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EXPLANATION OF TERMS
EXPLANATION OF TERMS
JOHN B. SMITH, Sc.D.
Professor of Entomology in Rutgers College, Etc.
PUBLISHED BY THE
BROOKLYN ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY
BROOKLYN, N. Y.
LANCASTER PRESS. INC.
When, some time since, in consequence of continuing demands, the Brook-
lyn Entomological Society resolved to publish a new edition of its Explana-
tion of Terms used in Entomology, and entrusted the writer and two associ-
ates with the task of preparing the same, it was believed that a little revision
of definitions, the dropping of a few obsolete terms and the addition of a
few lately proposed, would be all that was necessary. It was to be a light
task to fill idle time in summer, report to be made in full. Two years have
passed since that time ; the associates have dropped by the way ; the manu-
script contains five times the number of terms in the original " Explanation,"
and if it is published now, it is not because I believe it to be complete ; but
because I do not believe it can be made complete except as the result of
criticism and voluntary addition by specialists throughout the country.
It is twenty-six years since the original list was published and nothing can
better illustrate the advances made than a comparison between the old and
the new Glossary. No one realizes better than I the fact that as students
have increased in each order, each has followed an independent line of re-
search, absolutely without regard to the work done elsewhere. In conse-
quence, we have several terms for the same thing in many cases and, in an
equal number, several meanings to the same term. As no one man can now-
a-days cover the entire field of Entomology, it goes without saying that I
was compelled to rely partly upon books and partly upon the good nature of
correspondents to make the work even approximately complete.
The first notable contribution came from Professor Justus W. Folsom, of
Urbana, Illinois, who sent me over 2000 cards of terms collected by himself
and his assistants, and these added materially at the beginning of the work.
A number of correspondents were good enough to send in lists of terms in
Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Orthoptera, Hemiptera and Neuroptera, and to re-
fer me to literature where explanations of other special terms could be found.
After the cards were so far advanced as to warrant a preliminary manu-
script, Dr. Philip P. Calvert of the University of Pennsylvania, Mr. Nathan
Banks of Washington, D. C, and Mr. C. W. Johnson of the Boston Society
of Natural History went carefully over the entire work and by their criti-
cisms and additions contributed materially to such merit as it possesses. To
these gentlemen and to the many others not specifically mentioned I give
thanks for their assistance, and if there have not been more co-workers it
has been only because of the time element that seems to demand the best that
is ready, rather than a delay to secure perfection.
It would be interesting to go at length into the history of the correspond-
ence to determine what sort of terms should or should not be included and to
bring out the hopeless divergencies existing ; but all that is important here is
to state briefly what has been included and what omitted.
Common English terms even if descriptive, when used in their ordinary
dictionary sense, have not been included as a rule; but this is subject to many
exceptions. Latin terms and derivatives, even if used in their usual sense,
have been generally included ; but compounds made up of adequately denned
descriptive terms are generally omitted. Adverbial or adjective forms have
been omitted whenever it has been considered safe, and so have terms prefixed
by sub-, supra- and the like, indicating degree or position. In doubtful cases
the terms have been included and defined. All terms of venation are, so far
as possible, reduced to the Comstock system which is the only one that has
been satisfactorily worked out for all orders, and a series of figures is added
to explain this system so far as seems necessary. It has not been considered
feasible to determine the proper use of terms applied differently in different
orders or families ; that is scarcely within the scope of a work of this kind.
Terms used in embryological and histological study have been included only
so far as seemed necessary to an understanding of the general works, and no
attempt has been made to cover the terms applied to musculature and other
details of microscopic structure: this has seemed rather to be outside of the
scope of the present essay.
All color terms are reduced so far as possible to terms of the Windsor
and Newton system of water colors which are standard in the English-speak-
ing world, and the color plate shows solid blocks of those colors that seem
necessary to explain all modifications except metallics, blacks and whites.
The figures illustrating body structures and other details have been drawn
under my supervision by Mr. John A. Grossbeck, and are meant to be guides
merely else the glossary would exceed its scope.
In the admission that the work is incomplete, no apology is intended for its
publication; it is merely a statement of fact to encourage constructive rather
than destructive criticism. It is hoped that those who note errors or omis-
sions will communicate them to the writer so that when another edition is
needed, as it will be before many years are past, a standard work may be
JOHN B. SMITH, Sc.D.
NEW BRUNSWICK, N. J., April, 1906.
Definitions of general application are as a rule given first, where more than
one is necessary; next those of limited use, and finally the specific meaning
in each order in which there is any notable difference.
Where a word has more than one ending, the difference is given after a
hyphen which represents the stem word: e. g., ametabola -ons; the latter in
place of ametabolous, which indicates the possession of the characters pecu-
liar to the ametabola. Where there is an English and a Latin ending, the
former is usually given with the word and the other is added : e. g., cequilate
-us, instead of cequilatus, there being no difference in the application. Usu-
ally the singular form of the word is first given, and the plural ending is
added ; e. g., antenna -CE, ccnchrus -ri, desideratum -at a; but occasionally,
when the plural is more commonly used, e. g., epimera -eron, this is reversed
and the singular ending is added : when the two are different in form, e. g.,
foot and feet, the words are given separately, and so when there is a differ-
ence in the application, as in uncus and unci.
In the definition of color terms the words in brackets [ ] refer to the
equivalent color as named on the plate, or the combination needed to pro-
The names in parentheses ( ) are those of the writers whose definitions
are used, or who have used the term in the sense defined. In the terms of
venation, these parentheses occur most frequently.
Most of the signs and abbreviations are those in common use : =, equal to,
or the same as; q. v., which see; pi., plural; abb., abbreviated.
The abbreviated names are : Comst., for Comstock ; Coq., for Coquillett ;
Meig., for Meigen ; Nort., for Norton ; O. S., for Osten-Sacken ; and Will.,
EXPLANATION OF TERMS
A: prefix, is privative; wanting or without.
Ab : off ; away from.
Abbreviated: cut short; not of usual length.
Abdomen: the third or posterior division of the insect body: consists nor-
mally of nine or ten apparent segments, but actual number is a mooted
question : bears no functional legs in the adult stage.
Abdominal: belonging or pertaining to the abdomen.
Abdominal feet: see pro-legs.
Abdominal groove: the concave lobe of the inner margin of secondaries
enveloping the abdomen beneath, in some butterflies.
Abdominal pouch: in female Parnassiids, a sac-like ventral cavity, formed
by material secreted during copulation.
Abductor: applied to muscles that open out or extend an appendage or draw
it away from the body : see adductor.
Abductor mandibulae: the muscle that opens the mandibles.
Aberrant: unusual; out of the ordinary course.
Aberration: a form that departs in some striking way from the normal type;
either single or occurring rarely, at irregular intervals.
Abiogenesis: spontaneous generation.
Abnormal: outside the usual range or course; not normal.
Aborted: a structure developed so as to be unfit for its normal function;
obsolete or atrophied.
Abraded: scraped or rubbed.
Abrupt: suddenly or without gradation.
Abscissus: cut off squarely, with a straight margin.
Absconditus: hidden, concealed; retracted into another.
Acalyptrata: those muscid flies in which alulae are absent or rudimentary.
Acanthus: a spine, spur or prickle.
Acaudal-ate: without a tail.
Accessory: added, or in addition to.
Accessory carinae: in Orthoplera the lateral carinae of the face.
Accessory cell: a cell not commonly present in the group; in some orders of
2 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
definite location as, e. g., in Lepidoptera, usually a small cell at the end of
the subcosta, giving rise directly or indirectly to veins 7 to 10 : 1st radius
2 (Comst.) ; = areole.
Accessory glands: any glands opening into the ducts of the reproductive
Accessory sac: a glandular structure of the female reproductive system con-
taining a sticky secretion.
Accessory subcostal vein: the vein given off from the subcosta and branch-
ing toward the apex of the wing in Perlidce.
Aceous or aceus: suffix; similar to, or of the nature of.
Acephalous: without a head.
Acerata: arthropods without true antennae: Arachnida and Limulus.
Acetabular caps: Hemiptera; the coxal cavity.
Acetabuliform: like a shallow saucer with more or less incurved sides.
Acetabulum: the cavity into which an appendage is articulated; specifically
the coxal cavity, q. v.; also applied to a cup-like cavity in the sucking
mouth of maggots.
Achreioptera: ordinal term proposed for the coleopterous family Platyp-
Achromatic: free from color; tissue that does not stain readily.
Acicular: needle-shaped; with a long, slender point.
Aciculate: a surface that appears as if scratched with a needle.
Acidotheca: the pupal sheath of the ovipositor.
Acini: granulations, like those on a blackberry: the terminal secreting tubes
Acinose -ous: a surface set with acini.
Acone: applied to compound eyes in which the individual ocelli have no crys-
talline cone or lens ; see eucone.
Acoustic nerve: connects the auditory pits or other organs of hearing with
Acridophagus: preying and feeding on grasshoppers.
Acrostichal bristles: Diptera; two rows of bristles on the middle of the
dorsum; specifically, minute peculiar bristles on the dorso-central region of
Aculeata: Hymenoptera; the stingers, including bees and wasps.
Aculeate: prickly; armed with short, sharp spines; specifically, in Hymen-
opt era furnished with a sting which is a modified ovipositor and connected
with a poison sac.
Aculeus-ei: a prickle; a small sharp point; specifically, an ovipositor, espe-
cially when sting-like, as in Hymcnoptera; in male Tipulidee a slender,
horny, often curved and pointed piece, projected when the forceps is open.
Acuminate: tapering to a long point.
Acupunctate: a surface with fine punctures as if made with a needle.
Acutangulate: forming, or meeting in an acute angle.
Acute: pointed; terminating in or forming less than a right angle.
Acutilingual: with a sharp pointed tongue or mouth structure, as in some
Acutilingues: bees with a short pointed tongue: see obtusilingues.
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 3
Addorsal: close to but not quite on the middle of the dorsum.
Addorsal line: in caterpillars, is longitudinal, a little to one side of the dorsal
and between it and the subdorsal line.
Adductor: applied to muscles that draw an appendage to the body or bring
parts into apposition : see abductor.
Adductor mandibulae: the muscle that draws in or closes the mandible.
Adeloceratous: with concealed antennae: see cryptocerata.
Adephagous: belonging to the Adephaga; pentamerous, predatory, terrestrial
beetles with filiform antennae and predatory habits : see hydradephagous.
Adherent: attached or clinging to.
Adipose: fat or fatty: see fat -body.
Adiscota: insecta that develop into adults without forming imaginal discs:
Adminicula: supports or props: the spinous processes on the abdomen of
boring and burrowing pupae.
Adnate: adjoining; adhering or growing together; closely connected.
Adpressed: laid or pressed to; contiguous.
Adsperse-us: with markings of closely crowded small spots.
Adsternal: situated next or close to the sternum.
Adult: the stage when an insect is sexually mature and ready to reproduce
Aduncate -cus, -catus: a part gradually bent through its whole extent.
Adventitious: occurring accidentally, out of the ordinary course, without
Adventral line: in caterpillars, extends along the under side between the
middle and the base of legs.
Adventral tubercle: on the abdominal segments of caterpillars on the inner
base of the leg, and correspondingly on the apodal segments ; constant : is
number VIII of the abdominal series (Dyar).
^neous-eus: shining bronze or brassy.
Enescent: becoming or appearing bronzed or brassy.
^Equilate -us: of equal breadth throughout.
Aerial: living in the air; applied to flying insects.
Aeriductus: a spiracle: the tracheal, gill-like structures of aquatic larvae:
more specifically the tail-like extensions of rat-tailed maggots and some
Aeroscepsin: an indefinite sense of perception supposed to be located in the
Aeroscepsy: the faculty of observing atmospheric changes; supposed to be
located in the antenna.
Aerostats: a pair of large air sacs at base of abdomen in Dipt era.
.ffiruginose -us: the color of verdigris [blue green].
./Estival: occurring in summer.
Estivation: applied to summer dormancy.
Afferent: carrying inwardly or toward the centre.
Affinis: related to; similar in structure or development.
4 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Afternose : a triangular piece below antennae and above clypeus : see post-
Agamic -ous: reproducing without union with a male.
Agamogenesis: reproduction without fertilization by a male: see partheno-
genesis ; gamogenesis.
Agglomerate: heaped or massed together.
Agglutinate: stuck or glued together; welded into one mass.
Aggregated: crowded together as closely as possible.
Agnathous: without jaws; specifically applied to those Neuropteroid series
in which the mouth structures are obsolescent.
Aileron: the scale covering the base of primaries in some insects; see
tegulse; in Diplcra'=- alula and squama, q. v.
Air-sacs or vesicles: pouch-like expansions of tracheal tubes in heavy in-
sects, capable of inflation and supposed to lessen specific gravity.
Air-tube: a respiratory siphon.
Ala -SB: a wing or wings.
Alar appendage: see alulet.
Alar frenum: a small ligament crossing the supra-alar groove toward the
root of the wing : Hymenoptera.
Alary: relating to the wings: applied also to the wing muscles of heart.
Alate-us: winged; with lobes similar to wings in appearance though not
necessarily in function.
Albi, albus: white.
Albicans: formed or made of white.
Albidus: white with dusky tinge.
Albinic: of the character of an albino.
Albinism: that condition in which there is an absence of color or a whitening
in a form usually colored.
Albino: a colorless individual of a species that is normally colored.
Albumen: the white of egg or the substances in the tissues which have the
Albumin: the characteristic substance forming the white of egg.
Albuminoid: like or of the character of albumen.
Alimentary canal: the digestive tract as a whole; begins at the mouth and
extends through the body to the anus.
Alitrunk: that part of the thorax to which the wings are attached : in many
Hymenoptera, includes the 1st abdominal segment.
Alizarine: a transparent, orange red [alizar crimson].
Alleghanian faunal area: is that part of the transition zone comprising the
greater part of New England, s. e. Ontario, New York, Pennsylvania,
Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, eastern N. Dakota, n. e. S. Dakota, and
the Alleghanies from Pennsylvania to Georgia.
Alligate -us: fastened or suspended by a thread; like the chrysalis of Papilio,
Alliogenesis: when the development includes an alternation of generations
(q. v.), as in Cynipids.
Alluring glands: glandular structures diffusing an odor supposed to be at-
tractive to the opposite sex.
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 5
Allux: next to the last joint of tarsus; in Rhynchophora.
Alpine zone: = arctic zone, q. v.
Alternation of generations: where a species that occurs in both sexes peri-
odically produces only parthenogenetic females ; the latter, in turn, pro-
ducing the sexed form ; occurs in Cynipidce and some Homo fit era : see
Altus: above: applied to a part raised above the usual level.
Alulae: Diptera; a pair of membranous scales above the halteres, behind the
root of the wing, one above or before the other ; the anterior attached to
the wing and moving with it, the posterior fastened to the thorax and
stationary ; see calyptra ; squama ; squamula ; lobulus ; axillary lobe ;
aileron; scale; tegulse: Colcoptcra; a membranous appendage of the elytra
which prevents dislocation.
Alulet: Diptera; the lobe at basal posterior part of wing; =alar appendage;
posterior lobe ; and has been used as == alula.
Alutaceous: rather pale leather brown [burnt sienna] : covered with minute
cracks, like the human skin.
Alveolate: furnished with cells; deeply pitted.
Alveolus: a cell, like that of a honeycomb.
Amber: a transparent, clear, pale yellowish brown; of the color of amber
[a mixture of pale cadmium yellow and a little burnt umber].
Ambient vein: Diptera; the costal vein when it extends beyond the apex and
practically margins the wing.
Ambrosia: bee-bread: the food cultures of certain Scolytid beetles.
Ambulatoria: that series of Orthoptcra in which the legs are fitted for walk-
ing only ; Phasmids.
Ambulatorial: fitted for walking or making progress on the surface.
Ambulatorial setae: specialized hairs or bristles, situated on the ventral seg-
ments of the abdomen of some Colcoptcra.
Ambulatory: moves by walking; formed for walking.
Ametabola -ous: insects without obvious metamorphoses, in which the larvae
usually resemble the adult and the pupae are active.
Ametabolion: an insect that has no distinct metamorphoses.
Amethystine -us: bright blue with a reddish admixture; clear like an ame-
thyst [between mauve and lilac].
Amnion: the inner of the two membranes enveloping the embryo.
Amnion cavity: a tube-like insinking from the ventral plate of the embryo,
Amnion fold: the extensions of the amnion which close the mouth of the
amnion cavity in the embryo.
Amnios: the first cast skin of the larva when a moult occurs almost immedi-
ately after emergence from the egg.
Amoebiform: having the appearance or properties of an amceba.
Amoeboid: applied to movements similar to those of an amceba.
Amphibiotica: those pseudoneuropterous insects whose larvae are aquatic but
whose imagos are aerial ; stone-flies ; May-flies ; dragon-flies.
Amphimixis: the mingling of the germ plasm of two individuals.
Amphiodont: applied to those forms of male Lucanids bearing mandibles of
6 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
medium size, between teleodont and priodont ; = mesodont.
Amphipneustic: applied to larvae which have the spiracles confined to the
anterior and terminal segments.
Ample: broad; large; sufficient in size.
Amplected: when the head is received into a concavity of the prothorax;
e. g. Hister.
Ampliate -us: moderately dilated.
Amplificatus: dilated; enlarged.
Ampulla: Orthoptera; an extensile sac between head and prothorax used by
the young in escaping from ootheca, and later, in molting: Heteroptera;
a blister-like enlargement at the middle of the anterior margin of the pro-
Ampulla-like: flask-shaped; applied to a vascular sac at base of antenna
which aids in the blood circulation of head and its appendages.
Anabolic: the constructive change from food material to animal tissue: see
Anal: pertaining or attached to the last segment of the abdomen; the point
or angle of any wing or other appendage that is near to or at any time
reaches the tip of the abdomen.
Anal angle: on the secondaries is that angle nearest the end of the abdomen
when the wings are expanded : the angle between the inner and outer mar-
gin of any wing ; = hind angle of primaries.
Anal appendages: generally applied to the external genital parts.
Anal area: Orthoptera and Neuroptera; the hinder or anal portion of a
wing within the anal vein = axillary area.
Anal cells: the spaces between the anal veins (Comst.) : in Dipt era, anal
cell (Will.), the space nearest the body, inclosed by the 5th and 6th veins;
sometimes called the third basal cell (Coq.) = 1st anal (Comst.).
Anal field: Orthoptera; that area on the tegmina corresponding to the anal
area of the secondaries.
Anal filaments: see caudal setae.
Anal fork: applied to the cerci of Coleopterous larvae.
Anal foot: applied to the tip of the body in larval Chiron omids, which is
modified to serve as a hold-fast.
Anal furrow: in wings, lies between the cubitus and 1st anal vein.
Anal glands: appendages of the alimentary canal, opening into it near the
posterior extremity, secreting either a lubricant, a silk-gum, or some other
Anal horns: in Colletnbola, are small processes borne on the last abdominal
Anal lobes: in Lcccmi'mce, a pair of small, triangular, hinged processes form-
ing a valve which covers the anal orifice.
Anal loop: Odonata; the loop formed by the angulations of 1st anal vein.
Analogous: similar in function; but differing in origin and structure: e. g.,
the wings of birds and insects : see homologous.
Anal operculum: the dorsal arch of the 10th abdominal segment; in cater-
pillars = supra-anal plate, q. v.
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 7
Anal organs: CoHcmbola; the two modified hairs arising from a tubercle
ventro-cephalad of the anus and usually curving caudo-dorsad.
Anal orifice: see anus.
Anal papilla: CoHcmbola; see anal tubercle.
Anal plate: in caterpillars, the shield-like covering of the dorsum of the last
segment: in the embryonic larva the llth tergite.
Anal ring: a chitinous ring encircling the anus in many Coccidoe. '
Anal scale: one of the lateral processes of the ovipositor in Cynipida:, lying
outside and below the lateral scale.
Anal siphon: the anal breathing tube of Culicid larvae.
Anal style: a slender process on or within the terminal segment of the ab-
domen in Homoptera.
Anal tubercle: CoHcmbola; the tubercle bearing the anal organs : = anal
Anal tubercles: a pair of prominent, rounded or conical processes, situate
one on each side of the anus in certain Coccids.
Anal valves: see podical plates.
Anal veins: those longitudinal unbranched veins extending from base to
outer margin below the cubitus ; the first anal, also termed vena dividens,
q. v., is the 6th of the series starting from the base, and it may be followed
by several others which are numbered in order to the inner margin.
Anastomosing: inosculating or running into each other.
Anastomosis: a running together; usually applied to wing veins, often to
markings ; sometimes used like stigma, q. v. ; also in N euro pt era, a series
of cross-veinlets nearly in one row ; a connecting series of veinlets.
Anceps: two-edged; similar to ensiform, q. v.
Ancestral: primitive; inherited from an earlier form or ancestor.
Anchor process: = breastbone, q. v.
Anchylosed: grown together at a joint.
Ancipital: with two opposite edges or angles.
Androconia: specialized, usually small scales of peculiar form, found local-
ized on some male butterflies.
Androgynous: uniting the characters of both sexes.
Aneurose: a wing without veins except near costa.
Angle: of tegmina, "is the longitudinal ridge formed along the interno-
median by the sudden flexure from the horizontal to the vertical portion
Angular area: Hym.; the posterior of the three areas on the metanotum be-
tween the lateral and pleural carinse ; = 3d pleural area.
Angulate: forming an angle; when two margins meet in an angle.
Angulose: having angles.
Angulus: forming an angle := angulate.
Angustatus: narrowed; narrowly drawn out.
Anisoptera: that division of the Odonata in which the hind wings are wider,
especially at base, than the front wings.
Annectent: applied to connecting or intermediate forms.
Annelet or annellus: Hym.; small ring-joints between scape and funicle.
8 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Annulate: ringed or marked with colored bands.
Annulet: a small or narrow ring or annulus.
Annuliform: in the form of rings or segments.
Annulus: a ring encircling a joint, segment, spot or mark; sometimes applied
to the inner ring encircling the mouth opening.
Annulus antennalis: the ring sclerite of the head into which the basal seg-
ment of the antenna is inserted ; = antennal sclerite.
Anomalous: unusual; departing widely from the usual type.
Anoplura: wingless species without metamorphosis, habits epizootic, thoracic
segments similarly developed : a composite aggregation which includes both
the biting and sucking lice.
Ante: before; used as a prefix.
Ante-alar sinus: Odonata; a grooved area extending transversely immedi-
ately in front of the base of each front wing.
Ante-apical: just before the apex.
Ante-clypeus: Odonata; the lower of the two divisions of the clypeus ; the
inferior half of the clypeus whenever there is any apparent line of demar-
cation : = clypeus-anterior ; inf ra-clypeus ; rhinarium ; second clypeus.
Ante-coxal piece: Colcoptcra; that portion of the metasternum lying in front
of the posterior coxae, often passing between them and meeting the ab-
domen : of mandible, is the lateral sclerite of the clypeus ; one on each side.
Ante-cubital: see ante-nodal, cross veins and spaces.
Ante-furca: an internal forked process from the prosternum, to which mus-
cles are attached.
Ante-humeral: relating to the space just before origin of wings.
Ante-humeral stripe: Odonata; a discolored stripe, approximately parallel
to, but to the inner side of the humeral suture, q. v.
Antemedial line: =t. a. line, q. v.
Antemedian: Diptcra; applied to leg-bristles situated before the middle.
Antenna -ae: two jointed, sensory organs, borne, one on each side of the
head, commonly termed horns or feelers.
Antenna-cleaner: a fringed excavation on the interior base of the 1st seg-
ment of the anterior tarsi of Hymenoptera which, when covered by the
movable process from the end of the tibia, forms an opening through which
the antenna may be drawn : similar structures are on the fore tibiae of Cara-
bid beetles : tarsal claws are also used by various insects to clean antennae.
Antennal appendage: in Mallophaga, a projecting process of the 1st or 3d
segment in the male.
Antennal formula: in Coccidcc; made by enumerating the antennal joints in
the order of their length, beginning with the longest and bracketing to-
gether those of the same length.
Antennal fossa -SB: grooves or cavities in which antennae are located or con-
cealed : = a. grooves ; antennary fossa.
Antennal fovea: Diptcra; a groove or grooves in the middle of the face as
though for the lodgment of the antenna ; bounded on the sides by the facial
Antennal foveolae: Orthopt-cra; the pits between frontal costa and lateral
carinae, in which the antennae are inserted.
USED IN ENTOMOLOC.Y. 9
Antennal grooves: see a. fossa.
Antennal lobes: of brain, see deuto-cerebrum.
Antennal organs: in Collembola are sensory structures on the distal segment.
Antennal process: Dipt era; the frontal protuberance upon which the anten-
nae are inserted.
Antennal sclerite: see annulus antennalis.
Antennal segment: the second or deutocerebral segment of head.
Antennary fossa: see antennal fossa!
Antennary furrow: in Mallophaga, grooves on the under side of the head in
which the antennae lie.
Antenniferous: bearing antennae.
Antenniform: made up like, or having the appearance of antennae.
Antennule: a small antenna or feeler-like process.
Antenodal cells: Odonata; in Agrionida the cells included between the short
sector (M 4 Comst.) and the upper sector of the triangle (Cu 1, Comst.),
and between the quadrilateral (or quadrangle) and the vein descending
from the nodus.
Antenodal cross veins: Odonata; extend between costa and sub-costa, and
between sub-costa and media, from the base to the nodus, forming the ante-
nodal or ante-cubital cells : ^-ante-cubital.
Antenodal costal spaces: Odonata; the cells between costa and sub-costa,
from the base to the nodus : ante-cubitals.
Ajiteocular: the region just before the eye; specifically applied in Collem-
bola to a peculiar structure of undefined function situated in front of the
eyes : = prostemmatic.
Antepectus: the lower surface of the prothorax.
Antepenultimate: the last but two.
Anterior: in front; before; in Dip., that face of the leg which is visible
from the front when the leg is laterally extended and bristles on that face
Anterior branch of third vein, in Diptcra (Will.), = radius 4 (Comst.).
Anterior field: Ortlwptcra; of tegmina, see costal field.
Anterior intercalary vein: Dipt era; = media 2 (Comst.); of Loew : =dis-
Anterior lamina: Odonata; the anterior sternal border of abdominal seg-
ment 2, modified to form the front margin of the genital pocket.
Anterior lobe: Orthoptcra; see lobes.
Anterior squama: =antisquama; q. v.
Anterior stigmatal tubercle: on thoracic and abdominal segment of cater-
pillars; varies from substigmatal to stigmatal anterior; sometimes united
to IV: it is V of the abdominal series, IV of the thorax (Dyar).
Anterior trapezoidal tubercle: on thoracic and abdominal segment of cater-
pillars; addorsal, anterior, always present, rarely united with II: it is I of
the abdominal series, la of the thorax (Dyar).
Antero: to the front; anteriorly.
Antero-dorsal: Dipt cm; applied to leg bristles at the meeting of anterior
and dorsal face.
10 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Antero-ventral: Dipt era; applied to leg bristles at the meeting of anterior
and ventral face.
Anthobian: feeding on flowers; applied to certain lamellicorn Coleoptera in
which the labium extends beyond the mentum.
Anthophila: Hymenoptera; species in which the basal joint of the hind
tarsus is dilated and pubescent ; the bees.
Anthracine -us: coal black; black with a bluish tinge.
Anti: over against; opposite; contrary: (prefix).
Anticus : frontal ; belonging to or directed toward the front.
Antigeny: opposition or antagonism of the sexes; embracing all forms of
secondary sexual diversity.
Antinodal costal spaces: Odonata; the cells between costa and sub-costa,
from the base to the nodus; =antecubitals.
Antisquama: Dipt era; the upper of the two alulae, which moves with the
wings ; = antitegula ; see also squama.
Antitegula: see antisquama.
Antlia: the spiral tongue or haustellum of Lepidoptera.
Antliata : insects with a sucking mouth ; originally applied to Lepidoptera
and Dipt era, later and more specifically to Diptera.
Antrorse -sum: directed toward the front.
Anus: the end of the digestive tract, through which the food remnants are
passed : the posterior part of the individual : specifically, in Coccidcs, a
more or less circular opening on the dorsal surface of the pygidium, vary-
ing in location as regards the circumgenital gland orifices : = anal orifice.
Aorta: the anterior, narrow part of the heart, opening into the head.
Apex: that part of any joint or segment opposite the base by which it is
attached ; that point of a wing furthest removed from base or at the end
of the costal area.
Aphaniptera : indistinctly winged ; see Siphonaptera.
Aphideine: see aphidilutein.
Aphidilutein: a yellowish fluid found in plant lice, changed to a rich violet
by alkaline reagents.
Apical: at, near or pertaining to the apex; usually of a wing.
Apical area: see petiolar area.
Apical areas: apical cells in some Homoptera.
Apical cell: a cell near or at the apex of a wing; in Hymenoptera (Nor-
ton) ; = medial (Comst.) ; outer apical celi = 2d medial 2 (Conist.) ; inner
apical cell = medial 3 (Comst.).
Apical cells or cellules: Trichoptera; the series of cells along the outer
margin of wing from pterostigma to arculus.
Apically: toward or directed toward the apex.
Apical sector: one of the longitudinal veins in the apical part of wing of
Apical transverse carina: Hymenoptera; crosses the metanotum behind mid-
dle and separates the median from the posterior cells or areas.
Apiculis: an erect, fleshy, short point.
Apiculate: covered with fleshy, short points.
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 11
Apivorous: devouring bees.
Apneustic: without an open tracheal system; respiration is through the skin
or through tracheal gills.
Apocrita: = petiolata, q. v.
Apodal: with single, simple tubercles instead of feet, in larvae; without feet:
Apode: one that has no feet.
Apodema: a conspicuous transverse band crossing the thorax in front of the
scutellum in male Coccidce.
Apodeme: an inwardly directed process to which a muscle is attached.
Apodous: without feet; see apodal.
Apolar: without differentiated poles; without apparent radiating processes;
applied to cells.
Apophysis: the lower of the two joints of trochanter in ditrocha; trochan-
terellus ; the dorso-lateral metathoracic spines in Hymenoptera; also used
as synonymous with ento-thorax.
Apophystegal plates: Orthoptera; flattened blade or plate-like sclerites cov-
ering the gonapophyses.
Apotypes: = hypotypes, q. v.
Appendage -es: any part, piece or organ attached by a joint to the body or
to any other main structure.
Appendice-es: any attached body or small process; an appendix.
Appendicial: supplementary: relating to appendices.
Appendicle: a small appendix: in some bees, a small sclerite at tip of
Appendiculate: bearing appendages; said of antennas where the joints have
articulated appendages; of tarsal claws that have membranous processes
Appendiculate cell: Hymenoptera; is on costa just beyond 2d radius 1 and 2.
Appendigerous: bearing appendages.
Appendix: a supplementary or additional piece or part, added to or attached
to another: in Heteroptera; =cuneus, q. v.
Appress-ed: to press against; closely applied to.
Approximate: near to; applies to antennae inserted close together.
Aptera: those that have no wings: an ordinal term formerly employed for
fleas, lice and other wingless forms now distributed in other orders : later
used for the simplest or lowest insects, including the Thysanura and
Apterodicera: wingless, with two antennae.
Apterous: without wings.
Apterygogenea: those insects that are wingless in all stages and presumed
to be descended from ancestors which never were winged : see pterygogenea.
Apterygota: = apterygogenea ; see pterygote.
Aquamarine -us: sea green: pale green with predominant blue and a little
gray [nile green].
Aquatic: living wholly in water.
Aquatilia: cryptocerous Hemiptera of truly aquatic habit.
Arachnoideous: resembling or similar to a cobweb.
12 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Araneiform: spider-like in appearance.
Arboreal: living in, on, or among trees.
Arborescent: branching like the twigs of a tree.
Archaic: ancient; no longer dominant; of the olden time.
Archiptera: those Neuroptera with incomplete metamorphosis: Pseudo-
Arctic Zone: is that part of the boreal region above the limit of tree growth:
in the U. S. is restricted to the area above timber line on the summits of
high mountains : = alpine.
Arcuate: curved like a bow: =arquate.
Arcuato-emarginate: with a bow-like or curved excision.
Arculus: Odonata; a small cross-vein between radius and cubitus near the
base, leaving an elongate triangle between them: Trichoptcra; a point,
often hyaline, on the forewing where the cubitus (or post cubitus) runs
into the margin: in Homoptera; a cross-veinlet nearly reaching posterior
margin at same point as in Trichoptera: in other orders applied to a cross-
vein in similar position, apparently giving rise to the median.
Arcus: a bow; part of a circle; but less than one half.
Area mediastinal, scapularis and ulnaris: the areas in front of the medi-
astinal, the scapular, and the ulnar veins in Orthoptera,
Arese or Areolae: wing cells or spaces between veins.
Arenicolous: applied to species frequenting sandy areas.
Arenose: a surface that is sandy or gritty.
Areola: a small cell on the wings of certain Hemiptera: see also arese:
Hymenoptera; the central of three median areas on the metanotum: =2d
median area; upper median area.
Areolate: with small denned areas, like a network.
Areole: Lepidoptera; see accessory cell, cell and cellule.
Areolet: one of the small spaces between veins of net-veined insects.
Argentate: shining, silvery white.
Argillaceous: of the texture, appearance or color of clay.
Arid: applied to regions in which the normal rainfall is insufficient to pro-
duce ordinary farm crops without irrigation, and in which desert condi-
tions prevail : see humid.
Arid transition area: comprises the western part of the Dakotas, northern
Montana east of the Rockies, southern Assiniboia, small areas in southern
Manitoba and Alberta, the higher parts of the Great Basin and the plateau
region generally, the eastern base of Cascade Sierras and local areas in
Oregon and California.
Arista: a specialized bristle or process on antenna of certain Diptera.
Aristate: Diptera; that type of antenna that bears an arista: =athericerous.
Aristiform: of the form or appearance of an arista.
Armature: applied to the spinous or chitinous processes on the legs, body or
wings ; or the corneous parts of genitalic structures.
Armatus: set with spines, claws or other chitinous processes.
Armillate: with a ring or annulus of raised or different tissue.
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 13
Arolium-ia: cushion-like pads on the tarsi of many insects: one of the lobes
of the pulvillus ; in Orthoptera, used only for the terminal pad between the
claws : see empodium ; pulvillus ; palmula ; plantula ; onychium, paronych-
Arquate: see arcuate.
Arrhenotokous: capable of producing male offspring only, as in worker bees
and some saw-flies.
Arrhenotoky: parthenogenetic reproduction when the progeny are all males:
see thelyotoky and deuterotoky.
Arthrium: Coleoptera; the minute, concealed tarsal joint in pseudotetramera
Arthroderm: the outer skin or covering of articulates.
Arthrodial: an articulation that permits motion in any direction.
Arthromere : a body segment or ring : somite.
Arthropleure: the side piece of an arthromere.
Arthropoda: all those articulates having jointed legs.
Article: a joint or segment.
Articular pan: the cup or dish-like depression forming the socket into which
an articulation is fitted.
Articulata: that branch of the animal kingdom whose members are made up
of rings, segments or articulations.
Articulate: divided into joints or segments.
Articulated apex: see clasp filament.
Articulation: the point or place where two parts or segments are joined:
also applied to an individual joint or segment.
Articulatory epideme: the partly chitinized membrane by which the wings
are attached to the thorax.
Artus: the organs of locomotion generally.
Asexual: applied where the reproductive organs are incompletely developed
and eggs or young are produced by cell-budding : = parthenogenetic.
Ash-gray: a mixture of black and white, with a faint orange tinge: like
ashes of anthracite coal.
Aspect: indicates the direction to which a surface faces dr in which it is
viewed ; it may be dorsal, ventral, caudal, cephalic or lateral.
Asperities: surface roughenings or dot-like elevations.
Aspersus: rugged, with distinct elevated dots.
Assembling: gathering together; applied when a virgin female is exposed to
attract such males as may be near, either to secure a pairing or merely to
obtain specimens ; also called sembling.
Assurgent: down-curved at base, then upcurved to an erect position.
Asymmetrical: not alike on the two sides; not symmetrical.
Asymmetry: a state of unlikeness in lateral development; absence of sym-
metry in form or in the development of members.
Ater: deep black; not shining.
Aterimus: the deepest black.
Athericerous: see aristate.
Atom -us: a minute dot or point.
14 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Atomarius: with minute dots or points.
Atrachelia: Coleoptcra in which there is no visible constriction between head
and prothorax; Rhynchophora and some Heteromera.
Atrium: a chamber just within the spiracle and before the occluding struc-
ture to the trachea.
Atrocoeruleus: very deep, blackish, sky-blue.
Atrophied: wasted away; unfit for use.
Atropurpureus: dark purplish, nearly black [an admixture of mauve and
Atrous: jet black.
Atrovelutinus: velvety black.
Atrovirens: dark green, approaching blackish [prussian green].
Attenuated : drawn out ; slender ; tapering.
Atus: suffix; denotes possession of a quality or structure.
Atypic-ical: off type; not of the usual form.
Auchenorhynchus: with the beak issuing from the inferior portion of head,
as in Homoptera.
Auditory: relating to the sense of hearing.
Auditory organs: Orthoptera; specialized structures covered by a tense
membrane, on the anterior tibia or base of abdomen; any structure that
functions as an ear.
Aurantiacus: orange colored; a mixture of yellow and red [chrome orange].
Aurate: with ears or ear-like expansions: also = auratus.
Auratus: golden yellow [pale cadmium yellow].
Aurelia: = chrysalis or pupa; specifically of butterflies.
Aurelian: a lepidopterist.
Aureolate: with a diffuse colored ring.
Aureole: a ring of color which is usually diffuse outwardly.
Aurichalceous: brassy yellow.
Auricle -cula: an appendage resembling a little ear; in Odonata the tumes-
cent area at the sides of the second abdominal segment: in Andrenidcz, a
short membranous process placed laterally on the ligula.
Auricular: applied to the space or cavity surrounding the dorsal vessel.
Auriculate: with an ear-like appendage or, in antennae, with the basal joint
distended into a concave, plate-like ear which envelops the rest of the
Auriculo-ventricular: the outer valves of the heart between the auricular
space and the chamber.
Auriculo-ventricular openings: are the lateral openings into the heart by
means of which the blood is admitted into it.
Auritus: with two ear-like spots or appendages.
Auroral spot: applied to the bright orange colored spot at the apical area
Auroreous-eus: red, like the aurora borealis [crimson lake].
Austral: is that faunal region which covers the whole of the United States
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 15
and Mexico except the boreal mountains and tropical lowlands : divided
into transition, upper, lower and gulf strip: see boreal and tropical.
Austroriparian faunal area: that part of lower austral zone covering the
greater part of the South Atlantic and Gulf States. Begins near mouth of
Chesapeake Bay, covers half or more of Virginia, North and South Caro-
lina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, all of Mississippi and Louisiana, east
Texas, 'nearly all of Indian Territory, more than half of Arkansas and
parts of Oklahoma, s. e. Kansas, so. Missouri, so. Illinois, s. w. corner of
Indiana and bottom lands of Kentucky and Tennessee.
Autotype: any specimen identified by the describer as an illustration of his
species and compared with the type or co-type.
Auxiliary: additional, or supplementing.
Auxiliary vein: in Diptera (Will.), = subcosta (Comst.).
Axillae: two small, subtriangular sclerites at the lateral basal angles of the
meso-scutellum in Proctytrypidce.
Axillary: placed in the crotch or angle of origin of two bodies; arising from
the angle of ramification.
Axillary area: see anal area.
Axillary calli: see calli axillary.
Axillary cell: in Diptera (Will.), = 2d anal (Comst).
Axillary excision: =a. incision, q. v.
Axillary incision: Diptera; an incision on inner margin of wing, near base,
which separates the alula from the main part.
Axillary lobe: the sclerite covering the base of the wing in Diptera; see
also alula and posterior lobe.
Axillary vein: one or two longitudinal veins toward the inner margin from
the anal vein (Ephemeridce) ; a group of several (10-20) radiate veins
that occupy the anal field in Orthoptera.
Axis: a small process at base of elytron, upon which it turns.
Azure -eus: clear sky-blue [cobalt blue].
Azygos: unpaired; a structure without a fellow; sometimes applied to an
unpaired oviduct ; specifically the enlarged portion of the vagina at the
junction of the oviducts and thus = uterus.
Baccate -us: berry-like; applied to bladder-like ovaries from the surface of
which the short ovarian tubes arise.
Back: the dorsum or upper surface.
Baculiform: rod or staff -like.
Badius: liver-brown; clearer and lighter than castaneus [dragon's blood].
Baenomere: a leg-bearing (thoracic) segment.
Baenopoda: the thoracic legs.
Basnosome: the thorax.
Balancers: see halteres.
Bald: without hair or other surface vestiture : see bare.
Band : a transverse marking broadej than a line.
16 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Bar: a short, straight band of equal width.
Barb: a spine armed with teeth pointing backward.
Barbate: furnished with barbs; hair with spines or spurs directed backward.
Barbated: bearded; in antennae with tufts or fascicles of hair or short
bristles on each side of each joint; = brush-like: on the abdomen, with
flat tufts at the sides or tip.
Barbule: a small barb, beard or filiform appendage.
Bare: without clothing of any kind: see bald.
Basad: in the direction of or toward the base.
Basal: at or pertaining to the base or point of attachment to or nearest the
Basal area: in wings; that space nearest the point where they are attached
to the body: on the metanotum of Hymcnoplera, the anterior of the three
median cells or areas; = 1st median area.
Basal cell: Diptera; 1st (Will.), = radial 2 (Comst.) ; 2d (Will.), =media
(Comst.) ; Trichoptera; one, two or three cells enclosed by the branches
that form the post-costal or anal vein : Odonata; an elongate cell between
radius and cubitus, just before the arculus.
Basalis: the principal mandibular sclerite, when sclerites are distinguishable,
to which all other parts are jointed; corresponds to the stipes in the
Basal line: in many Lepidoptera; a transverse line extending half way
across the primaries very close to base.
Basal lobe: of culicid genitalia, see claspette.
Basal post-costal vein: in Agrionina, one of the cubito-anal cross-veins.
Basal segment of clasp: see side piece.
Basal space: that area on the primaries of certain Lepidoptera, between the
base and t. a. line (q. v.).
Basal streak: in Noctuid moths, extends from base, through the submedian
interspace to the t. a. line.
Basal transverse carina: on the metanotum of Hymcnoptcra, crosses before
middle and separates the anterior from the median areas.
Base: that part of any appendage that is nearest the body: on the thorax
that portion nearest the abdomen ; on the abdomen that portion nearest the
Basement membrane: that thin layer of tissue upon which the epithelium
Basilar: of or pertaining to the base.
Basilar cross-vein: Odonata; crosses the basilar space.
Basilar membrane: a thin membrane separating the cones and rods from the
Basilar space: Odonata; that area at base of wings, between media and
Basi-proboscis: basal third of the flexed proboscis of muscid flies
Batesian mimicry: see mimicry.
Bathmis: see pterostigma.
Bave: the fluid silk as it is spun by caterpillars.
Beak: any notable prolongation of the front of the head: the snout in
Rhynchophora: specifically, the jointed structure covering the lancets in
the hemipterous mouth.
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 17
Bearded: fringed with hair: see barbated.
Belly: venter; under side of abdomen.
Bi: prefix, means two.
Bi-alar: two-winged; applied to Diptcra.
Biarcuate: twice curved.
Biareolate: with two cells or areoles : see bilocular.
Bicaudate: having two tails or anal processes.
Bicolored: with two colors that contrast to some extent.
Bicornute: with two horns or cephalic processes.
Bicuspidate: ending in two points or cusps.
Bidactylate: with two fingers or finger-like processes.
Biemarginate: twice emarginate ; with two excisions.
Bifarious: pointing in opposite directions.
Bifasciate: with two bands or fascia.
Bifid: divided into two parts; split; applied in Colcoptera to tarsal claws
which are divided so that the claws lie side by side : see biparted.
Biflabellate: antennae with fan-like process on two sides.
Bifurcate: divided, not over half its length, into two dull points; forked.
Bifurcation: a forking or division into two: the point at which a forking
Biguttate: with two drop-like spots.
Bijugum: in two pairs.
Bilamellar: divided into two lamina or plates.
Bilateral -eriter: with two equal or symmetrical sides.
Biliary vessels: see malpighian tubules.
Bilineate -us: with two lines.
Bilobate-ed: divided into two lobes.
Bilocular: having two cells or compartments: see biareolate.
Bimaculate: with two spots or maculae.
Binate: in pairs: consisting of a single pair.
Binotate: with two rounded spots.
Binus: paired: doubled.
Biogenesis: the production of life from antecedent life.
Biomorphotica: those neuropterous insects in which the pupa is active.
Bionomics: the habits, breeding and adaptations of living forms.
Biophore: an ultimate constituent of germ plasm or hereditary substance.
Bioplasm: formative living matter.
Biparted: profoundly divided into two parts: see bifid.
Bipectinate: antennae having comb-like teeth or processes on each side of
Bipupillate: an ocellate spot with two pupils, of the same or different in
Biradiate: consisting of, or with two rays or spokes.
Biramose -ous: having two branches or doubled appendages.
Biseriately: arranged in double rows or series.
18 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Biserrate: doubly saw-toothed; with a saw tooth on each side of each an-
Bisetose -ous: with two bristle-like or setaceous appendages.
Bisinuate: a margin or line with two sinuations or incisions.
Bituberculate: with two distinct tubercles.
Biuncinate: with two hooks.
Bivalve -ed: applied to mouth parts consisting of two parts or valves united
to form a tube.
Bivittate: with two longitudinal stripes or vittae.
Blade: of maxilla, see lacinia.
Blastem: a nucleated protoplasmic layer preceding the blastoderm.
Blastoderm: the germinal membrane from which the organs of the embryo
Blastodermic cells: are those forming the blastoderm.
Blastogenic: relating to or inherent in the germ or blast.
Blastophore: the primitive mouth of the embryo.
Blind : without eyes : applied also to an ocellate spot without a pupil.
Bloom: a fine violet dusting similar to that on plums.
Blotch: a large irregular spot or mark: large whitish membrane between ab-
domen and thorax in certain saw-flies.
Blunt: not sharp; obtuse at the edge or tip.
