement of agricultural science. Born to 
wealth and luxury, and inheriting an estate upon the management of 
which he entered with the keenest interest and business sagacit_y, the 
squire of Rothamsted early developed a spirit of inquiry which dom- 
inated his whole life. A keen observer and an untiring experimenter, 
he saw in ever}- weed an unsolved prol)lem, in every clod of soil a sub- 
ject for stud3\ For over 60 3'ears he devoted a large share of time and 
thought from a busy commercial life to the solution of these problems 
of agriculture, converting a portion of his estate into an experiment 
station and providing the means for its maintenance. His thorough 
knowledge of the details of farming, coupled with his practical sagac- 
ity, enaliled him to grasp at once the real bearing and importance of 
each new fact. His services to agriculture are known and recognized 
throughout the civilized world, but perhaps nowhere have the}' been 
more appreciated or had a greater influence than in this country. His 
name in connection with the famous Rothamsted experiments has for 
man}' years been a familiar one in the class room of the agricultural 
college, at the farmers' institute, and to readers of the agricultural 
press. The full measure of success which he achieved makes his life 
one of inspiration and unusual interest. The universal appreciation 
of his services and the close relations which he has borne to the Amer- 
ican stations will cause the deepest regret at his death and a profound 
sense of loss to the cause of agricultural investigation. He died 
August 31, 1900, in his eighty-sixth year, "full of da^s and full of 
honors, and venerated by all who knew him." 

Although Sir John's earlier education, obtained at Eton and Oxford, 
was mainly classical, he developed a fondness for chemistry which led 
him to spend some time in London in its study. Some of his earlier 
work was directed to the isolation of the alkaloids of medicinal plants. 
He entered upon the management of the paternal estate of Rothamsted 
at the age of twenty, and some three years later, in 1S3T, he com- 
menced his experiments with soil in pots. This was before Liebig jiud 

201 



202 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

announced lii.s theoi-y of plant nutrition, and wlion kno\vled<4V roo-ard- 
ing- the rccjuirciuents of plants and the way in w hicli they secure their 
nourishment was in very crude state. 

His earlier experiments led to the discover}^ of the value of trans- 
forming bone into superphosphate hy the use of sulphuric acid. The 
importance and scope of this discovery was contirmed in more exten- 
sive experiments, following' which he took out a patent on the process 
in 1842, and the next year established a fertilizer factory near London. 
He continued in the management of this business for nearW thirty 
3"ears, during which time it remained one of the foremost industries 
of its kind in England. It was sold in 18T2"for nearl}' one and a half 
million dollars. In 1867 a large factory was acquired for the maiui- 
facture of tartaric and citric acids, which his wise business management 
and ability likewise placed at the head of this branch of chemical manu- 
factui'e. He continued to operate this factor}^ up to the time of his 
death. 

But the commercial life upon which he entered did not prevent the 
continuation of the work of investigation which had been undertaken 
with so much interest, and in 1813 the services of Dr. (now Sir) J. H. 
Gilbert were engaged to superintend the laboratory investigations. 
This scientific partnership continued to the close of Sir John's life. 
His love for the work never waned, and he maintained a close super- 
vision of it. No one knew the experimental tields liettcr than he did. 

The development of the station with the flight of years and the 
extent and character of its investigations are too familiar to need 
description. With the aid of Dr. Gilbert the field experiments were 
enlarged and systematized until they occupied nearly 10 acres, the 
whole of the present series of plats being in operation by 1856. 
These field experiments have been models of excellence, and in their 
extent and the systematic regularity with which they have been con- 
ducted they are unique. Experiments w^ith animals were taken up in 
1817, and since then several hundred oxen, sheep, and pigs have been 
used in the study of a variety of problems relating to animal nutiltion. 
The work on the composition of animals has l)ecome almost classic. 

The first paper of Lawes and Gilbert was, as Sir Henry Gilbert 
once said, "subjected to merciless excision by the editor of the journal 
to which it was sent,"' and thev secured its publication with difficulty. 
The collected reports now occupy nine volumes, and have. been widely 
distributed. 

The wide recognition of the Kothamsted work which came with 
time brought its founder many honors. •'The Queen created him a 
baronet in 1882; universities gave him their degrees; societies bestowed 
upon him their medals. Prosperity could not spoil him. Quite free 
fi-oni pri-soual amltition, he wasalwa3's ready to give th(> credit of suc- 
cess to his fellow-workers.'* This spirit of modest}' and generosity 



EDITOKIAL. 203 

endeared liiiii to all \\1k) knew him. It nianifested itself in his response 
at the Rothamsted Jubilee in 1898, which was largely a tribute to his 
life-lono- coadjutor. ""Had it not been for the constant labors of Dr. 
Gilbert,"' he declared, ''the affairs of Rothamsted would have been in 
a different state to that in which they now are." 

In 1889 Sir John transferred the laboratories and experimental 
fields of Rothamsted to a board of trustees with an endowment of 
nearly a half million dollars, thus making- liberal provision for contin- 
uing the investigations permanently. 

The influence of the Rothamsted station upon agricultural investi- 
gation in this country has l)een very potent and far-reaching. Long 
before the experiment station movement in the United States its 
work Avas widely known and did much to prepare the way for agricul- 
tural investigation here. Many a professor of agriculture gained his 
first inspiration for experimental work from a visit to Rothamsted or 
from published accounts of the work conducted there. 

Three things have contributed to make the influence of the Rotham- 
sted station especially strong in this country. First, it was quite well 
known, especially among certain classes of readers of agricultural 
literature, and was regarded by man}" of them as a model. Being an 
English station, its literature was more accessible to many and inter- 
course with the station was quite frequent. Second, much of its work 
was of a more immediately practical trend and on a basis which 
appealed to the thoughtful farmer because he could luiderstand its bear- 
ing. It enabled farmers to see in what wa}' experiment stations might 
contribute to the promotion of their interests. It helped to popularize 
the movement. Finally, the conditions were more nearly similar to 
our own, our methods of agriculture more nearly approaching those 
of England, and the experiments had been carried on so long and with 
such thoroughness as to inspire unusual confidence in them. 

Since the establishment of the stations the literature of the Rotham- 
sted w^ork has been at their connnand. The work and results have 
been explained in three series of lectures given in this country, and a 
considei-able number of station workers have visited Rothamsted and 
been privileged to discuss agricultural problems and methods of inves- 
tigation with its founder. Its influence on the field work of our stations 
has been very noticeable. The field experiments at Rothamsted are far 
famed for their excellence and for the systematic way in which they 
have been conducted. The methods of plat experimentation have 
there been worked out in all the nicety of detail, and this has saved 
our stations years of i)r(4iminary work on methods. 

The Rothamsted field experuuents deriAe their greatest value from 
the comprehensive plan on which they were laid out, which has ena- 
bled their scope to be extended from time to time so as to include new 



204 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

phases of the questions under investigation as they develop; from' the 
systematic and painstaking manner in which they have been continued 
through long periods, strengthening the contidcMice in the results; and 
from the full notes which have been taken at each .stage and placed in 
permanent form. In «ome of these respects there is still opportunity 
for the American experiment stations to profit by the methods at 
Rothamsted, if field experiments are to contiiuie to form so prominent 
a feature of their work. 

There have been many evidences of Sir John Lawes's deep interest 
in the American stations. He was in correspondence with some of 
the leading advocates of the stations before their establishment, and 
has frequently expi'cssed his admiration of the work which they arc 
doing. Soon after the establishment of the stations Sir John sent 
twenty-six handsomely bound sets of the Rothamsted pul)lications, 
prepared at large cost, to be distributed among the stations as far as 
the}" would go. and in 1897 he supplemented this gift by a second 
installment of twenty-six sets, so that practically every station has 
been provided with a set of these valual)le papers. He also distributed 
about 800 copies of the outline "memoranda"" of the Rotham^ed 
investigations among our station workers. His friendly spirit was 
still further shown by his provision in the Lasves Agricultural Trust 
for a biennial course of lectures in the United vStates on the work at 
Rothamsted. He did this, as he said, in order that Americans should 
feel that they had a share in an}- of the benefits which might arise 
from the Rothamsted endowment. 

This fraternity of interest has been helpful to the American stations 
and a source of much gratification. Rothamsted will continue to be to 
them an inspiration, and under the generous provision of its founder Avill 
undoubtedly maintain the same high position in which he placed it. 



INTERXATIOXAL CONGRESSES OF HORTICUETURE, VITICUL- 
TURE, AND AGRICULTURE AT PARIS. 

Walter H. Evans, Ph. Tt., 

Office of Experiment Slatlons. 

Among the congre'^ses held at Paris the pa.st summer in connection 
with the international exposition, those of horticulture, viticulture, 
and agriculture are likely to prove of special interest to readers of 
the Record. The following brief account is prepared from notes 
taken by the writer and from some of the published proceedings. 
The doings of the congresses of experiment stations and of agricul- 
tural instruction were noted in the preceding number of this journal 
(pp. 101, 102). 

COXGRESS OF HORTICULTURE. 

The International Congress of Horticulture was opened by M. 
Dupu3\ minister of agriculture, in the Salle des Congres, Paris, May 
25, and continued three da3's. Permanent organization was effected 
with M. Viger president and M. Bergman general secretary, the vice- 
presidents being selected from the various foreign delegates and dis- 
tinguished French horticulturists present. 

The papers presented covered quite a range of horticultural topics 
and were discussed at length. The hrst was a report on progress 
made in the heating of greenhouses. Steam, it was said, has l)een 
employed since 1825, having been used at that time in England. Hot- 
water heating was advocated as easier of control, and by its use lower 
constant temperatures are possible than Ijy the use of steam. Public 
gardens for different regions and the question of the ornamentation of 
public squares and promenades were discussed. The general princi- 
ples of ornamentation and requirements for parks, squares, and streets 
were stated, and the kind of plants adapted to the different conditions 
indicated. The fourth paper treated of the causes of the clematis dis- 
ease and its prevention, and led to considerable discussion. Different 
opinions were expressed as to its cause, some holding it to be due to 
nematodes, others that it was a question of nutrition. For destroy- 
ing the nematodes, which are said to be species of Heterodera, the 
immersion of pots in water for 24 hours was recommended. For open- 
air culture no means of prevention were proposed. The art of the 
floral decorator, its development and utility as related to horticulture, 
was the subject of two conti'ibutions. In one the development of the 

205 



206 EXPERIMPJNT STATION RECORD. 

art was traced fi'oin vorv early times, while the other gave an account 
of the pi-ogress dui'itig" the nineteenth centurv. It was shown that at 
the present time tloral decorators in the vicinity of Paris reijuire about 
$2,000,000 of horticultural products animally. 

A report was given on the practical prevention of some diseases of 
truck crops. One of the largest growers of Roman lettuce near Paris 
stated that b}- the use of eau celeste he had entirely overcome the verj^ 
common loss accompanying the forcing of that crop. Prof. Maxim 
Cornu recommended the prevention of all similar diseases l)y spraying 
the ground at the time of seeding with copper solutions and mulching 
about the plants with material which had been previously soaked in 
copper sulphate. Hot-water heating for forcing vegetables was the 
subject of a ])aper in which the writer gave results with this sj'steni of 
heating in forcing melons, beans, strawberries, and tomatoes, all of 
which were proiitabh- grown for the spring market. Carrots, salads, 
radishes, and cauliflowers did not prove profitable. Considerable 
difference of opinion was expressed regarding the method of ai)pli- 
cation and composition of fertilizers for truck crops. The advo- 
cates of chemical ftu'tilizers and of manures were insistent upon their 
views. The sul)ject was referred to a subsequent meeting. The role 
of artificial fecundation in horticulture, as shown by some experiments 
with Pelargonium zon<ih\ was the sul)ject of a paper that occasioned 
considerable discussion. A brief paper was presented on the role of 
electricity in plant growth, in which the author expressed the belief 
that electricity increased the general vigor of plants. The application 
of seed selection to the production and lixation of new horticultural 
varieties was exemplified by two specimens of palms grown from seed 
from different parts of the parent cluster. Others taking part in the 
discussion asserted that in improvement of varieties the individual 
should be the unit of selection, and that repeated experiments tended 
to throw doubt upon the constancy of differences sometimes noted for 
seed from different parts of a plant. 

Other papers were on the progranmie but were carried over to the 
next meeting of the National Horticultural Societv of France. 

After the adiournment of the congress the delegates and others 
visited the School of Horticulture and the nurseries and houses of a 
numl)er of commercial horticulturists at Versailles, the trial farm of 
Vilmorin. Andrieux & Co., and nuishrooni caves ncnir Paris. 

CONGRESS OF VITICUI.TI RE. 

The International Congress of Viticulture was held June 12-1 «> under 
the presidency of M. Tisserand, honorary director of agriculture of 
France. The first session was taken up with reports and discussion on 
the subject of phylloxera. As means for combating this pest, submer- 
sion, the use of carbon bisulphid and 'potassium sulphocar])onate, and 



INTERNATIONAL CONGRESSP:S AT PARIS. 207 

resistiint viiu\s were all discussed, each method having- its advocates. 
The second session was devoted to the consideration of resistant vines; 
the merits of various varieties and races of American vines as resistant 
not only to ph3dloxcra Imt also to drought were pointed out. At the 
third session the g-oneral sul)jcct of grape diseases was considered under 
the guidance of P. Viahi, of the Institute National Agronomique. Pro- 
tection from frost and hail, and problems of vinitication were discussed 
in the fourth session, while the fifth and last session was largely given 
up to commercial features of the wine industry, the relation of wine 
and hygiene, and the use of I rench geographical names of wine regions 
as trade names bj^ wine producers in foreign countries. This latter 
practice was severely condemned. 

COXGKESS OF AGRICULTURE. 

The Sixth International Congress of Agriculture was held July 1-7 
under the presidency of M. J. Meline, with M. E. Tisserand vice- 
president and M. Henry Sagnier general secretar}^ delegates being 
present from nearly all the leading nations of the world. The first of 
this series of congresses was held in Paris in 188!». Subsequent meet- 
ings have been held at The Hague, Brussels, Budapest, and Lausanne. 

The congress was formally opened by M. Dupuy, minister of agri- 
culture. After a few remarks he introduced the permanent president, 
who addressed the delegates on the general agricultural situation, con- 
trasting the present conditions with those existing at the time of the 
first congress. At the conclusion of the address, permanent organiza- 
tion was effected and the congress divided into seven sections with 
presiding officers as follows: Rural economy, M. Ribot; agricultural 
education, M. Gomot; agronomy, M. Marquis de Vogiie; zootechny, 
M. Louis Pass}'; rural engineering, J\I. Sebline; tropical and sub- 
tropical agriculture, M. Develle; and vegetable pathology, M. E. 
Prillieux. 

In the sections papers were presented and discussed, and in many 
instances referred ]>ack to the general session for further consid- 
eration. 

In section 1, the causes of the low price of wheat, the role of agri- 
cultural syndicates in their relation to producer and consumer, and the 
measures to be adopted to prevent speculators from fixing prices were 
discussed at length. 

Section 2 considered papers on agricultural education in universities, 
and M. Grosjean, inspector-general of agriculture of France, sub- 
mitted a report on training schools, professional schools, and special 
schools of agriculture, horticulture, and viticulture. The discussion 
on these papers took a wide range, at the conclusion of which a state- 
ment was presented embodying the ideas of the section upon the 
necessities of agricultui-al education. Wheiv such instruction is not 



20!^ EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

already given, it is suooosted tiiat cleiiientiin' aoriculture l)e taught in 
pi-iiiiarv .schools, or through tho ostablishment of special winter 
schools or courses. As a means for elonientarv training these were 
especially commended. For the higher schools of agriculture, sugges- 
tions for their location, equipment, curricula, etc., were made, and it 
was suggested that the universities direct their courses more toward 
the application of the various sciences to agriculture. 

Papers on the relation between geological formation and agricultural 
value of soils, the degree to which soil fertility may ])e determined by 
chemical analysis, and the utilization ot water in agriculture were pre- 
sented in section 3. 

In section 4 the subject of bovine tuberculosis was the principal 
topic of consideration. Papers were read on its spread, proph3daxis, 
etc. The sanitar}^ regulations of different countries were reviewed 
and the necessit}^ of such measures pointed out to those nations not 
having such laws or regulations. 

Section 5 considered papers on the improvement of the sugar beet 
by selection and cultivation, the use of alcohol in the industries, and 
the use of molasses and unrefined sugar as feeding stuffs. A number 
of delegates gave their experiences with sugar and molasses as feeding 
stuff's, the use of which seems to have been followed with remarkable 
results. 

The sessions of section 6 were in the main given up to the discussion 
of colonial agriculture, particular attention being given to the condi- 
tions for the culture of sugar cane and cotton. It was believed by a 
number of those taking part in the discussion that the ])roper condi- 
tions for cotton culture would T)e found in many of the colonies of 
European countries. 

Section 7 received papers on the rust of cereals, diseases of cane, 
diseases of coffee, the protection of useful birds and animals, etc. At 
the instance of this section the general session adopted a series of res- 
olutions looking toward the establishment of an international confer- 
ence committee on plant diseases and their control, the object being to 
study simultaneously the diseases of various economic plants. A pro- 
visional committee was ai)})ointed from those in attendance and was 
directed to organize the international connuission and to outline the 
scope of its work. Those designated for this purpose are: Delacroix, 
Eriksson, Fischer-Waldheim, Laurent, Prillieux, Sorauer, and Went. 
To this list there were added by the section: Frank, Marshall- Ward, 
Wiesner, Rostrup, Galloway, Linhart, Targioni-Tozzetti, Cuboni, 
Jaczewski, Fischer, and Chodat. It was also determined to publish a 
periodical bulletin giving the practical results of the studies of the 
connuission. 

Among the subjects suggested for investigation by this commission 
is cereal rusts. It was recommended that the various nations where 



INTERNATIONAL C()N(;RESSE^^ AT PARI!^. 209 

coi'cal rusts alxniiid authorize and cncouraj^'c tlii' study oi' these diseases 
and means for their ])r(>vention for at least five years, this study to 
inelude the investigation and hreediuj^" of resistant varieties to take 
the place of those now cultivated. On account of the danger of the 
8j)read of diseases of cotfee, cacao, and sugar (;ane to countries not now 
ali'ected, it Avas suggested that the importation of all living stocks be 
under strict governmental control and such exchanges be isolated for 
a year or more until all danger of infection is past. Attention was 
called to the necessity of recognizing the relation between low vitality 
of plants and their liability to disease, and of taking steps toward 
studying the proper hygiene of the plant. 

On July 8 the subjects of agricultural education and the protection 
of useful bii'ds and animals were considered in general session, having 
been referred to the general congress from their respective sessions. 
Consideration was also given the reports on the improvement of sugar 
beets, and from section T on plant diseases. In the afternoon the del- 
egates visited the sewage works at Ache res, where the sewage of Paris 
is disposed of. The filtration works have a superiicial area of over 
9,000 acres. 

The general sessions of the congress on July 4 were taken up with 
reports on the improvement of races of stock, and on the question of 
wheat supply and demand. l)oth topics l)eing discussed at considerable 
length. 

July 5 was given up to excursions to Verrieres, the trial grounds of 
Vilmorin, Andrieux & Co., and to the farm of M. Henry Petit. This 
latter has lieen maintained as a model farm in this family since 1740. 

At the general session of July 6 the subject of import and octroi 
duties as bearing on the price of agricultural produce was discussed, 
and reports received from the different sections. The afternoon ses- 
sion was given up to reports on agricultural insurance, cooperative 
bakers, use of alcohol in various industries, molasses for distilleries, 
agricultural syndicates, and agricultural cooperative associations. 

At the morning session of July 7 in section 3 a report was made on 
the reclamation and bringing under cultivation of certain tracts of 
land near the sea. More liberal concessions on the part of the (xovern- 
ment are required to make such enterprises successful in France at 
least. A paper on irrigation in France was I'ead and discussed. It 
was stated that of between (\ and 7 million hectares of land capable of 
irrigation but 250,000 hectares have been improved in this way. The 
subject of mountain pastures and pasturage as liearing upon the ques- 
tion of reclamation of such regions was introduced and considered at 
some length. On account of the importance of the topic it was 
formallv referred to the next meeting of the congress, two years hence, 
at which time reports are to be expected from all the nations taking 
part in the congress. 

8058— No. 3 -2 



210 EXPERIMENT STATION KE(^()KD. 

Ill section 4 the I'clatioii of the Governnient to horse ])i-eeding was 
discussed. The iiiii)roveinent of horses in France is largeh' etfected 
through sires owned l»y the Government. The effect of mechanical 
means of locomotion as relating to horse raising was considered. The 
advent of autom()bih:'s is said to threaten the demand for medium and 
low grade horses. l)ut for the higher-pi'iced animals no fear was 
expressed. 

Other section I'eports were presented, among them the suggestions 
for agricultural education in primary schools, and agricultural schools 
for women. In ]irimarv schools giving agi'icultui'al instruction, it was 
agreed that they should confine their efforts to a knowledge of the 
common rocks and soils of the region and elementary knowledge con- 
cerning the minerals contained, also the use of fertilizers, recognition 
of plants, seeds, insects, etc. The instruction in these lines should be 
supplemented with visits to some of the better farms in the neighbor- 
hood of the school, where various agricultural operations could be 
observed. The necessity' and desire for dairy schools and schools of 
domestic economy for women were pointed out, and those countries 
possessing such institutions were commended. Traveling dairies and 
similar institutions received the sanction of the congress as beneffcial. 
The control of fei'tilizers, foods, etc., in the interest of agriculture 
and for the repression of fraud was discussed and the desirability for a 
unification of methods of analysis and repressive measures was pointed 
out. The role of fields of demonstration and experiment as factors in 
advancing agriculture was shown and the more frequent establishment 
of such fields advocated. Reports were submitted on experiment 
stations, seed-testing stations, practical schools of agriculture, schools 
for the study of colonial agriculture, comliating fungus and insect 
pests, mulberry culture, etc. 

On July 7 the President of France gave a reception to the officers 
and delegates of the congress. After the reception a ])anquet Avas 
given at the Hotel C-ontinental, which was largeh' attended h}- the 
members. Rome was selected as the place of thi^ tiext meeting, which 
will be held in l!»02. 

At the clos(^ of the congress excursions were taken to the experi- 
ment station and national agricultural school at Grignon, School of 
Horticulture at X'ersjiilles, to the north of France, Douai, Lille, etc., 
where numerous model farms, distill(M-i(^s. dairy and stock farms, 
vinevards. etc., were visited. 



RECliNT WORK IN AGRirUI.TURAL SCIENCE. 



CHEMISTRY. 



Determination of phosphoric acid available as plant food in 
soils and fertilizers, .1. Plot {Oesterr. Chem. Ztg., J {1900), pp. 
127-l.U: ills, ht Jour. ('hem. Soe. [London], 78 {1900), No. 1^53, IL 
p. 510; J<nifr. Soe. Chem. Ind., 19 {1900), JVo. 7, p. 676).— The. solvent 
used by the author is claimed to resemble closely T)eet juice in respect 
to salts, and is prepared as follows: Dissolve 0.4004 gm. of ferrous 
sulphate. 1.4616 gm. of potassium sulphate, 3.7098 gm. of calcium 
nitrate, and 2.890 gm. of magnesium chlorid in 1 liter of water. Fuse 
7.0566 gm. of crj'stallized sodium carbonate, 6.744 gm. of potassium 
carbonate, and 0.2 gm. of silicic acid in a platinum crucible, dissolve 
the fused mass in water and mix with 2.75 gm. of oxalic acid, 1.9840 
gm. of malic acid, 2.2994 gm. of citric acid, 1.9396 gm. of tartaric 
acid, and then dilute to 1 liter. For use, these two solutions are 
mixed in equal parts; 25 gm. of air-dried soil, or 5 gm. of a fertilizer, 
are shaken for half an hour in a half liter flask with 500 cc. of the 
liquid. Phosphoric acid is determined in 200 cc. of the filtered 
extract thus o))tained. 

Determination of cane sugar in condensed milk, L. Grunhut 
and S. H. Ruber {Ztschr. Analyf. Chem., 39 {1900), No. 1, pp. 
19-36). — The authors report a critical examination of the various 
methods employed in the estimation of cane sugar in the presence of 
milk sugar. In the analysis of condensed milk they consider inver- 
sion by hydrochloric acid of the highest importance when methods of 
reduction with Fehling solution, before and after inversion, are used. 
If the quantity of cane sugar in a sample is to be drawn from the reduc- 
ing power after inversion, the reduction before and after inversion 
must be made undei- exactly the same conditions, as concentration of 
solution and length of heating materialh^ influence the quantity of 
cuprous oxid deposited. The gravimetric methods of Ost and Kjeldahl 
are the oidy two known to the authors that fullill this condition, and 
the Ost method has been proven both by Ost himself and by Schmoger 
to be practically valueless for determining milk sugar, leaving only the 
Kjeldahl method. 

G. Pjruhns has sliown that a considerable erroi- residts fi-oni a slight 
decomposition of cane sugar by boiling 20 minutes with a very strong 

211 



212 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

Fehlino- solution, as diroctod in tho Kjcldalil uiothod. This orror is 
due to the reducing power of deeoniposition products. Again, in the 
analysis of condensed milk by the reduction methods, the percentages 
of milk sugar will be entirely too high in consequence of the excessive 
deposition of cuprous oxid. These errors render necessary an empiri- 
cal table of corrections for each absolute and relative amount of both 
sugars present. Moreover, it is incorrect, the authors claim, to cal- 
culate the amount of cane sugar from the ditference of copper reduced 
by milk sugar before inversion and that reduced by milk and invert 
sugars after inversion, as the products of reduction of the two sugars 
cause simultaneous reduction that can not be added directly. They 
conclude, therefore, that it is impossible to determine accurately cane 
sugar in condensed milk b}' the reduction methods. 

To obtain correct results b}" using the methods based on polarization 
before and after inversion and applying the formula of Clerget in the 
estimation of cane sugar, the authors had to adopt many safeguards. 

It is claimed that the complex rotatory influence of milk sugar is 
rectified by treatment of condensed milk Avith boiling water and then 
cooling. The authors did not find that the specific rotatory power of 
cane-sugar solutions was materially changed l)y heating to 100° C, as 
did Richuiond and Boseley. 

In correcting for Aolume of casein and fat precipitated, the double 
dilution method was employed. 

The authors' results were calculated })y Clerget's formula as modi- 
fied by Herzfeld. In correcting volume they object to using the 
official factor 0.962, as it is asserted to be applicable only to sub- 
stances of a particular chemical composition. — c. n. Williams. 

The adulteration of cane-sugar sirup with glucose, H. D. Rich- 
mond {British Food Jour., 2 {1900), No. 19. p. 178). — Glucose is used 
exteusivel}" in the sophistication of saccharine foods, especially golden 
sirup, to prevent, as the manufacturers claim, granulation caused b}^ 
the ciystallization of a portion of the cane sugar. The real reason, the 
author states, is to make more salable unpa]atal>le sirup of good color 
which is obtained as a by-product in the refining of sugar. The saline 
taste of the crude refinery sirup is obscured l)v the addition of large 
quantities of cheap and comparatively tasteless glucose. This sirup, 
lacking sweetness, is consumed in much greater amounts than golden 
sirup, and its high content of potassium salts is thought to be liable 
to injure the consumer. If prevention of granulation were the sole 
object for the addition of glucose to golden sirup, then 5 per cent 
would be sufiicient; but as much as TO or 80 per cent has often been 
found incorporated. — c. b. Williams. 

On the determination of the acidity of milk, M. Siegfeld {MoJl\ 
Ztg., llf (1900). No. 1-j, pp. Wo-ii07).— The results of expei-iments 
were rather unfavorable to the use of solutions of calcium hydrate pre- 



CHEMISTRY. 213 

pared from comnicrc-itil lime foi- the volumetric determination of the 
acidity of milk in ordinary dairy practice. Comparative tests were 
made of decinormal solutions of sodium hydrate, potassium hj'-drate, 
and barium hydrate for determining- the acidity of milk. The results 
showed that from l.-t to 2.0 cc. more of the decinormal barium hydrate 
was required to neutralize 50 cc. of milk than was required of either 
of the other standard solutions. Phenolphthalein in varying quantities 
was used as an indicator. Fourth, tenth, and twentieth normal solu- 
tions of sodium hydrate were compared. The weaker solutions gave 
a lower average percentage of acid. Milk was diluted with different 
quantities of water and alcohol, and the acid content determined. 
The percentage of acid was apparenth^ lessened by the addition of 
water and increased by the addition of alcohol. Determinations showed 
no material difference in the acidity of milk at temperatures varying 
f i"om 5 to 60° C The acid content was slightly lower at higher tem- 
peratures. The reaction of the reagents used with the phosphates in 
the milk is discussed as explaining some of the varying results obtained. 
The author concludes that the dilution of milk in the determination of 
aciditv is to be avoided and that sodium hydrate and potassium h3'drate 
are preferable to barium hydrate, and ma}^ be used as well in tenth as 
fourth normal solutions. 

A new indicator, J. Formanek {Ztschr. Analyt. Chem., 39 {1900}, 
So. .i, pp. 09-103). — An alcoholic solution of alizarin green B gives a 
carmine-red color with acids and green with alkalis. It is sensitive to 
carbonic acid. The color changes are very sharp, and the indicator 
can be used in artiticial light as satisfactorily as in daylight. — c. b, 

WILLIAMS. 

Report of the chemists, W. R. Perkins and E. B. Ferris {Mlmsdppi Sta . Rpt. 
1899, pp. 31-41) ■ — This report gives analyses of soils from different parts of the State 
(see p. 222) ; of manure from animals fed cotton seed and cotton-seed meal, sorghum, 
and forage plants (E. S. R., 11, p. 1022); and artesian well waters (see p. 222); and 
describes briefly pot and fleld experiments on soils in progress at the station. 

Reports of the chemical stations in Sweden for 1898 {Meddel. K. Landibr. 
Styr., 1900, No. 63, pp. 367-400). — Tlie 8 regular chemical stations maintained in part 
by the Swedish Government examined during the year 54,067 different samples of 
agricultural products, of which number 44,599 samples were milk and other dairy 
products, 1,031 fertilizers, 793 soil samples, etc. The average results of the exami- 
nations, with brief discussions of the same, are given in the repc^rt. — f. w. woll. 

On testing food products for boric acid and borates with turmeric paper, 
E. H. Jenkins and A. W. Ogden {Connecticut State Sta. Rpt. 1899, pi. .-', pp. 153-155). — 
Tlie authors found testing with turmeric paper much more satisfactory than the 
flame test. A study was made of the method of making the test. The following 
precautions are given: 

" Free boric acid can not readily be identified by the turmeric-paper test if borates 
are present. 

"The material to b(! tested must in all cases be acidified with liydrochloric acid in 
order to ensure a satisfactory reaction with turmeric paper. 



214 p:xperiment station record. 

"A considerable excess of hydrochloric acid must be added to the .solution to be 
tested — one-thirtieth bj' volume of concentrated HCl is not too much. 

" Perfectly decisive reactions need not be expected where less than one part of 
boric acid is present in 10,000 of water." 

Detection of boric acid or borates, H. Bohnthac.ek (Ztsriir. Analijt. Chein., 39 
{WOO), No. 2, />. !>-.'). 

The separation and determination of formic, acetic, propionic, and butyric 
acids by Haber land's method, J. Schi'tz (Ztsrlir. Analijt. Ch('in.,.:i!i {l'JOO),Xo. 1, 
pp. 17, IS). 

Boemer's method of detecting cotton-seed oil in lard, ]M. Weiiull {Meddel. 
K. Landthr. Sti/r., 1899, No. 59, pp. 33-42). 

On the chemical determination of the nutritive value of fodder beets, L. 
HELWECi {Tidmlcr. Landbr. Planteavl, 5 {1899), pp. 178-189). — Discusses errors of 
sampling and analysis of beets. 

On the presence of dextrose and levulose in the leaves of beets, L. Lixdet 
{Ann. Afjron., 2G {1900), No. 2, pp. loS-113). 

On the presence of mannocellulose in the ligneous tissue of gymno- 
sperms, G. Bertrand {Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 129 {1899), No. 24, pp. 
1025-1029). 

The furfuroids of plant tissues, C. F. Cross, E. J. Bevan, and J. S. Remixg- 
Tox {Jour. Soc. Chan. Ltd., 19 {1900), No. 4,pp- 307-310). 

Systematic analysis of glucose, S. Stein {Internal. Sugar Jour., 2 {1900), No. 20, 
pjK 405-412). 

Some chemical notes on the composition of the cocoanut, J. E. Kirkwood 
and W. J. GiES {Sdrncr, n. .srr., 11 {1900), No. 285, p. 951). 

Analyses of borax, A. W. Ogden {Connecticut State Sta. Rpt. 1899, pt. 2, pp. 
150-153). — The analysis of a number of samples of borax is reported. 

Analyses of formaldehyde or formalin, A. W. Ogdex ( Connecticut State Sta. 
Rpt. 1899, pt. 2, p. i.56').— Tabulated analyses are given of 4 sami^les of formalin. The 
percentage of formaldehyde ranged from 36.02 to 42.30. 

Examination of foods, condiments, and commercial products, (i. Rupp 
{Die Untersuchung con Nalirung^iaitteln, Geuus>iin[ttehiuud Gehrauch.-igegendHinden. Hei- 
delberg: Carl Winter's Universitdts-BucJdiandlung, 1900; 2 ed., ill.) 

Examination of the most important foods and condiments, C. Beier {Die 
VntemucJiung unserer unchtigden Nahrungs- und Genussmittel. Leipsic: C. G. Nau- 
mann, pp. VIII -ir 147; abs. in Ztschr. Untersuch. Nahr.u. Genussmtl., 3 {1900), No. 4, 
p. ^5»<i?).— This work forms Nos. 116 to 118 of the series entitled " Medicinischen 
Bibliothek fiir praktische Aerzte." 

Miscellaneous analyses, E. F. Ladd {North Dakota Sta. Rpt. 1899, pp. 13, 
14). — Analyses are reported of coal from western North Dakota, ashes from lignite, 
and clays (9 samples) from different jsarts of the State. 

BOTANY. 

Studies of the time and rate of development of the potato 
tuber, L. K. Jones and W. A. Okton ( Vcrmvut St((. Rpt. IHUU^ pp. 
155^ 156). — Previous investigationrf on this subject (E. S. R.. 5, p. 988) 
have been repeated, using 75 rows of potatoes. All were i)lanted at 
the same time on rather heavy clay soil, were sprayed with Paris 
green in the early part of the summer, and received 3 applications of 
the Bordeaux mixture in the Ititter part, so that the vines were in a 
fairly healthy condition quite late in the season. Beginning August 



BOTANY. 215 

4, every iiiiitli row was diiu- at intervals of 10 da_ys. The total yield 
of tubers and yield of marketable size is yiven, showing- that a consid- 
erable portion of the yield of marketable tul^ers was foi-med after Sep- 
tember 1. 'rii(> unsi)ray('d vines in this experiment were nearly all 
dead before Auoust 20. The results of this experiment lead the 
authors to repeat the former statement that "the potato crop of Ver- 
mont sutlers far more each year than is g-enerally realized from the 
premature death of the vines.'' 

Development of the buds of the wild plum, L. K. Waldron 
{Nortli Dakota Sta,. Rpt. 1899, pp. Sl-39^ figs. 6). — Investigations 
have been made on the time and manner of differentiation of leaf and 
flower buds, and the influence affecting the formation of flower buds; 
also a study of the reserve materials of the plant. 

The present report is in the nature of a preliminary one, some phases 
of the work being still under investigation. Amon^ some of the more 
important deductions drawn from the inyestigations, the author states 
that the stamens, pistils, and bud scales must lie considered as modi- 
fled portions of the tissues of the shoot axis and not as modifled foliage 
leaves. In the plant investigated th(> luimber of flowers starting in a 
bud is -i. which may often lie lessened l)y some ])eing killed. Lignin 
is formed early in the life of the bud, and by September the lignitied 
portion is sharply differentiated froiu the cellulose portion. The 
organic parts of the flower are formed liefore winter, the ovule in the 
spring. The most important tiuie of difl'erentiation of leaf and flower 
buds appeal's to be from the middle of July to the middle of August, 
although there is some evidence to show that it may take place later. 

The effect of centrifugal force upon the cell, D. M. Mottier 
{Ann. Bot., IS {1899), No. hi, pp. 32f>-o61, pi. i).— The author has 
undertaken to determine what parts of the living su])stance and its 
inclusions could be displaced within the cell by means of centrifugal 
force several hundred times greater than that of gravity, acting for a 
definite but usually short period of time, and to see what efl'ect such 
displacement might have upon the individual cell. 

Various alga?, leaves of mosses, trichomes of a numlier of plants, 
staminal hairs from Tradescantia, leaves of a number of plants, and 
.seedlings of maize, beans, castor lieans, and horse beans were used in 
the experiments. The centrifugal force was generated by the use of 
an ordinary milk separator driven by a gas motor. After subjecting 
the plants to this force for a number of hours it was found in the case 
of the algas and mosses that the chlorophyll in the cells was all forced 
toward the distal end. This was also true of the contents of the cells of 
most of the other plants experimented with. After standing a time the 
normal condition of the distribution of the cell contents was resumed, 
at flrst rapidly l)ut later very slowly. 

The experiments with the seedlings of the plants mentioned were 



216 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

largely conducted to determine the effect of centrifugal force on the 
nucleus. The results obtained bear directly upon the specific gravity 
of the various cell constituents, and especially those of the nucleus. 
It is stated that there can be no doubt that the nucleolus is relatively 
a very heavy body and that its specific weight is greater in the nuclei 
of cells (l(>stined to great constructive activity. 

The destruction of chlorophyll by oxidizing enzyms, A. F. 
Woods (Centhl. Bakt. n. Par., 2. Alt., o {1899). No. 22, jyp. 7J^5- 
7oJf). — The author reports on a series of studies made on the relation 
which exists between oxidizing enz3'ms and decoloration of leaves. 
Oxidizing enzyms. both oxidase and peroxidase, were found plentiful, 
and some of their characteristics are descrilied, together with notes on 
their presence and effect on variegated maple, horse-chestnut, and a 
number of other plants. A careful comparative investigation showed 
that the intensity of the power of oxidase was inversely proportional 
to the amount of chloroph3'll present, as judged h\ color. The per- 
oxidase follows the same rule. 

