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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

OFFICE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS 
A. C. TRUE, DIRECTOR 



EXPERIMENT 

STATION 

RECORD 



VOLUME XXX 

JANUARY- JUNE, 1914 




LIBRARY 

NEW YORK 

BOTANICAL 

QAKDEW. 



WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1914 



~A 



U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 
Scientific Bureaus. 

Weather Bureau — C. F. Marvin, Chief. 
Bureau of Anim4.l Industry — A. D. Melvin, Chief. 
Bureau of Plant Industry — W. A. Taylor, Chief. 
Forest Service — H. S. Graves, Forester. 
Bureau of Soils — Milton WTiitney, Chief. 
Bureau of Chemistry — C. L. Alsberg, Chief. 
Bureau of Statistics — L. M. Estabrook, Statistician. 
Bureau of Entomology — L. O. Howard, Entomologist. 
Bureau of Biological Survey — H. W. Henshaw, Chief. 
Office of Public Roads — L. W. Page, Director. 



Office of Experiment Stations — A. C. True, Director. 



THE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS. 



Alabama— 

College Station: Auburn; J. F. Duggar.o 
Canebrake Station: Uniontown; L. H. Moore.o 
Tuskegee Station: Tuskegee Institute; G. W. 
Carver.o 

Alaska— iSi<fca; C. C. Georgeson.b 

Arizona— Tucson: R. H. Forbes.o 

Arkansas — Fayetteville: M. Nelson.a 

California— ^erfccZey.- T. F. Hunt.a 

Colorado— i^ort Collins: C. P. Gillette.o 

Connecticut— 

State Station: New Haven;\^ „ ^ , . 

o^ ^- c^ 7E. H, Jenkms.a 

Storrs Station: Storrs; f 

Delaware— iV^ewarfc/ H. Hayw^ard.a 

Florida— Gainesville: P. H. Rolfs.o 

Georgia— Experiment: R. J. H. De Loach.o 

GvAiA-Islan-d of Guam: A. C. Hartenbower.& 

Hawah- 

Federal Station: Honolulu; B. V. Wilcox.b 
Sugar Planters' Station: Honolulu; H. P. 
Agee.o 

Idaho— Moscow: W. L. Carlyle.o 

Illinois— Urbana: E. Davenport.o 

Indiana— La Fayette: A. Goss.o 

lovf A— Ames: C. F. Curtiss.o 

KAi>iSAS— Manhattan: W. M. Jardine.o 

Kesivcky— Lexington: J. H. Kastle.o 

LOUISLAlNA— 

State Station: Baton Rouge; \ 

Sugar Station: ^Md«6onParfc,„^ ,. ^ , 
,T ^, >W. R. Dodson.o 

New Orleans; | 

North La. Station: Calhoun; J 

Maine— Orono; C. D. "VVoods.o 

Marylani>— CoWc^e Park: H. J. Patterson.o 

Massachusetts— ^mfters^; W. P. Brooks.o 

Michigan— £o5< Lansing: R. S. Shaw. a 

Minnesota— University Farm, St. Paul: A. F. 

Woods.a 

Mississippi— ^^rjCMttwrai College: E. R. Lloyd.o 

Missouri— 

College Station: Columbia; F. B. Mumford.o 

Fruit Station: Mountain Grove; Paul Evans.a 



a Director. 



6 Special agent in charge, 



Mont Ay; A— Bozeman: F. B. Linfield.o 

Nebraska— imcoZn.' E. A. Burnett.o 

Nevada— J2fr?o.' S. B. Doten.o 

New Hampshire— Dwrftam.- J. C. Kendall.o 

New Jersey — New Brunswick: J. G. Lipman.o 

New Mexico— Sia^e College: Fabian Garcia.o 

New York— 

State Station: Geneva; W. H. Jordan. « 
Cornell Station: Ithaca; B. T. Galloway.* 

North Carolina— 

College Station: West Raleigh;\^ „. _., 
State Station: Raleigh; T' ^^- ^^S^''^''* 

North 'Dakota— Agricultural College: T. P. 
Cooper.o 

Omo— Wooster: C. E. Thome.o 

Oklahoma— )S^?ZZM;a^er.- L. L. Lewis.o 

Oregon— CormZZis; A. B. Cordley.o 

Pennsylvania — 

State College: R. L. Watts.o 
State College: Institute of Animal Nutrition; 
H. P. Armsby.a 

Porto Rico— 

Federal Station: Mayaguez; D. W. May. 6 
Sugar Planters' Station: Rio Piedras; J. T. 
Crawley.o 

Rhode Island — Kingston: B. L. HartweU.o 

South Carolina— CZcmson College: J. N, Har- 
per.o 

South Dakota— Brookings: J, W. Wilson.o 

Tennessee— Znoit^iZZe.- H. A. Morgan.o 

Texas— CoZZef^e Station: B. Youngblood.o 

JjTAn—Logan: E. D. Ball.o 

V^RisiONT-Burlington: J. L. Hills.o 

Virginia— 

Blacksburg:Vf. J. Schoene.c 

Norfolk: Truck Station; T. C. Johnson.** 

"Wasiiington- PttZZmaw.- 1. D. Cardiff.** 

West Virginia— Morgantown: E. D. Sander- 
son.a 

Wisconsin— Jfodison.-H. L. Russell.o 

Wyoming — Laramie: H. G. Knight.o 
in Charge. c Acting director. 



II 



EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD, 

Editor: E. W. ALLEN, Ph. D., Assistant Director. 
Assistant Editor: H. L. Knight. 

EDITORIAL DEPARTMENTS. 

Agricultural Chemistry and Agrotechny — L. W. Fetzer, Ph. D., M. D. 

Meteorology, Soils, and Fertilizers]-. *„- m 

[R. ^. Trullinger. 

Agricultural Botany, Bacteriology, Vegetable Pathology|,„' ^" _^^^^' • • 

T^- ij r^ \J. I. SCHULTE. 

^'^'^'^■^Pia. M.Tucker, Ph.D. 

Horticulture and Forestry — E. J. Glasson. 

t:, T . XT AT + •*• fC. F. Langworthy, Ph. D., D. Sc. 

Foods and Human Nutntion<Tx t t 

[H. L. Lang. 

Zootechny, Dairying, and Dairy Farming — H. Webster. 

Economic Zoology and Entomology — W. A. Hooker, D. V. M. 

,;. . . HT J- • (W. A. Hooker. 

Veterinary Medicme<-r „, ^^ 

'' [L. W. Fetzer. 

Rural Engineering — R. W. Trullinger. 

Rural Economics — B. B. Hare. 

Agricultural Education — C. H. Lane. 

Indexes — M. D. Moore. 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME XXX. 

EDITORIAL NOTES. 

Page. 

The letters and writings of Dr. S. W. Johnson 1 

Rediscovered ideals for agricultural investigation 5 

Progress of studies in animal nutrition 101 

Requirements of feeding experiments 103 

Need of redirection of experimental -work in animal husbandry 106 

The '' Village Moderne " at the Ghent Exposition 301 

The opportunity of the agricultural college for civic betterment 305 

Journal literature of agricultural science 401 

The essentials of a scientific paper 403 

Functions of criticism in agricultural science 407 

The agricultural extension act 601 

State and National cooperation in agricultural extension 605 

The Louisville conference on country-life development 608 

Rural sanitation — an opportunity for extension work 701 

Alabama College Station: 

Bulletin 174, December, 1913 636 

Alabama Tuskegee Station: 

Bulletin 25, October, 1913 19 

III 



IV EXPEEIMENT STATION RECORD. 

Arkansas Station: Page. 

Bulletin 115, September, 1913 336 

Bulletin 116, January, 1914 533 

Circular 18, July, 1913 534 

Circular 19, September, 1913 657 

Circular 20, December, 1913 739 

California Station: 

Bulletin 240, September, 1913 28 

Bulletin 241 741 

Bulletin 242, Januar5% 1914 714 

Bulletin 243, March, 1914 883 

Bulletin 244, March, 1914 814 

Circular 106, September, 1913 83 

Circular 107, October, 1913 345 

Circular 108, October, 1913 316 

Circular 109, January, 1914 694 

Circular 110, December, 1913 625 

Circular 111, December, 1913 627 

Circular 112, January, 1914 695 

Circular 113, January, 1914 695 

Circular 114, February, 1914 687 

Circular 115, February, 1914 841 

Circular 116, March, 1914 854 

Colorado Station: 

Bulletin 190, June, 1913 36 

Bulletin 191, June, 1913 35 

Bulletin 192, November, 1913 813 

Bulletin 193, January, 1914 818 

Bulletin 194, January, 1914 885 

Twenty-fifth Annual Report, 1912 197 

Connecticut State Station: 

Bulletin 179, October, 1913 339 

Bulletin 180, January, 1914 835 

Bulletin 181, January, 1914 856 

Bulletin 182, March, 1914 854 

Annual Report 1913, pt. 2 327 

Annual Report 1913, pt. 3 654 

Annual Report 1913, pt. 4 664 

Annual Report 1913, pt. 5 868 

Florida Station: 

Bulletin 119, November, 1913 55 

Bulletin 120, January, 1914 528 

Bulletin 121, February, 1914 648 

Georgia Station: 

Bulletin 103, January, 1914 517 

Circular 69, August, 1913 697 

Circular 70, January, 1914 635 

Circular 71, January, 1914 626 

Guam Station: 

Annual Report, 1912 17, 37, 41, 68, 94 



CONTENTS. V 

Hawah Station: Page. 

Bulletin 29, December 1, 1913 445 

Bulletin 30, December 31, 1913 419 

Bulletin 31, January 17, 1914 420 

Bulletin 32, March 26, 1914 841 

Annual Report, 1913 813, 828, 838, 841, 852, 899 

Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Station: 

Division of Agriculture and Chemistry Bulletin 42, 1914 890 

Division of Agriculture and Chemistry Bulletin 43, 1914 891 

Idaho Station: 

Bulletin 78, January, 1914 786 

Illinois Station: 

Bulletin 165, July, 1913 369, 370 

Circular 169, September, 1913 467 

Indiana Station: 

Bulletin 167, October, 1913 767 

Bulletin 168, November, 1913 769 

Bulletin 169, August, 1913 169 

Bulletin 170, December, 1913 518 

Bulletin 171, February, 1914 738 

Circular 39, July, 1913 41 

Circular 40, September, 1913 71 

Circular 41, September, 1913 576 

Circular 42, January, 1914 875 

Twenty-sixth Annual Report, 1913 509, 518, 575, 585, 598 

Iowa Station: 

Bulletin 137, April, 1913 36 

Bulletin 138, April, 1913 37 

Bulletin 139, May, 1913 89 

Bulletin 140, August, 1913 61 

Bulletin 141, July, 1913 89 

Bulletin 142, August, 1913 46 

Bulletin 143, September, 1913 69 

Bulletin 144, September, 1913 41 

Kansas Station: 

Bulletin 188, July, 1913 157 

Bulletin 189, July, 1913 155 

Bulletin 190, October, 1913 555 

Bulletin 191, November, 1913 547 

Bulletin 192, October, 1913 569 

Bulletin 193, December, 1913 734 

Bulletin 194, December, 1913 735 

Circular 31, 1914 734 

Circular 32 547 

Circular 33 346 

Circular 34 341 

Kentucky Station: 

Bulletin 173, August 1, 1913 60 

Bulletin 174, September 1, 1913 20 

Bulletin 175, October 31, 1913 770 

BuUetin 176, November 30, 1913 772 



VI EXPERIMENT STATIOIST RECORD. 

Louisiana Stations: Page. 

Bulletin 142, October, 1913 50 

Feed Stuffs Report, 1912-13 565 

Fertilizer Report, 1912-13 428 

Twenty-fifth Annual Report, 1912 655, 696 

Twenty-sixth Annual Report, 1913 899 

Maine Station: 

Bulletin 215, August, 1913 66 

Bulletin 216, September, 1913 175 

Bulletin 217, October, 1913 548 

Bulletin 218, October, 1913 564 

Bulletin 219, October, 1913 542 

Bulletin220, November, 1913 854 

Bulletin 221, December, 1913 873, 874, 875 

Maryland Station: 

Bulletin 176, April, 1913 659 

Bulletin 177, May, 1913 676 

Bulletin 178, October, 1913 642 

Twenty-fifth Annual Report, 1912 696 

Massachusetts Station: 

Bulletin 146, October, 1913 67 

Bulletin 147, December, 1913 327 

Meteorological Bulletins 299-300, November-December, 1913 317 

Meteorological Bulletins 301-302, January-February, 1914 713 

Twenty-fifth Annual Report, 1912, pt. 1 125, 

128, 131, 142, 147, 150, 151, 152, 154, 160, 176, 178, 197 

Twenty-fiffli Annual Report, 1912, pt. 2 127, 

138, 139, 140, 141, 146, 148, 151, 153, 156, 175, 197 

Michigan Station: 

Bulletin 272, September, 1913 428 

Special Bulletin 62, September, 1913 482 

Special Bulletin 63, September, 1913 443 

Twenty-sixth Annual Report, 1913 624, 640, 642, 696 

Minnesota Station: 

Bulletin 134, April, 1913 86 

Bulletin 135, July, 1913 94 

Bulletin 136, December, 1913 591 

Bulletm 137, February, 1914 738, 760 

Press Bulletin 43, September, 1913 394 

Mississippi Station: 

Bulletin 162, September, 1913 175 

Bulletin 163, 1913 639 

Missouri Station: 

Bulletin 114, October, 1913 772 

Bulletin 115, November, 1913 768 

Research Bulletin 7, October, 1913 773 

Circular 66, September, 1913 735 

Nevada Station: 

Bulletin 80, November, 1913 165 

New Jersey Stations: 

Bulletin 257, November 30, 1912 324 

Bulletin 258, November 30, 1912 325 

Bulletin 259, September 18, 1913 327 



CONTENTS. Vn 

New Jersey Stations — Continued. Page. 

Circular 27 139 

Circular 28 138 

Circular 29 750 

Circular 30 739 

Thirty-third Annual Report, 1912 324, 

325, 326, 327, 331, 333, 342, 343, 344, 349, 352, 355, 361, 373, 374, 375, 389, 395 

New Mexico Station: 

Bulletin 88, October, 1913 517 

Bulletin 89, February, 1914 839 

New York Cornell Station: 

Bulletin 334, July, 1913 877 

Bulletin 335, September, 1913 848 

Bulletin 336, October, 1913 877 

Bulletin 337, October, 1913 810 

Bulletin 338, November, 1913 819 

Bulletin 339, November, 1913 829 

Bulletin 340, January, 1914 840 

Circular 21, January, 1914 848 

Twenty-sixth Annual Report, 1913 899 

Memoir 2, August, 1913 128 

New York State Station: 

Bulletin 366, August, 1913 68 

Bulletm 367, October, 1913 49 

Bulletin 368, November, 1913 358, 359 

Bulletin 369, December, 1913 540 

Bulletin 370, December, 1913 539, 540 

Bulletin 371, December, 1913 520 

Bulletin 372, December, 1913 899 

Circular 25, April 25, 1913 853 

Circular 26, January 12, 1914 821 

Circular 27, January 20, 1914 822 

North Carolina Station: 

Bulletin 224, January, 1914 843 

Bulletin 225, February, 1914 894 

Bulletin 226, March, 1914 831 

North Dakota Station: 

Bulletin 106, October, 1913 338, 362, 363, 370, 380 

Special Bulletin, vol. 2, No. 20, October, 1913 639, 666, 691 

Special Bulletin, vol. 2, No. 21, November, 1913 617, 666 

Special Bulletin, vol. 2, No. 22, December, 1913 666 

Special Bulletin, vol. 3, No. 1, January, 1914 616, 667 

Special Bulletin, vol. 3, No. 2, January, 1914 668 

Special Seed Bulletin 2, July, 1913 342 

Twenty-third Annual Report, 1912, pt. 1 638, 696 

Twenty-tliird Annual Report, 1912, pt. 2 665, 696 

Twenty-third Annual Report, 1912, pt. 3 616, 

620, 622, 661, 663, 664, 671, 691, 696 

Ohio Station: 

Bulletin 260, April, 1913 25 

Bulletin 261, June, 1913 817 

Wood-Usino: Industries of Ohio, 1912 536 



VIII EXPEKIMENT STATION RECORD. 

Oklahoma Station: Page. 

Circular 19, March, 1913 437 

Circular 20, March, 1913 443 

Circular 21, June, 1913 443 

Circular 22, July, 1913 443 

Circular 23, November, 1913 532 

Twenty-second Annual Report, 1913 568, 584, 593, 598 

Oregon Station: 

Bulletin 115, November, 1912 441 

Bulletin 116, August, 1913 443 

Research Bulletin 2, July, 1913 152 

Pennsylvania Station: 

Bulletin 124, September, 1913 372 

Bulletin 125, October, 1913 342 

Bulletin 126, November, 1913 563 

Bulletin 127, December, 1913 822 

Porto Rico Station: 

Bulletin 14, March 19, 1914 818 

Porto Rico Sugar Producers' Station: 

Bulletin 5 (Third Annual Report, 1913), August, 1913 340, 355, 356, 395 

Bulletin 6 (English edition), September, 1913 449 

Circular 3 (English edition), October, 1913 150 

Rhode Island Station: 

Bulletin 155, June, 1913 71 

Inspection Bulletin, September, 1911 428 

Inspection Bulletm, October, 1911 428 

Inspection Bulletin, October, 1913 327 

Twenty-fifth Annual Report, 1912 510, 571, 586, 598 

South Carolina Station: 

Circular 11, April, 1913 338 

Circular 12, April, 1913 371 

Circular 13, July, 1913 320 

Circular 14, July, 19.13 346 

Circular 15, July, 1913 357 

Circular 16, July, 1913 357 

Circular 37, July, 1913 346 

Circular 18, July, 1913 346 

Circular 19, October, 1913 335 

Circular 20, October, 1913 625 

Circular 21, November, 1913 643 

Circular 22, December, 1913 645 

Twenty-sixth Annual Report, 1913 538, 545, 599 

South Dakota Station: 

Bulletin 146, November, 1913 738 

Bulletin 147, December, 1913 775 

Annual Report, 1912 640, 697 

Tennessee Station: 

Bulletin 100, September, 1913 808 

Bulletin 101, October, 1913 820 

Bulletm 102, January, 1914 821 

Texas Station: 

Bulletin 159, July, 1913 468 

Bulletin 160, July, 1913 428 

Bulletin 161, September, 1913 420 



CONTENTS. IX 

Utah Station: Page. 

Bulletin 123, August, 1913 887 

Bulletin 124, August, 1913 41 

Bulletin 125, August, 1913 460 

Bulletin 12G, August, 1913 72 

Bulletin 127, August, 1913 177 

Bulletin 128, November, 1913 442 

Bulletin 129, November, 1913 549 

Bulletin 130, January, 1914 639 

Bulletin 131, March, 1914 829 

Circular 13 41 

Circular 14, November, 1913 390 

Circular 15, November, 1913 829 

Vermont Station: 

Bulletin 174, June, 1913 184 

Virginia Station: 

Bulletin 203, January, 1914 450 

Virginia Truck Station: 

Bulletin 9, October 1, 1913 532 

Washington Station: 

Bulletin 112, October, 1913 383 

Bulletin 113, December, 1913 568 

Popular Bulletin 59 534 

Western Washington Station Monthly Bulletin, vol. 1, No. 1, September, 

1913 197 

West Virginia Station: 

Bulletin 142, November, 1913 839 

Inspection Bulletin 2, January, 1914 823 

Circular 4, March, 1912 94 

Circular 6, September, 1912 27 

Circular 7, March, 1913 344 

Annual Report 1912 38, 40, 49, 55, 71, 94 

Wisconsin Station: 

Bulletin 232, August, 1913 173 

Bulletin 233, September, 1913 141 

Bulletin 234, January, 1914 694 

Bulletin 235, March, 1914 874 

Research Bulletin 30, February, 1914 867 

Research Bulletin 31, February, 1914 846 

Circular of Information 45, September, 1913 470 

Wyoming Station: 

Bulletin 101, November, 1913 412 

Bulletin 102, January, 1914 584 

Twenty-third Annual Report, 1913 619, 687, 697 

UNITED STATES DEPARTl^IENT OF AGRICULTURE PUBLICATIONS 

ABSTRACTED. 

Journal Agricultural Research, vol. 1, No. 2, November, 1913 41, 44, 52, 56, 83 

Journal Agricultural Research, vol. 1, No. 3, December, 1913 349, 351, 354, 360 

Journal Agricultural Research, vol. 1, No. 4, January, 1914 436, 440, 452, 453, 459 

Journal Agricultural Research, vol. 1, No. 5, February, 1914 610, 628, 640, 643 

Journal Agricultural Research, vol. 1, No. 6, March, 1914. . 801, 803, 844, 846, 855, 875 
Bulletin 2, The Fish-scrap Fertilizer Industry of the Atlantic Coast, J. W. Tur- 

rentine 326 



X EXPEKIMENT STATION KECORD. 

Page. 
Bulletin 3, A Normal Day's Work for Various Farm Operations, H, H. Mowry. . 89 
Bulletin 4, The Reseeding of Depleted Grazing Lands to Cultivated Forage ,^ 

Plants, A. W. Sampson [I 35 

Bulletin 5, The Southern Com Root-worm or Budworm, F. M. Webster 56 

Bulletin 6, The Agricultural Utilization of Acid Lands by Means of Acid- 
tolerant Crops, F. V. Coville - 23 

Bulletin 7, Agricultural Training Courses for Employed Teachers, E . R . Jackson 93 

Bulletin 8, The Western Corn Rootworm, F. M. Webster 56 

Bulletin 9, An Economic Study of Acacias, C. H. Shinn 146 

Bulletin 10, Progress Report of Cooperative Irrigation Experiments at Califor- 
nia University Farm, Davis, Cal., 1909-1912, S. H. Beckett 34 

Bulletin 11, Forest Management of Loblolly Pine in Delaware, Maryland, and 

Virginia , W . D . S terre tt 446 

Bulletin 12, Uses of Commercial Woods of the United States, H. Maxwell 46 

Bulletin 13, ^\^lite Pine Under Forest Management, E. H. Frothingham 535 

Bulletin 14, The Migratory Habit of House-fly Larvae as Indicating a Favorable 

Remedial Measure.— An Account of Progress, R. H. Hutchison 756 

Bulletin 15, A Sealed Paper Carton to Protect Cereals from Insect Attack, W. 

B . Parker 53 

Bulletin 16, The Culture of Flue-cured Tobacco, E. H. Mathewson 39 

Bulletin 17, The Refrigeration of Dressed Poultry in Transit, Mary E. Penn- 
ington et al 71 

Bulletin 18, A Report on the Phosphate Fields of South Carolina, W. H. Wagga- 

man 27 

Bulletin 19, The Grape Leafhopper in the Lake Erie Valley, F. Johnson 547 

Bulletin 20, The Management of Sheep on the Farm, E. L. Shaw and L. L. 

Heller 372 

Bulletin 21, The Commercial Fattening of Poultry, A. R, Lee 470 

Bulletin 22, Game Laws for 1913, T. S. Palmer et al 52 

Bulletin 23, Vitrified Brick as a Paving Material for Country Roads, V. M. 

Peirce and C. H. Moorefield 86 

Bulletin 24, Cottonwood in the Mississippi Valley, A. W. Williamson 346 

Bulletin 25, The Shrinkage in Weight of Beef Cattle in Transit, W. F. Ward and 

J . E . Downing 171 

Bulletin 26, American Medicinal Flowers, Fruits, and Seeds, Alice Henkel. . . 145 
Bulletin 27, Bouillon Cubes: Their Contents and Food Value Compared with 

Meat Extracts and Homemade Preparations of Meat, F, C. Cook 162 

Bulletin 28, Experiments in Bulb Growing at the United States Bulb Garden at 

Bellingham, P. H. Dorsett 145 

Bulletin 29, Crew Work, Costs, and Returns in Commercial Orcharding in W^est 

Virginia, J. H. Arnold 144 

Bulletin 30, Cereal Investigations at the Nephi Substation, P. V. Cardon 135 

Bulletin 31, Behavior, Under Cultural Conditions, of Species of Cacti Known 

as Opuntia, D. Griffiths 336 

Bulletin 32, An Example of Successful Farm Management in Southern New 

York, M. C. Burritt and J. H. Barron 193 

Bulletin 34, Range Improvement by Deferred and Rotation Grazing, A. W. 

Sampson 334 

Bulletin 35, Factors Governing the Successful Storage of California Table 

Grapes, A. V. Stubenrauch and C. W. Mann 345 

Bulletin 36, Studies of Primary Cotton Market Conditions in Oklahoma, W. A. 

Sherman et al 193 

Bulletin 37, Nitrogenous FertiUzers Obtainable in the United States, J. W. 

Turrentine 126 



CONTENTS. XI 

Page- 
Bulletin 38, Seed Selection of Egyptian Cotton, T. H. Kearney 138 

Bulletin 39, Experiments with Wheat, Oats, and Barley in South Dakota, M. 

Champlin 434 

Bulletin 40, The Mosaic Disease of Tobacco, H. A. Allard 450 

Bulletin 41, A Farm-management Survey of Three Representative Areas in 

Indiana, Illinois, and Iowa, E. H. Thomson and H. M. Dixon 490 

Bulletin 42, The Action of Manganese in Soils, J.J. Skinner, M. X. Sullivan,etal. 823 
Bulletin 43, American-grown Paprika Pepper, T. B. Young and R. H. True. . 343 

Bulletin 44, The Blights of Coniferous Nursery Stock, C. Hartley 151 

Bulletin 45, Experiments in the Use of Sheep in the Eradication of the Rocky 

Mountain Spotted Fever Tick, H. P. Wood 162 

Bulletin 46, A Descriptive Catalogue of the Soils of Virginia so Far Identified 

in the Soil Survey 319 

Bulletin 47, Lessons for American Potato Growers from German Experiences, 

W. A. Orton 139 

Bulletin 48, The Shrinkage of Shelled Corn While in Cars in Transit, J. W. T. 

Duvel and L. Duval 337 

Bulletin 49, The Cost of Raising a Dairy Cow, CM. Bennett and M. O. Coeper. 472 

Bulletin 50, Possible Agricultural Development in Alaska, L. Chubbuck 491 

Bulletin 52, The Anthracnose of the Mango in Florida, S. M. McMurran 451 

Bulletin 53, Object-lesson and Experimental Roads, and Bridge Construction, 

1912-13 386 

Bulletin 55, Balsam Fir, R. Zon 843 

Bulletin 56, A Special Flask for the Rapid Determination of Water in Flour 

and Meal, J. H. Cox 506 

Bulletin 57, Water Supply, Plumbing, and Sewage Disposal for Country Homes, 

R. W. Trullinger 690 

Bulletin 58, Five Important Wild-duck Foods, W. L. McAtee 545 

Bulletin 59, The Tobacco Splitworm, A. C. Morgan and S. E. Crumb 550 

Bulletin 60, The Relation of Cotton Buying to Cotton Growing, O. F. Cook. . . 527 
Bulletin 62, Tests of the Waste, Tensile Strength, and Bleaching Qualities of 

the Different Grades of Cotton as Standardized by the U. S. Government, 

N.A.Cobb 527 

Bulletin 63, Factors Governing the Successful Shipment of Oranges from 

Florida, A. V. Stubenrauch et al 841 

Bulletin 64, Potato Wilt, Leaf-roll, and Related Diseases, W. A. Orton 649 

Bulletin 65, Cerebrospinal Meningitis ("Forage Poisoning"), J. R. Mohler. . . . 685 
Bulletin 66, Statistics of Sugar in the United States and Its Insular Possessions, 

1881-1912, F. Andrews 736 

Bulletin 67, Tests of Rocky Mountain Woods for Telephone Poles, N. de W. 

Betts and A. L. Heim 843 

Bulletin 68, Pasture and Grain Crops for Hogs in the Pacific Northwest, B. 

Hunter 771 

Bulletin 69, Cicuta, or Water Hemlock, C. D. Marsh, A. B. Clawson, and H. 

Marsh 880 

Farmers' Bulletin 561, Bean Growing in Eastern Washington and Oregon, and 

Northern Idaho, L. W. Fluharty 138 

Farmers' Bulletin 562, The Organization of Boys' and Girls' Poultry Clubs, 

H. M. Lamon 395 

Farmers' Bulletin 563, The Agricultural Outlook 392 

Farmers' Bulletin 564, The Gipsy Moth and the Brown-tail Moth, with Sug- 
gestions for Their Control, A. F. Burgess 549 

Farmers' Bulletin 565, Corn Meal as a Food and Ways of Using It, C. F. Lang- 
worthy and Caroline L. Hunt 557 



Xn EXPERIMEKT STATION RECORD. 



Fanners' Bulletin 566, Boys' Pig Clubs, W. F. Ward 395 

Farmers' Bulletin 567, Sugar-beet Growing Under Irrigation, CO. Townsend. 529 
Farmers' Bulletin 568, Sugar-beet Growing Under Humid Conditions, CO. 

Townsend ^29 

Farmers' Bulletin 569, Texas or Tick Fever, J. B. Mohler 884 

Farmers' Bulletin 570, The Agricultural Outlook 593 

Farmers' Bulletin 571, Tobacco Culture, W. W. Garner 737 

Farmers' Bulletin 572, A System of Farm Cost Accounting, C E. Ladd 793 

Press Notice, May 17, 1913, A Practical Method of Preventing the Unnecessary 

Waste of Condemned Milk 378 

List of Free and Available Publications of the U.S. Department of Agricultiu-e 

of Interest to Farm Women 197 

Organization and Conduct of a Market Service in the Department of Agri- 
culture, discussed at a conference held at the Department on April 29, 1913. 197 
Organization of the Department of Agriculture, 1913 197 

Bureau op Chemistry: 

Bulletin 162, Proceedings of the Twenty-ninth Annual Convention of 
the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists, 1912, edited by W. D. 

Bigelow and G. O. Savage 317 

Bureau of Entomology: 

Bulletin 123, A Preliminary Report on the Sugar-beet Wireworm, J. E. 

Graf 758 

Bulletin 126, The Abutilon Moth, F. H. Chittenden 157 

Forest Service: 

Forest Fire Protection by the States, edited by J. G. Peters 447 

Forest Tree Diseases Common in California and Nevada, E. P. Meinecke. 751 

Bureau of Plant Industry: 

Distribution of Cotton Seed in 1914, R. A. Oakley 436 

The Forcing and Blanching of Dasheen Shoots, R. A. Young 442 

Inventory of Seeds and Plants Imported, April 1 to June 30, 1912 730 

Bureau of Soils: 

Soils of the United States (1913 edition), C F. Marbut et al 19 

Weather Bureau: 

Bulletin Y, The Ohio and Mississippi Floods of 1912, H. C Frankenfield.. 417 

Bulletin Mount Weather Observatory, vol. 6, pt. 2 317 

Bulletin Mount Weather Observatory, vol. 6, pts. 3-4 713 

Monthly Weather Review, Vol. 41, Nos. 9-10, September-October, 1913. . 416, 

418, 445 

Monthly Weather Review, Vol. 41, Nos. 11-12, November-December, 1913. 713 

Abstract of Data 1, Precipitation in the Panhandle Region of Texas 318 

Abstract of Data 2, Precipitation in Western Kansas 318 

Abstract of Data 3, Annual Precipitation of the United States for the 

years 1872 to 1907 318 

Abstract of Data 4, Provisional Statement Regarding the Total Amount of 

Evaporation by Months at 23 Stations in the United States, 1909-10 317 



ILLUSTRATION. 



Fig. 1. Diagram to represent the number of broods of Hessian fly in Kansas 
in 1908, the period of their appearance, and the sources from which 
they came 158 



EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

Editor: E. W. ALLEN, Ph. D., Asdstant Director. 
Assistant Editor: H. L. Knight. 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENTS. 

Agricultural Chemistry and Agrotecliny — L. W. Fetzer, Ph. D., M. D. 

Meteorology, Soils, and FertLlizer8{W; ^; II^llinger. 

Agricultural Botany, Bacteriology, Vegetable Pathology/^' ^- f J^d ^' ^^' ^' 

^7i^^A rv^^o/J- I- SCHULTE. 

Field CropsJQ ^^ Tucker, Ph. D. 

Horticulture and Forestry — E. J. Glasson. 

Foods and Human Nutritionj^" f^' ^^^^«^^«^^^' ^^- ^^ ^- ^^ 

Zootechny, Dairying, and Dairy Farming — H. Webster. 
Economic Zoology and Entomology — W. A. Hooker, D. V. M. 
veterinary Medicinej^- A. Ho^OK.«. 

Rural Engineering — R. W. Trullinger. 
Riual Economics — B. B. Hare. 
Agricultural Education — C. H. Lane. 
Indexes — M. D. Moore. 



LIBRAI 
NEW Y(J 
SOTANK 

UAKUb 



CONTENTS OF VOL. XXX, NO. i. 



Editorial notes: Page. 

The letters and writings of Dr. S. W. Johnson 1 

Rediscovered ideals for agricultural investigation 5 

Recent work in agricultural science 10 

Notes 95 

SUBJECT LISTS OF ABSTRACTS. 



AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTRY — AGROTECHNY. 

Principles of agricultural chemistry, Fraps 10 

About the pentosans, Goy 10 

The temperature at which starch granules gelatinize, Nyman 10 

The chemistry of the resins of the Douglas fir, Frankforter and Brown 10 

The investigation of the chemical action of bacteria, Harden 10 

Progress made in regard to the fermentation organisms and enzyms, Koch 11 

In regard to the ferment natiu-e of peroxidase, Hesse and Kooper.' 11 

Cleavage of a and ;9 methyl glucosid by Aspergillus niger, Dox and Neidi r 11 

Determination of alkalis in silicates -svith calcium chlorid, Miikinen 11 

New methods for the examination and judgment of soils, Konig 12 

The determination of lime in cow feces, Dutcher 12 

Water analysis for sanitary and technical purposes, Stocks 12 

Mineral analysis of water 13 

Food control by police officials, Bremer 13 

Rapid method for determiiiin g fat in cacao with the Zeiss refractometer, Richter. 13 

Changes in methods for succinic and malic acids, von der Heide and Schwenk. 13 

I 



n CONTENTS. 

Page. 

Studies in regard to the dry substance (total solids) of milk, Splittgerber 13 

The conservation of samples of milk destined for analysis, Rocques 13 

The preservation of milk samples destined for analysis, Deniges 14 

The detection of peanut oil in olive oil, Adler 14 

Detection of peanut oil in olive oil according to Franz-Adler method, Liiers. . . 14 

Technical accounting and chemical control m sugar manufacture, Davoll, jr. .. 14 

The sugar content of maize stalks, Blackshaw 14 

Objectionable nitrogenous compounds in sugar-cane juice, Zerban 15 

Practical results by determining injurious nitrogen in sugar beets, Friedl 15 

Inversion of saccharose and the changes of feed beets during storage, Jekelius. 15 

Manufacture of a sugar-beet flour (beet meal), and its use, Aulard 15 

Composition of api)les and pure ciders of the lower Seine regions, Brioux 16 

Cider vinegar and its making, O'Gara 16 

The composition of pure vdne from American native grapes, Alwood 16 

The alcohol industry of the Philippine Islands, Gibbs 16 

The cooperative manufacture of casein, Dornic 16 

Synthetic tannin, Chase 16 

The effect of "lime-sulphur" spray manufacture on the eyesight, Withrow 16 

METEOROLOGY — WATER. 

Syllabus on meteorological information and agricultural practice, Shaw 16 

"Surface " climate. Balls 17 

Meteorological conditions in a field crop, Balls 17 

Meteorological yearbook for 1913 17 

Temperature records, Thompson 17 

Rain and its measurement, Dumas 17 

Conservation of rainfall, Spillman 17 

Surface water of South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico basins, Hall and Pierce. . . 17 

Geology and ground waters of Florida, Matson and Sanf ord 17 

Surface water supply of Ohio River basin, 1911, Horton, Hall, and Jackson 18 

The Ohio Valley flood of March- April, 1913, Horton and Jackson 18 

Geology and water resources of Sulphur Spring Valley, Ariz 18 

Ground water in Boxelder and Tooele counties, Utah, Carpenter 18 

Pollution of underground waters with sewage through fissures in rocks, Albert. 19 

The sewage sludge problem and its solution, Grossmann 19 

SOILS — FERTILIZERS. 

Soils of the United States, Marbut, Bennett, and Lapham 19 

A study of the soils of Macon County, Alabama, and their adaptability, Carver. 19 

The gullied lands of west Tennessee, Purdue 19 

The sulphur content of some typical Kentucky soils, Shedd 20 

Analysis of coconut soils, De Verteuil : 20 

Some Lybian soils, Maugini 20 

The alkaline soils in Egypt and their treatment, Moss^ri 21 

The movements of soil water in an Egyptian cotton field, Balls 21 

The water balance and losses of plant food in soils, von Seelhorst et al 21 

A new method of measuring the capillary lift of soils, Lynde and Dupre 22 

Efficiency of soil constituents as semipermeable membranes, Lynde and Dupr4. 23 

Action of hydroxyl ions on clay soils in connection with marling, Rohland 23 

The properties of so-called soil zeolites, Blanck 23 

Factors in the maintenance of permanent fertility of the soil, Fippiu 23 

Agricultural utilization of acid lands by acid-tolerant crops, Coville 23 

Formation of nitrates iu soil after freezing and thawing, Lyon and Bizzell 23 

The accumulation of green manure nitrogen in sandy soils, von Seelhorst et al. . 24 

Manures and fertilizers, Wheeler 24 

Experiments -^^dth fertilizers, manure, lime, and floats, Thome and Mohn 25 

The preservation of cattle manure 25 

The effects of fertilizers other than that of adding plant food, Van Slyke 26 

The nitrogen content of night soil from the city of Florence, Passerini 26 

Tests of the nitrogen of "Poudro," de Molinari and Ligot 26 

Production of artificial fertilizers from nitrogen of the air, Bencke 26 

How can the dusty condition of lime nitrogen be lessened? Stutzer 26 

Decrease of available phosphoric acid in mixtures with cyanamid, Brackett et al . 26 

Fertilizer analysis, Mitscherlich and Simmermacher 26 

A report on the phosphate fields of South Carolina, Waggaman 27 



CONTENTS. in 

Page. 

Thomas slag, its preparation and use, Wagner 27 

Analyses of Thomas slag from different sources, von Feilitzen and Lugner 27 

Kelp and other sources of potash, Cameron 27 

Lime, Hite 27 

On the influc ace of the ratio of lime to magnesia on plants, Loew 27 

Is silica an inQ-'=!pensable constituent of plant food? Lundie 27 

Commercial fertilizers, Burd 28 

AGRICULTURAL BOTANY. 

On the chemical organization of the cell, Ruhland 28 

Significance of character of electrical charge for passage of colloids. Kuhland . . 28 

Fermentation of some cyclic series compounds and formation f)f humus, Perrier. 28 

Necessity of bacterial association for Chondromyccs crocatus, Pinoy 28 

A mud suckino device for obtaining soil microflora and microfauna, Perfyl'ev. . 28 

Studies in Indian to])accos. — III, Inheritance in Nicotiana tabacum, Howard.. . 29 

Flowering of Geranium robertianum under various physical conditions. Stager. . 29 

Relation between tuberization and infestation by endophytic fungi, Bean 29 

Influence of radioactivity on vegetation, \'acher 29 

Some recent studies on germination, Lehmann 30 

Germination of potato, Cou\Teur 30 

Transpiration and osmotic pressure in mangroves, von Faber 30 

The distribution of temperature in living plants, Dupont 30 

Wind and the plant world; a study, Kroll 30 

Presence and persistence of hydrocyanic acid in grains in hot regions, Raybaud . 30 

Demonstration and localization of nitrates and nitrites in plants, Klein 30 

Assimilation of nitric acid and deposit of manganese in plants, Houtermans. . . 30 

Significance of deposits in plants in *>iutions of manganese salts, Acqua 31 

Deposits in plant tissues duo to culture in manganese nitrate solution, Boselli. . 31 

Influence of nitrates on toxicity toward fungus spores, Hawkins 31 

The action of sodinm sulphate as affecting growth of plants, Haselhoff 31 

Atmospheric impurities near an industrial city, Crowther and Steuart 32 

Influence of tar, particularly tarred streets, on vegetation, Claussen 32 

FIELD CROPS. 

Study of farm practice versus field experiments, Spillman 32 

Determination of probal)le error in field experiments, Hamoth 32 

Determinations of probable errors in field experiments, Alexandrowitsch 83 

Determination of probable errors in field experiments, Hamoth 33 

Methods of testing varieties, Kostecki 33 

Variety tests of field crops, Lemmermann et al 33 

Electroculture, Escard 33 

Observations on some new methods of growing cereals, Remy and Kreplin 33 

Dominant and recessive characters in barley and oat hybrids, Thatcher 33 

[Fertilizer experiments], de Jong 34 

Cooperative irrigation experiments at Davis, Cal., 1909-1912, Beckett 34 

The reseeding of depleted grazing lands to cultivated forage plants, Sampson. . . 35 

A note on two textile plants from the Belgian Kongo, Mestdagh 35 

Alfalfa seed production, Blinn 35 

Alfalfa management in Iowa, Hughes 36 

Experiments with Turkestan alfalfa in Hungary, Grarfas 36 

A new two-rowed winter barlej', Neumann -.■•-•. ^^ 

A mutation in a pure line ot Hordeum distichum, Kiessling 36 

Variation studies in brome grass, Keyser 36 

On the presence of hydrocyanic acid in wliite clover, Mirande 36 

Silver King. — A corn for northern Iowa, Hughes 37 

Com culture in North Carolina, Burgess 37 

Notes on com growing in Guam, Thompson - - 37 

Twelfth report of Indiana Com Growers' Association, edited by Christie 37 

Fourtli annual report of the Ontario Com Growers' Association, Duff 37 

Rubelzui cotton: A new species of Gossypium from Guatemala, Lewton 37 

The cotton of the Hopi Indians: A new species of Gossypium, Lewton 37 

Experiments on the retting of flax, Ringelmann 37 

Potassium fertilizer for hops, Neumann 37 

Seed varieties of Lupinus angustifolius and L. luteua, Kajanus 38 



IV CONTENTS. 

Page. 

African Baanioe, Henry, Yye«, wid Ammaon 38 

Vegetative experiments with 88 varieties of oats, Schneider 38 

Breeding and seed production of tho Rcht«l Mountain oats, Raum 38 

Wild plantain fiber from India 38 

Variety [and manurial] teats of potatoes, Dacy -^ 38 

Pointers on the growing and selection of types of eating potatoes, Schiftan 39 

Experiments in the defoliation of sugar beets, Strohmer, Briem, and Fallada. . 39 

Small beet seed, Briem 39 

The size of the seed ball of beets, Plahn-Appiani 39 

The value of bees to seed beet growing, Vaailieff 39 

The manuring of sugar cane at Samalkota, 1902-1912, Hilson 39 

The culture of flue-cured tobacco, Mathewson 39 

The U telo, a plant with oleaginous seeds, Mestdagh 39 

On the selection of a type of wheat resistant to severe winters, Kolkunov 40 

Portuguese varieties of wheat and their improvement, Klein 40 

Clover and grass seeds, Boerger 40 

Seed tests, Hiltner et al 40 

HOBTIOTJLTURB . 

Grarden farming, Corbett 40 

Pomology, horticulture, and viticulture, Reimers 40 

Report of field work by the horticultural department during 1911, Dacy 40 

[Fruit trees in Paraguay], Bertoni 41 

Wild fruits of Paraguay, Bertoni 41 

The pubescent-fruited species of Prunus of the Southwestern States, Mason. . . 41 

Fruit variety testa on the Southern Utah Experiment Farm, Ballantyne 41 

Orchard notes, Thompson 41 

Fruit for exhibition, Batchelor 41 

Box packing of apples. Palmer 41 

Packing Indiana apples. Palmer 41 

Cold stoia^e for Iowa-grown apples, Greene 41 

The Amencan peach orchard, Waugh 42 

Maurer's gooseberry book, Maurer 42 

The practice of grape growing. — I, The technique of grape grafting, Wanner. . . 43 

Influence of various grape stocks on the harvest, Faes and Porchet 43 

The sexual elements of grape hybrids, Gard 43 

Variability of the coffees grown in the Dutch East Indies, Cramer 43 

First reports on selection testa of Robusta coffee. Van Hall 43 

On the tarring of pruning-wounds in tea plants, Bernard and Deuss 43 

Tea manuring experiments, Bernard and Deuss 43 

Leucasna glauca as a green manure for tea, Bernard 43 

Individual variation in the alkaloidal content of belladonna plants, Sievers. . . 44 

Rose geranium culture, Charabot and Gatin 44 

FORESTRY. 

Forestry, Hausrath 44 

Forestry, Kostlan 44 

Logging, Bryant 44 

Work of the Dominion Forestry Branch, Campbell 44 

[Report of the] committee on forests, Leavitt et al 45 

Forest policy of British Columbia, Ross 45 

Avondale Forestry Station, Forbes 45 

Report on forest statistics of Alsace-Lorraine 45 

The sun energy in the forest, Wagner 45 

The influence of aquatic mediums on the roots of trees, Bondois 45 

Florida trees. Small 45 

The forests of the Far East, Hofmann 45 

Some Douglas fir plantations.— II, Cochwillan wood, North Wales, Thomson. . 46 

The structure of the wood of East Indian species of Pinus, Groom and Riishton. 46 

The kapok trees of Togo, Ulbrich 46 

The "wood-oil" trees of China and Japan, Wilson 46 

Tagua, vegetable ivory, Albes 46 

Uses of beech, birches, and maples, Maxwell 46 

The wood-using industries of Iowa, Maxwell and Harris 46 

Forest products of Canada, 1912, Lewis and Boyce 46 

To get long life from untreated timber in trestles 47 



CONTEin». V 

DISEASES OF PLANTS. 

Page. 

Smut diseaece of cultivated plai. ta, their cause and control, GQbsow 47 

Further cultures of heteroecious rusts, I<Ya«er 47 

Contributions on fungus diseasea of plants appearing in 1912-13, Riehm 47 

Diseases of agricultural crops, 1912, Lind, Rostrup, and Ravn 47 

Work of phytopathological section of station in Stockhohn, 1912, ErikBson 47 

Work of the observatory of phytopathology in Turin, Voglino 47 

Plant diseases, Davy 47 

Some fungi parasitic on tropical plants. Griffon and Maublanc 48 

Fungus diseases of potato in Australia and their treatment, McAlpine 48 

Bacterial disease of potatoes, Osbom 48 

Biology of potato plant with particular reference to leaf roll, Reitmair 48 

Recent researches as to the cause of potato leaf roll, Sorauer 48 

The persistence of the potato late-blight fungus in the soil, Stewart 49 

Does winter kill potato blight in the soil? Hall 40 

Potato-spraying experiments in 1911, Giddings 49 

Ufra disease of rice, Butler 49 

Notes on sereh disease of sugar cane, Ashby 49 

Rangpur tobacco wilt, Hutchinson 50 

Diseases of the tomato in Louisiana, Edgerton and Moreland 50 

Apple leaf spot 50 

Peach leaf-curl fungus: Further tests with copper compounds, Quinn 50 

Comparative experiments with sprays against leaf cast of grape, Bretschneider. 50 

A disease of cacao trees due to Lasio diplodia theobromss, Berthault 50 

Nematode worms and mottled leaf, Hodges 51 

Two fungi as causal agents in gummosis of lemon trees in California, Fawcett. . 51 

Two fungus parasites of Agati grandijlora, Foex 51 

The structure and systematic position of Mapea radiata, Maire 51 

A new species of Endothia, Petri. 52 

More on black canker of chestnut in reply to L. Petri, Briosi and Farneti 52 

Critical confiiderations on black canker of chestnut, Petri 52 

Three undescribed heart rots of hardwood trees, especially of oak. Long 52 

ECONOMIC ZOOLOGY — ENTOMOLOGY. 

Principles of economic zoology, Daugherty 52 

Game laws for 1913, Palmer, Bancroft, and Eamshaw 52 

Bibliography of Canadian zoology for 1911 , Lambe 52 

Bibliography of Canadian entomology for 1911, Hewitt 52 

Forty- third annual report of the Entomological Society of Ontario, 1912 52 

Insects of the year in British Columbia, Cunningham 53 

Unusual insect attacks on fruit trees and bushes in 1912, Theobald 53 

Report of economic zoology for the year ending September 30, 1912, Theobald. . 53 

A sealed paper carton to protect cereals from insect attack, Parker 53 

Spontaneous septicemia in the cockchafer and sUkworm, Cliatton 53 

The coccobacilli infections of insects, Picard and Blanc 54 

Locust bacterial disease, Lounsbury 54 

Fungus diseases of scale insects and white fly, Rolfs and Fawcett 55 

A study of caprification in Ficus nota, Baker 55 

A systematic outline of the Reduviidce of North America, Fracker 55 

The British species of the genus Macrosiphum, I and II, Theobald 55 

Report of the entomologists, Rumsey and Peairs 55 

The so-called aerostatic hairs of certain lepidopterous larvae, Riley 55 

The parthenogenesis and oviposition of the potato tuber moth, Picard 55 

The Phoridaj in the United States National Museum, Msdloch 56 

New genera and species of muscoid flies from South America, Townsend 56 

Meroden equcstris m southern British Columbia, Norman 56 

The southern corn rootworm, or budworm, Webster 56 

The western com rootworm, Webster 56 

The coconut leaf-miner beetle, Promecotheca cumingii, Jones 56 

The occurrence of a cotton boll weevil in Arizona, Pierce 56 

Life history of Otiorhynchus ovafns, Treherne 58 

Annual report of the Bee-Keepers' Association of Ontario, 191 2 59 

The Bombidae of the New Worid, II, Franklin 59 

Studies in the wood wasp superfamily Oryssoidea, with new species, Rohwer . . 59 

A study in insect parasitism, Webster 59 



VI CONTENTS. 

Pago. 

A revision of the Ichneumoiiidae, with new genera and species, Morley 59 

Descriptions of new Hymenoptera, V, Crawford 59 

Descriptions of new family, genera, and species of ichneumon flies, Viereck. . . 59 

Notes on sawflies, with descriptions of new species, Rohwer 60 

The life history of Ixodes angustus, Hadwen 60 

POODS — ^HUMAN NUTEITION. 

The municipal abattoir, Allen and McFarlin 60 

Emaciation in meat inspection, Gruttner 61 

Succinic acid in meat extracts and in fresh meat, Einbeck 61 

Muscle extractives.— XIV, Carnosin and carnosin nitrate, Gulewitsch 61 

Muscle extractives.— XV, In horseflesh, Smorodinzew 61 

Fish milt as human food, Konig and Grossfeld 61 

Fish roe as human food, Konig and Grossfeld 61 

Lacto — a frozen dairy product, Mortensen and Hammer 61 

Composition and nutritive value of "taralli," a special bread, Cutolo 62 

A digestion experiment with banana meal, Kakizawa 62 

On the nature of the sugars found in the tubers of arrowhead, Miyake 63 

Factors affecting the culinary quality of potatoes, Butler et al 63 

Chemistry of the household, Dodd 63 

Handbook of hygiene. — III, Food and nutrition, edited by Weyl 63 

A further contribution to the knowledge of beri-beri, Caspar! and Moszkowski. . 63 

A typhoid outbreak apparently due to polluted water cress 64 

Lessons from a probable water cress typhoid outbreak 64 

Relation of growth to chemical constituents of diet, Osborne and Mendel 64 

Studies on the metabolism of ammocium salts, I, II, III 64 

The amount of indol obtained from different proteids, von Moraczewski 65 

Influence of diet on indol and indican, von Moraczewski and Herzfeld 65 

Influence of starvation on creatin content of muscle, Myers and Fine 65 

Influence of carbohydrate feeding on creatin content of muscle, Myers and Fine . 65 

Calorimetry of the work of the kidneys, Tangl 65 

A calorimeter for small animals, Tangl 66 

Micro-calorimeter for determination of heat production of bacteria, von Korosy. 66 

ANIMAL PEODUCnON. 

The measurement of the intensity of inbreeding. Pearl 66 

A contribution toward an analysis of the problem of inbreediag. Pearl 67 

The feeding of farm ainmals, Kellner 67 

The development of agricultural feeding knowledge, Honcamp 67 

Results of nucleiQ feeding of animals 67 

[The value of calcium chlorid in animal production], Emmerich and Loew 67 

On the values of feeding materials, Mach. 67 

Inspection of commercial feeding stuffs. Smith and Beals 67 

Inspection of feeding stuffs 68 

Blood relationship of animals as displayed in tlie serum proteins, II, Woolsey . . 68 

Notes on native live stock, Thompson 68 

Color inheritance ia swine. Smith 69 

Hogging down corn. — A successful practice, Eward, Kennedy, and Kildee. . . 69 

Horse breeding and Mendelism, Motloch 70 

The inheritance of coat color in horses, Anderson 70 

Horse breaking in Argentina 71 

Inheritance in poultry.— I, Constitution of the White Leghorn, Hadley et al. . . 71 

[Inbreeding], Robinson 71 

Report of the poultryman, Atwood 71 

Report of poultry conditions in Indiana, Philips 71 

The refrigeration of dressed poultry in transit, Pennington et al 71 

DAIRY FARMING DAEttYING. 

First, second, and third crop alfalfa hay for milk production, Carroll 72 

Manuring for milk, Wakerley 73 

Winter feeding of dairy cows. Mackintosh 73 

The original St. Lambert Jerseys.— An account of their breeding, Clark 73 

A comparison of Red Danish, Jersey, and Dano-Jersey cattle, Dunne 73 



CONTENTS. Vn 

Page. 

Milking capacities of the Trinidad government farm cows, Slirewsbury 74 

Dairying in Jamaica, Cousins 74 

Report of state dairy bureau [for biennial period ending November 30, 1912].. 74 

Quarterly report of dairy and food commissioner of Virginia, Saunders 74 

Michigan's new milk and cream law, Kirby 74 

Milk and cream testing, Dean 74 

Butter making, Dean 75 

Some butter-making experiments and analyses, Crowe 76 

Cheddar cheese investigations and experiments, Dean 76 

Caerphilly cheese, Davies 77 

VETERINARY MEDICINE. 

Protective ferments of the animal organism, Abderhalden 77 

Investigations m regard to strept »lysin, von Hellens 78 

Regulations governing live stock sanitary control in Tennessee, 1913-14 78 

The results of meat inspection in Brunswick, 1905-1911, Sander 78 

Conditions influencing transmission of East Coast fever, Nuttall and Hindle.. . 79 

Piroplasmosis, Nuttall 79 

Therapeutic action of yeast in alimentary multiple polyneuritis, Barsickow. . . 79 

Cultivation of the rabies organism, Williams 79 

The parasite of rabies, Bartholow 79 

Note on rinderpest, Oliver 79 

The morphology of Trypanosoma simise n. sp., Bruce et al 79 

Trypanosoma siviix n. sp., II, III, Bruce et al 79 

Trypanosoma capric, Bruce et al 80 

Trypanosomes in the blood of wild animals in Nyasaland, Bruce et al 80 

Morphology of strains of the trypanosome causing disease in man, Bruce et al. . 80 

Studies on the biochemistry and chemotherapy of tuberculosis, IV, V. VI. . . . 80 

Pulmonary tuberculosis induced by inhalation, Grysez and I'etit-Dutaillis 82 

New researches upon inhalation tuberculosis, Chauss^ 82 

Experimental pulmonary tuberculosis in the dog, Lewis and Montgomery 82 

Milk-borne tuberculosis with special reference to legislation, Delepine 82 

Combating bovine tuberculosis with special reference to diagnosis, von Ostertag. 82 

Introduction and spread of cattle tick and tick fever in Australia, Gilruth 82 

The hypodermic aft'ection of cattle. — The ox warble, Coppens 83 

Bush sickness investigations, Reakes and Aston 83 

Vaccination against gangrenous mammitis in sheep and goats, Bridre 83 

Directions for using antihog cholera serum, Mitchell 83 

Virulent anthrax bacilli in the saliva of an affected horse, Arntz 83 

The bacteriology and vaccine therapy of distemper in horses, Lintz 83 

The diagnosis of dourine by complement fixation, Mohler, Eichhorn, and Buck. 83 

RURAL ENGINEERING. 

Pumping plants, Kelton 85 

Details and design of headgates, Etcheverry 85 

Inverted siphon construction, Etcheverry 85 

Land clearing, McGuire 86 

Vitrified brick as a paving material for country roads, Peirce and Moorefield . . 86 

The production of sand and gravel in 1912, Stone 87 

Tests of the strength of cement 87 

Test of a kerosene oil engine. Wile 88 

Comparison of cost of fuel for engines and electric motors, Kritzer 88 

Wind power, Vogdt 88 

Electricity on the western farm 88 

Traction farming and traction engineering, Stephenson 89 

The care and repair of rubber belts, Moore 89 

The construction of creameries, Mortensen and Davidson 89 

Modem silo construction, Davidson 89 

RURAL ECONOMICS. 

A normal day's work for various farm operations, Mowry 89 

A grass holding at a profit, and the cheap cottage problem, Buchanan 90 

Laiid tenure in England and Norway, Sundt 90 



Vm CONTENTS. 

Page. 

Iriali agricultural laborera, 1912 90 

Persons engaged in agricultural pursuits in Prussia, Hagmann 90 

Depopulation of rural districts in France, Hunt 91 

Condition of Danish agriculture during 1911 91 

[Area, population, agricultural production, etc., in Canada, 1911-12] 91 

AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION. 

Report of the temporary educational commission of North Dakota 92 

Report of committee on agricultural education, Finegan 92 

Fourth report of the district agricultural schools of Georgia, Stewart 92 

Scientific farming on elaborate scale in the common schools, Minear 92 

People's high schools in Denmark, Rathmann 93 

The girls' agricultural school at Berlaer, Per\der 93 

Methods in agricultural schools, Snedden 93 

Problems in the administration and teaching of agriculture, Bricker 93 

The redirection of the rural school. Hart 93 

Agricultural training courses for employed teachers, Jackson 93 

Subject matter in nature study and elementary agriculture 94 

Nature study and agriculture 94 

Woodworking exercises for the agricultural school shop. White 94 

Demonstration-lectures in domestic science, sewing, and nursing 94 

Sending the college to the State 94 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Annual Report of Guam Station, 1912 94 

Annual Report of West Virginia Station, 1912 94 

A list of bulletins available for general distribution 94 

Prom the letter files of S. W. Johnson, edited by Osborne 94 



LIST OF EXPERIMENT STATION AND DEPART- 
MENT PUBLICATIONS REVIEWED. 



Stations in the United States. 

Alabama Tuskegee Station: rage. 

Bill. 25, Oct., 1913 19 

California Station: 

Bui. 240, Sept., 1913 28 

Circ. 106, Sept., 1913 83 

Colorado Station: 

Bui . 190, June, 1913 36 

Bui. 191, June, 1913 35 

Florida Station: 

Bui. 119, Nov., 1913 55 

Guam Station: 

An. Rpt. 1912 17,37,41,68,94 

Indiana Station: 

Circ. 39, July, 1913 41 

Circ. 40, Sept., 1913 71 

Iowa Station: 

Bui. 137, Apr., 1913 36 

Bui. 138, Apr., 1913 37 

Bui. 139, May, 1913 89 

Bui. 140, Aug., 1913 61 

Bui. 141, July, 1913 89 

Bui. 142, Aug., 1913 46 

Bui. 143, Sept., 1913 69 

Bui. 144, Sept., 1913 41 

Kentucky Station: 

Bui. 173, Aug. 1, 1913 60 

Bui. 174, Sept. 1, 1913 20 

Louisiana Stations: 

Bui. 142, Oct., 1913 oO 

Maine Station: 

Bui. 215, Aug., 1913 66 

Massachusetts Station: 

Bui. 146, Oct., 1913 67 

Minnesota Station: 

Bui. 134, Apr., 1913 86 

Bui. 135, July, 1913 94 

New York State Station: 

Bui. 366, Aug., 1913 68 

Bui. 367, Oct., 1913 49 

Ohio Station: 

Bui. 260, Apr .^ 1913 25 

Rhode Island Station: 

Bui. 155, June, 1913 71 

Utah Station: 

Bui. 124, Aug., 1913 41 

Bui. 126, Aug., 1913 72 

Circ. 13 41 

West Virginia Station: 

Circ. 4, Mar., 1912 94 

Circ. 6, Sept., 1912 27 

An. Rpt. 1912.... 38, 40, 49, 55, 71, 94 



U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

Jour. Agr. Research, vol. 1, No. 2, Paga. 
Nov., 1913 41,44,52,56,83 

Bui. 3, A Normal Day's Work for 
Various Farm Operations, H. H. 
Mowry 89 

Bui. 4, The Reseeding of Depicted 
Grazing Lands to Cultivated 
Forage Plants, A. W. Sampson.. 35 

Bui. 5, The Southern Com Root- 
worm, or Budworm, F. M. 
Webster 56 

Bui. 6, The Agricultural Utiliza- 
tion of Acid Lands by Means of 
Acid-Tolemnt Crops, F. V. 
Coville 23 

Bui. 7, Agricultural Training 
Courses f5r Employed Teachers, 
E.R.Jackson 93 

Bui. 8, The Western Corn Root- 
worm, F. M. Webster 56 

Bui. 10, Progress Report of Co- 
operative In-igation Experiments 
at California University Farm, 
Davis, Cal., 1909-1912, S. H. 
Beckett 34 

Bui. 12, Uses of Commercial Woods 
of the United States, H. Maxwell 46 

Bui. 15, A Sealed Paper Carton to 
Protect Cereals from Insect At- 
tack, W. B. Parker 53 

Bui. 16, The Culture of Flue-Cured 
Tobacco, E. H. Mathewson 39 

Bui. 17, The Refrio^eration of 
Dressed Poultiy in Transit, 
Mary E. Pennington et al 71 

Bui. 18, A Report on the Phosphate 
Fields of South Carolina, W. H. 
Waggaman 27 

Bui. 22, Game Laws for 1913, T. S. 

Palmer etal 52 

Bui. 23, Vitrified Brick as a Paving 
Material for Country Roads, 
V. M. Peirce and C. H. Moore- 
field 86 

Bureau of Soils: 

Bui. 96, Soils of the United 
States (1913 ed.), C. F. Marbut 
etal 19 

IX 



EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

Vol. XXX. January, 1914. No. 1. 



Not to know something of the history of one's specialty is to miss 
much of the intimate and sympathetic feeling toward it which comes 
through acquaintance. Not to know the toilsome and often dis- 
heartening path along which the science of agriculture tra^tiled in its 
early days in this country is to lack, not only an intelligent apprecia- 
tion of what has actually been accomplished in a half century, but an 
insight into the manner in which it came about. It is to miss much 
of the broader interest of the subject, and much of the pride and sat- 
isfaction in its pursuit. 

For the young man especially such an insight is a part of educa- 
tion and preparation for this field. It helps to give a proper attitude 
and sense of proportion, as well as enable just estimates. It is not 
necessary to live in the past to enjoy familiarity with it or to trace the 
unfolding and development of a new idea ; and the man who devotes 
some attention to it is in no sense pursuing a dead subject. While he 
is broadening his sympathies and acquaintanceship he is strengthen- 
ing his own grasp and conception. Not infrequently the lack of 
originality is disclosed of some things cherished as new, and again 
the relatively small advancement which has been made in some lines 
is brought forcibly home. 

The lives of the leading pioneers in this field contain much that is 
of interest and worthy of knowing. To know them and their envi- 
ronment more intimately increases respect for what they did and for 
the ideals they stood for and strove to propagate. Naturally they 
did hot fully attain to these ideals, else their work and influence 
would not have been so potent and we would not be where we now 
are, for the man who overtakes his ideals ceases to be a factor in 
progress. Ignorance is prone to judge these early workers unfairly 
by what they did not do, and to underestimate the true nature of their 
service, because it overlooks the hindrances that stood in their path, 
and has no intelligent realization of the determination, the self- 
supplied encouragement, and the personal effort which their work 
represents. It is knowledge of the environment that enables a true 
perspective. 



2 EXPERIMENT STATION EEOOBD. 

The history of the movement which has brought science to the aid 
of agriculture has not be^n written, and its records are fragmentary 
and disconnected. Hence each effort in that direction is a welcome 
contribution. 

The letters and papers of the late Dr. Samuel W. Johnson, for 
many years director of the Connecticut State Station, have recently 
been brought together and published by his daughter, in a volume of 
much historic interest. The preservation and publication of this ma- 
terial is a matter for congratulation, and its editor has placed her 
readers under many obligations for the interesting and highly in- 
structive volume she has produced. It pertains to a period whose 
participants are rapidly passing and mostly gone. 

The book is at once a biography of a man and a history of a move- 
ment. As a biography it is most satisfactory and entertaining, the 
remarkable extent to which Dr. Johnson's private and official corre- 
spondence was preserved giving an intimate view of the man and his 
work rarely possible. The interpolations and explanatory matter 
supplied by the editor serve to make the volume in a large degree a 
connected and faithful record of the progress of events in bringing 
science to the benefit and protection of the farmer. 

The letters cover the period from 1848, when the interest of the 
schoolboy in agricultural matters and in chemistry were crystalliz- 
ing and his aspirations being put on paper, to near the close of his 
life. They include correspondence with his intimate friend Dr. 
F. H. Storer of Bussey Institution, with Dr. Evan Pugh, a fellow 
student at Leipsic, who afterwards went to the new Pennsylvania 
State College, with Mr. Luther Tucker of Albany, editor of the Coun- 
try Gentleman^ who lent much encouragement to Dr. Johnson's am- 
bitions. Dr. G. C. CaldweU of Cornell, Dr. E. W. Hilgard of Cali- 
fornia, Dr. George H. Cook of New Jersey, Dr. Peter Collier, later of 
the Geneva Station, Dr. Charles W. Eliot of Harvard, President 
W. S. Clark of Massachusetts, Sir John Lawes, Julius von Liebig, 
and many other notable persons. 

These letters present a striking illustration of the slowness with 
which the idea that science has a vital and practical value to agricul- 
ture took hold in this country, and show how difficult it was to secure 
encouragement or support for a career in that field a half century ago. 
After he had determined to enter it Mr. Johnson went to Yale in 1850 
and again in 1852, teaching in the meantime to acquire funds, and 
spent the years from 1853 to 1855 in advanced study abroad. During 
this time he attracted attention to himself by his writings on agri- 
cultural matters, in which he strongly presented by word and illus- 
tration the benefits to be derived from agricultural investigation and 
the desirability of public provision for it. Mr. Tucker w^as anxious to 



EDITORIAL. 3 

see a place made for him in New York, and there was correspondence 
about positions elsewhere, but no opening presented itself on his 
return and he was obliged to accept a teaching position at the new 
Yale Scientific School, affording no direct agricultural connection. 
He considered the plan of opening an agricultural school, and at one 
time corresponded with Pugh with reference to associating him with 
the project, as opportunities for developing agricultural work did 
rot materialize. 

In 1855 the New York State Agricultural Society, largely through 
Mr. Tucker, proposed to fit up a laboratory and invited him to become 
its chemist. It was explained, however, that the office carried no 
remuneration excepting the fees for agricultural analyses, etc., which 
with writing for the press it was suggested " might yield a living 
compensation." This society was probably the first to take such an 
advanced step, but the outlook was not sufficiently encouraging and 
Dr. Johnson temporarily rejected it. Later he made an effort 
through the society to secure an endowment for an experiment sta- 
tion in that State, but this failed of support, as did the movement 
for an agricultural college in New York in which he hoped to have 
a part. 

It is interesting to note in this connection that Liebig, under whom 
Dr. Johnson had studied in Munich, strongly considered coming to 
this country if he could receive suitable encouragement. A corre- 
spondent wrote in 1856 : " He has almost made up his mind to go to 
the United States and set up a model farm and agricultural school, 
provided one of the States will furnish him with the lands and 
funds." 

Meanwhile, although much occupied with his duties as instructor 
in chemistry at Yale, Dr. Johnson found time for some agricultural 
analysis and wrote a series of articles for an agricultural paper which 
served to introduce him to the State Agricultural Society, and re- 
sulted in his being appointed chemist to the society in 1856. This 
gave him an affiliation and a constituency, but quite limited oppor- 
tunity. It was not until twenty years later that he realized the 
dream of his youth, and as the head of the sole American experiment 
station Avas able to center his efforts on agricultural work. 

All through the writings of these earlier years we get glimpses of 
a longing for the opportunity to give himself largely to agricultural 
research. " It is a source of deep and continual regret," he writes, 
that his efforts in the field of agriculture " have been mostly confined 
to editing and communicating the results of the labors of others." 
In the preface to his book on How Crops Grow, in 1870, he offered 
an apology " for being a middleman and not a producer of the price- 
less commodities of science," which position he attributed to lack of 
opportunity. 



4 EXPEEIMENT STATION EECOBD. 

Fertilizer inspection and fertilizer control naturally figured con- 
spicuously in the early agricultural work. The use of fertilizers was 
rapidly coming into practice in the early fifties. They were not al- 
ways intelligently made, for not very much was known of values, and 
the claims put forth for them were often exorbitant as well as their 
cost. Here many farmers felt a real need for assistance. 

Dr. Johnson began discussing these matters in the agTicultural 
press in 1853, while yet a student at Yale. He iterated and reiterated 
the necessity of chemical analysis as the only basis for judging of the 
composition of a fertilizer, the reliability of accurate analyses as a 
guide to values, and the importance to the community of a regular 
system of analysis of all commercial fertilizers as a safeguard against 
fraud as well as against the self-deception of ignorance. In 1856 
he introduced the method of calculating the " valuation " per ton on 
the basis of the commercial values of the constituents, in the principle 
of which he was a strong believer. 

His systematic inspection of fertilizers dated from his appointment 
as chemist to the State Board of Agriculture in 1856. In his first 
report he said : " It is vastly pleasanter to suppose that frauds are 
mistakes rather than willful attempts to cheat ; but it is of the utmost 
importance to know whether we are liable to be intentionally as well 
as accidentally imposed upon." The condition of the trade at that 
time is illustrated by the statement in this first report that " of all 
the superphosphates I analyzed last year not one came up to a reason- 
able standard of quality," and " of all the other high-priced manufac- 
tured manures which have been twice analyzed not one has main- 
tained a uniform composition." 

It is difficult at the present time to realize the novelty of the under- 
taking. The rights of business men to make and sell what they chose 
in any line was undisputed, and the public was without protection 
except at individual expense. The principles he announced were new 
to business generally, and as applied to fertilizers they were largely 
new to many of the manufacturers as they were to the public. They 
subjected him to criticism and misrepresentation on the one hand, and 
brought him encouragement and support on the other. In 1869 
Dr. George H. Cook, of New Jersey, wrote him : " The circulation of 
such reports as that of yours on fertilizers will be of great use, and I 
hope you will be allowed to continue making full and fearless reports 
on the worthless manures which are so common in the market." 
Many others, including practical farmers, expressed their apprecia- 
tion and hope that he would not be stifled in his efforts. Fortunately 
he was able to maintain his position. His work brought inquiries 
from all parts of the country. 

Very naturally from the interest surrounding this subject, the agi- 
tation for experiment stations, and especially the first station in Con- 



EDITORIAL. 5 

necticut, was bound up with the history of fertilizer inspection. It 
furnished a stimulus, and in some instances overshadowed all other 
purposes of such an institution. One of the men most instrumental 
in securing the new station is quoted as intimating that " the purpose 
of this station was for the analysis of commercial fertilizers alone;" 
and the sentiment is further shown by the resolutions of a farmers' 
club, which stated substantially that they would patronize no manu- 
facturer or dealer who was not willing to put his wares under the 
control of such an institution. 

These views were not in accord with Dr. Johnson's ideas as to the 
full function of an experiment station or the methods of exercising 
a fertilizer control. He opposed any atttinpt on the part of the sta- 
tion to formally control the output of manufacturers or storehouses, 
but held the most effectual plan to be the taking of samples of the 
goods as offered for sale, and making the analyses public. This will 
be recognized as the form which ultimately prevailed and has been 
generally adopted. 

It is interesting to read, at this period, of systematic work among 
farmers akin to some of the present features of extension work. In 
1859 Dr. Johnson wrote, " I am on a month's tour among the farmers 
of Connecticut and expect to speak every evening of the week except 
Saturday and Sunday." In the following year he took prominent 
part in a course of agricultural lectures at New Haven, arranged by 
Prof. J. A. Porter, which fully five hundred persons came to Xew 
Haven to attend, — a forerunner of the short courses. He wrote many 
popular articles for the agricultural press, and through the columns 
of a leading New York daily he reached a wide audience in the early 
seventies, his articles and discussions of agricultural matters attract- 
ing attention from the first. 

The high character of Dr. Johnson's scientific ideals and standards, 
and his advanced conceptions of the kind of work of most permanent 
value to agriculture, as shown by his earlier writings, are especially 
worthy of note. Although these could not be fully carried out, on 
account of conditions of the times, they were in evidence notwith- 
standing, and they served to give him a recognized leadership in 
agricultural thought. The passage of years brings out more clearly 
the advanced position which he occupied. His writings of sixty 
years ago are interesting reading and entirely applicable to-day. 
Their obscure publication has hidden them. The pity is that we 
haven't long ago had the benefit of the light they shed. 

Early in his career, before he had entered college, in a contribution 
to an agricultural paper he made a plea for " reason and labor with- 
out prejudice " in scientific work : " It becomes," he said, " the interest 
as well as the duty of him who would bring science to the aid of 
agriculture to make every labor as complete as possible, and especially 



6 EXPEKIMENT STATION KECORD. 

to avoid the dogmatic introduction or support of untested theories, 
and the narrow-minded ignorance which entertains the possibility of 
making any one discovery which shall remedy the failings of the 
present practice," — good advice for the present day, and still needed. 

In an article in the Country Gentleman in 1854, he declared that 
" what agriculture most needs is the establishment of its doctrines — 
not the proposition of fancies, or of facts which hold good for this or 
that township, but the evolution of a general theory applicable every- 
where. . . . The basis of doctrine will not rapidly unfold itself. It 
must be unfolded. If agriculturists would know, they must inquire. 
The knowledge they need belongs not to revelation but to science, 
and it must be sought for as the philosopher seeks other scientific 
truth." Some of this sounds quite modern. As he well realized, the 
method and essentials of agricultural investigation are only different 
in land and not in nature from those in other branches of inquiry. 
We have had to learn this, and the expensive lesson that short cuts 
are disappointing. Much of the purely local testing and experiment- 
ing is now recognized as extension instead of investigation. 

In 1856 Dr. Johnson delivered a lecture before the New York State 
Agricultural Society, on The Relations Which Exist Between Sci- 
ence and Agriculture. This is a truly remarkable address, which 
deserves to be preserved but had been largely lost to the present gen- 
eration until brought to light by the publication of this volume. It 
foreshadowed the spirit as well as the method and the position of the 
agricultural experiment station. 

In this address he explained why up to that time agriculture had 
not profited from the applications of science to the same extent that 
the manufacturing arts had. Aside from the inherent difficulty of 
the subject, one reason was " the lamentable circumstance that our 
agriculture is so barren of facts — I mean that kind of facts which 
only can form the foundation of science ; I mean complete facts. . . . 
The first thing to be done is to multiply facts." And he outlined the 
way in which these scientific facts were to be acquired, in a manner 
so sound and clear that they are worth quoting at this time. 

The establishment of facts, he explained, " is accomplished by ob- 
servation and experiment. Ordinary observation takes cognizance 
of what transpires in the usual course of nature. Experiment is that 
refined instrument of modern research which interferes with the ordi- 
narj^ course of nature, and compels her to unusual manifestations." 
But experiment requires skill and direction, and keenness of percep- 
tion. The great secret, as he said, is to know where to look. " The 
empiric experiments at a venture, without any probability to guide 
him. His haphazard trials often reveal new facts, but he rarely con- 
tributes largely to scientific progress because he makes haphazard 
experiments, because he does not reason. 



EDITORIAL. 7 

"The philosopher experiments with an object in view, and dis- 
tinctly in view. ... He first collects and collates all the facts known 
with regard to it. He then seeks to construct a consistent explana- 
tion of these various facts. It may be that he finds it impossible to 
do this. Then he must verify the facts ; perhaps some are false or he 
sees them from an insufficient point of view, or he must collect more 
of them by extending his observations, it may be by experiment. He 
shortly is enabled to form a hypothesis, to frame a theory which 
promises to account for the facts. Yet it is not a hypothesis but 
truth he seeks, and now he begins to test his theory. Every deduc- 
tion which he can draw from it must prove true, else the theory is 
false. He therefore unites the conditions which his theory indicates 
will produce a given prevised result. If the result follow, his theory 
is confirmed, otherwise it must be rejected and a new one formed and 
similarly proved. Here is where experiment assumes its chief dig- 
nity and value. Here it must be suggested by reason or it can not be 
expected to answer any good purpose. Here if rationally devised 
and skillfully executed it must reveal a truth, and though the truth 
be negative it is not the less valuable, for every new negative result 
limits witliin narrower bounds the space wherein positive truth is to 
be sought." 

This description leaves little to be added. It shows how deep was 
his insight into the method of science and how thorough his prepa- 
ration for investigation in it some twenty years before the first station 
was achieved. 

As to the requirements of experimental work in order to make it 
of value, Dr. Johnson mentions that at that time (1856) several ex- 
perimental farms had been established in the country, but states the 
results of their experiments had no general or permanent worth, for 
" they have not been made with more insight, nor have they been cal- 
culated to clear up more doubts, than the single experiments carried 
out here and there by private individuals." Although executed with 
more care, " this has been so much more labor lost," for '" the large 
share of the problems that are now needing solution require the lab- 
oratory and farm to unite their resources. ... As mere practice is 
deficient in all that belongs to the province of science to suggest, so 
science alone lacks that which practice is naturally fitted to supply ; 
each is the complement of the other; rational agriculture is the result 
of their union." He described the European experiment stations as 
^' intended to make science practical and practice scientific." 

The essentials and distinctions here outlined so clearly had to be 
learned by the American stations at heavy cost after the system was 
established more than thirty years later. 

In a later article Dr. Johnson gave this rule for testing theories: 
•*' The best method of attaining truth is to endeavor earnestly but hon- 

25842°— No. 1—14 2 



8 EXPEEIMENT STATION RECORD. 

estly to disprove what appears to be true. . . . The only way to be 
certain you have got at the truth is to go counter to the current of 
self-complacency. If you can sit down deliberately with your sup- 
posed facts and with your theories, and try by every imaginable test 
to find where they do not harmonize or where they do not satisfy 
strict logic, then and not until then can you be pretty certain that 
you stand fair and square on that subject." And he adds that it is 
not the novelty or the glory of discovery, but the genuineness of dis- 
covery, that is of first importance ! 

But although Dr. Johnson had these high standards for agricul- 
tural investigation and realized the great need for work of such per- 
manent character, he did not let this stand in the way of his useful- 
ness. He was wise enough and zealous enough to patiently set his 
hand to what he could secure interest and support for, and hence in 
the early days much of his work was the routine analysis of ferti- 
lizers and other materials — ^work which needed to be done at that 
period and which served to develop confidence and support for other 
lines and for larger undertaldngs. 

An interesting sidelight on the times and showing his genuine con- 
cern for the farmers' welfare is his caution to them, as early as 1854, 
against too blind confidence in all that was recommended in the name 
of science. " Let him beware of false lights which are nowadays 
hanging out in abundance; let him beware of taking advice from 
two dangerous characters — the conceited farmer who knows a little 
science, and the officious philosopher who knows a little farming." 
Combating the popular notion of the great value of soil analysis as 
a guide to the farmer, he sums up the case thus : " Soil analysis at 
best is a chance game; and where one wins a hundred may lose. A 
soil analysis is always interesting, often valuable, rarely economical." 

A little later he admonished the farmers of his State to beware of 
setting experience in opposition to scientific truth, and in order that 
what he wrote might be read he headed the article "American 
Guano." Contrasting experience and science he declared with em- 
phasis that there is no antagonism between the two except in error, 
experience being "many times unsuspecting, blind, or prejudiced." 
" Science is but another and the true name for all that is good in the 
experience of all men. . . . Common experience is the native rank 
but wild growth of knowledge. Science is its trained and cultivated 
development." 

At the present day agricultural education is emphasizing these 
truths, and is making common experience more reliable, because more 
enlightened and less " unsuspecting, blind or prejudiced." 

A recent writer has said that unless the student or investigator of 
scientific problems has in his conception some infusion of the divine 



EDITORIAL. 9 

fire, his work never rises above the humdrum and the commonplace. 
" He must at times feel his heart burn within him as he walks the 
ways of his chosen calling." No one can read the letters and the 
papers of Dr. Johnson without realizing that he had the infusion of 
divine fire, and that many times his heart must have burned within 
him with zeal for his chosen subject. 

But it took a man of more than enthusiasm to write as he did of 
the future of the agricultural experiment station and its far-reaching 
influence. It required vision and conviction to labor patiently for 
its coming, and to contend that the discovery of the new would vital- 
ize the old in agriculture, would broaden the intellectual life of the 
farmer, replace mechanical actions and prejudice with reason, and 
bring the farmers and the agricultural colleges closer together — 
prophesies which he lived to see fulfilled. 

It would be a careless reader who did not gain from these writings 
a clearer insight, a higher purpose, and an enthusiasm for a kind of 
work that shall endure. They carry an inspiration and a stimulus 
for the rising investigator, not only to continue the work of agri- 
cultural investigation, but to make the most of the larger opportunity 
to attain the ideals which he propagated at that early period. 



RECENT WORK IN AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE. 



AGRICULTURAL CHEinSTRY— AGROTECHNY. 

Principles of agricultural chemistry, G. S. Fraps (Easton, Pa., and London, 
1913, pp. 493, figs. 94). — This book is adapted for the uses of the student and 
those wishing an introduction to the field of agricultural chemistry, as well as 
for a reference book. It is plentifully illustrated with reproductions of photo- 
graphs taken chiefly from experiment station literature and that of the United 
States Department of Agriculture. Considerable attention is given to the chem- 
istry relating to problems of both plant and animal physiology. 

The chapter headings are as follows : Essentials of plant life'; the plant and 
the atmosphere ; origin of soils ; physical composition and classes of soils ; physi- 
cal properties of soils; the soil and water; chemical constituents of the soil; 
chemical composition of the soil; active plant food and water-soluble constitu- 
ents of the soil; chemical changes; soil deficiencies; losses and gains by the 
soil ; manure ; sources and composition of fertilizers ; purchase and use of ferti- 
lizers ; constituents of plants ; composition of plants and feeds ; digestion ; utili- 
zation of food; maintenance ration and fattening; feeding work animals and 
growing animals; feeding milk cows; and feeding standards and feeding. 

About the pentosans, S. Got (Fiihling's Landw. Ztg., 61 (1912), No. 18, pp. 
606-612). — A discussion in regard to the chemistry and biology of pentosans 
and their occurrence in nature. 

The temperature at which starch granules gelatinize, M. Nyman (Ztschr. 
Untersuch. Nahr. u. Genussmtl,, 24 {1912), No. 11, pp. 673-676, figs. 8).— The 
temperature at which starch does not affect polarized light is looked upon as 
the gelatinization point. For rye starch it was found to be 57° C, for barley 
starch 58°, and for wheat starch 59°. 

The chemistry of wood. — The resins of the Doug-las fir, G. B. Frankfoeteb 
and H. H. Beown {Orig. Commun. 8. Internat. Cong. Appl. Chem. IWashing- 
ton and New York], 25 (1912), Sects. I-Ve, p. 359). — ^An acid which the authors 
chose to call betic acid was isolated from the resin obtained from the wood 
of the Douglas fir. When it was recrystallized from 62 per cent alcohol, it 
appeared as well-formed crystals with a melting point of from 143.5 to 144.5° C. 
The figures obtained on elementary analysis pointed to the formula G17H24O2, 
which was verified by the analyses of its salts and by its neutral equivalent. 
" Molecular weight determinations by the freezing point method, however, gave 
numbers nearly twice too high for the above formula, doubtless a result of 
polymerization. In addition to the preparation of the metallic salts, bromin 
and iodin compounds were made and studied." The molecular constitution is 
regarded as still undecided. 

The investig-ation of the chemical action of bacteria, A. Haeden (Chem. 
World, 1 (1912), No. 12, pp. 403, 404). — A review of work by various in- 
vestigators as to the bacteria which are hygienically and industrially important. 
The changes brought about by bacteria are regarded as principally due to the 
enzyms which they contain or elaborate. 

10 



AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTRY — AGROTECHNY. 11 

Progress made in regard to the fermentation organisms and enzyms, A. 
Koch (Jahresber. Gdrungs-Organ., 20 (1909), pp. VII I +659). —This is a ret- 
rospect of the work published during 1909, including text-books, etc., (pp. 
1-17) ; methods and apparatus (pp. 18-47) ; morphology of yeasts and bacteria 
(pp. 48-84) ; general physiology of bacteria (pp. 85-188) ; special kinds of fer- 
mentations such as alcoholic, lactic acid, and those in cheese and milk ; utiliza- 
tion of atmospheric nitrogen, nitrification, etc. (pp. 189-487) ; and enzyms 
(pp. 48.8-030). 

In regard to the ferment nature of peroxidase, A. Hesse and W. D. 
KooPER (Ztschr. Untersuch. Nahr. u. Oenussmtl., 24 {1912), No.5, pp. 301-309).—- 
A discussion of Grimmer's statements in regard to peroxidase (E. S. R., 27, p. 
803) is followed by the results of some experiments relative to tlie nature of 
peroxidase in milk. 

It is shown that the reaction, when brought into contact with certain reagents, 
e. g., Rothenfusser's, Storch's, or Arnold's, in the presence of hydrogen peroxid, 
is due to the catalytic action of iron compounds present in milk. A solution 
containing less iron (0.004 per cent) than reprecipitated albumin contains pro- 
duced a marked reaction with Arnold's and Rothenfusser's reagents. 

The reason that milk loses its activity after being boiled is the denaturizing of 
the compounds giving the peroxidase reaction. Lactic acid, sodium thiosulphate, 
and ethyl, methyl, and amyl alcohols destroy or inhibit the appearance of the 
peroxidase reaction in milk. The same inhibition was noted when the various 
chemical substances were added to a solution of iron lactate, which, under 
ordinary conditions in the presence of hydrogen peroxid will give the same 
reaction as milk. 

Mercuric chlorid and chloroform, two pronounced enzym poisons, do not visibly 
affect the appearance of the reactions in either the iron solution or milk. 
Rothenfusser's reaction can be stimulated to greater intensity by other sub- 
stances present in milk, such as alkali phosphates, carbonates, and citrates. 
Theso- alkaline substances are inactivated by boiling. 

Cleavage of a- and j3-methyl glucosid by Aspergillus niger, A. W. Dox 
and R. E. Neidig (Biochem. Ztschr., 46 {1912), No. 6, pp. 397-402, fig. i).— In the 
experiments 8 species (A. niger, A. clavatus, A. fumigatus, PcniciJHum camem- 
herti, P. expansum, P. chrysogenum. P. roqiieforti, and P. digitaturn) were 
cultivated in a solution consisting of 0.5 gm. magnesium sulphate, 1 gm. sodium 
phosphate, 0.5 gm. potassium chlorid, 2 gm. ammonium nitrate, and 0.01 gm. 
ferrous sulphate in 1,000 cc. of water for the purpose of studying the effect of 
a- and jS-methj'l glucosids upon the intensity of the growth. There was ap- 
proximately 2 per cent of the methyl glucosids present. The fungi grew much 
better in the j3-methyl glucosid than in the a form. 

A. niger acts only slightly on the j8 form, and practically not at all on the 
a-methyl glucosid. Yeast, on the other hand, acts only on the a form. 

Determination of alkalis in silicates by decomposition with calcium 
chlorid, E. Makinen {Bui. Com. Geol. Finlande, 1911, A'o. 26. pp. 8). — The 
method suggested is as follows : Five gm. of the finely powdered silicate, and 
the greatest part of 5 gm. of dry calcium chlorid is mixed and placed in a 
platinum crucible (of such a size that the mixture will not fill more than two- 
thirds of the vessel) ; the remainder of the calcium chlorid is spread over the 
mixture, and the crucible heated with a slight flame for from 5 to 10 minutes 
in order to dry the moist calcium chlorid. The flame is then gently raised until 
all of the calcium chlorid is melted, after which it can be raised to any height 
without any danger of the mixture spurting. The heating is continued until 
the melt begins to solidify, which requires about one-half hour. After cooling, 
the mass Is treated according to the J. Lawrence Smith method, that Is, It is 



12 EXPEBIMENT STATION RECORD. 

digested, preferably in a platinum dish, with hot water until it is resolved into 
a loose condition. 

The residue, insoluble in water, is removed by filtration, and the calcium 
in the filtrate is precipitated with ammonium hydroxid and ammonium car- 
bonate. As the precipitate occupies a comparatively large space, it is redissolved 
in dilute hot hydrochloric acid and reprecipitated with ammonium hydroxid and 
ammonium carbonate. The combined filtrates are evaporated to dryness, and 
after driving off the ammonium salts with the aid of heat, the residue is dis- 
solved in the smallest possible amount of water. The last traces of calcium are 
precipitated from this solution in a platinum dish with ammonium hydroxid 
and ammonium carbonate, allowed to stand for several hours, and filtered into 
a small tared platinum dish in which the alkalis, after removing the ammonium 
salts, are weighed. The potassium is then determined as potassium platinic 
chlorid, and from the difference the sodium is calculated. 

Tests were made for the purpose of determining the amount of potassium and 
sodium in calcium chlorid, and some other tests to determine whether the alkali 
chlorid contained calcium, magnesium, or sulphuric acid. 

The J. Lawrence Smith method gave lower results, but the author's method 
was easy to conduct. 

New methods for the examination and judg-ment of soils, J. Konig {Abs. 
in Ztschr. Angeiv. Chem., 25 {1912), No. 39, pp. 2001, 2002).— The methods men- 
tioned are chiefly those already noted in the literature, namely, the determina- 
tion of the catalytic power of soils and the nutrients made soluble by treatment 
with steam under pressure (E. S. R., 17, p. 1138) ; determination of the inor- 
ganic nutrient substances which can be liberated as a result of oxidizing humus 
(E. S. R., 19, p. 718) ; influence of a strong constant electric current upon the 
soil; determination of the osmotic pressure (E. S. R., 21, p. 409; 26, p. 217), 
and the electrical conductivity of the soil (E. S. R., 24, pp. 521, 522; estimation 
of the amount of colloids in soils (E. S. R.,' 26, p. 519) ; the use of dialysis in 
the examination of soils ; and determination of the oxidizing capacity of the soil. 
At present the author is engaged in separating the components of the soil 
with solutions of various specific gravities, i. e., mixtures of bromoform and 
benzol, specific gravity 2.65, 2.5, 2.4, 2.3, etc. These results will be reported upon 
later. See also a previous note by May and Gile (E. S. R., 21, p. 220). 

The determination of lime in cow feces, R. A. Dutcher (Jour. Indus, and 
Engin. Chem., 5 (1913), No. 1, pp. 37, 38). — It is maintained that methods of 
ash analysis are very lax with reference to the acid treatment of the ash. The 
author was unable to find anything in the literature in regard to the analysis 
of the ash in cow feces. He suggests that " the ash be boiled at least 3 hours 
with concentrated nitric or hydrochloric acid, and that the acid-insoluble resi- 
due be evaporated to dryness with dilute sodium hydroxid to break up all 
silicates. This alkaline residue should then be taken up with dilute acid and 
added to the original solution for analysis." 

Water analysis for sanitary and technical purposes, H. S. Stocks (London, 
1912, pp. VIII+136, figs. 8). — This book deals with the physical, organoleptic, 
and chemical (qualitative and quantitative) analysis of water. Among the 
topics discussed are deleterious metals; gases contained in solution; standards 
of purity recommended by the Rivers Pollution Commissioners; tabular view 
of the standards for effluents adopted by various authorities; average compo- 
sition of unpolluted water ; tension of aqueous vapor ; loss of nitrogen by evapo- 
ration of NH4HSO3 and NH4H2PO4 ; Warington's method of estimating nitrates ; 
and preparation of reagents required for water analysis. Several conversion 
tables are included. 



AGRICULTUEAL CHEMISTRY AGBOTECHNY. 13 

Methods of analysis used in the laboratories of the Armour Institute of 
Technology. — Mineral analysis of water (Chem. Engin., 17 {19 IS), No. S, pp. 
117, 118). — The methods described are for total solids, silica, iron and aluminum, 
calcium, magnesium, sulphuric acid, alkalis, carbonates, chlorids, and free 
carbon dioxid. The methods of calculating the results are also given. 

Food control by police oflacials, W. Bremee (Die Nahrungsmittelhontrolle 
durch den Polizeihemiiten. Berlin, 1910, pp. IV+78). — This is a description of 
methods of sampling for food inspection purposes. The substances which are 
prohibited are described in detail. 

A rapid method for determining' fat in cacao with the Zeiss refractometer, 
O. RiCHTER {Ztsclir. Untersuch. Nahr. u. Genussmtl., 24 {1912), No. 5, pp. 312- 
319). — The methods for determining fat in milk are not applicable to the deter- 
mination of this constituent in cacao, but the use of the refractometer for this 
purpose suggested itself. The method which apparently gave good results em- 
bodied extraction of the material with ether-alcohol-trisodium phosphate solu- 
tion, determining the refraction of the fat, and calculating the amount of fat 
present from the results by tables which are included. 

Chang-es in the methods for determining succinic and malic acids in wine, 
C. VON DER Heide and E. Schwenk {Ztschr. Analyt. Chem., 51 {1912), No. 10- 
11, pp. 628-638). — A modification of the methods originally suggested by von 
der Heide and Steiner (E. S. R., 21, pp. 304, 305). 

Studies in regard to the dry substance (total solids) of milk, A. Splitt- 
gerber {Ztschr. Untersuch. Nahr. u. Genussmtl., 24 {1912), No. 8, pp. 439-507).— 
A study was made for the purpose of determining to what degree the milk con- 
stituents suffer decomposition when dried for a long time. 

The changes produced in the dry substance were, in most instances, primarily 
due to the presence of lactic acid. This acid, when heated at the usual drying 
temperatures, will volatilize almost completely, but when present with either 
casein, albumin, protein, lactose, or in milk itself, it becomes bound or fixed to 
these constituents. The remainder of the acid present is decomposed, this being 
entirely dependent upon the amount present and the time of drying. 

A loss in weight for normal milk, due to the presence of lactic acid, is usually 
not noted during the first hour of drying, but after 2 hours it is appreciable. 
Casein, a mixture of milk sugar and phosphates, and casein with milk and 
phosphates after drying over 1 hour showed a marked loss in weight. Accord- 
ing to these findings the figures obtained by the usual drying methods do not 
represent the sum of the total solids of milk, but those given after 1 hour of 
drying are probably correct. 

This behavior of lactic acid probably explains the fact that in the determi- 
nation of the solids in sour milk the figures obtained do not correspond with 
those given by the calculation methods. 

The conservation of samples of milk destined for analysis, X. Rocques 
{Ann. Chim. Analyt., 17 {1912), No. 11. pp. 413-418).— One gm. of bichromate 
of potash per liter is generally used in France for preserving milk intended for 
analysis, but if the bichromate is added to milk in which decomposition has 
already set in disintegration proceeds more rapidly. Thinking that it was the 
lactic acid which destroyed the preserving power of the bichromate, the author 
made some tests with solutions of these substances. He found that lactic acid 
reduced bichromate. The bichromate had no effect upon lactose, but lactose 
seemed to accelerate the decomposition of the bichromate. 

The conclusion Is reached that bichromate of potash is an excellent preserva- 
tive for samples of fresh milk, but that when the sample is in a state of decom- 
position it is necessary to examine it as quickly as possible. 



14 EXPERIMENT STATION" RECORD. 

The preservation of milk samples destined for analysis, G. Denig^s {Ann. 
Falsi/., 5 (1012), No. 50, pp. 559-561) .—Desjyite the conclusion of Rocques, noted 
above, tbat bichromate of potash is a satisfactory preservative for milk samples, 
it is maintained thp.t the method does not work well in everyday practice. The 
recommendation of Dubois for the substitution of a solution of 50 gm. of 
phenol in 10 cc. of 95 per cent alcohol, using 1 cc. of this preservative to 100 cc. 
of milk, wns found very satisfactory by the author. Some of Dubois's analyses 
made in 1900, also an analysis made of one of the samples collected in 1900 and 
reanalyzed in 1910, are shown. Practically no change in the composition of 
the sample took place. 

The detection of peanut oil in olive oil, L. Abler (Ztschr. XJntersucli. Nahr. 
u. Genussmtl, 23 {1912), No. 12, pp. 676-679, fig. i).— A description is given 
of a modification of the Franz method in which it is possible to detect an addi- 
tion of at least 5 per cent of peanut oil to olive oil. 

One cc. of the oil and 5 cc. of an 8 per cent alcoholic potassium hydrate solu- 
tion (80 gm. of potassium hydrate treated with alcohol and enough 90 per cent 
alcohol to make 1 liter) are placed in a 100 cc. Erlenmeyer flask provided with 
an 80 cm. cooling tube. The mixture is heated for 4 minutes in a boiling water 
bath, shaken frequently, and cooled to 25° C. ; 1.5 cc. of dilute acetic acid (1 vol- 
ume acetic acid and 2 volumes water) and 50 cc. of 70 per cent alcohol by vol- 
ume are added ; the mixture is then shaken and allowed to stand. 

If the solution does not clear up. it should be heated until clarification has 
taken place, then cooled to exactly 16°, shaken repeatedly at this temperature 
for a period of 5 minutes, and if no definite turbidity is noted, cooled to 15.5°. 
If no turbidity is produced after another 5 minutes, the oil contains less than 
5 per cent of peanut oil. 

The detection of peanut oil in olive oil according to the Franz- Adler 
method, H. Luers {Ztschr. Untersucli. Nahr. u. Genussmtl., 2Ii {1912), No. 11, 
pp. 683, 684)' — Two samples of olive oil which were examined according to the 
Franz-Adler method showed a marked precipitate at 16° C, which pointed, 
according to the originators of the test, to the presence of about 5 per cent of 
peanut oil. On the other hand, when the oils were examined by the lead salt 
method of Torelli and Ruggeri (E. S. R., 10, p. 413), peanut oil was apparently 
absent. A chemical study then made of the oils showed that the precipitate 
produced in the Franz-Adler test in these instances consisted of a potassium 
salt of myristic acid, and consequently it was assumed that these oils were 
characterized by a high myristic acid content. The amount of acid added in 
the Franz-Adler test is considered insufficient to cause the liberation of the 
entire acid in every instance, and consequently a precipitate of the acid salt is 
produced at from 15 to 16°. 

On the basis of the above findings the method was modified. 

Technical accounting and chemical control in sugar manufacture, D. L. 
Davoll, Jr. {Jour. Indus, and Engin. Chem., 5 {1913), No. 3, pp. 231-23^; 4, pp. 
S1S-S19, figs. 6). — A detailed description of the topic, which includes the 
chemical methods utilized in sugar control. 

The sugar content of maize stalks, G. N. Blackshaw {So. African Jour. 
Sci., 9 {1912), No. S, pp. .^2-^S).— Continuing previous work (E. S. R., 27, p. 
314), the author reports results of more extensive experiments with Hickory 
King. Boone County, Salisbury White, Golden Eagle, and Sweet corn, sown 
November 9. From a portion of each plat, the cobs were removed in a milky 
condition on April 2, and the juice of stalks selected from the cobbed and 
uncobbed portions analyzed periodically until the crop reached maturity. 

All of the cobbed plants, with the exception of Sweet corn, examined between 
April 10 and May 23, i. e., from 8 to 51 days after removing the cobs, showed 



AGEICULTUEAL CHEMISTRY AGROTECHNY. 15 

an averaj^e sucrose content of 12 per cent. In the juice from the stalks of 
plants on which the cobs were allowed to remain, the average amount of sucrose 
was 8.2 per cent. Plants cobbed at the same period, that is, between April 2 
and 9 showed an average of 11.5 per cent of sucrose. It is estimated that the 
stalks would yield about 585 lbs. of sucrose per acre, and 80 lbs. of glucose. 

Objectionable nitrogenous compounds in sugar-cane juice, F. Zerban 
(Orig. Commun. 8. Internat. Cong. Appl. Chetn. [Washington and New York], 8 
(1912), Sect. Va, pp. 103-111). — After reviewing the literature pertaining to 
the injurious nitrogen which is contained in very small amounts in sugar-cane 
juice, the author states that none of the different substances reported, viz, 
leucin, asparagin, glutamin, and glycocoll has been definitely identified. As a 
result of the investigation it was found that the mercuric precipitate from sugar- 
cane juice contains principally asparagin, and small amounts of glutamin and 
tyrosin. The fact that asparagin was present is corroborated by L. M. Dennis 
of the laboratory of Cornell University. 

The investigations were carried out in two different places. "The first of 
these, the Agricultural Experiment Station in Tucuman, Argentina, lies within 
the Temperate Zone, while the second, the experiment station of the Porto Rico 
Sugar Producers' Association, is in the Tropics. The methods used were prac- 
tically the same in both places." 

The practical results to be obtained by determining the injurious nitro- 
gen in sugar beets, G. Friedl {Kis^rlet. Kozlem., 15 {1912), No. 5, pp. 801- 
808). — The figures for available white sugar on the basis of the injurious 
nitrogen content of the beet were lower than the values shown by Stammers' 
calculations. The amount of molasses obtained agreed well with the injurious 
nitrogen determination. Very valuable data can be obtained by determining 
the injurious nitrogen colorimetrically (E. S. R., 23. p. 514). 

Inversion of saccharose and its relation to the qualitative changes of 
various feed beets during storage, W. Jekelius (Kiihn Arch., 2 {1912), pt. 1, 
pp. 149-192, figs. 5).— The relation noted by Stephani (E. S. R., 29, p. Ill) 
between the diminution of polarization and the formation of invert sugar with 
various kinds of beets during storage was confirmed by this investigation. 
Varieties with a high sugar and dry substance content showed a lower invert- 
ing capacity than beets having a low total solid content, while the tendency to 
invert sugar formation stood in a direct relation to the yield of beets. No 
relationship between inverting capacity and the other constituents of beets, 
1. e., nitrogen, protein, ash. and the ash constituents, could be established. 

The inversion noted seems to be a purely pbysiologcal process, but it is also 
influenced by external conditions. For instance, injuring a beet, or boring 
brings about a marked inversion of the saccharose. Temperature and the 
methods of storage also influence the degree of inversion. Total sugar and 
dry substance seem to run fairly parallel also in stored beets. Accordingly, the 
estimation of the dry substance in the spring in beets high in invert sugar will 
give us a better measure than will the polarization test. With varieties which 
show a low degree of inversion, polarization in the spring will give the identical 
figures obtained with the gravimetric method for total sugars. 

The determination of total sugars stands in direct relation to the formation 
of invert sugar; there are, however, varieties and individual beets which can 
produce up to springtime considerable invert sugar without showing marked 
loss of total sugar. Inversion and polarization of sugar can, according to this, 
be two functions which are independent of one another. 

Manufacture of a sugar-beet flour (beet meal), and its use in the alimenta- 
tion of man and beast, A. Aulagd {Orig. Commun. 8. Internat. Cong. Appl. 
Chem. [Washington and New York], 25 {1912), Sects. I-Ve, pp. 479-483).— ThlB 



16 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

describes the method of preparing beet meal by a drying process. The product 
has a composition as follows: Protein, 6.6; saccharose, 65.5; other carbohy- 
drates, 12.75; cellulose (saccharifiable), 5.2; ether extract, 0.75; water, 5.4; 
residue, inert material, salts, etc., 3.8 per cent. The cost of drying the material 
under conditions prevailing in Belgium and France is also discussed. 

Composition of apples and pure ciders of the lower Seine regions, C. 
Beioux (Ann. Falsif., 6 {1913), No. 51, pp. 32-39). — This deals with the composi- 
tion of the apples harvested in 1911 and the cider made therefrom. Ciders made 
from a single variety of apples and several varieties of apples are considered. 

Cider vinegar and its making, P. J. O'Gaea (Off. Path, and Ent. Rogue 
River Valley Oreg. Circ. 1, 1912, pp. 4)- — ^This is a short popular description of 
making vinegar from pure apple juice, issued for the purpose of pointing out a 
method for utilizing cull apples which would otherwise go to waste. 

The composition of pure wine from American native grapes, W. B. Alwood 
(Abs. in Orig. Commun. 8. Internat. Cong. Appl. Chem. [Washington and New 
York], 26 {1912), Sects. Yla-Xlh, pp. 35, 55).— This paper deals with experi- 
ments on the manufacture of straight wines from 8 native grapes, the purpose 
being to ascertain the facts in regard to the composition of pure grape must 
after it has been fermented to dryness. 

The alcohol industry of the Philippine Islands, H. D. Gibbs {Philippine 
Jour. Sci., Sect. A, 6 {1911), Nos. 2, pp. 99-145, pis. 8, figs. S; 3, pp. 147-206, pis, 
12, figs. 5). — This deals with the study of the nipa palm, coconut palm, buri 
palm, and sugar palm, with special reference to the saps and their uses. Among 
other factors it discusses the tapping of the palm, the yield, composition, and 
utilization of the sap, the occurrence of mannitol in palm saps, the sap of the 
coconut palm as a source of sugar and vinegar, the economic factors concerned 
in the production of sugar, etc. 

The cooperative manufacture of casein, P. Doenic {Indus. Beurre, 7 {1912), 
Nos. 28, pp. 325-327; 29, pp. 337-339; abs. in Internat. Inst. Agr. {Romel, Bui. 
Bur. Agr. Intel, and Plant Diseases, 3 {1912), No. 9, p. 2079). — A small society 
at Sainte-SouUe, manufacturing casein from skim milk from June 1, 1911, to 
May 31, 1912, utilized 366,600 gal. of skim milk, which yielded 114,185 lbs. of 
casein, and a profit greater than had previously been received from feeding the 
skim milk to pigs. 

Synthetic tannin, B. F. Chase {Daily Cons, and Trade Rpts. [U. 8.], 16 
{1913), No. 106, p. 673). — The preparation which is termed " Neradol " is made 
by sulphonating cresylic acid and combining it with formaldehyde. The prepa- 
ration is supposed to be somewhat similar to ordinary tanning extract, and 
forms a light brown solution in water. It is reported that a number of tests 
have been made with sheep, calf, and other skins with apparently satisfactory 
results. 

The effect of " lime-sulphur ^' spray manufacture on the eyesight, J. R. 
WiTHEOw (Jour. Indus, and Engin. Chem., 4 {1912), No. 10, pp. 735-737). — This 
is a description of some cases where the eyes of workmen engaged in the prepa- 
ration of lime-sulphur wash became inflamed, resulting in blurred vision. This 
was especially the case on cold days, when the opportunities for proper ventila- 
tion of the factories were poor. 

METEOROLOGY— WATER. 

Syllabus of questions on the relation between meteorological information 
and agricultural practice, W. N. Shaw {Rpt. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci., 1912, pp. 
738, 739). — A series of questions designed to bring out the relation between 
climatic conditions and plant growth is given. 



METEOROLOGY WATEE. 17 

"Surface" climate, W. L. Balls (Rpt. Brit. Assoc. Adv. 8ci , 1912, pp. 7S9, 
74O). — This article calls attention to the wide variations in temperature, 
humidity, etc., which may occur among crops within even a few inches of alti- 
tude. It is stated that in observations on the cotton crop in Egypt it was found 
"that a puff of wind arising during an otherwise calm, clear night will raise 
the temperature of the crop by more than 5° C. Since the growth of the plant 
is controlled chiefly by night temperature, such a rise is not without impor- 
tance. The explanation lies in the removal of air which has been chilled by 
radiation from the plant, and its replacement by air at 'screen temperature.' 
Transpiration of water from the plant is negligible at night." 

Meteorological conditions in a field crop, with a description of two simple 
recorders, W. L. Balls (Quart. Jour. Roy. Met. 80c. ILondon], 39 {lOlS), No. 
166, pp. 109-113, figs. 3). — This article reports the results of observations on 
temperature, humidity, and wind movement in a field of cotton in Egypt as 
noted in the abstract above. It also describes simple forms of an anemograph 
and a differential thermograph used in these observations. 

Meteorolog-ical yearbook for 1913 (Annuaire M6t^orologique pour 1913. 
Brussels, 1912, pp. VI +323, pis. 39, figs. 7). — This volume contains a clima- 
tological review for Belgium for 1912, a summary of meteorological observations 
at the Uccle observatory, and a detailed study of hail and other storms in Bel- 
gium, besides special articles on the Besson nephoscope, comparative tests of 
different forms of shade thermometers, ascensions of sounding balloons, temper- 
ature of the North Sea, and infiltration of meteoric waters in the soil as meas- 
ured by a lysimeter. 

Temperature records, J. B. Thompson (Guam Sta. Rpt. 1912, pp. 28, 29, figs. 
2). — Records of maximum and minimum temperatures at the Guam Station 
throughout the year ended June 30, 1912, are shown in charts. 

Rain and its measurement, L. Dumas (Ann. QemUoux, 23 (1913), No. 6, pp. 
261-299). — The author deals in a broad general way with the phenomenon of 
rainfall and with rain and snow in their relations to climate, locality, and agri- 
culture. He discusses evaporation from air and soils, humidity, temperature, 
and intensity of rainfall in their relations to each other, and also the accuracy 
of rain gages. He takes up particularly the relation of rainfall to soil and 
vegetation, considering as the normal rainfall for a region that amount which 
satisfies the average cultural conditions. 

Conservation of rainfall, W. J. Spillman (U. S. Senate, 63. Cong., 1. Sess.. 
Doc. 22s, 1913, pp. 5). — Attention is called in this document to the beneficial 
results obtained by the use of a system of embankments for conserving rainfall 
and preventing soil erosion on a light sandy soil which includes forests, pastures, 
and cultivated fields. 

Surface water supply of the South Atlantic coast and eastern Gulf of 
Mexico drainage basins, 1911, M. R. Hall and C. H. Pierce (U. 8. Geol. 
Survey, Water-Snpply Paper 302, 1913, pp. 90, pis. ^). — This paper reports the 
results of measurements of flow made during 1911, in the James, Roanoke, Yad- 
kin, Savannah, and Altamaha river basins on the South Atlantic coast, and in the 
Apalachicola, Choctawha tehee, Escambia, and Mobile river basins of the east 
coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Tables are also included giving gage heights and 
daily and monthly discharges at each station. A summary of the discharge 
per square mile indicates an almost entire lack of uniformity or agreement 
between any two stations. 

Geology and ground waters of Florida, G. C. Matson and S. Sanford ( U. 8. 
Oeol. Survey, Water-supply Paper 319, 1913, pp. U5, pis. 16, figs. 7).— This 
paper gives a detailed report on the geography, stratigraphy, and geologic hie- 



18 EXPEKIMENT STATION RECOED. 

tory of Florida, with special reference to its underground water. The water 
supply of euch county as well as of tlie State as a whole is discussed with 
reference to its source, quality, and developmeut, and tables giving data for 
typical wells of the State are added to many of the county descriptions. The 
illustrations include a general topographic and geologic map of Florida, a map 
of its Pleistocene terraces, a diagram showing the importance of ctoosiug proper 
locations for wells, and half-tones showing features of geologic interest. 

Surface water supply of the Ohio River basin, 1911, A. H. Horton, M. R. 
Hall, and H. J. Jackson ( U. 8. Geol. Survey, Water-Supply Paper SOS, 191S, pp. 
112, pis. 4). — This paper reports results of measurements of flow made on the 
Ohio River and its tributaries during 1911. Tables are also included giving 
gage heights and daily and monthly discharges at each station. A comparison 
of relative rates of run-off from different areas in this basin shows an almost 
entire lack of uniformity or agreement between any two streams. 

The Ohio Valley flood of March- April, 1913, A. H. Hoeton and H. J. Jack- 
son (U. aS'. Geol. Survey, Water-Supply Paper S34, 1913, pp. 96, pis. 22). — This 
report contains available recent flood data from the Ohio River Valley, together 
with facts concerning earlier floods, which are presented primarily for com- 
parison with those concerning the flood of 1913. It is attempted to show what 
can and should be done in collecting the data necessary for a complete report 
on the floods in the Ohio Valley and emphasizes the necessity of immediately 
starting, on a comprehensive scale, the collection of stream-flow data not only 
from the Ohio itself but from its larger tributaries to the end that a definite 
decision may be reached as to the best and most economical means of prevent- 
ing damage by floods. 

Geology and water resources of Sulphur Spring- Valley, Ariz. {U. S. Geol. 
Survey, Water-Supply Paper S20, 191S, pp. 1-187, 2U~231, pU. IJf, figs. 32).— 
This work represents a cooperative investigation, between the United States 
Geological Survey and the Arizona Experiment Station, of the ground waters 
and possibilities of irrigation in the valley. 

The physiography and drainage; geology; rainfall; occurrence; level, and 
quality of ground water; vegetation in relation to water and other geographic 
controls ; and the artesian conditions of the valley are discussed in some detail 
by O. E. Meinzer (pp. 1-187), together with an investigation of the concentra- 
tion, distribution, and general effect of the alkalis in the soil and water. So- 
dium carbonate is said to be the most harmful alkaline constituent in the soil, 
and where the depth to water is less than 15 ft. the soil usually contains in- 
jurious amounts of alkali, while where the depth is more than 15 ft. the soil 
is usually free from injurious amounts. 

In addition there is a discussion by R. H. .Forbes (pp. 214-224) of the agri- 
cultural resources of the valley, in which it is stated that di*y farming and flood 
water farming are uncertain methods of culture there, while dry farming sup- 
plemented with a pumped water supply is a more certain method. See also a 
previous note (E. S. R., 29, p. 725). 

Ground water in Eoxelder and Tooele counties, Utah, E. Carpenter (U. S. 
Geol. Survey, Water-Supply Paper 333, 1913, pp. 90, pis. 2, figs. 9).— The chief 
purpose of this paper is to report an investigation made to determine the feasi- 
bility of irrigating by use of underground water in this region, which includes 
Boxelder and the eastern part of Tooele counties, Utah, and some small tracts 
in southern Idaho. The physiography, geology, climate, vegetation, soil, and 
Industrial development of the region are discussed in some detail and the 
occurrence and quality of ground water supplies are taken up by areas, mainly 
from the standpoint of their availability and use for irrigation purposes. In 



SOILS FERTILIZERS. 19 

addition information Is given regarding the location of watering places on routes 
of travel for the benefit of strangers traveling through the region. 

The pollution of underground waters with sewage through fissures in 
rocks, H. Albert (Science, n. ser., S8 (1913), No. 972, pp. 2S8, 239).— A case of 
supposed pollution of underground waters through rock flssues is noted. A 
water supply taken from three deep wells became polluted from the deepest 
well which was sunk at the bottom of a shaft used previously for water sup- 
plies and extending through 31 ft. of alluvial soil and clay, 6 ft. of limestone, 
27 ft. of blue shale, 6 ft. of limestone, and 42 ft. of sandstone. From the 
nature of the existing strata and from bacteriological and clinical examinations 
of the water it is concluded that polluted river and ground water passed readily 
through the top layer of soil and gravel to and through the fissures in the upper 
layer of limestone to and along the relatively impermeable layer of shale in the 
direction of least resistance toward the shaft. 

The sewage sludge problem and its solution, J, Grossmann (Surveyor, 43 
(1913), No. 1111, pp. 926-928).— A paper on this subject is given in abstract 
with discussion. 

The Grossmann process for recovery of grease and preparation of a sludge 
fertilizer in use at Oldham, England, is described. The sludge fertilizer ob- 
tained is a dry, friable, inodorous material containing about 2 per cent of am- 
monia, from 3 to 5 per cent of calcium phosphate, and 1^ per cent of potash 
salts, and is in demand by farmers. It is said to furnish a good basis for 
mixed fertilizers. 

SOnS—FEETILIZERS. 

Soils of the United States, C. F. Maebut, H. H. Bennett, and J. E. and 
M. H. Lapham (U. 8. Dept. Agr., Bur. Soils Bui. 96, pp. 791, pis. 15). — This is 
a combination of features of Bulletins 55 and 78 of the Bureau of Soils (E. S. 
R., 20, p. 915; 25, p. 426), revised to January 1, 1912. It describes the soils 
of this country as far as they are known at present, and includes also a discus- 
sion of methods of soil classification. 

A study of the soils of Macon County, Alabama, and their adaptability to 
certain crops, G. W. Cabveb (Alabama Tushegee Sta. Bui. 25, pp. 5-13). — The 
soil types of the county, as defined by the Bureau of Soils, are described and 
their crop adaptations and methods of management are discussed. With the 
exception of the Norfolk coarse sand and Norfolk gravelly loam, which are so 
porous as to be nearly always in a drought-stricken condition, the soils are 
generally well adapted to the growing of field, garden, and fruit crops, and 
nuts. Among the fruits which may be successfully grown are apples, pears, 
plums, grapes, figs, strawberries, blackberries, mulberries, and pomegranates. 
The clay soils are said to need drainage especially, and deep cultivation and 
the addition of vegetable matter are suggested for all the types. 

The gullied lands of west Tennessee, A. H. Ptjrdue (Resources Tenn., S 
(1913), No. 3, pp. 119-136, figs. 8).— Attention is called to the enormous annual 
waste from soil wash in western Tennessee. The tendency of the soils of that 
locality to wash is attributed to the fact that they are loose and sandy and 
contain more or less clay. The conditions favorable for rapid wash of sand 
clay soils are stated to be steep slopes, rapid rainfall, and absence of vegetation. 

Deep, close plowing, parallel to the contours and turning of the soil down 
hill, are urged as measures for preventing wash. It is pointed out that the 
existence of gullies in fields causes the ground water level to sink beyond the 
reach of plants and also tends to leach out and drain away soluble soil constitu- 
ents and fertilizerg. To prevent this and to check the spread of wash it is 



20 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

suggested that the mouths and heads of gullies be filled with logs, brush, briars, 
and grass. 

It is stated that all of the waste lands of western Tennessee can be reclaimed 
for one of three purposes, namely, agriculture, pasture, or timber. 

The sulphur content of some typical Kentucky soils, O. M. Shedd {Kcji- 
tucky Sta. Bui. 174, pp. 269-306). — Examinations of representative samples of 
soil from the various geological areas in the State indicate that constant culti- 
vation without manuring has resulted, in some cases, in a very large loss of 
sulphur as compared with the amounts in corresponding virgin soil. This was 
true of both surface soils and subsoils. As a rule, the better agricultural areas 
showed a higher content of both sulphur and phosphorus. Surface soils gen- 
erally contained more sulphur than the corresponding subsoils. 

The general conclusion is that any system of soil maintenance which does not 
include the addition of sulphur in some form will probably prove a failure. 

Analysis of coconut soils, J. de Verteuil (Dept. Agr. Trinidad and To'bago 
Bui., 11 {1912), No. 11, pp. i84--?86).— Results of analyses of 11 samples of 
soils on which coconuts were being grown are reported and briefly discussed. 
The soils are fairly heavy clays, the proportion of clay increasing with the 
depth. An attempt is made to correlate the health and vigor of the coconut 
palms with the available plant food in the soil, but without conclusive results. 

Some Lybian soils, A. Maugini {Agr. Colon. [Italy], 7 {1913), No. .9, pp. 
821-332). — Mechanical, physico-chemical, partial chemical, and mineralogical 
analyses were made of six samples of soil, three of which were taken from in- 
terior oases and three from dry stream beds in the Lybian Desert. 

The substrata of the oases, although they are widely separated, were iden- 
tical, consisting of variegated clay marl alternating with, streaks of silicious 
limestone. The substrata of the dry stream beds were composed of alluvial 
earth derived from the disintegration of the limestones and marls which formed 
the original stream bed. 

The vegetation of the oases consisted of date palms, cereals, legumes, olives, 
figs, pomegranates, cotton, tobacco, and barley. That of the dry stream beds 
consisted of several tropical plants, common Bermuda grass, and a kind of 
legume. 