Body: the trunk: usually applied to the thorax only; rarely to the abdomen
alone ; sometimes to thorax and abdomen combined.
Bombifrons: front of head with a blister-like protuberance.
Bombous: blister-like; spherically enlarged or dilated.
Bombycinous: a very pale yellow like fresh spun silk.
Boreal: from or belonging to the north: is that faunal region that extends
from the polar sea southward to near the northern boundary of the United
States and farther south occupies a narrow strip along the Pacific Coast
and the higher parts of the Sierra-Cascade, Rocky and Alleghany Moun-
tain ranges ; divided into Arctic, Hudsonian and Canadian : see austral and
Borer: applied to an insect or larva that burrows or makes channels in
woody or other vegetable tissue.
Botryoidal: clustered like a bunch of grapes.
Bouclier: the pronotum, q. v.
Bouton: a button; the terminal lappet-like process at the tip of the ligula
in bees : = spoon.
Brachelytra: with abbreviated wing covers or elytra.
Brachia: the arms: has been applied to raptorial fore-legs.
Brachial: relating to an arm; arm-like.
Brachial cells: Hymenoptera; 1st (Nort.), = costal and sub-costal (Comst.) ;
2d (Nort.), = medial (Comst.); 3d (Nort.), = cubital (Comst.); 4th
(Nort), ~2d anal (Comst.).
Brachial veins: of primaries in Hymenoptera, originate at base, run parallel
to inner edge toward anal angle ; often connected with the cubital cellules
by means of recurrent venules.
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 19
Brachium: the fore tibia.
Brachycerous: Diptcra; with short, 3-jointed antennae.
Brachypterous: with short or abbreviated wings.
Brachyostomata: brachycerous Dipt era with short proboscis.
Brain: that ganglion of the nervous system which lies in the head above the
oesophagus ; formed of the first three primitive ganglia : see supra-oeso-
Branchiae: air tubes or gill-like processes of aquatic larvae.
Branchial: relating to the gills or branchiae.
Branchiate: supplied with gills or branchiae.
Brassy: yellow, with the lustre of metallic brass.
Breast: the under surface of thorax or sternum.
Breast-bone: in Cecidomyid larvae; a horny, more or less elongate process
of the under side behind the mouth opening, supposed to represent the
labium : = anchor process.
Breathing pores: see spiracle.
Brides: Homoptera; two pieces on the face, one each side of clypeus and
lower part of front.
Bridge: Odonata; a secondary longitudinal vein connecting the radial sector
(Comst.) with Ml +2, apparently forming a continuous part of the radial
sector; it is the proximal portion of the subnodal sector of de Selys and
Bridge cross-veins: Odonata; those cross-veins, one or more in number,
extending between Ml + 2 and the bridge (in de Selys between principal
and subnodal sectors) proximal to the oblique vein.
Brin: the fluid silk thread from each salivary gland.
Bristle: a stiff hair, usually short and blunt.
Broken: interrupted in continuity; as a line or band.
Bronze: the color of old brass.
Erood: all the specimens that hatch at about one time, from eggs laid by one
series of parents and which normally mature at about the same time.
Brunneus: a pure reddish dark brown [indian red].
Brush-like: antennae with the joints laterally produced and tufted with short
hair or bristles : see barbated.
Buccal: relating to the mouth cavity; rarely to the cheeks.
Buccal appendages: the mouth parts excluding the labrum: see trophi.
Buccal cavity: the mouth: = oral cavity.
Buccal fissure: the mouth slit or opening: the opening on each side of the
Buccate: blown up, distended; especially the cheeks.
Bucculae: little cheeks or distended areas.
Budding: applied to that form of agamic reproduction found in plant lice
Bulla: a blister or blister-like structure: the shield-like sclerite that closes
the opening to the trachea in lamellicorn larvae: in Ephcmcrida a part of
the costal area of the fore wing toward the tip, which is slightly swollen
forward and furnished with more cross-veins than elsewhere ; practically
the stigma, q. v.
20 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Bullule: a small blister.
Bursa: a pouch or sac: a wing pouch in male caddice flies and in connection
with a stalked hair pencil.
Bursa copulatrix: the copulatory pouch of the female in some orders; a
modification of the vagina.
Caducous -us: deciduous; easily detached or shed.
Caecal tubes or pouches: sac, or blind tube-like structures surrounding the
chylific ventricle at its junction with the crop, and secreting a digestive
Caecum: a blind sac or tube-like structure serving as one of the caecal tubes
or pouches : see coecum.
Caelate: a surface with plane elevations of varying forms.
Cseruleus -ecus: light sky-blue [between lavender and cobalt blue]: = coe-
Caerulescent: with a tinge of sky-blue.
Caesius-eous: a pale dull blue-gray [blue-gray].
Casspiticolous: frequenting or living in grassy pastures or lawns.
Calathiform: shaped like a deep bowl.
Calcar-ium; pi. ia: a movable spur or spine-like process: specifically the
spines at the apex of a tibia.
Calcarate -us: with a movable spur or spine-like process.
Caliciform: shaped like a cup or calyx.
Calipers: the anal forceps in Dermaptera.
Calli axillary: Odonata; thickenings at the bases of the wings; distin-
guished as anterior at the base of the costa, and posterior at the base of
radius + medius and cubitus : = axillary calli.
Callosity: a thick swollen lump, harder than its surroundings: callous :
also a rather flattened elevation not necessarily harder than the surround-
Callous: see callosity.
Callus: a small callosity.
Caltrops spines: the branched and otherwise specialized irritating spines in
Calva: a skull-cap: = epicranium, q. v.
Calx: the distal end of the tibia; the curving basal portion of the first tarsal
Calyculate: applied to antennae, whose cup-shaped joints are so arranged as
to fit one into the other.
Calypter: Dipt era; the alula or squama when it covers the haltere.
Calyptra: a hood or cap: see alula.
Calyptrate: those flies that have alulae or membranous scales above the
Calyx: the cap or crown of the mushroom bodies of the procerebrum: see
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 21
Campanulate: bell-shaped: more or less ventricose at the base and a little
recurved at the margin.
Campestral: applied to species inhabiting open fields.
Campodeiform: applied to larval forms which, in their early stages at least,
resemble Campodca: = leptiform.
Canadian zone: is that part of the boreal region comprising the southern
part of the great transcontinental coniferous forests of Canada, the north-
ern parts of Maine, New Hampshire and Michigan, and a strip along the
Pacific Coast reaching south to Cape Mendocino and the greater part of
the high mountains of the United States and Mexico. In the east covers
Green, Adirondack and Catskill Mountains and the higher mountains of
Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Virginia, western North Carolina and eastern
Tennessee. In the Rockies extends continuously from British Columbia
to western Wyoming and in the Cascades from British Columbia to south-
ern Oregon with a narrow interruption along the Columbia River.
Canaliculate: channelled; longitudinally grooved, with a deeper concave line
in the middle.
Cancellate: cross-barred: latticed: with longitudinal lines decussate by trans-
Canescent: hoary, with more white than gray.
Canine teeth: applied to the sharp and conical teeth of mandibles in pred-
atory species; = dentes canmse.
Cantharidin: the substance that gives the meloid beetles their blistering
power: composition, CioH^Oi (von Furth).
Canthus: the chitinous process more or less completely dividing the eyes of
some insects into an upper and lower half.
Canus: see canescent.
Capillaceous: capilla or hair-like.
Capillaris: a very slender, hair-like tube.
Capillary: long and slender like a hair: antennae in which the joints are long,
slender and loosely articulated.
Capillate -us: clothed with long slender hair; = coryphatus.
Capillii: hairs of the head that form a cap as in certain Trichoptera and
Capillitium: the hood-like collar in some Noctuid moths, e. g., Cucullia:
Capitate: with a head: that type of clavate antenna in which the club is
abruptly enlarged at tip and forms a spherical mass.
Capitulum: a small head: the enlarged tip of an antenna: the little knob at
tip of halteres in Diptcra: the labella or lapping tip of the mouth of cer-
Capricorn beetle: a Cerambycid or long-horned beetle.
Caprification: is that method or process through which the Smyrna figs are
fertilized by Blastophaga through the medium of wild, inedible or " capri-
Capsular: in the form of a capsule or little cup-like container.
Caput: the head with ail its appendages.
Capylus. a hump on the upper side of the segments of many larvae.
22 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Carabidoid: applied to the second stage of a meloid larva, when it resembles
that of a Carabid.
Carbonarius: coal black.
Cardia: the gizzard; q. v. : also applied to the heart.
Cardiac: belonging or relating to the heart.
Cardiac valvule: see cesophageal valve.
Cardinal cell: Odonata; see triangle.
Cardioblasts: a string or row of cells in the embryo giving rise to the heart
or dorsal vessel.
Cardio-coelom: that part of the ccelom that forms the pericardium.
Cardio-coelomic: applied to the venous openings from the heart to the body
Cardo, pi. Cardines: the hinge or basal sclerite of the maxilla by means of
which it is jointed to the head.
Carina-se: an elevated ridge or keel, not necessarily high or acute.
Carinate: a surface having carinse.
Carinula-ae: a little carina or keel-like ridge; specifically, the longitudinal
elevation on the middle of snout in Rhynchophora.
Carinulate: a surface with small and rather numerous carinse.
Cariose-ous: corroded; appearing as if worm-eaten.
Carminate -ed: mixed or tinged with carmine.
Carneous -eus: flesh-colored [salmon with a little carmine].
Carnivorous: a feeder upon flesh food.
Carnose-us: of a soft, fleshy substance.
Carolinian faunal area: that area of the upper austral zone comprising the
larger part of the Middle States (except the mountains), s. e. So. Dakota,
east. Nebraska, Kansas and part of Oklahoma; nearly all of Iowa, Mis-
souri, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Maryland and Delaware ; more than half of
West Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee and New Jersey and large areas in
Alabama, Georgia, the Carolinas, Virginia, Pennsylvania, New York, Mich-
igan and South Ontario : extends along Atlantic Coast from near mouth
of Chesapeake Bay to Southern Connecticut and sends narrow arms up the
valleys of the Hudson and Connecticut. A narrow arm follows the east
shore of Lake Michigan to Grand Traverse Bay.
Carpus: the pterostigma of Odonata: the extremity of the radius and cubitus
of the primaries : that point in the wings at which they are transversely
Cartilaginous: of the consistency of cartilage or gristle.
Caruncle: a soft, naked, fleshy excrescence or protuberance.
Caryophylleous: nut or clove brown [Indian red].
Castaneous: chestnut brown; bright red-brown [dragon's blood with a slight
admixture of vermilion].
Castes: the various forms or kinds of matured individuals among social in-
sects as workers, soldiers, queens, etc.
Cataphracted: invested with a hard callous skin, or with scales closely
Catch: in Collembola, = tenaculum, q. v.
Catenate: with longitudinal connected elevations like links in a chain.
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 23
Catenulate: like catenate; but the links are smaller.
Caterpillar: the term applied to the larvae of Lcpidoptera.
Catervatum: by heaps.
Cauda: the tail: any process resembling a tail: the pointed end of the ab-
domen in plant lice : any extension of the anal segment or appendage ter-
minating the abdomen.
Caudad: toward the posterior end of the body, along the median line.
Caudal: pertaining to the posterior or anal extremity.
Caudal setee: long, thread-like processes at the end of the abdomen in many
Neuropterous and some other insects ; = anal filaments.
Caudate: with tail-like extensions or processes.
Caudo-cephalic: in a line from the head to the tail.
Caudo-dorsad: directed upward and toward the tail.
Caudula-ae: a little tail.
Caul: the fatty mass of larvae from which the organs of the future adult
were supposed to develop : epiploon.
Cauliculus: the larger of the two stalks supporting the calyx of the mush-
Caulis: the funicle of antenna: the corneous basal part of jaws.
Cavate: hollowed out; cave-like.
Cavernous: divided into small spaces or little caverns.
Cavity- as: a hollow space or opening.
Cecidium: a gall.
Cell: any space between or bounded by veins: in the Comstock system the
cells derive their names from the vein forming the upper margin : e. g., all
just below the radius are radial cells ; and they are numbered from the
base outward, as radial 1, 2, etc.: the living unit; protoplasm differentiated
into cytoplasm and nucleus, from which units all but the lowest plants and
animals are developed by division and consequent increase into a multi-
cellular condition : a compartment or division of a nest or honey-comb.
Cellule: a portion of a wing included between veins; usually applied to a
small area completely inclosed, rarely to interspaces where no closed area
Cenchrus-ri: minute, often white marks, or membranous spaces on the
metanotum of some Hymenoptera.
Cenogonous: producing young at one time oviparously, at another vivip-
arously ; as in plant-lice.
Centimeter: abb., Cm.: =.01 meter = .394 inch; roughly 2 1 /* Cm. = one
Centrad: toward the centre or interior.
Central foveola: see median foveola.
Centrolecithal: applied to eggs in which the food yolk is central.
Centrosome: a spherical body that appears outside the nucleus of a cell.
Cephalad: toward the head, along the central line of the body.
Cephalic: belonging or attached to the head; directed toward the head.
Cephalic bristles: Diptera; specialized bristles occurring on the head.
Cephalic foramen: the posterior or occipital foramen of head through which
24 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
the dorsal vessel, oesophagus, salivary ducts and ventral nerve cords pass
from head to prothorax.
Cephalization: concentration toward the head.
Cephalomere: one of the head segments of an arthropod.
Cephalophragm: a v-shaped partition which divides the head of some Or-
thoptera into an anterior and posterior chamber.
Cephalon: the head.
Cephalosome: the head as one of the three regions.
Cephalotheca: the head covering in the pupal stage.
Cephalo-thorax: the united head and thorax of arachnida and Crustacea:
that portion of an obtect pupa covering head and thorax : the anterior
segments of larvae that have no obviously separated head.
Ceratheca or Ceratotheca: that portion of the pupal shell that envelops the
Cerci: two lateral anal appendages; usually short, jointed, antenna-like, de-
veloped from the eleventh abdominal segment of the embryo ; sometimes
unjointed and specialized into forceps or other processes.
Cercopoda: jointed foot-like appendages of the last abdominal segment; also
applied like cerci.
Cercus: see cerci.
Cerebellum: has been applied to the sub-cesophageal ganglion.
Cerebrum: the supra-ossophageal ganglion.
Cernuous: bent: with the apex bent downward.
Cervical: relating or belonging to the neck.
Cervical foramen: in coleopterous larvae occipital foramen.
Cervical sclerites: small chitinous plates on the membrane between head and
thorax: see jugular sclerites.
Cervical shield: the chitinous plate on the prothorax of caterpillars just be-
hind the head : = prothoracic shield.
Cerviculate: with a long neck or neck-like portion.
Cervinus: reddish, deer-gray [pale cadmium yellow and Indian red].
Cervix: the upper part of the neck; = crag : in Diptera; that part of the
occiput lying over the junction of the head, i. e., between the vertex and
Cespitose: matted together.
Chaetophorous: applied to bristle-bearing flies.
Chaetotaxy: the science dealing with the arrangement and nomenclature of
the bristles on the body of insects.
Chagrined: see shagreened.
Chalastrogastra: the saw-flies; a group of Hymcnoptera.
Chalceous: brassy in color or appearance.
Chalybeate: steely in appearance.
Chalybeous: metallic steel blue.
Channelled: a surface, with deep grooves or channels.
Chaperon: = clypeus or clypeus anterior.
Chaplet: a little crown; a circle of hooks or other small processes termi-
nating a member or appendage.
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 25
Character: a quality of form, color or structure.
Cheek: see gena.
Chela: the terminal portion of a limb bearing a lateral movable claw like
that of a crab ; specifically applied to the feet in some Parasitica in which
the opposable claw forms a clasping structure.
Chelate: bearing a chela or claw; applied when claws are capable of being
drawn down or back upon the last tarsal joint.
Chiasma: an X-like crossing of nerve fibers.
Chirotype: a specimen upon which a manuscript name is based.
Chitin: the material forming the hard parts of the insect body; it is a secre-
tion (or a metamorphosis?) of the epidermis, differing from horn by its
insolubility in boiling liquor potassae: = elytra, entomolin.
Chitinogenous: applied to that layer of epidermal cells which secretes the
Chitinization: the process of depositing or filling with chitin.
Chitinized: filled in with or hardened by chitin.
Chitinous: composed of chitine or like it in texture: as a color term is
Chlorophane: an oily, greenish yellow pigment found in insects.
Chlorophyll: the green coloring matter of plants; one of the substances
found in the blood of insects.
Chordotonal: responsive to vibrations; applied to the ear-like structures in
Chorion: the shell or covering membrane of an insect egg.
Chromatin: the minute granules that make up the chromoplasm of a cell
Chromosome: one of the segments into which the chromoplasmic filaments
of a cell nucleus breaks up just before indirect division.
Chrysalis or -id: applied specifically to the intermedial stage between larva
and adult in butterflies : see pupa.
Chrysargyrus: silvery gilt.
Chyle: the food-mass after it has passed through the gizzard and is mixed
with the secretions of the salivary glands and csecal structures, ready to be
Chylific ventricle: the true stomach in which the chyle is prepared and di-
Cibarian: referring to the mouth parts.
Cicatricose: a surface having scars with elevated margins like those of
Cicatrix: a scar: an elevated, rigid spot.
Cilia: fringes; series of moderate or thin hair arranged in tufts or single
lines ; thin scattered hair on a surface or margin.
Ciliate: fringed: set with even, parallel hairs or soft bristles.
Cilium, pi. Cilia: q. v.
Cimicine: an oily fluid of disagreeable odor secreted by certain Heteroptera
and used as a means of defense.
Cimier: the head crest in Pierid chrysalids.
26 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Cinctus: with a colored band: = cingulatus.
Cinereous: ash-colored; gray tinged with blackish [ultra ash gray].
Cinerescent: ashen in color or appearance.
Cingula-um: a colored band or bands.
Cingulate -us: having a cingulum or collar: see also cinctus.
Cinnabarine: [vermilion red].
Cinnamomeous: cinnamon brown [burnt sienna].
Cinura: see Thysamira, of which this forms a group including the bristle-
tails, and for which it has been used as an equivalent.
Circinal: spirally rolled like a watch-spring or a butterfly tongue.
Circiter: about, or round-about.
Circular: round like a circle.
Circumgenital glands: small circular glands with an excretory orifice at tip,
disposed in groups about the genital orifice in Diaspince.
Circumcesophageal commissures: those cords or nerve fibres connecting the
suboesophageal ganglion with the main trunk of nervous system.
Circumsepted: with a vein all around the wing.
Cirrate: antennae with very long, curled lateral branches which may or may
not be ciliated : see plumose.
Cirrose-us: with somewhat dense curled hair.
Cirrus: a curled lock of hair placed on a thin stalk.
Citrine -us: lemon yellow [chrome yellow].
Cladocerous: with branched horns or antennae.
Clasper: a chitinized process, free or attached to the inner sides of harpes,
valves or other lateral pieces, serving to hold the female parts during copu-
lation : = the harpes of some authors.
Claspette: in genitalia of <$ culicids, the inner basal lobe of side piece; q. v.
Clasp-filament: in d genitalia of culicids, the articulated appendage or ter-
minal segment of side-piece or clasp; sometimes bears an articulated point
or apex and then = articulated apex.
Class: a division of the animal kingdom lower than a sub-kingdom and
higher than an order : e. g., the " Class Insecta."
Classification: is the systematic arrangement of insects (or other animals or
plants) in series showing their relation or agreement in structure, life
habits or other characters forming the basis of the " classification."
Clathrate: latticed or lattice-like in appearance.
Claustrum: the structure uniting the wings in flight, whether by hooks, by
a thickening of the margin, or by a jugum.
Clava: a club; the enlarged apical joints of a clubbed antenna: = clavola.
Claval suture: Hcmiptera; at the base of hemelytra, separating the clavus.
Clavate: clubbed: thickening gradually toward the tip.
Clavate hairs: in Collembola, =tenent hairs.
Clavicornia: that series of beetles having the antennae more or less distinctly
enlarged or clubbed at tip.
Clavicular lobe: Homoptcra; that portion of hind wing behind anal veins.
Claviform: club-like in form; specifically, in Noctuid moths an elongate spot
or mark extending from the t. a. line through the subrr.edian interspace,
toward and sometimes to the t. p. line.
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 27
Clavola: see clava.
Clavus: the club of an antenna; = clava and clavola: in Heteroptera, the
oblong sclerite at the base of the inferior margin of the hemelytra: the
knob at the end of the stigmal or radial veins in certain Hymenoptera.
Claws: the claw or hook-like structures at the end of the foot or tarsus.
Cleavage: see segmentation of egg.
Cleft: split: partly divided, longitudinally: in Colcoptera applied to claws so
divided that the parts lie one above the other.
Clintheriform: shaped like a plate.
Cloaca: see rectum.
Clubbed: see clavate.
Clypeal suture: marks the division between clypeus and epicranium.
Clypeate: shield-like in form.
Clypeate constriction: applied when a surface is drawn in from the sides
so as to produce a shield or saddle-like form.
Clypeo-f rental suture: = clypeal suture.
Clypeus: that portion of the head before or below the front, to which the
labrum is attached anteriorly ; in Diptcra often visible below the margin
of the mouth in front, as a more or less visor-shaped piece: = epistoma.
Clypeus anterior: see ante-clypeus.
Clypeus posterior: see post-clypeus.
Coactus: condensed; of a short stout form.
Coadapted: formed so as to work together to one end; as the mandible and
maxilla in Chrysopids, etc.
Coadunate: joined together at base; two or more joined together; said of
elytra when permanently united at the suture.
Coagulate: to congeal; to change from a fluid to a jelly.
Coagulum: a clotted mass, as of blood.
Coalescent: united or grown together.
Coarctate: contracted: compacted: applied to that form of pupa in which
all the members of the future adult are concealed by a thickened, usually
cylindric case or covering, which is often the hardened skin of the larva :
beginning with a narrow base, then dilated and thickened.
Cocardes: retractile vesicular bodies on each side of the thorax in certain
Coccineous: cochineal red; dark red [carmine].
Cochleiformis: formed like a snail shell.
Cochleate: spirally twisted like a screw or a univalve shell.
Cocoon: a covering, composed partly or wholly of silk or other viscid fibre,
spun or constructed by many larva: as a protection to the pupa.
Cocoon-breaker: structures or processes of the pupa, often on the head, by
means of which it works its way out of the cocoon.
Coecal: ending blindly, or in a closed tube or pouch.
Coecum: a blind sac or tube: applied to a series of appendages opening into
the alimentary canal at the junction of the gizzard and chylific ventricle:
see caecum ; the two are used interchangeably.
Coeloblast: the endoderm in the narrower sense.
28 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Coelom: the body cavity.
Coelomic cavity: the space between the viscera and the body wall.
Coelom-sac: the cavity containing the viscera: in embryology one of a pair
of closed sacs, arising in the mesoderm of each segment of the embryo
and giving rise to more or less of the ccelom of the adult.
Coenogonous: oviparous at one season of the year, ovoviviparous at another,
as in Aphid idee.
Coeruleus -eous: sky-blue: see casruleus.
Coincident: when two wing veins run together or lie, one in continuation of
the other so as to appear like one.
Coleoptera: sheath-winged: an order with the primaries coriaceous, used as
a cover only, meeting in a straight line dorsally ; mouth mandibulate; pro-
thorax free; transformations complete: the beetles: the term has also been
applied to the two elytra together.
Collar: in general any structure between the head and thorax: specifically,
in Hymcnoptera, the neck; in Diptcra, may mean the neck, the sclerites
attached to the prothorax, the prothorax itself, or its processes (ante
furca) ; in Coleoptera, is the narrowed prothorax; in Lepidoptera, applied
to the sclerites attached to the prothorax and which shield the neck.
Collembola: an ordinal term applied to species which are apterous; have no
metamorphoses ; have variably developed abdominal saltatorial appendages
and a peculiar ventral tube at base : the spring-tails.
Colleterial gland: see colleterium.
Colleterium: a glandular structure accessory to the oviduct, secreting the
viscid material used in cementing the eggs together.
Collophore: the sucker-like organ extended from the underside of the ab-
domen in Collembola.
Collum: the neck or collar: the slender connection between head and thorax
in Hymcnoptera and Diptcra; in Coleoptera, the posterior, narrow part of
the head or even the prothorax : loosely used.
Colon: the large intestine; that usually enlarged portion of the alimentary
canal before the rectum.
Columella: a little rod, pillar or central axis.
Columnar: cylindric, but tapering toward one end.
Comate-us: only the upper part of head, or vertex, covered with hair.
Commensal: one who eats at another's table: applied to species that feed on
the surplus supply of another, without destroying the owner of the supply.
Commensalism: applied to this manner of living and eating together.
Comminute: to grind up fine: to reduce to minute particles.
Commissure: the nerves connecting two ganglia: the point of meeting or
union of two bodies : a bridge connecting two bodies or structures ; e. g.,
Common: of frequent occurrence: occurring on two adjacent parts: a band
or fascia is common when it crosses both primaries and secondaries.
Communal: applied to life or dwelling in colonies like ants and bees.
Comose: ending in a tuft or brush.
Complanate: compressed; flattened above and below: == deplanate.
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 29
Complemental: applied to sexed forms in the Termitidtz, capable of repro-
duction, but which do not reach the winged stage; the females are less
fertile than the forms that become winged and several may be used in one
nest to replace a lost queen or mature female.
Complicant: when one elytron extends over the other and partially covers it.
Complicate: longitudinally laid in folds: intricate as opposed to simple.
Component: one part of a combined whole.
Compound: made up of many similar or dissimilar parts.
Compressed: flattened laterally.
Concatenate: linked together in a chain-like series.
Concave: hollowed out; the interior of a sphere as opposed to the outer or
convex surface: concave veins are those that occupy the bottoms of
troughs or grooves on the upper surface of a wing ; see convex veins.
Concavo-convex: hollowed out or concave on one surface, rounded or convex
on the other ; like a small segment of a hollow sphere.
Concentrated: gathered together at one point; intensified or strengthened by
Conchate: applied to the shell-like inflation of the auricle in the cephalic
tibia of Orthoptera.
Concinne: neat; fine.
Concolorous: of the same general color.
Concretion: a massing together of parts or particles.
Concurrent: applied to a vein which arises separately, runs into another and
does not again separate.
Conduplicate: doubled or folded together.
Condyle: a process which articulates the base of the mandible to the head:
in general any process by means of which an appendage is articulated into
a pan or cavity.
Confertim: closely clustered or crowded.
Conflect: crowded; clustered; opposed to sparse.
Confluent: running together; as of two macula when united in one outline.
Confused: a marking with indefinite outlines: a running together as of
lines and spots without definite pattern.
Congener: a species belonging to the same genus.
Congeneric: applied to a species agreeing in all characters of generic value
with others compared with it.
Congested: heaped together; crowded: distended.
Conglobate: gathered together in a ball or sphere.
Conglobate gland: a glandular appendage of male sexual organs in Or-
thoptera, opening upon one of the external structures.
Conglomerate: congregated; massed together.
Conic -al: cylindrical, with a flat base, tapering to a point.
Conico-acuminate: in the form of a long, pointed cone.
Coniferous: a surface which bears cone-like processes.
Conjugate: to bring together in pairs: consisting of a single pair.
Conjugation: the union of pairs; usually applied to the merging of the male
and female elements.
30 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Conjunctiva: the membrane uniting the abdominal sclerites.
Conjunctivus: a mandibular sclerite between the molar and basalis.
Conjunctura: the articulation of a wing to the thorax.
Connate: united at base, or along the whole length.
Connexivum: the prominent abdominal margin of Het., at junction of dorsal
and ventral plates : also used like pulmonarium, q. v.
Connivent: converging: approaching together: wings so folded in repose
that they unite perfectly at their corresponding margins.
Consperse: irregularly dotted or sprinkled.
Conspicuous: striking: easily seen at a glance.
Conspurcatus: confusedly sprinkled with discolored or dark spots.
Constituent: a part, or element of a whole.
Constricted: drawn in: narrowed medially and dilated toward the extremi-
Contiguous: so near together as to touch.
Contorted: twisted: obliquely incumbent upon each other.
Contour: the outline or periphery.
Contract -ed: to draw or drawn together: to reduce, or reduced in size by
Contractile: that which may be drawn together or contracted or which has
the power of contracting.
Contrasting: appearing in sharp relief or contrast; as one color or marking
Converging: approaching each other toward the tip.
Convergence: the approaching or drawing together at tips.
Convex: the outer curved surface of a segment of a sphere; opposed to con-
cave : convex veins are those which occupy the summits of ridges on the
upper surface of a wing; see concave veins.
Convolute: rolled or twisted spirally: also applied to wings when they are
wrapped around the body.
Coprophagus: feeding on excrement or on decaying vegetable matter of an
Copula, Copulation: the act of sexual union.
Copulate: to unite in sexual intercourse.
Copulation chamber: a chamber or cell excavated by certain Scolytid beetles
in their burrows, in which copulation takes place : = rammel-kammer.
Coralline: a pale pinkish red [salmon].
Corbel: an ovate area at the distal end of the tibia in Coleoptera, surrounded
by a fringe of minute bristles ; when the articular cavity is on the side,
above the tip, the corbel is closed ; when the cavity is at the extreme tip,
the corbel is open.
Corbicula -um: a concave, smooth space, edged by a fringe of hairs arising
from the margins of the posterior tibiae in bees, forming the pollen basket ;
its function is to hold the collected pollen in place.
Corbiculate: having corbicula.
Cordate: heart-shaped; triangular, with the corners of the base rounded;
not necessarily emarginate at the middle of base.
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 31
Coriaceo-reticulate: with impressed reticulations giving a leather-like ap-
Coriaceous: leather-like: thick, tough and somewhat rigid.
Coriarious: leather-like in sculpture or texture.
Corium: the elongate middle section of the hemelytra which extends from
base to membrane below the embolium.
Cornea: the outer surface of the compound eye as a whole, and of each
Corneal lenses: are the individual lens-like structures of which the cornea
of the compound eye is composed.
Corneous: of a horny or chitinous substance; resembling horn in texture.
Cornicles: the honey tubes in plant-lice: = corniculus.
Corniculi: the little horny tips or pieces of the ovipositor in Orthoptera;
Corniculus -i: = cornicles ; honey-tubes; q. v.
Corniform: like the horn of an ox: a long, mucronate or pointed process.
Cornute-us: having horns or horn-like processes.
Corona: a crown or crown-like processes.
Coronate: with a crown-like tip or termination.
Coronet: a small crown or corona.
Coronula: a circle or semicircle of spines at the apex of the tibia.
Corpus: the body as a whole.
Corpus adiposum: the mass of fat tissue often found in larvae.
Corpuscle: a small cell; usually applied to blood cells.
Correlate: to bring together into relation or correspondence.
Correlated: detrived from the same ancestral form: said of two or more
features or qualities which bear a direct or an inverse relation to each
other, but without implying a relation of cause and effect.
Correlative: of a correlated nature: see correlated.
Corrode: to eat away gradually, as by rust or decay.
Corrodentia: an ordinal term meaning gnawers: net-veined or wingless;
mandibulate, mouth formed for gnawing; transformation incomplete;
thorax incompletely agglutinated: = Psocoptera: includes Termitidce, Pso-
cidce and Mallophaga.
Corrugated: wrinkled; with alternate ridges and channels.
Corselet: the prothorax in Coleoptera.
Cortical: relating to the cortex or outer skin.
Corticinus: bark-like in sculpture, texture or color [vandyke brown].
Corvinus: crow-black; deep, shining black with a greenish lustre.
Coryphatus: = capillatus.
Corysterium: an abdominal glandular structure in certain females, secreting
a glutinous covering for the eggs.
Cosmopolitan: species that occur throughout most of the world.
Cosmotropical: species that occur throughout the tropics.
Costa: any elevated ridge that is rounded at its crest: the thickened anterior
margin of any wing, but usually the primaries : in Comstock, the vein ex-
tending along the anterior margin of the wing from base to the point of
junction with subcosta.
32 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Costal area: the area behind costal vein: see also, costal field.
Costal cell: the area inclosed between the costal and sub-costal veins : in the
plural, Comstock, are all the cells anteriorly margined by the costa; in
Hymcnoptera (Norton), includes the 1st, 2d and sub-costal; of Packard,
the 3d costal = 2d radial 1, and radial 2: in Diptera (Will.), it is the 2d
Costal field: Orthoptera; that region of the tegmina adjacent to the anterior
margin or costa : = anterior field.
Costal fold: in the males of some Hespcridce, a membranous flap that may
be opened to expose the androconia.
Costal margin: the anterior margin of a wing whether it is really costate or
Costal membrane: Hymcnoptera; the surface of wing in front of costal vein.
Costal vein: Lepidoptcra; runs close to and parallel with the costal margin,
extending from base to the margin before the apex; always simple and
often absent in the secondaries ; is vein 12 of the numerical series on pri-
maries; vein 8 on secondaries: = subcosta (Comst.).
Costate: ribbed; marked with elevated thickened lines.
Costula: Hymcnoptera; a small ridge separating the externo-median meta-
thoracic area into two parts.
Costulatus: less prominently ribbed than costate.
Cotyla: the articular pan; the cup or socket of a ball and socket joint.
Cotypes: are all the specimens before the describer when a species is named,
no single one being selected as the type: the type in such case equals the
sum of the cotypes : see paratype.
Coxa -ae: the basal segment of the leg, by means of which it is articulated to
Coxal cavity: the opening or space in which the coxa articulates; in Cole-
optcra the cavity is open when the epimera do not extend to the sternum ;
closed or entire when the epimera reach the sternum or join medially as
in Rhynchophora; the cavities are separated when the prosternum extends
between them, confluent when it does not : see acetabulum.
Coxal glands: eversible glandular structures at base of legs; well developed
in some Thysanurans, modified variously in higher orders.
Coxal stylets: short, leg-like, jointed appendages on the underside of the
abdominal segments in Thysanura.
Crag: the neck: cervix.
Cranium: the head or skull except the neck; sometimes limited to the fixed
parts above the clypeo-frontal suture.
Crassus: thick; tumid.
Crateriform: like a shallow funnel or deep bowl.
Creber: closely set.
Cremaster: a stout spine, process or hooked area at the hind end of pupae
Crenate: scalloped, with rounded teeth.
Crenulate: with small scallops, evenly rounded and rather deeply curved.
Crepitation: a crackling sound or the production of such as by discharge of
vapor or " bombarding " : a cracHner or creaking.
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 33
Crepuscular: active or flying at dusk.
Crescentiform: like a lumile or crescent.
Crest: a prominent, longitudinal carina ori the upper surface of any part of
the head or body.
Crested: see cristate.
Cretaceous: chalky white: the third, uppermost and latest of the three great
divisions of the mesozoic or secondary rocks.
Cribrate: pierced with closely set, small holes.
Cribriform: with perforations like those of a sieve.
Crineous: dark-brown, with a slight admixture of yellow and gray.
Crinite-us: with tufts of long thin hair: see lanuginose.
Crispate-us: with a wrinkled or fluted margin.
Crista: a ridge or crest.
Cristate: with a prominent carina or crest on the upper surface: == crested.
Cristiform: in the form of a sharp ridge or crest.
Cristula: a small crest.
Cristulate: with little crescent-like ridges or crests.
Croceous: saffron yellow; yellow with an admixture of red [pale cadmium
Crocus: = croceous.
Crook: the hook or recurved tip of the antenna in Hesperida.
Crop: the dilated portion of the alimentary canal behind the gullet which
serves to receive and hold the food previous to its slower passage through
the digestive tract : = ingluvies.
Crotchets: the curved spines or hooks on the prolegs of caterpillars and on
the cremaster of pupse.
Crown: the top of head in Lepidopfera; also used as = coronet or corona.
Cruciate: shaped like a cross; applied to wings when the inner margins lie
one over the other ; or to incumbent wings that overlie only at the -apex :
in Dipt era, applied to bristles when they cross in direction.
Cruciato-complicatus: folded crosswise: incumbent wings when the inner
margins overlap; not well distinguished from cruciate.
Crura: the legs or, more specifically, the thighs.
Crura cerebri: two large cords that connect the supra- with the sub-cesopha-
Crus: a leg or leg-like structure.
Crustaceous: hard, like the shell of a crab.
Crypto: hidden, concealed.
Cryptocerata: a division of Hctcroptcra with small antennae concealed in a
groove under the head : = adeloceratous : see gymnocerata.
Cryptogastra: with the venter or belly covered or concealed.
Cryptopentamera: feet 5- jointed, the 4th joint small and concealed.
Cryptotetramera: feet 4-jointed, one of them small and concealed.
Cryptothorax: a supposed thoracic ring between meso- and meta-thorax.
Crypts: minute secretory follicles or cavities: specifically, large gland-like
structures between the epithelial cells in chylific ventricle.
34 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Crystalline: transparent, like crystal.
Crystalline cone: a conical structure below the cornea, imbedded in pigment
cells of the compound eye : also termed C. lens.
Ctenidium: a comb-like structure occurring on any part of an insect.
Cubital: referring or belonging to the cubitus.
Cubital cell: the wing area between the cubitus and anal vein; in the plural,
all the cells bounded anteriorly by the cubitus or its branches (Comst.) ;
in Diptera (Schiner), = radial 3 (Comst.), = 3d posterior cell (Loew) ;
in Hymenoptera (Norton), radial 3, 4 and 5 (Comst.).
Cubital forks: the branching or points of separation of the branches of the
Cubital nerve or vein: see cubitus.
Cubitus: of Comstock, is the 5th in the series of longitudinal veins extending
from base, and usually two branched before reaching outer margin : in
Orthoptcra; = the internomedian and ulnar: in Neuroptera, a main longi-
tudinal vein next behind the medius and before the anal : the tibia of the
Cuckoo spit: liquid in the form of bubbles produced by members of the
family Cercopida and which often conceals the producer.
Cucullate: hooded; somewhat hood-shaped.
Cucullus: a hood: see capillitium.
Cuilleron: see alula.
Culicifuge: any preparation for driving away gnats or mosquitoes.
Culmen: the longitudinal carina of a caterpillar.
Cultellus: one of the blade-like lancets in piercing flies: = the mandibles of
Cultrate -iform: shaped like a pruning knife.
Cumulate: in groups or heaps.
Cumulus: a group or heap; as of cells in a developing ovum.
Cuneate, Cuneiform: wedge-shaped; elongate triangular.
Cuneus: Hctcroptcra; the small triangular area at the end of the embolium
of hemelytra : Odonata, the small triangle of the vertex between the com-
Cupreous: the metallic red of pure shining copper.
Cupules: the sucker-like processes covering the under surface of the tarsi in
Cupuliform: cup-shaped: like a little cup: = cyathiform.
Cursoria: in Orthoptcra, that series in which the legs are formed for run-
ning (roaches, etc.).
Cursorial: formed for running.
Curvinervate: wings with the veins distinctly curved, like some Psocida.
Cusp -is: a pointed process; sometimes at the margin of a wing.
Cuspidate: prickly pointed; ending in a sharp point; with an acuminated
point ending in a bristle.
Custodite -us: guarded: a body in an envelope.
Cuticle: the outer skin or skin layer.
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 35
Cuticula: = cuticle : specifically applied to the outer or chitinized layer: see
epidermis and hypodermis.
Cyaneous: pure dark blue; indigo blue [French blue].
Cyanescent: with a deep bluish tinge or shading.
Cyanogenic: applied to repugnatorial glands in myriapods and sometimes in
Cyathiform: obconical and concave; cup-shaped: = cupuliform.
Cyatotheca: the cover of the thorax in the pupa.
Cycle: a round or circle, e. g., of development; a life cycle.
Cyclorrhapha: that section of Diptera in which the adult escapes from the
hardened pupal case by pushing off a lid or covering : see orthorrhapha.
Cyclorrhaphous: circular seamed.
Cydariform: globose, but truncated at two opposite sides.
Cylindrical: in the form of a cylinder or tube; round, elongate, of equal
Cymbiform: boat-shaped: a concave disc with elevated margin; navicular.
Cytoplasm: the protoplasm of a cell exclusive of nucleus; the cell body.
Dactylus: a finger or toe; = digitus : a tarsal joint after the first one, when
that is enlarged as in bees.
Dagger mark: a marking in the form of a Greek Psi [^].
Dart: a sting, or its central part.
Dash: a short disconnected streak or mark.
Dasygastres: bees with pollen-carrying structures on the abdomen.
Deaurate: of the color of gold; golden.
Deciduous: that which may be cast off or shed.
Declinate -us: a part somewhat bent, the apex downward.
Declivent -ous: sloping gradually downward.
Decumbent: bending down at tip from an upright base.
Decurrent: closely attached to and running down another body.
Decurved: bowed downward.
Decussate: crossing at an angle; X-like: in cross pairs; or, when bristles
alternately cross each other, as in some Diptera.
Deflected: bent downward: the wings, when the inner margins lap and the
outer edges decline toward the sides.
Deflexed: abruptly bent downward.
Deformed: twisted or set in an unusual form; specifically, in Coleoptcra ap-
plied to knotted or twisted antennae as in male Meloids.
Dehiscence: the splitting of the pupal integument in the emergence of the
adult in Lepidoptera.
Dehiscent: -open or standing open: separating toward the tip.
Dejectamenta: the excrement or excretion.
Delamination: the splitting or division into layers.
Deltoid: elongate triangular; resembling a Greek A with apex extended.
36 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Demarcation: the bounding, laying out or limiting.
Dendritic: applied to the branched nerve cells in the mushroom bodies of the
Dendroid: tree or shrub-like: branching like a tree or shrub.
Dendrophagus: feeding on woody tissues.
Dendrophilous: species that live in woody tissue, or on trees.
Dens: a tooth or tooth-like process.
Dense: thickly crowded together.
Dentate: toothed: with acute teeth, the sides of which are equal and the tip
is above the middle of base.
Dentate-serrate: toothed, with the dentations themselves serrated on their
Dentate-sinuate: toothed and indented.
Denies: the teeth or pointed processes on the inner side of the mandible:
the second or middle part of the furcula in Collembola, consisting of two
parallel pieces from the distal end of the manubrium and bearing at their
apices the mucrones.
Denies caninae: see canine teeth.
Denticle: a small tooth.
Denticulated: set with little teeth or notches.
Dentiform: formed or appearing like a tooth.
Denudate: without covering; destitute of scales or hair.
Denude: to free from covering; to rub so as to remove the surface covering
of scales, hair or other vestiture.
Dependent: hanging down.
Deplanate -us: see complanate.
Depressed: flattened down vertically; opposed to compressed.
Depressor: applied to a muscle that has for its function the depression of an
organ or a part.
Deratoptera: = Ortlwptera.
Dermal: relating to the skin or outer covering.
Dermal glands: hypodermal unicellular glands which secrete wax, setae,
Dermaptera: see Dermal opt era.
Dermatoptera: skin-winged: an ordinal term applied to insects with elytri-
form, abbreviated primaries beneath which the secondaries are folded trans-
versely and fan-like : mouth mandibulate, prothorax free ; abdomen f orci-
pate ; metamorphosis incomplete : the Forficulida or earwigs.
Desectus: = truncatus.
Desideratum -ata: some thing or things needed or desired.
Destitutus: wanting; being without.
Determinate: with well-defined outlines or distinct limits: fixed: marked out.
Detonans: exploding: a sudden noise or a puff like an explosion.
Detritus: rubbed off; a surface partly denuded.
Deuterotoky: parthenogenetic reproduction when the progeny are male and
female : see arrhenotoky and thelyotoky.
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 37
Deutocerebral segment: antennal segment; q. v.
Deutocerebrum: the middle portion of the brain, formed by the ganglion of
the 2d primary segment ; also termed antennal or olfactory lobes from the
parts it innervates:
Deutoplasm: the yolk or food plasm of an ovum.
Deutotergite: the secondary dorsal segment of the abdomen.
Dextrad: extending or directed toward the right.
Dextral: to the right of the median line.
Dextro-caudad: extends obliquely between dextrad and caudad.
Dextro-cephalad: extends obliquely between dextrad and cephalad.
Di: as a prefix, = two.
Diaphanous: semi-transparent; clear.
Diaphragm: any thin dividing membrane; that thin membrane separating
the cavity containing the heart from the rest of the body.
Diarthrosis: any articulation that permits of motion.
Diastole: that regular expansion of the heart that draws the blood inward:
Dichgetae: a group of brachycerous Diptcra with a proboscis consisting of
two parts : Muscids, etc.
Dichoptic: Diptera; eyes separated by front; not contiguous: see holoptic.
Dichotomous: forked: dividing by pairs.
Dichromatism: the possession of two color varieties.
Dictyoptera: an ordinal term applied to the roaches: also, more generally,
to the Orthoptcra.
Didactyle -us: two-toed: with two tarsi of equal length.
Didymus: double: geminate.
Difformis: irregular in form or outline: not comparable; anomalous.
Diffracted: bending in different directions.
Diffuse: spreading out; without distinct edge or margin.
Digestive tract: the alimentary canal as a whole: more specifically that por-
tion behind the crop, in which assimilation takes place.
Digitate: finger-like, or divided into finger-like processes.
Digitiform: formed, shaped like or having the function of a finger.
Digitules: appendages on the feet of Coccida; in Lecanium, four knobbed
Digitus: the terminal joint of the tarsus, bearing the claws: a small ap-
pendage attached to the lacinia of the maxilla ; rarely present and probably
Digoneutism: the power to produce two broods in one season.
Dilatatus: Coleoptera; a margin, when the sharp marginal edge extends
beyond its usual limit : the base when the transverse diameter is much
longer at one part.
Dilated: widened, expanded.
Dilation: an expansion or widening.
Dilute: thinned out: applied to color means weak or pale.
Dilutior: much thinned out or diluted.
Dimera: forms with two-jointed tarsi: specifically applied to some groups (ri
38 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Dimerous: having only two tarsal joints.
Dimidiate -us: halved; extending half way around; applied to elytra when
they cover only half the abdomen.
Dimidius: of half length.
Dimorphic: occurring in two well-marked forms.
Dimorphism: a difference in form, color, etc., between individuals of the
same species, characterizing two distinct types : may be seasonal, sexual or
Dioecious: with distinct sexes.
Dioptrate: an ocellate spot with the pupil divided by a transverse line.
Dioptric: with a transversely divided ocellus.