The principal portion of the investigation was conducted with 
tobacco, in which the so-called blanching or mosaic disease was exam- 
ined with particular care. Peroxidase was alwa3^8 found in greater 
quantity and twice as strong in the light-colored areas as in the green 
ones, and where the chlorophyll had nearly disappeared, leaving albino 
spots, the oxidase was twice as abundant as in the green of the same 
leaf or the green of healthy leaves. The author claims that there is 
no good reason for separating this disease of tobacco from true varie- 
gation or albinism. He has been able to produce it at will, and as 
3^et no organism has been isolated that proved to be the cause of 
variegation. 

The conclusions of the author are that chlorophyll is rapidly 
destroyed by the oxidizing enzyms, oxidase, and peroxidase. These 
enzyms are normally present in small quantitv in many of the higher 
plants, and under certain conditions (Mther become more active or are 
produced in greater (piantitv, resulting in variegations and other forms 
of disease. The active agents in producing the mosaic disease of 
tobacco appear to be enzyms rather than the '•living Huid contagion"' 
suggested ))y Beijerinck (E. S. R., 11, p. 1H7). The mosaic disease 
may be produced at will, and the enzyms can remain in the soil unin- 
jured for several months. In aqueous solutions the oxidases arc 
d(\str()yed by 5 minutes' exposure to temperatures of 65 to 70" C, and 
the i)eroxidases by 5 minutes' exposure to temperatures of 80 to 85° C. 

On the formation of proteids during the germination of wheat 
in darkness, J. Goldbeiu; {Rcr. (u'l,. B<>f.. 11 {1899). Xo. 129. pp. 
337-3Ji.0,fi(/. 1). — A considerable number of grains of wheat were ger- 
minated in the dark, at temperatures ranging from 20 to 22.5°. At 
intej'vals of 3, 8, and 14 days the author removed 60 of the plantlets 



BOTANY. 217 

of equal doAelopnieiit, .separiited the einbiyo from the endosperm, and 
determined the protein and nitrogen according to the methods of 
Stutzer and Vigcldatl, The results of the analyses are shown, from 
which the author claims that proteids are formed in considerable 
quantity by the embryos of wheat during the process of germination. 
It is further claimed that this increase could not have come from the 
endosperms ])y osmosis, but was formed in the embryo. 

Concerning the physiological functions of solanin, G. Albo 
{Conti'lh. Biol. Veg., '2 {1899). No. 3; aU. in Ami. Agron., '25 {1899), 
No. 12., 2)}). 621.^ 622). — Solanin has been previously regarded by dif- 
ferent authors as a means of defense and as a transfer form of albumin 
similar to asparagin. The author studied the question by examining 
micro-chemically a numl)er of species of Solanum grown under normal 
conditions, in shade and in an atmosphere lacking in carbon dioxid. 

Solanin was found in the stems, leaves, tubers, and seeds of most 
species of Solanum grown under normal conditions. During and fol- 
lowing germination it diminishes, ])ut reappears with the development 
of the plant and is abundant in the adult plant. When grown in dark- 
ness, solanin gradually disappears, and negative reactions were obtained 
for a consideral)le time before the death of the plant. If the seeds of 
Solanum sodomeum are germinated in the dark, there is a complete 
disappearance of the alkaloid. When the seedlings were brought into 
the light, the solanin reappeared soon after the chlorophyll functions 
•were established. The same is true of the seeds of the eggplant, 
tomato, potato, and numerous species of Capsicum. 

From the results of these experiments the author believes that 
solanin can not be considered a transfer form of the albuminoids, but 
is a true nitrogenous reserve material used by the plant during its first 
stages of development. On this account it is claimed that solanin can 
not be considered simply as a means of defense on the part of the plant 
against animals. 

The inhibiting action of oxidases upon diastase, A. F. Woods 
{Science, n. .sv>/'., 11 {1900), JVo. 262, pp. 17-19). — While engaged in a 
study of the mosaic disease of tobacco leaf, the author found that the 
lighter-colored areas contained more starch in the form of granules 
than the green areas of the same leaf. He has pointed out elsewhere 
(see p. 216) that these light-colored cells exhibit much more oxidizing 
activity than the green cells of the same leaf. In all examples there 
was a greater amount of oxidizing enzyms, oxidases as well as per- 
oxidases, in the light-colored tissues. Mainly upon this evidence the 
author considered the light-colored tissues as the diseased portions of 
the leaves. 

Recent histological studies of diseased leaves reveal important dif- 
ferences, which make it very clear that the light-colored areas are not 
normal. In badl}- diseased leaves the palisade parenchyma is not 



218 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

developed at all in the lii>ht -colored areas. In leaves severely attacked 
by the disease, by simply looking- across the leaf depressions may be 
observed where the light areas occur. The cells of the diseased areas 
translocate their starch with gTcat difficulty and often become com- 
pletely gorged. 

The conclusion seems warranted that the tardiness in translocation 
of starch in the diseased area is due to the abnormal activity of the 
oxidizing- enzj'ms in these cells, b}^ reducing or weakening- the activity 
of diastases. 

The inoculation of soil, G. W. Herrick (Mississippi Sta. Rpt. 
1899^ pj)- ^^r -f-^)- — 1" the autumn of 1898, 3 plats of vetch were sown 
to note the effect of inoculation of the soil on this crop. The first plat 
was inoculated b}^ soaking- the seeds in water in which had been stirred 
soil from a field in which vetches had been previously cultivated. 
After being thoroughly wetted, the seeds were sown in drills and cov- 
ered. Plat '1 was retained as a check plat, while phit 8 was inoculated 
Iw scattering dry dirt from the vetch field in the drills as the seed 
were sown. 

The following May the plats were cut and carefully weighed, and it 
was found that plat 1 yielded 61.5 lbs.; plat 2, IS lbs.: and plat 3, 79 
lbs. of green forage. Pot experiments with vetch were attempted, 
but the results obtained were contradictory. Phits of crimson clover 
and alfalfa were sown and treated in the same manner as described for 
the vetches, but negative results were obtained on account of the non-- 
germination and poor stand of the plants. 

Annual report of the consulting botanist for 1899, W. Car- 
RUTHEKS {Jour. Roy. Agr. Soc. Eiujlaixl.^ J. .sr/-., 10 {1899), pt. It-., pp. 
678-688., figs. 13). — Among the items reported upon by the consulting 
botanist are investigations on the germination of seeds, weeds, and 
diseases of plants. During the j^ear the seeds examined were remark- 
ably free from impurities and the germinations high, although in 
some cases there was considerable fluctuation. 

On account of injury to stock, investigations were made with a 
number of plants which are either poisonous or represented to be, and 
a list of those mentioned include Ranir/iculus acris, R. p>arv>fiorus^ R. 
ficarla., Celadinc, Arum tnaculatiun., laurels, Nicotiana affinln., Jlera- 
clemn sphondylimm., Pfunella vulgaris., and Nepeta glecJwma. A num- 
ber of other phmts are mentioned which were suspected of being- 
injurious to stock, but which the author doubts having any noxious 
qualities. 

Among the diseases reported upon were 2 diseases of wheat, one 
due to Olado.sporluii) herharum, the other to the mildew, Ei'ysiphe 
graminiK. A field of peas badly infested with Pythium deharyanum. 
is reported upon, and Ai^cochyta p>isi \\ah proved troublesome on bean 
crops in a number of places. Attacks of I*lasiiiodiophora hrassicoi are 



BOTANY. 219 

noted from two localities. Leaves of pear trees were identified by the 
author as affected by species of Spha'ria, the trees in this instance hav- 
ing nearh" ever}- leaf attacked. 

A report is given on impurities found in a number of feeding stuffs, 
and a brief account of an investigation in which the effect of lightning 
on a numl>er of trees is shown. 

Saltbushes {Queensland Agr. Jour., {J 900), No. 4, pp. 254-357, ph. 3). — Notes 
are given on a number of species of Atriplex, their habits of growth and possible 
value being described. Extensive quotations are given from California Station 
Bulletin 125 (E. S. R., 11, p. 636). 

Botanical notes on wheat and spelt, A. S. Hitchcock {Ayner. (lard., '21 {1900), 
No. 295, pp. 556, 557). — Notes the classification of the different kinds of wheat 
according to the recognized species. Triticum monococcum, T.polonimm, and T. sat- 
ivum. The latter is divided into T. spelta, T. dicoccum, T. turgidum, T. durum, T. 
rompactvm, and T. ndgare. 

The North American species of Chaetochloa, F. Lamson-Pcribner and E. D. 
Merrill {U. S. Dept. Agr., Dinslon of Agrostology Bui. 21, pp. 44, figs. 24). — This bul- 
letin contains a revision and enumeration of the North American species of Chfeto- 
chloa, commonly known as Setaria. According to the authors, 28 species are found 
in the region covered by the bulletin, 23 of which are native of North America, the 
others having been introduced from Europe. Six of the species are here published 
for the iirst time. 

Botanical origin of caoutchouc and g-utta-percha, P. Grelot ( Origine botan- 
ifjue des cuoidchouc ei gutta-percha. Paris: Berger-Letrault d- Co., 1899, p}). 276, figs. 
2). — Descriptions are given of the plants producing caoutchouc and gutta-percha, 
with historical notes, chapters on methods of culture and handling, commercial 
movement, properties, composition, etc. 

Poisonous plants, F. M. Bailey {Queensland Agr. Jour., 6 {1900), No. 5, pp. 382, 
383, pjl. 1). — Descriptive notes are given of the physic nut {Jatropha. curcas). 

The nutation of Helianthus, .J. H. Schaffner {Bot. Gaz., 29 {1900), No. 3, pp. 
197-200, figs. 10). — The nutation of wild and cultivated sunflowers is figured and 
described. 

Can strontium and barium replace calcium in phenogams? U. Suzuki {Bui. 
Col. Agr. Imp. Unir. Tokyo, 4 {1900) , No. 1, pp. 69-79, pA. i).— The author has investi- 
gated the possibility of substituting strontium and barium for calcium in the growth 
of plants, experiments being made in sand and water cultures. The results obtained 
indicate that these substances not only can not replace calcium but they are strongly 
poisonous to the plants. This poisonous action may to a certain degree be lessened 
by the addition of lime salts. 

The nutrition of humus plants, R. Y. Leavitt {Amer. Gard., 21 {1900), No. 
295, pp. 552, 553, figs. 3). — The nutrition of the Cupuliferpe, Betulacea^ Ericaceie, 
and Coniferse by means of mycorrhiza is explained. 

Some wood-destroying fungi, G. F. Atkinson {Geol. Survey Louisiana, 1899, pp. 
331-338, pis. 7). — Notes are given on Polyporus borealis, Hydnum septentrionale, Fomes 
fomentarius, Trametes p/nri, and Deedalea ambigua. 

The haustoria of the Erysipheae, G. Smith {Bot. Gaz., 29 {1900) , No. 3, pp. 153- 
184, pis. 2). — The structure and behavior of the haustoria of the powdery mildews, 
as shown by the author's investigations of a dozen species representing different 
genera, are described. Hitherto the minute structure and development of these 
organs seems to have lieen almost wholly unknown. 

Nitrogen and Nitragin, L. C. Newell {Fop. Sci. Mo., 34 {1900), No. 9, p. 164). — 
Pojiular notes. 



220 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

Inoculation experiments ■with Nitragin, J. Kappeli {Jalircaber. Landw. Schule 
Bijfli, 1S9S-99, jjp. 6S-70). — A brief account is given of inoculation experiments with 
Nitragin on pean, vetches, and hipines in which average gains are reported of 4.3, 
6.8, and 10.5 per cent, respectively. 

Our botanic gardens, P. MacMahon {Queensland Ai/r. Jour., n {1900), No. 4, pp. 
28S-292, jiJ. J). — Brief notes are given on 149 species of plants, mostly timber trees, 
the seeds of which are offered in exchange. 

Report of the Natal Botanic Gardens, J. M. Wood {Durban, 1899, jiji. 14). — 
In ad<lition to the routine report of the gardens and herbarium, economic notes are 
given upon a number of plants that are thought to l)e of value for that region. 



METEOROLOGY. 

Report of the meteorologist, .T. E. Ostraxder {Masmchusetts Hatch Ski. Rpt. 
1899, pp. 74-95). — A brief statement of the work of the year in this department of 
the station and monthlj' summaries of observations at Amherst, Mass., on pressure 
(maximum, minimum, mean, and range), temperature (maximum, minimum, and 
mean), dewpoint, relative humidity, cloudiness, sunshine, precipitation, wind move- 
ment, velocity, and pressure, snow, frost, etc., for 10 years (1889-1898), with nor- 
mals and a general summary for the period. The following data are taken from the 
general summary: 

Pressure (inches). — Maximum, '30.65, February 26, 1889; minimum, 28.24, Febru- 
ary 8, 1895; mean, 30.029. Air temperature (degrees F. ). — Maximum, 98, July 20, 
1894; minimum, — 19, February 3, 1898; mean, 47.1; mean annual range, 107; mean 
daily range, 22.1. Humidity. — ]\Iean dewpoint, 40.2; mean relative humidity, 73.5. 
Precipitation. — Greatest annual, 1897, 57.05 in.; least annual, 1894, 32.64 in.; mean 
annual, 46 in. Wind. — Mean annual movement, 51,566 miles; maximum pressure 
per square foot, 43 lbs., September 11, 1895. Weather. — Mean cloudiness observed, 
52.4 per cent; total cloudiness recorded by the sun thermometer, 22,400 hours, or 50.3 
per cent ; number of cloudy days, 1,444. Bright sunshine. — Number of hours recorded, 
22,120, or 49.7 per cent. 

Appendix to report of meteorologist, R. E. Trimble ( Colorado Sta. Ppt. 1899, 
pp. 90-104, 110-112, charts 2). — Tabh^s give monthly and annual summaries of obser- 
vations during 1898 and 1899 on temperature, humidity, precipitation, snowfall, dew- 
])oint, days of frost or dew, cloudy and stormy days, and direction of the wind at 
Fort Collins, Rockyford, and Cheyenne Wells, and on temperature, precipitation, 
snowfall, and stormy days at Estes Park (at base of Longs Peak, elevation 9,000 ft. ), 
Pinkhampton (elevation 8,400 ft. ), and Gleneyre (elevation 8,000 ft. ). The monthly 
and annual rainfall at Fort Collins (1872-1899) and at 7 additional places in the 
watershed of the Cache la Poudre River is also reported. Observations during 13 
years (1887-1899) on the evaporation from a water surface are tabulated. 

Meteorological svtmmary, J. S. ^Ioore {Mississlp]ti Sta. Rpt. 1899, pp. 4^-47). — 
Tables are given which show the daily and monthly precipitatioji with departures 
from normal, monthly temperatures with departures from normal, cloudiness, and 
direction of the wind for the year ended June 30, 1899. The most remarkal)]e fea- 
ture of the weather during this ]>eriod was the extreme low temperatures of February 
11-14, 1899, during which the temperature fell to —8° F., and the continued cold 
and wet weather of ]\larch and April. 

Summary of temperature, rainfall, and sunshine, E. F. Ladd {North Dakota 
Sta. lipjt. 1899, p. 14). — Tables give the maxima, minima, and mean temperatures for 
each month of 1899; al'^o the total rainfall, monthly and yearly, for 1899 and 7 pre- 
ceding years, and the hours of sunshine. The rainfall during 1899 was 21.21 in.; the 
mean annual rainfall for 8 years (1892-1899) Avas 19.87 in. 



WATER SOILS. 221 

Sunshine records at Aas Agricultural College, J. Sebelien {Norsk Landinnnds- 
blad, 19 {1900), No. 10, pp. 109, 110). — The author has made daily records of the 
amount of sunshine at the State Agricultural College of Norway (latitude about 59.5 
deg. N. ) during the past three years by the photographic method. The total amount 
of sunshine for the year 1897 was 1 , 700 hours, or 38.9 per cent of the number of hours 
during which the sun was above the horizon; in 1898 the amount was 1,632 hours 
29 minutes (36.5 per cent of theoretical maximum), and in 1899, 2,197 hours 18 min- 
utes (49.2 per cent of theoretical maximum). In midsummer the sun sets at about 
10 p. m. at Aas, but owing to the small amounts of photographically active rays in 
the sunshine when the sun is near the horizon it was only possible to register sun- 
light a few times after 9 p. m. during 1898, and in 1899 no records were made after 
this time, the records as a general rule closing at about 8.15 p. m. — f. w. woll. 



WATER— SOILS. 

Nature, value, and utilization of alkali lands, E. W. Hilgard 

{Callfnj'iila Sta. Bui. 128., pp. J^lj^jig!<. 16). — This is a general sum- 
mary of the results of investigations at the California Station on this 
subject during the past 20 years, the details of which have been pub- 
lished in reports and bulletins of the station. The topics treated 
include occurrence and characteristics of alkali soils, how plants are 
injured by alkali, effects of irrigation, distribution of alkali salts in 
the soil, composition of alkali salts, utilization and reclamation of 
alkali lands, removing the salts from the soil, crops suitable for alkali 
lands, amount of salts compatible with ordinary crops, limits of saline 
content of waters used for irrigation, and reclaimable and irreclaimable 
alkali lands as distinguished by their natural vegetation. 

The geology of Louisiana, G. D. Harris and A. C. Veatch {Louisi- 
ana Stas. Spec. Rpt. (ieol. and Agr.^pt. B,pp>. 35Jf^ph. SS, figs. 3, maps 
i^).^This report summarizes previous work on the geological and 
agricultural survey of Louisiana (E. S. R., 10, p. 330) and gives an 
account of additional investigations on the same subject. The report 
is divided into three parts. The lirst is a historical review of investi- 
gations from the earliest times up to and including those of the 
Louisiana P^xperiment Stations. The second part deals with the gen- 
eral geology of the State, including stratigraphic geology and economic 
geology. Under the latter head are reported the results of observa- 
tions on the occurrence, extent, and quality of the deposits of salt, 
sulphur, clay, sandstone, limestone, and gravel, which are classed as 
important products, and of the following unimportant products: Iron 
ores, lignite, lead and zinc ores, marl, gypsum, petroleum, and gas. 
The third part contains reports of investigations in special lines, 
including (1) the Natchitoches area, (2) the Shreveport area, (3) the 
Five Islands, (-t) a report on Louisiana clay samples (by H. Ries), (5) a 
report on a collection of fossil plants from northwestern Louisiana (by 
A. Hollick), ((!) the cretaceous and lower eocene faunas of Louisiana, 
(7) establishment of meridian lines, (8) a few notes on roadmaking, and 
(9) some wood-destroying fungi (by G. F. Atkinson, see p. 21S>). The 



222 EXPERIMENT STATION EECORD. 

first of these reports deals with the topography, strati o-raphy, soils, and 
sprino-s of the area studied; the second with topography and drainage, 
the great raft in the Red River and its effects, the geology and soils of 
the bottoms, the geology of the hill lands, and aboriginal works on 
Caddo bottoms, etc. The notes on soils relate rather to "their general 
aspect and location than to their agricultural value." Discussion of the 
latter is deferred until analyses of the soils have been completed. The 
tj'pical soil areas are mapped. The third report gives a history of the 
study of the Five Islands and the geographical position and a general 
topographical description of the islands, special attention being given 
to the occurrence, origin, and extent of the salt deposits and the histor}^ 
of their exploitation. 

Analyses of artesian well waters, W. R. Perkins and E. B. Ferris {^fississ^ppi 
Sta. Rpt. 1899, p. 41) ■ — The mineral constitnents of 6 samples of artesian well water 
are reported. 

Drinking water, C. H. Jones and B. O. White ( Vrrmont Sta. Rpt. 1899, pp. 145, 
146) . — Examinations with reference to sanitary condition of -1 samples of spring water, 
12 of well water, and 2 of l)r(>ok water are reported. 

Distilled water for drinking purposes, H. L. Bolley {Xorth Dakota Sta. Rpt. 
1899, pp. 2.9-31, figs. ^) . — Tavo cheap forms of apparatus suited to use on the kitchen 
stove are described. 

Analyses of soils, AV. R. Perkins and E. B. Ferris {Mississippi Sta. Rpt. 1899, 
pp. 31-35) .■ — Chemical and mechanical analyses of 71 samples of soils from different 
parts of the State are reported. 

Chemical composition of soil, J. A. Murray {An. Rpt. on Field Expts. Agr. 
Dept. Univ. Col. Walc^^, 1899, pp. 75-78). — A chemical analysis of a soil which had 
Ijeen in grass for several years and was rather l)adly drained. 

Chemical methods for ascertaining the lime requirements of soils, H. J. 
Wheeler, B. L. H.\rtwell, and C. L. Sarc;ent {Rhode Island Sta. Bui. 62, pp. 
65-88). — For abstract of this article as published elsewhere, see E. S. R., 11, p. 1003. 
, The inflxience of lime on vegetation and the value of the calcimetric analy- 
sis of soils, A. Gassek and R. Maike [Bid. Soc. Sci. Xancij, 2. .st'/-., 10 {1899), Xo. 34, 
pp. 32-41) .—A study of the distribution of plants as determined b}'^ the lime content 
of the soil and of the value of the determination of lime in soils as a means of ascer- 
taining the kinds of plants to which they are adapted. A bibliography of the subject 
is ap]jended. 

Moor culture at Tranekjar, Denmark, L. .Iorgensen {TidsHkr. Landokon, 1900, 
No. 6, pji. .Wl-.)2o). 

Soil temperatures, R. E. Trimble ( Colorado Sta. Rpt. 1899, pp. 105-109) .—Tables 
give the weekly means of temperature at depths of 3 in. to (5 ft. in irrigated and unir- 
rigated plats of soil on the college grounds during 1898 and 1899, and dates of 
extreme t('nij)eratur(' in the irrigated ])lat (hiring 1889-1899. 

On the distribution of nitric-acid bacteria in some Danish soils, II. Jensen 
{Tidsskr. Landbr. Plantearl, 5 {1899), pyp. 173-177) .—The investigations conducted 
by the author indicate that nitric-acid bacteria are not found in wild heather and 
moor soils, and that they appear very slowly in such soils under ordinary methods 
of culture. Their absence is most likely a result of the acid reaction of the soil, 
which is only neutralized by heavy liming or by formation of soil ammonia after 
several years (through aid of schizomycetes) . It seems, furthermore, that the nitric- 
acid bacteria which appear when these new soils are cultivated are much less active 
than the bacteria in ol<l cultivated soils. — 1\ w. woll. 



FERTILIZERS. 



223 



FERTILIZERS. 

On the importance of different green-manuring plants in the 
economy of soil nitrogen during the fall months, H. C. Larsen 
{Thlsdr. Laiulhr. Flantc'ivl, 5 {1S99),jjjk 101-im).—Fot expeviments 
wore made with the following o-reen-nianuring plants: Buckwheat, 
yellow nuistard, field pea, eonmion vetch, hairy vetch, Roman vetch 
( T7(vVi mtivcv Qiarbonnensis), yellow lupiiie, blue lupine, and white 
lupine, Medicago lupuUnd, common kidney vetch, .serradella, 2fdUotas 
alla^ and red clover. Five pots were used for each plant. The pots 
were filled with soil of a very light character, poor in humus and other 
fertilizing constituents, having been taken from a tield on which crops 
of rye, barley, three years' pasture, and oats had been grown since the 
last manuring. An application of sulphate of potash and superphos- 
phate corresponding to the contents of potash and phosphoric acid in 
a good crop of clover was added to all pots. The pots were 21 cm. 
deep and 20.2 cm. in diameter. The seeding and harrowing-under of 
the green-manure crops were done at such a time and in such a manner 
as would obtain in field work. Careful records were kept of the gross 
yields and those of dry matter obtained in each case, and nitrogen 
determinations were made in the soil in the pots at the beginning of 
the experiments, and after the crops had been harrowed into the soil. 
The average results of the experiments referring to the nitrogen 
balance are shown in the following table: 

Nitrogen contcniK of pot x hcforr (iiUl after rannurlng. 



Crop. 



Buckwheat ... 

Mustard 

Field pea 

Common vetch 
Hairy vetch... 
Roman vetch . 
Yellow luiiinc. 
White lupine.. 

Trefoil 

Serradella 

Melilotus 



Nitrogen 
in soil per 


Nitrogen per pot aft 


er experi- 


Gain(-t-) 


Drloss ( — ) 




ment. 




in nitrogen. 


pot before 
experi- 
ment. 


In soil. 


In crop. 


Total. 


Per pot. 


Per acre 
(calcu- 
lated). 


Grams. 


Grarns. 


Gram. 


GraviK. 


Gram. 


Pounds. 


7.05 


6.39 


0.15 


6.54 


-0.51 


-126 


7.04 


6.71 


.13 


6.84 


- .20 


- 49 


7.11 


6.97 


.67 


7.G4 


+ .53 


+131 


7.12 


6.59 


.77 


7.36 


+ .24 


+ 60 


7.05 


6.91 


.33 


7.24 


+ .19 


+ 47 


7.1'2 


7.16 


.50 


7.66 


+ .54 


4-134 


7.14 


7.03 


.20 


7.23 


+ .09 


+ 22 


7.14 


7.16 


.17 


7.33 


4- .19 


-1- 47 


7.05 


7.09 


.16 


7.25 


+ .20 


+ 49 


7.05 


7.03 


.16 


7.19 


+ .14 


+ 35 


7.05 


7.03 


.38 


7.41 


+ .36 


-f 88 



While buckwheat and mustard caused an appreciable loss of nitro- 
gen as compai'ed with the content in the bare soil, the legumes supplied 
-t to 5 times as much nitrogen as these crops, and made the soil con- 
siderably richer in nitrogen at the end of the experiments than before, 
the increase corre.-^ponding to about 15 loads of barnyard manure per 
acre. 

The pots were placed under cover over winter, and in the spring 



224 EXPERIMENT STATION KECORD. 

sown to six-rowed barley. The results obtained at harvest time were- 
rendered valueless through an accident, but the appearance of the 
barley throuohout the vegetative period clearly showed tlie superioritj' 
of the legumes as green manures, and the small crops in the buckwheat 
and mustard pots were ripe while the barley plants in man}^ of the 
legume pots, notably the field pea and the common A'etch pots, were 
large and still green. — v. w_. woll. 

Further notes on organic nitrogen availability, C. H. Jones and 
B. O. White ( Vermont Sta. Rpt. 1899^ pp. 137-139). — An account is 
given of further tests of the alkaline permanganate method for deter- 
mining the availabilit}^ of organic nitrogen in fertilizers (E. S. R., 11, 
p. 328). The results are given of trials of the method on the follow- 
ing nitrogenous materials: Acidulated fish (nitrogen, 6.72 per cent); 
tankage (6.43 per cent); high grade tankage (8.33 per cent); concen- 
trated tankage (12.99 per cent); dissolved tankage (4.51 per cent); hair 
tankage, wool, horn, meat. etc. (9. 10 "per cent); garbage tankage, New 
York (3.15 per cent); garbage tankage, St. Louis (4.76 per cent); 
garbage tankage, St. Louis (2.11 per cent); dissolved horn and hoof 
(11.13 per cent); hog bristles (11.20 per cent); hair (9.82 per cent); 
fertilizer containing cotton-seed meal as its sole source of nitrogen 
(2. 15 per cent) ; cotton-seed meal fertilizer (1. 72 per cent) ; cream gluten 
meal (5.87 per cent); "gluton" (1.75 per cent); Atlantic gluten meal 
(12.43 per cent); cocoanut fiber feed (3.63 per cent). As in previous 
tests, equal quantities of material and quantities of material furnishing 
equal amounts of nitrogen were used. 

" The misleading results obtained with equal quantities of material but unequal 
weights of nitrogen are as evident in this as in last year's work. When, however, 
equal amounts of nitrogen are taken (modified method) useful results are attained. 

"Animal ammoniateit. — Not one of the better forms shows less than 56 per cent 
availability by the modified method, while the garbage and Philadelphia tankages, 
wool waste, leather and leather refuse, all of which are of well-known inferiority as 
fertilizers, show from 41 to 18 per cent availability. Hair tankage and hog bristles 
range unexpectedly high. 

"Vegetable amnioniafef:. — The modified method was found in last year's experience 
less satisfactory with vegetable than witli animal anunoniates. It seemed probable 
that the low availability found with cotton seed, flax, and gluten meals, materials 
well known to be effective in actual field use, was due to the relatively large content 
of nonnitrogenous organic matter. This (;ouiectnre was borne put Ijy the lowered 
results on high-grade animal anmioniates when filter paper, starch, etc., were di- 
gested with them, as well as by the higher figures obtained with a vegetable ammo- 
niate after it has been acidulated for many months. In order to throw more light 
upon this question a liighly pro teinous vegetable by-product, Atlantic gluten meal,, 
was secured. This material carried 7.04 per cent moisture, 0.42 per cent crude ash, 
77.69 per cent crude protein, 0.24 per cent crude fiber, 13.59 per cent nitrogen-free 
extract, and 1.02 per cent ether extract. Although belonging to the same class of 
material as the other glutens, it showed 70.2 per cent nitrogen availability instead 
of 46 and 30 per cents. It seems safe to ascril)e this result to tlie low percentage 
(14.85) of nonnitrogenous organic matter. 



FERTILIZERS. 225 

" It was pointed out in the last report that the more tedious pepsin-digestion proc- 
ess, which should be used as an adjunct to the modified permanganate method and 
in all cases of doubt, does justice to vegetable anunoniates." 

Contribution to the kno-wledge of the injurious effect of nitrate 
of soda on vegetation, J. Stoklasa {ZUclir. Landio. Versuchw. 
Oidcn:, J {rJOO),p. 35; abs. in Chem. Ztg., 2^ {1900), No. 20, Eepert, 
p. 65). — It was demonstrated by means of water cultures that rye is 
nuich more sensitive to perchlorate than barley or wheat, and partic- 
ularly sugar beets, the latter being- 10 times moi"e resistant than the 
rye. In fact, it was found that copper and zinc sulphates and arsenic 
were more poisonous to beets than potassium perchlorate. Five hun- 
dred kilograms per hectare of nitrate of soda containing 2 per cent 
perchlorate may be applied to sugar beets without appreciable injury. 
For rye the limit is 100 kg. per hectare of 1 per cent perchlorate, 
while for oats the nitrate may contain 1.5 per cent perchlorate, and for 
wheat and barley 2 per cent. 

Fertilizers, E. Fulmer and W. H. Heileman ( Washingto)) Sta. 
Bui. J-tO. pp. o'2). — A general discussion of the principles underlying 
the use of fertilizers and of the sources and composition of fertilizers, 
with the text of the fertilizer law passed by the legislature of Wash- 
ington and approved March 8, 1899, This law puts the inspection of 
fertilizers in charge of the chemist of the Washington Station, who is 
created State chemist ex officio. The chemist is authorized to collect 
samples, in person or by deputy, in the open market. An analj^sis 
fee of f 6 for each fertilizing ingredient contained or claimed to exist 
in the fertilizer oiJ'ered for sale is required, the fees being paid into 
the treasury of the station. There is a provision against the use of 
pulverized leather, raw, steamed, roasted, or in any form, without an 
explicit statement of the fact. Violations of the law are punishable 
by a fine of $50 for the first offense and $100 for each subsequent 
offense. Fertilizers selling for less than $10 per ton are exempt. 

Sea alg'ae as fertilizers, C. Sorensen {Landmandsblad, 33 {1900), No. 8, pp. 
10'.)-11,^) . 

Experiments w^ith urine and liquid manure, N. A. Hansen {Landmandsblad, 
33 {1900), No. 7-S, pp. 77-79, 98-101). 

Local fertilizer experiments in Denmark and Germany, M. Weibull {Med- 
dd. K. Landtbr. Stj/r., 1899, No. 11, pjp. 1-26). 

On the application of artificial fertilizers, F. H. Werenskiold (Norsk Land- 
maiKhblad, 19 [WOO), No. 20, pp. 224-228). 

Analyses of commercial fertilizers and manurial substances, C. A. Goess- 
MANN {MassadiuscUs Hatch Sta. Bid. 65, pp>. 14). — This bulletin gives instructions 
regarding the sampling of fertilizers, discusses the trade values of fertilizing mate- 
rials, and reports analyses of 62 samples of fertilizing materials, including wood 
ashes, cotton-hull ashes, cotton-seed meal, tankage, sewage sludge, cork dust, kiln 
dust from breweries, cotton waste, tobacco refuse, muck, soils, bone, and compound 
fertilizers. 

8058— No. 3 3 



226 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

Report of the chemist, C. A. Goessmann kt al. {Mass(ir}iunet1>< Htttdi- Sla. ]i}it. 
189U, pp. 108-122). — This? i8 a brief general account of the fertilizer inspection and 
of general work in the chemical laboratory of the station. It includes tables show- 
ing the average composition and agreement with guarantees of the fertilizers exam- 
ined in 1898 and 1899; trade values of fertilizing materials; the quality of wood ashes 
analyzed in 1898 and 1899; analyses of 2 samples of hen manure; a list of licensed 
fertilizer dealers in Massachusetts, and miscellaneous notes on fertilizers. 

Fertilizers, F. W. Morse {New Hampshire Sta. Bui. 69, pp. 14)- — This bulletin 
includes a schedule of trade values of fertilizing materials in 1899, brief statements 
regarding the fertilizer inspection, and tabulated analyses of 97 samples of fertilizers 
examined for the State Board of Agriculture during 1899. 

Report of analyses of commercial fertilizers for the fall of 1899, L. L. Van 
Slyke {Xciv Ytji'k Stnte Stu. JhiJ. 173, pj). oSl-552). — The results of analyses of 130 
different brands of fertilizers are reported. Of these 101 were complete fertilizers in 
which the nitrogen varied from 0.59 to 4.91 per cent, averaging 1.65 per cent. The 
available phosphoric acid yaried from 3.44 to 13.08 per cent, averaging -9. 04 percent. 
The potash varied from 0.48 to 10.75 per cent, averaging 4.3 per cent. The average 
amounts of nitrogen, available phosphoric acid, and potash exceeded the guaranteed 
averages by 0.13, 0.74, and 0.22 per cent, respectively. 

Analyses of commercial fertilizers, J. L. Hills, C. H. Jones, and B. O. White 
{Yennont Sta. Bui. 77, pp. 141-162). — This bulletin discusses the valuation of fer- 
tilizers and reports analyses and valuations of 39 samples of fertilizers licensed for 
sale in the State up to April, 1900, with tables showing the average composition of 
all fertilizers examined by the station during the past 5 years. 

Fertilizers and fertilizing materials, C. H. Jones and B. O. White ( Vermont 
Sta. Rpl. ISyy, pp. 148-150). — Analyses of 15 samples of home-mixed fertilizers, 
28 samples of wood ashes, 7 samples of muck, 1 of cotton waste, and 2 of miscel- 
laneous materials are reported. 

"Twenty-six samples [of ashes] , said to be unleached, varied from 3.24 to 9.76 
per cent soluble potash, 3.66 to 10.05 percent total potash, 1.06 to 3.41 percent 
total phosphoric acid, 19.92 to 55.80 per cent lime, and averaged 5.27, 6.05, 1.68, 
34.82 per cent, resijectively, in the same ingredients." 

Commercial fertilizers, J. H. Stewart and B. H. Hite {Went Virginia Sta. Bui. 
63, pp. 115-152). — This gives the text of the State fertilizer law, statistics of the 
value and consumption of fertilizers in West Virginia during the last 5 years, and 
analyses and valuations of 204 brands of fertilizers registered for sale in the State 
during 1899. It is estimated that the consumption of commercial fertilizers of all 
classes in the State increased from 21,559 tons in 1895 to 39,106 tuns in 1899, or 81 
per cent. The greatest increase was in case of acid phosphate with i)otash — 368 per 
cent. 

Analyses of licensed commercial fertilizers, 1900, F. W. Woll and A. 
Vivian {Wisconsin Sta. Bui. 81, pp. iO).— This bulletin gives the text of the State 
fertilizer law and reports 7 analyses of fertilizers with explanatory notes 

FIELD CROPS. 

Report of the agriculturist, V\ . P. Brooks and H. M. Thomson 

{Mciiisachusdts IJatch Sta. Rpt. ISOO^ j'P- 9-JfO.) — This report covers 
fertilizer, soil, and variety tests with a number of tield and garden 
crops, and is in continuation of similar work previously noted (E. S. 
K., 10, p. 026). Pot experiments have been made with potatoes, 
onions, soy beans, corn, and millet. 



FIELD CEOPS. 227 

Corn was grown on plats used continuously for 11 years in soil tests 
with ditierent fertilizers, alone and combined. The experiments of 
1808 with corn on the same plats had shown a decrease in yield on the 
plat which had received annual applications of muriate of potash at 
the rate of 160 lbs. per acre. It was thought that the continued use 
of the muriate form of potash had resulted in depleting the soil of 
lime, and hence lime at the rate of 1 ton per acre was added to the 
])lats in 18iM). The results were very beneficial on the muriate plat, 
the jdeld of shelled corn being at the rate of 49,75 bu. per acre. 
Other experiments, not recorded in detail, show '' that the benefit from 
the lime was not due to the fact that it corrected soil acidity." The 
yield of shelled corn on the plat which received barnyard manure at 
the rate of 5 cords per acre for each of the 11 years of the test was at 
the rate of 75.88 bu. per acre, while the yield on the plat receiving 
complete commercial fertilizers was at the rate of 72.88 bu. per acre. 
Five cords of liarn3^ard manure would cost if purchased about |25, 
while the complete fertilizers cost about $10. The financial profits 
for the whole 11 years with the difl'erent crops grown are in favor of 
the complete commercial fertilizers. 

A soil test similar in character to the above was made on another 
series of plats which have been 10 years under trial. Onions were 
grown in 1899 and one-half of each plat limed at the rate of 1 ton per 
acre. The yields on the limed and unlimed portions of each plat are 
tabulated and the results obtained in the3^ears 1898 and 1899 discussed. 
Beneficial efi'ects of the lime on the muriate of potash plats were again 
shown, and it is concluded from the experiment that the muriate oi* 
potash is an undesirable form of potash for onions. 