The soils examined varied in color from reddish gray to dark brown and were 
found to be either slightly alkaline or neutral. They belong in general to the 
category of loose soils, being often deficient in grit and composed mainly of 
small particles, although the content of impalpably fine particles is small. 
To this is attributed the small water-holding capacity and permeability of 
these soils. 

The soils contained a relative abundance of potash, very little of which, 
however, was in a form to be available for plants. Organic matter and conse- 
quently nitrogen and also phosphoric acid were insuflBcient in both quantity and 
availability. Mineralogically all the soils with the exception of one stream bed 
sample had essentially the same composition, quartz incrusted with iron oxid 
predominating in the fine earth. The greatest difference in the soils from the 
two sources was in the quantity of carbonates, which was small in the oasis 
soils and large in the stream bed soils. 

The fine earth in the oasis soils was largely sandy material while in the dry 
stream bed soils it was largely clay. The structure of the dry stream bed soils 
is deemed the better of the two. A comparison of these interior oasis soils 
with those of coastal oases leads to the conclusion that they are from a common 
origin. 



SOILS FERTILIZERS. 21 

The alkaline soils in Egypt and their treatment, V. M. Mossfiei {Bui. Inst. 
Egyptien, 5. ser., 5 {1911), No. 1, pp. 5S-79). — An examination of unproductive 
soils in different parts of Egypt showed the widespread existence of injurious 
alkali, consisting principally of carbonate, bicarbonate, chlorid, and sulphate 
of sodium. Of these the carbonate is considered the most injurious to both 
plant growth and the physical condition of the soil, it being found without ex- 
ception that unproductive, compact, impervious soils difficult to drain contained 
sodium carbonate in large or small amounts, and also bicarbonate in amounts 
usually from two to three times those of the carbonate. A strong soil contain- 
ing 0.08 per ceut of sodium carbonate is said to be rendered absolutely useless. 
The bicarbonate of sodium, however, is considered to be less harmful than the 
chlorid. 

It was demonstrated that gypsum in proper amounts, in addition to overcom- 
ing the toxic effect of sodium carbonate, corrected its effect on the porosity and 
permeability of the soil. It is concluded in general that the gypsum should be 
applied in double the amount theoretically required and in two or three treat- 
ments well distributed and well mixed with the top layer of soil. A copious 
irrigation after a treatment is said to aid the chemical reaction between the 
gypsum and the sodium carbonate, and good drainage is considered indis- 
pensable. 

Tests of the solubility of the local gypsums relative to fineness are recorded, 
the solvents used being water, 1 per cent hydrochloric acid, and one-hundredth 
normal hydrochloric acid. It is concluded that a degree of fineness allowing it 
to pass a sieve having 34 meshes per linear centimeter is sufficient. 

The movements of soil water in an Eg-yptian cotton field, W. L. Balls 
{Jour. Agr. Sci. [England], 5 {1913), No. 4, pp. 469-^82, figs. 7; abs. in Internat. 
Inst. Agr. [Romel, Mo. Bui. Agr. Intel, and Plant Diseases, 4 {1918), No. 12, 
pp. 184-5-1847). — This paper describes and discusses a series of soil water 
determinations made in a field of cotton at Giza, in Egypt. These were made 
every three or four days alternately and at 20 cm. intervals down to 160 cm. 
The soil is alluvial the first 30 cm., the next 60 cm. stiff clay, the next 110 cm. 
loam to sandy loam, and below 200 cm. stiff clay. The rate of evaporation from 
this field of cotton plants averaged about 20 tons per acre of water a day from 
May to October. 

The chief conclusions drawn from these determinations are as follows: (1) 
The depth of root may be roughly traced by its drying effect on the soil, which 
combined with a change in surface climate causes a reversal of the humidity 
gradient so that deep soil is drier than surface soil in September. (2) Appli- 
cation of irrigation water to the surface is evidence to an indefinite depth and 
absence of such evidence is due to imperfection in the method of observation. 

(3) Determination of soil water content in an Egyptian cotton field by random 
sampling is almost worthless unless due regard is paid to the seasonal variation. 

(4) The water of the water table when within 2 meters of the surface may be 
utilized by the crop. (5) A rise of the water table is analogous to surface 
Irrigation and there is some indication of a direct hydraulic thrust in both 
cases. 

The water balance and losses of plant food in fallow loam and sandy soils, 
1905-1912, C. VON Seelhorst et al. (In Festschrift zum siebz^igsten Gchurt- 
stagc von Jacob Esser. Berlin, 1913, pp. 1-27; Jour. Landw., 61 {1913), No. S, 
pp. 189-215). — The investigations summarized in this article were made in 
vegetation tanks of IJ cubic meters content. 

The results show that evaporation was larger from the loam than from the 
sandy soil, each being repeatedly cultivated each summer during the period 



22 



EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 



covered by the experiments. The losses of plant food in the drainage were as 
follows : 

Losses of plant food in drainage icater from loam and sandy soils in pounds 

per acre. 





Nitrogen. 


Lime. 


Magnesia. 


Sulphuric acid. 


Year. 


Sandy 
soU. 


Loam. 


Sandy 
soil. 


Loam. 


Sandy 
soil. 


Loam. 


Sandy 
soil. 


Loam. 


1908 


Pounds. 
17.4 
19.3 
15.9 
13.8 
61.1 


Pounds 
34.5 
55.1 
60.2 
26.2 
95.0 


Pounds. 
161.3 
235.8 
221.9 
98.3 
377.1 


Pounds. 
212.7 
230.9 
295.5 
115.4 
356.7 


PouTids. 
17.1 
23.8 
21.3 
11.6 
23.6 


Pounds. 
28.5 
41.4 
44.3 
22.2 
52.7 


Pounds. 

88.7 
114.1 
116.0 

55.3 
177.6 


Pounds. 

84.4 


1909 


101.4 


1910 


148.5 


1911 


42.0 


1912 


164.9 







On a new method of measuring the capillary lift of soils, C. J. Lynde and 
H. A. Dupii6 (Jour. Amer. 8oc. Agron., 5 {1913), No. 2, pp. 107-116, figs. 5).— 
The apparatus used in the method proposed, which is similar to that of Aske- 
nasy (E. S. R., 7, p. 19), consists essentially >f an ordinary glass funnel 4 cm. 
in diameter connected with a thick-walled capillary tube about 90 cm. long by 
means of a piece of rubber tubing. This joint is water sealed by means of " a 
glass tube, 2 cm. in diameter and 15 cm. long, closed at the bottom with a rub- 
ber stopper through which the capillary tube passes. The seal is filled with 
water and prevents air from entering about the rubber tube." 

In using this apparatus a 6-gm. sample of soil is allowed to stand over night 
in water. It is then boiled for a short time to expel air. The funnel is fitted 
with a cotton cloth filter 2 cm. in diameter. A cup of a centrifuge is filled with 
distilled water previously boiled to expel the air and the funnel with its filter 
is placed in the cup, being supported by the rim of the cup. Part of the hot 
mixture of soil and water is poured into the funnel and the soil is settled by 
centrifuging. This process is repeated with more soil and water until the soil 
is well above the edge of the cloth filter. The capillary tube with the rubber 
tube attached is then filled with water previously boiled to expel air, and the 
funnel is inserted in the rubber tube, care being taken in doing this not to allow 
air to enter the funnel or tube and to avoid disturbing the soil. The lower end of 
the capillary tube is placed in a cup of mercury and the water seal is filled 
with boiled distilled water. When evaporation sets in from the surface of the 
soil in the funnel the mercury rises in the capillary tube and the maximum 
capillary lift is found by multiplying the length of the mercury column in centi- 
meters by 13.6 and adding the length in centimeters of the water column from 
the top of the mercury column to the middle of the soil layer. 

The advantages claimed for this method are that the moisture moves through 
a very short column of wet soil, reducing friction to a minimum; the time 
required to make a measurement is greatly reduced ; and the final measurement 
is a fairly accurate index of the capillary lift of the soil, being approximately 
three times that measured by the old method. By this method the capillary 
lift of soil constituents was found to be greater the finer the grains, and a com- 
parison of the calculated and observed lifts showed that the observed lifts fell 
between the calculated limits in every case except that of clay. The capillary 
lift of clay was measured under pressures equal to, gi*eater than, and less than 
one atmosphere, and the results showed that the capillary lift observed by this 
method is limited by the pressure of the atmosphere and that, therefore, the 
maYlmnm lift under a pressure of one atmosphere can not exceed 34 ft. 



u- 



SOILS FERTILIZERS. 23 



On osmosis in soils: The efficiency of the soil constituents as semiperme- 
able membranes, C. J. Lynde and H. A. Dupr6 {Jour. Avier. Soc. Agron., 5 
(.1913), No. 2, pp. 102-106, figs. 2). — In continuation of previous investigations 
(E. S. R., 29, p. 124) experiments made with medium sand, fine sand, very fine 
sand, silt, clay, and fine clay for the purpose of comparing the efficiencies of 
these soil constituents as semipermeable membranes showed that for the solu- 
tion used (clay subsoil solution) the sands did not act as semipermeable mem- 
brane, but that the silt, clay, and fine clay did so act. The conclusion is drawn 
that the finer the soil grains in a soil constituent the greater is the efficiency 
of the soil constituent as a semipermeable membrane. 

The method and apparatus used are described. 

The action of hydroxyl ions on clay and clay soils in connection with 
marling-, P. Rohland (Landw. Jahrh., 44 {191S), No. 3, pp. 437-440). — The 
hydroxyl ions of calcium and other hydroxids act upon the clay of soil, form- 
ing and flocculating colloid substances. This effect is greatest the first time 
clays and clay soils are subjected to the action of the ions and diminishes 
when the action is repeated until the clay particles lose the property of forming 
colloids. This is said to explain the diminishing effect of repeated liming. 

The properties of so-called soil zeolites, E. Blanck (Fuhling\s Landw. Ztg., 
62 (1913), No. 16, pp. 560-581). — The principal results of investigations bearing 
on this subject are summarized, indicating the lack of exact information as to 
the so-called zeolites of the soil. These are shown to be in no sense equivalent 
to the mineral zeolite but may be more properly designated simply as adsorptive 
gel mixtures of indefinite and variable mineralogical and chemical composition. 

Factors in the maintenance of permanent fertility of the soil, E. O. Fippin 
(Jour. Amer. Soc. Agron., 5 (1913), No. 1, pp. 46-49, fig. i).— A diagram in the 
form of a monument is presented which " is made up of the general practices 
available for improving the soil put together according to their functional 
relations and in the order of their range of influence." The foundation of 
this diagram is the proper regulation of soil moisture, involving drainage and 
irrigation. Lime in the form of free lime carbonate constitutes the second 
course. Organic matter, chiefly in the form of humus, forms the third course. 
Tillage in its various forms constitutes the fourth course, and plant food in the 
form of fertilizers is placed last with the elements, phosphorus, sulphur, nitrogen, 
and potassium, arranged in the order in which they are most likely to be needed. 

The agricultural utilization of acid lands by means of acid-tolerant crops, 
F. V. CoviLLE {U. 8. Dept. Agr. Bui. 6, pp. 13). — The essential features of this 
paper have already been noted from another source (E. S. R., p. 814). The 
points emphasized as of special importance to agricultural investigators are 
"(1) that soil acidity is not always an objectionable condition which invariably 
requires an application of lime, (2) that under certain economic conditions a 
complete system of acid-land agriculture is practicable and desirable, and 
(3) that the extent to which our cheap eastern acid lands can be utilized with 
small applications of lime, or under some conditions without its use. is a legiti- 
mate and important subject for detailed investigation, from which may reason- 
ably be expected results of far-reaching economic importance."' 

Formation of nitrates in soil after freezing and thawing-, T. L. Lyon and 
J. A. BizzELL {Jour. Amer. Soc. Agron., 5 {1913), No. 1, pp. 45, 46). — Four pots 
of soil, two containing Volusia silt loam and two Dunkirk clay loam soil on 
which had been raised a crop of wheat and one of millet were used in these 
experiments. One pot of each kind of soil was subjected to freezing and thaw- 
ing and the other two were kept at a temperature above 50° F. 

The determination of nitrates in these soils after this treatment showed that 
freezing had produced a condition of soil favorable for nitrate formation. This 
25842°— No. 1—14 3 



24 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

is attributed to the effect or xreezing in overcoming the depressing influence of 
the crops previously grown. 

The accumulation of green manure nitrog-en in sandy soils, C. von Seel- 
HOEST ET AL. (Avb. Deut. Landw. OeselL, 1913, No. 241, pp. W, pis. 20).— A 
summary of the results of 6 years' experiments in vegetation tanks, here re- 
ported in detail, has previously been noted (E. S. R., 20, p. 224). 

Manures and fertilizers, H. J. Wheeler (New York, 1913, pp. XXI-{-589, 
pi. 1, figs. 62). — This is the ninth volume in The Rural Text-book Series, edited 
by L. H. Bailey. 

The author states that " the preparation of this volume was undertaken 
for the purpose of meeting a distinct lack in collegiate agricultural text- 
books in the United States. It was hoped to prepare a book reasonably 
free from extended details, such' as are found in certain of the larger foreign 
works, and likewise to avoid the rather superficial treatment of the subjects 
which has necessarily characterized many of the books which have been writ- 
ten for the purpose of meeting the earlier requirements of the American agri- 
cultural colleges, and the present demands of agricultural high schools. The 
intent has been to provide in a measure for the needs of the graduate student 
in agriculture; also for the requirements of students in the agricultural col- 
leges, teachers in agricultural schools, graduates of agricultural schools and 
colleges, agricultural institute lecturers, and the rapidly increasing number of 
intelligent men who are daily interesting themselves in the scientific phases of 
modem farming." 

In a historical introduction the author gives in a few pages a summary of 
the major steps in the scientific development of the use of manures and fer- 
tilizers. Then follow chapters dealing with night soil; the dung of farm 
animals and its preservation; the organisms and fermentation of dung; the 
practical utilization of manures; sea weeds; guanos; fish, crab, lobster, and 
similar wastes; common slaughter-house nitrogenous waste products; other 
miscellaneous nitrogenous substances; the availability of organic nitrogen and 
factors affecting it ; calcium and potassium nitrates ; nitrate of soda ; ammonium 
salts and calcium cyanamid; natural phosphatic fertilizers; manufactured 
phosphates and studies of solubility ; potassic fertilizers ; the theory and prac- 
tice of potash fertilization ; lime and its relation to soils and fertilizers ; liming 
in its relation to plants; gypsum and waste lime from industries; magnesia as 
a fertilizer; sodium salts; iron and manganese; and chlorin, sulphur, silica, 
carbon disulphid, toluene, and other miscellaneous substances. 

In the discussion of many important features of the subject the author has 
drawn freely upon the results of his ovm well-known investigations relating 
to plant nutrition and soil requirements at the Rhode Island Experiment Sta- 
tion because, as he observes, " he can speak of these results in a more authori- 
tative way than of work done elsewhere," and because " the work has been, 
in some respects, of a pioneer character, and has not been duplicated." 

Some of the subjects which are perhaps more fully treated than in most 
text-books of this kind are guano and human excrement (largely historical) ; 
seaweed (not, however, dealing with the recent exploitation of Pacific coast 
seaweeds as a source of potash) ; the bacterial changes in animal excrements; 
the relative availability of nitrogenous manures; the relative value (especially 
cumulative and indirect effects) of nitrates and ammonium salts; the new 
synthetic nitrogenous fertilizers — calcium cyanamid and calcium nitrate; and 
the function in soil improvement and plant growth of lime, magnesia, soda, 
manganese, and various catalytic fertilizers. 
The book is well indexed. 



SOILS — FBBTILIZERS. 25 

Experiments with fertilizers, manure, lime, and floats, C. E, Thobne and 
E. MoHN (Ofiio Sta. Bui. 260, pp. 405-448, figs. 5). — This is a report on experi- 
ments at the northeastern test farm of the Ohio Station at Strongsville. 

''These experiments, which are still in progress, were begun in 1895 on a 
cold, heavy clay, lying over compact, argillaceous shales. Part of the land had 
been in pasture for many years before the experiments were begun, and part 
under tillage. 

" Wherever phosphorus has been applied on this land, whether carried in acid 
phosphate, bone meal, or raw phosphate rock, it has produced a profitable 
increase of crop. 

" Nitrogen and potassium, while increasing the crop, have produced a smaller 
effect than phosphorus, especially In the earlier years of the work. During 
more recent years there has been a slowly increasing effect from these elements. 

" While nitrate of soda and muriate of potash have been used at a loss, the 
fact that the largest yields of crops have been harvested only when the fertilizer 
has carried nitrogen and potassium in some form indicates the necessity of 
supplying these elements in some cheaper carrier than chemicals. 

'' For eight years several brands of factory mixed fertilizers were compared 
with home mixtures of equivalent composition, made of tankage, acid phosphate, 
and muriate of potash. The outcome of this test was a greater increase of 
crop from the home mixtures than from the factory mixtures in every case, 
while the cost of the home mixtures was much less than that of the factory 
mixtures. 

"Acid phosphate and steamed bone meal have been the most effective carriers 
of phosphorus. Apparently there has been very little difference in effectiveness 
between the pound of ' available ' phosphorus in acid phosphate and the pound 
of total phosphorus in steamed bone meal. 

" Steamed bone meal has been more effective than raw bone meal, a result 
which may have been due in part to the finer grinding of the steamed meal and 
in part to the low effect of nitrogenous fertilizers on this soil. 

" Raw phosphate rock appears to have been effective in proportion to the 
'available' phosphorus contained. When applied at the rate of 2,000 lbs. per 
acre every five years, raw phosphate rock has produced a greater increase in 
the cereal crops than raw limestone in twice that quantity. In the earlier 
experiments clover was benefited by the phosphate rock, but in more recent 
years the clover has failed on the phosphated land, though growing with increas- 
ing luxuriance on that receiving limestone. 

"As a direct application to the land, therefore, acid phosphate and steamed 
bone meal have been found to be more economical sources of phosphorus than 
raw phosphate rock. 

" Lime is as urgently needed on this land as phosphorus, it having become 
practically impossible to grow clover until lime has been applied, no matter 
how thoroughly the land was manured or fertilized." 

The preservation of cattle manure (Planters' Chron., 8 (1913), No. 43, 
pp. 550-552). — Comparative tests on a rotation of crops of deep stall manure 
and manure preserved in pits and heaps with and without addition of loam soil 
are briefly reported. These indicated that for the shallow-rooted crops the best 
results were obtained with the manure containing the largest amount of 
organic matter, the effect being due largely to the mechanical condition of the 
manure rather than to its relative percentage of fertilizing constituents. 

The deep stall manure contained on the basis of dry matter 56.9 per cent of 
organic matter, the pit manure 45.01 per cent, and ordinary heap manure 38.87 
per cent. 



26 EXPERIMENT STATION RECOED. 

The effects of fertilizers other than that of adding plant food, L. L. Van 
Slyke {Cornell , Countryman , 11 {1913), No. 2, pp. 51-53). — This article dis- 
cusses briefly certain secondary aud subsidiary effects of sodium nitrate, am- 
monium sulphate, superphosphate, potassium chlorid, and potassium sulphate 
when applied as fertilizers. These arc cited as examples " to illustrate the fact 
that, in applying commercial fertilizers to the soils, some account must be taken 
of the effects other than those of supplying plant food. If this is not done, not 
only may the applied plant food fail to produce the desired effect but even act 
injuriously." 

The nitrogen content of night soil from the city of Florence, N. Passerini 
{Atti R. Accad. Econ. Agr. Georg. Firenze, 5. ser., 10 {1913), No. 4^ pp. 553- 
360; Bol. 1st. Agr. Scaridicci, 2. ser., 7 {1913), No. 4, pp. 315-322) .—Analyses of 
a number of samples of both solid and liquid material are reported. 

Tests of the agricultural value of the nitrogen of " Poudro ", M. de 
MoLiNAEi and O. Ligot {Ann. Gemhloux, 23 {1913), No. 11, pp. 537-544, figs. 
2). — "Poudro" is a fertilizer prepared from household garbage and contains, 
according to the analyses reported, from 0.39 to 0.84 per cent of nitrogen and 
somewhat smaller amounts of phosphoric acid and potash. In pot experiments 
with oats on clay soil and sand its nitrogen appeared to be quite active as 
compared with that of ammonium sulphate. 

The production of artificial fertilizing materials from the nitrogen of the 
air, A. Bencki: {Die Erzeugung kunstUcher Diingemittel mit Luftstickstoff. 
Vienna and Leipsic, 1913, pp. VII-\-204, figs. 58). — The various processes pro- 
posed for this purpose are fully described and discussed, as is the industrial 
value of the products. 

How can the dusty condition of lime nitrogen be lessened? A. Stutzeb 
{Deut. Landiv. Presse, 40 {1913), No. 84, pp. 1002, 1003).— It was found that 
lime nitrogen mixed with from 10 to 15 per cent of ground bog iron ore kept 
for 7 months in good mechanical condition and without loss of fertilizing value. 

On the decrease of available phosphoric acid in mixed fertilizers contain- 
ing acid phosphate and calcium cyanamid, R. N. Brackett et al. {Jour. 
Indus, and Engin. Chem., 5 {1913), No. 11, pp. 933-935). — In the experiments 
reported in this article it was found that there was a gradual increase of insolu- 
ble phosphoric acid in mixtures of cyanamid and acid phosphate. The experi- 
ence of fertilizer manufacturers and the results of fertilizer inspection indicate 
the same thing, viz, that the mixing of cyanamid with acid phosphate will injure 
the fertilizer from the farmer's standpoint, and that if a considerable amount 
of the cyanamid is used in the mixture the fertilizer will be found on inspection 
to be decidedly deficient in available phosphoric acid. 

Fertilizer analysis, E. A. Mitscheelich and W. Simmermacheb {Landw. 
Jahrb., 43 {1912), No. S, pp. 405-435; a'bs. in Jour. Chem. 8oc. [London], 104 
{1913), No. 609, I, p. 812; Chem. ZentU., 1913, I, No. 18, pp. 1627, 1628).— In 
experiments with various phosphates on oats not only the yield but the phos- 
phorus content of the crop followed the law of minimum as theoretically for- 
mulated by the author. The latter, therefore, proposes that the results of de- 
terminations of phosphoric acid soluble in a saturated solution of carbon dioxid 
be correlated directly with yields and not with the phosphorus content. 

The different phosphates behaved very differently. With monocalcium phos- 
phate there was an excess {luxus) consumption of phosphorus by the plant 
which is measured by the water solubility of the phosphate. The saturation 
concentration of the carbon dioxid solution with phosphate was dependent upon 
the temperature. The temperature of saturation must be kept as nearly as 
possible the same as that under which the plants grow in order that comparable 
results may be obtained. The author adopted 15* C. as most nearly meeting 



SOILS — FERTILIZERS. 27 

this requirement. Of course seasonal variations make close approximations 
in this respect impossible, but the actual differences due to this factor are 
thought to be comparatively small. 

A report on the phosphate fields of South Carolina, W. H. Waggaman 
(U. S. Dept. Agr. Bui. 18, pp. 12, pis. S, fig. i).— The history of these deposits 
is briefly reviewed and their location, extent, character, and exploitation are 
described. "The phosphate region lies along the coast in a belt extending 
from the Wando River, in Charleston County, to the Broad River, in Beaufort 
County. The rock is of Tertiary age and is usually divided into two classes, 
namely, the land deposits and the river deposits. These classes, however, are 
practically identical, the latter being merely the former washed into the river 
beds. . . . 

" With the exhaustion of the more accessible deposits and the discovery of 
higher grade phosphates in Florida and Tennessee, the output from South 
Carolina has fallen off considerably. River mining has entirely ceased, and 
only two companies are mining the land rock. The total output in 1911 was 
169,156 tons. . . . 

" The general opinion has been that the phosphates of South Carolina are 
practically exhausted. This is far from being the case. There are thousands 
of acres of rich phosphate land still practically untouched. Although the 
phosphate on much of this property is covered by a heavy overburden, more 
efficient mining methods and improved market and transportation conditions 
would render it all available." 

Thomas slag, its preparation and use, J. P. Wagneb (Monatsher. Gesell. 
Ford. Wiss., Ackerb. u. Kiinste Unter-Elsass, lf( {191S), No. S, pp. 126-168, 
figs. 27). — The process of manufacture of Thomas slag is described in some 
detail, and its use as a fertilizer is discussed. 

Analyses of Thomas slag from different sources, H. von Feilitzen and 
I. LuGNER iChem. Ztg., 57 {191S), No. 68, pp. 689, 650).— Analyses of a number 
of samples of Thomas slag are reported, showing a much smaller content of 
free lime than is indicated by the older anlyses. There was no great variation 
in the composition of slag from different sources. 

Kelp and other sources of potash, F. K. Cameron {Jour. Franklin Inst., 
116 (1918), No. 4, pp. S41f-S8S, figs. i5).— This article discusses briefly other 
sources of potash, but deals in detail with the utilization of the Pacific coast 
kelps for this purpose. The more important species of kelps from the ferti- 
lizer standpoint, the location and extent of the kelp groves, the composition and 
fertilizing value of kelp, and methods of harvesting and handling the material 
are described. Data are also given as to the present status and future possi- 
bilities of the kelp industry on the Pacific coast. 

Lime, B. H. Hite {West Virginia Sta. Circ. 6, pp. 16, figs. S). — This circular 
discusses in a popular way the effects of lime on the soil and gives Information 
as to how it may be obtained and used. 

On the influence of the ratio of lime to magnesia on plants, O. Loew {Jour. 
Indus, and Engin. Chem., 5 {1918), No. 11, pp. 959, 560).— This is a reply to an 
article by Gile and Ageton already noted (E. S. R., 28, p. 812). 

Is silica an indispensable constituent of plant food? M. Lundie {So. 
African Jour. Sci., 9 {1913), No. 10, pp. 265-268).— Earlier investigations on 
this subject are briefly reviewed and water culture experiments by the author 
are reported. The results of the latter indicated that silica is not essential as 
a plant food, but suggested that when deposited in the cell membrane and in the 
epidermis of the plant it might afford a certain protection against fungus 
disease (rust). 



28 BXPEEIMENT STATION EECOBD. 

Commercial fertilizers, J. S. bItrd {California 8ta. Bui. 240, pp. 55).— Analy- 
ses and Valuations of fertilizers inspected during tlie year ended June 30, 1913, 
are reported, and a list of registered fertilizer manufacturers and dealers in 
California for the year beginning July 1, 1912, is given. It is estimated that 
the sale of fertilizers in the State during the year ended June 30, 1912, was 
50,955 tons. The indications are that the consumption during the year ended 
June 30, 1913, was much less than this. 

AGRICTJLTTJRAL BOTANY. 

On the chemical org-anization of the cell, W. Ruhland {Biol. CentU,, SS 
{1913), No. 6, pp. 337-351). — Continuing work noted in a previous report on the 
permeability of the living plasma membranes (E. S. R., 28, p. 37) the author 
here discusses the relation of the facts observed to the views of other investi- 
gators, a number of which are discussed. 

The significance of the character of the electrical charge for the passage 
of colloids through the plasma membrane, W. Ruhland {Ber. Deut. Bot. 
Gescll., 31 {1913), No. 6, pp. 304-310). — Continuing the work noted above, the 
author states that no difference was established between acid and basic color- 
ing matters as to conditions and rapidity of passage through living plasma 
membranes. Transpiration rate and electrical character have not been shown 
to be influential as regards rapidity of passage, and widely different plants 
show like behavior in these respects. These facts are held to support the au- 
thor's view regarding the plasma membrane as an ultra-filter. 

Investigations on the fermentation of some cyclic series compounds and 
the formation of the black material of humus, A. Perkier {Ann Sci. Agron., 
4. ser., 2 {1913), I, Nos. 5, pp. 321-350; 6, pp. 455-470).— The author presents the 
results of a study on the aerobic fermentation of bt^nzoic, oxybenzoic, and phenic 
acids, and the role of cyclic compounds in the formation of the black coloring 
matter of manures and humus. 

It was found that the cyclic compounds, particularly benzoic acid, which is 
rather widely distributed in the animal and vegetable kingdom, serve as nutri- 
ents for a large number of micro-organisms which are abundant in the soil. 

A detailed study of the biochemical phenomena showed that benzoic acid is 
oxidized by Bacillus pyocyaneus and a number of other related organisms in a 
neutral medium to a black coloring material analogous to that in humus. The 
formation of this coloring matter is not considered due to tyrosinase, but should 
be rather compared to that which is produced in the oxidation of polyphenols, 
notably pyrogallol in an alkaline medium. This would indicate that the oxida- 
tion is brought about by the aid of an oxidase, but the author was unable to 
demonstrate the presence of a diastase associated with the phenomenon. 

In the second part of the paper an account is given of an extended study of 
the formation of the coloring matter of manure and humus, which in every 
case is attributed to the oxidation in an alkaline medium of cyclic compounds 
contained in the manure or in plant materials in the process of decomposition. 

A brief bibliography is appended. 

The necessity of a bacterial association for the development of a myxo- 
bacterium, Chondromyces crocatus, B. Pinoy {Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. IParis}, 
157 {1915), No. 1, pp. 77, 78).— The author concludes from a study of G. crocatus 
that this organism is not able to accomplish its development apart from its 
association with a particular bacterium which is described and said to be closely 
allied to Micrococcus latens. 

A mud sucking device for obtaining soil microflora and microfauna, B. 
Pebfyl'ev {Izv. Imp. St. Peterb. Bot. Soda {Bui. Jard. Imp. Bot. St. Petersb.), 



AGRICULTURAL BOTANY. 29 

13 (1918), No. 1-2 pp. J^l-Sl, figs. 2). — Figures and a description are given of 
a convenient and cleanly device for obtaining mud and similar material in bot- 
tles for the study of the contained life forms. 

Studies in Indian tobaccos. — III, The inheritance of characters in Nico- 
tiana tabacum, Gabbielle L. C. Howard {Mem. Dept. Agr. India, Bot. Ser., 
6 {1913), No. 3, pp. 25-114, pls. 25, fig. l).—ln a previous paper (E. S. R., 23, 
p. 537), an account was given of a study of varietal characters and the isolation 
of pure forms of tobacco. In the present contribution additional data are pre- 
sented relating to the behavior of different strains in later generations. 

In the progress of the investigation it was found that parthenogenesis in 
N. tabacum, under the conditions of the experiment, is negligible. In all 
characters except height, the Fi generation is intermediate between the parents. 
The limits of variation in the Fj generation have been as great as those of both 
parents combined or have exceeded these in both directions. Selected variates 
of the Fs generation ga^e cultures which differed in their range of variation 
from one another, and often from both parents. It was found that while the 
height of tobacco plants may differ only slightly, the factors on which such 
height depends may be almost entirely different. The number of leaves per 
plant was not found to depend on the height of the plant, and was also inde- 
pendent of the environment. A distinct segregation was observed as regards 
the arrangement of the leaves on the stem. The author states that the most 
suitable leaves for measurements arv. those occurring in the center of the plant, 
and that venation of the leaves is one of the most constant characters of the 
plant, parental forms having been reisolated in the third and fourth generations. 

In conclusion the author summarizes the data, stating that " a study of the 
characters of N. tadacum shows that there is no inherent difference in the 
mode of inheritance of ordinary qualitative characters (such as the color of 
the corolla) and of those characters connected with the size of the organs which 
are subject to fluctuating variability. All the results obtained can be explained 
by the Mendelian assumption of segregation of characters, combined with the 
hypothesis that in connection with each character a large number of factors 
exist, each of which can be inherited independently." 

The flowering of Geranium robertianum under the influence of various 
physical conditions, R. Stager {Bot. Centhl., Beihefte, 30 {1918), 1. Abf., No. 1, 
pp. 1-16; abs. in Rev. Set. [Paris], 51 {1913), II, No. 8, p. 245).— The flowering 
of this plant has attracted much attention on account of the apparent variation 
in its adaptation for pollination. The author claims that two types of flowers 
are produced, depending upon the climatic conditions at the time, protandrous 
flowers if the weather is fine and the temperature fairly high, and protogynous 
flowers in cooler and more humid surroundings. From 1 to 3 days are required 
for the pollination of the flowers. A high temperature and dry air favor pre- 
cocious pollination, while low temperature and moist conditions retard it and 
favor the greater growth of the styles, resulting in a protogynous condition. 

The relation between tuberization and infestation of the roots of Spi- 
ranthes autumnalis by endophytic fung-i, C. Beau {Conipt. Rend. Acad. Sci. 
[Paris], 157 (1913). No. 13, pp. 512-515). — A study was made of S. autumnalis 
in the light of the investigations of Bernard (E. S. R., 14, p. 635; 18, p. 1031). 
The author found that while this orchid, which produces new tuberous organs 
each year, requires the presence of endophytic fungi to begin the development 
of its tubers, in a mature state it is independent of the symbiotic relationship. 

Influence of radioactivity on vegetation, M. Vacher {Bui. Soc. Nat. Agr. 
France, 73 {1913), No. 5, pp. 557-372).— Discussing the results obtained from 
experimental work done by Petit and Ancelin (E. S. R., 29, p. 32G), Stoklasa 
(E. S. R., 28, p. 731), and others, the authors state that radioactivity appears 



30 EXPEBIMENT STATION RECORD. 

to favor nitrification in soils and foliar development of plants. Soil naturally 
or artificially supplied with nitrogen, phosphoric acid, potassium, and lime 
is always improved by the presence, even in minute quantity, of radioactive 
substance. 

Some recent studies on germination, E. Lehmann (Ztschr. Bot., 5 {1913), 
No. 5, pp. 365-377). — This is a brief account of studies on the factors influ- 
encing germination, with references to several recent articles. 

Germination of potato, E. Couvbeub {Compt. Retid. Soc. Biol. [Pa?is], 74 
{1913), No. 23, pp. 1315-1317). — As the result of a study of potatoes during 
germination, the author states that both maltose" and a ferment are present 
from the beginning of that process, the latter being active in all tissues after 
a certain age is attained. It is stated that analogous facts have been noted 
in case of beans and chestnuts, and that publication of these is contemplated. 

Transpiration and osmotic pressure in mangroves, F. C. von Fabee {Ber. 
Deut. Bot. Oesell, 31 {1913), No. 6, pp. 277-281).— The author states, as the 
result of his studies, that the high osmotic pressure in the cells of mangroves 
is due to the storing of salts and other osmotically important substances, in 
some cases probably tannic acid. Such accumulation is not a function of 
transpiration but a specific character of the plant, as held by Fitting (E. S. R., 
25, p. 430) to be true of desert plants. 

The distribution of temperature in living plants, G. Dupont {Rev. 04n. 
Soi., 24 {1913), No. 11, pp. 418-425, figs. i5).— This is essentially the same 
article as previously reported (E. S. R., 28, p. 126). 

Wind and the plant world; a study, G. H. Kroll {Bot. CentU., Beihefte, 
SO {1913), 1. AU., No. i, pp. 122-140).— This is a discussion of the direct and 
the indirect influence of wind on plant life in or near large bodies of water or 
on continental areas, including in the former case wave action, nutritive or 
noxious solutions, seed transportation, etc., and in the latter case injury in 
exposed situations through breakage, increased transpiration, etc., or further- 
ance through such agents as seed distribution and rain production. 

The presence and persistence of hydrocyanic acid in some grains in hot 
regions, L. Raybaud {Compt. Rend. Soc. Biol. [Paris], 7^ {1913), No. 19, pp. 
1116, 1117). — It is stated that studies with 26 varieties of sorghum in north 
and west Africa and India, and 2 species of Eleusine in India, have shown 
that even under conditions of irrigation, etc., unfavorable to its accumulation, 
hydrocyanic acid occurs in considerable quantity in the young plants and that 
later it migrates to the higher portions where it may be found until the 
maturation of the grain, after which it slowly disappears. This result is re- 
garded as corroborative of the conclusion reached by Treub (E. S. R., 23, 
p. 330) regarding the role played by hydrocyanic acid in plant growth. 

Demonstration and localization of nitrates and nitrites in plants, R. 
Klein {Bot. CentU., Beihefte, 30 {1913), 1. AM., No. 1, pp. 14I-I66, pis. 2).— 
The author reports that nitric salts are usually found in herbaceous plants. 
Nitrites were not found in the sap of Fuchsia as exuded under root pressure, 
but they develop apparently as the result of bacterial and fungal activity. 
They do not appear ordinarily in underground portions of Sagittaria sagitti- 
folia and Pisum. They are demonstrable in potato tubers only before sprout- 
ing, but they are found in expressed leaf sap of Erythrina and in root nodules 
of some Leguminosae, being quite abundant in case of Phaseolus miiltiflorus. 

A bibliography is given. 

On the alleged connection between assimilation of nitric acid and deposit 
of manganese in plants, Elsa Houtebmans {Sitzber. K. Akad. Wiss. [Vietma'], 
Math. Natiirw. KI., 121 {1912), I, No. 8, pp. 801-831, pis. 2).— The author, giv- 
ing tabulated results of some recent investigations, states that she was unable 



AGRICULTURAL BOTANY. 81 

to confirm the conclusions of Ac(iUa (E. S. R., 29, p. 323), which are to the effect 
that the points of deposit of certain metallic ions in growing regions are also 
points of utilization of the acid portions of the nutritive compounds involved. 

In case of wheat and beans the deposit of manganese occurred when this 
cation was united with an indifferent or injurious anion, if nitrate in other and 
harmless form was supplied to the plant, the rate and amount of manganese 
deposit proving independent of nitrogen assimilation. The blackening was 
independent of light admission and is probably explainable as related to enzy- 
matic processes. The deposit of manganese dioxid in case of Elodea canadensis 
occurred only in light and apparently was not due in this case to nitrogen 
assimilation. The deposit of manganese failed only when the endodermis was 
continuous and unwounded, or when the epidermis acted as a chemical filter. 
On employment of low concentrations of toxic substances or of very concen- 
trated nutritive media, the inner endodermis thickened in case of all plants 
studied which possessed uninterrupted endodermis. Distilled water had the 
same effect on the endodermis as did a weak poison, while various strong poisons 
able to check growth caused no such thickening of endodermis. Potassium per- 
manganate was reduced commonly in the outer layers of cells, otherwise always 
in the third or fourth layer, never reaching the vascular bundle cylinder proper. 

The sig-nificance of deposits occurring in plants cultivated in solutions of 
manganese salts, C. Acqua (Ann. Bot. [Rome], 11 {1913), No. S, pp. JidJ- 
471). — This is a critical note in reply to the above article. 

On the presence of deposits in plant tissues due to culture in manganese 
nitrate solution, Eva Boselli (Ann. Bot. [Rome], 11 {1913), No. 5, pp. 459- 
465). — Results obtained from the study of 11 plants covering a wide range of 
forms are said to confirm the conclusions arrived at by Acqua (E. S. R., 29, 
p. 323), but to be at variance with those reached by Houtermans noted on 
page 30. It is stated that a close relation appears to exist between the deposit 
of cations and the changes occurring in newly formed tissue. 

The influence of calcium, magnesium, and potassium nitrates upon the 
toxicity of certain heavy metals toward fungus spores, L. A. Hawkins 
{Physiol. Researches, 1 {1913), No. 2, pp. 57-92, figs. 6).— The results of a study 
of the influence of one salt in altering the toxic effect of another upon fungus 
spores are given. The salts employed were the nitrates of copper, lead, zinc, 
nickel, and aluminum used alone and in combination with the nitrates of 
calcium, magnesium, and potassium. 

It was found that the effect of a toxic salt on the germination of the conidia 
of Glomerella cingulata might be influenced by the addition to the medium of 
calcium, magnesium, or potassium nitrate. This effect, it is claimed, is not due 
to a depression of ionization of the toxic salt nor to the formation of undis- 
sociated double salts, but the influence of calcium upon the toxicity of the salts 
of the heavy metals employed is to be referred to an effect of the calcium 
nitrate on the spore or on the contained protoplasm. 

A bibliography is appended. 

Experiments on the action of sodium sulphate as affecting growth of 
plants, E. Haselhoff {Landw. Jahrb., 44 {1913), No. 4, pp. 641-650) .—Dis- 
cussing the results of former investigations on the effect of flue dust (E. S. R., 
19, p. 1130; 21, p. 128) and in connection therewith his more recent studies 
regarding the action of sodium sulphate on growing beans, barley, and Indian 
corn, the author claims that in spite of individual variations it is safe to con- 
clude that sodium sulphate in 0.05 per cent strength, while sometimes hastening 
development, usually decreases the total growth of the plants studied as esti- 
mated by weight, the growth in length proving unreliable in this respect. The 
soil-culture studies indicated an injurious effect of sodium sulphate on 



32 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

plant growth, also that in the crop an increase of sodium and of sulphuric acid 
con-esponded to an increase of sodium sulphate in the soil or the nutritive 
solution employed. 

The distribution of atmospheric impurities in the neighborhood of an 
industrial city, C. Crowthee and D. W. Steuart {Jour. Agr. 8ci. [England], 
5 {1913), No. 4, pp. 391-408, figs. 2). — In continuation of a previous report 
(E. S. R., 25, p. 434) an account is given of an examination of the atmosphere 
in the counti-y surrounding the city to a distance of about 7 miles. 

The observations here reported show that no general effect upon the opening 
of the buds could be detected. By the end of May smoke damage began to be 
evident within 2 miles of the center of the city by the appearance on the 
leaves of sycamores and limes of characteristic brown blotches. During June 
the conditions, so far as the leaves were concerned, became consideraljly worse, 
and in the case of many trees, as shown by the examination of cross sections, 
there was very little annual growth. Criticisms having been made of previous 
observations relating to the clogging of the stomata, microscopical examina- 
tions were made of a number of evergreen leaves which confirmed in the main 
the previous statements. 

Summarizing the results observed, the authors state that the sulphur content 
of the rain falling at a given station affords a fairly reliable diagnosis of the 
degree of pollution of the atmosphere by smoke providing the observations be 
prolonged over several months. The rain analyses show further that appre- 
ciable smoke pollution remains throughout the agricultural area at distances 
of 7 miles from the city, the rate of improvement being slower in the direction 
of the prevailing winds than in other directions. 

The influence of tar, particularly that of tarred streets, upon vegetation, 
P. Claussen (Ar&. K. Biol. Anst. Land. u. Forstio., 8 {1913), No. 5, pp. 493- 
514, pis. 2, figs. 8). — As the result of experimentation with 5 ornamental 
flowering herbs, 2 firs, and a spruce, exposed to fumes of several commercial 
tars in air or soil, the author states that the various kinds of tar sold for 
highway building purposes differ widely as to effect on the plants; that the 
injurious effects of tar vapors are closely related to their concentration, this 
depending upon volatility and temperature; and that species of plants differ 
widely as to their sensitivity to such vapors. 

It is recommended that the plants be placed at a safe distance from the 
tarred surfaces; that careful tests be made of tars intended for such pur- 
poses; that the practice of heating the tar in the neighborhood of the plants 
be avoided, also that as low temperatures as are practical be employed ; and that 
this work be done so far as possible when the foliage is off" the trees, and by 
no means during the very early stages of its formation. 

FIELD CROPS. 

study of farm practice versus field experiments, W. J. Spuxman {Proc. 
8oc. Prom. Agr. Set., 33 {1912), pp. 103-113, figs. 3). — This article has been 
previously noted (E. S. R., 28, p. 198). 

Determination of probable error in field experiments, Harnoth {Mitt. 
Deut. Landw. GeselL, 28 {1913), Nos. 5, pp. 70-73, fig. 1; 6, pp. 87-90; 7, pp. 
105-107). — This paper includes discussions of methods of reckoning the varia- 
tion of each check plat of a series from the mean of their yields. For this 

purpose Gauss' formula, R=± -f=^LU. is used, in which Ivl is the sum of the 

■\i n[n — l] 

variations regardless of signs, n the number of observations, and 0.845 is a 



FIELD CKOPS. 33 

constant. Applications of this formula to various fertilizer experiments are 
presented. 

Determinations of probable errors in field experiments, I. Alexandrowitsch 
(Mitt. Deut. Landic. Oesell., 28 {19 IS), No. 18, pp. 268-271).— This is a critical 
discussion of the above. 

Determination of probable errors in field experiments, Harnoth {Mitt. 
Deut. Landw. GeselL, 28 {1913), Nx). 19, pp. 281-283) .—This is a discussion of 
the above two articles. 

Methods of testing- varieties, E. Kostecki {Trudy Biuro Prlkl. Bot. {Bui. 
Angew. Bot.), 5 {1912), No. 7, pp. 177-204, figs. 5).— The first part of this article 
discusses field methods and the results obtained. The second part considers 
sources of error in computing and comparing results. The probable error to be 
reckoned with in an experiment (e) was obtained by extracting the square root 
of the sum of the square of the apparent errors (i;) divided by the number of 

-• 

n— 1 

Variety tests of field crops, O. Lemmermann et al. {Landio. Jahrh., 42 
{1912). No. 5, pp. 679-699). — Results are given of tests of numerous varieties 
of winter rye, winter and spring wheat, oats, field beets, field carrots, and 
alfalfa. Data are presented in tabular form including meteorological observa- 
tions. 

Electroculture, J. Escard {Rev. Gen. Sot., 24 {1913), No. 8, pp. 302-309, 
figs. 5). — The author gives a survey of the work done along this liue since its 
inception about 1845, including methods and general results. 

Observations on some new methods of g-rowing" cereals, T. Remy and E. 
Kreplin {Landw. Jahrb., 42 {1912), No. 2, pp. 597-629, fig. i).— This work gives 
the results of observations on the effect of transplanting to different depths, 
hilling up transplanted plants, seeding in furrows, and hilling up plants in 
ordinary field culture, with winter rye, winter wheat, spring wheat, barley, 
and oats, with special reference to the Demtschinsky method (E. S. R., 27, p. 
232; 28, p. 632). 

It is noted that great care seemed necessary in seeding with less than the 
customary quantity of seed, although when this could be done the improved 
vigor and size of the individual plants commended this practice. 

With winter wheat, winter rye, and spring barley the planting in furrows 
which were later filled in with soil was slightly favorable, but with spring 
wheat and oats the injury caused by the frit fly was more marked when the 
soil c.'ime higher up on the stem than normal. 

All of the cereals showed improved growth by the Demtschinsky method, but 
spring cereals were more readily damaged by the frit fly. The hand labor 
involved in this transplanting method made it impractical as a field method. 

Dominant and recessive characters in barley and oat hybrids, R. W. 
Thatcher {Proc. Soc. Prom. Agr. Set., 33 {1912), pp. 37-50) .—These experi- 
ments, which were conducted at the Washington Experiment Station, have 
shown that " the percentages of proportionate distribution of the various 
groups, when computed on the basis of spring types, show clearly the domi- 
nance of hooded over bearded, and of 2-rowed over 6-rowed, characters as noted 
in preceding crosses. The distribution of 2-rowed, hybrid, and 6-rowed types 
in both the hooded and bearded classes, showing the characteristic 1:2:1 
Mendelian ratio and the 26.6 per cent bearded types as compared with 73.4 
per cent hooded types, furnishes confirmatory evidence that this is a unit 
pair chaVacter." 



34 EXPERIMENT STATION BECORD. 

With oats it is noted that no definite conclusions could be drawn from the 
results of crossing with Chinese Hull-less. "The appearance of black kernels 
in the progeny from a cross of 2 white-kernelled parents indicates heterozygo- 
tism In 1 or both parent strains, which, howe\er, does not seem to have a con- 
sistent effect in the various crosses. ... In one of the crosses there is evi- 
dence of a Mendelian ratio between the hulled and hull-less character, but in 
others such a proportional distribution is wholly lacking." 

[Fertilizer experiments], A. W. K. de Jong {Dept. Landh., Nijv. en Handel 
[Dutch East Indies], Meded. Agr. Chem. Lab., 191S, No. S, pp. 1-49).— In fer- 
tilizer experiments with rice, cassava, soy beans, maize, and peanuts, better 
results were obtained with maize with double superphosphate than with 
Thomas slag or guano. The results with bone meal were even better than 
with the double phosphate, while barnyard manure seemed to lack the phos- 
phorous to produce the maximum yields. Cassava responded best to nitrogen. 
Peanuts were apparently benefited by barnyard manure plus bone meal. In 
general the phosphates seemed to give the best results. 

Progress report of cooperative irrigation experiments at California Uni- 
versity Farm, Davis, California, 1909-1912, S. H. Beckett (U. 8. Dept. Affr. 
Bid. 10, pp. 21, figs. 7). — These experiments were for the purpose of determin- 
ing the water requirements of various standard crops. 

With alfalfa, the results indicated that in open, well-drained soil, typical of 
that found in the floor of the Sacramento Valley, the general tendency is toward 
an increase in yield of alfalfa with the increased amounts of water applied up to 
at least 48 in. ; and for such conditions as are found on the university farm 
the limit beyond which the increase in yield will not pay for increased cost of 
applying the water is in the neighborhood of 30 in. 

" Without irrigation spring-sown alfalfa is uncertain in Sacramento Valley, 
and under conditions of normal rainfall and moderate climate not more than 
one-half of the stand can be expected to survive through the summer. Heavy 
spring irrigations, when followed by long periods throughout the summer with- 
out water, did not benefit alfalfa. Examination of the root growth under these 
conditions shows that water applied to the little plants in the early spring pro- 
duces a root growth outwardly along the surface of the soil rather than down- 
ward, and when this is followed by long dry periods, the soil drying out leaves 
the young plant stranded above the moisture zone. Far better results were 
obtained by delaying irrigation until the root growth was well established, and 
even until the little plants seemed to be stunted and suffering for moisture. . . . 
Late and very late summer irrigations tend to produce sturdier plants and 
heavier yields the following summer. After the root growth is well established, 
the gi'owth may then be forced by frequent and, if the soil will stand it, heavy 
irrigations." 

In studying the best time to irrigate alfalfa it was found that 2 applications 
between cuttings gave larger yields and kept the plants in better condition 
than when the same amount of water was applied in one irrigation, either just 
before or just after each cutting, but it was concluded that the extra yield 
was not large enough to make it a profitable method. 

In the case of barley, 3 years of irrigation experiments showed that the 
application of water always gave a profit and that a late application gave better 
yields than an early one. The results of irrigating maize for 1910 and 1911 
showed little advantage due to irrigation, although in 1910 there was a slight 
profit with 1 and 2 applications of water. The cost of irrigating from 1 to 
3 times during these 2 seasons ranged from $1.40 to $3.90 per acre .with the 
furrow method. Similar results were obtained with White Durra sorghum, but 



FIELD CROPS. 35 

it is noted that with both these crops irrigation can be made to pay if great 
care and intelligence be exercised. 

The yields of oats and wheat following alfalfa were produced at a profit by 
irrigating in 1912, the grain values ranging from $18.15 to $30.r.O, as compared 
with $6.53 and $8.40 without irrigation. Sugar beets following alfalfa in 1912 
gave increased yields with an increased water supply, while the sugar content 
slightly decreased. Better yields were obtained under irrigation with early 
than with late seeding. With the early seeding the crop had a value of $54.25 
when not irrigated, while with 2 irrigations it was $87.50. 

The reseeding of depleted grazing lands to cultivated forage plants, A. W. 
Sampson (U. 8. Dept. Agr. Bui. //, pp. 5//, pis. 8, figs. 4).— In this bulletin the 
range problem and investigations of these problems in the National Forests 
are briefly discussed, and studies reported continuing previous work (E. S. R., 
22, p. 35). The following grasses were used in over 500 experiments in 1909, 
1910, and 1911; Hard fescue (Festuca duriuscula), broom grass (Andropogon 
sp.), Canada blue grass (Poa compressa), slender wheat grass {Agropyron 
tenerum), blue grama grass (Bouteloua oligostachya) , Italian rye grass 
(Loliurn italicum), smooth or Hungarian brome (Bromus inermis), Kentucky 
blue grass (P. pratensis), mesquite (Hilaria cenchroides), orchard grass 
(Dactylis glotnerata), perennial rye grass (L. perenne), redtop (Argostis 
nJha), tall meadow oat grass (Arrhenatfieruin elatius), and timothy (Phleum 
pratense). The following nongrasses were also used: Alfalfa {Medicago sa- 
liva), alfilaria (Erodium cicutarium) , alsike clover (Trifolium Uyhridum), 
bur clover {M. denticulata), Japanese clover (Lcspedeza striata), red clover 
(T. pratense), Australian saltbush (Atriplex semibaccata) , and white clover 
(T. repcns). By far the best results were secured with timothy, 64.37 per cent 
being at least partially successful. Smooth brome grass and perennial rye 
grass ranked next. Very few of the nongrasses yielded satisfactory returns, 
the best results being with white and alsike clovers and alfilaria. 

In studying the different cultural methods employed with timothy, redtop, 
and Kentucky blue grass, a light brushing to cover the seed was found to give 
better results than tramping with sheep, or no treatment. The altitude of the 
area planted formed an important element in reseeding. The yield at 4,800 
ft. was about 4 times that at 7,800 ft, and the difference in the viability of the 
seed produced was even greater. Autumn seeding proved superior to spring 
seeding. The cost of reseeding with a mixture of timothy, Kentucky blue grass, 
and redtop ranged from 80 cts. to $3.50 per acre, but usually averaged about 
$1.50. 

" The reseeding investigations show that the returns secured from sowing 
suitable cultivated forage plants on certain ranges fully warrant the expense. 
It Is not to be presumed, however, that all overgrazed ranges can be success- 
fully reseeded to cultivated plants. On the contrary, it is unquestionably true 
that existing conditions In the major portion of the native grazing lands are 
antagonistic to the establishment of introduced plants. This is due primarily 
to one or all of 3 conditions : Excessive elevation, poor soil, coupled with insuffi- 
cient moisture, or too much and too aggressive native vegetation." 

A note on two textile plants from the Belgian Kongo, E. Mestdach {Bui. 
Agr. Congo Beige, S {1912), No. S, pp. 619, 620, figs. 2; abs. in Internat. Inst. 
Agr. [Rome], Bui. Bur. Agr. Intel, and Plant Diseases, S {1912), No. 12, pp. 
2639, 26^0). — Two new fiber plants, akonge {Triumfetta semitriloba) and losa 
{Manniophyton africanum) , are here described. 

Alfalfa seed production, P. K. Blinn {Colorado 8ta. Bui. 191, pp. S-16, 
figs. 13). — This bnlletiii is a report of progress in work which was instituted 



36 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

because of the general decrease in production and yield of alfalfa seed of re- 
cent years in Colorado. It discusses the following factors as influencing seed 
production : Vegetative growth, moisture supply, climatic conditions, insects, 
and diseases. It is noted that continued irrigation for a long series of years 
has so influenced the subsoil moisture content as to make it unfavorable to 
seed production. The methods which were tried to improve the seed-producing 
characters of alfalfa were seed selection, row cultivation, and control of 
moisture by light row irrigation, all of which proved beneficial. 

Alfalfa manag-ement in Iowa, H. D. Hughes (Iowa Sta. Bui. 137, pp. 72, 
figs. 33). — This bulletin gives directions and suggestions for the production of 
alfalfa on the various soil types of the State. Reports are given of the 
experiences of practical farmers in all parts of the State, covering 1,016 alfalfa 
seedings, of which only 12.7 per cent were classed as failures. The most suc- 
cessful results were reported from Missouri loess and moraine soils, and the 
greatest number of failures on the Iowa drift and the southern Iowa loess 
areas. Some of the factors which seemed to be responsible for the failures 
were lack of proper drainage, necessary bacteria, sufficient plant food, or 
sufficient moisture to germinate the seed; too heavy or compact soil; young 
seedlings smothered by weeds and by nurse crops; seeding too deep; a packed 
surface ; poor seed ; insect pests ; and fungus diseases. 

Special note is made of the need of sufficient plant food in the soil at seeding, 
and of liberally applying barnyard manure on these soils. 

Experiments with Turkestan alfalfa in Hungary, J. Gyarfas (Kis^rlet. 
Kozlem., 15 {1912), No. 2, pp. 191-209).— Trials of Turkestan alfalfa in various 
localities showed it to be much inferior to the native alfalfa in drought and 
frost resistance, and vegetative energy. It also had a much shorter vegetative 
period, which allowed the growth of weeds and grasses. 

A new two-rowed winter barley, D. Neumann (Wchnschr. Brau., 29 {1912), 
No. 37, pp. 526-528, figs. 3). — Through crossing a 4-rowed Mammoth winter 
barley with a 2-rowed summer barley that had been artificially carried through 
the winter, a hardy 2-rowed winter barley resulted. By the application of 
Mendel's law this variety proved stable. It produced well, and was a product 
of excellent brewing qualities. 

A mutation in a pure line of Hordeum distichum, L. L. Kiessling {Ztschr. 
Induktive Abstain, u. Vererhungslehre, 8 {1912), No. 1-2, pp. 48-78). — This 
gives in detail the characteristics of a barley that appeared in a Bavarian 
variety, and is considered a mutation. 

Variation studies in brome grass, A. Keyseb {Colorado Sta. Bui. 190, pp. 
S-20, figs. 19). — This bulletin reports the progress of work in studying the 
strains of awnless brome grass {Bromus inermis) which have been collected 
at the station and which seem especially well adapted to Colorado conditions. 
There are now under observation 121 strains of this grass, and these show a 
wide range of individuality in habits of growth and coloration. Variations 
occur in tillering habit, height of leaf mass, total height of plant, and vigor of 
stolonification, while the colors range from bright yellow green to a very 
dark green. Most of these types bred true from seed, but the progeny of some 
showed wide variation. It was shown that this grass could be propagated 
vegetatively. 

On the presence of hydrocyanic acid in white clover, M. Mibande {Compt. 
Rend. Acad. Set. [Paris], 155 {1912), No. 15, pp. 651-653; ahs. in Intemat. 
Inst. Agr. [Rome], Bui. Bur. Agr. Intel, and Plant Diseases, 3 {1912), No. 12, 
p. 2637). — Methods are described by which hydrocyanic acid was discovered in 
white clover {Trifolium repens). 



FIELD CROPS. 37 

Silver King-. — A corn for northern Iowa, H. D. Hughes {loioa Sta. Bui. 
1S8, pp. 75-95, figs. 11). — This bulletin gives the development and early history 
of Silver King corn and sets forth its exceptional value for cultivation in 
northern Iowa. Records obtained froan grow(>rs in Wisconsin, covering a 
period of 5 years, show an average yield of 59.2 bu. per acre, which is an 
average of 10.9 bu. more than other varieties. This pedigreed corn has been 
produced at the Iowa Station and about 150 bu. will be distributed among 
farmers of northern Iowa. 

Corn culture in North Carolina, J. L. Bubgess {Bui. N. C. Dept. Agr., SS 
{1912), A'c». 6, Sup., pp. 54). — This bulletin discusses the black, gray, red, and 
mountain soils of the State in their connection with coni production, green 
manuring, conservation of moisture, selection and preparation of the seed, plant- 
ing, cultivating and harvesting, rotations, corn judging, and varieties. 

In the variety tests those giving the best results in the coastal plains were 
Cocke Prolific, Biggs Seven-ear, Southern Beauty, and Hickory King; and in the 
Piedmont section. Weekly Improved, Southern Beauty, and Cocke Prolific. 

Notes on corn growing- in Guam, J. B. Thompson (Ouam Sta. Rpt. 1912, 
pp. 22-24)' — The primitive methods of planting and harvesting corn followed 
by the natives in Guam are described. It is noted that a yield of 27.75 biL 
per acre was obtained at the station, which was better than the average crop 
grown in Guam. 

Notes are given on variety tests that Include over 40 varieties of widely 
varying types originating in India, Ceylon, Burma, Formosa, Ecuador, and 
Colombia. The small-grained types from southern Asia required from 200 to 
220 kernels to weigh 1 oz. while a variety from Ecuador required only 55 
kernels. No. 576, a variety from the island of St. Vincent, is noted as having 
characteristics, notably early maturity, making it especially suited to Guam 
conditions. 

Twelfth annual report of the Indiana Corn Growers* Association, edited 
by G. I. Christie (Ann. Rpt. Ind. Corn Growers' Assoc, 12 {1912), pp, 94y 
figs. 22). — This report includes addresses on alfalfa by A. P. Grout, A. T. 
Wiancko, J. N. Dyer, and M. Douglas, on corn by P. E. Goodrich and D. F. 
Maish, and on vetch by M. L. Fisher. 

Fourth annual report of the Ontario Corn Growers' Association, J. S. Dutf 
(Ann Rpt. Ontario Corn Grotcers' Assoc, 1911, pp. 34, figs. 16). — This includes 
addresses on corn growing for profit, silage feeding, the improvement of the 
corn crop, and alfalfa as a soil builder. 

Rubelzul cotton: A new species of Gossypium from Guatemala, F. L. 
Lewton {Smithsn. Misc. Collect., 60 {1912), No. 4, pp. 2, pis. £).— This is a 
description of Gossypium irenwum. found a few miles from SenahG in Alta 
Verapaz. Gautemala. Its most prominent feature is the remarkable develop- 
ment of the calyx, which reaches proportions not known in any other species. 

The cotton of the Hopi Indians: A new species of Gossypium, F. L. 
Lewton {Smithsn. Misc. Collect., 60 {1912), No. 6, pp. 10, pis. 5).— This publi- 
cation gives an account of the history and a technical description of Gossypium 
hopi n. sp. and its uses by the Pima and Hopi Indians. 

Experiments on the retting of flax, M. Ringelmann {Bui. Mens. Off. 
Renscig. Agr. [Paris}, 11 {1912), No. 9, pp. 1115-1182; abs. in Internat. Inst. 
Agr. [Rojyie], Bui. Bur. Agr. Intel, and Plant Diseases, S {1912), No. 12, pp. 26S8, 
2689). — A bacteriological process is described, by means of which the retting 
of flax may be carried on in severe winter weather with good results. 

Potassium fertilizer for hops, D. Neumann {Wchnschr. Brau., 29 (1912), 
Nos. 48, pp. 679-682; 49, pp. 691-694).— In 12 cooperative experiments the 



38 EXPEEIMENT STATION RECORD. 

average increase in yield was from 20 to 30 per cent after the use of potash, 
but the effect on the quality of the product was doubtful. 

Seed varieties of Lupinus aug-ustifolius and L. luteus, B. Kajanus {Ztschr, 
Induktive Abstam. u. Vcrerbungslehre, 7 {1912), No. 3-4, pp. 235-239, pi. 1). — 
The author describes his method of separation by color marking on the seeds 
from 3'ellows and blues. Five types of L. angustifolius and 3 of L. luteus were 
segregated and bred true. It was noted that black was dominant over normal 
colors. 

African manioc, Henby, Yves, and P. Ammann (Agr. Prat. Pays Chauds, 
12 (1912), No. 110, pp. 353-368, figs. 3; abs. in Internat. Inst. Agr. [Rome], 
Bui. Bur. Agr. Intel, and Plant Diseases, S {1912), No. 8, pp. i769-i77i).— This 
article describes the cultivation of this root crop and the manufacture of its 
products, flour, glucose, and alcohol. 

Veg-etative experiments with 88 varieties of oats, G. Schneider {Landw. 
Jahrb., 42 {1912), No. 5, pp. 767-833, pi. 1, figs. 20).— In this work the root 
systems were especially studied as a factor bearing directly upon crop produc- 
tion. 

The above ground parts ranged from 18.1 to 54.3 per cent of the root weight, 
averaging 29.9 per cent at the time of heading and from 10.6 to 2S.3 per cent 
at harvest time, with an average at the latter period of 17.3 per cent. It is 
noted that the largest yield of grain was not due to more rapid development 
in germinating, growing, or maturing, or to a longer vegetative period, but to 
the large functioning capacity of the variety. The early ripening varieties as 
a rule gave better yields than the late. The percentage of glume to kernels 
followed inversely the functioning ability of the root and the length of the 
vegetative period. The larger the spikelet and the higher it was placed on the 
panicle the heavier as a rule were its kernels found to be. 

A study of the weight of the differently placed kernels on the panicle showed 
those on the base of the spikelet to be the lightest. The average relation of the 
outer kernel to the inner on the spikelet was as 100: 66.4, and to the middle as 
100 : 30.9. The inner and middle kernels were never found to have awns. 

A bibliography is appended. 

Breeding and seed production of the Fichtel Mountain oats, Raum {Landw. 
Jahrb. Bayern, 2 {1912), No. 11, pp. 841-940, figs, i.^).— This gives the history, 
description, and methods employed since 1895 in the breeding of this variety 
of oats. 

Wild plantain fiber from India {Bui. Imp. Inst. [So. Kensington], 10 {1912), 
No. 4, pp. 536, 537).— It is noted that a strong fiber from 4 ft. to 5 ft. 6 in. in 
length was manufactured from a species of the wild plantain. 

Variety [and manurial] tests of potatoes, A. L. Dacy {West Virginia Sta. 
Rpt. 1912, pp. 31-54, fids. 3). — This paper records results of variety and fer- 
tilizer tests of potatoes conducted at Reedsville, Long Reach, Terra Alta, Letart, 
and Salama. This work was begun in 1905 and continued with more or less 
irregularity through 1912. 

The average yield of merchantable tubers of the best 10 varieties for the 7 
years' trial ranged from 91.5 to 116.8 bu. per acre. The effect of altitude was 
noted and 7 varieties are named and recommended for high altitudes. Twenty- 
two varieties are described and typical tubers of 35 varieties are pictured. 

As results of the fertilizer tests it is noted that " in amounts up to 500 lbs. 
per acre it does not pay to apply even a high-grade fertilizer broadcast; that 
the same amount (500 lbs.) applied in the furrow at planting time produces a 
very profitable increase in the crop . . . and that in most seasons it is profitable 
to apply 1,000 lbs. to the acre, putting 500 lbs. in the furrow and applying 500 
broadcast" 



FIELD CROPS. 39 

Pointers on the growing and selection of types of eating- potatoes, W. 
SciiiFTAN {Illus. Landw. Zlg., 33 (1913), No. 14, pp. Ill, 112, figs. 7).— In this 
article 7 types of eating potatoes are described and illustrated and their charac- 
teristics discussed. A distinction is made between these types and those grown 
for brewing or the manufacture of alcohol, starch, etc. 

Experiments in the defoliation of sugar beets, F. Stbohmeb, H. Bbiem, and 
O. Fallada {Osterr. Ungar. Ztschr. Zuckerindus. u. Landw., 41 (1912), No. 2, 
pp. 22S-240). — This reports a series of experiments in which the yield and 
sugar content of beets from which the first 2 rows and the first 3 rows of leaves 
were removed at 3 stages of development, August, September, and October, 
were compared with those from normally developed plants. In each case the 
decrease in both sugar content and total yield was in proportion to the quantity 
of leaves removed. Tabulated analyses of the roots of the several series are 
given. 

Small beet seed, H. Bbiem (Bl. Zuckerriibenbau, 19 (1912), No. 12, pp. 185- 
187). — An article in which the author discusses the value of color, odor, and 
size of the beet seed, and points to investigations showing that small seeds are 
not inferior to large ones. 

The size of the seed ball of beets, H. Plahn-Appiani (Bl. Zuckcrruhenhau, 
19 (1912), No. 17, pp. 265-267). — This is a discussion with citations showing 
the equal value of large and small seed balls in beet production. 

The value of bees to seed beet growing, E. Vasilieff (Bl. Zuckerriibenbau, 
19 (1912), No. 10, p. 155; abs. in Internat. Inst. Agr. [Rome}, Bui. Bur. Agr. 
Intel, and Plant Diseases, S (1912), No. 8, p. i77.?).— This article describes the 
important part bees play in the production of beet seeds. 

The manuring of sugar cane at Samalkota Agricultural Station, 1902— 
1912, G. R. HiLSON (Dcpt. Agr. Madras Bui. 66, 1913, pp. 8).— This work shows 
that on the Delta lands commercial fertilizers are not to be recommended, and 
that with the price of castor-cake about 4 times that of margosa and puugam 
cake, the latter is the more economical manure. The yields ranged from 2,767 
to 7.167 lbs. raw sugar per acre. 

The culture of flue-cured tobacco, E. H. Mathewson (U. S. Dept. Agr. Bui. 
16, pp. 36. figs. 12). — In this bulletin the author has outlined the Old Belt and 
the New Belt sections for the cultivation of this class of tobacco, and has given 
a historical sketch leading up to the present time methods of flue-curing 
tobacco. In describing methods of cultivation, the importance of humus in the 
soil is noted, and it is stated that the humus may be obtained by plowing under 
timothy and redtop sod. Other crops mentioned in this connection are oats, 
wheat, cotton, peanuts, sweet potatoes, corn, and cowpeas, the legumes of which 
may be pastured off with hogs. Various methods of fertilizing, including the 
use of barnyard manure and lime, are discussed, and formulas for both sections 
are presented. Further discussions include varieties, selection and care of 
plants, preparation and care of the seed bed, comparison of early and late 
planting, transplanting, cultivation, diseases, insect enemies, topping and sucker- 
ing, harvesting, and curing and handling. Descriptions are given of curing 
barns and storage houses. 

The entire cost of producing and marketing flue-cured tobacco is estimated at 
from 6 to 10 cts. per pound. 

The Utelo, a plant with oleaginous seeds, B. Mestdaqh (Bui. Agr. Congo 
Beige, 3 (1912), No. S, pp. 645, 646, fig. 1; abs. in Internat. Inst. Agr. [Rome], 
Bui. Bur. Agr. Intel, and Plant Diseases, 3 (1912), No. 12, pp. 2640. 2641).— A 
cucurbit native to the Belgian Congo, from the seed of which oil may be ex- 
tracted, is described, as is also the aboriginal method of manufacture. 

25842°— No. 1—14 4 



40 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

On the selection of a type of wheat resistant to severe winters, V. Kol- 
KUNov {KJioztaistvo 7 (.1013), Xo. 36, pp. 1161-1167; abs. in Inteniat. Inst. Agr. 
[Rome'\, Bui. Bur. Agr. Intel, and Plant Diseases, S {1912), No. 12, pp. 2631- 
2634). — In subjecting numerous varieties of growing wheat to low temperatures 
and excessive coverings of snow, the xerophytic varieties seemed the most hardy. 

Portuguese varieties of wheat and their improvement, O. Klein {Landw. 
JahrJ)., 42 {1912), No. 2, pp. 331-364, pls. 8).— This article gives results of 
trials of some foreign as well as domestic varieties conducted at Lisbon. 

It was found that in general seeding with the drill at the rate of 15 kernels 
per square meter, or broadcast from 200 to 250 kernels per square meter gave 
the best results. 

Complete chemical analyses and yields per hectare of the grain and straw are 
given for SO varieties, with botanical descriptions, notes, etc., for each variety. 
The weight of 100 kernels ranged from 3.7 to 6.4 gm. and of 1 liter from 720 to 
833 gm. The specific gravity varied from 1.294 to 1.390. 

Clover and g-rass seeds, with reference to valuation, and the present status 
of their production and trade from the local standpoint, A. Boerger (Landw. 
Jalirh., 42 {1912), No. 1, pp. 1-118, pis. 18). — In a discussion concerning seeds 
from various countries and localities it is noted that in general, in so far as 
investigations have been made, seeds have produced better when grown in the 
locality where planted. 

Considerable space is devoted to the discussion of means of forming and 
operating organizations to promote the production, use, and trade in a high 
quality of grass and clover seeds. Tables give data regarding foreign trade 
in seeds and the home supply and demand. 

Seed tests, L. Hiltnee et al. (Landw. Jahrh. Bayern, 2 (1912), No. 9, pp. 
636-664). — An article in which results of germination and purity tests of clover 
and grasses from European sources are given and discussed. 

HORTICULTURE. 

Garden farming, L. C. Coebett (Boston, Chica^go, and London, 1913, pp. 
X-{-473, figs. 175). — A practical treatise on the intensive and extensive culture 
of vegetables in which the author presents in considerable detail the results of 
his own observations and investigations, together with those of other horticul- 
tural authorities. 

The successive chapters of part 1 discuss vegetable gardening, or olericulture ; 
the soil as a factor in the work of the market gardener ; principles of planting 
and cultivation ; forcing and forcing structures ; root cellars and storage houses ; 
transportation of truck crops ; precooling and cold storage of vegetables ; and the 
home vegetable garden. In part 2 the commercial vegetables are arranged in 
alphabetical order and considered with reference to their development, cultiva- 
tion, and uses. 

Pomology, horticulture, and viticulture, E. Reimers (Jahres'ber. Landw., 
27 (1912), pp. 229-250). — A review of recent contributions to the knowledge of 
pomology, horticulture, and viticulture in Germany. 

Report of field work by the horticultural department during 1911, A. L. 
Dacy (West Virginia Sta. Rpt. 1912, pp. 78-97, figs. 13).— This report reviews 
cooperative spraying and pruning demonstrations conducted in different sections 
of West Virginia during 1911. Some suggestions are also given relative to the 
possibilities of truck growing in the State. As a result, of orchard demonstra- 
tions greatly increased returns have been reported by the owners. 



HORTICULTURE. 41 

[Fruit trees in Paraguay], G. T. Bp:btoni (Affronomia [Puerto Bertoni], 5 
{1913), Xo. 5-6, pp. 185-204)' — Descriptive notes are given of a large number 
of tropical and semitropical fruits suitable for culture in Paraguay. 

Wild fruits of Paraguay, G. T. Bebtoni (Agronomia [Puerto Bertoni], 5 
{191S), No. 5-6, pp. 205-207). — The author enumerates a number of wild fruits 
belonging to the genera Psidium, Eugenia, llolliuia, and Anona, with special 
reference to their value for cultivation. 

The pubescent-fruited species of Prunus of the Southwestern States, S. C. 
Mason (17. /S. Dept. Agr., Jour. Agr. Research, 1 {191S), No. 2, pp. 147-178, pis. 
8, figs. 8). — The author here describes seven species of Prunus found in the 
flora of the western United States which are more closely allied to some of the 
Asiatic species of this genus than to the wild plums of the country. They are 
discussed with special reference to their adaptation as stocks for cultivated 
forms under the climatic and soil conditions of the Southwest, and also as 
offering possibilities to the plant breeder. 

The specie? discussed include the Texas wild peach (P. texana) and hybrid 
forms, the Nevada wild almond (P. andersonii) , the desert apricot (P. eriogyna 
n. sp.), the California desert almond (P. fasciculata), the Texas almond (P. 
minutiflora), the Mexican almond (P. microphylla) , and Havard's almond 
(P. havardii). 

Emit variety tests on the Southern Utah Experiment Farm, A. B. Ballan- 
TTNE (Utah Sta. Bui. 124, PP- 59-110, pi. 1, ftgs. S). — In continuation of a 
previous report (E. S. R., 18, p. 936) this bulletin reports the condition up to 
1910 of various orchard fruits, nuts, and grapes under test on the experimental 
farm. 

Summarizing the results as a whole the test indicates that one may safely 
plant Elberta and Heath Cling peaches, most of the prunes, and at least the 
Bartlett pear on any soil in southern Utah that is at all adapted to fruit culture. 
Unusual care must be exercised in the selection of orchard sites, however, with 
special reference to spring frosts and soil drainage in order to avoid the con- 
sequent loss of fruit and early death of the trees. Tests conducted with various 
nuts indicate that, with the possible exception of pecans, nut culture is not 
promising for southern Utah. Generally speaking, the standard American 
grapes of the northern sections do not thrive. Labrusca-Vinifera hybrids, such 
as Isabella, Agawam, and Goethe, do well and the section api^ears to be adapted 
for many varieties of European grapes including fresh, raisin, and wine grapes. 

Orchard notes, J. B. Thompson (Guam Sta. Rpt. 1912, pp. 24-26, pi. i).— A 
brief statement of work accomplished in the introduction and establishment 
of various fruits in Guam, including the mango, peach, kumquat, amatungula 
(Carissa arduina), and the banana. 

Fruit for exhibition, L. D. Batchelor {Utah Sta. Circ. 13, pp. 9-11). — In 
this circular the author briefly discusses the selection, storing, and arrange- 
ment of exhibition fruit, and presents a score card showing the important 
points for consideration in show fruit. 

Box packing of apples, E. F. Palmer (Ontario Dept. Agr. Bui. 216, 1913, pp. 
24, figs. 23). — Popular directions are given for making various styles of packs 
in boxes, including plans for packing houses and the necessary equipment. 

Packing Indiana apples, W. R. Palmer (Indiana Sta. Circ. 39, pp. 28, fi-gs. 
15). — This circular discusses the equipment needed and the methods used in 
sizing, grading, and packing both barrels and boxes. Recent legislation per- 
taining to the subject is noted in the appendix. 

Cold storage for Iowa-grown apples, L. Greene (loica Sta. Bui. 144, PP- 
S57-S78, figs. 2). — In continuation of a previous investigation (E. S. R., 22, p. 



42 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

142) the results of cold storage studies with apples conducted during the past 
4 years are here reported. 

A number of experiments were made to determine the effect of freezing the 
apples previous to storage upon their keeping quality in cold storage. It was 
found that apples which are frozen upon the trees in the fall can be safely- 
placed in cold storage if they are still sound after having thawed out gradually 
on the tree before picking. Apples which are frozen in cold or in common 
storage will not be seriously injured if thawed out below freezing temperature. 

A number of tests were made of cellar as compared with cold storage. As 
a result of these tests it would seem that where cold storage can be had close 
at hand it would be economical to store fruit for one or two months at a 
monthly rate until the cellar storage could be cooled to proper temperatures and 
then the fruit removed to the cellar. Cellar storage throughout the season in 
comparison with cold storage kept such varieties as Winesap and Mammoth 
Black Twig until May 1 in excellent condition, whereas such varieties as 
Grimes Golden and Jonathan in cellar storage should be marketed before Jan- 
uary 1. By the use of early cold storage previous to cellar storage the season 
for Grimes Golden was prolonged to February 1. 

In order to keep well in cold storage the fruit should be thoroughly ripened, 
well colored, and carefully handled. If the fruit has not been properly ripened 
delaying the storage after packing for a short time may prove beneficial, pro- 
viding the weather remains cool. Wrapping the fruit with paper retards the 
ripening process, prevents bruising in shipment, and delays the appearance of 
scald, thus lengthening the storage season from 2 weeks to several months 
according to variety. From an economic standpoint, however, wrappers are 
out of the question, except for fancy boxed apples or where packed for special 
purpose in barrels. Other conditions being equal, the package in which the 
apples are stored has but little influence on their keeping qualities. 

But little difference was found in the keeping qualities of fruit from culti- 
vated and from sod orchards. Fruit selected for the extreme storage limit 
should be of medium size for the variety, since overgrown specimens do not 
keep as well as the smaller ones. Apple scald was found to attack immature, 
poorly colored fruit first. If the temperature is high enough to allow the 
fruit to continue the ripening processes the appearance of scald is somewhat 
delayed. 

The cold storage variety testing was continued during the past 4 years. The 
results as here noted indicate that the principal commercial varieties in Iowa 
can nearly all be handled profitably in cold storage. 

The American peach orchard, F. A. Waugh (New York and London, 191S, 
pp. 238, pi. 1, figs. 65). — ^A treatise on the practice of peach growing in North 
America at the beginning of the twentieth century. The successive chapters 
of this work discuss peach growing geography, climatology, soils and exposures, 
how to get the trees, orchard planting, general management, cover crops, the 
use of fertilizers, pruning and renovation, insect enemies, diseases of tree and 
fruit, spraying, marketing the crop, the family orchard, botanical and pomo- 
logical status, choosing varieties, variety catalogue, the nectarine, utilizing the 
fruit, and a historical sketch of the peach industry. 

Maurer's gooseberry book, L. Maubeb (Maurer's Stachelbeerluch. Stuttgart, 
191S, pp. XIII -{-847, pis. 15, figs. 158). — ^A descriptive account of the best and 
most widely cultivated varieties of gooseberries. Introductory considerations 
deal with the botany, anatomy, and culture of the gooseberry, weights and 
measurements of gooseberry fruits, methods of classification, and choice of 
varieties for general cult^ire. 



HORTICULTURE. 43 

The practice of ^ape growing in its various phases. — I, The technique of 
grape grafting, A. Wannee (Die Praxis des Weinhaus in Einzeldarstellungen. 
I, Die Tecknik der Rebenvered clung. Strasshurg, 191S, pp. 83, figs. 53). — A 
practical treatise on the propagation and grafting of grapes, including the care 
of the grafted plants in the nursery. 

Study of the influence of various grape stocks on the quality and quantity 
of the harvest, H. Faes and F. Porchet (Terre Vaud., 5 {1913), Nos. 18, pp. 
191-193, fig. 1; 19, pp. 20Jf, 205, fig. 1; 20, pp. 211-213, figs. 2; 21, pp. 227-229, 
figs. 2; 22, pp. 245-2Jf7, figs. 2; 24, pp. 265-268, figs. 2; 26, pp. 285-288, figs. S; 
28, pp. 301-810, figs. 3; 31, pp. 335-338, figs. 4; 53, pp. 351, 352).— In order 
to determine the adaptability of a number of pure American, American hybrid, 
and French-American Jjybrld stocks for the Chasselas grape 9 experimental 
vineyards were established under the direction of the Lausanne Viticultural 
Station. The results of this investigation as indicated by the quality and 
quantity of the harvest in 1911 and 1912 are here reported and discussed. 

The sexual elements of grape hybrids, M. Gabd {Gompt. Rend. Acad. Sci. 
[Paris], 157 (1913), No. 3, pp. 226-228) .—The author's investigations lead him 
to conclude that the deviations from normal in the sexual elements of grape 
hybrids are courmed to the male flower, the female flower remaining normal. 
Among European cultivated grapes the pollen is oftentimes normal, and at 
other times normal, hollow-grained, and intermediate forms of pollen occur on 
the same plant, but the normal grains are usually the more numerous. Pollen 
from short stamens, although not infertile, is incapable of close fertilization. 

Report on the variability of the coffees grown in the Dutch East Indies, 
P. J. S. Cramer (Meded. Dept. Land}). [Dutch East Indies], 1913, No. 11, pp. 
XVI -^696, pis. 23, figs. 5). — This comprises a comparative study of the varieties 
of coffee commonly grown in the Dutch East Indies, Including also observa- 
tions on recently introduced forms. Introductory considerations deal with the 
present status of coffee culture and varieties in Java, the introduction of new 
sorts for cultural tests, variability, comparative characteristics of different 
kinds of coffee, seed tests, and the methods followed in the descriptions of the 
parent trees. 

Part 2 discusses in detail the varieties of Coffea arahica, including small- 
leaved, colored, erect, pendulous, and the strong-growing forms. The species 
discussed in the succeeding parts include C. lihcrica, C. abeokutae, G. steno- 
phylla, G. excelsa, C. ugandae, and C. congensis. 

First report on selection tests of Bobusta coffee, C. J. J. Van Hall (Meded. 
Proefstat. Midden-Java, 1912, No. 7, pp. 23). — With the view of securing an 
Improved form of Robusta coffee, a large number of plants were studied with 
reference to variations in productivity, disease resistance, weight of marketable 
product as compared with yield, and quality of the berry. The results of this 
test are here presented in tabular form and discussed. 

On the tarring of pruning-wounds in tea plants, C. Bernard and J. J. B. 
Deuss (Dept. Landb., Nijv. en Handel [Dutch East Indies], Meded. Proefstat. 
Thee, 1913, No. 25, pp. 1-8). — In a preliminary test of various tar preparations, 
black gas house tar gave the most satisfactory results as a dressing for wounds 
resulting from pruning tea plants. 

Tea manuring experiments, C. Bernard and J. J. B. Deuss (Dept. Landb., 
Nijv. en Handel [Dutch East Indies], Meded. Proefstat. Thee, 1913, No. 25, pp. 
9-26, figs. 7). — Some fertilizer investigations with tea in Java are here reported 
and discussed. 

Leucasna glauca as a green manure for tea, C. Bernard (Dept. Landb., 
Ifijv. en Handel [Dutch East Indies], Meded. Proefstat. Thee, 1913, No. 25, pp. 



44 EXPERIMENT STATION KECORD. 

27-30, pis. S). — Favorable results in the use of L. glauca as a green manure 
crop for tea plantations are here reported. 

Individual variation in the alkaloidal content of belladonna plants, A. F. 
SiEVERS (U, 8. Dept. Agr., Jour. Agr. Research, 1 (1913), No. 2, pp. 129-1^6, 
fig. 1). — The author has started an investigation to determine the possibility of 
modifying the chemical constituent of a plant by breeding and selection. This 
paper presents the results of three years' observations relative to the variation 
of the quantity of alkaloids in the belladonna plant as studied at the drug- 
testing garden at Bell, Md., and at the Arlington Experimental Farm. 

Summarizing the work as a whole it was found that the variation of the 
percentage of alkaloids in the leaves of the different plants is exceedingly large, 
hence the testing of a general sample from all plants collectively is not always 
a safe means of judgment. A considerable number of plants with leaves rich 
in alkaloids in one season were found to have equally rich leaves in the follow- 
ing season, and they frequently manifested the same characteristics at the 
various stages of growth during the season in comparison with other plants. 
The same facts were true with regard to plants which bear leaves with a 
low percentage of alkaloids. Thus far, however, nothing has been found to 
indicate that any correlation exists between the physical appearance of the 
plant and the alkaloidal content of its leaves, luxuriant growth being no cri- 
terion of the medicinal value of the plant. 

From the point of view of the percentage of alkaloids present in the leaves and 
the quantity of material available, the leaves can be picked to best advantage 
from the time of flowering until the early berries begin to ripen. They are 
richer in alkaloids later in the season but are then too small and sparse for 
harvesting. 

Rose geranium culture, E. Chaeabot and C. K Gatin (Jour. Agr. Trop., 13 
(1913), No. 148, pp. 289-295). — A descriptive account in which consideration is 
given to the origin of rose geranium culture in France, Algeria, and Reunion, 
methods of propagation, cultural details, enemies and diseases, harvesting, dis- 
tillation and yields, and the present and future status of the industry. 

FORESTRY. 

Forestry, H. Hausrath (Die Waldimrtschaft. In Das Lehen der Pflanze, 
Alt. IV: Die Pflanzen und der Mensch, Vol. I. Stuttgart, 1913, pp. 471-611, pis, 
4, figs. 70). — An encyclopedic treatise in which consideration is given to the 
history of forestry, forest management, forest protection, forest statistics, 
beneficial effects of woods, and ornamental value of woodlands. 

Forestry, A. Kostlan (Jahresl)er, Landw., 27 (1912), pp. 215-228). — A re- 
view of recent contributions to forest literature in Germany. 

Logging, R. C. Bryant (Neiv York and London, 1913, pp. XVIII -{-590, figs. 
133). — A text-book on the principles and general methods of operation in the 
United States. Part 1 contains a general discussion of forest resources, pro- 
tection of forest property, and timber bonds. The succeeding parts take up 
in detail the methods of preparing logs for transport, land transport, water 
transport, summary of logging methods in specific regions, and minor industries. 

A bibliography together with terms used in logging (E. S. R., 17, p. 373), 
log rules, and other data relating to the industry are appended. 

Work of the Dominion Forestry Branch, R. H. Campbell (Com. Conserv, 
Canada Rpt., 4 (1913), pp. 32-40).— A review of the work of the Dominion 
Forestry Branch, presented at the fourth annual meeting of the Commission 
of Conservation of Canada, Ottawa, January 21-22, 1913. 



FORESTRY. 45 

[Report of the] committee on forests, C. Leavitt et al. {Com. Consevv. 
Canada Rpt., 4 {1913), pp. 16-31, 178-180, pis. 5).— This comprises the report 
of the forestry committee of the Commission of Conservation of Canada for the 
fiscal year ended March 31, 1913, including also the resolutions pertaining to 
forestry that were adopted by the commission. 

Forest policy of British Columbia, W. R. Ross {[Victoria], 1913, pp. 17). — 
This is a full report of the author's speech in which he reviews the progress 
that forest conservation has made in British Columbia. 

Avondale Forestry Station, A. C. Forbes {Dept. Agr. and Tech. Instr. Ire- 
land Jour., 14 {1913), No. 1, pp. 102-125, pis. 6). — This comprises a general 
description of the Avondale Forestry Station, including a progress report of 
the work for the period 1906 to 1912. 

Report on forest statistics of Alsace-Lorraine {Beitr. Forststatis. Elsnss- 
Lothringen, 1911, No. 30, pp. 100, figs. 17). — This is the customary statistical 
review, for the year 1911, relative to the administration of the state, public, 
and community forests in Alsace-Lorraine. Detailed and summarized data 
dealing with forest areas, silvicultural operations, products, revenues, ex- 
penditures, etc., are given, including a comparative summary for each year 
since 1872. 

The sun energ-y in the forest, M. Wagner {Allg. Forst. u. Jagd Ztg., 89 
{1913), June, pp. 185-200; July, pp. 225-242, fig. 1; Sept., pp. 297-316, fig. 1; 
Oct., pp. 333-351, fig. 1). — A study of the relation of the sun's energy to forest 
growth, in which the author sets forth his observations and deductions in a 
series of articles as follows: (1) The Influence of Geographic Latitude on 
Crown Development, Volume Production, Stem Basal Area, Stem Number, and 
Brush Wood; (2) The Distribution of the Sun's Rays in the Forest, with 
Special Reference to the Selection Strip Cutting; (3) The Absorption of Sun 
Ehiergy in Green Plant Leaves and Its Relation to the Locality and to Volume 
Production; and (4) Light Measurements in the Forest and Their Importance 
for Practical Forestry. 

Contribution to the knowledg-e of the influence of aquatic mediums on the 
roots of trees, G. Bondois {Ann. Sci. Nat. Dot., 9. ser., 18 {1913), No. 1-2, pp. 
1-24, fi9S. 9). — The author's investigations as here reported lead him to con- 
clude in general that although the adaptation of tree roots to aquatic mediums 
may be less marked than their adaptation to aerial mediums it is nevertheless 
quite appreciable. The roots appear to be influenced by both the physical and 
chemical nature of the water. Since water is a homogeneous medium the rnot 
growth is equal and symmetrical in all directions. On account of its density 
the water acts as a partial support to the roots, whence arises a reduction in 
the supporting system. In order to adapt themselves for flonting the roots 
lighten themselves by the development of air cells. Since the food supplied 
to the roots is liquid the absorption and conducting systems become retluced. 
Since the absorption takes place throughout the emerged surface a great abun- 
dance of lenticels are formed on the older roots. 

Florida trees, J. K. Small {New York, 1913, pp. IX -{-107). —This handbook 
contains descriptions of all the trees known to the author to be native to or to 
grow naturally in Florida. 

The forests of the Far East, A. Hofmann {Aus den Waldnngen dcs fernen 
Ostens. Vienna and Leipsic, 1913. pp. VIII +225, pis. 56. figs. P).— A descriptive 
account of the forests and of forestry in the Far East, based upon the author's 
travels and studies in Japan, Fornjosa, Korea, and the bordering districts of 
eastern Asia, together with a review of the literature on the subject. 



46 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

Introductory cousiderations deal with the geology, climate, and forest geogra- 
phy of the region under discussion. The succeeding chapters deal with the 
silvicultural practices; ownership and management relations; utilization; 
timber sales; wood industries and trade; strength investigations; transporta- 
tion ; forest policies, laws, and administration ; the relation between the forests 
and streams; game and hunting; and the national attitude toward the forests. 

Some Douglas fir plantations. — II, Cochwillan wood, near Llandegai, 
North Wales, T. Thomson {Jour. Bd. Agr. [London^, 20 {1913), No. 6, pp. 499- 
503). — In continuation of previous observations on Douglas fir plantations (E. 
S. R., 29, p. 644) some diameter, height, and volume measurements are given for 
a 58-year-old Douglas fir stand growing in a mixture with oak, near Llandegai, 
North Wales. 

The structure of the wood of East Indian species of Pinus, P. Groom and 
W. RusHTON {Jour. Linn. Soc. [London] Bot., 41 {1913), No. 283, pp. 457-490, 
pis. 2). — In the first part of this paper the authors give their general con- 
clusions and summarize the results secured from a detailed study of the wood 
structure of 5 species of East Indian pine. The second part of the paper de- 
scribes in detail the wood structure of the different species. 

The kapok trees of Togo, E. Ulbbich {NotizU. E. Bot. Gart. u. Miis. Berlin, 
6 {1913), No. 52, pp. 39-65, figs. 2). — This comprises the results of inquiries sent 
out to the various districts of Togo relative to the characteristics and varying 
forms of the kapok trees. 

The " wood-oil " trees of China and Japan, E. H. Wilson {Bui. Imp. Inst. 
[80. Kensijigton], 11 {1913), No. 3, pp. 44I-46I, pis. 5). — The author here gives 
a descriptive account of the Chinese wood oils and the trees yielding them, with 
special reference to the utilization of these facts by various departments of agri- 
culture in the warm temperate and subtropical parts of the world which con- 
template the experimental culture of these trees. A revision of the synonymy 
with principal references to the literature is appended. 

Tagua, vegetable ivory, E. Albes {Bui. Pan Amer. Union, 37 {1913), No. 2, 
pp. 192-208, figs. 21). — A descriptive account is given of the tagua palm {Phy- 
telcphas macrocarpa) with reference to its botany and habitat, methods of 
harvesting and marketing the tagua nuts, and their utilization in the manufac- 
ture of vegetable ivory buttons. 

Uses of commercial woods of the United States. — Beech, birches, and 
maples, H. Maxwell {U. 8. Dept. Agr. Bui. 12, pp. 56). — In continuation of 
previous studies of the commercial woods of the United States (B. S. R., 2G, 
p. 50) consideration is here given to the closely related beech, birch, and maple 
group, including some 18 commercial species, with special reference to the phys- 
ical properties, supply, and uses of the various woods. 

The wood-using industries of Iowa, H. Maxwell and J. T. Harris {Iowa 
8ta. Bill. 142, pp. 237-304, PQS. i.S).— This report embraces the results of an 
investigation conducted cooperatively by the Forest Service of the U. S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture and the Iowa Station relative to the utilization by various 
industries in Iowa of wood after it has left the sawmill. The data presented 
and discussed show the total demands for each species by the difi:'erent indus- 
tries; cost of the raw material f. o. b. factory; the articles made from each 
kind of wood; the relative amounts supplied by the State and by outside States; 
and the qualities of the wood which recommend it for a specific use. 

A directory of Iowa wood users is given and the following special chapters 
are also included: The Timber Resources of Iowa, by G. B. MacDonald (pp. 
291-300) ; and White Pine in Iowa, by N. C. Brown (pp. 301-304). 

Forest products of Canada, 1912. — Lumber, square timber, lath, and 
shingles, R. G. Lewis and W. G. H. Boyce {Dept. Int. Canada, Forestry Branch 



DISEASES OF PLANTS. 47 

Bul. 40, 191S, pp. 67, pi. 1). — A statistical report on the manufacture of lumber, 
square timber, lath, and shingles in the Dominion and the various Provinces 
for the calendar year 1912. The ijroduction is also indicated by species. 

The total value of lumber, square timber, lath, and shingles produced in 
Canada in 1912 was $76,540,879, of which amount the lumber represents about 
$09,500,000. 

To get long life from untreated timber in trestles {En^in. Rec, 68 {1913), 
No. 20, p. 542). — This comprises suggestions made by the committee on the 
preservation of timber of the American Railway Bridge and Building Associa- 
tion relative to methods of prolonging the life of overhead timber and piles used 
in trestle work which receive no preservative treatment. A table is also given 
showing the relative length of life of various structural timbers in contact with 
the soil and in the air. 

DISEASES OF PLANTS. 

Smut diseases of cultivated plants, their cause and control, H. T. Gussow 
(Canada Cent. Expt. Farm Bul. 73, pp. 57, figs. 9). — After a general discussion 
of smuts as related to plants, the author describes the smuts of wheat, barley, 
oats, corn, broom corn, and millet, giving methods for their control, as far as 
definite recommendations can be made. 

Further cultures of heteroecious rusts, W. P. Fraseb (Mycologia, 5 (1913), 
No. 4, pp. 233-239). — The author adds to studies previously reported (E. S. R., 
28, p. 51) an account of 5 rusts of the genus Uredinopsis whose life histories 
are claimed to be established for the first time; and, in addition, 3 life histories 
supplementing previous work. 

Some important contributions on fungus diseases of plants appearing in 
1912-13, E. RiEHM (Mycol. Centhl., 3 {1913), No. 2, pp. 66-76) .—Bvief notes 
are given of studies on plant diseases in 1912-13, concluding with a list of about 
SO articles representing about 70 different contributors. 

Diseases of agricultural crops, 1912, J. Lind, Sofie Rosteup, and F. K. 
Ravn {Tidsskr. Landbr. Plantcavl, 20 {1913), No. 2, pp. 249-280) .—The more 
important plant diseases and insect pests observed in Denmark during the year 
are described and discussed. 

"Work of the phytopathological section of the central agricultural ex- 
periment station in Stockholm in 1912, J. Eriksson {Inio-nat. Inst. Agr. 
[Rome], Mo. Bul. Agr. Intel, and Plant Diseases, 4 {1913), No. 7, pp. 1005- 
1008). — A condensed account is given of observations carried out on potato 
diseases, including Phytophthora infestans, Hypochnus solani or Rhizoetonia 
solani, and Chrysophlyctis endohiotica or Synchytrium solani; on beet diseases, 
including Uromyees betw, Bacillus tahiflcans, R. violacea, Phoma betw, Cerco- 
spora beticola, Sporidesmium putrefaciens, etc. ; on withering of blooms on 
fruit trees; and on various diseases of vegetables. A list of the station publi- 
cations jippearing in 1912 is also given. 

Work of the observatory of phytopathology in Turin, P. Voglino 
{Internat. Inst. Agr. [Rome], Mo. Bul. Agr. Intel, and Plant Diseases, 4 {1913), 
No. 7, pp. 1000-1005). — This is a brief account of the organization of this 
institution, and of parasitic fungi, etc., studied there, by years from 1904 to 
1912. 

Plant diseases, E. W. Davy (Nyasaland Dept. Agr. Ann. Rpt. 1913, pp. 23, 
24)' — Brief notes are given on the occurrence of frog-eye of tobacco due to 
Cercospora nicotiancB, the attack of safflower by a species of Vermicularla, a 
disease of Ceara rubber tree due to some species of Polyporaceae as yet unde- 
termined, and the orange scab caused by Cladosporium citri. The presence of 



48 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

peculiar wart-like excrescences on the leaves of oranges is reported from Cen- 
tral Angoniland, but so far no fungus or other growth has been found associated 
with this trouble. A blackening and dying of the shoots of young camphor 
trees is reported, due to some indeterminate cause, as is also a spasmodic 
disease of tea, in which a shot hole effect is produced on the leaves. 

Some fung-i parasitic on tropical plants, E. Griffon and A. Maublanc (Bui. 
Trimest. Soc. Mycol. France, 29 (1913), No. 2, pp. 2U-250, pi. 1, figs. 2; ahs. in 
Internal. Inst. Agr. [Ronie'\, Mo. Bui. Agr. Intel, and Plant Diseases, 4 (1913), 
No. 7, pp. 1120, 1121). — The authors report as the result of their study of 
material sent from the mouth of the Amazon that Dothidella ulei in its vari- 
ous forms is found living parasitically on leaves of Hevea brasiliensis. It 
seems to be harmless under normal conditions although nursery plants, as in 
case of some examined, may suffer considerably from its presence. 

On leaves of Butyrospermum parkii from near Kulikoro (Upper Senegal 
and Niger), were found 2 fungi considered to be new and described under the 
names of Fusicladium hutyrospenni and Pestalozzia heterospora. 

Handbook of fung'us diseases of the potato in Australia and their treat- 
ment, D. McAlpine (Melhoume: Dept. Agr. Victoria, 1912, pp. Ill +215, figs. 
158, map 1; rev. in Nature [London^, 92 (1913), No. 2289, p. 27).— In this book 
the author gives detailed accounts of the diseases of the potato, particularly 
those caused by Phytophthora infestans, Alternaria solani, Riiizoctonia sp., 
Fusarium solani, Bacillus solanacearum, and the diseases known as scab. 

Bacterial disease of potatoes, T. G. B. Osbobn (Jour. Dept. Agr. So. Aust., 
17 (1913), No. 1, pp. 19-21, fig. 1). — Specimens of potatoes attacked by the 
bacterial rot (Bacillus solanacearum) were submitted to the author for study, 
and it seems that this disease has become established in South Australia. 
The disease occurs also in Victoria, where it is popularly known as sore eyes, 
from the moist condition of the buds in the early stages of the rot. 

Suggestions are given for the control of the disease, which include the 
removal and burning of infected plants, the use of clean seed tubers, and the 
rotation of crops. 

Report of the committee for study of leaf roll. — VII, Biolog-y of the potato 
plant with particular reference to leaf roll, O. Reitmaik (Ztschr. Landw. 
Versuchsw. Osterr., 16 (1913), No. 6, pp. 653-717).— Besides a discusssion of 
statements by other investigators, the author gives in continuance of previous 
reports (E. S. R., 27, p. 447) the results obtained in a series of recent inves- 
tigations. He states in conclusion that while leaf roll is a relative term ren- 
dering reports by various observers uncertain or conflicting in cases not very 
marked, it may be stated with a degree of certainty that instances of transitory 
leaf roll or of recovery in well established cases have not been seen by him ; 
that this trouble normally shows itself relatively late in the development of 
the potato plant, usually near the middle of June, when individuals which 
have inherited this trouble in typical degree show along with precocious bloom- 
ing a development of storing organs and marked setback in growth of the 
plant, especially as regards the root system; that as soon as the other signs 
of leaf roll appear, a disturbance or checking of the transportation of elaborated 
materials from the leaves is observable with alterations of phloem, concerning 
which further study is regarded as desirable; and that considerable varia- 
tions are observable as regards the degree of susceptibility of different varie- 
ties of potatoes to this trouble. 

The recent researches of Quanjer as to the cause of potato leaf roll and 
Sorauer's standpoint, P. Sorauek (Ztschr. Pflanzenkrank., 23 (1913), No. 4, 
pp. 2Jf4-253). — A critical discussion of an article previously noted (E. S. R., 



DISEASES OF PLANTS. 49 

29, p. 347), citing also views of other investigators regarding leaf roll of 
potatoes. 

The persistence of the potato late blig-ht fungus in the soil, F. C. Stiwabt 
(New York State Sta. Bui. 367, pp. S57-S61). — On account of conflicting state- 
ments regarding the persistence of the fungus Phytophthora infestans in the 
soil and the discovery of the oospores of the potato blight (E. S. R., 25. p. 
545), the author carried on experiments in soil from a field in which a large 
portion of the potato crop had been destroyed by the Phytophthora rot. The 
soil together with a quantity of blighted potato stems was phiced in wooden 
boxes, which were left in the field until late in January when they were brought 
into. the greenhouse and planted to potatoes. A second experiment, which was 
practically a repetition of the first with some modifications, was conducted, but 
the results were negative in each case. 

The conclusion is reached that while the negative results do not prove that the 
Phytophthora does not persist in the soil, they make such persistence appear 
highly improbable, and the removal of diseased tubers from the field, as recom- 
mended by Massee (E. S. R., 17, p. 45), is considered unnecessary. While the 
planting of potatoes after potatoes is said to have a tendency to increase scab, 
wilt, and other diseases, it is believed that there is no risk in the practice bo 
far as the late blight or rot is concerned. 

Does winter kill potato blight in the soil? F. H. Hall (New York State Sta. 
Bui. 861, popular ed., p. 1). — This is a popular edition of the above. 

Potato spraying experiments in 1911, N. J. Giddings {West Virginia Sta. 
Rpt. 1912, pp. 77, 78). — An account is given of experiments conducted at Mounds- 
ville, W. Va., during 1911 with the object of determining the relative value of 
Bordeaux mixture when prepared by various methods of mixing or by using 
formulas other than those commonly employed. Atomic sulphur was also tested 
as a spray for potatoes. 

The weather during the early part of the season was exceedingly dry and 
hot, and many of the plants were destroyed. The results as to spray mixtures 
are not considered of any special value, as it was impossible to get the potatoes 
sprayed at a time when they were most seriously in need of it. 

Ufra disease of rice, E. J. Butlfr {Agr. Jour. India, 8 {WIS), No. S, pp. 
205-220, pi. 1, fig. 1). — In continuation of a preliminary note (E. S. R., 28, p. 
151), a detailed account is given of a study of this rice disease in India. 

Two distinct manifestations of the disease are described, and it has been defi- 
nitely determined that it is due to Tylenchus sp. The occurrence of this disease 
has been known for a number of years, but only recently has it become very 
destructive, losses of from 10 per cent to total destruction of fields having been 
reported. 

The different crops of rice are said to be affected in unlike manner, and 
transplanted rice seems practically free from attack. A lack of aeration of the 
soil is thought to favor the attack of the nematodes, but other considerations, 
among them the accumulation of nitrites, must be taken into account in plans 
for the control of this disease. A special grant has been made in Bengal for 
extensive experiments on means for its control. 

Notes on sereh disease of sugar cane, S. F. Ashby {Bui. Dept. Agr. Jamaica, 
n. ser., 2 {1913^, No. 7, pp. 239, 240, pi. 1). — On account of the suspected oc- 
currence of the serch disease of sugar cane in Trinidad, the author gives a de- 
Bcription of the external and internal appearances of diseased cane. Two views 
are held regarding the cause of this disease, one that it is due to a gum-form- 
ing bacterium, and the other that it is caused by a lack of balance in enzym 
action within the living cells of the plant, brought about by abnormal condi- 
tions of the soil, cultivation, manuring, etc. 



50 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

Rang-pur tobacco wilt, C. M. Hutchinson (Mem. Dept. Agr. India, Bad. 
Ser., 1 (1913), No. 2, pp. 67-84, pis. 12).— The wilting of tobacco plants, due to 
infection with a bacterium similar to Bacillus solanacearum, is said to occur 
annually in the Rangpur district of Bengal. It is thought that the infecting 
organism is probably unable to gain entrance into the plant except through the 
intervention of some mechanical injury or of organisms such as nematodes, 
which bore into the roots of the plant. 

For the control of the disease attempts should be made to conserve the soil 
moisture and develop the root system so as to produce a better and more rapid 
growth. All diseased plants should be removed and burned, and the use of 
alkaline manures should be avoided as much as possible. 

Diseases of the tomato in Louisiana, C. W. Edgeeton and C. C. Moeeland 
{Louisiana Stas. Bui. 142, pp. 23, figs. S). — There are said to be ten diseases of 
tomatoes known in Louisiana as follows: Tomato wilt (Fusarium lycopersici) , 
early blight (Alternaria solani), Sclerotium wilt disease (S. rolfsii), root knot 
(Heterodera radicicola), blossom end rot, leaf mold (Cladosponum fulvum), 
anthrticnose {Oloeosporium fructigenum) , southern tomato blight i Bacterium 
solamacearum) , leaf curl, and damping off (Rhizoctonia sp.). These diseases 
are described at some length and means are suggested for their prevention, as 
far as any are known. 

In connection with the wilt the author states that some wilt resistant 
varieties have been developed at the station at Baton Rouge, and seed of these 
is to be distributed for further trial in the State. 

Apple leaf spot (Jour. Bd. Agr. [London], 20 (1913), No. 6, pp. 513-515, 
pi. 1). — ^A description is given of the apple leaf spot due to 8ph<Bropsis malorum, 
which, it is said, has only recently been reported in Great Britain, although in 
all probability it has been present for a considerable time and has been over- 
looked or confused with other diseases. 

Peach leaf curl fungus: Further tests with copper compounds, G. Quinn 
{Jour. Dept. Agr. So. Aust., 17 {1913), No. 1, pp. 28-32).— In 1910 a series of 
spraying tests for the control of the peach leaf cucl fungus {Exoascus defor- 
mans) was reported (E. S. R., 26, p. 144). In 1911 the treatment as planned 
was not carried out, but it was repeated in 1912, and an account is given of the 
results. The spraying compounds used were Bordeaux mixture. Burgundy mix- 
ture, Woburn Bordeaux mixture, copper sulphate solution, and Bordeaux 
powder. 

As a result of the two seasons' trials, Burgundy mixture is deemed well 
adapted to the control of the peach leaf curl. When applied twice during the 
season ordinary Bordeaux mixture was very efficient, and a single season's 
trial has given similar results with the Woburn Bordeaux mixture. Copper 
sulphate solution, while giving good results in 1910, proved almost a failure in 
1912, so far as the control of the disease was concerned. The Bordeaux powder 
seems to be promising, but the results of 1 and 2 applications are said to be 
contradictory. 

Comparative experiments with sprays against leaf cast of grape, A. 
Bretschneidee {Ztschr. Landic. Versuchsw. Osterr., 16 {1913), No. 6, pp. 718- 
725).— Giving the results of recent experiments with means of combating 
Peronospora viticola, the author sums up the results of his studies during about 
four years (E. S. R., 27, p. 652) by stating that besides Bordeaux mixture some 
commercial preparations have been found entirely satisfactory and a few others 
named measurably so, while still others mentioned as on trial seem to promise 
good results. 

A disease of cacao trees due to Lasiodiplodia theobromae, P. Beethault 
{Bui. Trimest. Soc. Mycol. France, 29 {1913), No. 3, pp. 359-361; Agron. Colon., 



DISEASES OF PLANTS. 51 

/ iJ91S), No. 1, pp. 8-U, pl- i, figs. 5).— The author states that in Dahomey a 
disease of cacao trees is present which is commonly designated as sunstrolie 
or apoplexy. The leaves on the trees often turn yellow, dry, and fall without 
the trees showing any pronounced indication of disease. The trouble seems 
most prevalent during the dry season, and in certain regions three-fourths of 
the plants have been attacked. A study of the leaves showed they were para- 
sitized by a fungus which proved to be L. theohromw. The synonymy of the 
fungus is given, from which it appears that it has been previously described 
under a number of names. 

Nematode worms and mottled leaf, J. R. Hodges (Mo. Bui. Com. Hort. Cal., 
2 {191S), No. 6, pp. 555, 550). — An account of Investigation and treatment of 
mottled leaf of citrus trees. 

An examination of affected trees on different kinds of soil showed an im- 
perfect condition in the fibrous root system common to all trees badly affected 
with mottled leaf. By scraping the rootlets while submerged in water, live, 
actively moving nematodes were found, in many cases these being very numer- 
ous on badly decayed roots. It is suggested that these often infest the roots 
of transplanted nursery stock and that they also spread from one tree to 
another in irrigation and storm water. It is said that some of these nematodes 
were kept for 8 days in water without apparent injury. In badly infested 
orchards they appear to attack also the roots of various weeds. 

The author reports some success in treating affected trees with carbon bisul- 
phid. The best results were obtained by making shallow holes about 2 in. deep, 
1 ft. apart each way, and putting about three-fourths of an ounce of carbon 
bisulphid in each hole, the ground being then covered with an impervious tent 
or cloth which was allowed to remain for about 48 hours. After this treat- 
ment no live nematodes could be found. Just how much smaller dosage could 
be used with success is not known, but trees treated with greater amounts 
showed injury, losing their leaves. After treating, the ground was covered 
with a mulch of barnyard manure about 1 in. thick which kept up an even 
moisture content of about 10 per cent during the season following. The trees 
then showed a normal condition of fibrous roots, and while not entirely free 
from the nematodes, they are now reported as doing very well. 

Two fungi as causal agents in gummosis of lemon trees in California, 
H. S. Fawcett (Mo. Bui. Com. Hort. Cal., 2 (1913), No. 8, pp. 601-617, figs. 
12). — It is stated that at least two forms of gummosis occur in California that 
are readily transmissible by inoculation. One of these is due to the fungus 
Botrytis vulgaris, the other to the brown rot fungus (Pythiacystis citroph- 
thora). 

The Botrytis gummosis is characterized by the killing of the outer layer 
of the bark much in advance of the inner, and by a softening of the bark and 
the production of spores in moist weather, where the bark is entirely killed 
to the wood. The brown rot gummosis is characterized by the killing of the 
bark to the wood as the area of infection advances, without outward evidence 
of the fungus at any time. 

The use of concentrated Bordeaux mixture or Bordeaux paste has given 
promising results in the treatment of these forms of gummosis if the diseased 
areas were properly prepared before their application. 

Two fungus parasites of Agati grandiflora, E. Foex (Bui. Trimest. Soc. 
Mycol. France, 29 {1913), No. 3, pp. 348-352, figs. 5).— Descriptions are given of 
O'idlurn agatidis n. sp. and Cercospora agatidis n. sp., parasitic on A. grandi- 
I'ora, an ornamental tree extensively grown in Cochin China. 

The structure and systematic position of Mapea radiata, R. Maire (/?///. 
Trimest. Soc. Mycol. France, 29 {1913), No. S, pp. 335-338, fig. l).—ln 1906 



52 EXPERIMENT STATION RECOED. 

there was described by Patouillard as new, under the name M. radiata, a para- 
site of the pods of the leguminous tree Inocarpus edulis, and at that time it 
was considered as belonging to the Uredinese. Other investigators have since 
claimed that it is only a young form of Marasmius hygrometricus. 

The author of the present paper reports a cytological study of the fungus. 
He has grown it on culture media and as the result of inoculation experiments 
proved it to be a parasite on Inocarpus pods. He agrees with Patouillard that 
the fungus belongs to the Uredineje and is probably a reduced form of Uredo. 

A new species of Endothia, L. Petbi (Atti R. Accad. Lincei, Rend. CI. 8ci. 
Fis., Mat. e Nat., 5. ser., 22 {1913), I, No. 9, pp. 653-658, figs. 2; a&s. in Internat. 
Inst. Agr. [Rome], Mo. Bui. Agr. Intel, and Plant Diseases, 4 {1913), No. 7, pp. 
1121, 1122). — The author describes under the name E. pseudoradicalis a fungus, 
supposedly new, found near the bases of chestnuts 6 or 6 years old sprung from 
stumps of trees cut on account of black canker. The Endothia is said to show 
in one direction characters resembling E. virginiana and in another those re- 
sembling E. parasitica. 

More on black canker of chestnut in reply to L. Petri, G. Beiosi and R. 
Faeneti {Atti R. Accad. Lincei, Rend. CI. Sci. Fis., Mat. e Nat., 5. ser., 22 
(1913), II, No. 2, pp. 49-52). — A controversial note, referring also to a report 
by Ducomet (E. S. R., 28, p. 240). 

Critical considerations on black canker of chestnut, L. Petbi {Atti R. 
Accad. Lincei, Rend. CI. Sci. Fis., Mat. e Nat., 5. ser., 22 {1913), I, No. 7, pp. 
464-468).— A discussion of the foregoing article. 

Three undescribed heart rots of hardwood trees, especially of oak, W. H. 
Long {U. S. Dept. Agr., Jour. Agr. Research, 1 {1913), No. 2, pp. 109-128, pis. 
2). — In connection with a study of oak trees in the Ozark National Forest, 
Arkansas, the author recognized at least 20 different kinds of heart rots, some 
of which appear to have been undescribed. In the present paper detailed 
descriptions are given of a pocketed or piped rot of the oak. chestnut and 
chinquapin, caused by Polyporus piloted, a string and ray rot of the oak caused 
by P. herkeleyi, and a straw colored rot caused by P. frondosus. 

ECONOMIC ZOOLOGY— ENTOMOLOGY. 

Principles of economic zoology, L. S. and M. C. Daughebtt {Philadelphia 
and London, 1912, pp. VII+41O, figs. 301). — This work combines the salient 
facts as to the structure, life history, and habits of animals. 

Game laws for 1913, T. S. Palmee, W. F. Bancboft, and F. L. Eaenshaw 
{U. 8. Dept. Agr. Bui. 22, pp. 59). — This, the fourteenth annual summary of 
the game laws of the United States and Canada, has been prepared on the 
same general plan as those previously issued (E. S. R., 28, p. 853). 

Bibliography of Canadian zoology for 1911, L. M. Lambe {Proc. and Trans. 
Roy. Soc. Canada, 3. ser., 6 {1912), Sect. IV, pp. 101-114).— This annotated list 
covers the literature exclusive of entomology. 

Bibliography of Canadian entomology for 1911, C. G. Hewitt {Proc. and 
Trans. Roy. Soc. Canada, 3. ser., 6 {1912), Sect. IV, pp. 115-127).— One hun- 
dred and sixteen titles are listed in this annotated bibliography. 

Forty-third annual report of the Entomological Society of Ontario, 1912 
{Ann. Rpt. Ent. Soc. Ontario, 43 {1912), pp. 143, pi. 1, figs. ^2).— Among the 
more important papers here presented are the following : The Faunal Zones of 
Canada, by E. M. Walker (pp. 27-33) ; Review of Entomology Relating to 
Canada in 1912, by C. G. Hewitt (pp. 34-37) ; The Chinch Bug in Ontario, by 
H. F. Hudson (pp. 46-50; Bumblebees and Their Ways, by F. W. L. Sladen 



ECONOMIC ZOOLOGY ENTOMOLOGY. 53 

(pp. 50-56) ; Progress of the Introduction of the Insect Enemies of the Brown- 
tail Moth. Euproctis chrysorrhcea, into New Brunswick and Some Biological 
Notes on the Host, by J. D. Tothill (pp. 57-61) ; San Jos6 Scale in Nova Scotia, 
by G. E. Sanders (pp. 61-66) ; Recent Work on the x^pple Maggot in Ontario, 
by W. A. Ross (pp. 67-72) ; Insects of the Season in Ontario, by L. Caesar 
(pp. 75-84) ; Insect Pests of Southern Manitoba During 1912, by N. Griddle 
(pp. 97-100) ; Some New or Unrecorded Ontario Insect Pests, by L. Caesar 
(pp. 100-105) ; Notes on Injurious Insects in British Columbia in 1912, by 
R. C. Treherne (pp. 10(>-111) ; and Arsenite of Zinc as a Substitute for 
Arsenate of Lead, by L. Caesar (pp. Ill, 112). 

Insects of the year in British Columbia, T. Cunningham {Proc. Brit. 
Columbia Ent. Soc, n. ser., 1911, No. 1, pp. 15-22). — Brief accounts are given 
of the occurrence of the more important insect pests in British Columbia during 
1911. 

Some new and unusual insect attacks on fniit trees and bushes in 1912, 
F. V. Theobald (Jour. Bd. Agr. [London], 20 {1913), No. 2, pp. 106-116, pi. 1). — 
Among some of the more important insects noted are the apple leaf sawfly 
{LygcBonematus mcestus) ; the beech Orchestes (Orchestes fagi), which seri- 
ously injured apples; the garden chafer {Phyllopertha horticolo), observed to 
attack apples in its adult stage; the V moth {Halia toavaria) on currants and 
gooseberries; the pear leaf curling midge (Cecidomyia pyri) ; the red bug 
Atractonomus mali attacking apples; the ash and willow scale {Chionaspis 
salicis) attacking currants; the sycamore coccus iPseudococciis aceris) attack- 
ing apple trees; the delicate strawberry aphis {Myzus fragarice) ; the northern 
currant aphis (Rhopalosiphum britienii) ; the dark green Ribes aphis {Aphis 
grossulariw) ; and a phytoptid attacking apple leaves. 

Report on economic zoology for the year ending September 30, 1912, F. V. 
Theobald {Jour. Southeast. Agr. Col. Wye, 1912, No. 21, pp. 111-221, pis. 17, 
figs. 33). — This is the author's annual report (E. S. R., 28, p. 248) on the more 
important insect^ pests of the year, which are taken up under the headings of 
animals injurious to fruit trees and bushes, hops, cereals, pulse, root crops, 
vegetables, flowers, and forest trees, those causing annoyance to man, and those 
injurious to furniture, stored food. etc. 

A sealed paper carton to protect cereals from insect attack, W. B. Parker 
{U. S. Dept. Agr. Bui. 15, pp. 8, figs. 8).— This bulletin, based upon observa- 
tions and experiments made in California, has been summarized by the author 
as follows: 

" Cereals may become infested before they are packed, after the packages are 
placed in warehouses, and in the grocery stores. Insects find their way in at 
the small holes which are usually present at the corners of unsealed packages 
or at holes accidentally punched in the sides. Thorough sterilization at 180° 
F. kills all insect life; and if the cereal is run from the sterilizer either through 
a sterile cooler or directly into sterile packages and immediately sealed, it will 
not become infested unless the package is broken. Sterilization of the knocked- 
down cartons before packing and cleanliness with regard to the exclusion of 
insects from the packing room will greatly facilitate the preparation of sterile 
packages and is strongly recommended. It is absolutely necessary that all ma- 
chinery connecting the sterilizer and the packages be free from insects. If the 
cereal is passed through chutes or conveyors which can not be sterilized or are 
not kept sterile, it will, through these sources, become infested even though the 
cereal was previously sterile and was packed in sterile packages." 