Diploglossata: an ordinal term proposed for Hemimerida, because of the
supposed presence of a second labial segment.
Diplogangliata: applied to the Arthropods.
Diploptera: = diplopteryga ; q. v.
Diplopteryga: Hymenoptera; wasps in which the wings are longitudinally
folded when at rest.
Dipneumones: having two lungs (certain spiders).
Diptera: an ordinal term applied to insects having only one pair of wings
(anterior); thorax agglutinate; mouth haustellate; transformations com-
Dipterocecidium: a gall formed by a dipterous insect.
Dipterous: belonging to or having the characters of Diptera.
Direct: applied to metamorphosis = incomplete.
Directive coloration: directive marks or colors which tend to divert the
attention of an enemy from more vital parts.
Disc: see disk.
Discal: on or relating to the disc of any surface or structure.
Discal area: of a wing applies especially to the more central portion, or that
area covered by the discal cell.
Discal bristles: Diptera; are inserted on the middle of the abdominal seg-
ments before the hind margin.
Discal cell: Lepidoptera; the large or median cell extending from the base
of the wing toward the center: = radial cell (Comst.) : in Diptera (Will.)
= 1st medial 2 (Comst.) : Odonata; = discoidal areolets, q. v. : Triclwp-
tera, the cell between the forks of the radial sector, and separated from
the 2d apical cell by a cross-vein.
Discal patch: in some male Hes per idee the oblique streak of specialized black
scales on the disc of the primaries.
Discal vein: Lepidoptera; the cross-vein closing the discal or median cell;
extends from radius 5 to media 1.
Disciform: formed or shaped like a disc.
Discocellular nervure or vein: Lepidoptera; = discal vein, q. v.
Discoidal: relating to the disc, or middle = discal.
Discoidal area: the middle area or field: Orthoptera; that area of the teg-
mina between the posterior or anal and the anterior or costal areas : = d.
Discoidal areolets: Odonata; a varying number of rows of cells on the outer
side of the triangle between the short sector (M 4 of Comst.) and the
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 39
upper sector of the triangle (Cu 1 of Comst.) = post-triangular cells:
= discal cells.
Discoidal cell: Hymenoptera (Norton) ; 1st medial 2, medial 3 and medial
Discoidal field: see discoidal area.
Discoidal nervule: Lepidoptera; = media 1 (Comst.).
Discoidal triangle: Odonata: see triangle.
Discoidal vein: Diptcra (Schiner), media 2 (Comst.); = anterior inter-
calary vein (Loew) ; Hymenoptera (Norton), = media 2 (Comst.), beyond
the junction with the medial cross-vein: Orthoptera; the first and largest
branch of the humeral vein.
Discoideous: = discoidal.
Discolored -orous: a different color from the surrounding, more or less con-
trasting ; not concolorous.
Discota: insects in which development of the adults is from imaginal discs:
Discrete: distinctly separated.
Discs: the abdominal motor processes of coleopterous larvae.
Discus: a disc; a somewhat flat circular part or area.
Disjoined or Disjointed: see disjunctus.
Disjunct: with head, thorax and abdomen separated by constrictions.
Disjunctus: separated; standing apart.
Disk: the central upper surface of any part; all the area within a margin;
the central area of a wing : in Orthoptera, the obliquely ridged outer sur-
face of hind femur in sanatoria.
Dislocated: a stria, band or line interrupted in continuity, when the tips of
the interrupted parts are not in a right line with each other.
Dispersus: with scattered markings, punctures or other small sculptures.
Disposed: arranged or laid out.
Dissepiment: a partition wall: applied to the forming septa separating the
coelom-sacs in the embryo ; also the thin envelope about the members in
Dissilient: bursting open elastically.
Distad: toward the distal end.
Distal: that part of a joint farthest from the body.
Distant: remote from: standing considerably apart.
Distichous: applied to antennae when lateral processes originate at the apices
of the joints and bend forward at acute angles to them.
Distiproboscis: the outer third of the proboscis in Muscid flies, bearing the
Distychus: bipartite: separated into two parts.
Ditrocha: Hymenoptera; that series having the trochanter two-jointed.
Diurna?: day fliers: applied to butterflies.
Diurnal: such insects as are active or habitually fly by day only.
Divaricable: able to spread apart or divaricate.
Divaricate: straddling or spreading apart: when the wings are lapped at
base and diverge behind : tarsal claws when arising at apposite sides of the
joint and separating widely.
40 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Divergent: spreading out from a common base; in Coleoptera, tarsal claws
are divergent when they spread out only a little; divaricate when they
Diverse: unequal: differing in size or shape: of various kinds.
Diverticulum -la: an off-shoot from a vessel or from the alimentary canal;
usually blind or sac-like : applied to the caecal tubes or pouches : any exten-
sions or evaginations of the hypodermis.
Dividens (vena): Orthoptera; 1st anal (Comst.).
Dog-ear marks: in bees; small, subtriangular marks of light color, just be-
low the antennae (Cocker ell).
Dolabriform: hatchet-shaped: compressed, with a prominent dilated keel and
Dolioloides: applied to obtect or coarctate pupae.
Dominant: a character more constant and conspicuous than any other: a
type or series occurring in large numbers both as to genera, species and
individuals and in which differentiation is yet active.
Dorsad: extending or directed toward the upper side.
Dorsal: of or belonging to the upper surface; in Diptcra, that face of the
laterally extended legs visible from above.
Dorsal bristles: see dorso-central.
Dorsal diaphragm: the wings of the heart, or the very thin membrane upon
which these muscles rest : = pericardial diaphragm, q. v.
Dorsal gland orifices: in Diaspince, oval orifices arranged in more or less
distinct rows on the surface of the pygidiutn, through which is discharged
the material of which the dorsal scale is formed.
Dorsal glands: see last preceding title.
Dorsal line: in caterpillars, extends longitudinally on the middle of the back
Dorsal scale: that part of the covering scale of the Diaspina that lies above
the insect, as opposed to the ventral scale, which lies below.
Dorsal space: in slug-caterpillars is the area between the sub-dorsal ridges.
Dorsal vessel: the heart; q. v.
Dorsi-meson: the middle of the upper surface.
Dorso-alar region: Diptcra; between the transverse suture and the scutellum
on one side and the root of the wing and the dorso-central region on the
Dorso-central bristles: Diptera; two or four longitudinal rows on the inner
part of the dorsum.
Dorso-central region: Diptcra; bounded by two imaginary lines drawn from
the scutellar bridges forward, and coinciding with a space free from
bristles that exists on the outer side of the dorsal rows and is often occu-
pied by a dorsal thoracic stripe.
Dorso-humeral region: Diptera; bounded by the anterior end of thorax and
transverse suture on two sides and by the dorso-pleural suture and dorso-
central region on the two others.
Dorsolum: the mesoscutum.
Dorso-pleural suture: Diptcra; the lateral suture between dorsum and pleu-
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 41
rum from the humeri through the base of the wing ; separates the meso-
notum from the pleura.
Dorso-ventral: in a line from the upper to the lower surface.
Dorsulum: the mesonotum before the scutellum, with the wing sockets; also,
specifically, the meso-scutellum.
Dorsum: the upper surface: in Coleoptera; often confined to meso- and
meta-thorax : Odonata; includes mesepisterna and meso- and meta-thoracic
terga : Diptcra; upper surface of thorax, limited by the dorsopleural
sutures laterally, the scutellum posteriorly and the neck anteriorly : Lepi-
doptera; the lower or inner margin of the wing.
Draw-thread: the silk-producing gland.
Drone: in Hymenoptera; the male bee.
Duct: a channel, tube or canal for carrying a secretion from a gland to the
point of discharge.
Ductus ejaculatorius: the single duct or tube formed by the union of the
vasa deferentia from each side, through which the seminal fluid is ejected
into the vagina.
Dufour's gland: that gland, in Hymenoptera, that secretes the alkaline por-
tion of the poison carried by the sting.
Duodenum: the chylific ventricle; also applied to the first section of the
digestive tract just behind entrance of malpighian tubules.
Dupion: a cocoon spun by two silk- worms together; also the coarse silk
from such a cocoon.
Duplicate -us: double.
Duplicate-pectinate: having the branches of a bipectinated antenna alter-
nately long and short.
Duplo: double, or twice.
Dusky: somewhat darkened; pale fuscous.
E: as prefix, is privative and means without.
Ears: organs of hearing, as on the first tibiae or on the first abdominal seg-
ment of some Orthoptera.
Ebonine: black like ebony.
Eburneous: ivory white.
Ecalcaratus: without a spur.
Ecaudate: without tails or tail-like processes: usually applied to wings:
Ecdysis: the process of casting the skin; moulting.
Echinate: set with prickles.
Ecology: the science of the relation of organisms to each other and to their
surroundings : = ethology.
Ectad: extending outwardly from within.
Ectal: belonging or relating to the outer surface.
Ectoblast: the outer wall of a cell; the ectoderm or epiblast.
42 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Ectoderm: the outer layer of skin: the outer layer of the blastoderm, giving
rise to the nervous system and to epithelial structures of the body surface.
Ectognathus: see ectotrophous.
Ectoskeletal: referring to the outside or exoskeleton.
Ectotrachea: the outer surface or layer of the trachea.
Ectotrophous: with mouth parts free; not buried in the head: see ento-
Edematus: dull translucent white.
Edentate -ulous: without teeth.
Edentula: those having no teeth.
Efferent: carrying outward or away from the centre.
Effluvium: a foul or unpleasant smell or emanation.
Eflected: somewhat angularly bent outward.
Egg: a simple cell, capable of fertilization, containing the germ, the food-
yolk necessary for its nutriment, and a covering membrane : a single ovum
or cell from an ovary : the first stage of the insect.
Egg-burster: a projecting point on the head or other part of an embryo,
used in breaking the shell when hatching.
Egg-calyx: the enlarged portion of the oviduct at the opening of the ovarian
tubes, into which the egg is received before its entrance into the vagina.
Egg-case: the case or covering prepared or secreted by an insect to contain
or hold together the egg-mass as a whole : see ootheca.
Egg-guide: Orthoptera; two small pointed prolongations of the ventral por-
tion of the 8th abdominal segment, between upper and lower valves, used
Egg-pouch: see ootheca.
Egg-pod: applied to the egg-mass of grasshoppers.
Egg-tube: see ovarian tube.
Ejaculatory duct: see ductus ejaculatorius.
Elastic: a part which has a degree of flexibility throughout.
Elate -us: see elevatus.
Elater: the spring or forked tail of Podurids.
Eleutherata: all forms with free, separated maxillae; later, and more spe-
cifically, the Coleoptera.
Elevate -us: a part higher than its surroundings.
Elinguata: without a tongue: forms in which the maxillae are connate with
the labium : see synista.
Ellipsoidal: see elliptical.
Elliptical: oblong-oval, the ends equally rounded, together forming an even
Elongata -ate : drawn out ; lengthened ; much longer than wide.
Elutus: with scarcely distinct markings.
Elytra: the anterior leathery or chitinous wings of beetles, serving as cover-
ings to the secondaries, commonly meeting in a straight line down the
middle of dorsum in repose : also applied to the tegmina in Orthoptera.
Elytral ligula: a tongue-like process on the inner face of the side margin of
elytra, to perfect the union with the ventral segments : e. g., in Dytiscidce.
Elytriform: shaped or appearing like an elytron.
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 43
Elytrin: = chitin, q. v.
Elytron: singular of elytra; q. v.
Elytroptera: see Coleoptera.
Emandibulata: that series of insects in which there are no functional man-
dibles in any stage.
Emandibulate: lacking functional mandibles; e. g., butterflies and moths,
and applied in any stage.
Emarginate: notched: with an obtuse, rounded or quadrate section cut from
Embolium: Heteroptera; the narrow sclerite extending along the anterior
margin of the hemelytra, from base to cuneus or membrane : the lobes on
each side of the prothorax: the special enlargement at the base of the
primaries which fits into a cavity in which the wing is moved.
Embossed: ornamented with raised figures.
Embryo: the young animal before leaving the body of the parent or before
emerging from the egg.
Embryonic: found in, or relating to the embryo; in an undeveloped state or
Emmet: an ant.
Empodium: Dipt era; the small process between the pulvilli : in Coleoptera;
the bifid pseudotarsi between the claws : used also as = pulvillus ; and see
arolium, onychium, palmula, paronychium, plantula, pseudonychium and
Enarthrosis: an articulation like a ball and socket joint.
Encephalon -um: the brain, or that part of the head containing it.
Encircled: ringed; margined round about.
Endemic: occurring normally where found: native, not introduced.
Endocardium: the inner lining membrane of the heart.
Endochorium: the layer of the allantois that lines the chorium; the inner
layer of the chorium.
Endocranium: the inner surface of the cranium.
Endoderm: the inner layer of the blastoderm in the embryo, giving origin to
the mid-intestine and other visceral organs : see entoderm.
Endolabium: the inner or mouth surface of the labium: the hypopharynx
when that is well developed.
Endomesoderm: the inner layer formed by an invagination of the middle
portion of the primitive band of the embryo, and from which the endo-
derm and mesoderm are subsequently differentiated.
Endophytic: living within plant or tree tissue, as borers or miners.
Endoskeletal: relating or referring to the endoskeleton.
Endoskeleton: applied to those chitinous processes extending inward into the
body cavity from the body wall and serving as attachments for muscles.
Endosternite: that part of the apodeme arising from the intersternal mem-
Endothorax: the internal framework or processes of the thorax.
Endotoky: is applied to that form of reproduction where the eggs are de-
veloped within the body of the mother ; see exotoky.
44 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Endotrachea: the inner surface or lining of the trachea: see intima.
Enervis: applied to wings without veins of any kind.
Engraved: see exsculptus.
Ensiform: sword-shaped: two-edged, large at base and tapering to the point:
Entad: extending inwardly from without.
Ental: referring to the centre of the body cavity.
Enteric: relating to the digestive canal or enteron.
Enteron: the digestive canal as a whole; a general term.
Entire : with an even unbroken margin : said of wings when they are not
divided or cut into.
Entoderm: the innermost germ layer of the embryo, from which are derived
the epithelium of the alimentary canal and accessory structures : = endo-
derm and hypoblast.
Entognathous: see entotrophous.
Entoloma: the inner margin of the wings.
Entomogenous: growing in or on an insect: e. g., fungi.
Entomography: the description of an insect or of its life history.
Entomolin: chitin, q. v.
Entomologist: one who collects and studies insects.
Entomology: that branch of Zoology that deals with insects and, specifically,
Entomophagous: feeding upon insects: specifically applied to those wasps
that feed their young with larvae, etc.
Entomophilous: insect-loving: applied to plants especially adapted for pol-
lination by insects.
Entomophytous: referring to plants produced in or on an insect: see ento-
Entomosis: a disease caused by a parasitic insect.
Entomotaxy: the preservation and preparation of insects for study.
Entomotomy: that science which deals with internal structure of insects.
Entomotomist: a student of insect structure.
Entosternum: the internal processes from the sternum.
Entothorax: applied to the apodemes or processes extending inwardly from
the sternal sclerites : see apophysis.
Entotrophous: with the mouth parts buried in the head: = entognathous :
Entozoa: those animals that live within the body of others.
Environment: the sum of the influences surrounding or acting upon an or-
Enzyme: a ferment secreted by a cell or a gland.
Epalpate: having no palpi.
Ephebic: referring to the winged, adult stage.
Ephemerida: May-flies: an ordinal term used for insects with net-veined
wings, held vertically when at rest, not folded; mouth mandibulate, not
functionally developed; thorax loosely agglutinated; abdomen with anal
filaments ; metamorphosis incomplete.
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 45
Ephemeroptera: briefly winged: = ephemerida ; q. v.
Epiblast: the outer germ layer of the embryo.
Epicranial: relating or pertaining to the epicranium.
Epicranial lobe: in caterpillars, the lateral, superior convex lobe of the head.
Epicranial plate: in some larvse a plate-like structure forming the epi-
Epicranial suture: the line of junction of the two procephalic lobes.
Epicranium: the upper part of the head from the front to the neck: often
used to include front, vertex and gense : = calva.
Epideme: see articulatory epideme.
Epiderma-is: the cellular layer of the skin, underlying and secreting the
cuticula : incorrectly applied to the outer skin or cuticle.
Epidermata: abnormal excrescences or outgrowths from the skin.
Epididymis: the convoluted efferent ducts, massed at the posterior part of
Epigastrium: the first entire ventral sclerite of the abdomen.
Epigenesis: the doctrine of growth from an undifferentiated germ, as op-
posed to preformation, which implies development from already existing
Epigenetic: the period after the union of the male and female elements, dur-
ing which organs are forming.
Epiglossa: = epipharynx; q. v.
Epiglottis: = epipharynx ; q. v.
Epilabrum: a sclerite at each side of the labrum: specifically applied in
Epilobe: of mentum in Carabidee, really corresponds to a partially divided
ligula : a lateral appendage of a bilobed mentum.
Epimera-eron: the posterior lateral thoracic sclerites; usually small, nar-
row or triangular.
Epiopticon: the second ganglionic swelling of the optic tract: see opticon.
Epipharyngeal: belonging or relating to the epipharynx.
Epipharyngeal sclerites: in bees; a pair of strap-like pieces extending back-
ward from the two sides of the base of epipharynx : see hypopharyngeal
Epipharynx: an organ, probably of taste, attached to the inner surface of
the labrum and supposed to correspond to the palate of higher animals :
= epiglossa or epiglottis.
Epiphysis: a lappet-like process covering an excavation on the fore tibia of
Epipleura: the deflexed or inflexed portions of the elytra, immediately be-
neath the edge : the inflexed portions of the pronotum are sometimes called
prothoracic epipleura : as generally used, the term is incorrectly applied to
the entire bent under margin of the elytra.
Epipleural fold: the raised lower edge of the epipleura: see hypomera.
Epiploon: see caul.
Epipygium: the dorsal arch of the last abdominal segment.
Episternites: the upper pair of corneous appendages forming the ovipositor
46 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Episternum: the anterior and larger lateral thoracic sclerite between the
sternum and notum.
Epistoma -is: the lower face between the mouth and eyes: that sclerite
immediately behind or above the labrum, whether it be clypeus or an in-
termediate piece : in Diptera, that part of the face between the front and
the labrum ; the oral margin and an indefinite space immediately contiguous
thereto and so peristoma : in Odonata; = clypeus : = : hypostoma.
Epithelium: the layer of cells which covers a surface or lines a cavity.
Epizoa: insects that infest the body surface of animals.
Epizootic: living or parasitic on animals from the outside or on the surface.
Epomiae: the elevated margin of an oblique furrow in the propleurae for the
reception of the front femora ; Hymenoptera.
Epupillate: an ocellate spot included by a colored ring, but destitute of a
pupil or central spot.
Equal: of the same length, size or shape: the superfices when they are
Equitant: laminated: folding one upon the other.
Erect: standing upright; not necessarily perpendicular.
Erectile: capable of being erected; applied to an appendage, a hair or other
process, or to any tissue which may be distended and made rigid.
Erecto-patent: the wings of Hesperids when at rest; primaries erect, second-
Eremochaetus: Diptera in which there is a general absence of bristles.
Ericeticolous: living in poor, sandy or gravelly places.
Ergatandrous: applied to ants with worker-like males.
Ergatogynous: applied to ants with worker-like females.
Ergatoid: sexually capable, wingless ants, resembling workers.
Eroded -sus: gnawed; a margin with irregular teeth and emarginations.
Eruca: broadly a larva; more specifically a caterpillar.
Eruciform: like a caterpillar in form or appearance.
Erucina: the caterpillar-like larvae of sawflies and the like.
Erucivorous: a feeder on caterpillars; said of parasites.
Erythraeus: red; nearly arterial blood-red: carmine, a little diluted.
Erythrinus: deep brick-red, tending to blood-red [vermilion with a little
Escutcheon: the scutellum in Coleoptera.
Essential character: see specific character.
Ethology: see ecology.
Eucephalous: with a well-developed head, bearing the normal appendages:
applied to certain dipterous larvae.
Eucone: a compound eye in which the individual ocelli have crystalline
cones : see acone.
Euorthoptera: the Orthoptera excluding the Dermaptera.
Euplexoptera: with beautifully folded wings: an ordinal term applied to the
Ecus or -eus: as a suffix, indicates the possession of the quality of the stem
word : e. g., membraneous, like a membrane in texture.
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 47
Eutracheata: applied to articulates which, like the insects, have a well-
developed tracheal system.
Evaginate: extruded by eversion; turned inside out when extruded.
Evagination: an extrusion formed by eversion or turning inside out.
Evanescent: disappearing; becoming gradually less.
Eversible: capable of being turned inside out.
Evident: easily seen or recognized.
Ex: prefix = A and E as privatives : also means from or out of.
Exarate-us: sulcated: sculptured.
Exarticulate: without distinct joints.
Exasperate -us: rough with irregular elevations.
Excalcarate: without spurs.
Excaudate: see ecaudate.
Excavate: with a depression that is not the segment of a circle.
Excentric: not in the centre; revolving or arranged about a point that is not
Excision: with a deep cut: a notch or other cut-out part.
Excrementaceous -titious: made up of or resembling excrement.
Excrescence: an outgrowth or elevation; usually abnormal.
Excretion: the act of getting rid of waste products: any material or sub-
stance produced by any secretory glands or structures and which is voided
or otherwise sent out from them.
Excretory: those structures concerned in ridding the body of waste products.
Excurrent: attenuate, narrowly prolonged.
Excurved: curved outwards.
Ex larva: from or out of the larva: usually applied to specimens that have
been bred from collected larvae.
Exochorion: that part of the chorion derived from the ectoderm: the outer
layer of the chorion.
Exochorium: Heteroptera; a narrow marginal part of the hemelytra.
Exoderm: the outer skin or crust.
Exoloma: the apical margin of the wings.
Exophytic: relating to the outside of plant tissue.
Exoskeleton: the entire body wall, to the inner side of which muscles are
Exotic : not a native of the place where found : an introduced species : also
any species occurring in any country outside of the limits of the country
whose fauna is under consideration.
Exotoky: is applied to that form of reproduction where the eggs are devel-
oped outside of the body of the insect and without care by the mother :
Ex ova: from or out of the egg: applied to specimens that have been bred
from the egg stage.
Expanded: spread or flattened out: applied to Lepidoptera when set for the
Expanse: the distance between the apices or other widest point of the wings
when fully spread.
48 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Expansio alarum: the wing stretch: see expanse.
Expiratory: relating to the act of expiration, when the abdomen is con-
tracted and the air contained in the abdominal tracheae is presumably
forced out of them.
Explanate: spread out and flattened; applied to a margin.
Explicate: unfolded; open; without folds or plica.
Exsculptate -tus: a surface with irregular, more or less longitudinal de-
pressions, as if carved.
Exscutellate: having no scutel.
Exserted: protruded; projecting beyond the body or over a given point.
Exsertion: a protrusion: an extension of a line or other ornamentation
beyond its ordinary course.
Extended: spread out: not lying one upon the other.
Extensa : extended : expanded.
Extension plate: a structure at the base of the pulvillus whose function it
is to extend it.
Extension sole: the pad-like pulvillus which may be extended by the ex-
tension plate through the pressure plate.
Extensor: that which extends or straightens out; applied to muscles.
Extenuate: to make or to become weak, thin or slender.
Exterior: the outside.
Exterior margin: the outer margin; sometimes used for costal margin.
External: belonging to or on the outside.
External area: Hymenoptera; the upper of the three cells or areas of the
metanotum, between the median and lateral longitudinal carinae : = first
lateral basal area.
External median area: Hymenoptera; the median of the three cells or areas
between the median and lateral longitudinal carinaa : = second lateral area.
Externomedial vein: in Hymenoptera (Norton) = radius (Comst.) ; in
Orthoptera; = media (Comst.).
Externo-median nerve: the humeral and discoidal veins together.
Extra-ocular: remote from or beyond the eyes.
Extremity: the point most remote from base.
Extrorse -urn: toward the outside.
Extrude: to turn or force out.
Exude: to ooze or flow slowly through minute openings.
Exuvia-iae-ium: the cast skin of a larval insect: in Diaspince the larval
skin when cast and incorporated in the scale.
Exuviate: to cast the skin; to moult.
Exuviation: the act of molting: the cast-off skin or exuvium.
Eyes: the organs of sight, composed of numerous facets, situated, one on
each side of the head : the term is properly applied to compound eyes only ;
but is sometimes used to designate also the simple eyes or ocelli.
Face or Facies: the upper or outer surface of any part or appendage: the
front of the head between the compound eyes above the mouth to the
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 49
vertex ; usually applied to insects in which the head is vertical : in bees
extends between the eyes to the base of the antennae ; in the Hymenoptera
generally the area between antennae and clypeus : in flies the area between
base of antennae, the oral margin, eyes and cheeks.
Facet: a small face or surface: one of the parts, areas or lens-like divisions
of the compound eye.
Facial angle: the angle formed by the junction of the face and vertex.
Facial bristles: Dipt era; a series on either side of the middle portion of the
face, above the vibrissae, along the facialia.
Facial carinae: applied to both the carinse of the frontal costa and the ac-
cessory (lateral) carinae of the face; but usually restricted to the accessory
carinae, in Orthoptefa.
Facial depression: = antennal fovea, q. v.
Facialium -ia: Dipt era; that portion of the face between the lower part of
the frontal fissure and the antennal foveae.
Facial quadrangle: in bees, the quadrangle bounded laterally by the eyes,
above by a line between their summits and below by a similar line between
their lowest points.
Facial ridges: Dipt era; the elevated lateral borders of antennal grooves.
Facial tubercle: Diptcra; a median convexity below middle of face.
Facies: the face: the general appearance or impression.
Falcate: sickle-shaped; convexly curved: a wing when deeply excavated be-
low the apex so as to leave the latter acute and a little curved.
Falciform: curved like a sickle.
False legs: = spurious legs; = prolegs ; q. v.
Family: a division of classification including a number of genera agreeing
in one or a set of characters and so closely related that they are apparently
descended from one stem : opinionative and indicated by the termination
Farctus: fully filled.
Farinaceous: mealy: applied to powdery looking wings and surfaces.
Farinose : dotted with many single, flour-like spots : mealy.
Fascia: a transverse band or broad line; it is common when it crosses both
wings or wing covers.
Fasciate: banded transversely.
Fascicle -ulus: a bundle of .hair, threads or fibres.
Fasciculate: bundled; clustered as in a bundle; tufted: a surface when
covered with bundles of long hair.
Fastigiate: flat-topped and of equal height: also applied to elytra that extend
a little beyond the abdomen.
Fastigium: Orthoptera; the extreme point or front of vertex.
Fat-body: is the mass of oil or fat cells found, especially in larvae, sur-
rounding the alimentary canal and some other internal organs.
Fatiscent: with cracks, crevices or openings.
Fauna: the assemblage of animals inhabiting a region or country.
Favose: with large deep holes, like the cells of a honeycomb.
Favus: a cell like that of a honeycomb.
Fecula: the excrement of insects.
50 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Fecundation: the making fertile; as an egg by a spermatozoon.
Feeler: commonly applied to antennae; q. v.
Feelers: tactile organs: the term is usually applied to the antennae but some-
times to the palpi, as mouth- feelers.
Feet: the legs or organs of locomotion; one pair attached to each thoracic
segment ; composed of coxa, trochanter, femur, tibia and tarsus only ;
plural of foot ; q. v.
Female: designated by " ?," the astronomical sign for Venus: that sex in
which the ova are developed.
Femina: the female, or belonging to that sex.
Femorate-us: with abnormal or unusually developed femora or thighs.
Femoro-tibial: pertaining to both femur and tibia or to the articulation be-
Femur -ora: the thigh: usually the stoutest segment of the leg, articulated
to the body through trochanter and coxa and bearing the tibia at its distal
end : in Coccidce and quite commonly, the femur and trochanter are con-
sidered as one, for measuring purposes.
Fenestra: a window; a transparent glassy spot or mark; a pellucid mark in
a vein : a small, pale, membranous area at the base of the antennae in
Fenestrate: with transparent or window-like naked spots as in the wings of
Fenestrate membrane: of the compound eye is at the base of the ommatidia,
at their junction with the optic nerve : see retina.
Ferreous -eus: the metallic gray of polished iron.
Ferrugineous-ous, -eus, -osus: rusty red-brown [Dragon's blood, but
Ferrugino-testaceous: a rusty yellow-brown; a mixture of rusty red with
Fertilization: takes place when a spermatozoon enters through the micro-
pyle of an ovum and unites with the cell nucleus : loosely applied like
copulation or to its completion.
Festivus: variegated with bright colors.
Festooned: arranged in loops as if hung from nails.
Fibre: a thread-like structure of any tissue.
Fibrilla: rod or sliver-like nerve elements, often grouped like a bundle of
Fibrin: a proteid compound making up a large part of the muscular tissue;
also found in blood and other body liquids.
Fibrinogen: a proteid substance of the blood and other body fluids, con-
cerned in the production of fibrin.
Fibroin: a chemical compound found in silk, cobwebs and the like.
Fifth longitudinal vein: Diptcra (Will.) ; = media 3 (Comst.).
Filament: a thread: a long slender process of equal diameter throughout:
an elongated appendage.
Filariasis: a disease caused by the presence of minute worms or Filaria,
transmitted by mosquitoes.
Filate: Diptera; antennae that are simple, without lateral hair or dilation:
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 51
Filator: the silk spinning structure of caterpillars.
File: the diagonal ridged vein near the base of the tegmina in crickets,
used in stridulating : in general any structure wherever situated that serves
the same purpose.
Filicornia: insects with thread-like antennas; e. g., in Colcoptcra, the
Filiform: thread-like: slender and of equal diameter.
Filippi's glands: a pair of secondary glands, opening into the silk glands of
caterpillars near their anterior end.
Fillet: a transverse, raised structure between the antennae in Lepidoptera.
Filose: ending in a thread-like process.
Fimbria: thick, ciliated hair at the termination of any part: fringes.
Fimbriate: a margin or process when set with a fringe of hair closely placed.
Finger: of maxilla, is the digitus, q. v.
First clypeus: see post clypeus.
First inner apical nervure: in Hymenoptera (Nort.) ; is cubitus 1, from
media 4, to first anal (Comst.).
First lateral suture: Odonata; starts from beneath base of front wing be-
hind humeral suture and meets it behind second coxa.
First longitudinal vein: in Dipt era; = radius 1 (Comst.).
First submarginal cross-nervure: Hymenoptera; part of the media and the
radio-medial cross-vein (Comst.).
Fissate: divided or split: with fissures or cracks.
Fissile -is: cleft or divided; as the wings in plume-moths: also used for
Fissiparous: applied to that form of asexual generation in which the parent
divides ; each part becoming a new individual.
Fissure: a crevice: a narrow longitudinal opening: a slit.
Fissus: cleft: longitudinally divided nearly to base.
Fistula: a slender tube: specifically applied to the channel formed by the
union of the two parts of proboscis in Lepidoptera.
Fistular: like a slender, cylindrical tube.
Flabellate: with long flat processes folding like a fan.
Flabellum: a fan: a leafed structure: the transparent lobe at the end of the
glossa in bees : also used as = flagellum ; q. v.
Flabs: the lobes at the tip of the dipterous mouth; =labella; q. v.
Flaccid: feeble: limber: lax.
Flagelliform: whip-like; applied to a process.
Flagellum: that part of the antenna beyond the pedicel: a whip or whip-like
process : the tail-like process of a spermatozoon.
Flammate -eus: flaming or fiery red [vermilion intensified].
Flange: a projecting rim or edge.
Flank: the sides of the thorax: the pleura.
Flaring: widening out like the mouth of a trumpet.
Flavescent: somewhat yellow.
Flavid: yellowed; sulphur yellow.
Flavo-testaceous: light yellow-brown; almost luteous.
52 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Flavous-us: sulphur yellow [gamboge].
Flavo-virens: green verging upon yellow [apple green + chrome yellow].
Flex: to bend: to curve back.
Flexible: pliable; with elastic properties.
Flexile -is: capable of being bent at an angle without breaking: flexible.
Flexuous -ose: almost zig-zag, without acute angles but more acute at
angles than undulating: differs from sinuate in being alternately bent and
Flexor: that which bends; applied to muscles.
Flocculus -i: a hairy or bristly appendage on the posterior coxa of some
Floccus: a tuft of wool or wool-like hair.
Flosculiferous: species that bear a flosculus.
Flosculus: a small, tubular, lunulate anal organ with a central style, in cer-
Fluviatile: inhabiting the margins of running streams.
Fly-blows: eggs or young maggots of flesh flies: meat is fly-blown when
such eggs or larvae have been deposited on it.
Flying-hairs: very long slender surface hairs set in punctures.
Foetid glands: glandular structures from which a foul smelling liquid may
Foliaceous: leaf -like, or resembling a leaf.
Policies: leaf -like processes from a margin or protuberance.
Follicle: = cocoon, q. v. : a cellular sac or tube, as of a gland or ovary.
Folliculate: enclosed in a case, cocoon or follicle.
Food reservoir: Lepidoptera; a blind sac or diverticulum from the hind part
of oesophagus lying in abdomen dorsal to the stomach.
Foot: the tarsus, q. v. ; improperly used to = leg; but in the plural form
refers to legs rather than tarsi : see feet.
Foot-shield: in caterpillars, the chitinous plate on outer side of abdominal
Foot-stalk: of the maxilla, is the stipes.
Foramen: an opening in the body wall for the passage of a vessel or nerve:
any opening at an apex : the opening of a cocoon.
Foramen magnum: the opening on the posterior surface of the head to give
passage to those structures that extend from head to thorax : = occipital
Foramina: small openings in the body wall: in Orthoptera; the auditory
organs on the anterior tibiae.
Forceps: hook or pincer-like processes terminating the abdomen, like special-
ized appendages of ear-wigs : similar processes in the male, used as clasp-
ing organs in copulation.
Forcipate: bearing forceps or similar structures.
Forcipiform: having the form of forceps or pincers.
Foregut: extends from the mouth to the end of gizzard; its epithelium
being formed from the ectodermal invagination known as the stomodaeum.
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 53
Forehead: in Mallophaga, the head in front of the mandibles and antennae.
Fore-intestine: = f oregut, q. v.
Forficate: = forcipate, q. v.
Forks: Trichoptera; forks of veins in apical part of wing, numbered 1, 2,
Form: applied to representatives of a species which differ from the normal
or type in some uniform character ; it is seasonal if it occurs at a period
different from the type ; dimorphic if there is an alternation of generations
or two color patterns occur ; or sexual if the members of one sex differ
uniformly from those of the other.
Formic: of, pertaining to or derived from ants.
Formicary: an ant's nest or ant-hill.
Fornicate: arched or vaulted: concave within, convex without.
Fossa -se: =fossula; q. v.
Fossoria: burrowers : in Orthoptera, the mole crickets and allies; in Hy-
menoptera, the digging wasps.
Fossorial: formed for or with the habit of digging or burrowing.
Fossula-ae: a deep groove or sinus with sharp edges: specifically applied to
grooves on the head or sides of prothorax in which the antennae are con-
Fossulate: a surface with oblong impressions.
Fossulet: an elongated, shallow groove.
Fourth longitudinal vein: Diptcra (Will.), = media 2 (Comst.).
Fovea, Foveola-ae: a shallow depression with well-marked sides: a pit.
Foveate: with foveaa or pit-like depressions.
Foveolate: with shallow cavities like a honey-comb.
Fractus: broken: also applied to a geniculate antenna.
Fragile: easily breakable: thin and brittle.
Frass: the excrement; usually the excreted pellets of caterpillars.
Free: unrestricted in movement: not firmly joined with or united to any
other part : said of pupse when all the parts and appendages are separately
encased as in Coleoptcra.
Frenatae: that series of Lepidoptera in which a more or less well-marked
Frenate: having a frenulum.
Frenulum: the spine, simple in males, compound in females, arising from the
base of secondaries in many Lepidoptera, whose function it is to unite the
wings in flight : in Cicada the triangular lateral piece on the mesonotum
which connects with the trochlea : the anal area of secondaries and thus
= tendo, q. v.
Frenulum hook: in the males of frenate Lepidoptera, a hook or fold into
which the frenulum is fitted.
Frenum: that which holds things together: a lunate or triangular portion
at the inner and hinder base of the wing in Odonata and Trichoptera:
Fringe -es: an edging of hair, scales or other processes extending well
beyond the margin and usually of even length: in Lepidoptera, fringes
54 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
occur on the outer margins of all wings and consist of scales or hair
projecting beyond the wing membrane.
Frog: the articular pan; q. v.
Frons: = front; q. v.
Front: the anterior portion of head between base of antennae and below
ocelli : in Homoptera, the vertical median area of face.
Frontal: referring to the front of head or anterior aspect of any part.
Frontal costa: Orthop'tera; a prominent vertical ridge of head which may be
median or lateral : see median carina and lateral carina.
Frontal fastigium: in Orthoptera, that process of the face extending dorsad
between the antenna? and meeting or nearly meeting the fastigium of the
vertex in Tettigidce.
Frontal fissure: Diptera; the impressed line extending from the frontal
lunule to the border of the mouth.
Frontal lobes: in Psyllida, two lobes or swellings more or less completely
divided by a suture in which an ocellus is situated.
Frontal lunule: Diptera; an oval or crescentic space above the base of an-
tennae in Cydorrhapha, bounded by the frontal suture.
Frontal processes: Diptera; = antennal process, q. v.
Frontal ridge: in Coleoptera; a sharp ridge on the dorsal margin of the eye,
Frontal stripe: Diptera; the middle of the front when membranous or dis-
. colored: = vitta frontalis.
Frontal suture: Diptera; separates the frontal lunule from that part of the
head above it: in Coleoptera; = clypeal suture.
Frontal tubercles: in certain Aphids, are raised structures upon which the
antennae are placed.
Frontal triangle: Diptera; the triangular space in males, between the eyes
below, limited by a line drawn through base of antennae.
Frontal vesicle: in Odonata; that elevated area on the vertex upon which
the ocelli are situated.
Fronto-orbital bristles: in Diptera; are placed on each side of the front,
just below the vertical bristles.
Fugitive: soon disappearing; not permanent.
Fulcrant: the trochanter when continued along the femur, as in Carabids.
Fulcrum: the chitinous envelope at the base of mouth in Diptera and
Hymenoptera, covering the beginning of the oesophagus : any structure
that serves as a support to another.
Fuliginous -osus: sooty or smoky brown [Van Dyke brown + a little black].
Fulvo-eeneous: brazen, with a touch of brownish yellow [brown pink].
Fulvous -us: tawny; light brown with much yellow; nearly orange [pale
cadmium yellow + Indian red].
Fumate-us: smoky gray [gray].
Function: the work or duty which a given part or organ normally per-
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 55
Fungicolous: living in or on fungi.
Funicle: the joints between the scape and club in geniculate antennae: a
small cord : a slender stalk.
Funiculate: whip-like: long, slender, composed of many flexible joints.
Funicule: a small, cord-like structure; especially when sheathed.
Funiculus: the main tendon of abdomen: in Hymenoptera a slender ligament
connecting the propodeum to petiole on its dorsal aspect.
Furca: a fork: the anal appendage used for leaping in Thysanura: see
furcula: the forked ental processes of the sternum.
Furcal orifice: see sternal orifice.
Furcate: forked; divided into approximately equal divisions.
Furcula: a forked process: an osmaterium: in Collembola the spring or sal-
tatory appendage borne by the fourth abdominal segment : in Orthoptera
a pair of backwardly directed appendages which overlie in a more or less
forked position the base of the supra-anal plate.
Furred: covered with dense hair resembling fur.
Fuscescent: becoming brown; with a brown shading.
Fusco-ferruginous: brownish rust red.
Fusco-piceous: pitch black with a brown tinge or admixture.
Fusco-rufous: red-brown, approaching liver brown.
Fusco-testaceous: dull reddish brown [brown ocher].
Fuscous -us: dark brown, approaching black; a plain mixture of black and
red [crimson lake + black].
Fused : run together : applied when two normally separated markings become
confluent and have a common outline.
Fusiform: spindle-shaped: tapering gradually to each end.
Fusulus: = spinneret ; q. v.
Galea: the outer lobe of the maxilla, usually two-jointed, often hood-like,
subject to great modifications in Hymenoptera and Diptera, and forms the
coiled tongue in Lepidoptcra.
Galeotheca: that part of the pupal case that covers the galea.
Gall: an abnormal swelling or excrescence on a plant, produced by an insect:
Gallicolous: dwellers in galls, whether as producers or inquilines.
Gallivorous: feeding upon galls or gall tissue.
Gamogenesis: reproduction through fertilization: see agamogenesis.
Ganglion -ia: a nerve centre composed of a cell mass and fibres: the white
disc-like bodies connected by a double cord, lying above the ventral surface
within the body and forming the centre of the nervous system.
Gasterotheca: that part of the pupa case that covers the abdomen.
Gastric: of or belonging to the belly or to the stomach.
Gastric caeca: = caecum; q. v.
Gastro-coeli: a pair of usually transverse lateral pits near the base of the
second abdominal tergite in some Hymcnoplera.
Gastro-ileal folds: occur in some insects at the junction of the chylific ven-
tricle with the ileum and serve as a valve.
56 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Gastrula: that embryonic stage resembling a sac, with an outer layer of epi-
blastic cells and an inner layer of hypoblastic cells.
Gastrulation: the process of forming a gastrula.
Gathering hairs: the soft, flattened, often hooked hairs on the tongue of
bees and other Hymenoptera; hooked hairs.
Gelatinous: of a jelly-like texture or consistency: viscid.
Geminate: arranged in pairs composed of two similar parts: doubled.
Gemmate -us : marked with metallic or bright colored spots.
Gemmiparous: applied to that form of asexual reproduction where new indi-
viduals arise as buds from the germ body of the parent.
Gena-se: the cheeks; includes that portion of the head on each side below
the eyes, and extends to the gular suture : in Odonata the area between the
eyes and clypeus and mouth parts : in Diptcra the space between the lower
border of the eye and oral margin, merging into face at front and limited
by the occipital margin behind.
Genal bristles: Diptera; are on the cheeks near lower corner of eye.
Generalized: primitive: containing in combination characters that are sepa-
rated and specialized in other forms.
Generation: used as the equivalent of brood; q. v.
Genicular arc: Orthoptera; a curved dark marking on the posterior knee-
Geniculate: knee jointed: abruptly bent in an obtuse angle.
Geniculum: a little knee or bend.
Genital armature: all the processes concerned in copulation.
Genital hamule : a little hook or plate covering the anal cavity of the male :
the supra-anal or genital hook : in Lepidoptera, the uncus : in Odonata,
in the plural, one or two pairs of lateral processes of the male genitalia on
the ventral surface of the second abdominal segment.
Genital hook: = genital hamule.
Genitalia: the external organs of generation with all appendages.
Genital lobes: in Odonata, a pair of backward and downwardly directed
processes from the 2d abdominal segment, between which the vesicle of
the penis lies.
Genital papilla: in some Smynthurids, a tubercular elevation upon which the
genital aperture opens.
Genital spike: the sheath of penis which, in male Diaspince, takes the form
of a long mucronate spike.
Genital tuft: in Lepidoptera; an expansible tuft of fine hair believed to be
Genital valve: Odonata; a chitinous piece on each side of the ovipositor,
derived from the sternum of abdominal segment 9 : probably outer pair
Genoholotype: the species on which a genus is founded, whether unique or
one of a series, specifically named as generic type by the author.
Genolectotype: the one species of a series selected as the type of the genus
in which the describer of the genus placed it, subsequent to the description.
Genosyntype: one of a series of species upon which a genus is founded, no
one species being mentioned as type.
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 57
Genu: knee; the joint between femur and tibia.
Genus: an assemblage of species agreeing in some one character or series of
characters ; usually considered as arbitrary and opinionative, though some
consider it a natural assemblage.
Geometrid: larvae which, when walking, alternately elevate and straighten
the middle of their body: opposed to rectigrade; q. v.
Geodephagous: = adephagous ; q. v.
Geodromica: terrestrial Hctcroptcra in which the antennae are not concealed.
Geophilous: living on the ground: species that live on the surface or come
freely into contact with it.
Germarium: an ovary: that portion of an ovarian tube containing the cell
Germ-ball: reproductive cells in larvae from which, exceptionally, young may
develop as buds.
Germ-band or Germinal band: that portion of a young embryo which is to
become the future insect, when it is in the form of a band or strap and
may or may not show the division into the future segments.
Gerontogeic: belonging to the old world: see neogeic.
Gibba: a rounded protuberance or prominence.
Gibbous: hump-backed; protuberant: said of a macula when it resembles a
moon more than half full.
Gibbus: when the whole surface forms a hump or obtuse cone.
Gills: respiratory structures which function in water; distinguished as true
or blood gills where contained blood conveys the absorbed oxygen from
the gill to the tissues, and as tracheal gills when this conveyance is by
Gilvus: = flavus ; q. v.
Ginglymus: a hinge joint that permits flexion in one plane.
Gizzard: a pouch-like structure between the crop and chylific ventricle fur-
nished with chitinous teeth or plates, in which the food is prepared for the
digestive juices by grinding or merely sifting = cardia.
Glaber -rous smooth ; free from all vestiture.
Gland: a cellular sac which separates or secretes from the blood specific
portions to produce characteristic products e. g., wax, saliva, silk, etc.
Gland-bearing prominence: in Diaspina, a prominence on the margin, bear-
ing a gland opening on the dorsal surface.
Gland orifice: in Coccida, the external opening through which a gland pours
Gland spines: in Coccidce, spiny appendages, each of which is supplied with
a single gland whose opening is at the tip.
Glandular: having the character or function of a gland: used as descriptive
of specialized hairs, spines or other processes.
Glassy: transparent; glass-like in appearance.
Glaucus: shining sea-green: whitish blue inclining to gray lavender.
Globose: formed like a globe or sphere.
Globulin: an albumenoid protein compound formed in the blood of insects.
Glochis: a barbed point.
58 EXPLANATION Ol ; TERMS
Glomerate: congregated or massed together.
Glossa: the inner lobe of second maxilla, corresponding to the lacina of first
maxilla : loosely used as a synonym for tongue : especially applied to the
coiled structure of the Lepidoptcra: see also ligula.
Glossarium: Diptera; the labrum-epipharynx ; q. v.