In a comparison of the relative value of 8,825 lbs, of barnyard 
manure alone vs. 5,880 lbs. of barnyard manure and -lO lbs. of high-grade 
sulphate of potash for corn, the best and cheapest yields were made 
l)y the combination of the lesser amount of barn^nard manure with the 
potash. The results of a comparison for 9 years of a special corn fer- 
tilizer with a fertilizer containing a larger amount of potash for corn 
were slightly in favor of the special corn fertilizer, but it is believed 
"by the frequent introduction of clover the fertilizer richer in pot- 
ash will prove superior to the other," 

Tests have been under way for a number of years with muriate vs. 
sulphate of potash for a number of crops. In 1899 the largest yield 
of sugar beets was obtained on the muriate plats, but the sugar con- 
tent and the degree of purity of the juice were higher in beets grown 
on the plats fertilized with sulphate of potash. The results obtained 
with the 2 fertilizers as regards yield and composition of both sweet 
and field corn were practically identical. With cabbage the greater 
number of hard heads and the greater total yield was afforded by the 
plats fertilized with the sulphate of potash. 



228 KXPEKIMENT STATION RECORD. 

A te.st with 7 dittorent forms of potash for soy beans was beg-un in 
1898 and continued with potatoes in 1899. All the different forms 
used increased the yields, but the yields from the same potash salt on 
the duplicate plats did not always occupy the same relative rank. 
The best average yield for potatoes was obtained on the high-g-rade 
sulphate plat. Plats receiving- carbonate of potash-magnesia ranked 
second, and the low-grade sulphate plats third. Kainit ranked lowest 
in 3'ield of all the salts employed. 

Experiments with leguminous crops as nitrogen gatherers seemed 
to show no benefit to the succeeding crops from growing soy beans. 
Clover gave nearly as good average results on plats which had received 
no nitrogenous fertilizers for 11 years as on the plats which had been 
well fertilized with different forms of nitrogen during that time. 
Tests of different forms of nitrogen for farm crops showed them to 
rank on the average in the following order: Nitrate of soda, barnyard 
manure, dried blood, and sulphate of ammonia. 

Experiments have been under wa}^ since 1891 to test the relative 
value for garden crops of (1) sulphate of ammonia, nitrate of soda, 
and dried blood as sources of nitrogen, and (2) muriate and sulphate 
as sources of potash. Partiall}^ rotted stable manure was applied to 
all the plats in 1898 and 1899. Barnyard manure alone has given the 
best results with celery, spinach, onions, table beets, and squashes. 
Sulphate of ammonia, when used with barnyard manure, was the most 
satisfactory form of nitrogen for strawberries and cabbages, and 
nitrate of soda the most satisfactory form for celer}', lettuce, spinach, 
*and onions. Of the 2 forms of potash, the sulphate gave the best 
results with strawberries, celery, lettuce, spinach, onions, and cabbages. 

Data for tests of 94 varieties of potatoes are tabulated. Some 36 
varieties produced yields averaging over 333 bu. per acre. In the 
author's opinion good Northern-grown seed is of more importance 
than name. The following varieties have made good 3'ields for 3 3^ears 
or more: Beautv of Hebron, Dutton Seedling, Early Rose, Enormous, 
Fillbasket, Prolific Rose, Restaurant, State of Maine. Thorburn, 
Vanguard, and White Elephant. 

The experiment in using wood ashes, ground bone and nuiriate of 
potash, and barnyard manure in rotation upon grass lands has been 
continued. The average yields of hay and rowen obtained from the 
plats fertilized with the different manures since 1893 have been as 
follows: Barnyard-manure plats, 7,027 lbs.; bone and potash, 6,568 
lbs., and Avood ashes, 6,294 lbs. per acre. 

Report on experiments conducted by the Ontario Agricultural 
and Experimental Union, 1899 ( Ontni'io Agr. (lud Expl. I'n'wn Rpt. 
1899, 2'p- -i'^-hi)- — I'h*' sununarized results obtained by the union in 
experiments with certain field crops and fruits are reported. The 
experiments involved tests of commercial fertilizers for corn and 



FIELD CROPS, 229 

mang-el-wurzels; variety tests with uiillct, grasses, clovers, buckwheat, 
spring wheat, spring rye, barley, oats, field peas, field beans, Japanese 
beans, carrots, mangel-wurzels, sugar beets, and Swedish and fall 
turnips; tests in growing grass, peas, and 2 varieties of vetches for 
green fodder, 3 mixtures of grain for green fodder, 6 varieties of corn 
for grain fodder or silage; sowing peas at dift'erent dates to deter- 
mine the amount of injurj' done by the pea weevil; planting potatoes 
the same day and 5 da3^s after being cut; and planting corn in rows 
and in squares. 

In the experiment in planting peas at dift'erent dates it was found 
that the percentage of weevily peas as well as the total yield deci'eased 
as the date of seeding advanced, the 5deld of peas sown on June 6 
being only about one-third as great as from peas sown on April 30. 
Planting seed potatoes immediately after the}^ were cut yielded on the 
average 12 bu. more per acre than was obtained from seed planted 5 
days after being cut. Corn grown in squares gave a larger yield than 
when planted in drills, the experimenters deciding in the proportion 
of 14.1 in favor of planting by this method. 

Report of the Arkansas Valley Substation, H. H. Griffix 
{Colorado Sta. Rpt. 1899^ pj^. 55-70^ fig. 1). — A report on the culture 
and 3'ield of wheat, corn, alfalfa, plants for green manuring, pasture 
and forage, cantaloupes, potatoes, celery, sugar beets, beans, and cer- 
tain orchard and small fruits. In some cases results of irrigation 
experiments are included. The results of a feeding test are noted 
elsewhere in this issue (p. 275). 

Three irrigations proved as effective as 7 for cantaloupes. The 
yields in both cases were larger than where only one irrigation was 
given, but the quality of the cantaloupes was more satisfactory with 
the one irrigation. Cantaloupes grown on alfalfa sod gave better 
jields and fruit of better quality than when grown on other soils and 
fertilized with barnj^ard manure or bone dust. Transplanting vines 
started in the greenhouse gave a larger proportion of early fruits than 
was obtained when the seeds were grown in hills in the open field. 

Paris green was used effectively as a remedy against the black flea- 
beetle, and Bordeaux mixture against the leaf blight of cantaloupes. 
The percentage of sugar in the juice of the sugar beets grown varied 
from 13.8 to 16.9, and the purity from 80 to 86.8. Some data are 
given on the cost of growing sugar beets, but they are not reduced to 
any common unit of comparison. 

Field experiments, E. K. Lloyd {Jfississippl Sta. Rpt. 1899., fp. 
9-13). — Variety tests with cotton and wheat, fertilizer tests with cot- 
ton, and culture experiments with hairy vetch ( Yicia villosa) are 
briefl}' reported. 

The heaviest yields of the 20 varieties of cotton grown were afforded 
by Hawkins Jumbo and Texas Bur, each producing over 700 lbs. of 



230 EXPEKTMEISTT STATION RECORD. 

seed cotton per acre. In a fertilizer test with cotton, the use of 
2,000 lbs. of compost applied in the drill resulted in heavier yields 
than cotton-seed meal, lime, acid phosphate, or kainit, alone or 
combined. 

The heaviest yields of wheat were afforded b}^ Eclipse, Beardless 
Fulcaster, Fulcaster, and Red May, the yields varying from 18.1) hu. 
in the lirst instance to 11.45 bu. in the last. 

Sowing- hairy vetch broadcast at the rate of 53 lbs. per acre resulted 
in a heavier yield of seed than sowing- either 83 or 37 lbs. in drills 2^ 
ft. apart. Heavv freezing did not injure early sowings of vetch. 

Field crops, 1899, F. C. Burtis et al. {Oliahoma Sta. Bui. Jplf.^ 
pp. 12). — Variety tests with oats and culture experiments as regards 
time of seeding, thickness of planting, and methods of plowing and 
cultivation are recorded with Kalir corn, Indian corn, castor beans, 
and cotton. The data of the different experiments are tabulated. The 
authors summarize the results obtained as follows: 

" (1) With oats, early seeding of an early-maturing variety has given best results. 

" (2) With Katir corn, planting about the middle of May in rows 3 ft. apart with 
one stalk each 3 to 5 in. has generally given the highest yields. 

"(3) With corn, no definite differences in yield were produced by variations in 
thickness of planting or in methods of plowing and cultivation. 

" (4) With castor beans, no difference in yield was obtained from planting weekly 
from March 21 to April 26. Planting May 16 gave the lowest yield. Manuring 
more than doubled the yield. 

" (5) With cotton, tests of time and thickness of planting gave no conclusive results. 
Planting from April 15 to May 15 in rows 3 to 3i ft. apart, and chopping to 1 stalk to 
each 18 in. is the general practice of cotton growers in eastern central Oklahoma." 

Brief notes are added to the l^ulletin on the experience of farmers 
of the Territory in cotton culture and on the growth of cowpeas at the 
station. 

Progress of experiments in forage crops and range improve- 
ment at Abilene, Tex., H. L. Bentley {U. S. Dtpt. Agr.., iJlc'i- 
sio)> of Agrostology Clrc. 23, pp. 20., fg. 1). — The general plan of these 
experiments, begun in 1898, has been previously outlined (E. S. K.. 
10, p. 1005). This report covers the second year of the test. As a 
result of the cultivation and rest given, the grazing capacity of th(> 
range under observation has doul)led after a little more than one year's 
treatment. The author concludes "(1) that it will pay farmers and 
stockmen of Texas, especially in the semiarid districts of the State, 
to cultivate their pastures by use of disk and iron-tooth harrows; (2) 
that it will pay them to rest their pastures periodically during the 
seasons when the grass seeds are maturing and falling to the ground." 

A further experiment has been added to those already under way 
in plowing furrows about 12 ft. apart in the pastures and running 
crosswise to the generally prevailing winds. The piu'pose of the fur- 
rows is to catch the grass seeds of the pasture which ripen and may 



FIELD CROPS. 231 

otherwise he blown away. They further serve to catch and hold 
surplus rain water. Pasture lands thus treated have given good 
results, many grass seeds being caught in the furrows, and the grass 
on each side has remained green for a much longer period than else- 
where. Transplanting grass roots on patches made bare of vegetation 
by overgrazing has been successfully accomplished. 

A large number of grasses, legumes, and other forage plants have 
been tested on experimental plats. These are reported upon in detail. 
The weather conditions of the season were very unfavorable, but in 
spite of this drawback the experiments have yielded results of consid- 
erable value. 

"They have demonstrated the availabiUty of alfalfa (especially oasis alfalfa), sulla, 
sainfoin, smooth brome, Canada rye grass, Terrell grass, and others for use in per- 
manent pastures and meadows; of the vetches, cowpeas, velvet bean, soy bean, teo- 
sinte, and a larger number of varieties of the sorghums and millets for annual or 
temporary pastures, and as sources of coarse forage, either fresh or cured; of salt- 
bush for alkali soils; of the gramas, Canada rye grass, grapevine mesquite, curly 
mesquite, galleta, and needle grass for reseeding the worn-out ranges. They have 
shown the feasibility of range improvement by resting and scarifying the land and 
by sowing hardy native and introduced grasses." 

An experiment was made in baling legumes and sorghums. Several 
varieties of beans and peas were planted and when the fruits were 
nearly grown, but before they began to turn yellow, the vines were 
cut and cured as hay, after which they were baled. ""Recent exami- 
nation showed that the ha}^ was as sweet as when first baled." A sim- 
ilar experiment was successfully carried out with sorghum. The 
stalks were cut when they were from 8 to 5 ft. tall and when the seeds 
were in the dough stage. The sorghum kept well and the bales were 
easily handled. Since these crops can be grown in all parts of Texas 
nearly every year, it is thought that the industry may l)ecome of con- 
siderable commercial importance in supplying forage to sections of 
country farther west. 

Egyptian cotton in the United States, L. H, Dewey ( ZL S. Dejyf. 
A{//'., l)lv!s!(ni of Botany Circ. 26, jyj). 9). — This circular reviews the 
results obtained in the earlier and in the more recent experiments with 
Egyptian cotton in this country, giving descriptions of 3 varieties of 
Egyptian cotton and instituting a comparison of the soil and climatic 
conditions of the 2 countries relative to cotton-growing areas. Egyp- 
tian cotton, apparentl}' fully equal to the imported product, has been 
successfully grown in southern Texas from selected acclimated seed, 
and a successful hybrid has been obtained by crossing Mitafifi Egyp- 
tian with Myers Big Boll. The hybrid is said to produce a liber very 
similar to the Egyptian product and in some respects superior to the 
Egyptian. In the opinion of the author the area which can be devoted 
to the culture of Eg3'ptian cotton on a conunercial scale in this country 
must necessarily be confined to the Gulf coast region, where the season 



282 EXPERIMENT STATION KE("(>RD, 

is Idiio. and to tlie iirioatocl hiiuls of the Southwest, the climatir and 
soil conditions of these regions being more similar to the Eg3^ptian 
conditions than elsewhere in the United States. 

Cowpeas and corn for silage and fodder, W. (tettys ( U. S. Depi. 
A<ir.. l)i I'i.siiiii of A(/ri)'<tolo(/i/ V'lrc, 2J^^ pp. ILK Jj<i^. 2). — The desira- 
bility and practical possibility of growing corn and cowpeas together 
for silage and forage purposes are set forth by tiie author, his own 
experience in growing, handling, and feeding these crops being made 
the basis of the discussion. 

Details as regards the author's methods of planting, cultivating, and 
liarvesting the crops together are given. Whip-poor-will cowpea is 
considered the best variety for growing with corn. No noticeably 
injurious effect on the quality of the butter has ))een observed from 
feeding corn-and-cowpea silage to milch cows. Sowing cowpeas as a 
catch crop after wheat proved profitable in the author's experience. 
The pea vines were used for forage and the peas saved separately. 

Influence of the time of harvesting on the yield and quality of 
hops, W. Behkexd {Bl. GevHten,, llopfen, and Kartofdhaii 1 {1899), 
A^o. 12, pp. 4^65-47'^). — Hops were gathered at regular intervals of 5 
days each from August 25, when thej^ were of a pure green color, to 
September 14, when they were of a yellowish color, decked Avith 
reddish specks. The yields of fresh and air-dried hops, amount of 
resin and coloring material in the hops at different dates of gathering, 
and the character of the beer made with them were determined. 

The late harvested hops gave the more satisfactor}" results in nearly 
every respect. In yield of air-dry substance and resin content, and 
in the taste and character of the beer made from the hops, each later 
harvest surpassed the one preceding. Relative to the fermentation 
period, acid content of the beer, and the color of the beer, no differ- 
ences traceable to differences in the harvesting period could be detected. 
The content of coloring material in the hops decivased with the late- 
ness of the harvesting. 

The results of the inv^estigation lead to the conclusion that the best 
time for harvesting hops is shortly after the appearance of the char- 
actei-istic yellow color and reddish-colored flecks. 

Influence of size of seed tubers on the yield of potatoes, 
Clausen (Ijindir. WcJmhl. ScldeKirHj-Uol.sfcl/i, 50 {1900), Xo. .'4. pj>. 
62-GJt). — Experiments were made in planting Danish, English, and 
Blue Six Weeks seed potatoes of different sizes under like conditions 
on good soil. In every instance the greatest yields were ol)tained 
from the largest-sized seed, and the largest proportional gains were 
made b}' the earl}- Blue Six Weeks potatoes. The author draws the 
following conclusions from the results obtained in the experiments: 
Large seed tubers insure, through the greater tunount of nourishment 
which the}' furnish to the young plants, a stronger growth and a bet- 



FIELD CROPS. 233 

tor 3'ield than siiiall tubers. This result is especially noticeable in dry 
seasons. Early niaturino- varieties are more benetited b}^ planting' 
large seed tul)ers than varieties having a longer period of vegetation. 
Large seed tubers are especially desirable in light soils. 

Culture of Avheat and oats on the experimental fields at Grig- 
non, P. P. Dehkkain (A/uk A(jn>ii., M {1900), No. 1, pi>- ^0-J3).— 
The relative values of large and small grains for seed wheat, and the 
proper place for oats in a system of field rotation were investigated. 
Both crops were sown in fields on which crops of beets, potatoes, or 
clover had been cultivated the preceding season. The ^aelds of wheat 
obtained from the plats seeded with large grains were slightly better 
than those where small seed had been used. The best results with 
both wheat and oats were obtained on the plats which had grown a 
crop of beets the preceding season, and the poorest results from the 
iield which had been in clover. 

Report of the agricultural department, J. H. Shepperd {NortJi Dakota Sta. 
Rpt. 1899, pp. 41-45). — A short outline review ot the work of the department during 
the year, with a reprint of the conclusions in bulletins 38 to 40 of tiie station. 

Report of barley experiments in Denmark during 1898, C. Sonne [TidsHkr. 
Laudbr. Plantmrl, 3 {1899), pp. l-iS-17;.'). 

Report of culture experiments with malt barley during 1897, C. Sonne 
{Tidxsh: Laralhr. Planteavl, 5 {1899), pp. S9-62). 

Malt barley and its culture in Norway, A. KRoovif; (Tidsskr. No7\s:ke Landbr., 
7 (1900), Ko. 4, pp- 145-155). 

Studies of plant variation and improvement, with special reference to 
Goldthorpe barley, W. Johannsen ( Tid-^Hkr. Landbr. Flanteavl, 5 {1899) , pp. 63-90). — 
The auth(jr gives data and discussions bearing on the relation of grain weight to the 
Nitrogen content of Goldthorpe barley, and the effect of different factors on this 
relation, like growing place, time of sowing, thickness of sowing, influence of season, 

etc. — F. W. WOLL. 

Investigation of the quality of upper Bavarian barley grow^n in 1899, 
E. Ulkich {VrtJJHchr. Bayer. Landu: Rafhe.% 5 {1900), No.2,pp.l25-137).—Coni\)ara- 
tive data as to the physical characteristics, germinative power, color, odor, specific 
gravity, etc., of barley grown in 20 different districts of Bavaria. 

The harvest and sale of barley {Deut. Landw. Presse,27 {1900), No. 55, p. 699). — 
An abstract is here made of an article on this subject by Remy. From the figures 
given it is shown that the yellow ripe stage is the earliest condition in which barley 
should be cut. For brewing purposes, however, it increases in value up to the dead 
ripe stage. 

Some analyses of Norw^egian barley, F. H. Werenskiold {I'lds-^kr. i\xir.vAe 
Landbr., 7 {1900), No. 2, pp. 68-74)- — Complete analyses of 10 samples of 6-rowed bar- 
ley and 7 of 2-rowed barley are given, with discussion of their malting qualities and 
other characteristics. All but 4 of the samples were grown in Norway. In No. 3, 
pp. 109-114, of the same periodical, the author gives additional analyses of Norwegian 
barley. — f. w. moll. 

Tests of commercial fertilizers on maize, A. Carre {SemaineAgr., 20 {1900), No. 
999, pp. 218, 219). — In Haute-Garonne nitrate <jf soda was especially valuable for corn 
in dry years. In rainy years the nitrate caused an excessivegrowth of stalk as compared 
with the grain yield. In such years superphosphate and potash increased the grain 
yield. A formula containing from 400 to 600 kg. of superphosphate and 200 kg. of 
nitrate of soda, applied in drills, is recommended for the soils of the district. 



234 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD, 

Forage crops, J. S. Moore {Mksxiftsiitpi Sta. Rpt. 1899, pp. 29, 30). — Data on the 
yield I >f sorghum, velvet beans, and Dwarf p]ssex rape grown at the station. Sor- 
ghum planted in rows 3 ft. apart yielded at the rate of 8.95 tons of tield-cnred hay 
per acre; planted broadcast with peas, 5.86 tons per acre; and planted broadcast 
alone, 4.24 tons per acre. When planted September 15 in rows 3 ft. apart sorghum 
yielded at the rate of 5.65 tons of hay, containing 10 per cent moisture, 2 months 
from date of planting. 

Analyses of sorg-lium and forage plants, W. R. Perkins and E. B. Ferris 
{Mi.^i<i.ssi]>pi Sto. Rpt. isn:),pp. ,')9, 40).— Analyses with reference to the sugar content 
of 23 samples of sorghum and food analyses of carpet grass; kidney bean; sorghum 
hay; rape, sun dried; corn and cob, glazed stage; corn fodder; corn tops; prepared 
feed; velvet-bean hay; Johnson grass hay; peavine hay; cotton seed; cotton-seed 
meal; wheat shorts; wheat bran; corn-and-cob meal; corn. silage; rape, winter growm ; 
and sorghum silage. 

Sundry forage crops, J. L. Hills {Vermont Std. Rpt. 1899, p. ,?C<?).— The rela- 
tive productiveness and composition of 6 nonsaccharine sorghums, soy beans, and 2 
vetches grown from seed imported from Russia by this Department are shown in a 
table. The sorghums tested were not thought adapted to Vermont. The soy bean 
was considered a promising forage crop. The vetches from imported seed did no 
better than crops grown from domestic seed. 

Forage plants in Washington, W. J. Spillman ( Washington Sta. Bid. 41, pp. 
60, map 1, iig^t. iO).— Part 1 of this bulletin discusses the climatic divisions of the 
State, giving notes on the wheat -growing, grazing, and alfalfa sections; and part 2, 
- the leguminous grasses and other forage plants which may be grown in the State, 
with cultural notes and the results that have been thus far obtained with some of 
different species at the experiment station. Part 3 classifies Washington farm crops 
with especial reference to the different sections of the State, and part 4 g!\'es sugges- 
tions with regard to the seeding and management of pastures and meadows. A 
rainfall map of the State concludes the bulletin. 

Conversion of arable land to pasture, W. J. Malden {London: Kegan Paul, 
Trench, Truhier & Co., 1898, pp. 190). 

Lupines and vetches for winter growth {California Fruit Grower, 25 {1900), 
No. 638, p. 5).— Notes on the different varieties of lupines and vetches which have 
been grown at the State agricultural experiment station and substations, wath 
recommendations as to seeding and directions for obtaining seed. 

Varieties of oats compared {Queensland Agr. Jour., 7 {1900), No. 1, p. 12). — 
An account of some experiments with oats conducted by R. P. Wright at the West 
of Scotland Agricultural College is given. Tam Finlay was the l)est all-romid 
variety grown, so far as yield of straw was concerned. It tillered best and Avas the 
latest variety grown. Tartar King was the earliest variety grown, while Pioneer 
gave the largest yield of grain. 

The selection of potatoes for seed purposes, II. L. Bolley {North Dakota Sta. 
Rpt. 1899, p. 28) . — The work of testing the value of lai ge and small potatoes from 
the same vine for seed purposes was continued for the sixth season (E. S. R.,9, p. 
942), using 5 varieties of potatoes. The seed tubers used were selected from the pre- 
ceding year's pedigreed crop. 

"The results again aftirm those of previous years. A mature bud from one vine 
thus proved to be as good as any other from the same vine when furnished with the 
same weight of tuber piece. During six seasons of continuous selection of a small 
potato from the same vine or strain the work has not tended to 'run out' the crop. 
The products from this sort of selection seem to have been each year neither better 
nor worse than those from the line of selection in wliich the biggest and best tuber 
was always taken. Soil and cultivation seem to be the main elements in causing a 
variation in tlie standard of a potato strain." 



FIELD CROPS. 285 

Tests of varities of potatoes in 1898, A. I'iIickiokk {JaJirrdxr. Landiv. ScJiule 
RMi, 1898-99, pp. 76-80). — In addition to data aH to the yields of 28 varieties, sug- 
gestions regarding the handUng of seed potatoes are given. It is considered good 
practice in early spring to place the potatoes in dry sand. This induces a shrinking 
up of the tubers and prevents sprouting until they are planted. Potatoes thus 
treated have given from 22 to 30 per cent higher yields. 

"Wheat straw for potatoes, A. M. Howell {Agr. Gaz. New South Walen, 11 {1900), 
No. 1, pp. 45-47). — Discussion of the use and value of straw as a mulch for potatoes. 

Fertilizer experiments with potatoes, E. Zachaeewicz {Prog. Agr. ct Vit. {Ed. 
VEaf), 21 {1900), Xo. 16, pp. 484-487). — Oil meal was compared with a mixture of 
oil meal, chlorid of potash, and superphosphate and with complete commercial 
fertilizers for potatoes on a soil rich in nitrogen but poor in potash and phosphoric 
acid. The amounts of the fertilizers used in each instance and the yields obtained 
with 2 varieties of potatoes are tabulated. The profit from the use of the oil meal 
alone was $63.11; from the oil meal and mineral fertilizers, $102.96, and from com- 
plete commercial fertilizers, $283.90 per hectare. 

Rice culture in the United States, S. A. Knapp { f 7. S. Dept. Agr., Farmers' 
Bui. 110, pp. 28) . — This is a popular bulletin based on Bulletin 22 of the Division of 
Botany of this Department (E. S. R., 12, p. 46) . Varieties of rice grown in this coun- 
try, rice-growing sections, importation and production of rice, rice lands, methods of 
culture and milling, value as a food, rice by-products, effects of fashion in rice, new 
wholesale methods of rice production in Louisiana and Texas, prospects of the exten- 
sion of the rice industry, labor problems, etc., are the principal subjects considered. 
An impetus of considerable importance has lately been given to the rice industry in 
this country by the introduction of the Japanese variety of rice Kiushu, which is 
about 25 per cent more productive than the Honduras variety usually grown, and 
which possesses superior milling qualities. 

On the cultivation and treating of rice in Jamaica, R. H. Lindo {Jour. 
Jamaica Agr. *S'oc., 4 {1900), No. 7, pp. 436-444) ■ — Complete cultural directions are 
given, including thrashing, drying, hulling, and preparing for market. 

Peculiar frost injuries to rye, Frank {Deut. Landw. Presse, 27 {1900), No. 51, 
p. 653, figs. 2). — Late frosts in May seriously injured rye. Some plants were entirely 
killed and others only slightly affected. Plants injured to different degrees, as shown 
by after growth, are figured and described. 

Sug-ar beets at the experiment station at Capelle, Desprez Sons {Jour. Agr. 
Prat., 1900, 11, No. 31, pp. 160, 161; Semaine Agr., 20 {1900), No. 1002, p. 242).— 
The comparative yields per square meter of roots and leaves of sugar beets, percent- 
age sugar content and purity of the juice, etc., are given for 4 experimental plats for 
each of the years 1896-1900. The beets were harvested July 22 of each year. 

Sugar beets, C. H. Jones and B. O. White ( Vermont Sta. Ppt. 1899, pp. 146, 
147). — The average weight of beets grown in 1898 was 20 oz. ; average sugar content, 
13.3 per cent; purity coefficient, 83.1 per cent. From results attained the authors 
conclude that, though a good grade of beets may be grown in Vermont, yet, owing 
to the restricted area and short growing season, it will be difficult, if not impossible, 
to establish the sugar industry in the .State. 

Sugar beet experiments, E. F. Lado {North. Dakota Sta. Rpt. 1899, pp. 14-17). — 
The analyses of 82 samples of sugar beets grown in cooperative experiments with 
farmers throughout the State are given. They show an average of 12.9 per cent 
sugar content with a coefficient of purity of 78 per cent. The season was not favor- 
able for best results. See E. S. R., 11, \i. 241, for an account of similar work in 1898. 

The w^ork of the agricultural experiment stations on tobacco, J. I. Schulte 
and M. Whitney ( V. S. Dept. Agr. Rpt. 63, pp. 4^). — A summary is here given of the 
results obtained in all the experimental work thus far undertaken by the agricultural 
experiment stations in this country and Canada in the growing, curing, and handling 
of tobacco; and suggestions given regarding further experimental work. 



236 



KX'.'ERIMENT STATION KECORD. 



Cultivation of tobacco, J. M. Priego {El cult ho del (ahacn. M'ulrld: .][. (1. Ilcr- 
nandez, 1SV9, jtji. l.U), jil. J. Bibliotcca del agricidtnr, r. 1). 

Tobacco, its culture and biology, C. J. Koning (Lcip.sic: Wilhehn EiKjelinann, 
1900, pp. So, figs. J.5). 

Growing tobacco under cover {Tradesman, 43 {1900), No. 11, p. 59). — Some 
iigures on the growing of tobacco under slat arbors and ai'ljors covered with cheese 
cloth in Florida are given and methods of overhead irrigation of the tobacco l^y 
revolving sprinklers notod. 

Tobacco : Methods of culture and manufacture, ]\I. ^I. Garcia ( Tuhuco: nocio- 
nes de ridtiio // 1 hdioracioii. Vulencia: Imp. de El rorrco dc ]'(tU'iiciu, 1899, pp. 44, />!■ 1 )• 

Observations on the growth and products of wheat plants of known 
selected pedigree, H. L. Bolley {North Dakota Sta. RpA. 1899, pp. 19, 20). — This 
is an account of the comparative yields for 2 seasons of large grains of seed wheat 
selected from plants grown from large grains and of small grains selected from jjlants 
grown from small grains. The yields obtained from the large seed have been the 
better. The experiment is being continued. 



HORTICULTURE. 

The fertilizer requirements of asparagus, J. Honig and E. 

Haselhoff {BriiunsrJnreig Landir. Ztg., OS {1900), Nos. 23, pj^. 102, 
103; 21^, p. 106). — In addition to the authors' experinient.s here reported, 
the works of Paschen, Lierke, and Colomb on the culture and anaU'sis 
of asparagus are drawn upon. The average weight and composition 
of asparagus on a hectare are shown to be as follows: 

Yield and composition of asparagus. 



Fresh 
weight. 



Dry matter. 



Nitrogen.l^'hp^P^'O^ 



ic acid. 



Potash. 



Asparagus stalks 

Asparagus berries 

Whole plant, without berries. 

Totiil 



Kg. 
4,000 
600 
9,000 



Per cent. 

0.25 

29.00 

23. 00 



Kg. 
250 
175 

3,000 



Kg. 
12,875 
6,000 
47, 100 



Kg. 
4,375 
1,580 
10, 770 



Kg. 
10,625 
4,935 
63,900 



65,975 I 16,725 



79, 460 



The fertilizing requirements of a crop of asparagus is thus seen to 
he about 58.9 lbs. of nitrogen, 15.2 lbs. of phosphoric acid, and 71.77 
lbs. of potash per acre. These figures increased or decreased by about 
one-third give the maximum and minimum limits, respectively, of 
these elements required by a crop in different seasons. About 18.000 
lbs. of cattle manure would supply asparagus with all the essential 
elements required for a crop grown on one acre. A number of fer- 
tilizer fonuulas containing commercial fertilizer and furnishing nitro- 
gen, phosphoric acid, and potash in about the right proportions for 
as])aiagus are given. 

The South Haven report for 1899, L. li. Taft and S. H. Fulton 
{Michigan Sta. Bui. 177, pp. 17-56). — This is a report on tests of 
varieties of fruits similar in character to those previously reported 
(E. S. R., 10, p. 40). Some work in spra3ing, pruning, and fertilizing 
is briefly noted, and tabular matter given which shows the blooming 



HOKTICULTURE. 237 

and ripening periods, characteristics of the form, color, etc., of 151 
varieties of strawberries, 62 raspberries, 29 blackberries, 23 currants, 
20 gooseberries, 69 cherries, 49 peaches, 55 pears, 10 quinces, 46 
plums, 103 grapes, and 122 apples. Brief notes on a number of vari- 
eties of nuts, including almonds, chestnuts, filberts, and walnuts, are 
also given, together with descriptions of a number of varieties of 
fruits which have not been described in previous reports of the station. 
Following the severe freeze of the winter of 1898, experiments were 
made in pruning back peach trees which had been more or less injured. 
The authors summarize the results obtained in this experiment briefly 
as follows: 

"Very severe pruning or removing all the tops down to the stumps of main 
branches proved dangerous to the life of the trees. More moderate pruning or cut- 
ting back on branches from one-half to three-fourths of an inch in diameter gave 
good results. Trees pruned in the ordinary way were not, at the close of the season, 
in quite so good condition as tliose ])runed more severely. These results are not con- 
sidered conclusive. ' ' 

Early spraying with copper sulphate solution in March proved, under 
ordinary conditions, an ofl'ectual remedy for leaf curl. 

Pollination in orchards, S. W. Fletcher {New York ConnlJ Sfa. 
Bui. 181, pjj. 34O-064, ^(ji^. )io). — This bulletin discusses popularly 
various reasons why flowers of orchard trees often fail to set fruit, 
and the general subject of self-sterilit}^ of orchard fruits, giving sug- 
gestions based on the experience of the avithor and others as to the 
planting' of mixed orchards so as to overcome these defects. 

Vigorous growth of wood, fungus diseases, frost injury, and con- 
tinuous rain during the blooming season are given as some of the 
factors which prevent the setting of fruit. "In general the cause of 
self-sterility is that the pollen of a variety is unable to fertilize the 
pistils of that same variety." Self- sterility, however, is not a constant 
character, and some varieties which are self -sterile under certain con- 
ditions may be nearly self-fertile under more favorable conditions. 
Orchard fruits can not be separated into self-sterile and self-fertile 
varieties. The following list, based on the author's experience and on 
the reports of over 500 fruit growers, is considered a conservative list 
of varieties which tend toward self -sterility, and which, therefore, 
should not be planted alone in large blocks: 

"P«fr.s.— Angouleme (Duchess) , Bartlett, Clapp, Idaho, Kieffer, Xelis. Apples. — 
Bellflower, Primate, Spitzenburg, Willow Twig, AVinesap. Plums. — Coe Golden 
Drop, French Prune, Italian Prune, Kelsey, Marianna, Miner, Ogon, Peach, Sat- 
suma. Wild Goose, and, according to Waugh and Kerr, all other varieties of native 
plums except Robinson. Peach. — Susquehanna. Apricot. — White Nicholas. Cher- 
ries. — Napoleon, Belle de Choisy, Reine Hortense. Most of these varieties are self- 
fertile in some places, but the weight of evidence shows them to be uncertain." 

The mutual aflinity of certain varieties for cross pollinating each 
other, the necessity for planting with self-sterile trees, trees which 



238 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

may serve as pollinizers for them, and the good effects of cross polli- 
nation over self-pollination of certain varieties, are discussed at con- 
siderable length. The results obtained at the station in self and cross 
pollinating experiments with a number of varieties of different fruits 
are shown by the aid of ligures. Suggestions are also given regarding 
the selection, distribution, and planting of trees largely intended as 
pollinizers in orchards. The advantages of generally mixed plantings 
is pointed out, and notes are given on pollen distribution by the aid 
of wind and insects. 

Report of the horticulturist, F. A. Waugh ( Vermont Sta. Rpt. 
lH99^pp. 1S9-2.'>1, ji(jx. 0). — The subjects here reported upon are the 
pollination of plums, types of European plums in America, hybrid 
plums, geography of variation in the genus Prunus in America, and 
varieties and culture of cherries in Vermont. 

Pollination of plums (pp. 189-209, figs. 2). — This subject has been 
previously reported upon (E. S. R., 11, p. 347). Further work has 
strengthened the previous conclusions of the author, that for all prac 
tical purposes native and eTapanese plums may be considered self- 
sterile, and that in order to insure fecundation of the blossoms varieties 
in orchards umst be mixed. In mixing the varieties for purposes of 
pollination, the following points should be observ^^d: (1) Blossoming- 
season; (2) mutual affinity; (3) amount of pollen borne, and (4) the 
value of the pollenizer as a fruit bearer. The time of ))lossoming 
each year has been found quite uniform. A map with "isophenal" 
lines is given showing the blossoming season of Wild Goose in differ- 
ent latitudes for 1899. The mutual affinity of certain well-known 
varieties as pollenizers for each other is discussed, and a table of vari- 
eties given with a list of recommended pollenizers for each. Previous 
work, which demonstrated that insects are necessary to pollination, 
has been confirmed. The wind, if of any use in cross fertilizing plums, 
plays a very subordinate part. A list of insects captured on plum 
blossoms in Oklahoma, Maryland, Iowa, and Vermont is shown. The 
honeybee performs ])y far the greater part of the pollination. The 
uselessness of spraying while the ti'ees are in blossom is pointed out. 

The cause of the phenomenon known as June drop was investigated. 
Careful examination of the sound and fallen fruit showed this trou])le 
to be due to 3 principal causes: (1) nonpollination; (2) curculio, and 
(3) the struggle of the fruit on the stem for existenc(\ In the exami- 
nation of the fallen f I'uit of 9 different varieties only -tl per cent had 
been fecundated. Nonfecundated fruit usually falls in June, while 
the larger amount of the fruit attacked by the curculio falls in July. 
A large mmiber of fruits often set on a single fruit spur. As only a 
part of these can develop the w^eaker are crowded off", even though 
well fertilized and free from curculio attacks. In combating the June 
drop the struggle for existence may be left out of consideration. 



HORTICULTURE. 239 

The question of pollination is also a matter which should be considered 
when the orchard is set. The curculio is the factor to be guarded 
against, particularly as this cause may reduce the crop to a total loss. 

Types of European-plums in America (pp. 210-218). — Both the older 
and the more modern types of European plums are considered in some 
detail and a classification given of present day types. The following 
groups are distinguished: Myrobalan, Damsons, Reine Claude, Dame 
Aubert, prunes, Perdrigons, Diamond, Bradshaw, and Lombard. 
Varieties which fall under each group are noted. 

Hybrid plains (pp. 218-230, ligs. 2).' — In this continuation of previous 
work (E. S. R., 11, p. 47), the question of the hybrid parentage is 
further discussed, the parentage of 18 known hybrids being given, 
together with notes of the year on 39 hybrid varieties. 

Geography of oariation i?i. the genus Prunus in America (pp. 231- 
239). — This is a discussion of the variation of native American species 
of Prunus which occurs in different sections of the country, illustrated 
b}' 2 maps which show the general trend of the distril)ution of the 
several species series. Three points arc made the basis of discussion: 
"(1) the striking parallelism of modification which obtains in the 
several species series; (2) the relation of this modification to geo- 
graphical distribution; and (3) the application of a uniform sj^stem of 
nomenclature to the genus which shall exhibit the several groups in 
their proper relationships and with due perspective." The Americana, 
Chickasaw, Hortulana, Maritima, Sand Cherry, Choke Cherr}-, and 
Black Cherry series are discussed geographically and characterized; 
and a systematic summary given of the various series, species, and 
varieties. The preferred botanical names are noted with principal 
synonymy. In the preferred names, certain changes are suggested 
Avhich "seem to help toward putting the nomenclature of the genus 
Prunus on a more uniform basis and to show more clearly the impor- 
tant natural relations existing between the various members of the 
several series." A fact developed in the author's study is that the 
Americana series of plums is continuous from New Brunswick to the 
Mexican border. Characteristic changes occur in the different lati- 
tudes, but "there is no break either in the geographical distribution or 
in the gradual morphological modification of the series." 