Spontaneous septicemia in the cockchafer and the silkworm due to cocco- 
bacilli, E. Chatton {Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. [Paris], 156 {1913), No. 22, pp. 



64 EXPEKIMENT STATION RECORD. 

1707-1709).— In Investigations conducted in May, 1912, the anthor found Cocco- 

'bacillus acridiorum to cause the death of cockchafers in from 2^ to 48 hours 
when injected into the body cavity. When ingested, however, it does not 
affect the coclichafer. 

The author also found a septicemia to be caused by a coccobacilUis {Bacillus 
melolonthcB). This is much similar to C. acridiorum, but differs in a constant 
manner both in its morphological and cultural characteristics, including a some- 
what greater length and the production of fluorescence in gelatin after cultiva- 
tion for 5 or 6 days, and also by its pathogenic action on the silkworm. When 
injected into the body cavity an uncultivated virus killed the cockchafer in 
from 12 to 24 hours, but when ingested it is innocuous. B. melolonthoe was 
found in the digestive tract of 75 per cent of healthy cockchafers, in some cases 
in great numbers, as is always the case in septicemic specimens. Thus the 
septicemia appears to be of intestinal origin, as occurs in the locust. It was 
found that the silkworm possesses a complete natural immunity against G. 
acridiorum, while B. melolonthce is as virulent in the silkworm as in the cock- 
chafer when injected and as inactive when ingested. 

Another coccobacillus (B. homhycis) proved to be the cause of a septicemia 
in the silkworm. During the rearing of some 2,000 worms from 5 to 10 indi- 
viduals are said to have succumbed daily to this disease. In its morphology 
this bacillus resembles B. melolonthw, but it does not form fluorescence in gelatin 
and is clenrly differentiated from C. acridiorum by its greater virulence. Like 
B. melolonthw it proves fatal to the silkworm in from 12 to 24 hours when 
injected into the body cavity. By ingestion the author infected 4 out of 27 
individuals. Thus it is more virulent than either B. melolonthw or C. acrid- 
iorum, but is much less widely distributed and abundant in the digestive tube 
of healthy silkworms than is B. melolonthw in the cockchafer. See also a 
previous note (E. S. R., 29 p. 855). 

In this disease of the silkworm, which has previously escaped recognition, 
no external symptoms are noticed before death. The coccobaciUosis, a^ termed 
by the author, is essentially different from the well-known flacherie, grasserie, 
and polyhedral body disease. 

The coccobacilli infections of insects, F. Picaed and G. R. Blanc (Compt. 
Rend. Acad. Sci. [Paris], 157 {1913), No. 1, pp. 79-81; abs. in Rev. Appl. Ent., 
1 {1913), Ser. A, No. 9, pp. 336, 337). — In further investigations of its path- 
ogenicity (E. S. R., 29, p. 855), Coccobacillus cajw was found to cause the death 
of various Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Orthoptera, and Lepidoptera into which it 
was injected, including the cockchafer, brown-tail moth, silkworm, etc. During 
the course of examinations made of the gipsy moth, which was unusually 
abundant in southern France during the year, the authors discovered a cocco- 
bacillus, causing a fatal septicemia, which they name Bacillus lymantruE. In 
investigations conducted it was found possible to kill Arctia caja caterpillars 
with a few drops of a culture of G. cajw when introduced into the pharynx by 
means of a pipette without flnding a trace of the organism in the blood. It is 
pointed out that G. cajw, B. bombycis, B. melolonthw, and B. lymantriw differ 
from G. acridiorum in that the last-named is fatal to the locust when ingested 
but innocuous to the silkworm. 

Locust bacterial disease, C. P. Lounsbuey {Agr. Jour. Union So. Africa, 5 
(1913), No. J^, pp. 607-611). — This is a report of experiments with Gocco- 
bacillus acridiorum in which the so-called "elegant grasshopper" {Zonocerus 
elcgans), a nonmigratory species, was used as migratoi*y locusts were not 
available. The results led the author to conclude that this disease at best can 
be employed only as a supplementary measure in dealing with an invasion of 
locusts under the conditions that prevail in South Africa. 



ECONOMIC ZOOLOGY ENTOMOLOGY. 55 

Fung-US diseases of scale insects and white fiy, P. H. Kolfs and H. S. Faw- 
CETT. revised by P. H. Rolfs (Florida Sta. Bui. 119, pp. 71-82, figs. 19). — A 
revised edition of Bulletin 94, previously noted (E. S. R., 20, p. 556). 

A study of caprification in Ficus nota, C. F. Baker {Philippine Jour. Sc-i., 
Sect. D, 8 (1913), No. 2, pp. 63-83, figs. /#).— Following a general discussion of 
the subject, the author describes several new species of fig insects occurring at 
Los Bancs, namely, Bl<istophaga nota, the normal inhabitant of the gall 
flowers and active caprifier of F. nota; Agaonella larvalis n. g. and n. sp., 
common in F. nota and probably a guest in its relation to the Blastophaga ; 
Sycophaga nota, not at all common in gall figs of F. nota and apparently a 
guest; Sycoryctes philippinensis, found in great numbers in November in gall 
figs of F. nota, and thought by the author to be a parasite in its relation to 
the Blastophaga ; Philotrypcsis similis, common in F. nota; P. ashincadii, fre- 
quent in gall figs and probably parasitic on Blastophaga ; and P. collaris, foimd 
occasionally in gall figs and probably parasitic on Blastophaga. 

Synoptic lists of the male and female fig insects found in F. nota are 
api>ended. 

A systematic outline of the Reduviidse of North America, S. B. Feackeb 
(Proc. Iowa Acad. »S'ci, 19 (1912), pp. 217-252) .—This paper consists largely of 
keys to the genera and species of the "assassin bugs" of North America. A 
bibliography of the more important literature and an index to the genera and 
species are included. 

The British species of the genus Macrosiphum, I and II, F. V. Theobald 
iJ<jt(r. Econ. Biol., 8 (1913), Nos. 2, pp. 47-94, fiU^^. 30; 3, pp. 113-154, fius. 29).— 
In ihe first paper the author deals with 25 species of aphids of the genus 
Macrosiphuin which occur in Great Britain, of which 4 are described as new to 
science. The second paper deals v.'ith 35 additional species, of which 8 are 
described as new to science. 

Report of the entomolog-ists, W. E. Rumsey and L. M. Peairs (West Vir- 
ginia Sta. Rpt. 1912, pp. 20-24)' — In experiments conducted with a view to 
perfecting a spray which will destroy the eggs of the apple aphis when applied 
while the trees are dormant, a block of 31 2-year-old apple trees on the station 
grounds was made use of. Applications of lime-sulphur 1 : 8, soluble oil 1 : 10. 
Kiloscale 1 : 10, blackleaf 40 1 : 20, and nicotin sulphate 1 : 65 and weaker 
strengths of all these were made on March 27. The results seem to indicate that 
commercial lime-sulphur at the strength of from 1 : 8 to 1 : 10 if thoroughly ap- 
plied will destroy the winter eggs of the aphis. In tests made of summer sprays, 
including soluble oil 1 : 36 and 1 : 45. lime-sulphur 1 : 45, and nicotin sulphate 
1 : 900 applied May 20, and of several combination si^rays applied June 7. the 
nicotin sulphate gave decidedly the best results, killing the aphis without dam- 
aging the trees. 

The so-called aerostatic hairs of certain lepidopterous larvas, W. A. Riley 
(Science, n. ser., 37 (1913), No. 958, pp. 715, TiG).— Attention is called to the 
fact that it appears to have been very clearly established that the so-called 
aerophores do not aid in rendering the larvte more buoyant, but that they contain 
a poisonous fluid which serves to protect the caterpillars against insectivorous 
birds. 

On the parthenogenesis and oviposition of the potato tuber moth 
(Phthorimsea operculella), F. Picard (Gompt. Rend. Acad. Sci. [Paris], 156 
(1913), No. 14. pp. 1097-1099) .—When placed with potato tubers the moths 
wero found to oviposit in from 1 to 2 days following mating, from 40 to 80 eggs 
being deposited within 1 to 3 days. The moth is said to oviposit on a large num- 
ber of solanaceous plants, on rugous surfaces and in the depressions about the 
25842°— No. 1—14 5 



56 EXPERIMENT STATION EECOED. 

buds of tlae tubers, accidental cracks in the surface of the tuber, depressions 
along the nervures of the leaves, etc. 

The author has found parthenogenesis to occur in but 9 cases out of more 
than 100 which he has observed. Altogether but 23 females and 21 males werd 
produced parthenogenetically by these 9 females, as many of the eggs deposited 
did not hatch. Forty is said to be the maximum number of eggs deposited by 
unfertile moths; these moths live much longer than the fertile ones. During 
July and August the life cycle vpas passed within a month, but with the parth«in- 
ogeuetic generation from 1^ to 3 months were required for the same develop- 
ment. 

The insects of the dipterous family Phoiidae in the United States National 
Museum, J. R. Malloch {Proc. U. 8. Nat. Mus., 43 {1913), pp. 411-529, pis. 
7). — Two genera and 92 species are described as new. The paper includes a 
list of the species the habits of which are more or less known. 

Descriptions of new genera and species of muscoid fiies from the Andean 
and Pacific coast regions of South America, C. H. T. Townsend (Proc. U. 8. 
Nat. Mus., 43 (1913), pp. 301-367). — This paper contains descriptions of 72 
species of muscoid flies of South America. See also a previous note (E. S. R., 
26, p. 860). 

Merodon equestris in southern British Columbia, P. Norman (Proc. Brit. 
Columbia Ent. 8oc., n. ser., 1911, No. 1, pp. 22-26). — The narcissus fly {M. 
equestris) is said to have been Imported into British Columbia about 6 years 
ago. The adult is active from the end of March to the beginning of September, 
but practically all the injury is done during the month of May. Upon hatching 
out from the egg, which appears to be deposited in the center of the crown of 
leaves, the larva enters the bulb, where 6 months are passed in the larval stage 
and where it hibernates. In February it leaves the bulb and pupates about 
half an inch below the surface of the soil, emerging as an adult toward the end 
of March. 

The southern com rootworm, or budworm, F. M. Websteb (U. 8. Dept. Agr. 
Bui. 5, pp. 11, figs. 2). — ^A summarized account of the literature, together with 
recent observations of Diabrotica duodecimpunctata, its distribution, food plants, 
injury, habits of the larvae, oviposition, seasonal history, natural enemies, and 
remedial and preventive measures. 

The western corn rootworm, F. M. Webster (U. 8. Dept. Agr. Bui. 8, pp. 8, 
figs. 5). — A summarized account of Diahrotica longicomis similar to that of 
D. duodecimpunctata above noted. 

The coconut leaf -miner beetle, Promecotheca cumingii, C. R. Jones {Philip- 
pine Jour. 8ci., Sect. D, 8 {1913), No. 2, pp. 121-133, pis. 2; PhiUppine Agr. 
Rev. [English Ed.}, 6 {1913), No. 5, pp. 228-233, pi. 1, fig. i).— This beetle is 
said to be a source of injury through feeding, both in the adult and larval 
stages, upon the leaves of the young coconut. The author here presents an 
account of its life history and habits and methods of control. Observations 
have shown that a little over 44 per cent of the larvae and pupae and an average 
of about 5 per cent of the eggs are parasitized. 

The occurrence of a cotton boll weevil in Arizona, W. D. Pierce {U. 8. 
Dept. Agr., Jour. Agr. Research, 1 {1913), No. 2, pp. 89-98, pi. 1, figs. 9). — This 
is a report of studies made by the author during August, 1913, in association 
with A. W. Morrill, of the Arizona Experiment Station, as to the occurrence of 
a boll weevil, which had previously been discovered by O. F. Cook and H. B. 
Wright, and reported by the former (E. S. R., 29, p. 458), as developing upon 
Thurheria thespesioides in Arizona. The weevil has been found to occur in 
Ventana Canyon, Santa Catalina Mountains, and in Stone Cabin and Sawmill 
Canyons, in the Santa Rita Mountains, where it breeds commonly upon 



ECONOMIC ZOOLOGY ENTOMOLOGY. 57 

T. thcspcsioide.s, a i)l;iiit so nearly like cotton that the Mexicans and natives 
call It wild cotton. 

A close examination of this weevil has disclosed many minor points of dif- 
ference from the usual form of the cotton boll weevil {Anihonomua grandis). 
The Arizona form may be found in hibernation in cells until September 1, 
while the eastern form is never found in cells in cotton bolls after March 15. 
On Thurberia the Arizona form seems to be confined to one or not more than 
two annual generations and is found at an altitude of 4,000 ft. and higher, while 
the cotton boll weevil has many generations and has never been found above 
an altitude of 2,000 ft. Experiments have shown that the cotton boll weevil 
will readily and eagerly feed upon Thurberia squares and bolls and that the 
Thurberia- weevil will feed upon and develop in cotton squares. It is stated 
that B. R. Coad has succeeded in rearing undoubted crosses between the two 
varieties from females of each form, although these hybrid offspring were 
somewhat undersized. 

The evidence presented has led the author to conclude that the two forms 
represent merely two subspecies, or varieties, or geographic races of a single 
species, and he here describes the Arizona form as a new variety under the 
name A. grandis thurheriw. 

It is not known whether the Thurberia weevil hibernates as an adult out- 
side of its cell, but it has been found that many individuals pass the winter and 
even the summer in the cells formed during the preceding fall. The natural 
dormant period of the Arizona weevil lasts about 9 months. Thurberia weevils 
extracted from their cells in May and sent to Victoria, Tex., immediately began 
to feed and develop upon cotton and produced several generations. Thus the 
Thurberia weevil has either acquired by long years of adversity an ability 
to survive for a longer period without food, assuming A. grandis to be the origi- 
nal species, or, if the Thurberia weevil is the true original form, then the 
ability to obtain a plentiful supply of early food has caused the species to lose 
some of its resistance to adversity. The development of the Thurberia weevil 
on its native host has not been studied, but it has been observed at Victoria 
on cotton and the period required for its development found to be practically 
the same as for the cotton boll weevil. Thurberia weevils removed from hiber- 
nation in June and transplanted on cotton began reproducing at once and con- 
tinued to do so throughout the season. 

The host plant of this new form grows at altitudes of from 2,250 to 7,000 ft. 
and is found at the bottom of the canyons, on the canyon walls, and on the 
top of the ridges, growing usually where protected more or less from the 
greatest heat of the sun. It begins flowering in some localities in July, while 
in others it is just beginning to bud in the latter part of August. The flower- 
ing continues into October. The plants are perennial, growing to over 10 ft. 
in height with a spread of about 10 ft. 

At least two species of parasites, a species of Cerambycobius and an un- 
determined braconid, attack the Thurberia weevil in the Santa Rita Mountains. 

This new weevil becomes of economic importance in that cotton is now being 
cultivated under irrigation in several localities in Arizona and in the Imperial 
and Colorado River valleys in California. Thurberia is said to occur in nejirly 
every mountain range in southwestern Arizona where there is any moisture. 
In the vicinity of the Santa Cruz Valley cotton is grown within 5 miles of 
Thurberia plants, and the weevil was found abundant within not more than 
10 miles from such cotton. Thurberia is also known to occur in Fish Creek 
Canyon, one of the sources of the Salt River, in which valley the most exten- 
sive cotton plantings in Arizona are found, and in the mountains to the nortti 
and south of the Gila River Valley. 



58 EXPERIMENT STATION EECORD. 

Since tlie weevil will probably cleave to its native food plant until com- 
pelled to seek sustenance elsewhere, the author is of the opinion that a whole- 
sale destruction of the native food plant might invite a quicker than natural 
adaptation to cotton on the part of this weevil. It is thought that the intro- 
duction of parasites of the cotton boll weevil w^ould be of considerable assistance 
in reducing the Arizona weevil and that they would not cause its dispersal. 
It is pointed out that there is danger of a distribution of weevil-infested buds 
through the drainage system by summer freshets. Attention is called to the 
fact that it is of extreme importance that the Thurljeria weevil be kept out of 
western Texas and any part of the Southeast, since if accidentally introduced 
into otlier sections it might be able to stand much greater variations of climate 
than A. grandis and become a much more powerful enemy of cotton. 

Life history of Otiorhynclius ovatus, the strawberry root weevil, under 
lower Fraser conditions, R. C. Treherne {Proc. Brit. ColumMa Ent. Soc, 
n. ser., 1912, No. 2, pp. 41-50; ahs. in Rev. Appl. Ent., 1 (1913), 8er. A, No. S, 
pp. 92-94). — This insect is reported to have caused considerable loss to growers 
in the lower Fraser Valley and those sections of British Columbia along the 
Pacific coast where strawberries are grown commercially. It does not appear 
to attack the crown but feeds on the roots of the plant only, the larva having 
been found from 6 to 8 in. below the surface. It is said to be far more 
numerous than is O. sulcatus. 

The incubation period of the egg is about 21 days, the length of the larval 
stage at least 7 months, and of the pupal stage from 21 to 24 days. The larva 
is more or less omnivorous, having been taken in clover and timothy grass sod, 
on wild strawberry from sea level up to an elevation of 500 ft., on the roots 
of the peach, on rhubarb, Rumex acetosella, Poteniilla glandulosa, Balsamorhiza 
sagiUata, Poa serotina, and P. pratensis; it has also been found in potato 
fields, though there is no direct proof of its attacking potato. The larvae 
attack the plant roots by making longitudinal slits in portions of the epidermis, 
subsequently girdling the roots either directly or in a spiral manner. The most 
serious injury is done in early spring when the larvae are nearly full grown and 
attack the main roots, which are sometimes cut off 2 in. or so from the crown. 

The pupal stage is passed at from 4 to 6 in. or even 8 in. below the surface. 
The female deposits some 50 eggs within a period of 4 to 5 days; this period 
may be extended to as long as 15 days. Oviposition takes place from the end 
of June to the end of August, varying somewhat according to the season. 

Strawberries grown on the matted row system are not as a rule seriously 
affected the first year after planting, unless the soil was previously infested 
by the insect. The injury is noticeable the third summer, often reducing the 
crop fully 50 crates to the acre. 

The following remedial measures are suggested : The growth of strong varie- 
ties; the running of chickens over the grounds; trapping the adult weevils under 
boards (only useful to small growers) ; the use of some sticky material as traps; 
spraying with arsenate of lead (only useful after the first crop is harvested 
and when the weevils are very numerous). ; chemicnl remedies, potassium cyanid 
and carbon bisulphid. but the author is doubtful whether any remedy of this 
kind can be used to kill the eggs, larvjie, or adults which will not at the same 
time destroy the plant ; burning the plants immediately after the first crop has 
been gathered by covering them with dry straw and setting fire to it; plowing 
at the end of July or at the beginning of August, with frequent cultivation 
previous to or during the winter; autumn planting; plant renewal during the 
middle of the second summer; and 1-year crops instead of 2-year crops, though 
this is not satisfactory. Rotation of crops is strongly advocated in the follow- 
ing order, derived from local experience — strawberries, potatoes, and rhubarb. 



ECONOMIC ZOOLOGY ENTOMOLOGY. 59 

Not more tliaii 1 aero in lU should be laid down to struwberrie.s iu au infected 
locality. 

Annual report of the Bee-Keepers' Association of the Province of Oninrio, 
1912 (Anti. Rpl. Bee Keepers' A.svsoc. Oniaiio, 19J2, pp. 72). — This consists of 
the procotHliugs of the annual meeting, held at Toronto in November, 1912. 

The BombidaB of the New World, II, H. J. Franklin {Trans. Auier. Ent. 
/Sot'., 89 {WIS), No. 2, pp. 73-200, pis. 22).— This second part of the work pre- 
viously noted (E. S. II., 28, p. 75S) deals with the species occurring south of the 
United States. Tables are given for the determination of queens, workers, and 
males of American species of Bombus south of the northern boundary of Mexico, 
of which 9 species are described as new to science. It is stated that females 
and males of but 2 species of Psithyrus each have so far as known been collected 
in the New World south of the United States, one of the males having not 
hitherto been described. A list of unclassified names and descriptions is 
appended. 

Studies in the wood wasp superfamily Oryssoidea, with descriptions of 
new species, S. A. Kohweb {Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 43 {1913), pp. 141-158, pis. 2, 
figs. 6). — This contribution from the Bureau of Entomology of this Department 
deals with the habits, geographical distribution, external anatomy, relationships, 
and classification of the superfamily. 

A study in insect parasitism, R. L. Webster {Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci, 19 
{1912), pp. 209-213). — This paper reports studies made at the Iowa Experi- 
ment Station of parasitism of the southern tobacco worm {Phlegcthontius sexta), 
a pest commonly met with iu Iowa on the tomato and potato. 

The braconid Apanteles congrcgatus, its most common primary parasite, was 
found to be highly parasitized by the two hyperparasites 2Iesochorus lutcipes 
and Hypopteromalus riridcscens. Six different lots consisting of a total of 
2,393 Apanteles were collected from September 7 to October IS. Apanteles de- 
veloped from 1,112, Hypopteromalus from 779, and Mesochorus from 27, leaving 
475 from which nothing was reared. 

A revision of the Ichneumonidas based on the collection in the British 
Museum (Natural History), with descriptions of new g'enera and species, 
C. MoRLEY {London, 1913, pt. 2, pp. iZ+iZ/O, pi. i).— This second part of the 
work previously noted (E. S. R., 27, p. 662) deals with the tribes Rhyssides and 
Echthromorphides of the subfamily Pimplinae and Anomalides and Paniscides 
of the subfamily Ophioniua?. 

Descriptions of new Hymenoptera, V, J. C. Crawford {Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 43 {1913), pp. 163-188, pgs. 2).— Among the 2 genera and 30 species here 
described as new to science are Eurytoma piurw and Gerainhycohius toicnscndi, 
both reared from the Peruvian cotton square-weevil {Anthonomus vcstitus) in 
Peru; Coccidoctonus trinidadensis, reared from Pulvinaria pyriformis on honey- 
suckle in Trinidad; Spintherus pulchripcnnis, reared from Pissodes sp. at Co- 
lumbia Falls, Mont.; Cecidostiha asUmeadi, a parasite of Polygraphus rufipennis 
at Morgantown, W. Va. ; Cecidostiha tliomsoni from Pissodes sp., at Columbia 
Falls, Mont.; Gatolaccus toicnscndi from A. vestitus in Peru; GJirysocharis 
parksi, G. ainsliei, Glosterocerus utahensis, Pleurotropis rugosithorax, Deros- 
ti^ns punctiventris, and Diaulinus hcgini, reared from Diptera of the genus 
Agromyza at Salt Lake City, Utah; Glosterocerus ivinnemance, reared from the 
eggs of Arge salicis at Plummer's Island, Maryland; Diaulinopsis caUichroma 
and Diaulinus websteri, both reared from Agromyza jucunda at Tempe, Ariz.; 
and Comedo fiookeri, reared from Pyropliila pyramidoides at Vienna, Va. 

Descriptions of one new family, eig-ht new g-enera, and thirty-three new 
species of ichneumon flies, H. L. Viereck {Proc. U. 8. Nat. Mus., 43 {1913), 
pp. 575-593). — Among the species of economic importance here described as new 



60 EXPERIMENT STATION KECORD. 

to science are Meteorus arcJtipsidis, reared from Archips argyrospila at Bethany 
Center, K Y. ; Rogas laphygmw, reared from Lapliygma frugiperda at Browns- 
ville, Tex.; Angitia plutcllw, reared from Plutella omissa at Rocky Ford, Colo, 
Campoplex epinotiw, reared from Epinota arctostaphylina at Carmel, Cal. ; C 
polychrosidis, reared from Polychrosis carduiana at Hyattsvllle, Md. ; Cymodu 
soiisis aristotelice, parasitic on Aristotelia pndibwidella at Kirkwood, Mo. ; Her 
pestomus hyponomeutw, reared from Hyponomeuta malinellus in Japan ; Hypo 
thereutes nigrolineatus, a parasite of Ileliophila alhilinea at Springer, N. Mex. 
etc. 

Notes on sawfiies, with descriptions of new species, S. A. Rohwer (Proc. 
U.S. Nat. Mus., If3 {1913), pp. 205-251, figs. 6).— Several of the species here 
described as new are of economic importance, including Arge salicis, the 
larva of which was taken from Salix niger, at Plummer's Island, Maryland; 
Diprion grandis, the larvae of which feed on Pinus scropulorum, at Crawford, 
Nebr. ; and PcrcUsta quercus, which defoliates white oaks at Forest Hills, Mass. 

The life history of Ixodes angustus, S. Hadwen {Proc. Brit. ColumUa Ent. 
Soc, n. ser., 1911, No. 1, pp. 37, 38). — This tick, although found on a variety 
of animals, in British Columbia occurs principally on squirrels {Sciurus hud- 
soniiis douglasi and 8. hudsonius vancouverensis) . The life cycle is said to be 
passed in 221 days. 

FOODS— HUMAISr NUTEITION. 

The municipal abattoir, R. M. Ajllen and J. W. McFarlin {Kentucky Sta. 
Bui. 173, pp. 213-265, pis. 7, figs. 6). — In connection with the Kentucky state 
pure food and drug work, an inspection has been carried on of slaughterhouses 
and meat markets throughout the State, as well as investigations to determine 
the best remedy for the conditions found, since these could not be controlled by 
the pure food law and the general health statutes of the State or by the existing 
city ordinances. 

The bulletin makes a strong plea for the municipal abattoir and discusses 
such questions as building and equipment, city and private ownership, license 
and inspection fees, the municipal abattoir under the United States laws, and 
needed state legislation. A proposed ordinance for municipal abattoirs is given 
and Kentucky plans for a model abattoir. Offal waste, the relation of the 
municipal abattoir problem to breeder and feeder, and systems of meat inspec- 
tion are considered and the results of a recent meat conference in Louisville pre- 
sented. It is stated that since the municipal abattoir question has been under 
consideration decided change has been noted in the sanitary condition of Ken- 
tucky slaughterhouses. 

The results of the investigation lead to the conclusion that the " municipal 
plants should be organized only to the extent of economical and efficient inspec- 
tion. It would seem that the extent of centralization for inspection can well 
follow that amount of trade cooperation among the butchers necessary to estab- 
lish economical slaughtering, refrigeration, tankage, and similar trade advan- 
tages. One plant, killing a few animals, can not afford the overhead invest- 
ment and running expense of modern refrigeration and adequate tankage 
facilities, A group of butchers can install such equipment, at a great saving to 
each individual, and thus we should be able to yoke together the necessity for 
trade economy and cooperation with the necessity for centralized inspection. 

" One outstanding point for such investigation is the fact that the wasteful 
and costly methods on the part of the local butcher, such as the giving away 
of offal, the purchase and hauling of ice, lower prices for carelessly handled 
hides and tallow, from small plants and through several middlemen, and the 



FOODS — nUMAN NUTRITION. 61 

maintenance of pl;mts and labor, for a few animals, capable of greatly increasotl 
slaughterings, afford little or no element of economic competition from tlie nn- 
organizetl, uninspected local meat supplies, and these economic errors have a 
substantial and direct influence in fixing the high meat prices," 

Emaciation in meat inspection, F. Gklttneb {Ztsc?ir. Flcisch u. Milchhyg., 
23 {1913), yo. 20, pp. ^67-473). — It is the opinion of the author that the whole 
animal body should be regarded as unfit for human food if complete emaci;ition 
has taken place, and that its value as human food is very considerably reduced 
if emaciation has taken place to any great extent. 

The presence of succinic acid in meat extracts and in fresli meat, H. 
EiNBECK (Hoppc-Seyler's Ztschr. Physiol. Chcm., 87 {1913), No. 2, pp. i//5- 
15S). — The examination of several samples of commercial beef extracts showed 
the presence of succinic acid in amounts varying from 0.3 to 0.5 per cent. 
The amount of succinic acid in several samples of fresh beef varied from 0.1 
to 0.5 per cent. 

Muscle extractives. — XIV, Carnosin and carnosin nitrate, W. Gulewitsch 
{Hoppe-Scyler's Ztschr. Physiol. Ghem., 87 {1913), No. 1, pp. i-ii).— Experi- 
mental data are given regarding the optical properties of carnosin and carnosin 
nitrate which were obtained in pure form from meat extractives. For earlier 
work, see previous notes (E. S. R., 18, pp. 67, 1067; 10, p. 64). 

Muscle extractives. — XV, The presence of carnosins, methylguanidins, 
and carnitins in horseflesh, J. Smouodinzew {Hoppe-Scyler's Ztschr. Physiol. 
Chem., 87 {1913), No. 1, pp. 12-20). — The examination of muscle from a freshly 
killed horse showed the presence of these substances in the following amounts : 
Carnosin, 1.82; methylguanidin, 0.83; and carnitin, 0.2 per cent. 

Fish milt as human food, J. Konig and J. Ggossfeld {Biochem. Ztschr.^ 
54 {1913), No. 5-6, pp. 333-350). — The results are presented of a study of the 
composition of herring milt and carp milt, special reference being made to the 
nature of the nitrogenous and fatty constituents. 

Among the nitrogen compounds found were the meat bases, xanthin and 
ereatinin, free amino acids, and protamin in combination with nucleic acid. 
The fat contained about 20 per cent lecithin and from 11 to 17 per cent of 
cholesterin. 

Fish roe as human food, J. Konig and J. Grossfeld {Biochem. Ztschr., 
54 {1913), No. 5-6, pp. 351-394, pis. 2, fig. 1).—A study was made of the chemi- 
cal composition of several varieties of fish roe, including among others that 
of herring, carp, pike, and cod. Several varieties of caviar were also studied. 

The fish roe showed a low water content. Among the meat bases found 
were xanthin and creatin, and among the free amino acids taurin, Hyrosin, 
and glycocoll. The proteins were rich in sulphur and phosphorus, but pro- 
tamin was found. The fat showed a high content of lecithin, nearly CO per 
cent, and from 3 to 14 per cent of cholesterin. The lechithin content was high- 
est in the case of the roe with a low fat content. The sulphur and phosphorus 
were present in organic combination. 

Lacto — a frozen dairy product, M. Mortensen and B. W. Hammer {Iowa 
Bta. Bui. 140, pp. 149-155). — This bulletin contains data reported in an earlier 
publication (E. S. R., 25, p. 03) and new material which has accumulated, in- 
cluding a discus:^ion of the general question of the souring of the milk. 

Recent experiments with Bacillus lulgaricus show that this organism is 
capable of forming considerably more acid than the organism ordinarily used 
as a starter, so the acid fermentation should be watched. By ripening the 
milk so that it has an acidity of 0.9 per cent, good products, according to the 
authors, can be obtained with the formulas given. Sometimes this organism 
gives a disagreeable flavor to the milk which can be overcome in part at least 



62 EXPEEIMENT STATION EECORD. 

by the use of the ordinary lactic acid used by the butter maker in conjunction 
with B. J)ulgaricus. 

"The growth of B. hul(jancus results in a slimy condition of the milk, the 
sliminess being so marked with some cultures that the milk can be pulled out 
in strings several feet long. This stringy condition can be greatly reduced or 
entirely eliminates! by violent agitation. Although this slimy condition is ob- 
jected to by some persons when the milk is to be used as a drink, it is an 
advantage when the milk is to be used for making lacto because it improves 
the body of the product to a considerable extent. 

"Z?. hulgaricus grows best at a temperature considerbly higher than the 
temperature ordinarily used for propagating starters. While the best temper- 
ature is not exactly known it probably lies above 100° F. A temperature of 
99° F., which is one of the temperatures commonly employed in bacteriological 
laboratories, gives very good results. Cultures can be propagated at room 
temperatures, but growth is quite slow. ... If exceptionally clean milk is 
available, little trouble should be experienced when careful pasteurization is 
practiced, but if the milk is bixlly contaminated considerable difficulty is likely 
to be encountered. An exposure to a steam pressure of 5 lbs. for 1.5 minutes 
gave good results with milk that was highly contaminated and with which 
pasteurization at 180° F. for 2 hours was of no avail in stopping the undesirable 
changes. . . . 

"Another method commonly employed in laboratories consists in heating the 
milk to the temperature of boiling water for from 20 to 40 minutes on each 
of 3 successive days. In this procedure, the bacterial spores are supposed to 
germinate between heatings and. in the vegetative stage, the micro-organisms 
are killed by the succeeding exposure. This continued heating of course 
darkens the milk and imparts a cooked taste, but the cooked taste is not as 
noticeable after fermentation with B. liuJf/aricus as before. . . . 

"In various places in the United States a certain micro-organism has been 
found that is closely related to B. hulgaricus. This bacterium produces more 
acid than the organisms used for starter making, although not so much as 
B. hulgaricus. Moreover, some of the cultures are slimy. Milk fermented by 
it has an exceptionally clean acid flavor. This organism has also been used to 
ferment milk for making lacto aad an excellent product obtained. It is r;ither 
difficult to propagate without the facilities of a laboratory." 

Composition and nutritive value of " taralli ", a special bread mside in 
Naples, A. Cutolo {Bol. Soc. Nat. NapoU, 2. ser., 24 {1910), pp. 158-164).— 
Analytical data are given, together with a description of the methods of 
analysis, and the product is compared with other breads as to composition and 
nutritive value. 

A digestion experiment with banana meal, Kakizawa (Arch. Ilyg., 80 
(1913), No. 7-8, pp. 302-309) .—The experiment described was divided into 4 
periods of 3 days each. The subject was maintained upon a diet of milk, bread, 
sausage, cheese, sugar, and butter which furnished a daily ration of approxi- 
mately 74 gm. protein, 117 gm. fat, and ISO gm. carbohydrate. The greater 
part of the bread was replaced by banana meal in the second period and by 
oatmeal in the fourth period. 

The coefficient of digestibility of the total dry substance in the food was 90.S 
per cent during the banana meal period, 91.9 per cent during the oatmeal 
period, and 92.3 and 92.6 per cent in the 2 periods where bread was the chief 
source of carbohydrate. The proportion of the total nitrogenous material in 
the diet digested during the banana meal period was S8.9 per cent; during the 
oatmeal period, S6.2 per cent; and during the 2 other periods, 88.3 and 87.6 
per cent. 



FOODS — HUMAN NUTRITION". 63 

On the nature of the sugars found in the tubers of arrowhead, K. I^Iiyake 
(Jour. Biol. Chem., 15 {1013), No. 2, pp. 221-220).— It was found iu the 
experiments here reported that arrowhead tubers contained both glucose and 
fructose. The nonreduciug sugars were found to consist of sucrose and a 
sugar which apjieared to be raffiuose. No evidence was found of the presence 
of maltose, pentuio, and mannose, either free or combined. 

Studies on the factors affecting- the culinary quality of potatoes, O. Butlkk, 
F. B, :\IoRRisoN, and F. E. Boll {Jour. Amcr. ^oc. Agron., 5 {1913), No. J, 
pp. 1-33, figs. 4). — In this investigation the effect of chemical composition, 
structure, and methods of cookiug and storage on the cooking quality of pota- 
toes was studied. A number of different varieties of potatoes were included 
in the investigation, each variety being baked, steamed, boiled, and fried. The 
factors noted in passing upon the quality of the cooked product were dis- 
coloration, mealiness, sweetness, and bitterness, the value given to each quality 
being recorded on tbe score card. The methods of cooking, judgment of the 
product, and chemical analysis are discussed in detail. The conclusions drawn 
are as follows : 

Potatoes high in water content are less mealy than those of a relatively low 
water content. Neither the percentage of starch in a potato nor the ratio of 
albuminoid nitrogen to starch is indicative of the degree of mealiness. "The 
presence of sugar in a potato is detrimental to its quality. The percentage, 
however, that may be tolorated varies v.ith dilVerent varieties. The ratio of total 
nitrogen to starch is no criterion of quality." The degree of development of 
the tuber is not correlated with quality or mealiness. Fried potatoes are re- 
garded as of better quality than those cooked by any other method, wbile the 
quality of boiled and steamed potatoes is about the same. 

It is claimed by the authors that the quality of boiled potatoes is affected 
by the temperature at which they have been stored to a greater degree than 
are potatoes cooked in any other way. Potatoes of fair or poor quality are 
best stored at 20° C, and the quality of all potatoes is injured by storing at as 
low temperatures as 1 to 5° C. "Potatoes for culinary purposes should be 
stored in a dry cellar at 8 to 10° C." 

The authors claim that mealiness in the potato is due to the separation of 
the cells in cooking rather than to their disintegration due to the swelling of 
the starch grains. 

Chemistry of the household, Margaret E. Dodd {Chicago, 1911, pp. 12+169, 
pis. 12, figs. 31). — A discussion is given of some of the chemical principles 
involved in the more common i>rocesses of the household, including the chemistry 
of water, combustion and fuels, lighting, foods, cooking, laundry, cleaning, etc. 

Handbook of hyg-iene. — III, Food and nutrition, edited by T. Weyl {Iland- 
hucJi (Icr Hygiene. — 3. Band, Nahnnngstniltel und Ernahning. Lcipsic, 1913, 
2. ed., trp. [VIin-\-291-\-XII-\-29S-Jfl8-\-VI-{-Jfl9-593, figs. Jo).— Parts 1 and 2 
have already been noted (E. S. It., 23, p. 401). Parts 3 and 4 (pp. 293-593) con- 
tain, respectively, Hygiene of Nutrition of Individuals and Groups, by W. Schinn- 
burg. jmd Hygiene of the Alcohol Question, by A. Deibriick. and the general 
index to the whole volume. 

A further contribution to the knowledg-e of beri-beri, W. Caspari and 
M. MoszKowsKi {Berlin. Klin. WchnscJir., 50 {1913), No. 33, pp. 1515-1519).— 
The results are reported of a metabolism experiment in which one of the authors 
subsisted for several months on a diet the chief constituent of which was 
polished rice. 

Symptoms were developed which suggested the cardiac form of beri-beri. but 
disappeared very shortly after a small amount of extract of rice bran was added 
to the diet. 



64 EXPERIMENT STATION EECOED. 

Control experiments were carried out at the same time with pigeons and 
animals, under the same conditions, and gave similar results. In these experi- 
ments evidence was found which pointed to a great destruction of albumin, 
which the authors claim could only be explained as the result of severe intoxi- 
cation. This they claim is confirmed by experiments in which birds were main- 
tained in good health for several mouths upon a diet consisting of hen's eggs, 
with small amounts of salt and sugar. When polished rice was added to the 
egg diet in the case of a part of the pigeons, every one of those receiving the 
polished rice developed symptoms of beri-beri, while the control animals which 
received only the egg diet developed no such symptoms. 

The authors conclude from these results that beri-beri is not due to the lack 
of some substance in the diet, but to the presence of some toxic substance, and 
is therefore an intoxication. The beneficial results obtained by the use of pur- 
gatives by other authors in an experimental study of beri-beri are in accord 
with this view. 

A typhoid outbreak apparently due to polluted water cress {Engin. Neivs, 
10 {1913), No. 7, p. 322, fig. 1). — A report of an epidemic of typhoid fever 
which was apparently caused by eating polluted water cress is given. 

Lessons from a probable water cress typhoid outbreak {Engin. News, 10 
{1913), No. 1, PV' 311, 312). — The necessity for greater care to prevent the 
contamination of vegetable foods which are to be eaten in an uncooked condition 
is emphasized. See abstract above. 

The relation of growth to the chemical constituents of the diet, T. B. 
Osborne and L. B. Mendel {Jour. Biol. Chem., 15 {1913), No. 2, pp. 311-326, 
figs. 7). — Experiments are reported in continuation of previous work (E. S. R., 
25. p. 864; 28, pp. 863, 864). 

Animals fed upon a diet of purified protein, starch, lard, and protein-free 
milk, which had grown abnormally for some time and then ceased to grow and 
declined, were restored to a satisfactory condition of growth by the use of milk 
or by replacing a part of the lard in the diet with unsalted butter. The work 
is to be continued. 

Studies on the metabolism of ammonium salts, I, II, III {Jour. Biol. 
Chem., 15 {1913), No. 2, pp. 321-335, 331-339, 3Jfl-355) .—This includes 3 papers. 

I. The elimination of ingested ammonium salts in the dog upon an adequate 
mixed diet, F. P. Underbill (pp. 327-335). — It was found in these experiments 
that the ingestion of the ammonium salts of several organic acids failed to 
increase the amount of ammonia nitrogen excreted in the urine, while under 
comparable conditions the ingestion of the ammonium salts of several inor- 
ganic acids caused an increase in the output of ammonia nitrogen, which varied 
with the different acids. No explanation is given for this temporary retention 
of the ammonium salts. All of the inorganic ammonium salts tested and some 
of the organic ammonium salts caused an increase of the total nitrogen excre- 
tion above the normal and temporarily stimulated nitrogen catabolism. Sodium 
chlorid caused a lowering of the amount of ammonia nitrogen eliminated. 

II. A note on the elimination of ingested ammonium salts during a period of 
prolonged inanition, F. P. Underbill (pp. 337-339). — The ingestion of ammonium 
carbonate by a starving animal failed to cause any increase in the urinary 
excretion of ammonia nitrogen. Ammonium chlorid, however, caused a distinct 
increase in the output of ammonia nitrogen as well as of total nitrogen. The 
output of both ammonia nitrogen and total nitrogen remained for some time 
at a high level. 

III. The utilization of ammonium salts icith a nonnitrogenous diet, F. P. 
Underbill and S. Goldschmidt (pp. 341-355). — In the case of dogs maintained 
upon a nonnitrogenous diet of high energy value the ingestion of ammonium 



FOODS — HUMAN NUTRITION. 65 

chlorid showed no reteDtiou of nitrogeu. This is contrary to the results 
obtained by otlier workers. The conclusion is reached that ammonium chlorid 
is incapable of acting as a source of nitrogen supply for the body. It would 
appear from these experiments that in considering the influence of ammonium 
salts upon metabolism distinction must be made between the organic and the 
inorc:anic ammonium salts. 

The amount of indol obtained by artificial digestion and decay of different 
proteids, W. von Moraczewski (Biochem. Ztachr., 51 {1913), No. 4, pp. 340- 
354)- — The author determined the quantity of indol obtained from artificial 
digestion of casein, the effect of sugar, fat, etc., upon the amount formed, and 
particularly the conditions of indol formation, namely, pancreatic digestion 
and putrefaction. Other proteid substances, including thymus, egg white, egg 
yolk, serum globulin, lactalbumin, fibrin, brain, edestin, meat of different sorts, 
lentils, etc., were subjected to digestion and to putrefaction and the quantities 
of indol specific for each were measured. 

The influence of the diet on the excretion of indol and indican by healthy 
men, W. von Moraczewski and E. Herzfeld {Biochem. Ztsclir., 51 {1013), 
No. 4, PP- 314-339). — The amount of substance giving an indol reaction obtained 
from urine by distillation was compared with the indican content of the urine 
on different diets. An increase was noted on a fat, a vegetable, and a gelatin 
diet, and a decrease on a carbohydrate and a sugar diet. Adding protein 
caused an increase as compared with carbohj'drate and a decrease as compared 
with fat. 

The indol was determined directly in the feces and also after fermentation. 
The quantity obtained in both cases was increased by fat and also by a diet 
rich in protein, while carbohydrates diminished indol in both portions and 
vegetables protected protein from putrefactive changes. The nitrogen and 
chlorids of the feces showed the same relation. A direct connection between 
the indican of the urine and the indol of the feces was often noted, both increas- 
ing or diminishing at the same time. 

The influence of starvation upon the creatin content of muscle, V. C. 
Myers and M. S. Fine {Jour. Biol. Ghcm., 15 {1913), No. 2, pp. 2S3-304).— 
Numerous experiments are reported which are a continuation of previous 
work (E. S. R., 28, p. SG5). 

During the early part of starvation the creatin concentration of the muscle 
is increased, but it decreases at the close of the period, owing to the great loss 
of creatin in the urine during starvation due to decomposition of the muscle 
tissue. It is the opinion of the authors that the evidence in support of the 
view that creatin and creatinin are independent in metabolism is weaker than 
that in support of the view that urinary creatinin is derived from the muscle 
creatin. 

The influence of carbohydrate feeding- upon the creatin content of muscle, 
V. C. Myers and M. S. Fine {Jour. Biol. Chem., 15 {1913), No. 2, pp. 305-310).^ 
Experiments with animals which were fed almost exclusively upon carbo- 
hydrate for varyiu.? periods of time showed that the effect of carbohydrate 
feeding upon the creatin content of the muscle is very similar to that observed 
in starvation. After a long period of carbohydrate feeding an even greater 
reduction in the creatin content of the muscle than that which occurs in 
starvation may be observed. The decreased elimination of creatin after carbD- 
hydrate feeding is due to the sparing action of carbohydrate on protein 
metabolism. 

Calorimetry of the work of the kidneys, F. Tangl {Biochem. Ztschr.. 53 
{1913), No. 1-2, pp. 36-40). — Experiments carried out with the calorimeter, 
described in the following article, indicated that S.2 per cent of the total heat 



66 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

production of the animal body could be attributed to the work of the kidneys, 
in the case of the rat, and 7.9 per cent in the case of the dog. 

A calorimeter for small animals, F. Tangl {Biochem. Ztschr., 53 (1913), 
Ao. 1-2, pp. 21-35, figs. 3).— A description is given of a small calorimeter of the 
open-circuit type which consists essentially of two small copper cylinders in- 
serted in Dewar flasks, which, in turn, are inclosed in a copper box with cork 
insulation. 

The difference in temperature between the two cylinders is measured by 
means of thermoelectric junctions connected to a galvanometer. One of the 
cylinders contains a rheostat and in the other is placed the animal whose heat 
production is to be studied. During an experiment electricity is supplied to the 
rheostat to generate a quantity of heat sufficient to compensate that given off by 
the animal in the other cylinder, and thus the two cylinders are kept at the 
same temperature. The amount of heat produced by the subject is determined 
from the amount of current supplied to the rheostat. 

Provision is also made for the measurement of the carbon dioxid and water 
vapor produced during the experiment, so that the instrument may serve both 
as calorimeter and respiratory apparatus. 

Micro-calorimeter for the determination of the heat production of bac- 
teria, K. VON KoRosY (Hoppe-Seyler's Ztschr. Physiol. Chem., 86 {1913), No. 5, 
pp. 383-400, figs. 2). — ^A description is given of a micro-calorimeter which 
utilizes the heat of vaporization of ether as a means of indicating the heat 
production. The number of calories developed by the subject is measured 
directly by the amount of ether distilled over during the experiment. 

ANIMAL PRODUCTION. 

The measurement of the intensity of inbreeding-, R. Pearl (Maine Sta. Bui. 
215, pp. 123-138). — In this treatise is presented " a general method of measuring 
the intensity or degree of the inbreeding practiced in any particular case." On 
the basis that " the inbred individual possesses fewer different ancestors than 
the maximum possible number," the author presents the following formula for 
determining a coefficient of inbreeding: 

100 (pn+i-qn+i) 
Vn+\ 

in which p^+i denotes the maximum possible number of different individuals 
involved in the matings of the n+1 generation and g^+i the actual number of 
different individuals involved in these matiugs. It is evident that the coefficient 
of inbreeding Z is the percentage of the difference between the maximum pos- 
sible number of ancestors and the actual number realized. In this method the 
author starts with the individual in question and works backward, assuming 
that all the different individuals are entirely unrelated until the contrary is 
proved by the finding of a common ancestor. 

In the mating of brother with sister for a series of generations, it is shown 
that " in the last 2 ancestral generations X is 50 per cent inbred; in the last 3 
generations it is 75 per cent inbred ; and in the last 4 generations it is 87.5 pel 
cent inbred." After the seventh generation there is relatively little change 
made by further generations of this sort of breeding. It is shown that " while 
increase in intensity of inbreeding is not so rapid in the first few ancestral 
generations by parent X offspring type of breeding as with brother X sister 
type, by the time the tenth ancestral generation is reached the values are, for 
practical purposes, the same." 



ANIMAL PKODUCTION. 67 

In actual iiedigreo work ihe method of calculation consists in delerminiu^ the- 
primary reappearance of individuals, by which is meant a reappearance a^ the 
sire or dam of an individual which has not itself appeared before in the lower 
ancestral jrenerations. These primary reappearances, together with all the fore- 
going ancestors which they involve, are then enumerated for each generation 
and the consequent additions substituted in the (p„+.— Q'n+i) po?ition of the 
formula, while the maximum possible number of ancestors for the particular 
ancestral generation involved i.^ substituted for p„+i. The result i^hows the 
percentage of inbreeding. The author demonstrates the relation of the coeflB- 
cients of inbreeding to the hereditary constitution of the individual. 

It is believed that this method *' is equally applicable to all pedigrees and to 
all degrees and types of inbreeding " ; and that " the proposed coefficients of 
inbreeding may be made extremely useful in studies of the problem of the effef;t 
of inbreeding, whether in relation to its purely theoretical aspects, or in the 
practical fields of stock breeding and eugenics." 

A contribution toward an analysis of the problem of inbreeding, R. 
Pkarl (Atner. Nat., Jfl (1913), Xo. 562, pp. 5117-614, fiO^. 2).— This article is an 
elaboration on material reported above. 

The feeding of farm animals, O. Kellneb {Dig Erndhnnig der LanJwirf- 
schaftUchen Nittziere. Berlin, 1912, 6. ed., rev. and enl, pp. XII -\-6JfO).— This, 
is the sixth edition of this treatise, revised and enlarged (E. S. R., 17, p. 63). 
It comprises a very comprehensive study of the feeding of domestic animals and 
includes summarized accounts of feeding experiments previously reported from 
other sources. 

The development of agricultural feeding knowledge, F. Honcamp {Landiv. 
Vers. Stat., 19-80 (1913), pp. 1-70). — In this treatise the author outlines in a 
general way the work of the various German investigators in animal nutri- 
tion and the various steps in the development of general feeding knowledge. 

Results of nuclein feeding of animals {TicrcirztL ZentbL, 36 (1913), Nos. 
25, pp. 384-389; 26, pp. 401-405). — A special feed (lavocat), rich in nuclein and 
of a high phosphorus content, when fed to horses and cattle proved of value as 
a stimulant and body builder. This was especially true of old horses, young 
calves, and animals affected with digestive ailments. 

[The value of calcium chlorid in animal production], R. Emmerich and 
O. EOEW (Deut. Landw. Tierzuclit, 17 (1913), Xo. 28, pp. 3.55^.35).— Experiments 
in feeding calcium chlorid to calves and pigs resulted in an increase in weight 
of from 10 to 25 per cent as compared with animals on feeds lacking in this 
element. In these experiiv.ents the calcium chlorid was added to the drinking 
water, and the feed included fish meal and skim milk, both relatively high in 
calcium. 

On the values of feeding materials, F. Mach (Landw. Vers. Stat.. 79-80 
(1915), pp. 815-846, fig. 1). — This reports analyses of sesame cake, pojipy cake, 
palm-seed cake, oil cake, and rice meal, with comments and tables on the rela- 
tive market value of these and other concentrate feeds as determined by their 
feeding value. 

Inspection of commercial feeding stuffs, P. H. Smith and C. L. Reals 
{Massachusetts Sta. Huh 146, pp. 3-61). — This bulletin contains analyses and 
discussion of the following commercial feeding stuffs: Cotton-seed meal, linseed 
meal, gluten meal, gluten feed, distillers' dried grains, malt sprouts, brewers' 
dried grains, wheat middlings, wheat bran, rye feeds, molasses feeds, calf 
meals, puffed wheat, corn meal, ground oats, rye meal, hominy meal, provender, 
dried beet pulp, corn bran, meat scraps, meat and bone meal, blood meal, fish 
menl. milk albumin, alfalfa meal, and proprietary mixed feeds. 



68 



EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 



There is inclnded a tabulation of wholesale market prices of commercial 
feediDg stuffs for 1912-13. 

Inspection of feeding stuffs {Islew York State Sta. Bui. 366, pp. 235-356).^ 
This bulletin contains analyses of the following commercial feeding stuffs: 
Cotton-seed meal, linseed meal, malt sprouts, dried distillers' grains, dried brew- 
ers' grains, gluten meal, gluten feed, corn bran, hominy feeds, mixed and pro- 
prietary feeds, molasses feeds, cotton-seed feeds, poultry and animal feeds, 
beef scrap, tankage, alfalfa meal, dried beet pulp, peanut bran and meal, buck- 
wheat by-products, corn meal, pea meal, wheat middlings, rolled oats, ground 
bread, wheat bran, puffed rice, puffed wheat, shredded wheat waste, cob meal, 
and miscellaneous mixed and proprietary feeds. 

There is included a report of tests of the percentage of sand found in feeds 
compounded with screenings, from 0.13 to 4.2 per cent being found. The text 
of the New York State law relating to the sale and inspection of feeding stuffs 
and other data are also given. 

Studies in the blocd relationship of animals as displayed in the composi- 
tion of the serum proteins. — II, A comparison of the sera of the ox, sheep, 
hog", g'oat, dog, cat, and guinea pig with respect to their content of various 
proteins, J. H. Woolsey (Jour. Biol. Chem., i// (1013), No. 5, pp. // ^3-) 39). —The 
following table summarizes the average results obtained in a comparison of 
the sera of various animals : 

Proportions of the various proteins in animal sera. 



Kind of protein. 


0. 

serum. 


Pheep 
serum. 


Hog 
serum. 


Goat 
serum. 


Dog 
serum. 


Cat 
serum. 


Guinea 

pig 
serum. 




Per cent. 

8.1 

29.0 

70.0 


Per cent. 
6.4 
17.0 
82.0 


Per cent. 

6.0 

36.0 

04.0 


Per cent. 
6.5 
22.0 
75.0 


Percent. 
7.7 
18.0 
81.0 


Per cent. 
6.5 
30.0 
69.0 


Per cent. 
4.2 


Total globulin . 


16.0 


Total albumin . . 


84.0 







Notes on native live stock, J. B. Thompson {Guam Sta. Rpt. 1912, pp. 
8-22, pis. 4, figs. 5). — The native stock of Guam is of an inferior grade due to a 
lack of care and to indiscriminate inbreeding. The prevailing type is the 
straight-backed, humpless taunts species, with occasional indications of zebu 
intermixture. The cattle are employed for draft, carriage, saddle, beef, and 
dairy purposes. Their milk-producing qualities are inferior, due to a lack of 
nitrogenous feed and little effort to develop dairy strains. The native cattle 
have good active grazing habits and fatten easily on pasture. They are hardy 
and well adapted to climatic conditions. 

The prospects for success in cattle raising are deemed good, owing to the 
demand for beef, prices paid, the large areas of grazing land, the green feed 
available throughout the year, and the tropical climate. No contagious or in- 
fectious diseases are observed among cattle in Guam, and although both the 
Texas cattle tick and Australian cattle tick are present, the native cattle are 
immune to Texas fever. A former intermixture of Jersey blood resulted in 
materially improved dairy stock. 

Weights and body measurements of Guam cattle and carabao are reported. 
The native carabaos do not withstand heat as well as do cattle. They are 
lower in body temperature, 373 showing an average temperature of 100.7° F., 
but under exertion, a rapid rise in temperature is noted, 28 animals averaging 
104.7° on a hot day in June. For heavy draft work in the mud, the carabao 



ANIMAL PRODUCTION. 



69 



has no equiil, while they are also used for beef anrl milk, yielding a fair 
amount of milk rich in fat. 

Horses are scarce and the offspring of a poor grade of stock introduced from 
the Philippines. The domesticated hogs are of 2 types: First, the long, lean, 
slow-maturing kind, the sows being prolific and good mothers; second, the 
short, fine-boned, early-maturing tyi)e probably from Chinese or Japanese 
stock, the sows bearing small litters and being poor mothers. 

The native chickens are of mixed breeds. They are somewhat larger than 
the Leghorn, but are poor egg layers. There is a ready demand for both eggs 
and fowls in the island. Chicken pox and other serious infectious diseases are 
prevalent. 

Pure-bred stock was imported by the station in 1911 from the United States, 
consisting of 2 Ayrshire bulls and 2 heifers, 4 Morgan fillies and 2 stallions, 
2 Berkshire sows and 2 boars, and a pen each of Barred Plymouth Rock and 
Single-combed Brown Leghorn hens. The object was, first the acclimatization 
of a pure-bred strain, and second, the improvement of native stock. One of 
the bulls died of what was believed to be Texas fever. The remaining animals 
were hand picked for about 4 months, when it was thought that they had under- 
gone at least partial immuuization. Daily temperatures were kept of the cattle 
for over 6 months, in which periods of abnormally high temperatures were ob- 
served in each of the various animals, but the general condition has remained 
good. The horses, hogs, and chickens are also reported in good condition. The 
horses are being fed on native roughage. The crossing of the Berkshire on 
native stock has resulted in an Improvement over the ordinary native pig. 
Troubles due to climatic conditions are being experienced in the use of 
incubators. 

Color inheritance in swine, W. W. Smith (Amer. Breeders Mag., 4 {1913), 
No. 2, pp. 113-123, figs. 5). — Experiments in crossing Yorkshire and Berkshire, 
and Yorkshire and Poland China swine indicated "(1) the complete dominance 
of the Yorkshire white over the Berkshire or Poland China black in the Fi or 
first hybrid generation; (2) a general tendency for the original parent colors 
to be expressed separately, and in the proportion of 3 dominants to 1 recessive. 
In the individuals of the F2 or second hybrid generation." 

Hogging" down corn. — A successful practice, J. M. Evvaed, W. J. Kennedy. 
and H. H. Kildee (Iowa Sta. Bui. I43, pp. 309-554, figs. 5).— This bulletin 
reports 3 years' experimental work in determining the practicability of allow- 
ing hogs to harvest the corn crop, the value of such a system as compared with 
the dry lot method, and to ascertain the relative importance of different sup- 
plemental crops and concentrated feeds when hogs are fed in this way. 

Reports received from a large number of farmers to whom inquiries were 
sent indicate that the hogging down of corn is in common practice and is being 
found profitable. Experiments testing the value of several supplementary crops 
when fed in conjunction with hogged-down corn gave the following results 
with 10 spring shotes per acre : 



Returns from hogged-down com and supplemeniary crops. 



Supplementary crops. 


Average 
daily gain 
in weight 

per hog. 


Gain of 
pork ac- 
credited 
per acre. 


Rape and pumpkins 


Pounds. 

0.931 

.828 

.706 

.418 


Pounds. 
6.51 7 


Soy beans 


48.3 8 


Canadian field peas 


333 8 


Hairy vetch 


292.8 







70 



EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 



Tlie following table shows the comparative returns from supplemented and 
uusupplemented corn in the field and dry lot, using an average of 11.25 shotes 
weighing 70 lbs. each per acre: 

Comparative returns from supplements in hogginp down and dry-lot feeding. 



Method of feeding. 


A verage 
daily 
gain in 
weight 
per hog. 


Cost per 
100 lbs. 

gain; 
com at 

50 cts.. 


Net re- 
turns 
per acre, 

hogs at 
6 cts. per 

pound. 


Net 
value of 
com per 
bushel. 


Grain per 
100 lbs, 

hve 
weight 
daily. 


i logged dowa: 

Corn alone . . - 


rounds. 

0.42 

1.23 

.84 

1.44 

.fi? 
1.17 


$5.41 
3.69 
3.87 
3.56 

5.43 
4.35 


$2.10 
18.31 
10.70 
19.27 

2.33 
12.82 


SO. 47 
.78 
.70 
.87 

.55 
. 75 


Pounds. 
3.37 


Corn aud 10 per cent meat meal 


4.79 


Corn and soy beans 


3.86 


Corn, 10 per cent meat meal, and green rye 

Dry lot: 


4.38 
4.19 


(^om and 10 per cenf meat meal 


4.64 









Comparing the average cost of production per 100 lbs. gain with and without 
the various supplemental crops and feeds, the following results were obtained : 
Hogged down with soy beans $2.73, with cowpeas $2.87, rape and pumpkins 
$1.86, Canadian field peas $4.42, hairy vetch $5.85, corn without supplement 
$3.14, with meat meal $2.43, and with rye pasture and meat meal $2.69. 

Replies received from a large number of farmers estimate the saving per 
bushel of corn by the hogging-down method at an average of 6.89 cts. It is the 
general conclusion that spring farrowed shotes, weighing from 100 to 170 lbs. 
are the most adaptable to hogging-down conditions, although younger pigs and 
old sows may be so fed to advantage. 

The farD:!ers' reports indicated an average production of 12 lbs. of pork per 
bushel of corn fed, when hogged down. Actual experiments gave the following 
results: With standing corn without supplement, 7.76 lbs. per bushel of corn 
(this is considered low and is accounted for by unfavorable conditions) ; com 
and meat meal 15.73 lbs. ; corn, meat meal, and green rye 18.37 lbs. ; corn and 
soy beans 13.05 lbs. ; dry lot corn and meat meal 15.30 lbs. ; and dry lot corn 
alone 9.20 lbs. The average size of a field hogged down at one time was re- 
ported as 19 acres, carrying approximately 13 hogs per acre. The carrying 
capacity of an acre of standing corn for a period of 80 days, with shotes 
weighing from 125 to 150 lbs., is estimated at from 14 to 15 head when corn 
is yielding 40 bu. per acre, and 21 to 22 head when corn is yielding 60 bu. 

The commonly accepted time to turn hogs into the field is when the corn is 
well dented. The advantages and disadvantages of this method of harvesting 
the corn crop are discussed, and a method of temporary fencing is described. 

Horse breeding and Mendelism, R. Motloch {Dent. Landic. Tierzucht, 17 
U918), Nos. 32, pp. 311-3S0; 33, pp. 389-391).— In this article the author dis- 
cusses the relative influence of environment and of ancestry upon the character- 
istics of the individual horse, with especial emphasis on the transmission ol 
acquired characters. 

The inheritance of coat color in horses, W. S. Anderson (Amer. Nat., 47 
{1913), No. 562, pp. 615-62Jf) .—After extensive studies of the color markings of 
11,739 horses, and from the results obtained by previous investigators, the 
author concludes that with the exception of black and brown, chestnut behaves 
as a recessive to all other coat colors in horses. Brown is dominant to chest- 
nut and black and recessive to bay. Gray and roan are dominant to bay. An 
attempt is made to harmonize the theory that brown is recessive to bay with 



ANIMAL PEODUCTION. 71 

the actual results obtained in a niatinjjj of brown X brown which resulted in 
a large percentage of bays. The author believes that the discrepancy here lies 
in the interpretation of colors. 

Horse breaking- in Argentina iPafttoml Rev., 23 {1913), No. 9, pp. 886-S88, 
figs. 3). — An account of horse-breaking methods in use in Argentina, and a 
comparison w-ith those of Australia. 

Studies on inheritance in poultry. — I, The constitution of the White 
Leghorn breed, P. B. IIadley, Dohotiiy W. Caldwkll, and C. II. Magoon 
(Rhode Island Sta. Bui. 155, pp. 151-216, pis. 3). — By means of suitable matings 
of wliite and dark birds a completely barred pattern w^as secured in Fa, and a 
pure strain of barred fowls has been built up from these barred F2 individuals. 
This barring characteristic is thought to have its origin in a factor for barring, 
present in the gametes of the White Leghorn male, and not as was formerly 
believed in a heterozygous condition of black and white. Evidence indicates 
that the White Leghorn male is homozygous for this character, while the female 
is heterozygous ; also that the White Leghorn male carries a factor for black 
pigmentation. However, the presence of an inhibiting factor, which represses 
the manifestation of black and is homozygous for the White Leghorn male, 
naturally brings out the barred pattern. The presence of these inhibiting 
factors is apparently peculiar to the Leghorn breed of fowls as a whole, but may 
be used to advantage in controlling the manifestation of a variety of characters 
in poultry. It is believed that this factor for barring, present in the White 
Leghorn, accounts for various unexplained phenomena often observed in poultry 
breeding. 

A former discussion has been previously referred to (E. S. R., 29, p. 372). 

[Inbreeding], J. H. Robinson {Farm Poultry, 24 {1913), No. 10, pp. 214, 
215). — This is a discussion of the beneficial or detrimental effects of inbreeding 
as applied to poultry raising, in which the author practically contends that it 
is not interbreeding in itself that is harmful but interbreeding without rigid 
selection or some change of condition. 

Report of the poultryman, H. Atwood {West Virginia Sta. Rpt. 1912, pp. 
57-50). — Uncompleted experiments indicate that chicks are less vigorous when 
hatched from eggs laid by hens which have been laying heavily for a long 
time. A decided lack of phosphorus in the rations resulted in a material de- 
crease in the number of eggs laid. The composition of the eggs did not seem 
to bo materially changed. It was demonstrated that the average size of eggs 
laid by hens varies considerably according to the season, the eggs being heavier 
during February and March than at any other time; also that the eggs from 
mature fowls are heavier than eggs from pullets. 

Report of poultry conditions in Indiana, A. G. Philips {Indiana 8ta. Circ. 
40. pp. 32, figs. 20). — A report of data collected relative to the poultry conditions 
in Indinna, in which lists of questions were sent out to 2.000 farmers. These 
questions related to the extent of business, kind and amount of stock, selection 
or breeding, housing and yarding, feeding, hatching and rearing, diseases and 
parasites, management, and marketing of poultry. 

The refrigeration of dressed poultry in transit, Mary E. Pennington et al. 
{U. S. Dept. Agr. Bui. 17, pp. 35, pi. 1, figs. 19).— The purpose of this investiga- 
tion was to determine the temi)eratures prevailing in refrigerator cars hauling 
dressed poultry throughout the entire transportation period, and to observe 
the effect of such temperatures on the condition of the poultry when it arrives 
at the market. The experiments reported, covering a period between August. 
1909. and October, 1912, include 120 car-lot shipments of dressed poultry and 
aggregate 140,000 miles of haul. Six different car lines are repr3sented. The 

25S42'— No. 1—14 6 



72 EXPEEIMENT STATION RECORD. 

weatlier conditions varied, depending upon the season and the territory in- 
volved. In all of the work commercial surroundings and commercial routine 
prevailed. Thermographs, or self-registering thermometers, were used to 
record the car temperatures throughout the entire transit. When the ear was 
opened for unloading, a laboratory examination was made of samples of the 
fowls, by estimating the amount of ammoniacal nitrogen in the muscle tissue, 
as an index of the progress of flesh changes, and the amount of free acid in 
the fat, since the rise in acidity is an indication of the aging of the whole 
carcass. 

Fresh chickens contain about 0.0110 per cent of ammoniacal nitrogen. It 
was found that poultry shipped under car temperatures of from 18 to 26° F. 
showed 0.0120 per cent ammoniacal nitrogen; under 27 to 30", 0.0122 per cent; 
31 to 34°, 0.0131 per cent; and 35 to 39°, 0.0141 per cent. This difference in 
composition at the end of the railroad haul continues with increasing magni- 
tude throughout the period at the wholesale commission house and at the re- 
tailer's, while in the commission house the deterioration in the high tempera- 
ture shipments is always at least one stage ahead of the low temperature 
shipments. It is evident that even such excellently handled poultry as com- 
prised these experimental shipments, if exposed to unfavorable temperatures 
during transportation, receive an impetus toward decay that can not be over- 
come by subsequent irreproachable treatment on the market. 

The results indicate that the most favorable temperature for poultry trans- 
portation is less than 31° F. The problem of maintaining this temperature is 
largely a question of car construction. The -many different cars used in these 
shipments furnished a great variety of sizes, insulations, roofs, doors, ice 
bunkers, and other elements which are factors in the sum total of eflBciency. 
In calculating the relative efficiency of the cars, a formula was devised which 
would take into account the various factors of icing, surface exposure of the 
car, atmospheric temperature, inside temperature, length of time in transit, etc. 
The insulation of the car in relation to temperature appeared to be its most 
vulnerable and its most important part, the construction of the ice bunker 
coming next in importance. Certain types of insulation in the side walls and 
floors of the cars were found to be preferable to others. The cars with the 
best insulated and best built roofs proved to be the most efficient. Moist floors 
were found to be a serious defect in the present construction of cars. 

The wire basket type of bunker is thought to be the most efficient, since an 
abundant air access to ice and salt results in increased efficiency. Likewise 
the holding back of the brine in the tank bunker increases the ability of the 
bunker to chill the car and hence results in increased efficiency. These and 
other points in construction are regarded as the essential features of the most 
efficient refrigerator car of the future. 

DAIRY FARMING— DAIRYING. 

A comparison of first, second, and third crop alfalfa hay for milk pro- 
duction, W. E. Carroll {Utah Sta. Bui. 126, pp. 153-1S9).— In view of the 
popular disfavor toward second crop alfalfa as a feed for dairy cattle, experi- 
ments were conducted during 2 seasons, 1911-12, and 1912-13, with first, second, 
and third crops of alfalfa to determine the relative value of these crops. In 
these experiments the alfalfa was fed ad libitum, with a grain mixture of 
O.Go lb. daily to each cow per pound of milk fat produced per week. The test 
periods were from 3 to 4 weeks' duration, and the feed unit system was 
adopted. 



DAIKY FARMING DAIRYING. 



73 



A suniiiiary of the feed units consumed and the milk f:it i»ivxluced wilh the 
various crops is shown in the following table: 

Feed consumption and milk fat production on first, second, and third crop 

alfalfa hays. 



Crop. 


Feed units. 
consumed. 


Milk fat 
produced. 


Milk fat for 
100 feed 

units con- 
sumed. 


First 




14,055 
12,835 
14,120 


Pounds. 

7(t3 
687 
670 


Pounds. 
5.00 


Second 


5 36 


Thiid 


4 78 




■ 





While these experiments indicate that second crop alfalfa is at least equal 
in economy to the other crops, it is noted that it is less relished and that other 
practical difficulties may tend to reduce its actual value. 

Manuring for milk, F. Wakerley {Midland Agr. and Dairy Col. Bui. 1, 
1012-13, pp. 8, pi. 1). — A comparison of the feeding values of 2 pastures of 4 
acres each, and treated with 10 cwt. ground lime per acre, one being also 
fertilized with 4 cwt. superphosphate and 11 cwt. sulphate of potash per acre. 
The total yield of milk during the 3 seasons, 1910-1912, was 8,740 lbs. on the un- 
manured and 13,GG1 lbs. on the manured pasture. 

Winter feeding of dairy cows, J. Mackintosh {Jour. Southeast. Agr. Col. 
Wye, 1912, No. 21, pp. 51-82).— In this article the author attempts to outline 
a rational system of dairy cattle feeding, in which he discusses the Kellner. 
Armsby, Hansson, and Haecker standards of feeding and suggests a number of 
successful dairy rations involving home-grown feeds. 

The orig-inal St. Lambert Jerseys. — An account of their breeding, C. Clark 
{KimhalVs Dairy Farmer, 11 {1913), No. 18, pp. 542-545, figs. 10). — The author 
reviews the foundation, development, and capabilities of the St. Lambert strain 
of Jersey cattle, and compares this American-bred type with the finer boned 
Jersey Island-bred type. 

Comparative experiment between Red Danish milch cattle, Jersey cattle, 
and Dane-Jersey cattle, J. J. Dunne {Hoard's Dairyman, 46 {1913), No. 9, pp. 
234, 235). — Comparing these 3 groups, consisting of 15 cows each of approxi- 
mately the same age, during a period of 2 seasons as regards their average 
yields and cost of production, the results as summarized in the following table 
were obtained : 

Average yearly yield and cost of production per coio. 



Kind of cows. 


Yield of 
milk. 


Yield of 
milk fat. 


Yield of 
butter. 


Feed 
units 
con- 
sumed. 


Cost of a 
home- 
grown 

feed unit. 


Red Danish 


Pounds. 
8,183 
4,343 

6. -^27 


Per cent. 
3.53 
5.69 
4. 32 


Pounds. 
321.6 
279.6 
206.8 


6,114 
4,799 
5. 875 


Cents. 
1.63 
1.66 
1.72 


Jersey 


Dano-Jersey 





In churning and buttermaking experiments the Jersey butter was firmer 
and harder than the Red Danish, due to a lower olein content, but the feed- 
ing of rape oil reduced this hard and brittle consistency. 



74 EXPERIMENT STATION EECOED. 

Milking capacities of the Trinidad government farm cows, H. S. Shrews- 
cuRY (West Indian BuL, 13 {1913), No. 3, pp. 28i-287).— Half-bred zebus pro- 
duce<l au avernge daily milk yield of 5.G qt., testing 3.37 per cent fat, and are 
reported as good dairy animals for tbat locality. 

Dairying in Jamaica, H. H. Cousins {Bui. Dept. Agr. Jamaica, n. ser., 2 
{1913), No. 7, pp. 253-296, pis. 10).— A general treatise on dairying conditions 
in Jamaica, in wbicli the author outlines methods of improvement of the native 
stock. It is noted that importations of pure-bred stock are being made from 
North America. The Guernsey is given preference as a foundation stock for 
the purely dairy animal, while the Red Poll has proved valuable as a dual pur- 
pose breed. Analyses of the milk of various breeds and crossbreeds are given. 

Ninth biennial report of the state dairy bureau [for the biennial period 
ending November 30, 1912] {Bicn. Rpt. State Dairy Bur. Cal, 9 {1911-12), 
pp, ^0, figs. 9). — A general report of dairying opportunities in California, with 
statistics on the milk, butter, and cheese output and a list of creameries in 
operation in the State. 

Quarterly report of the dairy and food commissioner of Virginia, W. D. 
Saunders {Quart. Rpt. Dairy and Food Comr. Ya., 1913, Mar. -May, pp. 43-^6, 
50-55, 62-68). — This report includes an inspection of 114 dairies and dairy 
farms and of a number of creameries, collecting stations, and cheese factories, 
also the examination of misbranded, adulterated, and otherwise illegal stock 
feeds. 

Michigan's new milk and cream law, R. G. Kirby {Mich. Farmer, 1^1 
{1913), No. 8, p. 1, figs. 2). — An account of the new Michigan milk and cream 
law looking toward sanitation in the dairy and increased purity of the milk. 

Milk and cream testing, H. H. Dean {Ann. Rpt. Ontario Agr. Col. and 
Expt. Farm, 38 {1912), pp. 70-83). — This continues work previously reported 
(E. S. R., 27, p. 777). 

In comparison of the results obtained from the sampling of cream for com- 
posite samples by the aliquot and ounce methods, it was found that on a de- 
livery of over 1,400 lbs. fat the total difference by the 2 methods was 8.9 lbs. 
in favor of the ounce method. Open bottle samples of cream gave " results 
altogether too high and show very forcibly the need of keeping composite bottles 
tightly stoppered." ComiX)site samples kept in cold storage proved to be in 
better condition at the end of one month than were those kept at room temper- 
ature. Contrary to expectation, samples kept in cold storage frequently tested 
" a higher percentage of fat than did those kept at room temperature," this 
being probably due to the more accurate sampling possible with this better 
cream. Comparing daily, weekly, semi-monthly, and monthly tests for accu- 
racy of results, it is concluded that the last 3 methods " will credit patrons with 
approximately correct weights of fat delivered, as compared with testing each 
and every delivery of cream to the creamerj-." Tests of 3 different cream scales 
indicated that a sample of cream may be tested within about 0.2 per cent of 
accuracy on a 12-bottle cream scale, irrespective of the number of the bottles 
weighed at one time. 

Tests with formalin as a preservative in composite milk and cream samples 
" show that about one-half a cubic centimeter of formalin will preserve a pint 
sample of milk or cream in good condition for testing for a month. When 1 cc. 
of formalin was used the tests were not satisfactory unless an extra volume of 
sulphuric acid was used (20 and 21 cc. instead of 17.5 cc.)." 

It was found that the greatest differences in the cream transported in an 
ordinary can and a jacketed can was 6° F. in temperature and 0.05 per cent 
acidity in favor of the cream in a jacketed can. The average difference was 3.6° 
in temperature and 0.022 per cent acidity. As a rule, there was not sufficient 



DAIRY FARMING DAIRYING. 75 

decrease in the acidity of tlie cream in the jaclieted can to pay for the extra 
expense and inconvenience. 

Tests for 2 years indicate that tlie average cost of pasteurizing cream for 
the manufacture of 100 lbs. of butter is 3.3 cts. A combined pasteurizer and 
cream vat, it is said, gave satisfactory results in reducing the cost of labor in 
heating and cooling milk and cream. Results from stirring milk while cooling 
V. not stirring indicated that "there was little or no dillerence in the tem- 
perature of the milk in the cans not stirred, comparing milk in the center of 
the can with that near the outside, or 6 in. from the outside. The milk cooled 
more rapidly when stirred, and had slightly less acid the following morning, 
but there was veiy little difference in the general condition of the 2 lots. 
Under ordinary conditions in the case of milk for cheese making it would 
seem as if stirring were not necessary, except where more rapid cooling is 
desired," 

Butter making", H. H. Dean (Ann. Rpt. Ontario Agr. Col. and Expt. Farm, 
38 {1912), pp. S3-0i).— Continuing work previously noted (E. S. R., 27, p. 779), 
the effect of neutralizers of acidity in cream for butter making was studied, 
with the result that "butter scored about 3 points higher by adding milk lime 
to the cream before pasteurizing, and 3* points higher by adding the m'lk lime 
after pasteurization, as compared with the scores of butter from similar lots 
of cream which were not neutralized." The use of a smsiU quantity of con- 
centrated milk lime proved preferable to a larger quantity of limewater. It is 
suggested that the prevention of the development of acidity by keeping the 
cream cold and more frequent delivery would prove preferable to the use of a 
large quantity of "neutralizer." 

Comparing the results obtained from the use of raw v. pasteurized cream 
for butter making, it is concluded that " there was a greater loss of fat in the 
buttermilk from the lots pasteurized. The 'overrun' or yield of butter was less 
from the lots of cream pasteurized. There was not much difference in the 
quality of the butter as indicated by the scores. This is different from the 
results got in previous experiments, and is accounted for by the relatively high 
scores given to the raw lots vrhen fresh." 

With a view to determining to what extent the acidity of the cream pasteur- 
ized alTected the percentage of fat lost in the buttermilk, a series of experiments 
was conducted and showed an increased loss of fat in the buttermilk as a con- 
sequence of increased acidity of the cream at the time of pasteurization. It 
is explained that this is probably due to an "increased coagulation of the 
caseous matter which entangles more of the fat globules and prevents their 
churning or massing in the form of butter." It is stated that " the cream pas- 
teurized with the higher acidity produced butter which gave a lower average 
score as compared with butter made from similar cream pasteurized on arrival 
at the crenn.ery when moderately sweet." 

Contihuing previous tests on the conditions affecting the salt and moisture 
in butter, it was found that salt added to butter in a wet condition was " better 
distributed and more in solution than were the dry salt lots." The average 
percentage of moisture retained in the finished butter was practically the 
same with both saltings. Tests on the retention of salt in the butter by the 
2 methods do not agree. "Butter churned to about the size of wheat granules 
contained more moisture and less salt than did similar butters churned to 
lump size." Grittiness in butter is ascribed to an overabundance of salt. It 
was found that a saturated salt solution contained, on an average, 29.25 per 
cent salt, and a table is given showing the percentage of salt that butter with 
a moisture content ranging from 13.5 to 16 i>er cent is capable of holding in 
solution. Quantities of salt ranging from 4.29 to 5.77 lbs. per 100 lbs. butter 



76 



EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 



were added to cliurnings, with a resulting retention of salt of from 3.156 to 
3.45 lbs., the loss being accounted for in the chum water and on the worker. 
A loss of moisture and salt in butter was found in the process of printing and 
packing, and after 1, 2, and 3 months in cold storage there was a steady de- 
crease in moisture content, the salt content remaining fairly uniform. 

Some butter-making experiments and analyses, R. Crowe {Jour. Dept. Agr. 
Victoria, 11 {1013), No. 6, pp. 357-366, figs. -^).— In testing the supposed value 
of salt as a butter preservative it was found that after a period of 5 weeks' 
storage unsalted butter scored higher than did salted. The author believes 
that the presence of salt facilitates bacterial development in butter. Analyses 
of 19.470 samples of Victorian butter showed an average composition of 83.5 
per cent fat, 13.84 per cent moisture, 0.76 per cent curd, 1.82 per cent salt, 
and 0.2 per cent boric acid. 

Cheddar cheese investig-ations and experiments, H. H. Dean (Ann. Rpt. 
Ontario Agr. Col. and Expt. Farm, 38 {1912), pp. 56-70). — Continuing work 
previously reported (E. S. R., 27, p. 777), analyses of the milk delivered at 
Ontario cheeseries during 1912 showed an average casein content of 2.14 per 
cent, the highest percentage being 2.58, the lowest 1.79; and an average fat 
content of 3.52 per cent, the highest 4.53, the lowest 2.79 per cent. 

Comparing the results of 2 years, 1911 and 1912, one a wet the other a dry 
season, no apparent effect of season upon the casein and fat content of milk 
was noted. " The averages for milk fat and casein for the season of 1911 
were 3.77 and 2.37; for 1912, 3.61 and 2.18, respectively. . . . These results 
do not coiflside with the theory that a dry, hot season tends to produce milk 
with low fat and casein contents and a wet season the reverse. As in previous 
years, the milk during the months of September and October tends to be rela- 
tively higher in fat and casein content, due doubtless to advancing lactation 
among cows, consequently less milk is required to make a pound of cheese 
than is the case earlier in the season.". 

In vat tests, the average number of pounds of milk required to make a 
pound of cheese was 10.79, which is practically the same as for 1911. The 
lowest amount required was 9.68 lbs. In October, the highest 11.43 lbs. in Au- 
gust. The average number pounds of cheese per pound of fat in milk for the 
different months proved to be fairly uniform, ranging between 2.43 lbs. for 
August and 2.58 lbs. for July and October; and per pound of casein 3.9 lbs. 
in August and 4.15 lbs. in July. 

Comparing cheese made from 2 separate vats, one containing milk of low fat 
and casein content (3.42 and 2.09 per cent), and the other high fat and casein 
content (3.84 and 2.36 per cent), the following results were obtained: 

Production of cheese from mills of Jiigh and low fat and casein content. 



Kind of milk. 


Cheese 

per pound 

of fat in 

milk. 


Cheese 

per povmd 

of casein 

in milk. 


Fat con- 
tent of 
cheese. 


Average 
shrink- 
age. 


Cheese 

per 1,000 

pounds 

milk. 


Milk re- 
quired 
per pound 
of cheese. 


Low fat and casein 

High fat and casein 


Pounds. 
2.64 
2.50 


PouT^s. 
4.33 
4.02 


Per cent. 

35. 45 

36. 49 


Per cent. 
2. S03 

2.801 


Pounds. 
90.70 
96. 23 


Pounds. 
11.02 
10.39 



The average percentage of moisture in the cheese was the same for both 
lots, 3.45. 

Comparing cheese made from normal and from overripe milk, it is concluded 
that " the overrii)€ milk of similar composition to that in normal condition pro- 



VETERINARY MEDICINE. 77 

duced 2.2 lbs, less cheese per 1,000 lbs. of milk. The 2 previous years the differ- 
ences were 2.4 and 2.5 lbs. less per 1,000 lbs. milk from the overripe lots. Both 
lots contained practically the same percentages of moisture in both green and 
ripe cheese. The quality of the cheese was inferior in all cases made from the 
overripe milks. To increase the yield of cheese and improve the quality it is 
important that patrons of cheeserios shall cool the milk on the farm so as to 
have it arrive at the factory in a sweet condition." 

No difference was noted as to the effect of acid at time of adding rennet to 
milk. "An average increase of 0.027 per cent acid in the whey at the time of 
dipping, or removal of the curd from the whey, reduced the yield of cheese per 
100 lbs, of milk by 0.4 lb. Last year the reduction was 0.42 lb., and the previous 
year it was 0.73 lb. All 3 years' results emphasize the importance of separat- 
ing curd and whey when comparatively sweet in order to have a 'good average', 
or lessen the weight of milk required to make 1 lb. of cheese. The lots dipped 
with high acid had greater loss of fat in the whey, greater shrinkage, less mois- 
ture in curd and cheese, and scored an average of nearly one point less." 

In determining the effect of varying weights of salt applied to curds (2^, 2i, 
2| lbs. salt per 1,000 lbs. milk), it was noted that increasing the salt reduced the 
loss by shrinkage during the ripening. There was a slight decrease in moisture 
content of the cheese, both green and ripe, as the salt was increased, and the 
highly salted cheese averaged slightly higher in the scoring, 

" Cheese ripened in cold stornge retained more of the original moisture in the 
cheese at the end of one month than did cheese ripened in the ordinary ripening 
room. Most of the loss of moisture in both lots took place from the first inch 
of the cheese, which included the rind. The greatest loss was during the first 
week of ripening. The results of 2 seasons' work agree in showing that the 
loss of moisture from a cheese during ripening takes place nearly altogether 
from the surface, and that the moisture in the center of the cheese remains 
fairly constant for at least a month." 

There was less shrinkage in ripening cheese in a room of 40° F.. than in one of 
60° or 70°. The average percentage of moisture was approximately the same. 
The quality of the cheese was superior in the lots ripened at the low^er temper- 
ature. 

In a comparison of pasteurized v. raw milk or cream, it was concluded that 
*• the yield of cheese was slightly greater by adopting pasteurization for Camem- 
bert and cream cheese," there being no difference in the case of Gervais cheese. 
The moisture content was variable and the results were inconclusive. The 
quality of cheese was superior in the case of the pasteurized milk or cream. 

Caerphilly cheese, Miss G. N. Da vies (Jour. Agr. [New Zeal.}, 7 (1913), 
No. 1, pp. JtO-IfJf, figs. S). — Directions are given for renneting, cutting, scalding, 
pitching, vatting, salting, pressing, curing, and other processes in the manufac- 
ture of Caerphilly cheese. 

VETERINARY MEDICINE. 

Protective ferments of the animal organism, E. Abderhalden (Sclnitzfer- 
mcnte dcs ticrischen Organismus. Berlin. 1912, pp. Xn-\-110, figs. S). — This is 
a contribution in regard to the methods whereby the animal body protects itself 
against detrimental body and blood substances and substances foreign to the 
cells. The subject is treated under the following headings: Enzyms of the 
cells; formation of protective enzyms, including protein substances foreign to 
the body and the blood with particular reference to anaphylaxis, foreign carbo- 
hydrates, fats, nucleoproteids, and nucleins; the origin of protective ferments; 



78 EXPERIMENT STATION EECOKD. 

the detection of native bodj' substances foreign to the blood; biological diag- 
nosis of pregnancy; the optical method and its use in pathology; the signifi- 
cance of milk for the suckling; the use of the optical method in the field of 
infectious diseases; etc. A large bibliography is appended. 

Investigations in regard to streptolysin, O. von Hellens {Centbl. Bakt. 
[etc.], 1. AM., Orig., 68 (1913), No. 7, pp. 602-6U, fi9-s. 12).— The results of this 
extensive investigation show that streptolysin formation takes place very rapidly 
and can be noted 1 hour after inoculation, A maximum formation can take 
place within 7 to S hours. The greatest amount of hemolysin formation, which 
depends upon the nutrient medium and the strain of bsicteria employed, is said 
to be between the seventh and eighteenth hour. As soon as it reaches its fas- 
tigium it begins to decrease, and in the first 24 hours this decrease is very rapid. 
In the greatest number of cases no hemolysin was noted after 8 to 13 days. 
In anaerobic cultures streptolysin formation and depreciation take place in 
almost the same manner as in aerobic cultures. In the latter cases, however, 
they were produced a little more slowly, and a lower amount was formed. 

The best nutrient medium for the streptococcus was a horse serum-bouillon 
containing from 40 to 50 per cent of a serum inactivated at 56° C. for one-half 
hour. Rabbit serum (10 per cent) bouillon was inferior to ascitic fluid (33 per 
cent) bouillon. Only a slight development of streptolysin took place in a plain 
alkaline peptone bouillon, but when 5 per cent of peptone was added to cultures 
in other media there was a marked increase, in one case over 300 per cent. 
Evidently a prolysin (Walbum) is present in such cultures which is destroyed 
whep, the bacteria are continuously cultivated in the thermostat. The hemo- 
lysin present in seruui'- and ascitic fluid-bouillon cultures is filterable. The fil- 
trate from horse serum bouillon cultures is from 1.1 to 1.4 times weaker than 
the cultures themselves. 

In human, horse, bovine, sheep, goat, dog, pig, rabbit, guinea pig, and pigeon 
blood appreciable quantities of antistreptolysin could not be noted. The hemo- 
lytic action of streptolysin showed a different intensity at different temperatures, 
being from 4 to 6 times more active at 37° C. than at room temperature, while at 
nearly freezing temperature it is practically inactive. The greatest resistance 
toward hemolysin was noted with the blood of the goat and sheep, that of man, 
horses, bovines, and pigeons coming next, and this being followed by rabbit, dog, 
pig, and guinea pig blood. A decoloration of the blood of the horse, bovine, 
sheep, and goat took place as a result of hemolysis. The blood corpuscles of 
man, the pig, and the guinea pig were agglutinated in some cases. ■ 

The hemolytic principle of streptolysin was soluble in ether, and almost the 
entire quantity present in the culture could be extracted with this solvent. The 
streptolysin present in the filtrate was labile and was inactivated rapidly by 
cooling to —16°, at +4 to 5°, at room temperature, or by heating at 37° or 
above. Horse serum bouillon streptolysin was the most resistant. The strep- 
tolysin extracted from the filtrates was thermostable. The addition of hydro- 
chloric acid seemed to increase the inactivation of streptolysin by heat. The 
rate of preventing inactivation by sodium hydroxid. seemed to bear some relation 
to the hydrogen ion concentration of the solution. 

The laws and rules and regulations governing live stock sanitary control 
■work in Tennessee, 1913-14 (Xashville: Tenn. Dept. Agr., 1913, pp. Jfi, fig. 1). — 
A compilation of the various laws, rules, and regulations relating to live stock 
sanitary control work in Tennessee. 

The results of meat inspection in Brunswick, 1905-1911, C. Sander (Beitr. 
Statis. Braunschifcig, 1913, No. 26, pp. 23-47). — A statistical report of inspection 
work. 



VETERINARY MEDICINE. 79 

Conditions influencing' the transmission of East Coast fever, G. 11. F, 
NuTTALL and E. Hindle (Paru-ntology, G (1913), No. 3, pp. 321-332).— Ex\)(iri- 
uients in the transmission of East Coast fever here reported led the authors to 
conclude that " infected ticks do not produce infection during the first 2 d:iys 
when feeding on cattle. Infected ticks are still infective after feeding upon a 
rabbit for 3 days. Heating infected ticks to 37° C. for 3 days does not render 
them infective during the first 2 days after they become attached to the host. 
The partial feeding of infected ticks for 2 days, followed by starvation for 17 
days, renders thorn noninfective. Inoculations of emulsions of infective ticks 
collected from cattle on the fifth day of engorgement failed to produce infection. 
Infective ticks are rendered noninfective by exposure to a temperature of about 
10° for 3 weeks. Their infectivity may be restored by subsequently warming 
them." 

Piroplasmosis, G. H. F. Nuttall (Parasitology, 6 {1013), No. 3, pp. 302-320, 
figs. 14; BiiJ. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 24 {1913), No. 272, pp. 307-316, figs. 22).^ 
This is a summarized account of the present knowledge of piroplasmosis. 

Experimental investig-ations on the therapeutic action of yeast in alimen- 
tary, multiple polyneuritis in g-uinea pigs and pigeons, ]M. Barsickow 
{Biochem. Ztschr., 48 {1913), No. 5, pp. 418-424, pi. J).— Dried living yeast 
cells, zymin (acetone permanent yeast), Cerolin (an alcoholic extract of the 
fatty substances present in yeast), and a yeast killed by drying at 120° C. were 
used in these experiments. No difference was noted in the therapeutic efi!ects 
between those preparations containing enzyms or living yeast cells and dead 
yeast cells which contain no enzyms. It is concluded that in all probability the 
therapeutic properties of yeast depend upon the nuclein or salts of nucleic acid 
which it contains. 

Cultivation of the rabies organism, Anna W. Williams {Jour. Amer. Med. 
Assoc, 61 {1913), No. 17, pp. 1509-1511, figs. £).— The author reports observa- 
tions made during the course of studies of Negri bodies, in which attempts 
were made to cultivate the virus. 

The parasite of rabies, O. Bartholow {Jour. Amer. Med. Assoc., 61 {1913), 
No. 17, pp. 1555, 1556). — A critical review of recent literature. 

Note on rinderpest, E. W. Oliver {Dept. Land Rcc. and Agr. United Pror. 
Agra and Oudh. Agr. 8er., 1913, Bui. 28, pp. 13, pi. 1, figs. 11).— A general 
description of this disease, including vernacular names for rinderpest as use<l 
in various parts of India, diagnosis, and treatment, based upon observations in 
India and South Africa. 

The morphology of Trypanosoma simiae n. sp., D. Bruce et al. {Proc. 
Roy. Soc. [London], 8er. B, 85 {1912), No. B 581, pp. 477-481, pi. 1, figs. 5).— 
*• T. simice n. sp.. is a well-defined species, easily separated by its mori^hology 
alone from the other trypanosomes which have been described as causing disease 
among domestic animals. It sets up a chronic disease in goats, but is chiefly 
remarkable for its rapidly fatal action on monkeys. In Nyasaland it is carried 
by (ilossina ynorsitans and in this district. Central Angoniland, this tsetse fly 
is found to be heavily infected with this trypanosome."' 

Trypanosomes of the domestic animals in Nyasaland. — I, Trypanosoma 
simiae n. sp., II, III, D. Bruce et al. {Proc. Roy. Soc. [London], Ser. B, 87 
(1913), No. B 592. pp. 48-57, 58-66. pis. 5).— Continuing the studies noted above, 
the authors find that as regards the susceptibility of various animals, T. simiw 
belongs to the same group as 7'. pecorum, aud like the latter is erratic in its 
action. It affects goats, sheep, pigs, aud monkeys, while oxen, antelope, dogs, 
rabbits, guinea pigs, and rats are practically immune. The reservoir of the 
virus is the warthog. 



80 EXPEKIMENT STATION RECORD. 

T. simice multiplies in the iutestines and in the labial cavity of the proboscis 
of Glossina morsitans. Here only developmental forms are found, never in- 
fective forms. The T. simiw growing in the intestines of the ' fly ' has no spe- 
cific characters by which it can be distinguished from other species of pathogenic 
trypanosomes found in tsetse flies. The final stage of the development takes 
place in the hypopharynx, wherein the infective form of the parasite, similar in 
shape to the trypanosome found in the blood of infected animals, is produced. 
The flies do not become infective until about 20 days after their first infected 
feed. 

Trypanosome diseases of domestic animals in ITyasaland. — II, Trypano- 
soma caprse, D. Beuce et al. {Proc. Roy. Soc. [London], Ser. B, 86 (1913), 
Ko. B 587, pp. 278-284, pi. 1, fig. i).— " T. caprw belongs to the same group as 
T. vivax and T. uniforme, and affects the same animals, cattle, goats, and sheep. 
Monkeys, dogs, and the smaller laboratory animals are immune. The carrier 
is Glossina morsitans. The reservoir of the virus is the wild game living in the 
* fly country.' " 

The trypanosomes found in the blood of wild animals living in the sleep- 
ing- sickness area, Nyasaland, D. Bruce et al. (Proc. Roy. Soc. [London], 
Ser. B, 86 (1913), No. B 587, pp. 269-277). — "Thirty-one and seven-tenths per 
cent of the wild game in the * fly country ' below Kasu Hill harbor pathogenic 
trypanosomes. The species of trypanosomes found are Trypanosoma 'brucei vel 
rJiodesiense 7.8 per cent, T. pecorum 14.4, T. simice 1.7, T. caprw 11.1, and T. 
ingens 1.7. It is self-evident that these wild animals should not be allowed to 
live in ' fly country,' where they constitute a standing danger to the native in- 
habitants and the domestic animals. . . . Active measures should be taken 
for their early and complete blotting out. . . . 

" No pathogenic trypanosomes have up to the present been found by the com- 
mission in the blood of animals living in fly-free areas." 

Morphology of various strains of the trypanosome causing disease in 
man in Nyasaland, D. Bruce et al. {Proc. Roy. Soc. [Londoti], Ser. B, 86 
{1913), Nos. B 589, pp. 394-^07, figs. 7; pp. 408-421, figs. 7; B 592, pp. 26-35, pis. 
S. figs. 2). — The authors conclude that the 5 wild game strains resemble each 
other closely, and all belong to the same species of trypanosome {Trypanosoma 
rliodesiensc (Stephens and Fantham).) The human strain differs to some 
extent, but also belongs to the same species. " There is some reason for the 
belief that T. rhodesiense and T. hriicei (Plimmer and Bradford) are one and 
the same species." 

" The trypanosome of the Mzimba strain is the snme species as that occurring 
in the wild game inhabiting the Proclaimed Area, Nyasaland. It has already 
been concluded that this species is Trypanosoma brucei vel rJiodesiense. Hence 
it would appear that wild Glossina morsitans occurring in a district 100 miles 
north of the Proclaimed Area are infected with the trypanosome which causes 
the human trypanosome disease of Nyasaland." 

Studies on the biochemistry and chemotherapy of tuberculosis, IV, V, VI 
(Jour. Infect. Diseases, 12 {1913), Nos. 1, pp. 68-92; 2, pp. 249-275) .—These 
parts continue previous work (E. S. R., 29, p. 177). 

IV. Preliminary report of experiments in the vital staining of tubercles, 
Lydia M. DeWitt (pp. 68-92). — "Among the dyes so far tested, trypan blue, 
trypan red, isamin blue, pyrrhol blue, Ehrlich's rectified methylene blue, medici- 
nally pure methylene blue, methylene blue of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia, new 
methylene blue N, new methylene blue GG, and to some extent neutral red and 
pyronin have been found to penetrate tubercles in guinea pigs. Basic fuchsin, 
crystal violet, and the other new methylene blues are now being tested. . , . 



VETEEINARY MEDICINE. 81 

•' The dyes above mentioned are well borne for a long period if the dose of 
the methylene blues, basic fuclisin, and crystal violet is not too large. Almost 
any dose of the first 4 dyes mentioned is well borne. The individual bacillus 
Itself is penetrated and well stained by all the methylene blues, by basic fuch- 
sin, and crystal violet, by erythrosin and the eosins ; not so well by trypan 
blue, trj-pan red, isamin blue, pyrrhol blue, pyronin, and neutral red. Methy- 
lene blue, Bismarck brown, and brilliant cresyl blue are the only dyes which 
have a possible bactericidal power over the organism, though many of the 
others seem to inhibit its growth in the test tube." 

These experiments confirm von Linden's findings in so far that they demon- 
strate the possibilities of staining the tubercle bacillus in vitro, and also Bhow 
that the dyes penetrate the tubercles in vivo. No stained tubercle bacilli were 
ever found in the tubercles or in tuberculous pus stained with dye. 

y. The behavior of the tubercle bacillus toward fat dyes, Hope Sherman 
(pp. 249-273). — "All the dyes used, whether fat-soluble or not, stain pure cul- 
tures of tubercle bacillus, en masse, because of the presence of stainable sub- 
stances outside the bacilli. Sudan III does not stain individual tubercle bacilli, 
either in smears of pure culture, in tuberculous pus, or in tuberculous tissue. 
Sudan yellow and Sudan brown stain the bacilli faintly, in pure culture 
smears, upon prolonged exposure, or on heating. Scarlet red resembles Sudan 
III in behavior, but is slightly less inefficient, about half the tests for indi- 
vidual staining being doubtful or even faintly positive. 

"Nile blue sulphate gives a faint and rather unsatisfactory bacillus stain, 
as does Janus green, for the most part. A single smear stained with Janus 
green showed deeply stained bacilli, but this could not be duplicated. Indulin 
stains the bacilli faintly upon prolonged application. Indophenol blue does 
not show any bacillus stain. Dimethylaminoazobenzol gives a faint and un- 
satisfactory bacillus stain. Basic fuchsin, which is only slightly fat-soluble, 
eosin, and methylene blue, which are not fat-soluble, stain the individual bacilli 
deeply in a relatively short time. 

"All the dyes used stained the impure ether extract of tubercle bacilli, while 
the purified ether extract was less readily stained by the majority of the dyes 
not classed as ' fat dyes.' The behavior of the dyes toward the impure ether 
extract corresponds with their behavior toward cultures of the bacilli, and is 
very different from that toward the individual bacilli. These facts seem to 
indicate that masses of ether-soluble substance exist on the surface of cultures 
as well as within the bacterial protoplasm, and it is with this extracellular 
material that the dyes combine. Basic fuchsin and eosin, and to a less extent 
Bismarck brown resemble the regular fat dyes in the ease with which they 
stain the ether extract. Dilute solutions of Nile blue sulphate and neutral 
red are more efiicient than the saturated, in the staining of the ether extract. 
The fat dyes are not serviceable for the detection of tubercle bacilli in pus 
or in tissue, nor for their staining in pure cultures. 

"Experiments with crushed bacilli confirm Beninns' view that the acid- 
fastness of the tubercle bacillus depends upon the physical integrity of the 
bacterial cell. The fatty constituents of the tubercle bacillus are not, per se, 
the cause of the stainiiig reaction characteristic of this organism." 

VI. Intra-vitam staining of tuberculous guinea pigs with fat-soluble dyes {sup- 
plementary note), H. J. Corper (pp. 274, 275). — If indulin, dimethylaminoazoben- 
zol (1 per cent in oil), and Bismarck brown (1 per cent in oil and water) are fed 
to tuberculous guinea pigs, they do not appear to enter the organs nor tuber- 
culous areas to any appreciable extent when given for a period of about 65 
days. Alkanin and annate, 1 per cent in oil, do not enter within a period of 
14 days. 



82 EXPERIMENT STATION EECOED. 

Contribution to the study of pulmonary tuberculosis induced experi- 
mentally by inhalation, V. Grysez and D. Petit-Dutaillis {Compt. Read. 
Soc. Biol. [Paris], 73 {1912), No. 37, pp. 728-730; ahs. in Ztschr. Immunitatsf. 
u. Expt. Ther., II, Ref., 6 {1912), No. 12, pp. 927, 928).— In the experiments 78 
guinea pigs were exposed in a si:)ecially constructed lead chamber to a si)ray 
of an emulsion of bovine tubercle bacilli. Twenty of the animals received one 
inhalation, and of these 19 died within 17 to 133 days. All showed well- 
disseminated, cheesy foci, and 3 cavern formations. A second group of animals 
received 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 inhalations in from 2 to 36 hours. The guinea 
pigs which received 4 and 5 inhalations per day showed only slight sclerotic 
lesions, and almost one-half of the animals were free from tubercular changes. 

In a third group where numerous inhalations were given at intervals of 
from 8 to 30 days, appreciable evidences of tuberculosis were present in all 
animals. Some of the animals died, others were killed. 

New researches upon inhalation tuberculosis, P. Chausse {Bui. Soc. Cent. 
Med. V4t., 89 {1912), No. 16, pp. 361-363) .—This is a summary of a thesis 
submitted in competition for the Trasbot prize of 1912. See also previous 
notes (E. S. R., 26, pp. 179, 783). 

Experimental pulmonary tuberculosis in the dog, P. A. Lewis and C. M. 
Montgomery {Jour. Expt. Med., 17 {1913), No. 5, pp. 527-534, pl- i).— Large 
quantities of tubercle bacilli of the bovine type introduced directly into the 
lungs by way of the air passages failed to reproduce a chronic pulmonary 
tuberculosis in the dog. 

Milk-borne tuberculosis with special reference to impending- preventive 
legislation, S. Delepine {Jour. State Med., 21 {1913), No. 6, pp. 336-363, figs. 
2). — This is an extended article dealing with the improvement in the mortality 
from tuberculosis which has been effected in Manchester, England, by methods 
of inspection and inoculation. Results obtained in the course of 15 years are 
summarized as follows: "The proportion of tuberculous milk (as supplied to 
consumers) has been reduced to nearly one-third of the original amount. The 
number of farms with cows suffering from tuberculous mastitis has been re- 
duced to nearly the same extent. The inf activity of the milk which still re- 
mains tuberculous has been reduced to a much greater extent. The proportion 
of cases of tuberculosis in children under 5 years of age has been reduced by 
one-half." 

The author discusses pending legislation looking toward tuberculosis control 
and eradication. 

Combating bovine tuberculosis with especial reference to the clinical and 
bacteriological diagnosis of the disease, R. von Ostertag {Die Bekdmpfung 
der Tuherkulose des Rindes mit besonderer Beriiclcsichtigung der klinischen uiid 
haktcriologischen Feststellung. Berlin, 1913, pp. XII+591, figs. 88; rev. in 
Berlin. Tierdrztl. Wchnschr., 29 {1913), No. 17, p. 308). — The successive sections 
of this work take up the occurrence and distribution of the disease, the signifi- 
cance which it has from an economic and sanitaiy standpoint, and the necessity 
for combating the disease in bovines; investigations which have been conducted 
and the possibility of eradicating the disease: the significance of the various 
kinds of tuberculosis, i. e., open forms and nonoccult cases, for the distribution 
of the disease; clinical and bacteriological methods for diagnosing tuberculosis 
(with 88 illustrations) ; laws in regard to the control and eradication of 
tuberculosis in bovines; and various kinds of blanks which are used in the 
control of tuberculosis, official work in regard to tuberculosis, tariffs, etc. 

The introduction and spread of the cattle tick (Boophilus annulatus var, 
microplus), and of the associated disease tick fever (babesiasis) in Austra- 



VETERINARY MEDICINE. 83 

lia, J. A. GiLRUTH {Proc. Roy. Soc. Victoria, n. scr., 25 {1912), No. 1, pp. 15- 
22). — A historical account. 

The hypodermic affection of cattle. — The ox warble, Coppens {Ann. MM. 
V^t., 62 {1913), Xos: 6, pp. 309-328; 7, pp. 3S-^-3SS) .—The first part of this 
paper relates to losses caused by this pest through its injury to the hide, 
flesh, etc.; the second part to its biology; and the third part to methods of 
control. 

Bush sickness investig-ations, C. J. Rkakes and B. C. Aston {Jour. Agr. 
[New Zeal.], 6 {1913), Nos. Jf. pp. 399-401, fig. 1; 6, pp. 616-624, figs. 2).— These 
reports relate to experiments in which various top dressings were applied to the 
soil and cattle and sheep then grazed upon the treated pastures. The best 
results were obtained in the case of cattle with soil dressings of (1) supeiiDhos- 
phate, (2) sulphate of iron, (3) blood and bones, and (4) guano; in the case of 
sheep, with (1) sulphate of iron. (.2) basic slag, and (3) superphosphate. 

Vaccination ag-ainst g-angrenous mammitis in sheep and g-oats, J. BRiDRf; 
{Bid. Soc. Cent. MM. Vqt., 90 {1913), No. S, pp. i8//-JS7).— This condition, with 
the vaccine originally used against it, has been previously discussed (E. S. R., 
19, p. 1185). The work has now been continued for the purpose of obtaining a 
vaccine which will produce the smallest amount of lesions post-injection. Some 
tests with sheep are included, from which the conclusion is drawn that it is 
possible to obtain immunity against this condition by the treatment recom- 
mended. 

Directions for using antihog cholera serum, J. F, Mitchell {California Sta. 
Circ. 106, pp. 3-14, fiO^. 6). — A detailed account of the manner of immunizing 
hogs against hog cholera. 

Virulent anthrax bacilli in the saliva of an affected horse, J, G. T. Arntz 
{Berlin. Ticrarztl. Wchnschr., 20 {1913), No. 36, p. 640; abs. in Vet. Rec, 26 
{1913), No. 1311, p. 2J7).— The author records the finding of virulent anthrax 
bacilli in the saliva of an affected horse showing considerable swelling of the 
throat. He thinks that transmission of the disease is possible by direct contact 
through the saliva. 

The bacteriology and vaccine therapy of distemper in horses, W. Lintz 
{Jour. Expt. Med., 17 {1913), No. 5, pp. 511-516).— ^egatixe results were 
obtained in the attempt to immunize sick animals passively through the injec- 
tion of serum from horses which had recovered from the disease. A vaccine 
consisting of 800,000,000 each of the pneumococcus and of the bacillus isolated, 
injected subcutaneously in the region of the neck, had a curative effect. An 
immunity conferred by vaccination with 50,000,000 of each organism apparently 
does not last longer than one year, though it lasts much longer if 3 inoculations 
are given at intervals of 3 days. By vaccinating affected as well as unaffected 
horses the following year the epidemic was promptly eradicated, not a single 
case proving fatal. 

The diagnosis of dourine by complement fi.xation, J. R. Mohler, A. Eich- 
HORN, and J. M. Buck {U. 8. Dept. Agr., Jour. Agr. Research, 1 {1913), No. 2, 
pp. 99-107). — Dourine, which is caused by Trypanosoma equiperdum, was first 
seen in the United States in 1886 and was noted at later periods in Nebraska. 
South Dakota, and Iowa, and in Montana in 1912. The disease when present 
in a chronic or latent form is difficult to diagnose, and a microscopic examina- 
tion of the body fluids, etc., often fails to reveal the causative organism, although 
it may occasionally be found in the serous exudate of the plaques and also in 
the fluid obtained from the affected genital organs and in the edematous fluid 
obtained from the affected genital organs of stallions and mares. In Montana 
only a limited number of animals were clinically affected. 



84 EXPERIMENT STATION EECORD. 

In view of the necessity for a ready means of diagnosis, tlie application of 
the complement fixation method has been attempted, using some dis- 
eased horses sent to the experiment station at Bethesda, Md. The problem of 
greatest difficulty has been the question of an appropriate antigen. " From time 
to time, as these animals died, certain tissues were obtained which it was sus- 
pected might furnish the desired results, but although shake extracts of the 
spleens, livers, kidneys, and bone marrow, as well as alcoholic and acetone prep- 
arations, were employed under various conditions, the results were rather dis- 
couraging." 

From the literature it appears that the best results may be obtained from the 
use of suspensions of pure trypanosomes, " In place of the specific trypanosome 
of dourine being utilized, the writers selected the surra organism, as it had 
been previously ascertained by several investigators that the reaction obtained 
was not absolutely si^ecific for any one trypanosome infection but was rather 
of a group nature." In a part of this work, instead of straight suspensions an 
antigen was made of the blood and macerated spleens of rats killed at the height 
of surra infection. The material was placed in a bottle containing glass beads, 
then shaken for 6 hours, filtered through gauze, and carbolic acid added to the 
filtrate. 

The smallest quantity of serum from horses which gave a positive reaction 
was 0.05 cc, but the various comparative tests indicated that fixation in tubes 
containing 0.2 cc. of serum was sufficient for diagnostic purposes. The sera 
from normal animals, or those affected with diseases other than trypanoso- 
miasis, did not react. As the method of preparing antigen described above did 
not later always give satisfactory results, antigen was prepared by drawing the 
blood of an infected dog into centrifuge tubes containing an equal amount of 
1 per cent potassium citrate solution. The red blood corpuscles were cytolyzed 
with saponin, the mixture centrifuged, and the supernatant fluid drawn off. The 
opaque mass or residue after repeated washing with sodium chlorid solution 
was emulsified and titrated. This antigen proved very satisfactory with the 
blood from the horses in the Montana outbreak, but a more rapid method proved 
essential. 

" Various organs from rats just dead from surra were tried out in both 
fresh and preserved states, and the results which were obtained from the fresh 
suspension of the macerated spleen of a rat just dead from surra were the most 
promising. . . . After repeated tests on horses clinically affected with dourine 
had shown the antigen to be uniformly constant in its action, the procedure of 
diagnosing dourine by this method was definitely adopted. . . . 

" Gray or white rats are infected with surra by the Injection of 0.2 cc. of 
blood from a rabbit infected with that disease. Since tests have to be made 
every day to keep up with the large number of cases submitted and as the 
antigen proves effective only when prepared fresh, it was arranged that at 
least 2 rats should die daily with the disease. When the rats appeared to 
be at the point of death late in the afternoon it was found that placing such 
rats in the ice chest until they died furnished a better antigen than when they 
have died in the cage during the night and have to be used the following 
morning. The spleens of the rats are removed, placed in a mortar, and ground 
up with a small amount of salt solution to a pulpy mass. From time to time 
more of the salt solution is added, and the suspension thus obtained is filtered 
twice through a double layer of gauze into a test tube. The quantity of the 
suspension from each spleen is made up to 40 cc. by dilution with salt solution. 
This suspension constitutes the jintigen for the tests of the suspected dourine 
sera. . . . Occasionally the antigen does not prove satisfactory for the test 



EUEAL ENGINEERING. 80 

ami has to be discarded. In these cases the fixatiou in all tubes is apparently 
due to the excessive amount of proteids from the spleen. Experience has shown 
that the excessively large spleens contribute such an antigen. . . . 

"The test proper for the diagnosis of dourine is carried out in a man- 
ner similar to that practiced for the diagnosis of glanders [E. S. II., 25, p. 
181]. . . . Since the testing has been undertaken by the method described, 8.G57 
samples have been examined from Montana and the Cheyenne and Standing 
Rock Indian Reservations in North Dakota and South Dakota. Of these 1,076 
gave positive reactions, which appears to be a very large proportion, but when 
it is remembered that those animals were kept under range conditions without 
sanitary or veterinary control and also that before the disease was recognized 
as dourine it had been diagnosed for a long period as some other affection, it 
will be apparent that the opportunity for the spread of the disease was ideal. 
With the present system of diagnosis, by which even the latent cases can be 
determined, it is hoped to eradicate the disease quickly." 

A bibliography is appendetl. 

RUEAL ENGINEEEI^ja. 

Pumping plants, F. C. Kelton (U. 8. Geol. Survey, Water-Siipphj Paper S20, 
pp. 1S7-213, pi. 1). — In cooperation with the Arizona Experiment Station, tests 
of 20 representative irrigation pumping plants in the Sulphur Spring Valley 
are reported, the object being to ascertain the initial cost, consumption, and 
cost of fuel, yield of wells, and general efficiency. All the plants tested were 
of the distillate centrifugal type, 18 being horizontal and 2 vertical pumps. 
The actual lifts varied from IS to 73 ft, and the yields ranged from 69 to 1,080 
gal. per minute. Of the pumps tested the rapid speed tyVQ appeared to be the 
more efficient. 

The two causes which were preeminent in reducing the efficiency of the 
plants are said to be (1) the insufficient speed maintained by the pump, and 
(2) the improper timing of the engine ignition. Efficiencies ranging from 
8.5 to 41.4 per cent were obtained. 

The cost of pumping plants per rated horsepower varied from $40 to $104. 
exclusive of cost of well and buildings, with an average of $66. The average 
cost per useful horsepower was $200. The average fuel cost per acre foot of 
water pumped was $4.39 with distillate at 16^ cts. per gallon in the northern 
part of the valley and 17^ cts, in the southern part, 5 per cent being allowed 
for losses by leakage and evaporation. 

Details and design of headgates, B. A. Etcheverry {Jour. Electricity, 30 
(1913), No. 11, pp. 24S-251, figs. 7).— This article deals with headgates and 
gate lifting machineiy, describing the lever types, inclined plane types, pulley 
types, and a lever combined with inclined plane or gearing. The mathematical 
and mechanical principles of each are analyzed, and formulas for the design 
of the parts are derived. 

Inverted siphon construction, B, A. Etcheverry {Jour. Electricity, 30 {1913), 
No. 25, pp. 578-581, figs. 5). — This article calls attention to the necessary 
auxiliaries to inverted siphon construction, namely, wasteway and sand box, 
anchorage, air outlet and inlet valves, and blow-offs. It describes the details 
of the design and construction of several inverted siphons in use on private 
irrigation projects, on the Umatilla and Belle Fourche projects, and on irriga- 
tion projects in Spain. Special attention is called to difTerent methods of re- 
enforcing the siphon proper, to tyv^s of inlet and outlet, and to novel methods 
for draining away .•seepage water. 



86 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

Land clearing-, A. J. McGuire {Minnesota Sta. Bui. 134, pp. 32, figs. 22). — ^The 
only practical methods of clearing land of stumps in use by farmers in northern 
Minnesota are said to be blasting and the use of the horsepower stump puller. 
The stump puller is considered most economical for small stumps, while for 
stumps so large that they can not be handled and burned when they are pulled, 
blasting is said to be best. " For very large stumps or green stumps the com- 
bined use of explosives and the stump puller gives the most satisfactory re- 
sults." For the lowest cost and quickest results it is suggested that all trees 
and brush be removed at one time and a pasture or meadow established to 
keep down brush and bring returns. Green stumps over a foot in diameter 
should not be removed unless immediate cultivation is necessary as they may 
be removed more readily after a few years and the soil will be in a better 
condition. "When an explosive is used it should be placed under that part 
of the stump which will offer the greatest resistance, usually the center. The 
depth at which to place the explosive under the stump may generally be esti- 
mated by the diameter of the stump at the ground line." 

"For removing stumps from clay or clay loam soil the lower grades of 
dynamite, 25, 27, and 30 per cent are quite equal to the higher and more ex- 
pensive grades, 40 and 60 per cent. They are cheaper, less dangerous, and 
leave the soil in better condition." It is claimed that an explosive known as 
"virite" is being used successfully when the soil is not wet. It is said to be 
somewhat cheaper than dynamite, does not produce headache, and does not 
freeze. "A pound of explosive should be used for each foot of diameter of the 
stump, if it has been cut some time. From 1* to If lbs. per foot in diameter 
should be used for green stumps." 

Dynamite is said to work best in wet soil when the earth is thoroughly 
tamped over, if care is taken not to tamp directly on the dynamite. Virite 
requires a soil free from water and must not be compressed at all as it will 
not explode, so that only the upper part of the hole should be thoroughly 
tamped. 

The methods of priming, blasting, and firing charges are reviewed and 
warnings given as to the danger of improper procedure and carelessness. In 
this connection, it is suggested that before using dynamite methods of 
handling it be studied and that, if possible, an experienced man be employed 
for a day or two as an instructor. 

Vitrified brick as a paving- material for country roads, V. M. Peirce and 
C. H. MooREFiELD {U. 8. Dcpt. Agr. Bui. 23, pp. 34, pls. 10, figs. 3).— It is the 
purpose of this bulletin " to furnish information relating to the construction of 
brick roads and to supply suggestions for aiding engineers in preparing specifica- 
tions under which such work may be satisfactorily performed." 

The principal advantages of brick roads are stated as follows: (1) They are 
durable under heavy traflic conditions, (2) they afford easy traction and good 
foothold for horses, (3) they are easily maintained and kept clean, and (4) 
they present a very pleasing appearance. The principal disadvantage is the 
high first cost. One of the most essential features is stated to be the selection 
of the brick, and in this connection a brief discussion of raw materials and proc- 
esses of manufacture, general physical characteristics of the perfect finished 
product, and field and laboratory tests is given. 

In the construction of brick pavements or roads the essential features to be 
considered in preparing the subgrade are enumerated as (1) thorough drainage, 
(2) firmness, (3) uniformity in grade and cross section, and (4) adequate shoul- 
ders. Brick pavements should be supplied with strong durable curbings of 
stone, Portland cement concrete, or vitrified clay shapes, both on the sides and 



BUBAL ENGINEERING. 87 

at the ends. A firm unyielding foundation is a most essential feature, the 
proper type to be used depending largely on the material composing the sub- 
grade and the character of traffic for which the road is designed. Where the 
traffic is comparatively heavy or where the material composting the subgrade Is 
defective in any way a monolithic concrete foundation should be used. An 
adjustable cushion of fine sand, usually 2 in. in thickness, is necessary between 
the foundation and brick for correcting slight irregularities in the foundation. 
The brick should be laid on edge in uniform courses running at right angles to 
the line of the pavement, except at intersections, and joints should be broken. 
After laying, the pavement should be carefully inspected to detect defective 
brick. To smooth out all inequalities, it should be rolled in both directions with 
a power roller weighing from 3 to 5 tons. In order to keep the brick in proper 
position and protect the edges the joints should be filled, preferably with a 
Portland cement grout. Longitudinal expansion joints of some firm and 
durable bituminous material are deemed necessary next to the curb. The thick- 
ness of joint should vary with the width of the pavement, i in. being suggested 
for roadways 20 ft. or less in width, f in. for widths of 20 to 30 ft, 1 in. for 
widths of SO to 40 ft, and li in. for greater widths. 