Glossata: a Fabrician term for Lepidoptcra.
Glossate: furnished with a spiral tongue.
Glossotheca: that part of the pupa which covers the tongue.
Glutinose -ous: slimy; viscid.
Gnathal: relating or pertaining to the jaws.
Gnathite: a jaw or jaw-like appendage; in the plural, the mouth parts.
Gnathochilarium: a plate formed by the labial structures.
Gnathopoda: the arthropods: the first pair of legs; especially applied in
crustaceans : mouth feet.
Goffered: a surface with regular impressions, closely set, and separated by
narrow ridges : reticulated.
Gonapophyses: three pairs of processes in the Orthoptera, one arising from
the eighth and two from the ninth abdominal segment on the ventral sur-
face. They appear to = the rhabdites composing the ovipositor of other
Gonyodon: a tooth-like articulated process at the apex of the femur in some
Gonytheca: articulating surface of femur to which the tibia is joined.
Gorgeret: the barbed sting of the honey bee.
Gracile: slender; graceful.
Gradate -im: one grade or step at a time: to arrange in a series: to blend
so as to merge one into the other e. g., colors.
Gradate veins: a transverse series of veins, each before or beyond the next.
Grammineus: grass-green [apple green].
Granose: like a string of beads; moniliform.
Granulated: covered with small grains.
Granule: a little grain or grain-like elevation.
Granulose: roughened with granules or made up of distinct grains.
Gregarious: living in societies or communities; but not social.
Grege: raw silk, including the gummy outer layer, as spun by a caterpillar.
Gres: the gummy layer surrounding the silk thread spun by a caterpillar.
Gressorious -ial: with legs fitted for walking: in Lepidoptera; the anterior
legs aborted, the others fitted for walking.
Griscent: ashen gray.
Griseus: light gray; a mixture of white and black [gray].
Group: a division of classification used indefinitely for a series of allied
species, genera or larger assemblages.
Grouped glands: see circumgenital glands.
Grub: an insect larva: a term loosely applied, but more specifically to larvae
of Coleoptera and Hymenoptera.
Guanin: a white amorphous compound which occurs in the transparent areas
of some wings, giving a milky tinge, and is also found in the photogenic
organs of Lampyrida: an excretory substance, composition C 5 H 5 N 5 O (von
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 59
Guest: applied to those insects that live in nests or dwelling places of other
species, not necessarily at the expense of the host.
Gula: the throat: that sclerite forming the central portion of the head
beneath, extending from the submentum to the posterior margin, and later-
ally bounded by the genae.
Gular peduncle: in Colcoptcra = submental peduncle.
Gular suture: the line of division between the gula or throat and the gense
Gulf strip: see semitropical or gulf strip.
Gullet: oesophagus; q. v.
Gulo-mental: includes the region covered by the gula and mentum.
Gustatory: relating to the sense of taste.
Gutta: a light spot on a dark ground.
Guttate: with light spots or drops on a dark ground.
Gymnocerata: insects with freely movable, conspicuous antennae: see crypto-
Gymnogastra: Hymenoptera; species in which the venter is visible: see
Gymnoptera: species with membranous wings not covered with scales.
Gynandromorphic: when an individual of one sex exhibits on one lateral
half the organic characters of the other, more or less completely.
Gyri-cerebrales: lobes of the cesophageal ganglion of the embryo, connected
with the primary lobe : = stalked bodies.
Habena: a fascia on the thorax.
Habit -us: the port or aspect: used to express a resemblance in general
Habitat; abbreviated Hab.: the region or place which an insect inhabits or
where it was taken.
Haemoglobin: the coloring matter of blood which serves to carry oxygen.
Haemolymph: the watery blood or lymph-like nutritive fluid of the lower
Hasmoxanthine : a dissolved albuminoid in the insect blood, which has both
a respiratory and nutritive function.
Hair: a slender, flexible filament of equal diameter.
Hairy: covered or clothed with hair.
Halophilous: species living in salt marshes, or near the sea.
Halterata: the Diptera.
Halteres: the poisers or balancers: capitate movable filaments in Diptera,
situated one on each side of the thorax and representing rudimentary hind
Halteriptera: the Diptera.
Hamate -us: furnished with hooks, or bent like a hook.
Hammock: the hammock-like covering of the caterpillars of certain moths.
Hamule: a little hook.
60 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Hamuli: Odonata; one or two pairs of hooked processes projecting from
the ventral surface of the 2d abdominal segment of the male; usually
termed genital hamules : in Hymcnoptcra; minute hooks on the anterior
margin of secondaries used to unite them in flight with the inner margin
of primaries: in tree crickets, hook-like processes of the male genitalia.
Hamus: Lcpidoptera; a hook or loop attached to the under side of costal
margin of primaries near base, to receive the frenulum of male moths.
Harpago -ones: the inner basal lobes of the clasping organs of <$ culicids :
also, more generally = harpes.
Harpes: the lateral pieces of the male genitalia in Lcpidoptera, used as
clasping organs : also applied to the corneous hooks often borne by these
lateral pieces, which are then termed valves : see clasper : in culicids an
articulated process, sometimes jointed, at the base of inner side of side-
piece, below and exterior to the harpagones.
Hastate: halbert-shaped : excavated at base and sides but with spreading
lobes or angles.
Hastiform: = hastate.
Hatched: closely marked with numerous short, transverse lines.
Hatching spines: = egg burster; q. v.
Haustellate: formed for sucking: applied chiefly to mouth structures.
Haustellum: a sucker: applied to that portion of the mouth of a sucking
insect through which liquid food is drawn into the gullet.
Head: the first or anterior region of the insect body, articulated at its base
to the thorax, bearing the mouth structures and antennae. It is now
believed to be made up of seven primitive segments, named in order: 1,
the ocular or protocerebral ; 2, the antennal or deutocerebral ; 3, second
antennal or tritocerebral ; 4, mandibular ; 5, superlingual ; 6, maxillary ;
7, labial or 2d maxillary.
Head vesicle: in Diptcra, = ptilinum; q. v.
Heart: the dorsal vessel or tubular structure divided into chambers, lying
just beneath the dorsum, which serves to propel the blood and controls
Heautotype: = autotype; q. v.
Helcodermatus: a surface with ulcer-like depressions: applied also to the
boring or tearing spines of pupae.
Heliciform: in the form of a spiral snail shell: applied to the cases of some
Helocerous: with clavate antennae.
Helvolus: tawny or dully reddish yellow.
Helvus: honey yellow [brown pink + chrome lemon].
Hemelytra: a modification of the anterior wings oi'Heteroptera, coriaceous
at base, membranous at tip, not meeting in a straight line at the middle :
more specifically applied to the corium ; q. v. : also used for the tegmina
Hemi: as a prefix, means half.
Hemimeroptera: an obsolete term for Hemiptera.
Hemimetabolous: manifesting an incomplete metamorphosis, but with a
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 61
marked difference between the stages : specifically the Ephemerida, Odo-
nata and Perlida.
Hemiptera: half -winged: an ordinal term applied to insects in which the
mouth parts consist of four lancets inclosed in a jointed beak or rostrum;
metamorphosis incomplete : the primaries may be of uniform texture
throughout (Homoptera) or may be thickened at base, membranous at tip
Hemispheric: like the half of a globe or sphere.
Hepaticolor: liver-brown [dragon's blood].
Hepatic pouches: applied to crecal pouches; q. v.
Herbivorous: feeding upon plant tissue: a leaf feeder.
Heremetabola: with slight or incomplete metamorphosis, but with a resting
stage at the end of the nymph life ; specifically the Cicadidce.
Hermaphrodite: an individual in which the characters of both sexes are
Hetero: as a prefix, unequal; different from.
Heterocera: Lepidoptera in which the antennae are of any form other than
clubbed at tip : opposed to Rhopalocera.
Heterochrome: of different color: applied to species in which there are two
color forms of one sex, one of which is like (homoeochrome), the opposite
sex, as in certain Odonata and Lepidoptera.
Heterochrony: an irregular development in point of time, a later stage be-
coming evident before one that is earlier in ordinary course.
Heterogamy: applied to those cases in which two sexual or a sexual and
parthenogenetic generation alternate.
Heterogeneous: a mixture of different forms; abnormal.
Heterogeny: the alternation of sexual and parthenogenetic generations.
Heterogyna: the ants: referring to the different kinds of females, queens
and workers, as distinguished from males.
Heteromera: Coleoptera in which the anterior and middle tarsi are 5-jointed
and the posterior are 4- jointed.
Heteromerous: having an unequal number of tarsal joints on the feet.
Heterometabola: differing among themselves in metamorphosis ; but not
manifesting abrupt stages.
Heteromorphous: the metamorphosis complete, in abrupt stages, the larva
unlike the adult.
Heteronomous: if two parts, compared with each other, are of different
quality : differing in development or function.
Heteropalpi: palpi with a different number of joints in male and female, as
in some Trichoptera.
Heteroptera: an ordinal term applied to that series of Hemiptera in which
the anterior wings differ in texture from the posterior, and the different
regions of primaries differ in texture.
Heteropterous: with wings of different texture in different parts.
Heterotypical: a genus, described from more than one species, these differ-
ing in structure.
Hexachaetous: Diptera in which the mouth structures have six piercing setae.
62 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Hexanephric: with six kidneys, or structures serving as such.
Hexapoda: tracheate arthropods with head, thorax and abdomen distinct,
and only six legs in the adult stage: the true insects.
Hexapodal-ous: provided with six feet.
Hibernaculum: a tent or sheath made out of a leaf or other material in
which a larva hides or hibernates.
Hibernate: to pass the winter in a dormant condition.
Hicks' bottles: flask-shaped pits or depressions in the antennae of bees and
ants ; supposed to be the organs of hearing.
Hind angle: in primaries of Lepidoptera, is that point where inner and outer
margin meet : = anal angle of secondaries.
Hind-body: the abdomen.
Hind-gut: the intestinal canal from the end. of chylific ventricle to the anus,
including the malpighian tubules and anal glands.
Hind-head: Mallophaga; that part of head behind mandibles and antennae.
Hind-intestine: = hind-gut.
Hinge: of maxilla = cardo ; q. v. : the point of articulation of a movable
Hips: the coxa; q. v.
Hirsute: clothed with long, strong hair; shaggy.
Hispid: bristly: sparsely set with short, stiff hair.
Histoblast: the morphological unit or cell characteristic of a particular
Histogenesis: the formation and development of tissue.
Histolysis: the degeneration and dissolution of organic tissue.
Hoary: covered with a fine, white, silvery pubescence: pruinose.
Holometabolous: having a complete transformation; with egg, larval, pupal
and adult stages distinctly separated.
Holopneustic: having many pairs of open stigmata.
Holoptic: Dipiera in which the eyes of male are contiguous between vertex
and antennae : see dichoptic.
Holosericeus: with short, dense, silky hair, giving a satiny lustre.
Holotype: the unique type: =type; q. v.
Homelytra: elytra of similar or equal substance.
Homo: prefix = the same; similar.
Homochronous: changes in an organism which appear in the offspring at
the same age at which they did in the parent.
Homochronic heredity: inheritance at corresponding periods of life.
Homodynamous: serially homologous: homology of the metameres.
Homoeochromatism: applied when over a given region many butterflies tend
to vary similarly as regards color.
Homoeochrome: of the same color: see heterochrome.
Homoeomerous: all feet with an equal number of tarsal joints: = isomerous.
Homoeonomous: of the same substance or texture.
Homoetype: =homotype; q. v.
Homogeneous: of the same kind or nature; similar in texture or parts.
Homogenous: similar in structure due to a community of descent.
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 63
Homologous: implies that organs are identical in general structure and
origin, though they may have developed in different ways for special pur-
poses : see analogous.
Homomorpha: insects in which the larvae resemble the adults.
Homonomous: pertaining to homology of parts arranged on a transverse
axis : similarly developed and of equal function.
Homonym: a name similar to or like another already used for a species in
the same genus, or for a genus in the same kingdom : such names are said
to be preoccupied.
Homonymous: where the same name is applied to different conceptions.
Homophonous: words differently written but indistinguishable in sound, ap-
plied to different conceptions.
Homoplastic: implies that organs, similar in situation and purpose, are not
structurally the same, or have not the same origin.
Homoptera: an ordinal term applied to those Hemiptera in which the pri-
maries are of the same consistence throughout.
Homotenous: retaining the primitive form: applied to insects without or
with an incomplete metamorphosis.
Homotype: is a specimen named by another than the author after compari-
son with the type.
Honey dew: a sweetish excretion produced by certain insects, notably Aphids
and Coccids, and exuding from the surface of some galls.
Honey tubes: small tubes or tubercles on the abdomen of plant lice and
other insects through which a sweetish liquid or honey dew is excreted :
siphonets ; siphuncles ; cornicles.
Hood: of the maxilla is the galea; q. v. : in Tingitidce the elevated portion
of the prothorax, often covering the head.
Hooked hairs: = gathering hairs; q. v.
Horismology: see orismology.
Horizontal: said of wings when held parallel to the horizon.
Horn: a pointed chitinous process of the head: in the plural form applied to
the antennas ; q. v.
Host: the individual infested by or upon which a parasite grows: also ap-
plied to the maker of a cell or other structure in which guest flies or other
insects take up their abode.
Hudsonian zone: is that part of the boreal region comprising the northern
part of the great transcontinental coniferous forests. In the eastern
United States restricted to the cold summits of the highest mountains,
from northern New England to western North Carolina : in the west it
covers the higher slopes of the Rocky and Sierra-Cascade systems.
Humeral: relating to the shoulder or humerus.
Humeral angle: in Lcpidoptcra, that angle of the wings at the base of costa,
near the point of attachment to the body : in Coleoptera, the outer anterior
angle of elytra : in Orthoptera, the obtusely rounded angle formed by the
deflection of the sides of the pronotum from the dorsum.
Humeral bristles: in Diptera, are situated on the humeral callus.
Humeral callus: in Diptera, is a rounded callus forming the anterior supe-
rior angle of the mesothorax.
64 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Humeral carina: in Colcoptera, an elevated ridge or keel on the outer ante-
rior angle of elytra.
Humeral cross-vein: (Comst.) ; extends between the costa and sub-costa
close to base.
Humeralis: Coleoptera; when the elytra has an angulated projecting margin
Humeral stripe: in Odonata, covers the humeral suture.
Humeral suture: in Odonata, runs from just in front the base of the fore-
wing to the edge of the median coxa, separating the mesepisternum from
Humeral veins: in Lcpidoptcra, secondary veins on posterior wings of Lasio-
campids, developed to strengthen the humeral angle.
Humerus: the shoulder: in Coleoptera; the basal exterior angle of elytra:
in Diptera, the anterior superior angles of the mesothorax : in Orthoptera,
the femur of the fore-leg : in Hymenoptcra, applied to the sub-costal vein
in some groups.
Humid: applied to regions in which the normal rainfall is sufficient to pro-
duce ordinary farm crops without irrigation : see arid.
Hyacinthine: the purple blue of the hyacinth [between mauve and lilac].
Hyaline: vitreous: transparent or partially so.
Hyaloplasm: the clear, semi-fluid material between the meshes of the cell
Hybrid: the progeny from the mating of two species.
Hydradephaga -ous: applied to aquatic, predatory pentamerous beetles with
filiform antennae : see adephagous.
Hydro: relating to water: a combining form used as a prefix
Hydrolysis: the chemical decomposition of a compound by water, causing
formation of a new compound.
Hydrophilous: applied to species living in low, damp places.
Hymen: a thin plane membrane serving as a partition.
Hymenoptera: membrane-winged: an ordinal term applied to insects with
four membranous wings with few veins, the anterior usually larger than
the posterior ; mouth mandibulate ; head free ; thorax agglutinate, trans-
Hyoid: having the form of the Greek upsilon, T.
Hypermetamorphosis: when an insect passes through more than the normal
number of stages ; the interpolated stages coming usually between the full-
grown larva and adult.
Hyperparasite: is a form that is parasitic upon another parasite.
Hypertely: beyond the bounds of the useful: those forms whose resemblance
to other objects is closer than needful, or without apparent object.
Hypertrigonal space: = supra-triangular space; q. v.
Hypertrophied: abnormally large or excessively developed.
Hypnody: lethargy; a condition similar to or identical with hibernation.
Hypertrophy: any abnormal enlargement or excessive development.
Hypoblast: = entoderm.
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 65
Hypodactyle: the so-called labium of Hcmiptcra.
Hypoderm -is: the cellular layer which secretes the chitinous cuticula and
in this sense epidermis : specifically applied to the lining membrane of
elytra and hemelytra.
Hypodermatic: of or concerning the hypodermis.
Hypodermic: under the skin.
Hypoglossis: the under surface of the tongue = hypoglottis.
Hypoglottis: a sclerite inserted between mentum and labium in many Colc-
Hypognathous: having the mouth parts directed more or less vertically
Hypographous: shaded; applied to a fascia that becomes gradually darker.
Hypomeron-a: in Colcoptcra; the inflexed edge of the pronotum (pronotal
hypomera) ; and the raised lower margin of the epipleura (elytral hy-
pomera) : see epipleural fold.
Hypopharyngeal: relating to the hypopharynx.
Hypopharyngeal sclerites: in bees, a pair of strap-like pieces along the
hypopharynx to the mentum : see also epipharyngeal sclerites.
Hypopharynx: a sensitive and sensory structure on the upper surface of
labium that serves as an organ of taste, or true tongue.
Hypopleura: in Dipt era, the space over the middle and hind coxa, between
the metapleura and pteropleura : the side of the metasternum : the epimeron
of the mesothorax.
Hypoptere: =tegula; q. v.
Hypopygium: the anus: more specifically the lower plate of the anal open-
ing : in Dipt era, the male sexual organs and terminal segments of ab-
domen : = propygium.
Hypostoma: in Diptcra; that portion of the head included between antennae,
eyes and mouth : in Hemiptcra; the lower part of face.
Hypotenusis: in Odonata; the simple or broken cross-vein between media 4
and cubitus 1, forming outer boundary of triangle.
Hypotypes: includes specimens upon which supplementary descriptions are
based : = apotypes.
Iceous or Icius: suffix; expresses a likeness or the possession of a character:
Icotypes: typical specimens which serve for purposes of identification, but
have not been used in literature.
Idiotype: a specimen named by the author after comparison with the type,
but not also a topotype.
Ignitus: fire-red [vermilion].
Ileo-colon: the anterior portion of the hind-gut, extending from the mid-gut
to the rectum, when not distinctly differentiated into ileum and colon.
Ileum: the small intestine; begins at end of chylific ventricle at the point
where malpighian tubules join, and extends to colon.
Imaginal: pertaining to the adult or imago.
Imaginal buds, cells, or discs: in forms with a complete metamorphosis are
66 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
those embryonic cells around and from which the organs and appendages
of the future imago develop.
Imago: the adult or sexually developed insect.
Imbricate: arranged or appearing like the scales on a fish or the shingles on
Immaculate: destitute of spots or marks.
Immarginate: without an elevated rim or margin.
Immersed -us: inserted, imbedded or hidden in.
Imponderable: that which cannot be weighed.
Impregnate -ed: to make or made fertile or pregnant: fertilized.
Impressed -us: a surface with shallow depressed areas or markings.
Impubis: without hair.
Inarticulate: not jointed or segmented.
Inaurate-us: golden yellow [pale cadmium yellow].
Inch: the English and American standard of length in insect measurement:
it is 12 lines and, roughly, to 25 mm. ; usually expressed in units and
hundredths, as 1.01.
Incised: notched or deeply cut into.
Incision: any cut into a margin or through a surface: the marginal sl'its or
notches in Coccidce.
Incisure: an impressed line marking the junction of two segments: an in-
Inclinate -us: leaning or inclining.
Inclusus: when one part is wholly or partially hidden in another.
Inconspicuous: not attracting attention or quickly noticeable.
Incrassated: thickened: rather suddenly swollen at some one point, especially
Incubate: to brood: to cause to develop; as an egg.
Incumbent: lying one over another: wings when they cover the dorsum
Incunabulum: = folliculus and cocoon; q. v.
Incurved -ate: bowed or curved inwards.
Independent: in Lepidoptera; that vein of the wings that arises from the
cross-vein closing the cell, and does not branch directly from any vein
reaching the base : it is v. 5 of the numerical series in both wings and the
media of Comstock.
Indeterminate: not denned nor well marked; obscure: of no constant form
Indigote: a very deep indigo blue.
Indirect: applied to metamorphosis = complete.
Indumentum: a covering of hairs, scales or tufts.
Indusium: the case made by an insect larva: a membranous layer of the
embryo of Locust ids; below the serosa.
Inequal: a surface with irregular elevations and depressions.
Inermis: unarmed: without spines or spurs.
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 67
Infericornia: Hemiptera; in which the antennae appear to be inserted well
down on the sides of head; e. g., Lygceidce.
Inferior: beneath, below or behind: a term of position.
Inferior appendage -es: in male Odonata the lower one or two of the ter-
minal abdominal parts used to clasp the female in copulation.
Inferior wings: = hind wings or secondaries; q. v.
Infero-posterior: below and behind: refers to location.
Inflated: blown up; distended bladder-like.
Inflected: bent inward at an angle.
Inflexus: = inflected.
Infra: below or beneath: opposed to supra.
Infra-anal lobe: a thick, conical fleshy lobe, often ending in a chitinous
point, situated beneath the vent in caterpillars.
Infra-cereal plates: in Orthoptera; generally inconspicuous paired plates
which underlie in part the cerci and in part the lateral portion of the
Infra-clypeus: = ante-clypeus and rhinarium ; q. v.
Infracted: abruptly bent inward, as if broken.
Infra-genital: below the genital opening or process.
Infra-marginal: situated below or behind the marginal cell.
Infra-median vein: in Orthoptera; = ulnar vein; q. v.
Infra-ocular: applied to the region below and between the eyes.
Infra-oesophageal: situated below oesophagus: see sub-cesophageal.
Infra-stigmatal: situated below the stigmata or spiracles.
Infringing: encroaching upon.
Inf undibulif orm : funnel-shaped.
Infuscated: smoky gray-brown, with a blackish tinge [Roman sepia].
Ingens: unusually large or disproportionate in size.
Ingluvies: the crop; q. v.
Inner lobe: of maxilla = lacinia ; q. v.
Inner margin: the line extending along the lower or interior edge of the
wing from the base to the hind or anal angle.
Innervate: to supply with nerves.
Innotatus: without markings.
Inocular: inserted in the inner margin of and partially or wholly surrounded
by the eye.
Inquiline: a species living in a gall or other structure prepared by a different
species, not as a parasite but as a guest.
Inquilinous: living as guests in the homes of others; as in galls.
Insect: a member of the class Insecta strictly limited.
Insecta: broadly denned, contains all articulates that are also tracheates and
have the head free from the thorax; more strictly limited to those forms
that have only three pairs of thoracic legs in the adult stage and a limited
number of segments.
Insectary: a place or building where insects are bred and studied.
Insectivorous: feeding upon or devouring insects.
68 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Insectologist: a student of insects: :_ entomologist.
Insectology: the science of insect study: entomology.
Insertion: the point or place where a part is inserted: a part that is in-
serted: the act of inserting.
Insertus: a part that has its base set into another.
In situ: in its natural place or normal position.
Instar: the period or stage between molts in the larva, numbered to desig-
nate the various periods; e. g., the first instar is the stage between the
egg and first molt, etc. : see stadium.
Institia: striae or furrows of equal width throughout.
Instrumenta cibaria: mouth parts of a mandibulate insect as a whole.
Instrumenta suctoria: mouth parts of a haustellate insect as a whole.
Integer: entire: applied to a margin without incisions.
Integument: the outer covering to the insect body.
Inter : between ; among.
Inter-alar space: in Odonata; the terga of meso- and meta-thorax.
Interantennal: between the basal segments of antennae.
Inter-articular: the membranous tissue between joints or segments.
Intercalary -ies: additional or inserted between others; as a vein: plural;
added or supplementary longitudinal wing veins : see under specific head-
ings ; i. e., anterior, etc. : in Ephemerida, certain longitudinal veins between
the 8th (anal) and 9th (1st axillary) and not branches of either: in
Diptcra, the anterior intercalary (Loew) the discoidal, and the posterior
intercalary = the cubitus 1 of Comstock : applied to an evanescent sclerite
in the embryo between antenna and mandible ; also termed premandibular.
Intercostal: between veins or costse; usually in the narrow grooves between
veins in the costal region of a wing.
Intercostula: those small, vein-like structures between the normal veins,
visible on a wing margin but lost toward the disc.
Intercoxal process: in Colcoptera; a median protrusion of the basal segment
of abdomen between the hind coxae.
Intermediate: lying between others in position; or possessing characters
between two other forms.
Intermediate field: of tegmina is = discoidal field; q. v.
Internal area: in Hymcnoptcra; the posterior of the three areas between
median and lateral longitudinal carina on the metanotum : =. third lateral
Internal cell: in Hymcnoptcra (Pack.); =2d anal (Comst.).
Internal triangle: in Odonata: see triangle.
Internal veins: in Lcpidofrtcra; from one to three in number, run free from
base to outer margin near hind angle; never branched; la to Ic in the
numerical series; =anal veins (Comst.).
Interneural: between the nerves (or veins) of wings.
Interno-mandibular: applied to one of the pairs of salivary glands in bees,
situated at the inner side of base of mandible.
Internomedian: in Orthoptcra; cubitus (Comst.) ; q. v.
Interocular: between the eyes.
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 69
Interplical: lying between folds; specifically applied to the alternate ridges
and grooves in anal area of secondaries of Orthoptcra.
Interposed sectors: in Odonata; the shorter longitudinal veins occurring in
the wings of some species between the chief veins ; = supplementary
Interrupted: broken in continuity, but with the tips of the broken parts in a
right line with each other.
Intersegmental: = interarticular; q. v.
Interspace: Coleoptera; the plane surface between elytral striae: Lcpidop-
tcra; spaces between wing veins not included in closed cells.
Interspaceal: occurring in the interspaces between two wing veins or two
Interstice -tium: space between two lines, whether striate or punctate.
Interstitial line: the elevated ridge between two striae or series of punctures.
Interval: the space or time between two structures, sculptures or periods of
Interventricular: the inner valve between the chambers of the heart.
Interventricular valvule: of heart, lies in front of semilunar valve.
Intervenular: in the space between two veins.
Intestinal caecum: that point of the large intestine in front of the junction
with the small intestine.
Intestine: that part of the alimentary canal through which the food passes
from the stomach, in which absorption is completed and the excretions are
formed for expulsion.
Intima: the lining membrane of the trachea: see endotrachea.
Intorted: turned or twisted inwardly.
Intra-: within: between.
Intra-alar bristles: in Diptcra; a row of two or three between the supra-
alar and dorso-central groups.
Intra-cellular: occurring within the cell or in a cell.
Intra-humeral bristles: in Diptcra calyptrata; occur immediately in front of
the thoracic suture, between the humeral callus and the presutural de-
Intra-ocular: situated within the eye, actually or apparently.
Intra-pulmonary: that method of respiration which does not involve move-
ments of the outer body wall and is confined to the respiratory organs.
Intra-uterine: applied to development, when the young hatch within the
vagina of the mother.
Intricate: irregular; confused; applied to markings and sculpture.
Intromittent: used for throwing within.
Intromittent organ: the penis; q. v.
Introse-um: directed inward, toward the body.
Intrusus: seemingly impressed with a sharp point.
Intumescent: enlarged; swollen; expanded.
Invaginate: when a tubular or vesicular part is turned inward or retracted
within the body wall.
Invagination: a pouch or sac formed by an infolding or indrawing of the
Investitus: unclothed: a surface without scales or hair.
70 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Involucrate: = involute.
Involucrum alarum: in Dermaptera a flap of the metanotum.
Involute: spirally rolled inwardly.
Involuti: butterflies whose larvae live in a folded leaf; Hesperidce.
Iridescent: a surface which reflects the prismatic hues.
Iridicolor: any color so broken up as to reflect the prismatic hues.
Iris: the circle which, in an ocellate spot, surrounds the pupil.
Irised: with rainbow colors.
Iris-pigment: = iris tapetum.
Iris tapetum: the pigment layer of the compound eye just below the crys-
Irregular: unequal, curved, bent or otherwise twisted or modified without
order or symmetry, e. g., certain antennae.
Irrorate: marked with minute points; freckled.
Isabelline -us: pale yellow with some red and brown [chrome lemon with a
little carmine and Roman sepia].
Ischia: = pleura; q. v.
Isolate: to separate out from others; occurring alone.
Isomera: that series of Colcoptcra in which the tarsi have an equal number
of joints on all feet.
Isomerous: with equal number of tarsal joints on all feet: homceomerous.
Isomorphous: having the same form, appearance or construction.
Isopalpi: that series of Trichoptera in which the palpi of both sexes have
the same number of joints.
Isoptera: equal winged: an ordinal term for insects with four, similar, net-
veined wings; mouth mandibulate ; thoracic rings similar, loosely jointed;
metamorphosis incomplete : the Termitidcc.
Isotypical: a genus described from more than one species, all of which are
-itus: -atus ; q. v.
-ius: suffix; having the power or ability to.
Jabot: the crop; q. v.
Janthine: violet colored.
Jaw-capsule: contains the mouth structures in those dipterous larvae in
which the head is differentiated.
Johnston's organ: a complex nervous structure in the basal joint of dip-
Joint: a segment or part between two incisures : an articulation.
Jubate-us: fringed with long pendent hairs.
Juga: the lateral anterior lobes of the head of a Heteropteron ; each side of
Jugatae: that series of Lcf-idoptera in which there is a jugum instead of a
frenulum to unite the wings in flight.
Jugular: of or pertaining to the throat.
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 71
Jugular sclerites: small sclerites in the membrane connecting the head with
the thorax : see cervical sclerites.
Jugulum: that sclerite just behind the sub-mentum ; = gula : that cavity of
the posterior part of the head to which the neck is annexed : the lateral
and under parts of the prothorax.
Jugum: in certain Lepidoptera and Trichoptera, a lobe or process at the base
of primaries, overlapping secondaries and holding the two together in
Katabolic: the destructive change from animal tissue to waste product: see
Keel: an elevated ridge or carina.
Kermesinus: dark red, with much blue [purple lake].
Key: a tabular or other arrangement of species, genera or other classifica-
tion according to characters that serve to identify them.
Kidney-shaped: like a kidney in outline; convex on one long side, concave
on the other, the ends evenly and somewhat obtusely rounded : bean-shaped.
Knee: the point of junction of femur and tibia.
Labellum-a: the sensitive ridged tip of the mouth structures of certain
Dipt era: a prolongation of the labrum covering the base of rostrum in
Colcoptcra and Hemiptera.
Labial: referring, pertaining or belonging to the labium.
Labial segment: the 7th segment of head = second maxillary segment.
Labial suture: is between labium and mentum.
Labiate: lip-like or having lip-like sutures.
Labipalp: a labial palpus.
Labis: the slender abdominal forceps in some Lepidoptera.
Labium: the lower lip: a compound structure which forms the floor of the
mouth in mandibulate insects, behind the first maxilla and opposed to the
labrum; formed by a fusion in embryonic life of separate right and left
maxilla-like halves : in some of its developments referred to as the tongue.
Labial: belonging or referring to the labium.
Labral suture: is between labrum and clypeus.
Labro-frontal lobes: of brain, = trito-cerebrum ; q. v.
Labrum: the upper lip; covers the base of the mandible and forms the roof
of the mouth.
Labrum-epipharynx: in the mouth of piercing Diptcra is the central un-
Lac: a mixture of resin, wax and other substances produced by certain scale
insects as a protective covering.
Lacer: a lappet; applied to a margin with irregular, broad and deep emargi-
nations, leaving lappet-like intervals.
Lacerated: ragged; torn in appearance: see lacer.
72 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Lacinia: the inner lobe of first maxilla, articulated to the stipes, bearing
brushes of hair or spines : a blade : in Dipt era, forms a flat lancet-like
piercing structure and is never jointed.
Lacinia exteriores and interiores: in Apidce, the palpiger and paraglossa:
often used for the galea and lacinia of maxilla.
Laciniated: jagged; cut into irregular fragments.
Lacteal: relating to milk; milky in appearance.
Lactescent: secreting or yielding a milky fluid.
Lacteous -eus: white, with a slight bluish tinge, like skim-milk.
Lacunae: irregular impressions or cavities: specifically the non- walled cavi-
ties of the body.
Lacunose: pitted; the surface covered with small cavities.
Laemodipodiform: like a laemodipod; similar to the larva of a walking stick.
Laevis -igatus: smooth, shining and without elevations: said of a surface.
Lamella: a thin plate or leaf -like process.
Lamellate: antennae with the club formed of closely opposed leaf -like sur-
faces, the concealed surfaces set with sensory pits.
Lamellicornia: those beetles in which the antennae terminate in a lamellate
or leaf-like club.
Lamelliform: made up of or resembling leaves, blades or lamellae.
Lamina -ae: a chitinous plate or plates.
Lamina externa: the paraglossa.
Lamina interna: the ligula.
Lamina subgenitalis: the sub-genital plate; q. v. : in roaches the 7th ventral
plate of females and 9th ventral plate of males.
Lamina supra-analis: = supra-anal plate.
Laminate: formed of thin, flat layers or leaves.
Laminato-carinate: with an elevated ridge or keel, formed of thin plates.
Laminiform: layer-like: having the appearance or made up of lamina.
Lana: wool: the long hair on the abdomen of some Lepidoptera.
Lanate-atus: woolly: covered with dense, fine, long hairs, so distinct that
they may be separated.
Lanceolate: lance- or spear-shaped: oblong and tapering to the end.
Lanceolate cell: in Hymenoptcra (Nort.) ; = 2d anal (Comst.).
Lancet: indiscriminately applied to any piercing mouth structure.
Lanuginose -us: with long, curled hair dispersed over the surface: see
Lanugo: slender single hairs.
Laparostict: that series of lamellicorn beetles in which the abdominal spi-
racles are situated on the connecting membrane between the dorsal and
Lapidicolous: living under deeply imbedded stones.
Larva: the second stage of insect development; comes from the egg or
ovum, grows and, according to its kind, changes to a pupa or chrysalis or
to an imago ; bears various names in the different orders : see nymph ;
caterpillar ; slug ; maggot ; grub.
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 73
Larvarium: a tube or case made by a larva as a shelter or retreat.
Larvatae: masked; applied to coarctate and obtect pupae.
Larvina: a maggot: a dipterous larva without distinct head or legs.
Larvule: applied to early stages of Ephemerid larva when they appear to
have no developed respiratory, circulatory or nervous systems.
Lashed: eyes that have a more or less complete fringe of stiff hairs or
bristles at the orbits.
Lasureus: a very dark blue [French blue with some black].
Laterad: toward the side and away from the median line.
Lateral: relating, pertaining or attached to the side.
Lateral areas: in Hymcnoptera; on the metanotum, the three spaces between
the median and lateral long carinae ; the upper is the external or first lateral
basal area ; the second is the external or central lateral area ; the third is
the middle, internal, apical or third lateral area.
Lateral bristles: in Diptcra; situated at or near the lateral margins of the
Lateral carinae: in Orthoptcra; on^the head, extend downward from the
front margin of the eyes : on prothorax extend along each lateral margin
of the dorsum.
Lateral foveolae: in Orthoptcra; foveate depressions on the margins of the
vertex near the front border of the eye.
Lateral line: in caterpillars is at the margin of the dorsum between sub-
dorsal and supra-stigmatal line.
Lateral lobe: of the labium in Odonata, corresponds to the paraglossa with
palpiger and palpus (Gerstaecker) or, more probably, to the palpus alone
Lateral lobes: the deflexed portions of pronotum that cover the sides of
prothorax in many Orthoptera: in certain Hymenoptcra, lie on each side
of the parapsidal furrows of mesoscutum and = scapulae.
Lateral longitudinal area: of Hymcnoptera, extends between the median
and pleural carinse of metanotum.
Lateral ridge: in slug caterpillars, extends longitudinally along the lateral
series of abdominal tubercles.
Lateral scale: one of the lateral processes of the ovipositor in Cynipida-,
lying within and below the anal scale.
Lateral space: in slug caterpillars is the area on each side of the body be-
tween the subdorsal and lateral ridges.
Lateral sutures: of the thorax in Odonata, are situated on the sides of
thorax, the first separating the metepisternum from the mesepimeron ; the
second separating the metepisternum from the metepimeron ; the first more
or less obsolete in the Anisopterd.
Lateral tubercle: lateral on thoracic and abdominal segments of caterpillars:
it is 3 of the abdomen, 2a of thorax: constant (Dyar).
Latericeous: lateritius ; q. v.
Lateritius: yellowish-red; yellowish brick color [pale clay yellow with a
Later odor sal: the point of junction of dorsum and pleurum.
74 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Lateropharyngeal: applied to the 4th pair of salivary glands in bees; situ-
ated on each side of the pharynx.
Laterostigmatal: situated on the side, immediately above the spiracle.
Later oventral: the point of junction of sternum and pleurum.
Latero-ventral metathoracic carina: in Odonata; forms the dividing line
between the metepimera and the metasternum.
Latescent: becoming obscure or hidden.
Latreille's segment: the first abdominal segment of those Hymenoptera in
which it is fused with the thorax ; = median segment, propodeon, pro-
Latticed: cancellate ; q. v.
Latus: the side: broad.
Latuscula: the facets of the compound eye.
Leathery: having the appearance or texture of leather.
Lectotype: a co-type chosen, subsequently to the original description, to take
the place which in other cases a holotype occupies.
Leg-s: the jointed appendages attached to the thoracic segments, used in
walking: the organs of locomotion other than wings: unjointed organs of
locomotion are pro-legs or false legs ; q. v.
Legion: a group of genera, subequal to a tribe.
Legnum: the margin of a squama.
Lemniscate: ribbon-like: in the form of an 8.
Lenticular: round, doubly convex; like a lens or lentil.
Lepidoptera: scale-winged: an order of insects with spirally coiled haustel-
late mouth structures; head free; thorax agglutinate; transformations
complete ; four scale-covered wings.
Lepidopteric acid: a green pigment obtained from the wing scales of Lepi-
doptera; a derivative of uric acid : see Lepidotic acid.
Lepidopteron: a butterfly or moth: one of the Lepidoptera.
Lepidotic: set with minute scales.
Lepidotic acid: a yellow pigment obtained from certain butterfly scales; a
derivative of uric acid : see Lepidopteric acid.
Lepis: a scale.
Leprous: with loose, irregular scales.
Leptiform: compodeiform ; q. v.
Leptos: small, fine.
Lethargic: torpid or inactive.
Leucine: a white crystalline compound, the product of animal decomposition,
found in the malpighian tubes : as a color, cheesy white.
Leucocytes: pale, unicellular bodies, numerous in the insect blood.
Levator: a muscle that raises an organ or a part.
Levigate -us: with a smooth, somewhat shiny surface.
Ligament: a band or sheet of tough, fibrous tissue between two parts or
Ligneous -eus: wood brown [Vandyke brown].
Lignivorous: feeding upon wood or woody tissues.
Ligula: the central sclerite of the labium, borne upon the mentum, usually
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 75
single, sometimes paired: often used as synonymous with " glossa " and
" tongue " : corresponds to the united lacinise of right and left maxillae :
see also elytral ligula.
Ligulate: strap-shaped; linear, much longer than broad.
Lilacinous: lilac-colored [lilac].
Limaciform: having the form of a Limax or slug; said of larvae.
Limb: the circumference: the area surrounding the disc.
Limbate: when a disc is surrounded by a margin of different color.
Limbus: the area along the outer and posterior margin of wing beyond the
closed cells ; Homoptcra, Cicada.
Limpid: clear and transparent: applied to wings and ornamentation.
Line: a narrow streak or stripe: as a term of measurement, one-twelfth of
an inch ; commonly used by English and early American authors.
Linea: a line or narrow stripe.
Linear: straight; in the form of a right line.
Lineate: marked with lines or streaks: lined.
Lineolet: a delicate fine line.
Lingua: the tongue; applied in Hymcnoptcra to the ligula: in Lepidoptera
and Dipt era, to maxillary structures : has also been used for the hypo-
pharynx, and that use might be adopted : a median organ of the hypo-
pharynx in Apterygota.
Lingua spiralis: the spiral tongue of Lepidoptera: see glossa.
Linguiform: tongue-shaped: linear, with the extremities obtusely rounded.
Lingula: in Alcurodidcc, a more or less slender tongue or strap-shaped organ,
attached cephalad within the vasiform orifice : a term proposed by Leuckart
for the ligula of the bees.
Lipochromus: without color.
Lipoptera : = Mallophaga ; q. v.
Literate: ornamented with characters like letters.
Littoral: living along the sea-coast or in the shore debris: strictly, between
Littoralia: Hcteroptcra that live in marshes.
Litura: an indistinct spot, paler at its margin.
Livid: yellowish gray with a violet tinge: greenish gray.
Lobate-us: divided by deep, undulating and successive incisions.
Lobe: any prominent rounded process or excrescence on a margin: specifi-
cally, the rounded, tooth-like processes on the margin of the pygidium of
the Diaspincc: also applied to lateral expansions of the abdominal seg-
Lobes: of the maxilla; see galea (outer) and lacinia (inner) : of the mentum
in Coleoptera, are the lateral expansions shielding the base of the central
Lobes of pronotum: in Orthoptcra; the spaces or areas formed by three
transverse impressions on the pronotum : that which borders the head is
the anterior lobe, the hindmost is the posterior lobe, those intervening are
the middle lobes.
Lobiform: shaped like a lobe or rounded process.
Lobulate: divided into, or with many small lobes or lobules.
76 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Lobule: in Coccidcc, one of the two distinct parts of which a lobe is some-
Lobulus: the partly separated portion of the wings of some flies and of sec-
ondaries in some Hymenoptera : also used as = alula ; q. v.
Lobus: of maxilla = galea ; q. v.
Locomotion: organs of, are legs and wings.
Longicorn-ia: having the antennae as long or longer than the body; spe-
cifically the Cerambycid beetles.
Longitudinal: in the direction of the long axis.
Longitudinal veins: are those that extend lengthwise through the wing
either directly from base or as branches of one that does start there : they
are named or numbered, and differently in the different orders.
Loop: applied to that structure at base of inner side of primaries into which
the f renulum of male moths is fitted : see retinaculum.
Looper: applied to geometrid and other caterpillars in which some or all the
middle abdominal legs are wanting and which move by bringing tail to
thorax and forming a loop of the intervening segments.
Lora: the chitinous bands connecting the submentum with the cardo of
maxilla (Comst.) : the submentum: small cords upon which the base of
the proboscis is seated (Say) : the anterior part of the gense at the edge
of the mouth : the corneous processes to which the muscles flexing the
mouth in certain Diptcra are attached, and in that sense the palpifer of
the maxilla : in Homoptcra, the small sclerite at side of clypeus and front,
extending laterally to the gense.
Lorum: in bees; the angular piece upon which the submentum rests.
Lower austral zone: occupies southern part of United States from Chesa-
peake Bay to the great interior valley of California. Is interrupted by
the continental divide in eastern Arizona and west New Mexico and divided
according to conditions of humidity into an eastern or A us tro riparian and
western or low'er Sonoran area.
Lower field: in tegmina : see costal field.
Lower fronto-orbital bristles: in Dipt era; are on the lower part of front,
above the antennae, along the orbit.
Lower margin: of tegmina (Thomas), is the costal or anterior margin of
Lcwer radial vein: in Lcpidoptcra (Holland) ; media 2 (Comst.).
Lower sector of triangle: in Odonata; = cubitus 2 (Comst.).
Lower Sonoran faunal area: comprises the most arid deserts of North
America, beginning west of lat. 98 in Texas: sends narrow arms into
southern New Mexico, is interrupted by the Continental Divide; covers a
large part of w. and s. Ariz., s. w. Nev., s. w. Calif., a portion of central
Calif., and most of Lower Calif. These areas are irregular and incapable
of brief definition.
Lubricate -ous: covered with a slippery mucus.
Lucid: shining; applied to luminous insects.
Lucif erase: a substance in the nature of an enzyme, existing in the luminous
organs of light-giving beetles.
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 77
Luciferine: a substance in the blood of luminous beetles which, when brought
into contact with luciferase, produces light.
Luciferous: light giving.
Lucifugous: fleeing the light: applied to nocturnal forms or those that live
Lumen: the cavity of an organ: the inner surface of a tube: the hollow
portion of a gland or vesicular structure.
Luminescence: applied to the light of fire-flies, as a substitute for phos-
Lumper: one who, in describing species or genera, recognizes only prominent
or obvious characters to the exclusion of minor color or variable char-
acters of maculation or structure : see splitter.
Lunaris or Lunate: crescent-shaped: formed like a new moon.
Lunula: a small lunule or crescent.
Lunulas: in Hymenoptera, crescent-shaped marks near the orbits.
Lunulate: a line, when made up of a series of small lunules.
Lunule: a lunate mark or crescent.
Lurid -us: dirty brown with a bluish tinge [pale brown + a little French
blue] : also used to indicate an obscuring of bright colors.
Luteo-testaceous: dark clay yellow.
Luteous-eus: clay yellow [pale clay yellow].
Lutescent: becoming or appearing to be clay yellow.
Lutose-us: apparently or really covered with dirt.
Lymphatic: producing, carrying or relating to the lymph.
Lyrate: lyre-shaped: cut into several transverse segments, and gradually en-
larging towards the extremity.
Lyre: the upper wall or border of the spinning tube of caterpillars.
Macrochaetae: the long bristles occurring singly on the body of Diptera.
Macropterous: long or large winged.
Macrosomites: the primitive regions of primitive band of the insect embryo.
Macula: a colored mark larger than a spot; of indeterminate figure.
Maculate -ed: spotted or marked with figures of any shape, of a color dif-
fering from the ground.
Maculation: the ornamentation or pattern of marking.
Maculose: spotted; with many marks or spots.
Mcerianum: "that segment of the post-pectus situate one on each side behind
the acetabulum and parapleurum ; it supports the posterior feet " : see
Magenta : pinkish red ; an aniline product.
Maggot: applied to the footless larv?e of Diptera.
Mala: a lobe: a ridged or grinding surface.
Mala mandibularis: the grinding surface or area of a mandible.