Field notes on cherrlex (pp. 21:0-251, figs 5). — These notes are based 
on results obtained with a number of varieties sent out by the station 
to different parts of the State some years previous. In general only 
sour cherries succeed in Vermont, more especially those of the Morello 
class. Descriptive, historical, and nomenclatural notes, are given 
on 18 varieties, followed by general, cultural, and marketing notes. 
The varieties recommended for use on the ordinary farm, noted in the 
decreasing order of their desirablity, are as follows: Morello, Mont- 
morency, Brusseler Braun, Ragg, Bessarabian, Schatten Amarelle, 



240 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

Girotte du Nord, and Juneat Ainarelle. The author notes that there 
is a ready and profitable home market in Vermont for 25 times the 
amount of cherries now grown, and that cherries are easier to grow 
than potatoes. 

Facts and opinions about plums and plum growing in Iowa, 
J. Craig {Iowa Sta. Bui. hG.pp. 233-303, figs. J^).— This bulletin «ets. 
forth some of the facts obtained in an investigation of the plum indus- 
tr}^ in Iowa relative to the character, blossoming period, hardiness, 
popularity, etc., of a large number of varieties grown within the State; 
presents an epitome of the experiences of many orchardists on plum 
culture in diflerent parts of the State; describes 118 varieties of plums, 
and gives directions for planting, cultivating, pruning, spraying, thin- 
ing, topgrafting, selection of plum stocks, and the planting of plums 
with regard to cross pollination. 

The relative hardiness of the fruit buds of a large number of varie- 
ties of plums grown in ditierent parts of the State was determined by 
examination of buds sent in to the station in the spring of 1899. The 
data obtained are tabulated, and are instructive '"from the standpoint 
of exhibiting class characteristics, varietal differences, and effect of 
locality upon variety." 

The characteristics of all the leading types of plums, as shoAvn by 
their behavior in Iowa, are sunmiarized comparatively in tabular form. 
From these data the author bases his belief that the chief reliance of 
Iowa plum growers must be placed upon varieties of the Americana 
group. The improvement of this group of plums by Iowa horticul- 
turists is pointed out. From circular letters addressed to leading fruit 
growers, the varieties De Soto, Hawkeye, and Wyant of the Americana 
group and Minor of the species Hortulana are shown to be the most 
popular plums grown in Iowa for both market purposes and for home 
use. The Domestica and Japanese plums are practically uncultivated 
in Iowa except in the l southern tiers of counties. Lombard and 
Green Gage of the Domestica and Burbank and Abundant of the 
Japanese are the favorite varieties grown. 

The author suggests lists of varieties of plums for planting in each 
of the 9 tiers of counties of the State. The curculio, gouger, aphis, 
and rot are mentioned as the most serious enemies of native and 
Domestica plums. Of the Japanese plums, rot is the enemy of great- 
est importance. 

Fertilizing self-sterile grapes, S. A. Beach {Ninv York State Sta. 
Bui. 169, pp. .}.j1-o71, pU. ^).— Work of the author in testing the 
self -fertility of grapes has been previously noted (E. S. R., 11, p. 248). 
The present work reports a study of the question whether some grapes 
are better than others for fertilizing the self-sterile kinds. The work 
has been carried out in 3 different sections of the State. Cross pollina- 
tion was effected by brushing the bunches of the 2 varieties to be cross 



HORTICULTURE. 241 

pollinated together or by inclosing the variety furnishing pollen with 
the variety to be pollinated in a paper bag and shaking the 2 together. 
Paper bags were used in each instance to prevent cross fertilization by 
foreign pollen. 

" Twelve nearly or quite self -sterile varieties were treated with pollen from 1 or 
more of 24 varieties ranging from perfectly self-fertile to self-sterile. The results are 
,<j;iven in the body of the bulletin, both in detail and summarized. 

"The use of self-sterile varieties as pollenizers for other self-sterile varieties resulted 
in failure. iSelf-sterile varieties fertilized with varieties not strongly self-fertile pro- 
duced clusters varying in compactness about as did the bunches of the iJoUinating 
variety. Self- fertile sorts, with rare exceptions, gave good results when used as 
fertilizers for either partially self-sterile or completely self-sterile varieties. From 
study of the effect of pollen from different varieties upon the same self-sterile variety, 
it seems probable that failure to set fruit may be due to several causes, such as 
dropping off of blossom buds before they open or poor condition of the vine; but the 
most common cause is imperfect pollination due to impotent pollen. 

" Lists are given of varieties, both strongly self-fertile and imperfectly self-fertile 
or self-sterile, which blossom very early, medium early, in mid-season, medium late, 
late, and very late." 

Bench grafting resistant vines, F. T. Bioletti and A. M. dal Piaz 

( California Sta. Bui. I'BJ^ pp. 38, figs. 10). — The gradual spread of the 
phylloxera in California vineyards, necessitating their reestablishment 
on resistant roots, has led the authors to carry out extensive investi- 
gations as to the most suitable varieties for this purpose, the best 
methods of grafting the same, and the grafting of vinifera varieties 
upon various resistant stocks. Cuttings imported from France were 
so damaged during transportation as to make desirable the use of only 
California-grown cuttings in the experiments. 

The 3 most resistant stocks used in 1898 were Riparia Gloire de 
Montpellier, R. grande glabre, and Rupestris St. George. Twelve 
vinifera varieties grew well and made good unions on the first, 14 on 
the second, and 13 on the third. Brief detailed notes on the growth 
in 1899 of each of these varieties are given, as well as of the growth 
of some other varieties and of certain crosses of Rupestris on its own 
roots. 

In 1899 the experiments consisted chiefly of tests of methods of 
grafting and of planting in the nursery. Ten varieties of American 
grapes were used as stocks, the varieties Zinfandel, Mondeuse, Tokay, 
and Ferrara as scions, and 3 varieties for rooting experiments. 

The proportion of successful unions obtained by the ditierent methods 
of grafting and with the different stocks is shown in the following tab- 
ular summary. 

8058— No. 3 4 



242 



EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 



Tabular review of grafting experiments. 



Nature of experiment. 



(^hampin grafts 

English cleft grafts 

Scions with two eyes 

Scions with one eye 

Grafts callusefl in sand 

Grafts callused in straw 

Grafts not callused 

Zinfandel on Kupestris 8t. George 

Mondeiise on Rupestris St. George 

Ferrara on Rupestris St. George 

Tokay on Rupestris St. George 

Rupestris St. George as stock 

Riparia Gloire de Jlontpellier as stock 

Herbemont 

Lenoir 

Cunningham 

American Rulander 

Miinson, rooted vines 

America, rooted vines 

Champini , rooted vines 

Elvicand, rooted vines 



Proportion of 




unions. 












Remarks, 








First 


Second 




class. 


class. 




Per cent. 


Per 


cent. 




44 




11 




37 




6 


Unions verv complete. 


46 




13 




38 




/ 




61 




/ 




46 




12 


Unions weak. 


26 




13 


Growth rather short. 


64 




11 


Good growth. . 


54 




10 


Do. 


75 




9 


Verv strong growth. 


60 




6 


Strong growth. 


64 




11 




15 




12 


Do. 












1 




2 




7 




4 














69 







Good growth. 







30 

























"The figures in the above table must not be taken as representing the exact relative 
values of the various methods and varieties compared, ])ut . . . may be considered as 
valuable indications." 

Relative to the influence of the scions on the growth of the grafts, 
the authors state as follows: 

"The Mondeuse, though cjuite satisfactory, gave a smaller percentage of success- 
ful grafts than any of the others. They started later than the Zinfandel, and, though 
the growth and root system were somewhat stronger, the wood was not quite so well 
matured. The Zinfandel did very well, giving 64 per cent of good grafts and making 
good growth. The black Ferrara, however, made almost phenomenal growth and 
yielded 75 per cent of first-class unions. The growth of the Tokay was almost equal 
to that of the Ferrara, but the number of successful grafts rather less — 60 per cent." 

The harmful results following- neglect in cutting the rafiia or other 
binding material or not trimming away the roots put out by the scions 
is illustrated by photographic I'eproductions of several deformed 
specimens. 

The experiments in rooting 580 cuttings of Rupestris St. George, 40 
of Riparia Gloire de Montpellior. and 4.5 of Solonis resulted in 83 per 
cent of well-rooted vines in the lirst instance and 80 in the second. 
Botanical descriptions are given of these 3 most promising resistant 
stocks for use in California, and the dift'erence in character of their 
root systems is illustrated. 

Some of the conclusions of the authors relative to the results of the 
whole work are as follows: 

"A cutting graft of suitable varieties makes as large and vigorous growth as a 
simple cutting, so that by the method of iH-nch grafting no time is lost in estal)lishing 
a resistant vineyard. 

"Resistant varieties which are difficult to root Imt easy to graft when old, such as 
Lenoir, should not be bench grafted. 

"Care in callusing, planting, and treatment in nursery, and especially in keeping 



HORTICULTURE. 243 

the jrrafts moist from the time they are made till they are in the callasing l^ed, will 
enable even an inexperienced grafter to ol)tain at least 60 per cent of good, grafted 
plants. 

" Callusing in sand insures more perfect unions and a larger percentage of suc- 
cessful grafts than planting directly in the nursery. 

"The moisture in the callusing bed should not be excessive, and the temperature 
should be relatively warm. 

"The growing grafts should be watched closely in order to see that the roots of 
the scions are removed before they become large, and that the raffia is cut before it 
strangles the graft. 

"The English cleft graft is preferable to the Champin graft, because it gives more 
perfect unions and can be made with more accuracy and rapidity. 

"Scions of two eyes are preferable to those of one eye, as they give more chances 
of success. 

"Rupestris St. George seems to be remarkably adapted to California soils (except 
the heaviest clays) and conditions, and is to be preferred to any variety yet tested 
here wherever deep penetration of roots is possible and desirable. 

"All the eyes of the Rupestris stock should be cut out deeply and carefully. 

"A vigorous and large-growing vinifera scion promotes an equally vigorous and 
large growth of Rupestris St. George used as stock." 

The forcing of plants by ether, J. Fischer [Amer. (xard. , 21 {1900), 
Nos. 283, pp. 358-360, Jigs. If.; 28 If., pp. 372, .57.5).— According to the 
author, the resting period of a plant when growth is almost or entirel}' 
discontinued should be distinguished from the '"forced inactivity" of 
a plant which results from surrounding conditions, as extreme cold or 
lack of moisture, which make growth impossible. The effects of ether 
vapor in stimulating into early growth and bloom ma}' find a profitable 
application in the former condition, while in the latter it is without 
apiDreciable effect. The resting period of plants is divided into 3 
stages — early rest, middle rest, and after rest, corresponding to decrease 
in growth, complete rest, and increasing activity, respectively. With 
the lilac the winter buds are said to l)e in early rest until midsummer, 
then in middle rest until the end of October. From the end of October 
until the end of December or first of January they are in the after- 
rest stage, "when all of the buds emerge from the resting condition 
and are held in a condition of forced inactivity by the cold season," 
During the stages of early and middle rest the stimulating influence 
of ether vapor is very small and practically without value. It is 
during the stage of after rest that its use is most effective. 

According to the author, the treatment with ether must alwa\^s be 
given plants which have not lost or are losing their leaves. "In gen- 
eral it is only in the after-resting stage that etherization is of practical 
value. Exact dates for the earliest forcing of different species can not 
be given because the differences due to the season, variety, and method 
of culture are so great. In general it ma}^ be said that the ether 
method makes it possible to force shrubs 3 to (S weeks earlier than by 
ordinary methods of culture." 

The author's experiments with Tulip La Reine showed a gain in 
earliness of from 8 to 12 days due to etherization. Etherized tulips 



244 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

did not hold the blooms so well. Good results were obtained in the 
open-air forcing- of several varieties of lilacs, Pninus triloba^ and 
Viburnum. "'"No practical results have been reached in the etheriza- 
tion of bulbs before the formation of the roots. It seems to be 
dependent upon the fact that these structures, if etherized before the 
roots are formed, are retarded." The beech was considerably retarded 
in its development bv etherization. After the resting period, etheriza- 
tion seems to have no influence upon the development except perhaps 
to slightly hinder the growth of the shoots. As to the effect of ether- 
ization on the color of the flowers, the author states that with lilacs 
the color was weaker than in untreated specimens. With an exposure 
of only 24 hours to the ether, the growth was not so rapid and the 
color deeper. 

"To develop strong colors, the plants [lilacs] should be placed in temperatures of 
50 to 54° F. Very beautifully colored flowers have been produced at higher temper- 
atures on Andenken and Louis Spiith. . . . Splendidly developed flowers, pure 
white, on Marly Rouge have been obtained by growing etherized specimens of the 
plant at 62 to 72° F. in full light. Specimens of the same developed later without 
etherization but under the same conditions otherwise produced sparing bunches of 
reddish-gray flowers." 

Details are given for constructing apparatus in which plants may be 
etherized and specific directions given for etherizing lilacs, azaleas, 
Viburnum opulus^ Amygdalacere, Spirsea, Pyrmforihunda.f Stapkylea 
colchica^ Deutzia gracilis, lily of the valley, and tulips. The sum- 
marized directions of the author regarding etherization of plants are 
as follows: Use only sulphuric ether. The etherizing apparatus should 
consist of a chamber lined with tinfoil or made vapor-proof in some 
other manner, with a vessel in the upper part from which ether may 
be evaporated. The room temperature should be 62 to 66^ F. in the 
daytime, and ma}^ be allowed to drop to 58° F. at night. Plants 
should be exposed to ether vapor 48 hours altogether; or, exposure 48 
hours, ventilation 48 hours, and exposure again for 48 hours. For 
shrubs the amount used should be li oz. of ether for each 40 gal. of 
air in the chamber. At the close of the exposure to ether, the plants 
should be brought into a warm room. Etherized plants require less 
heat for their development than plants not so treated. 

Report of tlie section of botany and horticulture, C. S. Crandall [Colorado 
Sla. lljA. 1899, pp. 32-34). — A l)rief report is given of the effect of the severe freeze of 
the winter of 1898-99 on the plum and apple orchards. Of 152 varieties of plums 
in the station orchard none escaped injury entirely and 30 were killed, as follows: 
Chickasaw, 5; Beach plum, 1 ; Wild Goose, 6; Domestica, 6; Japanese, 7; Americana, 
4; Hybrid, 1. Individual trees of 44 varieties produced some l)loom, of which 37 
were Americanas; 5 belonged to the Miner group; 2 were unclassified hybrids; and 
1 was Pninus hesseyi. The young apple orchard suffered even greater loss than did 
the plum orchard. 

Report of the horticulturist, A. B. ]\IcKay {Mississippi Sla. Rpt. 1899, pp. 
16-21). — The station irrigation i)]ant i.< l)riefly described and an account given of the 
small and ort-hard fruits recently planted at the station, with notes on their care. 



HORTICULTURE. 245 

Report of the horticulturist, V. B. \V"a:.dron (Xorth Dakota Sta. Rpt. 1899, pp. 
47-51). — This report reviews in outline the work of the year and notes the varieties 
of garden vegetables which succeeded Ijest. The white ash, which has been recom- 
mended as one of the most promising trees for groves and timber belts in the State, 
was subject to serious attacks during the year from borers and bark beetles that 
appeared in such numbers as to destroy or cripple nearly all the trees. It is thought 
from the present outlook that continued plantings of this tree must be abandoned. 

In the fields the Rocky Mountain locust and Hessian fiy were the most serious 
insect pests of the year. Some notes are given regarding their control. 

The chayote, E. Andre {Rev. Horl., 12 {1900), No. 15, pp. 420, 421, pi. i).— This 
tropical fruit or vegetable {Sechium edule) is illustrated and described and suggestions 
given regarding its culture and uses. 

Cultivation of pepper in Bombay, J. W. Wollison {Agr. Ledger, 1900, No. 3 
( Veg. Prod. ser. No. 4S), pp. J-J-J>!). — Methods of growing and liarvesting the black 
pepper of commerce. 

The apple and how to grow it, G. B. Brackett {U. S. Dejd. Agr., Farmers' Bid. 
lis, pp. 32, figs. 10). — This bulletin is intended primarily for "the guidance of the 
farmer in the propagation, cultivation, and care of the family orchard." Lists of 
varieties of apples suitable for culture in different sections of the country are given, 
and these lists include many commercial varieties suitable for the same districts. 
Utilization of orchard fruits and the gathering and disposing of the crop are also 
discussed. 

Apples in North Carolina {Bid. North Carolina State Bd. Agr., 21 {1900), No. 7, pp. 
40, pis. 4, figs. 19). — Poi)ular directions for the culture of apples in North Carolina, 
with suggestions regarding the most suitable varieties for different purposes and 
descriptions of some 60 varieties. Papers on the advancement of apple culture in 
the western part of the State, on the care in handling winter apples, preparing apples 
for the market, and on the diseases and insects affecting apple trees in North Caro- 
lina form the concluding portion of the bulletin. 

The apples of France; planting- and cultivation, manufacture of cider and 
apple brandy, fruit production, E. Gautier {Les pommiers de France; plantations 
et cultures, fabrication du cidre et des eaux-de vie de cidre, production fruitiere. Paris: 
E. Brocherioiu; 1899, pp. 87, pi. l,figs. 10). 

Orchard technique: 'III. Growing- the apple orchard, W. B. Alwood {Vir- 
ginia Sta. Bui. 99, pp. 53-79, figs. 12). — Detailed popular directions for laying out the 
orchard, selecting nursery stock, planting trees, pruning, cultivating, etc. 

Time of pruning- aflfecting- time of ripening- apricots, J. W. Mills {Pacific 
Rural Press, GO {1900), No. o, p. 09). — The autlior pruned experimentally 12 varieties 
of apricots. One-half of each variety was pruned in July after the fruit was taken 
off and the other half late in December. The late pruning considerably retarded the 
ripening period of the apricots, the last picking of the July-pruned trees being taken 
off before the first picking of the December-pruned trees was ripe. This prolonging of 
the picking season is considered an important factor in securing the crop without loss. 

Varieties of sour cherries, U. P. Hedrick ( Utah Sta. Bui. 64, pp. 43-49, fig. 1) . — 
The author discusses the possibility and profits of sour-cherry culture in Utah and 
describes 23 varieties growing at the station. A table is given showing the yields in 
pounds and marketing period of the same varieties for the 2 years 1898 and 1899. 
Small plantings of sour cherries throughout the State are urged. Brusseler Braune, 
Carnation, Ostheim, and Sklanka are among the best varieties growing at the station. 

Cherries in the West {Amer. Gard., 21 {1900), No. 293, p. .5..'C).— From remarks 
made at the Nurseryman's A.ssociation it would seem that the Early Eichmond, Dye- 
house, and Montmorency were the most satisfactory varieties to grow in the West. 

Cultivation of citrus fruits, E. Arno {La coltivazione degli agrumi. Palermo: 
Alberto Reber, 1899, pp. 447, figs. 36). — The botany of citrus fruits, chemical analysis 
of constituent parts, favorable topographic and climatic conditions for growth, cul- 



246 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

ture, fcrtiliziiitr, injurious pests, and the cconnniy in growiiij^ citrus fruits arc dis- 
cussed. 

Fruit culture in Queensland — citrus culture, A. H. Benson ((^nei'nsland Ayr. 
Jour., 7 {1900), No. 1, ji)>. .34--i9). — Popular directions regarding the cultivation and 
manuring of citrus trees and on handling and packing the fruit. 

Citrus regions of California, B. M. Lelong {Pacijic Rural Press, 60 {1900), No. 6, 
p. 84) . — A popular discussion of the orange and lemon lands and the conditions of 
their culture. 

Culture of the date palm {Agr. Jour. Cape Good Hope, 16 {1900), No. 12, jjp. 
742-744). — From investigations by the Cape Colony Department of Agriculture it 
seems that a considerable number of these trees are now growing in Damaraland 
and Namaqualand and the fruit forms no inconsiderable proportion of the food of 
the poorer classes. In Damaraland the date palm is successfully cultivated at eleva- 
tions of 3,000 to 3,500 ft. Above this height it is uncertain. Some information as 
to the culture and habits of the date palm is included in the article. 

Coffee culture in Queensland, H. Newport {Queensland Agr. Jour., 7 {1900), 
No. 1, pp. 4.5-50, pis. 4). — Pulping and curing are the operations considered. Build- 
ings and machinery for these operations and details of manipulation are given. 

Coffee and india-rubber culture in Mexico, preceded by g-eog-raphical and 
statistical notes on Mexico, ]M. Romero {Ncir York: (t. P. Putriain\-< Sottti, 1898, 
jjp. 417). 

Strawberries, C. S. Crandall and C. H. Potter {Colorado Sta. Bui.. 53, pp.27). — 
Detailed popular directions for the culture, fertilizing, irrigation, selection, and pol- 
linating of strawberries, with descriptive notes on 74 varieties and a table showing 
the comparative size, vigor, productiveness, etc., of the different varieties. 

Strawberry trials {Amer. Gard., 21 {1900), No. 290, p. 469, fig. l).—A report is 
here given on the test of varieties of strawberries grown at the trial grounds of 
American Gardening in 1900. Some 18 of the better varieties are noted in detail. 

Food for strawberries, A. H. Ward (Amer. Gard., 21 {1900), No. 294, p- 535). — 
Manuring strawberries is considered. Rotten leaves, decayed wood, and fermented 
peat ash in small quantities mixed with other vegetable substances are thought to 
make a better compost for strawberries than animal manures. Nitrate of soda and 
powdered phosphate of lime are also recommended, about 400 lbs. of the mixture 
per acre being used. 

Strawberry breeding, N. (). Booth {Amer. Gard., 21 {1900), No. 294, pp- 534, 
535). — Methods of breeding strawberries are given and the objects to be sought 
noted. Some results secured at the Missouri and New York State experiment sta- 
tions in breeding strawberries are given. Usually less than 1 desirable seedling can 
be expected out of each 1,000 seedlings grown. In Missouri the varieties Warfield 
No. 2, Lady Rusk, Crescent, and Bubach No. 5 gave seedlings about 5 per cent of 
which were considered worth saving beyond the first fruiting year. Crescent X 
Sharpless has given a high percentage of good seedlings both in Missouri and New 
York. 

The Oregon evergreen blackberry, U. P. Hedrick ( Utali Sta. Bui. 64, pp- 50-54, 
fig. 1). — Notes on the yields and characteristics of the Oregon evergreen blackberry, 
with replies to letters of inquiry of 8 nurserymen regarding its origin, history, quali- 
ties, cultivation, possibilities, etc. 

Grapes for calcareous soils, F. Lavoux {Messager Agr., 5. scr., 1 {1900), No. 5, 
pp. 187-191). — As a result of tests on the experimental grounds at Charentes, lists of 
varieties suitable for growing on light, dry, humid, and heavy soils, containing vari- 
ous amounts of lime, are given. 

Observations on the phenology and maturity of cultivated vines, Bonnet 
and ViDAL {Ann. Ecole Nut. Agr. MontpeUier, 11 {1899-1900), p>p. 329-359) .—The 
phenology and date of maturity of about 500 varieties of cultivated grapes growing 
at the National Agricultural School grounds at MontpeUier are recorded for the sea- 



FOEESTRY. 



247 



son of 1899. A difference of 34 days was observed between the earliest and latest 
varieties starting into growth, when all varieties were considered. With French 
varieties alone a difference of 22 days was observed. 

Wliat grapes are best as pollenizers, F. H. Hall and S. A. Beach {Nnr Vnrk 
State Sta. Bui. l'!0, piijiiilar ed., }>}>. o). — This is a popular e(htion of Bulletin 169 of 
the station (see p. 240). 

Systems of grape pruning in the Mediterranean region, L. Ravaz {Ann. 
EcuJe Nat. Agr. MontptWer, 11 {1899-1900) , j)p. 315-328).— Mier considering com- 
paratively and physiologically a number of different systems of grape pruning, the 
author believes that with the vines, soils, and climate of the Mediterranean region 
the older method of short pruning on low stocks is to be preferred to later methods 
of long pruning, since more wine of a better quality is obtained. 

On the quantity and quality of the products of the vine, L. Ravaz {xinn. 
Ecole Xat. Agr. Moutj»'Jlin; 11 {1899-1900), pp. 339-333).— Theoretival considerations 
on increasing the (luantity while maintaining the quality of vine products. 

The growing of herbaceous Calceolaris, W. Kleinheinz {Amer. Gard., 21 
{1900), No. 289, pp. 455, 456, fig. 1). — Cultural directions. 

The clematis {Amer. Gard., 21 {1900), No. 293, p. 5f 2). —Historical and cultural 
notes, with remarks on hybridizing and on diseases and insects. 

How to grow lilies, J. McGregor {Amer. Gard., 21 {1900), No. 292, p. 504). — 
Short paper covering time of potting the bulbs, removal to the house, temperature, 
etc., read by the author before the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society. 

The history of the rose {Jour. Hort., 52 {1900), Nos. 2697, p. 478; 2702, p. 34; 
2706, p. 132). — The early history is dealt with especially. 

Chronolog-ical contributions to the history of the sweet pea {Amer. Gard., 
21 {1900), No. 292, p. 501). — Historical notes on the sweet pea, beginning with its 
introduction into England from Italy in 1696 and coming up to the present. 

Nicholson's dictionary of gardening'. Supplement, G. Nicholson {Hyde 
Pa7-Jc, M(i.s.s.: G. T. King, 1900, pp. 376,figf<. 385). — This work supplements the au- 
thor's dictionary of gardening, bringing the matter up to date as far the letters A-F. 

FORESTRY. 

The density of forest crops, W. Schlich {Gard. Chron.^ 3. ser.., 
27 {1900), ^o. 705, pp. Ji.lJi.-Ii.16). — The author undertakes to answer the 
question as to the proper density of forest crops at which the fertility 
of the soil is preserved, if not increased, and the most valuable class 
of timber produced. The results of thousands of measurements are 
given of Norway spruce, beech, oak, and Scotch pine, in which all 
kinds of soils are considered. The average results are given in the 

following table: 

Density of foreat crops. 



Age of wood. 



20 years . 
30 years . 
40 years . 
50 years . 
60 years . 
70 years . 
80 years . 
90 years . 
100 years 
110 years 
120 years 



Number of trees to the acre. 



2,800 

2,000 

1,380 

1,020 

660 

490 

400 

330 

290 

260 

250 



Beech. 



2,800 
1,790 
1, 150 
770 
560 
440 
330 
260 
220 
190 
160 



Oak. 



2,700 
1,140 
640 
420 
310 
240 
200 
160 
140 
120 
105 



Scotch 
pine. 



1,900 
1,250 
850 
620 
460 
360 
290 
240 
200 
180 
160 



248 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

Experiments in forestry, C. >S. Crandali. ( Colorado Sta. lipt. 1899, pp. S4, S5) . — 
The station has continued experiments in forestry started in cooperation with the 
Division of Forestry of this Department in 1896. On one of the forest plats nearly 
4,000 plants of southernwood (Artemisia abrotanum) were planted as nurse plants for 
conifers. The plants are said to have covered the ground completely and to serve 
well as a protection for other plants, but to be of no other use, as they kill to the 
ground each winter. 

Some local conditions of forestry in England (Jour. Bd. Agr. [Londori],? (1900) , 
No. 1, pp. 1-9) . — Notes are given on the distribution and growth in England and 
Wales of a number of the more common forest trees, the diseases and injuries to which 
they are subject, and market conditions. 

Report of the Bureau of Forestry, T. Southworth (Rpt. Clerk Forestry, Ontario, 
1S99, pp. 144, pl>^- ^)- — Notes are given on forestry methods, forest reserves, wind- 
breaks, shelter plantings, street tree planting, etc. A compilation and history is 
given of the Crown timber regulations to the present time. 

Forest law in the United States, T. Cleveland, Jr. (Forester, 6 (1900), No. 7, 
pp. 153-160). — The topics discussed in this paper are: Forest law in general, early 
settlers and the forests, beginnings of a Federal forest polic}', the Federal land policy, 
and timber culture laws. 

Railroad forestry, J. H. Sutor (Sd. Amer. Sup., 50 (1900), No. 1286, pp. 20619, 
20620). — An address delivered before the Central Association of Kailroad Officers in 
which reforestation is strenuously urged. 

Notes on the forest trees of Ohio, W. R. Lazenby (Jour. Columbus Hort. Soc, 15 
(1900), No. 1, pp. 26-29, pis. 3). — Notes are given on the forest trees which are found 
growing wild in the State of Ohio. The number is said to be at least 112 species, repre- 
senting 25 orders and about 50 genera. 

Observations on the Eucalyptus of New South Wales, V and VI, H. Deane 
and J. H. Maiden (Proc. Lhm. Soc. Nev' South Wohx, 1S99, Nos.3, p)p.44S-471,l>ls.6; 
4,pp. 612-630, pis. 3). — Descriptions are given of a number of species and varieties of 
Eucalyptus. Notes are also given on their economic value. 

The lebbek or siris tree, D. G. Fairchild ( U. S. Dept. Agr., Diiymon of Bolauy 
Circ. 23, pip. 4, figs. 2) . — A history and description of this tree imported from India and 
as found in Egypt. It grows rapidly in the latter country in a sandy soil with little 
moisture. The wood is durable, works well, and is of value. It is mainly desirable 
as a shade tree for avenues and is recommended for southern California, Arizona, 
and Florida. 

SEEDS WEEDS. 

Investigations on -weeds, II. L. Bolley {North Dalfota Sfa. Rpt. 
1899., pp. '2b-'2S). — A brief report is given of experiments conducted 
in weed destruction, in which marked success was obtained when cop- 
per sulphate was sprayed over the field at the rate of 1 11). of copper 
sulphate to 4 gal. of water, the solution being' used at the rate of -40 
to 50 gal. per acre. 

The author has begun an investigation of weed seeds planted at dif- 
ferent depths, in which the seeds of a number of the more common 
weeds were planted at depths varying from 1 to H» in. 

Studies have been made at various elevators and mills throughout 
the State to determine what influence they may have as weed distrib- 
uters. It was found that the following weed seeds occur quite abun- 
dantly in wheat and are responsible for considerable lows not only in 



SEEDS WEEDS. 249 

the reduction of yield, but in depreciation of the quality: Ainhrosla 
trifida^ Lychnis githago^ Saporiaria vaccaria^ Polygonum c<m'Volv(du8, 
Sefaria virid/H^ S. glavca, and Arena fatua. 

Killing weeds with chemicals, L. K. Jones and W. A. Orton 
( Vermont Sta. Rpt. 1899, pj^. 182-188).— Since the pu])lication of the 
bulletin on the use of salt in killing the hawkweed (E. S. R., 8, p. 1)87), 
the authors have received many inquiries as to the possibility of 
destroying- other weeds by chemicals, which led them to make a com- 
parative test of a number of chemicals for this purpose. Among 
those included were common salt, copper sulphate, potassium sulphid, 
kerosene, arseniate of soda, a mixture of white arsenic and sal soda, 
and 2 proprietary articles. These chemicals were tested l)v marking 
off areas on gravelly walks, roadways, tennis courts, and similar drj^, 
beaten soils. Applications were begun about July 1 and observations 
continued until autumn. The different chemicals were tried at the 
rate of about 8 gal. of solution to each square rod of surface. The 
weeds most commonly present were knotweed {Polygonum (miculare)^ 
white clover, various grasses, purslane, plantain, dandelion, etc. Of 
these the knotweed was most troublesome and the efficiency of the 
chemicals in destroying this weed was considered the best gauge of 
its value. The experiments with different chemicals are reported at 
some length, together with notes on their cost, and the following con- 
clusions were drawn: 

"Gravel walks, drives, tennis courts, and similar places can Ije kept free from 
weeds by the use of certain chemicals. 

"Common salt can be used for this purpose, but very heavy applications are 
re(]uired, and when used in such amounts it is liable to be washed into the borders 
of adjacent lawns. Salt should always be applied in the dry form. The weeds may 
be more fully suppressed without such danger from washing by certain other chem- 
icals. These are to be applied in solutions, and at the rate of about 8 gal. to the 
square rod. 

"Crude carbolic acid is a very powerful and quick acting herbicide. One pint in 
4 gal. of water is usually sufhcient; cost as diluted, \ ct. for a gallon, 4 cts. to the 
square rod. Its effects are not as enduring, however, as are those of the arsenical 
solutions. 

"Various arsenical compounds are available, including arseniate of soda, a mix- 
ture of white arsenic and sal soda, and two proprietary articles. The choice between 
these latter becomes largely a matter of relative expense and convenience. In gen- 
eral, the choice should, in our judgment, lie between the crude carbolic acid and the 
arseniate of soda. 

"One or at most two applications each season of one or another of these chemicals 
will, it is believed, suffice to keep down the weeds." 

The use of solutions of sulphate of ammonia and superphos- 
phate for destroying weeds, Maizieres {L' Engnnx, IJ4. {1899), 3'r>. 
36, pp. 851, 852). — The author quotes from a report of experiments 
made by M. Georges Castel-Deletrez in eradicating weeds by spraying 
with solutions of sulphate of anunonia. A 3 per cent solution burnt 



250 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

the edg-os of the leaves of plumeless thistles (Carduus), Vmt did not 
appear permanentl}^ to injure the plant. A 5 per cent solution 
destroyed some whole leaves and checked growth for several days. 
A 10 per cent solution entirely destroved young* plants. A 1.5 per cent 
solution applied to plants 20 to 30 cm. in height entirely destro3'ed a 
part of them. In experiments with white mustard, a 10 per cent 
solution completely destroyed the plants in those cases in which appli- 
cation was made before the flower buds were developed. If applied 
later, it was not effective. 

The author then proceeds to report very briefly on some experi- 
ments made by himself along this line, using, however, in this case a 
solution of superphosphate. Details of the experiments are not given, 
but it is said that ver}^ satisfactory results w^ere reached in experi- 
ments with various cruciferous plants. The experiments were repeated 
with mixed solutions of superphosphate and sulphate of ammonia, and 
in this case a solution of 5 degrees of densit}^ proved ver}^ efficient. 
The experiments are to be continued. 

Results of experiments on the spraying of charlock, P. H. 
FouLKES {Jour. Beading Col.^ Enghind^ Sup. 9, pp. oo~o9). — Spra3'ing 
experiments were conducted in 6 localities, in which copper sulphate 
in strengths of 2 to 6 per cent and quantities of 25 to 75 gal. per acre 
was tested. The applications were made under different climatic con- 
ditions on wheat, barley, and oats at different stages of growth, when 
the charlock plants were quite young, just before flowering, and while 
in flower. On the whole, the experiments were considered to establish 
the value of copper sulphate as a means of destruction of charlock. 
For the best effect of spraying the author considers the following con- 
ditions necessary: A clear, still, dr}' day, the application of a 2 per 
cent solution at the rate of 50 gal. per acre before the charlock comes 
into flower, and the thorough application of the spray, in which the 
nozzle should be held low so that the sprav may fall upon and not be 
driven against the plants. If these conditions are complied with, it is 
thought that one spraying will ])e sufficient lo destroy the weeds. If 
rain falls within 21 hours after the spraying, it is advised that the 
application be repeated. 

Spraying of charlock (Jour. Bd. Agr. {London], 7 {1900), No. 1, 
pp. J^j-J/)). — A l>rief report is given of experiments conducted in north 
Wales in regions which are notably infested with this weed, in which 
one-eighth-acre plats were sprayed with copper sulphate, and compari- 
sons made with other plats sprayed with iron sui})hate. Iron sulphate 
failed to produce any appreciable effect upon the weeds, while copper 
sulphate gave better results although not altogether satisfactory ones. 
The sprayings were probabh^ made too late in the season, as the results 
seem to indicate that the advantage of spraying depends largely on 
the age of the charlock at the time of spraying. No injury to the 



SEEDS WEEDS. 251 

crop .spra3'ed was notod. In one series of experiments the plant 
proved to be the "smooth-leaved charlock," and upon this the solutions 
seemed to have no efl'ect. 

Eradication of moss in pastures {Jour. Bd. Ayr. [London], 7 
(1900), 3y>. 1, pp. 39,Jf.O). — An account is given of a number of exper- 
iments for the eradication of moss in pasture lands. None of the 
usual reasons assigned for the presence of moss, such as sourness of 
soil, deficient aeration, or great povert}' of the soil were present, the 
experiments being conducted on light loamy soils which rested on 
chalk. Chemical and mechanical means were investigated. The 
chemicals used were sulphuric acid, lime, superphosphate, basic slag, 
salt, and iron sulphate. The mechanical methods tested were lift- 
ing the turf, rolling, and raking. The chemical treatment seemed to 
have little or no effect, while of the mechanical processes rolling was 
most effective. 

The farmer's interest in good seed, A.J. Pieters {U. S. Dept. Agr., Farmers' 
Bui. Ill, pp. 24, figs. 7) . — A popular bulletin on the value of seed testing, in which the 
relationship between quality of seed and amount sown, methods of seed testing, etc., 
are described. The results of tests with a number of samples of red clover, redtop, 
Kentucky blue grass, timothy, orchard grass, smooth brome grass, and crimson clover 
are given, in which the market price and actual value of seed are shown. In many 
instances the actual value of the seed, as shown by tests, was decidedly less than the 
market price paid. 

Red clover seed, A. J. Pieters ( U. S. Dept. Agr., Division of Botany Circ. 24, pp. 5, 
figs. 2). — Red clover seed is described, together with a number of its more common 
adulterants and impurities. The value of testing seed is pointed out and in general 
it is found that high-grade medium-priced samples are in reality the cheapest. 

The seed of smooth brome grass, A. J. Pieters {U.S. Dept. Agr., Division of 
Botany Circ. 23, pjp. 3, fig. 1) . — The rapid introduction of this grass in the arid and 
semi-arid regions of this country has led to many inquiries concerning it, and the 
author describes popularly the seed and some of the impurities associated with it. 
Directions are given for sampling and testing brome-grass seed, and the offer is made 
by the Department to test such seed for those desiring it. 

Resistance of seeds to heat, Schribaux et al. {Messager Agr., 5. ser., 1 {1900), 
No. 6, pp. 227, 228) . — All cereals except maize are said to readily withstand temper- 
atures of 100° C. for short periods. Wheat heated for 1 hour to 105° C. germinated 
97 per cent; 11.5°, 95 percent; 11<)°, 93 percent; 120°, 56 per cent; and 125°, 4 percent. 