AYith all materials considered delivered on the work and all costs expressed 
in cents the probable cost of constructing the brick pavement, including the 
subgrade, the 6 in, concrete foundation, curbs, etc., is estimated by the formula: 
Cost per square yard=1.90L+0.213 C+0.138 -8+0.157 A +0.045 B, in which C 
equals cost of cement per barrel, 8 cost of sand per cubic yard, A cost of coarse 
aggregate per cubic yard, B cost of paving brick per thousand, and L cost of 
labor per hour. Ten per cent should be added to allow for wear on tools and 
machinery and for unforeseen contingencies. Each inch subtracted or added to 
the thickness of foundation will make a corresponding difference of from 8 to 
12 cts. in the cost per square yard. 

Typical specifications for the construction of brick roads are presented, and 
a method for inspecting and testing paving brick is appended. 

In conclusion the importance of proper engineering supervision is emphasized, 
and it is stated that since brick pavements are probably more expensive to con- 
struct than any other type of country road it is important that their construc- 
tion should be carefully planned and well executed. 

The production of sand and gravel in 1912, R. W. Stone {V. 8. GeoL 
8urvey, Advance Chapter from Mineral Resources of the United States, Calendar 
Year 1912, pp. 18). — Data are given showing the production of sand and gravel 
for various purposes in the various States during 1912. The total production is 
reported as 68,318,877 short tons, valued at $23,081,555, a net increase in quan- 
tity of 1,471.018 short tons and in value of $1,922,972 over the production of 1911. 

Tests of the strength of cement (Concrete- Cement Age, 2 {1913), No. 5, 
pp. 257, 25S). — In an abstract of a paper read by H. C. Johnson before the 
Concrete Institute at London are given the tabulated results of tests of 16 dif- 
ferent brands of cement and mixtures thereof, conducted to emphasize the 
need of test'ng all materials, and comprising tests for tension, compression, 
binding, and effects of varying percentages of water. The author's conclusions 
are that a good strength in paste is no proper indication of a good strength in 
concrete; that the best tests of a cement's value for reenforced concrete or 
similar work are mortar compressions cured in water and in air; that any 
cement having a higher value in air than in water ought to be condemned: 
that not less than 22 per cent of water should be allowed in gaging paste and 
not less than 3 per cent plus i the percentage as used in the paste in giiging 
mortar; that the standard of values for cement to be used in reenforced con- 
25842°— No. 1—14 7 



88 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

Crete work should be raised by 25 per cent ; that a given strength of concrete 
should be speeifipd instead of a given mix; and that cement should be sold by 
volume ii .tead of weight and in paper bags containing 1 cu. ft. 

Test of a kerosene oil engine, H. D. Wile {Elect. World, 62 (1913), No. 8, 
p. S89, fig. 1). — The engine tested resembles the ordinary 4-stroke-cycle, 
throttling-governor, stationary engine with mechanically operated valves and 
make and break ignition. A 7.5 K. W. generator was directly connected. The 
mixer, situated on top of the cylinder, supplies both water and fuel, which are 
atomized by the piston suction. Four series of tests were made as to jacket 
water temperature, time of ignition, amount of water in the cylinder, and 
economy run. 

The most efficient jacket water temperature was found to be around 175° F. 
and the best angle of advance of ignition was 36, as compared with the aver- 
age angle of 16° for gasoline engines. Water in the cylinder performs four 
duties, namely, prevents rapid explosions, excessive pressures, high tempera- 
tures, and the heavy deposit of carbon on the walls of the cylinder. Other 
points brought out are that the best ratio of kerosene to water in the mixer 
was as 3 : 1 and that the addition of more water decreased the thermal efficiency ; 
that the percentage of heat absorbed by the jacket water was approximately 
16 per cent ; and that the heat lost in radiation and exhaust was approximately 
55 per cent. The fuel economy was considered good, 0.872 lb. of kerosene per 
brake horsepower being the lowest consumption, which indicates that nonvola- 
tile or low-grade fuels can be burned successfully in small units. 

Comparison of cost of fuel for oil, gas, and steam engines and current 
for electric motor, W. A. Kritzee {Gas Engine, 15 {1913), No. 6, pp. 316, 
Sit). — Several tables of data are given showing the cost of fuel per brake 
horsepower for 1 hour, for 24 hours, for 300 days of 10 hours each, and for 300 
days of 24 hours each, using the maximum, average, and minimum prices for 
the fuel. 

Wind power, Vogdt {Deut. Landw. Presse, 40 {1913), No. 49, pp. 590, 591, 
flgs^ Sy — The results of experiments with wind power indicate that the pressure 
of the wind on a wind motor per unit area increases with the square of the 
wind velocity, and the horsepower with the cube of the wind velocity, including 
skin friction. Under these conditions it is stated that the speed of a windmill 
wheel is directly proportional to the wind velocity. On this basis the following 
formula is suggested to determine approximately the available power of a 

V X F y. v^ 

windmill for certain wind velocities: N= j^q- — -. In this y equals the 

weight of 1 cubic meter of air in kilograms; F the average area in square meters 
of the windmill wheel at right angles to the direction of the wind; v the wind 
velocity in meters per second ; and fir 0.81 meters per second or the acceleration 
due to gravity. In this connection it is claimed that the efficiency of the wind 
power plants which have been tested vary between 05 and 80 per cent. The 
operations of several wind motors are described. 

Electricity on the western farm {Jour. Electricity, 30 {1913), No. 25, pp. 
576, 577). — This article gives operating data and rate schedules of several power 
companies supplying electrical power to farms throughout the Western States. 

The rate schedules show a great difference in the methods of charging for 
power and the amount of the charge. The greatest demand for electrical power 
appears to be for irrigation pumping, so that the use of electricity in these cases 
is necessarily a seasonal use. It is concluded, therefore, that it is to the 
advantage of power companies to have the consumer make his installation small 



RUKAL ECONOMICS. 89 

and openite as many hours per day as possible in order to cut down the ix)wer 
company's plant investment and increase the return per unit of installed 
capacity. 

Traction farming and traction engineering-, J. H. Stephenson (Chicago, 
1913, pp. 330, figs. 151). — This is a practical handbook for owners and operators 
of gasoline, alcohol, and kerosene engines on the farm, comprising descrip- 
tions of some of the makes of farm tractors with directions for their care and 
operation, and also two chapters by S. E. Brown on water supply and electric 
lighting systems for the farm. A section is devoted to threshing machines and 
the science of threshing. Chapters on the operation of gas and oil engines are as 
follows : The gasoline farm tractor, fuel consumption of gas engines, alcohol as 
fuel, kerosene as fuel for traction engines, balancing of engines, piston rings, 
valves, leaky pistons, the cylinder, the carbureter, modern ignition, vaporizing 
of fuel, cooling systems, lubrication, horsepower calculations, and gasoline 
engine troubles. 

The care and repair of rubber belts, R. Moore {Power, 38 {1913), No. 4, 
pp. 145, 146, figs. 5). — This illustrated article gives instructions for splicing and 
stitching rubber and canvas belts. The use of rubber belts on too small pulleys 
is not recommended, since the resulting inside compression and outside tension 
is likely to separate the plies. It is stated that animal fats and grease should 
never be used as dressing on rubber belts, but that boiled linseed oil is good, and 
also equal parts of black lead, red lead, French yellow, litharge, and enough 
Japan drier to make it dry quickly. 

The construction of creameries, M, Mortensen and J. B, Davidson {Iowa 
Sta. Bui. 139, pts. 1, pp. 126-146, figs. 11; 2, pis. 21).— Fart 1 of this bulletin 
deals with the factors determining the success or failure of a local creamery, 
forms of organization, and data as to the location and construction of cream- 
eries as regards convenience, sanitation, heating, lighting and ventilation, and 
materials of construction. Eight typical creameries are described with specifi- 
cations for their construction and bills of material. Part 2 gives building 
plans for these creameries. 

Modem silo construction, J. B. Davidson {Iowa Sta. Bui. 14I, pp. 159-229, 
figs. 63). — This bulletin covers briefly the field of Bulletin 100 of the Iowa 
Station (E. S. R., 20, p. 6S7) and Piulletin 117 (E. S. R., 23, p. 590) and adds 
descriptions of several recent developments in silo construction, among which 
are the wooden hoop silo, pit silo, and the Iowa silo used as a water tower. 
In the last the silo walls are designed of sufficient strength to support a water 
tank for the general farm supply. The success of this method is to be reported 
in a later bulletin. 

RURAL ECONOMICS. 

A normal day's work for various farm operations, H. H. Mowrt {U. S. 
Dept. Agr. Bui. 3, pp. 44)- — Notes and data based in part on personal observa- 
tions and in part on replies to a circular of inquiry sent to 25,000 selected 
farmers as to the average or normal day's work for various farm operations 
are presented. Tables are given illustrating a normal day's work in using 
walking, sulky, and gang plows; plowing stubble and sod with a traction 
engine; using spike-tooth, spring-tooth, and disk harrows, a land roller, a 
grain drill, a broadcast seeder, knapsack sower, and wheelbarrow sower ; in 
planting cotton, corn, sweet potatoes, Irish potatoes, cabbage, and tomatoes; 
cutting potatoes for seed and covering same after planting; making rows for 
planting; hauling and spreading manure with a spreader and by hand and 



90 EXPEKIMENT STATION RECORD. 

dumping manure in piles; cultivating corn, potatoes, beans, cabbage, and 
cotton; spraying an orchard; mowing, raking, tedding, and cocking hay; 
harvesting hay and corn with and without a binder; husking corn; digging 
potatoes; threshing grain; hauling to market with wagon; together with a 
number of other farm operations, giving the average work factors in terms of 
designated units per man, per horse, per hour, per day, etc. 

Among the author's conclusions are the following : 

"Daily and seasonal working factors for farm labor and equipment are of 
primary importance in farm organization and management. 

"The seasonal and daily duty of men and equipment for an agricultural area 
can be reliably approximated by averaging many estimates for each operation 
made by farmers in the region. Figures so obtained are as accurate for prac- 
tical purposes as those secured by more refined methods. . . . 

"Those engaged in farming have quite definite conceptions of the duty for 
the simpler operations where but one or two men and one or two teams are 
involved. Where many men and units of equipment are used in an operation 
there is less definite conception of what constitutes a fair day's work, since 
fewer have had experience with the large crews, and the range of variation is 
greater. More data are therefore necessary to insure useful averages. 

"With implements of heavy draft and also w^itli many of the lighter imple- 
ments, the increase in dimensions is not attended with proportional increases in 
work accomplished. . . . 

"The increase in the number of men in the crew and in the complexity of 
the operation are attended by lost motion and decrease in efficiency per unit 
of labor and equipment. The simpler operations are the most economical from 
the standpoint of work done daily." 

To work a grass holding at a living profit, and the cheap cottage problem, 
H. B. M. Buchanan (London, 1910, pp. 102, figs. 3). — This book discusses the 
problem of producing a hay crop, and tJie management of cows, pigs, and 
poultry on a small holding. 

Land tenure in England and Norway, E. Sundt (Economist, 77 (1913), 
No. 3G62, pp. 965, 966).— This article discusses and illustrates the effect of 
feudalism upon agriculture and agricultural population, the author holding 
that the general exodus from the farm to towns and cities in England is due 
largely to the system of land tenure, particularly the entailing of property. 
Free trade in land is thus impossible, and the country is accordingly "doomed 
to a continuation of farming by tenants." 

Irish agricultural laborers, 1912 (Dept. Agr. and Tech. Instr. Ireland, Agr. 
Statis. 1912, pp. 45). — This report submits notes and tables showing the number 
and earnings of Irish migratory agricultural laborers, the wages of agricultural 
laborers, and the number of persons engaged in farm work, together with the 
number and power of the various agricultural machines and implements in use 
in Ireland in 1912. 

The total number of agricultural laborers is shown to have decreased from 
509,344 in 1871 to 199,900 in 1911. There is also as much complaint among the 
farmers of the loss of efliciency of the laborers as of the difficulty in securing 
them. 

The total number of jjersons engaged in farm work on June 1, 1912, is re- 
ported at 1,073.238. 

Persons engaged in agricultural pursuits in Prussia, Hagmann (Mitt. 
Deut. Landiv. GeselL, 28 (1913), No. 34, pp. ^85-^86) .—This article presents 
notes and tables showing observations made from the census of the agricultural 



RURAL ECONOMICS. 



91 



popnlation of Prussia in 1007. The following table sliows the number of per- 
sons engaged on different-sized farms: 

Persons actively engaged in agriculture in Prussia. 



Size of farm. 


Kind of labor. 


Number of 
persons 


Male. 


Female. 


Total. 


per 100 
hectares. 


Under 2 hectares 


747,559 
073,416 
1,273,995 
754,476 
602, 992 


1,846,911 
824,383 

1,244,343 
620, 171 
432,278 


2,594,470 
1,497,799 
2.518,338 
1,374,647 
1,035,270 


259.5 


2-5 hectares 


87.7 


6-20 hectares 


43.4 


20-100 hectares ... . 


20.9 


100 hectares and over 


17.5 






Total 


4,052,438 


4,968,086 


9,020,524 


43.0 







Other tables are given showing the number of persons engaged in agriculture 
in each Province or subdivision, also the kind of work in which they are 
engaged. 

Depopulation of rural districts in France, W. H. Hunt {Daily Cons, and 
Trade Rpts. [U. S.}, 16 (1918), No. 210, pp. 1386, 1387).— This report shows 
that according to an inquiry made by the minister of agriculture the number 
of persons employed in agricultural pursuits in France decreased from 4,000,000 
in 1862 to 3,000,000 in 1892 and to 2,320,000 in 1913, or a decrease of about 40 
per cent in half a century. " Irregular work, long periods of enforced idleness, 
poverty resulting from bad harvests, frequent recurrence of certain calamities — 
hail, blight mildew, etc. — induce them to abandon the soil and look elsewhere 
for better-paid work." 

Data are given showing the working hours and farm wages for day laborers in 
different sections of the country. 

Condition of Danish agriculture during 1911 (Tid^skr. Landohonomi, 1912, 
Nos. 7, pp. 434-463: 8, pp. 489-504; 9, pp. 537-553; 12, pp. 698-721; 13, pp. 761- 
778, 779-795). — The general condition of Danish agriculture in its various 
phases during the year 1911 is discussed in this volume by different specialists, 
as follows: Animal husbandry, by A. Appel ; horse raising, by J. Jensen; crop 
production, by K. Hansen; Denmark's trade in agricultural products with for- 
eign countries, by *N. C. Christensen ; dairy exports, 1911-1912, by B. Boggild ; 
and meteorological conditions, 1911-12, by H. Hansen. 

[Area, population, agricultural production, etc., in Canada, 1911-12] 
(Canada Yearbook, 1912, pp. 1-301). — This is an official publication giving in 
addition to other data a statistical census as to area, population, agricultural 
production, imports, exports, etc., of Canada for 1911-12 by Provinces and Ter- 
ritories, with comparison with former periods in a number of instances. 

Tables showing the urban and rural population give for the whole country 
3,280,964 of the former, an increase of 62.28 per cent over 1901 ; and 3.925,679 
of the latter, an increase of 17.20 per cent during the- same period. In the 
Provinces of Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Ontario 
there has been an actual decline in the rural population since 1901. but a 
marked increase in the urban population. 

The estimated total area under field crops in 1912 was 32,449,420 acres, yield- 
ing a harvest value of $511,951,100. Tables arc given showing the acreage, 
yield, value, etc., of the leading crops, together with data as to the production, 
value, etc., of butter and cheese in 1900, 1907, and 1910. 



92 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

AGRICULTURAL EDUCATIOIT. 

Report of the temporary educational commission to the government and 
legislature of the State of North Dakota {[Fargo, N. Dak.], 1912, pp. 61).— 
This commission, organized in December, 1911, for the purpose of studying 
educational systems in the United States and elsewhere with a view to unifying 
and systematizing the educational system of North Dakota, outlines in this 
report the North Dakota educational system, what a state educational system 
should be, the bases of institutional organization, the scope of institutions, and 
the views of authorities concerning the function, control, and government of a 
state university. 

Report of committee on agricultural education, T. E. Finegan {N. Y. 
Dept. Agr. Bui. hi, pp. 1253-1256, pi. 1). — This committee of the New York State 
Agricultural Society presents for the consideration of the society the report of 
the state advisoi-y board, established in 1911 for the purpose of promoting and 
directing agricultural education and the advancement of country life. This 
report recommends "(1) that the main effort toward the introduction of agri- 
cultural education, whether through state or local aid, be directed toward the 
study of agricultural and rural subjects in the public high schools; (2) that 
in addition to those institutions already authorized to train teachers of agri- 
culture, special and adequate provision be made for training such teachers at 
the State Normal College and in one or more normal schools; (3) that the 
state department of education give direction at a few points, distributed with 
reference to the leading agricultural industries, to the development of adequate 
teaching equipments in high schools which may serve as examples and illustra- 
tions for further extension of such equipment; (4) that the special state 
schools already established be developed toward teaching home economics and 
agricultural technology, i the latter somewhat specialized for each school; (5) 
that the further development of the special state schools, when this may safely 
and wisely be accomplished, shall be made with reference chiefly to the fruit 
and vegetable growing interests, under which policy the southeastern and west- 
ern parts of the State would be considered by the establishment of one school 
in each of those sections ; and thereafter special schools of agriculture shall be 
established only if the people of a locality determine whether they desire a 
school and will take a substantial part in its financial support; (6) that this 
board favors legislation enabling cities of the first and second class to establish 
public schools of agriculture either within or without the limits of said cities; 
(7) that in schools of agriculture hereafter established, the commissioner of 
education, the commissioner of agriculture, and the director of the State Col- 
lege of Agriculture at Cornell University, shall be ex ofiicio members of the 
boards of trustees." 

Fourth annual report of the eleven district agricultural schools of Georgia, 
J. S. Stewart {Bui. Ga. State Col. Agr., 1 {1913), No. 12, pp. 38, figs. 11).— 
Among the new features of work is the plan to give the girls some training in 
general agriculture as well as in care of poultry, milk, and vegetable and flower 
gardens, and the making of butter. The teacliers' training course was taken by 
53 students during the past year. It proved popular in 3 schools, and it is 
believed will soon become a valuable means of teacher training for rural 
schools. The complete course of study, which appears in the report, has again 
been revised. 

Scientific farming on elaborate scale in the common schools, S. A. Mineab 
{Rural Educator, 2 {1913), No. 2, p. 24, fig. i).— According to this article there 
are over 4.000 schools in the State of Oklahoma teaching agriculture. About 
3,500 are rural schools, all of which use agricultural text-books. Indoor experi- 



' AGRICULTUr.AL EDUCATION. 93 

mental work Is carried on in 20 counties ; object lessons in more than 16 
counties; and school gardens, hotbeds, and outdoor experimental farms in more 
than 8 counties. 

People's high schools in Denmark, C. G. Rathmann {School and Home Ed., 
33 {1913), No. 2, pp. 51-54, figs. 3). — A brief st^atement concerning the estab- 
lishment and objects of people's high schools in Denmark is followed by an 
outline of the daily program at the school at Wallekilde on the island of 
Zealand, which has an a^-icultural course. 

The g-irls' agricultural school at Berlaer, C. C. Pervieb {Nat. Stockman and 
Farmer, 37 {1913), No. IS, p. 5, fig. 1). — A brief report is given on this Belgian 
school, which is solely for teaching practical and theoretical agriculture and 
dairying to farm girls and is under the supervision of nuns who also teach 
the girls household work of every kind. The girls do all the work of planting 
and harvesting on the 30-acre farm and of caring for the dairy herd. A 4-year 
course is offered, of which the fourth is devoted to agriculture. The govern- 
ment appropriates ^2.600 per annum for the school. 

Methods in agricultural schools, D. Snedden {Jour. Ed. [Boston], 78 {1913), 
No. 1, p. 18). — ^Among the questions recommended to be discussed fully at the 
earliest moment are (1) to what extent should the agricultural school be pre- 
paratory to colleges in general or to the agricultural college; (2) what should 
be the character of the land used by the central school of agriculture; and (3) 
in what ways should the course of study admit of specialization? Each of 
these questions is here briefly considered. 

The author maintains that 2 types of schools are practicable in Massachu- 
setts, namely, the agricultural department of an existing high school and the 
central or county agricultural school. In the former case the agricultural 
training should be in the hands of one person giving his entire time to this 
work, and combining in his preparation scientific training with some experience 
as a practical farmer; (2) all the practical work of the boys should be done 
on home farms, the school attempting no farming; (3) the instructor should 
supervise the boys' practical work during the summer months with his vaca- 
tion in the winter; and (4) each agricultural pupil may also take 1 or 2 studies 
of a general nature. In the case of the central or county agricultural school, 
there should be (1) a faculty of such a size as to justify its giving exclusive 
attention to agricultural (and, possibly, household arts) education; (2) two 
classes of pupils — those from farmers' homes and those from villages or the 
city; (3) sufl5cient land to give object lessons on a small scale of good farming 
and also to provide city boys with opportunity for practical work; and (4) a 
central location. 

8ee also a previous note (E. S. R., 29, p. 191). 

Problems in the administration and teaching of agriculture, G. A. Brickeb 
{Texas School Jour., 30 {1913), No. 10, pp. iO-i2).— This paper points out that 
instruction in agriculture should result in some immediate economic benefit 
and give the pupil an intelligent desire for farm life; should prepare the 
boy for continuing the agricultural work in the high school ; and should be 
adapted to his nature and capacity. Attention is called to the importance of 
differentiating between agricultural nature study and elementary agriculture. 

The redirection of the rural school, W. R. Habt {Rural Educator, 2 {1913), 
Nos. 1, pp. Jf, 5, 10, fig. 1; 2, pp. 18-20; 3, pp. 3^-36).— This article discusses 
in a comprehensive way a number of psychological considerations entering into 
agricultural instruction, which the author believes increases the productive 
efficiency of education, aids in disciplining the mind, and satisfies to a large 
extent the demands of intellectual culture. 

Agricultural training courses for employed teachers, E. R. Jackson {JJ. 8. 
Dept. Agr. Bui. 7, pp. 17). — In addition to a discussion of the means by which 



94 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

employed teachers may acquire agricultural training, this bulletin contains 
lists of institutions maintaining courses in agriculture in summer sessions, 
institutions offering special short courses or extension courses in agriculture 
for teachers, correspondence and reading courses in agriculture, and a suggested 
reading course in agriculture based on Farmers' Bulletins and other free 
publications of this Department. 

Subject matter in nature study and elementary agriculture {Cornell Rural 
School Leaflet, 7 {1913), No. 1, pp. 212, figs. 165). — This publication presents 
lists of subjects for 1913-14 in nature study and elementary agriculture as out- 
lined in the New York State Syllabus. In addition to illustrative material for 
a special study of birds, animals, insects, plants, and trees, charts are given 
showing how a farm may be laid out and school grounds planted to trees, small 
shrubbery, etc. 

Nature study and agriculture (In Course of Study of the Elementary 
Schools of Oregon. Salem, Greg.: State Dept. of Ed., 1911, pp. 56-65). — This 
is an outline of the optional work in nature study in the first to the fourth 
grades, inclusive, and in agriculture in the seventh and eighth grades in one 
class. 

Woodworking exercises for the ag-ricultural school shop, H. B. White 
{Minne.'jota Sta. Bui. 135, pp. 39, figs. 35). — The greater part of this bulletin 
consists of drawings and photographs showing the exact measurements of 30 
exercises in carpentry work suitable for class work and not requiring the use 
of machinery. The descriptive matter is practically limited to lists and tabu- 
lated information. 

Demonstration-lectures in domestic science (foods and cooking), sewing, 
and home nursing {Ontario Dept. Agr. Bui. 215, 1913, pp. 19, figs. 5). — Out- 
lines of the courses are given, with a statement of some of the benefits derived 
from such work. 

Sending the coUeg-e to the State {Mass. Agr. Col. Bui., 5 {1913), No. 5, 
pp. 16). — This pamphlet describes briefly the extension methods adopted by the 
^Massachusetts Agricultural College, giving outlines of the various lines of work, 
with suggestions as to how individual farmers may secure special information. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Annual Report of Guam Station, 1912 {Guam Sta. Rpt. 1912, pp. 29, pis. 6, 
figs. 7). — This contains a summary of investigations by the special agent in 
charge, for the most part abstracted elsewhere in this issue. 

Annual Heport of West Virginia Station, 1912 {West Virginia Sta. Rpt. 
1912, pp. SOS, figs. 100). — This contains the organization list; a report of the 
director on the organization, work, and publications of the station, including a 
financial statement for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1912; departmental re- 
ports, the experimental work in which is for the most part abstracted elsewhere 
in this issue; reports to December 30, 1911, of work under state appropriations 
for the destruction of plant and insect pests and the promotion of the horticul- 
tural and trucking industries, portions of which are abstracted elsewhere in 
this issue ; and reprints of Bulletins 135-137 and 139-141 and Circular 5 previ- 
ously noted, and of Circulars 4 and 6 noted elsewhere in this issue. 

A list of bulletins available for general distribution {West Virginia Sta. 
Circ. 4i PP- 2). 

From the letter files of S. W. Johnson, edited by Elizabeth A. Osborne 
(New Haven, Conn., 1918, pp. 292, pis. 3). — Extracts from the letters and 
earlier writings of the former director of the Connecticut State Experiment 
Station, with a bibliography. Noticed editorially on page 1 of this issue. 



NOTES 



Arkansas TTnlversity and Station. — A 3 months' short course in agriculture has 
been established and opened with a good attendance. Domestic science courses 
have also been offered for the first time, more applicants being received than 
could be accommodated. 

W. C. Thompson, assistant in animal husbandry, has resigned to become 
experimentalist in poultry husbandry at the New Jersey State Station and has 
been succeeded by D. H. Branson, animal husbandman at the Kansas College 
and Station. W. H. Yv'icks of the Idaho University and Station has accepted 
the position of horticulturist made vacant by the resignation of Ernest Walker, 
previously noted. L. H. Seymour, assistant in horticulture, has resigned to 
accept a commercial position. 

Maryland College. — J. E. Metzger, a graduate of the Pennsylvania College and 
director of agriculture in the agricultural high school at Fergus Falls, Minn., 
has been appointed professor of agricultural education beginning January 1. 
He will begin his duties with a survey of the work now being done in the rural 
schools of the State in teaching agriculture and other vocational subjects. 
B. H. Darrow, a graduate of the Ohio State University and principal of the 
agricultural high school at Marion, Ohio, has been appointed Y. M. C. A. sec- 
retary, and in addition to his work at the college will make a survey of rural 
churches and do extension community work through the Y. M. C. A. and 
churches of the State. 

Massachusetts College. — Associate professors Lockwood and Graham have 
been advanced to full professorships in dairy and poultry husbandry, respec- 
tively. E. M. McDonald has been promoted to the assistant professorship of 
agronomy. 

Michigan College. — George R. Johnstone and Ford S. Prince, 1913 graduates of 
the University of Illinois, have been appointed instructors in botany and soils, 
respectively. F. A. Wilken, who has had charge of the substation at South 
Haven, resigned November 1, 1913. 

Nebraska University and Station. — Frank C. Dean has been appointed agricul- 
tural editor beginning January 15. 

Nevada University and Station. — Dr. P. B. Kennedy, who has had charge of 
the department of botany, horticulture, and forestry since 1900, resigned 
January 1 to become assistant professor in agronomy in the University of 
California. Dr. Maxwell Adams, professor of chemistry, has been granted a 
year's leave of absence for study In Europe. 

North Dakota College and Station. — H. O. Werner has been appointed instructor 
In horticulture and assistant horticulturist. 

Ohio State University and Station. — A census of the freshman boys shows that 
56 per cent come from the farm, 39 occupations other than farming being 
represented, some of them in considerable numbers. Work on the new gi-een- 
houses for which $5,000 has been appropriated will be begun in the near 
future. Special attention is to be given to floriculture. 

95 



96 EXPEKIMEIs^T STATION EECOBD. 

In the station, J. H. Muncie, assistant botanist, has accepted the positloii of 
assistant pathologist in the Michigan Station and has been succeeded by 
Richard C. Walton. W. M. Cook and M. O. Bugby of the department of co- 
operation have bean detailed as acting county agents for Greene and Trum- 
bull counties, respectively, with headquarters at Xenia and Warren. 

Oregon College. — Schools of forestry and mines have been organized with 
George W. Peavy, formerly head of the department of forestry, and Henry 
Martin Parks, professor of mining, as the respective deans. G. D. Horton 
(M. S., Yale, 1913) has been appointed instructor in bacteriology. 

The course in agriculture offered during Farmers' Week in December, 1913, 
attracted more than 600 farmers. Special attention was given to cooperative 
marketing and rural organization, addresses being given by experts in asso- 
ciated industries and by Dr. Hector Macpherson, the Oregon member of the 
American commission on European cooperative systems. More than 200 
farmers and housewives registered for the short course beginning January 5. 

Arrangements have been made by the extension director and the superin- 
tendent of the State Department of Education for cooperative management of 
the various district, county, and state school fairs. According to the revised 
plans for holding the fairs more emphasis will be placed on method and less on 
result. The exhibit system will be progressive, winners in the local fairs 
been eligible to make entries in the next higher fair. Exhibitors in the state 
fair will be given instruction in agricultural subjects and possibly provided with 
a summer camp while the fair is in progress. 

Porto Rico College. — F. L. Stevens, dean of the college of agriculture and pro- 
fessor of vegetable pathology, has been appointed professor of plant pathology 
in the department of botany of the University of Illinois. 

Washington College. — W. O. Ellis has been appointed instructor in entomology. 

XJ. S. Department of Agriculture. — The investigations conducted for several 
years by the Dairy Division in soft cheese making at the Connecticut Storrs 
Station, on the ripening of Cheddar cheese at the Wisconsin Station, and on 
milk secretion at the Missouri Station, have been discontinued. Dr. Charles 
Thom, J. M. Currie, and K. J. Matheson are to continue the soft cheese work at 
Washington. 

Miss A, C. Evans, assistant bacteriologist at the W^isconsin Station, and P. A. 
Wright, assistant chemist at the Missouri Station, have also been transferred to 
Washington, where they will undertake work in the bacteriology and chemistry 
of milk and its products along lines similar to those in which they were pre- 
viously engaged. 

Commission on Meat Supply. — A commission to investigate the economic causes 
of the present condition of the meat industry, with a view to suggesting pos- 
sible methods of improvement, has been appointed by the Secretary of Agri- 
culture. The personnel of the commission is as follows: Assistant Secretary 
B. T. Galloway, chairman; President H. J. Waters of Kansas; Dean C. F. 
Curtiss of Iowa ; H. W. Mumford of Illinois ; Dr. A. D. Melvin of the Bureau 
of Animal Industry ; and Dr. T. N. Carver of the Rural Organization Service. 

Sixth Graduate School of Agriculture, — Arrangements are being completed for 
the sixth session of the graduate school, which will be held at the University 
of Missouri June 29 to July 24. Dr. A. C. True, director of this Office, will 
again serve as dean, and the faculty will include leading scientists and experts 
from this Department, the agricultural colleges and experiment stations, and 
other universities, colleges, and scientific institutions in America and Europe. 

Instruction will be offered under the following general heads: Genetics, 
agronomy, horticulture, animal husbandry, immunity and disease resistance In 



NOTES. 97 

plants and animals, and rural economics and sociology, including farm man- 
agement. 

The course in genetics, comprising 40 lectures and 12 seminars, will include 
a systematic presentation of the present status and outlook of the subject with 
special reference to its agricultural relations. The hours of this course will 
be so arranged that it will be open to all students. 

The courses in agronomy and horticulture will deal mainly with special prob- 
lems in the breeding and nutrition of field crops and orchard fruits respectively, 
and that in animal husbandry with breeding and nutrition with particular ref- 
erence to beef and dairy cattle. 

The course in immunity and disease resistance in plants and animals will 
include a resume showing the present status of knowledge in these lines and the 
outlook for future investigations. In connection with this course, conferences 
of phytopathologists and veterinarians in separate groups are to be arranged on 
special problems in plant and animal diseases. 

The course in rural economics and sociology, including farm management, 
will present a survey of the present status of these subjects and discussions of 
plans for their future development. 

Special arrangements are to be made by which groups of students may study 
in some detail the methods, records, and equipment of the research work in 
progress at the Missouri University and Station. General principles regarding 
the organization and work of institutions for agricultural research and educa- 
tion will also be discussed in a series of conferences. 

Correspondence relating to the membership in the school should be addressed 
to A. J. Meyer, Registrar, College of Agriculture, Columbia, Mo. 

Society for the Promotion of Agricultural Science. — The thirty-fourth annual 
meeting of the society was held at Washington, November 11, 1913. Two joint 
sessions were held with the American Society of Agronomy, which met at the 
same time. 

The address of the president. Dean E. Davenport, was on the subject. How 
Will Extension Work React Upon Research? The effect of the present popu- 
larity of demonstration and extension work on the popular mind, on appro- 
priating bodies, m students, and on the standards of work was traced. This 
effect was felt to be such that " we may well feel solicitous for both the college 
and the station, especially for the latter, which can not hope to compete either 
in spectacular show or in immediate promise with its younger but robustious 
brother, the extension service." The responsibility was placed upon those in 
authority to " insist upon and to maintain at all cost a proper balance between 
real research and all other agencies for agricultural progress, however attrac- 
tive, however expedient, however necessary." 

In a paper on Feeding Experiments to Determine the Availability of Protein, 
B. L. Hartwell and R. A. Lichteuthaeler reported work conducted with chickens 
in which beef scrap and cotton-seed meal were compared on the basis of the 
nitrogen recovered in analysis of the meat. The method brought out no im- 
portant difference in availability of the two concentrates. 

The Nutritive Values of Organic and Inorganic Phosphorus were considered 
in a paper by E. B. Forbes, based on an analysis of a large body of literature 
relating to work with various kinds of animals, and including some by the 
author with swine. A lack of harmony was found in the results with different 
kinds of animals, which could not be explained. The results were not thought 
to warrant final conclusions, but " the problem now seems to take the form 
of a question as to whether we shall regard organic phosphorus compounds as 
of superior nutritive value becauW of the chemical relationship of their phos- 



98 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

phoric acid, or because of the presence of other unknown substances of value 
associated with them in natural foods." 

The Tlieory of Antagonism of Salts and Its Significance in Soil Studies was 
presented by C. B. Lipman, who reported studies of the effect of certain combi- 
nations of alkali salts in barley cultures and upon soil organisms. Antago- 
nisms were quite pronounced, which suggested the possibility of chemical means 
for alkali reclamation. 

In a paper on The Relation of Ecology to Agriculture, L. H. Pammel pre- 
sented an argument for the importance of such studies in connection with other 
lines of agricultural work. 

Variation in the Tongue Color of Jersey Cattle was traced by Raymond 
Pearl, in a herdbook study of registrations made in 1893 and in 1913, twenty 
years apart. The results indicated " a simple case of Mendelian inheritance, in 
which pigmented tongue is the dominant character and nonpigmented the 
recessive." 

F. W. Rane described What Massachusetts Has Accomplished for Science 
in Her Fight Against the Gipsy and Brown-tail Moths. This related to the 
importing and breeding of parasites and other natural enemies, the development 
of improved spniying machinery and insecticides, and forest management as a 
factor in moth control. 

A paper on Factors of Efficiency in Farming, by W. J. Spillman, is to appear 
later as a Yearbook article. 

The International Institute of Agriculture was described by A. C. True, 
who gave an account of the organization and operations of the institute, its 
general progress, and the fourth session of the General Assembly, held at Rome 
in May, 1913 (E. S. R., 29, p. 1). 

Agricultural Education in Latin America was described by Clinton D. Smith, 
who recently served as director of the agricultural school at Piracicaba, Brazil. 
He gave accounts of the various agricultural schools in Brazil, and also in 
Uruguay, Argentina, Peru, and Chile. 

The officers elected for the year were as follows : President, President H. J. 
Waters of Kansas; secretary-treasurer, Dr. E. W. Allen, Washington, D. C. ; ex- 
ecutive committee. Dr. H. P. Armsby, Dr. W. H. Jordan, and Dr. H. L. Russell ; 
custodian and assistant custodian, Dr. W. J. Beal and Prof. W. D. Hurd, of 
Massachusetts. 

American Association for the Advancement of Agricultural Teaching. — This 
association held its fourth annual meeting in Washington, November 11, 1913. 

The opening topic was Home Project Work v. Laboratory and School Garden 
Plat Work for High School Students. C. G. Selvig of Crookston, Minn., held 
that the purpose of agricultural high schools is to train future farmers and to 
help farmers to become more efficient. The use of school land should, there- 
fore, be to supply plats to landless pupils and to perform demonstrations for 
the benefit of the school and the community. An inquiry conducted by him in- 
dicated that the possibilities regarding the use of land at school and at home 
are barely beginning to be realized. W. R. Hart of the Massachusetts Agri- 
cultural College assigned a different function to the agricultural high school, 
maintaining that the work of the high school along agricultural lines should 
be cultural as well as vocational and that the home projects should be for cul- 
tural training as well as for economic purposes. 

A. V. Storm of the University of Minnesota discussed the preparing of teach- 
ers of agriculture at the agricultural college through a special four-year course 
by special instructors, as compared with adding an elective of one year of 
pedagogics and practice teaching to the regular agricultural course. In his 
opinion, " in institutions where thorough preparation of teachers of agriculture 



NOTES. 99 

Is the aim, most of the agricultural work should be taken in the regular courses, 
though by cooperation between the agricultural and pedagogical teacher a few 
special courses might be arranged, but even these should be taught by the 
agricultural specialist. The professional work should not be confined to one 
year but should be extended through the last two years with the privilege of 
taking some of it in the second year if the student desired. This professional 
work must include, among other things, the proper organization of the agricul- 
tural material into teachable form and practice in teaching it in that form. 
In institutions where only limited preparation can be made, either in summer 
sessions or regular term, a few of the most essential regular courses should 
be taken, but a larger number of specially arranged courses would be permis- 
sible here than under more favorable circumstances. These should be com- 
posite courses arranged cooperatively by the department of agricultural edu- 
cation and the particular agricultural department or departments concerned, 
but should be taught by the agricultural specialist." 

In discussing this paper, G. A. Bricker of the Ohio State University sug- 
gested the offering of different amounts of technical agriculture, depending 
upon the character of the work to be undertaken by the teacher, this to be sup- 
plemented by i^edagogical training by the department of agricultural education. 

In discussing the preparation of extension and field men in the agricultural 
college, C. H. Tuck of Cornell University contended that in addition to strong 
courses in the various branches of agriculture, a department of expression 
should be maintained, the function of which should be to discover and to de- 
velop the men peculiarly fitted by nature for the extension service. G. I. 
Christie of Purdue University advocated providing some practical experience in 
extension work for the men while still pursuing their college courses. 

The scope and purpose of agriculture in secondary schools was discussed by 
Director H. M. Loomis of the Smith Agricultural School at Northampton, Mass., 
who pointed out reasons for introducing agriculture into the public schools and 
offered suggestions relative to methods in secondary agriculture. He held that 
in teaching this subject no set scheme should be followed as yet, inasmuch as 
secondary agricultural instruction is in a state of progress and facts learned 
with regard to it should be verified. This paper was discussed by T. I. Mairs 
of the Pennsylvania State College, who maintained that agriculture in the 
course of study is justified by its relation to conserva.tion, high cost of living, 
economics, and general culture, and that the teaching of agriculture in the 
high schools creates a sentiment in favor of the subject both in the school and 
the community. 

The committee on the use of land in connection with agricultural teaching 
presented through C. G. Selvig a progress report dealing with the special agri- 
cultural school. R. W. Stimson reported upon the teaching of agriculture in 
the public high schools, and L. S. Ivins on the same topic in the elementary 
schools. F. W. Howe, of Syracuse University, presented a brief progress report 
on the cooperative use of equipment and illustrative material. The various 
committees were continued. 

The officers elected for the ensuing year were R. W. Stimson, president; 
A. V. Storm, vice-president; and W. H. French, secretary-treasurer. 

American Society of Animal Production. — This society, hitherto known as the 
American Society of Animal Nutrition, held its fifth annual meeting at Chi- 
cago, 111., December 3, 1913. 

E. B. Forbes presented a paper entitled Mineral Metabolism Experiments 
with Swine, in which he described the equipment and methods employed in 
metabolism experiments at the Ohio Station, and gave the results of investiga- 
tions on the effect of water and mineral salts and on creatinin. F. G. King 



100 EXPERIMENT STATION EECORD. 

reported experiments conducted at the Indiana Station on the value of grind- 
ing and shelling corn for hogs and compared results with those obtained at 
other stations. Feeding trials at the Kansas Station were reported by W. A. 
Cochel in which he outlined the methods of finishing cattle on roughage without 
grain supplements. J. M, Evvard gave the results of experiments which have 
been conducted at the Iowa Station on the value of different pasture crops for 
growing pigs and brood sows. 

At the evening session the topic under discussion was the meat supply. After 
a brief statement of the importance of thi« subject by the president of the 
society, C. F. Curtiss, the discussion was opened by H. J. Waters, in which he 
spoke of the needs of readjusting the live stock industry, with particular em- 
phasis upon the necessity for its redistribution. W. A. Cochel stated that more 
economical use of roughage and cattle feeding and an improvement of our 
waste lands were important factors toward increasing our meat supply. The 
changes taking place in the live stock industry were described by E. W. Morse 
of this Department and were shown to be similar to the changes going on 
in many other industries. He stated that much idle land in the East and 
South could soon be put to profitable use for meat production. 

H. P. Armsby outlined the need of more scientific investigation in connection 
with fundamental problems in animal nutrition and showed wherein present- 
day experiments are more or less superficial. A study of the market conditions 
was reported by H. P. Smith in which he showed the constantly increasing 
number of calves slaughtered, particularly in the dairy States. J. H. Skinner 
pointed out the necessity of farmers in the Corn Belt putting live stock on a 
breeding basis, rather than remaining as " finishers " of range bred cattle. 
The possibilities of meat production in Central America were outlined by N. S. 
Mayo. 

Several speakers referred to the proposed legislation prohibiting the slaugh- 
tering of calves under 1 year of age, their feeling being that such legislation 
was unnecessary, unjust, and diflScult of enforcement if enacted. It was argued 
that the practice is actually an economical one, since the larger number of 
calves are slaughtered near the large centers of population where feed is too 
high to make into beef. Many of the calves are not of beef type, though they 
make good veal at 6 or 8 weeks of age. 

There was a general agreement among all the speakers that the supply of 
meat in the United States had not been reached, as is supposed by many people. 
The present situation was criticised on the basis that the meat producer is not 
getting the profits he should, while the consumer is paying unusually high 
prices. It was believed that the present shortage in meat animals will be sup- 
plied as soon as production becomes more profitable. It was voted that the 
president appoint a committee to confer with the Secretary of Agriculture rela- 
tive to plans for the study of the meat supply problem. 

Officers of the society for the ensuing year were elected as follows : President, 
E. B. Forbes, Ohio ; vice president. J. H. Skinner, Indiana ; secretary and treas- 
urer, D. H. Otis, Wisconsin; and the committee on experiments, H. W. Mum- 
ford, Illinois, and J. H. Skinner, Indiana. 



ADDITIONAL COPIES of this publication 
J^ may be procured from the Superiittexd- 
ENT OF DoctJiiENTS, Government Printing 
Oflflce, "Washington, D. C, at 15 cents per copy. 

Subscription price, per volume of 9 numbers, $1 



EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD, 

Editor: E. W. ALLEX, Pii. D., Assistant Director 
Assistant Editor: H. L. Knight. 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENTS. 



Agricultural Chemistry and Agrotechny — L. W. Fetzer, Ph. D., M. D. 
Meteorology, Soils, and Fertilizers{^y;^|- ?|^J;,,^^,p^. 



Agricultural Botany, Bacteriology, Vegetable Pathologyj^y' f'^oy^^' ^^^' ^' 
Field Crops<Q -^ 



SCHULTE. 

M. Tucker, Ph. J). 
Horticulture and Forestry — E. J. Glasson. 

Foods and Human ^^utrition{^-^L'. L^^r''^''''^'' ^^'' ^" ^'' ^'* 
Zootechny, Dairying, and Dairy Farming — H. Webster. 
Economic Zoology and Entomology — V\\ A. Hooker, D. V. M. 

Veterinary Medicine{J^^-,^;H™. 

Rural Engineering — II. W. Trullingek. 
Rural Economics — B. B. Hare. 
Agricultural Education — C. H. Lane. 
Indexes — M. D. Moore. 



UBftARy 
WEW YORK 

•otanical 



CONTENTS OF VOL. XXX, NO. 2. 



Editorial notes : Page. 

Progress of studies in animal nutrition 101 

Requirements of feeding experiments 103 

Need of redirection of experimental work in animal husbandry lOG 

Recent work in agricultural science ■ 110 

Notes 198 

SUBJECT LIST OF ABSTRACTS. 



agricultural chemistry — AGROTECHNY. 

In regard to the constitution of albumin, Chodat 110 

Preliminary note on coagulation of proteins by ultraviolet light, Bovie 110 

New investigations in regard to our knowledge of fats, Eimprich 110 

Reducing power of sugars and the definition of these substances, Schoorl ill 

Plant colloids. — I, Starch solution in presence of crystalloids, Samec Ill 

On the starch of glutinous rice and its hydrolysis of diastase, Tanaka Ill 

Development of certain yeasts in various nutrient solutions, Euler and Palm . . Ill 

Formation of alkali by enzyms, Neuberg Ill 

The biological analysis of casein antiserum, Klein 112 

Some applications of lacto and ovosera, Galli-Valerio and Bornand 112 

Methods of determining nitrogen in humus, Lipman and Pressey 112 

A comparison of methods for carbonates in soils, Gaither 113 

Polarization before inversion in molasses, Hazewinkel and Lourens 113 

The freezing point of milk, Henderson and ;Meston 113 

A new scale for determining moisture in butter, Worner 1 13 

A simple test for the determination of butter fat in butter, Doran 113 

Simplification of the method for Reichert-Meissl and Polenske numbers, Goske. 114 

Estimation of essential oil in mustard, Ra<iuet 114 

I 



n CONTENTS. 

Page. 

Methods of analysis adopted by the Texas Cotton Seed Crushers' Association. . 115 

Method for determining cotton-seed hulls in cotton-seed meal, Kole 115 

The determination of formaldehyde, Rimini and Jona 115 

Extraction of oil bv aspiration, Chapelle and Ruby 115 

Effect of kiln drying at 145° F. on the hop, Tartar and Pilkington 115 

Expressed and distilled West Indian lime oils, Tempany and Greenhalgh 116 

Investigations on extraction of lime juice by milling, Tempany and Weil 117 

Experiments in lime juice concentration, Macint>Te 117 

Index to Zeitschriftfur Analytische Chemie, Fresenius and Czapski 117 

METEOROLOGY — WATER. 

Temperature coefficients in plant geography and climatology, Livingston 117 

British rainfall, 1912, Mill and Salter 118 

Evaporation from a plain water surface, Leather 118 

Dew ponds and mist ponds, Martin 118 

Artesian water supply of eastern and southern Florida, Sellards and Gunter 119 

Report of the interstate conference on artesian water, Sydney, 1912 119 

SOILS — FERTILIZERS. 

Soil, soil investigation, and soil valuation, Pilz 119 

Chemistry, physics, biology, and cultivation of the soil, Hoffmann 119 

Contribution to the study of the soils of the Republic of Argentina, Lavenir. . . 119 

Soil culture in Iceland, Gruner _ -.----, : 119 

The results of mixed cultivation with loam in Finland, Rindell 119 

Moor culture, Kostlan - • - • : 120 

The shrinking of swamp soils resulting from drainage and cultivation, Tacke. . 120 

The influence of plant roots on the structure of the soil, Berkmann 120 

The influence of subsoil loosening on soil yield, Augustin 121 

The minimum water capacity of soils and its cause, Moskovic 121 

The reaction of aqueous extracts of soils, Saidel 121 

Alkaline reactions caused by acids and their acid salts in soils, Masoni 122 

The chemistry of humus, with special reference to soil and plant, Jodidi 122 

The nature of humus and its relation to plant life, Jodidi 122 

The influence of plant covering on soil temperatures, Frodin 122 

The use of dialysis and oxidizing power in judging soils, Konig et al 123 

Dialysis and power of oxidation in the judgment of soils, Konig 124 

The soil solution and the mineral constituents of the soil, Hall et al 124 

Ten years' experiments on the action of fallow, manure, and clover, Koch 124 

Soil hygiene and green manuring, Arndt 125 

Report of the agriculturLst, Gaskill 125 

The management of solid and liquid manures, Ringehnann 125 

Enrichment of farmyard manure by cake feeding. Hall 125 

Tests of nitrogen on sandy and upland moor soils, Tacke and Briine 125 

The lime-nitrogen industry, Siebner 125 

Nitrogenous fertilizers obtainable in the United States, Turrentine 126 

Replacement of potash in feldspathic rocks by fertilizers, Andre 126 

Investigations on the composition of Thomas slag, Popp 126 

Steamed and unsteamed bone superphosphate and Thomas slag, Schulze 126 

The use of raw phosphate and siliceous lime as fertilizers, Pfeiffer 127 

Agricultural value of carbonate of lime fi'om causticizing plant, Hendrick 127 

The action of quicklime on thesoil, Hutchinson 127 

Mineral and nitrogen contents of pine needles and straw, Bauer 127 

Tobacco stalks as a fertilizer, Haskins 127 

Chemical industries of Belgium, Netherlands, Norway, and Sweden, Norton. . 127 

Report of the fertilizer section, Haskins 128 

AGRICULTURAL BOTANY. 

The action of certain nutrient and nonnutrient bases on plant growth, McCool. . 128 

Application of fertilizers to plants through their leaves, Larue 128 

Saponins as a source of carbohydrates for vegetation, Solacolu 129 

Distribution of asparagin, glutamin, arginin, and allantoin in plants, Stieger. . 129 

Formation of anthocyan pigments of plants, VI, Keeble, Annstrong, and Jones. 129 

Synthesis by sunlight in relationship to the origin of life, Moore and Webster. . 129 

Hemicelluloses in roots, rhizomes, and tubers, Stieger 130 



CONTENTS. m 

Page. 

Contractions resembling plasnaolysis caused by pure distilled water, Osterhout. . 130 

Toxic inorganic salts and acids as affecting plant growth, Lipman and Wilson. . 130 

Arsenic compounds in agriculture and possible danger, Ampola and Tommasi . . 130 

Anatomical and physiological influence of tobacco smoke on seedlings, Purkyt. . 131 

Injuries to vegetation by furnace gases and ashes, Miiller et al \... 131 

Effects of illuminating gas on vegetation, Stone 131 

Influence of radio-active body on germination, Crochetelle 131 

Semipermeability of seed coats, ShuU 132 

Influence of partial suppression of the reserve material in seeds, Delassus 132 

The function of grape leaves in relation to the clusters, Marescalchi J 32 

Some points on the floral development of red clover, Martin 132 

Demonstrations of ectotrophic and endotrophic mycon-hiza, McDougall 132 

Contributions on the colorless sulphur bacteria, Hmze 133 

Culture of micro-organisms, Kiister 133 

FIELD CROPS. 

Causes of the increased yields during the last three decades, Lehn 133 

Making money on farm crops, Nichols 133 

[Experiments with field crops] 133 

Field experiments 133 

[Field crop experiments], Foulkes 134 

Manurial experiments, Balfour and Rush ton 134 

Report of the Hedemarken Experiment Station, 1912, Christie 134 

Report of Ribe County Western Agricultural Society, 1912, Esbjerg 134 

Report of the plant culture stations, 1912-13, Larsen et al 134 

Plant breeding at Tystofte, Lindhard 134 

A method for variety tests, Bilger 134 

The influence of vegetative factors on yield, Mitscherlich and Floess 135 

Cereal investigations at the Nephi [Utah] substation, Cardon 135 

Prevention of lodging of cereals, Ziehe 136 

Influence of moisture, fertilizer, and soil on barley and wheat, Polle 136 

Composition of timothy and wheat plants during growth and ripening, Haigh. . 137 

[Fibers from Papua (British New Guinea) and India] 138 

The use of sulphur in the cultivation of turnips and beets, Magnien 138 

Bean growing in eastern Washington and Oregon, and northern Idaho, Fluharty 138 

Field trials on the manming of carrots, Stokes '. 1 38 

Clovers, Calvino 138 

Crimson clover, Grantham 138 

Effect of fi'ost on corn, Lindsey 138 

Seed selection of Eg\Tptian cotton, Kearney 138 

Propagating cotton plants by slips, Gastet ._ 139 

Cowpeas for soil improvement, Grantham 139 

Value of meadow foxtail gro"«Ti on peat soils, von Feilitzen et al 139 

A variety test of jDotatoes, Gaskill 139 

[Field crop experiments], Malthouse 130 

Sulphur for prevention of scab and as indirect fertilizer, von Feilitzen 139 

Lessons for American potato growers from German experiences, Orton 139 

Beet sugar in New England, Lindsey 140 

Sugar-cane experiments, Harrison and Ward 1 40 

Classification of the forms of Ilelianthus annuus, Sazyperow 140 

Research work at Harrow Experimental Station, 1911, Bamet 140 

Tobacco culture, Blackshaw 140 

Cultivation of tobacco for the preparation of fruit and hop washes i 40 

A cross between Triticum vulgare and T. monococcum, Wawiloff 1 40 

\\Tieat growing in Wisconsin, Delwiche and Leith 141 

Some variable results of seed testing. Stone 141 

Seed work for the year 1912, Stone 14 1 

"Yellow rattle," as a weed on arable land, Brenchley 141 

HORTICULTURE. 

Intensive fanning, Corbett 141 

Recent progress in Belgian horticulture, Vemieuwe 141 

Malnutrition or ovei-fertilization of greenhouse crops, Haskins 141 

Influence of light, soil moisture, and hydrocyanic-acid gas on cucumbers, Stone. 142 

Effects of fertilizers on growth and composition of asparagus roots, Morse 142 



IV CONTENTS. 

Page. 

The inheritaDce of blossom color in beans, Shaw 142 

Report of cranberry substation for 1912, Franklin 142 

New varieties of fruits, Nomblot 143 

Crew work, costs, and returns in orcharding in West Virginia, Arnold 144 

Cultivation and exploitation of the avocado, Valencia 144 

Mulberry and fig culture, Calvino 144 

On some hybrids of Vitis vinifera and V. berlandieri, Gard 144 

On the use of seedling vines as scions, Trabut. 144 

The reconstruction of vineyards without grafting, Oberlin 145 

Some new or little-known Philippine economics, Barrett 145 

The Kafir orange, Fairchild 145 

American medicinal flowers, fruits, and seeds, Henkel 145 

Experiments in bulb growing at Bellingham, Dorsett 145 

Weed extermination, Stone _. 146 

Legislation against diseases and pests of cultivated plants in Ceylon, Fetch . . . 146 

FORESTRY. 

Forest valuation, Riebel 146 

An economic study of acacias, Shinn 146 

Manihot caoutchouc, Zimmermann 146 

De\'ice for planting white pine seed, Stone 146 

Experimental telegraph poles after eight years' service, Teesdale 146 

DISEASES OF PLANTS. 

Topics covered by department of vegetable physiology and pathology, Stone. . . 147 

Diseases more or less common during the year, Stone 147 

Work of the botanical research laboratory at Klosterneuburg, Linsbauer et al . . 147 

Studies of plant diseases, Muller, Molz, and Morgenthaler 148 

Notes on Cronartium coleosporioides and C. Jilamentosum, Meinecke 148 

Mosaic and allied diseases in tobacco and tomatoes, Chapman 148 

Cucumber and tomato canker 148 

White-heads or take-all of wheat and oats • 148 

The barberry and its relation to black rust of grain, Giissow 149 

Action of luminous radiations on conidia on Botrytis cinerea, Moreau 149 

A bacterial rot of cucumbers, Burger 149 

Cor^-nespora leaf spot of cucumbers, Grosser 149 

Fusarium or Verticillium on okra in North Carolina? Wilson 149 

Black heart of potatoes, Bartholomew 149 

Experiments relating to the control of potato scab, Stone and Chapman 150 

Relation of cane cultivation to the control of fungus diseases, Johnston 150 

The black rots of the sweet potato, Taubenhaus 150 

Recent diseases of grapevines, their importance and treatment, De Zuniga 150 

Downy mildew in Vaucluse in 1913, Zacharewicz 150 

Mildew in 1913, Cadoret 151 

A Botrytis disease of dahlias. Cook and Schwarze 151 

Some fungus diseases of trees, Pammel 151 

Shade tree troubles, Stone 151 

Chestnut blight, Stone 151 

The blights of coniferous nursery stock, Hartley 151 

Herpotrichia and Neopeckia on conifers, Sturgis 152 

A new rust, Stone 152 

Spotting of rubber on the plantation, Cayla 152 

An investigation of lime-sulphur injury, its causes and prevention, Safi'o 152 

Spreading capacity and adherence of sprays, Vermorel and Dantony 153 

Preparation of alkaline sprays, A^eimorel and Dantony 153 

ECONOMIC ZOOLOGY — ENTOMOLOGY. 

Game protection and propagation in America, Chase 153 

Game law blue book, Reynolds 153 

Rats and their extermination, Daley 153 

Rat proofing a municipal sewer system, Simpson 153 

A history of the game birds of Massachusetts^ and adjacent States, Forbush .... 153 

Insect porters of bacterial infections, Martin 153 



CONTENTS. V 

Page. 

iDsect record for 1912 iu Mavssachusetts, Feniald 153 

Insect fauna of the soil near Manchester, Cameron 154 

Phytopathological report for the year 1912, Marchal 154 

Rei)ort of the entomologist, Ballard 154 

List of insect pests, Moi-statt 154 

iCranbeiTy insects in 1912], Franklin 154 

►lethods of controlling mill and stored grain insects, Dean 155 

The destruction of injurious insects by vegetable parasites, Le Moult 155 

Tests of insecticides, Fernald 156 

The common house roach as a carrier of disease, Longfellow 156 

Occurrence of the woolly aphis in the core of apples, Hewitt 156 

Peach aphis investigations during winter and spring, 1912, Hardenberg. . 156 

The San Jose scale in Tennessee with methods for its control, Bentley 157 

Preliminary notes on a scale insect infesting the banana in Fiji, Jepson 157 

The Abutilon moth ( Cosmoph ila erosa), Chittenden 157 

The red-humped caterpillar (Sdiizum concinna), Vosler 157 

The fruit-tree leaf roller (Archips argyrospila), Weldon 157 

A new sugar-cane pest, Fuller 157 

The Hessian fly, Headlee and Parker 157 

The red clover gall gnat (Ambhjspatha ormerodi n. ep.), MacDougall 159 

A jumping maggot in cactus blooms {Acucula saltans n. g. and n. sp.), Townsend. 159 

Mosquito extermination and its problems, Winship 159 

The natural host of Phlebotomus minutus, Howlett 159 

Recent literature on sand flies, Friederichs 159 

Control measures for use against flies, Yaillard 159. 

The distance flies may travel over water, Hodge 159 

An unusual outbreak of Stomoxys calciimns following floods, Fuller 160 

The maggot fly pest in sheep. Major IGO 

The bean stem maggot, Jack ^ 160 

Experiments for the control of the onion maggot, Femald and Bourne 160 

The manzanite Serica (Serica anthracina), Essig 160 

The Ilalticini attacking Cruciferae in central Europe, Heikertinger 160 

The destructive Eleodes (Eleodes omissa borealis), Essig 161 

The fruit tree bark beetle (Scolytusrugulosus), Essig 161 

Xyleborus (Anisandrus) dispar and its food fungus, Schneider-Orelli 161 

A billbug injurious to small grain (S phcnophorus discolor), Smith 161 

Black brood in bees, Serbinow 161 

A chalcidid which parasitizes Ceratitis and Dacus in "West Africa, Silvestri 161 

A new braconid of the genus Microdus from Canada, Richardson, jr 161 

The enemies of plant pests: The Aphelininse, Mercet 161 

Collembola damaging pine trees, Collinge 161 

The use of sheep m eradication of Rocky Mountain spotted fever tick, \\ ood. . 1G2 

FOODS — HUMAN NUTRITION. 

Bouillon cubes compared with meat extracts and homemade preparations. Cook . 162 

Bouillon cubes, Cook 163 

Notes on rare fishes sold for food in east London, Stubbs 163 

Determination of the sanitary quality of shell oysters, Smith 163 

Studies of phosphatids, particularly those in egg yolk, Eppler 163 

The gluten content of flour, Budai (Bauer) 164 

The activity of the amylolytic enzyms in wheat flour, Swanson and Calvin 164 

Some points in the making and judging of bread, Bevier 164 

A new method for keeping bread fresh, and its significance to bakers, Katz 164 

The grinding of com meal for bread, Dunnington 165 

[Banana recipes], Barrett 165 

Hickory nuts and hickory nut oil, Peterson and Bailey 165 

[Analyses of food, beverages, and drugs], Hanson 165 

Food and drug and weight and measures laws of Nevada, with regulations 165 

Wisconsin dairy and food laws and decisions of courts, Emery. 165 

A study of use of ice and other means of preserving food in homes, Williams- . . 165 

Cooking and heating with electricity, Phillips 166 

The food factor in some sociologic problems 166 

[Increased cost of maintenance of children] 166 

Cost of livino; in Nova Scotia, Ragsdale 166 

Food prices m London as affecting the poorer classes, Pringle 166 



yi CONTENTS. 

Page. 

[Luncheon for women clerka employed in the Bank of England], Harvey 166 

[Dietaries and accounts for Poor Law Unions, England and Wales] 167 

Diet social service in dispensary work, Klaer 167 

A food clinic 167 

Report on bacterial food poisoning and food infections, Savage 167 

Relation of diets and castration to transmissible tumors, Sweet et al 167 

Mixed diet and metabolism 168 

The mineral content of the daily diet, Homemann 168 

The normal presence of boron in animals, Bertrand and Agulhon 168 

The presence of boron in animals, Bertrand and Agulhon 168 

The presence of boron in milk and eggs, Bertrand and Agulhon 168 

Metabolism after meat feeding of dogs, Benedict and Pratt 168 

Metabolism in connection with an experimental march, Melville et al 169 

Experimental marches for deciding a scale of field service rations 169 

ANIMAL PRODUCTION. 

Commercial feeding stuffs, Jones, jr., et al 169 

Use of the bitter acorn in the feeding of domestic animals, Courbet 169 

Rations for farm stock 169 

On the question of the nitrogen retention from the feeding of urea, Grafe 169 

Nutrition of the embryonic chick, I, II, III, Bywaters and Roue 170 

A respiration apparatus for sheep and swine, Tangl 170 

Twenty-five years of German animal production, Hansen 170 

Methods of cattle raising and management under modem intensive farming. . . 170 

i'reatise on zootechny. — III, The bovine, Dechambre 170 

Breeding cattle in French Guinea, Aldige 171 

Breeds, breeding, and utility value of cattle of DutckEast Africa, Lichtenheld. - 171 

The Creole cattle of Salta, Garcia 171 

On beef production [in Argentina], Lahitte 171 

The frozen meat industry of Argentina, Berges ^ 171 

Foreign meat in London, Loop 171 

The shrinkage in weight of beef cattle in transit. Ward and Downing 171 

Sheep farming in North America, Craig 173 

Boulonnaise breed of sheep, Tribondeau : • - • : ^^^ 

Fitting yearling wethers and lambs for exhibition, Humphrey and Kleinheinz . . 173 

Cassava for pigs, Frateur and Molhant 174 

Trials with weights of fattening swine and the "plucks " from these. Holm 174 

Treatise on zootechny. — II, The horse, Dechambre 174 

Did the horse exist in America at the time of discovery, Trouessart 174 

The feeding of farm horses 174 

Horse feeding experiments with dried beer yeast, von Czadek 175 

Cotton-seed meal as a feed for laying hens, Morrison 175 

Poultry notes, 1911-1913, Pearl 175 

Mardi Gras poultry in France, Brown 175 

Breeders' and cockers' guide. Glover 175 

The national standard squab book, Rice 175 

DAIRY FARMING DAIRYING. 

Some practical results of feeding experiments, Lindsey 175 

The food value of plain and molasses beet pulp, Lindsey 176 

The value of oats for milk production, Lindsey 176 

Feeding experiments with milch cows, Carlier 176 

Niger cake for milch cows, Warsage 176 

Feeding experiments with hay and varying amounts of protein feeds, De Vries. . 177 

North Carolina dairy herd records, Eaton 177 

Report of the Richmond-Lewiston Cow Testing Association, Carroll 177 

Dairy industry in northern Europe, Guittonneau 177 

Report of the sanitary inspector of the State of Idaho, 1911-12, Wallis 177 

Report of the feed and dairy section, Smith 178 

The ductal system of the milk glands of the bovine, Wirz 178 

[Factors affecting the composition of milk], Aurousseau and Ponscarme 178 

The viscosity of cream, Dumaresq 179 

Influence of factorjr methods on water content of Edam cheese, Van Dam 179 

On the faulty *' Knijpers " in Edam cheese, Boekhout 179 



CONTENTS. Vn 

Page. 

Wensleydale cheese, Davies 179 

Some investigations of parchment paper, Hals and Heggenhaiigcn 179 

VETERINARY MEDICINE. 

Report of civil veterinary department, Eastern Bengal and Assam, Harris 180 

Report of civil veterinary department, Assam, 1912-13, Hickey 180 

The diagiiosis of newly lactatin^ animals according to Schern's method, Weber. 180 

Use of pitiiitary_ extract in bovine and equine obstetrics, Schmidt and Kopp. 180 

Serum-therapy in practice, Menary. 180 

Natural variation of Bacillus acidi lactici, Arkwright 180 

The action of the protein poison on dogs: A study in anaphylaxis, Edmunds. . 180 

Specificity and diagnostic value of Ascoli thermoprecipitin reaction, Finzi. . . . 180 

Tnermoprecipitation in anthrax, Szymanowski and Zagaja 181 

Anthrax vaccination, its use and abuse, Goodwin 181 

Feeding experiments with the virus of infectious bulbar paralysis, von RAtz. . 181 

Relationship between paratyphoid infections in man ancT in animals, De Jong. 181 

Some peculiar bodies in erythrocytes in rinderpest, Braddon et al 181 

A supposed neutralization of tetanus toxin by neurin or betain, Adsersen 182 

"Tick paralysis" following bites of Dci^macentor venustus, Hadwen 182 

Experimental ''tick paralysis " in the dog, Hadwen and Nuttall 182 

The chemistry of tuberculin, Lockemann 182 

The chemistry of the tubercle bacillus. — A preliminary report, Lowenstein 182 

The inhalation of tuberculous material from man by the cat, Chausse 183 

Cases of spontaneous tuberculosis caused by avian tubercle bacillus, Cobbett.. 183 

Subcutaneous tuberculosis in bovines, Perard and Ramon. 183 

Specific action of serum by mixing tuberculin and tuberculosis semm, Sata. . . 183 

Passive transference of tuberculin sensitiveness by tuberculosis serum, Sata. . . 183 

Specific action of tuberculosis serum with anaphyla toxin tests, Sata 183 

The urochi-omogen reaction as an indicator for tuberculin treatment, Weisz 184 

The precipitation method for diagnosing contagious abortion, Szymanowski. . . 184 

Infectious abortion in cattle, and its control by vaccination, Schreiber 184 

Methylene blue, a remedy for infectious abortion, Rich 184 

Generalized mycosis in the bovine, Langrand 185 

The keeping quality of antiHog cholera serum, Barok 185 

A disease (salmonellosis porcina) in pigs, Lignieres 185 

An enzootic among young pigs caused by iStreptococcus pyogenes, Rievel 185 

Injury to fetlock with purulent infection — autotherapy, MacDonald 185 

Fistulous withers, and synovitis of coronary joint — autotherapy, Mackeller 185 

Virus carriers of influenza of the horse, Bergman 185 

Etiolog>^ and therapy of typhoid fever or influenza in the horse, Bemelmans. . 186 

Influenza among remounts and its treatment with salvarsan, Jager. 186 

A note upon strangles in the Philippine Islands, Boynton 186 

Protective substance of fowl cholera immune serum, Weil 186 

The rapid cure of polyneuritis gallinarum, Wellman et al 187 

RURAL ENGINEERING. 

Irrigation branch 187 

Irrigation of Santa Cruz Valley, Hinderlider 187 

Pressure pipes for conveyance of water and for inverted siphons, Etcheverry. . 187 

The economics of pipe line diameters 188 

Light-iron in-igation flume 188 

Heavy oil as fuel for internal combustion engines, Allen 188 

Naphthalin for gas engines 189 

The naphthalin motor, Haenssgen 190 

Connecting electric motors for direct drive, Mills 190 

Installation and care of storage batteries, Nichols 190 

The Winnipeg tractor trials, Ellis 190 

Mechanical cultivation in Germany, Bornemann and Dondth 19 1 

Various devices for drying the autumn forage harvest, Rahm 191 

RURAL ECONOMICS. 

Cooperation and nationality, Russell 191 

The legal status of farmers' cooperative associations 191 

Agrarian reforms and the evolution of the rural classes in Russia, Chasles 192 



VIII COXTENTS. 

Page. 

United effort for farm betterment and rural progress 192 

Agricultural credit banks of the world 192 

Cooperative credit associations in Canada, Doberty 192 

The work of the special agi'icultural credit institutes in 1912 192 

Government valuation of land 193 

Studies of primary cotton market conditions in Oklahoma, Sherman et al 193 

Example of successful farm management in New York, Burritt and Barron 193 

WTiat I know about farming, Grinneii 193 

AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION. 

Agiicultm'al and forestiy instruction in Italy, Kastner 194 

[Agi'icultural and forestry instruction in Austria and Italy] 191 

Anniversary of the Imperial Eoyal High School of Agi-iculture of Vienna 194 

Report of the department of agriculture of Norway, 1912 194 

World's dairy schools, trans, by Monrad 194 

Practical School of Aviculture 194 

Vocational education. Small 195 

Importance, extent, and execution of student practice at agricultural schools. 195 

Efforts to reform the system of gardening instruction, Schechner 195 

Uniformity in instruction in the lower agricultural schools, Jachimowicz 195 

Farmers' institutes in Kansas, Johnson 195 

A catechism of agiiculture, Atkeson 195 

A course in agiiculture for the high schools of Michigan, French 196 

Principles of agiiculture tlii'ough the school and home garden, Stebbins 196 

Practicums for pupils in chemical laboratory of agricultural schools, Kwisda.. . 196 

A child's plaything as an expedient in forestry instruction 196 

The story of our trees, Gregson 196 

Common trees: How to know them by their leaves, Hilly er 196 

The planting of home gi-ounds, Davis 196 

Wisconsin Arbor and Bird Day annual, 1913 196 

Illinois Arbor and Bird days, Blair 196 

Ai-bor Day progiam, April 25, 1913 197 

Farm arithmetic, Burkett and Swartzel 197 

List of references on rural life and culture ; 197 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Twenty-fifth Annual Report of Colorado Station, 1912 197 

Twenty-fifth Annual Report of Massachusetts Station, 1912 197 

Monthly bulletin of the WesteiTi Washington Substation, September, 1913 197 

Organization of the Department of Agiiculture, 1913 197 

Organization and conduct of a market service in the Department of Agriculture. 197 

List of publications of the Department of interest to farm women 197 



LIST OF EXPERIMENT STATION AND DEPART- 
MENT PUBLICATIONS REVIEWED. 



Stations in the United States. 

Colorado Station: Page. 

Twenty-fifth An. Rpt. 1912 ... 197 
Indiana Station: 

Bui. 169, Aug., 1913 1G9 

Kansas Station : 

Bui. 1S8, July, 1913 157 

Bui. 189, July, 1913 155 

Maine Station: 

Bui. 216, Sept., 1913 175 

Massachusetts Station: 

Twenty-fifth An. Rpt. 1912, 

pt. 1 125, 

128, 131, 142, 147, 150, 151, 
152, 154, 160, 176, 178, 197 
Twenty-fifth An. Rpt. 1912, 

pt. 2 127, 

138, 139, 140, 141, 146, 148, 
151, 153, 156, 175, 197 
Mississippi Station: 

Bui. 162, Sept., 1913 175 

Nevada Station: 

Bui. 80, Nov., 1913 165 

New Jersev Stations: 

Circ.27 139 

Circ. 28 138 

New York Cornell Station: 

Mem. 2, Aug., 1913 128 

Oregon Station: 

Research Bui. 2, July, 1913. . . 152 
Porto Rico Sugar Producers' Sta- 
tion: 

Circ. 3 (English Ed.), Oct., 

1913 150 

Utah Station: 

Bui. 127, Aug., 1913 177 

Vermont Station: 

Bui. 174, June, 1913 184 

Washington Station: 

West. Wash. Sta. Mo. Bui., vol. 

1, No. 1, Sept., 1913 197 

Wisconsin Station: 

Bui. 232, Aug., 1913 173 

Bui. 233, Sept., 1913 141 

U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

Bui. 9. An Economic Study of 
Acacias, C. H. Shinn 146 

Bui. 25. The Shrinkage in Weight 
of Beef Cattle in Transit, W. F. 
Ward and J. E. Downing 171 

Bui. 26. American Medicinal 
Flowers, Fruita, and Seeds, 
Alice Henkel 145 



U. S. Deparlnunt of Agriculture — Contd. 

Page. 

Bui. 27. Bouillon Cubes: Their 
Contents and Food Value Com- 
pared with Meat Extracts and 
Homemade Preparations of 
Meat, F. C. Cook 102 

Bui. 28. Experiments in Bulb 
Growing at the United States 
Bulb Garden at Bellingham, P. 
H. Dorsett 145 

Bui. 29. Crew Work, Costs, and 
Returns in Commercial Orchard- 
ing in West Virginia, J. H. Ar- 
nold 144 

Bui. 30. Cereal Investigations at the 

Nephi Substation, P. V. Cardon. 135 

Bui. 32. An Example of Success- 
ful Farm Management in South- 
em New York, M. C. Burritt and 
J.H.Barron 193 

Bui. 36. Studies of Primary Cot- 
ton Market Conditions in Okla- 
homa, W. A. Sherman et al. . . . 193 

Bui. 37. Nitrogenous Fertilizers 
Obtainable in the United States, 
J. W. Turrentine 126 

Bui. 38. Seed Selection of Egj-p- 
tian Cotton, T. H. Kearney. 138 

Bui. 44. The Blights of Coniferous 

Nursery Stock, C. Hartley 151 

Bui. 45. Experiments in the Use 
of Sheep in the Eradication of 
the Rocky Mountain Spotted 
Fever Tick, H. P. Wood 162 

Bui. 47. Lessons for American Po- 
tato Growers from German Expe- 
riences, W. A. Orton 139 

Farmers' Bui. 561. Bean Growing 
in Eastern Washington and Ore- 
gon, and Northern Idaho, L. W. 
Fluharty 138 

Organization and Conduct of a 
Market Ser^dce in the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, discussed at 
a conference held at the Depart- 
ment on April 29, 1913 197 

Organization of the Department of 
Agi-iculture, 1913 197 

List of Free and Available Publi- 
cations of the U. S. Department 
of Agriculture of Interest to 
Farm Women 197 

Bureau of Entomology: 
Bui. 126. The Abutilon Moth, 
F. H. Chittenden 157 

IX 



ILLUSTRATION. 

Page. 
Fio. 1. Diagram to represent the number of broods of Ilessian fly in Kansas in 
1908, the period of their appearance, and the sources fi'om which 
they came 158 



EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

Vol. XXX. February, 1914. No. 2. 



There is an impression that the progress in experimental work 
on the feeding of farm animals is not all that might be expected or 
is desirable, considering the importance of the subject and the promi- 
nence it has held in the past. This feeling was voiced in the address 
of a former president of the American Society of Animal Nutrition, 
who expressed the belief that "nutrition investigations are falling 
behind other branches of agricultural science '' — that there had not 
been a comparable scientific activity in comparison with other de- 
partments in the field of agriculture. Other speakers before that 
society have recently expressed a similar view ; and sucli a conclusion 
would seem to be a fair deduction from the output in the form of 
publications. 

This impression applies not only to the amount of fundamental 
investigation in animal nutrition, but to the character and progiTSS 
of the ordinary experimental work. Not that there has not been an 
increase in the amount of advanced work, and an improvement in 
many of the common feeding experiments, but that relatively the 
improvement has been small. With the progress of experiment sta- 
t ion work and the larger emphasis on investigation, it seemed reason- 
able to expect that more institutions should feel the need of depart- 
ing from the conventional range of feeding experiments and more 
men representing animal husbandry at the stations should feel 
impelled to prepare for advanced and productive inquiry. 

With some notable exceptions, the work in animal husbandry is 
to a considerable extent at a standstill. The easier things have been 
done. The more difficult and constructive stage has been reached, 
but there has not been a very large rising to the emergency. It is 
only rarely that a feeding project of xVdams fund grade is sub- 
mitted nowadays, but the experiments of conventional type go on 
apparently without end and, it is feared, without marking much 
permanent* advance. 

Quite a proportion of the feeding experiments still deal only with 
the economic and commercial phases of the subject, or with com- 
parative values and effects; and as economic conditions are con- 
stantly changing and vary in different localities, the results lack 

101 



102 EXPERIMENT STATION RECOKD. 

permanent or widely applicable value. Hence it is that the neces- 
sity is felt for going over much the same ground at frequent intervals 
and in different localities. And while this is not without value to 
the farmer it often represents an unnecessary waste of effort, and 
stands in the way of what might mark more real progress. Essen- 
tially the same kind of experiments are often repeated by stations in 
the same general locality, and with full knowledge of such repeti- 
tion, as was the case a few years ago when silage was being tested 
for beef production. The result in such cases becomes largely a local 
demonstration rather than the acquisition of new information. In 
fact, the statement has often been made that the work' was done to 
convince the farmers of the locality of the truthfulness or applica- 
tion of work in other States, the thought being that they had a 
different feeling if the experiments were made under their conditions. 

There is undoubtedly much merit in the conventional feeding ex- 
periments and in experiments which interpret the best experience of 
the locality. But such experiments should profit by what has gone 
before, and should show improvement in method and in the extent 
to which the results contribute to a more complete understanding 
of the general subject. Manifestly the experimental results must 
be secured under such conditions as to insure accuracy and reliability 
within reasonable limits, and to make possible the comparison of 
the results with other experiments. At present there is the widest 
variation in experiments of this class. Between the feeding trial 
that deals only with the gross effect as measured by lots, and the 
more refined experiment which carefully guards and controls the 
conditions and results as applied to individual animals, and seeks 
the reason in the changes which actually take place, there is a wide 
gap. One is the rough comparison such as a feeder might make, if 
he had the time, and the other represents an attempt to trace the true 
relation between cause and effect. 

It would seem that we should have largely passed the stage of the 
first type mentioned, but the publications and records of work in 
progress do not show this to be the case. Such trials, with all their 
crudeness, meet a popular demand and this demand is being acceded 
to despite the development of demonstration and extension work. 
Unfortunately there are some indications that the latter is already 
constituting a new demand for superficial vv^ork. This more direct 
teaching of the farmers brings out local problems in increasing num- 
bers, and makes an urgent call for very practical and didactic direc- 
tions which have behind them the force of local experimental trials. 

But the experiment station can not afford to look at the subject 
of feeding from the superficial and local standpoint, and it is hardly 
its function to make experiments to demonstrate locally what is al- 
ready known. Extension work will be an actual disadvantage to 



EDITOBIAL. 103 

experimentation if this requirement is pressed beyond reasonable 
bounds, and tlie extension worker must realize the need of thorough- 
going work. 

A thorough understanding and s^^mpathctic relation between the 
station men and the extension men is highly desirable. The latter 
coming in more direct contact with the farmers are in position to 
explain the station's work and to justify its position. They are also 
in position to call to the station's attention, in a discriminating way, 
larger questions in animal feeding which need study. But the ex- 
tension men must be reasonable in their expectations of the stations, 
and they must also realize that after all the chief object of extension 
teaching is to enlighten the farmer and to help him in making himself 
more resourcefid. Rules for farming to be followed blindly and im- 
plicitly can rarely be developed, and would be a serious detriment 
to the men engaged in the industry if they could be supplied ; while 
carefully made and interpreted experiments can develop facts that 
will be of wide application, which may be tested out and adapted to 
the region. But the demonstration of such facts for the information 
or convincing of the farmers is a matter for the extension department. 
Such demonstrations will frequently embody some experimental fea- 
tures, since it is rarely possible to adapt locally the teachings of the 
stations w^ithout some special modifications which arise from local 
conditions. This is invariably the case in everyday life. Matters of 
convenience, expediency, personal preference, etc., modify human 
conduct. Similar considerations will inevitably modify the local 
practice in agriculture which the extension department will succeed 
in implanting. 

The case of the usual feeding experiment is clearl}'^ and fairly set 
forth in the recent bulletin of Mitchell and Grindley of tiie Illinois 
Station. In reference to experiments comparing the fattening effect 
of systems of treatment, etc., the authors say : " Our knowledge of 
the principles of animal nutrition is too fragmentary to enable us to 
foretell with certaint}^, except wdien greatly dissimilar, which of 
two rations for instance will produce the more rapid or the more 
economical gains in weight for a particular kind of farm animal, no 
matter how clearly defined or completely analyzed the results may Ije. 
Actual experiment with those particular rations is generally essen- 
tial to a satisfactory solution of the problem. However, the informa- 
tion thus obtained has at best a very limited application to other 
rations or other conditions, so that such feeding experiments ordi- 
narily contribute little of fundamental importance to the science of 
animal nutrition." 

Although the plan of such feeding experiments is simple, the re- 
sults are often ambiguous and require much care in their interpreta- 



104 EXPERIMENT STATIOISr RECORD. 

tion. This is common to all experiments concerned with the func- 
tional activity of living organisms, and is due to the uncertainty of 
their following exact rules of uniformity, i. e., to what we designate 
as individuality. 

Mitchell and Grindley have presented a most interesting and sug- 
gestive study on this element of uncertainty in the interpretation of 
feeding experiments. It is one of the most effective critical studies 
of any branch of our station work, and should be very helpful in 
directing attention to the improvement of experiments of this class 
and their interpretation. The bulletin illustrates not only the dan- 
ger to be guarded against from a scientific standpoint, but to an 
even greater extent when deductions are to be made for the guidance 
of the farmer, because the latter often can not impose the precise 
experimental conditions required. 

Manifestly experiments of this class are crude and hence lacking 
in absolute accuracy. This should be recognized to guard against 
overconfidence and too broad generalizations; and at the same time 
the effort should be put forth to improve the methods both in plan- 
ning and execution. As a first step we need to know for our own 
information the extent of the experimental error and its source. 
Until we do know this the necessity of improvement is not apparent 
and its means is uncertain. Kefinement of certain stages of the 
feeding may be more than counterbalanced b}^ the inherent errors 
due to poor selection of animals or some other defect. The extent 
of the experimental error is an index to the degree to which deduc- 
tions can be safely drawn, and will indicate caution in making broad 
generalizations for the benefit of the practical feeder. 

The extensive review of experiment station literature in the United 
States made by Mitchell and Grindley develops the nature and the 
source of the experimental error and points to methods of reducing 
it. They find an average coefficient of variation in gain of about 
twenty-one per cent for similarly treated lots of sheep and of about 
seventeen per cent for steers and swine. This points to the danger 
of small lots of animals and of imeven selection of individuals. As 
the authors say, " increasing the size of lots is no remedy for a poor 
selection of experimental animals," and "can not eliminate indi- 
viduality by merely reducing its effect on the average."' Further- 
more, " the necessity of selecting homogeneous lots of animals is not 
appreciably diminished by the balancing of heterogeneous lots.-' 

The critical analysis represented by this bulletin points out the 
inherent weakness of such experiments, as commonly made, and the 
need of more scientific and dependable methods in our present feed- 
ing trials. They are not all that they should be or might be made, 
and thev are not all that we have assumed them to be. Whether 



EDITORIAL. 105 

or not the more abstract research in nutrition is entered upon, experi- 
ments for the benefit of practical feeding should carry all the con- 
viction which accuracy of plan and method and judgment in inter- 
pretation can make possible. 

Some improvement is to be noted in the feeding experiments 
of recent years, but it is doubtful whether an increasing pro- 
portion of such experiments are made under more exact and better- 
known conditions than formerly — ^whether the individual records are 
taken, the feed subjected' to analysis, the limits of experimental error 
considered, and other refinements observed. Indeed, there seems in a 
considerable number of cases to be less regard for these factors than 
formerly. 

Furthermore, there does not appear to be a very critical attitude 
toward these feeding experiments by many of the men who make 
and apply them — the animal husbandmen and animal feeders. The 
experiments are rarel}^ weighed in the critical, discriminating man- 
ner that characterizes scientific work in general in the attempt to 
measure their true value and the advance which they mark. The 
expectations are less exacting, and the standard of requirements 
seems to change but little as time goes on. Apparently the need of 
a broader special preparation along scientific lines for experimental 
work in animal husbandry is not very generally felt, while the same 
importance as formerly is attached to the practical aspects of the 
subject, sometimes to the overshadowing of others. In other words, 
it would appear that the standards and ideals, and to some extent the 
preparation, for work in animal husbandry have not developed to 
the extent that they have in some other branches of agriculture, and 
that the setting off of the subject as a separate division and assign- 
ment of the feeding studies to it has not been followed b}^ the gen- 
eral strengthening of the experimental work that is clearly desirable. 

This is not said in any spirit of harsh criticism of the animal 
husbandman, or lack of appreciation of the requirements placed upon 
him. It is made rather as a comment on the condition and attitude 
which is believed to impede the progress in animal feeding, and is 
directed at the animal husbandman because he now has such an impor- 
tant relation to this progress. Not that he will necessarily be the one 
himself to conduct the research in a larger degree, but that as rep- 
resenting the head of animal husbandry work he must furnish much 
of the spirit and the encouragement and the defense for advanced 
study, and that his ideals will inevitably influence the character of 
the activities. If his attitude is not progressive and appreciative 
of work and methods which aim beyond economic considerations, such 
work will rarely flourish in his institution. 

As a leader of sentiment in his field his influence as well as his 
actual direction of work is very broad. To him falls the application 



106 EXPEKIMEXT STATIOX RECORD. 

and adaptation of the findings of experimental study and the pres- 
entation of them to the student and to the farmer. And on him 
rests in large degree the furnishing of the initiative. 

'\Miether research flourishes or decays depends ultimately on the 
ideals and conceptions of the class it seeks to serve. If there is not 
a desire for it and an appreciation and belief in it which constitute 
a sustaining influence, it can not rise above the mediocre. 

It is unreasonable to expect that the animal husbandman, more 
than the agronomist, will be alike investigator, teacher, and exten- 
sion Avorker at the same time, but if he is to be assigned to the experi- 
ment station force he should be capable of taking an active and 
intelligent part in investigation. If he is to take a vital part, and 
not merely attend to the mechanical operations of feeding and han- 
dling the animals, it is not sufficient that his training should make 
him a good j^^dge of stock and a successful feeder and breeder, but he 
must have an insight into the method and the spirit of inquiry, and 
familiarity with the progress of investigation in his field along the 
theoretical as well as the applied side. These things will require 
training in science beyond that given in the agricultural course. 
They mean special preparation for investigation and for its direc- 
tion. Lack of training in animal physiology and other sciences 
which will open the way for broader inquiries will constitute a seri- 
ous handicap to the animal husbandman as a station worker and 
necessarily impose limitations. 

In the system of organization which is becoming common in our 
institutions, the animal husbandman may be called upon to outline 
and direct investigations within his department that involve the vari- 
ous branches of science concerned. Unless he is able to see the needs 
of such investigation, to suggest problems and points of attack and 
to make himself a part of the investigation, he will have only a 
passive relation to it and can hardly be expected to take a vital in- 
terest in it. 

A well known investigator has said : '^ That researches directed to 
immediately practical results frequently fail to yield all that may 
be expected of them is largely due to the imperfections of the sci- 
entific work of the past, and so makes evident the importance of 
undertaking in the present purely scientific studies which will lead 
to more definite and valuable results when future experiments are 
directed to the solution of practical problems." 

This is equivalent to saying that the practical efficiency of feeding 
trials depends on knowledge of the principles and scientific facts 
underlying nutrition. If our understanding of the principles of 
physiology and chemistry is deficient, it is impossible to account for 
or explain results secured in practical experiments, or to interpret 



EDITORIAL. 107 

them intelligently — an experience which has not been unusual in the 
past. If, for example, in a practical feeding trial including equal 
amounts of protein materials from different sources different results 
are secured from those expected, we are thrown into confusion be- 
cause having assumed all proteins to be alike we have no explanation 
to offer. The investigation of these bodies has made the experi- 
mental feeder more resourceful in planning and interpreting his 
work. 

Dr. Armsby has well said : " If we believe at all in the utility of 
applied science, surely we must believe that a study of the intricate 
workings of the animal machine will yield results of practical value, 
even though we can not foresee in just what direction." 

Animal feeding is by no means a matter of applied mathematics, 
as was long ago said, but there are certain physiological principles 
and laws which the animal body follows in the handling and utiliza- 
tion of food, and the Imowledge of these must constitute the basis 
not only for the theory but for the right practice of feeding. It is 
reasonable to suppose that the necessity for investigation in this line 
should have impressed itself, and that there should have been a 
steady development in that direction, along with the experiments of 
more direct application. 

It is clear, of course, that such questions as the maintenance re- 
quirements of animals, the interesting question of the influence of 
feed supply on growth, the protein requirements of farm animals, 
the functions of protein in the mechanism of the liberation of energy 
for work, can never be solved by the methods of the common feeding 
experiment. They call for all the resources of physiological investi- 
gation. They tax man's ability and ingenuity and perception to the 
utmost. The field offers all the inspiration of opportunity for the 
very best research ability. Some of these subjects and such questions 
as the constitution and nutritive value of proteins, the function and 
transformation of nucleo-proteins, and the metabolism of these and 
other bodies are being studied by physiologists and physiological 
chemists and not by the animal husbandmen. This is natural, and is 
immaterial as long as the latter take heed of the results of such work 
and apply them in their experiments and their teachings. It is not 
alone benevolent tolerance that is desired for such research, but in- 
telligent and active support for it and a measure of participation in 
it b}^ those who stand for animal husbandry. 

The nature of the subjects which need to be studied and taken 
account of in their bearing on animal nutrition, and the trend of 
investigation under way, have been effectively set forth at several 
sessions of the Graduate School in a way to open up the broader 
relations of the subject, and also in the proceedings of the American 
Society of Animal Nutrition. Such study does not always require a 
28054°— 14 2 



108 EXPEKIMENT STATION EECOED. 

respiration calorimeter, although it calls for adequate laboratory 
equipment, and it is not necessarily beyond the means of an institu- 
tion, although ordinarily expensive. Studies that would doubtless 
cost less than the customary feeding trials might well yield far 
more to enrich the body of established fact and make the next step 
possible. After all it is largely a matter of attitude and spirit, for 
with these the means will follow. 

A by-product of nearly every serious investigation in feeding is a 
series of problems which are suggested as needing investigation. 
This is the experience of every keen investigator. He encounters 
questions which he needs light upon, and when he undertakes to 
search them out in the literature he finds they have not been solved — 
perhaps worked on fragmentarily by several men and then left in 
the doubtful stage, with an indeterminate degree of finality. 

Many of the large questions in animal nutrition call for coopera- 
tion which will bring different branches of science to bear upon them. 
As President Waters has well said : " The animal husbandman must 
be content to share the plan, the work, and the credit with other de- 
partments of the station. The besetting sin of our present organiza 
tion of the experiment station and the cause of much of our super- 
ficial work is the unwillingness or incapacity of our men to combine 
themselves into a team and attack a problem as an institution rather 
than as an individual or as one small department of the institution. 
. . . We constantly are seeking the lines of cleavage between de- 
partments of the station when we should be seeking the means of 
knitting them together into one whole. The latter is the modern prac- 
tice of well-organized team work, the former ancient and inefiicient 
individualism." The animal husbandry department furnishes the 
nucleus, and many will furnish the problems, around which such 
effective cooperation may be organized. 

Cooperation among institutions working along a common line 
offers many opportunities for helpfulness. A plan for such coop- 
eration was outlined by the Committee on Experiments of the 
American Society of Animal Nutrition several years ago, to include 
an investigation upon the optimum protein supply of fattening cattle 
and the digestibility of feeding stuffs with pigs. Thus far, aside 
from a passing interest of the members of the society, the results 
have been largely negative and the proposal has not met with the 
response that was hoped for. However, the committee reported at 
the last meeting of the society that it still believed the plan " will be 
of considerable service to experiment station workers in their 
attempts to solve some of the problems of animal nutrition." It 
deserves to be tried. The accumulation of a body of comparable 
data secured in accordance with a common plan and purpose would 
be an important step and would mean far niore than separate, inde- 



EDITORIAL. 109 

pendent experiments which embody nothing in common and are 
incapable of comparison or combination. 

The importance of the* subject of animal feeding merits the verj^ 
best eifort which the experiment stations are capable of commanding. 
The conventional experiments have served a very useful purpose and 
will continue to be needed, but they should be refined to give ti 
greater degree of accuracy and should be subjected to more critical 
examination in their planning and their conduct. But beyond this, 
one of the ultimate objects of work in this field, as in every other, 
must be to make practice more intelligent and better understood. 
This calls for the determination of the reason for what is found 
in experiment and observed in good practice. Without this the the- 
ory of feeding can not be developed and the more practical experi- 
ments can not reach their highest degree of reliability or usefulness. 

One of the greatest needs is more men of training who can see the 
field in its broader aspects and develop a j)oint of attack. Especially, 
there should be na question of the encouragement and defense of the 
higher types of work by the men in 'charge of animal husbandly in 
the agricultural colleges and experiment stations. 



RECENT WORK IN AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE. 



AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTRY— AGROTECHNY. 

In reg-ard to the constitution of albumin, K. Chodat {Ahs. in Chcm. Ztg., 
36 (1912), No. 52, p. JiSl). — ^.1 special reaction is described which is supposed 
to be characteristic of the a-aminocarboxylic acids of the fatty series, peptids, 
simple or complex peptid chains, polj^peptids, peptones, albumoses, and soluble 
proteins. The method is as follows : A purified tyrosinase is allowed to act upon 
a phenol; i. e., p-creosol, pyrocatechol, etc., in the presence of equimolecular or 
multiple quantities of an amino acid, a peptid, or a polypeptid. The reaction is 
indicated by a red coloration which changes to a violet green and finally to a 
blue having marked red dichroisms, and is very sensitive. 

The following among other substances were studied: Glycocoll, d- and 
1-alanin, d-valin, d- and 1-leucin, phenylglycin, d- and 1-tyrosin, d- and 1-phenyl- 
alanin, arginin, and cystin. Anthranilis acid does not react, but with trypto- 
phan and pyrrolidincarboxylic acid a stronger coloration is obtained. Peptones 
and albumoses give a marl^ed coloration which becomes stronger as peptoniza- 
tion proceeds. The color is also marked in the case of albumins, pure globulins, 
nucleo-globulins, and other proteins. The reaction will also show a change 
in the condensation or alteration in the composition of the original protein. 
As the reaction is specific for amino acids, it determines without going any 
further the presence of NH2- and COOII-groups. 

A preliminary note on the coagulation of proteins by ultraviolet light, 
W. T. BoviE (Science, n. ser., 37 (1913), No. 9JfO, pp. 2//, 25).— In order to gain 
insight into the action of ultraviolet light on living cells, tests were conducted 
with ordinary egg albumin, crystallized egg albumin prepared according to the 
Hopkins and Pinkus method, egg albumin (Hopkins and Pinkus) dialyzed 
against tap water, and ox serum. 

In all instances the albumin was more or less coagulated, and in the case of 
the egg albumins the coagulum produced was insoluble in alcohol, hot or cold 
water, and dilute acids, but soluble in dilute alkalis. In these respects it cor- 
responded to the coagulum produced by heat alone. 

New Investigations in regard to our knowledge of fats, R. Limprich (Neue 
Vntcrsuchimgcn zur Kenntnis der Fette. Inaug. Diss., Univ. Miinster, 1912, 
pp. 89, figs. 9). — The first part of this work embraces a study of methods for 
determining the presence of beef or mutton tallow in lard. It describes a new 
method for this purpose, and gives the results of a study of the Polenske method 
and its theoretical foundations. 

The second part deals with heptadecylic acid and triheptadecylene, the former 
having been previously found by other investigators to be present in lard in the 
form of a glycerid. An attempt was made to prepare the heptadecylic acid syn- 
thetically and to compare it with the compound occurring in lard. 

The third part of the dissertation gives the results of some feeding experi- 
ments with carp, with special reference to the influence of the fat given in the 
food on the body fat of the animals. 
110 



AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTRY — AGROTECHNY. Ill 

Reducing' power of sugars (monosaccharids), and its bearing on the defi- 
nition of these substances, N. Schoorl {Chcm. Wcckhh, 9 {1912), No. 35, 
pp. 706-711; ahs. in Jour. Chem. Soc. [London], 102 {1912), No. 600, I, p. 750).— 
The introduction of a nonoxidized carbon atom between the CO- and CH(OH)- 
pronps in a compound contninhig the group .CO.CII(On). diminishes the re- 
ducing power materially toward weak alkaline copper solutions. Ttie author 
maintains that the term " sugar " should include all substances containing the 
group .CO.cn (OH)., whether tliey are polyhydric alcohols or not. 

Studies in regard to plant colloids. — I, Swelling of the starch solution 
in the presence of crystalloids, M. Samec {KoUoklchcm. BriUcftc, 3 {1911), 
No. 3-4, pp. 123-160, figs. 7). — The presence of a crystalloid seems to change 
the swelling of starch granules in lower concentration th:in was usually sup- 
posed. This is apparently due to the anions, and the cations have only a quan- 
titative influence upon the action exerted by the anions. The influence of the 
inorganic and organic ciystalloids, glucose, urea, chloral hydrate, glycerin, 
etc., upon the swelling process of starch and gelatin with few exceptions is 
identical. 

The stimulation of swelling for the ions investigated is a periodic function 
of the atomic weight of the respective element. Classification according to the 
nature and intensity of the swelling process leads to the figures obtained by 
Pnuli and Hofmeister. The swelling induced by certain salts was found to be 
reversed with an increase in temperature. Salts yielding Oil on cleavage in 
medium concentrations seem to induce swelling. 

Acids do not show as great a sensitiveness toward starch as salts. The 
same conditions for swelling hold for acids as for salts, and, in addition, the 
condition of the solution (sohate) is modified by the respective acid. Bases 
stimulate the swelling in highly dilute solutions, and in the lowest concentra- 
tions alkali hydroxids show the greatest influence in this direction. The curve 
(swelling) of most salts points to the formation of ion-adsorption compounds 
with starch, while the swelling produced by alkali hydroxids can be explained 
in the light of Pauli's theory of ion hydration. The influence which other 
crystalloids exert upon starch appears also to be due to lyotrop activities. 

On the starch of glutinous rice and its hydrolysis by diastase, Y. Tanaka 
{Jour. Indus, and Engln. Chcm., If. {1912), No. 12, p. 918). — This presents 
corrections of an article previously noted (E. S. R., 28, p. 407). 

Investigations in regard to the formation of enzyms. — VII, About the 
development of certain yeasts in various nutrient solutions, II. Euler and 
B. Palm {Hoppe-Scyler's Ztschr. Physiol Chcm., SI {1912), No. 1-2, pp. 59-70, 
figs. 6). — The results show that the quantitative multiplication of cells of 
Saccharoinyccs cCrcvisicc (beer yeast), /Sf. apieiilatus. and iS. marxianus in a 
solution of an unfermentable disaccharid and fermentable hexose proceeds in 
the snme manner. Apparently yeasts contain hydrolyziug enzyms for certain 
disaccharids, the fermentation of which can not be determined by existing 
methods. 

The nutrient solution in addition to the sugar was composed of 0.25 gm. of 
magnesium sulphate, 5 gm. of orthomonopotassium sulphate, and 4.5 gm. of 
asparagin and water to make 1 liter. The sugars studied were saccharose, 
glucose, galactose, and lactose. 

»Sf. thcrmantitonum was also tested in this regard but with negative results. 

Formation of alkali by enzyms, C. Neuberg {Ahs. in ZentN. Physiol., 26 
{1912), No. 16, pp. 715-717). —The fermentation of the potassium salt of pyro- 
racemic acid with yeast or yeast juice, prepared by von Lebedew's methods, 
resulted in the formation of carbon dioxid acetaldehyde and potassium car- 



112 EXPERIMENT STATION EECORD. 

bonate. The same fermentation can be produeetl with the potassium salt of 
oxalacetic acid. 

The biological analysis of casein antiserum, A. Klein (Folia Microbiol. 
[DelfO, 1 {1912), No. 1-2, pp. 101-162, table 1; abs. in Milchw. Zentbh, 41 
{1912), No. 23, pp. 720, 721). — The antiserum used in these investigations was 
prepared by injecting casein solutions into rabbits. It was invariably found 
that 2 kinds of precipitins were produced, which had the following distinguish- 
ing features: 

Calcium casein precipitin acts exclusively in the presence of calcium chlorld 
with an optimum activity at a concentration of 5 parts per thousand. Casein 
precipitation is the most complete when calcium chlorid is absent, and the pre- 
cipitation decreases as the calcium chlorid increases. Calcium casein precipitin 
shows an optimum activity with 2 mg. of casein, and casein precipitin with 0.1 
mg. of casein. Both of the precipitins are weakened by diluting the serum with 
physiological salt solution, or by adding an alkali, but casein precipitin is the 
more affected. The addition of water to fresh antisera produces a precipitate 
in casein sera, but not in calcium casein sera. As the antisera grow older, or 
are heated to 55° C, casein precipitin loses some of its precipitating capacity ; 
no such effect is noted with calcium casein precipitin. In the process of im- 
munizing, calcium casein precipitin first makes its appearance in the sera. The 
calcium casein precipitation reaction obtained w'ith the casein antisera and 
lactosera does not detect more than ±1/30 mg. of casein. Casein precipitins do 
not detect more than 1/100 mg. casein, and in this respect resemble glycerin- 
acetic acid. Casein precipitin also inhibits the action of calcium casein anti- 
serum. 

Some applications of lacto- and ovosera, B. Galli-Valekio and M. Born and 
{Ztschr. Immumtdtsf. u. Expt. Ther., I, Orig., IJf {1912), No. 1, pp. 32-1,1, fig. 1; 
abs. in Gentbl. Bakt. [etc.^, 1. Abt., Ref., 55 {1912), No. 8, p. 233).— With a 
lactoantiserum it was possible to detect casein, particularly in feces and in 
fats. Likewise it was possible with a fowl antiserum to detect eggs in various 
foodstuffs. 

A contribution to our methods of determining" nitrogen in humus, C. B. 
I.iPMAN and H. F. Pressey {Jour. Indus, and Engin. Chem., 5 {1913), No. 2, 
pp. 143, 144)- — While much work has been done in regard to methods for 
determining humus in soils, very little appears to have been reported with 
reference to the determination of nitrogen in the humus. To obtain a more 
uniform and reliable method for determining nitrogen, the Wilfarth. Gunning- 
Atterberg, Hibbard, and salicylic acid methods were compared. The soils from 
which the humus solutions were obtained included light sandy soil from a 
walnut orchard, Anaheim, Cal., with a humus content of 0.55 per cent; silty 
clay loam derived from the State of Washington, humus content 8.89 per cent ; 
and tule soil from an island in the Sacramento River, nearly all organic matter. 
humus content 28.7 per cent. 

The Hibbard method gave the highest amounts of nitrogen in all cases except 
one, thus showing a more thorough digestion, and its duplicate and triplicate 
determinations showed the best agreement. The digestion was carried out 
more rapidly than in any other method, and particularly than by the salicylic 
acid method which, in other respects, came the nearest to the Hibbard method 
in yielding satisfactory results. Considerable trouble with bumping was ex- 
perienced with all methods except the Hibbard, in which the digestion proceeded 
rapidly and quietly in all cases. Its manipulation also surpassed in simplicity 
and speed all the other methods tested. " In view of the fact, therefore, that the 
Hibbard method is far superior to the others so far as both accuracy and 
speed are concerned, its use is urged in all humus nitrogen determinations." 



AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTRY AGROTECHNY. 113 

A comparison of some qualitative and quantitative methods for carbonates 
in soils, E. W. Gaitheb {Jour. InduK. and Engin. Chcin., 5 (JOld), No. 2, pp. 
138-143, figs. ^).— The author fmas that moth<xls which boil soils with mineral 
acids at 100" C. for determining the carbon dioxid content of the soils are in- 
accurate as a measure for carbonates in soils, because often the organic matter 
present in the soil is decomposed by the acid treatment, and results in the 
evolution of carbon dioxid. This confirms the findings of Marr (PI S. R., 22, 
p. 511). If, however, the soils are boiled In a partial vacuum at 50" with 
dilute mineral acids, no decomposition of organic matter talces place, and the 
evolved carbon dioxid is representative of the carbonates present. 

The litmus paper test, when properly conducted, was found to be the best 
qualitative test known for determining the presence of native carbonates in soils 
from humid regions. On the other hand, some soils may give an alkaline 
reaction not due to carbonate but to the products resulting from the hydrolysis 
of certain minerals which exist in soils, as pointed out by Cameron and Bell 
(E. S. E., 17, p. 742). Although the reddening of blue litmus paper may be due 
to the absorption of the base from hydrolyzed litmus salt, the presence of native 
carbonates in soils can either prevent this selective absorption, or it may cause 
an interchange of bases to take place. If a native carbonate, which is capable 
of being decomposed by weak hydrochloric acid at a low temperature, is present 
in the soil, it is indicated by the bluing of red litmus paper. If no alkalis or 
basic materials are present which yield alkaline solutions, a reaction is obtained 
with blue litmus paper. 

Soils containing substances which redden blue litmus paper have a tendency 
to the formation of acids or acid salts, which unite with the base absorbed 
from hydrolyzed litmus and fail to return another base in its stead. This 
results in the reddening of the indicator even though no hydrogen ions are 
yielded to a water solution. It is possible that the soil is capable of producing 
a physiological action which is similar to that produced by stronger acids 
yielding hydrogen ions to aqueous solutions. 

Polarization before inversion in the examination of molasses by Clerget's 
method, J. J. Hazewinkel and C. Loukens (Meded. Proefstat. Java-^uikcr- 
indus., 1912, No. 21, pp. 635-637; Arch. t^uikerhuJus. Ncderland. Jndii', 20 
(J912), No. 27, pp. 1073-1075).— The method recommended is as follows: One- 
half of the normal weight of the molasses is taken in a 100 cc. flask ; then 10 
cc. of a solution of neutral lead acetate is added, filled up to the mark with 
water, from 3 to 5 gm. of bone black added, shaken, and filtered. The polariza- 
tion is done in a 200 or 400 mm. tube. 

The freezing point of milk, J. B. Henderson and L. A. Meston (Proc. Roy. 
8oc. QucensJand, 21^ {1913), pp. 165-180, ph 1). — With a view to determining a 
reliable method by which the addition of water to milk could be detected, tests 
were made of the freezing point of milk under a variety of conditions. Results 
indicated "(1) that the freezing point of pure fresh milk samples from herds 
of cows in southern Queensland never shows a greater variation than from 
0.55° to 0.5G° C, the mean being 0.555° (this is exactly in accord with Conti- 
nental experience) ; and (2) that the freezing point determines with accuracy 
the proportion of water added to any milk from a herd, and distinguishes v^ith 
absolute certainty the watered rich milk from the naturally poor milk." 

A new scale for determining* moisture in butter, E. Worker (Ztschr. 
Untersuch. Nalir. u. GenussmtL, 24 (1912), No. 12, pp. 741, 742, fig. 1).—A 
description and illustration of the apparatus are given. 

A simple test for the determination of butter fat in butter, J. M. Doran 
{Jour. Indus, and Engin. Chem., 4 {1912), No. 11, pp. 841, 842, fig. i).— The 
method, which simply serves as a control test for the chemical method, is con- 



114 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

ducted as follows: "The sample of butter, taken with a trier or otherwise, is 
first warmed to about 100° F. and thoroughly stirred to insure the mass being 
uniform. About 10 cc. of the sample is placed in a sedimentation tube and 
whirled in a [hand] centrifuge for a few seconds. The sample should be suffi- 
ciently liquid in order to insure a good reading after being whirled in the 
centrifuge. After reading the amount of the sample on the tube scale, about 
5 cc. of gasoline is added and the tube carefully inverted 2 or 3 times, holding 
the thumb or finger over the top of the tube. Let the solution of fat and 
gasoline drain a few^ seconds before removing the finger. Place the tube in the 
centrifuge and whirl again for 15 or 20 seconds. 

" The gasoline dissolves the fat, forming a clear layer on the top. The non- 
fats, that is the water, salt, and curd, being immiscible with the gasoline and 
also heavier, form the lower layer. The second whirling drives the nonfats to 
the lower end of the tube almost completely, at the same time forming a sharp 
line of division between the 2 layers. The amount of nonfats is then carefully 
read on the tube scale. . . . 

" Care should be taken that this test is made at a fairly uniform temperature 
in order to eliminate as far as possible the changes in relative volumes due to 
variations in temperature. In case the sample when first placed in the sedi- 
mentation tube is not sufficiently liquid to insure a good reading on being 
whirled, it may be warmed by placing it in water or in an oven for a few 
minutes at a temperature not over 110°." 

The method yields slightly higher results than the official method. 

A simplification of the method for determining the Beichert-Meissl and 
Polenske numbers, A. Goske {Ztschr. Untersuch. Nahr, u. Genussmtl., 24 
{1912), No. 4, pp. 274-276, fig. 1). — ^The apparatus consists of a boiling flask, a 
distilling tube (1 bulb), a Liebig condenser with a flared upper end, a funnel, 
holding a piece of filter paper, attached with a cork to the lower end of the 
Liebig condenser, and a 110 cc. receiving flask divided into 10 cc. divisions. 
The advantages claimed for this apparatus are that (1) filtration after dis- 
tillation is unnecessary; (2) titration is done directly in the 110 cc. obtained; 
(3) rinsing of the apparatus is eliminated, and in this way the losses observed 
in the usual procedure are avoided; and (4) no special preparation of the 
filter is necessary for the second determination. 

Estimation of essential oil in mustard, D. Raquet {Ann. Chim. Analyt., 
17 {1912), yo. 5, pp. 174-178; ahs. in Analyst, 37 {1912), No. 436, p. 309).— It 
is pointed out that mixing mustard with water previous to distillation and 
allowing it to stand for some time is often followed by inconcordant results. 
Micro-organisms develop and exert their activity under these conditions, which 
results in the loss of oil. " If, however, dilute alcohol be used in place of 
water, the digestion may be allowed to proceed for even 24 hours without loss 
of essential oil. Having regard to these conditions, the following method is 
recommended for the estimation of the oil : 

" Five gm. of the mustard flour is mixed in a 250 cc. flask with 100 cc. of 
water and 20 cc. of 90 per cent alcohol ; the flask is now closed and set aside 
for 6 hours, or heated to a temperature of 35° C. for 1 hour. The contents are 
then distilled, and 50 cc. of the distillate is collected in a 100 cc. flask in which 
10 cc. of ammonia have been placed previously; 20 cc. of tenth-normal silver 
nitrate solution is now added, the distillation is continued until the 100 cc. 
flask is filled nearly to the mark, and after the flask has been closed with a 
stopper carrying a long glass tube, the contents are heated to 85° for 1 hour. 
When cold, the mixture is diluted to 100 cc, filtered, and the excess of silver 
is titrated in 50 cc. of the filtrate by means of tenth-normal thiocyanate solu- 
tion after the addition of nitric acid. The number of cubic centimeters of 



AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTRY AGROTECHNY. 115 

tenth-normal silver nitrate used is multiplied by 0-198 to obtain tlie weight of 
allyl thiocarbimid in 100 gm. of the mustard. The following percentage quan- 
tities of mustard oil (as allyl thiocarbimid) were found in samples of black 
mustard of different origin : English, 1.39, Greek 1.20, French 1.08, Sicilian 0.99, 
Italian 0.99, and Bombay 0.81 per cent." 

Oflacial methods of analysis adopted by the Texas Cotton Seed Crushers' 
Association (0/7, Paint and Drug Reporter, 82 {1912), A^J. 6, p. J^c).— The 
methods are for moisture, oil, ammonia and protein nitrogen, total fatty acids, 
and refinery losses. 

Method for determining the amount of cotton-seed hulls in cotton-seed 
meal, C. J. Kole {Yerslag. Landhomck. Onderzoelz. RijJcslandbouicproefstat. 
[XetherJands], 1912, No. 12, pp. 3^-47). — It is not deemed possible to obtain 
a good separation of hulls and meal body by sifting. Determining the crude 
fiber may give a clew as to whether a large or a small amount of hulls is 
present in the meal, but the results obtained are not accurate. 

The National Experiment and Seed Control Station of Holland, located at 
Wageningen, uses the following method: Five gm. of the sample is treated in 
a cylinder with 300 cc. of boiling water and allowed to stand for at least 4 
hours. The supernatant fluid is then poured off, and the residue is brouglit 
upon a piece of gauze (15 by 15 cm., mesh 10 microns) with the aid of a stream 
of water. The 4 ends of the gauze are brought together and the mass kneaded 
with the fingers for the purpose of reducing its size. The mass is then washed 
back into the cylinder, and when the hulls have sunk the fluid containing the 
floating particles of meal body is poured off. The cylinder is filled again with 
water, and when the coarse particles of hull have subsided, the supernatant 
fluid containing the fine particles of shell and coarse particles of meal is trans- 
ferred to the gauze. The mass is then rubbed up in a mortar and transferred 
again to the cylinder. These processes are repeated until all meal body has 
been removed, when the residue, representing the hulls, is dried. The weight 
of these hulls is multiplied by an empirical factor 100 -^ 72, which gives the 
amount of hulls present in the sample. 

It is stated that cotton-seed meal commonly contains about 15 per cent of 
hulls. 

The determination of formaldehyde, E. Rimini and T. Jona {Gior. Farm, 
e Chim., 61 {1912), Xo. 2, pp. 49-56; ahs. in Clicm. Ztg., 36 {1912), Xo. 87, 
Rcpert., p. 401; Chcm. ZcnihJ., 1912, I, Xo. 14, p. ii//7).— Rieglers method, 
based on the conversion of formaldehyde into formalazin by the addition of a 
known amount of hydrazin, decomposing the excess of the latter with iodic 
acid and measuring the resulting nitrogen, is deemed inaccurate because 
formalazin is also decomposed in an acid solution. Consequently the author de- 
composes the hydrazin in an alkaline solution in which formalazin is perfectly 
stable. Potassium iodate can not be used instead of iodic acid. 

Extraction of oil by aspiration, J. Chapelle and J. Ruby {Jour. Apr. Prat., 
n. ser., 24 {1912), Xos. 48, pp. 686-688, figs. 2; 49, pp. 119-121, fig. 1).—A, 
detailed description of a method for depriving olives of their oil by aspiration. 
The machinery required is illustrated. 

The effect of kiln drying at 145° F. on the composition of the hop, H. Y. 
Tartar and B. Pilkingtox {Jour. Indu,s. and Engin. Chem., 4 {1912), Xo. 11, 
pp. 839, 840).— The proper temperature to be used in the kiln dryi"S of hops 
still being a question in dispute, the authors were prompted to repeat in a lim- 
ited way some of the work which has been reported by other investigators. 
For this test 7 samples of Pacific coast hops were used. The temperature used 
in kiln drying in each instance varied between 120° and 145" F., the latter being 
the one which is preferred at the present time by Oregon hop growers. " The 



116 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

drying was begun at the lower temperature and then gradually raised to 145°, 
at which temperature it was held as nearly as possible until the hops were 
dried. The temperature was taken with thermometers which were kept just 
under the floor of the kiln and at that portion of the kiln where the tempera- 
ture was highest." The kilns employed were, with one exception, ordinary 
stove kilns, and were representative of those in common use. Comparisons 
were made with samples of hops which were air dried at room temperature. 
The determinations made were water, total resins, hard (gamma) resin, beta 
resin, alpha resin, tannin, and wax. 

" The results indicate that there was little if any change in the composition 
of the hops during the kiln-drying process. It will be noted that [with the 
exception of 2] samples, the amount of hard resin is slightly greater in the air- 
dried samples, a result which may be due to the variation In different samples. 
There was evidently little If any change in the amounts of tannin and wax, 
considering the possible -variation in separate samples. A physical examination 
showed that the difference in the aroma of the air-dried and the kiln-dried 
samples was hardly perceptible, different judges varying somewhat in their 
opinions.'' 

See also previous work (E. S. R., 27, p. 814). 

Notes on expressed and distilled West Indian lime oils, H. A. Tempany 
and N. Greenhalgh {West Indian Bui., 12 {1912), No. 4, pp. 498-503) .—This 
gives the results of examining 7 samples of hand-expressed oils and 3 of dis- 
tilled oils, in which were determined the specific gravity at 30° C. the optical 
rotation In a 100-mm. tube at 31°, the refractive index at 32°, the citral content 
by Burgess and Child's method, and the acid value by titration of 5 cc. of the oil 
dissolved in alcohol with seminormal alcoholic potash in the cold. 

In regard to the expressed oils, the results show a somewhat wider divergence 
between the character of the different oils than is indicated by various author- 
ities. The values for the optical rotation are lower than would be expected, 
probably because of the expansion of the oil owing to the high temperature at 
which measurements were made. The citral content and the acid number 
showed a fairly close correlation but varied markedly in different samples. 
The citral determination seemed to give satisfactory results. The amount of 
citral found varied markedly in the different samples, but was lower than is 
found in lemon oils, which, according to Gildemeister and Hoffman, contain 
from 7 to 30 per cent of that constituent. 

With regard to distilled oils, the samples appeared to be characterized, on 
the whole, by a lower refractive index, citral content, and acid number, and 
in some cases a lower specific gravity. The rotiition, on the other hand, was in 
all cases somewhat higher. 

" From the above results, it would appear that during the process of dis- 
tillation with steam (the conditions under which ordinary distilled oil is ob- 
tained being practically those of a steam distillation) a certain proportion of 
the lower and higher boiling constituents are removed. The blue fluorescence 
due to the presence of a crystalline substance in the higher fractions of the 
expressed oil is entirely absent in those of the distilled oils. This substance 
possibly may be the anthranilate which is known to exist in lime oil (Allen), to 
the methyl ester of which, C6H4(NH.CH3).COOCH3, E. J. Parry « ascribes 
the blue fluorescence of mandarin orange oil. This is probably removed during 
the steam distillation. 

" Expressed oil on standing generally deposits a pale yellow crystalline sub- 
stance known as limettin. Distilled oils do not deposit this body. Limettin is 

•Allen's Organic Analysis, 2 (1907), pt. 3, p. 40. 



METEOROLOGY WATER. 117 

stated to be dimethoxycoumarin ; it is readily soluble iu hot water, and it is 
possible that distillation with steam effects the removal of the limettin itself, 
or of that constituent of expressed oils which by the action of light may be 
converted into limettin. (A sample of limettin recry stall ized from boiling 
water was found to have a melting point of 115°)." 

Investig-ations on the extraction of lime juice by milling, II. A. Tempany 
and V. M. Weil (West Indian BiiL, 12 {1912), Xo. 4, pp. 473-478).— The prob- 
lems connected with the extraction of lime juice as practised in the West Indies 
at the present time are iu many ways not dlssimiliar from those encountered 
in obtaining the juice from the sugar cane. In fact, in many cases old cane 
mills have been adapted to the pun^ose of exx)ressing lime juice, and so far 
as the actual extraction is concerned, the processes in the case of the 2 indus- 
tries are identical. The eflBciency of the mill is computed, as a rule, from the 
number of gallons of juice obtained from 1 bbl. of limes, but as the size of the 
barrels and limes, and the juice content of the limes was believed to vary, a 
test was made with a number of samples of limes from various localities. 