Mala maxillae: the lobes of maxilla; outer or galea, inner or lacinia; where
only one is present, the term refers to that one.
78 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Malaxation: a kneading or softening; applied to the chewing and squeezing
by fossorial wasps of insects captured as food for their larvae.
Male: that sex having organs for the production of spermatozoa: desig-
nated by c?, the astronomical sign for Mars.
Mallophaga: wool-eaters: an ordinal term applied to biting lice: wingless;
mandibulate ; thoracic segments similar ; no metamorphosis : = Lipoptcra.
Malpighian tubules: long, slender tubules, varying in number, serving as
excretory organs, entering the alimentary canal at the point of junction of
chylific ventricle and ileum ; said to be analogous with kidneys : = biliary
Mammilate: with nipple-like protuberances or processes.
Mandible: the lateral upper jaws of a biting insect.
Mandibular scrobe: a broad deep groove on outer side of mandible in some
Mandibular segment: the fourth or mandible-bearing segment of head.
Mandibulata: that series of insects in which the adults have functional
mandibles used for biting.
Mandibulate: with jaws or mandibles.
Manicate-us: fur-like: surface clothed with irregular depressed hair.
Manitrunk: that part of trunk that bears the anterior legs: = prothorax.
Manometabola: with a slight or gradual metamorphosis and without a rest-
ing stage; e. g., the Orthoptcra.
Manubrium: in Coleoptcra; that part of the mesosternum in Elaterida;
which forms the process for fitting into the cavity of the prothorax : in
Collcmbola; the basal part of the furculum.
Manus: the hand: formerly applied to the anterior tarsus.
Marbled: irregularly mottled, gray and white, like marble; = marmoratus.
Margaritaceous: shining, like mother of pearl = nacreous ; q. v.
Margin: that portion of a surface within the edge, bounded on the inner
side by the sub-margin and consisting of a more or less dilated imaginary
Marginal: of, belonging to, or near the margin.
Marginal area: in Orthoptcra; see mediastinal area.
Marginal bristles: in Dipt era; are inserted on the posterior margin of the
Marginal cell: in Diptcra (Williston) ; = subcostal (Schiner) ; =rradial 1
(Comst.) : in Hymcnoptcra; = radial 1 and 2 (Comst.) : in general that
cell beyond the stigma.
Marginal field: in tegmina = costal field; q. v.
Marginal nervure or vein: in Orthoptcra, = costa (Comst.) : in Hymcnop-
tcra (Norton), = radius 3 (Comst.): in general, the vein forming the
Margined -ated: bounded by an elevated or attenuated margin: when the
margin is edged by a flat border.
Marmorate -us: spots and lines irregularly disposed, as in marble: marbled.
Mask: in the nymphs of Odonata, the modified labium which, when at rest,
conceals the other mouth parts.
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 79
Masticate: to chew.
Masticatory: formed for chewing or grinding; applied to the mouth parts
and to the grinding structures in the gizzard.
Mastigium -ia: telescopic anal organs in certain caterpillars, serving to
repel attacks of parasites.
Matrix: the formative substance from which cells and other structures are
Maxilla: without any qualifying adjective, the second pair of jaws in a
mandibulate insect ; the most persistent when the mouth is modified, and
represented by some functional part in all insects in which the mouth
structures are useful : second maxillae, = the labium or third pair of jaws
in a mandibulate insect.
Maxillary: attached or belonging to the maxilla; e. g., palpi.
Maxillary palpi: the first pair of palpi, borne on the maxilla.
Maxillary pleurites: the lateral pieces, epimera and episterna of the maxil-
Maxillary segment: the sixth segment of the head, bearing the maxillae.
Maxillary tendons: two slender rods in basal third of the muscid proboscis;
the remnant of the palpifer, to which muscles for flexing the proboscis are
attached : see lora.
Maxillary tentacle: in female Pronnba; a specialized process of palpifer.
Maxillulas: a pair of appendages in Thysanurids, between mandibles and
Maxime: very much or very large.
Mealy: with a flour-like dusting: == farinose.
Mecaptera: =Mccoptera; q. v.
Meconium: the substance excreted by certain metabolic insects soon after
their emergence from the chrysalis or pupa.
Mecoptera: long-winged: neuropterous insects with similar, large, unfolded
wings ; mouth mandibulate, prolonged into a beak ; head free ; thorax ag-
glutinated ; transformations complete : the scorpion flies or Panorpidce.
Medi-: prefix, = middle.
Media: the fourth of the longitudinal veins extending from base through
approximately the middle of the wing, not more than four branched, the
branches numbered on margin from 1 nearest apex to 4 nearest anal
angle: in Orthoptera, it is the median or externomedian : in Lepidoptcra
(Pack.), is cubitus 1 (Comst.).
Mediad: toward the median plane or middle.
Mediafurca: a process extending internally from the mesosternum, to which
the muscles are attached.
Medial: referring to, or at the middle.
Medial cells: (Comst.), are anteriorly bounded by the media or its branches:
in Hymenoptcra (Nort.), includes median and cubital (Comst.).
Medial cross-vein: (Comst.) is between media 2 and 3.
Median 1: in Lepidoptcra (Pack.), = media 2 (Comst.).
Median 2: in Lepidoptcra (Pack.), = media 3 (Comst).
Median 4: in Lepidoptcra (Pack.), = cubitus 2 (Comst.).
80 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Median area: of wings in Orthoptcra, lies between the radial and ulnar
veins, radius and media (Comst.) : of metathorax of Hymenoptera, is the
middle of the dorsum, divided into three spaces or cells : 1st or basal area,
2d or upper median or areola, 3d or apical or petiolar area.
Median carina: Orlhoptcra; of head, is usually applied to a median dorsal
carina, but has been also used for that which extends down the middle of
front from the f astigium, and then = frontal costa : of prothorax, extends
along the middle of pronotum.
Median cell: in Lcpidoptcra, is the closed area formed by a line extending
from the end of subcostal to the end of the median veins, = radial
(Comst.) : in Hymenoptera, 1st median (Pack.), = medial (Comst.) ; 2d
median (Pack.), = medial 4 (Comst.); 3d median (Pack.), = medial 2
(Comst.) ; 4th median (Pack.), = medial 1 (Comst.).
Median cross-veins: in Odonata; are those which cross median space.
Median foveola: in Orthoptcra; the foveate depression of the vertex be-
tween the eyes : = central foveola.
Median forks: in Ortlwptera, refers to the forks of the median vein.
Median furrow: lies between radius and media: in some Heteroptera, sepa-
rates the embolium from the remainder of the corium.
Median lines: on the primaries of many moths; the first or t. a., crosses
about one-third from base ; the second or t. p., crosses beyond the outer
third and is usually sinuate.
Median lobe: of labium in Odonata, is the partly divided glossa or ligula;
probably corresponds to united glossa and paraglossse (Butler).
Median longitudinal caringe: on the metanotum of Hymenoptera, extend
one on each side of the middle.
Median nervules: in Lcpidoptcra (Holland) ; lst = cubitus 2 (Comst.) ; 2d
= cubitus 1 (Comst.); 3d = media 3 (Comst.).
Median notch: in Coccida-, a notch in the edge of the pygidium, at the
posterior extremity of the body.
Median plate: in Hymenoptera sessiliventres, is the dorsal plate connecting
the thorax and abdomen.
Median sector: in Odonata, = media 3 (Comst.).
Median segment: applied to the basal segment of the abdomen when it forms
part of the metathorax : see propodeum.
Median shade or line: in Lcpidoptcra, crosses at or about middle of ' wings.
Median space: in Lcpidoptcra, is the area between the median lines: in
Odonata, the cubital cell (Comst.) ; the space at base between submedian
(radius) and postcosta (1st anal) ; by Selys in 1896 and later used in the
sense of medial cell of Comst.
Median vein: in Odonata and Lcpidoptcra, = radius (Comst.) : in Lcpi-dop-
tcra, it runs from base to about middle, nearly through centre, and is four
or five branched : in Hymenoptera, it is the 3d from costal margin.
Mediastinal: relating to the longitudinal median line or area.
Mediastinal area: in Orthoptcra, the area between median or mediastinal
vein and the costal or front margin: = marginal area.
Mediastinal vein: in Orthoptcra and Diptera, = subcosta (Comst.) : also, in
Diptcra, = auxiliary vein (Meigen).
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 81
Medio-cubital cross-vein: between media 4 and cubitus 1, connecting the
two series (Comst.).
Medio-ventral line: in caterpillars, extends along middle of under side.
Medipectus: the under side of mesothorax : the mesosternum.
Mediproboscis: the middle third of the flexed proboscis of muscid flies.
Medi-thorax: = mesothorax ; q. v.
Mega- Megalo-: large.
Melanic: with a blackish suffusion.
Melanism: an abnormal or unusual darkening: a suffusion with blackish.
Mellifera: honey-makers: applied to bees as a whole.
Melliferous: honey-producing, or producers of honey.
Mellisugous: honey-sucking: a feeder on honey.
Member: any one of the external appendages.
Membranaceous: thin, skin-like, semi-transparent, like parchment: of a thin,
Membrana retinens: the stretched part of the membrane around the rectum
of butterfly larvae, used in the change to the chrysalis.
Membrane -ana: any thin, transparent, flexible body tissue: specifically the
wing tissue between the veins : in Hctcroptcra, the thin membranous tip of
Membranous or eous: composed of membrane or skin-like tissue.
Membranule: the small opaque expansion at base of wings in Odonata.
Meniscoidal: with one side concave, the other convex, like a round segment
from a hollow sphere.
Menognatha: insects in which both young and adults feed by mandibles;
e. g., the Orthoptera: see menorhyncha and metagnatha.
Menorhyncha: forms in which both young and adult take food by suction;
e. g., Hemiptera: see menognatha and metagnatha.
Mental suture: in Cole opt era, the line between mentum and gula.
Mentigerous: bearing or having a mentum.
Mentum: a labial sclerite bearing the movable parts; attached to and some-
times fused with the submentum; corresponds to the (united) stipes of
maxillae : in Colcoptcra, what is usually called mentum is really submen-
tum : in Diptcra, the term is applied to the posterior oral margin: in
Hymenoptera, is part of " tongue," the second joint bearing the labial
palpi, paraglossae and ligula.
Merdivorous: feeding upon dung or excrement: see scatophagous.
Meriaeum: the posterior inflected part of the metasternum in Coleoptcra.
Meroistic: ovaries that secrete yolk or vitellaginous cells as well as ova.
Mesad: extending or directed toward the median plane.
Mesal: pertaining to, situated on or iu the median plane of the body.
Mesenchym: that portion of the mesoderm that produces the connective
tissues of the body.
Mesenteron: the mid-gut, stomach or chylific ventricle: the middle portion
of the primitive intestinal canal, lined with entoderm.
82 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Mesepimeron: in Odonata; the sclerite between humeral and first lateral
Mesepisterna: in Odonata; the oblique lateral pieces of mesothorax, meeting
dorsally in a ridge.
Mesially: at or to the middle.
Mesinfraepisternum: a sclerite formed between propleuron, mesepisternum,
mesepimeron and second coxa.
Meso: middle: as prefix, drops the o when stem begins with a vowel.
Mesoblast: the middle germ layer of the embryo: mesoderm.
Mesoderm: = mesoblast ; gives rise to muscular and circulatory systems.
Mesodont: := amphiodont ; q. v.
Mesomeros: the 2d to 5th abdominal segments in Lepidoptcra.
Meson: the middle plane of the body.
Mesonotum: the primitively upper surface of the 2d or middle thoracic ring.
Mesophragma: an internal prolongation of the metaprsescutum, affording
attachment to some of the wing muscles.
Mesopleura: in Diptcra, the space before the root of the wing between the
dor so- and sternopleural sutures : in Hymcnoptera, the piece below the
insertion of the wings.
Mesopleural bristles: in Diptcra, are inserted in the angle formed by the
dorsopleural and mesopleural sutures.
Mesopleural suture: in Diptcra, runs from the root of the wings downward
and separates the mesopleura from the pteropleura.
Mesopleuron: the lateral surface of the mesothorax.
Mesosternal cavity: in Elatcridcc, the opening into which the prosternal
spine or mucro is fitted.
Mesosternal epimera: in Cole opt era; the narrow pieces separating the meso-
sternal from the metasternal episterna.
Mesosternal episterna: Coleoptcra; on each side of mesosternum between
anterior border and epimera ; generally separated by a distinct suture.
Mesosternal lobes: in Orthoptcra; = mesosternellum ; q. v.
Mesosternellum: in Orthoptcra, two median lobes of the mesosternum, one
on each side of the deep median notch : in general, the sternellum of the
Mesosternum: the underside or breast of the mesothorax.
Mesostethidium: = mesothorax; q. v.
Mesostethium: the middle piece of the underside of metathorax, between
the middle and hind legs.
Mesostigma: in Odonata, the spiracles of second thoracic segment.
Mesosulcus: a central longitudinal furrow of mesosternum in Hymcnoptera.
Mesotarsus: the tarsus of the middle leg.
Mesothoracotheca: the pupal covering of the mesothorax.
Mesothorax: the second or middle thoracic ring; bears the middle legs and
the anterior wings.
Mesotergum: =mesonotum; q. v.
Meta-: posterior: used as a prefix to designate the third thoracic ring and
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 83
Metablastic: relating to the ecto- or metablast or ectoderm.
Metabola: insects with a complete metamorphosis in which the larva does
not resemble the adult, and the pupa is quiescent.
Metabolism: is transformation: the whole process or series of changes of
food into tissue and cell-substance and of these latter into waste products ;
the first of these changes being anabolic, the second katabolic.
Metabolous: undergoing metamorphosis or transformation.
Metacoxal plate: in Coccinellida, that portion of the first ventral segment
included above the ventral lines visible on that segment.
Metagnatha: insects which feed with jaws when young and by suction, with
tubular mouths when mature ; e. g., the Lepidoptera: see menognatha and
Metagonia: the hind or anal angle of a wing.
Metallic: having the appearance of metal: applied to a surface or color.
Metaloma: the sutural or inner margin of primaries.
Metamere: a segment, somite or athromere.
Metameric: made up of segments or metameres.
Metamerism: the arrangement in metameres.
Metameros: in Lepidoptera, the 6th to 8th abdominal segments.
Metamorphosis: is that series of changes through which an insect passes in
its growth from egg through larva and pupa to adult : it is complete when
the pupa is inactive and does not feed ; incomplete when there is no pupa
or when the pupa is active and feeds.
Metamorphosis dimidio: an incomplete transformation.
Metamorphosis perfecta: a complete transformation.
Metanotum: the primitively upper surface of the third or posterior thoracic
ring: in Diptera, the oval arched portion behind, beneath the scutellum ;
best developed in flies with long, slender abdomen : e. g., Tipulidcc.
Metaphragma: the hindmost internal thoracic septum.
Metapleura: in Diptera, a swollen space at the outside of the metanotum,
between it, the pteropleura and the hypopleura ; in Hymcnoptera, the piece
behind and below the insertion of the hind wings.
Metapleural bristles: in Diptera, are inserted in the metapleura.
Metapneustic: larvse, chiefly dipterous, in which the spiracles are confined
to the posterior segment.
Metapnystega: that circular area of metanotum behind the postscutellum.
Metapodeon: the abdomen behind the podeon or petiole in Hymcnoptera.
Metasternal: relating or attached to the metasternum.
Metasternal epimera: small sclerites separating the metasternal episterna
from the ventral segments.
Metasternal episterna: sclerites situated on each side of the metasternum,
immediately behind the mesosternal epimera.
Metasternellum: the sternellum of the metathorax.
Metasternum: the underside or breast of the metathorax.
Metastethidium: = metathorax ; q. v. *
Metastigma: in Odonata, the spiracles of third thoracic segment. /v /
Metastoma: in Orthoptera; - - hypopharynx ; q. v. /c^ O^ O/\
O \ _f.
84 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Metatarsus: applied to basal joint of tarsus, where that differs greatly in
length or otherwise from the other joints: see sarothrum.
Metatergum: =metanotum; q. v.
Metathoracotheca: the pupal covering of the metathorax.
Metathorax: the third thoracic ring or segment; bears the hind legs and
second pair of wings ; variably distinct ; sometimes closely united with the
mesothorax and sometimes appearing as a portion of the abdomen.
Metatype: is a specimen named by the author after comparison with the
type ; according to some, it should be also a topotype.
Metazona: in Orthoptcra, the dorsal surface of the prothorax behind the
Metepimeron: in Odonata, lies behind the second lateral suture and extends
ventrally to the sternum.
Metepisternum: in Odonata, is the sclerite between the first and second
lateral thoracic sutures.
Meter: the standard of length in the metric system = 39. 37 inches: see centi-
meter and millimeter.
Meticulose -us: is a maculation in the form of a series of colored flames.
Metinfraepisternum: in Odonata; the sclerite just above base of 3d coxa;
below metepisternum and before metepimeron.
Metochy: the relation borne to ants by the tolerated guests in ant-hills;
demanding nothing from and giving nothing to the ants : see symphily and
Metopidium: the anterior declivous surface of prothorax in MembracidcE.
Micans: shining: also a surface of which only parts are shining.
Microchaetae: small bristles, as opposed to macrochsetse, in Diptera.
Microergates: the dwarf workers among ants.
Micron: the unit of microscopic measurement = .001 mm.: represented by
the symbol M : the symbol MM represents .001 of a micron.
Micropterous: small winged.
Micropterism: the tendency to produce small wings; applied to a line of
Micropyles: minute openings in the egg, through which spermatozoa enter.
Microsomites: small secondary rings or somites of the macrosomites in the
embryo, which afterward become the body segments.
Microthorax: a supposed thoracic ring between the head and prothorax.
Middle apical area: = internal area; q. v.
Middle field: = discoidal field; q. v.
Middle lobes: of pronotum in Orthoptcra: see lobes.
Middle pleural area: in Hymenoptera; the median of the three areas be-
tween lateral and pleural carinae : = 2d pleural area.
Mid-dorsal thoracic carina: a ridge or elevated line at the meeting of the
mesepisterna in Odonata.
Mid-gut: the chylific ventricle with the csecal glands, tubes or pouches.
Mid-intestine: = mid-gut.
Migrants: applied to that brood of plant lice which flies from one to an
alternate food plant : any forms that fly from the place where they were
born for food or other purposes.
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 85
MM.: Millimeter: .001 meter .039 of an inch: roughly 25 mm. are
counted to an inch in measuring insects.
Mimetic: when a species mimics or resembles another or some other object
in appearance ; but not in structure and other characters.
Mimicry: strictly, the resemblance of one animal to another not closely re-
lated animal, living in the same locality ; often loosely used to denote also
resemblance to plants and inanimate objects: Batesian mimicry is where
one of two similar species is distasteful (so-called model), the other not
distasteful (so-called mimic) ; Miillerian mimicry is where both species
Mines: applied to galleries or burrows between upper and under surface of
leaf tissue, when made by larvse : they are linear, when they are narrow
and only a little winding; serpentine, when they are curved or coiled, be-
coming gradually larger to, a head-like end ; trumpet-mines, when they start
small and enlarge rapidly at tip ; blotcli mines, when they are irregular
blotches ; tcntiform, when the blotch mines throw the leaf into a fold on
Miniate -us: of the color of red lead [vermilion with a slight admixture of
Mirror: in Cicada: see specular membrane.
Mitosoma: the middle piece of a developing spermatozoon.
Mobile: movable: having the power of motion.
Model: see mimicry.
Modioliform: globular, truncated at both ends; like the hub of a wheel.
Mola or Molar: the ridged or roughened grinding surface of the mandible:
when the mandible is compound, the molar corresponds to the subgalea of
Monarsenous: that kind of union where one male suffices for many females.
Moniliform: beaded like a necklace.
Monochromatic: of one color throughout.
Monodactyle: with a single movable claw which closes on the tip of the
other leg structures as in some parasitica.
Monodomous: ants in which each colony has one nest only.
Monoecious: when both sexual elements or glands exist in one individual.
Monogamous: a union where a female is fertilized by one male only.
Monomeri: insects with one-jointed tarsi.
Monomorphic: species of which only one sex (female) is known to exist.
Monophagous: insects feeding upon only one species or genus of plants.
Monothelious: a union where one female is fecundated by many males.
Monotrocha -ous: Hymcnoptera in which the trochanters are single: having
legs in which the trochanter is one- jointed.
Monotypical: a genus described from a single species, no other being
known ; or described from a single specified species with which are asso-
ciated others believed to be identical in structure : see isotypical and hetero-
Moult: a period in the transformation when the larva changes from one
instar to another : the cast skin of a larva that has moulted.
Mouth: the anterior opening into the alimentary canal, where the feeding
structures are situated and in which the food is prepared for ingestion.
86 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Mouth-parts: a collective name including labrum, mandibles, maxillae, labium
and appendages trophi.
Mucoreus: mouldy: a surface covered with small, fringe-like processes.
Mucro: a long, straight or curved process terminating in a point: the pro-
sternal process in Elatcrida: the terminal spine or process of an obtect
pupa : " the median posterior point of the epigastrium when differentiated
Mucronate: terminated in a sharp point.
Mucrones: in Collembola the two small end pieces of the furcula, proceeding
from the denies.
Mullerian association: a group of species belonging to different genera,
often different families or even orders, having similar colors, possessing
more or less distasteful qualities and living in the same locality.
Muller's thread: the common terminal thread o\ all the ovarian tubes.
Multangulate : with many angles.
Multi-: many; used as a prefix, often without the i.
Multiarticulate: with many joints or segments!
Multilocular: with many large cells, spaces or cavities.
Multipartite: divided into many parts.
Multiplicate: with many longitudinal folds or lines of plication.
Multispinose: with many spines.
Mumia: the pupa.
Munite-us: armed; provided with an armature.
Muricate -us: armed with sharp, rigid points.
Murinus: mouse colored [gray with some yellow].
Mushroom bodies: two stalked, mushroom-like bodies arising from procere-
bral lobes ; supposed to be the seat of insect intelligence.
Muscle: the fleshy fibres of the insect body that serve to move the append-
ages and other body organs.
Mute: silent: without power to produce audible sound.
Mutic-us: unarmed: lacking processes where such usually occur.
Mutici: Acridiids without a posternal spine.
Mutilate -us: cut off: mutilated: abbreviated: not complete.
Mycetophagous: feeding upon fungi.
Myiasis: disease or injury caused by the attack of dipterous larvae.
Myoblast: a cell that produces muscular tissue.
Myrmecology: that branch of entomology that deals with ants.
Myrmecophilous: ant-loving: applied to insects that live in ant nests.
Mystacine -us: bearded: with a hairy fringe above mouth or on clypeus.
Mystax: in Dipt era; a patch of hair or bristles above the mouth, on the
lower part of the hypostoma above the vibrissse.
Mytiliform: shell-like; as the middle feet in some aquatic Hemiptera.
Nacreous: pearly: resembling mother of pearl: = margaritaceous.
Nail: a tarsal claw: specifically the stout pointed claws in predatory Heter-
optera = unguis.
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 87
Naked: not clothed: lacking vestiture: a pupa when not inclosed in a cocoon
or other covering.
Nasal suture: == clypeal suture; q. v.
Nasus: anterior termination of the face in certain Hymenoptera: the clypeus
or a modification of it : in Odonata, the upper portion of the clypeus
= supraclypeus = postclypeus.
Nasuti: that type of termite soldiers that have the head prolonged into a
Natatorial -ious: formed for swimming.
Navicular : boat-shaped = cymbiform.
Neanic: referring to the pupal stage.
Nearctic: temperate and arctic North America, including Greenland.
Nebula: a cloud: a vague, indefined, dusky shading.
Nebulous -ose: cloudy: without definite form or outline.
Neck: the slender connecting structure between head and thorax of such
insects as have the head free : any contraction of the head at its juncture
with the thorax.
Necrophagous: living in or on carrion.
Nectaries: honey-tubes, cornicles, siphuncles ; q. v.
Nematocera: =nemocera; q. v.
Nematocerous: with long, thread-like antennae.
Nemocera: Dipt era with long, at least six-jointed antennae.
Nemoglossata: bees with a thread-like tongue.
Nemoricolous: living in open, sunny woods.
Neogeic: belonging to the Western Hemisphere or New World: see geron-
Neolepidoptera : all haustellate Lcpidoptcra, except the generalized Microp-
tcrygidce ; mandibles not functionally present; pupa incomplete or obtect :
see paleolepidoptera and protolepidoptera.
Neoteinic: applied to complemental females in Termites because, though
reproductive, they retain some juvenile characters.
Neotropical: that part of the earth's surface embraced in the greater part
of Mexico, West Indies and South America.
Neotype: a specimen identified with a species already described, and selected
as a standard of reference where the original type or co-types are lost or
Nephridia: tubular structures functioning as kidneys in Annelids, Mollusks,
etc., and incorrectly used as = malpighian tubules ; q. v.
Nepionic: that stage of development immediately succeeding the embryonic;
proposed as a substitute for larval.
Nerinaeum: a ventral thoracic sclerite between the metasternum and poste-
rior coxa in some Colcoptera.
Nerve: a thread-like structure, composed of delicate filaments whose func-
tion it is to transmit sensations or stimuli to or from a ganglion or from
or to any part of the body or its appendages.
Nerves: sometimes used to = veins, in wing structures.
Nervi: belonging or referring to the nerves.
88 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Nervulation: arrangement of the nerves: specifically applied to the arrange-
ment of the chitinous framework of wings and thus = venation ; q. v.
Nervules or Nervures: the rod or vein-like structures supporting the mem-
branes of wings and = veins and veinlets ; q. v.
Nervuration: =nervulation and venation; q. v.
Neural canal: an incomplete tunnel on the floor of meso- and metathorax,
formed by fusion of apodemes, serving for the reception and protection of
the ventral nerve cord and for the attachment of muscles.
Neural groove: is that furrow in the primitive layer of the embryo in which
the nerve cord is formed.
Neuration: = venation ; q. v.
Neurilemma: the external sheath of a nerve fibre.
Neuroblast: the large cell in the early embryo, from which the nervous
Neuromere: that part of a body segment pertaining to the nervous system.
Neuroptera: nerve-winged: an ordinal term applied to insects with four net-
veined wings ; mouth mandibulate ; head free ; thorax loosely agglutinated ;
metamorphosis complete : in its older use, the term applied to all net-veined
insects irrespective of metamorphosis or thoracic structure.
Neuropteroidea: like the Neuroptera in the wide sense; applied to those
living insects included by Linnreus in his Neuroptera; also to those extinct
forms which have a general resemblance to them.
Neurospongium: a granular matrix in the periopticon of the insect eye.
Neuter: the term applied to workers or undeveloped females in some Hy-
menoptcra: indicated by 9 or g, an impertect form of Venus sign.
Nidificate: to nest: applied when eggs are placed in a prepared receptaculum.
Nigricans: black, tinged with gray.
Nits: the eggs of sucking lice; specifically when attached to a hair: in
general, though rarely, applied in the singular to an egg.
Nitidus: shining: applied to a highly polished, smooth surface.
Niveous -eus: snowy white.
Nocturnal: species that fly or are active at night.
Nodal furrow: in Odonata; a transverse suture, beginning at a point in
costal margin corresponding to the nodus, and extending toward inner
Nodal sector: in Odonata; = media 2 (Comst.) : arises from upper sector
of arculus near nodus and extends to outer margin.
Node: a knot or knob: in the plural refers to the small segment or segments
between thorax and main portion of abdomen in ants.
Nodiform: in the form of a knot or knob.
Nodicorn: with antennae that have the apex of each joint swollen.
Nodose -us: knotted or with knots; a body with one or more knotted parts;
a sculpture with almost isolated knots.
Nodule: a little knot, lump or node.
Nodulose -us -ate: with small nodes or nodules: a surface sculpture of knots
or links, connected by an undulating line.
Nodus: in Odonata; a stout, oblique, short vein at the place where the an-
terior margin of the wings is sometimes drawn in.
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 89
Nopalry: a plantation of cacti for raising cochineal insects.
Normal: of the usual form or type; not out of the ordinary.
Notate: marked by spots: with a series of depressed marks as a sculpture.
Notched: indented, cut or nicked; usually a margin.
Notocephalon: in some aquatic Hcmiftcra, that part of the head which is
apparent from a dorsal aspect.
Notodont: with toothed backs: applied to a series of moths whose larvae are
more or less conspicuously humped on dorsal surface.
Notopleural suture: = dorsopleural suture; q. v.
Nototheca: that part of the pupa covering upper surface of abdomen.
Notum: the dorsal or upper part of a' segment: = tergum.
Nucha: the upper surface of the neck connecting head and thorax.
Nucleate: with, or having a nucleus.
Nucleolus: the small portion of matter in the nucleus most readily affected
by staining fluids.
Nucleus: a well-defined, differentiated, round or oval body imbedded in the
Nude -us: naked: a surface devoid of hair, scales or other vestiture.
Nuditas: = nudity.
Nudity: the state of being naked or bare of vestiture.
Nurses: worker ants or worker bees which care for the eggs, larvse and
pupae, but do not forage, the latter function being taken up later, when
nursing is given up.
Nutant: nodding; the tip bent toward the horizon.
Nutritive chamber: an enlarged section of ovarian tube, filled with granular
nutritive material used in developing the egg cells.
Nymph: the larval stage of insects with incomplete metamorphosis: applies
also to their pupal stage, and sometimes used as = pupa.
Nympha inclusa: =. coarctate pupa; q. v.
Nymphipara: applied to insects that bear living young in an advanced stage
of development : see also pupipara.
Ob-: as a prefix, means inversely.
Obconic: conic, with the apex pointing downward.
Obcordate: inversely heart-shaped, with the point applied to the base of
another object or part.
Obese -us: unnaturally distended: usually applied to the abdomen.
Oblate: flattened; applied to a spheroid of which the diameter is shortened
at two opposite ends.
Oblique: any direction between perpendicular and horizontal.
Oblique vein: in Odonata; an apparent cross-vein situated between M2 and
Rs, distad to the level of the nodus and inclined obliquely, from its front
end, backward and outward ; in reality the basal part of Rs.
Obliterate: nearly washed out; indistinct.
Oblong: longer than broad.
Obovate : inversely egg-shaped ; the narrow end downward.
90 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Obpyriform: inversely pear-shaped.
Obscure: not readily seen: not well defined.
Obsite-us: a surface covered with equal scales or other bodies.
Obsolete: nearly or entirely lost: inconspicuous.
Obtect: wrapped in a hard covering.
Obtected: applied to pupse when they are covered with a chitinous case which
confines and conceals all appendages, though their outlines may be marked
on the surface : see free, and coarctate.
Obtuse : not pointed ; an angle greater than a right angle : opposed to acute.
Obtuse-angulate: two markings or margins meeting so as to form an obtuse
Obtusilingues: short-tongued bees with the tip obtuse or bifid: see acuti-
Occipital foramen: the opening in the occiput, opposed to a similar opening
in the prothorax : foramen magnum.
Occipital margin: in Mallophaga, the posterior margin of the head.
Occipito-orbital bristles: in Diptcra; situated on posterior orbit of eye.
Occiput: that part of the head behind the vertex: in Diptera, the whole
posterior surface of the head : in bees, the space between the vertex and
Occlusor: applied to muscles which close an opening; e. g., spiracles.
Occult -us: hidden; concealed from superficial view.
Ocellar bristles: in Diptera, are situated close to the ocelli, usually directed
forward ; often absent.
Ocellar ribband: a crescent-shaped, smooth thin belt across the eye region in
Ocellar triangle: a triangle, indicated by grooves or depressions, on which
the ocelli are situated; Diptera.
Ocellate: eye-like in appearance: in Lcpidoptcra, spots on the wings, bor-
dered by a colored iris or ring, and usually with a pupil.
Ocelli: plural of ocellus; q. v. ; = stemmata.
Ocelligerous: supplied with, or bearing, ocelli.
Ocellus: a simple eye, consisting of a single convex or bead-like lens, which
conveys an image to a retina. Ocelli occur in larvae and, singly or in
small groups, in adults : the compound eyes are made up of numerous
Ochraceous: yellow with a slight tinge of brown [pale cadmium yellow and
Ochraeus-eus: = ochraceous.
Ochro-leucus: dilute ochraceous.
Ocular emargination: in Mallophaga, a lateral emargination of the head in
which the eye is received posteriorly.
Ocular fleck: in Mallophdga, a small, intensely black spot of pigment in the
Ocular fringe: in Mallophaga, closely set small hair on posterior half of
ocular emargination, sometimes extending on temporal margin.
Ocular lobes: of brain = procerebrum ; q. v.
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 91
Ocular sclerite: the first or protocerebral segment of the head.
Ocular tubercles: in Aphids, are a group of prominent facets on the hinder
part of each eye.
Oculi-us: the eyes: an eye: refers to the compound eyes.
Oculocephalic: applied to that pair of imaginal buds destined to produce the
cephalic region in Hymcnoptera.
Odona: toothed: applied to Odonata by Fabricius because of the long teeth
on the maxilla and labium.
Odonata: net-veined insects with mandibulate mouth; head free; thorax ag-
glutinate ; wings similar, elongate, flat ; metamorphosis incomplete ; copu-
latory organs of male near base of abdomen, separate from the testes.
Odonate: bearing toothed mouth parts, like those of dragon flies.
Odoriferous: diffusing an odor; applied to glands or secreting organs.
(Ecology: see ecology.
CEdagus: the penis.
CEnocytes: large yellow cells arranged segmentally in clusters, in each side
of body cavity; associated with blood and fat bodies.
CEsophageal bone: a plate below anterior part of oesophagus in Psoddcc.
CEsophageal bulb: = subclypeal pump; q. v.
CEsophageal diverticula: food reservoirs (q. v.) ; but more generally
applied also to any sac-like structure connected with the gullet.
CEsophageal lobes: form posterior portion of brain or tritocerebrum.
CEsophageal valve: a funnel-like folding of the oesophagus, extending into
the chylific ventricle in some insects, and forming a valve that controls
the entrance of food into that organ : = cardiac valvule.
(Esophagus: the gullet: that part of the alimentary canal between the mouth
and the crop.
Olfactory: pertaining to the sense of smell: those lobes of the deutocerebrum
from which the nerves supplying the antennae arise.
Oligonephria: applied to insects with few urinary (Malpighian) tubes.
Oligoneura: having few wing veins: specifically applied in Diptcra to
Olivaceous: with a tinge of olive green, usually as a shading [olive green].
Omaloptera: the pupiparous flies.
Omia: the shoulders: the lateral anterior angles of an agglutinated thorax,
when they are distinct: = see umbone: in Coleoptera; a corneous sclerite
to which the muscles of the anterior coxa are attached; also the lateral
margin of the prothorax ; also the lateral margin of the scutellum in Cara-
bids and Dytiscids.
Ommateum: the compound eye.
Ommatidium-ia: one of the elements of which the compound eye is com-
Omnivorous: a general feeder upon animal or vegetable food, or both.
Oncus-i: a welt: applied to welt-like ridges on caterpillars.
Onisciform: shaped like a wood-louse, Oniscus sp. ; applied to certain Ly-
caenid and other caterpillars.
Ontogenetic : relating to the development of the individual.
92 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Ontogeny: the development of the individual as distinguished from that of
the species : see phylogeny.
Onyches: claws of tarsi.
Onychium -ia: small processes between the tarsal claws in many Diptcra:
see empodium : a more or less retractile process on the feet of some
beetles : in Hymcnoptcra, the apical tarsal joint bearing the claws: see also
arolium and pulvillus.
Ooblast: the primitive germinal nucleus of an egg.
Oogenesis: the process of egg-formation.
Oolemma: the cell wall of an egg: see vitelline membrane.
Ootheca: the covering or case over an egg mass, as in certain Ortlwptera:
see egg case.
Opacus: opaque; a surface without any lustre.
Opalescent: with a bluish white lustre, as in opals.
Opalinus: = opalescent ; q. v.
Opaque: without lustre: not transparent.
Operaria: the workers in Hymcnoptcra.
Operative: in working order or actually working.
Opercula: two plates covering the vocal structure of Cicada, beneath.
Operculum: a lid or covering: in Diptcra, the chitinous envelope covering
the lower part of the muscid mouth; the labrum-epipharynx of Dimmock :
the scutes covering the mesothoracic stigmata: in Alcurodidfc, the lid-like
structure closing the vasif orm orifice ; q. v.
Ophthalmic: relating to the eye.
Ophthalmotheca: that part of the pupa that covers the eyes.
Opisthogoneate: having the organs of generation at hind end of body.
Opisthogonia: the anal angle of the secondaries.
Opposite: placed over against, or opposed to.
Optic: relating to the organs of vision.
Optic ganglia: are at the sides of the procerebrum and innervate the com-
Optic lobes: the lateral lobes of the procerebrum in which are centered the
nerves supplying the organs of vision.
Opticon: the first of a series of three ganglionic swellings in the optic nerve:
see epiopticon and periopticon.
Optic segment: = procerebral segment; q. v.
Optic tract: is the perceptive portion of the compound eye.
Ora: a border: specifically in some Colcoptcra, the lateral margin of pro-
Ora coleopterorum: the margin of the elytra.
Orad: toward the mouth.
Oral: pertaining to the mouth.
Oral cavity: the mouth; =rbuccal cavity.
Oral fossa: in Mallophaga, a furrow lying in front of the mandibles.
Oral segment: that ring or segment which bears the mouth.
Orbicular: round and flat, the diameters of the plane equal: in some moths,
a round or oval macula in the median cell.
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 93
Orbit: an imaginary border around the eye: in Diptera the orbits are divided
into vertical or superior ; frontal and facial or anterior ; of the cheek or
inferior ; occipital or posterior.
Orbital sclerite: a narrow sclerite encircling some eyes.
Order: one of the primary divisions of the Class Insecta, based largely on
wing structure and then usually ending in -ptera.
Ordure: excrement; usually applied to such as is foul or offensive.
Orichalceous: = aurichalceous ; q. v.
Oriental: in geographical zoology as used by Wallace, that part of the earth's
surface including Asia east of the Indus River, south of the Himalayas
and the Yangtse-kiang watershed, Ceylon, Sumatra, Java and the Philip-
Orificium: the anal or genital opening.
Original type: is the actual specimen from which a published description is
Orismologia -y: the defining of scientific or technical terms.
Orthoptera: straight winged: an ordinal term applied to insects in which
the primaries are not used in flight, but cover the longitudinally folded
secondaries ; mouth mandibulate ; head set into prothorax, the latter free ;
Orthorrhapha: that section of Diptera in which the pupa escapes from larval
skin through a T-shaped opening on back : see cyclorrhapha.
Orthorrhaphous : straight-seamed.
Os: the mouth of insects, in general.
Oscillation: a vibrating or swinging from side to side.
Osculant: intermediate in character between two groups or series.
Osmaterium -ia: fleshy, tubular, eversible processes producing a penetrating
odor, capable of being projected through a slit in the prothoracic segment
of certain Papilionid caterpillars, and from openings elsewhere in the
bodies of other forms.
Osmosis: the tendency of liquids to pass or diffuse through a membrane or
Osselet: = ossicle; q. v.
Ossicle: a small nodule of chitin resembling a bone.
Ossicula: small corneous pieces that serve in the articulation of the wings
to the thorax.
Ostia: the slit-like openings of the heart.
Ostiolar canal: a marginal furrow leading from the ostiole.
Ostiole: in Hctcroptcra, the openings at the sides of meso- and metathorax,
through which an odoriferous fluid is excreted.
Ostium: singular of ostia; q. v.
-osus: an affix, signifying saturation, or the possession of the quality ex-
pressed in the stem word.
Otocyst: an auditory or ear-like vesicle.
Otolith: a little ear-bone: granules or concretions found in an otocyst.
Outer lobe: of maxilla = galea ; q. v.
Outer margin: the outer edge of wing, between apex and hind angle.
Ova, Ovum : the eggs ; an egg.
94 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Ova glebata: eggs laid or concealed in lumps of dung.
Ova imposita: eggs laid in the substance that is to serve as food for the
Oval: egg-shaped, with both ends similar.
Ova pilosa: eggs that are covered with hair; usually from the abdomen of
Ovarian tube: a tubular structure in which are developed the cells forming
the future ova : a single one of the mass which, taken together, form the
Ovaries: a mass of ovarian tubes, lying one on each side of the body cavity
of the female, in each of which tubes eggs or ova are developed : the indi-
vidual tubes of an ovary all converge to one oviduct.
Ovariole: an ovarian tube; q. v.
Ovary: singular of ovaries; q. v.
Ovate: in outline, egg-shaped or oval.
Oviduct: the tube through which the egg passes from ovarian tubes into
vagina : sometimes used in the sense of ovipositor ; q. v.
Oviparous: where reproduction is through eggs laid by the female.
Oviposition: the act of depositing the eggs.
Ovipositor: the tubular or valved structure by means of which the eggs are
placed ; usually concealed ; but sometimes extended far beyond the end of
Oviscapt: = ovipositor; q. v.
Ovivalvule: in Ephemeroptera; is an appendage of the female reproductive
Ovoviviparous: when living young are born from eggs which are hatched
in the body of the parent.
Pacific coast humid area: is that faunal area of the transition zone com-
prising the western parts of Washington and Oregon between the Coast
Mountains and Cascade range; parts of northern California and most of
the coast region from near Cape Mendocino south to the Santa Barbara
Mountains. To the south and east it passes into the arid transition and
in places into the upper Sonoran.
Pad: the pulvillus, or that part of it which is capable of extension and re-
traction in some Coleoptera.
Paddle: the flattened joints of posterior tarsi in aquatic Hemiptcra.
Paedogenesis: reproduction in the sexually immature or larval stage.
Paedogenetic: reproducing in the sexually immature or larval stage.
Pagina: the surface of a wing: P. superior, is the upper surface; P. inferior,
the lower surface: in Orthoptcra, the external flattened surface of the
Pagiopoda: Hcteroptcra, in which the posterior coxae are not globose and
the articulation is a hinge joint: see trochalopoda.
Pagiopodous: those Hctcroptera which have the coxae of the hind legs
hinged and the femora grooved.
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 95
Pala: the shovel-shaped tarsal joints in many aquatic Heteroptcra.
Palate : = hypopharynx ; q. v.
Paleace: chaff or chaffy: = paleaceous.
Paleaceous: chaffy in appearance.
Palearctic: relating to that part of the earth's surface including Europe,
Africa north of Sahara, and Asia as far south as the southern edge of the
Yangtse-kiang watershed and the Himalayas, and west to the Indus
Paleodictyoptera: an ordinal name suggested by Scudder for Paleozoic in-
sect* which cannot be assigned to existing orders.
Paleolepidoptera: haustellate Lcpidoptcra in which the mandibles are dis-
tinct and the pupa is free : includes the Micropterygidce only : see proto-
lepidoptera and neolepidoptera.
Pallescent: becoming pale or light in color or tint.
Pallette: the disc-like structure composed of three tarsal joints, on the
anterior feet of male Dytiscida.
Pallid: pale or very pale.
Pallide-flavens: pale or whitish yellow.
Pallidus: of a pale, cadaverous hue [a very dilute brown pink].
Pallium: an erectile membrane partially closing the open cavity formed by
the walls of the subgenital plate in Melanopli.
Palma: the basal segment of the anterior tarsus when it is broadened or
Palmate: like the palm of the hand, with finger-like processes.
Palmula: =pulvillus; q. v.
Palp: a mouth feeler or palpus.
Palpal: belonging, relating or attached to the palpi.
Palparium: in some Colcoptcra, and other insects, the membranous support
to which the labial palpi are attached, and which permits an amount of
extension not possible when they are fixed.
Palpi: plural of palpus; q. v.
Palpicorne: with long, slender, antenna-like palpi.
Palpifer: any palpus-bearing part: specifically, a small sclerite bearing the
maxillary palpus and itself articulated to the stipes.
Palpiferous or -gerous: bearing a palpus.
Palpiger: that sclerite of the labium to which the labial palpus is attached:
corresponds to the palpifer of the maxilla and has been used in the same
Palpigerous stipes: in Coleopterous larvae, = palpifer; q. v.
Palpuli: the maxillary palpi in Lcpidoptcra, when visibly developed.
Palpus: a mouth feeler: tactile, usually jointed structures borne by the
maxillae (maxillary palpi) and labium (labial palpi).
Panduriform: violin shaped: oblong, with rounded ends, medially constricted.
Panorpatas: =Mecoplcra; q. v.
Pantherine: in color, almost like cervinus ; q. v. : in maculation, like those
of a panther.
Papilioform: formed like a butterfly wing.
96 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Papilla: a minute, soft projection: specifically the modified ligula in silk-
Papillary: with nipple-like processes that have the tips rounded.
Papillate -us: a surface with small elevations which are porous at tip.
Papilliform: like a wart or pimple.
Papillose -us: pimply; a surface covered with raised dots or pimples.
Pappose: downy: made up or clothed with pappus.
Pappus: a fine down.
Para-: next to; near by; at the side of.
Parabiosis: see symbiosis.
Parabolic: elongately rounded.
Paraclypeal piece: in lepidopterous pupae, occurs in some of the generalized
families on each side of the maxillary palpi.
Paraclypeus: in caterpillars, a narrow sclerite bordering clypeus at sides.
Paraderm: the limiting membrane enclosing the pronymph of Muscidce.
Paraglossa: a paired, labial structure, lying at each side of the ligula; often
connected with it; sometimes free and two-jointed: corresponds to the
galea of maxilla.
Parallel: along the same line and nearly equidistant.
Paranal: at the side of or next to the anus or anal structures.
Paranal forks: two lateral, bristle-like structures in some caterpillars, used
to throw frass pellets to a distance.
Paranal lobes: = podical plates; q. v.
Paraphysis: the chitinized thickenings or lateral ingrowths, usually situated
at the base of the lobes in certain Diaspid genera.
Parapleura: the sternal side pieces in beetles.
Parapodia: the pro- or false legs: more specifically applied to the jointed
abdominal processes of the Symphyla.
Parapsidas: the small sclerites on each side of the scutellum in Chalcids,
marked by the parapsidal grooves.
Parapsidal furrows: longitudinal grooves on each side of the mesoscutum
of Proctytrypldcc separating the parapsides from the middle lobe.
Parapsidal grooves: the grooves or furrows on each side of the Chalcid
scutellum, defining the parapsidse.