The resistance of seeds to high temperatures, V. Roger {Messager Agr., 5. ser., 
1 {1900), No. 5, pp. 191, 192).— Peas and cress heated to 60° C. for 24 hours and then 
to 98° for 10 hours gave 30 and 60 per cent germinations, respectively. Heated 
directly to 98° all were killed. Cress seed germinated after 800 hours in a thermo- 
stat at 65° C. Peas and cress in sealed tubes with quicklime retained their power 
of germination after an exposure of 206 days at 40° C. 

Method for determining the relative value of beet seed, G. Linhart {Kiserlet. 
Kosleut., 3 {1900), No. ;?, pp. 136-139). 

Annual report of Danish seed control station, 1896-97, O. Rostrup ( Tidsskr. 
Laridhr. Plaiiteurl, 5 {1899), pp. 1-38). — The report gives the usual account of the 
results of seed analyses made during the year, with summary tables for the years 
1887-1897, inclusive, and such other discussions as the work during the year has sug- 
gested. There were received for examination during 1896-97 1,762 seed samples, 



252 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

of which 1,184 were .sulijected to complete analyses, 243 to determinations of purity, 
and 310 to determinations of germination. Of the samples 934 were sent by seeds- 
men, 69 by seed growers, and 508 by farmers, the rest being secured for original 
investigations. An investigation as to the influence of concentrated sulphuric acid 
on hard seeds of legumes showed that the germination of flat pea was greatly 
improved by steeping the seeds in acid for one minute; after 60 days the germina- 
tion of the treated seed was 84 per cent, and that of the untreated seed 28 per cent. 
After 300 days all the treated seed had germinated, while those not treated showed 
a germination of 76 per cent. It is likely that a longer treatment with sulphuric 
acid will further improve the germination of flat pea. A sample of red-clover seed 
left in concentrated sulphuric acid for 24 hours still contained 9 per cent of viable 
seed.^ — F. w. woij,. 

Report of the Danish seed control station, 1897-98, ( ». Kostri-p {Tlilsslcr. 
Landbr. Planteavl, G {1900), -pp. 1-37). 

Report of the Danish seed control station for the year 1898-99, O. 
RosTKUP (Tidsskr. Landbr. Planteaii, 6 {1900), pp. 113-169). — Contains the usual 
compilation of the results of seed analyses made during the year, and during the 
decennium 1889-1899. Of other subjects treated in the report may be mentioned: 
List of seeds of wild or cultivated plants found in seed samples of cultivated plants 
sent to the Danish seed control station (pp. 135-154); on the decrease in viability 
of seeds from spring to fall (pp. 156-158); germination trials of seeds of wild plants 
(pp. 158-169); germination trials with cacti (p. 169). — f. w. woll. 

Twenty-seventh report of Markfrokontoret (seed office) {Copenhagen, 1S99, 
pp. 32) . — The report contains the usual account of the work of the office, and a 
number of papers on the culture of different agricultural I'rops. 

Reports of Swedish seed control stations for 1898 {Meddel. K. Landlbr. 
Sli/r., 1900, No. 63, pp. 401-465). — Eighteen stations, in part supported by Govern- 
ment, were maintained during the year; 8,258 seed samples were examined at these 
stations during 1898, 6,147 complete analyses having been made, and 2,111 partial 
analyses. Farmers sent in 3,161 samples, seedsmen 4,455 samples, and 638 samples 
were secured by the stations themselves in special investigations; 19.6, 12.2, and 
11.6 per cent of the samples received for examination were analyzed at the seed 
control stations at Lund, Stockholm, and Oerebro, respectively. The average 
results of the analyses for each kind of seed and for each station, with ranges of 
results, are given in the report. — f. w. woll. 

Report of the seed control station at Lund, Sweden, for 1899, B. Jonsson 
{Mai mi), 1900, pp. 20). 

Report of the seed control station at Gothenburg-, Sweden, for 1898-99 
.]. E. Alex {Gbtebur/j, 1900, pp. 14). 

Report of the Skara seed control station for 1898-99, S. Hammar {Ber.. 
VerL'i. Skara Kern. Sta. och FrokontroUanst., 1899, pp. 25-31). — A report is given of 
the analyses of 149 lots of seed which were tested between July 1, 1898, and June 
30, 1899. Of these rye, red clover, alsike clover, and timothy seed constituted 75 
per cent of the samples. 

Some common Ontario weeds, F. C. Harrison {Ontario Dept. Agr., Toronto, 
1900, 2>p. SO, Jigs. 34) . — A popular discussion is given on the introduction and spread 
of weeds; methods of identification, classification, and eradic-ation. The more com- 
mon weeds of Ontario to the number of 34 species are figured, popularly described, 
and suggestions given for their eradication. Based upon rei)lies from corresjiondents, 
the author represents graphically the comparative destru(;tiveness of Ontario weeds. 
Those most troublesome in order of destructiveness are Canada thistle, mustard or 
charlock, wild oati couch grass, ragweed, oxeye daisy, false flax, dock, burdock, and 
foxtail. 



DISEASES OF PLANTS. 253 

Noxious weeds {Rpt. Dept. Agr. NorthweM Territories, 1899, pp. 29-40). — A report 
is given of the distribution of a number of troublesome weeds and the activity of the 
inspectors in enforcing the laws on weed destruction. 

On tlie geographical distribution of some of our weeds, J. Holmboe ( Tidsskr. 
Nor>ike Lditdhr., 7 {1900), No. 4, ]>]>■ lo5-171). 

Experiments in weed prevention, J. A. Voelcker {Jour. Roy. Agr. Soc. Eng- 
land, 3. ser., 11 {1900), No. 41, PP- 110-115, fig. 1). — In this pot experiment, 4 series 
were used: 1, control; 2, sprayed with ammonia liquor from gas works; 3, treated 
with salt at the rate of 5 cwt. per acre and subsequently sprayed with a 2 per cent 
solution of sulphate of copper; 4, sprayed with carbolic acid solution. The weeds 
that appeared were speedwell, groundsel, shei^herd's ^urse, goose foot, and knot 
grass {Polygonum aviculare). Cias liquor used in its full strength, containing 2.93 per 
cent ammonia, killed all the weeds except goose foot and knot grass. The other 
chemicals used were found to be practically useless for weed prevention. 

Spraying for weed destruction {Deal. Landw. Presse,27 {1900), No. 53, p. 679). — 
Notes are given on the successful spraying with solutions of iron sulphate for the 
destruction of field mustard in a number of crops. 

Bur medic {Queensland Agr. Jour., 6 {1900) , No. 3, p. 209, pi. 1). — Notes are given 
on Medicago denticulata which is considered a very troublesome and injurious weed 
in pastu^-es. 

Destruction of charlock {Jour. Bd. Agr. [^Ijondon^, 6 {1900), No. 4,pp- 465-468). — 
Good results will, as a rule, be obtained by spraying charlock when not over 3 in. 
high with a 4 per cent solution of copper sulphate or a 15 per cent solution of iron 
sulphate at the rate of 40 gal. per acre. Cloudy days without rain give better results 
than when spraying is done upon bright days. 

The eradication of the prickly pear {Queensland Agr. Jour., 6 {1900), No. 4,PP- 
319, 320, ph. 2) . — An account is given of the successful use of a spraying solution for 
the destruction of the prickly pear. The composition of the solution is not given. 

DISEASES OF PLANTS. 

Report of the botanists, G. E. Stone and R. E. Smith {Massachu- 
setts Hatch Sta. Rjpt. 1899^ j)P- 56-73).— Th^ principal investigations 
of the authors during the season covered by this report have been 
contined to problems in vegetable physiology and pathology. The 
presence of a serious disease in asters is reported, and the authors 
have begun investigations with a view to ascertain the nature of the 
trouble and the means for its prevention. Bacterial cucumber wilt 
has made its appearance in the vicinity and caused serious injury to 
the crop. In the Annual Report of the station for 1897 (E. S. R., 10, 
p. 018), the authors described a leaf spot of geranium which was 
thought to ]je caused by bacteria. At that time it was believed to be 
the result of al)normal conditions rather than a true disease. However, 
during the season covered by the report, the disease has been preva- 
lent and has caused a considerable loss. It causes small yellow dull 
spots in the leaves, so that they soon fall off and the plant becomes 
nearl}^ denuded. Examination of the dead spots shows they are full 
of bacteria, but all attempts to isolate the organism have been without 
success. 

Failures of the muskmelon crop are reported due to Alternaria sp. 



254 EXPERIMENT STATION RECOED. 

and the common anthrucnose {('o//t4(>tric/iinj/ Ingenarluin). The first 
disease appeared earlier than before, and spraying experiments for its 
prevention were too late to be of value. In the case of the anthrac- 
nose, applications of Bordeaux mixture begun July 1 or earlier will 
prevent injury. The maple-leaf blight {^PhijIhMlcta acerlcola), is 
briefly described. This disease produces large dead spots in the 
leaves, which become curled and distorted, losing their beauty; but 
beyond this the actual injury to the tree is considered in most cases 
slight. 

The chrysanthemum rust, which was first reported in 1807 (E. S. R., 
10, p. 648), appears to be on the decline. It has appeared in numerous 
places, but apparently caused little or no damage. 

Experiments are reported on growing violets in sterilized soil, the 
purpose of which Avas to determine the relation between the produc- 
tion of flowers and the occurrence of leaf spots in sterilized and 
unsterilized soils. The methods of sterilizing the soil were previously 
given (E. S. R., 10, p. 1055). The plants for the experiments were 
made from cuttings started in sterilized sand, afterwards transplanted 
into sterilized soil and removed out of doors, where they remained 
during the summer. In the fall they were transplanted into a bed 
divided into 2 sections, one of which was sterilized and the other not. 
The yield of flowers from both plats is tal)ulated, from which it 
appears there was a gain of 36 per cent in the number of flowers 
gathered from the sterilized plat over that from the unsterilized one. 
The observations made to determine the relative amount of leaf spot 
on the 2 plats showed that the sterilized plats gave the smallest num- 
ber, indicating the more vigorous plants were grown on the sterilized 
soil. The authors state that '" while there is no dou})t as to the bene- 
ficial results obtained by sterilizing the same soil for 2 or 3 crops, it 
does not necessarily follow that the soil will repeatedly stand this 
treatment and give good crops.'" 

Report on various cryptogamic diseases, E. Marchal {Bui. Agr. 
[^/'^w.sv/.y], 16 {1900), jVo. 1, pp. S-.il, jigs. S). — Brief notes are given 
on a number of diseases of more oi" less economic importance. Among 
those described are the white rust of purslane due to Cystopus j)ortu- 
lacce; rusts of cereals, in which Puccinia graminis is reported on 
barley, wheat, r3^e, oats, and numerous grasses, P. rnhigo-vera on 
wheat and barley, and P. coronata on oats as well as on certain pas- 
ture grasses; the vesicular rust of pine needles caused by Coleosporimn 
i^enecionh; stem rust of rye caused by Urocystis occulta^ Polyporus 
on fruit trees, the species mentioned being P. igniarlus, fidvus,' a 
rust of pine needles caused by Lophodernduin p>)naHtri; a browning 
of spruce needles caused by L. macrosporum; a blight of shallots due 
to Scleroti II !<( facl'el !(i)ui • a new Phoma disease of tomatoes, in which 
serious injury to the fruit is reported in greenhouses; a leaf disease 



DISEASES OF PLANTS. 255 

of the sycamore caused by Glo&osporlum. riervlHequtmn,' and a new dis- 
ease of medlars caused by Monilia linhartiana. The disease of med- 
lars is characterized by the appearance of dark brown dry spots along 
the midrib and principal veins of the leaves. These increase in size 
until the entire leaf is invaded. The young fruits are also attacked, 
turn l)rown, dry, and fall from the tree. 

Smut of cereals, II. L. Bolley [NortJi Dukota Sta. Rpt. 1899, j/p. 
W-'Bo^jig. 1). — Since 1895 the author has l)een investigating the influ- 
ence of difl'erent dates of seeding, soil condition, climate, etc., on the 
growth of smuts, and in the case of the stinking smut of wheat has 
drawn the following conclusions: The stinking snnit of wheat in the 
region of the station will grow best if left exposed to the weather in 
the unbroken smut balls throughout the winter months. For best ger- 
mination of the spores a condition of soil atmosphere approaching sat- 
uration is required, while the presence of actual water in the soil is 
detrimental. A Avide range of temperature for the germination of 
spores has been observed when the soil conditions are favorable. The 
best soil conditions for a high percentage of infection in the field would 
be those which give a good growth of the wheat plant, associated with 
a saturated soil and a daily temperature showing a minimum of 15 to 
35° F, In conducting his test it was found that the millet smut devel- 
oped best when the ground was too wet to produce a large growth of 
wheat smut, and it is thought probable that each species of smut will 
hQ found to vary in the conditions required for its development. 

The use of formaldehyde for grain disinfection has been further 
investigated with good results. Acting upon the popular belief that 
chlorid of lime would prove beneficial in preventing snmts of wheat, 
the authoi" investigated the subject, but found it was without value as a 
smut preventive. 

Potato diseases and their remedies, L. K. Jones and W. A. 
Orton {Vermont Sta. Rpt. 1899, pp>. 151-155). — This report gives an 
account of observations and experiments made on potato diseases and 
their control in 189S. The season was somewhat less favorable for the 
diseases than the preceding one, the principal injury being reported 
from tip burn, which occurred rather abundantly on potatoes planted 
in light soils. Plant.s .sprayed with Bordeaux mixture were relatively 
exempt from attacks of the flea-beetle and showed little evidence 
of tip burn. In the vicinity of the station there was little injury due 
to either the early or late blight, although some damage was reported 
from these causes in other parts of the State. 

Spraying experiments were conducted to test the value of standard 
Bordeaux mixture in which the lime and copper sulphate were each 
diluted to the proper degree before mixing, an improperly made Bor- 
deaux mixture in which the concentrated solutions were combined and 
then diluted to the proper strength, and a commercial Bordeaux mix- 



256 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

ture which is essentially the same as the second mixture just described. 
The results obtained from a series of 20 plats showing- the comparative 
value of the different forms of Bordeaux mixture were decidedly in 
favor of the standard mixture. Tests were also made of 2 commercial 
powders, Bug' Death and Laurel Green, as substitutes for Paris green 
and Bordeaux mixture for use upon potatoes. The primary object 
was to determine whether these compounds had any value as fungicides, 
but the absence of all fungi rendered this portion of the experiment 
of no value. It was found that both the powders possessed consid- 
erable value as insecticides, although no comparison can ])e drawn 
with Paris green on account of the diti'erence in the experiments. 

A ne-w phoma disease of s^vedes, M. C. Potter {Jour. Bd. Agr. 
[Lojidon], G {1900), No. 4, pP- J^Jv^-^^O, jd. i, figs. 5). — A description 
is given of a somewhat common disease of swedes which occurs in the 
north of England and. according to the author, appears to have been 
thus far undescribed. When fairlv advanced the disease is usually 
recognized by pale, straw-colored, or brownish patches which con- 
trast strongly with the ordinary color of the root, and by the large 
dry cracks which sometimes penetrate deeply into the flesh. The 
natural color of the swede is destroyed and replaced by discolored 
patches which are surrounded by a narrow border of dark metallic 
green, shading into a dark purple. Numerous small spots of a deep 
purplish green color, encircling a central lighter spot, indicates the 
commencement of the disease. One striking characteristic of the dis- 
ease is the dr}^ condition of the attacked cells, the cortex usually sep- 
arating as a dry paper}^ layer. The microscopical appearances of the 
fungus are described at considerable length and results of cultures are 
given in which the complete cycle of the fungus was carried out upon 
swedes. In general appearance the fungus agrees very closely with 
the description given of Phoma hrasslcw, which is said to attack cab- 
bages in the west of France. It possesses other characters which have 
been given for ]\ sangidnolenta, which is said to attack carrots, and 
the author thinks eventually these difl'erent parasites will be found to 
be forms of the same species. 

Suggestions are given for methods of combating the disease. At 
present the only means seems to be remedial and consists in the de- 
struction of all infested roots and greater attention to storage and 
fertilizers. 

Tomato blight, (1. \\ . Herrick {Jf/s.sissijjpl /Stct. I?j)t. 1899, pjj. ^, 
44)- — T'l order to ol)tain some practical method of dealing with tomato 
Ijlight, the author conducted a number of experiments during the sea- 
son covered by the report. Seedlings were grown on infected soil 
and kept in the greenhouse where similar plants had been grown every 
year. Etjual areas were planted in soils which had produced ])lighted 
tomatoes the year previous. One plat was treated with lime at the 



DISEASES OF PLANTS. 257 

rate of •1,000 lbs, per acre; the second plat was left as a check, and the 
third plat was treated with kainit at the rate of 400 lbs. per acre. The 
record obtained showed less blighted plants where the lime was 
employed than on the other plats. 

In another experiment 2 plats of the same area were planted with 
seedlings grown on uninfected soil and in a greenhouse in which no 
seedlings had been grown. In one of the plats where blighted toma- 
toes had been grown the previous year, lime at the rate of 4,000 lbs. 
per acre was added. The other plat received no treatment, and a 
comparison of the yield of the 2 plats showed but slight difference in 
the percentage of blighted plants. 

Another series of plats were tested the soil of which had never 
borne tomatoes. The first plat was planted with seedlings grown on 
infected soil and was treated with kainit at the rate of 400 lbs. per 
acre. Plat 2 was similarl}^ planted but not treated. The third plat 
was similar in all respects except it received lime at the rate of 4,000 
lbs. per acre. The fourth plat was set with seedlings grown on unin- 
fected soil and treated with lime. In this series of experiments only 
1 plant was blighted, and that was found on plat 3. The author states, 
as a result of his experiments, that "infection is not -obtained in the 
greenhouse and that rotation of the crop is a benefit and probably 
necessary." 

The relationship existing bet-ween the asparagus rust and the 
physical properties of the soil, G. E. Stone and R. E. Smith (J/^/.y- 
.s((r]i.i[xetiii IlatcJi Sta. Rpt. 1899, pjj. 61-73). — Attention was previously 
called by the authors (E. S. R., 11, p. 159) to the probable relationship 
existing between dry seasons and the occurrence of the summer or 
injurious stage of the rust. Continued observations have been made 
on this subject, and with but one exception the authors report that 
the rust has never been observed by them or reported to them except 
in soils which were sandy and possessed little water-retaining prop- 
erties. Mechanical analyses of a number of soils of the State are 
given with their water-retaining capacitj^. The conclusion is reached 
that injury by the summer stage of the asparagus rust is due to a weak- 
ened condition of the plants from growing on dry soils during seasons 
of extreme drought. The practice of spraying for the prevention of 
the rust is not considered productive of good results. If the devel- 
opment of the rust is due to lack of moisture in the soil, it seems that 
it will be necessarj^ to resort to soil of finer texture for the cultivation 
of the crop and the practice of irrigation wherever possible. 

Fungus diseases of the roots of fruit trees {Jour. Bd. Agr. 
[Londoh], 7 {1900), No. 1, j^>p. ,10-16, jjI. 1). — A number of young 
fruit trees were submitted to the board of agriculture, and it was found 
that they were apparently dying from the attacks of a fungus on the 
roots. The fungus belongs to the genus Rosellinia and threateiBS to 
8058— No. 3 5 



258 EXPEKIMENT STATION RECORD. 

be a serious pest to various trees. On this account an article by G. 
Massee on a similar disease of the trees of New Zealand is extensively 
quoted. 

As preventive measures it is suggested that the mycelium, which 
travels through the soil, may be isolated by digging deep, narrow 
trenches about the trees, care being taken to throw the excavated soil 
toward the tree instead of from it. A second method, which has 
proved of service in France, is to lay the trunk bare as far below the 
surface of the soil as can be done without injury to the tree and to 
cover the exposed trunk and soil with sulphur. 

The bro-wn spot of the apple, L. R. Jones and W. A. Orton ( Ver- 
mx))ii fSfd. I\i>t. 1S99, 2)j.>. 159-16 Jf, j)^- !)• — In the Annual Report of 
this station for 1891 (E. S. R., -1, p. 471), attention was called to a fruit 
spot of the Baldwin apple which at that time was thought possibly to 
be due to a fungus which was determined as DotJddea pomigena. A 
re-examination of these brown spots has led to the conclusion that the 
disease is not primarily due to a fungus. In the past season numerous 
specimens of Baldwin apples have been examined. Beginning with 
the first evidences of fruit spot in the autumn before harvest, a careful 
search was made for bacteria and fungi, neither of which were found. 
In connection with these observations it was determined that while the 
spot is the worst in the case of the Baldwins it is also quite couuuon 
on Northern Spy and was observed on Greenings. The spots are not 
uniforml}^ distributed over the surface but are more numerous toward 
the apical portion of the fruit. They are not confined to the surface 
but appear at various depths, the deep ones often being overlaid by 
a half inch or more of sound flesh, and are associated in their distribu- 
tion with that of the vascular bundles occurring at or near the ends of 
the veins which permeate the flesh of the fruit. 

An examination of the literature led the authors to conclude that 
this disease is the same as that described by Wortmann^ under the 
name of "stippen." This work is reviewed at some length and the 
characters of the disease are summarized. Its occurrence is rather 
widespread and, while preeminently occurring in the Baldwin apple, 
more than 30 other varieties are reported as having been attacked to 
some extent. The greatest damage done by this disease is in the 
appearance of the fruit, although at times a slight bitter flavor is said 
to accompany it. The author states the conclusions of Wortmaim that 
the disease is a result of the concentration of the sap following a loss 
of water. Several factors enter into the problem of spot formation. 
Among them are the amount and rapidity of transpiration, the kind 
and relative amount of substances in solution in the sap, the con- 
ductivity of the tissues of the fruit, and the specific resistance of the 

iLandw. Jahrb., 21 (1892), pp. 063-675. 



DISEASES OF PLANTS. 259 

protoplasm of the cells to the injurious action of concentrated sap. 
Remedies which have ])een sug-gested by numerous investigators are 
cited by the authors, although no experiments seem to have been made 
b}^ them in controlling tlie disease. 

Spraying for the prevention of apple scab, L. R. Jones and 
W. A. Orton [Verinoiit iSfa. Ri)t. 1899^ j^P- lo6-lo9). — In continua- 
tion of experiments reported in 1898 (E. S. R., 11, p. 356), a block of 
5 trees near the middle of the orchard was experimented with, in which 
Paris green, copper sulphate, and Bordeaux mixture containing Paris 
green were compared, different rows of trees being sprayed a different 
number of times. The yield from the different trees is shown, and 
from the table the importance of early spraying and 1 or 2 applica- 
tions of Bordeaux mixture after the blossoms have fallen is emphasized. 
The important point brought out b}" this investigation is that an apple 
tree which had not been sprayed in the experiments of 1897 and 1898, 
but was sprayed during the time of this experiment, bore more scabby 
apples than all the rest of the orchard where the trees were sprayed. 
This would indicate the importance of spraying every season and the 
cumulative effect to be derived from such treatment. 

The prevention of peach-leaf curl, W. A. Murrill {JVeir York 
CornJl Sta. Bui. ISO, j,j>. J^U-JJ^, dgrns. 6').— In Bulletin 161 of this 
station (E. S. R., 11, p. 161) the appearajtice and life history of the 
fungus causing the loaf curl of the peach are described at some length 
and results of experiments for its prevention are given. 

In the present bulletin 2 years' experiments are summarized, which 
lead to the conclusion that leaf curl of the peach can be readih' con- 
trolled when proper auQl timely treatment is given. The orchards 
selected for the experiments represented a variet}^ of conditions of 
soil, moisture, and exposure, and were composed of a number of varie- 
ties of peaches, some of which were chosen on account of their well- 
known susceptibility to the disease. The plan of the orchard and 
outline of investigation for each of the experiments are given in detail. 

The trees were spraj^ed with different strengths of solutions of 
Bordeaux mixture, potassium sulphid, ammoniacal copper carbonate, 
copper sulphate, and lime. Of the substances employed as fungi- 
cides, Bordeaux mixture proved most useful, and the treatment recom- 
mended for peach-leaf curl, based upon these and other experiments, 
is as follows: 

" Spray with Bordeaux consisting of 6 lbs. of copper sulphate, 4 lbs. of good quick- 
lime, and 50 gal. of water about the first of April when the buds are beginning to 
swell. 

' ' Spray again when the petals have fallen with Bordeaux consistmg of 2 lbs. of 
copper sulphate, 2 lbs. of good quicklime, and 50 gal. of water. If the weather of 
April and early May is warm and dry this second spraying may be omitted." 



260 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

Investigations on the brunissure of plants, V. Ducomet (Ann. 
itcoleNat. Acjr. MmitpeUler, 11 (1899-1900), j)p. 171-'B83, pis. 3, figs. 
60). — An historical rcAdew is given of the literature of brunissure and 
the conclusions of various authors as to its causes are brieily summar- 
ized. According- to the summary, some authors hold that the disease 
is due to physiological causes, others to animal or vegetable parasites, 
while still others claim it is due solely to physical agencies acting upon 
the cell. 

In the authors' investigations particular attention was paid to the 
brunissure of the grape. The disease, as characterized by the appear- 
ance of the different parts of the affected plants, is described at length 
and the results of a large number of observations and experiments are 
cited. Differences are noted in the degree of susceptibility of differ- 
ent races and varieties of grapes to this disease and its occurrence and 
chai'acterization on a large number of other plants are given. The 
author concludes that brunissure is not of a parasitic nature but is 
rather due to physiological changes brought about by various causes 
such as sudden rising and falling of temperature, heav}' precipitation, 
mechanical injuries, and abnormal conditions due to organic parasites. 

The disease being due to physiological causes, the author advises 
attention to the growth and surroundings of the plants as a means for 
reducing or preventing attacks. 

A stunted growth of vines, L. Ravaz (Ann itcoleNat. A(jr. Mont- 
pdlicr, 11 (1899-1000), pp. 293-3 U, pis. 6).— The author gives a pre- 
liminary report upon a peculiar stunted growth of grapevines to which 
the name court-noue is given. The principal characteristics of this 
disease is a remarkable shortening of the internodes of the vine 
attacked. The interior of the stem is discolored, being of a brownish- 
yellow or dark-brown color. The disease is said to be readily trans- 
mitted by cuttings and grafts and all affected material should be 
rejected. Some varieties are more susceptible than others and such 
should be discarded. 

The parasitism of Phoma reniformis, L. Ravaz and A. Bonnet 
(Ann. JEcole Nat. Agr. MontpelUer, 11 (1899-1900), pp. 384.-293, ijl. 
1). — ^The authors review the work of Jackzewsk}' and Spechnew 
(E. S. R., 11, p. 1061) and take exceptions to the claim that Phoma 
reiiiformis is a parasite on the grape. The life history of the fungus 
is given, and experiments covering almost a year are described in 
which no evidence of parasitism was observed. The fungus is said to 
occur rather abundantl\^ as a saprophyte, but is whollv unable to pene- 
trate uninjured tissues. On this account it can not be considered as 
the primary cause of the very destructive disease of grapes in the 
Caucasus region. 

T^vo hitherto unkno^vn diseases of Phlox decussata, J. Ritzema- 
Bos (T'ljdsclir. Plantenziekten, 5(1899), No. 2,pp). 27-32). — The attacks 



DISEASES OF PLANTS. 261 

of Tylenchus clevmiatrix upon phlox plants may be rocoo'nizod by the 
thicker and shorter stems and irregularly curled leaves of the infested 
plants. By the shortening of the internodes the leaves are brought 
close together and produce a characteristic deformity. 

In combating this worm it is of considera1>le importance to cut off 
and l)urn all infested parts of the plant above ground, and deep plowing 
of the soil is also recommended. 

The same species of phlox was observed in Brussels and other places 
to be attacked by a fungus disease which was caused by Septrma jMogis. 
The stems of infested plants remained short, and the leaf petioles were 
either thickened and shorter than usual or totally undeveloped. In 
general, the appearance of plants infested with this fungus disease was 
somewhat similar to that of plants which were attacked by the nematode 
worm, but the presence of yellowish spots in the case of the fungus 
disease served to distinguish the 2 diseases. The author recommends 
that infested plants be cut and l>urned. 

A second partial list of tlie parasitic fungi of Vermont, L. R. Jones and 
W. A. Okton ( Vermont Sla. Rpt. 1899, pp. 164-182). — In continuation of the previous 
list noted in E. S. R., 11, p. 356, the authors give corrections of the first Hst, addi- 
tional hosts for species there reported, and additional species not listed, together 
with the host plants bearing the fungi. 

Plant diseases in Denmark during 1898, E. Rostrup {Tidsskr. Landhr. 
Phndeavl, 6 {1900), pp. 38-56). 

Cereal rusts with special reference to wheat rusts, G. Linhart {Kiserlet. 
Kozlem., 3 {1900), No. 2, ppi. 140-163, pi. 1, figs. 13). 

Potato scab {Bui. Bot. Dept. Jamaica, n. ser., 7 {1900), No. 6, pp. 87-93). — Notes 
the occurrence of this disease in Jamaica and quotes extensively from bulletins of the 
Rhode Island Station (E. S. R., 5, p. 590; 7, p. 782; 8, p. 798). 

Diseases of beets and beet seed, G. Linhart {Kiserlet. Kozlem,., 3 {1900), No. 3, 
pp. 177-204). 

Diseases of sugar cane {Rev. Agr. Reunion, 6 {1900), No. 1, jyp. 6-11). — Descrip- 
tions are given of a number of diseases of cane due to various causes such as Trico- 
spthccria sacchari. Bacillus vascularum, Ustilago sacchari, Cercospora vaginse, Dioranotropis 
rastdtrix, Collectotrichum pdraium, etc. 

A stem disease of wheat, B. Frank {Deut. Landw. Presse, 27 {1900), N'o. 53, p. 
675, pi. 1) . — Descriptive notes are given on Ophioholus lierpotrichus, a fungus that has 
been of serious injury to wheat in a number of German provinces. 

Asparagus rust, J. Stapp {Amer. Gard., 21 {1900), No. 295, p. .550). — Notes the 
occurrence of asparagus rust in Illinois. 

Notes on a cantaloupe disease, C. S. Crandall ( CotoracZo Sta. Rpt. 1899, p. 36). — 
A brief note is given on a cantaloupe disease at Eockyford, where it is said to have 
done much damage in the season of 1899. A grower is reported to have sprayed 
small areas with Bordeaux mixture with excellent results. 

Cucumber troubles, B. T. Galloway {Amer. Florist, 15 {1900), No. 627, p. 1382). — 
Gives an account of nematodes in cucumber roots and recommends steam steriliza- 
tion of the soil in the house where the plants were growti as a means of relief. 

A disease of cucumber plants, W. G. Smith {Gard. Chron., 3. ser., 27 {1900), 
No. 697, p. 274)- — Describes the damping off of cucumbers which is due to Pythium 
debaryanum. This disease was particularly abundant in greenhouses during the past 
season. The author thinks its unusual occurrence was due to the cold spring, which 



262 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

caused longer heating of the houses than usual and less frequent ventilation. As 
preventive measures he suggests more thorough ventilation and treating the soil 
with a small quantity of iron or copper sulphate. 

Damping off of young cucumbers, E. Jexkixs {Gard. Chron., 3. ser., 27 {1900), 
No. 700, pp. 324, 325). — The author agrees with a previous writer that lack of venti- 
lation is a cause of the destructive occurrence of the fungus which causes this disease 
in forcing houses. 

Some diseases of orchard fruits {Deut. Landw. Presse, 27 {1000), No. .57, pp. 
720, 721, fig. 1). — Notes are given on apple scab due to YentnrUi inxqunlln and Fum- 
cladium doidrltirvm, and j^ear seal) caused bj' F. pyrinum. 

Some observations on apple-tree anthracnose, A. B. Cordley {Bot. Gaz., 30 
{1900), No. 1, ])p. 48-58, figs. 12). — Notes are given on the life history of Glceosporium 
malicorticis, the fungus which is said to be the cause of apple-tree anthracnose in 
Oregon (E. S. R., 12, p. 58). 

The European apple canker in America, W. Paddock {Science, n. ser., 12 
{1900), No. 295, pp. 297-299, fig. l). — Specimens of diseased ajiple twigs have been 
received by the author from Nova Scotia and also from Cortland County, New York, 
which have been determined by Dr. R. Hartig as infected with the European apple- 
tree canker {Nectria ditissima). It is thought that this is the first record of the dis- 
ease in America. 

A gooseberry and currant disease, G. Massee {Gard. Chron., 3. ser., 27 {1900), 
No. 698, p. 290, fig. 1). — This disease which is due to Ploicrightia ribesia is said to 
have been rather abundant on gooseberries and currants, where it forms large, wart- 
like, black bodies, which burst transversly through the bark. A number of success- 
ful inoculation experiments were conducted by the author W'hich showed that the 
organism is one of the wound fungi. As infested branches are invarial)ly killed by 
it, it is suggested that they should be removed and burned on the first appearance 
of the disease. 

The treatment of mildew and the preparation of copper fungicides, L. 
DEciRULLY {Prog. Agr. rf Vit. {Ed. UEst), 21 {1900), No. 19, pp. 549-557, fig.^. 2).— 
Suggestions are given for treating grapes for mildew and formulas and directions for 
making a number of the more efficient fungicides. 

Winter treatment against grape mildew, L. Degrully {Prog. Agr. et Vit. 
{Ed. L'Esf), 21 {1900), No. 12, pp. 347, 348). — The proper time for combating mil- 
dew is in the spring and sununer, winter treatments not giving results commensurate 
with their cost and labor. Bordeaux mixture. Burgundy mixture, and verdigris are 
recommended as the fungicides best adapted to the prevention of grape mildew. 

Treatment of grape mildew, J. Artigala {Messager Agr., 5. ser., 1 {1900), No. 6, 
pp. 218-223). — Formulas anil directions for application are given for a number of 
fungicides, among them Bordeaux mixture, Burgundy mixture, ammoniacal copper 
carbonate, verdigris, neutral copper acetate, copper sulphate, corrosive sublimate, 
potassivmi permanganate, cadmium sulphate, and solutions containing sugar, resin, etc. 

Potassium permanganate for combating grape mildew, C. Trichot {Prog. 
Agr. et Vit. {Ed. UEst), 21 {1900), No. 11, p. 320).— ^otes the successful use of this 
fungicide against mildew, etc., of the grape. 

Coulure of grapes, L. Ravaz {Zfessager Agr., 5. ser., 1 {1900), No. 5, pp. 168-171). — 
Under this name the author describes a disease of grapes that seems to be prob- 
ably identical with that described by Lodeman (E. S. R., 6, p. 732) under the name 
"shelling" or "rattling" of grapes. 

The rusts of florists' plants, B. D. Halsted {Amer. Florist, 15 {1900), No. 623, 
p. 1268). — I'riefiy describes the rusts of liollyhocks, carnations, and chrysanthemums. 

A natural check for carnation rust, F. H. Bi.odgett {Amer. Flori.st, 15 {1900), 
No. 623, p. 1268, figs. 2). — Gives brief poi)ahu- notes on the parasite {Darluca filum) of 
carnation rust. 



ENTOMOLOGY. 263 

Fairy ring of carnations {Jour. Hort, 52 {1900), No. 2683, jx 1S8).— Notes the 
occurrence of Heterosporium echinulatum on leaves of carnations and recommends 
spraying or sponging diseased plants with a solution of potassium permanganate. 

The clematis disease, J. Jensen {Amer. Florist, 15 {1900), No. 625, pp. 1349, 
1350). — A disease caused by nematodes, and methods of prevention. 

Diseased iris leaves and roots {Jour. Hort., 52 {1900), No. 2700, p. 559). — Notes 
the occurrence on iris of a fungus similar to if not identical with Botrytis galanthina. 
The leaves are first attacked, later the roots, the plant not surviving the injury. 
Rotation and fertilization are recommended as remedial treatments. Removing 
diseased parts of plants and dusting with powdered copper sulphate are also advised. 

Diseases of the rose, B. D. Halsted {Florists' Exchange, 12 {1900), No. 13, pp. 
333, 334, fig. 1; also Amer. Florist, 15 {1900), No. 617, pp. 1033-1037).— In a paper 
read before the American Rose Society, March 28, 1900, the author describes a num- 
ber of the more common diseases of the rose and suggests methods for treatment. 
The diseases described are nematodes, black sjiot, rose-leaf blight, rose mildew, 
downy mildew, rose rust, rose anthracnose, leaf spot, black speck, and bronzing. 

Diseased violets {Jour. Hort., 52 {1900), No. 2683, p. 188).— 'Meniions attack 
of Peronospora violx on violets. Recommends better ventilation and sprmkling 
powdered lime over diseased plants. 

Liquid and powder fung'icides, P. Carles {Messager Agr., 5. ser., 1 {1900), 
No. 7, pp. 260-263). — Formulas and directions are given for the preparation of Bor- 
deaux mixture of different strengths. Burgundy mixture, and a powder which con- 
sists of 750 gm. basic copper acetate and 1,250 gm. of pulverized plaster. 

Spraying- of fungicides, E. Bringuier {Messager Agr., 5. ser., 1 {1900), No. 5, 
pp. 171-174). — A critical statement on the preparation and application of fungicides. 

A cyclone spray pump {Queensland Agr. Jour., 6 {1900) , No. 5, p. 381, fig. 1). — 
A cheap form of spray pump is figured and described. 



ENTOMOLOGY. 

Report of the State entomologist, E. P. Felt {Bui. N'evj York 
State Mus., 6 {1900), No. 31, p^. 531-653).— Th^ report contains a 
general discussion of the work of the entomologist for the year in the 
field, oflice, and laborator}^ Brief notes are given on the biological 
and economic relations of the following insects: Raspberry sawfly, 
locust borer, elm-leaf beetle, asparagus beetles, antiopa butterfly, 
forest tent caterpillar, and the seventeen-year cicada. 

Experiments were conducted with arsenical poisons as treatment for 
the attacks of the elm-leaf beetle. Twigs of the English elm were 
placed in small water bottles which were kept in experiment cages. 
The leaves were sprayed by means of an atomizer with different 
arsenicals. The results obtained from these experiments indicate that 
arsenate of lead is slow in its action, but experiments conducted in the 
field indicate that when the application is thorough it is a very effective 
insecticide. Paris green, London purple, Paragrene, and lead arse- 
nate were the arsenicals used in these experiments. An experiment 
upon nearly full-grown forest tent caterpillars demonstrated that this 
insect could be controlled by arsenical applications and that arsenate 
of lead was an effective spray for this purpose. 