"An examination of these results shows that the average weight and volume 
of a single fruit, as also the acidity of the juice, vary largely according to the 
locality in which the fruit is grown, the former characteristics varying directly 
and the latter inversely with the rainfall at the place of origin. The per- 
centage of juice contained in the fruit, however, varies relatively little, amount- 
ing approximately to 62 per cent of the total weight of the fruit. This result 
is of a distinctly unexpected character, since comparison with the sugar cane 
would tend to the belief that the juice content would be materially less in dry 
locaaities. It follows from this that measurement of the extraction of juice, 
if accurately performed, will afford a reliable criterion of the efficacy of the 
milling in lime juice works." 

Some tests in regard to the residue of juice left in the pressed skins were 
made, and showed that this was almost a complete check upon the efficiency 
of milling at the time the sample was taken. 

Experiments in lime juice concentration, J. C. Macintyre {West Indian 
Bill., 12 {1912), Xo. 4, pp. 405-472). — "The experiments in lime juice concen- 
tration which are described were carried out for the purpose of ascertaining 
the loss of acid occurring at various degrees of concentration so as to be in a 
position to judge whether the cost of steam-jacketed pans or other plant would 
be justified, and incidentally, to determine the point to which it is most 
economical to concentrate." A note by F. Watts is appended to this paper 
I)ointing out the practical value of the results obtained. 

Index to Zeitschrift fiir Analytische Chemie, H. Fresenius and A. Czapski 
(Zcitschrift fiir Analytische Chemie^ Autwcji- und Sack-Register zn den Bdnden 
41-50. Wieshaden, 1912, pp. 287). — An author and subject index of volumes 
41 to 50, issued from 1902 to 1911, is given. 

METEOROLOGY— WATER. 

Temperature coefficients in plant geography and climatology, B. E, and 
Grace J. Livingston {Bot. Gaz., 56 {1913), No. 5, pp. 349-375, figs. 5).— This 
paper deals fully with a subject which has been briefly discussed elsewhere 
(E. S. R., 28, p. 212; 20, p. 719). The direct temperature summations and sum- 
mations of temperature efficiencies are charted and compared. 

" For each of the direct summations, the normal daily mean minus 39, for the 
date next following the average date of the last frost in spring, is taken as the 
first term. To this are added the normal daily means, each decreased by 39, for 
all dates up to and including the average date of the last frost in autumn. . . . 



118 EXPERIMENT STATION EECOED. 

For the summations of temi^erature efficiencies, the normal daily efficiencies cor- 
responding, respectively, to the normal daily means of Bigelow's tables have 
simply been added for the same days as in the direct summations, thus giving 
what may be termed a tentative index of temperature efficiency for growth dur- 
ing the normal frostless season." 

The general conclusions reached are that " the method of direct temperature 
summations has proved itself to give, in a b.roadly general way and for most of 
the area of the United States, nearly the same climatic zones as does [the] 
method of efficiency summations. . . . The similarity between the results de- 
rived by these two methods of temperature integration, however, is only 
superficial and roughly approximate. The ratios of direct summation to 
efficiency summation range in magnitude, for the mean frostless season in the 
United States, from a minimum of 7.49 to a maximum of 10.44. A rational and 
consistent climatic chart represents the geographical distribution of these ratio 
values; on such a chart the marginal regions of the country are frequently 
characterized by low ratios and the two main mountain systems appear to con- 
trol areas of high values. There seems to be no doubt that the ratio here 
brought forward quantitatively represents a climatic dimension or characteris- 
tic, which appears to be some sort of function of the daily normal temperatures 
upon which this whole study has been based and of the time distribution of 
these temperature data within the period of the mean frostless season." 

British rainfall, 1912, H. R. IVIill and C. Salter {London, 1912, pp. 372, 
pis. Jf, figs, 87). — This report summarizes observations at 5,272 stations in Great 
Britain and Ireland grouped by counties and river basins. 

The mean rainfall during the year was 39.31 in., 23 per cent above the av- 
erage for 35 years (1875-1909), for England; 56.19 in., 19 per cent above the 
average, for Wales; 49.01 in., 11 per cent above the average, for Scotland; and 
44.06 in., 8 per cent above the average, for Ireland. "Within the last 32 years 
for which comparisons are available, two only (1882 and 1903) have been wetter 
than 1912 in the British Isles. 

The report contains special articles on the great rain storm of August 25-26, 
1912; the wettest summer in England and Wales; and the "Seathwaite" pat- 
tern rain gage. 

Evaporation from a plain water surface, J. W. Leather (Mem-. Depf. Agr. 
India, Cliem. Ser., 3 {1913), No. 1, pp. 15, pi. 1, figs. 2; al)S. in Internat. Inst. 
Agr. [Rome'], Mo. Bui. Agr, Intel, and Plant Diseases, 4 {1912), No, 8, pp. 
1186, 1187). — ^A description is given of the evaporimeter in use at Pusa, which 
consists essentially of a circular cement tank 6* ft. in diameter and 5 ft. deep, 
with an adjustable pointer for measuring the water level. Records for 1911 
and 1912 are tabulated and compared with other data obtained from the obser- 
vatories at Madras and Lyallpur. 

The rate of evaporation during the cold weather months was much the same 
at Pusa and at Lyallpur but was much higher at Lyallpur throughout the six 
hot months from May to October. At Pusa during the hottest months the rate 
of evaporation was three times that of the coldest months, at Lyallpur five 
times, and at Madras not quite twice that of the coldest months. 

Dew ponds and mist ponds, E. A. Martin {Rpt. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Set., 1912, 
pp. 530, 531). — ^An attempt is made in this article to explain the accumulation 
of water in these ponds. " The precipitation of mist into ponds, aided perhaps 
by silent discharges of electricity, and the entanglement of mist-laden salt dust 
in the hollows in which the ponds lie. are believed to be the means by which 
some ponds maintain a supply of water all through the year, in spite of the 
great draft which is made uix>n them by numerous cattle." 



SOILS FERTILIZERS. 119 

The artesian water supply of eastern and southern Florida, E. XL Sel- 
LARDs and H. Guntee (Fla. Geol. Survey Ann. Rpt., 5 {1912), pp. 97-290, pis. 5, 
figs. 17). — This paper, which is the fourth of a series (E. S. R., 29, p. 315), 
includes a reprint of a paper on the water supply of eastern Florida (E. S. R., 
25, p. 18), revised to include a report on the water supply of southern Florida. 
In the combined reports the artesian water supply is discussed in detail for 
each county lying in a section bordering the Atlantic and Gulf coasts, and com- 
prising the priucijtal artesian areas of Peninsular Florida. 

Report of the interstate conference on artesian water, Sydney, 1912 (Rpt. 
Interstate Conf. ArtesUni Water [Aust.^, 1012, pp. Xy-\-207+68, pis. 42).—ThG 
proceedings of this conference are reported. They dealt chiefly with the extent, 
methods of obtaining, and utilization of artesian waters for agricultural and 
other purposes in Xew South Wales. A number of maps, plates, and other data 
accompany the report. 

SOILS— FERTILIZERS. 

Soil, soil investigation, and soil valuation, F. Pilz (Jlonatsh. Landw., 6 
(1913), No. 10, pp. 298-300). — The author reviews the physics and chemistry of 
soils and soil structure with special reference to the question of fertilization 
and the use of soil analysis in estimating the value of the soil for cropping 
purposes. He demonstrates that the kind, amount, and success of fertilization 
depend on the crop, the fertilizer content of the soil, the physical condition of 
the soil and subsoil, and other factors, such as climate, cultivation, etc., and 
points out that to the average farmer a chemical analysis of his soil means 
practically nothing. He suggests the need of keeping accurate records in each 
rural district of the physical and chemical conditions of the soils of each farm 
and of the other local factors affecting crops in order that each farmer may 
obtain definite and accurate information regarding the necessary mechanical and 
chemical treatment of his particular soil. 

Chemistry, physics, biolog-y, and cultivation of the soil, ]M. Hoffmann 
iJahresber. Landw., 27 {1912), pp. 2Jf-60). — Recent reports of investigations on 
this subject are classified and reviewed as usual. 

Contribution to the study of the soils of the Republic of Argentina, P. 
Lavenir (An. Min. Agr. Argentina, Seec. Quini., 2 {1912}, Xo, 2, pp. 577, figs. 
6). — This article describes methods of soil sampling, mechanical, physical, and 
chemical analysis, and the methods of soil classification employed by Iho 
chemical laboratory of the department of agriculture of Argentina, and draws 
conclusions regarding the practical interpretation and application of the results 
of analysis. Analyses are reported of a large number of samples of representa- 
tive agricultural soils from the different Provinces of Argentina, most of which 
show conditions very favorable to agriculture. 

Soil culture in Iceland, P. M. Grunee {Arch. Biontol, S {1912), No. 2, pp. 
VI -{-213, pis. 2, figs. 28). — This work reviews the natural history of Iceland in 
its relation to the formation of swamps and describes the swamps from the 
standpoint of their value as sources of i)eat fuel and as meadow lands. In 
addition there is a somewhat lengthy discussion of garden cultivation as 
practiced in Iceland, including descriptions of soils, fertilizers, crops, climate, 
and other factors closely related to this work. 

The results of mixed cultivation with loam in Finland, A. Rindell {Jahrb. 
Moork., 1 {1912), pp. 19-34). — A number of experiments were made in drained 
and burnt over peat swamps to determine the beneficial effect of adding differ- 
ent amounts of loam supplemented by phosphoric acid, potash, and lime as 
fertilizers. 



120 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

The yield of grain was found to increase with increased loam addition. Fer- 
tilization with a mixture of phosphoric acid and potash further increased the 
yield, and somewhat more than fertilization with phosphoric acid alone, but 
with increasing loam treatment the difference in yields brought about by the 
two fertilizers steadily decreased. When practically the same experiments were 
made using sand instead of loam, the same general results were obtained ex- 
cept that the yields of grain were not nearly so large. The addition of lime 
showed little or no beneficial effect except where iron sulphid was present in the 
loam. 

Comparative tests of lime and loam treatment of peat soils favored the loam, 
although the crop yield increased as the application of lime increased up to 
2,670 lbs. per acre. It was found that repeated burning in case of certain peat 
swamps so reduced the nitrogen content that the crop yield was considerably 
lowered, making the addition of nitrogenous matter necessary. 

The heat conductivity of damp sand and loam was found to be three or four 
times that of the peat. It was also found that loam treatment of peat soils suffi- 
ciently arrested frost action to allow plant life to exist in much colder weather. 
This is attributed to the better physical condition of the soil. 

Moor culture, A. Kostlan (Jahresher. Landiv., 27 {1912), pp. 200-215, fig, 
1). — Reports of recent investigations on this subject are classified and reviewed. 

The shrinking of swamp soils resulting" from drainage and cultivation, 
B. Tacke {Jalir'b. Moork., 1 {1912), pp. 35^5, pi. 1). — Attention is called to the 
marked shrinking and sinking of swamp soils resulting from drainage and 
other improvements. A sinking of from 15 to 25 per cent of the soil depth has 
been found to take place within 15 years after drainage in many swamps, 
especially in those from which the peat has been stripped. The shrinking and 
sinking occur in layers and not as a solid mass. 

The degree to which drainage so affects the soil is said to depend chiefly on 
the physical and chemical composition and depth of the soil, on the amount 
and depth of drainage, and on the character and condition of the subsoil. In 
some upland swamps which are drained and stripped of peat the bed soil sinks 
below the water level in the drainage ditches. To obviate this it is suggested 
that in stripping the peat a bed be left somewhat more than 50 cm. above mean 
water level in the ditches and this be mixed with sand to reduce the shrinkage. 
Cultivation of peat stripped soil reduces the shrinkage more than the sand 
treatment, but the productivity is said to be not nearly so great. The effect 
of drainage on such soils can best be determined by observing the relative 
movements of the layers and comparing their densities as determined before 
and at intervals after drainage. 

Investigations on the influence of plant roots on the structure of the soil, 
M. Berkmann {Internat. Mitt. Bodenlc, 3 {1913), No. 1, pp. 1-Jf9, figs. 6). — ^A 
series of pot experiments with two representatives soils, one a sandy soil con- 
taining considerable humus and little clay and the other a clay loam soil, were 
conducted over a period of two years to determine the influence of plant roots 
on the soil structure and also the effect of physical changes within the soil 
itself. The soils were prepared by tamping some and puddling others into 
place, and still others were experimented with in a loose mellow condition. 
Plants representative of the two general types of rooting were grown on some 
of the soils while others were left bare. 

It was found that different kinds of soils, especially those rich in clay, are 
loosened not only by absorbing water but also as a result of the eff'ect of frost, 
variations in moisture content, etc. In loose soils a very small percentage of 
the spaces is filled by the stronger tap roots so that there is no essential de- 
crease in the original mellowness from this source. In compact soils roots may 



SOILS FERTILIZERS. 121 

to a certain degree improve the structure and thus increase production. In 
compact stiff soils, without granular structure, the loosening process is aided, 
to the benefit of plant growth, by the mechanical action of roots and by a strong 
modification of the moisture conditions. Roots apparently seldom make prac- 
tical use of the so-called "root holes" as a means of spreading in heavy soils. 
The growth of roots as regards their mechanical action varies in loose and 
compact soils. The beneficial combination of self -loosening and root action ex- 
plains the frequent permanent improvement of the soil structure under the 
continued influence of roots, as In grass lands, and also the prevention of per- 
manent puddling of the soil by rain. 

Further studies of the influence of vegetation on the penetration and move- 
ment of water in the soils showed a beneficial infiuence, especially in meadow 
and pasture lands where there Is a marked surface spreading of the roots. 
Although in these cases the lateral percolation of the water was somewhat re- 
tarded by the roots, loss of water through evaporation was also retarded and a 
comparison of soils with and without vegetation showed that the water movement 
w«s much more rapid in the former. However, in grain lands covered with 
crops only part of the year, an injury resulted and the soil became hard and 
compact, making frequent cultivation necessary. 

The influence of subsoil loosening' on soil yield, Augstin (III us. Landw. 
Ztg., 33 {1913), Xo. 32, pp. 303, 30.'f, figs. iJ).— The opinion is expressed that the 
entire breaking up of a subsoil destroys capillarity, induces too much ventilation 
and drainage, and causes soluble plant foods to leach away. Cropping experi- 
ments on soil which had been completely subsoiled and on soil in which the 
subsoil had been broken only in a small furrow 3 cm. wide under each furrow 
were in favor of the latter method. Less power was expended in plowing by 
this method and it is stated that the looseness of subsoil lasts longer. 

The minimum water capacity of soils and its cause, A. Moskovic (JfUf. 
Landic. Lclirkanz. K. K. Hochsch. Bodonkia. Wicn, 2 (1013), No. 1, pp. 209-2J,3, 
figs. 3). — The author reviews the results obtained by several other experi- 
menters and gives the results of a number of his own experiments made to 
determine the cause and limitations of the minimum water capacity of soils. 

On tlie basis of these results the author concludes that the minimum water 
capacity of soils is the maximum amount of water which is independent of 
gravity, or that amount which is adsorbed by a permeable soil under certain 
fixed conditions of vapor and air pressure and temperature when a surplus of 
water is added. He further concludes that under similar conditions of vapor 
and air pressure, temperature, stratification, and size of grain every soil except 
alluvial soil has a constant minimum water capacity. The difference between 
minimum and absolute water capacity of the soil increases as the soil becomes 
coarser grained. The minimum water capacity of the soil is determined 
by the adsorbed or condensed water, so that the greater the condensing surface 
presented within a soil the higher is the minimum water capacity. However, 
since the adsorptive power of different soil constituents varies, the minimum 
water capacity is not proportional to the surface presented but only to the free 
surface tension. In porous soils the larger part of the water not adsorbed 
drains away below, but nonporous soils, such as fine grained sands if the grains 
are of suitable shape, form pores with closed walls which retain large quan- 
tities of water, vso that such fine sands in spite of their small adsorptive power 
show a high minimum water capacity. The minimum water capacity of a soil 
is not altered by crumbling but is increased by puddling, which increases the 
surface tension. 

Quantitative investigations on the reaction of aqueous extracts of soils, 
T. Saidel {Bui Sect. Sci, Acad, Rounmne, 2 {1913-14), No. 1, pp, 38-44; abs. 



122 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

in Jour. Chem. Soc. [London], 104 (1913), No. 611, I, p. 1035).— An electrical 
method and apparatus for determining the reaction of soil extracts are de- 
scribed and tests of the method on different kinds of soil are reported. 

Alkaline reactions caused by acids and their acid salts in soils, G. Masoni 
(Staz, Sper. Agr. Ital., 46 (,1913), No. Jf, pp. 2^1-273; abs. in Chem. Zentbl., 
1913, I, No. 2It, p. 1999; Jour. Chem. Soc. [London], IO4 (1913), No. 611, I, 
p. 1036; Chem. Abs., 7 (1913), No. 19, p. 538i).—" Organic and mineral acids 
and their acid salts are able to cause an alkaline reaction in soils. In calcifer- 
ous soils calcium carbonate is formed, which in aqueous solution, on the addi- 
tion of acid, parts with hydroxyl. The alkaline reaction may also be due to the 
action of acids on basic salts of magnesium, calcium, or aluminum. Acid alkali 
salts will give rise to alkali carbonates. The influence of the alkaline reaction 
on the biological function of the roots is discussed." 

The chemistry of humus, with special reference to the relation of humus 
to the soil and to the plant, S. L. Jodidi (Jour. Franklin Inst., 116 (1913) , 
No. 5, pp. 565-573). — From a review of his own and other investigations the 
author concludes, in opposition to the earlier idea that humus is made up of 
but a few organic compounds, chiefly acid in their nature, that "more recent 
investigations have thrown enough light upon the chemical nature of humus 
or humus organic matter in the soil to demonstrate that it is a very complex 
substance which, in addition to the dark-colored humin bodies, contains a large 
number of organic compounds displaying acid, basic, neutral, and amphoteric 
character." 

The value of humus in soils is attributed not only to the fact that it contains 
most of the elements necessary for plant life but that it affords a means for 
rendering more of the necessary inorganic elements available, improves the 
physical condition of the soil, and in short " makes the soil a more habitable 
and suitable home for the performance of the life functions of plants." 

The nature of humus and its relation to plant life, S. L. Jodidi (Biochem. 
Bui., 3 (1913), No. 9, pp. 17-22). — This article is substantially the same as the 
above. 

Observations on the influence of plant covering on soil temperatures, 
J. Fkodin (Lunds Univ. Arsskr., n. ser., Sect. 2, S (1912), No. 9, pp. 16, pis. 4, 
fig. 1). — Soil temperatures were observed in midwinter on snow-covered and 
open soils, both fallowed and planted. 

It was found that on the coldest days the temperature at a depth of 10 cm. 
under the plant covering was the same as at a depth of 17 cm. in fallowed soil. 
The temperature at 10 cm. in the snow-covered soil was found to be equal to 
that at a depth of 27.4 cm. in naked soil. Since the plant covering of from 2 
to 4 cm. apparently had the same effect as a soil layer 7 cm. thick, and the 
10 cm. snow layer the same effect as a soil layer 17.4 cm. thick it is concluded 
that at the same thickness coverings of vegetation and snow would have the 
same effect. After a thaw it was found that under the snow the top layer 
of soil was warmer than a layer 20 cm, deep and that a still colder layer of 
soil existed between these two. This is attributed to heat radiation through 
the snow and is said to have a considerable biological and hydrographic in- 
fluence. 

,A comparison of the daily ranges in temperature of soil covered with vege- 
tation and fallowed soil showed that at 10 cm, depth the temperature range 
of the former was only 55 per cent of that of the fallowed soil and that the 
plant covering acted in this respect as a soil layer 9.1 cm, thick. Comparisons 
of the daily range in temperature in the same soils on clear quiet days in the 
late spring showed that the range at a depth of 10 cm, under vegetation was 
only 59 per cent of that of the fallowed land and that the plant covering acted 



SOILS FERTILIZERS. 123 

in this respect as a soil layer 8.6 cm. thick. It is further shown that the 
differences in range of temperature between soil covered with vegetation and 
naked soil have a particular significance to the biology and geography of some 
plants, especially the so-called Alpine plants. 

The use of dialysis and the determination of oxidizing power in judg-ing 
soils, J. KoNiG, J. Hasenbaumer and K. Glenk (Landw. Vers. Stat., 70-80 
{1913), pp. 491-534, pi. 1, figs. 2; abs. in Zentbl. Agr. Chem., 42 {1913), 'No. 5, 
pp. 289-295; Jour. Chem. 80c. [London], IO4 {1913), No. 607, I, p. 578; Genthl. 
Bakt. [etc.], 2. AM, 39 {1913), No. ^-7, pp. 18ft, i85).— Six different soils, 
namely, sand, sandy loam, loam, limestone soil, clay soil, and schistose soil, were 
subjected to dialysis, part in the natural state, part previously heated in a 
vacuum to from 95 to 98° C, part heated to from 150 to 180°, and part treated 
with hydrogen peroxid. After dialysis the amounts of organic matter, calcium, 
magnesium, potassium, phosphoric acid, and sulphuric acid were estimated. 

The final results showed that only with dried clny soil did the quantity of sub- 
stances obtained by dialysis fall below that of the natural soil. It was found 
that soils heated to 150° yielded more soluble matter than untreated soils, 
similar results, but less marked, were obtained with the soils dried at from 05 
to 98°. The amounts obtained for sandy and sandy loam soils treated with 
hydrogen peroxid were considerably higher than those obtained from natural 
soils. From the results obtained, and since much time and considerable care 
and accuracy are required, it is concluded that dialysis can have no practical 
application in soil investigation. 

Clearer indications of the changes which soils undergo when heated and when 
air-dried were obtained bj- estimating the electrolytic conductivity. The results 
indicate that the ordinary drying out of soils produces a partial suspension of 
the colloidal conditions and hence an increase in the solubility of the plant food 
in the colloidal combinations. 

The amounts of carboh dioxid produced in six different soils and in the same 
soils with small amounts of dextrose and urea were estimated daily for three 
weeks. Contradictory results were obtained with and without dextrose, but at 
a mean temperature of 15.7° the limestone soil formed the largest proportion of 
carbon dioxid. At the end of this experiment the amounts of ammonia and 
nitrates and the number of bacteria were estimated. Urea was almost com- 
pletely nitrified in the loamy soil while the clay soil showed only very slight 
nitrification. It was noted that the power of oxidation of a soil stands within 
certain limits which can not be exceeded within a given time with a given 
air supply. The addition of dextrose considerably increased the number of 
bacteria in all the soils, in sandy soils as much as eightfold. The catalytic 
power was affected in the same way except in the schistose and clay soils. 
The electrolytic conductivity was increased by clay and diminished by dextrose. 
It is concluded that determination of electrolytic conductivity is the best 
method of disclosing the changes taking place in the soil and further that the 
determination of oxidizing power is a very suitable method of investigating the 
properties of individual soils. 

The results of pot exi^ermonts with oats showed that heating the soil at from 
95 to 98° in a vacuum increased both the total growth and the mineral con- 
stituents. From this it is concluded that alternate drying out and wetting of 
the soil will promote the formation of soluble plant foods. 

The addition of dextrose and gum arable to loamy sand and loam diminished 

the yield of grain and straw. This is attributed to an excess of undecomposed 

sugar in the soil acting as a nonelectrolyte, impeding the movement of the ions- 

in the soil, or as a colloid shield restricting flocculation of the colloids. The 

28054°— 14 3 



124 EXPEKIMEXT STATION EECOKD. 

tnking up of food from the soil by plants is thought to be effected by an ex- 
change of ions. 

The employment of dialysis and the determination of the power of oxi- 
dation as a convenient method for the judgment of soils, J. Konig (Fest- 
schrift 84- Versamml. Deut. Xaturf. u. Arzte von der Med. Naturw. Gesell. 
Minister, 1912, pp. 57-77, ph 1, fig. 1). — See also the article noted above. 

The soil solution, and the mineral constituents of the soil, A. D. Hall, 
Winifred E. Beenchley, and Lilian M. Underwood {Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. 
London, Ser. B, 204 (1913), No. 307, pp. 179-200, figs, g).— Wheat and barley 
were grown in solutions made from soils on which wheat and barley had been 
grown for 60 years. The growth in the solutions was parallel to that on the plats 
and the composition of the solutions as regards phosphoric acid and potash 
corresponded to the past manurial treatment and present analysis of the plats. 
Growth in the solutions from imperfectly manured plats was brought to the 
level of that in solutions of completely manured plats by the addition of suitable 
salts. "Wheat ^ew as well as barley in the solutions of the wheat soils and 
vice versa. In a similar set of solutions from the same soil the growth of buck- 
wheat, white lupines, and sunflowers corresponded with that of wheat and bar- 
ley. Boiling effected no alteration in the nutritive value of the soil solutions." 

" In nutritive solutions of various degrees of dilution the growth of plants 
varied directly, but not proportionally with the concentration of the solution, 
though the total plant food present in the solution was in excess of the require- 
ments of the plant. When the nutrient solution was diffused as a film over 
sand or soil particles, as in nature, there was no retardation of growth due to 
the slowness of the diffusion of the nutrients to the points in the liquid film 
which had been exhausted by contact with the roots. Growth in such nutrient 
solutions forming a film over sand particles was much superior to the growth 
in a water culture of equal concentration, but the growth in the water culture 
was similarly increased if a continuous current of air was kept passing 
through it." 

" From the results obtained it is generally concluded : (1) The composition of 
the natural soil solution as regards phosphoric acid and potash is not constant, 
but varies significantly in accord with the composition of the soil and its past 
manurial history. 

"(2) Within wide limits the rate of growth of a plant A^aries with the con- 
centration of the nutritive solution, irrespective of the total amount of plant 
food available. 

"(3) When other conditions, such as the supply of nitrogen, water, and air 
are equal, the growth of the crop will be determined by the concentration of the 
soil solution in phosphoric acid and potash which, in its turn, is determined by 
the amount of these substances in the soil, their state of combination, and the 
fertilizer supplied. 

"(4) On normal cultivated soils the growth of crops like wheat and barley, 
even when repeated for 60 years in succession, does not leave behind in the 
soil specific toxic substances which have an injurious effect upon the growth 
of the same or other plants in that soil." 

The net result of these investigations is thought to uphold the theory of the 
direct nutrition of the plant by fertilizers. 

Results of ten years' comparative field experiments on the action of fal- 
low, manure, and clover, A. Koch (In Festschrift zum sieb.^igsten Gehurtstage 
von Jacob Esser. Berlin, 1913, pp. 57-93, figs. 3; Jour. Landw., 61 (1913), 
No. 3, pp. 245-281, figs. 3). — ^Three systems of soil treatment were followed in 
the experiments reported in this article. These compared unfertilized black 
fallow, manure (on potatoes or beets), and clover in a rotation of three cereals 

\ 



SOILS FERTILIZERS. 125 

(winter wheat, rye, and oats or summer barley). The soil used in the experi- 
ments was a friable loam. 

Detailed data for yield and value of the crops and the nitrogen content of 
the soil at different periods of the experiments are summarized. These indi- 
cate little or no decline of the nitrogen supply of the soil or of yield with bare 
fallow as compared with the manure and clover rotations. 

The addition of cellulose to the soil as a source of energy increased the 
activity of bacteria which convert nitrates into albuminoid substances, and thus 
decreased the growth of crops. As soon as the cellulose was consumed, how- 
ever, no further transformation of nitrates occurred and the plants began to 
make normal growth. The author concludes from this that nitrates are essen- 
tial to plant growth in natural soils. 

Soil hyg-iene and green manuring-, F. Arndt (Mitt. Okonom. Gcsell. Sachsen, 
1912-13, pp. 20-70). — The author discusses soil moisture regulation and physical 
and chemical harmony in soils, and reports the results of his experiments made 
to demonstrate the value of legumes for green manuring. 

Report of the agriculturist, E. F. Gaskill (Massachusetts Sta. Rpt. 1012, 
pt. 1, pp. 21-34)' — This is a report of progress in fertilizer experiments follow- 
ing the same general lines as in previous years, including plat and pot tests 
(E. S. R.. 28, p. 325^. 

The manag-ement of solid and liquid manures, M. Ringelmann (Am&nage- 
ment dcs Fumiers et des Purins. Paris, 1013, pp. 187, figs. 103; rev. in Rev. 
Sci. [Paris], 51 (1913), II, No. 7, p. 210).— This book deals very fully with the 
methods, structures, and appliances emploj^ed in the preservation and handling 
of farm manures, more especially liquid manures. The subject Is considered 
from the sanitary standpoint as well as from that of practical utilization of the 
manures on the farm. Methods and appliances for distributing the manures 
and manure liquors receive particular attention. 

Enrichment of farmyard manure by cake feeding*, A. D. Hall (Jour. Bd. 
Agr. [London'], 20 (1913), No. 8, pp. 665-672).— On the basis mainly of experi- 
ments made at Rothamsted, but also from a study of farm accounts, the author 
concludes that the addition of oil cake to the feed of cattle enriches the manure 
in quickly available fertilizing constituents, but does not greatly increase its 
ultimate effect. He is of the opinion that the value of the practice of using 
cake is overestimated, particularly in case of light soils. 

Comparative tests of lime nitrogen, nitrogen lime, sodium nitrate, and 
ammonium sulphate on sandy and upland moor soils, B. Tacke and F. Brune 
(Landw. Vers. Stat., S3 (1013), No. 1-2, pp. 1-100).— Vol experiments with dif- 
ferent crops under a variety of conditions gave results indicating that the lime 
nitrogen prepared by the Frank and Caro process and nitrogen lime prepared 
by the Polzenius process are equally effective on sandy soils, but that the nitro- 
gen lime is only about 81 per cent as effective as that of lime nitrogen on moor 
soils. The experiments indicated that neither product should be applied at the 
same time as the seed, as if applied at this time the fertilizing effect is only 44 
per cent of that of sodium nitrate. Applied as a top-dressing the materials are 
from 66 to 67 per cent as effective as sodium nitrate in the case of rye and 
from 80 to 82 per cent as effective in the case of oats and potatoes. The best 
results were always obtained when the materials were applied a short time be- 
fore seeding, when they were on the average 89 per cent as effective as sodium 
nitrate. The utilization of the nitrogen by plants was only 54 per cent of that 
of sodium nitrate on sandy soils and 67 per cent on moor soils. 

The lime-nitrogen industry, E. O. Siebneb (Chcm. Ztg., 37 (1013), Nos. 106, 
pp. 1057, 1058: 108, pp. 1073-1075).— This is a brief review of the present status 
of the industry. 



126 EXPEKIMENT STATION RECORD. 

Nitrogenous fertilizers obtainable in the United States, J. W. Turrentine 
(U. S. Dept. Agr. Bui. 37, pp. 12). — Statistics of procUicliou and consumption for 
fertilizing purposes of sodium nitrate, ammonium sulphate, synthetic nitrogen 
compounds (calcium cyanamid and nitrate), tankage, and dried blood are sum- 
marized and discussed. 

It is estimated that the use of these materials in fertilizers in the United 
States during 1912 was approximately as follows: Ammonium sulphate (pro- 
duction in United States 155,000 tons, imports 60,000 tons) 215.000 tons; sodium 
nitrate (about 13 per cent of the imports, 518,613 tons) 70,000 tons; calcium 
cyanamid 11,264 tons ; tankage 99,324 tons ; dried blood 37,710 tons ; fish scrap 
70,000 tons. See also a previous note (E. S. R., 29, p. 517). 

Figures are given which indicate that less than one-sixth of the recoverable 
ammonium sulphate lost in beehive coke ovens in the United States is now 
saved. Estimates by the Bureau of Animal Industry indicate that if all the 
slaughterhouse wastes were saved the possible production of tankage would be 
222.535, of dried blood 79,794 tons. 

The replacement of potash in certain f eldspathic rocks by substances used 
as fertilizers, G. Andr:^ (Compt. Ren4. Acad, Sci. [Paris'\, 157 {1913), No. 19, 
pp. 856-858; ahs. in Rev. Set. [Paris], 51 (1913), II, No. 21, p. 668).— The results 
reported by the author show the important role played by the phenomena of 
double decomposition which occurs when soluble fertilizing materials are added 
to the soil. 

The replacement of potash by soda was especially marked when microcline 
was mixed with sea salt or with sodium nitrate, the amount of potash replaced 
being almost identical in the two cases. This replacement explains the favor- 
able action of salt when used as a fertilizer. Sodium nitrate when applied to 
the soil is thus a means of furnishing a certain amount of potash to plants as 
a result of double decomposition in contact with particles of feldspar. Am- 
monium sulphate is also particularly active in replacing potash. 

Investigations on the composition of Thomas slag, M. Popp (Osterr. Chem. 
Ztg., 16 {1913), No. 21, pp. 291, 292). — Four different crystalline forms occurring 
in Thomas slag are described and their varying solubility in citric acid is dis- 
cussed. Certain rhomboidal blue crystals occuring in the slag were found to be 
95 per cent soluble in citric acid, while the brown columnar crystals found were 
only 41 per cent soluble. 

In ground slag it was found that the finest particles had the highest per- 
centage of phosphoric acid, silicic acid, and lime, and the lowest percentage 
of iron. Separating the coarser particles by means of an electromagnet it w^as 
found that the nonmagnetic part was almost identical in composition with the 
fine meal. While the phosphoric acid of the coarse particles, as a whole, was 
13 per cent soluble, that of the magnetic particles was 20 per cent soluble. 

A method of electro-dialysis was tried by which it was possible to separate 
the particles into groups corresponding to their solubility in citric acid. 

Investigations on the action of steamed and unsteamed bone as a phos- 
phatic fertilizer in comparison with superphosphate and Thomas slag as 
well as on the importance of grinding unsteamed bone, B. Schulze (Land. 
Vers. Stat., 83 {1913), No. 1-2, pp. 101-180). — In a series of pot experiments it 
was found that the phosphoric acid of Thomas slag soluble in citric acid was 
about 90 per cent as effective as the water soluble phosphoric acid of super- 
phosphate the first year. Its utilization by plants was about 81 per cent of 
that of water soluble phosphoric acid. The after effects, however, in a measure 
compensated for the poor results the first year. 

The effect of the phosphoric acid of bone meal during the first year was 
barely half that of superphosphate. In the course of three years the average 



SOILS FERTILIZERS. 127 

effect of the phosphoric acid of bone meal was about 60 per cent of that of 
water soluble phosphoric acid. The phosi)horic acid of steamed bone meal was 
somewhat more effective than that of unsteamed bone; the results, however, 
varied wirh the plants grown. The difference in effect on cereals and on such 
crops as mustard, buckwheat, and spurry was especially marked. In no case, 
however, did the bone meal approximate in fertilizing efficiency the water solu- 
ble or citric acid soluble phosphoric acid. 

Fine grinding of the unsteamed bone appreciably increased the fertilizing 
efficiency of the phosiihorle acid. 

The use of raw phosphate and siliceous lime as fertilizers, T. Pfeiffer 
(ZentU. Kunstdunger Indiii^., 18 {1913), Nos. 21, pp. 4-57, 458; 22, pp. 473, W)-— 
Reviewing work by others the author concludes that raw phos-phates may be 
profitably substituted for Thomas slag under certain circumstances, as, for 
example, on acid peaty soils, but that the conditions under which they are 
effective need to be carefully studied. The work of Immendorff and others 
shows that siliceous lime may be applied to soils without injury and even with 
benefit under certain conditions. 

Agricultural* value of carbonate of lime recovered from causticizing plant, 
J. Hendrick (Rpt. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci., 1912, p. 741)- — This material is de- 
scribed and field experiments with it are reported which showed that it com- 
pared favorably with other forms of lime as a fertilizer. 

The action of quicklime on the soil, H. B. Hutchinson (Rpt. Brit. Assoc. 
Adv. Sci., 1912, p. 740). — Observations are reported which show that the addi- 
tion of small quantities of quicklime to field and garden soils stimulates gen- 
eral bacterial growth, but that large quantities cause an Initial depression in 
the numbers of bacteria, the destruction of certain large protozoa, and a cessa- 
tion of all biological processes. When the lime is converted into carbonate or 
combines with the soil constituents there is a gi*eat increase in the number 
of bacteria and acceleration of ammonification. 

" The length of the period dui'ing which bacterial growth is suspended would 
appear to be determined by the quantity of lime applied, the initial reaction of 
the soil, and the amount of organic matter present. 

" Pot experiments have been carried out with A-ariously limed soils, and the 
crop results show close agreement with those obtained by bacteriological and 
chemical analyses." 

Mineral and nitrogen contents of pine needles and straw, H. Bauer {Ztschr. 
Forst u. Jagdw., 45 {1913), No. 10, pp. 659, 660).— Analyses of needles and of 
straw of Finus cemhra in various stages of decomposition are reported. The 
percentages of ash and nitrogen were found to be very small but increased with 
the age of the material. The increase of mineral constituents with age and 
stage of decomposition was esi>ecially marked in the case of the lime. The 
potash on the other hand decreased with age. 

Tobacco stalks as a fertilizer, H. D. Haskins {Massachusetts Sta. Rpt. 
1912, pt. 2, pp. 80-84). — This article gives analyses and discusses the fertilizing 
value of various samples of leached and unleached tobacco stalks. Stalks ob- 
tained in the so-called priming system of harvesting the crop contained much 
less fertilizing matter than those obtained by stripping in the ordinary manner. 
Stalks which had been allowed to lie on the land during the fall and winter 
months had lost about 57 per cent of the total nitrogen and 51 per cent of the 
total potash. 

Chemical industries of Belgium, Netherlands, Norway, and Sweden, T. H. 
Norton {U. S. Dept. Com. and Labor, Bur. Foreign and Dom. Com., Spec. 
Agents Sen, 1912, No. 65, pp. 85). — Data regarding the production of various 



128 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

materials used as fertilizers and for otlier agricultural purposes are included in 
this report. 

Report of the fertilizer section, H. D. Haskins (Massachusetts Sta. Rpt. 
1912, pt. 1, pp. 103-1 J S). — A brief account is given of the State fertilizer inspec- 
tion and the character and quality of fertilizing materials used in the State 
are discussed. 

AGKICTJLTUIIAL BOTANY. 

The action of certain nutrient and nonnutrient bases on plant growth, M.. 
M. McCooL (XeiD York Cornell Sta. Mem. 2, pp. 115-216, figs. 15). — This memoir 
consists of three papers as follows: (1) The antitoxic action of certain nutrient 
and nonnutrient bases with respect to plants, (2) the toxicity of manganese 
and the antidotal relations between this and various other cations with respect 
to green plants, and (3) toxicity of various cations. 

Extensive studies on the toxic and .antidotal action of various ions were 
made, and the chief conclusions which were derived from the experiments are 
that barium, strontium, ammonium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium were 
poisonous to seedlings in the order given. Mutual antagonism resulted when 
the following cations were present in solution: Magnesium and strontium, po- 
tassium and strontium, sodium and strontium, sodium and potassium, sodium 
and ammonium, potassium and barium, and magnesium and barium. Calcium 
was found the most effective of any of the substances studied in preventing 
toxic action. This protective action was found to be not confined to the so- 
called essential nutrients, as some of the nonessential ions possessed this prop- 
erty. The favorable results obtained from the application of lime to many 
types of soils is believed to be due in part to the antidotal relations. 

In considering the toxicity of manganese the author studied its effect in 
various cultures, using pea and wheat seedlings. It was found that pure solu- 
tions of manganese salts are extremely poisonous to pea and wheat seedlings, 
and that the degree of toxicity is greatly reduced by full nutrient solutions and 
hy soil cultures. The injurious action of the manganese ion is manifested 
mainly toward the tops of plants, chlorosis of the leaves being the first indica- 
tion of an overdose of manganese. Manganese was found less injurious to 
plants grown in the dark than to those in the light, and the ions of calcium, 
potassium, sodium, and magnesium were effective in counteracting the poisonous 
action of manganese. 

In the report upon the toxicity of various cations the author reviews the lit- 
erature and summarizes his investigations, showing that barium, strontium, 
ammonium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium, in the order given, when pres- 
ent in pure solution are very toxic to seedlings. This toxicity is greatly re- 
duced by either full nutrient solutions or soil cultures. Under the conditions of 
the experiments much stronger solutions were required in order to prevent top 
growth than to kill the roots of seedlings. Seedlings which had been grown for 
10 days either in distilled water, tap water, or full nutrient solutions were 
found more resistant to the toxicants studied than those which were placed 
immediately in the toxic solutions. 

Bibliographies of literature are appended to the different papers. 

Application of fertilizers to plants through their leaves, P. Larue {Rev. 
Tit., 40 (1913), No. 1028, pp. 26i-264).— Experiments suggested by the reports 
of Hiltner on his work in applying fertilizing solutions to aerial portions of 
plants (E. S. R., 27, pp. 324, 651) were carried out by the author with various 
plants. 



AGRICULTURAL BOTANY. 129 

Potatoes were increase<l in weifj:bt by tbe use of several different applications. 
Results with mustard and soy beans were variable, some compounds tested 
apiiearing toxic. In case of grapevines tbe conclusion is reacbed tbat mixtures 
used against attacks of fungi, etc., may be so proportioned as to give tbese sprays 
a decided value as aerial fertilizers if tbe necessary bigber degree of adberence 
can be secured to prevent tbeir removal by rains. 

Saponins as a source of carbohydrates for vegetation, F. Solacolu {Compt. 
Rend. /S'oc. Biol. [Paris], 77/ (1913), No. 6, pi). 30 ',-300). —The author reports on 
culture experiments with Aspergillus niger and PenicilUum glaucum in nutritive 
media containing various saponins named,- most of which were commercially 
prepared, stating that all served as nutritive material for these fungi. 

Studies on the distribution of asparagin, glutaniin, arginin, and allantoin 
in plants, A. Stieger {Uoppe-Seyler's Ztschr. Phy.siol. Clicni., S6 {1913), No. J^, 
pp. 245-269). — Tbe results are given of investigations carried out regarding tbe 
occurrence and proportion of these products in various portions of tbe plant 
body, numerous families of plants being represented in tbe study. 

It is stated tbat asparagin and glutamin were frequently found together in 
various proportions and sometimes in different families, leading to the conclu- 
sion that these products are in some instances used or stored at very unlike 
rates, the differences in this respect being apparently family characteristics 
in certain cases. Arginin almost always accompanied asparagin, but less regu- 
larly glutamin. Allantoin showed no such close relation to the other compounds 
in question and no conclusion was reached regarding tbe part it plays in plant 
economy. 

The formation of the anthocyan pigments of plants, VI, F. Keeble, E. F. 
Armstrong, and W. X. Jones (Proc. Roy. Soc. [London], Ser. B, 87 {1913), No. 
B 503, pp. 113-131). — This is in continuation of a series of papers (E. S. R., 29, 
p. 421), tbe present one dealing with the pigment-producing glucosid of tbe 
wallflower, tbe formation of pigment-producing substances from glucosids, and 
the biochemistry of Mendelian color characters. 

The pale yellow sap color of the petals of the wallflower is said to be a mix- 
ture of hydroxyflavone glucosids. Tbe hydrolyzed product if reduced and sub- 
sequently oxidized yields a red pigment. Tbe fact that flowers containing yellow 
pigments may be caused, by chemical treatment, to jield a red pigment sug- 
gests that red mutations should be of possible occurrence within the species. 
The formation of pigments, as tbe results of oxidation by oxidase of tlie hydro- 
lyzed products of glucosids, is determined by the presence of aminocompounds 
and is of general occurrence. 

The authors give a classification of pigments as determined by their investi- 
gations. It is suggested as a hypothesis that tbe higher members of a flower 
color series owe their origin to the presence with the lower members of specific 
substances which, acting as receivers of oxygen, reduce the pigments character- 
istic of the lower members of the color series, accept oxygen therefrom, and 
thereby become oxidized to pigments of specific color. 

Synthesis by sunlight in relationship to the origin of life. — Synthesis of 
formaldehyde from carbon dioxid and water by inorganic colloids acting as 
transformers of light energy, B. Moore and T. A. Webster {Proc. Roy. Soc. 
[London], Ser. B, 87 {1913), No. B 593, pp. 163-176).— The authors found that 
organic matter (aldehyde) was synthesized from inorganic colloidal uranic 
and ferric hydroxids in very dilute solution. These colloids are believed to act 
as catalysts for light energy, converting it into chemical energy in a reduction 
process similar to the first stage of synthesis of organic from inorganic sub- 
stances in the green plant by the agency of chlorophyll. Such a synthesis 



130 EXPEEIMENT STATION^ EECORD. 

occurring in nature, they think, would probably constitute the first step in the 
origin of life. 

Hemicellulose in roots, rhizomes, and tubers, A. Stiegee {Hoppe-Seyler's 
Ztschr. Physiol. Chem., 86 {191S), No. 4, pp. 270-282).— The author details the 
results of examinations made on the subterranean parts of 15 plants. He found 
hemicelluloses in all, but was not able to settle the question as to whether 
these serve as structural or exclusively as reserve material. A bibliography Is 
given. 

Protoplasmic contractions resembling plasmolysis which are caused by 
pure distilled water, W. J. V. Osterhout (Bot. Gaz., 55 {1913), No. 6, pp. 
446-451, figs. 6). — This amplifies a preliminary account already noted (E. S. R., 
29, p. 134) and gives some details of the study. 

It is stated that in many cases contractions in young cells closely simulating 
true plasmolysis may take place with great rapidity on immersion in pure 
water, while older cells respond more slowly and show by alterations of their 
chromatophores that they are undergoing false plasmolysis. True and false 
plasmolysis may be produced simultaneously, these contractions usually becom- 
ing irreversible at a certain point. The effects observed for distilled water 
were also produced by that from ponds, rivers, and springs, and are therefore 
held not to be due to toxic products of distillation. 

It is held that the cause of these phenomena is increased permeability of 
the plasma and internal cell membranes, as the result of which some or all of 
the osmotically active substances diffuse out. The protoplasm then shrinks as 
the result of the water loss from the vacuoles, this being often followed by ap- 
parent coagulation of the protoplasm, with most of the features characteristic of 
cytolysis in animal cells usually absent. Absorption of water as a cause is 
precluded by the fact that the cells do not increase in size. The increased per- 
meability is held to be due to the loss of certain substances upon which the 
maintenance of normal permeability depends (the most important being the 
inorganic salts), which is followed by increased permeability of the cell mem- 
branes as measured by electrical means. 

Toxic inorganic salts and acids as affecting plant growth, C. B. Lipman 
and F. H. Wilson (Bot. Gaz., 55 {1913), No. 6, pp. ^OM^^)-— Tabulated results 
are given of preliminary studies made on vetch and wheat as to the effects 
thereon of varying proportions in the soil of sulphuric acid and of its copper, 
zinc, and manganese salts, leading to the conclusion that the tolerance of plants 
for certain of the inorganic salts commonly regarded as A'ery poisonous is much 
greater than we have been accustomed to believe. Some plants are said to be 
actually stimulated by quite considerable proportions of such salts. A further 
search for the limits of toxicity is in progress. The work is claimed to present 
new evidence regarding the stimulating effects of manganese sulphate on the 
growth of plants. Certain facts are thought to indicate that the soil flora is 
permanently modified by the treatment of the soil as herein outlined. 

Arsenic compounds in agriculture and possible danger from their use, G. 
Ampola and G. Tommasi (Ann. R. Staz. Cliim. Agr. Sper. Roma, 2. ser.^ 5 
(1911), pp. 263-277, pis. 2; als. in Centhl. Bakt. [etc.l, 2. Aht., 38 (1913), No. 
7-12, pp. 230, 231). — It was found that arsenic acid is injurious to green plants 
when present in nutritive solutions in concentrations not less than 1 mg. per 
liter of water. Bean plants died after 24 days in 3 mg. and maize after 27 days 
in 5 mg. per liter, lupines showing an intermediate degree of resistance, and no 
plants showing growth at a concentration of 20 mg. per liter. 

In soil cultures the limits were more difficult to determine on account of 
absorption, but growth was usually checked at a concentration corresponding 
to 0.3 mg. of arsenic per kilogram of soil. The arsenic mostly went to the 



AGRICULTURAL BOTANY. 131 

leaves, but small proportions were found in the fleshy or juicy portions in the 
case of gourds, tomatoes, and beans when fresh, only traces being found in 
dried grains, peas, etc. Absorption of arsenic by soil is said to vary with the 
concentration and time and to be incomplete. 

Arsenic was recovered from the soil under olive trees that had been sprayed 
therewith for olive fly. It is considered necessary to regulate the use of arsenic 
in such connection on account of possible injury therefrom. 

Studies on the anatomical and physiolog-ical influence of tobacco smoke on 
seedlings, A. Purkyt (Anz. K. Alcad. ^y^ss. [Vienna], Math. Naturw. Kl., 1912, 
No. 17, p. 265; a&.s\ in Centhl. Bakt. [etc.], 2. Abt., 38 {WIS), No. 7-12, p. 211).— 
The author reports that in tobacco smoke plants develop high turgor which is 
later gradually lost; that abnormal thickening of the stems is due to growth 
in the size but not in the number, of cells, which in case of the leaf epidermis 
Is expressed in alterations of form, hypertrophy of stomata, and deformation 
of leaf hairs; and that along with other changes mentioned, the formation of 
both wood and bast fiber is limited by exposure to tobacco smoke. 

Injuries to vegetation by furnace gases and ashes, H. C. Muxleb et al. 
{Ber. Agr. Chem. Kontroll u. Vers. Stat. Pflanzenkrank. Prov. Sachscn., 1912, 
pp. 19-22). — A condensed and apparently preliminary account is given regarding 
the probable or actual injury done to vegetation in the neighborhood of certain 
furnaces, factories, etc., distributing smoke gases, ashes, and -dust. An illus- 
trative table is given showing that leaves and twigs of hawthorn in an exposed 
situation gave a considerable increase of the ash, chlorin, and sulphur content. 

Effects of illuminating gas on vegetation, G. E. Stone (Massachusetts Sta. 
Rpt. 1912, pt. 1, pp. 45-60, pis. 2). — The author presents a general description 
of the effects of gas poisoning on trees and gives a number of specific examples 
of injurious as well as stimulating effects due to illuminating gas. The 
symptoms of gas poisoning are said to be best obtained from a careful examina- 
tion of the wood at the base of the tree or the roots. 

During the winter a break in a gas pipe led to the defoliation of a large num- 
ber of plants in a short time. Those most severely injured were roses, ger- 
aniums, and abutilou, though others were also somewhat injured. The ferns, 
mosses, and liverworts near the gas inlet were scarcely affected. After being 
defoliated the geraniums and abutilon produced small leaves, and the leaves 
on the variegated abutilon which were put out were entirely green. 

On Carolina poplars illuminating gas is said to show some characteristic 
effects. The symptoms of gas poisoning are generally a peculiar swelling and 
cracking of the bark, the lesions often extending for a foot or more along the 
trunk. On the sides of these cracks the bark was bulged out and examination 
showed a thick layer of soft parenchymatous tissue extending to the wood and 
apparently derived from the cambium zone. It is believed that the absorption 
of the gas may have killed the tissue exterior to the cambium layer before the 
cambium itself was affected, and that, in this way, the tension of the outer 
tissues being diminished, a stimulation of the cambium cells resulted. 

When willow cuttings were grown in water charged with illuminating gas 
from time to time, there was found to be a slight acceleration in the develop- 
ment of all plants subjected to gas, although the gain was not very marked^ 
The development of the lenticels and roots seemed to be considerably favored 
where the cuttings were placed in the gas-charged water. 

Influence of a radio-active body on germination, J. Crochetelle (Jour. Agr. 
Prat., n. ser., 26 (1913), No. 37, pp. 332, 333, fig. i).— The author gives a pre- 
liminary report of his experiments regarding the influence of radio-active sub- 
stance on some common plants. st<ating that while the results obtained with dif- 
ferent plants were not uniform, bean seedlings so treated showed a striking 



132 EXPERIMENT STATION RECOBD. 

acceleration of growth, wliicli was more marked iu cases wliere the radio- 
active powder was applied directly than where plants in tubes were exposed 
thereto. 

Semipermeability of seed coats, C. A. Shull (Bot. Gaz., 56 {1913), No. 3, 
pp. 169-199, figs. 9). — The author gives an account of investigations carried on 
for two years regarding the character of the seed coat of Xanthium, with par- 
ticular reference to the work of Becquerel (E. S. R., 19, p. 426), Brown (B. S. R., 
18, p. 727), and Schroeder (E. S. E,., 25, p. 123), with conclusions substantially 
as follows: 

The dry seed coats of Xanthium are impermeable to di*y alcohol, ether, chloro- 
form, and acetone. Becquerel's results with coats of other seeds are confirmed. 
No evidence of diffusion of oxygen through dry seed coats was obtained. 
Selective semipermeability independent of living substance was established for 
the seed coat of Xanthium (lists being given of substances admitted or ex- 
cluded), which, it is said, may be removed and used as an osmotic membrane 
of superior quality. The outer layer of the testa can not so function, and the 
inner exceeds the middle layer in this respect, neither of these two being so 
efficient alone as before their separation. The middle coat contains more tan- 
nin than the inner, but the tannin does not exist in either as a continuous layer, 
and semipermeability is not destroyed by treatment with solvents of tannin. 
Semipermeability is said to have been demonstrated for the seed coats of plants 
in six widely separated families, membranes of many plants showing this prop- 
erty even when dead. It is said that the capillary and imbibition force of the 
embryo of Xanthium when the seed is air dry is about 965 atmospheres, and 
that an increase in the moisture of the embryo equal to 7 per cent of its air 
dry weight reduces the internal forces by 590 atmospheres. It is stated that 
the unusual intake of water noticed with some substances, especially with cer- 
tain acids and alkalis, is due largely to the development of osmotically active 
substances inside the semipermeable membrane: also that some evidence was 
obtained unfavorable to Armstrong's hydrone theory of selective semipermea- 
bility (E. S. R., 21, p. 126). 

A bibliography is appended. 

The influence of partial suppression of the reserve material in seeds upon 
the anatomy of plants, M. Delassus (Conipt. Rend. Acad. Set. [Paris], 157 
{1913), i\o. 3, pp. 228-230). — Reporting on an extension of studies already noted 
(E. S. R., 26, p. 729), the author gives comparative results obtained, conclud- 
ing that the effects of mutilation of cotyledons upon«the anatomical structure 
of the young plants produced therefrom are marked, showing a retarded and 
diminished growth expressed by lowered development of the tissues, especially 
those concerned with support and protection. 

The function of grape leaves in relation to the clusters, A. Marescalchi 
{Staz. Sper. Agr. Ital., 45 {1912), No. 12, pp. 9^0-9^//).— Experimentation is said 
to have shown that grape clusters on defoliated shoots still form a considerable 
amount of sugar, also that while quite a proportion of acid is noted there is a 
deficiency as regards diffusible coloring matters. 

Some points on the floral development of red clover, J. N. Martin {Proc. 
loioa Acad. Sci., 19 {1912), p. 129). — This is a brief discussion of the relative 
rates of development of different parts of the flower of red clover, the resulting 
inequalities observed, and the changing relations sustained. A more detailed 
account is to appear later. 

Demonstrations of ectotrophic and endotrophic mycorrhiza, W. B. McDou- 
GALL {Rpt. Mich. Acad. Sci., 14 {1912), p. 45). — An abstract is given of a report 
on an investigation conducted to determine if possible the seasonal, physio- 
logical, and ecological relations of mycorrhiza. 



FIELD CROPS. 133 

On the sljellbark hickory three forms of ectotrophie niycorrhiza were fomul. 
One of these is bright yellow in color, distinctly filamentous, and has numerous 
short branches extending into the soil. The second form is brown, the fungus 
mantle consisting of pseudoparenchyma such as is found in many lichens. The 
third form is whitish or nearly colorless, distinctly filamentous, but smooth on 
the outside. 

On oaks the same variations in microscopic structure were found, but with- 
out the variations in color, all specimens collected being whitish. On larch a 
form was found in which the outer cells of the root cortex were pushed apart 
by the growth of mycelia between them. Endotrophic mycorrhiza were found in 
great abundance on maples, while on American linden the same fungus was 
found to be both ectotrophic and endotrophic. 

Contributions on the colorless sulphur bacteria, G. Hinze (Ber. Dent. Bot. 
OeselL, 31 (1913), No. 4, pp. 189-202, pi. i).— The author studied two sulphur 
bacteria found in slime and mud in the Bay of Naples, one being already 
known as Monas miilleri, the other being considered as new and named Thio- 
vulum n. gen. 

Culture of micro-organisms, E. Kuster (Kultiir der Milcroorganismcn. Leip- 
sic and Berlin, 1913, 2. ed., rev. and enl., pp. 218, figs. 26). — This is the second 
edition of a book previously noted (E. S. II.. HO. p. 93r5). 

FIELD CROPS. 

Causes of the increased yields of agricultural crops during the last three 
decades, D. Leiin (IUus. Landiv. Zig., 32 {1912), Xos. 69, pp. 627, 628; 70, pp. 
636-638). — The author discusses the increased yields during the last three 
decades and attributes them to the increased intelligent use of commercial 
fertilizers, the introduction of better producing varieties, management systems, 
and methods of soil cultivation. 

Making money on farm crops, F. B. Nichols (St. Joseph, Mo., 1913, pp. 
288, figs. 80). — This book discusses soils for crops and the improvement of farm 
crops, with chapters on the production of alfalfa, clover, cowpeas, com, wheat* 
oats, and the sorghums. 

[Experiments with field crops] (Abs. in- Jour. Bd. Ayr. [London}, 19 (1913), 
Nos. 11, pp. 936-939; 12, pp. 1029-1031; 20 {1913), Xo. 1, pp. .^2-.^7).— Several 
abstracts are given of reports of locally conducted experiments in Great Britain 
with grasses, mangolds, wheat, barley, sugar beets, permanent pastures, potatoes, 
oats, peas, tobacco, millet, and Chinese alfalfa. 

Field experiments {Yorkshire Council Agr. Ed. and Univ. Leeds [Pamphlet] 
85, 1912, pp. 2-36). — In fertilizer experiments with meadow hay, the un- 
manured plats consisted chiefly of bent and sorrel. Barnyard manure applied 
each year seemed to encourage the growth of the better grasses, especially fox- 
tail and cocksfoot, and to repress bent. Applied in alternate years it appar- 
ently increased the growth of the desirable grasses, particularly golden oat 
grass, rsing barnyard manure and complete artificials in alternate years en- 
couraged foxtail and cocksfoot, golden oat grass, and tall oat grass, but the 
highest percentage of good grasses followed, a complete mixture of artificials 
applied every year. With niter and superphosphate applied annually desirable 
grasses and also sorrel to a slight extent were fostered, while with nitrate of 
soda alone cocksfoot and tall oat grass throve at the expense of bent, and with 
sulphate of ammonia alone cocksfoot throve at the expense of foxtail and 
golden oat grass. Lime did not seem to increase the yield of hay but to sup- 
press the growth of sorrel. 



134 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

Plans of manurial experiments with pasture grasses, potatoes, and swedes 
are given. 

[Field crop experiments], P. H. Foulkes (Field Expts. Earpet^- Adams Agr. 
Col., and Staffordshire and Shropshire, Rpt. 1912, pp. S-lJf, 21, pi. 1). — In these 
experiments lime seemed to be of benefit to grass lands. Two and one-half cwt. 
of superphosphate and i cwt. of sulphate of potash apparently gave better 
results than other fertilizers used, the yield being 39 cwt. 32 lbs. of hay per acre. 

"^^ariety tests with wheat, oats, swedes, mangels, and sugar beets are given in 
tabular form. The results of fertilizing with a radio-active substance contain- 
ing silica 80.44, water and volatile organic matter 10.54, oxid of iron and 
alumina 2.20, total sulphuric acid 5.40, soluble phosphoric acid 1.37, and soluble 
salts and soluble free acids 3.32 per cent, with a trace of uranium, and applied 
with a commercial fertilizer at the rate of 2 per cent of the total application, 
were contradictory with swedes, but increased yields of from 2 to 4 tons per 
acre followed its use with mangels. 

Forage crop trials are reported with alfalfa, sainfoin, wold grass, crimson 
clover, LatJiyrus sylvestris, flax, and Heliantia. A Chinese alfalfa produced at 
the rate of 4 tons 1 cwt. per acre. Wold grass, cut June 13, yielded 10 tons 6 
cwt. per acre, and flax jdelded 520 lbs. seed and 26 cwt. fiber per acre. 

Manurial experiments, G. Balfour and J. C. Rushton (Field Expts. Harper- 
Adams Agr. Col., and Staffordshire and Shropshire, Rpt. 1912, pp. 46-58). — 
Tabulated results are given of manurial experiments carried on at 11 centers 
with meadow hay, mangels, swedes, potatoes, sugar beets, and alfalfa. Basic 
slag, 500 lbs. per acre, in place of superphosphate (300 lbs.) seemed to check 
greatly the " potato disease." At one center 300 lbs. of barnyard manure per 
acre apparently produced increased yields with mangels. 

Report of Hedemarken Experiment Station, 1913, W. Christie (Ber. 
Hedemarkens Amis Forsoksstat. Yirks., 8 (1912), pp. 59, 2>7s. 3). — Accounts of 
the following lines of investigations are given : Trials with seed potatoes of 
different sizes, with different distances of planting, and with whole and cut 
seed potatoes, 1908-1912 ; the starch content of samples of potatoes, 1912 ; trials 
with alfalfa, 1906-1911; farm manure and artificial fertilizers for turnips, 
1907-1911; and top-dressing with artificial fertilizers for meadows, 1910-1912. 

Report of Ribe County Western Ag-ricultural Society, 1912, N. Esbjerg 
(Ber. Rile Amis Landbofor. Havehr. og Husmands., 1913, pp. 3^). — The ex- 
periments with shelter for agricultural crops, which were commenced in 1909 
(E. S. R., 28, p. 40), were continued during 1912. The results obtained cor- 
roborated those previously reported, showing that shelter had a very beneficial 
influence on the growth of farm crops and increased the yields obtained in a 
marked degree. The planting and care of windbreaks and hedges which break 
the force of the wind therefore doubtless constitute a phase of profitable per- 
manent farm improvements. 

Report of the plant culture stations, 1912-13, H. C. Larsen et al. (Ber. 
Stat. Plantea^l. [Denmark], 1912-13, pp. 150). — ^A brief account of the organ- 
ization and activities of the different Danish plant culture stations during the 
year. 

Plant breeding" at Tystofte, E. Lindhard (Tidsskr. Landhr. Planteavl, 20 
(1913), No. 1, pp. 1-23, figs. 5). — ^The paper gives the general principles fol- 
lowed in the plant breeding work done at this experiment station. 

A method for variety tests, O. Bilger (Illiis. Landw. Ztg., 32 (1912), No. 
91, pp. 827-829, figs. 3). — This article discusses conditions arising from irregu- 
larities in soils and the need of multiplication of plats to reduce experimental 
error and secure comparative yields. A method of using 100 plats, 2.4 meters 



FIELD CROPS. 135 

square, in which 20 varieties^ were so arranged as to repeat each 5 times, is 

I ± d. 0.845 

explained and illustrated. The use of the formula ~,- ^ .- i—j is explained 

■yJn{n—\).-yJn^ 

in calculating the probable experimental error for these 20 plats. In this 

formula 2= the sum of the yield of the repeated plats; (Z= the difference in 

yield from the mean; n= the number of plats, and 0.845 is a constant. By the 

use of this formula the author states that the probable error for each plat 

may be determined and so increase the accuracy and usefulness of the result 

of a test. 

The influence of different veg-etative factors on yield and counteracting 
relations of artificial factors added to the soil, E. A. Mitscherlicii and 
IJ. Floess {Landw. Juhrb., J,3 {1913), Ao. 7,, pp. 6.',9-66S, figs. 3).— In this article 
the authors discuss the law of minimum yield, the vegetative factors of light, 
soil temperature, and water, and the opposing influences of artificial vegetative 
factors in the way of fertilizers. It was noted that responsive energy was 
at its optimum in sunlight; that active energy in the roots was the result of 
soil temperature and favored increased yields; that loss of energy through 
increased root labor was a factor in decreasing yields; that the plant yield 
correlated with soil water subject to the law of minimum ; and that yields were 
limited by the small quantity of soil water, but favored when this water was 
in the upper soil layer and when the plant food was such as to be soluble in 
the water during the entire vegetative period, so that the roots were relieved 
of heavy work. 

Cereal investigations at the Nephi [Utah] substation, P. V. Cakdon {U. 8. 
Dcpt. Agr. Bui. 30, pp. 50, figs. 0). — This bulletin contains a report of the 
work of the substation, previously mentioned (E. S. R., 23, p. 434), and includes 
a description of the substation and of the soil and climatic conditions that 
surround it. Tables give some meteorological data for the years 1S9S to 1912, 
inclusive. The experimental work reported consists mainly of varietal and 
improvement tests of 68 varieties and strains of winter wheat, 1 of winter oats, 
3 of winter barley, 2 of winter emmer, 10 of spring wheat, 7 of spring oats, 
and 14 of spring barley. Tables present data concerning yields, stand, dates 
of ripening, height, ratio of weight of grain to straw, and average weight per 
bushel of wheats and barleys, and the results of testing large, medium, small, 
and unseparated seeds of wheat planted at different distances in the row. 

The results obtained show that " the winter varieties of all cereals have 
given better results than have the spring varieties. Of the winter wheat varie- 
ties, the hard red group has given the best yields. The soft white group, com- 
monly grown in the Intermountain States, is comparatively low in yield. There 
seems to have been no definite correlation between stand and yield. The aver- 
age date of heading and also the average date of ripening were about the same 
for all varieties. The average height of the winter wheats at Nephi during 
1908 to 1912, inclusive, was 27 in. Approximately 1 lb. of grain was produced 
with every pound of straw. 

"The average bushel weight for all varieties of winter wheat for the 5-year 
period was 61.4 lbs., or 1.4 lbs. above the standard weight. The average acre 
yield of spring wheats since 1908 is only 7.5 bu. for durum varieties and 8.9 bu. 
for common varieties, which is unprofitable in comparison with the acre yield 
of 17 to 23 bu. from winter wheats. Boswell winter oats have yielded very 
well in some seasons. In other seasons the yield has been low, thus reducing 
the average acre yield to 17.2 bu. for 1909 to 1912. However, the variety gives 
great promise as a winter oat for the intermountain region. The Black Ameri- 
can, Giant Yellow, and Swedish Select varieties of spring oats have acre yields 



136 EXPEKIMENT statio:n' kecord. 

of 15.2, 14.2, uud 13.6 bu., respectively, iu 1909 to 1912, inclusive. Two winter 
varieties of barley bave given promising results. Of these 2, Utah Winter 
(C. I. No. 592) has yielded an average of 19.6 bu. per acre, as against 15.8 bu. 
for Tennessee Winter (C. I. No. 257). Three spring varieties were practically 
failures and were discarded in 1910. Black AVinter emmer has shown itself 
adapted to conditions at Nephi, and probably will prove a valuable crop on the 
dry farms of the Mountain States. There was no apparent difference during 
1912 between Buffum Improved Black Winter emmer (C. I. No. 3331) and the 
ordinary Black Winter emmer (C. I. No. 2337). ... 

" The following data obtained from the head rows are directly related to the 
results of the plat experiments: (1) The average winter survival of the cereals 
was about 65 per cent; (2) the tillering of the winter cereals varied with the 
thickness of the stand; (3) the average number of culms per plant in winter 
cereals seldom exceeded 25, though favored plants would sometimes have a 
greater number; (4) the average yields of the head rows gave the winter cereal 
varieties about the same rank as did the plat experiments; (5) the spring cereal 
varieties yielded less than the winter varieties, even though a better stand was 
obtained. . . . 

" Some work has been done with grain sorghums, broom corn, millets, and 
prosos, but the results obtained have given little promise that these crops are 
adapted to the dry lands of the intermountain region. 

" In the test of size of seed with both spring and winter varieties of wheat, 
the large seed was best in number of heads produced per plant and in yield per 
row. No great difference was observed among the different sizes of seed in the 
percentage of survival, plants maturing, or length of heads produced. In the 
test of different seed treatments for smut, the following points were observed : 

(1) The effect of the time of seeding on bunt depended largely on the season; 

(2) the best copper-sulphate treatment was 1 lb. of copper sulphate to 10 gal. of 
v/ater, the seed soaked 10 minutes and dried; (3) the best formalin treatment 
was 2.5 parts of formalin to 1,000 parts of water, the seed soaked 10 minutes 
and kept moist 2 hours." 

Prevention of lodging- of cereals, Ziehe (Illiis. Landw. Ztg., 32 (1912), Xo. 

83, pp. 761, 762, figs. 3). — In a comparison with nitrogen and phosphorus, 
potash gave the best results in preventing lodging, due, it is believed, to the 
greater constitutional vigor of plants fertilized with this element. 

The influence of moisture, fertilizer, and firmness of the soil on the root 
development of barley and wheat in early stages of growth, R. Polle 
(Uher den Einfiuss verschieden Jiohen Wassergehalts, verschicdener Diingung 
und Festigkeit des Bodens auf die Wurzelenticickclung dcs Weizens und der 
Gerste itn erstcn Yegetationsstadium. Inaiig. Diss., Univ. Gottingen, 1910, pp. 

84, pis. 2). — The experiments here discussed were carried out in 2 sizes of 
pots of the Biicherhiillen form. Sixty-four pots had a height of 20 cm. and a 
width of 6 by 30 cm., and 32 were 40 cm. high and 6 by 20 cm. wide. Half of 
them were filled with clay soil and half with sanely soil. The low" vessels each 
had 2 plants and the higher ones 1 plant each. To obtain more accurate results 
each treatment was repeated in 5 pots. Part of the pots were fertilized with 
3/5 gm. nitrogen as nitrate of soda, 1/5 gm. P2O5 in CaH4 (P05)2. and 1/5 gm. 
K2O in 40 per cent potassium salt, and the sandy soil received 0.5 gm. calcium 
carbonate in addition. In a part of the pots the soil was carefully and uni- 
formly packed in the case of both sandy and clay soils, and in the remainder the 
2 kinds of soils were left in a loose condition. The barley was planted on June 
11 and harvested from June 21 to 26. The wheat was planted on July 14 and 
harvested from July 22 to 28. A unique method is described of securing the 
roots in a normal position by means of pressing a board, provided with numer- 



FIELD CROPS. 137 

ous long needles set at right angles to its surface, into tlie soil of the pot con- 
taining the roots after one side of the pot had been removed. 

This study was planned to throw light on the influence of fertilizer, moisture, 
and firmness of soil, on the amount of root growth, the length of roots, and the 
weight of above-ground parts, and the ratio between the root mass and the 
above-ground parts, in respect to clay and sandy soils with barley and wheat. 

A clay soil, fertilized, showed a less length of root system in a dry condition 
(11.25 per cent moisture content) than in a moist condition (19 per cent mois- 
ture content), but a greater weight of root growth, whether loose or hard 
packed, fertilized or not, with both barley and wheat. Root growth was gen- 
erally greater in the loose clay with barley, but compaction was more favorable 
with wheat. With wheat, the unfertilized clay soil produced greater root 
growth than the fertilized without regard to the moisture or compaction of 
soil. 

With a sandy soil the root development was generally greater without the 
fertilizers, regardless of the degree of moisture or firmness of soil, with both 
barley and wheat, while in the presence of other factors firmness favored root 
development In general, a greater root system was produced in the case of 
barley in a dry (5.4 per cent moisture content) sandy soil, whether loose or 
firm, fertilized or not. A dry sandy soil produced a better root system with 
wheat in a loose condition than when compact, without regard to the fertilizer 
application. 

In general, with both barley and wheat 1 gm. of roots produced a larger 
amount of above-ground parts in both clay and sandy soil when fertilized than 
when not fertilized, in a moist soil than in a dry soil, and in a compact than In 
a loose soil, 

A study of the variations in chemical composition of the timothy and 
wheat plants during- growth and ripening, L. D. Haigh (Orig. Commun. 8. 
Intemat. Cong. Appl. Chem. iWasliinigton and Neio York], 26 {1912), Sects. 
Vla-XIh, App., pp. 115-117). — This is an abstract giving the results found 
with timothy at 7 stages of growth and with wheat at 4 stages. 

" The timothy plant takes up its plant food, nitrogen, and ash constituents at 
the most rapid rate in the young stages. It continues at a decreasing rate to 
absorb plant food during growth and in about the same rate as this growth 
proceeds. The percentage of moisture in the green plant is also the highest in 
the young stages. The heads of timothy increase in dry matter throughout the 
growth and ripening period. This increase includes all the plant constituents 
except potassium oxid, which had reached its maximum amount before the 
heads were collected for analysis. . . . Nitrogen-free extract increases at the 
greatest rate of all constituents. As the heads approach full ripening a notice- 
able increase of phosphorus pentoxid occurs. The stalks of the timothy in- 
crease in dry matter during growth and ripening; this dry matter added con- 
sists chiefly of crude fiber and nitrogen-free extract. Nitrogen, ether soluble 
material, potassium oxid, and phosphorus pentoxid increase during grov/th but 
decrease to some extent during ripening. The bulbs increase in dry matter 
throughout the growth period, but the amount becomes constant before ripening 
of the hay. The material stored up is principally nitrogenous matter and 
nitrogen-free extract. No starch is produced in the bulbs during the storing 
process. Potassium oxid is found in maximum amount in the first stage but 
phosphorus pentoxid tends to increase in amount as the plant matures. 

" Large amounts of available potash and phosphoric acid are required for a 
good yield of timothy. Timothy would hardly prove a profit-yielding crop on 
soils other than those rich in potash, especially where the mineral elements 
would have to be supplied in the form of fertilizer. 



138 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

" The wheat plant also takes up its principal plant food, nitrogenous and min- 
eral matter, at the greatest rate in the young stages and at a decreasing rate as 
growth proceeds. The highest percentage of moisture in the green plant is 
found in the first series. The heads of the wheat gain more uniformly and rap- 
idly in their amount of dry matter than any other part. Nitrogen-free extract 
is produced and stored at a greater rate than any other constituent, but nitro- 
gen, ash, and ether soluble matter are added in some quantity also. Fiber is 
practically all formed by the time the blossom has fallen and remains constant 
to ripening. 

" The wheat stalks contain their maximum amount of dry matter at blos- 
soming time, after which they pass some of this material along to the ripening 
heads. Nitrogenous substance and nitrogen-free extract appear to be the con- 
stituents which the stalks yield up to the heads. The wheat roots and stub- 
ble increase in dry matter up to the milk stage, after which it decreases in 
amount, being passed along to the plant above ground. Fiber present in the 
roots does not decrease in amount but nitrogenous and ether soluble material, 
ash, and nitrogen-free extract pass out of the roots into the growing plant 
above ground during the ripening of the heads." 

[Fibers from Papua (British New Guinea) and India] (Bui. Imp. Inst. [So. 
Kensington^, 10 (1912), No. 2, pp. 214-210). — This report includes analyses and 
valuations of cotton, sisal hemp, Sida fiber, Sida rhomUfoUa, and Indian jute. 

The use of sulphur in the cultivation of turnips and beets, A. Magnien 
(Jour. Soc. Nat. Hort. France, Jf. ser., llf (1913), Jan., pp. 54-56). — Experi- 
ments are here cited, in which sulphur scattered in the row at the rate of 2 to 
3 gm. per meter at planting time apparently doubled the yields. 

Bean growing in eastern "Washington and Oregon, and northern Idaho, 
L. W. Fluharty (U. S. Dept. Agr. Farmers' Bui. 561, pp. 12, figs. 5).— This 
describes cultural methods, with suggestions on marketing, uses, and improve- 
ment of the crop. 

Field trials on the manuring of carrots, E. E. Stokes (Midland Agr. and 
Dairy Col. Bui. 5, 1912-13, pp. 38-45). — It is concluded that " farmyard manure 
may profitably be supplemented with chemical fertilizers; salt applied to the 
description of soils generally used for the production of carrots is beneficial, 
especially in a dry, hot season; potash in some form is absolutely necessary, 
especially when dung is not so largely used ; phosphates come next in order of 
importance ; and the addition of nitrogenous manures may be advisable to pro- 
mote a good start and early growth." 

Clovers, M. Calvino (Estac. Agr. Cent. [Mexico] Bol. 69, 1912, pp. 92, pis. 
44). — This bulletin treats of the climate, soil, rotations, inoculation, fertilizers, 
cultivation, harvests, and methods of conserving the crop and silage in relation 
to the clovers Trifolium pratense, T. repens, T. alexandrinum, T. soaveolens, T. 
incarnatum, and T. hyhridum. Various methods of rotation in which clovers 
are used as green manures are described. 

Crimson clover, A. E. Grantham (New Jersey Stas. Circ. 28, pp. 4)- — This 
gives suggestions and directions for growing the crop under New Jersey condi- 
tions. 

Effect of frost on com, J. B. Lindsey (Massachusetts Sta. Rpt. 1912, pt. 2, 
pp. 67, 68). — Chemical analysis of frosted corn revealed little new, excepting 
that the fiber percentage seemed to be larger than is usually the case. " In 
case the corn is intended for the silo, the quicker the crop is ensiled the better. 
If the crop is not to be ensiled, it may be allowed to stand uncut for a week 
or two." 

Seed selection of Egytian cotton, T. H. Kearney (U. S. Dept. Agr. Bui. 38, 
pp. 8). — In this bulletin the author discusses the importance of keeping the 



FIELD CROPS. 139 

Stock pure and describes methods that may be employed by breeders whereby 
the purity of the seed may be maintained. It is believed that but one variety 
of cotton should be grown in a locality, that careful rogueing should be prac- 
ticed, and that growers' associations should arrange for pure seed production. 

Nine titles of Bureau of Plant Industry publications on this subject are 
appended. 

Propagating cotton plants by slips, G. Gastet (Rev. Uort. Alg6ric, 6 (1012), 
No. 5, pp. 144-1-iS, figs. 4; «&«. in Internat. Inst. Agr. [Rome^, Bui. Bur. Agr. 
Intel, and Plant Diseases, 3 (1912), No. 10, pp. 2164, 2165).— A method by which 
herbaceous slips are pricked out in the hotbed or greenhouse is described in this 
article. The plants from which the slips are taken are removed from the field 
to the greenhouse late in the season, and profuse budding is induced. 

Cowpeas for soil improvement, A. E. Grantham (New Jersey Stas. Circ. 27, 
pp. 4). — This gives directions and suggestions for growing the crop under New 
Jersey conditions. 

On the value of meadow foxtail grown on peat soils and the influence of 
the time of cutting, H. von Feilitzen, I. Lugner and E. Nystrom (Svenska 
Mosskulfurfor. Tidskr., 27 (1918), No. 3, pp. 224-245).— Previously noted from 
another source (E. S. R., 2S, p. 834). 

A variety test of potatoes, E. F. Gaskill (Massachusetts Sta. Rpt. 1912, 
pt. 2, pp. 11-16). — This paper contains brief notes on tests including 371 va- 
rieties during the past 18 years. The rate of yields ranged from 66 to 509 bu. 
per acre. It is noted that the majority of the new varieties are inferior to the 
old standard sorts, like Beauty of Hebron, Green Mountain, Early Rose, and 
Irish Cobbler, and that northern-grown seed was preferable to home-grown seed. 
[Field crop experiments], G. T. Malthouse (Field Expts. Harper-Adams 
Agr. Col., and Staffordshire and Shropshire, Rpt. 1912, pp. 17-19). — Results of 
variety tests of potatoes show yields as high as 6 tons 13^ cwt. per acre. 

On the use of sulphur for the prevention of potato scab and as an indirect 
fertilizer, H. von Feilitzen (K. Landtbr. Akad. Handl. och Tidskr., 52 (1913), 
No. 2, pp. 120-130). — Of the 5 varieties of potatoes experimented with during 
1911, all but 1 yielded more on the plats receiving 400 kg. of sulphur per hec- 
tare (356 lbs. per acre) in addition to normal fertilizers than on those that did 
not receive sulphur, and the tubers were larger and better developed. Some 
improvements in regard to the appearance of scab were noted on these plats. 

Trials with sulphur for horse beans and ray grass during 1912 are also re- 
ported. A bibliography on the subject of sulphur for plants is appended. 

Lessons for American potato growers from German experiences, W. A. 
Orton (U. S. Dept. Agr. Bui. 47, pp. 12). — The author discusses potato produc- 
tion as carried on in Germany, with special reference to conditions in this 
country. 

It is noted that in Germany " the acreage is more than double that of the 
United States and the crop harvested more than 4 times our total. Of these 
potatoes 40 per cent are fed to stock, 28 per cent are used for table purposes, 
12 per cent for seed, 6 per cent for alcohol, 4 per cent for starch and related 
products, and 10 per cent decay. The per capita consumption for food is 7.3 
bu. per year in Germany, as compared with an estimate of 2.6 bu. in the United 
States. . . . 

" We must hereafter produce enough potatoes to supply all our needs, as 
most sources of foreign imports have been closed by a plant-disease quarantine. 
To do this economically we should find a profitable outlet for a surplus produc- 
tion, . . . The most promising use for culls and surplus potatoes appears to be 
28054°— 14 4 



140 EXPERIMENT STATION EECOED. 

in feeding hogs. There are possibilities in starch and alcohol and some hope 
of adapting the method of drying now used in Germany." 

Beet sug-ar in New England, J. B. Lindsey (Massachusetts Sta. Rpt. 1912, 
pt. 2, pp. 69, 70). — The author briefly reviews attempts to introduce sugar-beet 
culture in Massachusetts, and concludes '* that while the climate is satisfactory 
and a considerable area is suited to the beet, economic conditions are not 
favorable to the production of beet sugar in Massachusetts." 

Sugar-cane experiments, J. B. Harbison and R. Ward (Jour. Bd. Agr. Brit. 
Guiana, 6 (1913), No. 3, pp. 123-126).— In a test with molasses as a fertilizer 
for sugar cane, only a slight Increase could be detected from applications of 
100. 200, and 300 gal. per acre. Partially sterilizing the soil of experimental 
plats with chlorinated lime applied at the rate of 150 lbs. per acre apparently 
gave slightly increased yields of cane over untreated plats. 

Classification of the forms of Helianthus annuus, T. Sazyperow (Trudy 
Bmro Prlkl. Bot. (Bui. Angew. Bot.), 6 (1913), No. 2, pp. 95-110, figs. 3).— Four 
forms are mentioned, viz, common, white, black, and armored sunflower. The 
last-named has a subepidermal layer of parenchyma cells which seem to be 
especially useful as a protection against the attacks of disease. 

Research work at Harrow Experimental Station, 1911, W. A. Barnet 
(Canada Dcpt. Agr., Tobacco Div. Bui. AI4, 1912, pp. 20, pis. 2). — This bulletin 
reports experiments in which different kinds of seed beds were established for 
tobacco. 

The conditions point to the advisability of making up the bed 10 days before 
sowing, which was done at the rate of 1 teaspoonful (1/7 oz.) of seed to 70 
sq. ft. To hasten the growth of seedlings a stock solution of 1/4 lb. of nitrate 
of soda to 2 gal. of water was made, one pint of which was diluted with 10 qt. 
of water for application. 

Tests in curing in small and large kilns and fertilizer tests with bright tobacco 
were carried on. In a comparison between the bright tobacco and Burley, the 
Burley proved the more profitable. A description of a new curing barn is 
given. 

Tobacco culture, G: N. Blackshaw (Rhodesia Agr. Jour., 10 (1912), No. 1, 
pp. 56-66, pis. 5). — In this article methods of preparing the soil are given, these 
including the burning of the soil to a depth of 1/2 in. As a remedy for cut- 
worms a poison is suggested which consists of 1 lb. arsenite of soda, 8 lbs. 
brown sugar, and 10 gal. of water ; this is to be mixed with green stuff or corn 
meal and distributed over the ground a few days before the tobacco is trans- 
planted. Broadcasting or drilling the fertilizer in the soil before the plants 
are set is advised, as compared with top-dressing later. 

Suggestions for gathering and storing the seed and directions for growing, 
curing, storing, and baling Turkish tobacco are given. 

Cultivation of tobacco for the preparation of fruit and hop washes (Jour. 
Bd. Agr. [London], 19 (1913), No. 12, pp. 985-994). — This article discusses the 
difference between smoking tobacco and that used for the extraction of nicotin. 
It is stated that the latter should be of rank, coarse-growing varieties unfit for 
smoking purposes. Methods of cultivating, fertilizing, harvesting, extracting, 
and preparing the washes are discussed. The cost and returns per acre are 
given. In Kent in 1911 yields of over 2,000 lbs. of dry leaves, with over 150 
lbs. of nicotin, per acre were obtained. 

A cross between Triticum. vulgare and T. monococcum, N. Wawiloff 
(Trudy Bmro Prlkl. Bot. (Bui. Angew. Bot.), 6 (1913), No. 1, pp. 1-19, pi. 1, 
fig. 1). — The chief characteristics of this cross were observed to have been 
lateness in ripening and sterility. 



HORTICULTURE. 141 

Wheat growing" in Wisconsin, E. J. Delwiche and B. D. Leith (Wiseonsiii 
Sta. Bui. 233, pp. 3-22, figs. 8). — This bulletin outlines briefly the present status 
of wheat growing in Wisconsin, and includes reports on results of experiments 
which for six successive seasons have been carried on at the station at Madison 
and at the substations in the different sections of the State. In this con- 
nection are discussed the cause of the decline in wheat growing in Wiscon- 
sin, the present outlook, and wheat and soil depletion. Under essentials of 
wheat culture are discussed rotations, soil preparation, good seed, time and 
manner of seeding, harvesting and threshing, and spring and winter wheat. 

Tabulated data of variety tests of both winter and spring wheats are given, 
including nearly 30 selections. In general, winter wheat outyielded spring 
wheat. 

Some variable results of seed testing", G. E. Stone {Massachusetts Sta. Rpf. 
1912, pt. 2, pp. 22-30). — This paper gives results of purity and germination 
tests made at about 20 different seed-testing stations of seed taken from the 
name bulk, and discusses the difficulties underlying the identification of seeds. 
The seeds used were red clover, timothj^ Kentuclvy blue grass, orchard grass, 
millet, and alfalfa. Wide variations were obtained from the various stations. 
The germination of Kentucky blue grass was reported at from 3 to 88 per cent, 
and orchard grass showed a range of 45 per cent. 

Seed work for the year 1912, G. E. Stone (Massachusetts Sta. Rpt. 1912, 
pt. 2, pp. 17-21). — This gives results with 285 samples for germination and 
82 samples for purity tests. A total of 1,517 lbs. seed wag separated. The seeds 
tested for purity were of unusually high grade. 

"Yellow rattle," as a weed on arable land, Winifred E. Brenchley (Jour. 
Bd. Agr. [London^, 19 (1913), No. 12, pp. 1003-1009, figs. 2).— Two distinct 
species of this parasite are noted, Rhinanthtis minor and R. major. Their life 
history, means of attaching to cultivated crops, especially grasses and cereals, 
and the method of combating, which consists chiefly of fallow cultivation for 
a season, are discussed. 

HOKTICULTURE. 

Intensive farming, L. C. Corbett (New York, 1913, pp. 146-\-IV, pis. 8, 
figs. 3). — This comprises a popular handbook of information on the fundamental 
practices employed in various types of intensive farming. The subject matter 
is discussed under the following general headings: The problem, vegetable 
growing, onions, celery, frame culture, the vegetable forcing industry, fruit 
growing, small fruits, the citrus industry, plant breeding as a factor in inten- 
sive farming, seed growing, the nursery an example of intensive crop production, 
irrigation, animal industry, economics of intensive industries, and the cropping 
system as a unit. 

Recent progress in Belgian horticulture, Vernieuwe (Internat. Inst. Agr. 
[Rome], Mo. Bui. Agr. Intel, and Plant Diseases, 4 (1913), No. 9, pp. 1321- 
1326). — In. this paper the author briefly reviews the recent developments in 
Belgian horticulture, including the measures employed to maintain and safe- 
guard the interests of the horticultural industry. 

Malnutrition or overfertilization of greenhouse crops, H. D. Haskins 
(Massachusetts Sta. Rpt. 1912, pt. 2, pp. 71-79). — An analytic study of green- 
house soils in which cucumbers and sweet peas made sickly growth leads the 
author to conclude that imperfect growth and development were due in these 
cases, as well as in many other cases where plant growth is unsatisfactory, 
to an annual accumulation of soluble plant food rather than to fungi and bac- 
teria. With cucumbers the trouble does not usually develop until the third year 



142 EXPERIMENT STATION KECORD. 

after the soil has been placed in the houses. The plants which at first are usu- 
ally very vigorous turn yellow prematurely and fail to develop fruit. 

The author emphasizes the importance of good drainage in greenhouse beds 
and benches. Wherever indications of overfertilization appear the soil should 
be leached out with hot water as soon as the crop is removed. The crop may 
sometimes be saved by applying about 3 in. of fresh loam to the surface of the 
bed and working lightly around the plants. This promotes the formation of 
new roots. After the removal of the crop from one-third to one-half of the 
soil in the benches should be replaced with new loam before replanting. 

The influence of various lig-ht intensities and soil moisture on the growth, 
of cucumbers, and their susceptibility to burning" from hydrocyanic acid 
gas, G. E. Stone (llassachnsetts Sta. Rpt. 1912, pt. 1, pp. 61-72, pi. 1).—The 
experiments here reported were conducted at the station by F. L. Thomas with 
cucumber plants which were grown in the greenhouse under varying light and 
soil moisture conditions alongside plants growing under normal conditions. 
After the plants had reached a certain degree of development they were all sub- 
mitted to the same normal hydrocyanic acid gas fumigation. 

Summarizing the data relative to light conditions, the greatest average height 
of the plants and length of internodes were found in the series where the light 
was less, while, on the other hand, the shortest internodes and greatest diame- 
ter of the stems occurred in those plants which received the most light. The 
average length and width of leaf was variable but the plants grown where the 
light was excluded had the largest leaves. It is suggested that the production 
of larger leaves under certain light intensities is apparently a response to a 
demand for greater carbon assimilation. In the soil moisture experiments the 
average height of the plants was greater and the leaves larger in the pots con- 
t;iining the largest percentage of water. Within certain limits the diameter of 
the stems and length of the leaf petioles and internodes was also greater in the 
plants growing in a higher percentage of soil moisture; in pots containing as 
high as 70 per cent of water there was too much water for the best devel- 
opment. 

Burning from hydrocyanic acid gas was more extensive on plants grown 
under a poor light and excessive moisture conditions than where the light and 
moisture conditions were good, showing that burning by fumigation is induced 
by a difference in the development of the tissues whether brought about by 
inferior light conditions or excessive moisture. Further experiments are being 
conducted to throw more light on the influence of other factors on burning. 

Some effects of fertilizers on the growth and composition of asparagus 
roots, F. W. Morse {Massachusetts Sta. Rpt. 1912, pt. 1, pp. 15/f-167) .—The 
experiments here reported have been noted from another source (E. S. R., 28, 
p. 236). 

The inheritance of blossom color in beans, J. K. Shaw (3Iassachnsetts Sta. 
Rpt. 1912, pt. 1, pp. 182-203, pi. 1). — The author here presents and discusses a 
series of tables which show the inheritance of blossom color in various combi- 
nations of some 19 varieties of garden beans, the progeny from the crosses hav- 
ing been self-fertilized through four generations. An interpretation of the 
results relative to blossom color is to be made later through an analysis of the 
records of the inheritance of seed-coat color. 

Report of cranberry substation for 1912, H. J. Fsanklin (Massachusetts 
Sta. Rpt. 1912, pt. 1, pp. 209-234). — A progress report on the experiments con- 
ducted and observations made at the cranberry substation during the year 
(E. S. R., 28, p. 341). The subject matter is discussed under the following gen- 
eral headings: Weather observations, frost protection, fungus diseases, varie- 
ties, blossom pollination, fertilizers, insects (see p. 154), and miscellaneous. 



HORTICULTURE. 143 

Progress in determining the local condiiiuns wliicli indicate frost is reported, 
ttie season's records indicating tliat the early evening dew point can be relied 
upon to a considerable extent in forecasting minimum temperatures on the bogs. 
The use of oil heaters was found to be effective as protection against frost, but 
was too expensive to be practicable. 

In the work with fungus diseases being conducted in cooperation with the 
U. S. Department of Agriculture five plats each 4 rods square received two 
sprayings of Bordeaux mixture and one of neutral copper acetate. Two lbs. 
of resin fish-oil soap were used with the Bordeaux in all cases and with the; 
acetate. As compared with the check plats increased yields of from 45 to 144 
per cent were secured on the sprayed plats. During the previous year the 
sprayed plats showed no increase in quantity of fruit over their checks, hence 
it is suggested that the effects of annual spraying may be cumulative. When 
the fruit was gathered no distinct difference in color between the berries from 
the sprayed plats and their checks was observed, but differences in the size of 
the berries appeared to be influenced by the time of picking. In early picked 
fruit the berries on the check plats were larger, whereas in the last pickings 
the berries on the sprayed plats were larger. It is suggested that this was due 
to a retardation in the development of the fruit on the sprayed vines due to the 
heavier crop which they were producing. The keeping quality was improved 
by spraying, although this was more marked with the Howe variety. This and 
the distinctly greater increase in quantity of fruit on the Howe plats indicate 
the presence of a special diseased condition affecting tliat variety more seriously 
than the others. This disease, hitherto undetermined, has been tentatively 
called "blosson end rot." Its characteristic effect on the fruit is to cause it to 
rot, beginning at the blossom end and working gradually toward the stem end, 
the berry becoming soft, but remaining plump and watery, as the decay pro- 
gresses. The tests appeared to give no evidence that the stage of ripeness at 
which the berries were picked had any effect on their keeping quality. Observa- 
tions made during the past two years seem to indicate that resanding favors 
fungus diseases and that spring sanding favors fungus development more than 
does fall sanding. 

The pollination experiments as continued on another part of the bog 
(E. S. R., 26, p. 841) appeared to contradict partially the results previously 
secured, inasmuch as the area over which the bees were excluded bore at least 
half a crop of berries. The experiment is to be repeated. 

Observations made during the year indicate that the berries of a heavy cran- 
berry crop will, other conditions being equal, keep better than those of a light 
crop, and that the surface roughening of the fruit in certain varieties may be 
relied upon to some extent as an indicator of their keeping quality. 

The results of storage tests which were carried out with berries from all the 
fertilizer plats gave no evidence that any of the fertilizers, except perhaps the 
acid phosphate, had affected the keeping quality. Nitrate of soda had a marketl 
effect in increasing the quantity of fruit, although the variation in size between 
the berries from the different plats was not very great. Potash caused no 
increase in fruit and the phosphate but very little. If lime had any effect, it 
was detrimental. The vines on the plats to which nitrate was applied made a 
more luxuriant but desirable growth than those on the rest of the bog. 

New varieties of fruits, A. Xomblot {IV. Conf. Internat. G^n^tique Paris, 
Compt. Rend, et Raps., 1911, pp. 464-468). — With the view of procuring new 
varieties of tree fruits sowings of seed from different varieties were made a 
number of years ago. Consideration is here given to those forms which have 
arisen from naturally fertilized fruits. 



144 EXPEKIMENT STATION RECORD. 

The results with the cherry have shown that certain types, as the Bigarreau, 
Morello, Blacli Heart, etc., possess eome degree of fixity. The ^Nlirabelle and 
Green Gage i)lums and a number of peaches have also proved to be relatively 
fixed. In the case of apples and pears many forms varying in their vegetative 
characters and not resembling the maternal parent have been obtained. 

The author is not inclined to favor grafting as a means of hastening the 
fruiting period of seedling trees since this method has not given conclusive re- 
sults. Moreover, he does not favor the propagation of varieties by the use of 
immature wood. 

Crew work, costs, and returns in commercial orcharding in West Vir- 
ginia, J. H. Aenold (U. S. Dept. Affr. Bui. 29, pp. 24, figs. 5). — In this bulletin 
the author summarizes and analyzes the experiences in orchard management 
of different individuals who have been pioneers in the development of the 
peach industry in the drainage basin of the Potomac River in West Virginia. 
Practically every factor involved in peach growing is considered with special 
reference to the determination of costs. 

From an analysis of the data secured the author comes to the general con- 
clusion that with the most favorable conditions that can be reasonably ex- 
pected and under the most skillful and experienced management, average divi- 
dends of over 25 per cent are practically impossible. At the average price of 
65 cts. per basket a good manager might reasonably expect to pay 10 per cent 
dividends on the money invested. 

Cultivation and exploitation of the avocado, G. R. Valencia {Estac. Agr. 
Cent. [Mexico'] Bol. 71, 1912, pp. 70, pis. 20). — A popular treatise on the botany, 
culture, exploitation, and uses of the avocado. 

Mulberry and fig* culture, M. Calvino {Estac. Agr. Cent. {Mexico} Bol. 75, 
1912, pp. 33, pJs. 8). — ^A popular cultural treatise with special reference to 
Mexican conditions. 

On some hybrids of Vitis vinifera and V. berlandieri, Gard {IV. Conf. 
Internat. Gen^tique Paris, Compt. Rend, et Raps., 1911, pp. 395, 396) * — In 
studying a number of hybrid forms of V. herlandieriXV. vinifera raised from 
seed of V. herlandien it was observed with regard to the stem that the hairy 
character of the maternal parent and also the glabrous character of most varie- 
ties of y. vinifera occurred among the hybrids, together with a large number of 
intermediate forms. Transverse sections of the stem show that the structure 
is sometimes intermediate between the two parents and sometimes nearer that of 
V. vinifera. Most generally certain characters of the liber and of the sec- 
ondary wood, and especially those of the primary wood, are nearer V. vinifera. 
In the roots, on the other hand, these characters are nearer the' other parent 
and are in accordance with the power of resistance to phylloxera and the 
excellent qualities as stocks possessed by these hybrids. 

On the use of seedling vines as scions, Tr.vbut {Prog. Agr. et Yit. {Ed. 
VEst-Centre), 34 {1913), No. 46, pp. 625, 626, figs. 2).— The author here calls 
attention to some successful results secured during the past season in cleft 
grafting grape seedlings on green shoots of old vines. At the beginning of 
June young plants which had only their cotyledons were trimmed like ordinary 
scions and inserted on the top of green shoots. The end of the shoot was 
wrapped with a small band of paraflSn paper secured with raflBa. The com- 
pleted graft was then covered with a small paraffined paper bag in order to 
preserve the humidity. The parts united in about 2 weeks' time after which th(i 
young plants grew vigorously. By October the union was hardly visible and 
the shoot was about 3 meters long. 

The application of this method for the rapid propagation of new varieties is 
suggested. 



HORTICULTURE. 145 

The reconstruction of vineyards without grafting, C. Oberlin {Weinbau u. 
Weinfiandel, 31 {1913), Nos. 28, pp. 287, 288; 20, p. 207; 30, pp. 307, 308; 31, 
pp. 317, 318; 32, pp. 327, 328; 33, pp. 337, 338; 34, p. 3^7).— After a general 
survey of the results secured in reconstituting phylloxera infested vineyards in 
Europe the author concludes in substance tliat, although the use of American 
grape stocks may be the best means of reconstituting the vineyards in the 
warmer parts of Europe, the use of grafted vines is too costly and complicated 
a process for cold climate regions such as Alsace-Lorraine, where it is necessary 
to plant the grape sufficiently deep to protect the grafts from frosts. He calls 
attention to the relative resistance of grapes grown by the cordon system to 
phylloxera as compared with grapes grown on individual stakes, as well as the 
greater ease with which cultural and spraying treatments may be given. With 
special reference to the industry in Alsace-Lorraine he suggests that the double 
arm cordon system be adopted and attention also given to the testing of direct- 
bearing American-European hybrids which are much more frost resistant than 
the grafted stocks. 

Some new or little-known Philippine economics, O. W. Barrett {Philippine 
Agr. Rev. [EngUsJi Ed.], 6 {1013), No. 10, pp. 403-503, pis. 10). — Brief descrip- 
tions are given of a large number of native fruits and plants of more or less 
economic importance. 

The Kafir orange, D. Fairchild {Amer. Breeders Mag., 4 {1013), No. 3, 
pp. 148-153, figs. 2). — Attention is here called to the Kafir orange {Strychnos 
spinosa), an edible member of the strychnin producing genus which has been 
successfully grown in Florida and southern California. Notes are also given 
on other species of this genus which promise to succeed in our semitropical 
regions and which with a little improvement through hybridization and selec- 
tion may offer a number of unique fruits to American growers. 

American medicinal flowers, fruits, and seeds, Alice Henkel (17. /sf. Dept. 
Agr. Bill. 26, pp. 16, figs. 12). — This bulletin describes the following 13 plants, 
the flowers, fruits, or seeds of which are in greatest demand for medicinal pur- 
poses: Juniper {Juniperus communis), saw palmetto {Screnoa scrrulata), 
wormseed {Chenopodiiim antlielminticuiiv) , pokeweed {Phytolacca americana), 
black mustard {Brassica nigra), white mustard {Sinapis alha), raspberries 
{Ruhiis occidentalis and R. st7-igosiis), prickly ash {Zanthoxylum americanum 
and Z. clava^hermUis) , smooth sumac {Rhus glabra), American linden {Tilia 
americana), poison hemlock {Conium maculatum), jimson weed {Datura stra- 
monium,), mullein {Verbasaim thapsus), and elder {Samhucus canadensis). 

Each plant is discussed with reference to its sjTionymy, habitat and range, 
description, collection, uses, and prices. Brief suggestions are given relative to 
the collection of flowers, fruits, and seeds. 

Experiments in bulb growing at the United States Bulb Garden at Bel- 
lingham, P. H. Dorsett {U. S. Dept. Agr. Bui. 28, pp. 21, figs. 21) —In 1908 
the Bureau of Plant Industry established an experimental bulb garden at Bel- 
lingham, Wash., to determine the feasibility of growing the so-called *' Dutch 
bulbs," including hyacinths, narcissuses, and tulips in the United States. This 
bulletin reports the progress and present status of the work, including the cul- 
tural practices thus far employed. 

Generally speaking the results have been satisfactory, a high grade of bulbs 
having been produced. On the other hand, the Department is not prepared to 
recommend the commercial culture of " Dutch bulbs " in this country until fur- 
ther information is gained relative to climatic and soil requirements, cultural 
practices, and methods of harvesting, curing, storing, transporting, and mar- 
keting the crop. 



146 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

Weed extermination, G. E. Stone (Massachusetts Sta. Rpt. 1912, pt. 2, pp. 
35-40, pis. 3). — In this article the author discusses different methods of exter- 
minating weeds from hiwns. Descriptions of devices for applying arsenate of 
soda, cutting weeds, and spreading fertilizer are included. 

Legislation ag-ainst the diseases and pests of cultivated plants in Ceylon, 
T. Fetch (Dept. Agr. Ceylon Bill. 6, 1913, pp. 79-93).— This bulletin contains 
the text of regulations which have been issued in Ceylon under ordinances en- 
acted for the control of native diseases and pests and for preventing the intro- 
duction of others. 

FORESTRY. 

Forest valuation, F. Riebel (Wahlwertrcchming. Vienna and Leipsic, 1912, 
2. ccL, rev. and enl., pp. XVI+527, pis. 2). — Part 1 of this work comprises a 
theoretical discussion of various factors which enter into the determination of 
the money value of a forest or a forest enterprise, consideration being given to 
the general economic, forest economic, and mathematical fundamental prin- 
ciples of forestry, and to the various methods of forest valuation. In part 2 
the application of the theoretical knowledge relative to forest valuation to exist- 
ing cases is illustrated by numerous examples. 

An economic study of acacias, C. H. Shinn (U. S. Dept. Agr. Bill. 9, pp. 38, 
pis. 11). — In this bulletin the author discusses the economic importance of the 
leading acacias in various countries with the idea of bringing about more gen- 
eral planting in suitable regions in this country. 

A study of the cultural requirements of the many species of acacia which have 
been grown as ornamentals in this country, chiefly in California, leads to the 
general conclusion that plantations properly located and managed are as likely 
to prosper in America as in other countries, where the various species haA'e been 
a valuable source of tanbark, gums, timber, etc. Attention is called to the fact, 
however, that thus far our knowledge relative to the success of acacias in this 
country is chiefly of a cultural nature. It is yet to be determined whether the 
trees can be produced under close-planted commercial conditions and whether 
the products can be harvested and marketed in competition with those produced 
cheaply abroad. 

Manihot caoutchouc, A. Zimmermann {Der Manihot-Eautschiik. Jena, 1913, 
pp. XI-^342, figs. 151). — ^A treatise on the culture, exploitation, and preparation 
of the various Manihot rubbers. Other rubber-yielding species are considered 
in as far as the practices employed in handling them are of value for the culture 
of the Manihot species. The subject matter is based partially on a review of 
the literature of the subject and partially upon observations made in German 
East Africa, as well as on the author's personal investigations. 

An extensive bibliography of the subject is appended. 

Device for planting white pine seed, G. E. Stone (Massaehusetts Sta. Rpt. 
1912, pt. 2, pp. 31, 32, pi. 1). — The device here described consists of a hollow 
iron tube about % in. in diameter at the top of which is a funnel and to the 
bottom of which is attached a bent piece of strap iron about If in. in width 
and thick enough to give the required rigidity. This is sharpened at the end 
like a chisel. The hollow handle is extended by means of a rubber tube so that 
when the blade is thrust into the ground the opening comes over the hole which 
is made when the handle is brought to a vertical position. The seed is planted 
by dropping it into the funnel at the top of the handle. 

Condition of experimental teleg'raph poles, treated and untreated, after 
eight years' service, C. H. Teesdale (Engin. News, 70 {1913), No. 22, pp. 1084- 
1086, figs. 4). — The work here reported was started in the summer of 1905, 



DISEASES OF PLANTS. 147 

when a large number of treated and untreated chestnut and white cedar poles 
were set up in experimental lines in cooperation with the American Telegraph 
and Telephone Company. The previous results of this test have been noted 
(E. S, R., 25, p. 344), In the present report an outline is given of the experi- 
mentJil treatments, together with the results secured after a test of 8 years. 

As a result of this experiment it appears that the average life of the untreated 
seasoned and gi*een southern white cedar poles in this line will not exceed 
7 to 8 years. Seasoned poles set untreated showed a larger percentage of re- 
movals than the green poles. This is attributed to the length of time the sea- 
soned poles were held before they were set. The chestnut poles were found to 
be in a much better condition than the cedar. Some 63 per cent of the untreated 
poles were still only slightly decayed, while of the treated poles, excluding tar 
coating, 91 per cent were either sound or only slightly decayed. Good results 
were obtained with all preservatives, except tar. Coal-tar products gave better 
results than wood-tar products. The results obtained with the carbolineums 
were only slightly better than with coal-tar creosote. The southern white cedar 
poles brush-treated with good preservatives showed less decay than untreated 
chestnut poles but were decayed more than the treated chestnut poles. Fewer 
removals and fewer badly decayed poles were found in the portions of the line 
running through swamps and wet locations than in dryer situations. The worst 
conditions were found in cultivated fields and dry sandy situations. 

The author concludes that, although brush treatments with a good preservative 
gave an increased life to poles sufficient to pay well for the cost of treatment, 
to be really effective the application should be sufficient to treat all the sapwood 
and in the case of chestnut probably some of the heartwood. 

DISEASES OF PLANTS. 

An outline of some of the topics covered by the department of vegetable 
physiology and pathology since its inception, G. E. Stone {Massachusetts 
Sta. Rpt. 1912, pt. 1, pp. 97-101). — A bibliography of the more important papers 
published by the department since 1888 is given. 

Diseases more or less common during the year, G. E. Stone (Massachusetts 
Sta. Rpt. 1912, lit. 1, pp. 38-40).— Brief notes are given on winterkilling of 
twigs and roots of apple trees and the occurrence of scab (Fiisicladimn den- 
dnticum), apple fruit rots, bitter rot (Glocosponum fnictigenum) , and of white 
pine blister rust on currants. A large number of other diseases due to para- 
sitic fungi are listed. In addition notes are given on some forest and shade 
tree troubles, among them a mottling of chestnut leaves, the killing back of 
twigs of elm, maple, ash, butternut, Norway spruce, and sycamore, root dis- 
eases of elm, maple, and oak, as well as winter injury to other species. It is 
stated that the winter of 1912 was one of the worst on record for the depth 
of freezing and that vegetation in general was in poor condition owing to 
drought. 

Work of the botanical research laboratory and of the laboratory for plant 
diseases at Klosterneuburg, L. Linsbauer, J. K. Schechner, and F. Zweigelt 
{Programm u. JaJtresber. K. K. Hoh. Lehranst. Wein u. Ohsfbau Klostcnieuhurg, 
1911-12, pp. 14I-I66, figs. 6; Internat. Inst. Agr. [Rome], Mo. Bid. Agr. Intel, 
and Plant Diseases, 4 (1913), No. 7, pp. III4, 1115).— The first article noted 
herein is the regular report regarding observations made on various diseases 
of orchard and small fruits, grapes, vegetables, etc., and of studies on some 
physiological problems, a list of addresses and publications being appended. 
The second article noted is a short and more specific account, by Linsbauer. of 
some physiological investigations bearing upon the development and some 



148 EXPERIMENT STATION EECOED. 

pliysiological aspects of certain grape diseases, including Plasmopara, Pseudo- 
peziza traclieipliila, and " Droali." 

Studies of plant diseases, H. C. Muller, E. Molz, and D. Morgenthaleb 
{Ber. Agr. Chem. Kontroll u. Vers. Stat. Pflanzenkrank. Prov. Sachsen., 1912, 
pp. 67-76). — This is a condensed report on studies carried out on various 
diseases of grains, beets, potatoes, fruit trees, and garden vegetables, with a 
list of remedies and apparatus for their application tested and approved by the 
station, 

Notes on Cronartium coleosporioides and C. filamentosum, E. P. Meinecke 
{Phytopathology, S (1913), No. 3, pp. 167, J68).— The author reports the suc- 
cessful infection of CastiUcia miniata with secidiospores of Peridermium sta- 
lactiforme from Pinus contorta. 

Mosaic and allied diseases, with especial reference to tobacco and toma- 
toes, G. H. Chapman {Massachusetts Sta. Rpt. 1912, pt. 2, pp. 41-51). — A report 
is given of observations on this disease of tobacco and tomatoes which the 
author says he has been able to produce on other plants, such as ragweed, 
jjmson weed, etc. 

The disease is held to be of physiological origin and is caused by the exces- 
sive activity of the oxidase and peroxidase enzyms in the plant and the partial 
loss of fimction of catalase. It is not considered due to any one enzym alone 
nor to any special virus. It is infectious but not contagious, and does not 
occur in seed beds when new soil is used nor in properly sterilized seed beds. 

Directions are given for the handling of the seed beds, the use of fertilizers, 
the choice of soils, etc., to reduce as much as possible the occurrence of this 
trouble. A bibliography is appended. 

Cucumber and tomato canker {Oard, Cliron., 3. ser., 5Jf {1913), No. 1393, 
pp. 167, 168, fig. 1). — This disease, due to Mycosphwrella citrullina, the same 
fungus which attacks muskmelons in the United States (E. S. R., 21, p. 148), is 
said to be widely spread in Great Britain, where it is causing considerable loss 
to tomatoes and cucumbers grown under glass, and it has recently been shown 
to occur on fruits of tomatoes grown in the open (E. S, R., 29, p. 847). 

The fungus appears to be a wound parasite and is spread most rapidly by 
the pycnidiospores. On the tomato the symptoms which have been most fre- 
quently seen are the wilting of the whole or top part of the plant, and the 
appearance of brown sunken areas on some parts of the stem. These are 
generally within 1 or 2 in. of the soil, although in some instances the canker 
may be found farther up the stem. 

Comparatively little is known regarding methods of prevention, but attention 
to the proper temperature and humidity of the houses and spraying with 
Bordeaux mixture, it is thought, would tend to prevent the serious occurrence 
of the trouble. 

White-heads or take-all of wheat and oats {Bd. Agr. and Fisheries [Lon- 
don]. Leaflet 273, 1913, pp. 4, fig. 1). — ^A brief description of this disease, 
Ophiobolus graminis, in its different aspects is given with a discussion of its 
prevalence, mode of attack, and prevention. It is said to flourish also on 
couch grass, Bromus steiyilis, etc., requiring their suppression or control; like- 
wise it is said to attack oats, rendering this crop unfit for rotation as a means of 
starving out the fungus. Blindness or abortion of the grain in the ear may be 
due to other causes named, but such cases may be recognized by the absence of 
the characteristic blackening at the base of the stem. 

It is claimed that superphosphate of lime at the rate of 1^ cwt. per acre 
applied when the crop is young proved effective at Kew, and that in Australia 
iron sulphate at the rate of 1 cwt. per acre checked this disease. 



DISEASES OF PLANTS. 149 

The barberry and its relation to black rust of grain, H. T. Gussow {Phyto- 
pathology, 3 (1913), No. 3, pp. 178, 179). — Attention is called to a report on the 
disappearance of Puccinia graminis in Denmark following the application of 
the law relating to the destiniction of barberries. 

The action of different luminous radiations on the formation of conidia on 
Botrytis cinerea, F. ;iik1 Mme. F. Moreau iBuh Hoc. Hot. France, 60 {1913), 
Xo. 2-3, pp. 80-83). — The authors, studying the development of B. oinerea on 
carrot under a pure strong spectrum, found that conidia were formed under 
these circumstances ouly in the violet-blue portion of the spectrum. This result 
agreed with that obtaiued by Reidemeister (E. S. R., 23, p. 48), but disagreed 
with that reported by some other authors named. 

A bacterial rot of cucumbers, O. F. Burger {Phytopathology, 3 {1913), No, 
3, pp. 169, 170). — A brief report is given of two years' investigations of a bac- 
terial disease of the leaves and fruit of cucumbers. 

On the fruit watery spots with brown centers appear, and later the cucumbers 
become soft and translucent. The first indication of infection on the leaves is 
shown by the presence of watery spots. Cultures made from the material 
showed the presence of a bacterium, and inoculation experiments demonstrated 
that this organism was the cause of the trouble. 

Vines were reported as drying up without setting fruit, and this led to inocu- 
lation experiments on healthy flowers. These were found to turn yellow, 
blacken, and dry up without developing any fruit. 

The cultural characteristics of the organism, which is a species of Pseu- 
domonas, are being investigated further. 

Corynespora leaf spot of cucumbers, W. Grosser {Illus. Schles. Monatfichr. 
Obst. Gemuse ii. Gartcnhau, 2 {1913), No. 8, p. 137). — A discussion is given of 
a disease of cucumbers said to cause great damage in England, but heretofore 
only sporadic in Germany, and attributed to C. ma;<;ei. 

In the absence of complete investigations as regards efficient and inexpen- 
sive means of control, the author recommends soaking the seed 4 hours in 0.5 
per cent formalin solution before planting, also spraying the plant with 0.4 per 
cent Bordeaux mixture, as preventive measures. No remedy is offered as 
effective after the general outbreak of the disease. 

Fusarium or Verticillium on okra in North Carolina? G. W. Wilson 
(Phytopathology, 3 (1913), No. 3, pp. 183-185). — In a previous publication 
(E. S. R., 26, p. 844), a disease of okra attributed to F. vasinfectum was de- 
scribed. Later the identity of the fungus had been questioned, and the author 
reports somewhat more in detail upon the disease and its causal organism. The 
studies are said to show that the fungus was not a Verticillium but a Fusarium, 
as previously reported. 

Black heart of potatoes, E. T. Bartholomew (Phytopathology, 3 (1913), No. 
S, pp. 180-182, pi. 1). — The attention of the department of plant pathology of 
the Wisconsin Station has been called to a blaclcening of the tissues of potatoes. 
An examination of these tissues showed them to be sterile. Following this a 
laboratory experiment was conducted, and it was found possible to produce the 
condition if potatoes were taken from the storage cellar and exposed to a tem- 
perature of from 38 to 45° C. (98.4 to 113° F.) for from IS to 48 hours. The 
blackening did not develop to the same extent in all the potatoes. The change 
apparently begins in the center and radiates toward the margin, and if the ab- 
normal potatoes are allowed to remain 10 days or 2 weeks before cutting, the 
blackened tv^^sues in the center shrink, leaving a hollow with a black lining. 

Further studies are being made on the physiological changes which cause the 
blackening, and for the present attention is directed to the disease and the im- 
portance of keeping potatoes at a uniformly low temperature. 



150 EXPERIMENT STATION EECOED. 

Experiments relating" to the control of potato scab, G. E. Stone and G. H. 
Chapman (Massachusetts Sta. Rpt. 1912, pt. 1, pp. 84-96, pi. 1). — The results 
of experiments with various chemicals for the prevention of potato scab are 
given. These experiments were begun in 1908 and continued for 4 years, dif- 
ferent substances being employed. The potatoes were grown in soil in tiles 
23 in. in diameter, and the treatment consisted of sterilization and the use of 
formalin, potassium permanganate, sulphuric acid, sulphur, copper sulphate, 
carbon bisulphid, a commercial by-product called by the author "by-product 
A," etc. 

Summarizing the results of the experiments, it is shown that many of the 
substances used had little effect in preventing scab, while others seemed to pos- 
sess some value. Steaming the soil seemed to have but little effect on the pro- 
duction of scab. The best results were obtained by the use of by-product A in 
dry form, followed by sulphur treatment and by-product A in solution and 
steam heating. The by-product seems to act slowly and continuously as a 
germicide, and it is thought that it may prove efficient in the control of other 
fungi. 

The relation of cane cultivation to the control of fung-us diseases, J. R. 
Johnston (Porto Rico Sugar Producers' Sta. Circ. 3 (English Ed.), pp. 13). — 
The author describes the various cultural methods that have been tested for 
growing cane, and points out methods to be adopted for the control of fungus 
diseases so far as any relation exists between them and the agricultural prac- 
tices. 

The black rots of the sweet potato, J. J. Taubenhaus (Phytopathology, 3 
(1913), No. 3, pp. 159-166, pis. 3).— A study of the black rot of the sweet potato, 
described by Halsted (E. S. U., 2, p. 416) and since attributed to Sphceroneina 
fimT)riatum, has been made, and the author has come to the conclusion that the 
disease is not due to this species, but is a sclerotium fungus, to which the name 
Sclerotium 'bataticola n. sp. is given. In order to distinguish this disease from 
the black rot caused by Trichoderma komngi, it is proposed to call it the char- 
coal rot of the sweet potato. 

A third black rot of the sweet potato is described, which is said to be due to 
Lasiodiplodia tuhericola. For this the author proposes the name Java black 
rot, as this indicates the source from which the disease was first obtained. 

Study of recent diseases of grapevines, their importance and treatment, 
V. C. M. DE ZtJNiGA (Estac. Enol. Earo Mem., 1912, pp. 85-98).— Giving the 
results of several years' study of arrepollao or achaparrado (court-noue) of 
grapevines in the Rioja, Spain, the author states that this trouble although not 
very serious at present is more frequently met with on lowlands and levels and 
in valley bottoms than in higher portions of the valleys and on benches. 
Clayey, cold, compact soils appear to favor court-noue more than do loose stony 
or slaty soils, the percentage of moisture seeming to bear some relation to its ap- 
pearance as do also abrupt temperature changes in winter and spring. Con- 
siderable differences are noted in the susceptibility of different varieties, Riparia 
and Berlandieri proving relatively resistant. It is thought also that vigorous 
growth in autumn tends to decrease the likelihood of this trouble in spring. 

Downy mildew in Vaucluse in 1913, E. Zacharewicz (Rev. Vit., 40 (1913), 
No. 1025, pp. 171-174)' — Three outbreaks of downy mildew were noted in the 
Department of Vaucluse in 1913. Both copper sulphate mixed with powdered 
soap to the amount of 1.5 per cent each in water, and a mixture of 70 parts of 
sulphur with 30 parts of 20 per cent sulphosteatite, were used soon ^ after rains 
with good results, as also was a treatment of powdered lime 55 parts, 20 per 
cent sulphosteatite 40 parts, and naptha soap 5 parts, all these treatments be- 



DISEASES OF PLANTS. 151 

ing liberally applied. Employment of chemical fertilizers with some restric- 
tion as regards nitrogen is also claimed to prove helpful in producing a freer 
lineal gi-owth of the shoots favorable to aeration and to the application of 
sprays. The chief reliance is placed upon copper sulphate as a basis of fungi- 
cidal treatment. 