Parapsides: lateral pieces of the mesoscutum, separated from the mesal
portion by the parapsidal furrows.
Parapteron-era: small sclerites, articulated to the dorsal extremity of the
episternum, just below the wings; absent on prothorax : = the tegulas of
Hymenoptera, and patagia of Lcpidoptcra: have been homologized with
the elytra of Colcoptera.
Parasita: =parasitica; q. v.
Parasite: a species that lives in or on another animal or insect, and depends
upon the tissue of the host for its food supply.
Parasitic: living on or in some other animal or insect in such a way as to
derive all nourishment from the tissues of the host.
Parasitica: the sucking lice: wingless; without metamorphosis; mouth with
piercing lancets ; thoracic segments similar ; habits epizootic.
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 97
Parasitism: a form of symbiosis in which one party lives upon or at the ex-
pense of the other, makes no return and destroys its host : see symbiosis :
Parastigma: = pterostigma ; q. v.
Parastigmatic glands: small, circular glands, which secrete a waxy powder,
sometimes present around the spiracles of Coccidoe.
Paratype: is every specimen of the series from which the type was selected:
see type and cotype.
Parce: sparse or sparsely.
Parcidentate: with few teeth.
Parenchymatous: composed of soft cellular and connective tissue.
Parietes: walls: the perpendicular sides of elevated bodies.
Paronychium -ia: one or more bristle-like appendages of onychia ; q. v.
Parthenogenetic: see asexual.
Parthenogenesis: reproduction by direct growth of germs from egg-cells
without fertilization by the male element ; as in plant lice, gall wasps, etc.
Particolored: partly of one, partly of another color: divided into two or
more color fields.
Partite -us: divided; e. g., the eyes of Gyrinidcc.
Parum: not much.
Patagium-ia: in Lepidoptcra, those sclerites that cover the base of pri-
maries : often used as synonymous with tegula and squamula, q. v. : assigned
by some writers to the pro-, by others to the mesothorax : homologized
with the paraptera of mesothorax.
Patella -ge: the modified joints of anterior tarsi in Dytiscidcs ; plate-like,
horny or spongy structures on the undersides of the tarsal joints : the first
Patella r: pertaining to the knee-joint or cap.
Patellariae: in Dytiscids, the unequal, cup-like impressions on the underside
of the patella.
Patens, Patentes: open; diverging; spreading apart.
Patria: home or country of origin.
Patulous -ose: open, spreading.
Paunch: a crop-like accessory pouch in some Mallophaga: any pouch-like
appendage of the alimentary canal.
Paurometabolous: metamorphosis in which the changes of form are gradual
and inconspicuous : e. g., Orthoptcra and most Rhynchota.
Pavillions: the sheds or cells sometimes built by ants as a shelter for groups
of plant lice.
Paxilla: a small stake or peg: a bundle of spicular processes.
Pearlaceous: having the appearance of pearl.
Pecten: a comb: in Hymcnoptcra, rigid, incurved set-e on the basal parts of
maxilla and labium : the rows of spines on the feet of pollen-gathering
bees : any series of bristles arranged like a comb : in mosquito larvae the
comb-like teeth on the breathing tube.
Pectinate: comb-shaped: with even branches like the teeth of a comb.
Pectinato-fimbriate: having pectinations that are fringed with hair.
98 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Pectoralis: relating to the breast.
Pectoral plate: in Coleoptera, the sternum.
Pectunculate: with a row of minute appendages like the teeth of a comb;
e. g., some maxillary structures.
Pectus: the ventral portion of thorax: variably applied; in Coleoptera, for
the entire meso- and metathorax ; also the pro- and mesosternum ; in
Diptera, is the inferior surface of the thorax between the legs.
Pedal line: in caterpillars; extends along the base of the feet.
Pedal tubercle: on the thoracic and abdominal rings of caterpillars; on the
anterior side of leg-base and, correspondingly, on apodal segments : is VII
of the abdomen where it consists of three setae ; VI of the thorax where
the setae are not numbered; constant (Dyar).
Pedamina: the aborted fore-legs of Nymphalid butterflies.
Pedate: foot-bearing, or having feet.
Peddler: applied to the larvae of such Cassid beetles as carry their excre-
ment and cast skins on an anal fork.
Pedes: the feet, or really, legs.
Pedicellus or Pedicle: the third joint in a geniculate antenna; forming the
pivot between scape and funicle : in general, a stalk or stem.
Pediculosis: a state of lousiness, or the abnormal condition caused by the
multiplication of lice on the body : see phthiriasis.
Pediculous: lousy; infested with lice.
Peduncle: a stalk or petiole: the basal joint of the antenna in Homoptera:
the smaller of the two stalks supporting the mushroom body ; q. v.
Pedunculated: set on a stalk or peduncle: attached by a slender stalk or
Pelagic: inhabiting the sea, far from land.
Pellicles: the exuviae or cast larval skins of many insects: in Coccida more
especially applied to the hardened larval skin attached to the puparia of
Pellit: covered with long, drooping hairs, irregularly placed.
Pellucid: colored, but transparent: sometimes applied when there is no color.
Pelotons: the balls of fine tracheae in larva?, developed to supply the adult
Pelottae: = arolia ; q. v.
Peltate: shield- or target-shaped.
Penal claspers: in Proctytripidcc: lateral fringed processes of the male
Penal sheath: the horny outer covering of the penis.
Pencil: a little, elongated brush of hair: in Diptcra, applied to a group of
sensory hairs on the flagellum of the antenna.
Pendent: hanging down.
Pendulous: drooping; hanging free, attached to one end only.
Penes: open, slit-like structures of the seminal vesicles to the outer surface
Penicillate: with a long, flexible brush or pencil of hair; often at the end
of a thin stalk.
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 99
Penicilli: a pair of small style or cerci-like pieces on the tip of the 8th
dorsal segment of abdomen of various male Hymcnoptera.
Penicilliform: pencil-like or shaped.
Penicillum: a pencil or brush of long hair attached at the end of a stalk as
long as the brush, and folded in a lateral groove in some male moths.
Penis: the flexible, membranous, intromittent organ of the male.
Pennaceous: = pennate.
Pennate: feathered or bearing feather-like processes.
Penniform: feather-like in form.
Pentagon -um: a five-sided figure with five equal or unequal angles.
Pentamera: Coleoptera with 5-jointed tarsi.
Pentamerous: species having five-jointed tarsi.
Penultimate: next to the last.
Peptone: a soluble proteid compound produced by the digestion of alba-
menoid food substances.
Per-: as a prefix, means very; extremely; through.
Percipient: with the power of perceiving.
Percurrent: running through the entire length.
Pereion: the prothorax.
Pereipoda: the second and third pair of thoracic legs of larvae, and the 2d
pair in adults.
Perfoliate: divided into leaf -like plates: applied to antennae with disc-like
expansions connected by a stalk passing nearly through their centres ; also
to any part possessing a well-developed leaf-like or plate-like expansion.
Pergamenous: thin, partly transparent; resembling parchment.
Peri-: round about.
Periopticon: a complex nerve structure back of the basilar membrane of the
Pericardia!. around, or belonging to the heart.
Pericardial cavity: the space between the diaphragm and dorsal body wall,
which contains the heart.
Pericardial cells: specialized cells, which lie along both sides of the heart,
and whose function it is to purify the blood.
Pericardial chamber: is the open space around the heart or dorsal vessel.
Pericardial diaphragm: a delicate membranous tissue attached to the ventral
surface of the heart and laterally to the body wall: = dorsal diaphragm;
wings of the heart.
Peri-intestinal: that part of the body cavity around the alimentary canal.
Peri-neural: situated around a nerve: the body cavity immediately surround-
ing the nervous system.
Periodical: recurring at regular intervals.
Periopticon: third ganglionic swelling of optic tract: see opticon.
Peripheral: referring to the outer margin.
Peripheria: the entire outline of the body.
Periphery: the circumference or outer margin.
Peripneustic: larvae which have the spiracles absent on middle and posterior
thoracic rings, and present on all other body segments.
100 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Peripodal cavities: pouches in the embryo in which the rudiments of the
future legs and wings are developed.
Peripodal membrane: the cell layer surrounding the peripodal cavities.
Peristaltic: that periodic motion of the alimentary canal by means of which
the food is forced toward the anal extremity.
Peristethium: the mesosternum.
Peristoma -ium: the border of the mouth or oral margin in Diptcra; some-
times used as = epistoma ; q. v.
Peristome: a membranous tissue surrounding the mouth parts at base, and
forming the true ventral wall of the head.
Peritoneal: applied to the membrane surrounding the viscera, trachea, and
other internal structures.
Peritracheal: surrounding the trachea.
Peritreme: the corneous sclerite surrounding a spiracle.
Peritrophic membrane: a funnel-like extension of the fore-gut, extending
back tube-like, through the chylifk ventricle in some insects.
Perivisceral: the cavity containing the alimentary canal and its appendages.
Perlate : beaded : bearing relieved, rounded points in series.
Perpendicular: upright: at right angles to horizontal.
Persicinus: the red of peach blossoms.
Persistent: remaining constantly; always present.
Personate: gaping; wide open; masked; disguised.
Pes, Pedes: a foot; feet.
Petiolar area or Petiolarea: on the metanotum of some Hymenoptcra, the
apical or hindmost of the three median cells : = 3d median area ; apical
Petiolata: that series of Hymcnoptera in which there is a slender stalk be-
tween the thorax and abdomen : = apocrita.
Petiolate: supported or placed on a stem or stalk; usually applied in de-
scribing venation and the method of attachment of abdomen to thorax.
Petiole: a stem or stalk: specifically the slender segment between the thorax
and abdomen in many Hymenoptera, and some Diptcra.
Phaeism: applied to a duskiness of butterflies occurring in a limited region.
Phagocyte: a corpuscle or cell that devours or absorbs noxious organisms
and also absorbs the organs of the larval stage in the development to the
Phagocytosis: the destruction or devouring of bacteria or other micro-
organisms by phagocytes.
Phalsenae: a Linnaean term embracing most of the heterocerous Lcpidoptcra.
more specifically applied to the Gcometridce.
Phalanx -ges: a joint or joints of the tarsus: a division of classification of
uncertain value ; similar to tribe.
Phallus: = penis ; q. v.
Pharyngeal pump: = sucking pump; q. v.
Pharynx: the back part of the mouth and upper part of the throat: a slight
enlargement at the beginning of the oesophagus : in Diptera is sometimes
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 101
restricted to the space between the hypopharynx and subclypeal pump, and
is then = subclypeal tube.
Phauloptera: an ordinal term for the scale insects (Laporte 1835).
Phleboptera: = Hymenoptera; q. v.
Phonetic: sound producing; applied to stridulating structures.
Phosphorescent: shining or glowing in the dark, like phosphorus.
Photogenic: a light producing structure; producing a phosphorescent glow.
Phragma: a partition or dividing membrane: longitudinal, thin partitions
passing down from the dorsum of meso- and metathorax : the partition
formed by the inflexed hinder edge of prothorax.
Phragmocyttares: social wasps in which the combs of the nest are wholly
or partly supported by the covering envelope : see stelocyttares ; pcecilo-
Phthiriasis: a diseased condition of the skin caused by sucking lice.
Phyllophagous: feeding upon leaf tissue.
Phylogenetic: relating to tribal or stem development.
Phylogeny: the development of a genus, family, tribe or class: see ontogeny.
Phyloptera: the superordinal term proposed to include all the net-veined
orders, the Orthoptera and Dermatoptcra.
Phylum: a stem or tribe: used in classification to indicate a series of related
Physopoda: bladder-footed: = Thysanoptcra; q. v.
Phytophaga: plant-eaters: beetles in which the 4th and 5th tarsal joints are
anchylosed and the 3d is lobed.
Phytophagus: feeding upon plants.
Phytophilous: plant loving: species that live on plants.
Phytophthira: plant lice: some authors include also scale insects.
Phytoscopic: characters of light or conditions of illumination that affect
colors of caterpillars.
Piceous-eus: pitchy black.
Picine: black, with a bluish oily lustre.
Pick: a chitinous maxillary structure in Psocidcc.
Pieza: the combined biting and sucking mouth of the Hymenoptera.
Piezata: the Fabrician term for Hymenoptera,
Pigment: any coloring matter or material that gives a color appearance.
Pile: a hairy or fur-like covering: in Diptera, applied to thick, fine, short,
erect hair, giving a surface appearance like velvet.
Pilifer or Piliger: a small sclerite at each side of the clypeus in Lcpidoptera,
resembling a rudimentary mandible.
Pilifer ous: with a covering of fine hair or pile.
Pillared eye: in Ephemerids, that type which is placed on a cylindrical stalk
or process : = turbinate eye.
Pilous or Pilose: clothed with down, or dense pile: with long, sparse hair.
Pilosity: a covering of fine, long hair.
Pincers: the anal forceps.
Pinna: a narrow wing; a feather.
Pinnae: of posterior femur in jumping Orthoptcra, are the oblique ridges
running to the median line and somewhat resembling a feather.
102 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Pinnate: feather-like; cleft, like the wings of Alucita: with markings re-
sembling a feather : with stiff hairs or thorny processes occupying opposite
sides of a thin shank.
Pinnatifid: divided into feathers, as when wings are cleft nearly to the base.
Pistazinus: yellowish green, with a slight brownish tinge [pale green with a
little burnt sienna].
Plaga: a spot, stripe or streak of color; a longitudinal spot of irregular
Plaited: longitudinally folded or laid in pleats.
Planate: with a flattened surface.
Plane: level, flat; applied to a surface.
Planipennia: applied to Ncuroptcra in which the wings are large and laid
flat on the body when at rest; Sialida>, Myrmeleomdcc, etc.
Planta-ae: the basal ioint of the posterior tarsus in pollen-gathering Hy-
menoptera: the soles of the posterior tarsal joints: the anal clasping legs
Plantigrade: species that walk on the entire foot, not on the claws alone.
Plantula: a lobe of the divided tarsal pulvillus ; one of the soles or climbing
cushions of the foot : see arolium ; pulvillus.
Plaques: the small leathery hemelytra in some Naucorids.
Plasma: the liquid portion of animal fluids and cells.
Plasticity: the capacity for being formed, moulded or developed.
Plate: any broad flattened piece or sclerite: = squame, in Coccidce.
Platelet: a little plate or sclerite of chitin in a membrane.
Plates: in Coccida:, the squames ; q. v. : in male Homoptcra, a pair of pieces
following the last full ventral segment ; usually preceded by a short piece
Platyptera: flat and broad-winged: an ordinal term applied to insects with
four net-veined wings, secondaries longitudinally folded beneath primaries ;
mouth mandibulate ; prothorax free; transformations complete: Psocida,
Termitidtz, Perlidcc and M-allopliaga.
Plecoptera or Plectoptera: plaited winged: an ordinal term applied to net-
veined insects in which the secondaries are longitudinally folded beneath
primaries; mouth mandibulate; body loosely jointed; prothorax free; meta-
morphosis incomplete : the term Plecoptera was used by Brauer for Per-
lid(c ; Plectoptera by Packard for the Ephcmcrida; there has been some
confusion since, and both have been used in the Brauer sense.
Pleon: = abdomen ; q. v.
Pleopoda: abdominal legs of larvae: posterior legs of an adult.
Plesiobiosis: see symbiosis.
Plesiotype: any specimen identified with a described or named species by a
person other than the describer.
Pleura: plural of pleuron or pleurum: the lateral sclerites between the dorsal
and sternal portion of the thorax : in general, the sides of the body between
the dorsum and sternum.
Pleural areas: on the metanotum of some Hymcnoptcra, the three spaces
between the lateral and pleural carinse ; the 1st or anterior =. spiracular
area; the 2d or central = middle pleural; the 3d or posterior angular
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 103
Pleural carinae: in Hymenoptera, extend along the exterior margin of the
Pleural pieces: the lateral sclerites of the thorax: see pleura.
Pleurites: the sclerites into which the pleurum is divided.
Pleuron: the side of the thorax.
Pleuropodia: embryonic or temporary bands formed by the modified first
pair of abdominal legs in many insects.
Pleurostict: lamellicorn beetles in which the abdominal spiracles are situated
on the dorsal portion of the ventral sclerites.
Pleurum: pleuron; plural, pleura; q. v.
Plexus: a knot: applied to a knot-like mass of nerves, or tracheae.
Plica: a fold or wrinkle: a longitudinal plait of a wing.
Plicate: plaited; folded like a fan.
Plications: foldings; applied to the folds on the hind wings of Orthoptcra.
Plicipenna: =.Trichoptcra; proposed by Latreille.
Plumate: like a feather.
Plumbeus: leaden or bluish gray [neutral].
Plumose: feathered; like a plume: antenme that have long ciliated processes
on each side of each joint : see cirrate.
Plump: with full, rounded outlines; not obese.
Plumules: specialized scales of the androconia of Lcpidoptcra.
Pluri-: as a prefix, means many.
Pluri-dentate: with many teeth.
Pluri-setose: bearing several seta; as the head in some Carabids.
Pluri-valve: with several valves or valve-like appendages.
Pneumogastric: the ganglion supplying nerves for the tracheal and digestive
system: also used as = vagus ; q. v.
Pneustocera: breathing horns: the prolongations of the metathoracic spira-
cles in Berytldcc, etc.
Pnystega: in Odonata, applied by Charpentier to a portion of mesonotum.
Pobrachial: a longitudinal vein of the Ephemerid wing just behind praa-
brachial ; usually simple : number 7 of some systems.
Podeon: in Hymenoptera, the petiole; the true second abdominal segment.
Podex: the upper plate of the anal opening; = supra-anal or sur-anal plate
Podical plates: the latero-ventral plates attached to the 10th abdominal seg-
ment of Orthoptcra; the two pieces on each side of the vent, thought by
Huxley to be rudiments of an llth abdominal ring; united they form the
tergite of a rudimentary ring : anal valves ; paranal lobes.
Pododunera: apterous insects' with biting mouth structures.
Podotheca: that part of pupa that covers the legs of future adult.
Poecilocyttares: social wasps that build their combs around the branch or
other support covered by the envelope : see stelocyttares and phragmo-
Poisers: = halteres and balancers; q. v.
Poison glands: sometimes applied to the salivary glands of bugs and biting
flies ; more usually to an abdominal gland connected with the sting of fe-
104 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Policate: a tibia produced inwardly into a short, bent spine or thumb.
Politus: smooth, shiny, polished.
Pollen: a dusty or pruinose surface covering which is easily rubbed off; used
mostly in Dipt era.
Pollen-plate: a polished area margined by hair, on the outer face of the tibia
Pollex: a thumb: the stout fixed spur at inside of tip of tibia.
Pollicatus: = policate ; q. v.
Polliniferous: formed for collecting pollen; pollen bearing.
Pollinigerous: = polliniferous ; q. v.
Pollinose: covered with a yellow, pollen-like dust.
Poly-: many, much.
Polyandry: where a female mates with more than one male.
Polychromatic: many colored.
Polydomous: applied to ants when one colony has several nests.
Polyembryony: the production of several embryos from a single egg, as in
Polygamy: where a male mates with more than one female.
Polygonal: with many angles.
Polygoneutism: the power to produce several broods in one season.
Polymorpha: the claviform and serricorn Colcoptcra, as a whole.
Polymorphic -ous: occurring in several forms; differing in sex, in season, in
locality or without apparent reason : undergoing several changes, and in
this sense applied to insects with a complete metamorphosis.
Polynephria: applied to insects with many urinary (Malpighian) tubes.
Polyphagous: eating many kinds of food.
Polyphyletic: derived or descended from several stems or sources.
Polypodous: having many feet, and thus specifically applied to the Myria-
poda, and to the larvae of Lcpidoptcra and saw-flies, in contradistinction to
footless and hexapodous larvae.
Ponderable: that which may be weighed.
Pone: behind (the middle).
Ponticulus: =frenulum; q. v.
Porcate: marked with raised longitudinal lines.
Pore: any small, round opening on the surface.
Poriferous: closely set with deep pittings or punctures.
Porose-us: with little round openings on the surface.
Porrect: stretched out forward: straightly prominent.
Post-: behind or after.
Post-alar callosities: rounded processes at the posterior lateral margin of
the dorsum, in Diptera.
Post-alar callus: in Diptera, a rounded swelling between the root of the
wing and the scutellum.
Post-alar membrane: the strip of membrane connecting the squamae with the
Postal vein: in Hymenoptera, = costa (Comst.).
Post-annellus: in Hymenoptera, the 4th joint of antenna and 2d of flagellum.
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 105
Post-antennal organs: in Cnllcnibola, oblong or ellipsoidal organs situated
just caudad of the bases of the antennae.
Post-brachial: = pobrachial ; q. v.
Post-cerebral: applied to that pair of salivary glands in bees, situated close
to the posterior wall of the head.
Post-clypeus: in Odonata, the upper of the two parts into which the clypeus
is divided : in Psocidcc, a peculiar inflated structure behind the clypeus : in
general, the posterior or upper part of clypeus when any line of demarca-
tion exists : = supra-clypeus ; nasus ; afternose ; paraclypeus ; first clypeus ;
Post-costa: =rsub-costa (Comst.) : in Odonata = 1st anal vein (Comst.) :
in Trichoptera =' anal.
Post-costal space: Odonata; the cell or cells lying posterior to the post-
costa ; = anal cell (Comst.).
Post-cubitals: = post-nodal spaces; q. v.
Post-dorsulum: the middle piece of the metanotum, between the meso-
phragma and post-scutellum.
Post-embryonic-otic: the stage after the insect has come out of the egg.
Post-epistoma: that part of the head behind the clypeus in Hymcnoptera:
see also post-clypeus.
Posterior: hinder or hindmost; opposed to anterior: in Diptcra; applied to
that face of the legs which is not visible when viewed from the front, the
legs being laterally extended.
Posterior angle: of thorax, in Colcoptcra, is the lateral angle near base of
elytra : of the wings hind angle ; anal angle ; q. v.
Posterior cells: in Diptcra (Will.) : 1st = radial 5 (Comst.) : 2d medial 1
(Comst.): 3d = 2d medial 2 (Comst.): 4th = medial 3 (Comst.): 5th
= cubitus 1 (Comst.).
Posterior cephalic foramen: in Odonata, the opening of head posteriorly
through which the cavities of head and thorax communicate.
Posterior field: of tegmina, =anal field; q. v.
Posterior intercalary: in Diptcra, is one of the anal veins (Comst.).
Posterior lateral margins: in Orthoptcra, extend from base of pronotum
downward to the posterior angle of sides.
Posterior lobe: of the pronotum in Orthoptcra, see lobe: in Diptera, that
part of wing between axillary incision and base : = alar appendage
Posterior margin: = inner margin; q. v.
Posterior pereion: the metanotum.
Posterior pleon: the terminal segments of the abdomen.
Posterior pleopoda: the anal clasping legs of caterpillars: see planta.
Posterior stigmatal tubercle: on thoracic and abdominal segments of cater-
pillars ; varies in position from substigmatal to stigmatal posterior ; some-
times united to V : it is IV of the abdomen, II of the thorax (Dyar).
Posterior trapezoidal tubercle: on the thoracic and abdominal segments of
caterpillars ; subdorsal, posterior, always present, rarely united with I : it
is II of the abdomen, Ib of the thorax (Dyar).
Posterior veins: those separating the posterior cells.
106 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Posterior wings: = secondaries ; q. v.
Postero-dorsal: Dipt era; applied to leg bristles at the meeting of the dorsal
and posterior face,
Postero-ventral: Dipt era; applied to leg bristles at the meeting of the
ventral and posterior face.
Postfurca: an internal process of metasternum to which the muscles of hind
legs are attached.
Post-gena: the sclerite below occiput and behind gena in some Orthofitera.
Post-gula: is situated at the extreme base of the underside of the head in
Post-humeral bristles: in Dipt era, are usually two, inserted above the dorso-
pleural suture between the humeral callus and root of wing, on the bottom
of the presutural depression.
Postical vein: in Diptcra, = '5th longitudinal (Meig.) ; = media 3 (Comst.).
Post-media: Ephcmerida; an apparently distinct vein between media and
Post-medial line: in Lepidoptera, = t. p. line; q. v.
Post-median: Diptera; those leg bristles situated above or behind the middle.
Post-nodal cross- veins: in Odonata, the transverse veins between costa and
radius 1, and radius 1 and media 1, from nodus to stigma, separating the
post-nodal cells or spaces : = post-cubital cross-veins.
Post-nodal costal spaces: in Odonata, the cells below costal margin from
nodus to stigma.
Post-nodal radial spaces: in Odonata, the cells between radius 1 and media
1, from nodus to outer margin.
Post-nodal sector: in Odonata, a longitudinal vein lying between media 1
and media 2 (Comst.) : = ultra-nodal sector.
Post-oral: behind the mouth; those segments bearing mouth structures.
Post-pectus: the under surface of the metathorax.
Post-petiole: in Hymcnoptcra, that part of abdomen behind petiole.
Post-retinal: the fibres arising from the facets of the compound eye and ex-
tending into the ganglionic plate.
Post-scutellum: the fourth and posterior sclerite of the dorsum of the
Post-scutum: in Trichoptcra, the little plate behind the scutellum of meso-
thorax : = post-scutellum.
Post-stigmatal: that portion of the marginal cell beyond the stigma in bees:
= 2d radial 1 (Comst.).
Post-stigmatal primary tubercle: on thoracic segment of caterpillars; sub-
primary, stigmatal, posterior; it is III of the thorax and not present on
Post-subterminal: following the s. t. line in Lepidoptera.
Post-sutural bristles: in Diptcra, dorsal bristles behind transverse suture.
Post-terga: applied to the posterior scutes of the segments of Coleopterous
Post-triangular cells: = discoidal areolets ; q. v.
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 107
Post- vertical cephalic bristles: in Diptera, are in the middle of upper part
Pouch: in Trielwptcra, a depressed, usually longitudinal area in a wing.
Pras- or Pre-: anterior to; before.
Praebrachial: a longitudinal vein in middle of an Ephemerid wing; usually
forked : no. 6 of some systems.
Prascostal spur: a false vein in costal angle at base of secondaries.
Prae-dorsum: =prophragma; q. v.
Prse-labrum: in Diptera, clypeus; q. v.
Praeocular: before the eyes.
Prasputium: the external membranous covering of penis: specifically a
spherical muscular mass at base of penis in some Orthoptera.
Prae-scutellum: a sclerite, rarely present, between the meso-scutum and
Prae-scutum : the first of the four divisions of the notum of the thoracic
Prae-subterminal: preceding the s. t. line in Lcpidoptcra.
Pras-terga: the anterior thoracic scutes in coleopterous larvae.
Praa-tornal: preceding the tornus (q. v.) in Lcpidoptcra.
Prasinus: grass-green [apple green].
Pratinicolous: frequenting or living in grassy meadows or bogs.
Pre-alar callus: a small swelling or projection before the root of wings,
just back of outer ends of transverse suture, in Diptera.
Pre-anal: above or before the anal opening.
Pre-anal plate or lamina: supra-anal plate; q. v.
Pre-antennal: anterior to or before the antenna.
Pre-apical: before the apex.
Pre-balancer: = pre-halter ; q. v.
Pre-basilar: before the base.
Precocious stages: generally applied to all stages of development from the
fertilized egg to the pupa.
Precurrent: continuous; entire; complete; said of a vein.
Predaceous: applied to insects that live by preying upon other organisms.
Predatory: = predaceous ; q. v.
Pre-eruciform: before the caterpillar stage: specifically applied to the early
larvae of some Proctytrypida.
Preformation: the doctrine of growth or development from already existing
rudiments ; opposed to epigenesis ; q. v.
Pre-furca: "the stem vein in front of a fork, that reaches back to where
itself forks from another vein " ; Diptera.
Pregenicular: in Orthoptera, that portion of femur proximad the knee.
Pregenicular annulus: a more or less conspicuous color ring on the caudal
femora proximad the knee in Orthoptera.
Pre-halter: a membranous scale in front of the true haltere of a fly.
Prehension: structures fitted for grasping or holding.
Pre-mandibular: situated in front of the mandible: applied to a temporary
segment of the embryo : = intercalary segment.
108 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Pre-media: Ephcmcridce; an apparently distinct vein between radius and
Premorse: as if bitten off: with a blunt or jagged termination.
Prensor: the genital lateral clasping organ of male Lcpidoptcra: see clasper.
Pre-ocular: see prse-ocular.
Pre-oral: in front of the mouth: the embryonic head segments before those
bearing the mouth parts.
Prepuce: =prseputium; q. v.
Pre-pupal: that stage in the larva just preceding the change to pupa.
Pre-scutellar bristles: in Dipt era, are in a transverse row in front of the
Pre-scutellar callus: = post-alar callus; q. v.
Pre-scutellar rows: in Dipt era, short rows of small bristles in front of the
Press: = filator ; q. v.
Pressure plate: a structure at base of pulvillus, which exerts a pressure on
the sole of the pad.
Pre-sutural bristles: in Dipt era, in a trigonate depression at outer ends of
transverse suture, near dorso-pleural suture.
Pre-sutural inter-alar bristle: the single bristle of the interalar series, situ-
ated before the transverse suture.
Primaries: the anterior or fore-wings.
Primitive: simple in character; of an early or ancient type.
Principal sector: in Odonata, extends from its point of separation from the
median sector to the outer margin, at or just below the apex: = media 1
Principal sulcus: in Orthoptcra, a transverse impression of the prothorax,
at or behind the middle.
Priodont: applied to those forms of male Lucanids that have the smallest
mandibles : see teleodont, mesodont, amphiodont.
Prismatic: formed like a prism: a play of colors similar to that produced
through a prism.
Pro-: anterior: used as a prefix to designate the parts of the first thoracic
Proboscidea: an ordinal term for the Coccidcc.
Proboscis: generally applied to any extended mouth structure; usually ap-
plied to the extensile mouth of the Diptera; frequently to the beak of
Hcmiptcra; sometimes to the tongue of Lcpidoptcra; and rarely, to the
mouth of long-tongued bees.
Procephalic: relating or belonging to the procephalon.
Procephalic lobes: in the embryo, form part of the anterior, overhanging
portion of the head.
Procephalon: that segment of the head in the embryo which is formed by
the coalescence of the first three primitive segments.
Procerebral: that segment of the brain containing the median protocerebrum
and optic ganglia ; also called optic segment.
Procerebral lobes: the central portion of the cerebrum, made up of the fused
median lobes, giving rise to the mushroom bodies ; q. v.
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 109
Procerebrum: the anterior part of the brain, formed by the ganglion of the
first primary segment ; also termed ocular lobe, from the part it innervates.
Process: a prolongation of the surface, margin, or an appendage: any promi-
nent portion of the body not otherwise definable.
Process of labrum: in bees = appendicle ; q. v.
Procidentia: the narrow projecting tip of 7th dorsal segment in Nematince.
Proclinate: directed forward; applied to hair or bristles.
Proctodaeum: the invagination of epiblast that produces the anus and intes-
tine as far forward as and including malpighian tubes.
Proculiform or Poculiform: hollow, cylindrical, with a hemispherical base,
the sides at top straight : goblet-shaped.
Procumbent: trailing; prostrate; lying flat.
Produced: drawn out; prolonged; extended from.
Proeminent: said of the head when it is horizontal and does not form an
angle with the thorax.
Profile: the outline as seen from the side.
Profound, Profundus: deep.
Prognathus: having the jaws directed forward.
Progoneate: with the genital opening on an anterior body segment.
Progonia: the anterior angle of the secondaries.
Proleg: any process or appendage that serves the purpose of a leg: specifi-
cally the fleshy unjointed abdominal legs of caterpillars and certain saw-fly
larva : = abdominal feet : false legs.
Proloma: the anterior margin of the secondaries.
Prolonged: extended or lengthened beyond ordinary limits.
Promeros: the first abdominal segment in Lepidoptera.
Prominent: raised or produced beyond the level or margin: standing out in
relief by color or otherwise : conspicuous.
Promuscidate: with proboscis or extended mouth structure.
Promuscis: an extended mouth structure: has been applied to the long tongue
of bees and to the rostrate structure in Hemiptera.
Pronotal carina: in Orthoptera, the main or median carina on pronotum.
Pronotum: the upper or dorsal surface of the prothorax.
Pronucleus: the nucleus of male and female elements, spermatozoa and ova,
the union of which forms the nucleus of a fertilized ovum.
Pronymph: is that stage in certain metabolous insects in which the larval
tissues are completely broken down, and the imaginal tissues are just be-
ginning to build up.
Proparaptera: the paraptera of the prothorax; the term is erroneously ap-
plied in this connection.
Propedes: = prolegs ; q. v.
Prophragma: the anterior dividing wall of meso-thorax, which is horny and,
at its upper edge, bears the connecting membrane between pro- and meso-
Prop-leg: = pro-leg ; q. v.
Propleura: the lateral portions of prothorax.
Propleural bristles: in Dipt era, are situated immediately above the front
coxa : = prothoracic bristle ; q. v.
110 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Propneustic: larval forms in which only the most anterior spiracles occur.
Propodeon: = propodeum.
Propodeum: in Hymcnoptcra, that part of thorax just above insertion of
abdomen, and really the first abdominal segment : see median segment.
Propolis: a glue or resin-like product elaborated by bees to serve as a cement
in cases where wax is not sufficiently tenacious.
Propulsatory: that which drives onward or forward.
Propupa: a semi-pupa; q. v.
Propygidium: the dorsal segment or tergite in front of the pygidium, some-
times left exposed in Coleoptera.
Propygium: = hypopygium; q. v.
Proscutum: the scutum of the pronotum.
Proscutellum: the scutellum of the pronotum.
Prostemmatic: = ante-ocular ; q. v.
Prosternal: belonging to the prosternum.
Prosternal grooves: occur laterally in some Coleoptera, e. g., Elaterida, to
receive the antennae.
Prosternal epimera: the epimera of prothorax.
Prosternal episterna: the episterna of prothorax.
Prosternal lobe: in some Coleoptera, an anterior prolongation of the pro-
sternum which more or less conceals the mouth from below.
Prosternal spine: the curved mucro in Elatcridce which extends backward
into a meso-sternal cavity : the cone or tubercle between fore-legs in some
Prosternal suture: that suture of prothorax which separates the sternum
from the pleural pieces.
Prosternellum: the sternellum of the prothorax.
Prosternum: the fore-breast: the sclerite between the fore-legs.
Prostheca: a mandibular sclerite set with hair, articulated to the basalis
q. v. and equal to the lacinia of the maxilla.
Protamphibion: a name applied by P. Mayer to the hypothetical common
ancestor of the Perlina, Ephemerina and Odonata.
Protandry: the appearance of males earlier in the season than females.
Protarsus: the tarsus of the anterior leg.
Proteiform: having many forms or varieties: protean.
Protergum: in Odonata, the upper surface of prothorax.
Proterotypes: primary types, including all the material upon which the
original description is based.
Prothoracic bristle: in Dipt era, a strong bristle immediately above the front
coxa : see propleural bristles.
Prothoracic glands: occur in Orthoptera, on the sides of prothorax in cer-
tain Phasmid genera.
Prothoracic shield: = cervical shield; q. v.
Prothoracotheca: the pupal covering of prothorax.
Prothorax: the first thoracic ring or segment; bears the anterior legs but
no wings : when free, as in Coleoptera, is usually referred to as " thorax "
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. Ill
Protocerebral segment: ocular segment; q. v.
Protocerebrum: the primitive anterior cerebral vesicle.
Protocosta: the thickened costal margin of Lepidopterous wings.
Protocranium: the posterior part of the epicranium : sometimes used as
Protogonia: the apical angle of the primaries.
Protograph: an original description by a figure or picture made from the
Proto-lepidoptera: proposed for those forms (Eriocephalidce') in which
lacinia and mandibles are obvious and the spiral tongue is not developed :
see neolepidoptera and paleolepidoptera.
Protolog: the original description by words.
Protoloma: the anterior margin of primaries.
Protomesal: applied to certain areolets in Hymenoptcra, situated between
costal cells and apical margin.
Prototergite: the foremost dorsal segment of abdomen.
Protothorax: = prothorax; q. v.
Prototype: a primitive form to which later forms can be traced.
Protractor: that which extends or lengthens out; applied to muscles.
Protuberance: any elevation above the surface.
Protuberant: rising or produced above the surface or general level.
Proventriculus: the posterior portion of crop; the gizzard.
Proximad: toward the proximal end.
Proximal: that part of an appendage nearest the body: see distal.
Prozona: in Orthoptcra, the upper or dorsal surface of prothorax in front
of the principal sulcus.
Pruinose: hoary; as if covered with a fine frost or dust.
Pruinous-us: deep blue with a reddish tinge, like a plum [French blue +
Psammophilous: living in sandy places.
Pselaphotheca: that part of the pupa which covers the palpi.
Pseudidolum: = nymph; q. v.
Pseudimago: = sub-imago; q. v.
Pseud- or Pseudo-: as a prefix means false, spurious, or merely resembling.
Pseudo-cellula: = accessory cell; q. v.
Pseudo-chrysalis: the semi-pupa.
Pseudo-coel: a false hollow; a hollow which does not form a tube.
Pseudo-cone: a soft, gelatinous cone in the compound eye of some insects,
replacing the crystalline cone of others.
Pseudo-elytra: the aborted anterior wings of Strepsiptcra.
Pseudogyna fundatrix: in Aphids, is the immediate issue of a fecundated
egg : a stem-mother.
Pseudogyna gemmans: in Aphids, are wingless descendants of the stem-
mother (fundatrix) or of the winged migrants (migrans) which repro-
duce asexually through a number of generations.
Pseudogyna migrans: in Aphids, the winged descendants of the stem-mother
(fundatrix) through which the species is spread.
112 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Pseudogyna pupifera: in Aphids, the last generation of P. gcmmans, which
produces the true sexes.
Pseudogyne: a female that reproduces without impregnation.
Pseudo-halteres: the rudimentary primaries of Stylops.
Pseudo-neurium: a false vein formed by a chitinous thickening of a wing
Pseudo-neuroptera: those net-winged insects with incomplete metamor-
phosis : includes the present Ephemeroptera, Odonata, Plecoptcra, Isoptera
and Corrodentia: =Archiptera.
Pseudonychium -ia: =paronychia; q. v.
Pseudo-nymph: = semi-pupa ; q. v.
Pseudopodia: =parapodia; q. v.
Pseudoptera: an ordinal name for the scale insects (Amyot, 1847).
Pseudo-pupa: the inactive larval stage preceding the formation of the true
pupa in some insects; e. g., Meloidce: = semi-pupa; q. v.
Pseudo-pupillae: in Odonata, the black spots seen on the compound eyes of
the living insects.
Pseudosessile: those petiolate Hymcnoptcra, in which the abdomen is so
close to the thorax as to seem sessile.
Pseudo-trachea: the ringed and ridged grooves on the labella of Diptera, by
means of which they scrape their food.
Pseudova: egg-like germ cells capable of development without fertilization;
e. g., in certain plant lice.
Pseudovary: the organ or mass of germ cells of an agamic insect.
Pseudo-vitellus: a cellular organ in Aphidida, supposed to replace the absent
Psocoptera: = Corrodentia; q. v.
Psychogenesis: the origin and development of social and other instincts and
Pterodicera: with wings and two antennae.
Pterogostia: the wing veins.
Pterogostic: referring to the wing structure.
Pteropega: wing sockets or cavities into which the wings are inserted.
Pteropleura: in Diptcra, are situated below the base of the wings behind
the mesopleural suture : = the posterior lateral plate of mesothorax of
Lowne; the episternum of mesothorax of Hammond.
Pteropleural bristles: in Diptcra, are inserted on the pteropleura.
Pterostigma: a thickened, opaque spot on the costal margin of a wing, near
its middle or at end of the radius : = bathmis, and see stigma.
Pterotheca: that part of the pupa that covers the wings.
Pterothorax: the wing-bearing thoracic segments in Thysanoptcra.
Pterygium: a lateral expansion of the snout of some Colcoptera.
Pterygodes: the patagia or tegulae; q. v.
Pterygogenea: insects that are winged in the adult stage or believed to be
descended from winged ancestors : see apterogogenea.
Pterygostium: a wing vein.
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 113
Ptilinum: in Diptera cyclorrhapha, an inflatable organ capable of being
thrust out through a frontal suture just above the root of antenna.
Ptilota: winged insects.
Pubes or Pubescence: short, fine, soft, erect hair or down.
Pubescent: downy: clothed with soft, short, fine, closely set hair.
Pubis: the lateral region of the prothorax.
Pulmonarium : the membranous connection of the plates or scutes of the
abdominal rings : = connexivum.
Pulsatile: having the power of pulsating or moving in a rhythmic manner:
applied to special organs in the legs, which aid in circulating the blood in
Pulverulent: powdery or dusty in appearance.
Pulvilliform: having the appearance or structure of a pulvillus.
Pulvillus-i: soft, pad-like structures between tarsal claws: the cushions of
short, stiff hair or other clothing on the underside of tarsal joints ; rarely
fleshy lobes : see arolium.
Pulvinatus: moderately convex.
Punctate: set with impressed points or punctures.
Punctiformis: shaped like a point or dot.
Punctulatus: with small punctures.
Puncture: an impression like that made by a needle.
Punctured: marked with small, impressed dots.
Puniceus: carmine red [carmine].
Pupa: the intermediate stage between larva and adult; loosely applied for all
orders, properly only for those with a complete metamorphosis : a pupa is
obtect, when inclosed in a rigid case on which the members may or may
not be outlined. It is liber, or free when the appendages are separately
encased and there is no covering over the whole : see chrysalis.
Puparium-ia: in Diptera, the thickened larval skin within which the pupa is
Pupate, Pupation: to become a pupa: the act of becoming a pupa.
Pupiferous: applied to that generation of plant lice which produces sexed
Pupigenous: = pupiparous ; q. v.
Pupigerous: forming a larval puparium : coarctate : said of dipterous larvae
that contract to form an envelope for the inclosed pupa.
Pupil: the central mark of an ocellate spot.
Pupillate: spots or marks that have an eye-like centre.
Pupipara: a series of Diptera, in which the females do not extrude the young
until they have reached the stage ready to pupate.
Pupiparous: bringing forth young ready to pupate.
Pupivorous: feeding upon pupae: especially applied to those Hymcnoptcra
that are parasitic upon insects in the pupal stage.
Purpurascent: becoming purple in shade.
Purpureous -eus: purple [mauve].
Pustula: a colored point of moderate circumference.
Pustulated hair: in Mallophaga those arising from unchitinized spaces.
114 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Pygidium: the last dorsal segment of abdomen left exposed by the elytra:
in Forficulidce, the last dorsal segment : in Diaspincc, the compound termi-
Pygofer: the last segment of the abdomen in certain Homoptera, especially
the lateral margins which appear in the ventral view ; hence sometimes
used in the plural pygofers.
Pygophore: the large upper piece of the genitalia in Homoptera.
Pygotheca: the parts containing the genitalia in Homoptera.
Pyloric: referring to the posterior extremity of the chylific ventricle.
Pyloric valve: the specialized posterior portion of crop where there is no
Pyloric valvule: a circular projection of the stomach behind which is an
enlargement of the intestine.
Pylorus: the chylific ventricle.
Pyriform: shaped like a pear.
Quadra -ri -ro: as a prefix, means four.
Quadrate: square or nearly so.
Quadrifarium: having four rows.
Quadrilateral: four-sided: formed or bounded by four lines: in Odonata,
a space on the wings of Zygoptera bounded by the lower sector of arculus,
the submedian vein, a cross-vein between these two, and the lower part
Queen: the actively reproducing female among worker insects.
Quiescent: not active: applied to the pupse in forms with complete meta-
Quiet: subdued: not conspicuous or contrasting in color or maculation.
Race: a variety of a species possessing constant characters which yet are not
specific; usually occurring in a different faunal region from the type and
may thus be geographical : nearly synonymous with subspecies.
Racemose: like a bunch of grapes: applied to ovaries when they form
bunches or sacs.
Rachis: a ridge or keel dividing the spinning canal at base, in caterpillars;
the shank of an antennal joint into which the lateral spines or other proc-
esses are inserted.
Radial: pertaining to the radius or radial vein.
Radial area: in Orthoptera; the space between the mediastinal (subcosta)
and radial veins : see scapular area.
Radial cells: the wing area between the radius and media; often divided: in
the plural (Comst.), are those cells anteriorly margined by the radius or
Radial cross-vein: (Comst.) is that which divides cell, radius 1.
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 115
Radial sector: in general, the lower of the two primary divisions of the
radius (Comst.) : in Odonata, an indirect branch from the media, just
below and parallel with media 2.
Radial vein: in Homoptera, the first important vein next the costa between
it and ulnar : in Orthoptcra, = radius (Comst.) : in Dipt era, =2d longi-
tudinal vein (Meigen), = radius 2 (Comst.).
Radiate veins: the longitudinal veins spreading fan-like in the anal field of
secondaries : = anal veins ; q. v.
Radiated: marked with lines proceeding from a common centre.
Radicle or Radicula: that joint of the antenna that is articulated to the head.
Radio-medial cross- vein: connects the radial and medial systems and usually
closes the radial cell (Comst.).
Radius: (Comst.) ; the third of the longitudinal veins starting from base and
dividing into not more than five branches before reaching the margin ;
the branches are numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively, beginning at the
costal margin and extending outward and downward.
Radix: base of wings, and their point of insertion: see pteropega.
Rami-us: branches; a branch.
Ramification: the branching out in every direction.
Ramify: to branch out in every direction.
Rammel-kammer: = copulation chamber; q. v.
Ramose -ous: branched, or having long branches.
Rapacious: predatory; capturing and eating prey.
Raptatory: == raptorial; q. v.
Raptoria: applied to that series of Orthoptcra in which the anterior legs are
fitted for grasping ; Mantida:.
Raptorial: formed for seizing prey.
Rare: seldom seen or found.
Rasorial: formed for scratching; applied to leg structures.
Ravenous: greedy; voracious; hungrily.
Receptaculum seminis: a sac or pouch-like appendage at the junction of the
oviducts with the vagina ; it is filled during copulation and the eggs are
fertilized from it as they are extruded.
Reclinate: directed backward; e. g., the bristles in Diptcra.
Reclinatus: =reflexed; q. v.
Reclivate: curved into a convex, then into a concave line.