264 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

A detailed report is made on the volunteer entomological service of 
the State. The volunteer observers now number -iS and are located 
in 39 counties. A summarj^ is given of the rejwrt from each observer. 
The author gives a list of 82 insects, specimens of which have been 
exhibited at farmers' institutes and similar gatherings for the purpose 
of giving instruction in the economic relationships of insects. A list 
is given of newspaper articles and other pul)lications of the entomol- 
ogist for the year. 

Thirtieth annual report of the Entomological Society of Ontario, 
1899 {Bj>t. Ontario Ent. Soc. 1899, j}j}. 127, pis. 2, figs. 66').— This 
report contains the proceedings of the thirty-sixth annual meeting of 
the Entomological Society of Ontario, held in Loudon, October 11 and 
12, 1899, and the proceedings of the first annual meeting of the North- 
west Entomological Society, held at Lacombe, Alberta, Northwest 
Territories, November 7, 1899. 

A conference was held on the San Jose scale, during which W. 
Lochhead presented a paper on the economic aspect of the San Jose 
scale and its allies. A general discussion followed this paper. 

The annual address of the president of the Entomological Society 
of Ontario contained suggestions regarding the organization of an 
entomologists' union, notes on the milkweed butterll}^ and other 
insects. 

F. M. Webster presented a popular history of the past century of 
American entomology, and briefly discussed the subject of the native 
home of the San Jose scale (pp. 65, 56). The same author gave a brief 
note on the larval habits of Uranotes melintts. 

W. Lochhead presented notes on some insects found on coniferous 
shade trees. These notes covered the subjects of the economic impor- 
tance, life history, and habits of Chermes aMetis and Lygceonematiis 
erichsonii. The attraction of electric light for moths was discussed by 
A. Gibson. It was noted that the male insects were attracted in much 
greater numbers than the females. 

A paper on the injurious insects of the orchard, garden, and farm 
for the season of 1899 was read by W. Lochhead. This paper con- 
tained a discussion of the history and life habits of the codling moth, 
bud moth, tent caterpillars, several species of scale insects, Colorado 
potato beetle, squash bug, cabbage Avorm, cal)bage aphis, grapevine 
leaf hopper, wheat-stem maggot, clover-root borer, etc. 

C. J. S. Bethune reported a case of fatal bite from Sinea diadema. 
Brief notes were given by J. A. Moffat upon some Cuban insects — 
PoUstes lineata, Chloridea viresceru, etc. The same author discussed 
the wing structure of the milkweed butterfly. 

A paper on Nature-study lessons upon the cabbage butterfly was 
read by W. Lochhead. T. W. Fjdes gave an account of the structure, 
habits, and classification of spiders. Under the title "Notes on insects 



ENTOMOLOGY. 265 

of the 3'ear," W. H. Harrington gave brief accounts of the grain aphis, 
cabbage butterfly, pea weevil, currant aphis, tent caterpillars, etc. 

J. D. Evans presented a brief note on the tent caterpillars, and A. 
Gibson gave a short account of the tussock moth, onion maggot, red 
spider, and Rhopalo8i2)hum violce. J. A. Mofl'at discussed the milk- 
weed butterfl}^ and other insects. C. J. S. Bethune presented a brief 
account of the tent caterpillars, squash bug, etc. T. W. Fyles gave an 
account of the tent caterpillars, milkweed butterfly, JIarpiphoru.s tar- 
satus, Tenebrioides viauritanicus^ Metzneria la/ppella^ etc. 

J. Fletcher gave an account of the appearance and destructiveness 
of a number of injurious insects, among which may T)e mentioned the 
asparagus beetle, scale insects, the destructive pea louse, black violet 
aphis, etc. C. J. S. Bethune reported some observations on the bumble- 
bee's nest. 

The proceedings of the flrst annual meeting of the Northwest Ento- 
mological Society include a report of the council, the president's 
address, and other brief notes. 

Report of the entomological section, C. P. Gillette {Colorado 
Sta. Rjpt. 1899,2)]). 37-1^,1). — Observations made upon the codling moth 
indicate that the insect is completely two-brooded, with no evidence 
of a third brood. Good results were obtained in lighting it Iw banding 
the trees. Kerosene emulsion was found to be practically valueless 
against the codling moth. 

In making a stud}^ of the grasshoppers of the State it was found that 
the 2 species most concerned in injuries to cultivated crops were 
Mela7i02)lushivittatus and 3f. differentially. Not a single specimen of 
the Rocky Mountain locust has been seen in the State for the past 9 
years. The beet army worm {Lajjliygnia jiawhnaculata) caused severe 
losses to the sugar-beet industry, 200 or 300 acres of beets being com- 
pletely ruined by the attacks of this insect in the caterpillar stage. 
Field experiments demonstrated that the ordinary arsenical poisons 
are quite effective against it. The ash borer [Podosesia syringce) is 
reported as rapidly increasing in numbers and as having killed many 
ash trees. Experiments conducted with arsenical mixtures indicate 
that Green Arsenoid and Pink Arsenoid are rather effective, while 
White Arsenoid was too injurious to the foliage. 

Experiments have been conducted in the apiary for the purpose of 
determining the best form of foundation for comb honey and the best 
method of using the foundation in a section. 

A ne^v sugar-beet pest and other insects attacking the beet, 
R. W. DoANE {WasJiitigton Sta. Bui. Ji.'S^pj). IJ^.., jigs. 5). — Since Octo- 
ber, 1896, the author has made oljservations on a new beet aphis {Pem- 
phigus hetce) which was found, upon investigation, pretty generally 
distributed in the beet fields of the State. 

The author gives a technical description of the species. The body 



266 EXPEEIMENT STATION RECORD. 

of the insect, including the legs and antenna, is said to be covered 
with a white flocculent powder. Late in the season winged forms 
appear. The native food plants of the insect appear to be Achillea 
lanulosa and Polycjonuin aviculare. The insect passes the winter in 
the soil on or near the roots of the food plants. No males have been 
discovered in this species. 

A wet spring followed by an early dry summer seems to be espe- 
cialh^ favorable to the multiplication of this insect. The prevalence 
of the beet aphis seems not to be conditioned bv the character of the 
soil. No direct remedies are suggested. In the line of prevention the 
author recommends that beets should not be planted on new soil, since 
the native plants growing on such soils might be alread}^ infested. It 
is urged further that beets should not be grown for manj^ seasons in 
succession upon the same ground. 

Brief notes are given on the habits and life history of and remedies 
against Psylliodes punctulata and Carneades mesmrla. 

Notes on a nevr sugar-beet pest -with a description of the spe- 
cies, R. AV. DoANE {Eat. Xtim, 11 (1000), ^^o. S, pp. 390, 391).— A. 
species of plant louse is described as new under the name Pemphigus 
hetce. The ordinary host plants of this species are Polygonum avicu- 
lare and Achillea millefolium. The insect lives upon the roots of 
these plants and is recognized b}^ the flocculent secretion upon its 
body. Recently this species has attacked sugar beets and is becoming 
an insect of considerable economic importance. During the winter 
months the colonies of this insect consist of individuals in all stages of 
development. These colonies grow rapidh' during April and May. 
During the summer, winged forms appear and increase in number 
until about the middle of November. They leave the plant and fly 
for considerable distances in search of new host plants. A technical 
description of the insect is added. 

The grass thrips, W. E. Hinds {Massachusetts Agr. Col. Rpt. 1899, 
pp. 83-97, y>/.y. 4)- — The author made a study of an outbreak of the 
grass thrips which occurred in ]\Iassachusetts. The species was con- 
sidered to be Anaphothrips striata. For the purpose of studying this 
species, specimens were brought into the laboratory and kept, in large- 
mouthed bottles, upon the stems of silver-topped June grass, which 
seemed to be the food plant preferred by them. It was observed that 
the females deposit their eggs in the fresh and tender portions of the 
leaf tissue. Oviposition takes place at night as well as in the daytime. 
The females which have passed the winter begin laying eggs very soon 
after the beginning of growth in the grass. The process of ^^^ laying 
continues for 4 or 5 weeks and the number of eggs laid by a single 
insect in confinement averages about 50 to 60. The eggs of these 
hibernated females hatch in from 10 to 15 days, but during the summer 
generations the eggs hatch in from 4 to 7 days. The mature larvae 



ENTOMOLOGY. 267 

r 

select secluded places for pupation, either within the sheaths of the 
upper leaves or in the sheaths of leaves at the base of the stem. The 
dui-ation of the pupal stage in the first generation is from 6 to 8 days. 
The various stages of the insect are described in a technical manner. 
Two forms of adult females are to be observed, one with wings and 
the other with only short wing pads. 

About 08 per cent of the hiljernating adults are wingless and from 
90 to 95 per cent of the first spring generation develop wings. The 
females deposit eggs and young larvffi are to be found on the grass 
until winter, but only adults survive the winter. Specimens survived 
after being exposed to a temperature of 21° F. below zero. The 
laboratory work indicates that there are 8 or 9 generations per year, the 
length of the life cycle varying from 30 da3's for the first generation 
to 12 da3^s during hot weather. No males were found, and it is believed 
that the species is parthenogenetic. 

The adult insects feed upon the leaves of grass and are seldom found 
within the sheaths. The larvee, on the other hand, seek more pro- 
tected places for feeding. The greatest damage is done b}' this insect 
to June grass {^Poa fratenslii)^ timothy, and barnyard grass, but a con- 
siderable variety of other grasses are attacked. The females hibernate 
above ground and it is, therefore, suggested that burning in earl}'' 
spring would destroy great numbers of them. It was also observed 
that the injury from this insect was most severe on worn-out meadows 
and on fields that had been seeded for many years and had become 
partly exhausted. The author recommends, therefore, the application 
of fertilizers and deep plowing of old fields, to be followed with a 
cultivated crop for at least one year l)efore reseeding. 

Codling moth ; a -wasp that destroys the apple -worni, U. P. 
Hkdrick {[JtaJt, Sta. Bui. 6'^, pp. 31-1^2, fiqx. 7). — The author's experi- 
ments in spraying for the codling moth have led to the conclusion that 
in Utah 1 sprayings are advisable for summer apples and (3 for winter 
apples, and that white arsenic is more effective than Paris green even 
when the latter is unadulterated. 

The solution used in these experiments was made as follows: White 
arsenic 1 lb., unslacked lime 2 lbs., water 3 gal., the mixture to be 
diluted in 200 gal. of water. The applications were made on the fol-. 
lowing dates: June 6, June 21-22, July 11-12, July 24-25, August 
13-14:, and a sixth spraying during the first week of September. The 
cost of the applications was about 25 cts. per tree. A table is given 
showing the number of trees of each variety sprayed and the number 
of wormy and sound apples gathered from these trees. The experi- 
ments were conducted upon 20 varieties of apples. 

The author made observations upon a digger wasp i^Ainniophila 
prunosa) which was observed preying upon the codling moth in an 
orchard near Logan. The wasps occupied 2 areas of about 4 and 1 sq. 



268 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

rod extent, respectirel3\ On August 20, 1898, the wasps were seen 
eating the cabbage worm and also the codling moth. The apple trees 
were loaded with fruit and were almost free from the codling moth, 
which was considered remarkable in view of the fact that apples in 
that region are usually badly infested. The owner had never been 
under the necessity of spra\nng these trees. The author collected a 
few larvae of the codling moth and scattered them near the })urrows of 
the wasps, and the}^ were greedily seized upon by the latter. As a rule, 
the wasps cover the opening of their burrows upon leaving them. In 
an area 18 in. square 39 closed burrows were found with a depth of 
from 4 to 8 in. and a diameter of i in. The burrows were for the most 
part un branched, and at the terminus was to be found sometimes a sin- 
gle cocoon and at other times from 1 to .3 larvae of the codling moth. 
The author describes the method by which the larva of the wasp feed 
upon the codling moth. 

The apple plant louse, J. B. Smith {New Jersey Stm. Bui. lJf3, j)I>- 
^3., Jigs. S2). — From observations made by the author during the past 
3 years, it is concluded that the apple plant louse upon apple trees in 
New Jerse}" has no alternate food plant and, therefore, no "'migrant" 
or "return migrant" forms. The species is Ajyhls mail, and ma}' be 
distinct from the one which has been described by other authors as 
migrating from the apple tree to other food plants. On November 1, 
1898, the author began observations upon a tree which was badly 
infested with this species. At this date many eggs had already been 
laid, and it was observed that both sexes of the insect were wingless. 
When the plant lice began to develop in the spring of 1899, daily 
observations were made for a time and specimens were collected at 
frequent intervals during the season. 

The author reports in detail his observations upon the appearance 
and habits of the various generations which occur during a season, 
noting the anatomical characters by which the different generations 
ma}^ be distinguished. The life history of the apple plant louse, as 
observed by the author, may be summarized as follows : The species 
hatches from the egg as soon as buds develop in earliest spring. The ' 
stem-mother becomes mature and begins to reproduce about 15 days 
later. After another period of 9 or 10 days the second generation 
becomes mature, and it was observed that about three-fourths of this 
generation were winged. Two weeks later the third generation becomes 
developed, and about one-half of the individuals of this generation are 
winged. During the whole year there are 7 generations of partheno- 
genetic females, ])ut no winged individuals are to ])e found except in 
the second and third generations. The winged forms leave the trees 
upon which they have developed, fly to other apple trees, and in this 
way bring al)out the wide distribution of this species. The individuals 
which fly from one tree to another arc not to be regarded as repre- 



ENTOMOLOGY. 269 

senting the mignint forms, since there is no migration from the apple 
tree to other food plants. Sexed individuals appear in October, egg 
laying begins about the tenth of the month and continues mitil the 
latter part of No\eml)er or first part of December. 

Among the natural enemies of this insect observed by the author 
may l)e mentioned the following: Ladybirds, S3a'phus flies, lacewings, 
parasitic H^mienoptera and Diptera, and a fungus disease. As artifi- 
cial remedies against the apple plant louse the author recommends 
spraying with the following insecticides: Kerosene emulsion mixed 
with 12 parts of water; a 5 per cent mechanical mixture of kerosene 
with water; fish-oil soap at the rate of 1 1)). in 6 gal. of water, or a 
tobacco decoction in a strength equal to an extract of 1 lb. of tobacco 
in 2 gal. of water. The insects are most vulnerable soon after hatch- 
ing from the eggs, and the author recommends at this time a treatment 
with tobacco soap made by adding tobacco to a potash soap. Tobacco 
combined with fish-oil soap also gave satisfactory^ results. If the trees 
should become badly infested in summer, they ma}" be sprayed with a 
strong solution of any of these substances late in September or during 
the first part of October. 

Since the distriljution of the insect is largely accomplished in the egg 
state on nurser}" stock, it is recommended that such stock be fumigated 
with h3^drocyanic-acid gas before being sent out. 

The forest caterpillar, G. H. Perkins {Vermont Sta. Bnl. IG^jrp. 
111-137^ Jjgx. LI). — The ravages of the forest tent caterpillar began to 
attract attention in Vermont in 1895. Serious outbreaks also occurred 
in 1896, 1898, and 1899. The author states that in many localities the 
damage of maple trees was not entirely due to the forest tent cater- 
pillar, but that Plagionotus speciosics and the fall cankerworm com- 
mitted serious depredations. It is stated that the forest tent cater- 
pillars were so numerous in Montpelierthat one man was able to col- 
lect 10 bu. of the caterpillars in 2 weeks' time. The author gives a 
description of the insect in its various stages, together with notes on 
its feeding habits and life history. Quotations are also given from 
letters of correspondents which show the great ravages committed by 
this insect upon shade trees and sugar maples, the damage to the latter 
being so severe that the customary amount of maple sugar will proba- 
bly not be produced in Vermont for several years to come. Brief 
notes are given on the bird and insect enemies of the forest tent cater- 
pillar. Of several hundred caterpillars collected in Addison County 
only one-third developed moths, the remainder being destroyed by 
Plmpla conquisitor. In another lot of 200 cocoons hatched in the 
laborator}", onl}" 30 produced moths. A disease, apparently of bac- 
terial origin, has also been observed among caterpillars. 

Notes are given on the most approved methods of destroying the 
eggs, spraying, banding the trees, destruction of cocoons, and capture 
of moths. 



270 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

Caterpillar plague, II. Tkyon {Qaeendavd A<jr. Joar.,G {1900), No. 
2, i)p. 135-lJf7,pls. S^Jig. 1). — This article contains a general discus- 
sion of Leucania unipuncta, including an account of its food plants, a 
description of the insect in its various stages, notes on its habits, life 
history, distribution, and prevalence in Queensland. Among the 
insect parasites of this species the following may be mentioned: The- 
ronia rvfipes, Exephanes leucaniae, Linnaemyia nigripal^nis, Pa?iiscu.s 
product us, and Apanteles rujicrus. The iirst 3 species are described 
as new and are said to be of considerable economic importance. Calo- 
soina aust'ralk is one of the more important of the predaceous insect 
enemies of Leucania. The following birds are reported as being- 
effective in the destruction of the army worm: Dacelo glgaSyStrepera 
gracuUna, Corvus australis, etc. The usual artificial remedies for the 
army worm are described and recommended. 

Plague locusts, W. W. Fkoggatt {Agr. Gas. New South Wales, 11 
{1900), No. 3, p>p. 175-183, pjl. 1). — A locust plague of considerable 
importance visited parts of Australia during the season of 1899, the 
species concerned being Ejxicromia terminalis. The author made a 
number of observations upon the numbers and habits of this species. 
The eggs were deposited in open red soil. It was observed that the 
number of males was far larger than that of females, there being al)out 
40 of the former to one of the latter. A numljcr of female locusts 
were examined for the purpose of determining the number of eggs, 
and 19 eggs were found in each locust examined. The locusts caused 
considerable damage to young grass and wheat. A description is 
given of the male and female of this species. The author recommends 
burning over the ground in order to destro}' the j^oung locusts soon 
after hatching. The leaves of the common garden larkspur and of the 
castor-oil plant were observed to be poisonous to the locusts. Locusts 
which ate the leaves and flowers of the larkspur died very (juickl3\ 
A number of experiments were tried in spreading the African locust 
fungus among the locusts, but these experiments were begun too late 
in the season to be most effective, as the locusts had already acquired 
the power of flight. 

Orchard technique : IV, Spraying the orchard, W. B. Alwood 
{Virginia Sta. Bui. 100, pp. Sl-lOJf, figs. 10). — The author gives 
details with regard to the spraying done in 1899 in an old neglected 
orchard which came under the care of the station. The first spraying- 
was done March 17 with a solution of bluestone, the second April 28 
with Bordeaux mixture, and the third May 12 with Bordeaux mixture 
to which was added 8 oz. of green arsenite to 50 gal. of Bordeaux. 
The total expense of these 3 applications was about 16.2 cts. per tree. 

Three sprayings were carried out on a young orchard, ]\Iarch 13, 
April 20, and May 16-17. The first application was a weak solution 
of bluestone, the second bluestone, and the third green arsenite. The 



ENTOMOLOGY. 271 

total cost of the 3 applications amounted to 3.8 cts. per tree. The 
application of Bordeaux mixture and green arsenite is made for the 
purpose of checking- apple scab, orange rust, leaf curl of peach, and 
destroying the tent caterpillar, ])ud moth, cankerworm, and curculio. 
A second application of the Bordeaux mixture and arsenical poison is 
made for the same purpose and for the additional purpose of destroy- 
ing the codling moth. Figures are given showing the proper stages 
of the leaf, buds, and young fruit of the apple at which the various 
applications should be made. The author recommends a winter appli- 
cation of a weak solution of lye to trees for the purpose of ridding the 
trees of lichens, destrojang hibernating forms of insects, and as a 
fungicide treatment for apple scab and brown rot. Such treat- 
ment is given at any time during the dormant period of the trees. 
Experiments in the winter treatment of the San Jose scale indicated 
that pure kerosene with a flash test of 120 to 150° is the cheapest 
and surest winter wash. The author gives brief notes by way of 
description of methods of making some of the common fungicides and 
insecticides together with a short account of the lire blight of pear. 

Report of tlie entomologist, C. H. Fernald {Massachusetts Hatch Sta. Rpt. 1899, 
pp. 98-102'). — The San Jose scale is reported in 30 localities within the State. The 
entomological department has been authorized to inspect nurseries upon request by 
the owners. Brief notes are given on PJii/tonomus nigrirostis, gypsy moth, and 
brown-tail moth. It is stated that F. J. Smith, of the Gypsy Moth Commission, has 
determined the composition of Eaupenleim, so that this substance may now be man- 
ufactured in the United States. 

Report on economic entomology for the year 1899, G. H. Carpextkr {Bpt. 
Council Roy. Dublin Soc, 1899, jyp- 15, figs. 16). — The autlior presents biological and 
economic notes on a number of farm and garden insect pests, including, among others,* 
crane flies, death's-head moth, Smerinthus ocellatus, Otiorrhynchus sulcatus, Tyroglyphus 
longior, and Hippohosca equina. 

Report of tlie Svredish state entomological station for 1899, S. Lampa 
{Meddel. K. Landthr. Styr., 1900, No. 65, pp. 48). 

Common diseases and insects injurious to fruits, S. A. Beach, V. H. Lowe, 
and F. C. Stewart {New York State Sta. Bid. 170, pp. 381-445). 

"The purpose of this bulletin is to furnish the fruit grower with a concise account 
of the common diseases and insects most injurious to cultivated fruits in New York 
State and to present ui)-to-date directions for fighting them most efiiciently and 
economically. . . . The various fruits are taken up in alphabetical order and under 
each one the diseases are first considered, then the insects. In the consideration of 
each particular disease or insect, it is the general plan of the bulletin to give first 
one or more descriptive paragraphs setting forth its general appearance, the chief 
features of its life history, and its economic importance. Then follows a statement 
of the remedial or preventive treatment which is recommended or suggested by the 
authors. Where nothing can be positively recommended, suggestions are made, 
pointing out what appears to be the most promising line of treatment." 

The usefulness of the bulletin is much increased by the addition of an index of 
the fruits, diseases, and common and scientific names of insects and fmigi. 

Plant diseases and insect pests, C. P. Close ( Vtah Sta. Bid. 65, pp. 57-97, pis. 
6, figs. 5). — This is a popular bulletin containing brief notes on approved methods of 



272 EXPEKIMENT STATION KECOKD. 

making insecticides and fungicides, and a brief account of some of the more common 
fungus and insect enemies of fruit trees. 

Insects injurious to forest trees, E. P. Felt {Rpt. New York Com. Fisheries, 
Game, and Forests, 1898, pp. 31, ])ls. 3, figs. 11). — The author gives a brief general 
account of the habits and metamorphoses of insects. Special consideration is given 
to the forest tent caterpillar, the leopard moth, Sesia acerni, Plagionoius speciosus, 
Elaphidion villosum, and Pulvinaria innumerabilis. In connection with each one of 
these insects, the author discusses its life history, food plants, natural enemies, and 
the appi'oved remedies for combating it. 

The significance of the terms phagocytosis and lyocytosis, J. Anglas 
{Compt. Rend. Soc. Biol. Paris, 52 {1900), No. 9, pp. 219-221).~li\ a study of the 
metamorphosis of Hymenoptera, especially of the genera Vespa and Apis, the author 
states that the disappearance of the larval organs or of the larval reserve food mate- 
rials does not take place by phagocytosis, but that the process is better described as 
a chemical degeneration and dissolution produced by the extracellular digestive 
action of leucocytes and of other cells. This process is called lyocytosis by the 
author. 

Bot flies, gadflies, and breeze flies, J. G. O. Teppee {Jour. Agr. and Ind. South 
Australia, 8 {1900), No. 7, pp. 564-566). — Notes on the life history and habits of spe- 
cies of Talsanus, Oestrus, Hypoderma, and Gastrophilus. 

The food of certain caterpillars of the Bombycidae, L. Demaison {Bui. Soc. 
Ent. France, 1900, No. 2, pp. 22, 23). — Notes on the feeding habits of Bomhyx quer- 
ciis, Megasoma repandum, Orgyia antiqua, etc. 

Combating Anthonomus pomorum {Hcssische Landic. Ztschr., 70 {1900), No: 11, 
p. 142). — Experiments were tried in scraping the loose bark from 12 apple trees and 
painting on a band of axle grease. The bands were painted on the trees on January 
17 and were inspected 14 times between that date and May 10. In all, 625 beetles 
were caught, with an average of 52 to the tree. It was observed that the insect was 
most plentiful in the period from the end of March to the end of April. 

A contribution to the life history of Cartharia pyrenaealis, T. A. Chapman 
{Ent. Mu. Mag., 36 {1900), No. 431, pp. 75-78). 

A new gall gnat of the grapevine ( Clinodiplosis vitis), G. LtJSTXER {Ent. 
Nachr., 26 {1900), No. 6, pp. 81-84, pi- 1) ■ — The insect appears to be double brooded, 
the larvse of the first generation being found in June and July and those of the sec- 
ond generation in August and September. The larvae are found on the under side 
of the leaves and in the berries during the summer, and half-grown individuals 
were found in winter among the hairs of the leaf buds. Adults were seen from the 
beginning of September until November. Brief descriptions are given of the insect 
in its vari(jus stages. The eggs were found on brown spots of the leaves. 

Galls on the leaves of Jambosa domestica, L. Zehntner {Indische Natuur, 1 
{1900), No. 1, pp. 3-11, figs. 3). — The author describes the appearance and structure 
of galls produced chiefly on the under side of the leav^es of this tree by an insect 
belonging to the Psyllidte. The insect is described and figured in its various stages. 
As reme<lies, the author suggests the removal and destruction of infested leaves. 

Lasius fuliginosus and its habits of rearing fungi, G. Lagerheim {Ent. 
Tidskr., 21 {1.900), No. l,pp. 17-29, figs. 7).— The author made a detailed study upon 
the nature of a fungus found in the burrows of this species of ant. The fungus 
should ai)parently be referred to Cladotrichum microsporum. According to the 
author's observations, the fungus may be of only slight importance as a source of 
nutriment for the ants, but its luxuriant growth through all the chambers of the ant 
colony may assist in preventing the crumbling of the walls of these burrows. 

The author believes that the presence of the fungus in the ant burrows is due to 
the deliberate care which the ants bestow upon the fungus and not to the inability 
of the ants to keep tlie f migus out. 



FOODS ANIMAL PEODUCTION. 



273 



liife history of Margarodes flegia, H. G. Dyar {Canad. Ent., 32 {1900), No. 4, 
pp. 117,118). — The author gives descriptions of the different larval stages of this 
insect, which is reported as injurious to TJteretia neriifolia at Key West, Fla. 

The fight against the Nun (Ocneria dispar L.), Y. Sjostedt {Meddel. K. 
Landthr. Sii/r., 1900, Xo. GO, pp. 'J9). 

A parasitic organism in the intestine of Olocrates gibbus, L. Leger ( Compt. 
Rend. Soc. Biol. Pari.% 52 (1900), No. 11, pp. 261-268).— in the intestine of this 
beetle the author found a parasitic fungus to which the name Rhaphidospora is 
given. This parasite attacks epithelial cells of the intestinal wall. Its systematic 
position was not determined by the author. 

The development of the wing in the Lepidoptera, W. F. Mercer {Jour. New 
York Ent. Soc, 8 {1.900), No. 1, pp. 1-20, p)ls. 5) . — Detailed anatomical studies on the 
wing development of Pieris rapse. 

The systematic position of the locust fungus imported from the Cape, 
D. McAlpixe {Af/r. Gaz. New South. Wales, 11 {1900), No. 3, pp. 184-186, pi. 1).— 
After a careful study of this fungus, which has been used with considerable success 
in destroying locusts in South Africa and has also been imported into parts of Aus- 
tralia, the author concludes that his original determination of this species was correct 
and that the fungus should be referred to Mucor racemosm. 

Fumigation of nursery stock, S. A. Beach {New York Stale Sta. Bui. 174, pp. 8, 
Jigs. ^^).— The author gives a general account of the necessary api^aratus and chem- 
icals, and the method to be adopted in applying the treatment by hydrocyanic-acid 
gas to infested plants. A description is also given of a fumigation house which is 
suitable for this purpose. 

Insecticides, C. H. Jones and B. 0. White ( Vermont Sta. Rpt. 1899, pp. 147, 
148). — Analyses are briefly reported of the following substances: Paris green, green 
arsenite. Laurel green, Bug Death, and Herbicide. 



FOODS— ANIMAL PRODUCTION. 

Food products examined, E. F. Ladd {North Dakota Sta. Rpt. 
1899^ pp. 12., 13). — The author reports the composition of ji number 
of samples of foods and feeding stuffs, including wheat breakfast 
food, wheat, flax bolls or hulls, spelt, spelt husks, and beef from a 
3-year-old steer and from a cow 7 years old. The digestibility of the 
samples of beef cooked and uncooked was tested with pepsin solution. 
The results obtained follow: 

Dirjedibilittj of cooked and uncooked beef in pep.sin solution. 



Amount digested. 



In li hours. In 3 hours. In 6 hours. In 18 hours, 



Porterhouse steak from 3-year-old steer 

Leg roast from 3-year-old steer , 

Leg roast from 7-year-old cow 



Porterhouse steak from 3-y ear-old-steer 

Leg roast from 3-year-old steer 

Leg roast from 7-year-old cow 



Per cent. 
89.10 
88.70 
86.90 



Per cent. 
90.60 
91.20 
90.00 



9.5.4 
91.7 
91.6 



94.8 
93.8 
93.2 



Per cent. 

95.50 
94.70 
94.80 



96.3 
95.2 
95.2 



8058— No. 3 6 



274 



EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 



The relative digestibility of several sorts of fat by man : IV. 
On artificial culinary fats and their digestibility as compared 
■with lard, H. Luhrig {Ztschr. Untersuch. NaJir. u. Genussmtl., 3 
{lOOU), jyo. 2, pp. 73-87). — In continuation of work previously 
reported (E. S. R., 11, p. 660) experiments with a health}^ man were 
made on the digestibilit}^ of lard, a commercial lard substitute, and a 
mixture of equal parts of the two, consumed with a mixed diet. The 
tests were of 3 days' duration. The average results follow: ■ 

Digedibility of lard and commercial lard Kuhatitute. 



In daily 
food. 



In daily 
feces. 



Digested. 



Lard eaten mth simple mixed vegetable diet 

Commercial lard substitute eaten with simple mixed vegetable 
diet 

Mixture of lard and commercial lard substitute eaten with sim- 
ple mixed vegetable diet 



Grams. 
102. 72 



102. 77 
102. 72 



Grams. 
5.83 



5.89 
5.46 



Per cent. 
94.33 



94.27 
94.68 



Introducing- corrections for the lecithin of the feces and the total fat 
in the ether extract, which is not saponifiable, the digestibility of the 3 
sorts of fat would be 96.36, 96.09, and 96.47 per cent, respective!}^. 

The author concludes that, although the digestibility of the 3 sorts 
of fat was practically the same, the lard is much to be preferred for 
other reasons. He considers pure lard a satisfactory product, while the 
commercial lard substitute was a mixture of inferior animal fat with 
vegetable oils. 

The feeding value of sorghum as shovrn by chemical analysis, 
R. W. Thatcher {Xelrraska Sta. Bui. 62., pp. ^5-7i?).— Analyses are 
reported of Early Amber sorghum cut (1) when the canes were 2 ft. 
high, (2) when the canes were 4 ft. high with a very few heads appear- 
ing, (3) when headed out, most of the plants being in bloom, and (4) 
after heading, most of the seeds being in the dough stage. The first 
two samples were analyzed immediately after cutting and the last two 
after curing. The composition of the different cuttings follows: 

Composition of sorglmm at different stages of gruwtli. 



Canes 2 ft. high (analyzed 
nncured) 

Canes 4 ft. high (analyzed 
uncured) 

Heading out, most of the 
I>lants in bloom (ana- 
lyzed cured) 

After heading, seeds in 
dough stage (analyzed 
cured) 



Water. 



Per ct. 
87.68 
85.09 



Water-free material. 



Pro- 
tein. 



Per ct. 

10.60 

6.95 

4.66 

3.85 



Perct. 
3.64 
2.48 

2.14 

1.99 



Nitro- 
gen- 
free 
ex- 
tract. 



Re- 
duc- 
ing 
sugars. 



Per ct. 
42.60 
45.47 

53.35 

47.58 



Perct. 

(o) 
11.87 

16.37 

19.06 



Su- 
crose. 



Perct. 
(o) 
.00 

.00 

.00 



Crude 
fiber. 



Per ct. 
28.12 
33.37 

31.62 

38.44 



Ash. 



Per ct. 
15.04 
11.73 

8. IS 

8.19 



Nonal- 
bumi- 
noid 
nitro- 
gen. 



Per ct. 

0.55 

.27 

.16 

.15 



Albu- 
minoid 
nitro- 
gen. 



Pa- ct. 

1. 15 

.84 

.59 

.47 



a Not determined. 



FOODS— ANIMAL PRODUCTION. 275 

On the basis of these analyses the feeding value of sorghum is dis- 
cussed and compared with other crops. 

"The feeding value of sorghum is greatest when the plant is young. As the plant 
matures, the feeding value decreases rapidly. Therefore the crop should be used, 
for pasture, at least, before the seeds form, and for hay at as early a stage as it can Vje 
well cured. Analyses of sorghum when young and of other pasture plants at the 
same stages of growth show that it is somewhat deficient in flesh-forming material, 
containing less than blue grass or Bromus inermis, about the same as timothy, and a 
little more than Indian corn. Analyses of sorghum fodder, in comparison with other 
fodders and hay crops, show it to have a somewhat smaller amount of flesh-forming 
material than most hay crops, and less than corn fodder, but more than straw of the 
small grains. The fondness which live stock evince for this fodder is doubtless due 
to its sweetness." 

The digestibility of American feeding stuffs, W. H. Jordan and 

F. H. Hall ( U. S. Dept. Agr. , Ojfice of Experiment Stations Bui. 77, 
pp). 100). — The value of digestion experiments with farm animals is 
discussed, as well as the methods generally followed and the extent 
of work of this nature at the experiment stations in the United States. 
The results of all such experiments with different farm animals, made 
up to the close of 1898 (378 in number), are summarized in tabular 
form. The material is also arranged to show the maximum, minimum, 
and average coefficients of digestibilit}^ of the principal feeding- 
stuffs. The effect of individual peculiarity and the kind of animal 
upon digestibility is discussed, as well as the influence of the stage of 
growth of the feeding stuff, cooking, drying and curing, ensiling, 
grinding, wetting, quantity fed, and proportion of nutrients. This 
bulletin is designed to take the place of a compilation of a similar 
nature published several years ago (E. S. R., 6, p. 5). 

Feeding young cattle, H. H. Griffin {Colorado Sta. Rpt. 1899, 
2)p. o(J, o7). — A feeding test was made at the Arkansas Valley Sub- 
station with 15 calves 7 to 10, months old. The average weight 
November 18 was 31:2.6 lbs. each. They were fed on alfalfa hay until 
December 1, and were then given a pound of corn chop per head 
daily. This amount was gradually increased until in 2 weeks they 
were fed 3 lbs. per head daily. A few sugar beets were then added 
to the ration. January 1 the calves were divided into 3 lots of 5 each 
and fed corn chop with sugar beets or oats, alfalfa hay being- given 
ad libitum. On an average the calves were fed 178 days. At the 
conclusion of the test they were sold for $1.60 per hundred, deducting 
3 per cent for shrinkage. The financial returns are based on alfalfa 
hay and sugar beets at $3 per ton, chop at 80 cts., corn at 70 cts., and 
oats at $1 per hundredweight. The average daily gain, less shrink- 
age, was 1.19 lbs., and the cost of a pound of gain 3i cts. In the 
author's opinion this test for the production of "baby beef" was 
successful. 

The production and marketing of wool, H. W. Muiniford [Michi- 
gan Sta. Bid. 178, pp>. 59-90, Jigs. 8). — The production of wool in 



276 EXPEEIMENT STATION RECORD. 

Michigan and the best methods of improving- this industry are treated 
of, the discussion being based in part on replies received to questions 
addressed to a number of wool dealers in different parts of the United 
States. Some of the principal deductions follow: 

"Mutton growing with wool as an incidental product will continue to be a profitable 
industry. . . . Breed and feed affect the value of wool from the manufacturer's stand- 
point. Indiscriminate crossing is unprofitable. A sheep poorly nourished can not 
produce a healthy fleece. The manufacturer buys wool on the basis of its true value 
for manufacturing purposes. The grower, the local dealer, the commission man, and 
the scourer should each make an honest effort to satisfy his reasonaljle demands. . . . 

"A small linen, or flax, or hemp twine is best for tying wool. . . . Coarse heavy 
paint marks should be avoided in marking sheep. More and better wool can be 
secured by early shearing. Loose, bulky fleeces sell best in the market. Country 
wool buyers can greatly aid in an effort to bring Michigan wools up to the standard 
by buying wool on its merits. By offering an advance in price for wools properly 
grown and prepared for tiie market, and by discriminating against poorly grown, 
dirty, or poorly tied fleeces. . . . Avoid lime and sulphur as a sheep dip." 

Sheep in the coastal district, G. Valdar {A(/r. Gaz. New South 
Wales, 11 {1900), No. 1, pp. 38-U, pis. 3).— On the basis of trials at 
the College Farm and the testimony of a number of sheep raisers, dif- 
ferent breeds suitable for the coastal region of Mew South Wales are 
suggested. The value of different cereal crops, grasses, leguminous 
crops, rape, and other crucifers for sheep feeding is discussed and a 
feeding experiment at the Hawkesbury Agricultural College briefly 
reported. Thirty Eomney sheep and 8 Shropshire lambs were hurdled 
on i acre of paspalum grass. After this was eaten, they were moved 
to a half -acre plat of white mustard and from this to an acre of rape. 
The test began June 22 and closed August 1. During this time the 
Romney lambs had gained 20i lbs. each and the Shropshires 30 lbs. 
Estimating the gain to be worth 3 cts. per pound, according to the 
author there would be a profit of $25.72 from the If acres on which the 
sheep were pastured. It should also be rcMuembered that the drop- 
pings of the sheep were valuable maiuire and that there was no expense 
in harvesting the crop, and that probably a second and even a third 
crop could ])c ol)taine(l from the rape and mustard, while the paspalum 
is a perennial grass. 