Mildew in 1913, A. Cadoret {Prog. Agr. et Vit. (Ed. VEst-Centre), 34 (1913), 
No. 34, pp. 238, 239).— In continuance of previous reports (E. S. R., 29, p. 551) 
the author states that, believing both single and successive outbreaks of downy 
mildew to be favored by humidity, he tested the effects of 3 sprayings following 
showers or rains extending over several days in the latter part of May and the 
early part of June. Almost no injury resulted from mildew, while crops around 
suffered heavily. Similar tests on a neighboring vineyard showed, however, a 
loss of about 50 per cent, heavy dews being noted in this case. Further tests 
are contemplated. 

A Botrytis disease of dahlias, M. T. Cook and C. A. Schwarze (Phyto- 
pathology, 3 (1913), No. 3, pp. 171-174, pi. 1). — During the past year the authors' 
attention was called to a root rot of dahlias in storage. The disease appeared 
to be most severe under warm, moist conditions, combined with poor ventilation, 
and was caused by a species of Botrytis corresponding very closely to the 
description of B. cincrca. Infections always take place through wounds, and it 
was imposible to secure the penetration of the fungus through the uninjured 
epidermis. 

Some fungus diseases of trees, L. H, Pammel (Proc. loiva Acad. Soi., 18 
(1911), pp. 25-33, p?s. 4, figs. 2). — Descriptions are given of the heart rot of 
Populus trcmuloides, due to Forties igmarius and F. applanatus ; the oyster 
fungus (Pleurotus ulmarius) on box elder and basswood; the root rot fungus 
(Polystictus versicolor) on maples, oak, apple, cherry, and other deciduous 
trees ; the root rot of oak, due to Armillaria mellea ; the spot of butternut and 
black walnut (Gnomonia leptostyla) ; and attacks of Taphrina on the Rocky 
Mountain hard maples. 

Shade tree troubles, G. E. Stone (Massachusetts Sta. Rpt. 1912, pt. 1, pp. 
73-83, 2J?s. 7). — The author describes staghead and root injury to maple and 
other trees, injury to cork cambium, sun scald, bleeding, injuries from snow, 
effect of grading on trees, and injuries from various treatments for protection 
against insect pests. 

Chestnut blight, G. E. Stone (Massachusetts Sta. Rpt. 1912, pt. 2, pp. 33, 
34). — A brief account is given of observations by the author on the spread of 
the chestnut blight and the injury which it is causing. This disease seems to 
be spreading in the Connecticut and other western valleys of the State, while the 
eastern central section of the State still remains comparatively free from the 
disease. Along with the blight there is said to be a deterioration of chestnut 
trees which is in no way associated with the blight fungus. 

The blights of coniferous nursery stock, C. Hartley (U. S. Dcpt. Agr. Bui. 
44> PP- 21). — The author describes the more common blights to which coniferous 
nursery stock is subject and offers suggestions for their control. Among those 
described are sun scorch, winterkilling, diseases due to parasitic fungi, stem 
giixlle, mulch injury, red cedar blight, and mechanical root injury. 

Sim scorch, which is said to be the commonest summer trouble, results in the 
death of the roots before the tops are killed and is due to excessive water loss. 
Watering, shading, and the avoidance of crowding, as well as increasing the 
humus content of the soil should be adopted for the prevention of this injury. 

Winterkilling is due to the drying out of the plants when the soil is frozen 
and may be prevented by the use of a light straw mulch or windbreaks. 



152 EXPERIMENT STATION EECORD. 

Mulch injury follows the heavy mulching of the plants and may be avoided by 
the use of light mulches and spraying with Bordeaux mixture before the appli- 
cation of the mulch. 

The fungus diseases described are needle cast due to Lopliodermmm pinastri, 
blight caused by Pestalozzia fnnerea, root rots due to RMzoctonia sp., and stem 
girdle caused by a fungus which may prove to be P. liariigii. Notes are also 
given on the red cedar blight, concerning which but little is known, and no 
recommendations are made for its control. 

Herpotrichia and Neopeckia on conifers, W. C. Stubgis {Phytopathology, 
S {1013), No. 3, pp. 152-158, pU. 2). — The author reports having observed in 
northern Wyoming in 1902 the prevalence of a fungus on leaves and twigs of 
Ahics lasiocarpa and Picea engelmamii. Later and in nearly the same locality 
what appeared to be the same fungus was found on Pinus murrayana. An ex- 
amination made of the specimens collected showed that that occurring on the 
fir and spruce was H. nigra, while that on the pine was N, coulteri. 

The damage caused by these two fungi is, so far as the author's observation 
goes, very slight, but on account of the possibility of their causing the destruc- 
tion of conifers in seed beds or later, attention is called to them, and both 
species are described and their synonymy given. 

A new rust, G. E. Stone {Massachusetts 8ta. Rpt. 1912, pt. 1, pp. 4^-44)- — 
The occuiTence in the State of the Cronartium form of Pendermium stroti, 
the cause of the white pine blister rust, is noted. The rust was observed on 
a block of 200 currant plants which had been introduced from a New York 
nursery. Nearly all the plants were infected, although a small block of black 
currants a quarter of a mile away showed no indication of the fimgus, nor did 
a rigid examination of a plantation of 8-year-old pines reveal any signs of 
blister rust infection. As the black currants are not considered of any great 
economic importance the author suggests their destruction. 

Spotting of rubber on the plantation, V. Cayla {Jour. Agr. Trop., 13 {1913), 
No. 145, pp. 221-223). — Referring to articles published by K. Bancroft (E. S. R., 
29, p. 451) and others, the author gives a brief outline of the beginning and 
progress of this condition of rubber appearing in the various stages of its pro- 
duction, mentioning several organisms found in connection therewith. 

An investigation of lime-sulphur injury, its causes and prevention, V. I. 
Satro {Oregon Sta. Research Bid. 2, pp. 32, p?s. 4)- — Attention is called to the 
uncertain usage of the term lime-sulphur injury, and on account of this indefi- 
nite use the author has carried on some investigations to determine what chem- 
ical ingredients of the lime-sulphur spray can be classed as injurious in a strict 
sense. 

A series of experiments was conducted in which the various materials which 
go to make up the spray and the compounds which are liable to occur in the 
spray before and after its application were used. These were sprayed on 
potato and bean foliage as well as on the foliage and fruit of apples, pears, 
cherries, peaches, and plums. Considerable varietal susceptibility to lime- 
sulphur injury was noted, but it was found that the injury, in the proper use 
of the term, was caused by the calcium polysulphids and to a somewhat less 
extent by calcium thiosulphate. The other normal ingredients occurring in the 
lime-sulphur mixture, either before or after its application, were found to be 
harmless. 

A test was made of a number of samples of lime-sulphur mixture to determine 
whether their specific gravity could be taken as an index of their possible 
injurious effect. It was found that the specific gravity alone of the lime- 
sulphur spray does not indicate to what extent sulphids are in solution and 



ECONOMIC ZOOLOGY — ENTOMOLOGY. 153 

that different experiments using the densities of different concentrates as bases 
for dilution can not be compared accurately, so far as spray injury is concerned. 

In an investigation made of means for the prevention of lime-sulphur injury 
it was found that it could be prevented to some extent by a considerable dilu- 
tion of the solution or by the use of substances that would render the sulphids 
insoluble. Among those tested were iron, copi")er, and zinc sulphates, sulphuric 
acid, and carbon dioxid. 

The author considers self-boiled lime sulphur to be a mixture of lime and 
sulphur rather than a combination. Much of the injury attributed to lime- 
sulphur sprays he attributes to other causes, particularly to sunburn. 

Spreading- capacity and adherence of sprays, V. Vermorel and E. Dantony 
(Prog. Agr. et Tit. (Ed. VEst-Ccntre), 3/f {1913), No. 25, pp. 778-780).— This is 
a brief general discussion of the constitution of sprays intended for ordinary 
protective purposes ; also of those intended to be especially adapted to spread- 
ing on application or to adherence under adverse weather conditions, or to 
both these purposes. 

Preparation of alkaline sprays, V. Veemorel and E. Dantony (Pi'og. Agr. 
et Vit. (Ed. VEst-Centre), 54 (191S), No. 24, pp. 7//5, 74^).— The authors give 
formulas and directions for the preparation of Bordeaux and Burgundy mix- 
tures claimed to possess superior qualities as regards both spreading and 
adhesion, casein and gelatin being employed for this purpose. 

ECONOMIC ZOOLOGY— ENTOMOLOGY. 

Game protection and propagation in America, H. Chase (Philadelphia and 
London, 1913, pp. V-\-238). — A handbook of practical information for officials 
and others interested in the cause of conservation of wild life. 

Game law blue book, C. B. Reynolds (New York, 1913, pp. 136). — A com- 
pilation of the game and fish laws of the various States and of Canada, revised 
to date. 

Bats and their extermination, W. A. Daley (Pud. Health [Landon], 21 
(1913), No. 1, pp. 23-28). — This paper draws attention to the public health 
aspects of the rat problem and the methods of destroying these pests. 

Rat proofing a municipal sewer system, F. Simpson (Pw&. Health Rpts. 
[U. S.'\, 28 (1913), No. U, pp. 2283-2290) .—A report of an investigation con- 
ducted with a view to finding a practical method of rat proofing the sewer 
system of San Francisco. 

A history of the game birds, wild fowl, and shore birds of Massachusetts 
and adjacent States, E. H. Forbush (Boston: Mass. Bd. Agr., 1912, pp. XTV-f- 
622, pis. 37, figs. i08).— Following a brief introduction (pp. 1-35) the subject 
is dealt with under the headings of (1) a history of the birds now hunted for 
food or sport in Massachusetts and adjacent States (pp. 89-396) ; (2) a history 
of the game birds and other birds hunted for food or sport, which have been 
driven out of Massachusetts and adjacent States, or exterminated, since the 
settlement of the country (pp. 399-^94) ; and (3) the conservation of game 
birds, wild fowl, and shore birds (pp. 497-595). 

Insect porters of bacterial infections, C. J. Martin (Brit. Med. Jour., 1913, 
Nos. 271Jf. pp. 1-8, figs. 12; 2715, pp. 59-68, figs. 12).— A summarized account 
delivered before the Royal College of Physicians. 

Insect record for 1912 in Massachusetts, H. T. Fernald (Massachusetts 
8ta. Rpt. 1912, pt. 2, pp. 85-87). — The year was made notable by the large num- 
ber of different insects, some 400 forms, about which inquiries were made. 
Among the more important were various plant lice; the elm leaf beetle; the 
bronze birch borer (Agrilus anxius) ; the apple tree tent caterpillar; the apple 



154 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

twig borer; the bud moth; the jiiuiper scale {Diaspis cariieU), a European 
pest which was found in such abundance on plants imported from abroad as to 
seriously injure them; the box leaf miner (Motiarthropalpiis buxi) which seri- 
ously attacked box hedges; the cottonwood leaf beetle (Lina scripta) which 
fed on the leaves of poplars in a nursery at Agawam; the chestnut borer 
(Leptura zehra), observed in connection with the chestnut bark disease; the 
fall army worm, which was unusually abundant and destructive; and termites 
(Tennes flavipes) w^hich attacked the stems of growing cabbages and corn 
plants. 

General survey of the insect fauna of the soil within a limited area near 
Manchester; a consideration of the relationships between soil insects and 
the physical conditions of their habitat, A. E. Cameron (Jour. Econ. Biol., 
8 {1913), No. 3, pp. 159-204, 2)7s. 2, figs. 3).— Part 1 (pp. 159-187) of this paper 
consists of a general survey of the insect fauna of the soil at the grounds of 
the experimental laboratory, Fallowfield; part 2 (pp. 187-199) deals with the 
soil insects and the physical conditions of their habitat. 

Phytopathological report for the year 1912, P. Marchal (Bui. Agr. Alg4rie 
ct Tunisie, 19 (1913, No. 9, pp. 193-199). — This report deals with the occurrence 
of the more important insect pests of the year. 

Report of the entomologist, E. Ballard (Nyasaland Dept. Agr. Ann. Rpt. 
1913, pp. 29-32). — This report deals largely with the occurrence of insect pests 
during the year. 

List of insect pests, H. Morstatt (Pflanzer, 9 (1913), No. 6, pp. 288-296).— 
This is a classified list of the more important insect enemies of plants and 
plant products in German East Africa, with the nature of their injury. 

[Cranberry insects in 1912], H. J. Franklin (Massachusetts Sta. Rpt. 
1912, pt. 1, pp. 225-234) • — This is a report of observations and study made of 
cranberry insects on Cape Cod in 1912 in continuation of those previously noted 
(E. S. R., 28, p. 352), and of which an account from another source has also 
been previously noted (E. S. R., 28, p. 854). 

As regards the fruit worm (Mineola vaccinii) the author states that late 
holding of winter flowage is the surest method of control thus far discovered 
and that spraying as a remedy for it is still of doubtful practicability. There 
are, however, a few bogs which can not be winter flowed that will pay a moder- 
ate return if the fruit fly is kept within bounds. The experimental resanding 
of such a bog on May 23 to a depth of 1 in., the uprights being raked up through 
the sand when covered by it, was but partially successful, since numerous moths 
were observed on netting which covered the experimental plat and some 40 per 
cent of the berries which developed on this area were destroyed by fruit worms. 
The author thinks that the best treatment for this insect on such bogs would 
consist in the destruction of the remnant of the crop in the years when the 
severe injury either from frost or winter-kill occurs and that this could prob- 
ably be most readily done by spraying with a 20 per cent solution of iron sul- 
phate. It is his opinion that as a rule more is lost through injury done to the 
vine in harvesting a very light crop than is gained by saving and marketing the 
berries. 

The flowed bog fireworm or blackhead cranberry worm (Rhopohota vaccini- 
ana) is the source of but little or no damage on bogs that are not winter flowed. 
The main cause of serious infestation by this pest is the killing and driving 
ashore of its natural enemies by flowage, as was pointed out in the report of the 
previous year. Through collections made by sweeping it was determined that 
spiders are the most numerous of all forms capable of destroying the fire- 
worms. Comparisons showed that the dry bog had far more spiders and also a 



ECONOMIC ZOOLOGY ENTOMOLOGY. 155 

somewhat larger number of parasitic insects than did any of the winter flowed 
bogs even as late as August 20. The information obtained in the study of this 
insect emphasizes the importance of spraying with arsenical poisons before the 
infestation starts. Since most bogs should be sprayed several times each year 
to control fungus diseases, Paris green for use against the fireworm may be 
applied at the same time by adding 1 lb. to every 50 gal. of Bordeaux mixture. 
A brief description is given of the most successful treatment for the control of 
the cranberry insects through the application of water to the bogs which has 
come to the author's attention. He states that there is little doubt that any 
bog can be freed from this fireworm by treating it for a few years as a strictly 
dry bog. 

The season's observations of the cranberry girdler (Cramhus hortellus) are 
said to sustain in every particular the conclusions concerning it reached the 
previous two years. Resanding every other year is usually sufficient to pre- 
vent infestation by it. Reflowing for a week or 10 days right after picking is 
still a standard remedy for it where sufficient water is available. 

Methods of controlling' mill and stored grain insects, together with the 
habits and life histories of the common infesting species, G. A. Dean (A'an- 
sas Sta. Bui. 189, pp. 139-236, figs. 62).— The first part of this bulletin deals 
at some length with the use of heat as a means of controlling mill insects, and 
reports experiments conducted, many of the details of which have been pre- 
viously noted from other sources (E. S. R., 29, p. 253). The author presents 
illustrations, temperature records, and other data relating to mills which have 
used heat successfully. Hydrocyanic acid gas treatment for mill insects is 
next taken up and described at length. This is followed by a discussion of 
carbon bisulphid fumigation as a means of destroying insects injurious to grain 
stored in granaries and small elevators. The last part of the bulletin (pp. 
198-236) is devoted to a discussion of the habits and life history of the com- 
mon stored grain and mill insects, some 25 of which are described and figured. 
"The only practical and efficient method at present known of completely 
controlling all classes of mill-iufevSting insects is by the application of high 
temperatures, and this method has been so developed within the last 3 years 
that it promises to revolutionize the present inadequate methods. In Kansas 
the heating of several mills has absolutely proved that no stage of a mill insect, 
even in the most inaccessible places, could withstand the heat, and several 
mills in Ohio, Illinois, Nebraska, Iowa, Indiana, southern Canada, and else- 
where have corroborated the practicability and the efficiency of heat as a means 
of controlling mill insects. . . . Many insects do not yield readily to hydro- 
cyanic acid gas, but no mill insect can withstiind for any length of time a 
temperature of from 118 to 122° F. . . . 

"A mill that has sufficient radiation to heat it in winter to a temperature 
of 70° can readily be heated in summer to a temi^erature of from 118 to 122". 
With the heat method there is no possibility of injuring the floors, belts, or 
mill machinery and there is practically no danger from Are. The Mutual Fire 
Prevention Bureau, representing eight of the principal millers' insurance com- 
panies, recommends the heating system for effective fumigation against all mill 
and stored grain infesting insects. If a mill is infested with Mediterranean 
flour moth, hydrocyanic acid gas is a very effective treatment, but in no case 
where it is possible to use heat is the hydrocyanic acid gas treatment recom- 
mended." 

The destruction of injurious insects by vegetable parasites, L. Le Moult 
(Prog. Agr. ct Tit. (Ed. VEst-Ccntre) , 8Jf (1913), Nos. 34, PP. 239-2^6; 35, pp. 
265-277; 36, pp. 297-308) .—This is a general review. 
28054°— 14 5 



166 EXPEEIMENT STATION RECORD. 

Tests of insecticides, H. T. Febnald {Massachusetts Sta. Rpt. 1912, pt. 2, 
pp. 88-91). — Several insecticides were tested during the year but no attempt 
was made to draw final conclusions as to their value. 

Entomoid, claimed to be a combination of lime-sulphur and a miscible oil, 
applied at the strength of 1 : 50 killed many San Jos§ scales, but a sufficient 
number were left so that the trees were about in their former condition at least 
3 mouths earlier than was the case in 1911. Nicine, used in large amounts in 
drills to protect corn from wireworms and about the base of onions to protect 
them from the onion maggot, had no injurious effect on the plants but did not 
give absolute protection from a light infestation of wireworms nor afford a 
high degree of protection from the maggot. Soil Fumigant and Insecticide 
was applied to parts of the same com plats as Nicine to protect corn from 
wireworms but the infestation proved to be insufficient to enable a determina- 
tion of its value. Tests with two commercial brands of zinc arsenite applied at 
the rate of 1 lb. to 10 gal. of water to elm, maple, and wild cherry leaves 
showed that both adhered well and destroyed the elm leaf beetle larvae, but 
injured the leaves of all three trees. Both applications are believed to have 
been too strong. 

The common house roach as a carrier of disease, R. C. Longfellow {Amer. 
Jour. Pu^. Health, 3 {1913), No. 1, pp. 58-6i).— Attention is called to the role 
of this insect in the dissemination of various species of bacteria. 

Notes on the occurrence of the woolly aphis, Schizoneura lanigera, in the 
core of apples, T. R. Hewitt {Jour. Econ. Biol., 8 {1913), No. 2, pp. 95-98, 
fig. 1). — The author has found the core of Newtown Pippins from California 
that were purchased from a Dublin fruit dealer to be infested with 8. lanigera. 
In 3 of 7 apples examined the aphids were alive. It is stated that externally 
the apples did not appear to be infested, except for a little mildewy appearance 
of the eye, but on being cut in two through the core the aphids were easily 
seen. There is a small channel connecting the eye with the core in this apple 
and through this channel the aphids gained access to the core. This channel, 
however, is not common in many varieties. 

" The core presented a white moldy appearance, due to the woolly secretion 
of the aphids. In the apples in which the aphids were dead the cores were 
moldy, due to the growth of some fungus, which was probably secondary. The 
damage done to the core was very slight, as the aphids did not api>ear to have 
pierced through the carpels. In one apple, which was rather more badly 
infested than the others, the seeds presented a damaged appearance, but the 
flesh of the apple was not injured In any instance." 

The economic importance of such infestations is found in the possible dis- 
semination of this pest in apples to uninfested orchards or districts. 

Report on peach aphis investigations during late winter and early spring, 
1912, C. B. Hardenbebg {Agr. Jour. Union So. Africa, 6 {1913), No. 2, pp. 
224-235). — This is a report of studies of the life history and of control experi- 
ments with the black and green peach aphids in the Transvaal. 

The black peach aphis is said to be attacked by a hymenopterous parasite and 
2 syrphids, Xanthogramma scutellaris and an undetermined species. The green 
peach aphis suffers in addition from the attack of a third species of syrphus 
fly, and 3 species of lady beetles have been found to feed upon it. Observations 
of the life cycle of X. scuteUaris are reported. 

Tobacco extract in a solution containing about 0.082 per cent nicotin is the 
most effective strength and no advantage is gained in using a stronger solution. 
The green peach aphis can be effectively kept under control by 3 thorough 
sprayings about 5 days apart, the first being applied as soon as the first leaves 
open out. 



ECONOMIC ZOOLOGY ENTOMOLOGY. 157 

The San Jose scale in Tennessee with methods for its control, G. M. Bent- 
ley (Tenn. Bd. Ent. Bui. 8, 1913, pp. 2/t, figs. 2i).— This account has b«en 
previously noted from another source (E. S. R., 29, p. 53), 

Some preliminary notes on a scale insect infesting the banana in Fiji, 
F. P. Jepson {Dept. Agr. Fiji Bid. 5, 1913, pp. 7; ahs. in Rev. Appl. Ent., 1 
(1913), Ser. A, No. Jf, p. 136). — This paper relates to the infestation of bananas 
by the transparent coconut scale (Aspidiotus destructor). 

The Abutilon moth (Cosmophila erosa), F. H. Chittenden (U. S. Dept. 
Agr., Bur. Ent Bid. 126, pp. 10, pis. 5). — This is a summarized account of the 
present knowledge of the Abutilon moth, the larvae of which defoliate okra, 
hollj'hock, and Abutilon in Virginia and the District of Columbia. It has also 
been observed feeding on Hibiscus esculentus and Malva rotundifolia in the 
District of Columbia and on cowpeas in Mississippi. Technical descriptions are 
given of its several stages. 

The application of a spray consisting of 40 per cent nicotin sulphate * oz.. 
whale-oil soap 1 lb., and lukewarm water 5 gal. resulted in the destruction of 
95 per cent of the larvae. A second application resulted in the complete eradi- 
cation of the pest. 

A bibliography of 10 titles is appended. 

The red-humped caterpillar (Schizura concinna), E. J. Yosler (J/o. Bui. 
Com. Hort. Cal, 2 (1913), No. 9, pp. 65Jf-657, figs. 2 ) .—Considerable damage to 
the apple, walnut, etc., is often caused in the central portion of California by 
this pest. 

The finiit tree leaf roller (Archips argyrospila), G. P. Weldon (Mo. Bid. 
Com. Hort. Cal., 2 (1913), No, 9, pp. 637-647, figs. 6).— This leaf roller is said to 
have ruined much of the fruit in several orchards in San Diego County, Cal. 

A new sugar-cane pest, C. Fuller (Agr. Jour. Union So. Africa, 5 (1913), 
No. 6, pp. 931-933). — This paper deals with a caterpillar which webs together 
the immature leaves forming the spike of the cane and. living within the pro- 
tecting tube so formed, feeds upon the inner surface of the outer leaf forming 
the spike. 

The Hessian fly, T. J. Headlee and J. B. Parker (Kansas Sta. Bid. 188, 
pp. 83-138, figs. 15). — In this bulletin the authors have brought together the 
results of their personal investigations in Kansas, together with a review of 
the more important findings of other investigators. The subject is dealt with 
under the headings history and distribution, habits and life history, seasonal 
history, natural checks, injury, and measures of control. A diagram depicting 
the life history is included (see fig. 1). 

It is stated that six different outbreaks of the Hessian fly have occurred in 
Kansas during the 41 years that it is known to have been present there. Dur- 
ing the last and greatest of these outbreaks, that of 1908, 10,000,000 bushels of 
wheat were destroyed. 

The length of its life cycle is variable, ranging under field conditions from 
45 days to 12 months or more, dry weather and cool weather lengthening it, 
and moist and warm weather shortening the perio<:l. "The number of broods 
is variable. In 1908 main-spring, supplementary-spring, midsummer, main- 
fall, and supplementary-fall broods were determined. In dry summers it is 
likely that midsummer and supplementary-fall broods would not appear, and 
it is likely that in very dry years, particularly when the drought begins early, 
the supplementary-spring brood might be eliminated." 

Under measures of control mention is made of grazing, rolling or brushing, 
mowing, fly-proof wheat, spraying and dusting infested plants, intermittent 
wheat culture, and trap planting as of little, if any, value. The useful methods 
include the destruction of the fly in infested stubble by burning or plowing 



158 



EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 



under, the destruction of volunteer wheat, and late sowing. " The sources of 
the flies which form each of the broods are variable, for the members of a single 
brood came from as many as three different places— old stubble, regular crop, 
and volunteer wheat. The measures of control must be of such a nature as to 
close up all these sources of supply. Temperature and moisture are the only 
climatic elements that appear materially to influence the fly. Low temperature 
or low moisture, or both acting simultaneously, always retard its development, 




1^ = PUP/l/^//l /A/ REGUL/}^ C/^OP. 

n = PUP/^p//i /A/ \/olunt£:er ia/he/^t. 

DHH = PUP/iP//^ /A/ OLD STUBBLE. 

mm = REGULAR BROODS . 

mm = SUPPLEA^EAJT^RY BROODS, 

Fig. 1. — Diagram to represent the number of broods of Hessian fly in Kansas in 1908, 
the period of their appearance, and the sources from which they came. 

and may, if extreme, destroy it. High temperature and high moisture are uni- 
versally favorable to its development. Although both predaceous and parasitic 
enemies always reduce the fly, their action is so irregular and so rarely sufiBcient 
that dependence upon them for protection is folly ... In the fall the central 
shoot of the young plant is stunted and killed ; if the attack be serious enough, 
the whole plant and the whole field may be destroyed. Ordinarily the slow de- 
struction of the central shoots causes the tillers to grow vigorously, giving the 



ECONOMIC ZOOLOGY ENTOMOLOGY. 159 

field a dark green appearance. In the spring, the maggots interfere with the 
sap flow, cause the heads partly or completely to fail to fill, and so weaken the 
stalks that many break and fall before harvest. The fly infesting the old 
stubble can best be destroyed by plowing the stubble under so carefully and 
deeply that when the ground is packed down into a good seed bed for wheat, 
there will be at least 4 in. of soil between the stubble and the surface. The 
growth of volunteer wheat is a menace, and should not be tolerated before the 
regular crop is sown. In average years with proper preparation of the seed bed, 
the date of safe sowing is at least as early as the date on which wheat should 
be sown to make a maximum yield if no fly were present." 

A schedule of procedure based upon the life history studies here reported is 
outlined which if it is followed it is thought will enable the farmer to escape 
serious fly damage and give the best possible chance to obtain a maximum crop. 
A map of Kansas which shows the date of safe sowing calculated directly from 
1907-8, 1908-9, and 1909-10 experimental sowings is included, from which the 
safe-sowing date may be readily determined for the various counties. 

The red clover g-all gnat (Amblyspatha ormerodi n. sp.), R. S. MacDou- 
GALL (Jour, Bd. Agr. [London], 20 {1913), No. 3, pp. 225-230, pis. 4).— A great 
destruction of red clover by this cecidomyiid is reported to have taken place 
during the winter and spring of 1912-13. complaints having been received from 
a large number of counties. In practically all the samples received red maggots 
were found either in the soil surrounding the plants or, on dissection, in the 
spoiled plants. 

It is thought that a fungus of the genus Sclerotinia and an eelworm (Tylen- 
chus devastatrix) may be associated with the gall midge in the injury. 

A jumping maggot which, lives in cactus blooms (Acucula saltans n. g. 
and n. sp.), C. H. T. Townsend {Canad. Ent., 45 (1913), No. 8, pp. 262-265).— 
A new dipteran collected from a columnar cactus, probably Cereus sp., at the 
western base of the Andes some 40 miles inland from Lima, Peru, is described 
as A. saltans. This maggot causes the petals to shrivel before they open. 

Mosquito extermination and its problems, E. Winship (Engin. Rec, 61 
(1913), No. 18, pp. 490-492, figs. 2). — ^A discussion of the subject by a sanitary 
engineer in which he outlines the essentials of success in ridding communities 
of the pest. 

The natural host of Phlebotomus minutus, F. M. Howlett (Indian Jour. 
Med. Research, 1 (1913), No. 1, pp. 34-38, pi. 1, fig. i).— The author finds the 
wall lizard, or gecko, to be the natural host of P. minutus. He states that there 
is no doubt but that this fly has a distinct preference for biting lizards as 
compared with man, and that it is in fact primarily a parasite of the lizard. 
A Phlebotomus (probably P. 'minutus nigcr) has once been observed biting an 
agamid lizard, and a sand fly has been observed twice biting the head of the 
common toad (Bufo mclanosticticus). 

Recent literature, especially the medical literature, on sand flies (Phle- 
botomus, Simulium, Ceratopogoninae), K. Friederichs (Ztschr. Wiss. Insek- 
tenbioL, 9 (1913), Nos. 1, pp. 26-31; 4, pp. 133-138) .—This, review follows a list 
of 63 recent publications on the subject. 

Control measures for use against flies, L. Vaillard (Rev. Set. [Parts], 51 
(1913), II, No. 7, pp. 193-206, figs. 7; Rev. G&n. ScL, 24 (1913), No. 9, pp. 
352-358; Off. Internat. Hyg. Pul). [Paris], Bui. Mens., 5 (1913), No. 8, pp. 
IS 13-1336) .—A detailed discussion. 

The distance house flies, blue bottles, and stable flies may travel over 
water, C. F. Hodge (Science, n. ser., 38 (1913), No. 980, pp. 512, 5i3).— This 
paper describes a plague of flies on the cribs of the waterworks, situated li, 5, 
and 6 miles, respectively, out in Lake Erie, from the city of Cleveland, Ohio. 



160 EXPERIMENT STATION EECORD. 

" The only explanation for the above facts seems to be that the flies are blown at 
least 6 miles off shore, and that they gather on the cribs as temporary resting 
places." 

An unusual outbreak of Stomoxys calcitrans following floods, C. Fuller 
{Agr. Jour. Union So. Africa, 5 {1913), No. 6, pp. 922-925). — A discussion of 
an unusual outbreak of the stable fly in South Africa. 

The maggot fly pest in sheep, H. S. Major (Agr. Gaz. ts. S. Wales, 24 {1913), 
A'o. 8, pp. 645-653). — A discussion of this pest has been previously noted from 
another source (E. S. R., 29, p. 656). 

The bean stem maggot, R. W. Jack {Rhodesia Agr. Jour., 10 {1913), No. 4, 
pp. 545-553, pis. 4). — The author here discusses the life history, bionomics, and 
injury caused by Agromyza fahalis, a native African species which is generally 
distributed south of the Zambesi. This dipteran is said to be the most serious 
drawback to the successful cultivation of cowpeas and certain other kinds of 
beans in this territory. 

Experiments for the control of the onion maggot, H. T. Fernald and A. I. 
Bourne {Massachusetts Sta. Rpt. 1912, pt. 1, pp. 171-179). — This paper pre- 
sents the details of experiments in which a number of insecticides and repel- 
lents were tested with a view to determining their efficacy in controlling the 
onion maggot. 

The experiments with carbon bisulphid, Nicine, powdered hellebore, a helle- 
bore decoction, a soap wash, carbolized lime, and kerosene emulsion gave what 
may be considered as negative results. More satisfactory results were obtained 
in the control of the maggots from the application of carbolic acid emulsion, 
made by dissolving 1 lb. of soap in 1 gal. of water, adding 1 lb. of crude carbolic 
acid, and churning as in kerosene emulsion. Applications along the rows by 
means of a force pump without a nozzle at strengths of 1 : 30, 1 : 40, and 1 : 50 
parts of water decidedly checked the infestation in the rows to which it was 
applied. It is estimated that the cost of this material and labor varies from $8 
to $12 per acre for each application, according to the strength used. Since it 
would be necessary to make at least 3 and probably 4 applications, the cost 
would amount to from $35 to $50 per acre. 

"The whole experiment indicates (a) that no entirely effective method of 
controlling the onion maggot has as yet been discovered ; (b) that many of those 
thus far recommended are of little value, at least on large fields; (c) that the 
cost of treatment with most of them is so great as to render them unavailable 
for large areas. Finally, the most promising line of investigation seems to be 
the discovery of something which will effectually repel the insects or destroy 
the maggots, and which can be applied either as a part of the planting process 
or in connection with cultivation, thus avoiding the necessity of special treat- 
ments by combining these with usual methods of cultivation." 

The manzanita Serica (Serica anthracina), E. O. Essig {Mo. Bui. Com. 
Hort. Cal., 2 {1913), No. 8, pp. 622, 623, fig. i).— This beetle is reported to be a 
source of serious injury in Eldorado County, California, through its defoliation, 
especially of the prune and apple. In some instances the trees have been killed 
by the constant and complete defoliation. 

The application of arsenate of lead, at the rate of 8 lbs. to 100 gal. of water 
to which 8 lbs. of lime has been added, as soon as the beetles appear in the 
spring is recommended. 

A critical discussion of the Halticini attacking Cruciferse in central 
Surope, F. Heikertinger {CentU. Bakt. [etc.], 2. Aht., 36 {1912), No. 1-5, pp. 
98-127, figs. 18). — The several parts of this paper deal with the genera and 
species of flea beetles attacking crucifers and the nature of their injury, the 
cultivated crucifers attacked, tables for the determination of the species of 



ECONOMIC ZOOLOGY — ENTOMOLOGY. 161 

Phyllotreta and Psylliodes infesting Cruciferie in Germany, Austria, and 
Switzerland, etc. 

Th.e destructive Eleodes (Eleodes omissa borealis), E. O. Essig {Mo. BuI. 
Com. Hort. Cat., 2 (1913), No. 8, p. 627, fig. i).— This tenebrionid beetle is 
reported to have been the source of injury to orange trees around Bakersfield 
and to have stripped a large number of apricot and plum trees in an orchard 
lit Wasco, Kern County. 

The fruit tree bark beetle (Scolytus rugulosus), E, O. Essig (Mo. Bui. 
Com. Hort. Cal., 2 {1913), No. 9, p. 658). — The author records the occurrence 
of the shot-hole borer in apricot trees at Ontario, Cal., this being the first 
authentic report of its occurrence in the State. 

Investigations of the fung-us-growing- fruit tree bark beetle Xyleborus 
(Anisandrus) dispar and its food fungus, O. Schneider-Orelli {Centbl. 
Bakt. [etc.], 2. Alt., 38 {1913), No. 1-6, pp. 25-110, pis. 3, figs. 7; abs. in Rev. 
Appl. Ent., 1 {1913), Ser. A, No. 8, pp. 259-261).— This is a report of a detailed 
study of the bionomics of the scolytid beetle X. dispar and contains the results of 
numerous experiments regarding its feeding habits. The experimental propa- 
gation of its food fungus Monilia Candida is also discussed. 

The females emerge from their burrows in the spring and soon commence a 
new system of burrows, the walls of which become lined with a dense mass 
of this so-called ambrosia fungus upon which the larvae feed. The spores are 
said to be spread through being taken up by the adult beetles, and later regurgi- 
tated from the stomach. 

A billbug injurious to small grain (Sphenophorus discolor), H. S. Smith 
(Mo. Bui. Com. Hort. Cal., 2 {1913), No. 8, pp. 619-621, figs. 3).— Considerable 
injury is said to have been caused by 8. discolor to all varieties of barley, 
wheat, and oats in the vicinity of Sacramento. 

Black brood in bees, I. L. Serbinow (Vyestnik Russ. Obsheh. Pchelovod., 
1912, No. 11, pp. 426-429; ads. in Rev. Appl. Ent., 1 {1913), Ser. A, No. 3, pp. 
94-96). — This article relates to European foul brood and its occurrence In 
Russia. 

A preliminary account of a chalcidid of the genus Tetrastichus which, 
parasitizes Ceratitis and Dacus in West Africa, F. Silvestri {Atti R. Accad. 
Lincei, Rend. CI. Sci. Fis., Mat. e Nat., 5. ser., 22 {1913), II, No. 5, pp. 205, 
206). — ^A new species of Tetrastichus reared from Ceratitis stictica, C. gif- 
fardii, and Dacus cucumarius in Nigeria, Kamerun, Gold Coast, and Dahomey 
is described under the name T. giffardii. 

A new braconid of the genus Microdus from Canada, C. H. Richardson. Jr., 
{Canad. Ent., 45 {1913), No. 7, pp. 211, 212). — A new braconid reared from the 
eye-spotted bud moth at Bridgetown. Nova Scotia, is described as Microdus 
ocellance. 

The enemies of plant pests: The Aphelininas, R. G. Mercet {Trab. Mus. 
Cien. Nat. [Spain], 1912, No. 10, pp. 306, figs. 68).— A synopsis of this impor- 
tant group of chalcidid i)arasites, including tables for the separation of genera 
and species, is presented. 

Collembola damaging pine trees, W. E. Collinge {Jour. Econ. Biol., 8 
{1913), No. 2, p. 99). — The author reports finding that Seira ni^romaculata 
causes the young needles on shoots of Pinus sylvestrig to wither and drop. 
"The insect seems to be attracted by the resinous gum. and as soon as the 
leaf bud opens makes its way to the bases of the young leaves and commences 
to bite into the same ; after a short time the needles turn yellow and ultimately 
fall away. Sometimes only part of the base is destroyed and part of the 
bud remains in a damaged condition, but in most cases the new buds are com- 
pletely ruined." 



162 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

Experiments in the use of sheep in the eradication of the Rocky Moun- 
tain spotted fever tick, H. P. Wood {U. S. Dept. Agr. Bui. 45, pp. 11). — This 
is a report of experiments conducted to determine the value of sheep in de- 
stroying Dermacentor venustus as brought to attention by L. D. Fricks in an 
article previously noted (E. S. R., 29, p. 658). 

Two experiments, the first with 20 sheep, the other with 2 sheep, were 
carried through. The first was conducted in a country known to be well 
infested with ticks, being adjacent to the foothills and well supplied with 
bushes of various sorts, a growth of small pines, a few fairly large trees, 
and several streams of water. The conditions were such that there could 
have been few, if any, ticks on the sheep at the time they were driven into 
"ticky" country. During the course of the experiment, which was com- 
menced on June 3, two thorough examinations were made, commencing June 
10 and 23, respectively, of each sheep to locate the living ticks and to remove 
the dead ones. Numerous other, but less thorough, examinations were also 
made, when any dead found were removed and the living ones noted. In 
the second experiment ticks were collected by dragging cloths over the gr(fund, 
and then placed upon the sheep — on the first June 20 and on the other June 
25, the examinations also being made twice a day. The details of the results 
are presented in both tabular and descriptive form. 

The experiments show that sheep are good collectors of ticks, 6 sheep with 
heavy wool having picked up 72 females and 47 males in 11 days. Thus in 
" ticky " country which is favorable to the herding of sheep it would be advan- 
tageous to use them as collectors of ticks, since by dipping the sheep once in 
7 days it would seem that much good could be accomplished. In order to bring 
about the greatest good it would be necessary to herd the sheep with a knowl- 
edge of the location of the ticks, since it is extremely doubtful if they would 
be of much importance as collectors of ticks if allowed to run free. Of 33 
female ticks placed upon a sheep in the second experiment but one fed sufli- 
ciently to lay eggs. There were in all, however, 6 females which stood a fair 
chance of engorging, so that it is difiicult to say what percentage of females 
that get on a sheep in nature will engorge to repletion. 

Several limitations to the practicability of using sheep exclusively in the 
eradication of the spotted fever tick, namely, (1) the necessity of eliminating 
all other live stock except that on which the ticks could be destroyed at weekly 
intervals by dipping or otherwise; (2) the impracticability of heavily stocking 
a given area with sheep and attempting to carry the usual number of other 
live stock on the same pastures; and (3) the necessity of cutting down all 
vegetation higher than a sheep's back, emphasize the great importance of fol- 
lowing the plan of dipping domestic animals which is successfully under way. 
Thus while sheep may be used under some conditions of the work, the main 
reliance must be upon the dipping of horses and cattle. 

FOODS— HUMAN NUTRITION. 

Bouillon cubes — their contents and food value compared with meat ex- 
tracts and homemade preparations of meat, F. C. Cook [U. 8. Dept. Agr. Bui. 
27, pp. 7, figs. 10). — The composition and nature of commercial bouillon cubes 
are discussed on the basis of analytical data, in comparison with commercial 
meat extracts and similar preparations and homemade broths and soups. 

The author's summary follows. 

" One-half to three-fourths of bouillon cubes is table salt. The cubes are not 
concentrated beef or meat essence, as many people believe. They are valuable 
stimulants or flavoring agents, but have little or no real food value. Bouillon 
cubes, therefore, are relatively expensive. 



FOODS — HUMAN NUTRITION. 163 

" Semisolid meat extracts sold in jars are not concentrated beef. They are 
stimulants and flavoring adjuncts and have only a slight food value, owing to a 
small amount of protein (muscle-building food) which they contain. They are 
more expensive than homemade soups. 

" Fluid meat extracts are dilute solutions of semisolid meat extracts. They 
are sold in bottles and are flavored. They are more expensive than the semi- 
solid meat extracts because they contain more water. 

"Commercial meat juices are largely deprived of their most valuable food 
constituent — the coagulable protein, or muscle-building food. They are similar 
to fluid meat extracts, and some makes cost more. 

"Homemade meat broth is more nutritious and provides more meat extrac- 
tives, protein, and fat at less expense than the commercial preparations. 

" Homemade meat and vegetable soup contains much more food and is there- 
fore much cheaper than the bouillons or soups prepared from commercial cubes, 
extracts, or juices." 

Bouillon cubes, F. C. Cook {Jour. Indus, and Engin. Chem., 5 {1913), No. 12, 
pp. 989, 990). — Analytical data are rer)orted regarding the bouillon cubes 
referred to above. 

"Bouillon cubes on the market at present consist of about 5 per cent of 
water, 1 to 4.5 per cent of ether extract (fat), and 50 to 74 per cent of ash 
which is practiclly all sodium chlorid. The nitrogen bodies and undetermined 
organic material amount to 20 to 40 per cent. The phosphoric acid {V^Ot) 
varies from 0.4 to 1.8 per cent, the total nitrogen from 2.1 to 3.6 per cent, and 
the total creatinin from 0.49 to 1.67 per cent. 

"A cube prepared largely from meat extract gives high total phosphoric acid 
(PsOb), total nitrogen, and total creatinin figures. The amount of nitrogen 
precipitated by absolute alcohol and hydrochloric acid is also markedly higher 
than in a cube containing much plant and little meat extract. . . . 

"Bouillon is a clear broth, the basis of which is meat; consequently a true 
bouillon cube should show high creatinin and high total nitrogen figures, and 
should be prepared entirely, or largely from meat stock or meat extract in addi- 
tion to the salt and fat present. Several of the cubes on the market contain 
much more plant than meat extract and are not entitled to the name 'bouillon' 
unless modified." 

Notes on rare fishes sold for food in east London, F. J. Stubbs {Zoologist, 
Jf. ser., 17 {1913), No. 202, pp. 377-381) .—These notes were collected during the 
preparation for the Whitechapel (Stepney Borough) Museum of an exhibit of 
the food fishes for sale in east London and include, besides a description of the 
method of making casts of the fishes, brief notes on the habitat and appearance 
of the less common varieties. Among the latter are the greater weever 
{Tracfiinus draco), beryx {Beryx dccadactylus) , sea bream {Pagellus centro- 
dontus), ide {Leuciscus idus), sile smelt {Argentina silus). lesser ling {Molva 
dipterygia), Macrurus rupestris, Malacocephalus Icevis {Macrurus Icevis), and 
lumpsucker {Gyclopteriis lunvpiis). 

Size of the sample necessary for the accurate determination of the sani- 
tary quality of shell oysters, G. H. Smith {Anier. Jour. Puh. Health, 3 {1913), 
No. 7, pp. 705-708). — According to the author, consistent results can not be 
obtained with less than 15 oysters. A standard of purity for oyster liquor 
should be established similar to the standards in use for water and milk. 

Studies of phosphatids, particularly those in egg yolk, J. Eppleb {Hoppe- 
Seyler's Ztschr. Physiol. Chem., 87 {1913), No. 4, pp. 235-254).— Analytical 
data are reported and discussed. 



164 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

The gluten content of flour, K. Budai (Bauer) (Ztschr. Gesam. GetreWew., 
5 (1913), No. 6, pp. 171-179). — General and analytical data are given regarding 
the amount of gluten in different flours and its relation to their quality. 

A preliminary study on the conditions which affect the activity of the 
amylolytic enzyms in wheat flour, C. O. Swanson and J. W. Calvin {Jour. 
Amer. Chem. Sac, 35 {1913), No. 10, pp. 1635-1643) .—The effects of tempera- 
ture, the duration of the digestion period, the optimum proportion of flour and 
water, and the effect on the production of reducing sugars of chemicals were 
studied, including sulphuric acid, sodium hydroxid, dibasic potassium phos- 
phate, and sodium chlorid in varying concentrations and quantities. 

The experiments, according to the authors, showed that " the optimum tem- 
perature for the production of the maximum amount of reducing sugars is 
very near 65° ; that the best proportion of water and flour lies between 1 : 4 
and 1 : 10, and that there is little difference between these two limits. It has 
also been shown that the largest transformation takes place during "the first 
hour; approximately 88 per cent of the total change occurs during the first 
hour. The inhibiting effect of various chemicals has been shown. The inhibit- 
ing action is greater toward straight flour than toward low-grade." 

Some points in the making and judging of bread, Isabel Bevieb {Univ. 
III. Bill., 10 {1913), No. 25, pp. 44, pis. 7). — As the author points out, the char- 
acteristics of good bread are symmetry of size and shape, bloom and crispness 
of crust, and a tender, elastic crumb of fine grain. The conclusions drawn 
from the investigation were in effect the following : 

Recipes differ widely as regards nonessentials, sugar, salt, and shortening, but 
agree as to the proportion of 1 cup of liquid to 3 of flour. Yeast is a plant, 
and so subject to laws of plant growth as regards food and moisture. If in 
good condition, yeast probably does not influence the flavor of bread. Water 
is the best liquid as regards flavor. Because of the small proportion used and 
the fact that almost any form of milk is largely water, little effect on flavor is 
produced by the use of skim milk or buttermilk. Both seem to contribute to 
tenderness of crumb. 

Salt prevents a flat taste, retards fermentation, and, used to excess, causes 
loss of color in crust and of tenderness in crumb. Sugar darkens the color of 
the crust. Within limits, it increases the volume of the loaf. Salt and sugar 
combined in proportion of 1 : 2, respectively, improve both flavor and volume. 

Bread making is an art that demands careful attention to certain essential 
details such as character, temperature, and amount of yeast, condition and 
amount of flour, time and temperature of fermentation and baking. The mate- 
rial of pans is a question of choice. Tin seems to yield the best results in 
common practice. Covered and uncovered pans have not been tried enough for 
definite conclusions. 

The process of bread making for winter wheat flour differs from the process 
for spring wheat flour in that winter wheat requires more liquid, a slacker 
dough, is much better with 3 risings instead of 2, and should be allowed to 
finish proving in the oven. 

A new method of keeping bread fresh and its significance with respect 
to the night work of bakers, J. R. Katz {Chem. WeekN., 10 {1913), No. 24, 
pp. 488-495, figs. 3). — Experiments on the vapor tension and water content of 
bread crust showed that so long as the moisture did not exceed 18 per cent the 
crust retained the characteristics of freshness. In an atmosphere with 85 per 
cent humidity bread crust remained unaltered for a long time. 

Bread remained fresh from 10 to 15 hours when kept in a chamber which 
contained a shallow pan filled with saturated salt solution, and in which an 
air circulation was maintained by means of a small ventilating fan. The only 



FOODS — HUMAN NUTRITION. 165 

regulation necessary was the addition of water to the brine to maintain the 
desired concentration. In the author's opinion, such apparatus is particularly 
well suited to small bakeries, and by its use he believes that it might be pos- 
sible to do away with night work. 

The grinding of corn meal for bread, F. P. Dunnington {Alu7nni Bui. 
Univ. Va., 3. scr., 6 {1913), No. 4, pp. 521-532).— The data discussed in this 
paper were reported in an earlier publication (E. S. R., 28, p. 360). 

[Banana recipes], O. W. Barkett {PJiilippinc Agr. Rev. \_EngUfih Ed.], 6 
(1913), No. 9, pp. 451, 452). — In a discussion of the use of bananas recipes are 
given for preparing bananas and plantains for the table. 

Hickory nuts and hickory nut oil, G. O. Peterson and E. H. S. Bailey 
{Jour. Indus, and Engin. Chem., 5 {1913), No. 9, pp. 739, 7^0).— An analysis of 
hickory nut meats is reported in connection with a study of the oil and its 
characteristics. 

According to the authors, " the food value of hickory nuts is high ; the oils 
from the two species of hickory nuts, Carya ovata and C. amara, are practically 
identical and are similar to cotton-seed oil ; the oil retains the flavor of the 
hickory nut, and is practically equal to olive oil; [and] the possibility of 
extracting the oil on a commercial basis should be further investigated." 

[Analyses of food, beverages, and drugs], W. Hanson {Bien. Rpts. State 
Dairy and Food Comr., 8tate Chem. and State Dairy and Food Bur. Utah, 
1911-12, pp. 191). — The results of a large number of analyses of foods, bever- 
ages, and drugs are reported and discussed, and reports of the 2 years' work are 
presented. 

Food and drug and weight and measures laws of the State of Nevada, 
with the rules and regulations adopted for the enforcement of the same 
{Nevada Stu. Bui. 80, pp. 22). — The full text of the state laws, rules, and 
regulations is given. 

Wisconsin dairy and food laws and decisions of courts, J. Q. Emery {Madi- 
son, Wis.; Dairy and Food Comr., 1913, pp. 92). — A compilation of the state 
laws regarding the inspection, manufacture, and sale of food and dairy products, 
as amended in 1913. together with court interpretations and rulings. 

A study of the use of ice and other means of preserving food in homes, 
J. R. Williams {Jour. Amer. Med. Assoc., 61 {1913), No. 12, pp. 932-935, figs. 
2). — In this paper, read in the section on preventive medicine and public health 
of the American Medical Association. Minneapolis, June, 1013, the results are 
presented of a study of upwards of 100 homes in 5 sections of Rochester, N. Y., 
socially and economically different. Information was collected regarding the 
use of milk, means for caring for it, the size, make, and kind of refrigerator 
used, the amount of ice used weekly and yearly with its cost, and similar topics, 
and temperature measurements were made of refrigerators, living rooms, and 
cellars. From his studies the author considers that the following conclusions 
are warranted : 

" The temperatures of cellars or living rooms in dwelling houses are not suffi- 
ciently low during the warm months of the year to protect milk and other 
perishable foods from rapid bacterial decomposition. Therefore an efficient 
refrigerator in the home is a necessity. 

" Most of the refrigerators in common use are almost worthless and grossly 
uneconomical. There is a large field for the manufacturer who will make a 
properly insulated and efficient box which can be sold at a moderate price, 

" If more economical methods of ice manufacture and distribution were em- 
ployed, the cost of ice to the consumer could be materially lowered. If to this 
saving were added that which would result from proper ice box construction, 



166 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

refrigeration vastly superior to that now found in the average home could be 
had for at least one-fourth the present cost." 

The paper is followed by a discussion. 

Cooking and heating with electricity, C. T. Phillips (Architect and Engin., 
3Jf {1913), No. 3, pp. 93-99, figs. 7).— Electric cooking equipment of different 
sorts is described and data summarized regarding the rates for electricity for 
cooliing purposes in different parts of the United States and the cost of cooking 
by this method. 

The food factor in some sociologic problems (Jour. Amer. Med. Assoc, 61 
{1913), No. 16, p. 1463). — In discussing the problem of food in relation to socio- 
logical problems, the following statement is made : 

"Perhaps our sociologists have not sufficiently appreciated in the past that 
the occurrence of conditions in which the support of the family and the provi- 
sion of even the barest necessities prevent the attainment of any variety and 
interest in life and almost enforce a monotonous existence reacts in a variety 
of w^ays on the health and efficiency of the community through the diet factors 
referred to. The essays at amelioration and reform must accordingly take into 
account possible changes in the mode of feeding which might set free a greater 
proportion of the income for other things than food. Dietary habits need to be 
dealt with in this field quite as much as ignorance and the * stultifying influ- 
ence of the surroundings.' " 

[Increased cost of maintenance of children] (In Special Report Chicago 
Nursery and Half -Orphan Asylum, 1860-1913. Chicago [1913], pp. 12, 13). ~ 
Since its establishment in 1S74 the institution has cared for more than 4,500 
children for periods varying from a few weeks to a long term of years. 

A gradual increase in the cost of support per child has been noted. The 
average cost of maintenance from 1874 to 1883 was $79.98 per child per year; 
from 1884 to 1893, $88.68; from 1894-1903, $101.45; and from 1904 to 1913, 
$140.60. These estimates " do not take into account the numerous contribu- 
tions of food, clothing, and general equipment which have made it possible to 
keep the expenses down to these figures. Nor do they include the maintenance, 
repairs, and improvements of the building." 

Cost of living in Nova Scotia, J. W. Ragsdale {Daily Cons, and Trade Rpts. 
[U. 8.], 16 {1913), No. 157, p. i5^).— Data are given regarding the kinds and 
amounts of food consumed by a family consisting of a man and woman and 4 
children. 

[Using the usual factors for the composition of food, etc., it has been cal- 
culated that the food purchased for this family (calculated to be equal to 3.7 
men) supplied 116 gm. protein and 3,325 calories of energy per man per day.] 

Food prices in London — ^an inquiry into present conditions as affecting the 
poorer classes of workers, J. C. Pringle {London: Charity Organ. Soc, 1913, 
pp. 36). — A large amount of statistical data is summarized and discussed with 
reference to the kind of foods purchased and the prices paid by families of 
moderate income. A number of family budgets are included. 

The pamphlet as a whole supplies much information regarding the living 
conditions of the poorer families of the working class in London. 

[Luncheon for women clerks employed in the Bank of England], E. M. 
Harvey (In Minutes of Evidence taken hefore the Royal Commission on the 
Civil Service, Ajyril 10-25, 1913, with Appendices. London: Govt., 1913, p. 95). — 
A brief statement regarding the improvement in health which has followed 
the serving of a luncheon free of cost to women employees in the Bank of Eng- 
land. Whereas numerous cases of neuritis in the arm or some other form of 
nerve trouble before this was done were prevalent, " complaints of this charac- 
ter are now very rare." 



FOODS^ — HUMAN NUTRITION. 167 

[Dietaries and accounts for Poor Law Unions, England and Wales] {Local 
Govt. Bd. [Ot. Brit.], Workhouse Regulation (Dietaries and Accts.) Order, 1900, 
pp. 27; Rpt. Dept. Com. Local Govt. Bd. [Gt. Brit.] Poor Law Orders, 1 {WIS), 
pp. 8, 15, 16, 37-Jf7, 83-88).— In the general order issued to the Guardians of 
the Poor of the several Poor Law T'nions in England and Wales, and com- 
mented uiK)n and in part reprinted by the committee on the revision of Poor 
Law Orders, regulations are given regarding dietaries and accounts and rations 
are outlined in detail. Brief instructions are appended to the list of rations 
and recipes are given for the preparation of a large number of dishes. Forms 
for ration accounting are also included. 

Diet social service in dispensary work, F. H. Klaer {Med. Rec. [N. Y.], 8^ 
(1913), No. 18, pp. 792-795).— This is an account of the results of work carried 
on in connection with the Social Service of the Outpatient Department and the 
Medical Dispensary of the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania. 

The patients or families visited by the dietitian fell into two general classes, 
viz, individual patients suffering with various digestive disturbances or diseases 
requiring special diets, and families requiring a readjustment of finances, food, 
and habits of eating, because of debts, malnutrition, and sickness. 

Often individual cases became family cases because it was impossible to 
correct dietary conditions for one member without changing those of the whole 
household. It was not always possible to obtain satisfactory cooperation, but 
in the majority of cases the visitors were able to introduce noteworthy improve- 
ments in the health and also in the financial condition of the family by teaching 
more economical ways of buying and utilizing food as well as better methods 
of preparation, and thus prevented as well as cured many unnecessary cases of 
malnutrition. 

A food clinic {Jour. Amer. Med. Assoc., 61 {1913), No. 16, pp. 1462, 1463).-- 
A summary of a paper by W. M. Roach, presented at the Congress on School 
Hygiene, held in Buffalo, N. Y., in August, 1913. Some account is given of the 
favorable effects of feeding school children in Philadelphia. 

Report to the local government board on bacterial food poisoning and food 
infections, W. G. Savage {Rpts. Local Govt. Bd. [Gt. Brit.], Pub. Health and 
Med. Subjs., n. ser., 1913, No. 77, pp. 80, pi. i).— In this digest of data the author 
summarizes and discusses information regarding the different kinds of food 
poisoning, both bacterial and that attributed to ptomaines. 

According to the report, three considerations should be borne in mind, 
namely, the association of some outbreaks at least with actual disease of the 
animals whose flesh was eaten ; the probability that in other outbreaks uncon- 
taminated food had become infected from the tissues or intestinal contents of 
food animals in which bacterial invasion was present, as may happen when a 
slaughterhouse is used as a place for the preparation of sausages and similar 
meat foods; and that the spreading of disease by bacterial infection, when 
present, may be affected by lack of cleanliness and care in handling, preparing, 
and storing foods. 

An appendix contains a list of British and continental outbreaks of food 
poisoning, recommendations of the local government board on outbreaks, and 
a bibliography. 

The relation of diets and of castration to the transmissible tumors of rats 
and mice, J. E. Sweet, Ellen P. Corson-White, and G. J. Saxon {Jour. Biol. 
Chem., 15 {1913), No. 1, pp. 181-191). — A generous and an insufficient diet were 
compared, the conclusion being that both susceptibility to transplantable tumors 
and the rate of growth of transplanted tumors may be influenced positively 
or negatively by diet— the rate of growth being slower and the number of 
retrogressions being higher on the low than on the normal diet. 



168 EXPERIMENT STATION EECORD. 

Mixed diet and metabolism {Med. Rec. [N. Y.], 84 (1913), No. 17, pp. 759, 
700). — This is a brief discussion of the physiological necessity of a varied diet 
ns regards both a sufficient supply of all the nutrients and a variety of food 
material. The relations of a too simple diet to such diseases as diabetes and 
irregular gout and to anaphylaxis as shown by anemia, malnutrition, asthenia, 
etc., are also indicated. 

The mineral content of the daily diet, Hornemann (Ztschr. Hyg. u. Infek- 
iionskrank., 75 {1913), No. 3, pp. 553-568). — The author found in studies with 
adult men that the amounts of calcium and iron oxids in a daily diet supply- 
ing 557 gm. dry matter were respectively 1.72 gm. and 156 mg. With adult 
women receiving 396 gm. dry matter, the corresponding values were 0.86 gm. 
and 91 mg., and with a 6-year-old boy receiving 325 gm. dry matter, 0.67 gm. 
and 57 mg. He is of the opinion that the amounts of calcium and iron supplied 
by the diets were sufficient. 

The normal presence of boron in animals, G. Bertrand and H. Agulhon 
(Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. [Paris], 155 {1912), No. 3, pp. 248-251; abs. in Jour. 
Chem. Soc. [London], 102 {1912), No. 599, II, pp. 854, 855).— Using a method 
described in a previous article,** the authors report the presence of small 
amounts of boron in the organs and tissues of several animals. It is the most 
easily detected in the hair, horns, bones, liver, and muscles. 

The presence of boron in animals, G. Bertrand and H. Agulhon {Compt. 
Rend. Acad. Sci. [Paris], 156 {1913), No. 9, pp. 732-735; ahs. in Jour. 
Chem. Soc. [London], 104 {1913), No. 606, I, pp. 4^3, 424).— In continuation of 
the work reported in the previous article, the authors report finding boron in 
27 different species of animals, and conclude that it exists normally in small 
amounts in the bodies of all animals, being more common in the species of 
marine origin. 

The presence of boron in milk and eggs, G. Bertrand and H. Agtjlhon 
{Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. [Paris], 156 {1913), No. 26, pp. 2027-2029; ahs. in 
Jour. Chem. Soc. [London], 104 {1913), No. 610, I, p. W).— The presence of 
0.08, 0.1, and 0.2 mg. of boron per liter of human, ass's, and cow's milli, respec- 
tively, and of 1 mg. per kilogram of dried material from fowl, turkey, and goose 
eggs is reported. 

The frequent occurrence of this element in animal and vegetable products 
leads the authors to ask the question whether boron, like iron, may not play 
an indispensable part, possibly catalytic, in the living cell. 

The metabolism after meat feeding* of dogs in which pancreatic external 
secretion was absent, F. G. Benedict and J. H. Pratt {Jour. Biol. Chem., 15 
{1913), No. 1, pp. 1-35). — The increase in the total metabolism of animals and 
man resulting from the ingestion of food of various kinds has often been ob- 
served, and, as the authors point out, there have been two distinct theories as 
to the reason. One assumes that the increase in metabolism is mainly due to 
the mechanical processes in digestion, and the other that the increase is due to 
the specific dynamic action of foodstuffs, that is, that portion of the heat pro- 
duced which appears as free heat and does not benefit the cells. The one attrib- 
utes the increased metabolism mainly to mechanical causes; the other, to 
chemical processes. 

Experiments on the metabolism of nitrogen and on carbon dioxid production 
are reported, the results showing, according to the authors, " that there is no 
large energy transformation incidental to segmentation, peristalsis, glandular 
activity of stomach, liver, and intestine, and the movement of the unabsorbed 
food through the intestinal tract. The attempt to explain the increased metabo- 

«Ann. Chim. Analyt, 15 (1910), No. 2, pp. 45-53; Bui. Soc. Chim. France, 4. sen, 7 
(1910), pp. 90-99. 



ANIMAL PRODUCTIOISr. 169 

ligiii following the ingestion of food by the theory that the increase is a conse- 
qnence of such movements is, therefore, not justifiable." 

Some observations on metabolism in connection with an experimental 
march, C. II. Melville, W. W. O. Beveridge, and N. D. Walker {Jour. Roy. 
Army Med. Corps, 19 {1912), No. 6, pp. 661-673, figs. 7).— Observations were 
made of the body weight, the amount, nitrogen content, and energy value of the 
food consumed, the liquids drunk, and the nitrogen eliminated in the urine and 
feces in the case of 3 men taking part in the march. From a study of the 
results obtained the authors deduct the following practical points : 

" If a man has to go short of water for 1 day the effect on the water available 
for perspiration, that is, for temperature regulation, may persist even in a well 
trained man for about 48 hours." Even if " a plentiful supply of water is avail- 
able on the next day [it] will only tend to increase his urinary secretion, not to 
redress at once the disturbance In water content of his dehydrated tissues." A 
similar effect results from an uneven allowance of water. " It is extremely 
important, therefore, to regulate the supply not only from day to day, but also 
in the course of every day." 

The water supply of a man in an untrained condition needs more careful regu- 
lation than that of a man in good physical condition. 

Report on two experimental marches carried out for the purpose of 
deciding- a scale of field service rations; together with an. account of some 
observations on nitrogen balance, etc. {London: Govt., 1913, pp. 64-\-i2'\, pla. 
7). — This blue book gives full data regarding an earlier experimental march 
(E. S. R., 25, p. 266) as well as the one noted above. 

ANIMAL PRODUCTION. 

Commercial feeding stuffs, W. J. Jones, Jr., et al. {Indiana St<i. Bui. 169, 
pp. 71-326). — This reports analyses of the following feeds: Wheat bran, mid- 
dhngs, shorts, low grade flours, mixed wheat products, rye middlings, buckwheat 
bran, buckwheat middlings, buckwheat mixed feed, cotton-seed meal, cotton-seed 
cake, cotton-seed hulls, linseed meal, linseed cake, distillers' dried grains, 
brewers' dried grains, gluten meal, gluten feed, corn germ meal, hominy feed, 
corn meal, com bran, dried sugar beet pulp, alfalfa meal, blood meal, beef 
scrap, tankage, proprietary stock and molasses feeds, calf meals, poultry feeds, 
and condimental stock and poultry feeds. 

There is included a synopsis of the Indiana feeding stuffs law, together with 
a classification of feeding stuffs, and comments on the various feeds and their 
manufacture. 

Use of the bitter acorn in the feeding of domestic animals, K. Courbet 
{Bui. Agr. Alg^rie et Tunisie, 19 {1913), No. 13, pp. 273-279).— Bitter acorns 
were subjected to a process of torrefaction and desiccation and thus rendered 
available as a palatable and nutritive feed for domestic animals. The compo- 
sition of the fresh acorns is reported as follows: Water 55.3, protein 2.5, fat 
3.9, carbohydrates 34.8, crude fiber 4.4. and ash 1 p«r cent ; and the digestible 
nutrients as protein 2, fat 3.9, carbohydrates 31.3, and fiber 2.7 per cent. 

Rations for farai stock {Bd. Agr. and Fisfierics [London], Leaflet 79, pp. 
23). — This publication contains a general discussion of the principles of nutri- 
tion and the compounding of rations. Rations applicable to British conditions 
are given for dairy cows, both summer and winter feeding; for fattening cattle 
and sheep: for calf feeding; and for ewes, pigs, work horses, and mares with 
foal. 

On the question of the nitrogen retention from the feeding of urea, E. 
Grafe {Hoppe-Seyler's Ztschr. Physiol. Chem., 86 {1913), No. 5, pp. 347-355).— 



170 EXPERIMENT STATION EECORD. 

This is a continuation of work previously noted (E. S. R., 26, p. 262). In the 
feeding of urea to dogs and swine, the results indicated that although there 
was a heavy loss of nitrogen there was some nitrogen retention in the animal 
body. 

Nutrition of the embryonic chick, I, II, III, H. W. Bywaters and W. B. 
Roue (Jour. Physiol., 45 {1913), No. 6, pp. XL, XLI ; 46 (1913), Nos. 2, pp. XX, 
XXI ; 3, pp. XXXIII, XXXIV). — Investigations made of the changes occurring 
in the white of the egg during incubation indicate that the percentage of water 
diminishes at a regular rate during the earlier period of incubation, falling 
less regularly after the fifteenth day. There was less absorption of the protein 
than of the water. The ratio of coagulable to uncoagulable protein remains 
practically constant, ranging from 1 : 5.7 to 1 : 7.9. The presence of free sugar 
usually disappears after the seventh day, whereas in infertile eggs it slightly 
increases. The relation between the uncoagulable protein in egg white and its 
combined carbohydrate after different periods of incubation was found to be 
practically constant. 

The average daily loss in weight of eggs during incubation was about 0.5 gm. 
It was fairly constant in the same egg, but varied greatly in different eggs. 
" In the case of sterile eggs, the daily loss in weight for the same egg is prac- 
tically constant throughout the whole period of incubation, [but] with fertile 
eggs, the daily loss may fall slightly until about the middle of the period of 
incubation and then it begins to rise until at the end it may be half as much 
again as at the commencement of the incubation." It is deemed possible to 
ascertain the fertility of the incubating egg by studying the daily loss in weight. 

It is shown that as regards the assimilation of egg white the ratio of the 
coagulable to the uncoagulable protein, i. e., of albumin to ovomucoid, remains 
practically constant. This is explained on the assumption that "the proteins 
of egg white are absorbed at the same relative rate, possibly by being previ- 
ously converted into diffusable substances by enzyms secreted by the embryo 
itself." 

A respiration apparatus for sheep and swine, F. Tangl (Kis4rleP. Kozlem., 
16 (1913), No. 4, pp. 467-481, figs. 7). — A report of the construction of a respira- 
tion apparatus combining the principles of the Pettenkofer-Voit, Atwater-Bene- 
dict, and Tigerstedt apparatus. 

Twenty- five years of German animal production, Hansen (Illus. Landw. 
Ztg., 33 (1913), No. 48, pp. ^42-^^4, figs. 4). — ^A resume of the progress of animal 
breeding and production in Germany, in which it is shown that there has been 
an increase in the number of horses of 28.2 per cent, of cattle 27.7 per cent, of 
mutton sheep 137.7 per cent, and of goats 28.1 per cent, with a decrease in wool 
sheep of 69.8 per cent. 

Methods of cajttle raising and management under modern intensive farm- 
ing (Arl). Deut. Oesell. Ziichttingsk., 1913, No. 17, pp. 70-93).— This is a com- 
plete review and discussion of the methods of cattle raising in operation in the 
Province of Saxony and portions of Prussia under the modern intensive farm- 
ing system. The use of home-grown feeds and of barn feeding are emphasized. 
The financial cost, yields, and profits are itemized and discussed in detail. 

Treatise on zootechny. — III, The bovine, P. Dechambre (Trait6 de Zoo- 
technie. — III, Les Bovins. Paris, 1913, pp. 581, pi. 1, figs. 90). — In this volume 
the author considers in detail the classification, origin, development, and breed 
characteristics of all the common breeds of cattle as well as of many rare and 
obsolete breeds of Europe, Asia, and South America. A special study is made of 
the conformation, body measurements, and ethnological characters of these 
breeds. There is also included a discussion of the production of beef in France, 



ANIMAL PRODUCTION. 171 

Italy, Argentina, the United States, and other countries. The feeding, care, and 
management of breeding stoclv are treated in full, together with a study of the 
most approved methods of beef production. Formulas and methods for deter- 
mining, by means of measurements of the animal on foot, the dressing per- 
centage and net weight of the dressed carcass are also included. 

The author discusses the selection of dairy cattle under the heads of con- 
formation, quality, mammary system, and empirical signs or marks. Under the 
latter, he treats of the ini])ortance of the escutcheon as an index to milk secre- 
tion, and explains the various forms of escutcheons and hair swirls as described 
by F. Guenon. 

Breeding- cattle in French Guinea, Aldige {Rev. G6n. M6d. Vet., 22 (1913), 
No. 259-260, jjp. 337-373, figs. 5).— The native breeds of cattle of French Guinea 
are described and their utility value as beef and milk producers and the oppor- 
tunities for improvement through the introduction of the zebu are discussed. 

On the breeds, breeding", and utility value of the cattle of Dutch East 
Africa, G. Lichtenheld {Pflanzcr, 9 {1913), No. 6, pp. 261-279) .—This article 
treats of the body measurements, breed characteristics, and utility value of the 
native breeds of cattle of Dutch East Africa. 

The Creole cattle of Salta, T. R. Garcia {Bol. Mm. Agr. [Buenos Aires], 

15 {1913), No. 6, pp. 675-6S2, figs. 11). — The author describes the native cattle 
of Argentina, commenting on their utility value and on the opportunity for 
improvement through the introduction of pure-bred beef sires. The three 
principal types of native cattle are Chaqueiios, Serranos, and Fronterizos. 

On beef production [in Argentina], E. Lahitte {Bol. Min. Agr. [Buenos 
Aires'], 15 {1913), No. 6, pp. 683-689). — The author comments on the extraor- 
dinary growth and demand for Argentina meat products, and states that the 
abnormal demand is producing a spirit of speculation. Statistical reports of 
exports to the United States and other countries are presented. 

The frozen meat industry of Argentina, P. Berg^s {An. Soc. Rural Argen- 
tina, 1913, Juhj-Aug., pp. 247-291, figs. i6).— This is a statistical report of the 
frozen meat industry of Argentina and of the export trade with foreign coun- 
tries. The industry has undergone a remarkable development and growth 
in the past few years, and the trade now reaches throughout America, Europe, 
and the Orient. The relative rank of the various meat-exporting countries is 
given, showing that for most of the meat products Argentina leads, with Aus- 
tralia and New Zealand as close competitors. 

Foreign meat in London, C. R. Loop {Daily Cons, and Tirade Rpts. [U. S.], 

16 {1913), No. 246, p. 379).— It is noted that almost the whole of the foreign 
supply of beef imported into the United Kingdom is now derived from Ar- 
gentina and Australia. The supply from the United States diminished from 
162.000,000 lbs. in 1908 to 685,000 lbs. in 1912. The average retail price for 
beef on the London market is estimated as follows: Sirloin, 19 cts. per pound; 
wing rib, 18 cts.; silver side. 10 and 17 cts.; and steaks, 24 to 28 cts. 

The shrinkage in weight of beef cattle in transit, W. F. Ward and J. E. 
Downing {U. S. Dept. Agr. Bui. 25, pp. 78). — Shrinkage weights were obtained 
on cattle shipped from various points in the Southwest and Northwest. A 
general summary of the 3 years' work is shown in the table following. 
28054°— 14 6 



172 



EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 
Shrinkage on leef cattle in transit. 



Class. 


Number 
of cattle. 


Average 

weight at 

origin. 


Average 
gross 

shrink- 
age. 


Average 

fill at 
market. 


Average 
net 

shrink- 
age. 


Ratio of 
shrinkage 

to live 
weight at 

origin. 


Range steers in transit less than 36 hours. . 


197 
882 
169 
1,724 
1,551 
275 
177 

1,511 
872 
622 

988 
773 

772 

164 
1,853 
666 
169 
1,296 
1,009 
2,614 


Pounds. 

794 

1,186 

1,116 

838 

896 

1,034 

1,010 

700 
848 
954 
729 
1S5 
193 

1,303 

1,167 

1,108 

1,204 

1,074 

1,390 


Pounds. Pounds. 


Pounds. 

29 
64 
61 
30 
31 
50 
40 

15 
54 
37 
51 

+ 1 
+ 5 

51 

48 

24 

43 

58 

75 

54 


Per cent. 
3 65 


Range steers in transit 36 to 72 hours 

Range steers in. transit over 72 hours 

Range cows in transit less than 24 hours. . . 

Range cows in transit 24 to 36 hours 

Range cows in transit 36 to 72 hours 

Range cows in transit over 72 hom-s 

Mixed range cattle in transit less than 24 


89 
88 
60 
70 
96 
70 

37 
72 
76 
80 
6 
6 

67 

85 

76 

101 
72 

100 


25 
27 
30 
39 
46 
30 

22 

18 
39 
29 

7 
11 

16 

37 

52 

58 

14 

25 


5.40 
5.47 
3.58 
3.46 
4.84 
3.96 

2 14 


MLxed range cattle in transit 24 to 36 hours. 
MLxed rangecattle in transit 36 to 72 hours. . 
MLxed rangecattle in transit over 72 hours. . 
Range calves in transit less than 24 hours. . 

Range calves in transit over 24 hours 

Mixed corn-fed cattle in transit less than 
24 hours 


6.37 

3.88 

7.00 

+ .59 

-f-2.45 

3 91 


Mixed corn-fed cattle in transit 24 to 36 
hours 


4 11 


Mixed silage-fed cattle ia transit less than 
24 hours 


2.05 


Mixed silage-fed cattle in transit 24 to 36 
hours 


3.57 


Cottonseed-meal-fed steers in transit 30 to 
48 hours 


5 40 


Beet-pulp-fed cattle in transit 60 to 120 
hours 


5 40 


Beet-pulp-fed cattle in transit 38 to 120 
hours . . 

















It is concluded from these investigations that " the shrinkage of cattle in 
transit depended very materially upon (a) the conditions existing at the time 
of shipping and upon the treatment received during the drive to the loading 
pens; (b) the length of time the cattle were held without feed and water before 
being loaded; (c) the nature of the fill which the cattle had before loading, a 
great loss in weight being experienced with succulent grass, beet pulp, or silage; 
(d) the weather conditions at the time of loading and while in transit; (e) 
the character of the run to market, slow, rough runs causing a greater shrink- 
age ; (f) the kind of treatment they received at unloading stations; (g) the 
time of arrival at market, the fill being small if they arrived just before being 
sold, and cattle that were shipped a long distance and arrived at market during 
the night usually not filling well ; whereas if they arrived the afternoon before 
or about daylight of the sale day, they generally took a good fill; and (h) the 
climatic conditions at the market. 

"An exceedingly large fill at market is not desired as it will detract from the 
selling price. The shrinkage on calves may seem small, but under normal con- 
ditions it holds about the same proix)rtion to their weight as is found with 
grown cattle. The difference between the shrinkage of cows and steers is not as 
great as is ordinarily supposed. Steers will usually shrink somewhat less than 
cows of the same weight. The shrinkage during the first 24 hours is greater 
proportionately than for any succeeding period of the same duration. The 
shrinkage of cattle was found to vary in direct proportion to their live weight 
when conditions were the same and all other factors were equal. The shrinkage 
of range cattle in transit over TO hours during a normal year is from 5 to 6 
per cent of their live weight. If they are in transit 36 hours or less the shrink- 
age will range from 3 to 4 per cent of their live weight. The shrinkage of 
fed cattle does not differ greatly from that of range cattle for equal periods 
of time. It varied from about 8 per cent with all of the silage-fed cattle 



ANIMAL PRODUCTION. 173 

and 4.2 per cent with the corn-fed cattle, when both classes of these animals 
were in transit for less than 3G hours, to 5.4 per cent for the pulp-fed cattle 
which were in transit from 60 to 120 hours. Cattle fed on silage have a large 
grosB shrinkage but usually fill so well at the market that the net shrinkage 
is small. Pulp-fed cattle shrink more in transit than any other class of cattle, 
and also present a greater net shrinkage. 

" The shrinkage on cattle is proiwrtionately smaller for each 12 hours they 
are in transit after the first 24-hour period is passed. For a long journey the 
common method of unloading for feed, water, and rest is to be preferred to the 
use of 'feed and water' cars. Cattle should be weighed before being loaded 
wherever practicable, since a comparison of this weight with the sale weight 
will show the net shrinkage. Moreover this weight at point of origin may be 
of material benefit to the shipper in case of a wreck or a very poor run to 
market." 

Sheep farming- in North Am.erica, J. A. Craig (New York, 1913, pp. XVIII + 
302, pis. 25, figs. 3). — The chapters included in this book, which is one of the 
Kural Science Series, are the position of sheep in profitable farming; sheep 
farms and their equipment ; breeds of sheep ; formation and improvement of the 
flock; seasonal management; lambing; fattening; preparation of sheep for 
show ; and diseases. 

Boulonnaise breed of sheep, J. Teibondeau (Jour. Agr. Prat., n. ser., 26 
{1913), No. 32, pp. 180, 181, pi. i).— This is a brief description of this breed of 
sheep and its distribtion throughout France and portions of Europe. Its char- 
acteristics are hardiness and rustling and pasturing qualities, and its improve- 
ment and promotion is recommended. 

Fitting" yearling" wethers and lambs for exhibition, G. C. Humphrey and 
F. Kleinheinz (Wisconsin Sta. Bui. 232, pp. 26, figs. 12). — This bulletin is 
intended as a practical guide in the selection, fitting, and showing of yearling 
wethers and lambs for exhibition, but also reports experimental work in 
feeding. 

In order to study the value of the various grain rations during two 3-year 
fitting periods wethers intended for exhibition at the International Stock Expo- 
sition were divided each year into 4 lots as uniform as possible with reference 
to breed, size, and general quality. They were fed alike as to pasture, hay, 
cabbage, and roots. Grain feeding began August 1 and continued to the latter 
part of November. 

The results of these feeding operations are summarized as follows: "The 
wethers fed peas, oats, and bran were awarded first place in the carcass compe- 
tition between the various lots each of the 3 years of the second period, and were 
also awarded the largest number of individual prizes at the show. Though 
peas were comparatively expensive, they produced firm flesh of high quality 
and also made good gains. They are therefore highly recommended for show 
fitting when fed in combination with oats and bran. Barley, oats, and bran 
ranked second in the carcass competition between the lots, and also in number 
of individual prizes awarded in the open classes. Barley and oats stood third 
in point of prizes won at the show and also ranked third in the carcass compe- 
tition. This ration produced the lowest gains of any fed during the second 
period. Corn, oats, and bran, and corn and oats produced the largest and most 
economical gains, but, with a few exceptions, the wethers fed this ration were 
inclined to be soft and overdone. Carcasses from the lot fed corn, oats, and 
bran were never awarded prizes in the regular carcass classes. Whole oats fed 
alone are a most excellent feed for sheep which are well advanced in flesh, but 
as a rule, for sheep being fitted for fat classes, they are too bulky to insure the 
desired finish." 



174 EXPERIMENT STATIOX EECOED. 

A former reference lias been made to results obtained during the first 3-year 
period (E. S. R., IS, p. 263). 

Cassava for pigs, J. L. Feateue and A. M'olhant (Miti. Agr. et Trav. Puh. 
[Belgium^, Off. Rural Raps, et Communs., 1913, ^'o. 5, pp. 87-118, fig. 1). — Four 
pigs 2i years old each fed a daily ration of 2.02 kg. of cassava, 2.02 kg. of a 
mixture of bran and low-grade flour, 1.6 kg. of mangels, and 0.18 kg. of meat 
meal for 77 days made a daily gain per head of 0.53 kg. (1.17 lbs.). In another 
test 5 pigs each fed a daily ration of 1.47 kg. of cassava, 1.47 kg. of the bran- 
flour mixture and 4.99 kg. of skim milk for 58 days, made a daily gain per head 
of 0.67 kg., and a similar lot 0.62 kg. per head. Methods and results of analyses 
of cassava by J. Van Buggenhout et al. are given. 

Trials with weig'hts of fattening* swine and the " plucks " from these, 
E. Holm {Ber. E. Vet. og Lancl'bohdjskoles Lai). Landolcononi. Forsog [Copen- 
hagen'], 82 {1913), pp. 32, figs. 2). — ^The average slaughter weight of 400 swine 
at 3 Danish slaughter houses was 70.8 kg. (warm) and 69.3 kg. (cold), and of 
the plucks (internal organs and offal) 4 kg. (warm) and 3.9 kg. (cold). 

Treatise on zootechny. — II, The horse, P. Dechambre (Traite de Zoo- 
technie. — //, Les Equides. Paris, 1912, pp. 494, figs. 68). — The first part of this 
book treats of the zoological classification, body conformation, measurements, 
and race characteristics of domestic animals. The author draws attention to 
the fact that races or breeds are characterized by their rectilinear outlines, 
especially the facial profile; that variations in morphology are noted In the 
cephalic and body form and in the external features, such as weight, color, 
horns, hair, wool, or plumage; and that in general there is a harmony or coordi- 
nation of parts. 

In the second part he takes up a study of the breeds of horses, classifying 
them under 3 groups, viz, those with a flat frontal or profile, those of concave 
frontal, and those of convex profile. These groups are further subdivided and 
classified. There follows a discussion of the origin, development, breed charac- 
teristics, distribution, and utility value of the different breeds of horses. The 
breeds included in this study are those of Arabia and Asia, Russia and Finland, 
Bohemia and Tunis, the Percheron, the Clydesdale, the ponies of England and 
Europe, the Belgian, the Shire, the Suffolk, and a number of the rare breeds of 
Asia and Europe. There is also given a discussion of the "demi-sang" or 
grades of England and France, among which are included the army remounts, 
the hunters, hackneys, and cobs, the Cleveland Bay, and the Irish half-breed. 

The author also discusses the various breeds and types of mules and asses, 
both in Europe and in Asia, and discusses their production from the utility 
standpoint. There are included several chapters on the feeding, care, and man- 
agement of breeding stock ; and a discussion of the problems connected with the 
improvement of the military remount service and the government stud. 

Did the horse exist in America at the time of the discovery of the New 
Continent? E. Teouessaet (Rev. G6n. Sci., 24 (1913), No, 19, pp. 725-729).— In 
answer to this query the author offers as proofs of the early existence of the 
American horse (1) the records of history dating back to the Spanish conquest 
of Mexico, at which time native horses were discovered here; (2) evidences 
from geology and paleontology which point to a very primitive type of horse; 
and (3) the physiography of the country and the character of American ani- 
mals, which indicate that America's close proximity to Asia facilitated the 
introduction of the horse from that continent. 

The feeding of farm horses (Dept. Agr. N. S. Wales, Farmers* Bui. 64, pp. 
26). — The first portion of this publication contains general Information on 
horse feeding, condensed from Henry's Feeds and Feeding and other sources. 
Reports are then given from the i^rincipal of the Hawkesbury Agricultural Col- 



DAIRY FARMING DAIRYING. 175 

lege and the managers of experiment farms tliroughout the State, describing 
the methods of horse feeding in use at these stations. The Information given 
is of an entirely practical nature, outlining the rations fed and the methods of 
care and management, including notes on the treatment of horses for colic. 

Horse feeding- experiments with dried beer yeast, O. von Czadek (Ztschr. 
Landw. Vcrfiuch.sw. Ostcrr., 16 (1913), Xo. 0, pp. 870-889) .—Th\s product proved 
to be a palatable laxative feed, and especially adaptable as a supplement to oat 
feeding. 

Cotton-seed meal as a feed for laying" hens, J. K. Morrison (Mississippi Sta. 
Bui. J 62, pp. 11, figs. 9). — This bulletin is a preliminary report of experiments 
in progress. Results of months' work tend to show " that cotton-seed meal 
used as the chief source of protein is palatable to fowls, and that when fed 
judiciously on it they will produce eggs; that hens fed on cotton-seed meal will 
produce eggs when eggs are highest in price: that as far as can be determined 
the general condition of the cotton-seed meal-fed fowls seems just as good as 
the condition of those fed on beef scrap; that the tendency was to loose flesh 
and not get overfat, although the fovN^ls were allowed access to the feed at all 
times; and that there is a good margin of profit from hens when given a 
properly balanced ration." 

Poultry notes, 1911-1913, R. Pearl {Maine Sta. Bui. 216, pp. 14I-I68, figs. 
9). — ^This bulletin includes a general consideration of the following items: The 
value, method of preservation, and economical use of hen manure; plans for 
the construction of a concrete manure shed costing approximately $185; the 
value and method of construction of a crematory for dead poultry; the making 
of an improved range feed trough ; methods for the protection of poultry against 
hawks, crows, rats, and other natural enemies ; and the value and method of 
providing green feed for poultry. 

The results of technical studies relating to the formation of the esf; and 
previously reported from another source (E. S. R., 26, p. 670) are given. 

Mardi Gras poultry in France, E. Brown {Country Gent., 18 {1913), No. 42, 
pp. 1543, 1544, fi98. 3). — The author describes the preparation of fancy poultry 
for the ]Mardi Gras festival of France. The Bresse fowl stands in highest 
favor, being a light-boned bird with excellent fattening qualities and of a deli- 
cate flavor. La Fleche is a larger and somewhat heavier boned breed, but car- 
ries abundant meat, which is of a fine texture. Du Mans stands next in favor, 
being fine and white of skin, abundantly fleshed, and of excellent quality. The 
Creveceur fowl is compact, broad, and deep, but lacking in quality. The Courtes 
Pattes fowl is a delicacy, largely because of its quality, texture, and fine flavor. 

Breeders' and cockers' guide, F. R. Glover {Lisle, N. Y., 1913, pp. 109, 
figs. 7). — This booklet treats of the breeding, feeding, care, and management of 
the breeds of poultry used for fighting and pit purposes. 

The national standard squab book, E. C. Rice {Boston, 1913, 4- ^d., pp. 
4I6, figs. 200). — This is a practical manual giving complete directions for the 
installation and management of a squab plant. 

DAIRY FARMING— DAIRYING. 

Some practical results of feeding" experiments, J. B. Lindsey {Massaeliu- 
setts Sta. Rpt. 1912, pt. 2, pp. 56-64). — Dairy cows were fed a ration of hay. 
bran, gluten feed, and raw potatoes, the latter being fed in increasing amounts 
of from 10 to 50 lbs. per day. The addition of potatoes in 2 out of 3 cases 
not only checked the natural shrinkage in milk yield but actually increased 
the flow. It is concluded from these experiments that when potatoes are cut 
and fed in amounts up to 25 lbs. per head daily they in no way affect the 



176 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

health of the animal or the yield of the milk. Foreign observations on the 
feeding of potatoes to steers, oxen, milch cows, dry cows, sheep, and horses 
are referred to. 

The use of molasses and molasses feeds for farm stocks is also discussed. 

The food value of plain and molasses beet pulp, J. B. Lindsey (Massachu- 
setts 8ta. Rpt. 1912, i)ts. 1, j)p. 129-140; 2, pp. 64-66).— ^ix cows were fed by 
the reversal method in periods lasting 5 weeks on a basal ration of hay, bran, 
and cotton-seed ]ueal to which was added 4.3 lbs. of either corn meal or of beet 
pulp daily. 

The herd lost in live weight 33 lbs. on the corn meal ration and gained 37 lbs. 
on the beet pulp ration. There was no substantial variation in the yield or 
average composition of the milk. It required for the corn meal ration 112 lbs. 
dry matter to produce 100 lbs. of milk, and 20.51 lbs. to produce 1 I'b. of milk 
fat ; for the beet pulp ration 110.72 lbs. and 20.54 lbs., respectively. 

In a similar experiment to the above molasses beet pulp and com meal were 
compared. The amounts of digestible nutrients in each ration were approxi- 
mately the same. The herd gains were similar. There was no wide variation 
in milk yields and only a slight advantage in the production of milk fat with 
the corn meal ration. It required for the corn meal ration 104.4 lbs. dry 
matter to produce 100 lbs. of milk and 18.72 lbs. to produce 1 lb. of fat; for 
the molasses beet pulp ration 108.1 and 19.87 lbs., resi>ectively. 

The value of oats for milk production, J. B. Lindsey (Massachusetts Sta. 
Rpt. 1912, pt^. 1, pp. 141-153; 2, pp. 52-55). — Three experiments were con- 
ducted in which 2 lots of 2 cows each were fed for alternate periods of 4 weeks 
each, with 1 week between periods, on like amounts of a basal ration of hay 
and bran to which w^as added a like amount of either corn meal or ground 
oats. 

The average gain made in live weight with both systems was practically the 
same, and the yields of milk and of milk ingredients were nearly identical. 
However, it is believed that the allowance of the basal ration was too large, 
thus furnishing an excess of nourishment and tending to invalidate the results 
of the exxieriment. 

The feed cost of milk and of milk fat was for the com meal ration $1.40 
per 100 lbs. of milk and 24.5 cts. per pound of fat ; and the oat ration $1.46 per 
100 lbs. of milk and 25.6 cts. per pound of fat. " While oats are a valuable food, 
it is not believed they can usually be fed economically to dairy animals in 
Massachusetts." 

Feeding experiments with milch cows, A. Carlier (Min. Agr. ct Trav. Pub. 
[Belgium^, Off. Rural Raps, et Comniuns., 1913, Xo. 5, pp. 39-50). — This gives 
detailed data concerning 2 experiments conducted in 1912 and a summary of 
4 years' experiments in which comparisons were made of the feeding value of 
cotton-seed meal and coconut meal. On the whole, it was found that cotton- 
seed meal was more advantageous from the standpoint of milk production but 
that coconut meal apparently produced a slightly richer milk and more butter. 

Niger cake for milch cows, E. Warsage (Min. Agr. et Trav. Pud. [Belgium'], 
Off. Rural Raps, et Communs., 1913, No. 5, pp. 51-54). — On a ration of hay, 
straw, mangels, bran, and wheat 2 cows for 5 days before and 10 days after an 
experimental period of 30 days gave a daily average per cow of 8.17 liters 
(about 8.6 qt.) of milk testing 2.59 per cent of fat. During the 30-day period 
in which the above ration was supplemented with from 1 to 2 kg. of niger cake 
the average milk production was 8.5 liters testing 3.08 per cent fat. The cows 
gained 13 kg. and 36 kg., respectively, in weight during the 30 days. An analy- 
sis of the niger cake is given. 



I 



DAIRY FARMING DAIRYING. 177 

Feeding- experiments with hay and varying amounts of protein feeds for 
the dairy cow, J. J. Ott Dp: \'uii:s {\'crsl(t(j Ver. Exphrit. Proefzuivelbocrilerij 
Hoorn, 1912, pp. 15-37). — In these experiments the protein-rich feeds proved 
more expensive without yielding an appreciable increase of milli; over the pro- 
tein-poor feed, and resulted in a lower milk fat percentage. 

North Carolina dairy herd records, W. II. Eaton {Bui. N. C. Dcpt. Agr., 
34 (1913), ^o. 5, pp. 30, figs. 5). — Yearly tests of 14 North Carolina dairy herds, 
comprising in all 144 cows, are reported. 

Comparing the economy of production as between large and moderate pro- 
ducers, it was found that the cows averaging 374 lbs. of milk fat per annum 
gave annual profits of $68.71 per cow, and produced milk fat at a cost of 17 
cts. per ix)und, while cows averaging 165 lbs. of milk fat gave profits of $19.85, 
and the milk fat cost 25 cts. per pound. 

Report of the Richmond-Lewiston Cow Testing" Association, \\. E. Car- 
boll (Utah Sta. Bid. 127, pp. 193-2^2, figs. S).— During a 2 years' test, involving 
26 herds, the average yearly milk yield of the highest herd was 9,085 lbs., and 
the lowest 4.916 lbs. ; the corresponding average yields of milk fat were ooO.l 
and 197 lbs. During this period the average cost of feed for the highest pro- 
ducing herd was $44.19 per year ; for the lowest $34.21, while the profit realized 
from the former w^ns $69.96, and the latter $33.61. A wide variation was found 
in the yield of milk fat and net returns between cows in the same herd. The 
difference in milk-fat between the most and least profitable cow in each herd 
ranged from 40.07 to 324.7 lbs. 

In studying the effect of length of lactation period upon total milk-fat yield 
it was found that beginning with a dry period of 2 months the yield gradually 
decreased from 272.7 to 121.7 lbs. when the cows were dry 6 months or over 
during the year. No correlation was noted between the amount of fat pro- 
duced the first month and the annual record. Dairy-bred cows led the scrubs 
in yearly production and in amount of fat given the first month of lactation 
and showed a decided tendency toward a longer lactation period. The data 
indicated that a cow for highest production should be dry longer than one 
month, but that a rest longer than 2 months adds nothing to her powers of pro- 
duction. Lactation periods of various lengths from 7 to 18.5 months, provided 
they are preceded and followed by normal dry periods in all cases, seemed to 
yield the same fat and profit in any given length of time. 

Cows freshening in the fall produced on the average 45.1 lbs. more fat and 
returned $9.43 more profit above cost of feed during the next 12 months than 
cows freshening in the spring. The cost of feed was $5.33 more per head for 
the cows calving in the fall. 

The highest producers were the most profitable. There was a uniform de- 
crease in net returns with a decreasing milk-fat production. 

Dairy industry in northern Europe, G. Guittonneau (Ann. Inst. Nat. 
Agron., 2. ser., 12 {1913), No. 1, pp. 41-178, figs. 55).— Part 1 of this report gives 
the results of a study of the dairy industry in north Germany. Denmark, the 
Netherlands, and Sweden. In a study of the milk supply of large cities the 
author deals especially with Copenhagen and Stockholm. In a chapter on the 
manufacture of butter and cheese descriptions are given of a number of 
creameries and of the newer forms of creamery equipment and machinery. 
Notes are also given on the manufacture of casein, milk sugar, and powdered 
milk. 

Part 2 deals with the organization of the export trade in milk products in 
the Netherlands, Denmark, and Sweden. 

Report of the sanitary inspector of the State of Idaho, 1911—12, J. H. 
Wallis {Bien. Rpt. Idaho Dairy, Food and Sanit. Insp. and State Chem., 5 



178 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

{1911-12), pp. 19-32, 129-153, pis. 4). — This is a report on the analysis and 
condition of samples of commercial butter, cream, milk, ice cream, and con- 
densed milk. There is also included a statistical report on the number of cows 
milked, the average yield, grade of stock, stock water supply, and the scoring 
of a number of Idaho dairy farms. 

Report of the feed and dairy section, P. H. Smith {Massachusetts Sta. 
Rpt. 1912, in. 1, pp. ii8-i28).— This includes the text of an act to regulate the 
use of utensils for testing the composition or value of milk and cream ; also a 
summary of inspection work with glassware, etc. 

The ductal system of the milk glands of the bovine, O. Wirz {Arcli. Wiss. 
iL Pralzt. TierheUk., 39 {1913), No. 4-5, pp. 375-421, figs. 7).— This is an elab- 
orate treatise on the anatomy of the milk glands and the nature of milk secre- 
tion in the bovine, dealing with the constitution and function of the alveoli, 
the relation of milk secretion and the blood streams, the ductal system and its 
functions, the occurrence of leucocytes, the consistency of the udder, and the 
size and nature of the milk cistern. A bibliography of 25 references is appended. 

[Factors affecting* the composition of milk], J. Aueousseau and L. J. 
PoNsCxVRME {Ann,. Ecole Nat. Agr. Grignon, 3 {1912), pp. 73-106). — This is a 
series of papers on the composition of milk from the standpoint of milk in- 
spection, as follows : 

Influence of feeding stuffs on the composition of milk (pp. 73-81). Two cows 
on pasture supplemented with hay. bran, mangels, and linseed cake, with straw 
ad libitum, for 5 days gave a daily average of 15 liters (about 15.9 qt.) of milk 
each, containing 4.43 per cent milk fat and 9.03 pei' cent solids-not-fat. The 
supplemental feeds were then withheld and the cows had the run of pasture 
with straw ad libitum for 6 days, during which their average milk production 
was 18.6 liters each, containing 3.53 per cent fat and 8.74 per cent solids-not-fat. 
These results were confirmed in a test with 4 cows the following year. In 
another test with 4 cows for 3 days on a ration of dry fodders, bran, and scant 
pasture, the average daily milk yield per cow was 10.37 kg. with an average 
composition of 4.02 per cent milk fat and (the first and third days only) 9.13 
per cent solids-not-fat. These cows were then fed a ration of turnips with oat 
straw ad libitum for 6 days, during which their average milk production was 
12.35 kg. each with an average composition of 3.5 per cent milk fat and 8.77 per 
cent solids-not-fat. 

Composition of first and last draicn milk (pp. 87-90). Analyses are reported 
of the first and last portions of milk drawn into separate receptacles. Of the 
first half of 2 milkings the fat content was 1.51 per cent, the solids-not-fat 
9.45 per cent. The correspondmg percentages for the last half of the 2 milk- 
ings were 4.86 and 9.04. 

Influence of spontaneous creaming on the composition of milk (pp. 91-96). 
In a test with 5 liters of fresh milk testing 3.9 per cent fat and 9.08 per cent 
solids-not-fat, a sample of 1 liter poured off at the end of li hours tested 4.5 
per cent fat and 8.78 per cent solids-not-fat. A second liter poured off at the 
end of 2^ hours tested 3.8 per cent fat and 9.19 per cent solids-not-fat. Two 
liters poured off at the end of 3* hours tested 4.35 per cent fat and 8.87 per 
cent solids-not-fat. The remaining milk tested 2.5 per cent fat and 9.65 per 
cent solids-not-fat. In another test the milk remaining after the withdrawal 
of the third sample tested 2.2 per cent less fat than the original milk. This 
milk, after being subjected to these 2 tests, was heated to 30° C. and the test 
repeated. After the withdrawal of the third sample the remaining milk tested 
only 0.4 per cent less in fat than the original milk. 

Influence of potassium tromid on the composition of milk (pp. 97-106). 
Doses of 20, 25, and 30 gm. of potassium bromid fed to cows had no appreciable 



DAIRY FARMING DAIRYING. 179 

effect on the quantity or fat content of tlie milk. Tlie bromid was found in 
the millv 14 hours after ingestion and for more than 2 days after the last dose. 
In another test with 2 cows the ingestion of GO gm. of potassium bromid was 
followed by diminished milk production and a reduction of fat content. This 
reaction was rapid, in no case persisting for more than 36 hours after the dose- 
After the effects of the bromid had passed off the fat content of the milk rose 
rapidly above the normal, indicating that potassium bromid has a restraining 
effect on fat secretion. Complete analyses are given of these milks before and 
after the ingestion of bromid. 

The viscosity of cream, F. K. M. Dumaresq (Proc. Roy. Soc. Victoria, n. 
ser., 25 {1913), No. 2, pp. 307-322, figs. 5). — Results of experiments testing the 
viscosity of cream under different conditions are summarized as follows: 

"(1) The main factors instrumental in varying the viscosity of cream are 
acidity, temperature, and fat content, and of these three the first holds the most 
important place. (2) An increase in acidity produces very little effect on vis- 
cosity of cream, up to the * critical point,' at which a sudden sharp rise in 
viscosity occurs. (3) The change in viscosity of separated milk at the degree 
of acidity corresponding to the * critical acidity ' of cream is very slight, i. e., 
for separated milk there is no critical acidity, proving that this is a property 
of the fat globule, or rather of its envelope. (4) An increase in temperature 
of cream diminishes its viscosity, at first rapidly, afterwards at a slower rate. 
(5) The viscosity of cream is a quadratic function of the fat content, if the 
other factors remain constant." 

On the influence of different factory methods on the water content of 
the curd of Edam cheese, W. Van Dam (Vcrslag Ver. Exploit. Froefzuivel- 
hoerderij Hoorn, 1912, pp. 8/^-91). — In these tests the moisture content ranged 
from 46.8 to 52 per cent. Poorly coagulated curd tested higher than normal 
curd. The addition of calcium chlorid increased the moisture content, whereas 
longer standing reduced it. Working the curd at a high temperature, 29° C. 
(80.6° F.), resulted in a higher moisture test than working at 2G.G°. A low 
heating temperature, 33.5°, was also conducive to a higher moisture test. 

On the faulty " Knijpers " in Edam cheese, F. W. J. Boekhout ( Verslag 
Ver. Exploit. Proefzuivelboerderij Hoorn, 1912, pp. 92-102). — The diseased 
condition sometimes found in Edam cheese affected with cracks or faulty for- 
mation is known as " Knijpers." The cracks or rents occur as the result of the 
formation of gases due to a bacterium which has been isolated. As a preven- 
tive for the occurrence of this gas the addition to the cheese of a small quantity 
of potassium nitrate is suggested. 

Wensleydale cheese. Miss G. N. Davies {Jour. Agr. [Neto Zeal.], 7 {1913), 
No. 2, pp. lJf7-lJf9). — Directions are given for the manufacture of Wensleydale 
cheese, which is described as a very mellow, rich, finely flavored, and blue 
molded cheese, resembling the Stilton variety. 

Some investigations of parchment paper, S. Hals and S. Heggenhatjgen 
(Norsk Landmandshlad, 32 {1913), No. 31, pp. 369-37 1) .—The results of 
chemical and physical examinations of a dozen samples of parchment paper used 
for dairy purposes are given and discussed. The determinations included color, 
smoothness of surface, weight per square meter, ash in paper and in water- 
soluble substances, total water-soluble substances, sugar, boric acid, magnesium 
chlorid, and moisture. Seven of the samples contained from 14.2 to 26 per cent 
of water-soluble substances, and 4 contained from 13.2 to 14.5 per cent of reduc- 
ing sugars. 



180 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

VETEEINARY MEDICINE. 

Report of the civil veterinary department, Eastern Bengal and Assam, 
for the year 1910-11, W. Harris {Rpt. Civ. Yet. Dept. East. Bengal arid 
Assam, 1910-11, pp. 2+28+2). — This report includes an account of the occur- 
rence of the more important diseases of animals, preventive inoculations, breed- 
ing operations, etc. 

S-eport of the civil veterinary department, Assam, for the year 1912—13, 
S. G. M. HicKEY {Rpt. Civ. Yet. Dept. Assam, 1912-13, pp. 3+23+1).— A report 
similar to the above. 

The diagnosis of newly lactating* animals according to Schern's method, 
E. Weber {Ztschr. Tiermed., 17 (1913), No, 5, pp. 205-209) .—Following studies 
of Schern's method (E. S. II., 21, p. 614) the author states that if an initial 
milk decolorizes the formaldehyde methylene blue solution ( Schardinger's re- 
agent) within 10 to 12 minutes, it may be concluded that it comes from an 
animal in an advanced state of lactation. If the reagent is not decolorized, 
however, or if the milk contains strippings, no conclusion can be drawn. 

The use of pituitary extract in bovine and equine obstetrics, H. Schmidt 
and M. Kopp (Ahs. in Yet. Rec., 26 {1913), No. 1316, pp. 199, 200).— This is a 
report of six cases in which very satisfactory results were obtained. 

Serum-therapy in practice, A. R. Menary (Amer. Yet. Rev., 43 (1913), 
No. 3, pp. 284-286). — This details the author's experiences in tuberculin testing 
and with antistrangles vaccine, canine distemper bacterin, blackleg vaccine, 
polyvalent bacterins, and hog cholera vaccine. 

Natural variation of Bacillus acidi lactici with respect to the production 
of gas from carbohydrates, J. A. Arkweight (Jour. Hyg. [Cambridge], 13 
(1913), No. 1, pp. 68-86). — "A bacillus belonging to the B. acidi lactici group 
has been repeatedly isolated during 11 months from the urine of one patient, 
and no other Gram-negative bacillus has been found in the same urine during 
this period. The bacillus has occurred in 2 varieties which differed as regards 
gas formation only. Variety I formed gas from sugars and alcohols, and 
Variety II formed acid and no gas from the same sugars and alcohols. The 2 
varieties gave identical serum reactions both as regards agglutination and ab- 
sorption of agglutinins with specific sera prepared from rabbits immunized with 
the respective varieties. Intermediate varieties as regards gas production also 
occurred, but were not constant when subcultured. Varieties I and II remained 
constant in their characters after 4 months' subculture on broth and agar. 
Variety II, which at first did not produce gas from sugars, was induced to do 
so by first growing in a solution of sodium formate in broth." 

The action of the protein poison on dogs: A study in anaphylaxis, C. W. 
Edmunds (Ztschr. Immunitatsf. u. Expt. Ther., I, Orig., 17 (1913), No. 2, 
pp. 105-134, figs. 4)' — Tbis article indicates that the symptoms produced by the 
injection of the poisonous portion of the protein molecule are practically the 
same as those which are noted in acute anaphylaxis, with the exception that 
in the last-named case the blood loses its coagulating power. 

About the specificity and the diagnostic value of the Ascoli thermo- 
precipitin reaction for detecting hematic carbunculosis and erysipelas, G. 
FiNzi (CentU. Balct. [etc.}, 1. Aht., Orig., 68 (1913), No. 5-6, pp. 556-562).— 
The author concludes that the thermoprecipitin reaction has no specific value 
for the diagnosis of either hematic carbunculosis (anthrax) or erysipelas. Ex- 
tracts of the organs of animals affected with carbunculosis give a zonal reac- 
tion with a specific erysipelas serum, and derivatives of the Bacillus suipestifer 
and the products of the Preisz-Nocard bacillus also show a specific reaction. 
Sera from sound horses, heated from 6 to 12 to 48 hours at from 55 to 56° C, 



VETERINARY MEDICINE. 181 

react with the organ extracts from animals affected with anthrax, as do also 
normal sera of bovines, rabbits, and griiinea pigs. Egg white behaves toward 
the derivatives in the same way. 

A specific reaction can be obtained with extracts of the epiploon, heart, liver, 
or spleen of guinea pigs affected with carbunculosis. The extracts of the 
epiploon were more active than those of the spleen. 

Thermoprecipitation in anthrax, Z. Szymanowski and J. Zagaja {Ztschr. 
Infektionskrank. u. II yg. Ilaustiere, 12 (1912), No. 3, pp. 256-265; abs. in 
Ztschr. Immunitatsf. u. Expt. Ther., II, Ref., 6 {1913), No. 8, p. 719).— A group 
of animals is described in which 69 were suspected of having anthrax. Of 
these, 33 gave a positive and 22 a negative precipitin test. These findings were 
verified by the bacteriological examination. In 11 cases the thermoprecipitin 
reaction showed positive when the bacteriological test showed negative, but in 
only 3 cases did the thermoprecipitin test show negative when positive results 
were found bacteriologically. 

Anthrax vaccination, its use and abuse, J. A. Goodwin (Amer. Vet. Rev., 
43 (1913), No. 3, pp. 267-275) .—This discusses the reasons for failure in 
anthrax vaccination, the kinds of animals to vaccinate, points to be considered 
in immunizing animals, impotency of some vaccines, the advisability of hyper- 
immunizing animals, abuse of anthrax vaccination, and the promiscuous distri- 
bution of vaccines and other biological products by unreliable parties. 

Feeding" experiments with the vii-us of infectious bulbar paralysis, S. voN 
Ratz (Ztschr. Infektionskrank. u. Ilyg. Haustiere, 13 (1913), No. 1-2, pp. 
1-7). — The experiments showed that the virus of this disease may be ingested 
by mice and Carnivora in infected food and the disease produced in this v/ay. 
Five of 11 cats and dogs fed upon virulent material died. 

The relationship between the paratyphoid infections in man and in 
animals, D. A. de Jong (Rev. G4n. MM. V^t., 22 (1913), No. 255-256, pp. 117- 
123; abs. in Jour. Compar. Path, and Ther., 26 (1913), No. 3, pp. 266-26S) .—The 
author concludes that " bacterial diseases of animals slaughtered for meat can 
only be considered as the cause of meat poisoning in very exceptional cases. 
The organisms in question occur in nature as saprophytes and are to some extent 
excreted by diseased or healthy men and animals (carriei*s). They can be 
found normally in healthy men and animals. In such cases they may be the 
cause of secondary infections. They can infect the carcasses or animal prod- 
ucts of even healthy animals, but more particularly the carcasses and products 
of diseased animals, because these form a particularly favorable culture medium 
for the organisms." 

Some peculiar and probably specific bodies in the erythrocytes in rinder- 
pest and another allied disease, W. L. Braddon et al. (Parasitology, 6 (1913), 
No. 3, pp. 265-275, pi. 1). — The bodies here described have been invariably 
found by the author in all cases of typical acute i-inderpest during the febrile 
stages and in the great majority of the cases for long periods up to S months 
after recovery has taken place. 

"The occurrence of a body of special, and within certain limits, uniform 
mon^hology has been demonstrated in the red corpuscles of animals affected 
with rinderpest. The movements of the body, the evidence of its growth pari 
passu with the development of the disease, and above all its reproduction in 
animals in which it was not previously present on the inoculation of material 
containing it, are evidence of its being a living and independent organism. Its 
detected presence (so far) only in animals which at the time have, or which 
probably have had, rinderpest recently, and its entire absence from animals 
highly susceptible to the disease, but known not to have had it or to have been 
exposed to infection, affords a presumption that the body is si^ecifically related 



182 EXPERIMENT STATION EECOED. 

to the disorder, or in other words represents a stage in the life history of the 
specific infective agent; or, it may be, a culture form . . . The specific body 
resembles no parasite of which the life history is so far known . . . 

" The second body described affords evidence of the existence of a second 
specific complaint which may be and probably has been in the past confused 
with true rinderpest. It would be important to determine if animals affected 
by the second complaint when they have recovered are still susceptible to true 
rinderpest. The second body also is a new form." 

About a supposed neutralization of the activity of tetanus toxin by neurin 
or betain, V. Adsersen (Ztschr. Imminiitdtsf. u. Expt. Ther., I, Orig., 17 {1913), 
No. 2, PI). 135-140). — Either neurin or betain hydrochlorid is capable of neutral- 
izing tetanus toxin, but this is not due to any specific property of the two sub- 
stances but rather to the inhibition of an acid or an alkali. If an acid or an 
alkali is added to tetanus toxin, no toxic results are produced. 

On " tick paralysis " in sheep and man following bites of Dermacentor 
venustus, with notes on the biolog-y of the tick, S. Hadwen (Parasitology, 
6 {1913), No. 3, pp. 283-297, pis. 2).— '"Tick paralysis' occurs in British 
Columbia and affects man, sheep, and probably other animals. The disease 
is caused by the bites of D. venustus. It is usually of short duration, is benign 
in character, but occasionally it persists for long periods, and may terminate 
fatally. From an economic point of view the disease is of some importance to 
the sheep industry. The causative agent has not been discovered, and the 
disease has not been reproduced by inoculation. The most likely hypothesis 
is that the tick injects a toxin which gives rise to symptoms appearing coin- 
cidentally with the complete engorgement of the tick. In three consecutive cases, 
experimentally produced by me in lambs, paralysis occurred 6 to 7 days after 
the ticks were put on. In no case did I fail to produce paralysis through the 
agency of the tick bites. It has been proved that D. venustus usually bites 
sheep along the backbone; possibly the point of attachment may have some 
bearing on the symptoms or severity of the case." 

Experimental " tick paralysis " in the dog-, S. Hadwen and G. H. F. Nut- 
tall {ParasitUogy, 6 {1913), No. 3, pp. 298-301) .—This is a report of experi- 
ments in which "tick paralysis" was experimentally produced in a dog at 
Cambridge through the application of a single Dermacentor venustus female 
from Canada. The disease is said to be the same as that observed in sheep 
and described in the paper above noted. The examination of the dog's blood 
proved negative. 

The chemistry of tuberculin, G. Lockemann {Hoppe-Seyler's Ztschr. 
Physiol. Ghent:, 73 {1911), No. 5, pp. 389-397; ahs. in CentU. Bakt. [etc.'\, 1. 
AU., Ref., 52 {1912), No. 1-2, pp. 37). — If tubercle bacilli are grown in a medium 
containing asparagin as the only source of nitrogen, protein-like substances 
are developed in the culture medium which are supposed to originate from the 
tubercle bacillus ; consequently the author believes that the metabolic products 
elaborated by the tubercle bacillus are somewhat dependent upon the make-up 
of the medium in which they are cultivated. 

Contribution to the chemistry of the tubercle bacillus. — A preliminary 
report, E. Lowenstein {GentU. Bakt. [etc.}, 1. AM., Orig., 68 {1913), No. 7, 
pp. 591-593). — ^As an initial step in determining whether the composition of 
tuberculin wag dependent upon the nutrient solution used for cultivating the 
tubercle bacillus, an attempt was made to find a simpler nutrient solution than 
has heretofore been used for preparing tuberculin. A nutrient solution com- 
posed of ammonium phosphate, glycerin, and distilled water was prepared and 
inoculated with the tubercle bacillus. Some controls received an addition of 
0.4 per cent of either sodium chlorid, potassium chlorid, or potassium sulphate. 



VETERINARY MEDICINE. 183 

The greatest growth was noted in the ammonium phosphate flask. The flask 
containing the sodium chlorid in addition showed a lesser growth, but it was 
greater than the flask containing potassium chlorid; consequently the presence 
of potassium, sodium, chlorin, or sulphur is deemed unnecessary for the growth 
of the tubercle bacillus. The synthetic tuberculin so obtained was found to be 
as active as that prepared in an asparagin medium. 

Experiments in regard to the inhalation of tuberculous material from 
man by the cat, P. Ciiausse {Compt. Rend. Soc. Biol. lPa)is], 12 {1912), 
Xo. 2, pp. 50-52; abs. in CentU. BaJct. [etc.], 1. Abt., Ref., 52 {1912), No. U, 
p. 426)- — The inhalation tests, which are a continuation of those previously 
reported (E. S. R., 26, p. 179; 29, p. ITS), were conducted in a small specially 
constructed chamber, with cats of various ages kept side by side with guinea 
pigs and dogs. Out of 14 cats only 4 became infected. The tubercular changes 
produced were in most instances only slight but in others quite extensive. 
According to this there soems to be a great difference in regard to the recep- 
tivity of cats to this disease. 

Two cases of spontaneous tuberculosis in the rabbit caused by the avian 
tubercle bacillus, L. Codbett {Jour. Compar. Path, and Titer., 26 {1913), No. 1, 
pp. 33-JfO, figs. 4). — "As tuberculosis caused by one or the other type of mam- 
malian tubercle bacilli is not confined entirely to mammals, but may occur in 
the parrot, the raven (Rabinowitsch), and probably also in the canary and 
sparrow, so tuberculosis caused by the avian tubercle bacillus is not limited to 
birds, but may sometimes be found in the pig, the mouse, and perhaps in man 
and the ape also." 

In this paper two cases of natural infection of rabbits, which were kept in the 
same yard with a number of guinea pigs and tubercular fowls, are described. 
Cultural investigations and the results of autopsies are included. 

Subcutaneous tuberculosis in bovines, C. Perard and G. Ramon {BuI. Soc. 
Cent. Al^d. V4t., 90 {1913), No. 8, pp. 167-174).— Under the name " subcutaneous 
tuberculosis " the authors designate not only the disease caused by hypodermic 
Injections but also the condition which is produced by the process of extension 
whereby the organisms enter the superficial fibers of the muscles. The lesions 
in this area were found to differ markedly in their macroscopic aspects from 
those usually noted in classical tuberculosis. They resemble somewhat the 
metastases which occur in cancer, and those in sporotrichoses or blastomycoses. 
The diagnosis on the cadaver is rather diflicult. 

The findings with some cnses of this variety of tuberculosis are given. 

Investigations in regard to the specific action of tuberculosis serum by 
mixing tuberculin and tuberculosis serum, A. Sata {Zi^clir. Immunitatsf. u. 
Expt. Ther., I, Orig., 17 {1913), No. 1, pp. 84-98, pi. 1).—By simply mixing old 
tuberculin or powdered tubercle bacilli with tuberculosis serum under certain 
quantitative and other conditions and at a temperature of 38° C, it is possible 
to produce a poison in vitro which, with sound guinea pigs, will give the char- 
acteristic tuberculin reactions. The reactions so produced are characterized by 
a rise in temperature, resulting in the classical anai)hylactic death. 

By keeping the toxin for several days in the incubator, its toxicity is 
destroyed, and consequently it will not be lethal for guinea pigs and will not 
yield the typical reactions on injection. In this case there jirobably occurs the 
scission of the toxic substance, which is supposed to go on in two plinses. 

Passive transference of tuberculin sensitiveness by tuberculosis serum, 
and the valuation of the serum by this method, A. Sata {Ztschr. 
Immnnitdtsf. it. Expt. Ther., I, Orig., 17 {1913), No. 1, pp. 62-75, figs. 5).— It is 
possible to produce a hypersensitiveness in guinea pigs by treating them with 
tuberculosis serum. The passive immunity so produced is not only character- 



184 EXPERIMENT STATION EECOED. 

ized by a typical rise in temperature wlien injecting tuberculin, but it is also 
possible to produce lethal results by the injection of the tuberculin. This 
process affords a measure of the activity of the tuberculosis serum. 

Investigations in regard to the specific action of tuberculosis serum with 
anaphylatoxin tests, A. Sata (Ztschr. Immunitdtsf. u. Expt. Ther., I, Orig., 
11 {1913), Ao. 1, 2)p. 75-83). — Anaphylatoxin (used in Friedberger's sense) can 
be prepared from tubercle bacilli either by treatment with complement or by 
pretreatment with normal horse serum or immune serum. A further cleavage 
of anaphylatoxin into lower nontoxic products can be made if the conditions 
of the experiments are modified. 

In regard to the value of the urochromogen reaction as an indicator for 
tuberculin treatment, M. Weisz (Wiener Klin. Wchnschr., 25 {1912), No. 28, 
p. 1094; «&«. "^''^ Ztschr. Immunitdtsf. u. Expt. Ther., II, Ref., 6 {1912), No. 2, 
p. 448). — The detection of urochromogen in urine with Ehrlich's diazo reaction 
or with Weisz' permanganate reaction leads to the conclusion that the disease 
is in progress. In this stage treatment with tuberculin is useless and in fact 
its use is contraindicated. 

About the use of the precipitation method for diagnosing contagious 
abortion, S. Szymanowski {Arh. K. Gsndhtsamt., 43 {1912), No, 1, pp. 145- 
154). — It is shown that with a phenol-sodium chlorid extract of abortion 
bacilli immune sera of high potency can be prepared. The sera from naturally 
infected animals seem to give variable results, some giving weak reactions and 
others no reaction at all. 

In a series of tests with sera from a number of bovines which were appar- 
ently sound, a precipitation was obtained with the phenol-sodium chlorid 
precipitant; consequently the precipitation test conducted with this reagent 
can not be relied upon. 

Infectious abortion in cattle, and its control by means of vaccination, 
O. ScHEEiBER (Deut. Tierdrztl. Wchnschr., 21 {1913), No. 3, pp. 33-35; ahs. in 
Jour. Compar. Path, and Ther., 26 {1913), No. 1, pp. 54, 55). — This is a com- 
plete report of the work previously noted (E. S. R., 28, p. 380). Forty-three 
of 56 fetuses examined came from 19 farms where abortin was administered to 
the animals, and in most of the fetuses bacteria in addition to the Bacillus 
ahortus were noted. 