Recondite: the sting when concealed in the abdomen.
Rectal cauda: the terminal, tubular process or tail terminating the abdomen
of some <$ Hemiptera.
Rectal glands: appendages to or thickenings of the rectum secreting a lubri-
Rectal tracheal gills: lamelliform structures in the rectum of the nymphs of
some Odonata, supplied with trachea and tracheoles and serving as respi-
Rectangular: in the form of a right or rectangle.
Rectangulate: forming or meeting in a right angle.
Rectigrade: larvae which, having sixteen feet, walk with a rectilinear body.
116 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Rectilinear: in the form of a straight line.
Rectum: a chamber, variable in size and form, just within the anus, in which
the excretions are formed or molded for expulsion from the body : = cloaca.
Rectus: right or straight.
Recumbent: lying down; reclining.
Recurrent: running backward: applied to nerves it = stomatogastric.
Recurrent nervure: in Hymenoptera (Nort.), is the medial cross-vein
(Comst.) from the point of branching to the junction.
Recurrent vein: in Hemerobndcc, the first branch of the subcosta when it
recurves toward the base of the wing.
Recurved: bowed backward.
Reductus: a zig-zag marking or corrugation.
Reflected or Reflexed: angularly bent backward.
Refracted: bent back as if broken.
Region: a space or area adjoining a specified point: a part of the body com-
posed of a number of segments, as the head, the thorax, or the abdomen.
Rejuvenescence: a renewal of youth; bringing back to a condition of youth.
Remote: further removed than distant.
Reniform: kidney-shaped: applied to a macula approximating that shape,
found at the end of median cell in many moths.
Repand : wavy ; with alternate segments of circles and intervening angles.
Replicate: wings folded back upon the base; like the secondaries in Cole-
Replicatile: capable of being folded back.
Repugnatorial: serving to repel: so offensive as to drive away: applied to
glands that secrete an offensive material.
Reservoir: a case or cavity for the storage of any fluid or secretion.
Resilient: elastic; having the property of springing back.
Respiration: breathing or taking breath: union of oxygen with tissues and
liberation of carbon dioxide from same.
Restricted: held back: confined to a limited area.
Resupinate: upside down; horizontally reversed.
Rete: the fatty mass of insects: also applied generally to any structureless
membrane or layer.
Reticulate: like net-work.
Reticulum: a net-work; as of a cell.
Retina: that portion of the eye upon which the image is formed.
Retinaculum: in Lcpidoptera, the loop into which the frenulum of the male
is fitted ; = hamus, q. v. : in Hymenoptera, horny, movable scales serving
to move the sting or to prevent its being darted out too far : in Coleoptera,
the middle, tooth-like process of the larval mandible.
Retinal pigment: the pigment layer of the compound eye just above the
basilar or fenestrate membrane.
Retinophora: =retinula; q. v.
Retinula-se: the retina of a single ocellus: the nerve fibres or cells between
pigment cells and retina of the compound eye.
Retracted : drawn back ; opposed to prominent.
Retractile: capable of being drawn in or retracted.
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 117
Retractor: used in drawing in or back; as a muscle.
Retroarcuate: curved backwards.
Retrocession: the going or moving backward.
Retrose: (sinuate) pointing backwards ; (serrate) inversely serrated.
Retuse: ending in an obtuse sinus or broad, shallow notch, terminated by an
Reversed: turned in an unusual or contrary direction, as upside down or
inside out : said of wings when they are deflexed, the margin of secondaries
projecting beyond those of primaries.
Reviviscence: coming back to life; awakening from hibernation.
Revolute: spirally rolled backward.
Rhabdites: the blade-like elements of the sting and ovipositor: a rod or
blade-like process projecting from the epidermis.
Rhabdom: the rod lying in the axis of the retinula, below the crystalline
cone of an eye.
Rhabdomere: the rod-like distal portion of a retinular cell.
Rhabdopoda: clasping organs of the 9th abdominal segment of male.
Rhinarium: a nostril piece or portion of the nasus ; q. v. : in Odonata, the
lower portion of clypeus : ante-clypeus ; q. v.
Rhipiptera: =Strepsiptera; q. v.
Rhomboidal: having the form of a rhomb.
Rhombus: a quadrangular figure having its four sides equal and its opposite
lines parallel, with two opposite angles acute and two obtuse.
Rhopalocera: that series of Lepidoptera in which the antennas are alike in
both sexes and form a club at tip.
Rhodoptera: apterous insects with sucking mouth structures.
Rhophoteira: an ordinal term for the fleas (Clairville).
Rhynchophora: that section of Coleoptcra in which the head is produced
into a snout, at the end of which the mouth structures are situated ; gular
sutures confluent ; prosternal sutures wanting : the weevils.
Rhynchota: = Rhyngota; q. v.
Rhynchus: of Fabricius, = promuscis ; q. v.
Rhyngota: insects in which the mouth parts are prolonged into a beak or
rostrum which serves as a protection to the piercing lancets : = Hemiptera
in the broad sense.
Rhythmical: occurring at regular intervals in the production of opposite
Rigid: inflexible: holding a direct course.
Rima: a crack or longitudinal opening with sharp edges.
Rimose: full of cracks.
Ring: a circle or annulus, usually margining a discolored spot.
Riparian: along the river or along shore.
Ripicolous: dwelling on river banks: riparian.
Rorulentum: dusty: = pulverulent ; q. v.
Roseate -eous, -eus: rose colored; pale blood red [rose].
Rosette-shaped: in the form of a double rose: clustered round a centre.
118 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Rostellum: a small beak; applied to the mouth parts of sucking lice: also
used in Hemiptcra, as = rostrum ; q. v.
Rostral: pertaining or attached to a rostrum; specifically of Hcmiptera.
Rostrate: the head, when it has a long protraction bearing the mouth parts.
Rostriform: produced like a beak or snout.
Rostrum: a snout-like prolongation of the head: in Colcoptera, applied to
the rigid extension in the snout beetles: in Hemiptera, is the jointed beak
covering the piercing lancets ; and this is the better use of the term.
Rotator: used for turning; applied to muscles.
Rotatory: an articulation that permits a rotating motion, e. g., a ball and
Rotula: a small round segment sometimes present between the joints of
antennae and palpi : = torquillus.
Rotule: the trochantine.
Rotundate: rounded: in the form of a circle or segment of a circle: without
angles : said of margins when they pass gradually into each other and do
not form an angle at their point of junction.
Royal jelly: the food supplied to bee larvae that develop into queens.
Royal pairs or Royalties: the sexually active males and females of social
Ruber: red, approaching carmine [alizar crimson].
Rubescent: reddish or becoming red.
Rubiginose: a rusty red [dragon's blood, but brighter].
Rubinous: ruby red: like the eye of a house fly.
Rudiment -ary: the beginning of any structure or part before it has developed.
Rufous: brick-red [chrome yellow + dragon's blood].
Ruga, Rugulae: a wrinkle; small wrinkles.
Rugose -ous: wrinkled; with irregular waved elevated lines.
Rugulose -ous: minutely wrinkled.
Runcinate : notched : cut into several transverse acute segments which point
Ruptor ovi: = egg burster; q. v.
Rutilous: a shining bronze red.
Sabulose: sandy or gritty.
Sac: in Cocclda;, the separate cottony envelope secreted by many species.
Saccate: gibbous or inflated toward one end.
Saccule: a little sac or pouch.
Saccus: a lobe of ventral plate of 9th segment in ? Lcpidoptcra.
Saddle: the chitinous plate on the anal siphon of Culicid larvae.
Sagitta: arrow-like spots on the wings of Lepidoptera and other insects.
Sagittae: the inner pair of forceps in male genitalia of aculeate Hymenop-
tera: see stipites.
Sagittal: equivalent to longitudinal.
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 119
Sagittal plane: the longitudinal vertical plane which divides an animal into
right and left halves.
Sagittate: shaped like an arrow head: elongate triangular.
Salient: projecting; jutting out.
Saliva: the secretion of the salivary glands that moistens and begins the
digestion of the food.
Salivary glands: glands that open into the mouth or at the beginning of the
alimentary canal, secreting a digestive, irritant or viscid material.
Salivary receptacle: a small cavity above the opening of the salivary duct,
between labium and hypopharynx.
Salivary pump: applied to the chitinous, cup-like structure at the base of the
labial stylets of piercing Diptcra; e. g., mosquitoes.
Saltatoria: that series of Orthoptera in which the posterior legs are formed
Saltatorial or Saltatory: formed for jumping or leaping: a posterior femur
when much enlarged and dilated.
Saltatory appendage: in Collembola = f urcula ; q. v.
Sanguineous -eus: red like arterial blood [crimson lake].
Sanguinolent: bloody; in color or appearance.
Sapphyrinus: sapphire blue [French blue].
Sarcolemma: the elastic covering of the striated muscular fibres.
Sarothrum: the basal joint of posterior tarsus in pollen gatherers : see meta-
Saturate : deeply or strongly marked ; in a color, means intense.
Saxicolous: species that frequent rocky or stony areas.
Saws: the ovipositors of the saw flies or Tenthredinidce.
Scaber: uneven, rough.
Scabriculous: regularly and finely wrinkled.
Scabrose -ous: rough like a file, with small raised points.
Scalariform: ladder-like; applied to venation when the veinlets between two
longitudinal veins are regularly arranged like the rungs of a ladder.
Scale: a general term to distinguish Coccida: specifically the puparium of a
Diaspid, comprising exuvire and excreted matter : the waxy covering of a
male Lecaniid : in Diptera = alula ; q. v.
Scales: broad flattened hairs, forming the wing vestiture of Lepidoptera,
and present in various other insects.
Scalloped: an edge marked by segments of circles without intervening angles.
Scalpellus: a lancet-like piercing structure, as in some Diptcra.
Scansorial: said of feet, when formed for climbing on hair.
Scape: the long basal joint of a geniculate antenna in Colcoptcra; usually
applied to the three basal joints, as in Hymenoptera.
Scaphium: a ventral process of the 10th abdominal segment in <$ Lepidoptera
below the uncus.
Scapula: in Lepidoptera the shoulder tippets, patagia or axillae; q. v. : in
Hymenoptera, the side pieces of the mesonotum; also, a trochanter of the
120 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
fore-leg ; in Proctotrupidce the lateral lobes on each side of the parapsidal
Scapulae: in Hemiptera, the inferior lateral face of mesonotum.
Scapular: the episternum; q. v. : applied to the scapula.
Scapular area: in a wing, is that portion nearest the shoulder: in Orthoptera,
= radial area.
Scapularia: a meso-episternum : see scapula.
Scapular vein: in Orthoptera, = radius.
Scapus: = scape.
Scarabidoid: applied to that stage of a meloid larva in which it resembles a
white grub or Scarabid larva.
Scarified: a surface with irregular depressions, as if clawed or scratched.
Scariose -ous: dry and scaly.
Scatophagous: feeding upon dung or excrement: = merdivorous.
Scent glands, or organs: glandular structures; sometimes eversible, some-
times in the form of hair tufts or pencils for diffusing odors that may be
repellant or attractive ; most frequently found in males as a secondary
Scent pores: = ostioles ; q. v.
Sclerite: any piece of the body wall bounded by sutures.
Scopa: a brush: a covering of short, stiff hair of equal length: in Hymen-
opt era, the thick hair covering the posterior tibia of pollen-gathering forms.
Scopate: furnished with a scopa.
Scopula: a small, dense tuft of hair: the bristles or stiff hairs covering the
inner side of basal joint on the tarsi of pollen-gathering Hymcnoptera.
Scopulipedes: bees which have pollen-gathering structures on the feet.
Scraper: the hardened portion of the inner margin of the tegmina in crickets;
used in producing the song.
Scriptus: lettered or marked with characters resembling letters.
Scrobes: grooves formed for the reception or concealment of an appendage:
specifically, in Rhynchophora, grooves at the sides of the rostrum to receive
the scape of antennae : also applied to grooves on the sides of mandibles : in
Hymcnoptera, the usually circular impressions upon the frons, in which the
scapes revolve : in Orthoptera, the pits in which the antennae are situate.
Scrobiculated: having the surface covered with deep round pits.
Scrotal membrane: the envelope covering the testes in some insects.
Scrotum: = scrotal membrane; q. v.
Sculpture: the markings or pattern of impression or elevation on an elytra
or other body surface.
Sculptured: a surface, when marked with elevations or depressions or both,
arranged in some definite manner.
Scutate -if orm: shield- or buckler-shaped.
Scutcheon: =scutellum; q. v. : also used by some authors (Walker) for the
pronotum in Homoptera.
Scutel: =scutellum; q. v.
Scutellar angle : of elytra is next to the scutel when wing is expanded.
Scutellar bridge: in Dipt era, a small ridge on either side of the scutellum,
connecting it with the mesonotum.
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 121
Scutellar space: in Mantids, an area between antennae and clypeus.
Scutellate: dish- or platter-shaped.
Scutellum: the third dorsal sclerite of the meso- and metathorax: in Colc-
optera, the triangular piece between the elytra at base and universally re-
ferred to as the scutellum : in Hetcroptcra, a similar sclerite between base
of hemelytra : in Diptcra, a subhemispherical body posteriorly cut off by
an impressed line from the dorsum of the mesothorax.
Scutes: the chitinous shields or plates on the segments of larvae.
Scutiform: = scutate; q. v.
Scutum: the second dorsal sclerite of the meso- and metathorax.
Seal-brown: a brilliant deep red-brown; almost like, but darker than, cas-
taneous [between dragon's blood and Indian red].
Sebaceous: fatty or oily; applied to glands secreting such substances.
Sebific: oily; sebaceous; somewhat sticky.
Sebific duct: carries the excretions of the colleterial gland to the bursa
Second antennal segment: the third or tritocerebral segment of head.
Secondaries: the hind wings; always attached to the metathorax.
Secondary sexual characters: features possessed by one sex but not the
other, other than the differences of the reproductive organs themselves ;
e. g., color, size, shape, etc.
Second clypeus: see anteclypeus.
Second costal cell: in Hymenoptera (Pack.), is the stigma.
Second inner apical: in Hymenoptera (Nort.), = media 3 (Comst.), to the
junction of medial cross-vein; also called submarginal nervure in part.
Second lateral thoracic suture: in Odonata, extends from base of second-
aries to the rear of the third coxa.
Second longitudinal vein: in Diptcra (Will.), = radius 2 + 3 (Comst.).
Second maxilla: the labium; q. v.
Second maxillary segment: the seventh or labial segment of head.
Second median area: see median area; areola.
Second submarginal nervure: Hymenoptera (Nort.), = radius 5 (Comst.).
Secretion: any matter produced by a gland: in Coccida, specifically, the
waxy, fibrous, cottony or silky substances forming the " scales."
Secretionary supplement: that part of a Diaspid scale extending beyond or
around the pellicles.
Secretory: concerned in the process of secretion.
Sectores coronis: the tearing or cutting structures used by the Lcpidoptcra
in working out of a cocoon.
Sectors: longitudinal veins in Odonata, which strike the principal veins at
an angle, and usually reach the apex or hind margin : they are radial, sub-
nodal, principal, nodal, median, short, and upper and lower of triangle :
all of which see.
Secund: pointing one way: unilateral.
Securiform: triangular-compressed; like the blade of a hatchet.
Sedentary: not active: settled or remaining in one place.
Segment: a ring or division bounded by incisions or sutures: a segment of
122 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
an insect or of any articulate is a transverse portion reaching entirely
across the body, originally separated on the exterior by incisions or sutures
from the preceding and the succeeding segments, having attached to it not
more than one pair of ventral appendages, containing internally not more
than one pair of nerve ganglia which supply nerves to the pair of append-
ages ; = somite, arthromere : fusion of segments frequently obscures, as
in the head : externally the walls of one segment may be composed of a
number of sclerites separated from each other by secondary sutures.
Segmentate: made up of rings or segments.
Segmentation of egg: the division of the originally single-celled egg into a
number of coherent cells or blastomeres ; = cleavage.
Segregated: detached or scattered into groups.
Segregation: a separation or placing apart.
Sematophore: a seminal packet, composed of the seminal fluid mixed with
the excretions of the accessory glands.
Sembling: = assembling; q. v.
Semen: the fluid secreted in the testes, containing the spermatozoa.
Semicircular: like the half of a circle.
Semi-complete: in metamorphosis, = incomplete; q. v.
Semicordate: half or partly heart-shaped.
Semicoronate: partly surrounded by a margin of spines, hooks or the like.
Semicoronet: a margin of spines or hooks partly surrounding a structure or
Semi-cylindrical: like a groove or half a cylinder.
Semi-hyaline : hyaline in part only : not altogether transparent.
Semi-looper: a caterpillar in which one or two pairs only of the abdominal
legs are wanting and where in progression only small loops are formed :
Semi-lunar: in the form of half a crescent.
Semi-lunar valve: guards the auriculo-ventricular opening of the heart.
Seminal ducts: = vasa deferentia; q. v.
Seminal vesicles: enlarged tube, or pouch-like structures which serve to store
the seminal fluid of the male, and in which the later stages of its develop-
ment may take place.
Semipupa: that stage of the larva just preceding pupation: more specifically
the interpolated stage between the active larva and the true pupa, in hyper-
Semi-sagittate: like the longitudinal half of an arrow head.
Semitropical or Gulf strip: is the southern part of the Austro-riparian area;
extends from Texas to Southern Florida, covers a narrow strip in So.
Georgia and probably follows the coastal lowlands into South Carolina.
Sensoria: the circular openings covered by membrane, on the antennae or
legs of plant lice.
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 123
Sensory: relating to or having a sense function.
Sensory pittings: deep pits or punctures through the surface, which may or
may not bear pegs, bristles or setae, and may be open or covered by a mem-
brane; serving as organs of perception for sounds or smells.
Septa, Septula: in Odonata, the triangular area of the mesonotum before
the insertion of the primaries : = calli axillary.
Septum: an internal division of a body cavity.
Sequence: the order in which things follow; e. g., species or genera.
Seriatim: placed in longitudinal rows.
Sericeous: silky : clothed with very dense minute hair which gives a silky
Sericterium -ies: the silk-producing gland or glands in caterpillars: the
Series: a group of species, genera or families, arranged to show agreement
in a common character which is not of sufficient importance to warrant the
next higher division.
Serific glands: are those which produce a thick, mucous-like secretion which,
on hardening, forms silk.
Serosa: the outer membrane that envelops the forming embryo, the amnion
and the remainder of the egg.
Serpentinous: a dirty, dark green [Hooker's green].
Serra: a saw or saw-like part.
Serrate: saw-toothed, the teeth set toward one end.
Serrato-dentate: toothed, the edges themselves saw-toothed.
Serratulate: with little teeth or serrations.
Serricornia: that series of Colcoptera in which the antennae are serrate or
Serriferous: possessing a saw-like ovipositor in the female; the saw-flies.
Serrulate: with numerous little saw-teeth.
Serum: the fluid in which the blood corpuscles float or are suspended.
Sesquialter or Sesquiocellus: a large ocellus including a smaller one.
Sesquitertial: occupying a fourth part.
Sessile: closely seated: the abdomen, when it is closely attached for nearly
or quite its full width to the thorax.
Sessiliventres: Hymenoptera in which the abdomen is sessile.
Seta-ae: a pointed bristle or long stiff hair: slender, hair-like appendages.
Setaceous: bristle-shaped: slender, gradually tapering to a tip.
Setarious aristate: the dipterous antenna when the arista is simple.
Setiferous: = setigerous ; q. v.
Setiform: in the form of a bristle or seta: when a slender short bristle
arises from a thicker basal joint.
Setigenous: the hypodermal cells that give rise to setae.
Setigerous: bearing setae or bristles; e. g., punctures.
Setiparous: producing hair or setae.
Setireme: the hairy, oar-like legs of aquatic insects.
Setose -ous: bristly or set with bristles.
Setula: a small stiff bristle or seta: in Dipt era, the small thorn at the end
of the subcosta.
124 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Setulose: clothed with fine setae or setulse.
Sex: as a number, six: the physical difference between male and female:
usually indicated by the sign of Mars (c?) for male, and Venus ($) for
female ; workers or undeveloped females have the sign of Venus without
the cross line ( 9 ), or a combination of the two others ( Q ).
Sexuparse: that generation of plant lice which produces the true sexes.
Shade: a cloudy, ill-defined streak or band.
Shagreened: a surface roughened with minute tooth-like projections.
Shank: = tibia; q. v.
Shard: a chitinous sheath or elytron.
Sharp: with a pointed tip or thin edge; opposed to blunt.
Sheath of penis: in Odonata, a median, hood-like piece between the hamules,
under which the penis is folded when not in use.
Shin: = tibia ; q. v.
Short sector: in Odonata, = media 4 (Comst.).
Shoulder: loosely applied to an obtuse angulation ; more generally to the
humeral angle of fore wings or elytra : the anterior angles of thorax in
Lcpidoptcra; the angles of prothorax in Heteroptera; the lateral angles of
metazona of pronotum in Orthoptera.
Sialisterium: a salivary gland.
Side: the lateral margin of the body.
Side piece: in genitalia of 6 Culicids the main lateral part of the clasping
organ or basal segment of clasp.
Sides of thorax: in Odonata, includes the pleura of meso- and metathorax,
less the meso-episterna.
Sienna: a brownish orange [brown ochre].
Sigmoid: shaped like the Greek letter sigma, or English S.
Signate-us: = with marks or spots: see notate.
Signature: a colored blotch of any size or shape.
Silaceous: = ochraceous.
Silk: the hardened salivary secretion of certain larvae, mainly of Lepidoptera:
similar material is produced by anal glands of some larvae in Ncuroptera.
Silk-glands: a pair of modified salivary glands in certain larvae, mostly of
Lcpidoptcra that secrete a viscid fluid which, on contact with the air,
hardens into a silken fibre.
Silvicolous: living in moist, shady woods.
Simple, Simplex: without process, armature, or appendage of any kind.
Simple eyes: = ocelli; q. v.
Sinciput: in Colcoptera, that part of the vertex between the eyes.
Sinistrad: toward the left.
Sinistral: extending to or at the left from the median line.
Sinistro-caudad: extending obliquely from the left toward the tail.
Sinistro-cephalad: extending obliquely from the left toward the head.
Sinuate : cut into sinuses ; applied to lines and margins with an in and out
Sinuated: winding: with the edge scooped into sinuses.
Sinuato-convex: sinuate and convex.
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 125
Sinuato-lobate: sinuate and lobed.
Sinuato-truncate: truncated, with the margin sinuate.
Sinuous: undulating; curved in and out.
Simus: a curvilinear indentation more or less profound: an excavation as if
scooped out : a curved break in an otherwise straight margin.
Siphon : a tube-like mouth organ in certain insects : the breathing tube of a
Culicid larva : any tubular external process or structure.
Siphonaptera: an ordinal name for insects which are wingless: mouth
formed for piercing and sucking ; saltatorial ; transformations complete :
the fleas : = Aphaniptera ; q. v.
Siphonata: =Homoptera or, more specifically, plant lice and leaf hoppers.
Siphonets: see honey tubes.
Siphonophora: = Coccinellidae ; the term is preoccupied in the Coelenterates.
Siphunculata: the sucking lice.
Siphunculus: the suctorial organ of a louse, contained within the tubule:
in plant lice = honey tubes ; q. v.
Situ (in) : in its natural place or position.
Sixth longitudinal vein: in Diptera, = ist anal vein (Comst.).
Skeleton: the hard chitinous parts which externally (exoskeleton) or in-
ternally (endoskeleton) form a protective covering, or serve as points of
attachment, to muscles and other soft organs.
Skippers: a popular term for Hesperid butterflies : the dipterous larvae some-
times found in cheese and other provisions.
Slaty: very dark blackish gray with a reddish tinge [neutral with a little
Slug: in general, any larva that has a slimy viscid appearance, and the body
closely applied to the food plant : more specifically, the larvae of certain
saw-flies and of some Coleoptera.
S. M. interspace: submedian interspace in the primaries of Lepidoptera,
includes the space between the median and submedian veins; (cubitus and
1st anal, Comst.).
Smaltinus: a dull grayish blue.
Smaragdinus: emerald green [pale green].
Smooth: a surface without elevations or indentations.
Snout: the prolongation of the head in Rhynchophora at the end of which
the mouth parts are situated : see rostrum.
Social: living in communities: more especially those species in which unde-
veloped or worker forms occur and where the colony has a single female
Soldiers: in termites; forms sexually undeveloped, in which the mandibles
are pincer-like and the head is much enlarged : worker majors in certain ants.
Solid: applied to an organ usually jointed, when these joints form into one
mass ; e. g., the capitulum of certain clavate antennae.
Solitary -arius: occurring singly or in pairs; not in colonies.
Somatic: relating to the body, or abdomen.
Somatotheca: that part of pupa covering abdominal rings: = gasterotheca.
Somite: = arthromere.
126 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Sonif action: the production of sound: = stridulation ; q. v.
Sonoran faunal areas: see upper and loiver Sonoran.
Sonorific: sound producing: applied to stridulating organs.
Sordid: dirty; dull.
Spadiceous: bay brown [dragon's blood + brown ochre].
Spado: the worker or neuter in bees and ants.
Sparse: scattered: single hairs, scales or sculptures set well apart.
Spatha: a median piece in male genitalia of aculeate Hymenoptera, covering
the bases of the sagittse.
Spatula: the breast bone (q. v.) of cecidomyid larvae.
Spatulate: rounded and broad at top, attenuate at base.
Specialization: the adaptation of an organ to a definite purpose, or of an
organism to fit a determinate environment.
Species: an aggregation of individuals alike in appearance and structure,
mating freely and producing young that themselves mate freely and bear
fertile offspring resembling each other and their parents : a species in-
cludes all its varieties and races.
Specific character: a feature common to all individuals of a species, by
means of which they may be distinguished from all other individuals of
other species : = essential character.
Specular: mirror-like; transparent.
Specular membrane: in male Cicada, the inner or posterior mirror-like mem-
brane of the sound-organ : = mirror.
Speculum: a transparent area or spot on wings of some Lepidoptera; the
glassy areas at base of tegmina in male Orthoptera that serve as sounding
boards : a spot on the neck of some caterpillars.
Sperm: the seminal fluid: in plural form is sometimes used as = sperma-
tozoa ; q. v.
Spermatheca: = spermatotheca ; q. v.
Spermatid: the final cells which are converted without further division into
spermatozoa; they arise by division of the second spermatocytes (Wilson).
Spermatocytes: the cells arising from the spermatogonia. The primary
spermatocyte arises by growth of one of the last generation of spermato-
gonia. By its division are formed two secondary spermatocytes, each of
which give rise to two spermatids (Wilson).
Spermatogenesis: the development of spermatozoa.
Spermatogonia: the descendants of the primordial germ cells in the male.
Each ultimate spermatogonium typically gives rise to four spermatozoa.
Spermatophora: a sac or case containing spermatozoa.
Spermatotheca: the sac or reservoir in the female that receives the sperm
during coition: = Spermatheca and receptaculum seminis.
Spermatozoon -zoa: the male cell or cells which, by uniting with the ova,
Spherical: in the form of a sphere: a body in which all diameters are equal.
Spherule: a minute sphere or globule.
Spicula: a slender needle-like process; e. g., the sting in bees: also employed
as = ovipositor ; q. v.
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 127
Spiculiform: like a slender, needle-like process.
Spiculum: a small spicule or thin, pointed process.
Spinate: produced into an acuminate spine.
Spindle-shaped: cylindrical, elongate, thicker in the middle, tapering to each
end : fusiform.
Spine: a sharp process : in Coccidcc there are two, one each side of each seg-
ment of the pygidium.
Spiniferous: bearing, or clothed with spines.
Spiniform: in the form or shape of a spine.
Spinneret: the ligula in bombycid and some other larvae, modified for silk
spinning : any organ consisting of an internal tube, terminating in a pore,
spine or process, producing a silky or waxy fibre : in the plural, the organs
concerned in the emission of the silky or cottony filaments of which the
scales or sacs of Coccidce are produced : = f usulus.
Spinose -ous -ed: set with acute processes or spines.
Spinous-radiate: beset with spines in a circle, either concatenate, united at
their bases, or setaceous, like bristles.
Spinulse: spinous processes at the apex of the tibia: also called spines, spurs
Spinulate-ose: set with little spines or spinules.
Spinules: little spines.
Spira: the coiled ovipositor of Cynipidce.
Spiracle -cula: a breathing pore; q. v. : in the plural the lateral openings on
the segments of the insect body through which air enters the tracheae :
Spiracular area: the anterior of the three areas between lateral and pleural
carinae on the metanotum of some Hymenoptera: = first pleural area.
Spiracular line: in caterpillars is that which includes the spiracles: = stig-
Spiracular sulcus: on the metanotum of Hymenoptera, is a grooved line or
channel extending from spiracle to apical margin.
Spiral: rolled up like a watch spring, or twisted like a cork-screw.
Spiral fibre: the spiral thickening or folding of the chitinous lining of a
trachea, which gives to the latter its characteristic microscopic appearance
as well as its support and elasticity ; = taenidium.
Spiritrompe: the spiral tongue in Lepidoptera.
Splanchnic: applied to the outer embryonic layer of the rudiment of the mid-
intestine; or the inner layer of the mesoderm which, becoming applied to
the walls of the alimentary canal, develops into the muscle fibres thereof.
Splendens -ent: shining: with a metallic glitter.
Splitter: one who splits or describes species or genera upon minute char-
acters which the "lumper" (q. v.) deems insufficient to authorize them.
Spongioplasm: the net-like structure of protoplasm in a cell.
Spongiose: a soft, elastic tissue resembling a sponge.
Spoon: =bouton; q. v.
Spring : in Collembola, = f urcula ; q. v.
128 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Spur: a short, stiff, generally blunt process and usually not articulated at its
base : in the plural refers to paired spiniform processes at or near the end
Spur formula: a numerical expression of their arrangement; as 2-3-4; 2
spurs on fore tibia, 3 on middle, and 4 on posterior ; in Trichoptera.
Spurius: false: applied to aborted anterior legs in some diurnal Lepidoptera.
Spurious cell: in Diptera (Pack.), = 3d anal (Comst.).
Spurious veins: certain folds or thickenings in the wing surface which re-
semble a vein so nearly as to be readily mistaken and sufficiently constant
to be useful in classification.
Squama: in Odonata, the sclerite that bears the palpus of both maxilla and
labium: the scale-like first abdominal segment of some ants: a scale-like
appendage covering the base of primaries in Lepidoptera, and so = pata-
gium ; q. v. : a small scale above the halteres in Diptera: in this order
Packard uses squama for the lobed scale and restricts alula to the lobe-
like appendage : Osten-Sacken uses squama for the posterior scale alone
and antisquama for the anterior.
Squames: the flattened, fimbriated or spine-like marginal processes of the
pygidium in Diaspina;, other than the lobes and true spines : = " plates,"
of Comst. ; or " scaly hairs " of Maskell.
Squamiform: having a scale-like form.
Squamose-ous: scaly or covered with scales.
Squamula: a small corneous scale covering the base of primaries in some
insects : = tegula ; q. v. : in Diptera, = alula.
Squarrous: scurfy: clothed with rough scales differing in direction, standing
upright, or not parallel to the surface.
Stadium -ia: the interval between the molts of larvae: = instar; q. v. : any
one period in the development of an insect.
Stage: refers to the period of development; e. g., larval, pupal, etc.
Stalked bodies: = gyri cerebrales ; q. v.
Stellate: star-shaped; with four or five radiating lines.
Stelocyttares: social wasps in which the comb layers of the nest are sup-
ported by pillars and not connected with the envelope : see poecilocyttares
Stemapoda: the modified filamentous anal legs of Centra and other Noto-
Stemmata: simple eyes or ocelli; q. v.
Stem-mother: in plant lice, that form hatching from the winter egg, which
starts a series of agamic summer generations.
Stenocephalous: with a narrow, elongate head.
Stenorhynchan: narrow beaked or snouted.
Stenothorax: a supposed ring between pro- and mesothorax.
Stercoral: relating or pertaining to excrement.
Sterile: not capable of reproducing its kind.
Sternal orifice: in Perlids ; a peculiar slit on each side of the sternum,
extending inward and ending blindly : f urcal orifice.
Sternal spatula: = breast-bone ; q. v.
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 129
Sternauli: the short and often obsolete furrows on either side of the meso-
sternum in Hymenoptera.
Sternellum: the second sclerite of the ventral part of each thoracic segment ;
frequently divided into longitudinal parts which may be widely separated.
Sternite: the ventral piece in a ring or segment.
Sternopleura: in Dipt era, the lower part of the pleura, below the sterno-
pleural suture and above the front coxa.
Sternopleural bristles: in Dipt era, are situated on the Sternopleura below
the Sternopleural suture.
Sternopleural suture: in Dipt era, is below and nearly parallel with dorso-
pleural suture, separating the mesopleura from the Sternopleura.
Sterno-rhabdite: a sternal rhabdite.
Sternorhynchi: that series of Homoptera in which the beak or rostrum ap-
parently arises from the sternum between the anterior coxse ; e. g., plant
Sternum -a: the breast: the middle portion of the under surface of thorax,
between the coxal cavities.
Stethidium: the trunk: the entire thorax with all its appendages.
Stigma: a spiracle or breathing pore: a dense, often discolored portion of
the costal margin of a wing, usually at the end of the radius ; see anasto-
mosis : in Diptcra, a colored wing spot near the tip of the auxiliary vein:
in Lepldoptera, the specialized patch of black scales on the primaries of
Stigmata: the spiracles: also applied to the two spots, orbicular and reni-
form, in the cell of the primaries of certain moths.
Stigmatal line: in caterpillars, = spiracular ; q. v.
Stigmatiferous: applied to processes or structures bearing spiracles or stig-
Stimuli: the small acute spines on some larvae, especially wood-borers.
Sting: the modified ovipositor in aculeate Hymenoptera.
Stipes: the foot-stalk of the maxilla; articulated partly to the head, partly
to the cardo, and bearing the movable parts : modified into a piercing struc-
ture in some Diptcra and into a lever for flexing the proboscis in others.
Stipitate: supported on a stalk or pedicle.
Stipites: the outer pair of forceps in male genitalia of aculeate Hymenop-
tera; see sagittse.
S. T. line: subterminal line; crosses the primaries of many moths just before
the outer margin.
Stirps: a stock or stem: a division of classification similar to super-family:
not used at present.
Stoma-ata: a breathing pore or pores: = stigma; q. v.
Stomach: that portion of the alimentary canal, immediately following the
gizzard and preceding the ileum, into which most of the digestive juices
are poured : = chylific ventricle.
Stomatodaeum: that invagination of the ectoderm that forms the mouth,
pharynx, cesophagus, crop and gizzard.
130 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Stomatogastric: that system of nerves and ganglia, lying along the dorsal
and lateral surfaces of gullet and crop.
Stomatotheca: that part of the pupa covering the mouth structures.
Stramineous -eus: straw yellow [pale clay yellow].
Strangulate: constricted, as if by bands or cords.
Stratified: arranged or made up in layers.
Strepsiptera: twisted-wing: an ordinal term proposed for the parasitic
Stylopidce, now ranged as a family of Coleoptera = Rhipiptera.
Stria: in Coleoptera, a longitudinal depressed line or furrow, frequently
punctured, extending from base to apex of elytra : in Lepidoptera, a fine
transverse line : in general, any longitudinal impressed line.
Striate-ed: marked with parallel, fine, impressed lines; or, in Lepidoptera,
with numerous fine transverse lines.
Stridulate: to make a creaking noise by rubbing together two ridged or
Stridulation: a creaking sound produced by rubbing together two striated
or otherwise roughened surfaces : the act of stridulating or the noise pro-
duced by it.
Striga: a narrow, transverse line or slender streak, either surface or im-
Strigate: having striga: applied to a surface on which the striga are im-
pressed as in the elytra of some beetles, or to an ornamentation composed
of fine, short lines.
Strigile-is: maculation that consists of parallel longitudinal lines: a deep
sinus near base of first joint of anterior tarsus.
Strigillate -ation: stridulate -ation ; q. v.
Strigose: clothed with rigid bristles that are thickest at base: rough, with
sharp bristles : = hispid.
Strigula: a fine short transverse mark or line.
Strigulated: with numerous strigulse.
Striolate -us: with finely impressed parallel lines.
S. T. space: the area between the t. p. line and s. t. line in moths.
Stripe: a longitudinal streak of color different from the ground.
Style: in Aphids, the slender tubular process at the end of the abdomen:
in Coccids, a long spine-like appendage at the end of the abdomen of the
male; = genital spike: in Diptera, the ovipositor (Loew) ; the single im-
movable organ immediately below the forceps in male Tipulidce (O.-S.) ; a
thickened jointed arista at or near the tip of the third antennal joint : in
the plural form applied to small, usually pointed, exarticulate appendages,
most frequently found on the terminal segments of abdomen.
Stylet: a small style or stiff process: one of the piercing mouth structures
in Diptera and Hemiptera.
Styliform: in the shape of a stylus: terminating in a long slender point, like
the antennae in some Diptera.
Stylopized: infested by a member of the Stylopida.
Stylotrachealis: with a long tube bearing a stigma, from the head case; as
the pupae of some Diptera.
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 131
Stylus: a small, pointed, non-articulated process.
Sub-: as a prefix, means that the main term is not entirely applicable, but
must be understood as modified in some way ; e. g., sub-ovate, may be
either more or less than ovate and may be irregular in outline.
Sub-aduncate: somewhat hooked or curved.
Sub-anal plate: Orthoptcra; = sub-genital lamina; q. v.
Sub-apical lobe: of c? genitalia in Culicids is the inner sub-apical lobe of
the side piece.
Sub-apterous: almost wingless; with rudimentary wings only.
Sub-clavate: somewhat thickened toward tip; but not quite club-shaped.
Sub-coriaceous: somewhat leathery.
Sub-cortical: beneath the bark; as in larval borings, etc.
Subcosta: (Comst.) ; that longitudinal vein extending parallel to the costa
and reaching the outer margin before the apex ; not branched as a rule :
of Packard, in Hymcnoptera, = radius (Comst.).
Subcostal cell: in Diptera (Schiner), = marginal cell (Loew), = radial 1
(Comst.) : in the plural (Comst.), all those cells anteriorly margined by
the subcosta : first s. c. cell in Hymcnoptera (Pack.), = radial and first
radial 1 (Comst.).
Subcostal cross-veins: in Odonata, are between subcosta and media on the
basal side of the first antecubital.
Subcostal fold or furrow: lies between costa and radius.
Subcostal nervule: Lepidoptera, on secondaries = media 1 (Comst.) : s. c. 1
= radius 1 (Comst.); s. c. 2 = radius 2 (Comst.); s. c. 3 = radius 3
(Comst.) ; s. c. 4 = radius 4 (Comst.) ; s. c. 5 = radius 5 (Comst.).
Subcostal vein: in Diptera (Schiner), = 1st longitudinal vein (Meigen)
= radius 1 (Comst.) : in Lepidoptera, runs from base, parallel to costa, to
or beyond the middle, giving rise to branches which extend to the outer
margin and thus = radius (Comst.).
Sub-cristate: with a moderately elevated ridge or keel on pronotum, in
Subcutaneous: under the skin: applied to larvae that feed under the skin of
animals or within the substance of a leaf.
Sub-dorsal: the space between the dorsum and the stigmata.
Sub-dorsal line: in caterpillars is to the side of the dorsal and between it
and the lateral or, if there is an addorsal line, between that and the lateral.
Sub-dorsal ridge: in slug caterpillars, extends longitudinally along the sub-
dorsal row of abdominal tubercles.
Sub-equal: similar, but not quite equal in size, form or other characters.
Sub-eroded: wing margins when somewhat, but irregularly, indented.
Sub-falcate: when a wing is only a little excavated below the apex.
Subfamily: a division of classification containing a group of closely allied
genera ; different from other allied groups, yet not so as to make a family
series : opinionative, and ending in -ince.
Sub-fossorial: legs used in digging; yet not greatly modified.
Sub-frontal: close to the front; immediately behind the front margin.
Sub-fulcrum: a sclerite between mentum and palpiger; rarely present.
132 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Sub-fusiform: somewhat spindle-shaped.
Subgalea: a maxillary sclerite or segment, attached to the stipes, and bearing
the galea or outer lobe.
Sub-geniculate: applied to antennae that are articulated from a short, thick
Subgenital lamina or plates: plates underlying the genital organs in Orthop-
Subgenus: a division within a genus, based upon a character not sufficient
for generic separation ; opinionative.
Subglossa: in Odonata; a sclerite between the two halves of the mentum
(Graber) : is really the true mentum.
Sub-imago: sometimes applied as = nymph: that stage in Ephemerids just
after emergence from the pupa and before the final molt during flight :
that stage in the development of insects with free pupa when the insect is
fully colored but yet retains its pupal position.
Sub-labrum: = epipharynx ; q. v.
Sublingual: beneath the tongue; applied to a pair of salivary glands in bees.
Submargin -al: an imaginary portion of a surface outside of the disk and
within the margin : a line is submarginal when it is well within the margin ;
but close to it.
Submarginal area: of secondaries, lies between the costal margin and the
1st strong vein.
Submarginal cells: in Hyincnoptera (Norton) = radial cells (Comst.) : in
Diptera (Will.); = radial 3 (Comst.).
Submarginal nervure: in Hymenoptcra (Nort.) ; the irregular line of veins
extending on the whole parallel with the outer margin ; composed in part
of media 1, 2, 3 and 4, the medial cross-vein and cubitus 1 (Comst.).
Submedian cells: in Hyincnoptera (Pack.); 1st = cubital + cubital 1
(Comst.) ; 2d = medial 3 (Comst.) ; 3d = 2d medial 2 (Comst.).
Submedian vein: in Odonata, = cubitus (Comst.); in Lepidoptera, = 1st
anal (Comst.), runs from base of primaries to the hind angle, close to the
inner margin and is v. 1 of the numerical series.
Submental: pertaining to the submentum.
Submental peduncle: in Coleoptera, the prolonged portion of the gula sup-
porting the mentum.
Submentum: the basal sclerite of the labium, by means of which it is at-
tached to the head.
Subnodal sector: in Odonata, = radial sector (Comst.).
Sub-nymph: applied to the resting or pupal stage of 5 Coccida>; also to a
supernumerary stage before the formation of the pupa, and thus = pseudo-
Sub-ocellate: an ocellate spot that is blind or without a pupil.
Sub-ocular: beneath or below the eyes.
Sub-03sophageal ganglion: situated in the head below the oesophagus,
formed by a union of the posterior three primitive head ganglia.
Sub-order: a division of an order higher than a family, based on a character
common to a large series of species ; e. g., the Homoptera and Heteroptera
in the order of Hemiptera.
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 133
Sub-pedunculate: in Colcoptera, when the constriction between pro- and
mesothorax is so great as to give the appearance of a narrow waist.
Subreniform: a rounded spot or outline, below and sometimes attached to
the reniform spot in Catocala and some allied Noctuids.
Sub-parallel: nearly parallel.
Sub-primary sub-ventral tubercle: on the thoracic and abdominal segments
of caterpillars ; sub-ventral, posterior, not present in the primitive first
stage ; it is VI of the abdomen, V of the thorax : constant.
Sub-sellate: nearly like or approaching the form of a saddle.
Subspecies: a well-marked form of a species differing from the type in
some character of color or maculation which is recognizable but does not
prevent a fertile union : an indefinite and opinionative division.
Subspiracular line: in caterpillars, margins the spiracles inferiorly.
Substigmatal: that portion of the marginal cell below the stigma, in bees:
= 1st radial 1 (Comst.) : applied to a line in caterpillars = subspiracular.
Sub-teres: nearly but not quite cylindrical.
Subtile -is: slightly; feebly; small; pretty; graceful.
Subtriangular space: = internal triangle: see triangle.
Subtus: beneath; at the under surface.
Subulate: awl-shaped; linear at base, attenuate at tip.
Subulicornia: with awl-shaped antennae; applied to a combination of Odo-
nata and Ephemerida.
Subuliform: formed like an awl: = subulate.
Sub-ventral line: in caterpillars, extends along the sides just above the base
of the feet at the edge between lateral and ventral.
Sub-ventral ridge: in slug caterpillars extends longitudinally along the sub-
ventral series of abdominal tubercles.
Sub-ventral space: in slug caterpillars is the area on each side, between the
lateral ridge and the lower edge of the body, and contains the spiracles.
Succincti: those chrysalids of butterflies which are held in place by a silken
cord passing around the body: see suspensi.
Succineous: resembling amber in color or appearance.
Sucking pump: in sucking insects, a thick-walled muscular enlargement of the
oesophagus that serves to draw up the liquid food = pharyngeal pump.
Sucking spears: the mandibles and maxillae of Hemerobiid larvae, used for
puncturing prey and sucking its juices.
Sucking stomach: a thin-walled muscular pouch connected with the end of
the oesophagus ; serves as a food reservoir and is not commonly present
except in some Lepidoptera.
Suctoria: an ordinal term proposed for fleas.
Suctorial: adapted for sucking: see haustellate.
Suctorial vesicles: bladder-like structures connected with the oesophagus in
mosquitoes supposed to assist in blood-sucking ; but this is disputed.
Suffused: clouded or obscured by a darker color.
Suffusion: a clouding, or a spreading of one shade over another.
Sulca: grooves, furrows or channels: plural of sulcus.
134 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Sulcated: grooved; furrowed with broad, concave, parallel impressed lines.
Sulciform: resembling a sulcus.
Sulcus: a furrow or groove: a groove-like excavation.
Sulphureous -eus: bright, sulphur yellow [chrome lemon].
Superans: exceeding in size and length.
Superciliary: placed above the eyes.
Supercilium: an arched line over an ocellate spot.
Super-family: a division of classification less than an order, including a series
of family groups more closely related to each other than to similar groups
within the order : opinionative and ending in oidea: sometimes hardly differ-
ent from suborder ; but lower than suborder when both terms are employed.
Superficies: the upper surface.
Supericornia: those Hetcroptera having the antennse inserted on the upper
parts of the sides of the head; e. g., Coreida: see infericornia.
Superior wings: the primaries; q. v.
Superlinguse: the lateral pair of organs of hypo-pharynx in Thysanura.
Superlingual segment: the fifth segment of head.
Superne: denotes all those parts belonging to the upper surface.