Animal food for poultry, W. P. Wheeler {Neio York State Bvl. 
171, pjj. J4JUI-50G, 2'f' ^)- — i" continuation of previous work (E. S. R., 
11, p. 276), 2 scries of tests are reported with chickens, hens, and 
ducks on the comparative value of vegetable and animal food, the lat- 
ter ration being supplemented in the second test by bone ash. In the 
first series 5 lots of from 23 to 51 chickens 1 week old at the begin- 
ning of the test were fed the ration containing the animal food, which 
was made up of corn meal, animal meal, ground grain, gluten meal, 
etc. Five similar lots were fed the vegetable ration, consisting of 
wheat, barley, oats, and a mixture of several grains and concentrated 



FOODS ANIMAL PRODUCTION. 277 

feeds. In addition all the lots were fed green alfalfa, oyster shells, 
and grit. The composition of the feeding stuffs used in this and the 
following test is reported, as well as the amount of feed consumed, 
the gain in weight, and similar data. A number of chickens were 
removed from the different lots during the test. At the close of the 
test, which covered 8 to 16i weeks, the average weight of the chickens 
fed the ration containing animal food was 2.46 lbs., of those fed the 
vegetable food 1.94 lbs., 23 per cent more food being required per 
pound of gain bj^ the latter. 

The 2 rations wore tested with 2 lots of some 26 Pekin ducks 1 week 
old at the beginning of the test, which covered 10 weeks. After the 
first month the ration fed lot 2 (vegetable food) was changed, as it 
was evident that it "was very deficient in some respect, for before the 
end of the fourth week one-half of all the birds in lot 2 had died." 
For 2 weeks animal meal was added to the feed and then the original 
ration was resumed. Only 1 duck died after the change. At the 
close of the test the average weight of the ducklings fed animal meal 
throughout the test was 5.9 lbs., of those fed the contrasted ration 5. 5 
lbs., 2.6 lbs. of dry matter being required per pound of gain with the 
former lot and 6 lbs. with the latter. The cost of a pound of gain in 
the 2 lots was 2.7 and 10.1 cts., respectively. It is said that the prin- 
cipal advantage of animal food was rapid growth and early maturity, 
rather than ultimate size. 

Four lots of 11 and 15 pullets were fed the contrasted ration for 
about 200 days. The lots fed the ration containing animal food pro- 
duced more eggs than those fed the vegetable food and less dry mat- 
ter was required per pound of egg. The relative fertility of the eggs 
from the hens fed the different rations was also tested. In general 
the more fertile eggs were obtained from the lots fed the animal food. 
This point was further tested with 2 lots of two-year-old hens fed the 
contrasted ration. Little difference was found in the character of the 
eggs. 

The second series of tests was made under conditions similar to those 
mentioned above, except that the ration of vegetable food was supple- 
mented by bone ash, the object being to learn whether the small gains 
made on vegetable food were due to a deficiency in the ash constitu- 
ents. As finalh' agreed upon, the contrasted rations had practicall}^ 
the same proximate composition. Six lots of from 61 to 99 chickens 
1 week old at the beginning of the test were fed for 11 weeks. The 
average weight of the chickens fed the contrasted rations was practi- 
cally the same at the close of the test, ranging from 1.1 to 1.7 lbs. In 
every case the chickens fed the ration containing the animal food 
required on an average about 13 per cent more food per pound of gain. 

The 2 rations were further tested with 2 lots of about 30 Pekin ducks 
a little over a week old at the beginning of the test, which covered 9 



278 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

weeks. The average gain of the ducks fed animal food was 5.3 lbs., 
of those fed vegetable food and bone ash 3.3 lbs., 3.3 lbs. of food, 
costing 8.5 cts., and 4.3 lbs. costing 4.1 cts. being required per pound 
of gain, respectively. Two lots of about 14 laying hens were used for 
further testing the 2 rations. The test covered 210 days. The aver- 
age egg production of the hens fed animal food was 119.4 eggs; of 
those fed vegetable food and bone ash, 112.7 eggs, the dry matter 
required per pound of eggs being 3 and 3.2 lbs., respectively. The 
cost of food per pound of eggs was 3.2 cts. for each lot. When tested 
for fertility the eggs from the former lot were, in the author's opinion, 
better from a breeder's standpoint. No difference, however, in the 
vigor of the chickens hatched from the eggs of the 2 lots was observed. 
The author summarizes his experiments and the deductions drawn from 
them as follows: 

"In general, rations containing animal food appear more palatable than rations of 
somewhat similar chemical composition consisting wholly of vegetable food. Rations 
in which the lack of palatability was overcome by using an unusual variety of grain 
foods were inferior for growing chicks and laying hens and decidedly inferior for 
ducklings to rations in w'hich nearly one-fifth of the dry matter was supplied by ani- 
mal food. After the period of most rapid growth had passed and the young birds 
approached maturity the difference in the efficiency between such rations rapidly 
disappeared. ... 

"Although it was foimd possible, when using a large number of foods in contrasted 
rations of these kinds, to have the ordinary groups of organic compounds in approx- 
imately equal proportions, there was always a much larger amount of mineral matter 
in the one ration owing to the bone of the animal meal. So there was sometimes 
nearly three times as much phosphorus in the one ration as in the other. . . . 

"From these results it appears that rations containing a necessary amount of pro- 
tein and having the relation of the ordinarily considered constituents satisfactory may 
be inferior because of a lack of mineral matter, probably phosphates. 

"Not enough data are now available to show to just what extent the deficiency of 
lime in the food for the younger chicks may have been responsible for inferior results. 
With laying hens lack of lime could not have affected the results considered, for 
oyster shells were freely supplied, and it has been shown that such material can 
make good the frequent deficiency of lime. 

"It appears also that while a cheaper vegetable food ration can sometimes be made 
to equal or surpass in eflaciency a ration containing animal food by supplementing it 
with suitable mineral matter, there are plain limitations to its economical use. For 
laying hens some animal food appears necessary for continued good results. Duck- 
lings without an abundant supply of animal protein in the ration, together with a 
liberal proportion of mineral matter, seem unable to make any approximation to 
their normally rapid and most profitable growth. 

"Although bone ash was used to make good an as.sumed deficiency in one ration 
and proved an efficient addition for the purpose, it should not be inferred that its 
purchase for feeding is to be generally recommended. It was necessarily used to 
oVjtain information. Bone ash in the market is expensive. The same amount of 
mineral matter can be obtained much cheaper in fresh bone or animal meal, of w'hich 
food it constitutes an important part. In some instances, of course, dry bones, 
where no facilities exist for grinding, or green bones in questionable condition, can 
be safely and economically used when charred or reduced to ash. The very desira- 
ble organic matter associated with fresh or cooked bones should not be wasted." 



FOODS ANIMAL PEODUCTION. 279 

Poultry experiments, W. P. Brooks and H, M. Thomson {Massa- 
chusetts Hatch Sta. Rj^t. 1899^ pp. 4.9-56). — The value for egg produc- 
tion of rations with wide and narrow nutritive ratios was tested in the 
winter and summer. h\ each case 2 lots of 20 White Wyandottes and 
2 lots of 20 Barred Plymouth Rocks were used. The principal grain 
in the ration with the narrow nutritive ratio was wheat, and in the 
ration with the wide nutritive ratio corn. Therefore the tests are in 
effect a comparison of these two grains for laying poultry, supple- 
mented by a variety of other food. 

The winter experiment began October 25 and closed April 27. The 
summer experiment began May 1 and closed September 27. 

The authors summarize the results of the tests as follows: "Our 
results with both breeds, both summer and winter, are greatly in favor 
of the ration richer in corn meal and corn. On its side we have (1) 
lower cost of feed, (2) from 23 to 91 per cent more eggs, (3) a far 
lower cost per egg., making possible a saving of from 4f to 16f cts. 
per dozen in the food cost of their production, (i) a greater increase 
in weight, and (5) a much earlier molt." 

It was the intention to test the wide and narrow rations with Black 
Minorca pullets, but this test was discontinued owing to roup. The 
results are not given in detail. "The test with this breed was 
not ... at all conclusive. . . . Up to the time the test was closed, 
however, the corn-fed Minorcas had laid about 50 per cent more eggs 
than the others." 

Erroneous ideas regarding food value, H. Snyder {Sanitary Home, 3 {1900), 
No. 3, 2ip.53-55). — The author points out a number of widespread popular errors 
concerning potatoes, mushrooms, white wheat flour, white and yellow corn meal, etc. 

Domestic science in agricultural colleges, Juniata L. Sheppard {Amer. Kitchen 
Mag., 12 [1000), No. 5, pp. 177-17 9, fig. 1).—A descrii^tive and statistical article. 

Handbook of domestic science and household arts, Lucy L. W. Wilson {Neiv 
York and London: The Mucndllan Company, 1900, pp. XIII-\r407, ill.). — This is a text- 
book giving concise directions for lessons on food and nutrition, cooking and serving 
food, cleaning, household pests, and other topics generally included under the term 
domestic science. The chapters are contributed by a number of different writers. 

Bread and the principles of bread making, Helen W. Atwater ( U. S. Dept. 
Agr., Farmers^ Bidktin 112, pp. 38, figs. 3). — The cereal grains and the flours made 
from them are discussed, as well as yeast, the theory of fermentation, bread raised 
with yeast and with leaven, special breads, household and bakery methods of bread 
making, chemical composition of bread, imperfections and impurities, nutritive value 
as related to cost, and similar topics. 

Samples examined by the station {Comieclicut State Sta. Rpt. 1899, pt. 2, pp. 
93-100) . — The Connecticut Pure Food law and the law regarding commercial feeding 
stuffs are quoted and brief statements made concerning the foods and condiments 
analyzed by the station. These include 149 samples of coffee, 2 of coffee substitutes, 
92 of Soda-water sirup, 23 of bottled sirup, 5 of fruit juice, 90 of bottled carbonated 
drinks, 2 of peanut butter, 31 of food preservatives, 2 of borax, 3 of banana flour, 2 
of butter and imitation butter, 213 of molasses and sirup, 45 of vinegar, 2 of honey, 
and 43 of milk and cream. 



280 



EXPEEIMENT STATION EECOED. 



Food products examined for the dairy commissioner in the twelve months 
ended July 3 1 , 1 899 ( Connecticut State Sta. Rpt. 1899, pt. 2, pp. 157, i55).— Brief state- 
ments are made concerning the samples of butter, molasses, honey, etc., examined. 

Contribution to the study of slimy bread, A. Jl'CKaxack {Ztschr. Analyt. Chem., 
39 {1900), No. 2, pp. 73-Sl). — The bacterial origin of slimy bread is discussed, many- 
investigations being cited. 

Vegetable cheese, C. F. Langworthy {Sanitary Hovie, 2 {1900), No. 3, pp. 
55-57). — A jjopular article describing the bean cheese or bean curd and other food 
products made in the Orient from soy beans. 

The chemical composition of authentic samples of spices and spice adulter- 
ants, A. L. WiNTON, A. W. Ogden, and W. L. Mitchell ( Connecticut State Sta. Rpt. 
1899, j)t. 2, pp. 100-105). — Details are given of the analyses of pepper and other spices 
under the Connecticut pure food law. 

Coffee, A. L. WixVtoxN ( Connecticut State Sta. Rpt. 1899, pt. 2, pp. 106-111) .—Analyses 
of a number of samples of coffee under the Connecticut pure food law are reported. 
A marked decrease was observed during the year over the samples of adulterated 
coffee foimd in the previous year. The author beUeves this is due to the work of 
the station. 

Carbonated, non-alcoholic beverages ("temperance drinks," "summer 
drinks") and fruit flavors, A. L. Winton, A. W. Ogdex, and W. L. Mitchell 
{Connecticut State Sta. Rpt. 1899, pt. 2, p)p. 112-137).— 't^oda water, bottled carbonated 
beverages, and sirups are described, and the analyses of a large number of samples in 
accordance with the Connecticut pure food law are reported. Many of these con- 
tained coal-tar colors, artificial flavoring, and such preservatives as salicylic and 
boric acids. 

Peanut butter and peanolia, A. L. Winton {Connecticut State Sta. Rpt. 1899, 
pt. 2, 2>. 138) .—Analyses of 2 samples of peanut butter are reported. 

Composition of banana and plantain fruits {Bui. Bot. Dept. Jamaica, n. ser., 
7 {1900), No. 2, pp. 24-30). — A partial reprint of an earlier publication.^ The com- 
position of green and ripe fruit and banana flour is quoted. The chemical and other 
analytical work on bananas and plantains of a number of investigators is summarized. 

Banana flour, vinegar, milk, and cream ( Connecticnt State Sta. Rpt. 1899, pt. 2, 
pp. 156, 157). — Samples of banana flour, vinegar, milk, and cream were analyzed. It 
is stated that Imnana flour is prepared from the dried flesh of the fruit. The com- 
position of the different sorts of banana flour follows: 

Compo-ntion of banana flour of different sorts. 





Water. 


Protein. 


Fat. 


Nitrogen- 
free ex- 
tract. 


Ash. 


Flour from— 


Per cent. 
13.43 
5.34 
10.33 


Per cent. 
3.50 
2.81 
2.87 


Per cent. 

0.47 

.66 

.50 


Per cent. 
79.82 
87.45 
87.02 


Per cent. 
2.24 


Florida ])annnjis 


2.90 
2.55 







The use of chemicals for preserving food, M. Gruber {Oesterr. Chem. Ztg., 3 
{1900), No. 4, p. 84). — The legal situation regarding added food preservatives in 
Austria is tn-ated of. 

The use of added preservatives, T. Smith {New England Kitclien Mag., 12 {1900), 
No. 4, ppj. 127-129). — The author discusses the properties and methods of detection 
of a number of the more common food preservatives. 

Chemical preservatives, E. H. Jenkins, W. L. Mitchell and A. W. Ogden 

1 Bui. Misc. Infor. Roy. Garden Kew, 1894, pp. 305-310. 



FOODS ANIMAL PRODUCTION. 281 

{Connedlad State Sta. Rpt. 1899, pt. 2, pp. 139-152). — A large number of preservatives 
for milk, cream, wine, cider, and beer were examined. 

" [According to the authors, their work] shows that milk and cream preservatives 
now on the market depend for their antiseptic effects on salt, formaldehyde, borax, 
and boric acid; and that if the directions given by the manufacturers are followed, 
a quart of milk will be dosed with from 0.01 to 0.05 gm. of formaldehyde or with 
0.47 to 3.6 gm. of boric acid. Cream will receive from 0.94 to 5 gm. of boric acid 
per quart. 

*' Wine and cider preservatives have been found to contain formaldehyde, salicylic 
acid, boric acid, benzoic acid, and betanaphtol. The cider, treated as directed by 
the manufacturers of the preservatives, may contain 0.36 to 0.9 gm. of salicylic 
acid or 0.19 to 0.38 gm. of borax or 0.6 to 0.7 gm. of benzoate of soda per quart. 
The beer preservatives contain salicylic acid and sulphurous acid in form of sulphites 
or bisulphites, and beer treated with them may contain from 0.04 to 0.12 gm. of 
salicylic acid or 0.015 gm. per half-liter glass. Of sulphurous acid, preserved beer 
may contain 0.015 gm. per half-liter glass." 

Report of tlie chemist (division of foods and feeding), J. B. Lindsey et al. 
{Massachusetts Hatch Sta. Rpt. 1899, pp. 103-107). — This is a brief general account of 
the work of the chemical laboratory during the year, which included the examina- 
tion of samples of water, dairy products, and feeding stuffs. Short notes are also 
given on feeding experiments and dairy studies, and on digestion experiments which 
are being conducted at the station. 

Concentrated feed stuffs, J. B. Lindsey et al. {Massachusetts HatcJi Sta. Bui. 64, 
pp. 31). — A classifitation of concentrated feeding stuffs is suggested, and the analysis 
reported of a large number of samples of concentrated feeding stuffs, made in com- 
pliance with the Massachusetts law. The constituents determined were moisture, 
protein, and fat. The materials analyzed include cotton-seed meals, linseed meals, 
gluten meals and feeds, wheat middlings, mixed feed, wheat bran and shorts, cereal 
food by-products, brewers' grains, malt sprouts, Sucrene Dairy Feed, Blatchford 
calf meal, corn meal, hominy meal, oat feed, corn-and-oat feed, corn-oat-and-barley 
feed, Kafir corn, corn screenings, chop feed, shredded wheat, ground oats, barley 
meal, rye feed, rye meal, Marsden's new food product (ground corn shives), con- 
centrated food, poultry feeds, scratching food, scratching grain, clover meal, cut 
clover, and meat and bone meal. 

The standards adopted for the different concentrated feeds are quoted. The results 
of the analyses are discussed as follows: 

"(1) The cotton-seed meals shipped into Massachusetts the past year were practi- 
cally free from adulteration, yet the guaranteed meals averaged 1 percent higher in 
protein, showing the advisability of buying only branded goods. The guaranty in 
all cases should be supported by the name of the manufacturer or wholesaler. 

"Last spring several samples of dark-colored meal were taken by our inspectors, 
and a number of others were sent in for examination, which, upon analysis, gave a 
high percentage of protein, proving that color alone is not a safe guide. 

"(2) Cleveland flax meal, old process and new process linseed meals, gluten meals, 
and gluten feeds are of fair average composition with the exception of the old proc- 
ess linseed meals, which are low in many cases. 

"(3) Of the wheat feeds, the middlings show quite a wide variation in percentage 
of protein as a result of different methods of manufacture; the mixed feeds with 
few exceptions are of fair quality, and the brans are of a high and very uniform 
grade. 

"(4) The oat feeds show the most serious adulteration of any feeds on the market. 
Many of them fall below 7 per cent in protein with an average of 45 per cent of 
coarse material." 



282 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

Concentrated feeding stuifs, C. H. Jones and B. O. White {Vermont Sta. Rpf. 
1899, pp. 139-143). — The text of the Vermont lawregulatmg the sale of concentrated 
feeding stuffs is quoted, and analyses made in compliance with this law are reported. 
The materials analyzed include cotton-seed meal, gluten meals and feed, cocoanut 
fiber feed, calf meal, middlings, cereal food by-products, horse feed, hen feed, corn 
and oats, chop feed, and ground rape seed. Some of the feeding stuffs are briefly 
discussed. 

Commercial feeding stuffs, E. H. Jexkixs et al. {Connecticut State Sta. Rpt. 1899, 
pt. 3, pp. 1.59-196) . — A reprint of the analytical matter of Bulletin 130 of the station 
(E. S. E., 12, p. 70), with a discussion of the composition and uses of commercial 
feeding stuffs. 

Feeding stuff inspection, H. J. Wheeler and B. L. Hartwell {Rhode Island Sta. 
Bui. 63, pp. 91-100). — The text of the Rhode Island legislation regulating the sale of 
concentrated commercial feeding stuffs is quoted and the analyses reported of a num- 
ber of sainples of feeding stuffs in accordance with this act. The constituents deter- 
mined were protein and fat. The analyses include American Poultry Food, Poultry 
Food, gluten meals, linseed meals and feed, old process oil meal, cotton-seed meal, 
barley sprouts, chop, Sucrene Dairy Feed, corn-oat-and-barley feed, provender, stock 
feed, oat feed, Fancy Feed Meal, Sugar Corn Feed, and barley feed. 

On tlie composition and food value of mammals, birds, and reptiles, Bal- 
LAXD ( Comjit. Rend. Acad. Set. Paris, 130 {1900), Xo. S, pp. 531-533). — Several analy- 
ses are (luoted and reference made to earlier work. 

Food value of oak moss, J. H. Barber {Pacific Rural Press, 59 {1900), No. 13, p. 
197) . — Oak moss {Ramalina reticulata) is sometimes used as a cattle food. According 
to an analysis by M. E. Jaffa of the California Experiment Station, it has the follow- 
ing percentage composition: Water, 22.29; protein, 9.15; fat, 1.95; nitrogen-free 
extract, 48.37; crude fiber, 13.77; and ash, 4.5. 

Food value of tall tarweed {Pacific Rural Press, 59 {1900), No. 13, 197).— The 
food value of tall tarweed ( Centromadia pungens) is discussed and an analysis by 
M. E. Jaffa of the California Experiment Station briefly reported. The protein 
content was found to l:)e 12.3 per cent and the fuel value 919 calories per pound. 

Experiments on the digestive power of pigs, Lilienthal {Landw. Wchnlil. 
ScMeswiy-Holstein, 50 {1900), No. 5, pp. 81-89).— A comparison of the digestibility of 
different rations by several breeds of pigs, including Yorkshires, Berkshires, Hol- 
steins and ' • Marschschwein. " The latter is a breed very closely related to the 
European wild hog. 

Cost of -wintering beef herd, E. R. Lloyd {Mi.'<si.mppi Sta. Rpt. 1899, p. 14). — 
A summary of data given in Bulletin 60 of the station (E. S. R., 11, p. 1084). 

Beef herd, E. R. Lloyd {Misdssippi Sta. Rpt. 1899, pp. 14, 15). — A study is being 
made of the relative merits of native and grade Angus cattle for beef production. 
The average weights at birth and each month for 8 months of calves of the 2 
bree<lH are tabulated. 

Feeding tests to determine the relative value of corn, cotton seed, and 
cotton-seed meal for beef production, E. R. Lloyd {Mississip2n Sta. Rpt. 1899, 
pp. 13, 14). — A summary of the results of feeding experiments previously reported 
(E. S. R., 11, p. 1068). 

Milk substitute for calves, A. Crawford {.four. Dept. Agr. West. Australia, 1900, 
Feb., p. 17). — Oil cake and oatmeal 1: 1 cooked, mixed with hay tea and a little 
milk, is recommended as a useful food for calves. The oil cake should be increased 
as the calf grows older. 

What grains lack as poultry foods, F. H. Hall and W. P. Wheeler {New 
York Slate Sta. Bui. 171, j^opular ed., p)p- 6). — This is a popular summary of Bulletin 
171 of the station (see p. 276). 



DAIRY FARMING DAIRYING. 283 

DAIRY FARMING- DAIRYING. 

Feeding tests and their methods, J . L. Hills ( Vermont Sta. Rpt. 
1899, 2U^- 253-296, 310-351). — Experiments, partl}^ in continuation of 
work previovisly reported (E. S. R., 11, p. 382), were made to com- 
pare various rations and to test ditferent feeding stuffs, to determine 
the eflect of feeding liquid fat to cows, to compare methods of water- 
ing- cows, to test the effect of grooming on production, and to deter- 
mine the extent of experimental error in feeding tests. Fifty -six cows 
in all were used in the series of experiments which lasted from Octo- 
ber 25 to June 6. Each experiment covered 1 or 5 weeks, one-third 
of which was considered preliminary. The number of cows used in 
the different tests varied from 1 to 11. In addition to hay and silage, 
and in some cases sugar beets or artichokes, the following mixed feeds 
were employed: (1) Cotton-seed meal, linseed meal, corn meal, and 
wheat bran (3:3:4:6); (2) cotton-seed meal, linseed meal, corn meal, 
and wheat bran (3^:3^:3:6); (3) buckwheat middlings, corn meal, and 
wheat bran (1:1 :3) ; (1) equal parts of corn meal and wheat bran ; and (5) 
corn meal and wheat bran (8:1). Eighteen different rations were fed. 

Tables give complete data for the experiments, including weights of 
cows, barn temperatures, anal3'ses, and digestible ingredients of the 
fodders and feeds, records of the individual cows, and results of experi- 
mental feeding on ditferent rations. The author summarizes the 
details and results of the investigation as follows: 

" The relative feeding values of rations of equal balance. — (a) Medium nutritive ratios. — 
The fodders and feeds used were hay, silage, and Buffalo gluten feed — nutritive ratio 
averaging 1:5.7, and the same roughages with mixed feed No. 1 — nutritive ratio 
averaging 1:5.6. The former ration yielded to the unit of total dry matter eaten 
from 4 to 5 per cent greater product, and the quality of the milk remained unchanged. 

" (6) Wide nutritive ratios. — The fodders and feeds used were hay, silage, and corn 
and bran, and the same roughages with Quaker oat feed — nutritive ratio in each case 
averaging 1 : 8.9. The former ratio yielded to the unit of total dry matter eaten from 

2 to 3 per cent greater product, the quality of the milk remaining uniform. 

"In the one case production to the unit slightly favored the ration which was fed 
the more liberally; in the other case 2 rations equally balanced and containing the 
same amounts of the sundry nutrients were of equal feeding value. The outcome of 

3 years' trials of this kind indicates that uniform production is not to be expected of 
necessity when there are eaten equal amounts of digestible nutrients derived from 
divers sources. 

" The effect of adding raiv or emulsified fat to a ration. — Unemulsitied cotton-seed oil 
and emulsified cotton seed, corn, and linseed oils were fed with bran or corn meal 
and bran, hay, and silage, as against the same rations without the oil. Milk yields 
to the unit of dry matter eaten were always increased when oil was fed, the increase 
amounting from 3 to 9 per cent. The amount of total solids and fat were increased 
by the cotton-seed oil feeding from 2 to 15 per cent, on linseed oil feeding 2 per cent, 
and on corn oil feeding not at all. The quality of milk was always improved at the 
outset of this class of feeding, but quickly returned to normal quality or became 
poorer than usual when corn or linseed oils were fed. The increased fat percentage — 
unaccompanied by rise in the percentage of solids-not-fat — was fairly permanent, 



284 



EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 



lai^ting from 4 to 6 weeks at least, when either raw or emulsified cotton-seed oil was 
used. Since the same changes were brought about when raw oil was fed as followed 
the use of emulsified oil, it is safe to say that in these trials emulsifying was without 
influence as a means of feeding fat into milk. 

" The feeding values of ■medium and uide rations. — (o) Grain rations equal in amount. — 
The fodders and feeds used were hay, silage, and mixed feed No. 1, or the same 
roughages and Quaker oat feed. Nutritive ratios averaged 1 : 5.8 and 1 : 9.0. The pro- 
ducing power of a unit of dry matter was 7 per cent greater in the former ration. 
The fat content of the quality of the milk remained essentially unchanged. 

"(6) Grain rations unerjual in amount. — The fodders and feeds used were hay, 
silage, and 8 lbs. of BuffaLj gluten feed, or the same roughages with 2 lbs. of corn 
meal and 1 lb. of bran. Nutritive ratios averaged 1:5.5 and 1:9.7. The unit of dry 
matter eaten in the medium ration made 5 per cent more milk than did that in the 
wide ration. Less but richer milk seemed to be produced by the scant ration. 

" The feeding value of buckwheat middlings. — The fodders and feeds used were hay, 
silage, corn meal, bran, and buckwheat middlings, the same roughages with mixed 
feed No. 1 or corn meal and bran. A unit of dry matter eaten produced about 3 per 
cent more milk, solids, and fat in ration No. 1, and about 4 per cent less in the corn 
and bran ration than when the middlings were fed. The quality of the milk 
remained generally uniform, with, however, two exceptions. 

'^ TJie feeding value of artichokes. — Hay, silage, and mixed feed No. 1, or hay, arti- 
choke tubers and mixed feed No. 1 were fed to one cow. To the unit of dry matter 
eaten 10 per cent less milk was made on the silage ration. 

" Watering at tmll or at intervals. — Cows fed a uniform ration were in alternating 
periods watered at will or at intervals, and in the former case made 2 per cent more 
milk. The effect upon quality can not be stated for reasons given in the body of the 
article. 

"T/ie grooming of coivs. — Cows fed a unifomi ration were in alternating periods 
groomed or left uncarded without appreciable effect either upon milk yield or 
quality. 

^^Experimental error. — Uniform rations were fed and uniform proiluction ensued. 
A unit of dry matter made essentially the same milk, solids, and fat at one time as 
another, lactation changes being equalized. It is proljably unsafe to lay stress on 
ajaparent differences in feeding values of much less than 5 per cent. 

^^ Relative values of various grain rations. — Assuming that two-thirds of the inanurial 
ingredients reach the soil, and allowing 20 cts. per hundred for skim uiilk, the total 
and the daily net gains of one i-ation over another in butter, skim milk, and manure, 
expressed in dollars and cents, are as shown in the table. In each case the ration 
first mentioned proved superior to its competitor: 

Relative superiority of different rations. 



Ration. 


Days of 
feeding 
one cow. 


Net gain 

from 

butter. 


Net gain 
from but- 
ter, skim 
milk, and 
manure. 


Daily net 

gain, 
one cow. 




629 
276 
118 
118 
128 
72 


$4.61 

-4.18 

0.45 

0.00 

-0.72 

0.92 


$6.05 
3.86 
3. 12 
0.75 
-0.02 
1.14 


CenU. 
1.14 


Buffalo Kl'itt'ii ration v. ration of li jiarts corn,! part bran 


1.40 
2.64 




.64 


Cotton-seed-linset'd ration v. buckwheat middlings ration ... 
Buckwheat middlings ration v. ration of corn and bran 


.00 
1.5S 



"The Buffalo [gluten] ration proved superior to the others, the cotton-seed-linseed 
ration ranking second." 



DAIEY FARMING DAIRYING. 285 

The effect of fatigue upon the quantity and quality of milk, 
J. L. Hills {Vermont Sta. Bjjt. 1899, p. 309). — In this test, which is 
the third reported by the station (E. S. R., 8, p. 86; 11 p. 384), 6 fresh 
milch cows were driven 10 miles and shipped 50 miles by rail. They 
were not milked during the 18 hours occupied in traveling. A table 
gives the yield and composition of the milk one day, one week, and 
three weeks after arrival. The results are briefly discussed and com- 
pared with those of the earlier experiments. 

' ' The cows, as a whole, gave about the same quantity of milk on the day after 
arrival that they did later. Its quality was far richer, however, at first than it was 
after some time had elapsed. Considering each animal individually it was found 
that three gave more, one less, and two the same yield after becoming accustomed 
to their new quarters; that the fat percentages were less in each case; and that the 
solids-not-fat were irregular, two increasing and one decreasing decidedly as time 
went on. . . . 

" In the trials previously reported temporary milk shrinkage was observed. This 
was not seen to any great extent in the present tests. In all cases, as in the present 
instance, temporary enrichment ensued. The outcome of this series of tests clearly 
shows the folly of testing a cow's milk before she becomes 'at home' in new quar- 
ters and has recovered from fatigue. ' ' 

The effect of food upon the quality of butter, J. L. Hills ( Ver- 

tnont Sta. Rpt. 1899, j)j}. 296-298). — In connection with experiments 
noted above and in continuation of previous work (E. S. R. , 11, p. 385) 
a study was made of the effect of various concentrated feeding stuff's 
upon the quality of butter. The rations used contained hay and silage 
with cotton-seed meal, linseed meal, corn meal, and bran in two com- 
binations; corn meal and bran in two combinations; corn meal, bran, 
and buckwheat middlings; Buffalo gluten feed; and Quaker oat feed. 
Cotton-seed oil, corn oil, and linseed oil in emulsions were also fed 
with the corn meal and bran ration. From March 8 to May 1, 44 sam- 
ples of skim milk, buttermilk, and butter were obtained and analyzed. 
The results are given in tabiilar form. 

The author states that apparently none of the grain feeds injurious!}^ 
affected the quality of the butter. 

"Volatile acids were uniformly aiid decidedly lowered, and the iodin numbers 
markedly increased in every case when oil was fed and for a while after its use was 
abandoned. This was more apparent when corn and linseed oils were fed than when 
the cotton-seed oil was used. The melting point of the product made when the latter 
oil was fed was raised. . . . 

"The station dairyman's judgment of these butters was that the cotton-seed prod- 
uct was hard and of quite good flavor, that made on linseed oil was very soft and 
sticky and of an oily taste — a condition lasting until the second sample after the use 
of oil was discontinued — while that made on corn oil was somewhat soft and oily 
but fair in quality. . . . 

"While it is unsafe with our present lack of knowledge concerning the methods of 
milk formation to assert actual transfer from food to milk, yet analytical results and 
practical experience are in accord with such a theory." 

Milk from cows fed cotton-seed oil skimmed and churned more 
exhaustively than that from cows fed linseed oil or corn oil. 



286 



EXPERIMENT STATION EECORD. 



Record of the station herd for 1897-98, J. L. Hills ( Vermont 
Sta. Rjjt. 1899, jy/>. 299-307).— T\iq record of 42 cows from Novem- 
ber 1, 1897, to October 31, 1898, is given in tabular form and com- 
pared with records of the station herd during previous years, as 
already reported (E. S. R., 11, p. 383). The data given include the 
production of milk, fat, and solids by each cow, the cost of food eaten, 
proceeds from butter sales, and the value of the fertilizing ingredients 
in the food fed. Notes are given explanatory of the table. The aver- 
age proceeds per cow over the total cost of food for the 3'ear was 
$34.15. The record of 19 of the cows belonging to the herd for 4 years 
and 24 for 3 years is summarized in the following table: 

Average record of 19 cows for 4 years and 24 cows for 3 years. 



Yield of 
milk. 



Fat con- 
tent of 
milk. 



Yield of 
butter. 



Cost of 
food. 



Cost of 

pur- 
chased 
grain. 



Cost of 
food per 
pound of 

butter. 



Procee Is 
of butt T 



Average of 19 cows: 

1894-95 

1895-96 

1896-97 

1897-98 

Average of 24 cows: 

1895-96 

1896-97 

1897-98 , 



Pounds. 
5,864 
5,927 
6,475 
5,631 

5,657 
6,012 
5,698 



Per cent. 
4.94 
5.01 
4.87 
4.95 

5. 12 
5.04 
5.00 



Pounds. 
338 
347 
368 
318 

338 
354 
325 



853.16 
43.54 
49.77 
46.54 

42.56 
48.66 
46.98 



$19. 92 
14.75 
19.26 

15.48 

14.45 
18.98 
15.71 



Cents. 
17.6 
13.5 
14.0 
15.1 

13.3 
13.8 
15.0 



S79.30. 
79.77 
89.24 
81.85 

77.76 
85.80 
83.69 



Laws of the composition of cows' milk, and the detection of 
adulteration, H. Timpe (Chem. Zt(/., 23 {1899), No. 99, ]yp. lOIfi- 
10Jf3). — The author attempts to trace a relation between the protein 
and the fat. He shows, with the aid of a series of analj'ses of the milk 
from cows of different breeds, arranged in the order of fat content, 
that the range in protein content is only about one-third of that in fat 
content, and accordingly that the fat increases in the series about three 
times as fast as the protein. In the case of milk containing an average 
fat content of about 3 per cent the protein was about the same, but 
when the fat was lower than this the protein exceeded the fat; and 
when the fat was above 3 per cent the reverse was true. The author 
deduces the following formula for protein : Protein = 2 + 0. 35 fat. 
lie advances the hypothesis that the fat and a part of the protein are 
of common origin, being derived probably from the splitting up of the 
same basal material, while the rest of the protein is formed indepeud- 
entl}^ of the fat. This would indicate two kinds of protein in the 
milk. The part derived from the same source as the fat has a con- 
stant value of 2. Indicating this as protein a, and the other portion 
as protein h, the ash, sugar, and protein a may be regarded as practi- 
cally constant in milk, while the fat and protein h are subject to wide 
variations. 'The last two bear a dehnito i-elation to each other, protein 
h being equal to 0. 35 of the fat. 

These generalizations were verified on milk from cows of different 



DAIEY FARMING DAIRYING. 287 

kinds, in health and disease, and fed different rations. In milk from 
healthy cows there was only one case in which the protein did not bear 
the normal relation to the fat. The sugar content was found remark- 
ably constant, fluctuating onl\^ from 4.4 to 5 per cent. 

These regularities in the composition of milk are thought to furnish 
a reliable means for detecting adulteration. In skim milk the protein, 
as calculated by the above formula, will be lower than that found by 
analysis, while the ash and sugar will ])e normal. Water would lower 
the content of all the constituents without changing their relation to 
one another, but it would depress both the protein a and protein J, so 
that the total protein calculated by the formula would be higher than 
that found by analysis. The sugar content would be another indica- 
tion of watering. Skimming and watering the same sample is some- 
what more difficult to detect b}^ this method, but unless both had been 
practiced to the same degree the disturbance of the relation between 
the fat and protein would be apparent. 

In a later issue of the same journal (24 (1900), No. 3, p. 16) H. 
Hoft discusses the above paper and takes exception to some of the 
conclusions. 

The efficiency of a continuous pasteurizer at different tempera- 
tures, II. A. Harding and L. A. Rogers {New Yorh State Sta Bid. 
172^ pp. 507-630., Jigs. 2). — Introductory statements are made concern- 
ing dairying in Denmark and in the United States. The lack of suc- 
cess attending the use by Americans of the Danish method of butter 
making has led the station to undertake a study of the process, the 
results of which are to be published in a series of bulletins, of which 
this is the first. The terms pasteurization and sterilization are ex- 
plained, and the discontinuous or household system of pasteurization 
for sanitary purposes and the continuous or Danish system adapted to 
butter making are discussed. 

In the experiments at the station "the objective point was to deter- 
mine the effect upon the germ life when milk was passed through a 
continuous pasteurizer at different temperatures." Milk was pasteur- 
ized at 70, 80, and 85° C. The apparatus used was made in Den- 
mark, and is figured and described. The method of work is given, and 
data showing the age, weight, initial temperature, and acidity of the 
milk, the steam pressure in the l)oiler, the rate of pasteurization, and 
the germ content of the milk before and after pasteurization are tabu- 
lated. The milk was usually a mixture of i^ortions 4, 12, 24, and 36 
hours old and had an acidity requiring from 18.9 to 40 cc. of normal 
alkali to neutralize 1 liter. The samples averaged 350 lbs. The rate 
of pasteurization varied greatly. At 80° C. it was about 2,100 lbs. 
per hour. In the bacteriological tests neutral lactose agar was used as 
a nutrient medium. The plate cultures were kept at 30° C and the 
colonies were counted at the end of 48 hours. 



288 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

Kesults of the work are summarized as follows: 

"At 70° C. (158° F. ) the efficiency of the continuous pasteurizer varies greatly from 
clay to day. Tests upon 14 different days gave an average of 15,288 living germs per 
cubic centimeter left in the pasteurized milk, with a maximum of 62, 790 and a mini- 
mum of 120 germs. 

"At 80° C. (176° F. ) the reduction in germ content is both very uniform and very 
great. Tests upon 25 different days gave an average of only 117 living germs per 
cubic centimeter in the pasteurized milk, witli a maxinmm of 297 and a minimum of 
20 germs. 