Methylene blue, a remedy for infectious abortion, F. A. Rich {Vermont 
Sta. Bui. 174, PP- 315-323). — This is a preliminary report of investigations by 
the author extending over a period of 15 years in the course of which various 
preventive and remedial agents were tested. In its action on Bacillus alyortus 
the author found methylene blue (medicinal grade) to be from twenty to fifty 
times more effective than carbolic acid. It has proved almost uniformly success- 
ful, is readily administered, and is apparently free from danger to man or beast. 

In laboratory tests of the effect of methylene blue on the abortion bacillus no 
growth resulted where methylene blue was used at strengths of 1 : 1,000 for 
1 to 3 minutes ; 1 : 2,000 for 1 to 5 minutes ; 1 : 4,000 for 4 to 8 minutes ; 1 : 5,000 
for 30 minutes; 1:6,000 for 1 hour; 1:8,000 for 2 hours; and 1:10,000 for 
3 hours. 

In his experiments the author made use of 4 herds. Of 30 cows in the first 
herd, all of which reacted to both the agglutination and the complement fixation 
tests, one-half received * oz. of methylene blue daily on grain or silage for a 
period of 30 days, while to the other half it was administered in gelatin capsules 
for a period of 6 or 7 days, the dosage being repeated after a period of 4 weeks. 
In one animal the disease appeared to have progressed too far for favorable 
issue as abortion took place on the second day of the treatment. At the time 
of writing 14 of the treated cows had calved at full term and the remaining 15 



VETEEINARY MEDICINE. 185 

were still under treatiueuL and obsorvation. In the second herd each of 31 
animals reacting to the agglutination test was given 1/2 oz. of methylene blue 
on feed daily for 30 consecutive days and all calved normally. In the third herd 
23 cows which reacte<l to the agglutination test received 10 gm. of methylene 
blue on silage night and morning for 6 consecutive days and after 4 weeks' 
interval the treatment was repeated, the methylene blue being given in gelatin 
capsules. At the time of writing none of the 23 animals treated had aborted, 
and 8 had calved normally at full term. In the fourth herd 9 animals, all but 
one of which gave positive agglutination tests up to 1 to 50, were given ^ oz. 
of methylene blue in gelatin capsules once a day for 6 days, followed by an 
interval of 4 weeks, as in herd No. 3. At the time of writing 3 of the 9 cows 
had calved at full term and no case of abortion had occurred in the herd since 
the beginning of the treatment. 

Generalized mycosis in the bovine, P. Langrand (Hyg. Yiande et Lait, 7 
{1913), xTo. .9, PI). 425-433, figs. 4; «&«• «» T'cf. Rec, 26 (1013), No. 1319, pp. 
246, 247). — The author reports upon a case of this disease in a cow, including 
post-mortem and microscopic findings. 

The keeping- quality of antihog- cholera serum, S. Barok (Allatorvosi 
Lapok, 35 (1912), No. 48, pp. 569, 570; ahs. in Berlin. TieriirzU. Wchnschr., 
29 (1913), No. 13, p. 241). — Hutyra's serum was obtained 1 year after manu- 
facture. In the cases where it was used, it had not only protective power but 
decided curative properties. Pigs having a temperature of 41.6° C, bloody 
feces, vomiting, and nosebleed were cured by this serum. 

A disease (salmonellosis porcina) in pigs, J. Lignieres (Rev. Zootec. 4 
(1913), No. 45, pp. 503-514). — In Argentina there is a disease prevalent among 
pigs which resembles hog cholera somewhat, and attacks principally the 
younger animals. It is characterized especially by the production of necrotic 
lesions in the intestinal mucosa, in the vicinity of the ileocecal valve, and in 
the large intestines. Caseation is also noted in the mesentery. It is supposed 
to be caused by an ultra microscopic organism. 

Inoculation and cohabitation tests, with a discussion of the prophylaxis and 
serum-therapy, are included. 

An enzootic among young pigs caused by a variety of the Streptococcus 
pyogenes, Rievel (Deut. Tiemrztl. Wchnschr., 21 (1913), No. 12, p. 179; abs. in 
Vet. Rec, 26 (1913), No. 1318, pp. 230, g5i).— Numerous cases of sickness, which 
appeared among young pigs confined in exposed pens and resulted in a mor- 
tality of 50 per cent, were found to be due to a variety of S. pyogenes. 

Injury to fetlock with purulent infection — autotherapy, J. MacDonald 
{Amer. Vet. Rev., 43 (1913), No. 3, p. 300).— A description of a case in a coach- 
ing horse from London, which was successfully treated by autotherapy. 

Fistulous withers, and synovitis of the coronary joint — autotherapy, R. S. 
MacKeller (Amer. Vet. Rev., 43 (1913), No. 3, pp. 300. 301).— X description of 
cases successfully treated by the method. 

Contribution to the knowledge of virus carriers of influenza of the horse, 
A. M. Bergman (Ztschr. Infektionskrank. u. Hyg. Haustiere, 13 (1913), No. 
3-4, pp. 161-174, figs. 4)- — ^The author reports having found an apparently 
healthy stallion, 21 years old, which transmitted influenza to all of the mares 
covered during the last 6^ years of his life. The incubation period of the dis- 
ease in these mares was from 4 to 6 days. No other changes than the catarrh 
of the mucous membrane of the seminal vesicles of this animal were detected. 
Three horses injected subcutaneously with the contents of the seminal vesicles 
became infected. This stallion is said to have always transmitted the typical 
catarrhal and never the pectoral form. Three horses that were subcutaneously 
injected with prostate secretion, the contents of the seminal vesicles, and of 



186 EXPERIMENT STATION EECOED. 

the ampulla of the vas deferens, respectively, showed symptoms of influenza 
within 3 to 5 days thereafter. The fact that no micro-organisms of etiologic 
importance could be demonstrated therein microscopically or culturally leads 
the author to conclude that the virus is ultravisible. He considers catarrhal 
influenza (Rotlaufseuche, influenza erysipelatosa) and pectoral influenza or 
contagious pleuropneumonia (Brustseuche) to be two independent diseases. 

The etiolog-y and therapy of typhoid fever or influenza in the horse 
(Pferdestaupe), B. Bemelmans (Centbl. Bakt. [etc.'], 1. AU., Orig., 68 (1913), 
No. 1, pp. S-28, fig. 1). — Investigations extending over a period of 5 years lead 
the author to distinguish between catarrhal influenza or typhoid fever (Pferde- 
staupe) and contagious pleuro-pneumonia (Brustseuche) of the horse, which 
he considers to be two independent affections. 

He concludes that the influenza (Pferdestaupe) virus is ultravisible, as re- 
ported by Basset (E. S. R., 28, p. 184), since the affection can be transmitted 
by the porcelain filter filtrate from blood obtained from horses naturally or 
artificially infected. The virus may remain virulent for a long time, even 
for 3 years, in the seminal vesicles of a healthy stallion which may infect mares 
at the time of service. Such mares act as a source of infection to other horses 
in the stable. The infection is not transmitted to any distance by interme- 
diary carriers. The period of incubation in artificially infected animals is from 
3 to 5 days. In blood kept at room temperature the virus loses its virulence 
in 3 mouths. The course of influenza is benign, save in colts and pregnant 
mares, and under normal conditions recovery takes place in from 10 to 12 
days. The author considers it desirable that horses at remount stations be 
artifically infected with the influenza virus and that this be done as soon as 
possible after their arrival at the station. 

Influenza among- remounts and its treatment with salvarsan, Jageb 
(Ztschr. VeteriivdrJc., 25 {1913), No. 7, pp. 289-299; ahs. in Vet. Jour., 69 
(1913), No. 460, pp. 470, 4'^1)- — This paper is based upon studies of a large 
number of cases of the disease. The treatment with salvarsan consisted in 
the injection of 3 gm. dissolved in 150 cc. of a 0.9 salt solution into the jugular 
vein, one dose being sufficient. 

The author finds that " salvarsan causes a quick decline of fever and a short- 
ening of the whole fever period, a slow favorable infiuence on the activity of 
the heart, a limiting and retarding of the pneumonia, a beneficial effect on 
the appetite and general condition — loss of weight seldom occurred, a shorten- 
ing of convalescence, no checking or avoidance of dreaded subsequent effects — 
tendonitis, roaring, etc., scarcely any arrest or stoppage of the source of infec- 
tion, and scarcely any shortening of the duration of the illness." 

A note upon strang-les in the Philippine Islands, W. H. Boynton (Philip- 
pine Jour. ScL, Sect. B, 8 (1913), No. 3, pp. 237-240) .—" From the results 
derived from the cultures and from microscopic examinations of the purulent 
discharges, it is evident that streptococcic infection exists In horses in the 
Philippine Islands. 

" Since bouillon cultures had no effect on rabbits and guinea pigs when inocu- 
lated subcutaneously, and did have decided effect upon a horse, it proves con- 
clusively that the organism isolated was Btreptococcus equi. No white mice 
w^ere on hand, so the virulence of the culture could not be tested on them. 

"From the information gained through inquii-y it is very evident that 
strangles is a widesi^read disease among horses in the Islands, an interesting 
fact in view of the reputed rarity of streptococcic infections in man." 

Protective substances of fowl cholera immune serum, E. Weil (Arch. Hyg., 
76 (1912), No. S, pp. 343-400 ; ahs. in Ztschr. Immunitdtsf. u. Expt. Ther., II, 
Bef., 6 (1912), No. 12, p. 911). — The immunizing power of immune serum which 



RURAL ENGINEERING. 187 

was first brought into contact with killed fowl cholera bacteria was lowered or 
entirely destroyed when injected into animals which received simultaneously 
intraperitoneal or subcutaneous injections of the bacteria. If the immuniza- 
tion is made 18 hours before the infection, the weakening effect is not noted. 
If the animal is infected peritoneally and inmiunized at the same time, but 
with a dose selected to kill after 18 to 20 instead of 12 hours, the immunizing 
power of the serum is not affected. 

The rapid cure of polyneuritis gallinarum by intramuscular injection of 
a substance isolated from rice — note on the pathology of the disease, O. 
Wellman, a. C. Eustis, and L. C. Scott (Amer. Jour. Trap. Diseases and 
Prev. Med., 1 {WIS), No. 4, pp. 295-299) .—The investigations of which the 
preliminary report is here given were carried on along lines similar to those 
indicated by Funk (E. S. R.,-27, p. 868) and others. 

Healthy chickens were fed on diets of polished rice, grits, and sago, and in 
the interval before the symptoms of polyneuritis should show themselves, intra- 
muscular injections were made of extracts of rice polish prepared by the same 
method as that used by Funk, save that after concentrating " and neutralizing 
with NaOH, Ba(0H)2 w'as added and the barium soaps together with the preci- 
pitated phytin filtered off. Barium was eliminated with carbon dioxid and 
sulphuric acid, following which came the precipitation with phosphotungstic 
acid, its decomposition with baryta, and concentration of the filtrate in vacuo at 
from 50 to 56° C." 

The authors feel justified in drawing the following provisional conclusions 
from the investigations as thus far conducted: "The curative substance acts 
independently of the liver or alimentary tract, and it is readily absorbed from 
intramuscular injections. Degeneration of the nerves is confined principally 
to disturbance in the myelin sheath of the fibers. Neither the sensory nor motor 
tracts of the cord, medulla, or brain undergo any observable changes. There is 
a possibility that the cause of convulsions may lie in spinal irritation caused by 
subdural hematomas due probably to increased permeability of the vessel walls." 

RURAL ENGINEERING. 

Irrig-ation branch (Rev. Rpt. Bihar and Orissa [India], Irrig. Branchy 
1911-12, pp. //-f 9+24+28+5+2). —The transactions of the irrigation depart- 
ment of the Government of Bihar and Orissa for the year 1911-12 are given in 
so far as they relate to works of irrigation and navigation. 

Irrigation of Santa Cruz Valley, M. C. Hinderlider {Engin. Rec, 68 (1913), 
Nos. 8, pp. 200, 201, figs. 3; 9, pp. 242, 243, figs. 8).— This article describes a 
system for recovering underground water in Arizona by means of deep wells 
and pumping stations. Since the water-bearing formation underlying the im- 
pervious subformation beneath the valley is comparatively shallow it was nec- 
essary to develop unusual and novel features, the most important of which is a 
recovery system consisting of 19 wells drilled to depths ranging from 45 to 150 
ft. in a straight line across the narrow part of the valley to intercept the under- 
ground waters, together wath the necessary pumping equipment. These wells 
are connected by means of a gravity conduit of reinforced concrete 4,740 ft. in 
length, located and built from 5 to 12 ft. below the water plane of the valley. 

The distributing system consists of a reinforced concrete pipe line 48 in. in 
diameter and 1,500 ft. in length, forming the outlet from the recovery system ; 
a 48 in. concrete siphon under the Santa Cruz River; about 7 miles of earth 
canal, some of which is lined with concrete; and 21 miles of laterals. 

Pressure pipes for the conveyance of water and for inverted siphons, 
B. A. Etcheverry (Jour. Electricity, 30 (1913), Nos. 21, pp. 41 4, 415, figs. 2; 22, 
28054°— 14 7 



188 EXPEKIMENT STATION EECOKD. 

pp. 494, 495, figs. 4). — The mathematical analyses given of tne design of sheet 
steel and wooden stave pressure pipes include the derivation of formulas for 
thickness of steel pipe, size and spacing of bands, and size of staves for wooden 
stave pipe. Wooden stave pipe are claimed to be cheaper than steel pipe, not 
subject to corrosion, to have a greater carrying capacity than a riveted steel 
pipe of the same diameter, if kept saturated to be of probably greater dura- 
bility, and to be unaffected by heat or cold. Its disadvantages are that it must 
be kept saturated continually and is liable to destruction by fire. 

Methods of constructing reinforced concrete pressure pipe are described. 

The economics of pipe line diameters {Engin. and Contract., 40 {1913), 
No. 9, pp. 237-240, figs. 8). — In a paper taken from the proceedings of the 
Pacific Northw^est Society of Engineers C. W. Harris analyzes, mathematically 
and graphically, methods for determining economical pipe line construction for 
power development, water supply, and irrigation, considering first the smallest 
pipe which will deliver a given amount of power ; second, the smallest allowable 
diameter without exceeding allowable velocities; and third, economical diame- 
ter considering the value of the water right. 

The following points are summarized as solutions to these considerations : 

When the water consumed has no value it is allowable to use the smallest 
possible pipe line for power which, with a friction loss of one-third of the total 
head, will deliver a quantity of water sufficient to produce the required power 
with the other two-thirds of the total head. 

If a pipe line is subjected to a varying head throughout its length, but the 
cost for any particular diameter remains constant for those various heads, the 
diameter should also remain constant throughout; but if the cost of the pipe 
is dilferent for the different heads the diameter should be smaller for the larger 
head. The correct diameter under any particular head is that which will make 
n/5 of the cost of the pipe for a given length equal to the capitalized value 
of the power consumed by friction in that same length, n being 2 for steel pipe 
and 1.5 for wooden stave pipe, and for any pipe taking the index of d in the ex- 
pression. Cost = M"-, in which k is a constant depending on the cost of steel 
per pound, interest, depreciation, etc. With this diameter determined under 
one head the diameter of the same pipe under any other head should vary 
inversely as the seventh root of the head if the pipe is a high-pressure steel 
pipe, or as the ninth root of the head if the pipe is wood stave. If the quantity 
to be delivered is fixed, and the available friction loss is also fixed, as is the 
case with a pipe line connecting two reservoirs of fixed elevations, the diameter 
of the pipe line should vary throughout the length thereof according to the 
laws expressed* above, the head to which the pipe is subjected being the static 
head for which the pipe is designed. 

Light-iron irrig'ation flume (Engin. Rec, 68 (1913), No. 6, p. 153, figs. 3). — 
This article notes the use of light semicircular ingot-iron smooth flumes 
installed on a light wooden substructure on the Pala Indian Reservation in 
California. The sections vary from 12.5 to 15 in. in radius. After comple- 
tion carrying-capacity tests gave a value for the coefficient of roughness in 
Kutter's formula of 0.010 for a 30 in. diameter flume. The total cost, including 
substructure, was $2.61 per lineal foot. 

Heavy oil as fuel for internal combustion engines, I. C. Allen (U. 8. 
Dept. Int., Bur. Mines Tech. Paper 37, pp. 36; Sci. Amer. Sup., 76 (1913), No. 
1977, i)p. 326, 327; Indus. Engin. and Engin. Digest, 13 {1913), No. 9, pp. 392- 
395). — ^A review of heavy fuel oils available for use in internal combustion 
engines is followed by a discussion of heavy oil engines, including the Diesel 
and semi-Diesel types and a summary of the requirements of heavy oil engines 



BURAL ENGINEERING. 189 

relating to ease of starting, steady and efficient operation at all loads, complete 
combustion, simplicity in regulation, and low first cost. 

The fuel economy of heavy oil engines is briefly summarized as follows: 
Approximately 0.4 lb. of oil is consumed per horsepower hour, whereas for a 
steam engine of the best triple expansion tyi^e from 1.1 to 1.8 lbs. of fuel are 
necessary, thus giving an economy ratio of approximately 1 : 3 in favor of the 
oil engine. 

Fuels that may be successfully used in heavy oil engines are enumerated as 
follows: Petroleum products, "Steinkohle" oil products, bituminous oils, lignite 
products, turf oils, shale oils, vegetable oils, animal oils, alcohols, and wood 
oils. 

Specifications for fuels and lubricants for heavy oil engines are summarized 
'as follows: The oil should be mobile at 0° C. Sluggish oils should be heated 
before being introduced into the engine, and oil should contain not more than 
0.4 per cent of material insoluble in xjieue. The residue on coking should not 
be greater than 3 per cent and there should not be more than a trace of free 
carbon in the oil. At least 80 per cent of the oil should distill over at 350° 
and heavy oils and residues should properly be distilled before using. The 
flash point should be between 60 and 100°. A heavy oil containing no material 
having a low flash point should be enlivened by the addition of about 2 per 
cent of a " gas oil," the flash point being 60 to 100° or less. The specific gravity 
should not be greater than 0.920. The heating value should be not less than 
9,000 calories, the hydrogen content not less than 10 i^er cent, and the sulphur 
content not more than 0.75 per cent. The oil should contain no free ammonia, 
alkali, or mineral acids, not more than 0.05 per cent of noncombustible mineral 
matter, and not more than 1 per cent of water. The resin content should be 
low, the parafiin content not more than 15 per cent, the creosote content not 
more than 12 per cent, and the asphaltum content sufficiently low to allow 
the fluid to flow. Fine atomization is essential. 

The viscosity of lubricants should be between 9 and 10° Engler at 50°. The 
lubricants should be liquid at — 5° and should not freeze solid above — 10°. 
The flash point should, be between 220 to 240° in a Pensky-Martens closed 
tester. The lubricant should lose not more than 10 per cent by carbonization 
when agitated with concentrated sulphuric acid, should dissolve completely 
and clearly in benzene, and should be free from acids and alkali. Animal and 
vegetable oils should not be used. 

It is stated in conclusion that the heavy oil engine can not yet be considered 
as fully developed, but the fact that petroleum containing as high as 20 per 
cent asphaltum as well as oils from tars have been successfully used is most 
encouraging for its future. 

Naphthalin for gas engines (Gas Engine, 15 (1913), No. 8, pp. 455, 456). — 
Attention is called to the use of naphthalin in internal-combustion engines. It 
is stated that this material consists of approximately 94 per cent carbon and 
6 per cent hydrogen, melts at 174° F., boils at 424°, and has a speciflc gravity 
of 1.15. 

Carbureters adapted to the use of naphthalin are (1) those which melt and 
vaporize the naphthalin itself, and (2) those which vaporize a solution of the 
substance in some volatile liquid. Ether is the best solvent, but its cost is 
prohibitive. Benzine dissolves from 30 to 40 per cent at atmospheric tempera- 
ture, and alcohol may be also used, although in every case a heated carbureter is 
necessary. 

The advantages claimed for naphthalin are as follows: It is not readily in- 
flammable ; for a given amount of work it occupies smaller space than gasoline ; 



190 EXPERIMENT STATION EECOED. 

it solidifies in cold air, tlius minimizing the possibility of leakage; and it lias 
a definite composition. 

In French tests of this fuel a 4-cylinder motor with a 135-mm. bore and a 
145-mm. stroke developed 35 b. h. p. at 888 r. p. m. at a cost per brake horse- 
power hour of about ^ ct, and a 2-cylinder motor with an 88-mm. bore and 
140-mm. stroke developed 8 h. p. at 1,100 r. p. m. at a cost per brake horsepower 
hour of about ^ ct. 

The naphthalin motor, O. H. Haenssgen (Oas Engine, 15 {1913), ISlo. 10, 
pp. 537-542, figs. 6). — The mechanical details and operation of several makes of 
both 2- and 4-cycle motors operating on naphthalin fuel are described. All of 
these require a light liquid fuel for starting and stopi3ing and for generating 
heat, either in the exhaust or in the cooling water, sufficient to melt the 
naphthalin. 

Connecting electric motors for direct drive, C. B. Mills (Brick and Clay 
Rec, 43 (1913), No. 5, pp. 468-470, figs. 2).— This article takes up the purely 
mechanical considerations in the application of electric motors to machinery and 
deals with the advantages and disadvantages of several styles of connection 
between motor and machine, including belt, rope, toothed chain, gear-and-pinion 
connections, and cushion and flange couplings for direct connections. 

The transmitting powers of belts and ropes at various speeds are graphically 
represented and designs of connections are mathematically analyzed. It is 
stated that since the armature of the average type and size of motor is com- 
posed of a great number of parts of little mechanical strength it is important 
to choose a method of connection which will tend to absorb or minimize shock 
and vibration. 

Installation and care of storag-e batteries, H. M. Nichols (Sci. Amer. Sup., 
76 (1913), No. 1965, pp. 130, 131).— This article considers the layout and instal- 
lation of storage batteries and takes up in detail their operation and mainte- 
nance, including the location and correction of the most frequent troubles. 
These are enumerated as short-circuiting, sulphating, flaking, disintegration, 
and warping of the plates. It is stated that each cell in a battery should be 
carefully inspected and tested, when fully charged, once a week, and that a 
record should be kept of weekly inspections of each cell for comparative 
purposes. 

The Winnipeg tractor trials, L. W. Ellis (Sci. Amer., 119 (1913), No. 10, 
pp. 201-204). — These trials, the sixth of their kind, brought out the fact that 
both large and small farmers are now more keenly interested in the medium to 
small general-purpose tractor. 

The tests consisted of (1) a 2-hour economy brake test; (2) a i-hour maxi- 
mum brake test; (3) a 8 to 5-hour economy, efficiency, and capacity plowing 
test; and (4) a careful comparison of design and construction. Out of 500 
points the first was allotted 150, the second 50, the third 200, and the fourth 
100. The highest net score attained was 4.37.3 points. The brake showings 
were quite uniformly good, and little distinction was made between the tractors 
on design and construction. A new feature was the use of a vibration de- 
tector. The most severe criticisms on design and construction were on lubri- 
cating systems and insufficient protection of working parts from mud and dust. 

The plowing tests were held on ground which had been plowed before and 
which had a 2 ft. growth of weeds. The average cost of plowing per acre for 
steam engines was 46.3 cts., for kerosene 50.9 cts,, and for gasoline 62.1 cts. 
The 5- and 6-plow tractors plowed about 1* acres per hour, the 4-plow rigs 
about 1 acre, 8-plow rigs behind large gas tractors 2i acres, and 10-plow rigs 
2f to 3 acres. Plow for plow the steam engines showed more capacity, largely 
due to higher geared speed of travel. 



RURAL ECONOMICS. 191 

Revolution counters on both engines and brakes showed a variation in belt 
slippage of from 0.3 to 1.5 per cent. 

Gasoline tractors average<l close to 4 times as many horsepower hours per 
unit of fuel as steam tractors, while kerosene tractors secured about 3 times 
the fuel elficiency of the steam tractors. Excluding labor costs, however, the 
steam tractors developed brake horsepower at a rough average of 20 per cent 
less than the kerosene engines and every steamer defeated every gasoline 
tractor on fuel cost per unit of brake power. This is considered a powerful 
factor in retaining the moderate-sized steam tractor of from 50 to 75 b. h. p. 
wherever threshing is of greater importance than plowing. 

Tables of data are appended showing the most important points of compari- 
son, the total scores, and the relative standings. 

Mechanical cultivation in Germany, F. Bornemann and B. Donath {Die 
Motorkultur in Deutschland. Berlin, 1913, pp. VIII +230, figs. 121).— This book, 
based on the results of extended experiments, deals, in connection with mechan- 
ical cultivation, with economy in the purchase of motor cultivating machinery 
in Germany, and calls attention to the special points to be considered in the 
judgment and choice of the various types for various classes of work. A chap- 
ter on historical development is followed by a discussion of the relation of 
mechanical cultivation to political and actual working economy. 

From a comparison of motor plows and scarifiers with steam tractor plows 
it is concluded that the first two are best adapted to shallow surface cultivation 
while the last is adapted to deep plowing. A comparison of mechanical and 
electrical cultivation indicates that the first is on the whole the cheaper. An 
exhaustive discussion of the mechanical details of motor cultivating machinery 
calls particular attention to those points to be criticized in selecting or buying 
machinery for various works. 

Descriptions of several single systems include both disk and moldboard 
plows, among which, are (1) a plow and motor built together in a single 
frame, (2) one in which they are in separate frames and connected by chains 
or other coupling, (8) rope and windlass-drawn gang plows, (4) rotating 
disk plows, and (5) motor scarifiers. 

In conclusion it is stated that so far no motor cultivators have been put 
upon the market which are adapted to all conditions, and that their profitable 
use is a matter depending on the good judgment of the owner. 

Various devices for drying the autumn forag-e harvest, Rahm {Illus. 
Landic. Ztg., 32 {1912), Xo. 80, pp. 741, 7^2, figs. i7).— Several devices are 
illustrated and described which are used in Germany, Sweden, and the hill lands 
of other European countries. Among these are wooden rail frames, post and 
wire frames, and posts fitted with teeth. 

RURAL ECONOMICS. 

Cooperation and nationality, G. W. Russell {DuUin, 1912, pp. 104). — The 
various rural activities as they bear upon the social and economic life of a 
nation and its rural population are discussed in this volume in chapters with 
the following headings: The problem of rural life, past. and present conditions, 
need for an agricultural revolution, the rise of agricultural cooperation, build- 
ing up a new social order, town and country, organized communities and po- 
litical life, the creation of citizens, women on the land, union of men and women 
workers, farmers and the State, ideals of the new rural society, and life finding 
its level. 

The legal status of farmers' cooperative associations {Internat. Inst. Agr. 
[Romc^, Mo. Bui. Econ. and Soc. Intel, 4 {1913), No. 10, pp. 18-25).— This 



192 EXPERIMENT STATION EECORD. 

article enumerates and describes briefly some of the diflSciilties experienced in 
organizing farmers' cooperative associations under existing laws in tlie United 
States and calls attention to special provisions made for such associations in 
the States of California, Wisconsin, Massachusetts, Nebraska, and Texas. 

Agrarian reforms and the evolution of the rural classes in Russia, P. 
Chasles (Rev. Econ. InternaK, 10 (1913), IV, No. 1, pp. 55-85). — This article 
discusses and illustrates the significance of various agricultural questions in 
Russia, as, for example, the work of the rural bank and its relation to emigra- 
tion in Russian Asia, the growth of rural estates, transition from agricultural 
collectivism to individual property, the redistribution of land and the breaking 
up of the village community, the results of agricultural organization, and the 
progress of rural agriculture during the last few years. 

United effort for farm betterment and rural progress (Farm and Home 
[Mass.], 34 (1913), No. 731, pp. 639, 643, figs. 4).— This article outlines the plan 
and describes the efforts of the Hampden County Improvement League of 
Massachusetts to consolidate the various agencies in the county for economic 
social progress in the small villages and rural districts. In the 6 months since 
the league was formally organized, pledges of financial support aggregating 
over $10,000 have been obtained and a corps of 3 advisers appointed. ^Slore than 
300 farmers have been visited and advised as to methods, fertilizers, land 
drainage, seeds and seeding, testing milk, judging and selecting dairy animals, 
etc., and 442 farmers about general orcharding. The advisers have also aided 
in purchasing lime and fertilizers, introducing alfalfa and other crops, and 
forming local organizations. In one of these, the fruit growers' association in 
Granville, the members have received from $3.75 to $4 per barrel for apples this 
year while nonmembers received from $2.75 to $3. Other illustrations of the 
work are given. 

Agricultural credit banks of the world (Banking Law Jour. Yearbook, 
1913, pp. 40, figs. 12). — ^A brief but comprehensive discussion of the actual 
operations of foreign mortgage loan systems and the cooperative agricultural 
credit system is here presented. Accounts of typical mortgage loan banks are 
given which serve to illustrate the relation of agriculture to the credit facili- 
ties in the various countries. 

Cooperative credit associations in Canada, T, K. Doherty (Internai. Inst. 
Agr. [Rome], Mo. Bui. Econ. and Soc. Intel., 4 (1913), No. 6, pp. 16-22).— This 
article presents a brief summai'y of the conditions leading to the establishment 
of cooperative credit banks or associations in Canada, describes their system 
of administration, and submits a statement as to the amount of business done 
by a number of them. 

There were 98 such associations in the Province of Quebec in 1912, besides 
several in Ontario. The capital is raised by selling shares and by utilizing 
the profits. A member's liability does not exceed the limited amount of stock 
he can hold, and he has but one vote. Loans for purposes which conform with 
the aims of the association are granted on the note of the borrowing share- 
holder alone or may be guarantied by other solvent members. The running 
expenses of these associations are found to be light, the only ofllcial being the 
business manager, who is paid according to the time he devotes to the work. 
Further details are presented by notes and tables. 

The work of the special agricultural credit institutes in 1912 (Internat. 
Inst. Agr. [Rome'], Mo. Bill. Econ. and Soc. Intel., 4 (1913), No. 10, pp. 55-63).— 
The work of the special agricultural credit institutes in 11 Provinces of southern 
Italy and Sicily which under the law of 1911 came under the management of the 
savings department of the Bank of Naples and the agricultural credit depart- 
ment of the Bank of Sicily, respectively, is briefly summarized. 



AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION. 193 

Tables are given showing amount of loans granted by each institution for 
various farm operations, together with the security therefor. The operations 
concluded by the Bank of Naples during the year amounted to 9,353,833 francs, 
the loans on legal preference mortgages representing 63.42 per cent, those not 
so secured 30.04 per cent, and those secured on the deposit of agricultural 
produce 6.49 per cent. Of the total loans 11,730, amounting to 4,327,975 francs, 
were granted to landholders working their farms, and 6,142, amounting to 
2.753,899 francs, to tenant farmers. The agricultural credit department of the 
Bank of Sicily granted loans during the year to 38,155 intermediary organiza- 
tions, amounting to 12,025,635 francs. 

Tables are given showing the classification and amount of loans according to 
the different crops and the position of the borrower. 

Government valuation of land (lYeto Zeal. Off. Yearbook 1912, pp. 602- 
622).— The various features of the Valuation of Land Act, passed by the New 
Zealand Government in 1896 and amended in 1908, are described here in detail. 
The valuation rolls, showing the selling value of all land in the Dominion, 
are used for taxation pui-poses as a basis on which loans may be granted by 
the New- Zealand State-guarantied Advances Office and for the guidance of 
the Land Purchase Board when acquiring land under the Land for Settle- 
ments Act, and by others who may desire to ascertain the selling value of any 
piece of land for- investment, mortgage, etc. 

Tables are given showing the capital value of the land with improvements, 
together with improved values by counties and boroughs, 1878-1912. 

Studies of primary cotton market conditions in Oklahoma, W. A. Sherman, 
F. Taylor, and C. J. Brand (U. 8. Dept. Agr. BiiL 36, pp. 36).— This bulletin 
presents the results of a market survey made in 103 towns in Oklahoma in 
which were secured samples of over 3,200 bales of cotton with records of date 
and place of sale and price paid to the grower. Comparisons are made as to 
the classification of the grades and the difference in prices paid in some markets 
on the same day for bales of identical quality. Such variation in prices is 
shown to have amounted to as much as $12.50 per bale for low middling cotton. 
"The greatest losses to the farmers under the present system of marketing 
appear to lie in their failure to secure the premium for their high grades which 
these grades finally bring." 

Notes and tables are given showing in detail the results of the survey. 
An example of successful farm management in southern New York, M. C. 
Burritt and J. H. Barron (U. 8. Dept. Agr. Bui. 32, pp. 24, figs, o).— This bulle- 
tin describes at length the methods employed by a farmer without previous 
experience in converting a farm not paying expenses into a profitable enterprise. 
It gives the method of solving some of the important problems in farm man- 
agement by improving the dairy, diversifying crops, the use of rotations, and 
the intelligent use of horse and man labor. Tables are given showing the cost, 
yield, and income of the various farm operations. 

What I know about farming-, E. J. Grinnell {Minneapolis, Minn.. 1913. pp. 
328, pis. 37).— In this book the author discusses, largely from his own experi- 
ence, various phases of farming and farm life, such as soil fertility and fer- 
tilization ; the business farmer and his qualification ; farm buildings ; pastures 
and meadows; the vegetable garden; corn and small grains; small fruit rais- 
ing; the orchard; trees and farm forestry; the flower garden; bees; poultry; 
stock breeding; dairying: frosts and sprays; the woman on the farm; early- 
day farming in the East ; and miscellaneous other subjects. 



194 EXPEKIMENT STATION KECOKD. 

AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION. 

Agricultural and forestry instruction in Italy, A. Kastner (Land u. ForsHo. 
Unterrichts Ztg., 27 {1913), No. 1-2, pp. 108-128) .—An account is given of the 
present status of agricultural and forestry instruction in Italy administered by 
(1) agricultural high schools at Milan, Perugia and Portici ; (2) royal technical 
agricultural schools, including the viticultural schools at Alba, Avellino, Ca- 
gliari, Catania, and Conegliano ; (3) royal agricultural special schools, viz, the 
Royal Pomological and Horticultural School at Florence, and the Royal Veterinary 
and Dairy School at Reggio-Emilio ; (4) royal practical agricultural schools of 
which there are 28; (5) 3 private agricultural institutions including the Agri- 
cultural Colonial Institute at Florence, and 2 practical schools; (6) agricultural 
and housekeeping schools for girls; (7) agricultural experimental institutions; 
(8) itinerant agricultural instruction; (9) traveling agricultural libraries; and 
(10) the Royal School of Forestry at Yallombrosa, and the Royal School for 
the Training of Forest Guards at Cittaducale. 

[Agricultural and forestry instruction in Austria and Italy] {Land u. 
Forstw. Unterrichts Ztg., 21 {1913), No. 1-2, pp. V+168+LXIX).— In addition 
to several articles abstracted elsewhere in this issue, this report includes (1) 
statistics of agricultural education institutions in Austria in 1912-13, showing 
an addition during the year of 1 agricultural intermediate school, 5 agricultural 
winter schools, 2 housekeeping schools, an agricultural winter and vegetable 
culture school, and a school for fruit growing, and the discontinuance of a farm 
and hop culture school. 2 agricultural winter schools, a housekeeping school, 
and a brewing school; (2) a review of agricultural literature, and (3) a list 
of the agricultural and forestry education institutions in Austria with their 
faculties. 

The celebration of the anniversary of the Imperial Royal High School of 
Agriculture of Vienna (Land u. Forstw. Unterrichts Ztg., 27 {1913), No. 1-2, 
pp. 1-11). — This is an account of the celebration on May 8 and 9, 1913, of the 
one-hundredth anniversary of the establishment of the institute for forestry 
instruction, known later as the forest academy at Mariabrunn, which in 1875 
was transferred to the High School of Agriculture of Vienna as the first insti- 
tute for higher instruction in forestry ; also of the fortieth anniversary of the 
establishment of the High School of Agriculture of Vienna, concerning which 
a description of its most important periods of development is given. 

Report of the department of agriculture of Norway, 1912 {Aarsher. 
Otfentl. Foranst. Landhr. Fremme, 1912, III, Statsforanst, pp. LXXXV+35+ 
594)' — This report gives a comprehensive survey of the work of the various 
government agencies established for the advancement of Norwegian agriculture 
and its various branches. The annual reports of the state agricultural experi- 
ment stations, seed control stations, milk control stations, and cow-testing asso- 
ciations are included. 

World's dairy schools, trans, by J. H. Monrad {N. Y. Produce Rev. and 
Amer. Cream., 36 {1913), Nos. 6, pp. 258, 259; 7, pp. 302, 304; 8, p. 348; 10, 
p. 430; 11, p. 4'^2). — This condensation of a lecture delivered by Dairy Coun- 
selor G. Ellbrecht at the Dalum Dairy School in Denmark gives an account of 
the facilities for dairy instruction in Norway, Sweden, Finland, Prussia, Hol- 
land, Belgium, and Switzerland. 

Practical School of Aviculture {Rev. Vet. e Zootech., 3 {1913), No. 4, pp. 
257-261). — The objects and methods of instruction of the Practical School of 
Aviculture of Ascurra in the Federal District of Rio de Janiero are set forth. 
The school has an extensive area of land with equipment for an essentially 
practical instruction. Its object is to train students to direct poultry farms or 
enterprises, and to become poultry specialists. The students assist in the work 



AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION. 195 

of the farm and each in turn has charj;e of the various operations in poultry 
keeping. A 3 months' course is offered, beginning each quarter. 

Vocational education, R. O. Small {Amer. School Bd. Jour., Jfi (1913), 
No. 4, pp. 12, 13, 55, 56). — According to this article vocational agricultural 
departments were in operation in 3912 at 5 Massachusetts high schools. Two 
county high schools and 4 new departments in high schools have since been 
established. The scheme of agricultural work devised provides productive 
home-farm operations carried on for profit by the pupils at the same time they 
are studying the agricultural science bearing upon these operations. During the 
year 11 different types of farm projects were selected, ranging from a small gar- 
den to a dairy in which 12 Jersey cows were handled and money transactions to 
the extent of $1,200 engaged in. See also a previous note (E, S. R. 28, p. 106). 

The importance, extent, and execution of student practice at agricultural 
schools (Land u. Forstw. Unterrichts Zt(/., 21 {1913), No. 1-2, pp. 18-33).— This 
symposium of practicums in agricultural schools discusses their use in agricul- 
tural intermediate schools (Mittelschulen) by Fritz Schneider; in farm schools 
by Alois Gross, and in agricultural winter schools by H. Maresch. 

Efforts to reform the system of g'ardening- instruction, K, Schechner 
(Land u. Forstw. Unterrichts Ztg., 21 (1913), No. 1-2, pp. 3^-41).— The new 
management of the Imperial Royal Horticultural Society of Vienna is endeav- 
oring to bring about a reform in the system of gardening instruction in Aus- 
tria, and as a first step is establishing horticultural apprentice schools, 4 of 
which are now in operation with good attendance. The principal object of 
these schools is to extend the technical knowledge and general culture, and to 
give some commercial training. The instruction is given for 2 years during 
the 6 winter months, 9 hours a week in 3 periods from 6 to 8 p. m,, and on 
Sundays from 9 to 12 a, m. 

There is also a 2-year course in the schools for gardeners' assistants, admis- 
sion to which requires the completion of the full course of the apprentice 
schools. Both schools offer practical summer courses in the first year. The 
first Austrian horticultural week was held from December 9 to 14, 1912, in 
Vienna, to give experienced gardeners opportunity to learn of the results of 
recent investigations and experience. Suggestions are also given for the in- 
struction of persons desiring to learn gardening who can not attend school. 
For the training of horticulturists higher horticultural schools are provided. 

Proposals to bring- about uniformity in the methods of instruction in the 
lower agricultural schools with special reference to schools for wine growers, 
F, Jachimowicz (Land u. Forstw. Unterrichts Ztg., 27 (1913), No. 1-2, pp. 
42-54). — The author suggests and discusses as the most feasible and practical 
school for the majority of farmers a 3-semester school with a small farm and 
offering temporary spring and summer courses. The 2 winter semesters should 
each include 30 hours a week of theoretical instruction, and the summer semes- 
ter should be devoted almost exclusively to practical work. 

Farmers' institutes in Kansas, E. C. Johnson (Agr. Ed. [Eans. Agr. Col.'\, 
5 (1913), No. 22, pp. 40). — This pamphlet describes briefly the purpose, charac- 
ter, organization, and methods of work of the farmers' institutes in Kansas, 
and is intende<l primarily as a handbook for the institute officers. 

Suggestive topics for institute meetings are given on soil fertility, soil tillage, 
the summer fallow, crops, seed and seed selection, crop rotation, weeds, plant 
diseases, insects, silos and silage, dairying, beef production, farm animals, the 
orchard and the garden, roads, marketing, cooperation, organizations, tenant 
farming and labor, fann management, the home, and sociology. 

A catechism of agriculture, T. C. Atkeson (New York and London, 1913, 
pp. XII-\-96, figs. 34). — This work is a revision of that previously noted (E. S. 



196 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

R., 21, p. 91), considenibly enlarged to make a fairly comprehensive treatment 
of the general field of elementary agriculture. Sections on farm crop manage- 
ment, dairy management, and farm management, have been added, and the 
work is illustrated for the first time. 

A course in agriculture for the high schools of Michigan, W. H. French 
(Mich. Agr. Col., Dept. Agr. Ed. Bill. 11, 1913, pp. 73). — This course is outlined 
in detail, together with suggestions and syllabi on the several subjects to be 
taught. Lists of agricultural reference books, Michigan Station bulletins, sam- 
ple score cards, and an outline or work in nature study and elementary agri- 
culture, with suggested exercises and experiments that should be undertaken 
with pupils in the sixth and seventh grades by the high school teacher of 
agriculture in cooperation with the grade teachers are appended. 

The principles of agriculture through the school and the home garden, 
C. A. Stebbins (New York, 1913, pp. XXVIII+380, figs. 199).— This text has 
been planned for use in the upper four grades. The features of the book are 
the " problem questions " and " home studies," information as to profitable 
marketmg, instructions concerning the forming of agricultural clubs, and data 
on the plan and purposes of the Boys' and Girls' Junior Garden Club. 

The method of the book is far removed from merely dogmatic instruction, the 
pupils being challenged to test and reason. The apparatus required is limited 
and inexpensive. The language is direct and very evidently has the children 
in mind. 

Practicunis for pupils in the chemical laboratory of agricultural inter- 
mediate schools, A. KwisDA (Land ii. Forstw. Unterrichts Ztg., 27 {1913), No. 
1-2, pp. 12-17). — The author discusses the object and character of chemical 
laboratory practicums for pupils in intermediate agricultural scliools and out- 
lines such work for a 3-year course. 

An old and well-known child's plaything' as an expedient in forestry 
instruction (CentU. Gesam. Forstw., 39 (1913), No. 7, pp. 327-332) .—BetSiUed 
directions are given for making a miniature model forest for use in forestry 
instruction. 

The story of our trees, Margaret M. Gregson {Caiiibridge: University Press, 

1912, pp. XII-j-160, figs. 7Jf). — This book is arranged in 24 lessons, each com- 
plete with its own practical work. The lessons are fitted into the natural cycle 
of seasons, and are also adapted to the school year. A list of reference books 
and information concerning diagrams and lantern slides, material, and revision 
questions are appended. 

Common trees: How to know them by their leaves, V. M. Hillyer {Balti- 
more, Aid.: Calvert School [1913], pp. 30, figs. 37). — This manual is arranged 
with a descriptive text of each tree family and its members, together with their 
leaf silhouettes. 

The planting of home grounds, Y. H. Davis {Agr. Col. Ext. Bui. [Ohio 
State Univ.'], 8 {1913), No. 9, pp. 16, figs. 25).- — The author discusses the extent 
of grounds, lawns, style, fences, trees, shrubs, and flowers, and points out a 
number of common errors in treatment. A list of trees, shrubs, etc., that are 
deirable for Ohio and other States of similar climate is included. 

Wisconsin Arbor and Bird Day annual, 1913 {Madison, Wis.: State Supt. 
Put). Instr., 1913, pp. 109, pis. 5, figs. 27). — The governor's proclamation of 
May 2, 1913, as Arbor Day is followed by material on forestry, bird life, wild 
animal life, fire prevention, and good roads, with suggestions on how consider- 
able of this material may be used throughout the year in connection with the 
regular school branches. 

Illinois Arbor and Bird days, F. G. Blair {III. Dept. Put). Instr. Circ. 68, 

1913, pp. 71, figs. 54)' — ^A collection of nature lessons on trees and birds, to- 



MISCELLANEOUS. 197 

getlier with nature poems, some of which were written hy eighth and second- 
grade pupils. 

Arbor Day program, April 25, 1913 (Boise, Idaho: Dept. Ed., 1913, pp. 
13). — This pamplilet contains the governor's Arbor Day proclamation, sugges- 
tions for carrying out the day's i)rogram, and hints on tree planting. 

Farm arithmetic, C. W. Burkett and K. D. Swartzel {,l<lcw York and 
London, 1913, pp. XIII-\-280, pi. 1, figs. 122). — This farm arithmetic is designed 
for use in the last 2 or 3 years of the elementary school. The problems pre- 
sented deal with plant and animal feeding, dairy products, the soil, field crops, 
fruits and vegetables, farm mechanics, silos, forestry, farm accounts, etc. 
Answers are given to all the problems. 

List of references on rural life and culture (Washington: U. S. Bur. Ed., 
1913, pp. 5). — An annotated bibliography with a list of the periodicals indexed 
in its preparation. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Twenty-fifth Annual Report of Colorado Station, 1912 (Colorado Sta. Rpt. 
1912, pp. 51). — This contains the organization list, a financial statement for the 
fiscal year ended June 30, 1912, a report of the director on the work and pub- 
lications of the station, and departmental and other reports. 

Twenty-fifth Annual Report of Massachusetts Station, 1912 (Massachu- 
setts Sta. Rpt. 1912, pts. 1, pp. 2J,0, pis. 12; 2, pp. 97, pis. 4).— Part 1 of this 
report contains the organization list, a list of publications during 1912, a finan- 
cial statement for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1912, a report of the acting 
director, departmental reports, and numerous special papers. The experimental 
work recorded is for the most part abstracted elsewhere in this issue. 

Part 2, which is the portion designed for general distribution, consists of 
pai">ers of a popular nature, abstracted elsewhere in this issue and based on the 
results of observations and experiments of the station, and of a brief summary 
by the acting director of the more important conclusions from these articles. 

Monthly bulletin of the Western Washington Substation, September, 1913 
(Washington Sta., West. Wash. Sta., Mo. Bui., 1 (1913), No. 1, pp. 16, figs. 4)-— 
This series has been begun to give information relative to agricultural practice 
under western Washington conditions. The initial number includes brief articles 
on the following subjects : Farm Management — Green Forage — Fall Seeding, by 
H. L. Blanchard ; Selection of Potato Seed, and A Cover Crop for the Orchard, 
by J. L. Stahl; Trap Nests and Their Use, by V. R. McBride; Developing Early 
Maturing Corn, by B. Stookey ; Fair Exhibits of Horticultural and Agricultural 
Products, by J. L. Stahl and B. Stookey; and Identification of Plant Diseases by 
Station, Directions for INIaking Bordeaux Mixture. Black Leg of Potato, and 
Harvesting and Storing Potatoes with Reference to Disease, by H, L. Rees. 

Organization of the Department of Agriculture, 1913 (U. S. Dept. Agr., 
Organ. Dept. Agr., 1913, pp. 31). — This publication describes briefly the work of 
the various branches of the Department and enumerates the officials responsible 
therefor. 

Organization and conduct of a market service in the Department of 
Agriculture discussed at a conference held at the Department on April 
29, 1913 (U. S. Dept. Agr., Organ, and Conduct Market Serv. m Dept. Agr., 
Apr. 29, 1913, pp. 15). — A summary is given of the proceedings at this confer- 
ence, including an address by G. H. Powell on The California Citrus Industry, 
Its Organization and Operation (pp. 2-6). and abstracts of other addresses. 

List of free and available publications of the United States Department 
of Agriculture of interest to farm women (U. S. Dept. Agr., List Free Pul)s. 
of Interest to Farm Women, 1913, pp. 11).— About 300 publications, classified by 
subjects, are listed. 



NOTES. 



Kansas College and Station. — Work has been begun on the new hog cholera 
plant to consist of a two-story brick building 60 by 40 feet for laboratories, and 
an office, a crematory for refuse, and a set of cement hog pens. The cost of the 
plant will be about $10,000. 

Charles H. Taylor has been appointed in charge of animal husbandry work 
in the extension division. John W. Calvin, assistant in animal nutrition, has 
been appointed assistant professor of agricultural chemistry and assistant 
chemist in the Nebraska University and Station beginning February 1. V. V. 
Detwiler has been appointed assistant in industrial journalism. 

South Dakota College. — Press reports announce that President R. L. Slagle 
has been appointed president of the University of South Dakota beginning 
February 1. Dr. O. E. White, formerly instructor in botany and subsequently 
an assistant and graduate student at the Bussey Institution, has accepted an 
appointment as plant breeder in the Brooklyn Botanic Garden. 

American Association for the Advancement of Science. — ^At the sixty-fifth 
meeting of this association, held at Atlanta December 29, 1913 to January 3, 
1914, former Dean Bailey of Cornell University was chosen vice-president of 
Section M, the new section on agriculture. The Society of American Foresters 
was accepted as an affiliated society. The next meeting of the association will 
be held in Philadelphia. 

Massachusetts Federation for Rural Progress. — This organization was formed 
at a meeting held at the Massachusetts Agricultural College October 21, 1913, 
imder the auspices of the college, the State Board of Education, the State 
Grange, and the Western Massachusetts Chamber of Commerce. About 15 or- 
ganizations participated in the meeting. The constitution, as adopted, provides 
for a council, an executive committee, and three commissions dealing respec- 
tively with farm improvement", marketing and exchange, and community life. 
President Butterfield of the college was chosen president. Dr. David Snedden, 
state commissioner of education, vice-president, and E. L. Morgan, community 
field agent of the college, secretary-treasurer. 

Third Congress of Tropical Agriculture. — This congress will be held in London, 
June 23-30, under the presidency of Prof. Wyndham Dunstan, director of the 
Imperial Institute. Among the topics to be considered are technical research in 
tropical agriculture, scientific problems in rubber production, methods of de- 
veloping cotton cultivation in new countries, problems of fiber production, agri- 
culture in arid countries, and hygiene and preventive medicine in their relation 
to tropical agriculture. Papers on these subjects may be submitted to, and 
further information obtained from, the organizing secretaries of the congress, 
Dr. T. A. Henry and H. Brown, Imperial Institute, London, S. W. 

Fifth International Congress of Rice Culture. — This congress is to be held at 
Valencia, Spain, during the second week in May. It will be divided into sections 
dealing with the breeding, manuring, culture, and harvesting of rice, rice dis- 
eases, commerce in rice, and cooperative methods in rice production and market- 
198 



NOTES. 199 

ing. Papers may be submitted in any language, but unless in French, Italian, 
or Spanish should be accompanied by a summary in Spanish. Additional in- 
formation may be obtained from the Royal Commissioner of Public Works at 
Valencia, who will serve as president of the congress. 

Agricultural Appropriations in New York State. — Among the special appro- 
priations granted by the New York legislature in 1913 were the following: (1) 
For the establishment of a state school of agriculture and domestic science at 
Delhi, $50,000, (2) for the purchase of lands and erection and equipment of 
buildings for the New York State School of Agriculture on Long Island, 
$190,000, (3) for the maintenance and improvement of buildings of the Scho- 
harie State School of Agriculture at Cobleskill, $22,800, and (4) for the estab- 
lishment of a course in practical agriculture at the Plattsburg State Normal 
School, $3,500. 

The Rural Neto Yorker announces that 3 parcels of hind at Farmingdale, 
Long Island, have been purchased as the site of the new state school of agri- 
culture for Suffolk County at a cost of $87,000. 

State Aid for Agricultural Instruction in Tennessee. — An act of the Tennessee 
General Assembly of 1913 increases the state school fund from 25 to 33J i)er 
cent of the gross revenues, or by several hundred thousand dollars annually. 
One of the purposes of this increase is to encourage the introduction of agricul- 
ture, home economics, manual training, and kindred subjects into county ele- 
mentary schools under adequate supervision, through supplementing the sala- 
ries of supervisors in these subjects. For the present school year $10,000 will 
be available for this purpose, and each supervisor may receive therefrom an 
amount equal to one-half of the salary provided by the county, but not less 
than $200 and not more than $500. 

The act also provides that a portion of the state high school fund may be 
devoted to the encouragement of these subjects in county high schools. The 
State Board of Education is authorized to apportion to the high school fund 
of any county in which the proceeds from the high school tax do not amount to 
$2,000 in any one year, the amount necessary to make a high school fund of 
$2,000. but not, however, to exceed $1,500 to any one school in any one year, or 
a total of $50,000 for all schools. Counties receiving such aid must comply 
with the regulations of the State Board of Education with reference to pur- 
chases, equipment, licensing of teachers, and courses of study. 

High School Visitors in Texas. — The board of regents of the University of 
Texjis has recently made provisions for the employment of high school visitors 
who will give special attention to the development of manual training, domestic 
economy, and agriculture. The university now accredits all these subjects for 
admission to the freshman class. 

Agricultural and Home Economics Instruction in the Public Schools of Porto 
Rico. — A recent number of Porto Rico Pro<jres.s announces that a si)ecial teacher 
in agriculture has been provided for every district in the island except San 
Juan, and teachers of household economics in 48 towns. To provide time 
for instruction in agriculture, manual training, home economics and other 
sr)ecial subjects, the course of study has been rearranged. Boys in the sixth, 
seventh, and eighth grades will have 3 periods a week for manual training 
and 2 for agriculture, while the girls in the same grades will have cooking 
3 times a week and sewing the other 2 days. To keep the instruction uniform 
the Department of Education will send out a monthly bulletin outlining the 
work in these subjects to be taken daily. 

University of Manchester. — The new laboratory for research work in agricul- 
tural entomology was opened November 13, 1913, by Sir Sidney Olivier, per- 
manent secretary of the Board of Agriculture and Fisheries. A laboratory 



200 EXPERIMENT STATION EECOED. 

room 58 by 28 feet is available, together with a smaller laboratory, an experi- 
mental field with greenhouses, etc. Dr. A. D. Imms, formerly forest entomolo- 
gist of the government of India, has been appointed first reader in agricultural 
entomology and will conduct researches and supervise the work of research 
students. 

First Horticultural School for Women in France. — The first horticultural school 
for women in France, a higher school of horticulture for young women, was 
opened in the latter part of 1913 at Brie-Comte-Robert, near Paris, under the 
auspices of the Union for the Agricultural and Horticultural Instruction of 
Women. 

Farm Women's Clubs in France. — The minister of agriculture of France has 
issued a circular addressed to the directors of the departmental agricultural 
services authorizing them to organize farm women's clubs in as many commu- 
nities as possible, for the promotion and dissemination of instruction in home 
economics and agriculture. These clubs are to supplement the instruction given 
in the 3 months' courses of the home economics schools now operating in France 
and in the post-scholastic home economics schools, to aid former students of 
these schools to perfect their studies and to give women in general an oppor- 
tunity to procure a professional domestic knowledge. 

The clubs of each department are to be federated and these departmental fed- 
erations combined into a national federation of farm women's clubs, to be 
administered by a central committee at the seat of the ministry of agriculture. 

Pomological Experiment Station in South Russia. — A new experiment station 
for pomology known as the Salghir Station has recently been established in the 
Crimea in South Russia in the town of Simpheropol. The director of the sta- 
tion is S, Mokshetsky, entomologist. The station is anxious to enter into rela- 
tions with the pomological and horticultural institutions of the United States. 

Proposed Agricultural College in Ceylon. — Plans are being made for the estab- 
lishment of a Tropical Agricultural College on the grounds of the Gangaroowa 
Experimental Station, where a tract of 400 acres is available. It is estimated 
that the main college building and equipment and quarters for the staff and 
students will cost from 300,000 to 400,000 rupees ($97,300 to $129,770.) It is 
expected that the staff of the Ceylon Department of Agi'iculture will be avail- 
able for a portion of the instruction work, but that a botanist will also be 
needed. 

Miscellaneous. — The American Phytopathological Society has elected officers 
for 1914 as follows : President, Dr. Haven Metcalf of Washington, D. C. ; vice- 
president, Dr. F. D. Kern of State College, Pa. ; and counsellor, H. R. Fulton of 
West Raleigh, N. C. 

An association of economic entomologists has been formed in Germany and 
held its first meeting at Magdeburg the latter part of October, 1913. Dr. L. 0. 
Howard was elected an honorary member. 

The National Geographic Society has awarded a medal in honor of the late 
Prof. F. H. King, of the University of Wisconsin, for his well-known work on 
Chinese agriculture. 

Dr. Shosuke Sato, professor and dean of the college of agriculture of Tohoku 
University, has been designated as the exchange professor of Japan to Ameri- 
can universities for 1914. 

The Second Annual Conference of Editors of Agricultural Colleges and Ex- 
periment Stations will be held at the State University of Kentucky June 25 
and 26. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

Editor: E. W. ALLEN, Pn. D., Assistant Director, 
Assistant Editor: H. L. Knight. 

EDITORIAL DEPARTMENTS. 

Agricultural Chemistr}^ and Agrotechny— L. W. Fetzer, Ph. D., U. D. 

Meteorology, Soils, and Fertilizers {^; ^r' ||ullinger. 

Agricultural Botany, Bacteriology, Vegetable Pathology j^y" g" i>oyo^' " ' 

Field Crops j^. ^^ Tucker, Ph. D. 

Horticulture and Forestry — E. J. Glasson. 

r, , 1 T-r AT * -J.- fC. F. Langworthy, Ph. D., D. Sc. 

Foods and Human Nutrition U^ j^ Lang 

Zootechny, Dairjang, and Dairy Farming — H. Webster. LIBRARY 

Economic Zoology and Entomology — W. A. Hooker, D. V. M. __„ 

,, , . ,, ,. . rW. A. Hooker. NEW YORK 

Vetermary Medicine <^ T \\t T?rX,..r.^ .^.i 

^ \L. \V. Fetzer. 0OTANICAL 

Rural Engineering — R. W. Trullinger. ncN 

Rural Economics — E. ]\Ierritt. UARDdW' 

Agricultural Education — C. H. Lane. 

Indexes — M. D. Moore. 



CONTENTS OF VOL. XXX, NO. 



Page. 

Recent work in agricultural science 201 

Notes ' 300 

SUBJECT LIST OF ABSTRACTS. 

agricultural chemistry — agrotechny. 

Handbook of biochemistry'- of man and animal, edited by Oppenheimer 201 

Handbook of biochemical methods, edited by Abdcrhalden 201 

Discussions of the Eighth International Congress of Applied Chemistry 202 

Researches on cellulose. Cross and Bevan 202 

Relation of reducing power to fermentation of carbohydrates, Schlichting 202 

On koji acid, a new oi^anic acid formed by Asperqillus oryzx, Yabuta 202 

In regard to the proteolytic activity of taka-diastase, Szdnt6 20\\ 

The nature and function of the plant oxidases, Clark 203 

Investigations in regard to phosphatese, von Euler 203 

Enzym synthesis. — I, Lipase and fat of animal tissues, Bradley 204 

Enzym synthesis. — II, Diastase and glycogen, Bradley and Kellersbergcr 204 

Enzym synthesis. — IV, Lactase of the mammary gland, Bradley 204 

Contributions to our knowledge of the vegetable hemagglutinins, Kobert 204 

The analysis of rare earths and earth acids, Meyer and Hauser 205 

Application of ammonium carbonate method to Hawaiian soils, Rather 205 

The determination of colloids in cultivated soils, Hassler 205 

I 



n CONTENTS. 

Page. 

Loss of fat as a result of drying meat, Tamura 205 

Determination of fat in bread, Grujic 205 

The polarimetric determination of starch in potatoes, Herles 205 

Specific gravity as a factor in separation of frozen fruit, Goukl 206 

Honey examination, Witte 206 

Determination of sucrose in confectionery, Roberts 206 

A method for the detection of color in tea. Read 207 

The chloral hydrate test for charlock, Winton _. 207 

Progress in chemistry of dairy products during 1911, Siegfeld 207 

Determining fat in cheese by acid method without use of amyl alcohol , Kooper . 207 

New acid-butyrometric method for fat in dairy products, Hammerschmidt 208 

Estimation of fat in cheese by the " neu-sal " method, Wendler 208 

Weight of the sugar beet and composition of its juice, Harris and Gortner 208 

Amount of nitrogen in beets and molasses during the years 1907-1911, Saillard . 209 

Quantitative determination of the bitter substances of hops, Adler 209 

The detection and estimation of arachis oil, Evers 209 

A clinical method of estimating calcium in urine and other fluids, Bell 210 

A new method for detecting methyl alcohol, Raikaw 210 

METEOROLOGY — WATER. 

On some meteorological conditions controlling nocturnal radiation, Sutton 211 

Some causes and effects of varia tion in the range of temperature, Sutton 211 

Nitrogen in rain and snow. Knight 211 

Dry season and droughts in Rhodesia, Goetz 211 

The regime of underground waters in the neighborhood of Polesia, Oppokov.. . 211 

Water supplies, with special reference to underground water, Ward 211 

SOILS — FERTILIZERS. 

The geology of soils and substrata, Woodward 212 

The germs of pedology in antiquity Jarilow 212 

Progress in agricultural chemistry since the use of colloid chemistry, Brehm 212 

The possibility of judging soils by their natural vegetation, Vageler 213 

Soil texture, Gimingham , 213 

White soil (Molkenboden) , Hornberger 213 

Marsh of southern Vendee. — Influence of inundation on fertility, Chartron 213 

Soils of the wine district of Arad-Hegyalja and of the Arad plains, Treitz 213 

The soils of the rocky deserts of Turkestan, Neustruev 213 

Tamar River soils, Colbourn 214 

Soil formation in clays of humid regions, Frosterus 214 

The constituents of clay which impart plasticity and cohesion, Atterberg 214 

The cohesive power of different kinds of soils, Puchner 215 

Physico-chemical studies of soils. — II. Hygroscopicity of soils, Pratolongo 215 

Hygroscopicity and chemical composition of certain Java soils, Schuit 215 

Quantitative determination of the absorbed bases in the soil, Prianischnikow . . 215 

The precipitation of iron in podzol soils, Aarnio 216 

Work of chemical laboratory of Ploti Experiment Station, 1912, SkaMkii 216 

Bacterial action in the soil as a function of food concentration, Rahn 217 

Occurrence of Azotobacter in tropical soils, Groenewege 218 

Methods in soil bacteriology. — VI, Ammonification, Lohnis and Green 218 

Nitrate and nitrite assimilation, Baudisch 219 

Studies on the decomposition of cellulose in manures and soils, Miitterlein 219 

Effect of toluol and CSj upon the micro-flora and fauna of the soil, Gainey 219 

Influence of fertilization on the soil, Mausberg '. 219 

Experiences with commercial fertilizers and manure, Lonergan 220 

Fertilizer experiments on peaty meadows in Hungary, Gyarfas 220 

Results with fertilizers during the last twenty-five years, Lemmermann 220 

Bone products and manures, Lambert 221 

The solubility of soil constituents, Fischer 221 

Experiments with crushed phonolite and 40 per cent potash salts, Wagner 221 

Replacing Stassfurt potash salts by phonolite, leucite, etc., Lemmermann 221 

Influence of the condition of soil on utilization of phosphates, Christensen 222 

Origin of the hard rock phosphates of Florida, Sellards 222 

Production of phosphate rock in Florida during 1912, Sellards 222 

Consumption of superphosphates in Hungary, Kovdcsy 222 



CONTENTS. m 

Page. 

Calcium pyrophosphate, Menozzi 222 

The degree of fineness of fertilizer lime, Meyer. 222 

Evolution of sulphur in soil: A study of its oxidation, Brioux and Guerbet 222 

Sediments from Potomac and Shenandoah rivers, Smith and Fry 223 

The production and consumption of chemical fertilizers in the -vvorlfl 223 

Commercial fertilizers and their importance, Kubiorschky 223 

AGRICULTURAL BOTANY. 

Department of botanical research, MacDougal 223 

Origin of species by mutation, Sutton 224 

Coalescence of living plasmas and origin of races and species, Gautier 224 

Studies of natural and artificial parthenogenesis in Nicotiana, Wellington 224 

Periodicity of specific characters, Vuillemin 224 

Biology and radio-activity, Petit 224 

The determination of the rays concerned in chlorophyll synthesis, Dangeard . . 225 

New observations on chlorophyll assimilation, Dangeard 225 

Experiments with static electricity as related to cultivated plants, Trnka 225 

The growth of plants in, partially sterilized soils, Russell and Petherb ridge 225 

Constituents of culture solution and mycelium of molds from soils, Sullivan. . . 226 

Polyatomic alcohols as sources of carbon for molds, Neidig 226 

Influence of starch, peptone, and sugars on toxicity of nitrates, Kunkel 227 

Effect of chloroform on the respiratory exchanges of leaves, Thoday 227 

Tannin and starch in the assimilating organs of Leguminosse, Klenke 227 

The castor bean plant and laboratory air, Harvey 227 

Osmotic pressure in potatoes, Brannon 228 

Inhibition studies on seeds of Avena saliva, Plate 228 

Influence of moisture relations on species of Pinus, Hergt 228 

Defoliation: Its effects on the wood of Larix, Harper 228 

Root secretions of plants, Mitscherlich 228 

FIELD CROPS. 

Test work with forage and field crops], Calvino 228 

iCrop experiments for 1912], Lopez 229 

Crop experiments] 229 

Cooperative fertilizer and variety tests in Malmohus County, 1912, Forsberg 229 

Report on hemp and tobacco in Italy and Holland, Kluftinger et al 229 

Report of agricultural-chemical experiment station at Dublany, 1912, Anson . . 229 

Report of Bankipur Agricultural Experimental Station, 1911-12, Sherrard 229 

Notes on forage plants in Java and India, Piper 229 

Maguey (Cantala) and sisal in the Philippines, Saleeby 229 

Tests of raw phosphates, Galzew and Jakuschkin 229 

A'ariation in rust resistance of spring wheat, barley, and oats, Litwinow 230 

The laying down of permanent pastures and meadows, Lang 230 

The care of permanent meadows and pastures, Lang 230 

The production of grass and hay, Conner 230 

Propagating abacd (Manila hemp) from seed, Saleeby 230 

The renovation of the abaca (Manila hemp) industry, Saleeby 230 

Experiments with alfalfa in 1910 at Turkestan Experiment Station, Shereder.. 230 

Barley, Quante 230 

Svalof golden barley, Tedin 230 

Cultural experiments at Stettin, Stormer 230 

New directions in the work of the selection of maize, Ro^on 231 

Variety tests of imported maize, Rosenfeld 231 

A new variety of maize, Conner 231 

Distance to plant maize, Rosenfeld 232 

Fertilizing maize 232 

The effect of water level on the jdeld of cotton 232 

A report on the production of new cottons. Balls 232 

Experiments in cotton cultivation at Karaiasi, Transcaucasia, Dmitriveski 232 

Aimual report of the government cotton station at ^fvombo 232 

Cowpeas, Blouin " 232 

Don experiment field, Kolesnikov 232 

Fertilizers in the production of hemp, Palladius 232 

Studies on hemp culture in Italy, Bruck 232 



IV CONTENTS. 

Page. 

New cover crop, Spring 233 

The Italian millet (Setaria italica) in Bengal, Woodhouse and Ghosh 233 

Philippine kapok: A promising new industry, Saleeby 233 

Potato breeding, Fruwirth 233 

Notes on the propagation of Rhodes grass for hay, Hungerf ord 233 

Selection of seed rice based on transparency, Crevost 233 

Data concerning varieties of rice, Conner 233 

Salt water rice, Conner 234 

Samar iCyperus alopecuroides) as a reclamation crop, Shepherd 234 

Magnesia fertilizer for sugar beets, Strohmer and Fallada _ 234 

Conditions of seed ball produced by stock beets of different sizes, Remy 234 

The influence of light on sugar formation of beets, Strohmer 234 

Variety tests of sugar cane, Rosenfeld and Hall 234 

Tests in selection of sugar cane before planting, Rosenfeld 234 

Sugar-cane experiments in Antigua and St. Kitts, 1910-11, Tempany 234 

Crops on the experimental sugar-cane fields, 1911, Harrison and Stockdale 234 

Experiments in the cultivation of sugar cane in 1912 and 1013, Blouin 234 

A new earth nut, Barrett 235 

Xenia in wheat, Blaringhem 235 

Notes on wheat, Cascon 235 

Observations on stooling in cereals at Poltava Experiment Station, Leshchenko. 235 

Determination of germinative ability and germinati ve strength of seeds, Oetken . 235 

Report of the superintendent of the seed and weed branch, McKenney 236 

Agrostemma githago and Polygonum convolvulus, Skalosubow 236 

HORTICULTURE. 

Propagation and pruning of hardy trees, shrubs, miscellaneous plants, Newsham . 236 

Practical tree repair, Peets. 236 

The use of arsemcals for plant protection, Fulmek 236 

Effect of bastard trenching on soil and plant growth, Pickering and Russell 236 

An economic study of beans, Ledyard 237 

Differential mortality with respect to seed weight in garden beans, Harris 237 

The pollination of fruit trees and its bearing on planting. Hooper 237 

On the pruning and spacing of grapevines, Vidal 237 

On the behavior of various grape stock on heavy calcareous soil, Faes 237 

Hybrid direct bearers in valley of the Rhone in 1912, Desmoulins and Villard . 238 

Date growing in the Old WorlcL and the New, Popenoe 238 

Tea, Browne 238 

Fertilizers and the freezing of nut trees 238 

Indoor gardening in room and greenhouse, Thomas 238 

The hardy flower book, Jenkins, edited by Harvey 238 

The florest's bibliography: Supplement and index, Pa>Tie 238 

FORESTRY. 

Pi ogress in forestry, hunting, and fishing for 1912, Weber 238 

The present situation of forestry. Graves 238 

Forest map of Brazil, De Campos 238 

Reconnaissance in the Cotteswolds and Forest of Dean, Tansley and Adamson. 239 

The forests and forestry of Germany, Lazenby 239 

Botanical and colonial economic studies of the bamboos, Hosseus 239 

The culture of Manihot glaziovii in East Africa, Janssens 239 

On the economic value of sal (Shorca rohusta), Pearson 239 

The wild plants of the South Kamerun forests used by the natives, Mildbraed. 239 

The present status of the forest seed origin question, Engler 239 

Coast sand dunes, sand spits, and sand wastes. Case 239 

Forest fires in North Carolina during 1912 and fire control. Holmes 239 

Practical experiences in the use of iluorids for wood preservation, Nowotny 239 

DISEASES OF PLANTS. 

The fungus diseases of agricultural plants, Eriksson, trans, by Grevillius 240 

Annual report on plant diseases, 1911, Hollrung '. 240 

A preliminary host index of the fun^i of Michigan, Coons 240 

Report of the phytopathologist at Wageningen for 1911, Ritzema Bo3 240 

Report of the laboratory for plant diseases, Linsbauer et al 240 



CONTENTS. V 

Page. 

Plant diseases observed in 1912 at agricultural academy at Kolozsvar, Grof 240 

Botanical notes from the experimental plats at Ultuna, 1912, llennin:r 24() 

A contribution to the mycological flora of Russia NaoumoU 240 

Amygdalase and amygdalinase in A. niger, Javillier and Tchernoroutzky 241 

Morpnological alterations in A. niger grown in acid and acid salts, Kiesel 241 

Some factors which intluence development of Fenicillium glaucum, Waterman. 241 

The occurrence of smut on the seed of some grasses, Quanjer 241 

The occurrence of rust spores in the interior of seeds of grasses, Beauverie 241 

Injury from rust fungi, Hegyi 241 

Longevity of loose smut of barley in case of infected seed, Zimmermann 241 

Effects on winter rye and wheat of corrosive sublimate, Hiltner 242 

Corrosive sublimate as treatment for rye, Griif 242 

Effect of formalin and copper sulphate on germination of wheat, Brittlebank. . 242 

The acidity of the cell sap and rust resistance in wheat, Comes 242 

Foot disease ot wheat, Reuther 242 

Observations on foot disease of wheat, Reuther 243 

Nematode disease of wheat, Appl 243 

A disease of peanuts, Rutgers 243 

Changes in fleshy organs of plants due to micro-organisms, liauman-Merck 243 

Leaf roll of potatoes^ VI, Kock, Kornauth, and Broz 243 

Disorders and parasites of rice, Granato 244 

A sclerotial disease of rice, Shaw 244 

A disease of rice 244 

History of root rot or red rot of beets, Stif t 244 

Fertilizers aa protective to beets against rots and nematodes, Schander 244 

Protection against nematode injury, Kr iiger 244 

Tomato diseases, Webb ^ 244 

Relation of fungus attack on foliage to roots and lower trunk, Farneti 245 

Diseases of the orchard, Caesar 245 

Transpiration of leaves infected with Gymnosporangium, Reed and Cooley.. . 245 

The apple rust 245 

The collar blight of apple trees, Giddings 245 

A bacterial canker of plum twigs, Lewis 245 

Physiopathological observations on the stigma of tjie oLive flower, Petri 245 

The biology of Cycloconium oleaginum, Petri 246 

Diseases and enemies of cacao, Beille 246 

Premature leaf fall of currant bushes, Nolf ray ^ 246 

Raspberry yellows and cane blight, Howitt ' 246 

Treatment of court-nou6 with coal tar, Lamouroux 246 

Development of downy mildew as related to conditions of the medium, Mengel . . 247 

The white rot of grapes and its treatment, Degrully 247 

Diseases of Azalea indica, Behnsen 247 

Cai'nation stem rot, Anderson 247 

Infection experiments with Phoradendron villosum, von Tubeuf 247 

Notes on black canker of chestnut, Barsali 247 

Cryptogamic leaf diseases of Hevea in America, Cay la 248 

A blight of the mesquite, Heald and Lewis 248 

The occurrence of the larch canker on Corsican pine, Hopkinson 248 

An adherent spraying liquid, Lecomte 248 

ECONOMIC ZOOLOGY — ENTOMOLOGY. 

A text-book of agricultural zoology, Theobald 248 

The present status of the heath hen, Field 248 

The destruction and dispersal of weed seeds by wild birds, Colliuge 248 

The food of some British wild birds, Collinge 249 

! Animal pests, etc., in Colorado] 249 

Notes on insects of economic importance in Germany], Escherich and Baer. . . 249 

nsects injurious to sugar cane in British Guiana, and their enemies, Bodkin. . 249 

Insects attacking the pine, Lesne 249 

Insects and disease, W ellman 249 

Infectious diseases and invertebrate transmitters, Mesnil 249 

[Plant inspection in Florida], Berger 249 

East African termites, Morstatt 250 

^ctobia gernianica as a factor in bacterial dissemination, Herms and Nelson 250 

The Gryllidse of Formosa with a review of the Japanese species, Shiraki 250 



VI CONTENTS. 

Page. 

Nine new Thysanoptera from the United States, Hood 250 

The thysanopterous cecidia of Java, Karny and Van Leeuwen-Reijnvaan 250 

Froghoppers, Kershaw 250 

The sugar-cane froghopper and some cercopids of Trinidad, Urich 250 

[Froghoppers in Trinidad], Kershaw et al 251 

Rearing of the vermilion froghopper egg parasite, Urich 251 

The froghopper egg parasite and its colonization in cane fields, Urich 351 

A remarkable gall-producing psyllid from Syria, Newstead and Cummings 251 

The rosy apple aphis {Aphis sorbi), serious pest, Wilson 251 

Report on the grape phylloxera in Austria in 1910, 1911, and 1912 251 

The beet plant louse in northern France, Malaquin and Moitie 251 

Not^s on coccids which attack the coconut palm and other plants, Dupont. . . 252 

Field notes on a scale known locally as the " longulus ' ' scale, Kell 252 

The tobacco caterpillar (Prodenia litura), Jones 252 

The cotton worm in Egypt, Dudgeon 252 

Recent work on the polyhedral body disease of caterpillars, Escherich 252 

The rice caterpillar (Laphygma frugiperda) , ^ Bodkin .^ 252 

A serious Philippine orange moth {Prays citri), Essig 252 

A pest of oranges 252 

The gunworm of the grape {Sciopteron regale), Maskew 252 

The transmission of verruga by Phlebotomus, Townsend 252 

The gall midge fauna of New England, Felt 253 

The box cecidomyiid ( Monarthropalpus buxi), Chaine 253 

Life history of Thrypticus muhlenbergix n. sp., Johannsen and Crosby 253 

Biology of Tabanus striatus, the horsefly of Philippines, Mitzmain 253 

Mechanical transmission of surra by Tabanus striatus, Mitzmain 253 

Stages in life history of warbles, Vaney 254 

Flies as carriers of Lamblai spores. Stiles and Keister 254 

Flies and disease in the British army, Westcott 254 

Control measures for the olive fly, Chapelle 254 

The Anthomyidae, Schanbl and Dziedzicki 254 

Agromyzinae, Milichiinse, Ochthiphilinae, and Geomyzinte, Melander 254 

The importance of the rat flea in bubonic plague, Kitasato 254 

The western twig borer {Amphicerus punctipennis) , Essig 255 

Two ladybirds injurious to potato plants, Jack 255 

Psylliodes attenuata, the hop or hemp flea beetle 255 

The Mexican cotton-boll weevil {Anthonomus grandis), Berger 255 

Utilization of parasites in combating disease-conveying insects, Brumpt 255 

Life history and habits of Spalangia muscidanim, Pinkus 255 

Descriptions of new genera and species of ichneumon flies, Viereck 255 

Descriptions of new genera and ichneumon flies, Viereck 256 

Another red species of the genus Oligosita, Crawford 256 

The egg parasite of the small sugar-cane borer, Bodkin 256 

Introduction to the study of the myriapods, Porter 256 

FOODS — HUMAN NUTRITIONT. 

The meat supply of the German Empire, Esslen 256 

The price of meat in Paris, Vincey 256 

The red color developed when meat is boiled in water, Klut 257 

The Tellier method of preserving dried meat, Lallie 257 

Seasonings and bouillon cubes, Micko 257 

The chemical composition of rye and its milling products, Neumann et al 257 

Composition of wheat and its milling products, Kalning and Schleimer. . . 257 

Bread making qualities of German and foreign wheats, Neumann 257 

Indian edible swallows' nests, Zeller 258 

Grecian honey and wax, Emmanouel 258 

The manufacture of chocolate, Vallier 258 

Modern fruit ethers, Walter 258 

[Inspection of foods, dairy products, and feeding stuit's], Saunders et al 258 

Extracts from the report of the inspection service, etc., Ketner 258 

Adulteration of sugar products as defined by Italian legislation, Gabelli 258 

Scientific standards for the governmental regulation of foods, Murlin 258 

What the Department of Agriculture is doing for the housewife, Holmes 258 

Division of labor between country and city in the production of food, Falke.. . 258 

Retail prices, 1890, to June, 1913, Croxton 259 

[Storage and the housekeeper's problems] 259 



CONTENTS. VII 

Page. 

Exhibiting, classifying, and judging homemade products, Norton 259 

The economy administration cookbook, edited by Rhodes and Hopkiu;^ 259 

The twentieth century book for the progressive baker, Gienandt 259 

Diet in health and disease, Friedenwald and Ruhriih 259 

The child — its care, diet, and common ills. Sill 260 

The proper diet in the Tropics, with remarks on use of alcohol, Eust is 260 

Meat feeding experiments with mice and their value, Reinhardt and Seibold. . 260 

Creatin and creatinin in total and partial fasting, Scaffidi 260 

Purin metabolism with diminution of the processes of oxidation, ScaflBdi 261 

Purin metabolism during fasting, Scaffidi 261 

Intermediary purin metabolism. — I, Storage of purin in the liver, Rosenberg.. 261 

Intermediary purin metabolism. — II, Concerning uric acid puncture, Michaelis. 261 

Effect of water ingestion on changes of liver in fasting rabbits, Smimow 2(32 

Fermentation and putrefaction in intestines with different diets, Fischer 262 

Calcium and phosphorus in growth at the end of childhood, Herbst 262 

Calorimetric observations on man, Macdonald 262 

Energy produced by oxidation; physiology of muscular work, Hober 263 

Influence of air temperature on carbon dioxid excretion, Sjostrom 264 

Influence of body position upon respiration in man, Liljestrand and Wollin . . . 264 

ANIMAL PRODUCTION. 

Problems of genetics, Bateson 264 

Experimental studies of the inheritance of color in mice. Little 264 

Heredity of tricolor in guinea pigs, Goodale and Morgan 265 

Reversion in guinea pigs and its explanation. Castle 266 

Reciprocal crosses between Reeves and common ring-neck pheasant, Phillips.. 266 

Regeneration of the testis after experimental orchectomy in birds, Bond 266 

The segregation of fecundity factors in Drosophila, Weutworth 267 

Determination of sex, Tansky 267 

Chemical composition of Roumanian and Russian sunflower seed cake, Gorski. 267 

On Perilla cake and Mowrah meal, Honcamp, Reich, and Zimmerman 267 

[Results of the examination of stock feeds], Saunders 268 

Feeding stuffs 268 

Fresh meat supply of western Norway, Rasmusen 268 

Annual meeting of the Cattle Raisers' Association of Texas 268 

A comparison of the observed and computed heat production of cattle, Armsby. 268 

Studies of the endogenous metabolism of the pig, McCollum and Hoagland 268 

Value of potatoes as the basal feed for swine, Lehmann 269 

The electro-cardiogram of the horse, Norr 269 

Variations in growth of exterior of grade horse of East Prussia, Voltz 269 

Heredity studies in the royal stud at Trakehnen, Schmidt 269 

Breeding and raising horses for the United States Army, DeBameville 270 

How to buy a horse, Gay and Miller 270 

The Shetland pony, Douglas 270 

The Grevy zebra as a domestic animal, Rommel 270 

The call of the hen, or the selection and breeding of poultry, Hogan 270 

The Campine history, Gates 271 

[Second international egg-laying contest], Howe 271 

Preservation of eggs by refrigeration in sterile air, Lescarde 271 

German oyster culture, Albert 271 

DAIRY FARMING — DAIRYING. 

Modem dairy guide to greater profits, Meyer 271 

Dairying and butter making on small farms, O'Callaghan 271 

Correlation between form and function in the dairy cow, Kroon and Rab 271 

Red Polls for dairying, Cameron 271 

The new champion cow 272 

Experiments with the milking machine, Hofman-Bang et al 272 

Action of a pituitary solution in milk secretion, Houssay et al 272 

Increase in specific weight of freshly drawn milk, Fleischmann and Wiegner. . 272 

Variation in volatile fatty acids of milk fat duriug lactation, Beerbohm 272 

On the milk fat of late milking cows, von Fodor 273 

First annual report of International Association of Dairy and Milk Inspectors- . 273 

[Report on milk standards] 273 

Examination of Moscow market milk, Wojtkiewicz 274 



VIII CONTENTS. 

Page. 

Methods of examination of clarifier milk slime, North 274 

Sampling for Babcock test, Halverson 274 

On clean churning and related questions, Rosengren 274 

Brine salting cheese, Monrad 275 

Home cheese making without apparatus, Conlou 275 

Fresh cream cheese, Rolet 275 

The manufacture of Grana cheese with a select ferment, Gorini 275 

On the abnormal ripening of Liptauer cheese, von Fodor 275 

Reindeer milk and cheese, Barthel and Bergman 275 

The creamery industry: By-products and residues, Rolet 275 

Researches on the lactic acid food, "Gioddu," of Sardinia, Rosini 276 

VETERINARY MEDICINE. 

Regional anatomy of domestic animals, Montana and BourdeUe 276 

Meat hj^giene, Munce 276 

Principles of milk hygiene for veterinarians, Ernst 276 

Miiller's serodiagnostic methods, Miiller, trans, by Whitman 276 

On the mechanism of complement fixation. Dean 276 

Meiostagmin reaction and pregnancy, Fulchiero 276 

Glycosuria and allied conditions, Cammidge 277 

Experimental studies in glycosuria immunity, Lanzarini 277 

On the distribution of potassium in renal cells. Brown 277 

Toxicity of gentian violet and its fate in the body, Churchman and Herz 277 

Experiments on cultivation of so-called trachoma bodies, Noguchi and Cohen. . 278 

On the toxins of ascarids, Dobernecker 278 

Verminous toxins: A review, Weinberg 278 

Investigations of a nematode in the stomach of the rat, Fibiger 279 

The nematode parasites of the dog's eye, Railliet and Henry 279 

Combating contagious abortion, Hasenkamp _ 279 

Pepto toxin production by bacillus of contagious abortion, Reichel and Harkins. 280 

Hyperimmunization of horses for obtaining an antianthrax serum, Eigen 280 

Testing of Grugel's vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease, Nevermann 280 

Significance of precipitation for diagnosis of glanders, Lenf eld 280 

Preparation of bacillary extracts for complement fixation, Pfeiler and Weber. . 281 

Malta fever: Cases occurring in Arizona, Yount and Looney 281 

Malta fever in Louisiana, Wellman, Eustis, and Schochet 281 

Immunizing tests against rabies, Miessner, Kliem, and Kapfberger 281 

New immunizing tests in rabies, Pfeiler 281 

Miessner's report on immunizing animals against rabies, Pfeiler 282 

Immunizing dogs against rabies, Pfeiler and Kapfberger 282 

In regard to immunizing against rabies, Miessner 282 

Sporotrichosis of animals, Be Beurmann and Gougerot 282 

Trypanosomes causing dourine, Blacklock and Yorke 282 

Studies of the piroplasmoses occurring in Algeria 282 

Tubercle bacilli in the circulating blood in surgical tuberculosis, Krabbel 283 

Report on a chemical investigation [of the tubercle bacillus], Harden 283 

Hypersensitiveness to tuberculo-protein and to tuberculin, Austrian 283 

Tuberculin in diagnosis and treatment, Hamman and Wolman 284 

The value of turtle tuberculin in tuberculosis, Beattie and Myers 284 

Treatment of tuberculosis with bacilli treated with sodium fluorid, Rappin 284 

On a remarkable new type of protistan parasite. Woodcock and Lapage 284 

The relation of lungworms of sheep to those of deer, Richters 284 

Anaplasmosis of the sheep in German East Africa, Trautmann 285 

Cholera in northwest Iowa, Johnson 285 

The practical treatment of the horse, Edgar 285 

Cerebro-spinal meningitis of the horse, Kaupp 285 

Treatment of pectoral influenza (Brustseuche) with neosalvarsan, Stodter. .... 285 

The beri-beri preventing substances in rice polishings, Vedder and Williams . . 285 

Use of milk cultures of B. bulgariciis in white diarrhea, Bushnell and Maurer. . 286 

The treatment of fowl cholera with quinin, Hallenberger 286 

A list of current medical periodicals and allied serials 286 

Irrigation from reservoirs in western Kansas and Oklahoma 286 

Hydraulic laboratory for uTigation investigations, Fort Collins, Colo., Cone. . . 287 

Report of the water-rights branch of the department of lands 287 

A study of irrigation heads in the Modesto and Turlock irrigation districts 287 

Derivation of run-off from rainfall data, Justin 288 



CONTENTS. IX 

RURAL ENGINEERING. 

Page. 

Seepage losses from earth canals, Moritz 288 

The development of balancing devices for centrifugal pumps, Mueller 288 

Construction of concrete pipe lines, Etcheverry 289 

Large clamshell dredges; levee building methods and standards, Tibbetta 289 

A study of steam and electrical pumping plants fur drainage 289 

Ground water, drainage methods, and open channel drainage, Schmeer 289 

Land drainage in Louisiana, Shaw 289 

The drainage of Lower Egypt, Willcocks and Mosseri 289 

Drainage and purification of the soil, Gagey 289 

Text-book on hip;hway engineering, Blanchard and Drown*^ 289 

Hard roads in ^^ ayne County, Michigan 290 

Asphalt paving cements and road binders, Howard 290 

Puzzolan mixtures tested for Oregon roads, McAlister 290 

Road rollers in the Netherlands, Steffelaar et al 290 

Testa on small gasoline engines, \\Tiite 290 

A new method of cooling gas engines, Hopkinson 291 

A traction engine whose four wheels are driving wheels 291 

Trials with liquid manure spreaders, Dall and Feilberg 292 

The trials of corn and seed drills, 1912, Hall 292 

Grain cleaning contest 292 

Test of a feed-grinding and sifting mill, Rezek 292 

The effect of saturation on the strength of concrete, Van Ornum 293 

Test of pressure of wet concrete, Germain 293 

Tests of reinforced concrete builduigs under load, Talbot and Slater 293 

( Constructing a silo roof of concrete 293 

The pet eilo for western Kansas, McKee 294 

Farm water supplies, pumping machinery, and accessories, Hoffmann 294 

Shower bath for country houses, Fox 294 

RURAL ECONOMICS. 

A questionnaire on markets, Farley 294 

Some typical American markets. — A symposium 294 

Cleveland's retail markets, Carpenter 295 

Car-lot markets and how they are supplied, Andrews 295 

Markets for American fruit 295 

Prevention of waste and price fluctuations through refrigeration. Holmes 295 

The motor truck as an agency in du-ect marketing, Phillips 295 

The Long Island home hamper, FuUerton 295 

The cooperative lamb club as an agency for lower marketing costs, Doane 295 

An inquiry into agricultural credit and cooperation in Germany, CahiU 295 

Cooperative purchase and use of stallions in Denmark 296 

The experience of animal insurance societies in Holland 296 

Some methods of financing the farmer, Jones 296 

Rural social development 297 

The farmer's outlook, Hinckes 297 

Agricultural statistics 297 

Agricultural statistics of Ireland, 1912, Butler 297 

Agricultural statistics of Bohemia 297 

AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION. 

Education for farm life, Avery 297 

[History and growth of the Kansas State Agricultural College] 297 

The agricultural course for women, Cantrell 298 

The teaching of entomology in our agricultural colleges, Lochliead 298 

Fit the rural school to the community, McDonald 298 

The betterment of rural schools tlu-ough agriculture: The Ohio plan, Miller. . . 298 

Industrial education in Columbus, Ga., Daniel 298 

Household ethics and industrial training in colored schools, Timberlake 298 

Domestic economy — the family budget, Fletcher 298 

Manual processes of agriculture 299 

Manual instruction for adults in rural centers, Garrett 299 

Technical instruction in plowing, Murray 299 



EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

Vol. XXX. Abstract Number. No. 3. 



RECENT WORK IN AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE. 



AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTRY— AGROTECHNY. 

Handbook of biochemistry of man and animal, edited by C. Oppenheimer 
(Handhuch tier Biochemie des Menschen und der Tiere. Jena, 191S, sup. vol., 
pp. xri-\-746, figs. 33).— This is a supplementary volume to tbose already noted 
(E. S. R., 26, p. 306), and includes the following chapters: The General Signifi- 
cance of the Hydrogen Ion Concentration in Biology (uses in biological prob- 
lems, the hydrogen ion concentration of the body fluids, etc.), by L. Michaelis; 
Progress Made in the Field of Protein Chemistry, by P. Rona ; Nucleic Acids 
and their Cleavage Products, by C. Brahm ; Morphological Constituents of the 
Blood and Spermatozoa, by A. Kanitz; The Properties of Hemaglobin, by F. 
Muller; Oxidation Processes in the Living Tissues (processes in slow combus- 
tion, including catalytic phenomena, euzyms of respiration, and the physiological 
significance of respiratory enzyms), by A. Bach; Gaseous Exchange in Organs, 
Tissues, and Isolated Cells, by A. Loewy; Anaphylaxis, by E. Seligmann ; Bio- 
chemistry of the Skin, by P. G. TJnna and L. Golodetz; Mechanics of Gastric 
Secretion, by A. Bickel ; Internal Secretions of the Pancreas, by S. Rosenberg; 
New Investigations in regard to Digestion and Resorption of Foodstuffs, by 
E. S. London ; Fetal Hormones, by B. Wolff ; The Nervous System and Internal 
Secretions, by G. Peritz; Biochemistry and Radio-active Substances, by J. 
Plesch; The Decomposition of Sugar by the Cell, by C. Neuberg; Biochemistry 
of Growth of Man and other Higher Animals, by H. Aron; Metabolism and 
Sexuality of the Female, by L. Zuntz ; and Parenteral Protein Metabolism, by 
W. Caspari. 

Handbook of biochemical methods, edited by E. Abderhalden {Handhuch 
der Biochemischen Arbeitsmethodcn. Berlin and Vienna, 1913, vol. 7, pp. 
XXVIII-^912, figs. 198).— This is the seventh volume of this work (E. S. R.. 29, 
p. 40S), and contains the following chapters: The living animal material for 
biochemical investigations (selecting, obtaining, and keeping under various con- 
ditions) ; the use of secretin for obtaining pancreatic juice; the detection and 
preparation of methylated amino acids (betains) in animal and vegetable tissues ; 
preparation of some substances of biochemical importance from molasses and 
molasses slops; the most important methods for examining foods and condiments 
(a very extensive chapter) ; the technique of investigating the respiratory 
gaseous exchange in healthy and diseased subjects; the precipitins and methods 
of precipitation; the methods of investigating the biochemically important 
actions of light ; microscopic technique ; some rapid methods for the examination 
of blood in urine; the quantitative determination of chlorin ions in blood; the 

201 



202 EXPEBIMENT STATION EECORD. 

preparation and detection of glucosids; researches with radio-active rays; and 
movement of gas and water in the plant (transpiration, root pressure, etc.). 

Discussions of the Eighth International Congress of Applied Chemistry 
(Orig, Commun. S. Internat. Cong. Appl. Chem. [Washington and New York], 
27 (1912), pp. XIII-\-190). — This includes the discussions of the various sections, 
among them analytical, inorganic, agricultural, and organic chemistry; industry 
and chemistry of sugar; India rubber and plastics; fermentation; fats, fatty 
oils, and soaps; paints, drying oils, and varnishes; starch, cellulose, and paper; 
hygiene ; pharmaceutical chemistry ; bromatology ; biochemistry, including phar- 
macology ; electrochemistry ; and law and legislation affecting chemical industry. 

Researches on cellulose, C. F. Cross and E. J. Bkvan {N&io York, Lo)idon, 
and Bombay, vols. 2, 1906, pp. XI-\-184; 3, 1912, pp. Z+i75).— These are the 
second and third reports on this topic (E. S. R., 13, p. 916). Volume 2 deals 
with cellulose as a typical colloid ; cellulose as a chemical individual ; cellulose 
and structural forms — dimensions; nitric esters; aceto-sulphates ; cellulose- 
xanthogenic acid ; cellulose and alkaline hydrates ; theory of dyeing ; electrolytic 
phenomena ; constitution of cellulose ; hydrocellulose ; mixed esters — chloracetyi 
derivatives of hydrocelluloses, etc. ; animal digestion and assimilation of cellu- 
lose; destructive fermentations; and technical progress in cellulose industries, 
and a general forecast of technological developments. 

Volume 3 deals with cellulose in relation to biological science; its constitu- 
tion; cellulose esters, acetate, and comparative studies of acetylation, formyl 
derivatives, and xanthogenic esters; lignocelluloses, reactions with halogens, 
constitution, and study of autoxidation ; technical developments, textile industries 
(bleaching, paper making, and commercial jute and "heart-damage") ; special 
industries; artificial fibers, film products, and applications of cellulose acetates. 
The use of bastol, a product made by treating sawdust with aqueous sulphu- 
rous acid, and which is used as a constituent of some cattle feeds in England 
is also discussed. 

Relation of the reducing power to the fermentative capacity of various 
carbohydrates, E. Schlichting (Abs. in Orig. Commun. 8. Internat. Gong. Appl. 
Chem. [Washington and New York], 26 (1912), Sects. Vla-XIb, p. 85).— The 
paper gives the results of a large number of experiments from which the author 
has drawn the following conclusions : 

"(1) All results found for the amount of actual fermentable sugars by the 
fermentation method are generally too low, and form about 1 to 6 per cent less 
than the real amount of sugars present, excepting in mixtures of equal parts of 
saccharose and dextrose. (2) Fermentation methods of sugar determination 
should be invariably carried out with pure cultures of yeasts, under uniform 
conditions of time, temperature, nature, and quantity of yeast nutrients. (3) 
Certain real relations undoubtedly exist between the reducing power and the 
fermentability of sugars which enable the analyst to find the correct amount 
of fermentable sugars, especially when only 2 carbohydrates (of those men- 
tioned) are present. (4) When more than 2 sugars are present in the solution, 
the results found for fermentable sugars by their reducing power are from 3 
to 6 per cent in excess of the truth." 

On koji acid, a new organic acid formed by Aspergillus oryzae, T. Yabuta 
(Orig. Commun. 8. Internat. Gong. Appl. Chem. [Washington and Neio York], 25 
(1912), Sects. I-Ve, pp. 455-462). — Large quantities of an acid obtained from 
A. oryzce grown on steamed rice were prepared. Saito has previously described 
this acid as |3-resorcyl-carbonic acid. The empirical formula for the recrystalli- 
zation product was found by this investigator to be C12H14O8. " From the copper 
salt, as well as from the acetyl and benzoyl derivatives, the presence of 2 car- 
boxyl and 4 hydroxyl groups in the molecule has also been ascertained, so that 



AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTRY — AGROTECHNT. 203 

the formula may be written as CioH,(OH«) (COOH),. It is therefore quite dif- 
ferent from j8-resorcyl-carbonic acid, and so far as the author linows, the occur- 
rence of such an acid in fungi has never been mentioned before." The name 
koji acid has since been given to the substance. 

In regard to the proteolytic activity of taka-diastase, Olga Szant6 (Bio- 
chem. Ztschr., J,:l {1912), No. 1-2, pp. 31-J,3).— The results show that acids in 
smnll concentrations affect the action of tal^a-diastase, mineral acids having the 
least effect. Compared with trypsin, it is more susceptible to organic acids, 
and hydrochloric acid destroys it more quickly. 

Inhibition is less by alkalis than by acids, and alkalis do not destroy it. 
Salts do not, or only slightly, inhibit its action. Neutral salts, such as sodium 
chlorid, sodium sulphate, and sodium nitrate, do not affect it, but inhibit the 
activity of trypsin. The same effect was noted with most organic salts, but 
not with sodium lactate. Dextrose, lactose, and starch do not affect it, while 
levulose shows a slight inhibition of its activity. 

The nature and function of the plant oxidases, E. D. Clark {Torrcyn, 11 
(1911), Nos. 2, pp. 23-31; 3. pp. 55-61; Jf, pp. 84-92; 5, pp. 101-110).—" The oxi- 
dases are of very wide distribution among the flowering plants, peroxidases, 
especially, being present in about 75 per cent of all the specimens examined, 
while oxygenases (direct oxidases) are less widely distributed, being found in 
one-half of the plants used. Catalase may be said to be universally distributed, 
since there were only a few cases in which it was not found. The leaves, stems, 
roots, and food-storage organs of the plants seemed to contain the greatest 
amounts of the oxidases. The flowers and fruit were in many cases compara- 
tively poor in oxidases. In regard to the fruits this statement must be qualified, 
because dry seeds of somewhat uncertain age were the only available material 
of certain species. 

" Our experience with a great many parallel tests, using the different oxidase 
reagents upon a great variety of vegetable tissues, show that all of the reagents 
seem to detect the same substance or substances, for if one reagent gave a posi- 
tive test, the others generally acted in like manner. The phenolphthalein and 
indophenol reagents gave positive results in more cases than the others. This is 
undoubtedly due to their greater ease of oxidation, for they are spontaneously 
oxidized by the air. It is probable that in the presence of acid juices in the 
plant the latter does not form oxidases or else that they are immediately de- 
stroyed by the acid. It was shown that the inhibiting effect of acids upon the 
action of oxidases seemed to be a function of the concentration of the hydrogen 
ions. 

"Among plants the chromogens are found to the greatest extent in certain 
orders, such as the Liliales, Orchidales, Ranales, and most frequently of all 
in the ^tex plants of the Convolvulacere, Boraginacere, Labiatre. Solanace.^, 
Rubiaceie, Composit<ia, etc. Active oxidases are also likely to be associated with 
chromogens in the latex plants. These conclusions are interesting because of the 
bearing they have upon Palladin's theory that these chromogens play an impor- 
tant part in the respiration and the metabolism of plants." 

A comprehensive review of the literature of the oxidases is included. 

Investigations in regard to phosphatese, H. von Euler (Abs. in Chem. Ztg., 
36 (1912), Xo. 138, p. 1353).— This enzym has the property of combining inor- 
ganic phosphoric acid with carbohydrates, forming an organic phosphoric acid 
ester, glucophose. Glucophose was cleaved both in the intestine and kidney, 
and was synthesized with extracts of these organs. 

Glucophose is considered a catalyzer for sugar cleavage by living j-east and 
also an intermediary product of this reaction. Judging from this phenomenon 
it seems reasonable to assume that the cleavage of sugar in the animal organ- 



204 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

ism occurs in the same way. The reason that we have not been able to deter- 
mine the specific enzym bringing about the cleavage of sugar is probably be- 
cause a number of enzyms are concerned in the process; furthermore, the 
enzyms are localized in various organs, consequently the cleavage of sugar in 
the body occurs in various phases. When the equilibrium of one of these phases 
is destroyed, a sort of diabetes occurs. 

Glucophose gives us a means for determining in what part of the cycle sugar 
combustion is abnormal. With it the weakest phase of the process may possibly 
be enhanced. Living yeast is incapable of producing glucophose but when 
phosphatese is liberated from the cell it synthesizes this compound. 

The problem of enzym synthesis. — I, Lipase and fat of animal tissues, 
H. C. Bradley {Jour. Biol. Clicm., IS (1913), No. 4, pp. 407-418, figs. 2).— These 
tests, which were made with the tissues and fluids of the fish, cat, dog, calf, 
goat, and adult bovine, indicate that " no broad correlation exists between the 
fat and lipase content of tissues. Homologous organs in allied species, such as 
teleost livers, fish muscles, etc., show no parallelism between fat and enzym. 
Some of the most active fat-producing tissues are relatively poorer in lipase 
than many other tissues which never normally contain or produce more than 
a small percentage of fat. Active mammary tissue affords the most striking 
example of this when compared with lung, kidney, and muscle tissues." " In- 
stead of being unusually rich in lipase on account of its active secretion of fat, 
it is found to be about on a par with such other tissues as fish ovaries and 
testes, spleen, brain, and other gland structures of mammals and invertebrates. 
Compared with a large number of tissues, active mammary gland is not a tissue 
rich in lipase; it is only twice as active as blood itself. The fact that active 
mammary tissue is richer in lipase than inactive, as was pointed out by Loeven- 
hart, is probably due in large measure to its hyperplastic condition during 
lactation." 

" Quantitative comparison of fat and lipase in animal tissues gives no positive 
evidence in support of the theory of enzym synthesis." 

The problem of enzym synthesis. — II, Diastase and glycogen of animal 
tissues, H. C. Bradley and E. Kelleksberger {Jour. Biol. Cliem., 13 {1913), 
No. 4, pp. 419-423). — The results confirm the findings of H. MacLean,<» who 
showed that kidney and lungs usually low in glycogen had a high diastatic 
power. The work was done with the lower form of animals, fish, crustaceans, 
etc., which are known to be rich in glycogen. 

The problem of enzym synthesis. — IV, Lactase of the mammary gland, 
H. C. Bradley {Jour. Biol. Chem., IS {1913), No. 4, pp. 431-439).— The results 
show that the active mammary gland of cats, goats, and rabbits contains no 
lactose-destroying enzym. In two cases (goat and cow) there seemed to be a 
progressive increase of sugar, especially when blood was added to the mixture. 
This may be due to the presence of a mother (pro) substance as indicated 
by Porcher (E. S. R., 17, p. 287). Lactase, according to this, does not seem 
to be responsible for the lactose present in milk. 

Contributions to our knowledge of the vegetable hemagglutinins, R. Robert 
{Landw. Vers. Stat., 79-80 {1913), pp. 97-205) .—This discusses the chemical 
nature of ricin and its preparation; the agglutination reaction and its use for 
detecting castor-bean meal in feed cakes; the chemical nature of antiricin ; 
castor-bean lipase and its action; the action of ricin upon animals; the detec- 
tion of ricin in feeds which contain other agglutinins and in those stuffs which 
contain no other agglutinins; crotin, abrin, and robin from common locust 
seed {Ttolinia pseudacacia) , and phasin from other sources; papilionaceous 

•Bio-chem. Jour., 4 (1909), No. 10, pp. 4G7-479. 



I 



AGBICULTURAL CHEMISTRY — AGBOTECHNT. 205 



plants in which hemolysins instead of phasins are present; and pseudoag- 
glutination. 

The analysis of rare earths and earth acids, R. J. Metee and O. Hauser 
(Die Analyse der seltenen Erden und der Erdsduren. Stuttgart, 1912, pp. 320, 
figs. IJf). — This book is divided into a qualitative and a quantitative section, 
and is devoted to the analysis of rare earths and their acids. It constitutes 
the fourteenth and fifteenth volumes of B. M. Margosches' series of books on 
ynalytical chemistry. 

Application of the ammonium carbonate method for the determination of 
humus to Hawaiian soils, J. B. Rather {Jour. Indus, and Engin. Chem., 5 
(1918), No. 3, pp. 222, 223). — After commenting upon what has been reported by 
Kelley and McGeorge (E. S. R., 27, p. 7), it is stated that "the ammonium 
carbonate method for the removal of clay from humus solutions has given 
uniformly good results on a number of the soil types of the United States, 
but on exceptional soils, like some of those of Hawaii, a slight modification 
of the method is necessary to remove the clay. The modification consists 
essentially in increasing the amount of ammonium carbonate to 2 gm. per 
hundred cubic centimeters, and heating for 1 hour." 

The determination of colloids in cultivated soils, C. Hassler (Sitzber. 
Naturhist. Ver. Preuss. Rheinlande u. Wesifalcns, 1911, Nos. 1, Sect. C, pp. 13, 
14; 2, Sect. C, pp. 15-24, fiff- !)• — Previously noted from another source (E. S. R., 
26, p. 519). 

Loss of fat as a result of drying meat, M. Tamuba (Biochem. Ztschr., 41 
(1912), No. 1-2, pp. 78-101; abs. in Zentbl. Biochem. u. Biophys., 13 (1912), 
No. 14-15, p. 567). — As a result of drying and powdering meat, a loss of fat 
takes place. The larger the amount of meat, the greater the loss. If alcohol 
is added during the drying, the loss of fat is considerably reduced. 

It is deemed advisable, when working according to Shimidzu's paste method 
or the powder method, to use no more than 300 gm. of material at one time. 

Determination of fat in bread, G. Grujic (Orig. Comniun. 8. Internat. Cong. 
AppL Chem. [Washington and New York], 26 (1912), Sects. Vla-XIb, pp. 1-3).— 
The usual methods proposed for extracting the fat in foods can not be applie.l 
to the estimation of fat in bread. Previous drying or finely grinding the 
sample does not increase the yield of fat, but by extracting the crumb of 
entirely fresh bread, other than rye bread, almost all of the fat present is 
extracted. The procedure recommended for all kinds of bread, including old 
bread, is the following, which is based on Polenske's method : 

Five gm. of bread crumbs, moist or previously ground dry, is placed in a 
200 cc. flask supplied with a condensing tube, mixed with 50 cc. of water and 
2 cc. of a 25 per cent solution of hydrochloric acid (specific gravity 1.125), and 
heated for 1* hours in a boiling water bath. After cooling, 1 cc. of a 0.04 
per cent solution of methyl orange is added, neutralized with concentrated 
alkali, acidified with 1 drop of dilute hydrochloric acid, filtered through a 
small folded filter, and the residue washed with hot water. The filter with its 
contents is then spread on a watch glass, dried for 2 hours at 105** C and 
extracted in a Soxhlet apparatus for 6 hours with ether. 

The results obtained with rye bread, white bread, and baked goods prepared 
with skim and whole milk compare very well with the fat present in the flour 
from which the products were made. 

The polarimetric determination of starch in potatoes, F. Herles (Orig. 
Commun. 8. Internat. Cong. AppL Chem. [Washington and New York], 26 (1912), 
Sects. Vla-XIb, pp. 5-10). — Estimating the amount of starch present in potatoes 
by the specific gravity method leaves much to be desired, while the methods 



206 EXPEEIMENT STATION RECOED. 

depending upon the conversion of the starch into sugar are cumbersome. The 
polarimetric methods seem to be the most appropriate for this purpose. 

For the solution of the starch, the author utilizes hydrochloric acid, which 
was first pointed out by Effront A fine paste is prepared of the potatoes with 
a beet press or chopping machine, and 8.82 gm. (for Mohr's cubic centimeters) 
or 8.8 gm. (for metric cubic centimeters) of the paste is brought into a 100 cc. 
flask with the aid of 25 cc. of water, and amid stirring 25 cc. of fuming 
hydrochloric acid (specific gravity 1.188) is added. The mixture is allowed 
to stand for about 1 hour, stirring frequently during the interval, and then 
water is added to make 100.35 cc. This is shaken, filtered, and polarized at 
20° C. with a Ventzke-Soleil polariscope. The reading obtained gives the per- 
centage of starch present. 

A more rapid method consists of weighing out 9.55 gm. (Mohr's cubic centi- 
meters) or 9.53 gm. (metric cubic centimeters) of the potato paste into a 
beaker glass. The weighing glass is washed off with 25 cc. of water, dried 
with a piece of filter paper, and the paper thrown into the beaker; 25 cc. of 
fuming hydrochloric acid is then added, stirring constantly during the process. 
This is allowed to stand for 1 hour, stirring the mass during this period, when 
50 cc. of water is added, shaken, filtered, and polarized as before. 

The specific gravity of citrus fruit as a factor in the separation of frozen 
fruit, R. A. Gould (Abs. in Ong. Commun. 8. Internat. Cong. Appl. Cliem. 
[Washington and New York], 26 {1912), Sects. Vla-XIl), p. 587).— This reports 
briefly the results of determining the floaters among 5 varieties of sound 
oranges and 2 varieties of sound cured lemons. The fruit was floated on 
alcoholic solutions of various strengths and specific gravities. 

" The specific gravity varies with the growing district, the variety, the size, 
and the time of picking. The limits of variation are too great to allow of the 
use of any method, dependent upon the specific gravity of the fruit, for the 
accurate commercial separation of frozen from sound fruit, although any lot 
of partly frozen fruit can be bettered by proper treatment in alcoholic solutions 
of the proper gravity." 

Tables showing results of attempted separation by floating fruit in 160 proof 
alcohol and subsequently putting that fruit which floats under diminished 
pressure and refloating in the same solution are given, also tables showing 
proximate analyses of sound and frozen oranges of various specific gravities to 
show additional factors which influence the specific gravity of the fruit. 

Honey examination, H. Witte (Ztschr. Offentl. Chem., 18 (1912), Nos. 19, 
pp. 362-373; 20, pp. 390-397). — A discussion as to the value of determining the 
nonsaccharin substances, ash, acidity, saccharose, the presence of Ley's reac- 
tion, albuminate, the precipitation according to Lund, the presence of starch 
sirup, Fiehe's test, Auzinger's reaction, and Thoni's precipitation reaction for 
judging honey. The complete protocol resulting from the analyses of 53 various 
kinds of honey is given. 

Determination of sucrose in confectionery containing cooked starch and in 
marshmallows, C. C. Roberts {A1)S. in Orig. Commun. S. Internat. Cong. Appl. 
Chem. [Washington and Neio York], 25 (1912), Sects. I-Ve, p. 539).— After 
pointing out the difficulties encountered in clarifying solutions of starch paste 
confectionery and marshmallows, a method is recommended in which dilute 
alcohol (made by diluting 400 cc. of commercial alcohol to 1.000 cc. with water) 
is used as a solvent for the sucrose. The normal weight, 26.048 gm. of an 
average sample of the confectionery, is treated with some of the dilute alcohol 
until solution has taken place, transferred to a 200 cc. flask, clarified with a 
solution of subacetate of lead (specific gravity 1.25) or alumina cream, or both, 



AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTRY — AGROTECHNY. 207 

made up to volume with dilute alcohol, aud filtered. The filtrate is then 
polarized as usual. 

For inversion 50 cc. of the filtrate is evaporated to remove the alcohol and 
then inverted in the usual manner. The sucrose is calculated by Clerget's 
formula. 

A method for the detection of color in tea, E. Alberta Ukxd {Orifj. Gommun. 
8. Internat. Cong. AppL Chcm. [Washington and New York], 18 {1912), Sect. 
VIIIc, pp. 301-303). — The method described below was devised for the purpose 
of detecting color in tea, inasmuch as the chemical methods suggested by Allen, 
Leach, Villiers, and Collin, and the International Committee for the Unification 
of Analytical Methods for Food-products can not be used without difficulty 
where small quantities of color are present, largely because of the masking effect 
produced by the natural color of the tea. The proposed method has the ad- 
vantage that it will detect much smaller amounts than are found by the chemical 
method, although it overlooks traces of color which would be found with a com- 
pound microscope. It can be used by persons unskilled in scientific methods, and 
has the additional advantage of being rapid. 

"The articles needed for testing the tea are sieves, 16 to 24 meshes to the 
centimeter, a spatula or case knife, and a piece of unglazed white paper. A 
small amount of tea, about 25 to 50 gm., is placed in a sieve and shaken over a 
piece of white paper. If the tea is tightly rolled, it should be slightly crushed 
either before putting into the sieve or by rubbing it against the sieve. The 
dust on the paper is then crushed by dragging over it a spatula or case knife, 
pressure being applied by the finger to the end of the spatula. This crushes 
not only the tea dust, but any particles of color which are present. The process 
of dragging the knife across the paper streaks the color, making it more easily 
seen. A lens with a magnification of 8 to 12 diameters is useful in detecting 
the smaller streaks. Sunlight is desirable ; bright light is essential for this work. 
This method will detect any coloring as blue, tumeric or carbon." It can also 
be employed for determining whether tea has been faced, but instead of the 
white paper, black, unglazed paper is used, on which the facing leaves a white 
streak. 

The chloral hydrate test for charlock, A. L. Winton (Orig. Commun. 8. In- 
ternat. Cong. AppL Chem. [Washington and New York], 26 {1912), Sects. 
Vla-XIb, pp. 409-411). — For general use the following reagent and procedure 
is proposed : 

" Dissolve 16 gm. of crystallized chloral hydrate in 10 cc. of water. To the 
solution add 1 cc. of concentrated hydrochloric acid. In making the test, mount 
about 10 mg. of the mustard flour (or an equivalent amount of prepared mus- 
tard) on a slide in the reagent, heat cautiously (never to boiling) for a moment, 
and examine under a lens. Note the proportion of fragments of hulls that ac- 
quire a carmin red color (charlock) to those not changed in color." 

Progress made in the chemistry of milk and dairy products during the 
year 1911, M. Siegfeld {Chcm. Ztg., 36 {1912), Nos. I40, pp. 1369, 1370; 14I, 
pp. 1378, 1379; 143, pp. 1394, 1395).— This deals with the advances made in 
regard to the chemistry, physiology, and technology of milk and other dairy 
products. The topics are dealt with under the headings of physiology, general 
chemistry of milk proteins, fats, sugar, ash, enzyms, tests for detecting heated 
milk, and cream, butter, and milk preparations. 

New method for determining fat in cheese by the acid method without the 
use of amyl alcohol, W. D. Kooper {Milchw. Zentbl, 41 {1912), No. 24, pp. 
753-757). — It is a well-known fact that the use of amyl alcohol is undesirable, 
particularly because it forms compounds with some of the cheese particles 

29663°— No. 3—14 2 



208 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

which go over into the fat in varying amounts. Accordingly, a method is pro- 
posed which does away with the use of amyl alcohol and at the same time is 
easy to operate, is exact, uses a low concentration of sulphuric acid, and is not 
influenced by high temperatures. 

In the method 6.5 cc. each of sulphuric acid of specific gravities 1.54 and 1.82 
are used. After adding the weaker acid, the butyrometer is heated in a water 
bath at the temperature of boiling water until the cheese has been dissolved; 
then the stronger acid is added. After the solution shows a light brown to 
violet coloration, it is centrifuged at 1,000 revolutions per minute for 5 minutes, 
placed in the water bath at 70° C. for a short time, and the fat column read 
off. It is necessary that the fat be clear, that no plug formation has taken 
place, and that the color of the fat is a faint pink to a very light brown. 

The results of examining 20 different kinds of cheese in various stages of 
ripeness are given, and compared with the results obtained by the gravimetric 
method. 

New acid-butyrom.etric method for determining' fat in cheese and dairy 
products, Hammeeschmidt (Milchw. ZentU., 41 {1912), No. 24, pp. 757-763, 
fig. 1). — The author noted that when sulphuric acid was allowed to act upon 
amyl alcohol a compound was formed which was finally calculated as fat in 
the acid-butyrometric method. Amyl alcohol can also go over into the fat as 
such and cause certain errors in the final calculation. 

In order to eliminate the use of amyl alcohol or acetic acid, which is em- 
ployed in some methods, the author has previously reported on a modification 
of the Burstert (E. S. R., 21, p. 523) method. Not finding this method suitable 
on account of the cumbersome apparatus which it employs, he has now de- 
vised a new method which can be used with an apparatus similar to the buty- 
rometer. He found that when certain criteria are adhered to in regard to 
decomposing casein, the casein may be dissolved in a special solution of borax 
(strength not given). If sulphuric acid and amyl alcohol are then carefully 
added, satisfactory results are obtained. 

A number of analyses were made of cheese, the results of which are reported. 

Estimation of fat in cheese by the " neu-sal " method, O. Wendleb (Milchw. 
ZentU., 41 {1912), No. 24, pp. 763-765).— A description of a new butyrometer 
for estimating fat in cheese. The solvent used is composed of a salicylate and 
hyposulphite. For clarifying the fat butyl alcohol is employed. 

On the relationship between the weight of the sugar beet and the compo- 
sition of its juice, J. A. Harris and R. A. Goetnee {Jour. Indus, and Engin. 
Ghem.. 5 {1913), No. 8, pp. 192-195, figs. 5).— It is believed that the relation of 
the size of beet to sugar yield has been too little studied. The studies have 
been conducted, the authors believe, by inadequate methods, and consequently 
it seemed of importance to measure the intensity of this relationship on the 
— 1 to +1 scale of the coefficient of correlation; also to write the regression 
equations showing the absolute change in solids, sugar, or purity, associated 
with a unit change in weight of the beet. 

" Suitable published data seem all but wanting. In many series the weights 
given are averages, without specification as to the number of beets included- 
Analyses have been made by the thousands, and in some cases upon uniform 
material drawn fi'om the same cultural conditions, but [the authors] have not 
been able to obtain such records, either published or in manuscript." 

The data analyzed by statistical methods were obtained from Bulletin 39 of 
the Division of Chemistry of this Department (E. S. R., 5, p. 1004), and Bul- 
letin 32 of the Nevada Experiment Station (E. S. R., 9, p. 349). The beets con- 
sidered were Klein Waxizlebener, Improved Klein Wanzlebener, Vesbesserten 
Klein Wanzlebener, Yilmorin Amelioree, and Desparez. 



AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTRY AGROTECIINY. 209 

" Considering tlie shortness of the materials upon which they are based, these 
results are surprisingly consistent throughout. They show that composition and 
purity are very closely correlated with weight, and in such a way that as 
weight increases, total solids, sucrose, and percentage purity fall rapidly. The 
rate of fall on the relative scale of — 1 to +1 is shown by the coefficient of cor- 
relation r, the rate in an absolute scale by the second term of the regression 
equation." 

Graphs of most of the equations were prepared, and while the empirical 
means are very irregular, there is no evidence to show that the regression is 
other than linear. 