Supernumerary: additional or added cells, veins or other structures.
Supernumerary segment: in Cecidomyidce, between the head and first tho-
Super-order: a group of allied orders, like the Linnsean Neuroptera.
Superposed: placed one above the other, as the frontal tufts in some moths.
Supplementary sectors: interposed sectors; q. v.
Suppression: the non-development of a part normally present.
Supra-: over; above.
Supra-alar bristles: in Dipt era, are situated, one on the post-alar callus, one
on the alar frenum, the third on the edge of the supra-alar depression.
Supra-alar cavity: = supra-alar groove.
Supra-alar depression: in Dipt era = supra-alar groove.
Supra-alar groove: in Hymenoptera, a groove or depression just above the
base of wings : in Diptera, a groove on the mesothorax just above the root
of the wings.
Supra-anal: situated above the anus.
Supra-anal hook: in <$ of most Lepidoptera, a curved hook attached to the
plate covering the genital cavity : = uncus.
Supra-anal plate: a triangular sclerite covering the anal cavity above;
present in many insects, sometimes in one sex only, often in both : see
Supra-cerebral: applied to that pair of salivary glands situated above the
brain in bees.
Supra-clypeal mark: in bees; a patch of light color above the clypeus.
Supra-clypeus: = post-clypeus ; q. v. : nasus.
Supra-cesophageal: situated above the oesophagus: applied to two large
ovoid ganglia so situated, and connected by a short, thick commissure;
Supra-orbital: situated above the eye.
Supra-spinal: above the spine or nerve cord : applied to a cord or band of con-
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 135
nective tissue lying above the central nervous system in adult Lcpidoptera;
also to a sinus or vessel acting as a ventral heart.
Supra-spiracular line: in caterpillars, margins the spiracles superiorly.
Supra-stigmatal line: supra-spiracular lines.
Supra-triangular cross-veins: in Odonata, cross the supra-triangular space.
Supra-triangular space: in Anisoptcra, an area just above the triangle,
occupying nearly the same position as the quadrilateral of Zygoptcra:
= hyper-trigonal space.
Suranal: = supra-anal.
Suranal plate: the middle dorsal plate attached to the 10th abdominal seg-
ment of the c? grasshoppers, above the anal opening : a supra-anal tergite
of a caterpillar.
Sursum: directed upwardly.
Suspensi: the chrysalids of butterflies that are suspended by the tail only:
Suspensoria: are those muscles or ligaments that hold the viscera and other
internal structures in place.
Sustentors: the two posterior projections of a butterfly chrysalis.
Suture: a seam or impressed line indicating the division of distinct parts of
body wall : the line of junction of elytra in Coleoptera,
Suturiform: an articulation soldered together so that only a slight impressed
line is visible.
Swarming: the concerted departure from a hive of a large number of worker
bees, accompanied by a queen ; this forming the nucleus of a new colony.
Swimmerets: gill or plate-like structures in the aquatic larva? of some
Neuroptera, serving as oars or organs of locomotion.
Swimming paddles: terminal appendages of mosquito pupae.
Swoked: smoky, suffused with gray or blackish.
Sylvan: species inhabiting forests or woodland areas.
Symbiogenesis: the method of origin of social symbiotic relation among
ants and other insects.
Symbiosis: a life relationship existing between different kinds of animals or
plants, or between animals and plants : true symbiosis is where both parties
to the relation benefit : see also parasitism, commensalism. Among the ants
social symbiosis exists in its most highly developed form and distinctive
terms have been proposed for the various types of relations :
Calobiosis, is that association in which one species, often only the female,
lives in the nest of and at the expense of another species, either for a time,
= temporary or altogether, = permanent calacobiosis.
Cleptobiosis, is where one species of ant lives in or near the nest of
another, preying upon its larvae or pupae or stealing the food supply.
Dulosis, is that mingling of colonies which owes its origin to the en-
slavement of one species by another.
Hamabiosis, is that relation where two species of any insects, one of
which may be an ant, live side by side without obvious motive or known
advantage to one or both.
Lcstobiosis, is where the workers of one ant colony " hold up " those of
another species and rob them of the food they are carrying to the nest.
136 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Parabiosis, is where different species of ants form colonies with inoscu-
lating galleries, and have their households strangely intermingled, but not
Phylacobiosis, is the relation existing between ants and Termites, the
ants living in the doorways of the Termites and functioning as guards.
Synclcrobiosis, is an association of two species of ants that usually in-
habit independent colonies, for purposes that are not clearly* understood.
Trophibiosis, is the relationship between ants on the one hand and aphids,
coccids and the like on the other ; these species being sought and attended
by the ants for their own benefit : see myrmecophily.
Xenobiosis, is where one species of ant lives as a guest in the nest of
another, maintaining its own household, and mingling freely with the host
species, the two living on terms of mutual toleration.
Symbiotic: species that live together in a state of symbiosis.
Symmetrical: evenly developed on both sides.
Symmetry: that regular arrangement of organs or parts which is capable of
division into similar halves or similar radii.
Sympathetic nervous system: applied to the nerves and ganglia of the ali-
mentary canal and some other viscera which they innervate ; = vagus ;
visceral nervous system.
Symphily: the relation borne to ants by the true guests which inhabit their
nests and are fed and tended ; rendering in return some substance or service
desired by the ants : see metochy and synecthry.
Symphyla: a group name for apterous species resembling myriapods in ap-
pearance, with functional abdominal legs and the genital openings on the
last abdominal segment : regarded by some as connecting forms between
insects and myriapods ; e. g., Scolopcndrclla.
Symphysis: where two sclerites are joined together by a soft membrane,
permitting a slight motion.
Synaptera: originally wingless insects without metamorphosis; the Thysa-
Synarthrosis: an articulation without motion.
Syncerebrum: the compound brain of insects.
Synchronous: happening at the same time.
Synciput: that portion of the vertex lying between the eyes.
Syncitium: masses of protoplasm with nuclei, found in ovarian tubes; giving
rise to ova, nutritive cells or both.
Syndesis: that method of articulation where two parts are connected by a
membrane which permits of considerable motion between them.
Synecthry: the relation borne to ants by insects inhabiting their nests in spite
of the efforts of the ants to destroy them : see symphily and metochy.
Synista or Synistata: those Neuropterous insects in which the mouth struc-
tures are undeveloped, forming an imperfect tubular structure : see elinguata.
Synoecy: the relation that exists between ants and those guests that are
indifferent to and tolerated by them: = metochy, and see symphily and
Synonym: a name applied to a species or genus that has been previously
named and described.
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 137
Synonymous: words of different derivation applied to the same conception.
Synthlipsis: the basal constriction of the notocephalon in Notonectids.
Syntype: co-type; q. v.
Syringe: in Hcmiptera, a chamber into which the salivary ducts open and by
means of which the secretion is forced forward between the seta or lancets.
System: an order of arrangement.
Systematic: in definite order, or arranged according to a system.
Systole : that regular contraction of the heart that sends the blood outward :
T. A. line: transverse anterior line; crosses the primaries of certain moths
one-third or less from the base : = antemedial line.
Tactile: used for touching; an organ that has the sense of touch.
Taenia: a broad longitudinal stripe.
Taeniate-us: with broad longitudinal markings.
Taenidium-ia: the band or chitinized fibre forming a part of the spiral
thread in the trachea of insects.
Tail: an elongated terminal segment ,of the abdomen: the cauda in plant lice:
elongated processes on the secondaries, in some Lepidoptera and Neuroptera.
Tangential: set in or meeting at a tangent; applied to ornamentation and
Tarsal: relating to the tarsi, or feet.
Tarsal lobes: membranous appendages arising from the underside of the
tarsal joints in some Coleoptera.
Tarsus -i: the foot; the jointed appendage attached at the apex of tibia,
bearing the claws and pulvilli.
Taste cups: specialized pits or cups, with or without a peg or hair, connected
with ganglionated nerve cells : occur on the mouth structure and evidence
the sense of taste.
Tawny: a brownish yellow, like the color of a tanned hide [pale cadmium
yellow + Indian red].
Taxonomical: systematic: relating to classification.
Tectate: covered; concealed: also used as = tectif orm.
Tectiform: roof -like, sloping from a median ridge, like the primaries of
Tegmen: a covering: sometimes used for the anterior wings in Orthoptera
Tegmina: the thickened primaries serving as wing covers in Orthoptera.
Tegulae: small, more or less cup-like scales at the base of primaries in many
insects; specifically in Hymenoptera: in Lepidoptera, :=the patagia or
shoulder tippets ; but the homology is disputed ; also applied to the lappet-
like pieces forming the collar: in Diptera, the alulse, q. v. : the latter use is
unfortunate and should be abandoned; the first definition should limit the
use of the term : see aileron.
Tegument: a covering surface or skin.
Teleodont: applied to those forms of male Lucanids bearing the largest
mandibles : see mesodont, amphiodont, priodont.
138 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Telescopic: arranged so that one portion of an organ or process may be
drawn into another, like the joints of a telescope.
Telson: a terminal tubercle bearing the anal opening: the anal segment of
the insect embryo.
Telum: a spear, or spear-shaped process.
Temple: the posterior part of the gena ; behind, before or beneath the eye.
Tempora: the temples.
Temporal margins: in Mallophaga, the lateral margins of the hind head.
Tenaculum: in Collcmbola, a small organ which holds the furcula in position
when at rest : = catch.
Tenant hair: see tenent hair.
Tendo: the anal area of secondaries when it forms a groove for the ab-
domen : has also been called f renum and f renulum : in Trichoptcra, a small
elliptical space at base of hind wings near base of anal veins and behind
Tendon: the slender, chitinous plates, bands, strap- or cup-shaped pieces, to
which muscles are attached for moving appendages : see apodeme.
Tenent hair: specialized hair adapted for clinging or clasping.
Teneral: that state of the imago just after its exclusion from pupa or
nymph, in which neither coloring nor clothing is fully developed.
Tensor: a muscle which stretches a membrane.
Tentacle: a flexible sensory or tactile process; in some cases retractile: usu-
ally prefixed by a descriptive term indicating the structure to which it is
Tentacula -um: retractile processes on the larvae of Lcpidoptera.
Tentaculate: a margin when fringed with soft tactile processes.
Tentiform: shaped like a tent: see mines.
Tentoria: Dipt era; two hollow, cylindrical struts which pass from the ven-
tral border of the occipital foramen to the cheeks.
Tentorium: a chitinous framework within the head, upon which the brain
Tenuis: thin, slender; long drawn out.
Terebra: a borer or piercer: an ovipositor fitted for boring or cutting as in
saw-flies : a mandibular sclerite articulated to the basalis ; forms the point
of the structure and = the galea of the maxilla.
Terebrant: with an ovipositor fitted for piercing or boring.
Terebrantia: Hymcnoptcra with sessile abdomen and valved ovipositors:
Thripids in which the ovipositor of female is borer-like.
Teres, Terete: cylindric or nearly so.
Tergal: belonging to the primitively upper surface: see dorsal.
Tergal suture: the Y-shaped dorsal suture on the head of many insect larvae.
Tergite: the primitively dorsal part of a segment, especially when that part
consists of a single sclerite ; usually applied to the abdomen.
Tergo-pleural: the upper and lateral portion of a segment.
Tergo-rhabdites: the lower pair of corneous appendages forming the ovi-
positor in grasshoppers : plates on the inner dorsal surface of the abdominal
Tergum: the primitively upper or dorsal surface whether it consists of one
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 139
or more than one sclerite and specifically of the abdomen : in Odonata and
Orthoptcra, applies to thorax as well.
Termen: the outer margin of a wing, between apex and hind or anal angle.
Terminal: situated at the tip or extremity; opposed to basal.
Terminal line: in Lcpidoptcra, runs along the outer margin of the wings.
Terminal space: the area between the s. t. line and terminal line in certain
Terminology: the technical nomenclature of any science.
Termitarium: a nest, natural or artificial, or a colony of Termites.
Terrestrial: living on or in the land; opposed to aquatic.
Tessellated: checkered; more or less like a chess-board.
Test: the secretionary covering of Coc cider, and especially such as are waxy,
horny or glassy.
Testaceous: dull yellow brown; tile colored [pale cadmium yellow + burnt
Testes: the tubular structures in the male, in which the production of
spermatogonia, and often also of later stages in the development of the
sperm takes place.
Testicular follicles: in the larva, are those structures which in the adult
form the tubes composing the testes ; in the adult applied also to the tubes
forming the testes.
Testudinate -us: resembling the shell of a tortoise.
Tetra-: four: a combining form.
Tetrachaetas: applied to those Dipt era in which the mouth structures consist
of four longitudinal blades or piercing structures.
Tetradactyle: with four fingers or finger-like processes.
Tetragonal: having four sides or angles: quadrangular.
Tetramera: applied to Colcoptcra with four-jointed tarsi.
Tetramerous: having four-jointed tarsi.
Tetrapoda: applied to those butterflies in which the anterior legs are
atrophied in whole or in part.
Tetraptera: a term proposed for all insects with four naked, membranous
Thamnophilous: applied to species living in thickets or dense shrubbery.
Theca: a case or covering: specifically applied to the fleshy covering of the
fly-mouth ; to the cases of the Trichopterous larvre ; to the lower piece of
the male genitalia in Homoptcra; and to the outer covering of the pupa.
Thelyotoky: parthenogenetic reproduction when the progeny are all females:
see Arrhenotoky and Deuterotoky.
Thigh: see femur.
Thigmotactic: contact-loving: applied to species that tend to live close to-
gether or in touch, one with the other.
Third longitudinal vein: in Diptcra (Will.) ; -= radius 5 (Comst.).
Third posterior cell: in Diptcra, = 2d medial 2 (Comst.).
Third submarginal cross-nervure: in Hymcnoptcra (Nort.) ; - radius 4
Thoracic: belonging or attached to the thorax.
140 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Thoracic dorsal bristles: in Diptcra, the specialized bristles on the dorsum
of the thorax.
Thoracic feet: the jointed legs on the thoracic segments of larvae, as distin-
guished from abdominal or pro-legs.
Thoracico-abdominal: the first segment of the abdomen when united with
the thorax so as to form part of it : = propodeum.
Thoracic pleural bristles: in Dipt era, the specialized bristles situated on the
pleural region of the thorax.
Thoracotheca: = cytotheca; q. v.
Thorax: the second or intermediate region of the insect body, bearing the
true legs and wings : made up of three rings, named in order, pro-, meso-,
and meta-thorax : when the prothorax is free as in Coleoptera, Orthoptera,
and Hemiptera, the term thorax is commonly used in descriptive work for
that segment only : in Odonata, where the prothorax is small and not fused
with the larger and united meso- and meta-thorax, the term thorax is
commonly used for these latter two united, excluding the prothorax.
Thread-plate: an epithelial plate of the embryo from which the terminal
threads of the ovarian tubes originate.
Thyridial cell: in Trichoptera; the cell formed by the first fork of median
vein ; the cell behind Thyridium.
Thyridiate: applied to a wing vein that at one point seems broken so as to
permit of a folding or bending ; either to pack into a small compass or to
enfold the body.
Thyridium -ii: small, whitish, or almost transparent spots near the anasto-
mosis of the disc of the wings in some Neuroptcra; or in the recurrent
veins in the cubital cellule in some Hymenoptera; also the apical margin
of the gastrocoeli, often alone visible : in Trichoptera, specifically, a hyaline
spot on second fork of median vein.
Thyrsus: a cluster.
Thysanoptera: fringe-winged: an ordinal term, applied to species with four
narrow, similar wings, lengthily fringed ; mouth parts fitted for puncturing
and scraping ; metamorphosis incomplete : the Thripids.
Thysanura: fringe-tails: wingless, mandibulate insects without metamor-
phosis ; with anal appendages ; body covered with scales ; thoracic seg-
Tiarate-us: turban or tiara-like.
Tibia -3s: the shank: that part of the leg articulated to the femur basally
and which bears the tarsus at the distal end.
Tibial epiphysis: a movable process attached near the base of the inner side
of the anterior tibia in many Lcpidoptcra.
Tibial membrane: in <$ Cicada, the drum-like vibratory membrane that pro-
duces the sound.
Tip: the extremity; the part furthest removed from the base.
Titillator: a small process just below the penis in some Orthoptera.
Tomentose: covered with fine hair, so matted together that particular hairs
cannot be separated.
Tomentum: a form of pubescence composed of matted, woolly hair: in
Diptcra applied to a covering of short, flattened, more or less recumbent,
scale-like hair which merges gradually into dust or pollen.
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 141
Tongue: an indefinite term, applied usually to the coiled mouth structure of
Lepidoptera; the lapping organ of flies; the ligula of bees and wasps, and
sometimes also to the hypopharynx of other insects.
Tooth: an acute angulation : a short pointed process from an appendage or
Topomorph-ic: a geographic form, variety or subspecies of a widely dis-
tributed species : developed by local environment.
Topotype: is a specimen collected in the exact locality whence the original
type was obtained.
Tornal: relating to or concerning the tornus.
Tornus: in Lepidoptera, the junction of the termen and dorsum of wing:
= hind or anal angle ; q. v.
Torose: swelling into knots or protuberances.
Torpid: lying motionless by reason of cold or other natural conditions that
unfavorably affect the organism.
Torqueate: with a ring or collar.
Torquillus: = rotula.
Tortulose -us: hump-backed; a surface with a few large elevations : beaded;
Tortuose-us: irregularly curved and bent; snake-like.
Tortuous: = tortuose.
Torulus: the basal socket joint of the antenna upon which the organ is ar-
ticulated for movement in all directions.
Totidem: in all parts; entirely.
T. P. line: transverse posterior line; crossing the primaries of certain Lepi-
doptera, two-thirds or more from base : = post-medial line.
Trabecula: rounded, lobular masses of the procerebrum, from which arise
the stalks bearing the mushroom bodies : a paired movable appendage in
front of the antennas in certain bird-lice.
Trachea -se: the spirally ringed breathing tube or tubes of insects.
Tracheal gills: the flattened or hair-like processes in aquatic larvae through
which oxygen is absorbed from the water.
Tracheary: relating to or composed of tracheae.
Tracheate: supplied with trachea: a general term applied to all articulates
that breathe by means of spiracular openings into a system of tubular
structures that extend to all parts of the body.
Tracheation: the arrangement or system of distribution of tracheae.
Tracheoles: the capillary trachea of the adult as they develop in masses in
the larva : very small, slender tracheae.
Transection: a cut across, at right angles to the body: transverse section.
Transition zone: is the transcontinental belt in which the austral and boreal
elements overlap: it is divided into a humid or Alleghanian area; a western
arid area ; and a Pacific Coast humid area : all of which see.
Transitory: lasting for a short time only.
Translucent: semi-transparent; admitting the passage of light but not o
142 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Translucid: clear: transparent enough to be seen through.
Transparent: so clear as not to obstruct vision.
Transverse: when the longest diameter is across the body.
Transverse incision: = transverse sulci.
Transverse sulci: the transverse grooves of pronotum in many Orthoptera.
Transverse suture: in Diptera, a transverse groove extending inward from
the root of wing and obsolete in the middle of dorsum.
Trapeziform: in the form or shape of a trapezium.
Trapezium: a four-sided figure in which no two sides are parallel.
Trapezoid -al: a four-sided plane of which two sides are parallel and two
Tri-: three; a combining form.
Triangle: in Odonata, a small, triangular cell at the junction of cubitus
with cubitus 1: a similar cell adjoining it basally is the internal triangle:
= discoidal triangle; cardinal cell; q. v.
Tri-articulate: composed of three joints or articles.
Tribe: a term of classification less than a sub-family: opinionative and end-
ing in ini; but this is not universally adhered to.
Tri-carinate: with three keels or carinse.
Trichogen: a hair-forming hypodermal cell in caterpillars, etc.
Trichoptera: hairy-winged: insects with hairy primaries with many longi-
tudinal veins and cells, covering the broader secondaries which are usually
folded lengthwise ; mouth mandibulate but rudimentary ; head free ; thorax
agglutinate ; metamorphosis complete.
Trichostical bristles: in Diptera, a fan-like row, situated on the meta-
pleura : conspicuous in some families.
Trichotomous: divided by threes.
Trichroism: the condition when any given part exhibits three different colors
in different individuals of the same species ; e. g., in Lep-idoptera, the hind
wings of certain Heliconids.
Tricuspidate: ending in three points: with three cusps or teeth.
Tridactyle -ous: having three toes or claws.
Trifid: cleft into three parts or ends.
Trigonal: triangular: an area bounded by a triangle.
Trigonate: three-cornered; approximately triangular.
Trigoneutism: where three broods occur in one season.
Trigonulum: in Odonata, = triangle.
Trimera: that series of Cohoptera in which there are only three tarsal
Trimerous: species which have the tarsi three-jointed.
Trinomial: that method of nomenclature in which a varietal or subspecific
name follows the specific term without an intervening mark or indication
of its rank.
Tripectinate: when an antenna has three branches or processes to each joint.
Triquetral: = triquetrous.
Triquetrous: with three flat sides.
Tri-region'al: divided into three distinct parts or regions.
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 143
Trito-cerebral segment: see second antennal segment.
Trite-cerebrum: the posterior portion of the brain, formed by the ganglion
of the third primary segment ; also termed labro-f rental lobe.
Tri-undulate: with three waves or undulations.
Triungulin: the first larval stage of a meloid beetle.
Trivial: applied to a name, means specific as opposed to generic, or popular
as opposed to technical.
Trivittate: with three stripes or vitta.
Trochalopoda: Hetcroptera in which the posterior coxae are nearly globose
and the articulation is a ball and socket joint: see pagiopoda.
Trochanter: a sclerite, sometimes divided, between the coxa and femur;
sometimes fused with the femur.
Trochanterellus: see apophysis.
Trochantine: the basal part of the trochanter when it is two-jointed: in
Colcoptcra, a piece often present on the outer side of and sometimes mov-
able on the coxa ; also the small sclerite connecting the coxa with the
sternum in Dyti-scldcc: in Neuroptera and Trichoptera the posterior sepa-
rated part of the coxa : in Orthoptera, a narrow longitudinal sclerite be-
tween mandible and gena.
Trochlea: the thickened base of the hind wings in Cicada: in Trichoptera, a
small elliptical space at base of hind wing behind origin of median vein.
Trochlearis: pulley-shaped; like a cylinder contracted medially.
Trochus: that part of an articulated body inserted between the joints.
Trophi: the mouth parts collectively, including the labrum : see buccal ap-
Trophobiosis: see Symbiosis.
Tropical: is that faunal region which covers the southern part of the penin-
sula of Florida, the greater part of Central America, the lowlands of
southern Mexico south of the tableland, and a narrow strip on each side
of Mexico which follows the coast northward into the United States.
Tropico-politan: occurring in all tropical regions.
Trumpets: breathing tubes of mosquito pupae.
Truncate: cut off squarely at tip.
Truncature: the truncation or point squarely cut off.
Truncus: the trunk or thorax.
Trunk: the thorax as a whole: the body.
Tryptic: acting like tripsin, the proteolytic ferment of the pancreatic fluid.
Tube: a slender, hollow, cylindrical body: specifically applied to the anal
siphon or respiratory tube of mosquito larvae.
Tubercle: a little solid pimple or small chitinous button; really a ring,
which may or may not give rise to a seta.
Tubercles: on the thoracic and abdominal segments of caterpillars are: an-
terior trapezoidal ; posterior trapezoidal ; lateral ; posterior stigmatal ; an-
terior stigmatal; sub-primary subventral ; pedal and adventral ; all of
Tubercula: an elevated triangular process at the anterior angle of the
thorax; specifically in Hymenoptera.
144 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Tuberculate -ose: formed like a tubercle: a surface covered with tubercles.
Tubercule -ulum: a small tubercle.
Tuberculiform: shaped like a pimple or tubercle.
Tuberculose -ous: covered or set with tubercles.
Tubulifera: Hymcnoptcra, in which the terminal segments of abdomen are
retracted, but may be extended, tube-like : Thysanoptera in which there is
no ovipositor and the terminal segments of abdomen are tubular.
Tubulous-ose: formed like a tube: fistulous.
Tubulus: the slender, flexible abdominal segments forming the ovipositor in
Tubus: a term used to designate the corneous base of a ligula: the sheath
of the tongue.
Tumescence: a swelling or tumid enlargement: a puffed-up area.
Tumescent: a little swollen or puffed up.
Tumid: swollen; enlarged; puffed up.
Tunica intima: the inner layer of the silk glands: an inner lining or mem-
Tunica propria: a layer of epithelial cells and connective tissue lining the
interior of the hind gut : the outer layer of the silk glands : a covering or
Tunicate: composed of concentric layers, enveloping one another: said of
antennae when each successive joint is buried in the preceding funnel-
Turbinate: top-shaped; nearly conical: differs from pyriform in being
shorter and more suddenly attenuated at base : applied to an eye = pillared
eye; q. v.
Turritus: towering: a surface rising cone-like.
Tylo: =tylus ; q. v.
Tylus: the anterior central lobe of the head in Hemiptera.
Tympana: the ears in Orthoptera.
Tympanal: applied to organs covered with a tympanum or stretched mem-
brane supposed to function as ears.
Tympanic spiracle: in Diptera, the thoracic spiracle at base of wing.
Tympanules: small openings covered by a membrane, having otoliths and
serving as ears.
Tympanum: any membrane stretched like the head of a drum: specifically
applied to the membrane covering the auditory organs in Orthoptera.
Type: a unique or single specimen selected from a series and labelled by the
describer to represent his name and description : if c? or $ be added to the
label, the specimen typifies that sex, and in case of an erroneous association
the male type stands for the species unless the author has specifically des-
ignated the other example as representing the name: see also co-type;
homotype; metatype; paratype; topotype.
Typical: the normal or usual form of a species ; agreeing with the type form.
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 145
Uliginous: muddy, or pertaining to mud.
Ulnar: in Homoptera, a wing vein between the radial vein and claval suture;
cubitus : in Orthoptera, = cubitus ; q. v.
Ulnar area: in Orthoptera, = median area; q. v.
Ulona: the thick, fleshy mouth parts of Orthoptera.
Ulonata: a Fabrician term for Orthoptera, based on the character of the
Ultimate: last or final: that larval stage just before pupation.
Ultramarine: an intense deep blue [cobalt blue].
Ultra-nodal sector: in Odonata, runs parallel with and between media 1 and
2, or principal and nodal sectors : = postnodal sector.
Umbilicate: navel-shaped, or resembling a navel.
Umbilicus: a navel, or navel-like depression.
Umbonate: bossed; with an elevated knob in the centre.
Umbone: an embossed, elevated knob situated on humeral angle of elytra.
Umbones: two movable spines on the sides of prothorax in some Coleoptera.
Umbrosa: shaded or clouded: a cloud or shade.
Unarmed: without spurs, spines or armature of any kind.
Unarticulate: not jointed nor segmented.
Unci: thick, hooked processes, forming the borders of the anal opening.
Uncinnate: hooked at the end.
Uncus: in Lcp-idoptera, Diptera, and elsewhere, the curved hook directed
downward from a triangular dorsal plate in the c? and shielding the penis :
the genital hamule.
Undate: wavy or waved.
Undulated: obtusely waved in segments of circles.
Unequal: unlike in size, form, development or other characters.
Ungues: the tarsal claws.
Unguiculate: armed with a hook, nail or claw.
Unguiculus: a small terminal claw or nail-like process.
Unguis: one of the claws at the end of the tarsus: also applied to a short
process on the 6th antennal joint in some Aphids.
Ungula: a hoof, claw or talon.
Ungulate: shaped like a hoof.
Uni-: one, a combining form.
Unicolorous: of one color throughout.
Unidentate: with one tooth only.
Uniplicate: with a single fold or line of folding.
Unique : one only : unlike any other.
Unisexual : of one sex only : applied to Aphids and Cynipids where only
parthenogenic females are known.
Upper austral zone: is divided into an eastern humid or Carolinian area,
and a western arid or upper Sonoran area, which pass insensibly into each
other near the 100th meridian : see Carolinian and upper Sonoran.
Upper field : in tegmina, = anal field ; q. v.
146 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Upper margin: of tegmina (Thomas), corresponds to the posterior or anal
margin of most authors.
Upper median area: see areola.
Upper radial: in Lcpidoptcra, -- media 1 (Comst), and is vein 5, or the
independent, of the numerical series.
Upper sector of triangle: in Odonata, = cubitus 1 (Comst.).
Upper Sonoran faunal area: that arid part of upper austral west of 100th
meridian ; covers most of plains in eastern Montana and Wyoming, s. w.
South Dakota, west. Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma and Texas, and east.
Colorado and New Mexico ; covers plains of Columbia, Malheur and Har-
ney in Oregon and- Washington. In California encircles Sacramento and
San Joaquin Valleys and forms a narrow belt around Colorado and Mohave
deserts. In Utah covers Salt Lake and Sevier deserts. In Idaho the
Snake plains. In Nevada and Arizona irregular areas of suitable elevation.
Uranidin: a yellow coloring matter in some Coleoptera and Lepidoptera.
Urceolate: pitcher-shaped; swelling in the middle.
Ureter: the stalk connecting the malpighian tubules, when they form large
tufts, with the intestine.
Uric acid: the characteristic nitrogenous excretion of the malpighian or
urinary tubules: composition, CsHUNiOs (von Fiirth).
Urinary vessels: = malpighian tubules; q. v. : has also been applied by older
authors, to anal glands.
Urite: an abdominal segment and, specifically, its ventral portion.
Uromere: any of the abdominal segments of an arthropod.
Uropoda: any of the abdominal feet of arthropods.
Uropygium: the ovipositor when it is a mere extension of the abdominal
Urosome: the abdomen.
Urosternite: the sternal or under piece of the uromeres.
Urticating: nettling; applied to specialized hairs or processes on the bodies
of certain caterpillars, which cause a stinging or burning sensation on the
Ustulatus: scorched: applied to a maculation that has the appearance of
having been burned in.
Uterus: the vaginal portion of oviduct: the sometimes enlarged portion of
the vagina at junction of the oviducts: = calyx; q. v.
Uterus masculinus: a pouch or sac into which the ductus ejaculatorius
opens in the Symphyla.
Utriculi breviores: small vesicular sacs connected with the seminal vesicles
in crickets and some other insects.
Utriculi majores: large vesicular sacs or tubular structures connected with
the seminal vesicles in crickets and some other insects.
Utriculus: a little bag or hollow vesicle.
Vacuolate: with vacuoles or small cavities, empty or filled with a watery
Vagina: the tubular structure formed by the union of the oviducts in the
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 147
female, opening externally to admit the passage of the egg to the ovi-
positor : receives the penis of the male in copulation and is sometimes
called oviduct : " every part, the office of which is to cover, protect or
defend the tongue " : " the bivalve coriaceous sheath or cover of the
spicula " : generally, a sheath.
Vaginata: sheathed: an obsolete ordinal term for Coleoptera.
Vaginate: inclosed in a bivalved sheath.
Vagus: sympathetic nervous system; q. v.
Valgate: enlarged at bottom: club-footed.
Valve or Valvulae: the expanded plate-like galea of the maxilla in many
Valve: a small, transverse or triangular piece behind the last full ventral
segment, at base of plates in d Jassidcu and allies.
Valves: in Orthoptera, the corneous pieces of the ovipositor; : corniculi :
in Lcpidoptera, sometimes used to = harpes ; q. v.
Valvula: = vagina in its application to Dipterous mouth parts.
Valvulae: in Hymcnoptcra, branches of the genital forceps of male.
Valvular: when two parts join so as to form a valve between them.
Valvular process: in Odonata, a slender, tmjointed process at the apex of
each genital valve.
Valvule: any small, valve-like process.
Variation: a departure in color or form, from the normal: the sum of the
departures from a mean type of any species : it is continuous when there
is no break between the extremes ; discontinuous when there are gaps with-
out intermediate forms.
Variety: any departure from the normal type of a species which, while re-
taining the specific characters, is yet recognizably different because of
climatic, seasonal or other influences ; may occur with the type form or as
a geographical race.
Variola: a deep, rounded impression with defined edges.
Variolate -ose: with large, rounded impressions like pock-marks.
Vas deferens: = vasa deferentia ; q. v.
Vasa deferentia: tubes from the seminal vesicles or testes of each side,
which usually unite into a single ductus ejaculatorius ; q. v.
Vasa varicosa: the malpighian tubules.
Vascular: relating to the blood-vessels or circulatory system.
Vasiform orifice: in Aleurodidce, an ovate, triangular or semicircular opeiv-
ing on the dorsum of the last abdominal segment.
Veinlets: in Orthoptera, are the minute transverse ribs or ridges between
the longitudinal veins.
Veins: the chitinous, rod-like structures supporting the wings, and especially
those extending longitudinally from base to the outer margin: == nerves ;
nervures ; nervules.
Velum: a membranous appendage of the spurs at the apex of anterior tibia:
in bees a broad process at inner end of fore tibia.
Velum penis: the thin membranous covering of the male intromittent organ:
also applied to other covering or shield-like structures of the penis.
148 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Velutinous: velvety: clothed with dense, soft, short hair, like velvet.
Vena: a vein.
Vena dividens: that longitudinal vein of secondaries that marks the begin-
ning of the anal area: = anal 1 (Comst.).
Vena plicata: on the wings of Dcrmaptera, the vein around which the fold-
Vena spuria: = spurious vein; q. v.
Venation: the system of chitinous framework supporting the wings: in
Lepidoptera, the veins are usually referred to by numbers which are as
follows : on primaries : 1 = anal ; 2 cubitus 2 ; 3 cubitus 1 ; 4 = media
3; 5 = media 2; 6 = media 1; 7 = radius 5; 8 = radius 4; 9 = radius 3;
10 = radius 2 ; 11 = radius 1 ; 12 = subcosta : on secondaries : 1, la, Ib =
anal ; 2 = cubitus ; 3 cubitus 1 ; 4 = media 3 ; 5 = media 2 ; 6 = media 1 ;
7 = radius 1; 8 = subcosta. See plate III for typical venations of all
Venter: the belly: under surface of abdomen as a whole and of each ring.
Ventose: inflated; puffed out.
Ventrad: extending or directed toward the under side.
Ventral: pertaining to the under surface of abdomen: in Dlptera, that face
of the leg which is inferior when laterally extended.
Ventral chain: refers to the series of ganglia of the nervous system.
Ventral comb: in Trichoptera, a transverse row of fine teeth on venter.
Ventral diaphragm: is a fine membrane covering the central nerve cords
and ganglia : also called ventral heart.
Ventral heart: = ventral diaphragm; q. v.
Ventral plate: a thickening of the blastoderm of an egg from which the
embryo, but not the amnion or serosa, is formed.
Ventral scale: in Diaspince, the under part of the puparium, interposed be-
tween the insect and the plant.
Ventral tube: in Collcmbola, a tube or tubercle proceeding from the ventral
side of the first abdominal segment.
Ventricose: with a big belly: distended; inflated.
Ventriculus: the true stomach, = chylific ventricle; q. v.
Ventri-meson: the middle line of the ventral surface of the body.
Ventro-cephalad: toward the lower side and anteriorly.
Ventro-dorsad: extending from belly to back.
Venules: the branches of the main veins.
Vermicular: worm-like, tortuous: resembling the tracks of a worm.
Vermiculate: worm-like in form: a marking with worm-like tracings.
Vernal: appearing in spring.
Vernantia: the molting or shedding of the skin.
Verriculate: with thick-set tufts of parallel hairs.
Verricule: a dense tuft of upright hairs.
Verrucose: having little hard lumps or wart-like elevations.
Versatile: moving freely in every direction.
Versicolored: with several colors, indeterminately restricted.
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 149
Vertex: the top of the head between the eyes, front and occiput: in bees,
that part of the head adjacent to and occupied by the ocelli : in Noto-
nectids, " the imaginary anterior margin of the notocephalon."
Vertexal: occurring on or near the vertex, or directed toward it.
Vertical cephalic bristles: in Diptcra, are two pairs, inner and outer, in-
serted more or less behind the upper and inner corner of the eye ; erect, or
the inner pair convergent, the outer pair divergent.
Vertical margin: in Diptcra, the limit between front and occiput.
Vertical triangle: in <$ Diptcra, the small triangle upon which the ocelli are
situated; limited behind by vertex, in front by eyes.
Verticil: one of the whorls of long fine sensitive hair arranged symmetrically
on the joints of the antennae in certain Diptcra.
Verticillate: placed in whorls: antennae in which the joints have a circle of
long, fine hair as in Cecidomyiids.
Vesicant: blistering: able to produce a blister.
Vesicle of penis: in Odonata, a sac with chitinous walls, attached to the
sternum behind the penis.
Vesicles: little sacs, bladders or cysts: applied to extensible organs produc-
ing odors or secretions, as in some beetles and caterpillars.
Vesicular: bladder-like; beset with spherical prominences.
Vesicula seminalis: see seminal vesicles.
Vestibule: the space around the ovipositor formed by the projecting margins
of the surrounding segments : the space between the occluding structure of
the spiracle and the valve opening into the trachea itself.
Vestigial: small or degenerate: only a trace or remnant of a previously
Vestiture: the surface clothing, whether of a hairy or scaly character.
Vexhillum: in Hymcnoptcra, an expansion on the tip of tarsi of certain
Vibrant: having a rapid motion to and fro.
Vibratile: formed for vibratory motion: used to express the almost con-
tinual movement of the antennse of some Hymenoptera, and the wings
of some Diptera.
Vibrissas: curved bristles or hairs in some Diptera, situated between the
mystax and the antennse : whiskers.
Villi: soft hairs or papillate processes: plural of villus ; q. v.
Villose-ous: soft-haired or clothed with soft, short hair.
Villus: a short, hair-like or papillate process on the surface of certain ab-
sorbent and sensory organs.
Vinous: wine-color: a deep, transparent red-brown, like claret [purple
Violaceous: violet colored; a mixture of blue and red [violet carmine].
Virescent or Viridescent: greenish or becoming green.
Viridis: green, like verdigris [French blue + chrome yellow + white].
Viscera: the internal organs of the body.
Visceral: relating or attached to the viscera.
Viscid: sticky: covered with a shiny, resinous or greasy matter.
150 EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Viscous: thick, sticky or semi-fluid.
Vis formatrix: the creative or formative force.
Vitelligenous: producing the vitellus or yolk: said of certain cells in the
ovaries, believed to have that function.
Vitelline -us: yellow, with a slight tinge of red, like yolk of an egg.
Vitelline membrane: the delicate tissue surrounding the yolk of an egg.
Vitreous: glassy; transparent.
Vitta: a longitudinal, colored line.
Vitta frontalis: = frontal stripe; q. v.
Viviparous: applied to insects which bear living young.
Vocal cords: specialized organs on the thoracic spiracles of Diptera, by
means of which they produce a humming or singing sound.
Volant: flying or capable of flight.
Vulgar: common; not conspicuous: obscure in appearance and abundant in
Vultus: face: that part of head below front and between the eyes.
Vulva: the orifice of the vagina in the female.
Vulvar lamina: in Odonata, the posterior margin of sternum of segment 8.
Vulvar scale: = v. lamina.
Wart: a spongy excrescence, more or less cylindric, with a nearly truncated
tip : the enlarged, common base of a group of setae : in Trichoptera, a
Wax: a ductile substance excreted by bees and other insects from glandular
structures in various parts of the body, used in building cells or in forming
a protective covering.
Wax-cutter: the pincer-like structure formed by the hind tibia and meta-
tarsus in social bees.
Wax-glands: any glands in any part of the body which secrete a waxy
product in either a scale, string or powder : in Coccidce, the circumgenital
and parastigmatic glands ; q. v.
Wax-pincer: = wax cutter.
Wax-scale: one of the scales secreted in the wax pocket or gland of a
Whitlows: = paronychia ; q. v.
Whorl: a ring of long hair arranged around a centre, like the spokes around
the hub of a wheel.
Wing, Wings: membranous reticulated organs of flight; one pair, the pri-
maries, attached to the meso-thorax; the other, the secondaries, attached
to the meta-thorax.
Wing covers: those parts of the chitinous cuticle of larvae, nymphs or pupae
which cover the rudiments of the wings of the imago : the f orewings of
an imago when they are thicker than the hind wings and cover them when
at rest : see elytra ; tegmina.
Wings of the heart: the series of diagonal and other muscular fibres above
the diaphragm in the pericardial cavity : see pericardial diaphragm.
USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 151
Wing cells: areas inclosed by veins: reference should be had to the figures
illustrating venation and to the special terms applied to the cells.
Winglets: small, concavo-convex scales, generally fringed at tip, under the
base of the elytra in Dytiscidee.
Wing-pads: undeveloped wings of pupa or nymph.
Wing-scale: in Hymcnoptcra, = tegula; q. v.
Workers: the undeveloped females in the social Hymcnoptera; also those
sexually undeveloped Termites that are not soldiers.
Xanthophyll: the yellow of autumn leaves; one of the substances found in
the blood of insects.
Xenobiosis: see symbiosis.
Xerophilous: applied to species living in dry places.
Xylophaga: wood-eaters: applied in several orders.
Xylophagous: feeding in or upon woody tissue.
Xyphus: a spinous or triangular process of the meso-sternum in many
Hemiptera, and some other insects.
Yellow: used without modification is sulphur or lemon yellow.
Yolk: the nutritive matter of an egg as distinguished from the living, for-
mative material ; = deutoplasm.
Zona: a belt or zone; as of distribution.
Zonite: = arthromere or somite; q. v.
Zoonite or Zoonule: = zonite.
Zygoptera: those Odonata, having the fore and hind wings subequal in width,
venation comprising a quadrilateral, not a triangle ; nymphs with caudal
Calacobiosis: see symbiosis.
Cleptobiosis: see symbiosis.
Dulosis: see symbiosis.
Coxal file: in some aquatic Coleoptcra a series of striations just above the
hind coxa of male and, perhaps, a stridulating organ.
Coxal plates: plate-like expansions or dilations of the coxa; specifically in
aquatic Coleoptcra on the posterior pair.
Ecto-parasite: one that is attached to the external surface of the host.
Ento-parasite: one that feeds within the body of the host.
Embioptera: an ordinal term proposed for the Neuropterous family Embidce.
Hamabiosis: see symbiosis.
Heliophobic: loving darkness: applied to species that shun the light, like,
e. g., Termites.
Heliotactic: light loving: applied to species that live in the open and in
Lestobiosis: see symbiosis.
Meron: in Neuroptera, a sclerite posterior to the coxa and below the
epimeron : corresponds to the trochantine in Lepidoptera.
Metasternal wing: in some aquatic Coleoptera, a leaf -like expansion above
the coxal plates.
Myrmecophily: is the relation existing between ants and those guests that
seek their company primarily for their own individual advantage.
Phylacobiosis: see symbiosis.
Prosternal process: in aquatic Coleoptera, a modification of the prosternum
used in the differentiation of species.
Sub-clypeal pump: in some Dipt era, the enlarged, more or less bulb-like
structure at the anterior entrance of the oesophagus.
Sub-clypeal tube: in Dipt era: see pharynx.
TERMS USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 153
EXPLANATION OF PLATES.
Structures of the External Body Wall.
1. Harpalus caliginosus showing the underside, and the head from above, to
show the regions and the position of the sclerites.
2. Thorax of a Dipteron to show location of bristles.
3. Lateral view of a denuded Lepidopteron to show arrangement of sclerites.
4. Abdominal segment of a caterpillar to show the position of the tubercles.
5. Lateral view of a dragon fly to show the body sclerites.
All the abbreviations used in this plate are readily understood.
Structures of Head, Mouth, Thorax and Genitalia.
1. Head of wasp from front.
2. honey bee with mouth parts extended.
3. Locustid from front, to show regions.
4. a Lepidopteron from front.
5. a cricket from front.
6. Labium of a cricket showing all usual parts.
7. Maxilla of Harpalus caliginosus, with all sclerites marked.
8. Mandible of Co/>m Carolina with all sclerites defined.
9. Thorax of a Hymenopteron from above.
10. Genitalia of a male mosquito with all parts named.
11. Genitalia of a male Noctuid from below; the parts separated out.
Venation According to the Comstock System.
1. Wing venation of a Noctuid.
2. " " Hepialid.
3. " " Locustid.
4. " " " Hymenopteron.
5. " " Dipteron.
6. " of an Odonat.
7. " of a Cicada.
Abbreviations are as follows :
C. Costa, except in figure 1, where on the outer margin C occurs instead
of Cu. In the cells it means Costal.
Sc. Subcosta, when it refers to a vein and subcostal in a cell.
R. Radius, when it refers to a vein and radial when in a cell.
M. Media, when it refers to a vein and median in a cell.
154 EXPLANATION Ol : TERMS
CH. Cubitus, when it refers to a vein and cubital in a cell.
A. Anal veins or cells.
m-cu. medio-cubital cross-vein.
r-m. radio-medial cross-vein.
m. median cross-vein.
h. humeral cross-vein.
0. oblique vein.
1. internal triangle.
al. anal loop.
Antn-c-sp. Antenodal costal spaces.
Ptn-c-sp. Postnodal costal spaces.
Ptn-r-sp. Postnodal radial spaces.
All cells are named after the vein that bounds them anteriorly and are
numbered, if more than one from base outwardly, as 2M3 = second median
In figure 1, M, in the outer margin between Cl and M2, should be M3:
the 3 was accidentally cut out by the engraver.
Nomenclature of Windsor and Newt oil's Water Colors.
1. Vermilion. 21. Brown pink.
2. Carmine. 22. Pale clay yellow.
3. Crimson lake. 23. Hooker's green.
4. Alizar crimson. 24. Prussian green.
5. Salmon. 25. Olive green.
6. Rose. 26. Apple green.
7. Purple madder. 27. Nile green.
8. Mauve. 28. Pale green.
9. French blue. 29. Blue green.
10. Purple lake. 30. Neutral.
11. Violet carmine. 31. Gray.
12. Lilac. 32. Ultra ash gray.
13. Cobalt blue. 33. Indian red.
14. Lavender. 34. Dragon's blood.
15. Blue gray. 35. Burnt sienna.
16. Greenish gray. 36. Brown ochre.
17. Chrome lemon. 37. Cologne earth.
18. Gamboge. 38. Roman sepia.
19. Chrome orange. 39. Van Dyke brown.
20. Pale cadmium yellow. 40. Pale brown.