' 'At 85° C. ( 185° F. ) the average reduction is not more marked than at 80° C. , but 
the range of variation is less. [The average, maximum, and minimum of tests made 
i:pon 7 different days Avere, respectively, 114, 234, and 50 germs per cubic centime- 
ter. ] This temperature has the added advantage, according to Dr. Bang, of remov- 
ing the danger from germs of tuberculosis in the milk. 

"Even when the whole milk was heated to 85° C. the l)utter did not have a per- 
manent cooked flavor." 

On the manufacture of cheese from pasteurized milk, G. Ham- 
ilton {Milch Ztg., 29 {1900), Ko. 10, pp. Uo, i46').— Milk was pas- 
teurized at 102° C, and used in the manufacture of sour-milk cheese 
and brick cheese. In making the sour-milk cheese 10 per cent of 
fresh buttermilk, obtained from churning cream ripened with a pure 
culture, was added to the pasteurized milk and the mixture kept at 
30° C. until the required acidity was secured. Sour-milk cheese prop- 
erl}^ made in this way was considered better than that made from 
unpasteurized milk and the yield was also greater. Notes are given 
on the use of pasteurization in Saxony. 

Dairy work, J. S. Mooke {Mississippi Sta. Ept. 1899, pp. 22-28). — The results of 
feeding experiments with cotton seed, cotton-seed meal, and corn-and-cob meal, and 
a study of the effect of these feeding stuffs on the quality of butter previously 
reported (E. S. E., 11, pp. 1079, 1080) are smnmarized. Tables are given showing 
the amount and cost of food consumed and the milk and butter produced by each 
cow of the dairy herd during 1898. Tests of 7 registered Jersey cows are reported. 

Feeding for milk {Queensland Agr. Jour., 7 {1900), No. 1, pp. 25, 26). — During 
2 periods of 15 days each 6 cows were fed a ration of 20 lbs. of green chaffed maize 
and during the second period were given in addition li lbs. of molasses. Only a 
small increase in the yield of milk and butter followed the use of the molasses. 
The daily record of each cow is given. 

The management of Shorthorn dairy cattle and young stock, R. E. Turx- 
BULL {Jour. British Dairy Fanners' Assoc, 15 {1900), No. 2, pp. 83-92). 

Heavy vs. light cows, G. H. v. Scheele {Lundtmannen, 11 {1900), No. 4, pp. 
52-57). 

On the importance of good milkers, J. Fmis {Landmand.shlad, S3 {1900), No. 
8, pp. 90-98). — A general discussion of the subject; a number of experiments are 
quoted, showing how the amount of milk yielded by cows varies according to the 
character of the work done by the milkers. 

Milk test inspection law, C. II. Joxes and B. O. "White ( Vermont Sta. Bpt. 1899, 
j)p. 14-3- 1 45) . — The text of the Vermont law relating to testing milk and cream at 
dividend-making creameries and cheese factories and the results of the operation of 
the law are given. The law requires that all glassware ased in testing be certified 
as to its accuracy and that all operators ha licensed after proving their ability. The 



VETERINARY SCIENCE AND PRACTICE. 289 

execution of the law is vested in the superintendent of the dairy nchoul df tlie 
university. 

Of 11,058 bottles tested during 9 months, 199 were found incorrectly graduated. 
A considerable number of pipettes and acid measures were also found incorrectly 
graduated. The effect of the passage of the law in increasing the accuracy of tlie 
apparatus used is noted. Of 286 applications for license as operators, 33 were refused 
because of inaccurate testing. 

Continuous pasteurization of milk, F. H. Hall, H. A. Hardixc;, and L. A. 
RooERS {Xi'iD York State tSta. Bui. 17 J, populnv ed., pp. G). — This is a popular sunnnary 
of Bulletin 172 of the station. (See p. 287) . 

Report of milk control station in Christiania for 1899 (Nomk Landmans- 
bJad, 19 {1000), Xu. 6, pp. GS-70) . — Tests of .39,158 samples of milk and other dairy 
products were made during 1899, the average results per month and year being given 
in the report. The average fat content for 33,831 samples of whole milk examined 
during the year was 3.473 per cent (maximum 5, minimum 2.5 per cent), and of 
4,944 samj^les of cream 17. .304 per cent ("common cream" testing between 11 and 
24 per cent, and " whipping cream " from 25 to 38 per cent). — f. av. woll. 

Report of the milk control station in Trondhjem, Norway, for 1899 
{Norsk. Landmandsblad, 19 {1900), No. IS, pp. 197-199). — During the year 55,292 
samples of dairy products, nearly all whole milk, were received and tested. The 
average fat content of 55,162 samples of whole milk was 3.57 per cent, against 3.50 
per cent for 46,473 samples during 1898. The report states that "as is usual, the 
milk is lowest in fat in the spring, because the majority of the cows drop their calves 
at this season. It is characteristic .that the fat content of the milk increases suddenly 
when the cows are let out on pasture. This increase occurs every year in the month 
of June. The high fat content is maintained during July, or may droj) again then, 
as was the case in 1895 and 1897. During the fall months the percentages of fat are 
gradually increased, to decrease again toward the end of the year." The fat con- 
tents of the. milk tested at the milk control stations at Christiania and Bergen (at 
each of which stations a similar number of samples of milk are tested annually) 
show identical changes as those given above. — f. w. woll. 

On milk control in Germany, M.Weibull {Meddi'l. K. hindthr. Stiir.,1899, No. 
59, pp. 27-32) . 

The Danish butter on the English market, B. Boggild ( Tid-^xkr. Ltmddkon, 
1900, No. a, pp. 28G-S00 ) . 

Dairying in Denmark during 1899, B. Boggild ( 77r/.s'.sA/'. Lavd'nkon, 1900, No. 
3, pp. no-US). 

The cooperative Danish Creameries and their importance for the develop- 
ment of Danish agriculture, B. Boggild {Mdlkeritid., 13 {1900), No.-,. 21, pp. 305- 
322; 22, pp. 335-34S; 23, pp. 303-369). — An historical discussion of the growth and 
present condition of Danish cooperative creameries, M'ith complete statistics relating 
to the subject. 

Report of the State Swedish cheese export committee, 1895-1899, I. Lind- 
STROJi ET AL {Maldii. K. Ldudtbr. Sfi/r., 1900, No. 66, pp. 17). 

Report of the Swedish State dairy agent in Manchester, England, for 
1899 (Meddel. K. Lnndtbr. Styr., 1900, No. 64, pp. 66). 

Danish butter, P. Schidrowitz {British Food .low:, 2 {1900), No. 16, pp. 91, 02). 

VETERINARY SCIENCE AND PRACTICE. 

Fourteenth annual report of the State board of live stock 
commissioners, C. P. Johnson et al. {Rpt. Illinow State Bd. 
Live Stock Commissione/'s^ 1899, pp. 391). — Thi.s report contains a 
8058 — No. 3 7 



290 EXPEEIMENT STATIOlsr RECORD. 

copy of the proclamation of the board of live stock commissioners of 
Illinois regardino- the importation of Southern cattle. In their experi- 
ments with dips for the purpose of destroying the cattle tick on ani- 
mals imported from the South some losses were experienced, but it is 
believed that such losses are due not so much to the dipping itself as 
to the fact that the dipping occurred at an inopportune time, or that the 
cattle were subjected to fatiguing drives or railroad journeys after the 
dipping. Detailed records are given of the inspection for actinomy- 
cosis at the Union Stock Yards of Chicago. 

Special attention has been given by the board for a number of years 
to tuberculosis among dairy cattle. The regulations of the board pro- 
vide that animals condemned and slaughtered after the tuberculin 
test shall be divided into 6 classes, for the purpose of adjusting the 
amount of indemnity to be paid the owner. Class A includes animals 
which upon jfosf-uio/'f em examination fail to disclose the presence of 
tuberculosis in an}' of their organs. For such animals the full valua- 
tion is paid as indemnity to the owner. The other classes are graded 
according to the more or less generalized condition of the tubercular 
infection, 75, 50, 35, 25, and 15 per cent of the appraisement being- 
paid for animals in these classes. The number of animals tested was 
3, (355, and of this number 560 reacted suHicientl}- to av arrant condemn- 
ing, while 47 were isolated and held for a second test. The percent- 
age of condemned animals was, therefore, 15.32. 

The board made an investigation of the milk of a number of tul)er- 
culous animals, the milk being used for inoculating the experimental 
animals, and ])eing also subjected to microscopical examination. The 
conclusions which are drawn from these examinations ma}' be stated 
as follows: The tubercle bacillus is found in the milk of 35 percent of 
tuberculous cows with sound udders. The tubercle bacillus is found 
with about equal frequency in the sediment and in the cream. The 
milk when concentrated produces tuberculosis in about 25 per cent of 
the inoculated guinea pigs. In a large number of cases pus cells were 
found in the milk, which would indicate that the udder was aflfected 
by tuberculosis. It is stated that in consideration of the greater sus- 
ceptibility of the guinea pig. the concentration of the milk, and the 
fact that inoculations were made hypodermically, allowance must be 
made for the different conditions when these results are applied to the 
human subject. 

Detailed notes are given on the occurrence in the State of glanders, 
cerebro-spinal meningitis of horses, and sheep scab. In an appendix 
to the report is found a complete record of the tuberculin tests already 
referred to. 

Actinomycosis of man and animals, B. Schurmater {Centbl. 
Ball. a. I\ir.^ 1. Aht.^ 27 {1900), ]V<>s. J, pp. 1^9-61; 3, pp. 101-106, 
pis. 2). — This article contains a ri'])ort of an extended series of experi- 



VETERINARY SCIENCE AND PRACTICE. 291 

ments by the author upon the variations in the organism of actinomy- 
cosis under diti'erent culture conditions. When this organism is 
cultivated in ordinary alkaline bouillon without peptone or salt, 3 
morphologically distinct forms were observed: (1) Unbranched and 
branched iilaments; (2) delicate threads with thickenings and without 
branches; (3) round large spheres. The second form was frequently 
seen to develop out of this third form. 

Experimental cultures whicli were carried on for two years under 
the same conditions and with the same results led the author to con- 
clude that the organism of actinomj^cosis may vary exceedingly as to 
its external appearance, has the power of adapting itself to the nutri- 
ent medium and external conditions, and passes through a series of 
stages, which include the bacterial type and reach to that of the higher 
fungi. 

The organism is described by the author under the name of Oospora 
lyrotexis. A detailed record is given of the appearance and behavior 
of the organism under ditferent conditions and upon different culture 
media. The variations of this organism are compared with those of 
Oospo7\i hovw. In some of the experimental cultures chlamydospores 
were formed, and the author believes that this and other pathogenic 
organisms will be found to be forms of a series which extends from 
])acteria into the higher fungi. 

Tuberculosis of cattle, G. E. Nesom {South Carolina Sta. Bnl. 60^ 
pp. Jfl.,f<js. 10). — The tirst part of the bulletin is occupied with a gen- 
eral account of the nature and etiology of tuberculosis and a descrip- 
tion of the method of applying the tuberculin test. A report is made 
on 200 cattle tested with tul)erculin in the State. The cattle were 
distributed in 6 herds, and the presence of tuberculosis was demon- 
strated in only one herd. One doubtful case was found in the second 
herd. In one herd of Q'o cattle, 61 of which were milch cows, 31 
reacted. The veterinarian who had attended this herd had made a 
diagnosis of tuberculosis and had confirmed it \i\ pout- mortem exami- 
nation. Of the animals in this herd 9 showed a temperature of lOS*^ 
or more before injection, and 3 out of these 9 gave a reaction of over 
2° after injection. The ages of the animals of this herd varied from 
1 to 1.5 years. In the other herds which were tested only one animal 
was condemned as suspicious, and the p<mt-inorteni iindings were not 
sufficient to make the diagnosis certain. The animal, however, was 
considered tuberculous. Out of 2(iO tested, therefore, 32 animals or 
16 per cent were found tuberculous, 31 of these, as already indicated, 
being found in one herd. 

In the treatment of tuberculous herds the author reconnnends that 
the Danish system of isolating suspicious animals be adopted. He 
further reconnnends a nnuiicipal inspection of meats and milk and the 
issuance of a license to dairymen oidy after all his milch cows have 
been tested. 



21^2 EXPERIMENT STATION KECOKD. 

Observations concerning the significance of streptococci in 
comparative pathology, V. A. Moore {Amer. Vet. Rev.^ '23 {1900)^ 
JVox. UK j>p. 6S7-6!J7; 11, 2>p. 771^-787; 12, pp. 8Ii9-860,f(js. H).— 
The author gives a ])rief review of the literature on streptococcus and 
an account of the systematic position of this genus. A bacteriological 
investigation was made of i cases of suppurative cellulitis of cows, in 
which the foot or leg was affected. Streptococcus was found to be 
present in all cases. Other cattle inoculated with pure cultures of 
these organisms developed the same sj-mptoms. Kabbits which were 
inoculated with pure cultures died with septicjemia within 48 hours 
after inoculation. 

Samples of milk were taken from y different cows which were suffer- 
ing from mastitis. The milk samples were taken with strict antiseptic 
precautions. Streptococci were found in considerable numbers in 6 
out of the 8 samples. In 2 cases of foot rot of sheep, a form of strep- 
tococcus was found which proved fatal to rabbits when inoculated 
hypodermically. A liacteriological investigation demonstrated the 
presence of streptococcus in the following diseases of the horse: Fistu- 
lous withers, poll evil, peritonitis, omphalophlebitis, septic pneumonia, 
strangles, and infectious pneumonia. 

The author also made studies of distemper and rabies of the dog. 
Streptococcus was found to be present in cases of distemper but not in 
rabies. Brief notes are presented on the use and importance of anti- 
streptococcic serum. 

The curability of glanders, J. McFadyean {Jour. Co-mp. Path, and 
TJur.. 13 {1900, JTo. 1, pp. oo-o9). — The author conducted an experi- 
ment to determine the therapeutic action of mallein upon glanderous 
horses. A horse with clinical symptoms of farcy was tested with 
mallein on November 4, 1898, and reacted in a typical manner with 
elevation of temperature and swelling at the point of injection. The 
highest temperature recorded was 105.4^. On November 15 the 
horse received 6 cc. of mallein and after 15 hours exhibited a tempera- 
ture of 105.8^. On November 26, 10 cc. of mallein was injected into 
the horse, with a consequent sharp temperature reaction. A dose of 
20 cc. of mallein was administered on December with similar results. 
Further injections were made on December 14, 20, 28, and January- 
13 with 40, 80, 100, and 120 cc. of mullein, respectively. On Feb- 
ruary 10 the horse was examined and the farcv lesions were found to 
be healed. The animal was tested with 1 cc. of mallein on the same 
date and failed to react. On March 27 a second dose of 1 cc. of 
mallein was given, with no temperature reaction. On April the 
horse received 100 cc. of mallein with the result that the temperature 
rose to 103. 8^^. The same dose repeated on April 24 ]ii-oduced a tem- 
perature of 103". 

The horse was apparently cured of the original attack of glanders. 



VETERINARY SCIENCE AND PRACTICE. 293 

111 order to determine whether the iiiiiiusil was also protected against 
subsequent infection, an inoculation of virulent glanders pus was given 
on June 18. 1899. On June 28 an injection of 1 cc. of mallein pro- 
duced a tvpical reaction, and similar results were obtained by repeated 
injections on July 7 and 22. 

The author concludes from the history of this case that glanders can 
apparently be cured by repeated large doses of mallein, but that 
animals thus treated are not protected against subsequent infections 
b}' the disease. 

Recent investig-ations on the r61e of mosquitoes in spreading- malaria, 

G. H. F. NuTTALL [Onthl. Bakt. n. Pur., I.AhL, 27 [1!)00), Xo. J, pp. 19S-196; G, j>p. 
21S-2J5) . — This article is in continuation of previous compilations of the author on 
the same subject. The author reviews in a critical manner the literature of tlie 
subject, imder the following heads: General literature, the influence of temperature 
on the development of the malaria parasites in Anopheles, the species of mosquito 
in wliich the different malaria parasites can develop, and the development of the 
sestivoautumnal parasite. 

Purulent broncho-pneumonia of puerperal origin, G. Moussu {Rec Med. 
Vet., Paris, s'. -ser., 7 {19(10), No. 3, pp. 105-111). — A study of a numlier of cases in 
which it was shown that there was a postpartum infection, with a localization of the 
disease in the lungs. 

Revie^v of Prof. Bang's work -writh contagious abortion, C. E. Marshall 
{Michigan Stu. Spec. Bui. IS, pp. 8). — An abstract of the work of Prof. Bang bearing 
on this subject. 

Experimental studies on blackleg, E. Leclainche and H. Yallee {Compt. 
Rend. Sac. Biul. Paris, 52 {l'->oo), Xo. 6, pp. 139, UO). — The authors found that the 
presence of the toxin is indispensable to the manifestation of virulence. Great 
numbers of the spores may be introduced into susceptible organisms without pro- 
ducing any effects, provided all toxin is excluded. Animals which have received 
spores without toxin are not rendered immune. 

Failure with Seraphthin in Austria, Geist {Berlin Tierdrzlf. Wchmchr., 1900, 
Xo. 7, pp. 75-77) . — The author conducted experiments for the purpose of determin- 
ing the value of this substance as a protective remedy against foot-and-mouth disease. 
Out of 120 animals which were inoculated with Seraphthin, 79, or 65.83 per cent, con- 
tracted the disease, while out of 99 animals which were not inoculated only 46; or 
46.5 per cent, fell sick. The author believes this substance is worthless both as a 
curative agent and as a means of producing immunity. 

Infectious mastitis in cows, K. Weber {Deut. Tkieixirztl. WcJmschr., 8 {1900), 
Xo. 6, p. ^7).^In cases where this disease affects only one quadrant of the udder, a 
thorough treatment with drainage is sometimes successful, resulting in a complete 
sequestration of the infected part. 

Relapse in milk fever, Bru {Rev. Vet. Toidouse,25 {1900) , Xo. 3, pp. 166-170).^ 
A discussion of the symptoms of this disease, together with an account of cases in 
which a relapse took place after an apparent recovery. 

Traumatic pericarditis in cattle, G. de Bruix {Rev. Vet. Toulouse, 25 {1900), 
No. o, })ji. 141-155) . — The cause of this form of pericarditis is the penetration of the 
pericardium by some foreign body. Such penetration comes from the second stom- 
ach, which is separated from the pericardium only by the diaphragm, and at a point 
in the dia,phragm which undergoes con^paratively slight movements during resjiira- 
tion. The disease usually assumes a chronic form and is very seldom acute. The 
majority of cases are fatal. A bibliography on the subject is added to the article. 



294 EXPEKIMENT STATION EECORD. 

Staggers in sheep, 'SI. J. C'leary [Irish Agr. (Jr(janization Soc. Leaflet a', pp. ^). — 
The author gives notes on the Hfe history of Ccenurris cerebralis, and recommends the 
destruction of the heads of affected sheep in order to prevent the spreading of the 
disease. 

QEstrus ovis, J. F. Butterfield {Jour. Coinp. Med. and Vet. Arch., 21 {1900), No. 
1, pji. 2S, 24). — From a study of the habits of this insect in Pennsylvania, the author 
conchides that the eggs are deposited in the nostrils of sheep earlier in the season than 
has usually Ijeen supposed. The only successful remedy consisted in trephining and 
•washing out with tepid water. Injections of solution of alum water in the nostrils 
seemed to l)e slightly effective. 

Protective inoculation against liog cholera, H. Jost {Deut. Thierdrztl. 
W'riuisclir., S {1900), Xo. 6, pp. 45-47). — Notes on the use of Susserin and on the 
occurrence of endocarditis in hog cholera. 

Horse bots, R. Helms {.Tour. Dept. Ayr. Wrxt. Audndia, 1899, Dec, pp. 23-28, 
figs. 2). — An account of the life history, habits, and remedies to be used against Gas- 
trophihix vdsrdis. 

Inheritance of chronic roaring, A. Labat {Rer. T'c/. Toulouse, 25 {1900), No. 
3, pp. 155-166). — The author presents a detailed discussion of the literature of the 
subject and shows from statistics that horses which are afflicted with roaring very 
frequently transnnt a i)redisposition to this disease in their offspring. 

A form of hemorrhagic septicaemia in ducks and chickens, A. Rabieaux 
{Compf. Rend. Soc. Biol. Paris, 52 {1900), No. 6, pp. 14I-143).— The pathogenic 
agent found in cases of this disease resembles that of chicken cholera. It is perobic. 
Experiments indicate that the pigeon, rabbit, guinea pig, white rat, and dog, in addi- 
tion to ducks and chickens, are susceptible to the disease. 

Epizootic-parasitic gastritis of fowls, A. Rabieaux {Jour. Med. Vet. et Zootech., 
5. ser.,4 {1900) , pp. 16-20, fig. 1). — This disease, it is stated by the author, is caused 
by the presence of Spiroptera nasuta in the gizzard of fowls. Vermifugal treatment 
had very little effect, and the author recommends preventive remedies, such as t-lean- 
liness of the poultry (quarters and careful destruction of infected fowls. 

External parasites of poultry {Farmers' Gaz.,59 {1900), No. 1, pp. 16,17). — 
Notes on bird lice, with suggestion of remedies. 

The gape ■worm (Syngamus trachealis) , R. Klee {Deut. TJiierarztl. Wchnsckr., 7 
{1S99], Nn. 52, pp. 465-4>;s, Jigs. S) . — The author gives a description of the Avorm and 
an account of its hal)its and life history. The remedies which are recommended by 
the author include the usual ones and also the intratracheal injection of 1 cc. of a 5 
per cent aqueous solution of sodium salicylate. A brief discussion of the literature of 
the subject is given in connection with a bibliography of 32 titles. 

The temperature of the common foAvl, C. Fere {Jour. Anat. et Physiol. Paris, 
35 {1899), No. 6, j>p. 808-816). — A difference in the normal temperatures of the two 
sexes was noticed, as well as of different ages. 

AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING. 

Report of the meteorologist and irrigation engineer, I>. G. Car- 
penter {Colorado Sta. Rpt. 1899^ pj^- Ji-'2-5U J'^s- 6'). — The work of 
this department of the station during- 1899, as in previous years (E. 
S. R., 11. p. 39-1), has been confined mainly to measurements of seep- 
age, river How. duty of water, and nieteorolog-ieal observations (see 
p. 220). 

" The measurements to determine the gains or losses from seepage have been con- 
tinued this year on streams previously measured. These include the Cache la 
Poudre, from the canyon to its mouth, a distance of 50 miles; the Big Thompson, 
about the same distance; the Little Thompson, a tnhulary of tlic Big Thompson; 



AGRICULTUKAL ENGINEERING. 295 

the St. Vrain, from Lyons to the Platte, and its tributary, Left Hand Creek; the Rio 
Grande, from above Del Norte to tlie State line, a distance of al)Out 100 miles; tlie 
Arkansas, from Canyon City to the Kansas State line, a distance of 200 miles; nearly 
500 miles of river measurement in all for this particular purpose. . . . The general 
results of previous measurements are confirmed. A tendency to increase in the 
amount of water returning to the river is noticeable, especially on those streams 
where the return waters have some distance to pass to reach the stream. The Rio 
Grande is an exception in that a marked loss is noticeable at the rim of the valley. 
There is then a gain, but not enough to balance the loss." 

A record in continuation of that of previous years is given of the 
weekly measurements (April 18 to November 2S), by means of auto- 
matic instruuKMits. of the flow during 1S9S and 1S99 of tlie Cache la 
Poudre River at a point a]>out 12 miles from Fort Collins. The water- 
shed above the point of measurement exceeds 1,000 square miles. The 
average of the weeld}' measurements was 431 cubic feet per second in 
1898 and 860 in 1899, the normal for 1.5 j^ears being 708 cubic feet per 
second. Of the quantity so measured an amount not exceeding 150 
cubic feet per second is water diverted from other watersheds than that 
of the Cache la Poudre. Weekly bulletins of the flow have been pre- 
pared for the local use of papers in northern Colorado. 

The results of several years' observations on the duty of water are 
being prepared for piiblication. 

The efl'ect of forests on the preservation of snow is illustrated by 
reproductions of photographs. 

The use of -water in irrigation in Wyoming, B. C. Buffum ( U. S. 
Dejjt. Agr.^ ^^ffi<-*^ of Experiment Stations Bui. 81, j?jj. 56, pis. 8). — 
This bulletin describes studies bj^ the author during the past 9 years 
on the use of water in irrigation in Wyoming, and gives his conclusions 
regarding certain measures and methods needed to secure the largest 
service from the available supply. It discusses the application of 
water to crops, water measurements in Wyoming, duty of water, the 
irrigating season, and continuous flow as a basis for appropriation. 

"In the region under discussion irrigation is chiefly from small streams, and nearly 
all of the water supply which can be diverted is appropriated, but large volumes of 
water still run to waste in the larger rivers. It is along these that we must look for 
future develoi^ment, but the utilization of this supply involves questions outside the 
scope of this investigation. These large rivers as a rule drain the mountain summits 
and have a more uniform How than the small streams, as the snows which feed them 
melt slowly. The small streams, on the contrary, fluctuate so widely in volume that 
it usuall}' happens that more water runs to waste before irrigation of cultivated croj^s 
begins than is availaljle for use in July, when the need for such crops is greatest. 
It is also an unfortunate circumstance that the most remunerative crops are those 
which require late irrigation. Sugar beets, potatoes, alfalfa, and orchards all require 
irrigation in August and September, which is the season of the least supply. These 
crops, while bringing large returns, require, as a rule, but little water, and their cul- 
tivation will secure a much higher average duty than now prevails; but to greatly 
extend the area of these products will involve comprehensive measures to increase 
through storage the present volume available for use in July, August, and September, 
because on three-fourths of the Wyoming streams there is now a scarcity in these 



296 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

months. If this shall not prove feasible, then the future extension of the areas now 
irrigated will come chiefly through the cultivation of crops which can be brought to 
maturity by water supplied before June 15. Among these, forage crops take first 
rank, as they can be irrigated as soon as water can be turned in ditches, and the 
stimulus given by a single M'atering will secure at least a partial crop. All these 
crops, however, are wasteful of water, and if they are to predominate in the exten- 
sion of the reclaimed area, as will be necessary without storage, we may expect to 
see the average duty remain fully as low as at present." 

Silo construction and silage, C. M. Conner {South CaroJina Sfa. 
Bui. ol, jjp. l-j^jiys. 6). — The value of the ^\\o to the southern dairy- 
man as a means of providing succulent food for dairy animals during 
long dry sumuiers is briefly discussed, and detailed directions, with 
illustrations, are given for the construction of a round silo; with sug- 
gestions as to location, size, method of tilling, and crops to be grown 
for silage. The methods and details of construction described are 
those followed by the author in building a silo at the South Carolina 
Station. 

On drainage of marshes, H. Steixmetz (A'. LaiuJt. AhuJ. Handl. Tifhstr.^ ,39 
{1900), Xo. ■>, j>j>. 101-203). 

Report of trials of agricultural machinery, U. Sverdrup et al {Christktnio, 
1900, pp. -JO, *7/i<.s. ). — The report gives detailed results of trials of 40 different makes 
of plows, the trials being conducted by a committee of the Royal Society for Nor- 
way's Weal. 

Agricultural machinery in Denmark in 1899, C. V. Birk (Tid-iKkr. Landokon, 
1900, No. 3, pp. 149-164). 

Trials of common plows and wheel plows, P. Ullberc; {Landtmannen, 11 
{1900), Xo. 13-14, lyp. 191-202, 2 15-2 IS). 

Trial of the potato harvester "Cambrian," V. Svekdrip et al {Tid.^skr. 
Xor><ke Lundhr., 7 {1900), Xo. 1, pp. .38-40). 

The social, commercial, and economic phases of the road subject, AV. H. 
Mooke ( r. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Public Road Inquiries Circ. 34, pp. 8). — A paper by 
the president of the State and Interstate Good Roads and Public Improvement 
Association. 

STATISTICS— MISCELLANEOUS. 

Twelfth Annual Report of Arkansas Station, 1899 {Arkansas Sta. Rpt. 1899, 
pp. 8-1.34). — The report proper contains the organization list of the station, a finan- 
cial statement for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1899, and a brief report by the 
director. Bulletins 56-60 of the station on the following subjects are reprinted: 
Tomatoes, cabbage, and onions (E. S. R., 11, p. 242) ; the relative virulence for the 
domestic animals of human and l)ovine tubercle (E. S. R., 11, p. 689) ; an experiment 
in grazing a corn and cowpea field with steers (E. S. R., 11, p. 965); yield of Spanish 
peanuts planted at different distances (E. S. R., 11, p. 927) ; planting unshelled pea- 
nuts (E. S. R., 11, p. 923); relative effects of cotton meal, whole and crushed seed, on 
the yield of corn, cotton, and potatoes (E. S. R., 11, p. 926) ; relative effects on cotton 
and corn of certain leguminous crops turned under entire and their stubble only 
turned under (E. S. R., 11, p. 921); Allen Hybrid cotton (E. S. R., 11, p. 926); the 
comparative yield of corn from seed of the same variety grown in different latitudes 
(E. S. R., 12, p. 136); second report on Arkansas seedling apples (E. S. R., 12, p. 151). 

Twelfth Annual Report of Colorado Station, 1899 {Colorado Sta. Rpt. 1899, 
pp. 113,pl--<. 8, dyiii.^. 0). — This cuntams the oigauizution list of the station, a financial 



STATISTICS MISCELLANEOUS. 297 

statement for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1899, a report of the (hreetor discussing 
at some length the organization and work of the station ami substations, an inventory 
of station equipment, detailed outlines of station work for 1899, and reports of the 
heads of departments and superintendents of substations noted elsewhere. 

Fifteenth Annual Report of Maine Station, 1899 {Maine Sta. Rpt. 1899, pp. 
171 ). — This contains the organization list of the station, a brief report lay the director, 
and reprints of Bulletins 48-57 of the station on the following su1)jet'ts: Feeding stuff 
inspection (E. S. R., 10, p. 1089), care of orchards (E. S. R., 11, p. 153), fertilizer 
inspection (E. S. R., 11, p. 137), feeding stuff inspection (E. R. R., 11, i). 279), the 
spraying of plants (E. S. R., 11, p. 262), fertilizer inspection (E. S. R., 11. p. 829), 
nuts as food (E. S. R., 12, p. 78), cereal breakfast foods (E. S. R., 12, p. 69), apple 
insects of Maine (E. S. R., 12, p. 68), experiments with potatoes (E. S. R., 12, p. 
140) . A list of acknowledgments, meteorological observations, and a report of the 
treasurer for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1899, are also included. 

Twelfth Annual Report of Massachusetts Hatch Station, 1899 {Massachu- 
settx ILttcJi Stn. Iljit. IS:Hi,j)p. 1J.>). — A lirief sunnnary is given of statinn work during 
the year, which includes also a list of officers of the station and a list of station pub- 
lications now available for distribution. A financial statement is given for the fiscal 
year ended June 30, 1899. Reports of the agriculturist, botanists, meteorologist, hor- 
ticulturist, entomologist, and chemists, parts of which are noted elsewhere, are 
included, which review in detail the different lines of station work during the year 
and give results in some cases. 

Twelfth Annual Report of Mississippi Station, 1 899 ( Mississippi Sla. Rpt. 1899, 
pp. 47). — This contains the organization list of the station, reports of the director and 
treasurer for the fiscal year enfled June 30, 1899, and departmental reports, parts of 
which, together with notes on forage crops and a meteorological summary, are noted 
elsewhere. Reprints of Bulletins 53 to 59 of the station, with the exception of Bul- 
letins 55 and 57, on the following subjects are appended: Some insects injurious to 
stock and remedies therefor (E. S. R., 11, p. 272), Irish potato culture (E. 8. R., 
11, ]i. 241), grapes (E. S. R., 11, p. 253), soils of Mississippi — texture and water con- 
ditions (E. S. R., 11, p. 328), and analyses of commercial fertilizers (PI S. R., 11, 
p. 528). 

Tenth Annual Report of North Dakota Station, 1899 {Xorlh Dahda Sta. 
Rpt. 1899, pp. 56). — This contains the organization list of the station, a brief general 
report on station work during the year, detailed reports on the work of the different 
departments, parts of which are noted elsewhere, and a financial statement for the 
fiscal year ended June 30, 1899. 

Twelfth Annual Report of Vermont Station, 1899 {Vertnoul Sla. Rpt. 1899, 
pp. 119-354). — This includes the organization list of the station, financial report for 
the fiscal year ended June 30, 1S99, report of the director reviewing at some length 
the work and publications of the station during the year, abstracts of Bulletins 60-71 
of the station, and departmental reports abstracted elsewhere. 

Record of six years' work at the Plains Substation, J. \\. Payxe {Colorado 
Sta. Rpt. 1899, pp. 71-95, pis. 5, fig. 1). — This station has previously been known as 
the "Rainbelt Substation." The record here given is a summary statement of the 
results secured at the station with a large number of farm, orchard, and garden crops 
for each of the years the station has been in existence. The results are largely 
negative. 

Report of the Rainbelt Substation, J. E. Payxe {Colorado Sta. Rpt. 1899, pp. 
52-55). — The report includes notes on fruit set out at the station and now living, on 
the growth of certain field crops, and recommendations as to further work. 

The agricultural experiment stations in the United States, A. C. True and 
V. A. Clark ( U. S. Dipt. Ayr., Oftir,' ,,/ Krprrinient Station.'^ Bid. 80, pp. 6-36, ph. 153) .— 
This in an exhaustive report on the history and present status nf tlie agricultural 
8()oS— No. 3 8 



298 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

experiineiit statioiit^ iu the I'nited States prepared as a part of the experiment station 
exhibit at the Paris Exposition. It inchides a statement concerning the general 
agricultural conditions in the United States as related to the work of the stations; 
an historical review of the organization and development of the stations, together 
with an account of the early experimental work carried on by the agricultural col- 
leges and other institutions prior to the establishment of the stations under the 
Hatch Act; a statement of the relations of the stations to the Federal Government 
and to several associations, accounts of which are given; a discussion of the organ- 
ization, equipment, lines of work, and general results of the work of the stations; an 
extended account, comprising the larger part of the volume, of the Office of Experi- 
ment Stations and of the individual stations, giving in each case the history, organ- 
ization, equipment, financial supi)ort, lines of work, publications, and general results 
of work; and an appendix containing an account of the inspection work of the sta- 
tions with the principal features of the laws under which it is carried on, the gen- 
eral statistics of the stations, a list of the publications issued by them since their 
organization, a descriptive account of the card index of experiment station literature, 
a list of books published by experiment station workers, and a catalogue of the 
experiment station exhiljit at tlie Paris Exposition. 

Statistics of the land-grant colleges and agricultural experiment stations 
in the United States for the year ended June 30, 1899 ( U. S. Dept. Agr., Office 
of E.qxriinciif Slatioii:^ BuJ. 78, pp. 39). — A summary of this has already apj^eared 
(E. S. R.,n,p. .SOI). 

Farmers' institutes: History and status in the United States and Canada, 
L. H. Bailey ( f7. S. Dept. Agr., Office of ExperlmeM Stations Bui 79, ptp. 5.4). —This 
bulletin gives a general survey of farmers' institutes and historical and statistical 
information regarding the movement in the different States and Provinces. A list 
of officials in charge of farmers' institutes in the United States is appended. 

Experiment Station Work — XIV ( V. S. Dept. Agr., Farmers' Bui. 114, J^P- -^S, 
figs. 5). — This number contains articles on the following subjects: Influence of salt 
and similar substances on soil moisture, extra-early potatoes, rotting of cranberries, 
chestnuts, low-grade Paris green, crude petroleum as an insetiticide, skim milk in 
bread making, l^est number of hens in one pen, nest box for egg records, and profit- 
able and im}ir(ifital)lc cows. 

Crop circular for April, 1900, J. Hyde {V. ,S. Dept. Agr., Diri.^ion of Statistics 
Crop Circ. Apr., pp). 4)- — This c-ontains notes and tabulated data on the condition of 
winter wheat and rye and of farm animals throughout the United States on April 1, 
1900, and estimated losses of horses, cattle, sheep, and swine from exposure and dis- 
ea.se during the year ended March 31, 1900. 

Agricultural imports and exports, 1895-1899 [V. S. Dept. Agr., Sectioti of 
Foreign Markets Circ. 22, jip- 15)- — Tables are given showing the nature, quantity, 
and value of the agricultural imports and exports of the United States during each 
of the 5 fiscal years, 1S9.5-1899. 

Warehouses: A study of the organization of the grain trade in America, 
India, and Russia as -well as in some German States, O. BiiiiM {Die Kurn- 
Iniiisi'r; rinr Stmlie i'tiicr die Organisation dex Clctreidf Vrrlcanfes in Ameriha, Indien, und 
Bn.ssIdii'I, xiiwie in. einigen deutscheu Staaten. Slnltgarl: ./. G. Cotta, 1898, pp. 96). 



NOTES. 



Alabama College axd Station. — B. B. Ross, professor of chemistry in the college 
and State and station chemist, has been granted a year's leave of absence, which he 
will spend in study in Europe. During his absence J. T. Anderson, associate chemist 
of the station, will be acting State and station chemist, and Paul Murrill, recently of 
the University of Michigan, will be acting professor of chemistry in the college. 
C. F. Austin, a graduate of the Michigan Agricultural College, and formerly con- 
nected with the Montana Station, has been appointed assistant horticulturist of the 
station. A residence is being erected for the assistant agriculturist. 

Arizona Station. — David Griffiths, Ph.D., has been appointed botanist of the 
station. He is to make a specialty of range study and improvement, in which work 
the Arizona Station is cooperating with the Division of Agrostology of this Depart- 
ment. Three hundred and twenty acres of worn-out range near Tucson is now 
under fence and is to serve as a main reserve for this study. 

California Station. — C. A. Colemore has been appointed clerk to the director, 
i-ice A. V. Stubenrauch, resigned. The post-office address of the Southern California 
Substation has been changed from Pomona to Ontario, and the station now has the 
advantage of the rural delivery system. Some important changes are under way at 
the substation near Paso Robles. For the past ten years a large number of deciduous 
fruit trees have been tested upon land underlaid at a few feet by a very thick bed of 
siliceous hardpan. This orchard is being removed, and the r