The amount of nitrogen in beets and molasses during the years 1907-1911, 
Saillard (Bui. Soc. Nat. Agr. France, 12 {1912), No. 6, pp. 545-550). — The 
methods of sampling and analyzing beets are described. The beets harvested in 
1911 were found to contain much more total albuminoid, ammoniacal, amido, 
ynd injurious nitrogen than has been observed in previous years. This is sup- 
posed to be due to the dry season. A large amount of nitrogen in beets has a 
tendency to reduce the sugar yield and to increase the yield of molasses. Cer- 
tain technical difficulties are also encountered in the use of beets high in nitro- 
genous substances. 

Quantitative determination of the bitter substances of hops, L. Adleb 
(Ztschr. Gesam. Brauw., 35 {1912), No. 85, pp. 406~410; ahs. in Jour. Soc. Ghem. 
Indus., 31 (1912), '^o. 20, p. 1003).—Th.\& is a modification of Lintner's method 
(E. S. R., 11, p. 22), and consists of boiling 10 gm. of hops, previously disin- 
tegrated in a chopping machine, for 7 hours with 200 cc. of petroleum ether 
(boiling point 48" C). After cooling, the extract is made up to 255 cc, and 50 
cc. of the filtered liquid is titrated with tenth-normal potassium hydroxid solu- 
tion, using 10 drops of a 1 per cent solution of phenolphthalein as the indicator. 
The titration is finished when the yellowish brown layer, after thoroughly shak- 
ing, has a carmin red tint. The volume of tenth-normal alkali solution used, 
multiplied by 2, gives the percentage of bitter substances present in the hops. 
If necessary, the boiling point of petroleum ether can be adjusted to 48° by 
adding benzin, etc. A variation of 10° in the boiling point, however, was found 
to make a difference of only 0.5 per cent in the bitter substances. 

The detection and estimation of arachis oil, X. Eveks (Analyst, 57 (1912), 
No. 440, pp. 487-492). — The method recommended for the estimation of arachis 
(peanut) oil is as follows: 

'' Weigh out 5 gm. of the oil into a saponification flask, and 25 cc. of alco- 
holic potash (SO gm. potash dissolved in 80 cc. water and diluted to a liter with 
90 per cent alcohol), and saponify for about 5 minutes under a reflux condenser. 
To the hot soap solution add 7.5 cc. of acetic acid (1 volume of glacial acetic acid 
to 2 volumes of water) and 100 cc. of 70 per cent alcohol containing 1 per cent 
(by volume) of hydrochloric acid, and cool to 12 to 14° C. for an hour. Filter 
and wash with 70 per cent alcohol containing 1 per cent hydrochloric acid at 
17 to 19°, the precipitate being broken up occasionally by means of a platinum 
wire bent into a loop. The washing is continued until the filtrate gives no 
turbidity with water, the washings being measured. Dissolve the precipitate, 
according to Its bulk in 25 to 70 cc. of hot 90 per cent alcohol, and cool to a 
fixed temperature between 15 and 20°. If crystals appear in any quantity, allow 
to stand at this temperature for 1 to 3 hours, filter, wash with a measured 
volume of 90 per cent alcohol (about half the volume used for crystallization), 
and finally with 50 cc. of 70 per cent alcohol. Wash the crystals with warm 
ether into a weighed flask, distill off the ether, dry at 100°, and weigh. If the 
melting point is lower than 71°, recrystallize from 90 per cent alcohol. 
Add the correction for the solubility In fX) per cent alcohol as in Renard's 



210 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

process from tlie table given by Archbutt (Allen's Commercial Organic Analysis, 
4. ed., vol. 2, p. 94), and also for the total volume of 70 per cent alcohol used in 
precipitating and washing (including the 100 cc. added in the first instance). 

"If there are no crystals from 90 per cent alcohol, or if they are only in very 
small amount, add a sufficient quantity of water to reduce the strength of the 
alcohol to 70 per cent (31 cc. water to 100 cc. 90 per cent alcohol). Crystallize 
at 17 to 19° for an hour, filter, wash with 70 per cent alcohol, and weigh as 
before, adding the correction for 70 per cent alcohol. If the melting point is 
below 71°, recrystallize from a small quantity of 90 per cent alcohol, or again 
from 70 per cent alcohol. 

" The following oils gave no crystals : Olive oils, including ' nice superfine,' 
'nice seconds,' 'Malaga,' and 8 of unknown origin, almond, poppy, and rape 
oils." 

A clinical method of estimating- the amount of calcium in the urine and 
other physiological fluids, W. B. Bell (Bio-chem. Jour., 6. (1912), No. 3, pp. 
205-209, figs. 2). — Finding that the precipitates obtained with oxalic and acetic 
acids for many specimens of urine were pure calcium oxalate, providing the 
proper precautions as regards phosphates were observed, a method was devised 
for determining the calcium in urine and similar fluids. 

"A sample from a 24 hours' specimen of urine is made faintly acid with 
hydrochloric acid to dissolve any insoluble phosphate present. It is then made 
faintly alkaline with ammonia, and filtered. Next 5 cc. of the filtrate is placed 
with a pipette in the special centrifuge tube, which is of the usual size and 
shape in the upper portion, but tapers at the lower end into a cylindrical ex- 
tremity of even bore (1.25 mm.) and calibrated into 1 mm. divisions. A line, 
with ' urine ' marked below it, encircles the upper part of the tube at the 5 cc. 
level. Any air bubbles which may collect in the calibrated portion are got rid 
of with a fine wire or strand of silkworm gut. Then 1 cc. of the reagent, con- 
sisting of a saturated solution of oxalic acid in a 5 per cent solution of acetic 
acid, is added. The correct quantity of reagent (1 cc.) is also indicated by a 
line round the tube, which is marked * reagent.' Finally 2 cc. of alcohol or 
methylated spirit, as indicated by the line marked * alcohol,' is added, and the 
contents of the tube are thoroughly mixed by shaking. 

"The second tube is then taken, and 5 cc. of the standard solution (0.05 gm. 
of calcium phosphate. Ca3(PO02, is dissolved in a little hydrochloric acid. Make 
alkaline with ammonia and acid with acetic acid. Add 2 gm. of urea to the 
solution, and dilute the whole up to 100 cc. with distilled water ; specific gravity, 
1.015) is run into it with a pipette that is up to the line marked ' solution,' and 
any air bubbles removed as before. Next the reagent and alcohol are added, as 
in the case of the first tube, and the whole is thoroughly shaken. Both tubes, 
with their calibrated end packed in wool, are then carefully placed in the oppo- 
site buckets of a centrifuge, and are centrifuged for about a quarter of an hour. 
On removing the tubes the precipitate will be found to stand at a certain height, 
say 10 mm. in the ' standard-solution ' tube, while it may stand at 7 mm. in 
the other, which contains the urine to be examined. As a rule, there is a slight 
slant on the surface of the deposit. This can be obviated by stopping the 
machine at the end of 1 or 2 minutes and turning the tubes through half a 

circle." 

When the method was compared with the usual chemical method for deter- 
mining calcium it was found that the greatest difference never amounted to 
more than 1 per cent of the quantity present in the sample. 

A new method for detecting methyl alcohol, P. N. Raikaw (Orig. Commun. 
8. Internat. Cong. Appl. Chem. [Washington and New YorJc'\, 25 {1912), Sects. 
I-Ve, pp. 417-419) .—The method is based on the behavior of nitromethan and 



^ 



METEOROLOGY — WATER. 211 

its immediate homologues towarcj sodium nitroprussid in an alkaline (ammo- 
niacal) solution. If a few drops of sodium nitroprussid are added to a solu- 
tion containing nitiometlian an indigo blue coloration is produced. 

A procedure for applying this test for the detection of denatured alcohol is 
also described. 

METEOROLOGY— WATER. 

On some meteorological conditions controlling- nocturnal radiation, J. R. 
Sutton (Trans. Roy, Soc. So. Africa, 2 (1912), pt. 5, pp. 3S1-393) .—ThxH paper 
is based upon observations at Kimberley during a period of 8 years with 2 
radiation (spirit) thermometers, one placed upon the grass and the other 
mounted on a light brass stand 5 in. above the grass. 

The general conclusion reached is " that after allowance has been made for 
the state of the sky and the movement of the air, the only factor of real im- 
portance determining the magnitude of the radiation-temperature gradient is 
the relative humidity. The absolute humidity, as such, is unimportant." 

Some causes and effects of variation in the range of temperature, J. K. and 
Elizabeth M. Sutton (Trans. Roy. Soc. So. Africa, 2 (1912), pt. 4, pp. 3^1- 
S56). — This paper presents the results of a study of what variation if any of 
the diurnal curve of barometric pressure accompanies a greater or less range of 
temperature as night follows day. 

Nitrogen in rain and snow, N. Knight (Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci., 18 (1911), pp. 
75-77). — The results of analyses with reference to the nitrogen content of 9 
samples of snow and 8 samples of rain collected at Mount Vernon, low^a, during 
8 mouths, excluding May, June, July, and August, of 1910 are given. The total 
amount of nitrogen brought down to the soil by precipitation during this period 
was 13.71 lbs. per acre. 

Dry season and droughts in Rhodesia, E. Goetz (Rhodesia Ayr. Jour., 10 
(1913), Nos. If, pp. 538-5U; 5, pp. C91-G9S; 6, pp. S2 8-832) .—The rainfall 
throughout Rhodesia during the dry season for a number of years is summarized 
and the conclusion is reached that there is no useful rainfall from April to 
October, inclusive. Droughts of more or less severity also occur during the so- 
called rainy season, a fortnight or more without rain or 20 to 25 days with not 
more than * in. of rain being considered a drought. The distribution of droughts 
throughout the year for a series of years is shown. Changes in farm practice 
better to adapt them to weather conditions are discussed. 

The regime of underground waters in the neighborhood of Polesia, E. V. 
Oppokov (PochvoviedQn'ie (Pedologie), 15 (1913), No. 2-3, pp. 29-57, pi. 1). — 
Nine years' observations are reported on ground water level and the factors 
affecting it made on three wells in the immediate neighborhood of Polesia in 
the Province of Minsk. The variations in ground water level and the effects 
of atmospheric precipitation, evaporation, and temperature on its position are 
graphically represented. 

From his ob.servations the author concludes that the atmospheric precipita- 
tions have a marked influence on the height of ground water level, which is 
manifested within a short time, generally not more than a month after precipi- 
tation during the warm months. He further concludes that the sinking of the 
ground water level during the dry years was due entirely to loss by evapora- 
tion, etc., that the rise of water level during the wet years was due to the 
recuperation of the average quantity of soil moisture during the rainy periods 
following the dry periods, and also that the excess water of a rainy year is 
held in reserve for the dry year or years following. 

Water supplies, with special reference to underground water, L. K. Ward 
(Jour, Dept. Ayr. So. Aust., 17 (1913), Xo. 4, pp. 4P^-50^).— Referring especially 



212 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

to South Australian conditions the author briefly discusses rainfall, its use 
and loss, artesian water, artesian basins, the salt content of rain, ground 
water, well types, factors determining quantity and quality of water, well loca- 
tion and protection, tanks, and the use of the divining rod. Observations made 
in New Zealand are said to prove that every inch of rain falling over an acre of 
ground deposited 4f lbs. of salt. 

The advice of a geologist is considered preferable to that of a diviner in 
locating underground water supplies. 

SOILS— FEETILIZEES. 

The geology of soils and substrata with special reference to agriculture, 
estates, and sanitation, H. B. Woodward {London and New York, 1912, pp. 
XVI -{-366, pis. Jf, figs. U; rev. in Science, n. ser., 38 (1913), Wo. 983, pp. 626, 
627). — This book gives an outline of geology in its broader relations with agri- 
culture and sanitation, and discusses the preparation of geological maps and 
soil surveys; soils, subsoils, and substrata; weathering of rocks and subsi- 
dences; the climatic conditions affecting soils and their handling; chemical 
composition and physical properties of soils; the use of mineral fertilizers and 
amendments; forests and woodlands, and their associated geological features; 
orchards, gardens, and vineyards ; geological considerations concerning minerals 
and other economic materials ; house sites, water supply, sewage, and drainage ; 
and geological formations of England in their relation to the above subjects. 

The object of the book is stated to be " to provide such information relating 
to the land-surface as will be useful to students and teachers of agriculture, to 
those occupied in the management of estates and farms, or in sanitary and 
engineerng works, wherein it is important to consider the geological nature of 
different sites for residences and other purposes." Special emphasis is laid on 
the importance of a knowledge of the underlying formations in the study of 
soils. It is maintained that a soil map to be of most value must deal not only 
with the surface soil, but must take into account the subsoil and show the 
depth as well as the nature of the soil. "A map of the surface soils alone 
would give a very imperfect idea of the capabilities of the land. ... A good 
subsoil map which shows the variations in the strata, whether drifts or the 
more regularly stratified formations, will always indicate the general distribu- 
tion of the surface soils." 

The germs of pedology in antiquity, A. Jaeilow {Internat. Mitt. Bodenk., 
3 {1913), No. 2-S, pp. 240-256). — This article reviews the ancient ideas regarding 
biology and physics of soils. 

Progress in agricultural chemistry (especially soil chemistry) since the 
use of the newer results of physical chemistry, especially colloid chemistry, 
H. Beehm {Kolloid Ztschr., 13 {1913), No. 1, pp. 19-35).— This article discusses 
in some detail the significance of colloid chemistry 'in relation to soils, 
mineralogy, and geology. The chief soil colloids enumerated are humus, slime 
organisms, colloidal iron and aluminum hydroxids, weathered amorphous 
silicates, and bacteria and micro-organisms held in suspension. The chemistry 
of colloidal humus in soils and the influence of lime and humus on the 
adsorptive power of cultivated soils are taken up in turn, followed by reviews 
of numerous works on the quantitative determination of soil and decomposed 
rock colloids. 

It is thought that colloids play an important part in the exchange of bases 
when plant food is added to the soil by entering into the so-called adsorption 
combinations which are essentially different from ordinary chemical combi- 
nations. These colloidal cementing substances or adsorption combinations are 



SOILS — FERTILIZERS. 213 

considered to bo the food bearers of the soil. Too much or too little of the 
colloidal substances is said to impair the agricultural value of a soil. 

The possibility of judging soils by their natural vegetation on the basis 
of the theory of probability, P. Vageler {Pflanzer, 9 {10 IS), No. 4, pp. 171-184; 
abs. in Chem. ZenthL, 191S, II, No. 4, pp. 378, 37^).— From a mathematical 
demonstration, based on the assumption that the quantitative relations be- 
tween soil and plants depend primarily on the physical properties of the 
soil, especially its hygroscopicity. it is concluded that the theory of probability 
combined with rigorous adjustment of the errors of probability is applicable 
for judging soils whose types of physical structure and plant forms lie within 
certain extreme limits established by actual test. This method was tested using 
hygroscopic values of some of the representative extreme soil formations of 
German East Africa, having correspondingly distinct vegetation. 

It is concluded in general, from results obtained, that plant forms are regu- 
lated by those physical properties of the soil which regulate the hygroscopic 
water, and that under the same conditions of climate and with the same plant 
forms the same soil properties will appear with a regularity which will vary 
practically as indicated by the numerical probability error. It is further con- 
cluded that this method not only places the judging of soils by their charac- 
teristic vegetation on an exact numerical basis and reduces the number of 
actual tests, but offers a useful method for tracing soils in open plain areas. 

Soil texture, C. T. Gimingham {Cliem. World, 2 {1913), No. 6, pp. 187, 188).— 
The opinion is expressed that from all points of view the mechanical analysis 
serves as a good basis for the classification of soils, but that the results of 
such analysis can be of use only with a full knowledge of local conditions 
since the textures of identical soil types often vary from field to field. In 
this connection it is suggested that the percentage of shrinkage of soils on 
drying be determine<l. 

White soil (Molkenboden), R. Hornberger {Internat. Mitt. Bodenk., 3 {1913). 
No. 4, PP- 353-357). — The author reports his own and reviews other investiga- 
tions on a rather impermeable grayish white soil, which he concludes is de- 
rived from sandstone but is somewhat poorer in soluble potash and lime and 
richer in phosphoric acid than an ordinary sandy loam derived from sandstone. 

Marsh, of the southern Vendee. — The influence of inundation on the fer- 
tility, G. Chartron {B^a. Soc. Sci. Nat. Quest France, S. ser., 2 {1912), No. 
3-4, pp. 125-132). — In discussing the fertility of the soils of these flats it is 
stated that in the spring a kind of alga grows in the stagnant drainage water 
on the flats, forming a slime coating on the soil after the water has disappeared 
which is said to vary in amount from 214 to 1,158 lbs. per acre. Analyses of 
samples show considerable nitrogen and lime but relatively little phosphoric 
acid and potash. Analyses of soils from the surrounding slopes and of the 
drainage water lead to the conclusion that the fertility of the swamp soils is 
due more to the drainage water than to the slime. 

Preliminary report on the soils of the wine district of Arad-Hegyalja and 
of the Arad plains, P. Treitz {Jahresbcr. K. Ungar. Geol. ReicJisnnst., 1910, 
pp. 214-243). — A discussion of geology and meteorology in their relations to the 
soil formations of these regions is followed by descriptions of the different types 
of soil encountered in both hill and plains country. The soils of the hill coun- 
try are divided into soils rich in humus and iron, calcareous soils, brown forest 
soils, and podzol soils. The plain soils are discussed as sand and gravel soils, 
light brown and dark brown desert soils, prairie clay, and alkaline soils. 

The soils of the rocky deserts of Turkestan, S. S. Neustruev (PochvovQ- 
dQnie {PMologie), 15 {1913), No. 1, pp. 1-19). — This article discusses in some 
detail the geological formations of the rocky deserts of Turkestan in their 



214 EXPEKIMENT STATION RECORD. 

relation to climate, vegetation, and soil formation. Analyses of some of the 
soils of these regions show large quantities of gypsum, less sodium sulphate, 
and some sodium chlorid. The quantity of sodium sulphate is said to be 
sufficient to limit the vegetation to desert plants. An abundance of gypsum is 
observed principally where excess moisture is contained in the soil. For this 
reason the salt deposits are said to be due to the evaporation of atmospheric 
water and not to subterranean waters, although the formation of underlying 
salt crusts under the influence of subterranean waters is frequent. 

Tamar River soils, H. J. Colbourn iAg?\ and Stock Dept. Tasmania, Rpt. 
1912-13, pp. 18, 19). — ^Analyses of basaltic and nonbasaltic soils from the Tamar 
River Valley are reported with brief comments on their fertilizer needs. 

Soil formation in clays of humid regions, B. Frosterus (Intcrnat. Mitt. 
BodenJc., 3 {1913), Xo. 2-3, pp. 99-130, figs, ii).— Investigations of the physical 
and chemical composition of podzol soils found in clay soil deposits in swampy 
regions are reported. These included a study and comparison of the different 
layers of these soils and the conditions which determine their character. 

It was found that in many cases two genetically different divisions exist in 
podzol soils, an upper and a lower. The upper part, which may be considered 
the podzol proper, is divided into two zones, one composed of layers of humus 
and of liaolin, the other composed of sedimentary earth and ortstein (hardpan) 
formations. These layers are formed by the leaching down of the soils from 
above. The kaolin layer is in an advanced state of weathering and is charac- 
terized by a high silica content. The layers of the second zone are especially 
rich in humus, clay and iron, and leachings of magnesia and alkalis. 

The location and condition of the lower part of the podzol soil is determined 
by the ground-water level, and in some cases this influence extends to the sur- 
face soil, giving rise to the so-called ground-water soils. In localities where the 
ground-water level is high and where forest swamps are common such soils 
take an important place, replacing the true podzol soils. Where they lie near 
the surface they exercise a bad influence on plant growth. The true podzol 
formation is directly opposed to the ground-water soil formation. 

The constituents of clay which impart plasticity and cohesion, A. Atter- 
liERG {Inteniat. Mitt. Bodenlc, 3 {1913), No. 4, pp. 291-330, figs. 2).— In a report 
of extensive investigations of the causes of plasticity, toughness, and firmness 
of clays of northern and southern Europe the author defines plasticity, con- 
sistency, and stickiness as applied to clay, reviews the investigations and con- 
clusions of other experimenters, and reports the results of his own tests of a 
large number of mineral samples and chemical preparations made to determine 
the principal plastic constituents in these clays. The minerals biotite, hematite, 
and limonite, and mixtures of hematite or limonite with kaolin showed typical 
clay plasticity combined with a high degree of toughness, as did also ferric 
oxychlorid (dialyzed iron). 

Those minerals and preparations which appeared plastic showed a leafy or 
scaly structure from which it is concluded that the particles of leafy or scaly 
form impart plasticity to a mineral. A high degree of toughness was found in 
washed products of biotite, hematite, and limonite, as was also a high degree 
of firmness on drying in fine washed products out of the same materials. Since 
firmness was not found in all of these products it is concluded that a high degree 
of firmness is a property only of the scaly shaped particles of colloidal size. 

Since the clays of northern Europe contain biotite in both oxidized and 
unchanged form it is generally concluded that colloidal biotite washings form 
their chief constituent and explain their high plasticity. The clays of southern 
Europe apparently owe their plasticity to their high content of hematite and 
limonite and mixed hematite or limonite with kaolin. 



SOILS — FERTILIZERS. 215 

Comparative investigations of the cohesive power of different kinds of 
soils, II. rucHNER {Iniernat. Mitt. BodcnJc, 3 (1913), No. 2-3, pp. 11,1-239, figs. 
2). — The author describes methods and apparatus used and gives the results 
of tests of the cohesive power of a large number of soil samples from different 
depths. 

A summary of results indicates that the samples tested showed wide varia- 
tions in cohesive power, which in the great majority of cases was more marked 
in the upper strata of soil than in the deeper ones. Investigations on the 
effect of mechanical composition of soils on their cohesive power showed that 
coherence increased with a decrease of the coarse sand and an increase of fine 
silt. The coarser silt (0.01 to 0.25 mm.) increased cohesive power in coarse- 
grained soils with an excess of sand. On the other hand, too large a propor- 
tion of the coarser silt in fine-grained soils decreased the cohesive power. The 
sand separates of different grades (0.25 to 3 mm.) generally decreased co- 
hesive power. The cohesive power of dry soils was affected to a consideral)le 
extent by chemical and biological influences as well as by the physical properties 
of the individual soil constituents. 

Physico-chemical studies of soils. — II, The hygroscopicity of soils, U. 
Pratolongo {Staz. Sper. Agr. Ital., 46 {1913), No. 3, pp. 219-240, pis. 3, figs. 2).— 
In a systematic study of the hygroscopicity of six soils, it was found by physi- 
cal and mechanical analyses and by a determination of variations in water 
vapor tension in the soil under fixed and variable temperatures that the physical 
and chemical structure as well as the humus content of the soils directly 
fiffected the processes of dehydration and rehydration. 

Relation between the hygroscopicity and the chemical composition of cer- 
tain Java soils, J. Schuit {Meded. Proefstat. Java-Suikerindus., 4 (1913), No. 
10, pp. 225, 226, table 1, pi. 1; Arch. Suikerindus. Nederland. Indie, 21 {1913), 
No. 24, pp. 713, 714, pi. 1, table 1; abs. in Cheni. Abs., 7 {1913), No. 21, p. 3635).— 
By hygroscopicity of the soil is here understood the number of grams of water 
which 100 gm. of oven-dry soil absorbs in 14 days in vacuum over 10 per cent 
sulphuric acid. With such of the soils as had hygroscopicity of less than 10.5 
there was remarkable regularity in that the moisture, the organic matter, the 
nitrogen, and the lime rose with the hygroscopicity and the phosphoric acid 
soluble in hydrochloric acid and that soluble in citric acid fell, while the potash 
dissolved by these two solvents first rose, then fell. With soils showing a 
hygroscopicity above 10.5 the same relation was observed in the first named 
constituents, while with the phosphoric acid and the potash there was less 
regularity. 

Quantitative determination of the absorbed bases in the soil, D. Pri- 
ANiscHNiKOW {Laudw. Vers. 8tat., 79-SO {1913), pp. 667-680, pi. 1, fig. 1; abs. 
in Zentbl. Agr. Chem., 42 {1913), No. 5, pp. 296-298).— VnAer the assumption 
that soil constituents are in the form of available plant food only when in an 
absorbed condition, experiments were made to determine the efficiencies of 
ammonium nitrite, acetate, hydroxid, carbonate, and chlorid for determining 
the quantities of available potassium in soils. The nitrite showed a stronger 
reaction than the chlorid, but was considered unsatisfactory on account of its 
unstable character. In this respect the acetate and hydroxid gave better results 
than the nitrite, although the energies of reaction were about the same. The 
carbonate was less suitable on account of the organic matter in the soils. 

For determining quantities of available ammonia four methods were com- 
pared, as already noted by Reschetnikov (E. S. R., 28, p. 111). 

A rich black soil, a loam, and a podzol soil were treated with ammonium 
nitrate to determine the quantity of absorbed lime. The rich black soil was 



216 EXPERIMENT STATION KECOKD. 

found to be fairly rich in lime while the other two were comparatively poor, 
especially the podzol. 

In tests of certain potassium-containing silicates as sources of available 
potassium, biotite, muscovite, and nepheline when treated with ammonium 
chlorid and barium chlorid showed relatively large quantities of available 
potassium while orthoclase, sanidin, microclin, and leucite were very poor in 
this respect. However, it is stated that a quantitative comparison can not be 
made by these results since the different potassium silicates and zeolites are 
said to be in variable states of stability regarding potassium. An artificial 
sodium zeolite was treated with potassium and ammonium chlorids in order to 
get the corresponding potassium and ammonium zeolites. Pot tests with buck- 
wheat of these and other silicates showed that the potassium in the zeolites, 
as also in the biotite and nepheline, was largely in available form, but this 
was not so when the zeolites were protected from contact and reaction with the 
other plant food salts, a strong fixation of the potassium being apparent. In 
this case the addition of calcium carbonate worked satisfactorily in converting 
the potassium compounds into available form as did also mixtures of the salts 
of other foods. 

The so-called isolation method was used to test the effect of the various 
silicates when not in contact with other plant food compounds in the soil. 
In this method two concentric cylinders are used, the inner being much smaller 
and somewhat shorter than the outer. Some of the roots of the plant are placed 
in the inner cylinder which is filled with sand containing only the silicate to 
be tested. The rest of the roots are allowed to grow in the sand which fills the 
outer cylinder to the top and is supplied with all necessary elements of plant 
food except that added to the inner cylinder. The top of the latter is closed 
so that there is no interchange of plant food between the cylinders. In this 
way the plant was forced to draw its potash supply from the silicate in the 
inner cylinder without the aid of the solvent action of other fertilizing sub- 
stances. 

Experimental investigations on the question of precipitation of iron in 
podzol soils, B. Aarnio {Internat. Mitt. Bodenlc, S {1913), No. 2-3, pp. 131- 
IJ^O), — Experiments made to determine the movements of iron in podzol soils 
showed that it moves in such soils in ferrous forms reduced from ferric salts by 
humus solutions and as iron colloid solutions in soil solutions which are poor in 
electrolytes and show a high humus content, as is the case in sandy podzol soils. The 
iron sinks into the deeper layers of such soils and forms ortstein when conditions 
are favorable for precipitation. It is also shown that iron can be precipitated 
by electrolytes, of which sulphuric acid and silicic acid are the most prevalent 
in this soil, and by colloidal silicic acid and humus. The electrolytes and col- 
loids are said to effect precipitation only within fixed limits of concentration of 
the solution to be precipitated. The colloid iron is said to diffuse through the 
upper part of the soil and is there precipitated by humus and electrolytes. This 
explains the presence of so much iron in the upper layers of podzol soils. 

Iron in the ground water in the form of salts of mineral acids rises through 
capillarity and is precipitated in the upper layers of the soil. 

Work of the chemical laboratory of the Ploti Experiment Station, 1912, 
S. SKAi^Kii {Godichnyi Otchet FlotL Selsk. Khoz. Opytn. StantsU, 18 {1912), 
pp. 133-221, 349-380, pis. 3). — The work reported included bacteriological as 
well as chemical studies of the soil. The intensity of the process of the fixa- 
tion of nitrogen in the soil under different cultural conditions; the intensity of 
the processes of nitrification aiid denitrification in tilled and untilled fallow; 
and the conversion of easily soluble phosphoric acid into insoluble form under 
the influence of chemical and microbiological factors were studied in field and 



SOILS — FERTILIZERS. 217 

laboratory. In adclitiou, a series of cropping exporiuifuts was conducted to 
determine (1) the influence of sterilized soils on tlie development of plants 
and (2) the proportions of nitrogen and phosphoric acid most favorable for 
plant development. Studies were also made of the relation of nitrogen and 
phosphoric acid to soil fertility. 

The fixation of nitrogen by soil bacteria was found to depend on the cultural 
condition of the soil, the intensity of the process increasing with the degree of 
culture. It was higher in spring (tilled) fallow soil than in untilled. and 
higher in the surface soil than in the subsoil of all the soils tested. 

Determination from time to time of nitric nitrogen in soil and subsoil indi- 
cated that the intensity of nitrilication was much less in the cultivated top soil 
tlian in the subsoil of both tilled and untilled fallow except for a few days at 
the beginning of the tests, while the opposite was true of denitrification. 
Studies of the processes of nitrification and denitrification in identical samples 
of soil, however, indicated that when conditions were made favorable in the soil 
for the growth and activity of nitrifying bacteria a medium was formed with the 
resulting nitrates which was favorable to the growth and activity of denitri- 
fying bacteria which in turn destroyed the nitrates already formed. It was 
further found that some of the nitric nitrogen formed was converted into 
albuminoids or into gaseous nitrogen. Some of the latter may be fixed by 
nitrogen-fixing organisms and pass into complex organic forms. 

In addition to the results obtained in the preceding year in regard to the 
chemical and microbiological fixation of soluble phosphoric acid (E. S. R., 28, 
p. 417) it was found that the fixation of easily soluble phosphoric acid depends 
t;s much on chemical as on biological factors, and the intensity of this process 
depends directly on the cultural condition of the soil. The total fixation 
through both chemical and microbiological factors was found to be greater in 
subsoils than in cultivated top soils as was also the case where the fixation 
was due to chemical factors alone, but when due to microbiological factors 
alone the intensity was found to be the greater in the top soil. 

Sterilization of soils with chloroform and with heat, as previously noted, 
increased the crop yield by converting the phosphoric acid and nitrogen into 
available forms. The crop yield increased with the nitrogen added; but with 
increased phosphoric acid there was first an increase, then a decrease. In- 
creasing both fertilizers slightly increased the crop. 

Fallow soil was found to be in the best physical and chemical condition, and 
phosphoric acid was more needed as a fertilizer in this soil than nitrogen, 
although both are considered indispensable in raising the soil to a high degree 
of fertility. 

Bacterial action in the soil as a function of food concentration and of 
insoluble org-anic substance, O. Rahn {Centbl. Bakt. [etc.'\, 2. Abt., 38 {1918), 
No. 19-20, pp. 484-494). — This work is a continuation and completion of studies 
previously noted (E. S. R., 29, p. 817), and is devoted chiefly to a study of the 
influence of porous spongy substances, such as cellulose, on bacterial activity in 
soils. Cellulose in the form of finely grated filter paper was mixed with sand, 
washed with hydrochloric acid, in different proportions. These mixtures and 
likewise sand without cellulose were moistened with a 5 per cent peptone solu- 
tion, and a peptone solution without sand addition was also used in each series. 
These different combinations were sterilized in the autoclave and inoculated 
with a culture of Bacillus mycoides. The cultures were analyzed after 2, 4, 6, 
10, and 20 days' incubation and the progress of decomposition and the different 
speeds of transformation in the individual combinations noted. The influence 
of the concentration of peptone and of variations in water content and of cellu- 
lose on the ammonification are specially noted. 



218 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

From the results obtained it is concluded that the bacterial activity in soil 
depends on the size of soil grains, the water content, and the concentration of 
food. The speed and the final stage of decomposition vary with these three 
factors. 

In order to obtain physiologically comparable results it is shown that the 
soil solution must contain the same food concentration in all experiments, which 
does not correspond with conditions in cultivated soil. With the same food con- 
centration in the soil the decomix)sition of some substances shows approximately 
under all conditions the same final point of cleavage, so that only the speed of 
decomposition and not the final stage is influenced by the size of grain and 
water content. This was found to be the case in the decomposition of peptone 
by B. mycoides. However, with other bacteria in previous experiments the 
speed of decomposition and also the point of final decomposition were influenced 
by the physical properties of the soil. 

Coarse spongy organic substances, such as decomposed cellulose, acted in dry 
soils as water absorbers and diminished the bacterial action, but in moist soils 
they increased ventilation and thereby increased the activity of aerobic bacteria. 

Occurrence of Azotobacter in tropical soils, J. Groenewege {Aleded. Proef- 
stat. Java-Suikerindus., 4 {1913), No. 13, pp. 241-2U; Arch. Suikerindus. Neder- 
land. Indie, 21 {1913), No. 26, pp. 790-798; ahs. in Gliem. Ahs., 7 {1913), No. 
21, p. 3635). — Contrary to the conclusions of De Kruyff, the author found 
Azotobacter chroococcum in all but one of a series of Java soils, and in this the 
chlorin content was 3.S6 i^er cent, indicating suSicient sodium chlorid to kill the 
bacteria, BaciUus radiohacter was also found to be generally present in Java 
soils. 

Methods in soil bacteriolog'y. — VI, Arnnionification in soil and in solution, 
F. LoHNis and H. H. Greex {CentN. Bakt. [e^c], 2. Aht., 37 {1913), No. 22-25, 
pp. 534-562; als. in Jour. Chem. 8oc. [London^, 104 {1913), No. 609, I, pp. 797, 
798; Chem. Abs., 7 {1913), No. 19, pp. 3380, 3381).— This is a critical study of 
the factors affecting ammonification and nitrification of blood meal, flesh meal, 
and horn meal under laboratory conditions. It is considered that in determin- 
ing the relative value of laboratory tests in soil and solution media the specific 
mode of application of methods must be clearly defined, since widely varying 
results may be obtained in both cases according to variation in the experi- 
mental conditions. *' The most significant cause of variation appears to be 
that of aeration." 

Ammonification, as well as nitrification, proceeded much more rapidly un er 
aerobic than under anaerobic conditions. It is believed that aerobic condi- 
tions especially favor the later stages of breakdown resulting in the formation 
of ammonia itself. Under conditions of insufficient aeration, increasing the 
quantity of nitrogenous material used retarded the ammonification, but with 
adequate aeration it had little influence. In general smaller quantities of 
material experienced more complete ammonification although the chemical 
nature of the material used seemed to be the dominant factor. The duration 
of the experiment affected the apparent extent of ammonification, the rate 
of ammonification being in general greatest during the first ten days in both 
soil and solution. The three materials used showed very different rates of 
decomposition. 

In solution tests the losses of ammonia by evaporation were highest and the 
relative extent of ammonia assimilation lowest with the larger quantities of 
material. In these tests the use of magnesium hydrogen phosphate effected 
marked conservation of ammonia only in the longer periods of decomposition. 
However, the ammonia not lost through evaporation was assimilated by the 



SOILS — FERTILIZERS. 219 

bacteria. In solution tests the depth of liquid was found to be the chief factor 
in controlling aeration, while in soil tests the depth of soil layer and the degree 
of moisture exercised relatively little effect within comparatively wide limits. 
However, where the depth of the soil layer interferes with aeration marked 
differences are said to appear. 

In solution nitrification was not observed in the presence of the three ma- 
terials used, while in soil tests with liberal aeration and not too large an excess 
of aiMmouia it kept pace with ammonification. There was accumulation of 
ammonia with the larger quantities of material but not with the smaller. 
In the longer periods the ammonia accumulated during the earlier stages was 
partly nitrified and partly lost by evaporation. With inadequate aeration 
there was no formation of nitrate. 

The metabolism of fiesh meal proceeded almost as fast in solution as in soil, 
while horn meal and blood meal decomposed much more rapidly in soil. 

Nitrate and nitrite assimilation, O. Baudisch (Ztschr. Angew. Chem., 26 
(1913), No. S3, Aufsafztcil, pp. 612, 613).— The author attempts to show in this 
article that the nitroxyl group plays an important role in nitrogen changes in 
green plants, and discusses the ways in which this is done. 

Studies on the decomposition of cellulose in manures and soils, C. MIjtter- 
LEiN (Stiidien iibcr die Zersetzung dcr Zelliilose im Dilngcr und Boden. [Inaug. 
Diss.] Leipsic, 1913; ahs. in Ccntbl. Bakt. [etc.], 2. Abt., 39 (1913), No. 4-7, 
pp. 167-169). — The work of other investigators on this subject is reviewed and 
a series of experiments with different culture media and various inoculating 
materials is reported. 

The effect of toluol and CS- upon the micro-flora and fauna of the soil, 
P. L. Gainey (Missouri Bot. Gard. Aim. Rpt., 23 (1912), pp. 147-169; abs. in 
Centbl. Bakt. [etc.], 2. Abt., 39 (1913), No. //-7, p. 158).— The results of the 
investigations reported in this article are summarized as follows: 

"(1) Small quantities of CSz, toluol, and chloroform, such as have been used 
practically and experimentally, when applied to the soils studied exert a stim- 
ulative rather than a diminishing effect upon the total number of bacteria 
present. 

"(2) An application of such quantities of CS2 and toluol does not have an 
appreciable effect upon the number of types of protozoa present in such soils 
as have been studied. 

"(3) A very marked increase in yield may be noted following such an appli- 
cation when no evident change occurs in total number of bacteria present. 

"(4) In the light of the recent work of Koch, Egorov, Goodsey, Fred, and 
others, with results presented in this paper, the theory advanced by Russell 
and Hutchinson to account for the Increased yield following the application 
of such chemicals appears not tenable for general application." 

The influence of fertilization on the condition of the soil and its fitness 
for certain crops, A. Mausberg (Landw. Jahrb., 4o (1913), No. 1, pp. 29-101). — 
Studies conducted for 18 years on the relations between the properties of a soil 
and its fertilization and productiveness are reported, and methods of physical, 
mechanical, and chemical analyses, and of eliminating errors are reviewed. 
The tested soil was originally a medium heavy, deep loam, mostly fine grained, 
with a hygroscopicity of about 2.98 per cent and an absorption coefficient for 
ammonia of 72.5 mg. It contained relatively small quantities of plant food, 
although needing only moderate potash and very little phosphoric acid fertili- 
zation. 

In experiments made to determine the influence of varied fertilization on the 
physical, mechanical, chemical, and biological properties, it was found that soil 



220 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

not fertilized for a long period became rather dense in structure, suffered dur- 
ing drought, became saturated and sticky during wet weather, dried very 
slowly, and showed little useful bacterial activity. Its alkalinity was also low. 
Continuous treatment with either sodium nitrate or kainit produced a dense, 
crusted structure and reduced the basicity and the useful bacterial action. 
Continued ammonium sulphate treatment had a detrimental effect on the soil 
reaction and bacterial activity. Continuous lime treatment produced all the 
characteristics of high fertility, with the exception of impoverishment in 
potash, as did also the magnesia treatment to a little less degree. 

Complete fertilization without lime produced results in no way inferior to 
those produced by continuous lime treatment. There was a most marked ex- 
haustion of potash with complete fertilization except potash. Mixed fertiliza- 
tion with stable manure, mineral phosphates, and potash produced only n 
medium physical structure and somewhat better bacterial activity, but reduced 
the alkalinity. 

Rye, oats, peas, potatoes, and sugar beets were grown on differently fertilized 
plats. Winter rye appeared to thrive on all the soils regardless of fertilization, 
little difference being observed on different plats. Oats required an excess of 
easily assimilable nitrogen, which it preferred as sodium nitrate. Aside from 
nitrogen the oats required sufficient potash. 

For a good yield of peas, both potash and lime were necessary, the absence 
of either causing the same shortage in yield as the absence of both. Potatoes 
throve best with plenty of potash, and preferred ammonium sulphate to sodium 
nitrate as a source of nitrogen. A change in soil reaction affected them but 
little, as complete fertilization without lime and with magnesia did not de- 
crease the yield. The highest yield of potatoes was obtained with mixed 
fertilization of stable manure, mineral potash, and phosphate fertilizers in 
spite of the low alkalinity of the soil. 

For a good yield, sugar beets required each of (1) easily assimilable nitrogen, 
(2) sufficient potash, (3) high alkalinity in connection with a satisfactory 
soil structure, and the yield decreased in proportion to the deficiency of any 
of these three. The beets stood in direct contrast with potatoes, since, in spite 
of the presence of magnesia, they were badly affected by a deficiency of lime 
and preferred sodium nitrate to ammonium sulphate as a source of nitrogen. 

Fertilization had a more lasting influence on the starch content of potatoes 
than on the sugar content of beets, but although both depended largely on 
potash, an excess of this reduced the quality of the potatoes and improved that 
of the beets. Phosphoric acid had little effect on the yield of either, but am- 
monium sulphate increased the carbohydrate formation in both. 

Experiences with commercial fertilizers and manure, W. Lonergan (Ann. 
Rpt. Nehr. Corn Improver^ Assoc, 4 (1913), pp. 85. 86).— Experiments with 
manure and fertilizers on a good clay upland soil in Nebraska led to the con- 
clusion that the use of manure was superior to all other treatments, and that 
there was little or no advantage in the use of commercial fertilizers on such 
soils. 

Fertilizer experiments on peaty meadows in Hungary, J. Gyaefas (Ko:;- 
teJek [Budapest], 28 (1913), No. JfS, pp. 1553, 1554; «&«• *« Internat. Inst. Agr. 
[Rome], Mo. Bui. Agr. Intel, and Plant Diseases, 4 (1913), No. 8, pp. 1194, 
^jfP5), —Cooperative experiments in different parts of Hungary showed in gen- 
eral that the use of a fertilizer containing phosphoric acid and potash gave 
highly remunerative results. 

The results of experience with fertilizers during the last twenty-five years, 
Lemmebmann (Illus. Landw. Ztg., 33 (1913), No. 48, pp. 450, 451).— This is a 
brief review of German experience and shows that the free use of fertilizers 



SOILS — FERTILIZERS. 221 

has been a large factor in increasing agricultural production In tliat country. 
In fact, 50 per cent of the increase, which has been very pronounced, is at- 
tributed to the rational use of fertilizers. 

Bone products and manures, T. Lambert (London, 191S, 2. rev. ed., pp. y//+ 
167, figs. J7).— This is a second revised edition of this work (E. S. R., 13, p. 634). 

The solubility of soil constituents, H. Fischer (Internat. Mitt. Bodenk., 3 
(1913), No. 4, pp. 331-337, fig. 1). — In a comparison of the solubility of phono- 
lite and biotite in water saturated with carbon dioxid according to the Islit- 
scherlich method it was found that the potash of the latter was less soluble 
than that of the former. This, however, is not in accord with results of crop 
tests by other investigators which showed that the potash of biotite is more 
readily assimilated by oats than that of phonolite. Methods of rendering the 
potash of phonolite more assimilable by plants are briefly discussed. 

Comparative manuring experiments with crushed phonolite and 40 per 
cent potash salts, F. Wagner (Prakt. Bl. Pflanzenbau u. Schutz, n.- ser., 11 
(1913), Nos. 4, pp. 52. 53; 5, pp. 67-70; 6, pp. 77-82, fig. 1; ahs. in Internat. 
Inst. Agr. [Rome], Mo. Bui. Agr. Intel, and Plant Diseases, 4 (1913), No. 10, 
pp. 153Ii, 1535). — Ground phonolite was compared with 40 per cent potash salt 
on hops grown on soils poor in potash. The phonolite was used in connection 
with a basal fertilizer of ammonium sulphate, Thomas slag, and lime, but the 
results from its use were in no way comparable with those obtained with the 
potash salt. 

The possibility of replacing Stassfurt potash salts by finely ground phono- 
lite, leucite, etc., Lemmermann (Internat. Inst. Agr. [Romel, Mo. Bui. Agr. 
Intel, and Plant Diseases, 4 (1913), No. 10, pp. i4SS-i//95).— Experiments with 
various natural silicates of potash are reviewed. 

It is shown that the fertilizing effect of these is variable, but generally low. 
They are not comparable with potash salts. Various processes which have been 
proposed for the improvement of their assimilability are noted, but it is held 
that none of them offers a practical substitute for the German potash salts. 

Influence of the condition of the soil on the utilization of different phos- 
phates, H. R. Christensen (FiiliUng's Landw. Ztg., 62 (1913), No. 11, pp. 392- 
405). — Experiments are reported which were conducted to determine the rela- 
tive values of superphosphate, Thomas slag, bone meal, and Algerian phos- 
phate fertilizers under varying conditions of cultivated and meadow soils, the 
variable factors being the power of the soils to set free acids, especially phos- 
phoric acid, the moisture content, and the basicity. 

On cultivated soils the effects of the superphosphate and Thomas slag were 
uniformly good, and both were utilized in practically the same quantities in 
acid and basic soils, the Thomas slag being utilized slightly the more. Using 
superphosphate as a standard, the results with bone meal and Algerian phos- 
phate were poor. With a single exception it was found that the utilization of 
the phosphoric acid of bone meal as compared with that of superphosphate 
was very small in basic soils, while in nonbasic and acid soils the two were 
utilized to about the same extent. No definite relations were found to exist 
between the acid separating powers of cultivated soils and the utilization of 
the four phosphates. 

In meadow soils superphosphate was utilized to a somewhat greater extent 
than Thomas slag, the utilization of Thomas slag being greatest in the basic 
soils. Bone meal, with one exception, was not utilized so well as superphos- 
phate. Better utilization of bone meal was found on moist than on dry soils 
with greater acid separating powers. The effect of basicity on bone meal was 
not so marked as in the cultivated soils. 



222 EXPERIMENT STATION EECORD. 

It is concluded that the utilization of slowly soluble phosphates is largely 
regulated by the amount of water present in the soil during the growing 
season, being greater in moist than in dry soil, and also that bone meal can not 
be satisfactorily used on basic soils. Although little tested, Algerian phos- 
phate is classed with bone meal. 

Origin of the hard rock phosphates of Florida, E. H. Sellards {Fla. Geol. 
Survey Ami. Rpt., 5 (1912), pp. 23-80, pis. 10).— The nature and location of the 
hard rock phosphate deposits are described and theories of their origin are 
discussed. 

As regards the origin of these deposits the author holds " that the matrix 
of the hard rock phosphate deposits is the residue of the formations that have 
disintegrated in situ, and that the phosphate itself is derived from the phos- 
phate originally widely disseminated through these formations, circulating 
waters being the agency by which the phosphate has been carried to its present 
location." 

An extensive bibliography of the subject is given. 

Production of phosphate rock in Florida during 1913, E. H. Sellards (Fla. 
Geol. Survey Ann. Rpt., 5 (1912), pp. 291-294).— The statistics of production of 
different kinds of phosphate rock in Florida in 1912 and several preceding years 
are summarized. A list of phosphate manufacturing companies operating in 
the State during that year is also given. 

Consumption of superphosphates in Hungary, B. Kovacsy (Kozielek [Buda- 
pest], 23 (1913), No. 42, pp. 1532, 1533; ads. in Internat. Inst. Agr. [Rome], Mo. 
Bui. Agr. Intel, and Plant Diseases, 4 (1913), No. 8, p. 1201).— The data re- 
ported show a marked increase in the consumption of commercial fertilizers, 
especially superphosphates, which constitute 80 per cent of the total amount 
of chemical fertilizers employed. The use of superphosphate varies from | to 
72 lbs. per acre of cultivated area in different parts of the country. 

Calcium pyrophosphate, A. Menozzi (Indus. Chim., 13 (1913), pp. 261, 262; 
aT)S. in Jour. Soc. Cheni. Indus., 32 (1913), No. 19, p. 953). — When phosphorite 
was heated with moist sulphur dioxid in presence of air there was obtained 
a fine white powder consisting of calcium sulphate and pyrophosphate. The 
properties of this product are described and it is stated that it is as effective 
as a fertilizer as superphosphate or basic slag. It is not proposed, however, 
that it be used as a fertilizer in this form, but that it be converted into super- 
phosphate by treatment with sulphuric acid. By this treatment a product is 
obtained which is of lower acidity than ordinary superphosphate. 

The degree of fineness of fertilizer lime, D. Meyer (III us. Landw. Ztg., 33 
(1913), No. 84, p. 755). — The author concludes from the examination of a large 
number of samples of agricultural lime that not less than 70 per cent of such 
lime should pass a sieve with meshes 0.2 mm. in diameter, and that not more 
than 75 per cent of the particles passing a 0.5 mm. sieve should be larger than 
0.2 mm. in diameter. The particles larger than 0.5 mm. but smaller than 1 mm. 
should not exceed 25 to 50 per cent. 

Evolution of sulphur in the soil: A study of its oxidation, C. Brioux and 
M. GuERBET (Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. [Paris], 156 (1913), No. 19, pp. 1476- 
1479; Ann. Sci. Agron., 4. ser., 2 (1913), II, No. 4, pp. 385-396; abs. in Rev. Sci. 
[Paris], 51 (1913), I, No. 21, p. 668; Jour. Cliem. Soc. [London], 104 (1913), 
No. 609, I, p. 811; Chem. Zentbl., 1913, II, No. 4, p. 575).— The author studied 
the influence of the character of the soil and of certain carbohydrates on the 
oxidation of sulphur. 

Sugar and starch appreciably retarded oxidation, while peptone and other 
nitrogenous substances favored it to such an extent that 82 per cent of the 
sulphur was oxidized in 30 days. The oxidation of the sulphur was due to 



AGRICULTURAL BOTANY. 223 

a very complicated bacteriological process probably involving a number of 
different kinds of bacteria. The addition of calcium carbonate greatly accel- 
erated oxidation, but sterilization almost entirely prevented it. 

The composition of sediments from the Potomac and Shenandoah rivers, 
J. G. Smith and W. H. Fky {Jour. Indus, and fJinjin. Ghcin., 5 1913), No. 12, 
pp. 1009-1011). — Mineralogical and chemical analyses of a large number of 
samples of the sediments are reported. 

The minerological character of the sediments of the two rivers was decidedly 
different. The chemical analyses showed no definite relation between the 
composition and the amount of sediment carried by the streams when the sam- 
ples were taken, and no uniformity of chemical composition of the sediments 
as a whole. It was found, however, that the fine particles were comparatively 
high in potash, phosphoric acid, lime, organic matter, etc. 

The production and consumption of chemical fertilizers in the world 
(Production et Consomniation des Engrais Ghimiques dans le Monde. Rome: 
Inst. Iniernat. Agr., 1913, pp. VI-\-134, pis. 6; rev. in Jour. Soc. Cliem. Indus., 
32 (1913), No. 15, pp. 801, 802).— Thin report gives detailed statistics as far as 
they are available of the production of raw materials supplying phosphoric 
ncid, potash, and nitrogen in fertilizers, and of the consumption of commercial 
fertilizers in 62 different countries, with a statement of the sources from which 
the information was drawn. 

It is estimated that the value of the fertilizers at present consumed in the 
world exceeds $400,000,000. The average consumption is stated to exceed 178 
lbs. per acre of cultivated area in Belgium, Mauritius, and Luxemburg, and to 
vary from 89 to 178 lbs. in Germany and the Netherlands; from 45 to 89 lbs. in 
Denmark, United States (southern States), France, England. Australia, Italy, 
and Switzerland; from 9 to 45 lbs. in Austria, Hungary, Spain, United States 
(northeast), Norway, Dutch East Indies, Portugal, and Sweden. "All the re- 
maining countries consume less than 9 lbs. per acre or an unknown amount." 
As a rule the latest figures given are those for 1911. 

Commercial fertilizers and their importance in the world's industry, K. 
KuBiEESCHKY {Ztschv. Augew. Chem., 26 {1913), No. 97, Aufsatzteil, pp. 721- 
729, fig. 1). — A historical and general review of this subject, based in part 
upon the report noted above. 

AGEICULTURAL BOTANY. 

Department of botanical research, D. T. MacDougal {Carnegie Inst. Wash- 
ington Year Book, 11 {1912), pp. 49-76, pi. 1). — An outline is given of the work 
carried on by the members attached to the laboratories maintained by this institu- 
tion and of investigations carried on under its auspices. These include studies 
on phyto-chemistry, the water relations of plants, and the environic reactions of 
organisms. Among some of the lines of work more or less briefly reported upon 
are the alterations in woody tissues and bacterial action in Salton water, the 
behavior of micro-organisms in brines, the floral elements of the Salton region, 
physical and botanical features of Sudanese and Libyan deserts, botanical 
features of the Algerian Sahara (E. S. R., 29, p. 626), depth of water table as 
a factor limiting distribution of trees, the soil moisture evaporation index and 
its relation to vegetation, water relations of plants, physical relations of roots 
to soil factors, structural relations in xenoparasitism (E. S. R., 28, p. 332), the 
determination of leaf temperatures, and chemical effects of radiant energy in 
plant processes. 

A bibliography is appended. 

29663°— No. 3—14 3 



224 EXPERIMENT STATION EECORD. 

Origin of species by mutation, A. W. Sutton (IV. Conf. Internat. Oen^iique 
Paris, Compt. Rend, et Raps., 1911, pp. 158, 159; a'bs. in Bot. GentU., 123 (1913). 
No. 10, p. 2Jf1). — The author states that observations extending over 40 years 
have convinced him that, while permanent variations may appear and retain 
their distinctive characteristics wjien isolated and grown (some being, however, 
only fluctuating variations tending soon to lose their identity), there is nothing 
approaching a really new species which has arisen by so-called mutation in 
the plants observed. 

On the principle of the coalescence of living plasmas and the origin of 
races and species, A. Gautiee {IV. Conf. Internat. Gen6tique Paris, Gompt. 
Rend, et Raps., 1911, pp. 79-90, fig. 1; abs. in Bot. GentU., 123 (1913), No. 9, pp. 
214, 215.) — The author sums up the results of studies extending over some 
years. 

Observations on cross-fertilization, grafting, etc., are claimed to show that 
somatic plasma possesses a property similar to that of the germ plasm, namely 
the power to transmit to the bud and to the ovary of the plant a modification 
which is immediately apparent and which in some cases may be transmitted 
to the offspring. The step from one race or species to another corresponds to a 
modification of the chemical principles essential to the race or species, this 
chemical differentiation being the sign of a corresponding variation in the 
protoplasm, resulting in a sudden alteration of function, of product, and of 
growth as regards external form. The coalescence of vegetable or somatic 
plasma may be as effective as that of germ plasm in the production of new 
races, uniting species and even genera. The stimulus may originate from 
insects, microbes, etc., acting directly or indirectly toward these results. 

The author concludes that it is by the union or symbiosis of plasmas, sexual 
or somatic, resulting from fertilization, grafting, or parasitic or traumatic 
action, that, either modifying the relation of certain ferments or preventing 
their formation, gives rise to those abrupt changes by which new races or 
species are produced; and that the variations of the individuals and of the 
races thus formed do not transgress the limits beyond which analogy with 
anatomical structures or with specific chemical principles no longer exists. 

Studies of natural and artifi.cial parthenogenesis in the genus Nicotiana, 
R. Weixington {Amer. Nat., J^l {1913), No. 557, pp. 279-306; ahs. in Internat. 
Inst. Agr. [Rome'], Mo. Bui. Agr. Intel, and Plant Diseases, 4 {1913), No. 7, p. 
1039). — The author reports several hundred attempts with stimuli caused by 
foreign pollen, mutilations, fumigation, and infections on numerous species and 
varieties of Nicotiana to produce parthenogenesis in the seed without success, 
and concludes that it probably does not occur in the forms tested. 

An extensive bibliography is given. 

Periodicity of specific characters, P. Vuillemin {Bui. Soc. Set. Nancy, 3. 
ser., 13 {1913), No. 3, pp. 179-218, figs. 13).— The author concludes an account 
of studies made by him on morphology in different stages, as noted in a number 
of plants, by stating that various forms of polymorphic plants or organs thereof 
may appear in a determinate order, which fact requires in such cases that these 
successive characters be employed to give a complete definition of the species. 
It is admitted that this habitual periodicity may be interfered with by external 
agencies, but it is still held that those teratological characters which exhibit 
periodic polymorphism are to be regarded as specific. 

Biology and radio-activity, G. Petit {Rec. MM. V6t., 90 {1913), No. 17, pp. 
584-590, figs. 2). — Besides brief mention of some work by other investigators, 
an account is given of recent studies by the author regarding the influence of 
radio-activity on rye grass, wheat, and corn. Some experiments on the last 
named showed a striking acceleration of growth, the results in general con- 



AGRICULTURAL BOTANY. 225 

firming previous conclusions reached by the author in connection with Ancelin 
(E. S. R., 29, p. 32G). 

The determination of the rays concerned in chloropliyll synthesis, P. A. 
Dangeard (Botaniste, 12. ser., 1912, pp. XXI-XXVI; ahs. in Ann. Bot. [Rome^, 
11 {1913), No. 3, pp. 501, 502).— The author investigated further (E. S. R., 25, 
p. 221) the influence on chlorophyll synthesis of the different portions of the 
spectrum obtained from a Nernst lamp, employing in these later experiments a 
quartz prism. 

It is stated that there exists a direct relation between the growth of a green 
alga and the absorption of radiations by its contained chlorophyll, the maximum 
effect appearing between the lines of wave length 6G0 to 670. The rate of 
absorpton of chlorophyll in solutions by an alga or its rate of vegetative develop- 
ment therein corresponds closely to the concentration employed. Notwithstand- 
ing considerable absorption of xanthophyll below line 490, the energy absorbed 
is insufficient to cause chlorophyll sj'uthesis in that part of the spectrum. It is 
also claimed that blue and violet rays do not appear to have any important 
influence on chlorophyll synthesis. 

New observations on chlorophyll assimilation and reply to recent criti- 
cisms, P. A. Dangeakd (Bui. Soc. Bot. France, 60 {1913), No. 2-3, pp. 166- 
175). — Referring to results obtained from work above noted and calling atten- 
tion to observations of other investigators, the author replies to certain objec- 
tions offered to his previous conclusions. 

Two years' experiments with static electricity as related to the growth of 
cultivated plants, P, Trnka {ZcmedelsJcij Arch. {Arch. Bodcnkult. Bohnien), 
Jf {1913), No. 1; al)S. in Bot. CentU., 123 {1913), No. 6, p. 138).— The author 
gives an account of experiments in which insulated wire nets stretched at a 
height of 4 or 5 meters above 36 hectares of growing beets were subjected to 
an electric current of from 50,000 to 70,000 volts and 0.7 to 0.8 milliamperes for 
1,468 hours in 223 days of 1911, and 2,000 hours in 299 days of 1912. 

The production of the field was sensibly increased, but the question as to the 
profitableness of the treatment was not fully settled. Differences in chemical 
composition were noted, both during the growing period and after maturity. 
These increased yields appear not to be explainable as due to differences in 
transpiration, stimulation, or assimilation processes, and this fact leads to the 
supposition that the electricity exerts its direct influence upon the soil rather 
than upon the plant. This mode of culture is thought to be better suited to 
plants having large assimilation surfaces. 

On the growth of plants in partially sterilized soils, E. J. Russell and 
F. R. Petherbridge {Jour. Agr. Sci. [England], 5 {1913), No. 3, pp. 248-2S7, 
pis. 4, fig. 1). — For a number of years experiments have been in progress in 
growing plants in partially sterilized soils, and some of the observed facts are 
placed on record. The partial sterilization was effected by the use of toluene 
and by heating to 55 and 100° C. 

The germination of seeds planted in these soils was sometimes hastened, at 
other times retarded. Retardation was almost always produced in soils heated 
to 100° or treated with toluene, while acceleration often followed the planting 
of seeds in soils heated to 55°. The retarding effect was generally more pro- 
nounced in moist than in dry soils and in rich than in poor ones. 

In the seedling stages the plants produced on partially sterilized soils were 
sometimes indistinguishable from those on untreated soils. Seedling tomatoes 
grown on heated soils in comparison with those grown on untreated ones had 
smaller roots and smaller cotyledons of a darker green color, frequently show- 
ing some purple. The effect on the seedlings was most pronounced during the 
dull days of winter, and this has a practical application in the use of partial 



226 EXPERIMENT STATION EECOED. 

sterilization for the growth of plants under glass. Later marked differences 
were shown, the purple color disappeared, and the plants hegan to show re- 
markable growth. 

Sometimes soils treated with toluene behaved like those heated to 55°, but 
on rich soils early development was retarded. Other volatile antiseptics were 
found to behave like toluene. 

Comparing partially sterilized with untreated soils, the authors found that 
there was generally a retardation in germination, although sometimes partial 
acceleration occurred. An acceleration in growth followed up to the time of 
the appearance of the third or fourth leaves, but sometimes a marked re- 
tardation was noticed, especially in rich soils heated to 100°. Where this 
retardation occurred it was accompanied by a very dark green leaf color and 
either the formation of a purple pigment or a tendency for the leaves to curl 
toward the underside. Later the purple color disappeared, the curling ceased, 
and rapid growth took place. The subsequent growth vras finally proportional 
to the amount of food present. Plants grown on soils heated to 100° showed a 
remarkable development of fibrous roots, and, in comparison with those on 
untreated soils, had larger leaves of a deeper green color, stouter stems, 
usually shorter internodes, flowered earlier and more abundantly, and con- 
tained a higher percentage of nitrogen and sometimes of phosphoric acid in 
their dry matter. Plants grown on soils heated to 55° or treated with volatile 
antiseptics showed fewer of these effects. 

Considering the chemical differences in the soils, it is stated that partially 
sterilized soils are characterized by an accumulation of ammonia, while un- 
treated soils contain practically no ammonia. Soils heated to 100° are char- 
acterized by the presence of decomposition products, some of which possess 
characteristic colors and odors. 

The authors present the data upon which their paper is based and give an 
extended discussion of their observations. 

Some organic constituents of the culture solution and the mycelium of 
molds from soil, M. X. Sullivan (Ahs. in Science, n. ser., 38 (1913), No. 9S4, 
p. 678). — An examination was made of the dried mycelium of mixed mold 
cultures from soil, of Penicillnim glaucum grown on Raulin's solution, and of 
the filtered solution after a mold growth to determine the various organic con- 
stituents. 

In the mixed molds a large number of organic substances were found, many 
of which were subsequently recognized in P. glaucum. In the alcoholic soda ex- 
tract of P. glaucum the author found oleic and palmitic acids, a fatty acid melt- 
ing at 54° C, a fatty acid which appears to be elaidic acid, hypoxanthin, guanin 
and adenin, histidin, thymin, and chlorin. In the direct alcohol extract, man- 
nite, cholesterol bodies, hypoxanthin, and cerebrosids were found. Guanidiu 
was determined from mold grown on Raulin's solution, to which peptone in 
small quantity was added. In the culture solution after a number of weeks' 
growth were found fatty acids, pur;n bases, a small quantity of a histidin-like 
body, pentose sugar, unidentified aldehydes, etc. Many of these compounds have 
been found in soil, and the conclusion is drawn that micro-organisms, such as 
yeast, bacteria, and molds, play an important part in their formation. 

Polyatom.ic alcohols as sources of carbon for molds, R. E. Neidig (Al)S. in 
Science, n. ser., 38 {1913), No. 984, P- 675). — ^A comparison was made of methyl 
alcohol, glycol, glycerol, erythrite, adonite, mannite, dulcite, and sorbite to de- 
termine their availability as sources of carbon for 8 species of molds represent- 
ing 4 genera. 

It was found that methyl alcohol produced no growth, glycol induced germi- 
nation only, glycerol produced strong cultures, erythrite could be used by the 



AGRICULTURAL BOTANY. 227 

majority of molds, and adouite by only a few. All 3 of the bexntomic alcohols 
may be considered good sources of carbon. 

The influence of starch, peptone, and sugars on the toxicity of various 
nitrates to Monilia sitophila, O. Kunkel {Bui. Torrcy Bot. Cluh, 40 {19 IS), 
No. 11, pp. 625-639). — Studies were made to determine whether or not the 
toxicity of various salts to M. sitophila is influenced by sugars, starch, or pep- 
tones. 

The results show beyond question that the concentration at which the various 
inorganic salts are toxic depends on the kind of organic substance contained in 
the media to which those salts are added. The degree of toxicity of the nitrates 
of barium, aluminum, iron, and urea depends on the organic substance con- 
tained in the medigi in which these salts are offered. Barium nitrate is more 
toxic in peptone than in starch media, while iron and aluminum nitrates are 
more toxic in starch than in peptone media. The toxicity of iron nitrate is ap- 
proximately the same in starch as in other carbohydrates, but it is much less 
toxic in peptone media. Urea nitrate was found to be four times more toxic 
in starch than in peptone media. 

On the effect of chloroform on the- respiratory exchang-es of leaves, D. 
Thoday {Attn. Bot. ILondon], 21 {1913), No. 108, pp. 697-717, figs. 7.5).— The 
author made a study to determine whether a close quantitative relation exists 
between the evolution of carbon dioxid and the absorption of oxygen under the 
influence of stimulating agencies. Sunflower, garden nasturtium, cherry laurel, 
etc.. were subjected to the effect of chloroform, and in all the leaves examined 
treatment with a small dose of chloroform resulted in a stimulation of the 
respiration, and the absorption of oxygen and production of carbon dioxid ap- 
parently remained coordinated. When the concentration of chlorofrom vapor 
was large enough to bring about visible disorganization, the production of carbon 
dioxid was diminished and the absorption of oxygen was no longer closely cor- 
related with the production of carbon dioxid. 

In leaves of the nasturtium {Tropwolu-m ma jus), which contain no tannin, the 
absorption of oxygen was depressed still more than the production of carbon 
dioxid. In leaves of other species containing tannin the absorption of oxygen 
was very rapid for a short time, and though falling quickly, remained at a 
higher level than the production of carbon dioxid. 

Tannin and starch in the assimilating organs of Leguminosse, H. Klenke 
{Ueber das Vorkommen von Gerhstoff und Starke in den Assimilationsorganen 
der Leguminosen. Diss., Gottingen, 1912, pp. 88; abs. in Bot. Centbl., 122 {1913), 
No. 18, pp. 44^» H7). — As a result of studies on 208 different species of Legu- 
minosre, the author concludes that tannin is usually more plentiful in leaves or 
parts more exposed to sunshine, especially in summer, reaching a maximum 
for the leaves in the vascular bundles and the leaf edges. The stomatal cells 
vary in this respect less than do neighboring cells. The concentration of tannin 
is said, however, to be greater in the petiole and shoot than in the leaf. Cells 
without tannin have more starch than do those containing tannin. 

The castor bean plant and laboratory air, E, M. Harvey {Bot. Gaz., 56 
{1913), No. 5, pp. Jf39-JfJi2). — The author reports having found potted seedlings 
of castor bean, grown under ordinary greenhouse conditions until they had 
developed from 5 to 7 leaves, were unusually susceptible to gas impurities. 
One part of ethylene to 50,000 of air was found to result in proliferation and 
exudation at leaf scars. Leaf fall took place in concentrations as low as 1 part 
of ethylene to 500.000 of air, or even to 1.000.000 parts of air. A drooping of the 
youngest well-developed leaves could be taken as an index of the occurrence 
of still lower concentrations of the gas. 



228 EXPEREMENT STATION RECORD. 

Osmotic pressure in potatoes, M. A. Braxnon {Bot. Gaz., 56 (1913), No. 5, 
pp. 433-438, figs. 4). — This article has been previously noted (E. S. R., 29, 
p. 133). 

Imbibition studies on seeds of Avena sativa, F. Plate (Atti R. Accad. 
Lincei, Rend. CI. Sci. Fis., Mat. e Nat., 5. ser., 22 {1913), II, No. 8, pp. 133- 
I4O). — Summing up studies carried out with beans in solutions of several acids, 
bases, and salts, the author claims that no exclusive part in imbibition is played 
by either cations or anions in this connection, and that most of these chemical 
agents promote germination even in high concentrations. 

Influence of moisture relations on species of Pinus, B. Hergt {Mitt. 
Thuring. Bot. Yer., 30 {1913), pp. 129, 130; ahs. in Bot. CentU., 123 {1913), 
No. 9, p. 220). — The author notes a striking limitation in growth, during the 
dry year, 1911, of needles of P. sylvestris and P. nigra as compared with the 
1912 growth on the same branches. 

Defoliation: Its effects upon the growth and structure of the wood of 
Larix, A. G. Haepek {Ann. Bot. [London^, 27 {1913), No. 108, pp. 621-642, 
pis. 2, figs. 2). — A study has been made of trunks of larch trees that have been 
recently defoliated by the larvae of the larch sawfly. 

It was found that premature defoliation resulted in a greater or less degree 
of starvation, which was shown by the quantity of the growth and the structure 
of the wood formed. If starvation is severe, growth may cease over certain 
parts of the cambium mantle, while other regions are still active. The investi- 
gations showed that in larch trees killed by defoliation, growth ceased entirely 
at the base of the tree a year or more before the tree died. The first visible 
effects of defoliation in the structure of the wood is said to be the reduction 
of the proper thickening of the walls and cells of part or all of the zone 
of autumn wood, without much decrease in the breadth of the whole ring. 
The outermost cells of the autumn wood may have their walls unthickened 
on account of the lack of food supply at this period of the year. Abnormally 
formed resin ducts were found and they are considered possibly a pathological 
effect of starvation. 

Root secretions of plants, E. A. Mitscherlich {Landw. Vers. Stat., 81 
{1913), No. 3-6, pp. 469-4^4)- — This continues a somewhat controversial dis- 
cussion by the author (E. S. R., 28, p. 721), Rodewald (E. S. R., 28, p. 722), 
and Pfeiffer et al. (E. S. R., 28, p. 518). regarding the existence and expression 
of a law of minimum. 

FIELD CEOPS. 

[Test work with forage and field crops], M. Calvino {Estac. Agr. Gent. 
[Mexico^ Bol. 66, 1912, pp. 3-23, 41-48, 67-72, pis. 22).— Trials in the production 
of forage crops are here reported. 

Oats and white mustard grown together produced at the rate of 64,660 kg. 
of green fodder per hectare (28.77 tons per acre) in 3 months, and Thousand- 
headed kale yielded at the rate of 68,000 kg. in 5 months. Dactylis glomerata, 
Plileum pratense, and Bromus inermis made satisfactory growth, Dactylis 
being especially luxuriant and reaching 1-^ meters at the flowering stage. 
Notes are given on variety tests of turnips and the value of turnips and oats 
sown together for forage. Tests of Trigonella fosnum-grwcum, Medicago 
arJ)orea, Hedysarum coronarium, and Onohrychis sativa are also mentioned. 

Variety tests with potatoes produced yields ranging from 2,782 to 13,000 kg. 
per hectare. Whole' tubers gave much better results as seed than cut tubers. 
Directions for seed selection of potatoes are given. Notes on the value, culti- 
vation, harvest, and uses of buckwheat are given, as are also variety tests 
in which the yields ranged from 1,800 to 2,800 kg. per hectare. 



FIELD CROPS. 229 

[Crop experiments for 1912], E. Lopez (BoL Ofic. Sec. Agr. Cuha, 12 {1912), 
No. 6, pp. 673-681). — This report summarizes the experimental work done 
during the year with alfalfa, malanga (Arum), cassava, plantain, sugar cane, 
tobacco, peanuts, sweet potatoes, and maize. 

[Crop experiments] {Rev. Indus, y Agr. Tucumdn, 3 {1913), No. 10-11, pp. 
477-4S7). — This paper reports results of variety and cultural tests of maize, 
rice, cowpoas, beggar weed, peanuts, and cotton. 

Cooperative fertilizer and variety tests in Malmohus County, 1912, L. 
FORSP.KRG {Malmo. Uins EusJiuU. SiiUsk. Kvrtlsslcr., 1912, No. 4, pp. 930-1007).— 
This report covers 83 cooperative fertilizer trials conducted at 59 different 
farms with barley and oats, mixed cereals, sugar beets, other root crops, pota- 
toes, and meadows. Thirteen lime experiments were also conducted as well 
as variety tests with winter wheat, barley and oats, potatoes, and root crops. 

The results of 4 years' work indicated that 37.5 per cent of the sandy soils 
experimented with were alkaline, 20 per cent neutral, and 42.5 per cent acid, 
while the corresponding figures for clay soils were 52.5, 21.5, and 26 per cent. 

Report on hemp and tobacco in Italy and Holland, Kluftinger et al. {Ber. 
Landw. Reichsamte Innern, 1913, Xo. 26, pp. VIII-\-153, pi. 1, figs. //). — This 
publication contains accounts of the cultivation and manufacture of hemp in 
Italy and of tobacco in Italy, Java, and Sumatra. 

Report of the work of the moorland experiment department of the agri- 
cultural chemical experiment station at Dublany in 1912, E. Anson {Ztschr. 
Moorkultur u. Torfuerwert., 11 {1913), No. 2, pp. 50-68, figs. ^).— In testing the 
value of moorland for the production of hay, over 20 varieties of cultivated 
grasses were sown singly and in various mixtures without fertilizers. The 
yields of the pure cultures ranged from 34.68 to 84 quintals per hectare and tho 
mixtures from 32.5 to 68.85 quintals (from 1.4 to 3 tons per acre). 

Potatoes yielded as high as 294.5 quintals per hectare with 400 kg. of 40 
per cent potash salt and 100 loads of barnyard manure. The use of 400 kg. 
each of 40 per cent potash salts and Thomas slag per hectare produced 355.66 
quintals of potatoes, as against 242.3 quintals with an application of 200 kg. 
of flowers of sulphur. 

Trials of sugar beets, summer and winter rye, hemp, A^etch, seradella, 
lupines, summer and winter wheat, barley, flax, sunflowers, and oats are also 
reported. 

Annual report of the Bankipur Agricultural Experimental Station, 1911- 
12, G. Sherrard {Ami. Rpt. Bankipur Agr. Expt. Sia. [India], 1911-12, pp. 
12). — This report gives tabulated results of manurial experiments, with cost 
data, variety tests, and seeding and plowing experiments with rice and sugar 
cane. The profits were greatest when cow manure and castor cake were used. 

Notes on forage in Java and India, C. V. Piper {Philippine Agr. Rev. 
[English Ed.'\, 5 {1912), No. 8, pp. 428-431, pi. i).— This paper contains brief 
notes on Paspalum conjugatum, Panicum numidianum, Polytrias prwmorsa, 
Imperata exaltata, Paspalum marginatum, Andropogon annulatus, Pennisetum 
cenchroides, and Eleusine coracana as native forage plants in these countries. 

Maguey (Cantala) and sisal in the Philippines, M. M. Saleeby {Philippine 
Agr. Rev. [English Ed.], 6 {1913), No. 4, pp. 183-188, pis. .)).— This article dis- 
cusses the history, introduction, methods of cultivation, and preparation of the 
fiber of these two plants in the Philippines. 

Tests of raw phosphates, P. E. Galzew and I. W. Jakuschkin (/cf. Moskov. 
Selsk. Khoz. Inst. [Ann. Inst. Agron. Moscou'], 19 {1913), No. 1, pp. 193-204, 
figs. 2). — These phosphates were derived from different geological formations, 
viz, golt. turon. and Rjasen, and showed varying values when applied to yellow 
lupines and buckwheat 



230 EXPERIMENT STATION RECOED. 

On variation in rust resistance of different forms of pure lines of spring 
wheat, spring- barley, and oats, N. Litwinow {Trudy B'mro Prlkl. Bot. (Bui. 
Angeiv. Bot.), 5 {1912), No. 10, pp. 3Jfl-Jt2S) .—Thi^ article gives data in tabular 
form, obtained from observations during 1910 and 1911, of 186 forms of pure 
lines of spring wheat, 49 forms of barley, and 50 forms of oats in regard to their 
behavior toward various rust forms {Puccinia graminis, P. simplex, P. coroni 
fera, and P. triticina), including descriptions of leaf surface and dates of 
sending up shoots of each variety. 

The laying" down of permanent pastures and meadows, H. Lang {Landw. 
Hefte, 1913, No. 12, pp. 32). — This article describes the most important grasses, 
clovers, and other plants used in pastures and meadows, and gives directions 
for the selection of soils, varieties, and mixtures for certain purposes. Methods 
of preparing the seed bed, seeding, cover crops to use, and the care of new 
meadows and pastures are also discussed. 

The care of permanent meadows and pastures, H. Lang {Landw. Hefte, 
1913, No. 13, pp. 32). — This article discusses the artificial and natural methods 
of regulating the stand of grasses, combating pests, fertilization, irrigation, 
drainage, and the rejuvenating of permanent meadows and pastures. 

The production of grass and hay, C. M. Conner {Philippine Agr. Rev. 
{English Ed.}, 6 {1913), No. 2, pp. 81-85, pi. 1). — This paper gives descriptions 
of the production and uses of the native grasses, barit {Leersia hexandra), 
luyaluya {Panicum repens), and manimanian (Alsicarpus). 

Propag-ating abaca (Manila hemp) from seed, M. M. Saleeby {Philippine 
Agr. Rev. [English Ed.], 6 {1913), No. 2, pp. 99-101).— Successful trials in 
propagating Bagiiisanon lawaan and the Pulajan and Tangongon varieties from 
seed are noted. 

The renovation of the abaca (Manila hemp) industry, M. M, Saleeby 
{PhiUpi)ine Agr. Rev. [English Ed.], 6 {1913), No. 4, pp. 167-182, pis. 5).— This 
article discusses suitable cultural methods, planting, renewal of old plantations, 
improvement of the quality of the fiber, and adjustment of relations between 
buyers and producers, with regard to Manila hemp in the Philippine Islands. 

Experiments with alfalfa in 1910 at Turkestan Agricultural Experiment 
Station, P. Shreder {Turkest. Selsk. Khoz., 1911, No. 5; ahs. in Zhur. Opytn. 
Agron. {Russ. Jour. Expt. Landic), 13 {1912), No. 3, pp. 444» W)- — In studying 
the influence of slope of the field on the yield of alfalfa it was found that results 
on a 4 to 5° slope were slightly better than on a 2 to 3° slope. Better yields 
were produced with barnyard manure than with superphosphate 4 years after 
application, and in comparing bone meal and ashes the latter was found ':o 
have made better yields on a 7-year-old field. In an experiment comparing 
superphosphate, Thomas slag, bone meal, and barnyard mannre, superphosphate 
gave the best results the second year after application. It was found that 
alfalfa seed from England, France, Russia, and Germany produced better than 
native seed. 

Barley, H. Quante {Die Gerste. Berlin, 1913, pp. 195, figs. 35). — This book 
treats of the morphological, anatomical, and chemical characteristics of barley, 
its history, development, botanical relations, and varieties; describes brewing 
valuations, according to the Vienna, Berlin, and Haase systems ; and discusses 
methods of cultivation, harvest, storage, and artificial drying of the grain. 

Svalof golden barley, H, Tedin {Sveriges Utsddesfor. Tidskr., 23 {1913), 
No. 1, pp. 27-50, pi. 1). — This article discusses the origin of this new variety of 
barley, the chief characteristics of which are its heavy yield of grain, resistance 
to smut {Ustilago carho), and quick curing of the grain after harvest. 

Cultural experiments at Stettin, K. Stormer {Deut. Landw. Presse, 40 
(1913), Nos. 5, pp. ^7, 48; 6, pp. 58, 59). — These articles report the results of 



FIELD CP.OPS. 231 

growing several varieties of barley on clay and sandy soils. The yields ranged 
from 811 to 2,150 lbs. of grain per morgen (1,285 to 3,410 lbs. per acre) ; 1,000 
kernels weighed from 34.88 to 48.05 gm., and a hectoliter weighed from 63.9 to 
69.65 kg. 

New directions in the work of the selection of maize, I. Rosen (Khoziaistvo, 
1912, No. SI, pp. 1013-1020; ahs. in Internat. Imt. Agr. [72ome], Bui. Bur. Agr. 
Intel, and Plant Diseases, S {1912), No. 10, pp. 2156-2159).— This article dis- 
cusses a system of producing and using the first hybrid generation to secure 
increased yields with maize, the objects of this system being to prevent self- 
fertilization and to keep the 2 iTUrent strains pure. It is stated that the 2 
strains may be kept pure by planting in alternate rows. The rows of 1 strain 
are topped the same year and from these the hybrid seed is obtained, while the 
plants of the other row supply the caj-yopses (for 2 years) required for the 
preservation and propagation of that strain ; in the subsequent year the opposite 
plan is followed. 

The following observations are noted : " The descendants of a self-fertilized 
plant are always less developed and productive than the descendants of plants 
naturally exposed in the fields to cross-fertilization ; this is true both of superior 
individuals and individuals inferior in point of productivity to the average of 
the type to which they belong. The greatest diminution in the growth and 
yield in consequence of self-fertilization is found in the first generation, falling 
off gradually in the subsequent generations down to a constant value. The pure 
strains (or self -fertilized, coming from a single parent plant) are distinguished, 
among themselves, by transmissible morphological characters. The retrogres- 
sion of the fluctuating characters is observed with greater frequency in propor- 
tion as we get farther away from the * mean morphological type ' characteristic 
of a 'pure strain.' The crossing between 'brothers' and 'sisters' (between 
male and female inflorescences, respectively, of 2 plants coming from a single 
parent plant and belonging to the same generation) presents no advantage over 
self-fertilization. Crossing between 2 self-fertilized strains of different types 
yields a progeny which is not inferior in force of growth and productivity to 
the plants never subjected to self-fertilization. 

" In crossing 2 self-fertilized strains the results from the reciprocal crosses 
are identical. The seeds of Fi obtained by crossing pure strains according to a 
determined scheme (combination) always exceed in yield the sowing material 
produced by irregular pollination in the fields, from which the 2 strains them- 
selves were derived. The productivity and morphological characteristics of the 
hybrids of the first generation are therefore a function of that specified combi- 
nation of pure strains, and are constantly repeated when the crossing is 
renewed. In the first generation of hybrids (Fi) the degree of variability of 
the individuals is not greater than that observed in the pure strains from which 
such generation sprang. In the second generation of hybrids (F2) the degree 
of variability is higher than in Fi. The productivity of F2 is lower than that 
of Fi." 

Variety tests of imported maize, A. H. Rosenfeld (Rev. Indus, y Agr. 
Tucumdn, 3 (1912), No. 2, pp. 51-58). — Results are given of tests conducted 
with 16 varieties of maize. In general the yields were much better in 1912, 
ranging from 387 to 3.535 kg. than in 1911, when they ranged from 234 to 2,675 
kg. of grain per hectare. 

A new variety of maize, C. M. Conner (Philippine Agr. Rev. [English Ed.}, 
6 (1913), No. 2, p. 96). — This new variety is a cross between the Mexican June 
and a native white variety, and is named Moro. Preliminary tests have shown 
it to yield better than the small native varieties and to make good meal and 



232 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

hominy. The ears average 19 cm. (7.4 in.) long and 5 cm. thick at the center 
and have 16 rows of grain. 

Distance to plant maize, A. H. Rosenbf.ld (Rev. Indus, y Agr. Tiwumdn, 
3 {1912), No. 6, pp. 231-235). — In this experiment plants spaced 125 cm. (about 
49 in.) in rows 30 and 75 cm. apart gave better results than plants spaced 40, 
75, or 100 cm. in rows spaced 30, 75, and 100 cm. apart. The check-row 
system, with hills of 3 or 4 plants about 1 meter apart, yielded about 30 per 
cent better than the row system. 

Fertilizing maize (Prog. Agr. y Pecuario, 19 (1913), No. 818, pp. 258-260). — 
Results of the use of commercial fertilizers for com in 3 different fields are 
given, in which increased yields were obtained at a profit by the use of the 
fertilizer. 

The effect of water level on the yield of cotton (Agr. Jour. Egypt, 2 (1912), 
No. 1, pp. 37, 38, fig. 1). — The results of an experiment, in which the water 
level ranged from 0.8 to 2.2 meters (from 31 to 86 in.) below the ground surface, 
showed increased yields as the depth of water level increased. 

A report on the production of new cottons, W. L. Balls (Agr. Jour. Egypt, 
2 (1912), No. 2, pp. 66-77, pis. 4)- — This article gives the methods employed in 
crossing and the preventing of crossing, and discusses the time required for 
propagation, simple propagation of seed, a list of approximate constants, and 
possible rates of propagation. In some of the new cottons produced the mean 
maximum lint strength ranged from 27.7 to 33.5 mm. 

Experiments in cotton cultivation at the experiment station of Karaiasi, 
Transcaucasia, V. Dmitrievski (Ahs. in Internat. Inst. Agr. [Rome], Bui. Bur. 
Agr. Intel, and Plant Diseases, 3 (1912), No. 11, pp. 2425, 2426).— This experi- 
ment was based upon the color of the cotton seeds, and as a rule the green 
seeds gave a more abundant and finer fiber than those of other colors. The 
results of planting seeds picked at different dates showed very little difference 
in yield or date of maturity, although the slight difference was in favor of the 
later picking. 

Annual report of the g-overnment cotton station at Myombo (Pflanzer, 8 
(1912), No. 6, pp. 323-334). — In a test of 6 varieties the yields of ginned cotton 
ranged from 52.6 to 213.2 kg. per hectare (46.8 to 189.7 lbs. per acre). Seed 
planted January 22 produced 196.4 kg. ; that on February 3, 92.4 kg. ; that on 
February 20. 34.8 kg. ; and that on March 4, 10 kg. ginned cotton per hectare. 
When plants were thinned to 2 in a hill placed 100 by SO cm. apart, the yields 
of ginned cotton were, on 2 plats, 129.2 and 138.4 kg. per hectare, respectively, 
and when thinned to only 1 plant per hill on 2 plats 53.5 and 42 kg. per hectare, 
respectively. Irrigation did not increase the yields. 

Cowpeas, R. E. Blouin (Rev. Indus, y Agr. Tucumdn, 3 (1913), No. 8, pp. 
355-359). — Numerous varieties are described and methods of production, alone 
and in combination with maize and with cane, are discussed. 

Don experiment field, I. Kolesnikov (Ahs. in Zhur. Opytn. Agron. (Russ. 
Jour. Expt. Landw.), 13 (1912), No. 3, pp. 44S, W)- — The apparent increase in 
the yield of flaxseed for 9 years due to deeper plowing amounted to 14 per cent. 

Fertilizers in the production of hemp, Palladius (Prog. Agr. y Pecuario, 
18 (1912), No. 770, pp. 261-264, figs. 4). — In these experiments it was found 
that the addition of potash to other fertilizers apparently increased the yield 
of fiber, in some cases more than 100 per cent. The yields ranged from 1,850 
to 2,530 kg. per hectare (1,646 to 2,251 lbs. per acre). 

Studies on hemp culture in Italy, W. F. Bruck (Tropenpfianzer, 15 (1911), 
Nos. 3, pp. 129-141; 4, pp. 187-202; 5, pp. 244-^64, figs. 6).— This article dis- 
cusses the importance of the hemp industry in Italy, gives a brief historical 
review, including the development of hemp culture in different parts of the 



FIELD CROPS. 233 

country, and describes at greater length the Italian culture of the crop. The 
relation of hemp culture to farm management, farm labor, and export trade 
is also dwelt upon, and types of machines used in the different processes of 
preparing the fiber for market and for use are described. 

New cover crop, F. G. Spring {Agr. Bui. Fed. Malay States, 1 {1912), No. 1, 
pp. IS, 14)- — This describes the horse gram (Dolichos hiflorus), gives directions 
for its cultivation, and discusses its value as a cover crop for rubber planta- 
tions. Its chief value for this purpose lay in choking out weeds. 

The Italian millet (Setaria italica) in Bengal, E. J. Woodiiouse and A. C. 
Ghosh {Dept. Agr. Bengal, Quart. Jour., 5 {1912), No. 4, pp. iS0-i86).— De- 
tailed descriptions of several varieties of this millet are given, also the results 
of head selection during one season's work. It is noted that this crop seems 
well suited to Bengal conditions, producing yields when maize fails. 

Philippine kapok: A promising new industry, M. M. Saleeby {PliiUppine 
Agr. Rev. [English Ed.], 5 {1912), No. 8, pp. 4^2-// .37). —This paper gives brief 
notes on the export trade of kapok in Java, the Philippines, and Dutch East 
India, and on the yield, value, and uses of the crop and its prospective cultiva- 
tion in the Philippines. 

Potato breeding, C. Fkuwirth {Dent. Laiuhv. Presse, 39 {1912), Nos. Ifi, 
pp. 551, 552; 4S, pp- 565-567, figs. 4)- — The author here relates his experience 
in hybridizing potatoes. Hand fertilization of the flowers proved unsuccessful. 
From a study of the plants produced from seed which was obtained from the 
balls produced by accidental crossing, or self-fertilization, it is noted that the 
offspring seldom, if ever, resembled the mother plant; that the long form was 
dominant over round ; and that the red skin color of the tuber, the lilac color 
of the flower, and the yellow color of the tuber flesh were respectively dominant 
over white. 

Notes on the propagation of Rhodes grass for hay, H. F. Hungerford 
{Philippine Agr. Rev. [English Ed.], 5 {1912), No. 8, pp. 438-443, fig. i).— This 
paper suggests methods of propagation, 'irrigation, harvesting, and baling of 
Rhodes grass {Chloris gayana) for trial in the Philippines in the production of 
this grass for hay. 

Selection of seed rice based on transparency, C. Crevost {Bui. Econ. 
Indochine, n. sei\, 15 {1912), No. 96, pp. 388-392, figs. 2).— This article describes 
the method employed in seed selection of rice by passing before the rays of a 
lamp. Numerous varieties were thus selected and a maximum of 47 per cent, 
a minimum of 11.4 per cent, and an average of 22.3 per cent of inferior kernels 
were detected. Certain samples weighed 570 gm. per liter before selection and 
620 gm. afterwards. 

A description of the apparatus employed in this selection is given. 

Data concerning varieties of rice, C. M. Conner {Philippine Agr. Rev. 
[English Ed.], 6 {1913), No. 2, pp. 86-92, figs. 4).— This paper records a con- 
tinuation of work already mentioned (E. S. R.. 2S, p. 535), in which 279 varie- 
ties of white lowland rice grown in Indo-China were compared with a like 
number of lowland varieties grown in the Philippine Islands. 

The greatest number of varieties matured within 6 months from sowing and 
the time to maturity had no relation to yield. It was found that the number 
of grains per head was in inverse ratio to the size of the grain, and that the 
size of the grain had little influence on yield. A distinguishing characteristic 
of the upland rice was that its average length and width of leaf was 41 and 20 
per cent, respectively, greater than that of the lowland varieties. 

Salt water rice, C. M. Conner {Philippine Agr. Rev. [English Ed.], 6 {1913), 
No. 2, p. 97). — Tests showed that a variety of rice found growing in sea water 
produced as well when irrigated with this water as it did with fresh water. 



234 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD. 

Samar (Cyperus alopecuroides) as a reclamation crop, J. D. Shepherd {Agr. 
Jour. Egypt, 2 (1912), No. 2, pp. 78-80, j)l. 1). — A method of growing this crop 
(which is used to make mats, etc.) on land too wet for rice is described. 

Magnesia fertilizer for sugar beets, F. Strohmer and O. Fallada {Osterr. 
Ungar. Ztschr. Zuckerincliis. u. Landw., 42 {1913), No. 2, pp. 221-231) .—The 
results of fertilizing 3 plats with magnesium sulphate showed no variation in 
total yield, sugar content, or chlorophyll content of the beet leaves, over 3 un- 
treated plats that could be attributed to the magnesium salt, which was applied 
at the rate of 150 kg. per hectare (133.5 lbs. per acre). A bibliography is 
appended. 

Conditions of seed ball produced by stock beets of different sizes, T. Remy 
Zent. Ver. Rii'bGnz. Indus. [Vienna^, 51 {1913), No. 7, pp. 116., ii7).— This article 
gives the results of experiments in producing seed from whole beets and divided 
beets (cuttings). It is noted that cuttings of from 100 to 150 gm. in weight, 
standing 70 by SO cm. apart, produced as much seed as 10 times the same 
weight of whole beets standing 1 meter each way. The seeds from the cuttings 
seemed to have the same productive power as those from the whole beets. 

The influence of light on sugar formation of beets, F. Strohmee {Osterr. 
Ungar. Ztschr. Zuckermdus. u. Landw., 42 {1913), No. 2, pp. 232-235; Wchnschr. 
Zent. Ver. Riihenz. Indus. [Vienna'], 51 {1913), No. 7, pp. 116, 117).— This article 
discusses further work (E. S. R., 28, p. 825) on the influence of light and shade 
on sugar-beet development in general, and gives results of the author's investi- 
gations. In these the percentage of sugar did not seem to change, but the total 
yield was considerably greater in direct sunlight than in shadow, ranging from 
80.1 to 72.1 gm. per beet in the former and from 34.1 to 25.6 gm. in the latter 
case with 2 varieties. 

Variety tests of sugar cane, A. H. Rosenfeld and J. A. Hall {Rev. Indus, 
ti Agr. Tucumdn, 3 {1913), No. 8, pp. 325-334)- — This article gives the results 
of tests of over 70 varieties of cane in 1910-1912. in which the yields ranged 
from 88 to 6,774 kg. of sugar per hectare (78 to 6,029 lbs. per acre). 

Tests in selection of sugar cane before planting, A. H. Rosenfeld {Rev. 
Indus, y Agr. Tucumdn, 3 {1912), No. 1, pp. 1-5). — The methods of selection and 
cultivation are described. Germination in the field showed a ratio of the 
selected cane to the un selected of 153 : 44. The selected seed yielded 62,964 kg. 
of cane, which produced 3,425 kg. sugar per hectare, as compared with 51,216 
kg. cane yielding 1,975 kg. of sugar per hectare. It is also noted that only about 
37 per cent of the crop from the selected seed was injured by worms, as com- 
pared with 60 per cent of the unselected crop. 

Sugar-cane experiments in Antigua and St. Kitts, 1910—11, H. A. Tem- 
PANY {Jour. Bd. Agr. Brit. Guiana, 6 {1912), No. 2, pp. 58-60).— Results of 
variety and manurial tests are given. Nitrate of soda and sulphate of ammonia 
at the rate of 40 and 60 lbs, per acre in a single application apparently increased 
the yields, while phosphoric acid and potash gave no increase. 

The crops on the experimental sugar-cane fields, 1911, J. B. Harrison and 
F. B. Stockdale {Jour. Bd. Agr. Brit. Guiana, 5 {1912), No. 4, pp. 212-230).— 
In variety tests the yields ranged from 1.48 to 3.37 tons sugar per acre. In fer- 
tilizer tests better results followed the application of about 300 lbs. per acre of 
sulphate of ammonia than that of other fertilizers. 

Experiments in the cultivation of sugar cane in 1912 and 1913, R. E. 
Blouin {Rev. Indus, y Agr. Tucumdn, 3 {1913), No. 10-11, pp. 418-//77).— This 
article gives notes and data on varieties tested, methods of cultivation, the use 
of fertilizer plus lime, selection, rotations, and distance in planting. 



FIELD CROPS. 235 

A new earth nut, O. W. Barrett (Philippine Agr. Rev. [English Ed.}, 6 
{WIS), No. 2, pp. 104, 105). — It is noted that this new nut has been discovered 
In West Africa and is known as Voandzeia poissoni, or Kenstingiella geocarpa. 

Xenia in wheat, L. Blaringhem (Gompt. Rend. Acad. Sci. [Paris], 156 
(1913), No. 10, pp. 802-804, fig. i).— The author describes a hybrid that ho pro- 
duced and which, it is claimed, showed the influence of the pollen in the size 
and shape of the caryopsis and in the morphological characters of the albumin. 
Tabulated measuremouts of kernels are given. 

Notes on wheat, J. Gascon (Bol. Agr. T6v. y Econ., 2 (lUlO), No. 22, pp. 
373-382; 3 (1011), Nos. 25, pp. 86-91; 35, pp. 1041-1048; 4 (1912), No. 41, pp. 
IO35-IO4I, pis. S). — These reports give the results of variety tests and other 
data on the measurements of wheat, barley, and oats grown in 1910-1912 in 
Spain. Improvements in yields and conditions in general are noted from year 
to year, especially with foreign introductions. 

In 8 varieties of wheat grown in 1912 the average length of heads ranged 
from 9.4 to 16.3 cm. The weight of 10 heads ranged from 15.6 to 2S.5 gm. ; the 
average weight of individual heads from 1.56 to 2.85 gm. ; the weight of grain 
from 10 heads of each variety, from 11.7 to 20.6 gm. ; the number of kernels per 
head, from 29.5 to 49.4 gm., and the weight of 1,000 kernels, from 36.8 to 53.95 
gni. The volume of 1,000 kernels ranged from 28.8 to 41.5 cc. ; the volume of 1 
liter, 525.4 to 681.7 cc. ; the specific gravity from 1.25 to 1.62, and the number 
of kernels per liter from 16.137 to 22,746. The number of kernels per kilogram 
ranged from 18,533 to 27,548, and the weight of 1 liter of kernels from 824.6 to 
880.2 gm. The yields of wheat per hectare ranged from 2,366 to 3,351 kg., and 
barley from 3,987 to 4,100 kg, Oats yielded 2,115 kg. 

Results of fertilizer experiments with wheat, barley, and oats, and the an- 
alyses of wheat flours for 1912 are given in tabular form. 

Observations on stooling- in cereals at the Poltava Experiment Station, 
P. Leshchenko (Khutorianin, 1911, No. 4O; abs. in Zhur. Opytn. Agron. (Russ. 
Jour. Expt. Landio.), 13 (1912), No. 3, pp. 4^8, 475).— Eight plants of winter 
wheat and 10 of spring wheat were selected and placed under observation, the 
time of appearance of the heads of each stem being noted in order to determine 
the relation to yield. 

From the collected data it appears that the later the heads formed and de- 
veloped the less was the yield. Determinations were made of the length and 
weight of each head and of the weight and number of kernels of each head. 
The author further observed that plants in cases of intense stooling lost enor- 
mous quantities of energy in producing barren stalks. None of the plants with 
an average of 20 stalks had more than 12 stalks which produced heads. 

Determination of the germinative ability and germinative streng-th of 
seeds, W. Oetken (Deut. Landiv. Presse, 40 (1913), Nos. 24, pp. 287, 288; 25, p. 
305; 27, pp. 329, 330; 28, p. 337, figs. 2).— The author first sets forth the diffi- 
culty of getting results with germination tests in the laboratory which corre- 
spond to field results with exactness, because of the " artificial " seed beds and 
other "artificial" conditions commonly used in the laboratory. It is noted 
thatv to secure the desired results with seed germination, tests must be con- 
ducted with the 4 following points in view : To secure natural temperature con- 
ditions in order to promote rapid germination ; to secure uniform resistance to 
vegetative energy; to cover a definite period of growth so as to determine the 
rate of development of the seedlings by weight of dry matter produced ; and to 
determine the degree of health of the seedling as soon as it appears. 



236 EXPERIMENT STATION EECOED. 

In a test with peas to determine the efficiency of sand and soil as germinat- 
ing mediums, the percentage of germination in the sand ranged from 85 to 100 
per cent, in the soil from 24 to 86 per cent, and in the field from 15 to 68 per 
cent In testing the advisability of taking the weights of the seedlings at the 
end of a definite period, in order to determine the relative vegetative energy, it 
was found that samples of winter wheat showing 90, 71.25, 21, 36, 60, 48.25. and 
46 per cent weighed, respectively, at the end of 10 days, 5.30, 3.79, 28, 1.65, 69. 
2.27, and 57 gm. With spring wheat the variation between germinative ability 
and weight of seedling was even greater. 

Report of the superintendent of the seed and weed branch, A. McKenney 
{Ann. Rot. Dept. Agr. Alherta, 1911, pp. 133-140). — The methods described as 
being the most successful in the eradication of stinkweed are summer fallow 
and spring harrowing. For wild mustard, spraying with a 20 per cent solution 
of iron sulphate or a 2 per cent solution of copper sulphate is recommended, and 
for Canada thistle, continued cutting off at or below the surface of the ground. 

Tabulated data of results of inspection of cars of seed supplied the farmers by 
the Dominion government are included. 

Agrostemma githago and Polygonum convolvulus, X. Skalosubow (Trudy 
Biuro Prikl. Bot. {Bui. Angeio. Bot.), Jf {1911), No. 11, pp. 562-565) .—This arti- 
cle discusses the prevalence of these weeds in western Siberia and the value of 
the seeds and meal as feed for live stock. 

HOUTICUITURE. 

The propagation and pruning of hardy trees, shrubs, miscellaneous plants, 
with chapters on manuring and planting, J. C. Newsham (London, 1913, pp. 
XIV -{-224, Pls- 5'^)- — ^ practical treatise on plant propagation and pruning, 
in which consideration is given to fruit trees, ornamental deciduous trees and 
shrubs, and evergreen trees and shrubs, as well as to stove and greenhouse 
foliage and flowering trees and shrubs. 

Practical tree repair, E. Peets (New York, 1913, pp. IV +265, pis. 16, figs. 
g2). — ^A practical treatise on the physical repair of trees, such as bracing and 
the treatment of wounds and cavities. Chapters on boring insects and their 
control and rot fungi and their work are included. 

The use of arsenicals for plant protection, with special reference to lead 
arsenate, L. Fulmek (Arch. Chem. n. Mikros., 6 (1913), No. 6, pp. 347-408).— A 
review of our knowledge relative to the use of arsenicals in various countries 
for the protection of plants. An extensive bibliography is appended. 

The effect of bastard trenching on the soil and on plant growth, S. U. 
Pickering and E. J. Russell (Jour. Agr. Sci. [England], 5 (1913), No. 4, pp. 
483-496). — The purpose of the experiments here reported was to determine the 
value of subsoiling without the addition of farmyard manure or other fertiliz- 
ing material. The bulk of the experiments extended over the four seasons from 
March, 1909. to the end of 1912. Four distinct types of soil, including a light 
sand, two rather heavy loams, and a strong clay, were investigated. Trenching 
was effected by removing the first and second spades of soil. The third spade 
was broken up but not removed, and then the second and first spades were re- 
placed in their natural order. Nothing was buried in the trench. Samples of 
soil were periodically taken for determinations of moisture and nitrates and 
observations were made on the growth of fruit trees on the plats. 

Taking the evidence as a whole the effect of bastard trenching on the soil 
when unaccompanied by manuring is very small. Beyond a tendency to facili- 
tate the drainage of water in the clays and the heavy loams and slightly to in- 
crease the nitrates no definite change seemed to be produced. As exemplified 



HORTICULTURE. 237 

by these experiments and by results obtained in some earlier experiments on 
the same plat of ground the effect on the growth of trees appears to depend 
largely on the character of the seasons following the trenching and planting. 
Generally speaking the author concludes that in the absence of a hardpan the 
main use of trenching seems to be that it affords an opportunity for adding 
manure or other fertilizer material to the soil. 

An economic study of beans, E. M. Ledyard {PJiilipjnnc Agr. and Forester, 
2 {1912) y No. 4-6, pp. 66-85). — An economic and cultural test of a number of 
different species of beans is reported. The author concludes that on account 
of its wide adaptation as regards soil and its value as a garden and field bean, 
and also as a soil improver the cowpea is well adapted for general introduction 
into the Philippine Islands. The cowpea resembles the Philippine sitao which is 
a favorite bean for culinary use in the islands. 

Supplementary studies on the differential mortality with respect to seed 
weig-ht in the germination of garden beans, J. A. Harris (Amcr. Nat., 47 
(1913), Xos. 563, pp. 683-700; 564, PP- 739-759, figs. 5).— In an earlier study of 
field cultures of Phascolus vulgaris the author found that both large and small 
seed are less capable of developing into fertile plants than are those which 
do not deviate so widely either above or below the type (E. S. R., 2S, p. 636). 
In order to substantiate these results greenhouse plantings in sand of some 
46,000 individually weighed seeds, chiefly of the pedigrees employed in the field 
experiments, were made. The present paper discusses the results of this sec- 
ond study with special reference to the questions of the existence of a differ- 
ential mortality and of its consequences in the population. 

In general the results of the first study are fully confirmed. As a result 
of the more extended data secured from these greenhouse cultures, the author 
is led to conclude that there is strong evidence for varietal differences with 
respect to mortality. In some strains the heavier, in others the lighter, seeds 
seem less capable of development. From the data at hand no definite conclu- 
sion is drawn relative to the cause of this variation, but it is suggested that 
the reason for these differences may be sought in the inherent characters of 
the stocks used or the environment to which they have been subjected. 

The author's studies are to be continued for the purpose of determining the 
causes of the observed differences in viability. 

The pollination of fruit trees and its bearing on planting, C. H. Hooper 
(Gard. Chron., 3. ser., 54 (1913), Nos. I4O6, pp. 393, 394; 1407, p. 420).— A 
review of recent European investigations on this subject, all of which tend to 
show that cross-pollination is the rule and that this is effected more by insects 
than by the wind. Honeybees and bumblebees are the best pollenizers* See 
also a previous note (E. S. R., 28, p. 237). 

On the pruning and spacing of grapevines, J. L. Vidal (Rev. Vit., 39 
(1913), Nos. 1013, pp. 689-693; IOI4, pp. 713-720; 1015, pp. 752-756; 1017, 
pp. 814-819; Bid. Agr. AJgdrie et Tunisie, 19 (1913), Nos. 15, pp. 305-319; 16 
pp. 321-331). — The author here reports a comparative test of various systems 
of pruning and spacing grapes as conducted with vines grafted to 24 different 
stocks. Information is also given relative to the value of these stocks for a 
limey soil. 

On the behavior of various grape stocks on heavy calcareous soil, H. Faes 
(Prog. Agr. et Vit. (Ed. VEst-Centre), 34 (1913), No. 50, pp. 77/3-74^).— Sum- 
marized data are given showing the annual condition of Chasselas grapes 
grafted on various American and French-American grape stocks and set out on 
a heavy limey soil in 1909. Generally speaking the French-American stocks 
have been somewhat superior to the pure American stocks in their resistance 
to adverse soil conditions. 



238 EXPERIMENT STATION EECOED. 

The hybrid direct bearers in the valley of the Rhone in 1912, A. Desmou- 
LiNs and V. Villard (Prog. Agr. et Vit. (Ed. VEst-Gentre), 34 {1918), No. 40, 
pp. 433-436). — In continuation of previous observations relative to hybrid direct 
bearing grapes (E. S. R., 27, p. 540) the results for the first season are given of 
observations which deal with the time at which the different varieties start growth 
in the spring. These observations are to be continued for a number of years. 

Date growing" in the Old World and the New, P. B. Popenoe (Altadena, 
Gal, 1913, pp. XVIII-{-316, pis. 40). — In part 1 of this work the author gives a 
detailed account of commercial date growing in the Old World and in the 
United States, including methods of propagation, cultural operations, handling 
the crop, artificial ripening, diseases and pests, the classification of dates, 
profit of date growing, and uses of the date, with a chapter on its food value by 
C. L. Bennett. Part 2 contains a descriptive list of the important varieties 
which are now being grown in the United States. 

Tea, Edith A. Browne (London, 1912, pp. FZ/Z+SS, pis. 23). — A descriptive 
account of the tea industry in various countries. 

Fertilizers and the freezing of nut trees (Rev. Sci. [Paris], 51 (1913), II, 
No. 26, p. 813). — Brief reference is made to experiments in which the winter appli- 
cation of mineral fertilizers not only increased the vigor and yield of almond 
trees but apparently increased their resistance to cold to a marked extent. 

Indoor gardening in room and greenhouse, H. H. Thomas (London, New 
York, Toronto, and Mclhourne, 1912, pp. 152, figs. 149). — A popular treatise on 
the culture of house and greenhouse ornamentals with a working calendar for 
the year. A chapter on the forcing of grapes is also included. 

The hardy fiower book, E. H. Jenkins, edited by F. W. Haevey (London and 
New York, 1913, pp. XIV-\-143, pi. 1, figs. 50). — This work is offered as a com- 
plete guide to the methods of planting and cultivating hardy flowers. Part 1 
deals with the principal uses of hardy flowers and discusses in detail some 
of the more important families as well as the proper grouping of plants for 
borders. Part 2 consists of an alphabetical list of all hardy herbaceous flowers 
considered worth growing, together with concise directions for their treat- 
ment. Part 3 consists of tabulated lists of hardy plants for all purposes. 

The florist's bibliography: Supplement and index, C. H. Payne (London, 
1912, pp. 79-100-\-VIII). — This publication, which supplements a handbook 
issued in 1908 (E. S. R., 21, p. 46) contains a list of recent references to 
books and treatises devoted primarily to florist's flowers and the flower garden. 

FOEESTRY. 

Annual report on the progress, literature, and important happenings in 
the realms of forestry, hunting, and fishing for the year 1912, H. Webeb 
(Allg. Forst u. Jagd Ztg., 1913, Sup., pp. VI II +199). —As in previous years 
(E. S. R., 27, p. 845), this supplement contains abstracts of the more important 
literature of the various phases of forestry, together with notes on the principal 
occurrences relating to forestry, hunting, and fishing during 1912. As in the 
last supplement, the international scope of the literature reviewed has been 
strengthened. 

The present situation of forestry, H. S. Graves (Proc. Nat. Gonserv. Gong., 
4 (1912), pp. 318-327). — An address on this subject delivered before the Fourth 
National Conservation Congress, Indianapolis, October, 1912, in which the 
author reviews the progress of federal and state forestry in the United States. 

Forest map of Brazil, G. de Campos (Relat. Min. Agr. Indus, e Gom., Brazil, 
1911, No. 3, pp. 1-98, pi. 1). — This comprises a map including descriptive text 
of the forest areas in Brazil, which has been prepared in connection with a 
proposed establishment of forest reserves in that country. 



FORESTRY. 239 

Reconnaissance in the Cotteswolds and the Forest of Dean, A. G. Tansley 
and R. S. Adamson {Jour. Ecology, 1 {1913), No. 2, pp. 81-89).— The results are 
given of a reconnaissance survey in the above-named forests with special ref- 
erence to tree association and ground vegetation. 

The forests and forestry of Germany, W. R. Lazenby {Pop. Sci. Mo.. 85 
{191S), No. 6, pp. 590-598, figs. 5). — A popular descriptive account. 

Botanical and colonial economic studies of the bamboos, C. C. IIoss^us 
{Bot. GentU., Beihcfte, 81 {1913), 2. AM., No. 1, pp. 1-6.9, figs. i2).— This paper, 
which consists largely of a compilation of information relative to the economic 
uses of the bamboo, was prepared with special reference to the extension of 
bamboo culture in the German colonies. 

The culture of Manihot glaziovii in East Africa, P. Janssens {Bui. Agr. 
Congo Beige, 4 {1913), No. 3, pp. 670-689, pi. 1, figs. 13).— A report on the 
development of the plantation rubber industry in East Africa with special ref- 
erence to Manihot rubber. Information is given relative to general cultural 
practices, tapping operations, rubber coagulation, and preparation for market. 

On the economic value of sal (Shorea robusta), R. S. Pearson {Indian 
Forest Mem., Econ. Ser., 2 {1913), No. 2, pp. VI-\-76, pis. 8).— This work deals 
with the economic uses of the sal tree. The subject matter is discussed under 
the following general headings : The physical and mechanical properties of sal 
timber ; the durability of sal timber ; uses of sal timber and minor products 
obtained from the tree; sal fuel; and outturn and prices of sal timber. 

The wild plants of the South Kamerun forests used by the natives, J. 
MiLDBBAED {NotizN. K. Bot. Gart. u. Mus. Berlin, 1913, App. 27, pp. .^3).— This 
comprises a descriptive account of a large number of plants which are utilized 
by the Bulus in South Kamerun for various purposes. 

The present status of the forest seed origin question, A. Engler {Naturw. 
Ztschr. Forst u. Landiv., 11 {1913), Nos. 10, pp. Ul-463; 11, pp. 481-491).— A 
popular review of the author's long-continued investigations, previously noted 
(E. S. R., 29, p. 841). 

Coast sand dunes, sand spits, and sand wastes, G. O. Case {Surveyor, 44 
{1913), Nos. 1129, pp. 352-358; 1130, pp. 388-393; 1131, pp. 424-427; 1132, pp. 
460-463; 1133, pp. 496-499; 1134, pp. 536-538; 1135, pp. 576-580; 1136, pp. 616- 
620; 1137, pp. 660-662; 1138, pp. 696-699, figs. 4.?).— This comprises a resume of 
the work accomplished and the methods employed in various countries in the 
fixation of sand dunes and the reclamation of sand wastes, including many 
references to the literature on the subject. 

Forest fires in North Carolina during 1912 and national and association 
cooperative fire control, J. S. Holmes {N. C. Gcol. and Econ. Survey, Econ. 
Paper 33, 1913, pp. 58, fig. 1). — In this paper the author gives a record of forest 
fires in North Carolina during 1912 with comparative data for previous years, 
together with a general account of the progress made in the control of forest 
fires by the federal and state agencies and by private associations. 

In North Carolina the State has no organized fire protective system. The total 
loss from forest fires during the past 4 years is estimated at over $2,500,000. 

Practical experiences in the use of fluorids for wood preservation, R. 
NowoTNY {Ztschr. Atigeic. Chem., 26 {1913), No. 93, Aufsatzteil, pp. 694-700).— 
The author here presents data showing the results secured in different parts 
of Austria in the use of various fluorid compounds for preserving telegraph 
poles, etc. Summarizing the results as a whole the zinc fluorid and sodium 
fluorid compounds have proved to be strongly antiseptic against wood-destroying 
fungi and much superior to copper sulphate and zinc chlorid. 

A number of references to the literature on the use of fluorid for preservative 
purposes are cited. 

29663°— No. 3—14 4 



240 EXPERIMENT STATION EECOKD. 

DISEASES OF PLANTS. 

The fungus diseases of agricultural plants, J. Eriksson, trans, by A. Y. 
Grevillius (Die PUzkrankheiten dcr landwirtschaftlichen KuUurpflanzen. 
Leipsic, 1913, pp. XVI -{-246, pis. 3, figs. 130). — This is a German edition of a 
book previously noted (E. S. R., 28, p. 345). 

Annual report on plant diseases, 1911, M. Hollrung (Jahresber. Pflanzen- 
krank., 14 (1911), pp. Yin-\-410). — This report, published in 1913, continues the 
general plan of its predecessors (E. S. R., 28, p. 345), the literature cited for 
1911 including 2,360 titles. 

A preliminary host index of the fung-i of Michigan, exclusive of the 
Basidiomycetes, and of the plant diseases of bacterial and physiological 
origin, G. H. Coons (Rpt. Mich. Acad. Sci., 14 (1912), pp. 232-276).— Lists are 
given of parasitic fungi observed as occurring on various host plants in 
jSIichigan. 

Report on the work of the phytopathologist at Wageningen for 1911, 
J. RiTZEMA Bos (Meded. Rijks Hoogere Land, Tuin en Boschhouivsch. [Wage- 
ningen], 6 (1913), No. 3, pp. 105-163). — This is an account of observations and 
experiments reported in relation to plant disorders due to inorganic agencies, 
attacks by plant or animal enemies, or undetermined causes. 

Report of the botanical laboratory and laboratory for plant diseases, L. 
Linsbauer, F. Zweigelt, and H. Zuderell (Programm u. Jahresher. K. K. Hoh. 
Lehranst. Wein u. Ohsfbau Klosfemeu'burg, 1912-13, pp. 159-178, figs. 3). — A 
report is given on various investigations on plant diseases and insect pests, to- 
gether with means adopted for their control. The principal investigations were 
carried on with those pests attacking orchard fruits, grapes, berries, potatoes, 
vegetables, and ornamentals. 

Plant diseases observed in 1912 at the agricultural academy at Kolozsvar, 
B. Grof (Kiserlet. Kozlem., 16 (1913), No. 2, pp. 271-277, pi. l).—Phoma 
fceniculina is reported from the same locality as in the previous year. Puccinia 
malvacearum is said to infest not only AWicea rosea nigra, but also seriously A. 
officinalis in the neighborhood and sporadically Malva sylvestris and M. vul- 
garis rotundifolid, which are suspected to constitute a medium for the probable 
adaptation of this fungus for living on A. officinalis. Plasmopara nivea was noted 
on leaves of Conium maculatum living through the winter, appearing about 
May 15 and showing oospores about August 15. Puccinia Mllata appeared 
about the same time on leaves, petioles, and twigs of the same host, showing its 
fruiting bodies about the same time and evidently inflicting considerable injury. 

Agricultural botanical notes from the experimental plats at Ultuna, 1912, 
E. Henning (Sveriges Utsadesfor. Tidskr., 23 (1913), No. 2, pp. 129-141, fig- 
1). — Discussions are given of the development of the winter wheat plants in the 
late fall of 1911, the size of leaves of the wheat varieties at time of blooming, 
mealy and glassy winter wheat kernels, the appearance of yellow and black rust 
(Puccinia glumarurn and P. graminis) on small grains, and infection experi- 
ments with loose smut of barley (Ustilago nuda). 

A contribution to the mycological flora of Russia, N. Naoumoff (Bui. 
Trimest. Soc. Mijcol. France, 29 (1913), No. 2, pp. 273-278, pi. 1; ads. in Internat. 
Inst. Agr. [Roine], Mo. Bui. Agr. Intel, and Plant Diseases, 4 (1913), No. 7, 
p. 1115). — Preliminary to publication of a fuller list of collections in Russia, 
the author notes three species of fungi obtained in the summer of 1912, which 
are described under the respective names of Bremia graminicola n. sp. (on leaves 
of Arthraxonis ciliaris), Cicinnotolus hremiphagus n. sp. (pycnidia of which 
were attached to fruiting organs of B. graminicola) , and Rhodoseptoria ussurien- 
sis n. g. and sp., destroying leaves and fruit of the Manchurian plum. 



DISEASES OF PLANTS. 241 

Amygdalase and amygdalinase in Aspergillus niger and related Hypho- 
mycetes, M. Javillieb and Mme. H. Tciieknououtzky {Ann. Inst. Pasteur, 
27 {1913), No. 6, pp. U0-U9).— The authors state, as the result of a study of 
A. {Sterigmatocystis) niger and some related fungi, that most of these are un- 
equally rich in the two diastases, amygdalase and amygdalinase, a low per- 
centage of zinc in the culture medium corresponding to a deficiency of both; 
also that in most of the fungi studied, the first named enzym predominates, the 
proportions varying somewhat with the age of a given culture. 

Morphological alterations in Aspergillus niger grown in various acids and 
acid salts, A. Kiesel {Ann. Inst. Pasteur, 21 {1913), No. 6, pp. 481-488, pis. 
2). — Pursuant to previous reports (E. S. R., 29, p. 734), the author figures and 
describes numerous alterations in mycelial growth and in cellular size, form, 
vacuolation, granulation, etc., noted in case of A. niger, grown in various media. 

Some factors which influence the development of Penicillium glaucum, 
H. I. Waterman {Over eenige factoren, die de ontiviklceling van Penicillinni 
glaucum be'invloeden. Proefschr. Tech. Hoogesch. Delft, 1913, pp. 157). — Sum- 
marizing the results of an extended study of factors affecting the development 
of P. glaucum, the author states that the number and variety of organic com- 
pounds which in suitable concentration may serve as the carbon source in the 
development of P. glaucum is very large, but that highly oxidized compounds 
take no part in its development. The compounds which are harmless in mod- 
erate concentration are not all assimilable. A few aromatic compounds may 
serve as exclusive sources of organic nutriment for this fungus. 

The occurrence of smut on the seed of some grasses, H. M. Quanjer 
{Tijdschr. Plant enziekt en, 19 {1913), No. 5, pp. 137-152, pis. 2).— The author 
describes the occurrence of Ustilago bromiuora on species of brome grass, par- 
ticularly Bromus vnioloides. It has been claimed that the beetle Phalacrus 
cwrrw.scws, through eating the spores of this smut, aids materially in keeping the 
disease under control, but the author believes that it is not so efficient as has 
been reported. For the control of the disease he recommends soaking the seed 
in a solution of copper sulphate or treating with hot water. Both of these 
methods have reduced the amount of smut, but the best results were obtained 
with the hot water treatment. Formaldehyde has also been recommended and 
has been used with some success. 

The occurrence of rust spores in the interior of seeds of grasses, J. 
Beauverie {Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. [Paris], 157 {1913), No. 18, pp. 787-790).— 
The author reports having observed pustules containing spores of rust in wheat, 
barley. Bromus mollis, and Agropyron spp. The presence of the rust in these 
seeds is believed by him to be of great importance when considered from the 
standpoint of the propagation of